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IT seems to me that a few words are necessary in order 
to vindicate my presumption in undertaking such a 
work as the biography of Sir Clements Markham. 

Among the men of science and letters, to whom his 
varied work appeals, there are many better fitted than 
myself to do justice to the memory of so distinguished 
a man. Nevertheless, when invited to write his life, 
I gladly consented to do so, and for the following 
reasons : There was no one outside his family circle who 
was more intimately acquainted with him. A close 
friendship had existed between us for over sixty years, 
and during more than half that period his house had 
been my home, whenever my professional duties en- 
abled me to reside in this country. My love and rever- 
ence for him intensified as the years rolled by, and I felt 
that, apart from his scientific labours and geographical 
achievements, there was no one more familiar with his 
personal charm and lovable disposition than myself. 
Thus I felt that I was, perhaps, in a better position 
than anyone else to put together a record of his event- 
ful and extended life. This must be my apology and 
justification for appearing now in the role of his 

My aim in the present work has been, not so much to 
draw attention to his merits as a man of letters and a 
great geographer they are already well known to the 
scientific world but to emphasise the human touch, to 


bring out, in other words, the distinctive characteristics 
of his personality both as a boy and as a man. 

My task, on the whole, has not been an easy one, but 
it has been a labour of love, and one of absorbing interest, 
revealing, in episodes hitherto unknown to me, the un- 
selfish springs of his generous nature, his love for the 
young, and, above all, his wondrous kindness and 
sympathy for those in trouble and distress. 

I have acquired my information principally from his 
private journals and published works ; where these have 
failed, my own personal knowledge and recollection, 
during our long and intimate fellowship, have enabled 
me, in several instances, to bridge over gaps in the 
written records of his long life. Much information has 
also been kindly placed at my disposal by many mutual 
relations and friends. 

I am deeply indebted to Mr. Leonard Huxley and 
Captain P. B. M. Allan for the valuable advice and 
assistance they have given me in preparing the work for 
publication, and to Mr. Cyril Longhurst, C.B., for com- 
piling the excellent Index, which he was kind enough 
voluntarily to undertake out of the love and respect 

that he bore for his old friend. 

A. H. M. 












X. CUZCO TO LIMA - - 144 






MATTERS - - - 241 





XX. LATER YEARS ...... 335 





MARKHAM - - - 366 



INDEX ..... . - 371 




Photograph by Cooper and Humphreys! from original painting by George 
Henry, A.R.A. 



H.M.S. "COLLINGWOOD" - - 26 


H.M.S. "SIDON" - 103 



THE "DISCOVERY" ------- 329 





IN the East Riding of Yorkshire, on that small tract of 
land between the Rivers Ouse and Derwent (which, 
flowing almost parallel to each other for a distance of 
about seventeen miles through the Vale of York, give 
their name to that particular wapentake), lies the old 
English village of Stillingfleet. This parish, forming 
one of the thirteen included in the wapentake, is men- 
tioned in Domesday Book, and the village itself has 
been in existence since the first Anglian occupation of 
the country. 

Owing in a great measure to the energies of the monks 
of Selby and York, the present beautiful Norman church 
of the parish was built during the twelfth century, and 
was dedicated to St. Helen and St. Mary. About a 
hundred years after its consecration, so much had the 
population of the parish increased, it was found neces- 
sary to make important additions. One of the chief 
features of this church, and a source of some pride to 
the parishioners, is the beautiful old south-eastern 
doorway, reputed to be one of the finest specimens of 
ecclesiastical Norman architecture in this country. 

It was to this parish, with its fine old church, that 
the Rev. David F. Markham was inducted as Vicar 
in May, 1826. He was the son of William Markham, 



of Becca Hall, Aberford, and the grandson of Dr. 
William Markham, who was Archbishop of York from 
1777 to 1807. 

In July, 1827, Mr. Markham received a letter from 
the Prime Minister, informing him that His Majesty had 
been graciously pleased to appoint him to a canonry 
of Windsor that had just become vacant.* This was of 
course accepted. A Windsor canonry in those days was 
worth from 1,000 to 1,500 a year, with a residence 
inside the walls of the Castle. 

Shortly afterwards, in the same year, he married 
Catherine Frances Nannette Milner, daughter of Sir 
William Milner, Bart., of Nun Appleton. He was then 
twenty-seven years of age, and is described as being a 
strikingly handsome man, 6 feet 2 inches in height, 
strong and active, and of great personality; a good 
cricketer, and fond of all outdoor sports, especially 
shooting and hunting. The greater part of these re- 
creations had at a very early stage to be abandoned, 
so that he might devote more time to his parochial and 
other more important duties. He had also given much 
time to the study of medicine. He was a great reader 
and eager in the acquisition of knowledge; he was a 
dexterous carpenter and turner, and very skilful in all 
work of a mechanical nature. He possessed a natural 
taste for painting and sketching, especially in connection 
with architectural designs. In addition to these accom- 
plishments, he was an enthusiastic numismatist, and 
owned a valuable collection of coins, some of great 
antiquity, which he himself had collected. 

It was here, at the old Vicarage of Stillingfleet, that 
Clements Markham was born, on the 2oth of July, 1830, 
and on the following loth of September he was baptised 
Clements Robert in the library at Becca. 

* It maybe mentioned that Dr. Markham, the late Archbishop, 
was private tutor to both King George IV. and King William IV. ; 
hence the interest taken by His Majesty in the grandson of his old 
tutor, to whom he invariably showed great friendship. 


His childhood was an exceedingly happy one, as well 
it might be, for it was spent in the constant care and 
company of his parents and of his brothers and sisters, 
three of whom were born at Stillingfleet. Sometimes, 
however, his childish temper would get the better of 
him. It is related on the first occasion that he 
attended church, being then a little over four years of 
age, he became so desperately bored that he began to 
pinch his elder brother, who was sitting next to him, 
by way of relieving his feelings. This, being naturally 
resented by his brother, resulted in a free fight, and 
Clements had to be carried out of church struggling 
and screaming. 

Clements Markham always possessed a marvellous 
memory. He used frequently to say that the earliest 
recollections of his home at Stillingfleet and the village, 
as he saw them in his mind's eye in after-years, were 
derived from impressions received when he was not 
more than three years of age. He often averred that 
he could remember people he had met and events that 
had happened when he was between two and three 
years old, and in some rare instances before he was even 
two ! Of his fourth year he had distinct recollections, 
not only concerning important events which occurred 
at that period, but of other occurrences of minor im- 
portance. It is, of course, quite possible that the 
knowledge of some of these incidents may have been 
imparted to him in after-life, but he always sturdily 
asserted that he had a very vivid recollection of events 
that occurred before he had reached his fourth birth- 

As we write, there are before us notes made by him- 
self, giving minute descriptions of his friends and the 
houses in which they lived, visited by him when he was 
between three and four years of age. He remembered 
the guests that were staying in the different houses, 
some of whom he never saw again, yet he noted down 
many of their peculiarities and may we say blemishes ? 


One old lady, for instance, is described as having a long 
neck, an eager little face, and a voice like a cockatoo I 
One had a mole on her face; another was untidy in 
appearance ; another wore little tight curls and was fond 
of genealogy; another had a habit of pouting with her 
under-lip; another was tall, good-natured, loud-voiced, 
and had straw-coloured hair; and so on. The dress 
worn by ladies and gentlemen in those days he describes 
most carefully, and he gives complete descriptions of 
the houses to which he was taken, with the number and 
positions of the rooms. He even enumerates the various 
pictures in those houses, the positions they occupied, 
with the names of the artists who painted them. These 
little incidents are typical of the man, his marvellous 
memory, and illustrative of his wonderful powers of 
observation and description. His notes were not limited 
to the friends and relations he met, but extended 
to the servants in the various houses he visited. Their 
names are all enumerated, more especially those who 
were kind to him, and the positions they filled ; whilst 
in some cases even their family histories are recorded. 
All these descriptions were the recollections of a little 
child, for some of the people, alluded to by him, died 
before he had attained his seventh birthday. 

He was always fond of acting in private theatricals 
and charades, but especially the latter; and in the notes 
which he has left of his early reminiscences he gives long 
and detailed descriptions of charades acted at Stilling- 
fleet and elsewhere. These include the names of the 
performers, the parts that were allotted to them, the 
costumes they wore, the scenery that was used, and 
every minute detail connected with the performances. 
It must be noted that he left Stillingfleet before he was 
eight years of age. 

His boyhood was spent principally at home, but there 
were short periods at Windsor, where his father had to 
be in residence for two months every year. At which 
of these places young Clements preferred to live is a 


moot question. He loved his home at Stillingfleet, his 
garden, his associates, and everything connected with 
the place; but he was also very fond of Windsor, its 
history, and its surroundings. He loved the river on 
which he passed so many pleasant hours, and he de- 
lighted in the company of the Eton boys. Among the 
latter were several of his friends and young relatives, 
who, as may readily be imagined, always received a 
warm welcome at the Canon's house. 

During the reign of William IV. it was the custom 
for the Canon in residence to dine every Sunday with 
the King and Queen. On these occasions the guests 
had to appear in evening dress with knee-breeches, 
silk stockings, and shoes with silver buckles. When his 
father returned from these dinners, he invariably brought 
back with him some delicious bonbons, which were much 
appreciated by young Clements. The death of the King 
he felt very keenly, and he was, perhaps, more per- 
turbed when he realised that in future there would be 
no more bonbons; but he was especially grieved when 
he was informed by one of the curates that the prayer- 
book would have to be altered ! This caused him in- 
tense sorrow, and, throwing himself on the sofa, he 
burst into tears. He was sorry for the death of the 
good old King, and he was grieved at the idea that there 
would be no more bonbons, but he was overwhelmed 
with despair at the thought that his religion (as he 
imagined) was going to be altered ! 

In March, 1838, Canon Markham was offered, and 
accepted, the rectory of Great Horkesley, near Colchester 
in Essex. The offer was not at first favourably enter- 
tained, nor was it accepted without some hesitation. 
His family were all much attached to Stillingfleet, and 
the Canon knew that they would not, at any rate at 
first, view with equanimity the substitution of the 
Essex home for the old one in Yorkshire. However, 
it was a larger and more important parish, and, as he 
anticipated, it would open up a wider field of usefulness 


to which he could devote his energies. Great was the 
children's grief at having to leave their beloved Stilling- 
fleet, endeared to them by so many happy memories. 
It was with heavy hearts and the shedding of many 
bitter tears that they bade farewell to their old home 
and set out to make a new one in another part of the 
country. Fortunately, however, grief does not last long 
with young children, especially when they have all the 
excitement and joy of seeing strange places and the 
making of a new home to look forward to. Their 
thoughts were soon engrossed in the multifarious arrange- 
ments for the comfort and happiness that they pictured 
would be acquired in their new domicile. 

On their arrival they were delighted with everything 
they saw. The house was larger than the one they had 
left, the gardens were more extensive, and they set to 
work at once to make it as much like the old home as 
possible. In this they soon succeeded, but they always 
retained a warm corner in their hearts for the old house 
at Stillingfleet, where they had passed so many happy 

The church and rectory at Great Horkesley were 
about four miles from Colchester, and some little dis- 
tance from the straggling collection of houses and cot- 
tages that made up the parish. The rectory was sur- 
rounded by a large paddock, with glebe land and wood 
adjoining, Not far from the rectory gate flowed the 
River Stour, which at that particular spot formed the 
boundary between the two counties of Essex and 
Suffolk. The church was not so rich in architectural 
interest as the one at Stillingfleet, and many alterations 
and additions had to be made to the house in order to 
accommodate the family; but the grounds and gardens 
were speedily tastefully laid out under the personal 
superintendence of the Rector. 

Just as the two boys were beginning to realise the 
comfort and happiness of their new surroundings, the 
fateful question of school was broached, then discussed, 


and finally arranged. Clements was then eight years 
of age; his brother was two years his senior. It was 
decided that they should both be sent to a school at 
Cheam, which had been highly recommended to their 
parents. This school was conducted by the Rev. 
William Browne, on what he was pleased to call the 
Pestalozzi method. The main feature of his system 
consisted in never keeping the boys at their lessons for 
more than one hour, at the expiration of which time 
they were sent out to " air their brains " for a like 
period. The selection of this particular school was 
largely due to the fact that many of the friends and 
relations of the two boys were being educated there. 
Also it had an excellent reputation, which was certainly 
enhanced by results at least in the case of these two 

Clements Markham was nearly nine years old when 
he went to school. He travelled by coach from Col- 
chester, but not without accident. While changing 
coaches in London, the string with which one of his 
many parcels was secured broke, and all his beautiful 
rice cakes (to which he was very partial) were scattered 
in the mud ! Some were trodden under foot by the 
passers-by, and many were eagerly pounced upon by 
the street boys and hastily devoured. This incident, 
coming on the top of his departure from home and all 
it meant to him, was the last straw, and he burst into 

On arrival at Cheam he complained of pains " under 
his jaw," and soon developed mumps ; so he was promptly 
isolated, and kept in quarantine for ten days. During 
the period of his confinement he amused himself by 
reading " Parry's Polar Voyages," and this, he always 
maintained, was the principal cause for the great interest 
he subsequently took in Polar exploration. 

Altogether he thoroughly enjoyed his school life at 
Cheam, and made many lifelong friendships. He wrote 
out a description of every boy (and there were over 


fifty in the school), including one of himself, the latter 
in the following words : 

" When I went to Cheam I was a good-looking, well- 
made little boy of eight years and ten months, in a 
round jacket, turn-down collar over it, and a Tarn o' 
Shanter cap, black with red squares round the edge. I 
was always called Pope.* In my first half I had no 

friends, only G as a protector; and I especially 

hated D R . But we at once made friends in 

the second half, became devoted to each other, and 
were inseparable until dearer friends came." 

His special companions were his cousin William 
Wickham (subsequently M.P. for Petersfield) and 
Raglan Somerset, for both of whom he entertained the 
warmest feelings of love and affection. Many of his 
schoolmates attained distinction in after-life; among 
them may be mentioned E. A. Freeman, the eminent 
historian, and Edward Parry (son of the great Arctic 
explorer), who died when Bishop of Dover and Dean 
of Canterbury. 

His pen even then was busily occupied. He wrote 
a full and complete description of all the masters, 
ushers, and other officials, connected with the school, 
which certainly bears the impress of accuracy. He 
was fond of all outdoor games, and was fairly pro- 
ficient in most of them. A game of cricket he enjoyed, 
but always regarded it as a man's game; and, as he had 
no intention of devoting his life to playing games, he 
took but little interest in it. Jumping was his favourite 
form of athletics, and he was constantly engaged in 
endeavouring to beat his last record at the high jump. 

He was an apt pupil, and was especially interested 
in the study of geography and astronomy, showing very 
clearly thereby that " coming events cast their shadows 

After three years spent at Cheam, his parents deemed 
it advisable to remove him to a larger and more impor- 

* Presumably on account of his Christian name. 


tant school, and one more in consonance with his age. 
It was decided, therefore, to send him to Westminster, 
the alma mater of many generations of the Markham 
family. Accordingly, he left Cheam in April, 1842. 
He took his departure with feelings of real regret; he 
had thoroughly enjoyed his school life, he liked his 
schoolfellows, he respected those set in authority over 
him, he listened whole-heartedly to all his masters taught 
him, and he had acquird much useful knowledge. He 
himself says, in connection with his life at Cheam, that 
it was reall}' a good school for learning better, in his 
opinion, than any school of the present day. He knew 
none where history, geography, and elocution, were 
taught so well, or where classics and mathematics could 
be taught better. He thought at the time that the boys 
were very hard in their criticisms of Mr. Browne and 
some of the other masters, but he naively observes 
" that, in thinking and speaking as we did, we invari- 
ably forgot his admirable system of teaching, his good 
intentions, his constant thoughtfulness for us, and his 
liberality." This was a generous admission for a school- 
boy to make regarding the schoolmaster he was leaving. 
He always looked back with the greatest pleasure to 
the happy and profitable days he spent at Cheam, which 
certainly contributed towards the making of the man. 
His departure was much regretted by the boys, and 
especially by his particular friends, to whom he was 
sincerely attached. 

Before going to Westminster he enjoyed a good 
long holiday. This he spent at Great Horkesley and 
Windsor, as well as in visiting many of his friends and 
relations. In addition, the time was rendered all the 
more pleasurable by the presence at home of some of his 
old schoolmates, who had been invited to stay with him. 
When not engaged in paying visits, or entertaining his 
many friends at Great Horkesley, he devoted his spare 
moments to literary work, and he undoubtedly earned 
the reputation, even at that early age, of wielding a 


very facile pen. After reading the adventures of Robin- 
son Crusoe and Masterman Ready, he composed, before 
he left Cheam, a romance founded on those two delight- 
ful works of fiction, in which he depicted himself in the 
character of the hero ! This was followed by a History 
of England, in eight chapters, written when he was only 
ten years of age. He certainly brought it up to date, 
for it concluded with the following words: " Queen 
Victoria married Albert, Prince of Saxe-Coburg. They 
have got one daughter, and are going to have a boy " 
a marvellous illustration of early prescience ! To this 
latter work he added a map of England and Wales 
constructed entirely by himself, showing in colour the 
boundaries of the various counties. 

Even at that age he admits that he strongly realised 
the necessity of a knowledge of geography for the full 
comprehension of history. His father happened to be 
in possession of a small printing-press, which he used for 
printing the parish notices, etc., and he was so pleased 
with the result of his boy's literary labours that he 
printed twenty copies of the History of England in small 
quarto form, had them neatly bound in leather covers, 
and distributed them to a few of his relations. By this 
act the boy's literary ardour was so much gratified that 
he decided unhesitatingly upon becoming an author ! 
How he adhered to this decision time has shown. 

His next literary effort was the compilation of a 
history of different countries and peoples, which in- 
cluded Egypt, Abyssinia, Macedonia, The Jews, Rome, 
Britain, Persia, Mexico, Peru, France, Scotland, Spain, 
Portugal, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Russia, Sweden, 
Ireland, Lapland, Germany, Prussia, Denmark, and 
Turkey. Nearly all in this series were illustrated by 
maps drawn by himself: a truly gigantic and ambitious 
project for a boy of his tender years, but it was one 
that was successfully accomplished. 

Not content with the writing of historical works, he 
turned his attention during the holidays to biography, 


and wrote the lives of those historical characters of all 
ages in whom he had been most interested . These were 
Sesostris, Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, Alexander, Octa- 
vius, Edward the Black Prince, Henry V., Ferdinand 
and Isabella, Charles V., Solyman, Francis I., Andrew I. 
of Hungary, Gustavus Adolphus, Christina, Charles XII., 
Peter the Great, Catherine II., Alexander of Russia, 
Suvarrow, John Sobieski, Thaddeus, Kosciusko, Thad- 
deus of Warsaw, Stanislas Poniatowski, Napoleon, 
Wellington, and Nelson. A somewhat strange and 
complex assortment of heroes ! 

The next subject to which he turned his literary and 
scientific mind was a work entitled " Astronomy and 
Physical Geography," which was completed in Sep- 
tember, 1842. In the former he describes the planets, 
comets, and constellations, and gives an explanation of 
the ecliptic and signs of the zodiac. In the Physical Geo- 
graphy he illustrates a series of definitions and explana- 
tions of natural phenomena. A somewhat pretentious 
work to emanate from the brain of a boy of twelve ! 
Following this he wrote a book on heraldry, a subject 
on which in after-years he was a great authority. 
This work contained a summary of the different 
orders of knighthood existing in various countries. 
Unquestionably in his young days he was, as in after- 
life, a prolific and versatile writer. 

During this time he had the pleasure of making the 
acquaintance of Lord Ellesmere, who some years after- 
wards became President of the Royal Geographical 
Society. He was extremely kind to young Clements, 
the more so when he discovered that he was fond of 
geography and history, urging him to persevere in the 
study of these subjects. He related to him many en- 
grossing tales of Arctic and Antarctic voyages, and gave 
him an interesting account of the geography of Central 
Asia ; all of which young Markham carefully listened to, 
and treasured in his mind. 

As a child, he was much interested in natural 


history, and while at Stillingfleet he and his brother 
formed a large collection of the butterflies, moths, 
beetles, and other insects, to be found in that neigh- 
bourhood. Geology, conchology, and other scientific 
studies, were not neglected. In fact, his thirst for 
knowledge regarding everything pertaining to the earth 
and its inhabitants was as insatiable as a boy as it 
was in after-years when a man. 

After a somewhat long holiday, which, however, was 
not unprofitably spent (as may well be realised from 
the foregoing account of his literary labours during that 
period), he entered Westminster School on the 27th of 
May, 1842, being then nearly twelve years of age. The 
grief connected with his home-leaving was somewhat 
softened by the knowledge that his brother David, and 
his cousin William Wickham,and Raglan Somerset (who 
were with him at Cheam), would be his schoolfellows 
at Westminster. 

On the morning of his entry he was conducted, 
according to custom, " up school," and directed to sit 
behind the examination-table. To a boy of his age the 
whole procedure was a very awe-inspiring ordeal. The 
vast size of the room, with its lofty and open roof; the 
masters and scholars around him, attired in their college 
caps and gowns; the Latin prayers all filled him with 
awe and wonder, with which, it must be admitted, was 
mingled a certain amount of nervousness due to the 
imposing surroundings. Then his name was called in 
a loud and commanding voice by the Head-Master, who 
interrogated him as to his general knowledge. The 
result of this examination was that he was placed in the 
11 Upper School " in the " under fourth form." 

According to the rules and regulations of the school, 
a boy in the same class as that to which the new 
boy is appointed was selected by the usher to act 
as his Substance, and to him the new boy became a 
Shadow. It was the duty of the Substance to initiate 
the latter in all the ordinary details connected with his 


school-life, and to see that his Shadow was in possession 
of the necessary books and other indispensable proper- 
ties required for his education. The Substance had also 
to explain the localities of the various places frequented 
by the boys outside the precincts of the school, such as 
the shops where bats and balls, sweets, cakes, and other 
articles dear to a schoolboy's heart, were sold. It was 
also his duty to point out the limits that constituted 
" out of bounds," and other important details of a 
similar nature such, for instance, as the hard-and- 
fast rule laid down by the boys themselves, that none 
but a sixth form boy was privileged to walk on the west 
side of Abingdon Street. In a few days the new boy 
was fully initiated into all the customs and routine of 
the school, and consequently ceased to exist as a Shadow, 
reverting again to a material body. It is interesting to 
know that this good old regulation regarding the Sub- 
stance and his Shadow still exists at Westminster. It 
appears to be a very excellent school custom, tending 
to mitigate the sorrow and loneliness felt by a boy 
on leaving home, and frequently results in lifelong 

Markham found that the change from a private 
school to Westminster was greater than he had anti- 
cipated. He was surprised to find that the boys had 
so much liberty, and there was a different tone and 
better mode of life among them. He was much im- 
pressed by the beautiful vista of cloisters, and the air 
of mystery and antiquity that surrounded them; also 
by the venerable old schoolroom in which they studied, 
and the glorious Abbey where the boys attended service 
on Sundays and saints' days. He was delighted 
with the proximity of the river, with the graceful 
" eights " and other craft gliding along its surface. All 
combined to excite his imagination, and he was wont to 
assert that Westminster School with all its attributes 
was a more wonderful and delightful place than he had 
ever imagined could exist even in his wildest dreams. 


He became enthusiastic over the old school; and as 
the days went by this enthusiasm increased, until it 
developed into a love and admiration for the ancient 
institution and everything appertaining to it, growing 
in intensity as time went on. 

No boy could have been more happy and more 
satisfied with his lot than was Markham during 
those hallowed and never-to-be-forgotten days at 

During his stay he was domiciled at Mr. Benthall's 
house, together with eight other boys whose ages 
varied from ten to seventeen years. It was the end 
house on the right-hand side, as Little Dean's Yard is 
entered. The ground-floor with the first and second 
floors were appropriated to Mr. Benthall and his family, 
his visitors, and serrants ; the nine boys were relegated to 
the garrets, where, however, they were very comfortable 
and well out of the master's way an important con- 
sideration. Privacy was insured by what was called 
" pokering the door"; this consisted in driving a red- 
hot poker through the floor against the door, and letting 
the end rest on the ceiling below. The boys in the 
school below the sixth form were all compelled to run 
whether coming up or going down school, even if they 
were called up for a flogging ! An excellent practice for 
boys, and one that has been customary in the Navy 
from time immemorial. 

Altogether Markham thoroughly enjoyed himself at 
Westminster. Directly afternoon school was over 
everyone went to " the Fields " for cricket and other 
games, or away to the boats. Markham invariably 
preferred the latter. He was generally selected as 
coxswain, and he was very proud of his skill in taking 
his boat through the arches of the wooden bridge at 
Battersea, with the oars almost touching on either side. 

He loved boating, and his great ambition was to be 
selected for one of the eights. The great event of his 
first year was the race between Westminster and Eton. 


He used to watch the training of the crew with the 
most intense interest, looked at them with the keenest 
admiration as they passed, and heard with wonder how 
the crew lived during their period of training on raw 
beefsteaks and porter ! He was in the steamer accom- 
panying the boats during the race; the result, to his 
intense joy, was that Westminster won by thirty-five 
seconds. He was hoarse for some days afterwards from 
cheering so vigorously. 

The first of these races* was rowed in 1825, the course 
being then from Westminster to Eton and back, a dis- 
tance of 86 miles ! This was accomplished in twenty- 
two hours, including seven hours' detention in locks and 
other unforeseen stoppages. The first race with Eton 
was really in 1829, when Eton was victorious. Racing 
was kept up with the other public schools, but in a some- 
what spasmodic manner, and with fluctuating fortunes, 
until 1884, when it finally came to an end so far as 
Westminster was concerned. 

At Westminster, Markham made the acquaintance of 
James G.Goodenough, with whom he formed a lifelong 

There can be no doubt that he derived great bene- 
fit from his studies at this time, and that his life 
was bright and happy during those two years is suffi- 
ciently testified by his constant allusions to the happi- 
ness he experienced at the school, and by the love and 
reverence with which he spoke in after-life of his West- 
minster days. He always took the greatest interest in 
the lives and careers of the boys who were educated 
there; and nothing gave h : m so much real pleasure, in 
the latter years of his life, as the honour that was accorded 
him when he was elected a member of the governing 
body of his old school, and was appointed one of the 
Trustees of Dr. Busby's Charity. His portrait, painted 

* This was not a " race" in the ordinary acceptation of the term, 
but a friendly visit and a test of endurance between the two schools. 
A somewhat severe test it must be acknowledged ! 


in oils by Mr. George Henry, A.R.A.* (the best likeness 
of him that was ever painted), was presented to him in 
1913 by his old Westminster friends and colleagues, 
when he resigned the presidency of the Elizabethan 
Club, and his membership of the governing body of the 
school. It was bestowed as " some acknowledgment of 
the great services which he has rendered to the schooj^ 
in his official capacities and otherwise." 

* Mr. Henry has very kindly painted a replica of this picture, 
which he has presented to the Royal Geographical Society. In 
making the presentation, Mr. Henry writes that " it has been a labour 
of love to him to do so." 


DURING the time Clements Markham was at West- 
minster, he was a constant visitor at Langham House, 
the residence of his aunt, the Countess of Mansfield.* 
In May, 1844, he was present at a dinner-party given 
by Lady Mansfield, and on the retirement of the ladies 
from the dining-room he found himself sitting next to 
Rear-Admiral Sir George Seymour, who was at that 
time a Lord of the Admiralty.! He describes him as 
being a tall, handsome man in spite of the disfiguring 
marks of a severe wound on one side of his mouth re- 
ceived in Sir Richard Duckworth's brilliant action with 
the French Fleet in the West Indies in 1806. In the 
course of conversation, the Admiral asked Markham if 
he would like to enter the Navy and go out with him 
in his flagship to the Pacific, whither he was going 
as Commander-in-Chief. At first he did not quite 
realise the importance of the question, and how greatly 
his acceptance of the offer would influence his future 
life; but it appealed to his roving imagination, for he 
impulsively jumped at the proposal and unhesitatingly 
accepted it. He went back to Westminster that even- 
ing in a state of intense excitement. A few days later 
his father received a letter from Lady Mansfield announc- 

* Langham House was at that time situated at the north end of 
Regent Street, facing Portland Place. The Langham Hotel now 
occupies the site of the old house and garden. The Countess of 
Mansfield was a daughter of Archbishop Markham. 

f Sir G. Seymour's eldest son married the daughter of Lady 
Mansfield, and consequently became a cousin of Clements Markham. 


ing the fact that his son would shortly receive an appoint- 
ment as a naval cadet to H.M.S. Collingwood, about to 
be fitted out at Portsmouth as flagship of Sir George 
Seymour. This was conditional, of course, on his pass- 
ing the necessary qualifying examination an ordeal, 
however, that was not of a very strenuous or difficult 

He was taken to Portsmouth by his father on 
the 28th of June, and was told to report himself on 
board the St. Vincent, which was lying at Spithead. 
Arriving on board, and mentioning the object of his 
visit, he was shown into an office on the upper deck, 
where he found another youth, who also had just come 
aboard on a similar errand. There the much-dreaded 
examination took place. They were told to sit down 
and write the Lord's Prayer. The paper, however, was 
taken away from them before they had half completed 
their task, and the two candidates were informed that 
they had passed, and might consider themselves as 
officers in the Royal Navy, and that they would receive 
certificates to that effect in due course. Before, however, 
they were permitted to take their departure, a fat old 
doctor made his appearance, and, punching them vio- 
lently in the wind, asked " if it hurt ?" On their reply- 
ing in the negative, he reported them as medically fit 
for the service. 

Thus was Markham enrolled as a member of the Royal 
Navy with the exalted rank of Naval Cadet.* On land- 
ing with his father from the St. Vincent, they made all 
the necessary arrangements for his outfit at the first 
naval outfitter they passed. Clements then proceeded 
to spend the leave that had been granted him, in London 
visiting his friends. 

The Collingwood was actually put in commission on 
the 4th of May. She was then a mere shell; her masts 
were not even in place. She had no guns, no fittings 

* He was one of the first to be so called. Prior to 1844 officers 
of this rank were designated " first-class volunteers." 


of any sort, no stores or provisions on board. The 
newly appointed officers and men had to provide, stow, 
and place, all these necessaries. In other words, they 
had to rig the ship from truck to keelson, and to prepare 
her for a full commission at sea for a period of anything 
under five years. Under these circumstances, as the 
officers and men could not well, or comfortably, be 
accommodated on board their own ship, they were 
hulked on board the Victorious, an old line-of-battle 
ship maintained in Portsmouth Harbour for such special 
services. On board this hulk they were kept until such 
time as their own ship would be ready for their reception. 
It was not considered desirable, however, that the 
younger officers should live on board these hulks while 
the ships to which they were appointed were fitting out, 
for the strict discipline maintained on board a regular 
man-of-war is somewhat relaxed in a hulk, where it is 
almost impossible to adhere strictly to the rules and 
regulations enforced on board a ship in commission. It 
is not surprising, therefore, that leave should be given 
to the younger officers to remain on shore until the ship 
was ready to receive them. This was an excellent 
arrangement, the more especially as we learn that in 
this particular instance " large jugs of beer abounded on 
the gunroom table " every evening," and that prize- 
fighters from the shore came off every night to initiate 
the senior members of the gunroom mess in the mys- 
teries of the noble art of self-defence. " Sometimes the 
instructor was Bill Hayman, sometimes it was the 
1 Chicken.' " There were always nightly sprees on 
shore, when huge gilded boots, colossal spectacles, and 
other advertising symbols exhibited over the fronts of 
shop windows formed an irresistible temptation to 
young men overflowing with high animal spirits. These 
"signs" were often successfully purloined and taken 
on board the hulk and exhibited as trophies of courage 
and dexterity. It must be remembered that these so- 
called amusements were only indulged in at night, after 


a hard day's work had come to an end. It was their 
way, in those days, of letting off steam. 

While on leave in London, Markham used to go 
every morning to breakfast with Mr. Richmond, the 
celebrated artist, who was then engaged in painting 
in water-colours his portrait, in all the glory of his new 
uniform. That the result was a very charming picture 
may be judged by the illustration of it here given. 

His time on leave passed all too quickly. There was 
so much to be done, so many friends to see, so many 
farewells to take. He could not help realising that a 
voyage to the Pacific Ocean meant going to the other 
side of the world, and remaining there for some years. 
There was no telegraphic communication in those days, 
posts were irregular, and letters took about six months 
to reach their destination. There was a real and 
pathetic meaning in the word " farewell." A departure 
for such a long and uncertain period was an event that 
entailed much sorrow and earnest thought. Still, to a 
boy of fourteen years of age there was much to make 
amends in the prospect of what lay before him : the new 
life he was about to lead, the strange places he was to 
visit, the wonderful sights he would witness, the thought 
of becoming personally acquainted with peoples of whom 
he had only read in books all these combined to com- 
pensate him for the anguish he must otherwise have 
felt in parting from those he loved so dearly. 

He rejoined his ship at Portsmouth, laden with pres- 
ents and keepsakes from his numerous friends. But 
the gift he prized the most was a Bible and prayer-book, 
subscribed for by the boys in his house at Westminster, 
containing on the flyleaf the signatures of the donors. 

On the 1 8th of July the officers and men of the 
Collingwood were " turned over " from the hulk to their 
proper ship, and the regular routine and discipline of a 
well-regulated man-of-war was henceforward enforced. 
Young Markham was duly initiated in the duties apper- 
taining to his rank and position in the ship. 

Painted by Thomas Richmond, 1844, 

To face page 20. 


Among his messmates was young Goodenough, who 
had been one of his principal chums at Westminster. 
This close friendship, renewed in the Collingwood, was 
maintained throughout the whole course of their lives. 

On the 20th of July (Markham's fourteenth birthday) 
the Collingwood proceeded out of Portsmouth Harbour 
under all plain sail, and anchored at Spithead. It was 
a gallant sight, for those who were fortunate enough to 
witness it, to see this grand old line-of-battle ship, with 
her canvas swelling out before the breeze, threading her 
way between the numerous ships at anchor, and through 
the narrow entrance of the harbour, almost touching the 
old Quebec Hotel, which, being constructed on piles, pro- 
jected out a considerable distance from the shore into 
the harbour, necessitating vessels, entering or leaving 
the port, passing in such close proximity to the building 
that the proverbial biscuit could be thrown with ease 
into the windows of the coffee-room. It was a common 
saying in those days that a ship in passing often poked 
the end of her flying jib-boom into the hotel window ! 
But steam has revolutionised all this, besides which the 
old Quebec Hotel no longer exists. 

Markham had a great love and admiration for his 
ship, as all sailors should; and as he gazed upon her 
sailing out of harbour that memorable morning, he 
expressed his opinion that " she was the most perfect 
and beautiful sight in the world ; certainly she could not 
be surpassed for grace and beauty by anything afloat; 
her very appearance gave an air of power and grandeur 
that it was impossible to describe." 

The journal which he kept at that time is a pattern 
of neatness, and contains a marvellous description of 
the ship and all her internal arrangements. Plans and 
sketches of the various parts are carefully drawn. All 
the flags used for the purpose of transmitting signals 
from one ship to another are beautifully painted in their 
correct colours. He enters into minute details regarding 
the daily routine, the various drills that were carried 



out, the hours for their meals, their watches, their duties, 
and, in fact, everything connected with their daily life 
on board. Nothing is omitted; everything is described 
down to the smallest details, such as how the time on 
board ship is kept ; who is responsible for the striking of 
the bell ; and the method of heaving the log for the 
purpose of ascertaining the speed of the ship. The de- 
scription and biography of every officer in the ship, from 
the Admiral down to himself, together with their several 
pedigrees and coats of arms, correctly emblazoned in 
colours, are clearly set forth. Even the names and his- 
tories of several members of the crew, more especially 
those with whom he was most closely associated in his 
watch and other duties, are set down. He loved his 
ship, and thought there was nothing in the world that 
could compare with her either in beauty or efficiency. 

It was usual at that time for a flag officer, proceeding 
to the command of a foreign station, to take his family 
out as passengers in his flagship, provided, of course, 
there was no immediate probability of the ship being 
actively engaged with an enemy. Sir George Sey- 
mour took full advantage of the privilege, and on 
this occasion he was accompanied by his wife, four 
daughters, one son* aged six, and a full complement of 
servants of both sexes. The quarters they occupied are 
fully described by Markham in his journal, and he does 
not omit even to record where the cow which came on 
board with them at the last moment was located. 

He made many good and stanch friends among the 
officers of the ship, several of whom rose to distinction in 
the service. Among these may be mentioned the Flag 
Lieutenant, Beauchamp Seymour, f Lieutenant William 
Peel,} Lieutenant R. Quin, Lieutenant Reginald 

* Afterwards General Lord William F. Seymour, G.C.B. Died 

| Admiral Lord Alcester, G.C.B. 

j Afterwards Captain Sir William Peel, V.C., K.C.B. 

Died Rear- Admiral Richard Quin. Married a sister of Clements 


McDonald,* Algernon De Horsey ,f Sherard Osborn, and 
James G. Goodenough. 

Markham was always very conservative in his views 
and opinions on naval matters, especially in connection 
with all details regarding dress and appearance. At the 
time of which we write beards and moustaches were un- 
heard of in the Service; in fact, the latter were only 
worn by cavalrymen. When Mn Childers, who was 
First Lord of the Admiralty in 1870, issued an order 
making the abolition of the razor optional in the Navy, 
Markham declared the Service was " going to the dogs." 
This was a favourite expression of his when innovations 
were introduced, and he frequently remarks in his 
journal on events that happened before, or after, the 
Service had " quite gone to the dogs." 

His descriptions of his brother officers are made at 
some length, and are very amusing. No one escapes his 
criticism, not even the Admiral or the Captain. The 
latter was " SmartJ by name and Smart by nature 
a good sailor, a strict officer, and a rigid disciplinarian." 
The Commander, Captain Broadhead, is " admitted to 
be the smartest and best commander in the Service : his 
mouth was that of a sybarite when at rest, but in anger 
it was compressed; but he had a very winning smile 
and he was a good fellow." Another officer we dare 
not mention his name he describes as " an old fellow 
with a large stomach, sly and deceitful, but outwardly 
a jolly old boy." Yet another was " well read, intelli- 
gent, and a thorough seaman." And so his journal goes 
on through the entire list of more than seventy officers 
that were on board the Collingwood when he joined the 
ship at Portsmouth. Of his young friend Goodenough 
he writes: " He was honourable, true, tender-hearted, 

* Known in the Navy as " Rim " McDonald. Died a Vice- 
Admiral and a K.C.B. 

f Admiral Sir Algernon De Horsey, G.C.B. 

J Admiral Sir Robert Smart. Was Commander-in-Chief in the 
Mediterranean, 1864. 


modest, brave, and a hater of all things evil. Everyone 
loved him, and he was a true and constant friend. We 
always called him ' Goodie.' ' What a delightful 
description of one boy by another 1 A description 
that remained faithful and accurate all the days of his 

His Admiral held very decided views regarding the 
habit of smoking, which perhaps would hardly be 
tolerated at the present day. On hoisting his flag on 
board the Collingwood, he issued a memorandum in 
which he denounced smoking as " a deleterious and 
filthy habit that destroyed the inner coating of the 
stomach and rendered the smoker unfit for social pur- 
poses." Although permission was given to the men to 
smoke, they could only do so at certain times and in 
places specially appointed for the purpose. With 
regard to the officers, the Admiral expressed a pious 
hope that they would not 

" practise this dirty and disgusting vice. If any officer 
was unable to exist without smoking, he was to report 
himself to the Admiral, when a time and place would 
be allotted to him for the purpose of indulging in this 
pernicious habit." 

It is needless to say that no officer dared so to report him- 
self. The Captain of Marines, however, was an inveterate 
smoker, but, not wishing the Admiral to become ac- 
quainted with the fact, he continued at the risk of his 
life to enjoy (?) the fragrant weed by hanging out of the 
bow port on the main deck, with his feet resting on the 
bobstay. In this position he was able to escape from 
the visual as well as the olfactory sense of the Admiral. 
It is difficult in the present day to conceive a man-of- 
war in which the officers are practically prohibited 
from smoking. The habit is, if anything, steadily on the 
increase, and in many ships it is indulged in at all times 
and in all places, to the great discomfort and annoy- 
ance of those who do not practise the " vice." 


Just before leaving England, Markham was invited to 
luncheon by the Admiral. Here he was greatly inter- 
ested in meeting Lady Seaford, whose first husband had 
been Sir Thomas Hardy, Nelson's Flag Captain in the 
Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Many distinguished 
visitors came off to the ship, among them the Prince 
of Prussia (afterwards the first German Emperor), who 
was accompanied by the old Duke of Wellington and 
Prince Albert. The Lords of the Admiralty also visited 
her, more or less officially. On the completion of their 
inspection they were being entertained at luncheon by 
the Admiral, when suddenly a heavy splash was heard 
immediately astern of the ship, and therefore distinctly 
noticeable by the luncheon-party in the Admiral's 
after-cabin. This was quickly followed by two other 
splashes close alongside, and immediately afterwards the 
cry of " Man overboard !" resounded throughout the 
ship. Their lordships left their lunch in great haste, 
and rushed to the stern gallery, whence they beheld a 
couple of men struggling in the water, endeavouring to 
support a boy who had apparently fallen overboard. 
A boat speedily effected their rescue, and the three were 
safely brought on board. " My Lords " were full of 
praise and admiration at the gallant conduct of the two 
officers, who had, as they innocently supposed, risked 
their lives by plunging overboard to the assistance of 
their young messmate. 

The Captain of the ship, however, being a very canny 
man as well as a strict disciplinarian, saw through the 
plot, and, sending for the two officers, instead of com- 
plimenting them on their gallant action, administered a 
severe wigging to them on the quarter-deck ; he further 
informed their lordships that the whole thing was a 
prearranged plot, craftily designed by the two officers to 
bring themselves to the immediate notice of their lord- 
ships with a view to promotion ! They had induced the 
youngest naval cadet, after satisfying themselves that 
he could swim, to jump overboard through the stern 


port in the gunroom; they then plunged into the sea 
to effect his supposed rescue ! We hasten to add that 
Markham was not the consenting party. 

On the 6th of September the Admiral's party em- 
barked, and the following day at 2.30 p.m. the Colling- 
wood weighed anchor and proceeded under all plain sail 
on her long voyage to the Pacific. She was followed 
for some hours by a crowd of yachts and sailing boats, 
containing friends of the officers, all wildly cheering and 
waving their farewells. Favoured by fine weather and 
fair breezes, the ship made good progress. The young 
naval cadet thoroughly enjoyed the new life, the thresh- 
old of which he had just crossed. He was never 
weary of gazing aloft and watching the great sails as 
they swelled out before the breeze, or lazily flapped 
against the masts and rigging when the wind fell. He 
loved to watch from the bowsprit the great ship plough- 
ing her way through the bright blue sea, and to mark 
the waves rising and falling, their crests tumbling over 
in white foam into the hollows formed by their unceasing 
movements. All was new to him, he did not suffer from 
sea-sickness, and we can realise how thoroughly a boy 
of his creative imagination appreciated the new life 
upon which he was now embarking. 

Markham was an exceedingly good-looking boy, and 
was a great favourite with all the officers, one of whom 
described him as " the most beautiful as well as the most 
engaging boy on board the ship." In another letter 
written to his father by one of his friends, reference is 
made to " his gentle, sweet manners and his extreme 

He was of course appointed to keep watch, and was 
fortunate in being placed in that of the First Lieutenant, 
Mr. Hankey, an excellent officer and a good friend. The 
officer of the forecastle was Lieutenant Peel, in whose 
company he invariably passed the greater part of the 
watch, and to whom he was indebted for much useful 
advice on professional and other matters. In such in- 


structive conversation the watches passed quickly and 
pleasantly, and he often regretted hearing eight bells 
strike, knowing that his duties were, for the time being, 
at an end. 

After a pleasant run of thirteen days, the Collingwood 
cast anchor in Funchal Roads, Madeira. It was a day 
of great excitement for all the youngsters, especially for 
our Naval Cadet. Leave having been granted, it was 
not long before the shore was reached, and our friends, 
mounted on wiry little horses, went scampering about all 
over the island, the attendant horse-boys keeping up 
with them by hanging on to the tails of their steeds. 
Everything they did and saw was of the greatest in- 
terest to them. They were particularly amused with 
the head-dress of the natives, both men and women, 
which consisted of little blue skull-caps fitting closely 
round their heads, surmounted by a stiff standing-up 
tail, which they thought resembled an inverted wine 
funnel. Their stay on shore, however, was brief, for 
they were obliged to be on board by sunset, as they 
sailed the same night. The visit, however short, was a 
most enjoyable one, and afforded a pleasant relaxation 
after the monotony of being so many days at sea. 

His life on board was not an idle one. In addition 
to carrying out his duties as a watch-keeping officer, 
which necessitated his being on deck about eight hours 
out of the twenty-four, he had to attend school under 
the Naval Instructor from 9 to 11.30 a.m. every day 
except Saturdays and Sundays. At 11.30 every morn- 
ing the midshipmen assembled on the poop with their 
sextants or quadrants (as the case might be) for the pur- 
pose of observing the meridian altitude of the sun. The 
afternoons were devoted to the carrying out of various 
drills, such as gunnery, cutlass, and rifle exercises, sea- 
manship, including knotting and splicing, and so forth. 
On particular days, also, they were made thoroughly 
acquainted with all the different parts of the ship by 
personally visiting them, and learning the purposes for 


which they were utilised. The construction of the ship 
was explained to them, and they were taught the names 
of the spars, sails, rigging, etc., specially qualified petty 
officers being selected as the instructors. 

On one occasion when one of these men was pointing 
out and describing, for the information of the youngsters, 
the names and uses of the various ropes, he casually 
remarked that " they were very dry." Markham, always 
thirsting for knowledge, innocently inquired, "Why 
should they not be dry, as no rain has fallen for some 
days ?" and he also wanted to know " if wet weather was 
in any way prejudicial to the ropes." 

" You goose 1" said one of the midshipmen; " what 
he wants is a tot of grog 1" 

The Admiral and his family were very kind to him, 
and he was frequently invited to lunch or dine in the 
cabin. He was decidedly of opinion that the presence of 
the ladies on board added immensely to the charm of the 
voyage. Lady Seymour was extremely kind, especially 
to the young officers, and her daughters were most good- 

As they proceeded south, and the weather became 
warm, dancing was frequently indulged in on the quarter- 
deck in the evenings, the band largely contributing to 
the enjoyment of everyone. Any spare time they may 
have had at their disposal during the day, the youngsters 
spent in fishing from the end of the bowsprit for bonita, 
dolphins, and other denizens of the tropical seas. Some- 
times success rewarded their efforts, and a very welcome 
addition was made to their breakfasts, but as a rule an 
empty bag was the result of their labour. At any rate, 
they had all the excitement and anticipation of success 
which is incidental to fishing, even at home I 

As they approached the Equator, great preparations 
were made for the reception of Neptune, for it had been 
arranged that the customary ceremony was to be ob- 
served in full detail. 

On the evening before reaching the line, just after 


dark, a sonorous voice was heard, apparently a long 
way ahead, hailing the ship: " Ship ahoy 1 What ship 
is that ?" 

Amid intense silence Captain Smart from the poop 
solemnly answered: "Her Britannic Majesty's ship 

Neptune then asked: " Are any of my children on 
board ?" 

To which the Captain replied: " Yes, several." 

" Then, I will come on board to-morrow," said the 

To which the Captain replied: " We shall be happy 
to see you." 

Neptune then took his departure, apparently on a 
blazing tar-barrel, which remained in sight a long time 
in the wake of the ship. 

On the following day, Friday, the nth of October, 
the Collingwood crossed the line and entered the Southern 
Hemisphere. The youngsters were much excited, and 
those who perhaps thought they were a little unpopular 
with the men were in no slight trepidation regarding 
the treatment that might be meted out to them by the 
Tritons during the forthcoming ceremony. A large sail 
had been rigged up along one side of the main deck, 
and had been filled with water to the depth of four or 
five feet. When all was ready, the drum and fife band 
announced the arrival of the Sea- Potentate. A proces- 
sion was formed at the fore end of the ship, which, 
accompanied by the strains of martial music, marched 
aft to the quarter-deck. 

First came the bears and seals, inimitably got up . Then 
theTritons attired in coloured bunting, with swabs* round 
their waists. These were followed by half a dozen men 
representing curious sea-beasts, drawing a car elabor- 
ately decorated with coloured bunting, on which, in 
solemn majesty, sat King Neptune. On his head was 

* A swab is a long bundle of thrums or unravelled rope-yarns 
used in drying the decks of a ship. 


a crown ingeniously constructed of tin, and in his hand 
he held a trident, or grains,* as a sceptre. He had on a 
crimson robe, with swabs hanging as a girdle round his 
waist, and his legs were bare. A long flowing beard, 
made of rope-yarns, reached down to his waist. Follow- 
ing close behind came his Queen, the beautiful Amphi- 
trite, clad in a lovely white dress, with an elegant lace 
cap upon her head; on her mouth were fixed two 
rows of sharp iron teeth somewhat similar to those of a 
rat-trap. Next came Their Majesties' clerk, accom- 
panied by the Royal Barber. The former wore a wig 
made of oakum in which were stuck a number of quill- 
pens; while the latter was provided with a tin pot 
containing a horrible concoction of tar, soft soap, and 
other abominations, wherewith to lather the faces of the 
candidates for initiation prior to being shaved. The 
Barber was provided with three different razors all con- 
structed of hoop iron: No. i had a smooth edge, No. 2 
had a rough edge, but No. 3 had a serrated edge with 
teeth like a saw. The different classes of razors were 
used on the victims in accordance with their popu- 
larity or otherwise with the men. There was also a 
Doctor in attendance, attached to His Majesty's suite. 
The candidates for initiation were only permitted to 
remain on deck long enough to witness the arrival of the 
procession ; they were then summarily driven below 
by the Tritons to wait until their presence was required 
on deck. 

The Admiral and the ladies viewed the operations 
from the poop with much interest and no little amuse- 
ment. Markham and one or two of his particular 
friends were artful enough to find out beforehand the 
men who had been told off to represent the characters of 
the Barber and the Doctor, and had taken the pre- 
caution of " squaring " these important functionaries, so 
that they might be let off easily. When Markham 's 

* A species of harpoon, having several barbed points, used for 
striking dolphins, etc. 


turn came, he was brought on deck and formally pre- 
sented to Amphitrite, who, to his consternation, em- 
braced him warmly. But in doing so she carefully 
avoided touching him with her iron teeth ! The Doctor 
then approached and felt his pulse, and, remarking that 
he did not require any physic, turned him over to the 
Barber, who passed No. i razor over his face without the 
application of any " shaving soap." He was then tilted 
backwards into the sail full of water, seized by one of 
the attendant Tritons, who gave him one " delicious 
ducking " and then released him. After having suc- 
cessfully passed through the ordeal, he was at liberty 
to do what he liked and to take part in the fun. 

The most unpopular person on board appeared to be 
one of the ship's corporals,* who probably by the rigor- 
ous performance of his duties had made himself some- 
what objectionable to the ship's company. Amphitrite 
gave him a very vicious bite with her iron teeth, the 
Doctor stuffed into his mouth the most indescribable 
filth, which he was pleased to call medicine, and the 
Barber was lavish with his " shaving soap." Needless 
to say, he was operated on with No. 3 razor, the instru- 
ment whose edge resembled a " dissipated saw," and 
he was half drowned by the Tritons when they got him 
in the sail. The ceremonies terminated at about noon, 
when Neptune was triumphantly drawn round the upper 
deck in his car, and took his departure from the ship. 

We have purposely described this function at some 
length so that the reader may gain a slight conception 
of what was a very ordinary custom on board an English 
man-of-war at that period. In these practical and some- 
what prosaic days (at any rate before the outbreak of the 
war) it might be regarded as a nonsensical amusement, 
not altogether harmonising with the interests of disci- 
pline. But it must not be forgotten that in those earlier 
days ships were very often two or three months at sea 
at a stretch ; and such an incident as the crossing of the 

* A member of the ship's police. 


Equator, with all its attendant ancient customs and 
ceremonies, was always looked forward to with pleasur- 
able anticipation, even by those who were about to take 
part for the first time in this antiquated nautical rite. 
It must also be remembered that every soul in the ship 
was interested, and even associated, in the successful 
conduct of the pageant. It was a diversion that tended 
very materially to relieve the monotony of a long sea- 
voyage, and it seldom had any ill effect upon discipline. 

On the 22nd of October the ship entered the magnifi- 
cent harbour of Rio de Janeiro. It was a lovely day, and 
everyone was on deck admiring the glorious scenery 
presented by this most beautiful of harbours. On the 
port hand as they entered was the precipitous Sugar 
Loaf Mountain, while to the southward rose a curious 
peak known by the name of Lord Hood's Nose, in con- 
sequence, presumably, of its resemblance to the nasal 
protuberance of that distinguished Admiral. In the 
near distance, apparently dominating the town, rose the 
majestic Mount Corcovado. The bay is deservedly 
celebrated for its loveliness, and is regarded not only as 
one of the most beautiful, but also one of the most 
secure and spacious anchorages in the world. 

The sound of the cable running through the hawse- 
pipe, as the anchor was dropped, had hardly ceased before 
Markham and three or four of his messmates were on 
their way to the shore. There was no changing into 
plain clothes such a transformation was not even 
dreamt of in the days before the service went to the dogs 
but, just as they were, dressed in their everyday 
uniform, with trousers that were only sufficiently white 
to comply with the dress regulations then in force, and 
possibly with not too much money in their pockets, they 
jumped into a boat and were rowed to the landing-place. 
After visiting the cathedral and other places of interest, 
eager for a jaunt, they hired horses and proceeded 
to ascend Mount Corcovado. This was successfully 
achieved, although not without difficulty, for the horses 
had to be abandoned some distance below the summit, 


and the last part of the ascent was perforce made on 
foot. On reaching the summit their exertions were 
rewarded by a magnificent view of the surrounding 
country, which lay spread out as on a map at their 
feet. Their descent, however, was somewhat accelerated 
by a heavy shower of tropical rain. 

They spent ten very happy days at Rio, seeing all 
there was to be seen in the town, and riding about 
the country to their hearts' content. On leaving, 
they encountered very heavy weather, but the Colling- 
wood proved an excellent sailer, and, apart from the 
usual discomforts of a gale of wind, they had little to 
complain of. A course was shaped for the Falkland 
Islands, and as they proceeded to the southward the 
weather became appreciably colder, and they made the 
acquaintance of the mighty albatross, the different kinds 
of petrels, the pretty black and white Cape pigeons, and 
other sea-birds indigenous to the Southern Ocean. 

Gales of wind accompanied by heavy seas do not add 
to the comfort of life on board a ship. To walk the 
deck even is a hazardous exercise ; while any attempt to 
repose stretched out on the lockers in the gunroom often 
involves a disagreeable fall to the deck 1 Added to 
these troubles is the indescribable " fugginess" prevailing 
between-decks, owing to the lack of fresh air, all ports 
and hatchways being, of course, tightly closed. Mark- 
ham, however, did not appear to be affected by these 
discomforts. He was a first-rate sailor, and seemed 
rather to enjoy a gale of wind than otherwise. He was 
indefatigable in his endeavours to acquire professional 
knowledge, and was intensely keen in observing all the 
precautions that were adopted in order to make the ship 
as easy and snug as the adverse circumstances would 

On the 1 7th of November, 1844, they arrived at the 
Falkland Islands. It was blowing very fresh at the time, 
and as the wind was dead ahead, they were obliged to 
beat up a rather narrow channel to the anchorage off 
Fort William . The settlement situated at the head of the 


harbour was not a very large one, the inhabitants con- 
sisting only of the Governor, a company of sappers and 
miners under the command of an officer of the Royal 
Engineers, and a few farmers and other settlers with 
their families. 

Markham was one of the first to land. The spirit of 
exploration had already taken firm hold of him. He was 
accompanied by several of his messmates. They suc- 
ceeded in borrowing the naval instructor's gun, arrang- 
ing among themselves that they were to shoot in turns. 
They had been informed that the island abounded with 
wild horses and cattle, besides wild-duck, teal, snipe, and 
rabbits, and they looked forward to a good day's sport, 
with the prospect of a rich and varied bag. They were 
also accompanied by the Admiral's dog, but with or 
without permission is not stated. The first signs of 
animal life that came under their notice on landing 
was a large crowd of penguins, which advanced steadily 
and solemnly against them in an unbroken phalanx. 
They tried to drive them off, but without success. The 
Admiral's dog was much too frightened to be of any 
assistance, and they were obliged to beat an ignominious 
retreat. After some little time they observed in the 
distance what they described afterwards as a " fero- 
cious-looking calf." This was successfully stalked and 
slain. Elated at their success, they carried the carcase 
triumphantly on board as evidence of their prowess. 

The ship proceeded on her voyage the same evening, 
but just as they were getting under weigh a boat came 
alongside with a very irate sergeant of sappers in it. 
In a state of intense excitement, he shouted out that 
the calf which had been shot was a tame one belonging 
to the Governor, and he demanded that it should be 
immediately handed over to him. This was a sad ter- 
mination to their trip on shore, for not only did they 
lose what they expected would provide them with fresh 
food for the next two or three days, but the unfortunate 
youngster who shot the animal was punished by being 
put into " watch and watch " for a week. This meant 


being kept on deck every alternate four hours, day and 
night, for seven days. 

Very stormy weather was experienced after leaving 
the Falkland Islands, and one misfortune followed 
another in rapid succession. The first was the loss of 
one of their men, who accidentally fell overboard and 
was drowned. This was the third event of the kind 
that had occurred since leaving .England. The next 
was a somewhat serious accident to Markham him- 
self. Just as he was attempting to get into his ham- 
mock, the ship gave a tremendous lurch, and, losing his 
hold, he was flung backwards into the boatswain's store- 
room, a fall of about 12 feet. He was picked up uncon- 
scious and placed in Lieutenant Quin's cabin, who, with 
great good nature, had at once placed it entirely at his 
young friend's disposal. He did not recover conscious- 
ness until the following morning. Fortunately, no 
serious injury was sustained, and he was only on the 
sick-list for a week, when he returned to duty. He was 
well looked after by his numerous friends on board, and 
received constant visits from the ladies. 

These untoward occurrences culminated on the night 
of the 4th of December, when the mainyard was carried 
away in a heavy gale. This necessitated the reduction 
of all sail on the mainmast. It was found necessary to 
get the injured spar on deck, so as to " fish" it, and 
render it serviceable again. This was no easy matter, 
with the ship pitching and rolling in a heavy sea, and 
with insufficient sail set to keep her steady. However, 
the men worked willingly, every man put his shoulder 
to the wheel, and the following evening the temporary 
repairs were completed, the yard swayed up to its proper 
place, and the sail bent and set. A very creditable per- 

On the 1 5th of December, after a somewhat eventful 
and tempestuous voyage, they anchored in Valparaiso 
Bay, glad to reach port and indulge in a real rest after 
their turbulent month at sea. On arrival, Admiral 
Seymour assumed command of the Pacific Station. 


VALPARAISO in those days was, as it still is, the principal 
seaport of the Republic of Chile. It possesses a fairly 
good anchorage except when a severe " norther " is 
blowing, when ships invariably have to put to sea. The 
approach of one of these storms is generally indicated 
by a heavy swell setting into the bay, and this gives the 
vessels at anchor in the harbour sufficient warning to 
put to sea in time. The excessive depth of water in the 
bay is one of its chief disadvantages as an anchorage. 

The town is prettily situated along the coast, and has 
for a background the distant range of the Cordilleras 
of the Andes, with the snow-covered peak of Aconcagua 
rising above the ridge. The lesser mountain, called the 
Compana of Quillota (which, by the way, strongly re- 
sembles Mount Aconcagua in shape), occupies the middle 
distance. The cliffs which fringe the bay rise abruptly 
from the sea, and the town has the appearance of nest- 
ling at their base. There are three hills at the back of 
the town, much frequented by our sailors when they 
have leave to go on shore, named by them the Fore, 
Main, and Mizen Tops. These are literally covered 
with grog-shops, which may perhaps account for their 
attraction to the bluejackets. 

When Markham was at Valparaiso the place was 
replete with reminiscences of Lord Cochrane. In 1821, 
with a small force specially organised by him and 
under his immediate command, he paralysed the move- 
ments of the Spanish Viceroy at Lima, thus practically 
securing the independence of Chile. Many of Lord 



Cochrane's officers married Chilian wives and settled 
in the country. To this fact may be attributed the 
large number of English names borne by distinguished 
Chilians, such as Williams, Edwards, Simpson, and 
Lynch. The contractor who provided the Collingwood 
and other English men-of-war with supplies during their 
stay at Valparaiso was an old Scotsman named Mac- 
farlane, who had been purser under Lord Cochrane. 
Markham says concerning him, " he was a fine old 
fellow " who supplied them with most excellent pro- 
visions, but his biscuits " could only be nibbled at the 
sides; inside they were like marble." 

The ship's stay at Valparaiso was most enjoyable. 
The midshipmen had plenty of leave, of which they 
took the fullest advantage; and Markham, being a uni- 
versal favourite, was frequently taken on shore by one 
or other of the wardroom officers. Lieutenants Quin 
and Peel were particularly good to him in this respect ; in 
fact, they invariably showed him the greatest kindness. 
On one occasion he was out riding with the last-named 
friend, when, he relates, his horse suddenly stopped dead, 
its legs wide apart, as if its rider had lassoed a bullock. 
The immediate result was that Markham shot over its 
head; but, fortunately, he was none the worse for his 
fall. Proceeding, they came to a plain some twelve miles 
across, bounded by a range of lofty mountains. They 
set off at full gallop, urging the horses to their utmost 
speed, when again his horse stopped short, and again 
was he shot over its head. After remounting, he per- 
suaded Peel to try to pick up his handkerchief from the 
ground when at full gallop. The result was a fall for 
Peel, and his horse, being freed of its rider, started off 
" full pelt " for Valparaiso, hotly pursued by Markham. 
After a long and provoking chase, he succeeded in head- 
ing the runaway, and eventually caught it and brought 
it back to its rider. With daily incidents of a somewhat 
similar character, it is not to be wondered that the time 
at Valparaiso passed all too quickly. 



Meanwhile the ship had been thoroughly refitted, the 
mainyard had been repaired in an efficient manner, the 
rigging overhauled and set up, and all defects made good. 
On the 1 3th of January the Seymours, having rented a 
nice house on shore, left the ship, much to the regret of 
all the officers ; and two days later the Collingwood put 
to sea bound for Arica. The Admiral hoisted his flag 
in the Cormorant (a steam-sloop), with the object of visit- 
ing all the intermediate ports between Valparaiso and 

On the 2ist of January they obtained their first 
glimpse of the dreary coast of Peru with its rocky cliffs 
and sandy wastes, and the following day they anchored 
off the port of Arica . The surrounding country presented 
a barren and uninviting appearance. Here the Admiral 
rejoined them. A small dance was given on board, and 
several Peruvian ladies came off to it. Markham found 
that his perseverance in making himself acquainted 
with the Spanish language met with its due reward, for 
he succeeded in talking with tolerable fluency to his 
partners in their own tongue. 

Their next anchorage was Callao,the seaport of Lima, 
the capital of Peru. From the bay could be seen the 
numerous towers of Lima, and beyond these were the 
high peaks of the Cordilleras of the Andes, some of them 
reaching into the clouds. The view filled Markham 
with delight, for there before him, only a short distance 
off, lay the " City of Kings," the far-famed capital of 
the Great Spanish Viceroys, about which he had recently 
been reading with intense interest in Robertson's narra- 
tive of Pizarro's career. He longed to rush off and see for 
himself all the wondrous sights in this most wonderful 
city, the subject of his thoughts by day and of his 
dreams by night. But he had to curb his impatience 
for a few days; his duties had to be attended to on 
board, and for a time he was unable to obtain the leave 
that was necessary to enable him to visit Lima. 

Mention has already been made of the great friend- 


ship that had sprung up between Markham and Lieu- 
tenant Peel. It was an important one, for it was a 
friendship that did much to shape Markham 's character, 
and one that exerted a beneficial influence on his after- 
life. During the long night watches many were the 
talks they had together as they paced up and down the 
forecastle. Peel's view was that an officer in the Navy 
should devote all his talents and all his energies to the 
Service; that his own interests, his aims and studies, 
should be subservient to the Navy. But he held that a 
good naval officer, besides being a good sailor, must be 
well informed, especially in history, geography, and 
poetry. He recommended Markham to read Milton's 
" Paradise Lost," because, he said, "it is the grandest 
poem in our language, and it is the richest storehouse 
of good English words and phrases." He also advised 
him to read all the most memorable voyages and travels, 
and impressed upon him that a naval officer, who kept 
his e}'es open, possessed unequalled opportunities of 
becoming a sound geographer. He frequently dilated 
upon the rules of conduct which from the first he had 
established for his own guidance in the Navy. 

In these conversations there was never any assump- 
tion of superiority, no attempt to be didactic, only an 
eager desire to impart useful advice to one for whom he 
entertained a sincere regard which amounted almost to 
affection. That it was so accepted, and appreciated, by 
his young friend is evidenced by the following extract 
from Markham 's journal in reference to his mentor: 

" His noble thoughts and good advice sank into my 
heart gradually as the golden fruit of much converse, for 
the most part light and merry. We often discussed 
Service questions, and he explained in detail numerous 
points in seamanship and gunnery which I had failed 
to grasp. At other times he dwelt upon the life- 
stories of naval worthies, discussing their respective 
merits and their battles. He also talked of friend- 
ships: how they were formed, and how they ought to 
be maintained." 


These conversations with an officer so much his senior, 
and for whom he had such a high regard, made a deep 
impression upon young Markham, who was of a most 
impressionable nature; and his distress may well be 
imagined when he was informed, by Peel himself, that the 
Admiral was about to send him to England as the bearer 
of important dispatches to the Admiralty, and that he 
would not, in all probability, return to the Collingwood. 
He was to be transferred to the America, put on shore 
on the coast, and ordered to find his way across Mexico, 
arrangements being made for an English man-of-war to 
meet him on the Atlantic side. He left on the i6th of 
February, 1845. 

Markham writes, after he had bidden him farewell: 
" My heart is like lead. I went down into one of the 
cabins, and shed bitter tears." He regarded this part- 
ing as the turning-point of his career. Peel was the 
one man to whom he invariably looked for support and 
advice, and he had a great influence for good over the 
young cadet. In after-years Markham frequently as- 
serted that, although his zeal for the Service would never 
under any circumstances have abated, still, the inten- 
sity of his interest in the Navy considerably diminished 
after the departure of Lieutenant Peel. He continued, 
however, to be as zealous as ever, and he strove to carry 
out his duties in a manner that he knew would have 
given pleasure to his friend. He was a boy who really 
needed such a guide, and he felt that without him it 
would be difficult to avoid going astray. He ceased all 
attempts to conquer his temper and his self-will; in 
other words, he neglected to take any interest in him- 
self. His friend had been called away to fulfil a glorious 
destiny, and he felt hurt at not being able to share it 
with him.* 

* On his arrival in England with the despatches, Peel was at once 
promoted to the rank of Commander. He was appointed to the 
command of the Daring brig, in which he distinguished himself in 
the West Indies, and was proinoted to the rank of Captain. His 


It is probable that this assumed loss of interest in the 
Navy (although he was still as eager as ever to make 
himself thoroughly proficient in everything connected 
with his duties, and did his best to maintain discipline 
so far as in him lay) was caused in a great measure by 
the severity of the punishments that were inflicted on 
the men for what, to him, appeared to be but slight 
breaches of discipline. The practice of corporal punish- 
ment was carried to excess in those days, and the in- 
fliction of it was most repugnant to him. Although he 
had, in common with every officer and man belonging 
to the ship, to be present on those lamentable occasions, 
he always placed a considerable distance between him- 
self and those who were suffering, so that he could 
neither see nor hear what was going on. Perhaps it is 
not too much to assert that it was in great measure 
due to the severity of the punishments inflicted on the 
men in the ships in which he served, that Markham 
retired from the Service to which he was really endeared 
and to which he was so proud to belong. He always 
regarded corporal punishment, as then administered, 
cruel and barbarous ; and no one was more pleased than 
he when informed that flogging in the Navy had been 

geographical instincts led him to turn to African exploration. He 
reached Khartoum, and penetrated as far as El Obeid, when a 
serious illness compelled him to return to England. In 1852 he 
was appointed to the command of the Diamond, and was sent out 
to the Black Sea on the outbreak of the war with Russia. He was 
landed with the Naval Brigade during the siege of Sebastopol, 
when his heroic and distinguished conduct in the trenches earned 
for him the C.B. and the Victoria Cross. In 1856 he was appointed 
to the Shannon in the East Indies, and commanded the Naval 
Brigade that was sent up to Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. 
For his services he was created a K.C.B., but, alas! he was attacked 
by smallpox, and died at Cawnpore in April, 1858, at the age of 
thirty-four. Markham writes: " Very few men have crowded so 
many glorious achievements into so brief a space of time. Still 
fewer have done so much good by their example and their influence. 
He was the perfect model of what a British naval officer ought to 


practically abolished. But, alas ! that did not take place 
until many years after he had severed his active con- 
nection with the Service. 

It was a fortuitous chance that, on the day following 
the departure of Lieutenant Peel, Markham obtained per- 
mission to go up to Lima in company with Mr. Johnson, 
the Naval Instructor; and thus his thoughts were tem- 
porarily diverted from the sorrow he felt at the loss of 
his friend. Three of his messmates, among whom was 
young Goodenough, made up the party. Railway ser- 
vice between Callao and Lima had not then been intro- 
duced, and they had to travel up in the ordinary omnibus 
that plied between the two towns. After depositing at 
an hotel the small amount of baggage they had brought 
with them, they started off to see everything that could 
be seen in this most interesting city. Markham, by 
virtue, possibly, of having already written a history of 
the country when he was a boy,* acted as cicerone to the 
party. Every place of importance or of historical in- 
terest, we may be sure, was visited. On going into the 
cathedral they found High Mass was being celebrated, 
at which the acting President of the Republic was pre- 
sent, attended by a numerous staff of officers and Court 
functionaries. The Archbishop of Lima was the cele- 
brant. A strong military force, consisting of about a 
thousand men, was drawn up in the plaza as a guard in 
the event of any disturbance taking place, a not un- 
likely incident in the city of Lima at that time. During 
their peregrinations they crossed the River Rimac by an 
excellent stone bridge, and explored the suburb of San 
Lazaro. They also visited a pulperia (small tavern), 
where they were regaled with a delicious Peruvian 
drink called chicha. 

Next morning they continued their inspection of the 
city. They went to see the Church of Santo Domingo, 
where there is a beautiful recumbent marble statue of 
Santa Rosa, the patron saint of Lima. Further afield 

* See p. 10. 


they visited the great cemetery outside the city walls. 
The gates were locked, but bars and bolts had to give 
way to the vigorous efforts of the midshipmen, and they 
were speedily forced open. Markham states that " the 
system of interment was curious, and well repaid the 
visit." They were also much interested in seeing a 
flock of llamas, which are the principal beasts of burden 
in that country. The museum containing the Inca anti- 
quities was not neglected, nor were the series of portraits 
of the Viceroys of Peru collected under the same roof. 

Thence to the crypt of the cathedral to see the remains 
of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru. The skele- 
ton with the skin dried on it was lying in a niche in the 
wall. It is related that one of the party tore off a joint 
of the fore-finger and took it on board the Collingwood. 
Subsequently it was made into the handle of a silver 
seal, with the word KISMET engraved on it. They re- 
turned to the ship that evening, having spent two most 
interesting days at Lima. 

Markham paid many more visits to the city, and was 
never so happy as when engaged in his researches in the 
history of the ancient Incas, which always had an extra- 
ordinary fascination for him, even to the end of his 
eventful life. He enjoyed visiting the banks of the 
Rimac, and in company with some of his messmates 
passed the time in " fishing, and spearing camerones,* 
roasting potatoes, and bathing." Having been warned 
of the danger attached to this particular locality, of 
being robbed and stripped by the truculent negroes of 
the neighbouring haciendas, they hid some old trousers 
under large stones, so that, if they were deprived of 
their clothing, they would be able to return to Callao 
with some show of decency I Occasionally Markham 
would borrow the Naval Instructor's gun, and set off 
in quest of doves, sandpipers, and other birds that fre- 
quented the valley of the Rimac. But he never really 
cared for shooting as a sport; his repugnance to taking 

* Small species of Crustacea found in South American rivers. 


life not unnaturally interfered with his keenness in this 
direction. What he loved was the outdoor life un- 
trammelled by naval discipline or quarter-deck con- 
ventionalities, free to do as he liked and responsible to 
no one for what he did. He was always a great reader, 
and, thanks to the Admiral and other officers in the ship 
who placed their books at his disposal, he was able to 
gratify his craving for literary knowledge. He seems to 
have preferred staying on board and reading " Paradise 
Lost," Hall's " Fragments," and the Voyages of Dam- 
pier, Burney, Cook, Vancouver, and others, even to 
visiting his beloved banks of the Rimac. 

After short visits to different places along the west 
coast, the ship returned to Valparaiso, where, it will be 
remembered, the Admiral had left his family. Mark- 
ham was invited to spend a week with them in their 
house. To his great delight, he was able to accept, 
and a most pleasant week it was. They were all very 
good to him; as he himself says, "It was so pleasant 
to be in an English home so far away from England, 
with all the home comforts and associations, everybody 
so kind and agreeable." The days passed all too quickly. 
He accompanied the young ladies wherever they went, 
making the acquaintance of various Chilian families. 
Among those whom he met in this manner was the 
prima donna, Signorina Rossi, whose friendship he re- 
tained until he left the station, besides other members 
of the operatic company then performing in Valparaiso. 
A grand ball was given by the Admiral and officers of 
the Collingwood, and a very minute description of the 
arrangements carried out on board is given in his journal. 
" Nothing to be compared with it," he writes, " had ever 
been seen on board a man-of-war at Valparaiso or any- 
where else. It was a perfect scene of enchantment." 
After a pleasant fortnight at Valparaiso, they returned 
to Callao, arriving at that port on the 7th of May, 1845. 

On their arrival, they found that diplomatic rela- 
tions between the Republic of Peru and Great Britain 


were much strained. It appeared that the Prefect of 
Tacna had very grossly insulted the British Vice- 
Consul at Arica. Fortunately, in Sir George Seymour 
we had a clear-headed, prompt, and vigorous man 
of action. He demanded an immediate apology, to- 
gether with the instant supersession of the Peruvian 
official. The usual subterfuges were resorted to by the 
Peruvian authorities; but the Admiral was not to be 
trifled with, and the President of Peru was informed 
that, unless a successor was sent by the next steamer 
to relieve the Prefect at Tacna, hostilities would begin. 
In the meantime the English men-of-war in harbour 
made all the necessary preparations for immediate action . 
In the Collingwood all the cabin guns were mounted and 
placed in their proper ports, the stays, backstays, and 
rigging, were " snaked " to prevent their falling on deck 
if severed by gunfire, and the ships were moved to within 
gunshot of the castle and other fortifications. Needless 
to say, all on board were wildly excited at the prospect 
of a fight. 

Just before the departure of the steamer to Tacna, 
however, the President, General Don Ramon Castilla, 
prudently yielded, and our terms were accepted in full. 
Friendly relations were completely restored, and on the 
following Sunday the President visited the Collingwood 
to express his regret that the action of his official at 
Tacna should for a moment have impaired the amicable 
relations that had always existed between the two 
countries. He was received on board with full honours : 
a salute of twenty-one guns was fired and the yards were 
manned. It is stated that the President's only com- 
plaint to the British Minister was that the Admiral's 
Flag Lieutenant, when he was sent to deliver the ulti- 
matum, marched down the street " with himself on one 
side, and his sword on the other, as if all Lima belonged 
to him." This can easily be imagined by those who had 
the honour and pleasure of the acquaintance of the Flag 
Lieutenant ! 


The President on this occasion was attired in a gor- 
geous uniform, and wore an enormous pair of cavalry 
boots. These attracted so much attention that the 
officers of the Collingwood forthwith nicknamed him 
" Old Boots," by which name he was always known 
thereafter on board ! 

It may perhaps be of interest to hear how St. Patrick's 
Day, or rather Night, was celebrated in the gunroom 
mess of a British man-of-war on a foreign station seventy 
years ago. The proceedings were organised by the 
Senior Assistant Surgeon, Dr. Nicholls, and carried out 
under his special supervision. He was an Irishman, 
and is described by Markham as a tall, good-looking man 
with bushy auburn whiskers, a very good fellow. We are 
told that the entire mess sat round the gunroom table, 
at the head of which was Dr. Nicholls. In front of him 
were three large soup tureens and an abundant supply 
of the necessary ingredients for the brewing of punch, 
of which the doctor had the reputation of being the best 
compounder in the Navy. In due course of time thirty- 
four tumblers containing the steaming and insidious 
beverage were passed round the table, one for each 
person. The proceedings then commenced by Dr. 
Nicholls singing " Kathleen Mavourneen." This was 
followed by many of Dibdin's songs, such as " Tom 
Bowling " and others. Those who did not sing helped at 
any rate to swell the choruses. At 9.30 the Sergeant of 
Marines poked his head into the gunroom and reported 
three bells, and demanded, in accordance with the regu- 
lations of the Service, that the lights be extinguished. 
As this would effectually put a stop to the conviviality 
of the evening, a request was sent up to the Commander 
that lights might be specially granted for another hour. 
The request, however, was refused, and the lights were 
ordered to be put out at once. It was an order that had 
to be complied with; so the doctor addressed a few 
well chosen words to his messmates, apologising for the 
unceremonious interruption, and concluding with the 


remark that, as the order must be obeyed, they would 
sing the last songs in the dark. The tumblers were 
refilled, the Sergeant received a glass of punch, the 
lights were put out, and the hilarity continued. The 
last song, " Come, landlord, fill the flowing bowl," was 
sung in profound darkness; at its conclusion they all 
retired to their hammocks, " after spending a very 
pleasant evening." 


AFTER a stay at Callao lasting over a couple of months, 
the Admiral decided, for political and other reasons, to 
pay a visit to Tahiti and the Sandwich Islands. The 
prospect of making personal acquaintance with these 
lovely islands of the tropical Pacific was hailed with 
delight, especially by the younger officers in the ship, 
who were getting somewhat weary of their long spell 
off the coasts of Chile and Peru. On the i6th of July, 
1845, the Collingwood, accompanied by the corvette 
Modest e, sailed from Callao, and, favoured by a fine 
fresh trade wind, made excellent progress towards Tahiti. 
The wind was aft, the yards were square, studding sails 
on both sides were set, and the ship was making seven 
to eight knots an hour. Everybody was in good spirits, 
happy and contented, and Markham was thoroughly 
enjoying the voyage. 

He was much interested in the study of navigation, 
so closely associated as it is with astronomy. He 
loved taking celestial observations during his night 
watches, and he devoted much time and attention to 
navigation, nautical astronomy, and trigonometry. He 
strove to remember and to act upon all the good advice 
given to him by his friend Lieutenant Peel, and did all 
in his power to behave in such a way as would have 
pleased him, especially in attending zealously to every 
branch of his professional duties. He also arranged for 
himself a regular course of reading, perusing only those 
books from which he could acquire good and useful 
knowledge. Yet he always found plenty of time for 

skylarking ! 

4 8 


Sunday, the 2oth of July, was his fifteenth birthday. 
He dined that day in the wardroom as the guest of one 
of the wardroom officers, and afterwards kept the six 
to eight watch, called the " last dog watch."* Every- 
thing seemed bright and happy, yet even then dark 
clouds were gathering above Markham's head, which 
were fated to burst before the lapse of many days. 

It appears that the Naval Instructor had worked out 
a lunar observation (as an example for the midshipmen 
to adopt) in the details of which Markham unfortunately 
detected a mistake. It was not in the simple addition 
or subtraction of the figures, or in the taking out of a 
logarithm, but in having made use, erroneously, of a 
printed table which was not the right one. Markham 
stupidly made a joke of it, which not unnaturally made 
the Naval Instructor very cross, and this ill-humour 
increased as time went on. Every Saturday it was the 
rule of the Captain to inspect the log-books of the 
junior officers to see that they were correctly written 
and up-to-date, and to receive reports of the general 
conduct and behaviour of the midshipmen during the 
current week. On this particular occasion the Naval 
Instructor reported that Markham's conduct was ex- 
tremely unsatisfactory. He further stated that he was 
very conceited, and that he was at times most im- 

* The watches on board ship are divided during the twenty-four 
hours into five watches of four hours each namely, the forenoon 
watch (commencing at 8 a.m.), the afternoon, the first, the middle, 
and the morning watches. The two " dog watches " are from 
4 p.m. to 6 p.m., and from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. The latter are so 
called facetiously because these watches are " cur-tailed " ! Some 
assert that they are so named in consequence of the deck being 
left during these hours to the charge of a dog, while the skipper and 
mates go below for rest and their evening meal. The object of 
splitting up the period from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m. into two dog-watches, 
is to divide the twenty-four hours into an uneven number (5) of 
watches. If the day was divided into an equal number of watches, 
each of four hours' duration, the officers and men would be keeping 
always the same watches each day and night. To obviate this the 
' dog-watches " were instituted. 


pertinent. He added that Markham had called the 
author of a book which he had lent him to read a 
" donkey " in a most offensive way. Poor Markham 
was aghast at hearing these unfounded accusations, and 
endeavoured to explain that the book in question was 
not lent to him by the Naval Instructor, but by one of 
his messmates, and he explained that when he designated 
the author of the work as a " donkey," the Naval In- 
structor cordially agreed with him. 

