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P.C. ; For. Sec. R.A. ; F.R.S. ; German Order of Merit ; 

Corr. Memb. French Acad. ; Comm. Legion of Honour ; Trustee British Museum ; 
D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Cantab., Dubl., Edin., and St. Andrews), M.D. (Wurzb.), 

V.P.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A. ; Assoc. Acad. Roy. des Sci. Brux. ; 

Hon. Mem. R. Irish Acad., Amer. Ethnol. Soc., Anthrop. Soc. Wash. (U.S.), 

Brux., Firenze, Anthrop. Verein Graz, Soc. Entom. de France, 

Soc. Geol. de la Suisse, and Soc. Helvet. des Sci. Nat. ; 

Mem. Amer. Phil. Soc. Philad., and Soc. d'Ethn. de Paris ; 

Corresp. Mem. Soc. des Sci. Nat. de Cherb., Berl. Gesell. fur Anthrop., 

Soc. Romana di Antrop., Soc. d'Emul. d' Abbeville, Soc. Cient. Argentina, 

Soc. de Geog. de Lisb., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Numis. and Ant. Soc. Philad., 

Amer. Entom. Soc. ; For. Assoc. Mem. Soc. d' Anthrop. de Paris ; 

For. Mem. Amer. Antiq. Soc. ; For. Mem. Soc. Espanola de Hist. Nat. ; 

For. Mem. Roy. Soc. of Sci. Upsala ; Hon. Mem. New Zealand Inst. ; 

For. Mem. Soc. de Biol. Paris. 











Bimetallism Correspondence with Mr. Henry Chaplin 
Address to Working Men's Club Collection of Income 
Tax Letter of Sir W. Harcourt Guildhall meeting 
against Home Rule Indifferent health . . 1 



A page of his diary Moves address to Mr. Gladstone 
Debate on the Budget Nummulites in the Triassic 
President of International Sociological Institute The 
Twentieth Century : a Prophecy The Use of Life Its 
wonderful reception Society for Extension of Uni- 
versity Teaching Discussions about British Empire 
League . . . ._ . .21 



Ponds at High Elms Declines Chair of L.C.C. British 
Empire League General Election His address Is 
returned unopposed Mr. Frederic Harrison on " Best 
Hundred Books" . 43 




At Liverpool Letters from Professor Heim and other 
Geologists The Scenery of Switzerland The twenty- 
fifth Bank Holiday The Use of Life in French- 
Herbert Spencer on the " White Horse "Petition 
on behalf of the Kammalahs At St. Andrews 
A.K.H.B. ....... 59 



Enquiry into Jameson Raid Alleged Bank Holiday 
drunkenness Colonial visitors International 
Library Conference Question of the Gold Standard 
International Zoological Congress King Alfred 
Millenary Commemoration .... 76 


Phonographic time-saving Use of Life Messrs. Harms- 
worth's issue of " Best Hundred Books " Resigns 
County Council and Chairmanship of Foreign Bond- 
holders Institute of Bankers for Ireland Death of 
Mr. Gladstone Indian Currency question . . 89 



Lessening of burdens Letters from Mr. Lecky Tour in 
Wales Letter on the Government Telephone Bill 
Mr. Balfour's comment on it Buds and Stipules 
Joins " The Club "Seats for Shop Assistants Bill 
The Boer War Meeting at the Guildhall President 
of Associated Chambers of Commerce Raised to 
peerage 102 





Quitting the House of Commons Many congratulations 
Resigns seat for London University French suspicions 
of England Meeting in Paris of Associated Chambers 
of Commerce Its excellent effect Crowds in City on 
occasion of Relief of Lady smith . . . ' .119 



Estimate of some of his books Death of Queen Victoria 
Work on behalf of Early Closing The fate of Stone- 
henge Orientation of Stonehenge and Avebury 
Purchase of Kingsgate Castle Description of the 
castle The matriculation subjects at the University 
of London ....... 132 



Early Closing Bill in Lords Many interviews on the 
subject The Scenery of England Dreams Coins 
and Currency History of bank notes Ancient 
business tablets 720 per cent interest Business 
transactions, 2000 B.C. Selection of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer as candidate for Nobel Prize Mr. Tedder's 
tribute to Lord Avebury In chair at remarkable 
dinner at Athenaeum His qualities as Chairman 
Various visits Prussian Order of Merit . .149 



The Prestwich Gold Medal Fire at Biarritz Hotel Jubilee 
of Manchester Free Library Early Closing Bill passes 
the Lords Unveils tablet to Lord Macaulay Letter 
from Sir G. Trevelyan Model mountain building 



First Warden of Birmingham University Free Trade 
Responsibility for Boer War Legion of Honour 
Magic and religion The Golden Bough London 
Chambers of Commerce and the retaliatory tariff 
Visit to Paris His translators . . . . 173 



Activity at 70 years Valescure President of Society of 
Antiquarians Breakfast parties Early Closing 
Curiosity of science The Forms of Stems Coal as 
a raw (?) material Work on Free Trade His 
"popular" books . . . . . 195 



Sunday Closing Bill Correspondence on Finance Re- 
ceives the Diplodocus Statue to Sir Thomas Browne 
Letter from Professor Davis Anglo-German Friend- 
ship Society Letter of Prince Bulow Addresses 
from German towns And from Germans in England 
Letter of Mr. Bonar Law .... 208 



Death of Sir M. Grant Duff Moral Instruction League 
International Conciliation Unionist Free-traders 
Cicerone to German visitors Proportional Repre- 
sentation Sunday closing Ill-health . . . 224 



Peace and Happiness Affection for his children Income 
Tax In the chair at many meetings Death of Edgar 
Lubbock Lord Avebury's obituary notices Cen- 



tenary of Geological Society Dr. Heim's letter Old 
Age Pensions Elected Rector of St. Andrews Uni- 
versity Anglo-German friendship Correspondence 
with Count P. Metternich .... 238 



Rector at St. Andrews His address to the students Free 
Trade speech at Dundee Darwin's " Centenary " 
Several of his Measures lost in House of Commons 
Excavations at Avebury Address to the Royal 
Scottish Geographical Society Receives the Living- 
stone medal . . . . . 253 



Death of Beaumont Lubbock, and of Rolfe Correspond- 
ence on the Land Taxes Free Trade discussions in 
the Chambers of Commerce Free Trade meeting at 
Queen's Hall Darwin Centenary Japanese apprecia- 
tion of his books ...... 263 



Arguments for Free Trade Proportional Representation 
Domestic losses Ex-President Roosevelt Out of 
health again Primitive Paternity Golf with Lord 
Northcliffe To bed again Mr. Lloyd George and 
the House of Lords Correspondent of the Institute 
of France The Declaration of London . . 274 



The Herkomer portrait Anglo-German friendship A 
busy spring The House of Lords in the balance 



Compelled to rest Reciprocity between Canada and 
United States His Arabic translator Serious illness 
The scientists his true fellow- workers . . 293 



Temporary recovery Visitors at Kingsgate and High 
Elms Lord Avebury's account of his illness Private 
property at sea in war-time Activity up to end of the 
year ........ 305 



Free Trade meeting at the Cannon Street Hotel His last 
public function The " Sussex skull " The last guests 
at High Elms The end of the story . . . 314 

INDEX 323 

Lord Avebury, from a Picture by Sir Hubert von 

Herkomer, R.A., 1911 . . . . Frontispiece 

Kingsgate Castle .... Face page 132 


(AGE 59) 

THIS winter he brought out his book on Seedlings, 
of which the Athenaeum remarked that " In the 
two well-filled volumes before us (Seedlings) Sir 
J. Lubbock presents the . . . observer with a 
record of facts which will be consulted not only 
long after the most popular novel of the day has 
sunk into oblivion, but even after the most 
seductive of hypotheses has been supplanted by 
another." l ^ 

The members of the London County Council 
had determined to have his portrait painted by 
subscription and hung in the Library. They en- 
trusted the work to Mr. Collier, who humorously 
writes : 

" I have just heard that the London County 
Council have selected me to paint your portrait. 
I am afraid you will scarcely share my pleasure 
at this announcement, but I will do the best I can 
to make the sittings as little inconvenient to you 
as possible." 

Not only did Mr. Collier succeed in making a 

1 Athenceum, Jan. 21, 1893. 
VOL. II 1 B 


capital portrait, but from notices in the diary it 
is manifest that he also achieved the possibly 
more difficult task of keeping his sitter enter- 
tained all the while. At its conclusion Sir John 
is able to write, " He was very pleasant to sit to." 

At this period the Bimetallic controversy was 
raging with great severity. Bimetallists attri- 
buted the great fall in prices, of say 30-40 per 
cent, to a rise in the value of gold. Monometallists, 
on the contrary, while admitting that there might 
possibly be a rise of say 5 per cent in the real 
value of gold, the production having somewhat 
fallen off, attributed the main fall in prices to 
improvements in manufacture, diminished cost of 
transport, and other circumstances affecting the 
articles themselves. 

Mr. H. Chaplin having made a speech in which 
he put the argument of the Bimetallists very 
tersely, Sir John wrote the following letter to the 
Times : 

Jan. 24, 1893. 

To the Editor of the Times. 

SIR My friend, Mr. Chaplin, in his address to the 
Surveyors' Institute last night, stated that all the 
members of the late gold-silver commission expressed 
their belief in an appreciation of gold. 

Will you allow me, as one of the Commissioners, to 
say that, while I think the facts point to some small 
appreciation say, 5 per cent. I can by no means admit 
that there has been so great a change as is stated by 
Mr. Chaplin ? 

He estimated it, in his speech at the great meeting on 
agricultural depression, and again last night, as being 
30 per cent, since 1874. 

Will you allow me to put to him this test ? Sir 
Richard Paget at the Agricultural Conference quoted 
official figures to show that during the last 15 years 


the rental and the value of land, estimated in gold, have 
fallen 20 per cent. Now, if gold has risen 30 per cent, 
and land estimated in gold has only fallen 20 per cent., 
it follows that the fall in rents is only nominal, and that, 
so far from any real fall, there has been an actual rise 
of 10 per cent. 

If, on the contrary, as Sir R. Paget and the Agri- 
cultural Conference, I believe correctly, maintain, there 
has been a real fall in the rental and value of land of 
20 per cent., it obviously follows that there can be no 
such appreciation of gold as Mr. Chaplin supposes. I 
am, your obedient servant, JOHN LUBBOCK. 

The following comment on the above appeared 
in the Western Daily Press : 

Not since the puzzle which the late Mr. J. K. Cross, 
once Under-Secretary for India, put to the economic 
heretics who argued that an excess of imports over 
exports was a national loss has a neater difficulty been 
suggested than was yesterday propounded to Mr. Chaplin 
by Sir John Lubbock. Perhaps Mr. Cross's puzzle, 
although often quoted at the time, may be restated. It 
was this : A merchant exports from the Tyne a cargo of 
coal, worth on the spot a thousand pounds. It is sold 
in Calcutta for fifteen hundred and the sum purchases 
jute of that value. Thus the export of a thousand is 
paid for by an import of fifteen hundred ; how could it 
possibly have benefited this country for the import value 
to have been no greater than the export ? Sir J. Lub- 
bock' s problem is addressed to bi-metallists. Gold, they 
say, has appreciated thirty per cent, since 1874, hence 
the troubles of landlords. But the rental and value of 
land estimated in gold have during that period fallen 
twenty per cent. Hence, if Mr. Chaplin's statement be 
correct, the fall in rents has been only nominal, while 
actually they have risen ten per cent. 1 

Mr. Chaplin answers the riddle set him thus 
disputing the major premiss on which it is based : 

1 Western Daily Press, Jan. 27, 1893. 


To the Editor of the Times. 

SIR I should be sorry to misrepresent Sir John 
Lubbock or anyone else, but I think he will find upon 
examination that I was strictly accurate in what I said 
with regard to the appreciation of gold and the members 
of the Gold and Silver Commission at the meeting of the 
Surveyors' Institute on Monday last. 

What I said of them, taking it from the full report of 
that association, was this : "All of them acknowledged, 
in a greater or a less degree, the fact of the appreciation 
of gold." 

The statement is quite accurate, and is borne out to 
the letter in section 47, part II., and section 11, part III., 
of the report of that Commission. 

With regard to the test which he submits to me, it is 
based on an assumption which I believe to be entirely 
fallacious viz., that rents have fallen only 20 per cent, 
since 1874. 

Official figures upon this point are notoriously mis- 
leading. They do not include remissions, which equal, 
I believe, and quite possibly exceed, the amount of the 
permanent reductions. 

Taken together, I am confident that 40 per cent, 
would be nearer to the truth than 20, and if that is so his 
test does not apply. 

As to the opinion I expressed that gold had ap- 
preciated 30 per cent., it is with diffidence that I presume 
to differ from your correspondent, who ought to be a 
great authority. 

But the figure which I took and I purposely put it 
low was based upon the estimates of such acknow- 
ledged experts as Mr. Giffen, and upon the well-known 
index numbers of Messrs. Sauerbeck, Soetbeer, and 
Mr. Palgrave, as well as upon those of the Economist ; 
and I must leave it to your correspondent to settle with 
those gentlemen, who, unlike myself, can claim to be 
authorities, the much vexed question viz. how much 
or how little gold has appreciated since the time I name. 

It is something that Sir John admits the fact at all. 

If it was 5 per cent, at the time of the Commission it 
must surely have increased since then, and if Sir John 


continues to limit it to that amount, I think that he 
will very shortly find himself alone in that opinion. 

I was glad to see that his late colleague, Mr. Courtney, 
who signed the report with him, has announced this 
morning, in your columns, that he has advanced since 
then in his opinions, and has now come to the conclusion 
that gold has been getting dearer and dearer every day. 

In any case I think my friend Sir John will have some 
difficulty in convincing unfortunate landowners that the 
fall in rents has been only nominal, and that, " so far 
from any real fall, there has been an actual rise of 10 
per cent." I am your obedient servant, 


21, Berkeley-square, Jan. 27. 1 

Jan. 30, 1893. 

To the Editor of the Times. 

SIR Mr. Chaplin's letter does not answer the point 
which I raised. I should not, however, ask you to be so 
good as to insert another letter from me but for his 
remark that I shall " have some difficulty in convincing 
unfortunate landowners that the fall in rents has been 
only nominal.'* 

Perhaps you will allow me to point out that I said 
just the reverse. My contention was that, if there has 
been a rise of 30 / o in the value of gold, as he supposes, 
then the fall in rents is to that extent only nominal ; 
and that if, as he and I both believe, the fall in rents is 
a real fall, then there can be no such appreciation of gold 
as he supposes. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 


On March 21 he moved a strongly worded 
resolution in the House, respecting the hours of 
workers in shops. At first the papers expressed 
the view that it was too strong, and much opposi- 
tion was prophesied. 

The forecast, however, was not realised. It 
was found that the shopkeepers themselves 
were strongly in favour of the suggestion ; the 

1 The Times of Jan. 30, 1893. 2 Ibid. Jan. 31, 1893. 



threatened opposition melted away and the 
resolution was carried unanimously. 

It was in the following terms : " That in the 
opinion of this House, the excessive and un- 
necessarily long hours of labour in shops are 
injurious to the comfort, health, and well-being 
of all concerned ; and that it is desirable to give 
to local authorities such powers as may be 
necessary to enable them to carry out the general 
wishes of the shopkeeping community with refer- 
ence to the hours of closing." 

On March 25 of this year Sir John gave an 
address, under the title of " Personal and Political 
Reminiscences," to the Working Men's College in 
Great Ormond Street. His stories greatly amused 
his audience and those who read the reports of 
the address at the time, and a few may bear 

" Of course," he said, " candidates must ex- 
pect much criticism and some condemnation ; 
still, our newspapers are on the whole very fair, 
and if occasionally the blame is rather severe, it 
still oftener happens that one receives much more 
credit than one deserves. Moreover, it is pleasant 
to find that one has more good qualities than one 
had supposed, and one feels that there may be 
something in the praise for of course the news- 
papers on one's own side are most ably conducted 
whereas the condemnation is evidently the 
result of political prejudice. 

" One of the worst attacks on me, I think, has 
been in connection with the Early Closing Bill ; 
one champion of late hours and the liberty to 
overwork other people, for instance, saying : 



" c I would rather be a toad and live upon the 
noisome vapours of a dungeon, than let infamous 
knaves or crafty fiends trample on my precious 

" But the most virulent abuse I ever experi- 
enced was not in connection with politics at all. 
It was from a negro of St. Domingo, and the 
crime I had committed, which scarcely seemed to 
merit such severe retribution, was that I had 
stated, on ample authority, that negroes do not 
show affection by kissing. For this crime (in 
his eyes) he wrote me a most furious letter, 
ending with the expression of an ardent desire to 
drink my heart's blood. 

" The occupations of my constituents at Maid- 
stone were very various. One of them made a 
livelihood by keeping Golden Pheasants. They 
were lovely. Another had an interest in British 
wines. He boasted that he had forty-seven 
different kinds. I speak confidently, having 
tasted them all. I tried to agree with him, but 
they made no attempt to agree with me, or if 
they did, it was very unsuccessful. 

" The reasons given by electors for the vote 
they were about to give were extremely various. 
One man, a butcher, expressed his regret to me 
that he had promised to vote for my opponent, 
not knowing that I was going to stand, for he 
said, ' I have bought a many of your bullocks, 
and to be sure they always did eat beautiful.' 
In a neighbouring constituency an elector 
promised a friend of mine his support. ' Of 
course,' he said, ' I shall vote for you ; why, I 
built your father's vault.' I only remember one 



case in which I was directly asked for money, and 
the applicant endeavoured to reassure me, and 
to prove that I might give it without any risk of 
being convicted of bribery, for he said, ' I am a 
teetotaller and unmarried.' 

" I have said that in the House of Commons 
one passes many, many tedious hours. There are 
however, of course, some amusing incidents. I 
do not allude to what are known as ' scenes in the 
House.' Personal altercations and recrimina- 
tions are to my mind painful episodes, and one 
of the most unsatisfactory features of political 
life is that some leaders acquire their position 
greatly through their condescending to the use of 
unlimited vituperation. I will not, however, en- 
large on this ; but I may lay myself open to the 
charge of following the example of an American 
editor who, referring to an attack made on him 
by a rival newspaper, said that he would not con- 
descend to reply, but if he did he should say that 
4 for length, spite, and flabbiness it reminded him 
of nothing so much as a paralysed alligator.' 

" Some of the funniest things I have ever 
heard in the House have been said by Scotchmen. 
One honourable Baronet from the south of 
Scotland describing the 2,000,000 voted to India 
towards the expense of the Afghan war (and 
which was afterwards raised to 5,000,000) de- 
scribed it as a ' flea-bite in the ocean ' ; and the 
same gentleman advocated an increase of the 
European troops employed in India, for, he said, 
' Depend upon it, Mr. Speaker, the pale face of 
the British soldier is the back-bone of our Indian 


" Two of the best specimens of Irish drollery I 
ever heard in the House were said by a Mr. 
O'Sullivan, who is not now in Parliament. He 
objected strongly to the imposition of the gun- 
tax, on the ground that ' Every man has a divine 
right to carry a gun.' The other was in a speech 
on the relative merits of Scotch and Irish whisky. 
I need not say that he preferred Irish, for Scotch 
whisky was, he told us, c so hot that it goes down 
the throat like a torch-light procession.' I may 
also refer to Major Sanderson's wise and witty 
remark that we might think we were giving a 
subordinate Parliament to Ireland, but it would 
certainly prove itself insubordinate. 

" Occasionally, also, there are amusing scenes 
in the House. Late one night Major Beresford, 
then member for Southwark, was attacking some 
proposal, when he said, ' I cannot find a word,' 
and I presume he would have added ' strong 
enough to condemn,' but at that unlucky moment 
he dropped his notes, they got out of order, and 
after standing for some moments looking for his 
place and repeating, ' I cannot find a word,' he 
gave it up in despair. 

66 On another occasion a member was making a 
speech on Foreign Policy late at night, and, to 
judge from the pile of blue-books he had collected, 
had a great deal to say. I was thinking whether 
I might not go home; when I observed a member 
looking intently at the ceiling. I glanced up and 
saw that one of the pendants which happened to 
be just over his head was vibrating backwards 
and forwards. I pointed it out to my neighbours, 
and by degrees every one was looking up, and 



thinking less, I fear, of the argument than whether 
the pendant would come down on his head. 
After a while the speaker noticed that he was 
listened to with unusual quiet, and, glancing 
round, saw that every one was looking up at the 
ceiling. He naturally paused and looked up too, 
and when he saw the pendant rocking over his 
head he gave a tremendous jump, tumbled over 
his pile of blue-books, while the Speaker adroitly 
seizing his opportunity called on the next man. 

" But I think the most amusing scene I ever 
witnessed in the House was one evening in 1879 
when a young Irish member got up very late, 
about half -past two in the morning, to speak 
on a bill about Metropolitan racecourses. I was 
about six seats from him, and to my surprise did 
not hear a word. Nor in fact did any one, else, 
and they soon began telling him to speak up. He 
only smiled, however, and went on with a good 
deal of action, but without saying anything 
audibly. Gradually every one, even the Speaker, 
was in fits of laughter. But he persevered 
gallantly. Moreover, his action was good, and his 
face expressive. Sometimes he evidently was 
attacking the Conservatives, who cheered deris- 
ively, while we supported him ; sometimes he 
appealed, all in dumb show, to the better feelings 
of the opposite side and we all cheered, and event- 
ually, after being on his legs about ten minutes, 
he sat down amidst general applause, having been 
listened to most attentively, though no one heard 
a word. Members were a good deal puzzled at 
such a speech, but my belief is that he was very 
nervous, and spoke to himself. Mr. Darwin tells 


a story in one of his books of a man who was 
about to emigrate. His friends gave him a 
dinner, and of course he prepared a speech, which 
he read over and over again to himself. When 
he eventually got up to deliver it, being very 
nervous, he forgot to speak out, and merely re- 
peated it to himself as he had done before ; his 
friends were naturally a good deal surprised, but 
they fell into the joke as we did, applauding him 
when he seemed to expect it, and especially at 
the end ; so that he felt rather pleased with 
himself, and told a friend afterwards that he had 
been very nervous, but got through it better than 
he expected. 

" One of the penalties of a seat in Parliament 
is the amount of correspondence which it entails. 

" Scarcely a post, certainly not a day, passes 
without an application for money. Many of 
these letters are very sad, and the more so 
because it is impossible to help all who apply ; 
and indeed it would do more harm than good to 
help any without inquiry. The writers, at least 
where the cases are genuine, have evidently no 
idea how numerous, how innumerable I may say, 
such applications are. The other day I received 
one which began, 6 Sir, you will no doubt be 
surprised at receiving an application for money 
from a total stranger.' On the contrary, ninety- 
nine out of a hundred are from total strangers. 

" Some, on the other hand, are intended to 
impart information. Here is one : 

" ' DEAR SIR The first thing Englishmen want 
are better wives. Ours are becoming the worst in 
the world. They promise everything before you 


marry them, and after that will do only what they 
please,' etc. 

" A secretary is almost indispensable, and 
applications for secretaryships are very numerous. 
The qualifications claimed are naturally very 
high. In one of the last I received the writer 
assured me that if I engaged him he would ' give 
me a great deal of good advice.' 

" The questions asked are innumerable, and not 
only range over the whole field of human know- 
ledge, but far beyond. Such questions as the 
mode in which an earwig folds its wings probably 
came to me rather as President of the Entomo- 
logical Society than as a Member of Parliament, 
and so perhaps also an anxious inquiry as to 
what geological epoch does the Blue London Clay 
belong. Many are for advice on the conduct of 
life, as for instance : 

" ' What advice would you give to a young man 
leaving home to fight his way in the world ? ' 

" One rather long letter described how the 
writer had caught a newt and put it in an 
aquarium, from which it disappeared, and he 
wrote to inquire what had become of it. 

" Another, referring to one of my lectures in 
this room, gave his reasons at some length for 
thinking that the human brain is a miniature 
representation of the Heavenly bodies, a sort of 
Orrery in fact. 

" The headmaster of a Board School writes in 
support of spontaneous generation, because on one 
occasion, having to raise a board in the flooring, he 
found under it a number of fleas. 

" Again, I suppose all County Councillors re- 


ceive innumerable suggestions especially for the 
abolition of fogs. One I had recently was to 
warm the Thames by steam -jets. In fact, many 
of them have a sort of comical ingenuity very 
suggestive of Alice in Wonderland. 

" Many correspondents send letters of reproof 
and remonstrance, rather in sorrow than in anger ; 
and sometimes under an entire misapprehension. 
For instance, in my book on Ants, Bees, and 
Wasps I differ from the well-known German 
naturalist Christ as to the roadways of Ants. On 
this I received a letter from a worthy Scotchman 
expressing his surprise and regret that I should 
venture to differ from the blessed Founder of our 
religion, but saying that he had looked in vain 
through the New Testament for any description of 
ant roads, and asking me for chapter and verse. 
Of course I explained to him that my reference 
was to the German Professor. 

" Other correspondents are more or less dic- 
tatorial. ' Sir, I should be glad if you would not 
only bring in a Bill, but pass it, to lessen the hours 
of Shop Assistants.' 

" Every General Election brings a number of 
suggestions, some I fear with very little regard 
to the Corrupt Practices Bill. One enterprising 
firm of Fireworks manufacturers wrote to suggest 
that a grand display of fireworks would greatly 
delight my constituents. 

" Sometimes the tables are turned, and the 
result is to give one's correspondent a good deal 
of trouble. On one occasion a gentleman in 
Lincolnshire wrote to say that all the beans in that 
country were growing that year with the seeds 


the wrong way up in the pods. That was very 
curious, and I asked him for some specimens, but 
heard nothing more for some months, when he 
wrote again to say that the beans had given him 
an immense amount of trouble. He had heard 
the story from a friend, and when he went to him 
and asked for some of the curious beans he was 
referred to some one else, and so on. In fact, he 
had been riding about all over the country from 
one person to another for weeks and at last came 
to the conclusion that it was all a mistake ! At 
any rate he never got one of the beans. 

" That, however, had no direct reference to 
Parliament. I will therefore quote another which 
I received last year from the agent of a Scotch 
Life Insurance Office : 


General Election, 1892 

In spite of the fact that at such a period you will 
be inundated with correspondence, some of benefit 
to yourself but the greater part worthless, I feel bound, 
not only as a matter of business, but because I firmly 
believe it is the right thing to do, to urge upon you the 
necessity of an increase in your life assurance. 

Your expenses, at such a period, must be heavy, and 
the only way in which you can recreate the capital you 
expend, protect the risk of your death, and provide 
ready money in case of such an event happening, so 
leaving your estate unencumbered and giving your 
executors breathing time, is by a Life Policy. 

" Occasionally very amusing letters come from 
most unexpected sources. For instance, one 
winter a couple of dormice were sent to one of my 
daughters by post. They were seized, and she 
received the following letter : 

I have to inform you that a packet addressed to you 


containing a live Dormouse is detained at this office, it 
being contrary to Law to forward through the Post 
Office anything likely to injure the contents of the mail 
bags, or to do harm to any officer of the Department. 

" We wrote to the G.P.O. that even if Dormice 
could injure the officers of the Department in 
summer they were incapable of doing so in winter 
because they were dormant, upon which assur- 
ance they forwarded the parcel." This simple 
way of relating his stories was that which he had 
always found and his experience was large to 
be most effective with a popular audience, especi- 
ally of the working class. 

The following correspondence refers to the 
collection of Income Tax after the Budget speech, 
but before the necessary Parliamentary authority 
had been given. He admitted the convenience 
of the practice, but thought that the Bill should be 
taken as soon as possible, and put down a question 
on the subject which, however, the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer (Sir W. Harcourt) asked him to 
postpone. Sir John agreed to the postponement, 
but under gentle protest : 

14 April /93. 

MY DEAR HARCOURT I postponed the second part 
of my question yesterday, as you wished. I had sup- 
posed that the Resolution was sufficient to legalise the 
collection of the Income Tax, but as it appears that 
that is not the case, may I understand that after the 
second reading of the Home Rule Bill is disposed of, 
preference will be given to the Customs and Inland 
Revenue Bill ? 

The unauthorised collection of taxes should certainly 
not last longer than is unavoidably necessary. I 
am, yours sincerely, JOHN LUBBOCK. 

Sir W. Harcourt replied : 


April 15th, 1893. 


MY DEAR LUBBOCK I entirely concur with you in 
your objection to unauthorised collection of Taxes. It 
is certainly a very unconstitutional anomaly that you 
should collect a tax which has expired, and does not 
exist, and which may never exist, and if it does may be 
imposed at a rate either higher or lower than that on 
which the collection is made. 

It is worth your while to look at the sort of apology 
Erskine May makes for this, pp. 640-41 of the Ninth 
Edition, but it is in reality no legal answer. 

It has been adopted and acquiesced in from con- 
venience as much of the Bankers I fancy as of the 

The Exchequer is always sure of its money because 
the Statute authorises the levy as and from the 6th of 
April, but where the Tax remains unaltered it seems 
convenient for the Bankers to make their deductions as 
usual without having to go back on their accounts. 

For the Exchequer of course it is also an advantage 
to have money coming in to meet current expenses. I 
was very much obliged to you for postponing your 
question, because it might set cantankerous people agog, 
and disturb and perhaps detract from the collection of 
the Revenue. 

I should be very glad to get the Customs and Inland 
Revenue Bill through as soon as I can, but as you know 
that is an uncertain matter. It has often passed in the 
months of June, July, and even August, but having 
regard to the doubtful legality of the whole business I 
think it might be well always to put into the Bill an 
indemnity clause, something like that in the Inland 
Revenue Act of 1880, 43 and 44 Vic. cap. 20, clause 51, 
so as to cover the responsibility of all parties concerned. 

I think it quite plain that whether in the case of 
Customs and Excise Duties or of Income Tax a resolution 
is of no legal force, which only arises on the passing of 
the Act. 

Some people think that the collection is in fact author- 
ised by clause 30 of the Inland Revenue Act 1890, but I 
am not altogether convinced of that. Yours sincerely, 




Sir John never sympathised with the exclusion 
of women from scientific societies, and he gladly 
attended, and spoke in favour of their admission 
to the Geographical Society, as suggested in 
the following letter from Sir M. E. Grant Duff, its 
then President : 

April 17/93. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK It will give me great pleasure 
to breakfast with you at 2, St. James Square on the 26th. 

One of those idiotic squabbles which now and then 
disturb learned Societies has broken out in the Geo- 
graphical. The subject, or rather the ostensible subject, 
is the admission of women to be Fellows, in the ordinary 
way. The malcontents, who have their centre in the 
United Service Club, say that women should only be 
allowed as inferior or " Honorary Fellows " without 
full rights and not contributing to our Funds. The 
Council say that is all nonsense they wish to be admitted 
on the ordinary terms and certainly should be. 

The real cause of the row is that we have only one 
Naval man on the Council, Wharton, the Hydrographer 
who is, however, well worth two ordinary Admirals. 

Aberdeen will come and talk sense. I hope you will 
come and help him. With the two, all will go well. 

It is the first trouble I have had in four years ; but 
nonsense of this kind is infectious, and if the Society 
takes to squabbling, I should find pleasanter occupation 
than looking after it. 

We need, however, nothing save that the Society 
stands by its Council, which with your help it most 
certainly will do. Believe me, sincerely yours, 


The hour is | p. 4 on Monday the 24th, and the place 
the University of London Theatre. 

As a matter of fact, however, it was not till 
many years later that women Fellows were 

On the 3rd May there was a great meeting at 
the Guildhall, presided over by the Lord Mayor, 




to pass a resolution protesting against Home Rule. 
Sir John seconded the resolution in the following 
words : 

We, in the City of London, stand shoulder to shoulder 
with the gallant men of Ulster. London is not only the 
greatest commercial but the greatest manufacturing city 
in the world, and the merchants, manufacturers, and 
bankers of London concur with those of Liverpool and 
Manchester and Birmingham, of Glasgow, of Belfast, 
aye, and of Dublin also, in condemning and denouncing 
this Bill. Our opponents sometimes call themselves a 
party of progress. They are nothing of the kind. They 
are not progressives ; they are not even stationary. 
They wish us to go back a thousand years. It is not a 
Bill for the better government of Ireland, and it attempts 
to press on England against her will a Constitution 
which we detest and to which we will not submit. Eng- 
land has sent a majority of sixty-six members to oppose 
Home Rule, and if the Principles of the Bill had not been 
concealed from the country the majority would have 
been larger still. Even now it is only passed by the 
undue number of votes given to the South and West of 
Ireland. London has a larger population than Ireland, 
London contributes more to the Imperial revenue, and 
yet while London has only 62 members, Ireland has 
104. If Ireland had no more than we have, where 
would Mr. Gladstone's majority be ? Liberal Unionists 
are sometimes called traitors and deserters. There may 
be treason somewhere, but it is not among the Unionists. 
We have not deserted our principles or betrayed our 

No doubt we are face to face with a great national 
crisis, but we are confident in the wisdom and justice of 
our cause. We doubt not that England will be true to 
herself, and though we must strain every nerve, the 
victory will be ours, and we shall feel one and all with 
pride that we have done what we can to prevent what 
Mr. Gladstone once called " the dismemberment of the 

My Lord Mayor, I will conclude in the noble words of 
Milton, " Oh, Thou, who of thy free grace didst build up 
this Britannic Empire to a glorious and enviable height, 


with all her daughter islands about her, stay us in this 
felicity " : and grant I will add, that we may hand down 
to our children, whole and unimpaired, the glorious 
inheritance bequeathed to us by our fathers. 

In April of this year they had moved from 
Piccadilly into 2 St. James's Square, which, as 
Sir John notes, they liked very much, finding the 
comparative quiet a great relief. 

On May 16 his son Eric was born. 

On June 16 he seconded Mr. Cremer's motion 
for Arbitration, as he had the previous one moved 
by Mr. Candlish. Gladstone made a charming 
speech, very sympathetic, but suggesting a slight 
change of words, which they accepted, and the 
resolution was carried unanimously. The value 
of such expressions of opinion has been sufficiently 
attested by the steady increase in armaments, 
and by the slight progress of arbitration in the 
subsequent years. 

On July 17 he opened the new laboratories at 
Guy's Hospital, and afterwards was presented, on 
behalf of the London Chamber of Commerce, with 
an address, recording a vote of thanks for his 
services, in a silver case. 

Since the end of the preceding month, when he 
had struck his knee against the corner of a table, 
he had been continuously in pain, and was able to 
do his work only with great difficulty and suffer- 
ing. It was a tempestuous time in the House. 
On July 27 he notes : " Went down to vote on 
the closured clauses and there was a very tumultu- 
ous scene, T. P. O'Connor calling Chamberlain 
4 Judas ' a real free fight, the Home Rulers and 
some few Gladstonians behaving disgracefully." 


