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Full text of "Life of Saint Columba, founder of Hy. Written by Adamnan. Edited by William Reeves"

\ 



THE 

HISTORIANS OF SCOTLAND. 

VOL. VI. 



Edinburgh : Printed by Thomas and Archibald Constable, 

FOR 

EDMONSTON AND DOUGLAS. 

LONDON HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. 

CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN AND CO. 

GLASGOW JAMES MACLEHOSK. 



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EDMONSTON & DOUGLAS. EDINBURGH. 



THE 



IISTOBIANS OF SCOTLAND 



VOL. VI. 



jLife of ^>aittt Columba, 



EDINBURGH 



\ Xrt 
EDMONSTON AND DOUGLAS V / \<\ 




1874. 



V 



of 

aint Columba, 



FOUNDER OF HY. 



WRITTEN BY ADAMNAN, 

NINTH ABBOT OF THAT MONASTERY. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM BEEVES, D. D., M. B. I. A., 

RECTOR OF TYXAX, AND CANON OF ARMAGH. 



EDINBURGH 

EDMONSTON AND DOUGLAS 

1874. 



4-"] oo 




PRELIMINARY NOTICE. 

THE Life of St. Columba by Adamnan has always 
excited much interest, from the undoubted authenticity 
of the Biography, the early period in which it was 
compiled, and its connexion with the foundation of 
the ecclesiastical establishment at lona, and the intro 
duction of Christianity into the north of Scotland ; 
but until the appearance, in 1856, of Dr. Reeves s 
edition of the Life, its real character, and that of the 
establishment at lona, was little understood, and its 
history perverted to suit the purposes of a polemical 
controversy. The accuracy of learning and the 
thorough research displayed in Dr. Reeves s edition 
has now placed the subject beyond the reach of con 
troversy, and his truly admirable edition is accom 
panied by a wealth of illustration almost unrivalled. 
His work, however, was printed for the Irish Archaeo 
logical Society and for the Bannatyne Club, and is 
accessible only to the members of these bodies. It is 



viii PRELIMINARY NOTICE. 

therefore with much pleasure that the Publishers of 
the Series of Scottish Historians are enabled, by Dr. 
Reeves s permission, to present this work to the sub 
scribers of that Series. 

Dr. Reeves has permitted them, in order to adapt 
the work more to the general reader, to add an 
English translation, and to re-arrange the matter 
contained in his learned and exhaustive Notes. 

The principal alteration in the latter is to throw 
the elaborate Additional Notes added to the Life in 
an Appendix into the form of an Introduction, and to 
transfer the numerous footnotes from the bottom of 
the page to the end of the Latin text. 

The Eight Reverend the BISHOP OF BRECHIN has, 
at the Publishers request, kindly superintended the 
preparation of the translation, and Mr. W. F. SKENE 
is responsible for the re-arrangement of the matter 
contained in the Notes. 

EDINBURGH, December 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I AGK 



PREFACE, . . xix 

INTRODUCTION, .... . xxxiii 

1. Chronological Summary of St. Columba s Life, . xxxiii 

2. Battles with which St. Columba was connected, . xli 

3. St. Columba s Churches, xlix 

4. St. Columba s Twelve Disciples, .... Ixxi 

5. The year of St. Columba s Death, . . . Ixxvi 

6. The Relics of St. Columba, . . . Ixxix 

7. The Monastery of Hy, c 

8. The Topography of Hy, .... cxxvii 

9. Chronicle of Hy, . . . . . . cxlvi 

TRANSLATION OF THE LIFE OF ST. COLUMBA : 
PREFACE, ... ..... 1 

SECOND PREFACE, 2 

BOOK I. 
OF HIS PROPHETIC REVELATIONS. 

CHAPTER I. A brief narrative of his wonderful Miracles, . 4 
CHAPTER II. Of St. Fintan the Abbot, son of Tailchan, 

and how St. Columba prophesied of him, ... 7 
CHAPTER III. His Prophecy regarding Ernene, son of 

Crasen, 9 

CHAPTER IV. How he announced beforehand the arrival 

of Cainnech, . . . . . . . .10 

CHAPTER V. Of the danger of St. Colman, of the tribe 

Mocusailni, made known to St. Columba, . . .11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. His Prophecies regarding Cormac, grandson 

ofLethan, 

CHAPTER VII. Of the Battles, 

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Kings, 

CHAPTER IX. Of the two boys who died at the end of a 

week, according to his word, .... 
CHAPTER X. Of Colca, son of Aid Draigniche, and of a 

certain hidden sin of his Mother, 
CHAPTER XI. Prophecy of St. Columba regarding the 

sign of the same man s death, ..... 
CHAPTER XII. Of Laisran the gardener, 
CHAPTER XIII. How he prophesied of a large Whale, 
CHAPTER XIV. Of a certain Baitan, who sailed with others 

to a desert in the ocean, ...... 

CHAPTER XV. Of a certain Neman, an unreal penitent, 

who afterwards, according to the Saint s word, ate the 

flesh of a stolen mare, ...... 

CHAPTER XVI. Of that unhappy man who sinned with 

his Mother, 

CHAPTER XVII. Of the vowel letter I, which alone was 

wanting in the Psalter, 

CHAPTER XVIII. Of the Book which fell into the water- 
vessel, ......... 

CHAPTER XIX. Of the Inkhorn overturned, . 

CHAPTER XX. Of the arrival of one Aidan, which broke 

the fast, 

CHAPTER XXI. Of a poor man who shouted at the Sound 

when about to die, ....... 

CHAPTER XXIL Of the city of the Roman jurisdiction, on 

which fire fell from heaven, ..... 

CHAPTER XXIII. Of Laisran, son of Feradach, and how 

he tried the monks in their labour, .... 
CHAPTER XXIV. Of Fechna Bine, . 
CHAPTER XXV. Of Cailtan the monk, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XXVI. Of two Strangers, . . . .24 
CHAPTER XXVII. Of Artbranan, the old man whom he 

baptized in the Scian island, . . . . .25 
CHAPTER XXVIII. Of the removal of the Boat across the 

loch of Loch-dise, . . . . . . .25 

CHAPTER XXIX. Of Gallan, son of Fachtna, whom the 

demons carried off, 26 

CHAPTER XXX. Of Lugud Clodus, ;. . . .28 
CHAPTER XXXI. Of Enan, the son of Gruth, . 29 

CHAPTER XXXII. Of the Priest who was in Treoit, . 29 
CHAPTER XXXIII. Of Ere the robber, . . 30 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Of Cronan the poet, - . . .30 
CHAPTER XXXV. Prophecy of the Saint regarding Eonan, 

son of Aid, son of Colca, and Colman the Hound, son of 

Ailen, 31 



BOOK II. 
ON HIS MIRACULOUS POWERS. 

CHAPTER I. Of the Wine which was made from water, . 38 

CHAPTER II. Of the very bitter fruits of a tree changed 
into sweet by the blessing of the Saint, . . .39 

CHAPTER III. Of the land which was ploughed and sown 
after midsummer, and yielded a ripe harvest in the begin 
ning of the month of August, . . . . .39 

CHAPTER IV. On a Pestilential Cloud, and the cure of 
those sick from it, . . . . . .40 

CHAPTER V. Of Maugina, a holy virgin, and the healing 
of her broken thigh, 41 

CHAPTER VI. Of the healing the diseases of many people 
at the Ridge of Cete, by the touch of the hem of his 
garment, 42 

CHAPTER VII. Of a lump of salt blessed by the Saint 
which could not be consumed by the fire, . . .42 



i TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. Of the volumes of books in the Saint s 
handwriting, which could in no way be destroyed by 
water, . . . . 

CHAPTER IX. Of water drawn from the hard rock by the 
Saint s prayers, . 

CHAPTER X. Of the fountain of water which the Saint 
blessed and healed beyond the Dorsal Eidge of Britain, . 

CHAPTER XI. Of the Saint s danger at sea, and the 
mighty tempest changed at once into a calm ,by his 
prayers, . 

CHAPTER XII. Of another similar peril at sea, and how 
Saint Cainnech prayed for him and his companions, 

CHAPTER XIII. Of the Staff of St. Cainnech forgotten in 
the harbour, ..... 

CHAPTER XIV. Of Baithene and Columban, the son of 
Beogna, who asked of the Saint that he would grant 
them on the same day a favourable wind, though they 
were to sail in different directions, .... 

CHAPTER XV. Of the driving out of a demon that lurked 
in a milk-pail, . . . 

CHAPTER XVI. Concerning a vessel which a certain 
sorcerer by diabolical art filled with milk taken from a 
bull, and how, at the Saint s prayer, that which seemed 
to be milk was changed into its own proper nature of 
blood, 

CHAPTER XVII. Of Lugne Mocumin, whom the Saint, 
by touch of his fingers and prayer, cured of a flow of 
blood which frequently poured from his nostrils, . 

CHAPTER XVIII. Of a large salmon found in a river 
according to the Saint s word, 

CHAPTER XIX. Of two fishes found, by his prophecy, in 
the river which is called Boo, 

CHAPTER XX. Regarding a certain peasant who was called 
Nesan the Crooked, . . ... 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xill 

PA(JK 

CHAPTER XXI. Of a certain rich and very greedy man, 
named Uigen, .... .50 

CHAPTER T XXII. Of Columban, a man of equally humble 
condition, whose cattle, when they were few, the holy 
man blessed : and after his blessing they increased to the 
number of a hundred, . . . . . .51 

CHAPTER XXIII. Of the death of Johan, son of Conall, 
on the very day he threw dishonour upon and contemned 
the Saint, . . ... . ... . . . . 51 

CHAPTER XXIV. Of the death of one Feradach, a dis 
honest man, foretold by the Saint, * .52 

CHAPTER XXV. Concerning another persecutor, whose 
name in Latin is Manus Dextera, . . . . 53 

CHAPTER XXVI. Another oppressor of the innocent, who, 
in the province of the Lagenians, fell down dead, like 
Ananias before Peter, the same moment that he was 
terribly reproved by the Saint, . . . . .54 

CHAPTER XXVII. Of the death of a wild boar, which 
was caused to fall prostrate at some distance from the 
Saint by the sign of the Lord s Cross, . . . .55 

CHAPTER XXVIII. Of an Aquatic Monster which, by his 
prayer and the raising of his hand against it, was driven 
back and prevented from hurting Lugne, who was swim 
ming near it, . . . . . . .55 

CHAPTER XXIX. Of the Reptiles and Serpents of the 
louan island, which, from the day the Saint blessed it, 
were able to hurt neither man nor beast, . . .56 

CHAPTER XXX. Of the Spear signed by him, which, 
though driven with all one s force, could never after 
hurt any living creature, . . . . . .57 

CHAPTER XXXI. Of the cure of Diormit when sick, . 57 

CHAPTER XXXII. Of the cure of Finten, the son of Aid, 
when at the point of death, . . . . .58 

CHAPTER XXXIII. Of the boy whom the holy man 



XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

raised from the dead, in the name of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, in the country of the Picts, . . . * . 58 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Of his contest with the Druid Broichan 
for his detention of a female slave : and of the stone 
which the Saint blessed, and which floated in water like 
an apple, . .. ... . .* . . .59 

CHAPTER XXXV. Of the manner in which the blessed 
man overcame Broichan the Druid, and of the contrary 
wind, . . . . . . . ;> . 61 

CHAPTER XXXVI. Of the sudden opening of the door of 
the royal fortress of its own accord, . . . .62 

CHAPTER XXXVII. Of a similar unclosing of the Church 
of the Field of the Two Streams, . . . . 62 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. Concerning a certain peasant in 
poverty, and begging, for whom St. Columba made and 
blessed a stake for killing wild beasts, . . . .63 

CHAPTER XXXIX. Concerning a leathern vessel for hold 
ing milk which was carried from its place, and brought 
back again to land by the tide, . ; . .64 

CHAPTER XL. The Saint s prophecy regarding Libran, of 
the Rush-ground, . . . . < . . .65 

CHAPTER XLI. Of a certain woman who was relieved 
in great and extremely difficult pains of childbirth, . 69 

CHAPTER XLII. Of the wife of Lugne the pilot, who 
hated him, : . - , . . . . , . 70 

CHAPTER XLIII. The prophecy of St. Columba regarding 
Cormac, the grandson of Lethan, and his voyages, . .71 

CHAPTER XLIV. Of the venerable man s drive in a chariot 
without the protection of the proper linch-pins, . .73 

CHAPTER XLV. Of the rain which, after several months 
of drought, was poured by God s gift upon the thirsty 
ground in honour of the blessed man, . . .- . 74 

CHAPTER XL VI. A miracle which we are now by God s 
favour going to relate, as it happened in our own day, and 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

before our own eyes. Of the unfavourable winds which, 
through the prayers of the venerable man, were changed 
into propitious breezes, . .74 

CHAPTER XLVIL Of the Plague, . . . 76 

BOOK III. 
THE APPARITIONS OF ANGELS. 

CHAPTER I. Of the apparition of angels which were shown 
either to others regarding the blessed man, or to him 
regarding others, v . . : . ... . 78 

CHAPTER II. Of the angel of the Lord who appeared 
in dreams to his mother after his conception in the 
womb, . . . . i . . . 78 

CHAPTER III. Of the ray of light seen upon the boy s face 
as he lay asleep, . . . . . . . 79 

CHAPTER IV. Of the apparition of holy angels whom St. 
Brenden saw accompanying the blessed man through the 
plain, . . . . . . .79 

CHAPTER V. Of the angel of the Lord whom St. Finnic 
saw accompanying the blessed man in his journey, . 80 

CHAPTER VI. Of the angel of the Lord who appeared in 
a vision to St. Columba while he remained in Hinba 
Island, and was sent to him in order that he might 
ordain Aidan king, . . ... . .81 

CHAPTER VII. Of the apparition of angels carrying to 
heaven the soul of one Brito, . . . . .82 

CHAPTER VIII. Of the vision of angels vouchsafed to the 
same holy man as they were bearing to heaven the soul 
of one Diormit, 82 

CHAPTER IX. Of the brave fight of the angels against 
the demons, and how they opportunely assisted the Saint 
in the same conflict, . . . . . . .83 

CHAPTER X. Of the apparition of angels whom the man 



XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PACK 

of God saw carrying to heaven the soul of a certain 
person, a blacksmith by trade, named Columb, and sur- 
named Coilrigin, . . . . . .84 

CHAPTER XL Of a similar vision of angels whom the 
blessed man beheld carrying to heaven the soul of a 
certain virtuous woman, . . . . . .84 

CHAPTER XII. Of the apparition of holy angels whom St. 
Columba beheld meeting in its passage the soul of the 
blessed Brenden, the founder of that monastery which 
in the Scotic language is called Birra, . . * . .85 

CHAPTER XIII. Of the vision of holy angels who carried 
off to heaven the soul of the Bishop St. Columban 
Moculoigse, . . . , . .85 

CHAPTER XIV. Of the apparition of angels who came 
down to meet the souls of the monks of St. Comgell, . 86 

CHAPTER XV. Of the apparition of angels who came to 
meet Emchath s soul, . . . .. . . .87 

CHAPTER XVI. Of the angel of the Lord that came so 
quickly and opportunely to the relief of the brother who 
fell from the top of the round monastery in the Oak- 
wood Plain, . . . . . . .87 

CHAPTER XVII. Of the multitude of holy angels that were 
seen to come down from heaven to meet the blessed man, 88 

CHAPTER XVIII. Of the pillar of fire seen to burn upon 
the Saint s head, . ... . . . 89 

CHAPTER XIX. Of the descent or visit of the Holy Spirit, 
which continued upon the venerable man for three whole 
days and as many nights, in the same island, . .90 

CHAPTER XX. Of the bright angelic light which Virgnous, 
a youth of good dispositions, and afterwards, under 
God, superior of this Church, in which I, though un 
worthy, now serve, saw coming down on St. Columba 
in the church, on a winter s night, when the brothers 
were at rest in their beds, . . 90 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV11 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XXI. Of another vision of almost equal bril 
liancy, . . .91 

CHAPTER XXII. Of another like apparition of divine 
light, . .92 

CHAPTER XXIII. Of another apparition of angels given to 
the holy man, who saw them coming forth to meet his 
holy soul as if about to depart from the body, . . 93 

CHAPTER XXIV. Of the departure of our patron, St. 
Columba, to the Lord, . .94 

TEXT OF THE ( LIFE OF ST. COLUMBA, WITH THE 

VARIANT READINGS OF THE DIFFERENT MSS., . .103 

NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS : 

Notes to Preface, . . . . . .223 

Notes to Introduction, V . 224 

Notes to the Life, . . . . . . .248 

APPENDIX :- 

I. Identification of Localities, . , . .303 

II. Explanation of Names on the Map of lona, . .329 

III. Chronicon Hyense, . . . . .334 

IV. Notes on the History of the Ruins at lona, . . 342 

V. Records relating to lona from the Vatican, . .353 

INDEX, ... . . . 359 

MAP OF ION A, to face Title. 



PREFACE. 



BEFORE St. Columba was long in the grave, it is likely that 
some member of the brotherhood set himself to collect his 
patron s acts, and to record such events of his life as were 
suited to the taste of the day, or were calculated to promote 
the veneration of his memory. In furtherance of this design, 
he probably turned his attention rather to the marvels than the 
sober realities of the Saint s life, and consulted more for the 
excitement of admiration in a simple and credulous age, than 
for the supply of historical materials to meet the stern demands 
of remote posterity. When Adamnan, a century after St. 
Columba s death, in compliance with his brethren s urgent re 
quest, drew up the memoir which has immortalized both the 
subject and the writer, his information was derived, as he him 
self states, in part from written, in part from oral, authorities. 
In the latter respect, he was quite near enough to the fountain- 
head, both in time and place, to draw from authentic sources, 
for in his boyhood he had frequent opportunities of conversing 
with those who had seen St. Columba, and he was now writing 
almost on the very spot where his great predecessor had indited 
his last words, and surrounded by objects every one of which 
was fresh with the impress of some interesting association. As 
regarded his documentary materials, he had before him the 
account of Cummene the Fair, whom he cites by name, and 
whose entire narrative he has transferred, almost verbatim, into 
his own compilation, where it is for the most part incorporated 
with the Third Book. He had also another memoir, on the 
authority of which he relates an occurrence not recorded in 



XX PREFACE. 

Cummene s pages. Besides these compositions, which were 
written in Latin, there existed in our author s day certain poems 
on the praises of Columba, in the Scotic tongue, among which 
was probably the celebrated Amhra, or panegyric, which was 
written by a contemporary of the Saint. Baithene Mor, who 
enjoyed St. Columba s friendship, is said to have commemorated 
some particulars of his life, and poems ascribed to Baithene are 
more than once referred to by O Donnell. Metrical composi 
tions bearing the name of St. Mura are also cited by the same 
compiler, who adduces them as his authority, in part, for the 
history of St. Columba s infancy. Thus furnished with record 
and tradition, and quickened, moreover, with zeal for the honour 
of a kinsman after the flesh, the ninth abbot of Hy became the 
biographer of the first, and produced a work, which, though not 
ostensibly historical, and professing to treat of an individual, is 
" the most authentic voucher now remaining of several other 
important particulars of the sacred and civil history of the 
Scots and Picts," l and is pronounced by a writer not over-given 
to eulogy to be " the most complete piece of such biography that 
all Europe can boast of, not only at so early a period, but even 
through the whole middle ages." 2 Our author is indeed as free 
from the defects of hagiology as any ancient writer in this de 
partment of literature, but it must ever be subject of regret that 
he chose an individual instead of a society as his subject, and 
reckoned the history of his Church a secondary consideration 
to the reputation of his Patron. If Bede had contented himself 
with being the biographer of St. Cuthbert, instead of the histo 
rian of England, would he be now par excellence the Venerable ? 
If Adamnan had extended to history the style and power of 
description which appear in his tract on the Holy Places, with 
the experience, the feeling, and the piety, which characterize 
his Life of St. Columba, the voice of Christendom would have 
borrowed the word from his countryman, and irreversibly have 

1 Tnnes, Civil and Eccl. Hist., p. 145. 

- Pinkerton, Enquiry, Pref., vol. i. p. xlviii. 



PREFACE. XXI 

coupled his name with the title of Admirable. Even in the 
limited sphere which he chose, he soon acquired, to use a 
modern expression, a European celebrity, and the numerous 
copies of his writings which are found scattered over the Con 
tinent show in what esteem he was held abroad. It was there 
fore more rhetorical than just in a late historian of the English 
Church, to create a silent sister beside the vocal Lindisfarne, 
and state that " splendid as is the fame of lona, the names of 
almost all its literary men have perished." x Surely Adamnan 
and Cummene are more than names, and if names be wanting, 
the Chronicle of Hy is not so barren as to suggest the old 
lament 

" Omnes illacrymabiles 

Urgentur, ignotique longa 

Nocte." 

Adamnan s life of St. Columba has obtained due publicity 
in print, yet has always appeared in such a form as to render 
it more a subject of research than of ordinary study. It was 
first printed by Henry Canisius, in the fifth volume of his 
Antiqiice Lectiones, on the authority of a manuscript preserved 
in the monastery of Windberg in Bavaria. Twenty years 
afterwards, Thomas Messingham, an Irish priest, reprinted the 
tract from Canisius, in his Florilegium, adding titles to the 
chapters, and appending a few marginal glosses, together with 
testimonies of Adamnan, at the beginning, and of St. Columba, 
at the end, of the Life. 

About the same time, Stephen White, a learned Jesuit, a 
native of Clonmel, discovered, while in search of Irish manu 
scripts on the Continent, a venerable copy of Adamnan in the 
Benedictine monastery of Eeichenau, and the transcript which 
he made supplied the text of the fourth Life of St. Columba in 
Colgan s Trias Thaumaturga, published in 1647. The editor of 
the work prefixes numbers to the chapters, which are not in the 
original, and errs wherever White has made an omission or 

1 Carwithen, Hist, of the Church, v. i. p. 6. 



xxn PREFACE. 



alteration in the text, but in other respects is remarkably faith 
ful. The notes display considerable learning and vast acquaint 
ance with the ecclesiastical records of his country, but his 
conjectural emendations are often peculiarly unhappy, and his 
constant endeavour to find a place in the Irish Calendar for 
Adamnan s worthies sometimes tempts him into misspent labour. 
Stephen White furnished a copy to the Bollandists also, 
from which the text was again printed, in 1698, under the 
editorial care of Francis Baert, but in a less faithful form than 
the previous one. The editor took many liberties with the 
copy, changing the division of the chapters, introducing new 
titles, displacing the original ones, and occasionally altering the 
text. The notes which he has added are principally from 
Colgan, and are neither as rich nor erudite as his materials 
might have led one to expect. 

The next publication of the Life was the reprint of Canisius s 
Lectiones in Basnage s Thesaurus, in the first volume of which 
it is reproduced in its earlier defective form. 

Lastly, it appeared, in 1789, in Pinkerton s Collection, a work 
of much smaller dimensions, and which might have had a wide 
circulation but for a whim of the editor, who limited the im 
pression to a hundred copies. The text of Adamnan in this 
work professes to follow a manuscript preserved in the British 
Museum ; but the editor, who made the text of Canisius the 
basis of his collation, has very often neglected his professed 
exemplar, and fallen in with the old readings of the Windberg, 
instead of the British, manuscript. On the whole, the text is 
certainly an improvement on that in the Canisian family, but is 
greatly inferior to Colgan s, with which the editor seems to have 
been unacquainted, for he supplies the deficiency at the com 
mencement of the British manuscript from Canisius s meagre 
authority, and, when he might have drawn from Colgan s rich 
store, he adds a few foot-notes, which do more to prove the 
editorial incompetency of the commentator than to illustrate 
the text of his author. 



PREFACE. xxiii 

All who have compared the text of Adamnan as given by 
Canisius or his copyists, with that in Colgan, the Bollandists, 
or Pinkerton, have observed a great difference in their length. 
Ussher noticed the brevity of Canisius s compared with the 
Cotton and Keichenau MSS. ; so did Colgan and Pinkerton ; 
and Dr. Lanigan has gone so far as to state it to be his opinion 
that the shorter text was the genuine production of Adamnan, 
and that the longer one owed its difference to a later hand. In 
deciding, therefore, between the recensions, the question is one 
of abridgment or interpolation. A strong presumption in favour 
of the longer text arises from the fact that it is found in the 
oldest and most respectable manuscript, as well as in two others 
of totally independent authority, one of which professes to follow 
a Scotch transcript. To which may be added, that Fordun and 
O Donnell used and received the longer text, as is proved by 
their citing passages which do not exist in the shorter. The 
style of Adamnan is apparent in these extra portions, and the 
arrangement of the chapters in the longer text agrees better 
with the character of his other work. This view is confirmed 
by the consideration that the shorter text owes its peculiar 
character, at least as far as regards the absence of titles and the 
fewness of proper names, to an assignable cause, namely, the 
convenience of congregational reading, as expressed in St. Bene 
dict s Eule : " Ideo omni tempore, sive jejunii sive prandii, mox 
ut surrexerint a ccena, sedeant omnes in unum, et legat unus 
Collationes, vel Vitas Patrum, aut certe aliquid quod sedificet 
audientes " (cap. 42). It is reasonable to suppose that the in 
terruption of the narrative by titles, or the encumbering of it 
with proper names, would be avoided as opposed to the pur 
pose of edification ; hence, considering the longer memoir to 
be the genuine one, it is easy to imagine the creation of an 
abbreviated text, and this revision becoming the favourite one 
for conventual reading. 

But the shorter text possesses internal evidence that such a 
reduction has taken place. The second Preface declares the 



PREFACE. 

author s intention to give at the outset of his memoir a summary 
of the wonders contained in it, which was to serve as a foretaste 
for those whose eagerness to learn something of the Saint would 
not wait for the patient perusal of the whole. Now, this promise 
is fulfilled in the first chapter of the longer text, but is left un 
accomplished in the shorter. Again, the thirty-second chapter of 
the First Book (p. 139) places St. Columba "in Scotiensium paulo 
superius memorata regione," and then goes on to speak of Trioit, 
a place now known as Trevet, in the county of Meath. In the 
longer text the chapter but one preceding relates St. Columba s 
doings in the Campus Breg, the old name of East Meath, and 
thus the reference above mentioned is easy and intelligible. 
But in the shorter text, where the said passage also occurs, six 
of the antecedent chapters, as given in the longer, are omitted, 
and the place which is last mentioned is Skye, and further back, 
for several chapters, the scene is laid in Hy. It is evident, 
therefore, that the true correlative to supra memorata does not 
exist in the shorter text, and, as a necessary consequence, that 
it is mutilated. Moreover, as regards the tituli, they form an 
integral part of each chapter, for the names which occur in them 
are often not repeated, though referred to, in the substance of 
the chapter, so that their removal, as in the Bollandist edition, 
from their proper places to the beginning of the books, that 
they may not break the thread of the story, illustrates the 
principle upon which they were entirely omitted in the manu 
scripts ; and occasionally renders the insertion of some words 
in the text necessary, in order to complete the construction. 
Thus, at p. 145, all the copies have supra memorata muni- 
tione, but there is no antecedent mention of a munitio except in 
the titulus, which speaks De hello in munitione Cethirni, the 
absence of which evidently bears witness against the integrity 
of the shorter text, and, in the Bollandists, demanded a note of 
explanation. The very title of Canisius s manuscript, Incipit 
prima Prcefatio Apologiaque Adamnani Abbatis sancti scriptoris, 
indicates a later hand ; as the Bollandist editor observes, " quis 



PREFACE. XXV 

enim seipsuni sanctum vocet ? " Accordingly, in giving the 
preference to the Keichenau manuscript, he comes to the con 
clusion that the " Windbergense MS. videatur ex hoc desump- 
tum, pluribus rebus, tsedio forsitan vocum barbaricarum, vel 
librarii incuria, prsetermissis." l 

Of the seven manuscripts which furnish the various readings 
in the present work, three contain the longer, and four the 
shorter text. 

These are under the several signatures which are employed 
to represent them. 

I. Codex A. A MS. of the beginning of the eighth century, 
formerly belonging to Eeichenau, but now preserved in the 
Public Library of Schaffhausen. 

II. Codex B. A vellum MS. of the middle of the fifteenth 
century, preserved in the British Museum, Bill. Reg., 8 D. ix. 

III. Codex C. The Canisian text, which was published in 
1604 " ex Membranis MS., Monasterii Windbergensis in 
Bauaria." It belongs to the shorter recension. 

IV. Codex D. The second tract (fol. 39 aa to 51 la), in a 
large vellum MS. of the thirteenth century, preserved in Primate 
Marsh s library, Dublin, vulgarly, though erroneously, called 
the Book of Kilkenny, and marked v. 3, 4. Its text is of the 
shorter recension. 

V. Codex F. A vellum MS. in 4to, Ssec. x., consisting of fifty 
leaves. It formerly belonged to the Church of Freisingen, 
situate at the junction of the Moosach and Isar, in Bavaria ; 
under the number 141, and is now in the Eoyal Library of 
Munich, 6341. It is the most respectable MS. of the shorter 
recension. 

VI. Codex S. A small quarto MS. on vellum, of the early 
part of the ninth century, preserved in the library of St. Gall, 
No. 555. It consists of eighty-three folios, and contains the 
text of the shorter recension. 



1 Act. SS. Jim., torn. ii. pp. 190 6, 198 a. 
I 



XXVI PREFACE. 

VII. Codex Cottonianus. This copy of the Life is contained 
in a large folio volume, which formerly belonged to Sir Kobert 
Cotton, and is now to be found in the British Museum, under 
the mark Bill. Cotton. Tiberius, D. Hi. It is a vellum MS. in 
double columns, written in a fine large hand of the latter part 
of the twelfth century. 1 

Besides these seven manuscripts, which furnish the various 
readings of this edition, there are reported to be in existence 
the following : 

1. At Admont, a cathedral town of Styria, in the circle of 
Judenburg, and valley of the Enns river, a manuscript Vita 8. 
Columbce presbyteri et confessoris, beginning " Sanctus igitur 
Columba nobilibus fuerat oriundus natalibus, patrem habens 
Fedilmitum filium Fergusa." 

2. Heiligenkreutz (Holy Cross), in Austria, is reported as having 
a Vita S. Columbce. There are eight places of the name in the 
Austrian empire ; but of the two which are in the archduchy 
of Austria, this is probably the Cistercian monastery, in the 
district of the Vienna forest. 

3. Salmansweiler, a Cistercian monastery, one mile from 
Ueberliugen, on the north side of the Lake of Constance, is 
reported to have Adamannus Abbas de Vita S. Columle con- 



4. Tegernsee, a monastery of Bavaria, between the rivers Isar 
and Inn, and the lakes of Schlier and Tegern, is said to have j 
Vita, Columbi Confessoris ; Saec. xiii. This, however, as well ! 
as No. 2, may be by Cummene. 

5. In the Codex Salmanticensis, belonging to the library of 
the Dukes of Burgundy at Brussels, is a fragment of a Life of 
St. Columba, differing very little from Adamnan s. Owing to 
the loss of several folios, the greater part of this tract is 
wanting, and what remains, beginning at iii. 18 of Adam- 

1 For an elaborate account of these manuscripts the reader is referred to 
Dr. Eeeves s Preface in the original work, pp. xiii-xxxi., from which part of 
the Preface this account of the seven MSS. is abridged. W. F. S. 



PREFACE. XXV11 

nan, is printed by Colgan as the second part of his Vita 
Secunda. 

The other Lives of St. Columba are the following : 

I. That by Cummene, already mentioned. 

II. The first part of Colgan s Vita Secunda, which he found 
in the Salamanca MS., and erroneously supposed to be by 
Cumineus. It is a succinct and chronological digest of the 
principal recorded events of the Saint s life, and supplies from 

, the old Irish Life some particulars not recorded by Adamnan. 

III. A Life by John of Tinrnouth, pirated by Capgrave, and 
reprinted by Colgan with notes, in the Trias, where it appears 
as the Vita Tertia. It is principally compiled from Adamnan, 
and ends with the monition : " Est autem sciendum quod 
Hibernia proprie Scotorum est patria : antiquitus igitur Scotia 
pro Hibernia saepius scribi solet sicut hie in vita sancti Columbe 
diligenter intuentibus apparet. Et etiam venerabilis Beda de 
gestis Anglorum multis in locis Hiberniam exprimere volens, 
Scotiam scripsit." 

IV. The office in the Breviary of Aberdeen, containing nine 
short lessons, borrowed, in an abridged form, from Adamnan. 

V. An abridgment of Adamnan, printed by Benedict Gonon 
under the title Vita S. Columbce, sive Columbani, Presbyteri et 
Confessoris (qui alius est cb S. Columbano Luxoviensi ablate) ex 
ilia prolixa quam scripsit Adamannus abbas Insulce Huensis in 
Scotia. It occupies three folio pages, double columns, and is 
accompanied by three trifling notulse. 

VI. An ancient Irish memoir, frequently referred to in the 
following pages as the old Irish Life. It is a composition pro 
bably as old as the tenth century, and was originally compiled, 
to be read as a discourse on St. Columba s festival, on the text 
Exi de terra tua et de cognatione tua, et de domo patris tui, et 
vade in terram quam tibi monstravero. This curious relic of 
Irish preaching is preserved in four manuscripts : 1. The 
Leabhar Breac, or Speckled Book of Mac Egan, in the library of 
the Eoyal Irish Academy (fol. 15 a I). 2. The Book of Lismore 



XXV111 PREFACE. 

(fol. 49 6 a) } of which the original is in the possession of his 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire, and a beautiful copy in the 
Koyal Irish Academy. 3. A quarto vellum MS., formerly 
belonging to the Highland Society of Scotland, and now 
deposited in the Advocates Library, Edinburgh. It is a thin 
fasciculus without covers, probably of the twelfth century, and 
written in double columns. The Life begins in fol. 7, and is 
continued to the end, namely, 1 4 &. It modernizes all the old 
words and constructions of the earlier copies, and subjoins the 
account of St. Columba s proceedings at the convention of 
Drumceatt, taken from one of the prefaces to the Amhra Cho- 
luim-cille. This MS. may be the one of those mentioned by 
Martin, circ. 1700 : " The Life of Columbus, written in the Irish 
Character, is in the Custody of John Mack Neil, in the Isle of 
Barray ; another Copy of it is kept by Mack-Donald of Ben- 
lecula." A facsimile of some lines has been engraved in one of 
the Highland Society s publications. 4. MS. Eoyal Library, 
Paris, Ancien Fond., No. 8175. It forms fol. 53 aa to fol. 56 ll t 
of a small folio parchment volume found by the Eevolutionary 
Commissioners, during the Eepublic, in a private house in Paris, 
and by them presented to the library. 

This ancient Life, evidently held in great esteem, furnished 
O Donnell with a considerable portion of his narrative, and he 
has transferred the whole into his collection. Ussher was ac 
quainted with it, as is shown by his reference : " Ut habet 
anonymus, qui acta ipsius Hibernico idiomate descripsit ;" but 
Colgan does not seem to have been aware of its existence, and 
the Irish Life which he cites is always that of O Donnell. 

VII. The latest and much the most copious collection of the 
Saint s acts is that by Manus O Donnell, chief of Tir-Connell, 
which professes to be, and is, a chronological digest of all the 
existing records concerning the patron of his family. His frame 
work consists of Adamnan and the old Irish Life ; into this he 
has worked: 1. The historical allusions found in the volume 
of poems ascribed to St. Columba ; 2. The substance of the 



PREFACE. XXIX 

preface to the Amhra Choluim-cille ; 3. Extracts from the 
prefaces to the Latin hymns ascribed to St. Columba, and from 
the hymns themselves, as preserved in the Liber Hymnorum ; 

4. Some notes from the comments on the Feilire of Aengus ; 

5. The matter in the poems on Cormac Ua Liathain ; 6. Passages 
from the lives of contemporary saints, especially St. Mochonna, 
or Machar, of Aberdeen ; 7. The alleged prophecies of Berchan 
of Clonsast ; 8. Some legendary poems on the wanderings of 
certain Columbian monks, which far outdo St, Brendan s Navi 
gation in wildness of incident. O Donnell s statement is : " Be 
it known to the readers of the Life, that it was buried in oblivion 
for a long time, and that there was not to be found but a frag 
ment of the book which holy Adamnan compiled of it in Latin, 
and another small portion in Irish, compiled by the Irish poets 
in a very difficult dialect ; and the remainder in legends scat 
tered throughout the old books of Erin." These materials, with 
one or two trifling exceptions, all exist at the present day, and 
have more or less been consulted for the present work. It 
would be quite possible for a good scholar and patient investi 
gator, endowed with an inventive wit and a copious style, to 
compile from materials existing in the year of grace 1856, 1 a 
narrative to the full as circumstantial, as diffuse, and as marvel 
lous, as that contained in the great volume of O Donnell, and 
much more correct. It would, however, labour under one great 
defect, the Irish would not be as good. When and where this 
work was compiled, and at what cost, the following declaration 
of the noble author will set forth : " Be it known to the readers 
of this Life, that it was Manus, the son of Hugh, son of Hugh 
Eoe, son of Mall Garve, son of Torlogh of the Wine, O Donnell, 
that ordered the part of this Life which was in Latin to be put 
into Gaelic; and who ordered the part that was in difficult 
Gaelic to be modified, so that it might be clear and compre 
hensible to every one ; and who gathered and put together the 

1 When this Preface was written. W. F. S. 



XXX PREFACE. 

parts of it that were scattered through the old books of Erin ; 
and who dictated it out of his own mouth, with great labour, 
and a great expenditure of time in studying how he should 
arrange all its parts in their proper places, as they are left here 
in writing by us ; and in love and friendship for his illustrious 
Saint, Relative, and Patron, to whom he was devoutly attached. 
It was in the castle of Port-na-tri-namad that this Life was 
indited, when were fulfilled 12 years, and 20, and 500, and 
1000 of the age of the Lord." 

This work exists in all its original dimensions, beauty, and 
material excellence, in a large folio of vellum, written in double 
columns, in a fine bold Irish hand, and is preserved in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, where it was deposited, together 
with the other Irish manuscripts of Mr. Eawlinson, having 
previously cost that gentleman, at the sale of the Chandos 
collection in 176|-, the formidable sum of twenty-three shil 
lings ! Colgan published a copious abstract of this compilation 
in Latin, preserving the principal particulars of the narrative, 
but omitting the outrageously fabulous portions, as well as 
those which were not in accordance with his ecclesiastical feel 
ings, and divided the whole into three books, agreeing with the 
three chief eras of the Saint s life : 1 . From his birth to the 
battle of Cooldrevny. 2. From that event, as the cause of his 
departure from Ireland, to his temporary return to attend the 
convention of Drumceatt. 3. From the convention of Drum- 
ceatt to his death. This compilation is important as a depository 
of all the existing traditions concerning St. Columba, but it 
throws no real light on Adamnan, either in solving a difficulty 
or identifying a place; and its great prolixity only serves to 
show how much superior Adamnan s memoir is to any other 
record professing to be an account of the Saint s life ; and, after 
all, how little historical matter has been added to that work by 
the utmost endeavours of those best qualified to succeed in the 
attempt ! To Adamnan is, indeed, owing the historic precision, 
and the intelligible operation, which characterize the second 



PREFACE. XXxi 

stage of the ancient Irish Church. In the absence of his 
memoir, the Life of St. Columba would degenerate into the 
foggy, unreal species of narrative which belongs to the Lives 
of his contemporaries, and we should be entirely in the dark on 
many points of discipline and belief, concerning which we have 
now a considerable amount of satisfactory information. 

Adamnan s memoir is, therefore, to be prized as an inestimable 
literary relic of the Irish Church : perhaps, with all its defects, 
the most valuable monument of that institution which has 
escaped the ravages of time. The editor, at least, felt it to be 
so : and has therefore taken great pains, in the midst of many 
difficulties and discouragements, to call into his service all the 
means of illustration which books, places, and men could 
afford. 1 

BALLYMENA, 
November 25th, 1856. 



1 The few concluding sentences of this Preface are omitted, as more appro 
priate to the origiual edition. W. F. S. 



INTRODUCTION, 

i. 

ST. COLUMBA was born at Gartan, a wild district in the CHRONO- 
county of Donegal, on the very day that St. Buite, the founder g^^ Y 
of Monasterboice, departed this life. Thus the 7th of December OF SAINT 
is determined for an event, the date of which might otherwise T .?^ BAS 
have been unrecorded; and the Irish Calendars, in noticing 
it, present at that day the anomaly of a secular commemora 
tion. Authorities vary as to the year, ranging from 518 to 
523; but calculation from Adamnan s data gives 521 as that 
most likely to be the true period. 

Fedhlimidh, the father of Columba, belonged to the clan 
which occupied, and gave name to, the territory surrounding 
Gartan, and was, moreover, a member of the reigning families 
of Ireland and British Dalriada. Eithne, the mother of 
Columba, was of Leinster extraction, and descended from an 
illustrious provincial king. Thus the nobility of two races was 
combined in their son, and, no doubt, contributed to the 
extended influence which he acquired, when education, piety, 
and zeal were superadded to his honourable antecedents. 

He was baptized by the presbyter Cruithnechan, under the 
name Colum, to which the addition of cille, signifying "of 
the church," was subsequently made, in reference to his dili 
gent attendance at the church of his youthful sojourn. The 
tradition of the country is, that he was baptized at Tulach- 
Dubhglaise, now called Temple-Douglas, a place about half- 



XXxiv INTRODUCTION. 

way between Gartan and Letterkenny, where there is a cemetery { 
of considerable extent, containing the roofless walls of a large I 
chapel, and, at a short distance on the north-east, within the j 
enclosure, a square, elevated space, which appears to have been ; 
artificially formed, and to be the spot which in O Donnell s j 
time was coupled with the memory of the Saint. 

The place where St. Columba is said to have spent the ; 
principal portion of his boyhood was Doire-Eithne, a hamlet in | 
the same territory, which afterwards exchanged this name, j 
signifying, Eoboretum Eithnece, for Cill-mac-Nenain, in com 
memoration, it is supposed, of the " Sons of Enan," whose 
mother was one of St. Columba s sisters. The absence of any 
mention of this place in the ancient Irish Life, coupled with 
the fact that this .parish was the original seat of the O Donnells, 
might suggest the conjecture, that it was introduced into the 
biography of the Saint as an expedient of a later age to add 
lustre to the chiefs of Tirconnell, by associating the history of 
their patron with the origin of their race, were it not that there 
is evidence of a very early relation between St. Columba s 
family and the place, in the circumstance that the O Freels, 
who were the ancient herenachs of the church lands there, 
were descended, not from Dalach, the forefather of the O Don 
nells, but from Eoghan, the brother of St. Columba. The name 
Cill-mac-Nenain, also, as explained above, indicates a like 
connexion. 

The youth Columba, when arrived at sufficient age, left the 
scene of his fosterage, and, travelling southwards, came to 
Moville, at the head of Strangford Lough, where he became a 
pupil of the famous bishop, St. Finnian. Here he was ordained 
deacon ; and to the period of his sojourn in this monastery is 
referable the anecdote which is told by Adarnnan in the open 
ing chapter of the second book. 

From Moville, St. Columba proceeded further southwards, 
and, arriving in Leinster, placed himself under the instruction 
of an aged bard called Gemman. At this stage of the Saint s 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

. 

life, he being still a deacon, occurred an incident which 
Adamnan records in the course of his narrative (B. n. c. 26). 

Leaving Gemman, he entered the monastic seminary of 
Clonard, over which St. Finnian, the founder, then presided. 
Here St. Columba is said to have been numbered with a class 
of students who afterwards attained great celebrity as fathers 
of the Irish Church. St. Finnian does not appear to have 
been a bishop, and when Columba was subsequently judged 
worthy of admission to superior orders, he was sent to Etchen, 
the bishop of Clonfad, by whom he was ordained a priest. 

According to the Irish memoirs, St. Columba left St. Finnian, 
and entered the monastery of Mobhi Clarainech, whose estab 
lishment at Glas Naoidhen, now Glasnevin, near Dublin, 
consisted of a group of huts or cells, and an oratory, situate on 
either bank of the Finglass. Here also are said to have been, 
at the same time, SS. Comgall, Ciaran, and Cainnech, who had 
been his companions at Clonard. A violent distemper, how 
ever, which appeared in the neighbourhood about 544, broke 
up the community, and Columba returned to the north. On 
his way he crossed the Bior, now called the Moyola water, a 
small river which runs into Lough Neagh on the north-west, 
and, in doing so, prayed, it is said, that this might be the 
northern limit to the spread of the disease. Mobhi died in 
545, and in the following year, according to the Annals of 
Ulster, the church of Derry was founded by St. Columba, he 
being then twenty-five years of age. In 549 his former 
teacher, St. Finnian of Clonard, was removed from this life. 

About the year 553, he founded the monastery of Durrow, 
of which, as his chief institution in Ireland, Bede makes 
special mention. We have no means of ascertaining the dates 
of his other churches ; and all we can do with any probability 
is to allow generally the fifteen years interval between 546 
and 562 for their foundation. 

In 561 was fought the battle of Cooldrevny, which is believed 
to have been, in a great measure, brought about at St. Columba s 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

instigation. A synod, which Adamnan states (B. ill. c. 4) was 
assembled to excommunicate St. Columba, met at Teltown, in 
Meath, probably at the instance of the sovereign who was 
worsted in the battle; for Teltown was in the heart of his 
patrimonial territory, and was one of his royal seats. The 
assembly, however, was not unanimous, and St. Brendan of Birr 
protested against the sentence. St. Finnian of Moville, also, 
soon after testified his sense of veneration for the accused, who 
had been once his pupil (B. m. c. 5). 

Whether the censure which was expressed against St. 
Columba by the majority of the clergy had, or could have had, 
any influence on his after course, is difficult to determine. 
Irish accounts say that St. Molaisi of Devenish, or of Inish- 
murry, was the arbiter of his future lot, who imposed upon him 
the penance of perpetual exile from his native country. But 
this seems to be a legendary creation of a later age, when 
missionary enterprise was less characteristic of Irish ecclesi 
astics than in St. Columba s day. In removing to Hy, he did 
no more than Donnan, Maelrubha, and Moluoc voluntarily 
performed, and Cainnech wished to do. Scotland was then a 
wide field for clerical exertion, and St. Columba s permanent 
establishment in one of its outposts, within a day s sail of his 
native province, entailed very little more self-denial than was 
required for the repeated and, perhaps, protracted visits of St. 
Finbar, St. Comgall, St. Brendan, the two Fillans, St. Eonan, 
St. Flannan, and many others. It was a more decided, and 
therefore a more successful course than theirs; but it was 
equally voluntary : at least, there is high authority for sup 
posing it to have been such. " Pro Christo peregrinari volens, 
enavigavit," the common formula of missionary enterprise, is 
Adamnan s statement of his motive (Pref. 2) : with which Bede s 
expression, " ex quo ipse prsedicaturus abiit " (Hist. EC. iii. 4), 
is in perfect keeping. That he returned more than once, and 
took an active part in civil and religious transactions, is demon 
strable from Adamnan. How much oftener he revisited Ireland 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 

is not recorded ; but these two instances are quite sufficient to 
disprove the perpetuity of his retirement. That he was not 
banished by secular influence is clear even from the legend which 
represents his dismissal as an ecclesiastical penalty. Early in 
the next century, St. Carthach, or Mochuda, was driven by the 
secular arm from his flourishing monastery of Kahen ; but then 
he only changed his province, and established himself at Lismore. 
In doing so, however, he took his fraternity with him, and gave 
up all connexion with Eahen. But St. Columba, when he 
departed, severed no ties, surrendered no jurisdiction ; his con 
gregations remained in their various settlements, still subject 
to his authority, and he took with him no more than the pre 
scriptive attendance of a missionary leader. 

Durrow, his principal Irish monastery, lay close to the terri 
tory of the prince whose displeasure he is supposed to have in 
curred, yet it remained undisturbed ; and when, at a later time, 
he revisited Ireland to adjust the affairs of this house, it seemed 
a fitting occasion for him to traverse Meath, and visit Clonmac- 
nois, the chief foundation of his alleged persecutor, and the 
religious centre of his family. Surely, if the Northern Hy Neill 
had defeated King Diarmait, they could easily have sheltered 
their kinsman. 

In 563, St. Columba, now in his forty- second year, passed 
over with twelve attendants to the west of Scotland, possibly 
on the invitation of the provincial king, to whom he was allied 
by blood. Adamnan relates some particulars of an interview 
which they had this same year (B. i. c. 7) ; and the Irish Annals 
record the donation of Hy, as the result of King Conall s approval. 
At this time the island of Hy seems to have been on the con 
fines of the Pictish and Scotic jurisdiction, so that while its 
tenure was in a measure subject to the consent of either people, 
it formed a most convenient centre for religious intercourse with 
both. The Scots were already Christians in name ; the Picts 
were not. Hence the conversion of the latter formed a grand 
project for the exercise of missionary exertion, and St. Columba 



xxxvm INTRODUCTION. 

at once applied himself to the task. He visited the king at his 
fortress ; and having surmounted the difficulties which at first 
lay in his way, he won his esteem, overcame the opposition of 
his ministers, and eventually succeeded in planting Christianity 
on a permanent footing in their province. The possession of 
Hy was formally granted, or substantially confirmed, by this 
sovereign also ; and the combined consent to the occupation of 
it by St. Columba seems to have materially contributed to its 
stability as a monastic institution. St. Columba afterwards 
paid several visits to the king, whose friendship and co-opera 
tion continued unchanged till his death. 

In 573, St. Brendan, of Birr, the friend and admirer of St. 
Columba, died, and a festival was instituted at Hy by St. 
Columba in commemoration of his day. 

Of the places where St. Columba founded churches in Scotland, 
Adamnan has preserved some names, as Etliica insula, Elena, 
Himla, Scia, but he has given no dates, so that their origin 
must be collectively referred to the period of thirty-four years, 
ending in 597, during which the Saint was an insulanus miles. 

Conall, the lord of Dalriada, died in 574, whereupon his cousin, 
Aidan, assumed the sovereignty, and was formally inaugurated 
by St. Columba in the monastery of Hy. Next year they both 
attended the convention of Druinceatt, where the claims of the 
Irish king to the homage of British Dalriada were abandoned, 
and the independence of that province declared. 

St. Brendan, of Clonfert, who had been a frequent visitor of 
the western isles, and on one occasion had been a guest of St. 
Columba in Himba, died in 577; and St. Finnian of Moville, 
also one of our Saint s preceptors, was removed by death in 579. 
About the same time a question arose between St. Columba and 
St. Comgall, concerning a church in the neighbourhood of Cole- 
raine, which was taken up by their respective races, and engaged 
them in sanguinary strife. In 587 another battle was fought, 
namely, at Cuilfedha, near Clonard, in which engagement also 
St. Columba is said to have been an interested party. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

In judging of the martial propensities of St. Columba, it will 
always be necessary to bear in mind the complexion of the 
times in which he was born, and the peculiar condition of 
society in his day, which required even women to enter 
battle, and justified ecclesiastics in the occasional exercise of 
warfare. Moreover, if we may judge from the biographical 
records which have descended to us, primitive Irish ecclesiastics, 
and especially the superior class, commonly known as saints, 
were very impatient of contradiction, and very resentful of 
injury. Excommunication, fasting against, and cursing, were 

1 in frequent employment, and inanimate, as well as animate 
objects, are represented as the subjects of their maledictions. 
St. Columba, who seems to have inherited the high bearing of 
his race, was not disposed to receive injuries, or even affronts, 
in silence. Adamnan relates how he pursued a plunderer with 
curses, following the retiring boat into the sea, until the water 

! reached to his knees. We have an account also of his cursing 
a miser who neglected to extend hospitality to him. [ On another 
occasion, in Himba, he excommunicated some plunderers of the 
church ; and one of them afterwards perished in combat, being 
transfixed by a spear which was discharged in St. Columba s 
name. Possibly some current stories of the Saint s imperious 
and vindictive temper may have suggested to Venerable Bede 
the qualified approbation " qualiscumque fuerit ipse, nos hoc de 
illo certum tenemus, quia reliquit successores magna continentia 
ac divino amore regularique institutione insignes." 1 With the 
profound respect in which his memory was held, there seems 
to have been always associated a considerable degree of awe. 
Hence, perhaps, the repulsive form in which he was supposed to 
have presented himself to Alexander n. in 1249. Fordun (Bower) 
tells a story of some English pirates, who stripped the church of 
uEmonia or Inchcolum, and on their return, being upset, went 
down like lead to the bottom ; upon which he observes : " Qua 

1 Beda, Hist. Eccl., iii. 4. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

de re versum est in Anglia proverbium ; Sanctum viz. Colum- 
bam in suos malefactores vindicem fore satis et ultorem. Et 
ideo, ut non reticeam quid de eo dicatur, apud eos vulgariter 
Sanct Quhalme nuncupatur." x 

St. Columba visited Ireland subsequently to June 585, and 
from Durrow proceeded westwards to Clonmacnois, where he 
was received with the warmest tokens of affection and respect. 

In 593 he seems to have been visited with sickness, and to 
have been brought near death. Such, at least, may be supposed 
to be the moral of his alleged declaration concerning the angels 
who were sent to conduct his soul to paradise, and whose ser 
vices were postponed for four years. At length, however, the 
day came, and just after midnight, between Saturday the 8th, 
and Sunday the 9th of June, in the year 597, while on his knees at 
the altar, without ache or struggle, his spirit gently took its flight. 

Of his various qualities, both mental and bodily, Adamnan 
gives a brief but expressive summary. Writing was an employ 
ment to which he was much devoted. Adamnan makes special 
mention of books written by his hand; but from the way in 
which they are introduced, one would be disposed to conclude 
that the exercise consisted in transcription rather than composi 
tion. Three Latin hymns of considerable beauty are attributed 
to him, and in the ancient Liber Hymnorum, where they are 
preserved, each is accompanied by a preface describing the 
occasion on which it was written. His alleged Irish composi 
tions are also poems : some specimens of which will be found 
in the original edition, pp. 264-277, 285-289. There are also 
in print his " Farewel to Aran," a poem of twenty-two stanzas; 2 
and another poem of seventeen stanzas, which he is supposed to 
have written on the occasion of his flight from King Diarmait. 3 
Besides these, there is a collection of some fifteen poems, bearing 
his name, in one of the O Clery MSS. preserved in the Burgundian 

1 Scotichron., xiii. 37. 

2 Transactions of the Gaelic Society, pp. 180-189. 

3 Misc. Ir. Ar. Soc., pp. 3-15. 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

Library at Brussels. But much the largest collection is contained 
in an oblong manuscript of the Bodleian library at Oxford, Laud 
615, which embraces everything in the shape of poem or fragment 
that could be called Columba s, which industry was able to scrape 
together at the middle of the sixteenth century. Many of the 
poems are ancient, but in the whole collection there is probably 
not one of Columcille s composition. Among them are his 
alleged prophecies, the genuineness of which even Colgan called 
in question. Copies of some of these compositions have been 
preserved in Ireland, and from a modernized, interpolated, and 
often garbled version of them, a collection of " the Prophecies 
of St. Columbkille" has been lately published in Dublin (in 1856). 
But it is to be regretted that the editor, not content with 
medieval forgeries, has lent his name, and, what is worse, has 
degraded that of St. Columba, to the propagation of a silly 
imposture, which does not possess even an antiquity of ten 
years to take off the gloss of its barefaced pretensions. 



II. 

The belief was current among the Irish at a very early BATTLES 
period, that the withdrawal of St. Columba to Britain was a SAINT 
sort of penance, which was, with his own consent, imposed COLUMBA 
upon him in consequence of his having fomented domestic CONNECTED 
feuds that resulted in sanguinary engagements. And the 
opinion derives considerable support, at least as regards the 
battle of Cul-dreimhne, from the mention of it by Adamnan, 
who in two instances makes it a kind of Hegira in the Saint s 
life. The following narrative from Keating s History affords 
the simplest statement of the prevalent belief : 

" Now this is the cause why Molaise sentenced Columcille to go 
into Alba, because it came of him to occasion three battles in Erin, 
viz., the battle of Cul Dreimhne, the battle of Eathan, and the 
battle of Cuil Feadha. The cause of the battle of Cul Feadha, 
according to the old book called the Leabar Uidhre of Ciaran, 
Diarmuid, son of Fergus Cerrbhoil, king of Ireland, made the Feast 
of Tara, and a noble man was killed at that feast by Curnan, son of 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

Aodh, son of Eochuidh Tiorm-carna ; wherefore Diarmuid killed 
him in revenge for that, because he committed murder at the feast 
of Tara, against law and the sanctuary of the feast ; and before Cur- 
nan was put to death he fled to the protection of Columcille, and 
notwithstanding the protection of Columcille he was killed by 
Diarmuid. And from that it arose that Columcille mustered the 
Clanna Neill of the North, because his own protection and the 
protection of the sons of Earc was violated : whereupon the battle 
of Cuile Dreimhne was gained over Diarmuid and over the Con- 
naghtmen, so that they were defeated through the prayer of 
Columcille. 

" The Black Book of Molaga assigns another cause why the 
battle of Cul Dreimhne was fought, viz., in consequence of the false 
judgment which Diarmuid gave against Columcille when he wrote 
the gospel out of the book of Finnian without his knowledge. 
Finnian said that it was to himself belonged the son-book [copy] 
which was written from his book, and they both selected Diar 
muid as judge between them. This is the decision that Diarmuid 
made : that to every book belongs its son-book [copy], as to every 
cow belongs her calf. So that this is one of the two causes why 
the battle of Cuile Dreimhne was fought. 

" This was the cause which brought Columcille to be induced to 
fight the battle of Cuil Rathan against the Dal n-Araidhe, and 
against the Ultonians, viz., in consequence of the controversy that 
took place between Colum and Comgall, because they took part 
against Colum in that controversy. 

" This was the cause that occasioned the fighting of the battle 
of Cuil Feadha against Colman Mac Diarmada, viz., in revenge for 
his having been outraged in the case of Baodan, son of Ninneadh 
(king of Erin), who was killed by Cuimin, son of Colman, at Leim- 
an-eich, in violation of the sanctuary of Colum." l 

The book which St. Columba is supposed to have transcribed 
from St. Finnian s original is not a manuscript of the Gospels, 
as stated in the above extract, but the copy of the Psalms, 
which forms, with its silver case, the ancient reliquary called 
the Cathach, of which O Donnell gives us this curious account : 

" Now The CatJiach is the name of the book on account of which 
the battle was fought, and it is the chief relic of Colum-cille in the 
territory of Cinel Conaill Gulban ; and it is covered with silver 
under gold ; and it is not lawful to open it ; and if it be sent 

1 For the original Irish of this and other passages given in the translation 
only, see Dr. Reeves s Additional Notes to the original Edition. W. F. S. 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

thrice, right-wise, around the army of the Cinell Conaill, when 
they are going to battle, they will return safe with victory : and it 
is on the breast of a cowarb or a cleric, who is to the best of his 
power free from mortal sin, that the Cathach should be, when 
brought round the army." 

The record of the battle in the Annals of the Four Masters, 
at the year 555, is as follows : 

" The seventeenth year of Diarmaid. The battle of Cul-Dreimhne 
was gained against Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, by Fearghus and 
Domhnall, the two sons of Muircheartach, son of Earca ; by Ain- 
mire, son of Sedna ; and by Nainnidh, son of Duach ; and by Aedh, 
son of Eochaidh Tirmcharna, king of Connaught. It was in re 
venge of the killing of Curnan, son of Aedh, son of Eochaidh Tirm 
charna, while under the protection of Colum-cille, that the Clanna 
Neill of the North and the Connaughtmen gave this battle of Cul- 
Dreimhne to King Diarmaid ; and also on account of the false 
sentence which Diarmaid passed against Colum-cille about a book 
of Finnen, which Colum had transcribed without the knowledge of 
Finnen, when they left it to the award of Diarmaid, who pro 
nounced the celebrated decision, To every cow belongs its calf" etc. 

It is to be observed that the Annals both of Tighernach and 
Ulster attribute the success of the Northerns to St. Columba s 
intercession : per orationem Cohdm-cille dicentis, etc., while 
the Four Masters, with their usual caution, merely state that 
Colam cille do raidh, " Colum-cille said," adding, from Tigher 
nach, the verses which were supposed to have produced so 
marvellous a result. 

Diarmait, who was now on the throne, was the head of the 
Southern branch of the Hy-Neill race ; and the chiefs of the 
two main sections of the Northern branch, namely, the Cinel 
Eoghain and Cinel Conaill, had already distinguished them 
selves by military enterprise, for in 543 the very same indi 
viduals won the battle of Sligo, and slew Eoghan Beul, king of 
Connaught; and again, in 549, the Cinel-Eoghain brothers slew 
Ailill Inbanna, the succeeding king of Connaught, at the battle 
of Cuil-Conaire in Carra, in the county of Mayo. They now 
espoused the cause of the Connacian chief, and it may be that 
some affront offered to their kinsman Columba, seconded by 
his instigation, produced the battle of Cul-Dreimhne, which, 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

like that of Sligo, was fought on Connacian ground, but near 
the boundary between it and Ulster. The relation of the 
parties who engaged in this strife will be most readily under 
stood from the following genealogical view : 

EOCHAIDH MUIGHMEADHOIN 



NIALL NAOIGHIALLACH 

1 








BR 
DUACH 
EOGHAI* 
.IMIDH MUIRI 


AN 
lALLACB 

SRIABH 
:DHACH 

GUS 

RMCHARN 
554. 


CONALL CRIMTHANN 
FERGUS CERRBHAL 


EOG 

ob. * 

MUIRE: 
mar. tc 

HAN MUIRC 
Mac 

assa? 

:AN DOMHJ 
587. ob. 5( 

INK 

622. 


HAN 

165. 

5HACH 

Erca. 

3RTACH SEl 

, Erca 
s. 534. 


CONALL GULBAN 
slain 464. 

FERGUS or DUACH 


DlARMAIT iLLAl 

assass. 565. 

COLMAN BEG LIBI 
slain 587. slain 

CUMINE CUM 

slain 


)NA NlNl 

flor 


riDH FEDHI 
563. 


ALL FERGUS AINMIRE BAEDAN COLUMBA FER 
56. slain 569. slain 586. 

AEDH EOCHAIDH Ti 
slain 598. ob. 



AEDH 
slain 577. 



CURNA.N 
slain a boy, 560. 



The promoter of this sanguinary contest became now, according 
to O Donnell s authorities, the subject of ecclesiastical censure : 

" Post hsec in Synodo sanctorum Hiberniae gravis querela contra 
Sanctum Columbam, tanquam authorem tarn multi sanguinis effusi, 
instituta est. Unde communi decreto censuerunt ipsum debere tot 
animas, a gentilitate conversas, Christo lucrari, quot in isto praelio 
interierunt." 1 

This sentence was the result, it is stated, of a decision, " ut 
factum suum temeritatis speciem praferens, solemni pcenitentia 
ad S. Molassii arbitrium expiaret." This arbitrator was St. 
Molash of Daimh-inis (now Devenish), whose sentence is thus 
given in his Life : 

" Sanctus vero Columba visitavit S. Lasrianum confessorem suum 
post bellum de Culdremne, petens ab eo salubre consilium ; quo 
scilicet modo post necem multorum occisorum, benevolentiam Dei 
ac remissionem peccatorum obtinere mereretur. Beatus igitur 
Lasrianus divinarum scripturarum scrutator, imperavit ut tot 
animas a poenis liberaret, quot ammarum causa perditionis exti- 
terat ; et cum hoc ei praecepit, ut perpetuo moraretur extra Hiber- 
niam in exilio." c. 28. 2 

1 Colgan, Acta SS., p. fi45. 2 Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 410 a. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

The remorse of St. Columba for the expenditure of human 
life in the battle is thus expressed in the Life of St. Abban : 

"Alio quoque tempore S. Columba cum pluribus discipulis 
venit ad sanctum Patrem : qui, cum devotione magna ab eo 
susciperetur, dixit ei ; Ideo nunc ad te venimus, ut ores pro ani- 
mabus illorum, qui occisi fuerunt in bello commisso, nuper nobis 
suadentibus causa Ecclesise. Scimus enim quod per tuam inter- 
cessionem Dei misericordiam consequentur. Rogamus etiam, quod 
ab Angelo, qui tecum quotidie loquitur, quseras super hoc Dei 
voluntatem. Cumque sanctus senior instantius ab eis pulsaretur, 
respondit ; propitius sit eis Deus, et ego libenter pro eis orabo. 
Accessit igitur vir sanctus ad secretum locum, in quo consueverat 
Deum orare, et Angelum Dei videre, et audire. Ubi cum se toto 
conamine in oratione dedisset, S. Columba volens sanctum Patrem 
orantem videre, et audire quid Angelus ei loqueretur, post eum 
abiit, callide observando. Cum igitur S. Abbanus sic orasset, ecce 
Angelus Domini dicit ei ; Sufficit Abbane quod fecisti, quia Deus 
tibi petitionem tuam donavit. Qui respondit ; tantum nunc petivi 
a Domino requiem animabus illis, quarum curam habet S. Columba. 
Et Angelus ait ; Requiem habebunt." 1 

But Columba himself, according to O Donnell, declared his 
determination to become a voluntary exile, accusing himself 
for the disastrous consequences not only of Culdremhne, but 
also of two other battles which had been caused by his means. 
He is represented as saying to his kinsmen, 

" Mihi, juxta quod ab Angelo prsemonitus sum, ex Hibernia 
migrandum est, et dum vixero exulandum, quod mei causa plurimi 
per vos extincti sint, turn in hoc ultimo prselio ; turn etiam in 
prseliis de Cuilfedha et Cuilrathain olim initis : in quorum altero 
Colmanum Magnum filium Diermitii, cujus films Cumineus Boeta- 
num filium Ninnedii, Hibernise Regem, mea protectione innixum 
in loco qui Leim-aneich dicitur, interemerat ; fudistis : in altero 
Fiacnium filium Boadani, suosque confcederatos nepotes Roderici." 2 

Of the other battles here spoken of, mention has been already 
made in the extract from Keating ; but the fullest notice is 
that contained in the argument of the hymn beginning Altus 
Prosator, which is attributed to St. Columba, and which is said 
to have been composed as a religious exercise after his trans- 



1 Colgan, Acta S3., p. 624. Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 409 b. 



xlvi INTliODUCTIOX. 

" * Causa quare voluit Deum laudare/ i.e. to beseech forgiveness 
for the three battles which he had caused in Erin, viz., the battle 
of Cul-Eathain, between him and Comgall, contending for a church, 
viz., Eoss-Torathair ; and the battle of Bealachfheda of the weir of 
Clonard ; and the battle of Cul-Dremhne in Connacht : and it was 
against Diarmait mac Cerball he fought them both." 

As the battle of Cul-Dremhne arose in part from a religious 
dispute with St. Finnian, so that of Cul-Eathain or Coleraine is 
described as the result of a quarrel with St. Comgall of Bangor. 
The modem name of Eos-Torathair is not known, but the place 
was somewhere near Coleraine ; and it is very possible that 
some collision did take place between the saints about jurisdic 
tion, as St. Comgall s abbey church of Camus was situate close 
to Coleraine, and St. Columba is recorded to have been occa 
sionally in that neighbourhood. Besides, the territory west of 
Coleraine was the debateable ground between the Dal-Araidhe, 
St. Comgall s kinsmen, and the Hy-Neill of St. Columba s 
tribe. Fiachna, son of Baedan, with his men of the Clanna- 
Eudhraighe, are described as the belligerents on the Dalaradian 
side. Now this Fiachna was lord of Dalaradia, and is spoken 
of in the Life of Comgall as residing at Eath-mor in Moylinny, 
and a devoted friend of the Saint. He was an enterprising 
chief, and in 573 won the battle of Tola in the King s County. 
In 589 he became king of Uladh ; and in 594 won the battle of 
Edan-mor from the Ciannachta of Meath. In 597 he won the 
battle of Sliabh Cua in Waterford ; and in 602 that of Cuil-caol 
in Down. In 623 he took Eath-Guala in Uladh; and fell at 
the battle of Leth-Midhin in 626. Now, supposing that he had 
taken part in the battle of Cul-rathain before St. Columba s de 
parture, that is, the year 563, a period of 63 [years] would have 
intervened between that and his last achievement, a suspicious 
interval in a warrior s life. That the battle of Cul-rathain, 
though not recorded in the Annals, was fought, that he was a 
leader therein, and that it took place in consequence of the 
jealousies of the Dalaradians and the Hy Neill, quickened into 
action by the influence of their respective arch-ecclesiastics, is 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

extremely probable : only it was a military event which fol 
lowed, not preceded, St. Columba s settlement in Hy. 

The third battle, that of Cul-fedha or Bealach-fedha, was 
fought in 587, and is thus recorded by Tighernach : 

" Battle of Bealach Dathi, in quo cecidit Colman Beg, son of 
Diarmaid, ut alii dicunt, csesis v. millibus per prophetiam of Colam 
cille. Aedh, son of Ainmire, was victor. Unde dictum est : 

Broken was, as has been told, 
For Colum s sake in the famous battle, 
The bestower of jewels by liberal distribution, 
By the Conallians and Eugenians." 

This battle, as well as that of Cul-Dremhne, was between the 
Northern and Southern branches of the Hy Neill. It was 
fought by Aedh, son of Ainmire, to avenge the death of Baedan, 

; son of Mnnidh, monarch of Ireland, who had been slain by 
Cumine, son of Colman Beg, and his second cousin Cumine, son 
of Libran, at Leim-in-eich, under the instigation of Colman Beg. 
How far St. Columba participated in this transaction is not 
recorded, but that he was deeply interested in it appears evident 

| from the words of Tighernach, a sentiment which the Four 
Masters studiously suppress. The relation which existed 

| between the leaders in this battle, and between them and St. 

; Columba, will be seen at a glance in the genealogical table 
above. 

Thus we find St. Columba directly or indirectly concerned 
in three battles, the earliest of which occurred the year but one 
before his retirement to Britain, and the others at later periods, 
one of them after he had been twenty-four years in the abbacy 
of Hy. The first his biographers and panegyrists acknowledge 
to have been the grand error of his life, for which he paid the 
penalty of pilgrimage ; but to save his character after he became 
the apostle of the Northern Picts, and the religious exemplar of 
the Albanian Scots, the device is resorted to of antedating the 
other occurrences in which the failing of his nature betrayed 
itself ; and whereas his participation in these evils could not be 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

denied, it was thrust back into the irresponsible part of his life, 
rather than allow it to be numbered among the acts of his 
maturity. That Columba, closely allied to the principals in 
these deeds of strife, and within one step himself of the object 
they were contending for, should look on with indifference, is 
not to be expected, especially in an age of revolution, and 
among a people whose constitution and national construction 
rendered civil faction almost inseparable from their existence. 
It was not until 804, that the monastic communities of Ireland 
were formally exempted from military service; and the en 
deavours of Fothadh the Canonist, in procuring this enactment 
from Aedh Oirdnidhe, the monarch of Ireland, form the subject 
of panegyric and special mention in the Annals. That, even 
among themselves, the members of powerful communities were 
not insensible to the spirit of faction, appears from numerous 
entries in the ancient Annals. Of these, two of which one 
relates to a Columbian house may here be adduced as exam 
ples : A.D. 673, " A battle was fought at Argamoyn between the 
fraternities of Clonmacnois and Durrow, where Dermod Duff, 
son of Donnell, was killed, and Diglac, son of Dubliss, with 200 
men of the fraternity of Durrow. Bresal, son of Murchadh, 
with the fraternity of Clonmacnois, was victor." A.D. 816, "A 
battle was fought by Cathal, son of Dunlang, and the fraternity 
of Tigh-Munna [Taghmon] against the fraternity of Ferns, in 
which 400 were slain. Maelduin, son of Cennfaeladh, abbot of 
Kaphoe, of the fraternity of Colum-cille, was slain. The fra 
ternity of Colum-cille went to Tara to curse [king] Aedh." The 
same principle which caused St. Columba s panegyrists to repre 
sent his battles as delinquencies of his youth, operated with 
the Four Masters, when compiling their comprehensive Annals 
from earlier authorities, in dealing with these oft-recurring 
monastic encounters, and as there was no opening for a transfer 
of the blame, they suppressed the mention of them. 



INTRODUCTION. xllX 



III 

In the second Preface St. Columba is styled " monasteriorum SAINT 
pater et fundator," in reference to the numerous churches which CHURCHES 
were founded, either by his disciples or by himself directly. 
Again, in ii. 47 (p. 191), mention is made of his "monasteriaintra 
utrorumque populorum [sc. Pictorum et Scotorum Britannise] 
terminos fundata." In the old Irish Life the number of his 
churches is stated as very great, Tri ced do roraind cen mannair, 
"three hundred he marked out, without defect;" an amount 
which, even after the most liberal allowances for poetry, round 
numbers, and panegyric, will leave a very considerable residuum. 
<* The following is a catalogue of Irish churches, either which 
were founded; by him, or in which his memory was specially 
venerated ; but it by no means pretends to be a complete 
enumeration : 

1 . DURROW. Anciently Eos grencha. It is called in Adamnan 
by its Irish name Dair-mag, but more frequently by a Latin 
equivalent, Roboreti Campus, Rdboris Campus, Roboreus Campus. 
For the history of its foundation, see Orig. Ed., p. 23, Note b. It 
was among the earliest and most important, but not the most en 
during, of St. Columba s foundations in Ireland. The old Irish 
Life calls it redes, " abbey church," and mentions the name of 
Colman Mor, the second son of King Diarmait, in connexion with 
it. A sculptured cross, called St. Columkille s Cross, stands in 
the churchyard ; and near it is St. Columkille s Well. The most 
interesting relique of the abbey is the beautiful Evangeliarium, 
known as the Book of Durrow, a manuscript approaching, if 
not reaching, to the Columbian age, and now preserved in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin. See p. xciii. infra. An 
ancient Irish poem remains, professing to have been composed 
by St. Columba on the occasion of his departure from Dear- 
magh for the last time. In reference to the early administra 
tion of which, we find in it the following verses : 



INTRODUCTION. 

" Beloved the excellent seven, 

Whom Christ has chosen to his kingdom 
To whom I leave, for their purity, 
The constant care of this my church. 

Three of whom are here at this side, 
Cormac son of Dim a, and ^Engus, 
And Collan of pure heart, 
Who has joined himself to them. 

Libren, Senan, comely Conrach, 

The son of Ua Chein, and his brother, 
Are the four, besides the others, 
Who shall arrive at this place. 

They are the seven pillars, 

And they are the seven chiefs, 
Whom God has surely commanded 
To dwell in the same abode." 

2. DERRY. Formerly Daire-Calgaich, as in Adamnan, who 
also gives the Latin interpretation, Roboretum Calgachi. For 
an account of the foundation, see Orig. Ed., p. 160, Note r. The 
original church was called the Dubh-regles, " Black-church," to 
which there is reference in the ancient lines cited by Tigher- 
nach : 

" Three years, without light, was 
Colum in his Black Church : 
He passed to angels from his body, 
After seven years [and] seventy." 

This church, like the Sabhall at Saul and Armagh, is recorded 
to have stood north and south ; and the remains of it, which 
existed in 1520, were referred to by O Donnell in proof of the 
fact. In the fourteenth century it was called the Cella Nigra, 
de Deria. Its Eound Tower was standing in the seventeenth 
century, but the only local record of its existence now remain 
ing is the name of the lane which leads to its site, the Long 
Steeple. It is deserving of notice that Fiachadh, son of Ciaran, 
son of Ainmire, son of Sedna, whose death is recorded by 
Tighernach at 620, is described by the annalist as alius funda- 
torum Daire Calgaidi. He was nephew of Aedh, son of Ainmire, 



INTRODUCTION. li 

the reputed founder. This entry, and the authorities cited (in the 
Orig.Ed.) p. 1 60, are sufficient to vindicate O Donnell s statements 
concerning the donation of Deny from the objections urged in 
the Ordnance Memoir of Templemore. This admirable work, 
however, will always, and deservedly, be cited as the highest 
authority on the history of Derry, and will couple with the 
name of that ancient city, and the Ordnance Survey, as the 
quickening cause, the revival in Ireland of genuine antiquarian 
research. 

3. KELLS. The Irish name is Cenannus, which signifies 
"Head-abode," and gives the title of Headfort in the Irish, 
and Kenlis in the British Peerage, to the family of Taylor, 
whose seat is beside the town of Kells. Kenlis is the transition 
form of the name. The site of the monastery was anciently 
known as Dun-chuile-sibrinne, and the surrounding territory 
was called Magh-Seirigh. It is situate in the north-west of the 
county of Meath, and gives name to a parish. The old Irish. 
Life, followed by O Donnell, states that in St. Columba s time it 
was the royal dun or seat of Diarmait Mac Cerbhaill, and adds, 
" Colum-cille then marked out the city in extent as it now is, 
and blessed it all, and said that it would become the most illus 
trious possession he should have in the land, although it would 
not be there his resurrection should be." O Donnell observes 
that Diarmait granted it to the saint in amends for injuries 
which he had done to him, and that his son Aedh Slane was a 
consenting party. If a church was founded here by St. Columba 
it must have been an inconsiderable one, for there is no mention 
of the place in the Annals as a religious seat until 804, when, 
on account of the dangers and sufferings to which the com 
munity of Hy were exposed, measures were taken for the pro 
vision of an asylum in Ireland ; and, as the Annals of Ulster 
state, Tabhairt Ceanannsa cen chath do CJwluim cliille ceolacli 
hoc anno, " Kells was given, without battle, to Columkille the 
harmonious, in this year." In furtherance of which there was 
commenced, in 807, the Construct nove civitatis Columbe cille 



1NTKODUCTION. 

hi [in] Ceninnus; and in 814, Ceallach alias lae, finita con\ 
structione templi Cenindsa, reliquit principatum, et Diarmiciw 
alumpnus Daigri pro eo ordinatus est. From this time forward 
it became the chief seat of the Columbian monks. There art; 
several indications of the ancient importance of the place stil 
remaining, such as the fine Eound Tower, about ninety feel 
high, which stands in the churchyard; the curious oratory! 
called "St. Columkille s House;" the ancient cross in the! 
churchyard, having on the plinth the inscription, Crux Patricia 
et Columle ; a second cross, now standing near the market-! 
place ; and a third, once the finest, now lying in a mutilated; 
condition in the churchyard. The shafts of all these crosses! 
were covered with historical representations from Scripture.! 
Trinity College, Dublin, possesses its great literary monument,; 
commonly known as the "Book of Kells." It is an Evan-, 
geliarium somewhat resembling the Book of Burrow, but far| 
surpassing it in the brilliancy and elaborateness of its execu 
tion. (See p. xciv.) In the tenth and following centuries the I 
families of Ua h Uchtain and Ua Clucain furnished, succes- 
sively, a large proportion of the chief officers of this church, , 
the occupation of its lands having probably become hereditary 
in their clans. 

4. TOEY. Formerly Torach, that is, " Towery," from the 
torrs or pinnacles of rock by which the island is characterized. 
Sometimes it is called Tor-mis, the name by which, strange to 
say, the Irish designate St. Martin s Church of Tours. It is 
situate off the north coast of Donegal, in the barony of Kil- 
macrenan and diocese of Kaphoe, oppo ite the maritime tract 
known as the Tuatha, or " territories," of Mac Swyne. There are 
many traces of antiquity here, but the most remarkable is the 
Eound Tower, fifty-one feet high, which was the nucleus of an 
old monastic establishment. In 617, according to Tighernach, 
" Torach was laid waste [occisio Tvrchae, An. Ult.], when its 
primitive church was probably destroyed; for in 621 the same 
annalist records, Hoc tempore constructa est ecclesia Toraidhe, 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

which the Four Masters (An. 616) interpret, "The church of 
Torach was covered in, having been destroyed some time 
before." St. Ernan, son of Colman, fifth in descent from 
Eoghan, son of Niall, was its first abbot. His day is Aug. 17. 
A St. Damongoch, of the same race, is also mentioned in the 
Naemhseanchus as a pilgrim of Torach. The herenachs of this 
church were, in after times, of the family of O Eobhartaich, or 
O Koarty. 

5. DRUMCLIFF. Formerly Druim cliabh, situated a little to 
the north of Sligo, in the barony of Carbury, and diocese of 
Elphin. A portion of its Eound Tower remains in proof of 
its ancient consequence. The old Irish Life, followed by 
O Donnell, mentions St. Mothoria as its first abbot under the 
founder. This name occurs in the Calendar at the 9th of June. 
The herenachy of the church became limited in the eleventh 
century to the family of O Beollain, commonly called O Boland. 

6. SWORDS. Known by the natives as Sord, or, with the 
founder s name, Sord-Choluim-chtik. It is situated in the diocese 
and county of Dublin, about seven miles north of the metro 
polis, in the territory of which mention has been made by 
Adamnan as Ard-Ceannachte. St. Finan Lobhar, of the race of 
Tadhg, son of Cian, who gave name to the territory, is said to 
have been placed over the church by St. Columba. He is 
commemorated at Mar. 1 6. The foundation of this church is 
ascribed by the old Irish Life, and O Donnell its copyist, to our 
saint, whose memory is vividly preserved in the parish. The 
Eound Tower, surmounted by a cross, marks the site of the 
ancient church. A square tower, which belonged to the old 
parish church, stands close to the Eound Tower, between it 
and the modern church, with which it is unconnected. 

7. EAPHOE. In Irish Bath-loth. St. Adamnan or Eunan is 
the reputed patron, but the foundation of the church is ascribed 
to St. Columba by an ancient poem, and the old Irish Life, with 
O Donnell, and others. It is situate in the county of Donegal, 
and gives name to the barony and diocese. It had, in the 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

early part of the seventeenth century, a Eound Tower, which 
Sir James Ware represents as " built on a hill, in which the 
bishops of Eaphoe formerly kept their studies," but it had been 
demolished before his time. It is deserving of mention that, in jj 
1635, King Charles i. wrote to John Lesley, Bishop of Eaphoe, , 
in reference to his predecessor, Andrew Knox, stating that : 
" Andro late bischop of Eapho did without just caus or any ! 
warrant from our late royall father or ws, carle with him two 
of the principal bells that wer in Icolmkill and place them in i 
some of the churches of Eapho ; " and requiring him to deliver I 
unto the present "bischop of the Yles" these two bells for the i 
use of said Cathedral Church. 

8. KILMORE. The Cella Magna Deatlirib of Adamnan, and the 
Cill-mor dithrib of the Irish. See Orig. Ed., p. 9 9, Note g. The 
Calendars commemorate Fedhliinidh, in connexion with this 
church, at Aug. 9 ; and at the same day the " Four sons of 
Dioman of Cill-mor-dithrubh." Fedhlimidh, according to 
jEngus, was son of Deidiu, daughter of Trena, son of Dub- 
thaigh Ui Lugair, and brother of Dega Mac Cairill of Iniskeen. 

9. LAMB AY. Anciently Rechra, and called Redirect, insula by 
Adamnan. See Orig. Ed., p. 164, Note b. It has belonged to 
Christ Church, Dublin, from a very remote period. In the earliest 
grant, circ. 1038, it is called Reclien; and Portrane, the parish 
to which it is attached, is called Portrahern, a corruption of 
Port-Eechrainn. In 1204 the same places appear under the 
names Lambay and Portrachelyn. There is a poem on Eechra 
ascribed to St. Columba, in the Laud MS. ; and in another 
composition of the same collection the Saint is described as 
visiting his churches from Sliabh Fuaid to Leinster, and from 
Ath-Feine [in Westmeath] to Eachra. 

10. MOONE. Formerly Maein, and Maein Choluim-chille. It 
is situate in the county and diocese of Kildare, in the barony of 
Kilkea and Moone. The foundation of the church is ascribed in 
the old Irish Life to St. Columba, and his memory has always 
been held in great veneration in the parish. An ancient sculp- 



INTRODUCTION. lv 

tured cross stands in the churchyard, called St. ColumJcilles Cross. 
The name occurs in the Four Masters at 1014 and 1040 only. 

11. CLONMORE. Cluain-mor Fer Arda, " Cluain-mor of 
Fer-arda" is the old name. The old Irish Life, followed by 
O Donnell, states that St. Columba, having founded the church, 
committed it to Oissein, son of Ceallach, whose day in the 
Calendar is Jan. 1. Clonmore is a parish in the diocese of 
Armagh, situate in the county of Louth, and barony of Ferrard. 
The church is styled "Ecclesia S. Columbse de Clonmore" in 
the diocesan registries of the fifteenth century. There are the 
remains of an old church ; and a patron in honour of St. 
Columkille was held on the 9th of June. 

12. KILMACRENAN. Cill-mac-Nenain of records. See Orig. 
Ed., p. 191, Note c. In the Laud MS. of Columkille s poems is 
one in which the Saint is represented as expressing his love for 
Kilmicnenain and Gartan. In three other poems of the same 
collection it is called by its original name Doire-Eithne ; and one 
of them (p. 62) mentions a tribute which was payable by the 
abbot of Hy to Doire Eithne in Ireland. The O Firghils, or 
O Freels, who were the herenachs of this church, were descended 
from Firghil, great-grandson of Aedh, who was son of Eoghan, 
St. Columkill s brother. 

13. GARTAN. The parish in which St. Columba was born. 
The family of O lSTahan were the hereditary herenachs and 
corbes who had also the privilege of carrying " Collumkillies 
read stoane." This was the Clock Ruadh mentioned by O Don 
nell. Gartan is a wild parish in the county of Donegal, and 
diocese of Kaphoe, having the ruins of a small church, inside 
which is the old tomb of an O Donnell, and in the adjoining 
churchyard the traces of an earlier structure. 

14. GLENCOLUMKILL. Formerly Seangleann, or Gleann Gairge, 
and called by these names in the poems attributed to St. Co 
lumba. It is a wild, desolate parish in the barony of Banagh, 
at the south-west of the county of Donegal. See Orig. Ed., 
p. 206, Note e. The herenachy was in the family of Mac Eneilis. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

15. TEMPLEDOUGLAS. Formerly Tulachdulh-glaisse, "Hill of j 
the Dark Stream." See Orig. Ed., p. 1 92, Note c. There are the \ 
remains of an old church ; and the cemetery is in two portions j 
in one of which was an ancient enclosure of stones like a roofless 
chapel, which was commonly called Ced-mitheachd ColumJcille, j 
that is, " Primum Columbse deambulacrum," from the tradition i 
that it was the first ground which St. Columba paced after he ! 
had learned to walk. 

16. ASSYLYN. Eos Ua Floinn, a spot on the river Boyle, i 
about a mile west of the town. It was anciently called Eas 
mic nEirc, from Dachonna, or Mochonna, son of Earc, who is 
said to have been placed over it by St. Columba. His day is 
March 8. The old Irish Life, as well as the Tripartite Life of 
St. Patrick, ascribes the foundation to St. Columba. Adamnan 
twice alludes to St. Columba s stay in this neighbourhood. See 
Orig. Ed., pp. 79, 129. 

17. SKREEN. Serin Cholaim-chille, so called from its being 
the repository of a shrine with some of St. Columba s relics. 
The old church stands on a hill, in the county of Meath, which 
was formerly called, according to the Dinnseanchus, Achaill, 
and gives name to a rural deanery in the diocese of Meath. It 
is mentioned by Tighernach at 976, and by the Four Masters 
at 1027, 1037, 1058, 1127, 1152. The Ordnance Survey marks 
St. Columkille s Well on the N.w. of the church. 

18. BALLYNASCREEN. Called Serin Colaim cille by the Four 
Masters at 1203. The old church, situate in a picturesque 
valley on the Moyola Water, occupies the site of an earlier 
building. The parish is called Baile na Scrine, " Town of the 
Shrine," and forms the western portion of the barony of Lough- 
insholin, in the modern county of Londonderry ; but until the 
seventeenth century it was considered as situate in Gleann- 
Concadhan in Tirone. See the Eev. Kobert King s Old Church 
of Ballynascreen, p. 103; Eeeves Cotton s Visitation, p. 82. 

1 9. SCREEN. Serin i nArda, Scrinium de Ardo. An ancient 
chapel in the townland of Craig, parish of Tamlaghtard or 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

Magilligan, in the diocese and county of Derry. Eeeves Col- 
ton s Visitation, p. 78. For an account of the ancient shrine 
preserved here, see O Donnell. 

20. DRUMCOLUMB. Druim Choluim cille, Dor sum Columbce- 
cille, anciently Druim-namac. O Donnell preserves the tradi 
tion that a church was founded here by St. Columba, who left 
his disciple Finbarr in charge of it, having given him a bell 
called Glassan, and a cross. It is now a parish church of the 
diocese of Elphin, in the barony of Tirerrill, county of Sligo. 

21. COLUMBKILLE. This is the name of a parish in the barony 
of Granard, on the N.E. of the county of Longford. Here, in 
Lough Gowna, is an island of fourteen and a half acres, called 
Inchmore, formerly known as Inir-mor Locha Gamlina. On this 
island is an ecclesiastical ruin called Teampull Choluim-cille, 
which was formerly the parish church. Eman mac Findbairr 
was prior of it in 1415. 

22. EMLAGHFAD. Imleach fada, " the long marsh." Here, 
according to O Donnell, St. Columba founded a church on the 
west side of a hill called Tulach-segra [now Tully in Toomour] 
in the district of Corann, appointing Enna, son of Nuadhan, its 
first minister. It is now a parish church in the diocese of 
Achonry, and county of Sligo. 

23. GLENCOLUMBKILLE. Gleann Choluim cille, Vallis Columbce 
cille. The two townlands of this name, North and South, are 
situate on the east side of the parish of Carran, in the diocese 
of Kilfenora, and in the barony of Burren, on the N.E. side of 
the county of Clare. The Ordnance Map marks the Graveyard, 
and St. ColumbkiWs Church in ruins. 

24. KILCOLUMB. A parish in the S.E. of the county of 
Kilkenny, barony of Ida, on the river Barrow. The Ordnance 
Map marks Kilcolumb Church in ruins, and a well, Tobernago- 
lumb. 

25. KNOCK. Formerly called Knockcollumkill, and marked 
Collumkill on Speed s map of Ulster. Father Mac Cana, in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, thus described it : " Inter 

d 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

Commor [Cumber] et sestuarium Loch-Laodh [see p. 291, infra] 
quod Karrick-fergusium et Belfastium oppida alluit, est ecclesia 
D. Columbae sacra, quam egre^iis agris ac multis privilegiia 
auxit Niallus O Niellus [cir. 1512] Tren-Congallise [Dalaradise] 
Princeps." Ulster Journ. of Archceol, vol. ii. p. 56. The parish 
is now united to Breda, and forms the union of Knock-Breda 
in the diocese of Down. The ruins of the church, situate near 
a fine earthen fort, occupy a commanding position on the 
Castlereagh Hills, about three miles S.E. of Belfast. See 
Reeves Eccles. Antiq., p. 12. 

26. TERMON-MAGUIRK. Formerly Tearmonn Cuiminigh, and 
known in the thirteenth and following centuries as Termon- 
conyn, or Termon-conny. It may derive its name from Cuimne, 
sister of St. Columba. About half a mile from the old church 
is a nearly disused burying-ground called Eellig-na-man \Eeileg 
na mbeann], or " the Women s Cemetery ;" and the local tradi 
tion is, that St. Columkill directed a woman of bad character to 
be buried at a spot where the sound of a bell, rung in front of 
the funeral, would cease to be heard at his church ; and that he 
left an injunction that the cemetery should never be entered by 
a living woman or a dead man. Devout women in old times 
used to request burial here, under the idea that none interred 
here would be damned ; but this impression has nearly disap 
peared. Outside the old parish cemetery of Termon there are 
two others, called Bdig-na-paisde, " Children s Cemetery," and 
Relig-na-fir-gunta, " Cemetery of the Slain." Colgan s version 
of O Donnell incorrectly calls the church Tearmonn Cetmainich. 
The parish derives its present name from the family of Mac 
Guirk, who were formerly herenachs, under the Primate, of the 
ecclesiastical lands in the parish. See Beeves Colton, p. 3. It 
is situate in the barony of Omagh East, county of Tyrone, and 
diocese of Armagh. 

27. CLOGHMORE. A townland in the parish of Killannin, 
diocese of Tuam, situate in the county of Galway, and barony 
of Moycullen. In Roderick O Flaherty s time there was an 



INTRODUCTION. Hx 

altar of St. Columbkill near a brook in this townland, and there 
is still an old churchyard bearing his name. 

28. COLUMBKILLE. Called Capella de Colmekyll in the ancient 
Taxation of Ossory. The Ordnance Survey marks St. Columb- 
kttle s Church in ruins, and St. Columbkille s Well. It is a parish 
of the diocese of Ossory, situated in the barony of Gowran, near 
the centre of the county of Kilkenny. 

29. ARDCOLUM. A parish of the diocese of Ferns, situate 
in the barony of Shelmalier, on the east side of the county of 
Wexford. The Ordnance Survey marks St. Columb s Church in 
ruins, Graveyard, and St. Columb s Well. 

30. ARMAGH. Recks Cholaim cille, " Church of Columcille," 
in Armagh, is mentioned by the Annals of Ulster, An. 1010, 
and the Four Mast., An. 1152. Concerning the site of this 
church, see Stuart s Armagh, p. 96. 

31. MORNINGTON. Formerly Villa Maris, or Mariner -stown, 
and a distinct parish. It now forms a portion of the union of 
Colpe, in the county and diocese of Meath. " Ecclesia S. 
Columbse." 

32. DESERTEGNY. A parish of Deny, situate in Inishowen, 
county of Donegal. Colgan states that St. Columba was patron. 
See Eeeves Colton, p. 67. 

33. CLONMANY. A parish of the diocese of Derry, in the 
barony of Inishowen, county of Donegal. St. Columba was 
patron, according to Colgan. See Eeeves Colton, p. 67. 

34. DESERTOGHILL. A parish in the diocese of Derry, and 
barony of Coleraine, in the county of Londonderry. St. Columba 
was patron. See Eeeves Colton, p. 80. 

35. BALLYMAGROARTY. This, which is a townland in the 
parish of Drumhome, of the diocese of Eaphoe, situate in the 
county of Donegal, barony of Tirhugh, is divided into two por 
tions, called Irish and Scotch. In the former are the- remains 
of an old chapel which formerly bore the name of St. Columba. 
The name of the townland is derived from the family of Mac 
Eobhartaigh, pronounced Mac Eoarty, and written baile-mecc- 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

Rabhartaich, by Colgan, who adds, "ubi illud celebre reliquiarium 
S. Columbae quod Cathach appellatur." This chapel is situate 
near Bath-Cunga (Orig. Ed., p. 38), the right of which was in con 
troversy between the Columbian monks and those of Ardstraw, 
so early as the eighth century, as appears from the following 
passage of Tirechan concerning St. Assicus : " Et sunt ossa 
ejus in campo Sered hi Eaith-Chungi, monachus Patricii, sed 
contenderunt eum familia Columbae-cille et familia Airddsratha." 

36. BALLYMAGRORTY. A townland in the parish of Temple- 
more, or Derry. Colgan says of it : " Olim monasterium (cujus 
ruinse vix nunc extant) dicecesis Dorensis in praedicta regione 
de Inis-Eoguin." 

37. ESKAHEEN. In the parish of Muff, to the N.N.E. of the 
city of Derry. See Orig. Ed., p. 247, Note p. The ruins of the, 
old church stand near the Eoman Catholic chapel. 

The expression cujus monasteria, intra utrorumque populo- 
rum terminos (p. 191), as applied to St. Columba, is not 
limited to the churches which were founded by him in person, 
but includes all those which, down to the writer s time, were 
established by Columbian monks, or professed subjection 
to the mother church of Hy. Hence it is likely that many 
monasteries, which in the seventh and eighth centuries might 
be classed under the above title, ceased in after times to bear 
any trace of their original relation, and became distinguished 
only by the names of the immediate founders, under whose 
patronage they were built. St. Dochonna s church, for instance, 
was probably at first subject to Hy, though afterwards indepen 
dent, when known as St. Machar s of Aberdeen. The following 
catalogue of Columbian foundations in Scotland admits of con 
siderable enlargement, but it is sufficient to show how widely 
the veneration of St. Columba was extended in his adopted 
country : 

AMONG THE SCOTS. 

1. SOROBY. In the island of Tiree. The modern name is of 
Scandinavian origin, but there can be little doubt that it repre- 



ISTKODUCTION. Ixi 

sents the Campus Lunge so frequently mentioned by Adamnan. 
See Notes on B. i. c. 24. It will be seen from the App. I. that 
the names of several Irish saints are associated with places in 
the island, although the chief founder has no longer any local 
commemoration therein. 

2. ELACHNAVE. One of the Garveloch group of islands. A 
modern writer says : " The Garvelloch, or Holy Islands, are 
remarkable for having been once the residence of the monks of 
lona." And a visitor of more recent date observes : " A water- 
spring at the head of a narrow creek in the adjacent shore is 
called St. Columba s Well," adding, what seems an imported 
tradition, that a little pile on the summit of a neighbouring 
height was said to be " the tomb of ^Ethnea, mother of the illus 
trious saint." The adjacent island is called Culbrandon, i.e., 
Secessus Brendani. 

3. LOCH COLUMKILLE. On the N.-w. of the parish of Kilmuir, 
in Skye. See notes on B. I. c. 27, and B. II. c. 27, for the de 
scription of its monastic remains. The particulars of its drain 
ing are to be found in the New Statistical Account, vol. 
xiv. pt. 1, pp. 246, 267, 279. It may be a question whether 
the island of Skye belonged to the Picts or to the Scots 
in Columba s time : the anecdote told in i. 33 seems 
in favour of the former. Tighernach, at 668 (An. Ult. 667), 
records the Navigatio filiorum Gartnaith ad Hiberniam cum 
plebe Scith; and at 670 (An. Ult. 669), Fenit Gens Gartnait de 
Hibernia ; where Scith probably denotes Skye. In this case 
the filii Gartnait may have been the family of Gartnait, the 
youngest son of King ^Edan, who had occupied the island : but 
this is not likely, as the Cinel Gabhrain, to which they belonged, 
were the most southern settlers of the Scotic colony. The filii 
Gartnait were rather the sons of Gartnait mac Uuid, the Pictish 
king in 636, or of his successor, Gartnait mac Domhnall, who 
died in 663. In this case the change of settlement, in 668, 
may have been caused by Scotic occupation. However, when 
Adamnan wrote, the mountain of the Dorsum Britannia being 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

considered the boundary line, the islands on the west would 
necessarily fall to the Scots. Hence the legend of St. Comgan 
in the Aberdeen Breviary states that the adjacent parish on 
the mainland of Lochelch [now Lochalsh] was in Erchadia 
loriali, or North Argyle. 

4. FLADDA-CHUAIN. Of this island, which lies N.w. of the 
extreme north point of Skye, Martin writes : 

" Fladda-Chuan (i.e.) Fladda of the Ocean, lies about two Leagues 
distant from the West-side of Hunish-point, it is two Miles in Com 
pass, the Ground is boggy, and but indifferent for Corn or Grass. 
There is a Chappel in the Isle dedicated to St. Columbus ; it has an 
Altar in the East-end, and there is a blue Stone of a round Form 
on it, which is always moist ; It is an ordinary Custom, when any 
of the Fishermen are detained in the Isle, by contrary Winds, to 
wash the blue Stone with water all round, expecting thereby to 
procure a favourable Wind, which the Credulous Tenant living in 
the Isle says never fails, especially if a Stranger wash the Stone ; 
The Stone is likewise applied to the sides of People troubled with 
Stitches, and they say it is effectual for that purpose. And so 
great is the regard they have for this Stone, that they swear de 
cisive Oaths on it. The Monk Gorgon is buried near to this 
Chappell, and there is a Stone five foot high at each end of his 
Grave." 

This story of the Uue stone is not worse than that of the white 
stone at ii. 34. Modern description represents this small 
island as having three burial-places, one of which is called 
Cladk Mhanaich, " Monks tomb." 

5. TRODDA. Off Aird Point, south-east of the preceding. 
Martin says : " The Isle Troda lies within half a League of the 
Northermost point of Skie, called Hunish, it is two Miles in 
Circumference, fruitful in Corn, and Grass, and had a Chappel 
dedicated to St. Columbm." 

6. SNIZORT. In SKYE. Formerly Kilcolmkill, or St. Colme s 
Kirk in Snesford. See Notes on Book I. c. 27, and B. II. c. 27. 
The New Statistical Account describes the remains of the old 
church as " the ruins of a large cathedral." 

7. EILEAN COLUIMCTLLE. An island in the southern recess of 



IM KODUCTION. Ixiii 

Portree Bay, on the east of Skye. See Notes on B. i. c. 27, 
and B. II. c. 27. Portree Bay was anciently Loch Coluimcille ; 
and the old name of the parish was Cill-tarraglan. 

8. GAKIEN. In the parish of Stornoway, formerly Ness, on 
the north shore of Broad Bay, at the N.E. side of Lewis, there 
was a chapel called St. Colm s Church. 

9. EY. The peninsula of Ui, on the N.E. side of Lewis, gave 
name to a parish. The church, called St. Collums in Ui, stood 
on the isthmus, a little east of Stornoway. The cemetery, con 
taining the ruins which are described as " strong walls now 
standing," is still to be seen. It was the original burial- 
place of the clan Mac Leod. 

10. ST. COLM S ISLE. Situate in Loch Erisort, in the parish 
of Lochs, on the east side of Lewis. Here stood St. Columba s 
Church, the cemetery of which is still the parish burying-grouiid. 
North of this was the bay called Loch Colmkille. 

11. BEENERA. An island belonging to the parish of Harris, 
but lying close to the North Uist. It had two ancient chapels, 
one of which was named after St. Columba. 

12. KILCHOLMKILL. In the old parish of Sand, on the north 
side of North Uist, at a place called Clachan, stood this ancient 
church. The New Statistical Account mentions that there are 
several burial-grounds in the parish,but it does not specify this. 

13. KILCHOLAMBKILLE. In Benbecula, formerly known as 
the Church of St. Columba in Beandmoyll. It stood on the north 
coast of the island. At Ballvannich, or Ballinamanniche, near 
the N.w. coast, is a small island in a lake, containing ecclesi 
astical remains. The lands here are supposed to have belonged 
to the abbot of Hy. Indeed the whole island, which abounds 
with vestiges of old ecclesiastical establishments, appears to 
have had of old a very intimate connexion with Hy. 

14. HOWMORE. In South Uist. Martin states that there 
was a church here bearing our Saint s name, and adds : " A 
Stone set up near a Mile to the S. of Columbus s Church, about 
eight foot high, and two foot broad, it is called by the Natives 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

the Bowing-Stone ; for when the Inhabitants had the first sight 
of the Church, they set up this Stone, and there bowed and said 
the Lord s Prayer." He observes that " the Natives speak the 
Irish Tongue more perfectly here, than in most of the other 
Islands ;" also that " Fergus Beaton hath the following ancient 
Irish Manuscripts in the Irish Character ; to wit, A. Vicenna, 
A. Verroes, Joannes de Vigo, Bernardus Gordonus, and several 
Volumes of Hypocrates" 

1 5. ST. KILDA. Formerly, and still among the natives, Hirt. 
One of its three ancient chapels was St. Golumba s; another 
St. Brendan s. 

16. CANNA. The church, as Martin states, was "dedicated 
to St. Columbus." It stood near the middle of the island, in 
ruins in 1772, having beside it a small cross. 

1 7. ISLAND COLUMBKILL. Situate at the head of Loch Arkeg, 
in the parish of Kilrnalie, in Inverness. It derived its name 
from a chapel of St. Columba. 

1 8. KILLCHALLUMKILL. A chapel at Duror in Appin, oppo 
site Lismore. 

19. KILCOLMKILL. Now Kiel in Ardchattan. " This chappell 
town called in Inglish St. Colme s Chappell." 

20. KILCOLMKILL. This church, sometimes called St. Colum- 
ba s in Kinelvadon, or St. Columba s in Morwarne, gave name to 
an old parish, which was afterwards united with Killintag to 
form the modern parish of Morvern in Argyle. This territory, 
called from the descendants of Baedan, of the house of Loarn 
Mor, Kinelbathyn, or Kinelbadon, afterwards contracted to 
Cenalbin, formed the chief portion of the ancient seignory of 
Garmoran. The cemetery, with a small portion of the ruins of 
Kilcolmkill, is situate at Kiel, on Loch-aline, on the s.w. of the 
present parish. It was of old esteemed a sanctuary. 

21. KILCOLLUMKILL. An old parish of Mull, now united to 
Kilninian. The church stood at the head of a loch in the dis 
trict of Quinish, on the north coast of Mull. 

22. COLUMKILLE. In the parish of Torosay, on the east coast 



INTRODUCTION. IxV 

of Mull. " Near the small village of Salen are the ruins of a 
cell which belonged to the monastery of lona. The village is 
called Salen-dubh- Challum-chille" 

23. ORANSAY. Separated from Colonsay at flood- tide only. 
Here tradition places the first landing of St. Columba on his 
leaving Ireland. It is the vulgar opinion that the two names 
denote respectively Oran s and Colum s isle. But this is incor 
rect : Colonsay is called Coloso by Adamnan, and there are four 
islands of the name in Argyleshire ; while there is an Oronsay 
off North Uist, and another off South Uist, none of which 
possess any traces of early ecclesiastical distinction. Fordun 
(Bowar) notices the present island as " Hornesay ubi est monas- 
terium nigrorum canonicorum, quod fundavit Sanctus Columba." 
Martin says : " It is adorn d with a Church, Chappel, and 
Monastry ; they were Built by the famous St. Columbus, to 
whom the Church is dedicated." There may have been an 
earlier church on the island, but the ruins to which Martin 
alludes are the remains of a priory which was founded by a 
Lord of the Isles, and affiliated to Holyrood. After the disso 
lution of religious houses, the priory of Oransay was annexed to 
the bishopric of the Isles ; hence we find Andrew Knox, bishop 
of Eaphoe, in 1630, who still held the Isles with his Irish pre 
ferment, as prior of Oransay, granting to Colin Campbell, rector 
of Craigness, the isles of Elachniue and Kilbrandan, with the 
parsonage and vicarage teinds of the same, both which apper 
tained to the priory. In 1635 this grant was confirmed by his 
successor in the bishopric of the Isles. There is a hill in 
Colonsay called Cam cul-ri-Erin, " Carn-of-the-back-to-Ire- 
land;" and in the north of the island a small chapel called 
Tempull-na-gluine, where St. Columba is said to have embarked 
for Hy. The old church of Colonsay (not of Oransay) was 
called Killoran. 

24. KILCHOLMKILL. A chapel in the parish of Kildalton, on 
the east coast of Islay. 

25. KILCHOLMKILL. A chapel of St. Columba in Kilarrow, a 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

parish of Islay, situate between Loch Finlagan and the sea. 
" There is a Cross standing near St. Columbas s or Portescock 
side, which is ten foot high." 

26. COVE. In the parish of North Knapdale, formerly Kill- 
mochormac, on the west side of Loch Killisport, near its head, 
was a chapel of St. Columba ; and, in a neighbouring cave, an 
altar, piscina, and cross cut in the rock. 

27. KILCOLUMKILL. This old church, which was situate at 
the southern extremity of Cantyre, between Carskay and Dun- 
averty, gave name to a parish which is now united to Kilblane 
to form the modern parish of Southend. Kilcolmkill forms the 
south-west portion, and contains the Mull of Cantyre. The 
grant of St. Collomkill s church in Kyntire, which had been 
made by Patrick Makschillingis, and Finlach his wife, to the 
canons of Whithern, was confirmed by King Eobert Bruce in 
1326. The ruins of the chapel are in the unusual proportion 
of 72 to 15 feet. 

28 ST. COLOMB S. An ancient chapel of the parish of Kothe- 
say, in Bute. 

29. KILMACOLM. Now incorrectly written Kilmalcolm. A 
large parish in Kenfrew, formerly including Port-Glasgow, and 
now situate next it on the south and east. 

30. LARGS. In Ayrshire. " The church, surrounded by its 
ancient village, stood on the level ground on the right bank of 
the Gogo, where it falls into the Firth. It was dedicated to St. 
Columba, whose festival was on the 9th day of June, and a 
yearly fair, vulgarly called Colm s day, once famous in the West 
Highlands, is still held there on the second Tuesday of June, 
old style." 

31. KIRKCOLM. A parish in Wigton, on the west side of 
Loch Eyan, opposite Glenarm, in the county of Antrim. 

32. ST. COLUMBO. In the parish of Caerlaverock in Dumfries, 
on the east side of the Mouth of the Mth, " a little below Glen- 
caple Key, close by the shore, was a cell or chapel dedicated to 
St. Columba ; near this is a well, of which no person was per- 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 

initted to drink without leaving a portion of victuals, or a piece 
of money, as an alms to the inhabitant of the cell." 

The four parishes last mentioned were originally occupied by 
Australes Picti, but in Ven. Bede s time the Angli had come in 
on them, and they were then considered in the provincia Ber- 
niciorum. 

AMONG THE PICTS. 

1. BURNESS. A parish in the north-west of Sanday, one of 
the Orkney islands, formerly known as St. Colm s. 

2. HOY. One of the Orkneys, on the s.w. It had a chapel 
of St. Columkill. 

3. ST. COMBS. In the parish of Olrick in Caithness. " On 
the boundary of the parish in the east, towards Dunnet, the 
spot is still called St. Coomb s Kirk, supposed to have been 
overwhelmed in the sand at night." 

4. DIRLET. In the parish of Halkirk in Caithness. There 
was a chapel of St. Columba at this place. 

5. ISLAND COMB. In the parish of Tongue, off the north 
coast of Sutherland. It is sometimes called JZilean-na-naoimh, 
" Island of Saints." It had formerly a chapel and cemetery, the 
traces of which are still to be seen. 

6. KILLCOLMKILL. In Strabruraich, or " Srath of Brora," on 
the east side of Loch Brora, in the parish of Clyne, and county 
of Sutherland, stood this chapel. " In digging some ground at 
that place, a cemetery was found that contained large human 
bones, upon which a stop was put to the digging there. At 
some little distance from it, a year or two ago (1794), a gentle 
man making out part of the high road, found a stone cross, 
which was immediately erected in the place where it was 
found." 

7. AULDEARN. A parish in Nairn. St. Columba was patron 
of the church, and his fair, called St. Colm s Market, is held here 
annually on the first Wednesday after the 19th [query N. s., or 
9th ?] of June. 



Ixviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



8. PETTIE. With Bracholy, a parish in Inverness-shire. For 
merly Petyn. In the Register of Moray we find mention of 
" Walterus vicarius S. Columbse de Petyn." 

9. KINGUSSIE. A parish in Badenoch, on the east of Inver 
ness-shire. St. Columba was patron, and the chief fair is held 
in June, probably on his day. 

10. ST. COLM S. A chapel at Aird, in the parish of Fordyce, 
Banff. 

11. ALVAH. A parish on the north-east of Banff. St. 
Columba seems to have been the patron saint, for at the foot 
of the Hill of Alvah is St. Colm s Well ; and, not far from it 
on the south, the church. 

12. LONMAY. A parish at the north-east angle of Aberdeen- 
shire, near Cairnbulg. " Previous to 1 608, the parish church 
was by the sea-side, hard by where the village of St. Combs now 
stands. " An earlier writer says, " This parish at different times 
has been named St. Colm, from the name of the saint to whom 
the old church was dedicated, and Lonmay, from the name of 
the estate on which the church now stands." 

13. DAVIOT. A parish nearly in the middle of Aberdeen- 
shire. St. Columba was the patron, and his effigy in stone was 
formerly placed in a niche within the church." St. Colm s Fair 
was formerly held at Kirktown in this parish, on every 9th of 
June. 

14. BELHELVIE. This parish, adjoining Aberdeen on the 
north, " hath for its tutelar Saint Colm." St. Colm s Fair used 
to be held here, at Drumhead, June 9th. 

15. MONYCABO. Or, New Machar, a parish formerly a 
chapelry of Old Machar of Aberdeen. It bore the name of 
St. Colm s. 

16. CORTACHY. A parish in the N.w. of Forfarshire. St. 
Colm s Fair used to be held here annually, at Muirs-keith, near 
the kirk. 

17. TANNADICE. In the middle of Forfarshire, S.E. of the 
last. " A chapel is said to have been here [at Shielhill], in old 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

time ; and a fountain, at a little distance, is known by the name 
of St. Colm, to whom the chapel may have been inscribed." 

18. DUNKELD. In Perthshire. It has been stated on re 
spectable authority, that Columba, circ. 640, was first bishop 
of this church. But, on maturer consideration, the writer 
has come to the conclusion that the founder of Hy was the 
only Columba whose name was ever prominently associated 
with Dunkeld, and that the misapprehension has arisen from 
erroneous statements in the Irish Life of St. Cuthbert. The 
version of it printed in the Nova Legenda of Capgrave relates 
the departure of St. Cuthbert s mother from Ireland to Britain, 
and tells how " venit Mater cum puero ad Episcopum Colum- 
bam qui primus sedem Dunkelde rexit in Scotia." To the 
same effect the Durham narrative, borrowed from a similar 
source : " Cum ad fines Scotiae pervenisset, Sanctus Columba 
primus episcopus in Dunkel puerum suscepit, unaque cum 
puellula quadam, nomine Brigida ex Hybernia oriunda, retinuit 
et aliquandiu educavit." And in the following chapter : " Post- 
modum vero cum matre puer ad insulam quse Hy dicitur, pro- 
fectus est, ubi aliquandiu cum religiosis viris loci illius conver- 
satus est." Now the word Scotia in these authorities savours 
very much of circ. 1 100, or later. A writer of that period would 
find Dunkeld a bishop s see, and the name Columba intimately 
associated with it. Hence, by a process similar to that which 
made St. Eunan bishop of Eaphoe in Ireland, he would argue 
that the founder of St. Columba s diocesan church of Dunkeld 
was a Columba and a bishop. But the fact was otherwise. The 
Danish descents on Hy in the early part of the ninth century, 
and the rise of Kells in Ireland, had caused a diversion in the 
administration of the Columbian brotherhood ; and when, soon 
after, the Pictish nation yielded to Scotic rule, and Kenneth 
Mac Alpin transferred the seat of government to the eastern 
side of the kingdom, a collateral movement took place in the 
ecclesiastical economy of his dominions : and accordingly, circ. 
849, he ftnmded a church at the seat of government, which was 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

to be an inland Hy, and the representative of the Columbian 
institution for the united kingdom. In furtherance of this 
project, St. Columkille was named the patron saint, and a por 
tion of his relics, real or alleged, were deposited in the site, as a 
material guarantee of the dedication. Hence the 9th of June 
became the proper festival of Dunkeld, and St. Columba s 
memory associated with its future history. As the new founda 
tion was essentially Columbian, the intercourse which previ 
ously existed between the mother church and Ireland was 
extended to the east of Scotland : and for this reason the few 
names of the early abbots of Dunkeld which are preserved are 
strictly Irish, and found in Irish Annals only. Hy continued 
to decline, and Dunkeld to rise in importance ; tradition stamped 
the former with sanctity, but royalty invested the latter with 
power : and, as a consequence, when the jurisdiction of bishops 
began to be defined by diocesan limits, Argyle, including Hy, 
was comprised within the diocese of Dunkeld, subject, no doubt, 
to occasional interference from the Irish coarbs of St. Columba, 
who regarded themselves as the conventual superintendents of 
the society ; and to a temporary usurpation of authority by the 
Norwegians : but the relation was presently renewed ; and long 
after 1200, when Argyle became a distinct see, withLismore as 
the centre of jurisdiction, the island of Hy, which was farther 
west, continued to own episcopal subjection to its kindred 
church of Dunkeld. We find the following notices of Dunkeld 
in the Annals of Ulster : A.C. 864, Tuathal mac Artgusso pi*im 
epscop Fortrenn acas abbas Duin caillenn dormivit, " Tuathal, son 
of Artgus, chief Bishop of Pictland, and Abbot of Duncaillenn, 
fell asleep." A.c. 872, FlaitJibertacli mac Murcertaigh princeps 
Duinchaillden obiit, "Flaithbertach, son of Muircertach, Superior 
of Duncailldenn, died." A.c. 964, Oath etir firu Allan in 
Moneitir ubi multi occisi sunt im Donnchadh .i. abbaidh Duine- 
caillenn, " Battle between the men of Alba at Moneitir [again 
1004] where many were slain, together with Donnchadh, i.e. the 
Abbot of Dun-caillenn." A.c. 1027, Diincaillenn, i nAlbain 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

do uile loscadh, "DuncailJenn in Alba was entirely burned." A.c. 
1045, Catli eder Albancu etarru fein i torcair Cronan abb Duine 
caillend, " Battle among the Albanach between themselves, in 
which was slain Cronan, Abbot of Duncaillenn." 

1 9. INCHCOLM. An island in the Forth, belonging to Aber- 
dour in the county of Fife. In 1123, King Alexander, being 
overtaken in a violent storm in the Forth, vowed to erect on an 
island therein, should he reach it, a religious house to serve as 
an asylum and comfort to the shipwrecked. He succeeded in 
landing on this island, which was called ^Emonia, " ubi tune 
degebat quidam eremita insulanus, qui servitio Sancti Columbse 
deditus, ad quandam inibi capellulam tenui victu, utpote lacte 
unius vaccae et conchis ac pisciculis marinis collectis, contenta- 
tus, sedule se dedit." 

20. KINCARDINE. In the detached portion of Perthshire, 
on the Forth. Here was a " croft of land of St. Colme." 

21. DRYMEN. A parish in Lennox, in the west of Stirling 
shire. The church was under the title of St. Columba, and his 
yearly market, called St. Oolm s Fair, was formerly held here 
on the 9th of June. 

IV. 

The desire which prevailed, in the early ages of Christianity, SAINT 

to imitate even the accidental features of the apostolic system, CoLUMBA s 

TWELVE 

naturally suggested the adoption of the number Twelve in the DISCIPLES. 
adjustment of religious societies ; and its use was afterwards 
extended to other relations, both social and moral. We find 
in Adamnan the mention of King Oswald and his twelve com 
panions (p. 6) ; of twelve years as a term of monastic service 
(pp. 19, 99); of a flotilla of twelve curachs (p. 75); and of 
St. Columba and his twelve disciples. The names of these 
twelve followers have been thus given in Codex B : 

" Hsec sunt duodecim virorum nomina qui cum sancto Columba 
cle Scotia, primo ejus transitu ad Brittanniam, transnavigaverunt : 
Duo filii Brenden, Baithene, qui et Conin, sancti successor Columbae ; 




Ixxii INTRODUCTION. 

et Cobthach, frater ejus ; Ernaan, sancti avunculus Columbse ; Dior- 
mitius, ejus ministrator ; Rus, et Techno, duo filii Rodain ; Scandal, 
films Bresail filii Endei filii Neil ; Luguid Mocuthemne ; Echoid ; 
Tochannu Mocufir-cetea ; Cairnaan, filius Branduib filii Meilgi ; 
Grillaan. 

" Sancti Columbse parentes : Aedelmith, pater ejus, filius Fer- 
guso ; Eithne, mater ipsius, filia filii JSTavis. 

" logen germanus frater Columbse junior. Item, tres germanse 
sorores ejus : Cuimne, mater filiorum Meic Decuil, qui nominantur 
Mernooc, et Cascene, et Meldal, et Bran qui sepultus est in Dairu 
Calchaich, consobrini sancti Columbse ; Mincholeth, mater filiorum 
Enain, quorum unus Calmaan dicebatur; Sinech mater virorum 
Mocucei in Cuile-aque, quorum nomina sunt Aidanus monachus, 
qui sepultus est hi Cuil-uisci, et Chonrii Moccucein, qui sepultus 
est in Daurmaig ; avia Tocummi Mocucein, qui valde senio fessus, 
presbiter sanctus, in lona insula prsesentem finivit vitam." 

The following recital will serve as a commentary on that list, 
in showing the prevalence of the duodecimal economy among 
the Irish as well as the other inhabitants of the British Isles : 

I. MISSIONARY. 

1. S. Palladius, with twelve companions, sent to the Scots. 

2. S. Mochta, a Briton, circ, 500, came to Ireland with 

twelve disciples. 

3. S. Columla, An. 562, with twelve followers, retired to Hy. 

4. S. Mochonna, called also Macarius and Mauritius, was 

sent by St. Columba with twelve companions to 
the Picts. 

5. S. Columbanus, circ. 612, with twelve brethren, whose 

names are on record, departed from Ireland to the 
Continent. 

6. S. Kilian, circ. 680, was chief of a company of twelve 

who went from Ireland to Franconia, and founded 
the church of Wiirtzburg. . ^txNj*5^ 

7. S. Moquius, disciple of S. Fursa, circ. 680, with twelve 

companions, whose names are preserved, propagated 
the Gospel in Belgium. 

8. S. Rudbert, or Rupert, circ. 700, chose twelve companions, 

whose names are on record, to assist him in preach 
ing the Gospel in Bavaria. 

9. $. Willibrord, who had studied for twelve years in 

Ireland, was chief of a society of twelve who, in , 
692, were sent by Ecgbert to evangelize Friesland. 
Their names are <?iven in Surius. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxiii 

10. S. Forannan, an Irishman, bishop and abbot of Vassor, 

circ. 970, with twelve companions, propagated the 
Gospel on the Belgic frontier. 

11. S. Paulus, uncle of S. Jovimis, with twelve presbyters, 

passed over from Britain to Armorica. 

12. S. Joseph, and his twelve companions, appear in the 

Glastonbury Legends; and the number recurs in 
other instances adduced by Ussher. 

II. MONASTIC. 

1. S. Carthach, or Mochuda, formed at Eahen a com 

munity of twelve, whose names are recorded. 

2. S. David, of Menevia, founded twelve monasteries. 

3. S. Petroc, who retired to the wilderness with twelve 

companions. 

4. S. Benedict founded twelve monasteries, placing in each 

twelve monks under a superior. 

5. S. Cungar, or Doccuin, placed twelve canons in each 

of his monasteries. 

6. S. Gall built an oratory, " mansiuneculis per gyrum 

dispositis, ad commanendum fratribus, quorum jam 
xn. ad seternorum desiderium concitavit." 

7. S. Corpreus, collected twelve presbyters into his church 

at Clonmacnois. 

8. S. Disibod, an Irishman, in whose church of Mons 

Disibodi, or Dysenberg, twelve canons were placed 
" ad numerum xn. apostolorum." 

9. S. EJiabanus Maurus, at Fulda, had 270 monks, "inter 

quos juxta numerum Apostolorum XII. viri erant 
prse ceteris doctissimi." 

JO. Mons S. Victor, a cell of St. Gall, founded for twelve 
Irish pilgrims. 

11. S. Colman Finn, cum suis sociis XII. in Morthreabh 

Corcnea. (Litan. Aengus, Colgan, Act. SS., p. 539.) 

12. SS. Conchennacii xn., qui cum utroque Sinchello 

jacent in Kill-achuidh (ibid.) 

13. S. Finniani xn. discipuli in Ard-brendomnuigh 

(ibid.) 

14. Episcopi xn. habitatores Killachiee Dromfhodse apud 

Falgheides (ibid.) 

15. Meuthi, an Irish hermit in Wales, with twelve 

ministers. 

16. Monymusk, where was a college, of twelve Culdees and 

a prior. 

e 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. 

III. DIOCESAN. 

1. Pope Gregory wrote to St. Augustine of Canterbury, 

directing : " Per loca singula xii. episcopos ordines 
qui tuse subjaceant ditioni. Ad Eburacam vero 
civitatem te volumus episcopum mittere ; ita dun- 
taxat, ut si eadem civitas cum finitimis locis 
verbum Dei receperit, ipse quoque xn. episcopos 
ordinet, et metropolitan! honore perfruatur " (Bede 
i. 29). 

2. S. Cataldus ducatum in xii. episcopatus distribuens, 

de suo episcopio archiepiscopatum fecit. 

IV. CAPITULAR. 

1. Canterbury. Dean and twelve canons. 

2. Durham. Dean, twelve canons, and twelve minor 

canons (orig. constit.) 

3. Winchester. Dean and twelve canons. 

4. Westminster. Dean and twelve canons. 

5. Windsor. Dean and twelve canons. 

6. Gloucester. Dean, six canons, and six minor canons. 

7. Bristol. Dean, six canons, and six minor canons. 

8. Norwich. Dean, six canons, and six minor canons. 

9. Aberdeen. Bishop, and twelve canons. 

V. EDUCATIONAL. 

1. S. Finnian, of Clonard, had twelve principal students, 

afterwards styled the Twelve Apostles of Erin. 

2. Aidan. Eata " unus de xn. pueris Aidani, quos 

primo episcopatus sui tempore de natione Anglorum 
erudiendos in Christo accepit" (Bede iii. 26)/ 

3. Daire-rabhne. Duodecim >innocentes pueri in Daire- 

rabhne (Litan. Aengus). 

VI. CEREMONIAL. 

1. At Wilfrid s consecration, Agilberct, bishop of Paris, 

" et alii undecim episcopi ad dedicationem antistitis 
[Wilfridi] convenientes, multum honorifice minis- 
terium impleverunt " (Bede v. 19). 

2. Eanfleda, " baptizata est die sancto Pentecostes, prima 

de gente Nordanhymbrorum, cum undecim aliis de 
familia ejus " (Bede ii. 9). 

VII. PEREGRINAL. 

1. S. Ailbhe went to Home, attended by several companies 
of twelve. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxv 

2. S. Barr, of Cork, was attended to Eome by twelve 

companions. 

3. S. Maidocus. Duodecim qui cum Maidoco Fernensi 

ultra mare sunt peregrinati (litan. Aengus). 

4. Laisreanus. Duodecim qui sine morbo ad aeterna 

tabernacula transierunt cum S. Molassio (ibid) 

5. Duodecim peregrini, quorum unum superstitem in 

Insula Felis reperit Brendanus (ibid.) 

6. S. Eioch. Duodecim socii S. Eiochi ultra mare (ibid) 

7. Duodecim peregrini in Lethglas Mor (ibid.) 

8. Duodecim qui cum Albeo mori elegerunt (ibid.) 

9. S. Munna, attended by twelve of his fraternity, went 

to meet the King of Leinster at Kathmor. 

VIIL MORAL. 

1. Duodecim gradus humilitatis. 

2. Duodecim pericula animse. 

3. Duodecim abusiones sseculi. 

IX. MISCELLANEOUS. 

1. Twelve citizens placed by St. Patrick in Armagh. 

Kepresented by twelve burgesses in modern times. 

2. Twelve pillars and twelve lamps in the Anastasis at 

Jerusalem. 

3. Twelve psalms to be recited. 

4. Twelve hostages delivered up. 

5. Si xn. ordinati viri sapientes defuerunt, xii. clericorum 

inordinatorum consilium : si vero xii. clerici non 
affuerunt, xii. parvulis pueris, virginibus cum muli- 
eribus haut coinquinatis, judicium atque consilium 
permittatur (Eees, Cambro-Brit. SS., p. 43.) 

6. Twelve masons employed in Wales under an Irish 

architect called Liuguri (ibid. p. 47). 

X. MULTIPLES. 

1 . S. Patrick came to Ireland attended by twenty-four 

companions. 

2. S. Brendan visits a community consisting of an abbot 

and twenty-four monks. 

3. S. Ailbhe, with twenty-four men of Munster, crossed 

the sea (Litan. Aengus). 

4. S. Cadoc and his twenty-four disciples (Eees, Cam.- 

Brit. SS., p. 61). 

5. JRatisbon. An Irish monastery, founded for twenty- 

four Scots. 
& Exeter cathedral, dean, and twenty-four canons. 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

7. York cathedral, dean, and thirty-six canons. 

8. S. Cadoc appointed thirty-six canons at Nantcarban 

(Kees, p. 82). 

9. S. Brendan, with sixty pilgrim monks (Litan. Aengus). 

1 0. 8. Leonorius went from Britain to Gaul with seventy- 

two disciples. 

11. S. Benedict. "Instrumenta bonorum operum LXXII." 

12. Servi Dei MCC. circa Lasreanum, ac episcopos Leth- 

glinenses (ibid.) 

V. 

In calculating the year of St. Columba s death, it will be 
granted that he died on the ninth of June : for though 
Adamnan does not name the day of the month, he states the 
coincidence of St. Columba s and St. Baithene s festivals, and 
speaks of the Saint s decease as occurring soon after the month 
of May (B. ill. c. 24). In the Feilire of ^Engus and the Koman 
Martyrology, as well as those of Bede and Notker, we have 
domestic and foreign testimonies agreeing with the date which 
has been observed for the solemnity within the memory of man. 
We learn, however, from Adamnan the following particulars, 
which, taken in conjunction with the date of the festival, 
determine the year with great precision : 

1. Saturday was the last day of the Saint s life. 

2. He had attended the nocturnal vigils. 

3. Shortly after midnight he rose for matins. 

4. Which was the second service of Sunday. 

5. And just as the brethren had assembled. 

6. While it was still dark in the oratory, for his attendant 
was obliged to feel after him, and was unable to discern his 
condition till lanterns were brought. 

7. That this portion of the twenty-four hours was called the 
night of Sunday. 

8. That, therefore, he died on Sunday. 

9. That the ninth of June fell on Sunday. 

Now the Eegular letter of the ninth of June is f ; therefore 
F was the Sunday letter of the year. But 597 is the only year 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii 

at this period to which F belongs, that is, whose first of January 
fell on Tuesday. Thus, as far as Adamnan s statements go, 
the inference is very explicit, and we are freed from the uncer 
tainty which Ussher expresses: "Cum media nocte Eomani 
civiles suos dies et incipere soleant et terminare : num. nox 
ilia media, qua Columbam decessisse diximus, diem Junii 
nonum vel inchoaverit vel finierit, quaestionis quid habet." 
With regard to Adamnan s language, there cannot be any 
uncertainty ; for he represents the Saint as saying, while it was 
yet Saturday, " hac sequenti media venerabili Dominica nocte 
patrum gradiar viarn," and states of the penultimate service 
which he attended, " Sanctus ad vespertinalem Dominicse 
noctis missam ingreditur ecclesiam." Adamnan reckons his 
day from sunset to sunset, and thus we find him, on more 
than one occasion, employing a wxQij/jiepov, and making the 
night of a festival precede the day. See ii. 46, iii. 12, 13, 24. 
With this date agree the biographer s chronological notes, who 
states that St. Columba passed over to Britain in the second 
year after the battle of Culdreibhne, that is, in 563, being then 
42 years old, and that he died, having completed 34 years in 
his pilgrimage, thus giving 597 for his obit, and 76 years for 
his age. So also Bede, who places his removal to Scotland at 
565, the length of his pilgrimage 32 years, and his death, when 
he was about 77 years of age. 