The Captain, however, would not listen to any ex- 
planation or excuses, but, saying " This will never do," 
ordered him to be punished by standing on the poop 
from eight o'clock in the morning until sunset. Mark- 
ham was furious at what he considered the injustice 
of his punishment. But his cup of bitterness was not 
yet filled, for a few days after this occurrence he learnt 
that Carr, one of the captains of the maintop who had 
been disrated by the Captain for drunkenness at Callao, 
was to be flogged the next morning for a repetition of the 
offence. Filled with uncontrollable remorse, and carried 
away by his extreme sensitiveness, without thinking of 
the breach of discipline that he was committing, he impul- 
sively ran into the Captain's cabin, neglecting even the 
formality of knocking at the door. Full of pity for the 
poor man who had, in his opinion, been sentenced to so 
cruel a punishment, he took all the blame on his own 
shoulders, telling the Captain that he (Markham) had 
given Carr a bottle of rum at Spithead which must have 
been his ruin, and piteously pleaded forgiveness for 
the man. The Captain, as may well be supposed, was 
very angry at this intrusion, followed by such an un- 
heard-of request, and replied : " How dare you come into 
my cabin without knocking, and with such nonsense ! 
Leave the cabin immediately." 

Carr received thirty-six lashes the next morning, and 
Markham went about with hatred in his heart and clouds 
on his brow. His friends Sherard Osborn and Good- 
enough did their best to soothe his ruffled spirit, and 


endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation with the 
Naval Instructor, but all to no effect. His veracity had 
been impugned, his honour had been called in question, 
he had been unjustly punished, and he declared that he 
hated the Service, he hated the Captain of the ship, and 
he would never speak to the Naval Instructor again 
except on duty; that he despised him, would never 
forgive him, and would never enter his cabin again. 

His anger at the treatment he had received knew no 
bounds. He candidly admitted in after-years that he 
was at that time the most mutinous person in the ship. 
He purposely carried out his drills and instruction in a 
slovenly manner, and when sent for by the Gunnery 
Lieutenant he refused to come. Goodenough even- 
tually persuaded him to obey, and when Lieutenant 
Bathurst asked him why he was so long, he would not 
deign to reply. The Lieutenant then gave him a single- 
stick, and, taking another, proceeded to fence with him. 
Seeing that Markham was careless and indifferent, he 
said: " If you do not defend yourself better, and show 
the proper guards when I call them, I shall hit you." 
He would not show the guard when called, but instead 
hit the Gunnery Lieutenant as hard as he could over 
the shoulder. This was reported to the Captain, and 
he was placed under arrest. The Captain informed him 
that he would make a special report of his conduct in 
writing to the Commander-in-Chief, as it was far too 
serious a case for him to deal with. Lieutenant Bathurst 
was terribly perturbed about it all, and eventually per- 
suaded the Commander to intervene with the Captain. 
The result was that Markham was ordered to return to 
duty, and nothing more was said or done about it. 

The harshness of the treatment he had received at 
the hands of the Captain and the Naval Instructor, 
however, rankled in his- mind for a long time, and gave 
him a distaste for the Navy which was very real. He 
was a boy that could only be managed by tact and 
sympathetic kindness ; severity did not appeal to him in 


any way, and after the unpleasant incidents to which we 
have alluded he felt very unhappy and forlorn. The 
wardroom officers were, however, most kind to him, and 
several, including Mr. Wemyss and Beauchamp Sey- 
mour, gave him the free run of their cabins. The 
former officer had shelves put up for his young friend's 
books, and the latter told him to come and sit in his 
cabin every afternoon, adding characteristically: " I 
shall kick you out whenever I want the cabin to myself; 
at other times, you are always welcome." But, as Mark- 
ham remarked at the time, " What is a palace with 
a sore heart and a discontented mind ?" 

Arriving off Tahiti, the Admiral and his staff proceeded 
on shore, leaving the Collingwood outside cruising under 
easy sail off the harbour, but within signal distance of 
the shore. When the Captain was keeping his own table, 
which only occurred when the Admiral was away, it was 
his invariable custom to invite the midshipman of the 
morning watch to breakfast with him. When it came to 
Markham's turn, and the steward approached him to 
announce that breakfast was ready, he sent a message 
begging to be excused. A few minutes afterwards the 
officer of the watch sent for him, and informed him that 
it was the Captain's orders that he was to breakfast with 
him, and that he was to go in at once. He had to go, 
but with a very bad grace and a look of great discon- 
ment. The Captain, however, received him with a 
grim smile, piled up his plate with the good things on 
the table, and spoke so kindly about the wisest way to 
take things, even if they should be disagreeable (with- 
out, however, alluding in any way to recent incidents), 
that his heart was touched ; and he went out of the cabin 
with a much more friendly feeling towards his Captain, 
and a conviction that, in punishing him as he did, he 
only intended to carry out what he considered to be 
his duty. This made his mind more at ease, and as a 
consequence he became less discontented. 

The Admiral having rejoined, the Collingwood pro- 


ceeded to the Sandwich Islands without affording the 
officers an opportunity of landing at Tahiti, much to 
their disappointment. It was very provoking to be 
so many days in sight of this beautiful island, with its 
coast fringed with cocoanut-trees and the distant moun- 
tains covered to their summits with forest, without being 
able to pay it a visit. They were, however, in a measure 
compensated for this disappointment by their proximity 
to the harbour, whence they were able to obtain an 
immense quantity of luscious tropical fruit and vegetables, 
such as bananas, cheri moyas, bread-fruit, oranges, 
yams, etc., which were sent off to them as presents. 

During this cruise Markham became somewhat more 
settled ; but the unfortunate occurrences which gave him 
so much pain and distress during the early part of the 
cruise caused a veritable revolution in his thoughts and 
feelings. He brooded much over what he considered 
the unjust treatment that had been meted out to him, 
and the tyrannical way in which (in his opinion) punish- 
ment generally was administered. New places and new 
scenes, however, served in a great measure to distract 
his attention from his own troubles, and it was with a 
real feeling of pleasure that he rushed on deck to feast 
his eyes on the beautiful island of Hawaii, as they sailed 
up to the anchorage in Byron's Bay on the zoth of Sep- 
tember. High above on the hills bright cascades were 
falling over the rocks into the sea, green lawns extended 
in all directions at the bases of the hills dotted with 
clumps of cocoanut and bread-fruit trees, while the grace- 
ful banana and other tropical plants were a refreshing 
sight to those who had gazed on nothing but the bound- 
less ocean for so many days. 

Immediately the ship cast anchor she was surrounded 
by a crowd of canoes laden with turkeys, chickens, pine- 
apples, water-melons, and cocoanuts, which the natives 
endeavoured to dispose of to the best advantage. The 
men in the outside canoes would jump into the water, 
dive under the boats nearest the ship, and come up 



alongside the gangway with their merchandise in their 
hands. It was a lively and amusing spectacle. The 
canoes, fitted with an outrigger on one side to prevent 
them from capsizing, were about 12 feet in length, and 
capable of carrying one man besides the goods that were 
brought off for sale. 

Needless to say, there was an immediate rush for the 
shore by those who were granted permission to land, 
and Markham was one of the fortunate ones. The 
village, which stood at the head of the bay, consisted 
only of the beef-contractor's house, the shop of a China- 
man, and two or three huts. The first thing they did 
on landing was to make a native climb up a cocoanut- 
tree and throw down some of the nuts, from which they 
enjoyed a most refreshing drink. Then they turned 
their steps inland, and rambled about the country, 
visiting a magnificent waterfall over 70 feet in height 
whose waters dashed down into a large clear pool below. 
Here they bathed in company with a number of native 
boys and girls, who were thoroughly enjoying the sport. 
Being very hungry, and having nothing wherewithal to 
appease their appetites, they indicated their require- 
ments by signs to some amiable native women whom 
they met. They were at once taken into a hut in which 
were some fowls. Two were promptly caught and killed, 
and the party were then led to another larger hut con- 
structed of cocoanut poles thatched with fara leaves and 
furnished inside with mats. The chickens were cooked 
in a calabash orer an oven made of hot stones sunk in 
the ground. While dinner was being prepared, their new 
friends entertained them with music by playing on a 
reed instrument bent like a bow, having five strings 
of cocoanut fibre stretched across it. The meal, which 
was excellent, included a dish of tara root, with cocoa- 
nut milk to drink. It is needless to say it was much 
relished after their long and fatiguing walk. 

On the following day Markham formed one of a party 
from the ship, which landed at 5 a.m. with the express 


object of ascending the volcanic mountain of Kilauea, 
4,000 feet above sea-level. Horses carried them for 
some fifteen miles, after which came a steady climb up 
a steep stony ascent for about twelve miles, which 
brought them to a hut when they were almost ready to 
drop from fatigue. Here they rested for a while, and 
were attended to by some charming native girls who 
proceeded to knead them, a process that had a marvel- 
lously revivifying effect ! The operation was called lomi- 
lomi. Continuing the ascent, the crater was eventually 
reached. It is described as an immense basin, eight 
miles in circumference, with perpendicular sides. A 
fifth part of the area of the crater was literally a burning 
lake of lava of an ashy colour by daylight, with a livid 
tint ; but at night it was a perfect sheet of fire, and pre- 
sented a truly magnificent effect. They passed the 
night in the hut, and got on board the next evening 
at seven o'clock-, very weary, but having thoroughly 
enjoyed their expedition to Kilauea. 

Two days' sail with a fair wind and lovely weather 
brought them to the island of Oahu, where they dropped 
anchor, outside the reef in the open roadstead off Hono- 
lulu. The latter part of the voyage had been most 
delightful, the ship having to thread her way through 
the narrow channels between many of the principal 
islands comprising the group. On the day after their 
arrival Markham was sent ashore to deliver an official 
letter to a Mr. Wylie, who held the responsible position 
of Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Government of the 
Sandwich Islands. On learning the name of his visitor, 
Mr. Wylie asked him if he was any relation to Mrs. 
Mure of Caldwell, to which Markham replied : "Yes ; she 
is my aunt." Mr. Wylie then informed him that he was 
the son of a tenant farmer on the Caldwell estate, and 
therefore he would be happy to use all the influence he 
possessed to promote Markham 's wishes in any way, in 
memory of his young days in Ayrshire. On returning to 
the^ship, Markham boasted to the Flag Lieutenant, with 


pardonable exuberance of boyish conceit, that he had 
considerable influence with the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, which would be of inestimable value in the 
event of the Admiral desiring to carry out any im- 
portant negotiations with the Government. The Flag 
Lieutenant's only comment to this offer was: " Prodi- 
gious ! we shall now know to whom to apply !" 

While at Honolulu, the King of the Sandwich Islands 
paid the ship a visit. He was accompanied by his 
Ministers, including Mr. Wylie, and by several chiefs, 
one of whom was an enormous man 6 feet 8 inches in 
height, and weighing 23 stone 6 pounds. He also 
brought with him the heir- apparent, his son, named 
Alexander Liko-liko. All the officers were presented to 
His Majesty, who was then shown round the ship. He 
was keenly interested in everything he saw, especially 
in the details connected with the preparations for battle. 
Markham describes him as a middle-aged man of olive 
complexion, wearing a coat covered with gold lace, and 
a large cocked hat.* 

* The history of the sovereignty of the Sandwich Islands is brief 
but interesting. In 1795 Kamehameha, Chief of Hawaii (the 
largest of the Sandwich Islands), succeeded in conquering the whole 
group, and proclaimed himself King, establishing the seat of govern- 
ment at Honolulu, in the island of Oahu. Dying twenty-four years 
afterwards, he was succeeded by his son Liko-liko, who ascended the 
throne under the name of Kamehameha II. He embraced Chris- 
tianity in 1818, and his subjects followed his good example two 
years later. This monarch offered the protectorate of the islands 
to Great Britain, an offer that was most unwisely declined. In spite 
of this refusal, the King insisted on placing the Union Jack in the 
upper canton, or quarter, of the national flag, which till then con- 
sisted of nine alternate blue, red, and white horizontal stripes. In 
July, 1824, the King and Queen paid an official visit to England, 
where, unhappily, they both died of measles. Their remains were 
conveyed to Honolulu in H.M.S. Blonde, with many expressions of 
regret and sympathy from this country. The King was succeeded 
by his nephew, who became Kamehameha III. He renewed the 
offer of the sovereignty of the islands to Great Britain, and it was 
accepted for England by the senior naval officer on the station, 
Captain Lord George Paulet, of H.M.S. Carysfort, and the British 
flag was hoisted at Honolulu. His lordship's action was not, how- 


Markham made good use of the time he spent at Hono- 
lulu. Various excursions were made both on foot and 
on horseback, and he carried away with him many happy 
recollections of his visit. In company with one or more 
of his friends, he would start off for a walk to the Salt 
Lake, a distance of ten miles over a very difficult country, 
in sultry weather; and many times he longed for the 
delightful lomi-lomi process that had proved so efficacious 
on their ascent of the Kilauea volcano ! The water in 
this lake is reputed to be five times more salt than sea- 
water; it leaves thick white saline incrustations along 
the banks of the lake. 

Another most delightful excursion he made with some 
of his brother officers was to a place called Pari, about 
eight miles from Honolulu. After riding for about an 
hour through tara fields which, like the paddy-fields of 
China, are kept under water in order to promote more 
rapid growth, they emerged upon a totally different 
scene. They found themselves in a deep narrow valley, 
bounded on each side by stupendous mountains clothed 
with trees to their summits, while numerous cascades 
poured their waters down the hills into the valley. 
Proceeding, they reached a dense wood through which 
there was a narrow path which eventually brought them 
to a scene which they described as the most magnifi- 
cent they ever beheld. They were standing literally 
on the edge of a precipice 3,000 feet above the level of 
the sea. Below was a verdant plain interspersed with 
hill and dale, woods and hamlets, and beyond was the 
deep blue sea. Behind were the lofty tree-clad moun- 
tains, and on each side they beheld perpendicular preci- 
pices over which it is said Kamehameha drove and 
destroyed the army of the Chief of Oahu in 1790. 
Nowhere in the world is it possible to find scenery to 

ever, approved by the English Government, and the British flag 
was hauled down again by Admiral Thomas in 1843. Thus were 
lost to our country these beautiful islands, with their simple and 
loyal inhabitants, who had always evinced a strong desire to become 
politically attached to Great Britain and its free institutions. 


exceed, or even equal, the transcendental loveliness of 
this beautiful island : it is absolutely incomparable ! 

On one occasion Markham was invited to the house 
of Dr. Rooke, an Englishman, where he played 
" rounders " with his adopted daughter, Emma Rooke, 
who subsequently married the heir -apparent. She 
came to England in 1865 on a visit, and was known 
and respected as " Queen Emma of the Sandwich 
Islands." It was during this visit to Honolulu that he 
first made the acquaintance of Lieutenant M'Clintock,* 
with whom in after-years he was so closely associated 
in the search for Sir John Franklin, and subsequently 
in matters relating to Polar exploration. M'Clintock at 
this time was serving as a lieutenant in H.M. brig Frolic. 

During their stay at Honolulu they experienced a 
violent gale of wind which lasted over forty-eight hours, 
during which time the safety of the ship was seriously 
imperilled. Happily, no untoward event happened. 
From Honolulu they returned, much to their delight, to 
Tahiti, which at that time was passing through a some- 
what serious political crisis. On their way the ship 
sailed close along the land at Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii, 
a place rendered memorable as the scene of the murder 
of Captain James Cook by the natives on the i4th of 
February, 1779. 

On the 4th of November they sighted the moun- 
tains of Tahiti, and shortly afterwards were boarded by 
Captain Hammond, of the Salamander, who from the 
foreyard piloted them safely through the narrow en- 
trance in the reef only 200 yards in width to their 
anchorage in Papeete Harbour. The French protec- 
torate flag was flying, and was duly saluted by the 
Collingwood with twenty-one guns . 

It will not be out of place here to give a brief 
account of the events that happened immediately prior 
to the arrival of the ship, and which really led to the 
Collingwood 's visit. This beautiful island was discovered 

* Admiral Sir Leopold M'Clintock, K.C.B., F.R.S. 


by Captain Wallis in 1 767, and though at first the natives 
opposed his landing, friendly relations were speedily 
established and the English met with a warm and 
friendly reception. 

Oberea, the Queen Regent, accompanied by Tupia, her 
Minister, paid several visits to the ship, and the utmost 
harmony and good feeling existed between the natives and 
their visitors. This visit of Captain Wallis was followed 
shortly after by the appearance on the scene of a French 
man-of-war commanded by M. de Bougainville. This 
gentleman created much -bad feeling by shooting some 
of the natives, in consequence, so it was reported, of 
turbulent and aggressive behaviour on their part. In 
1769 Captain Cook arrived, for the purpose of observing 
the transit of Venus. He found that Otu, nephew of 
Oberea, was King. Captain Cook was again at Tahiti 
in 1772, and again, for the last time, in 1778. Nothing 
could be better or more encouraging than the good feel- 
ing that existed between the natives and ourselves at 
that period. 

Shortly after the departure of Captain Cook, however, 
a formidable confederacy was formed, having for its 
object the deposition of King Otu; and civil war was 
the inevitable result. It was at this time that the 
Bounty in charge of the mutineers returned to Tahiti.* 
They threw in their lot with the King and enabled him 
to gain an important victory over the rebels, after which 
they took their departure from Tahiti, and sailed for 
Pitcairn Island, where, having married Tahitian wives, 

* The Bounty, it will be remembered, had been despatched from 
England under the command of Lieutenant Bligh for the purpose 
of collecting plants of the bread-fruit tree and transporting them 
to the West Indies for cultivation. So enraptured were the crew 
with the islands, and especially with the inhabitants of Tahiti, 
that on proceeding to sea they mutinied, put their Captain and 
nineteen men into a boat with a small supply of provisions near 
the Friendly Islands, and took the ship back to Tahiti. Here they 
married Tahitian wives, and migrated to Pitcairn Island, where 
they settled. Their descendants still inhabit Pitcairn and Norfolk 


they settled down. King Otu married Idia , heiress of the 
neighbouring island of Eimeo, and took the name and 
title of Pomare I. In 1797 English missionaries arrived 
and were well received, and Christianity was introduced 
and adopted by a great majority of the inhabitants. 

In 1810 Rua, an important chief, seized the sacred 
god Oro, as well as the regalia, and was thus the cause of 
another civil war. He was, however, defeated and killed, 
and the rebellion was successfully crushed, only, how- 
ever, to be followed by another rising, when the King 
(Pomare II.) was forced to take refuge in his island of 
Eimeo. During his exile he became a Christian; and 
returning to Tahiti in 1815, he engaged and defeated 
the rebels in a great battle. Pomare behaved with much 
clemency to the vanquished, many of whom he persuaded 
to become Christians. The god Oro and all the idols 
were destroyed, and the shocking custom of infanticide 
was abolished. Schools were established under the 
auspices of the missionaries, and a new code of laws was 
framed and put in force in 1819. 

King Pomare died in 1824, his loss being much re- 
gretted by the chiefs and people. His son, Pomare III., 
was then an infant, and died when he was only seven 
years old. He was succeeded by his sister Aimata, who 
was proclaimed Queen when she was sixteen years of 
age, and took the name of Pomare IV. She married a 
young chieftain named Arifaiti. In 1832 a rebellion 
broke out, but was speedily suppressed, and the young 
Queen's affairs began to prosper. At this juncture a 
Mr. Pritchard, who had been a coppersmith and had 
become a missionary, was made British Consul at Tahiti, 
a most unwise and ill advised appointment. 

During all this time the inhabitants were clamouring 
for the British Government to assume a protectorate over 
the islands, which would have assisted the Tahitians to 
work out their destiny in their own way, and would have 
saved them from what they most dreaded a French 
occupation. But this request was refused by us in spite 


of the earnest entreaties of the islanders. Our error 
and want of foresight in not acceding to their request 
was only too soon made apparent. Intrigues were pro- 
moted by sending French priests to Tahiti. They were 
requested to leave, and eventually took their departure, 
but not before they had spread broadcast the imaginary 
benefits to be derived by the annexation of the islands 
to France. 

Shortly after their departure Captain Du Petit- 
Thouars arrived in command of a French frigate, and 
threatened to bombard Papeete if an indemnity was 
not immediately paid for some imaginary insults offered 
to the priests. The merchants and missionaries collected 
the money, and the indemnity was paid. Subsequently 
an adventurer named Moerenhout unjustifiably possessed 
himself of a piece of land, but was compelled to restore 
it to its rightful owner. In consequence of this unlawful 
seizure, the French corvette Heroine was despatched to 
Tahiti, with orders to destroy the town if Moerenhout did 
not at once receive back the land which he had originally 
stolen and appropriated. At the same time this man 
received the appointment of French Consul. 

Of course all these demands, although most unjust, 
had to be complied with, for the people were not in a 
position to resist. One demand followed another. Under 
the stress of force majeure in the shape of the guns of a 
French frigate, all demands had to be acceded to. Land 
had to be given, on which to build a Roman Catholic 
chapel, and priests of that denomination were to be 
granted permission to reside in the island, with leave 
and authority to convert any one desirous of embracing 
that faith. 

In 1842, during the absence of the Queen at Eimeo, 
attempts were made to induce the disaffected chiefs to 
ask for a French protectorate over the islands. They 
would not, however, be traitors to their country, and 
declined. Another pretext had to be found. It came 
at last. During a street brawl a Frenchman declared 


he had been pushed and assaulted by the natives. The 
French Admiral was sent for. He arrived in the Reine 
Blanche, and demanded, under the usual threat of bom- 
bardment, an indemnity of $10,000. He then invited 
the chiefs on board his ship, plied them with good cheer, 
and persuaded them to sign a document. The Queen, 
who was very ill at the time, was also induced to sign. 
This document purported to be a grant to the French 
of a protectorate over Tahiti and Eimeo, including also 
the whole of the Society Islands, over which, however, 
Pomare had no jurisdiction. A Governor with a large 
escort of troops was sent out from France, and protec- 
tion for the islands was practically enforced by the con- 
struction of fortifications. 

The people were utterly taken by surprise, for they 
had always relied (not without good reason) on English 
protection and support. Certainly they had excellent 
grounds for such reliance. Tahiti was discovered by the 
English; both countries had traditions of the happy 
intercourse with Cook and his officers; English mis- 
sionaries had converted the islanders to Christianity; 
and civilisation had come to them through the help and 
advice of the Captains of English men-of-war. For 
more than half a century they had intimate and happy 
relations with our country, and they earnestly desired 
to be placed under our protection. A statesman with 
the knowledge of these facts before him, and with 
any foresight, would have acceded to their request in 
time to prevent another nation from stepping in and 
assuming, vi et armis, the protectorate. 

Abandoned by us, the Tahitians were not prepared to 
hand over their country to a foreign Power without a 
struggle for liberty. In March, 1844, they rose in arms, 
and assembled a large and fairly well equipped army. 
Mr. Pritchard, the British Consul before alluded to, was 
accused of aiding and abetting the natives. He was 
arrested, imprisoned in a blockhouse, and his own house 
was attacked and pillaged. After a long detention he 
was eventually sent on board H.M.S. Vindictive on the 


urgent demand of her Captain. Queen Pomare escaped 
and took refuge on board H.M.S. Basilisk, and was 
taken to the island of Raiatea in the Society Group. 

Meanwhile the French Governor, supported by a 
couple of men-of-war, landed troops and field-guns and 
proceeded to attack the islanders. The ships opened fire 
with shell and grape, but there was a gallant defence. 
Eventually the Tahitians retired, and took refuge in a 
forest in their rear. The French casualties on this occa- 
sion amounted to 200. Several skirmishes followed, 
and early in 1845 the native army met with some slight 
successes, in spite of the French having the command 
of the sea, and were on that account placed in a better 
position for carrying out warlike operations. 

This was the position of affairs when the Collingwood 
arrived in Papeete Harbour in November, 1845. Sir 
George Seymour's instructions were to acknowledge the 
French protectorate at Tahiti and Eimeo, it being un 
fait accompli, but he was to prevent the extension of the 
protectorate to the other islands of the group, if possible, 
by collating evidence of their absolute independence of 
Tahiti, and by negotiations based on such evidence. 


I gaze upon the sea where, as a child, 

Each billow loved me as it laved the shore; 

'Tis crimsoned now ! its rush is sad and wild, 

And sea-birds scream where rest they found before. 

I gaze upon the beach where banners gay 
Once greeted poor Pomare and her son; 

But pirates stole my rightful flag away, 

While Britons stood and wept yet saw it done. 

Proud Britain told me, should those pirates send, 
She would protect me from their thirsty hate; 

Alas ! e'en Britain's Queen forgets her friend: 
Pomare falls, and murderers rule her State. 

Farewell, Tahiti 1 once again farewell 1 
When future tribes recite Pomare's fall, 

The gushing tear may speak her feelings well : 
She falls, an injured Queen deceived by all. 


THE conditions prevailing at Tahiti on the arrival of the 
Collingwood in Papeete Harbour have been briefly 
narrated in the preceding chapter. Markham was in- 
tensely excited over the events that were being enacted 
within the ken, at any rate, of his mental vision. His 
sympathies were, as they always have been, with the 
oppressed; and these feelings were shared by all his 
shipmates, although perhaps with less enthusiasm. He 
writes that on their arrival at Papeete " two chiefs paid 
us a visit from the patriot camp at Bonavia, and en- 
treated the Admiral to attack the French. On being 
told this was impossible, they went away very sorrowful, 
but with our warmest sympathy." 

Many of the officers of the Collingwood were boiling 
over with indignation at the treatment their beloved 
islanders were being subjected to at the hands of the 
French, and earnestly implored that they might be per- 
mitted to assist the army of patriots in fighting for their 
liberty, their homes, their country, and everything that 
was worth living for. Markham, although only a boy 
of fifteen, was even more emphatic than his shipmates 
in his endeavours to assist the islanders in as practical 
a way as could be devised. As he was not allowed to 
take up arms on their behalf, he determined to get as 
much information regarding the strength and position 
of the French forces as was possible, and communicate 
it to the islanders. He did not consider that in so doing 
he was committing a serious breach of neutrality, and 
that it was an act that would certainly be regarded as 

espionage bv the French. 

6 4 


The first time he went on shore, it was with the de- 
liberate intention of reconnoitring the French position, 
and of obtaining as much information as he could re- 
garding their intentions and strength. He drew up a 
plan of the various fortifications, the size and number 
of the guns, the positions of the powder-magazines, and 
all such information as he considered to be of military 
importance. He also went on board a couple of French 
men-of-war in the harbour, the Uranie and the Phaeton, 
and, although on duty, he carefully noted all particulars 
regarding their armaments, the numerical strength of 
the crews, and all other particulars that he regarded 
as likely to be of value to the Tahitians. 

Having completed what he was pleased to call his 
" reconnaissance," he discovered, after some inquiries, 
that there was an Englishman named Miles who kept a 
public-house in the town, who would in all probability 
be of use to him. Accordingly, he went to this man, 
found him at home, asked him a few guarded questions, 
and was convinced by his replies that he was on the 
side of the patriots. Under a solemn vow of secrecy, 
Miles informed him that the military adviser of the 
native chiefs was a Maltese named Vincente, and that 
he sometimes visited Papeete in disguise. Markham, 
speaking in a whisper, said he had something of great 
importance to communicate to him, and begged that he 
would arrange a meeting. This Miles agreed to do in a 
few days. Markham returned on board that evening 
brimming over with delight at the fascinating idea of 
being a conspirator. Doubtless the French would have 
called him by another name I 

Having drawn up his report and completed his plans, 
he obtained leave for the whole day on the 1 1 th of 
November, and, so that no time should be lost, left the 
ship at five o'clock in the morning, accompanied by 
three of his brother officers. Breakfast was ready for 
them at Miles 's house, after partaking of which they 
proceeded on foot through a most enchanting country, 


along a path in a dense wood of guava bushes. Above 
them rose clumps of tall cocoanut-trees, while groves 
of orange-trees waved their graceful branches overhead. 
With these and other delicious fruits they constantly 
refreshed themselves. At length they entered a beauti- 
ful valley bounded by lofty mountains, and having a 
rippling stream flowing down the centre. This was the 
Fatona Valley. Presently they found a clear, inviting 
pool, in which, as a matter of course, they bathed. 
At the end of the valley was a cluster of huts. One of 
these was the abode of an old chief named Tomafas, who 
invariably hoisted the British Flag on a staff over his 
hut whenever any Englishman passed. They came to 
the conclusion that the Tahitian huts were neater and 
cleaner than those in the Sandwich Islands, and that the 
men were more handsome and the women more beautiful. 
Thoroughly tired with their long walk, they returned 
to Papeete in time for the dinner which was being pre- 
pared for them at Miles 's inn. While waiting, Miles 
made a sign to Markham to follow him out to the back 
of the house, where he found a repulsive-looking ruffian 
drinking spirits. This was Vincente. Markham ques- 
tioned this ferocious-looking individual regarding details 
of the native army and their entrenched camp . The man 
boasted extravagantly of his personal deeds and what he 
was going to do . Markham then gave him for conveyance 
to his military commander his report and plans of the 
French positions, and intimated to him that the English 
would willingly fight on their side if only they were per- 
mitted to do so. All this conversation of the conspira- 
tors was carried on in a whisper. On being interrogated 
about his previous life, Vincente said he had lived a long 
time at the Marquesas, and told harrowing stories of the 
different sorts of people he had eaten during his resi- 
dence there. Fortunately, Markham was called away by 
the announcement that dinner was ready; and he does 
not seem to have had any further communication with 
this rascal. 


Markham was not the only one among the officers of 
the Collingwood who were willing to risk almost anything 
and everything in order to evince their personal interest 
in the cause of the Tahitians. Mr. Grant, one of the 
mates, was even more enthusiastic, if possible, than his 
younger brother officer, and was quite ready to sacrifice 
his position in the Navy, and even his life, if by so 
doing he could assist the islanders to gain emancipation 
from the thraldom of the French. He was furious at 
the way in which they were being treated, and was wild 
to join the ranks of the patriots. He was, perhaps, a 
little mortified that Markham should have rendered so 
much material assistance by disclosing the dispositions 
of the French, while he had not been afforded the oppor- 
tunity of doing anything of so important a nature. 

Early on Sunday morning, however, Mr. Grant went on 
shore without indicating to anyone what he was going to 
do. Markham was very anxious about him all day. He 
returned very late, and was extremely reticent as to his 
doings ; but Markham felt sure he had been to visit the 
patriot army, which was entrenched near Bonavia, on 
the west side of the island. On the following day the 
Admiral himself went to the camp at Bonavia, in order 
to satisfy himself regarding the state of affairs among 
the troops of the native army, and also to advise them 
to submit quietly to the French. 

The ship was ordered to sea the next morning. Every- 
one was taken by surprise, and Markham was much 
alarmed, for he could not help connecting the Admiral's 
visit to the camp with the sudden putting to sea of the 
Collingwood; and he feared that their departure was asso- 
ciated in some way with Mr. Grant's expedition on the 
previous Sunday. His fears were soon realised, for no 
sooner was the ship outside the harbour than the Cap- 
tain sent for all the gunroom officers on the quarter- 
deck. There was an ominous scowl on his face, indi- 
cative of anger and displeasure. He asked " if any 
officer had given a British flag to the insurgents ; if so 


he was to confess at once." There was perfect silence 
for a moment or two; then Mr. Grant stepped forward 
and acknowledged that he had; Markham fully ex- 
pected that the next question would be: " Has any 
officer given any important military advice to the 
Tahitian General, or supplied him with plans and in- 
formation ?" He had made up his mind to step proudly 
forward as a second conspirator and acknowledge his 
share in the confederacy. But the question was not 
put, and the officers were dismissed. 

Mr. Grant was placed under arrest. On going below 
he sent for the barber, and told him to shave his head, 
observing that he would at any rate " be cool and com- 
fortable." He afterwards informed Markham that it 
was quite true : he had visited the camp at Bonavia, and 
had been received with demonstrations of joy by the 
patriots; he had presented them with an English boat's 
ensign, which was immediately hoisted; and had urged 
them to attack the French, assuring them that, when 
they did so, he and others would C9me out and lead them 
to victory under that flag. When the Admiral visited 
the camp the day after Grant's escapade, he was shown 
the boat's ensign with great manifestations of pride and 

Whether this episode hastened their departure from 
Tahiti or not was never known. No doubt Sir George 
Seymour sailed because he realised that his presence at 
Papeete was no longer necessary. Markham was filled 
with shame and despair; he had been living in hopes 
that Grant would have held a high position in the Tahi- 
tian forces; that he (Markham) would have been his 
aide-de-camp ; and that one of the jollyboat boys named 
Moray, in whom he was particularly interested, would 
have been his orderly. Sic transit gloria mundi ! 

Grant reproached himself for not having joined the 
patriots on the spot; he fully intended doing so, but the 
sudden and unexpected sailing of the ship capsized all 
his arrangements. He was kept under arrest during the 


remainder of the voyage, then dismissed his ship, and 
sent home in another man-of-war. Markham writes of 

" He was a hero. He could not endure injustice or 
oppression. He was absolutely without fear. No better 
fellow ever trod a deck, and it was a bitter moment for 
me when I bade him farewell." 

Meanwhile the Collingwood visited many of the islands 
of the Society Group, making inquiries from the chiefs 
as to whether they were under the jurisdiction of Queen 
Pomare. On being informed that they had absolute 
autonomy, and owed no allegiance to any other Sover- 
eign, the Admiral advised them to keep quiet and peace- 
ful among themselves ; " but," he added, " if any foreign 
Power attempts to land an armed force on your islands 
with a view to annexation, your resistance will be justi- 
fiable." At Tahiti Sir George Seymour was directed, by 
positive instructions from home, to recognise the French 
Protectorate ; but at the Society Islands he had the much 
more congenial task of preventing them from falling 
under the same foreign yoke. 

Among other places visited by them during this cruise 
was the island of Bola-bola. Before anchoring, the 
Collingwood was boarded outside the harbour by an 
officer from the French man-of-war Phaeton, with in- 
structions from the French senior naval officer to inform 
the Admiral that the harbour was blockaded by order 
of the French Protectorate, and that the ship could not 
be permitted to enter. 

The Admiral was very angry. No notice of a blockade 
had been promulgated, nor were there any indications 
of the existence of one. The Admiral therefore regarded 
the message as a piece of official presumption on the part 
of the French authorities ; and, sending for the officer, he 
said : " Tell your Captain from me that the French Pro- 
tectorate of Tahiti has no jurisdiction here, as he well 
knows; and if there is a blockade, I shall break it." 
The French officer having been thus somewhat sum- 



marily dismissed, the Collingwood entered the harbour 
and anchored close alongside the Phaeton ! 

Otiavanna Harbour, the principal port in Bola-bola, 
is an excellent anchorage, well protected, and capable 
of accommodating a large number of ships. It is formed 
by a small island covered with cocoanut-trees stretching 
across the mouth of the bay, thus acting as an efficient 
breakwater. The " town " consisted of a church, the 
house of the missionary, and the royal residence, 
besides a few huts. At the back of the " town " was 
a magnificent mass of rock rising to a perpendicular 
height of 4,000 feet, covered with trees at such places 
as were not absolutely precipitous. 

Immediately after the ship's arrival, the Flag 
Lieutenant was despatched to the native camp with 
an invitation to the chiefs to meet the Admiral, who 
was in a position, he stated, to promise them protection 
from the French. They willingly accepted the invita- 
tion, and in the evening assembled in an open space in 
front of the King's house to the number of about 600. 

Sir George Seymour addressed them, and ten- 
dered them the same good advice he had given 
to the natives of the other islands. On the following 
day crowds of natives visited the ship. They per- 
formed special native dances, and the best of good feeling 
was established between the islanders and the officers 
and men of the Collingwood. It may be remarked 
here that Sir George Seymour had been indefatigable 
in his endeavours to collect conclusive evidence that 
Tahiti did not, then or at any other time, possess 
jurisdiction over the Society Islands. As a consequence 
of his representations, a treaty was signed in London 
on the ipth of June, 1847, m which England and 
France acknowledged the absolute independence, free 
from all French jurisdiction, of the smaller islands of 
the Society Group. These especially included the islands 
Huaheine, Raiatea, and Bola-bola, together with the 
smaller islands dependent on these greater ones. The 


treaty also stipulated that neither France nor England 
should ever " take possession of the said islands, nor 
of any one or more of them, either absolutely or under 
the title of a protectorate, or in any other form what- 
ever." This treaty was signed on behalf of England 
by Lord Palmerston, and of France by the Comte de 
Jarnac. But in recent years this solemn pledge has 
been unscrupulously broken by the French, and, so 
far as we know, without any protest on the part of the 
British Government. 

Christmas day of 1845 was spent at sea, when all the 
youngsters of the gunroom mess were entertained at 
dinner by the wardroom officers, who regaled them 
with turkey and mince-pies. On the 29th of December, 
after having been thirty-four consecutive days at sea, 
the ship anchored at Valparaiso. 

On landing, Markham's first visit was to Lady Sey- 
mour to thank her for all the kindness she had shown him 
when he was last at that port. She replied, thought- 
lessly, that she was sorry to hear he had not been such 
a good boy during the last cruise. This showed him 
only too clearly that all his troubles had been reported 
to the Admiral, had been brought to the knowledge 
of the Admiral's family, and, as he thought, possibly 
presented in a garbled and one-sided version. At this 
time a little kindness and sympathy would have worked 
wonders with the boy. At heart he was exceedingly 
unhappy, more especially when his thoughts turned 
on the important question of his future career in the 
Navy. A great change had unconsciously come over 
him. During the past six months he had been treated 
with what he considered gross injustice; his passions 
had been aroused; he had learnt to distrust and to be 
suspicious. He had undoubtedly lost his best friend and 
adviser when Lieutenant Peel left the ship. It is true 
he made other friends, but none were comparable to 
the one he had lost. His heart had been scorched 
by strong emotions and seared by disappointment. 


There was no one in whom he could confide. He felt 
helpless and friendless, and he began to discuss, even 
if he did not criticise adv/ersely, the Navy as a profes- 
sion. He was then fifteen and a half years of age, 
but was both mentally and physically in advance of 
his years. 

Fortunately, however, there was much going on in the 
ship which had the effect of distracting his thoughts 
and turning them from his own grievances, whether 
imaginary or real, into channels which could not be 
otherwise than interesting. The mizen-mast was re- 
ported to be in an unsound condition. It had to be 
hoisted out, towed on shore, surveyed and made 
efficient, and then put back in its place and rigged. A 
merchant ship arrived from England with a new main- 
yard and other spars for the Collingwood ; these had 
all to be received on board. 

It is customary in a man-of-war to appoint to each 
of her boats a midshipman who is entirely responsible for 
its cleanliness, its efficiency, its crew, and everything 
appertaining to it. Markham, being the junior Naval 
Cadet in the ship, had not been selected for the command 
of a boat, in spite of his earnest entreaties for the posi- 
tion. His delight may be imagined when he was sent 
for by the Commander, and informed that he had 
been appointed to take charge of the dinghy. Now, 
the dinghy was the smallest boat in the ship and had 
a crew of only two boys ; moreover, in this instance one 
was a " lanky white-headed boy," and the other a 
" negro." Yet he was as pleased and as proud of his 
command as a young Captain when selected for his 
first ship. He almost lived in the dinghy, and kept it 
scrupulously clean and always ready for instant service. 
It was a source of unceasing interest, and assisted 
materially in alleviating those morose feelings that 
obtruded themselves in his thoughts, whenever he 
reflected on what he considered to be the unjust treat- 
ment he had received in the ship. 


On one occasion he and Goodenough decided upon 
having a good long ride, as far as they could go and 
return in one day, along the highroad to Santiago. 
They started as early as they could get away, and 
rode at a brisk pace to the first post-house, where the 
landlady, Mrs. Diggles, supplied them with a lunch 
of bread and cheese and beer. Mrs. D. had a black eye, 
and she informed Markham confidentially that Diggles 
was an escaped convict, leaving him to assume that her 
husband was the cause of her temporary disfigurement. 
Proceeding, they cantered over the wide grassy plain 
with which he and Lieutenant Peel had become ac- 
quainted during their previous visit to Valparaiso. 
Crossing a range of hills of considerable height, they 
reached a country well timbered and interspersed with 
small villages and haciendas. 

After a long and hot ride of thirty-five miles, they 
arrived at Casa Blanca, a pretty little town fringed with 
poplar-trees and surrounded by ranges of high hills . Here 
they found a very nice inn, kept by a Mr. and Mrs. Fen- 
wick, where they baited and rested their horses, and them- 
selves enjoyed a good dinner followed by some excellent 
quince jelly. The hostess was plump and charming. 
She addressed her guests as " darlings," and informed 
them that she was the daughter of an officer, and it 
was only the financial difficulties of her dear papa 
that induced her to marry Fen wick. Apparently she 
was of a very confiding nature, especially to strangers. 
Sne endeavoured to prevail upon them to stay the night, 
as the distance to Valparaiso was too great for them 
to ride back that evening. Markham willingly assented, 
but Goodenough, here as always, stepped in as his 
guardian angel, and insisted that they should return 
at once. He knew full well that his friend would only 
get into trouble again if he broke his leave. Sore and 
tired himself, he ordered the horses to be brought out, 
and compelled Markham to mount. He did so most 
reluctantly, and they set off at a brisk pace. 


On reaching the wide plain already alluded to, a 
guacho riding at full gallop made a dash at Markham, 
trying to unhorse him with his knee. Being unsuccessful 
in his attempt, he endeavoured to lasso him, but, fortun- 
ately, also failed in doing so. Goodenough charged him, 
and he galloped away across the plain. They were of 
opinion that he was either drunk or mischievously in- 
clined. At length, weary and sleepy, they reached 
the first post-house, where Markham besought Mrs. 
Diggles to get a bed ready for him, as he could proceed 
no farther. But here again Goodenough put his foot 
down, and said that whatever happened they must go 
on, for he was determined that so long as Markham was 
with him, he should do his utmost to prevent him from 
getting into another scrape. At length, more dead than 
alive, they reached Valparaiso, and got on board the 
ship at about 10.30 p.m. This long ride together, 
and the firm attitude for his good taken by Goodenough, 
cemented, more solidly if possible, the friendship that 
already existed between the two boys. They became 
much more intimate, and frequently talked and ex- 
changed ideas with each other ; and they even succeeded 
in arranging for Goodenough to be transferred to Mr. 
Hankey's watch, so that they should be together. 
It was a friendship that continued to the end of their 
lives, becoming more real and indissoluble as the years 
went by. 

Markham made many interesting excursions from 
Valparaiso during the stay of the ship at that port. 
His knowledge of Spanish and his lively disposition 
made him a valuable acquisition to any shore-going party 
of officers. On board the Collingwood, too, he had 
opportunities of practising his Spanish. Many friends 
were made by the officers, and there were frequent 
dances on board . Markham relates that, on one occasion 
when he was the officer of the boat engaged in landing 
the ladies after a dance, the boat suddenly heeled over, 
causing the fair occupants to scream but not solely on 


account of the listing of the boat. A man a naked 
man had suddenly caught hold of the gunwale of the 
boat and was climbing into it ! He was promptly 
covered with flags, and laid down in the bottom of the 
boat well screened from the eyes of the fair passengers. 
It turned out that he was a seaman named Harrison, one 
of the best and smartest sailors in the ship. He had just 
missed the boat sent in to bring off the liberty men, and 
having spent all his money, he was unable to hire a boat 
to take him on board. So he coolly made up his mind 
to swim off to the ship with his clothes made up in a 
bundle, and tied on his head, rather than break his 

Leaving Valparaiso, the ship worked her way north- 
ward, touching at Callao, the Lobos Islands, and Payta, 
the latter place a small seaport situated in a barren and, 
apparently, sterile country without a blade of vegetation 
to be seen. The city of San Miguel de Piura was at 
too great a distance to be visited in the short time 
at their disposal. As Markham truly observed, " It 
is one of the most tantalising parts of naval life that we 
are often so near places of the deepest interest which 
we cannot visit." However, he paid a visit to the 
church at Payta, which town had been sacked by 
Admiral Anson in 1741. Shortly after their departure 
from Payta, they had the misfortune to lose two of 
their men, who died from fever; their bodies were 
committed to the deep at the same time. It was the 
first occasion on which Markham had witnessed the 
solemn funeral service at sea, and it made a deep 
impression upon him. 

During this cruise Markham saw a great deal of the 
Flag Lieutenant, Beauchamp Seymour, who was always 
very kind to him, and they spent many afternoons 

* When Goodenough was Captain of H.M.S. Victoria at Malta in 
1865, a gentleman called upon him who turned out to be this same 
man Harrison. He was then employed as Lloyd's agent, and drawing 
a salary of 700 per annum I 


together in his cabin, which he had given his young 
friend permission to use. Markham was much im- 
pressed by his industry and his capacity for work. 
From the time he entered the Service, Seymour had 
kept careful journals, jotting down everything that 
he considered might be of use to him for reference in 
after-years. He showed Markham the plan he used 
in writing his diary, and advised him to adopt it also. 
These journals were patterns of neatness and legibility. 
He always maintained that a naval officer should be 
well read, and well informed on general subjects as well 
as on professional matters. 

During this voyage, when Markham was working 
up for his examination for a midshipman, he and the 
Naval Instructor became better friends, the latter 
apparently having buried in oblivion all their differ- 
ences of opinion and the causes that led to those 
unfortunate dissensions. He always spoke to Markham 
with studied kindness, saying very often that he was 
most anxious that he should pass his examination for 
a midshipman well and creditably. His pupil was 
quite ready to meet him halfway, and did so, but it 
could never be the same again. The past could never 
be dismissed from his thoughts; unkind words and un- 
friendly acts could never be forgotten. He felt it was 
owing to the Naval Instructor that he was changed; 
he was no longer, he thought, the same young zealous 
naval officer that his friend Peel had known, but a totally 
different character, less zealous, more absent, and more 
occupied with affairs distinct from his professional 

Finding much time at his disposal on this particular 
cruise, he conceived the somewhat audacious idea of writ- 
ing a history of the Pacific Station. Its boundaries were 
to the north, the Arctic Circle; to the west, the i7oth 
meridian of west longitude; to the south, the Antarctic 
Circle; and to the east, the American coast to the 
meridian of Cape Horn. There were to be chapters 


on the Russian-American Territory, on Oregon, New 
Albion, California, Mexico, Central America, Nueva 
Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Patagonia, 
and on the Sandwich, Society, Georgian and Marquesas 
Groups, together with the Galapagos and smaller 
islands. He worked zealously on this task during 
the voyage, his authorities and references being all 
the books on the various subjects which he could find 
in the ship. Arnold, the seamen's schoolmaster, suc- 
ceeded in making a nice book for him to write in. We 
have not been able to ascertain the result of this marvel- 
lous project of his; but it shows very clearly his love, 
even as a boy, of collecting knowledge, especially when 
it was of a geographical character, and gathering it all 
together in a condensed form for the information of 

On the 3rd of April they sighted the coast of Mexico, 
and the following day anchored off the port of San 
Bias, a small town situated on an isolated rock about 
1 50 feet above the sea. In spite of the intense heat and 
the swarms of pestilential stinging insects that abounded, 
Markham seems to have thoroughly enjoyed his 
short visit to San Bias. He relates that while they 
were indulging in a bathe at the mouth of the river 
they heard a great clatter of horses' hoofs, and saw a 
tall, handsome man with fair hair come down to the place 
where they were bathing. He was accompanied by a 
number of loose horses in charge of a couple of Mexicans. 
As he was looking somewhat fatigued and thirsty, one 
of the party offered him a flask containing spirits 
which he had brought with him. The stranger at 
once tossed off its contents, saying: "Thank God for 
all His mercies, and you for your brandy and 
water." He then announced that he was Captain 
Charles Seymour of the Scots Guards, brother of the 
Flag Lieutenant, and that he had ridden across Mexico 
to pay his uncle and brother a visit. He remained 
in the ship for nearly two months, and went back the 


way he came on the return of the Collingwood to San 

Having completed with water, in those days a very 
necessary and important duty, they worked their way 
up to Mazatlan. This, in consequence of a continuous 
head-wind, took them four days to accomplish, although 
the distance as the crow flies is not more than sixty 
miles . Here they found H .M .S . Talbot, also a formidable 
American squadron, for at that time the United States 
and Mexico were at war. 'They were unable to gbtain 
sufficient fresh beef for the ship's company, but they 
succeeded fortunately in catching large quantities of 
fish and turtle during their stay. On one occasion they 
made such a successful haul with the seinej that every 
man in the ship was provided with turtle soup for 
dinner. To Markham's great annoyance and no small 
indignation, his boat the dinghy was hoisted on board 
and filled with water, and used as a tank in which 
forsooth the turtle were kept alive until required. 

Markham enjoyed his stay at Mazatlan. The favourite 
place of resort for the officers was a skittle-alley belong- 
ing to a Mr. Bush, who came from Yorkshire, with whom 
he became great friends. Sometimes he would go on 
shore with one or more of his messmates. They would 
take a long walk, and finally would hire a canoe and 
explore the lagoons and intricate channels near the 
mouth of the river. On these occasions Markham 
would borrow Mr. Wemyss' gun (not the Naval In- 
structor's, be it observed), and shoot green and brown 
parrots, which they cooked for tea ! Sometimes he 
would be taken by Mr. Wemyss, or one of the other 
wardroom officers, for a ride along the coast or into the 
interior, which he enjoyed above all things; but he 

* He subsequently served in the Crimea, as Assistant-Adjutant- 
General to Sir George Cathcart. When his General fell he, although 
wounded at the time, gallantly sprang off his horse, and, striding 
across the body of his chief, vainly endeavoured to protect him, but 
both were bayonetted . 

t A large fishing net supplied to each of our ships of war. 


did not like the heavy and high Mexican saddles, which 
he found most uncomfortable. At midday they in- 
variably halted at some native pulperia (grog shop), 
where they had a meal and a very good one off eggs 
and frijoles (beans), and the day always wound up with 
a delicious bathe in the river. 

On the 4th of May H.M.S. Juno arrived, the Spy 
having come in a few days before. Now, the facilities 
for procuring water at Mazatlan were most crude and 
inconvenient, not to say dangerous. Large boats had 
to be used, and a bar had to be crossed on which there 
were always rollers, and often a heavy surf breaking. 
The principal danger was when the boats came out deeply 
and heavily laden, for, if they did not rise easily to the 
rollers, they were invariably swamped or capsized. In 
this way one of the boats of the Juno was unfortunately 
capsized in the surf. Young Goodenough was sent 
in the whale-boat to the rescue. In rendering assistance, 
one of the officers fell overboard, but, luckily, succeeded 
in getting hold of a cask, on which, says Markham, 
" he went round and round like a white mouse in its 
cage " before he was rescued. On this occasion one 
man, the coxswain of the Juno's boat, was unfor- 
tunately drowned. As a sequel to this accident, Mark- 
ham made a plan of the mouth of the river with sound- 
ings taken from an old Spanish chart (which had been 
lent him by the Naval Instructor). This he took to 
the Captain, who commended him for the diligence 
and accuracy with which it had been made. 

Having served the necessary period as a naval cadet, 
Markham was now eligible to qualify for a midshipman, 
and on the 2$th of June was examined, with nine other 
cadets, as to his knowledge in the following subjects : 
arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry. The next day 
he was examined in geometry and mensuration, naviga- 
tion and nautical astronomy, and the adjustments of 
the sextant. The candidates were then examined as 
to their knowledge of knotting and splicing, and finally 


they were taken before the Captain and Commander 
to be examined in seamanship. This last was perhaps 
the most trying and crucial part of the examination, 
for it was conducted viva voce in the presence of two 
of the most dreaded officers in the ship. However, all 
went off well, and all were successful in passing. Prior 
to the examination, Markham felt assured that Good- 
enough would be ahead of him; but he was somewhat 
mortified to find that in the result one of the other 
candidates, young Hamilton, separated him in the list 
from his friend. Goodenough, as was expected, was 
at the top of the list ; then came Hamilton, then Markham, 
who was a very good third, and only twelve marks below 
his friend Goodenough. He had every reason to be 
satisfied with the result of the examination and his 
position on the list. On Sunday, the 28th, he had the 
gratification of appearing as a full-blown midshipman, 
with the white patch on his collar, and his sword dang- 
ling from his side, when the men were mustered at 
Divisions. Another gratifying event happened at the 
same time namely, his promotion from the dinghy 
to the command of the jollyboat. 

In the meantime they left Mexico, and had a delight- 
ful cruise to the entrance of the Gulf of California, and 
subsequently on to Monterey. It was a voyage that 
occupied rather more than a month, but was most en- 
joyable in every respect. On the i6th of July they 
anchored in Monterey Bay, where they found an 
American squadron which had taken possession of the 
place the previous week, the Mexicans having retired 
to Pueblo de los Angelos. 

The town of Monterey was small, but very picturesque. 
It consisted of isolated houses built on grassy lawns, 
with only one short street. The surrounding country 
has been likened to an English park, with hills and dales, 
thickets and clusters of trees, and grassy slopes. 
Marines from the American men-of-war were occupying 
a long building that had been erected by the Mexicans 


and used as barracks. Sentries and outposts were placed 
in commanding positions on the outskirts of the town, 
so as to guard against any surprise that might be con- 
templated by General Castro, whose forces were in 
fairly close proximity to Monterey. The Americans 
had also taken possession of a " small place " some 
seventy miles to the northward, called San Francisco, 
which had a splendid harbour ! 

Markham's duties as midshipman of the jollyboat, or, 
as it is called in naval slang, the " blood-boat,"* were 
of a somewhat arduous and diversified nature, as the 
following account, by himself, of his morning duties 
at Monterey exemplifies. Every morning at four 
o'clock he had to take his boat to a wharf in the neigh- 
bourhood of the beef-contractor's house, near which 
a herd of cattle was penned in a corral, or enclosure. 

" A native was sent in to the corral to lasso a bullock, 
but he had no sooner got the beast out of the yard than 
it charged another man and knocked him off his horse, 
and then galloped as hard as it could go over the plain. 
The two fellows picked themselves up, and one of 
them let me have his horse. We then galloped after 
the bullock. It was a long stern chase, and my attempts 
with a lasso were failures. At length my companion 
lassoed the bullock again, and after about an hour 
brought him back, when the beast was killed, skinned, 
cut up, and taken down to the jollyboat." 

Rarely indeed do midshipmen of the present day 
have such exciting experiences when sent in the jolly- 
boat to bring off the fresh provisions to their ship ! 

Monday, the 2Oth of July, was his sixteenth birthday. 
He moralises on the troubles, the excitements, and the 
anxieties, he had experienced during the past twelve 
months, and is pleased when he reflects that all is calm 
again, and that his interest in and zeal for the Service 
had again revived. 

Their visit to Monterey was a most pleasant and in- 

* So called for being employed in the daily transfer of fresh meat, 
etc., from the shore to the ship when in harbour. 


teresting one, and they were all sorry when the day of 
their departure arrived. A slashing fair wind, and 
plenty of it, carried them across to Honolulu in twelve 
days, the old Collingwood quite distinguishing herself 
by her brilliant sailing qualities. At Honolulu they 
met H.M.S. Grampus, just arrived from England, 
and Markham made many friends with the young 
officers on board that ship, among them being Lord 
Gilford * (" an exceedingly good-looking boy "), Baird f 
(" a very nice youngster "), Elphinstone,J and others. 
With them he had some delightful excursions on shore 
among others a very jolly picnic given by about 
twenty gunroom officers of the Grampus to an equal 
number of the gunroom officers of the Collingwood. 
Markham alludes to it as a " very memorable event " 
to him. 

On the 3rd of September they left for Valparaiso, a 
voyage that took sixty-nine days to accomplish I 
This was the longest time they had been at sea at one 
stretch, and without sighting land or even a sail. Their 
fresh provisions were all consumed long before they 
reached Valparaiso, and they had to be content for 
many days with ship's fare. Before they left Honolulu, 
sad news had reached them regarding French atrocities 
at Tahiti, which aroused Markham 's indignation to 
fever-heat. During the long sea-voyage across to South 
America he was very irate, and nervously excited 
whenever he thought of it. He was perfectly all 
right when he was with his messmates in the gunroom, 
or when he was under instruction, or reading; but during 
his night watches, when he was by himself and had 
nobody to talk to, he would brood over the unhappy 
state of the natives, and plan all sorts of schemes by 
which the poor Tahitians could be freed from their 
oppressors. He called it " building castles in the air." 

* Admiral of the Fleet the Earl of Clanwilliam, G.C.B. 
t Admiral Sir John Baird, K.C.B. 
$ Lord Elphinstone. 


His great idea was to. fit out a corsair with Mr. Grant 
as captain, then to get all the Pacific islanders to rise 
against the French and drive them away. He was so 
absorbed at times in the construction of his aerial 
fortresses as to neglect, or rather forget, his duties, 
and to such an extent as to call forth on one occasion 
a rebuke for inattention from Mr. Hankey, his officer 
of the watch. However, he knew very well how to 
get restored to favour namely, by going down below 
and making him what he called " a hot brew." This 
consisted of a wine named " bucellus " mixed with 
spice, sugar, and other ingredients, which compound, 
it appears, invariably condoned any unimportant 
dereliction of duty. 

On their arrival at Valparaiso, they found H.M.S. 
Carysfort commanded by Captain George Henry Seymour, 
the Admiral's son, but the most exciting news was 
the promotion of their Commander and First Lieu- 
tenant, Commander Broadhead and Lieutenant Hankey. 
The loss of the two senior executive officers of the ship 
was a very serious one, especially as they were both 
such excellent officers. The Commander was regarded 
as one of the smartest officers in the Navy, and he had 
undoubtedly been mainly instrumental in making the 
Collingwood a smart and happy ship. Markham felt 
their loss very keenly. They had both taken a great 
interest in him, had always treated him with kindness, 
and had given him their friendship. 


GREAT and important were the changes that had to be 
made in the Collingwood consequent on the promotion 
of the officers referred to in the last chapter. Mr. 
Somerville became the Commander, and on him devolved 
the arduous and important work that is inseparable 
from the special duties of the senior executive officer 
of a large man-of-war. But the shoes of so good and 
popular an officer as Commander Broadhead were not 
easy to fill. Beauchamp Seymour had been promoted 
to Acting Commander of the Cormorant, and Mr. 
Kynaston had taken his place as Flag Lieutenant 
to the Admiral. Sherard Osborn had been promoted 
to Lieutenant, but, although he left the gunroom 
mess, he remained in the ship as Gunnery Lieutenant. 
Many other new officers joined, among them Count 
Ladislav Karolyi, who had been educated at Eton, 
but was in the Austrian Navy. He was a charming 
Hungarian, and he and Markham became great 
friends. Two other Lieutenants, Shears and Lacey, and 
a large batch of naval cadets, also joined, so that 
Clements Markham was relieved of the position he had 
held so long namely, that of being the junior officer 
in the ship. Two other youngsters were also received 
aboard, one " squinted frightfully," and the other was 
" like a white nigger "; and so, being much too ugly 
for the Collingwood, they were promptly sent away to 
other vessels ! 

Christmas Day, 1846, he spent on shore at Lady 
Seymour's, where they had great fun, ending up with a 

8 4 


dance in the evening; but what gave Markham most 
pleasure was to find that the family was as cordial to 
him as ever. He always enjoyed being with them, and 
was a frequent visitor at their house. 

Some little excitement was created one night by the 
sudden outbreak of fire on board two of the merchant 
vessels at anchor in the harbour. As it happened during 
Markham 's watch, he was sent in one of the Colling- 
tvood's boats to render assistance. Before the flames 
had made much progress, he pluckily went aloft, followed 
by his boat's crew, and cut away the sails from the 
yards of one of the vessels that was threatened by the 
fire, while the other boats towed her away from the 
conflagration. Thus she was saved, but two other ships 
in the immediate vicinity were completely destroyed. 
It was a beautifully calm, starlight night, and the work 
on which he was engaged was most exciting. 

He made many friends on shore, at whose houses 
he was always a very welcome guest. This enabled him 
to improve his knowledge of the Spanish language, 
which he found of great value in after-years. Among 
others, he made the acquaintance of a family named 
Valdivia, residing in a charming villa on the outskirts 
of the town. The household consisted of an old lady 
called Mamita, and six very pretty and agreeable 
daughters, named respectively Carmencita, Pepita, 
Ponchita, Merced, Dominga, and Tomasa. During his 
first visit he was accompanied by one of his young 
messmates, Mr. Jones, who was nicknamed "Gallows" 
Jones (a nickname that stuck to him throughout his 
naval career), and we must assume that he was intro- 
duced to the ladies under that appellation, for they 
always alluded to the two friends as Don Clemente and 
Don Galloso ! 

At this time two of his shipmates, Dr. Spear and Mr. 
Wemyss, who had been very ill for some time, were about 
to be sent to the hospital in Valparaiso. Markham 
thought it would be better, and certainly more amusing 



for them, if his kind friends would take them in at their 
villa. They were only too delighted to do so. Mark- 
ham undertook all the necessary arrangements, and 
personally superintended the conveyance of the two 
invalids to the " Valle del Duque," where they were 
kindly received and hospitably entertained by the whole 
family. He saw them comfortably established and, as he 
says, " with all the nice girls to wait on them and amuse 
them." Possibly he was a little disappointed that he 
could not also be ill, and sent to the villa, so that he 
might be waited on by such charming attendants. 

It was with great reluctance that they bade farewell 
to their kind Chilian friends, and on the 23rd of March, 
1847, they sailed from Valparaiso. Ten days' sail 
took them to Callao, during which time Markham 
succeeded in completing his History of the Pacific 
Station.* He had made many friends among the 
officers of other ships on the station, and many of these 
became lifelong friends. Some rose to great distinction 
in the Navy and in other walks of life. But what was 
of more importance was, that he became more reconciled 
to his career in the Service, and was even on good and 
friendly terms with the Naval Instructor ! Perhaps 
the event which assisted most materially in making 
him more contented with his lot, besides giving him great 
pleasure, was his selection by the new Commander for 
the appointment of midshipman of the foretop, a posi- 
tion he had long desired. The first thing he did on 
obtaining it was to make out a list of all the foretop 
men, about 100 in number, in which he gives a full 
description of their personal appearance, their zeal, 
activity aloft, family histories, and every little incident 
connected with their lives that came to his knowledge; 
and more especially any particular accomplishments in 
which they individually excelled. 

* It is much to be regretted that there is no trace of the existence 
of this ambitious work. It would be exceedingly interesting to 
compare it with our knowledge of the station at the present time. 


He made a point of never reporting any of these 
men to the Commander. If, in his opinion, they had 
misconducted themselves in such a way as to deserve 
punishment, he gave a broad hint to the captains of 
the foretop, who would administer summary castiga- 
tion to the offenders during a night watch. This he 
found was very efficacious, and he also had the satis- 
faction of being made aware that the men preferred 
this mode of punishment to being reported to the 
Commander. He used to remonstrate with them on 
the pernicious and injurious habit of drinking, but he 
would never report them for getting drunk; for, as 
he used to say, " he disliked others to meddle with 
his foretop men." His ideas had undoubtedly a 
somewhat socialistic tendency; but needless to say he 
was beloved by all the men, especially by those who 
came directly under his authority. Sailors and we 
allude especially to the British man-of-war's man 
love to be taken notice of, even if that notice is only 
the result of finding fault : better that than no notice 
be taken of them at all ! But when it comes to being 
interested in their personal history, their domestic 
lives, and everything they have done or seen since they 
can remember, and when this interest emanates from 
one of their own officers, it is not only appreciation 
that they feel, but an esteem that binds them to that 
officer with an iron bond of friendship and affection, 
genuine and enduring. 

Markham had now attained the zenith of his desires, 
the height of his early professional ambition ; he was mid- 
shipman of the foretop, and he was placed in charge of 
the jollyboat. What more could a young officer desire ? 
It stimulated his zeal, it gave him fresh interest in the 
ship and in the Service, and it satisfied the ambitious 
wishes he had formed when first he set foot on board 
the Collingwood. 

During the stay of the ship at Callao several of the 
gunroom officers (including Markham) clubbed together 


and rented a small house, consisting of three rooms, with 
iron gratings for windows, having a flat roof and a back- 
yard. This they found extremely convenient, for it gave 
them a place in which to keep the things they required 
for their frequent picnics and excursions to the banks of 
the Rimac. On one occasion seven of the gunroom 
officers sustained a siege in this house by an enraged 
mob of natives, which might have led to serious con- 
sequences. Markham shall tell the story in his own 
words : 

lt One day we came back to our house at dusk. We 
had Boy Osborn * with us to carry the picnic basket. 
It was nearly dark, and we were shifting our clothes, when 
a man ruShed in (I think he was the mate of an English 
merchant ship), and asked for protection, saying that 
he was being hunted by an infuriated mob of natives. 
We asked him what he had done, and he said he had 
inadvertently run one of them through the arm with 
a sword stick. We resolved to defend the place. In 
less than five minutes the mob was howling round the 
premises, banging at the door, which we just had time to 
bar, and prising at the rejas.^ Most of the negroes had 
long knives. It was clearly necessary to hold the roof 
as well as the backyard. The door and window gratings 
were pretty safe for a time. There were eight of us, 
counting the fugitive. Four of us went on the roof, 
and the rest watched the door, and passed up missiles 
from the backyard. There was, luckily, a great heap, 
chiefly broken pieces of adobe J in a corner. Boy 
Osborn, being a negro, would easily get through the 
crowd, so, as the liberty men would be about assembling 
at the pier to wait for the boat, I sent him down to say 
that we were besieged, and to tell the men to come and 
help. We put him over the backyard wall and away 
he went. At that moment the half of a huge negro 
appeared above the wall on the other side. I sent a 
lump of adobe right into his face, and he disappeared. 
The fun now became fast and furious. Those on the 
roof kept pelting the mob in the street with missiles 

* Boy Osborn was the negro boy who formed half the crew of 
the dinghy when Markham was in charge of her. 

f The iron gratings in the windows. $ Sun-dried brick. 


which we passed up to them while we defended the back- 
yard. This went on until the door began to show 
symptoms of yielding to the efforts of the besiegers. 
All was lost if it failed us, and things began to look 
serious. Just then we heard a cheer, and the liberty 
men dashed into the crowd and soon dispersed it. We 
then went down to the boat surrounded by our rescuers." 

No mention is made of anybody getting into trouble 
in consequence of this somewhat unseemly fracas. Had 
the irate mob succeeded in getting into the house, its 
defenders would without doubt have fared badly at their 

It was during this visit to Callao that Markham first 
had the pleasure of meeting Captain Kellett,* of H.M.S. 
Herald, who was then engaged in the survey of various 
parts of the Pacific. From him he received much kind- 
ness and instruction in nautical surveying, being fre- 
quently taken across to the island of San Lorenzo for 
practical training in the work of this particular and 
important branch of the naval service. 

Meanwhile his studies and his yearnings had aroused 
ambitions altogether foreign to his profession. The 
height of his aspirations now was to become an explorer 
and a great geographer. It was not very long before 
his ardent desires were to be fully realised. He had 
been much impressed by the lines of Shakespeare in 
which the poet refers respectively to the three noblest 
careers of man the warrior, the explorer, and the 
student : 

" Some to the wars to try their fortunes there, 
Some to discover islands far away, 
Some to the studious universities." 

He had cause to be dissatisfied with the first of these 
callings, and he therefore turned his hopes to the other 
two. He thought it would be possible for him to carry 
out his wishes in combination with his work in the Navy, 

* Captain Kellett was subsequently employed in the Arctic Regions 
in the search for Sir John Franklin. 


and even went so far as to write to his father and 
request him to take steps with a view to his being 
appointed to some other ship on the Pacific Station, 
after the Collingwood was paid off. But he had mis- 
givings after his letter was despatched, for he felt 
that he was drifting away from his friend Lieutenant 
Peel's ideal. 

The old Inca antiquities at Lima had always fascinated 
him. To visit Cuzco, the ancient capital of the Incas, 
now became the goal of his ambition. He even attended 
a grand ball given by the President of Peru at the 
palace in Lima, not so much, we are convinced, on 
account of the dancing or other pleasing diversions, but 
because he wanted to be shown the room in which Pizarro 
had been assassinated. He was informed, however, to 
his great disappointment, by one of the President's staff, 
that the house in which Pizarro was killed was on the 
opposite side of the plaza, and not in the palace. 

After a long stay of four and a half months at Callao, 
the Collingwood returned to Valparaiso, and there she 
remained waiting for her relief for over seven months 
(if we except a short trip to the island of Juan Fernan- 
dez), until she sailed for England. 

Markham was always a great reader, and he was 
especially devoted to historical works, such as Alison's 
"History of Europe," Schiller's " Thirty Years' War," 
Prescott's works, Robertson's " America," and books of 
a like description. But at the instance of Mr. Wemyss, 
who advised him to keep up his knowledge of Latin, 
he perused all the books in that language he could get 
hold of; these included the works of Virgil, the Odes of 
Horace, and others. Some of these he read with Mr. 
Wemyss, who most good-naturedly described the places 
in the Mediterranean alluded to by Virgil, which he him- 
self had visited. He also explained to him the allusions 
to Homeric stories and episodes in the " ^Eneid." 

He made many excursions in the neighbourhood 
of Valparaiso during their long stay there, and on one 


occasion, it is interesting to note, he met " a fat English 
lout riding horses bareback " at a farm. He was named 
Arthur Orton, and afterwards attained unenviable no- 
toriety as the Tichborne Claimant. But one of the 
most enjoyable trips he made was at the invitation of 
Captain and Miss Seymour, who invited him to accom- 
pany them as their guest to Santiago, the capital of 
Chile, to witness the ceremony of the celebration of the 
anniversary of the Independence of that nation. In 
order to do honour to the occasion, Markham invested 
in a white felt sombrero with long silver tassels, a very 
expensive gray poncho beautifully embroidered with 
leaves in green silk (to wear over his uniforn jacket), 
black leggings with green stripes, and large Chilian 
spurs 1 The party consisted of Captain and Miss Sey- 
mour and her maid, Count Karolyi, Mr. Gore, and 
Markham. The men rode; Miss Seymour and her maid 
followed in a veloche.* 

The first night they slept at Casa Blanca, where 
Markham was very affectionately greeted by his old 
friend Mrs. Fenwick,f the landlady of the inn, to the 
great amazement of his companions, who ever afterwards 
alluded to the good lady as " Markham's aunt." Send- 
ing their luggage on ahead, they started again early the 
following morning. To quote Markham's diary: 

" We rode through a very beautiful country remind- 
ing me of a neglected English park bounded ahead by 
the range of mountains we had to cross. Arriving at 
the foot of the pass, called the Cuesta de Zapata, we 
had to dismount and lead our horses up a very steep 
but good zigzag road. From the summit there was an 
enchanting view of the next valley, with a still higher 
range of mountains beyond. Descending the pass, we 
reached the pretty village of Curacavi, surrounded by 
fruit-trees in full blossom. It being noon, we had 
dinner and rested for a couple of hours. Riding through 
many miles of pastureland interspersed with bushes 
and clumps of trees, we at last came to the more for- 

* A two-wheeled vehicle with a hood. f See p. 73. 


midable Cuesta del Prado where we had no less than 
thirty-seven zigzags up which we had to lead our 
horses. From the summit a magnificent view burst 
upon us. Immediately below, the extensive plain of the 
Maypu stretched before us, green and fertile, with the 
towers of Santiago just distinguishable in the far dis- 
tance. Beyond was the long range of the Andes, 
appearing to rise like a wall out of the plain, and ter- 
minating in snowy peaks. The evening was clear, and 
there were no clouds. The snowy heights rose quite 
dazzling with the light of the setting sun. After we had 
descended the pass and ridden for some miles across 
the plain, it began to get dark, and I was very tired 
when we arrived at Santiago late at night. Captain and 
Miss Seymour were hospitably received in the house of 
our old friend Don Rafael Correa, but, owing to the 
hotel being nearly full, Count Karolyi, Mr. Gore, and 
myself, had to sleep in one room." 

The day after their arrival they were presented to the 
President, General Don Manuel Bulnes, who greeted 
them very cordially, and invited the whole party to 
form part of his personal staff at the official ceremony. 
He is described as a very fat man, and when they all 
dismounted from their horses, and were taken into a 
tent for luncheon, His Excellency remained on horse- 
back, and " devoured his mutton chop on the pommel 
of his saddle," the exertion of dismounting being too 
much for him. 

After the festivities incidental to the celebration of 
this important anniversary had been brought to a 
conclusion, they spent a couple of very happy days 
at the hacienda of some friends situated on the banks 
of Lake Aculeo, some forty miles from Santiago. 
The journey both ways was accomplished on horse- 
back. The scenery was magnificent as well as in- 
teresting, for they traversed the battle-field of Maypu, 
and had the main features of the contest (which re- 
sulted in the independence of Chile) clearly explained 
to them. The hacienda, which they reached shortly 
after sunset, was a long low building with a wide 


verandah in front. An excellent dinner awaited their 
arrival, but the bedrooms had very scant furniture. 
Markham shared a room with Count Karolyi, having 
only " beds on the floor and a bucket to wash in." The 
following day was spent " on the lake, wandering in 
the woods, bathing, sitting under the trees, and chat- 
ting with the senoritas, who sang songs to a guitar 
accompaniment." On this trip they were away for 
fourteen days. 

While at Valparaiso, Markham did not neglect his 
friends at Valle del Duque, where he was a constant 
and most welcome visitor. The ladies used frequently to 
visit the Collingwood and have tea in the gunroom mess. 

In order to prevent the officers and men from getting 
rusty by too long a stay in harbour, the Admiral took 
the ship over to the island of Juan Fernandez, and 
remained there for about ten days. This greatly de- 
lighted everyone on board, especially young Markham, 
to whom the island of Robinsoe Crusoe was a veritable 
enchanted isle of history and romance ! From the 
ship, as she sailed up to her anchorage, the valleys 
looked green as emerald, the lofty peaked moun- 
tains being clothed to their summits in verdure. The 
shore itself was still more delightful. Forest trees and 
brilliantly coloured flowers grew in all directions. The 
little stream that trickled down to the sea was lined 
with flowers of every hue, and wild peach and apple 
trees flourished in abundance. The inhabitants con- 
sisted only of one Chilian family and an American 
carpenter. These lived in five huts with their poultry 
and domestic animals. In the more secluded parts of 
the island were herds of wild-goats. Fish were easily 
obtainable, consequently fishing lines and hooks were 
in great demand. Rock cod and crayfish abounded, and 
were caught without much trouble. 

The day after their arrival, Markham and Good- 
enough landed with the intention of exploring the 
island together, and enjoying a really happy day, but 


the result was somewhat disastrous. They were both 
well acquainted with the history of the island, from 
reading De Foe's enchanting work, and they were 
eager to satisfy themselves regarding the exact site 
of the cave and the position of the lookout place of 
Alexander Selkirk. In doing so they attempted to 
climb a long spur thickly covered with dense vegetation, 
with steep precipices on either side. After scrambling 
up through the thick scrub for a long time, they thought 
they must have reached the summit, when Goodenough 
turned at right angles to the direction in which they had 
been travelling, followed by Markham a few paces 
behind. Suddenly the latter heard a crash and a faint 
cry of " Stop !" This was probably the saving of his 
life. Instead of being on the summit of the ridge as they 
thought, they had actually reached the edge of one of 
the precipices forming the sides of the spur up which 
they had been climbing, and over this poor } r oung 
Goodenough had fallen. 

Markham, realising the situation, crawled to the edge, 
but he could see nothing owing to the dense vegetation 
by which he was surrounded. Goodenough 's voice 
sounded very faint and far below him. He was able, 
however, to tell Markham that he was lying on a narrow 
ledge, and that there was a steep precipice immediately 
below him. He was hurt and required immediate 
assistance. Markham did all he could to mark the 
exact spot, and then made the best of his way to the 
beach. Fortunately, he found a boat there which at 
once took him off to the ship. A relief party started 
without delay, provided with ropes, axes, and all neces- 
sary appliances, not omitting blankets and a medical 
officer. But, alas ! it was dark before they reached the 
shore, and the darkness became more intense as they 
advanced into an almost impenetrable forest. It soon 
became evident that further progress was impossible, 
so, accepting the inevitable, they lay down as they were in 
the bush, and got what sleep they could in the intervals 


of shouting and listening for a reply. But all was silent ; 
no answering hail came from the poor sufferer ; nothing 
but the screech of an owl responded to their calls. 

At earliest dawn they renewed the search, and at 
length they were rewarded by hearing a faint response, 
but high up on the face of the precipice. While the 
necessary arrangements for rescue were being made, 
the object of their search suddenly appeared and gave 
the following account of his adventure: He had fallen 
over the edge of the cliff as Markham had related, but 
had landed on a narrow ledge which broke his fall. He 
had passed the night in this perilous position without 
daring to move, and suffering great pain from a badly 
sprained wrist and a much bruised body. He had heard 
the shouts from the relief-party during the night, and 
had endeavoured to reply to them. When it was day- 
light he found he was just able to creep along the ledge, 
although at the imminent risk of falling 200 feet. 
Eventually the ledge seemed to get wider, and he had 
less difficulty in making progress. At last he came 
out on the spur and was safe. Curiously enough, the 
first person he met was Sir George Seymour, for nearly 
everybody had landed from the ship in order to join in 
the search and the rescue. Goodenough certainly had 
a miraculous escape, but with God's blessing he was 
spared to complete a life most serviceable to his country, 
and to meet an honourable death in the performance 
of his duty. Few names are more revered or held in 
more affectionate remembrance in the annals of the 
Navy than his. 

On the 1 7th of December the ship returned to Val- 
paraiso, and two or three days afterwards Markham was 
laid up with a severe attack of dysentery, probably the 
result of his exposure at Juan Fernandez. In a week's 
time he became worse, and had to be confined to a cot 
in the sick-berth.* But he was not happy and was 
very irritable. The sick-bay attendant provoked him, 

* Commonly called the " sick-bay " i.e., the ship's hospital. 


and he could not bear him to approach his cot. He 
became slightly delirious, and insisted on having two 
of his beloved jollyboat boys to attend him. This the 
Commander kindly consented to, as the doctor reported 
that he must not be in any way agitated or have his 
wishes thwarted. They did everything for him sat by 
his cot, made his bed, fed him when he was too weak 
to feed himself, and proved most gentle and attentive 

One day the doctor looked especially grave, and the 
chaplain, who as a rule only visited the sick-bay on 
Sundays, came in and read prayers to him. Markham 
asked his jollyboat attendant if he was dying. The boy 
replied : " You must not think of such a thing." Mark- 
ham said: " The doctors must have given me up, be- 
cause the chaplain has come to see me on a weekday." 
He got much weaker, and then he had a long refreshing 
sleep. When he woke up, one of his jollyboat boys was 
holding his hand, and he put some fresh milk to the 
invalid's lips. Markham felt then that he was not going 
to die, and began rapidly to mend. In a week's time 
the doctor told him he would pull through, but that he 
had been at death's door. 

While convalescent, reading was his favourite occu- 
pation, and before he was quite well again he read 
through the whole series of Sir Walter Scott's novels, 
commencing with " Ivanhoe." It was six weeks be- 
fore he entered the gunroom after leaving it for the 
sick-bay. When he was well enough to go on shore, 
his kind friends the Seymours insisted on his going to 
their house for a fortnight, where he was soon restored 
to complete health and strength. He returned to his 
duties on the 2Oth of February, 1848, and what gave 
him more pleasure than anything else was the warm 
reception that was accorded him by the foretop men 
and the crew of the jollyboat ! 

On the 3rd of April, to the great joy of everyone on 
board the Collingwood, their relief, H.M.S. Asia, for 


whose appearance they had been patiently waiting for 
so many months, arrived and anchored in the bay. 
The new Commander-in-Chief was Rear- Admiral Phipps- 
Hornby, his son, Geoffrey Phipps-Hornby, being his 
Flag Lieutenant. 

Then came the inevitable farewells. They were 
many, for Markham had many friends, and the adieux 
were all of a more or less affectionate nature. There 
were his dear friends at the Valle del Duque, Mamita 
and all her daughters; the prima donna, Signorina 
Rossi; even Mrs. Diggles at the " first post-house "; the 
landlord of the hotel ; the confectioner ; the shoemaker ; 
the proprietors of the livery stables; and, as Markham 
naively remarks, he " had paid all their bills." No 
one was forgotten. 

On the 1 1 th of April the Collingwood, homeward- 
bound, sailed out of Valparaiso Harbour amid the cheers 
from the squadron assembled to bid her farewell. Fine 
weather was experienced, and they made an excellent 
passage, passing well in sight of Cape Horn on the 27th 
of April, and reaching Rio on the I3th of May, where 
they spent ten very pleasant days. They passed within 
sight of the Azores on the 3rd of July, and on the 9th 
anchored at Spithead, after an absence from England 
of nearly four years. During this period they had 
sailed a distance of over 83,000 miles, and Markham 
had practically passed from boyhood to manhood. He 
had visited many countries, had become intimately 
acquainted with their inhabitants, his mind had ex- 
panded, his views regarding the necessity of protecting 
natives that are unable to defend themselves had 
widened, and his love for geography, especially for 
geographical discovery, was more ardent than ever. 