Towards the end of August he paired for the re- 
mainder of the Session and went to Switzerland and 
later to Cornwall. His health was much improved 
by the change and rest, and soon after his return 
home he went to Nottingham, addressing on 
October 17 a Congress on Early Closing at which 
there were present delegates from more than thirty 
associations. They went through his Bill, clause 
by clause. In the early part of December he 
suffered a severe blow in the death of his old and 
valued friend Professor Tyndall. It had been 
again, on the whole, a very trying year for him. 


(AGE 60) 

ON January 24 he was at Liverpool for an Early 
Closing meeting, staying with the Lord Mayor. 
The meeting was held in the St. George's Hall 
which was crowded, and the audience was en- 
thusiastic. The resolution in favour was passed 
unanimously. Next day the Lord Mayor made 
him appear on the balcony over the " Flags." 
He was reluctant, but the Lord Mayor said that 
the Queen and the Duke of Wellington had done 
so. This did not wholly convince him, but he 
did not like to refuse, and received quite an 

In the spring he had a great deal of trouble 
with Greece about the debt. M. Tricoupi, in his 
opinion and that of the Council of Foreign Bond- 
holders, had not behaved quite fairly towards 
them. There were frequent meetings in the City 
to be attended, and it was mainly on this business 
that he went, in February of this year, with 
Mr. Everard Hambro, to Paris, and had lengthy 
interviews with many of the chief financiers in 
that capital. 



It may be of interest to the reader to see a 
specimen of the kind of diary which Sir John was 
in the habit of keeping ; and the notes of this trip 
to Paris are so amusing, as well as typical, that 
the page which records it may be quoted virtually 
at full length. 

Friday, Feb. 2. To Paris with Alice and the Ham- 
bros, partly to give Alice a little change and partly to 
meet the French and German commissioners on the 
Greek Bankruptcy. A wet and cold passage. To 
Hotel Meurice. 

Sat. 3. Had our meeting at 2.30 at the Comp 1 
Nationale. Decided to have a joint protest, but did 
not get very far. Dined at the Cafe Voisin and then to 
see Sarah Bernhardt in Izeyl. Did not care for it. The 
story is moral enough, but her acting in the love scenes 
almost too realistic. 

Sunday 4. To Notre Dame in the morning. Then 
to the S te Chapelle. In the afternoon called at the 
Embassy and on Jules Simon. He looked aged and his 
eyes have failed. He says that the French are not 
increasing their Navy but that it has been much starved, 
and that they are only making it reasonably efficient. 
He declares that there is no real desire for war. In the 
afternoon, called on the Dufferins. 

Monday 5. Most of the day at the Comp* Nat. 
d'Escompte on the Greek business. In the evening to 
the Comedie Francaise to see the Monde ou Von s'ennuie. 
Very amusing. 

Thursday 6. Paid some calls. Had a long talk with 
Dufferin. Went to the Jardin des Plantes, but found 
everything shut up, being Mardi Gras. Great crowds 
on the Boulevards. In the evening to M me Sans Gene 
at the Vaudeville very good. 

Wed. 7. In the morning to the Louvre. In the 
afternoon some calls. Had a long talk with B. de St. 
Hilaire. As usual, very interesting, but very desponding 
" France very corrupt politically, literature very 
immoral, bankruptcy inevitable, the passions so roused 
that war is certain. France may win, but if not will be 
wiped out. The ways of Providence inevitable, and 
perhaps all Europe to be dominated by Russia. He 


spoke of England with great admiration our conduct 
in India unique in history, quite marvellous. France 
ought to ally herself with us. Thought, like Simon, that 
it was useless to attempt to arrive at any understanding 
about armaments." 

Thursday, March 1. Heard from Macmillans that 
they must print a sixth edition of the Beauties of Nature. 
Called at the Comp 1 Nat. d'Escompte and had a talk 
with M. De Normandie and M. Vlasto on the Greek 
business. Went to see the Consul D'etat with Dr. R. 
Worms and lunched with him. Then to the Chamber 
a Workmen's question rather violent speeches. Went 
in the evening to the Theatre Francais. 

The above may serve as a type of the pithy, 
vivid entries of which his diary is composed ; and 
the pessimistic utterances, happily not destined 
for speedy fulfilment, of some of the distin- 
guished Frenchmen mentioned, have their own 

Immediately on returning home he was im- 
mersed in parliamentary and other work, speak- 
ing frequently in the House, attending meetings 
of finance committees and so on. It is also to be 
seen from the accounts of the Paris visit that he 
worked nearly as hard at social functions. In 
London he and Lady Lubbock were constantly 
dining out or entertaining at their own house, 
and to the more usual dinner-party he added that 
form of hospitality which, as has been noticed 
before, some of the guests found it not quite 
so easy to enjoy as they should his breakfast- 
parties. It was a full life in every sense of the 

On March 16 he was invited to move the adop- 
tion of a valedictory address presented to Mr. 
Gladstone, on his retirement from public life, by 


the City of London Liberal Association ; and 
agreed to do so, though with some doubt, saying 
that " he received with pleasure the suggestion 
that he should move the adoption of an address 
to Mr. Gladstone, whom he had followed long, 
and with feelings of warm personal admiration. 
At the same time he had some little hesitation, 
because he thought there might be a feeling that 
the motion should be proposed as well as seconded 
by those who had followed Mr. Gladstone on the 
Home Rule question. If that feeling were enter- 
tained by any present he would only say that he 
was acting in response to an invitation by the 
Chairman and Committee, and he would merely 
add on that point that, while firmly adhering to 
the views which they had hitherto held and still 
hold, they joined cordially in the proposal to 
present such an address. There might be a word 
here and there which some might think did not 
go far enough or went too far, but in the spirit 
they all cordially united. They deeply regretted 
the cause which had necessitated Mr. Gladstone's 
retirement from office. He had been closely 
identified with all the great reforms of the last 
half-century. In the adoption of Free Trade, in 
the removal of civil and religious disabilities, in 
the development of education, in the simplifica- 
tion of the financial system, in the wise efforts 
they had made in the reduction of the National 
Debt, and in many other great reforms, he had 
borne a prominent, he might say the prominent 
part. His biography for the last fifty years was 
the history of our country. They were occasion- 
ally told that there was something inherently dis- 




honest and ignoble in political life. He would 
point those who thought so, to Mr. Gladstone's 
career his noble and stately speeches, full of 
righteous vehemence against everything which 
seemed to him wrong or unjust, and yet without 
bitterness courteous, gentle, and even generous 
towards his opponents personally. 

" One of the greatest dangers of civilisation, 
one of the greatest blots on human nature, was 
the jealousy and ill-feeling between different 
nations, and one of the noblest services which Mr. 
Gladstone had rendered to his countrymen, and 
he might say to the civilised world, had been by 
promoting the settlement of international differ- 
ences by the rational and Christian method of 
arbitration, rather than by the cruel and barbar- 
ous chance of war. He was glad that the address 
referred also to Mrs. Gladstone. She had de- 
votedly helped her husband in all his labours ; 
and he hoped that they might both long live to 
enjoy the repose they had so well earned, and to 
enrich our literature from the stores of wisdom 
and experience which Mr. Gladstone had accumu- 
lated during his long and remarkable career." 1 

Mr. Gladstone sent the following personal note 
in reply to the address, on its presentation : 

BRIGHTON, March 24>th, /94. 

DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK I have just been putting 
on paper in a letter to the Secretary my thanks for the 
Address from the City of London Liberal Association. 

I cannot feel that my duty is fully accomplished 
without saying how sensible I am of the kindness shown 
me by the mover and seconder. 

And to you in particular my acknowledgments are 

1 Daily News, March 16, 1894. 



due as one of those who, so far as my knowledge extends, 
has always earnestly striven to confine within just and 
narrow limits the operation of the too well-known and 
lamentable schism in what once was, and I would fain 
hope may, whether within my brief time or not, again 
be our party. Believe me, sincerely yours, 


On April 23 he took an active part in the 
Budget discussion, especially with reference to the 
farmers' Income Tax. It is curious that ever 
since the imposition of the Tax, English farmers 
had been made to pay Jd. more than Scotch or 
Irish. He had called attention to this more than 
once, and now spoke about it on the second 
reading of the Bill, and said that he should move 
a Committee to reduce the English rate. The 
Chancellor of the Exchequer (Sir W. Harcourt) 
was very contemptuous, and said that every one 
else knew the reason, which was quite sufficient, 
namely, that in England the Landlord did the 

" He apologised to his right hon. friend for 
informing him that two and two made four. As 
the Irish and Scotch tenants had the burden of 
the repairs they were called upon to pay less than 
the English agriculturist. 

" Since the days when George III. wondered 
how the apple got into the dumpling he had never 
heard such a simple question as that put by his 
right hon. friend. Everybody knew that the 
principle to which the right hon. gentleman 
objected had been acted upon time after time by 
Liberal and Conservative Governments, and every- 
body knew that hon. gentlemen opposite had 
admitted the justice of the distinction and never 


proposed the alteration which was now brought 
forward by the right hon. gentleman." l 

In reply Sir John asserted that this, if a reason 
at all, would point the other way, and said that 
he should bring the question up in Committee. 
When it did come up in Committee Sir William 
Harcourt found that the country members on his 
own side were not with him, and gave way, so 
that the amendment was carried. 

Time, which habituates eels to physical and 
humanity to financial skinning, has led us to 
regard almost any form and degree of taxation 
with the equanimity with which we face the 
inevitable ; but at that date nerves were more 
sensitive. Sir John received many encomiums 
for his opposition : 

" You have taken, and, I hope, will continue 
to take, an active part in resisting Harcourt 's 
iniquitous scheme of graduated death duties . . ." 
writes one. 

" Allow me to congratulate you," says another, 
" on the announcement of the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer that he withdraws the 8th clause of 
his Budget bill. The Mercantile community owe 
you their thanks for the active part you have 
taken in the matter, and not less should the 
Government thank you for saving them from a 
terrible blunder." 

Finally, he made an attack on the general 
provisions of the Budget Bill in an article in the 
New Review. 

In August he was at Oxford for the British 
Association meeting. During Lord Salisbury's 

1 Times, April 24, 1894. 



(the President) Address he was sitting, in the 
Sheldonian, next to Huxley, who was to second 
the vote of thanks. Lord Salisbury discussed the 
Darwinian theory in a way with which they 
neither of them agreed. " Ah, my dear Lubbock," 
said Huxley, " how I wish we were going to speak 
in Section D " (where the Address could have 
been discussed) " instead of here ! " 

Sir John's comment in his diary on Lord 
Salisbury's speech is that " Salisbury's address 
was very clever and in some parts quite witty, 
but he does not seem to me to have grasped 
Natural Selection. The scene in the Sheldonian 
was very striking." 

On the 17th they started for Switzerland, Sir 
John, Lady Lubbock, Mr. Douglas Fox Pitt, and 
the children. He attended the Geological Con- 
gress at Zurich, and went a most interesting tour 
under the guidance of Professors Renevier and 

On the 20th he notes, " Have taken to work 
on my Swiss book in earnest." 

In course of this expedition he made a find 
which interested him enormously. It is first 
noted in his diary of Friday, September 7. 
" Heavy rain and snow. Beautiful glimpses but 
no distant view. To Murren. In the reputed 
Triassic, in which no fossils had been discovered, 
I found a piece with two Nummulites. Renevier 
is delighted. The authorities all agree that they 
are Nummulites. Golliez admits that they are 
very like, but justly says that they must be 
examined microscopically. If they are, he says 
he shall give up geology and Lungeon says there 


is no more any Swiss geology ! Anyhow it will 
a good deal alter the map. No fossils had 
previously been found in these rocks. I cannot 
doubt that they are Nummulites, and in that case 
we must either bring the rocks up from Triassic 
to Eocene or else carry Nummulites down from 
Eocene to Triassic. Anyhow it is so interesting 
that we are going to give up to-morrow's plan 
and go back to Murren." 

Accordingly, on Saturday he writes : " Beauti- 
ful day. Some of us went back to Murren where 
we had a superb view and found lots of Nummu- 
lites in the place I lit on yesterday. There can be 
no doubt about it." 

Three weeks later they arrived, on their 
homeward way, at Paris, where on the Monday he 
attended " two meetings of the Greek Committee, 
one at 10.30 and one at 5. Came to satisfactory 
agreement." Sir John was first President of the 
new International Sociological Institute, of which 
the first meeting was held the same day, in Paris. 
It was by way of a little interlude between the 
two financial meetings that he presided, and gave 
his inaugural address in French, at this first 
meeting of the Institute. He had a crowded 
audience. The address was very well received, 
both by the hearers and in the Press. 

The conclusion of the meeting, which con- 
tinued over several days after the Lubbock party 
had left Paris, was no less successful than its 
commencement, as Sir John is informed in the 
following letter from Dr. R. Worms. 



Vendredi, 5 octobre, /94. 

CHER ET HONOR PRESIDENT Notre congres s'est 
termine hier, aussi heureusement qu'il avait commence. 
Et je ne veux pas qu'il s'achve, sans que vous avoir 
adress6 a nouveau 1' expression de la gratitude de tous 
les Congressistes pour votre presence parmi nous, le 
discours que vous avez prononce, et la direction que vous 
avez donnee a nos debats. La presse francaise, aussi 
bien que la presse anglaise et etrangere, vous a rendu 
pleinement hommage. Ce matin meme, le plus repandu 
de tous nos journaux quotidiens, le Petit Journal repro- 
duisait votre photographic (que je lui avais communiquee) 
en 1'accompagnant d'un article (que je vous envoie). 
Plusieurs autres periodiques ont parle de votre discours 
en fort bons termes : je les reunirai et vous les adresserai 
tres prochainement. Enfin, la Societe d'^conomie 
Politique de Paris vous avait invite a son diner de ce 
soir ; son president, M. Frederic Passy, me charge de vous 
exprimer tous ses regrets de ce que votre depart prive la 
Societe de votre presence. 

Plusieurs membres de notre Congres avaient exprime 
le vceu d'etre presented a Monsieur le President de la 
Republique. Je m'en suis entretenu avec son cabinet, 
et ai obtenu que M. Casimir-Perier regut en audience les 
membres du Congres, lundi prochain ou vendredi pro- 
chain (a leur choix) vers onze heures. Je ne sais s'il 
vous serait agreable et possible de prendre part a cette 
visite. En tout cas, nous serions charmes de vous voir 
a notre tete pour cette ceremonie. Aussi vous serais- 
je tres oblige de me fair savoir par un telegramme si vous 
pouvez etre a Paris soit lundi matin, soit mercredi matin 
pour cette visite a l'6lysee. Mon adresse telegraphique 
serait alors : " Worms, Ministere Commerce, Paris." 
Bien entendu ne vous imposez pas la fatigue de traverser 
la Manche si cette presentation ne vous parait pas offrir 
d'int6ret. Mais quelque decision que vous preniez, 
veuillez avoir la bonte de m'en avertir immediate- 

Je vous prie, mon cher President, de presenter a 
Madame Lubbock 1' expression de tout mon respect, et 
d'agr^er vous -meme 1'assurance de ma vive gratitude et 
de mon plus cordial devouement. RENE WORMS. 


The Editor of Great Thoughts asked him to 
send a forecast of what would probably happen 
during the twentieth century, and forwarded him 
Dr. Parker's reply to the same question, the 
general tenor of which may be gathered from 
Sir John's answer. While drawing a lurid picture 
of present iniquities, Dr. Parker felt equally 
confident that a hundred years hence we should 
all be sober, honest, religious, pure in fact, much 
the reverse of what we are now. 

To the Editor of Great Thoughts. 

DEAR SIR I much admire Dr. Parker's prophetic 
insight into futurity, which, however, I do not share. 
As a man of business I have spent much time and 
thought in endeavouring to look a few weeks or months 
ahead and though with quite as much success as I could 
reasonably expect, not without surprises. 

Dr. Parker's remarks, however, suggest to me some 
doubts, though I hardly venture to mention them. 

If, after many thousands of years, we are in a plight 
so terrible our Professions tainted, our Science and 
Religion in deadly enmity, our Creed stunted, our Public 
Companies swindles (though I observe with satisfaction 
that he excepts private firms), our Women despised, our 
Literature dominated by " miserable knavery," and 
our Clergy incompetent what reasonable grounds are 
there for hopes that a few short years more will make so 
great a change ? 

But it seems to me that some, at any rate, of his data 
are wrong. I will only refer to a few. Science has never 
been hostile to Religion. Scientific men, no doubt, 
have been persecuted for discoveries, the truth of which 
is now generally recognised. But Theologians have also 
been constantly in conflict among themselves, and have 
too often mistaken Anathemas for Arguments. 

Dr. Parker is also too sweeping in his condemnation 
of Commercial Companies. The business morality of 
the Nineteenth Century must be judged by our great 
Insurance Offices, Banks, Railway Companies, etc., etc., 
and the estimation in which they are held is shown 


by the remarkable fact that they can borrow on more 
favourable terms than most Kingdoms or Republics. 
The relation of the Liberator to our Commercial Institu- 
tions was that of the scum on the waters of the great 
ocean. Moreover, the Liberator was not managed by 
men of business. 

Again he is mistaken in saying that the land is a 
" monopoly of men who never paid for it." What is 
divided among thousands is not a monopoly ; the land 
still held by original settlers or direct grant from the 
Crown, is but a fraction of the whole, and the greater 
part has been bought and sold over and over again. 

Differing, then, so much from Dr. Parker as to the 
present, I cannot but feel some doubt as to his pro- 
phecies with reference to the coming century. It is 
difficult enough to see what will happen in the immediate 
future, and, I think, impossible to forecast a hundred 
years. I am, yours truly, JOHN LuBBOCK. 1 

The Use of Life came out this year, and Sir 
John remarks that the reviews in the London 
Papers " though friendly, were condescending, 
and even somewhat contemptuous. Distin- 
guished literary men knew the quotations and 
the arguments were for the most part familiar 
to them. But the book was not intended for 
scholars, or experienced men of the world. It 
was meant for young people." 

The Provincial, Colonial, and Foreign Reviews 
were far more complimentary, in part perhaps 
because, before they appeared, the large sale of 
the book had already shown that it was appreci- 
ated by those for whom it was intended. In 
eight years it had sold to the extent of over 
100,000 English copies, in addition to more than 
16 editions elsewhere, including such languages as 
Arabic, Hindoo, Marathi (2 Editions), Gujerati 

1 Great Thoughts, March 9, 1895. 


and Japanese (3 Editions). It was made a text- 
book in more than one of the Indian Universities. 
Whatever may be the view of men of learning, it 
is impossible to deny an importance to a book 
which is read by such large numbers and such 
different sections of the human race as these few 
statistics indicate. 

The reviews would fill a volume, and are in 
almost all the written languages of the earth. 

As a quoter of choice fragments of wisdom and know- 
ledge, Sir J. Lubbock is without an equal. 

The felicity with which the quotations are chosen, 
the taste for true wisdom which they show, and the 
apposite way in which they are put together to make up 
a full discourse upon the subject in hand, amount to 
little less than a genius for philosophical speculation. 

Quand viendra-t-il en France un moraliste qui 
comprenne notre ame comme Sir John Lubbock a com- 
pris celle de sa patrie ? 1 

Apophthegms are apt to stick in the throat instead of 
the mind. Sir John Lubbock' s great merit is that he is 
able to render a good many dry morsels of knowledge 
easy of digestion, and thus convert them into actual 
food for the mind. 

We should hesitate to say that a man could find a 
complete philosophy of life in this little book, but one 
can certainly find in it a great deal of philosophy, of 
wholesome observation, good taste, good temper and 
cheerful inspiration. 

If we could put a copy of this book by Sir John 
Lubbock in the hands of every young man of our 
acquaintance, we should feel that we. had done a work 
to be proud of. 

We may say at once that this new book of Sir John's 
is one of the most interesting, most helpful, healthiest 
books we have read for some time past. 

These are a few notes struck here and there 

1 Figaro, 25.10.94. 



from the chorus of praise, which may give a 
general idea of the tune. 

But in spite of his remark, noted above, that 
the literary world was a little contemptuous of the 
book, he had some pleasant appreciation from 
high sources. Mr. Francis Galton writes that he 
read the chapter on " Tact, being sorely conscious 
of my own deficiency, three times over. So your 
sunny wisdom has not been wasted on at least one 
reader." Lord Salisbury says, " your interest- 
ing book." Lord Dufferin speaks of it as " that 
nice bright book, full of wisdom conveyed in so 
genial a form." Cardinal Vaughan says, " your 
interesting volume, full of thought and suggestion 
and a storehouse of valuable quotations." 

Professor Huxley's letter of acknowledgment 
is sufficiently amusing and characteristic to be 
worth quotation at its own brief length. 

EASTBOURNE, Oct. 11, 1894. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK Many thanks for your new 
volume which has just reached me. 

I am very sorry that my jesting forecast to Lady 
Lubbock has been verified at present I am creeping 
about as well as a sharp attack of lumbago will let me, 
but for the most part horizontal I wish there was a 
herd of swine for that devil to go into only to be sure 
they would not be able to rush violently anywhere or do 
anything but grunt at least that is my experience. 
Ever yours very truly, T. H. HUXLEY. 

Baron Tauchnitz at once requested permission 
to print the book in his series. 

The following letter, from a native of India 
with whom he had previously corresponded, has 
a special interest : 


26 May /85. 

ESTEEMED SIR I have just finished reading your 
latest book The Use of Life, and I write to express my 
great admiration of its style and contents. 

It is an encyclopaedia of wise and good thoughts. It 
is interesting and instructive from beginning to end. 

Yes, " the best books are the cheapest " (p. 127). 
Quite true. And the books which you have written 
though not included in your 100 Books, are surely among 
the best books of the English language. I have derived 
from them all the pleasure and profit so well described 
by you in the chapters on " Libraries " and " Reading." 

As an Indian, I must say that we are grateful to you 
for your sympathetic thoughts about India. The 
British Government in India is not only respected but 
deeply loved so I beg to assure you that your appre- 
hension " that we are loved in India cannot perhaps be 
maintained " (p. 151) is " unfounded." 

The English rule in India is the noblest, the wisest 
and the best that India has ever seen. In this view all 
are agreed both Princes and Peasants, the educated 
and the ignorant. The ancient Governments of India 
never came up to the ideal of the British Government. 
I am touched profoundly by some of the phrases you 
have so generously employed in the Chapter on 
" Patriotism," as for instance, where you write " our 
honest effort and desire has been to govern India for the 
benefit of the people of India. We may have made 
mistakes there as we have made mistakes at home." 
Quite true. It appears to me that the expenditure of 
administering and protecting India, and the heavy taxes 
are two of the big items of Indian Rule which have not 
received sufficient attention of the Statesmen at home. 
These are capable of improvement ; so we educated 
natives honestly think with regard to the proportion of 
taxes, though perhaps the British Indian Government 
does not levy more than the Native Rajahs of old. 
There is much difference in the actual collection of the 
ryots' dues. 

The British Government does it with a scientific 
precision and punctuality unknown in former days. 

With the old Rajahs there was less exactitude, and 
more consideration shown for a variety of grounds so 



the ryot somehow managed to escape the full measure 
of tax. All this is about the Land tax. This would be 
I think a good reason for lowering the Government's 
proportion of the produce of the soil. 

In the administration of Native States we combine 
the enlightenment and justice of British Rule with the 
spirit of conciliation and consideration to rank and 
position which a Native Government can so easily 
understand and which our population so well appreciate. 
If the spirit of charity and generosity which pervades 
your book guides our English Statesmen in the manage- 
ment of Indian affairs, that is all that we want. 

I thank you for your kind letter of the 14th December 

I have sometimes been asked by other authors, 
possibly animated by a little gentle jealousy, 
" How did Sir John Lubbock manage to get his 
books translated into so many languages ? 5: 
The answer is a very simple one : " By writing 
books that were sure of a popularity in all 
languages." I have before me, regarding this 
particular little book, the Use of Life, appli- 
cations, certainly unsought by Sir John, for 
permission to translate into Spanish, Russian, 
French, Gujerati, Urdu, Marathi, " I am quite 
sure," says the last applicant, " our Marathi 
population will feel indebted to you if you grant 
my request " ; as a matter of fact there were 
several candidates for the permission of transla- 
tion into this dialect, Egyptian and so on ; and 
the similar applications for the right of transla- 
tion of some of his other books, such as the 
Pleasures of Life, have been noticed already. 

The recipe, therefore, for attaining this wide 
translation is easy, for writers of books they 
have but to write such as shall be universally 


The following letters from Lord Milner refer 
to the London Society for the Extension of 
University Teaching. Sir John accepted the 
Presidency and retained the position until, in 
1902, the Society was merged in the University 
of London. The letters are worthy of quotation 
for their lucid exposition of the purposes of the 


DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK I am addressing you at 
the request of the Council of the London Society for the 
Extension of University Teaching. Mr. Goschen, who 
has done many years of invaluable service for the Society, 
and has seen it grow from quite small beginnings into 
a really important educational movement, is retiring 
from the Presidency, which he has held since 1877. 
This decision, which is due entirely to private reasons, 
and which in view of the great amount of work which 
Mr. Goschen has done for the Society, the Council feel 
that they ought not to seek to alter, nevertheless leaves 
them in a somewhat difficult position, as it is no small 
matter to find a successor of equal public eminence. 

The Council would be unanimous in welcoming you 
as their President, if you felt able to undertake that 
position. They have hesitated to approach you, in view 
of the importance and multiplicity of the public enter- 
prises with which your name is already associated. 
But they believe that, if they could secure the immense 
advantage of having you as the head of the Society, 
arrangements might be made to relieve you of the burden 
of all the details of the work. The Council has several 
hard-working members of great practical capacity, like 
Canon Burnett, Canon Browne, Mr. Brooke Lambert, 
Mr. Mocatta and others, and there would be no difficulty 
in appointing an Acting Chairman to preside at the 
ordinary Council Meetings, leaving only the important 
public meetings and the decision of important questions 
of policy to make any demands upon the time and energies 
of the President. 

The Council hope that, even if you do not see your 



way to accepting this offer, you will at least not reject 
it absolutely without giving me and the very able and 
active Secretary of the Society, Dr. Roberts, an oppor- 
tunity of putting the matter before you in a personal 
interview. Even if you were finally unwilling to take up 
the position of President or to associate yourself in any 
way with the Society, there are certain matters of im- 
portance, in connection with the development of higher 
education in London, with regard to which we should 
be grateful to have, in confidence, the benefit of your 
advice. The Council think that they may venture to 
appeal to you to this extent, not only as Member for the 
University of London, but on account of your personal 
position as a scientific and educational authority of the 
greatest eminence. 

If you were willing to see me and Dr. Roberts, we 
would call upon you at any time and place most con- 
venient to you, except on Wednesday next, the 5th, 
and would not detain you more than twenty minutes 
or so. Believe me, yours very truly, 


The Rt. Hon. Sir John Lubbock. 

Dec. 7th, 94. 

DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK Roberts kindly came to 
see me after his interview with you yesterday, and he 
was here again this morning to tell me about what had 
happened at the subsequent meeting of the Council. 

The Council were, of course, extremely pleased to 
hear that there was a hope of your taking the Presidency. 
Personally, I think this would be of such importance to 
us, that, at the risk of being a bore, I venture to add one 
or two words to what I have already said rather with 
the view of putting you into more complete possession 
of all the relevant facts. . . . 

A point of importance is, that the Council have asked 
Canon Browne of St. Paul's to take the acting chairman- 
ship of the Council, and that, as I am privately informed, 
he will accept. This is very material, for Browne is 
familiar with the work (he was for years head of the 
Cambridge University Extension system) and he is an 
able, popular and most hard-working man. 

The conduct of the ordinary current business, is, 


therefore, in very strong hands, and all we want now is 
the right sort of public man as President to make our 
prospects look bright. 

Of course, there is always a fight for money. We 
need 1500 a year to carry on our work, and we could 
do with another 500 to further develop it. So far we 
have always succeeded in making two ends meet, but it 
has been by perpetually keeping ourselves in evidence, 
and by interesting the City Companies. On the whole, 
it is easier now than formerly to do this, because we are 
a bigger body, and have more prestige. But it needs a 
little generalship. Yours very sincerely, 


Sir John had for some years been a member 
of the Imperial Federation League, and was 
Chairman of the City Branch. Quite unex- 
pectedly by him at least the Council issued a 
circular recommending the dissolution of the 
league. This course was opposed by the City 
branch and some others, but at a general meeting 
was carried by a bare majority. The minority 
then determined, at a meeting held at Sir John's 
house, to found a new organisation, and he was 
authorised to write to the Duke of Devonshire, 
asking him to accept the Presidency. 

19 December 1894. 

whether it will be in your recollection that last summer 
the Council of the Imperial Federation League by a 
majority of one decided to close. It has always been 
a question whether that was legal without a general 

However this may be, the City branch which opposed 
the winding up, is anxious to start a new body with 
similar objects. It is not expected that much practical 
legislation can be effected, but it is thought desirable 
to keep up the flag of Unity and to show our desire to 
maintain the integrity of the Empire. 



The enclosed has been signed, as you will see, by the 
late Lord Mayor, the City Members, and the most 
prominent men in the City of all parties in fact, I 
believe, there has not been a single refusal. The present 
Lord Mayor has promised the Mansion House for a 
Meeting, and will take the Chair. 

I enclose the rules, which, however, are only pro- 
visional, and have been asked to write and enquire if 
you would accept the Presidency. 

The Chairman of the Council would preside at the 
Council meetings, but we hope the President would 
attend the Annual Meeting. 

If there are any other points, I should be very glad to 
come and see you. 

It seems important that the Colonies should not 
imagine that there is on our part any lukewarmness as 
to the maintenance of the Union. Hoping that you 
may see your way to accept. I am, yours very sincerely, 

J. L. 

His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 

The qualities of common sense and caution by 
which the late Duke of Devonshire won the con- 
fidence of the nation are thoroughly displayed in 
his reply : 

Dec. 21/94. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I should like to see you about 
the new Federation League, but I am afraid I shall not 
be in London for some little time. 

So far as I understand the constitution and rules of 
the new League, it is proposed to drop all reference to 
Federation, but the title is retained. The talk about 
Federation has always seemed to be rather un-practical, 
and it occurs to me that so long as the title is retained, 
and the League consists of the same men, the speeches 
at the General and other meetings would continue to be 
of much the same character. 

However, I should not like to decline without having 
a talk with you. How soon do you think that a decision 
is required ? Yours very truly, DEVONSHIRE. 


The question seems to have been left thus 
open for the moment, to be resumed in the 
following spring. 

In answer to some remarks that Sir John 
made in a letter to M. Jules Simon their general 
tenor will be gathered from the reply the 
French statesman wrote : 

Le 31 dtcembre 1893. 

MON CHER SIR JOHN II y a un point que je crois 
pouvoir vous affirmer ; c'est qu'il n'y a aucune idee 
belliqueuse en France, ni centre 1'Angleterre, ni centre 
personne. Je croyais que 1'enthousiasme exagere des 
fetes russes en etait la preuve. Nous avons crie " Vive 
la Russie," mais nous n'avions au fond de la pensee 
qu'un cri : Vive la paix ! On disait cette alliance 
annulle la triple alliance. Nous ne sommes plus a la 
mercie de nos ennemis. Voila tout. Quant a vouloir 
guerroyer a present que nous avons des allies, rien n'est 
plus loin de nous que cela. 

Quand on dit cela a Berlin, on nous repond : " Eh 
bien, dites franchement que vous renoncez pour jamais 
a 1' Alsace-Lorraine, et nous sommes vos ardents amis." 

L'honneur ne nous permet pas de renoncer ; 1'honneur 
et la politique ne nous permettent pas de dire que nous 
renongons. Nous faisons la seule chose possible : nous 
ajournons indefiniment toute revendication. Soyez s sur 
que c'est P esprit de la nation dans son immense generality. 

Je pourrais vous dire que nous augmentons notre 
marine parce que les Italiens et les Allemands prennent 
les devants. Cette raison est bonne ; mais on demandait 
des ameliorations dans la marine depuis plusieurs annees. 
Elles etaient necessaires, non pas meme pour augmenter, 
mais pour ne pas laisser deperir. Nous avons d'ailleurs 
avec T extreme Orient et avec Madagascar et avec le 
centre Afrique des rapports nouveaux qui a eux seuls 
donnent la raison de nos armements. II n'est pas 
douteux d'ailleurs que des conventions peuvent valoir 
des vaisseaux de guerre. 

L' importance de votre question depende uniquement 
de la reponse qui vous sera faite, c'est vous seul qui 



pouvez etre juge de 1'opportunite. Je suis bien sur que 
tout ce qui viendra de vous tendra a la paix ; je ne sais 

Eas ce qui le dira de 1'autre cote". Mais je repete en 
nissant que la France veut la paix ; president, ministres, 
chambres, arrn^e. Profondement a vous, 



(AGE 61) 

As soon as Parliament met in the New Year Sir 
John again brought in the Early Closing of Shops 
Bill. It was read a second time without opposi- 
tion on February 19, and referred to a Select 
Committee, which took a good deal of evidence, 
and reported in its favour on April 21. Owing to 
obstruction by a few members who were opposed 
to it he was not able to get an opportunity of 
bringing it on for third reading. 

On January 28 he notes, " skated with the 
children." His next entry is February 5. " Very 
cold. The pond has been a great amusement, 
and the children are getting on capitally with 
their skating. We came up to St. James' 

The pond, about the digging of which there are 
several previous notices, continued to be a great 
success and source of entertainment both in winter 
and summer. The first specimens of that gay fish 
the orfe like a larger and glorified gold-fish that 
I ever saw were in that pond, or, rather in those 
ponds, for there was a little series of them. It 



was Sir John's amusement every morning, after 
breakfast, to walk down to them they lay at a 
lower level than the house at about two hundred 
yards' distance with chunks of bread from the 
breakfast table to feed the fish. There were several 
gold-fish, and a few perch and other kinds too, 
but the orfes were the conspicuous people. There 
were walks round and among the ponds, and their 
banks were planted with bamboos and water- 
loving flowers and shrubs, some of them rare, 
and of bright foliage and blossom. He writes in 
May of this year : " Have been arranging the 
pond, putting in fish three gold-fish, two carp 
and two golden orfes and water plants." From 
time to time he made additions to the aquatic 
population. He was always keenly interested in 
enriching either the fauna or the flora of Great 
Britain by the acclimitisation of foreign species, 
nor was he less zealous for giving adequate pro- 
tection to any of our native kinds that were 
threatened with extinction. He was an eager 
supporter, for many years, of the objects of the 
Selborne Society, as well as of that excellent 
institution itself. 