But against this evidence may be alleged the authority of 
Tighernach, who records Quies Coluimcille in nocte Dominica Pen- 
tecostes v. Id. Junii, anno peregrinacionis sue xxxv. etatis vero 
Ixxvii. With this statement, that he died on Wednesday, agree 
the ancient Irish Life, cited in the note on B. in. c. 24, 
and the Naemhsenchas, which, under the Saint s name, has Tri 
cengcaidhis Colamcilli : a gen, a baihis, a bas, " Three Pentecosts 
[quinquagesimas] of Colam-cille : his birth, his baptism, and 
his death." Now, in 597, Whitsunday fell on the 2d of June, 
but in 596 on the 10th. If, therefore, the Whitsun element 
enter into the calculation, the year of the death must be 



IXXVIII INTRODUCTION. 

assigned to 596, and Adamnan s mode of computation be In 
verted ; for, in this case, the midnight between Saturday and 
Sunday must be attracted to the former in order to fit the obit 
into the 9th, while, at the same time, an opposite process must 
be adopted in order to identify the occurrence with the ensuing 
Pentecost. This date, which seems to follow from Tighernach, 
is adopted by Hermannus Contractus, who places St. Columba s 
death at 596. But it is opposed to Tighernach s own calcula 
tion, who assigns the Saint s birth to 520, and allows him an 
age of 77 years. Dr. Lanigan accounts for this discrepancy by 
supposing that " Tighernach was, probably, prepossessed with 
the idea that 596 was the real year of his death, as he might 
have found it marked in some elder annals, which, however, 
considering their mode of computation, was, in fact, the same 
as 5 9 7. Then, finding that Pentecost fell in 5 9 6 about the 9th of 
June, he supposed it to be the Sunday in which Columba died." 
Or, it may be urged that, as Columba s removal to Britain is said 
by some to have been at Whitsuntide, Prima nox ejus in Attain 
in Pentecosten, an even period was assigned to the term of his 
pilgrimage, the chronicler being desirous to square the matter, 
by placing the obit at the same festival. It is further to be 
observed that, supposing Whitsunday to have been on the 2d, 
which it most probably was, the Saint s decease was inside the 
week, and was thus within the octave of Whitsuntide ; for the 
festival of Trinity Sunday was not yet instituted, and Easter 
and Pentecost were the two great ecclesiastical seasons of the 
year. Dr. Lanigan very justly observes, that " Adamnan, who 
mentions more than once this obituary Sunday, never calls it 
Pentecost, which, had it been so, he would assuredly have 
noticed as a very remarkable circumstance, combining the 
Saint s removal to heaven with the celebration of that great 
festivity." 

With respect to the notation of Tighernach at this year, it 
must be confessed that it contradicts the entry. For it is K. 
ini., that is, that the first of January fell on Wednesday, which 



INTRODUCTION. 

makes E the Dominical letter, and thus refers the occurrences 
under that signature to 598, two years later than is deducible 
from the entries. We might suppose .iiii. by a very common 
mistake put for .uii., which would mend the matter a little, and 
the antecedent signatures might be treated in the same manner ; 
but then the .ii. which would become M. would have .iiii. as 
its antecedent, whereas a .i. is found in situ. The Annals of 
Ulster record the occurrence thus, Quies Coluim cille v. Id. Jun* 
anno etatis sue Ixxvi. But their signature is vii., which gives 
B as the Sunday-letter, and indicates 595, the very year in 
their margin, for where they say 594, they mean 595. Now it 
is evident that their record of the event has been advisedly 
framed ; and, therefore, it is hard to conceive on what principle 
they could refer the event to so early a year. In it, Easter fell 
on the 3d of April, and Whitsunday on the 22d of May, and 
the 9th of June was Thursday. 

The choice, then, lies between 596 and 597. To the former 
Colgan and Dr. O Conor incline ; to the latter the graver judg 
ments of Ussher, OTlaherty, and Lanigan ; but the question 
would not have arisen if Tighernach had not mentioned Pente 
cost ; and it has been shown that, even on his high authority, 
the introduction of this element into the calculation is irrecon 
cilable with the explicit statements of both himself and 
Adamnan. 

VI. 

It appears that during a century, at least, after the death of THE RELIC 
St. Columba, his remains were permitted to lie undisturbed in F SAINT 

OOLUMBA. 

the earth. 1 Ven. Bede extends the period a little, and speaks 
of the monastery of Hy "in quo ipse requiescit corpore" (iii. 
4). But ere Notker Balbulus, in the tenth century, borrowed 
the expression ubi requiescit, a change had taken place in the 
condition of the Saint s remains. In the course of the eighth 
century it is probable that his bones were disinterred, and 
deposited in a shrine or shrines. And once enshrined, they 

1 Locum in quo sancta pausant ossa (in. 24, p. 217). 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION. 

were not likely to be restored to the earth, because every 
passing year would increase the veneration which led to the 
first exposure. Yet we find mediaeval tradition confidently 
setting forth Downpatrick as his resting-place, while an original 
record of very early date claims for the neighbouring church of 
Saul the honour of his interment. We might easily reconcile 
these two accounts by supposing a translation from Saul, as 
soon as it became a subordinate church, on the erection of 
Downpatrick into a bishop s see. The fragmentary memoirs of 
St. Patrick contained in the Book of Armagh were put on record 
in the eighth century, and the manuscript itself was written 
about the year 807, by a scribe whose death took place in 846. 
Speaking of the burial of St. Patrick, they add, " Colomb cille 
Spiritu Sancto instigante ostendit sepulturam Patricii ubi est 
confirmat id est in Sabul Patricii id est in aeclesia juxta mare 
pro undecima ubi est conductio martirum id est ossuum Columb- 
cille de Britannia et conductio omnium Sanctorum Hibernise 
in die judicii." This enigmatical passage seems to owe its 
involved construction to the circumstance of its having been 
copied from an earlier authority, in which a portion of the 
matter consisted of detached explanations, in the form of in 
terlinear glosses, which the copyist, on account of the peculiar 
nature of his page, or for some other reason, incorporated with 
the text. The following conjectural restoration is proposed, as 
exhibiting the passage in a more intelligible, and possibly more 
genuine form : 

Colombcille Spiritu Sancto instigante ostendit sepulturam Patricii 

.i. in Sabul Patricii .i. in aeclesia juxta mare .i. ossuum 

ubi est confirmat pro undecima ubi est conductio martirum Coluimb- 

cillae de Brittannia et conductio omnium Sanctorum Hiberniae 
in die judicii. 

The words pro undecima are difficult of explanation, but they 
were so at the time the manuscript was written, for the scribe 
has placed in the margin opposite pro the mark of obscurity. 
But whatever ambiguity may attend some words, it is plain 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxi 

that conductio is employed to denote " bringing together," or 
" transfer ; " as elsewhere, in the same manuscript, " meeting," 
"interview;" and that the passage expresses the belief as 
existing, at the close of the eighth century, that the bones of 
Columkille had, before that period, been brought to Ireland 
from Britain, and deposited in Saul. 

The same impression is conveyed in another but more legen 
dary record, and seemingly of a later date, which also supposes 
St. Columba s remains to have been conveyed into the inner 
most part of Strangford Lough, in the county of Down, and 
merely differs in making Downpatrick the destination instead 
of the neighbouring church of Saul. O Donnell s account of 
the matter is thus translated by Colgan : 

" Pro operis hujus coronide (quod minime debuit silentio per- 
transiri) hie subjicio quomodo corpus hujus S. Patriarchae in Monas- 
terio Hiensi prius sepultum, fuerit in Hiberniam postea translatum, 
et in eodem sepulchre cum sacris exuviis Sanctorum Patricii et 
Brigidae recondition. . . . Sufficiat memorare modum et occasionem 
factae Translationis, quam hoc modo S. Berchanus contigisse refert. 
Manderus films Kegis Daniae, et Nortmannorum pyraticse classis 
Dux, ferro et flamraa septemtrionales Britannise partes devastans, 
venit ad lonam insulam, ubi sacra prophanis Sathanae Satellites 
miscentes : direptis omnibus, quae occurrerant, terram hinc inde 
fodiunt, latentes, ut putabant, thesauros inquirentes ; ac inter alia 
effodiunt Sarcophagum seu arcam, in qua verus erat, licet non cui 
illi inhiabant, thesaurus, nempe S. Columbae corpus. Arcam ad 
navem portant, quam postea versus Hiberniam tendentes aperiunt : 
et turn nihil inclusum, praeter hominis ossa, ac cineres, reperiunt, 
clausam in mare projiciunt ; quae Dei nutu, Oceani fluctibus agitata, 
et per undas injecta, reperitur in sinu maris Dunensi urbi vicino, 
undis supernatans. Quam sic repertam, et divina revelatione agni- 
tam, aperiens Abbas Monasterii Dunensis, sanctum thesaurum area 
extractum, in eisdem lipsanis cum Divorum Patricii, et Columbse 
[recte Brigidae] sacris exuviis recondidit." (Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 446 a.) 

. The earliest recorded descent of the Northmen on Hy is 802, 
which is only five years anterior to the writing of the Book of 
Armagh. 

Notwithstanding this reputed interment, whether in Saul or 
Down, we find that on the occasion of St. Blaithmac s martyr- 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. 

dom, in 825, St. Columba s shrine, which was adorned with 
precious metals, was the chief object of the murderous North 
men s search ; so Walafridus Strabus states : 

" Ad sanctum venere patrem, pretiosa metalla 
Eeddere cogentes, queis sancti sancta Columbae 
Ossa jacent, quam quippe suis de sedibus arcam 
Tollentes tumulo terra posuere cavato, 
Cespite sub denso gnari jam pestis iniquse : 
Hanc praedam cupiere Dani. (Vita S. Blaithmaic.) 

How soon, or by whom, the shrine was brought to light from 
its place of concealment, is not recorded ; but we know that it 
was soon after removed to Ireland, for in 878 it was transferred, 
together with all St. Columba s minna, to Ireland, for security 
from the Danes, where it probably remained. Now, it is re 
markable, that whereas we hear of Adamnan s relics at 727, 
730, within twenty-four years after his death, we find no men 
tion of St. Columba s till eighty years afterwards. Possibly, 
indeed, in the promulgation of the Lex Coluimcille in 753, 757, 
778, his shrine may have been borne about as the warrant for 
the exaction of this religious tribute, and thus an indirect 
evidence of the enshrining may be afforded. After 878 we 
hear no more of this shrine till 1127, when we find the Danes 
of Dublin carrying it off, and restoring it, possibly stripped of 
its gold and silver, at the end of a month. Tighernach, at 976, 
records the plundering of Serin Coluimcille, but this violence 
appears to have been offered to the church of Columba s shrine, 
namely, Skreen in Meath, where the precious reliquary may 
have been deposited. In 1152, the mionna or r cliques of St. 
Columba were employed in conjunction with the great reli 
quary of Armagh, the Bachall Jesu, in the solemnization of a 
compact ; but the reference in that case seems to be to the 
Soscela Martain, or " St. Martin s Gospel," which will be noticed 
further on as being the great heirloom of the monastery of 
Deny. 

Meanwhile, a fresh competitor for the honour of possessing 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxiii 

St. Columba s remains arose in Pictland, for according to the 
Pictish Chronicle, Kenneth Mac Alpin, " septimo anno regni reli- 
quias S. Columbae transportavit ad ecclesiam quam construxit " 
(Pict. Chron.) To which an English record adds : " Sanctus 
Columcylle requiescit in loco dicto Duncahan juxta fluvium 
Tau." 1 Hence Pinkerton draws the conclusion, " It is 
evident that Duncahan is Duncaldan, or Dunkeld, upon the 
river Tay; so that the Irish vainly contend that his bones 
were carried to Ireland, though, perhaps, his crosier, or 
some other relics, may have been conveyed thither." Father 
Innes declares, "It is the constant tradition and belief 
of the inhabitants of Ycolmkill and of the neighbourhood at 
this day, that St. Columba s body lies still in this island, being 
hidden by pious people, at the time of the new Eeformation, 
in some secure and private place in or about the church, as it 
used frequently to be in former ages during the ravages of the 
infidel Danes ; and not only the inhabitants of Ycolmkill, and 
those of all our Western Islands, and of all the Highlands in 
general, but all the Scots look upon the pretended translation 
of St. Columba s body to Ireland as fabulous." But this is 
declamation : for in the next page the writer adduces evidence 
for a translation to Dunkeld. The rational statement is this : 
The grave of St. Columba is in Hy, where his remains were 
suffered to lie till a century had passed. Meanwhile his dust 
had mingled with the earth, and dust with dust continues there 
to this day : but where that grave is, there is no satisfactory 
evidence to show ; and tradition, which claims for the island 
the custody of the body, fails, as might be expected, to point 
out the spot where it lies. It was the custom in the eighth 
century, particularly in the Irish Church, to disinter and en 
shrine the tangible remains of the founders of religious houses. 
There are explicit records of the very years when such pro 
cesses took place; and that St. Columba s remains were 
dealt with in like manner, is a priori to be expected, and in 

1 See Hickes, Thes. ii. 117. for the original of this passage. 



INTKODUCTION. 

fact proved. The shrine in which these bones were deposited 
subsequently became the title-deed of the Columbian com 
munity, and was from time to time taken over to Ireland as 
the warrant for levying religious contributions. But it soon 
became exposed to fresh danger : for the costliness of the shrine 
which veneration for the founder s memory had suggested, 
excited the cupidity of the roving Northmen ; and Ireland 
became the permanent asylum of these reliques, until it in 
turn suffered from the same scourge, and even its midland 
remoteness proved no security against the restless Danes. It 
is possible that, during these constant removals of the shrine, 
portions of the reliques may have been taken out, and under 
the compulsion of power, or the inducements of patronage, have 
been shared with other churches; thus probably Kenneth 
Mac Alpin came by his share ; and thus, too, the Irish Screens 
by their name. But the gold and silver, which affection 
had lavished on the original shrine, contributed to defeat its 
own object in the end, and subjected the shrine to the fate 
from which its fellow, the Great Gospel of Kells, had so nar 
row an escape the shell abstracted, and the substance cast 
away. 

It is further to be observed, that the veneration for St. 
Columba s remains was not confined to Ireland and Scotland : 
the cathedral of Durham also claimed to be the depository of at 
least a portion of his relics. This appears from a catalogue of 
the relics at Durham, written in the fourteenth century, in 
which we find the entry : " De ossibus et reliquiis Sancti Colum- 
kelli abbatis." 1 A representation of the Saint was painted also 
on the screen- work of the altar of St. Jerome and St. Benedict, 
in the same church, with the inscription, " Sanctus Columba 
monachus et abbas." 2 

In connexion with the history of Columkill s remains, the 
antiquary may desire to have a catalogue of those articles 
which tradition invested with the repute of having been es- 

1 Hist. Dun. Script. Tres., p. ccccxxix., Surt. Soc. 

2 Des. An. Mon. Ch. of Durham, p. 115, Surt. Soc. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXV 

teemed or used by the Saint. Adamnan makes mention of a 
Hymnal, which was preserved in Ireland (n. 8, p. 43); and of a 
White Pebble, which was used as a charm among the Picts 
(n. 34, p. 59) ; also of Books written by him, and the White 
Tunic he wore at the time of his death, which were preserved 
in Hy (n. 45, p. 74). Some of these were afterwards lost, but 
later writings have furnished us with the names of others which 
do more than supply their place. Thus, among the alleged com 
positions of St. Columba contained in the Laud MS., is a poem 
in the form of a dialogue between him and Baithene Mor, 
son of Guana, on the subject of his chief reliques, to wit, the 
Great Cross, the Cathach, and his Cowl. Besides these, there 
were others of lesser note, which will presently be noticed. 

1. THE GREAT CROSS. The following is the account of it in 
the Preface to St. Columba s hymn, Altus Prosator: 

" At a time that Columcille was in Hy, without any attendant, 
but Baithene only, it was revealed to him that guests had arrived, 
namely, seven of Gregory s people, who had come to him from 
Eome with gifts, to wit, the Great Gem of Columcille (which is a 
cross at the present day), and the Hymns of the Week, that is [a 
book with] Hymns for each night of the week, and other gifts." 
(Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 473). 

The date of Gregory the Great s accession is Sept. 3, 590, within 
seven years of which this alleged occurrence may be supposed 
to have taken place. In O Donnell the circumstances of the 
gift are told more in detail, and he ends the account by saying 
that the reliquary was preserved, at the time when he wrote 
(1532), in the island of Tory : " Estque illud celebre monumen- 
tum quod in Torachia occidua Hiberniae insula in memoriam 
Columbse asservatum Crux magna vulgo appellatur" (ib. p. 412). 
This altar cross is not now known to exist, but from the descrip 
tion it would seem that it was cased in metal, and adorned with 
crystal bosses, like the cross of Cong preserved in the Museum 
of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

2. THE CATHACH. This name, which is interpreted Prceliator, 
is derived from cath, " battle," for the reason given by O Don 
nell in the passage cited at p. xlii, supra. It is questionable 



IxXXVi INTRODUCTION. 

whether the writing of the manuscript be as old as St. Columba s 
age, though its claim to be considered in the handwriting of 
St. Columba derives some weight from the great veneration in 
which it was formerly held, notwithstanding the total absence 
of decoration. It is a curious particular in its contents, that 
the reading of Psal. xxxiii. 11, differs from that which is cited 
by Adamnan as the subject of St. Columba s last act of pen 
manship. Of the silver case, which is now its most attractive 
feature, it is unnecessary to offer any description here, as a de 
tailed account, with drawings sufficiently accurate to give a 
fair idea of its structure, can easily be consulted. 1 The inscrip 
tion, however, which runs along three sides of the margin of 
the under surface, is worthy of being correctly recorded : 

Oroit do CatJibarr ua Domnaill las i ndernad in cumtach \sa\ 

7 do Sittriuc mac meic Aeda do rigne 7 do Dom [nail] mac Eola 

rtaig do comarla Cenansa las i ndernad. 

Which may be interpreted : 

ORATIO PRO CATHBARRO UA DOMNAILL PER QUEM FACTUM EST TO 

COOPERIMENTUM HOC, ET PRO SITRICO FILIO FILII AIDI QUI FECIT, 

ET PRO DOMNALLO MAC ROBARTAIGH PRO COMARBANO KENLISLE 

PER QUEM FACTUM EST. 

Cathbarr O Donnell, son of Gillachrist [ob. 1038], son of 
Gathbarr, son of Domhnall Mor, the progenitor of the O Donnells, 
was chief of the Cinel Luighdech, and died in 1 106. Domhnall 
Mac Eobhartaigh, successor of Columba at Kells, died, accord 
ing to the Four Masters, in 1098. His name occurs also in 
the charters which are entered in the blank pages of the Book 
of Kells. 2 Sitric was son of Mac JEdha, who was surnamed 
Cerd, that is, " Artificer," in the Charters of Kells, where men 
tion is made of Fland mac Mic Aedha also. The family of 
Mac Aedha seem to have been the hereditary mechanics of 
Kells. It is interesting to observe the relation here recorded 
as subsisting, through the Columbian system, between remote 
parts of Ireland: O Donnell being lord of a territory in the 

1 Betham s Ant. Res., i. p. 109. 2 Misc. Ir. Ar. Soc., pp. 130, 140. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxvii 

extreme north of the island, yet associated with the abbot of a 
midland monastery; and that abbot the member of a family 
which also was seated in the remote north, supplying herenachs 
to two churches in St. Columba s region of Tirconnell, and 
occasionally appearing in the administration of St. Columba s 
church of Derry. In 1497 the Cathach was employed for mili 
tary purposes, but failed of procuring victory for its possessors. 
Con O Donnell led an army into Moylurg in Connaught, to 
attack Mac Dermott, but was defeated at the battle of Bealach- 
buidhe. Mac Kobhartaigh, the keeper [maor] of the Cathach 
of Columcille, was slain, and the Cathach taken from the 
Tirconallians. Two years after, it was restored. (Four Mas 
ters.) In the early part of the sixteenth century it was still 
the great reliquary of Tirconnell ; and in the following century 
it continued to be in the custody of the family of Mac Eobhar- 
taigh, the official keepers under the Lord of Tirconnell. When 
it reappears in the next century, it is found in the posses 
sion of the head of the O Donnell family, who recorded 
his guardianship in an inscription on the silver frame which he 
made for its preservation: IACOBO 3. M. B. REGE EXULANTE, 

DANIEL DONEL IN XTIANISSO IMP PRCEFECTUS REI BELLICCE 
HUSUSCE HCERADITARII SANCTI COLUMBANI PIGNORIS VULGO CAAH 
DICTI TEGMEN AEGENTEUM VETUSTATE CONSUMPTUM RESTAURAUIT 

ANNO SALUTIS 1723. This most remarkable reliquary, com 
bining so many exciting associations, is the property of Sir 
Eichard Annesley O Donnell, Bart., a descendant of the Cath- 
barr Ua Domhnaill, whose name is engraved upon the case, 
between whom and the present possessor four-and-twenty 
generations of this illustrious house have passed by. The Caah 
is at present in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 
through the liberal indulgence of its distinguished owner. 

3. THE CocEALL.Cochall is the Irish form of cuculla, a 
word which occurs in the text at p. 168, where there is evi 
dence to show that, even so early as Adamnan s time, the 
garment expressed by it was supposed to have been endowed 



Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

with supernatural virtue. The old Irish Life, treating of St. 
Columba s reception at Kells, by Aedh Slaine, proceeds to say : 

" He consecrated, therefore, a cowl for him ; and he said that 
he could not he wounded while he had it on him. Aedh Slane, 
however, committed fratricide, contrary to Columcille s admonition, 
on Suibhne, son of Colman. At the end of four years he went on 
an expedition. He forgot his cowl. He was slain that day." 

The legend in the Book of Lecan, cited at p. 39 (Orig. Ed.), 
represents Aedh, son of Ainmire, as the recipient of the favour. 
O Donnell copies both statements, and exhibits the two Aedhs 
as provided respectively with charmed vestments. 

4. THE CUILEBADH. The Annals of Ulster, at 1034, record 
that 

" Macnia Ua hllchtain, lecturer of Kells, was lost on his voyage 
from Scotland ; and Columcille s Culebadh, and three of Patrick s 
reliques, and thirty men with him." 

The old English version, suppressing the first syllable of the 
word in question, and reading lebar for the rest, translates it 
" booke ;" while the Eour Masters omit the preceding conjunc 
tion, and, dismembering the word, read cu lebhadh, cum lecto, 
thus referring us to the "nuda petra" of p. 213. This liberty 
they took with the original, not knowing, it would seem, what 
culebadh meant. They found the word again in the following 
passage of the Annals of Ulster, which relates an outrage 
committed by Tighernan O Euairc in 1128, but they have 
omitted the whole passage : 

" The successor of Patrick was openly outraged in his presence ; 
for his retinue were plundered, and some of them were killed ; and 
a clerical student of his own people, who bore a culebadh, was 
slain there." 

Thus it appears that the word was a general term. We are 
brought a step further towards the meaning of it by a passage 
in the Preface to the Amhra Coluim-cille : 

" And the way that Columcille came was, with a cere-cloth 
over his eyes, and his culpait over that, and the hood of his cowl 
over that ; so that he should neither behold the men nor women 
of Erin." 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxix 

O Donnell gives the legend, with the addition that means 
were taken to prevent Columba from setting foot on Ireland, 
but he omits the desired word : 

" There was a sod of the earth of Alba under his feet : 
There was a cere- cloth over his eyes : 
There was his woollen- cap drawn over that : 
There was his hood, and his cowl, over these outside." 

The Annals of Tighernach, at 1090, have the following 
curious entry : 

" The reliquaries of Columcille, viz., the Bell of the Kings, and 
the Cuillebaigh, came from Tirconnel, with 120 ounces of silver, 
and Aongus O Domnallain was the one who brought them from 
the north [to Kells]." 

There remains another notice of this monastic habit, in an 
extravagant tale called, " The Sea-wanderings of Snedgus and 
Mac Eigail, two of Columcille s priests :" 

" And the bird gave a leaf of the leaves of that tree to the 
clerics, and it was as large as the hide of a great ox ; and told the 
clerics to take it with them, and place it on the altar of Columcille. 
And that is the Cuilefaidh of Columcille at this day. And it is at 
Kells that it is." 

In the foregoing extracts the word is variously written cule- 
ladh, cuilebadh, culpait, and culefaidh ; and in a curious diagram 
which occurs in a tract on Ogham-writing in the Book of 
Ballymote, we find the word cuilibad in conjunction with the 
names Colum cilli and Ceallach. Cormac s Glossary, cited by 
O Eeilly, explains culpait quasi cail fuit or fuaclit, " a defence 
from cold." Still there is good reason for supposing that, as 
cochall is the Irish form of cuculla, so culebadh is of cololium, 
and that it represents the tunica of p. 188. 

5. DELG AIDECHTA. The legend of St. Columba s visit to 
Eome, mentioned in the Notes on B. in. c. 9, has the following 
passage : 

" Columcille tarried with Gregory, and brought Gregory s brooch 
away with him, and it is the Testamentary Brooch of the Coarb 
of Columcille to this day. And he left his style with Gregory." 



XC INTRODUCTION. 

This delg probably belonged to that class of ornament of 
which so many and such beautiful specimens have been found 
in Ireland. 

6. MOR BACHALL. The pastoral staff, which St. Columba 
confided to Scanlann, prince of Ossory, on the occasion of his 
liberation after the convention of Drumceatt. 

" Pedum suum ei tradit, tanquam in lubrico verum baculum, et 
in omni adversitate prsesidium; in Domino fideliter promittens 
ipsum illius munimine, earn virtutem Christo conferente, per ob- 
jecta pericula salvum et incolumem evasurum, et monens ut ipsum 
demum baculum S. Laisreno discipulo suo, Monasterii Darmagensis 
tune rectori, retradat." (Vit. iii. 13, Colg. Tr. Th., p. 433 b.) 

From the last line we learn that this reliquary was preserved 
in Durrow. 

7. CAMBO KENTIGERNI. Jocelin gives an account of a visit 
which St. Columba paid to his celebrated contemporary, St. 
Kentigern of Glasgow, and, having related a miracle performed 
by the latter, proceeds to say : 

" In illo loco ubi istud miraculum per Sanctum Kentegernum 
factum, in conspectu Sancti Columbse, et aliorum multorum, inno- 
tuit; alter alterius baculum, in pignus quoddam et testimonium 
mutuse dilectionis, in Christo suscepit. Baculus vero quern Sanctus 
Columba dederat Sancto pontifici Kentegerno, in ecclesia Sancti 
Wilfridi episcopi et confessoris apud Bipum, multo tempore conser- 
vabatur ; et propter utriusque sanctitatem, dantis videlicet et reci- 
pientis, magnae reverentise habebatur." (Vit. Kent., c. 40.) 

We further learn from Fordun (Bowar) that, at the com 
mencement of the fifteenth century, this reliquary was still to 
be seen at Eipon : 

" Ac nunc cambo, quern beatus Kentigernus a beato Columba 
receperat, in ecclesia Sancti Wilfridi de Bipoun, aureis crustulis 
inclusus, ac margaritarum diversitate circumstellatus, cum magna 
reverentia adhuc servatur." (Scotichron., iii. 30.) 

8. GOSPEL OF MARTIN, Concerning this reliquary the old 
Irish Life briefly says : 

" He went at another time from Deny to Tours of Martin, and 
brought away the Gospel that lay on Martin s breast in the ground 
for a hundred years, and he left it in Derry." 



INTRODUCTION. XC1 

In the twelfth century it was the chief reliquary of the 
church of Derry, and we find recorded in the Annals of Ulster, 
at 1166, the violation of a contract which had been solemnized 
in presence of the Coarb of Patrick with the Bachall Jesu, and 
of the Coarb of Columcille with the Gospel of Martin. But it 
was lost soon after; for, in 1182, "Donnell, son of Hugh 
O Loughlin, marched with an army to Dunbo, in Dal-Eiada, 
and there gave battle to the English. The Kinel-Owen were 
defeated ; and Eandal O Breslen, Gilchreest O Kane, and many 
others, were killed. On this occasion the English carried off 
with them the Gospel of St. Martin." The legend concerning 
the invention of this manuscript is borrowed by Donnell 
from the Acts of St. Eugenius of Ardstraw and St. Mochonna, 
or Machar, the patron saint of Aberdeen. It relates that the 
people of Tours had lost the clue to the exact spot where St. 
Martin s remains were buried, and that on the occasion of St. 
Columba s visiting their city they applied to him to point out 
the place where the body of their patron saint lay, which he con 
sented to do on condition that he should receive for his portion 
everything found in the grave, except the bones of Martin. 

" Conditione facile admissa, vir Sanctus locum, in quo sacrum 
corpus jacebat, indigitat, in eoque mox defosso simul cum deside- 
ratis exuviis cum Missarum reperiretur liber; factse sponsionis 
Turonenses prope pcenituit, detrectantes inventum Missale Columbae 
poscenti consignare, nisi ille priori beneficio alteram adhuc adderet 
gratiam, et Turonensi Ecclesiae administrandae aliquem e suis sociis 
virum sanctum et idoneum prseficiendo relinqueret. Quod ipsum 
posteaquam vir Sanctus annuerat, et Sanctum illis Mochonnam 
velut jam antea a summo Pontifice pro Turonensi sede destinatum, 
prsesentarat, assecutus est desideratum B. Martini librum." 1 

Now, though it is very unlikely that St. Columba ever 
travelled beyond the British islands, the above legend is inter 
esting as an indication of the early connexion which existed 
between Ireland and the church of Tours. St. Martin is repre 
sented as St. Patrick s grand-uncle, and as a principal agent in 
his mission to Ireland. In the next age his body is reported 

1 Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 436 a. 



XC11 INTRODUCTION. 

to have been discovered by the great monastic patron of Ire 
land, and his ritual transferred from Tours to Derry. And in 
later times the holy wells of Derry, called Tobar Martain, Tobar 
Adhamhnain, and Tobar Coluim, preserved the local association 
of his name with those of the fathers of the Columbian order. 

Another account of the origin of this ancient manuscript (for 
that such a book, whether Martin s or Patrick s, was preserved 
in the diocese of Derry, is unquestionable) is, that it had be 
longed to St. Patrick, who, as the Tripartite Life says, when 
" morti vicinus, librum Evangeliorum, quo ipse dum viveret, 
utebatur, illi velut Euangelii observantissimo cultori, testa- 
mento legaverit, ex suo etiam in Ardmachia successori manda- 
verit certain quotannis pensionem pro eodem seponere. Prse- 
fatus vero Euangeliorum codex ad Columbse manus devenit, 
sive illi fuerat per S. Brigidam Virginem, penes quam depositus 
scribitur, consignatus ; sive, quod aliqua habent exemplaria, 
Angelico illi ministerio allatus ex D. Patricii tumulo, in quo 
jubente Patricio, ne in aliquas iniquas manus incideret, conditus 
existimatur." 1 To the discovery of the manuscript in St. 
Patrick s grave, the following entry in the Annals of Ulster, 
copied from a chronicle called the Book of Guana, refers : 

"The relics of Patrick were enshrined sixty years after his 
death by Columcille. Three precious reliquaries were found in 
the tomb, sc. the Cup, the Angel s Gospel, and the Bell of the 
Will. The angel directed Columcille to divide the three reliquaries 
thus: the Cup to Down, the Bell of the Will to Armagh, the Gospel 
of the Angel to Columcille himself. And it is called the Gospel 
of the Angel, because Columcille received it at the Angel s hand." 

O Donnell has transferred this anecdote into his narrative, 
which Colgan has imperfectly translated. That the Gospel of 
St. Martin and the Gospel of the Angel were supposed to be 
identical, appears from a poem in the Laud MS. (p. 81) begin 
ning Taiscfidter mo shoiscela, " My gospel shall be preserved," in 
which St. Patrick is represented as describing the future great 
ness and holiness of St. Columba; where the gloss remarks 
that the Gospel of St. Martin is alluded to. 

1 Colgan, Tr. Th. , p. 390 b. 



INTRODUCTION. xciii 

9. BOOK OF DURROW. Thus noticed by Archbishop Ussher : 

" In Regio comitatu ea est, Durrogh vulgo appellata : quae 
monasterium habuit S. Columbse nomine insigne ; inter cujus 
KeifjLij\ui evangeliorum codex vetustissimus asservabatur, quern 
ipsius Columbse fuisse monachi dictitabant : ex quo, et non minoris 
antiquitatis altero, eidem Columbse assignato, quern in urbe Kelles 
sive Kenlis dicta Midenses sacrum habent, diligenti cum editione 
vulgata Latina collatione facta, in nostros usus variantium lectionum 
binos libellos concinnavimus." 1 

Henry Jones, Bishop of Meath, subsequently became possessed 
of it, and presented it to Trinity College, Dublin, of which 
institution he was Vice-Chancellor. The silver-mounted case 
in which this book was preserved has been lost ; but its absence 
is the less to be deplored, as a record of the inscription which 
it bore is entered, in the handwriting of the famous Koderic 
OTlaherty, on the fly-leaf of the manuscript : 

" Inscriptio Hibernicis literis incisa cruci argentese in operimento 
hujus Libri in transversa crucis parte, nomen artificis indicat ; et 
in longitudine tribus lineis a sinistra et totidem dextra, ut se- 
quitur : 

>|< OROIT ACUS BENDACHT CHOLUIMB CHILLE DO FHLAND MACC 
MAILSECHNAILL DO RIGH ERENN LAS A NDERNAD A CUM- 
DACH SO. 

" Hoc est Latine : 

^ ORATIO ET BENEDICTIO S. COLUMB^ CILLE SIT FLANNIO FILIO 
MALACHLE REGI HIBERNLE QUI HANG (OPERIMENTl) STRUC- 
TURAM FIERI FECIT. 

" Flannius hie Rex Hibernise decessit 8 Kal. Maii et die Sabbati 
ut in MS. Cod. Hib. quod Chronicon Scotorum dicitur anno serse 
Christianas vulgaris 916. Hanc inscriptionem interpretatus est Ro. 
Flaherty 19 Jun. 1677." 

Thus it appears that the book was venerable in age, and a 
reliquary in 916. 

The remarkable colophon, which is cited at p. 242 (Orig. 
Ed.), appears on the last page of the capitula of St. John s 
Gospel, which originally closed the volume, but which has 
improperly been made the twelfth folio by the hands of a 

1 Brit. EC. Ant., c. 15. 



XC1V LNTEODUCT10N. 

modern binder. Dr. Charles O Conor has given an excellent 
facsimile of a page of this remarkable manuscript : but he has 
fallen into the strange error of confounding the Book of Kells 
with it, and of mixing up Lhuyd s notices of the two. 1 

10. BOOK OF KELLS. This wonderful manuscript was pre 
served at Kells, in the county of Meath, at the time that Arch 
bishop Ussher wrote his Antiquities of the British Churches, 
as appears from his words cited in the preceding article. It 
had existed there for many centuries, and was traditionally 
called the Book of Columcille. The costly shrine with which 
it was enclosed nearly proved its destruction in the beginning 
of the eleventh century, as we learn from the Annals of Ulster, 
as also the Four Masters at 1006, where it is related that "the 
Great Gospel of Columcille was stolen at night from the western 
sacristy of the great church of Cenannus. This was the prin 
cipal relic of the western world, on account of its remarkable 
cover. And it was found after two months and twenty days, 
its gold having been stolen off, and a sod over it." Fortunately 
the manuscript itself sustained little injury (it received more 
from the plough of a modern bookbinder), and in the course of 
the following century its blank pages were considered a fit 
depository for copies of certain charters of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries, connected with the endowments of Kells. 
Archbishop Ussher became possessed of this manuscript, and 
after his death it was in great danger of being lost : but it 
escaped, and on the Eestoration it came, with what remained 
of the Archbishop s library, "ex dono Caroli n." into the 
custody of Trinity College, Dublin, where it remains, the 
admiration and astonishment of every one who examines it. 

11. THE MISACH. A manuscript, but of what is unknown; 
for, conversely to the fate of the Books of Kells and Durrow, 
the case remains, but its contents are gone. The custody of 
this reliquary was hereditary in the family of O Morison, who 

1 Her. Hib. SS., vol. i., Ep. N. p. 180, and Prol. p. 185. 



INTRODUCTION. XCV 

were the herenachs of Clonmany, a parish in Inishowen, and it 
continued in their possession till the abolition of the old church 
tenures reduced them to a state of penury, and they were 
induced to part with it. The case is of wood, overlaid with 
wrought silver, and is ornamented with ecclesiastical figures 
resembling those on the case of the Cathach, as may be seen 
in the published drawing. 1 An inscription in two lines appears 
on the upper side in these words : 

Brian mac Briain i Muirgiussa d 
o cumdaig me A. D. MCCCCCXXXIIII. 
" Brian, son of Brian O Muirguissan, covered me, 
Anno Domini 1534." 

The keeper of the reliquary in 1609 was Donogh O Morison, 
who was a juror at an inquisition sped that year at Lifford, 
where it was found that a quarter named Donally was " free to 
Donnogh O Morreesen, the abbots corbe and the busshop 
Derrie s herenagh of those three quarters : that the other three 
quarters of the said six quarters church land were given by the 
ODogherties and ODonnells to Collumkill, as a dedication 
towards his vestiments when he went to warre, which said 
three quarters, beinge free, were given to the auncestors of the 
said Donogh O Morreeson, whoe in those daies were servaunts 
to Collumkills : and in the said parishe are sixe gortes of glebe, 
whereof three gortes belonge to the viccar, and thother fower 
gortes to the keeper of the missagh or ornaments left by 
Columkill." By this it appears that the word misach, being 
interpreted "ornaments," was supposed to be the plural of 
maise, "an ornament," and not derived, as the form of the 
word would indicate, from mis, " a month." This interesting 
reliquary having often changed hands, and having been carried 
away to England, finally became the property of the present 
Earl of Dunraven, who generously presented it to the College 
of St. Columba near Dublin, where it is now preserved. The 
following extract from an ancient tale, called The Death of 

1 Betham, Ant. Res., i. 213. 



XCV1 INTRODUCTION. 

Muircertach mac Erca, contains the earliest allusion to this 
reliquary : 

" Cairnech blessed them, and left them gifts, i.e. to the Clanns 
Conaill and Eoghain. That when they should not be chiefs, or 
kings of Erin, their influence should extend over every province 
around them ; and that the coarbship of Ailech, and Tara, and 
Ulster, should be with them ; and that they should not accept hire 
from any one, because the sovereignty of Erin was their own in 
herent right ; and that their hostages should not be locked up, 
and that decay should come upon the hostages who should abscond ; 
and that they should have victory in battle, if fought in a 
just cause, and that they should have three standards, viz., the 
Cathach, and the Bell of Patrick, i.e. the Bell of the testament, and 
Cairnech 1 s Miosach ; and that the virtue of all these should be on 
any one reliquary of them in time of battle, as Cairnech bequeathed 
them ; ut dixit" etc. 

12. DUBH DUAIBSEACH. A bell, which St. Columba is fabled 
to have employed in his conflict with the demons of Sengleann. 1 
It was probably preserved in the parish of Glencolumkille, in 
Donegal. 

13. GLASSAN. A bell, which formerly belonged to Drum- 
columbkille in Sligo, and was reputed to hava been given by the 
Saint to his disciple Finbarr, the first minister of that church. 2 

14. DUBH DIGLACH. A bell of St. Columba s, mentioned in 
an old poem of the Laud manuscript (p. 28). 

1 5. CLOCK KUADH. The "Bed Stone," about which O Donnell 
records the strange legend : " Simul etiam cum partu enixa est 
mater [Columbse] quasi lapillum quendam rubrum, vulgo Clock 
Euadh dictum, teretemque mali aurei magnitudine, qui in eodem 
prsedio religiose asservatur." 3 The Donegal Inquisition of 1609 
finds that two gorts in Gartan were held by " O Nahan, who 
carrieth Collumkillie s read stoane." In the Laud MS. (p. 95) 
there is a poem ascribed to St. Columba on the virtues of the 
Eed Stone, wherewith he banished the demons from Sengleann. 
O Donnell calls the latter a "blue stone, and speaks of it as pre 
served in Glencolumkille. 4 

1 6. MOELBLATHA. The legend in the Preface to the hymn 

1 Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 403 b. 2 Ib. p. 406 b. 3 Ib. p. 393 a. 4 Ib. p. 403 b. 



INTRODUCTION. XCV11 

Altus Prosator (Leabhar Breac, fol. 109 a), speaking of the mill 
at Hy, says : 

" Then Columkille himself lifted up the sack from the stone which 
is in the refectory at Hy, and the name of that stone is Moelblatha ; 
and he left prosperity on all food which should be placed upon it." 

This may, in after times, have been one of the Black Stones of Hy 
which Martin makes mention of as objects of religious awe. 

17. BRECBANNOCH. Between the years 1204 and 1211, King 
William the Lion granted to the monks of Arbroath " custodiam 
de Brachbennoche," and " cum predicta Brechbennoche terram 
de Forglint datam Deo et sancto Columbe et le Brachbennache," 
on the tenure " faciendo inde servicium quod michi in exercitu 
debetur de terra ilia cum predicta Brachbennache." This 
grant is recited in the charter of Arbroath, passed by the same 
king in 1211-1214; and substantially repeated in a confirma 
tion by King Alexander II. in 1214-1218. In 1314 the con 
vent grants to Malcolm of Monimusk " totam terram nostram 
de Forglen que pertinet ad Bracbennach cum omnibus pertin- 
enciis suis una cum jure patronatus ecclesie ejusdem terre. 
. . . Dictus vero Malcolmus et heredes sui facient in exer 
citu domini Eegis nomine nostro servicium pro dicta terra quod 
pertinet ad Bracbennach quociens opus fuerit." 1 From the 
Monimusks the lands of Forglen, with the custody of the 
Bracbennach, passed by inheritance to the Urrys and the 
Frasers, in the latter of which families they were found in 1388. 
In 1411 they were surrendered to the convent, and about 1420 
they were conferred on Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum. In 
~1$47 they had passed to his grandson, who held them of the 
abbot and convent by service of ward and relief, and " ferendi 
vexillum de Brekbennach in exercitu Eegis," and the payment 
of the annual rent of 40 shillings. In 1481 Alexander Irvine 
did homage for these lands and purtenances to the abbot, who 
" dixit et constituit ut tenentes regalitatis dicti monasterii de 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, pp. 10, 5, 73, 296 ; Collections of Aberdeen, 
pp. 511-514, 515-516, 517. 



XCVlll INTRODUCTION. 

Aberbrothoc ubicumque existentes cum dicto Alexandra ad 
exercitum domini nostri Eegis sub le Brecbennoch videlicet sub 
vexillo dictorum abbatis et conventus meabunt et equitabunt 
cum requisiti fuerint per dictum dominum abbatem et conven- 
tum dicti monasterii et suos successores pro defensione Eegis 
et regni." In 1483 Alexander Irvine had a charter of the lands 
of Forglen, with the advowson of the church " faciendo in ex- 
ercitu domini nostri Eegis servicium de le Brekbannach debitum 
et consuetum." And lastly, in 1494 it was found that Alex 
ander Irvine was the lawful heir of Alexander Irvine of Drum, 
his father, in the lands of Forglen, with the advowson of the 
church, held as above. From these notices we learn that this 
reliquary was a banner, and held so sacred in the beginning of 
the thirteenth century that it was named in the dedication 
clause of the earliest charter. Also, that it was coupled with 
St. Columba s name, not because the abbey of Arbroath was 
under his invocation, for it was under that of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury ; nor because he was patron saint of the parish, for 
St. Adamnan was reputed to be so ; but, as we may conceive, 
because this banner was in some way connected with St. 
Columba s history, either by use or blessing. Possibly it was 
like the Vexillum Sancti CuMerti, so fatal to the Scots at 
Neville s Cross. 

" Ther did appeare to Johne Fossour, the Prior of the Abbey 
at Durham, a vision commanding him to take the holie Corporax 
Cloth, which was within the corporax, wherewith Saint Cuthbert 
did cover the chalice, when he used to say masse, and to put the 
same holie relique, like unto a Banner, upon a speare point." l 

The name Brecbannach seems to be formed from breac 
beannaighthe, " maculosum benedictum," and denoted some 
thing like the bratacha breac-mergeada, pallia maculatorum 
vexillorum, which were carried in the battle of Magh 
Eath. The Brecbannach probably served a double purpose, 
being, like the Banner of Cuthbert, " shewed and carried in 
the abbey on festivall and principall daies," and also "pre- 

1 Des. Anc. Mon. of Durham (Surt. Sue.), p. 20. 



INTKODUCT10N. XC1X 

sented and carried to any battle, as occasion should serve." 
Whence King William obtained the reliquary is not stated. 
Probably it had been kept in the parish of Forglen by the 
hereditary tenants of the .church lands. Between 1172 and 
1180 the king granted to the Canons of Holyrood the rights, 
tithes, and obventions of four churches in Cantyre, which had 
previously been enjoyed by the abbey of Hy ; and his grant of 
this reliquary, with its appurtenances, to Arbroath, may have 
been a transfer of a like nature. 

18. CATH-BHUAIDH. That is, Battle-victory. This was the 
name of a crosier, the existence and veneration of which we 
learn from the following passage, belonging to the year 918, 
which is extracted from an anonymous collection of Irish 
Annals preserved in the Burgundian Library at Brussels (7. c. 
n. 17, p. 66): 

" About the same time the Fortrenns and Lochlanns fought a 
battle. Bravely indeed the men of Alba fought this battle, for 
Columkille was aiding them ; for they had prayed to him most 
fervently, because he was their apostle, and it was through him 
that they received the faith, One time, when Imhar Coming was 
a young man, he came to Alba, with three great battalions, to 
plunder it. The men of Alba, both lay and clerics, fasted, and 
prayed till morning to God and Columcille ; they made earnest 
entreaty to the Lord ; they gave great alms of food and raiment to 
the churches and the poor, received the body of the Lord at the 
hands of their priests, and promised to do all kinds of good works, 
as their clergy would order them, and that their standard in going 
forth to any battle should be the crosier of Columkille. Where 
fore it is called the Cath-bhuaidh from that day to this. And this 
is a befitting name for it ; for they have often gained victory in 
battle by it, as they did at that time, when they placed their hope 
in Columbkille. They did the same on this occasion. The battle 
was bravely fought at once. The Albanians gained victory and 
triumph, killed many of the Lochlanns after their defeat ; and their 
king was slain on the occasion, namely, Ottir, son of larngna. It was 
long after until either the Danes or Lochlanns attacked them ; but 
they were at peace and harmony with them." 



INTRODUCTION. 



VII. 

THE St. Columba s history belongs to the period of the Irish Church 
OF HT when the Secundus Ordo of saints prevailed, and his name, with 
those of the Brendans, Comgall, and Cainnech, whom Adanman 
records with honour as his special friends, appears in the cata 
logues of its worthies. This order may be regarded as the 
development of a native ministry, whose system possessed more 
nationality than that of their predecessors, and took a deeper 
impress from the customs and condition of the country. Its 
characteristics were : " Pauci episcopi, et multi presbyteri ; 
diversas missas celebrabant, et diversas regulas ; unum Pascha 
xiv. Luna; unam tonsuram ab aure ad aurem; abnegabant 
mulierum administrationem, separantes eas a monasteriis." The 
diversity of liturgical practice probably arose from the mixed 
character of the Primus Ordo, which was composed of Eomans, 
Francs, Britons, and Egyptians ; and their conventual discipline 
varied in intensity with the tempers or ascetic habits of the 
framers. They agreed, however, in their preference of the pres- 
byterate ; their observance of the old-fashioned Easter ; the 
anterior Eastern tonsure ; and seclusion from female society. 
It is a remarkable fact that many of the monastic churches, 
which grew in after times to be bishops sees, were founded by 
presbyters : Clonard, by Finnian ; Clonmacnois, by Ciaran ; 
Clonfert, by Brendan ; Aghabo, by Cainnech ; Glendaloch, by 
Kevin ; Lismore, by Carthach ; and Derry, Kaphoe, and Hy, by 
Columba. The great promoters of the conventual system 
sought no higher order than such as would enable them, con 
sistently with the vows of humility, to administer the sacra 
ments, and conduct the ordinary devotions of their fraternities. 
The abbatial office gave them all the jurisdiction of the episco 
pate, without its responsibilities ; and little more was left to 
the bishop than the essence of his office, the transmission of 
holy orders, with the personal reverence which was due to the 
holder of so important a commission. Another element in the 
Irish monastic system was its social connexions. Every great 



INTRODUCTION. Cl 

monastery was a centre of family relation, and served as a 
school or asylum for all who were of patron s or founder s kin. 
This particular was most strikingly exemplified in the case of 
Hy, as may be seen in the genealogical table of the early 
abbots annexed to this Introduction, which shows that the abbacy 
was, with one or two exceptions, strictly limited to a branch of 
the Tir-Conallian family. It shows, also, that there was no lineal 
succession in Hy, as there was in many other Irish monasteries, 
where secular interests so far prevailed as to make the abbacy 
hereditary, and ultimately to frustrate the founder s intention 
by the extinction of conventual observance, and the virtual 
transference of the endowments to lay possession, as in Bangor, 
or by the repetition of irregularities such as St. Bernard com 
plains of in the case of Armagh. 1 

These sixth-century monasteries were as rapid in their 
growth as they were numerous in their creation. St. Finnian s 
of Clonard is said to have numbered 3000 members, St. Corn- 
gall s of Bangor the same amount, and St. Brendan s parochia 
3000 more. The ramifications of these houses spread exactly 
in the same manner as St. Columba s, and, for a time, were fully 
equal in extent to his; but they wanted the severalty of position 
which the Columbian centre enjoyed ; they had no Pictish race 
to convert ; and, above all, they had no Adamnan to perpetuate 
the honours of their founders. 

Whether St. Columba or any of his contemporaries composed 
and promulgated a systematic rule like St. Benedict s is very 
doubtful. Eeyner expressed his opinion in the negative ; and 
though Fleming and O Conor have condemned him for the 
assertion, they have failed in proving the affirmative of the 
question. Wilfrid, indeed, spoke at the synod of Whitby of 
regula acprcecepta of Columba, 2 and in the Lives of some of the 
Irish saints the term regula occurs, but generally in the sense 
of " discipline " or " observance ; " while the mention of written 
rules is rare and legendary. There certainly existed, in the 
middle ages, not only a great diversity in monastic practice, 

1 Vit. S. Malachiae, caps. 5 and 7. 2 Berle, Hist. EC., iii. 25. 



Cll INTRODUCTION. 

but also an understanding that the fathers of the Irish Church 
had established and denned a variety of orders. An ancient 
Life of Ciaran of Clonmacnois limits them to eight, and enume 
rates them under the names of " S. Patricii, Brandani, Kierani 
Cluanensis, Columbae Hiensis, cujus ordo dicebatur Pulchrce 
Societatis, Comgalli, Adamnani, Brigidse, Molassi seu Lisriani;" 1 
but the recital is evidently arbitrary, for St. Adamnan, instead 
of being the author of a new rule, was unable to induce the 
society of which he was ninth abbot to accept the reformed 
Paschal canon. Possibly, the biographer supposed, as did 
Ussher in a later age, and others after him, that the Lex of 
Adamnan, Patrick, Ciaran, Brendan, etc., mentioned in the 
Irish Annals, denoted formulas of monastic government. Ussher 
further states that the rules of Columbakilli, Comgall, Mochutta, 
and Albe were extant in the manuscript from which he pub 
lished his catalogue of the saints, but " Hibernico sermone 
antiquissimo exaratse et nostris temporibus pene ignorabili." 2 
It was probably from this or a similar collection that the Irish 
Rules, preserved in the Brussels MS., were transcribed. Through 
the exertions of the Eev. Dr. Todd, copies of them have been 
obtained in this country, and by his kind permission the present 
writer was enabled, in 1850, to print the Eule of St. Columba 
in the Appendix to Colton s Visitation of Deny (p. 109). It 
differs from the others in being written in prose. They are all 
very ancient compositions, but totally insufficient to convey any 
definite idea of the peculiarities of the orders to which they 
profess respectively to belong. Colgan, who lived before the 
dispersion of Irish records, and had the best opportunity of 
discovering such literary monuments, was not aware of the 
existence of any other Eule of St. Columba but the one just 
mentioned, and it is evident that he attached but little import 
ance to it, as he has omitted to print it among St. Columba s 
supposed compositions, and contents himself with stating that 
he had sent a Latin translation of it to a contemporary writer. 
The Eule of St. Columbanus and the Pcenitentials of him and 

1 Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 471 b. a Usslier, Brit. EC. Ant, c. 17. 



INTRODUCTION. ciii 

Cummian, are the only remains of Irish monastic discipline 
which have descended to us, and these have probably been 
modified by the peculiar institutions of the countries where they 
were observed ; and when they are compared with the Bene 
dictine Rule, in all its beauty of piety, eloquence, and method, 
it is to be wondered how a lesser light could shine beside it, 
and even the one meagre Irish Rule have been transmitted to 
us. When saying that Columbanus s is the only Irish Rule 
which has descended to us, it may be well to mention that 
Lucas Holstenius has printed two Rules one intituled Cu- 
jusdam Patris Regula ad Monachos, consisting of thirty-two 
chapters ; and the other, Cujusdam Patris Eegula ad Virgines, 
of twenty-four chapters which Calmet has attributed to St. 
Comgall, but Holstenius s editor to St. Columba. This, how 
ever, is mere conjecture, which is not supported even by the 
style or matter of the compositions. In the same collection 
there is an Ordo Monasticus, purporting to be an ancient rule of 
discipline, " ab antiquis monachis Scotis sub exordio susceptse 
Christianas religionis observatus," and which Holstenius s editor 
considers the most ancient monument of all the monks of the 
West, and worthy of ranking next to the institutions of Cassian, 
and the rule of Pachomius. But a document which opens, as 
it does, with an account of the Culdees of Culros, and derives 
the term Keledeus from cella, however venerable it may appear 
to a German, must savour to a Scot of mediaeval antiquity, 
especially when it is found, almost totidem vcrbis, in Ricemarch s 
Life of David, as the discipline of the Menevian saint. 
> It is not necessary to reprint in this Introduction the only 
existing ftegula Choluim-chille, because it is a formula intended 
more for a hermit than a member of a social community, and 
the book in which it is printed can readily be consulted. The 
following scheme, which is entirely new in its construction, is 
derived principally from Adamnan, to whose narrative re 
ference is made by the number of the page in the present 
edition. Bede and other authorities afford some particulars of 
information which are acknowledged in their place. 



CIV INTRODUCTION. 

1. CONSTITUTION OF THE COMMUNITY. 

Conventual life was considered a special militia Christi 
(133, 159), and they who adopted it were looked upon as Christi 
milites (116, 215 passim), in reference to their Leader, and com- 
militaries (139, 171, 173, 196) as regarded one another. Each 
one professed his readiness Deo exhibere hostiam (133), by with 
drawing from the cares of the world, and a willingness to enter 
it only as an athleta Christi (Vit. Munnae) in the propagation of 
the Gospel (Bede, iii. 3). The society, termed ccenobialis coetus 
(111), or collegium monachorum (Bede, iii. 5), consisted essentially 
of an Abbot and Family. 

The Abbot, called abbas (113), or pater (106, 213), or sanctus 
pater (1 1 5), or sanctus senior (1 1 5, 137), and, in the founder s case, 
patronus (1 07, 1 1 5, 1 9 1, 2 1 1, 2 14, 2 1 6), had his seat at the matrix 
ecclesia (1 1 9), which was situate in Hy, the insula primaria (1 1 1) 
of his society ; but his jurisdiction equally extended over the 
affiliated churches, which either he in person (116, 143, 147, 
182), or his disciples (132, 135, 173) founded in Ireland 
(xlix-lx) or in Scotland (Ix-lxxi), which he occasionally 
visited (116, 147), and regulated (127, 187), and ministered in 
(205), and whose respective Superiors, prcepositi (131, 132, 140, 
163), received their charge from him (131, 143), and were 
subject to his orders, even when ministering in churches of 
their own foundation (132, 136). In ecclesiastical rank he was 
a presbyter, and officiated at the altar (142, 201, 205, 211), 
and pronounced absolution (131), but was not a bishop ; hence 
he was emphatically styled abbas et presbyter. But this observ 
ance, which had its origin in choice, and its continuance in 
precedent, by no means implied a usurpation or disregard of 
the episcopal office; for there were at all times bishops con 
nected with the society, resident at Hy or some dependent 
church, who were subject to the abbot s jurisdiction that is, 
who rendered him conventual obedience, agreeably to their 
monastic vow ; whose acts were performed on the responsi 
bility of the abbot, or in the name of the community ; and who 



INTRODUCTION. CV 

were assigned their stations, or called in to ordain, very much 
as the bishops of the Unitas Fratrum in the present day, being 
regarded as essential to the propagation of the Church rather 
than its maintenance; and who, therefore, had as little authority 
in the internal economy of the society as the bishop had in the 
Irish monastery of Bobio, or the diocesan in the universities 
of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin. Still the essential function 
of the episcopal office was scrupulously maintained : when a 
presbyter^was to be ordained, the bishop was called in ; when 
a distant province was to be brought within the Christian pale, 
a bishop was consecrated for the creation of a local ministry, 
and successors to him ordained and sent forth from time to 
time ; and when an accredited candidate came even from 
Ireland to Hy, he in like manner was invested with the highest 
ecclesiastical orders. Nor was this an observance of mere form, 
while the office was held in low esteem ; on the other hand, the 
great founder set the example of veneration for the episcopate 
(152), and, as the ninth presbyter-abbot relates (142), in the 
service of his own mother-church and from the altar, disclaimed 
all pretensions to equality with one of episcopal rank. This 
was no more than was to be expected from a presbyter who had 
served as a deacon (152, 169) in a monastery where presbyters, 
called from their chief function ministri altaris (152), lived 
under the presidency of a bishop (152, 196) ; one who received 
the hospitality of another bishop (147); one who instituted a 
feast in memory of a bishop who was carus amicus (202) ; and 
whose own institution was frequented by bishops from Ireland 
(119, 142) for communion and edification. The abbot was wont 
on extraordinary occasions to summon the brethren to the 
oratory (120, 187), even in the dead of night (127), and there 
address them from the altar (120, 127, 187, 202), and solicit their 
prayers. Occasionally he instituted a festival, published a holi 
day, and enjoined the celebration of the Eucharist (201, 202) ; 
as occasion offered, he dispensed with a fast (129, 130), or relaxed 
penitential discipline (127), or regulated its intensity (180). He 

ff 



CV1 INTRODUCTION. 

gave licence of departure (119), which he signified by his bene 
diction (116, 125, 126, 133, 143,155). He was saluted by pro 
stration (115). He forbade, at pleasure, admission to the island 
(128). When he thought fit, he despatched a chosen brother 
on a distant mission (125, 132, 154, 156, 179), or for monastic 
purposes (139, 153). He had the control of the temporalities 
(140, 153, 180). When at home he was attended (129, 131, 135, 
203, 208, 209), except when he signified his wish to be alone 
(204, 206, 208). When abroad, he was accompanied by a party 
(131, 134, 164, 170, 173, 174, 177, 191, 203) who were styled mri 
sociales (164) ; and he preached (173) or baptized (134, 159, 173, 
203) as occasion offered. The founder inaugurated the first 
independent king of Scotch Dalriada in Hy (197), and the 
ceremony was probably continued as an honorary function of 
the abbot (213). The founder also named his own successor 
(1 1 5, 2 1 3), who had been his alumnus (1 1 5, 206), and a prcepositus 
(126), whose qualifications were that he was sanctus, sapiens, 
affabilis, peregrinis appetibilis (115), and experienced non 
solum docendo sed etiam scribendo (213). The third abbot had 
been &prcepositus (131). In the election, preference was given 
to founder s kin ; and hence it happened that of the eleven 
immediate successors of the founder there is but one (Suibhne, 
sixth abbot) whose pedigree is uncertain, and but one (Conna- 
mail, tenth abbot) whose descent was confessedly from another 
house. The surrender of the old Easter and Tonsure, in 7 1 6, 
broke down family prescription, and henceforward the abbacy 
became an open appointment. The Table annexed to this 
Introduction, which has been constructed from the genealogies 
in the Book of Lecan and in Colgan, will show to the reader at 
a glance the connexion which existed between the early abbots, 
and their relation to the royal family ; and while it proves that 
abbacy was not transmitted in lineal succession, it will demon 
strate the existence of clanship even in a religious community. 
The Family, vernacularly called muintir, and in Latin familia 
(An. Ult. 640, 690, 716, 748), consisted offratres (112, 155, 208) 
or commemibrcs (187), whom the founder styled mei familiare-s 



INTRODUCTION. evil 

-monaehi (211, 212, 216), or mei electi monacki (183), and 
endearingly addressed as filioli (171, 207, 213, 216). They 
were at first twelve in number (Ixxi, 196), and natives of 
Ireland ; but their society soon increased, and included Britons 
(198) and Saxons (201, 209). The brethren, of tried devoted- 
ness, were called senior es (188, 200) ; those who were strong for 
labour, operarii fratres (210) ; and those who were under 
instruction, junior es (116), alumni (208), or pueri familiares 
(117). Besides the congregation, or collectio (200), of professed 
members, there were generally present peregrini (133, 143, 198), 
who were sometimes called proselyti (129, 132, 133, 142); or 
pcenitentes(\W, 131, 180); or hospites (118, 123, 124), whose 
sojourn was of varied length (133, 180, 198). 

2. DISCIPLINE. 

The principle of Obedience is embodied in the precept of 
Columbanus, "Ad primum verbum senioris omnes ad obedi- 
endum audientes surgere oportet, quia obedientia Deo exhibetur, 
dicente Domino nostro Jesu Christo : Qui vos audit me audit ;" 
and the measure of obedience is defined to be usque ad mortem^ 
It is reasonable to suppose that this essential of monastic order 
was strictly observed in the Columbian system. Hence the 
readiness of the brethren to prepare on the shortest notice for a 
long and wearisome journey (132), or a distant and hazardous 
voyage (125, 154, 156, 179), or to do the service of the monastery 
(153), or to submit to exposure in out-door work, at the local 
Superior s desire, during the most inclement weather (131), or to 
undertake an office of responsibility, though by a nephew s 
order (143). Hence the acquiescence in an injunction to intermit 
a custom (204), and the severe rebuke which attended a viola 
tion of his command (204, 205, 210). The obedientia sine mora 
of the Benedictine Eule was evidenced in Hy by the alacrity 
with which the abbot s orders were executed (145, 156, 162), and 
the speed with which a distant brother forsook the church of 
his sojourn, and hastened, at the abbot s call, to Hy, there to 

1 Regula, cap. i. 



CV111 INTRODUCTION. 

abide in vera obedientia (132). Obedience, however, had its 
limit to things lawful ; for Adamnan, when abbot, was unable 
to effect a change in the observance of Easter. 

The members had all things common. Personal property 
was disclaimed, according to the injunction in Columba s here- 
mitical Eule : Imnochta do gres do sechem ar Christ ocus ar na 
soscela, " Be always naked in imitation of Christ, and [in obe 
dience to] the precepts of the Gospel." 1 Similar to this was the 
maxim of Columbanus, " Nuditas et facultatum contemptus 
prima perfectio est monachorum," after the precept, "si quis 
vult post me venire, abneget semetipsum." 2 

Though St. Columba was desirous to promote conjugal happi 
ness (184, 185), and he was held in veneration by the other 
sex (156, 181, 184), there can be no doubt that celibacy was 
strictly enjoined on his community, and the condition, " virgo 
corpore et virgo mente," 3 held up for imitation. Hence we find 
a monk discharging an office usually assigned to women (162), 
and hence the total absence of anything like hereditary succes 
sion in the abbacy of Hy. A learned and ingenious writer in 
a modern journal has proved to a demonstration, from the native 
Annalists, that a lineal succession of abbots existed in many of 
the Irish monasteries during the ninth and following centuries, 
but he has failed to include the coarbs of Columba in the class; 
and a comparison of his premises with the Genealogical Table 
annexed to this Introduction will show that he has mistaken 
names for persons. Marriage, no doubt, existed among the 
secular clergy, but the practice seems to have been disapproved 
of by the regulars ; and thus we may qualify the story told of 
St. Comgall s preceptor, " Quadani nocte cum Clericus ille cum 
muliere dormisset ; " and Adamnan s narrative of the clericus of 
Magh Breg, "dives et honoratus in plebe," who died "cum 
meretrice in eodem lectulo Cubans" (138). 

In their intercourse with one another, the monks of this order 
appear to have been virtually regulated by the precept of Colum- 

1 Eeeves s Colt. Visit., p. 109. 2 Reg., c. 4. 3 77>. c. 6. 



INTRODUCTION. cix 

banus, "Cura cautela et ratione loquendum est." Of such reserve 
the anecdote told of the monks and Baithene (136, 137) affords 
an example. Between the abbot and the brethren there seems to 
have been no restraint (186, 200) ; and as regards the society at 
large, the objects of their system were too practical, and their 
engagements too much characterized by common sense, to im 
pose any restraint in conversation but such as conduced to the 
purity or decorum of the members. 

Another monastic principle was Humility, which was exem 
plified both in demeanour towards superiors and in dejection 
after sin. A visitor on bended knees bowed down before the 
founder (198) and his successor (115); and even before a sub 
ordinate senior the brethren made known their wishes upon 
their knees (137). The penitent fell on his knees weeping (132). 
St. Benedict s injunction was " Omnibus venientibus sive dis- 
cedentibus hospitibus, inclinato capite vel prostrate omni corpore 
in terra, Christus in eis adoretur qui et suscipitur." 1 To the 
same principle may be attributed the custom which was common 
to St. Benedict and St. Comgall, and which probably extended 
to St. Columba, as a received observance of the time, " Si quis 
frater pro quavis minima causa, ab abbate vel a quocunque 
priore suo corripiatur, sine rnora tandiu prostratus in terra ante 
pedes ejus jaceat satisfaciens usque dum benedictione sanetur 
ilia commotio." 2 St. ComgalTs Life says, "Mos erat in monas- 
terio sancti patris Comgalli, ut si quis alium increparet, quamvis 
Hie esset culpabilis aut inculpabilis, statim qui increpabatur 
genua humiliter flecteret." 3 The strict observance of this regula 
tion is exemplified by legends showing the extraordinary lengths 
to which compliance with the letter of the precept was carried. 

Hospitality, so leading a feature in ancient monasticism, was 
developed in Hy in the fulness of national generosity : hence, 
a large portion of Adamnan s anecdotes have reference to the 
entertainment of strangers; and the story of the heron (145) 
serves as a lively illustration of the kind reception which was 

1 Reg., cap. 53. Reg., cap. 71. 3 Cap. 23 (Flem. Coll., p. 307 6). 



CX INTRODUCTION. 

always in store for the visitor. "When a stranger arrived, he 
was sometimes introduced at once to the abbot, by whom he 
was kissed (129, 133); sometimes the interview was deferred 
(115, 180). When an expected guest arrived, the abbot and 
brethren went to meet and welcome him (118,132,143). He was 
conducted to the oratory (117, 177, 186), and thanks returned for 
his safety. From this he was led to a lodging, hospitium (133), 
and water prepared to wash his feet (118). If the visitor happened 
to arrive on an ordinary fast- day of the week, the fast was re 
laxed in his favour (130), consolatio cibi (127) was allowed, and he 
was said jejunationem solver e (130). Almsgiving was held in high 
esteem (166), and the founder, on several occasions, befriended 
the poor (164, 178). An instance is recorded where valuable 
presents, under the name of xenia, were sent to a man in 
need (140). Itinerant beggars, who went about with wallets 
(165), were not held in such esteem. The monastery was 
resorted to for medical relief also (130). Grievous transgressors 
were excluded (128). 

As regarded Divine Worship, the days of the year were either 
ordinary or solennes (152, 202). On the former it is likely that 
the customary cursus or synaxis was performed at the canonical 
hours; for, although Adamnan is silent on the subject, the 
Life of St. Cainnech mentions a case in which None was 
observed in Hy, and it is not likely that the Columbian usage 
would have differed from the general monastic practice of the 
age. The brethren who were employed on the farm were not 
required to attend during the day (136), and fatigue after their 
labour would probably demand unbroken sleep at night. The 
congregation was summoned to the oratory signno personate 
(187, 202), that is, by the sound of the bell (120, 214), both on 
stated and extraordinary occasions. Being assembled, they 
proceeded to the oratory, sometimes in attendance on the abbot 
(202), sometimes with less regularity (120, 214). At night they 
carried lanterns with them (214). 

The dies solennes were the dies Dominicce and Sanctorum 
natales (190, 201), which were solemnized in the same 



INTRODUCTION. Cxi 

manner, by rest from labour, the celebration of the Eucharist, 
and the use of better food (155). The festival commenced 
after the sunset of the preceding day (190, 201, 211), and 
its stated services were the Vespertinalis missa (15G, 195, 213), 
Matutini (214), Prime (201), Tierce, Sext (190), and probably 
None (145, 160, 179). The chief service, missarum solemnia 
(139, 201, 206), was sometimes at Prime (201), or at Sext (190) : 
on such an occasion the cantores (202) chanted the wonted 
office, in the course of which there was a commemoration by 
name of certain saints (202). In the sacra Eucharistice minis- 
teria (201), also called sacra mysteria (202, 206),s#mg ollationis 
mysteria (139), or obsequia (201, 202), wine (152), and water, 
which was drawn by the deacon and set down in an nrceus 
(152), and bread (142), were provided : the priest (139) standing 
before the altar (206) proceeded to consecrate, sacra Eucharistice 
consecrare mysteria (205), sacram oblationem consecrare (206), 
sacra Eucharistice mysteria conficere (139), Christi corpus conftcere 
(142). When several priests were present, one was selected 
for the office (139, 205), who might invite a presbyter ut simul 
Dominicum panemf ranger ent in token of equality (142). When 
a bishop officiated at the altar, he brake the bread alone, in 
token of his superior office (142). The brethren then approached 
the altar, and partook of the Eucharist (180, 181). 

On extraordinary occasions the abbot summoned the brethren 
by the sound of the bell to the oratory (120, 187, 202), even in 
the dead of night (127), on which occasions he addressed them 
as they stood in their places (187), and having asked, their 
prayers ($.), he kneeled down himself at the altar ($.), and 
sometimes prayed with tears (ib.) Sometimes the abbot 
(161, 184, 207), or a brother (207, 208), rose from his bed even 
in a winter night (205, 207), and proceeded alone to the oratory 
for private devotion (ib.\ and if the door was closed, prayed 
outside (208). Occasionally the founder retired in the day 
time to a thicket to pray (170), and even in Hy,it was his prac 
tice to retire in winter nights to lonely places for prayer 
(199, 205). In all these cases the secular abode was avoided ; 



CXil INTRODUCTION. 

but in cases of sickness the abbot was wont to pray beside the 
patient s bed, in a standing (172, 173, 198) or kneeling (173) 
posture. 

The chief Festival was the Paschalis solemnitas (180, 210), 
on which occasion the Eucharist was celebrated (181), and the 
season was specially regarded as Icetitice festimtas (211). The 
period which elapsed between Easter-day and Whitsunday was 
called Paschahs dies (158), and it was the term of the greatest 
indulgence during the year. Eor a considerable time after the 
rectification of the Paschal rule in the Church of Eome, the 
Columbian society tenaciously adhered to the observance of 
their founder, whereby there was sometimes as much as a 
month s interval between their Easter and that of other 
churches; and it was not until A.D. 716 that they acquiesced 
in the general practice. The Natalitium Domini (158) was 
another sacred festival, for which some made preparation during 
the forty days immediately preceding. 

In the exercise of Fasting, the founder is said (108) to have 
shown continual diligence. Every Wednesday (129) and Friday 
throughout the year, except in the interval between Easter and 
Whitsunday, was a fast-day, and no food was taken till the 
nona, unless where the prior claims of hospitality demanded 
an exception to the rule (130). Lent was strictly kept as a 
preparation for Easter (181), and during this season the fast 
was prolonged every day except Sunday till evening, when a 
light meal, consisting of such food as bread, diluted milk, and 
eggs, was taken. 

The sacrament of Baptism was administered to adult con 
verts, after due instruction in the faith; sometimes by the 
tibbot on his missionary travels, to a whole family (173, 203), 
sometimes to an individual, a little before death (134, 203). 

Holy Orders were conferred by a bishop only. Young men 
were admitted to the Diaconate while students (169), and part 
of their duty was to wait upon the ministers of the altar (152). 
Priests Orders were conferred by the bishop (135), but the 
previous imposition of the abbot s right hand was required as 



INTRODUCTION. cx iii 

the bishop s warrant for his interference (135). The consecra 
tion of the bishops Aidan, Finan, Colman, Cellach, and Colum- 
bauus at Hy manifestly proves the presence of a bishop in the 
island. If they were canonically consecrated, there must have 
been at least three bishops there at one time. When Finan 
afterwards consecrated Cedd, he called two other bishops to 
his assistance j 1 and when Cedda was consecrated by Vim, two 
British bishops took part in the ceremony. 2 If, however, the 
services of one were judged sufficient, the usage would not 
have been without precedent. St. Serf is said to have been 
consecrated by Palladius singly; St. Kentigern was consecrated 
by an individual bishop, who was invited from Ireland for the 
purpose ; and even St. Columba himself is said in legend to 
have been sent to Bishop Etchen in order to receive from him 
episcopal orders, instead of which, through mistake, the order 
of priest only was conferred upon him. Lanfranc complained 
of single episcopal ordination as a practice existing in Ireland 
in 1074 ; and Anselm, in 1100, repeated the charge. 

Persons retiring from the world, to live as associates or 
probationers in the monastery, were said sumere clericatus 
Ifiahitum (135, 180), or, as the natives expressed it, gabhail cleir- 
ceachta, and this course was often taken as a voluntary pen 
ance (135), ad delenda, peccamina (180). Whenever any one 
desired admission to the order, the application was submitted 
to the abbot, with whom it was discretionary to receive into 
communion immediately (133), or extend the probation over as 
long a period as seven years (183). At the appointed time, 
the candidate was conducted to the oratory, where on his 
knees, he repeated, after the abbot, the monachicum votum (133, 
183), the solemn asseveration being per nomen excelsi Dei (142). 

After the commission of an offence, the penitent was required 
cwam omnibus peccantiam suam confiteri (132, 139), generally 
on his knees (132, 147), and thus, promising amendment, pceni- 
tentiam agere (147). In such case the abbot either absolved 

1 Bede, Hist. EC., iii. 22. 2 Ib. iii. 28. 



cxiv INTRODUCTION. 

him on the spot (132), or enjoined a more lengthened discipline, 
juxta judicationem (128), which was termed the leges pcenitentice 
(128, 180), and sometimes extended to an abode of seven years 
at a prescribed station (180), sometimes even to twelve, occa 
sionally accompanied by self-mortification, and perpetual exile 
from father-land (128). The penitent who fulfilled the injunc 
tion salutem exercuit animce suce (182). 

The Tonsure of the Secundus Ordo, in which the founder 
was reckoned, was db aure ad aurem, that is, the anterior half 
of the head was made bare, but the occiput was untouched. 
This usage existed in St. Patrick s time, who may have found 
it in the country ; it was adopted by St. Columba, and con 
tinued in his Order until 718, when the coronal tonsure was 
received by the society of Hy. This occurred two years after 
the Paschal change ; for, though Bede refers the joint reforma 
tion to 716, the practical adoption of a new style of tonsure 
would require a longer preparation than a mere ritual ob 
servance. The Greek tonsure was total, and was styled St. 
Paul s, and the Eoman, which was coronal, was styled St. Peter s, 
but the Irish fashion, in order to its being brought into dis 
repute, was opprobriously ascribed to Simon Magus ; and when 
Ceolfrid cast this up to Adamnan, the latter, instead of repu 
diating the name, is represented as acquiescing in the reproach, 
for his apology was etsi Simonis tonmram ex consuetudine patria 
habeam. 1 Another scandal circulated against it was of its 
introduction ^into Ireland by the swine-herd of Laeghaire, the 
Pagan king, who resisted Patrick. In the St. Gall copy of 
Adamnan there is a representation of St. Columba, but it gives 
him the coronal tonsure, a mistake into which a continental 
manuscript of the ninth century might fall. 

The sign of the cross was very generally employed as a 
siynum salutare (162) ; hence it was customary, before milking, 
to cross the pail (163) ; before tools were used, to cross them 
(172). The sign of the cross was considered effectual to banish 



1 Bede, Hiat. EC., v. 21. 



INTRODUCTION. CXV 

demons (163), to restrain a river-monster (171), to prostrate 
a wild beast (170), to unlock a door (176), to endow a pebble 
with healing virtues (1 74). Hence the readiness to erect the 
substantial vexillum crucis on the site of any remarkable occur 
rence (143, 212) ; a tendency which got full credit for its 
development, when Hy was celebrated for her 360 crosses. 
Even at sea, the cruciform relation of the masts and yards was 
regarded as conducive to a favourable voyage (190). In the 
founder s lifetime there was also an extensive employment of 
charms, which were produced by his blessing on such objects 
as panis (154, 157), pinea capsella, numeri (156), sal (157), 
aqua (154, 157), cuculla (168), pugio (172), sudes (178), albus 
lapillus (175), and this virtue survived him on earth, as in 
the laudum carmina (113), tunica (188), libri (155, 158, 188). 
Such belief, however, was peculiar neither to the founder nor 
his nation : it was professed in equal variety and firmness by 
the venerable father of Saxon history. 

The Burial of the Dead was a religious office, which involved 
a regard to the future as well as the present. The lively faith 
in the Eesurrection (215) rendered it a consideration of impor 
tance to be buried among the honoured members of the society 
(183), and as the day of dissolution was regarded as the natalis 
(190, 201), so the object in the choice of a burial-place was 
ubi resurgere (Ixxix, 183). The body of the deceased was laid 
out in the cell (216), wrapped in linen clothes (ib), where it 
remained during the exequice (ib), which lasted for three days 
and nights (ib.), in the course of which the praises of God were 
sung (ib) The body was then borne to the grave in solemn 
procession, and buried with due reverence (ib.) 

The stated employment of the community, besides their 
religious services, were Eeading, Writing, and Labour, accord 
ing to the example of the founder, who allowed no time to 
pass quo non aut orationi, aut lectioni, vel scriptioni, vel etiam 
alicui operationi incumberet (108). 

The primary subject of study was lectio sacrce Scriptures (152), 
as well with the abbot (184), as the junior members of the 



CXVl INTRODUCTION. 

society (169, 208); and, in particular, the committing to 
memory the Book of Psalms. Besides the Holy Scriptures, 
there was the study scripturarum tarn liberalium quam ecclesias- 
ticarum, the former including the Latin and Greek languages, 
the latter ecclesiastical writings. Adamnan s two remaining 
Latin works give proof of his classical attainments, and Cum- 
mian s Paschal Epistle is a remarkable specimen of the 
ecclesiastical learning of the day. To the English students who 
frequented Ireland in the seventh century, the natives supplied 
libros ad legendum, and Hy was not likely to fall short in its 
literary provision. Eor collective reading, they were probably 
furnished with the lives of saints Adamnan quotes Sulpicius 
Severus s Life of St. Martin (3), and Constantino s Life of St. 
Germanus (149) which were collected in a mixtum ; and it is 
very likely that for this kind of reading the Life of the founder, 
as written by Adamnan, was reduced to the form in which it is 
found in the shorter recension, where the titles of the chapters 
and most proper names are omitted as calculated to interrupt 
or encumber the tenor of the narrative. St. Benedict prescribed 
the reading, after supper, of collationes vel vitas Patrum, aut 
certe aliquid quod cedificet audientes (cap. 42). 

Writing formed a most important part of the monastic 
occupations; the founder was much devoted to it (172, 203, 
213), and many of his books were preserved (158, 188). His 
successor also practised it (128, 213). Besides the supply of 
service books for the numerous churches that sprung into 
existence, and which, probably, were written without embel 
lishment, great labour was bestowed upon the ornamentation 
of some manuscripts, especially the sacred writings ; and the 
Books of Kells and Durrow are wonderful monuments of the 
conception, the skill, and the patience of the Columbian 
scribes in the seventh century. Giraldus Cambrensis s glow 
ing description of the Gospels of Kildare 1 is hardly strong 
enough to express the excellencies of the Book of Kells. Of 

1 Top. Hib., Dist. ii. c. 38. 



INTRODUCTION. CXvii 

their ordinary Latin hand in the eighth century, Cod. A. of 
Adamnan is a fine specimen. This manuscript contains also some 
examples of the Greek hand, which was then in vogue among the 
Irish. It was a common practice with them to write Latin 
matter in Greek letters (144, 191), as is remarkably illustrated 
in the Book of Armagh. The style of the letter is peculiar to 
the Irish school, and the family likeness can be traced in 
manuscripts which are now found in situations very remote 
from one another. It is very probable that a chronicle of 
events, especially obits, was kept in the monastery (135), and 
that from it the Irish Annals derived a few particulars which 
they have recorded concerning Hy. 

The stated Labour was agriculture, in its various branches, 
as aratio (153, 188), seminatio (188), messio (136), trituratio 
(130), portatio (137): there were, moreover, the diver sa monasteri 
opera (201), such as mulsio (162), opus pistorium (201), fabri- 
catio (131, 153, 204), legatio (123), on sea (125, 153, 155) and 
land (123, 132, 183). Besides, we may presume that there was 
the preparing of food, and the manufacture of the various 
articles required for personal or domestic use. 

The individual wants of the members were the subject of 
discipline as well as their conduct, and the three great require 
ments of the body, Refectio, Habitus, and Requies, were supplied 
according to conventual measure, prescribed and practised by 
the founder, and afterwards established by usage. 

The ordinary refection (127) was very simple, consisting of 
bread (154, 155), sometimes made of barley (153); milk (162, 
179, 212); fish (164, 215); eggs (Bede iii. 2); and, probably, 
seal s flesh (139). On Sundays and Festivals (202), and on the 
arrival of guests (127), there was an improvement of diet, con- 
solatio cibi (127, 131), refectionis indulgentia (127), which con 
sisted in an addition to the principal meal, prandioli adjectio 
\ (201) ; on which occasions it is probable that flesh-meat was served 
up, as mutton (140), or even beef (1 72). The number of meals 
in the day, and their hours, can only be conjectured. Colum- 
banus s Eule, which is little more than a record of the Bangor 



CXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

observance, seems to recognise but the evening meal; and 
Ratramm of Corby 1 states that it was the general practice of 
the Scotic monasteries to delay refection till nona, or evening, 
except on Sundays and Holydays. St. Cainnech s prandium 
(161) was not taken till post nonam (161) ; but this may have 
been at a special season, such as Lent, or a fast-day. At this 
chief meal the xenia (147), or contributions of the faithful 
(147), were partaken of (160). It is -likely, however, that St. 
Columba s discipline was milder than that of St. Comgall, and 
that it resembled St. Benedict s, which allowed dinner at 
twelve, and supper at evening, every day between Easter and 
Pentecost ; and after Pentecost, on every day except Wednes 
days and Fridays, when the first meal was taken at nona; 
from the middle of September till the beginning of Lent, the 
first meal continually after nona ; and, during Lent only, the 
first meal was delayed till the last light of day (cap. 41). 

The ordinary Garments were two: the cuculla (168), of 
coarse texture, made of wool, and of the natural colour of the 
material ; and the tunica (1 70), an under-garment, which was 
occasionally white (188). Instead of the former, when the 
weather required, was worn a warmer garment called amphi- 
lahis (117, 157). The cuculla, sometimes called casula and 
capa, consisted of the body and the hood, the latter of which 
was sometimes specially termed the casula. When working or 
travelling, they wore calcei (160, 201), which were ficones* 
or sandals, and which it was customary to remove before sitting 
down to meat (1 60). The femoralia and pedules of the Benedic 
tine Rule (cap. 55) do not appear to have been used by the Irish. 

In severe weather, or after hard labour, the Superior allowed 
the labourers otiari (131). The monks slept on lectuli (1 72, 1 99), 
which were distributed through the several cells. Each bed 
was provided with a pallet, sir amen (213), probably of straw, and 
a pulvillus (1 1 2, 2 1 3). What the coverlets were is not recorded, 
but few probably were required, as the monks slept in their 
ordinary clothes. 

1 Ussher, Brit. Eccl. Ant,, c. 16. - See Note on B. ir. cap. 12. 



INTRODUCTION. Cxix 

3. ECONOMY. 

The Monastery proper was the space enclosed by the Vallum, 
and embraced the Ecclesia^Refectorium, Coquina, and Hospitia, 
lining the Platea ; the Armarium, and probably the Officina 
fdbri ; together with the furniture and utensils belonging to the 
several departments of the institution. Its extent was not great 
(213), and it seems to have been incapable of receiving many 
strangers (167, 1 80) ; yet a visitor might be in the monastery for 
several days without having been seen by the abbot (105, 180). 

The most important building was the sacra domus (207), 
indifferently called ecclesia Qtodoratorium (184,187). It was 
provided with an altarium (142, 181, 187), remote from the 
door (214); and on it the customary vessels, namely, the 
discus and calix. On extraordinary occasions reliquaries were 
placed upon the altar (189). Attached to the building on one 
side, and communicating with it by a door, was a oubiculwn 
(207), or separatum conclave, called exedra or exedriola (207), 
which probably served as a sacristy (188, 189), and opened 
externally as well as internally. Here may have been kept 
the clocca (120, 214), by which the congregation were summoned 
to the sacred offices. 

The Eefectory of Aghabo, with its meiisula (160), is men 
tioned by Adamnan ; and, no doubt, there was a similar pro 
vision in Hy. The preface to the Altus expressly names it by 
the term proinntig (xcvii), an Irish compound, signifying and 
derived from prandii tectum. Here were probably kept the 
collus (125), hauritorium (ib.), biberce (174), and such f err amenta, 
as pugiones (172), and cultelli (Eeg. Ben. 55). 

Adjoining the refectory we might expect to find the Kitchen, 
called in Irish coitchenn, or cuicin. Here were the utensils for 
cooking, such as the craticula (127), sartago, cacabus, and hydria 
(129), the ddbJiach, or water-pot, of the Irish. In very cold 
weather the focus (129) seems to have been resorted to for heat 
during the hours of study. 

Tli ere was most likely a Chamber for the preservation of the 



CXX INTRODUCTION. 

books, and other literary apparatus, as the tabula (135), or 
waxed tablets ; the graphia 1 or styles ; the calami (172), or pens : 
the cornicula atramenti (129), or ink-horns. The books, at least 
those which were intended for carriage, were suspended in 
pelliceis sacculis (157) from the walls. 2 Among these were the 
sacra volumina (206, 212) of utraque canon, or Old and New 
Testaments, possibly in the form of a UUiofheca or Bible; 
ecclesiastical writings ; and profane authors. 

Within the enclosure was a plateola (198), or faitJiche, 
surrounding or beside which were the Lodgings, hospitia, of 
the community. They appear to have been detached huts, 
originally formed of wattles (153), or of wood (189). External 
authorities call them botha, cello?, cellulce. Adamnan makes 
frequent mention of the abbot s domus (206, 208), or hospitium 
(216), or hospitiolum (208, 213), which he styles a tugurium 
(2 13), or tuguriolum (129, 135, 162, 203), at some distance from 
the others (208), built with joists (129), and situate on an 
eminence (209). Here the founder sat and wrote (162, 172, 
203), or read (183), having one attendant (129, 142, 172), who 
occasionally read to him (135); or by two, who stood at the 
door, awaiting his orders (203, 209). Here was his lectulus 
(213). The door was provided with a lock and key (206, 208). 
When a stranger arrived, a hospitium (118, 180) was prepared 
for him. When a member died, he was laid out, and waked in 
his lodging (216). 

There was a Smithy, probably inside the enclosure ; and in 
an institution where timber was so generally used, there must 
have been a carpenter s workshop. We may conclude that there 
was such an appointment near the beach also, for large beams 
of timber, in their rough state, were sometimes floated from the 
shores of the mainland to the island, and fashioned there into 
boats (189). 

All these buildings were embraced by a rampart and fosse, 
called the vallum (172), which, in other Irish monasteries, was 

1 See Note on B. in. c. 9. 2 See Note on B. IT. c. 8. 



INTRODUCTION. CXXl 

of a circular figure, and was intended more for the restraint 
than the security of the inmates. It is doubtful whether the 
cemetery was within the vallum; probably it was, and, if so, 
the position of the Eeilig Odhrain would help to determine the 
site of the monastery, and to assign it to the space now partially 
occupied by the Cathedral and its several appendages. 

Outside the vallum were the various offices and appointments 
subsidiary to the monastery ; as the Bocetum, with its cows ; 
the Horreum, with its grain ; the Canaba, with its appurtenances ; 
the Molendinum, with its pond and mill-stream ; the Proedium, 
with its horse and cart ; and the Portus, with its craft of various 
sizes. These appendages occupied different situations, accord 
ing to local convenience. 

The pasture-ground, with its bocetum or byre (212), called by 
the Irish luailidli or looley, was situate on the eastern side of the 
island, at some distance from the monastery ; and for this reason 
the lactaria vascula (162, 212) were usually conveyed on a horse s 
back (212). The milk-pail had an operculum (162), which was 
secured by a gergenna (ib.), passing through Una foramina in 
the sides (ib.) The Barn, called sdbJiall in the Irish Life, was an 
out-office of considerable importance (211). Here the grain, 
when sequestratus (211) or winnowed, was stored in heaps (ib.) 
We may presume that it was situate near the kiln and the mill. 

The Kiln was employed both for the trituratio frugum (130), 
and ad spicas siccandas (88 n. } Orig. Ed.) The latter process 
was conducted in a large sieve, rota de virgis contexta (ib.) 
This building stood near the path which led from the monastery 
to the landing-place (143). 

Adainnan does not mention the Mill, but he speaks of the 
baker, and of bread. A stream, which flows eastwards, a little 
to the north of the monastery, is still called Sruth-a-mkuilinn, 
or " Mill-stream." It rises in a bog called the Loclian mor, or 
" Great Lakelet, which may have served as a linn in rnuilind, 
or mill-pond." The stream is small now, because the Lochan 
is nearly drained ; but there are no traces of a weir, and the 

h 



CXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

wheel of the mill was possibly a horizontal one. In the founder s 
time, the bro, or " quern," may have been the mill in use, for 
such was the grinding apparatus at the school where he was 
taught. 

The land on the east side of the island seems to have been 
used as pasture, while the tillage was conducted in the more 
productive plain on the west (1 3 6, 204). To the latter, in harvest- 
time (136), the messores operarii repaired in the morning, and 
returned in the evening, carrying, from the messis (136) to the 
monastery, loads of corn on their backs (137). The caballus or 
equus ministrator (212), called gerran in the Irish Life, grazed 
near the monastery (212). ThQplaustrum (171, 210) had rotce 
or orbitce (188), secured to the axion by dbices (187), or rosetce 
(172^., Orig. Ed.) 

The geographical situation of Hy, fluctivago suspensa solo, de 
manded a constant supply of nautical appointments, and an 
acquaintance with navigation. The names of the little bays on 
the east coast are indicative of frequent resort to the island : 
Port-na-Mairtear, " Martyr s Bay ;" Port-Bonain, " Konan s 
Bay;" Port-an-Diseart, "Hermitage Bay;" Port -na-Fr any, 
" Frenchman s Bay ;" Port-na-muinntir, " People s Bay," tell 
their own history. The chief landing-places, portus insulce (128, 
132, 143, 162, 190), were Port-Eonain and Port-na-Mairtear, on 
the east (132), and Port-a-Churaich, on the south (note on n. 
46). The supply of craft, naves (160, 179, 182, 190), navigia 
(119, 176), seems to have been large and varied, for it some 
times afforded a navalis emigratio (189). There were onerarice 
naves (153), or longce naves (189), or rates (182), some of which 
were of wood (189), some of wicker-work covered with hides 
(186), caUed curucce (189, 275 Orig. Ed.), or scaphce (189); 
and capacious, furnished with masts, antennw, rudentes (182, 
190), vela (126, 190),andpztefo?(189); having carmen, latera, 
puppes, prorce (186), and capable of being served both by 
wind and oar, and formed to hold a crew (160). There were 
small portable boats, naviculce, navicellce, for crossing rivers 



INTRODUCTION. CXxiii 

(134, 171), or for inland lochs (111), or cruising (112), or for 
the transfretatio, or ferrying, of the Sound of Hy (139, 216), 
sometimes called caupalli, cobles (1 70), or cymbce, or cymbulce 
(176). Barcce occasionally arrived from distant countries (131), 
commanded by naucleri (ib.) All the vessels of the society 
were provided with navalia instrumenta, among which were 
utres lactarii (179). They were manned by nautce (118, 160, 
176), nautici (182), navigatores (122,125), oiremiges (126), some 
of whom were monks (182), some apparently not (125). 

The Officers and Servants of the community were at first but 
few : however, as the system became developed, duties became 
defined, and agents in the various departments multiplied. 
Those which are recorded were, the Abbot, Prior, Bishop, Scribe, 
Anchorite, Butler, Baker, Cook, Smith, Attendant, Messengers ; 
to whom was added, in after times, the President of the Culdees. 

The abbot was supreme, and the founder s successor was 
styled comharla Coluim-cille, or Hceres Columlce-cille (Ult. 853). 
When Hy lost its supremacy, and the principal Columbian 
station was in Ireland, the chief of the order was said to be 
comharba Cholaim cille ittir Erinn acus Albain, " Successor of 
Columcille both in Ireland and Scotland" (Ult. 979, 1062), and 
the election lay with " the men of Erin and Alba" (Ult. 988, 
1164, 1203). When infirmity of the abbot, or other exigency, 
demanded, a coadjutor-successor was elected, called the tanaisi 
abbaidh (F. M. 935), who was said thereupon tenere principatum 
(Ult. 706, 721), or cathedram Ice (ib. 712), or cathedram Co- 
lumbce suscipere (ib. 715). When a vacancy occurred, the new 
abbot in primatiam successit (Tig. 724), and the term of his 
office was his principatus (Ult. 800). When local Superior of 
Hy, but not Coarb of Columcille, he is, in one instance, styled 
aircinnech or Erenach of la, in the early Annals (Ult. 977), for 
which the later compilations substitute Abbot of la-choluimcille 
(F. Mast. 976). In one instance we find the expression Coarb 
of la (Ult. 1025). 

As in the associate monasteries there were p>*cepositi (132, 



CXxiv INTRODUCTION. 

135, 163), who were subject to the abbot-in-chief, or archiman 
drite, so in Hy there appears to have been an officer who assisted 
the abbot (136), when he was at home, and took his place in the 
administration when he was absent. He was sometimes called 
Custos monasterii, sometimes (Economus, and his Irish name was 
FertigJiis. The obit of one ceconomus of Hy is recorded in 782, 
whom the Four Masters style yyrioir (A.C. 777). 

A member of the society is occasionally recorded under the title 
of Bishop (Ult. 711). Sometimes the function was associated 
with that of Scribe (F. M. 961, 978) ; sometimes with the condi 
tion of Anchorite (ib. 964); and, in one instance, with the office 
of Abbot (ib. 978). At a much later period we meet with the 
office of Sagart mor, " Great Priest" (Ult. 1164), which might, 
from the generic application of sacerdos, be supposed to express 
the idea of Bishop ; but it rather seems to denote the priest 
whose sanctity or other qualifications gave him precedence 
among the presbyters of the society. 

Expertness in writing was considered an accomplishment in 
the founder (108, 213), and an important qualification in his 
successor (128, 213). Dorbene, the abbot-elect in 713, was the 
writer of Cod. A., and probably had been scribe of the monas 
tery. So honourable was the employment, that the title is 
frequently added to enhance the celebrity of an abbot or bishop. 
In 961, the bishop of the Isles of Alba was a scribhnidh, " scribe" 
(F. Mast.) ; the abbot of Hy, in 797, was a scribhneoir toghaidhe, 
" choice scribe" (F. Mast.) ; and, in 978, a scribe and bishop (ib.) 
Generally, however, the office was a distinct one ; and when, in 
after times, instruction in literature was added to the practice 
and teaching of penmanship, the more honourable name of 
ferleighinn (vir lectionis), or prselector, was adopted (Ult. 1164). 

Those who desired to follow a more ascetic life than that 
which the society afforded to its ordinary members, withdrew 
to a solitary place in the neighbourhood of the monastery, 
where they enjoyed undisturbed meditation without breaking 
the fraternal bond. Such, in 634, was Beccan the solitarius; 



INTRODUCTION. CXXV 

and such, in Adaninan s time, was Finan the recluse of Burrow 
(146), and Fergna of Muirbulcmar in Himba (215). At Hy an 
anchorite held the abbacy in 747 (F. Mast.) ; an anchorite was 
abbot-elect in 935 (F. M.) ; and another, bishop in 964 (F. M.). 
The abode of such was called a disert, from the Latin desertum ; 
and as the heremitical life was held in such honour among the 
Scotic churches, we frequently find the word Desert an element 
in religious nomenclature. There was a Disert beside the 
monastery of Deny (Ult. 1122) ; and that belonging to Hy was 
situate near the shore in the low ground north of the Cathedral, 
as may be inferred from Port-an-Diseart, the name of a little 
bay in this situation. The individual who presided here was 
styled the Disertach, or cenn an Disirt, " Superior of the Hermit 
age;" and the name of one such officer at Hy is on record 
(Ult. 1164). In 1101 the Four Masters record the endowment 
of a similar institution at Cashel for craibhdech or devotees. We 
learn from the charters of the Columbian house of Kells, that a 
Disert existed there, which, about 1084, was endowed with two 
townlands and their mills at Leyney, in the county of Sligo. It 
was founded expressly for err aid dewaid, " wandering pilgrims;" 
and the conditions were : Ro edpairset didu na Tiuli sin Disiurt 
Gholuim chille hi Cenunnus cona lulgortan do Dia ocus do Deo- 
radaib craibdechaib do gres cen sheilb ndilis do nack erraid ann 
trea biuthu co ro chinne a bethaid do Dia ocus corop craidbech, 
" These have all granted for ever Disert-Columcille in Kells, 
with its vegetable garden, to God and devout pilgrims, no 
wanderer having any lawful possession in it at any time until 
he surrender his life to God, and is devout." ^Engus O Don- 
nellan, who brought the Cuilebadh and other reliquaries of 
Columkille from the north in 1090, was the Coarb of Disert- 
Columbkille. It was probably to enter on such a manner 
of life that Muiredhach Ua Cricain, in 1007, resigned the suc- 
cessorship of Columcille ar Dia, " for God," i.e. uninterrupted 
devotion. 

The Butler, pincerna (125), or cellerarius, had charge of 



CXXV1 INTRODUCTION. 

the refectory and its appointments. In primitive times his 
office sometimes coincided with that of the ceconomus. The 
cellarius of the Benedictine Eule was a functionary of great 
importance, on account of the extensive trust reposed in him : 
" omnia vasa monasterii, cunctamque substantiam, ac si altaris 
vasa sacrata conspiciat" (cap. 31). 

The Baker, pistor (201), was a member whose services were 
likely to be constantly required in a society whose food was 
chiefly cereal. The only one who is spoken of by Adamnan, as 
" opus pistorium exercens," was a Saxon. 

The Cook is not mentioned in the Latin memoirs, but the 
Irish Life tells of St. Columcille s coic, and it is not likely that 
an officer found in other Irish monasteries, and who, in some 
instances, has found his way into the Calendar, would be want 
ing in this. In the Benedictine Eule, the members who pre 
pared the food did duty for a week at a time, and were styled 
septimanarii coquince (cap. 35). 

Adamnan tells of a pugio (172), and a machera (181), which 
were probably of home manufacture. The process of fusing a 
piece of iron through the ferramenta (172) of the establishment, 
certainly indicates the existence of workers in metal. With the 
gobha, or " smith," was probably associated the cerd, or " brazier." 

The abbot had a private attendant called the minister (211, 
212), and ministrator (120), who waited on him; ministravit 
(130), was a frequent companion, and an object of tender soli 
citude (172). 

Certain brethren, active and expert seamen, were employed 
as legati (132, 156) on particular occasions. These seem to have 
been specially charged with the care of the boats and marine 
appointments. 

Late in the history of the Columbian order comes under 
notice the society called Culdees. They had no particular con 
nexion with this order any more than had the DeoradJis or the 
other developments of conventual observance. The system 
however, whatever its peculiarities may have been, was ad- 



INTRODUCTION. CXXVii 

mitted in Hy, and the name of one Gen Cele-nDe, " Superior of 
Culdees," like the Prior Colideorum of Armagh, is recorded in 
the Annals of the order (Ult. 1164). 

The original grant of Hy, whether Scottish or Pictish, or 
both, was soon extended to the adjacent islands, as insulce 
Ethica, Elena, Hiriba, and the founder speaks of the marini 
nostri juris mtuli (139); and his successor forbids a stay in nostris 
insulis (116). In spirituals the parent institution not only en 
joyed a principatus among all the monasteries of the order, both 
among the Scots and Picts, but served as a caput et arx (Bede, 
iii. 3, 21), exercising an extensive control over the people at 
large. In successive ages this authority was gradually cir 
cumscribed. Much of it was lost when Naiton, king of the 
Picts, expelled the Columbian clergy from his dominions ; and 
the forfeiture was completed among the Picts when diocesan 
jurisdiction became defined and established. Even among the 
Scots, the prestige of Hy declined in proportion as rival in 
fluences grew; remote endowments were cut off; and the 
surviving rights in temporals and spirituals were narrowed 
to the adjacent lands of Mull, or a few of the Western 
Islands. Finally, when the Bishops of the Isles made Hy their 
episcopal seat, the monastic character of the institution merged 
in diocesan authority. The privileges of Armanach and Frag- 
ramanach, so called from AT manach (Aratio monachorum), and 
Freagra manach (Responsio monachorum), which existed at Hy 
in the fourteenth century, were probably the vestiges of ancient 
rights of the monastery to duty-work from the tenants of its 
lands, or the neighbours of its churches, which titularly had 
passed to the Lords of the Isles, in consideration of a stated 
endowment as a commutation for an undefined exaction. 

VIII. 

Adamnan s practice, with regard to the names of islands, is THE TOPO- 
to put them in the adjective form agreeing with insula ; and 
thus he deals with Hy on the sixty occasions where he makes 



CXXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

mention of it. In all these instances the unmistakeable read 
ing in Cod. A. is loua insula ; and the same prevails in Codd. 
C. F. S. The more modern manuscripts, B. and D., which are 
less precise in orthography, and very loose in the distinction of 
n and u, always read lona; but the probability is, that their 
writers either mistook the name in the original, or desired to 
conform to a prevailing style. 

That the word as it stands in Adamnan is an adjective, was 
suggested by Colgan, although, from a faulty transcript of 
Cod. A., he was led into the error of supposing lona to be the 
correct form of it. He observes : 

" A Tigernaco in Annalibus, Quatuor Mag. et aliis passim do- 
mesticis nostris Scriptoribus communiter la, et aliquando To, et 
utrobique per unam syllabam, seu dipthongum, vocatur : et a dic- 
tione ilia Io, derivatum reor adjectivum lona ; quod licet apud S. 
Cumineum, S. Adamnanum et alios priscos non legatur nisi per 
modum adjectivi, cum apud eos non legatur dictio lona absque 
adjuncta voce insula ; hinc usu postea evenit, ut pro substantivo 
proprioque illius nomine usurpetur. Nobis passim prsefixa H, 
vocatur Hia : et parum refert sive Hya ; sive lona vocetur." x 

Tighernach, the second native authority in whom a liberal 
use of the name is found, employs the form la twice ; on one 
of the occasions annexing the qualifying Colaim-cille ; lae, the 
genitive, governed by abbas, five times; and le, in the same 
construction, four times ; lea (if O Conor s text can be relied on), 
after albas, thirteen times ; hie, once ; hi, once ; and Eo, once. 

The Annals of Ulster have the genitive lae, governed by 
insulam, or alias, thirty-six times ; la, five times ; hi Coluim- 
cille, twice ; I Choluim-cille, once ; /, once ; and Eoa, agreeing 
with civitate, once. 

The Annals of Inisfallen have lae, in the genitive, seven 
times ; lae Coluim-cille, three times ; and hli, once. 

The Annals of Boyle also have la. 

All these Annals contain mixed texts ; that is, in which 
Latin and Irish are interwoven, and Irish names are occasionally 
subjected to Latin inflexion. 



1 Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 495, b. 



INTRODUCTION. CXxix 

The Four Masters purport to exhibit a purely Irish text, but 
sometimes borrow the Latinized names from the earlier records. 
Thus, they have lae after abb seventeen times ; lae Coluim-cille 
after abb, twelve times ; la after all, three times ; la Coluim- 
cille, once ; hi, five times ; hi Coluim-cille, three times ; hlae, 
once ; and / Coluim-cille, once. 

In the Calendars of Marian Gorman, Tamlacht, and Donegal, 
we find the form la. 

In many Irish narratives, however, and some of them pre 
served in very ancient manuscripts, we meet with hi and hli ; 
and these are the prevailing forms of the name among Irish 
writers. 

Again, in Latin compositions, we observe considerable variety. 
Cummian addresses his Paschal Epistle, A.D. 634, " ad Segienum 
Huensem abbatem," probably regarding Hu or Hua as his sub 
stantive. Cummine Ailbe, circ. 660, employs in his Life of St. 
Columba loua insula, the expression adopted by Adamnan. 
Ven. Bede, on the other hand, uses HU, from which he forms 
the adjective Hiiensis. In like manner, li and Hii are found 
in the Saxon Chronicle. Walafridus Strabo, circ. 831, using a 
form which, as has been observed, occurs once in Tighernach, 
designates the island as " Fluctivago suspensa salo, cognominis 
Eo" Hermannus Contractus has Hu. The Chronicle of Man, 
which is a much later production, has Hy and lona. 

In the biographies of various Irish saints, the dates of which 
are uncertain, but probably range from the tenth to the twelfth 
centuries, we find occasional mention of the island. In the 
Lives of SS. Aidus, Ciaran, Fintan, and Forannan, the usual 
name is Hya ; in that of St. Columb of Tirdaglas, Hi; in St. 
Brendan s of Birr, /; in that of St. Cadroe, Euea insula ; while 
the Lives of SS. Euadhan and Geraldus employ the debased 
form of lona and lonensis dbbatia. Colgan, being impressed 
with the notion, " mendose loua pro lona" has printed lona in 
all the shorter Lives of his collection, as also in his abridgment 
of O Donnell, although the reading was probably different in 
the originals. 



CXXX INTRODUCTION. 

Of Scottish authorities, the earliest is the Life of St. Kenti- 
gern, which has insula Yi. Monastic registers have Hii-coluim- 
chille and Hy. The first record where we find the name lona, 
or Yona, is in an old catalogue of Scottish kings printed by T. 
Innes. Fordun supposes it to be an adaptation of St. Columba s 
Hebrew s, name : " Insula I. vel lona Hebraice, quod Latine co- 
lumba dicitur, sive I Columkill." 1 Elsewhere he calls it Hy, 
Hii, I, I Columkyl ; but lona is his favourite form. 

In the monumental records of the island, we find Fto be 
the prevailing name. Thus : Crux Lachlanni Mac Fingone et 
ejus filii lohannis Abbatis de Hy, facia A.D. 1489; Fingonius 
Prior de Y, A.D. 1492; Hie jacent quatuor prior es de Y, A.D. 
1500 ; Prior de Y ; Hie jacet loannes Mac Fingone Abbas de Y, 
qui obiit A.D. 1500; Soror Anna Abbatissa de Y. There is but 
one exception, and that of a more recent date : Hie jacet Domina 
Anna Donaldi Terletifilia, quondam Priorissa de lona, quce obiit, 
anno 1 543. 2 The Breviary of Aberdeen, printed in 1509-10, and 
adjusted a short time before, adopts the book-name Yona, or 
lona. Still, however, the old forms Icolmkill, Ycplmkill, and 
Ecolmkill, were almost universally employed in legal docu 
ments ; while in vernacular use Ee-choluim-chille has, from time 
immemorial, been the only recognised name of the island among 
the Gaelic population. 

A parish in Lewis, in the modern union of Stornoway, is 
called Ey or Y. 

The conclusion, therefore, to be come to regarding lona is, 
that it is a word which was suggested by an error in writing, 
and was confirmed by a supposed connexion with one of St. 
Columba s names ; while the genuine form loua is to be regarded 
as an adjective with a feminine termination, the root of which 
is lou, like Eo of Tighernach and Walafridus, which was sounded 
in one syllable something like the English yeo. Thus Conall 
Macgeoghegan, in his old English version of the Annals of 
Clonmacnoise, writes the name Hugh (569, 590, etc.) 

1 Fordun, B. u. c. 10. 2 Graham s lona, pp. 8, 13, 17, 20, 25. 



INTRODUCTION. CXXX1 

The island of Hy, vulgarly called lona, lies off the Boss of 
Mull on the south-west, being separated from it by a channel 
about an English mile broad, called by Adamnan fretum louce 
insulce (129, conf. 118, 133, 141), in after times named the Bay 
of Finfort, and now commonly known as the Sound of lona. 
The island lies N.E. and s.w., is about three miles long, and 
varies in breadth from a mile to a mile and a half. The earliest 
reference to its extent is in Bede, who, according to the vague 
mode of calculation current in his day, says : " Neque enim 
magna est, sed quasi familiarum qiiinque, juxta sestimationem 
Anglorum" (H. E. iii. 4) ; that is, v. hydce, " five hides of land," 
as his Saxon interpreter, and the Saxon Chronicle (An. 565), 
express it. Fordun, and others after him, represent the 
length as two miles. The superficial extent is estimated 
at 2000 imperial acres, 600 of which are under cultivation, 
and the remainder hill pasture, morass, and rocks. The surface 
is very uneven, and for the most part consists of small green 
patches, alternating with rocky projections, which in the northern 
half of the island are more high and craggy, being intersected 
with deep ravines, but in the southern half, where the general 
level is higher, are more continuous, and present to the eye an 
undulating expanse of a grey, barren waste. The object which 
first marks the island in the distance is Dunn, its highest 
ground, a round hill, in the northern part, which has an eleva 
tion of 330 feet. There are several other eminences, but none 
of them attain to 200 feet. The population, between the years 
1782 and 1842, increased from 277 to 500 ; but the consequences 
of the potato blight have of late greatly reduced its amount. 
The people are chiefly collected into a little village on the 
eastern side, and any dwellings which are detached are in the 
arable portions of the northern half, for the southern district is 
uninhabited. Previously to the Eeformation the island formed 
a distinct parish, the church of which, called Tempull-Konaig, 
stood within the precincts of the nunnery. Subsequently it 
was annexed to the great union of Kilfinichen and Kilviceuen, 



CXXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

in the adjacent part of Mull, and so continues, except in its 
quoad sacra relations. 

The local features of the island alluded to by Adamnan are 
but few, and incidentally mentioned ; they are follows : Munitio 
Magna (154); Mons gui monasterio eminus super eminet (131); 
Monticellus monasterio supereminens (213); Monticellus qui occi- 
dentali super eminet campulo (204); Colliculus angelorum (188, 
205) ; Cuul-Eilne (136); Campulus occidentalis (136, 171, 204); 
and Portus insulce (143, 162, 190). 

I. ANTIQUITIES OF THE ISLAND. 

1. Churches. 

Archdeacon Monro speaks of " a monastery of mounckes, and 
ane uther of nuns, with a paroche kirke, and sundrie uther 
chapells." The Description, 1693, tells of "many chapells;" 
and another old authority says, " in this island are many other 
small chapells." Dr. Johnson and Mr. Bos well, in 1773, state 
that St. Oran s chapel and four others were then standing, while 
three more were remembered. The compiler of the Orig. Paroch. 
conjectures that the four here spoken of may refer to the four 
small chapels within the choir of the cathedral (vol. ii. p. 300) ; 
but it is unnecessary to have recourse to portions of the 
principal church. 

1. St. Oran s Chapel, situate in the principal cemetery, called 
the Reilig Odhrain. This is the oldest structure remaining in 
the island, and is referable to the close of the eleventh century. 
It is a plain oblong, measuring 29 feet 8 by 15- 10 in the clear. 
Has no east window, but, instead, two narrow lights in the side 
walls near the eastern angles, that in the north 2 feet high, that 
in the south 3 feet. It is roofless, and the walls are fast decay 
ing. The great object of interest is the Romanesque circular- 
headed west door decorated with what is called the beak-head 
ornament. This building was probably the " larger Columcille 
chapel," and the result of Queen Margaret s liberality. 

2. St. Mary s Church, commonly called the Cathedral, and in 



INTRODUCTION. CXXXiil 

Gaelic, Eachis Mor. It is an edifice of the early part of the 
thirteenth century, consisting of nave, transepts, and choir, with 
sacristy on north side of choir, and side chapels on the south. 
The capitals of some of the columns exhibit bas-reliefs similar 
to many found in Ireland. The inscription on the capital of a 
column under the tower has been already alluded to. In 
Graham s lona are good views of the East and West Fronts 
(plates 30, 31), and drawings of the bas-reliefs (plates 40-42). 
Adjoining the Cathedral, on the north, are the ruins of the 
conventual buildings, of which the portion called the chapter 
house is the most ancient and remarkable. Over it is said to 
have been the library. See the plate in Graham s lona (No. 38). 
Near the west entrance, seemingly beside the adjacent angle of 
the cloister, was a small chamber called St. Columb s Tomb, i 

3. The Nunnery, a venerable pile, much dilapidated, but still 
retaining the evidence of former elegance. See Muir s lucid 
description (Eccles. Notes, p. 5). There is no record of its 
foundation, and the first writer who mentions it is Fordun 
(B. n. c. 10). The Macdonald MS., apparently borrowing from 
an earlier authority, states that Beatrix, only daughter of 
Sommerled (giri ob. 1164), was prioress of Icollumkill (Collectan. 
p. 287). This indicates the existence of a nunnery in the island 
circ. 1200. 

4. Tempul Bonain, the parish church, first mentioned A.D. 
1561, in the Eental of the Bishopric, where is an entry of " the 
teindis of Ecolmkill callit the personaige of Tempill-Eonaige." 
Its situation is shown by the following references : " About 
quarter of a Mile further South [that is, of the Eeilig Grain] 
is the Church Eonad, in which several Prioresses are buried " 
(Martin, p. 262). "The Nunnery Church is quite entire; one 
end of it is arched, and is very beautiful. Here also stands 
what was called the parish church. It is yet [A,D. 1795] entire, 
but tottering" (Old Stat. Ac., xiv. p. 202). What is now con 
sidered the parish church is the building, about the size of 
Oran s chapel, on the N.E. of the Nunnery, inside its enclosure. 



CXXX1V INTRODUCTION. 

The patron saint was probably the St. Eonan, commemorated 
at St. Eonan s of Ness, in Lewis, and from whom the island of 
Rona, situate 50 miles N. of the Butt of Lewis, derives its name. 
Port Eonain also, the principal landing-place in Hy, is named 
after him. 

5. Cill-Chainnich, or Church of Cainnech, a small chapel 
which stood close to the site of the present Parish Church. 
The foundations were removed some years ago, and a few tomb 
stones are all that remain to mark the cemetery. The patron 
saint was Cainnech, the intimate friend of Columba (118, 160, 
205), from whom also the neighbouring island of Inch Kenzie, 
formerly a dependant of Hy, derives its name. 

6. Caibeal Muire, or Mary s Chapel, situate a short distance 
to the south-east of the cathedral. It is in ruins, the gables 
having fallen, but it seems to have been of about the same size 
as St. Oran s chapel. The interior was used for burial in Pen 
nant s time (iii. p. 254), and several tombstones have been found 
in it, but without any inscription. 

7. Nameless Chapel, measuring 33 feet by 16, situate near the 
Chapter-House of the Cathedral on the north-east, and marked 
E in Graham s Ground-plan of the Abbey (lona, Plate 32). 

8. Grleann-an-Teampull, " Glen of the Church," the name of 
a remarkable valley commencing in the middle of the island, at 
the back of Cnocmor, with a level floor, and walled in on either 
side with a well-defined range of hill, inclining towards the 
south-west, and opening out on the northern part of the Machar. 
The name has long been a subject of local speculation as to its 
origin ; but possibly the occurrence recorded in the Irish Annals, 
at 1203, may both account for the name, and, with it, for the 
total absence of all ecclesiastical remains in the place. " A 
monastery was erected by Cellach, without any legal right, and 
in despite of the family of Hy, in tlie middle of Cro-Hy, and did 
much damage to the town. The clergy of the north of Ireland 
passed over into Hy, and, in accordance with the law of the 
Church, they pulled down the aforesaid monastery" (p. clxxxiii). 



INTRODUCTION. CXXXV 

2. Cemeteries. 

1. Eeilig Odhrain, that is, Sepulchretum Orani, the ancient 
burial-place of the monastery. The name is still in common 
use, but it is very ancient, as it occurs in the gloss on the Feilire 
of ^Engus the Culdee (note on B. m. c. 6). St. Odhran s name 
was given to it, probably as he was the first interred therein. 
His relationship to St. Columba is shown in the Table of Abbots. 
Fordun, in one of the anachronisms so frequent in Scotch 
hagiology, states of Gouran, father of king Aidan, " cujus ad 
sepeliendum corpus ad ecclesiam Sancti Orani delatum est; 
ubi patris et avi funera quiescunt in Hy insula" (iii. 24), thus 
dating the religious history of St. Oran and the place from a 
period long anterior to St. Columba s birth. The oldest tomb 
stones in the cemetery are the two with the Irish inscriptions, 
Or ar anmin Eogain, Oratio super anima Eogani. ^ Or do 
Mailfataric, Oratio pro Maelpatricio. Here, it is said, were 
buried the Scotch kings down to Malcolm Ceann-more; here 
Ecgfrid, the Northumbrian king, was buried in 684 (Hist. Dun. 
EC.) : hither were removed the remains of king Godred in 1188 
(Chron. Mann.), and of Haco Ospac in 1228 (ib.) Of these kings 
no monuments remain, and the chief part of the interesting tomb 
stones that are found there belong to the Clanns Finnguine, 
Gilla-Eoin, and Guaire, since known as the M Kinnons, M Leans, 
and M Quarries, whose pedigrees, still preserved, attest their 
noble extraction from the House of Loarn. 

2. Cathedral enclosure. At the western end, close to St. 
Martin s Cross on the south, are two tombstones, and other 
sepulchral remains. 

3. Cladh Eonain, " Burial-ground of Bonan," the cemetery 
attached to the church inside the Nunnery precincts. 

4. Kilchainnich. Now disused, but the site is marked by 
some tombstones. 

5. Cill-ma-Grho bhannain, called also Cill-ma-Neachdain, a 
small, unenclosed, triangular space, at the northern extremity 
of the old green bank to the north of the cathedral. To this 



CXXXV1 INTRODUCTION. 

Martin refers, where he says : " There is an empty piece of 
ground between the Church and the Gardens, in which Mur 
derers and Children that died before Baptism were buried" 
(p. 258). Speaking of the same green bank, Pennant says : 
" At the end is a square containing a cairn, and surrounded 
with a stone dyke. This is called a burial-place : it must have 
been in very early times cotemporary with other cairns, perhaps 
in the days of Druidism. For Bishop Pocock mentions that he 
has seen two stones, 7 feet high, with a third laid across on 
their tops, an evident Cromlech" (iii. 258). There is no struc 
ture there now, but there are many stones spread over the 
space. 

6. Cladh-an-Diseart, " Burial-ground of the Desert," called 
sometimes Cladh Iain, " John s burial-ground." It is situated 
some distance to the north-east of the Cathedral, in the low 
ground towards the water-edge, and near it on the south is 
Port-an-Diseart, " Port of the Desert." These names seem to 
determine the site of the Desert treated of at p. cxxv, supra. 
Here Langland s map of the island marks " Burial Place," near 
which, on the south, are some large stones, indicative of some 
rude erection. 

7. Cladh-nan-Druineach, " Burial-ground of the Druids," at 
Martyr s Bay, near the Free Church. Anything relating to the 
Druids has always had great charms for the island folk ; hence 
this place, now an undistinguishable part of a potato plot, is 
thus carefully described : " An oblong enclosure, bounded by a 
stone dike, called Clack nan Druinach, and supposed to have 
been the burial-place of the Druids, for bones of various size 
are found there. I have no doubt that Druidism was the 
original religion of this place ; yet I suppose this to have been 
rather the common cemetery of the people of the town, which 
lies almost close to the Bay of Martyrs" (Pennant, iii. p. 245). 
In 1795 the clergyman of the parish writes: " A green emi 
nence, close to the sound of I, is to this day called the Druid s 
burial-place (Claodh nan Druineach). A cottager, some years 



INTRODUCTION cxxxvii 

ago, planting potatoes in this spot, and digging earth to cover 
them, brought up some bones, which the people of the island 
immediately concluded to be the bones of the Druids" (Old 
Stat. Acct. xiv. p. 199)! 

8. Cladh-na-Meirghe. Near Cnoc-na-Meirghe, at the head 
of Gleann-an-Teampull, where unbaptized children used to be 
buried. 

9. Nameless cemetery. At Culbhuirg, on the north-west side 
of the island, an old burying-ground was exposed some years 
ago, in which layers of bones were found mingled with char 
coal. There was no tradition of its existence, so that it had 
no name. 

3. Crosses. 

Their number was great, indeed, if the anonymous writer of 
1693 be deserving of credit : " In this ile was a great many 
crosses, to the number of 360, which vas all destroyed by one 
provinciall assembly, holden on the place a little after the Ee- 
formation. Ther fundations is yett etant ; and two notable ons, 
of a considerable height and excellent work, untouched" (New 
Stat. Act. vii. pt. 2, p. 314). Sacheverell, as cited by Pennant, 
states that " the synod ordered 60 crosses to be thrown into the 
sea" (iii. p. 251). It is also alleged that multitudes of them 
were carried away to different parts of western Scotland, and 
among them the two beautiful crosses of Inverary and Camp- 
belton. This is all very irrational : it only wants a 5 instead 
of the cypher, in the total 360, to complete its absurdity. There 
probably never were more than two dozen real crosses standing 
at any one time ; and if every tombstone in the cemeteries which 
ever had a cross of any form inscribed on it were included, the 
number 360 would not be arrived at. If some were thrown 
into the sea, why any left standing ? If the rest were deported, 
who, at that moment, unlocked the shores of Hy, or created an 
appetite not hitherto felt abroad ? Or, if there were no fine 
crosses previously to 1560 elsewhere, how came Hy to have 



cxxxvni INTRODUCTION. 

created an art unknown in other places, or, if known, to mono 
polize its development ? Mr. David Laing justly observes, that 
there are grounds for " believing that the statements so fre 
quently and confidently repeated by later writers, from the 
time of Sacheverel in 1688, of the number of 360 Stone Crosses 
having existed in the Island, should be considered as very 
apocryphal, and their alleged destruction by the Eeformers as, 
at best, a vague tradition" (Letter to Lord Murray, 1854, p. 12). 

1. St. Martin s Cross, opposite the west door of the Cathedral, 
a noble monument, fourteen feet high. It has been described 
by Martin (p. 259), Pennant (iii. p. 254), and best by Graham, 
who has given a drawing of the east face in his lona (PI. 39), 
and has subsequently published a drawing of the west face also. 

2. Maclean s Cross. On the wayside, proceeding from the 
Nunnery towards the Cathedral. The shaft is 10 feet 4 inches 
high. Its name is plainly a vulgar misnomer. See the drawing 
in Graham s lona (PL 43). 

3. St. John s Cross, of which only a portion remains, stood in 
the Cathedral ground north of St. Martin s. Graham gives a 
drawing (PI. 40). " In a field upon the west side of the church, 
there is a cross which appears to be of very ancient date. It is 
of one stone, near eight feet high, and twenty inches broad, set 
on a pedestal of granite" (New Stat. Acct. vii. pt. 2, p. 335). 

4. St. Matthews Cross. A fragment in the same enclosure, 
bearing this name. 

5. St. Adamnan s Cross. A spot at the north end of the 
village, opposite Port a Chrossain, bears this name, although 
the object which gave occasion to it is gone. 

6. St. Brandon s Cross, stood near Tobar Grain, a little way 
east of the Free Church Manse. There is no trace remaining. 

7. Torr Abb. On the top of this eminence, opposite the west 
entrance of the Cathedral, the socket of a cross is said to have 
been observed. 

8. Na Crossan Mor, " The great Crosses," is the name of a 
spot on the left of the walk running northwards from the 



INTRODUCTION. CXXX1X 

Cathedral. There are no remains there now, but the place is 
spoken of as the site of two large crosses, long since removed. 

9. Besides the above, some nameless fragments serve as tomb 
stones in the Eeilig Odhrain. Mr. Huband Smith was " unable 
to discover at lona the remains of more than fifteen or twenty 
crosses" (Proceed. E. Ir. Acad. vi. 392). 

4. Houses. 

1. Cdbhan Cuildich, spelt CotJian Cuildich, and interpreted 
" Culdee s Cell," or " Couch," in the Old Stat. Acct. (xiv. p. 200). 
This building, whatever it was, stood in a hollow between Dunii 
and Dunbhuirg, and but faint vestiges of it now remain. In 
1795 it is described as " the foundation of a small circular 
house, upon a reclining plain. From the door of the house, a 
walk ascends to a small hillock, with the remains of a wall 
upon each side of the walk, which grows wider to the hillock. 
There are evident traces of the walls of the walk taking a 
circuit round, and enclosing the hillock" (ib.) The foundation 
is not quite circular, but measures about 1 6 feet by 1 4. 

2. Laithrichean. That is, " foundations," or " ruins." A 
small bay, lying west of Port-a-churraich, derives its name 
from several circles of stone foundations scattered over it. 
These are the traces of by far the oldest buildings in the island. 
The spot is a beautiful recess, enclosed by high rocks all round, 
and open only to the sea, where the inclination of the ground 
towards the water is remedied by an artificial terrace made 
across the mouth of the little bay, bringing the level of the 
floor to an elevation of seventy or eighty feet over the sea. 
Over the sward in this sequestered spot are the circular enclo 
sures spoken of, the remains of some very early habitations. 
There is no tradition of their use, but they remind one of the 
remark made in the Old Stat. Acct. concerning the adjacent 
part of Mull : " There are in the parish many of the round 
towers said to be Danish. They are set upon the sea-coast, and 
in sight of one another" (xiv. p. 203). One of the circles in 



Cxi INTRODUCTION. 

Port Laithrichean is thirty yards in circumference, another 
thirteen. 

3. Dun-lhuirg. This is the name of a well-defined, abrupt, 
rocky eminence in the north-west of the island, on the top of 
which are the traces of a wall enclosing the summit, like the 
Celtic duns, and giving its designation to the whole. 

4. G-aradJi-Eacliain Oig, " Garden of young Hector," said to 
take its name from Hector M Lean, one of the Duairt family. 
It is situate near the head of Port-a-Churraich, where traces, 
said to be of his house, are shown. There are the vestiges of 
numerous little buildings in this valley, especially on the east 
side, near the stream which runs down from Loch Staonaig. 
They appear to be very ancient. 

5. Teach an Epscoip, " Bishop s house," a small, ruinous build 
ing, situate north-east of the Cathedral. It is mentioned by 
Pennant, and in the New Stat. Acct. (vii. pt. 2, p. 333). In 
Sacheverell s time it was in good preservation. 

6. The sites of the Mill and Barn, of which mention is made 
in Pennant (cxxi), are thus alluded to by a writer in 1843 : 
" There is no lake of any consequence ; but on a plain adjoining 
the gardens of the abbey, and surrounded by small hills, there 
are vestiges of a large piece of artificial water, which has con 
sisted of several acres, and been contrived both for pleasure and 
utility. At the place where it has been dammed up, and where 
there are the marks of a sluice, the ruins of a mill are still to 
be seen, which served the inhabitants for grinding their corn." 
Speaking of a cross (probably St. John s) which stood " in a< 
field upon the west side of the church," he observes : " There j 
is a very ancient ruin of the granary about the same distance 
west from it that the church is distant from it to the east"! 
(New Stat. Acct. vii. pt. 2, pp. 317, 335). 

5. Mounds and Cairns. 

1. North of the Cathedral, and close to the Lochan Mor on. 
the east, is a green embankment, evidently very ancient, and 



INTRODUCTION. Cxli 

apparently only a portion of the original design. Pennant 
says : " North from the granary extends a narrow flat, with a 
double dike and foss on one side, and a single dike on the 
other." This bank, which is about thirty-six feet wide inside, 
may have been intended to confine and deepen the waters of 
the lake, or it may be a portion of the vallum of the original 
monastery, for Pennant says, " that the whole of their religious 
buildings were covered on the north side by dykes" (iii. 258). 
At the end of this is the spot called Kill ma ghobhanain. 
Graham calls this embankment the Bishop s Walk (lona, p. 4). 

2. Cnoc-na-nAingel, commonly called Sithean Mor, or " Great 
Fairy-mount." This is Adamnan s Colliculus Angelorum (188, 
205). It is a smooth, green knoll, about 167 paces in circum 
ference at the base. Pennant says of it : " On the right hand, 
on a small hill, a small circle of stones, and a little cairn in the 
middle, evidently druidical, but called the hill of the angels, 
Cnoc-nan-aingeal ; from a tradition that the holy man had there 
a conference with those celestial beings soon after his arrival. 
Bishop Pocock informed me that the natives were accustomed 
to bring their horses to this circle at the feast of St. Michael, 
and to course round it" (iii. p. 258). 

3. Port-an-Churaich derives its name from a long, low mound 
running across the bay, near high-water mark. It has long 
been an object of curiosity to travellers. Martin says of it : 
" The Dock which was dug out of Port Churich, is on the shoar, 

< to preserve Columbus s Boat called Curich" (p. 263). A writer 
^ of 1701 observes : " This harbour is called Port-a-churrich, 
from the ship that Calimkill and his associats came upon from 
Ireland to that place. The length of the curuchan or ship is 
obvious to any one who goes to the place, it being marked up 
att the head of the harbour upon the grass, between two little 
pillars of stons, set up to show forth y e samain, between which 
pillars there is three score of foots in length, which was the 
exact length of the curachan or ship" (New Stat. Acct. vol. vii. 
pt. 2, p. 316). This bay is exposed to the western swell of the 
Atlantic, and is very dangerous except in fine weather (ib.) 



cxlii INTRODUCTION. 

4. Opposite the centre of Martyr s Bay is a mound called by 
the natives Eala, " the swan" (Graham, p. 3) ; why, they can 
not tell. But the truth is, that they are misled by the sound, 
for the word really is ealatrom, " a coffin ;" and so applied be 
cause funeral parties on landing were formerly in the habit of 
laying the remains upon this mound, while they thrice per 
formed a deisiol, or right-wise circuit, round the spot. 

5. Torr Abb, a rocky eminence opposite the west entrance 
of the Cathedral, outside the enclosure. " To the west of the 
convent is the abbot s mount, overlooking the whole" (Pen 
nant, iii. p. 258). This must be the site of what Martin de 
scribes, when, speaking of St. Martin s Cross, he says : " At a 
little further distance is Dun Ni Manich, i.e. Monks-Fort, built 
of Stone and Lime, in form of a Bastion, pretty high. From 
this Eminence the Monks had a view of all the Families in the 
Isle, and at the same time enjoy d the free Air" (p. 259). The 
artificial part does not now exist. 