On the following day the Collingwood entered Ports- 
mouth Harbour, where his father, mother, and brother, 
had arrived to welcome him home. He had a long and 
serious conversation with his father regarding his 
future, and expressed with some shyness and reticence 


his wish to leave the Service, without putting his real 
reasons fully before him. His father, however, did not 
consider his reasons sufficiently forcible to justify such a 
course, more especially in view of the excellent account he 
had received regarding his conduct, progress, and zeal, 
from Captain Smart ; and he hoped that his son's wish to 
leave the Navy was only the expression of a temporary 
discontent which would pass away when the causes 
that gave rise to it were no longer in existence. He 
therefore urged his son to give up the idea, saying that 
there was really nothing to make him disheartened. 
Young Markham was unconvinced, but he agreed to 
defer to his father's wishes. 

The old Collingwood was paid off on the 2Oth of July, 
Markham 's eighteenth birthday. He bade farewell to 
all his foretop men with great regret, and he had much 
to say to each member of the jollyboat's crew, shaking 
hands with them all and bidding them good-bye before 
proceeding to his home at Windsor. In spite of his 
vexatious troubles on board the Collingwood, he always 
regarded the time he served in her as among the hap- 
piest years of his life. He made many good and lifelong 
friends, was never tired of praising the ship as being 
one of the smartest and most efficient men-of-war in 
the Service, and was impressed with her immeasurable 
superiority as regards discipline, smartness, and com- 
fort, over all other ships of which he had experience. 
In after-years Markham writes of her: 

" The Collingwood never had another commission. 
It was as if the desecration could not be allowed of 
other men with lower tone and other ways in the same 
ship which once gloried in the presence of the Seymours 
and their friends. One such commission was to stand 
alone, and the beautiful hull was left for years to come 
as a sad monument of its glories." 

Thus the Collingwood ever remained as his beau- 
ideal of what a British man-of-war should be. In his 
eyes she was a perfect model of beauty and efficiency, 


and her officers (with perhaps a few exceptions) were in 
his opinion the most capable, the most cultured, the 
most agreeable, of any set of officers that he had ever 
met. She was certainly a very happy ship during the 
four years she spent on the Pacific Station, and there is 
little doubt that the general good feeling which existed 
on board was largely due to the courtesy, friendliness, 
and good example, shown by their gallant Admiral, 
who was not only their chief from .a naval point of view, 
but also their friend and adviser on all occasions. He 
was indeed a preux chevalier of the old school. 


MARKHAM'S return, after an absence of four 'years, 
was a source of no little delight both to his home 
circle and to himself. He longed for the love and 
attentions of those nearest and dearest to him, he was 
eager to pour out all his troubles into their sympathetic 
ears, and to obtain from them that advice with regard 
to his future which he knew would be of the greatest 
value and comfort to him. Nor was he disappointed. 
His father listened attentively to all he had to say, and 
gave him such counsel as made him happy and con- 
tented. Thus was he enabled thoroughly to enjoy his 
well-earned leave. 

But all good things must come to an end, and within 
a few weeks of his return he received instructions to 
report himself on board the Victory, the guardship at 
Portsmouth. Here he was kept for six weeks with very 
little advantage either to himself or the Service, when 
he was ordered to join the Bellerophon for passage to 
the Mediterranean, having been appointed to H.M.S. 
Sidon on that station. 

The Bellerophon, which he joined on the i6th of 
October, was an old line-of-battle ship carrying seventy- 
eight guns. She had been recently employed in the 
transport of troops and in the conveyance of naval 
supernumeraries to foreign stations. The state of her 
discipline, efficiency, and cleanliness, afforded a striking 
contrast to the Collingwood, and tended to renew that 
distaste for the Service which had possessed Markham 




To face page too. 


during the past two or three years. He was astonished 
and disappointed. 

As an instance of the lack of discipline that prevailed 
on board, he relates the following incident that occurred 
at the time he joined her : The Commander was investi- 
gating on the quarter-deck the case of a marine who had 
been charged with drunkenness. The Captain, happen- 
ing to come on deck, walked up to the Commander and 
inquired what the man had been doing. The prisoner 
told the Captain to " mind his own business," and 
promptly knocked him down. In all probability the 
man was under the influence of drink. He was tried 
by a court-martial and sentenced to be hanged, but this 
was subsequently commuted to transportation for life. 
Such discreditable and mutinous occurrences were un- 
known on board the Collingwood, and would naturally 
contribute to the feeling of disfavour with which he 
regarded his new ship. The contrast between the two 
vessels was most marked; and this, together with the 
radical principles that existed in the gunroom mess, 
helped to revive the old discontent. At the time this 
was much to be deplored; but it was in reality a 
blessing in disguise. There is no doubt that it was in 
consequence of his immediate surroundings, intensely 
displeasing to him, that he made up his mind to leave 
a Service with which he was so little in sympathy. 

Yet, in spite of the feeling engendered by his experi- 
ences on board the Bellerophon, he left her with real 
regret ; for although he expressed himself very strongly 
regarding her inefficiency as a man-of-war, he always 
acknowledged that she was " full of charming fellows," 
whose kindness to him and delightful friendship always 
afforded him the most pleasing recollections. They 
were all so bright and full of fun, and this made the 
time he spent on board a very happy period, replete 
with amusing incidents. 

On their arrival at Palermo, they found that the 
Independence of Sicily had been proclaimed and a 



National Flag had been hoisted, but, as it had not been 
recognised by the Great Powers, it was not saluted. 
The emblem on the flag was " three red legs kicking out 
on a white field." From Palermo they went on to 
Naples, where they were placed in quarantine for ten 
days owing to the existence of cholera in England. 

At Naples he was transferred from the Bellerophon 
to the Howe (a three-decker), in order to await the 
arrival of the Sidon. He was allowed plenty of leave, 
an indulgence of which he took full advantage, and he 
made many friends on shore. To his great joy, he found 
that his old Collingwood friend " Gallows " Jones was on 
board the Odin, one of the vessels forming the English 
squadron, and they had many excursions together. Of 
course Vesuvius was ascended, and he had the question- 
able gratification of looking down the crater from the 
summit and inhaling strong whiffs of sulphurous vapoursl 
He visited Pompeii, and spent a pleasant day in the 
palace and gardens of Caserta. In short, he went to 
every place of interest that could possibly be reached, 
always in the company of one or more of his old friends. 

Their visit to Naples was made during a most un- 
settled period, for it was during the interval between 
the great fight in the Strada Toledo and the arrival of 
the Pope from Gaeta. Affrays in the streets between 
the military and the populace were frequent. On one 
occasion Markham was witness of the savage butchery 
of a poor one-armed man who was mercilessly cut down 
in the street. On another occasion he happened, un- 
willingly, to be present at a street fight among the 
lazzaroni at Santa Lucia. Knives were drawn, pots and 
other such missiles were thrown about, and eventually 
one of the combatants was stabbed. In an instant the 
crowd disappeared as if by magic, and nothing human 
was to be seen except the bleeding corpse lying in the 
middle of the .road. 

The King did not dare to show his face in public, but 
he very kindly placed two boxes in the opera-house at 


the disposal of the foreign officers every night, so that 
Markham was frequently able to indulge in his favourite 
visits to San Carlo.* On one occasion he relates how a 
young prima donna was hissed, and in a fury she rushed 
off the stage and refused to return. Presently she was 
brought back to the front by a couple of soldiers and 
compelled to sing. He does not say how the compulsion 
was effected. 

Being at the opera one evening, one of his messmates 
rushed in and informed him that his chest and all his 
belongings had been sent on board the Vengeance, and 
that she had sailed for Malta. This was indeed alarm- 
ing intelligence. He rushed out of the opera, flew down 
to Santa Lucia, hired a boat, and, without even going 
on board the Howe, started in pursuit. Fortunately it 
was almost calm, and he actually caught the Vengeance 
off Ischia, and reported himself on board. It was how- 
ever " touch and go," the situation being only saved 
by his quick decision and resolute course of action. It 
was not until the 3oth of December that he had the 
satisfaction of seeing and joining his new ship at Malta. 

The Sidon was classed as a steam-frigate carrying 
twenty- two guns, and was one of the first steam men- 
of-war constructed by the Admiralty. She was the 
special emanation of the brain of Sir Charles Napier, 
and is thus described by that worthy: 

" In 1845 Sir George Cockburn, with the sanction of 
Sir Robert Peel, invited me to build a steam-frigate, 
which I then undertook to do, and chose as my builder 
Mr. Fincham, and for the engine-maker Mr. Seward, 
and finally the Sidon was determined. She carries 
upwards of 630 tons of coal, her main deck ports are 
nearly 7 feet out of the water, and she has a complete 
armament of twenty- two sixty-pounders, haying a clear 
main-deck. . . . She is impelled by an engine of 560 

Markham's description, after personal experience of 
her sea-going qualities, was that " she was lopsided, 
* The Opera House. 


would never keep upright, and, in spite of two large 
bilge pieces, rolled excessively." However, her in- 
ternal accommodation was very satisfactory, and he 
was very comfortable in her. By the Navy generally 
she was regarded as an innovation, and was not 
looked upon with great favour, although the fact that 
she was able to proceed from one port to another, 
independent of wind, naturally enhanced her capabili- 
ties as a fighting ship. Even the most stubborn sup- 
porters of the old naval blue-water school had to admit 
this. Yet there were many who preferred to rely en- 
tirely on sails as the motive power of a ship, and not upon 
engines and boilers that could be rendered impotent by 
shot and shell in a few minutes of effective action. 
Seventy years have indeed witnessed a great revolution 
in the construction, armament, and mobility of our 
vessels. At that time there were none of those marvellous 
controlling arrangements by which everything on board 
a modern man-of-war is not only centralised, but dupli- 
cated, and in some places triplicated. 

Markham soon made friends with all on board. His 
manners were most engaging, his knowledge on general 
subjects (especially history and geography) were uni- 
versally acknowledged, he was a most excellent and 
interesting companion, and his society was in great 
demand. After leaving Malta they had a short stay at 
Gibraltar, then crossed over to Tangier and visited all 
the ports on the coast of Morocco. This cruise aroused 
in him a great interest in Arabian history, and par- 
ticularly in the civilisation of the Arabs in Spain. 

On their return to Gibraltar they found the Mediter- 
ranean Fleet, under the command of Sir Charles Napier, 
at anchor there. As was to be anticipated, it was not 
long before they received a visit from the Commander- 
in-Chief, who was eager to inspect his creation, the " lop- 
sided old Sidon," as Markham so irreverently called her. 
He is described as " a short, broad-shouldered man with 
a large face and staring eyes, his legs too far through 


his white duck trousers, his cocked hat athwartships 
(in imitation of Nelson), and his nose and upper lip 
covered with snuff." He was much addicted to the 
habit of snuff-taking, and invariably kept a large supply 
loose in his waistcoat pocket. 

Just at this time intelligence reached Gibraltar of an 
outrage committed by the Riff pirates on the coast 
between Melilla and Ceuta. They had seized, whilst 
becalmed, an English brig laden with powder and other 
Government stores for Malta, the captain and crew 
escaping in their boats on the approach of the pirates. 
The brig was towed into a harbour and completely 
gutted by the looters. This act of piracy must have 
taken place almost at the same time that the Sidon, all 
unwittingly, was cruising in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. Sir Charles Napier determined upon the imme- 
diate punishment of the offenders and the salvage of the 
brig. Hoisting his flag on board the Sidon, and em- 
barking the 34th Regiment in the same ship at very 
short notice, he proceeded to sea. The expedition 
arrived the following day at Melilla, a small Spanish 
settlement to the east of Cape Tres Forcas. They 
steamed along the coast round the cape to the position 
where the brig was found. Much excitement prevailed 
on board, and all were expecting to receive the order 
for an immediate landing of the troops augmented by 
men from the ship, with the object of inflicting condign 
punishment on the perpetrators of the outrage. But, 
much to their disappointment, no action of an offen- 
sive nature was taken, and, after cruising backwards 
and forwards along the coast between Melilla and 
Ceuta for five days, the Sidon returned to Gibraltar 
and disembarked the troops. Subsequently, as the 
result of diplomatic interference, and a combination of 
threats and persuasion, the stores captured from the 
brig were given up, the vessel herself having been re- 
captured meanwhile and taken to Gibraltar by the 
Polyphemus. Markham was terribly disappointed at 


what he called this fiasco. He was longing to " flesh 
his maiden sword," and had actually taken it to the 
armourer to be sharpened, in the hope of being attached 
to the landing-party that had been organised in readi- 
ness for any eventuality. 

Shortly afterwards the Sidon was ordered home. She 
arrived at Portsmouth on the 28th of March, and was 
paid off on the ist of April, 1849. Markham appears 
to have been very happy on board, although his service 
in her was but little over three months. During the 
time he was on leave he tried very hard to get an 
appointment to the Arrogant, which had just been 
commissioned, and to which a great many of his old 
shipmates in the Collingwood had been appointed. 
But, instead of complying with his wishes, the Ad- 
miralty promptly appointed him to the Superb. This 
want of consideration, as he thought, on the part of 
the Admiralty, and failure to fulfil a promise made to 
his father, that he should be appointed to the Arrogant, 
sealed his fate so far as remaining in the Navy was con- 
cerned. The ship to which he was appointed remained 
at Spithead in a state of absolute idleness for six months 
waiting for her crew, and then another weary six months 
were spent at anchor in the Cove of Cork. 

During all this time he read steadily and worked hard, 
but principally on those subjects unconnected with the 
Service which he had now fully resolved to leave. He 
was much interested in the perusal of Gibbon's " De- 
cline and Fall of the Roman Empire," Prescott's " Con- 
quest of Peru," and Malcolm's " History of Persia." 
His careful study of these works gave rise to theories 
in his mind which led him into all sorts of researches 
and speculations regarding the origin of the Incas, to 
the study of which he had already devoted much time 
and attention. He had also been much engrossed in 
studying works on geology and metaphysics, which last 
he was never weary of discussing. In addition, he brought 
out a weekly newspaper in the gunroom entitled The 


Superb, which invariably found its way into the ward- 
room. Several of his messmates contributed excellent 
articles on various subjects, especially on gunnery and 
other professional matters. Unfortunately, a para- 
graph was inadvertently inserted reflecting on the per- 
sonal appearance of one of the senior officers of the ship, 
and the paper after a brilliant, though brief, career, was 
suppressed " by order." 

He relates an amusing incident that occurred during 
his watch one afternoon while the ship was at Spithead. 
He was looking over the side, when he saw a number 
of small kegs floating near the ship. He at once re- 
ported this to the officer of the watch, who sent the 
dinghy to pick up as many as was possible before the 
Custom-house officials, who were observed pulling out 
from Portsmouth Harbour, could arrive. About forty 
kegs were secured and quickly sent down to the gun- 
room mess. They contained the most delicious cherry 
brandy. Presently a Custom-house officer boarded 
the ship, and inquired of the officer of the watch 
if he had seen any kegs of cherry brandy floating 
past. To which the officer replied " Is that what they 
were ? I wish I had known it !" This answer, although 
somewhat vague, seemed to satisfy the Custom-house 
official, who promptly took his departure and proceeded 
to pick up the few kegs that were still floating in the 
water. They were afterwards informed that the kegs 
had been sunk by smugglers in Langstone Harbour, 
and had accidentally broken adrift. Markham observes 
dryly that there were very few kegs left for the Custom- 
house officers to pick up. 

In the early part of 1850, while the Superb was lying 
inactive in the Cove of Cork, to his great delight he 
met his dear old messmate Sherard Osborn, then in 
command of the gunboat Dwarf. The pleasure of 
meeting was mutual, and, as may well be imagined, 
Markham poured out all his grievances, more especially 
his distaste for his present inactive life, into the sym- 


pathetic ears of his old friend. The latter was ready 
with a panacea for all Markham's troubles, a remedy 
that effectually dispelled his dejection. 

Osborn was full of enthusiasm about the Arctic Regions 
and the attempts that were being made to rescue and 
relieve Sir John Franklin's expedition, and he speedily 
transmitted a very large share of this enthusiasm to 
his younger friend, who was only too ready to adopt it. 
Five years had passed away since the Erebus and Terror 
had left England on their search for a North-West 
Passage to India through the icy seas of the Arctic 
Regions. No tidings having been heard of the ships 
during this long period, a search expedition had been 
despatched in 1848 under the command of Sir James 
Ross. It returned the following year without any news 
of the missing ships. When it was too late, the country 
was thoroughly aroused. Ross's ships were recommis- 
sioned and sent out to search from the direction of 
Behring's Strait; while Captain Horatio Austin was to 
lead another expedition by way of Baffin's Bay. The 
latter was to consist of two ships, the Resolute and 
Assistance, and they were to be accompanied by two 
steam- tenders, the Pioneer and Intrepid. Markham's 
friend Sherard Osborn had been promised the command 
of one of these tenders, the Pioneer, and was naturally 
much elated at the prospect before him. 

It did not take long to work up Markham's enthusiasm 
for the project. The very idea of being engaged in the 
exploration of unknown regions, more especially when 
connected with the cause of humanity, stimulated him to 
such a degree that he at once wrote off to his father, and 
all his friends who had any interest at the Admiralty, 
begging them to use their influence in order to get him 
appointed to the new search expedition. Osborn also 
promised to do what he could for him, and if possible 
to take him in his own ship. 

There was no thought now of leaving the Service ; his 
interest had been aroused, and his great object in life 


at present was to be employed in the search for Sir John 
Franklin and the lost ships. He was ready to sacrifice 
anything and everything in order that his wishes might 
be realised. He wrote again to his father urging him 
to leave no stone unturned in getting him appointed 
to the expedition, and he persuaded Osborn to write to 
his father and to the Hydrographer recommending him 
for such an appointment. The Superb returned to Ply- 
mouth on the ist of April, when he found that his exer- 
tions had not been in vain; for on communicating with 
the shore he was informed that he had been selected, 
and appointed as midshipman to the Assistance, and that 
he was the only midshipman in the expedition. 

In spite of the inactive, and to him useless, life that 
he had led for more than twelve months in the Superb, 
and his delight in being selected for such important and 
interesting service, he again speaks of the regret with 
which he left his ship. As it was with the Bellerophon 
and Sidon, so it was with the Superb: he had made 
many friends and was loath to bid them farewell. Many 
of the men and boys implored him to take them with 
him to the Assistance. All were sorry to lose him. The 
boatswain, in bidding him good-bye, said: " Mark my 
words: you'll perish like the upper hank of a Green- 
lander's jib." Another told him he was joining the 
vanguard of England's chivalry. He gave a dinner to 
all his special intimates, at the hotel, and after paying 
his bill found that he had just sufficient money left to 
take him up to London third-class by the night train. 


MARKHAM proceeded at once to Woolwich to take up 
his appointment on board the Assistance. He was 
kindly received by his Captain (Erasmus Ommanney), 
and was introduced to Captain Horatio Austin, who 
commanded the expedition. The officers and men were 
still living in hulks, the ships not being ready for their 
reception. Among the former he was delighted to find 
many old friends of his Collingwood days, notably 
Lieutenants Sherard Osborn, M'Clintock, Mecham, and 
Dr. Donnet, the surgeon. 

After reporting himself, he obtained a week's leave, 
which he spent partly at Horkesley and partly in visit- 
ing his friends and relations, and also in preparing his 
outfit in London. He was fortunate in seeing some- 
thing of his old friend Captain Peel, who warmly en- 
couraged his Arctic enthusiasm, and who, we may be 
sure, gave him many valuable hints and good advice. 
Reaching home, he found his parents in great distress. 
They had just received news of the serious illness of his 
brother David at Madeira, whither he had been sent for 
the benefit of his health. This necessitated their imme- 
diate departure for Madeira, thus unhappily diminishing 
the short time Markham hoped to spend with them. 
His brother died on the I7th of May, in his father's 
arms, on board the vessel that was conveying him 
home, and was buried at sea. The sad news did not 
reach England until after the expedition had sailed, 
and was brought to Markham in the Arctic Regions 



by the transport sent out to complete the expedition 
with stores. 

April was a very busy month for everyone connected 
with the enterprise. Stores and provisions to last for an 
estimated period of three years had to be taken on board 
and stowed in their allotted places ; the crew had to be 
selected and duties apportioned to them for which they 
individually appeared to be specially suited ; sledges and 
their equipments had to be carefully examined, instru- 
ments tested ; in short, everything that was considered 
necessary had to be provided, and carefully stowed away, 
by those officers who were responsible for their safety 
and efficiency. On the 28th of April the Lords of the 
Admiralty inspected the ship ; many others, such as the 
Speaker of the House of Commons and Cardinal Wise- 
man, also came on board. Sir Edward Parry came to 
bid them farewell, and spoke words of kind encourage- 
ment to Markham, remembering having seen and spoken 
to him when he was a schoolboy at Cheam. 

The expedition sailed on the 4th of May. The Resolute 
and Assistance were towed out by a couple of steam-tugs 
which took them up the East Coast and through the 
Pentland Firth as far as Cape Wrath, where they were 
cast off on the i4th. The last home letters were written 
and despatched, and amid much cheering the tugs bade 
them farewell. 

In addition to the four ships under the command of 
Captain Austin, the Government deemed it expedient to 
employ a couple of whaling brigs under Captain Penny, 
a skilful and experienced whaling skipper. Nor would 
that old veteran Sir John Ross be denied, but accom- 
panied the expedition in a little schooner named the 
Felix, which had been fitted out entirely at his own 
expense. Lady Franklin had also sent out a small 
vessel named the Prince Albert to examine Prince 
Regent Inlet, where she thought it very possible that 
traces of the missing ships might be discovered. Al- 
together there were no less than ten vessels engaged in 


searching the neighbourhood of Baffin's Bay for the 
Erebus and Terror * All these vessels, it is needless to 
add, were especially prepared for ice navigation, being 
strengthened not only at the bows, but in every way 
that experience and ingenuity could devise. 

A splendid feeling of comradeship, and a determina- 
tion to do all in their power to promote the success of 
the enterprise, animated every member of the expedi- 
tion. Many were the discussions regarding their pros- 
pects of success, and conjectures as to the particular 
regions that should be searched. They confidently 
expected that, guided by cairns and records and by their 
own enthusiasm and resolution, they would be the 
means of solving the mystery of the fate of Franklin and 
his gallant followers. Five years had elapsed since the 
Franklin expedition had left England, and nothing had 
been heard of it since it was seen by the whalers in 
Melville Bay during the summer of 1845. The ships, 
it was known, were provided with provisions to last for 
three years. Surely, out of the 130 men who comprised 
the crews of the two vessels, some must still be alive? 
So they fondly hoped. 

Speaking of his brother officers, Markham writes: 

" There never were more united messmates; hot argu- 
ments in abundance, anecdotes and good stories innu- 
merable, and never told twice, but never an unpleasant 
or ill-natured word, never a sentence to cause regret or 

This is the true spirit that should prevail among the 
members of such an expedition. 

In spite of the fact that their thoughts were so con- 
stantly engrossed in the serious nature of their work, 
they appear to have enlivened the daily routine, every 
now and then, by social diversions of a somewhat con- 

* This number includes two vessels under the American flag, 
named Advance and Rescue, sent out through the munificence of 
Mr. Grinnell, of New York, to co-operate with the English ships 
in the search. 


vivial nature. For instance, in the early days at sea a 
strip of paper was brought into the gunroom of the 
Assistance one day, bearing the following invitation : 


Coffee and Music at seven. 

In response, all the officers that could be spared from 
duty at that hour assembled in the Captain's cabin. 
Here they found entertainment consisting of " coffee, 
sweet biscuits, and cakes, an organ, a tambourine, 
sherry, brandy and water, a flute, a fiddle, chess, back- 
gammon, and singing." What more could be desired ? 
It is not stated who performed on the various musical 
instruments, but that they thoroughly enjoyed them- 
selves goes without saying. The evening was finished 
by all singing, at the top of their respective voices, 
" A rare old plant is the ivy green." These soirees were 
continued once a week, so it is quite certain that they 
were appreciated. 

During the voyage it was arranged to bring out a 
monthly paper called the Aurora Borealis. Dr. Donnet 
was the editor. Markham's contributions to the first 
number were " The Ruin of a Greenland Colony," a poem 
on the Assistance and Intrepid, and an acrostic on Sir 
John Franklin. He was, we may be assured, a frequent 

On the 28th of May, just before they rounded Cape 
Farewell (the southern point of Greenland), they sighted 
their first ice. It consisted of loose streams, but was 
sufficient warning of heavier ice to come. Consequently 
the crow's-nest was hoisted and secured at the foretop- 
mast head. From this a clear view could be obtained, 
for some miles, of the general movements of the ice, 
and from it the ship was invariably navigated when in 
the pack. Icebergs were now constantly met, some of 
huge dimensions. One was measured, and found to 
be 350 feet above the level of the sea. As ice floats 


with seven-eighths of its bulk submerged, it follows that 
the lower part of this berg must have reached a depth 
of 2,450 feet (nearly half a mile) below the surface ! 

During his spare time Markham carefully read every 
Arctic book that had been published, and was regarded 
as quite an authority among his messmates on Arctic 
history; so that he was frequently consulted regarding 
the work accomplished by Arctic explorers from the 
earliest times. Prior to his departure from England, he 
had made himself familiar with the instructions that 
had been given to Sir John Franklin for his guidance. 
Based on this knowledge, he formed the opinion that 
the lost expedition had proceeded up Wellington Channel, 
but numerous discussions on this particular and interest- 
ing subject subsequently induced him to change his 

On the 1 5th of June the squadron reached the Whale- 
fish Islands, and here they filled up with stores and 
provisions from the transport that had been sent out 
for that, purpose. The islands abounded with bird-life; 
eider-ducks were seen in great quantities, also long- 
tailed ducks, red-throated divers, guillemots, razorbills, 
kittiwakes, and puffins. Gulls sat in crowds on the 
unruffled surface of the sea, and the beautiful Arctic 
terns darted about in all directions. Continuous day- 
light, a calm sea, a clear blue sky, warm weather, and 
excellent sport, contributed to the enjoyment of their 
visit to this group of islands. 

Proceeding northwards, threading their way through 
innumerable icefields, they passed Upernivik, the most 
northern Danish settlement in Greenland, on the 25th 
of June. Here they came in sight of several whalers, 
also Penny's brigs, all detained at the edge of the ice 
in Melville Bay, waiting for the pack to open. Although 
they took every advantage of the opening, or slackening, 
of the pack, using every means in their power to destroy 
or loosen it, even to blasting the ice with heavy charges 
of gunpowder, it took them forty-five days to reach the 


" North Water " off Cape York. So unyielding was the 
pack that on one occasion they advanced but a mile in 
nineteen days ! , 

Off Cape York they met several Eskimos belonging 
to the tribe named by Sir John Ross the " Arctic High- 
landers." Here they made a gruesome discovery. 
They were told that a quantity of human remains were 
collected together in a hut in the vicinity. Thinking 
it possible that these might be associated in some way 
with the Franklin expedition, they visited the hut, in 
which they discovered a heap of human bodies huddled 
together at one side. They were covered over with 
sealskins, and it was at first uncertain whether they 
were our own countrymen or not ; but on further investi- 
gation the long black hair, the copper-coloured skin, 
and the high cheek-bones, proclaimed them to be the 
remains of some Eskimos who had probably perished in 
a recent epidemic. 

Prior to reaching the " North Water," they experienced 
the usual difficulties of navigation in ice-encumbered 
seas. For six weeks they were constantly engaged in 
battling with the ice. On occasions, in order to save 
the ships from being crushed by the closing in of the 
ice, docks had to be constructed in which the vessels 
could be safely berthed until the pressure of the pack 

Alarms were frequent, not a day passed without the 
occurrence of some excitement ; and as the vessels were 
in close proximity to each other, the officers and men 
were able frequently to visit their friends in the other 
ships by walking over the ice. Sometimes the ships were 
severely nipped, and the pressure was only relieved by 
the explosion of an improvised bomb placed under the ice 
at the point of greatest pressure. The ships comprising 
the expedition were severely handled in their combat with 
the pack, but their crews persevered in their efforts to get 
thro ugh, and at last they emerged on the iceless " North 
Water." The whalers, which had been in their company 


for so long, gave up the attempt some days earlier, and 
returned south. But, as Markham observes, "the whalers 
thought it was impossible to get through this season; 
but for us there could be no such word as impossible. 
Get through we must." During the time that they 
were beset, Markham celebrated his twentieth birthday, 
but, as someone facetiously remarked, " he was still 
the youngest person in the expedition." 

The time which they spent in the ice of Melville Bay 
was thoroughly enjoyed by Markham. It was a time 
never to be forgotten. Daylight was continuous, the 
scenery was of marvellous beauty, and there was con- 
stant excitement as well as hard work. Yet in the 
sunlit hours of night there was a strange silence away 
from the ships, a stillness as if all Nature was at rest. 

Crossing the northern part of Baffin's Bay on the 1 8th 
of August, they entered Lancaster Sound and passed 
into uninhabited regions. Here they were destined to 
spend the ensuing twelve months without communication 
with the outside world. 

As they sailed along the land, a careful search was 
made by the squadron for traces of the missing expedi- 
tion. The various ships were allocated to different 
localities the more efficiently to carry out the search. 
Great excitement was caused by the discovery at Cape 
Riley (at the eastern entrance to Wellington Channel) 
of undoubted indications of the lost ships. A boat's 
crew had been despatched from the Assistance to erect 
a cairn on the highest point of the cape. The beach 
on which they landed was found to be strewn with empty 
preserved meat tins, pieces of rope, and articles of the like 
nature ; while somewhat higher up the cliff were fragments 
of wood and iron hoops, a cairn of stones, broken bottles, 
and a few charges of shot scattered about. The dis- 
covery of the name GOLDNER on the meat tins proved 
conclusively that a party from the Erebus or Terror 
must have landed at this particular spot, for Goldner 
was the name of the contractor in England who had 


supplied Sir John Franklin's ships with preserved 
provisions. These were the first visible signs of the 
direction in which the lost expedition had proceeded in 
its search for a North-West Passage. 

As may be imagined, excitement reigned supreme. 
It was an important discovery, for it was an indica- 
tion that they were on the right scent. Heated argu- 
ments there were in the gunroom as to whether the 
debris had been left on the first visit of the ships, 
or by travelling or perhaps shooting parties that had 
encamped there for a few days. That they were, 
however, bona fide indications of the missing ships was 
placed beyond doubt by the discovery on Beechey 
Island, a few days later, of indisputable evidence that 
Sir John Franklin and his two ships had actually spent 
their first winter in the immediate neighbourhood. 
This consisted in the finding of three graves with neatly 
carved oak headboards, erected to the memory of a 
seaman and a marine belonging to the Erebus, and a 
young man belonging to the Terror. To their intense 
disappointment, however, no record, no intimation, 
could be found as to the direction which Sir John had 
decided to take after his ships had broken out from their 
winter-quarters. So it was with feelings of profound 
regret and disappointment that they left Beechey Island 
early in September to continue the search. But their 
hopes had been raised greatly by their recent dis- 

Meanwhile the Assistance was beset and severely 
nipped by the ice in Wellington Channel, and was in 
imminent danger of being crushed. Provisions were 
hoisted up from below, boats were got ready and fully 
equipped, and all preparations made for the immediate 
abandonment of the ship. Before this was necessary, 
however, the pressure of the pack eased, but not until the 
vessel had been raised bodily out of the water to a height 
of 6 or 7 feet by the tremendous force and lifting power 
of the floes. Other exciting incidents followed, and the 



ships had several narrow escapes from destruction. The 
season grew late, and further progress was barred by 
the young ice then rapidly forming. It was therefore 
decided that the squadron should winter where it was 
namely, in the pack in Barrow Strait, about a mile from 
Griffith Island and eight miles from Cornwallis Island. 
In this exposed and somewhat precarious position they 
remained from the 22nd of September until released 
the following summer. 

The four vessels were secured in close proximity to 
each other, and were made as comfortable and as safe 
for the winter as circumstances would admit. They 
were housed over with large awnings made of waggon- 
cloth which completely covered them in, protecting 
them from wind and snow, and converting the upper 
deck into a large and spacious room. The deck itself 
was covered with a layer of snow 2 feet deep, and the 
hull was further protected from the cold by snow being 
banked up round it to the height of 5 or 6 feet. All 
superfluous gear was stacked on the ice outside the 
ship and several snow houses were constructed on the 
floe for various purposes, such as astronomical and 
magnetic observatories, powder-magazine, and the 
housing of stores, so as to provide extra space in the ship. 

Before settling down to a regular winter routine, 
travelling-parties were despatched to lay out depots 
of provisions as far as possible along the routes on which 
the main sledging - parties would be employed the 
following summer. These routes, which had been 
thoroughly discussed, were already decided upon by 
those who were to be engaged in the search, subject of 
course to the approval of Captain Austin. Three 
parties were despatched. One was under the command 
of Lieutenant M'Clintock, who reached a position on 
Cornwallis Island about forty miles from the ship; 
another was under Lieutenant Aldrich, who placed his 
depot on Somerville Island ; and the third was com- 
manded by Lieutenant Mecham, who established his 


to the eastward. They started on the 3rd of October, 
and were all safely back by the loth. The departure 
of the sun prevented these depot-forming parties from 
remaining out longer than the end of October; even 
then the days were very short and the nights correspond- 
ingly and uncomfortably long. These depots were of 
the greatest importance. It was incumbent on Captain 
Austin to search in every direction from their winter- 
quarters, which he took as the central starting-point 
not only on account of the knowledge they had gained 
of the 'visit of Franklin's ships to Beechey Island, but 
also in conformity with the instructions that Sir John 
Franklin had received from the Admiralty. The search 
in Wellington Channel was entrusted to Captain Penny, 
who, with his two brigs, was wintering at no great dis- 
tance from Assistance Bay. 

The winter passed pleasantly enough. Indeed, it 
could hardly be otherwise with such cheery and con- 
tented crews. Captain Austin was an excellent organiser 
and his directions even to the minutest details were 
carried out with such an enthusiastic spirit that spoke 
volumes for the happiness of all under his command. 
Markham bears testimony, also, to the admirable work, 
in his own ship, of the First Lieutenant, M'Clintock, 
whose special care were the dryness and cleanliness of 
the ship, the exercising of the crew, and the scrupulous 
carrying out of those regulations specially framed for 
the health and comfort of all on board. Special clothing 
(gratuitously provided by the Admiralty) was distributed 
to each officer and man; and everything that could 
possibly be thought of seems to have been done for the 
comfort of the men. In case of an outbreak of fire, a 
hole was cut in the ice close to the side of the ship. 
This had to be kept open by the quartermaster of the 
watch, who was also obliged to report it " open " to 
the officer of the watch every four hours. Every small 
detail is carefully noted by Markham in his journal. 

On the 4th of November the sun just peeped above 


the horizon at noon for the last time that year, then 
disappeared and was seen no more for ninety-five days. 
But there was always a dim twilight along the southern 
horizon at mid-day, even in the depth of winter. 
There was much visiting between the officers and men 
of the different ships. Numerous dinner-parties were 
given, besides theatrical and other entertainments to 
which everyone was invited. The monthly journal 
known as the Aurora Borealis continued its circulation, 
and retained its popularity to the end. Markham 
wrote a series of articles for it on the " History of Griffith 
and Cornwallis Islands," commencing with the trilobites 
in the Silurian Age . This was completed in five numbers . 
In addition to the numerous articles which he wrote for 
the Aurora Borealis, he was also a frequent contributor 
to the Illustrated Arctic News, a journal brought out on 
board the Resolute under the joint editorship of Sherard 
Osborn and McDougal. In January yet another 
periodical made its appearance on board the Resolute. 
It was entitled The Gleaner, and had a humorous ten- 
dency. The editors were incognito, but their personality 
was suspected. Thereupon Markham, determined that 
the Assistance should not be behindhand in these matters, 
began the issue of another paper on board his ship. 
Under its title Minavilins* he announced that " one 
of the editorial duties would be to keep a sharp watch 
on the Gleaner" Now, it happened that the second 
number of the Gleaner contained a scurrilous and quite 
unwarrantable attack on one of the officers of the ex- 
pedition. This was Markham 's chance. It was promptly 
answered by an article in Minavilins which not only 
withered up the Gleaner with scathing satire, but also 
emphasised his remarks by means of several humorous 
illustrations. But there was something worse than 
Russian censorship on that wintry icepack. This par- 

* " Minavilins " was a term well known and frequently used in 
the Navy to designate " odds and ends " that are lying about on 
the deck. It is now seldom used. 


ticular number was promptly confiscated by order of 
the senior officer, and at the same time both the Gleaner 
and Minavilins were suppressed altogether. 

Schools were instituted for the men, and lectures 
given by the officers. At all of these Markham took 
a leading part. The winter festivities were opened by 
a very jovial soiree given by Captain Austin on board 
the Resolute, at which there was a great display of 
musical talent. Guy Fawkes' Day was the next popular 
" function." It was very dark, but the floe was lit up 
by many torches. The " culprit " was carried in pro- 
cession round all the ships, and was then duly burnt in 
a large fire lighted on an iron grating raised above the 
ice. But the great event of the " season " was the 
opening of the Royal Arctic Theatre on board H.M.S. 
Assistance on the Prince of Wales's birthday (November 
9th). Everything was beautifully arranged, and, with 
so many excellent artists in the expedition, the scenery, 
especially the drop curtain, was a real work of art. The 
theatre, to use a nautical term, was " rigged " on the 
upper deck, under the housing, where plenty of space 
was available. The performance opened with the 
well-known extravaganza " Bombastes Furioso," and 
subsequently the historical play " Charles the Twelfth " 
was produced. The entertainments given were very 
popular, and were frequently repeated, generally with 
a complete change of programme. All were eager to 
assist, so there was no scarcity of performers. Each 
ship vied with the others in the variety and popularity 
of these entertainments, and they assisted very materially 
in making the winter pass, not only quickly, but happily 
and cheerily. 

But all these festivities, however splendid, were 
eclipsed by a " Grand Bal Masque* " given in the " Royal 
Arctic Casino " on board H.M.S. Resolute. Fancy 
dress was of course compulsory. The scene on board 
was of unequalled magnificence. Captain Ommanney 
assumed the character of Sir Greasy Hyde Walrus, Mayor 


of Griffith Island; but space does not permit a de- 
scription of the characters and dresses of all those who 
took part. There were " Smugglers," " Blue Devils," 
" Red Devils," " Black Dominos," " Highlanders," 
" Japanese,"" Niggers," and no less than seven appeared 
in female costumes. Markham came as " Allegory." 
His dress was designed to illustrate the indignation which 
he felt at what he considered the unjust treatment he had 
received by the unwarrantable suppression of Mina- 
vilins ! Twice during the evening he was asked, once 
by an " Old Chair-mender," and again by someone 
made up to represent a " Blacking Bottle," what was the 
meaning of his dress. To which he replied in sepulchral 
tones : " It is an allegory." Both the interrogators turned 
out to be the same individual namely, Captain Austin 
who had appeared in two different disguises ! But no 
one seems to have understood the allegory until it was 
explained to him. 

Christmas Day was kept, of course, as it generally 
is on board an English man-of-war. Later on, a very 
cleverly written pantomime composed by ope of the 
officers of the expedition was produced. It was called 
" Zero, or Harlequin Light," and was intended to 
illustrate the dangers, annoyances, and difficulties that 
are specially attached to sledge travelling, such as 
" Frost-bite," " Scorbutus," " Hunger," etc., who were 
represented as evil sprites alwaj^s on the lookout to 
attack the weary, but unwary, sledger. Eventually they 
were driven away by the good spirits, who appeared under 
the names of " Sun," " Daylight," etc. The last per- 
formance in the theatre was given on the 4th of March, 
when Markham seems to have particularly displayed 
that great histrionic talent which he undoubtedly 
possessed. At the termination of this performance it 
was announced that the theatrical " season " had now 

It must not be thought that Markham, in his eagerness 
to assist in the amusements of the men, neglected his 


more serious studies. This was far from being the case. 
During the winter he read carefully many historical 
books besides Southey's poems and Shakespeare's works. 
Prescott's " Conquest of Peru " always fascinated him; 
in fact, in his spare time he wrote a tragedy in blank- 
verse on the fate of Tupac Amaru, the last of the Incas. 
He also translated the first of Virgil's Eclogues, and 
wrote an essay on Pastoral Poetry. He was a great 
student, too, of Arctic history, and devoured every 
work connected with it that he could get. But, in 
spite of congenial friends and the happiness of his 
immediate surroundings, he was still resolved on leaving 
the Service directly he returned to England. His one 
great thought was to devote his time, at any rate in the 
near future, to the exploration of Peru, in accordance 
with the resolution he had formed at Callao in 1847. 
By great good luck he found that Dr. Donnet, the 
surgeon, had a Quichua grammar on board, which he 
had picked up at Lima. Markham borrowed it, and 
was thus enabled to acquire a smattering of the language 
of the Incas. He was indefatigable in his study of this 
grammar, and longed for the time to arrive when he 
could carry out his plans for revisiting Peru. 

Throughout the winter, preparations had been going 
forward for the spring and summer sledge travelling. 
M'Clintock thought out and elaborated every little 
detail. A system for exploration, such as had never 
been attempted before, had been organised, and was 
eventually brought to such a pitch of perfection that 
it has been handed down for all time as the pattern to 
be followed in Polar exploration. It is interesting to 
know that even during the winter months various 
methods were carried out by which the presence of the 
expedition and its exact locality might perhaps be made 
known to the men they were in search of. Small 
balloons made of gold-beater's skin were inflated and 
set free. Attached to them were numerous slips of 
paper containing information as to the whereabouts 


of the relief expedition. By the attachment of a time 
fuse these slips were liberated at intervals when the 
balloon was high in the air, and so would be scattered 
far and wide. By these means they hoped to commu- 
nicate with the survivors, if any existed, of the Erebus 
and Terror. With the same object in view, foxes were 
caught in traps, and liberated after small cylindrical tin 
cases containing information as to the position of the 
relief ships had been tied round their necks, in the hope 
that some of these animals would be caught by the 
missing men. The winter was a very cold one, the tem- 
perature often falling to - 48 ; but all were well clothed 
in garments suitable for such a climate, and they suffered 
but little inconvenience from its severity. 

The scheme of search to be carried out by the sledge 
parties was now communicated to the officers concerned. 
The sledge crews also were exercised daily, their sledges 
being loaded with the exact weights they were designed 
to carry. Needless to say, the greatest enthusiasm pre- 
vailed amongst officers and men. The plan adopted 
for the summer campaign of 1851 was to organise the 
sledging-parties into two separate divisions, both to 
operate to the westward. One was to search in the 
direction of Melville Island; the other was to pursue 
its investigations towards Cape Walker and its vicinity. 
To each of the main divisions were attached auxiliary 
or supporting sledges, whose duty it was to accompany 
the main party as far as their provisions would permit. 
They were then to complete the main party with pro- 
visions, and return to the ship in readiness to carry out 
a further supply to the depots. This insured supplies 
for the main parties on their return journeys. Every- 
thing was admirably arranged, though, unfortunately, 
the route selected was not the one chosen by the re- 
treating crews of the Erebus and Terror. 

No less than eighteen sledges, with 132 officers and 
men, were employed in the search. Captain Ommanney 
was in command of the Cape Walker division, and 


Lieutenant M'Clintock had charge of the one to Melville 
Island. In addition to these two extended divisions, 
small independent parties were employed in the examina- 
tion of all localities in the neighbourhood of their winter- 
quarters, especially in the channel separating Bathurst 
Island from Cornwallis Island. Markham was con- 
stantly engaged in one or other of these independent 
sledge-parties, and was frequently away for many days 
at a time. He describes minutely all that came under 
his observation, especially the practical details of 
sledging work, such as the weight of all necessaries that 
were carried; the quantity, weight, and description of 
the provisions ; the distance that could be accomplished 
in ordinary circumstances during a day's march ; the 
number of men to each sledge ; the system of haulage ; the 
most economical kind of fuel to be used ; the best time 
of day for marching; the description of clothing to be 
worn; in short, all the multifarious matters connected 
with Polar travelling. Although to the uninitiated 
these matters may appear to be insignificant, yet in 
reality they are of the greatest importance, and affect 
very materially the success of such expeditions as these 
not to mention the comfort of those concerned. 

The sledging-parties left the ships on the 1 5th of April, 
1851, travelling together until they branched off in the 
various directions allotted to them for search. They 
enjoyed continuous daylight, for the sun had returned 
on the 26th of February; but its altitude even at noon 
was not very high, and the heat which it gave out was 
infinitesimal, temperature at the time being considerably 
below zero. 

It is unnecessary here to describe in detail the work 
accomplished by the different parties. Suffice it to 
say that, although their exertions were not crowned 
with success, they added by their discoveries largely 
to our knowledge of the geography of the Arctic Regions. 
By their conduct throughout, their cheerfulness, their 
patient endurance under the most trying conditions, 


their untiring perseverance, numerous disappointments 
and privations, they added yet another page to the 
glorious records of our Navy. 

After leaving winter-quarters, the squadron con- 
tinued to search for the lost ships, especially in the sounds 
situated in the northern part of Baffin's Bay. The two 
steamers were found very useful in steaming up the 
channels and searching all the bays and inlets that were 
free of ice. Their handiness in comparison with the 
clumsy bluff-bowed old sailing ships was most marked. 
In consideration, however, of the lateness of the season 
and the impossibility of reaching a secure harbour, 
Captain Austin, acting upon his instructions, decided 
to return home. The expedition reached Woolwich 
on the ist of October, 1851, after an absence from 
England of seventeen and a half months. They were all 
much disappointed in not having attained the main 
object thay had set out to achieve ; yet satisfied in know- 
ing that they had accomplished as much as could possibly 
be expected of them in the time and with the knowledge 
at their disposal. The entire coast-line from Beechey 
Island, where the traces of Franklin had been discovered, 
to the extreme western point of Melville Island, a 
distance of some 350 miles, had been thoroughly searched. 
In addition vast tracts of land fully 500 miles in extent 
had been carefully explored. To the south of Cape 
Walker 400 miles of new land was discovered, and as 
far as possible surveyed and delineated on the map. 
Jones Sound and Wellington Channel had been traced 
for a considerable distance. But, with the exception 
of the discovery on Beechey Island, not a vestige had 
been found of the ill-fated ships Erebus and Terror. 
Still, they had the gratification of knowing that by 
their exertions the field for further research had been 
considerably narrowed, and with this small measure 
of success they had perforce to be content. 


THE ships were paid off at Woolwich on the loth of 
October. Of the warm and hearty welcome that was 
extended to the officers and crew of the expedition by 
their countrymen at home, it is unnecessary to speak. 
Markham was in excellent health and spirits. His 
father notes in his journal : " He is looking handsome and 
well, not a jot the worse for all his hardships." He was 
grieved, however, to part with the many friends he had 
made on the expedition ; for he had spent an exceedingly 
happy time with them all. But he was not sorry to 
be at home once more to renew home ties and resume old 
friendships. He was not permitted, however, to spend 
his leave altogether in gaiety and idleness. In the 
eyes of his neighbours he had become a public man, 
and he received many invitations to deliver lectures on 
the interesting experiences in which he had recently 
taken so active a part. Some of these invitations he 
accepted, so that he was kept fairly well occupied during 
the time he was at home. His lectures were beauti- 
fully illustrated by diagrams, maps and pictures drawn 
by his father from descriptions given to him by his son. 
But now came the time for making the most momen- 
tous decision of his life, for on it depended his whole 
future career. His distaste for a naval life had in no 
way diminished since he left the Collingwood. Mention 
has already been made of his dislike to the severe disci- 
pline, more especially in regard to corporal punishment, 
which was enforced at that time. He had enjoyed 
every moment of the time he served in the Arctic Regions, 



for there, punishments of any sort were practically 
unknown; also he was engaged on work that was in 
every way congenial to him. But the prospect of 
returning to a life where he would be a constant witness 
of the things that he most abhorred, was anything but 
pleasing. Yet, apart from his aversion to the harsh- 
ness of the punishments inflicted in the maintenance 
of discipline, he had a great love for the Navy itself; 
and his greatest friends were naval men. Even after 
he had severed his active connection with the Service, 
he was never, perhaps, so happy as when cruising in 
a man-of-war as the guest of one of the officers. He 
adored above all the young midshipmen, who would 
frequently pour out all their little troubles into his sym- 
pathetic ears; he entered into all their fun and frolic; 
it may almost be said that he encouraged them in some 
of their minor and harmless delinquencies ! His sym- 
pathies were always with the oppressed, and when he 
became aware of any particular case of punishment 
that he considered to be unduly severe especially if 
it had reference to a lad or young man he never rested 
until he had succeeded either in getting the punishment 
mitigated or remitted altogether. 

He had now to decide as to the course of life he was 
going to lead. It was a crucial moment. The Navy 
had been tried, and it had failed to satisfy him. Some 
other profession must be found. His was not a dis- 
position that could tolerate idleness. 

It was with some misgiving that he consulted his 
father, but no advice could have been more kind and 
sympathetic than the counsel his father gave him. 
Seeing that he was really in earnest in his desire to 
leave the Navy, he sorrowfully consented, but told him 
that he thought he was making a profound mistake 
in doing so. He pointed out that he had served with 
credit for six years in the Navy, during which time he 
had made many influential friends. He had acquired 
an excellent name for himself as a clever, zealous, and 


painstaking officer, one who could be entrusted with 
the execution of important duties. If it was really 
his desire to leave the Service, however, he would not 
stand in his way; but he thought in his own interest 
that, as he had completed his six years in the Navy 
as naval cadet and midshipman, he was in a position 
to apply to be examined for the rank of Lieutenant, 
and that he ought to do so. To this his son willingly 
assented; but he explained to his father that during 
the time he was at Woolwich fitting out in the Assistance 
he had lost a box which contained his logbooks for a 
period of over five years that is to say, for the whole 
time he had served in the Collingwood and in the Mediter- 
ranean. He represented to his father that it would be 
absolutely impossible for him to present himself for 
examination in seamanship without these logs, and he 
considered it would be a great waste of time, especially 
as he was going to leave the Service, for him to write 
them all up again. He suggested, therefore, that he 
should pass the gunnery examination only, for in those 
days it was optional as to the order in which the home 
examinations should be taken. To this his father 
consented, and it was arranged that directly his leave 
expired he should present himself on board the Excellent 
to be examined in gunnery. This was accordingly done, 
and when the eventful day arrived he was examined as 
to hL general knowledge of gunnery, which included 
everything connected with the fighting arrangements 
of a man-of-war, from the size and weight of the guns 
and their projectiles, to his qualifications for stationing 
and drilling men at the guns, and his knowledge of 
cutlass and rifle exercises, etc. The result of the ex- 
amination was very satisfactory, and on the 24th of 
December he was given a first-class certificate. Thus 
he was enabled to spend Christmas Day at home with 
his family at Horkesley. 

He now took his final leave as an officer in the Navy, 
and was able to concentrate all his thoughts and all 


his attention to the working out of the details connected 
with his projected expedition to Peru. This plan, 
however, for the present he kept to himself. His 
father's idea was that he should go to Oxford and take 
his degree, and then be called to the Bar. Unforeseen 
difficulties, however, arose regarding this project, and 
it was eventually decided to give up the idea of Oxford 
altogether, and that he should begin the study of law at 
once. With this object in view, he commenced reading 
Blackstone's " Commentaries." 

At this time there was a good deal of sharp and unkind 
criticism in the Press, not only of Captain Austin, but 
of the manner in which the late expedition had been 
conducted generally. The Admiralty h,ad appointed 
a committee of Arctic experts and others to examine 
the details connected with the recent search, and to 
report what further action should be taken. The 
result of this was the despatch of another expedition 
consisting of the same ships, with definite instructions 
as to the localities to be searched. The majority of the 
officers who came to the front in Austin's expedition 
were reappointed to their old ships for a further term 
of service in the Arctic Regions. Markham was most 
indignant at these attacks, and he considered the 
appointment of the committee unnecessary, and as re- 
flecting somewhat adversely upon the leaders of the 
expedition. In order to make known his views and to 
enlighten the public regarding the good work that had 
been achieved by Captain Austin, he resolved, with his 
natural impulsiveness, to publish a narrative which 
should embrace the proceedings and results of the late 
expedition. This came out under the title of " Franklin's 
Footsteps," a most interesting little work which de- 
servedly obtained a wide circulation. 

The day before the sailing of the new expedition, 
Markham went down to Woolwich to bid farewell to his 
old shipmates, many of whom, such as Osborn, M'Clin- 
tock, Mecham, and Hamilton, to name a few, he regarded 


as old and valued friends. He could not help feeling 
depressed and disappointed that he was being left 
behind, for without doubt he would willingly have 
accompanied them had the opportunity been afforded 
him. But it was not to be; he had severed his connec- 
tion with the Navy, and " as he had made his bed so 
must he lie on it." It was with a heavy heart, however, 
that he wished them all good-bye and godspeed.* 

For some time after his visit to Woolwich, he was 
unable to shake off a feeling of nervous depression that 
seemed to have settled upon him, and which he was 
unable to conceal from his father. Perhaps it was due 
to the fact that he had not yet summoned up sufficient 
courage to divulge to him the whole of his Peruvian 
plans ? However, on the ist of July, being at Windsor, 
the two went for a long walk in the Park, when he 
laid his whole scheme before his father and explained 
to him everything in detail. The elder man listened 
with great attention, but he could not help showing 
his disapproval of such a project. However, after 
much explanation and much consideration, he turned a 
favourable ear to his son's earnest request (for, as 
Markham says, " he never refused me anything "), 
and before they reached home he consented to give 
him 500 towards defraying his expenses. 

Markham was jubilant at the success of his appeal, 
and he became an altered man. His depression dis- 
appeared as if by magic. The days flew rapidly by, he 
went to stay with many of his old friends, and they 
returned his visits both at Horkesley and at Windsor. 
London was visited several times in order to arrange 
about his outfit, his passage across the Atlantic, and the 
further journey thence to Lima. He had also to obtain 
letters of introduction to people who he thought would 
prove useful in furthering his plans. He was now just 

* This second expedition was as unsuccessful as the first with 
regard to its main object. But good geographical work was done 
and much hitherto unknown coast-line mapped. 


twenty-two years of age, full of the vigour and enthu- 
siasm of youth. It was the dawn of his long-dreamed-of 
scheme, and he did not intend that it should fail for the 
lack of anything it was in his power to do. 

He left Windsor for Liverpool on the 2oth of August, 
1852. His father was up early in the morning helping 
him to pack his things, for he was anxious about his son, 
and hoped the scheme would turn out to be more success- 
ful than at first sight it seemed likely to be. " But," 
he writes in his journal, " it is a long lonely business, 
and I have not much heart about it." This was the 
last time he was destined to see his father. 

On reaching Halifax in Nova Scotia, after a pleasant 
run across the Atlantic, Markham found H.M.S. Cum- 
berland at anchor in the harbour, flying the flag of his 
old chief, Sir George Seymour. After depositing his 
things at the hotel, he went on board the Cumberland 
and renewed acquaintance with a number of old " Colling- 
woods." They were delighted to see him again, and 
insisted upon his living on board, an invitation he was 
only too glad to avail himself of. He generally dined on 
shore with the Seymours at Admiralty House, but the 
remainder of his time he spent in the company of his old 
shipmates, walking and driving about the town. It was 
like old times, and he thoroughly enjoyed it. On the 
1 2th of September he left Halifax, and was accom- 
panied across Nova Scotia by two old " Collingwoods," 
namely, Ashby and Jones (Don Galloso), and when he 
said good-bye to them at Windsor (N.S.) he felt that he 
had really started on his Peruvian expedition, and that 
he had taken his last farewell of the Navy. He writes 
in his journal on the i2th of September, 1852: 

" My last day of actual service was on board the 
Excellent on Christmas Eve, 1851. So long as I was 
writing ' Franklin's Footsteps,' which I looked upon 
as a duty connected with my naval service, I felt that 
I was in the Navy. As I waved my handkerchief to 
Ashby and ' Gallows ' Jones, who stood on the pier at 
Windsor (N.S.) watching my steamer start, I felt, with 


a pang, that the last tie was severed. I had been very 
happy in the Navy, I had made many friends, yet my 
resolution was probably a wise one. Still, I felt a pang 
of sorrow and regret." 

From Windsor (N.S.) Markham travelled to St. 
John's, New Brunswick, and thence to Boston, where 
he met W. H. Prescott, the historian, and spent ten days 
with him at his country-house. From him he obtained 
much valuable information during their numerous 
interesting discussions concerning the Incas and the 
conquest of Peru. He certainly could not have gone 
to a higher authority on those particular subjects. 
Prescott unhesitatingly approved of Markham 's expe- 
dition to Cuzco, strongly supported the object he had 
in view, wished him the greatest measure of success 
obtainable, and declared that no history could be 
perfect unless the writer of it was personally acquainted 
with the localities he described. Occasionally they 
passed the evenings in playing whist ; but Markham 
observed that his host was so much under the thraldom 
of his servants (as, indeed, everybody in those parts 
appear to have been at that time), that they were 
obliged to hide the cards under the table when the 
servant appeared with tea, as that individual did not 
approve of card-playing ! 

Leaving New York at the end -of September, he took 
steamer to Colon, whence he crossed the isthmus to 
Panama. This crossing of a strip of land only about 
fifty miles in breadth was a novel experience for him, 
and a great deal more difficult than it is at the present 
day. A railroad, it is true, was in course of construction, 
but it was only completed for a distance of about twenty- 
five miles, to a place called Barbacoes. The remainder 
of the journey had to be made, first, in a boat up the 
River Chagres, and thence on a mule along a narrow 
path through dense tropical vegetation. This brought 
him to the parting of the waters, where the rivers flowed 
down to the Atlantic and Pacific respectively, one on 



either hand. Here he had to take to a flat-bottomed 
boat which provided accommodation for about twenty 
passengers, with a certain amount of luggage. The 
river flows with great rapidity, and the boat was man- 
aged by a long pole, which was also used for punting 
when necessary. Just before dark he reached a miser- 
able village called Gorgona, and, with the other passen- 
gers, was obliged to spend the night at a mean-looking 
hovel called an " hotel," which swarmed with mosquitoes 
and other obnoxious insects. The passengers were on 
the move at early dawn the next day, travelling some 
little distance in the boats until navigation by water 
became impossible, when they had recourse again to 
the mules, which they had to guide along the most 
execrable roads imaginable. Reaching a rest-house 
about midday, Markham was able to obtain some tea, 
but at the exorbitant price of $2 a cup. Rain in heavy 
tropical showers fell during the day, and all the passen- 
gers were drenched to the skin. At length, after dark, 
they reached a long hut, at which they spent another 
night. Panama was reached the following afternoon. 
It had taken three days and two nights to cross the 
isthmus, a journey that can now be accomplished in 
two or three hours. 

Markham 's arrival in Panama took place at a some- 
what unfortunate time, for it happened to be immediately 
after the discovery of gold in California. There had been 
a rush of people, especially loafers and adventurers 
of all kinds, with the object of trying their luck at the 
gold-diggings; and a radical transformation had come 
over the hitherto sleepy old town of Panama. It was 
now crowded with all sorts and conditions of men. 
Modern vulgarity was everywhere to be seen, more 
especially in the flaring advertisements posted every- 
where to catch the eyes of new arrivals. Innumerable 
buildings hastily erected were in evidence on all sides 
proudly announcing the fact that they were " hotels " 
and would provide " good lodging," " brandy smashes," 


" egg nogs," etc. Needless to say, Markham did not 
stay longer in Panama than he could possibly help ; 
for he took the first steamer leaving for Callao, where 
he arrived on the i6th of October. He proceeded 
immediately to Lima. Here he remained for nearly 
two months, surrounded by old friends, and busy 
completing his preparations for the great enterprise 
upon which he had embarked. 

Lima had changed but little since he was there in the 
Collingwood days. His old friends, a little more advanced 
in years perhaps, but still the same kind people whom 
he had previously known, were delighted to see him 
again, and not only lavished their hospitality upon 
him, but assisted very materially in preparing for his 
great journey. He was provided with letters of intro- 
duction to the President of Peru, and other leading 
men in Lima, all of whom went out of their way to show 
him kindness. One placed a horse at his disposal, and 
sent a groom round every morning for orders; another 
gave him a box at the opera ; in fact, he was overwhelmed 
with kind attentions; for not only were all impressed 
by the charm of his personality, but the work that he 
had undertaken was regarded as one of national impor- 
tance. A good deal of time was spent in the Public 
Library and Museum; and he left untapped no source 
available to him of obtaining information regarding 
the history and traditions of the Incas. Doubtless 
some of the information he acquired was somewhat 
unreliable, being of a mythical nature ; but on the whole 
it was of great assistance to him when at last he began 
his own researches, for many links were thus supplied 
which would otherwise have been missing. His study 
of the Quichua grammar on board the Assistance in the 
Arctic Regions now bore good fruit, and amply rewarded 
him for the labour he had expended upon it. 

As the time at his disposal was* only about twelve 
months, he resolved to devote it exclusively to his re- 
searches in the history of the Incas. His journey, he 

i 3 6 TRAVELS IN PERU [CH. ix 

decided, was to include a portion of the coast from Lima 
to Nasca, thence to Cuzco, and so crossing the Andes 
in two different directions. At Cuzco he proposed to 
remain for some time, making researches in the neigh- 
bourhood, as well as by excursions into the Montana. 
Thence back to Lima by way of Arequipa. This route 
he adhered to as far as possible. Not only did he carry 
letters of recommendation to influential persons in the 
districts through which he would pass, but the President 
was good enough to write to the Prefects of the different 
departments desiring them to afford Markham all possible 
assistance and information. 

Before starting on his main expedition, he made 
many interesting trips to places in the neighbourhood 
of Lima. One of these was to the famous temple of 
Pachacamac, the " Creator of the World," the " Supreme 
God," worshipped by the Indians of Peru. Owing, 
however, to a somewhat " festive luncheon " he did not 
get away from Lima until late in the afternoon, and so, 
to his disappointment, the time left for his exploration 
of the " City of the Dead " was somewhat limited. 
The temple, which originally had been constructed of 
adobe (i.e., sun-dried bricks), was entirely in ruins, but 
there remained sufficient to enable him to form some 
idea of the extent and principal features of the ancient 
building. From the summit, 400 feet above the level 
of the sea, he obtained a glorious view. On the return 
journey he was attacked by a gang of negro robbers 
who, fortunately for him, had unsaddled their horses 
and turned them into a neighbouring corral. One 
ruffian stepped out into the middle of the road and 
seized the bridle of his horse. Markham drew his 
revolver and fired at the negro, who instantly dropped. 
Seeing that the remainder of the gang were pre- 
paring to attack him, he put spurs to his horse and 
galloped off into the desert, firing two more shots at 
his assailants as he departed, and thus succeeded in 
effecting his escape. His intention was to ride back 


and seek shelter at a hut which he had passed on the way 
out; but, as it was now quite dark and there was no 
visible road, he soon lost his way. Finally he was 
obliged to pass the night in the desert; so he lay down 
to snatch what sleep he could, having first taken the 
precaution of tethering the horse to one of his legs. 
This he did by means of the lasso which invariably 
forms part of a rider's equipment in Peru. He slept 
at intervals, and did not start homewards until there 
was sufficient light to enable him to find his direction 
by compass. He then rode off briskly, arriving at Chor- 
rillos* at about half-past seven, man and beast com- 
pletely famished. His assailants were captured the next 
day by a detachment of cavalry. Seven were shot, and 
their bodies laid out in the Plaza de la Inquisicion, 
where Markham was able to recognise three of them as 
having been among his assailants. 

During his stay at Lima, Markham paid many visits 
to the valley of the Rimac and neighbourhood to study 
the huacas there, in which he was especially interested. 
These huacas are vast artificial hills built on the plains, 
of adobe bricks. Some are of enormous size. One 
near the village of Magdalena is more than an acre in 
extent, and is 70 feet high. It is generally supposed, 
from the immense quantity of human skulls and bones 
that have been dug up during excavations, that they 
were ancient burial-places. They were in existence at 
a period anterior to the conquest of the valley of the 
Rimac by the Incas, though it is assumed by some that 
they were built by people of the same race.| 

The arrangements for his expedition being at length 
complete, he started from Lima on the 7th of December, 
1852, in light marching order, leaving all his heavy 

* A pretty fashionable watering-place near Lima much fre- 
quented by Lima society. 

t According to Prescott the word huaca is extensively used in 
connection with any consecrated object, such as a tomb, temple, or 
even a jar. Also with any natural formation remarkable for its size 
or shape. 


baggage in the safe custody of the hotel authorities. 
He was accompanied by a black cavalry soldier ap- 
pointed by the Peruvian Government as an escort (who, 
however, proved of no value, Markham describing him 
as " useless and certainly no ornament"), and a pack- 
mule laden with all the requirements of the journey in 
the shape of clothing, instruments, etc. Both he and 
his escort bestrode mules. His equipment was cut 
down to the barest necessities, for, as he himself 
wrote : 

" For the real enjoyment of travelling in the interior 
of Peru, it is necessary to throw aside all superfluity of 
luggage, and set forth with a small pair of leather 
saddle-bags and a few warm ponchos for a bed, so as to 
commence the journey with a perfect absence of care 
or anxiety. Thus, unhampered by luggage, the traveller 
may wander through the enchanting scenery whither- 
soever his fancy leads him, and, taking his chance for a 
lodging or a supper, roam amidst the majestic Cordilleras 
and pass a time of most perfect enjoyment." 

Acting on this principle, he set forth on his lonely quest 
full of enthusiasm, and determined not only to bring it to 
a successful conclusion, but to enjoy himself thoroughly 
into the bargain. The main object of his enterprise 
was to obtain, at first-hand if possible, accurate historical 
records of the somewhat mythical origin of the Incas. 
Their history was full of interest, but so far the books 
which dealt with Peru and its history had been devoted 
almost entirely to the exploits generally cruel and 
bloody of the Spanish conquistador es. It was a field of 
investigation that was almost entirely untouched, and 
it was with the object of throwing some light on this 
fascinating, yet hitherto neglected part of the New 
World's history that Clements Markham set out upon 
his journey to Cuzco, the imperial city of the Incas. 
Here he hoped to collect much valuable and reliable 
information, visiting the actual scene of the deeds of 
the Incas, that delightful land of lovely valleys which 


teem with the remarkable architectural remains of a 
very ancient civilisation. 

In a week's time he arrived at Cafiete, one of the richest 
sugar-yielding districts in Peru, having- received the 
greatest hospitality from the inhabitants of the various 
villages through which he had passed. Whenever 
possible, he endeavoured to arrange his daily stages 
so as to obtain accommodation for the night at one of 
the large haciendas, or farmhouses, that lay on his 
route. At many of the places where he spent the 
night, remuneration was politely but decidedly refused. 
Everything was at the sefior's disposition, and nothing 
in the way of payment would be accepted. He was 
much amused by the stories told by the old men who 
would come in to have a chat while they drank their 
pisco* On one occasion a garrulous old fellow described 
a battle (in which he had taken part) between four 
Generals, each of whom contended for power on the 
death of the President. Markham, asking in whose 
favour the battle terminated, was told that it ended by 
the four Generals running away ! 

Slavery was at that time the only way of obtaining 
labour, and strict regulations were enforced for the 
proper supervision and housing of the slaves, who were 
generally negroes. On the whole they were well cared 
for, and their religious instruction was not neglected. 
The Peruvian Government had already adopted an 
excellent scheme of gradual emancipation by which 
every child born after 1821 was to be free at the age of 
fifty .f They were principally employed in the refining 
of sugar. 

During the journey Markham visited many interesting 
people and places. Sometimes he would be entertained 
at large dinner-parties in the haciendas or country- 

* An ardent spirit much favoured by the Peruvians. It takes 
its name from the seaport town of Pisco. 

t A decree was issued in 1856 proclaiming the general emancipa- 
tion of all slaves. 

i 4 o TRAVELS IN PERU [CH. ix 

houses. On one occasion the Bishop of the province 
happened to be one of the guests. It was a Sunday, 
and the reverend gentleman became intensely excited 
over a cockfight, on the result of which he staked large 
sums of money. Later, on the same day, this high 
dignitary of the Church might have been seen playing 
ecarte for high stakes 1 Sometimes, however, our 
traveller had to be content with a lodging in an adobe 
hut, with perhaps nothing but a piece of bread and a 
cup of chocolate for his supper. But wherever he might 
be, whether partaking of the good things of this world 
in the highest company, or sharing a humble meal with 
a ragged peasant, he was always cheery and happy, 
always sympathetic, and ever-anxious to obtain informa- 
tion from anyone who was in a position to assist him in 
his researches. 

Christmas Day, 1852, was spent at Cafiete, and in a 
most festive manner. He shall describe it in his own 
words : 

" After church I went by previous invitation to dinner 
at the Cura's house, the Bishop* completing the party. 
The dinner consisted of an excellent roast sucking pig, 
pastry made of young green maize, and sweets. After 
dinner the prelate took his gamecock out of a basket 
and put it on the table, the Cura did the same with his, 
and about eighteen neighbours came in. The two 
ecclesiastics were soon busily engaged in fastening the 
navajas (well-sharpened steel spurs) on their respective 
birds. Then the battle began, feathers flew in all 
directions, the excitement reached fever-heat, the 
betting rose higher and higher. In the end the cock 
of the sporting old prelate was victorious, and much 
money changed hands. The conquering bird rejoiced 
in the name of Pilato /" 

Leaving Cafiete he proceeded on his way, crossing the 
river of that name, and passing the extensive ruins of 
the old Inca fortress of Hervay. Here he spent some 
time, making a plan of the ruins. This ancient fortress 

* The reverend prelate of sporting proclivities already alluded to. 


and palace was undoubtedly constructed by the Incas; 
it was built on a dominating rise of ground, apparently, 
to overawe the inhabitants of the rich valley which 
was afterwards called Canete. Prior to reaching Pisco, 
he relates a pathetic incident that occurred on his 
journey. A little way up one of the ravines an object 
attracted his attention. On approaching it he found 
it to be a female figure in the well-known costume of 
an Inca Indian. Her face was buried in the sand. 
He took one of her hands, and she turned her face 
towards him with an expression of the most heartrending 
grief. It was a beautiful face, and she appeared not 
more than sixteen. She pointed to a small bush a few 
yards off, where he discovered a little baby quite dead. 
He placed some money by its side, and, seeing that he 
could be of no assistance, reluctantly rode off, leaving 
the poor girl alone with her great sorrow. 

Pisco was reached on the 3Oth of December, and here 
he was most hospitably entertained. After visiting 
the Chincha Islands, famous for their enormous deposits 
of guano (some of which was being transported into 
the ships by convict labour for conveyance to Europe), 
he returned to Pisco. Leaving here early in the morning 
of the 6th of January, 1853, accompanied only by an 
Indian boy, he shaped a course to the eastward, passing 
over a tract of soft sand which made the travelling 
somewhat heavy. Not a few troubles were experienced 
en route. Sundry articles of his equipment were lost, 
and not recovered without difficulty, before he reached 
the large town of Yea, situated some six or eight miles 
from the foot of the Cordilleras and about thirty miles 
from Pisco. It was a large town situated in a fertile 
and beautiful plain covered with extensive vine and 
cotton plantations. It has suffered much from the 
effects of earthquakes, especially from one which 
occurred in 1745, when it was entirely destroyed. At 
the time of Markham's visit it contained a population 
of about 10,000. 


At Yea he made the acquaintance of two gentlemen, 
one a Peruvian, the other an American, who were about 
to visit the coast on business; they invited Markham 
to accompany them. Although this involved a slight 
detour from the route which he had planned, he gladly 
accepted their invitation and they started on the 8th 
of January. When they were crossing the River Yea at 
a shallow ford, the stream was running so swiftly that 
the mule Markham was riding was swept off its feet. 
He was thrown on his side in the river, with one leg 
under the mule, pinned down in such a manner that he 
was unable to keep his head above water. The mule 
kicked and struggled, and so did he, until he was extri- 
cated by his companions. Fortunately, with the excep- 
tion of being drenched to the skin, he was none the 
worse for this unpleasant adventure, which might have 
had a more disagreeable termination. 

Arrived at the coast, they remained four days in a 
small hut constructed of bamboos, which constituted 
the " port " of Lomas ! Here his friends were busily 
employed in loading with cotton a ship called the Jenny 
Lind. Having completed her cargo, she sailed on the 
1 8th, and the party broke up, Markham continuing on 
his way to Nasca, the others returning to Yea. 

He now proceeded southwards along the coast to a 
little place called Santa Ana, thence due east to Nasca. 
His only companion as far as Santa Ana was an old 
fisherman named Manuel, of whom Markham relates : 

" He was a good fellow, but, unfortunately for himself, 
the poor old chap is a murderer. In the middle of the 
night he often jumps up and runs screaming among the 
sand-hills, thinking he is chased by devils and goblins." 

He was much interested in the beautiful valley of 
Nasca, which owes its present fertility to the skill and 
industry of its ancient inhabitants, under whose care 
an arid wilderness has been converted into a Garden of 
Eden, and so it has continued to this day. During his 


short stay at Nasca he visited the deserted gold-mine of 
Cerro Blanco, the working of which had been abandoned 
for want of capital. He also inspected some Inca ruins 
in the neighbourhood. But his stay here was brief, 
and after crossing the Rio Grande he reached Yea again 
on the 24th of January. Here he spent a very happy 
week among friends who showed him every kindness, 
and it was with real regret that he bade them farewell. 
But the main object of his expedition still lay before him, 
and he could not afford to waste time. Preparations 
were hastened, and before leaving Yea he was fortunate 
in finding a most trustworthy and useful servant. This 
man, named Agustin Carpio, he engaged to guide him 
across the Andes and to assist generally in the daily 


MARKHAM'S arrival at Yea completed the first section 
of his journey to Cuzco. To enable the reader better 
to follow his route, it may be stated here that Peru is 
divided geographically into four longitudinal regions. 
These regions are called the Coast Region, which is a 
rainless district; the Puna, which comprises the lofty 
and uninhabited part of the Andes; the Sierra, or in- 
habited part; and the Montana, or eastern forests of 
the Amazonian basin. 

He was now to cross the Andes, and the route chosen 
was along a narrow unfrequented path. Moreover, he 
was setting out at the worst possible time of the year, 
for it was the height of the rainy season. But Markham, 
in his determination to succeed, was undaunted by such 
difficulties. His first day's journey from Yea took him 
some miles up a fertile valley in which were many 
grazing farms, well stocked with cattle, horses, and 
mules. Thence he travelled through a wild, uninhabited 
region, along a ravine bounded on either side by steep, 
and in some places precipitous, cliffs. Here he came 
across a herd of eight llamas, the first of these animals 
he had seen. Emerging from the ravine, he ascended 
a zigzag path, and came into a land bright with flowers. 
Behind him the view was glorious. Thence his path 
lay through another green valley in which were fields 
of alfalfa and vegetables. And so he went on and on, 
ever ascending, through ravines and valleys, halting 
at noon for lunch, and spending the nights in some 
poor peasant's hut, where he and his guide were always 
welcome to rest and remain as long as they wished. 

1 44 


On reaching the mountainous district they experienced 
heavy rains, a novelty to them after being for so long in 
the rainless part of the country. It had, moreover, the 
disadvantage of making the roads much more difficult 
for their mules, and added considerably to their personal 
discomfort ; they also lost a good deal of time owing to 
the swollen state of the rivers and streams that had to 
be crossed. Still ascending they reached the Puna, 
or lofty uninhabited part of the Andes. The ther- 
mometer now stood at 30 F. (it had been 90 F. on the 
plains a few days before), and the torrential rain was 
succeeded by snow and hailstorms of great violence. 
They passed many vicunas, graceful animals not unlike 
llamas, but of a light fawn colour, with a very fine and 
silky fleece, and having long slender necks. 

Attaining at length the region of snow, they pushed 
on in order to reach before dark a small natural cave 
on the summit of the pass, known to the guide, where 
they had planned to spend the night. The scene was 
wild and dismal, but they succeeded in reaching the cave 
just before dark. It consisted of an overhanging rock 
in the face of the cliff, but, to their great disappoint- 
ment, they found it full of water, while streams were 
trickling into it from the roof. The ground outside 
was covered with tufts of long grass full of snow, and 
did not offer a very inviting place to repose. Snow was 
falling fast, and, to add to their misfortunes, the matches 
which they carried were damp, and they were unable 
to obtain a light. Agustin, the guide, was profuse 
with his apologies, and was much downcast; but it 
was not his fault, and they prepared to pass the night 
as best they could. To lie down was impossible, so, 
wrapping themselves up in their ponchos, they stood 
up against the mules, resting their heads on the animals' 
necks; and thus passed a miserable night, snatching 
what sleep they could in this uncomfortable position. 
Nor was this the only discomfort they experienced; 
for at this high altitude they suffered a good deal from 


the difficulty of breathing, though not to any serious 
extent. Continuous sleep, however, was quite out of 
the question. The thunder roared loudly above, around, 
and below them, while vivid flashes of lightning lit up 
the scene with a dazzling light, brilliantly outlining the 
craggy peaks of the Cordilleras between the intervals 
of utter darkness. 

Next morning they wore not long in making a start, 
and with the advent of dawn pursued their journey. 
Snow ceased to fall, the heavy mist rolled down into 
the ravines, and things generally assumed a more cheerful 
aspect. Agustin also began to recover his spirits, 
which had fallen very low during the night. The 
travelling, however, was atrocious, especially for the 
mules, handicapped as they were by their heavy burdens. 

After the summit of the pass had been crossed, they 
began to descend a very steep declivity across slippery 
rocks with waterfalls tumbling over them. In some 
places the mules had to jump from one ledge to another 
where a false step would have plunged beast and rider 
to the bottom of an abyss. Occasionally they had to 
skirt the edge of a precipice, traversing a path so 
narrow that, while one leg was rubbing uncomfortably 
against the rocks on one side, the other was hanging 
over the chasm. Many of the rivers were impassable, 
being in spate, and consequently circuitous and often 
lengthy routes had to be taken ere a ford could be 

The first human habitation which they came across 
on the eastern slope of the Andes was a shepherd's hut. 
It was circular, about 8 feet in diameter, and its only 
inhabitant was a small boy, who was very civil and 
obliging, and provided them with hot water to make 
their chocolate for breakfast. He also guided them to 
a little bridge which enabled them to cross the River 
Palmite Grande. One day was almost a repetition of 
its predecessor: ravines, valleys, rivers, all had to be 
negotiated ; mountains had to be crossed by climbing up 


on one side, and descending on the other ; it was appar- 
ently an endless and wearisome journey rendered endur- 
able only by the grandeur of the scenery and the thought 
that every mile brought them nearer to their goal. 

They had now passed the region of snow, and were 
entering a more temperate climate. Travelling con- 
ditions were much improved, and they made better 
progress. Solitary shepherd's huts were more frequently 
met, for the lower slopes of the hills were clothed with 
a rich pasturage on which sheep and cattle were grazing 
in large numbers. Proceeding onwards, the travellers 
came to a little hamlet; it consisted only of a cluster 
of small roofless stone huts, with trees growing in the 
empty rooms. The sole inhabitant of this deserted 
village was the old sacristan of a little chapel, who told 
them that once a year folk came from the neighbouring 
districts to celebrate the festival of the Virgin. More 
hermit than sacristan he seemed to be ! 

Large flocks of llamas and alpacas were observed 
grazing on the slopes of the hills. 

Crossing the vast pampa of Cangallo, they eventually 
reached the important town of Ayacucho, in the vicinity 
of which the decisive battle was fought in 1824, which 
practically resulted in the extinction of Spanish power 
in South America. Riding straight to the Prefect's 
house, Markham received a most kindly welcome, and 
was hospitably entertained by the Prefect, Don Manuel 
Tello y Cabrera, and his sisters. 

The town of Ayacucho is situated at a height of over 
10,000 feet above the level of the sea. In the month 
of February the climate is equable and agreeable, the 
temperature ranging from 64 to 69 F. The town itself 
is prettily situated, and can boast of some fine buildings, 
notably the cathedral, with its arcades of stone pillars 
and circular arches. Ayacueho was founded by Pizarro 
in 1539. 

The Prefect, Don Manuel, was so insistent that Mark- 
ham should remain as his guest for at least a month 


that he not unwillingly consented, especially as there 
were many places of historical interest in the neigh- 
bourhood that he was desirous of visiting. He was 
anxious, also, to increase his knowledge of the Quichua 
language, a wise decision which he never regretted. 
With Don Manuel as his guide, he visited every place 
of interest in the neighbourhood, and obtained much 
knowledge both of the country and its folk-lore. In- 
cidentally ' he acquired a great deal of information on 
certain ancient traditions of the Incas, hitherto unknown 
to him. He much enjoyed the evening parties given by 
his kind host the Prefect. Here the wit and beauty of 
Ayacucho assembled, and as the young ladies of the 
Sierra town were renowned alike for their beauty and 
intelligence, small wonder that he writes : " Their names 
will ever find a place in the memory of the traveller who 
has enjoyed the privilege of their society." 