Many of his friends on the London County 
Council were anxious that he should resume the 
chairmanship, and the invitation was conveyed 
to him in a complimentary letter from the Duke 
of Norfolk. 

The reply indicates some of Sir John's motives 
for declining, and it is worth notice that a desire 
to have leisure for science is named among 


6th March 1895. 

MY DEAR DUKE OF NORFOLK I am very sensible of 
the honour done me by my colleagues in wishing me 
to resume the chair of the L.C.C. 

In the present state of things, however, I feel that 
the Chairmanship ought, if possible, to be a matter of 

Beachcroft thought indeed that the Progressives, 
or at any rate the majority, would accept me as Chair- 
man, and such a mandate might be difficult to resist, 
but I took so active a part in the contest, and have, 
however unjustly, been so much attacked in the Radical 
press, that they, I believe, on the contrary would 
resent my election as an aggravation of their dis- 

It is very important in the interests of the Council, 
and for the harmony of our proceedings, that even if 
we cannot agree on a Chairman, he should not be a 
" red rag " to either side. 

I say this in the interests of the Council, but I must 
add that having devoted two years to the Chairmanship, 
I feel I have done my duty to London, and am anxious 
to have some time for my scientific work. 

I fear, therefore, that I must definitely ask to be 
excused, and write at once without waiting for to- 
morrow, as time is so short. 

Let me say once more how much I was gratified by 
the invitation, and by the kind expressions uttered 
towards me. I am, yours sincerely, J. LUBBOCK. 

The varied nature of Sir John Lubbock's 
correspondence was curious. Immediately follow- 
ing the above I find a letter from Mr. Herbert 
Spencer enquiring where, in his books, may be 
found information on the following point : " The 
gods are conceived by many uncivilized peoples 
as very stupid and easily deceived by sham 
sacrifices. I have remembrance somewhere of 
a case in which it was said by the people that 
their god So-and-So was stupid, or something of 



that kind ; and that for this reason they deluded 
him." Mr. Spencer says that, not finding it in 
Tylor, he concludes it must be in Sir John's 

It was in the spring of this year that the 
negotiations for the formation of the British 
Empire League, mentioned in the last chapter, 
were brought to a head. In the first instance Sir 
John had been pressed to accept the Presidency, 
but thought that it ought to be held by some one 
in high official position, and that the Duke of 
Devonshire would be the right man in the right 
place. The Duke's objection to the word " Feder- 
ation," appearing in the title of the original league, 
has already been noticed. 

On April 16 Sir Robert Herbert writes : 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I have received from Mr. 
Freeman Murray a proof of the Imperial Federation 
League Reconstruction scheme, which I am considering, 
and as to which I hope before long to give you my 
more definite opinion for what it may be worth. 

My present impression is that a new departure would 
have a better prospect of success than any galvanizing 
of the defunct " Imperial Federation League." A good 
many men have (often for no clear reason) declared 
themselves opposed to " Imperial Federation " : some 
sniff at the word " Imperial " : others (I am perhaps 
one) do not believe actual political " federation " of 
this country with Greater Britain to be desirable or 

Would not the movement go better at the present 
time if it were more distinctly to purport to start from 
the late Ottawa Conference, as a new organization, and 
under a new name ? The draft " Constitution " does 
in fact adopt the Ottawa Programme. A new name 
is, of course, a most difficult point. What I grope 
helplessly for is something like " The British Empire 
Union " explaining it to be for " Commerce and 



To most of the " Constitution " I can subscribe ; 
but much as I should like to be able to swallow (C), I 
hardly think I can at present get it down, if it is the 
case that the adoption of the first par. of it would mean 
risking the loss of possibly a great part of the 260,000,000 
of British Export Trade to Foreign Countries, without 
thereby securing the retention of even the present 
British Export Trade (93,000,000) to the Colonies. 

Although, however, I may not be able to advocate 
the modification etc. I could of course " consider the 
operation of such portions " etc. Yours very truly, 


A month later the Duke of Devonshire writes 
to Sir John, still hesitating whether to accept the 
Presidency, but virtually consenting, under pres- 
sure to do so, and proposing " Colonial Associa- 
tion " or " Imperial and Colonial Association " 
as titles for that which was eventually named the 
" British Empire League." 

Sir John replied : 

18th May 1895. 

anxious to have you as President, and would save you 
almost all trouble. 

Sir R. Herbert has kindly consented in that case to 
act as Chairman of the Council. 

Our friends are very anxious to be having the meeting. 
Might I say that subject to the acceptance of Sir R. 
Herbert's suggestions you would accept the Presidency ? 

We could then call a meeting and come to you with 
the final draft. 

The Lord Mayor would then call a meeting at the 
Mansion House, where I am sure you would receive an 
Ovation ; though it is not necessary that the President 
should attend, if you would prefer to be selected in your 
absence. I am, yours very sincerely, J. LUBBOCK. 

His Grace, the Duke of Devonshire. 

And the matter was at length settled by the 
Duke's assent, thus briefly given : 


May 24th, 1895. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK If you cannot find another 
President I will accept provisionally, if they will take 
Sir R. Herbert's suggestions, but I shall hope to be 
relieved before long. 

I shall be back in London on Monday, and shall 
no doubt hear from you as to the proposed Mansion 
House meeting. Yours sincerely, DEVONSHIRE. 

The movement finally resulted in the formation 
of the League with the Duke of Devonshire as 
President, Sir R. Herbert as Chairman of the 
Council, and Sir John as Treasurer. The Queen 
became Patron, and after the Jubilee many 
prominent Colonial Statesmen associated them- 
selves with it. Canada, under the guidance of 
Colonel Sanderson and Mr. Tupper, gave prompt 
and most cordial support. 

Pressure was then put on Sir John to accept 
the chairmanship of the Council of the League, 
but he did not wish to allow any further claims on 
his time, and his objection to the multiplication 
of Committees confirmed him in a disinclination 
to take the post. 

On June 21 he went with Sir M. Grant Duff 
and Mr. Hanbury to Teesdale, on a botanical 
expedition, hut had scarcely got there when they 
were all startled by the announcement that Mr. 
Gladstone had resigned, and that Parliament was 
to be dissolved at once. 

His seat at the University was threatened 
on two sides. Firstly by those who were anxious 
as to the establishment of a so-called Teaching 
University, and considered that he was not 
sufficiently in harmony with their ideas ; and on 


the other side by those who wished to maintain 
the existing order of things, and were afraid that 
he sympathised too much with the other side. 

Sir Michael Foster was one of his friends who 
urged him to modify his original address to the 
electors and not to make so strong a point of 
giving to Convocation the veto on any proposal 
of the Royal Commission which had been 
appointed to look into the whole question of 
reconstitution of the University. 

Sir John did not feel, however, that he could 
depart from the terms of his address, and Sir 
M. Foster, true to his promise, supported him 
loyally, as also did Sir J. Fitch, and indeed all 
the Vice-Presidents of his Committee. 

Some of his other old supporters and friends 
were less amenable. Every effort was indeed 
made, but ineffectually, to find some rival Candi- 
date. Sir W. Thiselton Dyer and Prof. S. 
Thompson were especially keen in opposition. 
Both attacked his view in Nature, and the 
latter also in the following letters. 

W. HAMPSTEAD, N.W., July 2nd. 

DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK I have received to-day 
a copy of your Election Address, and am glad that you 
take the reasonable view that the Gresham Scheme, with 
safeguards, will meet every reasonable requirement 
without injuring the present work of the University. 

But I am, I must confess, amazed that you should 
without qualification, have indicated your disposition to 
oppose the Reconstitution Bill, unless it contains a 
clause which would obviously prevent any independent 
or self-respecting man from serving on the Royal Com- 

Do you suppose any first-rate man would serve on a 
Commission, to hear and weigh claims and settle con- 



flicting interests, and adjust differences with care and 
judgment, if he knew that his most careful judgment 
was liable to be upset by the vote of a lot of provincial 
graduates, who had never heard the evidence, and had 
no real means of judging ? The thing is too absurd. 
No Parliament would ever put the vote of Convocation 
above the authority of Parliament in such a way. An 
appeal to the Privy Council (who would hear and weigh 
evidence) would be quite reasonable, and in accordance 
with precedents. But such a clause as you propose 
would be both unconstitutional and against all pre- 
cedents. Can you not, before it is too late, recall or 
modify the phrase you have used ? It commits you 
to a quite untenable position, and exposes you to 

I write in haste in hopes of being able to do you a 
service thereby. Yours most sincerely, 


The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S., M.P. 
Sir John replied : 

3rd July. 

MY DEAR SILV ANUS THOMPSON Your letter reached 
me just as I was coming out last night. 

I am glad that we agree on so many points, and 
sorry that you feel so strongly against a reference to 

I can hardly think, however, that this would be 
so impracticable as you suppose, indeed I understand 
that it has been actually suggested by Lord Salisbury. 

Surely it is natural that the graduates should wish 
to be consulted in a matter so vitally affecting their 
own University ? I am, yours sincerely, J. L. 

But Professor Thompson sticks gallantly to 
his guns. 


DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK Pray do not mistake the 
issue. I am not opposed to a reference to Convocation ; 
on the contrary I worked hard last year to obtain it. 
But what I say and say emphatically is that the pro- 
posal to make the reference to Convocation after instead 


of before the judicial decisions of a Statutory Commission 
is absurd. I must be allowed to doubt entirely whether 
Lord Salisbury ever suggested anything so foolish. Is 
it not evident that if the decisions of the Commission 
who would sit to hear and weigh evidence were liable 
to be upset by a post-card vote of graduates at large 
who had never heard the evidence, no person of any 
standing would ever consent to serve in such a capacity. 
The proposal is simply fatal to the authority of the 
judicial body proposed as a Commission. It is most 
deplorable that you have not seen this before your 
circular letter was sent out. The absurdity of it must 
be painful to many who would otherwise have supported 
you. Let me again urge you before it is too late to 
modify the words that seem to commit you to so un- 
tenable a position. I am, yours most sincerely, 


The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, M.P., F.R.S. 
Sir John was quite immovable. 

6th July 1895. 

me simple enough. 

You desire in the present case to abrogate the existing 
right of veto possessed by Convocation because in your 
judgment the Commission will make a wise scheme, 
and Convocation will unwisely reject it. 

Surely it is natural that I, as their Member, should 
desire to protect the rights of my Constituents, and 
that I should have confidence that they will exercise 
their right wisely and well. I am, yours very sincerely, 


Professor Silvanus Thompson. 

Some very heavy artillery was then brought up 
to attack his position. 

July 6th, 1895. 

DEAR SIR JOHN LUBBOCK The interests of learning 
and education are so closely bound up with the future 
development of the University of London, that we 
hope you will not regard us as interfering between 
yourself and the Electing Body of the University if 


we venture to express our regret at some of the opinions 
you have put forward in your election address. 

You state that you would " do your best to secure, 
that the scheme (for the re-organisation of the University) 
when arranged should be submitted to Convocation 
for their approval, to be signified as at a Senatorial 
Election, and would oppose the Bill unless this were 

You must allow us to point out that this proposal 
would confer upon Convocation a right which is with- 
out precedent, to supervise the Acts of a Commission 
entrusted with the re-organisation of the University 
of which Convocation itself is a part. 

The scheme of the " Gresham Commissioners " has 
been approved not only by all the institutions concerned 
but by the great body of educated public opinion. It 
is, however, certain that very great difficulties will 
arise if the ultimate fate of the scheme is to depend upon 
the voting papers of Convocation. 

We, therefore, believe that the proposal you support, 
if adopted, will result in the failure of another attempt 
to establish a teaching University in London, and will 
indefinitely postpone the solution of a question which 
after prolonged discussion seemed to be on the eve of 
settlement. We are, yours faithfully, 


JOHN EVANS, Treas., R.S. 

M. Foster, Sec., R.S. 







Sir John Lubbock then wrote the following 
letter to Professor Rucker, in reply to the fore- 
going addressed to him by the President and some 
other members of the Royal Society : 

Qth July 1895. 

MY DEAR RUCKER I am sorry I could not imme- 
diately answer the letter which you have forwarded to 
me on behalf of Lord Kelvin and other members of the 
Royal Society, but I only received it this morning as 
I was away from home. I observe that most of those 
who have signed it are (as they themselves say) not 
members of Convocation, and consequently not con- 
stituents of mine. Still, I should welcome any oppor- 
tunity of co-operation with such high authorities in the 
promotion of those interests which we all have at heart. 
I regret, however, that before publishing the letter they 
did not give me an opportunity of conferring with them, 
in which case, I think, I could have given good reasons 
for what I have said in my letter to Professor Foster. 
I am glad to observe that the only point objected to 
is the reference of any new charter to Convocation. 
In this, however, I am not asking that any privilege 
which they do not at present possess should be con- 
ferred on my constituents, but only supporting what 
is now their legal right. As the law now stands no 
change can be made in the " charter without the consent 
of the graduates." This right I know they highly 
value, and it is surely natural that, as their representa- 
tive, I should do my best to preserve it. Moreover, in 
view of the difficulty of passing a bill strongly opposed, 
as any bill would be which seeks to abrogate the present 
right of veto possessed by Convocation, I can imagine 
nothing more likely to wreck any scheme such as you 
desire than to link it, quite unnecessarily, with an 
attack on that right. Your objection to the reference 
to Convocation implies the belief that a Statutory Com- 
mission would arrange a wise charter for the Univer- 
sity, and that the graduates would reject it. But 
why should it be assumed that they would do so ? It 
has been my proud boast that I represent a con- 
stituency second to none in education and ability, and 



I am sure you will not, on reflection, be surprised if 
I have every confidence that when any new charter is 
submitted to my constituents they will exercise the 
rights well and wisely, and with an earnest wish to 
further the interests of learning and education. I am, 
yours very sincerely, JOHN LUBBOCK. 

The conclusion of the matter appears to have 
been a gradual cessation of the opposition, and in 
the end Sir John was returned again, unopposed. 

In course of the election he went down to 
Cornwall, in response to an earnest appeal from 
Mrs. Courtney, to speak at Fowey and at Liskeard 
for Mr. Leonard (now Lord) Courtney, whose seat 
was being fiercely assailed. 

Whenever he could spare the time he en- 
joyed a game of golf, and could generally manage 
a full day's play without fatigue. " Two rounds 
of golf at Mitcham, with Beaumont," he writes. 
We also find him driving over to Chislehurst with 
Lady Lubbock to play golf with Mr. and Mrs. 

In March he had been re-elected to the Chair- 
manship of the Council of Foreign Bondholders, 
" consented to re-election until the end of the 
year " as his diary has it. In point of fact, how- 
ever, he continued President of the Council until 
the year 1898, when he resigned, but again ac- 
cepted the Presidency two years later and held 
it until his death. In regard to this, Sir C. 
Fremantle, the Deputy- Chairman, told me that it 
was with the most unfeigned gratitude that he 
welcomed the re-election, for the value of the 
counsel, never failing in readiness and shrewd- 
ness, on which he was then able to draw. Sir 
John himself notes, at the end of the present year, 


that Sir C. Fremantle's appointment as deputy, 
to see to the Committee work, will take much of 
the work off his shoulders. 

On August 20 he went with Lady Lubbock and 
all the four children to Switzerland, where they 
made their headquarters at Zurich. A note of 
August 24 says, "With Ursula, Dr. Muhlberg and 
his son Max to see the moraines at Mellingen. 
Very interesting." 

Interesting too, to any who would wish to see 
Sir John in the light of his home surroundings, 
is the companionship of his daughter Ursula in 
this and other like expeditions from which, as 
well as from his talk at home, she acquired a 
love of the pursuits and studies in which he was 
so zealous. 

The following letter from Mr. Frederic Harrison 
about his list of 100 books is suggestive. There 
is a constant interest in comparing the opinions 
of different men on a subject such as this on which 
opinions could hardly be of very much value if 
they did not differ. 

19 November 1895. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I am grateful for the two parts 
of the Pleasures of Life to which you have added I 
have, in fact, both parts in the original issue. But I 
have left them with other books down in my house on 
the Blackdown, and when speaking at Bishopsgate I 
could not lay my hands on anything more recent than 
your Contemporary Review article of 1886. Curiously 
enough, I anticipated some of the changes which you 
have made e.g. withdrawing Heine (as untranslatable) 
do. do. Lucretius, and also Southey adding Byron 
(I say also Manfred) and Tennyson, now he is gone. 
I also would give most of Scott's longer poems for one 
of his shorter novels. I have a suggestion to make, 


should you ever revise your list. I would have a single 
volume of Lyrics, to include Milton's, Burns', Scott's, 
Gray's and Shelley's. Palgrave's Golden Treasury nearly 
does this but it ought to include Shelley's Prometheus. 

The only serious criticism I could make as to your 
poets and novelists is the omission of all Shelley, and 
of Tom Jones and Jane Eyre. 

If you had a volume of English Lyrics, there are 
many very good collections, you would save 4 or 5 
authors, for Gray's Elegy would go in any collection, 
and so would Scott's Songs and Burns' best. 

As to Dryden, he was a fine man, but I fear that 
courtesy to H.R.H. swayed you. Query if H.R.H. 
ever read more of Dryden than "glorious John's" glorious 
burst In the good days, etc., etc., 

When man on many multiplied his kind, 
Ere one to one was cursedly confined. 

I always thought that the Positivist Catechism was 
not a good book for such a list. But I should like to 
know why you omit it. I think the Generalities of 
Positivism would answer far better, and should be in. 

Altogether I think your last list much improved, 
and now is nearly as good as can be. All readers differ, 
but I am glad to note how closely you and I agree. 

I add a short note of one or two suggestions that I 
should have liked you to consider. Believe me, very 
sincerely yours, FREDERIC HARRISON. 

100 BOOKS 
Section I. Religion and Philosophy 

Re-insert Comte but replace the Catechism by his 
Generalities, a short sketch in 300 pp., containing 
none of his scientific fallacies and none of his mere 

Omit Keble's Christian Year, which is feeble as poetry. 
In lieu, have some good hymns in the Volume 
of Lyrics or even a sacred selection like Lord 
Selbourne's or others. 

All the rest excellent. 

Section II. Add Ethics to Politics in same volume. 


Section III. Poetry- 

Add The Cid Southey's volume with poems. This 

is essential. 

Omit if necessary Sakuntala. 
Omit Hesiod as not great poetry. 
Aristophanes ? Add Frogs (even if Clouds be omitted). 
Horace. Sir T. Martin's two volumes, translations 

and Essays an admirable picture of the later 

Roman world. 

Dryden's Poems. Substitute Shelley. 
Scott Lyrics "| 

urns [-Only in a collection in one volume. 

Tennyson do. J 

Byron. Add Manfred and (?) Cain. 

Shakespeare. Select 15, but omit Historical Plays, 

except Henry IV '. and Julius Caesar. 
Add Calderon at least Mayor of Zalamea, Life is a 

Dream. Both by FitzGerald. 

in French - 

Moliere. Select 4 or 5 only. 

Omit Schiller and Sheridan. 

Carlyle. All Miscellaneous Essays, Past and Present, 

Heroes, Sartor. 
Omit Smiles. 
History ? 

Insert Voltaire. Siecle de Louis XIV. 
? The Middle Ages where are they ? ? Milman. 
Omit Emerson. 

Insert Voltaire. Essai sur les mceurs. 

? Voltaire. Add Candide. The great desideratum is 


Thackeray. Esmond not Pendennis. 
Kingsley. Omit. 
C. Bronte. Insert JANE EYRE. 
G. Eliot. Add Silas Marner. 
Scott. The great desideratum is a selected List. 

Choose not more than 14. Omitting all later 

than 1825. 
Add Emma and (?) Coningsby. 

F. H. 

Nov. 1895. 



Some of the Bimetallists showed a disposition 
to go rather far back in history to search for 
precedents in support of their theories, and 
claimed that bimetallism in the modern sense 
was in vogue in the ancient civilisations of Assyria 
and Babylonia. Sir John believed that there was 
no historical evidence of this, and consulted Mr. 
Wallis Budge, the high authority at the British 
Museum, on the question. Mr. Budge replied 
that there was nothing, so far as he was aware, in 
the wording of any of the Babylonian or Assyrian 
tablets to imply that there was any right on part 
of the debtor to substitute payment in silver, in 
lieu of gold or vice versa. The metal in which 
payment was to be made was specified in each 

Sir John's final note for the year in the diary 
is that he has his book on the Scenery of Switzer- 
land complete in MS. 


(AGE 62) 

MINGLED with records of meetings of scientists or 
financiers there are many entries in Sir John 
Lubbock's diaries such as the following, showing 
his sympathy with all that his children took part 
in : " January 6. The children acted in a little 
play at the Hambros at least Ursula and Irene. 
Ursula was the Beast, and then the young 
prince, and Irene was Fatima (Beauty). They 
really did it capitally." 

Mr. and Mrs. Hambro, with their family, lived 
at no great distance some three or four miles or 
so from High Elms, at Hayes Place, and were 
close friends of Sir John and Lady Lubbock. 

Five days after the Beauty and Beast play at 
Hayes Place there was a children's party, as his 
diary also informs us, at High Elms, on the 
occasion of Lady Lubbock's birthday ; and a 
week later they were at Eastbourne, guests at a 
small house which Mr. Hambro had there. They 
played golf, and Sir John writes, on the Monday, 
" Home, after two very pleasant days." 

On February 23 he was at Liverpool dining 



with his colleagues of the British and Foreign 
Marine Insurance Company. On the 24th he had 
an Early Closing meeting at 11, in the Town Hall, 
presided over by the Lord Mayor (Lord Derby) and 
afterwards a meeting of the British and Foreign 
Marine. At 3 he gave an address to the Liver- 
pool Chamber of Commerce on Bimetallism ; at 
5 he had a conference with the Liverpool Con- 
ciliation Board ; and in the evening dined with 
the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce a fairly 
full day, yet only typical of his energy ! 

On the 29th he took part in a meeting at the 
Mansion House to inaugurate the British Empire 
League, to which reference has been made in 
former chapters. 

Parliament met early in February. He brought 
in the Early Closing Bill at the beginning of 
the Session. It was read a second time without 
opposition and referred to the Grand Committee 
on Trade, through which it passed before the 
end of March, with only a few trifling verbal 
amendments. There were only some five or six 
opponents, who were however very pertinacious, 
and by using the forms of the House they again 
prevented him from getting the Bill through the 
final stages. 

At this period he was giving occasional lectures 
on the yet unpublished Scenery of Switzerland. 
The title is one that has misled a good many. 
The book is descriptive of the Swiss scenery in a 
number of its splendid manifestations, no doubt, 
but it has besides, and more essentially, an under- 
lying purpose to demonstrate how the magni- 
ficent effects have been produced by the geo- 


logical happenings. The author reads sermons 
out of these stones, glaciers, precipices, moun- 
tains. It is that which gives the book vital 
interest. He worked at his subject in the course 
of very many tours, of which casual mention has 
been made now and again, in this region, which 
had a special charm for him. He enjoyed many 
a long talk, as well as walk, with his friend, the 
distinguished Swiss geologist, Dr. Heim, and 
there are many letters preserved in his correspond- 
ence which show that his indefatigable industry 
did not shrink from any trouble which promised 
to throw light on the more doubtful problems 
presented by the subject. The minute character 
of his enquiries may be inferred from the follow- 
ing letters : 


MY DEAR SIR JOHN Indeed there can be no doubt 
the delta of the Lutsdime upon which Interlaken is 
situated must have nearly 300 m. of thickness. 

The Simplonprofil in the Livret-guide seems to me 
not to be quite sure. I believe there is some exaggera- 
tion in the folding. I was some time there, and always 
regarded it as much more simple. But I am not in 
the position to prove my doubts I believe it to be 
only so (a rough diagram here follows) : I found the 
profil in the Livret-guide in such a degree uncertain, 
that I would not give it in a book like yours that's 
my feeling. 

The foliation of the gneisses is a very complex 
phenomenon, and in many different manners it has been 

In some gneisses the foliation may be caused by 
primary sedimentation, in others by chemical change- 
ments "under the weight of the upper-lying rocks, in 
others by both together. 

In these two cases the foliation is first concordant 
with the stratification and primarily horizontal. 


The foliation can be a cleavage by pressure in another 
direction, for instance by mountain-making, then its 
direction is not necessarily the same as the direction of 
the stratification ; it may disturb the stratification of the 
older primary foliation in some cases, in other cases 
adds itself to the first. 

A great deal of the gneisses were Felsporphyrs and 
Granites, which have got their foliation by pressure- 
so also the Protogines. Most of the granites in the 
Alps have got some foliation by pressure, and have 
become Gneisses or Protogines. Only those which 
were very resistant and surrounded with weaker material 
have conserved their primary structure, as for instance, 
the granites of Albula silver, and in some cases the 
gneiss foliation may be fluidal texture of a granite. 
Believe me, yours very sincerely, ALB. HEIM. 

And again Dr. Heim writes : 

The Lake of Geneva has its greatest depth a 
horizontal plain between Morges, Evian, Tourroude 
and Lausanne. The greatest depth = 309*4 m. lies in 
a line between Lausanne and Evian in the middle of 
the lake. The surface of the Lake of Geneva is 
582 km. 2 + 36 hectaren. 1 

The quantity of water which it contains is 
88,920,664,000 m. 3 The research has been made for 
the Swiss part by Ing. Hornlimann, for the French 
part by Ing. Delebecque. 

In the sequence of strata on the Glarnisch one finds 
some middle limbs squeezed out into a very thin dis- 
appearing sheet with thrust striated surfaces. On the 
Silvern, which is the continuation, the squeezing out 
did not go so far, and the bendings are not removed, but 
easily to be seen. These are all intermedians between 
overfold and overthrust the begrinding was here 
I believe always the fold. The thrust was the con- 
sequence of exaggerating of the folds. 

So it is not of principal value whether one speaks of 
overthrusts or overfolds with squeezed -out middle 

1 223 square miles is the measurement given by the Swiss Typo- 
graphical Bureau. Professor Forel states it at 225 square miles 
(Encyclopaedia Britannica). 


limbs, just in this region you find all intermedians, 
each on the direct continuation of the other. 

At the time in which the Deltas were formed, indicat- 
ing a somewhat higher level of the Lake of Zurich (near 
Pfaffikan), the Walensee was not so high with its level 
as now. On its ground about 10 to 12 m. below there 
stands an old wood, the Pinus abies are upright. 

The ground of the wood is just on the same level as 
the older higher surface of the Lake of Zurich. The 
lakes of Walenstadt, Zurich and Constance were 
(brought ?) all together by the submergence, and they 
are only separated and the Walensee dammed up by 
the delta of the South. This delta must have a thickness 
of at least 140 m. 

Quite the same thing is to be said for the land between 
Brienzer and Thunner See. The diluvial and alluvial 
deposit must have at least the thickness = the depth 
of the lakes. 

I hope I can send to you the next part of your manu- 
script before the end of this week. I am very sorry that 
I could not do it more quickly, but I have such plenty 
of work which must be done that it was quite impossible 

Amongst others whom he consulted were 
Professor Geikie, Professor Bonney, Mr. Kenny- 
Hughes, Mr. Sorby and others. The last had 
made an elaborate table of the estimated pressure 
at which the granites were cooled. He admits 
that the assumption, by no means a necessary 
one, which he adopted was that the temperature 
of all was the same. Professor Geikie states that 
he is by no means disposed to give up the 
astronomical explanation of the Ice Age. It may 
be remembered that exception had been taken to 
Sir John's acceptance of this theory. Professor 
Geikie states that he still deems that it supplies 
the best explanation forthcoming of the major 
climatic oscillations which marked the close of 
the so-called Glacial Period and refers Sir John 



to his Great Ice Age, chapter xliii. (ed. of 
1892). He says that the criticisms levelled 
against it have not shaken his faith in the theory, 
and that it must stand or fall accordingly as it 
explains or fails to explain the geological 

Incidentally, Mr. Kenny-Hughes very strongly 
urges Sir John not to give up his view as to the 
southward pointing promontories being the results 
of continents plunging into deeper water on the 
South. If the Northern Hemisphere was simi- 
larly submerged, the great mountain ranges of 
North America, the Urals and the Scandinavian 
axis would, according to this geologist's view, 
show their backbones above the water in just the 
same way. He adds his belief that the solution 
of all our difficulties in respect of climate and the 
age of the earth will be found in the constancy 
and intensity of earth movements, and that the 
secret of the distribution of life lies in the con- 
tinuity not the permanence, but the " shifting 
continuity " of oceanic and continental areas. 

Professor Bonney has a rather severe indict- 
ment of the geological maps of Switzerland 
extant at the time, which showed, amongst other 
inaccuracies, no gneiss at all, where much gneiss 
is, and so on. We have already seen Sir John 
himself discovering nummulites in Swiss rock 
which is ascribed to the Triassic period, and 
which, on the evidence of the nummulites, must 
needs be brought " up to date " to the Eocene. 

The press reviews were very favourable to the 
book. The only one which seems worth special 
notice here is from the Revue suisse, which is 


particularly interesting on this daring essay of a 
Briton to do justice to its native mountains. 

Le genre litteraire de Sir J. Lubbock est bien connu. 
II a ecrit sur les plaisirs de la vie et autres sujets ana- 
logues d'une maniere si captivante que les lecteurs, 
lorsqu'ils ont ouvert avec empressement son ouvrage 
sur les Paysages de la Suisse, auront, je le crains, eprouve 
une rude deception en trouvant, au lieu de descriptions 
animees et gracieuses, remplies d' allusions et de ren- 
seignements instructifs, un lourd bagage geologique 
expos6 de fa9on assez aride, pour satisfaire le professeur 
le plus meticuleux. Et, de fait, 1'auteur nous a deja 
donne tant d'ouvrages charmants, sinon originaux, que 
nous oublions volontiers qu'avec ses talents varies 
comme ceux d'Ulysse, il occupe la haute position de 
membre de la Societe royale, et que, semblable au 
fameux marteau-pilon de Nasmyth, il peut casser une 
noix ou ecraser une tonne d'acier avec la meme facilite. 
. . . Avant de prendre conge de 1'auteur, peut-etre 
cela vous interessera-t-il d'apprendre qu'il est le seul 
homme de notre temps, si ce n'est de tous les siecles qui 
ait eu 1'honneur d'etre canonise de son vivant. C'est 
en effet grace a ses efforts que le Parlement a institue 
quatre jours de vacances par an pour les gens d'affaires ; 
trois existaient deja : le lendemain de Noel, le lundi 
de Paques et celui de la Pentecote, mais la quatrieme, 
qui est fixe au premier lundi d'aout, est uniquement 
son ceuvre, et les employes de commerce reconnaissants 
ne 1'appellent plus que " la Saint Lubbock." 1 

Just a quarter of a century had elapsed since 
the passing of that Bank Holiday Act, in con- 
nection with which it is probable that the name 
of Sir John Lubbock is still more closely associ- 
ated in the minds of the great mass of the British 
public than with any other act of his life, and the 
editor of Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper wrote to him 
asking for some expression of opinion on that 
measure which probably every reader of the paper 
appreciated as a personal blessing. 

1 Revue suisse, Nov. 1897. 


Sir John wrote : 

DEAR SIR In reply to your enquiry I may say that 
when I was first invited to stand for Parliament I 
naturally asked myself what I should do when I got 
there. It seemed to me that I might hope to be of use 
in Scientific and Commercial questions, and there were 
three subjects on which I was especially anxious for 
some alteration of the law. These were : 

1. To secure a certain number of National Holidays. 

2. To shorten the excessive hours of labour of Shop- 
keepers and Shop-Assistants. 

3. To preserve our ancient National Monuments. 
The second of these objects has involved a long and 

uphill struggle, and a whole generation of our country- 
men and countrywomen have suffered, and too often 
succumbed to, the terribly long hours of labour in 
Shops. At last, however, we have reason to hope that 
the Early Closing Bill will become law. 

The third object was not accomplished without much 
difficulty, but some years ago the Ancient Monuments 
Act was passed ; it is hoped that in consequence of the 
powers given in it but little wanton injury has since 
been done. 

The Bank Holiday Bill, on the contrary, met with 
no opposition, and, as you remind me, has now been in 
operation for a quarter of a century. Its easy passage 
was, I believe, partly the result of an accident. On 
the old holidays, Bills of Exchange are payable the day 
previously, i.e. Sunday Bills on Saturday. We felt 
that it would be difficult to extend this to the new 
holidays, and after some consideration we determined 
to propose that they should be payable the day after 
instead of before. Hence, we had to devise some 
special name for the new holidays, and we called them 
Bank Holidays. If we had called our Bill the General 
Holiday Bill, or the National Holiday Bill, I doubt 
not it would have been opposed ; but the modest name 
of " Bank Holiday " attracted no attention and roused 
no opposition. 

It is often said that the Bill was intended for Banks 
only. This is quite a mistake. It expressly enacts 
that no person shall be compellable to do anything on 
a Bank Holiday which he could not be compelled to 


do on Xmas day or Good Friday ; and personally I 
have always expected that the first Monday in August, 
coming as it does in the glory of summer, would eventu- 
ally become the most popular holiday of the year. I 
hope, and believe, the Bank Holidays have added to 
the health and happiness of those for whose benefit 
they were intended. I am, your obedient servant, 


It may be remembered that when first Sir John 
went into Parliament he proposed to himself just 
those aims and ambitions which he reiterates here. 
It is not given to many a man, however tenax 
propositi, to accomplish so large a measure of the 
purpose with which he sets out. 

On March 28 he started with Lady Lubbock 
for the Riviera, staying first at Cap Martin, from 
which he went to see Mr. Hanbury's beautiful 
gardens at La Mortola. He notes that they fully 
came up to the high expectations which he had 
formed of them and that Mr. Hanbury informed 
him that they contained above four thousand 
varieties of plants. Then to Pegli to stay with 
Mrs. Van Zandt. They returned by the St. 
Gothard, and at Erstfeld he was much struck 
by the difference in the outline of the Crystalline 
and the Calcareous mountains. 

In his diary of May 1 is an amusing entry. 
He and Lady Lubbock had been for the " week- 
end " at Taplow with Mr. and Mrs. Grenfell (now 
Lord and Lady Desborough). Sir John notes : 
" Back after a very pleasant Sunday the Cob- 
hams, C. Grenfells, Foxwell, M. Frewens, Somers. 
Fripp and Senator Hoar. Mrs. Grenfell took the 
Senator in a punt and did her best to amuse him. 
He responded but little, but at last remarked, 



' How pleasant this is ! One could go to sleep if 
one was not disturbed ! ' It is especially to 
be remarked, to the credit of the lady's sense 
of humour, that the observation was evidently 
retailed by herself. 