6. At Port-a-curach, on its west side, where the shore is 
covered with small boulders, are several cairns formed of these 
stones, for some unknown purpose, possibly sepulchral. They 
were there in Pennant s time, and the tradition was then that 
they had been raised as penitential tasks. 

6. Wells and Lakes. 

1. Tobhar Odhrain, " Oran s Well," a little east of the Free 
Church manse. 

2. Tobar Cheathain, near the Cathedral, celebrated in Gaelic 
verse. 

3. Tobar MaigJie Lunge, " Well of Magh-Lunga," near the 
northern point. 

4. Tolar na Ji-Aois, " Well of the age," on the top of Dunii. 
The LocJian MOT, already mentioned, was a sheet of water, 

partly artificial, covering an area about 400 yards by 200, lying 
between the mound and the base of Dunii. Pennant, speaking 
of the mill, says : " The lake or pool that served it lay behind ; 



INTRODUCTION. Cxliii 

is now drained, and is the turbary, the fuel of the natives : it 
appears to have been once divided, for along the middle runs a 
raised way, pointing to the hills" (iii. p. 258). This causeway 
is called lomaire-an-tachair, "ridge of the way," and sometimes 
the Bishop s Walk. It is 220 yards long, and about 22 feet 
wide. The tradition is, that this road was planted on both 
sides, and that " the edges of the pond were all planted" (Old 
Stat. Acct. xiv. p. 203). Another little sheet of water is in 
Staonaig, in the south of the island, and takes its name Loch 
Staonaig, from the district where it is situate. 

II. MODERN DISTRIBUTION. 

The island is divided into six districts, which have Gaelic 
names descriptive of their situation or character. Under them 
all the places enumerated in the alphabetical catalogue, which 
is annexed, are for convenience classed ; the figure attached to 
each name denoting the particular portion to which it belongs. 
Many of these names are modern, but some, especially those of 
simpler form, are old. They are written according to local 
orthography, and are accompanied by the equivalent Irish 
forms, and their supposed meanings. 1 

I. CEANN T-SEAR, Ceann t-soir, " East Head," extending 
from the village to the northern extremity of the island, and 
embracing the low land which lies between the sound and the 
hills, from Dunii southwards. It contains all the ecclesias 
tical sites. 

II.- SLIABH MEANACH, Slidbh meadhonach, " Middle moun 
tain-land," containing Dunii and the hills in the middle of the 
northern half, terminating at the south-west of Gleann-an- 
Tempull. 

III. SLIGINACH, Sligineach, " Shelly-ground," a small tract on 
the east side, south of the village, terminating a little south of 
Tra-mor. It contains Martyr s Bay and its neighbourhood. 

1 This alphabetical catalogue will be found in the Appendix, No. II. 
W. F. S. 



Cxliv INTRODUCTION. 

IV MACHAR, Machaire, " the Plain," a well-marked tract, 
lying north-west of the last, and traversed by a cart road. This 
is the original name, for which Adamnan employs a Latin 
equivalent. 

V. SLIABH SIAR, Sliabh siar, "West Mountain-land," a 
narrow, rocky tract, rising above the last two on the south, and 
running across the island. 

VI. STAONAIG, Staonag, " Inclining ground," written Stenag 
in Langland s map, and so called from the inclination southwards 
in the various ravines into which it resolves itself. Staonag, 
derived from staon, " oblique," signifies " a bending," or " in 
clination." This tract includes all the southern part of the 
island, from Loch Staonaig to the sea. A portion of it, forming 
the south-western corner of the island, called Aonaidh-nan- 
sruth, " Cliff of the streams," suddenly dips from the level of 
the table-land above, and is almost shut out from the rest of 
the island by a precipitous cliff running southwards from Port- 
Beul-mor to Port-Aonaidh-nan-sruth. 

III. DEPENDENT ISLANDS. 

Buchanan, speaking of Hy, says : " Circa earn sex proximo 
insulse, exiguae nee tamen infcecundse, ab antiquis regibus, et 
insulanorum regulis ccenobio Columbae donatse fuerunt." These 
islands were among the following : 

1. JEilean na mBan, " Island of the women," so called from 
the tradition, as Martin states, "that Columbus suffered no 
Women to stay in the Isle [Hy] except the Nuns ; and that all 
the Tradesmen who wrought in it were oblig d to keep their 
Wives and Daughters in the opposite little Isle, called on 
that account Womens-Isle" (p. 264). It is situate in the sound 
nearly east of the Cathedral, but so near to Mull that its insular 
character cannot be distinguished when viewed from Hy. A 
few years ago the traces of a building called the Nunnery were 
distinguishable here. Pied granite used to be quarried on this 
islet (Pennant, iii. p. 254). Archdeacon Monro mentions it 



INTRODUCTION. Cxlv 

under the name Naban, adding that it was " callit in Erishe 
Elian Naban, that is the Woemens ile. It pertains to Colmkil" 
(No. 90). Nuns Island of Dr. Johnson s Journey. 

2. Soay, due south of Hy, called Soa by Monro, who states 
that " it is half ane myle in lenthe, verey guid for sheepe," and 
" it pertains to Colmkill " (No. 89). 

3. Moroan. Monro says : " On the north northest end of 
Columkill, lyes ane little ile, by the Erishe namit Elian Moroan, 
ane little laich maine sandie ile, full of bent and guid for 
sheepe. It pertains to Colmkill" (No. 91). This is probably the 
island on the northern extremity, now called Eilean Annraidh. 

4. Reringe. " On the north side of Colmkill layes ther ane 
litel iyle, by the Erishe namit Elian Eeringe, ane profitable ile, 
yielding verey grate plentey of wyld fowls eggs, and guid for 
fishing, perteining to Colmkill " (No. 92). This island remains 
to be identified. 

5. Inch Kenneth, called by Monro Inche Kenzie, who states 
that "it pertains to the prioress of Colmkill" (No. 93). It 
once was the head of a little parish including Eorsa, and an 
adjacent part of Mull called Ardrnanach (Orig. Par., vol. ii. 
p. 316). The roofless walls of the church, measuring sixty by 
thirty feet, are standing, and the cemetery continues to be 
used. " Insula Sancti Kennethi, cujus et ibidem est ecclesia 
parochialis." Eordun (Chr. ii. 10). Kilchenzie in Cantyre, 
Kilchenich in Tiree, and Kilchainnech in Hy, are named from 
St. Cainnech of Aghaboe. 

6. Eorsa. A small island, N.E. of Inch Kenneth in Loch 
na Keal, formerly Loch Seafort. Monro calls it Eorsay, * per 
taining to the prioress of Colmkill" (No. 94). 

7. Halmin Island, called Ellenecalmene in law records and 
Blaeu. Thus described by Monro : " At the southwest shore of 
the ile of Mull, lyes ane little ile, by the Erische namit Ellan- 
chane, that is the Dow illyand, inhabit, half a myle lange, 
fraitfull for corne and gressing, with ane havin for Heighland 
bottis " (No. 86). An islet off Erraid on the west is marked 



Cxlvi INTRODUCTION. 

Dow Island in Thomson s map, but its situation does not suit 
the Archdeacon s description. 

8. Erraid Isle, " namit by the Erische Elian Erray, ane iyle 
of halffe myle lange and halffe myle braid, guid main land, 
inhabit and manurit, fruitfull of corne and pastorage, with 
abundance of fisching" (Monro, No. 87). This seems to be 
the island referred to in Adamnan (139) as the place where 
St. Columba s seals used to breed. 

IX. 

JHRONICLE The materials from which the following chronicle is compiled 
are furnished principally by the Irish Annals, especially those 
of Ulster, and they are here disposed in such a manner as to 
exhibit, under each abbot, the principal Scottish events of his 
incumbency. Down to the year 800, the succession of abbots 
is unbroken, and the notices of them, though meagre, are gene 
rally satisfactory ; but, after that date, the entries become irre 
gular, and progressively defective. This is partly attributable 
to the derangement of the Columbian economy caused by the 
Danish invasions, and the consequent transfer of the seat of 
administration to Ireland. The office of abbot, indeed, was still 
maintained in Hy, but as it became subordinate to that of Coarb 
or Successor of Columcille, whose dignity was, to a certain 
extent, ambulatory among the Columbian houses of Ireland, the 
notices are desultory, and the consideration of the local superior 
gradually declined, till it almost vanished from the attention 
of the annalist. Another marked difference between the two 
periods is the constant registration of obituary days in the 
former, and its almost total discontinuance in the latter. With 
two exceptions, the festivals of the first eighteen abbots are 
entered in the calendars of Marian Gormon and of Donegall ; 
but after the year 800 there are only four commemorations con 
nected with Hy on record, during the lapse of four hundred 
years. 

Attached to each abbot s name, in the following digest, are 



INTRODUCTION. Cxlvii 

the dates of his incumbency, derived from the Annals, and the 
day of his death, as entered in the Calendar. The events which 
are recorded by Adamnan, or are referred to in the notes, as also 
the notices of the Columbian houses, and the particulars of early 
Scottish history which are entered in the Irish Annals, are 
arranged in order under the abbot s name in whose term 
of office they occurred, as nearly as the brevity of the plan 
would admit, in the words of the Annals of Ulster, with the 
addition of a year to their current date; or of any other 
authority which is drawn upon for supplementary information. 
Where the passages have been already cited in this work, a 
parenthetic reference to the page will be sufficient i 1 

I. COLUMCILLE. Sed. 563-597. Ob. June 9. 

Born on St. Buite s Day, Dec. 7, in the year 520. Founded the 
abbey of Derry circ. 546 (1.), and that of Durrow before 560 (xlix). 
Was implicated, in 561, in the battle of Cuil-Dreimhne (xli, 120) 
and, next year but one, in the 42d year of his age, commenced his 
labours in Scotland (108). 

II. BAITHENE. Sed. 597-600. Ob. June 9. 

Son of Brendan, and first-cousin of S. Columba, born, according 
to Tighernach, in 536. Brought up by S. Columba (115, 213); 
accompanied him to Britain (Ixxi) ; presided over the monastery of 
Magh-Lunge in Tiree (140, 200) during St. Columba s lifetime ; occa 
sionally visited Hy (126, 162), and even superintended the agricul 
tural operations there (136). Visited the island of Eigg (206). 
Sometimes was engaged in transcribing books (128, 213). He was 
nominated by S. Columba as his successor (115, 233), and having 
enjoyed the abbacy three years, died on the same day as his prede 
cessor (Ixxvi, 190). He was founder, and patron-saint, of Teach- 
Baeithin [i.e. JEdes Baithenei} in the territory of Tir-Enna in 
Tirconnell, now known as the parish church of Taughboyne, locally 
called Tdboyne, in the barony of Kaphoe, county of Donegal. 

Ill LAISREN. Sed. 600-605. Ob. Sept. 16. 

His father, Feradhach, was first-cousin of S. Columba. In 572 
we find him in company with S. Columba at Ardnamurchan (122). 
He was abbot of Durrow during the founder s lifetime (131) ; from 
which office he was raised to the abbacy of Hy. His name is 
omitted in the Annals of Ulster. 

IV. FERGNA BRIT. Sed. 605-623. Ob. Mar. 2. 

Son of Failbhe, of the family of Enna Boghaine, son of Conall 

1 For this part of the chronicle the reader is referred to the original 
edition. The passages relating to lona and other Columban houses will be 
found in the Appendix, No. III. W. F. S. 



CX lviii INTRODUCTION. 

Gnlban, of the same race, but not so nearly related to S. Columba 
as his predecessors. ^Engus the Culdee designates him Fionn, Can- 
didus (Feilire, Mar. 2). His surname Brit, which signifies Briton, 
was derived, as Colgan suggests, " a Britannise incolatu " (Act. SS. 
p. 448 a), but there is, probably, more implied in the epithet than 
is recorded. He is called Virgnous by Adamnan (207, 208), who 
describes him as a member of the community in S. Columba s time, 
and a youth of ardent piety. The title of Bishop, which is applied 
to him by the gloss in Marian s Calendar, and repeated by the Four 
Masters (an. 622), and the Calendar of Donegal, is very question 
able. An exception to the precedent so recently established in 
Hy by the founder would hardly have been sanctioned in the case 
of the fourth abbot, especially as Bede, a century afterwards, empha 
tically says, " Habereautem solet ipsa insula rectorem semper abba- 
tem presbyterum " (H. E. Hi. 4). 

V. SEGHINE. Sed. G23-652. Ob. Aug. 12. 

Son of Fiachna, and nephew of Laisren, the third abbot. He 
was a zealous advocate of the old Paschal observance, and was 
addressed on the subject in 634 by Cummian, in an epistle which is 
superscribed " Segieno abbati Columbse sancti et caste rorum sanc 
torum successori " (Ussher, Syll. xi., Wks. vol. iv. p. 432) ; and by 
the Clergy of Rome in 640, whose epistle on the same controversy 
was addressed, among other presbyters, to Segenus (Bede, H. E. 
ii. 19). Adamnan calls him Seyineus (113, 118, 155), and refers to 
him as the informant of Failbeus, his own immediate predecessor. 
Bede mentions him as " Segeni abbas et presbyter" (H. E. iii. 5). 

VI. SUIBHNE. Sed. 652-657. Ob. Jan. 11. 

Son of Cuirtri. Nothing more is known of his extraction ; and 
he is the first abbot of Hy, " cujus genealogia in patriis hystoriis 
observata non occurrit" (Colgan, Act. SS. p. 408 a). Colgan has a 
short notice of him at Jan. 11 (ib. p. 57). 

VII. CUIMINE AILBHE. Sed. 657-669. Ob. Febr. 24. 

Son of Ernan, and nephew of Seghine the fifth abbot. Adamnan 
calls him Cummeneus Albus, and cites his tract "De virtutibus 
sancti Columbse" (197). Cathal Maguir, cited by Colgan, notices 
him as " Cumineus abba Hiensis, i.e. Cumineus filius Dunertuigh : 
ipse est qui tulit reliquias sanctorum Petri et Pauli ad Desertum 
Cumini, in districtu Roscreensi donee aufugerint Roscream" (Act. 
SS. p. 411 b, n. 26). 

VIII. FAILBHE. Sed. 669-679. Ob. Mar. 22. 

Son of Pipan. His brother Finan, locally called Peenan, was foun 
der of the church called Tempul-ratha or Rath, and now known as 
Raymunterdoney in the county of Donegal, where he was commemo 
rated on the 25th of November. Failbhe is mentioned by Adamnan 
as "Failbeus noster abbas" and "meus decessor" (113, 118). 
^Engus, as cited by Colgan, says of him : " Quibus verbis efferam 
S. Falbeum magnum de Hia, qui bis remeavit ultra maria." Col 
gan has collected his acts at Mar. 22 (Act SS. p. 719). 



INTRODUCTION. Cxlix 

IX. ADAMNAN. Sed. 679-704. Ob. Sept. 23. 

Son of Ronan and Ronnat, born in 624. He was the most 
accomplished and influential of St. Columba s successors. 

Adamnan, which is said to be a diminutive of Adam, is a name 
of unusual form, and of rare occurrence in Irish records. The 
Annals and Calendars present but three or four instances of it, to 
which the venerable father of English history adds another, and 
then, taking the one best known at home, so treats of it as to make 
it 7ro\\S)v awrafyos a\\cov. The individual whose celebrity was 
thus guaranteed was born in Ireland, in or about the year 624, 
and though there is no express record of the parish or province 
which gave him birth, there is good reason for supposing that he 
was a native of that part of the territory occupied by the race of 
Conall, called Tir-Aedha, and now familiarly known as the barony 
of Tirhugh, in the south-west of the county of Donegal. Here was 
settled the clan from which he sprung, and here was also one of his 
principal commemorations, preserving a vivid recollection of his 
abode. His father, Ronan, was sixth in descent from Conall Gul- 
ban, the head of one of the two great races of the Northern Hy- 
Neill, and, in virtue of his birth, claimed kin to St. Columba, and 
many of the sovereigns of Ireland. The father of Ronan was 
Tinne, from whom came the patronymic Ua Tinne, or " grandson 
of Tinne," an appellative which is occasionally found coupled with 
Adamnan s name. Ronnat, the mother of Adamnan, was descended 
from Enna, a son of Mall, whose race, the Cinel Enna, possessed them 
selves of the tract lying between the channels of the Foyle and Swilly, 
which was called the Tir-Enna, or " land of Enna," and answers to 
the modern barony of Raphoe. Here was situate the ancient 
church of Rath-both (now Raphoe), said to have been founded by St. 
Columba, but acknowledging St. Adamnan, or Eunan, as its patron, 
a preference probably arising out of his maternal connexion with 
the original occupants of the district. Concerning Adamnan s early 
history not one particle of information remains, nor even a legend, 
save the following anecdote in the life of Finnachta the Festive, a 
chief of the Southern Hy Neill, and subsequently monarch of Ire 
land : " Not long after this, Finnachta came, with a numerous 
cavalcade, to the house of his sister, whither he was invited to be 
her guest. As they were riding along the way they met Adamnan, 
then a schoolboy, who was travelling upon the same road, with a 
jar of milk upon his back. And as he fled from the way before 
the cavalcade, he knocked his foot against a stone and stumbled, 
and the jar fell from his back and was broken. Upon which 
Finnachta said, Thou shalt receive protection, O student, from me, 
and he prayed him not to be sorrowful. Then said Adamnan, O 
good man, I have cause for grief, for there are three goodly 



cl INTRODUCTION. 

students in one house, and three more of us are attendants upon 
them. And how we act is this : One attendant from among us 
goes out in turn to collect sustenance for the other five; and it 
was my turn to-day, but what I had gathered for them has been 
spilled upon the ground, and, what grieves me more, the borrowed 
jar is broken, and I have not wherewith to pay for it." Such is 
the story, which probably was the creation of a later age, to intro 
duce a historical reality the intimacy of Adamnan with Finnachta, 
and his subsequent interference with him. It transports St. Adam- 
nan, in his youth, from Donegal to Meath ; but this is no violence, 
for St. Columba, before him, studied at Clonard in Meath, and read 
with Gemman in a plain of Leinster ; nor was it inconsistent with 
the severity of monastic discipline, even in one nobly born, to 
derive his sustenance from eleemosynary sources. But the lesson 
in the Breviary of Aberdeen forgets all propriety when it places 
Adamnan s novitiate under St. Columba, and assigns to the latter 
the jus patronatus of Lismore. The abbot under whom St. Adam- 
nan was admitted into the brotherhood was probably Seghine, for 
he lived until Adamnan was twenty-eight years old. During his 
incumbency, and that of the three succeeding abbots, our author, 
no doubt, acquired such a character as rendered him eligible, and 
such a reputation for learning as recommended him, to the presi 
dency of the Columbian order, now in the meridian of celebrity 
and influence. With the exception of his skill in Latin, his 
acquaintance with other languages and branches of education is 
more a subject of inference than of express declaration ; there is 
sufficient evidence, however, to justify Ward in the statement : 
" Edoctus est omnes liberales, sacras et asceticas disciplinas, linguas 
etiam Hebraicam et Graecam; et quidquid patria lingua (in qua 
turn plerseque scientise et Druydum quae non fuere damnata dog 
mata) scriptum esset vel artium, vel legum, vel historiarum." His 
studies, meanwhile, did not supersede his bodily labours, and to 
the subordinate period of his profession is probably to be referred 
the voyage for timber to repair the monastery, of which he speaks 
in B. II. c. 46. In the year 675, Finnachta Fledach, grandson of 
Aedh Slaine, succeeded his first-cousin (whom he put to death) as 
monarch of Ireland. He was of the Southern Hy Neill, and was a 
chief both valiant and hospitable. An old bardic composition says 
that Adamnan, after the accidental introduction mentioned above, 
was invited to his court, and subsequently became his anmchara, 
or " spiritual director ; " and that this is the reason why Adamnan 
made so conspicuous a figure during Finnachta s reign. 

On the death of Failbhe, in 679, Adamnan was elected to the 
abbacy of Hy, being now fifty-five years of age. Bruide, son of 
Bile, the most valiant of the Pictish kings since the reign of his 



INTKODUCT10N. cli 

namesake, the son of Maelcon, preceded the abbot in his elevation 
but one year, so that Adamnan s incumbency is set down in the 
Chronicle of the Scottish Kings as the ecclesiastical parallel of his 
reign. Aldfrid, the Northumbrian prince, whom the Irish knew as 
Flann Fina, was now an exile in Ireland. Thither he had pro 
bably been led through his mother s alleged connexion with the 
chief family of the north, and here probably it had been that 
Adamnan commenced that intimacy which caused the Irish to call 
Aldfrid the alumnus of Adamnan, and which proved so serviceable 
to the teacher when the pupil ascended the throne. The " war 
of Ecgfrid" (B. II. c. 47), as Adamnan terms the fatal expedition 
against the Picts in 685, restored Aldfrid to his country and the 
enjoyment of his hereditary rights, so that when the abbot of Hy, 
in the following year, went on a mission to the Northumbrian 
court, probably to plead for the Irish captives whom Ecgfrid s 
general had carried away from Meath, he found a ready answer to 
his petition. It may be that he undertook the errand at the 
instance of king Finnachta, on whose patrimonial territory the 
descent had been made by the Saxons, possibly at the instance of 
the Leinstermen. The circumstances of Adamnan s journey are 
thus related in his Irish Life, but manifestly with that looseness, 
and disregard of historical precision, which characterize the later 
hagiology of Ireland : " The north Saxons went to Erin and 
plundered Magh Bregh as far as Bealach-dnin ; and they carried 
off with them a great prey of men and women. The men of Erin 
besought of Adamnan to go in quest of the captives to Saxonland. 
Adamnan went to demand the prisoners, and put in at Tracht- 
Romra. The strand is long, and the flood rapid ; so rapid that if 
the best steed in Saxonland, ridden by the best horseman, were to 
start from the edge of the tide when the tide begins to flow, he 
could only bring his rider ashore by swimming, so extensive is the 
strand, and so impetuous is the tide. The Saxons now were 
unwilling to permit Adamnan to land upon the shore. Push 
your curachs on the shore, said Adamnan to his people, for both 
their land and sea are obedient to God, and nothing can be done 
without God s permission. The clerics did as they were told. 
Adamnan drew a circle with his crozier around the curachs, and 
God rendered the strand firm under their curachs, and he formed 
a high wall of the sea about them, so that the place where they 
were was an island, and the sea went to her limits past it, and did 
them no injury. When the Saxons had observed this very great 
miracle, they trembled for fear of Adamnan, and they gave him 
his full demand. Adamnan s demand was, that a complete restora 
tion of the captives should be made to him, and that no Saxon 
should ever again go upon a predatory excursion to Erin ; and 



tlii INTRODUCTION. 

Adamnan brought back all the captives." The secret of his suc 
cess is told by Adamnan himself, " regem Aldfridum visitantes 
amicum;" and the result is briefly but satisfactorily stated by the 
Annals at 687, which is 686 according to Bede : "Adamnan con 
ducted sixty captives to Ireland." It may have been about this 
period that the Synod was held in Ireland to which Adamnan 
alludes in B. II. c. 46 ; his language at the end of the chapter seems 
to regard it as an occurrence of some standing when he wrote. 
It is to be regretted that he gives no clue to the year, object, or 
place of meeting. At the time of his first visit to Aldfrid, a 
great mortality prevailed in Europe, from which, however, the 
Scots and Picts of North Britain were providentially exempted 
(B. ii. c. 47) ; and two years afterwards, when he undertook a second 
journey to the Northumbrian court, disease was still ravaging the 
country, although not permitted to touch him or one of his 
attendants. The object of this visit is not stated by Adamnan, 
but it probably was some matter of international policy which 
Adamnan was chosen to negotiate. The fact that he sailed direct 
to Ireland with the liberated captives in 686, seems to justify the 
reference of the following statement in Bede to a later date, when 
he returned to Hy, and subsequently crossed over to Ireland : 
" Quo tempore plurima pars Scottorum in Hibernia, et nonnulla 
etiam de Brittonibus in Brittania rationabile et ecclesiasticum 
paschalis observantise tempus Domino donante suscepit. Siquidem 
Adamnan presbyter et abbas monachorum qui erant in insula Hii, 
cum legationis gratia missus a sua gente, venisset ad Aldfridum 
regem Anglorum, et aliquandiu in ea provincia moratus, videret 
ritus ecclesise canonicos ; sed et a pluribus qui erant eruditiores 
esset sollerter admonitus, ne contra universalem ecclesise morem, 
vel in observantia paschali, vel in aliis quibusque decretis cum suis 
paucissimis et in extremo mundi angulo positis vivere prsesumeret, 
mutatus mente est ; ita ut ea quae viderat et audierat in ecclesiis 
Anglorum, suse suorumque consuetudini libentissime prseferret. 
Erat enim mr bonus et sapiens, et scientia Scripturarum nobilissime 
instructus. Qui cum domum rediisset, curavit suos qui erant in 
Hii, quive eidem erant subditi monasterio, ad eum quern cognoverat, 
quemque ipse toto ex corde susceperat, veritatis callem perducere, 
nee valuit" (Bede, v. 1 5). He then goes on to tell of Adamnan s 
voyage to Ireland ; but of that presently. In reference to this visit 
he gives the following interesting account of Adamnan s tract on the 
Holy Places : " Scripsit idem vir de Locis Sanctis librum legentibus 
multis utillimum ; cujus auctor erat docendo ac dictando Galliarum 
episcopus Arcuulfus, qui locorum gratia sanctorum venerat Hiero- 
solymam, et lustrata omni terra repromissionis, Damascum quoque, 
Constantinopolim, Alexandriam, multas maris insulas adierat; 
patriamque navigio revertens, vi tempestatis in occidentalia Brit- 



INTRODUCTION. cliii 

tanise littora delatus est : ac post multa, ad memoratum Christ! 
famulum Adamnanum perveniens, ubi doctus in Scripturis, 
sanctorumque locorum gnarus esse compertus est, libentissime est 
ab illo susceptus, libentius auditus ; adeo ut quseque ille se in locis 
sanctis memoratu digna vidisse testabatur, cuncta mox iste litteris 
mandare curaverit. Fecitque opus, ut dixi, multum utile, et 
maxime illis qui longius ab eis locis in quibus patriarchs et 
apostoli erant, secreti, ea tantum de his qua lectione didicerint, 
norunt. Porrexit autem librum hunc Adamnan Aldfrido regi, 
ac per ejus est largitionem etiam minoribus ad legendum contradi- 
tus. Scriptor quoque ipse multis ab eo muneribus donatus, patriam 
remissus est." Bede then devotes two chapters to extracts from 
this work. To the same visit Ceolfrid also alludes in his letter to 
King Naiton, where, speaking of those who differed from him on 
the paschal question, he declares : " plurimos ex eis sanctos ac 
Deo dignos extitisse, ex quibus est Adamnan, abbas et sacerdos 
Columbiensiurn egregius, qui cum legatus suce gentis ad Alfridum 
regem missus, nostrum quoque monasterium videre voluisset, 
miramque in moribus ac verbis prudentiam, humilitatem, religionem 
ostenderet, dixi illi inter alia conloquens : Obsecro, sancte frater, 
qui ad coronam te vitse quse terminum nesciat tendere credis, quid 
contrario tuae fidei habitu terminatam in capite coronse imaginem 
portas ? et si beati consortium Petri quaeris, cur ejus quern ille 
anathematizavit, tonsurse imaginem imitaris 1 et non potius ejus 
cum quo in aeternum beatus vivere cupis, etiam nunc habitum te, 
quantum potes, diligere monstras 1 Respondit ille : Scias pro 
certo, frater mi dilecte, quia etsi Simonis tonsuram ex consuetudine 
patria habeam, Simoniacam tamen perfidiam tota mente detestor 
ac respuo : beatissimi autem apostolorum principis, quantum mea 
parvitas sufficit, vestigia sequi desidero. At ego : Credo, inquam, 
vere quod ita sit ; sed tamen indicio fit, quod ea quae apostoli 
Petri sunt, in abdito cordis amplectimini, si quse ejus esse nostis, 
etiam in facie tenetis. Namque prudentiam tuam facillime dijudi- 
care reor, quod aptius multo sit, ejus quern corde toto abhominaris, 
cujusque horrendam faciem videre refugis, habitum vultus a tuo 
vultu Deo jam dicato separare ; et e contra, ejus quern apud Deum 
habere patronum quseris, sicut facta vel monita cupis sequi, sic 
etiam morem habitus te imitari condeceat. Haec tune Adamnano 
dixi, qui quidem quantum conspectis ecclesiarum nostrarum statutis 
profecisset, probavit, cum reversus ad Scottiam, multas postea 
gentis ejusdem turbas ad catholicam temporis paschalis observan- 
tiam sua prsedicatione correxit ; tametsi eos qui in Hii insula mora- 
bantur monachos, quibusque speciali rectoris jure prseerat, necdum 
ad viam statuti melioris reducere valebat. Tonsuram quoque, si 
tantum sibi auctoritatis subesset, emendare meminisset." It is 

k 



cliv INTRODUCTION. 

worthy of remark that, while Bede makes special mention of one 
of Adamnan s works, he says nothing about the other, nay, he 
proves by his passing observation concerning St. Columba elsewhere 
(in. 4), de cujus vita et verbis nonnulla a disdpulis ejus feruntur scripta 
liaberi, that he was not aware of Adamnan s having written on the 
subject. This silence suggested a difficulty to the Bollandist 
editor, which, however, was removed when he remembered that 
the Life bears internal evidence of having been written some time 
after the visits to Aldfrid : " Formidinem omnem toilet ipse 
Adamnanus ; qui, in fine libri secundi, meritis S. Columbse ad- 
scribit, quod in utraque legatione Anglica, ad Egfridum nempe et 
Aldfridum Reges, grassante per regiones istas pestilentia, incolumis 
evaserit : adeoque mirum non est, Vitam S. Columbse neque ab 
auctore fuisse oblatam Aldfrido Regi, neque innotuisse Bedse : 
quandoquidem constet Adamnanum, post finitam legationem 
Anglicam, de virtutibus et miraculis S. Columbse scripsisse, quae in 
aliorum scriptis invenerat, et per totam vitam suam a senioribus 
audierat." 

From the above it appears, therefore, that on his return to Hy, 
Adamnan endeavoured to introduce the new observances, but 
found the community much less disposed for change than he had 
been ; and that attachment to old customs prevailed over the 
influence of argument, or the weight of personal influence. 

In 692 Adamnan again visited his native country, and the 
object of his journey seems to have been one of importance, for 
the Annalists, every word of whom is full of meaning, in recording 
the event, state that it occurred fourteen years after the death of 
his predecessor Failbhe. On this occasion he seems to have had 
political as well as ecclesiastical matter to engage his attention. 
His friend the sovereign of Ireland, King Finnachta, had incurred, 
if the bardic accounts are to be credited, the displeasure of the 
Hy Neill race, by impairing the honours which he was expected 
to uphold, in remitting to the Leinster-men the tribute which they 
had been in the habit of annually paying to the chief of the exist 
ing dynasty. Finnachta had fought the Lagenians and routed 
them, so that his indulgence to them does not seem to have been 
extorted by force. The secret probably lies in the monarch s title 
of Fledach, or " the Festive." Poems ascribe the exemption to the 
pleading of St. Moling, a Leinster ecclesiastic of great celebrity, 
who took advantage of the ambiguous meaning of the word Luan, 
which is either Monday, or the day of judgment, to convert the term 
of a temporary respite into a perpetual surrender of the claims. 
Adamnan gets the credit of being the great champion for the 
maintenance of the demand ; and a poem of some length and fire 
is attributed to him, wherein he calls Finnachta in rigli crin liath 



INTRODUCTION. C lv 

cen detu, " the old grey king without teeth," and indulges in such 
sentiments as these : 

" Were I a king of reddened spears 
I would humble mine enemies, 
I would exalt my high places, 
My combats should be frequent." 

The Irish Life of Adamnan says that a proclamation had been 
made by Finnachta to the effect, that the lands ofColumcille should 
not enjoy the same privileges as those of Patrick, Finnian, and 
Ciaran, whereupon Adamnan said : " The life of the king who 
made this proclamation shall be short ; he shall fall by fratricide ; 
and there shall be no king of his race for ever." Finnachta fell 
by the hand of his cousin in 695. 

During his sojourn in Ireland, Adamnan in all probability 
exerted himself strenuously in the propagation of the new Easter 
observance, and laid the foundation of the great success which 
afterwards attended his recommendation of the subject in this his 
native country. His stay, however, was not of long continuance, 
for we find him returning to Ireland in 697, in order to legislate 
for the people. It was probably in the interval of these two 
journeys that he compiled his Life of St. Columba, for the use of 
his society. In it he makes no reference to the difference of 
sentiment between himself and his congregation on the paschal 
question ; but there is an allusion to a sore subject, where he tells 
of St. Columba s prophecy at Clonmacnoise concerning the discord, 
" quse post dies multos ob diversitatem Paschalis festi orta est inter 
Scotise ecclesias" (p. 118). He may have referred to the same 
subject when he spoke of the " valde stolidi qui ingrati Dei 
patientia male abutuntur" (p. 191). Baert conjectured that the 
Life was written during Adamnan s last sojourn in Ireland, and 
that the brethren, at whose instance he professes to write, were 
not the refractory monks of Hy, but the more amenable inmates 
of Durrow, and of the kindred associations in Ireland. This, 
however, is a conclusion drawn from unsound premisses, for it 
supposes, as some Irish accounts have done, that Adamnan 
quarrelled with his people ; also that the Irish Columbians yielded, 
while the Hyensian ones held out. The one supposes Adamnan to 
have been expelled from his pastoral charge ; the other is contra 
dicted by Bede. The Life itself bears the fullest internal evidence 
that it was written by a member of the society, who speaks of 
nostrum monasterium (pp. 131, 136, 189), living in the island, nostra 
insula (111, 190), which was small and remote (217), among other 
islands (191), and called low insula (189, 190). 

Connected with the journey to Ireland in 697, the Annals 
record a transaction which they despatch with enigmatical brevity : 



Clvi INTRODUCTION. 

Dedit legem innocentium populis. In which words they allude to a 
social reformation which was brought about by Adamnan, and 
which, having obtained the highest sanction of the people, became, 
as in the case of many modern Acts of Parliament, associated with 
the name of the propounder. A synod was convened at Tara, 
within an enclosure called the Bath-na-Senadh, or " Eath of the 
Synods/ where the memory of the chief actor was perpetuated in 
the name Pupall Adhamhnain, or " Pavilion of Adamnan," which 
was given to a portion of the space ; also in the Suidhe Adhamhnain, 
or " Adamnan s chair ; " the Dumha Adhamhnain, or " Adamnan s 
mound;" and the Cros Adhamhnain, or "Adamnan s cross," 
situated on the east of the Kath. This mordail, or " convention- 
general," was held, as the semi-legendary records state, at the instance 
of Adamnan, for the purpose of procuring a national enactment, 
exempting women from war and expeditions. The legend con 
cerning the influence and circumstances which brought Adamnan 
to interfere in the matter may be seen in the Notes, p. 245. The 
acts of the convention were copied by Michael O Clery from the 
Book of Raphoe, and are preserved in one of the Irish manu 
scripts at Brussels. There were present thirty-nine ecclesiastics, 
presided over by Flann Febhla, the Abbot of Armagh, and among 
them were Ichtbrocht, or Ecgbert, probably the individual who 
brought the Hyensians to paschal conformity in 716; and Murchu 
Mac U Macteni, the writer of a portion of St. Patrick s memoirs 
in the Book of Armagh. It is a remarkable fact, however, that, 
with the exception of the Abbot of Armagh, and Cennfaeladh, 
Abbot of Bangor, the rest of the clergy were from Leinster and 
the south. At the head of the laity was Loingsech, son of Aengus, 
monarch of Ireland, and after him forty-seven chiefs of various 
territories. Last on the list of temporals is " Bruide mac Derili, 
king of the region of the Picts." The enactments of the synod 
were afterwards called Lex Adamnani, or Cain Adhamhnain, which 
means " tribute of Adamnan," because among its results was the 
privilege which was conceded to him and his successors of levying 
pecuniary contributions under certain conditions. In after times, 
when this assessment became of sufficient importance, there was an 
officer, or agent, for its receipt, styled the Maor cana Adhamhnain, 
" Steward of Adamnan s Law." 

It was possibly on the same occasion that the question of Easter 
was publicly discussed, and the usage advocated by Adamnan 
adopted. At this time also may have been promulgated those 
eight canons which bear the name of Adamnan. Ecclesiastical 
considerations, however, if entertained at this meeting, were not of 
sufficient importance in the eyes of the Irish to merit an entry in 
a journal ; and the absorbing subject seems to have been the civil 



INTRODUCTION. civil 

enactment which afterwards became a source of profit, and for this 
reason had special claims upon the memory. 

In the mystified style of the Irish, it is sometimes dangerous, 
and always difficult, to deal with their statements as historical 
records ; but there seems to be ground for believing that the 
public mind, which had for some time been kept in expectation 
and alarm by the diseases which prevailed, and the portents which 
were observed or imagined, was advantageously impressed, and 
seriously disposed, by the relation of a vision, concerning the joys 
of heaven and the pains of hell, which Adamnan is said to have wit 
nessed previous to the date of the above synod. The Fis Adhamhnain, 
or " Vision of Adamnan," an Irish composition of considerable age, 
as is proved by its style, is still in existence ; and though possessing 
internal evidence that in its present form it is not the production 
of Adamnan, it lays claim to considerable antiquity, and embodies 
a narrative which, like the visions of St. Fursa, passed current in 
conversation as the realities of his experience. The Vision is a 
religious discourse on the text Psal. cxlvi. 5, 6 (Vulg.), and after 
some prefatory remarks, goes on to say : " After this, that which 
is preached here was manifested to Adamnan Ua Tinne, the high 
sage of the western world, when his soul passed from his body on 
the festival of John the Baptist, and when it was carried to heaven 
to behold the angels there, and to hell to behold its wretched 
hosts." Having related all that he witnessed in either abode, and 
having specially noticed in the place of torment the " Aircinnechs, 
who, in the presence of the relics of the saints, administer the gifts 
and tithes of God, but who turn the profits to their own private 
ends from the strangers and poor of the Lord," whom he elsewhere 
brands as " sensual Aircinnechs," the narrative proceeds to say that 
the soul of Adamnan desired to remain in the happy region, but 
that " it heard from behind him, through the veil, the voice of his 
guardian angel commanding it to be replaced in the same body 
from which it had passed ; and that it should relate in the assem 
blies and conventions of the laity and clergy the rewards of 
heaven and the pains of hell, such as the conducting angel had 
revealed to him. It was therefore the precept which Adamnan 
preached whilst he was alive. It was this precept, too, which was 
preached in the great convention of the men of Erin, when 
Adamnan s Eule was put on the Gaedhil ; and when women were 
made free by Adamnan and Finachta Fledach, son of Dunchadh, 
son of Aedh Slaine, the King of Erin, and by the men of Erin also. 
For it was alike that men and women went into battles and into 
conflicts, until the Kule of Adamnan was imposed." A second 
vision, or rather a supplement, recounting the wickedness of the 
inhabitants of Ireland, and the mortalities with which they were 



clviii INTRODUCTION. 

visited, and should be visited, follows, and mentions such chastise 
ments as the Scamhach, or "Leprosy;" the Bo-ar, or "Cow mor 
tality;" the Digbail toraid, or "Blight of fruit;" the Gorta, or 
"Famine;" the Nuna, or " Scarcity;" and Dunibadh, or "Human 
mortality; " against all of which it declares prayer and fasting to 
be the only sure preservative. 

From 697 till the year of his death, Adamnan seems to have 
remained in Ireland : for, though the social improvement which 
he effected is despatched in a few words in the Annals, we can 
hardly conceive that so vital a measure was brought about without 
much exertion and preparatory solicitation. The success of his 
paschal advocacy among a people naturally attached to old pre 
judices, in communities widely spread, and subject to many 
antagonistic influences, must have required a longer period for its 
completion than the following words of Bede would at first sight 
seem to imply : " Navigavit Hiberniam, et prsedicans eis, ac 
modesta exhortatione declarans legitimum paschse tempus, plurimos 
eorum, et pene omnes qui ab Hiiensium dominio erant liberi, ab 
errore avito correctos ad unitatem reduxit catholicam, et legitimum 
paschse tempus observare perdocuit" (v. 15). The Life of St. Gerald 
of Mayo, a compilation full of anachronisms, has yet this curious 
coincidence with the statement just made, that it allows Adamnan 
a seven years residence in Ireland. Now, admitting the supposition 
above stated to be correct, the interval between 697 and 704, the 
year of Adamnan s death is exactly commensurate with this period. 
One thing appears certain from Bede, namely, that Adamnan 
crossed over from Ireland to Hy in the summer of the year in 
which he died, and that he had been in Ireland for a considerable 
time previously. The Irish Annals record an occurrence which 
almost proves him to have been in Ireland in 701. In that year 
Irgalach, son of Conang, great-grandson of Aedh Slaine, and lord 
of Cianachta in Meath, slew his own cousin Niall, son of Cearnach 
Sotal. This act is said to have excited the indignation of Adam- 
nan, under whose protection Niall had been, and he denounced 
against Irgalach speedy retribution for the crime. At this time 
Adamnan is represented to have been in the neighbourhood of the 
Boyne, and an ancient poem states that the cursing of Irgalach took 
place in a synod held by Adamnan at Tara. Irgalach, according 
to Tighernach, was slain by the Britons in 702 ; and the Annals 
of Ulster add that the deed was done in Inis-mac-Nesan, the small 
island east of Howth, now known as Ireland s Eye. The wife of 
Irgalach was Muirenn, daughter of Cellach Cualann, and sister of 
St. Kentigerna of Loch Lomond. She died in 748. 

The Life of St. Geraldus represents Adamnan s connexion with 
Mayo in these words : " Tune sanctus abbas Adamnanus post 



INTRODUCTION. clix 

visitationem totius Hiberniae ad S. Geraldum perrexit, ut fraternam 
cum eo contraheret societatem. Cui S. Geraldus fundum cum fonte 
limpido contulit, atque sibi suam commendavit Ecclesiam, ut a per- 
secutione laicorum post obitum suum earn defenderet : quod toturn 
S. Adamnanus se completurum promisit, atque opere complevit. 
Post ejus [S. Geraldi] vero obitum S. Adamnanus Mageonensem 
Ecclesiam, per septem annos indefesse rexit. Inde ad lonensem 
Abbatiam perrexit, et ibi feliciter in Domino obiit et sepultns est." 
Now, though this statement is open, in the first place, to the grave 
objection that St. Geraldus was later than Adamnan instead of 
prior to him, and, in the second, that a monastery founded twenty 
years previously as an asylum for adherents to the old Easter, was 
not a likely place to entertain the professed advocate of innova 
tion ; still, the story seems to be wrought upon an ancient tradition 
that St. Adamnan traversed Ireland on ecclesiastical duty, and 
spent some years therein, and that, having gone back to Hy at the 
end of about seven years, he died soon after. 

The narrative of Adamnan s proceedings, from his first visit to 
the court of Aldfrid down to his last stay in Ireland, as given in 
Mac Firbis s MS. Annals, is so amusingly characteristic of native 
simplicity, that it is entitled, notwithstanding its looseness, to find 
a place among more explicit records. "An 896 [recte 796]. In 
this year the men of Erin consented to receive jurisdiction and one 
rule from Adamnan respecting the celebration of Easter on Sunday, 
on the fourteenth of the moon of April ; and the coronal tonsure 
of Peter was performed upon the clerics of Erin, for there had been 
great variance in Erin on these questions, until then, inasmuch as 
some of the clerics of Erin were in the habit of celebrating Easter 
on Sunday the 14th of the moon of April, and had the coronal 
tonsure of Peter the Apostle, following in the steps of Patrick ; 
others, following Columcille, celebrated Easter on the fourteenth of 
the moon of April, whatever day of the week that fourteenth should 
happen to fall, and had the coronal tonsure of Simon Magus. A 
third party followed neither the sect of Patrick nor the sect of 
Columcille, so that the clergy of Erin held many synods, and they 
used to come to these synods with weapons, so that pitched battles 
used to be fought between them, and many used to be slain ; so 
that many evils ensued to Erin from this, namely, the Bear-mor, 
and the very great dearth, and many diseases ; and extern tribes 
injured Erin. They continued thus for a long period, and even to 
the time of Adamnan. He was the ninth abbot who succeeded to 
the government of la after Columcille. 

"A great spoil was carried off by the Saxons from Erin. 
Adamnan went to demand a restitution of the spoil, as Bede relates 
in his history. The greater part of the bishops of all Europe 



clx INTRODUCTION. 

assembled to condemn Adamnan for having celebrated Easter after 
the fashion of Columcille, and for having upon him the tonsure of 
Simon Magus, i.e. ab aure ad aurem. Bede says that though many 
were the wise men in that synod, Adamnan excelled them all in 
wisdom and eloquence ; and Adamnan said, It was not in imita 
tion of Simon Magus that he had this tonsure, but in imitation of 
John of the Breast, the foster-son of the Kedeemer, and that this 
was the tonsure which he had upon him, and that though Peter 
loved the Saviour, the Saviour loved John ; and that it was on the 
fourteenth of the moon of April, on whatever day of the week that 
should fall, the Apostles celebrated Easter. Then an old senior 
rising up said, Though Columcille himself were present here, we 
would not leave him until he should be of the same rule with our 
selves ; but you we will not quit, until you be of the same rule 
with ourselves. Adamnan made answer unto him and said, I shall 
be of the same rule with you. Be tonsured therefore, accordingly, 
said the bishops. It will be sufficient that I do so, said Adamnan, 
at my own monastery. No, said they, but immediately. Adamnan 
was then tonsured, and no greater honour was ever shown to man 
than was given to Adamnan on this occasion ; and that great spoil 
was restored to him, and he came straight home to his own monas 
tery of la. It was a great surprise to his congregation to see him 
with that tonsure. He then requested of the congregation to re 
ceive the tonsure, but they refused, and he got nothing from them, 
sed Deus permissit conventui peccare, i.e. ipsum Adamnanum expellere, 
qui misertus est Hibernice. Sic Beda dixit ; for Bede was along with 
Adamnan. Now Adamnan came afterwards to Erin, and his fame 
spread throughout the land, but that one regulation of Easter and 
of the tonsure was not received from him until this year, anno 
Domini 696, and Adamnan died in the year 703, in the 7 8th year 
of his age." 

Bede records the last stage in our saint s life, " Qui cum cele- 
brato in Hibernia canonico pascha, ad suam insulam revertisset, 
suoque monasterio catholicam temporis paschalis observantiam 
instantissime prsedicaret, nee tamen perficere quod conabatur posset, 
contigit eum ante expletum anni circulum migrasse de sseculo. 
Divina utique gratia disponente, ut vir unitatis ac pacis studio- 
sissimus ante ad vitam raperetur seternam, quam redeunte tempore 
paschali, graviorem cum eis qui eum ad veritatem sequi nolebant, 
cogeretur habere discordiam." This was, according to the Irish 
Annals, in the year 704 : in which the reformed Easter fell on the 
30th of March. He died on the 23d of September, which is the 
day of his commemoration both in the Irish and Scotch calendars. 

Of the character of Adamnan for learning and the graces of the 
Christian ministry, we have the highest testimony in the contem- 



INTRODUCTION. clxi 

porary statements of Bede and Ceolfrid. Alcuin, later in the same 
century, ranks him with Columba and Comgall, in the well-known 
epigram : 

" Patritius, Cheranus, Scotorum gloria gentis, 

Atque Columbanus, Congallus, Adomnanus atque, 

Prseclari patres, morum vitaeque magistri, 

His precibus pietas horum nos adjuvet omnes." 

In a later age, Fordun, in addition to the trite commemoration, 
"virtutibus pollens et miraculis," 1 says of his literary fidelity, 
" quando historias et res gestas conscripsit, de more semper habuit 
auctorem suum in testimonium adducere." The Irish, of course, are 
loud in his praises. In the Vision he is styled the " noble sage of 
the western world," 2 and his Life ascribes to him the combined 
virtues of Patriarchs and Apostles, while the Four Masters sum up 
the evidence thus : " Adamnan was a good man, according to the 
testimony of St. Beda, for he was tearful, penitent, given to prayer, 
diligent, ascetic, temperate ; he never used to eat except on Sunday 
and Thursday ; he made a slave of himself to these virtues ; and, 
moreover, he was wise and learned in the clear understanding of 
the Holy Scriptures of God." Yet he was not without his tempta 
tions, and there is a curious coincidence between his Irish Life and 
the Lessons in the Breviary of Aberdeen as to the manner in which 
the enemy made his assaults, namely, in human form, and with 
knotty, diabolical questions. The philosophy of these legends is 
that they arose, in an imaginative age, out of the prevailing and 
well-founded belief in Adamnan s learning and mental ability. 
Among his many virtues, diligence in his calling seems to have 
been one. The energy of his character has left its impress on the 
traditions of the country in the many journeys which he undertook, 
and the synods which he held ; and he himself bears honest testi 
mony to the multiplicity of his labours, in the epilogue of his tract 
on the Holy Places : " Quse et ego quamlibet inter laboriosas et 
prope insustentabiles tota die undique conglobatas ecclesiasticas 
sollicitudines constitutus, vili quamvis sermone describens de- 
claravi." Filial piety was another of his virtues, and out of his 
character for it grew the legend cited in the Notes (p. 245), and 
the title of his Feilire, or Festology, Incipit Feilire Adamnain dia 
Mathair [for his mother] hie. 

The undoubted writings of Adamnan are, his tract De Locls 
Saudis, and the Vita S. Columbce. The former, whose authorship is 
proved beyond all question by Bede, opens with the following pro 
logue : " In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, texere librum 
de locis incipio sanctis. Arculfus sanctus episcopus, gente Gallus, 
diversorum longe remotorum peritus locorum, verax index et satis 

1 B. III. c. 43. 2 ardecnaid iarlhair domain. 



clxii INTRODUCTION. 

idoneus, in Hierosolymitana civitate per menses novem hospitatus, 
et locis cotidianis visitationibus peragratis, mini Adanmano hsec 
uni versa quae infra craxanda sunt, experimenta diligentius perscru- 
tanti, et primo in tabulas describenti, fideli et indubitabili narra- 
tione dictavit, quse nunc in membranis brevi textu scribuntur." 
This interesting record is an important item in the history of 
writing, as showing the collateral and respective uses among the 
Irish of waxed tablets and membranes for literary purposes, to 
wards the close of the seventh century. 

The other genuine work of Adamnan wants the external 
evidence which the tract De Locis Srmctis possesses, and bears testi 
mony on certain ecclesiastical questions which it has sometimes 
been judged desirable to invalidate. Sir James Dalrymple, in 
1714, when defending the Presbyterian view of Church govern 
ment, found it convenient to throw discredit on the anecdote 
told in i. 35 (p. 142), and, as a means towards this, called the 
genuineness of the whole work in question. " I cannot agree," said 
Sir James, " with our Biographer, that the Authority of Adamnanus 
is equal, far less preferable, to that of Bede, since it was agreed on 
all hands to be a fabulous History, lately published in his Name, 
and that he was remarkable for nothing, but that he was the first 
Abbot of that Monastery, who quit the Scottish Institution, and 
became fond of the English Romish Kites." In our own day Doctor 
Giles, when translating Bede s Ecclesiastical History, added the 
remark : " Besides the work On the Holy Places, Adamnan is the 
reputed author of a Life of Saint Columba/ but I have strong 
doubts of Adamnan s having written it. I propose shortly to pub 
lish the original text of both these works." On what the writer s 
scruples were founded does not appear, as the proposed oppor 
tunity of declaring it has never occurred. It is to be hoped that the 
doubts originated in a different style of research from that which 
made Bede s Columcelli an island, and Dearmach the same as Deny ! 
Lastly, in 1851, a Prussian clergyman, hoping to extend to a por 
tion of British antiquities the enlightenment of German criticism, 
objected to the Vita Adamnani on these grounds : " Hsec ipsa adeo 
fabulis est obscurata, ut vix credi possit, vii saeculo, quo literae 
apud Hyienses floruerunt, ejusmodi nugas esse conscriptas. Pro- 
logi autem Vitae suspicionem mihi faciunt, quorum titulum Prae- 
fatio Apologiaque Adamnani Abbatis sancti scriptoris a librario 
esse praepositum nemo non videt, apologiam vero, quae tarn stylo 
ac sermone quam re aliena sit a Vita ipsa, ficticiam esse, facile ap- 
paret." But surely these are not the observations of one qualified 
to pronounce judgment on such a question. If nugce and fabulce 
such as Adamnan s indicate spuriousness, what becomes of early 
biography ? As to the title of the Prologue, had he consulted a 
good edition, he might have solved that difficulty ; and if he had 



INTRODUCTION. 

gone further he might have found the Bollandist s remarks upon 
the expression. Lastly, as to the Apology, the res is of course 
different from the narrative of the Vita, while the stylus ac sermo 
are so similar to the rest, that none save the architect of a paradox 
could discern the difference in the materials. The Life, where there 
is a slight variation of style, tells its own story, for it professes to 
be compilation ; and we might as well deny the genuineness of 
Bede s Ecclesiastical History, because an early chapter is borrowed 
from Gildas, and another from Constantius, without acknowledg 
ment. There is internal evidence in the Life on the following 
points to satisfy any but a theorist, that, 1. It was written by an 
ecclesiastic, living in loua insula (pp. 189, 190), styled nostra 
(pp. Ill, 190), in which was nostrum monasterium (pp. 131, 136, 
189); 2. By the superior of the monastery (pp. 113, 118, 207 tit.) ; 
whose immediate predecessor was Falbeus, and he a successor of 
Segineus (pp. 1 1 3, 1 1 8) ; 3. By one who conversed with those who 
had heard S. Columba s voice (p. 137); who conversed with a, 
person who remembered the night on which S. Columba died (p. 
215) ; who conversed with the acquaintances of St. Columba s 
friends (pp. 129, 142, 215) ; who conversed with a person who had 
witnessed the battle of Dun-Ceithirn in 629 (p. 146); who knew 
an early friend of the St. Fintan who died in 635 (p. 116) ; who 
conversed with the nephew of his predecessor Virgnous who died 
in 623 (p. 208) ; who was living when the battle of Magh-Eath took 
place (p. 197); who witnessed the ravages of the Great Pestilence 
(p. 191); who was a personal friend of King Aldfrid (p. 191) ; 
who lived when the House of Gabhran was declining (p. 198) ; 
4. By one whose name was Adamnan (pp. 113, 146, 208, 215). 
Here is an accumulation of evidence which should satisfy any mind, 
and the more so as it is for the most part undesigned and incidental, 
the internal counterpart of the writer s own declaration : " Hujus 
ergo praemissae narrationis testes, non bini tantum vel terni, secun- 
dum legem, sed centeni et amplius adhuc exstant" (pp. 113, 190). 
Besides these Latin works, Adamnan is said to have written, 

1. A Life of St. Patrick. This is twice stated in the Tripartite Life. 

2. Poems. Tighernach cites some verses of his, at the year 695, 
and the Four Masters, at 742. His alleged Feilire, or " Festology," 
consisting of seven quatrains and a half, comes also under this head. 
The poem on the remission of the Boromean tribute, containing 
fifty-two stanzas, though bearing his name, is hardly compatible 
with his religious character, and evidences the genius rather than 
the piety of the writer. 3. Historia Hibernorum ab origine ad sua 
tempora, mentioned by Ward, but otherwise unknown. 4. Epitome 
metrica triginta voluminum legum Hibernicarum, also mentioned by 
Ward ; and, like the preceding article, probably some compilation 
of modern date and no authority. 



clxiv INTllODUCTION. 

Of Adamnan s two Latin works, the tract De Locis Sanctis is the 
better written and more flowing, but it bears a striking resemblance 
to the other in many particulars of style, and the use of peculiar 
words and phrases. In the following pages the reader will observe 
the liberal employment of diminutives, so characteristic of Irish 
composition ; and he will find them, in many cases, used without 
any grammatical force, and commutable, in the same chapters, with 
their primitives. The same tendency is also observable among 
verbs in the use of frequentatives and intensitives. He delights in 
the distributive numerals instead of cardinals, and in the adjective 
termination ax where admissible. He uses the pluperfect for the 
perfect, and the nominative instead of the ablative absolute. He 
occasionally employs Greek, or Greco-Latin words ; and in a few 
instances introduces Irish and Hiberno-Latin expressions. Proper 
names he sometimes inflects according to the rules of Irish grammar, 
so that in a Latin narrative they present an anomalous appearance. 
Above all, the artificial, and often unnatural, interweaving of his 
words, in long sentences, and the oft-recurring ablative absolute in 
awkward position, will strike the reader as remarkable features of 
the style. 

One subject more remains to be considered : the veneration of 
St. Adamnan s memory. In testimony of this, two classes of 
monuments exist, namely, the churches under his patronage, and 
the appellations commemorative of his name. 

St. Adamnan s Irish Churches. 

1 . Bathboth. He is the patron, but not the founder, of this church. 
It was originally monastic ; and in the bestowal of conventual 
honours among the ancient Irish, the distinctions of orders were 
not regarded. Hence, when Kaphoe became an episcopal see, but 
under its old patronage, after-ages, supposing that a bishop s see 
must originate with a bishop, took advantage of Adamnan s 
phonetic name Eunan, and created a bishop Eunan patron of the 
diocese, moving his festival a fortnight back in the month, and 
leaving Adamnan to enjoy his old abbatial honours on the 23d. 
Pope Clement xn. approved of a mass for Bishop Eunan s festival 
on the 7th of September, which was printed in Paris in 1734. 
Accordingly, the Bollandists place the commemoration of " S. 
Eunanus Episcopus, Confessor, Kaphoae in Hibernia," at Sept. vii., 
in a short notice edited by Joannes Stiltingus. Alban Butler, fol 
lowing this authority, repeats the error at the same day ; and in 
the Irish Calendar appended to the Dublin edition of his valuable 
book, the same fictitious patron intrudes on another saint s day. 
St. Adamnan s bed used to be shown at Eaphoe. 

2. Skreen. A parish church of the diocese of Killala, in the 
county of Sligo, barony of Tireragh, bounded on the north by 



INTRODUCTION. clxv 

Sligo Bay. The site of the church is an old grant. The Life of 
Farannan relates that Tibraide [son of Maelduin, Lord of Hy- 
Fiachrach] bestowed upon St. Columba and his fraternity three 
pleasant portions of ground, one of which " locus isto sevo Cnoc-na- 
maoile dicebatur, postea a S. Adamnano Abbate, Serin- Adhamhnain, 
i.e. Scrinium S. Adamnani dictus." St. Adamnan is locally called 
Awnaun, and his well is situated a little to the east of the old 
church, at the other side of the road. From this well the townland 
Toberawnaun [Tobar Adhamhnain] derives its name, between which 
and the townland Soodry runs the Dunmoran stream. Over this 
rivulet, in connexion with a boreen, is the Drehid Awnaun, or 
" Bridge of Adamnan," formed of a flag nine feet long, and nine 
inches broad, resting on two stones in the bed of the stream, two 
feet high. It does not fill the whole breadth of the stream, so that 
at either end there is a vacant space between it and the bank. The 
natives say it was formed by the saint, for his convenience in going 
from his church to the strand ; and some additions which were 
lately made to it, in order to complete the continuity of the path, 
were speedily removed, as foreign to the original design. The 
church derives its name, it is said, from Adamnan s shrine, which 
was preserved there. This shrine might be supposed to enclose 
St. Adamnan s bones, and to be the case containing the reliquiae 
Adamnani, which were brought over to Ireland in 727 for the 
renewal of his Law, and which were taken back to Hy in 730. 
But, according to a record in one of the Brussels MSS., which was 
copied by Michael O Clery, in 1629, from " an old black and diffi 
cult manuscript of parchment," the contents of the shrine were the 
various relics which Adamnan himself had collected. The record 
opens by saying, " Illustrious was this Adamnan. It was by him 
was gathered the great collection of the relics [martra] of the 
saints into one shrine, and that was the shrine which Cilline Droic- 
thech, son of Dicolla, brought to Erin to make peace and friend 
ship between the Cinel Conaill and Cinel Eoghain." It then pro 
ceeds to enumerate the twenty-six articles which were enclosed in 
it, consisting of manuscripts of the Gospels, hymns, and poems ; 
articles of apparel belonging to the saints of Ireland ; and a few 
relics of St. Paul and the Virgin Mary ; the aggregate of which 
must have filled a large box, and been a rather heavy load to carry 
about. Colgan couples this shrine with the church of Skreen, and 
observes : " Est ecclesia multorum reliquiis nobilis et veneranda, 
Dicecesis Kill-aladen, in regione de Tir Fhiachrach, de qua, vide 
plura in notis ad vitam S. Adamnani, ubi dabimus catalogum reli- 
quiarum in illo scrinio reconditarum." In 832 the shrine of 
Adamnan was in the keeping of Tuathal mac Feradhaich, Abbot of 
Rechra and Durrow, from whom it was carried off from Donagh- 
moyne by the Danes. It is very likely that there were two 



Clxvi INTRODUCTION. 

shrines called Adamnan s, the older, containing his own remains, 
which is the one referred to in the Annals, the other, containing 
the miscellaneous objects mentioned in the catalogue, which was in 
after-times coupled with his name, and preserved in his church of 
Skreen. 

3. Drumhome. A parish in the diocese of Raphoe, county of 
Donegal, barony of Tirhugh. It is the Dorsum Tomme mentioned 
in such interesting connexion at p. 215, and was probably in the 
neighbourhood of St. Adamnan s birthplace. The seat of a power 
ful branch of the Cinel Conaill was in this parish (p. 122) ; and in 
it was also preserved the reliquary called the Cathach (p. Ix). 
Fleming, in reference to Adamnan, says : " Animadvertendum, 
ipsum antequam Hiensis monasterii administrationem suscepisset, 
plura in Hibernia monasteria, sub editse a se regulse prsescriptis 
erexisse, quorum praecipua fuere Rapotense, Pontis-Adamnani, Droim- 
tuamense, et Scrinense." To this list Colgan adds : " Colitur S. 
Adamnanus in Ecclesiis de Dunbo, Aregal, Boithfheabha, et Grel- 
leach, in dioecesi Derensi." 

4. Errigal. A parish in the diocese of Deny, county of London 
derry, barony of Colerairie, formerly called, from its patron, Airecal 
Adliamhnain, the " habitation of Adamnan." It is now best known 
through its village Garvagh. The present parish church stands on 
a modern site. The old site is in the townland of Ballintemple, 
where the foundations remain, measuring 52 by 18 feet. South of 
this is the only local commemoration which now remains in the 
parish, namely, an eminence called St. Onan s Hock. It is marked on 
the Ordnance Map (sheet 18, at foot), but at the time it was noted 
there was not a man in the county that knew who St. Onan was. 

5. Dunbo. A parish in the same diocese, county, and barony. 
The ruins of the old church, situate near Downhill, measure 6 3 2 
by 27 6 feet. In this parish is the Munitio Cethirni of p. 145,m/ra. 

6. Bovevagli. A parish in the same diocese and county, barony of 
Keenaght. Archbishop King s list makes S. Eugenius the patron, 
which name may be regarded as a Latin form of Eunan. Local 
belief makes St. Ringan, that is, Ninian, the patron ; but Colgan s 
authority, already cited, is superior, as he lived in an age when 
these matters were better understood than now. The old church 
measures 51 feet by 17*6. 

7. Grreallach. Now Templemoyle, in the parish of Cloncha, 
diocese of Derry, county of Donegal, barony of Inishowen. It is a 
small burial-ground, with the faintest traces of a quadrilateral 
building ; situate on a rocky slope, amidst a wretched group of 
cabins, which form the hamlet of Templemoyle on the road between 
Culdaff and Carn. It contains but one tombstone, bearing the 
name of James Maginnis, a schoolmaster, who died Jan. 25, 1819. 

8. Ballindrait. In the parish of Clonleigh, diocese of Derry, 



INTRODUCTION. clxvii 

county of Donegal, and barony of Eaphoe. It adjoins Raphoe on 
the east, and is the Pans Adamnani mentioned above by Fleming. 
The Irish name is Droichd Adhamhnain. There is no church there 
now. 

9. Syonan. A townland in the parish of Ardnurcher, diocese and 
county of Meath, barony of Moycashel. It is Suidhe Adhamlmdin 
in Irish, that is, " Seat of Adamnain." The ruins of a castle exist 
here, but Macgeoghegan says that it was not church land. The 
tradition of the neighbourhood is that St. Adamnan, when on a 
visit to Ireland, preached to his relatives, the descendants of 
Fiacha, son of Niall, on a hill in the townland, which ever since 
has borne his name. 

1 0. Killonan. A townland in the parish of Derrygalvin, county 
of Limerick. The name seems to be formed from cill Adhamhnain, 
but without confirmation from any other ostensible local evidence. 

St. Adamnan s Scotch Churches. 

1. Furvie. A chapelry in the parish of Slains, on the east coast 
of Aberdeen, north of the Ythan Mouth. This seems to have been 
Adamnan s chief commemoration in Scotland, for it is the one 
connected with his name in the Breviary of Aberdeen : " S. 
Adampnani abbatis patroni apud Furui Aberdon. dyoces." In the 
View of the Diocese of Aberdeen it is stated, under parish of 
Slaines : " Here stood of old the parish church of Furvie (dedicated 
to St. Fidamnan, Abbot of Icolmkill), overblown by the sands." 
The New Stat. Acct. says, " On the estate of Leask, there is another 
ruin of a religious house, evidently a Roman Catholic chapel, as 
the place where the altar stood is plainly discernible. It is small, 
but must be considered a fine old ruin. One gable and Gothic 
window are still nearly entire, and the walls are overgrown with 
ivy. It stands in the middle of a small plantation of stunted firs 
and alder, on a little eminence gently rising from a swampy bottom, 
with a rivulet half enclosing it on the south side. It is called St. 
Adamannan s Chapel." The same name is given to it in the Old 
Statistical Account. 

2. Forgkn. A parish in the north-east angle of Banff, separated 
from Aberdeenshire by the Doveran. It was also called Teunan- 
kirk, from a peculiar form of the patron s name. Adam King, in 
his Calendar, at Sept. 23, has "S. Thewnan abbot and confessor 
in Scotland maister to king eugenius ye 6. 684." Dempster also 
calls him Thewnanus, placing his day at Sept. 23 ; but Camerarius, 
while he mentions " Sanctus Adamannus Episcopus, Northum- 
brorum Apostolus" (a man who never existed), at Sept. 25, 
notices "Sanctus Thevuanus Abbas et Confessor" at Sept. 26, 
adding, "Monasterio Mailrossensi diu prsefuit hie Sanctus." The 



clxviii INTRODUCTION. 

writer in the Old Stat. Account says, "The name of this parish 
was formerly T Eunan, or St. Eunan, after the saint of that name 
to whom the church had been dedicated." In the New Stat. 
Account, it is added that the ruins of the chapel still remain at 
the mouth of a rivulet which falls into the Deveron. The valuable 
writer in the Collections on the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff 
observes, " Mr. Thomas Innes takes him to be the very same with 
Saint Adamnan, who in Irish is called Ainan, and their day is 
the same, September the twenty-third ; Teunan being formed from 
Saint Ainan, as Trowel and Tantan from Saint Eule and Saint 
Antony." In this parish was formerly kept St. Columba s sacred 
banner, called the Breacbannach, mentioned at p. xcvii ; and he 
was also a patron of the church. 

3. Aboyn. A parish in the south of Aberdeenshire, on the north 
side of the Dee. " Aboyn hath for its tutelar Saint Theunan." 
About half-way between Aboyne Castle and the ruins of the 
ancient parish church is a large old tree, now called the Skeulan 
Tree, with a well at the foot of it called the Skeulan Well The 
tree is still held in reverence. Thomas Innes tells us that he was 
born in this parish, and mentions the objects alluded to as called 
in his day, " S. Eunan s Well " and " S. Eunan s Tree." 

4. Tannadice. A parish in Forfar, whose patron was St. 
Columba. A large rock on one of the braes of Angus, in this 
parish, is called SL Arnold s Seat. That this name, though 
apparently so far removed, has been formed from Adamnan, 
appears by the following extract from a record of 1527 : " Et 
sic eundo versus austrum usque ad caput mentis vocate Sand 
Eunendi s Seit." Who could suppose that the names St. Arnold s 
Seat and Syonan were identical in meaning ! 

5. Inchkeith. An island in the Firth of Forth, E.N.E. of Inch 
Colm. " Inchekethe, in qua prsefuit Sanctus Adamnanus abbas, 
qui honorifice suscepit Sanctum Servanum, cum sociis suis, in ipsa 
insula, ad primum suum adventum in Scotiam." So Fordun (Bowar) 
states, more trustworthy in his nomenclature than his chronology. 

6. Sanda. An island off the Mull of Cantyre, on the S.E. 
Fordun says of it, " Insula Awyn, ubi cella Sancti Adamnani, 
ibique pro transgressoribus refugium." Father Mac Cana s MS. 
account of the island states that in Irish it is called Abhuinn, 
Latinized Avonia. "In ea est sedicula S. Ninniano sacra, ad cujus 
ccenobium in Galvidia tota insula spectat. Conjunctum huic sedi- 
culse est ossarium siue sepulchretum quatuordecim filiorum SS 1 
viri Senchani Hiberni sanctitate illustrium. Saxeo murulo septum, 
in quo sunt septem grandia et polita saxa, quibus sanctissima 
corpora teguntur, in quorum medio erat obeliscus, altior hominis 
statura. Nemo mortalium impune ingreditur ilium murulum." 



INTRODUCTION. clxix 

7. Killeunan. A denomination of land in the parish of Kil- 
kerran, in Cantyre, variously written Killewnane and Kilyownane, 
and, no doubt, formed from dll Adhamhnain. 

8. Dalmeny. A parish in Linlithgowshire, near Queensferry, 
having a fine old Romanesque church. Here was a chantry of St. 
Adamnan. The writer in the New Stat. Account says, "From 
the crown-charter conveying the patronage capallanice et altaris 
Sancti Adamani infra ecclesiam parochialem de Dummany, it would 
appear to have been dedicated to St. Adaman, as the adjoining 
parish of Cramond was to St. Columba and the Virgin Mary." 

At Campsie, in Perthshire, was a croft of land called St. 
Adamnan 7 s Acre. 

In the above list it is observable that the dedications of St. 
Columba and Adamnan keep very close together. In Ireland, 
the churches of Raphoe, Skreen, and Drumhome are said to be 
founded by the former, yet under the patronage of the latter. In 
Scotland, Forglen is St. Adamnan s, but in it were St. Columba s 
lands of the Banner ; St. Columba s church of Tannadice has St. 
Eunan s Seat; St. Columba s church of Belhelvy neighbours to 
Furvy; Inch Colm s nearest land is Inch Keith; and St. Columba s 
Cramond has Dalmeny next adjoining on the west. 

The memorial appellation formed from the saint s name was 
Giolla- Adhamhnain, or "Servant of Adamnan." It early became 
a Christian name, and we find an example of it in the Charters 
of Kells in the beginning of the twelfth century (p. clxxix, infra). 
It appears about the same time in the MacDonnell family, 
for Somerlid, son of Gilla-Adhamnain, fell in 1164. Subsequently 
it became a favourite name in the family, and passed into that 
branch of it called the MacNeills of Barra. Among them we 
find, in 1495, Gilleownan Makneill, grandson of Gilleownan. In 
Ireland it was borne by an O Freel in 1328. According to the 
usual process it became also a surname, and is the origin of Mac 
Lennan, the name of the old inhabitants of Glenshiel in Ross-shire, 
which has passed into that familiar form from Mac Gilla- Adhamhnain, 
as appears from the genealogy of the clan, who derive their name 
from Gillaagamnan, son of Cormac, son of Oirbertach, of the race 
of Ferchar Abhradhruadh. 

Few names, in passing from their real to their phonetic forms, 
have undergone such transformations as that of our author. Who 
would suppose that Adamnan and Eunan were intended for the 
same person, or that Adampnanus and Thewnan were resolvable 
into a common original ? Adamnan is an Irish diminutive of 
Adam, as Cormac interprets the word in his Glossary : ADOMNAN .i. 
homungculus, disbecadh anma Adhaimh, " ADOMNAN, i.e. homungculus, 

I 



INTRODUCTION. 

a diminutive of the word Adam." Under the effect of aspiration, 
Adhamh loses the force of its consonants, and assumes the various 
sounds of Au, Eu, 0, and Ou ; hence, when the diminutive termina 
tion is added, it produces the respective words Aunan, Eunan, Onan, 
Ounan : these are the forms of pronunciation which the name 
Adamnan has assumed in Ireland. 

In the north-east of Scotland, as in Aberdeen and Banff, there is 
a tendency to prefix certain consonants to saints names, either as 
an equivalent for St., or to facilitate the pronunciation. Thus St. 
Rule becomes Trowel, and St. Antony Tantan ; and hence Eunan 
becomes Theunan, as in the parish of Aboyne, where a fresh change 
takes place, and St. Adamnan s Well and Tree become Skeulan 
Wall, and Skeulan Tree. Again, at Forvey, in the parish of Slains, 
Adamnan becomes Fidamnan ; and in Forglen, Adamnan s church 
is Teunan Kirk. But, at Dull, in Atholl, the form Eonan is pre 
served, as at Kilcherran in Cantyre, where we find the compound 
Killewnane or Killownane. 

The consequence of this diversity in the written and spoken 
forms of the name has been that even the best writers have created 
one or more additional saints, and have put the acts of Adamnan 
in commission. Thus, in Ireland, Sir James Ware represents 
Raphoe as founded by Columba, repaired by Adamnan, and changed 
from an abbey to a cathedral by St. Eunan, " who is looked upon 
to be the first bishop of the see." And this misapprehension 
appears, even at a recent date, in the Fasti Ecclesise Hibernicse, 
where the learned compiler observes of the first bishop of Raphoe, 
" St. Eunan is commonly reported to have erected the abbey church 
of Raphoe into a cathedral, and to have been its first bishop ; but 
nothing certain appears to be known of him, nor of the time at 
which he lived." What is more remarkable, St. Eunan s day has 
been observed on the 7th of September, while St. Adamnan s was 
kept on the 23d. Battersby s Catholic Directory for 1855 repre 
sents St. Eunan, the patron saint of Raphoe, as a Bishop, but of the 
famous individual called by Yen. Bede Adamnan presbyter, ouSel? 
Xo7o?. Such an error should not have been committed in the jj 
century, one of the ornaments of which had said, "I strongly suspect j 
that St. Eunan, who is usually called the first bishop of Raphoe, was j 
no other than Adamnan." 

Scottish writers are less in error. The Breviary of Aberdeen 
correctly places S. Adampnanus, Abbas, at Sept. 23; Adam King 
and Dempster commemorate St. Thewnan, who is represented as j 4 
preceptor of King Eugenius VI., at Sept. 23; and Keith, in like 
manner, only that he represents the saint by the name of Thennan. j 
The Scotch Prayer Book of 1638, in its Calendar, borrows the 
Irish error of making him a bishop, and places his day at Sept. 



INTRODUCTION. clxxi 

25. But T. Innes was aware of these inaccuracies, and spoke of 
Adamnan as " called by the vulgar S. Deunan or Theunan." 

Among English writers, Alban Butler repeats Sir James Ware s 
mistakes ; while Sir Harris Nicholas, gathering up the blunders of 
Ireland and Scotland, makes a tripartite division of Adamnan s 
sanctity, and sets out in his Calendar 

Eunan, Bishop of Eaphoe, . . at Sept 7 ; 
Adamnan, Abbot, ... at Sept. 23; and 
Thennan, Abbot and Confessor, . at Sept. 23. 

The variety of the name in early records consists only in the 
difference of Adamnan and Adomnan. Cod. A., in the four places 
where the word occurs, reads Adomnanus ; Cod. B. reads Adam- 
nanus once, and Adomnanus twice; Codd. C. F. S. vary in like 
manner ; Cod. D. always reads Adamnanus. The title of the tract 
De Locis Sanctis has Adamnanus. Among ancient writers, Ven. 
Bede reads Adamnan or Adamnanus six times ; while Alcuin has 
Adomnanus. The Lives of SS. Fechin and Geraldus, Fordun, and 
the Breviary of Aberdeen, write the name with a. Among the 
Annalists, Tighernach has Adamnanus three times, and Adomnan 
six ; An. Ult. read Adomnan always ; An. Inisf. Adamnan always ; 
the Four Masters Adamnan twelve times, and Adomnan once ; the 
Annals of Boyle Adamnan ; and the Annals of Cambria Adom 
nanus. The Vision of Adamnan has Adamnan four times, and 
Adomnan once. The prose description of Tara in the Dinnseanchus 
has Adomnan, the metrical Adamnan. Among the Calendars, the 
Felire, Marian Gorman, and O Clery s read am; the Martyrol. 
Tamhlacht. om. Thus it is seen there is no fixed practice ; how 
ever, as the etymology of the word favours the use of a-, and as the 
substitution of o is probably to exhibit the phonetic value of the 
original vowel, it has been deemed advisable in the present work 
to adopt the form which has been printed in the text. 



X. CONAMHAIL. Sed. 704-710. Ob. Sept. 11. 

Son of Failbhe. The first abbot of Hy, whose descent is referred 
to a different house from that of Conal Gulban. He was one of the 
Clann Colla, being of the race of Colla Uais, who was king of 
Ireland in 323 (Calend. Dungall.), and therefore one of the Airghi- 
alla or Oriellians. Tighernach writes the name Conmael, but the 
other authorities, as above. During his term of office, Dunchadh 
is stated by the Annals of Tighernach and of Ulster to have held the 
principatus of Hy, by which we may understand, either that he was 
appointed, in consequence of the age or infirmity of Conamhail, to 
administer the affairs of the society, as a tanist abbot, or that some 
schism in the community, possibly on the Paschal question (for 



clxxii INTRODUCTION. 

Dunchadh proved a reformer in 716) led to a rival appointment. 
See O Conor s note in Her. Hib. Script, vol. iv. p. 72. 



XI DUNCHADH. Sed. 710-717. Ob. Maij 25. 

Son of Cennfaeladh. Called Duunchadus by Bede (H. E. v. 22). 
He was of the most noble branch of the house of Conall Gulban, for 
his grandfather Maelcobha, who died in 615, was the third of the 
family who were successively monarchs of Ireland, and his grand- 
uncle Domhnall, who won the battle of Magh Rath (197) in 637, 
succeeded Maelcobha on the throne. During his presidency there 
seems to have been a schism in the community, for in 713 and 716, 
two other members of the order were elected to the cathedra foe or 
Columbce : or it may be that a different office, such as prior , or even 
bishop, is denoted by the expression. On the death of Conamail, 
he succeeded to the vacant abbacy, and it was not till 713 that 
Dorbene was appointed to the chair : who died in the same year. 
The next election to the chair was in 716, and Faelcu, son of Dor 
bene, who was then chosen, outlived him, and succeeded him in the 
full enjoyment of the abbacy. It was under this abbot that the 
Columbian monks conformed to the Roman Easter and Tonsure. 
The last occasion on which the old Easter was observed was at the 
festival of 715, after a duration of 150 years (Bede, H. E. iii. 4). 
The change was effected through the exertions of a Northumbrian 
priest, called Ecgberct, " qui in Hibernia diutius exulaverat pro 
Christo, eratque et doctissimus in scripturis et longae vitse perfec- 
tione eximius " (ib.) The place of his abode had been " in monas- 
terio quod lingua Scottorum Rathmelsigi appellatur" (iii. 27). 
Having meditated a missionary journey to north Germany, he is 
said to have been diverted from his purpose by a vision, in which 
his former master Boisil appeared to him, and declared that " Dei 
voluntatis est ut ad Columbse monasteria magis pergat docenda " 
(v. 9). Accordingly, when upon the conformity of the Picts to the 
Roman observance, one of the three remaining obstacles to the 
unity was removed, an opportunity offered for the accomplishment 
of a work in Hy, which Adamnan, a few years before, had attempted 



XII FAELCU. Sed. 717-724. Ob. April 3. 

Son of Dorbene, of the race of Conall Gulban, but in a different 
line from the preceding abbots, namely, through his son Nathi. 
He was born in 642, for he was 74 years old when he was elected 
to the cathedra Columbe in 716, and he was 82 years of age when 
he died. Under him, according to Tighernach, the society of Hy 
received the coronal tonsure. There is some uncertainty about his 
festival : Colgan places it at April 3, but the name does not appear 
in the Calendars at that day. They have Faolchu, without any 
place, at May 23, and July 20. It was probably soon after his 
accession that the Columbian congregation was driven by King 
Nechtan beyond the Pictish frontier. They were, no doubt, reluc 
tant to acquiesce in the royal edict, " Hoc observare tempus paschse 
cum uni versa mea gente perpetuo volo ; hanc accipere debere ton- 






INTRODUCTION. clxxiii 

suram quam plenam esse rationis audimus, omnes qui in meo regno 
sunt clericos decerno." (Bede, H. E. v. 21.) 



XIII. CILLENE FADA. Sed. 724-726. Ob. April 14 vel 19. 

He was surnamed Fada, or " the Tall," to distinguish him from 
Cillene Droicteacth, the hermit, who died in 752. Fedhlimid, who 
was coadjutor abbot in 722, did not succeed to the abbacy on the 
death of Faelcu, in 724. His pedigree is not recorded, and his 
festival is uncertain. 



XIV. CILLINE DEOICHTEACH. Sed. 726-752. Ob. Jul. 3. 

He was of the house of Conall Cremthann, son of Niall, and 
therefore one of the southern Hy-Neill. His pedigree is thus given 
in the Naemhsenchas : Cilline Droichtech mac Dicolla mec Cilline 
mec Amalgadha mec Feradhaigh mec Feici mec Cerbaill mec Conaill 
Cremthain mec Neill Naoigiallaigh (Book of Lecan). His ancestor 
Fiac was brother of Diarmait, king of Ireland. The epithet 
Droicteach signifies " Bridge -maker " (Reeves, Eccl. Ant. p. 359). 
In the Annals of Tighernach and of Ulster he is only termed 
ancorita, but the gloss on his name, at the 3d of July, in the Calendar 
of Marian, expressly says : Abb lae Cholaim cille an Cilline Droich- 
teach sin, " Abbot of Hy-Columcille was this Cilline Droictech." In 
like manner, the Martyrology of Tamlact, at same day, has Cilline 
abb lae. These are followed by the Four Masters and the Calendar 
of Donegal, the latter of which adds, Ase tug go hErinn an serin no 
tarn iomdha do teaglaim Adamnan, do dhenamh siodha agus chairdesa 
Chenel Conaill acus Eogain, " It was he that brought to Erin the 
shrine or numerous relics which Adamnan collected, in order to make 
peace and friendship between the races of Conaill and of Eoghan." 
Fedhlimidh, who was appointed coadjutor abbot in 722, continued 
alive during the presidency of Cilline. It is possible that, as Cilline 
was an anchorite, the active duties of the society were discharged 
by his deputy. 



XV. SLEBHINE. Sed. 752-767. Ob. Mar. 2. 

Son of Congal, a descendant of Loam, son of Fergus, son of 
Conall Gulban. During his presidency, Cillene, son of Congal, pro 
bably his brother, died at Hy ; as also, at an advanced age, Fedh 
limidh, who became coadjutor abbot in 722. At this period the 
Columbian influence in Ireland seems to have been at its height, as 
may be concluded from the repeated mention of the Lex Coluimcille 
(an. 753, 757), and the frequent visits of the abbot into Ireland. 
Suibhne, who succeeded him, was coadjutor abbot in 766. 



r l. SUIBHNE. Sed. 767-772. Ob. Mar. 2. 

His pedigree is not recorded. He was coadjutor abbot in 766, 
and succeeded to the full title on the death of Slebhine. Nothing 
more, except his festival, is recorded of him. 



Clxxiv INTRODUCTION. 



XVII. BREASAL. Sed. 772-801. Ob. Mai. 18. 

Son of Seghine, but his descent is not recorded. Colgan refers 
to him th eentry in the Calendar at May ] 8, Breasal 6 Dertaigh, 
Breasal de Oratorio. During his presidency Hy acquired celebrity 
as a place of pilgrimage, from having two Irish kings enrolled among 
its members. 

XVIIL CONNACHTACH. Sed. 801-802. Ob. Mai. 10. 

His name is not found in the Annals of Ulster, but it is entered 
in the Four Masters, at 797, probably on the authority of Tigher- 
nach, now wanting, at that date, or of some other early record. 
They term him scribhneoir tocchaidhe acus abb lae, " choice scribe, 
and abbot of la." Colgan calls him Conmanus, and takes May 10 as 
his festival, at which day the name of a Cormac is entered in the 
Calendar of Tamlacht. 



XIX. CELLACH. Sed. 802-815. 

Son of Conghal, but of uncertain descent. During his presidency 
it was that Kells, in the county of Meath, was re-organized on a 
more extended scale, and made the chief station of the Columbian 
order. 

XX. DIARMAIT. Sed. 815 post 831. 

He was surnamed Dalta Daighre, "Alumnus Daigri," and was 
appointed successor to Cellach at Kells, in 814, when the latter 
retired, it would seem, to Hy. As Kells had now risen into import 
ance, and Hy had declined, the chief of the order began to assume 
an official rather than a local title, and to be styled Coarb of Colum- 
cille. The year of this Diarmait s death is not recorded, nor does his 
name appear in the Calendar. During his presidency, probably 
while he abode in Ireland, occurred a second massacre of the con 
gregation of Hy by the Danes. On this occasion Blaithmac, who 
seems to have been superior of the monastery, was put to death. 
Walafridus Strabus, twelfth abbot of Augia Dives, who nourished 
between 823 and 849, has written a poem of 172 hexameters on the 
martyrdom of this ecclesiastic. He describes Blaithmaic as " regali 
de stirpe satus," as "regius haeres," and as " rex ille futurus, genuit 
quern dives Hibernia mundo." He states that, having become a 
monk, "agmina multorum rexit veneranda virorum ;" and that, 
subsequently, coveting the crown of martyrdom, he betook himself 
to the Island of Eo, whither the pagan Danes had already on more 
than one occasion come. Expecting their return, he counselled the 
members of the fraternity to save themselves by flight ; whereupon 
some departed, while others remained with him. The precious 
shrine containing St. Columba s relics he deposited in the earth, and 
when, on the arrival of the plunderers, he refused to make known 
the place of its concealment, they slew both him and his companions. 
This poem was first printed by Canisius, and has since been fre 
quently reproduced. 



INTRODUCTION, clxxv 



XXL INNRECHTACH. Sed. 8 -854. Ob. Mar. 12. 

His surname, Uo Finachta, or Ua F machtain, is supplied by the 
Annals of Innisfallen, at 840, and is copied by the Four Masters at 
852. The date of his predecessor s death is not recorded, conse 
quently the year of his accession is undetermined. According to 
the Annals of Inisf alien, he was on his way to Rome when he was 
killed by the Saxons (840). 

XXIL CELLACH. Sed. 854-865. 

Son of Ailill. He was abbot of Kildare as well as of Hy, and 
thus combined the presidency of a monastery which was not Colum 
bian with that of St. Columba s society. He seems to have been 
engaged in a visitation of the Columbian churches in Scotland at the 
time of his death. 

XXIIL FERADHACH. Sed. 865-880. 

Son of Cormac. During his presidency Hy became more and 
more insecure by reason of Danish inroads. Dunkeld now comes 
into notice as an important ecclesiastical station. 

XXIV. FLANN. Sed. 880-891. Ob. April 24. 

Son of Maelduin, of the race of Conall Gulban. His pedigree is 
given in the Naemhseanchas, but it is evidently deficient in some 
generations, for it makes him twelfth in descent from Conall Gulban, 
while Adamnan, who died nearly two centuries before, was eighth. 
Colgan latinizes his name by Florentius, and states his festival to be 
April 24 (Tr. Th. p. 481, a, n. 24). 

XXV. MAELBRIGHDE. Coarb 891-927. Ob. Febr. 22. 

Son of Tornan, of the race of Conall Gulban, from whom, accord 
ing to the pedigree preserved in the Naemhseanchas, he was 
thirteenth in descent. He is commemorated in the Calendars of 
Marian and of Donegal at Feb. 22, at which day the latter authority 
states that the mother of Maelbrighde was Saerlath, daughter of 
Cuilebadh, son of Baethghaile. This is copied from the Tract De 
Matribus Sanctorum Hibernice, commonly attributed to ^Engus the 
Culdee. But the date of that writer is circ. 800, whereas this, his 
alleged composition, refers to a man who died in 927. Maelbrighde 
was not only abbot of Hy, but of Armagh and Raphoe, and his 
celebrity must have been considerable to elicit the following eulo- 
gium from the Four Masters : "St. Maelbrighde, son of Tornan, 
coarb of Patrick, Qolumcille, and Adamnan, head of the piety of all 
Ireland and of the greater part of Europe, died in a good old age, 
on the 22d of February." He had been elected abbot of Armagh 
on the death of Maelcobha, in 888. His penultimate predecessor 
held the abbacy of Hy with that of Kildare : this abbot holds it 
with that of Armagh and Raphoe ; an additional evidence of the 
declension of Hy. See Colgan s Acta SS. p. 386. 



Clxxvi INTRODUCTION. 



XXVI. DUBHTHACH. Coarb 927-938. Ob. Oct. 7. 

Son of Duban, of the race of Conall Gulban, from whom, accord 
ing to the pedigree in the Naemhseanchas, he was fourteenth in 
descent, and in the same line as his predecessor, Maelbrighde. He 
was abbot of Raphoe as well as of Hy, and is styled by the Four 
Masters " Coarb of Columcille both in Erin and Alba." 

XXVIL KOBHARTACH. Goarb 938-954. 

He is styled "Coarb of Columcille and Adamnan," so that 
Raphoe may be considered as having been included in his jurisdic 
tion. During his presidency, the obit of an abbot of Hy is recorded. 
We find another Robhartach at No. xxxix. 

XXVIII. DUBHDUIN. Coarb 954-959. 

Surnamed Ua Stefain. He was of the Cinel Fergusa, a branch 
of the Cinel-Eoghain (Book of Lecan, fol. 64). The Four Masters 
enter his obit at 957, and repeat it at 958. 

XXIX. DUBHSCUILE. Coarb 959-964. 

Son of Cinaedh or Kenneth. Nothing more is known of his 
history. Probably his official seat was at Kells. 

XXX. MUGHRON. Goarb 964-980. 

The Annals of Ulster designate him "Successor of Columcille 
both in Ireland and Alba." The Four Masters style him " Abbot 
of la, scribe and bishop ; the most learned of the three Divisions" 
[na tTri Rand], that is, as Dr. O Donovan explains it, of Ireland, 
Man, and Alba. During his presidency, Fiachra Ua hArtagain, 
aircinnech of la, died. This is the only instance where we find 
the term aircinneach used in connexion with Hy, and the Four 
Masters, in the present case, render it by " abbot." During this 
period there was also a bishop at Hy. 

XXXI. MAELCIARAIN. Coarb 980-986. 

The family of Ua Maighne (now pronounced O Afooney), to which 
he belonged, were of the Cinel Conaill, and hereditary tenants of 
Inishkeel in Donegal. According to the Four Masters, this coarb 
was put to death in Hy by the Danes of Dublin. 

XXXII. DUNNCHADH. Coarb 986-989. 

Surnamed Ua Robhacain. The Four Masters style him " Coarb 
of Columcille and Adamnan," so that Raphoe was included in his 
jurisdiction. 

XXXIII. DUBHDALEITHE. Coarb 989-998. Ob. June 2. 

Son of Cellach. In 965 he was elected Abbot of Armagh, and 
in 989 was chosen by the joint suffrages of the Irish and Scotch to 
the presidency of the Columbian order ; or, as Colgan expresses it, 
"supremus moderator Congregationis Divi Columbse in Hibernia 



INTRODUCTION. 

et Albione" (Tr. Th. p. 503 6). It is worthy of observation that 
during the term of Dubhdaleithe s presidency at Armagh, five 
years before his death, another individual, Muirecan of Bodoney, is 
represented as coarb of Patrick, and enjoying the privileges of that 
office. See Nos. xi. xu. supra. 

XXXIV. MUIREDHACH. Coarl 998-1007. 01. Dec. 28. 

Son of Crichan. He was not only coarb of Columcille and 
Adamnan, but a bishop, lector of Armagh, and coarb designate of 
St. Patrick. In 1007 he retired from the presidency of the 
Columbian order, and became a recluse. He died on Saturday 
night, the 28th of December 1011, and was interred with great 
honour before the altar of the church of Armagh. Under his pre 
sidency Maelbrighde Ua Rimhedha was abbot of Hy. The clergy 
of Armagh appear, at this period, to have exercised considerable 
influence in the Columbian appointments. 

XXXV. FERDOMHNACH. Coarl 1007-1008. 

On the retirement of Muiredhach, he was elected to the succes- 
sorship of Columcille, and the appointment was made by the 
authorities assembled in the great fair of Teltown. His local title 
was Abbot of Kells, which seems to have been the highest Colum 
bian dignity at this period. We have no statement of his descent, 
but it seems to have been from the Cinel Conaill. Robhartach, 
son of Ferdomhnach, the coarb of Columcille and Adamnan, who 
died in 1058, was probably his son. 

XXXVL MAELMUIEE. Coarb 1008-1009. 

Surnamed Ua hUchtain. The family of which he was a member 
was at this time the principal one connected with the church of 
Kells. See under the years 969, 992, 1034, 1040 (App. III.) There 
was a Maelmuire Ua hUchtain, coarb of Coluimcille, who died in 
1040, and whom, in the absence of the express name of any other 
successor in the interim, one might feel disposed to identify with 
this ecclesiastic, but that the death of the latter is recorded at 1009. 

XXXVIL MAELEOIN. Coarb 1009-1025. 

Surnamed Ua Torain, possibly a descendant of Tornan, the 
father of Maelbrighde in No. xxv. The family of O Tornan (now 
called Dornan), were the herenachs of Drumhome, in the county 
of Donegal. It is not expressly stated that this individual was 
coarb of Columcille, and the introduction of his name in this 
catalogue is somewhat conjectural. Probabilities are, however, in 
its favour. See the Ordnance Memoir of Templemore, p. 28. 

XXXVIII. MAELMUIRE. Coarb 1025-1040. 

Surnamed Ua hUchtain. The penultimate predecessor was of 
the same family and name. Macnia Ua hUchtain, the lector of 
Kells, who was drowned in 1034, was also his kinsman. In that 
year Hy lost some of its surviving heirlooms. The Four Masters, 
in recording Maelmuire s obit, state that he was "comharba of 



clxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

Columcille and Adamnan." During his presidency, certain grants 
were made to Kells, recorded in the fourth of the Charters con 
tained in the Book of KeUs (Miscell. Ir. Arch. Soc. pp. 136-140). 

XXXIX. KOBHARTACH. Coarb 1040-1057. 

Son of Ferdomnach, probably of No. xxxv., for the successorship 
of Columcille, like that of St. Patrick, was becoming hereditary. 
Kells appears to be still the official seat of the coarb of Columcille. 
The Four Masters, at 1057, style this Robhartach " comharba of 
Columcille and Adamnan." 

XL. GlOLLACRlST. Coarb 1057-1062. 

Surnamed Ua Maeldoraidh. The family to which he belonged 
was the senior line of the race of Conall Gulban, and enjoyed the 
lordship of Cinell-Conaill before the O Donnells rose into power. 
See the entry at the year 1026, supra. The individual who figures 
at 1070 (App. III.), was probably the son of the present coarb. 

XLL DOMHNALL. Coarb 1062-1098. 

Surnamed Ua Robhartaigh. The family of which he was a 
member were a branch of the Cinel Conaill, and, in after times, 
herenachs of Tory island. The name was probably derived from 
Robhartach, the coarb of Columcille, who died in 954. It is still 
common in Donegal in the form O Roarty, and in Leinster, of 
O Rafferty. The family of Mac Robhartaigh were of the same 
line. They were herenachs of Bally magrorty, in the parishes of 
Drumhome and Templemore, and their name still exists in the 
neighbourhood in the form M Grotty. They were also keepers of 
the Cathach of Columcille. The present individual was abbot of 
Kells when the case of the Cathach was made, and his name 
appears in the inscription upon it, in the form Domnall mac 
Robartaig. Mention is also made of him in the charters of Kells. 
Maelmaire Ua Robhartaigh was cinn an Disirt Oenannsa, " Head of 
the Hermitage of Kells," circ. 1135 (Miscell. Ir. Arch. Soc. p. 128). 
During the presidency of Domhnall, Cormac Mac Rechtogain was 
vice-herenach of Kells (ib. p. 130). In 1190, a member of the 
family was prior of Durrow. 

XLII. FERDOMHNACH. Coarb 1098-1114. 

Surnamed Ua Clucain. He was abbot of Kells, and the third 
of the Kells Charters records a transaction of his incum 
bency. The officials under him were Oengus Ua Domhnallain, the 
anmchara or confessarius, who was also Coarb of the Disert of 
Columcille at Kells (322, ob. 1109) ; O Breslan, priest ; Oisin Mac 
Eachtghail, ostiarius of Kells (Miscell. Ir. Arch. Soc. pp. 132, 136). 
The family of O Clucain seems to have been one of influence at 
Kells, for another member of it was abbot at 1154, and a third, 
lector, during his incumbency. 

XLIII MAELBKIGHDE. Coarb 1114-1117. 

Surnamed Mac Ronain. In the seventh charter of Kells is the 
name of a coarb of Columcille, which is partly illegible, but the 



INTRODUCTION. 

portion which is distinct, namely, Maelbrig . . . nan, seems re 
ferable to this abbot j(Miscell. Ir. Arch. Soc. p. 148). Whether 
owing to the decline of Kells, or the growing influence of Derry, 
or what is more probable, the commencement of diocesan episcopacy 
in Ireland, the title of Coarb of Columcitle is intermitted in the 
Annals at this period, and is afterwards resumed, more as an 
honorary than a real dignity. It is continued, indeed, in the 
Charters of Kells, to the abbots of that church, but when next 
it appears in the Annals, it is transferred to Derry, which church 
seems to have derived an impulse at this period from its connexion 
with Armagh (see An. 1122, 1137), but more especially from the 
circumstance that the southern Hy Neill of Meath, under whose 
patronage, during the long-continued period that they were 
supreme, the chief monastery of their territory proportionately 
flourished, had now declined in power, and the Cinel Eoghain, the 
chief branch of the northern Hy Neill, now represented by the 
Mac Lochlainns, and afterwards by the O Neills, were rising into 
power, whose various clanns, scattered over Tyrone, exercised 
their influence in Armagh, while their kinsmen of Jnis-Eoghain, 
having Derry in their territory, in a great measure controlled its 
appointments also. 

XLIV. CONANG. Coarb 1117-1128. 

Surnamed Ua Beigleighinn. This name is not recorded elsewhere 
in the Annals, and nothing more is known of the individual than 
the entry of his obit in the Four Masters. 

XLV. GIOLLA-ADHAMNAIN. Coarb 1128-circ. 1138. 

Surnamed Ua Coirthen. This name does not occur in the Annals, 
and it is introduced in this place on the authority of the fifth 
Charter of Kells, which, though undated, is referable to this period. 
It makes mention of Giolla-Adomnan Ua Coirthen, coarb of 
Columcille ; Maelmartin Ua Brestlen, priest of Kells ; Guaire Ua 
Clucain, lector of Kells ; Oengus Mac Gillabain, herenach of the 
hospital ; Muiredhach, son of Mac Rechtacan, vice-herenach ; and 
Oengus Ua Gamhna, chief of the Scologes or farmers (Miscell. Ir. 
Arch. Soc. p. 140). 

XL VI. MUIEEDHACH. Coarb circ. 1138-1150. 

Surnamed Ua Clucain, of the same family as his predecessor, 
No. XLII. During his presidency the Disert of Kells received the 
endowment recorded in the first Charter of Kells. The grant 
was made by Muiredhach Ua Clucain, abbot of Kells ; Conaing Ua 
Breslen, the priest ; Guaire Ua Clucain, the lector ; and Aedh, son 
of Mac Rechtogan, the vice-herenach. It was made " to God, and 
to Columcille, and to Bishop O Ceallaigh, the senior of all the men 
of Meath, and to Maelmaire Ua Robarthaigh, head of the Disert " 
(Miscell. Ir. Arch. Soc. p. 128). During his, and the four pre 
ceding incumbencies, Kells appears to have been losing ground in 
its Columbian associations, until 1150, when Flaithbertach Ua 
Brolchain was elected abbot of Derry, and was acknowledged the 
coarb of Columcille. 



clxxx INTRODUCTION. 



XLVIL FLAITHBERTACH. Coarb 1150-1175. 

Surnamed Ua Brolchain. The family of Ua Brolchain were 
descended from Suibhne Meann, who was king of Ireland in 615, 
and belonged to the Cinel Feradhaich, a clan so called from 
Feradhach, grandfather of that Suibhne Meann, and fourth in de 
scent from Eoghaii, the founder of the Cinel-Eoghain race. The 
Cinel Feradhaich are now territorially represented by the barony 
of Clogher, in the south of the county of Tyrone. The first of the 
O Brolchan family who is mentioned in the Annals was Maelbrighde 
Ua Brolchan, styled prim saer Erenn ["chief mason of Ireland" 
Old Vers.], whose obit is entered in the Ann. Ult. at 1029. From 
him probably the masonic art of the family was derived, which 
was cultivated by Flaherty, and practised by Donnell, with such 
success. The next was Maeliosa, the lector whose obit is entered 
above at 1086. He spent a part of his early life at Both-chonais 
in Inishowen, in the neighbourhood of which some of his writings 
were preserved in Colgan s time ; and afterwards he founded a 
church seemingly at Lismore, called the derteac Maeiliosa, " Oratory 
of Maeliosa," which was burned in 1116. He died on the 16th of 
January, justly celebrated for his learning (Colgan, Acta SS. p. 
108). His son, Aedh, succeeded him in the calling of professor, 
and died in 1095. Two years afterwards a son of Maelbrighde, 
surnamed Mac-an-tsaeir, who was bishop of Kildare, died. Mael- 
colaim Ua Brolchain, bishop of Armagh, died in 1122 ; and Mael 
brighde Ua Brolchain, also bishop of Armagh, died, Jan. 29, 1139. 
The latter was probably father of the coarb Flaithbertach, whom 
the Annals of Ulster, at 1164, call Flaithbertach mac in espuic hui 
Brolcain, " Flaithbertach, son of the bishop Ua Brolchan," a lineage 
by no means in accordance with the delicacy of the Four Masters, 
and which, when copying the entry, they divest of its objectional 
character, in simply calling him Flaithbertach Ua Brolchain. 
Domhnall Ua Brolchain was prior of Derry, and died Apr. 27, 
1202. His name is inscribed on one of the capitals in the cathedral 
of Hy, in the form Donaldus Obrolcan (vid. 1202, App. III.) Finn 
Ua Brolchan was steward of O Donnell in 1213 ; and Flann Ua 
Brolchain was coarb of Columcille in 1219. In 1548 died Sir 
John Obrolchan, rector of Kildalton, in Islay (Orig. Paroch. vol. ii. 
p. 269). The name was afterwards written WBrollaghan, and is 
now corrupted, in Ulster, to Bradley. Through the influence of 
" Gilla-mac-Liag or Gelasius, the abbot of Armagh, who had himself 
been previously abbot of Derry (an. 1137), Flaithbertach Ua Brol 
chain was raised to the dignity of bishop in 1158, as is thus 
recorded by the Four Masters : "A synod of the clergy of Ireland 
was convened at Bri-mic-Taidhg, in Meath, where there were 
present 25 bishops, with the Legate of the coarb of Peter, to 
ordain rules and good morals. It was on this occasion that the 
clergy of Ireland, with the coarb of Patrick, ordered a chair, like 
every other bishop s, for the coarb of Columcille, Flaithbertach Ua 
Brolchain, and the arch-abbacy of the churches of Ireland in 
general." He was a zealous advancer of the welfare of Derry, and 
during his incumbency many important additions were made to its 
ecclesiastical buildings ; to procure funds for which, the abbot had, 
during the years 1150, 1151, 1153, 1161, visited, and obtained 
contributions from various territories in Ulster and Ossory. After 



INTRODUCTION. clxxxi 

a long life spent in the energetic discharge of his duties, he died in 
1175, at which year his obit is thus recorded by the Four Masters : 
" Flaithbertach Ua Brolchain, coarb of Columcille, a tower of 
wisdom and hospitality, a man on whom, on account of his good 
ness and wisdom, the clergy of Ireland had bestowed a bishop s 
chair, and to whom the abbacy of Hy \comhorbus lae] had been 
offered (an. 1164), died in righteousness, after exemplary sickness, 
in the Duibhregles of Columcille : and Gilla-mac-Liag Ua Branain 
was appointed to his place in the abbacy." 

XLVIIL GIOLLA-MAC-LIAG. Coarb 1175-1198. 

Surnamed Ua Branain. A member of his family was herenach 
of Derry in 1150, and became abbot in 1219. The family of Ua 
Branain, now commonly called Brannan, belonged to the Cinel 
Tighernaigh, a branch of the powerful Cinel Eoghain race. The 
present abbot resigned in 1198. The name Gilla-mac-Liag, in the 
case of a predecessor, is latinized Gelasius. 

XLIX. GIOLLACRIST. Coarb Il$8-circ. 1202. 

Surnamed Ua Cernaigh, a name now commonly known under the 
form Kearney. The Four Masters state, at 1198, that he "was 
elected coarb of Columcille by the unanimous suffrages of the clergy 
and laity of the north of Ireland." The Annals of Ulster at 
1210, and of the Four Masters at 1209, in recording his obit, 
style him "Coarb of Condere," implying that previously to that 
date he had become abbot of Connor. 



Fordun (Bowar) relates that I-Columkill was the burial-place 
of all the kings of Pictland and Scotland until the time of Mal 
colm, the husband of St. Margaret (i. 6, ii. 10). The Kegistry of 
St. Andrews goes further, and makes it not only the place of his 
interment, but the resting-place of Duncan s bones. The church 
of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, however, was the true reci 
pient of the mortal remains both of Malcolm and his wife, and 
thenceforward Hy ceased to be a royal cemetery. But Queen 
Margaret, previously to 1093, had erected in Hy a monument 
of her piety, and the chapel in the Eeilig Oran, the oldest 
edifice in the island, probably dates its origin from the exhibi 
tion of her liberality recorded by Ordericus Vitalis : " Inter 
cetera bona quse nobilis hera fecerat, Huense Ccenobium, quod 
servus Christi Colurnba tempore Brudei Regis Pictorum filii 
Meilocon, construxerat, sed tempestate praeliorum cum longa 



clxxxii INTRODUCTION. 

vetustate dirutum fuerat, fidelis Kegina resedificavit, datisque 
sumptibus idoneis ad opus Domini Monachis reparavit." It 
was only four years after her death when Magnus, King of 
Norway, " opened the smaller church of Kollum-Killa," pro 
bably a chapel built over St. Columba s reputed tomb, on the 
occasion of his visiting the Holy Island. The seizure of the 
Western Isles by this warrior, in the following year, caused the 
annexation of the Isles to the bishopric of Man, and the sub 
jection of the united dioceses to the metropolitan of Trondhjem, 
which in great measure severed the island of Hy from its old 
associations, so that, with the exception of an abbot s obit at 
1099, it is unnoticed for above half a century in the Irish 
Annals. In the meantime, Somerlid, the Regulus deHerer-Gaedel, 
married a daughter of king Olave, the successor of Magnus, who 
brought him four sons, one of whom, Dubhgall, was thrust into 
the sovereignty of the Isles in 1154. Consequently, a war 
ensued, and in 1,156 the strife was terminated by the cession to 
Somerlid and his sons of the southern isles, including Hy, a 
measure which naturally terminated the Norwegian ascendancy, 
and restored the supremacy of the Celtic influence around. As 
a result, the abbacy of Hy was offered, in 1164, at the instance 
of the king, and with the unanimous consent of the church 
officials, to Flaherty O Brolchan, the energetic abbot of Derry, 
who, in addition to his dignity of Coarb of Columcille, had 
received, in 1158, the now important qualification of episcopal 
orders. Domestic influence prevented the offer from being 
accepted ; but the Irish element, already indicated by the names 
of the ecclesiastical functionaries, in 1 164, seems to have rapidly 
increased, and to the period of its development we may possibly 
refer the erection of the central portion of the Cathedral. 
Bishop O Brolchain was busily employed, towards the close of 
the twelfth century, in re-edifying the ecclesiastical buildings of 
Derry ; and to a kinsman of his is probably attributable the 
commencement of the most important structure now existing in 
Hy. The unusual record on the capital of the tower column, 



INTRODUCTION. clxxxiii 

DONALDVS OBROLCHAN FECIT HOC opvs, and the coincidence of 
that record with the obit of Domhnall Ua Brolchain in the 
Annals of Ulster at 1203, and of the Four Masters at 1202, the 
same name in its Irish form, are sufficient, if not to satisfy the 
mind, at least to afford material for reasonable conjecture, as to 
the builder. In 1203, Michael, bishop of the Isles, died at 
Fountain Abbey, and was succeeded, according to the Chronicle 
of Man, by NicJwlus, whom Torfseus calls Kolus, observing that, 
for the forty years preceding, the Hsebudse were without an 
actual bishop ; that is, that the office, as regarded the Isles, was 
nothing more than titular. But forty years, subtracted from 
1203, bring us back precisely to the date at which Somerlid and 
the clergy of Hy solicited the services of St. Columba s coarb 
in Derry. This Nicholas or Kolus may have made an effort to 
establish his authority in Hy, and he may have been the CellacTi 
of whom the Irish Annals make mention in a most interesting 
record of 1203, the year of Nicholas s accession to the see of the 
Isles ; which Nicholas, whether identical with Cellach or not, 
certainly seems to have had some connexion with Ifeland, for 
when he died he was buried at Bangor in Ulster. 

" A monastery was erected by Cellach, without any legal right, 
and in despite of the family of Hy, in the middle of Cro-Hy, and 
he did considerable damage to the town. The clergy of the North 
assembled together to pass over into Hy, namely, Florence O Caro- 
lan, bishop of Tyrone ; Maelisa O Deery, bishop of Tirconnell, and 
abbot of the abbey-church of Paul and Peter at Armagh ; Awley 
O Ferghail, abbot of the abbey-church of Derry, with Ainmire 
O Coffey, many of the family of Derry, and a great number of the 
northern clergy beside. They passed over into Hy, and, in accord 
ance with the law of the Church, they subsequently pulled down 
the monastery : and the aforesaid Awley was elected abbot of Hy 
by the suffrages of Foreigners and Gaeidhel." 

The passage here cited is the parting mention of Hy in the Irish 
Annals, and as it closes a long list of notices, running through 
nearly seven centuries, it leaves the island as it found it, in the 
hands of Irish ecclesiastics, an important outpost of the Irish 



Clxxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

Church, a centre of union between provinces whose people were 
of one blood, and who were enrolled under one name in the list 
of nations, till the accident of time limited to one the common 
name of both, and the accident of place created separate, and 
sometimes rival interests. 



SHOWING THEIE AFFINITY TO ONE ANOTHER, AND THEIE CONN 

CONSTRUCTED, FROM THE NAEMHSEANCHUS, AND OTHER AN( 











CONAL 

a quo Ci 


FERGUS C 
orDu 


ZNNFADA = ERCA 

ach, d. of Loarn 
Mor. 


SEDNA 
a quo Siol Sedna 


NlNNIDH 




AlNMIRE 

King of Ireland, 
ob. 569 (p. 120). 

AEDH 
King of Ireland, 
ob. 598 (pp, 121, 
122, 145). 

! 


COLMAN 

or Colum. 
AEDH 


LUGHAIDH 

a quo Cinel 
Luighdeach. 


BAEDAN FERADHACH 
King of Ireland, or Fergus. 
ob. 586. 


DUACH 
fi] 

AMHALGAIDH 
PJPAN 


RONAN ILatgren FIACHNA 
third abbot, ob. or Fiachra. 
Sep. 16, 605 (p. 131). 


LELCOBHA DOMHNALL TINNE 
j of Ireland, King of Ireland, a quo 
ob. 615. ob. 642 (pp. 121, Ua Tinne. 
146, 198). 


GARBH Segfyne ERNAN 
fifth abbot, ob. 
Aug. 12, 652 (p. 113). 


CELLACH AEJ 
ob. 658. 

DOMHNALL LOING 
Lord of C 
aill, 672, 
Ireland, 

DONNCHADH FLAITHB 
King of 
ob. 

RUAIDHRI AEDH M 

RUARCAN DOMHNA 

GALLCHOBHAR LOIN 
o quo O Gall- 
agher. 


GUS RONAN= RONNAT 

of the Cint 

Enna. 

SECH Stoamttan 
inel Con- ninth abbot, 
King of ob. Sept 23, 
ob. 703. 704. 

HERTACH 

Ireland, 
734. 


CENNFAELADH Cuitntne Jftonn Becan 
seventh abbot, ob. ob. Mar. 17, 
Feb. 24, 669 (p. 197). 677. 


tfatlbhe 
eighth abbot, 
ob. Mar. 22, 
679 (p. 113). 


MAELDUIN FIAMAN 

AIRNELACH MAENGALL BRAI 

SNJSDGAILE DOCHARTACH BAIG 
a quo O Dogherty. a quo 

MAELDUIN DOMH> 

1 aquoO 

jHann 
twenty-fourth 
abbot, ob. 
Apr. 24, 891. 


MUIRCERTACH 


AGAN DALACH 
Lord of Cinel Con 
aill, ob. 869. 

IELL ElONECHAN 

Boyle. Lord of Cinel Con 
aill, ob. 906. 


JINDERG MURCHADH 

Lord of Cinel Conaill 
ob. 767. 

LL CEIRIC MAELBRESAIL 
Lord of Cinel Conail 
ob. 817. 

3SECH AENGUS 


ALL MOR Stoftiann 
Donnell. Coarb of Colum- 
cille, ob. 950. 



FLAITHBHERTACH 



CANANNAN 
a quo O Canannan. 



MAELDORAIDH 
a quo O Muldory. 



Note. The genealogy ofFergna Britt, the fourth 
too long. The pedigree of Suibhne mac Cuirtre, th 
mac Failbhe, the tenth abbot, was of the race of 
in this Table. CUline Droichtcch, the fourteen! 
being eighth in descent from Conall Crimthann, s< 
tions are wanting in the line of Dalach, to bring 
proper place. 



prl2 Abbots of Is, 



clxxxv 



WITH THE CHIEF FAMILIES OF TIRCONNELL. 

AUTHORITIES, BY WILLIAM BEEVES, D.D. 



IBAN 

.ill. 



FEDHUM = EITHNE 



BRKNANN 



LOARN 



GINTECH 



ENNA BOGHAINE 
a qua Banagh (p. 63). 



ANGIN 



II I I I 

3 EOGHAN ISaitrjcne Cobthach RONAN RODAIQHE 

,ob. orlogen second abbot, OneofSt Columba s or Cronan. 

|, 597. (p. Ixxii). ob. Jun. 9, 600. disciples (p. Ixxii). 



(p. 215). 



AEDH 



DONNCHADH 



DOMHNALL 



I.tiL 



Caiman Li .<re Scc/hine FAELAN MAILRUBHA 

(Tr. Th. p. 480, Dec. 26 (Tr. Th. (Tr. Th. 482, 38 
Ir. Nen. cvi.) 481, Ir. Nen. cvi.) Ir. Nen. cvi.) 



25. 



FlROIL 

a quo O Freel the 

herenachs of Cillmacnenain. 



, . J i -eems to be at least one generation 

MU*~**"-" 

f rJ Uais and therefore does not appear 

T P end)0^ of the Southern Hy Neill, 

I he also is excluded. Three genera- 

Sg s f dhisgrandson ^ Wa " lintotheir 



[MAC LAJSRE] 



ALTA 



Dorbene Fada 

Prior of Hy, ob. Oct. 

28, 713 (p. 218). 



SLEBHINE FAILBHE 



CiiTAN Odhmn 
Oct. 27 
(pp. 288-9). 



FORTHENN 



DUBHDUIN JFfrgnaBrtt I-JNAN- 

fourth abbot, ob. 

Mar. 2, 623. 



CONGAL 



Ablan MadduibTi 

or Mo-Ab. Dec. 23. 



Slrbhtne Cillene 

fifteenth abbot, ob. 752 
ob. Mar. 2, 767. 



MAELCAICH 



TORNAN = SAERFLAITH 
d. of Cuile- 
badh. 



fHaelbriflifce 
CoarbofS mcille, 



NATHI 



LUGHAIDH [NATHI] 



GlNNTECH 



AEDAN 



FAELAN 



LlBIR 



FERGUS 



TlNSK 



FAILBHE DORBBNE 



COXGAL jfatlru 

twelfth abbot, 
ob. Ap. 3, 724. 



DlCHUBUS 



BAETHECTRA 



FERGUS 



MAELUIDHIR 



DUBHAN 



CAENCOMHRAC 
abbot and bishop of 



Bubhtharfj 

Coarb of Columcille, 

ob. Oct. 7, 938. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. 



IN THE NAME OF JESUS CHRIST. THE PREFACE BEGINNETH. 

IN beginning, with the help of Christ, in compliance with 
the urgent requests of my brethren, to write the life of our 
blessed Patron, I shall take care to warn, in the first place, 
others who may read it, to believe the facts which it records, 
and to attend more to the matter than to the words, which, as 
I think, sound harsh and barbarous. Let them remember that 
the kingdom of God consisteth not in richness of eloquence, 
but in the blossoming of faith, and let them not for any names 
of men, or tribes, or obscure places in the base Scotic tongue, 
which, as I think, seem rude when compared with the various 
languages of foreign nations, despise a record of useful deeds 
wrought not without the help of God. We must also warn our 
readers that many other things regarding this man of blessed 
memory, well worthy of being told, have been omitted for the 
sake of brevity ; in order not to tire their patience, a few only 
out of many have been recorded here. And this, as I think, 
every person who reads the following work will perhaps observe, 
that of the great actions of the same holy man, popular fame 
has published the less important, when compared even with 
the few which we shall now briefly relate. From this point, 
in this our first brief preface, I now proceed, with the help of 
God, to explain in the commencement of the second, the 
name of our holy prelate. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. 



IN THE NAME OF JESUS CHRIST. THE SECOND PREFACE. 

THERE was a man of venerable life and blessed memory, the 
father and founder of monasteries, having the same name as 
Jonah the prophet ; for though its sound is different in the three 
different languages, yet its signification is the same in all : what 
in Hebrew is lona, in the Greek language is called Tlepicrrepa, 
and in the Latin Columba. Such and so great a name was not 
given, it is believed, to the man of God without a special pro 
vidence. For according to the faith of the Gospels, the Holy 
Ghost is shown to have descended on the only begotten Son of 
the Eternal Father, in the form of that little bird called the 
dove ; and hence for the most part in the sacred books the dove 
is known to designate in a mystical sense the Holy Ghost. 
Hence also our Saviour in His Gospel has ordered His disciples 
to preserve the simplicity of the dove ingrafted in a pure heart, 
for the dove is a simple and innocent bird. By that name, 
therefore, it was meet that the simple and innocent man should 
be called, who gave to the Holy Ghost a dwelling-place in him 
self by his dove-like ways ; a name to which may with pro 
priety be applied what is written in the Proverbs, "A good 
name is rather to be chosen than great riches." Justly, there 
fore, not only from the days of his infancy was our president, by 
the gift of God, honoured by this special name, but even many 
long years before his birth it was given to him as a child of the 
promise in a wonderful prophecy of a soldier of Christ to whom 
it was revealed by the Holy Ghost. For Maucta, a pilgrim from 
Britain, a holy man, a disciple of St. Patrick the Bishop, gave 
the following prophecy of our Patron, as is known by us on the 
testimony of learned ancients. " In the last ages of the world," 
he said, " a son shall be born, whose name Columba shall be 
announced in every province of the isles of the ocean, and bril 
liantly shall he enlighten the last ages of the earth. The little 
farms of his small monastery and of mine shall be divided by 
the boundary of a narrow fence, and he shall be a man most 
dear to God, and of great merit in His sight." In describing 
the life and character of our Columba, I shall in the first place, 
as briefly as I can, give a general summary, and place before 
my readers eyes an image of his holy life. I also briefly shall 
notice some of his miracles, as a foretaste to those who eagerly 
read them, the more detailed account of which shall be given 
in the three last books. The first shall be his prophetical 
revelations the second his divine virtues wrought by him 
the third the apparitions of angels and some manifestations of 



THE SECOND PEEFACE. 3 

the brightness of heaven upon the man of God. Let no one 
think of me as either stating what is not true regarding so great 
a man, or recording anything doubtful or uncertain. Let him 
know that I will tell with all candour, and without any 
ambiguity, what I have learned from the consistent narrative 
of my predecessors, trustworthy and discerning men, and that 
my narrative is founded either on written authorities anterior 
to my own times, or on what I have myself heard from some 
learned and faithful ancients, unhesitatingly attesting facts, the 
truth of which they had themselves diligently inquired into. 

St. Columba then was born of noble parents; his father 
was Fedilmith, son of Fergus, and his mother was Aethne, 
whose father can be called in Latin Filius Navis, but in the 
Scotic tongue Mac Nave. In the second year after the battle 
of Culedrebina (fought A.D. 561), and in the forty-second of his 
age, St. Columba, resolving to seek a foreign country for the 
love of Christ, sailed from Scotia (Ireland) to Britain. From 
his boyhood he had been brought up in Christian training in the 
study of wisdom, and by the grace of God had so preserved the 
integrity of his body, and the purity of soul, that though dwell 
ing on earth he appeared to live like the saints in heaven. For 
he was angelic in appearance, graceful in speech, holy in work, 
with talents of the highest order, and consummate prudence ; 
he lived a soldier of Christ during thirty-four years in an island. 
He never could spend the space of even one hour without 
study, or prayer, or writing, or some other holy occupation. So 
incessantly was he engaged night and day in the unwearied 
exercise of fasting and watching, that the burden of each of 
these austerities would seem beyond the power of all human 
endurance. And still in all these he was beloved by all, for a 
hty j7 ev er beaming on his face revealed the joy and gladness 
with which the Holy Spirit filled his inmost soul. 



BOOK I. 
OF HIS PEOPHETIC EEVELATIONS. 



CHAPTER I. 

A brief narrative of his great Miracles. 

ACCORDING to the promise given above, I shall commence 
this book with a brief account of the evidences which the 
venerable man gave of his power. By virtue of his prayer, and 
in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, he healed several persons 
suffering under various diseases; and he alone, by the assistance 
of God, expelled from this our island, which now has the 
primacy, innumerable hosts of malignant spirits, whom he saw 
with his bodily eyes assailing himself, and beginning to bring 
deadly distempers on his monastic brotherhood. Partly by 
mortification, and partly by a bold resistance, he subdued, with 
the help of Christ, the furious rage of wild beasts. The surging 
waves, also, at times rolling mountains high in a great tempest, 
became quickly at his prayer quiet and smooth, and his ship, 
in which he then happened to be, reached the desired haven in 
a perfect calm. 

When returning from the country of the Picts, where he had 
been for some days, he hoisted his sail when the breeze was 
against him to confound the Druids, and made as rapid a 
voyage as if the wind had been favourable. On other occa 
sions, also, contrary winds were at his prayers changed into 
fair. In that same country, he took a white stone from the 
river, and blessed it for the working of certain cures ; and 
that stone, contrary to nature, floated like an apple when 
placed in water. This divine miracle was wrought in the pre 
sence of King Brude and his household. In the same country, 
also, he performed a still greater miracle, by raising to life the 
dead child of an humble believer, and restoring him in life and 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 5 

vigour to his father and mother. At another time, while 
the blessed man was yet a young deacon in Hibernia, resid 
ing with the holy bishop Findbarr, the wine required for the 
sacred mysteries failed, and he changed by his prayer pure 
water into true wine. An immense blaze of heavenly light 
was on many and wholly distinct occasions seen by some of 
the brethren to surround him in the light of day, as well as in 
the darkness of the night. He was also favoured with the 
sweet and most delightful society of bright hosts of the holy 
angels. He often saw, by the revelation of the Holy Ghost, 
the souls of some just men carried by angels to the highest 
heavens. And the reprobates too he very frequently beheld 
carried to hell by demons. He very often foretold the future 
deserts, sometimes joyful, and sometimes sad, of many per 
sons while they were still living in mortal flesh. In the 
dreadful crash of wars he obtained from God, by the virtue of 
prayer, that some kings should be conquered, and others come 
off victorious. And such a grace as this he enjoyed, not only 
while alive in this world, but even after his departure from 
the flesh, as God, from whom all the saints derive their honour, 
has made him still a victorious and most valiant champion in 
battle. I shall give one example of especial honour conferred 
by Almighty God on this honourable man, the event having 
occurred the day before the Saxon prince Oswald went forth to 
fight with Cation (Ceadualla of Bede), a very valiant king of the 
Britons. For as this same King Oswald, after pitching his 
camp, in readiness for the battle, was sleeping one day on 
a pillow in his tent, he saw St. Columba in a vision, beam 
ing with angelic brightness, and of figure so majestic that 
his head seemed to touch the clouds. The blessed man 
having announced his name to the king, stood in the midst 
of the camp, and covered it all with his brilliant garment, 
except at one small distant point; and at the same time 
he uttered those cheering words which the Lord spake to 
Jesua Ben Nun before the passage of the Jordan, after Moses 
death, saying, " Be strong and of a good courage ; behold, I 
shall be with thee," etc. Then St. Columba having said these 
words to the king in the vision, added, " March out this fol 
lowing night from your camp to battle, for on this occasion the 
Lord has granted to me that your foes shall be put to flight, 
that your enemy Cation shall be delivered into your hands, and 
that after the battle you shall return in triumph, and have 
a happy reign." The king, awaking at these words, assembled 
his council and related the vision, at which they were all 
encouraged ; and so the whole people promised that, after their 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

return from the war, they would believe and be baptized, for 
up to that time all that Saxon land had been wrapt in the 
darkness of paganism and ignorance, with the exception of 
King Oswald and the twelve men who had been baptized with 
him during his exile among the Scots. What more need I 
say ? On the very next night, King Oswald, as he had been 
directed in the vision, went forth from his camp to battle, and 
had a much smaller army than the numerous hosts opposed to 
him, yet he obtained from the Lord, according to His promise, 
an easy and decisive victory for King Cation was slain, and 
the conqueror, on his return after the battle, was ever after 
established by God as the Bretwalda of all Britain. I, Adam- 
nan, had this narrative from the lips of my predecessor, the 
Abbot Failbe, who solemnly declared that he had himself heard 
King Oswald relating this same vision to Segine the abbot. 

But another fact must not be omitted, that by some poems 
composed in the Scotic language in praise of the same blessed 
man, and by the commemoration of his name, certain wicked 
men of lewd conversation, and men of blood, were saved from the 
hands of their enemies, who in the night had surrounded the 
house in which they were singing these hymns. They safely 
escaped through the flames, the swords, and the spears ; and, 
strange to tell, a few of those only who despised these commemo 
rations of the holy man, and refused to join in the hymns, 
perished in that assault of the enemy. It is not two or three 
witnesses, as the law requires, but even hundreds and more, that 
could be cited in proof of this miracle. Nor is it in one place or 
on one occasion only that the same is known to have happened, 
but even at different times and places, in both Scotia (Ireland) 
and Britain, it is proved beyond all doubt that the like security 
was obtained, in the same manner and by the same means. I 
have learned this for certain, from well-informed men in those 
very countries where similar miracles have taken place. 

But, to return to the point in hand : among the miracles 
which this same man of the Lord, while dwelling in mortal 
flesh, performed by the gift of God, was his foretelling the 
future by the spirit of prophecy, with which he was highly 
favoured from his early years, and making known to those who 
were present what was happening in other places : for though 
absent in body he was present in spirit, and could look on 
things that were widely apart, according to the words of St. 
Paul, " He that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit." 

Hence this same man of the Lord, St. Columba, when a few 
of the brethren would sometimes inquire into the matter, did 
not deny but that by some divine intuition, and through a 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 7 

wonderful expansion of his inner soul, lie beheld the whole 
universe drawn together and laid open to his sight, as in one 
ray of the sun. 

This account of the miracles of the holy man I have given 
here for this purpose, that my reader, in this brief sketch, may 
have a foretaste of the richer banquet which is before him, in 
the fuller narrative which is to be given, with the assistance of 
the Lord, in the three following books. Here it appears to me 
not improper, though it may be out of the usual order, to record 
some prophecies which the blessed man gave at different times, 
regarding certain holy and illustrious men. 



CHAPTEK II. 

Of St. Finten the Abbot, son of Tailchan. 