The study of the Indians and their language was a 
source of daily occupation for him, and, as these studies 
were conducted under the personal tuition of one of 
the charming senoritas referred to, doubtless he made 
good progress ! Under these pleasing conditions the 
month soon slipped away, and it was with feelings of 
poignant regret that he said good-bye to his kind friends 
and set out again on his travels. The parting was a 
most affectionate one, for he had become a great favourite 
with them all, and they could not conceal their sorrow 
at his departure. 

After leaving Ayacucho, the road branched away to 
the south - east along deep ravines overgrown with 
beautiful wild-flowers. The whole country appeared 
capable of cultivation, and of being able to sustain 
more than ten times the population then existing. 
Leaving the temperate region of the Sierra, Markham 
now entered a tropical valley covered with tall stately 
aloes, huge forest trees, and thick undergrowth. Flocks 
of green parrots wheeled screaming above their heads, 
while richly coloured little humming-birds flitted from 


flower to flower, their brilliant hues sparkling in the 
bright sunshine. 

Rapid torrents were crossed by means of swinging 
bridges made of the twisted fibres of the maguey, 
which swung to and fro in a somewhat alarming and 
tremulous manner as they passed over. The scenery 
through which they passed varied from day to day. 
Sometimes they journeyed across peaceful plains and 
through valleys dotted with huts and cultivated plots ; 
another day their path would probably lie through 
narrow gorges with precipitous cliffs on either side, 
and swirling mountain torrents dashing over the rocks 
that formed their bed. Their shelter for the night 
consisted usually of a peasant's rude hut, for it was but 
rarely that the travellers reached a hacienda. On such 
occasions, however, they were always assured of a 
hospitable welcome from the owner and his family, 
and a nice comfortable bed to sleep in. 

When he was about zoo miles from Ayacucho, Mark- 
ham was overtaken by a Dr. Taforo, a very earnest and 
popular missionary whose acquaintance he had made 
at Ayacucho; and as he was also going to Cuzco, they 
agreed to travel together. So popular was this good 
man, that the journey thenceforward, Markham relates, 
became a sort of triumphal progress ; for whenever they 
approached a village the natives would run ahead to 
announce their arrival; and in passing through the 
villages the people would flock round them, eager to 
kiss the worthy man's hand or even to touch the hem 
of his garment. Markham was delighted, and con- 
sidered himself most fortunate in having so interesting 
a man as a companion on the road. At the village 
of Huancarama they were hospitably received in the 
house of a widow with three daughters. Their hostesses, 
however, were in great distress owing to the mysterious 
disappearance of the husband and father. It was 
assumed that he had met his death by falling over 
some precipice. 



After supper they were shown their bedroom. Dr. 
Taforo's bed was in one corner, and Markham's in 
another. In the dead of night Markham was awakened 
by a noise in the room. There was a bright moon 
shining, by the light of which he distinctly saw the figure 
of a man with a poncho thrown over his shoulders, and 
with a ghastly face, gliding slowly across the room. 
At the same time he became aware that Dr. Taforo was 
sitting up in bed pointing with his forefinger at the 
apparition, and pronouncing words that appeared to 
be an exorcism, interspersed with portions of the service 
for the Burial of the Dead. . . ! 

No word was said by Markham that night, but next 
morning he asked his companion for an explanation of 
what he had witnessed. He was informed very curtly 
that the widow had complained of the appearance of 
an apparition in that particular room, and so he had 
requested that they should occupy it for the night. 
" It will not come again," he added significantly. 
Nothing more was said of the incident, but Markham 
not unreasonably thought that, under the circum- 
stances, he might have been given the option of sleeping 
on the verandah ! 

They left Huancarama on the 1 5th of March, and were 
accompanied for some distance by the Cura and several 
others on horseback. Crowds of pretty girls lined 
the road on either side, and literally covered them 
with roses and other flowers as they departed. At the 
different places at which they stopped, the preaching 
of Dr. Taforo aroused the greatest enthusiasm, for he 
was regarded almost as a saint, a representative of 
St. Francis, an apostle ! 

Continuing their journey, they toiled up steep ascents, 
now down sharp gradients, then along zigzag paths, till 
they came to the turbulent Apurimac River, dashing 
noisily along between the mighty barriers that con- 
fined it. They crossed by a swinging bridge 150 feet 
in length, suspended some 300 feet above the foaming 


river. The scenery was magnificent. On either side 
the lofty Cordilleras rose almost perpendicularly, the 
waves of the river actually dashing against their bases 
and making their sides so smooth that even a blade 
of grass could not find root. The strata in the cliffs 
ran in distinct lines at an angle of about 70. From 
the bridge they ascended a steep winding path, and 
eventually reached the village of Mollepata, where they 
had a princely reception. Girls again showered roses 
on them, strings of dollars were suspended across the 
road, while twelve of the principal inhabitants rode out 
to meet and offer them hospitality. In the evening Dr. 
Taforo preached in the church, and met with the usual 
enthusiastic reception. 

The next morning they passed through valleys and 
plains devoted, apparently, to the cultivation of sugar. 
There were also large fruit-gardens and fields of vege- 
tables. On the following day Markham visited the 
ruins of the old Inca palace of Limatambo, built in a 
lovely spot that commanded an enchanting view of 
the valley. The interior of the palace was utilized as 
a fruit-garden. Thence they entered the vast pampa 
of Surite, where was fought the great battle which 
decided the supremacy of the Incas. Here also took 
place the defeat and capture of Gonzalo Pizarro. 

They now proceeded along a swampy road, their pro- 
gress much retarded by a violent thunderstorm accom- 
panied by heavy rain. As is not unusual in moun- 
tainous regions, the storm abated quickly, the clouds 
dispersed, and the moon shone out brilliantly. Just as 
they reached the summit of a range of hills, it cast its 
bright rays upon the city of Cuzco, which lay spread out 
below them. The object of their long journey was 
attained at last, their goal was in sight, and all their 
troubles, anxieties, and discomforts, were forgotten in 
the realisation of that hope in which for long he had so 
ardently indulged. 

It was quite dark when they entered the city, shortly 


after 8 p.m., on the 2Oth of March, 1853. The journey 
from Lima, a distance exceeding 300 miles, had been 
made over the most mountainous country in the world. 
Markham and his companion were received under the 
hospitable roof of General Don Manuel de la Guarda, 
who had been expecting their arrival for some time. 
After an excellent supper, to which, doubtless, the 
travellers did full justice, Markham was shown into a 
comfortable bedroom, where he slept without a break 
for twelve hours. Not even the appearance of the 
Huancarama apparition would have disturbed his rest 1 

When he awoke the next morning, it was difficult 
for him to realise that he was actually in Cuzco Cuzco, 
the ancient city of the Incas, the hallowed spot where 
Manco Ccapac's golden wand sank into the ground ! 
Here in years gone by a high state of civilisation had 
been attained under a paternal government; works 
were conceived and completed which to this day are 
a source of wonder to the traveller. Here was the chief 
city of an ancient empire ruled in the past by a virtuous 
race of monarchs, whose wonderful temple surpassed 
in splendour even the fabled palaces of the Arabian 
Nights ! Cuzco, the mysterious city of his dreams ! 
It was indeed difficult for him to realise that his castle 
in the air had at length assumed a concrete form that 
his ambition, ever since he had become acquainted 
with the city in the pages of Prescott, was a reality 
at last. 

It may be of interest to state here that the legendary 
founder of the Inca state was Manco Ccapac. It is not 
known whence he came, this mysterious lawgiver of 
Peru. Many are the theories that have been hazarded 
regarding his origin. One authority has no doubt 
whatever that he was a son of Kublai-Khan, the first 
Emperor of China of the Yuan Dynasty. Another de- 
clares that he came from Armenia about 500 years 
after the Deluge ; while still others assert that he was an 
Egyptian, a Mexican, and even an Englishman ! There 


is no doubt, however, that (whatsoever his antecedents) 
he introduced a new and a foreign civilisation, he 
established a well-organised government and a system 
of religious worship, he was the author of every useful 
art the Peruvians possessed, and he founded a great 
empire the subjects of which were never oppressed, 
never poor, and were always protected by a patriarchal 
administration. The reigning Inca himself was the 
father of his people. He studied their comfort, he 
apportioned their work, he arranged their holidays, 
all with the assistance and under the rigid supervision 
of his officers. His favourite title, and the one of which 
he was the most proud, was " The Friend of the Poor." 
Markham was provided with letters of introduction 
to many eminent men in Cuzco, and these he at once 
proceeded to make use of. He made many friends, 
all of whom were ready and willing to assist him in 
his researches. During the three weeks that he spent 
at Cuzco he laboured incessantly to acquire as much 
knowledge as it was possible to obtain concerning the 
Incas. He inspected every place of historical interest 
in the city and its neighbourhood, and paid frequent 
visits (often at a considerable distance) to the ruins 
which tradition pointed out as the most ancient buildings 
of the Incas still in existence. He also devoted con- 
siderable time to visiting and writing descriptions of 
those structures that were erected by the Spaniards 
at the time of the conquest, and subsequently. Finally 
he described the state of the city of Cuzco and its in- 
habitants at the time of his visit. Needless to say, he 
devoured every book and document he could lay his 
hands on that was in any way associated with the 
traditions of the Incas ; and he constructed from personal 
inspection elaborate plans of all the palaces, forts, and 
other important buildings visited. In short, he com- 
piled, in that detailed and masterly manner which was 
always so characteristic of him, an exhaustive history 
of the ancient city of Cuzco and its rulers. 

1 54 CUZCO TO LIMA [CH. x 

Yet with all this important work on his hands he did 
not neglect his social obligations. His society was 
much sought after, for his friends were many, and all 
were desirous of making his visit to Cuzco a pleasant 
one. His host, Don Manuel de la Guarda, was untiring 
in his exertions. Dinner-parties were frequent, and 
there were evening receptions to which all the rank 
and fashion of Cuzco were invited. But Markham 
was not the man to allow gaieties to interfere with his 
more important work, and the thoroughness of his 
researches may be gauged by the book which he published 
(in 1856) shortly after his return to England. This 
volume, entitled " Cuzco and Lima," contains not only 
a graphic and absorbing narrative of his travels and 
experiences in Peru, but also a concise account of the 
history, language, manners, customs, literature, and 
antiquities of the Incas, together with a survey of the 
history of the modern republic of Peru. 

Before leaving Cuzco, he resolved to make an excur- 
sion of about three or four weeks' duration to the 
country lying north-east of the city, where several 
interesting ruins were situated. Taking with him the 
two mules which had been his faithful beasts of burden 
since his departure from Lima, and engaging the services 
of a young Indian named Andres as a guide, he pro- 
ceeded down the valley of the Vilcamayu in a northerly 
direction. This valley is often alluded to by Peruvian 
writers as the " Paradise of Peru," for here, it is said, 
' the warmth is not heat, and the coolness is not cold." 
As he journeyed along, Markham mixed much with the 
country-people, especially in the villages where he had 
to pass the nights; and he would sit for many hours 
together listening to their native ballads. 

The first halt was made at a village named Maras, 
where he put up for the night at the residence of a 
hospitable Cura. The view from here was magnificent. 
To the north were the lofty mountains of Vilcapampa, 
rising between the Rivers Apurimac and Vilcamayu. 


To the north-east a plain stretched away into the 
distance, ending in a precipitous descent, and beyond 
rose the mighty Andes, with their snowy peaks lost to 
view in the clouds. The lights and shades on the sides 
of the mountains intersected by deep ravines were very 

Markham devoted some time to the examination 
of Incarial ruins in the town of Ollantay-tambo, ruins 
that appeared to him to have been constructed origin- 
ally at different periods, some Incarial, some of the 
megalithic age. Ollantay-tambo was in reality a 
fortress, specially constructed for the defence of the 
pass into the valley, against the incursions of hostile 
tribes from the Montana region to the north. It is 
one of the most interesting places in Peru, whether 
from an historical or a legendary point of view. Here 
close together, standing erect on a small level piece of 
ground, were five huge blocks of stone, with others of 
immense size lying scattered round. One of them was 
found to measure 15 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 8 inches 
by 3 feet. Markham came to the conclusion that these 
colossal stones at one time formed part of the interior 
of the great hall of this palatial fortress. He succeeded 
in piecing the various fragments together in his imagin- 
ation, so constructing a plan of what he conceived to 
have been the original form of this ancient building. 
Numerous other ruins in the neighbourhood were 
visited, and he was much impressed with the great 
architectural talent combined with the methodical 
means of defence that were displayed by the Incas at 
such an early period. He found Ollantay-tambo a 
most fascinating place, but the means by which these 
colossal monoliths were conveyed to the positions in 
which he found them always remained a mystery to 
him. The descriptions which he gives of the various 
ruins visited in this neighbourhood are lengthy and 
minutely detailed, and they are especially interesting 
in connection with what are known as " the tired stones." 


These are the huge monoliths, accurately shaped, which 
lie on the ground in diverse places and positions, as if 
too weary to proceed any farther. Some of these were 
over 20 feet in length by 15 feet broad and 3^ feet in 

Thence he pursued his way to Urubamba and Chin- 
chero, where more ruins of Inca palaces were seen, 
then on to the village of Laris. This devour was 
occasioned by his hearing, quite casually, that the best 
version of a Quichua drama was to be seen in the 
village of Laris, " on the other side of the mountains," 
as his informant airily remarked. He at once set out 
for this spot, although it was considerably out of his 
way, to obtain if possible a copy of the manuscript. 
In this he was successful. It was a task that took him 
more than four evenings to accomplish, but the time, 
he considered, was not misspent. The document from 
which he obtained the copy was an original one, and he 
sat up until long after midnight each evening translating 
and writing by the light of a small tallow candle. The 
old Cura (a descendant of the Incas) with whom he was 
staying excused himself from remaining up so late by 
pleading a bad headache. At this announcement^ the 
attendant suddenly entered, and proceeded to " stick 
coca leaves all over the worthy Cura's temples," and 
he went to bed, says Markham, " with a green fore- 
head." Next morning a magic cure had been effected, 
but, alas ! it was only temporary, for the headache 
recurred again that evening, and every evening of Mark- 
ham's stay ! Nothing, however, could exceed the atten- 
tions that the Cura paid to his guest during the day- 
light hours, and from him Markham acquired a great 
deal of Inca lore. 

Travelling by way of Calca and Urubamba, Markham 
now set out for Pissac, on his way to the Montana of 
Paucartambo. At Pissac there were more Inca remains 
for him to examine. By the time he had completed 
his examination, darkness had already set in, and it 


suddenly occurred to him that he was ignorant of any 
place where he could spend the night. However, his 
guide Andres was a lad of resource, and, crossing the 
bridge over the Vilcamayu, he soon returned with an 
invitation from the Governor of Pissac to stay at his 
house, which Markham was glad to accept. The next 
day he took his departure for Paucartambo. The road 
was rough and mountainous, and it was late before he 
arrived at his destination. As he approached the town, 
he observed several horsemen coming from various 
directions towards the bridge into the town. He 
subsequently found that the Prefect, having received 
notice of his arrival and the object of his visit, had 
invited the neighbouring haciendados to assemble and 
bid him welcome. He was very cordially received by 
the Prefect and all these local gentry, who were full of 
information about the Montana. They were all enter- 
tained at an excellent supper, and afterwards Markham 
was glad to be able to spend the night in a comfortable 

After receiving advice next. morning as to the various 
routes that might be followed, he decided on taking 
the one which led to the village of San Miguel, for the 
sole reason that a certain old friar, Bovo de Revello, 
who was a great authority on everything connected 
with the Incas, lived there. This route was generally 
regarded as a very dangerous one, owing to the presence 
of hostile Indians, and he was strongly urged to apply 
to the authorities for an armed escort. Considering, 
however, that it would be an unnecessary precaution, 
he started off, to the consternation of his hosts, with 
only one mule and a guide. Crossing the eastern range 
of mountains, and reaching an altitude of 13,000 feet, 
he commenced a laborious descent into the forest 
below by a difficult zigzag path. The route to him 
was intensely interesting, for it was the very one by 
which the Incas, centuries before, had penetrated into 
the Montana, as related by Garcilasso de la Vega and 


Sarmiento. He soon reached a country bright with the 
blossoms of a rich subtropical vegetation; and before 
dark, so rapid was his descent, he came to the tall 
forest trees and palms of the tropical region. That 
night he slept in a small ruined hut, in which he had the 
curious experience of being attacked by a vampire bat, 
which, his hosts said, must have come down from the 
rafters. Apparently it had fixed upon Markham's 
toe and sucked under the nail, for when he awoke in 
the morning one of his feet was covered with blood. 
Such incidents, he was told, were not uncommon. 
It is said that, while sucking the blood, they fan their 
victim gently with their wings. But he suffered no 
inconvenience, and was afoot early. 

Arriving at San Miguel, he was entertained with the 
usual Peruvian hospitality by Friar de Revello and 
Senor Pedro Gil, the Administrador . The information 
he gleaned from them fully repaid the extra toil of his 
journey to San Miguel, for it was here that Markham's 
attention was first directed to the value of the careful 
cultivation of the cascarilla- trees* with which in later 
years his name was to be so intimately associated. His 
two friends at San Miguel descanted in glowing terms 
on the great future of the Montana, and referred most 
hopefully to the cultivation of these trees which grow 
so luxuriantly on the slopes of the Andes. 

In the Montana region, as was to be expected, he 
experienced intense heat, and travelling was rendered 
all the more arduous by the dense tropical vegetation 
through which he had to cut his way. It was while 
struggling through this thick scrub that he obtained 
a glimpse his only one of the broad Madre de Dios 
River, near the spot where it is formed by the confluence 
of the Rio Pinapina from the north-west, the Rio Turo 
from the west, and the Rio Cosnipata from the south. 
It was a grand sight and aroused all his geographical 

* Of the genus Cinchona, whence quinine is obtained. 


At length, after an interesting but somewhat fatiguing 
journey of thirty-four days, he reached Cuzco. It had 
been a profitable excursion. His knowledge of Inca 
lore had been largely increased, and he had traversed 
a portion of the interior of South America hitherto 
but little known to European travellers. He had every 
reason to be pleased and satisfied with the results of his 
journey. His former host, Don Manuel de la Guarda, wel- 
comed him back, and insisted that he should occupy his 
old quarters. Dr.Taforo, too, had much to tell him, for 
in Markham's absence he had made all the necessary 
arrangements for the journey to Arequipa, and thence 
onwards to Lima. In addition he had arranged to 
accompany Markham to Lima himself, with a party 
which consisted of Dr. La Puerta (who was going to 
Lima with his daughter Victoria to take up his appoint- 
ment as Judge of the Supreme Court), Don Manuel Novoa, 
and three youths returning to the college at Lima. It 
was a large party, and it promised to be a lively one. 

Markham had reached Cuzco on the i6th of May, and 
their departure was fixed for the i8th, so that he had 
not much time to spare for saying good-bye to the 
numerous friends who had received him so kindly. 
Probably he would never see them again, and, in the 
short time he had been among them, so friendly and 
hospitable had they been that he had come to regard 
them almost with affection. He was leaving, too, the 
zenith of his dreams, the city of the Children of the Sun, 
the heart of Inca history and tradition. It was with 
a sad face that he took his last look at the Enchanted 
City, and his heart was very full as he turned to follow 
his companions. 

As they rode out of Cuzco, the cavalcade consisted of 
no less than twenty- two mules. The route travelled 
was new to Markham, who delighted in the magnificent 
scenery that surrounded them. Passing the great lake 
of Tungasaca, they spent the night at the little town of 
Yanaoca, probably the highest town in the world, for 


it is some 14,250 feet above sea-level. It is situated 
in the midst of a large grassy plateau on which herds 
of llamas and alpacas were grazing. Shortly afterwards 
they reached a succession of still more elevated plains, 
many of them covered with flocks of the graceful 
vicuna. One night the little village of Langui was 
selected as their resting-place, for it was historically 
interesting to Markham as being the spot where Tupac 
Amaru and his family were taken prisoners and carried 
off to Cuzco to be tortured to death. As evening closed, 
their path lay along the shore of Lake Tungasaca; 
waves were breaking at their feet, and the blue water 
stretched for miles to the distant mountains. Overhead 
a cloudless sky added to the impressiveness of the scene. 

Three days' journey brought them to the village of 
Ocururo, on the outskirts of the department of Cuzco. 
This was the last place at which they were to see the 
natives in their picturesque Inca costume. Thence a 
steep path covered with snow conducted them over a 
pass the summit of which was 17,740 feet above the 
sea-level. That night they slept at the little post-hut of 
Rumihuasi, reputed to be the highest human habitation 
in the world, for it is at a considerably higher altitude than 
the summit of Mont Blanc. The cold was intense, all 
the mountain streams were frozen; but, in spite of the 
severity of the weather and the difficulties incidental to 
the cooking of food, their spirits never flagged, and as 
they climbed steep mountain-paths, or descended 
almost precipitous declivities, they beguiled the time 
by singing songs in various tongues. The distance 
which they accomplished each day was between 
twenty-five and thirty miles, according to the length of 
the stages between their resting-places; and, of course, 
their daily rate of travelling was largely influenced by 
the weather. Frequently their shelter for the night was 
an unfurnished hut, but, as they were fairly well supplied 
with provisions, they were always sure of a meal. 

They were now proceeding due south on the road 


to Arequipa. The following extract from Markham's 
journal will give some idea of their journey: 

" At last we came to two stone huts and a large 
corral surrounded by a stone wall, which was the post- 
house of Ayavirini . Victoria (the only lady of the party) 
was of the right sort, and game to the last, though the 
cold was intense. Directly we arrived she sprang from 
her mule, loosened its girths, and began at once to look 
about for the means of procuring supper. There was 
only one inhabitant, who swore by all his saints that 
there was nothing to eat. At length one of our party 
discovered a doorway in the other hut blocked up with 
stones. We proceeded to pull them down, and were 
rewarded by finding potatoes, firewood, and a quantity 
of llama skins. Two of our party had collapsed. We 
soon had a blazing fire and the potatoes in a fair way of 
becoming a very good Irish stew without meat. Under 
the superintendance of Victoria and one of the gentle- 
men of the party, a fairly good supper was produced, 
yet Dr. La Puerta was cross, and even Dr. Taforo was 
barely philosophical, certainly not cheerful, for. the 
baggage mules were still far behind. As for beds, we 
did the best we could with the llama skins. We were 
all dead tired, and slept well." 

This was more or less the daily routine They usually 
started in the morning between seven and eight o'clock, 
immediately after breakfast, and halted for about an 
hour at midday to rest the mules and have lunch. 
The night was passed in any hut they came to between 
6 and 1 1 p.m. 

From this time the road became a gradual descent, 
the snow began to disappear, and the weather became 
perceptibly warmer. Lofty cacti rose on each side of 
the path, and hardy flowers assisted to make the hitherto 
cheerless road look brighter. On the 28th of May 
they beheld for the first time Mount Misti,* the lofty 
volcanic peak overshadowing the city of Arequipa. 
In size, shape, and legendary interest, it is to Peru 
very much what Fujiyama is to Japan. On the following 

* This volcano is in the shape of a perfect cone. Its summit is 
2 0,320 feet above the level of the sea. 


evening they rode into the city, not at all sorry to 
exchange the discomforts incidental to such a journey 
as they had achieved, for the comforts of civilisation. 
Markham became the guest of a family named Lan- 
dazuri who resided in a beautiful villa surrounded by a 
large garden situated above the city. The remainder 
of the party went to their several destinations. 

At Arequipa, Markham enjoyed a well-earned rest, 
during which time he made all the necessary arrange- 
ments for his voyage home. He had noticed during 
their recent journey from Cuzco that the muleteer 
belonging to Dr. La Puerta was a very trustworthy 
man, and invariably kind to the animals placed under 
his charge. He therefore made him a present of his 
two mules, being anxious that they should have a good 
home, " having served him so well over deserts and 
mountains in tropical heat and Arctic snows." He was 
sorry to part with his old friend and travelling companion, 
Dr. Taforo, for whom he had conceived a great affection, 
and he was pleased to think that this feeling was re- 
ciprocated by so gifted a man. Some years after, Dr. 
Taforo was enthroned Archbishop of Santiago in Chile. 

On the 1 8th of June Markham left Arequipa with 
Dr. La Puerta 's party, who were continuing their journey 
to Lima. On this trip there were few or no ascents to 
be made; indeed, it was downhill almost all the way. 
One portion of it was somewhat fatiguing, for they 
were obliged to cross a sandy desert seventy-five miles 
in extent. On the 2Oth they reached the little seaport 
of I slay, where they embarked on the steamer Bogota, 
and arrived at Callao on the 23rd. Thus was brought 
to a successful conclusion his long-planned Peruvian 

Throughout the entire trip he had experienced nothing 
but kindness from all with whom he had come in con- 
tact, and he was never tired of alluding to the great 
hospitality and disinterestedness of his Peruvian friends. 
He undertook his expedition, as he informs us in the 
account of his travels to Cuzco, solely with a view to the 


examination of Peruvian antiquities, and for the enjoy- 
ment of its magnificent scenery; but he found, before 
he had been very long in the country, that the unaffected 
kindness of its warm-hearted inhabitants was even more 
attractive than the fascinating history of the Incas, 
and that a journey through the land of the Children 
of the Sun was one of the most enjoyable expeditions 
that could possibly be undertaken. 

On his arrival at Lima, Markham found that H.M.S. 
Portland, the flagship of the Pacific Squadron, was at 
Callao. On board were many of his old shipmates and 
naval friends. He promptly boarded her, and old 
friendships were renewed with mutual delight. He 
was made an honorary member of the wardroom mess, 
and, needless to say, was frequently on board arrang- 
ing little excursions round about Lima, in which he 
acted as cicerone. He also joined them in many mad 
pranks on shore; one, of which it seems he was the 
originator, was to run a race in a straight line across the 
town over walls and roofs and across backyards, but 
without making use of any streets or roads, which were 
strictly prohibited. A great number of the officers 
entered for this race, and one was handicapped by having 
to carry a live kitten in his arms ! The affair created 
some disturbance and a good deal of alarm to the in- 
habitants; however, those taking part in the race 
succeeded in getting home without being identified 1 
The name of the winner is not recorded. 

Markham had not received any home letters or papers 
on his arrival at Lima ; it was therefore a great shock to 
him, as well as the deepest sorrow, that in an old copy 
of The Times brought to him by one of his friends, he 
read the announcement of his father's death. This 
naturally hastened his departure for England. He left 
Callao on the i2th of August, was at Panama on the 
22nd, and arrived at Colon the following day. The 
island of St. Thomas in the West Indies was reached 
on the ist of September, and on the I7th of the same 
month he landed at Southampton. 


THE home-coming of Clements Markham was indeed 
a sad one. All, of course, were delighted to see him 
back after his long and arduous experiences in the 
interior of South America; but his return under the 
distressing circumstances of such an irreparable loss 
caused by the death of his father was very keenly felt 
by him. By his death he had lost one who was in 
every respect his Guide, Philosopher, and Friend. His 
father had never thwarted his designs, so long as the 
consummation of them would not, in his opinion, be 
detrimental to the ultimate interests of his son; and 
he gave way to Markham 's strenuous appeals to leave 
the Navy, though he was personally opposed to such 
a measure. They were much attached to each other; 
they were companions and friends in every sense of the 

There was much for him to do on his return. His 
first care was for his mother and sisters. The houses 
at Horkesley and Windsor had, of course, been given 
up, but soon he had them settled in a comfortable house 
in Onslow Square. Yet, with all these family matters 
to occupy his attention, he still found time to complete 
and publish for private circulation a History of the 
Markham Family which his father had been instrumental 
in compiling. At last everything was settled, and he 
was able to accept the numerous invitations from friends 
as well as relations interested in his work. His spare 



time was occupied in the compilation of a paper in con- 
nection with his recent travels which he had been invited 
to read before the Geographical Society. He was also 
employed in collecting the necessary data from his 
journal for the book which he contemplated publishing 
on his recent expedition to Cuzco and Lima. 

Markham could not afford to lead an idle life, even if 
his inclination would have allowed him to do so. The 
occupations upon which he was engaged were not of 
a highly remunerative nature, and it was therefore 
necessary that he should set to work to obtain some 
permanent employment. He succeeded at length in 
obtaining an appointment as a junior clerk in the Legacy 
Duty Office of the Inland Revenue. This carried with 
it a salary of 90 per annum, rising to the exorbitant 
figure of i 30 per annum after ten years' service ! How- 
ever, it was better than nothing, and in December, 1853, 
Markham began his duties at Somerset House as a 

His work was not of an interesting nature, for it con- 
sisted chiefly in writing up ponderous registers and 
preparing an index for the purpose of reference. Such 
duties were anything but congenial to his active mind, 
and, as he himself asserts, could easily have been carried 
out by the dullest of attorney's clerks. The greater 
part of the short time that he filled this appointment 
he devoted to the compilation (for his own informa- 
tion) of a history and description of Somerset House. 
But, in spite of the interest he took in the historical 
associations of the place, his immediate surroundings 
were anything but pleasing. The office in which he 
passed the greater part of the day was begrimed with the 
accumulated dust of ages, the windows were impervious 
to light owing to layers of London dirt, the floor was 
unwashed and uncarpeted, the ceiling was black with 
decades of congealed soot, and the shelves round the 
room groaned under the weight of massive tomes 
smothered in generations of dust, containing the wishes 



of those long dead. This was not the ideal life for an 
explorer; for one whose existence hitherto had been 
passed in the open air ; nor did it offer sufficient scope to 
satisfy the energy and abilities of a man with so active 
a mind as Markham's. A wider and more interesting 
field of action was evidently essential. Fortunately, a 
change came, sooner even than he had anticipated. 

His delight may be imagined when, after six months 
of this tedious drudgery in Somerset House, he was 
offered an appointment in the Department of the Board 
of Control, an administrative department which acted in 
conjunction with the East India Company in carrying 
out the responsible duties of the Government of India. 
It ceased to exist when the Company was abolished 
after the suppression of the Indian Mutiny, and the 
India Office was established in its stead. 

It was an offer that Markham gladly accepted, and he 
entered upon his new duties with cheerful alacrity. They 
were in striking contrast to those that he had so willingly 
relinquished. In the Legacy Duty Office the work was 
uninteresting and the chance of promotion uncertain, 
the remuneration was scanty, and, what was almost 
of more importance, few of his colleagues in the office 
were men of gentle birth and education. It was far 
otherwise in the Board of Control. There the work was 
of an exceedingly interesting nature, for he was placed 
in the " Secret and Confidential Branch " ; and his duties 
consisted in copying letters and despatches, some of 
absorbing interest, from India, Persia, Syria, and other 
Oriental countries. He was now quite happy, and eagerly 
devoted any spare time at his disposal to his own 
particular interests, and especially to geography. 

On the 27th of November, 1854, he was proposed by 
Sir Roderick Murchison and elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society. Thus began his close 
connection with that Society in which he was so greatly 
interested, a connection that lasted sixty- two years, 
and terminated only with his 'death. On the i2th of 


February following, he contributed his first paper. 
Prior to the meeting he dined at the Geographical 
Club* as the guest of Sir Roderick Murchison, and they 
went on to the meeting together. Admiral Beechey 
presided, and he had a crowded and appreciative audi- 
ence. The subject of his paper was " Sources of the 
River Purus " in Peru (another name for the Rio 
Madre de Dios). It all passed off very well; he had 
a good reception and was much pleased. About this 
time he wrote an article for Blackwood's Magazine 
on " The Modern Literature of Peru," which was well 
reviewed . 

But, in spite of these occupations, he did not allow 
the friendships formed in his younger days to lapse. 
He frequently ran down to Portsmouth to see his 
naval friends. On one of these visits he noticed an 
engraving in the room of one of his old shipmates. 
It represented the Hindoo Princess Sakontala, wandering 
through the forest with two fawns licking her hand. 
It was so pleasing that it made a great impression upon 
him ! He thought of it by day and dreamt of it by 
night. In consequence he became an ardent student of 
Indian mythology, and consulted all the authorities 
that were likely to give him any information regarding 
the synthetical history of the beautiful Princess. He 
became infatuated with everything appertaining to 
the ancient history of India, especially its legends and 
literature, and he grew enthusiastic over the poet 
Colidas (most renowned of the dramatic poets of ancient 
India), who had immortalised the romantic life of the 
lovely Princess. Eventually he became as great an 
authority on this particular subject as he was on the 
folk-lore of Peru. 

On another occasion when he was visiting Portsmouth, 
he was present at the sailing of the Baltic Fleet from 
Spithead, under the command of Admiral Sir Charles 

* In those days the members of the Geographical Club held their 
dinners at the Thatched House. 


Napier. This was on the 4th of April, 1855. The 
fleet consisted of seventeen ships of the line, with 
numerous frigates, sloops, and steamers. It was an 
event that caused a great deal of excitement at the time, 
and Markham speaks of the patriotic enthusiasm dis- 
played by the crowds of sight-seers who lined Southsea 
Beach and Common to witness the departure of the 

As he was much interested at this time in the history 
of Mohammedanism, the Moorish history of Spain 
attracted his attention. He at once began to study 
Arabic under the tuition of a Maronite of Mount 
Lebanon, Joseph Churi by name, who had taught and 
travelled with his old friend Captain Peel. This last 
recommendation alone was quite sufficient for Markham 
to engage the man's services for an hour or more every 
forenoon. He soon mastered the verbs, and became 
much interested in the language. 

In the autumn of 1855 ne made a very pleasant trip 
up the Rhine accompanied by one of his sisters. As 
he had been working hard at his book " Cuzco and 
Lima," the holiday was a well-earned one. The book 
made its appearance on the 3rd of February, 1856, and 
was well received alike by the public and the Press. 
Special commendatory notices appeared in the Literary 
Gazette, the Examiner, the Critic, and the Morning 

Of course he sent a copy to his friend in the United 
States, W. H. Prescott, the gifted author of the " Con- 
quest of Peru," who, in acknowledging the book, spoke 
so highly of its excellence and historical accuracy as to 
cause Markham to value his remarks far more than the 
most favourable reviews that appeared in the English 

And now occurred what was to him the greatest 
event of his life. On the roth of July, 1856, he met for 
the first time Miss Minna Chichester, daughter of the 
Rev. James Hamilton Chichester, Rector of Arlington, 


To face page i6g, _ *> 


and niece of Sir Bruce Chichester, of Arlington Court in 
Devonshire. It seems to have been a case of love at 
first sight, for he notes in his journal that on the third 
day after their introduction, he took her to see St. 
Paul's Cathedral ! On the i8th of November he pro- 
posed and was accepted, and they were married at 
Arlington on the 23rd of April, 1857. Thus commenced 
a period of unalloyed happiness, a lifelong companion- 
ship terminating only with his death, nearly sixty years 
later. It was an ideal union. Not only were they 
devoted to one another, but, to use a common expression, 
they were suited to each other in every possible respect. 
They had common interests and the same tastes, both 
were excellent linguists, they were never so happy 
as when in each other's company, and were seldom 
parted, participating in each other's pleasures, mutually 
sharing together their troubles and sorrows, and of the 
greatest help to each other in countless ways. In the 
translation of many of his works, especially those of a 
Spanish or Dutch origin, she it was who brought him 
greatest aid, and by her sympathetic understanding 
encouraged and materially assisted him in many of 
his literary ventures. They settled down in a house 
in St. George's Road, and here on the 4th of October, 
1859, to the great joy and delight of the parents, was 
born their only child, May. 

During all this time,.Markham continued to carry out 
zealously his duties at the India Office. He was much 
interested in the special department in which he was 
employed, and his work was never of so arduous a nature 
as to prevent him from getting away for short periods 
at a time, so as to enable him to pay visits and to 
occupy himself in other pursuits unconnected with his 
official duties. For instance, in August, 1857, ne wrote 
a paper on M'Clintock's search for, and discovery of the 
fate of, Sir John Franklin, which he read before the 
Geographical Section of the British Association in 


Ever since his return from Peru, his thoughts reverted 
frequently to the cinchona-trees* that he had seen on the 
slopes of the Andean Cordilleras, and he pondered much 
on the information given to him by his two friends at 
San Miguel, regarding the immense value and impor- 
tance of quinine as a febrifuge. The reckless extrava- 
gance with which the quinine-bearing trees in South 
America had been cut down, stripped of their bark, and 
ruthlessly destroyed, by adventurers intent only on 
making their own fortunes, without interference by the 
Governments of either Peru or Bolivia, gave him much 
food for thoughtful reflection . 

No attempt had been made by the authorities of the 
cinchona-growing districts to conserve or otherwise pro- 
tect the trees, and it was obviously desirable that some 
measures with this end in view should be taken, since the 
world was dependent upon South America alone for its 
supply of the drug. The experiment of transplanting 
the trees had already been made by the Dutch, who had 
attempted their culture in Java. But the result was 
not altogether a success, owing to the introduction of 
an indifferent species of cinchona, and to mistakes made 
in the cultivation of the plants. In spite of these 
failures, Markham felt certain that it would be possible 
to cultivate the trees successfully in some of our own 
tropical possessions, where the climate closely ap- 
proached that of their native habitat. 

His connection with the India Office afforded him 
the opportunity of becoming acquainted, in all its 
details, with the terrible scourge of fever so preva- 
lent in India, affecting European and native alike. He 
deemed it of the utmost importance to combat this 
widespread evil, and came to the conclusion that the 
only way to do this effectually was to take immediate 
steps to introduce and cultivate quinine in those districts 

' The name cinchona was bestowed by Linnaeus, the famous 
Swedish botanist, in honour of the Countess of Chinchon, who was 
one of the first to derive benefit from the use of this invaluable drug. 


in which its use would be most beneficial. In India, 
he argued, it would be possible to find a climate and 
localities favourable to the growth and propagation of 
the plants. So intense was his desire to carry out this 
project that he formulated plans for collecting cinchona 
trees and seeds from their natural homes in Peru, 
Bolivia, and the region of the upper waters of the 
Amazon, with the object of transporting them to selected 
sites in India. 

These plans he was permitted to lay before the Revenue 
Committee of the India Office with a view of their being 
adopted, if approved. So highly important were they 
regarded by the authorities, that in the latter part of 
1859 Markham was selected by the Secretary of State 
for India, to carry out all the arrangements for the 
collection in South America of cinchona plants and 
seeds, of those particular species known to be of medicinal 
value, and to superintend their transportation and 
introduction into India. 

This was an important mission to be entrusted to 
so young a man he was but twenty-nine at the time 
and to one who had been so recently appointed 
to the India Office; but, as events turned out, a 
better choice could not have been made. That he was 
eminently fitted for the purpose by his recent travels 
in Peru, his knowledge of the interior, and his acquaint- 
ance with the language, could not be questioned. But 
the task that was being entrusted to him required not 
only zeal and ability for exploration, but considerable 
tact. The Peruvian authorities, as well as the natives, 
were not likely to permit freely such a valuable com- 
modity as quinine to be exported on a large scale for 
cultivation elsewhere, especially as they possessed prac- 
tically the monopoly of its supply. In other words, it 
would be necessary to smuggle the plants out of the 
country without arousing suspicion in the minds of the 
local authorities. This being accomplished the plants and 
seeds would have to be conveyed to India and Ceylon, 


where they would be distributed in certain districts 
specially selected for their cultivation. 

Of the national importance of the project it is unneces- 
sary to dilate. The successful introduction of products of 
the vegetable kingdom into lands far distant from their 
indigenous soil, has been one of the greatest blessings 
vouchsafed to mankind. By his individual exertions 
in promoting and carrying out this enterprise, Clements 
Markham brought relief to a fever-stricken population, 
and assured to the world a plentiful supply of an indis- 
pensable drug, while providing a new industry and 
source of wealth to our great Dependency. It cannot 
be doubted that in so doing he raised a monument to 
himself " more durable than the proudest monuments 
of engineering skill." 

The region in South America in which the cinchona- 
trees flourish extends, roughly, from about 20 South 
latitude to 10 North latitude, following very closely 
the almost semicircular curve of the Andean range 
for a distance of about 1,700 miles of latitude. They 
grow in a fairly cool and equable temperature (even in 
the equatorial regions) on the slopes and in the valleys 
of the Andes, as high as 9,000 feet, and never below 
2,500 feet, above the sea-level. The enterprise was 
admittedly a difficult and hazardous one. It necessi- 
tated a laborious journey with a train of baggage animals 
and men through a country which, in many parts, 
had not been hitherto visited by English travellers. 
They would be compelled to force their way through 
almost impenetrable forests covered with dense under- 
growth, and would have to conceal from the natives, 
as far as possible, the real object of their journey. 
There would also be hardships and privations of no 
ordinary nature to be borne and overcome. 

The organising of the expedition needed careful 
thought. Markham was to be assisted by four English- 
men, specially selected for their experience of the cinchona 
plants and their knowledge of the country. One of 


them, Mr. Spruce, was an experienced botanist who had 
spent many years in the wilds of South America. To 
his zeal and untiring efforts in carrying out the duties 
entrusted to him, a large share of the success of the 
enterprise was due. Markham determined at the outset 
on dividing the expedition into three separate parties. 
One, under the leadership of Mr. Spruce, was to proceed 
to the cinchona forests situated in Ecuador. The 
forests of the Peruvian province of Huanuco were 
allotted to a Mr. Prichett, who was well acquainted 
with that particular district, while Markham undertook 
to explore the forests of Caravaya, and if necessary 
those situated in Bolivia also. His principal object 
in employing his agents in regions so widely removed 
from each other was to secure as many different speci- 
mens of the most valuable species as possible; and he 
also wisely considered that it was preferable to have 
more than one string to his bow in the event a not 
unlikely one of the failure which might possibly con- 
front a single-handed attempt. By means of these three 
independent expeditions he hoped, not unreasonably, 
that success would reward the efforts of at least one of 
them. It was a well-conceived idea, and, as it turned 
out, a wise one; for they were able to procure a greater 
variety of the cinchona than otherwise they could have 
done, if the collection had been limited to only one 

Having completed all his arrangements, and accom- 
panied by his wife and a Mr. Weir, a botanical expert 
specially selected to assist him, he left England on the 
1 7th of December, 1859, and, crossing the Isthmus of 
Panama, arrived at Lima on the 26th of January, 1860. 
The moment he landed, he found himself surrounded by 
old friends, delighted to welcome him back again to 
Lima, and eager to extend the same hospitable reception 
to Mrs. Markham which they had always proffered to 
him. A month was spent in Lima organising the 
party and arranging for supplies and their transport, a 


somewhat formidable undertaking. This done, they 
proceeded to the port of Islay, which was more con- 
veniently situated than Lima for the beginning of their 
journey into the interior of Peru. 

On the 6th of March, the transport animals having 
arrived safely, and everything being in readiness, a 
start was made for Arequipa along the same route as 
Markham had travelled seven years before. But under 
what different circumstances had that journey been 
made ! Then, he was returning to Lima after accom- 
plishing a remarkable journey which he had undertaken 
on his own account and solely in his own interest; 
now, he was the trusted and responsible agent of th^ 
British Government, despatched on a mission which, if 
brought to a successful issue, would not only redound 
greatly to his credit, but prove of priceless benefit to 

Arequipa* was reached on the nth of March, and 
here they remained for ten days, resting the baggage 
animals and making their final preparations for the 
long journey into the interior. As it would have been 
quite out of the question for Mrs. Markham to accom- 
pany her husband further, arrangements had to be made 
for her stay at Arequipa during his absence. Through 
the kindness of friends who were all eager to have the 
pleasure of entertaining her in their houses, this was 
easily arranged. At early dawn on the 23rd of March 
Markham left on his long, toilsome journey to Puno, 
travelling along the same route which he had taken in 
1853. But after a few days, instead of continuing along 
the Cuzco road, the party branched off to the east- 
ward, and, still ascending, they soon experienced the 
unpleasant effects of the icy blasts which are so prev- 
alent in the upper region of the Cordilleras. Drizzling 
mists and cloudy weather added to their discomforts. 

* The name Arequipa is reputed to be derived from the Quichua 
words Aric quipa, signifying " behind the sharp peak " namely, 
Mount Misti. 


On reaching Apo, which is 14,350 feet above sea- 
level, the majority of the party, including the mule- 
drivers and even the transport animals, were attacked 
by mountain sickness, a malady that not infrequently 
terminates fatally. Markham describes the symptoms 
from which he suffered : 

" It began with a violent pressure on the head, accom- 
panied by acute pain and aches in the back of the neck, 
causing great pain and discomfort, and these symptoms 
increased in intensity during the night at the Apo 
post-house, so that at 3 a.m., when we recommenced our 
journey, I was unable to mount my mule without 

The post-houses erected for the benefit of travellers 
in the desolate mountain passes between Arequipa and 
Puno were invariably of the same character. They 
consisted of low stone buildings, so constructed as to 
form the three sides of a courtyard, and were each 
divided into five small rooms with mud floors. The 
furniture consisted of a rough table in each room, and 
there was a raised platform of dried mud and stone on 
one side on which the weary travellers reposed. The 
roof was either thatched or indifferently tiled, and the 
doors so roughly made that it was impossible to close 
them I 

As they pursued their way, they saw many herds 
of vicunas browsing peacefully on the slopes of the 
mountains, or galloping along at great speed, with 
their noses close to the ground, as if scenting out 
the best pastures. The mountain streams and they 
were numerous were often a source of delay to the 
travellers. So winding were they that in one day 

* When travelling from Arequipa to Puno in 1881, the writer also 
suffered from this so-called sorochi or mountain sickness, when he had 
reached an altitude of 15,000 feet, and can testify to the accuracy of 
the symptoms here related, except, he would like to add, that violent 
sickness is also a very prevalent symptom. The effects in his case 
did not wear off until some days after he had reached sea-level. 


their path led them across the same river about a dozen 
times ! 

After travelling over an extensive plain in almost 
continuous snowstorms, they reached the " Alto de 
Toledo," the highest part of their route, 15,590 feet 
above sea-level, and shortly after came to the post- 
house of Cuevillas, where they halted for the night. In 
the immediate neighbourhood were two large lakes, 
from one of which a river flows direct into Lake Titicaca, 
thus conclusively showing that they were passing the 
watershed between that great lake and the Pacific 
Ocean. The scenery, though desolate and sterile, was 
grand and impressive, and in some of its aspects it 
reminded Markham of similar prominent scenic features 
observed by him in the Arctic Regions. The tempera- 
ture at this stage of their journey was generally at or 
about freezing-point, though it rose slightly during 
the day, as the power of the sun gradually asserted 

The plains into which they descended were often so 
swampy as to be almost impassable, and it was with 
the greatest difficulty that they could persuade their 
animals to cross them. The poor beasts splashed 
through the water, sometimes sinking so deeply into 
the tenacious mud that it was only by desperate exer- 
tions they could extricate themselves. 

They had now passed the highest point of their 
journey; thence the route led them steadily downwards. 
The vicunas had all disappeared, for they confine them- 
selves to the loftiest and wildest parts of the mountains ; 
but the feeling of solitude caused by their loss was 
somewhat compensated for by the increased number and 
variety of birds, and by the quantities of wild-flowers 
that grew in the vicinity of their route. Plovers were 
seen in great numbers, uttering their discordant notes 
as they flew overhead or skimmed near the ground in 
circles. Green parroquets were also seen, and brightly 
coloured finches, also partridges, but what delighted them 


most was the glorious coraquenque* the royal bird of 
the Incas, the black and white wing feathers of which 
were invariably used to surmount the imperial llautu, 
or head-fringe, of the reigning sovereigns of Peru. 

On reaching the banks of the River Tortorani, they 
found it to be so swollen as to be impassable. Following 
its course for some distance, they came to a magnificent 
waterfall, its waters plunging in a glorious cascade down 
a sheer declivity of about 250 feet. A few miles farther 
on they crossed by a bridge, and obtained their first 
sight of the great lake Titicaca, with the snow-clad 
mountains behind it. A steep zigzag path led them 
down to the city of Puno, the capital of the department 
of the same name. The town is situated on the shores 
of the lake, and is hemmed in, like an amphitheatre, 
by a wall of silver-yielding mountains. 

Lake Titicaca has the reputation of being the highest 
lake in the world, at any rate of its size, as it is un- 
doubtedly the largest in South America. It is eighty 
miles in length, and forty miles wide, and is 13,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. In Markham's time the only 
vessels, or rather conveyances, that sailed upon it were 

* This is evidently the condor the Vultur Gryphus of Linnaeus, 
and the Sarcoramphus Gryphus of Cuvier. Its black-and-white 
wing feathers correspond to the description given by Garcillasso 
de la Vega in his " Commentaries of the Yncas," translated and 
printed by the Hakluyt Society in 1871, who, describing the head- 
dress worn exclusively by the reigning Inca, writes: " Besides the 
red fringe which he wore across his forehead, from one temple to 
the other was another device peculiar to himself, consisting of 
wing feathers of a bird called ' Coraquenque.' The feathers are 
white, with a black patch taken one from one wing, and the other 
from the other, so as to match. The birds whence these feathers 
are taken inhabit the wild region of Vilcafiota, 32 leagues from the 
city of Cuzco, in a small lake at the foot of those inaccessible snowy 
mountains. Those who have seen them declare that more than a 
couple, male and female, are never seen at a time. It is not known 
whence they come, nor where they breed." It is a more handsome 
and imposing bird than the common condor; its head feathers are 
of a brilliant scarlet hue, the body is black, and it has long wing 
feathers of spotless white. 


large bundles of reeds tied together, called balsas, which 
were impelled, when the wind was favourable, by a reed 
sail. They were unsinkable, but their progress was neces- 
sarily somewhat slow. Now steamers of considerable size, 
specially constructed for lake navigation, are employed 
both for carrying passengers and cargo to the various 
ports on the lake, which, by the way, abounds with fish 
of very peculiar forms. Close to Puno are the silver- 
bearing mountains of Cancharani and Laycaycota, while 
away to the south-east, in the State of Bolivia, is situated 
the town of Potosi, celebrated for its argentiferous 

After much anxious consideration regarding the 
political state of affairs between Peru and Bolivia, and 
the immediate possibility of war breaking out between 
these two nations (which, of course, would have enor- 
mously increased the difficulties of his enterprise), 
Markham resolved to confine his attention solely to the 
Peruvian province of Caravaya. This to his mind 
insured the greater prospect of success so far as regards 
the transportation of his collections to the coast. He 
therefore decided to relinquish all idea of going to 
Bolivia, and to proceed at once to the forests of Caravaya. 
This was a wise decision, for he discovered subsequently 
that the Bolivian authorities were exceedingly jealous of 
the monopoly they undoubtedly possessed regarding the 
exportation of quinine, and, it was whispered, the nature 
of Markham 's mission was already suspected by them. 

During his stay at Puno he found time to visit some 
old ruins in the immediate neighbourhood, and succeeded 
in gathering much information concerning the ancient 
history of the country and its interesting inhabitants. 
He left Puno on the 7th of April, 1 860. He experienced 
some little trouble at starting with his mules. He thus 
describes the incident : 

" Four vicious-looking brutes accordingly made their 
appearance, and we started; but no sooner had we 
reached the plain at the top of the zigzag path leading 


out of Puno to the north, than they all ran away in 
different directions, kicking violently. After hours of 
this kind of annoyance, I at last got one of the brutes 
into a corner of a stone-fenced field, but just as I was 
about to catch him he gave a kick, jumped over the wall, 
and went off again. It ended in our having to drag the 
mules by their lassos until our arms were nearly torn 
out of the sockets, and thus we ignominiously entered 
the village of Paucarcolla late in the evening, only twelve 
miles from Puno. As for the scenery, I can remember 
nothing but vicious mules with their hind-legs kicking 
up in the air." 

This little incident, one only of many similar occur- 
rences, is a sample of the difficulties and worries atten- 
dant on the journey of a party in such a country, before 
the introduction of railways. They had not even the 
benefit of properly constructed roads. Occasionally 
they came upon streams that had swollen into broad 
rivers, but devoid of bridges, and with no fords that were 
passable. The only way was to ferry men and baggage 
across on the reed balsas aforementioned; the mules, of 
course, had to swim. Nor was rest always to be had 
at the huts where they spent the night. At one of the 
post-houses at which they stopped they found that a 
poor little child had just died. Its body was laid out 
on the table, with candles burning before it, while the 
friends of the post-master were holding a wake singing, 
fiddling, and drinking. Many hailstorms were experi- 
enced, and the weather altogether was atrocious. The 
mules, too, were a source of continuous trouble. Mark- 
ham had no experienced muleteer with him, for, on the 
score of economy, he had declined to engage one, think- 
ing he would be able to manage the animals him- 
self. He soon found out his mistake. Whenever the 
brutes had the chance, they would bolt off the road in 
different directions, bumping their packs against the 
rocks or endeavouring to roll, which, of course, would 
soon have smashed everything they were carrying. 
In this way Markham was kept constantly employed 


galloping after the runaways, thus materially adding 
to the fatigues of a very fatiguing journey. On more 
than one occasion the mules obtained at the post-houses 
to make good the casualties incurred on the way proved, 
after travelling some little distance, so weak and unfitted 
for the work as to necessitate Markham's return to the 
post-house to have them exchanged. Altogether it was 
a most annoying and difficult journey, but with it all he 
was never despondent, always cheery, even in the most 
trying circumstances. 

From the town of Lampa, where he was hospitably 
entertained by the Subprefect, he pursued a northerly 
course along a path covered with recently fallen snow, 
and up a steep mountain range called Chacunchaca. 
The path was a long and dangerous one, with little 
mountain torrents running down the slopes and pouring 
over it. At Pucara, where he rested for the night, he 
passed the evening in the company of the aged Cura, 
Don Jos Faustino Dava, who was famed for his know- 
ledge of the Quichua language. From him Markham 
obtained some valuable information regarding the 
antiquities of the Incas and the Quichua tongue. 

From Puno to Pucara he had kept on the main-road 
to Cuzco, where post-houses were systematically es- 
tablished at which he had been able to obtain changes 
of mules; but from Pucara this convenience ceased, 
and henceforth he was obliged to depend on the kind- 
ness of anyone who could be induced to sell or hire their 
animals to him. 

After a weary ride downhill for several leagues, he 
came to the little town of Azangaro, the capital of the 
province of that name. He put up for the night at 
the house of Don Luiz Quinones, one of the principal 
inhabitants, who, as was the invariable custom of the 
country, gave him a very cordial welcome. On leaving 
Azangaro, the party crossed the river of the same name 
by the aid of balsas, the mules swimming alongside, 
and thence passed over the rocky range of Paco-bamba 


to the little village of San Jose. Here the transport 
animals completely broke down, but by great good 
fortune they were able to hire four ponies to take them 
as far as Crucero, but on the distinct understanding that 
they should be taken no farther. From San Jose" the 
road lay up a long ravine for several leagues. This was 
the Pass of Sunipana, the height of the summit of which 
Markham computed (by means of a boiling-point ther- 
mometer) to be 16,700 feet. It was bitterly cold, 
but the scenery was magnificent. Here the end of their 
journey came in sight, for in the far distance they caught 
a glimpse of the mountains of Caravaya. The province 
of Caravaya has long been famed as a gold producing 
district. The old Inca historian Garcilasso de la Vega 
writes : 

' The richest gold-mines in Peru are of Collahuaya, 
which the Spaniards call Caravaya, whence they obtain 
much very fine gold of 24 carats, and they still get 
some, but not in such abundance." 

The same evening they reached Crucero, so named 
from the cross-roads which branch off here to the 
various forest villages. 

Although the capital of the province of Caravaya, 
Crucero is but a collection of comfortless mud houses, 
with a small dilapidated church in the (so-called) 
plaza. It was intensely cold, and they experienced 
heavy snowstorms during the night. Markham records 
that while he was there the inhabitants sat wrapped 
up in their ponchos without fires, shivering in a dreary, 
helpless .way until sunset, when they all retired to bed, 
that being the only comfortable and warm place to go 
to. In spite of the cheerless dreariness of the place, 
he had perforce to remain there a day or two in order 
to rest his beasts. On the i8th of April he set out on 
his way to the cinchona forests. 

The first night after leaving Crucero was spent in 
a shepherd's hut. It was built of loose stones, with no 



plaster or mud to fill the chinks, so that the piercingly 
cold wind blew right through it. The entrance was 
partially screened by a sheepskin hung across the door- 
way. The Indian family inhabiting the hut, however, 
were most kind and hospitable, and provided them with 
plenty of fresh milk. Next morning the party con- 
tinued their journey, a hard white frost covering the 
ground. At the hut which they reached that evening, 
Markham met a red-faced and apparently choleric old 
gentleman named Don Martel, who informed him that he 
had been a Colonel in the Peruvian Army, and had 
suffered persecution for allegiance to his party. He 
said that he had lost much money in the quinine trade, 
and had a good deal to say, not very complimentary, 
about the Dutch agent who had come over to obtain 
cinchona plants in 1854 for cultivation in Java. He 
went on to say that if the Dutchman, or anyone else, 
ever attempted to take cascarilla (cinchona) plants out 
of the country again, he would stir up the people to 
seize them and cut off their feet ! Markham shrewdly 
suspected that all this bluster was intentionally directed 
at him, and that by some means or other the quondam 
Colonel had received a hint regarding the object of his 
journey, and was endeavouring to dissuade him from 
proceeding farther. He was not sorry to bid him fare- 

The scenery as they passed through the deep and 
narrow gorge of Cuyo-cuyo was magnificent. Terraced 
gardens, some abandoned, some under cultivation, 
rose on either hand where the sides of the gorge were 
not too precipitous. Rising at the head of the ravine, 
the River Sandia pursued its course past the village of 
Cuyo-cuyo, bordered by ferns and wild-flowers. Here 
and there a cluster of huts could be seen nestling together 
on the terraces above, seemingly suspended in the air. 

On the morning of the 2oth of April, they reached 
the confluence of the Rivers Sandia and Huaccuyo. 
Thenceforward the stream became a roaring torrent, 


dashing over huge rocks in its course towards the 
village of Sandia. Cascades poured down the sides of 
the mountains in every direction. It was a wonderful 
scene, and its wild beauty unquestionably assisted 
very materially in directing their thoughts from the 
execrable and often perilous road along which they 
were travelling. The descent from the summit of the 
pass over the Caravayan Andes to Sandia is a consider- 
able one, for it is nearly 7,000 feet in a distance of about 
thirty miles; and the climatic conditions change from 
Arctic to subtropical. The pass is 13,600 feet above 
sea-level, while Sandia is but 6,930. 

On arrival in Sandia (where he remained a couple 
of days), Markham discovered that his choleric friend 
Don Martel had already communicated with several 
of the influential inhabitants of the district, advising 
them to raise every obstacle in their power to prevent 
him from procuring cinchona plants or seeds with the 
object of transplanting them out of the country. He 
also found that Don Martel was instigating the people 
of all the other villages bordering the cinchona forests 
to the same effect. This necessitated an alteration in 
Markham 's plans. He had contemplated examining 
the forests carefully and leisurely before making his 
principal collection, which would be in August, when the 
seeds were ripe. He now decided that his only chance 
of success, his mission being known, was to collect the 
plants as speedily as possible, and thus anticipate any 
obstruction that might be contemplated against him. 
He was obliged, therefore, to make all his preparations 
for the journey into the forests before leaving Sandia, as 
there would be no possibility of procuring supplies of 
any kind after he left that town. A stock of bread 
was procured to last for about a month. This had to 
be toasted in the Cura's oven, for it was the only one 
in the place. This, with some cheese and chocolate, 
formed the provisions for himself and his companion, 
Mr. Weir. The remainder of the party was composed of 


Pablo the mestizo, four Indians, and two mules. Alto- 
gether the supplies consisted of tea, sugar, chocolate, 
toasted bread, cheese, candles, concentrated beef-tea, a 
change of clothes each, instruments, powder and shot, a 
tent, ponchos, with maize and salt meat for Pablo and 
the Indians. Most of these articles were packed in six 
leathern bags and carried by the mules and the Indians. 
One of the latter traitorously deserted on the first day 
out, leaving only three men, who were barely able to 
carry the surplus stores and provisions that could not 
be packed on the mules. 

They left Sandia late in the afternoon of the 24th of 
April. The road led down the ravine along narrow 
ledges overhanging the river, which flowed for the most 
part between perpendicular cliffs. The path was very 
narrow and dangerous, but the scenery was magnificent, 
and the vegetation became richer and more tropical 
as they descended. The few scattered huts which they 
passed possessed no doors, a striking testimony to the 
confidence of the inmates in the honesty of the passers- 
by. At one part of the road the mountains rose per- 
pendicularly on the opposite side of the ravine, only 
about 60 yards off, yet the river at the bottom of the 
gorge was many hundreds of feet below. This will 
give some little idea as to the precipitous nature of the 
sides of the ravine. It was here they came across the first 
traces of cinchona plants, but not in sufficient quantities 
to induce them to begin collecting. Markham, however, 
noted and marked down all likely-looking specimens, so 
that he would have no difficulty in finding them, if 
necessary, on the return journey. The party then made 
for the forest-covered valley of Tambopata, a veritable 
plantation of cinchona trees. 

On reaching the banks of the River Huari-huari they 
halted, and camped under a large rock, for there was 
no room to pitch a tent. This was their first experience 
of camping out, for hitherto they had been able to pass 
the nights in the roadside tambos. It was not, however, 


a very pleasant experience, for a drizzling rain com- 
menced to fall shortly after midnight, and continued 
until the morning. 

Crossing a rude and somewhat primitive bridge over 
the Huari-huari, they made their way next morning 
up the face of the steep mountain opposite their camp, 
through a dense forest, and into the grassy highlands. 
The day was spent in searching for plants, but with 
indifferent success. Proceeding, they forced their way 
through the forest, their progress being much retarded 
by closely matted masses of ferns, fallen bamboos, 
and the roots of enormous trees, with an exceedingly 
tenacious yellow mud underfoot. In many places, 
so overgrown was the forest and so dense the foliage, 
that it was almost dark, even at noon, except where a 
few gaps in the forest admitted the interrupted rays 
of the sun, which shed a pale light across their gloomy 
surroundings. It was a weird, uncanny scene. 

But it would be wearisome to follow Markham day 
by day in his search for plants. One day was almost 
the counterpart of another. Suffice it to say that his 
labours were crowned with complete success; it was, 
however, a success attained only by undaunted per- 
severance accompanied by many hardships, 'but always 
with that cheerfulness with which he invariably kept his 
men in good spirits, while husbanding their strength 
and efficiency. 

The natives have a habit of rolling up coca leaves 
into a ball and chewing it whenever they are engaged 
in arduous work. Markham soon adopted this habit, 
and found that, in addition to the soothing effect which 
it produced, it enabled him to endure longer abstinence 
from food with less inconvenience than he would other- 
wise have felt, and he was able to climb steep mountains 
not only without losing breath, but with a feeling of 
lightness and elasticity. 

Before attempting to penetrate the depths of the 
virgin forest, Markham had succeeded in procuring 


a guide named Martinez, who was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with all the different species of cinchona- 
trees, besides being an expert woodman, intelligent, 
active, and obliging. On the ist of May they entered 
the dense entangled forest where, it was generally 
believed, no European had ever before penetrated. The 
party was now seven in number, and all were provided 
with machetes, or long knives, with which to clear the 
way. Martinez went in front; the rest followed in 
single file. The trees were of great height, and the ground 
choked with creepers, masses of fallen bamboos, and 
long tendrils which twisted round their ankles and 
tripped them up at almost every step. In many places 
they had to scramble through this primeval forest along 
the verge of giddy precipices overhanging a violent, 
rushing river. Frequently they came upon small clear- 
ings where some gigantic tree had fallen, bearing all 
before it as it dashed over the cliff into the surging 
torrent below. Sometimes it took them more than a 
quarter of an hour to cut their way through a space of 
perhaps only 20 yards in length. 

For more than a fortnight they were actively engaged 
examining the cinchona region and collecting plants. 
The magnitude and variety of the forest trees were very 
striking. The imposing character of the scenery in 
those vast solitudes was a source of constant enjoyment 
to Markham, and lightened materially the fatigues 
of a very arduous journey. The torments they suffered 
from biting and stinging insects were maddening. 
There was one special kind of fly which in a moment 
raised swellings and blood-red lumps, causing great pain 
and irritation. Even the butterflies and moths were 
so numerous and so devoid of fear as to become a 
perfect plague. 

One evening, on his return to camp dead-beat and 
drenched to the skin, Markham found his Indians in 
a state of mutiny. They declared that they had been 
away long enough, that they had no maize or coca left, 


and that they must return at once to their homes. 
It required all his persuasive eloquence to induce them 
to change their minds. He told them, in their own 
expressive language, that if they deserted him they 
were liars, thieves, traitors, and children of the devil, 
whose punishment would soon overtake them; while 
if they were true, and remained loyal to him, they would 
be well rewarded. His great effort in the Quichua 
tongue had the desired effect, peace was restored, and 
harmony reigned once more. 

On the jth of May they found to their dismay that their 
provisions were entirely expended ; only a few bread- 
crumbs remained in a corner of one of the provision 
bags. As famine was staring them in the face, a hasty 
retreat became an absolute necessity. The plants 
were carefully packed in layers of moss, and sewn up in 
matting brought specially for the purpose. Altogether 
about 200 cinchona plants were collected and packed. 
Their start was not made under pleasing conditions. 
It was pouring with rain, the forest was saturated, 
they were soaked to the skin, their hands wrinkled like 
a washerwoman's after a hard day's washing, and their 
gunpowder was so damp as to be useless. On reaching 
the precipice of Ccasasani, they scrambled up its slippery 
sides in the rain, and were fortunate in securing 2 1 good 
specimens. The following day they obtained no less 
than 172, and on the succeeding day they gathered 109. 
They had now collected a sufficient number of cinchona 
plants to warrant their return, quite enough to fill the 
Wardian cases* which were awaiting their arrival at the 
port of Islay. 

Residing in the valley of Tambopata was an old 
Bolivian named Don Juan de la Cruz Gironda. He had 
been most obliging and helpful to Markham, and had 

* Cases specially designed and constructed for the conveyance 
of the cinchona plants during long journeys. They were filled with 
soil to a depth of 9 or 10 inches, in which the specimens were planted, 
"nd kept well watered during the voyage. 


supplied him with his guide Martinez. Without his 
aid, Markham and his party would have been exposed 
to much suffering from want of food . On the 1 1 th of 
May, the packing of the plants being nearly com- 
pleted, Gironda received an ominous letter from the 
Alcalde Municipal of Quiaca, ordering him to prevent 
a single plant from leaving the district, and to arrest 
Markham with his guide Martinez and send them to 
Quiaca ! 

This was somewhat disconcerting. It appeared that 
an outcry against the Englishman's proceedings had 
been started by Don Manuel Martel, the red-faced gentle- 
man whom Markham had met on the road to Sandia, 
and that the people of that town and Quiaca had been 
excited and perturbed by assertions that the exportation 
of cascarilla seeds would certainly result in the financial 
ruin of themselves and their descendants. Gironda, 
though friendly and hospitable, feared the anger of the 
people, for, he thought, they would always regard him as 
the man who had been instrumental in permitting a 
stranger to injure his countrymen. In his own defence, 
he suggested that the plants should be thrown away, 
with the exception, perhaps, of a few that might be 
smuggled out of the country unknown to the authorities. 
This, however, was not Markham 's view, after all the 
trouble he had taken to obtain them ; but he realised the 
necessity of an immediate retreat. It was the only hope 
of saving the plants, which he was prepared to defend by 
force, if necessary. At the same time he addressed a 
letter to the Alcalde of Quiaca informing him that his 
interference was an unwarrantable step which he could 
not tolerate, and reminding him that his office was 
purely consultative and legislative, conferring upon him 
no executive powers whatever. He concluded by ex- 
pressing his sense of the Alcalde's patriotic zeal, while 
regretting that it should be accompanied by such mis- 
guided and lamentable ignorance of the true interests 
of rnV country [! 


Nevertheless, in spite of the delay which he hoped to 
procure by this somewhat grandiloquent effusion, he felt 
that it was imperative to leave the district immediately. 
The urgency of his decision was accentuated when he 
learnt, from the Indian who had brought the letter from 
Quiaca, that Martel's son with a party were approaching, 
and that they were only the vanguard of a large body 
of mestizos* who were coming down the valley to seize 
him and destroy his collection of plants. Accordingly, 
early on the morning of the i2th he took leave of his 
kind old friend Gironda and set out. As he writes in his 
journal, " The most melancholy part of travelling is 
the parting with friends never to meet again." 

After an exceedingly laborious ascent through the 
forest, they unexpectedly came across Martel's son and 
his party, who were, apparently, lying in wait for them. 
No attempt was made, however, to oppose or otherwise 
impede their passage; but Markham made an osten- 
tatious display of his revolver, which, as he remarks, 
" may have been very efficacious, though perfectly 
harmless, as the powder was quite damp." Young 
Martel asked the Indians how they dared to be so 
unpatriotic as to assist in conveying the plants out of 
the country, at the same time informing them that 
they would certainly get no farther than Sandia, where 
the plants would be seized and confiscated. He was, 
however, very civil to Markham, and permitted him 
and his party to proceed on their way without further 
molestation. They were not a little apprehensive, 
however, as to the turn affairs might take on their 
arrival at Sandia. 

Crossing the same country they had traversed on the 
outward journey, and still adding to their collection 
of plants whenever opportunities offered, they reached 
Sandia on the 1 5th of May, where Markham found a some- 
what alarming state of affairs existed. The people were 

* Mestizo, a. half-caste, born of a Spaniard and a South American 


wildly excited, consequent on the receipt of letters and 
reports from Quiaca, and they were resorting to tactics 
which would undoubtedly have succeeded in their object, 
but for a great piece of good luck. Difficulties were 
placed in the travellers' way to prevent them from 
purchasing or hiring mules, except to go to Crucero, 
where they knew Martel was stationed with the in- 
tention of delaying them until the plants had all been 
killed by the frost. Markham was in despair, and even 
contemplated the mad project of setting out on foot 
by himself, with the four bundles of plants on his own 
mule. In this dilemma he was approached by Don 
Manuel Mena (a member of the municipal body whose 
acquaintance he had made on his first visit to Sandia), 
who confidentially informed him that, if he would give 
him his gun, he (Don Manuel) would find an Indian 
who could supply him with beasts and accompany him 
to Vilque, on the road to Arequipa. 

Markham readily consented to this arrangement, 
only too glad to have the difficulty solved. He then 
despatched Mr. Weir and Pablo to Crucero, so as to 
throw Martel off the scent, while he hurried the plants 
down to the coast by a most difficult but unfrequented 
line of country. The tidings, however, had been 
promulgated, and effectual measures had been taken 
to prevent his return to Caravaya for plants and seeds 
in August, as he had previously arranged. Martel 
had also written to all the towns and villages between 
Crucero and Arequipa to put obstacles in the way of 
his retreat, so it was necessary for him to avoid passing 
through all populous districts. He determined, there- 
fore, to shape a direct compass course over the Cor- 
dilleras from Sandia to Vilque. 

This was a hazardous and difficult journey, but no other 
way appeared to offer a better prospect of success. He 
was well aware of the stupendous difficulties and dangers 
that his scheme involved, but he had confidence in 
himself, and trusted to his own energy and good luck 


to bring it to a successful issue. He left Sandia early 
on the morning of the i;th of May, mounted on his 
trusty mule, and driving before him two others laden 
with the plants. He was accompanied only by an 
Indian as a guide, named Angelino Paco, who was the 
owner of the two mules. Mr. Weir started for Arequipa 
on the same day by way of Crucero. 

Passing through Cuyo-cuyo without stopping, Mark- 
ham had ascended a mountain gorge by the side of the 
river, when he discovered, to his dismay, that Paco 
had never been away from the valley of Sandia, knew 
nothing of the country through which they travelled, 
and was therefore useless as a guide. He was in con- 
sequence obliged to trust entirely to himself and his 
compass to find his way across the Cordilleras. Night 
coming on, they encamped ; but there was no fuel, and on 
opening the bag they found that all their food and 
matches had been stolen in Sandia. The situation was, 
to say the least, awkward, and Markham had to rely 
entirely on Pace's parched maize for sustenance. It 
proved uncommonly hard fare 1 The cold was intense 
during the night. 

They resumed their march at daybreak, and, reaching 
the summit of the snow-covered Cordillera of Caravaya, 
continued their journey over lofty grass-covered plains 
where the ground was frozen hard. As they advanced 
all signs of life disappeared, and when evening set in 
Markham looked round on the desolate scene, and 
realised that to make a direct cut across the mountain 
range to Vilque entailed a very disagreeable and danger- 
ous journey. They had been eleven hours in the saddle, 
when Paco fortunately found a deserted shepherd's 
hut built of loose stones, about 3 feet high, and thatched 
with wild-grass, in which they spent the night. The 
temperature was as low as 20 F. 

Next morning they found that the mules had wan- 
dered away, and three hours were spent in finding and 
catching them. These beasts gave them much trouble 


and required constant supervision. If left to themselves 
for a moment, they would attempt to lie down and roll, 
which, needless to say, would have been fatal to the 
plants that were strapped on their backs. 

On the third evening out from Sandia they arrived 
unexpectedly at a rather well-to-do estancia, or sheep 
farm. It was occupied by a family of good-tempered 
Indians, who gave them unlimited supplies of milk 
and cheese, thus enabling them to relieve the great 
hunger from which they had suffered since leaving 
Sandia. The next day they reached Lake Arapa, a 
large sheet of water which had no existence on any 
map. Markham states that he was the first English 
traveller who had ever visited it. It was the resort of 
immense flocks of flamingoes, and there were also 
ibises, ducks, and cranes, in great quantities. On the 
22nd of May they reached the little town of Vilque, 
where they enjoyed a thoroughly well-earned rest after 
their long and fatiguing journey. During all this time 
Markham had taken the greatest care of his precious 
plants, wrapping them up carefully every night in his 
own poncho so as to protect them from the frost. 

Their stay at Vilque, however, was brief. Pushing 
on as rapidly as possible, they rode into the city of 
Arequipa on the 27th of May, with the treasured plants 
intact, and apparently none the worse for their somewhat 
severe usage on the journey. Here Markham had the 
happiness of rejoining his wife, who had been anxiously 
awaiting news of him for some time. The distance 
from Sandia to Arequipa was nearly 300 miles. Two 
days after his arrival his colleague Mr. Weir rejoined 
him from Crucero. As Markham had anticipated, he 
had found Martel in that town; but the Colonel's 
designs had been completely baffled by Markham 's 
astuteness and ingenuity. No opposition was made to 
his departure from Arequipa, and on the 3rd Of June, 
to his immense relief, his plants were all safely deposited 
in the Wardian cases by Mr. Weir at the port of Islay. 


But the difficulty of getting the plants out of the 
country had not yet been finally overcome. The 
Custom-house at Islay declared it to be illegal to export 
cascarilla plants, and refused to allow them to be 
shipped without an express order from the Minister 
of Finance and Commerce. Markham did not hesitate. 
He went straight to Lima, obtained the necessary 
permission from the Minister of Finance, not without 
some delay and trouble, and hurried back to Islay by 
the first steamer, arriving there on the 2$rd of June. 
Meanwhile, since the plants had been placed in the 
Wardian cases, they had begun to bud and throw out 
young leaves, satisfactory proof that they had quite 
recovered from the severity of their journey across 
the Andes. 

On the evening of the 23rd the cases containing the 
plants were hoisted into a boat, ready to be taken on 
board the steamer the following morning. That night 
attempts were made to bribe the man in charge to bore 
holes in the cases and kill the plants by pouring in 
boiling water ! Fortunately, this scheme was dis- 
covered in time and frustrated, and on the following 
morning they were safely shipped on board the steamer 
bound for Panama. It was disappointing, however, 
that there was no ship available, man-of-war or other- 
wise, to take the plants direct from Peru to Madras, 
and so avoid the long voyages, numerous transhipments, 
and the intense heat of the Red Sea, before this most 
valuable collection of plants could reach its destination 
in Southern India. 

After all the extraordinary difficulties that had been 
so successfully surmounted the hardships and dangers 
that had been experienced and overcome, the scarcity 
of the plants in the forests, the difficulty in finding 
them in the dense underwood, the efforts that had 
been made, first to prevent their exportation, and then 
to destroy them his success could not be otherwise 
than a source of great gratification to Markham. He 


could now afford to look back on all these attempted 
impediments to success that had been placed in his way 
with complacency, and confidently realise that it was 
only by his own individual courage, energy, and ability, 
that the enterprise had been brought to such a satis- 
factory conclusion. 

The arrangements for the carrying out of what may 
be called the subsidiary expeditions have already been 
alluded to. It is sufficient here to state that the results 
were eminently satisfactory. Markham's wisdom in 
the disposition of his forces was clearly established: an 
admirable collection of plants and seeds was made and 
safely exported to the Neilgherry Hills in Southern 

After a sojourn of a few days at Lima, Markham and 
his wife took a final farewell of the Land of the Incas, 
and on the 29th of June, 1860, proceeded on their way 
to England. 


ALTHOUGH Markham's work in Peru had terminated, 
there still remained the completion of his task in India. 
Plants and seeds of every species of cinchona valuable 
to commerce, had been brought down from the forests 
in the interior of South America, and shipped to Madras. 
Botanical specimens of all the species had also been 
collected and sent to the herbarium at Kew for verifi- 
cation, so that their identity could be placed beyond 
the possibility of doubt. In conveying the plants to 
the coast, however, only half the difficulties of the 
enterprise had been surmounted; the long journey to 
their eventual destination had now to be made, part of 
it through an intensely hot climate. Every little detail 
regarding the care of the plants during their transit 
had been carefully considered and arranged, and at 
length all was satisfactorily accomplished. When we 
consider the length of the voyage, the changes of tem- 
perature, and the numerous transhipments, it cannot 
but be acknowledged that it is little short of marvellous 
that these plants should have been so successfully trans- 
ported through thousands of miles, in varying climates, 
from the slopes of the Andes to the Ghauts in Southern 

Markham had no sooner landed in England than he had 
to start off again at once (still accompanied by his wife), 
to superintend the landing of the plants in India. He 
decided to land at Calicut, on the coast of Malabar, a 
spot which he describes as the garden of the Peninsula, 
where " Nature is clad in her brightest and most in- 


196 WORK IN INDIA [cfl. xn 

viting robes; the scenery is magnificent, the fields and 
gardens speak of plenty, and the dwellings of the people 
are substantial and comfortable." 

They landed on the /th of October, 1860, and found a 
carriage drawn by two white bullocks awaiting their 
arrival. This had been kindly placed at their disposal 
by Mr. Patrick Grant, the Collector of Malabar. In 
the evening they embarked in a long canoe, propelled 
by four wiry-looking Indians, which had been specially 
prepared to take them up the river to Beypur. They 
journeyed throughout the night, the boatmen singing 
noisy glees as they paddled along. In the morning 
they reached the landing-place at Ediwanna, forty 
miles from Calicut. 

Thence they continued their journey in hammocks 
slung on bamboos, each carried by six men who kept 
on uttering unearthly discordant yells during the 
whole of the way to the village of Wundoor, a distance 
of six miles. From here they gradually ascended until 
they reached Ootacamund, the chief station on the 
Neilgherry Hills, situated at an altitude of 7,300 feet 
above sea-level. Thus they passed in a few hours from 
a tropical to a temperate zone. The face of Nature 
assumed a different aspect; and when they arrived at 
the door of their hotel, it was difficult to persuade 
themselves that they were not in England. The garden 
in front of the hotel was bountifully stocked with 
mignonette, wallflowers, and fuchsias all in full bloom, 
while the immense bushes of heliotrope rose to a height 
that they could never have attained in England. Roses 
and geraniums grew in profusion ; ponds were to be seen 
bordered by white arums; and there were thickets of 
rhododendrons, with many other shrubs and flowers 
which one associates with English gardens. Markham 
declared that this charming spot was more like an 
English watering-place in summer than India. He 
was delighted with it; for he felt assured that the 
climate would be suitable for the growth and cultivation 


of the cinchona, while, for those species that required 
a warmer climate, suitable areas could be found on the 
forest slopes that overlooked the plains. 

In selecting the sites for the cinchona plantations, 
many things had to be taken into consideration. Apart 
from climatic conditions, it was necessary to select 
a soil, and shade, closely approaching their native 
habitat. The supply of labour had also to be taken 
into account, not only for their cultivation, but also for 
the transportation of the quinine-bearing bark to the 
sea-coast. This was a work entailing much time, much 
examination of suitable properties, and a great deal of 
travelling. The latter, however, was of a much more 
easy and pleasant nature than Markham had experienced 
in his search for the plants in the untrodden forests of 
Caravaya, and he thoroughly enjoyed it, being greatly 
interested in all he saw. 

It would be out of place here to give a lengthy de- 
scription of the country through which Markham 
travelled in his search for the most appropriate sites for 
the cinchona plantations. He had, of course, the 
assistance of the best authorities, and the subsequent 
results were sufficient evidence of the wisdom of their 
conclusions. It must not be forgotten that different 
regions had to be selected for the various species of the 
cinchona plants. Some would grow only at a high 
altitude, whilst others flourished at a lower elevation. 
For some a tropical climate was necessary; others 
required a temperate zone. Again, some few required 
much moisture for their well-being, while many would 
only prosper in a dry climate. Much therefore had to 
be thought of, much debated, and many decisions of 
the utmost importance arrived at. 