To readers of the French translation of the 
Use of Life the following letter may be of interest 
as explaining certain substantial differences be- 
tween the French and English versions. 


23rd May 1896. 

SIR Monsieur Alcan has probably informed you 
that he has confided me the translation into French of 
your book, the Use of Life. He requests me to give 
you some account of the manner in which I have under- 
taken and executed my task. I do so with pleasure, 
and trust that my explanations may meet with your 
approval. The Use of Life is to be published in French 
as a companion volume to the two which have already 
appeared in Le Bonheur de Vivre in the Bibliotheque 
de philosophie contemporaine, and cannot therefore 
exceed the average length of the other volumes of the 
series. In order to reduce the book within the limits 
thus absolutely imposed on me, I have been obliged to 
suppress a certain number of passages. But in every 
case I have kept to certain principles which will, I hope, 
justify in your eyes the nature of the suppressions 
made. They are briefly as follows : 

In the first place, I have invariably endeavoured to 
respect as far as possible your text wherever it was 
possible to do so. But certain passages, more peculiarly 
written for an English public, were of a nature to diminish 
rather than increase the utility and interest of the book 
for the average French reader, whom I have constantly 
kept before my eyes. Consequently I have suppressed : 
in the text whatever it seemed to me necessary to reject 
in order to prepare the book for a French public ; and 
in the quotations such passages above all as were 
either interesting on account of the quaint or charming 
archaism of expressions impossible to preserve entirely 
in French, or of secondary importance as matter, and 


taken from authors entirely unknown in France, or 
hardly classical even in England. 

On the other hand, I have in no case (or very rarely), 
suppressed or curtailed any essential development of 
your text, save in one instance (Patriotism, which it 
seemed impossible to keep in a book destined to be 
read in France), or any quotation from the greater 
writers of any nation. I have also retained all dicta 
even of secondary writers which seemed to me either 
peculiarly striking or suitable to the French reader. 
And with regard to the Bible., the wisdom and poetry 
of which are too little known among us, I have 
endeavoured to preserve nearly everything you have 
quoted, in all cases using the translation of the best 
French Protestant Bible, in spite of the great loss of 
time incurred, by searching for the chapter and verse 
not indicated in your book. 

I will not encroach upon your time by developing 
at greater length my reasons for suppressing certain 
other passages. I trust you will believe that I have in 
all cases faithfully endeavoured to render your book 
as acceptable as possible to a French public. Allow 
me simply in conclusion to say what reasons Monsieur 
Alcan and Monsieur Perivier had in trusting to my 
judgment, and in considering me competent to under- 
take my task. I am licencie es lettres (M.A.) and 
Agrege de TUniversite. I write English and French 
with equal ease, and have published articles in both 
languages on questions of art, philology, etc. The 
last article written in English appeared in the Century 
Magazine for March 1895 under my signature. I have 
also written in the Figaro, Revue hebdomadaire, etc. 
You will, I trust, excuse my thus speaking of myself; 
but Monsieur Alcan requested me to give you some 
details of myself. 

The proof sheets are now being submitted to me, 
and will be sent to you as soon as corrected. May I 
hope that the work I have undertaken to the best of 
my ability will meet with your approval, under its 
present shape, which is, I think, the most suitable for 
a French reader, and such as the limits imposed on me 
necessarily make it. Believe me, sir, sincerely yours, 

HOVELAQUE, Professor. 

Agre"ge au lycee Buff on. 



We have seen that appeal had been made 
to Sir John before this, by the author of Tom 
Brown's School Days, to try to arrange for a more 
effective " scouring of the White Horse." Now 
we find the appeal repeated from a very different 
source, from Mr. Herbert Spencer, who had 
happened to be in the neighbourhood of the horse 
and found him in sad need of grooming. 

DEAR LUBBOCK The celebrated Berkshire White 
Horse is within a mile or two of the place I am staying 
at for the present, and yesterday I drove near to it. 
Up to about thirty years since there was an occasional 
expedition made by the local people for the purpose of 
cleaning the horse, but the practice has since that time 
dropped out. The result is that now large parts are 
obliterated by vegetation, the hind legs being no longer 

Is not the maintenance of this ancient work, whatever 
may have been its origin, within the functions of the 
Society for the Preservation of National Monuments 
which you established ? It seems a great pity that 
the thing having been maintained for so many centuries 
should now, in our days, when the attention to such 
remains has become greater, be allowed to fall into 
decay, if not into oblivion. It is the more remarkable 
that this result should be taking place since I have 
myself seen three other such figures which are kept in 
good order one near Marlbro', one near Alton, not far 
from Devizes, and one, if I remember rightly, in Somerset- 
shire which I saw when a boy. Surely some local 
Archaeological Association or some local authority, 
under stimulus from your Society, might prevent this 

The air is very good, and I am hoping to profit by 
my stay if other things prove favourable. Truly yours, 


The following petition, formally addressed to 
Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff, was sent to Sir John 
Lubbock on behalf of the Kammalahs who are 


the metal-washers of Central and Southern India. 
They form a sort of caste apart and are said to 
number some 30,000,000. In the covering letter 
to Sir John, after begging him to urge the appeal 
in Parliament, the writer, who is also the signa- 
tory of the petition, adds, " the Kammalahs, who 
already owe you a deep debt of gratitude, as well 
as the millions in India, will feel immensely 
obliged to you for the generous act " i.e. for 
doing what he is able on the lines suggested by 
the petitioner : 

To the Right Honourable 

Sir M. E. Grant Duff, G.C.S.I., 

RESPECTED SIR It is prayed by Kammalahs of 
Southern India that if the British rule be just : 

Justice may be done to the Indians by according to 
them their just rights in respect of 

Class representation. 

Freedom of use of vernaculars in Public Life. 

Abolition of unmeaning pernicious property quali- 

Distribution of educational funds among all classes 
of the people. 

The course is the simplest, plainest and safest for 
any sagacious Government to follow, opens the only 
surest way to blend the British rule with the thoughts 
and feelings of the Indian population, and will, it is 
hoped, appeal itself to the minds and conscience of all 
the members of Parliament, without exception, and 
meet with ready adoption at their hands. 

The millions in India are human beings with intelli- 
gence, educated in their own vernaculars, and cannot 
but shine in public life if they are allowed to taste it 
regardless of the drawbacks to be anticipated for a 
time at the introduction. Because they do not under- 
stand English, are they to forfeit their rights and be 



consigned to oblivion ? And how does the unnatural 
treatment affect England's hold on India ? 

Self-interest of the Congress Organisation would 
have the Brahmin be the sole representative and ruler 
of India. British local executives in India in their 
opulence lead a life of self-imposed seclusion, are bereft 
of touch with the people, and would ill brook measures 
to interfere in any way with their Imperial ease. To 
the opposition from these two sources the letters, etc., 
already submitted, as to the existing state of things, 
will, it is further hoped, afford a satisfactory reply. 

The above, perhaps, are the last words of advocacy 
of the cause in the petition of Kammalahs to Parlia- 
ment, and it is much to be desired that the words are 
impressed on the minds of the Members of Parliament. 
The fate of the petition now rests entirely with 
the POWER above and 

His instruments in the illustrious personages who 
have undertaken the cause so very generously. 

With my sincere prayers for you and Sir John 
Lubbock, M.P., I beg to remain, etc. 

After the Parliamentary season, Sir John and 
Lady Lubbock took a house at St. Andrews, 
where they soon made friends with the Reverend 
Dr. Boyd (A. K. H. B.) and Professor Heddle. Dr. 
Boyd showed them all the antiquities, and with 
Professor Heddle they made several geological 
expeditions, inspecting, especially, the ancient 
volcanoes along the coast. 

In the earlier part of the year Sir John had 
been laid up for a while with the gout. It may 
be noted that it was a most undeserved affliction, 
for a more abstemious man never lived. It was, 
however, an unfortunate inheritance of the family. 
As has been seen, he did not let it interfere more 
than absolutely necessary with his numerous 
activities, and it was actually in this year that 
he as well as Lady Lubbock learned to ride a 


bicycle. They brought their bicycles with them to 
St. Andrews, and had several rides over Fifeshire, 
in a family party with Mrs. Scott, Lady Lubbock's 
sister, and the two girls Ursula and Irene, and 

Needless to say, Sir John played golf fairly 
regularly, but I cannot find in his journal all the 
full appreciation of the glories of the St. Andrews 
links that I should expect to see recorded. On 
September 16 he notes : " Had a round with Old 
Tom Morris." 

He records a couple of good stories told him by 
that fine raconteur, as well as preacher, A. K. H. B. 
" James I. being preached at in the St. Andrews 
parish church, enjoined the minister either to talk 
sense or come down from the pulpit. ' I will 
neither,' replied the Divine, 6 talk sense nor come 
doon.' : The other anecdote was of " Dr. Muir, 
about 1834, praying for the Provost and Bailies 
of Glasgow, ' such as they are, that they may 
have more wisdom and grace,' and when the 
Provost sent the Marshal to complain, returning 
his compliments to the Provost with regrets that 
4 his prayer had not been heard.' : 

Professor Heddle played his part with a good 
ghost story. In the room in which John 
Buchanan died, a sound was sometimes heard 
which was supposed to be his heavy breathing 
during his last illness. No one dared sleep m the 
room, and the house stood for a long time empty. 
Professor Heddle at last bought it cheap, and, not 
believing in ghosts, slept in the room. For some 
weeks nothing happened, but one night he was 
woken up, and to his great surprise distinctly 



heard the breathing. After a while it ceased, and 
in the morning he thought he must have dreamt 
it. Some time afterwards he heard it again, and 
after much trouble found that the wire of a 
lightning conductor rubbed against the wall and 
made the noise. He altered the wire, and so 
laid the ghost, which, he said, gave great offence 
and made him quite unpopular with many of the 
St. Andrews people. 

A. K. H. B. with his stories, which he told 
admirably, and his knowledge of men, was always 
excellent company, as, in rather a different way, 
with his varied knowledge and most pleasant 
way of imparting it, was Sir John himself. Sir 
Mount Stuart in his diary for August of this year 
writes : 

Sir John and Lady Lubbock joined us yesterday. 
They have been spending the autumn at St. Andrews, 
where he has seen a great deal of Professor Heddle, 
who introduced him to the volcanoes of the end of the 
carboniferous age, of which memorials remain in Largo 
Law and so many other eminences in that neighbourhood. 

Colonel Biddulph told us at dinner that a sea captain, 
whom he knew personally, had gone with a number of 
his crew before a magistrate at Calcutta, and solemnly 
deposed that he had seen a huge sea-serpent fighting 
with a whale. " What he had really seen," said Lubbock, 
" was a struggle between a cachalot and one of the 
enormous cuttle-fish on which it feeds. The arms of 
a huge individual of this species clasped round its 
antagonist would have very much the effect of the 
coils of a serpent." 

I made Lubbock tell the story mentioned in one of 
the Indian volumes of these notes, of the too kind friend 
who had sent him a specimen of Heloderma horridum, 
not knowing that it was intensely poisonous. That 
led to some talk about other lizards, and Arthur asked 
whether there was not one that had a third eye on 


the top of its head like some of our own very remote 

" Certainly," said Lubbock, " and the pineal gland 
in the human brain is the survival of that third eye 
which we have lost and the lizard, you speak of, has 

Really it would not have been easy to start 
a subject to which he could not make some 
interesting contribution. 

On October 5 he writes : " Had final game of 
golf with Professor Knight, and came up by the 
night train." 

The rest of the year was spent in the usual 
active fashion, with much work of varied kinds, 
many visitors at High Elms, and several visits to 
the Grant Duffs, to the Pitt Rivers, and so on. 
At Christmas there was a family party at High 


(AGE 63) 

IT is almost painful, reading Sir John's diaries, to 
be obliged to realise how very often, usually twice 
or thrice annually, he was afflicted by more or less 
grievous attacks of the gout fiend. Seeing him, 
as I did, at the times of his wonderful activity and 
health (for in the intervals of the attacks his 
system did not show the least resultant weakness) 
I did not recognise how severe and frequent his 
sufferings were. In the midst of them he had 
two unfailing sources of support and strength 
his own great power of self-control and serenity 
of mind in the first place, and the devoted care and 
affection of Lady Lubbock in the second. Neither 
of these were ever wanting to him, and in his 
greatest pain they were his constant support. 

Some of his younger children were beginning not 
only to take an interest in his scientific work with 
his almost unequalled gift of lucid exposition, 
and with the perfect confidence and affection that 
subsisted between him and them, he had been 
able to engage this at a very early period of their 
lives but also to be useful assistants. In this 


. xxx 


year he notes, respecting a lecture on " Buds and 
Stipules," illustrated by diagrams, which he gave 
at the Royal Institution, that " Ursula did some of 
the diagrams " ; and a day or two later : " Harold 
seems very keen about ants, and is making some 
experiments." John, the eldest son, was always 
much at High Elms. 

At the end of January he and Lady Lubbock 
were at Rye with the children, playing golf hard 
at Rye and Littlestone. They returned to High 
Elms on February 5, and went up to London for 
the Parliamentary season on the 17th. 

The Government had promised, in the pre- 
ceding session, an inquiry into the Jameson raid. 
Many members felt that there were grave objec- 
tions to the inquiry, and Mr. Maclean gave notice 
that he would oppose the appointment of the 
Committee. Sir John agreed to second him. 
The Times on January 22 said that the opposition 
of Mr. Maclean might possibly " be regarded as 
the outcome of personal feeling or individual 
eccentricity, but Sir J. Lubbock occupies a posi- 
tion of greater authority in Parliament and, in 
ordinary circumstances, his action would suffice 
to give pause even to a strong Government. He 
is looked upon, generally and justly, as a man of 
moderate opinions and of judicial temper. He is 
politically allied with the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, and he is not at all likely to interfere, 
except on grounds which he believes to be urgent, 
with a decision adopted deliberately on the re- 
sponsibility of the Administration. We have 
already recognised the force of the contentions 
embodied in Sir John Lubbock' s amendment. It 



would be desirable, if possible, to refuse to pro- 
ceed with an inquiry which, unless very carefully 
handled, will probably reawaken jealousies, sus- 
picions and antipathies that had almost lapsed 
into oblivion. Sir J. Lubbock points out that 
within the past few months the origin and inci- 
dents of the Jameson raid have been fully investi- 
gated by a Committee of the Cape Parliament, 
while the principal participators in the affair have 
been brought to trial and have suffered punish- 
ment in this country. The circumstances of the 
case as practically affecting our national obliga- 
tions have been materially changed, it must be 
acknowledged, since Mr. Chamberlain promised 
an inquiry early in last session. All this is true 
and pertinent enough, but the fact remains that 
the promise was given by Ministers and was 
accepted by Parliament after due consideration 
and without any reserve." * 

The above is worthy of notice not only for its 
analysis of the measure to which it refers, but also 
for its estimate of the perhaps unique position 
which Sir John held in the House of Commons. 
There is little doubt that it was this peculiar 
position which enabled him to be so very success- 
ful in passing his Bills through the House. Apart 
from his exceptional knowledge and ability, the 
members on both sides were always sure that his 
proposals were inspired by what he believed to be 
the public good and not by any considerations of 
a " party " character. 

The statement often made, having lately been 
repeated in rather emphatic form, that the Bank 

1 Times, January 22, 1897. 


Holidays led to drunkenness, he applied to Sir J. 
Bridge, Chief Magistrate for London, to ascertain 
the truth of the charge : 

20th March 1897. 

DEAR SIR JOHN BRIDGE Can you tell me if there are 
any statistics of the number of cases of Drunkenness and 
Assaults brought before the London Police Courts on 
the day after, and arising out of, Bank Holiday ? 

A recent writer has made the extraordinary assertion 
that from Jth to |th of the poor (adult) population, 
including women, get drunk on these occasions. Pray 
excuse my troubling you, and believe me, yours very 

Sir John Bridge, Chief Magistrate. 

Sir John Bridge replied that he did not think 
any special statistics bearing on the question were 
kept, but said that as far as his own experience 
went, the days after Bank Holidays were ones on 
which there were " remarkably few charges." 

His breakfast-parties continued to be frequent 
and apparently were popular. At one we find the 
list of guests recorded: "Lord Roberts, Lord Kelvin, 
The Speaker, the President of the Royal Academy, 
Sir E. Arnold, Wedderburn, Sir D. Currie, C. 
Corbett, A. Grant Duff." It was the year of the 
"Diamond Jubilee," and many of the Colonials 
were introduced to this form of hospitality, which 
he was among the very last perhaps was the 
last to maintain in London. "June 24. Some 
of the Colonial Premiers came to breakfast 
Turner of Victoria, Sir H. Muir of Queensland, 
Seddon of New Zealand, Kingston of South 
Australia and Colonel Denison of Canada. We 
had a scientific party to meet them Kelvin, 



Evans, Rucker, Bryce, Lecky, G. Darwin, Frank- 
land and Maunde Thompson." It will be seen 
that history as well as science was represented. 
Ladies never seem to have been guests at these 
breakfast-parties. Quotation of the last and only 
other entry for this day is too tempting to be 
resisted : "In the evening to hear Ibsen's Ghosts. 
We thought it horrid." 

As Treasurer of the British Empire League it 
was partly his official duty as well as his pleasure 
to entertain the representatives of the Colonies 
during their visit here for the Jubilee. He took 
a party of them down to Lancashire, and records 
that when getting near Liverpool the wife of one 
of the Premiers asked him, " Now, Sir John, I am 
afraid I am a little mixed in my Geography. Are 
we at this moment in England, Scotland, or 
Ireland ? " 

It is a mix-up which many a Briton visiting 
the Colonies might match, with similar ignorance 
of their conditions, though perhaps he would not 
make such free confession of it. Some of the 
Premiers could and did support this by the 
stories which they had to tell. Notice the follow- 
ing, as recorded on : " July 5. Meeting at 
Merchant Taylors' Hall to meet the Colonial 
Premiers. The Duke of Devonshire, Seddon, 
Braddon, White way, and Reid spoke. I moved a 
resolution. White way mentioned that he found 
that Newfoundland was popularly supposed to be 
principally representative of Cods, Hogs, Logs, 
Bogs, and Fogs. He and Braddon and Seddon 
spoke strongly for a closer connection between the 
Mother Country and the Colonies, White way had 


received an invitation from Ireland begging them 
to appear c in their native costume.' ' 

Among other duties which Sir John took upon 
himself in this crowded year of public life in 
London was that of President of the International 
Library Conference. In the letter inviting him 
to the Presidency it is urged that the position he 
had taken with regard to libraries marked him 
out as the President par excellence of such a Con- 

From America alone nearly two hundred delegates 
are expected, and we shall have delegates from every 
other civilised part of the world. We should endeavour 
to make your task as easy as possible, and the duties of 
the office would be briefly as follows : 

To open the Conference with a short or long (at your 
own choice) Inaugural Address, and to preside 
when possible at the principal meetings of the 

To represent the Conference at the Mansion House 
on the evening of July 13th, when the whole 
Conference is to be entertained by the Lord Mayor, 
and similarly to represent the Conference at the 
other hospitalities and entertainments which are 

Should you not be able to attend for the most part at 
the meetings during the day, we could relieve you by 
placing one of the Vice-Presidents in the Chair. 

We think that this Conference cannot fail to be of the 
utmost value to the Library Movement, not only in this 
country but in most others, and that it will prove to be 
a point of fresh departure and a centre of energy which 
would be long remembered in connection with the 
Victorian year, and as such it would be very gratifying 
to us that your name should be identified with it as its 

The above may serve to indicate the purpose of 
this international gathering. As a matter of fact 
this Conference, which met in July, appears to 



have occupied rather more of his attention than 
is here proposed. On July 12 he notes : " Recep- 
tion of the Association of Libraries at the Guild- 
hall. There are already 600 members." On the 
following day : " Opening of the Library Confer- 
ence. The Lord Mayor came and welcomed us, 
after which I gave the opening address." 

On the 14th and 15th there were again meetings 
of the Conference, and on the latter he writes : 
" In the evening Irving and Miss Terry very kindly 
gave us all a performance of The Merchant of 
Venice at the Lyceum. It was admirably done. 
At the close Alice and I went with three or four 
behind the scenes to thank them. Irving made 
us a nice little speech." 

Friday, 16th, was " The last day of the Library 
Conference a final dinner. Certainly it has been 
a great success." 

He had been appointed this year President of 
the Gold Defence Association, and the very day 
after the termination of the Library Conference 
he writes that he " Dined with the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer to meet the American Bimetallist 
Deputies Senator Woolcott, General Payne and 
Mr. Stevenson." The last had been Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

The United States Government had sent over 
these delegates as a Commission to confer with 
European Governments on the Silver Question. 
Sir John and Lady Lubbock received them at 
High Elms. 

Though strongly opposed to Bimetallism, Sir 
John thought that if France and the United 
States opened their Mints to silver we might 


meet them by authorising and arranging that the 
Bank of England should hold part of its reserve 
in Silver for which opinion he was taken sharply 
to task by his old friend and colleague, Lord 

1 October 1897. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK If you really think that the 
Bank ought under present circumstances to hold part 
of its reserve in Silver, and that we ought to open the 
Indian Mints to Silver if France and U.S. open their 
Mints to Silver at 15| to 1, 1 do not see how it is possible 
for us any longer to act together. The latter proposal 
would be just as much Bimetallism as if England opened 
her Mints to Silver, and we should through India be 
parties to it. Sincerely yours, FARRER. 

To this, Sir John opposed the following 
defence : 

5th October. 

MY DEAR FARRER I confess I see no reason to change 
the opinions we expressed in the Report of the Gold and 
Silver Commission. 

At the same time much has happened since then, and 
as I quite agree with you with reference to the un- 
desirability of change in any currency, I should not wish 
to express a public opinion without more consideration. 

I do not myself for a moment believe that France and 
the United States will reopen their Mints at 15 1 to 1, 
and have been reluctant to show any division in the 
Monometallic Camp, so that I have said nothing, and 
do not for the present contemplate saying anything. 

If, however, our Committee wish it, I would prepare 
a memorandum for their consideration, and place myself 
in their hands. Believe me, yours very sincerely, 


The Lord Farrer. 

Lord Farrer went so far as to issue a circular 
saying that Sir John's views were inconsistent 
with his position as President of the Gold Standard 



Defence Association. On this he and Mr. Tritton 
the Treasurer, who agreed with him, thought it 
necessary to resign their positions. Lord Farrer 
then urged them to withdraw their resignations. 
This they declined to do, though intimating that 
if re-elected they would be happy to act. There- 
upon Lord Farrer himself proposed them, they were 
unanimously re-elected, and so the incident " ends 

In 1898 the International Zoological Congress 
had arranged to hold the annual meeting at Cam- 
bridge, and Sir W. H. Flower, President of the 
Zoological Society, and Head of the Natural 
History Museum, had been elected President. 
His health, however, unfortunately broke down, 
and the feeling of responsibility was pressing 
heavily on him. 

In November he writes to Sir John : 

November 2nd, 1897. 

MY DEAE LUBBOCK I am in a great difficulty, and 
you are the only man who can help me out of it, so I 
appeal to your goodness and old friendship. 

About two years ago the International Zoological 
Congress, when deciding at the meeting at Leiden to 
come next year to England, asked me to take the office 
of President, which I consented to do, though much 
against my wish, as I thought that there were others in 
the country better qualified. 

Since then, things have changed with me, and my 
medical advisers, while encouraging me to go on with 
the Museum work, if I can take it quietly, and which I 
am most anxious to do, say that I can only do it, on 
condition of doing nothing else, especially any work 
involving presiding and speaking at public meetings. 

They had a consultation yesterday and absolutely 
prohibited my undertaking the Presidency of the 
Congress, as, if I am going on as I am now, I must take 


a complete rest next autumn the only time I can 
conveniently get away from the Museum. I have for 
some time foreseen that this might come, but until the 
Congress was constituted by the definite formation of 
an Executive Committee and other officers, I had no 
opportunity of giving in my resignation. On Thursday 
next at 3 Hanover Square (2.30 P.M.), a meeting will be 
held for this purpose. I cannot go myself, but must 
write a letter to explain my situation. Now conies the 
difficulty, or what may be a difficulty without your 
help. In my opinion, and what I believe will be that of 
all British as well as foreign zoologists, the only man 
upon whom all sections will unite is yourself. May I 
propose you ? There will really be very little work, 
especially for one so able and experienced in such 
matters. You will have a good staff of willing officers, 
and much support from all the leading zoologists. I will 
do all I can to help, and keep things going in any direction 
you may wish. The Cambridge people are very enthusi- 
astic about it, and determined to make it a success. 
You need not go to the meeting on Thursday unless 
convenient, as I will provide another Chairman, but do 
send me a line (by telegraph) to say you will take the 
office, if elected, and my mind will be relieved. 

I shall also feel that the Congress will gain, instead 
of losing by my unfortunate breakdown. Believe me, 
yours most truly, W. H. FLOWER. 

The meeting is fixed for August 23rd to suit the 
foreigners. It would be quite enough if you were only 
there on the opening day. 

Sir John hastened to relieve Professor Flower's 
anxieties by a telegram followed by a letter, 
expressing his willingness to assume the position 
suggested ; and the Professor wrote in gratitude : 

November 5lh, 1897. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK Your telegram, followed by 
your very kind letter, relieved me from a very great 
anxiety, and I thank you very much. Now the strain, 
as it would have been to me (perhaps more in anticipation 
and imagination than in reality) is off my mind, I shall 


be able to get on better with my work at the Museum, 
which, of course, is my first duty, and which I hope to see 
a little further advanced during the few (official) years 
I have still left to carry it on. 

I hear, as I anticipated, that the Committee unani- 
mously supported your election, but it was thought 
desirable that it should be ratified (as of course it will be) 
by the Permanent Committee of the Congress, which sits 
at Paris, and of which Milne-Edwards is President. He 
has been written to by Mr. Bell (who was yesterday 
appointed one of the Secretaries) and who will com- 
municate with you officially when he receives the reply. 
Once more thanking you, I remain, yours most truly, 


The following letter from Mr. Frederic Harri- 
son has reference to an interesting commemora- 

10 December 1897. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I have been asked by the 
promoters of the King Alfred Millenary Commemoration 
in 1901 to call your attention to it, and to ask your 
co-operation. It was suggested by my Address when 
President of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, of 
which you saw accounts in reports and articles in the 
Press and see Spectator of last Saturday. Winchester 
(his capital city and burial place) took up the suggestion, 
and the Mayor and Corporation, Bishop, Dean and 
Chapter, College, M.P., etc., etc., have moved in the 
matter. The Lord Mayor of London will hold a Mansion 
House meeting early in the session, and the idea is 
to form a representative committee to approach the 
Government to help the project. 

The following persons have been approached, and many 
of them have already agreed to attend a meeting and sup- 
port the idea. They are : Bishops of Winchester, London, 
Oxford; Deans of Durham and Winchester, Cardinal 
Vaughan, Lord Reay, Lord Rosebery, Lord Acton, 
Professors at Oxford and Cambridge ; Sir F. Pollock, 
Sir M. Grant Duff, J. Bryce, J. Morley, W. E. Lecky, 
Shaw Lefevre, Leslie Stephen, Sir E* M. Thompson, 
Poet Laureate, Sir W. Besant, Sir W. Reid, Passmore 
Edwards, etc., etc. 


They talk of asking the Prince of Wales to become 
President or Patron of the movement to commemorate 
his ancestor. The Mayor and people at Winchester 
wish to have a memorial building there, but everything 
is open for discussion, and if a Mausoleum of Alfred 
should be at Winchester where his dust still lies I 
hope myself the commemoration will take a national 
form, and a varied character. I should like to see an 
archaeological Wessex museum. You, of course, are a 
Wessex thane. And the promoters have asked me to 
see if they can count on your co-operation in time for 
the Lord Mayor's meeting. Believe me to be, sincerely 

The summer brought him some more corre- 
spondence, at great length, from the Palace at 
Mandalay, invoking his further assistance on 
behalf of the Kammalahs. His name had be- 
come a household word in India as much from 
the circulation of his books as from his interest in 
the Indian Currency or from any legislation which 
he had helped to pass. It was in this very year 
that a Marathi translation came out of the 
Pleasures of Life, and on one day of this same 
year he records the curious fact that the same 
post brought him copies of the Pleasures of Life 
in two different translations, by different hands, 
both in Bohemian. 

He was abroad in Switzerland his last visit 
to that country with Lady Lubbock and the 
children in the summer. They did not return 
home until September 18, having started on July 
7. This is the longest holiday if a time is to be 
so called which was fully occupied with botanical 
and geological expeditions, in addition to in- 
dustrious reading indoors that we have yet 
found him taking. 


He notes that this year the " Green Rooms 
were built." From time to time, as the growth 
of his family required, he made additions to the 
already spacious house at High Elms. Lady 
Lubbock had the gift of unusually good taste, and 
under her direction every new addition was a 
great improvement, and the rooms were furnished 
and decorated very perfectly. 


(AGE 64) 

ON one occasion, when staying at High Elms, I 
happened to have a dressing-room near Sir 
John's study, and as I was getting up heard his 
voice delivering a more or less continuous 
harangue, broken by certain intervals, so that it 
seemed as if he must be reading family prayers. 
I was much surprised, for I had never known 
this particular form of religious exercise to be a 
habit of the household. The Sundays at High 
Elms were days on which perfect liberty of action 
and of conscience were permitted. Sir John 
himself and some of the family always went to 
:he Parish Church, whither there was a delightful 
walk down the drive and up through a copse, 
and guests who cared to accompany them were 
welcomed, but the idea of the church-going was 
not thrust upon them in any way which made it 
difficult to decline, if they did not wish to go, and 

the afternoon there was no prohibition on the 
playing of fives or golf or lawn-tennis. If anything 

;urred to prevent Sir John's usual attendance 
it church on Sunday mornings, he made a rule of 


reading the service to the family at home. His 
guests were at liberty to be present or not, as 
they pleased. But family prayers I had never 
known there. 

The explanation of the " speeches " I had 
overheard is indicated in the diary towards the 
end of 1896 : " Set up a phonograph, which 
promises to be useful." What was really taking 
place was that Sir John was opening his morning's 
letters and dictating into the instrument his reply 
to each, as he read it. The reply would be taken 
off later in the day by his Secretary setting the 
machine going, and typed and brought to him for 
signature. It was one of his many devices for 

The editions of the Use of Life, other than 
those in use in the English-speaking countries, I 
find him noting, at this time, to be as follows : 

France (7 Editions), Germany, Holland, Poland, 
Bohemia, Spain, Italy, Greece, Arabic (5 Editions), 
Marathi, Gujerathi, Japanese (6 Editions), Danish, 
Russian, Armenian, Esthonian, Greece. 

It is rather a wonderful record. And this was 
a less popular book than the Pleasures ! 

It is easy for the person of superior culture to 
tilt a somewhat scornful nose at these, which are 
admittedly, and of deliberate intent, compilations, 
but surely to treat as of no human importance the 
volumes which have diffused so widely specimens 
of the best thought that humanity has produced 
must argue rather a false sense of perspective 
and of values. 

A singular testimony to the popularity of 
those books which he specially intended to be 


" popular " appeared in a Hamburg paper in 
May of this year : 


Lectures on the writings of Sir John Lubbock are 
offered from May 18th to June 29th to a limited number 
of ladies, every Wednesday morning, from 11-12 in the 

Mr. Hay, United States Ambassador in Great 
Britain at that time, andi later Secretary of State 
in his own country, sent him a " packet of stone 
implements picked up within sight of the Capitol 
at Washington." They were found by a Mr. 
Hallett Phillips, a friend of Mr. Hay's, and Mr. 
Hay writes : " He was one of your unknown 
admirers and asked me to bring you these little 
implements." They were duly placed in the 
museum of like things at High Elms, where also 
another American stone implement, a small spear 
head which I found in California, has the honour 
of a place. 

At this time Messrs. Harms worth brought out 
Sir John's "Best Hundred Books" in a uniform 
edition. It was very popular, with readers of 
all classes. A few extracts from the long and 
excellently drawn up pamphlet by which the 
publishers advertised the edition will be read with 
interest : 

Advice from those whose attainments and character 
justify the giving of it is of value to those whose youth 
or lack of experience can be wisely aided in the choice of 
books. The wilderness of printed volumes at the dawn 
of the twentieth century, more than ever before in the 
history of the world, requires a guide. A choice has to 
be made ; it must be the best possible choice, for the 



books must be limited in number, and, for another 
reason, it is best to limit them to a hundred at most. 

This is the first difficulty ; and it has been happily 
solved by Sir John Lubbock. Carlyle and others, 
before Sir John Lubbock brought up the question, had 
advised on courses of reading, but Sir John Lubbock 
was the first to focus the common desire to a practical 
point, when some time ago, in an address delivered 
before the Working Men's College of London, he detailed 
a list of the hundred works of all literature most desirable 
to be read. The idea was greedily seized upon for 
discussion all over the world. Of Sir John Lubbock' s 
choice about ten were objected to, not for the books 
themselves, but on the ground that other books should 
find a place in the first 100 in order that individual 
tastes and individual careers might be gratified. It 
was also ascertained that out of the 300 additional 
books suggested by the critics there was not a single 
work that was recommended by any two critics as being 
absolutely essential. In the result, therefore, it was 
established that for the world of readers in general, 
for all classes, from working men to students and 
litterateurs, Sir John Lubbock had chosen as near as 
such choice can ever come what was really the 100 
Best Books in the whole world of literature. And, not 
only has Sir John Lubbock' s List never since been 
improved, it has never since been even approximated 
by a list of the 100 Best Books put forward by any one 
in any part of the world. It remains to-day unchallenged 
as the best possible list of the best hundred books. 

The first difficulty was overcome by Sir John Lubbock. 
There then remained a second difficulty the vital 
question of cost ; for it was recognised by every one 
that, the books once chosen, they must in some way 
be made available at a price within the means of the 
people. . . . 

There follow letters, and extracts from letters, 
all appreciative of the list and of its issue in this 
uniform edition, from persons of extraordinarily 
different distinction from the Prince of Wales, 
from Mr. Henry Irving, from bishops, men of 
science, statesmen, diplomatists, soldiers, sailors, 


instructors of youth, including the Master of 
Balliol. It is really a very remarkable list. 

Sir John himself wrote, in reference to the 
issue : 

We often see it stated that the main result of schools 
and public libraries is to create a demand for sensational 
novels, or even for a lower class of literature. 

It is therefore satisfactory that Messrs. Harms worth 
should have undertaken to issue the 100 books, which I 
suggested in my lecture at the Working Men's College, 
at a price which nothing but a very large sale could 
render possible. Whether they are the " best " books 
or not, no one will deny that they are very good ones. 