ST. FINTEN, who was afterwards very well known through 
out all the churches of the Scots, having, by the grace of God, 
preserved from his boyhood purity of body and soul, and being 
devoted to the study of divine wisdom, had nourished from his 
youthful years this one resolve in his heart, that he would leave 
Hibernia and go abroad to St. Columba. Burning with that 
desire, he went to an old friend, the most prudent and vener 
able cleric in his country, who was called in the Scotic tongue 
Columb Crag, to get some sound advice from him. When he 
had laid open his mind to him, he received the following 
answer : " As thy devout wish is, I feel, inspired by God, who 
can presume to say that thou shouldest not cross the sea to St. 
Columba ?" At the same moment two monks of St. Columba 
happened to arrive, and when they were asked about their 
journey, they replied : "We have lately come across from Britain, 
and to-day we have come from the Oakwood of Calgach (Daire 
Calgaich, or Deny). "Is he well," says Columb Crag, " your holy 
father Columba?" Then they burst into tears, and answered 
with great sorrow, " Our patron is indeed well, for a few days 
ago he departed to Christ." Hearing this, Finten and Columb, 
and all who were there present, fell on their faces on the ground, 
and wept bitterly. Finten then asked, " Whom did he leave 
as his successor ?" " Baithene, his disciple," they replied. And 
as all cried out, " It is meet and right," Columba said to Finten, 
" What wilt thou now do, Finten ?" He answered, " With God s 
permission, I will sail over to Baithene, that wise and holy 
man, and if he receive me I will take him as my abbot." Then 
kissing the forementioned Columb, and bidding him farewell, he 
prepared for his voyage, and setting sail without the least delay, 



8 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

arrived at the louan island (Hy, now corruptly lona). As up 
to that time his name was wholly unknown in those places, he 
was only received at first with the hospitality given to every un 
known stranger ; but next day he sent a messenger to Baithene, 
and asked to have a personal interview. Baithene, ever kind and 
affable to strangers, ordered him to be introduced. Being at once 
brought in, he first, as seemed meet, knelt down upon the ground; 
and then being ordered by the holy abbot to rise and be seated, 
he was asked by Baithene, who as yet knew nothing of his family, 
province, name, or life, what was his motive for encountering 
the labour of the voyage. In reply to the inquiry thus made 
he told everything in order, and then humbly asked to be ad 
mitted. The holy abbot, hearing these things from his guest, 
and recognising him at the same time as the man of whom St. 
Columba had some time previously made a prophecy, replied : 
" Truly, my son, I ought to give thanks to my God for thy 
arrival, but be thou assured of this, that thou wilt not be one 
of our monks." On hearing this the stranger was very much 
grieved, and said : " Perhaps I am unworthy to become thy 
monk." " It is not because thou art unworthy, as thou sayest, 
that I gave that answer," immediately replied the abbot, " for I 
would indeed prefer retaining you with me, but I cannot dis 
obey the command of St. Columba, my predecessor, by whom 
the Holy Ghost prophesied of thee. For, as I was alone with 
him one day, among other things which he foretold was the 
following : Hearken very attentively, Baithene, said he, 
to these my words, for shortly after my welcome and earnestly 
longed-for departure from this world to Christ, a certain brother 
from Scotia (Ireland), named Finten, son of Tailchan, of the tribe 
Mocumoie, who is now carefully guarding his youthful years 
with a good life, and is very well versed in sacred studies, will, 
I say, come to thee, and humbly ask thee to receive and enrol 
him with your other monks. But this has not been appointed 
for him in the foreknowledge of God, that he should become 
the monk of any abbot, for he has long since been chosen of 
God to be an abbot of monks and a leader of souls to the king 
dom of heaven. Thou shalt not therefore detain that illustrious 
man with thee on these islands of ours, lest thou shouldst even 
seem to oppose the will of God, but thou shalt make known to 
him what I have told thee, and send him back in peace to 
Scotia (Ireland), that he may found a monastery in the parts of 
the Leinstermen, near the sea, and that there feeding the flock of 
Christ, he shall lead a countless host of souls to their heavenly 
country. " The holy youth hearing this burst into tears, and 
returning thanks to Christ, said : " Be it unto me according to 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 9 

the prophecy and wonderful foreknowledge of St. Columba." 
At the same time, in obedience to the words of the saints, he 
received the blessing of Baithene, and sailed back in peace to 
Scotia (Ireland). 

I have heard this as an undoubted fact from the lips of an 
aged and pious priest and soldier of Christ, called Oissene, son 
of Ernan, of the tribe Mocu Neth Corb, who averred that he had 
himself heard these very words from the lips of St. Finten, son 
of Tailchan, whose monk he himself had been. 



CHAPTEE III. 

Prophecy of St. Columba regarding Ernene, son of Crasen. 

ON another occasion, while the blessed man was residing for 
a few months in the midland part of Hibernia, when founding 
by divine inspiration his monastery, which in the Scotic tongue 
is called Dair-mag (Durrow), was pleased to pay a visit to the 
brethren who dwelt in St. Ceran s monastery, Clon (Clonmac- 
noise). As soon as it was known that he was near, all flocked 
from their little grange farms near the monastery, and, along 
with those who were within it, ranged themselves, with enthu 
siasm, under the abbot Alither; then advancing beyond the 
enclosure of the monastery, they went out as one man to 
meet St. Columba, as if he were an angel of the Lord. 
Humbly bowing down, with their faces to the ground, in his 
presence, they kissed him most reverently, and singing hymns 
of praise as they went they conducted him with all honour 
to the Church. Over the saint, as he walked, a canopy made 
of wood was supported by four men walking by his side, lest 
the holy abbot, St. Columba, should be troubled by the crowd 
of brethren pressing upon him. At that very time, a boy 
attached to the monastery, who was mean in dress and look, 
and hitherto had not stood well in the opinions of the 
seniors, concealing himself as well as he could, came forward 
stealthily, that he might touch unperceived even the hem of the 
cloak which the blessed man wore, without his feeling or know 
ing it. This, however, did not escape the saint, for he knew 
with the eyes of his soul what he could not see taking place 
behind him with the eyes of his body. Stopping therefore 
suddenly, and putting out his hand behind him, he seized the 
boy by the neck, and bringing him round set him before his 
face. The crowd of bystanders cried out : " Let him go, let 
him go : why do you touch that unfortunate and naughty 



10 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

boy ? " But the saint solemnly uttered these prophetic words 
from his pure heart : " Suffer it to be so now, brethren ; " then 
turning to the boy, who was in the greatest terror, he said, 
" My son, open thy mouth, and put out thy tongue." The boy 
did as he was bid, and in great alarm opened his mouth and put 
out his tongue : the saint extended to it his holy hand, and 
after carefully blessing it pronounced his prophecy in the fol 
lowing words : " Though this boy appears to you now very con 
temptible and worthless, let no one on that account despise 
him. For from this hour, not only will he not displease you, 
but he will give you every satisfaction ; from day to day he 
shall advance by degrees in good conduct, and in the virtues of 
the soul ; from this day, wisdom and prudence shall be more 
and more increased in him, and great shall be his progress in 
this your community : his tongue also shall receive from God 
the gift of both wholesome doctrine and eloquence." This was 
Ernene, son of Crasen, who was afterwards famous and most 
highly honoured in all the churches of Scotia (Ireland). He him 
self told all these words which were prophesied regarding him 
self, as written above, to the abbot Segine, in the attentive hearing 
of my predecessor Failbe, who was present at the time with 
Segine, and from whose lips I myself have come to know all 
that I have stated. But during this short time that the saint 
was a guest in the monastery of Clon, there were many other 
things also which he prophesied by the revelation of the Holy 
Ghost ; as, for instance, about the discord which arose a long 
time after among the churches of Scotia (Ireland), on account 
of the difference with regard to the Easter Feast ; and about 
some visits of angels distinctly made to himself, certain places 
within the enclosure of the monastery being at that time thus 
resorted to by the angels. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Of the arrival of St. Cainnech, the Abbot, who had been previously 
announced in prophecy ly St. Colutriba. 

AT another time, in the louan island (Hy, now lona), on a 
day when the tempest was fierce and the sea was exceedingly 
boisterous, the saint, as he sat in the house, gave orders to his 
brethren, saying, " Prepare the guest-chamber quickly, and draw 
water to wash the strangers feet." One of the brethren upon 
this inquired : " Who can cross the Sound safely, narrow though 
it be, on so perilous and stormy a day?" The saint, on hearing 
this, thus made answer, "The Almighty has given a calm even in 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 11 

this tempest to a certain holy and excellent man, who will 
arrive here among us before evening." And lo ! the same day, 
the ship for which the brethren had some time been looking 
out arrived, according to the saint s prediction, and brought St. 
Cainnech. The saint went forth with the brethren to meet him 
and received him with all honour and hospitality. But the 
sailors who had been with St. Cainnech, when they were asked 
by the brethren what sort of a voyage they had had, told them, 
even as St. Columba had predicted, about both the tempest and 
the calm which God had given in the same sea and at the same 
time, with an amazing distinction between the two. The tem 
pest they saw at a distance, yet they said they did not feel it. 



CHAPTEE V. 

Of the Danger to the holy Bishop Colman Mocusailni in the Sea, 
near the island called Bechru. 

ON another day, also, while St. Columba was engaged in his 
mother-church, he suddenly cried out, with a smile, "Columbanus, 
the son of Beogna, has just now set out on a voyage to us, and 
is in great danger in the rolling tides of Brecan s whirlpool : he 
is sitting at the prow and raising both his hands to heaven : he 
is also blessing that angry and dreadful sea : yet in this the 
Lord only frightens him, for the ship in which he is shall not 
be wrecked in the storm ; but this is rather to excite him to 
pray more fervently, that by God s favour he may escape the 
danger of his voyage, and reach us in safety. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Of Cormac. 

ON another occasion also St. Columba prophesied in the 
following manner of Cormac, grandson of Lethan, a truly pious 
man, who not less than three times went in search of a desert 
in the ocean, but did not find it. " In his desire to find a desert, 
Cormac is this day, for the second time, now embarking from 
that district which lies at the other side of the river Moda (the 
Moy, in Sligo), and is called Eirros Domno (Erris, in Mayo) ; 
nor even this time shall he find what he seeks, and that for 
no other fault than that he has irregularly allowed to accom 
pany him in the voyage a monk who is going away from his 
own proper abbot without obtaining his consent." 



1 2 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

Prophecy of the blessed man regarding the Tumults of Battles 
,^,, fought at a distance. 

ABOUT two years, as we have been told, after the battle of 
Cule-Drebene (in Connaught), at which time the blessed man 
first set sail and took his departure from Scotia (Ireland), it 
happened that on the very day and at the same hour when the 
battle, called in Scotic Ondemone (near Coleraine), was fought 
in Scotia (Ireland), the same man of God was then living in 
Britain with King] Connall, the son of Comgell, and told him 
everything, as well about the battle itself, as also about those 
kings to whom the Lord granted the victory over their enemies. 
These kings were known as Ainmore, son of Setna, and the 
two sons of Mac Erca, Domnall and Forcus. And the saint, 
in like manner, prophesied of the king of the Cruithne, who 
was called Echoid Laib, and how, after being defeated, he 
escaped riding in his chariot. 

On the Battle of the Miathi. 

AT another time, after the lapse of many years from the 
above-mentioned battle, and while the holy man was in the y 
louan island (Hy, now lona), he suddenly said to his minister, 
Diormit, " King the bell." The brethren, startled at the sound, 
proceeded quickly to the church, with the holy prelate himself 
at their head. There he began, on bended knees, to say to 
them, " Let us pray now earnestly to the Lord for this people 
and King Aidan, for they are engaging in battle at this moment." 
Then after a short time he went out of the oratory, and, look- ( 
ing up to heaven, said, " The barbarians are fleeing now, and to 
Aidan is given the victory a sad one though it be." And the 
blessed man in his prophecy declared the number of the slain 
in Aidan s army to be three hundred and three men. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Prophecy of St. Columba regarding the Sons of King Aidan. 

At another time, before the above-mentioned battle, the saint 
asked King Aidan about his successor to the crown. The -king 
answered that of his three sons, Artur, Eochoid Eind, and 
Domingart, he knew not which would have the kingdom after 
him. Then at once the saint prophesied on this wise, " None of 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 13 

these three shall be king, for they shall fall in battle, slain by 
their enemies ; but now if thou hast any younger sons, let them 
come to me, and that one of them whom the Lord has chosen to 
be king will at once rush into my lap." When they were called 
in, Eochoid Buide, according to the word of the saint, advanced 
and rested in his bosom. Immediately the saint kissed him, 
and, giving him his blessing, said to his father, " This one shall 
survive and reign as king after thee, and his sons shall reign 
after him." And so were all these things fully accomplished 
afterwards in their time. For Artur and Eochoid Find were 
not long after killed in the above-mentioned battle of the 
Miathi; Domingart was also defeated and slain in battle in 
Saxonia; while Eochoid Buide succeeded his father on the 
throne. 

Of Domnall, son of Aid. 

DOMNALL, son of Aid, while yet a boy, was brought by those 
who brought him up to St. Columba on the ridge of Ceatt 
(Druim Ceatt in Londonderry), who looked at him and inquired, 
"Whose son is this whom you have brought here?" They 
answered, "This is Domnall, son of Aid, who is brought to 
thee for this purpose, that he may return enriched by thy 
blessing." The saint blessed him immediately, and said, " He 
shall survive all his brethren, and be a very famous king, nor 
shall he be ever delivered into the hands of his enemies ; but 
in his old age, in his own house, and with a crowd of his 
familiar friends around him, he shall die peacefully in his bed." 
All this was truly fulfilled in him, as the blessed man had 
foretold. 

Of Scandlan, son of Colman. 

AT the same time and place, the saint, wishing to visit 
Scandlan, son of Colman, went to him where he was kept in 
prison by King Aid, and when he had blessed him he comforted 
him, saying, " Son, do not distress yourself, but rather rejoice 
and take courage, for King Aid, who has you a prisoner, will go 
out of this world before you, and after some time of exile you 
shall reign in your own nation for thirty years. And again 
you shall be driven from your kingdom, and be in exile for 
some days ; but after that you shall be called home again by 
your people, and shall reign for three short terms." All this 
was fully accomplished according to the prediction of the saint. 
For in thirty years he had to leave his throne, and continued 
in exile for some time ; and then being recalled by his people, 



1 4 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

he reigned not three years, as he expected, but three months, 
and at the end of that time he died. 

A Prophecy of the Messed man regarding two other Kings, icho 
were called the two grandsons of Muiredach Baitan, son of 
Maic JErc, and Eochoid, son of Domnall. 

AT another time, while travelling through the rough and 
rocky country which is called Artdamuirchol (Ardnamurchan), 
he heard his companions Laisran, son of Feradach, and 
Diormit, his minister speaking on the way of the two above- 
named kings, and addressed them in these words, " my dear 
children, why do you talk thus foolishly of these men ? Both 
of these kings of whom you are now conversing are newly 
slain, and have had their heads cut off by their enemies. And 
this very day some sailors shall come here from Scotia (Ireland), 
and tell you the same about these kings." That same day some 
sailors arrived from Hibernia, at a place which is called Muir- 
bolc Paradisi (Portnamurloch in Lismore), and told the two 
above-named companions, who were now sailing in the same 
ship with the saint, how these kings had been slain, and thus 
the prophecy of the venerable man fulfilled. 

Prophecy of the holy man regarding Oingus, son of Aid 
Comman. 

WHEN he and his two brothers were driven from his country, 
he came as an exile to the saint, who was then wandering in 
Britain, and who, in blessing him, uttered these prophetic 
words from his holy heart, " This youth shall survive when his 
other brothers are gone, and he shall reign a long time in his 
native country; his enemies shall fall before him, while he 
shall never fall into their hands, but in old age he shall die 
peacefully in the midst of his friends." All this was fully 
accomplished according to the saint s words. This was Oingus, 
surnamed Bronbachal. 

Prophecy of the blessed man regarding the son of King Dermit, 
who in the Scotic language is called Aid Slane. 

ON another occasion, when the blessed man was sojourning for 
some days in Scotia (Ireland), he spoke in the following prophetic 
strain to the above-mentioned Aid, who had come to visit him : 
" Thou must take care, my son, lest, for the sin of murdering 
thy* kinsman, thou lose the right of governing the whole of 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 15 

Hibernia, as was first assigned tliee by God ; for if at any time 
thou dost commit that sin, thou shalt not hold the whole of 
thy father s kingdom, but only a part of it in thine own tribe, 
and that but for a short time." These words of the saint were 
on this wise fulfilled according to the prediction, that after Aid 
had treacherously killed Suibne, son of Columban, he reigned, 
it is said, no longer than four years and three months, and that 
only as colleague in the kingdom. 



Prophecy of the blessed man regarding King Roderc, son of Tothal, 
who reigned on the Rock of Cluaith (Alcluith or Dumbarton). 

THIS same king being on friendly terms with the holy man, 
sent to him on one occasion a secret message by Lugbe Mocu- 
min, as he was anxious to know whether he would be killed 
by his enemies or not. But when Lugbe was being closely 
inquired at by the saint regarding the king, his kingdom, and 
people, he answered in a tone of pity, " Why do you ask about 
that wretched man, who is quite unable to tell at what hour he 
may be killed by his enemies ? " Then the saint replied, " He 
shall never be delivered into the hands of his enemies ; he will 
die at home on his own pillow." And the prophecy of the 
saint regarding King Eoderc was fully accomplished ; for, ac 
cording to his word, he died quietly in his own house. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

Prophecy of the Saint regarding two "boys, one of whom, according 
to the Saint s word, died at the end of a week. 

ON another occasion, two men of low rank in life came to 
the saint, who was then in the louan island (Hy, now lona). 
One of them, named Meldan, brought his son to the saint and 
asked him what kind of future he would enjoy. To whom the 
saint replied, " Is not this the Sabbath day? Thy son will die 
on the sixth day at the end of next week, and will be buried 
here on the eighth day, that is the Sabbath." Then the other 
man, named Glasderc, also took his son along with him, and 
venturing to make a similar inquiry, received the following 
answer from the saint, "Thy son Ernan will see his grand 
children, and be buried in old age in this island." All this 
was fully accomplished in its own time, regarding the two 
boys, according to the words of the saint, 



1 6 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK 1. 



CHAPTER X. 

Prophecy of the Saint regarding Colca, son of Aid Draignich, 
sprung from the grandsons of Fechureg, and regarding some 
secret sin of his mother. 

THIS Colca residing one time in the louan island (Hy, now 
lona) with the saint, was asked by him concerning his mother 
whether she was a pious woman or not. Colca answered him, 
" I have always known my mother to be good, and to bear that 
character." The saint then spoke these prophetic words : " Set 
out now at once for Scotia (Ireland), with God s help, and 
question thy mother closely regarding her very grievous secret 
sin, which she will not confess to any man." To carry out 
the advice thus given him he departed to Hibernia : and when 
he interrogated his mother closely, she at first denied, and then 
she at last confessed her sin. When she had done penance 
according to the judgment of the saint, she was absolved, won 
dering very much all the while at what was made known to 
the saint regarding her. 



CHAPTER XL 

COLCA, however, returned to the saint, and remained with 
him for some days, and then asking about the end of his own 
days, received this answer from the saint: "In thine own 
beloved country thou shalt be head of a church for many years, 
and when at any time thou happenest to see thy butler making 
merry with a company of his friends at supper, and twirling 
the ladle round in the strainer, know that then in a short 
time thou shalt die." What more need I say ? This same 
prophecy of the blessed man was exactly fulfilled, as it was 
foretold to Colca. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Regarding Laisrean, the gardener, a holy man. 

ON a certain day, the holy man ordered one of his monks 
named Trena, of the tribe Mocuruntir, to go a message for him 
to Scotia (Ireland). While he was preparing the ship in haste to 
obey the orders of the man of God, he complained before the 
saint that one of the sailors was wanting. The saint immedi 
ately answered him, and uttered these words from his sacred 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 17 

breast, " The sailor who is, thou sayest, absent, I cannot just 
now find. But go in peace ; thou shalt have a favourable and 
steady breeze till thou reach Hibernia. Thou shalt see a man 
coming to meet thee from a distance, and he will be the first to 
seize the prow of thy ship in Scotia (Ireland) ; he shall be with 
thee during the time of thy sojourn in Hibernia, and accompany 
thee on thy return to us, as a man chosen by God, who in this 
very monastery of mine will live piously the remainder of his 
days." What more can I add ? Trena received the saint s 
blessing, and crossed over at full sail during the whole voyage, 
and lo ! as his little ship was nearing the port, Laisran Mocu- 
moie ran forward before the others and caught the prow. The 
sailors knew that this was the very man of whom the saint had 
spoken beforehand. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

How the Saint knew and told beforehand about a great Whale. 

ONE day when the venerable man was staying in the Ion an 
island (Hy, now lona), a certain brother named Berach intended 
to sail to the Ethican island (Tiree), and going to the saint in the 
morning asked his blessing. The saint looking at him, said, 
" my son, take very great care this day not to attempt sailing- 
direct over the open sea to the Ethican land (Tiree) ; but rather 
take a circuit, and sail round by the smaller islands, for this 
reason, that thou be not thrown into great terror by a huge 
monster, and hardly be able to escape." On receiving the 
saint s blessing he departed, and when he reached his ship, he 
set sail without giving heed to the saint s words. But as he 
was crossing over the larger arms of the Ethican sea, he and 
the sailors who were with him looked out, and lo, a whale, of 
huge and amazing size, raised itself like a mountain, and as it 
floated on the surface, it opened its mouth, which, as it gaped, 
was bristling with teeth. Then the rowers, hauling in their 
sail, pulled back in the utmost terror, and had a very narrow 
escape from the agitation of the waves caused by the motion of 
the monster ; and they were also struck with wonder as they 
remembered the prophetic words of the saint. On the morning 
of that same day, as Baithene was going to sail to the forenamed 
island, the saint told him about this whale, saying, " Last night, 
at midnight, a great whale rose from the depth of the sea, and it 
will float this day on the surface of the ocean between the louan 
and Ethican islands (lona and Tiree)." Baithene answered and 
said, " That beast and I are under the power of God." " Go in 

B 



1 8 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

peace," said the saint ; " thy faith in Christ shall defend thee 
from this danger." Baithene accordingly, having received the 
saint s blessing, sailed from the harbour; and after they had 
sailed a considerable distance, he and his companions saw the 
whale ; and while all the others were much terrified, he alone 
was without fear, and raising up both his hands, blessed the 
sea and the whale. At the same moment the enormous brute 
plunged down under the waves, and never afterwards appeared 
to them. 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

Prophecy of the holy man regarding a certain Baitan, who with 
others sailed in search of a desert in the ocean. 

At another time, a certain man named Baitan, by race a 
descendant of Niath Taloirc, when setting out with others to 
seek a desert in the sea, asked the saint s blessing. The saint 
bidding him adieu uttered this prophecy regarding him : " This 
man who is going in search of a desert in the ocean shall not be 
buried in the desert, but in that place where a woman shall drive 
sheep over his grave." The same Baitan, after long wanderings 
on stormy seas, returned to his native country without finding 
the desert, and remained for many years the head of a small 
monastic house, which is called in the Scotic tongue Lathregin- 
den (not identified). When after a while he died and was 
buried, in the Oakgrove of Galgach (Deny), it happened at the 
same time that on account of some hostile inroad the poor people 
with their wives and children fled for sanctuary to the church 
of that place. Whence it occurred that on a certain day a woman 
was caught, as she was driving her lambs over the grave of 
this same man who was newly buried. Then a holy priest who 
was present and saw this, said, " Now is fulfilled the prophecy 
which St. Columba uttered many years ago." And this I myself 
was told regarding Baitan, by that same priest and soldier of 
Christ, Mailodran by name, of the tribe of Mocurin. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Prophecy of the holy man regarding a certain Neman, who was 
not a real penitent. 

AT another time, the saint came to the Hinbina island 
(Eilean-na-naoimh, one of the Garveloch islands), and that 
same day he gave orders that even the penitents should 
enjoy some indulgence in respect of their food. Now there 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 19 

was among the penitents in that place a certain Neman, son 
of Cathair, who, though ordered by the saint, declined to accept 
the offer of this little indulgence. Him then the saint addressed 
in these words : " Neman, art thou not accepting some 
indulgence in food as it is kindly granted by me and Baitan ? 
The time shall come when thou wilt be stealthily eating mare s 
flesh, as thou liest concealed in the woods with robbers." And 
accordingly that same man afterwards returned to the world, 
and was found in a forest with robbers taking and eating off a 
wooden griddle such flesh as the saint had foretold. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Regarding a certain unhappy man who lay with his Mother. 

AT another time, the saint called out the brethren at the 
dead of night, and when they were assembled in the church 
said to them : " Now let us pray fervently to the Lord, for at 
this hour a sin unheard of in the world has been committed, 
for^ which rigorous vengeance that is justly due is very much 
to be feared." Next day he spoke of this sin to a few who 
were asking him about it. "After a few months," he said, 
" that unhappy wretch will come here to the louan island (Hy, 
now lona) with Lugaid, who is unaware of the sin." Accord 
ingly after the few months had passed away, the saint one day 
spoke to Diormit, and ordered him, " Rise quickly ; lo ! Lugaid 
is coming. Tell him to send off the wretch whom he has with 
him in the ship to the Malean island (Mull), that he may not 
tread the sod of this island." He went to the sea in obedience 
to the saint s injunction, and told Lugaid as he was approaching 
all the words of the saint regarding the unhappy man. On hear 
ing the directions, that unhappy man vowed that he would never 
eat food with others until he had seen St. Columba and spoken 
to him. Diormit therefore returned to the saint, and told him 
the words of the poor wretch. The saint, on hearing them, went 
down to the haven, and as Baitan was citing the authority of 
Holy Scriptures, and suggesting that the repentance of the un 
happy man should be received, the saint immediately replied to 
him, "O Baitan! this man has committed fratricide like Cain, and 
become an adulterer with his mother." Then the poor wretch, 
casting himself upon his knees on the beach, promised that he 
would comply with all the rules of penance, according to the 
judgment of the saint. The saint said to him, "If thou do 
penance in tears and lamentations for twelve years among the 
Britons, and never to the day of thy death return to Scotia (Ire- 



20 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

land), perhaps God may pardon thy sin." Having said these 
words, the saint turned to his own friends and said, " This man is 
a son of perdition, who will not perform the penance he has pro 
mised, but will soon return to Scotia (Ireland), and there in a 
short time be killed by his enemies." All this happened exactly 
according to the saint ? s prophecy ; for the wretched man, re 
turning to Hibernia about the same time, fell into the hands of 
his enemies in the region called Lea (Firli, in Ulster), and was 
murdered. He was of the descendants of Turtre. 

CHAPTEK XVII. 

Of the Vowel I. 

ONE day Baithene came to the saint and said, " I want some 
one of the brethren to look over with me and correct the 
psalter which I have written." Hearing this, the saint said, 
" Why give us this trouble without any cause ? In that psalter 
of thine, of which thou speakest, there is not one superfluous 
letter to be found, nor is any wanting except the one vowel I." 
And accordingly, when the whole psalter was read over, what 
the saint had said was found to be true. 

CHAPTEE XVIII. 

Of the Book which fell into the Water-vessel, as the Saint had 
foretold. 

IN the same way, on another day, as he was sitting by the 
hearth in the monastery, he saw at some distance Lugbe, of 
the tribe Mocumin, reading a book, and suddenly said to him, 
" Take care, my son, take care, for I think that the book thou 
readest is about to fall into a vessel full of water." And so 
it soon happened, for when the same youth rose soon after to 
perform some duty in the monastery, he forgot the word of the 
blessed man, and the book which he held negligently under his 
arm suddenly fell into the water-pot, which was full of water. 

CHAPTEK XIX. 

Of the Inkhorn, awkwardly spilled. 

ON another day a shout was given on the other side of the 
Sound of the louan island (Sound of lona) ; the saint hearing 
the shout, as he was sitting in his little hut, which was made 
of planks, said, " The man who is shouting beyond the Sound 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 21 

is not of very sharp wit, for when he is here to-day he will 
upset my inkhorn and spill the ink. Diormit, his minister, 
hearing this, stood a little in front of the door, and waited for 
the arrival of this troublesome guest, in order to save the ink- 
horn. But for some cause or other he had soon to leave his 
place, and after his departure the unwelcome guest arrived; 
in his eager haste to kiss the saint, he upset the inkhorn with 
the hem of his garment and spilled the ink. 

CHAPTEE XX. 

Of the arrival of another Guest foretold ~by the Saint. 

So again at another time the saint spoke thus to his brethren 
on the third day of the week, " We intend to fast to-morrow, 
being Wednesday : and yet by the arrival of a certain trouble 
some guest the usual fast will be broken." And so it happened 
as had been shown to the saint beforehand ; for on the morn 
ing of that same Wednesday, another stranger was heard signal 
ling across the Sound. This was Aidan, the son of Fergno, who, 
it is said, was minister for twelve years to Brendan Mocualti. 
He was a very religious man, and his arrival, as the saint had 
foretold, broke the fast of that day. 

CHAPTEE XXL 

Of another man in distress who was crying across the same Sound. 

ON another day the saint heard some person shouting across 
the Sound, and spoke on this wise, "That man who is shouting is 
much to be pitied, for he is coming here to us to ask some cure 
for the disease of his body; but it were better for him this day to 
do true penance for his sins, for at the close of this week he shall 
die." These words those who were present told to the unhappy 
man when he arrived. But he gave no heed to them when he 
had received what he asked, and quickly departed, yet before 
the end of the same week he died, according to the prediction 
of the saint. 

CHAPTEE XXII. 

The Prophecy of the holy man regarding the Roman city, burnt 
l>y a sulphurous fire which fell from heaven. 

ANOTHER time also, Lugbe, of the tribe Mocumin, of whom 
I spoke already, came to the saint one day after the grinding of 



22 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

the com, but the saint s countenance shone with such wonderful 
brilliancy that he could not look upon it, and quickly fled in 
great terror. The saint gently clapped his hands and called 
him back ; then on his return the saint asked him why he fled 
so quickly. " I fled," he replied, " because I was very much 
alarmed." Then becoming more confident, after a while, he 
ventured to ask the saint, " Hath any awful vision been shown 
to thee just now ? " The saint answered, " A very fearful ven 
geance hath just now been exacted in a distant corner of the 
world." " What vengeance ?" says the youth, " and where hath 
it taken place ? " The saint then addressed him thus : " A sul 
phurous fire hath been poured down from heaven this moment on 
a city which is subject to Borne, and within the Italian territory, 
and about three thousand men, besides women and children, 
have perished. Before the end of this year Gallican sailors shall 
come here from the provinces of Gaul, and tell thee these same 
things." His words proved true in a few months ; for the same 
Lugbe, happening to accompany the saint to the Head of the 
land (Kintyre), inquired at the captain and crew of a bark 
that had just arrived, and received from them all the news 
regarding the city and its inhabitants, exactly as it was fore 
told by the illustrious man. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Vision of the Uessed man regarding Laisran, son of Feradach. 

ONE very cold day in winter the saint was much afflicted, and 
wept bitterly. His attendant, Diormit, asked the cause of his 
sadness, and received this answer from him, " With just reason 
am I sad to-day, my little child, seeing that my monks, now 
wearied after their severe labours, are engaged by Laisraii in 
building a large house ; with this I am very much displeased." 
Strange to say, at that very moment, Laisran, who was living 
at the time in the monastery of the Oakwood Plain (Deny), felt 
somehow impelled, and as it were consumed by a fire within him, 
so that he commanded the monks to stop from working, and some 
refreshments to be made ready for them. He also gave direc 
tions that they were to rest not only that day, but also on other 
occasions of severe weather. The saint, hearing in spirit these 
words of consolation addressed by Laisran to his brethren, ceased 
weeping, and though he himself was living in the louan island 
(Hy, now lona), he rejoiced with exceeding great joy, and told 
all the circumstances to his brethren, while at the same time 
he blessed Laisran for his timely relief to the monks. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 23 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 

How Feachna the Wise came as a Penitent to St. Columba, as he 

had foretold. 

ANOTHER time the saint was sitting on the top of the moun 
tain which overhangs this our monastery, at some distance from 
it, and turning to his attendant Diormit, said to him, " I am sur 
prised that a certain ship from Scotia (Ireland) does not appear 
sooner : there is on board a certain wise man who has fallen into a 
great crime, but who, with tears of repentance, shall soon arrive." 
Not long after the attendant, looking to the south, saw the sail 
of a ship that was approaching the harbour. When its arrival 
was pointed out to the saint he got up quickly and said, " Let 
us go to meet this stranger, whose sincere penance is accepted 
by Christ." As soon as Feachna came on shore, he ran to meet 
the saint, who was coming down to the shore, and falling on his 
knees before him lamented most bitterly with wailing and tears, 
and there in the presence of all made open confession of his sins. 
Then the saint, also shedding tears, said to him, " Arise, my son, 
and be comforted ; the sins thou hast committed are forgiven 
thee, because, as it is written, a humble and contrite heart God 
doth not despise. " He then arose, and the saint received him 
with great joy. After a few days he was sent to Baithene, who 
at that time was the superior of the monastery in the plain 
of Lunge (Maigh Lunge, in Tiree), and he journeyed thither in 
peace. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

The Prophecy of the holy man regarding his monk Cailtan. 

AT another time he sent two of his monks to another of them 
named Cailtan, who was then superior in the cell which is called 
to this day after his brother Diuni, and is situated near the lake of 
the river Aba (Lochawe). The saint gave them the following 
instructions, " Run quickly to Cailtan, and tell him to come to 
me without delay." In obedience to the saint s command they 
went to the cell of Diuni, and told Cailtan the object of their 
mission. At once, and without the least delay, he set out along 
with the messengers of the saint, and soon reached his abode in 
the louan island (Hy, now lona). On making his appearance 
he was addressed by the saint, " Cailtan, thou hast done well 
by coming hither quickly in obedience to my summons ; rest 



24 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

now for a while. I sent for you to come to me for this reason, 
that, loving thee as a friend, I would wish thee to end thy days 
with me here in true obedience. For before the close of this 
week thou shalt depart in peace to the Lord." When he heard 
these words he gave thanks to God, embraced the saint with 
tears, and receiving his blessing, retired to the guest-chamber. 
He fell sick that same night, and passed away to Christ the 
Lord during that very week, as the saint had said. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Foresight and Prophecy of the Saint regarding the two 
brothers who were Strangers. 

ONE Lord s day a loud cry was heard beyond the above- 
mentioned Sound of which I speak so often. As soon as the 
saint heard it, he said to the brethren who were then with him, 
" Go directly and bring here before us at once the strangers that 
have now arrived from a distant land." They went accordingly 
and ferried the strangers across. The saint, after embracing 
them, asked them at once the object of their journey. In reply 
they said, "We are come to reside with thee for this year." 
The saint replied, " With me, as you say, you cannot reside for 
a year, unless you take first the monastic vow." When those 
who were present heard these words addressed to strangers who 
were only newly arrived they wondered very much. But the 
elder brother, in answer to the saint s remarks, replied, 
"Although we never up to the present hour entertained the 
thought before, yet we shall follow thy advice, believing that it 
cometh from God." What more need I say ? That very moment 
they entered the chapel with the saint, and on bended knees 
devoutly took the monastic vow. The saint then turned to his 
monks and said, " These two strangers who are presenting them 
selves a living sacrifice to God/ and within a short time are 
fulfilling a long time of Christian warfare, shall pass away in 
peace this very month to Christ our Lord." The two brothers, 
on hearing this, gave thanks to God, and were led away to the 
guest-room. After seven days the elder brother fell sick, and 
departed to the Lord in the course of that week. After other 
seven days the other brother also fell sick, and within the same 
week passed to the Lord with joy, so that, according to the 
truthful prophecy of the saint, both closed their lives in this 
world within the space of one month. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 25 

CHAPTEE XXVII. 

The Prophecy of the holy man regarding a certain Artlranan. 

WHEN the blessed man was staying for some days in the Scian 
island (Sky), he struck a spot of ground near the sea with his 
staff, and said to his companions : " Strange to say, my children, 
this day, an aged heathen, whose natural goodness has been 
preserved through all his life, will receive baptism, die, and be 
buried on this very spot." And lo ! about an hour after, a boat 
came into the harbour, on whose prow sat a decrepit old man, 
the chief of the Geona cohort. Two young men took him 
out of the boat and laid him at the feet of the blessed man. 
After being instructed in the word of God by the saint through 
an interpreter, the old man believed, and was baptized at once 
by him, and when the baptism was duly administered, he in 
stantly died on the same spot, according to the saint s predic 
tion, and was buried there by his companions, who raised a 
heap of stones over his grave. This cairn may be seen still on 
the sea-coast, and the river in which he was baptized is called 
to this day by the inhabitants, Dobur Artbranan. 



CHAPTEK XXVIII. 

Of the Boat that was removed ly the Saint s order. 

ANOTHER time, as the saint was travelling beyond the Dorsal 
ridge of Britain (Drumalban), he came to a small village, lying 
amid deserted fields, on the banks of a river, where it flows into 
a lake. There the saint took up his abode, and that same night, 
while they were yet but falling asleep, he awoke his companions, 
and said to them : " Go out this instant with all speed, bring 
hither quickly the boat you left on the other side of the stream, 
and put it in a house near us." They did at once as they were 
ordered, and soon after they were again asleep, the saint roused 
Diormit, and said to him : " Stand outside the door, and see 
what has happened to the village in which you had left your 
boat." Diormit went out accordingly and saw the whole village 
on fire, and returning to the saint he told him what was taking 
place. Then the saint told the brethren the name of the ran 
corous foe who had burnt the houses that night. 



26 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 



CHAPTEE XXIX. 

Gfallan, son of Fachtna, who resided in the jurisdiction of 
Colga, son of CellacJi. 

ONE day again, as the saint was sitting in his little hut, he 
said, in prophecy to the same Colca, then reading by his side, 
" Just now demons are dragging with them down to hell one of 
the chiefs of thy district who is a niggardly person." When 
Colca heard this, he marked the time accurately in a tablet, 
and, coming home within a few months, learned on inquiry 
from the inhabitants of the place, that Gallan, son of Fachtna, 
died at the very moment that the saint said to him the man 
was being carried off by demons. 

The Prophecy of the blessed man regarding Findchan, a Priest, 
and the founder of the monastery called in Scotic Artchain, 
in the Ethican land (Tiree). 

AT another time Findchan, the priest and soldier of Christ, 
named above, brought with him from Scotia (Ireland) to Britain, 
Aid, surnamed the Black, descended of a royal family, and a Cru- 
thinian by race. Aid wore the clerical habit, and came with the 
purpose of residing with him in the monastery for some years. 
Now this Aid the Black had been a very bloodthirsty man, and 
cruelly murdered many persons, amongst others Diormit, son of 
Cerbul, by divine appointment king of all. This same Aid, 
then, after spending some time in his retirement, was irregularly 
ordained priest by a bishop invited for the purpose, in the pre 
sence of the above-named Findchan. The bishop, however, 
would not venture to lay a hand upon his head unless Findchan, 
who was greatly attached to Aid, in a carnal way, should first 
place his right hand on his head as a mark of approval. When 
such an ordination afterwards became known to the saint, he 
was deeply grieved, and in consequence forthwith pronounced 
this fearful sentence on the ill-fated Findchan and Aid : " That 
right hand which, against the laws of God and the Church, 
Findchan placed on the head of the son of perdition, shall soon 
be covered with sores, and after great and excruciating pain 
shall precede himself to the grave, and he shall survive the 
burial of his hand for many years. And Aid, thus irregularly 
ordained, shall return as a dog to his vomit, and be again a 
bloody murderer, until at length, pierced in the neck with a 
spear, he shall fall from a tree into the water and be drowned." 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 27 

Such indeed was the end long due to him who murdered the king 
of all Scotia (Ireland). The blessed man s prophecy was fulfilled 
regarding both, for the priest Findchan s right hand festered 
from the effects of a blow, and went before him into the ground, 
being buried in an island called Ommon (not identified), while 
he himself survived for many years, according to the saying of 
St. Coluniba. But Aid the Black, a priest only in name, be 
taking himself again to his former evil doings, and being treach 
erously wounded with a spear, fell from the prow of a boat into 
a lake and was drowned. 



Of the Consolation which the Monks, when they were vieary on 
their journey, received from the Saint visiting them in spirit. 

AMONG these wonderful manifestations of prophetical spirit 
it does not seem alien from the purpose of our short treatise to 
mention also here the spiritual comfort which the monks of 
St. Columba at one time received from his spirit s meeting them 
by the way. For as the brethren, on one occasion after the 
harvest work, were returning in the evening to the monastery, 
and came to a place called in Scotic Cuuleilne, which is 
said to lie on the western side of the louan island (Hy, now 
lona), midway between the field on the plain and our monastery, 
each of them thought he felt something strange and unusual, 
which, however, they did not venture to speak of to one another. 
And so they had the same feeling for some days successively, 
at the same place, and at the same hour in the evening. 

The holy Baithen at that particular time had charge of the 
work, and one day he said to them : " Now, my brethren, if any 
of you ever notices anything wonderful and unusual in this 
spot which lies between the corn-field and the monastery, it is 
your duty to declare it openly." An elder brother said, " As 
you have ordered me, I shall tell you what I observed on this 
spot. For both in the past few days, and even now, I perceive 
the fragrance of such a wonderful odour, just as if all the 
flowers on earth were gathered together into one place ; I feel 
also a glow of heat within me, not at all painful, but most 
pleasing, and a certain unusual and inexpressible joy poured into 
my heart, which on a sudden so refreshes and gladdens me, that 
I forget grief and weariness of every kind. Even the load, how 
ever heavy, which I carry on my back, is in some mysterious 
way so much lightened, from this place all the way to the 
monastery, that I do not seem to have any weight to bear." 
What need I add ? All the other reapers in turn declared they had 
exactly the same feeling as the first had described. All then knelt 



28 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

down together, and requested of the holy Baithen that he would 
learn and inform them of the as yet unknown cause and origin 
of this wonderful relief, which both he and they were feeling. 
" Ye all know," he immediately replied, "our father Columba s 
tender care regarding us, and how, ever mindful of our toil, he 
is always grieved when we return later than usual to the 
monastery. And now because he cannot come in person on 
this occasion to meet us, his spirit cometh forth to us as we 
walk along, and conveyeth to us such great comfort." Having 
heard these words, they raised their hands to heaven with 
intense joy as they knelt, and venerated Christ in the holy and 
blessed man. 

I must not pass over another well-authenticated story, told, 
indeed, by those who heard it, regarding the voice of the 
blessed man in singing the psalms. The venerable man, when 
singing in the church with the brethren, raised his voice so 
wonderfully that it was sometimes heard four furlongs off, that 
is five hundred paces, and sometimes eight furlongs, that is one 
thousand paces. But what is stranger still : to those who were 
with him in the church, his voice did not seem louder than that 
of others ; and yet at the same time persons more than a mile 
away heard it so distinctly that they could mark each syllable 
of the verses he was singing, for his voice sounded the same 
whether far or near. It is however admitted, that this wonder 
ful character in the voice of the blessed man was but rarely 
observable, and even then it could never happen without the 
aid of the Holy Ghost. 

But another story concerning the great and wonderful power 
of his voice should not be omitted. The fact is said to have taken 
place near the fortress of King Brude (near Inverness) . When the 
saint himself was chanting the evening hymns with a few of the 
brethren, as usual, outside the king s fortifications, some Druids, 
coming near to them, did all they could to prevent God s 
praises being sung in the midst of a pagan nation. On seeing 
this, the saint began to sing the 44th Psalm, and at the same 
moment so wonderfully loud, like pealing thunder, did his voice 
become, that king and people were struck with terror and 
amazement. 



CHAPTEK XXX. 

Concerning a rich man named Lugud Clodus. 

AT another time, when the saint was staying some days in 
Scotia (Ireland), he saw a cleric mounted on a chariot, and driving 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 29 

pleasantly along the plain of Breg (MaghBregh, in Meath). 
On asking who the person was, the cleric s friend made this 
reply regarding him : " This is Lugud Clodus, who is rich, and 
much respected by the people." The saint immediately 
answered, " He does not seem so to me, but a poor wretched 
creature, who on the day of his death shall have within his 
own walled enclosure three of his neighbour s cattle which 
have strayed on to his property. The best of the strayed cows 
he shall order to be killed for his own use, and a part of the 
meat he shall direct to be cooked and served up to him at 
the very time that he is lying on the same couch with a prosti 
tute, but by the first morsel that he eats shall he be choked and 
die immediately." Now all these things, as we heard from 
well-informed persons, afterwards happened according to the 
saint s prophecy. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Prophecy of the Saint regarding Neman, son of Ghruthrich. 

FOR when the saint corrected this man for his faults, he re 
ceived the saint s reproof with derision. The blessed man then 
said to him, " In God s name I will declare these words of truth 
concerning thee, Neman, that thine enemies shall find thee in 
bed with a prostitute and put thee to death, and the evil spirits 
shall carry off thy soul to the place of torments." A few years 
after his enemies found this same Neman on a couch along 
with a prostitute, in the district of Cainle (not identified), and 
beheaded him, as was foretold by the saint. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Prophecy of the holy man regarding a certain Priest. 

AT another time, as the saint was staying in that part of 
Scotia (Ireland), named a little before, he came by chance on 
the Lord s day to a neighbouring little monastery, called in 
the Scotic language Trioit (Trevet, in Meath). The same day 
a priest celebrated the holy mysteries of the Eucharist, who 
was selected by the brethren who lived there to perform the 
solemn offices of the Mass, because they thought him very 
pious. The saint, on hearing him, suddenly opened his mouth 
and uttered this fearful sentence : " The clean and unclean 
are now equally mingled together ; that is, the clean mysteries 
of the holy sacrifice are offered by an unclean person, who 



30 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

just now conceals within his own conscience a grievous crime." 
The bystanders, hearing these words, were struck with terror ; 
but he of whom they were said was forced to confess his sin 
before them all. And the fellow-soldiers of Christ, who stood 
round the saint in the church, and had heard him making mani 
fest the secrets of the heart, greatly wondered, and glorified the 
heavenly knowledge that was seen in him. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The Prophecy of the holy man regarding the roller Ere Mocu- 
druidi, who dwelt in the island Coloso (Colonsay). 

AT another time, when the saint was in the louan island (Hy, 
now lona), he called two of the brothers, Lugbe and Silnan, and 
gave them this charge, " Sail over now to the Malean island 
(Mull), and on the open ground, near the sea-shore, look for Ere, 
a robber, who came alone last night in secret from the island 
Coloso (Colonsay). He strives to hide himself among the sand 
hills during the daytime under his boat, which he covers with 
hay, that he may sail across at night to the little island where 
our young seals are brought forth and nurtured. When this 
furious robber has stealthily killed as many as he can, he then 
fills his boat, and goes back to his hiding-place." They pro 
ceeded at once in compliance with their orders, and found the 
robber lying hid in the very spot that was indicated, and they 
brought him to the saint, as they had been told. The saint 
looked at him, and said, " Why dost thou transgress the com 
mandment of God so often by stealing the property of others ? 
If thou art in want at any time, come to us and thy needs shall 
be supplied." At the same time he ordered some wethers to 
be killed, and given to the wretched thief in place of the seals, 
that he might not return empty. A short time after the saint 
saw in spirit that the death of the robber was at hand, and 
ordered Baithen, then steward in the plain of Lunge (Maigh 
Lunge, in Tiree), to send a fat sheep and six pecks of corn as a 
last gift. Baithen sent them at once as the saint had recom 
mended, but he found that the wretched robber had died sud 
denly the same day, and the presents sent over were used at 
his burial. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Prophecy of the holy man regarding the poet Cronan. 

AT another time, as the saint was sitting one day with the 
brothers beside the lake Ce (Lough Key, in Roscommon), at the 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 31 

inouth of the river called in Latin Bos (the Boyle), a certain 
Scotic poet came to them, and when he retired, after a short 
interview, the brothers said to the saint, " Why didst thou not 
ask the poet Cronan, before he went away, to sing us a song 
with accompaniment, according to the rules of his profession ? " 
The saint replied, "Why do even you now utter such idle 
words? How could I ask that poor man to sing a song of 
joy, who has now been murdered, and thus hastily has ended 
his days, at the hands of his enemies ? " The saint had no 
sooner said these words than immediately a man cried out 
from beyond the river, " That poet who left you in safety a few 
minutes ago has just now been met and put to death by his 
enemies." Then all that were present wondered very much, 
and looked at one another in amazement. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

The holy man s Prophecy regarding the two Noblemen who died 
of wounds mutually inflicted. 

AGAIN, at another time, as the saint was living in the louan 
island (Hy> now lona), on a sudden, while he was reading, and 
to the great surprise of all, he moaned very heavily. Lugbe 
Mocublai, who was beside him, on seeing this, asked the cause of 
such sudden grief. The saint, in very great affliction, answered 
him, " Two men of royal blood in Scotia (Ireland) have perished 
of wounds mutually inflicted near the monastery called Cellrois, 
in the province of the Maugdorna (Magheross, in Monaghan) ; 
and on the eighth day from the end of this week, one shall 
give the shout on the other side of the Sound, who has come 
from Hibernia, and will tell you all as it happened. But 
oh ! my dear child, tell this to nobody so long as I live." On 
the eighth day, accordingly, the voice was heard beyond the 
firth. Then the saint called quietly to Lugbe, and said to 
him, "This is the aged traveller to whom I alluded, who 
now crieth aloud beyond the strait ; go and bring him here to 
me." The stranger was speedily brought, and told, among 
other things, how two noblemen in the district of the Maug 
dorna, near the confines of the territory in which is situate 
the monastery of Cellrois, died of wounds received in single 
combat namely, Colman the Hound, son of Ailen, and Eonan, 
son of Aid, son of Colga, both descended of the kings of 
the Anteriores (the Airtheara, or people of Oriel in Ulster). 
After these things were thus narrated, Lugbe, the soldier of 
Christ, began to question the saint in private. " Tell me, I 



32 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

entreat of thee, about these and such like prophetic revelations, 
how they are made to thee, whether by sight or hearing, or 
other means unknown to man." To this the saint replied, 
" Thy question regardeth a most difficult subject, on which I can 
give thee no information whatever, unless thou first strictly 
promise, on thy bended knees, by the name of the Most High 
God, never to communicate this most secret mystery to any 
person all the days of my life." Hearing this, Lugbe fell at 
once on his knees, and, with face bent down to the ground, 
promised everything faithfully as the saint demanded. After 
this pledge had been promptly given he arose, and the saint 
said to him, " There are some, though very few, who are enabled 
by divine grace to see most clearly and distinctly the whole 
compass of the world, and to embrace within their own won- 
drously enlarged mental capacity the utmost limits of the 
heavens and the earth at the same moment, as if all were 
illumined by a single ray of the sun." In speaking of this 
miracle, the saint, though he seems to be referring to the expe 
rience of other favoured persons, yet was in reality alluding to 
his own, though indirectly, that he might avoid the appearance 
of vain-glory ; and no one can doubt this who reads the apostle 
Paul, that vessel of election, when he relates the visions revealed 
to himself. For he did not write, " I know that I," but " I know 
a man caught up even to the third heavens." Now, although 
the words seem strictly to refer to another person, yet all admit 
that he spoke thus of none but himself in his great humility. 
This was the model followed by our Columba in relating those 
visions of the Spirit spoken of above, and that, too, in such a 
way that even Lugbe, for whom the saint showed a special 
affection, could hardly force him to tell these wonders after 
much entreaty. And to this fact Lugbe himself, after St. 
Columba s death, bore witness in the presence of other holy 
men, from whom I learned the undoubted truths which I have 
now related of the saint. 

Of Cronan the Bishop. 

AT another time, a stranger from the province of the Munster- 
men, who in his humility did all he could to disguise himself, 
so that nobody might know he was a bishop, came to the saint ; 
but his rank could not be hidden from the saint. For next 
Lord s day, being invited by the saint, as the custom was, to 
consecrate the Body of Christ, he asked the saint to join him, 
that, as two priests, they might break the bread of the Lord 
together. The saint went to the altar accordingly, and suddenly 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 33 

looking into the stranger s face, thus addressed him : " Christ 
bless thee, brother ; do thou break the bread alone, according 
to the episcopal rite, for I know now that thou art a bishop. 
Why hast thou disguised thyself so long, and prevented our 
giving thee the honour we owe to thee ? " On hearing the 
saint s words, the humble stranger was greatly astonished, and 
adored Christ in His saint, and the bystanders in amazement 
gave glory to God. 

The Saint s prophecy regarding Ernan the Priest. 

AT another time, the venerable man sent Ernan, his uncle, 
an aged priest, to preside over the monastery he had founded 
many years before in Hinba island (Eilean-na-Naoimh). On 
his departure the saint embraced him affectionately, blessed 
him, and then foretold what would by and by happen to him, 
saying, " This friend of mine, who is now going away from me, I 
never expect to see alive again in this world." After a few days 
this same Ernan became very unwell, and desired to be taken 
back to the saint, who was much rejoiced at his return, and set 
out for the harbour to meet him. Ernan also himself, though 
with feeble step, attempted very boldly, and without assistance, 
to walk from the harbour to meet him ; but when there was only 
the short distance of twenty-four paces between them, death 
came suddenly upon him before the saint could see his face in 
life, and he breathed his last as he fell to the ground, that the 
word of the saint might be fulfilled. Hence on that spot, 
before the door of the kiln, a cross was raised, and another 

(cross was in like manner put up where the saint resided at the 
time of his death, which remaineth unto this day. 

The Saint s prophecy regarding the Family of a certain Peasant. 

AT another time, when the saint was staying in that district 
which is called in the Scotic tongue Coire Salchain (Corrie Sal- 
lachan, now Corry, in Morvern), the peasants came to him, and 
one evening when he saw one of them approaching he said to 
him, " Where dost thou live ? " "I live," said he, " in that dis 
trict which borders the shore of Lake Crogreth (Loch Creran). 
" That district of which thou speakest," replied the saint, " is 
now being pillaged by savage marauders." On hearing this, the 
unhappy peasant began to lament his wife and children ; but 
when the saint saw him so much afflicted he consoled him, 
saying, " Go, my poor man, go ; thy whole family hath escaped 
by flight to the mountains, but thy cattle, furniture, and other 

c 



34 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

effects the ruthless invaders have taken off with their unjust 
spoils." When the poor man heard these words he went home, 
and found that all had happened exactly as the saint foretold. 

The Saint s prophecy regarding a Peasant called Goire, son 
of Aidan. 

AT another time, in the same way, a peasant, who at that 
time was by far the bravest of all the inhabitants of Korkureti 
(Corkaree, in Westmeath), asked the saint by what death he 
would die. " Not in the battle-field shalt thou die," said the 
saint, " nor at sea ; but the travelling companion of whom thou 
hast no suspicion shall cause thy death." " Perhaps," said 
Goire, " one of the friends who accompany me on my journey 
may be intending to murder me, or my wife, in her love for some 
younger man, may treacherously kill me." " Not so," replied 
the saint. " Why," asked Goire, " wilt thou not tell now the 
cause of my death ? " " Because," said the saint, " I do not 
wish to tell more clearly just now the companion that is to 
injure thee, lest the frequent thought of the fact should make 
thee too unhappy, until the hour come when thou shalt find 
that my words are verified. Why dwell longer on what I have 
said ? " After the lapse ot a few years, this same Goire hap 
pened to be lying one day under his boat scraping off the bark 
from a spear-handle, when he heard others fighting near him. 
He rose hastily to stop the fighting, but his knife, through 
some neglect in the rapid movement, fell to the ground, and 
made a very deep wound in his knee. By such a companion, 
then, was his death caused, and he himself at once remembered 
with surprise the holy man s prophecy. After a few months 
he died, carried off by that same wound. 

The Saint s foreknowledge and prophecy concerning a matter of 
less moment, but so beautiful that it cannot, I think, be 
over in silence. 



FOB at another time, while the saint was living in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), he called one of the brothers, and thus 
addressed him : " In the morning of the third day from this date 
thou must sit down and wait on the shore on the western side of 
this island, for a crane, which is a stranger from the northern re 
gion of Hibernia, and hath been driven about by various winds, 
shall come, weary and fatigued, after the ninth hour, and lie 
down before thee on the beach quite exhausted. Treat that bird 
tenderly, take it to some neighbouring house, where it may be 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 35 

kindly received and carefully nursed and fed by thee for three 
days and three nights. When the crane is refreshed with the 
three days rest, and is unwilling to abide any longer with us, it 
shall fly back with renewed strength to the pleasant part of Scotia 
(Ireland) from which it originally hath come. This bird do I 
consign to thee with such special care because it cometh from our 
own native place." The brother obeyed, and on the third day, 
after the ninth hour, he watched as he was bid for the arrival 
of the expected guest. As soon as the crane came and alighted 
on the shore, he took it up gently in its weakness, and carried 
it to a dwelling that was near, where in its hunger he fed it. 
On his return to the monastery in the evening, the saint, without 
any inquiry, but as stating a fact, said to him, " God bless thee, 
my child, for thy kind attention to this foreign visitor, that 
shall not remain long on its journey, but return within three 
days to its old home." As the saint predicted, so exactly did the 
event prove, for after being nursed carefully for three days, the 
bird then gently rose on its wings to a great height in the sight 
of its hospitable entertainer, and marking for a little its path 
through the air homewards, it directed its course across the sea 
to Hibernia, straight as it could fly, on a calm day. 

The blessed man s foreknowledge regarding the Battle fought many 
years after in the fortress of Cethirn, and regarding the Well 
near that place. 

ANOTHER time, after the convention of the kings at the Eidge 
of Ceate (Druim Ceatt) that is, of Aidan, son of Gabran, and Aid, 
son of Ainmure the blessed man returned to the sea-coast, and 
on a calm day in summer he and the Abbot Comgell sat down 
not far from the above-named fort. Then water was brought 
in a bronze vessel to the saints from a well that was close by to 
wash their hands. When St. Columba had received the water, 
he thus spoke to Abbot Comgell, who was sitting at his side, 
"A day shall come, Comgell! when the well whence this 
water now poured out for us was drawn will be no longer fit 
for man s use." " How ? " said Comgell ; " shall the water of this 
spring be defiled ? " " From this," said St. Columba, " that it 
shall be filled with human blood ; for thy relatives and mine 
that is, the people of the Cruithni and the race of Niall shall 
be at war in the neighbouring fortress of Cethirn (now called 
the Giant s Sconce, near Coleraine). Whence, at this same 
well, an unhappy relative of mine shall be slain, and his blood, 
mingling with that of many others, shall fill it up." This 
truthful prophecy was duly accomplished after many years, for 



36 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

in that battle, as is well known to many, Domnall, son of 
Aid, came off victorious, and at that well, according to the 
saint s word, a near kinsman of his was slain. 

Another soldier of Christ, called Finan, who led the life of an 
anchorite blamelessly for many years near the monastery of 
the Oakwood Plain (Derry), and who was present at the battle, 
in relating these things to me, Adamnan, assured me that he 
saw a man s dead body lying in the well, and that on his return 
from the battle-field the same day to the monastery of St. 
Comgell, which is called in the Scotic tongue Cambas (on the 
river Bann, in diocese of Derry), and from which he had first 
set out, he found there two aged monks, of St. Comgell, who, 
when he told them of the battle he saw, and of the well defiled 
with human blood, at once said to him : " A true prophet is 
Columba, for he foretold all the circumstances you now mention 
to-day regarding the battle and the well, many years indeed 
before they occurred ; this he did in our hearing to St. Com 
gell, as he sat by the fort Cethirn." 

How the Saint was favoured ly God s grace with the power of 
distinguishing different Presents. 

ABOUT the same time Conall, bishop of Culerathin (Coleraine), 
collected almost countless presents from the people of the plain 
of Eilne (Magh Elne, on the Bann), to give a hospitable recep 
tion to the blessed man, and the vast multitude that accom 
panied him, on his return from the meeting of the kings men 
tioned above. 

Many of these presents from the people were laid out in the 
paved court of the monastery, that the holy man might bless 
them on his arrival; and as he was giving the blessing he 
specially pointed out one present, the gift of a wealthy man. 
" The mercy of God," said he, "attendeth the man who gave this, 
for his charity to the poor and his munificence." Then he 
pointed out another of the many gifts, and said : " Of this 
wise and avaricious man s offering, I cannot partake until 
he repent sincerely of his sin of avarice." Now this saying 
was quickly circulated among the crowd, and soon reaching the 
ears of Columb, son of Aid, his conscience reproached him ; and 
he ran immediately to the saint, and on bended knees repented 
of his sin, promising to forsake his former greedy habits, and to 
be liberal ever after, with amendment of life. The saint bade 
him rise : and from that moment he was cured of the fault of 
greediness, for he was truly a wise man, as was revealed to the 
saint through that present. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 37 

But the munificent rich man, called Brenden, of whose pre 
sent mention was made above, hearing the words of the saint 
regarding himself, knelt down at his feet and besought him to 
pray for him to the Lord. When at the outset the saint 
reproved him for certain other sins of which he was guilty, he 
expressed his heartfelt sorrow, and purpose of amendment. And 
thus both these men were cured of the peculiar vices in which 
they were wont to indulge. With like knowledge at another 
time, on the occasion of his visit to the Great Cell of Deathrib 
(Kilmore, in Boscommon), the saint knew the offering of a 
stingy man, called Diormit, from many others collected in that 
place on his arrival. 

To have written thus much in the course of this first Book, 
selecting a few instances out of many of the prophetic gifts of 
the blessed man, may suffice. Indeed, I have recorded only a 
few facts regarding this venerable person, for no doubt there 
were very many more which could not come to men s know 
ledge, from being hidden under a kind of sacramental character, 
while those mentioned were like a few little drops which oozed 
out, as it were, like newly fermented wine through the chinks 
of a full vessel. For holy and apostolic men, in general, in 
order to avoid vain-glory, strive as much as they can to conceal 
the wonders of God s secret working within them. Yet God 
sometimes, whether they will or no, maketh some of these known 
to the world, and bringeth them into view by various means, 
wishing thus, as He doth, to honour those saints who honour 
Him, that is, our Lord Himself, to whom be glory for ever, and 
ever. 

Here endeth this first Book, and the next Book treateth of 
the wonderful miracles, which generally accompanied his pro 
phetic foreknowledge. 



BOOK IT. 
ON HIS MIRACULOUS POWERS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Of the Wine which, was formed from water. 

AT another time, while the venerable man was yet a youth 
in Scotia (Ireland) learning the wisdom of the Holy Scripture 
under St. Findbarr, the bishop, it happened that on a festival day 
not the least drop of wine could be found for the mystic sacrifice. 
Hearing the ministers of the altar complaining among them 
selves of this want, he took the vessel and went to the fountain, 
that, as a deacon, he might bring pure spring water for the 
celebration of the Holy Eucharist ; for at that time he was 
himself serving in the order of deacon. The holy man then 
blessed in faith that element of water taken from the spring, 
invoking, as he did so, the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
in Cana of Galilee had changed water into wine : and the 
result was that by His operation in this miracle also, an inferior 
element, namely pure water, was changed into one of a more 
excellent kind, namely wine, by the hands of this illustrious 
man. The holy man, then returning from the fountain and 
entering the church, placed beside the altar the vessel contain 
ing this liquid, and said to the ministers : " Here is wine, which 
the Lord Jesus hath sent, for the celebration of His mysteries." 
The holy bishop and his ministers having ascertained the fact, 
returned most ardent thanks to God. But the holy youth 
ascribed this, not to himself, but to the holy bishop Vinnian. 
This first proof of miraculous power, Christ the Lord manifested 
in His disciple, just as under like circumstances He had made 
it the first of His own miracles in Cana of Galilee. 

Let this divine miracle, worked by our Columba, shine as a 
light in the beginning of this book, that it may lead us on to 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 39 

the other divine and miraculous powers which were seen in 
him. 

CHAPTER II. 

Of the litter fruit of a tree changed into sweet ~by the blessing 
of the Saint. 

THEEE was a certain very fruitful apple-tree on the south 
side of the monastery of the Oakwood Plain (Deny), in its 
immediate vicinity. When the inhabitants of the place were 
complaining of the exceeding bitterness of the fruit, the saint, 
one day in autumn, came to it, and seeing the boughs bearing 
to no purpose a load of fruit that injured rather than pleased 
those who tasted it, he raised his holy hand and blessed it, 
saying, " In the name of the Almighty God, bitter tree, let 
all thy bitterness depart from thee; and let all thy apples, 
hitherto so very bitter, be now changed into the sweetest." 
Wonderful to be told, quicker than the word, and at that very 
instant, all the apples of the tree lost their bitterness, and 
were changed to an amazing sweetness, according to the saint s 
word. 

CHAPTER III. 

Of Corn sown after Midsummer and reaped in the beginning of 
the month of August, at the Saint s prayer, while he was 
residing in the louan island (Hy, now lona). 

AT another time the saint sent his monks to bring from the 
little farm of a peasant some bundles of twigs to build a dwell 
ing. When they returned to the saint, with a freight-ship 
laden with the foresaid bundles of twigs, they told the saint 
that the poor man was very sorry on account of the loss. The 
saint immediately gave them these directions, saying, " Lest 
we do the man any wrong, take to him from us twice three 
measures of barley, and let him sow it now in his arable land." 
According to the saint s orders, the corn was sent and delivered 
over to the poor man, who was called Findchan, with the above 
directions. He received them with thanks, but asked, " What 
good can any corn do, which is sown after midsummer, against 
the nature of this soil ? " But his wife, on the contrary, said, 
" Do what thou hast been ordered by the saint, to whom the 
Lord will give whatever he asketh from Him." And the mes 
sengers likewise said further, " St. Columba, who sent us to thee 
with this gift, intrusted us also with this form of instruction 



40 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

regarding thy crop, saying, Let that man trust in the omni 
potence of God ; his corn, though sown now, when twelve 
days of the month of June are passed, shall be reaped in the 
beginning of the month of August. " The peasant accordingly 
ploughed and sowed, and the crop which, against hope, he sowed 
at the above-mentioned time he gathered in ripe, to the admira 
tion of all his neighbours, in the beginning of the month of 
August, in that place which is called Delcros (not identified). 



CHAPTER IV. 

Of a Pestilential Cloud, and the curing of many. 

AT another time also, while the saint was living in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), and was sitting on the little hill which is 
called, in Latin, Munitio Magna, he saw in the north a dense rainy 
cloud rising from the sea on a clear day. As the saint saw it 
rising, he said to one of his monks, named Silnan, son of Neman - 
don Mocusogin, who was sitting beside him, " This cloud will 
be very baleful to man and beast, and after rapidly passing to 
day over a considerable part of Scotia (Ireland) namely, from 
the stream called Ailbine (Delvin, in Meath) as far as the Ford 
Clied (Athcliath, now Dublin) it will discharge in the evening 
a pestilential rain, which will raise large and putrid ulcers 
on the bodies of men and on the udders of cows ; so that men 
and cattle shall sicken and die, worn out with that poisonous 
complaint. But we, in pity for their sufferings, ought to relieve 
them by the merciful aid of God; do thou therefore, Silnan, 
come down with me from this hill, and prepare for thy to 
morrow s voyage. If God be willing and life spared to us, thou 
shalt receive from me some bread which has been blessed by 
the invocation of the name of God ; this thou shalt dip in water, 
and on thy sprinkling therewith man and beast, they shall 
speedily recover their health." Why need we linger over it ? 
On the next day, when all things necessary had been hastily 
got ready, Silnan received the blessed bread from the hands of 
the saint, and set out on his voyage in peace. As he was 
starting, the saint gave him these words of comfort, saying, 
" Be of good courage, my dear son, for thou shalt have fair and 
pleasant breezes day and night till thou come to that district 
which is called Ard-Ceannachta (in Meath), that thou mayest 
bring the more speedily relief with the healing bread to those 
who are there sick." What more ? Silnan, obeying the saint s 
words, had a quick and prosperous voyage, by the aid of God, 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 41 

and coming to the above-mentioned part of the district, found the 
people of whom the saint had been speaking destroyed by the 
pestilential rain falling down from the aforesaid cloud, which 
had passed rapidly on before him. In the first place, twice 
three men were found in the same house near the sea reduced 
to the agonies of approaching death, and when they were 
sprinkled by Silnan with the blessed water, were very happily 
healed that very day. The report of this sudden cure was soon 
carried through the whole country which was attacked by this 
most fatal disease, and drew all the sick people to St. Columba s 
messenger, who, according to the saint s orders, sprinkled man 
and beast with the water in which the blessed bread had been 
dipped, and immediately they were restored to perfect health ; 
then the people finding themselves and their cattle healed, 
praised with the utmost expression of thankfulness Christ in 
St. Columba. Now, in the incidents here related these two 
things, I think, are clearly associated namely, the gift of pro 
phecy regarding the cloud and the miraculous power in healing 
the sick. And to the truth of all these things, in every par 
ticular, the above-named Silnan, the soldier of Christ and 
messenger of St. Columba, bore testimony in the presence of 
the Abbot Segine and the other fathers. 



CHAPTEE V. 

Of Ma/ugina the holy virgin, daughter of Daimen, who had 
lived in Glochur, of the sons of Daimen (Clogher). 

AT another time, while the saint was staying in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), he one day at prime called to him a certain 
brother, named Lugaid, who in the Scotic tongue was surnamed 
Lathir, and thus addressed him, saying, " Prepare quickly for 
a rapid voyage to Scotia (Ireland), for it is of the very utmost 
importance to me that thou be sent with a message from me 
to Clocher, of the sons of Daimen (Clogher). For this last 
night, by some accident, the holy virgin Maugina, daughter of 
Daimen, when she was returning home from the oratory after 
mass, stumbled and broke her thigh quite through. She is now 
crying out, and very often calling on my name, in hope that 
through me she may receive some comfort from the Lord." 
What more need I say? As Lugaid was setting out in 
accordance with the directions given him, the saint gave him 
a little box made of pine, saying, "Let the blessed gift 
which is contained in this little box be dipped in a vessel 



42 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

of water when thou comest to visit Maugina, and let the water 
thus blessed be poured on her thigh ; then at once, by the 
invocation of God s name, her thigh-bone shall be joined 
together and made strong, and the holy virgin shall recover 
perfect health." This, too, the saint added, " Lo ! here in thy 
presence I write on the lid of this little box the number of 
twenty-three years, which the holy virgin shall enjoy of this 
present life after receiving her health." All this was exactly 
fulfilled as the saint had foretold ; for as soon as Lugaid came 
to the holy virgin her thigh was washed, as the saint recom 
mended, with the blessed water, and was in an instant com 
pletely healed by the closing up of the bone. At the arrival 
of the messenger of St. Columba, she expressed her joy in the 
most earnest thanksgiving, and, after recovering her health, she 
lived, according to the prophecy of the saint, twenty-three 
years in the constant practice of good works. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Of the Cures of various Diseases which took place in the 
Ridge of Ceate (Druimceatf). 

WE have been told by well-informed persons that this man 
of admirable life, by invoking the name of Christ, healed the 
disorders of various sick persons in the course of that short time 
which he spent at the Eidge of Ceate (Druimceatt), when attend 
ing there the meeting of the kings. For either by his merely 
stretching out his holy hand, or by the sprinkling of the sick 
with the water blessed by him, or by their touching even the 
hem of his cloak, or by their receiving his blessing on any 
thing, as, for instance, on bread or salt, and dipping it in 
water, they who believed recovered perfect health. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

Of a lump of Salt blessed by the Saint, which could not be 
consumed by thejire. 

ON another occasion also, Colga, son of Cellach, asked and 
obtained from the saint a lump of salt which he had blessed, 
for the cure of his sister, who had nursed him, and was now 
suffering from a very severe attack of ophthalmia. This same 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 43 

sister and nurse having received such a blessed gift from the 
hand of her brother, hung it up on the wall over her bed ; and 
after some days it happened by accident that a destructive fire 
entirely consumed the village where this took place, and with 
others the house of the aforesaid woman. Yet, strange to say, 
in order that the gift of the blessed man might not be destroyed, 
the portion of the wall from which it was suspended still stood 
uninjured after the rest of the house had been burned down ; 
nor did the fire venture to touch even the two uprights from 
which the lump of salt was suspended. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 

Of a volume of a book in the Saint s handwriting ivhich could 
not be destroyed by water. 

I CANNOT think of leaving unnoticed another miracle which 
once took place by means of the opposite element. For many 
years after the holy man had departed to the Lord, a certain 
youth fell from his horse into the river which in Scotic is called 
Boend (the Boyne), and, being drowned, was for twenty days 
under the water. When he fell he had a number of books 

rked up in a leathern satchel under his arm ; and so, when 
. was found after the above-mentioned number of days, he 
still had the satchel of books pressed between his arm and 
side. When the body was brought out to the dry ground, and 
the satchel opened, it was found to contain, among the volumes 
of other books, which were not only injured, but even rotten, 
a volume written by the sacred fingers of St. Columba ; and 
it was as dry and wholly uninjured as if it had been enclosed 
in a desk. 

Of another Miracle in similar circumstances. 

AT another time a book of hymns for the office of every day in 
the week, and in the handwriting of St. Columba, having slipt, 
with the leathern satchel which contained it, from the shoulder 
of a boy who fell from a bridge, was immersed in a certain 
river in the province of the Lagenians (Leinster). This very book 
lay in the water from the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord till 
the end of the Paschal season, and was afterwards found on the 
bank of the river by some women who were walking there : it 
was brought by them in the same satchel, which was not only 



44 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

soaked, but even rotten, to a certain priest named logenan, a 
Pict by race, to whom it formerly belonged. On opening the 
satchel himself, logenan found his book uninjured, and as clean 
and dry as if it had been as long a time in his desk, and had 
never fallen into the water. And we have ascertained, as un 
doubted truth, from those who were well informed in the matter, 
that the like things happened in several places with regard to 
books written by the hands of St. Columba namely, that the 
books could suffer no injury from being immersed in water. 
But the account we have given of the above-mentioned book of 
logenan we have received from certain truthful, excellent, and 
honourable men, who saw the book itself, perfectly white and 
beautiful, after a submersion of so many days, as we have 
stated. 

These two miracles, though wrought in matters of small 
moment, and shown in opposite elements namely, fire and 
water, redound to the honour of the blessed man, and prove 
his great and singular merits before the Lord. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

Of Water drawn from the hard rock ly the Saint s prayers. 

AND since mention has been made a little before of the 
element of water, we must not pass over in silence some other 
miracles which the Lord wrought by the saint at different times 
and places, in which the same element was concerned. On 
another occasion, then, when the saint was engaged in one of 
his journeys, a child was presented to him in the course of his 
travels for baptism by its parents ; and because there was no 
water to be found in the neighbourhood, the saint turned aside 
to a rock that was near, and kneeling down, prayed for a short 
time ; then rising up after his prayer, he blessed the face of the 
rock, from which there immediately gushed out an abundant 
stream of water ; and there he forthwith baptized the child. 
Concerning the child that was baptized he uttered the follow 
ing prophecy, saying, " This child shall live to a very great age ; 
in his youth he will indulge freely the desires of the flesh ; 
afterwards he will devote himself to the warfare of a Christian 
until the very end of his life, and thus depart to the Lord in a 
good old age." All this happened to the man according to the 
prophecy of the saint. This was Lugucencalad, whose parents 
were from Artdaib Muirchol (Ardnamurchan), where there is 
seen even to this day a well called by the name of St. Columba. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 45 



CHAPTER X. 

Of a poisonous Fountain of Water to which the blessed man gave 
his blessing in the country of the Picts. 

AGAIN, while the blessed man was stopping for some days in 
the province of the Picts, he heard that there was a fountain 
famous amongst this heathen people, which foolish men, having 
their senses blinded by the devil, worshipped as a god. For 
those who drank of this fountain, or purposely washed their 
hands or feet in it, were allowed by God to be struck by 
demoniacal art, and went home either leprous or purblind, or 
at least suffering from weakness or other kinds of infirmity. 
By all these things the Pagans were seduced, and paid divine 
honour to the fountain. Having ascertained this, the saint one 
day went up to the fountain fearlessly ; and, on seeing this, the 
Druids, whom he had often sent away from him vanquished and 
confounded, were greatly rejoiced, thinking that he would suffer 
like others from the touch of that baneful water. But he, 
having first raised his holy hand and invoked the name of 
Christ, washed his hands and feet; and then with his com 
panions, drank of the water which he had blessed. And from 
that day the demons departed from the fountain ; and not only 
was it not allowed to injure any one, but even many diseases 
amongst the people were cured by this same fountain, after it 
had been blessed and washed in by the saint. 



CHAPTER XL 

Of the Danger to the blessed man at Sea, and the sudden calm 
produced by his prayers. 

AT another time the holy man began to be in great danger 
at sea, for the whole vessel was violently tossed and shaken 
with the huge dashing waves, and a great storm of wind was 
raging on all hands. The sailors then chanced to say to the 
saint, as he was trying to help them to bale the vessel, " What 
thou art now doing is of little use to us in our present danger, 
thou shouldst rather pray for us as we are perishing." On 
hearing this he ceased to throw out the bitter waters of the 
green sea wave, and began to pour out a sweet and fervent 
prayer to the Lord. Wonderful to relate ! The very moment 
the saint stood up at the prow, with his hands stretched out to 
heaven, and prayed to the Almighty, the whole storm of wind 



46 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

and the fury of the sea ceased more quickly than can be told, 
and a perfect calm instantly ensued. But those who were in 
the vessel were amazed, and giving thanks with great admira 
tion, glorified the Lord in the holy and illustrious man. 

CHAPTEE XII. 

Of another similar Peril to Mm at Sea. 

AT another time, also, when a wild and dangerous storm was 
raging, and his companions were crying out to the saint to 
pray to the Lord for them, he gave them this answer, saying, 
" On this day it is not for me, but for that holy man, the Abbot 
Cainnech, to pray for you in your present peril." What I am 
to relate is wonderful. The very same hour St. Cainnech was 
in his monastery, which in Latin is called Campulus Bovis, 
but in Scotic Ached-bou (Aghaboe, in Queen s County), and 
heard with the inner ear of his heart, by a revelation of the 
Holy Ghost, the aforesaid words of St. Columba ; and when 
he had just begun to break the blessed bread in the refectory 
after the ninth hour, he hastily left the table, and with one 
shoe on his foot, while the other in his extreme haste was left 
behind, he went quickly to the church, saying, " It is not for us 
now to take time to dine, when the vessel of St. Columba is in 
danger at sea, for at this moment he is lamenting and calling 
on the name of Cainnech to pray to Christ for him and his 
companions in peril." When he had said this he entered the 
oratory and prayed for a short time on his bended knees ; and 
the Lord heard his prayer, the storm immediately ceased, and 
the sea became very calm. Whereupon St. Columba, seeing 
in spirit, though there was a far distance between them, the 
haste of Cainnech in going to the church, uttered, to the wonder 
of all, from his pure heart, these words, saying, "Now I know, 
Cainnech, that God has heard thy prayer; now hath thy 
swift running to the church with a single shoe greatly profited 
us." In such a miracle as this, then, we believe that the 
prayers of both saints had their share in the work. 

CHAPTEE XIII. 

Of the Staff of St. Cainnech which was forgotten in the Harbour. 

ON another occasion, the same Cainnech above mentioned 
embarked for Scotia (Ireland) from the harbour of the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), and forgot to take his staff with him. After 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 47 

his departure the staff was found on the shore, and given into 
the hands of St. Columba, who, on his return home, brought it 
into the oratory, and remained there for a very long time alone 
in prayer. Cainnech, meanwhile, on approaching the Oidechan 
island (Oidech, near Isla, probably Texa) suddenly felt pricked 
at heart at the thought of his forgetfulness, and was deeply 
afflicted at it. But after some time, leaving the vessel, and 
falling upon his knees in prayer on the ground, he found before 
him on the turf of the little land of Aithche (genitive of Aitech) 
the staff which, in his forgetfulness, he had left behind him at 
the landing-place in the louan island (Hy, now lona). He was 
greatly surprised at its being thus brought to him by the divine 
power, and gave thanks to God. 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

How BaitTiene and Columban, the son of Beogna, holy priests, 
asked of the Lord, through the prayers of the blessed man, 
that he would grant them on the same day a favourable wind, 
though sailing in different directions. 

AT another time, also, the above-named holy men came in 
company to the saint, and asked him, with one consent, to seek 
and obtain for them from the Lord a favourable wind on the 
next day, though they were to set out in different directions. 
The saint in answer gave them this reply, "To-morrow morning, 
Baithene, setting sail from the harbour of the louan island (Hy, 
now lona), shall have a favourable wind until he reaches the 
landing-place of the plain of Lunge (Magh Lunge, in Tiree)." 
And the Lord granted this favour according to the word of the 
saint ; for Baithene on that same day crossed, with full sails, 
the whole of the open sea, as far as the Ethican land (Tiree). 
But at the third hour of the same day, the venerable man called 
to him the priest Columban, saying, " Baithene has now 
happily arrived at the wished-for haven, prepare thou then 
to sail to-day; the Lord will soon change the wind to the 
north." And the same hour the wind from the south obey 
ing the word thus spoken by the holy man, wheeled round 
and became a northern breeze ; and thus on the same day 
these two holy men departed the one from the other in peace 
and both set sail, Baithene in the morning for the Ethican land 
(Tiree), and Columban in the afternoon for Hibernia, and made 
the voyages with full sails and fair winds. The Lord wrought 
this miracle in answer to the prayer of the illustrious man, 
according as it is written, "All things are possible to him 



48 THE LIFE OF. SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

that believeth." After the departure of St. Columban on that 
day, St. Columba uttered this prophecy concerning him : " The 
holy man, Columban, whom we have blessed on his departure, 
shall never see my face again in this world." And this was 
afterwards fulfilled, for the same year St. Columban passed 
away to the Lord. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Of the driving out of a Demon that lurked in a Milk-pail. 

AT another time, a certain youth, named Columban, grandson 
of Brian, came forward hurriedly, and stopped at the door of 
the little cell in which the blessed man was writing. This same 
person, being on his way home from the milking of the cows, 
and carrying on his back a vessel full of new milk, asked the 
saint to bless his burden, as he usually did. Then the saint, 
being at the time at some distance away in front of him, raised 
his hand, and formed the saving sign in the air, which at once 
was greatly agitated ; the bar, which fastened the lid of the 
pail, being pushed back through the two openings that received 
it, was shot away to a great distance, while the lid fell to the 
earth, and the greater part of the milk was spilled upon the 
ground. The young lad then laid down the vessel, with the little 
milk that remained, on its bottom on the ground, and kneeled 
down in prayer. The saint said to him, " Eise up, Columban, 
for thou hast acted negligently in thy work to-day, inasmuch 
as thou didst not banish the demon that lurked in the bottom 
of the empty vessel by forming on it the sign of the cross of 
our Lord before the milk was poured into it ; and now, as thou 
seest, being unable to bear the power of that sign, he has quickly 
lied in terror, troubled the whole vessel in every corner, and 
spilled the milk. Bring the vessel, then, nearer to me here that 
I may bless it." This being done, the half-empty pail, which 
the saint had blessed, was found the same instant, filled by 
divine agency ; and the little that had previously remained in 
the bottom was at once increased under the blessing of his holy 
hand, so as to fill it to the brim. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Concerning a Vessel which a sorcerer named Silnan had filled with 
milk taken from a bull. 

THE following is told as having occurred in the house of a 
rich peasant named Foirtgirn, who lived in Mount Cainle 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 49 

(not identified). When the saint was staying there, he decided 
justly a dispute between two rustics, whose coming to him he 
knew beforehand : and one of them, who was a sorcerer, took 
milk, by his diabolical art, at the command of the saint, from 
a bull that was near. This the saint directed to be done, not to 
confirm these sorceries God forbid ! but to put an end to them 
in the presence of all the people. The blessed man, therefore, 
demanded that the vessel, full, as it seemed to be, of this milk, 
should be immediately given to him ; and he blessed it with 
this sentence, saying : " Now it shall in this way be proved 
that this is not true milk, as it is supposed to, be^ but blood, 
which is coloured by the artifice of demons to impose on men." 
This was no sooner said than the milky colour gave place to 
the true natural colour of blood. The bull also, which in the 
space of one hour wasted and pined away with a hideous lean 
ness, and was all but dead, was sprinkled with water that had 
been blessed by the saint, and recovered with astonishing 
rapidity. 

CHAPTEE XVII. 

Of Lugne Mocumin. 

ONE day a young man of good disposition and parts, named 
Lugne, who afterwards, in his old age, was prior of the 
monastery of the Elena island (Eilean Naomh, now Nave 
island, near Isla), came to the saint, and complained of a 
bleeding which for many months had often poured profusely 
from the nostrils. Having asked him to come nearer, the saint 
pressed both his nostrils with two fingers of his right hand and 
blessed him. And from that hour when he received the bless 
ing, till the last day of his life, a drop of blood never came 
from his nose. 

CHAPTEE XVIII. 

Of the Fishes which were specially provided ly God for the 
blessed man. 

ON another occasion, when some hardy fishermen, com 
panions of this renowned man, had taken five fish in their net 
in the river Sale (the Shiel, or Seil), which abounds in fish, 
the saint said to them, " Try again," said he ; " cast thy net 
into the stream, and you shall at once find a large fish which 
the Lord has provided for me." In obedience to the saint s 
command they hauled in their nets a salmon of astonishing 
size, which God had provided for him. 



50 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK IT. 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

AT another time also, when the saint was stopping some 
days beside the lake of Ce (Loughkey, in Eoscommon), he 
delayed his companions when they were anxious to go a-fishing, 
saying : "No fish will be found in the river to-day or to-morrow; 
but on the third day I will send you, and you shall find two 
large river-salmon taken in the net." And so, after two short 
days, they cast their nets, and landed two, of the most extra 
ordinary size, which they found in the river which is named 
Bo (the Boyle). In the capture of fish on these two occasions, 
the power of miracles appears accompanied at the same time 
by a prophetic foreknowledge, and for both graces the saint 
and his companions gave fervent thanks to God. 

CHAPTEE XX. 

Regarding Nesan the Crooked, who lived in the country bordering 
on the Lake of Apors (Loehaber). 

THIS Nesan, though very poor, joyfully received on one occa 
sion the saint as his guest. And after he had entertained him 
as hospitably as his means would afford for one night, the saint 
asked him the number of his heifers. He answered, " Five." 
The saint then said, " Bring them to me that I may bless them." 
And when they were brought the saint raised his holy hand 
and blessed them, and said : " From this day thy five little 
heifers shall increase to the number of one hundred and five 
cows." And as this same Nesan was a man of humble condi 
tion, having a wife and children, the saint added this further 
blessing, saying : " Thy seed shall be blessed in thy children 
and grandchildren." And all this was completely fulfilled 
without any failure, according to the word of the saint. 

CHAPTEE XXL 

ON the other hand, he pronounced the following prophetic 
sentence on a certain rich and very stingy man named Uigene, 
who despised St. Columba, and showed him no hospitality, 
saying : " But the riches of that niggardly man who hath de 
spised Christ in the strangers that came to be his guests, will 
gradually become less from this day, and be reduced to nothing; 
and he himself shall be a beggar ; and his son shall go about 
from house to house with a half-empty wallet : and he shall be 
slain by a rival beggar with an axe, in the pit of a threshing- 
floor." All this was exactly fulfilled in both cases, according 
to the prophecy of the holy man. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 51 



CHAPTEE XXII. 

How the Iwly man blessed the few Cattle belonging to Columban, 
a man of equally humble condition; and how, after his 
blessing, they increased to the number of a hundred. 

AT another time also, the blessed man was one night kindly 
treated as his guest by the aforesaid Columban, who was then 
very poor, and, as he had done before in the above account of 
Nesan, he asked his host, early next morning, as to the amount 
and kind of his goods. When asked, he said : " I have only 
five small cows, but if thou bless them they will increase to 
more." And immediately he was directed by the saint to bring 
them before him, and in the same manner as was related concern 
ing the five cows of Nesan, he gave as rich a blessing to those of 
Columban, and said, " Thou shalt have, by God s gift, a hundred 
and five cows, and an abundant blessing shall be also upon thy 
children and grandchildren." All this was granted to the full 
in his lands, and cattle, and offspring, according to the prophecy 
of the blessed man ; and, what is very strange, the number of 
cattle determined by the saint for both these men, whenever it 
reached one hundred and five, could not in any way be in 
creased ; for those that were beyond this stated number, being 
carried off by various accidents, never appeared to be of any 
value, except in so far as anything might be employed for the 
use of the family, or spent in almsgiving. In this history, 
then, as in the others, the gifts both of miracles and prophecy 
are clearly shown together, for in the large increase of the 
cattle we see the virtue of his blessing and of his prayer, and, 
in the determination of the number, his prophetic knowledge. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Of the Death of some wicked men who had spurned the Saint. 

THE venerable man had a great love for the above-named 
Columban, on account of the many acts of kindness he had 
done to him, and caused him by blessing him, from being poor 
to become very rich. Now, there was at that time a certain 
wicked man, a persecutor of the good, named Joan, son of 
Conall, son of Domnall, sprung from the royal tribe of Gabran. 
This man troubled the foresaid Columban, the friend of St. 
Columba ; and not once, but twice, attacked and plundered his 



52 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

house and carried off all he could find in it. Hence it not un 
fitly happened to this wicked man, that as he and his associates, 
after having plundered the house of the same person a third 
time, were returning to their vessel, laden with plunder, he met 
advancing towards him, the holy man whom he had despised, 
when he thought he was afar off. When the saint reproached 
him for his evil deeds, and advised and besought him to give 
up the plunder, he remained hardened and obstinate, and 
scorned the holy man ; and thus mocking and laughing at the 
blessed man, he embarked with the booty. Yet the saint 
followed him to the water s edge, and wading up to the knees in 
the clear green sea- water, with both his hands raised to heaven, 
earnestly invoked Christ, who glorifies His elect, who are giving 
glory to Him. 

Now the haven where he thus for some time stood and be 
sought the Lord after the departure of the oppressor, is at a 
place called in Scotic Ait-Chambas Art-Muirchol (Camus-an- 
Gaall, Ardnamurchan) . Then the saint, as soon as he had finished 
his prayer, returned to the dry ground, and sat down on the 
higher ground with his companions, and spoke to them in 
that hour these very terrible words, saying : " This miserable 
wretch who hath despised Christ in His servants will never 
return to the port from which you have now seen him set sail : 
neither shall he, nor his wicked associates, reach the land for 
which they are bound, for a sudden death shall prevent it. This 
day a furious storm shall proceed from a cloud, which you will 
soon see rising in the north, shall overwhelm him and his 
companions, so that not one of them will survive to tell the 
tale." After the lapse of a few moments, even while the day 
was perfectly calm, behold ! a cloud arose from the sea, as the 
saint had said, and caused a great hurricane, which overtook the 
plunderer with his spoil, between the Malean and Colosus islands 
(Mull and Colonsay), and overwhelmed him in the midst of the 
sea, which was suddenly lashed into fury : and not even one of 
those in the vessel escaped, as the saint had said : and in this 
wonderful manner, by such a singular storm, while the whole 
sea around remained quiet, were the robbers miserably, but 
justly, overwhelmed and sunk into the deep. 

CHAPTEK XXIV. 

Of a certain Feradacli, who was cut off by sudden death. 

AT another time also, the holy man specially recommended 
a certain exile, of noble race among the Picts, named Tarain, to 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 53 

the care of one Feradach, a rich man, who lived in the Ilean island 
(Isla), that he might be received in his retinue for some months 
as one of his friends. After he had accepted the person thus 
highly recommended at the hand of the holy man, he in a few 
days acted treacherously, and cruelly ordered him to be put to 
death. When the news of this horrid crime was carried by 
travellers to the saint, he replied by the following prediction : 
" That unhappy wretch hath not lied unto me, but unto God, 
and his name shall be blotted out of the book of life. We are 
speaking these words now in the middle of summer, but in 
autumn, before he shall eat of swine s flesh that hath been 
fattened on the fruits of the trees, he shall be seized by a sudden 
death, and carried off to the infernal regions." When the 
miserable man was told this prophecy of the saint, he scorned 
and laughed at him ; and when some days of the autumn months 
had passed, he ordered a sow that had been fattened on the 
kernels of nuts to be killed, none of his other swine having yet 
been slaughtered : he ordered also, that its entrails should be 
immediately taken out and a piece quickly roasted for him on 
the spit, so that by hurrying and eating of it thus early, he 
might falsify the prediction of the blessed man. As soon as it 
was roasted he asked for a very small morsel to taste it, but 
before the hand which he stretched out to take it had reached 
his mouth he expired, and fell down on his back a corpse. And 
all who saw or heard it were greatly astonished and terrified ; 
and they honoured and glorified Christ in his holy prophet. 



CHAPTEE XXV. 

Concerning a certain other impious man, a persecutor of the 
Churches, who ivas called in Latin Manus Dextera. 

ON one occasion when the blessed man was living in the Hinba 
island (Eilean-na-Naoimh), and set about excommunicating 
some destroyers of the churches, and amongst them the sons of 
Conall, son of Domnall, one of whom was the Joan before 
mentioned, one of their wicked associates was instigated by 
the devil to rush on the saint with a spear, on purpose to kill 
him. To prevent this, one of the brethren, named Findlugan, 
put on the saint s cowl and interposed, being ready to die 
for the holy man. But in a wonderful way the saint s gar 
ment served as a kind of strong and impenetrable fence 
which could not be pierced by the thrust of a very sharp 



54 THE LfFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

spear though made by a powerful man, but remained un 
touched, and he who had it on was safe and uninjured under 
the protection of such a guard. But the ruffian who did this, 
whose name was Manus Dextera, retraced his steps thinking he 
had transfixed the saint with his spear. Exactly a year after 
wards, when the saint was staying in the louan island (Hy, 
now lona), he said, " A year is just now elapsed since the day 
Lam-dess did what he could to put Findlugan to death in my 
place ; but he himself is slain, I believe, this very hour." And 
so it happened, at that very moment, according to the revela 
tion of the saint, in the island which in Latin may be called 
Longa (Luing), where, in a battle fought between a number of 
men on both sides, this Lam-dess alone was slain by Cronan, 
son of Baithene, with a dart, shot, it is said, in the name of 
St. Coluniba ; and when he fell the battle ceased. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Of yd another Oppressor of the innocent. 

WHEN the holy man, while yet a youth in deacon s orders, 
was living in the region of the Lagenians (Leinster), learning 
the divine wisdom, it happened one day^that an unfeeling and 
pitiless oppressor of the innocent was pursuing a young girl who 
fled before him on a level plain. As she chanced to observe the 
aged Gemman, master of the foresaid young deacon, reading 
on the plain, she ran straight to him as fast as she could. 
Being alarmed at such an unexpected occurrence, he called 
on Columba, who was reading at some distance, that both to 
gether, to the best of their ability, might defend the girl from 
her pursuer ; but he immediately came up, and without any 
regard to their presence, stabbed the girl with his lance under 
their very cloaks, and leaving her lying dead at their feet 
turned to go away back. Then the old man, in great affliction, 
turning to Columba, said : " How long, holy youth Columba, 
shall God, the just Judge, allow this horrid crime and this 
insult to us to go unpunished ?" Then the saint at once 
pronounced this sentence on the perpetrator of the deed: 
" At the very instant the soul of this girl whom he hath mur 
dered ascendeth into heaven, shall the soul of the murderer go 
down into hell." And scarcely had he spoken the words when 
the murderer of the innocent, like Ananias before Peter, fell 
down dead on the spot before the eyes of the holy youth. The 
news of this sudden and terrible vengeance was soon spread 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 55 

abroad throughout many districts of Scotia (Ireland), and with 
it the wonderful fame of the holy deacon. 

What we have said may suffice concerning the terrible pun 
ishments inflicted on those who were opposed to him ; we will 
now relate a few things regarding wild beasts. 



CHAPTEK XXVII. 

How a Wild Boar was destroyed through his prayers. 

ON one occasion when the blessed man was staying some days 
in the Scian island (Sky), he left the brethren and went alone 
a little farther than usual to pray ; and having entered a dense 
forest he met a huge wild boar that happened to be pursued by 
hounds. As soon as the saint saw him at some distance, he 
stood looking intently at him. Then raising his holy hand 
and invoking the name of God in fervent prayer, he said to it, 
" Thou shalt proceed no further in this direction : perish in the 
spot which thou hast now reached." At the sound of these 
words of the saint in the woods, the terrible brute was not only 
unable to proceed farther, but by the efficacy of his word im 
mediately fell dead before his face. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

How an Aquatic Monster was driven off ly virtue of the blessed 
man s prayer. 

ON another occasion also, when the blessed man was living 
for some days in the province of the Picts, he was obliged to cross 
the river Nesa (the Ness) ; and when he reached the bank of the 
river, he saw some of the inhabitants burying an unfortunate 
man, who, according to the account of those who were burying 
him, was a short time before seized, as he was swimming, and 
bitten most severely by a monster that lived in the water ; his 
wretched body was, though too late, taken out with a hook, by 
those who came to his assistance in a boat. The blessed man, 
on hearing this, was so far from being dismayed, that he directed 
one of his companions to swim over and row across the coble 
that was moored at the farther bank. And Lugne Mocumin 
hearing the command of the excellent man, obeyed without the 



56 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

least delay, taking off all his clothes, except his tunic, and leap 
ing into the water. But the monster, which, so far from being 
satiated, was only roused for more prey, was lying at the bottom 
of the stream, and when it felt the water disturbed above by the 
man swimming, suddenly rushed out, and, giving an awful roar, 
darted after him, with its mouth wide open, as the man swam 
in the middle of the stream. Then the blessed man observing 
this, raised his holy hand, while all the rest, brethren as well 
as strangers, were stupefied with terror, and, invoking the name 
of God, formed the saving sign of the cross in the air, and com 
manded the ferocious monster, saying, " Thou shalt go no 
further, nor touch the man ; go back with all speed." Then at 
the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, and fled more 
quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes, though it 
had just got so near to Lugne, as he swam, that there was not 
more than the length of a spear-staff between the man and the 
beast. Then the brethren seeing that the monster had gone 
back, and that their comrade Lugne returned to them in the 
boat safe and sound, were struck with admiration, and gave 
glory to God in the blessed man. And even the barbarous 
heathens, who were present, were forced by the greatness of 
this miracle, which they themselves had seen, to magnify the 
God of the Christians. 



CHAPTEE XXIX. 

How the Saint Messed the Soil of this Island that no poison of 
Serpents should henceforth hurt any one in it. 

ON a certain day in that same summer in which he passed 
to the Lord, the saint went in a chariot to visit some of the 
brethren, who were engaged in some heavy work in the western 
part of the louan island (Hy, now lona). After speaking to 
them some words of comfort and encouragement, the saint stood 
upon the higher ground, % and uttered the following prophecy : 
" My dear children, I know that from this day you shall never 
see my face again anywhere in this field." Seeing the brethren 
filled with sorrow upon hearing these words, the saint tried to 
comfort them as best he could ; and, raising both his holy hands, 
he blessed the whole of this our island, saying : " From this 
very moment poisonous reptiles shall in no way be able to hurt 
men or cattle in this island, so long as the inhabitants shall 
continue to observe the commandments of Christ." . 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 57 



CHAPTEE XXX. 

Of the Knife which the Saint blessed ly signing it with the 
Lord s Cross. 

AT another time, a certain brother named Molua, grandson 
of Brian, came to the saint whilst he was writing, and said to 
him, " This knife which I hold in my hand I beseech thee to 
bless." The saint, without turning his face from the book out 
of which he was writing, extended his holy hand a little, 
with the pen in it, and blessed the knife by signing it. But 
when the foresaid brother had departed with the knife thus 
blessed, the saint asked, " What sort of a knife have I blessed 
for that brother?" Diormit, the saint s faithful attendant, 
replied, " Thou hast blessed a knife for killing bulls or oxen." 
The saint then, on the contrary, said, " I trust in my Lord that 
the knife I have blessed will never wound men or cattle." 
This word of the holy man received the strongest confirmation 
the same hour ; for the same brother went beyond the enclosure 
of the monastery and attempted to kill an ox, but, although he 
made three strong efforts with all his strength, yet he could not 
even cut the skin. When this came to the knowledge of the 
monks, they skilfully melted down the iron of the knife and 
applied a thin coating of it to all the iron tools used in the 
monastery. And such was the abiding virtue of the saint s 
blessing, that these tools could never afterwards inflict a wound 
on flesh. 

CHAPTEE XXXI. 

Of the cure of Diormit when sick. 

AT another time, Diormit, the saint s faithful attendant, was 
sick even unto death, and the saint went to see him in his 
extremity. Having invoked the name of Christ, he stood at 
the bed of the sick man and prayed for him, saying, " my 
Lord, be propitious to me, I beseech thee, and take not away 
the soul of my faithful attendant from its dwelling in the flesh 
whilst I live." Having said this, he remained silent for a 
short time, and then again he spoke these words, with his sacred 
mouth, " My son shall not only not die at present, but will even 
live for many years after my death." This prayer of the saint 
was heard, for, on the instant that the saint s prayer was made, 
Diormit was restored to perfect health, and lived also for many 
years after St. Columba had passed to the Lord. 



58 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 



CHAPTEE XXXII. 

Of the cure of Finten, the son of Aid, when at the point 
of death. 

AT another time also, as the saint was making a journey 
beyond the Dorsal Eidge of Britain (Drumalban), a certain 
youth named Finten, one of his companions, was seized with a 
sudden illness and reduced to the last extremity. His comrades 
were much afflicted on his account, and besought the saint to 
pray for him. Yielding at once to their entreaties, Columba 
raised his holy hands to heaven in earnest prayer, and blessing 
the sick person, said, " This youth for whom you plead shall 
enjoy a long life ; he will survive all who are here present, 
and die in a good old age." This prophecy of the blessed man 
was fulfilled in every particular; for this same youth, after 
founding the monastery of Kailli-au-inde (not identified), closed 
this present life at a good old age. 



CHAPTEE XXXIII. 

Of the boy whom the holy man raised from the dead, in the 
name of the Lord Christ. 

AT the time when St. Columba was tarrying for some days 
in the province of the Picts, a certain peasant who, with his 
whole family, had listened to and learned through an inter 
preter the word of life preached by the holy man, believed and 
was baptized the husband, together with his wife, children, 
and domestics. 

A very few days after his conversion, one of the sons of this 
householder was attacked with a dangerous illness and brought 
to the very borders of life and death. When the Druids saw 
him in a dying state they began with great bitterness to up 
braid his parents, and to extol their own gods as more power 
ful than the God of the Christians, and thus to despise God as 
though He were weaker than their gods. When all this was 
told to the blessed man, he burned with zeal for God, and pro 
ceeded with some of his companions to the house of the friendly 
peasant, where he found the afflicted parents celebrating the 
obsequies of their child, who was newly dead. The saint, on 
seeing their bitter grief, strove to console them with words of 
comfort, and exhorted them not to doubt in any way the omni 
potence of God. He then inquired, saying, " In what chamber 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 59 

is the dead body of your son lying ? " And being conducted 
by the bereaved father under the sad roof, he left the whole crowd 
of persons who accompanied him outside, and immediately 
entered by himself into the house of mourning, where, falling 
on his knees, he prayed to Christ our Lord, having his face 
bedewed with copious tears. Then rising from his kneeling 
posture, he turned his eyes towards the deceased and said, " In 
the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, arise, and stand upon thy 
feet." At the sound of this glorious word from the saint, the 
soul returned to the body, and the person that was dead opened 
his eyes and revived. The apostolic man then taking him by 
the hand raised him up, and placing him in a standing position, 
led him forth with him from the house, and restored him to his 
parents. Upon this the cries of the applauding multitude 
broke forth, sorrow was turned into joy, and the God of the 
Christians glorified. 

We must thus believe that our saint had the gift of miracles 
like the prophets Elias and Eliseus, and like the apostles Peter, 
Paul, and John, he had the honour bestowed on him of raising 
the dead to life, and now in heaven, placed amid the prophets 
and apostles, this prophetic and apostolic man enjoys a glorious 
and eternal throne in the heavenly fatherland with Christ, who 
reigns with the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost for ever 
and ever. 



CHAPTEE XXXIV. 

Concerning the illness with which the Druid Broichan was visited 
for his detention of a female slave, and his cure on her release. 

ABOUT the same time the venerable man, from motives of 
humanity, besought Broichan the Druid to liberate a certain 
Scotic female slave, and when he very cruelly and obstinately 
refused to part with her, the saint then spoke to him to the 
following effect : " Know, Broichan, and be assured that if 
thou refuse to set this captive free, as I desire thee, that .thou 
shalt die suddenly before I take my departure again from this 
province." Having said this in presence of Brude, the king, 
he departed from the royal palace and proceeded to the river 
Nesa (the Ness) ; from this stream he took a white pebble, and 
showing it to his companions said to them: "Behold this 
white pebble by which God will effect the cure of many diseases 
among this heathen nation." 

Having thus spoken, he instantly added, " Broichan is chas- 



60 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

tised grievously at this moment, for an angel being sent from 
heaven, and striking him severely, hath broken into many pieces 
the glass cup in his hand from which he was drinking, and hath 
left him gasping deeply for breath, and half dead. Let us await 
here a short time, for two of the king s messengers, who have 
been sent after us in haste, to request us to return quickly and 
help the dying Broichan, who, now that he is thus terribly pun 
ished, consenteth to set the girl free." 

Whilst the saint was yet speaking, behold, there arrived, as 
he had predicted, two horsemen who were sent by the king, and 
who related all that had occurred to Broichan in the royal 
fortress, according to the prediction of the saint both the 
breaking of the drinking goblet, the punishment of the Druid, 
and his willingness to set his captive at liberty ; they then 
added : " The king and his friends have sent us to thee to 
request that thou wouldst cure his foster-father Broichan, who 
lieth in a dying state. 

Having heard these words of the messengers, St. Columba 
sent two of his companions to the king with the pebble which 
he had blessed, and said to them : " If Broichan shall first pro 
mise to set the maiden free, then at once immerse this little 
stone in water, and let him drink from it and he shall be 
instantly cured ; but if he break his vow and refuse to liberate 
her, he shall die that instant." 

The two persons, in obedience to the saint s instructions, pro 
ceeded to the palace, and announced to the king the words of 
the venerable man. When they were made known to the king 
and his tutor Broichan, they were so dismayed that they imme 
diately liberated the captive and delivered her to the saint s 
messengers. The pebble was then immersed in water, and in 
a wonderful manner, contrary to the laws of nature, the stone 
floated on the water like a nut or an apple, nor, as it had been 
blessed by the holy man, could it be submerged. Broichan 
drank from the stone as it floated on the water, and instantly 
returning from the verge of death recovered his perfect health 
and soundness of body. 

This remarkable pebble, which was afterwards preserved 
among the treasures of the king, through the mercy of God 
effected the cure of sundry diseases among the people, while it 
in the same manner floated when dipped in water. And what 
is very wonderful, when this same stone was sought for by those 
sick persons whose term of life had arrived, it could not be 
found. Thus, on the very day on which King Brude died, though 
it was sought for, yet it could not be found in the place where 
it had been previously laid. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLtJMBA. BOOK II. 61 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Of the manner in which St. Columba overcame Broichan the Druid 
and sailed against the wind. 

ON a certain day after the events recorded in the foregoing 
chapters, Broichan, whilst conversing with the saint, said to 
him : " Tell me, Columba, when dost thou propose to set sail ?, " 
The saint replied, " I intend to begin my voyage after three 
days, if God permits me, and preserves my life." Broichan said, 
" On the contrary, thou shalt not be able, for I can make the 
winds unfavourable to thy voyage, and cause a great darkness 
to envelop you in its shade." Upon this the saint observed : 
" The almighty power of God ruleth all things, and in His name 
and under His guiding providence all our movements are 
directed." What more need I say ? That same day, the saint, 
accompanied by a large number of followers, went to the long 
lake of the river Nesa (Loch Ness), as he had determined. Then 
the Druids began to exult, seeing that it had become very dark, 
and that the wind was very violent and contrary. Nor should 
we wonder, that God sometimes allows them, with the aid of evil 
spirits, to raise tempests and agitate the sea. For thus legions 
of demons once met in the midst of the sea the holy bishop 
Germanus, whilst on his voyage through the Gallican channel 
to Britain, whither he was going from zeal for the salvation of 
souls, and exposed him to great dangers, by raising a violent 
storm and causing great darkness whilst it was yet day. But 
all these things were dissipated by the prayers of St. Ger 
manus more rapidly than his words were uttered, and the dark 
ness passed away. 

Our Columba, therefore, seeing that the sea was violently 
agitated, and that the wind was most unfavourable for his voy 
age, called on Christ the Lord and embarked in his small boat ; 
and whilst the sailors hesitated, he the more confidently ordered 
them to raise the sails against the wind. No sooner was this 
order executed, while the whole crowd was looking on, than the 
vessel ran against the wind with extraordinary speed. And 
after a short time, the wind, which hitherto had been against 
them, veered round to help them on their voyage, to the intense 
astonishment of all. And thus throughout the remainder of that 
day the light breeze continued most favourable, and the skiff of 
blessed man was carried safely to the wished-for haven. 

Let the reader therefore consider how great and eminent this 
venerable man must have been, upon whom God Almighty, for 



G2 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

the purpose of manifesting His illustrious name before a heathen 
people, bestowed the gift of working such miracles as those we 
have recorded. 



CHAPTEE XXXVI. 

Of the sudden opening of the door of the Royal Fortress of its 
own accord. 

AT another time, when the saint made his first journey to 
King Brude, it happened that the king, elated by the pride of 
royalty, acted haughtily, and would not open his gates on the 
first arrival of the blessed man. When the man of God observed 
this, he approached the folding doors with his companions, and 
having first formed upon them the sign of the cross of our 
Lord, he then knocked at and laid his hand upon the gate, which 
instantly flew open of its own accord, the bolts having been 
driven back with great force. The saint and his companions 
then passed through the gate thus speedily opened. And when 
the king learned what had occurred, he and his councillors 
were filled] with alarm, and immediately setting out from the 
palace, he advanced to meet with due respect the blessed man, 
whom he addressed in the most conciliating and respectful 
language. And ever after from that day, so long as he lived, 
the king held this holy and reverend man in very great honour, 
as was due. 



CHAPTEE XXXVII. 

Of a similar unclosing of the Church of the Field of the Two 
Streams (Tirdaglas, in the county of Tipper ary). 

UPON another occasion, when the saint was staying a few 
days in Scotia (Ireland), he went, on invitation, to visit the 
brethren in the monastery of the Field of the Two Streams 
(Tirdaglas). But it happened, by some accident, that when he 
arrived at the church the keys of the oratory could not be found. 
When the saint observed the brethren lamenting to one another 
about the keys being astray, and the door locked, he went him 
self to the door and said, " The Lord is able, without a key, 
to open his own house for his servants." At these words, the 
bolts of the lock were driven back with great force, and the door 
opened of itself. The saint entered the church before all with 
universal admiration ; and he was afterwards most hospitably 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 03 

entertained by the brethren, and treated by all with the greatest 
respect and veneration. 



CHAPTEE XXXVIII. 

Concerning a certain Peasant who was a beggar, for whom the 
Saint made and blessed a stake for killing wild beasts. 

AT another time there came to St. Columba a very poor 
peasant, who lived in the district which borders the shores of 
the Aporic lake (Lochaber). The blessed man, taking pity on 
the wretched man, who had not wherewithal to support his 
wife and family, gave him all the alms he could afford, and 
then said to him, " Poor man, take a branch from the neigh 
bouring wood, and bring it to me quickly." The wretched man 
brought the branch as he was directed, and the saint, taking it 
in his own hand, sharpened it to a point like a stake, and, 
blessing it, gave it back to the destitute man, saying, " Preserve 
this stake with great care, and it, I believe, will never hurt 
men or cattle, but only wild beasts and fishes; and as long as 
thou preservest this stake thou shalt never be without abund 
ance of venison in thy house." 

The wretched beggar upon hearing this was greatly delighted, 
and returning home, fixed the stake in a remote place which 
was frequented by the wild beasts of the forest ; and when that 
next night was past, he went at early morning dawn to see the 
stake, and found a stag of great size that had fallen upon it and 
been transfixed by it. Why should I mention more instances ? 
Not a day could pass, so the tradition goes, in which he did not 
find a stag or hind or some other wild beast fixed upon the 
stake ; and his whole house being thus filled with the flesh of 
the wild beasts, he sold to his neighbours all that remained 
after his own family was supplied. But, as in the case of 
Adam, the envy of the devil also found out this miserable man 
also through his wife, who, not as a prudent matron, but rather 
like one infatuated, thus spoke to her husband : " Eemove the 
stake out of the earth, for if men, or cattle, perish on it, then 
thou and I and our children shall be put to death, or led into 
captivity." To these words her husband replied, " It will not 
be so, for when the holy man blessed the stake he said it would 
never injure men or cattle." Still the miserable man, after 
saying this, yielded to his wife, and taking the stake out of the 
earth, like a man deprived of his reason, brought it into the 
house and placed it against the wall. Soon after his house-dog 



64 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

fell upon it and was killed, and on its death his wife said to 
him, " One of thy children will fall upon it and be killed." At 
these words of his wife he removed the stake out of the house, 
and having carried it to a forest, placed it in the thickest brush 
wood, where, as he thought, no animal could be hurt by it ; but 
upon his return the following day he found a roe had fallen 
upon it and perished. He then took it away and concealed it 
by thrusting it under the water in the edge of the river, which 
may be called in Latin Mgra Dea (not identified). On returning 
the next day he found transfixed, and still held by it, a salmon 
of extraordinary size, which he was scarcely able by himself to 
take from the river and carry home. At the same time, he 
took the stake again back with him from the water, and placed 
it outside on the top of his house, where a crow having soon 
after lighted, was instantly killed by the force of the fall. 
Upon this the miserable man, yielding again to the advice of 
his foolish wife, took down the stake from the house-top, and 
taking an axe cut it in many pieces, and threw them into the fire. 
Having thus deprived himself of this effectual means of alle 
viating his distress, he was again, as he deserved to be, reduced 
to beggary. This freedom from want was owing to the stake, 
so frequently mentioned above, which the blessed man had 
blest and given him, and which, so long as it was kept, could 
suffice for snares and nets, and every kind of fishing and 
hunting ; but when the stake was lost, the wretched peasant, 
though he had been enriched for the time, could only, when too 
late, lament over it with his whole family all the rest of his 
life. 

CHAPTEK XXXIX. 

Concerning a Leathern Vessel for holding milk which was carried 
from its place "by the ebb, and brought back again by the 
return of the tide. 

ON another occasion, when the blessed man s messenger, who 
was named Lugaid, and surnamed Laitir, was at his command 
making preparations for a voyage to Scotia (Ireland), he searched 
for and found amongst the sea-going^ articles that belonged to 
the saint s ship a leathern vessel for holding milk. This vessel he 
immersed in the sea in order to moisten it, and put upon it stones 
of considerable size. He then went to the saint, and told him 
what he had done with the leathern bottle. The saint smiled 
and said, " I do not think that this vessel, which thou sayest 
thou hast sunk under the waves, will accompany thee to Hibernia 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 65 

on the present occasion." " Why," rejoined Lugaid, " can I not 
take it with me in the ship ? " The saint replied, " Thou shalt 
learn the reason to-morrow, as the event will prove." 

On the following morning, therefore, Lugaid went to take the 
vessel out of the sea, but the ebb of the tide had carried it away 
during the night. When he could not find it, he returned in 
grief to the saint, and on his bended knees on the ground con 
fessed his negligence. St. Columba consoled him, saying, " My 
brother, grieve not for perishable things. The vessel which 
the ebbing tide has carried away the returning tide will, after 
your departure, bring back to the spot where thou didst place 
it." At the ninth hour of the same day, soon after the de 
parture of Lugaid from the louan island (Hy, now lona), the 
saint addressed those who stood near him, and said, " Let one 
of you now go to the sea, for the leathern vessel for which 
Lugaid was lamenting, when it was carried away by the ebbing 
tide, hath been brought back by the returning tide, and is to 
be found at the place from which it was taken." Upon hearing 
these words spoken by the saint, a certain active youth ran to 
the sea- shore, where he found the vessel, as the saint had pre 
dicted. He immediately took it out of the water, and with 
great joy hastened back at full speed to the holy man, into 
whose hands he delivered it, amid the great admiration of all 
the beholders. 

In the two miracles which we have just recorded, and which 
regard such common and trifling things as a wooden stake and 
a leathern vessel, there may, nevertheless, be observed, as we 
noticed before, the gift of prophecy united with the power of 
working miracles. 

Let us now proceed with our narrative regarding other things. 



CHAPTER XL. 

The Saint s prophecy regarding Libran, of the Hush-ground. 

AT another time, while the saint was living in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), a certain man of humble birth, who 
had lately assumed the clerical habit, sailed over from Scotia 
(Ireland), and came to the blessed man s monastery on the 
island. The saint found him one day sitting alone in the 
lodging provided for strangers, and inquired first about his 
country, family, and the object of his journey. He replied that 
he was born in the region of the Connacht men (Connaught), 
and that he had undertaken that long and weary journey to 

E 



66 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

atone for his sins by the pilgrimage. In order to test the depth 
of his repentance, the saint then laid down minutely before his 
eyes the hardship and labour attending the monastic exercises. 
" I am prepared," he replied at once to the saint, " to do every 
thing whatever thou dost bid me, however hard and however 
humiliating." Why add more ? That same hour he confessed 
all his sins, and promised, kneeling on the ground, to fulfil the 
laws of penance. The saint said to him, " Arise and take a seat." 
Then he thus addressed him as he sat, " Thou must do penance 
for seven years in the Ethican land (Tiree) ; thou and I, with 
God s blessing, shall survive that period of seven years/ Being 
comforted by the saint s words, he first gave thanks to God, and 
turning afterwards to the saint, asked, " What am I to do with 
regard to an oath which I have violated ? for while living in my 
own country I murdered a certain man, and afterwards, as guilty 
of murdering him, I was confined in prison. But a certain very 
wealthy blood-relation came to my aid, and promptly loosing 
me from my prison-chains, rescued me from the death to which 
I was condemned. When I was released, I bound myself by 
oath to serve that friend all the days of my life ; but I had 
remained only a short time in his service, when I felt ashamed 
of. serving man, and very much preferred to devote myself to 
God. I therefore left that earthly master, broke the oath, and 
departing, reached thee safely, God prospering my journey thus 
far." The saint, on seeing him very much grieved over such 
things, and first prophesying with respect to him, thus made 
answer, saying, " At the end of seven years, as I said to thee, 
thou shalt come to me here during the forty days of Lent, and 
thou shalt approach the altar and partake of the Eucharist at 
the great Paschal festival." Why hang longer over words ? 
The penitent stranger in every respect obeyed the saint s com 
mands ; and being sent at that time to the monastery of the 
Plain of Lunge (Magh Lunge, in Tiree), and having fully com 
pleted his seven years penance there, returned to him during 
Lent, according to the previous command and prophecy. After 
celebrating the Paschal solemnity, and coming at that time to 
the altar as directed, he came again to the saint to consult him 
on the above-mentioned oath. Then the saint gave this prophetic 
answer to his inquiry, " That earthly master of thine of whom 
thou hast formerly spoken is still living ; so are thy father, thy 
mother, and thy brethren. Thou must now, therefore, prepare 
thyself for the voyage." And while speaking, he drew forth a 
sword ornamented with carved ivory, and said, " Take this gift 
to carry with thee, and offer it to thy master as the price of 
thy ransom ; but when thou dost, he will on no account accept 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. C7 

it, for he has a virtuous, kindly-disposed wife, and by the 
influence of her wholesome counsel he shall that very day, 
without recompense or ransom, set thee free, unbinding the 
girdle round thy captive loins. But though thus relieved from 
this anxiety, thou shalt not escape a source of disquietude 
arising on another hand, for thy brethren will come round and 
press thee to make good the support due to thy father for so 
long a time which thou hast neglected. Comply thou at once 
with their wish, and take in hand dutifully to cherish thine 
aged father. Though the duty may, indeed, seem weighty, 
thou must not be grieved thereat, because thou shalt soon be 
relieved of it ; for from the day on which thou shalt take 
charge of thy father, the end of that same week shall see his 
death and burial. But after thy father s burial thy brethren 
will a second time come and sharply demand of thee that thou 
pay the expenses due for thy mother. However, thy younger 
brother will assuredly set thee free from this necessity by 
engaging to perform in thy stead every duty or obligation 
which thou owest to thy mother." 

Having heard these words, the above-mentioned brother, 
whose name was Libran, received the gift, and set out enriched 
with the saint s blessing. When he reached his native country, 
he found everything exactly as prophesied by the saint. For 
when he showed and made offer of the price of his freedom to 
his master, his wife opposed his wish to accept it, saying, 
"What need have we to accept this ransom sent by St. 
Columba ? We are not even worthy of such a favour. Eelease 
this dutiful servant without payment. The prayers of the 
holy man will profit us more than this price which is offered 
us." The husband, therefore, listening to his wife s wholesome 
counsel, set the slave free at once without ransom. He was 
afterwards, according to the saint s prophecy, compelled by his 
brethren to undertake the providing for his father, and he 
buried him at his death on the seventh day. After his burial 
they required him to discharge the same duty to his mother ; 
but a younger brother, as the saint foretold, engaged to supply 
his place, and thus released him from the obligation. "We 
ought not on any account," said he to his brethren, " detain this 
our brother at home, who, for the salvation of his soul, has 
spent seven years in penitential exercises with St. Columba in 
Britain." 

After being thus released from the matters which gave him 
annoyance, he bade farewell to his mother and brothers, and 
returned a free man to a place called in the Scotic tongue Daire 
Calgaich (Derry). There he found a ship iinder sail just leaving 



08 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

the harbour, and he called to the sailors to take him on board 
and convey him to Britain. But they, not being the monks of 
St. Columba, refused to receive him. He then prayed to the 
venerable man, who, though far distant, indeed, in body, yet 
was present in spirit, as the event soon proved, saying, " Is it 
thy will, holy Columba, that these sailors, who do not receive 
me, thy companion, proceed upon their voyage with full sails 
and favourable winds ? " 

At this saying the wind, which till then was favourable for 
them, veered round on the instant to the opposite point. While 
this was taking place, the sailors saw again the same man 
running in a line with them along the bank of the river, and, 
hastily taking counsel together, they cried out to him from the 
ship, saying, " Perhaps the wind hath suddenly turned against 
us, for this reason, that we refused to give thee a passage ; but 
if even now we were to invite thee to be with us on board, 
couldst thou change these contrary winds to be in our favour ? " 
When the pilgrim heard this, he said to them, " St. Columba, 
to whom I am going, and whom I have served for the last seven 
years, is able by prayer, if you take me on board, to obtain a 
favourable wind for you from his Lord." They then, on hearing 
this, approached the land with their ship, and asked him to 
join them in it. As soon as he came on board, he said, " In the 
name of the Almighty God, whom St. Columba blamelessly 
serveth, spread your sails on the extended yards/ And when 
they had done so, the gale of contrary winds immediately 
became favourable, and the vessel made a prosperous voyage 
under full sail to Britain. After reaching the shores of Britain, 
Libran left the ship, blessed the sailors, and went directly to St. 
Columba, who was staying in the louan island (Hy, now lona). 
The blessed man welcomed him with joy, and, without receiving 
the information from any one, told him fully of everything that 
happened on his way of his master and the wife s kindly 
suggestion, and of his being set free by her advice ; of his 
brethren also, and the death and burial of his father within the 
week ; of his mother, and the timely assistance of the younger 
brother ; of what occurred as he was returning, the adverse and 
favourable winds ; of the words of the sailors when first they 
refused to take him in; of the promise of fair wind, and of 
the favourable change when they took him on board their 
vessel. Why need I add more ? Every particular the saint 
foretold he now described after it was exactly fulfilled. 

After these words, the traveller gave back to the saint the 
price of his ransom which he had received from him ; and at 
the same time the saint addressed him in these words : " Inas- 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 69 

much as thou art free, thou shalt be called Libran." Libran 
took at the same period the monastic vows with much fervour. 
And when he was being sent back again by the holy man to the 
monastery where he had formerly served the Lord during the 
seven years of penance, he received in farewell the following 
prophetic announcement regarding himself : " Thou shalt live 
yet a long time, and end this present life in a good old age ; yet 
thou shalt not arise from the dead in Britain, but in Scotia 
(Ireland)." Hearing these words, he knelt down and wept bitterly. 
When the saint saw his great grief he tried to comfort him, 
saying, " Arise, and be not sad. Thou shalt die in one of my 
monasteries, and thy lot shall be among my chosen monks in 
the kingdom ; and with them thou shalt awake from the sleep 
of death unto the resurrection of life." When he heard this 
unusual consolation from the saint he rejoiced exceedingly, and, 
being enriched by the saint s blessing, went away in peace. 
This truthful prophecy of the saint regarding the same man 
was afterwards fulfilled ; for when he had faithfully served the 
Lord for many revolving years of holy obedience in the monastery 
of the Plain of Lunge (Magh Lunge, in Tiree), after the departure 
of St. Columba from the world, he was sent, in extreme old age, 
on a mission to Scotia regarding the interests of the monastery, 
and proceeded as soon as he landed through the Plain of Breg 
(Maghbreg, in Meath), till he reached the monastery of the Oak- 
wood Plain (Derry). Being there received as a stranger in the 
guest-chamber, and suffering from a certain disease, he passed 
to the Lord in peace on the seventh day of his illness, and was 
buried with the chosen monks of St. Columba, according to his 
prophecy, to await the resurrection unto eternal life. 

Let it suffice that we have written these truthful prophecies 
of St. Columba regarding Libran of the Eush-ground. He was 
called " of the Rush-ground " from his having been engaged 
many years in the labour of collecting rushes. 



CHAPTER XLL 

Concerning a certain little Woman who, as a daughter of Eve, 
was enduring tJie great and extremely dangerous pains of 
Childbirth. 

ON a certain day during the saint s stay in the louan island 
(Hy, now lona), the saint arose from reading, and said with a 
smile, " I must now hasten to the oratory to pray to the Lord 
on behalf of a poor woman in Hibernia, who at this moment is 



70 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

suffering the pangs of a most difficult childbirth, and is calling 
upon the name of Columba. She trusteth that God will grant 
her relief from her sufferings through my prayers, because she 
is a relation of mine, being lineally descended from the house of 
my mother s parentage." 

Having said this, the saint, being touched with pity for the 
poor woman, hastened to the church, and, on his bended knees, 
earnestly prayed for her to Christ, who was Himself by birth 
a partaker of humanity. Eeturning from the church after his 
prayer, he said to the brethren who met him, " The Lord Jesus, 
born of a woman, hath given seasonable help to this poor 
woman, and hath mercifully relieved her from her distress. 
She hath been safely delivered of a child, nor shall she die 
upon this occasion/ That same hour, as the saint had pre 
dicted, the poor woman, by invoking his name, was safely 
delivered, and restored to perfect health, as we afterwards 
learned from travellers who came to us from that part of Scotia 
(Ireland) where the woman resided. 

CHAPTEE XLII. 

Of one Imgne, surnamed Tuclida, a Pilot, who lived on the Rech- 
rean island (either Rathlin or Lamlay), and whom, as being 
deformed, his wife hated. 

ANOTHER time, when the saint was living on the Eechrean 
island, a certain man of humble birth came to him and com 
plained of his wife, who, as he said, so hated him, that she 
would on no account allow him to come near her for marriage 
rights. The saint on hearing this, sent for the wife, and, so far 
as he could, began to reprove her on that account, saying : 
" Why, woman, dost thou endeavour to withdraw thy flesh 
from thyself, while the Lord says, They shall be two in one 
flesh ? Wherefore the flesh of thy husband is thy flesh." She 
answered and said, " Whatever thou shalt require of me I am 
ready to do, however hard it may be, with this single exception, 
that thou dost not urge me in any way to sleep in one bed with 
Lugne. I do not refuse to perform every duty at home, or, if 
thou dost command me, even to pass over the seas, or to live in 
some monastery for women." The saint then said, " What thou 
dost propose cannot be lawfully done, for thou art bound by the 
law of the husband as long as thy husband liveth, for it would 
be impious to separate those whom God has lawfully joined to 
gether." Immediately after these words he added : " This day 
let us three, namely, the husband and his wife and myself, join 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 71 

in prayer to the Lord and in fasting." But the woman replied : 
" I know it is not impossible for thee to obtain from God, when 
thou askest them, those things that seem to us either difficult, or 
even impossible." It is unnecessary to say more. The husband 
and wife agreed to fast with the saint that day, and the follow 
ing night the saint spent sleepless in prayer for them. Next 
day he thus addressed the wife in presence of her husband, and 
said to her : " woman, art thou still ready to-day, as thou saidst 
yesterday, to go away to a convent of women ? " "I know 
now," she answered, " that thy prayer to God for me hath been 
heard ; for that man whom I hated yesterday, I love to-day ; for 
my heart hath been changed last night in some unknown way 
from hatred to love." Why need we linger over it ? From that 
day to the hour of death, the soul of the wife was firmly 
cemented in affection to her husband, so that she no longer 
refused those mutual matrimonial rights which she was formerly 
unwilling to allow. 



CHAPTEK XLIII. 

The Prophecy of the blessed man regarding the Voyage of Cormac 
the grandson of Lethan. 

AT another time a soldier of Christ, named Cormac, about 
whom we have related a few brief particulars in the first part of 
this book, made even a second attempt to discover a desert in 
the ocean. After he had gone far from the land over the 
boundless ocean at full sail, St. Columba, who was then staying 
beyond the Dorsal Eidge of Britain (Drumalban), recommended 
him in the following terms to King Brude, in the presence of the 
ruler of the Orcades (Orkneys) : " Some of our brethren have 
lately set sail, and are anxious to discover a desert in the path 
less sea ; should they happen, after many wanderings, to come 
to the Orcadian islands, do thou carefully instruct this chief, 
whose hostages are in thy hand, that no evil befall them within 
his dominions." The saint took care to give this direction, be 
cause he knew that after a few months Cormac would arrive at 
the Orcades. So it afterwards came to pass, and to this advice 
of the holy man Cormac owed his escape from impending death. 

After the lapse of a few months, whilst the saint was remain 
ing in the louan island (Hy, now lona), Cormac s name was 
mentioned one day unexpectedly in his presence by some per 
sons in conversation, who were observing that it was not yet 
known whether the voyage of Cormac had been successful or 



72 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

otherwise. Upon hearing this, the saint joined the conversa 
tion and said : " You shall see Cormac, about whom you are 
now speaking, arrive here to-day." 

And after about an hour, wonderful to relate, lo ! Cormac 
unexpectedly arrived, and proceeded to the oratory whilst all 
expressed their admiration and gave thanks to God. 

Having mentioned thus briefly the prediction of the blessed 
man regarding Cormac s second voyage, we have now to relate 
another equally remarkable instance of the holy man s prophetic 
knowledge regarding his third voyage. 

When Cormac was laboriously engaged in his third voyage 
over the ocean, he was exposed to the most imminent danger 
of death. For, when for fourteen days in summer, and as many 
nights, his vessel sailed with full sails before a south wind, in a 
straight course from land, into the northern regions, his voyage 
seemed to be extended beyond the limits of human wanderings, 
and return to be impossible. 

Accordingly, after the tenth hour of the fourteenth day, cer 
tain dangers of a most formidable and almost insurmountable 
kind presented themselves. A multitude of loathsome and 
annoying insects, such as had never been seen before, covered 
the sea in swarms, and struck the keel and sides, the prow, and 
stern of the vessel, so very violently, that it seemed as if they 
would wholly penetrate the leathern covering of the ship. Ac 
cording to the accounts afterwards given by those who were 
there, they were about the size of frogs ; they could swim, but 
were not able to fly ; their sting was extremely painful, and 
they crowded upon the handles of the oars. 

When Cormac and his fellow-voyagers had seen these and 
other monsters, which it is not now our province to describe, 
they were filled with fear and alarm, and, shedding copious 
tears, they prayed to God, who is a kind and ready helper of 
those who are in trouble. At that same hour our holy Columba, 
although far away in body, was present in spirit with Cormac 
in the ship. Accordingly he gave the signal, and calling the 
brethren to the oratory, he entered the church, and addressing 
those who were present, he uttered the following prophecy in 
his usual manner : " Brethren, pray with all your usual fervour 
for Cormac, who by sailing too far hath passed the bounds of 
human enterprise, and is exposed at this moment to dreadful 
alarm and fright, in the presence of monsters which were never 
before seen, and are almost indescribable. We ought, therefore, 
to sympathize with our brethren and associates who are in such 
imminent danger, and to pray to the Lord with them ; behold 
at this moment Cormac and his sailors are shedding copious 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 73 

tears, and praying with intense fervency to Christ ; let us assist 
them by our prayers, that God may take compassion upon us, 
and cause the wind, which for the past fourteen days has blown 
from the south, to blow from the north, and this north wind 
will, of course, deliver Cormac s vessel out of all danger." 