The work necessarily entailed a great deal of travelling. 
Markham journeyed considerable distances in Southern 
India, visiting the districts of Mysore, Seringapatam, 
Coorg, the Deccan, Madura, and Trichinopoly. In 
addition he made arrangements for the introduction of 


198 WORK IN INDIA [CH. xn 

the cinchona plants into Burma and Ceylon. After much 
anxiety, and frequent disappointments, he was glad to 
be able to record " that this great and important 
measure, fraught with blessings to the people of India, 
and with no less beneficial results to the whole civilised 
world, should have been finally attended with complete 
success, in spite of difficulties of no ordinary character." 
In carrying out this invaluable work, it would have 
been a source of great regret to him had it been attended 
by any injury to the people of Peru, Ecuador, or Bolivia. 
But he had no apprehensions on that score. The 
general demand for quinine was, and would remain, 
invariably in excess of the supply obtained from those 
countries. The trade of South America in this com- 
modity has in no way been impaired. Indeed, Mark- 
ham's work was productive of much good to the countries 
concerned. Hitherto, with short-sighted recklessness, 
the people had destroyed a large number of the trees, 
thus causing more injury to their own interests than 
could possibly have arisen from commercial competition. 
But the fact that the product could be obtained else- 
where necessitated the introduction of a strict con- 
servancy. In spite of the numerous obstructions that 
had been placed in his way by local officials, and such 
meddlesome busybodies as Don Martel,Markham strongly 
emphasised the fact that he had full permission from 
the Peruvian Government to tranship the plants, a per- 
mission which he had received in writing from the 
Minister of Finance. It cannot, therefore, be said that 
he acted in defiance of the laws of the country. There 
was at that time no Peruvian law prohibiting the 
exportation of cinchona plants and seeds. He was 
convinced that the cultivation of the plants elsewhere 
would not onlybenot detrimental, but would be beneficial, 
to the interests of Peru ; for it would teach the people 
to cultivate the valuable trees that grew wild in their 
forests, and not submit to their destruction. With 
this object in view, Markham wrote a pamphlet in 


Spanish, giving a full account of the various methods 
adopted in the cultivation of the plants in British 
India, and he expressed the hope that the day was not 
far distant when the slopes of the Andes would be 
covered with carefully supervised cinchona plantations. 
He returned to England with his wife in 1861, landing 
at Folkestone on the 24th of April. Shortly afterwards 
he was appointed private secretary to Mr. Baring (after- 
wards Lord Northbrook), who was then Secretary of 
State for India, and therefore ruled over the depart- 
ment in which Markham was serving. Markham im- 
mediately commenced writing an account of his work, 
which was published in 1862, under the title of " Travels 
in Peru and India." This was followed by " Peruvian 
Bark," which appeared in 1880, illustrating the steady 
and ever-growing prosperity of the enterprise, during a 
period of nearly twenty years, in fact since the introduc- 
tion of cinchona into India. At that time he writes: 

" The annual bark crop, from Government plantations 
of British India alone, is already 490,000 pounds. 
In 1879-80 the quantity of bark sold in the London 
market from British India and Ceylon was 1,172,000 
pounds. The East India source of bark-supply is now 
the most important but one as regards quantity, and 
by far the most important of all as regards quality. 
On the Neilgherry Hills the whole expenditure has been 
repaid with interest, by the sale of bark in the London 
market, and the Government is now (1880) deriving 
large profits of many thousands a year from the bark 
harvests. In Sikkim the true object of the undertaking 
has been better understood, and the plantations are 
utilised for the supply of a cheap and efficacious febri- 
fuge to the people of India by which it is placed in 
the hands of the poorest ryot in that great Empire." 

By way of rest and recreation after his recent arduous 
journeys in both Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 
he now made two interesting trips with his wife one to 
Spain and one to Denmark. 

But his work in India was not yet completed. He 

200 WORK IN INDIA [CH. xn 

soon returned there to assure himself that the plantations 
were well and properly looked after, and that everything 
was progressing satisfactorily. He found the planta- 
tions in splendid order, and the plants thriving in 
such a manner as to afford him the liveliest satisfaction. 
He had the pleasing conviction that his efforts and 
energies for the benefit of mankind had not been thrown 
away, but, on the contrary, would prove of even greater 
value than he had hitherto anticipated. 

On his return he was directed to draw up elaborate 
instructions for the care and cultivation of the plants, 
for the guidance of those under whose charge they were 
placed. He also submitted exhaustive reports to the 
Secretary of State for India, on the general features of 
his work, and the instructions that should be circulated 
regarding the culture of the plantations, with numerous 
other minor details regarding their management. Sir 
Charles Wood, who had succeeded Mr. Baring as Secre- 
tary of State for India, expressed his entire satisfaction 
with the admirable way in which Markham had dis- 
charged his duty a duty of great public importance 
and at having brought to such a successful issue so 
arduous a task. 

If Clements Markham had done nothing else during 
his long and active life, his work in Peru and India 
alone would have sufficed to hand his name down to 
posterity as a benefactor to his fellow-men. Apart 
from all humanitarian considerations, he had created an 
industry that brought no small wealth to his country. 
In this connection it is, perhaps, not surprising to be told 
that Markham should have felt that those who had 
borne the heat and burden of the day, who amidst perils 
and hardships of no ordinary kind had steadily per- 
severed in bringing the work to a most successful issue, 
should be entitled to some consideration. A fair re- 
compense for their valuable services was in justice due. 
But it was not forthcoming. Markham was indignant 
with the authorities, for what he considered to be the 

CH. xn] WORK IN INDIA 201 

mean and unjust manner with which, in spite of his 
urgent representations, his colleagues had been treated. 
Monetary recompense, he pointed out, need not be paid 
from revenue provided by the tax-payers of India, but 
could be taken out of the profits of the work, which 
had been so successfully accomplished by the very men 
to whom a just reward was denied. These men, whose 
cause he was advocating so strenuously, had laboured 
zealously and willingly, and their duties had been of 
a nature that required special qualifications. Some had 
forfeited their health, all had risked their lives, in the 
service of their country, and they had nobly earned 
the gratitude of the Government and people of India. 
Their high sense of honour prevented them from 
making any individual representation directly or in- 
directly on the subject. They left the matter entirely 
in Markham's hands, and he took up the cudgels on their 
behalf with his usual characteristic energy. One who 
had partially recovered from a severe attack of fever, 
and threatenings of paralysis, received, for an ex- 
haustive and elaborate report on his work, the sum of 
27 ! Markham made an earnest appeal for a small 
pension, but this was refused. It must be borne in 
mind that the whole cost of the expedition, which in 
1880 was yielding to the Government an annual income 
of many thousands of pounds, was 857 ! Markham 
then brought the case to the notice of the Indian 
Government, but they merely transmitted his letter to 
the Secretary of State in London, without any recom- 
mendation or mark of approval, and it was, conse- 
quently, again rejected. The others were treated in 
a similar manner. No wonder that Markham, who 
knew their worth and the value of their services, was 
indignant at the treatment meted out to his fellow- 
workers. They had loyally supported him throughout 
the enterprise which had been entrusted to his guidance, 
and should have been correspondingly recompensed. 
It was a great work to have achieved. Markham was 


in sole charge of the enterprise from its initiation. He 
superintended the collecting of the plants in South 
America; he arranged the details connected with their 
transportation to British India ; he selected the sites for 
their reception when they arrived; he supervised their 
planting; and afterwards, for a period of fifteen years, 
he had personal supervision of everything connected 
with them at the India Office in London. He also made 
repeated visits to India to satisfy himself that everything 
was progressing satisfactorily. Needless to say he, 
at any rate, received the thanks of the Government 
for the excellent way in which he had accomplished the 
duty that had been entrusted to him. It is, perhaps, 
not too much to say that by the complete success of his 
enterprise he has earned the gratitude of the whole 
civilised world, and more especially the natives of 
India and our military and other forces stationed in 
that country. It may be interesting to relate that, 
as a result of his labours, the price of quinine has been 
reduced from twenty shillings an ounce to only a few 
pence, and one of the greatest blessings that could 
possibly be conferred on the fever-stricken East is now 
within the reach of the poorest of the poor. For his 
great services in this important enterprise the Govern- 
ment awarded him a grant of 3,000. 

Throughout his travels in Peru and India, Markham 
had not confined himself solely to acquiring a scientific 
knowledge of the cinchona. He in addition interested 
himself in the study of the growth and cultivation of 
coca in Peru ; of cotton, coffee, pepper, and caoutchouc, 
in British India, and of India-rubber in the Valley of the 
Amazon on all these questions he submitted elaborate 
reports and suggestions to the Government. He also 
submitted a report on coffee production in the Wynaad 
district, and one on the condition of the public roads 
and thoroughfares in the various districts through 
which he travelled, submitting at the same time a 

CH. xii] WORK IN INDIA 203 

memorandum suggesting a scheme by which improve- 
ments could very easily be effected at a trivial expense. 
He likewise drew up a design for the construction of 
a simple contrivance by which the rivers might be crossed 
with ease and safety during the monsoon, when they 
were usually swollen and almost impassable. Such a 
bridge as he contemplated would be inexpensive, and 
the outlay for its construction could easily be recouped, 
if necessary, by the exaction of a small toll. 

Another matter on which he reported fully was the 
growth of ipecacuanha in Brazil: this with a view to 
its cultivation in our Indian possessions, where climatic 
conditions were, in his opinion, favourable to its growth. 
He also submitted an exhaustive memorandum to the 
Indian Government, on the introduction of the Peruvian 
cotton plant into certain districts in the Province 
of Madras, which appeared to him to be peculiarly 
adapted for its cultivation. He supported his contention 
by immediately procuring a supply of seeds from Peru, 
which (by permission of the Secretary of State) he dis- 
tributed among the collectors of those districts in 
Southern India who were most likely to interest them- 
selves in the experiment. 

On his return to England, he was directed by the 
Indian Government to report at length on the oyster 
fishery at the mouth of the River Colne. This, it was 
considered, might be the means of gaining important 
information for reviving the rapidly diminishing fortunes 
of the Tinnevelly pearl fishery. Having acquired as 
thorough a knowledge of the subject as was possible 
in the limited time at his disposal, he was despatched 
to Tuticorin that he might discuss with the Super- 
intendent the various points connected with the Ex- 
perimental Pearl Oyster Nursery established there. 

The Tinnevelly pearl industry has from time im- 
memorial been famed for the beautiful pearls that it 
produces. They have the " right Orient lustre," and, 
from their sphericity and water, are among the most 


valuable to be found, although they rarely exceed 
4 carats in weight. During the middle of the nineteenth 
century, however, the oysters were recklessly destroyed 
for the sake of immediate gain. This had the effect of 
depleting the beds of their rich products to such an 
extent as to necessitate a strict and judicious system of 
conservancy, in order that the industry might be re- 
vived. It was then that Markham's assistance was in- 
voked, and he was instructed not only to report, but 
also to advise as to the best means for the resuscita- 
tion of the trade, by which a regular and unfailing 
source of revenue would be restored to the State. 

The only way by which he could reach Tuticorin 
was by taking passage in a native schooner sailing from 
Colombo in Ceylon. It was not a very dignified or comfort- 
able mode of travelling. Arrived at Tuticorin, he made 
a thorough investigation of the existing state of affairs. 
Not only was he able to report fully and satisfactorily 
on the pearl fishery, but he was able to make many 
suggestions for the necessary steps that should be 
taken to revive the industry. He also issued instruc- 
tions for the management of the aquaria which, it had 
been arranged, should be sent out from England. 

During this visit Markham devoted much time and 
attention to the important question of coolie immigra- 
tion. He prepared a long report on this subject, which 
was duly submitted to the Secretary of State in Council. 

All the time that he had been in India, he had given 
a great deal of thought to the subject of irrigation, 
especially in the Madura district. He now addressed 
a long memorandum to the Government, calling their 
attention to this most important question. The scarcity 
in some places the complete absence of water was 
a subject of the first magnitude. He pointed out 
that large districts of waste, and therefore unprofit- 
able, land could, by the introduction of a system of 
irrigation, be converted into a valuable and profitable 
region which would eventually benefit the inhabitants 

CH. xn] WORK IN INDIA 205 

of millions of square miles, besides becoming a source 
of increased revenue to the State. From careful 
personal observations made during his travels in India, 
while superintending the cultivation of his cinchona 
plants, he was made aware of the enormous districts 
that were lying fallow, owing to the absence of irrigation. 
Vast regions, which might otherwise have yielded 
excellent crops, were nothing but arid uncultivated 
wastes. By irrigating these dry regions, he firmly 
believed that extensive tracts would be fertilised, that 
prosperity would thus be insured to the native population 
of those districts, and that a large sum would be added 
to the revenue ; while the whole cost of carrying out the 
scheme would be repaid in a couple of years from the 
income derived from this source. 

Thus, it will be seen that his sympathies, whether in 
India or South America, were invariably directed towards 
the amelioration of the conditions of life of the natives. 
Their interests and their happiness were ever uppermost 
in his thoughts. Even when visiting the various 
plantations, he was always careful to point out to the 
natives the importance of the use of quinine to them- 
selves and the districts in which they resided, as well as 
the great benefits to be derived from it as a febrifuge. 

But perhaps the great versatility of his mind is best 
shown by the fact that in the midst of all his work he 
was able to find time to submit long and exhaustive 
memoranda to the India Office on such diverse matters 
as the public works connected with the district of 
Travancore; the new dock at Suez, constructed by the 
French; an alternative route to India; the proposed 
scheme for the improvement of the anchorage off 
Aden; the desirability of increasing the dock accom- 
modation at Bombay and Mazagong, and a highly 
technical report on the tides in the harbour of Bombay. 
These and many other reports of a similar nature will 
show the great activity of his mind, his hunger for work, 
his thirst for knowledge, his capacity for acquiring it, 

206 WORK IN INDIA [CH. xn 

his energy in prosecuting research, all helped by that 
wonderfully retentive memory which he retained un- 
impaired to the end of his life. 

In 1 863 he accepted the position of Honorary Secretary 
of the Royal Geographical Society, an office that he 
held for twenty-five consecutive years, retiring in 1888, 
when the Society, in recognition of his valuable services, 
awarded him their Founder's gold medal. It is a curious 
coincidence that the year of the birth of Clements 
Markham coincided with the foundation of this Society, 
which he served so well and truly, both having occurred 
in 1830. 


ON Markham's return from India, his time, as may 
readily be imagined, was fully occupied in framing his 
various reports. In addition to picking up the threads 
of his duties at the India Office, he was kept busy 
arranging, for official and general publication, the 
result of his work in connection with the cultivation 
of cinchona. He was also busily engaged in translating 
from the Spanish " Expeditions into the Valleys of 
the Amazon," " The Embassy of Clavijo to the Court 
of Timour," " Travels of Cieza de Leon," " The Life 
of Alonzo de Guzman," and other works for the Hakluyt 
Society, of which he was a very prominent and active 

About this time affairs in Abyssinia were causing 
some anxiety, and a rupture with King Theodore seemed 
imminent. So little was known then regarding the 
geographical situation and boundaries of that country, 
that to many persons, reference to a map was necessary 
in order to ascertain its accessibility, or otherwise, in 
the event of hostile operations becoming necessary. 

The early history of Abyssinia dates back to a very 
remote period, and its rulers claim that their records can 
be traced without a break to the time of " the Queen 
of Sheba and her son Menilek, who brought the Ark 
of the Covenant from Jerusalem and deposited it in 
Axum." Whether or not this claim can be substanti- 
ated, there is no doubt that for many centuries it 
had the reputation of being the only Christian nation 
in Africa. As a matter of fact, Christianity was estab- 



lished there as the national religion about A.D. 320, 
so that it may certainly be regarded as one of the most 
ancient Christian Churches in the world. 

The country abounds with interest. It is the land 
of " Prester John," that legendary Christian monarch 
who is reported to have changed his title from King 
to Priest ; its regions give birth to the fertilising sources 
of the mighty Nile; and it is a country abounding in 
mythical traditions, which naturally create a romantic 
interest in its history both past and present. During 
the period of which we are writing namely, the nine- 
teenth century the Abyssinians were Christians in 
more than name, for they were thoroughly imbued with 
everything appertaining to Christianity, and especially to 
monastic legends and chronicles. From their exclusive- 
ness and long isolation from what we regard as the civil- 
ised world, and owing to the anarchy that invariably 
prevailed throughout the country, their rulers became 
avaricious, cruel, and turbulent. It was the exercise 
of these barbarisms that brought them into conflict 
with us. 

The trouble originated, apparently, in the neglect 
of England to acknowledge a letter written by King 
Theodore, containing a proposal by His Majesty to send 
an Ambassador to London. It was an important and 
at the same time a very proper letter. For some reason 
best known to our Government, the King's proposal 
does not appear to have been considered; at any rate 
no notice was taken of it, and its receipt was not even 
acknowledged. Theodore, as may well be imagined, 
was furious at this neglect, which he could only regard 
as a studied insult. That his letter, suggesting a closer 
relationship between the two countries, should be 
treated with contemptuous silence was not only a 
breach of good manners, but in his opinion was a public 
indignity which he did not merit. He had no intention 
of submitting meekly to what he regarded as the in- 
solent behaviour of the British Government. Accord- 


ingly he seized our Consul, Captain Cameron, with all 
his suite, imprisoned them in chains, and went so far 
as to inflict torture upon them. These were strong 
measures for a ruling Sovereign to take in respect of 
the representative of a friendly Power, but it appeared 
to the King to be the only course open to him, and, 
unfortunately for himself, he adopted it. These arbi- 
trary proceedings, however, were not taken until the 
beginning of 1864, when more than twelve months had 
elapsed since the despatch of the King's missive. 

King Theodore's action caused a great sensation in 
England. Though somewhat late in the day, it was 
decided to send a pacific reply to the King's letter 
forthwith, signed by the Queen, but at the same time 
remonstrating against his arbitrary action in confining 
our Consul, and demanding Captain Cameron's im- 
mediate release. This was entrusted to a Special Envoy, 
Mr. Rassam (well known in connection with the Nineveh 
discoveries of Mr. Layard), who was selected for this 
delicate duty, mainly in consequence of his knowledge 
of Arabic and his experience with the natives. He was 
accompanied by Dr. Blanc and Lieutenant Prideaux, 
R.E., who had recently been serving as Political Agent 
at Aden. 

The only effect that the arrival of this mission had 
on King Theodore was to cause him to seize the members 
of it and send them to join the Consul, the English 
missionaries, and the others in captivity ! Theodore's 
mind was made up : he resolved to uphold and justify his 
action by the arbitrament of the sword. It was a brave 
decision, but doubtless he considered himself secure 
in his mountain fastnesses, where he thought the long 
arm of England could not possibly reach him. Un- 
fortunately, there can be no shadow of a doubt that the 
principal, if not the sole, cause of Theodore's original 
action towards our representatives, and the unheard- 
of treatment to which they were subjected, was the 
extraordinary and unpardonable omission of our Govern- 


ment to reply to the King's letter. Had a courteous 
answer been returned, there would have been no necessity 
for the subsequent punitive expedition, and its attendant 
expenditure of several millions of money. However, 
it was now too late, and the only possible course to secure 
the release of our countrymen, and to avenge the insult 
that had been offered to our flag, was the despatch of 
an expeditionary force. 

The intelligence of the new outrage was received in 
England during the autumn of 1866, but owing to the 
vacillation of the Government many months elapsed 
before energetic measures were taken for the despatch 
of the expedition. They hoped to attain their object 
by conciliatory means, and were much averse to plunging 
the country into war if it could possibly be avoided. 
All efforts for liberating the captives having failed, in 
spite of the persistent exertions of Colonel Merewether, 
our Political Resident at Aden, whose services were 
invaluable, a letter was despatched to King Theodore 
in April, 1867, and this was supported by presents of 
the value of 3,500. It demanded the immediate and 
unconditional release of the captives, and, in case of 
refusal, prompt and decisive action, he was informed, 
would be taken to enforce compliance. 

Preparations for the despatch of a strong mobile force 
were immediately commenced, but it was not until July, 
1867, that a final decision was arrived at. General 
Sir Robert Napier, the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Bombay Army, was appointed to the supreme command, 
and Clements Markham was selected to accompany him 
as geographer to the expedition. He was to be em- 
ployed on the headquarters staff to superintend the 
general survey of the country, and to act with Colonel 
Merewether in selecting the most convenient passes 
through the mountainous districts over which the troops 
would have to march on their way to Magdala. His 
selection for these important duties was a very wise one. 
He had already proved himself to be an experienced 


geographer, practical as well as theoretical; his energy 
was boundless, his courage and endurance had been 
thoroughly tested during his recent travels, and he was 
kind and sympathetic to natives; in short, he was a 
practised campaigner. Needless to say, he was delighted 
at having been chosen for such an important and 
interesting service ; the only regret that he could possibly 
entertain was that it would entail a prolonged separation 
from his wife and daughter. 

The expeditionary force consisted altogether of 32,000 
men. This figure included the troops transported from 
England and India, the land transport, and the camp 
followers, which latter are inseparable from a force 
comprised largely of Indian soldiers. The actual fight- 
ing force was composed of 4,000 British and 10,000 
Indian troops. The distance from the port of dis- 
embarkation to Magdala was about 400 miles, necessi- 
tating a long line of communications, which of course 
had to be well protected. It was estimated that the 
actual striking force on reaching Magdala would not 
exceed four or five thousand rifles. This was con- 
sidered sufficient for the purpose, a decision fully 
justified by the result. It was reported that Theodore 
was at this time in command of an army numbering 
40,000 fighting men, but although large in numbers it 
was regarded as a somewhat undisciplined rabble. 

It was arranged that Colonel Mere wether should be 
placed in command of a small advanced detachment 
consisting of about two or three thousand Indian 
troops, with the object of selecting a convenient place 
for the disembarkation of the main force. This accom- 
plished, he was ordered to explore the passes leading into 
the interior and reconnoitre in advance of the main body. 
This detached party sailed from Bombay on the i6th 
of September, 1867, and anchored in Annesley Bay 
off a small village called Mulketto, which had been 
selected as being specially suitable for a base of opera- 
tions. Here piers were rapidly constructed, sea-walls 


came suddenly into existence, and a tram-line was laid 
for conveying the stores from the wharves to the camp. 

By the beginning of January, 1868, the entire force 
had been disembarked. Sir Robert Napier now arrived 
and assumed command. At this time the latest news 
from the captives was that they were still alive, but 
subjected to inconceivable cruelties and indignities. 
Occasionally, as a change of treatment was considered 
beneficial to their health, their hands were fettered 
with short chains attached to their ankles, so that they 
were unable either to stand erect or to lie down in a 
recumbent position ! 

The region that had to be traversed by the troops con- 
sisted of a series of mountains and plateaux at an average 
elevation of 9,000 feet above sea-level. A number of 
pools and a few springs furnished a scanty supply of 
water ; but this fortunately increased in quantity as they 
got farther from the coast, owing to the greater rainfall. 
Animal life was plentiful along the line of march and on 
the high land ; the large Egyptian goose abounded, and 
many were shot. Lions and leopards were not met with, 
but hyenas literally swarmed, making horrible noises 
during the night. As a rule they are cowardly brutes, 
but they have been known to attack a solitary human 
being, first uttering their peculiar cry which it is believed 
brings the pack to their assistance. Large flocks of 
monkeys were occasionally seen, the males with immense 
manes, the females carrying their young on their backs. 
They would scamper across the road uttering dis- 
cordant cries. Markham was not only geographer to 
the expedition, but also acted as naturalist. He made 
numerous valuable notes on the physical geography and 
the geology, as well as on the natural history, of the 
regions through which they marched. 

It is not within the scope of this biography to give 
a detailed account of the proceedings of the expedition, 
except in so far as they relate to the personal experi- 
ences of Clements Markham; nor is it the object of the 


writer to criticise the strategy that governed the move- 
ments of the force, even were he inclined to do so: his 
object is simply to place before the reader, as briefly 
as possible, the most important incidents relating to 
the connection of Clements Markham with the campaign 
that are likely to prove of interest. 

The most formidable, as it was also the most im- 
portant, work that demanded attention was the organi- 
sation of the transport. It was impossible to rely on 
the country through which they passed to supply 
them with provisions. Everything had to be carried 
with them, and they were obliged to prepare, not only 
for the advance to Magdala, but for the return journey 
as well. Base camps for supplies of all sorts were 
formed at Senafe, about forty-five miles from the 
main camp at Annesley Bay, and at Adigrat, some 
thirty-five miles farther on. The latter place was con- 
sidered of such importance that it was converted into 
a strongly entrenched position. The carriage of the 
artillery and ammunition was also a difficult problem; 
but it was eventually overcome with the aid of an 
enormous number of mules and a few elephants. The 
delays, consequent upon these difficulties, kept the 
advanced brigade inactive at Senafe* for some time; 
but it was time well spent, for it had the effect of 
establishing a friendly feeling between the invaders 
and the native inhabitants of the surrounding country. 

It was assumed that our advance on Magdala, a 
distance of 400 miles, would be entirely through 
hostile country. As a matter of fact, the reverse 
was the case. The troops were received with open 
arms by the inhabitants of the districts through which 
they marched. The whole country had risen against 
Theodore. His army of 40,000 men had dwindled, 
by desertion and other causes, to less than a fourth 
of that number; and this was due entirely to his 
tyrannical behaviour. In addition to perpetrating the 
most barbarous acts of cruelty and oppression, he had 



deliberately planned wholesale massacres. His whole 
nature appears to have undergone a change ; for he had 
become suspicious, proud, and intemperate. 

But, although the country was in a state of insurrection 
and the people antagonistic to the King, it would have 
been a dangerous policy to trust too much to the good- 
will of the inhabitants for the supply of provisions and 
other requirements for our troops. Hence the necessity 
for the huge transport, which added so materially to 
the difficulties of the advance. Strong working-parties 
were daily occupied in the construction of roads, and 
nothing was omitted that could be thought of to facili- 
tate the progress of the expedition. Everything went 
well. The weather was perfect, the advance was un- 
opposed, and there was no hitch in the commissariat 
arrangements. The natives, too, rendered great assist- 
ance, not only in the provision of food, but also in the 
transport of stores and munitions. They were well 
paid, and only too glad to be of use, so long as they 
were remunerated for their labour. 

The line of march was across plains and through 
passes at an average altitude of about 8,000 feet. On 
one occasion they reached a height of 10,500 feet above 
the sea. Markham gives an excellent description of 
the country through which they travelled, in the 
" History of the Abyssinian Expedition," which he 
published on his return to England. Even at the great 
altitudes to which they ascended, the vegetation was 
similar to that of the temperate zone. The scenery was 
magnificent, and he makes interesting allusions to the 
botany of the country, its general resources, and the 
manners and customs of the people. 

On the ist of February the pioneer force, consisting of 
about 600 men, left Adigrat for Antalo. It was followed 
at short intervals by the remainder of the attacking 
column. No opposition was made to its progress. It 
is true that, at first, supplies did not come in from the 
country-people as quickly as was hoped; but when the 


natives discovered that they were well paid for every- 
thing they brought into camp, there was no lack of 
supply. Assistance was also obtained from some of 
the chiefs who were in arms against King Theodore. 
Time was of the utmost value, as it was essential that 
the operations should be brought to a close before the 
commencement of the rainy season. 

In some places, where the scenery is described as 
" magnificent," the marching was very severe; but the 
beauty of their surroundings did much to lessen the 
fatigue of the men, who, like true Englishmen, swore 
at the mountain passes while secretly enjoying their 
grandeur. " They tell us this is a tableland," grumbled 
one of the soldiers; " if it is, they have turned the table 
upside down, and we are scrambling up and down the 
legs !" As the long column of troops with all its 
necessary paraphernalia of transport passed along, the 
inhabitants turned out with their priests, and sat by 
the wayside to see the audacious strangers who were 
going to attack the dreaded Theodore in his stronghold 
at Magdala. 

On the 26th of March they reached the high altitude 
of nearly 11,000 feet above sea-level, and here they 
camped. The night was not passed in comfort. It was 
intensely cold, and a heavy rainstorm burst upon them 
with great fury, so that the camping-ground soon 
became as muddy as a ploughed field. Thence they 
descended into the valley of Takkazye, where the force 
halted for some days to allow the brigade in the rear to 
come up. It had taken them seventeen days to march 
the last 1 20 miles, which gives an average of about 
seven miles a day over very formidable ranges of 
mountains. It was a severe experience for the majority 
of the troops, hampered as they were with a vast and 
ponderous transport, and they were deserving of much 
credit for the excellent way in which it was accomplished. 

The neighbourhood of Magdala was at length reached, 
and the preliminary military operations for its capture 


were begun. The region is described as being like the 
interior of one of the Orkney Islands. There was an 
entire absence of trees and bushes, except for some 
clumps of juniper which were observed, usually in the 
vicinity of the churches, where they appeared to thrive. 
The hills were covered with grass. Wheat and barley 
were cultivated in great quantities on the plateaux. 
Magdala itself is an isolated flat-topped mountain, 
the summit of which is about two miles in length and 
half a mile in breadth, and it is about 9,000 feet above 
sea-level. It was in this stronghold, on the summit of 
this mountain, that the representatives of Great Britain 
were detained in chains. 

The sight of Magdala was hailed with the keenest 
delight by every member of the force. They were glad 
that their long and tedious march was at an end, and 
all were longing to get at close grips with Theodore. 
The object for which they had endured so much fatigue 
and so many privations was at last within their reach. 

By the 3ist of March, 1868, the whole of our attacking 
force, numbering slightly over 4,000 officers and men, was 
assembled on the Wadela plateau ready for the attack. 
To resist this force, Theodore, it is surmised, had about 
6,000 trained soldiers, besides a vast host of camp 
followers, whose fighting qualities, however, although 
armed, could not be relied on. In order to take up a 
position favourable for assaulting the fortress, Sir Robert 
Napier was obliged to march his force an additional 
distance of about thirty-five miles. This occupied the 
best part of three days. He then halted his troops for 
five days on the Dalanta plateau, so as to rest the men, 
to accumulate provisions, and to concentrate his force 
for the attack. The last day's march was a very long 
and fatiguing one, for it necessitated the crossing of a 
formidable chasm, involving a steep descent and a 
still steeper ascent on the other side. The camp was 
pitched on a grassy plain in close proximity to water, 
but it was long after midnight before the last of the 


rearguard arrived. No attempt was made by Theodore 
to oppose the occupation of the position selected. 

On the morning of the loth of April the two forces 
faced each other, the one ready and eager for the attack, 
the other prepared to defend themselves to the death; 
the former highly trained and disciplined, armed with 
the latest inventions of modern science, and confident 
in their success; the latter discouraged by the previous 
harassing attacks of rebels, with a waning confidence 
in their leader, and but little heart for the coming 

The result of that day's fight is a matter of history. 
How the Abyssinian Army, obedient to the command 
of their King, rushed out from Magdala and impetuously 
attacked the advancing English, and how they suffered 
an overwhelming defeat, is well known; nor need we 
dwell at much length upon the death of King Theodore, 
who on witnessing the discomfiture of his army, with its 
complete rout and dispersal, rather than surrender himself 
to his enemies, put a pistol into his mouth, fired it, and 
fell dead on the spot : Markham's doings alone concern us. 
During the whole of that fateful day he was in attendance 
on the Commander-in-Chief, and has given us a thrilling 
description of the events which led to the death of 
Theodore. He shall relate it in his own words: 

" The King ran up the rocks and over the hedge to 
the right of the second gate. As he reached the hedge, he 
turned round behind a huge boulder, looking as if he 
was in a pulpit, and threw up both arms as a gesture of 
rage and defiance to the red-coats who were swarming 
up. By crossing the hedge at this point, Theodore 
reached the plateau about a hundred yards from the 
second gate. Here he dismissed all his followers except 
his faithful body-servant, telling them to leave him 
and save their own lives. The King then turned to his 
servant, and said: ' Sooner than fall into their hands, 
I will shoot myself.' He put a pistol into his mouth, 
fired it, and fell dead, the ball passing in at the palate 
and out at the back of the head. The English soldiers 
were then running up between the first and second gates, 


some of them climbing over the second hedge. At the 
same time Sir Charles Staveley* and I, followed by 
several officers, came through the second gate. A man 
ran up to us, and said that a dead body was lying near, 
which they declared was that of the King. Sir Charles 
called out: ' Bring him here dead or alive.' The body 
was put into a hammock and brought to us, when it 
was identified by one of the captives, after looking at 
the fingers, one of which had been broken. Mr. Rassam 
soon after came up, and at once identified the remains. 
' The body was that of a man of medium stature, 
well built, with broad chest, small waist, and muscular 
limbs. The hair was much dishevelled, crisp, and 
coarse, and done in three plaits with little stumpy tails. 
But it had evidently not been dressed or buttered for 
days. The complexion was dark for an Abyssinian, 
but the features showed no trace of negro blood. The 
eyebrows had a peculiar curve downwards and over the 
nose, and there was a deep-curved furrow in the centre 
of the forehead. The nose was aquiline and finely cut, 
with a low bridge, the lips very thin and cruel, the face, 
though thin, rather round than oval . The once changeful 
eyes had lost their meaning one closed, the other 
staring. The scanty beard and moustache contained 
many grey hairs. Theodore was in his fiftieth year 
and in the fifteenth of his reign." 

Markham sums up his character in the following 
words : 

" Thus ended the career of the most remarkable 
man that has arisen in Africa within the present century. 
His misdeeds had been numerous, his cruelties horrible, 
but he was not without great and noble qualities. He 
was a grand, not a contemptible, tyrant. He feared no 
man. His greatest and most powerful enemies were 
not, as a rule, put to death when they fell into his hands. 
His indomitable energy and perseverance, his military 
skill and his dauntless courage, command respect, while 
his cruelties are execrated. He preferred death to 
lingering out a contemptible existence after his true 
career was over, and he died like a hero." 

* Major-General Sir Charles Staveley, K.C.B., 2nd in command 
of the Expeditionary Force. 


Thus was Magdala taken. The objects of the expedi- 
tion had been attained, the King was dead, and the 
captives (for whose release King Theodore had given 
orders before committing suicide) were rescued. The 
recovered European captives alone numbered sixty- 
seven, of whom some had been in captivity for more 
than four years. 

These things accomplished, it would seem that 
nothing now remained but to march the force back 
again to Annesley Bay, re-embark the troops, and send 
them back to their several destinations. But the death 
of Theodore and the destruction of his power entailed 
grave responsibilities on his conquerors. At Magdala 
people had congregated from all parts of Abyssinia to 
be near their great King ; and it was necessary to make 
arrangements for the safe-conduct of this vast unarmed 
multitude through an unsettled (if not actually hostile) 
country. Provision also had to be made for the family 
of King Theodore, for his chiefs, his political prisoners, 
his soldiers (now disarmed), their families, and the 
widows and orphans of those who were killed in the 
attack. The disposal of the guns and plunder had also 
to be attended to. All these things had to be considered 
and dealt with. Sir Robert Napier's lot was not an envi- 
able one : it required time, investigation, and patience, 
to deal satisfactorily with all these knotty points. 

The body of the King, at the express wish of the Queen, 
was quietly interred in Magdala by Abyssinian priests. 
Very few attended the ceremony, though all the chiefs 
had received invitations to be present. The remains 
were carried into the church on an old bedstead, the 
priests muttered a few prayers, and the body was 
lowered into the grave without further ceremony. The 
Queen (who was only twenty-six years of age) with her 
little boy had taken refuge in the hut in which Mr. 
Rassam had y been imprisoned. She was anxious to 
return to her native country of Semyen, of which her 
father was hereditary chief, and said that her husband's 


last wish was that her son should be taken charge of 
by the English. It was arranged that she and her son 
should accompany the expedition so long as their 
roads led in the same direction. But, alas ! the poor 
young Queen did not survive her husband many days. 
She was taken ill shortly after leaving Magdala, and died 
before they reached Antalo. Her son, who was about 
ten years of age, was brought to England, in accordance 
with the earnest wish of his father, and was educated 
under the auspices of the English Government. 

The royal household disposed of, the numerous 
chiefs had then to be settled with. The best and bravest 
had already fallen in their first furious onslaught on 
our troops, and the survivors wished to transfer their 
allegiance to the Queen of England. This, of course, 
could not be considered without the annexation of 
Abyssinia. So they were told to return quietly to their 
homes and avoid meddling in politics. Many of them 
were given arms with which to defend themselves on 
their journey, and mules to assist in carrying their 
baggage. The political prisoners were released from 
their fetters and allowed to return to their homes. 

Sir Robert Napier decided to burn Magdala, to blow 
up the principal gates of the fortress, and to destroy 
the guns. The inhabitants, estimated to be about 
30,000 in number, were allowed to proceed to their 
native provinces, the majority being escorted by British 
troops. This protection was absolutely necessary in 
order to defend them from the gangs of ruthless native 
robbers that infested the country and murdered all 
stragglers they could lay their hands on. The camp 
of these people presented an interesting sight. It 
consisted of hundreds of black tents pitched in no 
regular order, covering two hills and the intervening 
valley. At night time, when lit up by thousands of 
lights, it had the appearance of a large city. In wander- 
ing through the tortuous lanes between these tents, 
Markham thus expresses himself : 


' We came upon many forms of human misery men 
in cruel pain with undressed wounds, helpless old people 
stripped by robbers on the road and exhausted by the 
fatigues of the march, children crying for food, their 
mothers with no means of satisfying their hunger. 
Many were gently nurtured ladies, wives and daughters 
of chiefs, women who had been made widows and orphans 
by the fell slaughter of the loth of April. They had 
never known what it was to want, but now the poor 
things were eager to sell their personal ornaments, 
their sacred pictures and books, all their most cherished 
possessions, for the means of buying bread. In the 
English camp there was no misery save such as was 
caused by rather tough beef and the absence of grog." 

Such are the fortunes of war ! 

On the 1 7th of April, Magdala was burnt to the ground 
(together with the church in which the remains of King 
Theodore had been so recently deposited), the gates 
were blown up, and the guns destroyed. On the 
previous day the liberated captives with a sufficient 
escort had begun their march to the coast, and two days 
later they were followed by the whole expeditionary 
force. The troops marched in three divisions at short 
intervals. The road had not been neglected by those 
who had been guarding the line of communications, so 
the travelling was a good deal easier than it had been 
on the outward march. Consequently, longer and less 
fatiguing daily marches were the rule. The return to 
Mulketto was effected without any noteworthy incident. 
The last division arrived at the end of May, the embarka- 
tion of the troops was speedily effected, and by the first 
week in June the majority of the force had departed 
from Annesley Bay. The Commander-in-Chief with 
his staff reached Suez, on his way to England, on the 
1 8th of June, and by the end of the month the last 
man had departed from Annesley Bay. 

Thus ended the Abyssinian War. Doubtless from 
our standpoint it may be regarded with unmixed 
satisfaction. It was undertaken in the cause of 


humanity, to uphold the honour of our flag and dignity 
of our country, and to punish a truculent and tyrannical 
ruler, and in all these it was eminently successful. Yet 
there was much to admire in the character of Theodore, 
as Markham shows. With limited powers, and some 
restraint to bridle his evil passions, his strength of mind 
and determination were such as might have enabled 
him to secure lasting good for his country. 

With the exception of the loss of life consequent on 
the assault and capture of Magdala, the inhabitants 
of the country gained rather than suffered by the presence 
of the expeditionary force. In addition to the trade 
which they drove with it in the matter of daily supplies, 
they heartily welcomed the arrival of the foreigners 
who had marched so far into the interior of their country 
to rid them of the tyranny of the upstart Theodore. 
There can be little doubt that the people of Abyssinia 
entertained at that time a kindly feeling for our soldiers, 
and heartily regretted their departure. 

Sir Robert Napier was created a peer on his return, 
was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of 
the Bath, and was awarded a handsome pension for 
life. Honours and rewards were lavished on those who 
served under him. Markham received the war medal, 
and on the i7th of May, 1871, he was created a Com- 
panion of the Bath for services rendered in this campaign, 
as well as for his great work in India. Never was a 
distinction more deservedly earned and conferred. 


AFTER the strenuous and exciting life he had been 
experiencing in Abyssinia, it is perhaps not unreason- 
able to suppose that Clements Markham would apply 
for leave of absence. He needed a complete rest, both 
mentally and physically. But such a proceeding was 
contrary to his nature. Work was the all-absorbing 
element of his life. Without work, and work of an 
interesting character, he would have been miserable. 
On his return to England, his greetings with his family 
and relations over, he at once resumed his duties at 
the India Office, devoting the evenings and much of 
his spare time to the compilation of his " History of 
the Abyssinian War." This was published in 1869, 
a few months only after his arrival in England. It is 
a very complete account of the campaign; not only 
relating every important incident that occurred, but 
giving a fascinating description of the country, with 
its history from remote times to the present day. 
Though denouncing the tyranny and cruel despotism 
of King Theodore, he could not help but admire many 
of the sterling qualities possessed by that monarch, 
especially his heroism and the broad views he maintained 
regarding the development of his country and the in- 
creased prosperity of his subjects. But, in spite of 
the good in his nature, he certainly possessed many 
vicious qualities which the more noble side of his char- 
acter failed to redeem. 

In the following year (1870) Markham brought out his 



" Life of the Great Lord Fairfax." This was a detailed 
account, in a connected narrative, of all those important 
events in the General's career which hitherto had been 
either completely disregarded, or misunderstood and 
misrepresented. It was with the laudable object of 
doing full justice to the memory of this great man that 
Markham undertook a labour involving infinite trouble 
and research. He shows that the battles, marches, 
and sieges of various important towns in Yorkshire, 
carried out by the General, had a direct and important 
influence on the main result of the Civil War. 

Markham 's connection with the Geographical Society 
also provided him with plenty of employment. It was 
work in which he took a great interest, for he had 
always possessed a natural predilection for the science 
of geography. In the excellent obituary notice of Sir 
Clements that appeared in the Geographical Journal for 
April, 1916, Dr. Keltic, who was Secretary of the Royal 
Geographical Society at that time, alludes especially to 
his pleasant and intimate association with the officers 
of the Society during his long tenure of office as 
Honorary Secretary. This period Dr. Keltic regarded 
as a very important epoch in the history, not only of 
the Society, but in that of geography generally. When 
the position of Assistant Secretary became vacant, it 
was Markham who selected Mr. H. W. Bates, the 
talented South American traveller and naturalist, for 
the appointment undoubtedly a wise and excellent 

During Markham 's secretaryship the exploration of 
the Dark Continent was pressed with much vigour 
and success; and no one was more active in en- 
couraging those great pioneers of African exploration, 
and assisting them in every possible way so far as the 
resources of the Society would admit, than the Secretary 
himself. A reference to the old publications of the 
Society will show the enormous amount of geographical 
work that was accomplished by explorers generally, 


either under the auspices, or at any rate with the 
sympathy and encouragement, of the Society during 
the long period (over forty years) of Markham's official 
connection with it. It was in a great measure due to 
his initiative that schools of geography were founded, 
and placed oh a solid foundation, at the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge. In the success of these 
schools he took the deepest interest, and served at 
various times on the Geographical Boards of both 

The internal administration of the Society naturally 
occupied much of his thought and time, and he was 
especially active in regard to the library and map 
collections. Dr. Keltic writes: 

" Another and a very important department, the 
growth and success of which was largely due to Mark- 
ham's zeal, is that for instruction of surveying, which 
before the war broke out had grown to almost embarrass- 
ing dimensions. During the many years that this 
department has been at work, a very large number of 
men, military officers, travellers, and colonial officials, 
have been sent out with a practical knowledge of survey- 
ing, many of them having taken the Society's diploma 
testifying to the holder's qualifications as trained 

It is pleasing to be able to add the testimony of such 
an old and valued official of the Society as Dr. Keltic 
(who was its Secretary during the whole period of 
Markham's presidency) as to' the excellent work in- 
augurated by Clements Markham during his tenure of 
office. Perhaps there is no one in a better position to 
judge of the value and importance of Markham's work 
for the Geographical Society. 

That the Society largely increased in popularity and 
in strength since his official connection with it goes 
without saying. He lived to see its membership grow 
from about a thousand to more than five times that 

From almost the first days of his official association 


with the Society, he had established a strong belief in 
his mind regarding the necessity for the continuance of 
Arctic research. He was obsessed with the value of 
exploration in high northern latitudes, and lost no 
opportunity in his public addresses, and writings, of 
urging the despatch of an expedition, directly under the 
auspices of the Admiralty, to explore the unknown 
regions in the North Polar area. His object was of a 
twofold nature. Geographical knowledge was, of course, 
the primary consideration; but he held that service in 
the ice-covered seas of the Polar Regions was an excellent 
school for officers and men of the Royal Navy during 
the piping times of peace. It is a service that calls 
for courage, endurance, constant vigilance, determin- 
ation, and prompt action. All these qualities, he averred, 
were developed by the handling of ships amid heavy 
icefloes, and by sledge-travelling in unexplored regions. 
For these important reasons he advocated the work 
being undertaken by officers and men of the Royal 
Navy, acting under the orders of the Admiralty. 

He was always most emphatic in his views regarding 
what he was accustomed to stigmatise as " senti- 
mental and popular exploration," such as a rush to the 
North Pole or the search for a North- West Passage; 
for such " discoveries," he maintained, would be of 
no substantial or commercial value or utility. What he 
desired, and so strenuously advocated, was the correct 
mapping of every portion of the world, known or un- 
known, in the interests of geography generally. In 
these views he was warmly supported by such Arctic 
authorities as that splendid old veteran Sir George 
Back, and his intimate friends Sherard Osborn and 
Leopold M'Clintock. 

But his geographical work, great as it was, did not 
absorb the whole of his time and attention. He could 
still afford to employ his energies in other directions. As 
far back as 1858 he had been elected a member of the 
Hakluyt Society, which had been called into existence 


some twelve years before, with the laudable object of 
printing English editions of rare and remarkable works 
on geography, travels, and history, from as early a period 
as possible anterior to the time of Dampier's circum- 
navigation of the world. It was named after Richard 
Hakluyt, an English clergyman who made a wonderful 
collection of travels and voyages which he published 
in 1589 in three folio volumes under the title of " The 
Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the 
English Nation." He was born about the year 1552, 
and died in London on the 2$rd of November, 1616. 

Into the projects of this new Society, Markham, with 
his characteristic impulsiveness, threw himself heart 
and soul. He accepted the secretaryship, which was 
offered to him almost as soon as he became a member, 
and it is not too much to say that no one has done 
more to contribute to the success and prosperity of 
that Society than Clements Markham. He was in- 
dividually responsible for the editing of twenty-nine 
volumes in its series of publications, twenty-two of these 
being translations by him from the Spanish. The first 
work which he brought out for the Society was " Ex- 
peditions in the Valley of the Amazons." This was in 
1859, when he had been a member only a few months. 
He continued to act as Secretary for about thirty con- 
secutive years, and was President for nearly twenty. 
The Society has done much excellent work in the pro- 
duction of many interesting and important voyages 
and travels, which otherwise would have remained 
buried in obscurity ; and its great success is due mainly 
to the inspiring influence which Markham exercised over 
others, and to the great personal interest he took in the 
welfare of the Society. He was actually engaged in 
preparing a couple of volumes for publication at the 
time of his death. 

On the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the 
Society (December i5th, 1896) Sir Clements Markham, 
being then its President (and, we believe, the oldest 


living member of the Society at the time), delivered an 
interesting address, in the course of which he remarked 
that the Society had " been doing steady work for half 
a century without much stir, without attracting any 
large share of attention, but diligently, usefully, and 

In 1 86 1 be became a Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and served on its Council for many years. We 
must not omit to record, also, that on his return from 
the cinchona expedition he was honoured by being 
elected a member of the Athenaeum Club under Rule II., 
without ballot. In 1867 he received the Grand Prix 
of the Paris Exhibition of that year; and in 1873 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. The follow- 
ing year he was created a Commendador of the Portu- 
guese Order of Christ, and a Chevalier of the Order of 
the Rose of Brazil ; he was also made a member of the 
Imperial Academy of Germany (Naturae Curiosorum), 
and of the Royal Society of Gottingen. Thus were his 
services to mankind recognised by foreign nations as well 
as by his own country. 

After a period of nearly ten years, during which 
Markham had persistently pleaded the desirability 
of despatching a Naval Arctic Expedition to explore 
the unknown regions, and to continue the work that 
had already been accomplished in that direction, his 
labours were rewarded with complete success. The 
Royal Geographical Society, under the presidency of 
Sir Henry Rawlinson, strongly advocated the promotion 
of the scheme, and papers were read at that Society by 
Admiral Sherard Osborn, Clements Markham, and others, 
urging the necessity of acquiring further knowledge of 
the North Polar area. These views were unanimously 
supported by the Press. The Geographical Society 
appointed a committee to confer as to the best route 
for an expedition to take, and to discuss the probability 
of the results that might fairly be anticipated from the 
adoption of such a course. 


The proposed enterprise having now attained such 
importance in the eyes of the public, it was resolved to 
approach the Government on the subject, and it was 
arranged that a deputation, headed by the President 
of the Geographical Society, should request an interview 
with those Ministers who would be primarily responsible 
for all the details connected with the despatch of such 
an expedition. These would be the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, who would be liable for the financial arrange- 
ments, and the First Lord of the Admiralty, who would 
be responsible for the personnel and all the necessary 
details regarding ships, equipment, and route. This 
request was acceded to, and in December, 1872, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, accompanied by Admiral Sherard 
Osborn, Clements Markham, and a large deputation 
representing the Geographical Society, naval officers 
(especially those who had served in the Arctic Regions), 
eminent men of science whose particular branches would 
be benefited by North Polar research,, and others 
interested in geographical discovery, were received by 
Mr. Lowe and Mr. Goschen at the Admiralty. After 
the subject had been introduced in general terms, 
Admiral Osborn entered into the details regarding the 
ships and number of men that would be required, the 
amount of provisions that would be necessary, the 
estimated cost, and other matters relevant to the 
subject. The Ministers listened attentively, asked 
several questions relative to the points raised, and 
appeared sympathetic. The deputation expressed their 
thanks for the reception and withdrew. 

The reply came in a fortnight's time, but, alas ! it 
was unsatisfactory. 

Sherard Osborn succeeded in ascertaining that the 
refusal was based on the alleged difficulties and dangers 
of ice navigation. His active mind at once set to work 
to overcome the opinions thus formed, and to prove to 
the authorities, in a practical manner, how, by the use 
of steam in ships navigating ice-covered seas, these 



supposed difficulties and dangers had been very materi- 
ally minimized, and that some of them no longer existed. 
In order to demonstrate his views in a practical and 
convincing way, he arranged for a naval officer to embark 
in one of the Dundee whalers and proceed to Baffin's 
Bay and Davis Straits during the summer months, 
returning with a detailed report of his experiences. 
For this important service he selected a young Com- 
mander in the Royal Navy who had always taken the 
keenest interest in the renewal of Polar exploration, 
and had always been an ardent and persistent volunteer 
for Arctic service. 

Meanwhile a joint committee of the Royal Geo- 
graphical and Royal Societies had been formed with 
the object of drawing up an exhaustive memorandum on 
the scientific results that would undoubtedly accrue 
from the despatch of an Arctic expedition. Out of 
the eight members representing the Geographical Society, 
six were Admirals who had all seen service in the Arctic 
Regions, the seventh was Clements Markham, and the 
eighth a civilian. The Royal Society was represented 
by eight of the leading scientists of the day, including 
the Presidents of several of the learned Societies. 

The report presented by the naval officer on his return, 
fully corroborated Osborn's view, and justified his 
action. It demonstrated very clearly the enormous 
advantages possessed by steamers specially constructed 
for ice navigation over the old sailing vessels hitherto 
employed in Arctic exploration, and the corresponding 
elimination of danger by the introduction of steam as 
a motive power. Fortified by this report, together 
with the arguments submitted by the joint committee, 
the Presidents of the two Societies, accompanied by 
Admiral Sherard Osborn, interviewed the Prime Minister 
(Mr. Disraeli) on the ist of August, 1874. The result 
was most satisfactory. Realising the importance of 
England taking the lead in Arctic exploration, the 
Premier gave them an encouraging view of the 


Government's attitude towards Arctic research. How- 
ever, it appears to have taken some little time for the 
authorities to arrive at a favourable decision, for it was 
not until the following i7th of November that the 
Prime Minister addressed a letter to Sir Henry Rawlin- 
son, as President of the Geographical Society, announcing 
the fact that Her Majesty's Government had resolved 
to lose no time in organising a suitable expedition for the 
purpose of exploration in the region of the North Pole.* 
Markham was delighted that his exertions, extending 
over so many years, should at last be crowned with 
success, and he began immediately to interest himself 
in working out all the details connected with the equip- 
ment of men and material necessary for the expedition. 

The Admiralty very wisely appointed a committee 
consisting of three naval officers (Admirals Richards, 
Sir Leopold M'Clintock, and Sherard Osborn), all pos- 
sessing great Arctic experience, to settle the details 
regarding the choice of ships, the stores and provisions 
to be provided, and all those multifarious arrangements 
essential for the equipment of such an enterprise. 
Captain Nares, himself an old Arctic explorer, who was 
in the Resolute in 1852-54, engaged in the search for Sir 
John Franklin, was specially selected to command the 
expedition, and he was ordered home from Hong-Kong, 
where he was in command of H.M.S. Challenger, engaged 
in a scientific voyage round the world. 

The ships selected for the expedition were the Alert and 
Discovery. They were to be fitted out at Portsmouth 
under the immediate superintendence of Sir Leopold 
M'Clintock, who was at the time the Admiral Superin- 
tendent of the Dockyard at that port. Officers and men 
were specially selected and appointed to the two ships. 

Prior to its departure, the expedition sustained a great 

* This reference to the North Pole did not at all harmonise with 
the views of Clements Markham, who would gladly have substituted 
" High Northern Latitudes " or "Arctic Regions " for the last six 
words in the sentence. 


loss in the sudden death of one of its earliest promoters, 
and stanchest supporters, Admiral Sherard Osborn. He 
died quite suddenly on the 6th of May, after a busy 
day in London. The funeral took place on the loth, 
at which, it is needless to say, the expedition was well 
represented. To Markham the death of his friend was 
a very serious blow. He had known him ever since 
his midshipman days in the old Collingwood, when he 
had learnt to regard him as a true friend. Service 
together in the search for Sir John Franklin in 1850-51 
had renewed and cemented that friendship; while their 
co-operation to obtain the despatch of the expedition 
in 1875 served to illustrate the indissolubility of their 
attachment to each other. Without his wise advice 
and vigorous assistance, it is probable that Markham 's 
exertions to secure the despatch of the expedition would 
not have succeeded until a later period. He was con- 
stantly at Portsmouth during the time the ships were 
fitting out. His bright and cheery smile and encouraging 
words will long be remembered, not only by officers and 
men of the Alert and Discovery, but by all who had en- 
joyed the pleasure of serving with him. His loss could 
only be regarded as a great calamity, not only to the 
expedition, but also to the Navy which could ill afford 
to lose so talented and experienced an officer. 

By the end of May the ships were ready to start. 
Everything had worked smoothly, and under the 
superintendence of Sir Leopold M'Clintock every device 
fer the comfort and welfare of the members of the ex- 
pedition, that could be thought of, had been carefully 
considered and adopted. When the day of departure 
drew near, the officers of the Alert invited Markham to 
accompany the expedition as far as Greenland as their 
guest. They felt that one who had done so much to 
promote the despatch of the expedition, who had taken 
such a keen and lively interest in its equipment, and had 
contributed so largely to its prospects of success, ought 
to remain with it until the last moment. There was no 


hesitation on Markham's part to avail himself of this 
privilege, and he cordially accepted the invitation; but 
he knew very well that, although his welcome would be 
a warm one, his accommodation on board would not 
be conducive to comfort. It had been arranged that 
H.M.S. Valorous, an old paddle-wheel sloop, should 
accompany the expedition as far as Godhavn in Green- 
land, to complete the two ships with coal and stores, 
and thus the return of Markham to England would be 

As he had anticipated, his accommodation on board 
was not very palatial or cheerful. It consisted of a 
swinging cot in a space outside the wardroom, of about 
5 feet square, which had been specially screened off 
for him. When there was much motion (which was 
practically the normal state of affairs during the whole 
voyage), the cot had to be taken down, for with every 
roll of the ship it swung violently from side to side, 
thus taking complete charge of the entire space that 
had been allotted to him. Of course, the wardroom, 
the Captain's cabin, and every single cabin in the ship, 
was at his disposal whenever he liked to make use of 
them, which he frequently did ; but for sleeping and 
dressing he always used his own particular niche. 

Prior to the departure of the ships, the friends of 
the officers especially their female friends sent them 
plum puddings of various dimensions to be eaten on 
Christmas Day. The greater part of these delicacies, 
wrapped in their cloths, were, for want of a better 
place, hung up to the hammock hooks in the beams 
immediately over Markham's " bed." As the height 
between-decks was only about 6 feet, it not infrequently 
happened that Markham's head, when he was standing 
in his bath, came into contact with a plum pudding, 
which in consequence would become detached from the 
hook and fall into the bath. But when Christmas 
Day arrived, the number of puddings did not appear 
to have diminished, in spite of their immersions. 


The ships left England on the 29th of May, 1875. 
The passage across the Atlantic was much hindered 
by bad weather. Gale succeeded gale, and on more 
than one occasion the vessels were compelled to " lie 
to " under very reduced canvas. During one of these 
gales, not only was a boat washed away from each of 
the exploring ships, but all the fowls in the hen-coops 
were drowned by the heavy seas that broke on board. 
The manner of their death, however, did not in any way 
prevent their appearance for several days on the ward- 
room table at dinner ! In these violent gales the Alert 
laboured very heavily, causing her seams to open, and 
she began to leak a great deal. This occurred especially 
in the small space appropriated to Markham, who, 
however, treated these discomforts in a most philo- 
sophical manner. He was supremely happy, and would 
have endured any discomfort, however disagreeable it 
might be, so that he could have the happiness of 
accompanying the expedition even for a short time. He 
was an immense favourite with everyone on board, 
always ready to impart information, never tired of 
giving advice and assistance, especially in connection 
with Arctic matters, so that he was regarded as a most 
delightful and valuable acquisition to the wardroom 
mess. As one of his messmates very truly remarked, 
he was a " peripatetic encyclopaedia." 

Of course, it was not long before he made the ac- 
quaintance of every man in the ship, no matter what his 
rank or rating. So long as he belonged to the expedition, 
that was sufficient for Markham, and he soon had a 
complete history of every soul on board : where they 
had served, where they lived, whether married, and, if 
so, the extent of their families, their religion in fact, 
everything that concerned them. He entered so sym- 
pathetically into every little incident connected with 
their lives, that they soon confided to him all their 
woes and all their troubles, just as they would do to a 
father or a brother. Sailors love to be taken notice of, 


so that he soon became as great a favourite with the crew 
as he was with the officers. 

So boisterous was the weather, that for ten consecutive 
days it was impossible to bake any bread or to cook 
at the officers' galley; so they had to be content with 
the prescribed rations of beef and pork as cooked in 
the ship's galley. One day, in consequence of an un- 
usually heavy lurch of the ship, Markham had a nasty 
fall, causing very severe bruises. Fortunately, no 
bones were broken, though he was much shaken and 
very sore for some days; but he made light of the 
incident, and, as the seas subsided, was soon able to 
indulge in his customary walks on deck again. 

Having passed the latitude of Cape Farewell, the 
most southern point of Greenland, they encountered 
their first ice on the 28th of June, just a month after 
their departure from Portsmouth. Soon after, they 
sighted the high snow-capped hills in the neighbourhood 
of Cape Desolation, so named by that sturdy old navi- 
gator, John Davis, in 1587, who writes: 

" The lothsome viewe of the shore and irksome noyse 
of the yce was such as that it bred strange conceipts 
among us, so that we supposed the place to be wast 
and voyd of any sencible or vegitable creatures, where- 
upon I called the same Desolation." 

On the 4th of July they crossed the Arctic Circle, 
and, working up along the coast of Greenland, enjoyed 
to their hearts' content the magnificent scenery charac- 
teristic of that sterile and barren continent. Here were 
to be seen mountains rising to the height of 3,000 feet, 
so steep and pointed as scarcely to admit of the snow 
resting on their summits, while the line of coast was 
intersected by grand fiords penetrating as far as could 
be seen into the interior. A bold and inhospitable- 
looking coast. To seaward they saw many huge 
icebergs of every imaginable size and form, while 
occasionally the ship would have to be carefully navi- 
gated through streams of loose ice. 


Godhavn, in the island of Disco, was reached on the 
6th of July, after an unusually protracted passage 
across the Atlantic of thirty-four days. Here the 
exploring ships filled up with coal, provisions, and stores 
from the Valorous, while Markham thoroughly enjoyed 
himself, joining in every expedition that was arranged for 
the exploration of the neighbouring country. Whether 
it was the ascent of a lofty hill whence a good view 
could be obtained of the movements and condition of 
the pack-ice, or whether it was to join parties in walks 
along the shore or in boating expeditions to various 
prominent headlands along the coast, it was all one to 
him. Everybody wanted to have him with them, 
no expedition could be considered complete without 
him; and his company was as much in request by the 
Captains and officers of the other ships as, it was by 
the officers of the Alert, who were selfish enough to wish 
to keep him as much to themselves as possible. A race 
in cutters had been arranged between ten officers of the 
Alert and a corresponding number of officers belonging 
to the Discovery. Every day, and sometimes twice a 
day, they were sent away to be trained, and of course 
Markham was selected as coxswain and " coach " of 
the Alert's boat's crew. No one entered more into the 
spirit and enjoyment of the match than he did, but, 
after many days' training the event fell through, in 
consequence of the two crews being unable to arrive 
at a satisfactory agreement regarding the length and 
direction of the course ! 

The ships left Godhavn on the isth of July, and on 
the following day reached the little Danish settlement 
of Ritenbenk, which is situated on the southern side of 
the island of Disco. Here Markham took leave of his 
friends, which comprised every soul in the expedition. 
They knew very well that it was entirely due to Mark- 
ham's persistent advocacy that the expedition had been 
brought into existence. Since he had been with them 
he had endeared himself to " all hands," and it was 


with a sad and sorrowful heart he bade them all farewell. 
He remained until the last moment on board the Alert, 
when, after drinking a parting glass of champagne 
with the officers in the wardroom, he was pulled on board 
the Valorous in a whaleboat manned by the Com- 
mander and the four Lieutenants of the Alert, receiving 
three hearty cheers, as he left, from the crew, who had 
manned the fore rigging. The following entry appears in 
his journal : 

" I never had a happier cruise, and the interest I 
always took in the expedition is now increased by a warm 
feeling of personal friendship for my messmates. A 
nobler set of fellows never sailed together." 

His departure was the severance of the last link that 
connected the expedition with home. It was midnight 
when he left the Alert, and shortly afterwards the 
Valorous got under way and proceeded to a somewhat 
open anchorage on the Disco side of the Waigat Strait 
(the narrow channel separating the island of Disco 
from the mainland of Greenland). She was in close 
proximity to a coal-bearing seam in the cliffs, from which 
the ship was to take sufficient coal for her voyage 
back to England. This anchorage was a very exposed 
one, and necessitated a constant and vigilant watch 
on the part of those on board, so as to be ready at a 
moment's notice to evade the numerous icebergs, some 
of gigantic dimensions, as they drifted past. On 
occasions it was necessary for the ship to slip her cable 
in order to elude them. In consequence steam had to 
be available at a moment's notice, so the fires had always 
to be kept going and steam up for an immediate move. 
Streams of heavy ice were constantly drifting past, and 
these had to be avoided. It was a great error in judg- 
ment on the part of the Admiralty to despatch a paddle- 
wheel steamer into ice-encumbered waters. 

Markham was now the guest of Captain Loftus Jones, 
commanding the Valorous, who was in a position to 
offer him rather more comfortable accommodation than 


he had enjoyed (?) on board the Alert. But in spite 
of the great kindness and hospitality which Captain 
Jones went out of his way to show him, Markham missed 
his good friends of the Alert, and would willingly have 
exchanged his comfortable quarters in the Valorous 
for the old screened niche, with its array of plum 
puddings, in the Alert ! 

After filling up with coal at Ritenbenk, Captain 
Jones, in pursuance of instructions from the Admiralty, 
proceeded to carry out deep-sea soundings and dredgings 
on a line of some 200 miles in a southerly direction, 
between the south end of the island of Disco and the 
latitude of Holsteinborg. With this object in view, the 
ship, before leaving England, had been specially pro- 
vided with the necessary apparatus; and Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys and his assistant, Mr. H. Carpenter, had been 
attached to the Valorous for the purpose of super- 
intending and examining the results of the dredging 

On the 27th of July, while engaged in this work of 
dredging, the Valorous struck an uncharted sunken reef 
of rocks in the immediate neighbourhood of Holstein- 
borg, and remained fast. Fortunately, her speed was 
not very great at the time (only about four knots), but 
as the tide rose she commenced bumping heavily. As 
the Captain was not quite certain regarding his position f 
and no rock was marked on the chart by which he might 
be guided, he despatched one of his boats, under the 
command of a Lieutenant, with instructions to make his 
way to Holsteinborg, obtain the services of a pilot, 
and give notice of the accident. Markham at once 
volunteered to accompany the officer, and, as he spoke 
Danish, his services were gladly accepted. So imminent 
was the prospect of the loss of the ship, that Markham 
before leaving stuffed his few valuables into his pocket, 
including his journals, the pages of which he hastily tore 
out of their bindings for convenience of carrying. 

On leaving the ship their movements were much 


hampered by fog, and they were only able to steer in 
the direction of Holsteinborg by aid of the compass. 
Fortunately, they fell in with three kayaks containing 
Eskimos, one of which was at once sent off to the ship 
to act as a pilot in the event of her being afloat and able 
to move, while the others guided the boat through a 
labyrinth of islets and rocks to the settlement which 
they shortly reached. Holsteinborg consisted of five 
very neat wooden houses, a church, and some Eskimo 
huts, all very neat and tidy. The houses were painted 
black and white, and stood in patches of light green 
grass. To Markham it had the appearance of a village 
made of Dutch toys ! 

The Governor, Mr. Lassen, when informed of the state 
of affairs, was most obliging and sympathetic, and re- 
turned with them at once to the Valorous, accompanied 
by his most experienced pilot. They found that the 
rising tide had floated the ship, but she had sustained 
serious injuries, and was making water at the rate of 
about 8 inches an hour, so the pumps had to be kept 
constantly going. Later in the evening they succeeded 
in getting her safely anchored off Holsteinborg. Divers 
were immediately sent down to examine and report 
on the damage. They reported that several feet of 
the main keel had been torn away, and that she had 
sustained other equally serious injuries. The divers 
and shipwrights at once set to work to repair the damage 
temporarily, so far as they could, so as to enable the 
ship to return to England. 

While this work was being executed, the Captain 
and the Navigating Officer made a very complete survey 
of the approaches to the settlement, which they found 
were very incorrect in the charts then in use. Markham 
was always ready to render assistance whenever and 
wherever he could, and he made large collections of 
the flora and fauna of that particular region when 
opportunities offered. He also formed a valuable 
geological collection, working with Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys 


and Mr. Carpenter. On his return he wrote full de- 
scriptions of these collections. 

On the 8th of August, the divers having completed 
their labours, the Valorous sailed for England. Captain 
Jones, however, undeterred by the injuries that his 
ship had sustained, determined to carry out his in- 
structions to the utmost of his ability, and succeeded 
in taking a very important line of soundings down 
Davis Strait and across the Atlantic. Some of these 
soundings were at depths of nearly 2,000 fathoms 
(12,000 feet). Dredging at this great depth was also 
carried out with satisfactory results. 

The Valorous arrived at Devonport on the 29th of 
August, exactly three months after her departure from 
England with the Alert and Discovery. She had done 
excellent service, so much so that the Admiralty, in 
recognition of the arduous character of the work, 
granted the officers and men double pay from the day 
the ship left Spithead until her return to Devonport. 
As Markham writes in his account of the cruise: " The 
results are a collateral benefit derived from the despatch 
of an Arctic expedition, and have been looked upon and 
rewarded as the first fruits of that great national enter- 

He was greatly shocked on reaching home to hear of the 
sad death of his lifelong friend, Commodore Goodenough, 
who was killed by the natives of the Santa Cruz Islands 
in the Pacific, while Commodore in command of the 
Australian Station. They had been old schoolfellows 
at Cheam and Westminster, and their mutual love and 
admiration for each other had increased, if possible, as 
the years went by. In less than a year Markham had 
lost the two best friends, outside his family circle, he 
had ever had Sherard Osborn and James Goodenough. 
Both were men of marked ability, of pre-eminent pro- 
fessional reputation, and always true and steadfast in 
their friendship to him. Their loss to him, as to many 
others, was irreparable. 



IMMEDIATELY on his return to England, Markham set 
to work to prepare for the despatch of a relief ship the 
following year. He brought the matter to the notice 
of the public through the Press, and warned the Ad- 
miralty and his colleagues at the Geographical Society 
that it was the duty of the country to despatch a vessel 
in the ensuing year in order to communicate with Captain 
Nares, so as to ascertain if his ships were safe, to bring 
home any sick or disabled men, and otherwise to afford 
relief and assistance if necessary. 

With the fate of Sir John Franklin so recently before 
their eyes, the Admiralty, he considered, would be guilty 
of a grave neglect of duty if they omitted to despatch 
a relief expedition. 

The catastrophe of the Franklin expedition was con- 
stantly in his mind, for he was always of opinion that 
the loss of life on that occasion was entirely due to the 
fact that proper precautions to avoid disaster had not 
been taken by the responsible authorities at home. 
He was firmly convinced of the necessity of despatching 
a ship (call it a relief ship, a communicating vessel, or 
any other appellation) in order to establish communica- 
tion with the expedition the following year. 

Fortunately, the Admiralty held the same views, 
and on the return to England of Captain Allen Young 
in his ship the Pandora, it was arranged that he should 
proceed in that vessel the following year to the entrance 



of Smith Sound, there to meet the sledging-party that 
Captain Nares had been instructed to send to that locality 
in the summer of 1876. This decision was a great relief 
to Markham, who certainly, \vould not have rested 
content unless some such arrangement had been satis- 
factorily made. 

It will perhaps be remembered that Allen Young 
had purchased the old steam-sloop Pandora from the 
Admiralty, and had prepared her for Arctic service at 
his own expense, at the same time as the Arctic expedi- 
tion was fitting out. His object was to examine the shores 
of King William Land for traces of the lost Franklin 
expedition, and to make a thorough search for records, 
and especially for the logs, of the Erebus and Terror. It 
was also his intention to take his ship through the North- 
West Passage, if it were found practicable to accomplish 
this in one season. The Pandora sailed a month after 
the departure of the Alert and Discovery from England. 
Allen Young failed in effecting his object owing to the 
large amount of heavy ice that was tightly packed 
across Peel Strait; though he succeeded in getting 
within about 150 miles of King William Land. He 
decided, therefore, to return to England for the winter, 
and to make another attempt the following year. On 
his way back, knowing how anxious the people in 
England would be to get the latest news of the Arctic 
expedition, he resolved to make an attempt to search 
for letters or records that might have been deposited 
by the Alert and Discovery at the Gary Islands. This 
he succeeded in doing, to the great delight and gratitude 
of those who had friends and relatives in the ships. 
On his arrival in England, the Admiralty unfolded to 
him their proposal that he should attempt to com- 
municate with the expedition the following summer. 
To this he readily assented, although it meant the 
abandonment of the objects upon which he had set his 
heart, and had gone to considerable expense to achieve 
namely, to establish the certainty of the fate of the 


Erebus and Terror, and to successfully achieve the North- 
West Passage. 

Being assured that everything had been done that 
was possible for the despatch of the relief expedition, 
and happy in the knowledge that every conceivable 
precaution had been taken to insure the safety of Captain 
Nares and his party, Markham could now rest content 
for the time. In the event of calamity overtaking the 
expedition, all that could possibly be thought of had 
been done to insure, at any rate, the news becoming 
known as rapidly as possible. He could therefore 
begin with a quiet mind to polish off the long arrears 
of work that had accumulated during his absence from 
England. In addition to the pile of letters awaiting 
his attention at the India Office, there was, of course, 
an account of his recent voyage to Greenland to be 
written, another edition of his " Threshold of the Un- 
known Region " to be brought out and also his " Voyages 
of Sir James Lancaster " and " The Hawkins Voyages " 
(for the Hakluyt Society) to be completed. Besides 
these, there were his " Missions to Tibet," his " Memoir 
of the Indian Surveys," and his " Moral and Material 
Progress " (India both published by order of the Secre- 
tary of State for India), to be finished and presented to 
Parliament. It must be confessed that this was a 
goodly amount of work to fall to the lot of one man, 
but, with Markham, the more he had to do the happier 
he seemed to be. Truly has it been said of him by the 
President of the Royal Geographical Society, that his 
" only idea of recreation was a fresh piece of work." 
This was characteristic of the man; he could never be 
overwhelmed with too much work, especially if it was 
connected with geography or ethnology, or other similar 
subjects in which he was interested. 

During the early months of 1876 he was in constant 
communication with his friend Allen Young, in con- 
nection with the forthcoming cruise of the Pandora, 
and on more than one occasion he visited that vessel 


at Southampton, where she was being fitted out for her 
second trip to the Arctic seas. This time, however, 
she was to be on Admiralty service. Although Allen 
Young was acting under orders of the Admiralty, their 
Lordships, very wisely, left all the details of the cruise 
to his judgment, based on his wide experience of Arctic 
matters. He was instructed to take such steps as he 
considered most advisable for carrying out their general 

The Pandora sailed from Plymouth on the 2nd of 
June. It is unnecessary to follow Allen Young on his 
errand of mercy to the Arctic Regions ; suffice it to say 
that he fulfilled his mission, and carried out the duties 
entrusted to him, to the complete satisfaction of their 
Lordships, and of everyone else who was interested in 
the safety and welfare of the expedition. He succeeded 
in finding the cairn erected by Captain Nares the 
previous year on Cape Isabella, and brought home all 
the letters and documents found there, ascertaining 
beyond doubt that no member of the expedition had 
visited the place during the current year. As there 
was nothing further for Allen Young to do, he decided 
to return to England. 

By a curious coincidence, in the middle of the Atlantic, 
on the 1 6th of October, two vessels bound in the same 
direction were sighted from the Pandora. They proved 
to be the Alert and Discovery. Communication, how- 
ever, was practicable only by signal. Allen Young 
congratulated the expedition on the success it had 
achieved and gave them the latest news. The ships 
then separated. The Alert and Discovery arrived at 
Valentia on the 2 7th of October, when the news of the 
success of the expedition was at once telegraphed to 
England. Needless to add, by none was the intelligence 
received with greater joy than by Clements Markham. 
On the arrival of the ships at Spithead, he was almost 
the first man to visit the Alert, where he received a right 
hearty welcome from all on board. Every soul was glad 


to see him, and his arms must have ached from the 
continuous hand-shaking he had to undergo. 

Markham sums up concisely the successful results of 
the expedition as follows: 

1 . The creation of a young generation of experienced 
Arctic officers. 

2. The discovery of 300 miles of new coast-line. 

3. The attainment of the highest latitude ever reached 
by man. 

4. The discovery of a large section of the Polar 

5. A year's magnetic observations at two separate 
stations, situated farther north than had ever been 
previously taken. 

6. A year's meteorological observations at two 
stations in high latitudes. 

7. A series of tidal observations. 

8. Valuable observations on the movements and 
formation of ice in a very high latitude. 

9. The geology of a vast region hitherto unknown. 

10. The discovery of a fossil forest in 82 North 

1 1 . Observations on the mammalia and birds of a new 
region, also on the most northern fishes in the world. 

12. Various collections of insects, Crustacea, mollusca, 
echinodermata, polyzoa, etc., and a complete collection of 
the flora of the most northern known region in the world. 

He was well satisfied with these results, although 
disappointed that the outbreak of scurvy should have 
necessitated the return of the ships so much sooner 
than he had expected. He had hoped that they would 
have been able to spend another season in the far north. 
Captain Nares had, however, exercised a wise judgment 
and a rare courage in deciding to bring the ships home, 
and by his action undoubtedly prevented the further 
sacrifice of valuable lives. Another winter in the Arctic 
Regions, with scurvy prevalent in the ships, would in 
all probability have had a disastrous result. 


On the return of the expedition, Captain Nares 
received the special thanks of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria. His proceedings were fully approved by the 
Admiralty, and appreciated by the Navy, especially by 
the old Arctic officers. He was created a K.C.B., 
and was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. The senior officers in their re- 
spective ranks obtained promotion, and a medal was 
conferred on every member of the expedition. Naturally, 
Markham devoted his energies to the compilation of 
an account of the excellent work that had been accom- 
plished by the expedition. He gave many lectures 
on the success that had been attained, and pointed out, 
with great lucidity, the terrible effects of the disease 
which had prevented an even greater success. He 
disagreed strongly with the absurd decisions arrived at 
by the committee appointed by the Admiralty to investi- 
gate the cause of the outbreak of scurvy. It reported 
that the outbreak was due to the absence of lime-juice 
on the sledging journeys. As, however, it was abund- 
antly proved that many of those attacked by the disease 
were never employed on sledging duties at all, and con- 
sequently had their daily allowance of lime-juice on 
board the ship, this decision was certainly open to criti- 
cism. Moreover, the majority of those who did not 
suffer from the outbreak were officers and men who had 
not partaken of lime-juice for lengthened periods. This 
certainly pointed to other causes for the outbreak. 
However, this is not the place to labour the question 
for and against the use of lime-juice. Its efficacy as 
an antiscorbutic in tropical and warm climates is un- 
doubted; possibly it does not possess the same prophy- 
lactic qualities in colder climates or under Arctic 
conditions. It was, however, a subject in which Mark- 
ham was keenly interested. 

In the summer of 1878, and also in the following 
year, he made extensive tours in Holland, visiting many 
places of interest in Friesland Groningen, Zutphen, 


Utrecht, Arnheim, Breda, Antwerp, and other localities 
which would aid him in the preparation of certain 
works which he contemplated writing. With his usual 
thoroughness, he wished to be personally acquainted 
with the geographical and architectural features of 
every place he would have to describe. His descriptions 
of these historical places are entered in minute detail 
in the journal containing the account of his travels, 
and are most interesting. 

On his return to England, he wrote an article for the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica," on the Progress of Geo- 
graphical Discovery. In August of the same year we 
find him presiding over the Geographical Section of 
the British Association at Sheffield, at which he delivered 
the opening address, and then read a paper dealing with 
the River Basin of the Don. For the benefit of the 
reporters he wrote abstracts of all the numerous papers 
read in that section. Ten of these papers were written, 
or rewritten, by him, and many were actually translated 
into English by him from various languages. 

During this period he contributed many interesting 
papers to the Royal Geographical Society; and, at odd 
intervals, he visited countries abroad, particularly Hol- 
land and Flanders, for the purpose of collecting material 
for works on which he was engaged, or about to take 
in hand. 

The variety of subjects to which his versatile dis- 
position led him was truly extraordinary. Prior to 
leaving England with the Arctic expedition, he published 
a " History of Persia," a work of formidable propor- 
tions containing much interesting and hitherto unknown 
matter. It professed to be a condensed narrative of 
Persian annals, and included a chapter on the geography 
and history of the Persian Gulf. It was a vast under- 
taking, necessitating much laborious research in musty 
documents and other manuscripts hitherto buried in 
the archives of the India Office and other places. Being 
unacquainted with the Persian language, he was depeu- 


dent in a great measure on translations. Before utilising 
these, however, he took care to have them checked by 
competent and trustworthy authorities. In his preface 
he remarks that 

" he undertook the task because, in translating and 
annotating Clavijos' ' Embassy to Timur,' he had 
occasion to refer to nearly all the translated Persian 
authorities and to the European writers on Persia, 
and he had amassed a large number of notes and memo- 
randa chronologically arranged. He thought that the 
preparation of a connected historical sketch based on 
these materials would be acceptable at a time when 
Persia is receiving much attention from politicians, 
and would serve a useful purpose in time to come, seeing 
that Persia will always continue to be a most important 
neighbour State with reference to British India." 

This amassing " of notes," to which he alludes, was 
an habitual practice with him. He never went on any 
expedition, or any journey, without taking voluminous 
notes and making pencil sketches of everything of in- 
terest he saw and heard. Every little incident that was 
brought to his notice, no matter how insignificant it 
might at the time appear, was scrupulously entered in 
his notebook for future reference. Nothing was omitted, 
nothing was too trivial ; in fact, in many cases the triviali- 
ties were entered at greater length and were more 
conspicuous, than those of a more important and perhaps 
scientific character. 

As an illustration of his wonderful assiduity, mention 
may be made of a volume which we came across recently 
in looking over some old journals and other documents 
in his library. It is a book containing biographical 
notices of every single officer and man that served in 
the Arctic expedition of 1875-76. They are not brief 
records of naval life, but complete accounts of ancestry 
and careers in the Navy, giving full descriptions of each 
man, his appearance, weight, chest capacity, and all 
particulars connected with him. One of them is men- 
tioned as having " a cicatrix on his left big toe " 1 He 


also records when, and to whom, they were married, the 
dates of the births of their children, and in some in- 
stances even the names of their offspring. Nor was he 
satisfied in dealing only with the ship's company of the 
Alert (in which he crossed the Atlantic to Greenland), 
but every man in the Discovery also receives similar 
attention. In the case of the officers, their coats of arms 
and sledge flags are emblazoned in correct colours over 
their respective histories; while in the case of several 
of the men Markham has painted some device typical 
of their surnames or of the special duties allotted to them 
on board the ships. Sir George Nares has no less than 
ten pages devoted to a recapitulation of his services; 
another officer is accorded nearly twenty-four pages; 
while in several instances some of the men have each 
been conceded two, three, or even more pages. These, 
of course, have all been compiled from the " amassed 
notes " that he took during the time he was with the 
expedition; but how he succeeded in adding to the 
biographies, and bringing them up to a more recent date, 
is somewhat mysterious. He also records the characters 
they impersonated in the theatricals held on board their 
ships while in winter-quarters, and the songs, senti- 
mental and comic, which they sang. In many cases, 
even, he refers to the politics they professed to hold ! 