It has, indeed, been suggested that the list contains 
hardly enough light literature. The representation of 
Oriental Literature especially has led to some difference 
of opinion. As regards the Shi King and the Analects 
of Confucius, I must humbly confess that I do not 
greatly admire either ; but I recommended these because 
they are held in the most profound veneration by the 
Chinese race, containing 400,000,000 of our fellow- 
men. I may add that both works are quite short. 

The Ramayana and Mahabharata, and St. Hilaire's 
Buddha, are not only very interesting in themselves, 
but very important in reference to our great oriental 
Empire. Kalidasa's Sakoontala is generally regarded as 
the gem of the Hindoo Drama, and the Shahnameh is 
the great Persian Epic. 

Of the Koran, I suggest portions only. We must 
remember that 150,000,000 of men regard "it not merely 
as the best of books, but as an actual inspiration. 
Surely, then, it could not have been excluded. 

A popular writer, in a recent work, has observed, 
that " why any one should select the best hundred more 
than the best eleven, or the best thirty books, it is hard 
to conjecture." But this remark entirely misses the 
point. Eleven books, or even thirty, would be very 
few ; but no doubt I might just as well have chosen 
90, or even 110. Indeed, if our arithmetical notation 
had been duodecimal instead of decimal, I should no 
doubt have made up the number to 120. I only chose 
100 as being a round number. 



Again, it is sometimes said that any one who read 
these books straight through, and nothing else, would 
have his mind choked with indigestible and elementary 
facts. This seems to me a captious and foolish criticism. 
My belief is, that any one who read the Odyssey would 
be led on to further study of Greek History, Mythology, 
and Literature ; that each of the 100 books would not 
only be itself a source of instruction and delight, but 
would be a key which would unlock other treasures. 

Others, indeed, have objected that the books men- 
tioned are known to every one, at any rate by name ; 
that they are as household words. Every one, it has 
been said, knows about Herodotus and Homer, Shake- 
speare and Milton. There is, no doubt, some truth in 
this. But even Lord Iddesleigh, as Mr. Lang has pointed 
out in his Life, had never read Marcus Aurelius, and I 
may add that he afterwards thanked me warmly for 
having suggested the Meditations to him. If, then, 
even Lord Iddesleigh, " probably one of the last English 
statesmen who knew the literature of Greece and Rome 
widely and well," had not read Marcus Aurelius, we may 
well suppose that others also may be in the same position. 
It is also a curious commentary on what was no doubt an 
unusually wide knowledge of classical literature that 
Mr. Lang should ascribe and probably quite correctly 
Lord Iddesleigh' s never having had his attention called 
to one of the most beautiful and improving books in 
classical, or, indeed, in any other literature, to the fact 
that the emperor wrote in " crabbed and corrupt 

Another objection has been that every one should be 
left to choose for himself. And so he must. No list 
can be more than a suggestion. But a great literary 
authority can hardly, perhaps, realise the difficulty of 
selection. An ordinary person turned into a library 
and sarcastically told to choose for himself, has to do 
so almost at haphazard. He may, perhaps, light upon 
a book with an attractive title, and after wasting on it 
much valuable time and patience, find that, instead of 
either pleasure or profit, he has weakened, or perhaps 
lost, his love of reading. 

Messrs. Harmsworth are now issuing the books con- 
tained in my list in a handy and cheap form, selecting 
themselves the editions which they prefer ; and I believe 


that in doing so they will confer a benefit on many who 
have not funds or space to collect a large library. 


This year Sir John resigned his seat as an 
Alderman on the London County Council and also 
the Chairmanship of the Council of Foreign Bond- 
holders, but he was much occupied, nevertheless, 
with the business of the latter, giving evidence 
before the House of Commons Committee in 
respect of a Bill somewhat altering its constitu- 
tion, and eventually getting the Bill passed. 
Counsel on behalf of those who opposed the Bill 
confessed himself, privately, afterwards, as being 
entirely at the end of his resources even at the 
beginning of the hearing, because the obvious 
course in a case of the kind is to impute interested 
motives to the principal parties concerned. It 
was, however, so patently absurd to suggest to a 
Committee of the House anything of the kind in 
connection with Sir John Lubbock or the deputy 
chairman, Sir Charles Fremantle, that his task 
was like the vain brick-making of the Israelites 
without straw. In 1900 he consented, under 
pressure, to resume the Presidency of the Council, 
and held the office until his death. 

In July he was elected by a unanimous vote 
Chairman of the London Bankers, and in Sep- 
tember, the Irish Bankers, having founded an 
Institute, invited him to deliver the Inaugural 
Address. The following letter indicates the scope 
and purpose of the new institution. 



To the Right Hon. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 

16 September 1898. 

DEAR SIR I am directed to bring respectfully under 
your notice the now successful issue of an effort to 
establish in Dublin an Institute of Bankers for Ireland. 
The movement, originating with the Staffs, was cordially 
taken up by the governing bodies of all the Irish banks, 
who have handsomely contributed to the Institute's 
funds, and largely provided for its future maintenance. 

The Provisional Committee have been greatly assisted 
by the counsel and information courteously given by 
the Institute in London. They are very sensible that 
their success is in a great degree due to the influence 
exercised here, as elsewhere, by that establishment, and 
they trust that the Irish Institute may, by imitation of 
its methods, attain to some measure of its utility. It 
has been decided to hold the Inaugural Meeting, if 
possible, in October ; and the Provisional Committee, 
composed of leading Banking officials and representing 
all the Banks and Bankers in Ireland, have directed me 
to submit for your kindly consideration their unanimous 
desire that the occasion should be signalised by your 
presence, and that you should confer upon the Irish 
branch of the Profession the honour of an Inaugural 

The Provisional Committee are fully cognizant of 
the many public claims on your time and attention, but 
they trust that the importance of the movement, your 
interest in Banking and your unfailing kindness will 
justify their very earnest request. I have the honour 
to be, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

F. L. LEET, 

: Hon. Sec. Provisional Committee, 

Institute of Bankers in Ireland. 

In March he has in his diary an amusing little 
note of an admirable repartee, witty yet perfectly 
respectful, of a subject to his Sovereign : "March 5. 
Took the children to the British Museum. Dined 
with G. Greyke. Met the Simeons, Lord Hotham, 



G. Russell, Mrs. Grenfell, etc. Russell says that 
once the Queen took Lord John Russell to task 
for saying that under certain circumstances it 
was right to disobey the Sovereign, and asked 
him whether he had really said so. His reply 
was, ' As a loyal subject of the House of Hanover, 
I was bound to say so.' : It would not be easy 
to cite an instance of a more deft answer and 
more skilful and yet courteous retorting of the 
question's point. References to " Gerty Greyke," 
the hostess at this party, are many in his diary. 
She was a cousin to whom he was greatly attached 
throughout his life. 

At the end of March they himself, Lady 
Lubbock and his daughters Ursula and Irene 
started for Biarritz to stay with Mr. and Mrs. 
Hambro, where they enjoyed themselves greatly, 
with golf and various expeditions. They re- 
turned home on April 16. 

On May 4 he notes that he " lunched with 
Rothschild to talk over Indian Currency." On 
the 10th there is " Consultation at the Bank of 
England about the Indian Currency. Proposed 
some modifications in the suggested letters to the 
Government, which were all accepted." 

Mr. Gladstone's great career came to a close on 
May 19 of this year, and it was a cause of real 
grief to Sir John Lubbock that illness prevented 
his attendance at the funeral. Mr. Gladstone had 
been his close friend and for years his chief, and 
their later political severance only made Sir John 
regret the more the inability to join in honouring 
his memory at his obsequies. 

He was back in the House and variously busy 



early in June. On the 23rd of the month he 
" asked a question on the use of c Osprey ' 
feathers in the Army. Brodrick promised they 
should be given up." 

On August 22 he was at Cambridge, as the 
guest of the Vice-Chancellor, taking the chair, in 
the place of Sir W. H. Flower, at the International 
Zoological Congress. It was a large and important 
gathering, delegates coming from many countries. 
The ceremonies connected with it, which began 
on the Monday, did not terminate till the Satur- 
day, on which day he notes, " I gave a party at 
the Natural History Museum. Haeckel, Schulze, 
Mobius, Dohrn, Veydowsky, Marcy, Milne Ed- 
wards, Blanchard, Janet, etc. were there alto- 
gether about 450. The Hills " (Hill was the Vice- 
Chancellor) "very kind and hospitable." 

In September he was at Bristol with Lady 
Lubbock, for the British Association meeting. 

At the end of October he went to Ireland with 
his son Harold to give the Inaugural Address at 
the Irish Bankers' Institute, before mentioned, in 
the Trinity College hall. He notes that he 
66 spoke on the Indian Currency, and then ex- 
hibited photographs of most interesting coins, 
which I had had specially prepared." Afterwards 
they went on expeditions to one or two places 
of interest, and suffered a rough passage on the 
homeward crossing. 

In November he was in Manchester, taking 
the chair at a Liberal Unionists' meeting at which 
Mr. Chamberlain was the chief speaker. 

During the autumn he had been in consulta- 
tion with Lord Northbrook about the Indian 


Currency and the evidence to be given before the 
Royal Commission. Lord Northbrook writes, in 
connection with it : 

October 22nd, 1898. 

DEAR LUBBOCK Yes, I should like to see your 
letter again if I remember rightly you expressed an 
opinion in favour of raising the import duty on silver in 
India. There is, I think, a good deal to be said in 
favour of this if a gold standard and currency is intro- 
duced into India. On the other hand, there is much to 
be said on the other side. Yours very truly, 


And again : 

October 25th, 1898. 

DEAR LUBBOCK I return your letters with many 

If you have read Sir A. MacDonnell's evidence before 
the Fowler Committee, I think you will be satisfied that 
the hardship which arose to persons who possessed 
silver ornaments from the closure of the mints has not 
been really serious, and I have seen an opinion of equal 
weight from Bengal to the same effect. At first, I 
entertained the same apprehension that you express in 
your letter, but the information I have since obtained 
has removed it. 

The principal advantage of increasing the import duty 
on silver in India seems to be that it would make illicit 
coinage more unlikely but against this there is the great 
inducement which would be given to smuggling silver. 

I am puzzled as to the possibility of having an 
" exchange standard " but I have no practical know- 
ledge of exchanges. 

My conclusions after carefully considering the evidence 
taken by the Fowler Committee are that the mints 
cannot be re-opened to silver. 

That no scheme of bimetallism is practicable, even if 
it were sound. 

That the matter must not be allowed to drift any- 
longer by the adoption of the scheme of the Government 
of India or that of Mr. Lindsay, etc. 

That the adoption of a gold standard and a gold 



currency keeping rupees as a token coinage is the right 
conclusion, and that steps should be taken as soon as 
possible to carry it into effect. 

That the first step would be to open the Indian mints 
to the coinage of gold sovereigns and to make the 
sovereign legal tender. 

That the token coinage should, to a certain extent at 
any rate, be convertible into gold, and that this might 
be provided by giving gold in payment of the present 
silver notes of high values, an operation which would 
not involve any very serious liability. 

Indian silver debt should be converted into gold 
when the Government are in a position to meet the 
interest in gold. 

As much as can be properly arranged of the Indian 
revenues should be levied in gold. I have made a rough 
calculation that after a certain amount of notice seven 
or eight crores of rupees might be obtained in gold. 

There is a very large accumulation of gold in India, 
and according to the best authorities with which I am 
acquainted it is probable that gold currency will be 
popular for large transactions. 

I do not see that the adoption of a gold standard and 
currency for India need entail any serious immediate or 
eventual demand upon the world's supply of gold. 
There would, I suppose, be some increase in the imports 
of gold into India, but as the production of gold has 
lately increased, and appears to be increasing, I presume 
that this can easily be met. 

I have put down these conclusions very roughly, and 
without arguments, but you know these currency ques- 
tions so well that you will be able to understand what 
I mean, and I should be very glad of your criticisms. 
Yours very truly, NORTHBROOK. 

There are other letters on the same subject 
from Lord Northbrook, but they do not sub- 
stantially amplify or modify his views expressed 
in the above. 

In course of the year Sir John finished the 
building of the small house at the farm, for his 
son Norman. The last entry in his diary is a sad 



one : " Dec. 28. Poor Robin died, from a fall 
out hunting." Robin was the son of his youngest 
surviving brother Alfred, a young fellow who 
inherited much of his father's good looks and 
athletic gifts, and brother to that Basil Lubbock 
who went " Round the Horn before the Mast," 
and wrote so vividly of it on his return. 


(AGE 65) 

AN early entry in the diary for 1899 records the 
taking of all the children to the pantomime the 
Forty Thieves at Drury Lane, " splendidly put on 
the stage " and towards the end of January 
" Harold," the eldest boy of the second marriage, 
" went to school, at Rottingdean." Sir John 
affectionately notes the sorrow of himself and of 
Lady Lubbock in parting with him, but from the 
very first the school seems to have been a success. 
The boy was happy there, his reports were good 
and, for his age, he took a high place. His father 
and mother went down to see him. Sir John 
writes that Harold conducted him to the school 
library and pointed out with pride to the father 
that all the latter's books were " out " boys were 
reading them. He said they were always out and 
were among the most popular. In this year both 
the Pleasures and the Use of Life were translated 
into Greek, Arabic, and Japanese. 

He was playing golf twice a week or so all 
this spring, whether from High Elms or from St. 
James's Square, but at intervals golf was stopped 




by gout. We begin to see a tendency in him, in 
these last few years of the century, to lay down 
some of his official burdens, partly, no doubt, that 
he might have the more time to give to his books. 
It was this year that he began to work on the 
Scenery of England, being in reality a discourse 
on the connection between its outer aspects and 
their geological causes. He also brought out his 
Buds and Stipules book. But when in London 
he was constantly taking the chair at this or the 
other meeting, speaking in Parliament, reading, 
and sometimes accepting, addresses. The Work- 
ing Men's College presented him with what he 
terms " a charming address on my resignation of 
the Principalship." 

A day or two later he writes in his journal : 
" Golf with the Speaker at Chorley Wood. On 
Tuesday Swift MacNeill made a very amusing 
speech against Ministers holding Directorships. 
He referred to Mundella, saying 6 and if I shut my 
eyes, I can see him sitting on the Treasury Bench.' 
Being called to order for some strong language, 
he said, c I am sorry, Mr. Speaker, I am sorry. I 
will withdraw it, and will say it again.' c He 
objected,' he said, ' to Government guinea-pigs 
roosting on the Treasury bench.' ' 

If only Speakers of the House of Commons 
would treasure all the humour, conscious and 
unconscious (but especially the latter), that they 
could gather in that high position, they might 
give us great entertainment. 

At the request of the Bankers, Sir John had 
asked Mr. Lecky to their annual dinner, as a 
compliment to literature, and received what he 



speaks of as " this touching letter from Lecky," 
in reply. 

Feb. 12th, 1899. 

MY DEAR SIR JOHN I am exceedingly troubled by 
your letter for I hate refusing requests that have been 
again and again made, but I really cannot combine 
giving addresses with my literary work and the fatigue 
of Parliamentary life. I have got a serious piece of work 
on my hands and am doing the very best I can to get 
through it in spite of politics and its many interruptions, 
but I am not strong ; I can only do my literary work by 
giving it my very best thought. Giving addresses is 
not my line. I know by experience that my voice will 
not carry to the end of a large hall, and the nervous 
worry of a public performance of this kind is far more 
trying to me than the writing of an address. If I am 
not utterly to sacrifice my real literary work to parlia- 
ment I must be allowed to devote my spare time to my 
own work. I am quite sure that, by doing this, I shall 
be more useful than by giving myself to the utterly 
uncongenial task of giving public addresses. 

Literary life in England is becoming more and more 
difficult from the persistence with which requests of this 
kind are made to every one who writes a successful book, 
entirely irrespective of the question whether the writer 
has any turn or habit of talk of the lecturing kind. 
Surely the talking literati are sufficiently numerous in 
England, and the Universities are producing a large 
body of most capable and efficient lecturers. 

I should be greatly obliged to you if you could 
persuade your Committee of this, for this is the third 
if not the fourth time they have pressed this very 
flattering but to me very embarrassing request. I 
should be exceedingly sorry to appear discourteous to 
them or insensible to the honour they have done me, 
but I have work before me to the full extent of my 

I hope they will therefore excuse me. Yours truly, 

W. E. H. LECKY. 

In March he received from an Indian scholar, 
Mr. Romerli Dutt, a copy of the latter's English 
metrical translation of the Mahabharata, in a 



condensed form. The translator, in a letter 
accompanying the book, speaks appreciatively of 
the inclusion of the great Indian epics in the 
100 best books. Mr. Dutt, no doubt justly, says 
that it is uphill work trying to interest the 
ordinary English reader in translations of Indian 
poetry, but that the scholars of India look for 
help in this to the leaders of literary thought in 
England, deeming that in an age when so much 
interest is taken in the epics and sagas of all the 
European countries some of it may be extended to 
those of the East which are " among the earliest 
and greatest epics in the world's literature." 

The same spring Sir John accepted the Presi- 
dency of the Royal Historical Society, in succes- 
sion to his friend Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff. 
It was an appointment which did not heavily tax 
his time. 

The following letter from Reisterstown, Mary- 
land, is of this date, and may be quoted as very 
typical of an immense number of the like pleasant 
kind which he received from unknown corre- 

DEAR SIR Several years ago one of our friends sent 
me one of your works as a Christmas gift. We all 
enjoyed it very much and have read and re-read it. 
Since that time we have bought and studied everything 
we could find from your pen. 

We have given ten or twelve copies of your Essays to 
friends at Christmastide, remembering what a treat we 
received on that anniversary one year. 

Now I wish very much to tell you what pleasure you 
have afforded us, and to thank you very sincerely for all 
the enjoyment received from your pen. 

You strike a chord within me, one that I feel, but 
cannot express in words. I am a dear lover of Nature 


and all her works ; you are, too, and say things that I 
should like to, but cannot. 

I teach English Literature and Botany in the Franklin 
High School, and always recommend your works most 
heartily to my pupils. 

No doubt you are tired of receiving letters from 
friends of your works, but I feel I owe you this little 
tribute and trust you will receive it in the same kind 
spirit with which it is sent. 

Wishing you health, many years more of literary 
work, and success in all you undertake. 

In the course of the year he made holiday 
tours with Lady Lubbock and the children, but 
they were restricted to England and Wales. In 
the spring they were in Wales, journeying to 
Betts-y-Coed on March 17 and on the 19th made 
the ascent of Snowdon. It was on this day, as 
Sir John notes, " I began a book on the Physical 
Geography of England." It is that book which 
was eventually The Scenery of England. Their 
visit was cut short by the news that Harold had 
a bad attack of influenza, and they returned home 
on the 22nd. The boy came to them from school 
on the 25th, and, as usually happens, made a 
generous gift of microbes to his younger brother 
Eric, and the house was soon in the unhappily 
familiar condition, in that spring, known as 
cc Down with influenza." Lady Lubbock was 
attacked, but Sir John seems to have escaped. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir M. Hicks 
Beach, had recently proposed to make the 
bankers collectors of income tax in certain cases. 
Sir John was requested to point out the difficulties 
of this, and convinced the Chancellor that the 
proposition was not very feasible. Sir Michael 
returned the papers " on the suggestion as to the 


deduction by bankers of income tax on interest 
paid to their customers on deposit accounts," 
and admitted himself satisfied by the arguments 
against the suggestion. 

Not uninteresting, in view of later develop- 
ments, is this letter which Sir John sent to the 
Times on the subject of the Government's pro- 
posals for the partial working of the telephone 
service. It is a mode of management which, as 
Sir John states, Mr. Hanbury, the President of 
the Local Government Board, denounced, then 
proposed and carried. 

To the Editor of the Times. 

SIR You are certainly conferring a great service on 
the public in opening your columns to a discussion on 
Mr. Hanbury 's important proposals with reference to 
the telephone. He has assured us, and of course I do 
not question, that he wishes to be fair to the company ; 
he is acting, no doubt, to some extent in accordance 
with the recommendations of a committee ; but com- 
mittees are not infallible, and now that we have the 
Bill before us it seems to me unjust to the company. 
It will, I believe, exercise an unfortunate effect on the 
progress of applied science, and lead to an increase in 
both rates and taxes. We are told that the company's 
charges are too high and the service inefficient. But it 
is not fair to contrast the charges in this country with 
those abroad without taking into consideration the 
fact that the National Telephone Company has to pay 
one-tenth of its receipts 1 over 100,000 a year to the 
Post Office as royalty. No wonder, then, that more 
progress has been made in other countries. If a similar 
payment had been exacted from railroads they would 
have made much less rapid progress. 

As regards the alleged want of efficiency, the Company 

1 I.e. one-tenth of the gross receipts, the said one-tenth amounting 
to more than 100,000. 



has told us that the fault is not theirs, but is due to 
unnecessary difficulties raised by certain local authorities. 
One case, that of Glasgow, has been carefully inquired 
into by a Government Official, the Sheriff of Perthshire, 
who was specially appointed for the purpose by Govern- 
ment, and who has reported that : 

" The main cause of the inefficiency of the present 
Telephone Exchange service in Glasgow is that it is 
worked by ... an overhead single-wire system. . . . 
The National Telephone Company resolved last year to 
introduce the metallic underground circuit. . . . The 
corporation have been responsible for very unnecessary 
delay, and have finally resolved ' That the request be 
refused/ My opinion accordingly is that the inefficiency 
of the present Telephone Exchange system in Glasgow 
is in great measure due to the refusal of facilities by the 
Corporation of Glasgow." 

As to cost he adds : "It appears to me that the rates 
are not unreasonable." 

Thus, then, the charge of inefficiency brought against 
the company has broken down in the only case which 
has been officially investigated. 

In spite of this, however, Mr. Hanbury proposes to 
allow the Glasgow Municipality to institute a competing 
service, but, as the Sheriff of Perthshire justly says in 
his able report : 

" I think the position of the National Telephone 
Company is entitled to consideration. The corporation 
put forward their proposal as leading to the establish- 
ment of a competing service. . . . But ... it is idle 
to speak of competition when they propose to supply 
a metallic circuit underground system, and at the same 
time to prevent the National Telephone Company (who 
wish to do so) from supplying the same. 

" In my opinion, the reasonable solution of the 
matter would be that the corporation should grant to 
the National Telephone Company the same facilities 
for laying a metallic circuit system underground as the 
large English municipalities have done." 

But Mr. Hanbury 's Bill raises far more important 
questions than those merely affecting the interests of 
the shareholders in the Telephone Company. It con- 
stitutes, indeed, an entirely new departure. If these 
principles are applied to telephony, why not to gas, 



water, and electric lighting ? Hitherto, if a munici- 
pality proposes to supply gas or water, Parliament has 
insisted that they should buy up the existing companies 
on fair terms. If this is just and right in the case of 
water and gas, why are telephone shareholders to be 
dealt with so differently ? and what security have 
investors in gas, water, electric lighting, railway, or, 
indeed, any other business that they will not be treated, 
or, may I not say, illtreated, in the same way ? 

The National Telephone Company is generally spoken 
of as a monopoly. It is, no doubt, the only company 
actually working, but it has no monopoly, nor. could it 
object to competition on fair terms. In fact a number 
of Manchester merchants and manufacturers have 
formed a Mutual company, and have already laid out 
several thousand pounds. 

The Corporation of Manchester sent a deputation to 
the Postmaster-General on October 31 last, " to urge his 
Grace to grant a licence to this company, and pointing 
out the advantages of competition by a company over 
that of a municipality." 

Why has this application not been granted ? The 
large number of petitions presented this year to Parlia- 
ment and the action of the Chambers of Commerce show 
the strong feeling in the country as to the growing danger 
of municipal trading, and the Government are about to 
appoint a joint committee of both Houses to inquire 
into the whole subject. But the objections to municipal 
trading apply with peculiar force to the telephone, and 
it is significant that the Corporation of Liverpool concurs 
in this respect with that of Manchester. 

The Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, at a meeting 
specially convened to consider Mr. Hanbury's proposals, 
unanimously resolved to resist them 

"On the following grounds viz. (1) that the pro- 
posals do not meet the requirements of commerce, and 
are likely to prove highly detrimental thereto ; (2) 
that they would result in a multiplicity of systems 
organized by local authorities, which it might afterwards 
be difficult to unite ; and (3) that the working in detail 
of the telephones would be vexatious and unsatisfactory." 

This resolution was forwarded by the Chamber to 
the Parliamentary Committee of the Corporation, which 
has unanimously adopted it. 


The objections to nationalizing the telephone are, 
however, also very strong. 

The two reasons given for it are, first, the hope that 
the Government will make a profit, and, secondly, that 
the service will be better. 

As regards the first, I think few persons are aware 
that the State has already lost over 7,000,000 by 
working the telegraphs, and is losing more and more 
every year. According to the figures for 1897, the last 
year of which we have the complete return, the Post 
Office incurred a loss of 600,000 by the telegraphs, 
which it worked itself, and made a profit of 104,000 
from the telephones, which it does not work. 

I am satisfied that if the Government takes over the 
telephones the State will not only lose the profit it is now 
making, but that the result will be even more disastrous 
than that of the telegraphs. The late Lord Playfair 
might well say that there never was a greater mistake 
than making the telegraph a Government monopoly. 

Nor is the loss on the State telegraphs any exceptional 
result. Other cases might be given. South Australia, 
according to the last figures I have seen (Howell, Jour. 
Statistical Soc., March 1899), had lost over her railways 
up to June 1896, 1,774,000 and Victoria 7,759,000. 

The results as regards the progress of applied science 
will, in my judgment, be even more disastrous. Those 
who have hitherto devoted thought and time, energy 
and capital, to apply the results of scientific discovery 
to practical purposes are now told, that while, of course, 
if their enterprise does not pay they must bear the loss, 
on the other hand, if it succeeds Government will pass 
an Act of Parliament to deprive them of any advantage. 

As regards the effect on scientific discovery, I may 
quote the words of a distinguished electrician, Mr. 
Varley : 

"The introduction of protectionism in so important 
an industry as telegraphy has given the postal executive 
a grip hold of applied electricity and has enabled them 
to crush practically out of existence pioneers in tele- 
graphy and applied electricity. English telegraph 
enterprise no longer exists, and America, which 20 years 
ago was electrically in the rear of this country, is now 
England's teacher. At the present time not only does 
she take premier rank in dynamo-electric developments, 


but practically all the telegraphic advances which have 
been made since the passage of the Telegraph Act have 
originated from American genius." 

A monopoly is not less a monopoly because it is in 
the hands of Government, and I cannot conclude this 
letter (for the length of which I must apologise) better 
than in the words of the same high authority, " The sole 
object I have in view in writing is to bring home to the 
British public, if I can, the evil consequences of the 
un-English retrograde policy of converting applied 
science into a Government trading monopoly." It is 
not necessary in this case, because if the service of the 
National Telephone Company is anywhere really in- 
efficient, there is nothing to prevent other companies 
from being formed like the Mutual of Manchester. We 
have thus at present the possibilities of free trade and 
competition, and of these advantages Mr. Hanbury's 
Bill would deprive us. For the above and other reasons 
his Bill would, I believe, if passed, involve us in an 
immense pecuniary loss, and be a serious check to the 
progress of applied science. I am, Sir, your obedient 
servant, JOHN LUBBOCK. 

Many of the various points which the above 
letter raises are of almost as much interest to-day 
as when it was written. Mr. A. J. Balfour wrote 
privately to Sir John : 

April 12, 1899. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK One line to say that I have read 
with great interest your powerful article in the Times. 
There is, of course, an immense deal to be said on the 
other side and in favour of our proposals : but you have 
omitted perhaps wisely one argument against those 
proposals which has always weighed greatly with me, 

imely, that any increase in the Government responsi- 
bilities of this character, such as would be produced 
by the Bill, is almost necessarily accompanied by an 

icrease in the number of Government employes, already 
in the case of the Post Office and the Dockyards more 
in number than is good for the community. Yours very 

A letter of about the same date bears evidence 



to the value attached by a distinguished German 
botanist to his Buds and Stipules book. 

MUNCHEN, 9 June 1899. 

DEAR SIR Having been away the whole winter on a 
trip to Australia and New Zealand I did not find time 
until lately to read your charming book On Buds and 
Stipules. So I hope you will kindly excuse that my 
thanks come so late. Your book will give me many 
useful hints for the continuation of my Organographie 
in which buds and stipules will be treated somewhat in 
similar manner. I differ from your views in some points. 
So the statement about Acacia verticillata does not 
quite agree with my observations, there are leaves with 
stipules and without buds, also it is quite true, that all 
bud-bearing leaves have stipules. As to the tendrils 
of Cucurbitaceae I think their morphological nature is 

It would be a great help to botany if you would 
undertake to write a complete " carpologia." Since 
Gaertner's work nothing of equal value has appeared. 
Gaertner's work being more than hundred years old is 
antiquated. We are acquainted now with much more 
fruits than he was, we have also other starting points 
than he had. But nobody was bold enough to undertake 
a new " carpologia " although such a work would be of 
the highest interest for descriptive and for physiological 
botany. Yours very faithfully, K. GOEBEL. 

At this time there was an idea of establishing 
a new Medical College which eventually material- 
ised under the name of the Poly clinic. Sir John 
was asked, and consented, to take the chair at 
the inaugural dinner. " We want your advocacy 
and approval," the invitation ran, " as those of a 
leader in all educational movements and especi- 
ally in those concerning Medical Science. Briefly, 
our aim is to form a school for the further training 
of Medical men already possessing diplomas." 

He had more than once been invited to join 
" the Club," but had not hitherto thought right 



to do so, because of the few attendances at the 
dinners that his many engagements would permit 
him. But already, as we have seen, he was 
putting off his shoulders a few out of the great 
number of these claims and burdens, and though 
until the very end of his life he was more industri- 
ously engaged than almost any other man we can 
think of, he became increasingly more master of 
his own time. He was again in this year pressed 
to join the Club by his friend Sir J. Hooker, the 
distinguished botanist, and accepted. He seems 
to have enjoyed the dinners and the good talks 
at them greatly. Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff 
writes to him amusingly about it : 

May 7, 1899. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK Hooker tells me that, as the 
preacher says, " you have come to a better mind " about 
The Club. If you do not relapse into evil courses I will 
mention the fact of your conversion after dinner on the 
16th. I attended the meeting in the Egyptian Hall to 
which you kindly invited me ; and was able to tell Dr. 
Hill quite conscientiously that his address was " the 
best Educational address I had ever heard." If I could 
sing I should have been much inclined to sing the Nunc 
dimittis, a proceeding which would have had the same 
startling effect which was produced when Antoinette 
Sterling did something of the sort at a Quakers' meeting. 
. . . Yours very sincerely, M. E. GRANT DUFF. 

The Chairman of the meeting of the Club at 
which he was elected wrote him a friendly notifi- 
cation of the fact, enclosing also the official in- 
timation according to the formula devised by 
Gibbon, which has been in use ever since : 

SIR I have the pleasure to inform you that you had 
last night the honour to be elected a member of The 



Club. I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient 
humble servant. 

(Signed by the Chairman of the meeting 
at which the election took place.) 

To those who are not acquainted with the 
doings of " the Club " at the present day a 
reference to BoswelPs Life of Johnson may be 
commended as the most pleasant method of 
learning its purpose and origin. 

He was active again in this year in legislative 
efforts to better the lot of people serving in shops, 
bringing in a Bill requiring seats to be provided 
for the female assistants and getting it through its 
second reading on the last day of May. On June 
22 he spoke at a meeting at Grosvenor House on 
the same subject. The entry in his diary on this 
day may be quoted as typical of his activity, 
even when he seemed to be shaking off some of 
his burdens. "Thursday 22nd. Meeting at 
Grosvenor House in favour of seats for shop 
assistants, the Duke of Westminster in the chair. 
Meeting of Central Association of Bankers. 
Annual meeting of British Empire League. 
Annual meeting of Ray Society. Dined at 
Grosvenor House." 

On July 11 he notes, "The Seats for Shop 
Assistants Bill was moved by the Duke of West- 
minster in the House of Lords and carried, 
against Lord Salisbury, by 73 votes to 38." 

During this session he spoke in the House on 
the lines indicated in his letter to the Times about 
the telephone service, urging that it would be 
better managed by competitive companies than 
by municipalities or by the State. 


Dining at Grillion's one day about this time, 
where were " Fortescue, Norton, Herbert and 
Sanderson, Herbert mentioned that, some one 
wishing to see the library at Blenheim, no one 
knew where the key was and the door had to be 
broken open. On the other hand at Althorp, 
soon after Spencer's marriage, the Librarian came 
one day with a long face to say that some valuable 
books were missing out of the library. A strict 
search was made, the servants all interrogated, 
and the Police were just going to be sent for, 
when it happened to be mentioned to Lady 
Spencer, and it appeared that she had taken the 
books to her bedroom to read ! 5: 

On August 4 they went down to Brathay Hall, 
which they had taken for two months. 

Thence they made a variety of interesting 
expeditions, and he was busily engaged in gather- 
ing notes for The Scenery of England. There is a 
sad entry on August 22 : "To tea at Brantwood. 
Was glad to see Ruskin once more. He looked 
happy, but very feeble, and scarcely spoke." It 
was their last meeting. His note of the next 
day is, " With Marr, Ursula and Harold up Lang- 
dale to Argle Tarn. Saw the volcanic lavas and 
ashes very well. Some of the fine dust is so 
siliceous as almost to resemble flint, like which it 
weathers from slaty blue to white." There are 
many such entries, showing the geological nature 
of his studies during their expeditions. Of course 
botany, also, was not forgotten. 

They were back in St. James's Square on 
October 6, " after a very pleasant holiday." 

All this while extensions to the old home at 


High Elms had been in progress the building of 
a new wing of bedrooms and a verandah under 
which to sit in summer. The day after returning 
to St. James's Square he was at High Elms, 
where he says that he " found the work sadly 

All other public interests were naturally 
eclipsed at this time by the uncertainty whether 
President Kruger seriously intended to force, or 
face, a war or was merely playing a big game of 
bluff up to the last moment. When the war 
actually broke out Sir John felt that the City 
ought to give the weight of their moral support 
to Government, and wrote to the Lord Mayor : 

11 Oct. 1899. 

MY DEAR LORD MAYOR I write a line to suggest that 
we should have a meeting of citizens in the Guildhall to 
support Her Majesty's Government in the crisis now 
forced upon us. 