Having said this he knelt before the altar, and in a plaintive 
voice poured forth his prayers to the almighty power of God, 
who governeth the winds and all things. After having prayed he 
arose quickly, and wiping away his tears, joyfully gave thanks 
to God, saying, " Now, brethren, let us congratulate our dear 
friends for whom we have been praying, for God will now change 
the south into a north wind, which will free our associates from 
their perils, and bring them to us here again." As he spoke 
the south wind ceased, and a north wind blew for many days 
after, so that Cormac s ship was enabled to gain the land. And 
Cormac hastened to visit Columba, and in God s bounty they 
looked on each other again face to face, to the extreme joy and 
wonder of all. Let the reader, then, carefully consider how great 
and of what a character the blessed man must have been, who 
possessed such prophetic knowledge, and who, by invoking the 
name of Christ, could rule the winds and the waves. 



CHAPTEE XLIV. 

How the venerable man made a Journey in a Chariot which was 
not secured with the proper linch-pins. 

AT another time, while the saint was spending a few days in 
Scotia (Ireland), some ecclesiastical object required his presence, 
and accordingly he ascended a yoked car which he had pre 
viously blessed ; but from some unaccountable neglect the 
requisite linch-pins were not inserted in the holes at the ex 
tremities of the axles. The person who on this occasion per 
formed the duty of driver in the carriage with St. Columba 
was Columban, a holy man, the son of Echud, and founder of 
that monastery which is called in the Scotic language Snam 
luthir (now Slanore, in Granard, county of Longford). The dis 
tance they rode that day was very long, and the jolting severe, 
yet the wheels did not come off the axles nor even stir from their 
proper places, although, as was mentioned before, there were no 
linch-pins to secure them. But divine grace alone so favoured 
the venerable man that the car in which he was safely seated 
proceeded without being upset, or meeting any obstacle to retard 
its progress. 



74 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

Thus far we may have written enough regarding the miracles 
which the divine omnipotence wrought through this remarkable 
man while he lived ; we shall now mention also a few out of 
many well- authenticated miracles which the Lord was pleased 
to grant to him after his death. 



CHAPTEE XLV. 

Of the Eain which, after some months of drought, the Lord boun 
tifully poured out upon the earth in honour of the blessed 
man. 

ABOUT fourteen years before the date at which we write, 
there occurred during the spring a very great and long-continued 
drought in these marshy regions, insomuch that the threat 
denounced against sinners in the Book of Leviticus seemed to 
impend over the people : " I will give to you the heaven above 
as iron, and the earth as brass. Your labour shall be spent in 
vain, the ground shall not bring forth her increase, nor the trees 
their fruit," etc. 

We therefore, reading these words, and fearing the impend 
ing calamity, took counsel together, and resolved that some of 
the senior members of the community should walk round a 
newly ploughed and sowed field, taking with them the white 
tunic of St. Columba, and some books written in his own hand, 
that they should raise in the air, and shake three times the 
tunic which the saint wore at the hour of his death ; and that 
they then should open the books and read them on the little hill 
of the angels (now called Sithean Mor), where the citizens of 
the heavenly country were occasionally seen to descend at the 
bidding of the blessed man. When these directions had been 
executed in the manner prescribed, then, strange to relate, the 
sky, which during the preceding months of March and April 
had been cloudless, was suddenly covered with dense vapours 
that arose from the sea with extraordinary rapidity; copious 
rain fell day and night, and the parched earth being sufficiently 
moistened, produced its fruits in good season, and yielded the 
same year a most abundant harvest. And thus the invocation 
of the very name of the blessed man, by the exhibition of his 
tunic and books, obtained seasonable relief at the same time 
for many places and much people. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 



CHAPTER XLVL 

Of the unfavourable Winds which, through the intercession of our 
Saint, were changed into propitious breezes. 

OUK belief in the miracles which we have recorded, but which 
we did not ourselves see, is confirmed beyond doubt by the 
miracles of which we were eye-witnesses ; for on three different 
occasions we saw unfavourable gales of wind changed unto pro 
pitious breezes. 

On the first occasion we had to draw over land long boats of 
hewn pine and oak, and to bring home in the same way a large 
quantity of materials for building ships. In order to obtain from 
the Lord a favourable wind for our voyage, we took counsel and 
put the books and garments of the blessed man upon the altar, 
and at the same time fasted, chanted psalms, and invoked his 
name. And this was granted to the holy man by God s favour, 
for on the day that our sailors had made all their preparations, 
and were ready to convey the wood for the purposes above 
mentioned in curachs and skiffs, the wind, which for several 
days before had been contrary, suddenly changed into favourable 
breezes. They blew steadily the entire day, by God s blessing, 
and enabled the whole fleet of boats to make their long and 
dangerous passage to the louan island (Hy, now lona), with 
safety and expedition. 

On the second occasion, which was a few years after the one 
just mentioned, our monastery was requiring repairs, and some 
oak-trees were to be taken from near the mouth of the river 
Sale (the Seil, in Lorn), in twelve vessels which we brought for 
the purpose. Our sailors then rowed out to sea with their 
oars, the day being calm and the sea tranquil, when suddenly 
a westerly wind, which is also called Zephyr, sprang up, and 
we betook ourselves to the nearest island, which is called in 
Scotic Airthrago (probably Kerrera), to seek for shelter in a 
harbour in it. 

But in the meantime we began to complain of this unfavour 
able change in the wind, and in some measure even to blame 
our Columba, saying, " Doth our unfortunate detention in this 
place please thee, saint ? Hitherto we had hoped that we 
might receive from thee some aid and comfort in our labours 
through the divine favour, seeing we thought that thou wert 
honoured and powerful in the sight of God." 

No sooner had we thus spoken, than, wonderful to relate, 



76 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 

the unfavourable west wind ceased, and immediately, in the 
course as it were of one minute, behold a most favourable 
south-eastern breeze sprang up. The sailors were then directed 
to raise the sail yards in the form of a cross, and spread the 
sails upon them ; thus putting to sea with a steady and favour 
able breeze, we were enabled, without the slightest fatigue, to 
reach our island that same day, rejoicing in our cargo of wood, 
and in the company of all who were engaged in assisting us in 
the ships. Thus the chiding with the holy man, slight though 
it was, in that complaint assisted us not a little ; and in what 
and how great esteem the saint is held by the Lord is evident 
from His hearing him so quickly and changing the winds. 

Then the third instance was in the summer, after the cele 
bration of a synod in Hibernia, when we were detained by 
contrary winds for a few days among the people of the tribe of 
Loern (Lorn), and had reached the Sainean island (Shuna). 
There the vigil and the feast of St. Columba found us extremely 
sad and disconsolate, because we wished to celebrate that joyous 
day in the louan island (Hy, now lona). Accordingly, as on a 
former occasion, we began to complain and to say, " Is it agree 
able to thee, O saint, that we should spend to-morrow, thy 
festival-day, among strangers, and not celebrate it in thine own 
church ? It is easy for thee in the morning of such a day to 
obtain from the Lord that the contrary winds may become 
favourable, and that we may be able to celebrate the solemn 
mass of thy birth in thine own church. On the following 
morning we arose at daybreak, and seeing that the adverse 
winds had ceased, we went on board our vessels and put to sea 
in a profound calm, when, lo ! there suddenly sprung up a 
south wind, which was most favourable for the voyage. The 
sailors then joyously raised the sails, and on this occasion also 
without any exertion on our part, so quick and so favourable 
was our passage, owing to the mercy of God to the blessed 
man, that we reached the landing-place of the louan island 
(Hy, now lona), after the third hour, according to our previous 
anxious desire. After washing our hands and feet we entered 
the church at the sixth hour in company with our brethren, 
and celebrated at once the holy services of the mass of St. 
Columba and St. Baithene, whose festivals occurred on that 
day, at the daybreak of which, as we said above, we started 
from the distant Sainean island (Shuna). 

And as to the truth of this story I have now related, there 
are yet living, not merely one or two witnesses as the law 
requires, but hundreds and more who can bear testimony. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK II. 77 

CHAPTEE XLVII. 

Concerning the Plague. 

WHAT we are about to relate concerning the plague, which 
in our own time twice visited the greater part of the world, 
deserves, I think, to be reckoned among not the least of the 
miracles of St. Columba. For, not to mention the other and 
greater countries of Europe, including Italy, the Eoman States, 
and the Cisalpine provinces of Gaul, with the States of Spain 
also, which lie beyond the Pyrenees, these islands of the sea, 
Scotia (Ireland) and Britain, have twice been ravaged by a 
dreadful pestilence throughout their whole extent, except among 
the two tribes, the Picts and Scots of Britain, who are separated 
from each other by the Dorsal mountains of Britain. And 
although neither of these nations was free from those grievous 
crimes which generally provoke the anger of the eternal Judge, 
yet both have been hitherto patiently borne with and mercifully 
spared. Now, to what other person can this favour granted 
them by God be attributed unless to St. Columba, whose 
monasteries lie within the territories of both these people, and 
have been regarded by both with the greatest respect up to the 
present time ? But what I am now to say cannot, I think, be 
heard without a sigh, that there are many very stupid people 
in both countries who, in their ignorance that they owe their 
exemption from the plague to the prayers of the saint, ungrate 
fully and wickedly abuse the patience and the goodness of 
God. But I often return my most grateful thanks to God 
for having, through the intercession of our holy patron, pre 
served me and those in our islands from the ravages of the 
pestilence ; and that in Saxonia also, when I went to visit my 
friend King Aldfrid, where the plague was raging and laying 
waste many of his villages, yet both in its first attack, imme 
diately after the war of Ecfridus, and in its second, two years 
subsequently, the Lord mercifully saved me from danger, 
though I was living and moving about in the very midst of 
the plague. The Divine mercy was also extended to my com 
panions, not one of whom died of the plague, or was attacked 
with any other disease. 

Here must end the second Book recording the miracles, and 
it is right for me to draw attention to the fact, that many well- 
authenticated miracles have been omitted in order not to fatigue 
the reader. 

Here endeth the Second Book. 



BOOK III. 

HERE BEGINNETH THE THIRD BOOK. 

OF THE VISIONS OF ANGELS. 



CHAPTEE I. 

IN the first of these three little Books we have, under the 
guidance of God, shortly and concisely related, as was observed 
before, some of the prophetic revelations. In the second we have 
recorded the powerful miracles the blessed man wrought, which, 
as we have often observed, were generally accompanied with 
the gift of prophecy. But in this third Book, which treateth 
of the Apparitions of Angels, we shall relate those which either 
our saint received regarding others, or others saw regarding 
him ; we shall also describe some which were manifested to 
both parties, though in different measure, that is, to the saint 
himself, specially and clearly, but to the others improperly and 
partially, or, in other words, externally and tentatively, yet in 
the same visions either of angels, or of heavenly light. What 
ever discrepancies however in any case may at first sight seem 
to occur in those visions, will be completely removed as we 
proceed to relate them in their proper places. But now we 
must begin at the very birth of the blessed man, and relate 
these angelic manifestations. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON a certain night between the conception and birth of the 
venerable man, an angel of the Lord appeared to his mother in 
dreams, bringing to her, as he stood by her, a certain robe of 




THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

extraordinary beauty, in which the most beautiful colours, as it 
were, of all the flowers seemed to be portrayed. After a short 
time he asked it back, and took it out of her hands, and having 
raised it and spread it out, he let it fly through the air. But 
she being sad at the loss of it, said to that man of venerable 
aspect, " Why dost thou take this lovely cloak away from me 
so soon ?" He immediately replied, " Because thisjjiantleisjp 
exceedingly honourable that thou canst not retain it longer with 
thee." When this was said, the woman saw that the fore-men 
tioned robe was gradually receding from her in its flight ; and 
that then it expanded until its width exceeded the plains, and in 
all its measurements was larger than the mountains and forests. 
Then she heard the following words : " Woman, do not grieve, 
for to the man to whom thou hast been joined by the marriage 
bond, thou shalt bring forth a son, of so beautiful a character, that 
he shall be reckoned among his own people as one of the pro 
phets of God, and hath been predestined by God to be the leader 
of innumerable souls to the heavenly country." At these words 
the woman awoke from her sleep. 



CHAPTER III. 

Of the Ray of Light which was seen upon the loy sface as 
he lay asleep. 

ON another night, Cruithnecan, a priest of blameless life, to 
whose care the blessed youth was confided, upon returning home 
from the clmrch after mass, found his house illuminated with a 
brighJLiight^ancL saw in fact a ball of fire standing over the 
face of_theJlittle boy as he lay asleep. At the sight he at once 
shook with fear, and fell down with his face to the ground in 
great amazement, well knowing that it indicated the grace of 
the Holy Spirit poured out from heaven upon his young 
charge. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Of the Apparition of Holy Angels whom St. Brenden saw 
accompanying the blessed man through the plain. 



FOR indeed after the lapse of many years, when St. 

some 
as it 



w VAAV^ .lUiLJOVs wi. JlldXJ. V Y V./Cvi.O Wilv/i- 

Columba was excommunicated by a certain synod for some 
pardonable and very trifling reasons, and indeed unjustly, 



80 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

afterwards appeared at the end, he came to the same meeting 
convened against himself. When St. Brenden, the founder of 
the monastery which in the Scotic language is called Birra (Birr, 
in King s County), saw him approaching in the distance, he 
quickly arose, and with head bowed down reverently kissed him. 
When some of the seniors in that assembly, going apart from the 
rest, were finding fault with him, and saying : " Why didst thou 
not decline to rise in presence of an excommunicated person, and 
to kiss him ?" he replied to them in this wise : " If," said he, 
" you had seen what the Lord has this day thought fit to show 
to me regarding this his chosen one, whom you dishonour, you 
would never have excommunicated a person whom God not only 
doth not excommunicate, according to your unjust sentence, but 
even more and more highly esteemeth." " How, we would wish to 
know," said they in reply, " doth God exalt, as thou sayest, on-} 
whom we have excommunicated, not without reason ? " "I 
have seen," said Brenden, " a most brilliant pillar wreathed with 
fiery tresses preceding this same man of God whom you treat 
with contempt ; I have also seen holy angels accompanying him 
on his journey through the plain. Therefore I do not dare to 
slight him whom I see foreordained by God to be the leader of 
his people to life." When he said this, they desisted, and so far 
from daring to hold the saint any longer excommunicated, they 
even treated him with the greatest respect and reverence. This 
took place in Teilte (Taillte, now Teltown, in Meath). 



CHAPTER V. 

Of the Angel of the Lord which St. Finnio saw accompanying 
the blessed man in his journey. 

ON another occasion the holy man went to the venerable 
Bishop Finnio, who had formerly been his preceptor, the youth 
to visit the man far advanced in years. When St. Finnio saw 
him coming to him, he observed also an angel of the Lord 
accompanying him, as he proceeded, and as it is handed down 
to us by well-informed persons, he made it known to certain 
brethren who were standing by, saying to them : " Behold, look 
now to Columba as he draweth near; he hath been deemed 
worthy of having an angelic inhabitant of heaven to be his 
companion in his wanderings." About that same time the 
holy man, with his twelve disciples and fellow-soldiers, sailed 
across to Britain. 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMUA. BOOK III. 83 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Concerning the Vision of Any els vouchsafed the same holy man 
when they were "bearing to heaven the soul of one named 
Diormit. 

AT another time a stranger from Hibernia came to the saint 
and remained with him for some months in the louan island 
(Hy, now lona). The blessed man one day said to him : " One 
of the clerics of thy province, whose name I do not yet know, 
is being carried to heaven by the angels at this moment." 
Then the brother, upon hearing this, began to search within 
himself regarding the province of the Anterii (Airthir), which 
is called in Scotic Indairthir (East Oriel, in Ulster), and also 
about the name of that blessed man, and in due course thus 
expressed himself, saying : " I know a soldier of Jesus Christ, 
named Diormit, who built a small monastery in the same 
district where I dwelt." The saint said to him, " He of whom 
thou speakest is the very person who hath been carried into 
Paradise by the angels of God." 

But this fact must be very carefully noted, that our venerable 
man was most careful to conceal from the knowledge of men 
many mysterious secrets which were concealed from others, but 
revealed to him by God, and this he did for two reasons, as he 
one day hinted to a few of the brethren ; first, that he might 
avoid vain-glory, and secondly that he might not, by the fame 
of his revelations being spread abroad, attract, to make inquiries 
at him, innumerable crowds who were anxious to ask some 
questions regarding themselves. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Of the brave fight of the Angels against the Demons, and how they 
opportunely assisted the Saint in the same conflict. 

ON another day while the holy man was living in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), he went to seek in the woods for a 
place more remote from men and fitting for prayer. And there 
when he began to pray, he suddenly beheld, as he afterwards 
told a few of the brethren, a very black host of demons fighting 
against him with iron darts. These wicked demons wished, as 
the Holy Spirit revealed to the saint, to attack his monastery 
and kill with the same spears many of the brethren. But he, 



82 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

Hibernia, the scourge which I suffered on thy account from 
the angel shall bring great disgrace upon them by the hand of 
God, and the hearts of men shall be turned away from them, 
and their foes shall be greatly strengthened against them." 
Now this prophecy hath been fulfilled in our own times in the 
battle of Roth (Magh Rath, fought 637), in which Domnall 
Brecc, the grandson of Aidan, ravaged without the slightest 
provocation the territory of Domnall, the grandson of Ain- 
muireg. And from that day to this they have been trodden 
down by strangers a fate which pierces the heart with sighs 
and grief. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Of the Apparition of Angels carrying to heaven the soul of 
the blessed Brito. 

AT another time while the holy man was tarrying in the 
louan island (Hy, now lona), one of his monks called Brito, 
a person given to all good works, being seized with bodily ill 
ness, was reduced to the last extremity. When the venerable 
man went to visit him at the hour of his departure, he stood 
for a few moments at his bedside, and after giving him his 
blessing, retired quickly from the house, not wishing to see 
him die, and the very moment after the holy man left the 
house the monk closed this present life. 

Then the eminent man walking in the little court of his 
monastery, with his eyes upraised to heaven, was for a long 
time lost in wonder and admiration. But a certain brother 
named Aidan, the son of Libir, a truly virtuous and religious 
man, who was the only one of the brethren present at the time, 
fell upon his knees and asked the saint to tell him the reason 
of so great astonishment. The saint said to him in reply : " I 
have this moment seen the holy angels contending in the air 
against the hostile powers ; and I return thanks to Christ, the 
Judge, because the victorious angels have carried off to the joys 
of our heavenly country the soul of this stranger, who is the 
first person that hath died among us in this island. But I 
beseech thee not to reveal this secret to any one during my 
life." 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 83 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Concerning the Vision of Angels vouchsafed the same holy man 
when they were bearing to heaven the soul of one named 
Diormit. 

AT another time a stranger from Hibernia came to the saint 
and remained with him for some months in the louan island 
(Hy, now lona). The blessed man one day said to him : " One 
of the clerics of thy province, whose name I do not yet know, 
is being carried to heaven by the angels at this moment." 
Then the brother, upon hearing this, began to search within 
himself regarding the province of the Anterii (Airthir), which 
is called in Scotic Indairthir (East Oriel, in Ulster), and also 
about the name of that blessed man, and in due course thus 
expressed himself, saying : " I know a soldier of Jesus Christ, 
named Diormit, who built a small monastery in the same 
district where I dwelt." The saint said to him, " He of whom 
thou speakest is the very person who hath been carried into 
Paradise by the angels of God." 

But this fact must be very carefully noted, that our venerable 
man was most careful to conceal from the knowledge of men 
many mysterious secrets which were concealed from others, but 
revealed to him by God, and this he did for two reasons, as he 
one day hinted to a few of the brethren ; first, that he might 
avoid vain-glory, and secondly that he might not, by the fame 
of his revelations being spread abroad, attract, to make inquiries 
at him, innumerable crowds who were anxious to ask some 
questions regarding themselves. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Of the brave fight of the Angels against the Demons, and how they 
opportunely assisted the Saint in the same conflict. 

ON another day while the holy man was living in the louan 
island (Hy, now lona), he went to seek in the woods for a 
place more remote from men and fitting for prayer. And there 
when he began to pray, he suddenly beheld, as he afterwards 
told a few of the brethren, a very black host of demons fighting 
against him with iron darts. These wicked demons wished, as 
the Holy Spirit revealed to the saint, to attack his monastery 
and kill with the same spears many of the brethren. But he, 



84 THE LIFE OF SAIXT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

single-handed, against innumerable foes of such a nature, fought 
with the utmost bravery, having received the armour of the 
apostle Paul. And thus the contest was maintained on both 
sides during the greater part of the day, nor could the demons, 
countless though they were, vanquish him, nor was he able, by 
himself, to drive them from his island, until the angels of God, 
as the saint afterwards told certain persons, and they few in 
number, came to his aid, when the demons in terror gave way. 
On the same day, when the saint was returning to his mon 
astery, after he had driven the devils from his island, he spoke 
these words concerning the same hostile legions, saying, " Those 
deadly foes, who this day, through the mercy of God and the 
assistance of his angels, have been put to flight from this 
small track of land, have fled to the Ethican land (Tiree), and 
there as savage invaders they will attack the monasteries of 
the brethren, and cause pestilential diseases, of which many 
will be grievously ill and die." All this came to pass in those 
days, as the blessed man had foreseen. And two days after he 
thus spake from the revelation of the Holy Ghost, " Baithen 
hath managed wisely, with God s help, that the congregation of 
the church over which he hath been appointed by God to pre 
side, in the plain of Lunge (Magh Lunge, in Tiree), should be 
defended by fasts and prayers against the attacks of the demons, 
and but one person shall die on this occasion." The whole took 
place as was foretold ; for whilst many in the other monasteries 
of the same island fell victims to that disease, none except the 
one of whom the saint spoke died in the congregation which 
was under the charge of Baithen. * 



CHAPTEE X. 

Of the Apparition of Angels whom the man of God saw carrying 
to heaven the soul of a blacksmith, named Columb, and sur- 
named Coilrigin. 

A CERTAIN blacksmith, greatly devoted to works of charity, 
and full of other good works, dwelt in the midland districts of 
Scotia (Ireland). When the forementioned Columb, surnamed 
Coilrigin, was dying in a good old age, even at that very mo 
ment when he departed from the body, St. Columba, who was 
then in the louan island (Hy, now lona), thus addressed a few 
of the senior brethren who were standing around him, " Columb 
Coilrigin, the blacksmith, hath not laboured in vain, seeing that 
he hath had the happiness, as he desired, to purchase the 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 85 

eternal rewards by the labour of his hands. For, behold, at 
this moment, his soul is carried by the holy angels to the joys 
of the heavenly country, because he laid out all that he could 
earn by his trade in alms to the poor." 



CHAPTER XL 

Of a similar Vision of Angels whom the blessed man beheld carry 
ing to heaven the soul of a certain virtuous woman. 

IN like manner, on another occasion, whilst the holy man 
was living in the louan island (Hy, now lona), 7 he one day 
suddenly raised his eyes to heaven and uttered the words, " 
happy woman happy because of thy virtues ; the angels of 
God are now carrying thy soul to paradise." Now these words 
from the mouth of the saint w r ere heard by a certain religious 
brother, a Saxon, by name Genere, who was at the moment 
working at his trade, which was that of a baker. And on the 
same day of the month, at the end of the same year, the saint 
addressed the same Genere the Saxon, and said, " I see a won 
derful thing ; behold, the woman of whom I spake in thy pre 
sence last year, now meeteth in the air the soul of her husband, 
a poor and holy man, and together with the holy angels en- 
gageth in a contest for it against the adverse powers ; by their 
united assistance, and by the aid of the virtuous character of 
the man himself, his soul is rescued from the assaults of the 
demons, and brought to the place of eternal refreshment. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Of the Apparition of Holy Angels whom St. Columba beheld 
meeting in its passage the soul of St. Brenden, the founder 
of the monastery which in Scotic is called Birra (Birr, in 
King s County). 

ON another day also, while the venerable man was residing 
in the louan island (Hy, now lona), he called very early in the 
morning for his attendant, Diormit, so frequently mentioned 
before, and commanded him, saying, " Make ready in haste for 
the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, for to-day is the birthday 
of blessed Brenden." " Wherefore," said his attendant, " dost 
thou order such solemnities of the Mass to be prepared to-day ? 
For no messenger hath come to us from Scotia (Ireland) to tell 



86 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

us of the death of that holy man." " Go," said the saint, " it is 
thy duty to obey my commands. For this last night I saw the 
heavens suddenly open, and choirs of angels descend to meet 
the soul of the holy Brenden ; and so great and incomparable 
was the brightness, that in that same hour it illuminated the 
whole world." 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Of ike Vision of Holy Angels who carried off to heaven the soul of 
the Bishop, St. Columban Mocu Loigse. 

ON another day also, while the brethren were putting on their 
sandals in the morning, and were making ready to go to their 
different duties in the monastery, the saint, on the contrary, 
bade them rest that day and prepare for the holy sacrifice, 
ordering also some addition to be made to their dinner, as on 
the Lord s day. " I must," said he, " though unworthy, cele 
brate to-day the holy mysteries of the Eucharist, out of venera 
tion to that soul which this last night went up to paradise, 
beyond the region of the stars in the heavens, borne thither 
amid the holy choirs of the angels." 

At these words the brethren obeyed, and, according to his 
directions, rested that day; then, after preparing for the due 
celebration of the sacred rite, they accompanied the saint to the 
church in their white robes as on a festival. Bat it came to 
pass that when in the course of chanting the offices, the prayer 
was being sung as usual in which St. Martin s name is com 
memorated, the saint, suddenly turning to the chanters, when 
they had come to make mention of that name, said, " You must 
pray to-day for St. Columban, bishop." Then all the brethren 
present understood that Columban, a bishop in Leinster, the 
dear friend of Columba, had passed to the Lord. A short time 
after, some persons, who came from the province of Leinster, 
told how the bishop died in the very night in which it was thus 
made known to the saint.- 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Of the Apparition of Angels who had come down to meet the 
souls of the monks of St. Comgell. 

AT another time, when the venerable man was living in the 
louan island (Hy, now lona), he became suddenly excited, and 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 87 

summoned the brethren together by the sound of the bell. 
" Now" said he, " let us help by our prayers the monks of the 
Abbot Comgell, who are just now in danger of being drowned 
in the Lake of the Calf (Loch Laodh, now Belfast Lough) ; for, 
lo ! at this moment they are fighting against the hostile powers 
in the air, and are striving to rescue the soul of some stranger 
who is also drowning along with them." Then after having 
wept and prayed fervently, he hastily stood erect before the 
altar with a joyful countenance, whilst the brethren continued 
to lie prostrate in prayer. " Give thanks," he said, " to Christ, 
for now the holy angels, coming to the aid of holy souls, have 
rescued this stranger from the attacks of the demons, and borne 
him off in triumph like victorious warriors." 



CHAPTEE XV. 

Of the Manifestation of the Angels who came to meet the soul 
of one Emchafh. 

AT another time, when the saint was travelling beyond the 
Dorsal Eidge of Britain (Drumalban), near the lake of the 
river Nesa (Loch Ness), he was suddenly inspired by the Holy 
Ghost, and said to the brethren that accompanied him, " Let us 
go quickly to meet the holy angels, who have been sent from 
the realms of the highest heaven to carry away with them the 
soul of a heathen, and now wait our arrival there, that we 
may baptize in due time before his death this man, who hath 
preserved his natural goodness through all his life, even to 
extreme old age." And having said this much, the holy old 
man hurried his companions as much as he could, and walked 
before them until he came to a district called Airchart-dan 
(Arochdan, now Glen Urquhart) ; and there he found an aged 
man whose name was Emchat, who, on hearing the word of God 
preached by the saint, believed and was baptized, and imme 
diately after, full of joy, and safe from evil, and accompanied 
by the angels, who came to meet him, passed to the Lord. 
His son Virolec also believed, and was baptized with all 
his house. 



88 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 



CHAPTEK XVI. 

Of the Angel of the Lord that came so quickly and opportunely 
to the relief of the brother who fell from the top of the round 
monastery in the OaTcwood Plain (Berry). 

AT another time, while the holy man sat in his little cell 
engaged in writing, on a sudden his countenance changed, and 
he poured forth this cry from his pure breast, saying, " Help ! 
help ! " Two of the brothers who stood at the door, namely, 
Colga, son of Cellach, and Lugne Mocublai, asked the cause of 
such a sudden cry. The venerable man answered, saying, " I 
ordered the angel of the Lord who was just now standing among 
you to go quickly to the relief of one of the brothers who is 
falling from the highest point of a large house which is now 
being built in the Oakwood Plain (Deny)." And the saint 
added afterwards these words, saying, " How wonderful and 
almost unspeakable is the swiftness of angelic motion, like, as 
I imagine, to the rapidity of lightning. For the heavenly 
spirit who just now flew away from us when that man began 
to fall, arrived there to support him, as it were, in the twink 
ling of an eye, before his body reached the ground ; nor was 
the man who fell able to feel any fracture or bruise. How 
wonderful, I say, is that most swift and timely help which 
could be given so very quickly, even though such an extent of 
land and sea lay between 3" 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Of the multitude of Holy Angels that were seen to come down from 
heaven at the bidding of the blessed man. 

ANOTHER time also, while the blessed man was living in the 
louan island (Hy, now lona), he made this known to the as 
sembled brethren with very great earnestness, saying, " To-day 
I wish to go alone to the western plain of this island ; let none 
of you therefore follow me." They obeyed, and he went alone, 
as he desired. But a brother, who was cunning, and of a prying 
disposition, proceeded by another road, and secretly placed him 
self on the summit of a certain little hill which overlooked the 
plain, because lie was very anxious to learn the blessed man s 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 89 

motive for going out alone. While the spy on the top of the 
hill was looking upon him as he stood on a mound in the plain, 
with arms extended upwards, and eyes raised to heaven in 
prayer, then, strange to tell, behold a wonderful scene presented 
itself, which that brother, as I think not without the leave of 
God, witnessed with his own eyes from his place on the neigh 
bouring hill, that the saint s name and the reverence due to 
him might afterwards, even against his wishes, be more widely 
diffused among the people, through the vision thus vouchsafed. 
For holy angels, the citizens of the heavenly country, clad in 
white robes and flying with wonderful speed, began to stand 
around the saint whilst he prayed ; and after a short converse 
with the blessed man, that heavenly host, as if feeling itself 
detected, flew speedily back again to the highest heavens. The 
blessed man himself also, after his meeting with the angels, 
returned to the monastery, and calling the brethren together a 
second time, asked, with no little chiding and reproof, which of 
them was guilty of violating his command. When all were 
declaring they did not know at all of the matter, the brother, 
conscious of his inexcusable transgression, and no longer able 
to conceal his guilt, fell on his knees before the saint in the 
midst of the assembled brethren, and humbly craved forgiveness. 
The saint, taking him aside, commanded him under heavy 
threats, as he knelt, never, during the life of the blessed man, to 
disclose to any person even the least part of the secret regard 
ing the angels visit. It was, therefore, after the saint s departure 
from the body that the brother related that manifestation of 
the heavenly host, and solemnly attested its truth. Whence, 
even to this day, the place where the angels assembled is called 
by a name that beareth witness to the event that took place in 
it ; this may be said to be in Latin " Colliculus Angelorum " 
and is in Scotic Cnoc Angel (now called Sithean Mor). 
Hence, therefore, we must notice, and even carefully inquire, 
into the fact how great and of what kind these sweet visits of 
angels to this blessed man were, which took place mostly during 
the winter nights, when he was in watching and prayer in lonely 
places while others slept. These were no doubt very numerous, 
and could in no way come to the knowledge of other men. 
Though some of these which happened by night or by day 
might perhaps be discovered by one means or another, these 
must have been very few compared with the angelic visions, 
which, of course, could be known by nobody. The same obser 
vation applies in the same way to other bright apparitions 
hitherto investigated by few, which shall be afterwards 
described. 



90 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

CHAPTEE XVIII. 

Of the bright Pillar seen to glow upon the Saint s head. 

ANOTHER time four holy founders of monasteries came from 
Scotia (Ireland), to visit St. Columba, and found him in the 
Hinba island (Eilean-na-Naoimh). The names of these dis 
tinguished men were Comgell Mocu Aridi, Cainnech Mocu 
Dalon, Brenden Mocu Alti, and Cormac, grandson of Leathain. 
They all with one consent agreed that St. Columba should 
consecrate, in their presence in the church, the holy mysteries 
of the Eucharist. The saint complied with their express 
desire, and entered the church with them on Sunday as usual, 
after the reading of the Gospel; and there, during the cele 
bration of the solemn offices of the Mass, St. Brenden Mocu 
Alti saw, as he told Comgell and Cainnech afterwards, a ball of 
fire like a comet burning very brightly on the head of Columba, 
while he was standing before the altar, and consecrating the 
holy oblation, and thus it continued burning and rising upwards 
like a column, so long as he continued to be engaged in the 
same most sacred mysteries. 

CHAPTEE XIX. 

Of the Descent or Visit of the Holy Ghost, which in the same island 
continued for three whole days and nights with the venerable 
man. 

AT another time, when the saint was living in the Hinba 
island (Eilean-na-Naoimh), the grace of the Holy Ghost was 
communicated to him abundantly and unspeakably, and dwelt 
with him in a wonderful manner, so that for three whole days, 
and as many nights, without either eating or drinking, he 
allowed no one to approach him, and remained confined in a 
house which was filled with heavenly brightness. Yet out of 
that house, through the chinks of the doors and keyholes, rays 
of surpassing brilliancy were seen to issue during the night. 
Certain spiritual songs also, which had never been heard before, 
he was heard to sing. He came to see, as he allowed in the 
presence of a very few afterwards, many secrets hidden from 
men since the beginning of the world fully revealed ; certain 
very obscure and difficult parts of sacred Scripture also were 
made quite plain, and clearer than the light to the eye of his 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 91 

pure heart. He grieved that his beloved disciple, Baithen, 
was not with him, because if he had chanced to be beside him 
during those three days, he would have been able to explain 
from the lips of the blessed man mysteries regarding past or 
future ages, unknown to the rest of mankind, and to interpret 
also some passages of the Sacred Volumes. However, Baithen 
was then detained by contrary winds in the Egean island (Egg), 
and he was not, therefore, able to be present until those three 
days and as many nights of that glorious and unspeakable visi 
tation came to a close. 



CHAPTEE XX. 

Of the angelic splendour of the light which Virgnous a youth of 
good disposition, and afterwards made by God superior of 
this Church in which /, though unworthy , now serve saw 
coming down upon St. Columba in the Church, on a winter s 
night, when the brethren were at rest in their chambers. 

ONE winter s night the forementioned Virgnous, burning with 
the love of God, entered the church alone to pray, while the 
others were asleep ; and he prayed fervently in a little side- 
chamber attached to the walls of the oratory. After a consider 
able interval, as it were of an hour, the venerable Columba 
entered the same sacred house, and along with him, at the same 
time, a golden light, that came down from the highest heavens 
and filled that part of the church. Even the separate recess of 
the side-chamber, where Virgnous was striving to hide himself 
as much as he could, was also filled, to his great alarm, with some 
of the brilliance of that heavenly light which burst through the 
inner-door of the chamber, that was a little open. And as no 
one can look directly at, or gaze with steady eye on, the summer 
sun in his mid-day splendour, so Virgnous could not at all bear 
this heavenly brightness which he saw, because of the brilliant 
and unspeakable radiance which overpowered his sight. The 
brother spoken of was so much terrified by the splendour, 
almost as dreadful as lightning, that no strength remained in 
him. But, after a short prayer, St. Columba left the church. 
And the next day he sent for Virgnous, who was very much 
alarmed, and spoke to him these few consoling words : " Thou 
art crying to good purpose, my child, for last night thou wert 
very pleasing in the sight of God by keeping thine eyes fixed 
on the ground when thou wert overwhelmed with fear at the 



92 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

brightness, for hadst thou not done so, that priceless light 
would have blinded thine eyes. This, however, thou must care 
fully observe never to disclose this great manifestation of 
light while I live." 

This circumstance, therefore, which is so wonderful and so 
worthy of record, became known to many after the saint s death 
through this same Virgnous s relating it. Comman, sister s son 
to Virgnous, a respected priest, solemnly assured me, Adanman, 
of the truth of the vision I have just described, and he added, 
moreover, that he heard the story from the lips of the abbot 
Virgnous, his own uncle, who, as far as he could, had seen that 
vision. 



CHAPTEE XXL 

Of another very similar Vision of great brilliancy. 

ANOTHER night also, one of the brothers, whose name was 
Colga, the son of Aid Draigniche, of the grandsons of Fechrech 
mentioned in the first Book, came by chance, while the other 
brothers were asleep, to the gate of the church, and stood .there 
for some time praying. Then suddenly he saw the whole church 
filled with a heavenly light, which more quickly than he could 
tell, flashed like lightning from his gaze. He did not know 
that St. Columba was praying at that time in the church, and 
after this sudden appearance of light, he returned home in 
great alarm. On the following day the saint called him aside 
and rebuked him severely, saying : " Take care of one thing, my 
child, that you do not attempt to spy out and pry too closely 
into the nature of that heavenly light which was not granted 
thee, but rather fled from thee, and that thou do not tell any 
one during my lifetime what thou hast seen." 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Of another like Apparition of Divine light. 

AT another time also, the blessed man gave strict orders one 
day to Berchan, surnamed Mesloen, a pupil learning wisdom 
with them, saying : " Take care, my son, that thou come not 
near my little hut this evening, as thou art always accustomed 
to do." Berchan however, though hearing this, went, contrary 
to this command, to the blessed man s house in the dead of night 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 93 

while others were at rest, and cunningly put down his eyes on 
a line with the keyholes, in the hope that, just as the thing 
happened, some heavenly vision would be shown to the saint 
within. And at that very time the little hut was filled with a 
light of heavenly brightness, which the disobedient young man 
was not able to look upon, and therefore he fled at once from 
the spot. On the morrow the saint took him apart, and chiding 
him severely, addressed him in these words : " Last night, my 
son, thou hast sinned before God, and thou didst vainly imagine 
that the prying of thy secret inquisitiveness could be hidden or 
concealed from the Holy Ghost. Did I not see thee at that 
hour as thou didst draw near to the door of my hut, and as thou 
didst go away from it ? Had I not prayed for thee at that 
moment, thou wouldst have fallen dead there before the door, 
or thine eyes would have been torn out of their sockets ; but on 
my account, the Lord hath spared thee at this time. And be 
thou assured of this also, that, whilst thou art living in luxury 
in thine own country of Hibernia, thy face shall burn with 
shame all the days of thy life. Yet by my prayers, I have 
obtained this favour of God, that, as thou art my disciple, thou 
shalt do heartfelt penance before death, and thus obtain the 
mercy of God." All these things, according to the saying of the 
blessed man, occurred afterwards to him as had been foretold 
regarding him. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Of another Vision of Angels whom the Saint saw coming to meet 
his soul, as if to show that it was about to leave the lody. 

AT another time, while the blessed man was living in the 
louan island (Hy, now lona), his holy countenance one day 
was lighted up suddenly with strange transports of joy ; and 
raising his eyes to heaven he was filled with delight, and re 
joiced beyond measure. After an interval of a few seconds, that 
sweet and enchanting delight was changed into a mournful 
sadness. 

Now, the two men, who at the same hour were standing at 
the door of his hut, which was built on the higher ground, and 
were themselves also much afflicted with him of whom the 
one was Lugne Mocublai, and the other a Saxon named Pilu, 
asked the cause of this sudden joy, and of the sorrow which 
followed. The saint said to them, " Go in peace, and do not 
ask me now to explain the cause of either that joy or that sad- 



94 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

ness." On hearing this they humbly asked him, kneeling 
before him in tears, and with faces sunk to the ground, to 
grant their desire of knowing something concerning that 
matter which at that same hour had been revealed to the saint. 
Seeing them so much afflicted, he said, "On account of my 
love to you, I do not wish you to be in sadness ; but you must 
first promise me never to disclose to any one during my life 
the secret you seek to know." They made of course the pro 
mise at once according to his request, and then, when the pro 
mise was made, the venerable man spake to them thus : " On 
this very day, thirty years of my sojourn in Britain have been 
completed, and meanwhile for many days past I have been 
devoutly asking of my Lord to release me from my dwelling 
here at the end of this thirtieth year, and to call me thither to 
my heavenly fatherland. And this was the cause of that joy 
of mine, of which in sorrowful mood you ask me. For I saw 
the holy angels sent down from the lofty throne to meet my 
soul when it is taken from the flesh. But, behold now how 
they are stopped suddenly, and stand on a rock at the other 
side of the Sound of our island, evidently being anxious to come 
near me and deliver me from the body. But they are not 
allowed to come nearer, because, that thing which God granted 
me after praying with my whole strength namely, that I 
might pass from the world to Him on this day, He hath 
changed in a moment in His listening to the prayers of so 
many churches for me. These churches have no doubt prayed 
as the Lord hath granted, so that, though it is against my ardent 
wish, four years from this day are added for me to abide in 
the flesh. Such a sad delay as this was fitly the cause of the 
grief to-day. At the end of these four years, then, which by 
God s favour my life is yet to see, I shall pass away suddenly, 
without any previous bodily sickness, and depart with joy to 
the Lord, accompanied by His holy angels, who shall come 
to meet me at that hour." 

According to these words, which the venerable man uttered, 
it is said, with much sorrow and grief, and even many tears, he 
afterwards abode in the flesh for four years. 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 

How our Patron, St. Columba, passed to the Lord. 

TOWARDS the end of the above-mentioned four years, and as 
a true prophet, he knew long before that his death would 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 95 

follow the close of that period, the old man, worn out with age, 
went in a cart one day in the month of May, as we mentioned 
in the preceding second Book, to visit some of the brethren 
who were at work. And having found them at work on the 
western side of the louan island (Hy, now lona), he began to 
speak to them that day, saying, " During the paschal solemnities 
in the month of April now past, with desire have I desired to 
depart to Christ the Lord, as He had allowed me, if I preferred 
it. But lest a joyous festival should be turned for you into 
mourning, I thought it better to put off for a little longer the 
time of my departure from the world." The beloved monks all 
the while they were hearing this sad news were greatly afflicted, 
and he endeavoured as well as he could to cheer them with 
words of consolation. Then, having done this, he turned his 
face to the east, still seated as he was in his chariot, and blessed 
the island with its inhabitants; and from that day to the present, 
as we have stated in the Book above mentioned, the venomous 
reptiles with the three forked tongues could do no manner of 
harm to man or beast. After uttering these words of blessing, 
the saint was carried back to his monastery. 

Then, again, a few days afterwards, while he was celebrating 
the solemn offices of the Mass as usual on the Lord s day, the 
face of the venerable man, as his eyes were raised to heaven, 
suddenly appeared as if suffused with a ruddy glow, for, as it 
is written, "A glad heart maketh a cheerful countenance." For 
at that same hour he alone saw an angel of the Lord hovering 
above within the walls of his oratory ; and as the lovely and 
tranquil aspect of the holy angels infuses joy and exultation 
into the hearts of the elect, this was the cause of that 
sudden joy infused into the blessed man. When those who 
were present on the occasion inquired as to the cause of that 
joy with which he was evidently inspired, the saint looking 
upwards gave them this reply, " Wonderful and unspeakable is 
the subtiHty of the angelic nature ! For lo, an angel of the 
Lord, who was sent to demand a certain deposit dear to God, 
hath, after looking down upon us within the church, and bless 
ing us, returned again through the roof of the church, without 
leaving any trace of his passage out." Thus spoke the saint. 
But none of the bystanders could understand what kind of a 
deposit the angel was sent to demand. Our patron, however, 
gave the name of a holy deposit to his own soul that had been 
intrusted to him by God; and after an interval of six days 
from that time, as shall be related further on, he departed to the 
Lord on the night of the Lord s day. In the end, then, of this 
same week, that is on the day of the Sabbath, the venerable 



96 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

man, and his pious attendant Diormit, went to bless the barn 
which was near at hand. When the saint had entered in and 
blessed it, and two heaps of winnowed corn that were in it, he 
gave expression to his thanks in these words, saying, " I heartily 
congratulate my beloved monks, that this year also, if I am 
obliged to depart from you, you will have a sufficient supply 
for the year." On hearing this, Diormit his attendant began 
to feel sad, and said, " This year, at this time, father, thou very 
often vexest us, by so frequently making mention of thy leaving 
us." But the saint replied to him, " I have a little secret 
address to make to thee, and if thou wilt promise me faithfully 
not to reveal it to any one before iny death, I shall be able to 
speak to thee with more freedom about my departure." When 
his attendant had on bended knees made the promise as the 
saint desired, the venerable man thus resumed his address: 
" This day in the Holy Scriptures is called the Sabbath, which 
means rest. And this day is indeed a Sabbath to me, for it is 
the last day of my present laborious life, and on it I rest after 
the fatigues of my labours ; and this night at midnight, which 
commenceth the solemn Lord s Day, I shall, according to the 
sayings of Scripture, go the way of our fathers. For already 
my Lord Jesus Christ deigneth to invite me; and to Him, I say, 
in the middle of this night shall I depart, at His invitation. For 
so it hath been revealed to me by the Lord himself." The 
attendant hearing these sad words began to weep bitterly, and 
the saint endeavoured to console him as well as he could. 

After this the saint left the barn, and in going back to the 
monastery, rested half way at a place where a cross, which was 
afterwards erected, and is standing to this day, fixed into a mill 
stone, may be observed on the roadside. While the saint, as I 
have said, bowed down with old age, sat there to rest a little, 
behold, there came up to him a white pack-horse, the same that 
used, as a willing servant, to carry the milk-vessels from the cow 
shed to the monastery. It came up to the saint and, strange to 
say, laid its head on his bosom inspired, I believe, by God to 
do so, as each animal is gifted with the knowledge of things 
according to the will of the Creator; and knowing that its 
master was soon about to leave it, and that it would see him 
no more began to utter plaintive cries, and like a human 
being, to shed copious tears on the saint s bosom, foaming and 
greatly wailing. The attendant seeing this, began to drive the 
weeping mourner away, but the saint forbade him, saying: 
" Let it alone, as it is so fond of me, let it pour out its bitter 
grief into my bosom. Lo ! thou, as thou art a man, and hast a 
rational soul, canst know nothing of my departure hence, ex- 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 97 

cept what I myself have just told you ; but to this brute beast, 
devoid of reason, the Creator Himself hath evidently in some 
way made it known that its master is going to leave it." And 
saying this, the saint blessed the work-horse, which turned 
away from him in sadness. 

Then leaving this spot, he ascended the hill that overlooketh 
the monastery, and stood for some little time on its summit ; 
and as he stood there with both hands uplifted, he blessed his 
monastery, saying : 

" Small and mean though this place is, yet it shall be held 
in great and unusual honour, not only by Scotic kings and 
people, but also by the rulers of foreign and barbarous nations, 
and by their subjects ; the saints also even of other churches 
shall regard it with no common reverence." 

After these words he descended the hill, and having returned 
to the monastery sat in his hut transcribing the Psalter, and 
coming to that verse of the 33d Psalm (Eng. Vers. Ps. 34), where 
it is written, " They that seek the Lord shall want no manner of 
thing that is good," " Here," said he, " at the end of the page, 
I must stop ; and what follows let Baithene write." The last 
verse he had written was very applicable to the saint, who was 
about to depart, and to whom eternal goods shall never be 
wanting ; while the one that followeth is equally applicable to 
the father who succeeded him, the instructor of his spiritual 
children : " Come, ye children, and hearken unto me : I will 
teach you the fear of the Lord;" and indeed he succeeded 
him, as recommended by him, not only in teaching, but also in 
writing. 

Having written the aforementioned verse at the end of the 
page, the saint went to the church to the nocturnal vigils of 
the Lord s Day ; and so soon as this was over, he returned to 
his chamber, and spent the remainder of the night on his bed, 
where he had a bare flag for his couch, and for his pillow a 
stone, which stands to this day as a kind of monument beside 
his grave. While then he was reclining there, he gave his last 
instructions to the brethren, in the hearing of his attendant 
alone, saying: "These, my children, are the last words I 
address to you that ye be at peace, and have unfeigned charity 
among yourselves ; and if you thus follow the example of the 
holy fathers, God, the Comforter of the good, will be your 
Helper, and I, abiding with Him, will intercede for you ; and 
He will not only give you sufficient to supply the wants of this 
present life, but will also bestow on you the good and eternal 
rewards which are laid up for those that keep His command 
ments." Thus far have the last words of our venerable patron, 

G 



98 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK TIL 

as he was about to leave this weary pilgrimage for his heavenly 
country, been preserved for recital in our brief narrative. After 
these words, as the happy hour of his departure gradually 
approached, the saint became silent. Then as soon as the bell 
tolled at midnight, he rose hastily, and went to the church ; 
and running more quickly than the rest, he entered it alone, 
and knelt down in prayer beside the altar. At the same 
moment his attendant Diormit, who more slowly followed him, 
saw from a distance that the whole interior of the church was 
filled with a heavenly light in the direction of the saint. And 
as he drew near to the door, the same light he had seen, and 
which was also seen by a few more of the brethren standing at 
a distance, quickly disappeared. Diormit therefore entering 
the church, cried out in a mournful voice, " Where art thou, 
father ? " And feeling his way in the darkness, as the brethren 
had not yet brought in the lights, he found the saint lying be 
fore the altar ; and raising him up a little, he sat down beside 
him, and laid his holy head on his bosom. Meanwhile the 
rest of the monks ran in hastily in a body with their lights, 
and beholding their dying father, burst into lamentations. 
And the saint, as we have been told by some who were present, 
even before his soul departed, opened wide his eyes and looked 
round him from side to side, with a countenance full of wonder 
ful joy and gladness, no doubt seeing the holy angels coming 
to meet him. Diormit then raised the holy right hand of the 
saint, that he might bless his assembled monks. And the 
venerable father himself moved his hand at the same time, as 
well as he was able that as he could not in words, while his 
soul was departing, he might at least, by the motion of his 
hand, be seen to bless his brethren. And having given them 
his holy benediction in this way, he immediately breathed his 
last. After his soul had left the tabernacle of the body, his 
face still continued ruddy, and brightened in a wonderful way 
by his vision of the angels, and that to such a degree that he 
had the appearance, not so much of one dead, as of one alive 
and sleeping. Meanwhile the whole church resounded with 
loud lamentations of grief. 

I must not omit to mention the revelation made to a certain 
saint of Ireland, at the very time the blessed soul departed. 
For in that monastery which in the Scotic language is called 
Clonifinchoil (now Eosnarea, in parish of Knockcommon, Meath), 
there was a holy man named Lugud, son of Tailchan, one who 
had grown old in the service of Christ, and was noted for his 
sanctity and wisdom. Now this man had a vision which at 
early dawn he told in great affliction to one called Fergnous, 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 99 

who was like himself a servant of Christ. " In the middle of 
this last night," said he, " Columba, the pillar of many churches, 
passed to the Lord ; and at the moment of his blessed departure, 
I saw in the spirit the whole louan island, where I never was 
in the body, resplendent with the brightness of angels ; and the 
whole heavens above it, up to the very zenith, were illumined 
with the brilliant light of the same heavenly messengers, who 
descended in countless numbers to bear away his holy soul. 
At the same moment, also, I heard the loud hymns and en- 
trancingly. sweet canticles of the angelic host, as his holy soul 
was borne aloft amidst the ascending choirs of angels." Virgnous, 
who about this time came over from Scotia (Ireland), and spent 
the rest of his life in the Hinba island (Eilean-na-Naoimh), 
very often related to the monks of St. Columba this vision of 
angels, which, as has been said, he undoubtedly heard from the 
lips of the old man himself, to whom it had been granted. This 
same Virgnous, having for many years lived without reproach in 
obedience amongst the brethren, led the life of an anchorite, as a 
victorious soldier of Christ, for twelve years more, in the her 
mitage of Muirbulcmar. This vision above mentioned we have 
not only found in writing, but have heard related with the 
utmost freedom by several well-informed old men to whom 
Virgnous himself had told it. 

Another vision also given at the same hour under a different 
form was related to me Adamnan who was a young man at 
the time, by one of those who had seen it ; and who solemnly 
assured me of its truth. He was a very old man, a servant of 
Christ, whose name may be called Ferreol, but in the Scotic 
tongue Ernene, of the race of Mocufirroide, who, as being him 
self a holy monk, is buried in the Eidge of Tomma (now Drum- 
home, county Donegal), amidst the remains of other monks of 
St. Columba, and awaits the resurrection with the saints ; he 
said : " On that night when St. Columba, by a happy and 
blessed death, passed from earth to heaven, while I and others 
with me were engaged in fishing in the valley of the river 
Fend (the Finn, in Donegal) which abounds in fish we saw 
the whole vault of heaven become suddenly illuminated: 
Struck by the suddenness of the miracle, we raised our eyes and 
looked towards the east, when, lo ! there appeared something 
like an immense pillar of fire, which seemed to us, as it ascended 
upwards at that midnight, to illuminate the whole earth like 
the summer sun at noon ; and after that column penetrated the 
heavens darkness followed, as if the sun had just set. And not 
only did we, who were together in the same place, observe with 
intense surprise the brightness of this remarkable luminous 



100 THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

pillar, but many other fishermen also, who were engaged in fish 
ing here and there in different deep pools along the same river, 
were greatly terrified, as they afterwards related to us, by an 
appearance of the same kind." These three miraculous visions, 
then, which were seen at the very hour of our venerable patron s 
departure, show clearly that the Lord hath conferred on him 
eternal honours. But let us now return to our narrative. 

After his holy soul had departed, and the matin hymns 
were finished, his sacred body was carried by the brethren, 
chanting psalms, from the church back to his chamber, from 
which a little before he had come alive; and his obsequies 
were celebrated with all due honour and reverence for three 
days and as many nights. And when these sweet praises of 
God were ended, the venerable body of our holy and blessed 
patron was wrapped in a clean shroud of fine linen, and, being 
placed in the coffin prepared for it, was buried with all due 
veneration, to rise again with lustrous and eternal bright 
ness. 

And now, near the close of this book, we shall relate what 
hath been told us by persons cognisant of the facts, regarding 
the above-mentioned three days during which his obsequies 
were celebrated in due ecclesiastical form. It happened on 
one occasion that a certain brother speaking with great sim 
plicity in the presence of the holy and venerable man, said to 
him, " After thy death all the people of these provinces will 
row across to the louan island (Hy, now lona), to celebrate 
thine obsequies, and will entirely fill it." Hearing this said 
the saint immediately replied : " JSTo, my child, the event will 
not turn out as thou sayest ; for a promiscuous throng of people 
shall not by any means be able to come to my obsequies : none 
but the monks of my monastery will perform my funeral rites, 
and grace the last offices bestowed upon me." And the fulfil 
ment of this prophecy was brought about immediately after his 
death by God s almighty power; for there arose a storm of 
wind without rain, which blew so violently during those three 
days and nights of his obsequies, that it entirely prevented 
every one from crossing the Sound in his little boat. And im 
mediately after the interment of the blessed man, the storm 
was quelled at once, the wind ceased, and the whole sea became 
calm. 

Let the reader therefore think in what and how great honour 
our illustrious patron was held by God, seeing that, while he 
was yet in this mortal flesh, God was pleased at his prayer to 
quell the storms and to calm the seas; and again, when he 
found it necessary, as on the occasion just mentioned, the gales 



THE LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK III. 101 

of wind arose as he wished, and the sea was lashed into fury ; 
and this storm, as hath been said, was immediately, so soon as 
his funeral rites were performed, changed into a great calm. 
Such, then, was the end of our illustrious patron s life, and 
such is an earnest of all his merits. 

And now, according to the sentence of the Holy Scrip 
tures, sharing in eternal triumphs, added to the patriarchs, 
associated with the prophets and apostles, numbered amongst 
the thousands of white-robed saints, who have washed their 
robes in the blood of the Lamb, he followeth the Lamb whither 
soever He goeth ; a virgin immaculate, free from all stain, 
through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ : to whom, with 
the Father, be honour, and power, and praise, and glory, and 
eternal dominion, in the unity of the Holy Ghost for ever and 
ever. 

After reading these three books, let the diligent reader ob 
serve of what and how great merit, of what and how high 
honour in the sight of God our holy and venerable abbot must 
have been deemed worthy, how great and many were the bright 
visits of the angels made to him, how full of the prophetic 
spirit, how great his power of miracles wrought in God, how 
often and to what great extent, while yet he was abiding in 
this mortal flesh, he was surrounded by a halo of heavenly 
light ; and how, even after the departure of his most kindly 
soul from the tabernacle of the body, until the present day the 
place where his sacred bones repose, as has been clearly shown 
to certain chosen persons, doth not cease to be frequently 
visited by the holy angels, and illumined by the same heavenly 
brightness. And this unusual favour hath been conferred by 
God on this same man of blessed memory; that though he 
lived in this small and remote island of the British sea, his 
name hath not only become illustrious throughout the whole of 
our own Scotia (Ireland), and Britain, the largest island of the 
whole world, but hath reached even unto triangular Spain, and 
into Gaul, and to Italy, which lieth beyond the Penine Alps ; 
and also to the city of Eome itself, the head of all cities. This 
great and honourable celebrity, amongst other marks of divine 
favour, is known to have been conferred on this same saint by 
God, Who loveth those that love Him, and raiseth them to 
immense honour by glorifying more and more those that 
magnify and truly praise Him, Who is blessed for evermore. 
Amen. 

I beseech those who wish to transcribe these books, yea, 
rather I adjure them by Christ, the Judge of the world, after 



102 THE LIFE OF ST. COLUMBA. BOOK III. 

they have diligently transcribed, carefully to compare and 
correct their copies with that from which they have copied 
them, and also to subjoin here this adjuration : 

Whoever readeth these books on the virtues of St. Columba, let 
him pray to the Lord for me Dorbbene, that after death I may 
possess eternal life. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^l 

AUCTOBE ADAMNANO. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. 



l ln jjamiiie Jtestt Christi 

nostri Patroni, Christo 2 suffragante, vitam 3 descrip- 
turus, fratrum flagitationibus obsecundare volens, in primia 
eandem lectures quosque 4 admonere procurabo ut fidem dictis 
adhibeant 5 compertis, et res inagis quam verba perpendant, 
quae, ut aestimo, inculta et villa esse videntur ; meininerintque 
regnum Dei non in eloquentiae exuberantia, sed in fidei floru- 
lentia constare ; et nee ob aliqua Scoticse, vilis videlicet 6 linguse, 
aut 7 humana onomata, aut gentium, 8 obscura locorumve voca- 
bula, quse, ut puto, inter alias 9 exterarum gentium 10 diversas 
11 vilescunt linguas, utilium, et non sine divina opitulatione ges- 
tarum, 12 despiciant rerum pronuntiationem. Sed et hoc lectorem 
13 admonendum putavimus, quod de beatas memoriaa viro plura, 
studio brevitatis, etiam 14 memoria digna, a nobis 15 sint 16 pr83- 
termissa, et quasi pauca de plurimis 17 ob evitandum fastidium 
18 lecturorum sint 19 caraxata. Et hoc, ut arbitror, quisque haec 
lecturus forte annotabit, quod minima de maximis per populos 

I Incipit prim a praefatio apologiaque Adomnani abbatis sancti scriptoris in 
vitam S. Columbre confessoris et abbatis C. vite sancti Coltimbae S. In- 
ci])it prologus Adamnani abbatis in vita sancti Columbas abbatis et con 
fessoris D. om. F. Codex B acephalus eat, hodleque ad -ro pectore verbo 
in cap. 3 incipit. 2 S uf ra gante A. 3 discripturus A. F. S. 

4 ammonere A. F. S. 5 conpertis A. 6 lingse A. lingue D. 

7 iiomina anomala inepte Boll. 8 ad exterarum om. C. 

9 A. D. F. S. externarum. Colg. Boll. 10 om. D. 

II vilescant C. in marg. sive vilefaciant Mess. 12 dispiciant A. 

13 ammonendum A. F. ammonendi D. 14 memorise D. F. 

^ sunt C. 16 prastermisa. ^ ad D. 18 lectorum C. D. F. S. 

C. D. F. S. craxata A. octies in hac vita, quinquies prceterea in tractatu 
De Locis Sanctis, hcec forma, verislmiliter Adamnani propria, adh ibetur. 
Stephanus Vitus, cujas apographo Codicis A. usl sunt Colyanus et Bollandlstce, 
exarare hie et alibi substitute; volens, ut ait Baertius, plus quam oportebat 
sapere. 



106 VITA SANCTI COLUMBA. 

fama, de eodem beato viro 20 divulgata, disperserit, ad horum 
21 etiam paucorum 22 comparationem, quse mine breviter 23 caraxare 
disponimus. 24 Hinc, post hanc primam prsefatiunculam, de 
nostri vocamine praesulis in exordio secundse, Deo auxiliante, 
intimare exordiar. 



1 In U-omitue Jfasu (Ehiisti <*nntba; 

"^ii IE erat vitse venerabilis et beatse memoriEe, monasteriorum 
pater et fundator, cum lona 2 propheta 3 homonymum 4 sortitus 
nomen; nam licet diverso trium diversarum 6 sono linguarum, 
6 unam tamen eandemque rem significat hoc, quod 7 Hebraice 
dicitur ION A, 8 Grcecitas vero 9 I1EPI2TEPA 10 vocitat, et Latina 
lingua COLUMBA nuncupatur. Tale tantumque vocabulum 
homini Dei non n sine divina 12 inditum providentia creditur. 
Nam et juxta Evangeliorum fidem Spiritus Sanctus super Uni- 
genitum seterni Patris 13 descendisse monstratur in forma illius 
aviculse quae columba dicitur : unde plerumque in sacrosanctis 
libris u columba mystice Spiritum Sanctum significare 15 dignos- 
citur. Proinde et Salvator in evangelio suo prsecepit discipulis 
ut columbarum in cordepuro insertam 16 simplicitatem 17 contin- 
erent ; columba etenim 18 simplex et innocens est avis. Hoc 
itaque vocamine et homo simplex innocensque nuncupari de- 
buit qui in se columbinis moribus Spiritui Sancto hospitium 
prsbbuit : cui nomini non inconvenienter congruit illud quod in 
Proverbiis scriptum est, Melius est nomen bonum quam divitise 
multse. Hie igitur noster prsesul non 19 immerito, non solum 20 a 
diebus infantise hoc vocabulo, Deo donante, adornatus, proprio 
ditatus est, sed etiam 21 prsemissis multorum 22 cyclis annorum 
ante 23 su8e nativitatis diem cuidam Christi iniliti, Spiritu reve- 
lante Sancto, quasi films repromissionis mirabili prophetatione 

- devulgata A. D. 21 om. C. 22 conparationera A. 

- 3 C. D. F. S. craxare A. exarare Colg. Boll. 24 ad exordiar om. D. 

1 Incipit praefatio seounda C. F. S. Incipit secundus prologus D. 

2 profeta A. 3 ornonimon A. D. F. S. homonymum C. 
4 sortitus est C. 5 om. D. G nomine add. D. 

1 Ebraice A. 8 Grecitas A. 

9 IIHPICTHPA A. F. S. NHIIIOTHTA peristera C. 

10 vocitatur D. n esse add. F. 

12 providentia inditum esse credimus C. D. S. 13 filium add. C. D. 

14 om. C. 15 dinoscitur A. S. 1G semplicitatem A. 

17 contenerent A. 

18 semplex A. S., et simplex innocensque nuncupari debuit C. 

19 inmerito A. F. S. 

20 adiebus A. duo vcrba atepe In cod. A. more Hibernico cohcercnt. 

21 prasmisis A. 22 circulis D. 23 om. D. 



SECUNDA PlUiFATIO. 107 

nominate est. Nam quidam proselytus 24 Brito, homo sanctus, 
sancti Patricii 25 episcopi discipulus, 26 Maucteus nomine, ita de 
nostro 27 prophetizavit Patrono, sicuti nobis ab antiquis traditum 
expertis compertum habetur. In novissimis, 28 ait, 2y seculi 29 tem- 
poribus n lius nasciturus est, cujus nomen Columba per omnes 
insularum 30 oceani 31 provincias 32 divulgabitur notum ; novissi- 
maque orbis tempora 33 clare 34 illustrabit. Mei et ipsius duorum 
35 monasteriolorum agelluli unius sepisculaa intervallo distermina- 
buntur : homo valde Deo carus, et grandis coram ipso meriti. 
Hujus igitur nostri Columbse vitam et mores describens, in 
primis 36 brevi sermonis textu, in quantum valuero, strictim com- 
prehendam, et ante lectoris oculos sanctam ejus conversatio- 
nem pariter exponam. Sed et de miraculis ejus succincte 
quasdam, quasi legentibus avide preegustanda, ponam ; quse 
tarn en inferius, per 37 tres divisa libros, plenius explicabuntur. 
Quorum Primus 3S propheticas revelationes ; Secundusverodivinas 
per ipsum virtutes effectas ; Tertius angelicas apparitiones, 39 con- 
tinebit, et quasdam super hominem Dei cselestis claritudinis 
40 manifestationes. Nemo itaque me de hoc tarn preedicabili viro 
aut mentitum sestimet, aut quasi, qu&dam dubia vel incerta 
scripturum : sed ea qua3 majorum fideliumque virorum tradita 
expertorum 41 congrua relatione 42 narraturum, et sine ulla ambi- 
guitate 43 caraxaturum sciat, et vel ex his quas ante nos inserta 
paginis 44 reperire potuimus, 45 vel ex his quae 46 auditu ab expertis 
quibusdam fidelibus antiquis, sine ulla dubitatione narrantibus, 
diligentius sciscitantes, didicimus. 

1 SANCTUS igitur Columba 2 nobilibus 3 fuerat oriundus genit- 
alibus, patrem 4 habens 5 Fedilmithum filium 6 Eerguso ; matrem 
7 Aethneam nomine, 8 cujus pater Latine Filius Navis dici potest, 

24 Britto T>. 25 archiepiscopi D. 

26 Maucteus A. F. S. Moctheus D. Maueteus C. in cujus errorem, 
MAVETEUS tradena, ineptius discedit Pink. Mauctaneus Colg. Boll. 

27 profetizavit A. 28 inquit C. D. 29 transp. C. D. 

30 ociani A. 31 provintias F. 32 devulgabitur A. 

J3 om. D. 3i inlustrabit A. S. 35 monasteriorum C. 

30 brevis C. 37 tris A. 38 profeticas A. 

30 contenebit A. 3 - 40 manifestationes continebit C. 

40 manifestationis A. 4l legi neqult in A. cognovi C. F. S. congruo D. 

12 narrantiumC. narratur D. 4;J craxaturum A. exaratunim Colg. Boll. 

44 repperire A. 45 ut C. 46 audivi C. 

1 Incipit liber primus de propheticis revelationibus C. S. Explicit secnndus 
prologus in vita sancti Columbe abbatis et confessoris Incipit primus liber in 
vita sanctissimi Columbe abbatis et confessoris D. 

2 ex add. D. 3 faft D 4 owl> p. 

5 Fedelmitum C. Fedilmithum A. F. S. Feidlimyd D. Fedhlimidium 
Mess. A. F. Ferguis D. Fergusii C. 

7 A. S. Aetheam F. Ethneam D. 

8 usque ad Nave vio/.enter deletus in S. om. D. 



108 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. 

Scotica vero lingua 9 Mac Nave. Hie anno secundo post 10 Cule- 
drebinae bellum, setatis vero suse xlii. de n Scotia ad Britanniam 
pro Christo 12 peregrinari volens, enavigavit. Qui 13 et a puero 
14 Christiano deditus tirocinio, et sapientise studiis integritatem 
corporis et animee puritatem, Deo donante, custodiens, quamvis 
in terra positus, coelestibus se aptum moribus ostendebat. Erat 
enim aspectu angelicus, sermone nitidus, opere sanctus, ingenio 
optimus, consilio magnus, per annos xxxiv. insulamis miles 
15 conversatus. Nullum etiam unius horse intervallum transire 
poterat, quo non aut oration i aut lectioni, vel scrip tioni, vel 
etiam alicui operationi, incumberet. Jejunationum quoque et 
vigiliarum 16 indefessis 17 laboribus sine ulla 18 intermissione 19 die 
noctuque 20 ita occupatus, 21 ut supra humanam possibilitatem 
uniuscujusque pondus specialis 22 videretur operis. Et inter hsec 
omnibus carus, hilarem 23 semper faciem ostendens 24 sanctam, 
Spiritus Sancti gaudio 25 intimis laetificabatur prsecordiis. 

9 A. F. Macanaua C. 

10 A. Culedreibhne C. D. Culae drebinae S. Cule-drehtinae male Colg. 

Boll. n Scothea S. Hybernia D. 12 perigrinare A. 

!3 etiam C. D. 14 deditus Christiano C. 

15 est versatus C. conversatus est F. D. conservatus S. 

16 indefesis A. indefessus C. 17 laborationibus C. D. F. S. 
18 intermisione A. 19 diu C. 20 occupatus ita C. 

21 erat add. F. 22 operis videretur C. 23 om.. F. semper hilarem D. 
24 sanctorum specie Sancti Spiritus C. sancto Boll. 25 in add. D. 



l flmt fl ritra ICibri 2 Capitulaticme arbhmtttr. 



]H)E virtutum miraculis brevis narratio. 

De sancto Finteno abbate, Tailchani filio, quomodo de ipso 
sanctus Columba 3 prophetavit. 

De Erneneo, filio Craseni, 3 prophetia ejus. 
De adventu Cainnichi quomodo praenuntiavit. 

De periculo sancti Colmani gente Mocusailni sancto Columbaa 
revelato. 

De Cormaco nepote I^etha 3 prophetationes ejus. 
De bellis. 
De regibus. 

De duobus pueris secundum verbum ejus in fine septimanse 
mortuis. 

De Colcio filio Aido Draigniche, et de quodain occulto matris 
ipsius peccato. 

De signo mortis ejusdem viri 3 prophetia sancti Columbae. 

De Laisrano hortulano. 

De Ceto magno quomodo 3 prophetavit. 

De quodam Baitano, qui cum cseteris ad maritimum remigavit 
deserturn. 

De quodam Nemano ficto 4 pcenitente, qui postea secundum 
verbum sancti carnem equae furtiva? comedit. 

De illo infelici viro qui cum sua genitrice peccavit. 
De I vocali littera quaB una in 5 Psalterio defuit. 
De libro in 6 hydriarn cadente. 
De corniculo atramenti inclinato. 



1 Omnia usque ad cap. 2 desunt in C. I). F. S. Elenchus in Colg. Boll. 
ad numerum capitulorum expletus est. 2 Kapitulationes A. 

3 profet. A. 4 penetente A. 5 salterio A. 6 ytlriam A. 



1 10 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. 

De adventu alicujus Aidani qui jejunium solvit. 

De aliquo misero viro, qui ad fretum clamitabat, mox mori- 
turo. 

De civitate Eomance partis, super quam ignis de ccelo 7 cecidit. 

De Laisrano filio Feradaig, quomodo 8 monachos probavit in 
labore. 

De Fechno 9 Binc. 

De Cailtano mouacho. 

De duobus peregrinis. 

De Artbranano sene, quern in Scia insula 10 baptizavit. 

De naviculae transmotatione juxta stagnum Loch-dire. 

De Gallano filio Faehtni quern dsemones rapuere. 

De Lugidio Claudo. 

De Enaiio filio u Gruth. 

De 12 presbitero qui erat in Triota. 

De Erco furunculo. 

De Cronano poeta. 

De Eonano filio Aido filii Colcen, et Colmano Cane filio Aileni, 
13 proplietia Sancti. 



7 cicidit A. 8 manacos A. y obscure A. 

10 babtizavit A. ll sic A. 12 p re spitero A. 

13 profetia A. 



INCIPIT PEIMI LTBEI TEXTUS, DE ^EOPHETICIS 
EEVELATIONIBUS. 



birttttum JEiramli0 butoi* narrati*. 

venerandus qualia virtutum documenta dederit, CAP. I. 
in hujus libelli primordiis, secundum nostram 2 pr8emissam supe- 
rius 3 promissiunculam, breviter sunt demonstranda. Diver- 
sorum namque infestationes 4 morborum homines, in nomine 
Domini Jesu Christi, virtute orationum, perpessos sanavit : 
dsemonumque infestas ipse unus homo, et innumeras contra se 
belligerantes catervas, 5 oculis corporalibus visas, et incipientes 
mortiferos super ejus 6 coenobialem coetum inferre morbos, hac 
nostra de insula retrotrusas primaria, Deo auxiliante, repulit. 
Bestiarum furiosam rabiem, partim mortificatione, partini forti 
repulsione, Christo adjuvante 7 compescuit. Tumores quoque 
fluctuum, instar montium aliquando in magna tempestate con- 
surgentium, ipso ocius orante, sedati humiliatique sunt ; navis- 
que ipsius, in qua et ipse casu navigabat, tune temporis, facta 
8 tranquillitate, porturn appulsa est optatum. In regione 
Pictorum aliquantis diebus manens, inde reversus ut magos 
confunderet, contra flatus contraries 9 venti erexit velum, et ita 
veloci cursu ejus navicula enatans festinabat, ac si secundum 
habuisset ventum. Aliis quoque temporibus, venti naviganti- 
bus contrarii in secundos, ipso orante, conversi sunt. In eadem 
supra memorata regione lapidem de fluinine candidum detulit, 
quern ad aliquas profuturum benedixit sanitates : qui lapis, 
contra naturam, in aqua intinctus, quasi pomum supernatavit. 
Hoc divinum miraculum coram Brudeo rege, et familiaribus 
ejus, factum est. In eadem itidem provincia, 10 cujusdam plebei 

1 profetia A. 2 prsemisam A. 3 promisiunculam A. 

4 membrorum Colg, Boll. r> occulis A. c cenubialeni A. 

7 eonpiscuit A. 8 tranquilitate A. y ponti Colg. Boll. 

10 om. Colg. Boll. 



112 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER I. 

credentis mortuum puerum suscitavit, quod est rnajoris mira- 
culi, vivumque et incolumem patri et matri assignavit. Alio 
in tempore idem vir beatus juvenis diaconus, in n Hiberma 
apud Eindbarrum sanctum episcopum commanens, cum ad 
sacrosancta mysteria necessarium defuisset vinum, virtute 
orationis, aquam puram in verum vertit vinum. Sed et ccelestis 
ingens claritudinis lumen, et in noctis tenebris, et in luce diei, 
super eum, aliquando quibusdam ex fratribus, diversis et 
separatis vicibus, apparuit effusum. Sanctorum quoque angel- 
orum dulces et suavissimas frequentationes luminosas habere 
meruit. Quorumdam justorum animas crebro ab angelis ad 
summa coelorum vehi, Sancto revelante Spiritu, videbat. Sed 
et reproborum alias ad inferna a daemonibus 12 ferri saepenumero 
aspiciebat. Plurimorum in carne mortali adhuc conversantium 
futura plerumque prsenuntiabat merita, aliorum laeta, aliorum 
tristia. In bellorumque terrificis fragoribus hoc a Deo virtute 
orationum 13 impetravit, ut alii reges victi, et alii regnatores 
efficerentur victores. Hoc tale 14 privilegium non tantum in hac 
prsesenti vita conversanti, sed etiam post ejus de carne tran- 
situm, quasi cuidam victoriali 15 et fortissimo propugnatori, a 
Deo omnium sanctorum condonatum est honorificatore. Hujus 
talis honorificentiae viro honorabili ab Omnipotente ccelitus 
collatse etiam unum proferemus exemplum, quod 16 0ssualdo 
regnatori Saxonico, pridie quam contra 17 Catlonem Britonum 
regem fortissimum praeliaretur, ostensum erat. Nam cum idem 
Ossualdus rex esset in procinctu belli castra metatus, quadarn 
die in 18 suo papilione supra pulvillum dormiens, sanctum 
Columbam in visu videt forma coruscantem angelica ; cujus alta 
proceritas vertice nubes tangere videbatur. Qui scilicet 19 vir 
beatus, suum regi proprium revelans nomen, in medio castrorum 
stans, eadem castra, excepta quadam parva extremitate, 20 sui 
protegebat fulgida veste ; et haec confirmatoria contulit verba, 
eadem scilicet quae Dominus ad Jesue 21 Ben Nun ante tran- 
situm Jordanis, mortuo Moyse, 22 prolocutus est, dicens : Confor- 
tare et age viriliter; ecce ero tecuin etc. Sanctus itaque 
Columba, haec ad regem in visu loquens, addit : Hac sequenti 
nocte de castris ad bellum precede; hac enim vice mihi 
Dominus donavit ut hostes in fugam vertantur tui, et tuus 
^Cation inimicus in manus tradatur tuas, et post bellum victor 

11 Ebernia A. 12 om. Colg. rapi Boll. 13 inpetravit A. 

14 i>raevilegium A. 15 om. Colg. Boll. 1C Oswaldo Colg. Boll. 

17 Cathlonem Fordun, iii. 42. Cathotiem Boll. 18 sua A. 

19 om. Colg. Boll. 20 suos Colg. sua Boll, sui Fordun. 

21 A. Fordun. annum Colg. om. Boll. 22 proloqutus A. 

23 Cathlon Fordun. Catlion Boll. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER T. 113 

revertaris, et feliciter regnes. Post haec verba 24 experrectus 
rex senatui congregate hanc 25 enarrat visionem ; qua confortati 
omnes, totus populus promittit se post reversionem de bello 
crediturum et 26 baptismum suscepturum: nam usque in id 
temporis tota ilia Saxonia gentilitatis et ignorantise tenebris 
obscurata erat, excepto ipso rege Ossualdo, cum duodecim viris, 
qui cum eo Scotos inter 27 exulante 28 baptizati sunt. Quid 
plura ? eadem subsecuta nocte Ossualdus rex, sicuti in visu 
edoctus fuerat, de castris ad bellum, cum admodum pauciore 
exercitu, contra 29 millia numerosa progreditur ; cui a Domino, 
sicut ei promissum est, felix et facilis est concessa victoria, et 
rege trucidato 30 Catlone, victor post 31 bellum re versus, postea 
totius Britannise imperator a Deo ordinatus est. Hanc mini 
32 Adamnano narrationem meus decessor, noster abbas Failbeus, 
indubitanter enarravit, qui se ab ore ipsius Ossualdi regis, 
Segineo abbati eamdem enuntiantis visionem, audisse protes- 
tatus est. 

Sed et hoc etiam non prsetereundum videtur, quod ejusdem 
beati viri per quaedam Scoticse 33 linguae 34 laudum ipsius carmina, 
et nominis 35 commemorationem, quidam, quamlibet scelerati 
laicae conversationis homines et sanguinarii, ea nocte qua eadem 
decantaverant cantica, de manibus 36 inimicorum qui eamdem 
eorumdem cantorum domum circumsteterant sint liberati ; qui 
flammas inter et gladios et lanceas incolumes evasere, mirumque 
in modum pauci ex ipsis, qui easdem sancti viri 37 commemora- 
tiones, quasi parvi pendentes, canere 38 noluerant decantationes, in 
illo aemulorum impetu soli disperierant. Hujus miraculi testes 
non duo aut tres, juxta legem, sed etiam centeni, et eo amplius, 
adhiberi potuere. Non tantum in uno, aut loco, aut tempore, 
hoc idem 39 contigisse comprobatur, sed etiam diversis locis et 
temporibus in Scotia et in Britannia, simili tamen et modo et 
causa liberationis, factum fuisse, sine ulla ambiguitate explora- 
tum est. Hsec ab expertis uniuscujusque regionis, ubicumque 
res eadem simili 40 contigit miraculo indubitanter didicimus. 

Sed, ut ad 41 propositum redeamus, inter ea miracula quae 
idem vir Domini, in carne mortali conversans, Deo donante, 



24 prius expergitus in A. 25 enarravit Colg. Boll. 

26 babtismum A. baptisma Ford. 27 exsolante A._ exulantes Ford. 
28 babtizati A. * 9 milia A. 30 Cathone Boll. Cadwallone Ford. 

11 bella Ford. 32 Ford. Adomnano A. 33 ling A. 

34 laudem Colg. carmina laudera ipsius Boll. 

35 commendationem Colg. Boll. 3ti om. Colg. eorum Boll. 
37 commemorationis A. 38 noluerunt Colg. Bolg. 

39 contegisse conprobatur A. 40 contegit. 41 propossitum A. 

H 



114 VITA SANCTI COLUMILE. LIBER I. 

42 perfecerat, ab annis juvenilibus coepit etiam prophetise spiritu 
pollere, ventura prsedicere, prsesentibus absentia nuntiare ; quia 
quamvis absens corpore, prsesens tamen spiritu, longe acta 43 per- 
videre poterat. Nam, juxta Pauli vocem, Qui adhaeret Domino 
unus spiritus est. Unde et idem vir Domini sanctus Columba, 
sicut et ipse quibusdam paucis fratribus, de re eadem aliquando 
percunctantibus, non negavit, in aliquantis dialis gratise specu- 
lationibus totum etiam mundum, veluti uno solis radio collec- 
tum, sinu mentis mirabiliter laxato, manifestatum perspiciens 
speculabatur. 

Haec de sancti viri hie ideo enarrata sunt virtutibus, ut avidior 
lector breviter perscripta, quasi dulciores quasdam praegustet 
dapes: quae tamen plenius in tribus inferius libris, Domino 
auxiliante, enarrabuntur. Nunc mihi non indecenter videtur, 
beati viri, licet prsepostero ordine, prophetationes effari, quas de 
sanctis quibusdam et illustribus viris, diversis prolocutus est 
temporibus. 



J 5^ gander Jfintemr, abbate, filio 

CAP. ii. J^fANCTUS 2 Fintenus, qui postea per universas Scotorum 
ecclesias valde 3 noscibilis habitus est, a puerili aetate integri- 
tatem carnis et animae, Deo adjuvante, custodiens, studiis 4 dialis 
5 sophias deditus, hoc propositum,in annis 6 juventutisconversatus, 
in corde habuit, ut nostrum sanctum Columbam, 7 Hiberniam 
deserens, peregrinaturus adiret. Eodem aestuans desiderio, ad 
quemdam vadit seniorem sibi amicum, in sua gente prudentis- 
simum venerandumque clericum, qui Scotice 8 vocitabatur 
9 Columb Crag, ut ab eo, quasi prudente, aliquod audiret con- 
silium. Cui cum 10 suos tales denudaret n cogitatus, hoc ab eo 
responsum 12 accepit : Tuum, ut sestimo, 13 a Deo inspiratum de- 
votumque desiderium quis prohibere potest, ne ad sanctum 
Columbam 14 transnavigare I 14 debeas? 15 Eadem hora casu duo 
adveniunt monachi sancti Columbse, qui de sua interrogati 
ambulatione, Nuper, aiunt, de Britannia remigantes, hodie a 

4 2 perficerat A. 43 praevidere Colg. Boll. 

1 titulus desideratur in C. D. S. F. Boll. 2 finntanus D. 

3 nocibHis D. 4 A. D. F. S. dialecticalis C. 

6 sotias A. F. S. sophie D. c juventatis A. 

7 C. D. F. S. heverniam A. 8 dicitur D. 

9 colum crag A. Columba Cragius ODonnellus in Vit. S. Columbce, iii. 65, 
vcrtente Colg. columbus (crag. om). C. D. F. S. 

10 suas D. ll cogitationes D. 12 accipit A. 

13 adeo C. 14 adeas D. 

15 omnia desunt usque ad idem sanctus, cap. 3 D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^). LIBER I. 115 

Roboreto 16 Calgachi venimus. Sospes 17 anne est, ait 18 Columb 
19 Crag, vester Columba sanctus] pater ? Qui valde illacrymati, 
cum magno dixerunt mserore, Vere salvus est noster ille patronus, 
qui his diebus nuper ad Christum 20 commigravit. Quibus 
auditis, 21 Fintenus et 22 Columb et omnes qui ibidem inerant, 
prostratis in terrain vultibus, amare 23 flevere. Fintenus conse- 
qu enter percunctatur dicens : Quern post se successoremreliquit? 
24 Baitheneum, aiunt, suum alumnum. Omnibusque clamitanti- 
bus, Dignum et debitum ; 25 Columb ad Fintenum 26 inquit : Quid 
ad hsec, Fintene, facies ? Qui respondens ait : Si Dominus per- 
miserit, ad Baitheneum virum sanctum et sapientem enavigabo 
et si me susceperit, ipsum abbatem habebo. Turn deinde supra 
memoratum 27 Columb osculatus, et ^ei valedicens, navigationem 
prseparat, et sine morula ulla transnavigans, ^louam devenit 
insulam. Et necdum, in id temporis usque, nomen ejus in his 
locis erat notum. Unde et imprimis quasi quidam ignotus 
hospes hospitaliter 30 susceptus, alia die 31 nuncium ad ^Baithe 
neum mittit, ejus allocutionem facie ad faciem habere volens. 
Qui, ut erat affabilis, et peregrinis appetibilis, jubet ad se 
adduci. Qui statim adductus, primo, ut 33 conveniebat, flexis 
genibus in 34 terra se prostravit ; ^jussusque a sancto seniore, 
surgit, et residens interrogatur a 36 Baitheneo, adhuc inscio, de 
gente et provincia, nomineque et conversatione, et pro qua causa 
inierit navigationis labor em. Qui, ita interrogatus, omnia per 
ordinem enarrans, ut susciperetur humiliter expostulat. Cui 
sanctus senior, his ab hospite auditis, simulque hunc esse virum 
cognoscens de quo pridem aliquando sanctus Columba pro- 
phetice vaticinatus est, Gratias, ait, Deo meo agere debeo quidem 
in tuo adventu, fili; sed 37 hoc indubitanter scito quod noster 
monachus non eris. Hoc audiens ^hospes, valde contristatus, 
infit : Forsitan ego indignus tuus non mereor fieri monachus. 
Senior consequenter inquit : Non quod, ut dicis, indignus esses 
hoc dixi ; sed quamvis maluissem te apud me retinere, man- 
datum tamen sancti Columbse mei 39 decessoris profanare non 
possum ; per quern Spiritus Sanctus de te prophetavit. 40 Ah a 
41 namque die mihi soli seorsim, sic prophetico profatus ore, inter 

16 om. C. F. S. 17 ne C . is Columbus C. F. S. 

19 om. C. F. S. 20 migravit ad Christum C. 

21 Finten A. 22 Columbus C. F. S. 23 fl ev erunt F. S. 

24 Battheneum C. F. 25 Columbus C. F. S. 2C ait C. 

a7 columbum A. C. S. 2 s om< c. 20 ^ C. F. S. 

30 susceptus est Colg. Boll. 31 intermmcium C. F. S. 

32 battheneum C. F. baithenum S. 33 veniebat C. 

34 terram C. F. S. ** visus C. 36 battheneo C. 

37 et hoc C. 38 om. C. 39 defensoris C. 

40 aliqua F. aliaque C. 41 om. C. 



116 VITA SANCTI COLUMBJS. LIBER I. 

csetera, dixit: Haec mea, 42 Baithenee, intentius debes audire 
verba ; statim namque post meum de hoc ad Christum sseculo 
expectatum et valde desideratum transitum, quidam de Scotia 
frater, qui nunc, bene juvenilem bonis moribus 43 regens aetatem, 
sacrse lectionis studiis satis 44 imbuitur, nomine Fintenus, 45 gente 
Mocumoie, cujus pater Tailchanus vocitatur, ad te, inquam, per- 
veniens, humiliter expostulabit ut ipsum suscipiens inter 
cseteros adnumeres monachos. Sed hoc ei in Dei prsescientia 
prsedestinatum non est ut ipse 46 alicujus 47 abbatis monachus 
48 fieret ; sed ut monachorum abbas, et animarum dux ad coeleste 
regnum, olim electus a Deo est. 49 Noles itaque hunc memora- 
tum virum in his nostris apud te retinere insulis, ne et Dei 
voluntati contraire videaris : sed, hsec ei intimans verba, ad 
Scotiam in pace remittas, ut in Laginensium vicinis mari finibus 
monasterium construat, et ibidem Christi 50 ovinum pascens 
gregem, innumeras ad patriam animas coelestem perducat. Hsec 
audiens sanctus junior, Christo, lacrymas fun dens, 51 agit gratias, 
inquiens : Secundum sancti Columbse propheticam fiat mihi et 
mirabilem praescientiam. 52 Iisdemque 53 diebus verbis sanc 
torum obtemperans, et a 54 Baitheneo accipiens benedictionem, in 
pace ad Scotiam 55 transnavigat. 

56 Hsec mihi quodam narrante religioso sene presbytero, 
Christi milite, Oisseneo nomine, Ernani filio, gente Mocu Neth 
Corb, indubitanter didici : qui se eadem supra memorata verba 
ejusdem ab ore sancti Finteni, filii Tailchani, audisse 57 testatus 
est, ipsius monachus. 



CAP. in. JPtLIO in tempore vir beatus, in mediterranea 2 Hibernia3 
parte 3 monasterium, quod Scotice dicitur 4 Dair-mag, divino 
fundans nutu, per aliquot 5 demoratus menses, libuit animo 
visitare fratres qui in 6 Clonoensi sancti 7 Cerani coenobio com- 
manebant. 8 Auditoque ejus accessu, universi undique ab agel- 
lulis monasterio vicinis cum his qui ibidem inventi sunt 
congregati, cum omni alacritate suum consequentes abbatem 

42 batthenee C. 43 agens C. 44 imbutus C. 

45 ad vocitatur om. C. F. S. * sit. add. S. 47 om. C. F. S. 

48 om. S. 49 nolis F. nobis C. 50 ovium C. Colg. Boll. 

51 ait F. S. 52 hisdemqne A. F. S. his denique C. Colg. Boll. 

63 om. C. 54 battheneo C. M A. transnavigavit Colg. Boll. 

56 cetera desiderantur in C. F. S. 57 testatur, Colg. 

1 titulum om. C. F. S. Boll. 2 eberniae A. 

3 monasteriorum A. 4 dairmagh C. F. S. 5 demoratur C. 

6 cloensi C. F. S. 7 cherani S. 8 audito itaque C. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 117 

Alitherum, sancto 9 Columb8e, quasi angelo Domini, obviam, 
egressi vallum monasterii, 10 unanimes pergunt ; humiliatisque 
in terram vultibus eo viso, cum omni reverentia exosculatus ab 
eis est ; hymnisque et laudibus resonantes, honorifice ad eccle- 
siam 11 perducunt ; quamdamque de lignis pyramidem erga 
sanctum deambulantem constringentes, a quatuor viris seque 
ambulantibus supportari fecerunt : ne videlicet sanctus senior 
Columba ejusdem fratrum multitudinis constipatione molestare- 
tur. Eadem hora quidam valde despectus vultu et habitu, puer 
familiaris, et necdum senioribus placens, retro, in quantum 
valuit se occultans, accessit, ut videlicet vel illius 12 amphibali 
fimbriam, quo vir beatus induebatur, occulte, et si fieri possit 
ipso nesciente et non sentiente, tangeret. Sed hoc tamen Sanc 
tum non latuit, nam quod corporalibus oculis retro se actum in- 
tueri non potuit, 13 spiritalibus 14 perspexit. Unde subito restitit, 
et post se extendens manum, cervicem pueri tenet, ipsumque 
trahens ante faciem suam statuit. Omnibusque qui ibidem 
15 circumstabant dicentibus, 16 Dimitte, dimitte, quare hunc infe- 
licem et 17 injuriosum retines puerum ? 18 Sanctus e contra hsec 
ls puro pectore verba depromit prophetica, Sinite, fratres, sinite 
modo. Ad puerum vero valde tremefactum dicit, fili aperi 
os, et porrige linguam. Jussus turn puer, cum ingenti tremore 
aperiens os, 20 linguam porrexit ; 21 quam Sanctus, sanctam ex 
tendens manum, 22 diligenter benedicens, ita prophetice profatur, 
dicens, Hie puer quamvis vobis nunc 23 despicabilis et valde vilis 
videatur, nemo tamen ipsum ob id despiciat. Ab hac enim hora 
non solum vobis non displicebit, sed valde placebit ; bonisque 
moribus, et animae virtutibus paulatim de die in diem crescet : 
sapientia quoque et prudentia magis ac magis in eo ab hac die 
adaugebitur, et in hac 2 *vestracongregatione grandis est futurus 
25 profectus; lingua quoque ejus salubri 26 et doctrina et 27 elo- 
quentia 28 a Deo ^donabitur. Hie erat 30 Erneneus, 31 filius 
32 Craseni, postea per omnes 33 Scotise ecclesias famosus.et valde 



9 om. C. F. S. 10 unanimiter Colg. Boll. ll perducebant C. 

12 anfibali A. F. more Hibernico : sic anfibalo Lib. Armacanfol. 209 a b. 

13 A. F. S. spiritualibus C. u A. C. F. S. respexit Colg. Boll. 
15 circum astabant F. S. circiter astabant C. 16 dimittite bis C. 
17 A. C. F. S. Colg. juniorem Boll. 

18.19 ^em sanc tus ad fratres suos conversus duro D. priorem partem cap. ii. 
ad verbum adeas excipiens. 19 ad sylldbam ro infit B. 

20 suum add. C. D. S. a ad add. D. 22 et add. C. D. S. 

23 despectibilis D. 24 nostra C. 25 provectus C. 

26-2T doctrinal! eloquentia B. 28 - 29 fulgebit D. 

30 A. B. F. S. ereneus C. hylerianus D. 31 om. C. D. F. S. 

32 A. B. cresceni Colg. Boll. om. C. D. F. S. 33 hybernie D. 



118 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^]. LIBEK I. 

uotissimus ; qui haec omnia suprascripta verba 34 Segineo abbati 
de se prophetata enarraverat, meo 35 decessore Failbeo intentius 
audiente, qui et ipse cum 34 Segineo prsesens 36 inerat ; cujus 37 re- 
velatione et ego ipse cognovi hsec 38 eadem quse 39 enarravi. Sed 
et multa alia 40 iisdem diebus quibus in 41 Clonoensi coenobio 
42 Sanctus hospitabatur, revelante prophetavit Sancto Spiritu ; 
hoc est, de ilia, 43 qu8e post dies multos ob diversitatem Paschalis 
festi orta est inter ^Scotise ecclesias, 45 discordia: et de quibusdam 
^angelicis frequentationibus sibi manifestatis, quibus quaedam 
intra ejusdem ccenobii septa ab angelis tune temporis frequenta- 
bantur loca. 



<San.cti Cainntcht, abbati*, to qua <Sanrttt# 
Cxrltimba prrrph.etaUt.er 2 pt^nttntiabit. 

CAP. iv. 3 jp|J_uo 3^ tempore 4 cum in 5 Ioua insula, die fragosse tem- 
pestatis et intolerabilis undarum magnitudinis, sedens in domo 
6 Sanctus 6 et fratribus prsecipiens Miceret, Praeparate ocius 
hospitium, aquamque ad lavandos hospitum pedes 8 exhaurite ; 
quidam ex ipsis 9 frater consequenter, Quis, ait, hac die valde 
ventosa et nimis periculosa, licet breve, fretum prospere trans- 
navigare potest ? Quo audito Sanctus sic profatur : 10 Cuidam 
sancto et electo homini, qui n ad nos ante vesperam 12 per- 
veniet, Omnipotens tranquillitatem, 13 quamlibet 14 in tempes- 
tate, 15 donavit. Et ecce, eadem die aliquamdiu a fratribus 
expectata navis in qua 16 sanctus inerat 17 Cainnechus juxta 
18 Sancti prophetationem pervenit. Cui Sanctus cum fratribus 
obviam venit, et ab eo honorifice 19 et hospitaliter 20 susceptus 
est. Illi vero nautse qui cum 21 Cainnecho 22 inerant, interrogati 
a fratribus de qualitate navigationis, sic retulerunt sicuti 

34 B. segeneo A. C. F. S. segeno D. 35 successore D. 

36 erat D. 37 A. relatione B. C. D. F. S. om. D. 

39 narravi D. 40 hisdem A. B. isdem F. 

41 A. B. cloensi C. om. D. 42 sancti kierani add. D. 

43 discordia D. 44 scothicse C. om. D. 46 anglicis B. 

1 titulum om. C. F. S. hie sequitur in D. iii. 10 hujus edit. 

2 pronunciavit B. 

3 quodam D. in quo hcec narratio post iii. 16 hujus edit, sequitur. 

4 om. D. 5 A. C. iona B. 6 om. D. 

7 dixit D. 8 haurite D. 9 A. B. C. fratribus D. Colg. Bolg, 

lo.ii q u i(j am sanctus et electus homo ad D. 12 veniat D. 

13 om. D. 14 ei add. D. 15 donabit C. D. 16 erat add. D. 

17 cannechus B. chainnechus C. S. kainnichus D. cainnechus F. 

18 om. D. 19 om. D. 20 que add. D. 
21 canneclio B. chainnecho C. S. kainnicho D. 22 erant D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 119 

sanctus Columba prius de tempestate et tranquillitate pariter, 
Deo donante, in eodem mari, et 23 iisdem horis, mirabili 
24 divisione prsedixerat; et tempestatem eminus visam non 
sensisse profess! sunt. 



ymtnlo anrti 2 Coimani tywcoyi, Jftoxujsailni, in mart 
juxta insulam qu bxyritattxr 



itidem die sanctus Columba, in sua commanens CAP - v - 
matrice ecclesia, repente 3 in 3 hanc subridens 4 erupit 4 vocem, 
dicens: Columbanus, 5 filius 5 Beognai, ad nos transnavigare 
incipiens, nunc in undosis 6 Charybdis 7 Brecani sestibus valde 
periclitatur ; 8 ambasque 9 ad coelum, in prora sedens, palmas 
elevat; turbatum quoque et 10 tam formidabile 11 pelagus bene- 
dicit : quern tamen Dominus sic tercet, non ut navis naufragio, 
in qua ipse 12 residet, undis obruatur; sed potius ad 13 orandum 
intentius suscitetur, ut ad nos, Deo 14 propitio, post transvadatum 
perveniat periculum. 



l ^z Cxrrmarxr. 

JSL.LIO quoque 2 in tempore 3 de Cormaco, 4 nepote 4 Lethani, CAP - 
viro utique sancto, 5 qui tribus non minus vicibus eremum in 
oceano laboriose quaesivit, nee tamen invenit, 6 sanctus Columba 
ita 7 prophetizans ait: Hodie iterum 8 Cormacus, desertum 
reperire cupiens, enavigare incipit ab ilia regione quse, ultra 
9 Modam fluvium 10 sita, 1:l Eirros Domno dicitur; nee tamen 
etiam hac vice quod quserit inveniet; et non ob aliam ejus 
culpam nisi quod alicujus religiosi abbatis monachum, ipso non 
permittente, 12 discessorem secum non recte comitari, navigio 
13 susceperit. 



23 hisdem A. B. ^ A. B. C. F. S. visione syllaha prlma erasa D. 

1 tttul om. C. D. P. S. Boll. 2 colurnbani B. 3 om. B. 
4 in hac voce erupit D. 5 om. C. D. F. S. 

6 earubdis A. caribdis B. D. F. 7 om. C. D. F. S. 

8 abbasque C. 9 in F. S. 10 om. D. 

11 pilagus A. pelagum D. la resedit C. sedit D. 13 adorandiim D. 
14 propitiante D. 

1 tltul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 

3 - s. columba prophetizans de viro utique sancto cormaco qui D. 

4 om. C. D. F. S. 6 - 7 om. D. 8 cormac A. coriuaccus B. 

9 modan B. modum D. 10 sita est C. D. ll et cirros C. sirros S. 

12 discessurum S. 13 suscepit D. 



120 VITA SANCTI COLUMILE. LIBER I. 



fragoribus ion^t 0mmi000rum 
toiri. 



CAP. vil. OST bellum Cule Drebene, sicut nobis traditum est, 

duobus transactis annis, quo tempore vir beatus de 2 Scotia 
peregrinaturus primitus enavigavit, quadam die, hoc est, eadem 
hora qua in 2 Scotia commissum est bellum quod Scotice dicitur 
3 0ndemone, idem homo Dei coram Conallo rege, filio Comgill, 
in 4 Brittannia conversatus, per omnia enarravit, tarn de bello 
commisso, quam etiam de illis regibus quibus Dominus de 
inimicis victoriam condonavit : quorum propria vocabula 5 Ain- 
morius filius 6 Setni, et duo filii Maic Erce, Domnallus et 
Torcus. Sed et de rege Cruithniorum, qui 8 Echodius Laib 
vocitabatur, quemadmodum victus, currui insidens evaserit, 
similiter Sanctus prophetizavit. 



2 Jttiathxn:um. 

J/9LLIO in tempore, 4 hoc 4 est 5 post multos 6 a supra memorata 
7 bello annorum transcursus, cum esset vir sanctus 8 in 9 Ioua 
insula, subito ad suum dicit ministratorem 10 Diormitium, 
11 Cloccam pulsa. Cujus sonitu fratres incitati ad ecclesiam, 
ipso sancto prsesule prseeunte, ocius 12 currunt. Ad quos ibidem 
flexis genibus infit: Nunc intente pro 13 hoc populo u et 15 Aidano 
rege 16 Dominum oremus; hac enim hora ineunt bellum. Et 
post modicum intervallum egressus oratorium, respiciens in 
coelum inquit, Nunc barbari in fugam vertuntur ; 17 Aidanoque, 
quamlibet 18 infelix, 19 tamen concessa victoria est. Sed et de 
numero de exercitu 20 Aidani interfectorum, trecentorum et 
trium virorum, vir beatus prophetice 21 enarravit. 



1 capitulum totum desideratur in C. D. F. S. 2 scocia B. 

3 A. B. Ussher (Opp. vi. 236). ondemon Fordun (ill 26). monamoire 

Colg. Boll. 4 bryttannia B. 5 amnorius B. 

6 scetni B. 7 A. B. fergus Colg. Boll. 8 echuiuslaid B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. 2 maychorum. Fordun iii. 38. 

3 hanc narrat. capiti v. subnectunt C. D. F. S. 4 om. D. 

5 idem add. D. 6 - 7 om. C. D. F. S. 8 columba add. D. 

9 iona B. D. 10 dermitium A. uermicium B. om. C. D. F. S. 

11 clocam A. cloccum D. 12 cucurrerunt D. 13 - 14 om. B. D. 

15 aedano D. aldano C. 16 populoque suo add. D. 

17 aedano D. aldano C. 18 infelici C. D. regi add. D. 19 om. D. 

20 aedani D. aldani C. ai narravit B. C. D. F. S. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBEK I. 121 



iis Jltb&nt 8^3** &\\di C0ltimb& proplutia. 

2 in tempore ante supra dictum bellum Sanctus 3 Aid- CAP. vm. 
anum regem 4 interrogat de regni successore. Illo se respon- 
dente nescire quis esset de tribus filiis suis regnaturus, 5 Arturius, 
an 6 Echodius Find, an Domingartus, Sanctus consequenter hoc 
profatur modo : Nullus ex his tribus erit 8 regnator; nam in 
bellis cadent ab inimicis trucidandi : sed nunc si alios juniores 
habes ad me veniant, et quern ex eis elegerit Dominus regem, 
subito super meum irruet gremium. Quibus 9 accitis, secundum 
verbum Sancti 10 Echodius 11 Buide adveniens in sinu ejus 
recubuit. Statimque Sanctus eum 12 osculatus benedixit, et ad 
patrem ait : Hie est superstes, et rex post te regnaturus, et filii 
ejus post eum regnabunt. 13 Sic omnia 14 post, suis temporibus, 
plene adimpleta sunt. Nam 15 Arturius et Echodius 16 Find, 
non longo post temporis intervallo, 17 Miatorum superius memo- 
rato in bello, trucidati sunt. Domingartus vero in Saxonia 
bellica in strage interfectus est : 18 Echodius 19 auteni 19 Buide 
post patrem in regnurn successit. 



filter Jttbxr. 

2 J1^0MNALLUS filius 3 Aido, adhuc puer, ad sanctum Col- 
umbam 4 in Dorso 6 Cete per nutritores adductus est: quem 
intuens percunctatur inquiens, Cujus est filius hie quem addux- 
istis ? Illis respondentibus, Hie est 2 Domnallus 6 filius 7 Aido, 
qui ad te ideo perductus est, ut tua 8 redeat benedictione 9 ditatus. 
Quem cum Sanctus benedixisset, continue ait, Hie 10 post super 
omnes suos fratres superstes erit, n et rex valde famosus; nee 
unquam in manus inimicorum tradetur, sed morte placida, in 
senectute, et intra domum suam, corarn amicorum familiarium 

1 lituL om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in quibus tenor cap. v. continuatur. 

2 quoque C. D. om. F. 3 aedanum D. aldanum C. 

4 interrogavit D. & arctirius B. ad 7 om. C. D. F. S. 

6 A. B. eochodius Colg. Boll. A. B. domangarthus Colg. Boll. 
8 rex D. regnaturus C. F. S. 9 accersitis D. 

10 A. B. euchodius C. D. F. S. eochodius Colg. Boll. 

11 A. B. buidhe Colg. Boll. om. C. D. F. S. 12 osculans B. 
13 hec D. i* postea D. 15 ad sunt om. C. D. F. S. 
16 fint A. 17 micitorum B. 

18 et euchodius C. F. S. euchodius D. 19 om. C. D. F. S. 

1 titul. om. ; capit. numerator vi. in C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 donaldus D. 3 aeda D< 4.5 om> c> D< p, g. 
6 - 7 om. C. in marg. D. 7 aeda D. 8 om. D. 

8 ditatis A. ditatur D. 10 om. C. D. F. S. u om. D. 



122 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 

turba, super 12 suum morietur 13 lectum. QUSQ omnia secundum 
beati vaticinium viri de eo vere adimpleta sunt. 



# iio OMmani. 

JH..ODEM tempore Sanctus, et in eodem loco, ad 2 Scandlanum, 
filium Colmani, apud 3 Aidum regem in vinculis retentum, 
visitare eum cupiens, pergit ; ipsumque cum benedixisset, con- 
fortans ait : Fili, 4 nolis contristari, sed potius Isetare et confor- 
tare : 5 Aidus enim rex, apud quern vinculatus es, de hoc mundo 
te prsecedet ; et, post aKqua exilii tempora, triginta annis in 
gente tua rex regnaturus 6 es. Iterumque de regno effugaberis, 
et per 7 aliquot 8 exulabis dies; post quos, a populo reinvitatus, 
per tria regnabis brevia tempora. Quse cuncta juxta vaticina- 
tionem Sancti plene expleta sunt. Nam post triginta arinos 
de regno expulsus, per aliquod 9 exulavit spatium temporis : sed 
post a populo reinvitatus, non, ut putabat, tribus annis, sed 
ternis regnavit mensibus ; post quos continue obiit. 



tupxrto 

@ra ti 
Jxrmnail, tott 5 pt0phetatt^ biri. 

,J9LLIO in tempore, per asperam et saxosam regionem iter 
faciens, quse dicitur 6 Artdamuirchol, et suos audiens comites 
Laisranum utique, filium Feradachi, et, 7 Diormitium ministra- 
torem, de duobus supra memoratis regibus in via sermocinari, 
hsec ad eos verba depromit : filioli quare inaniter de his sic 
confabulamini ? nam illi ambo reges, de quibus nunc sermo- 
cinamini, nuper ab inimicis decapitati disperierunt. In hac 
quoque die aliqui de Scotia adventantes nautae hsec eadem 
vobis de illis indicabunt regibus. Quod venerabilis viri vati 
cinium eadem die de 8 Hibernia navigatores, ad locum qui 
dicitur Muirbolc Paradisi pervenientes, supra scriptis ejus binis 
comitibus, et in eadem navi cum Sancto navigantibus, de 
9 iisdem interfectis regibus expletum retulerunt. 

12 stratum add. D. 1S ad Jin. cap. om. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in quibus tenor cap. vi. continuatur. 

2 scandalanum C. 3 aedum D. 4 noles A. noli C. D. F. S. 
5 aedus D. 6 eris C. D. 7 aliquos C. D. F. S. 

8 exsolabis A. eiulabis C. 9 exsolavit A. 

1 omnia ad cap. 16 om. C. D. F. S. 2 muirethachi B. 

3 maicerce B. 4 euchudius B. 5 proj)hetia B. 

ardamuircol B. 7 dermitium A. 8 evernia A. 9 hisdem A^ 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 123 



10 Jl.e <S)irajtt0tu ftlio Jlibtf &xmtm&ni <Sanrti prxrphetia biri. 



namque de patria cum aliis duobus fratribus effugatus, 
ad Sanctum in Britannia peregrinantem exul venit; cuique 
benedicens, haec de eo prophetizans sancto promit de pectore 
verba : Hie juvenis, defunctis ejus ceteris fratribus superstes 
remanens, multo est regnaturus in patria tempore ; et inimici 
ejus coram ipso cadent ; nee tainen ipse unquam in manus tra- 
detur inimicorum ; sed morte placida, senex, inter amicos mori- 
etur. Quse omnia juxta Sancti verbum plene sunt adimpleta. 
Hie est u Oingusius cujus cognomentum Bronbachal. 



bzzii 2 biri fa ftlio l^rmiti lU^i* xjm Jltbu* <Slan 
lingua nxrminato zst 3 <Sr0tira. 

.JH-LIO in tempore, cum vir beatus in 4 Scotia per aliquot de- 
moraretur dies, ad supradictum Aidum, ad se venientem, sic 
prophetice locutus ait, Prsecavere debes, 5 fili, ne tibi a Deo totius 
6 Hibernise regni prserogativam monarchic prsedestinatam, parri- 
cidali faciente peccato, amittas : nam si quandoque illud com- 
miseris, non toto patris regno, sed ejus aliqua parte in gente 
tua, brevi "* frueris tempore. Quse verba Sancti sic sunt expleta 
secundum ejus vaticinationem. Nam post Suibneum filium 
Columbani dolo ab eo interfectum, non plus, ut fertur, quam 
quatuor annis et tribus mensibus regni concessa 8 potitus est 
9 parte. 

ttlio 2c 10thaU, xjut 3 in fttra Cioithe rejjnabit, 
beatt totri 



idem in tempore 4 hic, ut erat sancti viri amicus, ali- 
quam ad eum occultam per Lugbeum Mocumin legationem 
misit, scire volens si ab inimicis esset trucidandus, an non. At 
vero Lugbeus, a Sancto 5 interrogate de eodem rege, et regno, 
et populo, 6 et respondens, quasi misertus, dicit, Quid de illo 
inquiris misero, qui qua hora ab inimicis occidatur, nullo modo 
7 scire potest ? Sanctus turn deinde profatur, Nunquam in 

10 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 1! oingussius A. 
1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. tltul. om. Boll. 
!- 2 voci scotica inferius subsequuntur B. 3 scottica B. 

4 scocia B. 5 filii A. 6 B. everniae A. 

7 finieris B. 8 - 9 pocius est parce B. 

1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. tltul. om. Boll. 2 totail B. 

3 om. B. . 4 om. B. 5 intergatus B. 

6 ejus B. 7 sciri B. 



124 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 

maims tradetur inimicorum, sed in sua, super plumatiunculam, 
morietur domo. Quod Sancti de rege Koderco vaticinium plene 
adimpletum est : nam juxta verbum ejus 8 in domo sua morte 
placida obiit. 



pttm0, q&ontm nnn#, jtweta berbttm <Sancti, in 
hebbfltnabis obiit, prxrplutia sancti. 

CAP. IX. 2 ^H_LIO in tempore duo 8 quidam 4 plebei ad Sanctum 5 in 
6 Ioua commorantem insula 7 deveniunt; quorum unus, 8 Meldanus 
9 nomine, de filio suo qui preesens erat Sanctum interrogat, quid 
ei esset futurum. Cui Sanctus sic profatur : Nonne sabbati dies 
hodierna est ? filius tuus sexta feria, in fine morietur septimanse, 
octavaque die, hoc est, sabbato, hie sepelietur. Alter proinde 
plebeus, 10 nomine 11 Glasdercus, et ipse de filio quern ibidem 
secum habuit nihilominus interrogans, talem Sancti audit re- 
sponsionem : Filius tuus 12 Ernanus suos videbit nepotes et in 
hac insula senex sepelietur. Quse omnia, secundum verbum 
Sancti, de pueris ambobus, suis plene temporibus sunt expleta. 



1 Je 2 CoLd0, Jlibtf JBraijjntrhx fflirr, a nspxrttbius 3 Jftchur.eg 
(Drier; ti be jqnobam occnito JEatri^ tjw peaatxr, prxr- 
yhetia ^anrti. 

CAP. x. jflL.LIO in tempore, supramemoratum Colgium, apud se in 
4 loua commorantem insula, Sanctus de sua interrogat genitrice, 
si esset religiosa, an non. Cui ipse inquiens ait, Bene moratam, 
et bonse famse, meam novi matrem. Sanctus turn sic prophetice 
profatur, Mox, Deo volente, ad 5 Scotiam profectus, matrem dili- 
gentius de quodam suo pergrandi peccato interroga occulto, 
quod nulli hominum confiteri vult. Qui, hsec audiens, obsecu- 
tus, ad 6 Hiberniam emigravit. Proinde mater, ab eo studiose 
interrogata, quamlibet primule infitiens, tamen suum confessa 
est peccatum, et juxta Sancti 7 judicationem, pcenitudinem agens, 
sanata, de se quod Sancto manifestation est valde mirata est. 

8 om. B. l titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 cap. vL continuatur C. D. F. S. 3 om. C. 4 plebeii F. S. 
6 columbam add. D. 6 iona B. C. D. 7 veniunt D. 

8 ineUanus D. 9 om. D. 10 - n om. C. D. F. S. 

11 A. glasdercis B. 12 om. C. D. F. S. 

1 omnia ad cap. 19 om. C. B. F. S. 2 colgio B. 

3 A. B. 4 ioua B. 5 scociam B. 

6 B. everniam A. 7 A. B. indicatiouem Boll. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBERT. 125 

vero, ad Sanctum reversus, per aliquot dies apud CAP - XI - 
eum commoratus, de fine sui interrogans temporis, hoc a Sancto 
audit responsum : In tua, quam amas, patria primarius alicujus 
ecclesise per multos eris annos ; et si forte aliquando tuum 
videris pincernam in crena 8 amicorum ludentem, 9 hauritorium- 
que in gyro per collum torquentem, scito te mox in brevi 
moriturum. Quid plura ? Hsec eadem beati viri prophetatio 
sic per omnia est adimpleta, quemadmodum de Colgio eodem est 
prophetata. 



2 hxrrittlaricr, 

"^ii IR beatus quemdam de suis monachum nomine Trenanum, CAP. XII. 
gente Mocuruntir, legatum ad Scotiam exire quadam prsecipit 
die. Qui, hominis Dei obsecutus jussioni, navigationem parat 
festinus ; unumque sibi deesse navigatorem coram Sancto queri- 
tur. Sanctus haec consequenter, eidem respondens, sacro pro- 
mit de pec tore verba, dicens, 3 Nautam, quern tibi non adhuc 
suppetisse dicis, nunc invenire non possum. Yade in pace : us- 
quequo ad 4 Hiberniam pervenias prosperos et secundos habebis 
flatus. Quemdamque obvium videbis hominem eminus occur- 
surum, qui primus prse ceteris navis proram tuse tenebit in 
Scotia, hie erit comes tui 5 itineris per aliquot in 6 Hibernia dies ; 
teque inde revertentem ad nos usque comitabitur, vir a Deo 
electus, qui in hoc meo monasterio per omne reliquum tempus 
bene conversabitur. Quid plura ? Trenanus, accipiens a Sancto 
benedictionem, plenis velis per omnia transmeavit maria : et, 
ecce, appropinquanti ad portum naviculae Laisranus Mocumoie, 
citior ceteris, occurrit, tenetque proram. Nautae recognoscunt 
ipsum esse de quo Sanctus prsedixerat. 



iixerat. 

die, cum vir 3 venerabilis in 4 Ioua demoraretur CAP. XIII. 
5 insula, quidam frater, Berachus nomine, ad Ethicam proponens 
insulam navigare, ad Sanctum mane accedens, ab eo benedici 
6 postulat. Quern Sanctus 7 intuitus, inquit, fili hodie intentius 
prsecaveto ne Ethicam cursu ad terram directo per latius coneris 

8 amico cum vitiose Pinkert. 9 auritoriumque A. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 ortholano B. 

3 nauta A. B. 4 eberniam A. 5 iteris A. 6 ebernia A. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 

2 quo B. 3 columba add. D. * iona B. D. 

4 sua add. D. 6 postulavit D. 7 intuens D. 




120 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 

transmeare pelagus; sed potius, circumiens, minores secus 
naviges insulas ; ne videlicet, 8 aliquo monstruoso perterritus 
prodigio, vix inde possis evadere. Qui, a Sancto accepta bene- 
dictione, secessit, et navem 9 coriscendens, Sancti verbum quasi 
parvipendens, 10 transgreditur ; majora n proinde 12 Ethici trans- 
means spatia pelagi, ipse et qui ibi 13 inerant nautae vident, et 
ecce cetus mirae et immensae magnitudinis, 14 se instar mentis 
erigens, ora aperuit patula nimis dentosa, supernatans. 15 Tum 
proinde remiges, deposito velo, valde perterriti, 16 retro 17 reversi, 
illam obortam ex belluino motu fluctuationem vix evadere 
potuerunt, Sanctique verbum recognoscentes propheticum, ad- 
mirabantur. Eadem quoque die 18 Sanctus 19 Baitheneo, ad supra 
memoratam insulam navigaturo, mane de eodem intimavit ceto, 
inquiens, Hac praeterita nocte media, cetus magnus de profundo 
maris se 20 sublevavit, et inter 21 Iouam et Ethicam insulam se 
hodie in superficiem 22 eriget aequoris. Cui ^Baitheneus respon- 
dens infit, Ego et ilia bellua sub Dei potestate sumus. Sanc- 
tus, Vade, ait, in pace, fides tua in Christo te ab hoc defendet 
periculo. 23 Baitheneus 24 tum deinde, a Sancto benedictione 
accepta, a portu 25 enavigat : transcursisque non parvis ponti 
spatiis, ipse et socii cetum aspiciunt ; perterritisque omnibus, 
ipse solus sequor et cetum, 26 ambabus manibus elevatis, benedicit 
intrepidus. Eodemque momento bellua magna, ^se sub 28 fluctus 
immergens, nusquam deinceps eis apparuit. 



1 ib qtuxbam ^aitan0, rjtti rum tdmz IbtsMinm marinum 
y^ten0 enabigato^rat, sandi ptxryh^tia toiri, 

CAP. xiv. JStLIO in tempore quidam Baitanus, gente Nepos 2 Math 
Taloirc, benedici a Sancto petivit, cum ceteris in mari eremum 
quiesiturus. Cui valedicens Sanctus hoc de ipso propheticum 
protulit verbum, Hie homo, qui ad quaerendum in oceano 
desertum pergit, non in deserto conditus jacebit; sed illo in 
loco sepelietur ubi oves femina trans sepulcrum ejus minabit. 
Idem itaque Baitanus, post longos per ventosa circuitus sequora, 
eremo non reperta, ad patriam re versus, multis ibidem annis 



8 alio C. 


9 ascendens C. D. 


10 ingreditnr D. 


11 deinde D. 


12 aethici A. 


13 erant D. 


14 am. D. 


15 cum D. 


16-17 retroversi C. 


18 sancto F. 


19 baitheno S. 


20 sullivavit B. 


21 ionam B. D. 


22 erigit B. 


23 baithenus F. 


24 tune beatus D. 


25 enavigavit C. 


26 ambis A. F. S. 


27 om. D. 


28 fluctibus C. D. F. 





1 capitulum totmn om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 2 mathaloire B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER I. 127 

cujusdam cellulse dominus 3 permansit, quse Scotice Lathre- 
ginden dicitur. 4 Iisdemque diebus accidit, 6 quibus, post aliqua 
mortuus tempora, sepultus est in Eoboreto 6 Calgachi, ut propter 
hostilitatis incursum vicina ad ejusdem loci ecclesiam plebecula 
cum mulieribus et parvulis confugeret. Unde contigit ut qua- 
darn die mulier deprehenderetur aliqua, quae suas per ejusdem 
viri sepulcrum nuper sepulti oviculas minabat. Et umis ex his 
qui viderant sanctus sacerdos dixit, Nunc prophetia sancti Col- 
umbae expleta est, multis prius divulgata annis. Qui utique 
supra memoratus presbyter mihi haec de Baitano enarrans 
retulit, Mailodranus nomine, Christi miles, gente 7 Mocurin. 



8 Jle Jfrmatwr xptofoam # do pxmitete 0andi ptoyh^tattxr btri 



in tempore Sanctus ad Hinbinam insulam pervenit, CAP - xv - 
eademque die ut etiam poenitentibus aliqua praecipit cibi con- 
solatio indulgeretur. Erat autem ibi inter poenitentes quidam 
Nemanus, filius Cathir, qui, a Sancto jussus, renuit oblatam 
accipere consolatiunculam. Quern Sanctus his compellat verbis, 
Nemane, a me et Baitheneo indultam non recipis aliquam 
refectionis indulgentiam ? Erit tempus quo cum 9 furacibus 
furtive carnem in sylva manducabis equae. Hie idem itaque, 
postea ad saeculum reversus, in saltu cum furibus talem come- 
dens carnem, juxta verbum Sancti, de 10 craticula sumptam 
lignea, inventus est. 



ini did qtuxbam xjui cum 0tia b0rmibit 

2 in tempore fratres 3 intempesta nocte 4 suscitat Sanctus, CAr - XVL 
ad quos in ecclesia congregates dicit, Nunc Dominum intentius 
precemur ; nam hac in hora aliquod inauditum in mundo pec- 
catum perpetratum est, pro quo valde 5 timenda judicialis est 
vindicta. De quo peccato crastino die, aliquibus paucis per- 
cunctantibus, intimavit 6 inquiens, Post paucos menses cum 
7 Lugaido nesciente infelix ille homuncio ad 8 louam perveniet 
insulam. 9 Alia itaque die Sanctus ad 10 Diormitium, interjectis 

3 remansit B. 4 hisdemque A. 6 qui B. 

<! B. calcagi A. 7 mocucurin B. 

8 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll 9 furantibus B. 

10 graticula A. 1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 qnoque D. 

3 in tempesta B. 4 suscitavit D. 5 tremenda C. 

6 dicens C. D. * lugido D. 8 A. C. F. S. ionam B. 

alio C. 10 A. B. F. S. diarmatum D. iormitium C. 



128 VITA SAXCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 

quibusdam mensibus, praecipiens n profatur, Surge citius, ecce 
12 Lugaidus appropinquat, 13 dicque ei ut miserum quern secum 
in navi habet in Maleam propellat insulam, ne hujus insulae 
cespitem calcet. Qui, praecepto Sancti obsecutus, ad mare 
pergit. 14 Lugaidoque adventanti omnia Sancti prosequitur de 
infelici viro verba. Quibus auditis ille infelix juravit nunquam 
se cibum cum aliis accepturum nisi prius sanctum videret 
Columbam, 15 .eumque alloqueretur. Quae infelicis verba 16 Dior- 
mitius, ad Sanctum reversus, retulit. Quibus compertis 
Sanctus ad portum perrexit, Baitheneoque, prolatis sacrae Scrip- 
turae testimoniis, 17 suggerenti ut miseri pcenitudo susciperetur, 
Sanctus consequenter inquit, 18 Baithenee, hie homo 19 fra- 
tricidium in modum perpetravit 20 Cain, et cum sua matre 
moechatus est. Turn 21 deiride miser in litore flexis genibus 
leges poenitentiae expleturum se promisit, juxta Sancti 22 judi- 
cationem. Cui Sanctus ait, Si duodecim annis inter Brittones 
cum fletu et lacrymis poenitentiam egeris, nee ad 23 Scotiam 
usque ad mortem reversus fueris, 24 forsan Deus peccato ignoscat 
tuo. Haec dicens Sanctus, ad suos 25 conversus, 26 dicit, Hie 
homo films est perditionis, qui quam promisit pcenitentiam non 
explebit; sed mox ad 27 Scotiam revertetur, ibique in brevi ab 
inimicis interficiendus peribit. Quae omnia secundum Sancti 
prophetiam ita contigerunt: nam miser 28 iisdem diebus ad 
29 Hiberniam reversus, in 30 regione quae 31 vocitatur 32 Lea, in 
manus incidens inimicorum trucidatus est. 33 Hic de Nepotibus 
Turtrei 34 erat. 



5c I toxrrali litera. 

CAP. xvil. (^UADAM die Baitheneus, ad Sanctum accedens, ait, Necesse 
habeo ut aliquis de fratribus mecum Psalterium quod scripsi 
percurrens emendet. Quo audito, Sanctus sic profatur, Cur 
hanc super nos infers sine causa molestiam ? nam in tuo hoc, 
de quo dicis, Psalterio nee una superflua reperietur litera, nee 
alia deesse, excepta I vocali, quae sola deest. Et sic, toto 2 per- 

11 prsefatur C. 12 lugidus D. 13 dicitque C. 

14 lugido D. 15 eique D. 16 diermitius A. dormitius B. diarmatius D. 

17 suggerente D. 18 baithine D. 19 patricidium D. 

20 chain B. 21 A. B. F. S. deimim C. 

22 A. B. D. F. S. indicationem C. 23 hiberniam D. 

24 forsitan D. F. 25 om. D. 26 ait D. 

27 hiberniam D. 28 hisdem A. B. 29 everniam A. 

30 regionem D. 31 vocatur D. Boll. 32 14a B. leo D. 

s 3 - 34 om. C. D. F. S. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 2 perfecto B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 129 

lecto Psalterio, sicuti Sanctus praedixerat repertum exploratum 

est. 



l *t iibnr in Jtxjuaiittm Ito &mctw siciiti 
cwbmtz. 

CSitTADAM itidem die, ad focum in monasterio sedens, videt r c r AP - 
Lugbeum, gente Mocumin, eminus librum legentem, cui repente 
ait, Praecave, fili, praecave, sestimo enim quod quern lectitas liber 
in aquae plenum sit casurus vasculum. Quod mox ita contigit : 
nam ille supra memoratus juvenis, post aliquod breve inter- 
vallum, ad aliquam consurgeus in monasterio ministrationem, 
verbi oblitus beati viri, libellus, quern sub 2 ascella negligentius 
inclusit, subito in 3 hydriam aqua repletam cecidit. 



ijle dteraatlxr atrautentt inaniter fceftt&cr. 

inter haec die ultra fretum 2 Iouae insulaa clamatum CAP. xix. 
est : quern Sanctus sedens in 3 tuguriolo tabulis suffulto audiens 
clamoreni dicit, Homo qui ultra clamitat fretum non est subtilis 
sensus, nam hodie mei corniculum atramenti inclinans effundet. 
Quod verbum ejus minis trat or Diormitius audiens, paulisper 
ante januam stans, 4 gravem expectabat 5 superventurum hos- 
pitem, ut corniculum defenderet. Sed alia mox faciente causa, 
inde recessit; etpost ejus recessum hospes molestus supervenit, 
Sanctumque osculandum appetens, ora vestimenti inclinatum 
effudit atramenti corniculum. 



J3LLIO itidem tempore Sanctus 2 die tertiae feriae fratribus sic CAP. xx. 
profatus est, Crastina quarta feria jejunare proponimus, sed 
tamen, superveniente quodam molesto hospite, consuetudin- 
arium solvetur jejunium. Quod ita ut Sancto praeostensum est 
3 accidit : nam mane eadem quarta feria, alius ultra fretum 
clamitabat proselytus, Aidanus nomine, filius Fergnoi, qui, ut 

1 capitulum Mum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 

2 axilla Boll. 3 ydriam A. et capitulationibus p. 10 supra ; fossam B. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulus deest in Boll. 

2 A. ione B. 3 tegoriolo A. tugurriolo B. 4 gravamen B. 
5 super venturum B. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 

2 om. Colg. Boll. ;J accedit A. 

I 



130 VITA SANCTI COLUMN. LIBER I. 

fertur, duodecim annis Brendeno ministravit Mocualti; vir 
valde religiosus, qui, ut advenit, ejusdem diei, juxta verbum 
Sancti, jejunationem solvit. 



^e aliquxr mt0erabiU toinr .qm ttltra sttpraMrttim damitabat 

Jfr^tum. 

CAP. xxi. dfilJADAM quoque die, quemdam ultra fretum audiens 
clamitantem, Sanctus hoc profatur modo: Valde miserandus 
est ille clamitans homo, qui, aliqua ad carnalia medicamenta 
petiturus pertinentia, ad nos venit : cui opportunius erat veram 
de peccatis hodie poenitudinem gerere ; nam in hujus fine hebdo- 
madis morietur. Quod verbum qui inerant prsesentes advenienti 
misero intimavere. Sed ille parvipendens, acceptis quse popos- 
cerat, citius recessit ; et, secundum Sancti propheticum verbum, 
ante fin em ejusdem septimanse mortuus est. 



dbitate ignt #ntteta oelito prcrla;p0.a 
irmnbttsta 0andi toiri :prxrpltetia. 

CAP. xxn. J^L~LIO itidem in tempore, 2 Lugbeus 3 gente 4 Mocumin, cujus 
supra mentionem fecimus, quadam ad Sanctum die post frugum 
veniens triturationem, nullo modo ejus faciem intueri potuit, 
miro superfusam rubore ; valdeque pertimescens cito aufugit. 
Quern Sanctus complosis 5 paulum manibus 6 revocat. Qui 
reversus, a Sancto statim interrogatus cur ocius aufugisset, 
hoc dedit responsum, Ideo fugi quia nimis pertimui. Et post 
aliquod modicum intervallum, fiducialius agens, audet Sanctum 
interrogare, inquiens, Numquid hac in hora tibi aliqua formid- 
abilis ostensa visio 7 est? Cui Sanctus 8 talem dedit 9 respon- 
sionem : Tarn terrifica ultio nunc in remota orbis parte peracta 
est. Qualis, ait juvenis, vindicta, et in qua regione facta ? 
Sanctus turn sic profatur: Sulfurea de ccelo flamma super 
Eomani juris civitatem, intra Italise terminos sitam, hac hora 
effusa est; triaque ferme millia virorum, excepto 10 matrum 
puerorumque numero disperierunt. Et antequam praesens 
11 finiatur annus, 12 Gallici nautae, de Galliarum provinciis 
adventantes, hsec eadem tibi 13 enarrabunt. Quse verba post 

1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. tit-til om. Boll. 

1 titul. om. C. p. F. S. Boll. 2 lugidus D. 3-4 om> Ci jy F g 

4 B. moccumin A. 6 paululum B. C. D. F. S. 6 revocavit D 

7 erat C. 8 A. B. F. S. tale C. D. 