During the year 1 880 Markham completed and edited 
for the Hakluyt Society " The Natural and Moral History 
of the Indies," by Father de Acosta, " The Voyages of 
William Baffin," and the second edition of the " Ob- 
servations of Sir Richard Hawkins." He also wrote, 
at the request of the Council of the Royal Geographical 
Society, a comprehensive history of the work of that 
Society during the fifty years of its existence. About 
this time, too, he lectured at the Literary Institute at 
Hull (by invitation of that Society) on " The Siege of 
Hull," where he had a large and appreciative audience. 

From Hull, he was obliged to hurry back to London to 
make all the necessary arrangements for the reception 


of Baron Nordenskjold on his return in the Vega. News 
had been received that he had successfully navigated 
the North-East Passage, sailing along the north coast 
of Siberia to Behring's Strait. Markham's arrangements, 
however, were sadly interfered with by the non-arrival 
of the Vega on the day indicated, the ship having been 
delayed by adverse winds. On the arrival of the 
distinguished explorer, he was met by Markham and 
many delegates from the Geographical and other learned 
Societies, who did their best to render his short stay in 
London agreeable. He was feted wherever he went, 
and received a hearty welcome from the general public, 
wherever and whenever he was recognised. The Geo- 
graphical Society entertained him lavishly, and he was 
also on various occasions the guest of Allen Young, 
Clements Markham, and Lord Northbrook. Markham 
also took charge of him during his free hours, and 
showed him the sights of London. After staying for a 
week in England, the Baron left for Paris, thereby setting 
Markham at liberty to return to his literary labours. 

At this time Markham was engaged on a book on 
Peru, which was to constitute one of a series of volumes 
dealing with foreign countries. He was also very busy 
preparing a new edition of his history of the introduction 
of cinchona into India. This work, entitled " Peruvian 
Bark," recorded the great progress made by the cinchona 
plants in twenty years, and clearly demonstrated the 
complete success of the enterprise. It was with un- 
feigned satisfaction that he was in a position to proclaim 
to the world at large the prosperous issue of his work 
in this direction. He was content to know that the result 
of his labours in that particular field of enterprise was 
now an assured success. 

On the 20th of July, 1880, he celebrated his fiftieth 
birthday. He and his wife were travelling in the 
Netherlands at the time, and on that day they reached 
the town of Venloo, situated on the River Maas, in the 
province of Limburg. He thus quaintly refers to this 


event in his journal: " Walked from the station into 
the town, and as we entered it I became fifty years of 
age a great weight of years." He could look back, 
however, with pride and pleasure to the good use he 
had made of his half-century of existence. 

His tour of the Low Countries was undertaken with 
a view to making himself acquainted personally with 
the scenes of the operations and battles conducted 
by Sir Francis and Sir Horace Vere, while supporting 
the Netherlands against the encroachment and tyranny 
of Spain. This was in anticipation of his work " The 
Fighting Veres," which he brought out eight years later. 
His descriptions of the struggle, and of the battles fought 
during this campaign, as set forth in his journal from 
first-hand local information, are most vividly described ; 
but they are all fully embodied in the above-named book. 

On a subsequent occasion he visited Ypres and 
Tournai, and the country in their immediate neigh- 
bourhood. In the light of recent events it is interesting 
to read in his journal the detailed descriptions which 
he gives of these places. The Cloth Hall at Ypres, 
now, alas ! a mass of ruins, engages, as might be ex- 
pected, his critical attention; he criticises the general 
style of its architecture and the absence of an imposing 
base to the structure, the walls rising, as it were, directly 
from the ground. The Cathedral of St. Martin he 
describes at length, and especially alludes to the shady 
walks about its ancient walls, and the broad moat 
covered with beautiful water-lilies. What a contrast 
to its state to-day ! Courtrai, too, he describes in 
similar manner; but many of its ancient buildings had 
been spoilt even then, though by a vastly different 
agent ! They had come under the ruthless hand of 
the so-called " restorers " of that day " destroyers," 
Markham calls them 1 The choir of Tournai Cathedral 
he likens to Westminster Abbey on a small scale; and 
he records that Rubens' famous picture " The Adoration 
of the Magi " once hung in the Church of the Capuchins. 


During one of the many sieges to which Tournai was 
subjected, this picture was injured by a bullet, and in 
1815 it was taken to the Louvre by order of Napoleon. 
When the looted pictures were restored, as it was 
unclaimed by the people of Tournai, it was sent to 
Brussels, where it now reposes in the Musee de Peinture. 
Markham was particularly attracted by this picture. 
He purchased what he supposed to be a copy of it, 
but afterwards found that it was the original study 
painted by Rubens for his picture. Mons he describes 
in some detail, and relates interesting legends con- 
nected with this and other places which he visited. 
From Mons he proceeded to Malplaquet, thence on to 
Brussels. Having obtained all the information that he 
wanted, he returned to England. 

In the early part of that year (1883) he accepted the 
invitation of the Yorkshire Archaeological Association 
to read a paper on the Battle of Wakefield. He also 
contributed chapters on Peru and Chile to the History of 
America then in course of preparation at Cambridge 
(U.S.). His work for the Geographical Society included 
a paper on the Exploration of the Amaru-Mayse and 
Beni Rivers and the adjacent country to the east of 
Cuzco and La Paz. 

In the summer he went over to Holland to bid farewell 
and wish Godspeed to the officers and crew of the 
little Dutch exploring schooner Willem Barents, then 
about to sail on her sixth voyage of exploration to the 
Arctic Seas in the vicinity of Novaya Zemlya and Franz 
Jozef Land. He was accompanied on this occasion by 
Allen Young and Leigh Smith. They received a great 
ovation from the Utrecht students, and altogether had 
a most festive time. After the departure of the vessel, 
the students insisted on carrying Markham off to 
Utrecht, he, not unwillingly, consenting ! We may be 
sure that during the time he was at Utrecht he was 
well looked after, for he was entertained in regular 
student fashion, which means " fun and jollity " up 


to the small hours of the morning. The daylight hours, 
however, were devoted to visiting the most interesting 
historical buildings in the city, and the most important 
places connected with the University. He also witnessed 
the annual boat-race of the three Universities, Leyden, 
Delft and Utrecht, and on his return to England he 
wrote an account of this Dutch University boat-race, for 
the Field newspaper. 

With regard to his official work in England, Markham 
records an incident which markedly illustrates the absence 
of geographical knowledge at that time in one of our 
important Government departments and one that deals 
especially with the salaries of our consular officers abroad. 
The department in question was informed that a decision 
had been arrived at by the Foreign Office to establish a 
Consul at Resht, the centre of a large silk-producing 
district in Persia. The Treasury, however, objected 
to the appointment on the plea of expense, and refused 
to grant the necessary salary. There was a great deal 
of correspondence on the disputed question, which 
resulted in a representative of the Foreign Office being 
despatched to the Treasury, to discuss the matter with 
the official who had objected to the payment of the 
salary that would be attached to the proposed consul- 
ship. He failed, however, to make any impression 
on the functionary at the Treasury. At last, in despair, 
he said: " Do you know where Resht is?" "No," 
said the official, " and that is the reason why a Consul 
is not required there 1" This from a man drawing a 
salary of 2,500 per annum, and the recipient of high 
honours for his valuable (?) services ! 

Apropos of this incident, Markham once received a 
note, written to him privately from the Foreign Office, 
requesting information concerning a place called Casa- 
blanca. Apparently we had a representative there in 
the person of a Vice-Consul, but the officials at home 
did not know where it was, and supposed that it was 
in Italy ! The information was required as speedily 


as possible, as some odious questions were about to be 
asked in Parliament regarding the consular official 
stationed there, and the Foreign Office was ignorant 
as to its locality ! There must have been some sur- 
prise at Markham's reply that Casablanca was the 
Spanish name for Dar-el-baida, which is situated on 
the coast of Morocco. 

At this time the Arctic Regions were again engrossing 
much of his attention. Lieutenant Schwatka (an Ameri- 
can) had recently made an interesting journey to King 
William Land, where he picked up what subsequently 
proved to be unreliable stories from the Eskimos regard- 
ing the missing Franklin expedition. Then there was 
the necessity for instituting a search for Leigh Smith, 
no news of his whereabouts having been received since 
his departure from England the previous year. He 
had proceeded in his steamer the Eira, specially con- 
structed by him for ice navigation, to the Barents 
Sea, with a view of endeavouring to reach the North 
Pole, or at any rate a high northern latitude, along the 
west coast of Franz Josef Land. Markham formed one 
of a deputation, headed by Lord Aberdare (the President 
of the Royal Geographical Society) to the Admiralty, 
to urge the necessity of sending a ship to Franz Josef 
Land to search for the Eira. The deputation met with 
a very encouraging reception, and an offer of 5,000 
towards the expenses of the search. Allen Young was 
selected by Mr. T. K. Smith (brother of Leigh Smith) 
to carry out this duty, and he sailed in the Hope, a steam- 
whaler that had been specially chartered for the purpose. 
At Mr. T. K. Smith's request, Markham drafted the 
instructions for the relief expedition. 

In August news was received in England of the 
return of Allen Young with the pleasing report of the 
safety of Leigh Smith and all his people. His ship 
the Eira had been crushed by the ice off the coast of 
Franz Josef Land, but the men had all succeeded in 
reaching the shore in safety, where they had passed the 


winter without undue hardship, and with no loss of 
life. They were rescued by the Hope the following 
summer. The news of this success was received with 
much public rejoicing, and it was a great relief to Mark- 
ham, whose anxiety for the safety of the Eira was 
perhaps increased by his personal acquaintance with 
the dangers incidental to Arctic exploration. 

But this was not the only Arctic adventure that had 
been occupying his mind. No news of Lieutenant 
Greely and his party had been received for some time. 
This expedition had followed in the footsteps of the 
recent British expedition, and had proceeded up Smith 
Sound with the intention of trying to reach the North 
Pole. They had disembarked from their ship in August, 
1 88 1, in Discovery Harbour, Lady Franklin Bay, where 
H.M.S. Discovery had passed the winter of 1875-76. 
They were well supplied with provisions, and provided 
with huts in which to live. A relief expedition was 
despatched from the United States the following year, 
but the ice was so impenetrable that they were unable to 
effect communication. However, they left a large supply 
of stores and provisions with a boat near Cape Sabine. 

Another relief expedition was despatched the following 
year, but, unfortunately, the vessel was crushed by 
the ice at the entrance of Smith Sound, and so another 
year had to pass without communication. The next 
year, however, a vessel succeeded in reaching Cape 
Sabine, where the survivors of the expedition had arrived. 
It was only just in time, for they were on the verge of 
collapse from weakness and starvation. They had 
undergone inconceivable hardships and had suffered 
cruel privations, and some of the party had already 
succumbed to starvation and scurvy. 

The safety of the various Arctic expeditions being 
now satisfactorily assured, Markham was able to turn 
his attention to other matters. He was a frequent 
visitor at this time to Portsmouth, where he had many 
friends. He was much interested in everything apper- 


taining to the town, not only from old associations when 
he was in the Navy, but also because his great-uncle, 
Admiral John Markham, had represented the borough 
in Parliament during the early part of the nineteenth 
century for a period of twenty-three years, being for a 
portion of that time a member of the Board of Admiralty. 
Markham collected a vast amount of interesting matter 
connected with the old town, having obtained the 
necessary permission to consult the archives and other 
documents preserved at the Town Hall. Many of our 
Sovereigns had either embarked or landed at the old 
port ; many historic episodes had been enacted within its 
immediate vicinity; and it was essentially the most 
important naval arsenal in England, if not in the world. 
Markham thoroughly enjoyed his visits to Portsmouth, 
for they gave him opportunities of renewing acquaint- 
ance with many old friends who were serving in the 
ships that visited, or were stationed at, that port. 

Wherever he went, Markham invariably carried with 
him his own writing materials and books of reference, 
so that he was never idle when circumstances, such as 
bad weather or perhaps a touch of the gout from which 
he occasionally suffered, prevented him from going 
out. He also took advantage of these so-called holidays 
to write the many lectures and reviews of books that 
demanded so much of his time. He wrote papers and 
articles on the missing Polar expeditions, including the 
American expedition of De Long in the Jeannette* 

* The Jeannelte sailed from San Francisco under the command of 
Captain De Long on the 8th of July, 1879, and passing through 
Behring's Strait, she was crushed in the ice-pack on the iath of 
June, 1881, and sank in Lat. 77.15 N. Her crew dragged the ship's 
boats over the iceto Bennet Island, where they arrived on the 29th 
of July. On the loth of September they reached one of the New 
Siberia Islands, and two days later set out for the mouth of the River 
Lena. The same evening the three boats became separated in a 
gale. De Long perished with two of his boat's crew from starvation 
and exhaustion; three survivors only of this party succeeding in 
reaching a village in Siberia. The second boat with its crew also 
reached civilisation, but the third was lost. 


suggesting the desirability of sending a vessel to search 
the coast of Siberia from Cape Chelyuskin to the east. 
It was along this route that the survivors were eventually 
discovered and rescued. 

He lectured in Yorkshire on the Battle of Towton, 
and in the same county delivered another lecture on 
" The Original Home of the Potato " (namely, the 
Andes), in which he explained the influence that the 
trade-wind exerted on the growth of vegetation generally 
and on the potato in particular. The versatility of his 
literary productions was amazing, and he always wrote 
and spoke with a full knowledge of the matter upon 
which he was writing or lecturing. 

During a visit he paid to Bristol for the purpose of 
delivering a lecture on the Basque Provinces and on the 
old but now obsolete Whale Fishery, which formed one 
of the chief industries of Bristol as early as the fourteenth 
century and as late as the seventeenth, he obtained 
much information from the shipmasters and ship- 
owners whom he met there, regarding the lamentable 
ignorance of geography exhibited by the men engaged 
by the Board of Trade to examine candidates in navi- 
gation for the merchant service. In consequence of 
this information, Markham took the matter up with 
that energy with which he invariably dealt with matters 
that he considered should be reformed. He at once 
wrote letters to the different examiners stationed at the 
various seaport towns along the coast, inquiring if 
navigation classes and schools for instruction existed, 
and, if not, what facilities there were for obtaining 
instruction. After acquiring all the information possible 
from these sources (which was extremely unsatisfactory), 
and being of opinion that the Royal Geographical 
Society should take the lead in encouraging and foster- 
ing the study of nautical astronomy, navigation, and 
kindred subjects, in our mercantile marine, he brought 
up the question before the Council of the Geographical 
Society and the Board of Trade. 


This action bore good fruit. His views regarding 
the nautical education of the young officers of our 
merchant service were fully concurred in by the Board 
of Trade. They were also recognised and adopted at 
the South Kensington examinations, which tended very 
materially to render the certificates thus obtained of 
practical value, and not the shams they had hitherto 
been considered. This, it must be confessed, was a 
gigantic stride in both the moral and material pro- 
gress of our mercantile marine; for it tended to raise 
the officers of that service from the slough of ignorance 
and incapacity, to the acme of perfection in nautical 
science and navigation. The mere fact of acquiring 
such knowledge imparted a better tone to the young 
officers; and Markham's energy certainly assisted in 
making the officers of our merchant service what 
they now are, the finest and most cultured in the 

It was while carrying out his investigations regarding 
the nautical training of these young officers, that Mark- 
ham became personally interested in the welfare and 
instruction of the cadets on board the training ships 
Worcester and Conway. These vessels, old men-of-war 
presented for the purpose by the Admiralty, were organ- 
ised, controlled, and financed by various shipping com- 
panies, and others interested in our merchant service, 
with the object of educating and providing efficiently in- 
structed and properly qualified officers for the mercantile 
marine. These two schools the Worcester lay at Green- 
hithe, the Conway on the Mersey near Liverpool were 
intended to be to the merchant service very much what 
the old Britannia was to the Royal Navy. It was an 
excellent scheme, brilliantly thought out, and splendidly 
inaugurated ; but further development was necessary to 
increase its utility, and to make the ships thoroughly 
fulfil the requirements for which they had been estab- 
lished. Both were controlled by local committees con- 
sisting of merchants and shipowners, who took the 


greatest interest in the work, and devoted much of their 
valuable time to insuring their success. 

At the time these institutions were first brought 
to Markham's notice, each ship had about 150 cadets 
under instruction. They were fine, well-conditioned 
lads between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. Many 
of them were the sons of captains of merchant ships, 
and all were gentlemen. They had a uniform somewhat 
similar to that worn by our Naval Cadets. They were 
instructed (as they still are) in all the different branches 
of seamanship, and they lived under the same conditions 
as they would on board an ordinary merchant ship at 
sea, except that a great portion of the day was devoted 
to instruction, both practical and theoretical. They 
sleep in hammocks, work the three masts, and bend, 
reef, and furl the sails, just as would be done in a ship 
at sea. School, at which they are thoroughly instructed 
in nautical astronomy, navigation, and other cognate 
subjects, is conducted on the main-deck under the 
superintendence of duly qualified instructors. 

Markham paid many visits to the two ships, and 
from that time he formed an affectionate attachment 
for them both. He was especially concerned in the 
welfare of the cadets, and took an interest in their 
tuition and subsequent careers which never abated, 
but, on the contrary, increased as time went on. This 
interest lasted to the end of his life. His presence was 
always welcome, and he became persona grata to all on 

His house soon became the resort of the Worcester 
boys. They loved running up to see him, and he for 
his part as dearly loved to have them about him. In 
his company they were as happy as the day was long, 
and he entered into all their fun, listened sympathetic- 
ally to all their woes, always gave them good advice, and 
invariably warned them against committing, although 
perhaps unwittingly, any breach of discipline. We 
strongly suspect that the wildest ones were his especial 


favourites ! One of his most particular friends on board 
the Worcester he describes as a particularly engaging 
boy from his frankness of character and total absence 
of any affectation; but, he concludes, " he was the 
cheekiest youngster I ever met." We are inclined to 
think that this cheekiness was not without encourage- 

There was nothing Markham would not do that could 
conduce in any way to their pleasure, their happiness, 
or their instruction. He would spend whole afternoons 
in their company, taking them to the Tower of London, 
the Zoological Gardens, Westminster Abbey, the 
Aquarium, or any Exhibitions that might be open; 
then home to tea and dinner, winding up the day with 
a theatre. These excursions were a source of constant 
delight to him, and he almost spoilt the boys with the 
kindness and generosity that he lavished on them. He 
wrote special lectures for them, and would go down 
to the Worcester to deliver them. Among other 
subjects, he lectured on " Sebastian del Cano," 
" Columbus," " Drake and Hawkins," " Prince Henry 
the Navigator," " The Life of Akbar," " Sebastian 
Cabot and Drake," " The Early Discoverers of 
Australia," " Mercator and his Projection," " The 
Early History of Signals," and many on the Polar 
Regions. He selected purposely subjects which he 
thought would be of use to the boys in their future 
careers. Besides being full of information, he always 
took care that his lectures should be amusing, and they 
were never an aid to somnolence ! These lectures 
were also repeated to the boys on board the Conway 
in the Mersey. The result of this close association with 
the Worcester was, as might naturally be foreseen, his 
election as one of the governing body of that vessel; 
and certainly no better selection could have been made 
in the interests of the institution. 

It is little short of marvellous how he could find time 
to complete all the literary work in which he was engaged, 


for during the time that he was busying himself with 
these matters, he was also writing articles, principally 
on Peru, for the " Encyclopaedia Britannica"; he was 
translating from the Spanish the second part of the 
Chronicles of Peru by Ciesa de Leon, for the Hakluyt 
Society; he was correcting the proof-sheets of his ac- 
count of the War between Peru and Chile; and he was 
searching Admiralty records and the State Paper Office 
for information regarding Admiral John Markham, 
whose Life he was engaged in compiling. He was 
also preparing a paper on Recent Arctic Exploration 
for the Geographical Section of the British Association 
to be held in York, and was writing an essay on the 
Life of Akbar ! It is really wonderful, with all this 
work, how it was possible for him to find any time to 
devote to children; but he loved the young, especially 
if they were boys. As an instance of his devotion to 
them, he relates in his journal that in the course of a 
single day he took one of his favourite Worcester boys to 
the following places : to a hatter, a hosier, a tailor, and 
then to the New Gallery to see the pictures; luncheon 
at the Criterion; then to the United Service Museum, 
Westminster Hall, the Courts of Law, Westminster 
Abbey, the Aquarium, where they had tea ; then home 
to dinner, and a theatre afterwards 1 Not a bad day's 
work for a busy man who had reached the allotted 
age of three score years and ten ! 



CLEMENTS MARKHAM was always a stanch friend to 
those in distress; and no trouble was too great for him 
to take in assisting to alleviate their sufferings, whether 
physical or mental. The following incident demonstrates 
his sympathy and warm-heartedness in this direction. 

It came to his knowledge that a young seaman, 
belonging to one of our men-of-war on the Pacific 
Station, had been sentenced by court-martial to five 
years' penal servitude for striking, in a fit of temper, 
his superior officer, a gunner's mate. The offender 
was only eighteen years of age, a strong, hard-working 
lad, but possessing a quick and passionate temper. 
When Markham heard the details of the case, he was 
shocked at what he considered the cruel severity of 
the punishment for an offence that was purely one against 
naval discipline. He regarded the punishment as in- 
human and unjust, and he set to work actively to en- 
deavour to obtain a remission of the sentence. He 
onsulted the authorities at the Home Office, and even 
wrote a pathetic appeal for clemency to the Home 
Secretary. The letter was referred to the Admiralty for 
reconsideration, but their Lordships declined to inter- 
fere in the matter. 

After the lapse of five or six weeks, Markham received 
a private letter from the first Sea Lord, saying that he, 
personally, saw no objection to a mitigation of the 
sentence by the Home Office. This was encouraging, 
for it was evident that some member of the Board of 
Admiralty was somewhat conscience - stricken. Still, 



no action was taken by the authorities. Markham 
then wrote out a detailed report of the facts, and sent 
a copy to every member of Parliament, bringing the case 
also to the notice of other prominent public men. He 
dwelt particularly on the monstrous system established 
in the Navy, in sending young lads of unblemished 
character to penal servitude (where they would be 
obliged to associate with the very worst of criminals) 
for a purely military offence committed in a fit of temper ; 
and he urged those who were members of Parliament 
to take action in the House of Commons. The replies 
were invariably sympathetic, and there were many 
who went so far as to promise to consider how his 
suggestions could best be utilised. He succeeded also 
in getting the case brought up in the House of Lords, 
where, however, in a thin house, the members of the 
Government, urged no doubt by party considerations, 
succeeded in talking the question out without arriving 
at a satisfactory conclusion. 

He then obtained an order from the Home Secretary 
to see the lad in the convict prison, at Chatham. This 
was the first time he had ever met the youth. Markham 
was much impressed with his personal appearance, in 
spite of the prisoner being clothed in the garb of a 
convict, with his hair closely cropped. He describes 
him as a good-looking, strongly built young fellow, 
with an honest, bright face. In the course of conversa- 
tion the man expressed his regret that his temper 
should have got the better of him, and attributed it 
to the fact that he had but recently partaken of his 
daily allowance of grog, which had so affected him as to 
cause him to resent the abuse he was receiving from his 
instructor. He assured Markham, however, that he 
would face the inevitable as bravely as he could, and 
strive to maintain his good character to the bitter end. 
He spoke feelingly about his parents, and the disgrace 
which he had brought on them. He was well-mannered, 
and altogether Markham formed a very favourable 


opinion of the lad, a judgment that was borne out by 
the doctor and other officials in the prison whom he 
interrogated. This interview had the effect of strengthen- 
ing Markham's determination to do all in his power to 
obtain an abatement of the sentence. 

Markham was not the man to take no for an answer, 
especially when he had set his heart upon righting a 
wrong, which, if not righted, would probably have a 
baneful effect upon the young manhood of the country. 
He wrote again to every important member of Parlia- 
ment, of both Houses, whom he thought likely to help, 
and sent strongly worded letters to the Morning Post, 
St. James's Gazette, and other papers, recounting the 
facts of the case, and urging the Press to exert its influ- 
ence on behalf of the young man. He also drafted a 
petition for the parents to sign and forward to the 
First Lord of the Admiralty. Nor did his energies rest 
here. He wrote a complete history of the case, in which 
he carefully analysed the returns of naval punishments 
during the past twelve years, accompanied by ample 
notes on the general question of naval discipline, and 
sent it to the proprietor of the Morning Post. The result 
of this was the appearance of a powerful article in that 
paper urging the necessity for punishment reform in 
the Navy. 

At this time there was evidence of the desire of the 
Admiralty to climb down from the position they had 
at first assumed; for they now submitted the whole 
case to the prisoner's recent Captain for his views and 
report. This was regarded as a distinct concession in 
favour of mitigation of the punishment, but, alas ! 
only a few days after this communication from the 
Admiralty (and presumably after receipt of the report 
demanded from the Captain) the young man's parents 
received an official letter from " My Lords " declining 
to recommend any remission of the sentence passed on 
their son. This was a staggerer; for the Admiralty 
had already consented to reconsider the case on the 


receipt of evidence which completely rebutted the 
original allegations. It was inexplicable I 

Markham did not take this rebuff quietly. He at 
once prepared a petition to the Prime Minister, signed 
by all those who were interested in the case and they 
were many in number setting forth all particulars, 
and specially emphasising the severity of a punishment 
which they considered to be a grave miscarriage of 
justice. He also published an article in the November 
number of the Nineteenth Century, in which he entered 
fully into the iniquitous injustice of the case, concluding 
with a pointed allusion to the harmful effects that would 
ensue . in recruiting for the Navy. He also wrote 
privately to prominent members of the Government, 
representing very forcibly the necessity for introducing 
a Bill into Parliament, abolishing penal servitude in 
the Navy for crimes which involved no moral guilt, 
but were merely subversive of naval discipline. 

At last his efforts were crowned with success. On the 
3ist of October, 1884 after more than six months' 
incessant correspondence between naval, judicial, and 
other Governmental departments he had the satisfac- 
tion of receiving a notification from the Home Office 
that, in consequence of recent correspondence with the 
Admiralty, it had been decided that, for the future, 
naval prisoners undergoing sentences of penal servitude, 
for strictly naval offences, should, when released, be 
absolutely free from all police supervision. This was 
a decided victory, and due entirely to Markham 's 
strenuous representations of the injustice of the old 
procedure. But better news was to follow; for on the 
same day he received a letter from the mother of the 
youth, announcing that her son had been released, 
and that the remaining two and a half years of his 
sentence had been remitted. Thus half of the entire 
sentence was abrogated unconditionally, and this was 
unquestionably due to the persistent and untiring 
exertions of Clements Markham. 


Not only had his pertinacity been of service in the 
cause of justice and humanity, but it was also of direct 
advantage to the Navy. There are many quick-tempered 
young fellows in the Service who possess in a high degree 
the germs of courage and resource, so valuable in times 
of danger. The hot-tempered " scallywag," from his 
daring and disregard of personal risk, often proves in 
the stress of battle the best and bravest of men. 

Markham's first act, on being informed of the lad's 
release, was to send for him to his house and take him 
into his own service as a footman ! This he did in spite 
of the man's personal appearance, for he was short 
and thickset, and the backs of his hands were elaborately 
tattooed; nor had he any experience as a domestic 
servant. Markham's reason for doing this was that he 
considered it most important that the lad's first employ- 
ment after coming out of prison should be with some- 
body who was well acquainted with his character and 
would keep him straight. It was a kindly, philanthropic 
motive, but, unfortunately it was doomed to failure, 
for to his great regret Markham was compelled to dis- 
miss the lad before he had been very long in his service. 
He pledged himself, however, in Markham's presence 
to abstain in future from the use of spirits, the act for 
which he had been dismissed having been perpetrated 
while under the influence of drink. There is no doubt 
that Markham felt the cause that involved his prot^ge^s 
discharge very keenly; nevertheless he continued to 
take an interest in his welfare, and succeeded in getting 
him appointed to the London Fire Brigade, in which he 
has since done good and valuable service. 

During all this time Markham's interest in his own 
particular work never flagged. He lectured to the 
cadets of the Worcester and Conway on the " Rise of 
the East India Company;" on " Hudson and Baffin," 
and on their Arctic voyages; on " Dampier," and on 
the careers of Captain Cook and Captain Scoresby, 
and he gave them a brief account of the naval victory 


gained by Commodore Dance with a squadron of East 
Indiamen, over a French fleet under the command of 
Admiral Linois. He also prepared and read a paper 
before the Geographical Society on the discovery of 
New Guinea, and was busy preparing details for his 
" Life of Admiral Fairfax," as well as transcribing the 
Life of Koolemans Beynen,* which his wife had tran- 
slated from the Dutch. 

In the midst of all this work, with the enormous 
amount of research which it entailed, Markham was 
called away to Devonshire by news of the death of his 
father-in-law, Mr. Chichester; and for some time his 
attention was much occupied with family affairs. 

It was about this time that he was approached by 
the Liberal political agent at Taunton with a view of 
his standing for that constituency. Markham, however, 
did not consider that the prospects of winning the seat 
were at all favourable, so he declined the honour. 
The House of Commons was the loser; for he would have 
made an excellent member and an interesting and strong 
debater. Shortly afterwards, he was invited to stand in the 
Liberal interest for Portsmouth. It was a constituency 
that he would have been very glad to represent, not only 
on account of its importance and his own associations 
with the borough, but chiefly, perhaps, because of his 
great-uncle's political connection with it for so many 
years .f Portsmouth was at the time represented by 
two Conservatives. It seems that Markham's principal 
reason for declining the honour was because he was 
informed that, on the Primrose Day prior to the election, 
the great majority of the workmen in the dockyard 
(which formed a large proportion of the electors) were 
decorated with the Conservative emblem, a bunch of 
primroses, in their buttonholes. From this he inferred 
that there would be small chance of his winning the 
seat. As it turned out, however, the two Liberal 

* A young and enthusiastic Dutch naval officer who accompanied 
Allen Young in the Pandora in 1876. f See P- 2 5 6 - 


candidates were both returned ! Markham had not 
taken into account the inconsistency of dockyard 

Towards the end of the year (18184) ne had a long 
interview with the Secretary of the London Chamber 
of Commerce, who came to him on his own initiative, 
to discuss the possibility of arranging a conference 
between the Chamber and the Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society with a view to establishing a 
policy on certain Central African questions bearing on 
a systematic geographical exploration of that country. 
Markham explained in detail his views on the question, 
and after some discussion it was agreed that the Chamber 
of Commerce should address a letter to the President 
of the Society, outlining a policy on the lines that 
Markham had indicated. This was accordingly done, 
and the result was most satisfactory. 

Another of his activities at this time was the forma- 
tion, in co-operation with some of his neighbours, of an 
institution or club near St. Gabriel's Church, Warwick 
Square, for the use of young boys up to the age of 
eighteen. The result of this was a great success, and 
assisted very materially in keeping the young fellows 
out of harm's way, as well as providing for their com- 
fort and pleasure after their work for the day was 
over. Candidates for the institute were proposed and 
elected by the boys themselves, each member paying 
a monthly subscription of 6d. Four large rooms in 
the parish school-house were placed at their disposal. 
One was set apart for reading, another for chess and other 
quiet games, while the remaining two rooms were used 
for gymnastics, boxing, fencing, and games of a more 
physical and boisterous character. The rooms were 
rilled every evening with boys whose happy faces, 
brimful of enjoyment, bore witness to their pleasure. 
It is hardly necessary to add that Markham 's contribu- 
tion to their enjoyment in the shape of lectures, both 
interesting and amusing, was no small one. 


He was never more happy than when he was 
engaged in ministering to the happiness of children, 
more especially boys, as many a youthful relative or 
friend can testify. The appearance at his house of 
any of his nephews, any cadets from the Worcester or 
midshipmen of the Royal Navy or mercantile marine, 
was the signal for the cessation of all work. His books 
would be immediately closed, his papers put away, 
all cares forgotten; and, after administering to their 
appetites, he would wander away with them to spend 
the rest of the day in the pursuit of amusement com- 
bined with instruction. 

The next year (1885) saw him busily engaged in 
writing the Memoirs of the Macdonalds of Keppoch. 
He also began collecting material for a Life of Admiral 
Fairfax; and, in order to complete his researches, he 
decided to visit Fairfax County in Virginia, U.S.A. 
William Fairfax, the ancestor of the American Fair- 
faxes, had settled in Virginia, where many of his 
descendants were still living. 

This William Fairfax had a somewhat varied career. 
He began life in the Royal Navy, but afterwards 
went to the Bahamas, where he became Judge, and 
eventually Governor. In 1725 he migrated to the 
United States, acting as agent there for the estates 
of his cousin, Lord Fairfax. His son, the Rev. Brian 
Fairfax, succeeded to the title as the eighth Lord Fairfax. 
William was an intimate friend of George Washington, 
and was one of the chief mourners at the great President's 

On the occasion of this visit to America, Markham 
was accompanied by his wife. They had a pleasant 
voyage across the Atlantic, during which he took the 
lead in organising entertainments, such as theatricals, 
charades, etc. Some of these were carried out under 
his management on a somewhat pretentious scale. A 
regular stage was erected on the upper deck, scenery 
was painted, and everything was conducted in a most 


elaborate manner. Rehearsals and the making of their 
costumes kept them busily occupied for two or three 
days prior to the performance. It was a great success, 
and a considerable sum was realised on behalf of the 
widows and orphans of those employed by the steam- 
ship company to which the vessel belonged. Other 
entertainments followed when the weather permitted, 
among them being an Arctic lecture which Markham 
delivered; and a competition in "graceful walking," for 
which he and another passenger were selected as judges. 
Altogether they were a very merry party, and the time 
passed quickly and pleasantly. 

Markham and his wife were, of course, provided with 
many letters of introduction, and they received a very 
cordial welcome at all the places they visited. This 
kindly reception, however, was not only due to the 
letters which they brought, but because his name in 
connection with geographical work was well known and 
honoured in the United States. 

From Boston they travelled through Portland, and 
across the White Mountains, enjoying the magnificent 
scenery through which they passed, on their way to Lake 
Champlain and the Catskills. Thence down the Hudson 
River to New York. It was a most enjoyable journey, 
rendered all the more delightful by the interesting people 
whom they met. The President and other members 
of the American Geographical Society entertained them 
most hospitably; and, at the Naval Academy at Anna- 
polis, he was invited to preside at a meeting when a 
paper was to be read by Lieutenant Danenhower, 
relating his experiences while employed in De Long's 
ill-fated expedition to the Arctic Regions in thejeannette. 
This had an additional interest for Markham, for the 
Jeannette (which left her timbers in the Far North) was 
none other than his old friend Allen Young's vessel, 
the Pandora, renamed ! He gladly accepted, and took 
a leading part in the discussion that ensued. He was 
quite in his element, and perhaps enjoyed it all the 


more because his views on the best route for future 
Arctic exploration differed considerably from the 
opinions expressed by other speakers ! 

In Washington he had an interview with the President 
(Grover Cleveland) at the White House. He was able 
also to collect much information here, regarding the 
Fairfaxes, from many members of that family and their 
friends. Thence they went on to Virginia, where they 
spent two or three weeks, being hospitably entertained 
in Richmond, Lexington, Mount Vernon (situated in 
Fairfax County), and other places in the State. They 
also visited Green way Court in the Shenandoah Valley, 
which was formerly the seat of the old and eccentric 
Lord Fairfax who had bequeathed it to his nephew; 
he, in his turn, bequeathing it to a friend, a Mr. Carnegy. 
At the time of the Markhams' visit it was in the posses- 
sion of Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy (descendants of Mr. 
Carnegy), who were most kind and hospitable, and from 
whom he obtained much valuable information re- 
garding the Fairfax estate and family. Mrs. Kennerly 
presented them with an old ballad relating to the first 
arrival of George Washington at Greenway Court, in 
which an allusion is made to his having been sent there 
to be instructed in venery by the old Lord ! 

Altogether their visit to the South was in every way 
a success; they made many delightful friends, and, 
following the track of the war, were eye-witnesses of 
the ravages it caused in the beautiful valley of the 
Shenandoah. Markham was much impressed by the 
Virginians themselves, who, he said, resembled English 
gentlefolk in their manners and feelings more than any 
other people he had met in America. He maintained 
that, if there was any difference between them and the 
English, it was that they had retained more of the old- 
fashioned courtesy of the days of our grandfathers. 
Their war record in the defence of their own country 
against invasion was most glorious ; but still more strik- 
ing, in his opinion, was the splendid way in which the 


young men, after their country had been utterly 
crushed, manfully set to work to face adversity and 
regain prosperity. None remained idle; all put their 
shoulders to the wheel, and set themselves steadfastly 
to redeem the past, in spite of the fact that they had been 
brought up to lives of ease and affluence. 

On the eve of his departure from America, he sums 
up the work which he had accomplished there in these 
brief words: " I have seen the people I came to see; 
I have done all I wanted ; and we have both had a most 
enjoyable trip." 

Immediately on his return to England he set to work 
to write an account of the Battle of Towton for the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Association ; he was also busily 
occupied with his " Life of Admiral Fairfax," and collect- 
ing notes concerning the Vere family, for his contem- 
plated work on the lives of the two brothers Sir Francis 
and Sir Horace Vere. He was also much occupied with 
his geographical work, more especially in organising a 
series of schemes for promoting the general teaching of 

These various and absorbing duties did not in any 
way distract his attention or time from his two pet 
training ships, the Worcester and the Conway. Indeed, 
it is doubtful whether he would have allowed anything, 
however important, to interfere with the interest he 
took in the welfare of those two schools. He delivered 
lectures to the cadets on subjects connected with the 
Western Coast of South America and other countries, 
especially those possessing extensive coast-lines, ports, 
and other sheltered anchorages. It was his aim to make 
them familiar with places they would probably visit 
during their professional careers, and to impart to them 
such geographical knowledge as would be of value to 
them in the future. He also assisted in the periodical ex- 
aminations held in the two institutions, and in awarding 
marks in those subjects in which he was an acknowledged 


Being now desirous of obtaining further information 
regarding the two Veres, he planned and carried out, 
in company with his wife, a delightful trip to Belgium 
and Germany which enabled him to visit the locality of the 
operations rendered memorable by the campaign of Prince 
Maurice of Orange against the Italian General Spinola, 
who was in command of the Spanish forces. It also gave 
him an opportunity to carry out his doctor's directions 
namely, to go through a cure at Homburg for gouty 
symptoms that were beginning to manifest themselves. 
A visit to Mannheim was of special interest and im- 
portance, for it was at the battle fought in this neigh- 
bourhood that the Dutch Army was saved by the heroism 
and generalship of Sir Horace Vere. The fact that, 
among the Captains serving under Sir Horace Vere, 
were William and John Fairfax and Robert Markham, 
lent additional zest to his researches. 

From Mannheim he proceeded to Diisseldorf and 
Cologne. At the latter place he spent a couple of days of 
busy sight-seeing. The vastness and perfect symmetry 
of the cathedral, he records, did not leave the same 
deep impression on him, or create the same desire to 
see it again and again -as did the smaller and less regular 
cathedrals that he had visited in England and in France. 
Thence they went on by Worms and Heidelberg to 
Homburg, where for a month he drank with scrupulous 
regularity the particular waters prescribed by the medical 

During the period of his " cure " he made excursions 
with his wife to many places of interest, and his pen 
was never idle. He tabulated all the German Emperors 
from Charlemagne to Francis II., and, inspired by 
the series of portraits of these Emperors, that he had 
seen at Frankfort, he compiled a list of all their burial- 
places 1 He also studied carefully, and made extensive 
notes on the ancient histories of the various places 
that he visited, and illustrated them with admirably 
drawn plans and maps. His description and history, 


of the old Roman Camp at Saalburg, is especially 
interesting, every small detail being recorded with 
minute exactness. 

On his return to England he found that an old naval 
friend of his was in serious pecuniary difficulties owing 
to the defalcation of a clerk. His friend at. the time 
was holding the position of secretary to a benevolent 
institution, and was threatened with dismissal if he 
did not at once make good the deficiency, a matter of 
about 270. To be dismissed from his post would 
involve utter ruin, yet he had not the money wherewith 
to make good. In his dilemma he turned to his old 
friend Markham, who was not, it must be said, over- 
burdened with the riches of this world. Nevertheless, 
Markham did not hesitate for one moment. He wrote 
at once to his bankers, sold out the requisite amount of 
stock, and sent his old friend away happy and grateful. 
The incident is typical of the man. 

An exhibition was held about this time at St. Stephen's 
Hall, Westminster, to celebrate the tercentenary of the 
introduction of the potato into this country. Markham 
took a leading part in all the arrangements, and read 
a paper on the cultivation of the potato by the Incas 
and other Andean nations. 

He had now been Secretary of the Hakluyt Society 
for a period of twenty-eight years, and he felt that if 
he were to relinquish the appointment he would have 
more leisure to translate and edit a greater number of 
books and documents than he had hitherto been able to 
accomplish. Accordingly, he handed over the archives 
to his successor, with full instructions as to his duties. 
Under his secretaryship the Society had grown in useful- 
ness and prosperity to an amazing extent. There can 
be no doubt that this was very largely due to the con- 
tinued energy, devotion, and inspiring influence, of 
Clements Markham. In thus resigning the post of 
Secretary his interest in the Society did not in any way 
abate in fact, it appeared to increase in usefulness and 


in enhancing the popularity of the Society. Even at 
the time of his death he was actually correcting the 
proof-sheets of a couple of volumes that he had translated 
and edited. 

In the early part of 1887 began a renewal of his 
intimate association with his old profession, the Royal 
Navy, which brought him many new friends and ad- 
mirers, especially among the younger officers of His 
Majesty's Service. It happened in this wise: 

A near relative of his, to whom he had filled the 
position of an elder brother for many years, had been 
appointed, with the rank of Commodore, to the com- 
mand of the training squadron, and his broad pendant 
was flying in H.M.S. Active. The Squadron included 
three other vessels of a somewhat similar class to the 
Active namely, the Volage, Rover, and Calypso, and 
had been specially formed for the purpose of training 
young officers and men in the Royal Navy. The ships 
selected were fully rigged, and when at sea were continu- 
ously under sail. It was thought that the exercise 
incidental to going aloft and working the sails would 
benefit the men physically, and would also tend to make 
them smart and active. The ships were, of course, 
provided with steam-power, but it was very seldom 
resorted to. The propellers were fitted with an arrange- 
ment for lifting them out of the water, and the funnels 
could be lowered out of sight when necessary. In short, 
the vessels were to all intents and purposes sailing ships. 

Markham left England in January, by the mail- 
steamer bound for theWest Indies, whither the squadron 
had preceded him by some weeks. He had to change 
steamers at Barbados, but this he did not regret, for 
he found " the chirpy little Captain of the new vessel 
a great improvement on the surly old brute of the last 
ship 1" The day after leaving Barbados he picked up 
the squadron at Grenada, and he was soon comfortably 
settled down on board the Active. 

It is hardly necessary to say that he rapidly made 


friends with all on board ; and he lost no time in visiting 
the other ships, so that he quickly became acquainted 
with every officer in the squadron, and they with him. 
It was not long before he knew the history of every man 
on board the Active, and he took a lively interest in 
everything appertaining to the squadron. In the gun- 
room, of course, he was an especial favourite; and he 
was looked upon as a sort of oracle on all matters, 
more especially those connected with history and geo- 
graphy. Any discussion that was raised, any knotty 
point that required a decision, was at once referred to 

He loved being on deck when exercises or evolu- 
tions were being carried out, especially on those occa- 
sions when it was blowing hard, and the men were 
engaged in reefing topsails or otherwise reducing sail. 
It reminded him so vividly, he would say, of bygone 
days ; and probably it gave a half-melancholy yet wholly 
pleasurable tinge to his delight in feeling the fresh trade- 
wind blowing once more upon his face. 

In the forenoons he would sit in a corner of the fore- 
cabin, working away at his " Life of Columbus " or 
" The Fighting Veres," while a dozen midshipmen 
were occupying the remainder of the cabin, under the 
tuition of the Naval Instructor. Not infrequently the 
latter would be absent temporarily. Then, chaos 
reigned supreme, and would continue until summarily 
put a stop to by the Commodore, or other high official. 
Although it would not be fair to assume that their guest 
was the instigator of these somewhat irregular disturb- 
ances, yet it was generally conceded that there was 
never any cause to complain of their unseemly conduct 
when they were entirely by themselves 1 He loved 
the midshipmen, and they loved him ; there was nothing 
that gave him greater pleasure than being with them 
in the gunroom mess, or going for a trip with them 
either on shore or on some boat expedition. 

Markham thoroughly enjoyed cruising among the 


beautiful West Indian Islands, most of them of great 
historical interest. For the guidance of the midship- 
men in writing up their journals an important duty, 
as marks are given on this subject when they present 
themselves for examination as Lieutenants, and a good 
or bad journal may make all the difference in the class 
of certificate obtained he composed at St. Lucia an 
account of Rodney's glorious victory there, and subse- 
quently wrote descriptions of the famous Diamond Rock 
off the island of Martinique, the manner in which the 
guns were hoisted up and placed in position, and the 
capture of Fort Royal in 1794. 

Markham was much impressed with the marked 
superiority of the towns and farms in the French 
islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, over the towns 
of the English West Indian possessions. They ap- 
peared to be cleaner, the architecture of their cathedrals, 
churches, and public buildings, was superior, their 
prosperity more pronounced, and everything more 
regular and thriving in appearance, than in our islands. 
There is no doubt that this is the case, and it is probably 
due to the fact that absentee landlords are unknown 
in the French islands, and that where the money is 
made, there it is spent. 

During this cruise nearly all the islands comprising 
the Windward Group of the West Indies were visited, 
several days being spent at each, and sometimes more 
than one port in the same island was visited. 

It was at St. Kitts that Markham first became ac- 
quainted with Robert Falcon Scott, at that time a 
midshipman on board the Rover. A boat-race had been 
arranged, and a prize offered by two of the Lieutenants 
of the Volage. The boats were to be cutters manned 
by their proper service crews, with their own officers 
in charge. The conditions were that they were all to 
be at anchor together in line abreast, with their awnings 
spread, and the crews sitting on their proper thwarts. 
On the signal gun being fired, they were to furl awnings, 



weigh anchors, step masts, and make sail, beating up 
to a buoy dead to windward. Having rounded this, 
they were to run down to another buoy, beat back 
again to the first mark, then down mast, out oars, and 
pull back to the starting-point, anchor, and spread 
awnings. The winning boat was the Rover's cutter, 
commanded by young Scott, who in after-years was 
to be so intimately associated with Clements Markham 
in the work of Antarctic exploration. 

Markham was always intensely interested in the 
evolutions and manoeuvres of the squadron. He was 
especially delighted when the signal was hoisted to 
" chase " in a certain direction, which means practically 
a race along the course indicated. Each ship would 
set every possible sail she could carry, compatible with 
safety, in order to get ahead of her consorts. He 
always used to say it was the prettiest sight imaginable. 
Such a race would last generally for about ten or twelve 

At Barbados the squadron remained for three weeks 
before sailing for England, during which time Markham 
thoroughly enjoyed himself. As usual, he was happiest 
when, in company with half a dozen or more midship- 
men, he was engaged in carrying out some expedition 
which they had organised into the interior of the island . 
On one occasion he says they obtained a number of 

" which caused some anarchy during the homeward 
drive. S. was practising with a lasso on the Coachman's 
hat, so someone took off his cap and threw it into the 
road, and S. had to jump out and pick it up. The 
carriage drove on with S. in chase 1 Eventually he 
overtook the carriage and rolled in. They had inde- 
pendent singing and noise, concluding by drinks on 
arrival at Bridgetown."* 

Evidently a somewhat unruly and riotous party 1 
From this drive Markham returned to Government 
* Bridgetown, the chief town and seaport of Barbados. 


House, where he was staying, in order to be present at 
a large official, and presumably decorous, dinner. It 
must have been in somewhat striking contrast to his 
afternoon's amusement ! 

During his spare and quiet intervals, he wrote an 
account for the midshipmen of the discovery and first 
settlement of Bermuda, as also a history of the discovery 
of the Windward Islands by Columbus, the Life of 
Gerard Mercator, and a paper on the physical geography 
of Bermuda. His thoughts were invariably with the 
young officers; their happiness and well-being were his 
constant care. He was anxious to get them interested 
in their profession, and to induce them to take up the 
study of geography and other subjects which would be 
of value to them in their future career. Of one of his 
particular midshipmen, S. (alluded to above), he 
writes : 

" He has lost a month's time for throwing potatoes 
and valves at the Naval Instructor in his last ship, 
and he was also in trouble at Barbados for knocking 
two front teeth down a Lieutenant's throat with the 
mast of the dinghy. Poor boy !" 

His sympathies were evidently with the " boy," 
and not with those who had been the sufferers from 
the lad's aggressive propensities ! 

From Barbados the squadron proceeded to Bermuda, 
a voyage occupying about ten days, and made almost 
entirely under sail. Markham had been for some time 
working in collaboration with the gunroom officers in the 
production of a play which they intended should be per- 
formed shortly after their arrival. To him was allotted 
the greater part of the task, and on their arrival at 
Bermuda his first business, on landing, was to purchase 
various dresses principally ladies' attire and other im- 
portant stage properties that would be required. How- 
ever, as a stay of only four days was made at Bermuda, 
the performance had to be postponed ; but it was acted 
eventually with great success at sea. The topical 


songs were the subject of much discussion, and constant 
revisions were made at every rehearsal. Some con- 
sidered many of the jokes were a great deal too personal ; 
others thought otherwise : it was no easy matter to please 
and satisfy everybody ! Markham was not only the 
principal author of the play, but he also had to take a 
leading part in it, and, in addition, was stage-manager ! 
He entered heart and soul into the matter, and it is not 
too much to say that without him it would never have 
taken place. 

Boisterous weather was somewhat detrimental to 
rehearsals. For two or three days they experienced 
an extremely fresh gale, accompanied by a very heavy 
sea. The table in the fore-cabin broke adrift, and they 
were obliged to eat their dinner sitting on the deck 
and hanging on to the stanchions ! Meals were reduced 
to picnics. One of the ships in the squadron had two 
boats washed away, the others escaped with little 
damage, but all suffered great discomfort. In spite 
of the excessive motion, Markham wrote during this 
gale an historical account of the Azores for the benefit 
of the young officers. 

On the 24th of April, 1 887, the squadron anchored in 
Horta Bay (Fayal), but sailed again the next day, 
giving Markham time, however, to take a run on shore 
and identify the ground which was occupied by Sir 
Walter Raleigh when he captured Horta. He also 
enjoyed a delightful ramble over the hills, and climbed 
up to the summit of Mount Carneiro. Of course he 
wrote an account of Raleigh's capture of Horta for the 
information of the midshipmen. That was inevitable ! 

Taking advantage of a fine evening, with a compara- 
tively smooth sea, they decided on having their 
theatricals on the 27th of April. An excellent stage 
was prepared on the quarter-deck, and every man and 
boy in the ship, that could be spared from his duties, 
attended. The piece was named " Too Clever by Half." 
It was in three scenes, and was so abundantly stocked 


with songs that it was described as " operatic," as 
well as " serio-comic." Markham took the part of an 
irascible gouty old Baronet, and acted it to perfection. 
Everything went off very well, and it was a great 
success. The performance was followed by a somewhat 
uproarious supper in the wardroom, at which the afore- 
mentioned S. sat between Markham and the Captain 
of Marines. Whenever S. began to get unduly excited, 
the latter seized his head and forced it under the table, 
so that S. afterwards said he felt like the Dormouse in 
" Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," when sitting 
between the March Hare and the Hatter ! 

The squadron arrived at Portland on the 9th of May, 
and Markham left the next day, to the great regret 
of all on board the Active. He was pulled on shore in 
one of the cutters by a crew composed entirely of 
officers. He concludes his diary in the ship as follows: 

" Last day on board the Active, where I have passed 
14 weeks and 5 days, a most happy and delightful time, 
making, I hope, some friendships. I never met nicer, 
better-natured, more warm-hearted young fellows. God 
bless them !" 

Mention must be made here of an instance of his 
generosity, which has only recently been brought to 
the writer's notice. One of the midshipmen had the 
misfortune to run into a boat at one of the islands, 
causing considerable damage to it, and, very stupidly, 
omitted to report the accident to his commanding 
officer, or even to give his name to the harbour-master 
when requested to do so. An official complaint was 
made by the Governor to the commanding officer of 
his ship, and an investigation was ordered. The result 
was that the midshipman received a severe reprimand, 
and was ordered to pay 4, the cost of the repairs to 
the boat. Markham promptly proved himself the friend 
in need, for with consummate tact, and in the most 
delicate way, he succeeded in arranging that the costs 
should be borne by himself. 


ON his return to England after his long cruise in the 
training squadron, Markham's time was fully occupied 
in clearing off the enormous mass of work that had 
accumulated during his absence in the shape of in- 
numerable letters, and legal matters in connection with 
his trusteeships. In addition he was much worried by 
his old enemy, gout, which persistently attacked him at 
inconvenient periods, particularly when he was most 
anxious to be unrestrained and able to move about. 

His trip in the Active was but a prelude to many 
others. Indeed, only a few weeks after his return from 
the West Indian cruise, we find him again occupy- 
ing his old quarters on board the Active cruising in the 
Channel, visiting various ports in England and Ireland, 
and even going as far as Gibraltar and Madeira. A few 
of his old friends had left in order to complete their 
examinations at Greenwich and at Portsmouth, but many 
still remained in the squadron, and the new officers 
soon became old friends. It is related that on one 
occasion he remained on deck during the entire 
middle watch (from midnight to 4 a.m.) because one 
of his special friends was officer of the watch, and, as 
he was very tired after a hard day's cricket on shore, 
Markham stayed up with him so as to prevent him from 
going to sleep in his watch I It was on this cruise that 
he began his work on " Inca Civilisation," and com- 
menced to edit and prepare for publication Mrs. Corbin's 
Life of her father, Captain Maury, author of " The 
Physical Geography of the Sea." During his stay at 



Madeira, he made a point of visiting the old haunts 
of his brother David, and of making acquaintance with 
those friends, still in the island, who had been kind to 
his brother during his last illness. 

On the 3ist of January, 1888, after much anxious 
consideration, and consultation with his friends, he 
decided to relinquish the position he had held for 
twenty-five years as Honorary Secretary of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and wrote a letter to the 
President to that effect. The letter was couched in 
such terms as rendered it impossible for the President 
to do otherwise than accept it. But, in order that the 
Society might not altogether lose his active help, 
Markham was made a member of the Council. At the 
same time he was awarded the Founder's gold medal 
in recognition of the valuable geographical work he 
had accomplished during his period of office as Honorary 
Secretary. The present prosperous state of the Society 
is due in a great measure to his personal influence, and 
to his long official connection with the institution. As 
has been truly said of him by one of the high officials 
of the Society in his excellent obituary notice of Sir 
Clements : 

" He kept himself in close touch, not only with what 
may be called the Society's external activities, but with 
its internal organisation, in which he took a proud 
interest. By his friendly, genial, and considerate 
relations with every member of the staff, he secured 
their loyal devotion, not only to himself, but to the 
Society, so that the hardest work in carrying out the 
Society's objects and in maintaining its reputation 
became a pleasure, and not a task. He took a special 
interest in the younger members of the staff, who were 
ever eager to obtain his approval." 

We are told on the highest authority that one of his 
most important successes at that time was the founda- 
tion and issue of the monthly Proceedings, afterwards 
to be developed into the present Geographical Journal, 
which may now be regarded as the leading geographical 


publication in the world. Markham had also been most 
energetic in the promotion of geographical education, 
as we have already stated; and he was the first to in- 
troduce the use of lantern slides as a means of illus- 
trating the lectures that were delivered. This met 
with some short-sighted opposition at first, but is now 
generally approved and regarded as a valuable adjunct. 

At the great naval review held at Spithead in cele- 
bration of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, he was again an 
honoured guest on board the Active. Shortly after, he 
presided on board the Worcester at the annual meeting 
and presentation of prizes, and delivered an admirable 
address to the cadets. 

The work of editing the " Life of Captain Maury " 
he found extremely tiresome and intricate, causing him 
much labour. The task of connecting the narrative 
from the letters that had been submitted to him proved 
to be harder than he had anticipated. In fact, he had 
to evolve order out of chaos. Yet in the midst of all 
this work he found time to write a history of Madeira for 
one of his young naval friends, and an account of the 
Battle of Lansdowne for another, besides contributing 
descriptions of the various ports along the coast of 
Spain visited by the training squadron, which he 
thought would be useful to the young officers. 

At this time he was beginning seriously to consider the 
necessity for Antarctic research, and therefore the indis- 
pensability of educating public opinion in that direction. 
Accordingly, he wrote a long article on the subject for the 
Graphic. He then visited the Agent-General of Victoria, 
in order to consult him as to the popularity or otherwise 
with which a proposal for such an expedition would be 
received in Australia. He also worked up the whole 
history of South Polar exploration, with all that had 
hitherto been achieved geographically in South Polar 

In the early part of 1888, he accompanied the training 
squadron on another cruise to the West Indian Islands, 


returning to England by way of Bermuda. Many changes 
had taken place among the young officers, which he did 
not apparently appreciate, for he writes : 

" As compared with the glorious old crowd of last 
year, the midshipmen are smaller, weaker, more quiet, 
less up to larks, more good : and not a patch on the old 
set 1" 

Nevertheless, he was soon on as intimate terms with 
his new shipmates as he had been with the " old set." 
He was always ready to give them information and 
practical help, to associate himself with all their games, 
and to listen to all their troubles and grievances, which 
they, on their part, were only too ready to pour out 
into his sympathetic ears. He was very irate at recent 
orders that had been issued regarding increased school 
hours for the midshipmen, and, as he terms it, other 
" harassing folly." He thought they were being 
" crammed " a great deal too much, and that they were 
left with insufficient time to themselves for reading. 

On the passage home from Bermuda they encountered 
very stormy weather, with an unusually low barometer, 
and the ships were reduced to close-reefed topsails. 
The sea was magnificent, torrents of spray blowing 
in sheets from wave to wave, the ship heeling over in 
heavy lurches as much as 42, dipping her lee hammock 
nettings under water. But, in spite of the excessive 
motion and the dirty weather, the " young maniacs " 
(as he calls the midshipmen) played at tip and run, 
the bucket which was used as a wicket flying across 
the deck at every lurch of the ship ! During the gale 
he was engaged in drawing up a careful pedigree of the 
Kings of Aragon ! 

On his return home he found that his Life of the 
Veres was published, and had been well reviewed, which 
gave him great satisfaction. In reading it over, it 
brought back to him brighter reminiscences than any 
other book that he had written, for it recalled vividly 
the pleasant pilgrimages he had made with his wife 


to old towns in Holland, Belgium, and Germany, where 
the " fighting Veres " had served. 

At the anniversary meeting of the Royal Geographical 
Society on the 28th of May, 1888, Markham was pre- 
sented with the Founder's gold medal in a very apprecia- 
tive speech delivered by the President, General Strachey. 
His incomparable services to the Society were also re- 
ferred to at the time by other speakers. He looked 
upon the honour of becoming one of the Society's gold 
medallists as the highest distinction that could be 
conferred upon him. On the same day he was presented 
with a very beautifully illuminated address, in the form 
of an album, from the Captain, the staff, and the cadets, 
of the Conway, as a slight recognition of all that he had 
done for the ship, and for the great interest he had taken 
in the welfare of the cadets. This was as unexpected 
as it was gratifying. 

To his great delight, he was permitted to be present 
on board the Active during the naval manoeuvres in 
the summer. He was intensely interested in everything 
that occurred, and keenly followed the whole plan of 
campaign. The Active was attached to the squadron 
selected for the defence of England against a foreign 
foe located in Ireland. The first object of the defending 
force was to blockade the hostile fleet, which, divided 
into two squadrons, was taking refuge in two Irish 
ports, one at the north, the other in the south. After 
twelve days' successful blockade, a portion of the hostile 
fleet succeeded in escaping from the southern port, and 
effected a junction with their northern force. The 
defending ships thereupon raised the blockade, and 
steamed round to the mouth of the Thames to insure 
the security of London, leaving the enemy to work his 
wicked will on Liverpool and other defenceless, but 
important, seaport towns in the north. 

During all this time Markham was up early every 
morning, and remained on deck until late at night, 
criticising, as may well be imagined, every movement of 


the opposing forces, and taking the keenest interest in 
every incident and phase of the manoeuvres. He was 
much impressed with the value of such evolutions in 
peace time, as being the means of illustrating defects, 
more especially with regard to the provision of coal and 
the supply of stores when the ships are away from their 
principal bases. The arrangements for coaling were 
execrable, considering the great importance of trans- 
ferring the coal from collier to ship in as short a time as 
possible. As a rule the coal came alongside the ship 
in bulk, which necessitated it being first placed in bags 
in order to be hoisted out, thus doubling the time that 
would have been occupied if the coal had been simply 
put into the bags when taken on board the collier and 
kept there. These were all valuable experiences, to be 
placed before the naval authorities for future guidance. 

In the latter part of the year 1888 we find him again 
on board the Active, enjoying a cruise in the Baltic, 
and visiting such interesting places as Copenhagen, 
Kiel, and Carlscrona. His intimate knowledge of all 
these places was marvellous; and the greater part of 
it was due to his study of books. It was invariably 
his custom to read up all the information available 
connected with places he was about to visit, and, with 
his wonderfully retentive memory, he thus became a 
most efficient guide and historical authority. At 
Carlscrona, Baron Nordenskjold came all the way from 
Stockholm to greet him. Admiral Von Otter and 
Captain Koldewey, both authorities on Arctic matters 
from personal experience, were also at Carlscrona; and 
to his great delight he met his old Swedish messmate 
of the Collingwood, now a retired Commodore " a 
dear old man with a nice old wife." At Copenhagen 
also he met many old friends, who were kindness itself, 
and always gave him a hearty welcome to their houses. 

On his return home he set to work to classify a large 
and valuable collection of old coins that his father had 
accumulated from time to time. The very fact of ex- 


amining the different coins to ascertain their nationality 
and date of minting aroused his interest in numismatics, 
and he found it a study replete with instruction as well 
as pleasure, for it had the effect of revivifying his 
interest in ancient history, especially that of Greece 
and Rome. By the time that he completed his tabula- 
tion of the coins, he imbibed an irresistible desire to 
see with his own eyes the ancient remains that are 
still left in Greece and Italy. 

With Markham, to decide was to act, and, putting all 
literary and other work on one side, he started off in 
the early spring of 1889, accompanied by his wife, on a 
long visit to Rome. He had just completed writing a 
" Life of Sir Harry Vane "; but with this he was by no 
means satisfied, for he candidly admits that " it is not 
a good book, nor is the book worthy of the subject." 
He was also engaged in writing the " Life of John 
Davis," for a series on the world's great explorers. 
In addition to this, he was busily engaged preparing, 
at the invitation of the French Geographical Congress, 
a paper on English geographical discovery during the 
eighteenth century, which he was to read at the meeting 
of the Congress at Paris in the following year. At the 
same time he was preparing other works for the Hakluyt 

His visit to Rome was an interesting one. For five 
weeks he was occupied with his researches. Every 
place of interest was not only visited, but closely studied 
and minutely described. His descriptions are marked 
by great erudition, and display profound historical 
and archaeological knowledge. He was wont to declare 
that the study of his old Roman coins had taught him 
much about ancient Rome. The topography of the 
surrounding country he also studied carefully, and made 
exact plans of the most celebrated features typical of 
classical architecture. 

To a lover of Rome and especially Rome in its 
ancient splendour and puissance the contents of 


Markham's diary would be of" intense value. On his 
visit to the Tabularium, he remarks that its masonry 
reminded him of the later Inca work at Cuzco, being of 
the same dark colour, probably because they were con- 
structed of the same kind of volcanic conglomerate. 
Among the statues of the old Roman Consuls in the 
galleries of the Vatican, he recognised faces similar 
to those on the obverse of his consular coins; and he 
refers frequently to these coins in connection with the 
pictures and statues that he saw, thus demonstrating 
the powerful influence exercised by his collection in im- 
pelling him to undertake his visit to Rome. He was 
much attracted by the old maps that were shown to 
him in the Collegio di Propaganda, some of them dating 
back to the early part of the sixteenth century; he 
also saw some curious old Arab maps in which he was 
intensely interested. 

After leaving Rome, they went to Perugia, Assisi, and 
Florence. At the last-named place, in the Museum of 
Natural History, he was shown many relics of Galileo, 
among them an Arabic celestial globe made in A.D. 1080, 
and Sir Robert Dudley's astrolabe, all of which were 
naturally exceedingly interesting to him. They made 
quite a long stay in Florence, living with some friends in 
a delightful old villa, and of course spending their days 
in visiting the various galleries, museums, churches, and 
so forth, which abound in that delightful city. 

From Florence they went on to Bologna and Parma, 
with its wonderful collection of Correggio's masterpieces. 
He realised that " Correggio cannot be known without 
visiting Parma." His graphic descriptions are those 
of a connoisseur and a lover of art. From Parma they 
proceeded to Genoa, where they remained for a few 
days, then on to San Remo, Marseilles, Lyons, Dijon, 
and Paris, and thence home, where they arrived on the 
7th of May. They had been absent for nearly three 
months, and were rather sorry to return. One result 
of the trip was the addition of several important 


Roman coins to Markham's already large collection, 
also some Papal medals. 

Although he found the usual accumulation of work 
awaiting him on his return to England, the pleasure of 
another trip in the training squadron was irresistible, 
and exactly four weeks after his arrival in England 
we find him starting from Portsmouth for another 
cruise to the Baltic. This time, however, he embarked 
on board the Volage, a sister ship to the Active, which 
latter had to be left behind for refit in Portsmouth 

The reduced squadron (only three in number) as- 
sembled in the Downs on the 8th of June, sailing the 
next day. Very dirty weather was experienced, and, 
to add to the excitement, the Ruby (which had taken 
the place of the Rover) had her jib-boom carried away, 
and a man washed overboard; fortunately he was saved, 
although with difficulty. The squadron anchored off 
Elsinore on the i$th of June, and Markham went on 
shore with a party of officers, and took a drive along 
the seacoast. It was a lovely moonlight night, and 
the water was without a ripple. Numerous boats, 
crowded with men, women, and children, were pulling 
about and serenading the ships, as they passed. On 
such a night the old Castle of Kronborg (a light in its 
highest tower brilliantly reflected in the calm water) 
was exquisitely beautiful. Of course, Markham gave 
the youngsters a complete history of " Hamlet," and 
many of them remained up until long after midnight in 
the expectation of seeing " his father's ghost " indulging 
in his usual nightly promenade on the battlements I 
Needless to say their vigils met with no success, although 
their imaginative faculties were strained to the utmost 

Copenhagen was reached the following day, and six 
very pleasant and festive days were spent there. 
Luncheon-parties, picnics, dinners, and other enter- 
tainments, to the English officers of the squadron in 


which Markham was, of course, included were incessant. 
The Minister of Marine, Admiral Ravn, invited all the 
officers of the squadron to dine with him at Skodsborg. 
At Copenhagen he had the pleasure of meeting old Dr. 
Rink, a former Inspector-General of Greenland, also 
Mr. Gamel, to whose munificence was due the despatch 
of Dr. Nansen's expedition across Greenland. He was, 
also, so fortunate as to meet Dr. Nansen himself, who 
happened to arrive at Copenhagen at that time, on his 
way to England, where he was to give an account of 
his recent journey. This was Markham 's first meeting 
with the celebrated Norwegian traveller, an event 
resulting in a long and close friendship between the two 
men whose rare agreement as to the aim and object of 
future Polar exploration resulted in much useful work 
being undertaken in high latitudes. 

From Copenhagen the squadron proceeded to Stock- 
holm, reaching that place by the southern or Dalaro 
Channel, and passing through fiords for a distance of 
seventy-five miles. The banks for nearly the entire 
distance were lined with crowds of people waving 
handkerchiefs and flags and cheering enthusiastically. 
It was exactly midnight, on a lovely calm night, when 
they anchored in the very heart of the city of Stockholm. 
Here the festivities were, if possible, of a more lavish 
character than at Copenhagen. There were dinner- 
parties every night; a State dinner was given by the 
King ; excursions were made in every direction ; and there 
was always the Tivoli Gardens with which to wind 
up the evenings ! Baron Nordenskjold was kindness 
itself, devoting much of his time to taking Markham and 
some of the officers to the various museums and other 
public buildings in the city, and also to his private 
house, where he showed Markham his valuable collection 
of " Ptolemys."* 

* A series of maps brought out by Baron Nordenskjdld from the 
collection of the editions of Ptolemy which were used by the old 
navigators during the latter part of the fifteenth and sixteenth 


A day or two after the arrival of the squadron, the 
King was pleased to give an audience to the Commodore 
and the Captains of the ships, to which Markham was 
also specially invited. The King, a tall handsome man 
with a very pleasing expression, was in the uniform of 
a Swedish Admiral. He conversed with all the officers, 
and was especially civil and gracious to Markham, and 
thanked him for having rendered such able assistance 
to Nordenskjold with his " Facsimile Atlas."* In the 
evening they all dined with His Majesty at the Drotting- 
holm Palace. Markham, by the way, was not provided 
with a Court dress, but His Majesty very considerately 
said it might be dispensed with, and that he was to come 
in his ordinary evening dress. 

At six o'clock the guests embarked on board a small 
steamer, and proceeded down the Malar Lake to the 
palace. There were about seventy guests, all in full 
uniform except Markham. The King spoke to each one 
of his guests, who were drawn up in line as he entered 
the reception-room accompanied by the Duke of Nassau. 
The dinner was served in a room containing full-length 
portraits of all the Sovereigns of Europe contemporary 
with Oscar I. 

On the following evening a large dinner party was 
given by the British Minister in honour of the English 
squadron, and to this Markham was of course invited. 
The next afternoon, accompanied by two of his special 
midshipmen friends, he set out to spend a couple of 
days with Baron Nordenskjold at his country-house, 
about forty miles from Stockholm. The house was 
situated at the head of an arm of the Baltic, the sea 

* Nordenskjold's " Facsimile Atlas " was brought out by him 
with the view of supplying students with specimens of the printed 
maps of the period of the Great Discoveries, so as to enable them 
to trace the development of geographical knowledge in academic 
circles. The old navigators made use, in a great measure, of the 
portolani charts, even after printed maps were introduced. The 
portolani were brought into use by the Italians in about the thir- 
teenth century. 


coming up to within a few yards of the hall door, with 
a jetty, boat-house, and bathing-place adjoining. The 
ladies of the house were all dressed in the bright-coloured 
Swedish costumes which are so picturesque and becom- 
ing. The day was spent in roaming through the forest 
and sailing in a boat on the fiord, and at midnight they 
all went out in the boat to listen to the echoes for which 
this particular part of the coast is celebrated. 

The squadron left Stockholm on the ist of July, and 
proceeded to sea, steaming through the fiords in lovely 
weather. On the 5th the ships anchored among the 
granite islets about fivemiles from Gothenburg. No sooner 
were the anchors down, than a party of officers with 
Markham landed to make arrangements for visiting the 
Falls of Troll-hattan. This they accomplished the follow- 
ing day, starting immediately after breakfast by train, 
and arriving at about half-past one. The falls consist 
of an immense mass of foaming water, but the general 
scenic effect was somewhat marred by the number of 
paper-mills that had been constructed along the banks 
on either side of the rapids. However, it was all very 
interesting. The next day was occupied in an expedition 
to a place called Marstrand, to which the officers of 
the squadron had been invited by Mr. Nordenfelt, the 
inventor of the gun that bears his name. About forty 
officers, including Markham, accepted the invitation, 
and they were conveyed to Marstrand in a special 
steamer. There they had a sort of picnic dinner 
followed by a dance. Altogether it was great fun; 
they did not return until long after midnight. 

During his spare time on board, Markham was kept 
busily employed in revising the proof-sheets of his 
" Life of John Davis," and in writing up, for the in- 
formation of the midshipmen, various notes on the places 
they had visited. 

The squadron left Gothenburg on the nth of July, 
and arrived at Spithead on the i7th. Markham had 
thoroughly enjoyed the cruise. He was adored by the 



officers, especially the younger ones, whose interests he 
always had at heart. After dinner he invariably spent 
the evenings in the gunroom until lights were extin- 
guished, when he went on deck, and passed the remainder 
of the night in conversation with his young friends, and 
sharing with them their midnight suppers of sardines 
and cocoa 1 

The ist of August saw him again on board the Active, 
having come down to Portsmouth to be present at the 
naval review which had been arranged in honour of the 
visit of the German Emperor ; and he had special permis- 
sion to remain on board during the naval manoeuvres 
that were to follow. The review took place on the 5th. 

Next day the fleet weighed in the forenoon. It was 
blowing hard and there was a nasty sea. The Active 
got away under topsails, accompanied by the two 
squadrons of small cruisers that had been placed under 
the orders of the Commodore. 

Leith was reached on the 9th, and the squadron 
was disposed to the best advantage for the protection 
of the East Coast. From Leith, Markham paid two or 
three visits to Edinburgh, and specially to the Forth 
Bridge, which was not then completed. After visiting 
Peterhead, Aberdeen, and other ports along the east 
coast of Scotland, the Active went to Broughty Ferry, 
and made that her headquarters for a few days, sending 
out the fast cruisers to patrol the coast, protect friendly 
commerce, and to give warning of the approach of hostile 
ships. Nothing of interest occurred during the remain- 
ing days of the manoeuvres, and the Active returned to 
Spithead on the 3ist of August, whence Markham 
returned home. 

It must not be imagined that these trips at sea were 
in any way a relaxation from his literary labours. 
Wherever he went, he always took with him what- 
ever work he happened to be engaged upon, and 
would devote to it every moment he could spare. All 
the time he was at sea on this cruise in the Active, he 


was busy correcting the proof-sheets of a chapter he 
was contributing to the History of America, and also 
of Nordenskjold's book, besides finishing his translation 
of " Los Cantabros "from the Spanish. He was likewise 
busily occupied in writing a paper in which he analysed 
the professions and birthplaces, and other matters of 
interest connected with the history of the Judges who 
condemned King Charles I. to death i.e., the " Regi- 
cides." He also finished his " Landfall of Columbus," 
and wrote the preface of his " Tractatus de Globis " 
for the Hakluyt Society. He possessed the faculty of 
being able to lay down his pen at any moment even 
if engaged in the elucidation of some abstruse problem 
whenever required by the young officers to go on 
shore with them or to solve some knotty question, and 
could resume at once the subject of his composition 
from the point where he left off, even although many 
hours may have elapsed before returning to his work ! 

On this occasion he did not remain very long on shore. 
On the 24th of September, only three weeks after his 
return from the naval manoeuvres, we find him again 
occupying his old quarters on board the Active, starting 
on a cruise to the Mediterranean. 

He was now regarded by the officers as part and parcel 
of themselves, and they felt that without him the 
little squadron would have been incomplete. He it 
was who pointed out to them all the places of interest 
to be visited at the various ports at which the ships 
called; he it was who arranged and organised all the 
excursions that were made to places farther afield; 
and it was always he who acted as their guide and 
cicerone, the life and soul of the party, without whom, 
they felt sure any enterprise would result in failure; 
he was also the leader and organiser of all games and 
entertainments improvised on board for the amusement 
of the officers and men. 

Fine weather was experienced on the run to Cadiz t 
the ships constantly manoeuvring, and being exercised 


at tactics under sail, which interested him exceedingly. 
While at Cadiz they had an opportunity of visiting 
Seville, where he was shown the letter written by 
Columbus to the King of Spain, and saw many of Murillo's 
masterpieces. Markham's knowledge of the Spanish 
language was most useful, in addition to his encyclopaedic 
historical knowledge. From Cadiz they proceeded to 
Almeria; thence on to Cartagena, whence an excursion 
was made to Murcia. Their stay at Cartagena was 
somewhat curtailed by a telegram from the Admiralty 
ordering the squadron to proceed without delay to 
Lisbon, in order to assist at the funeral of the late King 
of Portugal. 

The ships left the following morning, and proceeded 
at full speed (under steam) to Lisbon, which they 
reached in forty-eight hours. The flags and ensigns 
of the men-of-war in the Tagus were all at half-mast, 
the yards of the ships were all topped as a sign of mourn- 
ing, and a gun was fired from each ship every quarter 
of an hour day and night. 

On the arrival of the Duke of Edinburgh, the Active 
hoisted the English Royal Standard at the main. The 
funeral took place two days after the arrival of the 
squadron. Markham witnessed the procession from a 
house to which he had been invited. He remarks: " It 
was very long, but there was nothing of real interest 
except the very ancient gilded coaches and the running 

The Duke of Edinburgh came off to the Active for 
Church service the following day, and left for England 
the next morning. 

From Lisbon, Markham made many excursions. He 
visited such places as Cintra, Alcobaca and Batalha, 
and wrote interesting descriptions of them all. Need- 
less to add, he was always accompanied by a large 
number of his naval friends. They drove past the 
famous lines of Torres Vedras on the way to Alcobaca 
and its twelfth-century Cistercian monastery, then 


much disfigured and used as a military barrack. Next 
morning they drove on to Batalha, the " battle-field " 
where once the Portuguese routed the Spaniards. 
Here is a place of pilgrimage for geographers, the tomb 
of Prince Henry the Navigator, with its richly elaborate 
detail and recumbent figure of the Prince a memorial 
as grateful to Markham in architectural effect as in 
historic association. 

Whenever their carriage was seen approaching the 
villages through which they passed, the children would 
fling themselves down on their knees and pray energetic- 
ally that the passengers might be charitable; then, 
when it came close up, they would run after it cap in 
hand, hoping that their prayers would be answered 1 
It was midnight before Lisbon was reached, and they 
returned on board tired and happy. 

A few days later the squadron sailed for England, 
the Active arriving at Spithead on the loth of November. 
Markham left for home the next day. It was with a 
heavy heart that he went over the Active's side, for he 
could not help feeling that, as there was to be a change 
of Commodores, this would, in all probability, be his 
last cruise in the squadron in which he had spent so 
many happy days, and had made so many pleasant 

A fortnight after his return to England he was unani- 
mously elected to succeed Sir Henry Yule as Pre- 
sident of the Hakluyt Society. Colonel Yule, who 
felt compelled to resign in consequence of ill-health, 
had himself suggested Markham as his successor. No 
better selection could have been made; no one took 
a greater interest in the welfare of the Society, and 
there was no one better acquainted with its require- 
ments, than Markham. None had done more to bring 
it to its present state of usefulness; and during his 
presidency, a post which he held for many years, no 
one was at more pains than Markham to insure its 
continued success and prosperity. 


He was at this time hard at work on his " Life of 
Richard III." The compilation of this book caused 
him, probably, greater labour and research than any 
other work he had written. He left no stone unturned 
in his efforts to arrive at the true state of affairs during 
that monarch's reign ; for he would never believe that the 
King's character was such as Shakespeare has assigned 
to him. He probed and sifted every incident connected 
with the King that had been accepted by many authori- 
ties as historically correct, though there was much re- 
corded to the discredit and dishonour of that Sovereign. 
He would write and rewrite chapters already completed 
in order to make them as faithful as possible, as more 
recent evidence was brought to light. Early in his life 
he had been convinced that the statements put forward 
by historians with reference to the change of dynasty 
from Plantagenet to Tudor, detrimental to the former, 
were absolute inventions, circulated by the followers 
and upholders of Henry VII. solely for political pur- 
poses. The picture drawn by them of Richard III. 
was, in his opinion, a travesty of the truth, and was a 
grotesque caricature grossly opposed to his real character 
as revealed by official records. He studied very care- 
fully all the chronicles relating to the subject, and the 
works of all authors of repute who had written on this 
particular topic during the last three centuries. The 
knowledge thus obtained only served to further convince 
him that Richard III. was a much maligned man. He 
consulted the most eminent historians in England, 
most of whom were inclined to agree with him, many 
urging him very strongly to proceed with his investiga- 
tions, and to give them publicity. The result of his 
labours was published in 1906, under the title of 
"Richard III.: His Life and Character "eight or 
nine years after he had taken the work in hand, so 
careful was he that it should not be brought out hurriedly 
or without due and careful inquiry and investigation. 
It is a fascinating book, and those who are interested 


in the chain of reasoning by which Clements Markham 
asserts the innocency of Richard in connection with 
the crimes that have been ascribed to him, will find it 
set forth in minute detail with Markham 's usual his- 
torical accuracy. 