Mr. Kruger, without waiting to hear the proposals of 
Government to mitigate the acknowledged grievances of 
our countrymen and of foreigners (French, Germans, 
Russians and others) in the Transvaal, has thought fit 
to issue an uncourteous ultimatum presuming to dictate 
to her Majesty where we may or may not send our own 
troops in our own country, and threatening war if we 
do not at once submit. Under these circumstances I 
believe that you would be acting in accordance with the 
general wishes of the City if you were to call a meeting 
in the Guildhall, and that such a summons from you 
would meet with a hearty and enthusiastic support from 
the citizens of London. Yours sincerely, 


The Lord Mayor at once consented, and the 
meeting was a great success. 

Towards the end of the year Sir Stafford 
Northcote, afterwards Lord Iddesleigh, had been 


appointed Governor of Bombay. A vacancy was 
thus created in the Presidency of the Association 
of Chambers of Commerce. 

Nov. 2, 1899. 

DEAR SIR JOHN The Associated Chambers of Com- 
merce are extremely anxious to secure you as their 
President, in succession to myself. 

They have asked me to ascertain if you would favour- 
ably consider such a request if unanimously made to you. 

They would meet your convenience in every way, 
relieve you of all routine work, such as our monthly 
sessional meetings, etc. 

They would ask you to preside at our annual meeting 
in March, to represent them on the Paris Exhibition 
Committee, if you are not already a member, and at 
next year's meeting in London of the Chambers of 
Commerce of the Empire ; and, lastly, at the autumnal 
gathering next year, especially, if, as is likely, it is held 
at Paris. 

The Association is growing in importance, and we are 
very anxious to have an influential M.P. at its head. 

We are on very friendly terms with the Executive 
Depts., and Ritchie told me he would much like to see 
you President. The Chambers need a cool head. 

Much hoping you will agree. Believe me, yours very 

We may note the expression "a cool head" 
used in this letter. It is singularly apt, and 
indicates one among the qualities which made 
Sir John of such great value in a position of this 

He accepted the request and was elected 

About the same time Mrs. Waller, a daughter 
of Professor Huxley, writes asking him to open 
the new Free Library at Gloucester. She says 
that she does not apologise for asking such a busy 
man to come, knowing well, from the experience 



of her own father, that it is always the busy man 
that can make time for everything. It is true 
that there have been very few in whose hands 
time has been so elastic or so malleable as in 
those of Sir John Lubbock. 

It is perhaps the last occasion that it would be 
correct to write of him by this designation. As it 
were by way of a Christmas gift, he received a 
peerage ; for it was on Christmas Day that he had 
the following letter from the Prime Minister : 

FOREIGN OFFICE, 23 Dec. 1899. 

MY DEAR SIR JOHN I am glad to be charged with 
the duty of informing you that the Queen has been 
pleased to confer upon you a Peerage of the United 

If you accept Her Majesty's gracious intentions, I 
am sure the House of Lords will greatly appreciate this 
addition to its intellectual strength. Believe me, yours 
very truly, SALISBURY. 

Sir John replied : 

MY DEAR LORD SALISBURY I have duly received 
your letter and beg that you will convey to Her Majesty 
my grateful thanks for the great honour which she has 
been pleased to confer on me. 

May I also thank you most heartily for the most kind 
manner in which you have been so good as to communi- 
cate to me the gratifying intimation. Sincerely yours, 




(AGE 66) 

MANY people expressed regrets that the name 
and "style" of "Sir John Lubbock," known 
throughout the world, should be merged in the 
novel designation of " Lord Avebury." It does 
not seem, however, to have occurred to him to 
decline the honour. " Of course, it is a compli- 
ment, the offer of a peerage," as he said to me, 
and as such, without further thought, he accepted 
it. If he were to take a title other than his own 
name (and " Lord Lubbock " would have carried 
little suggestion of the " Sir John Lubbock " 
whom he had made famous) it is obvious that 
none could well be found as suitable as that of 
" Avebury." It symbolised his interest in ancient 
things, especially ancient religions and civilisa- 
tions, and he had for a long while been associated 
with this site and this remnant of what seems to 
have been the greatest Druidical place of worship 
in Great Britain, and perhaps in the world. 

His diary of January 23 says : " Went and 
cleared out my locker at the House of Commons. 
It s sad to feel that my career there is over. 



Signed my dear old name for the last time." 
And, on the following day : " My peerage is in the 
Gazette. I began signing Avebury." 

It is evident that he did not part from the 
old life without a pang. As a legislator in the 
Commons his success had been extraordinary. 
It has been said of him that the majority of the 
measures which he passed were such as he had 
ascertained to have the goodwill of the country 
behind them, before he moved them, and that he 
was " no leader of a forlorn hope." After all, is 
that a criticism that should vex a man ? What 
higher justification of a measure is a mover to 
find than the opinion of the country in its favour ? 
And is it the part of a wise man to put himself in 
the van of any movement so desperate as to 
deserve the name of a " forlorn hope " when there 
are many wrongs less difficult to redress, many 
duties lying nearer ? Certainly Lord Avebury, 
as we should from this date style him, was the 
last of men to waste time unavailingly in strug- 
gling to perform impossibilities while possible 
ways of doing good were patent. Of all the 
measures dear to his heart to which he devoted 
any considerable attention, there is, I think, 
only one proportional representation which he 
failed to carry during his lifetime. That also is 
making progress, and may be seen in being in our 
Constitution before many years have passed. If 
it should so happen, it will be largely due to the 
combined efforts of the late Lord Avebury and the 
present Lord Courtney in preparing public opinion. 

Naturally he had an immense number of con- 
gratulatory telegrams and other messages on the 


honour paid him. One or two may be worth a 
passing notice for the sake of a happy phrase 
or point of interest. Town Councils, Chambers 
of Commerce, Tradesmen's Associations, Early 
Closing Associations, Societies and Companies 
financial, scientific, antiquarian, home and foreign, 
as well as individuals sent their tribute. Not only 
the Unionist leaders but no less than five of the 
Front Opposition bench congratulated him, and 
the Press, without exception, was cordial and 

On Tuesday, January 30, he writes : " Parlia- 
ment opened and I took my seat in the House of 
Lords. James and Kelvin introduced me. What 
a quaint ceremony ! Alice, Ursula and Irene 


A quaint ceremony, perhaps; but the intro- 
ducers were eminently the right persons Lord 
James of Hereford standing very justly for Lord 
Avebury's political opinions, since both had 
seceded from the Gladstonian ranks on the same 
historical occasion, and Lord Kelvin in association 
with his interests and achievements in science. As 
in many such cases the writers of the congratu- 
latory letters were in some little difficulty to know 
by what style to make their address. It is 
variously solved. Lord Morley commencing " My 
dear Lubbock " asks forgiveness for a slip of the 
pen and the old name coming forth ; but perhaps 
the happiest way out of the trouble is found by 
Lady Ritchie (the daughter of Thackeray), who 
beginning in the old manner has a postscript saying 
that she cannot write to " Lord Dash." This, of 
course, before the announcement of the new title. 



Indeed, Lady Ritchie's letter is altogether so 
delightfully expressed that its quotation may be 
welcomed : 

January 1st, 1900. 

MY DEAR SIR JOHN How delightful it is to look in 
the paper and for once to read something that is good 
news and makes one glad. 

Please accept our very sincere, very warm congratu- 
lations and sympathies for you and yours. It is the 
yours I think who enjoy such tokens of honour and 
public appreciation even more than the recipient. But 
old friends also, who have always sympathised and 
always found kindness during long years, must be 
allowed to feel happy, and I am one of these and with 
all good wishes, dear Sir John, I am, yours sincerely, 


I cannot write to Lord Dash so I must still write in 
the old formula. 

IQth February 1900. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK (Forgive me the wrong name 
has slipped from the end of my pen.) The Standing 
Committee at the Museum have asked me to succeed 
you as their representative in the House of Commons, 
and of course I had no objection. May I come to see 
you for five minutes on Tuesday or Wednesday or some 
other day. It will be no trouble to me to come to 
Lombard Street. 

I did not write to congratulate you, because I thought 
you would be glad to be spared superfluous letters. 
But you may be sure that like all the rest of the world 
I recognise with the utmost pleasure the deserved honour 
that has been done you. If the House of Lords is to be 
mended and not ended, I know no better way of mending 
than to call you into it. 

If you can tell me all that is to be told in a letter, 
don't let me waste your time in an interview. Yours 
sincerely, JOHN MORLEY. 

The comments in the above and in the follow- 
ing letters on the House of Lords have interest 
in view of the fate that has befallen that illustrious 



2nd January 1900. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I must send you a line or two 
of sincerest congratulation. It will be an immense 
pleasure to me to renew an old parliamentary association 
and I hope we may find some good work in which to 

The House of Lords, much abused as it is, has become 
very liberal in relation to social questions and you will 
find full opportunity for continuing the good work your 
name is so conspicuously associated with. 

If you have not already made your selection it would 
give me the greatest pleasure to be one of your sponsors 
when you take your seat. With all good wishes, yours 
sincerely, JAMES OF HEREFORD. 

LEXDEN PARK, January 1st, 1900. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I am glad that the first time I 
write 1900 it should be on a note congratulating you on 
an honour richly deserved and too long delayed. Your 
transfer to the other House will save you endless wear 
and tear, will indeed I think add some five years to 
what would otherwise have been your allotted span of 

Hoping that, under the altered circumstances, you 
may go a long way with the new century working but 
not over-working. I am, most sincerely yours, 


I address you as Sir John Lubbock, not knowing 
what title you will take. 

January 3rd, 1900. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK I have just read in the Times that 
you have been made a peer though I know not yet by 
what title and must address you as of old. Personally 
I have a little selfish regret for I shall miss you on the 
accustomed seat ; but that may not be long and anyhow 
it would be unpardonable for me not to rejoice in your 
own pleasure. 

I hope, indeed I feel sure, you will not be a mute 
member of the Lords. My great quarrel with that 
House is that it does so little, and you must take away 
some of this reproach. 

We are going off from this to Mortana to-morrow for 



two or three days, but expect to be back in London next 

My wife joins in congratulations and good wishes to 
Lady Lubbock, who will make an ideal peeress. Very 
faithfully yours, LEONARD COURTNEY. 

The Speaker's brief note of congratulation is 

SUTTON PLACE, 1st January 1900. 

DEAR LUBBOCK I send my sincere congratulations 
to you and Lady Lubbock upon your honourable 
banishment from the House of Commons. We who are 
left behind there are the only ones who have cause to 
deplore your promotion, but we shall all own that you 
have fairly earned this addition to the leisure which you 
so well know how to employ. I hope your Lordship will 
still condescend to occasionally play a round at golf 
with the humble Commoner who is Yours very faith- 
fully, W. C, GULLY. 

HIGHBURY, 2nd January 1900. 

MY DEAR LUBBOCK As an old friend permit me most 
heartily to congratulate you on your well - deserved 

We have worked together so long and so cordially 
that it is a real pleasure to me to see that your services, 
your character, and your attainments are properly 

May you have many years of usefulness and happiness 
still before you. Believe me, yours very truly, 


One of his congratulatory letters is from His 
Highness the Aga Khan, incidentally giving a 
terrible picture of the suffering caused by the 
combination of plague and famine at this time 
raging in India. " It is most touching," he writes, 
'' to see that in the midst of the anxieties of the 
South African War, people in England have not 
forgotten our misfortunes, and that the Lord 
Mayor has opened a Famine Fund." 

Aga Khan, a descendant of the famous 


" Assassin," and a most courteous and cultured 
gentleman, was often a guest at Lord Avebury's 
breakfast parties. 

One of the letters shows a very just apprecia- 
tion, as we shall think, both of the value of 
the distinction and of Lord Avebury's merits : 
" You have touched life at many many points, 
done good service in many good causes and made 
wonderful use of your life and opportunities. 
Nor is it a light thing to have made no enemies. 
I would rather be made a Privy Councillor, 
which you already are, than a Peer, because it 
is an honour more strictly reserved for merit. 
Still a Peerage, where it is deserved, is an envi- 
able distinction, and I hope you may live long to 
enjoy it." 

On his accession to the peerage Lord Avebury 
sent the following letter to the University of 
London, which he had represented in the 
Commons : 

HIGH ELMS, 1st January 1900. 

MY DEAR FOSTER You will have seen that Her 
Majesty has been graciously pleased to confer a Peerage 
on me, and deeply sensible as I am of this mark of her 
approbation, it brings with it one source of regret, viz. 
that I can no longer remain the representative of the 
University of London in the House of Commons. 

I shall feel obliged if you will convey to my constitu- 
ents my grateful sense of the generous support which 
I have received during the many years in which it has 
been my privilege to represent them in Parliament, and 
which I shall always look back on with a warm feeling 
of gratitude. 

I take the opportunity of tendering my thanks 
especially to you as Chairman, to the Vice-Chairman, 
the Secretary, and other members of the Committee. I 
am, my dear Foster, yours sincerely, 




The President returned an answer expressing 
warm appreciation of his services to the University 
and the regrets as well as the congratulations of 
the authorities. 

Shortly after his accession to the peerage one 
of the leading writers on the Gaulois invited him 
to write a letter to that paper which might help 
to dispel the deep misunderstanding of British 
aims at that date rife in France. 

MY LORD You will doubtless have observed that 
French thought as expressed by leading public men and 
in most journals of influence, generally tends towards 
the conclusion that an aggressive war against France is 
the settled policy of England. 

Some months ago, in an interview published in the 
Gaulois on the 8th December last, Mr. Lockroy (an 
ex-Minister of Marine) has expressed his belief that 
England will undoubtedly use her naval and military 
forces for commercial speculations ; that is to say, that 
she will endeavour to seize those colonial possessions 
of other nations in order to secure fresh outlets for the 
trade where it is at present closed by a system of high 

From my own knowledge I can say that the opinion 
is largely entertained that war between France and 
England is inevitable, and that it may break out at any 
moment, but the above is the only apparently serious 
reason which has been as yet given, and, what is more 
important, it has not been refuted. 

I have therefore conceived the idea that it would 
greatly conduce to a better understanding between the 
two nations if I was fortunate enough to obtain for 
publication in my paper, the Gaulois, an expression of 
opinion from two or three leaders of thought in the 
country, calculated to reassure the friends of peace and 
to dissipate what I believe to be the erroneous conception 
of English policy at present existing. 

I should therefore be deeply grateful if you would 
favour me with a few lines stating whether you think 
the French nation has cause for alarm : whether you 

xxxm LORD AVEBURY 127 

believe the idea of aggression on the part of England 
has any degree of foundation. Yours respectfully, 

(London Correspondent of the Gaulois). 

Lord Avebury was a little startled to be 
informed that such a very mistaken idea of 
our policy could be genuinely entertained, and 
replied : 

SIR You will indeed do a good service to both our 
countries in endeavouring to dissipate the absurd and 
mischievous impression to which you refer, and for which 
there is not a vestige of foundation. 

I enclose a note of which pray make any use you like, 
as I am writing entirely in the interests of peace. 
Allow me to add that if there is anything in my note 
which you think might be improved, or made clearer, 
I should be very glad to consider any amendment you 
might suggest. 

DEAR SIR I have seen with great astonishment that 
some of your leading public men, and even Journals of 
great influence, appear to imagine that this country is 
disposed to adopt an aggressive policy against France. 

There is absolutely no foundation for any such opinion. 

We have no doubt been surprised and disappointed 
at the attack on us in a large part of the French press, 
and especially at those on our Venerable Queen, but I 
fully recognise that the chivalry of the worthy sales- 
women on the Boulevards represented the best feeling 
of France more than the contemptible letter of a certain 
Duke. We recognise here that a war between England 
and France (whatever the outcome might be) would be 
one of the gravest possible misfortunes for both. 

For myself, having so many friends in your Country, 
and having as a Geologist and Archaeologist visited many 
out of the way parts of your beautiful country, and seen 
much of your people, I should view such a war with 

England and France have no doubt in some minor 
points interests which are not entirely the same. We 
regret that you do not see your way to give to our 
Commerce in your Colonies the same advantages as we 



give your Commerce in ours. But in by far the most 
numerous and the most important problems the interests 
of France and of England are identical. 

I am sure that I express the general feeling of my 
countrymen when I express the hope that the peace 
which has happily subsisted between us for so many 
years may long continue, and our friendly feelings grow 
stronger and stronger. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my own warm 
and earnest wishes for the happiness and prosperity of 
your great country. 

The Paris Chamber of Commerce had invited 
the Associated Chambers to hold their autumnal 
meeting at Paris, but there was considerable 
doubt whether it would be wise to accept, seeing 
how bitter was the feeling at this time between 
the two countries. 

On behalf of the Chambers Lord Avebury 
consulted Lord Salisbury on the subject, who said 
that their visit would be a great risk and that he 
could not advise it. At the same time he said 
that he should not like to raise any objection. 
Under these circumstances they determined to 
go. At the last moment Lady Avebury was not 
well enough to accompany Lord Avebury, but 
his daughters Ursula and Irene went with him. 
It turned out a great success. The best people 
in Paris were glad of the opportunity to dis- 
sociate themselves from the attacks on England. 
Millerand, the Minister of Commerce, came to 
welcome them to the Exhibition. They were 
taken to the Chamber of Deputies, to the Senate, 
and to the Hotel de Ville. The President, M. 
Loubet, gave them a party at the Elysee, lent 
Lord Avebury his box at the Opera, and asked 
him out to Rambouillet. 



It all went off so well that it may almost be 
regarded as a first step towards the Entente 
Cordiale. Until the visit of the Chambers, 
scarcely any English had been to the Exhibition. 
The Report of the Commissioners remarks on the 
fact and states that, whether in consequence of 
this visit or for some other reason unknown, as 
soon as the Chambers had been there a constant 
stream of English visitors followed. 

Lord Avebury expressly says that he found the 
public claims on his time much less heavy since 
his move up to the House of Lords. He had 
previously been invited to take the Presidency of 
the Royal Statistical Society, but had not felt 
that he could accept it while in the House of 
Commons. On his elevation to the Upper House, 
however, it was again proposed to him and he now 

The President of the Anthropological Institute 
wrote to him requesting him to deliver the first 
of an annual series of " Huxley '" lectures, in 
memory of his old friend Professor Huxley, and 
he gave the lecture accordingly in November of 
this year. 

Under considerable pressure from the President 
of the Board of Trade (Mr., afterwards Lord, 
Ritchie) he served on the advisory Commercial 
Intelligence Committee, but in spite of its rather 
formidable title this was not an office which 
occupied much time. He also consented to be 
nominated for the Chancellorship of St. Andrews 
University, which fell vacant through the death 
of the Duke of Argyll. 

The above are a few of the occupations of a 




year in which he began to have considerably more 
leisure than before. It was a time of great 
popular enthusiasm over the course of the war in 
South Africa. His son Norman went out to the 
war, starting on February 17, but was home 
again in November. On March 1 Lord Avebury 
notes : " Lady smith relieved by Buller. Great 
excitement. A crowd began to collect before 
10 o'clock in front of the Mansion House, and 
gradually increased, stopping all the traffic. At 
2 it occupied the whole space as far as the Royal 
Exchange, up Prince's Street, Cheapside and King 
William Street, and at 2.30 I went over to the 
Mansion House and suggested to the Lord Mayor 
to announce, and instruct the police, that at 3 he 
would come out and say a few words and suggest 
that they should sing c God save the Queen,' and 
then disperse. He thought it a good idea, and 
it was acted on. He asked me to stay, and I went 
out on the balcony with him and the Lady 
Mayoress. It was a memorable sight." 

Towards the end of May, Lord Avebury went 
with his daughter Ursula a trip to study the 
head waters of the Thames, and the early story 
of the river. The results are to be read in The 
Scenery of England. At the same time he opened 
the new library at Gloucester, where they were 
guests of Mr. and Mrs. Waller. 

In the autumn they took a house at Tenby for 
six weeks, and chartered a steamer which enabled 
them to see the interesting coast scenery in a 
very convenient way. He played golf and took 
much active exercise, actually bathing in the 
open sea. 



Shortly after their return from Wales his 
youngest child Maurice was born, on October 17. 

It was rather fitting that this year, in which 
he took Avebury for his title, he should have 
purchased a considerable area of ground, some 
seven hundred acres, adjoining his former property 
there. The new purchase was, from the farming 
point of view, a sheep farm, but of greater interest 
to him was the fact that it included the mound 
called by the great antiquarian, Stukeley, the 
" Serpent's Head." 


(AGE 67) 

His passing to the Upper House, naturally, as 
has been said, gave Lord Avebury much more 
time that he was able to call his own. It is true 
that he still, in his way of quiet industry, did a 
sufficient daily task for three men of ordinary 
habits, but at the same time it is to be noted that 
a considerable measure of this remarkable in- 
dustry was devoted to objects which cost him 
exceedingly little intellectual effort. The prepara- 
tion of such books as the Pleasures and the Use 
of Life was almost incidental to the reading of the 
great originals from which most of the high 
thoughts embodied in them were taken. The 
journeys which contributed to The Scenery of 
Switzerland and of England were a delight and a 
refreshment in themselves. They were rendered 
only the more attractive by the special purpose 
for which they were undertaken, and all the 
geological knowledge which gave them a solid 
basis of interest was ready stored for use in his 

Manifestly this is not a comment on the value 



of these writings. There are various modes of 
estimating the worth of literary achievement, but 
assuredly it is not justly to be measured by the 
labour involved in its production. A more 
correct mode might be by the gratification of 
readers, and on this test Lord Avebury might 
stand justified of his works above almost any 
other writer. Nor in estimating the facility and 
absence of strain with which he accomplished so 
immense a mass of work must we forget the 
remarkable ease with which he could pass from one 
to another subject of study and attention, the 
entire freedom from all unnecessary nerve wear 
such as most men experience owing to involuntary 
worry, and the perfectly serene atmosphere in which 
all was accomplished equally without haste as 
without waste. All these invaluable assets are 
to be attributed to the singularly complete control 
and self-command into which he had schooled him- 
self at a very early age. In fact the facility with 
which he accomplished his intellectual tasks is to 
be credited to the strength of his moral character 
as much as to his purely mental power. 

In the early part of this year the Empire was 
thrown in a mourning as profound and heartfelt 
as it is possible that a national grief can be by the 
death of Queen Victoria. Lord Avebury took his 
official part in the obsequies. He notes that on 
June 25 he " went up for the vote of condolence 
and congratulation. Salisbury did it very well, 
Kimberley and the Archbishop with much good 
feeling. The gallery was crowded with ladies in 
black which gave it a very gloomy appearance." 
And on February 2 : " Went down to Windsor for 



the funeral. Found all the maids out, so that I 
had to break the door chain assisted by a large 
crowd. Went down with Morley and the 
Brazilian Ambassador. In St. George's Chapel 
sat next Grant Duff. The black made it very 
gloomy. The music was beautiful, especially 
some of Purcell's." 

His amateur effort in housebreaking reads, in 
the hasty note of his journal, rather as if it had 
been committed on Windsor Castle itself " all the 
maids being out," but probably we may assume 
that the actual attack was on his own house at 
St. James's Square where he had called, on his 
way from High Elms, to put on the garb suited to 
the melancholy occasion. 

Another note in the diary, that under date 
March 14, is similarly rather enigmatic : " The 
Council breakfasted with me to meet Balfour." 
To " Balfour," thus lacking distinctive initials, 
it seems natural to think that "A. J." are those 
which should be supplied, but there is reason to 
suppose that respecting breakfast parties Mr. A. 
J. Balfour's attitude would be much that of Mr. 
Chamberlain, as noticed previously, and that the 
reference really is to his brother, Mr. Gerald 
Balfour, at that time President of the Board of 

During all this year Lord Avebury played golf 
assiduously, at least once a week on an average. 
All the first half of the year the Early Closing 
movement was engaging a great deal of his 
attention. He was frequently at meetings and 
committees relating to it. It was a great satis- 
faction to him that Lord Salisbury had consented 


to sit on the committee on this question for which 
he had moved, in February, in the House of Lords. 
Lord Salisbury, though recognising the existing 
evil, was not willing to go so far as Lord Avebury 
would have wished in the direction of a drastic 
remedial measure. On June 14 he notes : " Early 
Closing Committee. They agreed to recommend 
the Bill, Hardwicke not committing himself and 
Salisbury not being there." Three days later 
he was hoping that the Committee's final decision 
would be taken, but has to record : " We dis- 
cussed the Report, but came to no final vote. 
To my great disappointment, Lord Salisbury 
pronounced himself strongly against the Bill." 
However, on the 20th, when the Committee met 
again, he writes : " Salisbury said he admitted 
the evil, and felt bound to propose a remedy. 
He accepted the proposal to confer the power 
(of early closing) on Local Authorities, but 
thought it should be done by Provisional Order, 
so that Parliament might intervene if it thought 
fit. He accepted the body of the Report and 
we thought it best to take this suggestion, so 
as to get an unanimous report." 

Lord Salisbury's objection to the Bill as 
originally proposed was, briefly, that it would 
enable a majority of tradesmen in any trade to 
favour their own interests by putting a forcible 
restraint on their competitors. It was for this 
reason that he desired that the local option 
should be given by Provisional Order, retaining 
to Parliament the right, if occasion arose, of 

The shop people in many parts of the country 



seem to have appreciated fully Lord Avebury's 
labours in their interests, and he had many 
addresses of thanks, of which the following are 
typical. The first is from the Secretary of the 
Glasgow Association : 

MY LORD The Glasgow Grocers and Provision 
Merchants Associations have instructed me to convey 
to you their heartiest congratulations on the great 
success you have attained through the Early Closing 
Commission. They earnestly hope the day is not far 
distant when you will have the pleasure of seeing your 
efforts crowned with complete success by early closing 
becoming an established fact. 

And the following from the Belfast Associa- 
tion's Secretary : 

MY LORD I have been directed to convey to you 
the following resolution, which was passed at the meeting 
of our Board of Management last night : 

That this Association begs to congratulate Lord 
Avebury on the advance made in the public mind 
and amongst members in both Houses of Parlia- 
ment, especially amongst members of the present 
Government, on the question of earlier closing of 
shops, and urges his Lordship to continue to press 
forward his Bill, as it is the only measure before 
Parliament which commands or deserves to secure 
the support of traders and employees. 

His old friend, Mr. Philip Norman, a Fellow 
of the Society of Antiquaries, had written to 
him early in the year on a subject dear to the 
hearts of both the preservation, as a national 
possession, of the splendid monuments of Stone- 

Following this letter, Lord Avebury accepted 
an appointment on a committee of the Society 
to confer with Sir Edward Antrobus, but after 
a while resigned it, thinking that the Committee 



were not sufficiently insistent on the rights of 
access of the public to the great temple. 

He made some inquiries regarding the prob- 
able date, as indicated by the orientation, of 
Stonehenge and of Avebury respectively from 
Mr. Norman Lockyer, and received the following 
two letters in reply : 



February 22nd, 1901. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am getting together the 
orientation information regarding Stonehenge and am 
arranging to send down to get some fresh measures. 
About 2000 B.C. seems the most probable date so far 
as we have gone. I have sent the calculations to 

Avebury seems much more difficult to tackle. The 
circle seems to have been to the modern village what 
Memphis was to Cairo. Very sincerely yours, 




February 25th, 1901. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have been working at 
Avebury and trying to reproduce the 3 circles from 
those shewn on the ordnance map. 

My first trial orientation gives me the sun's declina- 
tion (14 55' N.) on May Day. This is remarkable. Do 
you know if there are any traditions of Bellam fires and 
May Day celebrations in the region ? Sincerely yours, 


At the end of March he went to Settle with 
Mr. Marr, and made some excursions in that dis- 
trict for the purposes of his Scenery of England, 
and in the ea*rly part of June he was at Rotting- 
dean to see his son Harold, and took the oppor- 
tunity to trace the present and speculate on the 
past course of the Ouse. It was Harold's last 



year at Rottingdean, and he went on, obeying 
what seems to be a law of nature for all Lubbocks, 
to Eton. 

At the annual dinner of the Bankers this year 
they presented Lord Avebury with a testimonial, 
in the form of plate, in recognition of his services 
as their Secretary, Vice- Chairman, and Chairman. 
He had acted as Secretary since 1863. 

On July 11 he notes that he went with the 
Duke of Northumberland to see the Lia Phail. 
The Dean had it taken out of the chair for their 
inspection. He writes : " There is a clear cross, 
and a series of marks making a quadrangle, as 
if a plate had been fixed on also a cup, not 
however very clear. It is a red sandstone with 
one or two quartz pebbles." 

The Lia Phail, it may be noted, is " the cele- 
brated stone, identified in Irish legend with the 
stone on which the patriarch Jacob slept when 
he dreamed of the heavenly ladder. The Lia- 
fail was supposed to have been brought to 
Ireland by the Dedannans and set up at Tara 
as the ' inauguration stone ' of the Irish kings ; 
it was subsequently removed to Scone, where it 
became the coronation stone of the Scottish 
kings, until it was taken by James VI. of Scotland 
to Westminster and placed under the Coronation 
Chair in the Abbey, where it has since remained." 
That is the account given of it, under article 
4 ' Inisf ail ' ' in The Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inis = 
island ; and poetically Ireland was sometimes 
named Inisfail, the island of the Fail or Phail. 

A few days previously he and Lady Avebury, 
having been advised to take their boy Eric 


to Margate for the sake of the tonic air, went 
there to look at houses, and eventually rented 
a house at Kingsgate, belonging to Mr. Luke 
Fildes, the artist. It was a tenancy destined to 
exercise a very considerable influence on their 
future life, for it led to Lord Avebury's purchase 
and rebuilding of Kingsgate Castle, which be- 
came a very great interest to him, and the 
favourite residence of himself and Lady Avebury 
in his later years. His own history of the 
purchase and building is brief enough : 

In July 1901 we took Holland House, at Kingsgate, 
entering on 22nd. Thought of buying the Castle. In 
October met Walker there to discuss it and bought it 
on the 19th. 

1902. Began rebuilding. The stone is " Doulting " 
a Jurassic sandstone. 

1903. Slept in the Castle for the first time on July 3rd. 
Went in on August 13th, but very unfinished. 

1905. Made the new road across Brook's Corner in 
September. In November paved the courtyard. 

We built the cloister to sit in and the rooms above, 
I think in 1909. 

1912. Built the new servants' quarters and garage. 
Bought the foreshore. 

The Castle is built in the form of a quadrangle, 
with the courtyard, paved in 1905, in the centre. 
What gives the place its unique character is 
its situation on the very edge of the chalk cliffs 
going straight down to the beach. The sea breaks 
upon the cliff at high tide, and it was partly 
in order to give* better protection to the cliff by 
masonry defences that Lord Avebury bought 
the foreshore in the last year but one of his 
life. From the interior of the house a stairway 
goes down into the earth, leading to a door, on 


opening which a sloping way is discovered which 
opens out on the shore, so that it is possible 
to make ready for a bathe in your own bed- 
room in the Castle and to go down through this 
glorified rabbit burrow to the sea without making 
any public appearance whatever. And from the 
Castle windows or the terrace you look out 
eastward over the sea and receive all the salt 
breezes as freely as if on a ship's deck. At the 
back the grounds are extensive enough to keep 
out of ear-range the sometimes rather noisy 
exuberance of the trippers and those who are 
enjoying the boon, which Lord Avebury himself 
assured to them, of the Bank Holidays. 

It was his delight to come down to this remark- 
able place, and here, in the decoration of the 
rooms, Lady Avebury found opportunity for 
the exercise of her talent in making " the house 
beautiful." It was here that I saw him last, 
sitting in the archway of the Castle which gives 
out on the terrace and on the view over the open 
sea beyond. He had his microscope on a little 
table before him, and in the clear light was 
examining, and exhibiting to any one who cared 
to look, what to the naked eye had all the 
appearance of an insignificant brown beetle of so 
small a size that the unlearned might almost be 
tempted to miscall it by the monosyllabic name 
of another insect (of the Hemiptera, however, 
not the Coleoptera), beginning with the same 
capital letter. Seen under the microscope, it 
discovered a carapace studded, as it seemed, 
with all the jewels of the world, glittering in a 
variety of hues and with an indescribable brill- 


iance. I remember that some one asked him, 
" Do you think the other insects see him like 
that ? 5! and Lord Avebury answered, with a 
gentle, non-committal smile, "It is very likely 
that they do." What a world of colour it 
suggests for their habitation ! 

All this building of the Kingsgate Castle and 
considerable change of residence came from the 
delicacy of the boy Eric, who now, as I write, 
is rowing "bow" in one of the Trial Eights at 
Oxford, so successfully was this early delicacy 
outgrown ! Of course, the High Elms house 
was always kept on, as well as a house in London 
for the season. Nor was it, as has been seen, 
till three years from the date now under notice 
that they began to inhabit the Castle. For 
the time being Lord Avebury returned to his 
duties in London. 

Appeal was made to him to exercise the pres- 
sure of his influence on the authorities of the 
London University to ensure the continued in- 
clusion of science among the Matriculation sub- 
jects. Some of the heads seem to have been 
inclined to allow more latitude in the choice of 
subjects, but it appears that he agreed with 
those who deemed science essential, considering 
the purposes of this University's existence, even 
at the earliest stage of its educational course. 
With that view he wrote : 

MY DEAR RUCKER Some of us who are interested 
in the progress of Science and the teaching of Modern 
Languages in our schools are very much disturbed in 
our minds at the Report of the Advisory Board now 
under the consideration of the Senate of the University 



of London, with reference to the Matriculation Examina- 

The recommendations of the Board are not only a 
departure from, but an absolute reversal of, the whole 
policy of the University from its foundation until now ; 
and would deal a disastrous blow to the teaching of 
Science, Modern Languages and Geography in our 

The recommendations of the Advisory Board are 
such that, if the system be adopted by the Senate, 
specialisation may commence in our schools from the 
very earliest period. 

A candidate may pass Matriculation in 

Mathematics (elementary or advanced), 

with no knowledge of Geography, History, Science or 
any Modern Language ; nor will, it is presumed, any of 
them be required in any of the subsequent examinations 
for a degree. 

Or to take another case, he may select 

Elementary Mathematics, 
Elementary Chemistry, 


Elementary Physics. 

In either case it is submitted that the student would 
have only a one-sided, and so to say a half education, 
instead of that wide culture which he now receives. 

Having regard to the Scholarships and Exhibitions 
offered by the great public schools and the older Uni- 
versities, it is feared that the Schools which now prepare 
for the wider, and as we think better, Matriculation of 
the University of London will adopt the system followed 
by other schools and will present their students in 

Elementary Mathematics, 

Ancient History, 



ignoring Modern Languages, Science, and Modern 

Those who are engaged in the Commerce and Manu- 
factures of this country have long deplored the dis- 
advantage at which we are placed by the neglect of 
Science and Modern Languages in most of our Schools. 
They have been preserved in some mainly through 
the influence of the Matriculation Examination of the 
University of London ; but if this Report be adopted, 
it is submitted that this light will also be extinguished. 
There may be some, though probably comparatively 
few, schools which may take an opposite or especially 
scientific direction, and present boys in 

Mathematics (elementary and advanced), 


Mechanics or some other branch of Science. 
This, however, we should regard as also very one-sided 
and unsatisfactory. 