A. B. F. S. responsum C. D. 10 mulierum D. 

11 A. B. F. 12 gallice B. 13 narrabunt D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 131 

aliquot menses veridica fttisse sunt comprobata. Nam idem 
14 Lugbeus, sinrul cum sancto 15 viro ad Caput Eegionis pergens, 
nauclerum et nautas 16 adventantis 17 barc8e interrogans, sic 
omnia 18 illa de civitate cum civibus ab eis 19 audit enarrata, 
quemadmodum a prsedicabili viro sunt prsedicta. 

1 Jl* JJaitfrantf ftiio Jf,erafca,chi toati toi*icr bin. 

{SETTADAM brumali et valde frigida die Sanctus, 3 magno CAP. 
molestatus mserore, flevit. Quern suns minis trator 4 Diormitius, xxin. 
de causa interrogans msestitise, hoc ab eo responsum 5 accepit, 
Non immerito, filiole, ego hac in hora contristor, meos videns 
monachos, quos 6 Laisranus nunc gravi fatigatos labore in 
alicujus majoris domus fabrica molestat ; 7 quse mihi valde 8 dis- 
plicet. Mirum dictu ! eodem momento horse 9 Laisranus, habi- 
tans in monasterio 10 Eoboreti Campi, quodammodo coactus, et 
quasi quadam pyra intrinsecus succensus, jubet monachos 
a labore cessare, aliquamque cibationum consolationem n prse- 
parari ; et non solum in eadem die otiari, sed 12 et in ceteris 
asperse tempestatis diebus requiescere. Quse verba ad fratres 
consolatoria, a 13 Laisrano dicta, Sanctus in spiritu audiens flere 
cessavit, et mirabiliter gavisus ipse in 14 Ioua insula commanens, 
fratribus, qui ad prsesens 15 inerant, per omnia enarravit, et 
16 Laisranum 17 monachorum benedixit consolatorem. 



bam, ab tobzm pr^nundat0, bentt. 

3 in tempore Sanctus, in cacumine sedens montis qui CAP 
nostro 4 huic monasterio eminus supereminet, ad suum minis- 
tratorem 5 Diormitium < i conversus, 6 profatus est, dicens, Miror 
quare tardius appropinquat qusedam de Scotia navis, quse 
quemdam advehit sapientem virum, qui in quodam facinore 

14 Ingidus D. 15 om< D 10 adventantes D. 

17 A. barce B. parce.C. al parce F. in mary. 1S om. B. 
19 audivit D. om. F. 

1 tilul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 cap. ix. continuant C. D. F. S. 

3 columba add. D. 4 diarmatus D. 5 accipit A. 
6 lasreanus D. 7 A. B. quod C. D. F. S. 

8 A. C. D. S. displicent E. F. Colg. Boll. <J lasreanus D. 

10 campi roborete D. n prwstare D. l2 om. D. 

13 lasreano D. " A. S. iona B. D. 15 erant D. 

10 lasreanum D. 1? A. B. monachum C. F. S. om. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 viro add. B. 3 om. D. 

4 om. C. 5 diarmatuin D. 6 profatur B. 



132 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBERT. 

lapsus, lacrymosam gerens pcenitudinem, mox adveniet. Post 
7 proinde haud 7 grande intervallum ad austrum prospiciens 
minister, velum navis videt ad portum 8 propinquantis. 9 Quam 
cum Sancto adventantem demonstraret, cito 10 surgit, inquiens, 
Eamus proselyto obviam, cujus veram Christus n suscipit 
poenitentiam. At vero 12 Feachnaus, de navi descendens, Sancto 
ad portum pervenienti obvius occurrit ; cum fletu et lamento, 
ante pedes ejus ingeniculans flexis genibus, amarissime ingemuit, 
et coram omnibus qui ibidem 13 inerant 14 peccantias 15 confitetur 
16 suas. Sanctus 17 tum, cum eo pariter illacrymatus, ad eum ait, 
Surge fili, et consolare ; dimissa sunt tua quse commisisti pecca- 
mina; quia, 18 sicut scriptum est, 19 Cor contritum et humiliatum 
Deus non 20 spemit. Qui surgens, gaudenter a Sancto susceptus, 
ad 21 Baitheneum tune temporis in Campo 22 Lunge prsepositum 
commorantem, post aliquot est emissus dies, in pace commigrans. 



l ^z Cailtarar .ejtt0 m0narh0 0anrti ptxrplutattxr bin. 

CAP. xxv. JpUjJO 2 in tempore binos mittens monachos ad suum alium 
monachum, nomine 3 Cailtanum, qui eodem tempore prsepositus 
erat in cella 4 quse hodieque ejus fratris Diuni vocabulo voci- 
tatur, stagno adhserens Abse 5 fluminis, hsec per eosdem nuncios 
Sanctus commendat verba : Cito euntes ad 3 Cailtanum prope- 
rate, 6 dicitoteque ei ut ad me sine ulla veniat morula. Qui 
verbo Sancti obsecuti exeuutes, et ad cellam 7 Diuni pervenientes, 
suae legatiunculse qualitatem 8 Cailtano intimaverunt. Qui 
eadem hora, nullo demoratus modo, Sancti prosecutus legatos, 
ad eum in 9 Ioua insula commorantem, 10 eorum itineris comes, 
celeriter pervenit. Quo viso, Sanctus ad eum taliter locutus, 
his compellat verbis, 11 Cailtane, benefecisti ad me obedienter 
festinando: requiesce paulisper. Idcirco ad te invitandum 
misi, amans amicum, ut hie mecum in vera finias obedientia 
vitse cursum tuse. Nam 12 ante hujus 13 hebdomadis 14 finem ad 
15 Dominum in pace transibis. Quibus auditis, gratias agens 

7 - 7 om. D. 8 appropinquantis C. 9 quern D. 

10 A. C. F. S. surge B. surrexit D. n A. D. suscepit B. C. F. S. 

12 fechnaus B. C. F. S. fiachna D. i3 erant D. 

14 culpas B. peccata D. 15 - 16 sua confessns est D. 17 om. C. D. F. S. 
18 om. D. 19 - 20 deus contritum non spernit et humiliatum cor .B. 

al baythenum D. 22 longe D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, tenor cap. x. continuatur. 2 om. D. 

3 calteanum D. 4 ~ 5 om. C. D. F. S. 6 dicite C. D. F. S. 

7 om. C. D. F. S. 8 calteano D. A. C. iona B. 

10 om. F. n calteane D. 12 om. D. 

12 ebdomadis A. B. D. F. S. 14 fine D. 15 A. B. deum C. D. F. S. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 133 

Deo, Sanctumque lacrymans 16 exosculatus, 17 ad hospitium, 
accepta ab eo benedictione, 18 pergit: eademque subsecuta 
infirmatus nocte, juxta verbum Sancti in eadem septimana 
ad Christum 19 Dominum migravit. 



fratribu* sandi jnrafctba 
bin. 



CliiUADAM Dominica die ultra ssepe memoratum clamatum CAP. 
est fretum. Quern audiens Sanctus clamorem, ad fratres qui XXVI< 
ibidem 2 inerant, Ite, ait, celeriter, peregrinosque de longinqua 
venientes regione ad nos ocius adducite. Qui continuo obsecuti, 
3 transfretantes adduxerunt hospites : quos Sanctus 4 exosculatus, 
consequenter de causa percontatur itineris. Qui respondentes 
aiunt, Ut 5 hoc etiam anno apud te peregrinemur, venimus. 
Quibus Sanctus hanc dedit responsionem : Apud me, ut dicitis, 
anni unius spatio peregrinari non poteritis, nisi prius 6 monachi- 
cum promiseritis votum. Quod qui 7 inerant prsesentes valde 
mirati sunt 8 ad hospites eadem hora 9 adventantes dici. Ad 
quse Sancti verba senior respondens frater ait, Hoc in mente 
propositum licet in hanc horam usque nullatenus 10 habuerimus, 
tamen tuum sequemur consilium, divinitus, ut credimus, in- 
spiratum. Quid plura? Eodem horae momento oratorium 
cum Sancto ingressi, devote, flexis genibus, votum 11 monachiale 
voverunt. Sanctus turn 12 deinde, ad fratres conversus, ait, Hi 
duo proselyti vivam Deo seipsos exhibentes hostiam, longaque 
13 in 13 brevi Christianas tempera militise complentes, hoc mox 
eodem mense ad Christum Dominum in pace transibunt. 
Quibus auditis ambo fratres, gratias Deo agentes, ad hospitium 
u deducti sunt: interjectisque diebus septem, senior frater 
ccepit infirmari, et, eadem peracta septimana, ad Dominum 
emigravit. Similiter et alter post septem alios dies infirmatus, 
ejusdem in fine hebdomadis, ad Dominum feliciter 15 transit. Et 
sic secundum Sancti veridicam prophetiam, intra ejusdem 
mensis terminum, ambo prcesentem finiunt vitam. 



16 osculatus est D. 17 e t Q. S. 18 pcrrexit D. 10 om B. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 erant D. 3 mandatum add. D. 

4 exosculatos D. E. *> et add. D. monasticum D. 

7 crant D. s em. D. 9 advenientes D. 

10 habuimus D. " monachilc B. 0. 12 om. D. 

13 om. D; " ducti D. 15 emigravit D. 



134 VITA SANCTI COLUMB. E. LIBER I. 

a ^ -Qtuxbam Jtrtbrananxr 0artdi :pr0;ph.etia bin. 

CAP. @TlJM per aliquot dies in insula demoraretur 2 Scia vir beatus, 
XXVIL 3 a ii cu j us } oc j terrulam mari vicinam baculo percutiens, ad 
comites 4 sic ait, Mirum dictu, filioli ! hodie in hac hujus loci 
terrula quidam gentilis senex, 5 naturale per totam bonum 
custodiens 6 vitam, 7 et baptizabitur, et morietur, 8 et sepelietur. 
Et ecce, quasi 9 post unius intervallum horse, navicula ad 
eundem supervenit portum ; cujus in prora 10 quidam advectus 
est decrepitus senex, n Geon8e 12 primarius cohortis, quern bini 
juvenes, de navi sublevantes, ante beati conspectum viri 
13 deponunt. Qui statim, verbo Dei a Sancto per interpretem 
recepto, credens, ab eodem baptizatus est, et post expleta 
baptizationis 14 ministeria, sicuti Sanctus prophetizavit, eodem 
in loco consequenter obiit, ibidemque socii, congesto lapidum 
acervo, 15 sepeliunt. Qui 16 t hodieque in 17 ora cernitur maritima; 
fluviusque ejusdem 18 loci in quo idem baptisma acceperat, ex 
nomine ejus, 19 Dobur 19 Artbranani usque in hodiernum 20 nomi- 
natus diem, ab accolis vocitatur. 



tran#nrotata 

xxvni J-LIO in tempore trans Britannise Dorsum iter agens, aliquo 
in desertis 2 viculo agellis reperto, ibidemque juxta alicujus 
marginem 3 rivuli stagnum intrantis, Sanctus mansionem faciens, 
eadem nocte dormientes, seniisopore degustato, suscitat comites, 
dicens, Nunc, nunc, celerius foras exeuntes, nostram quam 
ultra rivum naviculam posuistis in 4 domum, hue citius advehite, 
et in viciniore 5 domuncula ponite. Qui continue obedientes, 
sicut 6 eis prseceptum est, fecerunt ; ipsisque iterum quiescenti- 
bus, Sanctus post quoddam intervallum silenter Diormitium 
pulsat inquiens, Nunc stans extra domum aspice quid in illo 
agitur viculo ubi prius 7 vestram posuistis naviculam. Qui 
Sancti prsecepto obsecutus domum egreditur, et respiciens 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 scotia C. skia F. om. D. S. 

3 columba add. D. 4 om. C. D. F. S. 

5 - 6 per totam vitam naturale bonum custadiens D. 7 om. D. 

8 ac D. 9 om. F. 10 om. D. u genere D. 

12 insulse inserunt Colg. Boll. 13 deposuerunt D. 

14 A. misteria B. C. F. S. 15 eum add. T>. 16 hodie quoque D. 

17 hora B. S. hac hora C. 18 om. G. D. F. S. 

19 A. B. om. C. D. F. S. 20 B. Colg. Boll, nominatus est A. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 

2 B. et A. inferius vehiculo A. Colg. Boll. 3 rivoli A. 4 domo B. 
5 domucula A. 6 om. B. 7 uostram B. 



VJTA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEli I. 135 

8 videt vicum flamma instante totum concremari. Reversusque 
ad Sanctum quod ibidem agebatur retulit. Sanctus proinde 
fratribus de quodam narravit semulo persecutore qui easdem 
domus eadem incenderat nocte. 



(i&Uana ftlio Jfaxhtni qui .erat in 2 M.fcce*i CM^ixm flit 



itidem die Sanctus, in suo sedens Huguriolo, CAP. 
5 Colcio eidem, lectitanti juxta se, prophetizans ait, Nunc ununi xxix. 
tenacem primarium de tuse prsepositis 6 diceceseos dsemones ad 
inferna rapiunt. At vero hoc audiens 7 Colcius tempus et horam 
in tabula describens, post aliquot menses ad patriam reversus, 
Gallanum filium Fachtni eodem horse momento obiisse, ab 
accolis ejusdem regionis percunctatus, invenit, quo vir beatus 
eidem a dsemonibus raptum enarravit. 



z Jfinbrharar 

a0terii fmtbatar* qurrb gjcotice 3 ^rtrhain nttnrupatur, in 
thtra 



in tempore supra memoratus presbyter Findchanus, 
Christ! miles, Aidum cognomento Nigrum, regio genere ortum, 
4 Cruthinicum gente, de Scotia ad Britanniam sub clericatus 
habitu secum adduxit, ut in suo apud se monasterio per aliquot 
peregrinaretur annos. Qui scilicet Aidus Niger valde sanguin- 
arius homo et multorum fuerat trucidator ; qui et Diormitiuni 
filium Cerbulis, totius Scotise regnatorem, Deo auctore ordina- 
tum, interfecerat. Hie itaque idem Aidus, post aliquantum in 
peregrinatione transactum tempus, accito episcopo, quamvis u/ 
non recte, apud supradictum Findchanum presbyter ordiriatus 
est. Episcopus tamen non est ausus super caput ejus manum 
imponere, nisi prius idem Findchanus, Aidum carnaliter amans, 
suam capiti ejus pro confirmatione imponeret dexteram. Quse 
talis ordinatio cum postea sancto intimaretur viro, segre tulit : 
turn proinde hanc de illo Findchano et de Aido ordinato for- 
midabilem profatur sententiam, inquiens, Ilia manus dextra 

8 vidit B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. BolL 2 diocisi A. diocesi B. 

3 A. cellachi B. 4 tegoriolo A. 6 A. colgio B. 

6 diociseos A. 7 A. colgius B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. B. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 1 - 2 om. B. 
3 ardcaiin B. 4 A. B. 



136 VITA SAXCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 

quam Findcharms, contra fas, et jus ecclesiasticum, super caput 
filii perditionis imposuit, mox computrescet, et post magnos 
dolorum cruciatus ipsum in 5 terram 6 sepelienda prsecedet; et 
ipse post suam humatam manum per multos superstes victurus 
est annos. Ordinatus vero indebite Aldus, sicuti canis, ad 
vomitum revertetur suum, et ipse rursum sanguilentus truci- 
dator exist et, et ad ultimum lancea 7 jugulatus, de ligno in 
aquam cadens, submersus morietur. Talem multo prius ter- 
minum promeruit vitse, qui totius regem trucidavit Scotise. 
Quse beati viri prophetia de utroque adimpleta est ; nam pres- 
byteri Findchani 8 dexter 9 per 9 pugnum 10 putrefactus in terram 
eum prsecessit, in ilia 11 sepultus insula quse 12 0mmon nuncu- 
patur: ipse vero, juxta verbum Sancti Columbae per multos 
post vixit annos. Aidus vero Niger, solummodo nomine pres 
byter, ad sua priora reversus scelera, dolo lancea transfixus, de 
prora ratis in aquam lapsus stagneam, disperiit. 



sxrlamine 0pirittt0 <Jtt0na.cKt0 in bia 
Iab.ori00i0 mwso. 

has prsedicabiles prophetici spiritus prophetationes 
non ab re videtur etiam de quadam spiritali consolatione nostris 
commemorare literulis, quam aliquando sancti Columbse mon- 
achi, spiritu ejus ipsis in via obviante, sentiebant. Alio nam- 
que in tempore, fratres, post messionis opera, vespere ad nionas- 
terium redeuntes, et ad ilium pervenientes locum qui Scotice 
nuncupatur 2 Cuuleilne, qui utique locus inter occidentalem 
3 Iou9e insulae campulum et nostrum monasterium medius esse 
dicitur, mirum quid et inconsuetum singuli sibi sentire vide- 
bantur : quod tamen alius 4 alii intimare nullo modo audebat. 
Et sic per aliquot dies eodem in loco, eademque vespertina 
sentiebant hora. Fuit autem 5 iisdem 6 in diebus sanctus Baitlie- 
neus inter eos operum dispensator, qui sic ad ipsos alia die est 
prolocutus, inquiens, Nunc, fratres, confiteri debetis singuli si 
aliquod in hoc medio loco inter messem et monasterium incon 
suetum et inopinatum sentitis miraculum. Unus turn ex eis 
senior, Juxta tuam, ait, 7 jussionem, quod mihi hoc in loco 

5 A. terra B. sepeliendam A. 

7 B. jugnlentus A. jugulandus Colg. Boll. 8 A. B. 

!) per pugnus A. prepugnus B. per pugnum Colg. Boll. 
10 A. B. n A. B. 12 omon B. 

1 capital, totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 B. cuul eilne A. 
3 A. ione B. 4 alio A. r> hisdem A. B. 

** om. B. 7 jusionem A. uieionem err ore voccdium B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER I. 137 

ostensum est dicam ; nam et in his praetereuntibus dieculis, et 
nunc etiam, quandam miri odoris 8 fragrantiam ac si universoruni 
florum in unum sentio collectorum ; quendam quoque quasi 
ignis ardorem, non pcenalem, sed quodammodo suavem : sed et 
quandam in corde insuetam et incomparabilem infusam laetifi- 
cationem, quae me subito mirabiliter consolatur, et in tantum 
laetificat ut nullius maeroris, nullius laboris, meminisse possim. 
Sed et onus quod meo, quamvis grave, porto in dorso, ab hoc 
loco usque quo ad monasterium perveniatur, quomodo nescio, 
in tantum relevatur, ut me oneratum non sentiam. Quid 
plura ? Sic omnes illi messores operarii de se singillatim pro- 
fitentur per omnia sensisse, sicuti unus ex eis coram 9 enarra- 
verat, singulique simul flexis genibus a sancto postularunt 
Baitheneo ut ejusdem miri solaminis causam et originem, quod 
et ipse, sicut et ceteri 10 sentiebant, illis ignorantibus, intimare 
procuraret. Quibus consequenter hoc dedit responsum, Scitis, 
inquiens, quod noster senior Columba de nobis anxie cogitet, et 
nos ad se tardius pervenientes gegre ferat nostri memor laboris, 
et idcirco quia corporaliter obviam nobis non venit, spiritus 
ejus nostris obviat gressibus, qui taliter nos consolans laetificat. 
Quibus auditis verbis, ingeniculantes, cum ingenti gratulatione, 
expansis ad coelum manibus, Christum in sancto venerantur et 
beato viro. 

11 Sed et hoc silere non debemus quod ab expertis quibusdam 
de voce beati psalmodiae viri indubitanter traditum est. Quae 
scilicet vox venerabilis viri in ecclesia cum fratribus decantan- 
tis, aliquando per quatuor stadia, hoc est, quingentos passus, 
aliquando vero per octo, hoc est, mille passus, incomparabili 
elevata modo audiebatur. Mirum dictu! Nee in auribus 
eorum qui secum in ecclesia stabant vox ejus modum humanae 
vocis in clamoris granditate excedebat. Sed tamen eadem hora 
qui ultra mille passuum longinquitatem stabant, sic clare 
eandem audiebant vocem, ut illos quos canebat versiculos etiam 
per singulas possent distinguere syllabas : similiter 12 enim ejus 
vox in auribus prope et longe audientium personabat. Sed hoc 
de voce miraculum beati viri non semper, sed raro, accidisse 
comprobatur; quod tamen sine Divini Spiritus gratia nullo 
modo fieri potuisset. 

13 Sed et illud non est tacendum quod aliquando de tali et 



8 flagrantiam A. B. A. enarravit B. 10 sentiebat B. 

11 litera S. majuscula, minio scripta, paragraphum novum designat in B. 
Pinkertonus capit. xxxviii. inchoat, et tituliim proprio jure suppeditat, refra- 
f/antibus codd. 12 B. Con. A., ut passim pro voce enim in Libro Armacano. 

13 litera S. majuscula, ccerulca, B. 



138 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER I. 

incomparabili vocis ejus sublevatione juxta Brudei regis muni- 
tionem accidisse traditur. Nam ipse Sanctus cum paucis 
fratribus extra regis munitionem dum vespertinales Dei laudes 
ex more celebraret, quidam Magi, ad eos propius accedentes, in . 
quantum poterant, prohibere conabantur, ne de ore ipsorum 
divinse laudis sonus inter Gentiles audiretur populos. Quo 
comperto Sanctus quadragesimum et quartum psalmum decan- 
tare ccepit, mirumque in modum ita vox ejus in aere eodem 
momento instar alicujus formidabilis tonitrui elevata est, ut et 
rex et populus intolerabili essent pavore perterriti. 



1 Jle xjujxbam Ipibite xjm ^ttgttbitt* dobtt* toxrdt abate. 

CAP. jj^tLIO in tempore, cum in Scotia per aliquot Sanctus demo- 
xxx. rare tur dies, alium currui insidentem videns clericum, qui 
gaudenter peragrabat Campum Breg ; primo interrogans de eo 
quis esset, hoc ab amicis ejusdem viri de eo accipit responsum, 
Hie est Lugudius Clodus, homo dives et honoratus in plebe. 
Sanctus consequenter respondens inquit, Non ita 2 video ; sed 
homuncio miser et pauper, in die qua morietur, tria apud se 
vicinorum prsetersoria in una retentabit 3 maceria, unamque 
electam de vaccis 4 pr8etersoriorum occidi jubebit 5 sibi, de 6 cujus 
cocta carne postulabit aliquam sibi parteni dari, cum meretrice 
in eodern lectulo cubanti. De qua utique particula morsum 
accipiens, statim ibidem strangulabitur et morietur. Quse 
omnia, sicuti ab expertis traditur, juxta Sancti 7 propheticum 
adimpleta sunt 8 verbum. 



l *j$t JJemanrr fU0 2 dntthrtch;e smidi 3 prxrph.etia. 

CAP. 4 jSlUNC 5 enim cum Sanctus de malis suis corriperet, parvi- 
xxxi. p en( j ens Sanctum subsannabat. Cui respondens vir beatus ait, 
In nomine Domini, Nemane, aliqua de te veridica loquar verba. 
Inimici tui 6 reperient te in eodem cum meretrice cubantem 
cubiculo, ibidemque trucidaberis. Dsemones quoque ad loca 
pcenarum tuam rapient animam. Hie idem Nemanus, post 
aliquot annos, in uno cum meretrice lectulo repertus in regione 
Cainle, juxta 7 verbum Sancti, 8 ab inimicis decapitatus, disperiit. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. BoU. 2 A. vides B. 
3 A. B. maneria suo jure Boll. 4 prsetersoriuin B. 6 om. B. 

6 unius B. 7 prophetiam B. 8 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 gluteriche B. 

3 prophetise verbum B. 4 - 5 nemanuin filium grutricae Boll. 

6 periment B. 7 om. B. 8 vaticiniuin add. B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER I. 139 



2 0andi bin 

4 in tempore Sanctus, cum in 5 Scotiensium paulo CAP. 
superius moraretur memorata regione, casu Dominica die ad xxxn. 
quoddam devenit vicinum monasteriolum quod Scotice 6 Trioit 
vocitatur. Eadem 7 proinde die quendam audiens presbyterum 
sacra eucharistise mysteria conficientem, quem ideo fratres, qui 
ibidem commanebant, ad missarum elegerant peragenda sol- 
lemnia, quia valde religiosum 8 sestimabant, repente hanc for- 
midabilem de ore profert vocem, Munda et immunda pariter 
nunc 9 permisceri cernuntur, hoc est, munda sacrce oblationis 

10 mysteria per immundum hominem ministrata, qui in sua 

11 interim conscientia 12 aliquod grande occultat facinus. Heec 
qui 13 inerant audientes tremefacti nimis obstupuere. Ille vero 
de quo hsec dicebantur verba coram omnibus 14 peccantiam 
compulsus est 15 suam confiteri. Christique commilitones, qui 
in ecclesia Sanctum circumstantes occulta cordis audierant 
manifestantem, divinam in eo scientiam cum magna admira- 
tione glorificarunt. 



(Srrxr toe ^JEtfmbruibi qui in (01000 in0ula r^mmanebat 
0anrtt txrh^ti^ati^ toiri. 



3 in tempore Sanctus 4 in 5 Ioua commanens insula, CAP. 
6 accitis ad se binis 7 de fratribus 7 viris, quorum vocabula 8 Lug- xxxm. 
beus et 9 Silnanus, eisdem praecipiens dixit, Nunc ad Maleam 
transfretate insulam, et in campulis mari vicinis 10 Ercum 
quserite furacem ; qui nocte praeterita solus occulte de insula 
11 Coloso perveniens, sub 12 sua feno tecta navicula inter aren- 
arum cumulos per diem se occultare conatur, ut noctu ad 
parvam transnaviget insulam ubi marini nostri juris vituli 
generantur et generant; ut de illis 13 furenter occisis edax valde 
furax suam replens naviculam, ad suum repedet habitaculum. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 qui erat in triota add. B. 

3 prophetia B. 4 owl jy b hyberniencium D. 

6 A. F. triota B. trioint C. treoit D. 7 om. D. 

8 existimabant D. 9 misceri B. 10 B. C. D. F. S. ministeria A. 
11 om. D. 12 adhuc add. D. 13 erant D. , 

14 peccatum suum B. 15 om. B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. mocudriudi B. 3 om. B. D. 

4 columba add. D. 5 A. iona B. D. 6 accersitis D. 

7 om. D. 8 A. C. lubbeus B. lugidus D. 

9 A. C. F. S. selnanus B. sillanus D. 10 ertum B. 

11 colosa D. 12 suo B. C. 13 furanter A. furantur F. f urtim C. 



140 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 

Qui hasc audientes, obsecuti, emigrant, furemque in locis a 
Sancto prsesignatis absconsum reperiunt, et ad Sanctum, sicut 
illis praeceperat, perduxerunt. Quo viso Sanctus ad eum 14 dicit, 
Quare tu res alienas, divinum transgressus mandatum, saepe 
furaris ? Quando necesse habueris, ad nos veniens necessaria 
accipies postulata. Et hsec dicens prsecipit 15 verveces occidi, 
et pro 16 phocis dari misero furaci, ne vacuus ad sua remearet. 
Et post aliquantum tempus Sanctus, in spiritu vicinam furis 
prsevidens mortem, ad 17 Baitheneum eo 18 in tempore prsepo- 
situm commorantem in Campo 19 Lunge mittit, ut eidem 
furi quoddam pingue pecus et 20 sex modios novissima 
21 mittat munera. Quibus a 22 Baitheneo, sicut Sanctus com- 
mendaverat, transmissis, ea die inventus 23 est morte subita 
praeventus furax misellus, et in exequiis ejus transmissa 
expensa sunt 24 xenia. 



1 Jb Cnrnanxr yotiz zmdi prxrplutia bin. 

CAP. ,J1I_LIO 2 in tempore, Sanctus cum juxta Stagnum 3 Cei, prope 
xxxiv. fluminis quod latine Bos dicitur, die aliqua cum fratribus 



sederet, quidam ad eos 4 Scoticus poeta devenit ; qui cum post 
aliquant recessisset sermocinationem, fratres ad Sanctum, Cur, 
aiunt, 5 a 6 nobis regrediente 7 Cronano poeta aliquod ex more 
suae artis canticum non postulasti modulabiliter decantari ? 
Quibus Sanctus, 8 Quare 9 et 10 vos nunc inutilia profertis verba? 
quomodo ab illo misero homuncione carmen postularem IsetitiaB 
qui nunc, ab inimicis n trucidatus, finem ad iisque ocius per- 
venit vitaa. His a Sancto dictis, et ecce 12 ultra flumen aliquis 
13 clamitat homo dicens, Ille poeta, qui u a vobis nuper sospes 
rediit, hora 15 in hac ab inimicis in via interfectus est. 16 0mnes 
tune qui prsesentes inerant valde 17 mirati, se invicem intuentes 
obstupuere. 



11 ait I). 15 berbices A. F. S. vervecem Boll. 

16 focis A. F. S. furtis C. 17 baltenum C. baitemim D. 

18 om. B. C. D. S. 19 longe D. 20 vii. D. 

21 om. B. 22 baltheneo C. baitheno I>. 

23 om. D. 24 A. C. F. S. exenia B. exennia D. 

1 iltulum om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. B. F. S. om. C. D. 

3 ce D. 4 scotticus B. 5 - om. D. 

7 coronano C. 8 ait D. 9 ad I). 10 nos D. 

11 A. C. F. S. trucklandus B. Boll. 12 ad I>. 13 clamabat DJ 

11 om. C. 15 om. D. 1G om. D. 17 admirati D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER I. 141 



fcturJw* ^i^rnis 0andi imtidnatia toiri, qui amb0 

btspmerant. 



itidem 2 in tempore, Sanctus in 3 loua 4 conversans CAP. 
insula, 5 repente inter 6 legendum summo, cum ingenti admira- xxxv - 
tione, gemitu ingemuit msesto. Quod videns, qui prsesens inerat, 
7 Lugbeus 8 Mocublai coepit ab eo percunctari subiti causam 
9 mseroris. Cui Sanctus valde meestificatus hanc dedit respon- 
sionem, Duo quidam 10 nunc regii generis viri in n Scotia 
mutuis inter se vulneribus 12 transfixi disperierunt 13 haud procul 
a monasterio quod dicitur 14 Cellrois, in provincia 15 Maugdor- 
norum, 16 octavaque die, hac peracta 17 hebdomade, ultra f return 
18 alius clamitabit, qui 19 hsec, de 20 Hibernia veniens, ita 21 taliter 
facta enarrabit. Sed hoc, filiole, quamdiu vixero nemini 
22 indices. Octava 23 proinde ultra fretum clamatum est die. 
Sanctus 24 tum supra memoratum ad se 25 Lugbeum vocans, 
silenter ad eum ait, Qui nunc clamitat ultra fretum ipse est, de 
quo tibi prius dixeram, 26 long8evus viator. 27 Vade, et 28 adduc 
eum ad nos. Qui celeriter adductus, inter cetera, hoc etiam 
retulit, Duo, inquiens, 29 in parte 30 Maugdornorum nobiles viri, 
se mutuo vulnerantes, mortui sunt ; hoc est, Colman 31 Canis, 
32 filius 33 Aileni, et 34 Konanus 35 filius 36 Aido filii Colgen, de 
37 Anteriorum genere, prope fines illorum locorum, ubi illud 
monasterium cernitur quod dicitur ** Cellrois. Post haec 
illius verba 39 narrationis, idem 40 Lugbeus, Christi miles, Sanc 
tum seorsum coepit interrogare, dicens, Quseso mihi de his 
talibus narres propheticis revelationibus quomodo, 41 si per 
visum 42 tibi, an auditu, analio, hominibus incognito, 43 manifes- 
tantur modo. Ad hsec Sanctus, De qua nunc, ait, inquiris 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. D. 3 A. C. F. S. ionaB. D. 

4 om. D. 5 conversatus D. 6 legendo D. 

7 lugidus D. 8 om. C. D. F. S. 9 mesti D. 

10 om. D. 1X hybernia D. 12 totum D. 

13 et est add. F. 14 cellros B. cellarois C. ceall rois D. cellorois F. 

15 A. F. S. maugdorneorum B. magdenorum C. muganorum D. 

16 octava C. D. 17 ebdomada B. C. F. S. 18 aliquis C. D. 

19 Con. A. hec B. C F. S. hue Colg. Boll. om. D. 

20 B. C. D. evernia A. S. 21 et add. D. 22 dices D. 

23 deinde D. 24 tune D. 25 lugidum D. 

2(5 C. D. F. S. longeus A. vide var. led. 22 , lib. ii. c. 10 infra, longus B. 

27 valde B. 2 * educ C. 29 - 30 om. C. D. F. S. 

30 maugdorneorum B. 31 cognomento canis B. canus C. D. F. S. 

32 - 33 om. C. D. F. S. 34 romanus C. 35 - 38 om. C. D. F. S. 

30 aidi Boll. 37 A. B. Colg. Boll. 38 cellroiss A. 

39 A. narratoris B. C. D. F. S. 40 lugidus D. 

41 om. D. 42 om. D. 43 tibi add. D. 



142 VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LTBER I. 

valde subtili re nullatenus tibi quamlibet aliquam intimare 
particulam potero, nisi prius, flexis genibus, per nomen excelsi 
Dei mihi firmiter promittas hoc te obscurissimum sacramentum 
nulli unquam hominum cunctis diebus vitse mese enarraturum. 
Qui, hsec audiens, flexit continue genua, et, prostrate in terram 
vultu, juxta Sancti prseceptionem plene omnia promisit. Qua 
statim perfecta promissione, Sanctus ad surgentem sic locutus 
inquit, Sunt nonnulli, quamlibet pauci admodum, quibus divina 
hoc contulit gratia, ut etiam totum 44 totius terrse orbem, cum 
ambitu oceani et coeli, uno eodemque momento, quasi sub uno 
solis radio, mirabiliter laxato mentis sinu, clare et manifes- 
tissime speculentur. Hoc miraculum Sanctus, quamvis de aliis 
electis dicere videatur, vanam utique fugiens gloriam, de seipso 
tamen dixisse, per obliquum licet, nullus dubitare debet qui 
Paulum legit Apostolum, vas electionis, de talibus narrantem 
sibi revelatis 45 visionibus. Non enim ita scripsit, Scio me, sed, 
Scio hominem, raptum usque ad tertium ccelum. Quod quam 
libet de alio dicere 46 videatur, nemo tamen dubitat sic de 
propria, humilitatem custodiens, enarrare persona. Quern 
47 etiam et noster Columba in spiritalium visionum narratione 
secutus est superius memorata, quam ab eo supradictus vir, 
quern plurimum Sanctus amabat, magnis precibus prasmissis, vix 
potuit extorquere, sicut 48 ipse coram aliorum personis sanctorum, 
post sancti ColumbaB transiturn, testatus est: a quibus hsec 
quse de Sancto supra narravimus indubitanter didicimus. 



l ^z toitanxr 

.JQuLIO 3 in tempore, quidam de 4 Muminensium provincia 
proselytus ad Sanctum venit ; qui se in quantum potuit 5 occul- 
tabat humiliter, 6 ut nullus sciret quod esset episcopus : sed 
tamen Sanctum hoc non potuit latere. Nam alia die Dominica 
a Sancto jussus Christi corpus ex more conficere, Sanctum 
7 advocat, ut simul, quasi duo presbyteri, Dominicum panem 
frangerent. Sanctus proinde ad altarium accedens, repente 
intuitus faciem ejus, sic eum compellat, Benedicat te Christus, 
frater ; hunc solus, 8 episcopali ritu, frange panem : nunc scimus 
quod sis episcopus. Quare 9 hucusque te occultare conatus es, 

44 licet non semper add. B. 45 om. D. * G videretur C. D. 

47 jam D. 4 8 om. B. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 hie sequuntur in C. D. F. S. ii. 29, 30, hujus recensionis, et partem i. 15 
ejfitiunt. 3 om. D. 4 meminensium C. 5 om. C. 

c quod C. 7 convocat D. 8 episcopus add. C. 9 usquequo D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER I. 143 

ut tibi a nobis debita non redderetur veneratio ? Quo audito 
Sancti verbo, humilis peregrinus, valde stupefactus, Christum in 
Sancto veneratus est ; et qui inerant praesentes nimis admirati, 
glorificarunt 10 Dominum. 



ia biri 

LIO itidem in tempore, vir venerandus 2 Ernanum presby- 
terum, senem, suum avunculum, ad praeposituram illius monas- 
terii transmisit quod in 3 Hinba insula ante plures fundaverat 
annos. Itaque cum ipsum 4 Sanctus emigrantem exosculatus 
benediceret, 6 hoc de eo intulit vaticinium, dicens, Hunc meum 
nunc 6 egredientem amicum non me spero iterum in hoc seculo 
viventem visurum. Itaque idem 7 Ernanus post non multos 
dies, quadam molestatus aegrimonia, ad Sanctum volens 
reportatus est : cujus in perventione valde gavisus, ire obvius 
ad portum coepit. Ipse vero 7 Ernanus, quamlibet infirmis, 
propriis tamen, vestigiis a portu obviare Sancto conabatur valde 
alacer. Sed cum esset inter ambos quasi 8 viginti quatuor 
| 9 passuum intervallum, subita morte praeventus, priusquam 
Sanctus faciem ejus videret viventis, expirans in terram cecidit, 
ne verbum Sancti ullo frustraretur modo. Unde in eodem loco 
ante januam canabse crux infixa est, et altera ubi Sanctus 
restitit, illo expirante, similiter 10 crux n hodieque infixa stat. 

1 Jb alicujtt0 ;jplebeii i amiiixria 0andi pnrphetta totri 

J^LLIO quoque 2 in tempore, quidam inter ceteros ad Sanctum 
plebeius venit 3 in loco hospitantem qui 4 Scotice vocitatur 
Coire 5 Salchain ; quern cum Sanctus ad se vespere venientem 
vidisset, Ubi, 6 ait, habitas ? Ille inquit, In regione quae litto- 
ribus stagni 7 Crogreth est 8 contermina ego inhabito. Illam 
quam dicis provinciolam, ait Sanctus, nunc barbari populantur 
vastatores. Quo audito, miser plebeius 9 maritam et filios 
deplangere coepit. Quern Sanctus valde maerentem videns, 
consolans inquit, Vade, homuncule, vade, tua familiola tota in 
montem 10 fugiens evasit; tua vero omnia pecuscula secum 

10 deura B. C. D. F. S. 

1 titul. om., et tenorem cap. 16 continuant, C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 hernanum D. 3 himba C. D. F. S. 4 sanctum C. 

5 et add. F. 6 ingredientem C. 7 hernanus D. 
8 - 9 vise viginti iv. M. passum C. 10 que B. n hodie B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 - 5 om. C. D. F. S. 

4 scottice B. 5 A. salcani B. salcair male, Colg. Boll. 

6 inquit D. 7 crog reth A. crochreth B. om. C. D. F. S. 
8 conterminata D. 9 maritum C. 10 efFugiens 1). 



144 VITA SAXCTI COLUMB/K. LIBER I. 

invasores "abegerunt, omnemque domus suppellectilem similiter 
ssevi raptores cum praeda rapuere. Haec audiens plebeius, ad 
patriam regressus, cuncta, sicuti a Sancto prsedicta, 12 sic invenit 
13 expleta. 



nomine, ft U0 Jttbani, 0andi 
prxrpltetia toiri 

J/H-LIO 2 itidem in tempore 3 quidam 4 plebeius, omnium illius 
setatis in populo 5 Korkureti fortissimus virorum, 6 a 7 sancto 8 per- 
cunctatur 9 viro qua morte esset praeveniendus. Cui Sanctus, 
Nee in bello, ait, nee in mari morieris : comes tui itineris, a 
quo non suspicaris, causa erit tuae mortis. Fortassis, inquit 
Goreus, aliquis de meis comitantibus amicis me trucidare cogi- 
tet, aut marita ob alicujus junioris viri amorem me maleficio 
mortificare. Sanctus, Non ita, ait, continget. Quare, Goreus 
inquit, de meo interfectore mini nunc intimare non vis ? Sanc 
tus, Idcirco, ait, nolo tibi de illo tuo comite nocuo nunc mani- 
festius aliquid edicere, ne te ejus crebra 10 recogniti recordatio 
nimis maestificet, donee n illa veniat dies qua ejusdem rei veri- 
tatem probabis. Quid 12 immorarnur verbis ? Post aliquot 13 anno- 
rum excursus, idem supra memoratus Goreus, casu 14 alia die 
sub navi residens, cultello proprio 15 cristiliam de 16 hastili era- 
debat ; 17 tum 18 deinde alios prope inter se belligerantes audiens, 
citius 19 surgit ut eos a belligeratione separaret, eodemque cul 
tello ilia subitatione negligentius in terra dimisso, ejus 20 genicula 
offenso graviter vulnerata est. Et tali faciente comite, causa ei 
mortificationis oborta est ; quam ipse continuo, secundum sancti 
vaticinationem viri, mente perculsus, recognovit; postque all-. 
quantos menses, eodem aggravatus dolore, moritur. 



etiam u, qwamlib^t mtnxrre, ynio non t$8t 
sancti jumnba yr^smntia, d 2 jrarpketi^atixr toiri. 

namque in 4 tempore, 5 cum Sanctus 6 in 7 Ioua 8 inhabi- 
taret insula, unum de fratribus advocans, sic 9 compellat, Tertia 

11 ambigerunt B. 12 sunt C. 13 exempla C. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 - 4 om. C. 4 homo D. 

5 KOPKYPETI literis majusculis A. corforepti B. om. C. D. F. S. 

G goreus nomine D. om. C. 7 sanctum columbam C. D. 

8 percunctatus est C. D. 9 viruin C. om. D. 10 om. C. 

11 om. C. 12 moramur D. 13 om. D. 14 aliqua C. 

15 cristilia F. 16 astili A. F. castili C. astali D. 17 tune D. 

18 om. D. 19 surrexit D. 20 B. C. genucla A. genucula D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. , 2 prophetica B. 3 - 4 om. D. 

5 (him D. colnmba add D. 7 A. C. iona B. 8 habitaret D. 9 ait D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER I. 145 

ab hac 10 illucescente die expectare debebis in occidental hujus 
insulse parte, super maris oram sedens : nam de aquilonali 
11 Hiberni0eregione quaedam hospita grus, ventis per longos aeris 
agitata circuitus, post nonam diei horam valde fessa et fatigata 
superveniet, et pene consumptis viribus, coram te in litore 
cadens recumbet ; quam misericorditer 12 sublevare curabis, et ad 
propinquam deportabis domum, 13 ibidemque hospitaliter recep- 
tam, per tres dies et noctes ei ministrans, sollicite cibabis ; et 
post expleto recreata triduo, nolens ultra apud nos peregrinari, 
ad priorem 14 Scotiee dulcem, unde orta, 15 remeabit regionem, 
plene resumptis viribus ; quam ideo tibi 16 sic diligenter com 
mendo quia de nostrae paternitatis regione est oriunda. Obse- 
cundat frater, tertiaque die post horam nonam, 17 ut 18 jussus, 
prsescitae adventum prsestolatur hospitae, adventantemo f ue de 
littore levat lapsam, ad hospitium portat infirmam, esurientem 
cibat. Cui ad monasterium vespere reverso Sanctus, non inter- 
rogans sed 19 narrans, ait, Benedicat te Deus, mi fili, 20 quia pere- 
grinae bene ministrasti hospitae, quae in peregrinatione non 
demorabitur, sed post ternos soles ad patriam 21 repedabit. Quod 
ita ut Sanctus praedixit 22 et res etiam probavit. Nam tri- 
nalibus hospitata diebus, coram hospite ministro de terra se 
primum volando elevans in 23 sublime, paulisperque in aere viam 
speculata, oceani transvadato aequore, ad 24 Hiberniam recto vola- 
tus cursu die repedavit tranquillo. 



1 Jle $dlo xjttxrb in mnnitione Csthtrni $0&i mnito 
t&i Umyom, jet be qw^bam tonticnio tjw&tm 
b^ati :pr#0dntm toiri. 

3 in tempore vir beatus 4 cum 5 post regum in Dorso 
6 Cette condictum, Aidi videlicet filii 7 Ainmurech, et Aidani filii 
8 Gabrani, ad campos reverteretur sequoreos, ipse et 9 Comgellus 
abbas quad am 10 serena 11 0estivi temporis die, haud procul a 
supra memorata munitione resident. Turn 12 proinde aqua de 



10 lucetenente D. 
13 ibidem C. ibique D. 
ic om. C. D. F. S. 
19 enarrans D. 
22 om. C. 


11 everniae A. 
1-4 hybernie D. 
"-is om. B. 
20 qui B. 
23 sullirae B. 


12 sullevare B. 
15 est add. C. D. 
is jussus fuerat C. D. 
21 repedavit A. 
24 B. C. D. everniam A. 



1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in qaibus cap. xviii. continuatur. 

2 sancti B. 3 om. D. 4 columba add. D. 
5 - 8 om. C. D. F. S. 6 cete B. 7 ammurech B. 

9 congellus C. comgallus D. lo secreta C. n aestei A. 

12 om. D. 

K 



146 VITA SANCTI COLUMBUS. LIBER I. 

quodam proximo ad manus lavandas fonticulo 13 ad 14 Sanctos in 
seneo defertur vasculo. Quam cum sanctus Columba aceepisset, 
ad abbatem 15 Comgellum a latere sedentem sic profatur, Ille 
fonticulus, 16 Comgelle, de quo haec effusa nobis allata est 
aqua, veniet dies quando nullis usibus humanis aptus erit. 
Qua causa, ait 17 Comgellus, ejus fontana corrumpetur unda ? 
Sanctus turn Columba, Quia humano, inquit, cruore replebitur : 
nam mei 18 cognationales amici et tui secundum carnem cognati, 
19 hoc est, Nellis Nepotes et Cruthini 20 populi, in hac vicina 
munitione 21 Cethirni belligerantes committent bellum. Unde 
in supra memorata fonte aliquis de mea 22 cognatione trucida- 
bitur homuncio, 23 cujus cum cseteris 24 interfecti sanguine ejus- 
dem fonticuli locus replebitur. 25 Quse ejus 26 veridica suo tern- 
pore post multos vaticinatio expleta est annos. In quo bello, 
ut multi 27 norunt populi, 28 Domnallus ^Aidi filius victor 
sublimatus est, et in eodem, secundum sancti vaticinium viri, 
fonticulo, quidam de parentela ejus interfectus 30 est homo. 
Alius mihi 31 Adamnano Christi miles, Finanus nomine, qui 
vitam multis anachoreticam annis juxta Eoboreti monasterium 
Campi irreprehensibiliter ducebat, de eodem bello se praesente 
eommisso aliqua enarrans, protestatus est in supradicto fonte 
truncum 32 cadaverinum vidisse, eademque die ad monasterium 
sancti 33 Comgelli quod 34 Scotice dicitur 35 Cambas eommisso 
reversum bello quia inde prius venerat, 36 ibidemque duos sancti 
37 Comgelli senes monachos reperisse : quibus cum de bello 
coram se acto, et ^de fonticulo humano cruore corrupto, ali- 
quanta enarraret, illi consequenter, Verus 39 propheta Columba, 
aiunt, qui hsec omnia quse hodie de bello et 40 de fonticulo expleta 
41 enarras, ante multos annos futura, nobis audientibus, coram 
sancto 42 Comgello, juxta 43 Cethirni sedens munitionem, prsenun- 
ciaverat. 

13.14 om j) 15 congellum C. com jallum D. 1G congelle C. coingalle D. 

17 congellus C. comgallus D. 18 cognitionales A. B. 

19 - 20 om. C. D. F. S. 21 A. cechirni B. om. C. D. F. S. 

22 cognitione A. B. 23 de add. D. 24 interfectis D. 

25 corrupt! add. D. 26 viri dicta D. 27 non ignorant D. 

28 domnalius C. donaldus D. domnaldus F. S. 2a aedlia D. 

30 om. C. 31 B. adomnano A. C. 32 cadaver D. 

33 congelli C. comgalli D. 34 scottice B. 3 ~ } cammus D. 

36 ibi denique C. 37 comgilli A. congelli C. comgalli D. 

38 om. D. 39 est add. C. 40 om. C. 

41 enarrans D. * 2 congello C. comgallo D. 43 A. F. S. cethirin B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMILE. LIBER I. 147 



1 5^ fcitoeraoram bi0rr.etimt.e xmiaxnm znntto retolata 
fomlt gratia. 

~E.ODEM 2 in tempore Conallus, episcopus 3 Culerathin, col- 
lectis a populo Campi 4 Eilni pene innumerabilibus 5 xeniis, 
beato viro hospitium prseparavit, post condictum supra memo- 
ratorum regum, turba prosequente multa, revertenti: proinde 
sancto advenienti viro 6 xenia populi multa, in platea monasterii 
strata, benedicenda 7 assignantur. Quse cum benedicens aspi- 
ceret, 8 xenium alicujus opulenti viri specialiter demonstrans, 
Virum, ait, cujus est hoc 8 xenium, pro misericordiis pauperum, 
et ejus largitione, 9 Dei comitatur misericordia. 10 Itemque aliud 
discernit inter alia multa 8 xenium, inquiens, De hoc ego n xenio 
viri sapientis et avari nullo modo gustare possum, nisi prius 
veram de peccato avaritiae poenitudinem egerit. Quod verbum 
cito in turba divulgatum audiens, accurrit Columbus filius 
12 Aidi conscius, et 13 coram Sancto flexis genibus 14 pcenitentiam 
15 agit, et de cetero avaritiae abrenunciaturum se promittit, et 
largitatem cum morum emendatione consecuturum. Et jussus 
a Sancto surgere, ex ilia hora est sanatus de vitio tenacitatis. 
Erat enim vir sapiens, sicuti Sancto in ejus revelatum 16 erat 
17 xenio. Ille vero dives largus, Brendenus nomine, de cujus 
17 xenio paulo superius dictum est, audiens et ipse Sancti verba 
de se dicta, ingeniculans ad pedes Sancti, precatur ut pro eo ad 
Dominum Sanctus fundat precem : qui, ab eo primum pro 
quibusdam suis objurgatus peccatis, pcenitudinem gerens, de 
cetero se emendaturum promisit ; et sic uterque de propriis 
emendatus et sanatus est vitiis. 

18 Simili scientia Sanctus et alio tempore xenium alicujus 
tenacis viri, inter multa cognovit xenia, Diormiti nomine, ad 
Cellam Magnam 19 Deathrib in ejus adventu collecta. 

Haec de beati viri prophetica gratia, quasi de plurimis pauca, 
in hujus libelli textu primi 20 caraxasse sufficiat. Pauca dixi, 
nam hoc de venerabili viro non est dubitandum quod valde 
numerosiora fuerint quae in notitiam hominum, sacramenta 
interius celata, venire nullo modo poterant, quam ea quae, quasi 



1 tUul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. *-* om. C. D. F. S. 

4 elni B 5 exeniis B. D. 6 exenia B. D. 

7 signantur D. 8 exenium D. 9 diu B. 

10 item D. n exenio D. 15J aedha D. 

13 veram C. u veram add. D. 15 sancto add. D. 

10 est D. " exenio D 18.21 mrlm C> D- F> S 

19 dethrib B. 20 B craxasse A. exarasse Colg. Boll. 



148 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER I. 

qusedam parva aliquando stillicidia, veluti per quasdam rimulas 
alicujus pleni vasis ferventissimo novo distillabant vino. Nam 
sancti et apostolici viri, vanam evitantes gloriam, plerumque in 
quantum possunt interna quaedam arcana, sibi intrinsecus a 
Deo manifestata, celare festinant. Sed Deus nonnulla ex eis, 
velint nolint ipsi, divulgat, et in medium quoquo profert modo, 
videlicet glorificare volens glorificantes se Sanctos, hoc est, 
ipsum Dominum, cui gloria in secula 21 seculorum. 22 

23 Huic primo libro 24 hic imponitur terminus ; 25 nunc sequens 
26 orditur 27 liber de virtutum 28 miraculis, 29 quse plerumque etiam 
prophetalis prsescientia 30 comitatur. 

18 - 21 om. C. D. F. S. 22 amen add. B. 23 - 28 rubrica B. 

23 de B. 24 om. B. 25 - 27 capitula secundi libri incipiunt B. 

20 oritur D. 29 - 30 A. C. D. F. S. om. B. 



Seombi |Cibri indpiunt, 

miraruli*. 



PEDE vino quod de aqua factum est. 

De amarissimis alicujus arboris pomis, in dulcedinem per Sancti 
benedictionem versis. 

De terra, post medium aestatis tempus arata et seminata, mensis 
Augusti incipientis exordio maturam messem proferente. 

De morbifera nube, et languentium sanitate. 

De Mauguina sancta virgine, et fraetura coxae ejus sanata. 

De multorum morbis fimbriae vestimenti ejus tactu, in Dorso 
Cete, sanatis. 

De petra salis a Sancto benedicta, quam ignis absumere non 
potuit 

De librariis foliis manu Sancti scriptis, quse aqua nullo modo 
corrumpi potuere. 

De aqua, quae, Sancto orante, ex dura producta est petra. 

De aqua fontana, quam Sanctus ultra Britannicum benedixit 
Dorsum, et sanavit. 

De Sancti periculo in mari, et de magna tempestate in tran- 
quillitatem continue, orante ipso, conversa. 

De altero ejus periculo, et de sancto Cainnecho pro ipso et sociis 
ejus orante. 

De baculo in portu sancti Cainnechi neglecto. 

De Baitheneo et Columbano filio Beognoi, qui a Sancto secun- 

dum, eadem die, sed diversa via, ventum sibi dari postu- 

larunt. 

De daemonis repulsione qui in lactis vasculo latitabat. 

De vasculo quod quidam maleficus, lacte de masculo bove 
expresso, diabolica replevit arte ; sed, Sancto orante, ipsuin 
quod videbatur lac, in sanguinem, hoc est, in naturam 
propriam, versum est. 



150 VITA SANCTI 

De Lugneo Mocumin, quern Sanctus de profluvio sanguinis, qui 
crebro ex naribus ejus profluebat, oratione et digitorum 
tactu sanavit. 

De esoce magDO in fluvio, juxta verbum Sancti, invento. 

De duobus piscibus, illo prophetante, in flumine quod vocatur 
Boo repertis. 

De quodam plebeio qui Nesanus Curvus dicebatur. 
De quodam divite tenacissimo, nomine Uigeno. 

De Columbano seque plebeio viro, cujus pecora admodum pauca 
vir sanctus benedixit ; sed post illius benedictionem usque 
ad centenarium creverunt numerum. 

De interitu Johannis filii Conallis, eadem die qua Sanctum 
spernens dehonoravit. 

De alicujus Feradachi morte, fraudulent viri, a Sancto prsenun- 
ciata. 

De alio persecutore, cujus nomen latine Manus Dextera dicitur. 

De alio innocentium persecutore, qui in Laginensium provincia, 
sicut Annanias coram Petro, eodem momento, a Sancto 
terribiliter objurgatus, cecidit mortuus. 

De apri mortificatione, qui a Sancto eminus cecidit, signo pro- 
stratus Dominicae crucis. 

De alia aquatili bestia, quse, eo orante, et manum e contra 
levante, retro repulsa est ne Lugneo natanti vicino noceret. 

De insulse longe viperinis serpentibus, qui, ex qua die Sanctus 
earn benedixit, nulli hominum nee etiam pecoribus nocere 
potuere. 

De hasta ab eo signata, quae deinceps nullo modo, quamlibet 
fortiter impulsa, alicui potuit nocere animanti. 

De Diormiti segrotantis sanitate. 

De Fenteni filii Aido, in extremis positi, sanitate. 

De puero quern mortuum, in nomine Domini Jesu Christi, in 
regione Pictorum, suscitavit. 

De conflictu ejus contra magum Broichanum, ob ancillae reten- 
tionem ; et de lapide quern Sanctus benedixit, qui in aqua 
quasi pomum supernatavit. 

De beat! viri contra Broichanum magum refragatione, et venti 
contrarietate. 

De spontanea regiae muuitionis portse subita apertione. 
De ecclesias Duorum Agri Eivorum simili reclusione. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. 151 

De alio paupere, plebeio mendico, cui Sanctus, sudem faciens 
benedixit, ad ferarum jugulationem silvestrium. 

De utre lactario, quern unda maris abduxit, et reduxit ad 

terrain. 

De Librano Harundineti sancti prophetatio viri. 
De quadam muliercula, magnas et valde difficiliores parturi- 

tionis tortiones passa, et sanata. 

De conjuge Lugnei odiosi gtibernatoris. 

De Cormaco Nepote Lethani, et ejus navigationibus, sancti 
Columbae prophetatio. 

De venerabilis viri in curru evectione, absque currilium obicum 
communitione. 

De pluvia post aliquot siccitatis menses, beati ob honorem viri, 
super sitientem, Domino donante, terram effusa. 

Miraculum quod mine, Deo propitio, describere incipimus, 
nostris temporibus factum, propriis inspeximus oculis : 

De ventorum flatibus contrariis, venerabilis viri virtute ora- 
tionum, in secundos conversis ventos. 

De mortalitate. 



LIBEK SECUNDUS. DE VIETUTUM MIEACULIS. 



2 g)e fcin0 qwrb be aqua fartttm tst. 

CAP. I. j^LLIO 3 in tempore, cum vir venerandus 4 in 5 Scotia apud 
sanctum 6 Findbarrum episcopum, adhuc juvenis, sapientiam 
sacrse Scripturse addiscens, commaneret, quadam 7 solenni die 
vinum ad 8 sacrificale mysterium casu aliquo minime invenie- 
batur : de cujus defectu cum ministros altaris inter se conque- 
rentes audiret, ad fontem sumpto 9 pergit urceo, ut ad 10 sacrge 
Eucharistise "ministeria aquam, quasi 12 diaconus, fontanam 
"hauriret : ipse quippe illis in diebus erat in diaconatus gradu 
administrans. Vir itaque beatus aquaticurn, quod de latice 
hausit, elementum, invocato nomine 13 Domini 14 Jesu Christi, 
fideliter benedixit, qui in 15 Cana Galilese aquam 16 in 17 vinum 
convertit : quo etiam 18 in 19 hoc operante miraculo, inferior, hoc 
est aquatica natura, in gratiorem, videlicet vinalem, per manus 
prsedicabilis viri conversa est speciem. Vir itaque sanctus, a 
fonte reversus, et ecclesiam intrans, talem juxta altare urceum 
intra se habentem deponit liquorem ; et ad ministros, Habetis, 
ait, vinum, quod Dominus 20 Jesus ad sua misit peragenda 
mysteria. Quo cognito, sanctus cum 21 ministris 22 episcopus 
eximias Deo referunt 23 grates. Sanctus vero juvenis 24 hoc non 
sibimet, sed sancto 25 Vinniano adscribebat episcopo. Hoc 

1 titulus deest A. incipit secundus liber de virtutum miraculis quae 
plenissime plerumque etiam prrescientia prophetalis comitatur B. incipit 
liber secundus de virtutum miraculis C. F. S. sancti columbe add. D. 

2 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 3 om. D. 4 columba add. D. 
5 scothia C. hybernia D. c fenbarrum B. finbarrum D. 

7 solemni A. sollenni D. 8 sacriticii D. 9 om. B. 

10 sacra D. F. n mysteria Boll. 12 diacon A. 

13 om. B. C. H nostri add. D. 15 chana B. 

16 - 17 om. A. 18 - 19 om. C. 19 om. D. 

20 christus C. 21 om. D. 22 episcopo D. 

23 gratia* C. - * columba add. D. 25 A. B. F. S. fmbarro D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMByE. LIBER II. 153 

itaque 26 protum virtutis documentum Christus Dominus per 
suum declaravit discipulum, quod in eadem re, initium ponens 
signorum in 27 Cana Galilese, operatus est per semetipsum. 

28 Hujus, inquam, libelli, quasi qusedam lucerna, illustret exor 
dium, quod per nostrum Columbam diale manifestatum est 
miraculum ; ut deinceps transeamus ad cetera, quae per ipsum 
ostensa sunt, virtutum 29 miracula. 



aliotjtt* arbxrri^ fnirtu amar0 jp&c sanrti bmebiciumim 
itt 



arbor erat valde pomosa prope monasterium CAP. n. 
2 Eoboris Campi, in australi ejus parte; de qua cum incolae loci 
3 quoddam haberent pro nimia fructus amaritudine querimonium, 
quadam die Sanctus 4 ad 6 eam accessit autumnali tempore, 
vidensque lignum incassum abundos habere fructus qui ex eis 
gustantes plus laederent quam delectarent ; 6 sancta elevata 
manu, benedicens ait, In nomine omnipotentis Dei omnis tua 
amaritudo, arbor amara, a te recedat ; tuaque hue usque 
amarissima nunc in dulcissima vertantur poma. Mirum dictu, 
dicto citius, eodemque momento, ejusdem arboris omnia poma, 
amissa amaritudine, in miram, secundum verbum Sancti, versa 
sunt dulcedinem. 



tt in 
rrcante, m^00a, in 



5 in tempore Sanctus 6 suos misit monachos ut de ali- CAP. in. 
cujus plebeii agellulo virgarum fascicules ad hospitium afferrent 
construendum. Qui cum ad Sanctum, 7 oneraria repleta navi de 
supradictis 8 virgularum materiis, reversi venirent, dicerentque 
plebeium ejusdem causa dispendii valde contristatum ; Sanctus 
consequenter prsecipiens 9 dicit, Ne ergo 10 illum scandalizemus 
virum, ad ipsum a nobis bis terni deferantur hordei modii, 
eosdemque his n in diebus arata ipse seminet in terra. Quibus 

26 F. pro turn A. Colg. Boll, primum C. promptum D. 

27 coena male Boll. 28 litera H. majuscula ccerulea B. 28 - 29 om. C. D. F. S. 

1 titul. om., cap. i. continuatur, C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 diarmagh D. 

3 quondam C. 4 - 5 om. D. 6 sanctus D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F, S. Boll. 2 agusti A. 3 mense A. 

4 A. iona B. 5 om> j) o co lumba add. D. 
7 onera D. 8 virgarum D. 9 dixit D. 

16 om. C. n om. D. 



154 VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER II. 

ad plebeium, 12 Findchanum nomine, juxta Sancti jussionem, 
missis, et coram eo cum tali commendatione adsignatis, gra- 
tanter accipiens, ait, Quomodo post medium 13 8esteum tempus 
seges seminata, contra hujus naturam terrse, proficiet ? Marita 
e contra, Fac, ait, secundum Sancti mandatum, cui Dominus 
donabit quodcunque ab eo postulaverit. Sed et qui missi sunt 
simul hoc addiderunt dicendo, Sanctus Columba, qui nos ad te 
cum hoc misit munere, hoc mandatum per nos de tua com- 
mendavit segete, dicens, Homo ille in omnipotentia Dei con- 
fid at : u seges 15 ejus, quamvis de mense Junio 16 duodecim 
prsemissis diebus seminata 17 , in 18 principiis 19 Augusti mensis 
metetur. Obsequitur plebeius 20 arando et seminando ; et mes- 
sem, quam supradicto 21 in tempore 22 contra 23 spem seminavit, 
cum omnium admiratione vicinorum in exordio 19 Augusti 
mensis maturam, juxta verbum Sancti, 24 messuit, 25 in loco terras 
qui dicitur 26 Delcros. 



X 5^ m0rbiera nub*, ,et piurimtfrtim sanitate. 

CAP. iv. JPtLIO 2 itidem 3 in tempore, cum Sanctus in 4 Ioua 5 commo- 
raretur insula, sedens in monticulo qui Latine Munitio Magna 
dicitur, videt ab aquilone nubem densam et 6 pluvialem, de 
7 mari 8 die serena obortam : qua ascendente visa, Sanctus ad 
quendam de suis juxta se monachum sedentem, nomine 9 Sil- 
nanum, 10 filium u Nemani-don 13 Mocusogin, Hsec nubes, ait, 
valde nocua hominibus et pecoribus erit ; hacque die velocius 
trans volans super aliquantam Scotiae partem, u hoc est, ab illo 
rivulo qui dicitur Ailbine usque ad Vadum 15 Clied, pluviam 
vespere distillabit morbiferam, 16 quse gravia 17 et purulenta 
humanis in corporibus, et in pecorum uberibus, 18 nasci faciet 
ulcera ; quibus homines morbidi et pecudes, ilia venenosa gravi- 
tudine usque ad mortem molestati, laborabunt. Sed nos eorum 
miserati subvenire languoribus, Domino miseraate, debemus. 
Tu ergo, 19 Silnane, nunc mecum descendens de monte, naviga- 
tionem praepara crastina die, vita comite et Deo volente, a me 

12 findcanum B. frindehanum C. finchanum D. 13 sestivum C. 
14 - 16 om. C. 16 A. C. quindecim B. D. F. 17 fuerit add. D. 

18 principio D. 19 tamen add. D. agusti A. 2 or an do B.. 

21 om. D. 22 - 23 om. D. ^ viri add. D. 

^-^ om. C. D. F. S. 26 A. B. deleros Colg. Boll. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 om. D. 

4 A. C. F. S. iona B. D. 5 commaneret D. 6 pluialem A. 

7 - 8 meridie C. 9 A. F. S. siluanum B. C. sillanum D. 

10.13 (ynit Q D. j\ s. n nemai don A. n - 13 nemaidonmocusogin B. 

14 - 15 om. C. D. F. S. 15 cleeth B. 16 et D. 17 om. D. 

18 qu add. D. 19 A. F. S. siluane B. C. sillane D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 155 

pane accepto, Dei invocato nomine 20 benedicto, quo in 21 aqua 
intincto, homines ea conspersi, et pecora, celerem recuperabunt 
salutem. Quid moramur ? Die crastina, his quae necessaria 
erant citius prseparatis, 22 Silnanus, accepto de manu Sancti 
pane benedicto, in pace enavigavit. Cui Sanctus, a se eadem 
emigranti hora, 23 addit hoc 24 consolatorium verbum, dicens, 
Confide, fili, ventos habebis secundos et prosperos die noctuque, 
usque 25 dum ad illam pervenias regionem 26 quse dicitur Ard 
27 Ceannachte, ut languentibus ibidem celerius cum salubri sub- 
venias pane. Quid plura ? 28 Silnanus, verbo obsecutus Sancti, 
prospera et 29 celeri 30 navigatione, auxiliante Domino, ad supra 
memoratam perveniens partem illius regionis, plebem de qua 
Sanctus prsedixerat devastatam nubis prsedictse morbifera re- 
periit pluvia 31 superpluente, citius 32 prsecurrentis. Inprimisque 
bis terni viri in eadem mari vicina domo reperti in extremis 
morte positi appropinquante, ab eodem 33 Silnano aqua benedic- 
tionis aspersi, in eodem 34 die opportunius sanati sunt. Cujus 
subitse sanationis rumor, per totam illam, morbo 35 pestilentiore 
vastatam, regionem cito divulgatus, onmem morbidum ad sancti 
Columbse legatum invitavit populum ; qui, juxta Sancti man- 
datum, homines et pecora pane 36 intincta benedicto aqua con- 
spersit, et continuo plenam recuperantes salutem, homines, cum 
pecudibus salvati, Christum in sancto Columba cum eximia 
gratiarum actione laudarunt. In hac 37 itaque suprascripta 
narration e, ut sestimo, duo hsec manifeste pariter 38 comitantur ; 
hoc est, gratia prophetationis de nube, et virtutis miraculum in 
eegrotantium 39 sanitate. Hsec per omnia esse verissima, supra- 
dictus 40 Silnanus, Christi miles, sancti legatus Columbse, coram 
41 Segineo abbate et ceteris testatus est senioribus. 



Jlaimmi #lia qme inhabitateat in 
ffimrmn 



in 5 tempore Sanctus, 6 cum in 7 Ioua demoraretur CAP. v. 
insula, prima diei hora, quendam 8 advocans fratrem, 9 Lugaidum 

20 ad scotiam transfretato add. S. 21 aquam C. 

22 A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D. 23 addidit D. 

24 etiam add. C. 2 * om. A. 26 - 27 om. C. D. F. S. 

27 cenacte B. 2 A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D. 

29 sceleri B. so enavigatione D. 3l superfluente C. 

32 prsecurrens F. 33 A. B. F. S. siluano C. sillano D. 

34 om. B. 35 pestilencie B. 36 A. B. F. intincto C. D. 

37 equidem D. 3 comittuntur B. 39 sanctitate C. 

40 A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D. 41 segeneo C. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 mauguina B. 

3 loco qui scottice dicitur add. B. clocher B. 4 - 5 om. D. 

6 columba add. D. 7 A. C. F. S. iona B. D. 8 advocat F. 

9 lugaidium B. lugidum D. 



156 VITA SANCTI COLUMI3/E. LIBEK II. 

nomine, 10 cujus cognomentmn Scotice Lathir n dicitur; et 
taliter eum compellat, dicens, Praepara cito ad 12 Scotiam cele- 
rem navigationem, nam mihi valde est necesse te usque ad 
13 Clocherum 14 filiorum 15 Daimeni destinare legatum. In hac 
enim praeterita nocte, casu aliquo, 16 Maugina, sancta virgo, 
17 filia 18 Daimeni, ab oratorio post missam domum reversa, titu-. 
bavit, coxaque ejus in duas confracta est partes. Haec saepius 
meum, inclamitans, nomen commemorat, a Domino sperans se 
accepturam per me consolationem. 19 Quidplura? 20 Lugaido 
obsecundanti, et consequenter emigranti, Sanctus pineam tradit 
cum benedictione 21 capsellam, dicens, Benedictio, quae in hac 
22 capsellula continetur, quando ad 23 Mauginam pervenies visi- 
tandam, in 24 aquae vasculum intingatur, eademque benedic- 
tionis aqua super ejus infundatur coxam ; et statim, invocato 
Dei nomine, coxale conjungetur os, et densabitur; et sancta 
virgo plenam recuperabit salutem. Et hoc Sanctus 25 addit, En 
ego 26 coram in 27 hujus 28 capsae operculo numerum viginti trium 
annorum 29 describo, quibus sacra virgo in hac prsesenti, 30 post 
eandem 31 salutem, victura est vita. 32 Quse omnia sic plene 
expleta sunt, sicuti a Sancto praedicta : nam statim ut 33 Lu- 
gaidus ad sanctam pervenit virginem, aqua benedicta, sicut 
Sanctus commendavit, perfusa coxa, sine ulla morula conden- 
sato osse, plene sanata est ; et in adventu ^legati sancti Col- 
umbae cum ingenti gratiarum actione gavisa, viginti tribus annis, 
secundum Sancti prophetiam, post sanitatem, in bonis actibus 
permanens, vixit. 



l.e his qnx in glxrrsxr 2 dtate 8 jttraxt znnt btb.er0.anim 



CAP. vi. ^SIIE vitas praedicabilis, 4 sicuti nobis ab expertis traditumi 
est, diversorum languores infirmorum, invocato Christi nomine, 
illis in diebus sanavit, quibus, ad regum pergens condictum in 
5 Dorso 6 Cette, brevi commoratus est tempore. Nam aut sanctse 

10 - n om. C. D. F. S. 12 hyberniam D, 13 chiliocherum C. clochor D. ! 

14 15 om. C. D. F. S. 16 inauguina B. magnia D. 

17 - 18 om. C. D. F. S. 19 et add. D. 20 luigido D. 

21 capsulani D. 22 capsula D. 23 mauguinam B. maguiani D. 

21 aqua C. a > addidit D. 26 A. B. ponam C. Colg. Boll, dico D. : 

27 ejus B. 28 capsulse C. 29 B. om. A. C. D. F. S. 

30 vita add. S. 31 om. S. 32 ponam add. S. 

33 lugidus D. 34 om. C. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 cete B. 3 peracta B. 

4 columba add. D. 5 6 colle qui vocatur druim chead D. 

6 cete B. caetae C. cettae F. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMILE. LIBER IT. 157 

manus protensione, ant aqua ab eo benedicta, aegroti plures 
aspersi, aut etiam fimbriae ejus tactu 7 amphibali, aut alicujus 
rei, sails videlicet vel panis, benedictione accepta, et lymphis 
intincta, plenam credentes recuperarunt salutem. 



pttra #ali0 a s&ndo btntoidz, xjuam igni0 &b#nmer 
non potttit 



itidem in tempore, 3 Colgu filius Cellachi 4 postulatam CAP. VIT. 
5 a Sancto 6 petram 7 salis 8 benedictam accipit, sorori et suae 
nutrici 9 profuturam, 10 quse ophthalmias laborabat valde gravi 
11 languore. Talem eulogiam eadem soror et nutricia de mami 
fratris accipiens, in pariete super lectum suspendit; casuque 
post aliquantos contigit dies, ut idem viculus, cum supradictae 
domuncula feminae, flamma vastante, totus concremaretur. 
Mirum dictu, illius parietis particula, ne beati viri in ea de- 
periret suspensa benedictio, post totam ambustam domum, stans 
illsesa permansit; nee ignis ausus est attingere binales, in 
quibus 12 talis pendebat 13 salis 14 petra, sudes. 



$ibrarixr folio 0anti mantt Ibtzvciyto, 
rorrumpi non pxrttut. 



2 miraculum asstimo non tacendum, quod aliquando CAP. vm. 
factum est per contrarium elementum. Multorum namque 
transcursis annorum circulis post beati 3 ad Dominum transitum 
viri, quidam juvenis de equo lapsus in flumine, 4 quod Scotice 
5 Boend 6 vocitatur, mersus et mortuus, viginti sub aqua diebus 
permansit ; qui, sicuti sub 7 ascella, cadens, libros in pelliceo 
reconditos sacculo habebat, ita etiam post supra memoratum 
dierum numerum est repertus, sacculum cum libris inter 
8 brachium et latus continens ; cujus etiam ad aridam reportato 
cadavere, et aperto sacculo, folium sancti Columbae sanctis 
scriptum 9 digitulis, inter aliorum folia librorum non tantum 



7 C. D. anfibali A. B. (vid. var. led. 12, p. 117, supra] amfibali F. ansibali 
Colg. ainphilabi Boll. 

1 titul. om. 0. D. F. S. Boll, in gmbus cap. v. continuatur. 
>2A om. D. > colgiu B. 5 quidam homo add. D. 

c columba D. 7 sa i 33 8 benedictum D. 

9 profuturum D. 10 oculorum dolori add. D. 

11 id est oculorum dolore add. C. l 2 tale D. ir> sal D. 14 om. I). 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 ut add , p. 3 co lumbe add. D. 

4 - om. C. D. F. S. 5 bofind B. 7 ase n a C. assella D. axilla Boll. 

8 mamnn D. 9 digitis D. 



158 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBEE II. 

corrupta sed et putrefacta, inventum est 10 siccum n et nullo 
modo corruptum, ac si in 12 scriniolo esset reconditum. 



l ^z alixr Jfttraotb in xz 0imili 

in tempore, hymnorum liber septimaniorum sancti 
Columbse manu descriptus, de cujusdam pueri de ponte elapsi 
humeris, cum pelliceo in quo inerat sacculo, in quodam partis 
Laginorum fluvio submersus cecidit. Qui videlicet libellus, a 
Natalitio Domini usque ad Paschalium consummationem 
dierum in aquis permanens, postea in ripa fluminis a feminis 
quibusdam ibidem deambulantibus repertus, ad quendam 
logenanum presbyterum, gente Pictum, cujus prius juris erat, in 
eodem, non solum madefacto, sed etiam putrefacto, portatur 
sacculo. Quern scilicet sacculum idem logenanus aperiens, 
suum incorruptum libellum invenit, et ita nitidum et siccum, 
ac si in scrinio tanto permansisset tempore, et nunquam in 
aquas cecidisset. Sed et alia de libris manu sancti Columbas 
2 caraxatisj3imilia ab expertis indubitanter didicimus in diversis 
acta locis : qui scilicet Kbri, in aquis mersi, nullo modo corrumpi 
potuere. De 3 supra memorato vero 4 Iogenani libro a viris 
quibusdam veracibus et perfectis bonique testimonii, sine ulla 
ambiguitate, relationem accepimus ; qui eundem libellum, post 
tot supradictos submersionis dies, candidissimum et lucidissi- 
mum considerarunt. 

Hsec duo, quamlibet in rebus parvis peracta, et per contraria 
ostensa elementa, ignem scilicet et aquam, beati testantur 
honorern viri, et quanti et qualis meriti apud habeatur 
5 Dominum. 



X 5e aqtta xjw^ zzncio xn&ntt tx imra ynrbuda t&t 

CAP. ix. .Ji^T quia paulo superius aquatici facta est mentio elementi, 
silere non debemus 3 etiam alia miracula, quse per Sanctum 
Dominus ejusdem in re, licet diversis temporibus et locis, 
creaturse 4 peregit. 6 Alio namque 6 in tempore, cum Sanctus in 
sua 7 conversaretur 8 peregrinatione, 9 infans 10 ei per parentes n ad 

10 - u om. C. D. 12 scrinio C. D. 

1 capitid. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 craxatis A. 
3 supramemorati B. 4 eugenani A. 5 deutu B. 

IA titul. rubrica script. B. om. C. F. S. 1 - 8 om. D. 

2 petro A. 3 et B. 6 incipit cap. vi. 0. F. S. 
6 om. C. 7 versaretur C. 9 quodam die add. D. 

10 sancto columbe iter agenti D. n est D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMILE. LIBER IT. 159 

baptizandum 12 offertur 13 iter 13 agenti ; et quia in vicinis aqua 
non inveniebatur locis, Sanctus, ad proximam declinans rupem, 
flexis genibus paulisper oravit, et post orationem surgens, 
ejusdem rupis u frontem benedixit; 15 de qua consequenter 
aqua 16 abundanter ebulliens fluxit ; in 17 qua continue 18 infantem 
baptizavit. De quo 19 etiam baptizato haec, vaticinans, intulit 
verba, inquiens, Hie puerulus usque 20 in extremam 21 longaevus 
vivet setatem ; in annis juvenilibus carnalibus desideriis satis 
serviturus, et deinceps Christianas usque 22 in exitum militias 
mancipandus, in bona senectute ad Dominum emigrabit. Quae 
omnia eidem viro juxta Sancti contigerunt vaticinium. 23 Hic 
erat 24 Lugucencalad, cujus parentes fuerant in 25 Artdaib 
Muirchol, ubi 26 hodieque 27 fonticulus, ^sancti nomine Columbee 
^pollens, cernitur. 



alia tnaltjjna fcrntana aqua xjwam toir b*at0 in Jlidxmttn 
regioue bentbtxit. 



in 3 tempore, vir beatus, 4 cum in Pictorum provincia .CAP. x. 
per aliquot demoraretur dies, audiens in plebe gentili de alio 
fonte divulgari famam, quern quasi 5 deum stolidi homines, 
diabolo eorum obcsecante sensus, venerabantur ; 6 nam de eodem 
7 fonticulo bibentes, aut in eo manus vel pedes de industria 
lavantes, daemoniaca, Deo permittente, percussi arte, aut 
8 leprosi, aut lusci, aut etiam debiles, aut quibuscunque aliis 
infestati infirmitatibus 9 revertebantur. Ob quas omnia seducti 
gentiles divinum fonti deferebant honorem. Quibus compertis, 
Sanctus alia die intrepidus accessit ad fontem. Quod videntes 
magi, quos 10 S8epe ipse confuses et victos a se repellebat, valde 
gavisi sunt, scilicet putantes eum similia illius nocuaa tactu 
aquae passurum. Hie vero imprimis elevata manu sancta, cum 
invocatione Christi nominis, manus lavat et pedes ; n tum 
deinde cum sociis de eadem, a se benedicta, 12 bibit. Ex illaque 
die dsemones ab eodem recesserunt fonte, et non solum nulli 

12 oblatus D. 13 om. D. 14 fontem C. 

15 ex qua quidem rupe aqua profluit add. D. 16 - 17 om. D. 

18 infantuluin D. ly et C. 20 ad C. 

21 B. longeus A. vide var. lect. 26, p. 141. 22 ad B. 

23 - 26 om. C. D. F. S. 24 ligu cencalad A. lugucen calath B. 

25 ardaib muircol B. 27 et qui add C. qui add. D. 

28 adhuc add. C. D. F. S. 29 ibidem add. C, D. F. S. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll., cap. vi. continual ur. 2 3 om. D. 

4 columba add. D. 5 divinum C. D. c - 9 om. Colg. Bo]l. 

7 fonte D. 8 lepri A. 10 om. D. 

11 tune D. 12 aqua add. C. aqua manu corratoris suprascriptum F. 



1 60 VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER II. 

nocere permissus est, sed etiam, post Sancti benedictionem et 
in eo lavationein, multae in populo infirmitates per eundem 
sanatse sunt fontem. 

l ]Bt btzti toiri in mart ymtnlo, ti tempwrtati* 2 to xrrante 
0ttbita 0*fo attune. 

CAP. xi. 3 JSLLIO in tempore, 4 vir sanctus 5 in mari periclitari ccepit ; 
totum 6 namque vas navis, valde concussum, magnis undarum 
cumulis fortiter feriebatur, grandi undique insistente ventorum 
tempestate. Nautse 7 tum forte Sancto, 8 sentinam cum illis 
exhaurire conanti, 9 aiunt, Quod nunc agis non magnopere nobis 
10 proficit periclitantibus ; exorare potius debes pro pereuntibus. 
Quo audito, aquam cessat amaram exinanire, 11 hininglas ; dul- 
cem vero et intentam precem coepit ad Dominum fundere. 
Mirum dictu, eodem horse momento, quo Sanctus, in prora 
stans, extensis ad coelum palmis, Omnipotentem exoravit, tota 
aeris tempestas et maris saevitia, dicto citius sedata, cessavit, et 
statim serenissima tranquillitas 12 subsecuta est. Qui vero 
13 navi 14 inerant, obstupefacti, cum magna admiratione, referentes 
gratias, glorificaverunt 15 Dominum in sancto et prsedicabili 
viro. 

L $t alixr tm in mari 0imili 



CAP. xii. ^i-LIO 4 quoque 4 in tempore, saeva nimis insistente et peri- 
culosa tempestate, sociis, ut pro eis Sanctus Dominum exoraret, 
5 inclamitantibus ; hoc eis dedit responsum, dicens, Hac in die 
non est meum pro vobis in hoc periculo constitutis orare, sed 
est abbatis 6 Cainnichi, sancti viri. Mira dicturus sum. Eadem 
hora sanctus 7 Cainnichus, in suo 8 conversans monasterio, quod 
9 Latine Campulus Bovis dicitur, 10 Scotice vero n Ached-bou, 
Spiritu revelante Sancto, supradictam sancti Columbae interiore 
cordis aure vocem audierat ; et cum 12 forte post nonam coapisset 
horam in 13 refectorio 14 eulogiam frangere, ocius deserit mensu- 
lam, 15 unoque 16 in pede inhserente calceo, et altero 17 pro nimia 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 am. B. 3 - 4 om. D. 

5 columba aliquando add. D. 6 que D. 

7 - 9 ad sanctum exhaurientem secum aquam adeunt D. 8 om. C. 

10 proficitis D. n hinin glas A. hinninglas B. om, C. D. F. S. 

12 supersecuta C. 13 u in navi eraut C. D. F. S. 15 deum B. D. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 in vortice brecain add. B. 

5 cap. vii. contin. C. D. F. S. 4 om. D. 5 clamitantibus D. 

6 cahinnichi C. cainnici D. 7 cahinnichus C. 8 commanens D. 
9 - T1 scotice dicitur achadh bo .i. ager vacarum D. 10 - 11 om. C. F. S. 

11 A. acbetbbou B. 12 om. D. 13 oratorio C. D. 

14 eylogiam sic cap. vii. (p. 157) supra (litera Y ex <jra>ca Y efficta) A. 

15 in uno C. D. 16 om. B. 17 ne C. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 161 

festinatione relicto, festinanter 18 pergit hac cum voce ad 
ecclesiam, Non est nobis nunc 19 temporis prandere quando in 
mari periclitatur navis sancti Columbae. Hoc enim momento, 
ipse 20 hujus nomen Cainnichi ingeminans commemorat, ut pro 
eo et sociis periclitantibus 21 Christum 22 exoret. Post hsec illius 
verba oratorium ingressus, flexis genibus paulisper oravit; 
ejusque orationem exaudiente Domino, illico tempestas cessavit, 
et mare valde tranquillum factum est. Turn deinde sanctus 
Columba, Cainnichi ad ecclesiam 23 properationem in spiritu 
videns, quamlibet longe conversantis, mirabiliter hoc de puro 
pectore profert verbum, dicens, Nunc cognovi, 24 Cainniche, 
quod Deus tuam exaudierit precem ; nunc valde nobis proficit 
tuus ad ecclesiam velox cum uno calceamento cursus. In hoc 
itaque tali miraculo amborum, ut credimus, oratio cooperata est 
Sanctorum. 



r, n 

in tempore, idem supra memoratus Cainnichus suum, CAP. xm. 
a portu 3 Iouae insulse ad 4 Scotiam navigare incipiens, baculum 
secum portare oblitus 5 est ; qui scilicet ejus baculus, post ipsius 
egressum in litore repertus, sancti in manum traditus est 
Columbse ; quemque, domum reversus, in oratorium portat, et 
ibidem solus in oratione diutius demoratur. Cainnichus pro- 
inde ad 6 0idecham appropinquans insulam, subito de sua obli- 
vione compunctus, interius perculsus est. Sed post modicum 
intervallum, de navi descendens, et in terra cum oratione genua 
flectens, baculum, quern in portu 7 louse insulse oblitus post se 
reliquit, super cespitem terrulse 8 Aithche ante se 9 invenit. De 
cujus etiam effecta divinitus evectione valde est miratus cum 
gratiarum in Deo actione. 



e jtaitkentcr zt Cxrlumban0 filixr 

eab^m sibi bu benttim $K0&ipmm a Domino per teti biri xrca- 

tixrnem bxrnari 



quoque in tempore, superius 4 memorati sancti viri ad CAP. xiv. 
5 Sanctum venientes, ab eo simul unanimes 6 postulant ut ipse a 

18 pen-exit D. J tempus C. 20 ejus B. ora. C. D. 

21 om. C. D. 22 oraret D. 23 prasparationem C. 

24 cainneche B. cahinniclie C. 

1 capitul totum om. C. D. F. S. titul om. Boll. 2 cainechi B. 

3 ione B. 4 scociam B. 5 om. B. 

6 A. ouidecham B. 7 ione B. 8 ouidechae B. 9 positum add. B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 beognoi B. 3 - 4 aliquando D. 

5 beatam columbam D. 6 postulabant D. 

L 



162 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 

Domino 7 postulans 7 impetraret prosperum crastina die venturn 
sibi dari diversa emigraturis via. Quibus Sanctus respondens, 
hoc dedit responsum, 8 Mane crastina die, 9 Baitheneus, a portu 
10 Iouae enavigans insulse, flatum u habebit secundum usquequo 
ad portum perveniat Campi 12 Lunge. Quod ita, juxta Sancti 
verbum, Dominus donavit : nam 9 Baitheneus plenis eadem die 
velis magnum totumque pelagus usque ad 13 Ethicam transme- 
avit terram. 14 Hora vero ejusdem diei tertia, vir venerandus 
Columbanum 15 advocat presbyterum dicens, Nunc Baitheneus 
prospere optatum pervenit ad portum : ad navigandum te 16 hodie 
17 pr8epara; mox 18 Dominus ventum convertet in aquilonem. 
Cui sic prolato beati viri verbo eadem hora auster obsecundans 
19 ventus se in aquiloneum convertit flatum ; et ita in eadem die 
uterque vir sanctus, alter ab altero in pace aversus, Baitheneus 
mane ad 20 Ethicam terram, Columbanus post meridiem 21 Hiber- 
niam incipiens appetere, plenis enavigavit velis et flatibus 
secundis. Hoc illustris viri virtute orationum, Domino donante, 
effectum est miraculum ; quia, sicut scriptum est, Omnia possi- 
bilia sunt credenti. Post ilia in die sancti Columbani egres- 
sum, sanctus hoc de illo propheticum Columba protulit verbum, 
Vir sanctus Columbanus, cui emigranti benediximus, 22 nusquam 
in hoc saeculo faciem videbit meam. Quod ita post expletum 
est, nam eodem anno sanctus Columba ad Dominum transiit. 



rjtti in Ikctari0 ktitabat 

CAP. xv. 2 j5Cuo 3^ n 4tempore, quidam juvenis, Columbanus nomine, 
5 Nepos 6 Briuni, 7 ad januam 8 tugurioli subito perveniens res- 
titit, in quo vir beatus 9 scribebat. Hie idem, post vaccarum 
reversus mulsionem, in dorso portans vasculum novo plenum 
lacte, dicit ad Sanctum, ut juxta 10 morem tale benediceret onus. 
Sanctus turn ex adverse eminus in aere signum salutare manu 
elevata depinxit, quod illico valde concussum est, 11 gergennaque 
operculi, per sua bina foramina retrusa, longius projecta est, 
12 operculum terra tenus cecidit, lac ex 13 majore rnensura in 
solum defusum est. Juvenculus vas, cum parvo quod remans- 

7 ora. D. 8 om. B. 9 battheneus C. baithenus D. 

10 ione B. D. n habebat B. 12 lugne D. 

13 aethicam A. 14 hie D. 15 om. D. 

16 om. D. 17 propera D. 18 enim add. D. 19 ventis A. 

20 etheticam A. 21 everniam A. 22 nunquam E. 

i titul om.C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 -* om. D. 3 qu0 que add. C. 

fi - 6 om. C. D. F. S. 7 qui add. C. D. 8 B. C. D. F. S. tegorioli A. ; 

9 colnmba erat D. 10 om. D. n gergenaqite D. 

12 vasque D. 13 more D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBEll II. 1G3 

erat lactis, super fundum in terra deponit, genua suppliciter 
14 flectit. Ad quem Sanctus, Surge, ait, 15 Columbane, hodie in 
tua operatione negligenter egisti, dsemonem enim in fundo vacui 
latitantem vasculi, impresso Dominicee crucis signo, ante 16 infu- 
sionem lactis, non effugasti : cujus videlicet signi nunc virtu- 
tern non sustinens, tremefactus, toto pariter turbato vase, velo- 
citer cum lactis effusione aufugit. 17 Huc ergo ad me proprius 
vasculum, ut illud benedicam, approxima. Quo facto, Sanctus 
semivacuum 18 quod 19 benedixerat vas, 20 eodem momento divini- 
tus repletum repertum est ; parvumque quod prius in fundo 
vasis remanserat, sub sanctse manus benedictione, usque ad 
summam citius excreverat. 



^zscnlo qnob -quifoam maleffni* nrrmira <Silnmm Izdt 
fo mnscnla bobt exyxussa ylcberat. 

2 in domo alicujus plebeii divitis, 3 qui in monte Cainle CAP. xvi. 
commorabatur, Foirtgirni nomine, factum 4 traditur. Ubi 5 cum 
Sanctus hospitaretur, inter rusticanos contendentes duos, quo 
rum prius adventum prsescivit, recta judicatione judicavit : 
unusque ex eis, qui maleficus erat, 6 a Sancto jussus, de bove 
masculo, qui prope erat, lac arte diabolica expressit: quod 
Sanctus, non ut ilia confirmaret maleficia, fieri jussit, quod 
absit ; sed ut ea coram multitudine destrueret. Vir itaque 
beatus vas, ut videbatur tali plenum lacte, sibi ocius dari popo- 
scit ; et hac cum sententia benedixit dicens, Modo probabitur 
non esse hoc verum, quod 7 putatur, lac, sed dsemonum fraude, 
ad decipiendos homines, decoloratus sanguis : et continue lac- 
teus ille color in naturam versus 8 est propriam, hoc est, in 
sanguinem. Bos quoque, qui per unius horse momentum, turpi 
macie tabidus et maceratus, erat morti proximus, benedicta a 
Sancto aqua superfusus, mira 9 sub celeritate sanatus est. 

1 ^e Jin%nto JExrmmin. 

Cl^UADAM die quidambonse indolis juvenis,Lugneus nomine, CAP. xvu. 
qui postea senex in monasterio 2 Elenae insulse prsepositus erat, 

14 flexit C. D. columba C. D. 1G effusionem D. 

17 hoc C. 18 om. C. D. i 9 benedixit D. 20 eodemque C. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 factnm subsequetis C. D. 

3 - 4 om. C. D. F. S. 5 om> lx o et a ^ p. 

7 putabatur B. C. D. F. 8 om. B. C. 9 om. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. B. helene C. D. F. S. 



164 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 

ad Sanctum veniens, 3 queritur de 4 profluvio sanguinis, qui 
crebro per multos menses de naribus ejus immoderate proflue- 
bat. Quo propius accito, Sanctus ambas 5 ipsius nares binis 
manus dexterse digitulis constringens benedixit. Ex qua hora 
benedictionis, nunquam sanguis de naso ejus usque ad extremum 
distillavit diem. 



bt&to toirxr gptti&liter a JBta 

xvni JP^tJLIO 5 in tempore, cum praedicabilis viri 6 sociales, strenui 
piscatores, quinos in rete pisces cepissent in fluvio Sale 7 piscoso, 
Sanctus ad eos, 8 iterato, ait, Kete in flumen mittite, et statim 
invenietis grandem, quern mihi Dominus prseparavit, piscem. 
Qui, verbo Sancti obtemperantes, mirae magnitudinis traxerunt 
in 9 retiaculo 10 esocem a Deo sibi prseparatum. 

CAP. xix. J^LLIO quoque in tempore, cum Sanctus juxta Cei Stagnum 
aliquantis demoraretur diebus, comites ire ad piscandum 
cupientes retardavit, dicens, Hodie et eras nullus in flumine 
reperietur piscis : tertia mittam vos die, et invenietis binos 
grandes, in rete retentos, fluminales 12 esoces. Quos ita post 
duas dieculas, rete mittentes, duos rarissimse magnitudinis, in 
fluvio qui dicitur 13 Bo reperientes, ad terrain traxerunt. In his 
duabus memoratis piscationibus, miraculi apparet virtus et 
prophetica simul praescientia comitata, pro quibus Sanctus et 
socii Deo grates eximias 14 reddiderunt. 

^z Jtoattcr 2 nttbtf xjtit in m xtQiont 3 rxrnber0abatur 

i rxmtermina. 



CAP. xx. llJC Nesanus, cum esset valde inops, sanctum alio tempore 
gaudenter hospitio recepit virum. Cui cum hospitaliter 
secundum vires, unius noctis spatio ministrasset, Sanctus ab eo 

3 columbam add. D. 4 fluvio D. 5 illius F. 

1 titul. om. C. D. E. S. Boll. 

2 - 3 esoce magno in fluvio sale juxta verbum sancti inveiito B. 

4 in C. D. F. S. hoc capUul. post ii. 27 subsequitur, et ambo in lib. iii. 
amandantur. 4 - 5 quodam D. 6 scotiales C. D. F. S. 

7 piscosos D. 8 om. D. 9 rethe "D. 

10 essocem A. F. chocem C. 

11 capit. novum orditur, cui prcefigitur titulus de duobus piscibus illo pro- 
phetante in flumine quod vocitatur boo repertis B. 

n - 14 om. 0. D. F. S. 12 essoces A. sic supra. 13 boo B. 

. J titul. et cap. totum om. C. D. F. S. 2 cervo B. 3 conversabat B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 165 

4 inquirit, cujus boculas numeri haberet: ille ait, Quinque. 
Sanctus consequenter, Ad me, ait, adduc, ut eas benedicam. 
Quibus adductis, et elevata maim sancta benedictis, Ab hac die 
tuse paueulse quinque vacculse crescent, ait Sanctus, usque ad 
centum et quinque vaccarum numerum. Et quia idem Nesanus 
homo plebeius erat, cum uxore et filiis, hoc etiam ei vir beatus 
benedictionis augmentum intulit, dicens, Erit semen tuum in 
filiis et nepotibus benedictum. Quse omnia plene, juxta ver- 
Tbum Sancti, sine ulla expleta sunt imminutione. 

|_ 5 <H^E quodam viro divite tenacissimo, nomine 6 Uigenio, qui CAP - XXL 
sanctum Columbam despexerat nee eum hospitio recepit, hanc 
e contrario protulit prophetalem sententiam, inquiens, Illius 
autem avari divitise, qui Christum in peregrinis hospitibus 
sprevit, ab hac die paulatim imminuentur, et ad nihilum redi- 
gentur; et ipse mendicabit; et filius ejus cum semivacua de 
domo in domum perula discurret; et, ab aliquo ejus emulo 
securi in fossula excussorii percussus, morietur. Quse omnia 
de utroque, juxta sancti prophetiam viri, plene sunt 7 expleta.] 



xqnt ptebdxr toirxr, otju0 psccrra abmxrtmm 
pamra toir 0artjcttt# bmebtxii ; &eb pxrst illms> ben.ebirii.cmem 
tittle ab centenarmm nrefcertmt tmmerum. 

.J9LLIO 2 quoque 8 tempore, vir beatus 4 quadam nocte, cum CAP. xxn. 
apud 5 supra 6 memoratum Columbanum 7 tunc temporis inopem, 
bene 7 hospitaretur, mane primo Sanctus, 8 sicuti superius de 
Nesano commemoratum 9 ( est, de quantitate et 10 qualitate sub- 
stantiae plebeium hospitem > 11 interrogat. Qui interrogatus, 
Quinque, ait, tantummodo habeo 12 vacculas; quse, si eas bene- 
dixeris, in majus crescent. Quas illico, a Sancto jussus, 
adduxit, 13 similique modo, ut supra de Nesani quinis dictum 
est 14 vacculis, et hujus Columbani 15 boculas quinales sequaliter 
benedicens, inquit, Centenas et quinque, Deo donante, habebis 
vaccas, et erit in filiis et nepotibus tuis florida benedictio. 
Quse omnia, juxta 16 beati viri prophetationem, in agris et 
pecoribus ejus et prole, plenissime adimpleta sunt ; mirumque 

4 requirit Boll. 

5 - 7 om. A. sine rubrica, paragrapho, titulo, aut quavls distinctione, tenon 
prcecedentium adhceret B. 6 ingenio B. nigeno in capitulat. p. 150 supra. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 in add. B. 

4 colmnba add. D. 6 -6 O m. C. D. F. S. 7 hospitaret C. 

8 - 9 om. C. D. F. S. 10 de add. D. " interrogavit D. 

la vaccas D. w.14 ow . C . D. F. S. buculas C. D. 1 sancti D. 



166 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^). LIBER II. 

in modum numerus a Sancto prsefinitus supra 17 memoratis 
ambobus 18 viris, in centenario vaccarum et quinario expletus 
numero, nullo modo superaddi potuit: nam ilia, quse supra 
prasfinitum excedebant numerum, diversis prserepta casibus, 
nusquam comparuerant, excepto eo quod aut in usus proprios 
familise, aut 19 etiam in opus eleemosynee, expendi poterat. In 
hac itaque narratione, ut in ceteris, 20 virtutis miraculum et 
prophetia simul aperte ostenditur : nam in magna vaccarum 
ampliatione benedictionis pariter et orationis virtus apparet, et 
in prsefinitione numeri prophetalis praescientia. 



intmtu rj 

CAP. ~^OL IE venerandus 4 supra memoratum Columbanum, queni de 
xxin. paupere virtus benedictionis 5 ejus 6 ditem fecit, valde dfligebat; 
quia ei multa pietatis officia praebebat. Erat autem illo 7 in 
tempore quidam malefactor homo, bonorum persecutor, 8 nomine 
9 Joan, films Conallis filii 10 Domnallis, de regio n Gabrani ortus 
genere. Hie supradictum 12 Columbanum, sancti amicum 
Columbse, persequebatur ; domumque ejus, omnibus in ea 
inventis, devastaverat, ereptis, non semel, sed bis inimiciter 
agens. Unde forte non immerito eidem maligno accidit viro, 
ut tertia vice post ejusdem domus tertiam deprsedationem, 
beatum virum, quern quasi longius 13 positum dispexerat, 
proprius appropinquantem, ad navem revertens prseda onustus 
cum sociis, obvium haberet. Quern cum Sanctus de suis 
corriperet malis, praedamque deponere rogans suaderet, ille, 
immitis 14 et 15 insuadibilis permanens, Sanctum dispexit, 
navimque cum prasda ascendens, beatum virum subsannabat et 
deridebat. Quern Sanctus ad mare 16 usque 17 prosecutus est, 
vitreasque intrans aquas usque ad genua aequoreas, levatis ad 
ccelum 18 ambis manibus, Christum intente precatur, qui suos 
glorificantes se glorificat electos. 19 Est vero ille portus, in 
quo post egressum persecutoris stans paulisper Dominum 
exorabat, in loco qui Scotice 20 vocitatur 21 Ait-Chambas 22 Art- 

17.18 memorato viro C. D. F. S. 19 om, C. <2 virtutibus C. 

1 tiiul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 - 3 interitu iohannis filii couallis ea<leui die qua sanctum speruens dchono- 
ravit B. 4 columba add. D. 5 om. B. 

6 divitem C. D. 7 om. D. s- 10 om. C. D. F. S. 

9 iohannes B. 10 domnalli B. " om. G. D. F. S. 

12 coin A. 13 om. C. D. F. S. H om. G. 

15 insuadibiliter C. 1G om. D. 17 secutus D. 

18 A. B. ambabus C. D. S. manu correctors F. 1J - 22 om. C. D. F. S. 

20 vocatur B. 2L ~- 2 A. ad cambasi arcl muircoll B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER II. 167 

muirchol. 23 Turn 24 proinde Sanctus, expleta oratione, ad 
aridam reversus, in eminentiore cum comitibus 25 sedet loco : ad 
quos ilia in hora formidabilia valde profert verba, dicens, Hie 
26 miserabilis 27 humuncio, qui Christum in suis dispexit servis, 
ad portum, a quo nuper coram vobis emigravit, nunquam 
revertetur ; sed nee ad alias, quas appetit, terras, subita prse- 
ventus morte, cum suis 28 perveniet malis cooperatoribus. 
Hodie. quam mox videbitis, de nube 29 a borea 30 orta immitis 
immissa procella 31 eum cum sociis 32 submerget; nee de eis 
etiam unus 33 remanebit 34 fabulator. Post aliquantum paucu- 
larum ^ interventum morarum, die serenissima, et ecce de mari 
36 oborta, sicut Sanctus 37 dixerat, nubes, cum 38 magno fragore 
venti emissa, raptorem cum prseda inter Maleam et 39 Colosum 
40 insulas 41 inveniens, subito turbato 42 submersit 43 medio mari : 
nee ex eis, juxta verbum Sancti, qui navi 44 inerant 45 etiam unus 
^evasit; mirumque in modum, toto circumquaque manente 
tranquillo sequore, talis una rapaces ad inferna submersos pro- 
stravit procella, misere quidem, sed digne. 



Jferabarhxr 0ubita m.arte 

quoque 4 in tempore, vir sanctus, 5 quendam de nobili CAP ; 
Pictorum genere exulem, 6 Tarainum 7 nomine, in manum ali- XXIV 
cujus 8 Feradachi ditis viri, 9 qui in 10 Ilea insula n habitabat, 
diligenter assignans commendavit, ut in ejus comitatu, quasi 
unus de amicis, per aliquot menses conversaretur. Quern cum 
tali commendatione de sancti manu viri suscepisset commen- 
datum, post paucos dies, dolose agens, crudeli eum jussione 
trucidavit. Quod immane scelus cum Sancto a commeantibus 
esset nunciatum, sic respondens profatus est, Non mini sed Deo 
ille infelix homunculus mentitus est, 12 cujus nomen de libro 
vitse delebitur. Haec verba 13 sesteo nunc mediante prolo- 

23 tune D. 24 deinde C. D. 25 suis add. D. sedit B. 

a6 miserabHiter C. 27 homo D. 28 superveniat D. 

29 om. C. so ortam B 31 quge add , D. 

32 emerget D. 33 reme abit C. 34 famulator D. 

35 intervallum D. 3 aborta A. D. 37 prsedixerat B. 

38 magna B. so ^. colosam B. D. colossum C. 

40 insulam C. 41 veniens C. D. 42 mersit D. 

43 in add. D. 44 eraut D. 45 vel C. 4C jam add. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 - 3 alicujus feradachi morte, fraudulent? viri a sancto prsenunciata B. 

4 om. D. 5 co i um ba add. D. ^ om. C. D. F. S. 

8 om. C. D. F. S. 9 -u om. C. D. F. S. 10 ilia B. 

12 ejus C. is aestivo B. C. D. 



1 68 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 

quimur tempore, sed autumnal!, antequam de suilla 14 degustet 
carne, 15 arboreo saginata fructu, subita prseventus morte, ad 
16 infernalia rapietur loca. Haec sancti prophetia viri, cum 
misello 17 nuntiaret homuncioni, despiciens irrisit Sanctum : 
et post dies aliquot autumnalium mensium, eo jubente, 18 scrofa 
nucum impinguata nucleis jugulatur, necdum aliis ejusdem viri 
jugulatis suibus; de qua celeriter exinterata partem sibi in 
veru celerius 19 assari 20 pr8ecipit, ut de ea impatiens 21 homo 
prsegustans, beati viri prophetationem destrueret. Qua vide 
licet assata, dari sibi poposcit aliquam 22 prsegustandam morsus 
particulam; ad quam percipiendam extensam manum prius- 
quam ad os converteret, expirans, mortuus retro in dorsum 
cecidit. Et qui viderant, et qui audierant, valde tremefacti, 
admirantes, Christum in sancto propheta honorificantes glori- 
ficarunt. 



X 5^ alixr 2 qtMrt)am tufatto 

atjns nomm Ratine JEarat* JJextera 

CAP. xxv. ,#H-LIO in tempore, vir beatus, cum alios ecclesiarum perse- 
cutores, in 4 Hinba commoratus insula, excommunicare coepisset, 
filios videlicet Conallis filii Domnaill, quorum unus erat 5 loan, 
de quo supra retulimus ; quidam ex eorundem malefactoribus 
sociis, diaboli instinctu, cum hasta irruit, ut Sanctum inter- 
ficeret. Quod prsecavens unus ex fratribus, 6 Findluganus 
nomine, mori paratus pro sancto viro, cuculla ejus indutus in- 
tercessit. Sed mirum in modum beati viri tale vestimentum, 
quasi qusedam munitissima et impenetrabilis lorica, quamlibet 
fortis viri forti impulsione acutioris hastes, transfigi non potuit, 
sed illsesum permansit; et qui eo indutus erat, intactus et 
incolumis tali protectus est munimento. Ille vero sceleratus, 
qui Manus Dextera, 7 retro repedavit, aestimans quod sanctum 
hasta transfixisset virum. Post ex ea die completum annum, 
cum Sanctus in loua commoraretur insula, Usque in hanc diem, 
ait, integratus est annus, ex qua die Lam-dess, in quantum 
potuit, Findluganum mea jugulavit vice ; sed et ipse, ut 
sestimo, hac 8 in hora jugulatur. Quod juxta Sancti revela- 
tionem eodem momento in ilia insula factum est, quse Latine 

14 gustet C. 15 arborum B. 16 inferna D. 

17 nunciaretur C. D. 18 A. B. C. 19 praeparari Boll. 

20 prsecepit C. 21 om. C. 22 prsegustandum A. 

1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul om. Boll. 2 - 3 om. B. 

4 himba B. A. iohannes B. 6 A. tinducanus B. 

7 dicebatur add. B. latine nominator wo jure Boll. 8 om. B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 169 

Longa vocitari potest: ubi ipse solus Lam-dess, in aliqua 
virorum utrinque acta belligeratione, Cronani filii 9 Baithani 
jaculo transfixus, in nomine, ut fertur, sancti Columbee emisso, 
interierat ; et post ejus interitum, belligerare viri cessarunt. 



J 5b alixr 2 ittb*m hmoceniutm 

vir beatus, adhuc juvenis diaconus, in parte Lagen- CAP. 
ensium, divinam addiscens sapientiam, conversaretur, quadam xxvi. 
accidit die ut 5 homo quidam innocuorum immitis persecutor 
crudelis, quandam in campi planitie filiolam fugientem perse- 
queretur. Quse cum forte 6 Gemmanum senem, supra memo- 
rati 7 juvenis diaconi magistrum, in campo legentem vidisset, ad 
eum recto cursu, quanta valuit velocitate, confugit. Qui, tali 
perturbatus subitatione, Columbam eminus legentem advocat, 
ut ambo, in quantum valuissent, filiam a persequente defender- 
ent. Qui statim superveniens, nulla eis ab eo data reverentia, 
filiam sub vestimentis eorum lancea jugulavit; et relinquens 
jacentem mortuam super pedes eorum, aversus abire coepit. 
Senex 8 tum, valde 9 tristificatus, conversus ad 10 Columbam, 
Quanto, ait, sancte puer Columba, hoc scelus cum nostra de- 
honoratione temporis spatio inultum fieri Judex Justus patietur 
Deus ? Sanctus consequenter hanc in ipsum sceleratorem pro- 
tulit sententiam, dicens, Eadem hora qua interfectse ab eo filise 
anima 11 ascendit ad ccelos, anima ipsius interfectoris 12 descendat 
ad inferos. Et dicto citius, cum verbo, sicut Ananias coram 
Petro, sic et ille innocentium jugulator, coram oculis sancti 
juvenis, in eadem 13 mortuus 14 cecidit 15 terrula. Cujus rumor 
subitae et formidabilis vindictse continuo per multas Scotise pro- 
vincias, cum mira sancti diaconi fama, divulgatus est. 

16 Hue usque de adversariorum terrificis ultionibus dixisse 
sufficiat : nunc de bestiis aliqua narrabimus 17 pauca. 

9 baetani. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. ubi hoc capitulum iii. 4 subnectitur. 2 om. B. 
3 qui in laginensium provincia sicut ananias coram petro eodem momento 
a sancto terribiliter objurgatus cecidit mortuus add. B. 

* dum F. 5 b ono Q^ c A. B. D. F. germanum C. 

7 juvenilis B. 8 time "D. 9 tristiticatnr C. 

10 sanctum add. B. n ascendet manu recentiore D. 

12 descendet C. descendit in descendet mutat. D. descendit F. 

13 om. B. 14 - 15 est hora D. 1(U7 om. C. D. F. IS. 



170 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^l. LIBER II. 



XXVII 



xrrati0n.em 



CAP. 4 ,JPi_LIO 5 in tempore, vir beatus, cum in 6 Scia insula ali- 



quantis demoraretur diebus, paulo longius solus, orationis 
intuitu, separatus a fratribus, silvam ingressus densam, mirse 
magnitudinis aprum, 7 quern forte venatici canes 8 persequebantur, 
9 obviam habuit. 10 Quo viso eminus, Sanctus aspiciens 11 eum 
12 restitit. Turn deinde, invocato Dei nomine, 13 sancta elevata 
manu, cum intent a dicit ad eum oratione, Ulterius hue pro- 
cedere u noles: 15 in 16 loco 17 ad quern nunc devenisti 18 morere. 
Quo Sancti in silvis personante verbo, non solum ultra accedere 
non valuit, sed ante faciem ipsius terribilis ferus, verbi ejus 
virtute mortificatus, cito corruit. 



aquatili* btziix birtute oratixrnt0 



CAP. 
XXVIII. 



bin 



O quoque in 5 tempore, cum vir beatus 6 in Pictorum pro- 
vnca per aliquot moraretur dies, necesse habuit fluvium 
transire 7 Nesam : ad cujus cum accessisset ripam, alios ex accolis 
aspicit misellum humantes 8 homunculum; quern, ut 9 ipsi sepul- 
tores ferebant, qusedam paulo ante nantem aquatilis prseripiens 
bestia 10 morsu momordit ssevissimo : cujus miserum cadaver, 
sero licet, quidam in alno subvenientes porrectis prseripuere 
uncinis. Vir e contra 11 beatus, hasc audiens, praecipit ut aliquis 
12 ex comitibus enatans, 13 caupallum, in altera stantem ripa, ad 
se navigando reducat. Quo sancti audito prsedicabilis viri prse- 
cepto, Lugneus 14 Mocumin, nihil moratus, obsecundans, depositis 
excepta vestimentis tunica, immittit se in aquas. Sed bellua, 
quae prius non tarn satiata, quam in 15 pr3edam accensa, in pro- 
fundo fluminis latitabat, sentiens eo 16 nante turbatam supra 



i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 - 3 apri mortification e qui a saucto emitms cecidit signo prostratus 
dominicse crucis B. 

4 capitul. totuin ad lib. iii. c. 4 Iransfertur In C. D. F. S. 

5 om. D. 6 A. D. sua B. sicia C. 7 - 8 om. B, 
9 tune add. B. 10 - 12 om. D. n turn B. 

13 om. D. 14 nolis C. 15 - 16 nisi D. 
17 hoc add. B. quantotius add. B. 

1 titul. om. G. D. F. S. Boll. 

a - 3 alia aquatili bestia qua eo orante et manum e contra levante retro 

repulsa est ne lugiieo natanti vicino noceret B. 4 - 6 om. D. 

6 columba add. D. 7 nessam B. 8 hominem D. 
9 ipsius C. 10 raptu B. n sanctus S. 

12 e C. 13 A. B. F. S. caupulum C. caballum D. 

14 om. C. D. F. S. 15 preeda C. 10 uatante B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. l7l 

aquam, subito emergens, natatilis ad hominem in medio natantem 
alveo, cum ingenti fremitu, aperto 17 cucurrit ore. 18 Vir 19 tum 
beatus videns, omnibus qui inerant, tarn barbaris quam etiam 
fratribus, nimio terrore 20 perculsis, cum salutare, 21 sancta 
22 elevata manu, in vacuo 23 aere crucis pinxisset signum, invocato 
Dei nomine, feroci imperavit bestise dicens, 24 Noles ultra pro- 
gredi, nee hominem tangas ; retro citius revertere. Turn 25 vero 
bestia, hac Sancti audita voce, retrorsum, ac si funibus retra- 
heretur, velociori 26 recursu fugit 27 tremefacta : 28 quse prius 
Lugneo nanti eo usque ^appropinquavit, ut hominem inter et 
bestiam non amplius esset quam unius contuli longitudo. 
Fratres turn, 30 recessisse videntes bestiam, Lugneumque com- 
militonem ad eos intactum et incolumem in 3l navicula reversum, 
cum ingenti admiratione glorificaverunt Deum in beato viro. 
Sed et gentiles barbari, qui ad prsesens 32 inerant, ejusdem mira- 
culi magnitudine, 83 quod et ipsi viderant, compulsi, Deum 
magnificaverunt Christianorum. 



Itujtx* in0ul# terrttla ne iteittcepa in t& 
alktxt itoxemit 3 



die ejusdem 4 aastei temporis quo ad 5 Dominum CAP. 
transiit, ad visitandos fratres Sanctus plaustro vectus pergit, xxix. 
qui in campulo occidentali 6 louse insulas opus materiale exer- 
cebant. Post quorum consolatoria a Sancto prolata alloquia, in 
eminentiore stans loco, sic vaticinatur dicens, Ex hac, filioli, die, 
scio quod in hujus campuli locis nunquam poteritis in futurum 
videre faciem meam. Quos, hoc audito verbo, valde tristificatos 
videns, consolari eos in quantum fieri possit conatus, ambas 
manus elevat sanctas, et totam hanc nostram benedicens insu- 
lam, ait, Ex hoc hujus horulse momento 7 omnium viperarum 
venenanullo modo, in hujus insulae 8 terrulis, aut hominibus aut 
pecoribus nocere poterunt, quamdiu Christi mandata ejusdem 
commorationis incolse observaverint. 



17 occurrit C. 18 - 19 tune vir D. 20 percussis D. 

21 devota C. 22 om. C. 23 et in add. C. 

24 noli C. 25 om. G. 2G cursu C. D. ~ 7 -- 8 retractione factaque B. 

29 modo propinquavit D. 30 recessisset B. 

31 naviculam B. 32 erant D. ^ qui B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. tituL om. Boll. 

2 - 3 insule ione viperinis serpentibus qui ex qua die sanctus earn benedixit 
nulli hominum iiec etiam pecoribus nocere potuere B. 

4 aestivi B. 5 om. B. ione B. 

7 omnia B. 8 terrula B. 



172 VITA SANCTI COLUM1LE. LIBER II. 



mm jSominuft anew 0ignaoii0 bmtbida. 

CAP. xxx. JHLLIO 3 in tempore, quidam frater 4 nomine Molua, Nepos 
5 Briuni, ad Sanctum eadem scribentem hora veniens, dicit ad 
eum, Hoc quod in manu habeo ferrum, quaeso benedicas. Qui 
paululum extensa manu 6 sancta cum calamo signans benedixit, 
ad librum de quo scribebat facie conversa. Quo videlicet supra- 
dicto fratre cum ferro benedicto recedente, Sanctus percunctatur 
dicens, Quod fratri ferrum benedixi? 7 Diormitius, pius ejus 
ministrator, Pugionem, ait, ad jugulandos tauros vel boves bene- 
dixisti. Qui e contra respondens 8 infit, Ferrum quod benedixi, 
confido in Domino meo, 9 quia nee homini nee pecori nocebit. 
Quod Sancti firmissimum eadem hora comprobatum est verbum. 
Nam idem frater, 10 vallum egressus monasterii, bovem jugulare 
volens, tribus firmis vicibus, et forti impulsione conatus, nee 
tamen 11 potuit etiam ejus transfigere pellem. Quod monachi 
scientes experti, ejusdem pugionis 12 ferrum, ignis resolutum 
calore, per omnia monasterii ferramenta liquefactum diviserunt 
illinitum ; nee postea ullam potuere carnem vulnerare, illius 
Sancti 13 manente benedictionis fortitudine. 



1 |p ilixrrmitii 

CAP. ^LLIO 2 in tempore, 3 Diormitius, Sancti pius 4 minister, usque ad 
xxxi. mortem segrotavit : ad quern, in extremis 5 constitutum, Sanctus 
6 visitans accessit; Christique invocato nomine, infirmi ad 7 lec- 
tulum stans, et pro eo 8 exorans, dixit, Exorabilis mihi fias precor, 
Domine 9 mi, et animam mei ministratoris pii de hujus carnis 
habitaculo, me non auferas superstite. Et hoc dicto aliquan- 
tisper conticuit. 10 Tum proinde hanc de sacro ore profert 
vocem dicens, Hie meus non solum hac vice nunc non morietur 
puer, sed etiam post meum annis vivet multis obitum. Cujus 
haec exoratio est exaudita : nam 11 Diormitius, statim post Sancti 
exaudibilem precem, plenam recuperavit salutem ; per multos 
quoque annos post Sancti 12 ad Dominum emigrationem super^ 
vixit. 



1 titul. om. C. D. F. 
2 capital, totum in i. 
4 -s om. C. D. F. S. 
8 inquit D. 
11 poterat D. S. 

1 titul. om., cap. xv. 
2 om. D. 
5 om. D. 
8 orans D. 
11 diarmatus D. 


S. Boll. 
15 relegatur. C. D. F. S. 
6 sua add. D. 
9 quod C. 10 
i* GOT. C. 

continuatur C. D. F. S. Boll. 
3 diarmatus D. 
6 visitandum D. 
9 am. D. 
12 columbe arfc/. D. 


3 om. D. 
7 diarmatus D. 
murum D. nullani S. 
13 remanente D. 

4 ministrator C. D. 
7 lectum S. 
10 cum D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 173 

Jgb 2 Jfinteni ftlii JUbxr in sxtrtmi* pxrsiti sanitate. 

JEClJO quoque in tempore, Sanctus quum trans Britannicum CAP. 
iter ageret Dorsum, quidam juvenis, unus comitum, subita XXXTT. 
molestatus segrimonia, ad extrema usque perductus 3 est, nomine 
4 Fintenus : pro quo commilitones Sanctum msesti rogitant ut 
oraret. Qui statim, eis compatiens, sanctas cum intenta ora- 
tione expandit ad coelum manus, 5 8egrotumque benedicens, ait, 
Hie, pro quo interpellatis, juvenculus vita vivet longa ; et post 
omnium 6 nostrum qui hie adsumus exitum superstes remanebit, 
in bona moriturus senecta. Quod beati viri vaticinium plene 
per omnia expletum est : nam idem juvenis, illius postea 
monasterii fundator, quod dicitur 7 Kailli-au-inde, in bona 
senectute prsesentern terminavit vitam. 

1 5* ptt*r0 qtiem mortmtm bit teraranbti* in Chrati Domini 
nrrmine 0tt#dtatoit 

3ELLO in tempore, quo sanctus Columba in Pictorum provin- C AP< 
cia per aliquot demorabatur dies, quidam cum tota plebeius xxxm. 
familia verbum vitse per interpretatorem sancto prsedicante viro, 
audiens credidit, credensque baptizatus est, maritus cum marita 
liberisque et familiaribus. Et post aliquantulum diecularum in- 
tervallum paucarum unus filiorum patrisfamilias, gravi correp- 
tus aegritudine, usque ad confinia mortis et vitse perductus est. 
Quern cum magi morientem vidissent, parentibus cum magna 
exprobratione coeperunt illudere, suosque, quasi fortiores, magni- 
ficare deos, Christianorum vero, tanquam infirmiori, 2 Deo dero- 
gare. Quae omnia cum beato intimarentur viro, zelo suscitatus 
Dei, ad domum cum suis comitibus amici pergit plebeii, ubi 
parentes nuper defunctse prolis msestas 3 celebrabant exequias. 
Quos Sanctus valde tristificatos videns, confirmans dictis 4 com- 
pellat consolatoriis, ut nullo modo de divina 5 omnipotentia 
dubitarent. Consequenterque percunctatur, dicens, In quo 
hospitiolo corpus defuncti jacet pueri ? Pater turn orbatus 
Sanctum sub msestum 6 deducit culmen, qui statim, omnem foris 
exclusam relinquens catervam, solus msestificatum intrat habit- 
aculum, ubi illico, flexis genibus, faciem ubertim lacrymis irri- 



1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul om. Boll. 
3 om. B. 4 fentenus B. 
6 nostrorura A. Colg. Boll, nrm B. 
7 A. kailli anfind B. kailli, abinde Boll. 
1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. 
4 compellavit D. f> potentia D. 


2 fenteni B. 
4 segroque B. 

3 celebrant B. C. 
deduxit D. 



174 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 

gans, Christum precatur Dominum ; et post ingeniculationem 
surgens, oculos convertit ad mortuum, dicens, In nomine Domini 
Jesu Christi resuscitare, et sta super pedes tuos. Cum hac 
Sancti honorabili voce anima ad corpus rediit, defunctusque 
apertis revixit oculis, cujus manum tenens apostolicus homo 
erexit, et in 7 statione stabiliens, secum domum egressus 8 dedu- 
cit, et parentibus redivivum assignavit. Clamor turn populi 
attollitur, 9 plangor in 10 Isetationem convertitur, Deus Christian- 
orum n glorificatur. Hoc noster Columba cum 12 Elia et 
13 Eliseo prophetis 14 habeat sibi commune virtutis miraculum ; 
et cum Petro et Paulo et 15 Joanne apostolis partem honoris 
similem in defunctorum resuscitatione ; et inter utrosque, hoc 
est, prophetarum et apostolorum ccetus, honorificam coelestis 
patrise sedem homo propheticus et apostolicus aeternalem cum 
Christo, qui regnat cum Patre in unitate Spiritus Sancti per 
omnia saecula 16 s8eculorum 17 . 



xrb anriU* 2 xthniiontm inttxmzio, ti $w 
libzx&twnt satmtxr. 

CAP. [H^ODEM 3 in tempore, vir venerandus quandam a Broichano 
xxxiv. ma g O 4g co ^ cam postulavit servam humanitatis miseratione 
liberandam : quam cum ille 5 duro valde et 6 stolido 7 retentaret 
8 animo, 9 Sanctus ad eum locutus, hoc 10 profatur modo, Scito, 
Broichane, scito quia si mihi hanc peregrinam n liberare 12 cap- | 
tivam nolueris, priusquam de hac 13 revertar provincia, u citius ; 
morieris. Et hoc coram 15 Brudeo rege dicens, domum egressus 
regiam, ad Nesam venit fluvium, de quo videlicet fluvio lapidem 
attollens candidum, ad comites, Signate, ait, hunc 16 candidum 
lapidem, per quern Dominus in 17 hoc gentili populo 18 multas 
segrotorum perficiet sanitates. Et hoc 19 effatus verbum conse- 
quenter intulit, inquiens, Nunc Broichanus 20 fortiter concussus 
est, nam angelus de ccelo missus, graviter ilium percutiens, 
vitream in manu ejus, de qua bibebat, confregit in multa 
21 biberam fragmenta; ipsum vero anhelantem segra reliquit 

7 stationem C. 8 deduxit D. 9 planctus B. D. 10 leetitiam B. C. 
11 gloriticatus est D. 12 helia B. D. 13 heliseo B. helizeo D. 
14 habet D. 15 iohanne B. 10 om. C. D. F. S. 17 amen add. B. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 retcntionis B. 3 om. D. 

4 scotticam B. 6 latro B. fortiter B. 7 retardaret D. 

8 om. B. 9 libertati dare interim, et manu reccntiori D. 
10 profatus est D. ll libere A. D. 12 om. B. 

13 revertaris F. H dimittere add. D. 15 bruideo A. 

16 om. D. 17 om. D. 18 om. D. 

1!) affatus D. 20 om,. D. * om. C. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB,^. LIBER IT. 175 

suspiria, morti vicinum. Hoc in loco paululum expectemus 
binos regis nuncios, ad nos celeriter missos, ut Broichano mori- 
enti citius subveniamus : nunc Broichanus, formidabiliter cor- 
reptus, 22 ancillulam liberare est paratus. Adhuc Sancto haec 
loquente verba, ecce, sicut 23 praedixit, duo a rege missi equites 
adveniunt, 24 omniaque quse in regis 25 munitione de Broichano, 
juxta Sancti vaticinium, sunt acta, enarrantes ; et de poculi con- 
fractione, 26 et de magi correptione, et de 27 servulse parata abso- 
lutione ; hocque intulerunt, dicentes, Eex et ejus familiares nos 
ad te niiserunt, ut nutricio ejus 28 Broichano subvenias, mox 
morituro. Quibus auditis legatorum verbis, Sanctus binos de 
coinitum numero ad regem, cum lapide a se benedicto, mittit, 
dicens, Si in primis promiserit se 29 Broichanus famulam libera- 
turum, turn deinde hie lapillus intingatur in aqua, et sic de eo 
bibat, et continue salutem recuperabit : si vero renuerit 30 refra- 
gans absolvi servam, statim morietur. Duo missi, verbo Sancti 
obsequentes, ad aulam 31 deveniunt regiam, verba viri 32 venera- 
bilis regi enarrantes. Quibus 33 intimatis regi et nutricio ejus 
^Broichano, valde expaverunt : 35 eademque horaliberata famula 
sancti legatis viri assignatur, lapis in aqua intingitur, mirum- 
que in modum, contra naturam, 36 lithus in aquis supernatat, 
quasi pomum, vel nux, nee potuit sancti benedictio viri sub- 
mergi. De quo Broichanus natante bibens lapide, statim a 
vicina rediit morte, integramque carnis recuperavit salutem. 
Talis vero lapis, postea, in thesauris regis reconditus, multas 
in populo segritudinum sanitates, similiter in aqua natans in- 
tinctus, Domino miserante, effecit. Mirum 37 dictu, ab his segro- 
tis, quorum vitae terminus supervenerat, requisitus idem lapis 
nullo modo reperiri poterat. Sic et in die obitus Brudei regis 
qu^erebatur, nee tamen in eodem loco, ubi fuerat prius recondi 
tus, inveniebatur. 



toati bin ttnttra Iprxruhairom magttm xttx&Q&timiz, tt 
btnti canhznttzit. 



supra memorata peracta, quadam die 2 Broichanus 3 ad 
4 sanctum proloquens 5 virum 6 infit, Dicito mihi, Columba, quo 

22 ancillam C. D. 23 prsedixerat C. 24 omnia C. D. 

25 motione C. D. notione inepte Messingliam. 

26 de broichano juxta add. C. 27 servse D. 
28 baichano B. brochano D. 29 brochanus D. 30 om. D. 

31 devenerunt D. 32 venerabiliter C. 33 auditis B. 

34 brochano D. 35 eadem C. 30 lapis C. litatus D. 37 que add. D. 
1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 brochanus D. 3 - 4 om. D. 6 - 6 vir inquit D. 



176 VITA SANCTI COLUMBJ3. LIBER II. 

tempore proponis enavigare ? Sanctus, Tertia, ait, die, Deo 
volente et vita comite, navigationem proponimus incipere. 
6 Broichanus e contra, Non poteris, ait ; nam ego ventum tibi 
contrarium facere, caliginemque umbrosam superinducere pos 
sum, Sanctus, Omnipotentia Dei, ait, omnium 7 dominatur, in 
cujus nomine nostri omnes motus, ipso gubernante, diriguntur. 
Quid plura ? 8 Sanctus die eadem, sicut 9 corde proposuit, ad 
lacum 10 Nesa3 fluminis longum, multa prosequente caterva, 
venit. Magi vero gaudere turn coepere, magnam videntes super- 
inductam caliginem, et contrarium cum tempestate flatum. 
Nee mirum hsec interdum arte dsemonum posse fieri, Deo per- 
mittente, ut etiam venti et sequora in asperius concitentur. Sic 
enim aliquando deemoniorum legiones sancto Germano episcopo, 
de Sinu Gallico, causa humanae salutis, ad Britanniam navi- 
ganti, medio in sequore occurrerant, et opponentes pericula 
procellas concitabant, ccelum n diemque tenebrarum caligine 
obducebant. Quse tamen omnia, sancto orante Germano, dicto 
citius, sedata detersa cessarunt caligine. Noster itaque Columba, 
videns contra se elementa concitari furentia, Christum 12 invocat 
Dominum, 13 cymbulamque ascendens, nautis hsesitantibus, ipse 
constantior factus velum contra ventum jubet subrigi. Quo 
facto, omni inspectante turba, navigium flatus contra 14 ad versos 
mira 15 vectum occurrit velocitate. Et post haud grand e inter- 
vallum venti contrarii ad itineris ministeria cum omnium 
admiratione revertuntur. Et sic per totam illam diem flabris 
lenibus 16 secundis 17 flantibus, beati cymba viri optatum 18 per- 
vecta ad portum 19 pulsa est. Perpendat itaque lector quantus 
et qualis idem vir venerandus, 20 in quo Deus omnipotens, tali- 
bus prsescriptis miraculorum virtutibus, coram plebe 21 gentilica 
illustre suum manifestavit nomen. 



sttbita: 

CAP. JfB-LIO 4 in tempore, hoc est, in prima Sancti fatigatione itin- 

xxxvi. eris ad regem Brudeum, casu contigit ut idem rex, fas tu elatus 

regio, suse munitionis, superbe agens, in primo beati adventii 

viri, non aperiret portas. Quod ut cognovit homo Dei, cum 



6 Broclianus D. 7 dominator D. 8 om. D. 

9 om. C. 10 B. nisae A. C. F. in se D. n que add. C. 