Another work to which he was devoting much of 
his time was the " Tractatus de Globis," by the cele- 
brated mathematician, Robert Hues, which he was 
editing, and in a great measure translating from the 
Latin, for the Hakluyt Society. The first edition was 
published in Latin in 1594, and was dedicated to Sir 
Walter Raleigh. It gives a full description of the 
globes, both terrestrial and celestial, as they were known 
in those days. It explains their use and their construc- 
tion ; how to find the positions of the stars, the latitude 
and longitude of places on the earth; how to observe 
the meridian altitude of the sun, the variation of the 
compass, and everything appertaining to the navigation 
of a ship that was known at that time. Markham 
wrote a long, interesting, and learned introduction to 
this book, in which he traces the existence of globes to 
a period anterior to the Christian era, the oldest, made of 
metal, with the various heavenly constellations engraved 
on them, being attributed to Arabian astronomers. 

He was also very busy at this time making arrange- 
ments for the reception of Stanley on his return from 
his famous expedition across the Dark Continent. 
Indeed, Markham was never idle: he was always in 
quest of knowledge, always engaged in literary pursuits, 
yet always ready to hold out a helping hand to his 
friends, or to devote his time to their entertainment 
when they were able to come and see him in London. 


IN the spring of 1890 Markham and his wife started 
for a long tour in Sicily and Italy. 

They crossed over the island to study the grand ruins 
at Selinus and Girgenti. Syracuse crowned its fascina- 
tions by enabling him to add some rare coins to his 

From Syracuse they crossed over to Malta, and 
stayed at Admiralty House on a long-promised visit 
to their old friends, Sir Anthony and Lady Hoskins, 
where they met anew many old naval friends. Return- 
ing, they paid quite a long visit to charming Taormina, 
taking long walks in new directions every day. 

One day Markham started by himself for a long walk 
along the seashore. As he reached the sea, he met a 
couple of small children running towards him in a terri- 
fied manner, as if flying from an enemy or some savage 
animal. They entreated him to see them safely to 
their home, which was situated some distance up the 
hill, and in the opposite direction to that which he was 
pursuing. " So," as he says, " I had to go back the way 
I came." An appeal from a child, especially when 
frightened, was to him irresistible ! 

Taking the boat from Messina to Naples, they stayed 
at Castellamare and spent long days exploring the ruins 
of Pompeii and the surrounding country. Thence they 
journeyed to La Cava, Amain, Paestum, and then home 
by Rome and Paris. 

The change of the Commodore in the training squadron, 
after all, made little difference to Markham 's connection 



with it; for shortly after his return from abroad he 
went as the guest of the Captain of the Ruby on a 
cruise to Christiania and back. They were away about 
three weeks, quite long enough, however, for Markham 
to make himself acquainted with the newly appointed 
midshipmen in the various ships, and to make the usual 
excursions. At Christiania, moreover, he saw a good 
deal of his old friends, Dr. Nansen, Dr. Rink, Dr. Mohn, 
and other distinguished Norwegian men of science. 

On his return to England he found much fresh occu- 
pation for his pen. He completed an article on Peru 
which he was invited to write for " Chambers 's En- 
cyclopaedia," and also wrote monographs on Francisco 
and Gonzalo Pizarro for the same publication. Having 
completed his " Life of Richard III.," he was dis- 
satisfied with the conclusions he had arrived at, which 
he thought would not be sufficiently convincing to the 
general public or to historical experts. He therefore 
set to work to condense what he had written, and to 
bring the abridgment out as a lengthy essay in the 
English Historical Review. By this means he hoped 
to provoke criticism, and, by meeting it, to strengthen 
the proof of his theory before publishing the book. 

About this time he read a paper at the Royal United 
Service Institution, on the importance to naval officers 
of a knowledge of the origin and gradual development 
of the various instruments used in their profession, 
especially those dealing with navigation and nautical 
astronomy. This object, he thought, might be attained 
by establishing at Greenwich a collection of instruments 
from the earliest known examples of the astrolabe, 
quadrant, and sextant, besides books on navigation, 
maps, charts, etc. The suggestion was well received, 
and warmly supported by several distinguished naval 
officers and others, but, alas 1 nothing came of it. 

In the Arctic section of the Naval Exhibition held at 
Chelsea in 1891, he took a leading and active part. 
He also contributed an article to the Nautical Magazine 


on the desirability of promoting the higher education 
of officers in the mercantile marine. 

Among his many other activities at this time, he ac- 
cepted a seat on the governing board of the reformatory 
ship Cornwall, stationed in the Thames at Purfleet, and 
became a regular attendant at the board meetings. 

For some time he had been a martyr to gout, and this 
at last necessitated periodical visits to Homburg and 
Carlsbad to drink the waters. On the first of these 
visits he succeeded in so arranging his journey to 
Germany as to include places in Italy, Sicily, and other 
parts of Europe, that he was particularly anxious to 

In Sicily he made many excursions, always accom- 
panied by his wife, making Palermo his headquarters 
for exploration among the ancient ruins, such as Selinus, 
Segesta, Solutum (the old Sela of the Phoenicians), 
Trapani, and Nicolosi, invariably spending his last days 
in Sicily at lovely Taormina, with which he was always 
enchanted, and where he made many friends, especially 
among the country-people, who still revere his memory. 
He was much endeared to the children, who followed 
him about wherever he went. 

His journal contains graphic descriptions of every 
place he went to, giving elaborate details of the archi- 
tecture and decorations that still remained. He always 
regretted that his time was so short ; for there were many 
places at which " days might be spent very profitably 
and enjoyably," which for want of time he was unable 
to include in his itinerary. They succeeded, however, 
in putting in a few days at the beautiful island of Capri. 
Then through Italy into Germany, where he remained 
for three weeks undergoing his cure for gout ; then home, 
after an absence of four months. 

He was always a very active and leading member of 
the Westminster School Decoration Fund Committee, 
which had been formed for the purpose of placing the 
coats of arms of old Westminster boys on the walls 


of the great hall, so as to preserve their memories in 
perpetuity.* He also took great interest in, and rendered 
much assistance to, the charitable organisation that 
devoted itself to sending London boys of the working 
class to the seaside during the summer months. Any- 
thing that had for its object the amelioration of the lot 
of young people was sure to appeal to his generosity 
and to evoke his sympathy. 

His society was much in demand by his friends, not 
only on account of his great learning (for he was truly 
an animated encyclopaedia, and always ready to impart 
knowledge to others), but also because of the great 
charm of his personality. His was a most lovable 
nature, always kind and sympathetic, always happy 
and cheerful, and ready at all times to amuse others 
or to take part in their sports and games. In country- 
houses he was most welcome, for he was invariably 
the life and soul of the party. On one occasion he 
was staying at Oxford with an eminent historian 
who was associated with that University. In the 
evening a dinner-party was given in his honour, and 
several learned and distinguished professors were in- 
vited, with their wives and daughters. After dinner 
a lengthened debate ensued on some profound subject, 
when someone suggested that they should adjourn to 
the hall and play games. This was readily agreed to, 
and they played at " bean-bags " until it was time to 
go to bed. By a curious coincidence, the following 
day, being Sunday, they went to St. Mary's to hear 
the University sermon, in the course of which the 
preacher strongly denounced the excessive devotion 
of the present generation to the playing of games and 
other amusements I 

Markham was not disappointed at the sensation that 

* It is gratifying to be able to announce that the school authori- 
ties have decided to add the coat of arms of Sir Clements Markham 
to those of the other distinguished and eminent old Westminsters 
already painted in " school." 


was created by the appearance of his article on 
Richard III. in the English Historical Review, and at 
the criticisms, many of them very antagonistic, that it 
evoked. This was just what he wanted; but it gave 
him great occupation in replying to them all, and in 
sending a rejoinder to the magazine. At this time he 
was also engaged in preparing a paper that he had been 
requested to write for the Hygienic Congress, on " the 
suitability of tropical islands and mountains for the 
permanent abode of Europeans." In addition he was 
getting ready his notes for the writing of his " History 
of Peru." 

To add to this accumulation of work, he was now asked 
to write the Life of Columbus for a projected series on 
the " World's Great Explorers," which he gladly con- 
sented to do. 

To obtain all possible material at first hand, he visited 
Genoa, where he was introduced to the President of 
the Italian Geographical Society, who was also the 
President of the Congress that was shortly to be held to 
celebrate the fourth centenary of the departure of 
Columbus from Spain, on his first voyage of discovery 
to the West. From him Markham obtained manj^ 
details, and was put in the way of seeing various relics 
and treasures of Columbus that otherwise he would 
probably never have heard of. He was taken to the 
old church of San Stefano, in which Christoforo had 
been baptised. Hearing that an original portrait of 
the great navigator was in a private house at Como, he 
promptly went there, and had no difficulty in finding 
the house, where he was most civilly received and shown 
the picture. It represented a man of middle age with 
an exceedingly fine head and a most prepossessing 
appearance. The authenticity of this picture was 
indisputable, for its owner informed Markham that it 
had never left the family since it was painted ! 

On his return to England he gave several lectures 
on board the Worcester, principally associated with 


geographical work, also on the physical geography of 
the Eastern Archipelago in the Mediterranean. He 
was much gratified to hear that the Corporation of 
Liverpool had established at that port a municipal 
navigation school for the instruction of young officers 
belonging to the mercantile marine. It afforded him 
no small pleasure to know that his exertions during the 
past ten years to spread the teaching of navigation and 
nautical astronomy in this country were at length 
bearing fruit. At the same time he received official 
intimation that he had been elected a Vice-President of 
the Royal Geographical Society. 

Other projects which he was contemplating at this 
time were papers for the Geographical Society on 
Columbus (for which he had all the necessary data 
already to hand); on Vespucci Amerigo, after whom 
the great continent of America was named ; and Corte- 
Real, a Portuguese navigator who is reputed to have 
been the discoverer of Newfoundland and Labrador. 
Heavy as this undertaking was, and demanding all 
Markham's great powers of research, industry, and 
skill in writing, still, at the same time, he was invariably 
ready to tear himself away from his work in order to 
give pleasure to his friends; though time so lost had 
always to be made up by extra assiduity. 

Towards the latter end of the year (1892) we find him 
again in the Mediterranean, this time as the guest of the 
Rear-Admiral who was second in command of the 
station, with his flag flying on board the Trafalgar. 
On his way to join the ship, he had the disagreeable 
experience of undergoing quarantine at the island of 
Vido for four days, in consequence of the ship having 
touched at Brindisi, which had been proclaimed an 
infected port. 

On obtaining pratique he landed at Corfu for a couple 
of days, and then went on to Patras, where he found 
his cousin, Sir Edwin Egerton, who was British Minister 
at Athens, had come to meet him. In his company 


he proceeded to Olympia, where he spent a few days 
examining the ancient buildings laid bare by the 
excavations, and the artistic treasures that had been 
found, and are preserved in a Greek museum, con- 
structed in excellent taste, on the site. Markham was 
fascinated with the symbols of antiquity that sur- 
rounded him; and he confessed that no place sacred to 
ancient memories that he had ever visited not even 
the Incarial ruins in Peru had enabled him to visualise 
the scenes of antiquity so completely as had Olympia. 
Thence they travelled by Corinth on to Athens, where 
he spent an exceedingly interesting fortnight under the 
guidance of his friends at the British Legation, when 
he was able to add largely to his ever-increasing col- 
lection of ancient coins. He was also afforded the 
opportunity of visiting Mycenae and Tiryns, and other 
interesting places. 

At Nauplia he joined the Trafalgar, and made ac- 
quaintance with all her officers. The entire Mediter- 
ranean squadron, consisting of ten large battleships, 
with several cruisers and other auxiliary vessels, was 
assembled here; it was a most imposing and formidable 
fleet. He met many old friends, not only in the 
Trafalgar, but in almost every ship in the squadron. 
He was promptly made an honorary member of the ward- 
room mess, and was in constant demand by his old 
friends to visit them on board their ships, and also to 
arrange and conduct the many excursions that were 
made to historic sites. 

It was delightful to be with him on these occasions, 
for he was thoroughly versed in the mythological 
chronicles of each place visited, as well as in its actual 
history; and to his charm of manner he added the gift 
of awakening and imparting interest. Never was there 
any risk of being bored in his society, and it was always 
a great delight to listen to his stories and his quaint 
and amusing way of telling them. The battlefields of 
Thermopylae and Marathon were visited and thoroughly 


explored. In the famous pass at the former place they 
read, on the pedestal erected to the memory of Leonidas 
and his heroic followers, the famous inscription : 

to (feiv', ayyeAAeiv AaxeSat/ioviots on rySe 
Kei[j.fda rots Keivtav pijp.a.a-1 irti.66fj.6vot. 

(" Stranger ! tell the Spartans that we are lying here 
In obedience to their commands.") 

From Greece he visited Salonica, and several of the 
islands in the Levant, including Thasos and Lemnos. 
The former is the most beautiful and one of the most 
interesting islands in the ^Egean Sea; the latter is 
perhaps the most uninteresting and unprepossessing 
in appearance, but it has the advantage of possessing 
a fine land-locked harbour. Here the annual fleet 
regatta was held, an event in which Markham took 
the greatest interest, more especially if his particular 
friends were among the winning competitors. After 
leaving Lemnos, the fleet steamed away to the south- 
ward, passing close to the islands of Lesbos, Chios, 
Samos, and Cos, and anchored off the town of Budrum. 
This was the ancient Halicarnassus, the birthplace of 
Herodotus, and the site of the Mausoleum (one of the 
accepted seven wonders of the world) erected by 
Artemisia, the sister and wife of King Mausolus, who 
died about 353 B.C. 

The town at the time of Markham 's visit was small 
and unimportant. It consisted only of a few dilapi- 
dated whitewashed houses, in the centre of which rose 
the picturesque outline of the old castle of the Knights 
of Rhodes. Built by the Grand-Master Philibert de 
Naillac in about 1404, it is still in a marvellous state 
of preservation. It is said that it was partially con- 
structed of material obtained from the Mausoleum, of 
which no vestige now remains. Indeed, more of it 
is to be seen in the British Museum than can be found 
on the site of Halicarnassus I 

Here Markham found much to interest him and to 


occupy his time. He made a careful study of the 
castle and everything connected with it, and was able 
to decipher and describe the numerous coats of arms 
of the Knights, that adorned the walls. He wrote a 
complete description of the place and its history for a 
small periodical that was circulated among the ships 
of the fleet. 

On the arrival of the squadron at Malta, he left for 
England, travelling via Sicily and Rome, parting from his 
friends, after a six weeks' cruise, with mutual regret. 

On his arrival in England he was much gratified by 
receiving a letter from the Peruvian Minister of Foreign 
Affairs informing him that the Congress of Peru had 
unanimously voted him their gold medal, for the 
eminent services he had rendered to Peru, and for the 
continued interest he took in the welfare and prosperity 
of that country. 

At this time he was busily engaged in translating from 
the Spanish, and editing the first voyage of Columbus, 
which, with the shorter accounts of the voyages of the 
Cabots and Corte-Real, was to form one volume for the 
Hakluyt Society. He also compiled a paper for the 
Society of Antiquaries on the display of heraldry that 
he had seen and noted at Budrum Castle; as also a 
paper descriptive of ancient Greek and Roman coins, 
with types having special reference to the sea and naval 
subjects, designated " Naval Coins." As if the variety 
of subjects on which he was writing was not sufficient, 
he was at the same time engaged in writing an article 
on the " Discovery of Britain by Pytheas " and his own 
" Reminiscences of Westminster School." He was 
moreover preparing two lectures to be delivered to the 
boys of the Worcester on the Arctic Regions. 

To use a vulgar phrase, Markham was a glutton for 
work, and when that work was of a literary character 
his voracity was unappeasable. His natural aptitude 
for research, combined with a marvellous memory, 
enabled him the more readily to write on many different 


subjects at practically the same time. It was a gift, 
fortified by thoroughness in detail, an example of which 
may be illustrated by the trouble he took in working 
out the particular star that was situated nearest to the 
Pole in the Northern Hemisphere in the year 300 B.C., 
in order that he might insert this information in his 
" Discovery of Britain by Pytheas " ! 

Shortly after his return from the Mediterranean, he 
made another delightful trip to Italy with his wife, 
visiting Trent and Venice, and then on to Corfu, winding 
up, of course, with a long stay at his beloved Taormina. 
Here he received the intelligence that he had been elected 
President of the Royal Geographical Society. This 
was startling news ! He had never put himself forward 
as a possible candidate, and he had not the least idea, 
when he left England, that the existing President had 
any intention of vacating the office. After some 
hesitation and careful deliberation, he telegraphed his 
acceptance. It was a decision he never regretted. He 
knew that he would not be occupying " a bed of roses," 
for there had been much controversy of late, and a certain 
amount of testiness and dissension among the Fellows, 
regarding the admission of women as Fellows of the 
Society. At a general meeting of the members, summoned 
for the purpose of affirming and ratifying the rule passed 
by the Council, the motion was rejected by a majority 
of ten. This led to the resignation of the President, and 
the unanimous election of Markham to fill the vacant 
Presidential chair. It was a wise choice, both in the 
interests of geography and of the Society. With very 
few exceptions, the Presidents had been selected more 
as " figure-heads " than anything else ; very few had really 
possessed high geographical attainments. Now they 
had called to the chair one who might with perfect truth 
be called a professional geographer, a man whose know- 
ledge of everything appertaining to that science was 
second to none in the world; a man who had the best 
interests of geography (and of the Society) at heart. 



That it was a rational and judicious selection, his twelve 
long years of office abundantly testified. 

The appointment of Markham as President was, as 
a matter of fact, the presage of Antarctic exploration. 
For some time he had been imbued with the desirability, 
from a geographical standpoint, of promoting South 
Polar research ; and now he felt that he was in a position 
to advocate with some authority, the necessity for 
despatching an expedition with this object in view. He 
determined that it should be the first business he took 
in hand after he had assumed office. 

On his return to England he entered at once on his 
duties as President, bringing a keenness and knowledge 
of the details connected with the office that augured 
well for the future. He made many minor alterations 
in the internal economy of the Society, and instituted 
departmental rules and reforms especially with regard 
to the library and the issue of books that tended to 
promote the efficiency and usefulness of the various 
branches of the institution. 

It must not be thought that the changes he introduced 
were simply due to the advent of a " new broom." It 
must be remembered that for a period of a quarter of 
a century he had been very intimately associated with 
the Society as its Honorary Secretary; therefore he 
was familiar with its requirements, and in a position to 
estimate and appreciate its shortcomings. 

He was installed President of the Society on the 1 3th 
of November, 1893, and presided over the Council for 
the first time on that date. All his financial and other 
measures were passed without opposition, and the same 
evening he took his seat as President at the meeting 
and delivered his inaugural address. There was a large 
gathering, and he was very cordially received. 

The first official step that he took in connection with 
the renewal of Antarctic research was at his first Council 
meeting, immediately after his installation as President. 
He then appointed a committee to report upon matters 


bearing on the despatch of an Antarctic expedition. 
This was to pave the way for preparing the public and 
the Government for the South Polar exploration which 
it was intended should take a prominent part in the 
geographical agenda of the near future. It was followed 
(at the same meeting) by an excellent paper delivered by 
Dr. (afterwards Sir) John Murray, setting forth the 
arguments for the renewal of Antarctic discovery with 
vigorous force; his views were supported by many 
eminent men of science, and officers in the Navy who 
had served in Polar Regions. No dissentient voice was 
raised, and it was altogether a most successful meeting. 

From this time forward, until his object was gained, 
Antarctic research was urged by him as the one great 
geographical problem left for this country to solve ; and 
in its solution he was intensely interested. 

In his capacity as President, he felt it incumbent 
upon him to accept invitations to be present at the 
Manchester Geographical Society, where he read a 
paper on " Himalayan Trade Routes "; at Liverpool, 
where he delivered one on " Polar Exploration" ; and 
at Newcastle, where he read a paper on Peru before the 
Tyneside Geographical Society. While at Liverpool he 
gave an address to the cadets on board the Conway on 
"The West Coast of South America, including the Island 
of Juan Fernandez." At the meeting of the British 
Association at Nottingham, he read a paper descriptive 
of the boundary line dividing geology and geography, 
which caused an animated discussion. There was no 
limit to his writing on the diverse subjects of which he 
was master. 

Shortly after his assumption of office as President, 
he originated a celebration, by the Society, of the fourth 
centenary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator 
(son of King John of Portugal), who was distinguished 
for his encouragement of science, especially that of 
geography. At the club dinner prior to the meeting, he 
was honoured by the presence of H.R.H. the Duke of 


York, the Portuguese Minister, and other distinguished 
guests. The meeting was a great success, and admirable 
speeches were delivered ; telegrams were also exchanged 
between the Duke of York, the King of Portugal, and 
the Prince of Wales, who was abroad at the time. 
The theatre was crowded, the proceedings were not too 
long, and everybody was pleased. 

On the 28th of May he presided for the first time at 
the anniversary meeting, and delivered his address, 
taking the chair afterwards at the anniversary dinner. 
He was well supported at both, and everything went 
off satisfactorily. It may here be mentioned that, on 
his becoming President of the Geographical Club, 
he reinstituted the annual fish dinner of the club 
at the Ship Inn at Greenwich. It was a custom that 
of late years had fallen into desuetude. Its revival was 
very popular, and the outing was much looked forward 
to by the members of the club and their friends ! In 
addition to all his other multifarious obligations, he was 
also a very active member of the Council of the Navy 
Records Society. 

On a retrospect of his first year of office as President 
of the Geographical Society, he must have been eminently 
pleased with the results of his efforts. By his careful 
and judicious alteration, and rearrangement of some of 
the rules, he had given complete satisfaction ; discontent 
was expelled and harmony was restored. He had 
altered for the better the character of the annual 
Presidential address. Hitherto the awards, other than 
the medals, had been merely announced; but he in- 
stituted the formal presentation of them to all the 
recipients at the anniversary meetings, a proceeding that 
was much appreciated. He introduced a plan of 
appointing Fellows to committees, who were not on the 
Council a very wise procedure. He placed the finances 
of the Society on a sound and proper basis, and made 
many other useful reforms. This, it must be acknow- 
ledged, was a great deal to achieve during his first year 


of office, and it was accomplished in such a quiet, un- 
obtrusive way as to avoid irritation or provocation of 
any sort on the part of those who were inclined to be 
somewhat rebellious, or wedded to their own ideas of 
rule and government. 

On the 1 2th of July, 1894, ne went down to Green- 
hithe to bid farewell and good luck to the Jackson- 
Harmsworth expedition, which was leaving that day 
in the little steamer Windward for the purpose of ex- 
ploring towards the North Pole, by way of Franz 
Josef Land. 

In the early part of the year he suffered very much 
from his old complaint, gout; and, as he found that he 
had derived but little benefit from the waters of Carlsbad 
and Homburg, he decided to try the waters at Larvik 
in Norway, which had been strongly recommended 
to him. Here, in company with his wife, he spent 
several enjoyable weeks, for he found the scenery 
lovely, the climate delightful, the waters restorative, and 
the people charming. 

On passing through Christiania, the King of Sweden, 
hearing of his arrival, sent for him to the palace, and 
gave him a private interview. They had a long talk 
in connection with Arctic exploration and Nansen's 
prospects of success. They also discussed recent 
English naval affairs, and the lamentable political 
conditions existing in Norway, for which His Majesty 
expressed great concern. Mrs. Markham subsequently 
had audience of the Queen at Her Majesty's express 
desire; they having been friends in bygone days at 

During his long absence from home he occupied the 
greater part of his time in writing the " Life of Major 
James Rennell " for the Century Science Series. He 
was also preparing a lecture for the Worcester boys on 
the " Discoverers of Australia," and writing articles 
setting forth his views regarding the despatch of an 
Antarctic expedition. 


In the meantime satisfactory progress was being made 
in educating the public mind to the necessity of Polar 
exploration in the Southern Hemisphere. Markham 
drafted letters to be sent to all geographical and other 
learned societies in the kingdom, appealing to them 
for help and support. At a meeting of the Council 
of the British Association (of which he was a member), 
presided over by Lord Salisbury, a very satisfactory 
resolution was passed in support of the despatch of an 
expedition. He likewise delivered a lecture at the 
Imperial Institute, and another at the Royal United 
Service Institution, which were well supported; and 
everything pointed to his exertions being crowned with 
success. He was, moreover, very busy preparing for the 
International Geographical Congress, which was to be 
held in the Albert Hall in London, and of which he 
was to be the first President. 

Prior to this, however, he planned and arranged a 
Franklin Commemoration, which took the form of an 
excursion in a couple of steamers conveying about 280 
friends interested in Arctic research, from Westminster 
Bridge to Greenwich. They visited first the Franklin 
relics in the museum, and then inspected the pictures in 
the Painted Hall. They were received by the Admiral 
Superintendent and the Captain of Greenwich College. 
Lunch was provided on board the steamers on their 
return journey. In the evening a party of about seventy 
sat down to dinner at the Geographical Club, at which 
Markham presided, having H.R.H. the Duke of York 
on his right, and the American Ambassador, Mr. Bayard, 
on his left. At the meeting following, Markham 
delivered an interesting address, in which he made special 
allusion to the presence that evening of old Arctic 
officers and the relatives of Sir John Franklin. It was 
a very successful gathering, and it assisted very materi- 
ally in propagating interest in Polar research. 

This was followed, a week after, by the anniversary 
meeting of the Royal Geographical Society and all it 


entailed namely, the address, the presentation of 
awards, and the official reception in the evening at 
Prince's Hall, to which some 600 guests came. It all 
went off very well, but it was an exceedingly busy and 
fatiguing day for Markham. In order to obtain com- 
plete rest, and as a precaution to avoid a threatened 
attack of gout, he went to Norway, to prepare, and 
render himself fit for the duties that would devolve on 
him at the International Geographical Congress the 
following month. As he was to preside, the burden of 
the work in making all the necessary arrangements 
fell on his shoulders. He derived much benefit from his 
visit, and was back in England only a few days before 
the meeting of the Congress in fact, only in time to 
make all the preliminary arrangements for the opening 

H.R.H. the Duke of York had kindly consented to 
open the proceedings, and after all the Ambassadors 
and principal delegates from foreign countries had been 
presented to him, he made an admirable speech and 
declared the Congress open. This was followed by an 
address from Markham bidding them all welcome. 
All went off capitally and without a hitch. The follow- 
ing days were devoted to the reading of papers on im- 
portant geographical subjects, in various languages, 
and they were followed by interesting discussions. 
It was, as one of our leading London papers remarked 
at the time, " a very Babel of people speaking every 
civilised tongue." 

On the following day the President delivered his 
inaugural address. At its conclusion a warm vote of 
thanks was proposed by Prince Roland Buonaparte, 
which was duly seconded and unanimously agreed to. 
That evening the delegates, to the number of about 1 50, 
were entertained by the Geographical and Kosmos Clubs 
to a fish dinner at Greenwich, which Markham had 
arranged and at which he presided. During the nine 
days on which the Congress met, there was a succession 


of luncheons, dinner-parties, garden-parties, and other 
entertainments, in honour of the distinguished guests. 
As may be imagined, the President was kept fully 
engaged both socially and in his position as the English 
representative of geography, much, it is to be feared, 
to the prejudice of his recent podagric treatment. 

The Congress came to an end on the 3rd of August, 
when Markham delivered his farewell address, which 
was most cordially received. A vote of thanks was 
proposed to him in an excellent speech, and the pro- 
ceedings terminated, after arrangements had been made 
for the next Congress to be held in Berlin in 1899. It 
had been a week of strenuous work and much anxiety 
to the President, but it all went off very well; and as 
regards numbers, quality, and organisation, it was the 
most successful Congress that had ever been held. 
This success was due to the untiring energies of Clements 
Markham, his great tact in dealing with his foreign 
guests, and his powers of organisation, in which he 
was loyally backed up by the zeal and energy of the staff 
of the Geographical Society. In recognition of his 
services at the Congress, the French Government 
presented him with a beautiful blue Sevres tazza. 

On the day after the closing of the Congress, we find 
him hard at work writing the introduction to his 
" Voyages of Pedro de Sarmiento," which he was 
translating and editing for the Hakluyt Society. 


THE conversations he had with the various delegates 
to the International Congress only convinced Markham 
still more, if possible, of the desirability for a renewal 
of Antarctic discovery. He came to the conclusion 
that the wisest in fact, the only course to pursue, 
in order to obtain Government support, was to appeal 
directly to the First Lord of the Admiralty. This accord- 
ingly he did, pointing out the advantages that would 
be derived from a further knowledge of the South Polar 
Regions, the verification of the dimensions of the vast 
Antarctic Continent, and the invaluable scientific work 
that would be accomplished . Nor did he omit to mention 
the enormous benefit that would accrue to the Navy, 
by the practical training of officers in a school where 
courage, self-reliance, decision, and other qualities so 
essential to a seaman, would be developed. The reply 
from the First Lord, however, was not encouraging; 
he simply declined to recommend the despatch of an 
expedition under Admiralty auspices. 

Although disappointed, Markham was not daunted, 
and he was all the more determined to renew his appli- 
cation immediately a more favourable opportunity 
should present itself. 

At this time he was much incensed at what he termed 
the outrageous message sent to Congress by the President 
of the United States, demanding the right to adjudicate 
on the disputed question regarding the boundary line 
between British Guiana and Venezuela, which the latter 
nation had raised. Markham regarded the claim put 



forward by the Venezuelans as a criminal act, which, 
if sustained, would cause widespread ruin, and even the 
risk of war with no apparent justification. He made 
extensive research in all official and other authoritative 
documents, maps, atlases, and plans, which bore on 
the controversy; and proved conclusively that Guiana 
belonged to Great Britain by right of discovery, and that 
no portion of it, therefore, could be legitimately claimed 
by Venezuela. He drew up a concise and comprehensive 
report on the state of affairs and submitted it to the 
Government, suggesting that, if there was any doubt 
as to the accuracy of his statements, the whole question 
should be referred to arbitration. He wrote long letters 
to The Times and other papers in which he analysed 
the fallacious claims of the Venezuelan Government, 
while deprecating the uncalled-for interference of the 
United States. These were duly accepted and published. 
It is gratifying to know that the boundary with Vene- 
zuela was eventually (in 1899) amicably determined by 
arbitration. That with Brazil has never yet been 
satisfactorily fixed. 

On the 1 8th of May, 1896, he received the following 
letter from the Prime Minister : 


" I am very glad to be permitted to inform you 
that Her Majesty has conferred upon you the Knight 
Commandership of the Bath in recognition of your 
great services to geographical science. As one who 
worked with you in a public office, as much (I think) 
as thirty years ago, I cannot but congratulate myself 
on being the channel of this information. 

" Believe me, 

" Yours very truly, 


This was very gratifying, and he was glad to receive 
such an acknowledgment of his services to geography 
from so high a quarter. Two months afterwards he 


was knighted and invested with the insignia of a K.C.B., 
by the Queen at Windsor Castle. 

In the meantime he again accompanied his old friend 
the Captain of the Royal Sovereign on a cruise along the 
west coast of Scotland, visiting some of the islands of 
the Hebrides and the Orkneys. From Oban he made 
an expedition to the summit of Ben Nevis, with a party 
from the fleet. They seem to have had a very enjoy- 
able trip, including a sumptuous lunch in the observatory 
at the top. 

A note on the Cathedral of St. Magnus at Kirkwall 
may be quoted from Markham's journal. To his taste, 
the beauty of the whole was marred by the chancel, 
which he considered " utterly desecrated by all the 
barbarisms of a Presbyterian conventicle I" 

As usual, even at sea, his pen was constantly at work. 
Not only was he busily employed in writing the his- 
tory of English maritime discovery for Laird Clowes 's 
" History of the Navy," but he was also correcting the 
proof-sheets of the only novel he ever published, entitled 
" The Paladins of King Edwin." In addition he had to 
reply to no less than 200 letters of congratulation on 
his K.C.B. He had also been approached by a publisher 
with a proposal that he should edit a series of volumes 
on " Commercial Geography." Still, however varied 
the subjects with which he had to deal at the same time, 
Clements Markham had the gift of evolving order, 
method, and entertainment, from their complexity. 

11 The Paladins of King Edwin," alluded to above, 
was an historical novel describing how the new race of 
Empire-founders, Angles and Saxons, crossed over to 
England in small detachments during the hundred 
years between 450 and 550 A.D., bringing all their 
lares and penates and their beautiful golden-haired wives 
and children with them across the North Sea in their 
small " dragon ships." It is a story to be read not 
only for its historical interest, but for its local colour- 
ing ; and as he selected Stillingfleet, the village in which 


he was born and lived for so many years, as the scene 
of his story, we may rest assured that the topographical 
description of the country is absolutely accurate. 

Sir Clements and Lady Markham were paying one 
of their annual visits to Norway, when the welcome 
news of the arrival of Nansen at Vardo was telegraphed, 
and a few days after, intelligence of the arrival of the 
Fram was received. All Norway was stirred by the 
news. The towns were decorated, great fetes were 
held in honour of the event. The Markhams made 
their arrangements so as to be at Christiania in time 
to receive Nansen. There was a great reception: the 
streets were all decorated with flags, the King made a 
special point of being present, and enormous crowds 
had collected to greet the explorer. 

A dinner was given at the palace, to which Mark- 
ham was invited; about 100 sat down. During the 
dinner His Majesty made a long speech, which Markham 
noted as eloquent, judicious, and admirably delivered. 
Afterwards the King invited Markham to sit with him 
on a sofa, and they had a long conversation on Polar 

The next day, Markham and his wife went on board 
the Fram, where Nansen received them and showed them 
all over the ship. In the evening another large dinner 
on shore was given by the town of Christiania, to which 
they were both invited and went. On the third evening 
yet another dinner was given by the Norwegian Geo- 
graphical Society, at which Clements Markham was 
seated next to Nansen, and delivered a speech, which 
gave great pleasure and satisfaction to the Norwegians. 
The festivities were kept up to a late hour. The follow- 
ing day they dined quietly with Nansen and his wife 
at their home in Lysaker, and then returned to England 
by way of Copenhagen and Kiel. 

At this time he was busily occupied in compiling his 
" Memorials of the Markham Family," which entailed 
much labour and research. The Antarctic project was 


also causing him much concern. In the latter end of 
1896, he had an interview with the First Lord of the 
Admiralty on the subject of South Polar exploration. 
After some little discussion, he elicited the fact that 
although the Admiralty was not unfavourable to the 
scheme, yet for various reasons (which certainly did 
not appeal to Markham) the Government was not 
prepared to despatch an expedition. Markham then 
asked -whether, if a sufficient sum of money could be 
collected by private subscriptions to defray the expenses 
of an expedition under the control of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, the Admiralty would assist by lending 
officers and men, and would support it with a donation 
of money, and advice. To this proposal the First Lord 
readily assented, but requested that Markham should 
write him a letter embodying his views and suggestions, 
on the receipt of which he would be officially informed 
how far the Government would be prepared to support 
him in the direction indicated. 

This was all very satisfactory so far as it went, for it 
evinced a desire on the part of the Admiralty to co- 
operate with the Geographical Society in the despatch 
of an expedition. At a meeting of the Council of the 
Society, Markham explained the situation, and proposed 
that, as the Government would not entertain the idea 
of equipping a ship for Polar discovery, the Society 
should take upon itself the responsibility of collecting 
funds and despatching a vessel (if sufficient money was 
obtainable) under the auspices of the Society. There 
was a certain amount of opposition to this proposal 
on the part of one of the members, and it was postponed 
for further consideration. Later he received a visit 
from the private secretary of the First Lord, who in- 
timated that a letter was being prepared at the 
Admiralty, expressive of the approval and interest of 
H.M.'s Government in the despatch of an Antarctic 
expedition. A few days after, the reply from the 
Admiralty was received. It was not quite so encouraging 


as might have been expected, but it was of use for 
present purposes. 

Meanwhile, Nansen's visit to England kept Markham 
fully occupied for some time. He had to make all the 
necessary arrangements for Nansen's reception both 
officially and privately. The great explorer was first 
entertained at dinner at the Royal Societies' Club, at 
which Markham presided and proposed his health. 
This was followed by a large reception " a fearful 
crush !" On the following evening Sir Clements and 
Lady Markham entertained him at dinner in their own 
house in Eccleston Square, to which a select number of 
notabilities had been invited. The next evening Mark- 
ham presided at a large dinner given to their distin- 
guished visitor by the Royal Geographical Club, at 
which the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York were 
both present. A large public reception at the Albert 
Hall followed, the hall being crowded. On being intro- 
duced by Clements Markham, Nansen received a tre- 
mendous ovation and delivered an admirable address 
descriptive of his journey. The Prince of Wales in a 
few appropriate words presented Nansen with the Royal 
Geographical Society's special gold medal amid tumul- 
tuous applause. Nansen briefly responded, and the 
proceedings terminated. 

A few days later Markham was also called upon to 
preside at a farewell dinner given by the Royal Societies' 
Club to Mr. Bayard, the retiring American Ambassa- 
dor, who had endeared himself to this country by his 
courteousness, his ever ready willingness to be of service, 
his urbanity and generosity. 

Markham then had a short cruise on board the Royal 
Sovereign to Vigo and Gibraltar with the Channel 
Squadron. Here he again met young Robert Scott, 
who was then a lieutenant, and with whom he doubtless 
had much interesting discussion on Antarctic exploration, 
a subject ever uppermost in his thoughts. 

On his return to England he set to work vigorously 


to obtain the necessary funds for the contemplated 
expedition. A sum of at least 100,000 was regarded 
as the minimum. He brought forward a resolution 
at the Council of the Royal Geographical Society, 
committing that body to a subscription of 5,000, which 
was carried with unanimity. Mr. Harmsworth offered 
a personal donation of 5,000, together with the use 
of his steamship Windward if necessary. This vessel 
had been specially built for ice navigation, and 
had been engaged in conveying Mr. Jackson and his 
party to and from Franz Josef Land. With such a 
munificent offer from Mr. Harmsworth, together with 
his strong and willing support in the Press, Markham 
felt assured that the amount required would be forth- 
coming, and his anxiety was proportionately allayed. 

In the midst of all his work, he found time to proceed 
to Nithsdale in Dumfriesshire, for the purpose of un- 
veiling the memorial dedicated to Mr. Joseph Thompson, 
the African traveller. 

His first step towards the realisation of his great 
object was the appointment of an Antarctic Committee 
which should consist of those specially interested in, 
and conversant with, Polar exploration. At a con- 
ference held by this committee, Markham considered 
it would be judicious to invite the Australian Premier 
and Agents-General to be present, in order to enlist 
their sympathies. He was warmly supported in his 
advocacy of the necessity for despatching an expedition 
by the Duke of Argyll and such prominent men of 
science as Sir Joseph Hooker, Sir William Flower, and 
Professor Rlicker. The Agents-General of New South 
Wales and Victoria spoke hopefully and in sympathy with 
the object in view. Everything went off satisfactorily. 
Being now assured of a certain amount of support, 
moral if not financial, Markham set to work to obtain 
the necessary funds with that impulsive energy that was 
so prominent a characteristic of his. He appealed 
broadcast to learned arid other societies, and he wrote 


letters innumerable to those who he thought could 
afford and would be willing to assist, whether he was 
acquainted with them or not. He succeeded also in 
inducing the Royal Society to co-operate with the 
Geographical Society. A strong Antarctic Committee 
was formed, consisting of members of both Societies, 
with a large sprinkling of naval and Arctic officers, 
having the President of the Royal Society, Lord Lister, 
as its chairman. Markham himself acted as vice- 
chairman, and took every step he could possibly think 
of to raise funds. He even went over to Norway to 
inspect various steamers that had been specially con- 
structed for ice navigation, which he thought might be 
suitable for the purpose. During this journey he was 
accompanied by Dr. Nansen whose advice and experience 
were of the greatest value and help to him. 

Having once put his shoulder to the wheel, Markham 
never relaxed his energies. He contributed articles to 
the magazines, he wrote letters to the papers, he delivered 
lectures in short, he left no stone unturned in his en- 
deavour to educate the public to the necessity for 
Antarctic research. He went so far as to write and ask 
if the Queen would be graciously pleased to interest 
herself in the expedition, and received a most gratifying 
reply from her private secretary informing him that Her 
Majesty " wished all possible success to the Antarctic 

In order to illustrate the immense amount of work 
that was thrust upon him at this time, it may be stated 
that he was simultaneously President of the Royal 
Geographical Society, President of the Hakluyt Society, 
President of the International Geographical Congress, 
President of the Geographical Club, President of the 
Royal Societies' Club, a Commissioner of the Paris 
Exhibition, a member of the committee of the Worcester, 
a member of the committee of the Cornwall, Vice- 
President and Secretary of the joint Antarctic Com- 
mittee, Vice-President of the Navy Records Society, 


and President of the Elizabethan Club, to name a few of 
the associations and societies in which he was interested. 
He was also arranging at this time for the commemora- 
tion of the fourth centenary of the rounding of the 
Cape of Good Hope by Vasco da Gama during his 
memorable voyage to India. The Prince of Wales and 
the Duke of York honoured him with their presence 
at dinner at the Geographical Club, as did His Excellency 
the Portuguese Minister. There was a crowded meet- 
ing afterwards, when felicitous speeches were made 
at the conclusion of the President's address. Two 
days afterwards Markham was the principal guest of 
the " Royal Navy Club of 1765," where he had the 
pleasure of meeting several old friends and shipmates. 
A few days later he presided at the dinner given by the 
Royal Societies' Club to Lord Curzon, on his appoint- 
ment as Viceroy of India. But it would be tedious 
to detail the enormous amount of work that devolved 
upon him. He had much to do and more to think 
about, and he never spared himself. 

At this time the Swedish Minister, Count Lewen- 
haupt, brought him the insignia of a Commander 
(First Class) of the Order of the Pole Star,* which had 
been conferred upon him by the King of Sweden. 

By the end of the year 1898 he had collected only 
the sum of 14,000, and had many difficulties and much 
opposition to contend with on the part of some of the 
members of the committee, who, in his phrase, only 
cared about, and were more interested in, the " grinding 
of their own particular axes " that is, in the further- 
ance of their own special branches of science than they 
were in the expedition at large. To Markham, who had 
worked at the problem for a period of over sixteen years, 
and without whom the despatch of an expedition would 
never have taken place, this opposition was, to say the 
least, discouraging. He had drawn up the instructions 
after infinite trouble, and had taken no small pains in 

* This order is conferred for literary or scientific distinction. 



organising the expedition in the best interests of geo- 
graphical science and the encouragement of maritime 
enterprise. But he was not a man to be discouraged 
by opposition, and in course of time the real direction 
of affairs remained under his control. 

In September, 1899, he went to Berlin to attend the 
International Geographical Congress, in order to render 
an account of his stewardship as President, and in a 
short speech resigned his office. On the following day 
he read his paper on Arctic exploration, which was well 
received and discussed. The Burgomaster of Berlin 
entertained the delegates at a large banquet to which 
1,300 guests sat down. The next evening there was a 
great party given by Baron Richthofen, who succeeded 
Markham as President of the Congress. It was a great 
relief to him when the festivities terminated and he was 
able to return to England. 

Only a passing reference need be made to Markham 's 
very keen interest in the progress of the Boer War, 
for he played no public part in connection with it. 
Privately, however, it touched him closely, for not only 
had he many friends both in the Navy and in the 
Army who were serving in South Africa, but also 
many relatives. 

For a holiday he spent many weeks travelling in 
Norway, visiting places as remote as possible from the 
haunts of " trippers " ! He dearly loved the Scandi- 
navian countries, especially Norway. Accompanied 
by Lady Markham, he made a most delightful trip 
through the Stavanger and Hardanger Fiords to Odda 
and Brief ond. They thoroughly enjoyed the grand 
and lovely mountainous scenery through which they 
travelled, sometimes in a carriage, more often on foot, 
climbing steep hills, enjoying the invigorating air, the 
absence of all formalities, and the simplicity of their 
surroundings. Both being keen botanists, they were 
able to make an extensive collection of the wild-flowers 
which they gathered on the slopes of the mountains. 


These were all tabulated and classified on their return 
to the inns at which they were staying. They rarely 
remained more than a day or two in the same place, 
always on the move, happy in each other's company, 
and winning the affection of the peasantry by their 
kind and friendly intercourse with them. 

Returning by way of Christiania, they met the Duke 
of the Abruzzi and Captain Cagni, on their way home 
from their successful expedition towards the North 
Pole. The Duke was most cordial, and expressed his 
pleasure at meeting so celebrated an authority on Polar 
exploration as Clements Markham. He showed him all 
the photographs he had taken in his highest northern 
position, and they had an interesting discussion on Polar 
questions generally. At the University of Christiania, 
Markham delivered a lecture before the Norwegian 
Geographical Society to a crowded audience. His 
subject was " The Geographical Aspects of Inca Civili- 

We must now return to the contemplated Antarctic 
Expedition. In the early part of 1899, Markham 
received a most gratifying letter from Mr. L. W. Long- 
staff, placing the sum of 25,000 at his disposal for 
the expedition. This was not only in itself a munificent 
gift, but it was such as justified Markham, having now 
nearly 40,000 in his possession, to approach the Govern- 
ment with confidence and ask for monetary assistance. 
Mr. Longstaff's noble and patriotic gift altered the whole 
position of affairs and led to important results. Mr. 
Balfour consented to receive a deputation, and, to cut 
a long story short, the Prime Minister cordially an- 
nounced that the Government would contribute the 
sum of 45,000 on condition that an equal amount 
was forthcoming from other sources. This was indeed 
encouraging. Only 3,000 was required to make up 
the amount necessary to secure the Government grant, 
and on Markham's appeal to the Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society, that enlightened body unani- 


mously consented to subscribe the money required. 
Another appeal was made to the public, and in August, 
1901, he had the satisfaction of announcing that the 
total subscribed to the fund amounted to 93,000. 

Now that the expedition had become an actual fact, 
there was much work for Markham to do; for the re- 
sponsibility in connection with the supplies, the food 
and clothing sufficient to last for a period of three 
years, rested on his shoulders. The appointments of 
the Commander (and leader) of the expedition, and the 
other officers, devolved upon him. It was agreed that 
the majority of the officers and crew were to be naval 
men specially selected by Markham and approved by 
the Admiralty. There were also two medical men to 
be appointed, as well as a biologist, a physicist, and a 
geologist, all of whom would be civilians. 

The Prince of Wales kindly consented to become the 
Patron of the expedition, and the Duke of York willingly 
accepted the position of Vice-Patron. 

Robert Falcon Scott, now promoted to the rank of 
Commander, was specially selected with the other ex- 
ecutive officers by Markham. All were well known to 
him, and he had the highest opinion of their capabilities 
and qualifications. 

As no suitable vessel was obtainable, it was decided 
to build one specially adapted for the service on which 
she was to be employed. Accordingly, this was 
arranged, at a cost of about 45,000. She was 
built at Dundee under the superintendence of a Chief 
Constructor of the Admiralty, Mr. Smith, who also 
designed her. The cost of this vessel made a large 
inroad into the sum at their disposal, but it could not 
be helped. As the ship was not a man-of-war, or even 
under the Naval Discipline Act (she came under the 
Merchant Shipping Act), it was necessary that she should 
have a registered owner. It was decided that the 
Royal Geographical Society should be the owners, 
and that Markham should be the nominal manager. 


To face page 329. 


He designed a " house flag " to be hoisted at the mast- 
head, and also devised sledge flags to be used by the 
officers when away on sledging duties. An insurance 
policy was taken out in order to guard against all risks. 

The ship was launched on the 2ist of March, 1901, 
by Lady Markham, and was named the Discovery. 
She sailed from Dundee on the 3rd of June and arrived 
at the East India Docks on the 6th, the " managing 
director " being a passenger on board. As the ship 
passed the Worcester in the Thames, the cadets swarmed 
up the rigging and gave three rousing cheers, meant, 
in all probability, as much for their friend Sir Clements 
as for the gallant fellows who were about to start on a 
perilous voyage to unknown regions. 

Elaborate instructions were drawn up for the guidance 
of the officers and men, and these were given to Captain 
Scott by Markham himself; but there was a certain 
amount of discretionary power vested in the leader 
of the expedition in the event of the instructions con- 
flicting in any way with local circumstances, or the un- 
expected discovery of new territory or seas, that would 
necessitate a change of plans. The spirit of the in- 
structions was, " Trust implicitly to the Commander, 
and always look to him for advice and guidance when in 
doubt or difficulty." 

" By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done, and great discoveries made." 

Space does not admit of entering more fully into the 
details connected with the equipment and the departure 
of the Discovery on her long and hazardous voyage 
towards the South Pole. Markham was in every way 
to be congratulated on the Commander he had selected, 
and, indeed, he had the most perfect confidence in his 
zeal and capabilities. Although only a comparatively 
young officer, Scott at once assumed responsibility, 
and evinced a grasp of his duties that was most re- 
markable. He brought to the work an active and 


capable mind blended with sound judgment. In his 
dealings with those under his command, he combined 
unfailing tact and a conciliatory bearing with firmness 
and resolution. He proved to be an excellent organiser, 
sympathetic to those serving under him, and a born 
leader of men. Markham was indeed fortunate in 
being able to secure the services of one who, it could be 
truthfully said, possessed 

" The reason firm, the temperate will, 
Endurance, foresight, strength and skill." 

The Discovery sailed from the Thames on the 3ist 
of July, 1901, amid the cheers of several hundred people 
who had assembled to wish her Godspeed. She anchored 
in Stokes Bay, near Gosport, at 8 p.m. the following 
day, Clements Markham having come round in her from 

On the 5th of August the Discovery steamed round 
to Cowes, where she was visited by King Edward and 
Queen Alexandra. The officers were presented to Their 
Majesties, who subsequently inspected the men. They 
were then shown round the ship, expressing their 
approval of the arrangements. The King expressed 
to Markham his high opinion of Captain Scott's fitness 
for the command. He then invested Scott with the 
Victorian Order, a graceful act intended to mark, in a 
special way, the keen interest taken by His Majesty 
in the work of the Commander and his gallant com- 
panions, as well as in the success of the great enterprise 
of which he was the Patron. The officers and men 
being assembled on the quarter-deck, King Edward 
addressed them as follows : 

" Commander Scott, officers and men of the Discovery, 
I have had great pleasure in visiting this ship with the 
Queen, because pi the interest I take in the Antarctic 
Expedition and its objects, and in order to wish you all 
Godspeed. You are going on a service from which, I 
believe, great results will accrue. I have often visited 
ships in order to say farewell when departing on warlike 


service; but you are starting on a mission of peace, and 
for the advancement of scientific knowledge. The 
results of your labours will be valuable, not only to 
your country, but to the whole civilised world. I trust 
that you will be able to achieve the great work that is 
before you, and that you will all return safe and well." 

Before leaving, Their Majesties presented signed 
portraits of themselves to the wardroom mess. The 
Discovery sailed the next forenoon after the officers had 
taken a warm and affectionate farewell of their devoted 
friend Clements Markham. 

He might well be proud at the result of his exertions. 
The eyes of the scientific world would, he knew, follow 
with interest the proceedings of the good ship Discovery, 
and she was practically the creation of his brain, the 
product of his persistent energy. He had selected in- 
dividually the gallant explorers and sent them forth on 
a glorious enterprise, to fight with no mortal foe, but 
the more formidable powers of Nature. Markham had 
done his utmost to deserve success; it now lay with 
those he had despatched to achieve the successful issue 
he anticipated. 

In the midst of all his Antarctic work, he yet found 
time to turn his attention to other matters at home. 
Feeling the necessity of geographical knowledge, being 
more widely disseminated in the country, and especially 
at our recognised educational centres, he succeeded in 
arranging with the authorities that a school for geography 
should be founded at Oxford University. The example 
set by this University was followed by many of the other 
centres of education in England. He found time, also, 
to run down to Southampton for the purpose of in- 
augurating the new local Geographical Society at that 

At about this time he was unanimously elected one 
of the thirteen trustees of Dr. Busby's Charity, a body 
specially selected from the most distinguished of the 
old Westminster boys. This mark of distinction coming 


from his old school was most gratifying to him, for he 
was the first of the Markham family to be selected for 
the honour since his great-grandfather the Archbishop 
of York, who was appointed trustee in 1756, and who 
retained the position until his death in 1807. Shortly 
after, he was elected a member of the governing body 
of Westminster School. 

The reports received as to the prosperity of the cin- 
chona plantations in India caused him great pleasure 
and satisfaction. To say nothing of the benefits accus- 
ing to humanity, a profit of no less than 250,000 had 
been made by the Indian Government since the intro- 
duction of the febrifuge into our Indian possessions. It 
was a glorious triumph, an almost incredible result. 

No sooner had the Discovery left England, than 
Markham turned his attention to the necessity of pre- 
paring a relief ship to be despatched with the object of 
obtaining news of Scott's expedition the following year. 
During one of his visits to Christiania, he arranged for 
the purchase of a vessel named the Morning. She had 
been originally engaged as a whaler in Baffin's Bay, and 
was therefore specially adapted for the service. Mark- 
ham bought her on most favourable terms. She was 
sent over to England at once, to be prepared for her 
important work, and was placed under the command 
of Mr. W. Colbeck, an officer of the mercantile marine 
who had already gained experience in ice navigation, 
and was a most capable and energetic commander. 

Markham 's time was now fully occupied in endeavour- 
ing to raise the funds for her equipment. He wrote to 
everyone he could think of as likely to subscribe, but, 
as he himself quaintly expresses it, " the rich when 
applied to only button up their pockets, and the poor 
have no money to spare." Mr. Longstaff was, however, 
an exception to this rule, for he again unbuttoned his 
pockets, and sent a handsome donation of 5,000 to 
head the list and set an example ! Markham was then 
sentjfor by the Prince of Wales at York House, who was 


anxious to know if steps had been taken for the despatch 
of a relief ship ; if not, no time was to be lost in doing so. 
The Prince was much relieved on hearing what had 
been done. He then discussed the question of funds, 
and indicated certain sources that might be tapped 
with advantage. He also intimated that the King 
would gladly subscribe 100 towards the fund, and that 
he himself would give 50. He took a keen interest in 
the success, and especially in the safety of the expedition, 
and the interview was of a most cordial and satisfactory 
nature. Furthermore, His Royal Highness continued to 
make frequent inquiries as to the progress of the fund. 

Eventually a sum of about 23,000 was collected, 
but this was barely sufficient to pay expenses. Neither 
the Government nor the Admiralty would render any 
further financial assistance. The vessel, however, sailed 
from London on its errand of mercy on the zoth of July, 
1902, with the object of communicating, if possible, 
with the Discovery. 

Markham was now satisfied that he had taken every 
possible means to insure communication with Captain 
Scott, and every precaution to secure the safety of the 
officers and men, in the unfortunate event of any dis- 
aster befalling their ship. Nothing more was possible, 
and he was content to wait patiently for news. 

It is not to be supposed that, in the equipment and 
despatch of the two ships, Markham 's life was an easy 
or tranquil one. In the various committees that had 
been formed for the purpose of drawing up instructions 
for the guidance of Captain Scott, there were many 
whose ideas as to the general management and scope 
of the expedition differed from those which Markham 
had originally designed. This friction caused him a 
good deal of worry, and it led eventually to the re- 
signation of several members of the committee who were 
unable to support the views of the recalcitrant members. 
The opposition was of such a nature as almost to 
threaten the success of the expedition. It reached such 


a point that Markham seriously contemplated sending 
in his resignation, and he was only deterred from doing 
so by his strong sense of duty to those who had supported 
him in collecting the funds, and had otherwise assisted 
him in the promotion of the enterprise. He felt that to 
desert them at this juncture would possibly result in 
the failure and destruction of the principal work for 
which the expedition had been originally designed. 

It was extremely fortunate, in the best interests of 
science, that Markham stood to his guns in the carrying 
out of the programme which he had arranged. It must not 
be forgotten that the idea of the despatch of the expedi- 
tion was his inception; that it was through his energy 
and persistence that the necessary funds were obtained ; 
and that it was consequent upon his position and reputa- 
tion as a geographer and a man of science, that the 
Government had been induced to contribute to the 
expenses and to take a large share in the responsibility 
of its despatch. His resignation from the governing 
body would have been a calamity, involving in all 
probability the shipwreck of the whole scheme. Fortu- 
nately this was avoided ; concessions were made on both 
sides, harmony was preserved, and Markham remained, 
and continued to be the leading spirit in the conduct of 
the enterprise in which he took such keen interest. 


IN March, 1903, a cablegram from New Zealand an- 
nounced the welcome intelligence that the Morning 
had arrived, and that she had succeeded in communi- 
cating with the Discovery. All was well with the 
expedition, successful work had been accomplished by 
her during the summer, and one of her sledging-parties 
under Scott had reached the latitude of 82 if S. 
Unfortunately, the vessel was helplessly frozen in the 
ice in MacMurdo Sound, where she had passed the winter, 
and it would be almost impossible to extricate her that 
year. Captain Scott had decided, therefore, to remain 
out for another winter; in fact, he could not do other- 
wise unless he abandoned his ship. 

Markham was delighted at the good news, and re- 
joiced in the knowledge of the safety of the ship and 
crew. He was also pleased that another year of good 
exploring work would be accomplished, and he looked 
forward to most satisfactory results. But there is 
always the inevitable " but " in cases of this sort 
where was the money to come from, with which to 
provide for the additional expenses that would neces- 
sarily be incurred by having to despatch the Morning 
a second time ? 

Where indeed ? 

It was a difficulty, but it had to be faced ; and with his 
usual energy and pertinacity he set about to overcome it. 

Naturally, his first appeal was to the Government, 
who, to his intense surprise, decided, after much corre- 
spondence, to undertake the relief, but only on condition 


336 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

that the Morning was placed entirely and absolutely at 
the disposal of the Admiralty. This plan did not meet 
with Markham's approval, but " beggars cannot be 
choosers," and he was obliged to accept the terms of 
the Government ; for he felt that, as the lives of the men 
were at stake, and the prospect of raising the money 
on his own responsibility was somewhat problematical, 
it was the only course he could conscientiously pursue. 
From that moment the responsibility for the succour of 
the men was removed from his shoulders, but his interest 
in the expedition was in no way diminished. 

At length, after long anxious waiting, news was 
received on the 2nd of April, 1904, of the safe arrival 
at Lyttelton, New Zealand, of the Discovery and Morn- 
ing. There was also a long telegram from Captain 
Scott reporting that the second sledging season was as 
successful as the first, and had yielded equally important 
results; besides which, valuable dredging and sounding 
operations had been carried out after leaving winter- 
quarters. Markham was delighted at the success of 
the expedition, for it had exceeded his wildest hopes, 
but above all he rejoiced in the knowledge of the safety 
of the ships and all on board, after the anxiety and 
strain caused by the long silence. Markham regarded 
the work achieved by Scott in the second travelling 
season as a valuable corollary to the work accomplished 
during the first season, thereby doubling the value and 
importance of the general scientific results obtained. 
He paid a high and richly deserved tribute of praise to 
the Commander " whose rare gifts have secured these 

The Discovery arrived at Portsmouth on the loth 
of September. Sir Clements and Lady Markham were 
there to see her come in, and they were almost the first 
to go on board and bid them all a hearty welcome. Mark- 
ham had an enthusiastic reception from the officers and 
men. All were in splendid health and spirits, delighted to 
get home, and happy in the knowledge that they had 


done well, and deserved well of their country. As the 
ship steamed into Portsmouth Harbour, she was saluted 
by the men-of-war with every demonstration of joy; 
bands were playing, and the crews were cheering. 
His Majesty sent one of his Aides-de-Camp down speci- 
ally with a message of congratulation. The Mayor 
of Portsmouth entertained them at a grand banquet in 
the Town Hall, at which Markham's health was drunk 
and he was called upon for a speech. 

After a short stay at Portsmouth, the ship proceeded 
to the Thames, with Markham again as a passenger. 
Here she was safely berthed in her old billet in the East 
India Docks to pay off. Festivities were the order of 
the day. Their countrymen extended a warm welcome 
to the explorers, feeling that they could not do too much 
to show their appreciation for the splendid work which 
had been achieved by Captain Scott and the brave crew 
of the Discovery. 

The winding-up of the expedition naturally threw an 
enormous amount of work on Markham's shoulders, for 
he was really personally responsible for everything con- 
nected with it. The crew had to be paid off; the 
remaining stores and provisions had to be disposed 
of; the officers' journals and logs had to be taken in 
charge; and the disposal of the ship was a matter for 
serious consideration. The official report of the scientific 
work of the expedition had also to be drawn up under 
the superintendence of specialists ; the charts and plans 
showing the discoveries that had been made had to be 
copied and reproduced ; and the names of the new moun- 
tains, inlets, bays, and glaciers, had to be settled. 

The public reception and welcome to Scott and the 
officers and men of the Discovery and Morning by the 
Royal Geographical Society was held on the 7th of 
November. It took place in the Albert Hall, which was 
filled to overflowing. The explorers received a tre- 
mendous ovation. Amid much cheering, Clements 
Markham presented Captain Scott with the Antarctic 

338 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

Gold Medal, struck especially for the occasion; and the 
American Ambassador, Mr. Choate, delivered to him 
the medal of the Pennsylvania Geographical Society 
that had been conferred upon him. Markham then 
presented Captain Colbeck with a symbolic piece of 
plate, in recognition of his valuable services whilst in 
command of the Morning. 

Prior to the meeting, on arriving at the Albert Hall, 
Markham was taken into a small room in which all the 
officers of the two ships were assembled, when, to his 
intense surprise, Captain Scott, in a very touching 
speech, presented him, on behalf of the officers of the 
expedition, with a beautifully wrought silver centrepiece 
representing a sledge being drawn by a man in sledging 
costume. It was a token of their esteem for all that he 
had done to create and organise the expedition, and of 
their gratitude for the interest that he took in its 
welfare and all those who served in it. He was quite 
taken aback at this wholly unexpected tribute of appreci- 
ation from the officers, and found it difficult to find 
words that would give appropriate expression to his 
feelings. It was a gift that in after-years he always 
valued as one of his most precious possessions.* 

Receptions and banquets to the members of the 
expedition were now the order of the day. Not only 
were they entertained by many of the various City 
guilds in London, but also by many societies and clubs. 
Hull, Liverpool, Sheffield, Colchester, Edinburgh, and 
other towns, vied with each other in the welcome and 
hospitality extended to the brave explorers. To all 
of these functions Markham was invited, and felt it 
his duty to attend, although it was often at some 
personal inconvenience to himself. There was it could 
not be otherwise much sameness in the speeches he 
had to listen to, and to which he had to reply. Some- 
times the element of wit was introduced by the speakers, 
which, however, did not meet with the appreciation of 

* A copy of it is reproduced on the binding of this volume. 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 339 

one of the guests, who, it is reported, declared on one 
of these occasions that " there is nothing more dreary 
than men of science trying to be funny " ! 

After satisfactorily arranging for the winding up of 
the affairs of the Antarctic Expedition, Markham came 
to a very momentous decision, but one which he had 
considered very carefully for some time. This was his 
resignation of the presidency of the Royal Geographical 

The strain during the past few years had been very 
great. The worries and difficulties he had to contend 
with, especially in connection with the preliminary 
business of securing the despatch of the Antarctic 
Expedition, were inconceivable. He was now seventy- 
five years of age; he felt that his active geographical 
life had practically closed, and that he could do no more 
good in that particular direction. It was only right, he 
considered, that he should make way for younger and more 
active men. But he did not consider at the time that 
much of the great and valuable experience which he had 
acquired would be indirectly lost to geographical science 
by his retirement. On the announcement of his 
resignation, he was the recipient of many letters of 
regret from geographers of all nationalities, eminent 
men of science, and others interested in geography. 
Among them was a charming letter from Sir Dighton 
Probyn, which contained most kind and complimentary 
messages from His Majesty, and another equally 
charming from Sir Arthur Bigge, written by direction 
of the Prince of Wales. 

The anniversary dinner of the Royal Geographical 
Society held on the 22nd of May, 1905, was converted into 
a complimentary banquet in honour of their retiring 
President, and he was practically the guest of the even- 
ing. It was numerously attended ; nearly 300 assembled 
to do him honour. Sir George Goldie, his successor, 
was in the chair. After the toast of his health had been 
duly honoured, Mr. Macartney, brother-in-law of Captain 


Scott, rose, and in a few appropriate words presented 
Markham with a beautiful silver cup (a replica of the 
Cup of Cashel) on behalf of the relatives of the officers 
of the Discovery, in recognition of the high estimation 
in which he was held, and in loving remembrance of 
the fatherly interest that he had always evinced in 
promoting their comfort and welfare. At the same time 
a very beautiful penholder was given to him for pre- 
sentation to Lady Markham, who was almost as well 
known to the various members of the expedition as 
was her husband, and certainly appreciated no less. 

Thus ended his long connection with the Society as 
its President. His term of office lasted for twelve con- 
secutive years, the longest period on record. To those 
twelve years, he had every right to look back with 
satisfaction and pride for the way in which the affairs 
of the Society had been directed, and how, mainly by 
his personality, its prosperity and popularity had so 
largely increased. In the words of the present President 
of the Society : 

" The outstanding feature of his term of office was 
the revival of Antarctic exploration. For this object 
no discouragement could thwart his combative energy; 
for years he wrestled with indifferent Chancellors of 
the Exchequer until he finally got his grant; or argued 
forcibly with fellow-men of science in support of his 
own views on the aims and organisation of the ex- 

This is a very true summary of his character, con- 
cisely put. When once he had set his mind on any 
course of action which, in his opinion, was indispensable, 
he would never be discouraged by any arguments that 
might be advanced in opposition, but would fight 
strenuously to attain his object. It was only by his 
" combative energy " that the Antarctic expedition 
became a material reality. 

There is no doubt that his decision to resign the 
presidency was due in a large measure to the loss of 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 341 

so many of his old friends and relations, who had passed 
away during recent years. Their loss engendered a 
feeling not only of sorrow, but of loneliness, although 
he still retained the inestimable blessing of a true and 
sympathetic companion in the person of his wife, to 
whom he had been united for nearly half a century. 
This great blessing was fully appreciated by him, 
though it did not lessen the sadness he felt at the 
irreparable loss of so many old and dear friends. The 
loss of contemporaries is the most distressing feature 
of a long and vigorous old age. 

But although he had resigned the presidency of the 
Society, he consented to accept the office of a Vice- 
President, and therefore remained a member of the 
Council. He still retained his connection with all the 
other societies and corporations with which he had been 
associated. His resignation, however, was a distinct 
loss to geography at large. By the Society itself his 
loss was much felt. The officials had invariably and 
confidently looked up to their President for assistance, 
guidance, and sympathy, and they were well aware 
that any grievance they had would be considered, 
and, if possible, alleviated. He was always a good 
and stanch friend to those who showed zeal in their 
work and devoted themselves to the best interests of 
the Society. 

Immediately he was relieved of his geographical 
responsibilities, he started off with Lady Markham to 
his beloved Norway, partly on account of threatenings 
of gout, and partly for a complete rest from everything, 
except, of course, his literary work, which always 
accompanied him wherever he went. On this occasion 
he was writing the " Life of Edward VI.," which shortly 
afterwards he published. On the completion of the 
" cure," they made an extended visit to Jutland, 
which they both thoroughly enjoyed. His object was 
to inspect some runic inscriptions in the north of the 


342 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

On the 2ist of October (Trafalgar Day) he delivered 
a lecture to the Westminster boys, describing in graphic 
language all the incidents connected with that great 
sea-fight, and paying a high tribute to the ability of 
Lord Nelson as a seaman and a strategist. The lecture 
was given in such vivid and inspiriting words, that it 
could not fail to appeal to the national pride and en- 
thusiasm of his young audience. He also prepared and 
read a paper at the Royal Geographical Society on the 
next great Arctic discovery, at which the Duke of the 
Abruzzi and several Arctic naval officers were present, 
many of whom took part in the interesting discussion 
that ensued. At the opening of the Board of Geographi 
cal Studies in Cambridge, he delivered the inaugural 

Having now more time at his disposal, he was enabled 
to carry out certain long-formed projects of visiting 
foreign countries and studying the particular subjects 
peculiar to those countries in which he was interested. 
Accompanied by Lady Markham, he spent some months 
in the island of TenerifTe, studying its botany, and 
especially collecting all the information he could obtain 
regarding the history of the Guanches, the ancient 
inhabitants of the island. 

Their daughter did not accompany her parents on 
these trips, her time being almost entirely engrossed 
in the superintendence of church work in the East End 
of London, work to which she was devoting all her 
energies, and in which her father was also much in- 

In 1906 he accepted an invitation extended to him 
by Admiral Egerton for a cruise in the western part of 
the Mediterranean. He had all the more pleasure in ac- 
cepting this invitation in consequence of the fact that 
the flagship to which he was invited was commanded 
by Captain Scott. In the company of an Arctic Admiral, 
an Antarctic Captain, and many old training squadron 
friends, he was supremely happy. He was especially 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 343 

interested in visiting the Balearic Islands, where they 
spent some time. On his way home he visited Barce- 
lona, Madrid, Cordova, and Granada, and was so 
impressed by the glories of the Alhambra, and the 
beauty of the other places he visited, that immediately 
on his return home he started off again, accompanied 
by Lady Markham, in order that she also should have 
an opportunity of sharing in the pleasures he had so 
recently enjoyed. He not only wrote a very full 
description of the Alhambra, with all its amazing 
architectural loveliness, but he also compiled during 
this trip the pedigrees of the reigning Sovereigns of 
Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Granada, 
Cordova, Castile and Leon, Aragon, Majorca, Navarre, 
etc. His faculty for acquiring and retaining genea- 
logical information was marvellous. 

At Palma, in the island of Majorca, he went to see 
the priceless portolano of Gabriel Valseca, then in the 
possession of Count Montenegro, to whom he had a 
letter of introduction. This invaluable document has 
a room to itself, and is kept in a case covered with 
crimson velvet and secured with a lock to a special 
table. The Kings of the countries marked on the map 
are depicted on their thrones, with their arms painted 
on flags above them; and there are several legends on 
it in minute handwriting. This portolano once belonged 
to Amerigo Vespucci, and, at the time of the Chicago 
Exhibition, the Government of the United States, being 
desirous of exhibiting it, offered to send a man-of-war, 
so it is related, specially to take it over and to bring 
it back. But the offer was declined by the Count. 

They were particularly sorry to leave Palma, where 
they stayed for a couple of months, for they liked the 
people, who, Markham records, were always "well 
dressed, courteous, and obliging." The only beggars 
were cripples, and there were very few of them. Boys 
even refused " tips," unless they had done something 
to earn a reward; and the population was industrious 

344 LATERr- YEARS [CH. xx 

and thriving. At Cordova he visited the burial-place 
of the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega, whose life he was 
engaged in writing for the Hakluyt Society; and at 
Gibraltar they embarked in the mail-steamer for home. 

They celebrated their golden wedding day at sea. 
He recalls the wonderful changes that had taken place 
during those fifty eventful years, and he contemplates 
with sorrowful regret the happy time he spent when there 
were " no bikes, no bridge-parties, no beards, or golf 
and motors." 

On the 1 2th of June, 1907, Markham went to Cam- 
bridge to receive the honorary degree of LL.D. which 
had been conferred upon him by that University. 
There were nine other recipients, including Lord Elgin, 
Mr. Campbell-Bannerman, Lord Curzon, and Lord 
Milner. In the evening they were entertained at 
dinner at Trinity Hall, wearing their scarlet gowns. In 
the speeches introducing the recipients of the degree, 
the selection of Markham was referred to as " an 
important recognition to the science of geography." 
Shortly afterwards he received the high Norwegian 
order of the Knighthood of St. Olaf (First Class), which 
the King of Norway had conferred upon him. 

A few days later he received intelligence of the death 
of his dear friend Sir Leopold M'Clintock. This caused 
him much grief. Markham had a great affection for 
his old friend, who was always ready to give him sound 
advice, especially on Polar matters. It was another 
old and valued friend the less. 

Towards the end of the year 1907 Markham and his 
wife left England to pay their first of several winter 
visits to Mont Estoril, a pretty little seaside resort in 
Portugal, situated on the broad Atlantic, only half 
an hour's journey by rail from Lisbon. Shortly after 
their arrival they were horrified to hear of the dastardly 
assassination of the King and the Crown Prince of 
Portugal in Lisbon, with the narrow, almost miraculous, 
escape of the Queen and her other son, Prince Manoel. 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 345 

Much excitement was, naturally, caused by this cowardly, 
cold-blooded crime, but, fortunately, the authorities took 
stern and successful measures to suppress any revolu- 
tionary movement tending to riot or rebellion. 

Mont Estoril was, in Markham's eyes, an ideal place 
in which to pass a winter. It possessed a mild and 
salubrious climate, with lovely scenery. There were 
no worries to distract his attention or divert his thoughts, 
so that he was able to give full scope to his literary 
inclinations. He was engaged at this time on an article 
for Harper's Magazine, descriptive of the Polar Regions 
when, in a remote geological age, that particular part of 
the world enjoyed a tropical climate. At the same time 
he was completing a memoir of the Andean religions; 
writing the " Life of Sir Leopold M'Clintock " ; correcting 
the proof-sheets of his " Life of Archbishop Markham "; 
goin over the revises of his " Story of Majorca and 
Minorca "; and preparing a paper which he proposed 
reading, on " The Light thrown on Inca History and 
Polity by Sarmiento," at the Congress of Americanists 
to be held in Vienna in September. He was also getting 
ready his inaugural address to be delivered at the 
opening of the new Geographical Society at Leeds, and 
preparing a paper, on the Peruvian Andes, to be read at 
the same institution ! 

His recreation consisted in visiting all the antiquities 
and interesting old buildings in the neighbourhood, 
studying their histories, and investigating the authen- 
ticity of previously published accounts. His investiga- 
tions bore fruit especially at Cintra, where he described 
at great length, even to the most minute detail, the 
fantastic, almost fictitious, historical events associated 
with that interesting old palace. He sketched all the 
heraldic devices in the various old castles he visited* 
more especially those of Moorish origin, tracing the 
pedigrees of the owners for several generations. In 
fact, his recreation would probably be regarded by the 
ordinary mortal as exceedingly hard and laborious, 

346 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

though perhaps interesting, work. He visited Busaco, 
where he was able to portray the battlefield and delineate 
the greater part of this interesting old town ; then on to 
Salamanca, a town of great interest to Markham, as 
being the place where the conference with Columbus 
was held prior to his sailing on his memorable voyage. 
So on to Bordeaux, Paris, and home a most agreeable 
and interesting tour. 

Four months after his return to England we find him 
on his way to Vienna to attend the Congress of American- 
ists that was being held in that city. The delegates 
were received in the Town Hall by the Burgomaster, 
who offered them a hearty welcome. But that appears 
to be all he had to offer; for, although they sat down 
to a large supper directly afterwards, they had to pay 
for their meal ! Much wine was consumed, which 
perhaps accounts for payment being demanded ! There 
was a rather thin attendance. 

The next day the Congress met in the great hall, 
the Princess The"rese in the chair. Many addresses, 
followed by papers on various subjects associated with 
the " Americanist Society " were then read and discussed. 
Markham read a paper on " Sarmiento "; and subse- 
quently another one on the " Tiahuanaco and Chavin 
Stones," both of which were well received. Owing to 
a bad cold, he was unable to preside on the last day, as 
had been prearranged. 

On their journey home they visited Niirnburg in 
order to see the famous fifteenth-century globe of 
Martin Behaim, who also adapted the astrolabe to pur- 
poses of navigation in 1480. The globe is preserved in 
a special case, but is much discoloured, and shows un- 
mistakeable signs of its antiquity. 

On his return to England he delivered his inaugural 
address at the Leeds Geographical Society, before a 
very large and sympathetic audience, who appreciated 
a pointed allusion to the excellent work achieved by 
Yorkshire geographers and explorers. 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 347 

During his life, Markham had one great literary 
design in view. This was his great work on the Incas. 
He acknowledged in 1909 that he had been making 
preparations for its production during the past fifty-six 
years ! Being then, however, in his eightieth year, 
and feeling the uncertainty of living sufficiently long to 
enable him to complete his colossal work, he decided 
to write instead, a series of essays and stories of the Incas, 
compressed into one volume, so that at least he could 
place his own ideas and conclusions on record. The 
opinions which he held twenty years earlier he had 
already published in his " History of Peru." This 
had been translated into Spanish; but, as he naively 
puts it, further study had increased his knowledge ; 
and thoughts which had been suggested by this aug- 
mentation of knowledge somewhat modified his pre- 
vious views, in some cases even altered them entirely. 
' Besides," he remarks, " it will give me occupation !" 
It is almost unnecessary to add, however, that he never 
suffered for the lack of something to do ! Accordingly, 
in 1910 he embodied his latest views and conclusions 
in a volume entitled " The Incas of Peru." It is justly 
an authoritative work. 

During one of his many visits to Lisbon, he went to 
Thomar for the purpose of seeing the old convent of 
the Order of Christ, which dates from the fifteenth 
century. Markham, it will be remembered, had been 
created a Commendador of the Order of Christ by King 
Luis on the 23rd of April, 1874, and on the occasion of 
this visit to the old convent he wore the miniature 
order, much to the surprise (and approval) of the old 
janitor who kept the keys of the gate. Markham wrote 
a very full description of the convent and its history. 

Towards the latter part of 1909, after much pre- 
liminary discussion and correspondence with Sir 
Clements, Captain Scott publicly announced his in- 
tention of endeavouring to raise funds for the despatch 
of another Antarctic Expedition, to be under his 

348 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

command, with the express objects of exploring the un- 
known Antarctic Continent and of reaching the South 
Pole. With that conspicuous energy which would 
admit of no denial, Scott set to work to justify his 
proposal and to plead for monetary assistance, in an 
excellent and business-like address which he delivered 
at the Mansion House at a meeting presided over by 
the Lord Mayor. He propounded his views at several 
other public meetings, and he wrote to every society, 
company, and individual, that he thought would 
support his scheme. As a result of his exertions money 
began to flow in. A sum of 500 was subscribed by 
the members of the Stock Exchange, 1,000 was 
promised by a subscriber to his last expedition, and 
sums of money some in large contributions, some in 
small kept pouring in. Clements Markham himself, 
although his income was by no means a large one, 
gladly contributed the sum of 100 from his slender 

In a very short time a sufficient sum of money was 
collected to warrant the purchase of a ship, and to 
organise the expedition. The principal object being 
the advancement of science and the exploration of un- 
known regions, the scientific staff, exclusive of the 
captain and surgeon, consisted of no less than nine 
members, who were not called upon to perform any ship 
duties, but were left free to follow their particular 
branches of science. Dr. Wilson again accompanied his 
old friend and leader as chief of the scientific staff and 
zoologist. The Terra Nova was the ship selected. 
Markham willingly consented to join the committee 
that superintended the equipment of the ship and the 
appointment of the officers and men; but the actual 
responsibility of everything connected with the enter- 
prise devolved on Captain Scott himself. In fact it 
was " Scott's Expedition "; it originated with him, 
it was arranged by him, and it was organised by him, 
the Admiralty assisting only by granting permission 

CH. xx] LATER YEARS 349 

for several of the officers and men of the Royal Navy 
to serve in the expedition. 

In October of the same year Sir Clements stood god- 
father to Captain Scott's little boy, who was christened 
Peter Markham. 

In the following month, at a meeting of the Council 
of the Hakluyt Society, he resigned his office as President. 
He had been in the chair for a period of twenty years, 
and a member of the Council for no less than fifty- 
one years ! No man had the welfare of the Society 
more at heart than Markham, and no one could have 
accomplished more for the Society than he did. During 
his long connection with it, he translated and edited 
on an average about one book a year for a period of 
half a century, and all these works required much 
elaborate research. He was still hard at work, when he 
resigned, on his " Magellan's Strait," and was collecting 
notes for his " Book of the Knowledge of All the King- 
doms, Lands, and Lordships, that are in the World," for 
the Society, besides writing his " Incas of Peru " 1 

Prior to the departure of the Terra Nova, a large 
luncheon-party was given by the Royal Geographical 
Society to Captain Scott and his officers at the Holborn 
Restaurant, to which a number of old Polar officers 
were invited. Major Darwin, as President of the Society, 
occupied the chair, and many naval officers were present. 
Markham proposed the toast of the staff of the ex- 

On the ist of June the Terra Nova sailed from London, 
and proceeded to Portsmouth, Clements Markham being 
a passenger on board. Everything worked well, but 
what pleased him more than anything else was the willing 
spirit that animated everyone on board, and he was 
delighted to see members of the scientific staff in their 
shirt-sleeves assisting in stowing the hold, and a Captain 
of the Enniskillen Dragoons hard at work getting up 
the ashes ! On leaving the ship at Portsmouth, the 
officers and crew gave him three hearty cheers. They 

350 LATER YEARS [CH. xx 

knew that he was their best friend, that he would look 
after their interests in their absence, and that he would 
arrange, if necessary, for their relief. On his return 
to London, he succeeded in getting the surplus money 
from the Discovery fund turned over to that of the 
Terra Nova, much to the gratification and relief of 
Captain Scott. 


ON the nth of June, at Leeds, Markham received the 
distinction of being made a Doctor of Science of the 
Leeds University. There were thirteen recipients for 
the honour, among whom may be mentioned Mr. Asquith, 
the Marquis of Lansdowne, the Speaker, the Earl of 
Crewe, and Lord Rayleigh. 