The University has until now always required for its 
degree some knowledge of 

The Classics, 

Some Modern Language, 





Elementary Mathematics. 

This, it is submitted, constitutes a sound and broad 
education, and this wise standard has secured for the 
London Degree the high reputation it has hitherto 

Even if the Senate determine so seriously to narrow 
the Matriculation examination, it is submitted that at 
least some Science, one Modern Language, some know- 
ledge of history and of geography should be essential. 

Unless some such changers made, the London Degree, 
while a certificate of knowledge in certain limited depart- 
ments of human knowledge (like the Oxford and Cam- 
bridge local examination certificates), will cease to be 
any indication that the holder has received a liberal 

We submit that to commence specialisation at the 



very beginning of School life, to reduce Science to an 
optional subject, and to require no knowledge of any 
Modern Language, would grievously lower the character 
of the London Degree and exercise a most disastrous 
effect upon the education of our country. 

It is thus very evident that though Lord 
Avebury had been obliged, when becoming a 
peer, to cease representing the London Univer- 
sity in Parliament, he continued to take a 
zealous interest in its concerns. It is an interest 
which, in a certain sense, has been even post- 
humously continued, for shortly after his death 
the following appeal was issued by the Governors 
of the Bank of England. 



We have received from Mr. Walter Cunliffe, Governor 
of the Bank of England, the following copy of a letter 
dated from the Bank of England on January 17 : 

" The late Lord Avebury was so closely connected 
with both the world of business and of science that it is 
evident that subscriptions to any memorial to be raised 
to his memory should not be confined to any particular 
class, but should be representative of all his varied 

" To establish such a memorial, a small committee 
has been formed under the chairmanship of the Governor 
of the Bank of England, with representatives from the 
Royal Society, the University of London, the London 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Clearing Bankers. 

" This committee is of opinion that there can be no 
more suitable memorial than the foundation of scholar- 
ships in economics, and in some other branch of scientific 
research in which Lord Avebury was especially inter- 
ested, at the University of London, of which he was, 
as Sir John Lubbock, appointed a member of the Senate 
in 1865, Vice-Chancellor from 1872 to 1880, and member 
for the University from 1880 till he was raised to the 
peerage in 1900. 


" The minimum fund to establish such scholarships 
should amount to at least 5000, but a still larger sum is 
desirable, and if a sufficient sum were raised a professor- 
ship or readership might be founded. Towards this, 
subscriptions (see accompanying list) have been promised 
amounting to upwards of 2900. 

" Subscriptions should be paid in to the Lord Avebury 
Memorial Fund at the Bank of England and will be 
acknowledged in the Press. 

" The committee, of which Mr. Cunliffe is chairman, 
comprises in addition to himself Sir Felix Schuster, 
Lord Goschen, Lord Inchcape, Mr. J. Robarts, Mr. J. 
Beaumont Pease, Mr. R. Martin Holland, Lord Welby, 
Lord George Hamilton, Sir Edward Busk, University 
of London, Sir William Crookes, O.M., F.R.S., and Lord 
South wark, London Chamber of Commerce." 

In September the family moved house from No. 
2 to No. 6 St. James's Square, and Lord Avebury 
welcomes the move with the note of mild approval 
that he likes the new house better than he had 
expected to. But for the moment he was not 
long there, for they went to North Berwick 
for their usual autumn " holiday " as he calls 
it. He was busy enough even there, making 
excursions, studying the geology, and writing, 
but no doubt the main business of those autumn 
days was the playing of golf. They were at 
home again by October 19, and he resumed his 
usual routine of taking the chair at meetings 
and dinners, opening libraries and institutions 
in various places, and so on^ 

A note in his diary of November 23 records : 
" Jackson said that Goschen told him that in 
preparing the Queen's speech it was assumed 
that of course some measure (he forgot which) 
would come first. Gladstone asked ' Why ? ' 
and was told that he had said so. This he 



denied, and they produced a speech of his in 
Hansard in which he said it would come in the 
forefront. ' Oh yes,' he said, * but a front is 
a line, not a point.' : 

Re-reading, in the new edition now just issued, 
Mr. (now Sir James) Frazer's Golden Bough, Lord 
Avebury noticed that the writer attributed to Sir 
A. Lyall and to Mr. Jevons the distinction, on 
which he had insisted years before, between 
Religion and Magic. He therefore wrote to Mr. 
Frazer : 

llth November 1901. 

DEAR SIR I am reading the new edition of your 
Golden Bough, and there are one or two points which I 
had not noticed in the First Edition, and to which I 
should like to call your attention. 

On Page xvi-63 you attribute to Sir A. Lyall and 
Mr. Jevons the distinction or opposition between Magic 
(or as I prefer to call it Fetichism, because it does not 
seem to cover the whole of what is generally termed 
Magic) and religion. 

I had however pointed this out, and dwelt on it, years 
before, in my Origin of Civilisation. See for instance 
p. 206, 210, 332, etc. 

I wish to call your attention to this because the 
essential difference between an Idol and a Fetich, seems 
to have been overlooked by almost all writers on these 
subjects. Again on p. xviii with regard to the curious 
subject of the slain God may I refer you to The Origin 
of Civilisation, p. 367. 

It is a small point, but on p. 181, 1. 19, the word 
" family " would in a botanical sense be correct rather, 
than " species." I am, yours truly, AVEBURY. 

J. G. Frazer, Esq. 

Mr. Frazer replied : 

12th November 1901. 

MY LORD I am much obliged to you for pointing 
out to me how closely the views expressed in the second 



edition of my book The Golden Bough as to the relation 
of magic and religion agree with those which you had 
put forward long before in The Origin of Civilisation. 

I read that work (fourth edition, 1882) many years 
ago I believe in 1885 and no doubt it contributed to 
form the opinions which I hold as to the evolution of 
religion and society, for on looking through it again 
to-day I see how cordially I endorse many of the con- 
clusions you have come to on important points. I had 
no recollection that you had indicated the opposition of 
principle between magic (or, as you prefer to call it, 
fetichism) and religion. . . . 

The further point of the priority of magic to religion 
in the evolution of thought is one which, so far as I 
remember, neither Mr. Jevons nor Sir A. Lyall main- 
tained or even hinted at. 

When I argued for this priority of magic to religion 
in the second edition of my book, I was not aware that 
any one had done so explicitly before me, but I was 
careful not to claim any originality for the view, as it 
occurred to me that possibly some one might have drawn 
the same conclusion before me (Golden Bough, Second 
edition, vol. i. p. xvi). I am very glad to learn that you 
had actually done so, and I shall take care to point this 
out in the next edition of my book, if I ever see one 
through the press. The reason why I am particularly 
glad to find myself in agreement with you on this point 
is that the priority of magic and religion is just one of 
the things which appear to have met with least accept- 
ance among my critics. They will perhaps treat the 
theory more seriously when they find it is held by you 
also. Anyhow our independent agreement seems to 
confirm the probability of the theory. . . . 

I note the account in your book of the killing and 
eating of the god, to which you refer me. Merolla's 
description of the Congo custom, which you quote, 
particularly interests me, because it relates to a custom, 
very important for my argument, which was only known 
to me through the briefer description in Labat's 
Relation historique (see The Golden Bough, vol. ii. 
p. 8, second edition). If I ever bring out a new edition 
of my book, I will certainly quote or refer to Merolla's 
description, mentioning that you had done so before me. 
Merolla's " Voyage to Congo," as printed in Pinkerton's 


Voyages, was known to me and had been used by me in 
writing my book (e.g. vol. i. p. 172 of the second edition), 
but somehow this very interesting passage had escaped 

If, in reading my book in its new form (which contains 
about twice as much matter as the first edition), any 
other observations or criticisms should suggest them- 
selves to you, I shall be greatly obliged if you will 
communicate them to me. I will give them due atten- 
tion, and may be able to benefit by them in a third 

With many apologies for the length to which this 
letter has run, I remain, my Lord, your obedient 
servant, J. G. FRAZER. 

At the end of the year Lord Avebury is able 
to record the completion of the Scenery of 


(AGE 66) 

LORD AVEBURY was very busy in the early part 
of the year in efforts to pass the Early Closing 
Bill, but suffered several disappointments. In 
February he wrote : 

KENT, Wth February 1902. 

DEAR LORD SALISBURY We are, of course, dis- 
appointed that the Government have not brought in 
an Early Closing Bill, but under the circumstances I 
have done so, and hope we shall have your support. 

I have submitted it in the form the Shopkeepers 
desire, but have not forgotten the additions you sug- 
gested, and which I feel bound to accept if you desire 
it. I was not sure how you would word it, or what 
arrangement as regards expense you had in your mind. 

The modifications affect the framework of the Bill, 
and I suppose might be effected by a proviso that the 
decision of the Local Authority should not come into 
effect until it had the sanction of Parliament as 
signified by a Provisional Order. I am, yours very 
sincerely, AVEBURY. 

Lord Lister's attitude of surprise at the 
opposition to the Bill, expressed in the following 
letter, was that of most of those who thought 
with Lord Avebury on the subject : 




February I4th, 1902. 

MY DEAR LORD AVEBURY I regret that there is 
no prospect of my being able to attend the House on 

I also much regret to learn that Lord Salisbury, after 
all the additional evidence obtained by the Committee, 
should still hesitate. 

The only objection that I have heard raised to a 
Measure so manifestly conceived in the best interests 
of the health and well being of the Community, is that 
it might possibly interfere with the convenience of the 
purchaser. But this has, it seems to me, been most 
adequately guarded against in the Bill. Believe me, 
very sincerely yours, LISTER. 

On February 18 Lord Avebury moved the 
Second Reading of the Bill, saying that he had 
not introduced words to carry out Lord Salisbury's 
suggestion, as he thought the Government had 
better draft their own words, and he would accept 
them. Much to his surprise the Government 
declined to accept this proposition, and threw 
out the Bill by 57 to 26. Lord Salisbury was 
absent from the House. Had he been present 
it is unlikely so at least Lord Avebury believed 
that this would have occurred. He notes in 
his diary : " Bishop of Winchester, Spencer and 
Rosebery were for us : Belper, Wemyss, Hard- 
wicke and the Chancellor against." He seems 
to have felt the defeat rather keenly, and a few 
days later wrote to decline re-election as Chair- 
man of the Liberal Unionist Council on account 
of the line taken by the Government on the Bill, 
and also wrote a letter of expostulation, at the 
same time, to Lord Belper. His refusal to 
consent to re-election as Chairman of the Party 
Council drew what he speaks of as "a very kind 



letter " from the Duke of Devonshire pressing 
him to reconsider this decision. This was 
followed by a letter from Lord Belper, as to 
which he writes : " Had a friendly letter from 
Belper and a long talk with him in the House of 
Lords. I am in hopes they will not oppose us 
next year." And the conclusion of the matter, 
for the moment, was that he consented to re- 
election to the Chairmanship. 

Early in March he had interviews on the 
same subject on two successive days with Lord 
Ritchie, after the last of which he writes : "I 
hope something may be done," and again, two 
days later, he saw the same Minister again. A 
month later he writes : " Had a very satis- 
factory interview with Sir K. Digby about the 
Early Closing Bill, which I am going to re- 
introduce, and think we settled everything satis- 
factorily." On April 28 he " arranged with 
Lord Salisbury to take the Early Closing Bill 
on Monday next. I believe the whole Committee 
will support." But again his hopes and all 
present prospect of passing the Bill were defeated, 
for on the Monday he writes : " Brought in the 
Early Closing Bill, with Salisbury's clauses. 
The Government having declined previously to 
alter it, on the ground that it would be a new 
Bill, now turned round and sajd it was the same, 
and moved the ' previous question.' : 

Thus for the time being all his work had 
availed nothing, though later it served its purpose, 
for the Government, finding the Shopkeepers 
strongly in its favour, brought in the Bill them- 


He had been laid up with influenza in the 
early part of February, but soon threw off the 
attack, and does not seem to have suffered any 
subsequent weakness. On March 4 he gave an 
address to the Chamber of Commerce about which 
Mr. Harold Cox writes, asking permission to 
publish it on behalf of the Cobden Club. He 
speaks of it as a " splendid " address, and ex- 
presses the regret of the Club that " so good 
a free-trader " as Lord Avebury is not a member. 

There are many entries in the diary of this year 
about golf, generally at Mitcham or Richmond, the 
Lord Chancellor and the Speaker being his most 
frequent play-fellows. And his almost weekly 
breakfast -parties seem to have been very well 
attended, although some of his friends continued 
to expostulate with him on so " archaic " a 
form of hospitality. 

His new book, The Scenery of England, supplied 
him with material ready to hand for lectures, 
given under the same title and in various places. 
His lucid and simple language and his acute 
knowledge of what would interest his audience 
made him an ideal lecturer. It was a mode of 
exposition which came extremely easy to him, 
and which he made equally easy for his hearers. 
The lectures were always crowded. From one 
at the Egyptian Hall many had to be turned away 
because the house was full. But in his interest 
in his new subject of the " scenery," his old 
friends the ants were not forgotten, and one of 
the lectures of this year was on that old familiar 

Out of a very large number of appreciative 


letters which he received about the Scenery of 
England book, the three following may be quoted 
the first, from the Speaker, for the sake of his 
quaint " law of compensation " suggestion, and 
the others as being from distinguished men of 
science, showing how highly they estimated this 
essentially " popular " work. 

23rd February 1902. 

DEAR AVEBURY It was very kind of you to tell 
Macmillan to send me a copy of your most interesting 
book. I wonder how you find time for so much thinking 
and writing. And, on the doctrine of averages does 
it not sometimes afflict you to consider how many 
thousand unfortunate people must have been born 
blind to all that passes around them in order to com- 
pensate for your prodigious powers of observation ? 

I am glad to see you have recovered from your 
influenza. Yours very truly, W. C. GULLY. 

Professor Bonney, the President of the Geo- 
logical Society, writes : 

February 18th, 1902. 

MY DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am very much obliged 
to you for the copy of your new book on the Scenery of 
England, which I greatly value. There was certainly 
need for a volume of the kind, for Ramsay's book, as 
you say, was a* little too geological, and it was not 
improved by some of the later additions. I am not 
sure whether even you might not with advantage have 
given a little more expansion to the scenery at the 
expense of the geology. All the descriptive parts are 
so good the section about the Downs, for instance, 
breathes the very air of those great billows of turf 
scenery which has an inexpressible charm and is unique 
of its kind. I should have liked you to take each of 
the separate types of our scenery you have done it 
to some extent and to have worked it out with the 
same elaboration, so that the reader could feel the 
spirit of the place. But there are already not a few 



"cameos," so that one must not complain and, like 
Oliver, " ask for more." Very interesting too are the 
chapters on " Law, custom, and scenery " and on 
" Local Divisions." The illustrations also are admirable. 
I congratulate you on the result of your labours and 
again thank you very heartily. Very truly yours, 


Sir G. Stokes, President of the Royal Society, 

17th February 1902. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am very much obliged to 
you for your kind present of your book The Scenery 
of England, which I received from the publishers a 
couple of days ago. I see it contains a great deal of 
information besides scenery, and promises to be very 
interesting, though, having lectures on hand, I have 
not yet had time to read much of it. 

I notice you speak of the different colours of different 
lakes. This leads me to make a few remarks about 
blue water, such as that of the Rhone as it issues from 
the Lake of Geneva, or of the Rhine at the falls of 
Schaffhausen. There is no doubt that the natural 
colour by transmission of pure water is a pale blue ; 
but you don't ordinarily get it in mass sufficiently pure 
to show this. In the glaciers we have to deal with 
water which has been distilled by Nature, precipitated 
as snow, squeezed into ice, and so not contaminated 
with organic matter by percolating through earth. 
In the ice of a glacier arch we see the natural colour of 
pure water. I have never been in Egypt ; but I sup- 
pose from its name the Blue Nile owes its colour to the 
same cause : it is fed chiefly by the melting of snow 
and ice in Abyssinia. The milky colour of streams 
running out of glaciers in Switzerland is due to abraded 
matter in suspension, which gets deposited in passing 
through a lake, so that after subsidence the water is 
pure. Pardon me for mentioning all this, which I 
daresay you are familiar with already. A very little 
impurity, such as we have in bog water, is sufficient to 
turn the scale, and prevent us from seeing the natural 
pale blue of water. 

I saw in the Standard 2 or 3 days ago that you were 



better. I had not heard of your having been ill, and 
I have seen nothing about it since ; so I hope it was 
merely a passing ailment, perhaps a slight cold, such 
as many people have at present. 

With kind remembrances to Lady Avebury, I remain 
yours sincerely, G. G. STOKES. 

The design of the book, like that of The Scenery 
of Switzerland, was not so much, in the first 
instance, to describe the scenery, as it may be 
seen to-day, as to indicate the forces by which 
it was formed in past ages. The following 
quotation may serve as an example : , 

Every one must have observed that there is a marked 
difference between our east and west coasts the west 
being irregular and deeply indented, the east presenting 
rounded sweeps. This is due partly to the greater 
elevation, and partly to the different hardness of the 
rocks, those on the west being more ancient, and much 
harder, while those on our eastern shores, being more 
recent and more destructible, consisting of chalk, clay, 
sand, or gravel, have suffered far more from the action 
of the waves ; the projecting headlands being gradually 
worn away, and the materials carried into the bays. 
The general trend of the currents on our eastern coast 
being towards the south, it will be observed that the 
headlands tend to point in that direction, as for instance 
at Spurn Point, JFelixstow, etc. ; and the mouths of 
many of our eastern rivers are also deflected, some for 
several miles, towards the south. 

A glance at the map of Europe will show that there 
is a remarkable difference between the rivers of the 
Atlantic and those of the Mediterranean. The Atlantic 
rivers terminate in estuaries, those of the Mediterranean 
in deltas. Our rivers terminate in estuaries because the 
land stood at a recent period (speaking of course geo- 
logically) at a higher level than the present ; but these 
estuaries would have been to a great extent filled up 
ere now if it had not been for the action of the tides. 
The Mediterranean, on the contrary, is almost tideless, 
and the rivers have been able to build out deltas. 



A few years before, Lord Avebury had begun 
to write down, in a notebook specially given to 
the subject, all the more interesting of his dreams. 
Some are very curious, and there is little doubt 
that he contemplated writing a book on the sub- 
ject. He never attempted, so far as I am aware, 
any work of the creative imagination. Romance 
had little attraction for him. As a boy he had 
written verses, but they were not of remarkable 
quality. One would be disposed to deny him 
the gift of creative imagination, though it is 
manifest that he possessed in a high degree the 
scientific imagination that faculty which sug- 
gested to him questions as to the reasons why 
this or that natural fact happened as it did. 
It was a faculty fostered, doubtless, by the great 
example of Darwin, who had it in such excellence. 
But in his dreams Lord Avebury's imagination 
created for him strange fancies enough, the more 
strange considering that in the normal plane of 
consciousness his mind never showed any romantic 
bent whatever. The fact is to be noted : it 
would be hazardous to venture explanation. 

His dreams traversed the usual fantastic 
range he fell, he flew, he found himself in 
inadequate clothing at the most inconvenient 
moments, he was chased by monsters, he him- 
self was changed into a monster and comported 
himself as such the usual experiences. The 
surroundings, the dream scenery, were some- 
times of a wild character, but more often drawn 
from the pursuits of his waking life. He went 
geologising, golfing, bathing, to business in the 
House. Occasionally the Houses of the legis- 



lature underwent some transformation : "I was in 
the House of Lords," he writes, " which was a much 
longer room than it really is, with a large chimney- 
piece, armchairs, sofas, etc. The House of 
Commons did not sit as long as we did, and used 
to come and listen to our debates. Almost 
before we began they trooped in. Chamberlain 
took a comfortable armchair. 

" Then began some charades. Asquith took 

Miss X up to Haldane, who was standing 

with his back to the fire, and made some sort 
of an address. Then Haldane floated up the 
chimney, and after some interval came down 
again, covered with soot." 

This is not given by any means as a specimen 
of the finest flights of fantasy of which he was 
capable in his dreams. Still, some of its incidents 
especially the last are such as would be 
sufficiently improbable in real life. 

Not so well known as many of his other books, 
but one which was of much use and interest 
to those to whom it made its appeal, is Coins 
and Currency, wjiich also he brought out this 
year. It was a subject of which, on almost all 
its various sides, he could write with special 
knowledge. As a banker and student of finance 
he had his opinions on the " currency " question 
ready formed, and as an antiquarian his study 
of coins, and even his collection of coins, gave 
him authority in that division of his subject. 
A note in his diary records his gratification at 
receiving from Mr. Grueber, of the British Museum, 
the gift of a coin of Pontius Pilate. 

In this, as in all his books, he took immense 


pains to verify the exactness of his statements, 
and had consulted Mr. Grueber as to the date 
on which " Dei Gratia " first occurred on our 
money, receiving the reply that it was safer to 
ascribe it to the coins of Edward III. rather 
than of Edward I. The doubt arises owing to 
a coin (a groat) attributed to Edward I. having 
the " D.G." upon it ; but the date given to the 
coin itself appears in doubt, and Mr. Grueber 
says he is " pretty certain " it is of the third 
Edward's reign. 

So complete was the book that even Mr. 
Barclay Head, for a long while chief of the 
coin department of the British Museum, could 
write of it that he had read it with very great 
interest and instruction, " for much of it is new 
to me." 

Certainly he had spared no pains. He used 
every endeavour to trace the history of Bank 
Notes. Mr. Palgrave having referred to an 
enquete held in Paris, but being unable to furnish 
any particulars, Lord Avebury wrote to the Bank 
of France on the subject, and received the follow- 
ing reply : 

Banque de France. 
Secretariat G6ne*ral. 

PARIS, le 23 Janvier 1902. 

MONSIEUR Nous avons fait de nombreuses recherches 
pour essayer de donner satisfaction a Lord Avebury, 
elles sont reste*es completement infructueuses. Nous 
ne croyons pas qu'il y ait eu une enquete. Nous serions 
plutot disposes a penser que I'Ambassadeur de France 
a Stockholm a pu adresser a son Gouvernement un 
rapport sur la Banque de Suede fondee par Palm- 
struck, qui existait depuis 1656. Nous avons cherche* ce 
rapport, si tant est qu'il ait ete fait, sans pouvoir le 



retrouver. Du reste, les billets de banque e*taient fort 
connus en France, ou la Banque de Law leur avait 
valu une facheuse celebrite, et comme on ne voulait 
plus de papier monnaie, 1'exemple de la Banque de 
Suede n'aurait eu aucune chance d'etre suivi. 

Si M. Inglis Palgrave voulait bien nous dire ou il a 
puise sa citation nous continuerions nos recherches. 

Avec le regret de ne pouvoir vous renseigner plus 
completement, je vous prie d'agreer, Monsieur, 1'assu- 
rance de ma consideration tres distinguee. 


M. Talbot Agar, 

Secretaire de L'Institut des Banquiers, 
34 Clements Lane, E.C. 

On this he wrote to the Bank of Sweden : 

15th May 1902. 

SIR I do myself the pleasure of sending you a 
Copy of a little book of mine on Coins and Currency. 

May I call your attention to page 106 ? 

Neither Mr. Palgrave nor the Bank of France have 
been able to give me any information as to the 
" Enquete." Mr. Agar, Secretary of our Central Associa- 
tion of Bankers, of which I have the honour of being 
President, has written to Sweden, but has also been 
unable to obtain any particulars. 

If you can give mfe any information on the subject 
or any particulars as to the early issue of Bank notes 
in Sweden, I should be greatly obliged. I am, yours 
faithfully, AVEBURY. 

The President, 
The Bank of Sweden, 

But they, too, were unable to give him any 

He did not limit his inquiry to more recent 
times, requesting aid of Mr. Wallis Budge, who 
writes thus of some very early business trans- 
actions and records : 





3rd January 1902. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY Herewith a few notes of 
the contents of business tablets which we have here. 
I hope they will be useful, but if there is any other kind 
which you want, please say and I will see if we have 
any examples. I have taken most of them from the 
oldest tablets which we have so that you may be able 
to say that the business transactions were not influenced 
by the Persians and others. I have given dates and 
numbers so that reference may if necessary be made 
to the tablets. . . . I am, my Lord, yours obediently, 


The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Tablets Nos. 33,945 and 41,459 contain the record of 
an important law -case and give the judicial decision. 
A woman called Bunanitum married a man who 
before his death made over to her a large property in 
Bonsippa, which had been bought with part of her 
dowry in the 4th year of Nabonidus B.C. 551. With 
the other part of her dowry he traded and made a good 
deal of money. His name was Apil-addu-natanu. In 
due course his daughter by Bunanitum, called Nubta, 
married, and was promised a dowry of 2 manas 10 
shekels of silver. Before this dowry was paid 
Bunanitum' s husband died, and his brother, called 
Akabi-ilu, laid claim to and seized all his property, 
including that portion of it which had been bought 
with the dowry of Bunanitum. Bunanitum brought 
an action against her brother-in-law, and the judge 
decided the case in her favour, and declared that the 
whole of the property of the deceased belonged to her 
and to her family. These documents are dated in the 
9th year of Nabonidus B.C. 546. 

From Tablet No. 30,506 we learn that the amount of 
money which Bunanitum and her husband borrowed 
was 1| manas and 8J shekels, and the lender was Iddina- 
Marduk. Now, since 1 mana contains 60 shekels, 
Bunanitum borrowed 98 J shekels. She agreed to pay 
as interest 61 shekels per month, therefore the interest 
was over 60% per month, or over 720% per annum. 



[A money-lender's trade must have been worth 
plying in the good old days of Nabonidus, and 
it seems easy to understand why the usurer was 

From Tablet No. 17-10-2, 2 we learn that a part of the 
property claimed by Bunanitum's brother-in-law had 
been purchased in the 2nd year of the reign of Nabonidus, 
at Bonsippa for 11 J manas of silver, B.C. 553. 

From a letter of Khammurabi we see that a man 
was charged with bribery, and the king sent men to 
enquire into the charge. Sin-idinnam is ordered to 
set a seal upon the silver or upon whatsoever was offered 
as the bribe, and to send it to the king. The word for 
silver is kaspa and it is probable that small lumps of 
silver were carried about and used as money. 

(Tablet No. 12,829, B.C. 2300.) 

A moneylender called Ani-ellati lent on certain land 
in Babylon more money than it was worth, intending 
to foreclose on it when the crop was grown. The 
borrower, Lalum, bought the seed corn and grew his 
crop, but at harvest the usurer seized both land and 
crop. Lalum appealed to the king, 1 who caused the 
old land registers to be examined, and when this was 
done, it was found that twenty gan 2 had been assigned 
to him in olden days and that he could not sell or part 
with the property. The* king ordered the usurer to 
be punished and the restitution of the land. 

(Tablet No. 12,821, B.C. 2300.) 

Hishu-ibi lent Sin-magir 30 gur of corn (about 10,800 
litres) and took a receipt for same ; each year for 3 
years he asked for payment but never got it. The 
king orders the corn to be paid, and interest upon it. 
(Tablet No. 12,864, same date.) 

Khammurabi orders that the money which the 
scribe Sheb-sin has received from the merchants shall 
be sent to him in Babvlon. 

(Tablet No. 12,838, same date.) 

1 Khammurabi. 

8 The gan was a piece of land about 430 yards long by 20 yards wide. 



47 Shepherds are ordered by the king to come to 
Babylon that their accounts may be audited. 

(No. 23,122, same date.) 

The shepherd of the Temple of Shamash is ordered 
to come with other officials to render their accounts. 
They are to travel day and night and to reach Babylon 
in 2 days. (No. 23,148, same date.) 

The inhabitants of Rabim and Shakanim complained 
to Samsu-iluna that the men of Sippar came down in 
boats and fished in their waters ; the king ordered the 
withdrawal of the boats, and said they were never to 
go to Rabim to fish again. (No. 27,269, B.C. 2145.) 

King Abeshu, B.C. 2110, orders Ishtar-Ishmeshu to 
bring to Babylon the silver which is due from the 
merchants of Sippar for the revenue. He orders that 
the chief local merchants shall " pack the silver," and 
bring it themselves to Ishtar-Ishmeshu ; if they will 
not do this they shall be brought to the king in person. 

(No. 26,962.) 

Sini-Ishtar made an affidavit in the Temple of the 
Sun-god that the houses which he and his brother bought 
from Sin-Muballit were bought with his mother's money, 
and that no one has a claim on the property. 

(No. 33,222, B.C. 2300.) 

Apil-ili hired Nur-Martu from his father for 1 year 
at the rate of 4| of a shekel of silver, i.e. about 14/- 
(fourteen shillings). A deposit of one shekel was paid 
by Apil-ili. 

Nin-sagil and a friend hired two boys, one from his 
father, and the other from his mother, for 10 days 
during harvest. (No. 92,594.) 

A male slave was sold for 6 shekels of silver in the 
reign of Abeshua. (No. 92,554, B.C. 2110.) 

And a female slave for 4j shekels. (No. 92,551.) 

In the reign of Samsu-ilund (B.C. 2145) the three 
sons of a widow called Jashukhatum tried to take pos- 
session of their father's house and goods ; the widow 
appealed, and Tablet No. 92,510 contains the decision 
of the court to the effect that she was the rightful 
owner of everything. 

In the reign of a predecessor of Khammurabi a 
certain garden in Babylon was illegally seized by 


Mar-martu, and its rightful owner, Ilu-bani, had to go 
to law to obtain possession of it. Ilu-bani was the 
adopted son of Sin-Magir, who had bequeathed to him 
the garden. Mar-martu held that the garden could 
not be alienated from himself, the rightful successor, 
and probably a relative of Sin-Magir. Soon after 
Ilu-bani had gained his case another claimant and 
relative appeared called Sin-Muballit, and he by some 
means got possession of the garden. Ilu-bani had to 
go to law again, and Tablet No. 33,214 contains the 
text of the judgment in his favour. (B.C. 2220.) 

In the reign of Sin-Muballit a house which was 
situated on the highway to Kishtum was sold to Elali, 
and a special price was paid for it because it was situated 
immediately on the highway and had a " frontage on 
the street." (No. 92,560.) 

In the reign of Apil-Sin (B.C. 2240) a piece of land 
on the river Kabh was sold by Makhnubi-ili to Mannasha, 
and a special price was paid because it was on the river. 

(No. 92,512.) 

A house and a cellar in the basement of a neighbouring 
inn was sold by Sin-abushu to Ibik-Ishtar. 

(No. 92,521.) 

Sini-Ishtar and Iriba$Sin became partners about 
B.C. 2300 in Babylon. Wishing to dissolve partnership 
they went to the temple of Shamash before a judge, 
who heard the case, and then made a ruling as to the 
division of the common stock and capital. The original 
capital is brought into court and each takes back his 
share ; of the stock each takes half. Iriba-Sin receives 
a male slave with all the tools of his handicraft, and a 
female slave ; Sini-Ishtar receives 2 slaves, one male 
and one female. They next swear that each is treating 
his companion fairly in the house of Shamash and Sin. 
They take oaths to* the effect that neither will make a 
complaint or bring an action at law against the other, 
and that any accusation which one may bring against 
the other as to the division of the property shall be 
illegal and wrong. These things they swear by 4 gods 
and the king (Khammurabi) in the presence of eight 
witnesses. (No. B. 73.) 


Amat-Mamu exchanges one large house for 3 small 
ones and a money payment of 70 shekels of silver. 

(No. 92,532, B.C. 3200.) 

About B.C. 2060 a man bartered oil to the value 
60 shekels of silver for a number of slaves. 

(No. 92,547.) 

The Tablets sound wonderfully modern, and 
are of special interest in their evidence of women 
holding property. 

Notice of this little book on coins, in which 
much learning was epitomised, may be concluded 
with the following : 

June I0th, 1902. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am delighted to receive 
from you a Copy of the history of Coins and Currency. 

We had a fight for the Gold Basis as you know. I 
wrote some articles on the subject one of which had 
a circulation of five millions; we do things on a big 
scale, and the Campaign Committee did this. 

I send you a Copy of it in the Book Empire of Business, 
A.B.C. of Money. 

I am just now in a strange position the reputed 
publisher of two books, Gospel of Wealth, etc., and this 

I only said to my two friends help yourselves, you 
are welcome to publish anything I have written which 
I am free to give you. 

They went to work and selected. I got first Copies 
as presentation Copies, that's all. Yours sincerely, 


P.S. If you visit the North should be glad to have 
you with us here. A. C. 

On the invitation of Mr. Edmund Gosse, 
given on behalf of the Society of Authors, Lord 
Avebury came on the Committee to decide (in 
the absence of a British Academy of Letters) on 
the candidate for the Nobel prize for literature, 
and was appointed Chairman. The choice of 



the Committee eventually fell on Mr. Herbert 
Spencer, though not without some little searchings 
of heart, of a nature which is indicated by this 
letter of Mr. Lecky's : 

Saturday, Jan. 18/02. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY Would you excuse me for 
troubling you with a few lines about the Nobel Prize ? 
I declined to join the Committee for electing Candidates 
for it, in the first place because I am at present at 
Torquay for my health (I return to London on Monday), 
and in the next place because I had more work on my 
hands than I can manage, and I assumed that I should 
then have nothing more to say to the matter. I have 
however received an urgent notification from the 
Society of Authors asking me to vote without delay 
and suggesting Herbert Spencer as their Candidate. 
Would you tell me whether this is the unanimous re- 
commendation of your Committee, or at all events 
whether it has your approval ? I suppose the First 
Principles may be said to have " an idealistic tendency," 
though I am not very clear about what that means. 
I don't think any of his other works can be said to 
have it. I have not been following carefully the Nobel 
question, but I was under the impression that the 
prize was to be awarded to a work recently published ; 
and the First Principles appeared I suppose half a 
century ago. I have a great admiration for Herbert 
Spencer (though I should never have thought of him 
as an idealist) and should be glad to do anything I 
could for him and I cannot think of any important 
English work of an " idealistic tendency " that has 
lately appeared ; but I am a good deal perplexed about 
what to do, and if my vote is not particularly wanted 
I should be rather inclined to do nothing. Yours very 
sincerely, W. H. LECKY. 

Mr. Lecky accordingly withheld his vote, 
but Mr. Herbert Spencer was nominated by the 
Committee, notwithstanding, and replied, with 
much appreciation of the honour : 


January 27th, 1902. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY Your letter gave me a double 
surprise. Being now so much out of the world I did 
not know that a Nobel Prize Committee had been 
appointed, still less did I know that I had been nominated 
by it. 