12 invocaverat D. 13 cimbalumqae D. 14 om. C. 

15 factum B. 16 secundi C. ir ventis D. 

18 perfecta B. provecta C. 19 appulsa B. 

20 fuerit C. D. F. S. 21 gentili D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. 2 - 3 om,. B. 4 om,. D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMBvE. LIBER II. 177 

comitibus ad valvas portaram accedens, in primis Dominic 
crucis imprimens signum, turn deinde manum pulsans contra 
ostia ponit ; quee continue sponte, retro retrusis fortiter seris, 
cum omni celeritate 5 aperta 6 sunt. Quibus statim apertis, 
Sanctus consequenter cum 7 sociis 8 intrat. Quo cognito, rex 
cum senatu valde pertimescens, domum egressus, obviam cum 
veneratione beato pergit viro, pacificisque verbis blande s admo- 
dum compellat : et ex ea in posterum die sanctum et venera- 
bilem virum idem regnator, suse omnibus vitse reliquis diebus, 
valde magna honoravit, ut decuit, 10 honorificentia. 



Jjri 3 ribxrntm 

itidem 4 in tempore, vir beatus 5 aliquantis in Scotia CAP ; 
diebus 6 conversatus, ad visitandos fratres qui in monasterio 
7 Duum Ruris commanebant Bivulorum, ab eis invitatus, per- 
rexit. Sed casu aliquo accidit ut eo 8 ad ecclesiam accedente, 
claves non reperirentur oratorii. Cum vero Sanctus 9 de non 
repertis adhuc clavibus et de obseratis foribus inter se conqui- 
rentes alios audisset, ipse ad ostium appropinquans, Potens est 
10 Dominus, ait, 11 domum suam servis etiam sine clavibus aperire 
suis. Cum hac turn voce subito retro retrusis forti motu pes- 
sulis, sponte aperta janua, Sanctus cum omnium admiratione 
ecclesiam ante omnes ingreditur, et hospitaliter a fratribus sus- 
ceptus, honorabiliter ab omnibus 11 veneratur. 



menbkrr ad z&ntiws 0ti!bem 
bentbixit 



in tempore quidam ad Sanctum 4 plebeius venit CAP. 
pauperrimus, qui in ea habitabat regione quse Stagni litoribus xxxvm. 
5 Aporici 6 est contermina. Huic ergo miserabili viro, qui unde 
maritam et parvulos cibaret non habebat, vir beatus petenti, 
miseratus, ut potuit, quandam largitus eleemosynam, ait, Miselle 
humuncio, tolle de silva contulum vicina, et ad me 7 oeyus defer. 

5 - 6 deposuit D. 7 suis add. C. 8 intravit C. 

8 ad don) urn D. 10 reverentia D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 rivulorum B. 

4 om. D. 5 columba add. D. 6 versatus C. 

7 divini C. 8 om. S. 9 columba add. D. 

10 deus D. n veneratus est D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 - 3 quodam D. 4 columbam add. D. 

5 aporicie D. 6 om. D. 7 citius C. D. 

M 



178 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER II. 



Obsecundans miser, juxta Sancti jussionem, detulit materiam ; 
quam Sanctus excipiens in veru exacuit; quodque propria 
exacuminans manu, 8 benedicens, 9 et illi assignans 10 inopi dixit, 
Hoc veru diligenter custodi, quod, ut credo, nee homini, nee 
alicui pecori, nocere poterit, exceptis feris bestiis quoque et 
piscibus ; et quamdiu talem habueris sudem, nunquam in domo 
tua cervinoa carnis cibatio abundans deerit. Quod audiens 
miser n mendiculus, valde gavisus, domum revertitur, veruque 
in remotis iniixit 12 terrulae locis, quae silvestres frequentabant 
ferse ; et vicina transacta nocte, mane primo 13 pergit re visit are 
volens veru, in quo mirse magnitudinis cervum cecidisse reperit 
u transfixum. Quid plura ? Nulla, ut nobis traditum est, transire 
poterat dies, qua non aut cervum, aut cervam, aut aliquam re- 
periret in veru infixo cecidisse bestiam. Eepleta quoque tota 
de ferinis carnibus domo, vicinis superflua vendebat, quse hos- 
pitium suae domus capere non poterat. Sed tamen diaboli 
invidia per sociam, ut Adam, et hunc etiam miserum invenit ; 
quse, non quasi prudens, sed fatua, taliter ad maritum locuta 
est, Tolle de terra veru ; nam si in eo homines, aut etiam pecora, 
perierint, tu 15 ipse et ego cum nostris liberis aut occidemur aut 
captivi ducemur. Ad haec maritus inquit, Non ita 16 fiet ; nam 
sanctus vir mini, benedicens sudem, dixit, quod nunquam homi- 
nibus aut etiam pecoribus nocebit. Post hsec verba mendicus, 
uxori consentiens, pergit, et 17 tollens de terra veru, intra domum, 
quasi 18 amens, illud secus parietem posuit ; in quo mox domes- 
ticus ejus incidens canis disperiit. Quo pereunte, rursum marita, 
Unus, ait, filiorum tuorum incidet in sudem et peribit. Quo 
audito ejus verbo, maritus veru de pariete removens ad silvam 
reportat, et in densioribus infixit dumis, ut putabat ubi a nullo 
posset animante offendi. 18 Sed postera re versus die capream in 
eo cecidisse et periisse 19 reperit. Inde quoque illud removens, 
in 20 fluvio qui Latine dici potest Nigra 21 Dea, juxta ripam sub 
aquis abscondens infixit : quod alia revisitans die, esocem in eo 
mirse magnitudinis transfixum et retentum invenit ; quern de 
flumine elevans vix solus ad domum portare poterat, veruque 
secum de aqua simul reportans, extrinsecus in superiore tecti 
affixit loco; in quo et corvus 22 devolatus, impetu lapsus dis 
periit jugulatus. Quo facto, miser, fatuee conjugis consilio 
depravatus, veru tollens de tecto, assumpta securi, in plures 



8 atque add. ~D. 
11 mendicus B. 
14 transmission C. 
17 tollit C. 
20 fluvium B. 



9 om. D. 
12 terra C. 
15 et add. 0. 
18 amans B. C. D. 
21 cleca D. 



10 que add. P. 
13 perrexit D. 
16 fiat D. 
- w om. Boll. 



22 de volatus C. devolutus F. Boll. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 179 

concidens particulas, 23 in ignem projecit. 24 Et post, quasi suse 
paupertatis amisso non mediocri solatio, remendicare, ut meritus, 
coepit. Quod videlicet penurise rerum solamen ssepe superius in 
veru memorato dependebat, quod pro pedicis, et retibus, et omni 
venationis et piscationis genere servatum posset sufficere, beati 
viri donatum benedictione, quodque amissum miser plebeius, 
eo ditatus pro tempore, ipse cum tota familiola, sero licet, omni 
bus de cetero deplanxit reliquis diebus 25 vitse. 

l *z lariaticr tttre xjmm salaria atatwlit ttttba zi fo-enilia ileram 
repr#0*nta:bit in ynaxe loco. 



in tempore, beati legatus viri, Lugaidus nomine, 2 cogno- CAP. 
mento 3 Laitirus, ad Scotiam jussus navigare proponens, inter xxxix. 
navalia navis Sancti instrumenta utrem lactarium qusesitum 
inveniens, sub mari, congestis super eum non parvis lapidibus, 
madefaciendum posuit ; veniensque ad Sanctum quod de utre 
fecit intimavit. Qui subridens inquit, Uter, quern ut dicis sub 
undis posuisti, hac vice ut sestimo non te ad 4 Hiberniam comi- 
tabitur. Cur, ait, non mecum in navi comitem eum habere 
potero? Sanctus, Altera, inquit, die quod res probabit scies. 
Itaque Lugaidus mane postera die ad retrahendum de mari 
utrem pergit ; quern tamen salacia noctu subtraxit unda. Quo 
non reperto, ad Sanctum reversus tristis, flexis 5 in 6 terram 
genibus, suam confessus est negligentiam. Cui Sanctus, ilium 
consolatus, ait, Noli frater pro fragilibus contristari rebus : uter 
quern salacia sustulit 7 unda, ad suum locum, post tuum egres- 
sum, reportabit 8 venilia. Eadem die post Lugaidi de 9 Ioua 
insula emigrationem, hora transacta nona, Sanctus circum- 
stantibus sic profatus, ait, Nunc ex vobis unus ad sequor 
pergat; utrem, de quo Lugaidus querebatur, et quern salacia 
10 sustulerat unda, mine venilia retrahens, in loco unde sub- 
tractus est n repr8esentavit. Quo Sancti audito verbo, quidam 
alacer juvenis ad oram cucurrit maris, repertumque utrem, sicut 
prsedixerat Sanctus, cursu reversus concito reportans, valde 
gavisus, coram Sancto, cum omnium qui ibidem 12 inerant 
admiratione, assignavit. In his, ut ssepe dictum est, binis 
narrationibus superius descriptis, quamlibet in parvis rebus, 

23 comminuit et add. D. 

24 25 et ipse post modum iterum factus est pauper sicut prius et usque acl 
diem mortis sue cum tota familia sudem lugebant I). 

1 titul. om. C. F. S. Boll, omnia usque ad quos enim deus in cap. 42 
inferius desunt in D. 2 - 3 om. C. F. 8. 4 everniam A. 

5 - 6 om. B. 7 om. C. 8 venalia C. 

!) A. C. F. S. iona B. 10 sustulerit F. reprwsentabit F. 12 erant C. 



180 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER II. 

sude videlicet et litre, 13 prophetia sinml et virtutis miraculum 
comitari cernuntur. 14 Nunc ad alia 15 tendamus. 



l ^z ffijibran* 2 3tmttbineti prqphetatitf mndi torn. 

CAP XL JpstLIO ID tempore, cum vir sanctus in 3 Ioua conversaretur 
insula, homo quidam plebeius nuper sumpto clericatus habitu, 
de Scotia transnavigans, ad insulanum beati monasterium viri 
devenit. Quern cum alia die Sanctus in hospitio 4 residem hos- 
pitantem invenisset solum, primum de patria, de gente, et causa 
itineris, a Sancto interrogatus ; de 5 Connachtarum regione ori- 
undum se professus est ; et ad delenda in peregrinatione pecca- 
mina longo fatigatum itinere. Cui cum Sanctus, ut de suse 
pcenitudinis exploraret qualitate, dura et laboriosa ante oculos 
monasterialia proposuisset imperia ; ipse consequenter ad Sanc 
tum respondens, inquit, Paratus sum ad omnia quaecunque mihi 
jubere volueris, quamlibet durissima, quamlibet indigna. Quid 
plura ? Eadem hora omnia sua confessus peccata, leges pceni- 
tentiae, flexis in terrain genibus, se impleturum promisit. Cui 
Sanctus, Surge, ait, 6 et reside. Turn deinde residentem sic 
compellat, Septennem debebis in Ethica pcenitentiam explere 
terra. Ego et tu usquequo numerum expleas septennalium 
annorum, Deo Donante, victuri sumus. Quibus Sancti con- 
fortatus dictis, grates Deo agens, ad Sanctum, Quid me, ait, 
agere oportet de quodam meo falso juramento ? nam ego 
quendam in patria commanens trucidavi homuncionem; post 
cujus trucidationem, quasi reus in vinculis retentus sum. Sed 
mihi quidam 7 cognationalis homo ejusdem parentelae, valde 
opibus opulentus, subveniens, me opportune et de vinculis 
vinculatum absolvit, et de morte reum eripuit. Cui post abso- 
lutionem cum firma juratione promiseram me eidem omnibus 
mese diebus vitse serviturum. Sed post aliquot dies in servitute 
peractos, servire homini dedignatus, et Deo potius obsecundare 
malens, desertor illius carnalis domini, juramentum infringens, 
8 discessi, et ad te, Domino meum prosperante iter, perveni. Ad 
haec Sanctus, virum pro talibus valde angi videns, sicuti prius 
prophetans, profatur, inquiens, Post septenorum, sicut tibi dic 
tum est, expletionem annorum, diebus ad me hue, 9 quadragesi- 
malibus venies, ut in Paschali solemnitate ad altarium accedas, 

13 prophetic* C. 14 - 15 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 harundineti A. B. 

3 iona B. 4 residenti B. 5 conactarum B. 

6 interim. B. 7 cognition alis A. 8 decessi A. 

9 qnadragensimalibus A. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 181 

et Eucharistiam sumas. Quid verbis immoramur ? Sancti viri 
imperils per omnia pcenitens obsequitur peregrinus. 10 Iisdemque 
diebus ad monasterium Campi missus u Lunge, ibidem plene 
expletis in pcenitentia septem annis, ad Sanctum, diebus quadra- 
gesimse, juxta ejus priorem propheticam jussionem, revertitur. 
Et post peractam Paschse solemnitatem, in qua jussus ad altare 
accessit, ad Sanctum de supra interrogans memorato venit jura- 
mento. Cui Sanctus interroganti talia vaticinans responsa pro- 
fatur, Tuus de quo mini aliquando dixeras, carnalis superest 
dominus ; paterque et mater et fratres adhuc vivunt. Nunc 
ergo prseparare te debes ad navigationem. Et inter hsec verba 
macheram belluinis ornatam dolatis protulit dentibus, dicens, 
Hoc accipe tecum portandum munus, quod domino pro tua 
redemptione offeres; sed tamen nullo modo accipiet. Habet 
enim bene moratam 12 conjugem, cujus salubri obtemperans con- 
silio, te eadem die gratis, sine pretio, libertate donabit, cingulum 
ex more captivi de tuis resolvens lumbis. Sed hac anxietate 
solutus, aliam a latere surgentem non effugies sollicitudinem : 
nam tui fratres undique 13 coarctabunt te, ut tanto tempore 
patri debitam, sed neglectani, redintegres pietatem. Tu tamen, 
sine ulla hsesitatione voluntati eorum obsecundans, patrem 
14 senem pie excipias confovendum. Quod onus, quamlibet tibi 
videatur grave, contristari non debes, quia mox depones : nam 
ex qua die incipies patri ministrare, alia in fine ejusdem septi- 
manse mortuum sepelies. Sed post patris sepultionem, iterum 
fratres te acriter compellent, ut matri etiam debita pietatis im- 
pendas obsequia. De qua profecto compulsione tuus junior te 
absolvet frater ; qui tua vice paratus omne pietatis opus, quod 
debes, pro te matri serviens reddet. Post hsec verba supra 
memoratus frater, Libranus nomine, accepto munere, Sancti 
ditatus benedictione perrexit ; et ad patriam perveniens, omnia, 
secundum Sancti vaticinium, invenit vere probata. Nam statim, 
ut pretium suse offerens libertatis ostendit domino, accipere 
volenti refragans uxor, Ut quid nobis, ait, hoc accipere quod 
sanctus pretium misit Columba ? Hoc non sumus digni. 
Liberetur ei pius hie gratis ministrator. Magis nobis sancti 
viri benedictio proficiet, quam hoc quod 15 offertur pretium. 
Audiens itaque maritus hoc maritse salubre consilium, continuo 
gratis liberavit servum. Qui post, juxta prophetiam Sancti, 
compulsus a fratribus, patrem, cui ministrare ccepit, septima 
die mortuum sepelivit. Quo sepulto, ut et matri debite deser- 
viret compellitur. Sed subveniente juniore fratre, sicut Sanctus 

10 hisdemque A. B. n longe B. 12 cojugem A. 

13 coartabant B. 14 tuum add. B. 15 offert Colg. Boll. 



1 82 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBElt II. 

praedixerat, vicem ejus adimplente, 16 absolvitur. Qui ad fratres 
sic dicebat, Nullo modo nos 17 oportet fratrem in patria retentare, 
18 qui per septem annos apud sanctum Columbam in 19 Britannia 
salutem exercuit animae. Post quae, ab omnibus quibus moles- 
.tabatur, absolutus, matri et fratribus valedicens, liber reversus, 
ad locum qui Scotice vocitatur 20 Daire 21 Calgaich pervenit. 
Ibidemque navim sub velo a portu emigrantem inveniens, 
clamitans de litore rogitat, ut ipsum nautae cum eis susciperent 
navigaturum 22 ad 23 Britanniam. Sed ipsi non suscipientes 
refutaverunt eum, quia non 24 erant de monachis sancti 
Columbae. Turn deinde ad eundem venerabilem loquens virum, 
quamlibet longe absentem, tamen spiritu prsesentem, ut mox 
res probavit, Placetne tibi, ait, sancte Columba, ut hi nautae, 
qui me tuum non suscipiunt socium, plenis velis et secundis 
enavigent ventis ? In hac voce ventus, qui ante illis erat 
secundus, dicto citius versus est contrarius. Inter haec videntes 
virum eundem e regione secus flumen cursitantem, subito inter 
se inito consilio, ad ipsum de navi inclamitantes dicunt nautici, 
Fortassis idcirco citius in contrarium nobis conversus est 
ventus 25 quia te suscipere renuerimus. Quod si etiam nunc te 
ad nos in navim invitaverimus, contraries nunc nobis flatus in 
secundos convertere poteris ? His auditis, viator ad eos dixit, 
Sanctus Columba, ad quern vado, et cui hue usque per septem 
annos obsecundavi, si me susceperitis, prosperum, vobis ventum 
a Domino suo, virtute orationum, impetrare potent. Quibus 
auditis, navim terrae approximant, ipsumque ad eos in earn 
invitant. Qui statim, rate ascensa, In nomine Omnipotentis, 
ait, cui sanctus Columba inculpabiliter servit, tensis rudentibus 
levate velum. Quo facto, continue contraria venti flamina in 
secunda vertuntur, prosperaque usque ad 26 Britanniam plenis 
successit navigatio velis. Libranusque, postquam ad loca per- 
ventum est 27 Britannica, illam deserens navim, et nautis bene- 
dicens, ad sanctum devenit Columbam in 28 Ioua commorantem 
insula. Qui videlicet vir beatus, gaudenter suscipiens eum, 
omnia quae de eo in itinere acta sunt, nullo alio intimante, plene 
narravit, et de domino, et uxoris ejus salubri consilio, quomodo 
ejusdem suasu liberatus est; de fratribus quoque; de morte 
patris, et ejus, finita septimana, sepultione ; de matre, et de fratris 
opportuna junioris subventione ; de his quae in 29 regressu acta 



16 sed junior add. B. 17 om. B. 18 oportet add. B. 

19 brittannia A. B. 

20 claire Colg. Boll, liter a d, quce in cod. A.formam el prce sefert, minus 
observata. 21 B. calcig A. calig male Colg. Boll. 

22 in B. 23 brittanniam A. B. 24 A. B. erat Boll. 25 quod B. 

20 brittanniam A. B. 27 brittannica A. B. 2S ioua B. 29 ingrcssu B, 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEll II. 183 

sunt ; de vento contrario, et secundo ; de verbis nautarum qui 
primo eum suscipere recusarunt, de promissione prosper! flatus ; 
et de prospera, eo suscepto in navi, venti conversione. Quid 
plura ? Omnia, quae Sanctus adimplenda prophetavit, expleta 
enarravit. Post haec verba viator pretium suse quod a Sancto 
30 accepit redemptionis assignavit. Cui Sanctus eadem hora 
vocabulum indidit, inquiens, Tu Libranus vocaberis eo quod sis 
liber. Qui videlicet 31 Libran 32 iisdem in diebus votum mon- 
achicum devotus vovit. Et cum a sancto viro ad monasterium, 
in quo prius septem annis poanitens Domino servivit, remittere- 
tur, hsdc ab eo ^prophetica de se prolata 34 accepit verba 
35 valedicente, Vita vives longa, et in bona senectute vitam 
terminabis prsesentem. Attamen non in 36 Britannia, sed in 
Scotia, resurges. Quod verbum audiens, flexis genibus, amare 
fievit. Quem Sanctus valde msestum videns, consolari crepit 
dicens, Surge, et noles tristificari. In uno meorum morieris 
monasteriorum, et cum electis erit pars tua meis in regno 
monachis ; cum quibus in resurrectionem vitse de somno mortis 
evigilabis. 37 Qui, a Sancto accepta non mediocri consolatione, 
valde leetatus 38 est, et Sancti benedictione ditatus, in pace 
perrexit. Quse Sancti de eodem viro verax postea est adim- 
pleta prophetatio. Nam cum per multos annales cyclos in 
inonasterio Campi 89 Lunge post sancti Columbse de mundo 
transitum, obedienter Domino deserviret, 40 monachus, pro 
quadam monasteriali utilitate ad Scotiam missus, valde senex, 
statim ut de navi descendit, pergens per Campum Breg, ad 
monasterium devenit Eoborei Campi; ibidemque, hospes re- 
ceptus hospitio, quadam molestatus infirmitate, septima 
segrotationis die in pace ad Dominum perrexit, et inter sancti 
Columbse electos humatus est monachos, secundum ejus vati- 
cinium, in vitam resurrecturus seternam. Has de Librano 
41 Arundineti sancti veridicas Columbse vaticinationes scripsisse 
sufficiat. Qui videlicet Libranus ideo 41 Arundineti est 
42 vocitatus, quia in 43 arundineto multis annis 44 arundines 
colligendo laboraverat. 



30 B. accipit A. 
33 valedicens add. Boll. 
3(5 brittannia A. B. 
39 lugne male Colg. Boll. 
42 vocatus B. 


31 A. libranus B. 
34 B. accipit A. 
37 qua B. 
40 monachis B. 
43 harundineto A. B. 


32 liisdein A. B. 
35 om. Boll. 
38 om. B. 
41 harundineti A. B. 
44 harundiiies A. B. 



184 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER II. 

1 5^ xjuabam trndierotht mannas zt 2 fcalbe Mfffctlior.e parturi- 
iianiz, nt (:b$ #Ua, tortioue* 



CAP. XLI. TTADAM die, Sanctus in 3 Ioua 4 commanens insula, a 
lectione 5 surgit, et subridens dicit, Nunc ad 6 oratorium mihi 
properandum, ut pro quadam misellula 7 Dominum deprecer 
femina, quaa nunc in 8 Hibernia nomen hujus inclamitans 
commemorat Columbse, in magnis parturitionis difncillimse 
9 torta punitionibus, et ideo per me a Domino de angustia 
absolutionem dari sibi sperat, quia et mihi est 10 cognationalis ; 
de mese matris parentela genitorem habens progenitum. Hsec 
dicens Sanctus, illius mulierculas motus miseratione, ad 
ecclesiam currit, flexisque genibus pro ea Christum de nomine 
natum exorat. Et post precationem oratorium egressus, ad 
fratres profatur occurrentes, inquiens, Nunc propitius Dominus 
lesus, de muliere progenitus, opportune miserae subveniens, 
earn de angustiis liberavit, et prospere prolem peperit ; nee hac 
morietur vice. Eadem hora, sicuti Sanctus prophetizavit, 
misella femina, nomen ejus invocans, absoluta salutem recup- 
eravit. Ita ab aliquibus postea de Scotia, et de eadem regione 
ubi mulier inhabitabat, transmeantibus, intimatum est. 



conjnx olbia habuerat b^fxrrmem ; xjui in ^rhr^a rxrmmxrra- 
batur 



CAP. XLII. ^LIO in tempore, cum vir sanctus in Eechrea hospitaretur 
insula, quidam plebeius ad eum veniens, de sua querebatur 
uxore, quas, ut ipse dicebat, 4 odio habens, eum ad 5 maritalem 
nullo rnodo admittebat concubitum accedere. Quibus auditis, 
Sanctus, maritam advocans, in quantum potuit, earn hac de 
causa corripere coepit, inquiens, Quare, mulier, tuam a te carnem 
abdicare conaris, Domino dicente, Erunt duo in carne una ? 
itaque caro tui conjugis tua caro est. Quaa respondens, Omnia, 
inquit, qusecunque mihi prseceperis, sum parata, quamlibet sint 
valde laboriosa, adimplere, excepto uno, ut me nullo compellas 
modo in uno lecto dormire cum Lugneo. Omnem domus 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 A. C. F. S. iona B. 

4 commorans C. 5 surgens C. c orationem C. 

7 deum C. 8 B. C. F. S. evernia A. 9 om. F. 
10 C. F. S. cognitionalis A. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 A. gubernatore B. 

3 tutida B. tudicla (Ultra d dissecta) Colg. Boll. 4 - 5 om. B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER II. 185 

curam exercere non recuso, aut, si jubeas, 6 etiam maria transire, 
et in aliquo puellamm monasterio permanere. Sanctus turn 
ait, Non potest recte fieri quod dicis, nam adhuc viro vivente 
alligata es 7 a lege viri. 8 Quos enim 9 Deus licite conjunxit 
nefas est separari. Et his dictis, consequenter intulit, Hac in 
die tres, hoc est, ego et maritus, cum conjuge, jejunantes 
Dominum precemur. Ilia dehinc, Scio, ait, quia tibi impossi- 
bile non erit ut ea quae -vel difficilia, vel etiam impossibilia 
videntur, a Deo impetrata donentur. Quid plura ? Marita 
eadem die cum Sancto jejunare consentit, et maritus similiter : 
nocteque subsequente Sanctus 10 insomnis pro eis deprecatus est ; 
posteraque die Sanctus 11 maritam praesente sic compellat 
marito, femina, si, ut hesterna dicebas die, parata hodie es ad 
ferninarum emigrare monasteriolum ? Ilia, Nunc, inquit, cognovi 
quia tua Deo de me est 12 audita oratio; nam quern heri 
oderam, hodie amo ; cor enim meum hac nocte praeterita, 13 quo 
modo ignoro, 14 in 15 me 16 immutatum est de odio in amorem. 
Quid morarnur ? ab 17 eadem die usque 18 ad diem obitus, 18 anima 
ejusdem maritae indissociabiliter in amore conglutinata est 
mariti, ut ilia maritalis concubitus debita, quae prius reddere 
renuebat, nullo modo deinceps recusaret. 



l ~t itabigatimi-e Contract nzyoiw IJCethani prtfplutatixr bzzti torn. 

2 .JHLIO 3 in tempore Cormacus, Christi miles, de quo in CAP.XLIII. 
primo hujus opusculi libello breviter aliqua commemoravimus 
pauca, etiam secunda vice conatus 4 est eremum in oceano 
quaerere. Qui postquam a terris 5 per infinitum oceanum plenis 
enavigavit velis, 6 iisdem diebus sanctus Columba, cum ultra 
Dorsum moraretur Britanniae, Brudeo 7 regi, praesente 8 Orcadum 
regulo, commendavit dicens, Aliqui ex 9 nostris nuper emigra- 
verunt, desertum in pelago intransmeabili invenire optantes ; 
qui si forte post longos circuitus Orcadas devenerint insulas, 
huic regulo, cujus obsides in manu tua sunt, diligenter com- 
menda, ne aliquid adversi intra terminos ejus contra eos fiat. 
Hoc vero Sanctus ita dicebat, quia in spiritu praecognovit quod 
post aliquot menses idem Cormacus esset ad Orcadas venturus. 

6 vel C. 7 om. C. 8 - 9 quia quos dominus cap. 37 excipiens D. 

10 in somnis C. u marita D. 12 exaudita C. D. 

13 quonam C. 14 - 15 om. B. 1C mutatum D. 

17 hac D. 18 om. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 - 3 quodam D. 4 om. D. 

5 om. C. D. o hisclem A. B. 7 rege C. D. 

8 ordacuin S. 9 nobis D. 



186 VITA SANCTI COLUMBUS. LIBER II. 

Quod ita postea evenit; et propter supradictam sancti viri 
commendationem, de morte in Orcadibus liberatus est vicina. 
Post 10 aliquantum "paucorum intervallum mensium 12 cum 
Sanctus in 13 Ioua 14 commoraretur insula, quadam die coram eo 
ejusdem Cormaci mentio ab aliquibus subito 15 oboritur sermo- 
cinantibus, et taliter dicentibus, Quomodo Cormaci navigatio, 
16 prosperane 17 an non, provenit, adhuc nescitur. Quo audito 
verbo, Sanctus 18 hac profatur 19 voce dicens, Cormacum de quo 
nunc 20 loquimini hodie mox pervenientem videbitis. Et post 
quasi unius horse interventum, mirum dictu, 21 et ecce inopinato 
Cormacus superveniens, oratorium cum omnium admiratione 
et gratiarum ingreditur actione. Et quia de hujus Cormaci 
secunda navigatione beati prophetationem breviter 22 intuleri- 
mus viri, nunc et de tertia seque propheticee ejus scientise aliqua 
describenda sunt verba. 

23 Cum idem Cormacus tertia in oceano mari fatigaretur vice, 
24 prope usque ad mortem periclitari ccepit. Nam cum ejus 
navis a terris per quatuordecim 25 sestei temporis dies, todi- 
demque noctes, plenis, velis, 26 austro flante vento, ad 27 septem- 
trionalis plagam cceli directo excurreret cursu,* 28 ejusmodi 
navigatio ultra humani excursus modum, et irremeabilis vide- 
batur. Unde contigit, ut post decimam ejusdem quarti et 
decimi horam diei, quidam pene insustentabiles undique et 
valde formidabiles consurgerent terrores; qusedam quippe 
29 usque in id temporis invisse, mare obtegentes 30 occurrerant 
tetrse et infestse nimis 31 bestiol8e, quae horribili impetu carinam 
et latera, puppimque et proram ita 32 forti feriebant percussura, ut 
pelliceum tectum navis 33 penetrales putarentur penetrare posse. 
Quse, ut hi qui inerant ibidem postea narrarunt, prope 34 magni- 
tudinem ranarum, aculeis permolestse, non tamen volatiles sed 
natatiles, erant ; sed et remorum infestabant palmulas. Quibus 
visis, inter cetera monstra quaa non hujus est temporis narrare, 
Cormacus cum nautis comitibus, valde 35 turbati et 36 pertimes- 
centes, Deum, qui est in angustiis pius et 37 opportunus auxi- 
liator, 38 illacrymati 39 precantur. Eadem hora et sanctus noster 
Columba, quamlibet longe absens corpore, spiritu tamen 



10 aliquantulum D. 
13 A. C. F. S. iona B. D. 


11 parvum D. 
14 moraretur D. 


12 cap. 27 incipit D. 
15 aboritur A. 


10 prospere C. D. 
19 om. B. 
22 intulimus C. 


17 om. C. D. 
20 loquimur C. 
23 dum C. 


18 hec B. 
21 om. B. 
24 om. C. 


25 estivi B. C. D. 
28 hujusmodi D. 
31 bestie D. 


26 astro B. 
29 om. C. 
32 fortiter C. 


27 septemtrionalem C. 
30 occurrerent D. 
33 A. B. om. C. Boll. 


31 rnagnitucline A. C. 
37 optimus D. 


33 turbatis B. 
38 illacrimatus B. 


30 pertimescentibus B. ( 
30 precatur t 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. L1BEK II. 187 

praesens in navi cum Cormaco erat. Unde, eodem momento, 
personante signo, fratres ad oratorium convocans, et ecclesiam 
intrans, astantibus, 40 sic, more sibi consueto, prophetizans 
profatur, dicens, Fratres tota intentione pro Cormaco orate, 
qui nunc humanae discursionis limitem, immoderate navigando, 
excessit, nunc quasdam monstruosas, ante non visas, 41 et pene 
indicibiles, patitur horrificas perturbationes. Itaque nostris 
commembribus in periculo intolerabili constitutis mente com- 
pati debemus fratribus, et Dominum exorare cum eis. Ecce 
enim nunc Cormacus cum suis nautis, faciem lacrymis ubertim 
irrigans, Christum 42 intentius precatur; 43 et nos ipsum orando 
adjuvemus, ut austram flantem ventum usque hodie per qua- 
tuordecim dies, nostri miseratus, in aquilonem convertat ; qui 
videlicet aquiloneus ventus navem Cormaci de periculis 
44 retrahat. Et hsec dicens, flebili cum voce, flexis genibus ante 
altarium, omnipotentiam 45 Dei ventorum et cunctarum guber- 
natricem 46 precatur rerum. Et post orationem cito 47 surgit, 
et 48 abstergens 49 lacryrnas, gaudenter 50 grates Deo 51 agit, 
dicens, Nunc, fratres, nostris congratulemur, pro quibus 
52 oramus, caris : quia Dominus austrum nunc in 53 aquilonarem 
54 convertet flatum 55 nostros de periculis 66 commembres retra- 
lientem, quos hue 57 ad nos 58 iterum reducet. Et continue cum 
ejus voce auster cessavit ventus, et 59 inspiravit aquiloneus per 
multos post dies : et navis Cormaci ad terras redacta est. Et 
pervenit 60 Cormacus ad sanctum Columbam, et se, donante 
Deo, facie 61 in faciem, cum ingenti omnium admiratione 
62 viderant et non mediocri 63 laetatione. Perpendat itaque 
lector quantus et qualis idem vir beatis, w qui talem propheti- 
cam habens scientiam, ventis et oceano, Christi invocato 
nomine, potuit imperare. 

l ^t toturabilb Jbiri in rurru tbectiont ab0ue mrrilmm 



2 in tempore, cum in Scotia per aliquot dies Sanctus CAP.XLIV. 
conversaretur, aliquibus ecclesiasticis 3 utilitatibus coactus, 

40 tune D. 4! omt c 4-2 intentus B. 

43 om. C. 44 retrahebat B. retraxerat D. 

45 doinini C. ^ precatus est D. 47 surrexit D. 

48 - 49 abstinens lachrimis C. ^ gratias D. 51 egit D. 

62 oraviums D. 53 a q u ii onem B. 54 convertit C. 
55 nostra D. w comraeinbra D. 57 iter add. D. 
58 om. D. 59 S pi rav it C. 

60 corinac A. C1 ad C. B. 62 repnesentavit C. viderimt D. 

63 exultatione D. 4 fuorit add. C. fuerat D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 visitantibus male Coli;. Boll. 



188 VITA SANCTI COLUMBvE. LIBER II. 

currum ab eo prius benedictum ascendit junction; sed non 
insertis primo, qua 4 negligentia accedente 5 nescitur, neces- 
sariis obicibus per 6 axionum extrema foramina. Erat autem 
eadem diecula Columbanus filius 7 Echudi, vir sanctus, illius 
monasterii fundator quod Scotica vocitatur 8 lingua 9 Snam- 
luthir, qui operam aurigse in eodem curriculo cum sancto 
exercebat Columba. Fuit itaque talis ejusdem agitatio diei per 
longa 10 viarum spatia sine ulla rotarum humerulorumque sepa- 
ratione u sive labefactatione, 12 nulla, ut supra dictum est, 
obicum retentione vel 13 communitione retinente. Sed sola diali 
sic venerando prastante gratia viro, ut currus cui insederat 
salubriter, absque ulla impeditione, recta incederet orbita. 

Hue usque de virtutum miraculis quse per praedicabilem 
virum, 14 in prsesenti 15 conversantem vita, divina operata est 
omnipotentia, scripsisse] sufficiat. 16 Nunc etiam qusedam de 
his quae post ejus de carne transitum ei Domino donata com- 
probantur, pauca sunt commemoranda. 



past zHqpot aimtatia menae* bzzii ob hmwum torn 
2 3ttpr zitunttm, Jxrminxr Ji0nant^, terram 



CAP. XLV. NTE annos namque ferme quatuordecim, in his torpentibus 
terris valde grandis verno tempore facta est siccitas jugis et 
dura, in tantum ut ilia Domini in Levitico libro transgressoribus 
coaptata populis comminatio videretur imminere, qua dicit, 
Dabo ccelum vobis desuper sicut ferrum, et terram seneam. 
Consumetur incassum labor vester; nee proferet terra germen, nee 
arbores poma preebebunt ; et csetera. Nos itaque hsec legentes, 
et imminentem plagam pertimescentes, hoc inito consilio fieri 
consiliati sumus, ut aliqui ex nostris senioribus nuper aratum 
et seminatum campum cum sancti Columbae Candida circum- 
irent tunica, et libris stylo ipsius descriptis ; levarentque in 
aere, et excuterent eandem per ter tunicam, qua etiam hora 
exitus ejus de carne indutus erat ; et ejus aperirent libros, et 
legerent in Colliculo Angelorum, ubi aliquando coelestis patrise 
cives ad beati viri condictum visi sunt descendere. Quse 
postquam omnia juxta initum sunt peracta consilium, mirum 

4 nescio add. C. 5 om. C. 6 axium B. occeanum D. 

7 eochayd D. 8 longua D. 9 suam D. 

10 dierum D. n sine D. 12 ulla D. 

13 communione B. comminucione D. u columbam add. D. 

15 conversante C. 16 cetera Imjus libri desideranlur in C. D. F. S. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 om. B. 

3 miraculum quod nunc domino propitio describere iiicipimus nostris tem- 
poribus factum propriis inspeximus oculis add. B. 






VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER II. 189 

dictu, eadem die ccelum, in praeteritis mensibus, Martio vide 
licet et Aprili, nudatum nubibus, mira sub celeritate ipsis de 
ponto ascendentibus illico opertum est, et pluvia facta est 
magna, die noctuque descendens ; 4 et sitiens prius terra, satis 
satiata, opportune germina produxit sua, et valde laetas eodem 
anno segetes. Unius itaque beati commemoratio nominis viri 
in tunica et libris commemorata multis regionibus eadem vice et 
populis salubri subvenit opportunitate. 



tentxmtm flatibti* rxmtrartis tomerabiUs bin; biritite 
xrratimttwt in giantta* ccrntesia 



, nobis, quse non vidimus, talium mira- CAP.XLVI, 
culorum praesentia, quae ipsi perspeximus, fidem indubitanter 
confirmant. Ventorum namque flamina contrariorum tribus 
nos ipsi vicibus in secunda vidimus conversa. Prima vice cum 
dolatae 2 per terram 3 pineae et roboreae 4 traherentur longae naves, 
et magnae navium pariter materise eveherentur domus ; beati 
viri vestimenta et libros, inito consilio, super altare, cum 
psalmis et jejunatione, et ejus nominis invocatione, posuimus, 
ut a Domino ventorum prosperitatem nobis profuturam im- 
petraret. Quod ita eidem sancto viro, Deo donante, factum 
est : nam ea die qua nostri nautae, omnibus praeparatis, supra 
memoratarum ligna materiarum proposuere scaphis per mare et 
curucis trahere, venti, prseteritis contrarii diebus, subito in 
secundos conversi sunt. Turn deinde per longas et obliquas 
vias tota die prosperis flatibus, Deo propitio, famulantibus, et 
plenis sine uUa retardatione velis, ad louam insulam omnis ilia 
navalis emigratio prospere pervenit. 

5 Secunda vero vice, cum post aliquantos intervenientes annos 
alise nobiscum roborese ab ostio fluminis 6 Sale, duodecim curucis 
congregatis, materise ad nostrum renovandum traherentur monas- 
terium, alio die tranquillo nautis mare palmulis verrentibus, 
subito nobis contrarius insurgit Favonius, qui et Zephyrus ven- 
tus, in proximam turn declinamus insulam, quae Scotice vocita- 
tur 7 Airthrago, in ea portum ad manendum quserentes. Sed 
inter haec de ilia importuna venti contrarietate querimur, et 
quodammodo quasi accusare nostrum Columbam ccepimus, 
dicentes, Placetne tibi, Sancte, haec nobis adversa retardatio ? 

4 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titvl. om. Boll. 2 - 3 om. B. 

* trabes longaa et magnse navium pariter et domus materiae, eveherentur 
Boll. 6 paragraphm novus, et litera S majuscula rubra B. 

6 sale prius salx. B. 7 airtrago B. 



190 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER IT, 

hue usque a te, Deo propitio, aliquod nostrorum laborum prse- 
stari speravimus consolatorium adjumentum, te videlicet aesti- 
mantes alicujus esse grandis apud Deum honoris. Hie dictis, 
post modicum, quasi unius momenti, intervallum, mirum dictu, 
ecce 8 Favonius ventus cessat contrarius, Vulturnusque flat, 
dicto citius, secundus. Jussi turn nautse antennas, crucis instar, 
et vela protensis sublevant rudentibus, prosperisque et lenibus 
flabris eadem die nostram appetentes insulam, sine ulla labora- 
tione, cum illis omnibus qui navibus inerant nostris cooperatori- 
bus, in lignorum evectione gaudentes, devehimur. Non medio- 
criter, quamlibet levis, ilia querula nobis sancti accusatio viri 
profuit. Quantique et qualis est apud Dominum meriti Sanc- 
tus apparet, quern in ventorum ipse tarn celeri conversione 
audierat. 

9 Tertia proinde vice, cum in 10 8esteo tempore, post 11 Hiberni- 
ensis synodi condictum, in plebe Generis 12 Loerni per aliquot, 
venti contrarietate, retardaremur dies, ad Saineam devenimus 
insulam ; ibidemque demoratos festiva sancti Columbse nox et 
solemnis dies nos invenit valde tristificatos, videlicet desider- 
antes eandem diem in loua facere laetificam insula. Unde 
sicut prius alia querebamur vice, dicentes, Placetne tibi, Sancte, 
crastinam tuse festivitatis inter plebeios et non in tua ecclesia 
transigere diem ? facile tibi est talis in exordio diei a Domino 
impetrare ut contrarii in secundos vertatantur venti, et in tua 
celebremus ecclesia tui natalis missarum solemnia. Post ean 
dem transactam noctem diluculo mane consurgimus, et videntes 
cessasse contraries flatus, conscensis navibus, nullo flante vento, 
in mare progredimur, et ecce statim post nos auster cardinalis, 
qui et 13 notus, inflat. Turn proinde ovantes nautaevela 14 subri- 
gunt : sicque ea die talis, sine labore, nostra tarn festina navi- 
gatio, et tarn prospera, beato viro donante Deo, fuit, ut sicuti 
prius exoptavimus, post horam diei tertiam ad louse portum 
pervenientes insulae, postea manuum et pedum peracta lava- 
tione, hora sexta ecclesiam cum fratribus intrantes, sacra mis 
sarum solemnia pariter celebraremus, in festo die in quam 
natalis sanctorum Columbae et 15 Baithenei : cujus diluculo, ut 
supradictum est, de Sainea insula, longius sita, emigravimus. 
Hujus ergo prsemissse narrationis testes, non bini tantum vel 
terni, secundum legem, sed centeni et amplius adhuc exstant. 



8 fabonius A. 9 paragraplius inciplt, T majuscula in minio B. 

10 aestivo B. n iberniensis A. 12 lorrni B. 

13 nothus A. B. 14 submergunt Boll. 15 baitheni B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^R. LIBER II. 191 

x fe JExrrtalitat*. 

3.T hoc etiam, ut sestimo, non inter minora virtutum mira- 
cula connumerandum videtur de mortalitate, quae nostris tem- 
poribus terrarum orbem bis ex parte vastaverat majore. Nam 
ut de ceteris taceam latioribus 2 Europse regionibus, hoc est, 
Italia et ipsa Eomana civitate, et 3 Cisalpinis Galliarum 4 pro- 
vinciis, 6 Hispanis quoque 6 Pyrinsei mentis interjectu 7 distermi- 
natis, oceani insulse per totum, videlicet Scotia et Britannia, 
binis vicibis vastatse sunt dira pestilentia, exceptis duobus 
populis, hoc est, Pictorum plebe et 8 Scotorum Britannise, 9 inter 
quos utrosque Dorsi montes Britannici disterminant. Et 
quamvis utrorumque populorum non desint grandia peccata, 
quibus plerumque ad iracundiam seternus provocatur judex ; 
utrisque tamen hue usque, patienter ferens, ipse pepercit. 
Cui alii itaque hsec tribuitur gratia a Deo collata, nisi sancto 
Columbse, cujus monasteria intra utrorumque populorum termi- 
nos fundata ab utrisque ad prsesens tempus valde sunt honorifi- 
cata. Sed hoc quod nunc dicturi sumus, ut arbitramur non 
sine gemitu audiendum est, quia sunt plerique in utrisque 
populis valde stolidi, qui se Sanctorum orationibus a 10 morbis 
defenses nescientes, ingrati Dei patientia male abutuntur. Nos 
vero Deo agimus crebras grates, qui nos et in his nostris insulis, 
orante pro nobis venerabili patrono, a mortalitatum invasioni- 
bus defendit ; et in Saxonia, regem n Aldfridum visitantes ami- 
cum, adhuc non cessante pestilentia, et multos hinc inde vicos 
devastante, ita tamen nos Dominus, et in prima post bellum 
13 Ecfridi visitatione, et in secunda, interjectis duobus annis, in 
tali mortalitatis medio deambulantes periculo liberavit, ut ne 
unus etiam de nostris comitibus moreretur, nee aliquis ex eis 
aliquo molestaretur inorbo. 

14 Hie secundus de virtutum miraculis finiendus est liber : in 
quo animadvertere lector debet, quod, 15 etiam de cornpertis, in 
eo multa propter legentium evitandum prsetermissa sint 
16 fastidium. 



1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 eoropae A. 

3 cisalpinas B. 4 p rov incias B. 5 hispanias B. 

(! pirenei B. ~ disterminatas B. 8 scottorum B. 

9 om. B. 10 moribus B. iiobis male Colg. Boll. 

11 alfridum B. 13 egfridi B. 

14 - 10 post verbum sufficiat in cap. 43 supra, adjicitur monitio ut supra in 
C. D. F. S. w et C . 

17.18 ^INITVP CHKVNDVC MBEP llteris yraxi* untialibus A. explicit 
liber secundus B. C. F. S. 



Indpiuni Capitals ^ertii pbri 

E)E Angelicis Apparitionibus quae vel aliis de beato viro, 
vel eidem de aliis, revelatae sunt. 

De angelo Domini qui ejus genitrici in somnis post ipsius in 
utero conceptionem apparuit. 

De radio luminoso super dorniientis ipsius pueri faciem viso. 

De angelorum apparitione sanctorum, quos sanctus Brendenus, 
beati comites viri, per campum viderat commeantes. 

De angelo Domini quern sanctus Fennio beati viri socium itin- 
eris vidit. 

De angelo Domini, qui ad sanctum Columbam in Himba com- 
morantem insula per visum apparuit, missus ut Aidanum 
in regem 1 ordinaret. 

De angelorum apparitione alicujus Brittonis animam ad ccelum 
vehentium. 

De angelorum revelata eidem sancto viro visione, qui animam 
alicujus Diormitii ad ccelum ducebant. 

De angelorum contra daemones forti belligeratione, Sancto in 
eodem bello opportune subvenientium. 

De angelorum apparitione quos vir Dei viderat alicujus animam 
nomine Columbi, fabri ferrarii, Coilrigini cognomento, ad 
ccelos evehere. 

De angelorum simili visione, quos vir beatus aspexerat alicujus 
bene moratae feminae animam ad ccelum ferre. 

De angelorum apparitione sanctorum, quos sanctus Columba 
obvios in transitu viderat beati Brendeni animae, illius 
monasterii fundatoris quod Scottice Birra nuncupatur. 

1 ordinarent B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. 193 

De angelorum visione sanctorum, qui sancti Columbani episcopi, 
Moculoigse, animam ad ccelum evexerant. 

De angelorum apparitione qui obviam animabus sancti monach- 
orum Comgelli descenderant. 

De angelorum manifestatione alicujus 2 Emchathi anima3 obvi- 
antium. 

De angelo Domini, qui alicui fratri lapso de monasterii culmine 
rotundi in Eoboreti Campo opportune tarn cito subvenerat. 

De angelorum multitudine sanctorum visa ad beati condictum 
viri de ccelo descendentium. 

De columna luminosa sancti viri de vertice ardere visa. 

De Spiritus Sancti descensione sive visitatione quae in eadem 
insula, tribus continuis diebus, totidemque noctibus, super 
venerabilem mansit virum. 

De angelicse lucis claritudine, quam Virgnous, bonae indolis 
juvenis, qui post, Deo auctore, huic praefuit ecclesiae, cui 
ego, indignus licet, deservio, super sanctum Columbani in 
ecclesia, fratribus hiemali nocte in cubiculis quiescentibus, 
descendere viderat. 

De alia prope simili celsse claritudinis visione. 
De alia parili divinae lucis apparitione. 

De alia angelorum sancto manifestata viro apparitione ; quos 
sanctae ejus animae obviare incipientes quasi mox de cor- 
pore viderat migraturae. 

De transitu ad Dominum sancti nostri patroni Columbae. 

ii $ibri. 



2 emdathi B. 3 de B. 



HIC TEETIUS LIBEE ORDITUK, DE ANGELICIS 
2 VISIOOTBUS. 



CAP. i. 2x Primo ex his tribus libellis 3 libro, ut superius commemo- 
ratum est, de Propheticis Revelationibus qusedain breviter suc- 
cincteque, Domino navante, descripta sunk In Secundo 
superiore, de Virtutum Miraculis, quse per beatum declarata 
sunt virum, et quae, ut saepe dictum 4 est, plerumque propheta- 
tionis comitatur gratia. In hoc vero Tertio, de Angelicis Appa- 
ritionibus, quae vel aliis de beato viro, vel 5 ipsi de aliis, revelatae 
sunt ; et de his, quae utroque, quamlibet disparili modo, hoc est, 
5 ipsi proprie et plenius, aliis 6 vero improprie, et ex quadam 
parte, sunt manifestatae, hoc est extrinsecus et explorative, in 
7 iisdem tamen, vel angelorum vel 8 ccelestis 9 visionibus lucis : 
quaa utique 10 talium n discrepantiae visionum 12 suis 13 caraxatae 
locis inferius clarebunt. Sed nunc, ut a primordiis beati nativi- 
tatis viri easdeni describere angelicas apparitiones incipiamus : 

CAP. IT. ^|l_NGrELUS Domini in somnis genitrici venerabilis viri qua 
dam nocte inter conceptum ejus et partum apparuit, eique quasi 
quoddam mirae pulchritudinis peplum adsistens 14 detulit ; in 
quo veluti universorum 15 decorosi colores florum 16 depicti vide- 
bantur ; quodque post aliquod breve intervallum 17 ejus de 
18 manibus reposcens abstulit ; 19 elevansque et expandens in 
20 aere dimisit vacuo. Ilia vero de illo tristificata sublato, sic 
21 ad ilium venerandi habitus virum, Cur a me, ait, hoc laetifi- 
cum tarn cito abstrahis pallium? Ille 22 consequenter, Idcirco, 

K2 incipit textus tertii libri de angelicis visionibus B. incipit liber tertitis 
de angelicis apparitionibus et de transitu sancti columbse C. D. F. S. 

3 libello D. 4 om. B. 5 ipse D. 6 om. B. 

7 hisdem A. B. 8 celestibus D. 9 visionis C. 

10 cultum D. 11 descriptarura C. discrepant D. discreparite F. 

12 diversitate add. F. 13 craxate A. ataxate D. 14 retulit D. 
15 decolorosi C. D. discolorosi F. 1G et frondium D. 

17 - 18 temporis subito 1). 19 elevans D. 2 loco D. 

21 in quit add. D. 22 consequens F. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 195 

inquit, quia hoc sagum alicujus est tarn magnifici honoris, apud 
te diutius retinere non poteris. His dictis, supra memoratum 
peplum mulier paulatim a se elongari volando videbat, campo- 
rumque latitudinem in majus crescendo excedere, rnontesque et 
saltus majore sui mensura superare; vocemque hujuscemodi 
subsecutam audierat, Mulier noles tristificari, viro enim cui 
matrimoniali 23 es 24 juncta 25 fcedere talem filium editura es flori- 
dum, qui quasi unus prophetarum Dei inter ipsos 26 connumer- 
abitur, innumerabiliumque animarum dux ad ccelestem a Deo 
patriam est prsedestinatus. In hac audita voce mulier exper- 
giscitur. 

l ^e rafcixr Inminaso sroptr fcormuntis ip#itt0 yntn fadem toiso. 

JH-LIA in nocte, ejusdem beati 2 pueri nutritor, spectabilis CAP. ITI. 
vitse vir, presbyter 3 Cruithnechanus, post 4 missam ab ecclesia 
ad hospitiolum revertens, totam invenit domum 5 suam clara 
irradiatam luce ; globum quippe igneum super pueruli dormi- 
entis faciem stantem vidit. 6 Quo viso statim intremuit, et 
prostrato in terram vultu valde miratus, Spiritus Sancti gratiam 
super suum intellexit alumnum ccelitus 7 effusam. 



angelxrnmt apparition* sanctorum qno& 0anrtn0 
toati tomitw torn p,er rampum toiberat rxrntmeanto. 



namque multorum intervalla temporum, cum a quo- CAP. iv. 
dam synodo pro quibusdam veniabilibus et 3 tam excusabilibus 
causis, non recte, ut post in fine claruit, sanctus excommuni- 
caretur Columba, ad eandem contra ipsum collectam venit con- 
gregationem. Quem cum eminus appropinquantem 4 sanctus vi- 
disset Brendenus, illius monasterii fundator quod Scotice 5 Birra 
nuncupatur, citius 6 surgit, et inclinata facie, eum veneratus 
7 exosculatur. Quem cum 8 aliqui illius seniores 9 ccetus seorsim 
10 ceteris redarguerent 11 semotis, dicentes, 12 Quare coram excom- 



23 copula add. B. jure add. D. 24 vincta D. 

25 manu recentiori suprascript. A. om. B. 

20 coronam merebitur D. commemorabitur Colg. Boll. 

1 titul om. 0. D. F. S. Boll. 2 viri D. 3 om. C. D. F. S. 

4 missarum sollemnia D. 5 om. C. c qui 0. 7 effusnm C. 

1 titul. om. 0. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. 3 om, C. 

4 om. D. 5 byrra D. 6 surrexit 1). 

7 osculatur D. 8 alicni B. !) fetus B. 

10 om. B. a fnitl. F. n semotini C. D. l - niiramur te D. 



196 VITA SANCTI COLUMBJ5. LIBER III. 

municato surgere 13 et eum exosculari 14 non renueris ? taliter ad 
eos inquiens, Si vos, ait, videritis ea quse mihi Dominus hac in 
die de hoc suo, quern dehonoratis, electo manifestare 15 non 
16 dedignatus est, nunquam exconimunicassetis 17 quern 18 Deus 
non solum, secundum vestram non rectam sententiam, nullo 
excommunicat modo, sed 19 etiam magis 20 ac magis 21 magnificat. 
Illi e contra, Quomodo, aiunt, ut dicis, ipsum glorificat Deus, 
quem nos non sine 22 causa excommunicavimus, scire cupimus ? 
Ignicoinam et valde luminosam, ait Brendenus, columnam vidi 
eundem quem vos despicitis antecedentem Dei hominem. An- 
gelos quoque sanctos per campum ejus itineris comites. Hunc 
itaque spernere non audeo quem populorum ducem ad vitam a 
Deo praeordinatum video. His ab eo dictis, 23 non tantum, ultra 
Sanctum excommunicare non ausi, cessarunt, sed etiam valde 
venerati honorarunt. 24 Hoc tamen factum est ^hi 26 Teilte. 



omini -qnem <Sanctn0 2 Jfinnixr beati toiri soxinm 
itineri* 3 totbit. 

CAP. v. J^LXIO in tempore, vir sanctus venerandum episcopum 4 Finni- 
onem, suum videlicet magistrum, juvenis senem, adiit ; quem 
cum sanctus 5 Finnic ad se appropinquantem vidisset, angelum 
Domini pariter ejus comitem itineris vidit : et, ut nobis ab ex- 
pertis traditur, quibusdam astantibus intimavit fratribus, 
6 inquiens, 7 Ecce nunc 8 videatis sanctum advenientem Colum- 
bam, qui sui commeatus meruit habere socium angelum 
ccelicolam. lisdem diebus Sanctus cum duodecim commili- 
tonibus discipulis 9 ad 10 Britanniam transnavigavit. 

l "z anijelxr 50mintxitti ai (Sanctum Columbam in 2 l)inba torn- 
tnotant^m in^nla p,er bwnm apparuit, mi00u0 nt Jtibannm 
in regent 3 xrrbinaret. 

CAP. vi. J^LLIO 5 iii tempore, cum vir praedicabilis in 6 Hinba com- 
moraretur insula, quadam nocte in extasi mentis angelum 

13.14 n j s j eum excommunicare D. 16 - 16 dignatus D. 

17 eum add. D. 18 dominus C. 19 om. D. 

20 et C. 21 glorificat D. 22 culpa D. 

23 om. D. 24 - 26 om. C. D. F. S. 25 in add. Boll. 

25 - 26 hiseilte Colg. BoU. 

!- 3 tilul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 fennio B. 

4 fennionem B. finbarrum D. 5 fennio B. fynbarrus D v 

6 dicens C. 7 en B. 8 videtis C. D. 

9 om. C. 10 brittanniam B. 

!- 3 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 himba B. 4 5 quodam D, 

6 himba B. F. hymba D. Cummian. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 197 

Domini ad se missum vidit, qui in manu vitreum ordinationis 
regum 7 habebat librum : quern cum vir venerandus de manu 
angeli accepisset, ab eo jussus, legere ccepit. Qui cum secun- 
dum quod ei in libro erat commendatum 8 Aidanum in regem 
9 ordinare recusaret, quia magis logenanum fratrem ejus dili- 
geret, subito angelus, extendens manum, Sanctum percussit 
flagello, cujus livorosum in ejus latere vestigium omnibus 
suse diebus permansit vitse. 10 Hocque 11 intulit 12 verbum, 
Pro certo scias, inquiens, quia 13 ad 14 te a Deo missus sum 
cum 15 vitreo libro, ut juxta verba quse in eo legisti, 16 Aidanum 
in 17 regnum ordines. Quod si obsecundare huic nolueris jus- 
sioni, percutiam te iterate. Hie itaque angelus Domini, cum 
per tres continuas noctes, eundem in 18 manu vitreum habens 
codicem, apparuisset, eademque Domini jussa de regis ejusdem 
ordinatione commendasset, Sanctus, verbo obsecutus Domini, ad 
louam transnavigavit insulam, ibidemque 19 Aidanum, iisdem 
adventantem diebus, in regem, sicut erat jussus, ordinavit. Et 
inter ordinationis verba, de filiis et nepotibus pronepotibusque 
ejus 20 futura prophetizavit : imponensque manum super caput 
ejus, ordinans benedixit. 

21 Cummeneus Albus, in libro quern de virtutibus sancti Co- 
lumbse 22 scripsit, sic dixit quod sanctus Columba de 23 Aidano et 
de posteris ejus, et de regno suo, prophetare ccepit, dicens, In- 
dubitanter 2 *crede, 25 Aidane, 26 quoniamnullus adversariorum 
tuorum tibi poterit resistere, donee prius fraudulentiam agas 
in me et in posteros meos. Propterea ergo tu filiis commenda 
ut et ipsi filiis et nepotibus et posteris suis commendent, ne per 
consilia mala eorum sceptrum regni hujus de manibus suis per- 
dant. In quocunque enim tempore 27 adversum me aut ad versus 
cognates meos qui sunt in Hibernia fecerint, flagellum, quod 
causa tui ab angelo sustinui per manum Dei super eos in mag 
num flagitium vertetur, et cor virorum auferetur ab eis et 
inimici eorum vehementer super eos confortabuntur. 

Hoc autem vaticinium temporibus nostris completum est, in 
bello ^Eoth, 29 Domnail Brecco, nepote 30 Aidani, sine causa 
vastante provinciam 31 Domnill nepotis 32 Ainmuireg. Et a die 



7 haberet D. 8 aedh. 9 om. D. 

10 hoc D. n - 12 .esse angelieum D. 13 - 14 om. D. 

15 hoc D. 1( 5 aedhaiiura D. 17 regem D. 

18 navi B. 19 aedhanum D. 20 futuris D. 

, 21 usque ad fin. cap. om. B. 22 scribens D. ^ aedhano D. 

24 credo C. 25 aedhane D. 2G quod C. 

27 malum add. C. 28 maidhe rath D. 29 donaldo C. D. 

30 aedhani D. 31 domnaill C. donaldi D. 

32 ainureii C. aiiimireacli D. ainmuirer F. aiuiiiirech Cols. 



198 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER III. 

ilia usque hodie adhuc in proclivcf sunt ab extraneis: quod 
suspiria doloris pectori incutit. 

l ^t an^eiomm apparitixme alimjti* b*ati Jkttxrnt* animam ab 

tehenttum. 



CAP, vii. J3JLIO 2 in tempore, cum vir sanctus in loua 3 commoraretur 
insula, quidam de suis 4 monachis, Brito, bonis actibus intentus, 
molestia correptus corporis, ad extrema perductus est. Quern 
cum 5 vir venerandus in hora sui visitaret exitus, paulisper ad 
6 lectulum 7 ejus 8 assistens, et ei benedicens, ocyus domum 
egreditur, nolens 9 videre 10 morientem. Qui eodem momento 
post sancti de domu 11 secessum 12 viri prsesentem finiit vitam. 
Turn vir prsedicabilis, in 13 plateola sui deambulans monasterii, 
porrectis ad coelum oculis, diutius valde obstupescens, admira- 
batur. Quidam vero frater, 14 Aidanus nomine, ^filius 16 Libir, 
bonse indolis et religiosus homo, qui solus de fratribus eadem 
adfuit hora, flexis genibus, rogare coepit ut Sanctus eidem tantaa 
admirationis causam 17 intimaret. Cui Sanctus, Nunc sanctos 
angelos in aere contra adversarias potestates belligerare vidi ; 
Christoque 18 agonothetse gratias ago quia victores angeli animam 
hujus peregrini, qui primus apud nos in hac insula mortuus est, 
ad coelestis patriae gaudia evexerunt. Sed hoc quseso sacra- 
mentuin nemini in vita mea reveles. 

1 JJe angdxrrttm retolata tibtm 0anct0 birxr toisixme, (jnt animam 
Jlixrcmiti ab rxBlnm buabant. 



CAP. viu. ^LIO in tempore, quidam 2 Hiberniensis peregrinus ad Sanc 
tum perveniens, per aliquot apud eum menses in 3 Ioua 4 com- 
manebat insula. Cui vir beatus alia die, Nunc, ait, quidam de 
6 provincialibus 7 tuis clericis ad ccelum ab angelis portatur, 
cujus adhuc ignoro nomen. Frater vero hoc audiens ccepit 
secum de 8 provincia perserutari Anteriorum, 9 qui Scotice 10 In- 
dairthir xl nuncupantur, et de illius beati hominis vocabulo ; 



1 tituL oin, G, D. F. 8. Boll. 2 om. D. a conversaretur C. 

4 inonachus C. D. 5 om. D. 6 lectum C. 

7 om. ]). s assiJens C. accessit D. - 10 se ab aliis videri D. 

11 recessum C. D. l 2 oni. D. 13 platea D. 

aedatius D. 15 - 10 om. C. D. 10 liber B. 

17 diceret D. 18 agonithetse A. B. agonizante D. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 everniensis A. C. 3 ioua B. 

4 comiuanens 1). 6 comprovinoialibus Ii. provincia D. 

r tua D. s vita B. <J - n om. C: D. F. S. lu ondairtir B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMIkK L1BEK III. 199 

12 hocque consequenter intulit verbum, 13 inquiens, Alium Christi 
scio 14 militonem qui sibi in eodem territorio, in quo et ego com- 
manebam, 15 monasteriolum construxit, nomine 16 Diormitium. 
Cui Sanctus ait, Ipse est de quo dicis, qui nunc ab angelis Dei 
in paradisum deductus est. Sed hoc 17 etiam non negligenter 
adnotandum est, quod idem vir venerabilis multa sibi a Deo 
arcana, ab aliis celata, sacramenta, nullo mo do in hominum 
notitiam prodi passus sit, duabus, ut ipse aliquando paucis 18 in- 
timaverat fratribus, causis existentibus ; hoc est, ut jactantiam 
devitaret, et ad sernetipsura interrogandum, insustentabiles 
turbas de se aliqua interrogare volentes, divulgata revelationum 
fama, non invitaret. 



angtlormtt ttrntra jb&mrrn&s fortt b^Utgtr attune 0mdo in 
bdla tfxrrtune 2 0ttbtonient:mm. 



vir sanctus, in 3 Ioua conversans insula, remotiorem CAP. ix. 
ab 4 hominibus locum, aptumque ad orationem, in saltibus quae- 
sivit : ibidemque cum orare ccepisset, subito, ut ipse postea 
paucis intimaverat fratribus, videt contra se nigerrimam dsemo- 
num cum ferreis verubus aciem prceliari : qui, sicuti sancto viro 
per Spiritum revelatum erat, monasterium ejus invader e, et 
multos ex fratribus iisdem volebant jugulare sudibus. Ipse vero 
contra tales eemulos unus homo innumeros, accepta Pauli arma- 
tura apostoli, forti conflictu dimicabat. Et ita ex majore diei 
parte utrinque dimicatum est, nee innumerabiles unum 5 vincere 
poterant, nee eos unus de sua valebat insula repellere ; donee 
angeli Dei, ut Sanctus post quibusdam non multis retulerat, in 
adminiculum affuere ; 6 quorum timore 7 proturbati dsemones 
loco cessere. Eademque die, Sanctus ad monasterium post 
dsemoniorum reversus de sua insula effugationem, hoc de 
8 eisdem Hurmis hostilibus verbum profatur, inquiens, Illi 
10 exitiabiles n gemuli qui hac die de hujus 12 termlse, Deo pro- 
pitio, regione, angelis 13 nobis subvenientibus, ad 14 Ethicam 
15 effugati sunt 16 terram 17 ibidemque 18 sa3vi 19 invasores, fratrum 
monasteria invadent, et pestilentes 20 inferent morbos, quorum 

12 hoc eis D. 13 dicens D. 1J commilitonem C. 

15 monasterium D. 1G diarmatum D. 17 jam 1). 18 om. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 subvenientis B. 3 ion a B. 
4 omnibus B. D. 5 om. D. 6 quo B. 

7 pertiirbati C. D. 8 demoniacis D. 9 om. D. 

10 exitiati D. demones D. 12 terrse D. 

13 om. D. 14 aethicam C. 15 f ugati C. D. F. S. 
10 om. D. ir ibidem C. 18 - 19 intrantes P. 20 ferent 1). 



200 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER III. 

molestia infestati, multi morientur. Quod iisdem diebus, juxta 
beati 21 praescientiam viri, ita 22 et factum est. Et post, inter- 
veniente biduo, ei revelante Spiritu, Bene, ait, Baitheneus, 
auxiliante Deo, dispensavit ut ejusdem ecclesise cui, Deo auc- 
tore, praeest, in Campo 23 Lunge, jejuniis et orationibus collectio 
a dsemonum 24 defendatur invasione : ubinemo, excepto uno qui 
mortuus est, hac vice morietur. Quod ita, juxta vaticinium 
ejus, expletum est. Nam cum multi in ceteris ejusdem insulse 
monasteriis eodem morbo morerentur, nemo, nisi unus de quo 
Sanctus dixit apud 25 Baitheneum in sua est mortuus congrega- 
tione. 



rn.e qn08 tor 

nomirtt OMttmbi, fabri ierrarii, Coiirigini jcxrgnxrmmtxr, ab 
cxloz tbthtxz. 



CAP. x. <iuiDAM faber ferrarius in 2 mediterranea 3 Scotise habitabat 
4 parte, eleemosynarum operibus satis intentus, et ceteris justitise 
actibus plenus. Hie, cum ad extrema in bona senectute per- 
duceretur, supra memoratus Columbus 5 cognominatus 6 Coil- 
riginus, eadem hora qua de corpore eductus est, sanctus Columba 
in loua commanens insula, paucis quibusdam 7 se circumstanti- 
bus, sic profatus, senioribus, 8 Columbus 9 Coilriginus, ait, 
10 faber ferrarius, non incassum laboravit, qui de propria manuum 
laboratione suarum praemia, emax, felix, n comparuit seterna. 
Ecce enim, nunc anima ejus a sanctis vehitur angelis ad cceles- 
tis patriaa gaudia. Nam quodcunque de suse artis negotiatione 
acquirere potuit, in egenorum eleemosynas expendit. 



0imilt bi0i0ne xjurrsf bir 
bznt morat^ emin# animam ab rxelum ferre. 

CAP. XL j^LLIO itidem 2 in 3 tempore, vir sanctus in loua conversans 
insula, 4 quadam 5 die, subito oculos ad ccelum dirigens, hsec pro 
fatus est verba, Felix mulier, felix bene morata, cujus animam 
nunc angeli Dei ad paradisum evehunt. Erat autem quidam 

21 sententiam D. 22 om. D. 22 lugne D. 

24 defendantur B. 25 baithenum D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

2 - 4 media parte hybernie que vocatur midi habitabat D. 

3 scothicse C. 6 - 6 om. C. D. F. S. 7 de D. 

8 columb A. 9 om. C. D. F. S. 10 et add. D. n comparavit C. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. D. 3 die D. 4 - 5 om. D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^:. LIBER III. 201 

religiosus frater, Genereus nomine, Saxo, 6 pistor, opus 7 pistorium 
exercens, qui hoc audierat verbum ex ore Sancti prolatum. 
Eademque die mensis, eodem terminate anno, Sanctus eidem 
Genereo, Saxoni, Miram rem video, ait ; ecce, mulier de qua, te 
praesente, praeterito dixeram anno 8 nunc mariti sui religiosi 
cujusdam plebeii in aere obviat animae, et cum sanctis angelis 
contra 9 aeinulas pro ea 10 belligerat potestates : quorum admini- 
culo, ejusdem homuncionis justitia suffragante, a daemonum belli- 
gerationibus erepta, ad aeternae refrigerationis locum anima 
ipsius est perducta. 



(Mttmba 

0btiicr0 in tran0itu totb.erat bsati 2 |prmb.etu anim&, iUm0 
m0na0terit frmbat0ri0 xjuob <Srxrtia JJirra ratnotpate. 

J^i-LIA itidem die, dum vir venerandus in 3 Ioua 4 conversa- CAP. xn. 
retur insula, mane primo suum advocat saspe memoratum 
minis tratorem 6 Diormitium nomine, eique prsecipit, inquiens, 
Sacra celeriter Eucharistiaa ministeria prasparentur. Hodie 
enim natalis beati 6 Brendeni 7 dies. Quare, ait minister, talia 
missarum solemnia hodierna 8 prseparari 9 pra3cipis ? nullus enim 
ad nos de Scotia sancti illius viri obitus pervenit nuncius. 
Vade 10 tum, ait Sanctus, meas obsecundare jussioni debes. Hac 
enim n nocte prasterita vidi subito apertum ccelum, angelo- 
rumque choros 12 sancti 13 Brendeni animas obvios descendere: 
quorum luminosa et incomparabili claritudine totus eadem hora 
illustratus est mundi orbis. 



angei0rum biziont 0anctrrrtim rjui gantti Columbani 
animam ab rxelunt 



3 itidem die, 4 dum fratres, se calceantes, mane ad CAP. xiu. 
diversa monasterii opera ire praepararent, Sanctus e contra ea 
die otiari prsecipit, sacraeque oblationis obsequia praeparari, et 
aliquam, quasi in Dominico, prandioli adjectionem fieri. Meque, 

6 A. B. C. D. F. S. pictor Colg. Boll. 

7 A. pistorum B. C. D. F. S. pictorium Colg. Boll. 

8 om. D. 9 emulos D. 10 belligerautes D. 
1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 B. brendini A. 3 iona B. 

4 conversatur D. 5 diarmatum D. c B. brendini A. brendani D. 

7 est add. C. 8 die add. T). 9 die add. C. 10 tu C. 

11 die D. 12 innumerorum add. B. 13 B. brendini A. brandani D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. B. 3 om. D. 4 cum C. 



202 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEK III. 

ait, hodie, quamlibet indignus 5 sim, ob venerationem illius ani- 
mse quse hac in nocte inter sanctos angelorum choros vecta, 
ultra 6 siderea coelorum 7 spatia ad paradisum, ascendit, sacra 
8 oportet Eucharistise celebrare 9 mysteria. Et his dictis fratres 
obsequuntur, et, juxta Sancti jussionem, eadem ociantur die : 
prseparatisque sacris, 10 ad ecclesiam, n ministeriis, quasi 12 die 
solenni 13 albati cum Sancto pergunt. Sed forte, 14 dum inter 
talia cum modulatione officia 15 illa consueta 16 decantaretur 
37 deprecatio, in qua sancti Martini 18 commemoratur nomen, 
subito 19 Sanctus ad cantores, ejusdem onomatis ad locum per- 
venientes, Hodie, ait, pro sancto Columbano episcopo decantare 
debetis. Tune omnes 20 qui inerant 21 fratres intellexere quod 
Columbanus, episcopus 22 Lagenensis, carus Columbse amicus, 
ad Doimnum 23 emigraverit. Et post alicujus temporis inter- 
vallum, aliqui de 24 Lagenica commeantes 25 provincia ea nocte 
eundem obiisse nunciant episcopum qua Sancto ita revelatum 
est. 



Kngiiontm apjraritimte qwi xrbbiam antmahu* 0aacti 



CAP. xiv. jpH_LIO 2 in tempore, vir 3 venerandus, cum in 4 Ioua conversa- 
retur insula, quadam subitatione incitatus, signo personante, 
5 collectis fratribus, Nunc, ait, oratione monachis abbatis 6 Com- 
gelli auxiliemur, hac in hora in Stagno demersis 7 Vituli; ecce 
enim hoc momento in aere contra adversarias belligerant 
potestates, animam alicujus hospitis simul cum eis demersi 
eripere conantes. Turn post lacrymosam et intentam orationem, 
cito ante altarium surgens, inter fratres pariter in 8 oratione 
prostrates, Isetificato vultu, Chris fco, ait, gratias agite, nunc 
enim sancti angeli, sanctis obviantes animabus, et ipsum hos- 
pitem, ereptum a dsemonum belligerationibus, quasi 9 victoriales 
liberarunt belligeratores. 



6 sum D. sydera D. 7 om. D. 

8 om. D. decet add. D. 10 misteriis add. D. 

11 am. D. v - om, D. 13 A. abbati B. C. sabbati Colg. Boll. 
14 cum C. 15 - 17 illam consuetam deprecaretur prefacionem D. 

1(i decantarent C. 18 commemoraretur C. 9 pater D. 

20-21 f ra tres qui cum eo erant D. 22 laginensis C. D. 

23 emigravit C. D. 24 lagenea C. 25 om. D. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 am. D. 3 sanctns C. 

4 iona B. 6 et add. D. 6 comgilli A. congelli C. comgalli D. 

7 intulit D. 8 B. C. D. F. S. om. A. victores D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEK III. 203 



manifestations alirujti* (Smrhathi anim& 
0bbiantmm. 

jPL.LIO 2 in tempore, vir sanctus, ultra 3 Britannise Dorsum CAP. xv. 
iter agens, secus Kisse fluminis lacum, subito inspiratus Spiritu 
Sancto, ad fratres pariter commeantes, Properemus, 4 ait, sanctis 
obviam angelis, qui de summis cceli regionibus ad 5 prseferendam 
alicujus gentilici animam emissi, nos illuc usque pervenientes 
expectant, ut ipsum, naturale bonum per totam vitam usque ad 
extremam senectutem conservantem, priusquam moriatur, oppor 
tune baptizemus. Et, hsec dicens, sanctus senex in quantum 
potuit comites festinus prsecedebat, donee in ilium devenit 
agrum 6 qui 7 Airchart-dan 8 nuncupatur: ibidemque quidam 
repertus senex, 9 Emchatus nomine, audiens a Sancto verbum 
Dei prsedicatum, et credens, baptizatus est, 10 et continue, laetus 
et securus, cum angelis obviantibus ei, ad Dominum commi- 
gravit. Sed et filius ejus 11 Virolecus credens cum tota domo 
est 12 baptizatus. 



angler Jtomini Q tt * alicui fratri lap#xr be mmtastmi Cui- 
mine rxrtwnM in vobonti rampo a$yoictmu tarn dto 0ub- 
tenerat. 



in 3 tempore, vir sanctus, *dum in tuguriolo suo CAP. xvi. 
scribens sederet, subito ejus 5 immutata facies, et hanc puro de 
pectore promit vocem, dicens, Auxiliare, auxiliare. Duo vero 
fratres ad januam stantes, videlicet 6 Colgu, 7 filius 8 Cellachi, 
et Lugneus 9 Mocublai, causam talis subitse 10 interrogant vocis. 
Quibus vir venerabilis hoc dedit responsum, inquiens, Angelo 
Domini, qui nunc inter n vos stabat, jussi ut alicui ex fratribus 
de summo culmine magnae domus 12 lapso tarn cito subveniret, 
quse his in diebus in 13 Eoboreti u Campo 15 fabricatur. Hocque 
consequenter Sanctus intulit 16 famen, inquiens, Valde admira- 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 brittannite B. D. 

4 o??i. D. 5 perferendum C. 6 8 om. C. D. F. S. 

7 aircardan B. enichatus C. 10 - 12 om. C. 

11 virolicus B. viro sancto letus D. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 - 3 quadam die D. 4 cum C. 

s immutatur B. immutata est (est corrector adjtc.it) F. 

6 colgus C. 7 - 5 om. C. D. F. S. om. C. D. F. S. 

10 interrogaverunt D. n nos 1). 12 lapsae A. D. 

i3.li dirmuic D. 15 fabricabatur D. 

1(3 A. B. C. D. F. S. tamen suo jure Colg. Boll. 



204 VITA SANCT1 COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 

bills et pene 17 indicibilis est 18 angelici volatus pernicitas, ful- 
gurese, ut sestimo, celeritati parilis. Nam ille ccelicola, qui 
nine a nobis nunc, illo viro labi incipiente, avolavit, quasi in 
ictu oculi, priusquam terram tangeret, subveniens, eum sub- 
leva vit ; nee ullam fracturam aut Isesuram ille qui cecidit 
sentire potuit. Quam stupenda, inquam, haec velocissima et 
opportuna subventio, quse, dicto citius, tantis maris et terrae 
interjacentibus spatiis, tarn celerrime effici potuit. 



tmxititttMiu sanctorum totsa afo foati toribidnm 
fciri fo rxelrr 



CAP. xvn. jpBLLIO itidem 2 in tempore, quadam die, vir beatus in 3 Ioua 
4 conversans insula, fratribus congregatis, cum ingenti 5 animad- 
versione, demmciavit, ad eos dicens, Hodie in occidentalem 
nostrse campulum insulae solus exire cupio ; nemo itaque ex 
vobis me sequatur. Quibus obsecundantibus, solus quidem, ut 
voluit, egreditur. Sed frater quidam, callidus explorator, alia 
means via, in cujusdam monticelli cacumine, qui eidem super- 
eminet campulo, se occulte collocat ; videlicet 6 illius causam 
solitariae beati egressionis viri explorare cupiens. Quern cum 
idem explorator de monticelli vertice, in quodam illius campuli 
colliculo stantem, et expansis ad ccelum manibus orantem, 
oculosque ad 7 coelum elevantem conspiceret, mirum dictu, et 
ecce subito res miranda apparuit, quarn idem supra memoratus 
homo, ut aestimo, non sine permissione Dei, de 8 propioris monti 
celli loco, oculis etiana corporalibus aspexerat, ut nomen Sancti 
et ejus honorificentia, quamvis ipso nolente, ob hanc manifes- 
tatam visionem postea magis in populis devulgaretur. Nam 
sancti angeli, coelestis patriae cives, mira advolantes subitatione, 
sanctum virum orantem circumstare coeperunt, 9 albatis induti 
vestibus ; et post aliquam cum beato sermocinationem viro, ilia 
ccelestis caterva, quasi se exploratam sentiens, ad summa citius 
repedavit coelorum. Beatus et ipse vir, post angelicum con- 
dictum, reversus ad monasterium, iterum collectis fratribus, 
cum quadam non mediocri objurgatione inquirit quis de illis 
esset 10 transgressionis obnoxius. Quibus consequenter se nes- 
cisse protestantibus, ille, conscius sui inexcusabilis n transgressus, 
ultra non sustinens delictum celare suum, flexis genibus, in 

17 indiciabilis C. 18 angelica 0. 

1 tilul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 iona B. 

4 conversatus D. 5 animi adversionc C. 6 ejus C. 

7 cailos B. D. F. 8 prioris C. 9 albis C. 

10 transgressionibus B. n transgressor C. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBER III. 205 

medio fratrum chore, coram Sancto, veniam supplex precatur. 
Quern Sanctus seorsum ducens, 12 ingeniculanti cum grand! 
commendat comminatione, ut nulli hominum de ilia angelica 
visions in diebus ejusdem beati viri aliquid etiam parvum 
occultum 13 aperiret. Post egressum vero 14 de corpore sancti 
viri 15 illam ccelestis ccetus apparitionem fratribus cum 16 grandi 
intimavit protestatione. Unde 17 hodieque et locus illius angelici 
18 condicti rem in eo gestam suo proprio protestatur vocabulo, 
qui Latine potest dici Colliculus Angelorum, Scotice vero 19 Cnoc 
20 Angel. Hinc itaque animadvertendum est, 21 et non negli- 
genter perscrutandum, quantse et quales ad beatum virum, 22 in 
hyemalibus 23 plerumque noctibus, insomnem, et in locis remo- 
tioribus, aliis 24 quiescentibus, orantem, angelicse fuerint 25 et 
suaves frequentationes, quse nullo modo venire in hominum 
notitiam potuere : quse procul dubio valde 26 numerosse 27 fuerunt ; 
si etiam qusedam ex ipsis quoquo modo ab hominibus, vel in 
die vel ^noctu explorari potuerint; quse absque dubitatione 
paucse ^admodum ad earum comparationem angelicarum fre- 
quentationum, quse videlicet a nemine sciri poterant. Hoc 
idem similiter 30 et de quibusdam luminosis manifestationibus 
annotandum, quse a paucis exploratse, inferius 31 caraxabuntur. 



l ^z rxrirnnna luminosz s>&ndi bin fo tottce arfcm 

.J3-LIO 3 in tempore, 4 quatuor, ad sanctum visitandum Colum- CAP - 
bam, monasteriorum sancti fundatores de 5 Scotia transmeantes, xvm - 
in 6 Hinba eum invenerunt insula ; quorum 7 illustrium vocabula 
8 Comgellus 9 Mocu 10 Aridi, n Cainnechus 12 Mocu 13 Dalon, 14 Bren- 
denus 15 Mocu 16 Alti, 17 Cormacus 18 Nepos 19 Leathain. Hi uno 
eodemque consensu elegerunt ut sanctus Columba coram ipsis 
in ecclesia sacra Eucharistise consecraret mysteria. Qui, eorum 
obsecundans jussioni, simul cum eis, die Dominica ex more, 

12 ingeniculati B. 13 que add. T>. u illius add. D. 

15 anime add. D. 16 ingenti admiratione D. 17 hodie D. 

18 conduct! D. 19 - 20 cnocangel B. cnocan na naingheal D. 

21 vel C. 22 om. C. D. 23 - 24 incuria scribce om. Colg. Boll. 

25 om. D. 2G plures valde numero D. 27 fuerant B. D. F. 

28 nocte C. in nocte D. 29 om. C. 30 om. C. 

31 taxabimtur D. tractabuntur male Colg. Boll. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 - 3 quodam D. 4 multorum D. 

5 hybernia D. 6 himba B. F. Cummian. hymba C. D. 

7 illustria C. 8 congellus C. coragallus D. 

9 - 10 om. C. D. F. S. n cahinnechus C. cainnichus D. 

12 13 om. C. D. F. S. 14 brendanus D. 15 - 16 om. C. D. F. S. 

17 cormac A. 18 19 om. C. D. F. S. 19 lethani B. 



200 VITA SANCTI COLUMB/E. LIBER III. 

post Evangelii lectionem, ecclesiam ingreditur, ibidemque, dum 
missarum sollemnia celebrarentur, sanctus 20 Brendenus 21 Mocu 
22 Alti, sicut post 23 Comgello et 24 Cainnecho intimavit, quendam 
criniosum igneum globum, et valde luminosum, de vertice 
sancti Columbae, ante altare stantis, et sacram oblationem con- 
secrantis, tamdiu ardentem, 25 et instar alicujus 26 column8e 
sursum ascendentem, vidit, donee eadem perficerentur sacro- 
sancta 27 ministeria. 



toisitatixms qnx in 
insula trite coniinms foiebu* 2 d noctibn* m$tv 3 fcmera- 
biiem man#it 4 fcintm. 



CAP. xix. jSLLIO 5 in tempore, cum sanctus vir in 6 Hinba commaneret 
insula, gratia sancti spiraminis super eum abunde et incom- 
parabiliter effusa, per triduum mirabiliter mansit, ita ut per 
tres dies totidemque noctes, intra obseratam et repletam ccelesti 
claritudine domum manens, nullum ad se accedere permitteret, 
neque manducans neque bibens. De qua videlicet domo, im- 
mensse claritatis radii, per rimulas valvarum, et clavium fora 
mina, erumpentes, noctu 7 visebantur. Carmina quoque quaedam 
spiritalia et 8 ante inaudita decantari ab eo audiebantur. Sed et 
multa qusedam, ut ipse post coram paucis 9 admodum professus 
est, occulta ab exordio mundi arcana aperte manifestata videbat : 
Scripturarum quoque sacrarum obscura quaeque et difficillima, 
10 plana, et luce clarius 11 aperta, mundissimi cordis oculis pate- 
bant. 12 Baitheneumque alumnum non adesse querebatur ; qui 
13 si forte adesset illo in triduo, vel de prseteritis vel de futuris 
deinceps sasculis ab ore viri beati quaedam plurima, ab aliis 
ignorata hominibus, mysteria describeret; aliquantas quoque 
sacrorum explanationes voluminum. Qui tamen Baitheneus, in 
Egea insula venti contrarietate detentus, usquequo illi trinales 
illius incomparabilis et honorificae visitationis dies, et totidem 
noctes, terminarentur, adesse non potuit. 

20 brendanus D. 2l -- 2 am. C. D. F. S. 2S congello C. 

24 cainnicho D. ~ ad B. 2l * colurnbae V. 

~ 7 mysteria B. C. D. F. S. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll 2 totidemque B. 

3 venerabile B. 4 viturn B. r> om. D. 

6 liimba B. F. hymba 0. D. 7 videbantur B. D. 

8 om. B. 9 ad domum C. 10 plena C. 

51 aperto C. 12 baitlieinunque D. l3 hiterlin. man-it corrector!.** B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMBA. LIBER III. 207 



angdua Jteci* 2 darifariime qtwm ISirgmr, Jjxrn# inbxrli0 

0,ni 3 ;ptf0ta jl-exr att,cttfr.e hnir yr^fmt 
<Saratmn Colnmbam in erdma, fratribtt0 
nod* in nib trait* 5 0,tm0antibtt0, fc.e0jcmb.ere toifcsrat, 6 rni 
eg0, tnfci0nn0 licet, 7 fc/e0:etbi0. 

Cl^UADAM hyemali nocte, supra memoratus 8 Virgnous, in CAP. xx. 
Dei amore fervens, ecclesiam, orationis studio, aliis quiescenti- 
bus, solus intrat : ibidemque in quadam exedra, quse oratorii 
adliaerebat parieti, devotus orabat. Et post aliquantum quasi 
horse intervallum unius, vir venerandus Columba eandem sacram 
ingreditur domum, simulque cum eo aurea lux, de summa coeli 
altitudine descendens, totum illud ecclesise spatium 9 replens. 
Sed et illius exedriolae separatum conclave, ubi se 10 Virgnous, 
in quantum potuit, latitare conabatur, n ejusdem ccelestis claritas 
luminis, per interiorem illius cubiculi januam, quse ex minori 
patebat parte, erumpens, non sine aliquo formidabili repleverat 
terrore. Et sicut nullus 12 sesteum et 13 meridianum solem rectis 
et irreverberatis potest intueri oculis, sic et illam coelestem 
claritudinem ille 14 Virgnous, qui viderat, sustinere nullo poterat 
modo ; quia valde oculorum 15 reverberabat aciem ilia luminosa 
et incomparabilis effusio. Quo 16 fulminali et 17 formidabili splen- 
dore viso, in tantum idem supra memoratus frater exterritus 
erat, ut nulla in eo virtus remaneret. Sanctus vero Columba, post 
non prolixam orationem, egreditur ecclesiam. 18 Virgnoumque 
valde timoratum ad se crastina advocat die, hisque brevibus 
compellat consolatoriis 19 verbis, Bene, filiole, ingeminans, hac 
prseterita nocte in conspectu Dei placuisti, oculos ad terrain 
deprirnendo, claritatis timore perterritus ejus ; nam, si non ita 
fecisses, ilia inaestimabili obcsecarentur tui luce 20 visa oculi. Sed 
hoc non negligenter observare 21 debebis, ut talem hanc lucis 
manifestationem nemini unquam in mea denudes vita. Hsec 
itaque prsedicabilis et admirabilis res, post beati viri transitum, 
multis, eodem 22 Virgnouo narrante, innotuit. Cujus scilicet 
23 Virgnoui sororis filius Commanus, honorabilis presbyter, mini 



1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 claritate B. 3 post B. 

4 hyemalis B. 5 questibus B. 6 - 7 hcec verba ecclesia supra subsequuntur B. 

8 fergna vir gnous F. 9 replevit C. D. 

10 fergna D. vir gnous F. n et add. D. 12 sestivum B. C. D. 

13 meridionalem C. 14 fergna D. lr> reverberat C. D. 

10 fulminari D. 17 incomparabili C. 18 fergnaque D. 

19 om. C. 20 om. D. 2l debes C. D. 

22 virgnono B. fergna D. viro gnouo F. ~ 3 fergna D. viri gnoui F. 



208 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER III. 

24 Adamnano de hac supra visione 25 caraxata aliquando, sub 
testificatione, enarraverat. Qui etiam enarratam ab 26 ore ipsius 
27 Virgnoui, abbatis, et avunculi sui, ab eo in quantum potuit 
visam, audierat. 



l ^t alia yxoyz zimili cd&& daritttbini* bwiont. 

CAP. xxi. jjl^uo itidem nocte, quidam de fratribus, 2 Colgius nomine, 
3 filius Aido Draigniche, de Nepotibus 4 Fechreg, cujus in primo 
5 fecimus mentionem, casu ad januam ecclesiae, aliis dormien- 
tibus, devenit, ibidemque aliquamdiu stans orabat. Turn 
proinde subito totam videt ecclesiam coelesti luce repleri : quae 
scilicet 6 fulguralis lux dicto citius ab ejus recessit oculis. 
Sanctum vero Columbam hora eadem intra ecclesiam orantem 
ignorabat. Postque talem subitam luminis apparitionem, valde 
pertimescens, domum revertitur. Postera die Sanctus, ilium 
advocans, asperius objurgavit, inquiens, De cetero prsecavere 
debes, fili, ne, quasi explorator, coeleste lumen, quod tibi non 
est donatum, inspicere coneris, quia te effugiet ; et ne alicui 
in meis diebus quod vidisti enarres. 



jrarili !bibin Ittd0 apparitimt*. 

CAP. xxn. ^^LLIO itidem 2 in tempore, vir beatus cuidam suo sapientiam 
discenti alumno, nomine Berchano, 3 cujus 4 cognomentum 
5 Mesloen, non mediocriter quadam denunciavit die, inquiens, 
Caveto, fili, 6 ne hac sequenti nocte, juxta tuam semper con- 
suetudinem, ad meum appropinques hospitiolum. Qui 7 haec 
audiens, contra interdictum, ad domum beati viri, in noctis 
silentio, aliis 8 quiescentibus, accessit, callideque explorans, 
oculos e regione ad clavium foramina posuit, sestimans scilicet, 
ut res probavit, aliquam intus coelestem visionem Sancto mani- 
festari. Nam eadem hora beati viri illud 9 hospitiolum coelestis 
splendore claritudinis erat repletum : quam non sustinens in- 
tueri, transgressor juvenis illico aufugit. Quern die crastina, 
Sanctus seorsum ducens, cum magna severitate objurgans, haec 

24 D. adomnano A. B. C. F. S. 25 craxata A. tractata Colg. Boll. 

26 in marg. B. 27 fergna D. viri gnoui F. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 colgus C. colgu D. 

3 - 4 om. C. D. F. S. 4 fechrech B. 5 libro add. B. 6 fulgoris D. 

1 tltul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 5 om. C. D. F. S. 

4 cognomento B. 5 molloen B. mesloer Colg. Boll. de B. 

7 hoc C. 8 acquiescentibus C. 9 hospitium D. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 209 

ad eum profatur verba, dicens, Hac in nocte, fill, coram Deo 
peccasti, nam tuse infitialis explorationem calliditatis a Spiritu 
Sancto celari vel abscond! posse inaniter putasti. Nonne ad 
mei ostium hospitioli te ilia 10 in hora appropinquantem et inde 
redeuntem vidi ? et nisi ego eodem momento pro te orarem, 
ibidem ante januam, aut cadens morereris, aut tui de suis foram- 
inibus oculi eruerentur. Sed n tibi hac vice propter me Dominus 
pepercit. Et hoc scito, quod in tua 12 Hibernili patria luxuriose 
vivens, exprobrationem facies tua omnibus patietur diebus vitae 
tuse. Hoc tamen a Domino orans impetravi, ut quia noster sis 
alumnus, lacrymosam ante exitum 13 agas pcenitudinem, et a Deo 
14 misericordiam consequaris. Quse omnia, secundum verbum 
beati viri, ita ei postea contigerunt, sicuti de eo prophetata sunt. 



arujdxrntm smtdo mani&0tata toira apparitixrtte, 

inripiento, .qtra^t m0x fo ccrqxore 



in tempore, dum vir beatus in loua commaneret in- 
sula 4 quadam 5 die sancta facies ejussubita 6 mirifica et 7 l8etifica 
hilaritate effloruit, oculosque ad ecelum elevans, incomparabili 
repletus gaudio, valde laetificabatur. Turn post modicum ali- 
cujus 8 momentioli intervallum, ilia sapida et suavis laetificatio 
in msestam convertitur tristificationem. Duo vero viri, qui 
eadem hora ejus tugurioli ad januam stabant, quod in eminen- 
tiore loco erat fabricatum, et ipsi cum eo valde tristificati, 
quorum unus Lugneus erat 9 Mocublai, alter vero Pilu nuncupa- 
batur, Saxo, causam ipsius subitse laetationis 10 inquirunt, et 
illius 11 subsequentis msestitise. Ad quos Sanctus sic profatur, 
Ite in pace, nee illius 12 lsetaminis causam, nee 13 etiam tristifica- 
tionis, a me nunc inquiratis manifestari. Quo audito, illacry- 
mati, 14 ingeniculantes, pxostratis in terra vultibus, suppliciter 
rogant, scire volentes aliquid de ilia re quse hora eadem Sancto 
erat revelata. Quos valde tristificatos videns, Quia vos, ait, 
amo, 16 tristificari nolo. Promittere 16 prius debetis ne ulli 
hominum sacramentum quod inquiritis in vita mea prodatis. 
Qui continuo, 17 secundum ejus commendationem, 18 prompte pro- 



10 om. C. I). 


11 tui B. i 2 


B. evernili A. hibernal! C. D. F. 


13 tuum add. D. 


14 veniam D. 




4 5 om. D. 
8 moment! D. 


6 et add. D. 
9 om. C. D. F. S. 


7 Isetificaque D. 
10 leticie B. Isetificationis C. D. 


11 subsequentes B. 
14 et add. C. 


12 laetitiae B. 
15 tristificare B. 


13 et C. 
16 milii add. D. 


17 sanctam C. 


18 prompta B. 












210 VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 

miserant. Et post talem promissionem vir venerandus sic ad eos 
19 proloquitur, Usque in hunc, inquiens, praesentem diem, meae in 
20 Britannia peregrinationis terdeni completi sunt anni. Interea 
multis ante diebus a Domino meo devote postulavi, ut in fine 
tricesimi hujus prsesentis anni me de meo absolveret incolatu, 
et ad coelestem patriam illico advocaret. Et haec fuit mei 
causa 21 laetaininis, de qua vos 22 me maesti interrogatis. Angelos 
enim sanctos de excelso vidi missos throno ad meam de carne 
animam obvios educendam. Sed ecce nunc, subito retardati, 
ultra nostrae fretum insulae 23 stant in rupe, scilicet volentes ad 
me de corpore advocandum appropiare. Sed propius accedere 
non permittuntur, mox ad ccelorum summa repedaturi; quia 
Dominus quod mihi totis viribus roganti donavit, ut hac in die 
ad ipsum de mundo transirem, multarum magis ecclesiarum pro 
me orationes exaudiens, dicto citius immutavit. Quibus scilicet 
ecclesiis exorantibus 24 sic a Domino donatum est, ut, quamlibet 
contra meam voluntatem, quatuor ab hac die mini in carne 
manenti superaddantur anni. Haec talis mihi msesta 25 retar- 
datio hodiernae tristificationis non immerito causa fuit. Quibus 
videlicet quatuor futuris, Deo propitio, terminatis in hac vita 
annis, subita emigratione, nulla praecedente corporis molestia, 
cum sanctis mihi obviaturis illo in tempore angelis, ad Dominum 
laetus emigrabo. Secundum haec verba, vir venerabilis, quae 
non sine magno gemitu et maerore, ut traditur, necnon et ingenti 
lacrimabilitate, prolocutus est, quatuor postea annis in carne 
mansit. 



0anrti 

^AP. jfUNNORUM supra quatuor memoratorum termino jam ap- 
-XXiv. p r0 pinquante, post quorum completionem, finem praesentis 
vitae veridicus praesagator sibi futurum fore multo ante praes- 
ciebat tempore, 3 quadam die, mense Maio, sicut in priore 
secundo scripsimus libro, ad visitandos operarios fratres senex 
senio fessus, plaustro vectu s, 4 pergit. Ad quos, in occidua 
6 insulae 6 louse laborantes parte, sic ea die exorsus est loqui, 
dicens, In Paschali solemnitate nuper 7 Aprili peracta mense, 
desiderio desideravi ad Christum Dominum, sicut et mihi ab 
eo concessum erat, si maluissem, emigrare. Sed ne vobis 

19 alloquitur. 20 brittanniam D. 21 Izetitise B. 

22 om. D. 23 stantes B. 24 sicut C. 25 om. D. 

1 titul. am. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 ac venerabilis deo dilecti add. B. 
3 capit. novum incipit D. 4 perrexit D. 5 insula C. 

* ionse B. D. 7 aprilis F. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB.E. LIBER III. 2*1 

laetitise 8 festivitas in tristitiam verteretur, diem mese de mundo 
emigrationis paulo diutius protelari malui. His ab eo 9 m8estis 
inonachi familiares auditis interim dictis valde tristificati sunt : 
quos in quantum poterat verbis ccepit consolatoriis laetificare. 
Quibus finitis, ut erat in vehiculo sedens, ad orientem suam 
convertens faciem, insulam cum insulanis benedixit habitat- 
oribus ; ex qua die, ut 10 in supra memorato 1:l caraxatum est 
libello, viperarum venena trisulcarum linguarum usque in 
hodiernum diem, nullo modo aut homini aut pecori nocere 
potuere. Post ejusdem benedictionis verba Sanctus ad suum 
12 revehitur monasterium. 

Turn proinde, paucis diebus transactis, 13 dum missarum 
solemnia, ex more, Dominica celebrarentur die, subito, sursuin 
elevatis oculis, facies venerabilis viri 14 florido respersa 15 rubore 
videtur : quia, sicut scriptum est, Corde laetante vultus floret. 
Eadem namque hora angelum Domini supra volitantem solus 
vidit intra ipsius oratorii parietes : et quia sanctorum angel- 
orum amabilis et tranquillus aspectus gaudium et exultationeni 
electorum pectoribus infundit, haec fuit illius subitse causa 
laetitise beato infusa viro. De qua scilicet causa 16 inspiratse 
17 lsetationis, cum qui inerant ibidem praesentes inquirerent, hoc 
eis Sanctus responsum, sursum respiciens, dedit, Mira et incom- 
parabilis 18 angelicas subtilitas naturae. Ecce enim angelus 
Domini, ad repetendum aliquod Deo carum missus depositum, 
19 nos desuper intra ecclesiam aspiciens et benedicens, rursum 
per 20 parasticiam ecclesiae reversus, nulla talis vestigia exitus 
reliquit. Haec Sanctus. 21 Sed 22 tamen de qualitate illius 
depositi ad quod missus est angelus requirendum nemo de 
circumstantibus recognoscere potuit. Noster vero patronus 
sanctum, propriam a Deo sibi commendatam animam, depositum 
mmcupavit. Quae, sicuti inferius narrabitur, alia, senis inter- 
venientibus continuis diebus, Dominica nocte ad Dominum 
emigravit. 

VIR itaque venerabilis in fine ejusdem hebdomadis, hoc est 
die sabbati, ipse et ejus pius minister Diormitius ad proximum 
pergunt benedicendum horreum. Quod intrans Sanctus cum 
benedixisset, et duos in eo frugum sequestratos 1 acervos, hoc 



8 festivitatis C. 9 majsti C. om. D. 

11 craxatum A. tractatum Colg. Boll. 12 revertitur Colg. Boll. 

13 cum D. 14 floride D. 15 om. D. 

16 insperatse C. Boll. 17 Iseticie B. 18 est add C. 

19 et Boll. 20 parusticiam Colg. Boll. 

21 dicens D. 22 tune C. D. 

1 vidisset C. 



212 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBER III. 

intulit verbum cum gratiarum actione, inquiens, Valde con- 
gratulor meis familiaribus monachis, quia hoc etiam anno, si 
2 quoquam a vobis emigrare me oportuerit, anmmm sufficientem 
habebitis. 3 Quo audito verbo 4 Diormitius minister tristificari 
ccepit, et sic 5 dicere, Hujus anni tempore, 6 pater, saepius nos 
contristas, quia de tuo transitu crebro conimemoras. Cui 
Sanctus hoc dedit responsum, Aliquem arcanum habeo 7 ser- 
inusculum, quern, si mihi firmiter promiseris, nemini ante 
meum denudare obitum, de meo tibi egressu aliquid mani- 
festius intimare potero. Quam cum talem minister promis- 
sionem, juxta voluntatem Sancti, flexis genibus, terminasset, 
vir 8 venerandus 9 consequenter sic profatur, Hsec in sacris 
voluminibus dies Sabbatum nuncupatur, quod interpretatur 
requies. Et rnihi vere est sabbatum hsec hodierna, quia hujus 
prsesentis laboriosse vitas mihi ultima est, in qua post meas 
laborationum molestias sabbatizo ; et hac sequenti media 
venerabili Dominica nocte, secundum eloquia Scripturarum, 
patrum 10 gradiar viam. n Jam enim Dominus meus Jesus 
Christus me invitare dignatur ; ad quern, inquam, hac medi- 
ante nocte, ipso me irivitante, emigrabo. Sic enim mihi ab 
ipso Domino revelatum est. Hsec 12 ma3sta minister audiens 
verba, ccepit amare flere. Quern Sanctus 13 in u quantum potuit 
consolari conabatur. 

Post haec 15 Sanctus horreum egreditur, et ad monasterium 
revertens, media residet via, in quo loco postea crux, molari 
infixa lapidi hodieque 16 stans, in margine cernitur vise. Duin- 
que 17 ibidem Sanctus, ut prsefatus sum, senio fessus, paululum 
sedens, requiesceret, ecce albus occurrit caballus, obediens 
servitor, qui scilicet lactaria bocetum inter et monasterium 
vascula gestare consueverat. Hie ad Sanctum accedens, mirum 
dictu, caput in sinu ejus ponens, ut credo inspirante Deo, cui 
omne animal 18 rerum sapit sensu quo jusserit ipse Creator, 
dominum a se suum mox emigraturum, et ipsum ultra non 
visurum sciens, ccepit plangere, ubertimque, quasi homo, lacry- 
mas in gremium Sancti fundere, et valde spumans flere. Quod 
videns minister, coepit ilium flebilem repellere lamentatorem : 
sed Sanctus prohibuit eum, dicens, Sine hunc, 19 sine 20 nostri 
amatorem, ut in hunc 21 meum sinum fletus 22 effundat amaris- 

2 quodam C. 3 panem add. B. victura manu correctors add. F. 

4 diarmatus D. 5 dixit C. om. C. 

7 sermonusculum D. 8 venerabilis D. 9 om. D. 

10 irgrediar C. ll ita B. 13 mestus D. 

13 - 14 ut D. 15 verba add. D. 1G stat D. 

17 idem D. 18 brutum B. in marg. F. 19 20 si nostri ne C. 

21 om. C. 22 fundat B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEK III. 213 

simi plangoris. Ecce tu, homo cum sis, et 23 rationalem animam 
habeas, nullo modo scire de meo exitu potuisti, nisi quod tibi 
ego ipse nuper manifestavi : huic vero bruto et irrationali 
animanti, quoque modo 24 ipse Conditor voluit, egressurum a se 
dominum manifeste revelavit. Et haec dicens maestum a se 
revertentem equum benedixit ministratorem. 

Et inde egrediens, et monticellum monasterio superemin- 
entem ascendens, in vertice 25 ejus paululum stetit, et stans, 
ambas elevans palmas, suum benedixit ccenobium, inquiens, 
Huic loco, quamlibet angusto et vili, non tantum Scotorum 
reges, cum populis, sed 26 etiam 27 barbararum et exterarum 
gentium regnatores, cum plebibus sibi subjectis, grandem et 
non mediocrem conferent honorem: a Sanctis quoque etiam 
aliarum ecclesiarum non mediocris veneratio conferetur. 

Post hsec verba, de illo descendens monticellulo, et 28 ad 
monasterium revertens, sedebat in tugurio Psalterium scribens ; 
et ad ilium tricesimi 29 tertii 30 psalmi 31 versiculum perveniens 
ubi scribitur, Inquirentes autem Dominum non deficient omni 
bono, Hie, ait, in fine cessandum est paginse ; quse vero sequun- 
tur 32 Baitheneus scribat. Sancto 33 convenienter 34 congruit 35 de- 
cessori novissimus versiculus quern scripserat, cui nunquam 
bona deficient seterna : successori vero sequens patri, spiritalium 
doctori filiorum, Venite. 36 filii, audite me, timorem Domini 
docebo vos, congruenter convenit ; qui, sicut decessor com- 
mendavit, non solum ei docendo, sed etiam scribendo, suc- 
cessit. 

Post talem superius memoratum terminate versum perscrip- 
tum paginse, Sanctus ad vespertinalem Dominicae noctis 37 missam 
ingreditur ecclesiam : 38 qua continue 39 consummata, ad hospi- 
tiolum revertens, in lectulo residet pernox ; ubi pro stramine 
nudam 40 habebat petram, et pro pulvillo lapidem, qui hodieque 
quasi quidam juxta sepulcrum ejus titulus stat monumenti. 
Ibidem itaque residens, ultima ad fratres mandata, solo audi- 
ente ministro, commendat, inquiens, Hsec vobis, filioli, 
novissima commendo verba, ut inter vos mutuam et non fictam 
habeatis charitatem, cum pace: et si ita, juxta sanctorum 
exempla 41 patrum, observaveritis, Deus, confortator bonorum, 
vobis auxiliabitur, et ego, cum 42 ipso manens, pro vobis inter- 



23 rationabilem C. 


24 ut add. B. 


25 om. C. 


26 om. C. 


2 7 om. B. 


28 om, T>. 


29 om. D. 


30 psalraum D. 


31 om. D. 


32 baithemis D. 


33 congruenter C. 


34 convenit C. 


35 decessuro C. D. 


3 <5 fill C. 


37 officium B. 


38 quo B. 


39 consummato B. 


40 habeat 0. 


41 om. C. 


42 ipse B. 





214 VITA SANCTI COLUMByE. LIBER III. 

pellabo; et non tantum prsesentis vitse necessaria 43 ab eo 
44 sufficienter administrabuntur, sed etiam seternalium bonorum 
prsemia, divinorum observatoribus 45 prseparata, 46 tribuentur. 
Hucusque extrema venerabilis patroni verba, quasi de hac 
tediali peregrinatione ad coelestem patriam transmeantis, brevi 
textu narrata deducta sunk 

POST 1 quse, 2 felici appropinquante novissima 3 paulisper hora, 
Sanctus conticuit. Turn proinde media nocte pulsata person- 
ante clocca, festinus surgens, ad ecclesiam 4 pergit, citiorque 
ceteris currens, solus introgressus juxta altare flexis in oratione 
genibus recumbit; 5 Diormitius minister, tardius prosecutus, 
eodem momento eminus totam intrinsecus ecclesiam angelica 
luce erga Sanctum repleri videt: quo ad januam appropin 
quante, eadem lux visa ocius recessit : quam 6 etiam alii de 
fratribus pauci, et ipsi eminus astantes, viderant. 5 Diormitius 
ergo, ecclesiam ingrediens, flebili ingeminat voce, Ubi es, Pater ? 
Et necdum allatis fratrum lucernis, per tenebras palpans, 
Sanctum ante 7 altarium recubantem invenit : quern paululum 
erigens, et juxta sedens, sanctum in suo gremio posuit caput. 
Et inter hsec ccetus monachorum cum luminaribus accurrens, 
patre viso moriente, ccepit plangere. Et, ut ab aliqutbus qui 
prsesentes 8 inerant didicimus, Sanctus, 9 necdum egrediente 
anima, apertis sursum oculis, ad utrumque latus cum 10 mira 
vultus hilaritate et Isetitia circumspiciebat ; sanctos scilicet 
obvios intuens angelos. 5 Diormitius turn sanctam 11 sublevat 
ad benedicendum 12 Sancti monachorum 13 chorum dexteram 
manum. Sed et ipse venerabilis pater, in quantum poterat, 
simul suam movebat manum, ut videlicet quod voce 14 in egressu 
non valebat animse, 15 etiam motu 16 manus fratres videretur 
benedicere. Et post sanctam benedictionem taliter significatam, 
continuo spiritum exhalavit. Quo tabernaculum corporis 
egresso, facies rubens, 17 et mirum in modum angelica visione 
exhilarata, in tantum remansit, ut non quasi mortui, sed dor- 
mientis videretur viventis. Tota interim personabat msestis 
plangoribus ecclesia. 

SED non prsetereundum videtur quod eadem hora beatae tran- 
situs animse, cuidam 1 Hiberniensi Sancto revelatum est. In 

43 vobis add. C. 41 oni. 0. 4>> mandatorum add. B. in marg. F. 

40 preeceptorum add. C. D. 

1 om. C. 2 felicia C. 3 om. D. 

4 perrexit D. 5 diarmatus D. 6 et C. D. 

7 altare C. D. 8 aderatit C. 9 non dum D. 

10 viva C. n sublevabat D. 12 - 13 monachos sancti C. D. 

14 et add. D. 15 vel C. 16 manu D. 17 per D. 

1 everniensi A. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMBA;. LIBER in. 215 

2 illo namque monasterio 3 quod 4 Scotica nominatur lingua 5 Cloni- 
finchoil, quidam homo erat sanctus, 6 senex Christ! miles, qui 
7 Lugudius Svocitabatur, 9 filius 10 Tailchani, Justus et sapiens. 
Hie itaque primo mane cuidam seque Christiano n militi, 12 Ferg- 
nouo 13 nomine, 14 suam enarravit visionem, cum ingenti gemitu, 
dicens, Hac prseterita nocte media sanctus Columba, multarum 
columna ecclesiarum, ad Dominum transiit, et in hora beati 
exitus ejus louam insulam, ad quam corpore nunquam perveni, 
totam angelorum claritudine in spiritu vidi irradiatam, totaque 
spatia aeris usque ad sethera ccelorum, eorundem angelorum 
claritate illustrata ; 15 qui ad sanctam ipsius animam perferen- 
dam, de coelis missi, descenderunt innumeri. Altisona quoque 
carminalia, et valde suavia audivi angelicorum 16 coetuum can- 
tica eodem momento egressionis inter angelicos sanctae ipsius 
animse 17 ascendentes chores. Hanc angelicam manifestationem 
18 Virgnous, ut prsedictum est, qui ab ore sancti illius senis cui 
revelata erat, indubitanter didicerat, iisdem diebus de 19 Scotia 
remigans, 20 Hinba in insula reliquis diebus vitae suse permanens, 
sancti Columbse monachis ssepius enarrabat. Qui videlicet 
21 Virgnous, post 22 multos in subjectione inter fratres irrepre- 
hensibiliter expletos annos, alios duodecim in loco anachoreta- 
rum in Muirbulcmar, vitam 23 ducens anachoreticam, Christi 
victor miles, explevit. Hanc praedictam visionem, non solum 
paginis inscriptam reperimus, sed et 24 ab aliquibus expertis 
senioribus, quibus ipse Virgnous retulerat, sine ullo didicimus 
cunctamine. 

Eadem quoque hora aliam visionem, aliter revelatam, unus 
ex eis qui viderant, ^Christi miles, valde senex, 26 cujus nomen 
27 etiam potest dici Ferreolus, ^Scotice vero ^Ernene, gente 
30 Mocufirroide, qui inter aliorum sancti Columbse monachomm 
31 reliquas, et ipse sanctus monachus, in 32 Dorso 33 Tomme sepul- 
tus, cum sanctis resurrectionem expectat, mihi Adamnano, illo 
juveni 34 in tempore, cum grandi retulerat testificatione, dicens, 
Ilia in nocte qua sanctus Columba de terra ad ccelos felici et 
beato fine transiit, ego et alii mecum viri laborantes in captura 

2 quodam C. D. 3 scotorum C. D. F. S. 4 5 om. C. D. F. S. 

6 et add. C. D. F. S. 7 lughdus D. 8 vocabatur D. 

- 10 om. C. D. F. S. 10 talcani B. u om. JD. 

12 - 13 om. C. D. F. S. 14 et multis add. D. 15 quia C. 

16 om. C. 17 ascendentis B. 18 fergna D. 

19 scothica C. scochia D. 2 liimba B. C. hinna D. 

21 fergna D. 22 multorum Colg. Boll. 23 seducens C. 

24 om. A. C. D. F. S. om. D. cui C. 27 latine add. B. 

28.29 orrit Q j) Y. S. ferreolus .i. iarannan in inarg. D. 
29 arrene B. 30 mocufirroiue B. 31 om. B. 

32.33 (J orso tomas B. dorso thomse C. druim thuaina D. 34 om. D. 



216 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LTBEK III. 

piscium in valle piscosi fluminis 35 Fenda3, subito totum aerei 
illustratum coeli spatium vidimus. Cujus miraculi subitatione 
permoti, oculos ad orientem elevates convertimus, et ecce, quasi 
qusedam pergrandis ignea apparuit 36 columna, quse in ilia nocte 
media sursum ascendens ita nobis videbatur mundum illustrare 
totum, sicuti 37 sesteus et meridianus sol, et postquam ilia ^pene- 
travit columna cesium, quasi post occasum solis, tenebrae suc- 
cedunt. Hujus itaque claritudinem luminosse et prsedicabilis 
columnae, non tantum nos, qui simul in eodem loco ineramus, 
cum ingenti admiratione vidimus, sed et alii multi piscatores, 
qui sparsim per diversas 39 fluminales piscinas ejusdem fluminis 
piscabantur, sicut nobis ^post retulerant, simili apparitione 
visa, magno pavore sunt perculsi. Harum igitur trium mira- 
cula visionum eadem transitus hora venerandi apparentium 
patroni, seternos ei a 41 Domino collates protestantur honores. 
42 Ad propositum 43 revertamur. 

INTEREA post sanctse egressum animse, hymnis matutinalibus 
terminatis, sacrum corpus de ecclesia ad hospitium, unde paulo 
ante vivens venerat, cum canora fratrum reportatur psalmodia, 
honesteque ternis diebus et totidem noctibus honorabiles rite 
explentur exequise. Quibus in Dei a sapidis laudibus termina 
tis, sancti et beati patroni venerabile corpus, mundis involutum 
sindonibus, et praeparata positum in 2 ratabusta, 3 debita humatur 
cum veneratione, in luminosa et seternali resurrecturum clari- 
tudine. 

De supra memoratis ergo tribus illis exequiarum diebus 
more peractis ecclesiastico, quod nobis ab expertis traditum est, 
hujus prope finem enarrabitur libri. Quidam namque aliquando 
unus de fratribus coram venerabili viro simpliciter loquens, Ad 
celebrandas, ait ad Sanctum, tuas, post tuum obitum exequias, 
totus harum provinciarum populus hanc 4 Iouam remigans 
5 replebit insulam. Quod verbum audiens Sanctus consequenter 
ait, mi 6 filiole, non ut loqueris sic res 7 probabit, nam promis- 
cuum populi vulgus nullo modo ad meas poterit exequias 
venire ; mei soli familiares monachi mea sepulcralia comple- 
bunt, et 8 exequialia honestabunt officia. Quod verbum 9 ejus 
propheticum, statim post transitum ipsius, omnipotentia Dei 

35 fynne D. 36 - 38 A. B. C. D. F. S. om. Colg. Boll, tramcrrptoris incuria. 
37 dies add. C. 3Q fluviales D. 40 postea C. 

41 deo B. C. D. F. S. 42 - 43 rubrica B. post interea D. 

1 sapiendis C. sapientis D. 

2 A. B. rata busta F. intra busta C. in rata tabeta D. catabtista suo 
ure Boll. 3 om. D. 4 ionam B. 

5 replevit D. 6 filioli B. ? probabitur C. 

8 exequiarum D. 9 om. B. 



VITA SANCTI COLUMB^. LIBEll III. 217 

adimpleri fecit : nam per tres illas exequiales dies et 10 noctes, 
grandis sine pluvia facta est ventosa tempestas, qua fortiter 
prohibente, nullus hinc inde navicella vectus transfretare poterat. 
Et post consummatam beati sepultionem viri continue tempes- 
tate sedata, et cessante vento, totum tranquillatum est aequor. 

Perpendat itaque lector quanti et qualis apud Deum prsedi- 
cabilis patronus 11 honoris habeatur, cui aliquando in carne 
mortali conversanti Deo 12 dignante, 13 oranti, tempestates sedatae 
sunt, et maria tranquillata ; et rursus, quando necesse habuit, 
supra memorata occasione, 14 orta 15 flamina ventorum, et ventosa, 
cum voluit, 16 concita sunt aequora, quae subsequenter, ut superius 
dictum est, expletis ejus sepulturae ministeriis, in magnam con- 
versa sunt tranquillitatem. 

Hie itaque nostro prsedicabili patrono vitae terminus fuit, 
Hsta meritorum exordia ; qui, secundum sententias Scriptura- 
rum, 2 aeternis comes triumphis, Patribus additus, Apostolis et 
Prophetis consertus, numero aggregatus albatorum millium 
Agnino in sanguine suas Sanctorum qui laverunt stolas, Agnum 
ductorem comitatur, virgo immaculatus, ab omni integer labe, 
ipso Domino nostro Jesu Christo dignante : cui est cum Patre 
honor, virtus, laus, 3 gloria, et imperium sempiternum in unitate 
Spiritus Sancti, per omnia ssecula 4 saeculorum. 

POST horum trinalium lectionem libellorum, quisque diligens 
annotet lector quanti et qualis meriti sanctus saepe supra mem- 
oratus praesul venerandus, 1 quantse et qualis apud Deum hon- 
orificentiae fuerit 2 sestimatus, quantae et quales angelicas ad 
ipsum, et luminosae frequentationes, fuerint; quanta in eo 
prophetalis gratia, quanta dialium efficientia virtuturn ; quanta 
et quam frequens eum divini luminis claritudo in carne mortali 
adhuc commorantem circumfulserit ; quae, etiam post egressum 
animae de tabernaculo corporis 3 almissimae, sicuti quibusdam 
electis ostensum habetur compertum, locum in quo ipsius sancta 
pausant ossa usque hodie eadem ccelestis claritas frequentare 
non cessat, et sanctorum frequens visitatio angelorum. Et haec 
etiam eidem beatae memoriae viro a Deo non mediocris est col- 
lata gratia, qua nomen ejus non tantum per totam nostram 
Scotiam, et omnium totius orbis insularum maximam Britan- 
niam, clare divulgari promeruit, in hac parva et extrema oceani 

10 om. T>. ll om. D. 12 donante F. 

13 orarite D. 14 - 15 orto flamine C. D. 1G concitata C. D. 

1 ita C. 2 ajtermis D. 3 et add. B. 

4 ameu add. C. D. F. S. hucusque vita C. D. F. S. explicit vita sancti 
columbe abbatis D. 

1 - 2 om. incurla transcriplor vs Colg. Boll. 3 sanctissima? B. 



218 VITA SANCTI COLUMB^E. LIBEK III. 

Britannici commoratus insula; sed etiam ad trigonam usque 
Hispaniam, et Gallias, et ultra 4 Alpes 5 Peninas Italiam sitam 
pervenire, ipsam quoque Romanam civitatem, quee caput est 
omnium civitatum. Tantus et talis honor 6 noscibilis eidem 
Sancto inter 7 ceterse divinse donationis munera condonatus 
scitur a Deo, qui se diligentes amat, et eos qui eum 8 sapidis 
magnificant laudibus magis ac magis glorificans, immensis sub- 
limat honoribus, qui est benedictus in saecula. Amen. 

Obsecro eos quicunque voluerint hos describere libellos, 
immo potius adjuro per Christum, judicem sseculorum, ut post- 
quam diligenter descripserint, conferant, et emendent cum 
omni diligentia, ad exemplar unde 9 caraxerunt, et hanc quoque 
adjurationem hoc in loco subscribant. 

1C ] Quicunque hos mrtutum libellos Columbce legerit,pro me Dorbbeneo 
Dominum deprecetur, utvitam post mortem ceternam ll possideam. 

4 alpas B. 5 pininas A. 6 uocibilis B. 

7 cetera B. 8 om. B. 

9 craxerunt A. traxerunt Colg. Boll. 1(U1 om. B. 



VAKIJE LECTIONES CODICIS COTTONIANI. 

[Prior numerus paginam, secundus lineam hujus libri denotat.] 

105. 2, Incipit prefacio in vitam sancti patris columbe episcopi. 9, scocie. 

106. 1, plurimos fama. 6, secunda orditur prefacio. 8,^omonimon. 9, no 

mine. 1 1, HEPYCTHPA. 13, indutum. 17, sanctis. 19, sim- 
plicitate. 

107. 1, britto. 2, pacricii. macteus. 9, et ille homo, ipso erit. 22, 

cognovi. 28, fergosi. 29, athneam. 

108. 1, scocia. 10, aut scr. 12, laborationibus. 

109. 1, 2, omit. 3, om. abbate. talcani. 5, crasseni. 6, cainnechi. 7, 

columbani. 9, lethani. om. prophet. ejus. 10, Prophetationes 
ejus de bellis de regibns. 12, pueris quorum unus. mortuus 
est. 16, om. proph. s. Coluinbse. 17, Prophetia sancti columbe 
de laisrano hortulano. 22, furtive. 25, ydriam. 

110. 5, laistrano. feradachi. monachus. 7, bivi. 9, peregrinis sancti 

viri prophetia. 11, transmutatione. locdee. 12, fachni. 14, 
gruthriche. 15, trioita. 18, colgen. columbano. om. cane. 

111. 1, Incipit liber de vita et miraculis beati patris columbe. 3, om. De- 

narratio. 18, religione. 26, instinctus. 

112. 1, 2, om. quod miraculi. 4, fendbarrum. 13, ferre. 15, et aliorum. 

17, imprecavit. 23, oswaldo. 26, oswaldus. 27, sua. 33, 
josue. num. 

113. 14, adamiiano. 19, scottie. 25, paucis. 28, aut eo. 29, non enim. 

31, om. in. 

114. 11, hinc ideo. 18, fenteno. talchani. 19, fentenus. 26, vocabatur. 

27, columcrach. 



VAKLE LECTIONIS CODICIS COTTONIAXI. 219 

115. 1, sospesne. columcrach. 5, fentenus. columba (sic passim in capi- 

tulo). 11, baithenium. 17, internuncium. 21, terrain. 28, 
deo nostro. 

116. 5, fentenus. 6, mocumoye. talcanus. 17, ait grates. 19, hisdem. 

Tria folia codicis, sc. a lin. 19, diebus ad p. 128, lin. 14, genibus, 
desunt. 

129. 7, filii. 12, fossam aqua repletam. 13, diffuse. 30, clamabat. 

130. 1, anni. mucuanti. 30, in terra italic. 

131. 3, adventantes. 4, om. ilia, audivit. 12, displicent. 22, monachum. 

23, fectno. 

132. 6, fechnaus. 9, culpas confitetur. 12, deus contritum non aspernit 

et humiliatum cor. 16, om. sancti. 19, dium. 20, ab ae 
fluminis. 23, ionunini. 

133. 5, om. provida. 26, om. in pace. 

134. 9, primarius geone cohortis. 13, misteria. 19, naviculi. 21, viculo. 

25, domo. 27, om. eis. 

135. 5, fachni. diocesi. 6, cellachi. 8, colgio. 12, factni. 15, om. 

beati viri. 16, ardchaun. 20, crutinium. 24, cerbubulis. 27, 
findcanum. 30, suas. Folia tria, sc. a. p. 135, 31, viro, ad p. 
146, 28, quse, desunt. 30, cethirin. prsenunciaverant. 

147. 10, exenium. 11, diu comitatur. 

148. 8, seculorum. amen. 9, om. hie. om. nunc comitatur. 

149. 3, factum est de aqua. 9, mauguina. 

150. 1, sanguinis latitabat. 5, vocitatu. 8, ulgeno. 24, ioue. (ioua 

passim in hoc cod.) 

151. 6, parturitiones. 9, chormacho. letani. 20, om. expliciunt libri. 

152. 1, Incipit liber secundus. 3, om. alio in tempore. vir sanctus co 

lumba. 4, fendbarrum. 8, om. pergit. sacra. 13, galee. 21, 
refert. 

153. 1, promptum. 3, galee. 12, haberentur. 13, om. sanctus. ad 

eandem. 32, om. in. 

154. 1, findcanum. 3, estivum. 10, quindecim. 1 7, mortif era. 19, muni- 

tio nuni magna. 23, nemaido mocusogin. 26, cleeth. 

155. 8, quo ad illam. ardcenacte. 29, add. transeamus ad alia. 30, 

mauguina. 31, loco qui scottie dicitur clocher. 

156. 4, filium. 5, om. casu. mauguina. 12, mauguinam. 15, coxalis 

conjunctura solidabitur et sancta. 25, om. secundum. 27, cete. 
32, cete. 

157. 2, anfibali. 8, accepit. 15, combustam. 24, bofend. 

158. 11, ioienanum. 18, aquas. 20, om. veracibus. 26, apud deum. 28, 

ad 32, peregit, titulus rubrica scriptus, ut in B. 

159. 5, infantulum. 9, usque ad. 12, lugucen calath. ardaib muircol. 

22, levantes. demonica. 

160. 12, hininglas. 13, parcem. 19, deum. 21, periculo in vortice bercaynni. 

28, scottie. acbeth bou. 

161. 4, ipseejus. 11, cainneche. 16, cainnechi. 19, om. est. 27, ouidchae. 

30, beognoi. 31, deo. 

162. 3, om. mane. 11, propera. om. in. 14, om. vir. 31, depinxit et 

invocato dei nomine vas benedixit quod (sic B quoque). 

164. 7, esoce magno in fluvio sale juxta verbum sancti invento. 14, capit. 

et titulus ut in B. 20, boo. 26, sic nesanus. 

165. 10-18, ut in B. 29, nasani. 

166. 4, excedebat. 11, titulus ut in B. 16, iohannes. domnalli. 27, sub- 

sannavit. 30, ambabus. 33, aidcambas ardmiurcoll. 

167. 9, immensa (sic B). 12, predixerat. 16, manente toto (sic B). 19, 

titulus ut in B. 22, ilia. 27, qui in mane (qui itnmane B). 28, 
nobis sed (sic B). 30, estivo. 



220 VAKLE LECTIONES CODICIS COTTONIA.NI. 

168. 2, arboruna. 4, nunciaretur (sic B). 6, om. jugulatur viri. 16, om. 

quodam ecclesiarum. 30, dextera dicebatur. 31, om. ex. 33, 
laudes. 

169. 2, cromani filii baetani. 5, titulus ut in B. 18, sanctum columbam. 

170. 1, titulus ut in B. 2, in sua insula. 9, loco hoc. quantotius morere. 

17, nessamius. 19, om. praeripiens. 20, raptu. 

171. 9, fugit retractatione factaque. 10, 11, et inter bestiam. om. contuli. 

14, christum. 18, 19, titulus ut in B. 29, omnia. 

172. 11, quod. 14, 15, necnon. 30, oratio (sic B). 

173. 1, fenteni. 5, fentenus. 12, kailli anfinde. 14, om. domini. 20, 

aliquantum. 21, films. 28, deflere prolis. 

174. 4, et corpus. 6, et stabiliens. 17, bricano. 25, brudeno. 

175. 7, facta. enarres. 21, lapis (sic B}. 23, briochanus. 30, om. ubi. 

176. 23, factum. 27, appulsa est. 177. 11, rivulorum. 17, 18, conquerenter. 
178. 10, om. primo. 25, amans. 179. 22, om. in terram. 28, ex sequor. 
180. 7, residens. 182. 2, retentare oportet. 

183. 8, libranus. hisdem. 34, vocatus. 184. 21, gubernatore. tudica. 
185. 28, rege. 187. 2, om. signo. 13, nos (sic B). 

188. 18, 19, titulus ut in B. 

189. 8, add. ad alia veniamus. 15, om. per pinese. 23, ventis. 34, airtago. 

190. 1, om. nostrorum. 39, add. veniamus ad alia. 

191. 6, cis alpinas (sic B). 6, 7, provinciam. hispanias. disterminatas. 

15, alio (sic B). 26, om. nos. 35, explicit liber secundus. 

193. 2, moculigse. 3, 4, om. De descenderant. 18, cubilibus. 

194. 1, 2, om. Hie visionibus. add. titulum De angelo domini qui ejus 

genitrici in somnis post ipsius in utero conceptionem apparuit. 
5, juvante (sic B). 

195. 7, copula es. om. fcadere. 23, venerabilis. om. tarn (sic B). 30, om. 

ceteris. 

196. 15, om. Hoc teilte (sic B). 16, fennio. 18, fennionem. 20, fennio. 

27, hymba. 30, himba. 

197. 5, om. quia diligeret. 7, livosum (sic B). 21, om. Cummeneus usque 

ad finem cap. p. 198, 2. 24, diormicii. 26, om. menses. 28, 
comprovincialibus. 30, de vita, ondairtir. 

199. 16, apertumque. 27, quo timore. 34, monasteriola. 

200. 6, defendantur. 202. 7, albati. 

203. 1, emchati. 4, nesae (sic B). 12, aircardan. 24, colgius. 25, mo- 

cumlea. 204. 24, permissu (sic B). 

205. 25, himba. 26, cainichus. 27, letani. 206. 12, imba. 