The Duke of Devonshire, as the Chancellor, delivered 
the address and conferred the degrees. Referring to 
Markham, he said : 

' In Sir Clements Markham I have to present to you 
one who comes among us as a veteran in the service 
of mankind, one whose life has been the expression in 
countless achievements of a mind extraordinary in 
power and versatility, a nature full of enthusiasm and 
tenacity, and an ambition directed to the noblest ends. 
Beginning with his participation in the heroic search for 
Franklin, the record of geographical exploration in 
both hemispheres and towards both poles that stands 
to the name of Sir Clements Markham would alone secure 
his fame. But beyond this he has been for sixty years 
the inspiration of English geographical science, the 
leader of the movement which has given that subject 
a new orientation in the realms of knowledge, and has 
secured for it an honourable and independent position 
in the highest courts of learning. It is almost entirely 
owing to his unwearied advocacy, combined with an 
unerring judgment in the choice of men and methods, 
that England is taking her proud part in the new era 
of Antarctic discovery. To have established in our 
Indian Empire, as he did by the indefatigable efforts 
of a few years, the cultivation of a prophylactic for its 


desolating malarial disease, was a service to humanity 
such as few may hope to render by the undivided 
labours of a lifetime. Yet among these diverse and 
momentous deeds Sir Clements Markham has inter- 
woven the achievements of a distinguished man of letters, 
and if we had not thought he would be honoured most 
acceptably in the Faculty of Science, he might have 
claimed not less worthily the laurels of a Faculty of 
Arts. In his intense and oft expressed love of England 
which he has so nobly served, of Yorkshire of which 
he is so true a son, and of the Navy in which he gradu- 
ated so honourably in the early discipline of life, Sir 
Clements Markham discloses the spirit which has made 
him what he is a man by whom his countrymen 
would eagerly proclaim the deep-seated and most 
sterling qualities of their race." 

A very true and excellent portrayal of the subject 
of this memoir. 

In July, 1910, Markham went to Bristol to assist in 
the ceremony of unveiling the Hakluyt memorial in 
the cathedral, and delivered an address in honour of 
that worthy divine and author. 

He was occupied at this time in writing the biography 
of the Spanish navigator Sebastian del Cano, who 
sailed with Magellan in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. After the death of Magellan he succeeded 
to the command, and was the first circumnavigator of 
the globe. 

Markham received many letters from his friends on 
board the Terra Nova from the various ports at which 
she touched on her long journey to the South. All 
were in excellent spirits, they reported well of their 
ship ; and love and harmony prevailed among officers 
and men. Needless to say, they all looked forward with 
keen and joyful anticipation to the complete success 
of the great work with which they had been entrusted. 

Prior to the sailing of the expedition, Dr. Wilson 
had presented to Sir Clements and Lady Markham two 
very beautiful water-colour drawings, of Mount Markham 
and Minna Bluff in the Far South, which he had painted 


specially for them. It was a kindly act, and one which 
was much appreciated by them both. Markham's 
thoughts were ever flying towards the South, ever 
thinking of his dear friends on board the Terra Nova, 
and looking forward to the pleasure of welcoming them 
back to England, crowned with success. 

While at Mont Estoril in March, 1912, news was 
telegraphed from New Zealand to the effect that Captain 
Scott with a sledging-party had reached the latitude 
of 87 32" on the 3rd of January, 1912, and that he 
hoped to reach the Pole, which was only 150 miles off, 
in about a fortnight's time. A rumour had also been 
telegraphed to the effect that Amundsen had already 
reached the South Pole with his dog-drawn sledges, 
though Markham put but little credence in the report. 
He had always been much incensed at what he con- 
sidered Amundsen's unfriendly act, in having first pub- 
licly announced his intention of attempting to reach the 
North Pole, and then suddenly altering his plans and 
proceeding in exactly the opposite direction, immedi- 
ately Scott had left England, thus, as it were, entering 
into competition with him. 

Amundsen's expedition was in no way initiated in the 
interests of science ; his intention was to make a dash for 
the Pole, so as to be able to claim priority of discovery 
for Norway, and nothing more. He was accompanied 
by only four men, none of whom had any pretensions 
to scientific acquirements. Scott, on the other hand, 
intended making a thorough scientific exploration, and 
was not to be inveigled into taking part with another 
competitor in a senseless race to the Pole. It will be 
noted that Amundsen concealed his intention of going 
to the South until after Scott had sailed, which certainly 
did not evince a kindly disposition towards the English 
enterprise. Better and more valuable results would 
undoubtedly have been obtained had the two expeditions 
worked in unison one with the other. The Norwegians 
have the satisfaction of being able to say that their 


flag was the first to be planted at the South Pole; but 
the scientific results achieved cannot be compared with 
those obtained by the English expedition. The latter 
brought back with them a rich store of information both 
geographical and geological, with elaborate plans and 
surveys of the surrounding country, with complete 
climatic and other observations, extending over a 
period of nearly two years, all of which were absolutely 
new to science. They had set themselves to endeavour 
to determine the nature and extent of the Antarctic 
Continent; to ascertain the character and depth of the 
ice cap; to take pendulum observations in the highest 
latitude possible, as well as regular magnetic and 
meteorological observations; to give an account of the 
mammals, birds, and fishes, and otherwise to report 
on the scientific aspect of the new discoveries. All of 
this was satisfactorily accomplished. In short, the 
results achieved by the English expedition far surpassed 
any that had ever been obtained by previous Polar ex- 

Having in 1912 completed fifty years of strenuous 
service on the Council of the Royal Geographical 
Society, Markham sent in his resignation as Vice- 
President, and after some little correspondence this was 
accepted. He was now eighty- two years of age, and 
it appeared to him that there was an absence of sympathy 
between himself and the new Councillors which, in his 
opinion, did not promote the harmony or add to the 
usefulness and prosperity of the Society. Another 
consideration was that he was much occupied in collect- 
ing notes for a history of the Polar Regions. He .had 
already gathered a vast amount of information on the 
subject, and this he wished to condense and produce 
in book form. He aimed at producing a perfect com- 
pendium of everything that was known of what might 
be called " the Ends of the Earth " from prehistoric 
times to the present day, including the names and work 
of the various explorers, the geology and botany, and 


the localities at which human beings had been met, 
with their origin and manners and customs; also all 
information in connection with the animal kingdom 
in higher latitudes represented in known positions, etc. 
The wish to have a little more time at his disposal in 
which to complete this work, in all probability, had a 
great deal to do with his retirement from the Council, 
for his position as Vice-President necessitated his pre- 
sence at the numerous committees which met so fre- 
quently. Although this last book has not yet been 
presented to the public, we may state that Dr. Guille- 
mard has undertaken the editing, and that it will shortly 
be published by the Cambridge University Press. 

In spite of his great age, he continued to live a very 
active life. His pen was as busy as ever translating 
and editing various works for the Hakluyt Society, 
and correcting the proof-sheets of his " Conquest of 
New Granada," and he never neglected to pay his annual 
visit, in the summer, to his Scandinavian resorts, and 
in the winter to Mont Estoril. 

On retiring from the Council, he wrote a letter of 
farewell to the President, Council, and Fellows of the 
Society, to which he received a most gratifying reply 
from Lord Curzon (the President), expressing in most 
cordial terms the great loss the Society was sustaining 
by his resignation, but expressing a hope that his 
advice would always be at the disposal of the Council, 
" who still regard you as our greatest living figure." 
Thus, after a continuous service of fifty-four years on 
the Council, and fifty-eight years as a Fellow, his 
intimate connection with the Society, as one of its 
officials, came to an end. He also wrote a letter of 
farewell to Dr. Keltic and the staff, to which he received 
a most touching reply. 

At about this time he was elected President of the 
Americanist Congress, and presided at its first meeting 
in London, delivering the inaugural address, in which, 
by command of His Majesty, he offered the delegates 


a cordial welcome in the name of the King. Three 
dinner-parties on three successive nights were given 
by him and Lady Markham at Eccleston Square, at 
which forty-four guests were entertained, followed by 
a large reception at the Natural History Museum, at 
which they received the delegates. 

The Antarctic Expedition was constantly in his 
thoughts, and he delivered several lectures, at various 
places, connected with the work on which Captain 
Scott was engaged. He also read a special paper on 
the subject at the meeting of the British Association in 

On the nth of February, 1913, while they were at 
Mont Estoril came the appalling news that Scott and 
his party had reached the South Pole on the i8th of 
January the previous year, but that on their return 
journey, in a great blizzard, only eleven miles from their 
next depot of provision, they had all perished. It 
was a sad but glorious termination to an expedition 
excellently arranged, heroically led, and gallantly 
carried out. The story is and will always remain an 
epic of British pluck and endurance, combined with 
resolution, patience, and unselfishness. 

To Markham it came as a terrible shock, and at first 
he was unable to realise the extent of the calamity. 
He loved Scott as a son, he was intimately acquainted 
with every member of that gallant little band, and he 
loved them for their brave devotion to one another, 
for their high-spirited chivalry, for their lion-hearted, 
courage, but about all he loved them for themselves. 
His heart ached for the sorrow that would be felt by 
the widows of those splendid men, who had sacrificed 
their lives in adding glory and honour to the long list 
of England's stalwart champions. He looked upon 
Captain Scott as a "very exceptionally noble English- 
man." Not least, he was impressed by Scott's chivalrous 
generosity in dealing with men who were endeavouring 
for their personal ambitions, to supplant him in the work 


which he had thoughtfully planned out for himself. 
Very rarely, in Markham's opinion, have so many 
great qualities been combined in one man. " Perhaps," 
he wrote, " the most striking quality was that which 
won him the love of all who served under him." 

Through the instrumentality of Clements Markham, 
a memorial service was held at Mont Estoril for his dear 
friend and his companions, which was attended by the 
English and German Ministers accredited to Portugal, 
and many British and foreign residents. Personally he 
felt that this quiet service, devoid of all ostentation, 
was more soothing and comforting at any rate to him 
than the one held in St. Paul's Cathedral. Yet he 
was grateful for the recognition of their brilliant services 
so unostentatiously, but so convincingly, shown by the 
King in being present at the memorial service held in 
London. Markham wrote a long memorial letter to 
The Times, which was duly inserted ; and he also wrote to 
the Prime Minister suggesting that posthumous honours 
should be conferred on Captain Scott's widow, which 
was favourably received and immediately acted upon. 

To the end of his life the tragic fate of Scott and his 
companions was ever present in his mind. He felt 
their loss, not only from a personal point of view, but 
in a national sense ; and he lost no opportunity in honour- 
ing their memories on all and every occasion. At 
Cheltenham he unveiled the memorial that had been 
erected to commemorate Dr. Wilson's great services. 
It was a statue of the explorer in sledging costume, the 
work of Lady Scott. The ceremony was carried out in 
the presence of many relatives and friends. He also 
accompanied Mrs. Bowers to Greenhithe in order to 
unveil a plaque dedicated to the memory of Lieutenant 
Bowers, which was to be placed on board the Worcester. 
It had been subscribed for by the cadets of the training 
ship to the memory of their plucky young shipmate. 
It consisted of a bronze plate containing his portrait 
with a suitable inscriptior ; it was placed against the 



mainmast immediately under the ship's bell. Before 
unveiling the memorial, Sir Clements addressed the 
assembled cadets at some length, paying a high tribute 
of praise to the young hero, and holding him up as a 
worthy example to be followed. 

He also travelled to Stratford-on-Avon to be present 
at the dedication of the west window of Binton Church 
to the memory of his dear friend Scott. There was a 
great procession of clergy with prayers, anthems, 
hymns, and an address by the Rev. Dr. Bruce; after 
which the ceremony of unveiling was performed by 
the Duke of Newcastle. 

Two years later, on the 5th of November, 1915, he 
assisted, by invitation of the First Sea Lord of the 
Admiralty, at the unveiling of the statue of Captain 
Scott in Waterloo Place, which had been subscribed 
for by the officers of the Royal Navy. The ceremony 
of unveiling was performed by the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, Mr. Balfour. The designer and sculptor 
was Lady Scott. The likeness is excellent, the great 
explorer being depicted in Antarctic travelling dress. 

On the return of the Discovery, the Trustees of the 
British Museum kindly gave permission for the cases 
containing the natural history specimens to be sent to 
the Museum at South Kensington, with a view to 
preparing for publication the scientific results of the 
collection. That the work should be entrusted to the 
Museum authorities was Markham's express wish. 

Their report is comprised in six large quarto volumes, 
in the production of which no trouble or expense has 
been spared in order to render the natural history 
results of the expedition worthy of the splendid efforts 
of Captain Scott and his fellow-explorers. The work is 
not only an enduring memorial of the expedition, but 
also, incidentally, of Markham's great share in its promo- 
tion and organisation. 

In 1913 a deputation of old Westminsters waited upon 
him with a request that he would sit for his portrait, 


which they were anxious should be painted, with the 
object of being presented to him. They wished him 
to accept it as a slight acknowledgment of the great 
services he had rendered to the school. Mr. George 
Henry, A.R.A., most good-naturedly consented to paint 
it. Markham was much gratified at this kindly feeling 
shown towards him by his old school, and willingly 
consented to sit for the portrait. The result exceeded 
even the anticipation. It was in every way a most 
successful production, and the presenters are to be 
congratulated on their choice of the artist.* The 
presentation of the picture was made to him at Cam- 
bridge by Sir Roland Vaughan Williams before a large 
gathering of friends as well as subscribers. 

In addition to all these functions, his time was fully 
occupied in translating and editing the " Guerra de 
las Salinas " and the " Guerra de Chupas " for the 
Hakluyt Society. He likewise prepared and read a paper 
at the Historical Congress in London on the " Loss of 
Documents relating to Historical Geography, and the 
Means of preserving them." He also wrote the preface 
for " Scott's Last Expedition," and finished his trans- 
lation of " Garcia da Orta " and his " Descriptive 
List of Amazonian Tribes." This latter work necessi- 
tated an enormous amount of research, and would have 
been a severe task for a man in the prime of life. He 
was then over eighty-five years of age, but his mental 
powers were as active and as bright as ever. 

The European War gave him great cause for anxiety, 
and he followed the course of it with absorbing interest. 
A heavy personal blow fell upon him in the loss of his 
cousin, Major R. A. Markham, the head of the Markham 
family, who died on October 25, 1914, at Boulogne from 
wounds received at the battle of Ypres-Armentieres two 
days before.f 

* The portrait is reproduced as the frontispiece of this volume. 

t Major Markham left England with his regiment, the 2nd. Batt. 
Coldstream Guards, on August 12, 1914 eight days after the declara- 
tion of war. He was with his regiment during the heroic retreat from 


On the loth of June, 1915, he read what was destined 
to be his last paper at the Geographical Society. In it he 
animadverted on the false German claim to having 
supplied the scientific data which enabled the Portuguese 
to extend their discoveries. The title of his address was 
"The History of the Gradual Development of the Ground- 
work of Geographical Science." At the conclusion of the 
paper he submitted a proposal that the Society should 
be possessed of a collection, as complete as possible, 
of all instruments connected with nautical astronorrry 
and navigation from the earliest times. A few instru- 
ments and models were exhibited at the lecture, and an 
interesting discussion was initiated. 

In spite of the war, he and Lady Markham did not 
abandon their periodical trips abroad. Mont Estoril 
was visited as usual, and they even paid a long visit to 
the island of Madeira. They returned from their last 
trip to Portugal by sea on the 2nd of May, 1915, and 
arrived at Liverpool, luckily without having seen any 
indications of hostile submarines. Every preparation 
had been made on board in readiness for the immediate 
abandonment of the ship, an evolution in which Sir 
Clements was much interested, but, fortunately, extreme 
measures were not rendered necessary. On the dawn 
of the New Year (1916) he writes: 

" A very sad and portentous New Year. At home, 
the enemies of efficient methods of resistance still 
clinging to office. Abroad, Belgium, Northern France, 
Poland, Serbia, conquered, and in the hands of the 
enemy; passenger ships ruthlessly sunk in defiance of 
international law and the Hague Convention, supported 
by American protests; yet here in England there is 
no sign of despondency; everyone confident that 
right must prevail, and with it civilisation and Chris- 

Mons took part in the decisive victory of the Marne stood side by 
side with the French at the battle of the Aisne, and was mortally 
wounded at the battle of Ypres-Armentieres, on October 23. 


The last entry in his diary was made on the i8th of 
January. Almost his last thoughts were connected with 
his dear friend Scott. He writes: 

" Sturdy little Peter Scott came and walked with 
us in the Square garden. I often think of his dear 
father and the men he has trained to fight his country's 

On the 2Qth, having been confined to his room for 
some days by an attack of gout, he was sitting in bed 
reading, by the light of a naked candle, a book printed 
in old Portuguese. It is assumed he was holding the 
candle close to the book, the better to decipher the 
letterpress, when by some accident the bedclothes became 
ignited, probably by the fall of the candle. His call for 
assistance was instantly responded to, and the fire 
extinguished, but, alas ! the great shock was too much 
for a man of his years. He remained mercifully uncon- 
scious for about twenty hours, when he passed peacefully 

Thus ended a long life of hard and useful work 
thoroughly enjoyed. His home life was simple, but 
replete with happiness and contentment ; he was always 
mindful of others and forgetful of self. His childhood, 
especially his school-life, and the young friends that in 
the course of years became old friends, were blissful 
reminiscences to him. He had outlived nearly all his 
contemporaries, but their good-fellowship and friendly 
regard were to him sweet memories of the past. He 
possessed an astonishing and most retentive memory, 
and he taxed it to the utmost. He never forgot any- 
thing he had once heard, seen, or read. Yet, in spite 
of this wonderful gift, he always retained the habit of 
noting in his pocketbook everything that he saw, no 
matter how trivial and insignificant it might appear to 
others. Especially was this the case in visiting old 
cathedrals, castles, or churches, when their exact dimen- 
sions would be carefully measured and noted. 


He was a quick writer, an excellent observer; clever 
in mastering a foreign language; a great judge of 
character; prompt in making up his mind; impulsive, 
especially in righting a wrong ; a man of great determina- 
tion; a stanch friend; and of a most lovable disposition. 

Peru was his first love, Polar exploration his second; 
and to both he remained constant to the end. On 
Peruvian subjects his publications amounted to more 
than a score, exclusive of lectures and addresses. The 
crown of his Polar work lay beyond his writings, in the 
excellent work achieved by Captain Scott in the far 
distant Antarctic Regions. It is left for others to follow 
him and glean the rich scientific harvest that is await- 
ing the explorer in the far South; but the main achieve- 
ment must for all time be associated with Scott's name, 
and with that of his mentor and counsellor Clements 

In method, he was careful to think out his subject 
conscientiously before making it public; he never 
wrote with the object of making money. His chief 
endeavour was to maintain and enhance the spirit of 
enterprise among his countrymen on sea and on land; 
and his success in this field alone, apart from his 
share in benefiting India and his great furtherance of 
geography, would suffice to keep his name in ever- 
lasting remembrance. 

During the latter part of his life, he was undoubtedly 
the greatest living authority on geographical science. 
By his death there has passed away a distinguished man 
of whom his country may well be proud ; but with his 
departure a prodigious accumulation of geographical 
knowledge of the utmost importance has also passed 


The following letters and telegrams of condolence and 
sympathy on the death of her husband were received 
by his widow, Lady Markham: 

Telegram sent to Lady Markham by H.M. the King : " The 
King regrets to hear of the sorrow which has befallen you, and 
desires me to convey to you the expression of his sympathy. 
His Majesty had known Sir Clements for many years, and 
realises how much the country is indebted to his long years of 
study and research. STAMFORDHAM." 

The Naval Commander-in-Chief at Devonport, Admiral Sir 
George Egerton, telegraphed to Lady Markham : " With deepest 
sympathy and sorrow at the loss of dear old Sir Clements from 
his devoted and admiring shipmate Sir George Egerton." 

Dr. Nansen telegraphed from his home in Norway : " Afflicted 
at the loss of my very dear friend. I mourn with you in your 
great bereavement." 

General Sir Reginald Wingate cabled from Khartoum : " All 
fellows in Sudan deeply regret Sir Clements Markham 's death." 

The Committee of the Royal Societies' Club in London placed 
on record " its sense of the loss the Club has sustained by the 
lamented death of Sir Clements Markham, who for many years 
was President of the Club, and contributed so much to its 
welfare in the early years of its existence," etc. 

Letters and telegrams of sympathy and regret for the loss 
sustained were also received from eminent and distinguished 
men, especially those interested and associated with geographical 
research, such as Nansen, Guido Cora, Sven Hedin, Joachim 
Bensaude, and many others, all testifying to the high estima- 
tion in which he was held by the geographers of other nations. 



From the Officers and Council of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute, expressing the sorrow felt by " the whole scientific 
world by the loss of so brilliant a pioneer." Most of "us have 
lost more than a leader in archaeology, a friend for whose per- 
sonality we entertained a deep-rooted and sincere affection. 
The extent of his learning was only equalled by the great gen- 
erosity with which he placed his knowledge at the service of 
those who had the privilege to know him." 

The Council of the Hakluyt Society, with whom he had been 
associated for over sixty years, during which time the Society 
had " enjoyed the direct benefits of unwearied labour. His 
name added lustre to its public reputation a lustre created by 
his varied accomplishments in geographical science, by his 
achievements in exploration, and by his other and manifold 
service to the State and humanity." 

The Royal Society "express their deep sense of the loss which 
the Royal Society has sustained, and of the eminent services 
which Sir Clements rendered to Science." 

The Members of the Elizabethan Club, of which he was Presi- 
dent for many years, unite in the feeling " that they have lost 
a personal friend," and comment on his stanch loyalty to West- 
minster, which endeared him to everyone connected with the 
school and its surroundings. 

The Council of the Royal Geographical Society " desire to place 
on record their profound sense of the loss which the Society and 
Geography have sustained by the death of Sir Clements Mark- 
ham, who had been intimately connected with the Society for 
over sixty years during the greater part of which he was officially 
associated with its affairs. He was indefatigable in the pro- 
motion of the objects for which the Society exists. He took a 
prominent part in all the development of its work, scientific 
and educational. The recent renewal of Antarctic exploration 
on a large scale was mainly due to his initiative, enthusiasm, and 
energy. By his sympathetic attitude towards all the members 
of the Staff he secured devoted loyalty not only to himself, but 
to the best interests of the Society. His death will be felt as a 
personal loss by geographers all the world over." 

From the President of the French Geographical Society : " The 
news of the death of Sir Clements Markham has been received 


with unanimous and unfeigned regret. His eminent services to 
Geographical Science, more especially to Polar Exploration, will 
live for all time." 

The President of the Geographical Society of Geneva : " Le mort 
de Sir Clements R. Markham, president d'honneur de votre 
Socie"te, nous a e*te aussi tres terrible, puisque Sir Clemente fait 
aussi membre honoraire de la Socie*te de Geographie de Geneve. 
Le Bureau de notre Socie'te' ni a done officiellement charge 1 ," etc. 

From the Royal Danish Geographical Society : Calling to mind 
the great loss among the staff of famous English Arctic Explorers 
which England has suffered by the death of Sir Clements Mark- 
ham, the Society wish " to express its heartfelt and most cordial 

The Norwegian Geographical Society sends " sincere sympathy 
in the great loss that Geographical Science has sustained by the 
death of Sir Clements Markham." 

The Council of the Italian Royal Geographical Society " send an 
expression of their deep sorrow for the loss of the illustrious 
pioneer of Arctic Exploration." 

The Geographical Society of Philadelphia " places on record 
its sense of the loss sustained by the science of geography in the 
loss of one of its most distinguished disciples, . . . who has 
earned for himself a foremost place among geographers by his 
energetic promotion of Arctic and Antarctic exploration, by his 
advocacy of higher geographical education, by his sympathetic 
attitude towards prospective explorers, and by his numerous 
and illuminating contributions to geographical literature." 

Tributes of sorrow for his loss, and praise for his work, were 
received from Sweden, and from far-distant Arequipa; also from 
the Elizabethan Club, of which he was President for many years, 
the Kosmos Club, the Vesey Club at Birmingham, and from 
many other eminent and distinguished geographers of all 



Year of 

1853. Franklin's Footsteps. 

1854. History of the Markham Family. Edited by C. R. M. 
1856. Cuzco and Lima. 

1862. Travels in Peru and India. 

1864. Quichua Grammar and Dictionary. 

1867. Report on the Irrigation of Eastern Spain. 

1869. The Abyssinian Expedition. 

1870. Life of the Great Lord Fairfax. 

1870 et seq. Ocean Highways, etc.: A Geographical Periodical, 
Edited by C. R. M. 

1871. Ollanta: An Ancient Inca Drama. 

1871. A Memoir of the Indian Surveys. (Published by order 
of the Secretary of State for India. Two Editions) . 

1873. Threshold of the Unknown Regions. (Four Editions.) 

1874. A General Sketch of the History of Persia. 
1874. Memoir of the Countess of Chinchon. 

1874. India: Moral and Material Progress Report. (Presented to 
Parliament, 1874.) 

1874. India: Moral and Material Progress Report. (Presented 

to Parliament, 1875.) 

1875. The Arctic Navy List : A Century of Arctic and Antarctic 

Officers, 1773 to 1875. 

1875. Refutation of the Report of the Scurvy Committee. 

1876. Missions to Tibet, Bogle and Manning. (Published by 

order of the Secretary of State for India. Two Editions.) 
1876. Memoir of Commodore Goodenough. 

1879. Akbar : An Eastern Romance. With Notes and an 

Introductory Life of the Emperor Akbar by C. R. M. 

1880. Peruvian Bark. 



Year of 

1880. Peru. 

1881. Fifty Years' Work of the Royal Geographical Society. 

1882. War between Peru and Chile, 1879-1882. 

1883. A Naval Career during the Old War: being a Narrative of 

the Life of Admiral John Markham. 

1884. The Sea-Fathers. 

1885. A Family Memoir of the Macdonalds of Keppoch. 
1885. Life of Admiral Robert Fairfax. 

1885. Battle of Wakefield. (Yorkshire Archaeological Journal.) 
1887. Battle of Towton. (Yorkshire Archaeological Journal.) 

1887. Prince Edward of Lancaster. (Transactions of Bristol 

and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society.) 

1888. The Fighting Veres. (Published in America.) 

1889. Life of John Davis the Navigator, 1550-1605. 

1892. History of Peru. (Translated into Spanish. Published in 


1892. Display of English Heraldry at Budrum. 
1892. Quichua Dictionary. 

1892. Life of Christopher Columbus. 

1893. Pytheas, the Discoverer of Britain. (R. G. S. Jomrnal.) 
1895. Life of Captain Stephen Martin Leake. Edited for the 

Navy Records Society by C. R. M. 
1895. Arctic and Antarctic Exploration. 
1895. Life of Major Rennell, and the Rise of Modern English 


1895. Descriptive List of Amazonian Tribes. 

1896. The Paladins of Edwin the Great : An Historical Romance. 

1898. Antarctic Exploration : A Plea for a National Expedition, 


1899. Alfred the Great as a Geographer. 

1901. Central and South America, for Stanford's Compendium 

of Geography. 
1904. Letters of Admiral John Markham. (Navy Records 

1906. Memoir of Archbishop Markham. 

1906. Life of Richard III. 

1907. Life of Edward VI. : An Appreciation. 

1908. Vocabularies of the General Languages of the Incas of 

1908. Translation of Lazariello de Tonnes. 


Year of 

1908. Story of Majorca and Minorca. 

1909. Life of Sir Leopold M'Clintock. 

1910. The Incas of Peru. 

1912. The Conquest of New Granada. 

1913. Markham Memorials : A New Edition of the History of the 

Markham Family. 
1913. Translation of Garcia da Orta. (Colloquies on the Drugs 

and Simples of India.) 
Now in the Press. The History of Polar Exploration. 

In addition to the works enumerated above, Sir Clements 
Markham contributed three articles to the "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," another to " Chambers 's Encyclopaedia," two 
chapters on Peru for Winsor's " Narrative and Critical History 
of America," and he wrote all the chapters on voyages of dis- 
covery in Laird Clowes 's " History of the Navy." 

He was also the writer of numerous papers and articles in the 
Royal Geographical Society's Journal and Proceedings, including 
twelve anniversary presidential addresses. 

He lectured frequently to the cadets on board the Worcester 
and Conway, also at the Society of Arts, the Royal Institution, 
the Society of Antiquaries,the Royal United Service Institution, 
and many other Societies, schools, etc. 




Expeditions into the Valley of the Amazons (A.D. 1539, 1540, 

Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the 

Court of Timour at Samarcand (A.D. 1403-1406). 
The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre (A.D. 

The Life and Acts of Don Alonzo Enriquez de Guzman (A.D. 


The Travels of Pedro de Cieza de Leon (1532-50). 
Narrative of the Proceedings of Pedrarias Davila. 
The Royal Commentaries of the Incas (2 vols.) 
Reports on the Discovery of Peru. 
Narrative of the Rites and Laws of the Incas. 
The Voyages of Sir James Lancaster, Knt., to the East Indies. 
The Hawkins Voyages. 

The Natural and Moral History of the Indies (2 vols.). 
The Voyages of William Baffin (1612-1622). 
The Second Part of the Chronicle of Peru (1532-1550) 
Tractatus de Globis, et eorum Usu. 
Journal of Christopher Columbus. 
The Letters of Amerigo Vespucci. 
Narratives of the Voyages of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa to the 

Straits of Magellan (1579-80). 

The Voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (1595-1606). 
The Guanches of Teneriffe, The Holy Image of Our Lady of 

History of the Incas. 


Narrative of the Viceregal Embassy to Vilcabambal, etc. (1571). 
Magellan's Strait. 

Book of the Knowledge of All the Kingdoms, Lands, and Lord- 
ships, that are in the World. 
The War of Quito. 
La Guerra de Chupas. 
Guerra de las Salinas. 


ABERDARE, Lord, President Royal 
Geographical Society, 254 

Aberdeen, 294 

Abruzzi, Duke of the, 327, 342 

Abyssinia, early history of, 207, 
208; cause of war with England; 
military operations in, 211-217; 
battle and capture of Magdala, 
217; death of King Theodore, 217, 
218; Queen of, 219, 220; British 
Force leaves, 221 

Active, H.M.S., 275-281, 282, 284. 
286, 287, 294, 296, 297 

Aculeo, Lake, 92 

Adigrat, Base camp of Abyssinian 
Expedition, 213, 214 

Admiralty, decline to recommend 
the despatch of an Antarctic 
expedition, 317; promise to lend 
officers and men, 321 ; assume 
responsibility for despatch of 
second Discovery relief expe- 
dition, 335, 336 

Advance, U.S. Franklin relief ship, 
112 n 

Africa, encouragement of explora- 
tion in, 224 

" Akbar, Life of," 261 

Albert Hall, reception of the 
officers and men of the Discovery 
and Morning at, 337, 338 

Alcobaca, 296 

Aldrich, Lieutenant, sledge journey 
to Somerville Island, 118 

Alert, H.M.S., 231, 242, 244, 249 

Alexandra, Queen, 330 

Alhambra, description of the, 343 

Allan, Captain P. B. A!., viii 

Almeria, 296 

" Alto de Toledo," The, 176 

Amalfi, 300 

America, " History of," 252, 295 

American Geographical Society, 270 

Americanist Congress, 355, 356 

Amundsen, dash for the South Pole, 

Andes, The, 92, 144-147 

Andres (guide), 154, 157 

Annapolis, Naval Academy at, 270 

Annesley Bay, Base camp of Abys- 
sinian Expedition, 213, 221 

Anson, Admiral, 75 

Antalo, 214 

" Antarctic Research," Article in 
the Graphic on, 284 

Apo, 175 

Aragon, " Pedigree of the Kings 
of," 285 

Arapa, Lake, 192 

Arctic Highlanders. See Eskimos 

Arequipa, 136, 174, 175, 190, 192 

Argyll, Duke of, 323 

Arica, 45 

Arrogant, H.M.S., 106 

Ashby, ~M.r.,il.M.S.CoUingwood, 132 

Asia, H.M.S., 96, 97 

Asquith, Mr., 351 

Assisi, 289 

Assistance, H.M.S., Franklin relief 
ship, 108, in; soirees on board, 
113; reaches Whalefish Islands, 
114; in Melville Bay, 114; enters 
Lancaster Sound, 116; beset in 
the ice in Wellington Channel, 
117; winter entertainments, 121, 
122 ; return from the Arctic, 127 

Aurora Borealis, Arctic journal, 113, 


Austin, Captain Horatio, 108, no, 


Ayacucho, 147, 149 
Azangaro, 180 

Baffin's Bay, search for the Erebus 
and Terror in, 112, 116, 126, 230 

Baird, Admiral Sir John, H.M.S. 
Grampus, 82 

Balearic Islands, 343 

Balfour, Mr. A. J., 327 

Barbacoes, 133 

Barbados, 278 

Barcelona, 343 

Barents Sea, Leigh Smith's expe- 
dition to, 254 




Baring, Mr. (afterwards Lord North- 
brook), Secretary of State for 
India, 199 

Barrow Strait, Franklin relief ships 
winter in, 118 

Basilisk, H.M.S., 63 

Basque Provinces, lecture on, 257 

Batalha, 296, 297 

Bates, Mr. H. W., Assistant Secre- 
tary, Royal Geographical Society, 

Bathurst Island, search for Franklin 
expedition near, 125 

Bayard, Mr., American Ambassa- 
dor, at Franklin commemoration 
dinner, 314; farewell dinner to, 

Beechey, Admiral, 167 

Behaim, Martin, fifteenth-century 
globe of, 346 

Bellerophon,- H.M.S., 100, 101 

Ben Nevis, 319 

Benthall, Mr., master at West- 
minster School, 14 

Bermuda, " Discovery and first 
settlement of," 279, 285 

Beynen, Koolemans, " Life of," 267 

Beypur, 196 

Bigge, Colonel Sir Arthur (now 
Lord Stamfordham) , 339 

Binton church, window dedicated 
to Captain Scott in, 358 

Blanc, Doctor, special envoy to 
Abyssinia, 209 

Bligh, Lieutenant, H.M.S. Bounty, 

Board of Trade, and geography in 

the Merchant Service, 257, 258 
Bogota, The s.s., 162 
Bola-bola island, 69-71 
Bologna, 289 
Bordeaux, 346 

Bougainville, M. de, at Tahiti, 590 
Bounty, The, 59 
Bowers, Mrs., 357 
Brief ond, 326 
Bristol, 352 
British Association, on Antarctic 

exploration, 314; at Dundee, 


British Guiana. (See Guiana) 

British Museum, publication of the 
scientific results of Scott's expe- 
dition, 3.58 

Broadhead, Commander, H.M.S. 
Collingwood, 23, 83, 84 

Bruce, Rev. Doctor, 358 

Budram, 307 

Bulnes, General Don Manuel, 92 

Buonaparte, Prince Roland, 315 

Busaco, 46 
Busby, Doctor, 331 
Byron's Bay, 53 

Cabpts, " Voyages of the," 308 

Cadiz, 295, 296 

Cagni, Captain, Duke of the 
Abruzzi's expedition, 327 

Calca, 156 

Calicut, 195, 196 

Callao, 38, 48, 75, 86-90, 162, 163 

Calypso, H.M.S., 275 

Cambridge, School of geography, 
225; Board of Geographical 
Studies, 342 

Campbell-Bannerman, Mr., 344 

Cameron, Captain, British Consul 

in Abyssinia, 209 
! Cancharani Mountain, 178 
; Canete (Peru), 138, 140 
| Cangallo, 147 

i Cano, Sebastian del, first circum- 
navigator of the globe, 352 

Capri, 302 

Caravaya, Mountains of, 173, 178, 

181, 191 
! Carlsbad, 302 
\ Carlscrona, 287 
| Carnegy, Mr., 271 
! Carneiro, Mount, 280 
j Carpenter, Mr., H.M.S. Valorous, 

238, 239 

j Carpio, Augustin, 143, 146 
i Cartagena, 296 

Cary Islands, 242 

Casa Blanca, 91, 253, 254 

Cascarilla. (See Cinchona) 

Castellamare, 300 

Castro, General, 80 

Ccapac, Manco, 152 

Ccasasni, cinchona plant found on, 

Cerro Blanco, gold mine, 142 

Chacunchaca Mountain, 180 

Chagres River, 133 

Challenger, H.M.S., 231 

Charles I., 295 

Chelyuskin, Cape, 257 

Chicago Exhibition, 343 

Chichester, Minna (afterwards Lady 
Clements Markham), 168, 169 

Chichester, Rev. J. H., 168, 267 

Chichester, Sir Bruce, 169 

Childers, Mr., First Lord of the 
Admiralty, 23 

Chincha Islands, 141 

Chinchero, 156 

Chincon, Countess of, 170 w 

Choate, Mr., American Ambassador, 



Chorrillos, near Lima, 137 

Christiania, 301, 313, 327 

" Chronicles of Peru," by Ciesa de 
Leon, 261 

Churi, Joseph, 168 

Cinchona plant, 158, 170; specimens 
found, 187; profits from, 332 

Cleveland, President, 271 

Cochrane, Lord, 36, 37 

Cockburn, Sir George, 103 

Colbeck, Wm., Captain of the 
Discovery relief ship Morning, 332, 
335, 336; presentation from the 
Geographical Society, 338 

Colchester, reception of Captain 
Scott's Expedition at, 338 

Collahuaya, gold mines, 181 

Collingwood, H.M.S., appointed 
naval cadet to, 18; sails from 
Portsmouth, 21, 25; at Madeira, 
27; life on board, 27-35; at Rio 
de Janeiro, 32, 33; at the Falk- 
land Islands, 33, 34; at Valpa- 
raiso, 35, 71, 83, 86, 90, 95; 
Seymours leave the ship, 38; at 
Tahiti, 52, 58, 67; at the Sand- 
wich Islands, 53 ; at Honolulu, 55, 
81 ; visit of the King of the Sand- 
wich Islands to, 56; visit to the 
Islands of the Society Group, 69 ; 
an incident with a French man- 
of-war at Bola-bola, 69, 70; at 
Callao, 75, 86-90; off San Bias, 
77; at Mazatlan, 78, 79; at Juan 
Fernandez, 93-95; homeward 
bound, 97 ; pays off, 98 

Colne River, " Report on oyster 
fishery," 203, 204 

Cologne, 273 

Colon, 133 

Columbus, " History of the discov- 
ery of the Windward Islands " 
by, 279; " Life of," 304; " First 
voyage of," 308 

Como, 304 

Congress of Americanists, 346 

Conway, The, 258-260, 286, 311 

Coolie Immigration, " Report on," 

Copenhagen, 287, 290, 291 

Coraquenque, royal bird of the 
Incas, 177 

Cordilleras, The, 146, 151 

Cordova, 343, 344 

Corfu, 305 

Cornwall, reformatory ship, 302 

Cornwall's Island, sledge journey 
by McClintock to, 118; search 
for Franklin expedition near, 125 
Correa, Don Rafael, 92 

Corte-Real, " Voyages of," 305, 308 

Courtrai, visit to, 251 

Crewe, Eail of, 351 

Crucero, 181 

Cumberland, H.M.S., 132 

Curacavi, 91 

Curzon, Lord, 325, 344, 355 

Cuyo-cuyo, 182, 191 

Cuzco, 90, 133, 136, 151-154, 159 

Dalanta plateau, Magdala, 216 
Danenhower, Lieutenant, Jeannette 

expedition, 270 
Darwin, Major, President of the 

Royal Geographical Society, 349 
Dava, Don Jose Faustino, 180 
Davis, John, 235, " Biography of," 


Davis Straits, 230, 240 

De Horsey, Admiral Sir Algernon, 
H.M.S. Collingwood, 23 

De Long, Jeannette expedition, 256, 

Desolation, Cape, 235 

Devonshire, Duke of, 351 

Dijon, 289 

Disco island, 236 

Discovery, H.M.S., 231, 242, 244, 
249- 255 

Discovery Harbour, 255 

" Discovery of Britain by Pytheas," 

Discovery, The, launched and sails 
from Dundee; sails from the 
Thames and anchors in Stokes 
Bay, 330; King and Queen's 
visit at Cowes, 330, 331; farewell 
to, 331; in communication with 
the Morning, 335; return to New 
Zealand, 336; arrival and enter- 
tainment at Portsmouth, 336; 
return to the East India Docks 
to pay off, 337 

Donnet, Surgeon, H.M.S. Assistance, 
no, 113 

Drottingholm Palace, 292 

Dundee, Discovery built at, 328, 
launched and sailed from, 329 

Du Petit-Thouars, Captain, 61 

Diisseldorf, 273. 

Dutch University Boat Race, 
" Description of," 253 

Dwarf, H.M.S., 107 

East India Docks, Discovery at, 329, 


Edinburgh, 294; reception of Cap- 
tain Scott's expedition at, 338 

Edinburgh, Duke of, 296 

Edi wanna, 196 




Edward VI., " Life of," 341 
Edward VII., King, visit to the 

Discovery at Cowes, 330, 331 
Edwin, King, " The Paladins of," 

319, 3 20 

Egerton, Admiral, Sir George, 342 

Egerton, Sir Edwin, 305 

Eimeo, island of, 60 

Eira, Leigh Smith's expedition to 
the Barent's Sea, 254, 255 

Elgin, Lord, 344 

Elizabethan Club, 16; elected Presi- 
dent of, 325 

Ellesmere, Earl of, President of the 
Royal Geographical Society, n 

Elphinstone, Lord, H.M.S. Gram- 
pus, 82 

Elsinore, 290 

Equator, crossing the, 28-32 

Erebus, H.M.S., 108, 112 

Eskimos (Arctic Highlanders), at 
Cape York, 115, 254 

Fairfax, Admiral, 269 

John, 273 

Lord, 271 

Rev. Brian, 269 

Wm., 269, 273 

Falkland Islands, H.M.S. Calling- 
wood at, 33, 34 
Farewell, Cape, 113, 235 
Felix, H.M.S., Franklin relief ship, 


Fenwick, Mrs., 91 
Fincham, Mr., 103 
Florence, 289 
Flower, Sir Wm., 323 
Fort Royal, 277 
Forth Bridge, 294 
Fram, The, 320 
Frankfort, 273 
Franklin, Lady, in 
Franklin, Sir John, 108,109, 114,314 
Franz Josef Land, 254 
Freeman, E. A., 8 
French Geographical Congress, 288 
French Government, presentation 

from, 316 
Funchal, H.M.S. Collingwood at, 27 

Gama, Vasco da, 325 

Gamel, Mr., 291 

Garcillasso de la Vega, 344 

Genoa, 289, 304 

Geographical Club, 312, 314, 315,322 

Geographical Society, Royal, Mark- 
ham's connection with, 224, 
283, 284; Arctic exploration, 230; 
Papers for, 252, 305; geography 
in the Merchant Service, 257, 

258; Central African questions, 
268; presentation of Founder's 
medal to Markham, 283, 284, 
286; elected Vice-President of, 
305; President 309; women as 
fellows of, 309; Antarctic re- 
search, 310, 311; presentation of 
special gold medal to Nansen, 
322; grant for an Antarctic 
expedition, 323, 324, 327, 328; 
reception of the Discovery and the 
Morning,. 337, 338; Markham's 
resignation of the presidency, 
339. 34i; entertainment of the 
officers of the Terra Nova, 349 

Geography, Schools of, 225, 231; 
lack of knowledge of, 253, 254; 
Merchant Service and, 257, 258 

German Emperors, " List of," 273 

Gibraltar, 322 

Gil, Senor Pedro, 158 

Gilford, Lord, H.M.S. Grampus, 82 

Girgenti, ruins at, 300 

Gironda, Don Juan de la Cruz, 187- 

Gleaner, The, Arctic journal, 120 

Godhavn (Greenland), 233, 236 

Goldie, Sir George, President, Royal 
Geographical Society, 339 

Goldner, provision contractor to 
Franklin Expedition, 117 

Goodenough, Commodore James G., 
at Westminster, School, 15; 
H.M.S., Collingwood, 21, 23, 73, 
74, 80; exploration of Juan 
Fernandez, 93-95; death of, 240 

Gore, Mr., 91, 92 

Gorgona, 134 

Grampus, H.M.S., 81 

Granada, 343 

Grant, Mate, H.M.S. Collingwood, 

Grant, Mr. Patrick, 196 

Great Horkesley, 5, 6 

Greece, 307 

Greely, Lieutenant, 255 

Greenway Court, Shenandoah 
Valley, seat of Lord Fairfax, 271 

Greenwich, Ship Inn at, 312; 
Franklin commemoration at, 314 

Griffith Island, 118 

Grinnell, Mr., 112 

Guadeloupe, 277 

Guanches, The, ancient inhabitants 
of Teneriffe, 342 

Guarda, General Don Manuel de la, 

152, 159 
Guiana, British, boundary line 

between Venezuela and, 317, 318 
Guillemard, Doctor, 355 



Hakluyt, Richard, 227 

Hakluyt Society, 226, 227, 249, 
275, 297, 349 

Hamilton, Admiral Sir Vesey, 80 

Hammond, Captain, H.M.S. Sala- 
mander, 58 

Hankey.Lieutenant, H.M.S. Calling- 
wood, 26, 83 

Hardy, Sir Thomas, 25 

Harmsworth, Mr. (now Lord North- 
cliffe), 323 

Harmsworth - Jackson, Windward 
Polar expedition, 3 1 3 

Harrison, seaman, H.M.S. Colling- 
wood, 75 

Hawaii, 53 

Hebrides, The, 319 

Heidelberg, 273 

Henry, George, A.R.A., portrait of 
Clements Markham by, 16, 359 

Henry, Prince, the navigator, 297, 


Heroine, French corvette, 61 
Hervay, Inca fortress of, 140 
Historical Congress, in London, 359 
Holsteinborg, 238, 239 
Homburg, 273, 302 
Hooker, Sir Joseph, 323 
Hope, relief ship to the Eira, 254, 


Horta, 280 

Hoskins, Admiral Sir Anthony, 300 
Huaccuyo, River, 182 
Huacas, 137 

Huaheine, Island, 70, 71 
Huancarama, 149 
Huari-huari, River, 184, 185 
Hues, Robert, 299 
Hull, reception of Captain Scott's 

expedition at, 338; " Siege of," 

lecture on, 249 
Huxley, Mr. Leonard, viii 
Hygienic Congress, 304 

Illustrated Arctic News, 120 
Incas, The, 135, 138, 152, 153, 154- 

157. 34.7 

India, irrigation in, " Report on,' 
204, 205 

India, Government of, grants to 
members of cinchona expedition, 
200-202 ; profits from the cinchona 
plant, 332 

International Geographical Con- 
gress, 314, 315, 326 

Ipecacuanha, its growth in Brazil, 
" Report on," 205 

Isabella, Cape, 244 

Islay, 162, 174, 192 

Italian Geographical Society, 304 

Jackson - Harmsworth, Windward 
polar expedition, 313 

Jarnac, Comte de, 71 

Jeannette, American expedition to 
New Siberia Islands, 256 

Jeffreys, Mr. Gwyn, H.M.S. Valor- 
ous, 238, 239 

Jones, Captain Loftus, H.M.S. 
Valorous, 237, 238 

Jones, Mr., H.M.S. Collingwood, 85 

Jones Sound, 126 

Juan Fernandez, 90, 93-95 

Juno, H.M.S., 79 

Jutland, 341 

Karolyi, Count Ladislav, H.M.S. 

Collingwood, 84, 91-93 
Kealakekua, Bay, murder of Cap- 
tain James Cook, 58 
Kellett, Captain, H.M.S. Herald, 89 
Keltie, Doctor J. Scott, Secretary, 
Royal Geographical Society, 224, 
225, 355 

Kennerly, Mr. and Mrs., 271 
Kiel, 287 

Kilauea, Mountain, 54, 55 
King William Land, 242, 254 
Kirkwall, Cathedral of St. Magnus, 


Koldewey, Captain, 287 
Kosmos Club, 315 
Kronborg, Castle of, 290 
Kublai-Khan, 152 
Kynaston, Flag-Lieutenant, H.M.S. 

Collingwood, 84 

La Cava, 300 

Lacey, Lieutenant, H.M.S. Colling- 
wood, 84 

Lady Franklin Bay, 255 

Lampa, 180 

Lancaster Sound, 116 

Langstone Harbour, 107 

Langui, 160 

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 351 

La Puerta, Doctor, 159, 161 
Victoria, 159, 161 

Laris, 156 

Lassen, Mr., Governor of Holstein- 
borg, 239 

Layard, Mr., Nineveh discoveries 
of, 209 

Laycaycota, Mountain, 178 

Leeds Geographical Society, 346 

Leith, 294 

Lemnos, 307 

Lena, River, 256 n 

Leonidas, 307 

Lewenhaupt, Count, 325 



Lima, 38, go, 135-137, 173 

Limatambo, 151 

Limburg, 251 

Lisbon, 296 

Lister, Lord, President of the Royal 
Society, 324 

Liverpool, establishment of naviga- 
tion school by the Corporation of, 
305; Paper read on "Polar 
Exploration" at, 311; reception 
of Captain Scott's expedition at, 

Lobos Islands, 75 

London, reception of Captain 
Scott's expedition in, 338 

London Chamber of Commerce, 
Conference with the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society on exploration 
in Central Africa, 268 

Longhurst, Mr., Cyril, viii. 

Longstaff, Mr. L. W., donations for 
Antarctic exploration, 327, 332 

" Los Cantabros," 295 

Low Countries, 250, 251 

Lyons, 289 

Lyttelton, arrival of Discovery and 
Morning at, 336 

Maas, River, 250 

Macartney, Mr. (now Sir Wm.), 

339, 34 

Macdonalds of Keppoch, " Memoirs 
of the," 269 

MacMurdo Sound, Discovery 
winters in, 335 

Madre de Dios, 158, 167 

Madrid, 343 

Magdala, 210, 211, 213; description 
of neighbourhood, 215, 216; 
battle and capture of, 217; burn- 
ing of, 220, 221 

Magellan, 352 

Malta, 300 

Manchester Geographical Society, 


Mannheim, 273 

Mansfield, Countess of, 17 

Maras, 154 

Marathon, 306 

Markham, Sir Clements R., K.C.B., 
F.R.S., birthplace and childhood, 
1-3 ; his remarkable memory, 3-4; 
home at Great Horkesley, 6; 
school days at Cheam, 7-9; early 
interest in Polar exploration, 7; 
games and studies, 8; early 
literary achievements, 9-11; at 
Westminster School, 12-15; 
interest in the school in after 
life, 15, 16; joins the Navy, 18; 

naval cadet in H.M.S. Calling- 
wood, 18; parting present from 
his House at Westminster, 20; 
sails in H.M.S. Collingwood from 
Portsmouth, 21; his journal and 
friends in, 21-24; officers' descrip- 
tion of him, 26; on shore at 
Madeira, 27; at Rio de Janeiro, 
32, 33; at the Falkland Islands, 
34; fall into the store-room, 35; 
at Valparaiso, 37; friendship 
with Lieutenant Peel, 38-40^ 
severity of system of corporal 
punishment influences him to 
leave the Service, 41; visits to 
Lima, 42, 43 ; interest in naviga- 
tion and astronomy, 48 ; falls out 
with the Naval Instructor, 49-51 ; 
appeal on behalf of a captain 
of the maintop and the conse- 
quences, 50, 51; at Hawaii, 54, 
55; visit to Mr. Wylie at Hono- 
lulu, 55, 56; excursions from 
Honolulu, 57, 58; meets M'Clin- 
tock, 58; sympathy with the 
Tahitians, 64-66; obtains in- 
formation as to French forces 
and communicates it to the 
islanders, 64-66; admiration of 
Grant in his endeavour to assist 
the Tahitians, 69; visits Lady 
Seymour at Valparaiso, 7 1 ; 
appointed to take charge of 
dinghy, 72 ; ride towards Santiago 
with Goodenough, 74; incident 
with a guacho, 74; friendship 
with Goodenough, 74; Beau- 
champ Seymour's kindness, 75, 
76; strained relations with the 
Naval Instructor, 76; " History 
of the Pacific Station," 76, 77, 86; 
visit to San Bias, 77; stay at 
Mazatlan, 78, 79 ; makes a plan 
of mouth of the river, 79 ; passes 
midshipman's examination, 79, 
80; visit to Monterey, 80, 81 ; 
meets the officers of the Grampus, 
82 ; atrocities at Tahiti, 82 ; deals 
with outbreak of fire, 85; mid- 
shipman of the fpretop, 86, 87; 
attacked by natives at Callao, 
88, 89; desire to become an 
explorer, 89-90 ; great reader, 90 ; 
trip to Santiago, 91-93; on shore 
at Juan Fernandez, 93-95; 
serious illness, 95, 96; desire to 
leave the Service, 97, 98, 106; 
on leave at home, 100; joins 
H.M.S. Bellerophon on appoint- 
ment to H.M.S. Sidon, 100; at 



Palermo and Naples, 101-103; 
appointed to H.M.S. Superb, 106; 
friendship with Sherard Osborn, 
107-109; desire to join Franklin 
relief expedition, 108, 109; ap- 
pointed to Franklin relief ship 
H.M.S. Assistance, 109, no; 
death of his brother David, no; 
sails in the Assistance, in; con- 
tributions to the Aurora Borealis, 
113, 120; study of Arctic history, 
114; in the ice of Melville Bay, 
116; winter entertainments and 
studies, 121-123; resolve to 
explore Peru, 123; sledge travel- 
ling, 125; home from the Arctic, 
127; obtains father's consent to 
leave the Service, 127, 129; plans 
for expedition to Peru, 130; 
publishes " Franklin's Foot- 
steps," 130; bids farewell to 
relief expedition, 130, 131; finan- 
cial assistance for expedition to 
Peru, 131; sails from Liverpool, 
132; meets Mr. Prescott at 
Boston, 133 ; journey to Panama, 
Z 33' J 34I to Callao and Lima, 
135; researches in Inca history, 
135; plans journey to Cuzco, 136; 
temple of Pachacamac, 136; 
attacked by robbers, 136; starts 
from Lima, 137; objects of enter- 
prise, 138; reaches Pisco and Yea, 
141; visits Chincha Islands, 141; 
the Andes, 144-147; at Ayacu- 
cho, 147, 148; accompanied by 
Doctor Taforo to Cuzco, 149; at 
Huancarama, 149, 150; an appa- 
rition, 150; arrival at Cuzco, 151; 
journey to Arequipa, 159; at 
Arequipa, 162; return to Callao, 
162, 163 ; father's death, 163, 164; 
return to England, 163, 164; 
appointment in the Inland 
Revenue Office, 165; appointed 
to the India Office, 166; elected a 
fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society, (1854), 166, reads his 
first Paper, 167; study of Indian 
mythology and Arabic, 167, 168; 
publishes " Cuzco and Lima," 
1 68; marriage, - 169; Paper on 
" M'Clintock's Search for 
Franklin," 169; quest for cin- 
chona, 170-194, selected by 
Secretary of State for India to 
collect specimens of the plant in 
South America, 171; prepara- 
tions for the expedition, 172, 173; 
arrival at Lima and Arequipa, 

, 177-180; 
specimens of cinchona plant 
collected, 187; orders for his 
arrest, 188; arrival at Sandia 
and hurried departure with 
plants, 189; journey over the 
Cordilleras to Vilque, 190-192; 
reaches Vilque and Arequipa, 
192; plants safely exported to 
Southern India, 1 94 ; return 
home, 194; starts for India to 
superintend landing of the 
plants, 195; selection of sites for 
the plants, 196, 197; returns to 
England and appointed Private 
Secretary to the Secretary of 
State for India, 199; publishes 
" Travels in Peru and India," 
and " Peruvian Bark," 199 ; 
return to India to inspect cin- 
chona plantations, 200; Govern- 
ment of India's grants to mem- 
bers of the expedition, 200-202; 
questions studied in Peru, India 
and Brazil, 202, 203 ; sent to 
Tuticorin to report on the river 
Colne oyster fishery, 203, 204; 
reports on coolie immigration 
and irrigation in India, etc., 
204-206; honorary Secretary of 
the Royal Geographical Society, 
206; translations for the Hak- 
luyt Society, 207; appointed 
Geographer to the Abyssinian 
Expedition, 210, 211; death of 
King Theodore, 217, 218; return 
to England, 221 ; created Com- 
panion of the Bath, 222; pub- 
lishes " History of the Abyssinian 
War," and " Life of the Great 
Lord Fairfax," 223, 224; work 
as Secretary of the Geographical 
Society, 224-226; urges Arctic 
exploration, 226; publications 
for the Hakluyt Society, 226, 227 ; 
accepts Secretaryship of the 
Society, 227; Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, 228; 
Fellow of the Royal Society, 228; 
honours from Portugal, Brazil, 
and Germany, 228; pleads for a 
naval Arctic expedition, 228, 
deputation to Ministers, 229, 
Government decide on an Arctic 
expedition, 231, invited to 
accompany expedition as far as 
Greenland, 232, 233, on board the 
Alert, 233-237, farewell to the 
Alert, 237; return in H.M.S. 
Valorous, 237-240; advises de- 



patch of a vessel to communicate 
with the Alert and Discovery, 241 ; 
publications, 243, 247-249; return 
of the Alert and Discovery, 244, 
245; tour in Holland, 246, 247; 
" Peruvian Bark," 250; tour in 
the Low Countries, 250-252; 
contributions to the " History of 
America," 252; visit to Holland, 
252, 2 53 ' deputation to the 
Admiralty concerning relief expe- 
dition for the Eira, 254; other 
Arctic expeditions, 254, 255; 
articles on " Missing polar expe- 
ditions," 256, 257; lectures in 
Yorkshire and Bristol, 257; the 
Worcester and Conway, 258-260, 
266, 267, 272; further literary 
work, 261 ; interest in seaman 
sentenced to penal servitude, 
262-266; invitations to stand as 
Liberal candidate for Taunton 
and Portsmouth, 267 ; St. Gabriel's 
church, Warwick Square, 268; 
" Memoirs of the Macdonalds of 
Keppoch," 269; visit to America 
for his " Life of Admiral Fair- 
fax," 269-272; trip to Belgium 
and Germany, 273 ; helps a 
friend, 274; Hakluyt Society, 
274, 275; visit to H.M.S. Active 
in the West Indies, 275-281; 
meets Captain Scott, 277; Papers 
written for the midshipmen of the 
Active, 279, 280; theatricals in 
the Active, 280, 281 ; return home 
in the Active, 281 ; Channel cruise 
in the Active, 282 ; further literary 
work, 282, 284, 288; receives Royal 
Geographical Society's Founder's 
Gold medal, 282, 283, 286; 
Antarctic research, 284; second 
cruise to the West Indies, 284, 
285; publishes "Life of the 
Veres," 285; presentation from 
the Conway, 286; on board the 
Active for naval manoeuvres, 286, 
287, Baltic cruise in the Active, 
287; coins, 287-290; Baltic cruise 
in H.M.S. Volage, 290-294; meets 
Doctor Nansen, 291, and King of 
Sweden, 292; naval review at 
Portsmouth, 294; literary work, 

294- 295, 3i. 34. 35, 38, 309; 
Mediterranean cruise, 295-297; 
elected President, Hakluyt 
Society, 297; publishes " Richard 
III." 298, 299; tours in Sicily 
and Italy, 300, 302; cruise in 
H.M.S. Ruby to Christiania, 301 ; 

visits to Homburg and Carlsbad, 
302; charm of personality, 303; 
Vice-President of Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, 305; trip to 
Mediterranean, 305-308; receives 
gold medal from the Congress of 
Peru, 308; translations and 
papers for the Hakluyt and 
Antiquaries Societies, 308, 316; 
" Naval coins," 308; " Discovery 
of Britain by Pytheas," 308; 
" Reminiscences of Westminster 
School," 308; lectures to the 
Worcester, 308; trip to Italy, 309; 
elected President, Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, 309; Antarctic 
research, 310, 311; Papers read 
to various Societies, 311; cele- 
bration of the fourth centenary 
of the birth of Prince Henry the 
Navigator, 311, 312; annual fish 
dinner of Geographical Club at 
the Greenwich Ship Inn, 312; 
first year's work as President of 
the Geographical Society, 312, 
313; Jackson-Harmsworth Polar 
expedition, 313; stay at Larvik, 
313; interview with King of 
Sweden, 313; "Life of Major 
James Rennell." The "Dis- 
coverers of Australia," 313,' 
Antarctic exploration, 313, 317, 
lectures at the Imperial Institute 
and Royal United Service Insti- 
tution on, 314; International 
Geographical Congress (1895), 
314-316; Franklin commemora- 
tion, 314; visit to Norway, 315; 
presentation from the French 
Government, 316; "Voyages of 
Pedro de Sarmiento," 316; appeal 
to Admiralty for an Antarctic 
expedition, 317, 321; United 
States and the British Guiana- 
Venezuela boundary, 317, 318; 
created K.C.B., 318, 319; cruise 
along the coast of Scotland, 319; 
" History of English Maritime 
Discovery," " The Paladins of 
King Edwin," " Commercial 
geography," 319, 320; reception 
of Nansen at Christiania, 320; 
Antarctic project, 320-328; Nan- 
sen's visit to England, 322; 
cruise in the Royal Sovereign to 
Vigo and Gibraltar, 322 ; memorial 
to Joseph Thompson at Nithsdale, 
323; Committee to organize an 
Antarctic expedition, 324; Vice- 
President of the Navy Records 



Society, 324; difficulty in raising 
funds for Antarctic expedition, 
325; commemoration of fourth 
centenary of the rounding of 
Cape of Good Hope by Vasca de 
Gama, 325; receives Order of the 
Pole Star, 325; visit to Berlin to 
attend the International Geo- 
graphical Congress (1899), 326; 
holiday in Norway, 326, 327; 
lecture on the " Geographical 
Aspects of Inca Civilization," 
327; Mr. Longstaff's donation 
and a Government grant for an 
Antarctic expedition, 327, expe- 
dition assured, 328, Scott ap- 
pointed to command, 328, his 
instructions, 329, 333, decision 
to build a special ship, 328, 
named the Discovery, 329, fare- 
well to the, 331; dissemination 
of geographical knowledge, 331; 
Geographical Society at South- 
ampton, 331; elected a trustee 
of Doctor Busby's Charity, and a 
member of the governing body of 
Westminster School, 331; pros- 
perity of cinchona plantations in 
India, 332; relief ship for the 
Discovery, 332, raising of funds 
for her equipment, 332, 333, 
donations from the King and 
Prince of Wales, 333; relief ship 
Morning sails, 333; troubles over 
the despatch of the two expe- 
ditions, 333, 334; news of the 
Discovery, 335; second despatch 
of the Morning. Government 
takes over responsibility, 335, 
336; welcomes the Discovery at 
Portsmouth, 336, 337; reception 
and winding up of the expe- 
dition, 337-339; presentation 
from the officers of the Discovery 
and Morning, 338; resigns presi- 
dencyof the Geographical Society, 
339-341 ; presentation from the 
relatives of the Discovery officers, 
340; his character, 340; accepts 
the office of a Vice-President of 
the Geographical Society, 341 ; 
lecture on Nelson to Westminster 
School, 342; Paper on the " Next 
Great Arctic Discovery," 342; 
delivers an address at the open- 
ing of the Cambridge Board of 
Geographical Studies, 342; visit 
to Teneriffe for his " History of 
the Guanches," 342; cruise in 
the Mediterranean, 342, 343; 

writes a description^, of the 
Alhambra and compiles pedigrees 
of several reigning Sovereigns, 
343 ; visits the burial-place of 
Garcilasso de la Vega at Cordova, 
344; golden wedding, 344; re- 
ceives honorary degree of LL.D. 
Cambridge, and the Order of St. 
Olaf , 344 ; death of Admiral Sir L. 
M'Clintock, 344; visit to Mont 
Estoril, 344; literary work, 345, 
349; visit to Vienna to attend 
Congress of Americanists, 346; 
delivers an address at the Leeds 
Geographical Society, 346; pub- 
lishes " The Incas of Peru," 347; 
Scott's second Antarctic expe- 
dition, 347-350; godfather to 
Captain Scott's son, 349; resigns 
presidencyof the Hakluyt Society, 
349; sails with Captain Scott in 
the Terra Nova, 349; D.Sc. of 
Leeds University, 351; visit to 
Bristol for the Hakluyt memorial 
ceremony, 352; resignation of 
Vice-Presidency of the Geo- 
graphical Society, 354, 355; work 
on a history of the Polar regions, 
354. 355; elected President of 
Americanist Congress and attends 
its first meeting, 355, 356; reads 
a Paper on Scott's expedition 
at the British Association at 
Dundee, 356; receives news at 
Mont Estoril of Scott's fate, 356, 
present at a memorial service at 
Mont Estoril, 357, memorial 
letter to the Times, 357, writes 
to the Prime Minister suggesting 

osthumous honours for Captain 
cott's widow, 357, unveils a 
memorial to Doctor E. A. Wilson 
at Cheltenham, 357, unveils a 
plaque to the memory of Lieu- 
tenant Bowers on board the 
Worcester, 357, 358, attends dedi- 
cation of a window to the memory 
of Scott in Binton church, 358. 
assists in the unveiling of statue 
of Scott, 358; sits for his portrait 
at the request of Old West- 
minsters, 358, 359, its presenta- 
tion, 359; translations for the 
Hakluyt Society, and other 
literary work, 359; reads his 
last Paper at the Geographical 
Society, 359; visit to Mont 
Estoril and Madeira, 360; last 
entry in his diary, 360; accident 
while reading in bed by candle- 



light, 361, succumbs to the shock 
(January 30, 1916), 361; author's 
appreciation, 361, 362; letters 
and telegrams of condolence, 
363-365; Hst of published works, 
366-368; books edited for the 
Hakluyt Society, 369, 370 

Markham, The Rev. Canon, David, 
i, 2, 5, 12, no, 163, 164, 283 

Markham, Admiral John, 256, 261 

Markham, May, 169, 342 

Markham, Major R.A., 359 

Markham, Robert, 273 

Markham, Doctor Wm., Archbishop 
of York, 2 

Markham, William, i, 2 

Markham family, " Memorials of 
the," 320 

Markham, Mount, 352 

Marseilles, 289 

Marstrand, 293 

Martel, Don, 182, 183, 188, 190, 192 

Nansen, Doctor, 291, 301 ; arrival at 
Vardo, 320 ; visit to England, 322, 


Napier, Admiral Sir Charles, 104, 
105, 167 

Napier, General Sir R. (afterwards 
Lord Napier), appointed to com- 
mand military expedition to 
Abyssinia, 210 ; composition of 
force and plan of operations, 
211-216 ; defeat of King Theodore 
at Magdala, 21 7, 218 ; destruction 
of Magdala, 220, 221; embarks 
with force from Annesley Bay, 
221; created a Peer, 222 

Naples, 300 

Nares, Admiral Sir George, in com- 
mand of Arctic expedition (1875- 
76), 230, 242, 244-246, 249 

Nasca, 136, 142 

Nassau, Duke of, 292 

Nauplia, 306 

Nautical instruments, proposal for 
a collection at Greenwich, 301 

Naval Exhibition (1891), 301 

Navy Records Society, Vice-Presi- 
dent of, 324 

Nelson, Lord, lecture on, 342 

Newcastle, Duke of, 358 

New Guinea, " Discovery of," 267 

New Siberia Islands, 256 

New Zealand, arrival of Dis- 
covery and Morning at, 335, 336 

Nicolosi, ruins at, 302 

Nithsdale, memorial to Joseph 
Thompson at, 323 

Nordenfelt, Mr., 293 

Nordenskjold, Baron, 250, 287, 291 ; 

" Facsimile atlas," 292, 295 
North-East Passage, The, 250 
North Water, 115 
North- West Passage, The, 242 
Norwegian Geographical Society, 


Novoa, Don Manuel, 159 
Nurnburg, 346 

Oahu, island of, 55 

Oban, 319 

Oberea, Queen Regent of Tahiti in 

(1767), 59 
Ocururo, 160 
Odda, 326 
Odin, H.M.S., 102 
Olympia, 306 
Ollantay-tambo, 155, 156 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir Erasmus, 

no, 125 

Orkneys, The, 319 
Orton, Arthur, Tichborne claimant, 


Osborn (negro boy), 88 
Osborn, Admiral Sherard, 23, 84, 

107-109, no, 228-232 
Otiavanna Harbour, 70 
Otter, Admiral Von, 287 
Otu, King of Tahiti in (1769), 59, 60 
Oxford, School of Geography, 225, 


Oyster Fishery, River Colne, 
" Report on," 203, 204 

Pablo, 184 

Pachacamac, temple of, 136 

Paco, Angelino (guide) 191 

Paco-bamba Range, 180 

Paestum, 300 

Palermo, 302 

Palma, 343 

Palmerston, Lord, 71 

Palmite Grande, 146 

Panama, 10 

Pandora, H. M.S. ,241, 242, 244, 270 

Papeete Harbour (Tahiti), 58, 61, 


Paris, 289, 300, 346 
Exhibition, 324 
Parma, 289 

Parry, Admiral Sir Edward, iii 
Parry, Edward, Bishop of Dover 

and Dean of Canterbury, 8 
Patras, 305 
Paucarcolla, 179 
Paucartambo, 156, 157 
Payta, 75 
Peel, Captain Sir William, H.M.S. 

Collingwood, 22, 26, 37, 39, 


leaves the, no; his subsequent 

achievements and death, 40, 41 
Peel Strait, 242 
Penny, Captain, in, 119 
Peru, 104, introduction of the 

cotton plant into India from, 203 ; 

translations from the Spanish of 

Articles on, 261; Paper on, 301, 

311; Congress of, 308; "The 

Incas of," 347 
Perugia, 289 
Peterhead, 294 
Phipps-Hornby, Admiral, 97 
Phipps, Lieutenant G., 97 
Pioneer, H.M.S., Franklin relief 

ship, 108 
Pisco, 140, 141 
Pissac, 156 
Pizarro, 90, 147, 151 
Pizarro, Francisco and Gonzalo, 


Polyphemus, H.M.S., 105 
Pomare, King Otu of Tahiti (in 

1769), 60 

Pomare, Queen, 63 
Pompeii, 300 
Portland, H.M.S., 163 
Portsmouth, 255, 256; arrival and 

entertainment of the Discovery 

at, 336, 337 

Portugal, King of, 296; assassina- 
tion of King and Crown Prince, 

344, 345 

Portuguese Minister, 325 
Potato, " Its Original Home," 257, 


Potosi, 178 

Prescott, Mr. W. H., 133, 168 
Prichett, Mr., 173 
Prideaux, Lieutenant, R.E., 209 
Prince Albert, Franklin relief ship, 


Prince Regent Inlet, in 
Pritchard, Mr., British Consul at 

Tahiti, 60, 62 

Probyn, General Sir Dighton, 339 
Ptolemy editions of maps, 291 
Pucara, 180 
Puno, 174, 175, 177-180 

Quiaca, The Alcalde of, 188 

Quin, LieutenantR.,H.M.S. Colling. 

wood, 22, 37 
Quinones, Don Luiz, 180 

Raiatea, Island, 70, 71 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 280 

Rassam, Mr., special envoy to 
Abyssinia, 209; identifies the 
remains of King Theodore, 218 

Ravn, Admiral, 291 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry, President 

of the Geographical Society, 228- 


Rayleigh, Lord, 351 
Reine Blanche, French man-of-war, 


Rescue, Franklin relief ship, 112 n 
Resht, 253 
Resolute, H.M.S., Franklin relief 

ship, 108, in, 121, 122, 231 
Revello, Bovo de, 157, 158 
Richard III., "Life of," 298, 299, 

3i, 34 
Richards, Admiral Sir Frederick, 

Richmond, portrait of Markham by, 


Richthofen, Baron, 326 
Riley, Cape, relics of Franklin 

expedition found at, 116, 117 
Rink, Doctor, 291, 301 
Rio Cosnipata, 158 
Rio de Janeiro, 32, 33, 97 
Rio Grande, 142 
Rio Pinapina, 158 
Rio Turo; 158 
Ritenbenk, 238 
Rome, visit to, 288, 300 
Ross, Sir James, 108, in 
Rossi, Signorina, 44, 97 
Rover, H.M.S., 275, 277 
Royal Geographical Society. See 

Geographical Society. 
" Royal Navy Club of 1765," 325 
Royal Societies' Club, 322 
Royal Society, Arctic exploration, 

230; Antarctic exploration, 324 
Royal Sovereign, H.M.S., 319, 322 
Rua, a Chief in Tahiti, 60 
Ruby, H.M.S., 290, 301 

Saalburg, Roman camp at, 274 

Sabine, Cape, 255 

St. Gabriel's church, Warwick 

Square, 268 
St. Kitts, 277 
St. Lucia, " Rodney's victory at," 

St. Patrick's Day, celebration of, 

in the gunroom, 46, 47 
St. Vincent, H.M.S., 18 
Salamanca, 346 
Salisbury, Lord, 314, 318 
Salonica, 307 
San Bias, 77 
Sandia, 182-184, 188-192 
Sandwich Islands, 52-63, history of 

their sovereignty, 56 n, 57 n 
San Jose, 181 



San Lorenzo, 89 

San Miguel, 157, 158 

San Remo, 289 

Santa Ana, 142 

Sarmiento, " Voyages of Pedro 
de," 316 

Schwatka, Lieutenant, journey to 
King William Land, 254 

Scott, Lady, 358 

Scott, Peter Markham, 349, 360 

Scott, Captain Robert F., 277; 
appointed to command Antarctic 
expedition, 328-330; receives 
Victorian Order from the King, 
330; reaches latitude 82 17' S, 
winters in Macmurdo Sound, 
335; arrival at Lyttelton (April, 
1904), 336; receives special gold 
medal from the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, and the Pennsyl- 
vania Geographical Society's 
medal, 338, 340, 342; second 
Antarctic expedition, 347-350; 
reaches latitude 87 32', 353; 
reaches South Pole but perishes 
on return journey, 356; memorial 
service to, 357; dedication of 
window to in Binton church, 
358; unveiling of his statue in 
Waterloo Place, 358 

Seaford, Lady, 25 

Segesta, ruins at, 302 

Selinus, ruins at, 300, 302 

Selkirk, Alexander, 94 

Senate, Base camp of Abyssinian 
expedition, 213 

Seville, 296 

Seward, Mr., 103 

Seymour, Lady, her kindness to 
Markham, 28; leaves H.M.S. 
Collingwood at Valparaiso, 38, 71 

Seymour, Miss, 91, 92 

Seymour, Beauchamp, Lieutenant 
H.M.S. Collingwood, 22, 52, 75, 
76; Commander H.M.S. Cormo- 
rant, 84 

Seymour, Captain Charles, 77 

Seymour, Admiral Sir George, 
invites Markham to accompany 
him in his flagship Collingwood 
to the Pacific, 17; his family on 
board, 22; views on smoking, 24; 
kindness to Markham, 28; 
assumes command of the Pacific 
Station, 35; hoists his flag in the 
Cormorant, 38; deals with an 
incident with Peru, 44, 45; 
instructions to acknowledge 
French Protectorate at Tahiti 
and Eimeo, 63, 69; visits Tahi- 

tian camp at Bonavia, 67; 
receives and advises the islanders 
of Bola-bola, 70, 95, 132 

Seymour, Captain George H., H.M.S. 
Carysfort, 83 

Shears, Lieutenant, H.M.S. Colling- 
wood, 84 

Sheffield, reception of Captain 
Scott and his officers at, 338 

Shenandoah Valley, 271 

Sidon, H.M.S., 100, 103, 104, 106 

Skodsborg, 291 

Sledge travelling, 118 ; M'Clintock's 
organization, 123 ; scheme and 
work of search parties, 124-126 

Smart, Captain, H.M.S. Colling- 
wood, 23, 98 

Smith, Mr. Leigh, 252, 254 

Smith, Mr. T. K., 254 

Smith Mr. W. E. (now Sir William), 
Chief Constructor of the Admir- 
alty, 328 

Smith Sound, 242, 255 

Society Islands, 62, 70, 71 

Solutum, ruins at, 302 

Somerset, Raglan, 8, 12 

Somerville, Commander, H.M.S. 
Collingwood, 84 

Somerville Island, 118 

Southampton Geographical Society, 


Speaker, The, 351 
Spear, Doctor, H.M.S. Collingwood, 


Spinola, General, 273 
Spruce, Mr., 173 
Spy, H.M.S., 79 
Stanley, Sir H. M., 299 
Staveley, General Sir Charles, 2nd 

in command, Abyssinian expe- 

tion, 218 

Stock Exchange, The, 348 
Stockholm, 291 

Stokes Bay, The Discovery at, 330 
Strachey, General Sir R., President, 

Geographical Society, 286 
Sunipana Pass, 181 
Superb, H.M.S., 107, 109 
Sweden, King of, 292, 313, 325 
Queen of, 213 

Tacna, Prefect of, 45 

Tafaro, Doctor, 149-151, 159. 161 

Tahiti, 48; discovered in 1767 by 

Captain Wallis, 58, 59; events 

leading to French Protectorate 

at, 59-63, 82 
Takkazye, Abyssinian expedition 

at, 215 



Talbot, H.M.S., 78 

Tambopata, 184, 187 

Taormina, 300, 302, 309 

Taunton, invited to contest, 267 

Tello y Cabrera, Don Manuel, 
Prefect of Ayacucha, 147 

Terra Nova, Captain Scott's 
Antarctic ship, 348, 349, 352, 353 

Terror, H.M.S., 108, 112 

Thasos, 307 

Theodore, King of Abyssinia, 207 ; 
his proposal to send an ambas- 
sador to London ignored, 208- 
210; arrests British Consul and 
Special Envoy, 209, 210; his 
army, 211; his country rises 
against him, 213, 214; defeat 
and death of, 217, 218; character 
described, 218 

Therese, Princess, 346 

Thermopylae, 306, 307 

Thomar, 347 

Thompson, Joseph, memorial to, 


Tinnevelly, pearl industry, 203, 204 
Tiryns, 306 

Titicaca, Lake, 176, 177 
Tortorani, River, 177 
Tournai, 251, 252 
Towton, Battle of, lecture on, 257, 


Trafalgar, H.M.S., 305, 306 
Trapani, ruins at, 302 
Travancore, " Report on Public 

Works of," 205 
Trent, 309 

Troll-hattan, Falls of, 293 
Tungasaca, Lake, 159, 160 
Tupac Amaru, 160 
Tuticorin, 203, 204 
Tyneside Geographical Society, 311 

United States, relief expedition for 
Greely, 255; British Guiana- 
Venezuela boundary question, 

317. 3i8 

Upernivik (Greenland), 114 
Urubamba, 156 
Utrecht, 252, 253 

Valdivia, Mamita, and daughters, 

85- 97 

Valentia, 244 

Valorous, H.M.S., 233, 236-240 
Valparaiso, 35-38, 44, 71, 86 
Valseca, Gabriel, Portolano of, 343 
Vardo, arrival of Nansen at, 320 
Vega, Nordenskjold expedition, 250 
Venezuela, boundary line between 

British Guiana and, 317, 318 

Vengeance, H.M.S., 103 

Venice, 309 

Venloo, 250 

Vere, Sir Francis, 251, 272 

Vere, Sir Horace, 251, 272, 273 

Vespucci, Amerigo, 305, 343 

Victorious, H.M.S., 19 

Victory, H.M.S., 100 

Vido, 305 

Vienna, 346 

Vigo, 322 

Vilcamayu, 154, 157 

Vilcapampa, Mt., 154 

Vilque, journey from Sandia to, 

190, 192 

Virginians, resemblance in manners 

to the English, 271 
Volage, H.M.S., 275, 277, 290 

Wadela Plateau (Magdala), 216 
Waigat Strait, 237 
Wakefield, " Battle of," 252 
Wales, Prince of (afterwards 

Edward VII.), 322, 325, 328, 

Wales, Prince of (now George V.), 

332,333. 339 

Walker, Captain, 124, 126 
Wallis, Captain, discoverer of 

Tahiti Island, 58, 59 
Watches, on board ship, 49 n 
Weir, Mr., botanist to Markham's 

cinchona expedition, 173, 183, 

191, 192 

Wellington Channel, 117, 126 
Wemyss, Mr., H.M.S. Collingwood, 

52, 85, 90 
West Indies, visits to, 275-281, 

284, 285 
Westminster School, 12-15, 15. *6. 

302, 303; "Reminiscences of," 

308, 331, 332, 342 
Whale fishery, lecture on, 257 
Whalefish Islands, 114 
Wiesbaden, 313 

Wickham, William, M.P., 8, 12 
Willem Barents, Arctic exploring 

vessel, 252 
Williams, Sir Roland Vaughan, 


Wilson, Doctor E. A., of the Dis- 
covery and Terra Nova expedi- 
tions, 352 

Windsor, early days at, 4, 5 

Windward Islands, 279 

Windward, Jackson -Harmsworth 
Polar vessel, 313, 323 

Wiseman, Cardinal, in 

Wood, Sir Charles, Secretary of 
State for India, 200 



Worcester, The, 258-260, 304, 305, 

38, 313, 329 
Working class, interest in boys of, 


Worms (Germany), 273 
Wundoor, village of, 196 
Wylie, Mr., 55 

Yanaoca, 159 
Yea, 141, 142, 144 

York, Cape, discovery of human 
remains at, 115 

York, Duke of, 311, 312, 314-315, 
322, 325, 328 

Yorkshire Archaeological Associa- 
tion, 272 

Young, Sir Allen, 241 - 244, 252, 


Ypres, visit to, 251 
Yule, Sir Henry, 297 




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