207. 6, virgnous. 7, ecclesie, cui ego indignus licet deservio. 26, om. O. 

208. 1, a domnano. 7, fecreh. 22, inesloen. 

209. 8, hibernali. 25, om. erat (sic B}. 210. 7, lucentie. 27, titulus ut in B. 
211. 16, voluntatem. 21, leticie. 27, requirit. 30, sanctam (sic B). 

31, 32, invenientibus. 212. 3, habebitis panem. 

213. 3, om. nuper. 11, om. barbararum. 28, noctis officium. 

214. 3, observatoribus mandatorum. 

215. 1, scotia nuncupatur (sic B). 3, talcani. 15, asceiidentis (sic B). 18, 

himba. 22, muirbulc maar. 29, aernene. 31, dorso come. 32, 
a domnano. 

216. 4, quern. 15, deo. 21, om. sapidis. 30, exequias ut putatur. 

217. 17, inilitum. 31, sanctissime. 33, pausent. 

218. 2, penninas. 4, uocibilis. 9, titulus [obsecra]tio sancti adamnani ad 

s[criptore]m rubrica. 14, 15, om. quicunque possideam. 
Ixxi. 32, catalogus sequitur immediate post subscribant, p. 218, 15. 
Ixxii. 3, mocutheimne. 4, thocannu. 6, sancti^ parentes rubrica. Fedil- 

mith. 7, ^Eithne. 11, consobrini columbse rubrica. sancte. 

12, colmaan. sineth. 14, conrii mocucein. 16, ioua. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTEATIONS. 



NOTES TO PKEFACE. 

Page xix. line 6 Marvels. The ancient records of the Irish Church con 
sist of most dissimilar materials : there are, on the one hand, the Genealogies, 
which set forth the descent of the saint ; the Annals, which, with scrupu 
lous fidelity, record the year of his death ; and the Calendars, which, with 
equal exactness, tell the day of the month on which it occurred, and name 
his church j and, on the other, the Life, which too often bids defiance 
to truth, reason, and decency, and, instead of history, presents a specimen 
of the meanest fiction. The early Bollandists printed many of these com 
positions, but subject to strong protest ; the later editors have, in many 
cases, exercised their own discretion more summarily, and substituted Acts 
for Lives. 

Line 17 Boyhood. He was born in 624, and St. Columba died in 597. 
He states that, when a youth, he received from Ernene s own lips an account 
of certain appearances which that monk observed on the night of St. 
Columba s death, at which time his informant was an adult. iii. 24. 

Line 23 Cites by name. In his account of king ^Edan s inauguration, 
B. in. c. 6. 

Line 26 Another memoir. " Hanc prsedictam visionem, non solum paginis 
inscriptam reperimus," etc. B. in. c. 24. 

Page xx. line 5 Baithene Mor. He is to be distinguished from Baithene, 
son of Brendan, St. Columba s successor. This Baithene was of the Cinel 
Enda, and was commemorated on the 19th of Feb. Colgan, Act. Sanct. 
p. 369 ; O Donnell, iii. 20 (Tr. Th. p. 434 b}. 

Line 9 St. Mura. He was a little junior to St. Columba, and died 
circ. 645. His church was Fathan, now Fahan, on the south-west side of 
Inishowen. He was not of St. Columba ? s race, but his church lay on the 
side of Loch S willy opposite to the territory where that saint was born. 
See an article on St. Mura in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. i. p. 270. 

Line 13 Kinsman. See the Genealogical JTable annexed to the Introduc 
tion. 

Page xxi. line 1 Admirable. In the MS. called The Book of Fenagh our 
writer is called Adhamhnan Adhamhra, "the Admirable Adamnan." 

Line 5 Continent. Besides the MSS. of the Life which will presently be 
enumerated, copies of the tract De Lucis Sanctis are reported to be preserved 
at the Vatican, and at Corbey, both of which Mabillon used ; at the monas 
tery of S. Germanus a Pratis, ssec. viii. (O Conor, Rer. Hib. SS. vol. i. Ep. 



224 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

Nuncup. p. 142) ; at Bern, one ssec. ix., and another ssec. x. (Appendix A, 
Report, Record Comm. pp. 31, 46) ; at Rheinau, ssec. xi. (ib. p. 201) ; at 
Saltzburg, ssec. ix. vel x. (ib. p. 203). 

Page xxiii. line 14 Fordun. In Chron. iii. 31 he cites i. 9 from the 
fuller copy ; so in cap. 34, from i. 10 ; in Scotichron. iii. 42, Bower borrows 
from i. 1 the whole passage about Oswald, which is wanting in the 
shorter copies, and introduces it thus : " Quern Beda Csedwallam, quern et 
Adanmanus Cathlonem in sua chronica appelat." In cap. 49 he refers to it 
again. Both probably used the text of the Cotton MS. Tiberius D. iii. Brit. 
Mus. 

Line 14 O Donnell. He cites the account of Oswald, and the statement 
about the poems on St. Columba from i, 1, as Adamnan s, in Vit. iii. 66, 67 
(Tr. Th. pp. 443, 444) ; ii. 45, in like manner, in cap. 68 (ib. p. 444 a) ; ii. 46, 
in capp. 69, 70, 71 (ib. 444 6), all of which are wanting in the shorter 
text. 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

I. CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY. 

Page xxxiii. line lGartan. The earliest authority for St. Columba s 
birthplace is probably the statement in the old Irish Life ; Oortdn din, ainm 
in luicc in ro genir, " Gortan, now, is the name of the place in which he was 
born." O Donnell and the Calendar of Donegal cite the alleged lines of 
St. Mura : 

Rugadh i nGartan da dheoin ; 
Sdo hoiledh i Cill mhic Neoin ; 
Sdo baisdedh mac na maisi, 
A tTulaigh De Dubhghlaisi. 

* He was born at Gartan by his consent ; 
And he was nursed at Cill-mic-Neoin ; 
And the son of goodness was baptized, 
At Tulach Dubhglaise of God." 

None of the Latin Lives make any reference to the place of his birth. Local 
tradition, however, is very decided in confirmation of the Irish account. In 
the townland of Churchtown (Ord. Survey, sheet 44), on the face of a hill 
which overhangs a small lake, called Lough-na-Calliagh, and commands a 
view of Lough Beagh on the right, and Lough Akibbon on the left, is a group 
of ecclesiastical remains which are held in great veneration on account of 
their connexion with the history of the saint. In the centre of the burying- 
ground are the vestiges of an ancient building, about a foot over the level of 
the ground, and measuring about 34 by 12 feet. Outside the burial-ground, 
on the N.W. and S.E., are two rudely-carved crosses, which time has 
greatly disfigured. Lower down on the s.E. is the Holy Well. About 42 
yards s.s.w. of the old foundations are the walls of a small church, un 
roofed, but otherwise in good preservation, marked on the Ord. Survey as 
" St. Columbkille s Chapel." The stone altar at the east end is in good pre 
servation. Lower down the hill, at some distance to the s.w., and in the 
townland of Lacknacor, is a flag upon which it is reported St. Columba was 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 225 

born ; it is marked on the Ord. Survey " St. Columbkille s Stone." The 
country people believe that whoever sleeps a night on this stone will be free 
from home sickness when he goes abroad, and for this reason it has been 
much resorted to by emigrants on the eve of their departure. The Gartan 
clay is also believed to be a preservative against shipwreck and fire : but it 
must be raised by an O Freel to make it effective. 

Page xxxiii. line 2 St. Suite. His name is Latinized Boetius. He was 
son of Bronach, a descendant of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Ailill Olum, and, 
as such, one of the Cianachta, whose territory embraced the southern part 
of Louth, where his church of Monasterboice is situate. He is styled " bishop 
of Mainister." A copy of his Life is preserved in one of the Ware MSS. in 
the British Museum (Cod. Clar. 39, Add. No. 4788), and it contains the 
following passage : " Sed et ipso sanctissimo die obitus sui de sancto Columba 
spiritualiter vaticinans ait, Hodie, inquit, natus est infans cui nomen Columba, 
qui coram Deo et hominibus gloriosus existet, quique post xxx* 51 annos abhinc 
hue veniet, et meum sepulcrum revelabit, et cemiterium designabit " (fol. 
73). The -old Irish Life of St. Columba contains exactly the same statement. 
The Round Tower and majestic crosses of Monasterboice are objects well 
known to the antiquary. 

Line 3 Seventh of December. The Irish Life adds : Dardain din, ar ai 
lathi sechtmaine, " on Thursday, of the week days." This will give the choice 
of 517 and 523 for his birth : for, Dec. 7 is e, therefore, it being Thursday, 
A is the Sunday letter, which belongs to the above years. 

Line 7 Year. The Annals of Ulster waver between 518 and 522. At 
the former date they say : " Nativitas Coluimcille eodem die quo Bute mac 
Bronaigh dormivit ; " at the latter, " Vel hie nativitas Coluimcille." Tigher- 
nach places it in the same year with the battle of Detna, and the year 
after the death of Conlaedh, which was synchronous with the accession of 
Justin the elder, in 518. The Four Masters fix St. Buite s death at 521. 
The Annals of Inisfallen have 511, and those of Boyle 499; but their re 
spective systems of computation are peculiar to themselves. O Donnell 
calculates 520 (iii. 57, Tr. Th. p. 441 6). Ussher adopts 522 (Brit. Eccl. 
Ant. Index Chronol.) ; Colgan, 519 (Tr. Th. p. 486 a) ; while Dr. Lanigan fixes 
on 521 (Eccles. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 106, 114). The statement in the Irish Life 
gives 523). Nennius has the following chronological note: " A nativitate 
Columbse usque mortem sanctse Brigidse quatuor anni sunt" (Hist. Brit. 
16, ed. Stevenson). Unfortunately, the exact date of St. Brigid s death is 
alike matter of controversy. 

Line 8 Adamnan s data. St. Columba was in his forty-second year 
when he removed to Hy (Pref. 2), that is, in 563. In that year Whitsun 
day fell on the 13th of May, so that he was then 41 years, 5 months, 
and 6 days, old. Add to this, 34 years for his sojourn in Britain (ib.), and we 
get the date 597, so that the 9th of June in that year found him 75 years, 
6 months, and 2 days, old. Thus, with the Four Masters and Dr. Lanigan, 
we get 621 (521) as the year of his birth. Bede s statement is that St. 
Columba died cum esset annorum septuaginta septem (H. E. iii. 4), which is 
followed by Tighernach. The old Irish Life, and O Donnell, refer his birth 
to 520 ; but the Annals of Ulster give 76 years as his age. 

Line 21 Of the church. Not churches, for then the name would be 
Colum na g-ceall. Bede rightly derives Columcelli " a cella et Columba " 
(H. E. v. 9). So O Donnell, as translated by Colgan, "additamento 
kille, quod cellam seu ecclesiam significat" (i. 30, Tr. Th. p. 393 b); 
" partim ab Ecclesia, foelici omine, sortiturus" (i. 8, ib. 390 b) ; "pueri sole- 
baiit prse gaudio, elevatis in ccelum manibus, dicere, Ecce advenit Columba 
de cella " (O Donnell ap. Colgan, Act. SS. p. 645 b). In the Leabhar Breac, 

P 



226 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

we find the following rationale of the compound : Colum, pro simplicitate ejus 
dictus est : Cille .i. ara mince ticed on chill in ro leg a salmu h-i comdail na 
lenab-comf hocus, ocus ba h-ed adberdissen aturru fessin : In tanicar Colum becni 
indiu on chill .i. o thelaig dubglaise i Tir Lugdach h-i cineol Conaill " Cille, 
because of the frequency of his coming from the cell in which he read his 
psalms, to meet the neighbouring children. And what they used to say 
among themselves was, Has our little Colum come to-day from the cell, i.e. 
from Tulach-Dubhglaise in Tir-Lughdech in CineU ConaiU " (fol. 108 b). 
O Donnell names Kilmacrenan : " Aucti nominis occasio fuit, quod puer sub 
id tempus in ecclesia de Kilmacnenain educabatur." i. 30 (Tr. Th. p. 393 b). 
Thus also the Calendar of Donegal (June 9) : As aire ainmnighther e o chill 
.i. ar a oilemhain i cCill mic Nenain i cCenel Conuill, which Colgan renders : 
" Et cognomentum Kille adjectum est, quia in Ecclesia Kill-mac -Enain (id 
est filiorum Enani) in Tirconallia patria regione enutritus et educatus fuit" 
(Tr. Th. p. 483 b). The Life of St. Farannan (c. 3) explains Cille by cellis 
(Colg. Act.(SS. p. 336 a) ; so also Notker, cited at p. 248, infra; but the other 
authorities far outweigh them. "Columba, quern Angli vocant Collumkillum." 
Jocelin, Vit. S. Kentig. c. 39. It is worthy of observation that the epithet 
was not peculiar to St. Columba, for we find a Colmancille, of the race of 
Colla Dachrioch, commemorated at Oct. 1 (Cal. Donegal. ; Colg. Act. SS. p. 
713). 

Page xxxv. line 10 Priest. The legend says that St. Columba went to 
receive episcopal orders from Etchen, but that, through a mistake of the 
bishop, priest s orders only were conferred. The whole story seems a fiction 
of a later age. It supposes, among other anomalies, ordination per saltum, 
and the degree of order to depend on the volition of the officiating minister. 
The legend is preserved in a note on the Feilire of ^ngus. A Latin trans 
lation is given by Colgan (Acta SS. p. 306 b, n. 17) ; and the original Irish, 
with an English translation, by Dr. Todd (Obits of Christ Church, p. liv.) 

Line 12 Mobhi Olarainech. Also called Berchan. The epithet Clarai- 
neach, which Lanigan incorrectly interprets " lame," properly signifies " flat- 
faced," being compounded of clar, tabula, and eineach, facies, and is rendered 
tabulari facie in the Lives of SS. Brigid, Cainnech, and Maidoc. St. Mobhi s 
day is Oct. 12. He is stated to have been one of the twelve Apostles of Erin, 
and a fellow-student with St. Columba at Clonard. Vit. S. Finniani, c. 19 
(Colg. A. SS. p. 395 a.) 

Line 14 Group of cells. The Irish Life of St. Columba says, A m-botha 
fri usci aniar, " Their huts were by the water, on the west." 

Line 17 Distemper. The Irish Life says, Atbert Mobii fria a daltaibh 
dergi ind inaid i mbatar ar do n-icfadh teidhm anaicnidh ann .i. in Buidhe 
chonnaill, " Mobhi told to his pupils to leave the place in which they were, 
for that a strange distemper was about to come, namely, the Buidhe chon 
naill." See Mr. W. R. Wilde s valuable observations in Census of Ireland 
for 1851, Part v. vol. i. pp. 46, 416. 

Page xxxvi. line 25 St. Finbar. The founder and patron of Cork. He 
is also the patron saint of Dornoch, the episcopal seat of Caithness ; and of 
the island of Barra, which derives its name from him. 

Line 25 St. Comgall. See iii. 18, p. 205, and Note. He founded a 
church in Heth, or Tiree. Holywood in Galloway was anciently called, after 
him, Dercongall. See authority cited in Keith, Scottish Bishops, p. 399 
(Edinb. 1824). 

Line 25 St. Brendan. See iii. 18, p. 205. He founded a church in 
Ailech, probably Alyth in Perthshire ; and another in Heth, or Tiree (Vit. 
c. 43, Cod. Marsh., fol. 63 b a). He is the patron saint of Kilbrandon in the 
island of Seil (not far from which is Culbrandon), and of Boyndie in Banff. 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 227 

Page xxxvi. Hue 25 The two Fillans. One of Strathfillan, whose day 
is Jan. 9 ; the other who appears in the Irish Calendar at Jun. 20, as 
"Faolan the Leper, of Rath-Erann in Alba, and Cill-Faolain in Laighis." 
Rath-Erann is now Dundurn, in the parish of Comrie in Perthshire. It is 
situate at the east end of Loch Earn, where also is the village of St. Fillari s. 
St. Faelan s memory is vividly preserved in the neighbourhood. See Old 
Stat. Acct. vol. xi. p. 181 ; New Stat. Acct. vol. x. pp. 582, 584. His Irish 
church is situate in the Queen s County, in that part of the parish of Kil- 
colmanbane which is in the barony of Cullenagh (Ord. Surv. sheet 18). In 
1623 it was called Killlielan [i.e. Gill Fhaelain] (Leinster Inquis., Com. 
Reginse, Nos. 24, 25, Jac. I.), which name is now disguised in Ballyheyland. 
Thus also Killallan in Renfrew, whose patron was the former St. Fillan, is 
sometimes called Kylheylan (Origines Parochiales, vol. i. p. 81). 

Line 26 St. Flannan. The patron saint of Killaloe. In Scotland he 
gives name to the Flannan Isles. 

Page xxxviii. line 22 Inaugurated in Hy. See iii. 6, p. 197. From the 
friendship between the parties, Irish writers style St. Columba the anmcara, 
i.e. " soul s friend," or confessarius, of king Aedhan. MS. H. 2, 16, Trin. Coll. 
Dub. p. 858. 

Page xl. line 15 Gently took its flight. See iii. 24, p. 214. The long 
chapter which describes the last scenes of St. Columba s life is as touchingly 
beautiful a narrative as is to be met with in the whole range of ancient 
biography. 



II. ST. COLUMBA S BATTLES. 

Page xliii. line 3 Cleric. Colgan seems ashamed both of the deisiol, 
and the clerical interference in battle, and accordingly translates this curious 
passage with studied inaccuracy: " Cathach, id est, praeliator, vulgo appel- 
latur, fertque traditio quod si circa illius patriee exercitum, antequam hostem 
adoriantur, tertio cum debita reverentia circumducatur, eveniat, ut victoriam 
reportet." O Don. ii. 3 (Tr. Th. 409 6). 

Page xliv. line 4 Genealogical View. The line at the extreme right is 
introduced merely for chronological comparison. Brian, the head of this 
Cormacian race, is believed to have been the elder son of Eochaidh, by Mong- 
finu, while Niall was the issue of a later alliance with Carinna Casdub. See 
O Flaherty, Ogng., p. 374. 

III. ST. COLUMBA S CHURCHES. 

Page xlix. line 29 Remains. Brussels MS. and Cod. Laud 615 (Bodl. 
Libr.), p. 105. 

Page 1. HDC 6 Cormac, son of Dima. That is Cormac Ua Liathain. 
See p. 185. 

Line 7 Collan. Probably Calmaan of p. Ixxii. 

Line 9 Libren. The Calendars at Mar. 11 commemorate " Libren Abbot 
of la Coluimcille and Tamhlacht Librein." Colg. Acta SS. p. 584. 

Line 9 Conrach. This is the " Conrius Mocucein qui sepultus est in 
Dairmaig" of p. Ixxii. 

Line 16 Abode. Among the poems ascribed to St. Columba there is 
one which refers to certain mounds and boundary fences erected in the 
termon of Durrow by three Pictish Abbots, Tiugulph, Erolbh, and Torulbh. 
It commences thus : Tiugulbh in tige Abad Tiiigulbh of the Abbot s house 



228 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

(Bodl. Lib. Laud 615, p. 106). These names have, however, more of a Danish 
appearance. 

Page Ix. line 15. To these Irish Churches may be added 

Ardpatraic. A townland on the east side of the parish of Louth, in the 
barony and county of the same name. Archbishop Ussher has left the follow 
ing notice of its ruined church : " Ad occidentalem vero partein Louthianse 
ecclesise S. Motti capella (ut vulgus appellat) adhuc superest ; et non multo 
amplius quam milliari inde distans Ard-Patrick, ubi et sacrse sediculse con- 
spiciuntur rudera, septemdecim latitudinis, viginti septem vero pedum longi- 
tudines." (Brit. Eccl. Ant. c. 17). The relation of this church to St. Moch- 
tas answers admirably to the statement in Adamnan at p. 107 supra ; and 
the apparent difficulty arising from the local commemoration of St. Patrick s 
instead of St. Columba s name is removed by two of the ancient poems in 
the MS. collection, Bodl. Lib. Laud 615, in one of which St. Columba is repre 
sented as calling upon his kinsmen to protect his churches of Doire-Eithne, 
Ard-Patraic and Sengleann ; and in the other, which records several tributes 
and offerings due to his churches of Doire-Eithne, Ard-Patraic, Glenn-Gairge, 
Cenannus, Druimcliabh, and Dearmach. 

Inishkea north, Inis Geidhe. An island off the Mullet, in the parish of 
Kilmore, barony of Erris, county of Mayo. It is in the diocese of Killala, and 
contains 664 acres. On the south is Tempull Choluim-dlle, which is marked 
St. Columbkille s Church in the Ordnance Survey. 

Inishturk, Inis Tuirc. An island off the parish of Kilgeever, barony of 
Murrisk, county of Mayo. It is in the diocese of Tuam, and contains 1450 
acres. On the south-east side is Tempull Choluim-dlle. 

Illan Columbkille. Oilen Choluimdlle, an island in the parish of Ballyovey, 
barony of Carra, county of Mayo, containing rather less than two acres. It 
is situated in the diocese of Tuam. 

Inistioge, Inis Teoc. A parish of the diocese of Ossory, situate on the Nore, 
in the county of Kilkenny, barony of Gowran. It would seem that St. 
Columba was the patron saint of the ancient church of the place, for when 
the Augustinian Priory was founded here, circ. 1210, it was styled Coano- 
bium S. Columbse de Inistioch. See Dugdale, Mon. vi. pt. ii. p. 1142. 

Page Ixxi. line 20. To these Scotch churches may be added 

Glenmoriston. A parish on the north side of Loch Ness, and west of 
Urquhart, to which it is now united. About two hundred yards from Loch 
Ness is a bury ing-ground called St. Columba s; and, farther up, a little more 
than half a mile from the shore, near the house of James Murray Grant, Esq., 
is St. Columba s Well. 

Birse. A parish south of the Dee, in the southern part of Aberdeenshire. 
The writer of the memoir in the Old Statistical Account, says, " On Mount 
Ganiach there is a well, called St. Corn s Well, in honour, probably, of the 
celebrated saint of Icolumkill ; but concerning this well there is no tradi 
tion." 

Cramond. A parish in the north-west angle of Edinburghshire. The 
writer in the New Statistical Account states that " before the Reformation 
there was a mensal church here, under the bishoprick of Dunkeld, with two 
altars ; the one dedicated to St. Columba, the patron saint of the see, and 
the other to the Virgin Mary." 



IV. ST. COLUMBA S TWELVE DISCIPLES. 

Page Ixxi. line 30 Codex B. Although annexed by a later hand, it is 
evidently of great antiquity, and drawn from authentic sources, probably 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 229 

from records preserved at Hy, the school whence Cod. B. originated. There 
is no counterpart to be found among our Irish manuscripts, but some of the 
particulars appear in a tract ascribed to .^Cngus the Culdee, who flourished 
about a century after Adamnan ; while others can be verified by independent 
authorities. 

Page Ixxi. line 31 Nomina. They appear, with sundry inaccuracies, in 
Fordun (Scotichr. iii. 26) ; and still more disguised in Hector Boethius 
(Scot. Hist. lib. ix. fol. 166.) Dempster perverts almost every name, and, as 
Ussher says, solita fretus licentia, makes every individual an author and a 
saint (Hist. Eccl. Scot.) Abp. Ussher, who consulted Cod. B., exhibits the 
list more faithfuUy (Brit. EC. Ant. c. 15, Wks. vi. p. 237). Colgan borrows 
from him, and comments upon the names in detail (Tr. Th. pp. 4686, 4866) ; 
as also the Ordnance Memoir of Templemore (pp. 26, 27). Pinkerton has 
printed them correctly (Vit. Antiq. p. 186) ; from whom they are transferred, 
with a few alterations, into the Origines Paroch. Scotise (vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 285). 

Line 33 Brenden. He was brother of Fedhlimidh, St. Columba s father. 
See Genealogical Table annexed to the Introduction, p. clxxxv. 

Page Ixxii. line 1 Ernaan. Superior of Hinba. See p. 143. 

Line 2 Scandal. Scandal cille Cobrainne .i. Scandal mac Breasall mic 
Enna mic Neill dalta Coluim cille, " Scandal of Cill-Cobran ; i.e. Scandal, 
son of Breasal, son of Enna, son of Niall ; pupil of Columcille." Cal. Doneg. 
May 3. Enna Fionn, from whom Tir-Enna, a district in the present barony 
of Raphoe, derived its name, was the third son of Niall of the Nine Hostages 
by his second wife. The relationship between his grandson and St. Columba 
may thus be shown : 

NIALL NAOIGIHALLACH=INNEA 

i 



EOGHAN 

A quo Cinel Eoghain 
in Tir-Eoghain. 

MUIREDHACH 
MUIRCERTACH 


I 
CONALL GULBAN 

A quo Cinel Conaill 
in Tir- Conaill. 

! 

FERGUS 
! 
FEDHLIMIDH 


i 

ENNA FIONN 
A quo Cinel Enna 
in Tir-Enna. 

1 
BREASAL 

SCANDAL 



COLUMBA 

The compiler of the Orig. Paroch. inverts the order of Enneus and Breasal. 
Ronnat, Adamnan s mother, was a descendant of Enna, son of Niall. 

Line 4 Tochannu. A form of Dochonna. Colgan incorrectly reads Tor- 
annan (Tr. Th. p. 492 b, n. 109). Two Dochonnas are commemorated at 
Mar. 8 : but this is Mochonna, otherwise Mauritius or Macharius of the 
Scotch Calendar, Nov. 12. 

Line 4 Cairnaan. Written Caornan in the Calendars at Jan. 31, April 
28. Brandubh and Melge are names which occur in the Four Masters. 

Line 5 Grillaan. Greallan of the Calendars. 

Line 6 Aedelmith. Recte Fedelmith. Praef. 2 (p. 107). 

Line 7 Mtlme. Her pedigree stands thus in the Book of Lecan : 
Eithne, ingen Dimae meic Nae meic Feichin meic Cairpre Jilead meic 
Aililla mair meic Bracain meic Feic meic Dairi barraig meic Cathair moir, ic 
Ros tibrad. Deirbbind belad ainm aile di. " Eithne, daughter of Dima, son of 
Nae, son of Fechin, son of Cairpre the Poet, son of Ailill Mor, son of Bracan, 
son of Fiac, son of Daire Barrach, son of Cathair Mor, [is commemorated] at 



230 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

Eostibraid. Deirbbind Belada [or Bel-fhada, oris longi] was another name 
for her." See Prsef. 2 (p. 107) ; Obits of Christ Church, Introd. p. Ixiii. 

Page Ixxii. line 8 logen. " Unicum tantum juxta Codicem de Kill- 
mhicnenain, aliasque passim historias patrise, habuit S. Columba Fethlemidii 
filius fratrem, quern mendose Codex Cottonianus logen, recte Codex de Kill- 
mhicnenain et alii passim nostri historici vocant Eogan .i. Eugenium." Col- 
gan, Act. SS. p. 8 b, n. 3. The Book of Kill-micnenain is cited also in the 
Book of Fenagh. See Battle of Magh Eath, note b, p. 164 ; Irish Nennius, 
p. cvi. 

Line 9 Cuimne. ^ngus notices her thus : Cuman siur Coluim cille math- 
air da mac Degill .i. Moernoc ocus Caisene. " Cuman, sister of Columcille, 
was mother of the two sons of Degill, i.e. Mernoc and Caisene." Tract, de 
Matr. SS. Hib., Colgan, Tr. Th. pp. 469 a, n. 85, 478 a, n. 3. 

Line 10 Mernooc. That is, Mo-Ernan-og, " my little Ernan." See i. 3 
(p. 117). Mernocc mac Decill derbhratkair do Chaisin mac Decill, et Cumdn 
siur Colaim cille a matair araon. " Mernocc, son of Decill, brother of 
Chaisin, son of Decill ; and Cuman, sister of Columcille, was mother of 
them both." Cal. Doneg. Dec. 23. 

Line 11 MinclioletJi. Minchloth mathair mec Nenain [mater filiorum 
Nenani] quorum unus Colman dicitur. ^Engus, de Matr. SS. Hib. See Colgan, 
Tr, Th. pp. 469 b, n. 86, 479 b, n. 17- 



V. THE YEAR OF ST. COLUMBA S DEATH. 

Page Ixxvi. line 13 Festivals. See ii. 46 (p. 190). To which may be 
added the following verses from the Brussels MS. alreadj cited : 

Colaim cille, caemh a II 

Is a fear cumtlia Baoithin ; 
A fel do ghres, tin curdke, 
For aenlaithe sechtmuine. 

Batur cena,fegha a lin, 

Ceithre bliadhna, ni hanfir, 
Deldhencliu Baithin if us : 
Columfor tus i partus. 

Columcille, beautiful his aspect, 
And his comrade Baithene ; 
Their festivals perpetually, without change, 
Upon the same day of the week [month]. 

They were as one, behold this interval ; 
Four years it not untrue 
Baithene was later on earth : 
Colum was the first in Paradise. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that St. Derlugdacha, the immediate suc 
cessor of St. Brigid at Kildare, whose name is also associated with Abernethy, 
died on the same day as her patron, having survived one year. See Irish 
Nennius, p. 163. 

Page Ixxvii. line 32 Birth. According to the Calendar of Marian Gorman, 
he was born on the 7th of December. 

Page Ixxviii. line 25 Instituted. Its observance commenced about the 
middle of the ninth century, but was not admitted into the Eoman use until 
about the middle of the twelfth. The Sundays between Trinity and Advent 
used to be reckoned from Pentecost. 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 231 

Page Ixxviii. line 33 Tighernach. It has been very much the habit to 
extol this chronicler as a most accurate chronologist, but it is to be remem 
bered that the years printed in the margin by Conor are Conor s own, 
not Tighernach s. He generally adjusts them by adding one to the years set 
down for the parallel entries in the Annals of Ulster. This is very often 
done in opposition to the author s own notation. In the whole range of Irish 
literary desiderata no work is more imperatively demanded than a faithful 
exhibition of Tighernach s text. In O Conor, it is so corrupt, so interpolated, 
so blundered, that it is extremely unsafe to trust the text, while it is certain 
mischief to follow the translation. 



VI. THE EELICS OF ST. COLUMBA. 

Page Ixxix. line 34 Shrines. The Annals of Tighernach and of Ulster 
record a series of enshrinings, which took place in Ireland in the course of 
the eighth century, and the expression by which they denote the process is 
Commutacio martirum (Tig. 734, 743 ; Ult. 733, 742, 775), or Commotado 
reliquiarum (Ult. 784, 789, 792, 793), or Positio reliquiarum in area (Ult. 
799, 800). With the exception of the last, there are no equivalent entries to 
these in the Four Masters, possibly from ignorance of their import. 

Page Ixxxi. line 4 Bones of Columdlle. That the word ossuum has been 
correctly assigned as a gloss to martirum in the restoration proposed in the 
text, will be seen from the following entries in the early Annals : 734, 
Commutacio martirum Petair et Poll et Padraic ad legem perftdendam (Tigh., 
An. Ult.) 743, Commutatio martirum Treno Cille Delgin (Ibid.) 775, Com- 
mutatio martirum sancti Erce Slane ; et comotatio martirum Finniani Cluana- 
Iraird (An. Ult.) After A.D. 775, the Annals of Ulster employ the term 
reliquiarum instead (784, 789, 792, 793, 799, 800). Cathal Maguir, who 
compiled these Annals, borrowed from a succession of original chronicles, and 
the change in the terms probably indicates a change of author. Martra is 
the analogous Irish term, which is glossed by taisi in an old MS. (H. 3, 18, 
p. 525, Trin. Col. Dubl.), or by minna (H. 4, 22, p. 7). The parish Kilnam- 
artry, signifying " Church of the relics," derives its name from the same 
word. 

Line 19 Berclianus. This was Berchan, son of Muiredhach, of the race 
of Loarn Mor, the founder of Cluain-sosta, now Clonsast, in the King s 
County (Ord. Survey, s. 27, where St. Bragharfs Well is marked) ; and 
patron saint of Kilbarchan in Renfrewshire. He was surnamed Ferda- 
leithe : Ferdaleithe ainm oile do .i. leth a xhaogail i nAlbain acus an leth oile in 
Erinn, " Ferdaleithe (man of two portions) is another name for him, because 
one portion of his life was in Alba, and the other in Erin." Calend. Doneg. 
Dec. 4. St. Berchan is cited by O Donnell as the authority for the burial of 
St. Columba at Downpatrick, and he adduces from him, as does Keating also, 
the following lines in proof : 

A ordan in Ti-I gan choire, 
Is a annsafor Doire ; 
A chorpanfo an lig 
Fo d-ta Patraic is Brlgit. 

His dignity in crimeless Hy ; 
And his love upon Derry ; 
His body beneath the stone, 
Under which are Patrick and Bridget. 

See the citation from Keating in Reeves s Ecclesiastical Antiquities, p. 227- 



232 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

Page Ixxxii. line 13 Minna. In 829, Diarmait, abbot of Hy, went to 
Alba with the minna of St. Columba, and, in 831, returned with them to 
Ireland. The word minna signifies articles of veneration, such as the crozier, 
books, or vestments, of a saint, upon which oaths used in after times to be 
administered. See Colgan, Acta SS. p. 127 b, n. 5. The old word denoting 
the bones of a saint is martra, which is explained by the modern taisi. 

Line 27 Meath. Serin Colaimcille do argain doDomhnallmac Murcadha. 
" Serin of Columcille was plundered by Domhnall, son of Murchadh." Tig. 
976. This is omitted in the other Annals. 

Page Ixxxiii. line 20 Fabulous. Civil and Eccl. Hist. p. 214. The 
author cites the chronicles of Ordericus Vitalis, Henry of Huntingdon, and 
Matthew Paris, to show that in the eleventh and following centuries it was 
believed that St. Columba s remains still lay in Hy. He also refers to some 
verses which were appended by the scribe to Cod. B., but which are not now 
to be found in that MS. 

Line 29 It lies. Martin says : " Near to the West end of the Church 
in a little Cell lies Columbus his Tomb, but without Inscription ; this gave 
me occasion to cite the Distich, asserting that Columbus was buried in Ire 
land ; at which the Natives of lona seem d very much displeas d, and affirm d 
that the Irish who said so were impudent Liars ; that Columbus was once 
buried in this Place, and that none ever came from Ireland to carry away his 
Corps, which, had they attempted, would have prov d equally vain and pre 
sumptuous." Western Islands, p. 258. The place Martin refers to is the 
cavity near Martin s Cross, opposite the west door of the cathedral. But 
this ground does not appear to have been a cemetery, or, at all events, not to 
have been an original one. St. Columba s grave should be sought for in the 
Reilig Odhrain. 

Page Ixxxiv. line 4 Contributions. This idea seems to be implied in the 
entry in the An. Ult. 733 : Commutatio martirum Petair et Foil et Padraic 
ad legem perficiendam. Armagh was partly indebted for her ecclesiastical 
precedence to the possession of these relics. 

Page Ixxxv. line 10 Baithene Mor. Son of Cuana, son of ^Engus, son of 
Enna, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. He is said to have been present at 
the convention of Drumceatt. In the Feilire of ^ngus he is styled mor 
mainech, "great monk," and is the patron of Tech BoetJiin in Airteach, now 
Tibohine, in the barony of Frenchpark, county of Roscommon ; of Tech 
JBoethin, an ancient parish, now a townland called Taghboyne, in Churchtown, 
a parish of Westmeath ; and of Rath Boethin, now Balrathboyne, a small 
parish in the union of Kells, in Meath. 

Page Ixxxvi. line 24 Cinel Luighdech. A tribe of the Cinell Coiiaill, who 
occupied the present barony of Kilmacrenan. See Orig. Ed., p. 192. At 1129, 
the Four Masters record that " the house of Columcille at Cill-mic-Nenain was 
taken by Ua Tairchert, from Aedh, son of Cathbarr Ua Domhnaill, and it 
was burned over him." The O Donnells were at first only chiefs of Cinel 
Luighdech, but they afterwards rose to be lords of Tirconnel. 

Line 25 Eobartaigh. The name is defective in the inscription, but 
enough remains to identify it with that in the charters of the Book of 
Kells. 

Page Ixxxviii. line 37 Erin. MS. H. 2, 16, Trin. Coll. Dubl. The same 
story is told in the Irish Life contained in the Highland Society MS. (now in 
the Advocates Library, Edinburgh), fol. 12 aa. 

Page Ixxxix. line 12 ODomnallain. Coarb of the Disert at Kells (Miscell. 
Ir. Ar. Soc. p. 136), chief confessarius and senior of Columcille s congregation, 
died at KeUs in 1109 (An. Ult. ; Four Mast.) 

Page xc. line 12 fietradat.Vit. iii.US, Trias Th. p. 433 b. There is a 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 233 

poem on the subject in the Laud MS., beginning Beir mo bachuitt let at laimh, 
" Take my staff with thee in thy hand." P. 50. 

Line 30 Cambo. Cambuta is the more usual form of the word, de 
noting a staff. Jonas calls St. Columbanus staff cambata (Vit. c. 30, Flem 
ing, Collectan. p. 243 b), a word conveying the idea of curvature, as in the 
Greek Ka/*7rro>, and the Irish cam. See Mabillon de Liturg. Gallic, p. 435 ; 
Fleming, Collectan. p. 362 b ; and the figures in Goar s Eucholog. pp. 98, 
133 (Venet. 1730). 

Line 38 Hundred years. St. Martin died circ. 397, so that this legend 
would place the discovery of his Gospel at 497, thirty years before S. 
Columba s birth ! Columba of Tirdaglass also is said to have brought away 
reliquaries from Tours. See Orig. Ed./p. 332. 

VII. THE MONASTERY OF HY. 

Page c. line 13 Monasteriis. The catalogue of the three orders of Irish 
saints forms the groundwork of the latter part of Ussher s Brit. Eccl. Antiqq. 
It was first printed by him, and the various readings in his notes show that 
he had more than one copy ; but he does not tell whence he derived them 
(Wks. vol. vi. p. 477). A similar record, differing in no material point 
except the omission of some names, was printed in Fleming s Collectanea, 
where it is stated that the recital was " verba pervetusti et fidelis authoris 
vitse S. Patricii ; " and further, " quse totidem fere verbis, regum tamen et 
Sanctorum prsetermissis vocabulis, leguntur in antiqua et fideli S. Finniani 
vita, quse cum aliis plurium Sanctorum Hibernise Legendis, quas R. P. Fran- 
ciscus Matthaeus, nunc Collegii nostri Guardianus, et nuper Provincialis 
Minister nostrse Provincise, circa annum 1626, summo studio ac diligentia, 
ex duobus MSS. voluminibus pergamineis (quorum unum ad Ecclesiam Ard- 
machanam vel Dubliniensem spectat, et in Bibliotheca Jacobi Usserii, ex 
ordinatione Regis Anglise, Primatis Ardmachani, asservatur ; alterum ad In- 
sulam quse Omnium Sanctorum dicitur pertinet) transumi curavit." P. 431 a. 
Both catalogues are printed, with observations, in the second volume of 
O Conor s Rer. Hib. Script, pp. 162-165. A catalogue, agreeing in the main 
with Ussher s, comes after the Life of S. Keranus in the Codex Salmanticensis 
of Brussels, fol. 78 b a. 

Line 18 Framers. The personal austerities which are attributed to 
some of the Irish saints are almost incredible. The Life of Comgall 
relates that that saint, having retired to Custodiaria Insula (called in the 
Calendar Inis Coimhetta, now Ely Island) in Lough Erne, " monachi sui post 
eum in illam insulam intraverunt ; et non valentes rigidissime vivere, sicut 
suus Abbas, septem ex eis fame et frigore mortui sunt." Cap. 12 (Flem. 
Collect, p. 305 a.) The Life of St. Cainnech represents him as travelling 
"trans Dorsum Britannice" and states that " Sancti Hybernienses miserunt 
nuncios post Sanctum Cainnicum audientes eum heremitum esse in Britannia, 
et tune ductus est sanctus Cainnicus de heremo contra suam voluntatein" 
(Vita, pp. 13, 39, ed. Ormonde). See under Austeritas in the Index Moralis 
of Colgan s Acta Sanctor. Adamnan records one instance of St. Columba s 
mortification (p. 213). 

Page ci. line 10 Hereditary. The Book of Armagh gives us a most valu 
able insight into the ancient economy of the Irish monasteries in its account 
of the endowment of Trim. In that church there was an Ecclesiastica pro 
genies and a Plebilis progenies, a religious and secular succession : the former, 
of office, in spirituals ; the latter, of blood, in temporals ; and both descended 
from the original granter. In the religious succession eight names are men 
tioned, and it is added, " Hi omnes episcopi fuerunt et principes " [abbots] ; 



234 NOTES TO INTKODUCTION. 

in the lineal succession there are nine names in a descending pedigree, and it 
was from this line that the ecdesiastica progenies was from time to time 
supplied (fol. 16 bb). The lineal transmission of the abbatial office, which 
appears in the Irish Annals towards the close of the eighth century, probably 
had its origin in the usurpation by the plebilis progenies connected with the 
various monasteries of the functions of the ecdesiastica progenies, which would 
be the necessary result of the former omitting to keep up the succession of 
the latter. In such case the tenant in possession might maintain a semblance 
of the clerical character by taking the tonsure and a low degree of orders. 
This is very much what Giraldus Cambrensis states concerning the Abbates 
laid of Ireland and Wales (Itinerar. Cambr. ii. 4). The so-called Canons of 
St. Patrick recognise the relation of the " clericus et uxor ejus " (can. 6) ; and 
Pope Gregory, in 601, prescribed for St. Augustine, " Si qui vero sunt clerici 
extra sacfos ordines constituti, qui se continere non possunt, sortiri uxores 
debent, et stipendia sua exterius accipere" (Bede, H. E. i. 27). 

Page ci. line 18 Parochia. In monastic language a parochia was the 
jurisdiction of a Superior over the detached monasteries of the order. 
Cogitosus says of St. Brigid: " cujus parrochia per totam Hiberniensem 
terram diffusa" (Prol., Tr. Th. p. 518). St. Brendan " cum venit de navigio 
suo quaerendo terram repromissionis sanctorum, tune parrochia ejus per 
diversas regiones Hybernie dilatata est (Cod. Marsh, fol. 57 b a). St. Ciaran 
was styled " Leath nEirinn, i. e. dimidium Hibernise/ parochia enim ejus per 
medium Hybernise dilatabitur" (ib. fol. 146 aa) ; and his influence was so 
great that "valde enim parochiam Hibernise apprehenderet " (ib. fol. 147 bb). 

Page ciii. line 22 Pachomius. Cod. Regular, torn. ii. pp. 64 a, 66 b. It 
was copied from the archives of the church of Dunblane by Servanus Thomson, 
a Scotch Benedictine of Dunfermlin, and was taken to Ratisbon in 1526, 
when he went thither to be prior on the invitation of his uncle, John 
Thomson, who was abbot of the Scotch monastery of St. James at Ratisbon. 

Page civ. line 26 Bishop. "Qui non episcopus, sed presbyter extitit et 
monachus." Bede, Hist. EC. iii. 4. 

Line 27 Presbyter. "Baitheneus sanctus presbyter (161) Segeni abbas 
et presbyter." Bede, H. E. iii. 5. " Adamnan presbyter et abbas." Ib. v. 
1 5. St. Brendan s case was precisely similar : he founded Clonf ert, and was 
presbyter-abbot of it from 564 till his death in 577. St. Moenu, or 
Maeinenn, was bishop of the same church during the founder s lifetime, 
and died in 572. In Armagh the chief dignity, namely, that of Coarb of 
Patrick, was conventual, and the abbot was occasionally distinguished from 
the bishop who was his subordinate. See King s Memoir of the Primacy, p. 78. 

Line 28 Choice. The motives to it have been already adverted to. 
Besides the numerous domestic examples furnished by the Secundus Ordo, 
we might mention the case of St. Martin, whose consecration was effected 
by a mixture of stratagem and force (Vit. c. 7, p. 497, ed. Hornii) ; of St. 
Columbanus, who never rose from the presbyterate ; of St. Gall, who twice 
refused the most earnest solicitations to become a bishop (Vit. S. Galli, Mes- 
singham, Florileg. pp. 266, 269). Bishop Cronan, who visited St. Columba, 
dissembled his rank (p. 142) ; and in like manner the famous Fergil, or 
Virgilius, "the Geometer," who, from being abbot of Aghabo in Ireland, was 
appointed by Pepin, king of the Franks, to the monastic see of Saltzburg in 
Bavaria, entered on the abbatial duties, but "dissimulata ordinatione ferine 
duorum annorum spatiis, habuit secum laboris et coronse participem episcopum 
comitantem de patria, nomine Dobda [Hib. Dubhda, e.g. Ua dubhda] ad 
persolvendum Episcopale officium" (Vit., Mabillon, Act. SS. Ben. Ord. ssec. 
iii. p. 280, Ven. 1734; Messingham, p. 331 a). He died, according to the 
Annals of Ulster, in 788. 






NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 235 



Page civ. line 31 Hy. Five bishops of Hy are mentioned in the Irish 
Annals at various dates, Ann. 622, 712, 966, 968, 978, 987. 

Line 32 Jurisdiction. " Cujus juri et omnis provincia, et ipsi etiam 
episcopi, ordine inusitato, debeant esse subjecti." Bede, H. E. iii. 4. As 
regarded the Scotic Church, it was not unusual. Notker Balbulus, un 
acquainted alike with the geography and history of Ireland, says : " In Scotia 
insula Hibernise depositio S. Columbse. . . . Adeo ut Abbas monasterii cui 
novissime prsefuit, et ubi requiescit, contra morem ecclesiasticum, Primas 
omnium Hiberniensium habeatur episcoporum." Martyrol. 

Line 34 Vow. " Monachus ipse episcopus ^dan, utpote de insula 
quse vocatur Hii destinatus." Bede, H. E. iii. 3. "Aidan quippe qui 
primus loci [Lindisfarn] episcopus fuit monachus erat et monachicam cum suis 
omnibus vitam semper agere solebat. Unde ab illo omnes loci ipsius antis- 
tites usque hodie sic episcopale exercent officium, ut regente monasterium 
abbate, quern ipsi cum consilio fratrum elegerint, omnes presbyteri, diaconi, 
cantores, lectores, ceterique gradus ecclesiastici, monachicam per omnia cum 
ipso Episcopo regulam servent." Vit. S. Cudberti, cap. 16 (p. 241, ed. 
Smith). 

Line 35 Abbot. In the case of Aidus Niger, St. Columba s displeasure 
fell, not on the officiating bishop, but on the presiding abbot. See p. 126. 

Line 35 Community. " Sicque ilium [/Edanum] ordinantes, ad prsedi- 
candum miserunt." Bede, H. E. iii. 5. "A majoribus meis accepi, qui me 
hue episcopum miserunt." Ib. iii. 25. 

Page cv. line 6 Bobio. " Episcopus, quern pater monasterii, vel tota con- 
gregatio invitaverit ad Missarum solemnia celebranda, aut consecrationes 
Presbyterorum seu Diaconorum . . . ipse habeat facultatem in idem mon 
asterium ingrediendi, tantum ad pii opus Monasterii peragendum. Nullam 
potestatem habere permittant Episcopos in eodem monasterio, neque in rebus, 
neque in ordinandis personis, nisi eum, quern cuncta Congregatio regulariter 
elegerit." Miracula S. Columbani, cap. 23 (Fleming, Collect, p. 257 a ; Mes- 
singham, Florileg. p. 248 b). See also the third capitulum of the Council of 
Hertford, Bede, H. E. iv. 5. 

Line 9 Called in. " Accito episcopo." See p. 135. 

Line 11 Consecrated. " Ab hac ergo insula, ab horum collegio mona- 
chorum, ad provinciam Anglorum instituendam in Christo, missus est ^Edan, 
accepto gradu episcopatus. Quo tempore eidem monasterio Segeni abbas et 
presbyter prsefuit." Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, iii. 5. 

Line 13 Time. " Successit ei [^Edano] in episcopatum Finan, et ipse 
illo ab Hii Scottorum insula ac monasterio destinatus, ac tempore non 
pauco in episcopatu pennansit." Bede, H. E. iii. 17, 25. "Defuncto autem 
Finano qui post ilium fuit, cum Colmanus in episcopatum succederet, et ipse 
missus a Scottia." Ib. iii. 25. " Helictis in ecclesia sua fratribus aliquot, 
primo venit ad insulam Hii, unde erat ad prsedicandum verbum Anglorum 
genti destinatus." Ib. iv. 4. Ceollach, or Cellach, bishop of the Mercians, 
" ipse de natione Scottorum, qui non multo post, relicto episcopatu, reversus 
ad insulam Hii [or, as in cap. 24, ad Scottiam rediit ], ubi plurimorum 
caput et arcem Scotti habuere ccanobiorum : succedente illi in episcopatum 
Trumheri, natione quidem Anglo, sed a Scottis ordinato episcopo." Ib. iii. 
21. From the above it appears that Bede considered Hy to be in Scotia. 

Line 15 Orders. " Columbanus, qui ad insulam Hyth ad S. Columbam 
pergens, illic gradum episcopalem accepit : et iterum ad suam patriain 
reversus est/ Vit. S. Itse, cap. 21 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 69 a). 

Page cvi. line 25 Another house. According to the Calendar of Donegal, 
Conamhail was son of Failbhe, of the race of Colla Uais. 

Line 33 Clanship. This principle was largely developed in the religious 



23G NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

institutions of Ireland, and led to the limitation of herenachies and the 
custody of reliques in certain families. 

Page cviii. line 21 Modern Journal. Catholic Layman (Dublin), vol. ii. 
p. 87, vol. iii. p. 33. These articles are anonymous, but the reader of the 
Rev. R. King s Memoir of the Primacy of Armagh, pp. 20-24, will not fail to 
recognise the same master hand. 

Line 28 Clergy. Marriage was not confined to the inferior Orders. 
When St. Patrick required a damhna n-epscuip [materies episcopi], " a man 
fitted for the episcopal office," to be placed over the Lagenians, he asked 
for a person who, among other qualifications, was fer oensetche, " a man of 
one wife." Lib. Armac. fol. 18 a b. 

Page ex. line 19 Ordinary. St. Benedict styles such Dies privates. Reg. 
cap. 13. 

Line 20 Synaxis. The chapter De Cursu, in the Rule of Colum- 
banus, commences thus : " De synaxi ergo, id est, de cursu Psalmorum et 
orationum modo canonico." Cap. 7 (Flem. Collect, p. 5 b). Bede has the 
expression matutince Synaxeos, H. E. iv. 19. The chapter of the Rule of 
Columbanus, De Cursu, prescribes : " Per diurnas terni Psalmi horas pro 
operum interpositione statuti sunt a Senioribus nostris cum versiculorum aug- 
mento intervenientium pro peccatis primum nostris, deinde pro omni populo 
Christiano, deinde pro Sacerdotibus, et reliquis Deo consecratis sacrse plebis 
gradibus, postremo pro eleemosynas facientibus, postea pro pace regum, no- 
vissime pro inimicis." Cap. 7 (Flem. Coll. p. 6 a.) The corresponding order 
of special intercessions in the Antiphonarium Benchorense is as follows : 1. 
Oratio communis Fratrum, beginning " Ne memineris iniquitatum nostrarum." 
2. Pro Baptizatis. 3. Pro Abbate. 4. Pro Fraternitate. 5. Pro Pace 
populorum et regum. 5. Pro Blasphemantibus. 6. Pro Impiis. 7. Pro Iter 
facientibus. 8. Pro Eleemosinariis. 9. Pro Infirmis. This serves as an in 
teresting commentary on the Rule ; and, coupled with the consideration that 
Columbanus was a pupil of St. Comgall at Bangor, we can understand the 
reference in Senioribus nostris. Possibly Officialis Liber would be a more 
suitable name than Antiphonarium : it is the title found in a St. Gall manu 
script (Maskell, Mon. Rit. Eccl. Angl. vol. i. p. xxxiv.) ; and the two classes 
of Irish service books were Libri Officiales et Missales (Vit. S. Munnae, c. 12, 
Cod. Marsh. 128 aa). 

Line 23 Hy. "In insula le, cum hora nona appropinquasset quidam 
sacerdos tit mos est ad interrogandum Columbam perrexit, sed Colum- 
bam in suo loco non invenit, diligenter per insulam queerebat, nee inventus 
est. Et Bithinus jussit ut tintinnabulum percuteret. Cumque fratres cele- 
brare incepissent, subito Columbanus cum igneo vultu et f ulgentibus oculis in 
ecclesiam venit ad eos." Vit. S. Cainnechi, cap. 25 (p. 15, ed. Ormonde). 

Page cxii. line 10 Indulgence. It was to save his brethren from the inter 
ruption of this enjoyment that St. Columba wished his life to be spared till 
Pentecost (211). Bede terms this season the remissio quinquagesimce paschalis 
(H. E. iii. 5). 

Line 14 Interval. Cummian, in his Paschal Epistle to Segienus, abbot 
of Hy, speaking of his abode in Rome, says : "In uno hospitio cum 
Graeco et Hebrseo, Scytha et ^Egyptiaco, in ecclesia sancti Petri simul in 
Pascha (in quo mense integro disjuncti sumus) fuerunt." Ussher, Sylloge Ep. 
xi. (Wks., vol. iv. p. 443). For a very satisfactory exposition of the Paschal 
question, and reference to authorities, see the acute and learned Robert 
King s Church History of Ireland, vol. i. pp. 190-197. 

Line 23 Nona. Bede says of Bishop vEdan, who had lately come 
from Hy, " Cujus exemplis informati tempore illo religiosi quique viri 
ac feminae, consuetudinem fecerunt per totum annum, excepta remissione 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 237 

qumquagesimae paschalis, quarta et sexto, sabbati jejunium ad nonam usque 
horam protelare." H. E. iii. 5. Adamnan of Coldingham, " de genere Scot- 
torum," lived so abstemiously, " ut nihil unquam cibi vel potus, excepta die 
Dominica et quinta sabbati perciperet." Ib. iv. 25. 

Page cxii. line 27 Taken. Bishop Cedd, a Columbian disciple, observed 
Lent in this manner : " diebus cunctis, excepta Dominica, jejunium ad ves- 
peram usque juxta morem protelans, ne tune quidem nisi panis permodicum, 
et unum ovum gallinaceum cum parvo lacte aqua inixto percipiebat. Dicebat 
enim hanc esse consuetudinem eorum, a quibus normam disciplines regularis di- 
dkerat."-Bede, H. E. iii. 23. The Rule of St. Benedict prescribed, " In 
Quadragesima vero usque ad Pascha ad Vesperam reficiant. Ipsa autem 
vespera sic agatur, ut lumine lucernse non indigeant reficientes."- Cap. 41. 
Ecgberct s diet in Lent was panis ac lac tenuissimum (ib. iii. 27), which is 
expressed in Irish by anglais acus aran, " milk-and-water and bread" (Vit. S. 
Mailreice, p. 89 a). 

Page cxiii. line 15 Etchen. See the legend from Maguir s note to the 
Felire, in Obits of Christ Church, Introd. p. liv. 

Line 17 Lanfranc. "Episcopi ab uno episcopo consecrantur." Ussh. 
Syll. Ep. 27. 

Line 19 Anselm. In one letter he writes, "Episcopi quoque solis 
episcopis consecrantur," Ussher, Syll. Ep. 35 (Wks. vol. iv. p. 521); in 
another, " atque ab uno episcopo episcopum, sicut quemlibet presbiterum, 
ordinari." Ep. 36 (p. 524). In primitive times the practice was not uniform 
in Ireland ; see Reeves s Eccles. Antiqq. p. 127. There is an early instance 
of single consecration in the case of JElurus Timotheus at Alexandria, who, 
on the death of Proterius, "aut voluit aut passus est se ab uno episcopo, in 
locum occisi episcopi, fieri episcopum." Gennadius, ap. Ussher, Wks. vol. v. 
pp. 366. 

Page cxiv. line 6 Father-land. Like patria, the old Irish word is atharda, 
from athair, father. St. Columba is extolled in his Irish Life for abandoning 
his atharda. 

Line 14 Hy. Tighernach, at 718, says, "Tonsura corona super familiam 
lae datur." 

Line 26 Swineherd. Ussher cites an ancient Cotton MS., containing a col 
lection of Irish Canons, for the following : " Romani dicunt tonsuram a 
Simone Mago sumpsisse initium, cujus tonsura de aure ad aurem tantum con- 
tingebat ; pro excellentia ipsa magorum tonsura, qua sola frons anterior regi 
solebat. Auctorem autem hujus tonsurse in Hibernia subulcum regis Loigeri 
filii Nil extitisse, Patricii sermo testatur : ex quo Hibernenses pene omnes 
hanc tonsuram sumpserunt." EC. Br. Ant. c. 17 (Wks. vol. vi. p. 490). The 
Irish word for tonsus is mael, and one of Laeghaire s Magi was Lucet-mael, 
hence we may infer that the magorum tonsura referred to above, had some 
influence on the Irish style. In the Irish verses concerning the introduction 
of Christianity, ascribed to the native Druids, and which were ancient in the 
year 700, the term by which the missionary is characterized is Tailcend, 
which Muirchu, in the Book of Armagh, renders Asciciput (fol. 2 bb), a word 
whose meaning has not hitherto been explained. It is undoubtedly a com 
pound of Ascia, " an adze," and caput. Similarly, the Irish equivalent is 
compounded of tal, ascia, and cenn, caput. The Irish had a St. Mactail (Jun. 
11), whose name is interpreted filius ascice, not, however, as is generally sup 
posed, because his father was a carpenter (that would be mac an tsaor), but 
on the same principle that Maccaile was filius veli. Probus, who closely fol 
lows Muirchu, not understanding the force of asciciput, and taking tail in the 
abstract sense of ars, renders taikend artis caput, as if it denoted totius artis 
magister (cap. 26, Tr. Th. p. 49 a). The Third Life in Colgan, caught by an 



238 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

apparent similarity, substitutes a ludicrous word, archicapus, "prime-capon" 
(cap. 30, Tr. Th. 23 b). The Second and Fourth have vir cum corona decorata 
(Tr. Th. pp. 14 a, 40 a). Jocelin renders it in circulo tonsus in capite (cap. 
31, Tr. Th. p. 71 b), and so in Tripart. Life (i. 43, Tr. Th. p. 123 6). Col- 
gan s tonsus in vertice (ib. p. 2 bb) is better. A passage in S. Brendan s Life 
states that a monk was struck capiti securi, and that the place where he was 
buried was called " Lebaydh in tollchynd, i.e. Lectus perforati capitis " (Cod. 
Marsh, fol. 63 bb). If tailcenn denote the coronal tonsure, it will be open 
to the suspicion of having been coined in the seventh century, but if Iceviga- 
tum caput, it will suit any date. 

Page cxvi. line 2 Psalms. JEdan s followers, both adtonsi and laid, 
employed themselves aut legendis Scripturis, aut Psalmis discendis. Bede, 
Hist. EC. iii. 5. 

Page cxvii. line 9 Obits. The custom of keeping such entries is illus 
trated in Bede s statement of a Saxon priest, " egressus requisivit in annali 
suo, et invenit eadem ipsa die Osualdum regem fuisse peremptum." H. E. 
iv. 14. Annals like Tighernach s were probably kept in all the Irish 
monasteries. 

Line 33 Beef. The Irish Life relates that on one occasion an athlaech 
[quondam-laicus], called Maelumha, son of Baedan, sojourning in Hy, came 
to Columbcille when for fhacaibh Boithin he ic fum mairt don methil, " he 
was left by Baithin, cooking a beef for the workmen." 

Page cxviii. line 1 Evening meal. " Cibus sit vilis et vespertinus." 
Reg. Col. c. 3. 

Line 18 Natural colour. Jocelin, describing St. Patrick s cowl, ob 
serves: " Unde et monachi in Hibernia S. Patricii sequendo vestigia, per 
multa temporum volumina habitu simplici contenti erant, quern ovium 
ministrabat lana, qualibet extrinseca tinctura remota." Vit. S. Patr. c. 185 
(Trias Th. p. 106 a.) The old Irish Life exaggerates the self-denial of 
Columcille when it asserts, nis gebhedh lln na oland fria chness, " he never 
put flax or wool to his skin." On Sundays and festivals the brethren went 
albati (202) in surplices (?) to church. 

Line 23 Capa. St. Comgall s Life relates that " Quodam die cum 
esset S. Comgallus solus in agro foris operans, posuit chrismale suum 
super vestem suam. Cum ergo venissent gentiles ad S. Comgallum foris 
operantem, et chrismale suum super cappam suam vidissent, putaverunt 
chrismale illud deum S. Comgalli esse." Cap. 22 (Flem. Coll. p. 307 b). The 
chrismale, it may be observed, was a box for carrying the consecrated bread 
of the Eucharist, probably the menstir of the Book of Armagh (fol. 18 a b). 
In St. Dega s Life an anecdote is told similar to that in p. 170, but 
instead of tunica the garment is called capa (Act. Sanct. Aug. torn. iii. 
p. 659 6). 

Line 25 Calcei. The Irish Life, in illustration of Columcille s humility, 
says : Mor tra an inisle do Colum cille conidh h-efen no benadh a n-iallach- 
randa dia manchaibh acas no imladh doibh, " It was, now, great lowli 
ness in Columcille that he was wont himself to take the sandals off his 
monks, and wash them." So the Vit. Sec. of Colgan, " Suis discipulis tan- 
quam vilis servus ministrans calceamenta de illorum pedibus solvebat, 
eorumque pedes post labores, aquis lavabat calidis." Cap. 17 (Tr. Th. 
p. 327 a). 

Line 33 Straw. Adamnan says that Columba s bed was a bare stone : 
the Vit. Secund. of Colgan adds, "interposito tantum corio." Cap. 18 (Tr. 
Th., p. 327 a.) It would seem that hides were occasionally used for sleeping 
on. St. Macnisse of Connor is said to have derived his name from mac 
cnir [Patraic], " son of Patrick s skin," because he slept in his bed. (Obits 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 239 

of Christ Ch. Introd., p. Ixxiii.) See the passage cited from the Vit. Trip, 
p. 116, n. b, Orig. Ed. ; and the legend of St. Ciaran s cow, p. 352, Orig. Ed. 

Page cxix. line 12 Altarium. Probably of stone. " Alio autem die 
S. Kannichus intravitininsulam le, cumque osculatus fuisset altare [dedisset 
pacem altari Cod. Marsh. ], caput suum contra cornu altaris incaute per- 
cussit, et de capite ejus gutta sanguinis venit, et ilia gutta capitis Kannichi 
data est super filiam Bruidei regis Pictorum." Vit. S. Kannechi, c. 23 
(p. 14, ed. Ormonde). 

Line 15 Discus. Hence dish, in Irish mias. " Cum disco sive patena." 
Vit. Trip. iii. 54 (Trias Th. p. 137 a). So Vit. Brendani, c. 42 (Cod. Marsh, 
fol. 63 a b). Disci were among the altar furniture made by St. Dega. The 
Book of Armagh has patinus (ff. 8 bb, 11 bb). The bread was called in 
Irish bairgen, or " cake." 

Line 15 Calix. From which comes the Irish cailech, called coilech 
n-aijfrind, " calix offertorii," in the Irish Life. Calix. Lib. Armac. 
fol. 8 bb. 

Line 18 Exedra. The Irish version of Bede s abstract of Adamnan, 
De Locis Sanctis, translates exedra by irdum. Leabhar Breac, fol. 69 b. 
This term is explained by Cormac so as to answer exactly to Adamnan s 
description of the exedra at Hy : Aurdom .i. urdom A. aurteghdhais, no fria 
tegdais anechtair, "Aurdom, i.e. urdom, i.e. a side-house, or against a house 
externally." Gloss, cit. Petrie, Round Towers, p. 438. 

Line 29 Kitchen. Colgan s Vit. Sec. says : " Frequenter etiam molendini 
serviens officiis, farinse saccum ad coquinam reportabat humeris." Cap. 17 
(Trias Th. p. 327 a.) St. Patrick s culina at Armagh was 17 feet long. 
Vit. Trip. iii. 78 (Tr. Th. p. 164 a.) The cucin or coquina of Armagh was 
burned by lightning in 915 (An. Ult.) 

Line 31 Cacabus. The Tripart. Life tells that king Daire sent to 
St. Patrick an ceneus cacabus (iii. 70, Tr. Th. 162 b), which the Book of 
Armagh simply calls ceneus (fol. 7 aa). " Pro sartagine cacabum trium 
metretarum." Vit. Ciarani, c. 20 (Cod. Marsh. 146 a b). Vit. Brendani, 
c. 30 (ib. fol. 61 a b). 

Page cxx. line 2 Waxed tablets. Ceraculum is the term found in some 
saints lives, as St. Maidoc s, cap. 6 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 208 b) ; St. Mochta s, 
cap. 2 (ib. p. 729 a) ; in both which instances it is employed to denote a 
student s tablet. " Et sanctis pater statim accepta tabula et grajio, per 
revelacionem Dei scribebat in cera, indicans fratri velle suum." Vit. Bren 
dani, c. 17 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 58 & a). The Irish Life represents St. Colum- 
kille s abgiter, or alphabet, as written on a cake. For drawings of a ceraculum 
see Dr. Todd s paper on an Irish waxed Table-book (Transact. R. Irish Acad. 
vol. xxi. pt. 2). 

Line 2 Styks. From graphium, which is of Greek origin, comes the Irish 
graib (205 n). The Life of Cainnech represents that saint saying to Baithene, 
"porta illi tecum in signum graffium hoc quod in aere ex pallio ejus cadens 
reliquit, quum ille et ego et Comgallus cito perreximus ad Eugenium episco- 
pum Ardsrathae nos vocantem in auxilium circa animam Aidui monachi 
sui." Cap. 25 (p. 15, ed. Ormonde.) The very same anecdote is told in the 
Life of St. Ruadhan, with this exception, that the style is called pugillaris, 
and St. Ruadhan described as the keeper of it (Act. Sanctor. April, torn. ii. 
p. 386 a ; Colg. Tr. Th. p. 461 b). These styles seemed to answer a double 
purpose. 

Line 4 Books. At Armagh there was a teach screaptra, domus scriptu- 
rarurn, in 1020, and an officer called leabhor coimhedach, custos librorum, in 
1136 ; but these are the only references in our Annals to the existence of a 
monastic library. 



240 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

Page cxx. line 7 Canon. " Cum S. Kannechus apud istum magistrum 
utrumque canonem legisset." Vit. c. 4 (p. 4, ed. Orm.) The term is used in 
the same sense in the expression Canoin Phadraic, Canon Patricii, the name 
which the Irish gave to the Book of Armagh. 

Line 10 Plateola. The Irish term faithche denotes "a green," "a court," 
or the entrenched space attached to an earthen fort. Faheeran in the 
King s County is faithche Chiarain, platea Kiarani (Four Masters, 1547) ; 
Cormac s Glossary translates faithchi by platea, voc. pla (Ir. Nennius, p. 93). 

Line 14 Botha. The Irish Life applies this term to the cells in St. Mobi s 
monastery of Glasnevin. 

Line 14 Cettce. St. Cainnech was on one occasion in Hy, and when the 
bell rang for nona the abbot was missing, and " per omnes cellas ab omnibus 
fratribus diligenter quaerebatur." Vit. c. 22 (p. 40, ed. Orm.) Colgan s 
Tert. Vit. speaks of the abbot s cella, c. 34 (Tr. Th. p. 329 6). 

Line 14 Cellulce. The Sec. Vit. in Colgan has "tune omnes fratres de 
suis advenientes cellulis" cap. 19 (Tr. Th. p. 327 a). Bede s description of 
St. Cuthbert s monastery where there were only oratorium and habitaculum 
commune (H. E. iv. 28), was of a different character : but his account of the 
caste and domunculce of Coldingham (H. E. iv. 25) applies to the monastery of 
Hy. In fact the Irish monasteries seem to have been modelled very much after 
the eastern pattern, such as Adamnan describes of the monastery of Mount 
Thabor : " Cujus in medio campo monachorum inest grande monasterium, 
et plurimse eorumdem cellulse." And again, " Supra memorati monasterii et 
trium ecclesiarum aedificia cum cellulis monachorum, lapideo omnia circum- 
veniuntur muro " ii. 27 (Mabill. Act. SS. Ord. Ben. saec. iii. pt. ii. p. 467). 
Cassula is used for cellula in the Book of Armagh (fol. 5 ba, 10 aa). 

Line 24 Hospitium. In some Irish monasteries there was a separate 
department called Us, or tech aeidhedh, " enclosure " or " house of guests," as 
in Armagh (F. Mast. 1003, 1015, 1116, 1155) ; and Clonmacnois (ib. 1031 
1093, 1106, 1128, 1166). 

Line 35 Vallum. Such was the enclosure of Armagh called rathArdmacha 
(F. Mast. 1091, 1112, 1196). The monastery of Derry was erected in the 
dun of Aedh (160). See pp. 117, 172. In 1266, when the Franciscan 
monastery of Armagh, now known as the Abbey in the Primate s Demesne, 
was founded, they "cut a broad and deep trench around their church" 
(Four Masters). 

Page cxxi. line 20 Barn. The old word sabhall, from which two churches 
in Ireland took their names (Reeves s Eccl. Ant. pp. 220), and from which 
Irish hagiologists coined the word zabulum to denote " a barn," is preserved 
in the spoken language of Ulster, but in the other provinces of Ireland it is 
corrupted to sgibol. The Brehon Laws mention the idhlann frumenti reposi- 
torium. 

Line 29 Mill. In describing the composition of the Altus, its preface 
states, In tan do rat Columcille in cet fhoda i m-bel in muilind is and do chuaid 
h-i cend ind Altusa, ocus is imalle roscaig in t-imon do denum ocus in tarbur 
do bleith, When Columcille had put the first feed into the mouth of the 
mill, it was then that he commenced the A Itus ; and it was simultaneously 
that the hymn and the grinding of the corn were concluded. Leabhar 
Breac, fol. 109 a. See p. xcvii. St. Fechin, who flourished in the 
interval between Columcille and Adamnan, erected a water-mill near his 
abbey of Fore, which is mentioned in his Life, cap. 14 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 
131 b\ and spoken of by Giraldus Cambrensis (Topogr. Hib. dist. ii. cap. 52). 
See O Donovan in the Dubl. Pen. Journ. vol. i. p. 282 ; Petrie s Tara, p. 139 ; 
Ord. Mem. of Templemore, p. 215 ; St. Constantine, on his conversion, in 
588, "relicto regno in hyberniam transfretavit veniensque ad quamdam 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 241 

domum religionis humiliter laborem sustinuit quod molenda quseque de 
granario ad molendinum ferret per septennium." Brev. Aberd. Pr. SS. Pt. 
Hyem. f. 67 a b, lect. 2 (Reprint). The reference is, probably, to Rahen, in 
King s County. 

Page cxxi. line 34 Mill-pond. Speaking of Rath-both (Raphoe) the Irish 
Life says, Innsin ro todhuscastar in saer a bos, iar na batliudh illind in mulind, 
" It was then he restored to life the wright after he had been drowned in the 
mill-pond." Pennant, writing in 1772, says, "Beyond the [abbot s] mount 
are the ruins of a kiln, and a granary ; and near it was the mill. The lake 
or pool that served it lay behind; it is now drained." Tour, i. p. 258 
(Chester, 1774). 

Page cxxii. line 3 School. St. Columcille is said to have been one of the 
twelve fathers of the Irish who were educated by St. Finnian of Clonard. 
Speaking of our saint s engagements there, the Irish Life says, Feis aidche 
no meledh a broin cechfer ar n-uair dona h-apstalaibh. Aingel De nimhe tra 
no meledh do raith Coluimcille, " A night s meal was ground in a quern, in 
turn, by each of the apostles. The angel of the God of heaven it was who 
ground for the benefit of Columcille." St. Ciaran also is said to have been 
employed to work a mola, but an angel did his work for him while he read. 
Vit. c. 8 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 145 a b). 

Line 26 Varied. The Brehon Laws distinguish the lung, navis longa, 
bare, scapha, and curach, caruca, in the provision made for builders, Cethri 
ba ar longaib, ocus cethri barcaib, ocus cethri ba ar curcha, " Four cows for 
ships, four for barques, and four cows for curachs." (H. 2. 16, col. 930, 
Trin. Coll. Dubl.) 

Page cxxiii. line 7 Nautce. The Irish Life cites this verse : 

Amra ocbadh boi in Mi 
Tri caecat immancunii 
Imma curchaibh iarsin ler 
Oc imramh trifichitfer. 

Illustrious the soldiers who were in Hy, 
Thrice fifty in monastic rule 
With their curachs across the sea ; 
And for rowing, three-score men. 

Line 24 Successor. That is, abbot designate. The primary qualification 
was that he should be adhbhar abbaidh materies abbatis, like a damhna 
n-epscuip (236), or rig damhna regis materies. The expression is illustrated 
in the following passage from the Life of St. Ciaran of Clonmacnois : " Alio 
die cum esset Sanctus Kiaranus in ilia insula Angin, audiens vocem hominis 
insulam volentis intrare in portu, dixit fratribus suis, Ite fratres mei, et 
materiam abbatis vestri post me hue adducite. Fratres autem cito navigantes, 
invenerunt adolescentulum laicum in portu, quern despicientes reliquerunt 
ibi" Cap. 26 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 146 b b). 

Line 31 Erenach. Cormac explains the term by uasal cheand, " noble 
head." The earliest instance on record of the word is in Tighernach, at 605. 
The Wurtzburg MS. of St. Paul s Epistles glosses 1 Tim. ii. 12 by nip si 
bes airchinnech, non ea sit princeps (Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. p. 334). The old 
compound preposition archiunn signifies ante (ib. ii. pp. 565, 577). See Colgan, 
Tr. Th., p. 631; O Donovan, Four Mast. 601, 1179; Reeves s Colton, p. 4 ; 
King s Primacy of Armagh, p. 18. The Four Masters frequently translate 
the Lathi term princeps (superior) of the earlier Annals by aircinnecJi. We 
find also ban-aircinnech for dominatrix (An. Ult. 772, 779, 1134). 

Page cxxiv. line 5 Custos monasterii. Thus, in the Life of St. Cainnech 

Q 



242 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

" Quadam die cum custos ejusdem monasterii horam nonam pulsare 
voluisset." Cap. 22 (p. 40, ed. Orm.) Speaking of Columcille s departure 
from Durrow, the Irisli Life says, foracaib cometaidh dia muintir ann .i. 
Cormac ua Liathan, " and he left a guardian of his congregation in it, namely, 
Cormac Ua Liathain." 

Page cxxiv. line 13, Great Priest. Sacart mor. There was such an official 
also at Clonmacnois in 1109. Vasal sacart and^m w sacart, " noble priest," 
" senior priest," are frequently found in the Annals, but they present some 
anomalies in their use of the term sacart : thus, at 923, Mochta, priest of 
Armagh, was bishop of the Ui Neill (Ult.) ; and, in 1041, Maelbrighde Ua 
Maelfinn, priest, anchorite, and bishop, died. 

Line 24 Isles of Alba. Fothadh mac Brain, scribhnidh, acus espucc insi 
Alban decc, " Fothadh, son of Bran, scribe, and bishop, of Insi-Alban, died." 
Four Mast., Scotch authorities, about this date, assign a Fothad to St. 
Andrews. Fordun (Bowar), vi. 24. 

Line 35 Solitarius. The superscription of Cummian s Paschal Epistle 
runs thus : " Dominis Sanctis et in Christo venerandis, Segieno abbati 
Columbee sancti et casterorum sanctorum successorum, Beccanoque solitario, 
charo carne et spiritu fratri, cum suis sapientibus." Ussher, Syll. Ep. xi. 

Page cxxv. line 6 Heremitical life. " Ecgberct, quern in Hibernia insula 
peregrinam ducere vitam pro adipiscenda in ccelis patria retulimus." Bede, 
H. E. v. 9. Victberct, " multos annos in Hibernia peregrinus anachoreticam 
in magna perfectione vitam egerat." Ib. Hsemgils, "in Hibernia insula 
solitarius ultimam vitse setatem pane cibario et frigida aqua sustentat." 
Id. v. 12. 

Line 20 Pilgrims. The word deoraklh signifies an "exile," "outlaw," 
" pilgrim." In the form deoruighe it is used in the Irish version of Gen. iv. 
12, 14, to express vagabond. The Welsh dieithr-dhyn seems cognate to it. 
The kings of Ireland occasionally employed mercenaries called Deoraid (Bat. 
of Magh Rath, p. 163). In Scotland, as well as Ireland, the word assumed 
a religious limitation, and from an official became a family name, now known 
as Dewar. In 1428, we find the " lator ipsius reliquie de Coygerach, qui 
Jore vulgariter dicitur." This reliquary, called Coigcrioch, i.e. Stranger, or 
Quegrith, was a crozier-head, sacred to St. Fillan of Strathfillan, in Perth 
shire, who is commemorated in Ireland as St. Faolan of Cluain-Maoscna, in 
Fartullagh, county of Westmeath, on the same day (Jan. 9) as in the Scotch 
Calendar. In 1468, we find the name in the form Deore, and, in 1487, Doire 
(Black Book of Taymouth, Pref. pp. xxxv.-xxxvii.) Again, certain lands in 
St. Munna s parish of Kilmun in Argyleshire (250) were held " per quendam 
procuratorem cum baculo sancte Munde Scotice vocata Deowray " (Reg. 
Mag. Sig., lib. xiii. No. 314). In 1572, Donald Dewar received a grant of 
the lands of Garrindewar [garaidh an deoraidh, hortus TOV peregrini] in 
Menteith, in Perthshire, " quse olim pro pulsatione unius campanse coram 
mortuis personis infra parochiam de Kilmaluig tempore Papismatis fundate 
et dedicate erant" (Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxxiv. No. 24). These Deorays or 
Dewars were probably descended from some Irish families, whose proper 
names merged in their official title (as with the Mac Moyres in Armagh), 
and who derived this peculiar name of office either from the circumstance of 
being themselves originally aliens, or of being representatives of three saints, 
Faolan, Munna, and Molua, each of whom, probably, to use the technical 
expression, do gabhdil bachlae, agus a ecc ina oilithre, " took the [pilgrim s] 
staff, and died on his pilgrimage." It is worthy of mention, in reference to 
the Irish deoraid a, that the church of Mayo, called Tempull Gerailt, or Gill 
na nAilither, "Church of the Pilgrims," was rebuilt and endowed, circ. 1100, 
do deoradaibh De, "for pilgrims of God." (H. 2. 17, p. 399, Trin. CoU. Dubl., 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 243 

cit. Petrie, Round Towers, p. 144). Deoradh was a Christian name among 
the O Flynns of Hy Tuirtre (F. M. 1154). 

Page cxxvi. line 13 Irish monasteries. St. Patrick s cook is said to have 
been Aithgen of Badoney (Reeves s Colton, p. 73). The Irish Life of Columba 
mentions Macrith (Mac Cridlie of Aug. 11) as cook of St. Mochta. 

Page cxxvii. line 12 People at large. "Cujus monasterium in cunctis 
pene septentrionalium Scottorum, et omnium Pictorum monasteriis non 
parvo tempore arcem tenebat, regendisque eorum populis praeerat." Bede, 
Hist. Eccl. iii. 3. 

Line 25 Hy. There is a charter of Donald, Lord of the Isles, to Lachlan 
Makgilleone [M Lean], dated July 12, 1390, granting to him, inter alia, 
" officium Fragramanach et Armanach in insula de Hy, cum omnibus liber- 
tatibus, commoditatibus, fructibus, et pertinentiis, ad dicta officia spectanti- 
bus." (Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xiii. No. 300.) 

VIII. THE TOPOGRAPHY OF HY. 

Page cxxvii. line 33 Insula. Thus Egea, iii. 19 (p. 206) ; Elena, ii. 17 
(163) ; Ethica, i. 13 (p. 125); Hinbina, i. 15 (p. 127) ; Ilea, ii. 24 (167) ; Malea, 
i. 16 (p. 128), 35 (139); Reclirea, ii. 42 (184) ; Sainea, ii. 46 (190); Scia, i. 
27 (p. 134); ii. 27 (p. 170), are all adjectives formed from the Irish names 
Eag, Eilenn, Eth, hlombath, II, Mael, Rechra, Saina, and Sci. 

Page cxxix. line 9 Narratives. As the old Irish Life of St. Columba, pre 
served in four manuscripts ; the original Irish of O Donnell s Life ; and 
Keating s History. 

Line 10 Manuscripts. Such as the Liber Hymnorum, pp. 21, 26. This 
MS., which is preserved in Trin. Coll. Dubl., is a thousand years old. Lea- 
bhar Breac, fol. 108 b, 109 a; Leabhar Lecain, fol. 183 a; Cod. H. 2. 16, 
Trin. Coll. Dubl., pp. 391, 680 ; Gloss to Feilire, Oct. 27. 

Line 36 Originals. The conjecture that Colgan had on his own authority 
printed lona instead of loua in the shorter lives is confirmed by a recent ex 
amination of the Codex Salmanticensis, which the present writer was enabled 
to make. It contains the original of Vita secunda in Colgan s collection, and 
invariably exhibits the name loua. 

Page cxxx. line 31 lou. The u coincides in sound with the o, and both 
are to be pronounced short. Thus Adamnan latinizes the name Fergna by 
Fergnouus (iii. 20, p. 207), and elsewhere writes it Fergno (titul. p. 207), 
showing the equivalence of a, o, and ou in such terminations. 

Page cxxxi. line 4 Finford. So called on Blaeu s map. Finfort is the 
name of the landing-place opposite Port Ronain, on the Mull side. Here is 
an ancient burying-ground, but without any old tombstones. It was pro 
bably, in the first instance, a corpach, or resting-place, in foul weather, for 
bodies on their way to Hy. Archdn. Monro mentions " a guid raid foment 
Colmkill, callit Pollaisse," but the name is now unknown. 

Line 34 Kilmceuen. The name Kilfinichan is Gill Fionnchain, Ecclesia 
Findcani (135), and Kilviceun is Cill mhic Eogain, Ecclesia filii Eugenii. There 
is no Mac Eoghain in the Irish Calendar, but Ernan mac Eoghain, St. 
Columba s nephew, is entered at Jan. 1. 

Page cxxxiii. line 12 Tomb. This must be a vulgar error. The saint s 
grave would hardly be apart from the chief cemetery (p. Ixxxiii). 

Line 34 Ronan. The Scotch Calendar has two of this name, one at Feb. 
7, of whom Adam King says : " S. Ronane bischop in Scotland and confess 
vnder king malduine " (Catecli.}, and who, though not noticed in the Calen 
dar of the Brev. Aberd., is mentioned in the Propr. SS. of Febr. as " Epi- 
scopus apud Kilmaronen in Liveiiax " (Part. Hyem. fol. 54 b a}. He, and not 
Marnock, or Conan (as in Orig. Par. vol. i. pp. 34, 503) is the patron saint 



244 NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 

of Kilmaronock, on the east of Loch Lomond, in Dumbartonshire. The 
saint may or may not be the "Ronan, natione quidem Scottus" of Bede (H. 
E. iii. 25), whom the editor of the Orig. Paroch. makes " a Scotchman " (ii. p. 
296), although he had previously laid down that Scotia was Ireland (ib. p. 
285). Camerarius shows what his own authority is worth in such questions, 
for he identifies the patron of Insula Ronan with Bede s Ronan, who was 
Finnan s polemical opponent, circ. 652, and straightway places his death at 
778 ! (Feb. 6, De Scotor. Fortitud. p. 96.) The Irish Cal. has no Ronan at 
this day. But the JRonanus episcopus of the Calendars in the Aberdeen 
Brev., and Register, at May 22, is the Ronan Fionn of the same day in the 
Irish, who is commemorated at Lann Ronan Finn in Iveagh, in the county 
of Down (Reeves Eccl. Ant. pp. 313, 378). He was grandson of King 
Loarn. T. Innes confounds this saint with his namesake of Feb. 6 (Civ. EC. 
Hist. p. 161). 

Page cxli. line 12 Fairy-mount. From sidh, or sith, "a fairy." See 
Reeves Eccl. Ant. p. 68. 

Page cxlii. line 4 Coffin. The Irish word ealatrom, " a bier," is possibly 
from the Latin feretrum. At Port-na-marbh, the mortal remains of those who 
are conveyed for interment to Hy are brought ashore and are deposited 
on the mound. 

IX. CHRONICLE OF HY. 

Page cxlix. line 4 Adamnan. Adamnan s Life is given in the Acta 
Sanctorum at Sep. 23 (torn. vi. pp. 642-649), from the pen of Constantinus 
Suyskenus, but it contains no new matter. The Irish Life, which is pre 
served in one of the O Clery MSS. at Brussels, furnished the legends on St. 
Adamnan which appear in the Breviary of Aberdeen. It is a sort of his 
torical discourse on Job xxxviii. 3, intended for the saint s festival ; but it 
is a miserable production, full of absurdities and anachronisms. Anything 
in it worthy of notice will be found in this memoir. 

Line 6 Instances. The Calendars have none except our author. The 
Annals have, besides, St. Adamnan, bishop and abbot of Rath-maighe- 
aenaigh (An. Ult. 730), and Adomnan mac Alddailedh (An. Ult. 835). 

Line 5 Another. Adamnanus of Coludi Urbs, or Coldingham, Bede, 
Hist. EC. iv. 25. See Colgan, Act. SS. p. 224, where Jan. 31 is given as 
his day, and 680 as the probable date of his death. 

Line 10 Fear 624. The An. Ult. at 623 have Nativitas Adomnani 
abbatis lae. Tighernach, at 624, has Bos Adomnain ab hie, but instead of 
bos, mors, the Chron. Scotor. reads gem, nativitas. Lanigan (Eccl. Hist. iii. 
p. 153) prefers the date 627, because he finds the age of 77 assigned to 
Adamnan, and 624 + 77 only equal to 701, whereas 704 is the date of his 
death. Mac Firbis s MS. Annals state his age at 78 ; the date, however, as 
given in the Annals, is not to be hastily set aside. Ward assigns his birth 
to 626 (Rumold, p. 218). 

Line 14 Tir Aedha.Thzt is, "the land of Aedh," so called from Aedh, 
son of Ainmire, who, in common with Adamnan, was of the Siol Sedna, or 
descendants of Sedna, grandson of Conall Gulban (Gen. Table annexed to 
Introduction). 

Line 17 Commemorations. The church of Drumhome, of which Adamnan 
was patron. See p. 215. 

Line 33 Legend. His birth is made the subject of one of St. Columba s 
prophecies, but even this does not pretend to any early particulars. " Colum- 
cille foretelling of Adamnan. He shall receive his name from my name. He 
shall make a law for the women, from the noble, widespread Ictian sea hither. 
He shall be learned without defect. He shall attract half the language of envy, 
for he will ordain a great Law. A sapling who will wrest the sovereignty of 



NOTES TO INTKODUCTION. 245 

Tara from Finnachta. Over Tara he shall not assume power. Thirty years 
in abbotship shall Adamnan, of high and illustrious renown, be " (Brussels 
MS. No. 5101-4 ; MS. Bodl. Libr. Laud 615, p. 132). See p. 215. To this 
the lesson in the Breviary of Aberdeen refers : " de cuius ortu moribus et 
vita sanctus columba longo tempore antequam nasceretur divinitus pro- 
phetavit " (ut supra.) 

Page cli. line 3 Reign. The Irish Life of St. Adamnan tells the follow 
ing curious story of this king s interment : " The body of Bruide, son of Bile, 
king of the Cruthnigh, was brought to la, and his death was sorrowful and 
grievous to Adamnan, and he desired that the body of Bruide should be 
brought to him into the house that night. Adamnan watched by the body 
till morning. Next day, when the body began to move and open its eyes, a 
certain pious man came to the door of the house, and said, If Adamnan s ob 
ject be to raise the dead, I say he should not do so, for it will be a degrada 
tion to every cleric who shall succeed to his place, if he too cannot raise the 
dead. There is somewhat of right in that, replied Adamnan. Therefore, as 
it is more proper, let us give our blessing to the body and to the soul of 
Bruide. Then Bruide resigned his spirit to heaven again, with the blessing 
of Adamnan and the congregation of la. Then Adamnan said 

Many wonders doth he perform, 

The king who was born of Mary. 

He takes away life. 

Death of Bruide mac Bile. 

Seldom after ruling a kingdom 

That a hollow stick of withered oak 

Is about the son of the king of Al-Cluaite." 

Bruide died in 693. 

Lines 26-27 Tracht-Romra. The name is now unknown, but the graphic 
description is very applicable to the Solway Firth. 

Page clii. line 22 Brittania. Probably the Alcluid Britons. 

Page clvi. line 5 Tara. The Irish Life of Adamnan places this conven 
tion at the place now known as Ballyshannon : " On another occasion when 
Adamnan was at the royal meeting [rig-dail] of Conall and Coirpre, at Eas 
Ruaidh, making his Law, the roydamna of the son of Ainmire, i.e. Flan- 
nabhra, son of Cummascach, came, having with him a female captive who 
had killed a woman, to submit the case to Adamnan," etc. Colgan conjec 
tured that the convention was held at Derry or Raphoe. See p. 190. The 
acts of the convention do not state where it was held, but it might be in 
ferred to have been at Leitir, near Birr, on the confines of ancient Meath 
and Munster. 

Line 15 Legend. It is to be regretted that we have not a more historical 
account of the institution of this law than the following, which is taken from 
the Leabhar Breac and Book of Lecan : " Adamnan happened to be travelling 
one day through the Plain of Bregia with his mother on his back> when they 
saw two armies engaged in mutual conflict. It happened then that Ronait, 
the mother of Adamnan, observed a woman, with an iron reaping-hook in her 
hand, dragging another woman out of the opposite battalion with the hook 
fastened in one of her breasts. For men and women went equally to battle 
at that tune. After this Ronait sat down, and said, Thou shalt not take me 
from this spot until thou exemptest women for ever from being in this con 
dition, and from excursions and hostings. Adamnan then promised that 
thing. There happened afterwards a convention (mordail) in Ireland, and 
Adamnan, with the principal part of the clergy of Ireland, went to that 
assembly, and he exempted the women at it " (Petrie s Tara, p. 147). See 
also Note h in Orig. Ed., p. 178. 



246 NOTES ON INTRODUCTION. 

Page clvi. line BOBruide mac Derili. Called Bruide mac Derili ri 
Cruithen tuaithe. He died in 706, in the eleventh year of his reign. The 
introduction of his name into the Acts is suspicious, unless we suppose him to 
have attended at this synod as Aidan, son of Gabhran, did at Drumceatt. 

Line 38 Law. See Chronicon Hyense (Appendix III.), An. 727 and 
An. 929. 

Line 42 Canons. These canons do not seem to have any connexion with 
the Cain Adliamhnain. Martene printed the Canones Adamnani, with other 
Irish Canons, from a MS. of the Bigot Library at Rotterdam, which formerly 
belonged to the Monastery of Fescamp, in Normandy (Thes. Nov. Anecd. 
torn. iv. col. 18, Lut. Par. 1717). They exist also in the Cotton MS. of 
Canons (fol. 155 6), but with considerable variations, under the title In- 
cipiunt Canones Adomnani. Besides these, there is in Martene a detached 
canon, under the title Item Adompnanus (Ib. col. 11). It is of the same 
purport as the others, namely, unclean food, and it exists in the Cotton MS., 
but without Adamnan s name (Otho E. xiii. fol. 126 b). 

Page clvii. line 17 Vision. The Fis Adhamhnain is preserved in the 
Leabhar Breac, fol. 127 a. It consists of two parts, the Vision and the 
Application. 

Page clviii. line 37 Boyne. The Irish Life of Adamnan represents the 
saint as " fasting against Irgalach," immersed in the river Boinn, and over 
coming him by deceit. This system of fasting against an obnoxious indi 
vidual was a favourite mode with the Irish ecclesiastics of bringing down 
visitations on their enemies. The Brehon Laws contain directions on the 
course which is to be pursued in such a case. Irgalach resisted the influence 
of St. Adamnan s fasting by doing the same himself, until Adamnan, by 
inducing one of his people to personate him, put Irgalach off his guard, and 
thus got the mastery of him. The story is curious, not only as illustrative 
of this extraordinary system of fasting, but as indicating the low tone of 
moral feeling in the writer, who represents the saint as saying, " It is better 
that one of his people should tell a falsehood for him than that he should tell 
it himself." 

Line 37 Poem. Printed in Petrie s Tara, p. 122. It contains the lines, 
of which the following is a translation : 

" The synod of Patrick was held in the great Kath ; 
The synod of Brendan, and of Huadhan ; 
The synod of Adamnan, afterwards, 
In cursing of Irgalach." 

Page clxi. line 24 Questions. The Breviary of Aberdeen relates that a 
child was found, who " ante Dei virum ductus multa ei probleumata prse- 
posuit. Tune sanctus facto signaculo crucis inimicum effugavit, qui in specie 
infantis beatum virum temptare voluit." Lecfc. iii. (Propr. SS., Part Estiv. 
fol. 114 bb.) The Irish Life states that " the demon came in human form to 
converse with Adamnan, for the men of Munster compelled him by force to 
come to Adamnan. And he came with many hard questions. One of the 
questions was, Was it in shape or without shape that the Devil worshipped, 
and was it through knowledge or in ignorance that the Devil worshipped ? " 
They also relate how the Devil was brought to Hy in the shape of a corpse, 
to be buried, and how it rose up and spoke, putting, as the Life says, many 
wonderful questions to the congregation, all of which Adamnan resolved. 

Page clxviii. line 24 St. Arnold s Seat. In the parish of Kinneff, in Kin- 
cardineshire, there was formerly a ruin called St. Arnty s Kill, which in the 



NOTES TO INTRODUCTION. 247 

Macfarlane MSS. is mentioned as St. Arnold s Cell. Can this be a perversion 
of Adamnan ? 

Page clxviii. line 42 Senchani. The chapel is now locally called Kil- 
mashenaghan (Orig. Par. ii. p. 9), that is, Cill-mo-Seanchain. Father Mac 
Cana adds : " In ilia insula fuit repertum brachium Sancti Ultani, quod thecas 
argenjese inclusum, ante hoc bellum religiose servabatur a viro generoso ex 
inclyta Mac Donellorum familia." Could this be the reliquary now com 
monly called St. Patrick s Arm ? Nothing is known of its history, and as to 
the saint s name, it has probably originated in a vulgar guess. See Ulster 
Jo urn. of Archseol., vol. ii. p. 207. 

Page clxx. line 6 Ireland. Thus the name is pronounced Aunan at Skreen 
in Sligo, where we have Tobar Awnan and Drehid-aunan. Eunan is the 
E-aphoe pronunciation. Onan, in the county of Londonderry, in the parish 
of Errigal, where we have St. Onan s Rock, and in the spoken language 
through all that district of Glenuller. In West Meath, also, we find Syonan, 
which is formed from Suidhe Adhamhnain, sessio Adamnani. See Reeves s 
Colton, p. 81. 

Page clxxxii. line 13 Herer-Gaedll. Chron. Mann., 1102. The name is 
a form of Airer-Gaeidhil, now Argyle. Airer signifies "district;" thus, in 
the An. Ult. 865, we find airer in Fochla, " fines Septentrionis ;" and at 912, 
airiur Saxan, " fines Saxonum." " Arregathel dicitur quasi Margo Scottorum 
seu Hibernensium." De Situ Albanise. In 1251 we find the name in the 
same extended form of Erregeithal. Orig. Par. ii. pp. 91, 109. 

Line 35 Capital. On the capital of the S.E. column, under the tower, 
near the angle of the south transept and choir of the cathedral in Hy, are 
the remains of the inscription, >J< DONALDVS OBROLCHAN FECIT HOC OPVS, in 
Lombardic letters. It was perfect, July 29, 1844, when the writer s accom 
plished friend, J. Huband Smith, visited the island, from whom an accurate 
copy has been obtained. And Mr. Graham, in 1850, says : * Two years 
ago the inscription was .quite perfect, but since that time the corner of the 
capital has been knocked off, and some of the letters obliterated" (lona, 

p. 23). The writer examined it in 1853, and found only DONALD vso 

ECIT HOC OPVS. The inscription runs along the face of two sides of the 
principal abacus, so that the fracture of an angle removes the middle part of 
the legend. As the column is clustered, there is an appendage to the abacus, 
on the face of which the two last words are continued at a right angle. 
This is the most ornamented with grotesque reliefs of any in the building. 
Those figured in Graham s lona, plates xli. 2, xlii. 1, belong to it. It has, 
besides, a monstrous animal with two bodies meeting in one head, a pair of 
griffins with entwined tails, a group of strange animals, also with tails en 
twined, and at the junction, a grotesque head. Could these designs, so 
characteristic of the Irish school, be the HOC OPVS of Obrolchan ? 

Page clxxxiii. line 22 Cro Hy. The meaning of Cro is uncertain. There 
was a Cro-Ciarain, and a Cro-Coemghin in Glendalough (F. Mast. 1163), in 
which compounds the word is interpreted house. 

Line 24 Assembled. The original gives a military air to the procedure : 
Slogadh dona cleircib Erenn, " A hosting by the clergy of Erin." 

Line 27 O Ferghail. Or O Firghil, now O Freel. The family were here- 
nachs of St. Columb s church of Kilmacrenan. See their descent in the 
Genealogical Table annexed to the Introduction, and the observations at p. Iv. 
The winding up of the Irish history of Hy is very remarkable : Columba 
founded the primitive abbey, Donnall O Brolchan, an Irishman, designs its 
stately successor ; Columba was the first abbot ; Awley O Freel, lineally 
descended from Eoghan, the saint s only brother, was the last. 



248 NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. 

NOTES ON LIFE OF ST. COLUMBA. 

PREFACES. 

SECOND PREFACE lona. The word HJV occurs in the Old Testament, not 
only as a proper name, but as a common noun, signifying " a dove." Colum- 
banus, in the superscription of his epistle to Pope Boniface IV., styles himself 
" rara avis Palumbus," and, as he proceeds, observes : "Sed talia suadenti, 
utpote torpenti actu, ac dicenti potius quam facienti mihi, Jonce Hebiaice, 
Peristerce Greece, Columbce Latine, potius tantum vestrse idiomate linguae 
nancto, licet prisco nitar Hebrseo nomine, cujus et pene subivi naufragiim." 
Fleming, Collectan. p. 144 a. 

Peristera. The word is written with long vowels IIHPICTHPA in the 
Reichenau and St. Gall MSS. Thus in the Book of Armagh, we find Hgo, 
HCTQTE, BHATVC, HPAT. In Canisius MS. the writer, mistaking the 
Greek capitals, gives the word NHIIIOTHTA, in which, as an inflexion of 
VTjTriorrjs, he may have supposed some propriety of sentiment. Pinkerton, 
who supplies the deficiency at the beginning of his exemplar, the Cod. Brit., 
from the meagre text of Canisius, instead of the fuller copy employed by 
Colgan and the Bollandists, gives the word in its corrupt form, and observes 
in the note : " Quod NHHIOTHTA hie vult non video." P. 54. 

Columba. The Irish call him Colum, adding, as a distinction, cille, "of the 
churches," and this title was becoming general about the year 700, for Ven. 
Bede observes : " Qui videlicet Columba nunc a nonnullis composito a Cella et 
Columba nomine Columcelli vocatur." H. E. v. 9. So it was understood 
in Germany also : " Cognomento apud suos Columkille, eo quod multarum 
cellarum, id est monasteriorum vel ecclesiarum institutor, fundator, et rector 
extitit." Notker Balb. (Martyrol. 9 Jun.) The name Columba was a com 
mon one in his day, and there are twenty saints in the Irish calendar so called. 
It is observable that in continental hagiology Columba is a female appella 
tion ; whereas, among the Irish, with one or two trifling exceptions, it 
belongs to the opposite sex. We have in Adamnan various Latin forms of 
the name, as Columba, Columbanus, Columbus, and Columb. 

Maucteus. St. Mochta of Lughmagh, or Louth, is commemorated in the 
Calendars at Aug. 19. In his life he is described as " ortus ex Britannia," 
and as landing at Omeath, in the county of Louth, with twelve followers. 
Hence his title " proselytus," Gr. Trpoo-^Auroy, advena, peregrinus, quialiunde 
venit. Tighernach and the Annals of Ulster record his death at 534 : " Dor- 
mitatio Moctai discipuli Patricii, xvi. Kal. Sept. Sic ipse scripsit in epistola 
sua Mocteus peccator prespiter, Sancti Patricii discipulus, in Domino salutem." 

St. Columba. A member of the reigning family in Ireland, and closely 
allied to that of Dalriada in Scotland, he was eligible to the sovereignty of his 
own country. His half-uncle Muircertach was on the throne when he was 
born, and he lived during the successive reigns of his cousins Domhnall and 
Fergus, and Eochaidh ; of his first cousins Auimire and Baedan ; and of Aedh, 
son of Ainmire. To this circumstance, as much as to his piety or abilities, 
was owing the immense influence which he possessed, and the consequent 
celebrity of his conventual establishments : in fact, he enjoyed a kind of 
spiritual monarchy collaterally with the secular dominion of his relatives, 
being sufficiently distant in lona to avoid collision, yet near enough to exer- 



NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 



249 



else an authority made up of the~patriarchal and monastic. His immediate 
lineage stands thus : 



NIALL of the ix. Hostages, 
Monarch of Ireland from 
A.D. 379 to 405. 



CONALL GULBAN, 

Ancestor of the Cenel 
Conaill, slain in 464. 



EARC. 



LOARN, 

1st King of Scotch 
Dalriada. 



FERGUS CENNFADA = ERCA 



ECHIN, 

7th in descent 
from Cathaeir 
Mor, King of Ire 
land, A.D. 120. 

I 

NAVE, or 
NOE. 



DlMMA 

I 



FEDHLIMIDH 



I 
COLUMBA. 



BOOK I. 

CHAPTER i. Alto, proceritas. Though the " nota major imago" was of old 
an acknowledged property of the shades (Virgil, JEn. ii. 773 ; Ovid, Fast. ii. 
503 ; Juvenal, xiii. 221 ; Tacitus, Ann. xi. 21 ; Hist. i. 86), it might be that 
Oswald, fresh from Scotland, and probably from lona, was impressed by the 
description he had heard of S. Columba s personal appearance, which, being 
matter of only thirty-six years tradition, was likely to be fresh and true. He 
had heard that the saint had mingled a good deal in military matters before 
his departure from Ireland, and that he had the credit of more than once 
turning the scale of victory by his prayers. The tradition of S. Columba s 
great stature may subsequently have given a character to the vision which 
Alexander n. saw in the island of Kerara, when on his way against Haco, in 
1263 : "King Alexander, then lying in Kiararey Sound, dreamed a dream, 
and thought three men came to him. He thought one of them was in royal 
robes, but very stern, ruddy in countenance, something thick, and of middling 
size. Another seemed of a slender make, but active, and of all men the most 
engaging, and majestic. The third again, was of very great stature, but his 
features were distorted, and of all the rest he was the most unsightly. The 
Hebridians say that the men whom the King saw in his sleep were St. Olave 
King of Norway, St. Magnus Earl of Orkney, and St. Columba." Norw. 
Account of Haco s Expedition, by Johnstone, pp. 10-13. 

Fintenus. St. Fintan, more commonly known by the name Munna, is 
commemorated in the Irish calendar at Oct. 21. He is noticed in the 
calendar prefixed to the Breviary of Aberdeen, at the same day, under 
the name Mundus abbas. Sir Harris Nicholas places him as "Fintan or 
Munnu" at Oct. 21, and as " Munde, abbot in Argyle," following Camera- 
rius and Keith, at April 15. Chronol. of Hist. pp. 149, 164. His Life 
relates that when a boy, S. Columba blessed him, and said, "Vocaberis 
inter majores sanctos Hibernia." Cap. 2 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 127 a b : 
Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 460 6.) At the synod of Campus Albus, where he 
upheld the old Irish observance of Easter, S. Laisre of Leighlin, his oppo 
nent, declared to him, " Non ibimus ad judicium tuum, quum scimus 



250 NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

quod per magnitudinem laboris tui et sanctitatis, si diceres ut Mons Marge 
[Slievemargy] commutaretur in locum Campi Albi, et Campus Alb us in 
locum Montis Mairge, hoc propter te Deus statim faceret." Chap. 25 
(Cod. Marsh, fol. 129 a b) ; Ussher, Brit. EC. Ant. cap. 17 (Works, vi. 
p. 505) ; Religion of Anc. Irish, chap. 9 (Works, iv. pp. 342-344). The 
story is told as follows in the Life of S. Fintan : " Post bsec S. Munna 
perrexit ad insulam Hy, ut ibi apud S. Columbam monachus fieret. Sed 
S. Columba ante adventum ejus migravit ad ccelum ; et ante obitum suum 
prophetavit de S. Munna, talia verba dicens ad beatum Baitheneum : 
Post obitum meum veniet ad vos de Hibernia quidam juvenis, moribus 
sanctus, ingenio clarus, corpore quidem capite crispus, et genis rubicundus, 
cujus nomen est Munna, quern ssepe in terra vidi, sed ssepius spiritualiter 
in coelo inter angelos Dei. Ad hoc autem ipsi hue veniet, ut hie mona 
chus fiat; sed ne recipiatis eum, quamvis multum sibi displiceat. Et 
tu dices illi : Kevertere fili ad Hiberniam, quia caput magni populi ibi eris. 
Et ipse vadat ad australem plagam Laginensium, quse dicitur Cennselach ; 
quia ibi erit honor ipsius, et resurrectio. Et quamvis mea parrochia major 
est in terra quam sua, tamen, meus amor, et mea potestas, apud Deum 
non est major quam ipsius. Et ita omnia ilia contigerunt." Chap. 7 
(Cod. Marsh, fol. 127 bb ; Colgan, Tr. Th.; p. 461 a). The third lesson of the 
Office of tS. Mundus, in the Breviary of Aberdeen, contradicts the earlier 
authorities by stating that " ad yonam insulam in scocia pervenit in qua a 
beato columba habitum suscepit religionis." Propr. SS. Part. Est. f. 131 bb 
(Reprint 1852). The monastery he constructed was Teach Munnu, or 
" House of Munnu," in the Ceinnselach, now Taghmon, about seven miles 
west of Wexford. The parish of Taghmon in West Meath likewise derives 
its name from him. His principal church in Scotland was Kilmond, now 
Kilmun in Co wall, to which the Breviary of Aberdeen assigns his burial ; 
where local tradition even marks the supposed place of his sepulture by the 
name of Sith-Mun, and where a half -mark land was held in virtue of the 
custody of his crosier (Orig. Par. vol. ii. part ii. p. 72). The old parish of 
Elanmunde, on the confines of Argyll and Inverness, derived its name from 
an island in Loch Leven, on which there was a church called after S. Munde 
(ib. p. 170). He died in 635, at which year Tighernach records the Quies 
F intain .i. Mundufilii Tulchaln in xii. kal. Nov. 

CHAPTER in. Dairmag, written in Irish records Dar magh, or Dear magh. 
Adamnan employs the Latin equivalent Roboreti Campus and Roboris 
Campus. The modern name is Durrow. See Orig. Ed. p. 23. 

Clon. Clonmacnoise was founded in 548 by Ciaran mac an t-saoir " filius 
artificis." He died on 5th Sept. 549 in the thirty-fourth year of his age. 
Alither, fourth abbot, died in 599. See Orig. Ed. p. 24. 
Ernene. His day in the Irish calendar is Aug. 18 : Ernin .i. Mernocc 6 
RaitJi Naoi i nUibh Garrchon .i. i Fothartaibh Laig/ien : ocus o Chill draighnech 
i nUibh drona, "Ernin, i.e. Mernocc, of Rath-Naoi inlli Garrchon, i.e. in the 
Fotharta of Leinster : and of Cill-draighnech in Ui Drona. Marian. Gorm. ; 
Cal. Dungall. His parentage is given in the Calendars of Cashel and Tam- 
lacht at the same day, as cited by Colgan : " Erneneus, id est Mernocus 
filius Gresseni, de Raith-naoi in Hi-Garchon in Lagenia, et de Kill-Droig- 
neach, in Hi-Drona." Trias Th. p. 373 b. Thus also in the Feilire of 
^Engus, Mac Cresine Mernocc, affording a fresh authority for the identifica 
tion of the individual in question. His obit, which is unaccountably 
omitted by the Four Masters, is given by Tighernach, at the year 635 : 
" Quies Ernaine mic Cresene." So Annal. Ult. 634. His churches which are 
mentioned in the calendars are Rathnaoi, now called Rathnew, the parochial 
name of Wicklow ; and Kill-droiglmeach, now Kildreenayh, a townland in 



NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 251 

Dunleckny parish, in the barony of Idrone East, county of Carlo w. Ord. 
Surv. s. 16. The name is preserved in Scotland in the two Kilmarnocks, 
and Inchmarnoc. The festival "Sancti Mernoci epyscopi et confessoris 
patroni de Kilmernoch " is appointed in the Breviary of Aberdeen for the 
25th of October. Part. Estiv. fol. 132. It may be well to observe that the 
word Mernoc is a contraction of Mo-Ernin-occ, the prefix denoting my, and 
the suffix little, so that the name thus altered conveyed the additional 
expressions of affection and familiarity. 

CHAPTER iv. Cainnechus. St. Cainnech was the patron saint of the diocese 
of Ossory, and from him the city of Kilkenny and the parish of Kilkenny 
West derive their names. See ii. 12, 13, iii. 18. His Life was printed 
for private circulation by the late Marquis of Ormonde from the Codex Sal- 
manticensis preserved in the Burgundian Library at Brussels, with various 
readings from the Codex Vitarum in Abp. Marsh s Library at Dublin (4to, 
1853). 

CHAPTER v. Colman Mocusailni. He is stated to have been a presbyter at 
the time of St. Columba s death (see B. n. c. 14). The clan name by which 
he was distinguished was Colman Ela mac Ui Seilli (Tigh. 611). 

Columbanus. He is more commonly called Colmanus, as in the titulus, 
but the exchange is very frequent. This Columbanus is the Colman-Eala 
or Colmanellus of the Irish Calendar, Sept. 26, and the patron saint of Kil- 
| colmonell on the east of Knapdale, Argyllshire, and of Colmonell in Ayrshire. 
Charybdis Brecani. See the titulus of ii. 12, where Cod. B. adds, "in 
vortice Brecain." Called by the Irish Coire Brecain, " Brecan s Cauldron," 
1 from the peculiar motion of the water, and the tradition that Brecan, son of 
I Maine [ob. A.D. 440], son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, was engulfed by it. 
j. Although the name has long since shifted to the strait between Scarba and 
t Jura, just as Scotia has forsaken its original home, there can be no doubt 
^ that in Adamnan s day this Corry-Brackan was situate near the Irish coast : 
its connexion with the island of Rathlin in the title, and the expression 
; " transnavigare incipiens " in the chapter, are sufficient proof of this. Part 
of the channel between Ballycastle and the island of Rathlin is at certain 
I times so disturbed by the action of the tides, that even in the absence of 
wind no small craft could live in it. It is locally known by the character 
istic name Slugnamorra, that is, Slog na mara, " Gulp of the sea," and is 
probably the Jo lduhlaup, " Breaking of waves," of the Icelandic sagas. To 
this terror of sailors (of which there was until lately practical evidence in the 
I extra pay received by the coast-guard of the station), Giraldus Cambrensis 
refers in the grand, and but moderately exaggerated, description : " Non 
procul ab insulis a parte boreali, est maris qusedam admiranda vorago : ad 
quam a retnotis partibus omnes undique marini fluctus tanquam ex condicto 
confluunt, et concurrunt, qui in secreta naturae penetralia se ibi transfun- 
dentes, quasi in abyssum vorantur." Topogr. Hib. ii. 41. The earliest 
notice of the transfer of the name is in Fordun, who, circ. 1390, writing of 
Scarbay, says, " juxta quam gurges oceani decurrit fortissima, Corebrekane 
nomine." Scotichr. ii. 10. It is a curious fact that the only place in Ire 
land where the name now exists is in the inland county of Monaghan, where 
a townland, in the parish of Magheracloone, having a fine earthen fort, is 
called Corrybrackan. Ord. Surv. s. 30, 31. Very vivid descriptions of the 
gulf are preserved in Irish in the Dinnseanchus, and Cormac s Glossary, the 
latter of which, with other illustrative matter, is printed in Reeves Eccles. 
Antiqq. of Down and Connor, pp. 289, 386. See also the extract from the 
Life of St. Kieran in Colgan (Tr. Th. p. 458 a) ; and O DonnelVs Life of S. 
Columba, iii. 21. Ibid. p. 434 6. For an account of the natural pheno 
menon, see Hamilton s Letters on the N. Coast of Antrim, p. 14 (Dubl. 1790). 



252 NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

To the vivid description of the Coire-Brecain, which is given in Cormac s 
Glossary, may be added the following translation from the comment on the 
name in the ancient topographical work, the Dinnseanchus : 

" Coire Brecain, why so called. A great boiling caldron which is situate 
between Erin and Alba, on the north : it is the confluence of many seas, 
from the west, from the east, from the south, and from the north ; each 
pouring itself into the place of the other, until they are swallowed down to 
the bottom, and until it is like an open caldron, sucking in and disgorging 
its draughts ; so that its roaring is like to distant thunder. And it was into 
this that Brecan, the son of Partholan, was drawn, and was drowned, with 
his fifty boats, when he fled out of Erin from his father." 

" It was there, too, that Brecan, son of Maine, son of Niall [of the Nine 
Hostages], with fifty curachs, was engulfed, while on a trading expedition : 
where they were all drowned, and nothing of them survived but the tale of 
their destruction." 

. " A long time after, Columcille was passing through it, when the sea rose 
up in front, and discovered to him the bones of Brecan, son of Maine, son 
of Niall. Upon which Columcille said, That is friendly of thee, aged 
Brecan/ etc." 

The legend of St. Columba s adventure in this gulf is thus given in 
O Donnell s narrative of the saint s return from Druim-ceatt : 

" Rebus itaque omnibus, propter quas advenerat, in Hibernia fceliciter per- 
actis, Sanctissimus Pater navigationem versus Britanniam resumit. Et cum 
secundis spirantibus ventis ostia Euripi, Loih-feabhuil vulgo dicti, esset prse- 
tergressus ; navis incidit in vorticosam quandam charybdem, nautis et navi- 
gantibus formidabilem, quae vulgo Core Brecain, id est, charybdis Brecani, 
appellatur j quia ibi ante annos multos Brecanus ex Manio filio Nielli Magni, 
Hiberniae Regis, nepos, submersus interiit : cujus ossa super tumentes fluctus 
vir Sanctus conspicit elevari. Eaque Deo revelante agnoscens, ad socios ait : 
Ilia sunt ossa Brecani cognati nostri, quae voluit Christus ita nobis ostendi, 
ut pro defuncti refrigerio, ac pro nostra a prsesenti periculo liberatione simul 
apud Dominum intercedamus. Ac mox post brevem et ferventem precum 
instantiam obtinuit vir Beatus non solum se ac suos ab imminenti vitse dis- 
crimine, sed et Brecani animam a purgatoriis pcenis liberari, quam et ad 
ccelestia gaudia vidit avolantem." 

The Life of St. Kieran, probably referring to the visit to Clonmacnois 
recorded at p. 116, states that at its conclusion, "Accipiens S. Columba 
humum de sepulchre Sancti Kierani perrexit ad suam insulam Hyam. Cum- 
que S. Columba in mari navigasset, orta est tempestas in mari, et navis trusa 
est ad Charibdem, qui locus Corebreacayn dicitur ; in quo est vorago pericu- 
losissima marina, in qua, si qua navis intrat, non evadit. Et incipiens vorago 
navem ad se trahere ; S. Columba partem de humo S. Kierani projecit in 
mare. Mirum valde dictu ! illico tempestas aeris, motio fluctuum, vorago 
circuire, simul omnes cessaverunt, donee navis inde longe exivit." 

CHAPTER vi. Cormac. He is commemorated in the Calendar at June 21 
as Abbot of Dearmagh, but there is no record to show of what monastery he 
was the founder (see B. in. c. 18). Marian Gorman styles him Cormac leirua, 
Liathan, "Cormac Ua Liathan of the sea," and the Gloss adds Abb. Dur- 
maighi ocus epscop ocus ba hauchore beos an Corbmaic sin, " abbot of Durrow, 
and bishop and anchorite was this Cormac." Two ancient Irish poems the 
one purporting to be a dialogue between him and St. Columba, after his 
escaping the perils of the sea, and the other an address to him, on coming 
from Durrew are preserved in one of the O Clery MSS., at Brussels. See 
Orig. Ed., Additional Notes, pp. 264, 265. 

Moda. The river Moy, called in Irish Muaidhc, rises in the county of 



NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 253 

Sligo, and becomes, a little south of Ballina, the boundary between the 
counties of Sligo and Mayo, till it falls into Killala Bay. 

Eirros Domno. Now the barony of Erris, in the county of Mayo. It is 
principally occupied by the enormous parish of Kilcommon, extending over 
203,396 acres. The Irish always styled the territory lorrus Domhnann, 
" Erris of the Damnonii," and supposed that it derived that name from the Fir 
Domhnan, viri Damnonii, a section of the Firbolgs. The word lorrus, or 
Irrus, signifies " a promontory," and is applied, simply or in composition, to 
many places on the coasts of Galway, Kerry, and Donegal. 

CHAPTER vn. Cule Drebene. The Calendar of Donegal, at June 10, states 
this place to have been between Drumcliff and Sligo. 

Ondemone. So the name appears in the MSS., and so it was in the copy 
which Ussher used ; but that which was employed by Colgan and the 
Bollandists seems to have changed it to Monamoire, in order to render it 
more conformable to the Annals. We find a similar compound, Inde-mor, 
at Four Mast. 497 ; Tigh. 503. The following record of the battle is found 
in Tighernach, immediately after the mention of St. Columba s departure to 
Hy : A. C. 563, " The battle of Moin-Daire-Lothaire against the Cruithne 
by the Hy -Neill of the North ; in which seven kings of the Cruithne were 
slain, with Aedh Breac. Baedan son of Conn, with two of the Cruithne, 
fought against the Cruithne; and the Cinel Eoghain, and [Cinel] Conaill 
[were those] they fought ; conducti mercede [of] the Lee and Ard-Eolairg." 
Some verses of Cennfaeladh upon the battle are then cited, from which 
we gather that the cause of the battle was an unjust partition, and 
that Elne, the territory between the Bann and the Bush, was, on the 
occasion, wasted with fire. The belligerents were the Cruithne or Dala- 
radians,| and the northern Hy Neill ; the latter of whom engaged in the 
strife at the instance of a Cruithnean chief, who seems to have been wronged 
by his own people, and who covenanted to surrender to his auxiliaries the 
territory of Lee and Ard Eolairg, on the west side of the Bann, which had 
been ceded to the Cruithne by the Hy Neill, after the battle of Ocha in 483. 
From the mention of Lee and Elne, it is likely that the scene of the battle 
was not far from the town of Coleraine. 

Conall. He succeeded his uncle Gabhran in 560, and was followed on the 
throne by his first cousin Aidan. This passage gives some support to the 
statement of Tighernach that the grant of Hy was made by him rather than 
the Picts : A. C. 574, " Bass Conaill mic Comgaill righ Dalriada xvi. anno 
regni sui : qui obtulit insulam lae Colaim-cille." 

Cruithne. These were the Irish Picts, called by the natives Cruithne, who 
occupied Dalaradia in the modern counties of Antrim and Down, and had 
extended their dominions westward towards Derry. The Dal Araidhe, 
inhabiting the southern half of the county of Antrim, and the greater part 
of the county of Down, were known among the Irish by the name of 
Cruithne, or Picts, and their territory by that of Crick na Cruithne, " region 
of the Picts." Mons Mis, or Sliabh Mis, now Slemish, a remarkable hill in 
the centre of the county of Antrim, is placed by the book of Armagh, and 
the Second and Fourth Series of St. Patrick (Colg. Tr. Th. pp. 14, 39) " in 
regionibus Cruidnenorum." Fiacha Araidhe, who gave name to the 
Dalaraidhe, was, according to Tighernach, lord of the Cruithne in 236. 
Adamnan makes mention of the Cruithni at pp. 135 and 146, and draws the 
distinction which is generally observed in the Annals of Ulster, calling the 
Irish Picts Cruithnii, and the Scottish, Picti or Pictores. 

CHAPTER vin. Aidan. Hib. Aedhan, a diminutive of Aedh. Besides the 
four sons mentioned in the text, Tighernach has preserved the names of 
Bran, slain in 596, and Conang, drowned in 622. The Irish tract on the 



254 NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

" men of Alba " enumerates seven : Aodhan tra seaclit mec les .i. da Eachdaigh 
A. Eachaidh buidhe agus Eochaidh fionn, Tuathal, Bran, Baoithine, Conaing 
acus Gartnail, " Aedan, now, had seven sons, viz., the two Eochaidhs, namely, 
Eochaidh Buidhe and Eochaidh Finn, Tuathal, Bran. Baoithine, Conang 
and Gartnail." 

Domnall. Ainmire, his grandfather, was St. Columba s first cousin. 
Aedo, properly Aedho, is the old genitive of Aedh, like Ferguso of Fergus, 
and Fedelmedo of Fedelmedh. 

Drumceatt. Aedus, father of Domnall, was sovereign of Ireland when 
the famous convention was held here. Colgan and O Flaherty, followed by 
Chalmers and others, have assigned 590 as its date. The Annals of Clon- 
macnoise notice it at 587, but the Annals of Ulster place it at 574 : Magna 
Mordail .i. conventio Dromacheta, in qua erant Coluim-cille ocus mac 
Ainmireach [et films Ainmoire]. This date is confirmed by a poem cited in 
the preface to the Amhra. 

Scandlan. In most Irish authorities he is called Scannlan Mor, son of 
Cennfaeladh, as in the preface to Amhra. The present reading, however, is 
found in all the MSS. 

Muredach. Ainmire, father of Aedus, was slain in 569, upon which 
Baedan and Eochaidh, his nephew, became joint sovereigns of Ireland. 
Their death, referred to in this chapter, is thus related by Tighernach : A. C. 
572, Da hui Muiredaigh [duo nepotes Muiredaci], i.e. Baetan mac Muir- 
cheartaigh et Eochaidh Find mac Domhnaill [anno] tertio regni sui occisi. 

Artdamuircol. Now Ardnamurchan, a peninsular district on the northern 
boundary of Argyllshire. The name in the text seems to signify " Height 
of the two sea-hazels," but the modern one, "Height of the sea-calf." In 
1292 it was called Ardenmurich, and in 1309 Ardnamurchin. The character 
of the district in Adamnan is fully borne out by modern description. 

Muirbolc Paradisi Muirbolg nemedh. This is a very singular compound. 
We have Muirbulcmar at iii. 24. The name has not been locally preserved, 
but it probably signified a sheltered bay in or near Ardnamurchan. The 
word Murbholg signifies a " sea inlet," and in Ireland is modernized Mur- 
lough. 

Bronbachal. The Annals of Ulster have, A. C. 648, Mors Oengusa Bron- 
bachlae regis Ceniuil Coirpri. The Cenel Cairbre, who gave name to the 
territory,fnow the barony, of Carbury, in the north of Sligo, were descended 
from Cairbre, son of Niall, and were a tribe of the northern Hy Neill. In 
their territory the battle of Cooldrevny was fought. 

Aid Slane. Eldest son of Diarmait mac Cerbaill, by Mughaina (Colg. 
SS., p. 420), and surnamed from the river Slaine, near which he was born. 
As heir to the lordship of the Southern Hy Neill, he was a consenting party 
to the grant of Ceanarmus, or Kells, to St. Columba. On his father s death 
he succeeded to that dignity, and, about the year 580, at the instance of St. 
Columba, possibly on the very occasion mentioned in the text, he granted to 
St. Colman-Elo the land of Fiodh-Elo in Ferceall, where the church of Lanii- 
Elo, or Lynally, was subsequently built. 

Suibne. A. C. 600, Jugulatio Suibhne mic Colmain moir la hAedh Slaine a 
mbridamfor Suanna. "The assassination of Suibhne, son of Colman Mor, 
by Aedh Slaine, at Bridamh on the Suainu " (Tigh.) The retribution followed 
in 604, as Tighernach relates : Jugulatio Aeda Slaine o Conall mac Suibhne 
for bru Locha Semdighe. Aed Gusdan comalta Conaill Guthbind ocus Baethgal 
Bile ron gumestar eum : unde dictum est : 

Conall robii Aedh Slaine 
Aedh Slaine robi Suibne. 



NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 255 

" The assassination of Aedh Slaine by Conall son of Suibhne on the brink 
of Lough Sewdy [in West Meath]. Aedh Gusdan, foster-brother of Conall 
Guithbinn, and Baethgal Bile, wounded him : unde dictum est : 

" Conall slew Aedh Slaine, 
Aedh Slaine slew Suibhne." 

King Roderc.Tlae Rhydderch Had of the British, son of Tudwal [here 
called Tothal, from the Irish Tuathat], surnamed Tutglud [Tuaith Clud, " of 
the Clyde district."] He was of Irish extraction by his mother s side, for 
his sister Melangell, or Monacella, was daughter of Ethni, surnamed Wyd- 
deles, " the Irish woman." E,ees Welsh Saints, p. 269. His surname 
Hael [Hib. Fial], denotes Liberal. But his greatest honour was his patronage 
of religion. See Jocelin, Vit. S. Kentig. 

Cluaith. Called in the thirteenth century from its occupants Dunbreatan, 
now Dumbarton, " civitas Brittonum munitissima usque hodie quse vocatur 
Alcluith (Bede, H. E. i.) 

CHAPTER ix. Glasderc. Hib. Olas Derg, " Grey-eyed." 

CHAPTER x. Colca. "Colcu, of Cluain-Colgan at Athcluana-Meadhraidhe, 
and Fael, and Sorar, three children of Aedh son of Aedh son of Lughaidh 
son of Uaitti, son of Fiachrach, son of Eochaidh Muighmedoin." B. of Lecan. 
The surname Draigniche is Hib. Draighnighe, gen. of Draighneach, " black 
thorn." 

Fechurig. Hib. Ui Fiachrach, a tribe inhabiting an extensive tract in the 
modern counties of Galway and Mayo. See O Don. Tribes and Cust. of Hy- 
Fiachrach. 

CHAPTER xu. Mocuruntir. Mac- Ui-Euntir. According to the Tripartite 
Life of St. Patrick, the Dal-Ruinntir occupied Cluain-chaoin in Fer Ross, 
now Clonkeen in the west of the county of Meath. 

CHAPTER xin. Ethica. This word is not a substantive, as has been 
generally supposed : for further on we find Ethici pelagi ; but an adjective 
agreeing with insula (twice in this chap., andiii. 9), or terra (once in this^chap., 
and i. 29, ii. 14 twice, 40, in. 9). It is an appellative formed from eth or ith, 
" corn," and signifies tritici ferax, the island being, as Fordun describes it, 
" insula ubi hordei magna copia ; " or, as it is termed in a Gaelic poem, Tir 
isiol na h-orna, " the low-lying land of barley." It is mentioned in the Lives 
of several Irish saints as terra, insula, or regio, Hyth, or Hith ; and from Tir 
itha, the Irish compound answering to Terra Heth, was formed the proper 
name, which has passed through the various stages of Tirieth (Reginald of 
Durham, 12th cent.), Tyre-e (Fordun, ii. 10), Tyriad (1343), Tereyd (1354), 
Tyriage (1390), Tiereig (1496), until it has been reduced to its present form 
of Tiree. The island Tiree is about eleven miles long, and varies in breadth 
from one to three. It is a low sandy tract, lying about twenty miles N.W. 
of Hy. Artchain (i. 29), and Campus Lunge (i. 24, 33, ii. 14, 40, iii. 9), were 
situated in the Ethica terra. See the paper on " the Island of Tiree " in the 
Ulster Jour, of Archseol. ii. 233-244 (App. I. infra) ; Innes s Orig. Paroch., 
under Soroby and Kirkapoll (vol. ii. pt. 1, pp. 327-331). The direct course 
to Tiree lies in the open sea : the circuitous route would lead northwards 
to Staffa, thence to the Treshnish isles, and from them westwards to the 
northern extremity of the island. It is nearly twenty miles across from 
Hy to Port-na-lung beside Soroby in Tiree. Observe the form Ethici pelagi. 

Baithene. He was superior of the dependent monastery of Magh-Lunge 
in Tiree before his accession to the abbotship of Hy. 

CHAPTER xiv. Baitan. The Irish form of this name is Baotan ; that of 
Baithene, Baoithin. 



256 NOTES ON LIFE OF SAINT COLUMBA. BOOK I. 

Niath Taloirc. That is, Ua Niadh Taloirc. Niath occurs in Tirechan. 
It signifies a " champion," and is often found as a component in ancient names. 
We find Talorg frequently in the catalogue of Pictish kings. 

Lathreginden. Not identified. It may be inferred from the narrative 
that the place was in the neighbourhood of Deny. 

CHAPTER xv. HinUna. The name Hinba occurs at i. 35, ii. 25, iii. 6, 
18, 19, 24. See notes on the name. Adamnan frequently puts the names 
of islands in the adjective form with insula. 

CHAPTER xvi. Luguid. He was the messenger of the monastery. 

Malea. Like most of the names of islands in Adamnan, an adjective 
agreeing with insula. It is the Mull of the present day. 

Lea. In Irish Li, or Magh Li, or, from the inhabitants, Fir Li. The 
territory lay on the west side of the river Bann. 

Turtre. In Irish, Ui Tuirtre. il Colla Uais had two goodly sons ; Earc, 
on the north of the mountain [Slieve Gallon], from whom descended the Mac 
Cartains of Loch Feabhail [Foyle] ; and Fiachra Tort, on the south of the 
mountain, from whom descended the Hy Tuirtre and the Fir Li, and the Fir 
Luirg, and the Hy-mac-Uais. It was by Fiachra that Conaille Muirtheimhne 
[now the county of Louth] was first seized, tort being a name for seizure." 
Mac Firbis, Gen. MS. 

CHAPTER xvn. Vowel I. This was the letter by which St. Brendan of 
Birr is said to have indicated to St. Columba the place of his future sojourn. 
See Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 462 a. 

CHAPTER xx. Brendan Mocualti. This was St. Brendan, the famous 
voyager, and founder of Clonfert, who is commemorated in the Calendar at 
May 16. He is sometimes called the son of Finnloga, to distinguish him 
from St. Brendan of Birr, who was son of Neman ; and sometimes Mac-Ua- 
Alti, which was his clan name, derived from Alta, his great-grandfather, son 
of Ogaman, of the race of Ciar, son of Fergus. 

CHAPTER xxu. Roman City. We are indebted to Notker Balbulus for 
the modern name of this city. " Subversionem quoque civitatis quse nunc 
Nova dicitur in Italia, in subitaneo stupore, terrse hia