Let me thank you heartily for the part you have 
taken in the matter, but I doubt not that your advocacy 
as President had much to do with the decision. 

Whatever may be the issue it will always be a pleasure 
hereafter to remember this mark of appreciation and 
sympathy given by the select of my brother authors. 
Sincerely yours, HERBERT SPENCER. 

In July a dinner was held at the Athenaeum, 
which brought together perhaps as remarkable 
a gathering of talent and achievement as has 
ever assembled for that great purpose of dining, 
which is proverbially so dear to the Briton. Mr. 
Tedder, who has for many years filled the post 
of Secretary and Librarian to the distinguished 
Club, and was thus brought into close and 
frequent association with Lord Avebury, has 
very kindly contributed a brief account of his 
connection with the Club and especially of his 
chairmanship on this which is almost worthy 
to be named an historical occasion : 

" Lord Avebury was elected a member of 
the Athenaeum on March 9, 1857, at the early 
age of 23. His proposer was Lord Hotham 
and his seconder Charles Darwin. His father, 
the Right Honourable Sir John William Lubbock, 
Bart., was an original member of the Club, having 
been among the first elected in 1824. 

" Sir John Lubbock was frequently chosen 
as a member of the Committee, and in 1872 
became one of the three Trustees in succession 


to Sir Roderick Murchison, F.R.S. In this office 
he had for his colleagues from first to last : Sir 
F. A. Abel, Lord Aberdare, Lord Collins (Master 
of the Rolls), Sir H. H. Cozens-Hardy (the 
present Master of the Rolls), the Rt. Hon. Sir 
M. E. Grant Duff, Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A., 
Frederic Ouvry, Esq., P.S.A., Lord Overstone, 
Earl Roberts, K.G., General Sir Edward Sabine, 
P.R.S., and Earl Stanhope, P.S.A. 

" Lord Avebury made an admirable chairman 
of a Public Meeting, most urbane, courteous, 
conciliatory and at the same time well versed in 
all the technicalities of business, and concealing 
a firm grasp of the proceedings under a pleasant 
mask of extreme deference and politeness. As 
Trustee he frequently presided at the meetings 
of the Committee on the occasion of the special 
elections under rule 11, and was very often 
chosen to preside at the Annual Meetings of 
the Club. At one time iie was President of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and I well remember the 
remarkable skill and tactfulness with which he 
conducted a General Meeting when a matter 
which had raised some feeling among the Fellows 
was discussed. 

" Lord Avebury made much use of the Library 
of the Athenaeum, and I have frequently helped 
him in verifying quotations. 

" Perhaps the most noteworthy event among 
the associations of Lord Avebury with the 
Athenaeum was the dinner given to the Members 
of the Order of Merit immediately after the 
foundation of the Order by King Edward VII. 
in 1902, the year of his Coronation. Nine of 



the twelve original members of the Order were 
or had been members of the Athenaeum. The 
twelve were the following : Field-Marshal Earl 
Roberts, 1 General Viscount Kitchener, Lord 
Rayleigh, 1 Lord Kelvin, 1 Lord Lister, 1 Admiral 
of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel, Admiral Sir 
E. H. Seymour, Sir William Huggins, 1 Field- 
Marshal Viscount Wolseley, 1 Right Hon. John 
(now Viscount) Morley, 1 Right Hon. W. E. H. 
Lecky, 1 G. F. Watts, Esq., R.A., 1 and when it 
was decided to entertain them at dinner, Lord 
Avebury was chosen to take the Chair. 

" The Coffee Room was closed to ordinary 
business on July 25, on the occasion of the 
dinner, and about 150 members assembled, the 
members of the newly instituted Order occupying 
the top table. Before dinner a telegram signed 
by Lord Avebury was despatched to the King 
(then at Cowes, recovering from his serious 
illness), and His Majesty sent a gracious reply 
which was received before the close of the dinner : 

LORD AVEBURY I thank sincerely you and the Com- 
mittee and Members of the Athenaeum assembled at 
dinner in celebration of the establishment of the Order 
of Merit for your telegram and kind good wishes. 


" Lord Avebury proposed the toast of the 
members of the Order and described the occasion 
as a memorable and unique event in the history 
of the Club. He then outlined the distinguished 
services of each of the guests, prefacing his 
remarks by saying that a whole evening would 
be insufficient adequately to do justice to the 

1 Member of the Athenaeum. 



" Each of the Members of the Order present 
then responded, and afterwards the Right 
Honourable A. J. Balfour rose to propose the 
toast of the Chairman. He said that never in 
the history of the great metropolis, probably 
never in the history of this country, had there 
been gathered in a room of that size such a 
body of undiluted distinction, and congratulated 
Lord Avebury on the great success with which 
he had filled an exceedingly difficult position. 
The mallet, which had been specially made for 
Lord Avebury's use on this occasion, is still 
preserved among the Club's treasures, and bears 
a small silver tablet recording the event. A 
copy of the printed list of those who attended 
the dinner is framed and exhibited in the gallery 
of prints which illustrates the history of the 
Club-house. It is a remarkable collection of 
well-known names." f 

A day or two after the dinner Mr. Tedder 
writes : 

July 28th, 1902. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have just seen the Bishop 
of Winchester, who tells me that the King read your 
Speech with much interest. His Majesty seems to 
have had a good deal of conversation with the Bishop 
about the dinner and the proceedings generally. 
Believe me to remain, yours very faithfully, 

HENRY TEDDER, Secretary. 

Assuredly Mr. Tedder's estimate of Lord 
Avebury's qualities as Chairman, whether of a 
business meeting or a social gathering, is none 
too high, though it could not well be higher. 
No man, probably, ever has been in such keen 



request to fill such functions. He was absolutely 
to be relied on. He had a natural dislike of 
oratory or tall-talking, and could be trusted 
not to bore by too long a speech. He had 
little appreciation of, or temptation to, epigram, 
and his tact made it as impossible for him to 
make a blunder in a matter of taste as his 
courtesy made it impossible for him intentionally 
to wound. The quality of his remarks could 
be foretold, though his information was so wide 
and so ready to his use that his speech was apt 
to have the good sauce of unexpectedness in 
the varied directions whither the suggestions 
given by its chief subject might lead him. 

Within a day or two of taking the chair on 
this historical occasion at the Athenaeum, he 
was fulfilling the same office for the old Etonians 
who were giving a dinner to Sir Joseph Dimsdale, 
himself an old Etonian, who was the Lord Mayor. 

Earlier in the same month he had been with 
Lady Avebury and Eric, for a few days, to 
Wales, first to Llangollen and then to Bala, 
where he notes " the Bala ' fault ' is supposed 
to be still going on. Rumblings are said to be 
heard sometimes." From Bala they went to 
Arthog and up Cader Idris. 

Among their guests at High Elms towards 
the end of the month was the Aga Khan, of 
whom Lord Avebury writes laconically that " He 
played golf " ; but the quality of his game, 
unfortunately, he does not mention. 

On the 9th of August took place the Coronation 
of King Edward VII., deferred, by reason of his 
grave illness and operation, from its original 


date. Lord Avebury and Lady Avebury at- 
tended, taking the children to the Peers' stand 
opposite the Abbey, whence they had a very 
good view. 

He was at Birmingham in October, laying 
the first stone of the Ruskin memorial, and 
giving an address as President of the Ruskin 
Society. Subsequently he attended an Early 
Closing meeting, where the tradesmen of 
Birmingham and its district presented him with 
an address of thanks for his services to the 

In August he was at Avebury, taking the 
children with him to show them the place, and 
explaining it to them in his own way, which no 
other way, perhaps, could quite equal in its attrac- 
tive simplicity. They had planned to go on to 
Stonehenge also, but the wpather was abominable, 
and they gave up that latter part of the expedi- 
tion. In the late autumn for that which he 
annually, without any sense of irony, writes of 
as " the holidays " they were again at Holland 
House, Kingsgate, much interested in watching 
the building of the Castle and of the high sea- 
wall on the chalk cliff, by which he was making 
it secure from the waves. 

In the beginning of October they stayed for a 
day or two with Lord and Lady George Hamilton 
at Deal Castle, and a week later he and Lady 
Avebury were Sir William Anson's guests at 
Oxford, for the Bodleian tercentenary, of which 
he writes : " Interesting ceremony in Sheldonian. 
I presented an address from the British Museum. 
In the evening a dinner at Christ Church 290 


there. I sat between M. Meyer of Paris and 
J. Morley. Proposed the University." 

He gave an address to the African Society 
on November 5. He had that year been elected 
President of the Society in succession to Lord 
Ripon. On the 15th he was at Swindon, unveil- 
ing a memorial tablet to Richard Jefferies. The 
address which he gave on that occasion is pub- 
lished in his Essays and Addresses. 

He received the compliment this year of the 
Prussian Order of Merit, presented by the German 
Emperor. The other Englishmen of distinction 
in science who were already members of the 
Order were Sir J. Hooker, Lord Kelvin, Lord 
Lister, and Sir G. Stokes. 

His diary of this time records that his youngest 
son began to give precocious evidence of a 
hereditary disposition to speculation on the 
phenomena of the Universe, asking " Who made 
the sky ? ' ; A day or two later, having burnt 
his hand slightly, but sufficiently to hurt him 
more than a little, in the library fire, the child 
was taken up to the nursery and there left 
with the injured finger wrapped in cotton-wool. 
When his mother went up shortly afterwards to 
see how he was getting on she was surprised and 
vexed to find that he had burnt his other hand 
also. When asked how he had done it, he replied 
that he had " wanted to see whether the nursery 
fire burned too." 


(AGE 67) 

IF any sure trust might be placed on a Peerage 
as a cure for gout, it is likely that this distinction 
would be even more eagerly coveted than it is. 
Probably it is not in all cases to be relied on, but 
certainly in the instance of Lord Avebury it 
seems to have had a most salutary effect. From 
the moment of his accession to the Upper House 
there is for a period of two years no entry of 
the distressing kind which records an attack 
of the hereditary enemy of his family. There 
is little doubt that the explanation is that, hard 
as he continued to work in the public service 
even as a peer, his labours were light in com- 
parison with the burdens which he voluntarily 
undertook while in the House of Commons. For 
him an " eight hours' day," had he ever chosen 
to enjoy so brief a spell of daily work, would 
have partaken of the nature of a rest cure. In 
some degree it was this that he found in the less 
troubled waters of the House of Lords, and his 
health had the benefit. In 1903, however, the 
old trouble recurred : he had some threatenings 




early in the year, and for almost the whole of 
November was laid up with a very stubborn 
attack. But he never allowed this, more than 
any other of these painful experiences, to affect 
his cheerful serenity. 

He had a double satisfaction this year in 
receiving from the Geological Society the first 
of the gold medals recently cast in memory of 
the late Sir Joseph Prestwich. That distin- 
guished man of science had been a close friend 
of Lord Avebury, and on account of that friend- 
ship, as well as of the honour of being the first 
to receive the medal, he was doubly gratified. 
The following is the official account of the pre- 
sentation in the Society's journal. 

The President, in handing the Prestwich Medal, 
awarded to John, Baron Avebury, P.C., F.R.S., to 
Professor T. G. Bonney, D.Sc., F.R.S., for transmission 
to the recipient, addressed him in the following words : 

" Professor Bonney Sir John Lubbock, now the 
Right Honourable Lord Avebury, P.C., became a Fellow 
of this Society in 1855. He was one of those who took 
a warm interest in the question of the antiquity of man, 
in those early days when it was so much in dispute. He 
did much to support the new views, not only by a paper 
in the Natural History Review, but also by his work on 
Prehistoric Times, in which that paper was subsequently 
incorporated. In those days he was closely associated 
with Sir Joseph Prestwich (who at that time had not 
yet been called to the professorial chair at Oxford), 
and, along with Sir John Evans, frequently accom- 
panied him and other Fellows of the Society on geo- 
logical excursions in France and elsewhere, investigat- 
ing not only the evidences of the antiquity of man, but 
other problems of special interest in geology. 

" Since then, notwithstanding his numerous public 
avocations, his important business occupations, and 
his researches in natural history, both entomological 
and botanical, he has always retained a lasting attach- 


ment to geology. He has evinced this, not only in 
keeping abreast with its progress, and accompanying 
its workers in the field, but also in the publication of 
works on geology, marked by his own literary charm. 
His recent works on the scenery of Switzerland and of 
England have done much to create a deep appreciation 
and sympathy for the science among the thinking and 
educated public. 

" Whether, therefore, from old associations, or from 
the special nature of his geological researches, or from 
the fascination of his geological works, the Council of 
the Geological Society feel that he is a most fitting 
recipient of the first gold medal struck in accordance 
with the testamentary dispositions of our venerable 
Fellow, Sir Joseph Prestwich." 

Professor Bonney, in reply, read the following letter, 
which had been forwarded to him by the recipient : 

" MR. PRESIDENT I should have felt it a great 
compliment in any case that the Geological Society 
should have bestowed upon me one of their medals, but 
I am specially gratified to have received the first of 
the Medals instituted in honour of my old friend, Sir 
Joseph Prestwich. It is now more than forty years 
since I first visited the valley of the Somme under his 
guidance, and that of M. Boucher de Perthes. Since 
then I have had the advantage of making many most 
instructive excursions with him. On those occasions 
we were out early and late. Meals constantly gave 
way to gravel-pits. On one occasion I spent a week 
with him in Paris, at least if we can be said to have 
been in Paris, when I think that we were never there 
between 7 o'clock in the morning and 8 in the evening, 
and I look back on those expeditions with the greatest 
interest. I shall value the Medal extremely, both as 
a mark of the approval of the Council, and also in 
memory of one whom I esteemed so highly, and to 
whom I owed so much. It is a matter of great regret 
to me that absence from England has precluded me 
from attending to receive it personally." 

The absence from England, to which he refers 
above, was by reason of a visit to Biarritz, 
whither he started with Lady Avebury, Eric, 


Maurice, and the two girls, on January 27. They 
had rooms at the Hotel du Palais, and arrived 
just in time to have their share in the alarm of 
the disastrous fire which practically destroyed 
the original building. Lord Avebury records 
their experience in his diary : " Feb. 1. On 
Sunday afternoon Eric went out into the passage 
and met the Russian Archduchess who told him 
at once to let us know that the other end of the 
hotel was on fire. I ran out and found this 
was the case, and a strong wind blowing our 
way. We immediately began to pack as quick 
as we could, first sending baby (Maurice) with 
the nursery maid to the Martin Smiths' villa. 
In less than 20 minutes we were driven out of 
the rooms by the smoke and fire, but fortunately 
got most of our things away. The courtyard 
was a scene of great confusion, crowds of people, 
rolls of smoke, flying sparks, a high wind and 
heavy rain and almost dark. However, we all 
got safely off with most of our luggage. Nigel 
Smith most kind and a great help. Eventually 
we got rooms at the Victoria for the night." 

The fire was not altogether quenched even the 
following day, and a very large part of the re- 
cently erected building was a total wreck. They 
found pleasant quarters, however, at the Victoria 
Hotel, and enjoyed their visit, returning home 
on February 24. 

While at Biarritz he received a letter from 
the Royal Society of Literature conferring on 
him the Honorary Fellowship of the Society, 
in recognition of his " distinguished services to 



He was honorary member and fellow of an 
extraordinarily large number of learned societies, 
both home and foreign, and bearer of distinctions 
as various as his talents. Some surprise has been 
expressed at the conscientiousness with which 
he gave at full length, after his name on the 
"title-pages of his books, the initial letters indicat- 
ing these degrees, etc. Certainly Lord Avebury's 
very simple character, without a touch of cyni- 
cism in its composition, made him highly apprecia- 
tive of the recognition of his fellows, but one 
of his publishers has explained to me what he 
believes to have been his real motive in inscribing 
at full the initials signifying v his dignities. Lord 
Avebury, in his opinion, was influenced by the 
feeling that if any letters of the kind were affixed 
to a name, a certain slight was cast on the institu- 
tion which had honoured him if the distinguishing 
initials of that institution were omitted. His 
idea was that all or none should be given, more 
especially as many of the distinctions were of 
foreign origin, and it was particularly imperative, 
by all laws of courtesy, not to hurt foreign feelings. 
It is a motive perfectly in accord with Lord 
Avebury's peculiar kindliness and sensitive con- 
sideration of other people. 

In the spring he was not very well, and was 
doubtful of his ability to fulfil his engagements. 
He had agreed to take the chair at a great 
meeting in the Free Trade Hall at Manchester, 
to commemorate the jubilee of the Manchester 
Free Library. In the letter of invitation the 
Lord Mayor had pointed out that Manchester 
was the first important municipality to adopt 




the Public Libraries Act of 1850, and that " The 
Public Libraries Movement, which has now 
assumed such great proportions, derived its 
chief inspiration from this City. The inaugural 
ceremony of fifty years ago was graced by the 
presence of W. M. Thackeray, Charles Dickens, 
Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, and other eminent person- 
ages, and we are anxious that the coming celebra- 
tion should be distinguished by the presenc< 
and co-operation of leading men in the literal 

He bravely managed to struggle down to il 
and to play his leading part, and the Lord Mayoi 
in a letter of thanks for his presidency was able 
to write : " The Commemoration, memorable 
and important in itself, has derived additioi 
lustre from the countenance of so many di{ 
tinguished men of letters and others intereste< 
in library work. The Corporation are extremely 
sensible of the honour you have conferred 01 
our City, by your presence and co-operation 01 
this occasion." 

Mr. Lecky had been appointed President oi 
the Royal Literary Fund, but his health w< 
failing, and he was obliged to go to the south 
of France in the spring, and on his request 
Lord Avebury filled his place in the chair at 
the annual dinner. 

He was able to play a good deal of golf during 
March and attended many social functions, in- 
cluding a ball at his own house in St. James's 
Square. Indeed, all through this season he 
seems often to have been taking his daughters 
to dances, sometimes to two the same night. 


On March 28, he writes : " Golf at Richmond, 
with Speaker, Sir S. Ponsonby Fane and young 
Ridley. He got in for Staleybridge by 40, and 
attributes it to football. He kicked off in a 
match, and got a goal. His opponent tried to 
do the same the following Saturday, but over- 
balanced himself and fell on his back." 

Quite enough, no doubt, to overturn the 
balance of the votes also in a football-playing 
constituency. 4 

This session he again introduced the Early 
Closing Bill, under better auspices than before. 
On March 7 the Archbishop of Canterbury writes 
to him that he, the Archbishop, had heard from 
the Home Secretary that the Government were 
prepared to support " Avebury's Bill." The 
significance of this last phrase is that Lord 
Ribblesdale also had introduced a Bill having 
the same object in view, but with rather different- 
machinery, which the Government thought would 
not work so well. On March 12 his diary notes : 
" Early Closing Bill in House of Lords. Ribbles- 
dale had also brought in a Bill which came 
before mine. The Lord Chancellor said he pre- 
ferred ours, and moved that Ribblesdale' s be 
deferred. This was carried, after some discussion. 
I then moved mine, which was carried without 
a division, after several nice speeches." On the 
24th the Bill went through the Standing Com- 
mittee of the Lords, and on the 28th of the 
next month he writes joyfully : " Got my Early 
Closing Bill through the House of Lords after 
30 years' work. Very thankful ! " And his 
entry two days later is " Royal Academy dinner 



sat between Sir F. Jeune and Reay have had 
many letters of congratulation about the Early 
Closing Bill." 

Just a week earlier he had been to Bristol 
unveiling a monumental tablet to Lord Macaulay. 
His address on the occasion is published in 
Essays and Addresses. Sir George Trevelyan, 
nephew of the great Macaulay, writes to him 
appreciatively about it : 

April 25th, 1903. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have read your speech 
with very keen delight. The mere circumstance of 
your going to Clifton was very pleasant to me ; but 
the testimony which the range and elevation of your 
address gave to your feeling for the subject, gave me a 
satisfaction which I cannot expect to make you fully 
understand. You spoke most kindly of your wish 
that I had been there. It is the plain and simple truth 
that I care too much about my uncle's memory and 
fame to praise him publicly and statedly ; and for that 
same reason to have him praised so, and by such as 
you, is all the more prized by me. I lived with him 
long enough to have a very strong reverence and affection 
for him, and now, from a peculiar circumstance, I feel 
more close to him than ever. I am fortunate enough 
to love the same books as he loved ; and I read them 
in his copies, with his marks down the side, and his 
notes in the margin. I have said sometimes that his 
marginal notes are to my mind better than his writings, 
his speeches, his letters, or, perhaps, his talk. Never 
a weak word, never an ignoble one ; and, as they are 
mostly in the ancient classics, never on an unworthy 

Of late, in my comparative leisure, I have been 
reading great quantities of Cicero's Philosophical works, 
the only philosophy, counting in theology, that I 
ever really cared to read ; and I care for it immensely. 
He has gone through it all before, over and again, with 
immense though discriminative interest and delight ; 
and I feel as if I were reading the Latin with him. 


Fortunatus ego, cui in vestigiis ejus spatiari con- 
ceditur ! This may appear fanciful ; but it is a reality 
of growing value to me, and it accounts for the personal 
gratitude which I have felt to certain people, Jebb, 
Leslie Stephen, and one or two others, and now in most 
marked degree to you, who have judged him as he 
merits, and whose judgment is of the requisite worth. 

As for depreciation of which, in the face of his 
enormous popularity there is little to complain I 
always feel it as a singular tribute to him. Other 
great writers of the past are invariably judged by what 
men think their best works, and the rest is forgotten. 
He is still so intensely alive that people quarrel with 
him for anything they dislike in his books as if it were 
written yesterday. But it is a poor way of showing 
my gratitude to write you so long a letter. Yours 
sincerely, G. O. TREVELYAN. 

In his diary of April 18, Lord Avebury writes : 
" I am experimenting with a machine for com- 
pressing layers of sand, baize, etc., in two direc- 
tions, to imitate mountain-building. H. Darwin 
made me the machine. It seems to work well." 

A tolerably full description of the experiments 
may be found in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society for August 1903, vol. lix., 
under the heading of " An Experiment in 
Mountain-building." The working of the 
machine may be understood in a general way 
from the following account of it which he gave 
to the Geological Society. But the original 
paper in the Society's journal is illustrated by 
photographs from plaster of Paris casts, which 
greatly help to a readier understanding of the 




P.C., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Many years ago Sir James Hall illustrated the forma- 
tion of folded mountains by placing layers of cloth 
under a weight, and then compressing two of the sides 
so that the cloth was thrown into folds. Since then, 
other and more complete experiments of the same kind 
have been made by Favre, Cadell, Daubree, Willis, 
and Ruskin. 

In these experiments the compression was from two 
sides. If, however, folded mountains are caused by 
compression due to the contraction of the earth, the 
compression must take place in two directions at right 
angles one to the other. 

With the view of illustrating this I consulted Mr. 
Horace Darwin, and he constructed for me an apparatus 
consisting of four square beams of wood, resting on a 
floor, which by means of screws could be moved nearer 
to, or farther from, each other. The beams left between 
them a space 2 feet across and 9 inches in depth. 

In the square central space I placed some pieces of 
carpet-baize and layers of sand, each about Ij inches 
deep. About an inch above the upper layer of sand I 
placed a piece of plate-glass and some weights. The 
machine was then set in motion, causing the beams of 
wood to approach one another. The sand rose in the 
centre, until it reached the glass, when it was flattened 

On removing the upper layer of sand, the top-piece of 
cloth shows the upper surface gently undulating in the 
centre, with some steep folds near the edges, and one 
slight ridge crossing the plateau at right angles to one 
of the folds. 

On removing the underlying layers of sand, the next 
layer of cloth shows two main lines of elevation ; one 
running from each corner, and consequently crossing 
at right angles. The whole surface forms a series of 
winding and curving ridges with intervening valleys, 
and gradually rises to a culminating dome a little on 
one side of the centre, where the two main ridges inter- 


sect. I was rather surprised at the marked difference 
between this and the upper layer. 

Underneath this second piece of baize was another 
layer of sand, on the removal of which the third layer 
of baize was found to be thrown into folds. This again 
differed greatly from, though it evidently followed the 
same general law as, the preceding. The ridges are 
narrower and more pronounced, the valleys more 
precipitous. There is also a marked tendency for each 
ridge to present a central longitudinal division. 

A fourth layer of baize was separated from the third 
by about 1J inches of sand, and from the bottom of 
the apparatus by a similar layer. This fourth layer 
of baize differs from the third in somewhat the same 
manner as the third differs from the second. The ridges 
are narrower, shorter, more precipitous, and more broken 
up. The intervening spaces form wide, flat valleys. 

In another experiment sand and layers of baize were 
arranged as before, but the weight was placed on one 
side, in consequence of which the material was more 
easily pressed up. 

In this case the ridges followed the edges, though not 
closely, leaving a central hollow. Here, also, in the 
upper layer of cloth the slopes were more gentle, the 
eminences more rounded, the hollows less deep. In 
the second layer of cloth the country is more rugged, 
the elevations higher, the hollows deeper. Here too 
several of the ridges have a tendency to become double, 
with, in some cases a smaller ridge commencing in the 
depression. The elevations and hollows only follow 
roughly those of the upper layer. There are two main 
ranges, with a broad intermediate valley. One of the 
main ridges has secondary transverse folds. 

The third layer again has only a general resemblance 
to the second. The folds are more numerous, narrower, 
and more precipitous. 

The fourth or lowest layer presents a central plain, 
bounded by two high, one moderate, and one low, 
series of hills. 

The models seem also to show that some hollows, 
which might on the earth's surface have been regarded 
as evidence of sinking, are in reality only relative, and 
due not to depression, but to the elevation of surrounding 


I am proposing to make further experiments with 
various modifications, which at some future opportunity 
I hope to be permitted to lay before the Geological 

Mr. Hudleston, in course of some discussion 
which followed, drew attention to a particular 
feature shown in the models, which, as he under- 
stood the author, had been mentioned in his 
explanation. This was the more acute accentua- 
tion of the foldings in the lower part of the 
series. So far as his (the speaker's) experience 
extended, this peculiarity might be noticed in 
certain mountain-ranges. He proceeded to give 
instances in point. But the reader whom the 
subject interests would do well to look up the 
number above quoted of the journal. 

On May 22, Lord Avebury was the guest of 
Sir Oliver Lodge, giving an address to the under- 
graduates of Birmingham, who had elected him 
their first Warden, and a few days later he 
delivered an address to the Churchmen's Union, 
which brought him in a mass of correspondence, 
from both laymen and churchmen of various 
views. The address is published in his Essays 
and Addresses. It is rather curious to find him, 
who was at one time regarded with such keen 
suspicion by the orthodox on account of his 
sympathy with the scientific views of Darwin 
and Huxley, now credited with " saying what 
needs to be said and preparing the way for the 
development of the Church of England," as one 
of his commentators has it. In those earlier 
days it was difficult for people to believe that 
one who held the views of Darwin could harmonise 


them with adherence to the views of the Church 
of England, and no doubt Lord Avebury's 
example and precept did much to make that 
harmony credible. 

He seldom spoke of his own views on religious 
questions, or attempted a definition of his 
position. It is rather from his acts and conduct 
and the indirect evidence which they afford, that 
we have to deduce them, than from any written 
or spoken pronouncement. Without doubt he 
accepted evolution as a part, and a very large 
part, of the process of creation, and had perfect 
faith in the great Creator who made choice of 
this process by which to work out His plan. In 
His hands, without troubling over much about 
form or creed, he was content that man and his 
destiny should rest, and was disposed to deprecate, 
as futile and idle, too anxious inquiry into the 
mode in which human destiny was to be fulfilled. 
It is with all diffidence that this suggestion is 
offered, as an indication of his religious opinions. 
It rests on no statement from himself, and has 
no more value than an inference from testimony 
variously collected. Others, judging from much 
the same witness, may have arrived at a con- 
clusion very different. 

At the end of May, Sir Michael Hicks Beach 
(now Lord St. Aldwyn) writes him a letter, which 
explains its object fully : 

GLO'STERSHIRE, May 30/1903. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY Some time ago you asked me 
whether I thought it advisable that some movement 
should be made towards forming a Unionist Free Trade 
Association, to combat the Protectionist views which 



seemed to be gaining ground. I believe I replied that 
I thought the time was not ripe. 

The developments of the last few days are very 
alarming : and it looks as if the Unionist party would 
be committed to Protection, unless some real effort is 
made to organize and work against it. If you are of 
the same mind as you were, would it be possible for you 
to take an active part in starting such an effort in 
London ? I should gladly aid and I think Goschen 
would also. This is an awkward moment to meet. 
But I could be in London on Friday next, and could 
meet you and any others you might think it well to 
invite at your house or your Bank at 3 P.M. You 
have been, doubtless, more in the way of hearing City 
opinion on the matter than I have, for I have been in 
the country lately. 

The Government seem to be hopelessly divided 
between a Free Trade Budget and an after policy of 
Protection and I think it quite possible that the 
debate on the Budget may have very unpleasant results 
for our party. Yours sincerely, 


Lord Avebury replies : 

KENT, 1st June 1903. 

MY DEAR HICKS BEACH In the first place, welcome 
home. I hope you have enjoyed your well-earned 
holiday. Please remember us both to Lady Lucy. 

As regards our fiscal policy, I should much like a 
talk with you. At 3 on Friday I am unfortunately 
engaged. Could you come to St. James's Square any 
time between 5 and dinner ? 

I had a talk a few days ago with Goschen, but we both 
thought Chamberlain's suggestions so vague, at present, 
that one must see what he would propose. 

I am still as convinced a Freetrader as ever ; but 
of course Politics and Policy have also to be considered. 

Your I/- duty on wheat seemed to me to be protection 
as far as it went, but justified under the circumstances. 

Canada having given us a large remission, might we 
not meet her to some extent say by remitting in her 
case the I/- duty ? If other Colonies gave us the same 
advantage as Canada might we not give them some 


quid pro quo ? Other countries could not complain. 
The United States, for instance, give advantages to 
Cuba and the Philippines ; indeed as far as books are 
concerned they give all other countries an advantage 
over us, for the benefit of their own printers. 

I am coming reluctantly to the conclusion that unless 
some common interests can be brought home to the 
Colonies, the British Empire cannot be maintained, 
and its dissolution would be an incalculable misfortune 
for the human race. % 

These Islands cannot, I believe, permanently support 
the present gigantic expenditure on the Army and 
Navy ; and unless the Colonies are prepared to help, 
they must be reduced. Yours very sincerely, 


He thought it very important that the English 
case against the Boers, showing that the responsi- 
bility for the South African War rested with 
them, should be distinctly stated, and the 
Council of the British Empire League asked him 
to draw up a Memorandum on the subject. 

The Duke of Devonshire, however, who was 
President of the League, expressed some doubts 
as to the circulation of the leaflet just at this 
moment, for reasons which the following letter 
fully explains : 

ESSEX, April 18th, 1908. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY I have, as you rightly under- 
stood from Murray, been very unwilling that your 
excellent leaflet address to the Boers should not be 
proceeded with, and I think the Duke's hesitation on 
the point of the origin of the War was due to his desire 
that nothing possibly controversial should appear under 
the aegis of the League (he, the President, being a 
Cabinet Minister), while Chamberlain was working at 
the resettlement in South Africa. 

I believe that if we go back to the Duke now he will 
refer to Mr. Chamberlain ; and as I imagine that Mr. 
Chamberlain may be disposed to think, as you and I 


do, that the paragraph about the cause of the War 
should stand, I am rather inclined to think that it may 
be well for me to show the leaflet, as it is, to Mr. Chamber- 
lain, and ask whether he thinks there would be any 
objection to the League circulating it in South Africa 
at the present time. 

If he says yes, the Duke will no doubt agree. Yours 
very truly, ROBERT G. W. HERBERT. 

On July 7 he presented an address to his 
friend, M. Loubet, President of the French 
Republic, who was then on a visit to London. 
He notes that : " He made a charming answer, 
holding my hand between both of his all the 
time." On his return home he found the follow- 
ing letter accompanying the cross of the Legion 
of Honour : 

le 7 juillet 1903. 

CHER LORD AVEBURY M. le President de la 
Republique m'a charge de vous porter la croix de Com- 
mandeur de la Legion d'Honneur. 

Je vous 1'envoie en vous priant de la mettre ce soir 
a votre cou. Je vous prie de m'excuser de ne pas vous 
la porter moi-meme etant oblige d'accompagner M. le 
President dans ses visites. Votre bien devoue, 


The occasion referred to by M. Cambon for 
" ce soir " was a dinner at the French Embassy, 
given by M. Loubet, at which the King and the 
Prince of Wales were present. 

It has been noticed already that Mr. Frazer, 
in The Golden Bough, had not been quite exact 
in failing to attribute to Lord Avebury the 
credit of first pointing out the distinction 
between Magic and Religion among primitive 
peoples. Mr. Frazer was now bringing out a 
new edition of his fine book, and wrote : 


18th December 1903. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY In the new edition of my 
book I propose to add the following to the note on 
p. 63 of the first volume. As it concerns you, I submit 
it to you for your approval : 

" Lord Avebury has courteously pointed out to me 
that the fundamental difference between magic and 
religion was dwelt on by him many years ago. See his 
Origin of Civilisation, First Edition (London, 1870), 
pp. 126, 332 seq., and the Preface to the Sixth Edition 
of that work (London, 1902), p. vi. I am glad to find 
myself in agreement with Lord Avebury on this subject, 
and only regret that in preparing my second edition I 
failed to notice that the view here taken has the support 
of his high authority." 

If there is anything in this that you would wish 
changed, please let me know. 

I have not heard further from Miss E. P. Hughes 
as to the Chinese practice about which we have corre- 
sponded. But Mr. Foxwell, who spent some time as 
professor of political economy, I believe, in Japan, 
told me that he quite believes the practice to exist. 
The sum he had heard mentioned as the price of a 
voluntary substitute for capital punishment was a 
good deal higher than that mentioned to Miss Hughes, 
viz. 10. The motive, he understands, is the one 
stated by Mr. Eames, namely the desire to benefit the 
family and raise it in the social scale. Thus viewed 
the practice is really a high form of heroism. Mr. 
Foxwell suggested that I should enquire direct of the 
Chinese Minister in London, but I have not yet done 
so. Has it occurred to you to apply to the Minister ? 
He would be much more likely to answer you than me. 
Believe me, yours sincerely, J. G. FRAZER. 

The " Chinese practice " referred to is the 
convenient one of purchasing a substitute in 
case of being condemned to the death penalty 
for some offence against the law. Lord Avebury 
received a very long communication on the 
subject from Mr. Bromley Eames, who had 



been for years legal adviser to the Chinese 
Government. The gist of it was to show that 
such a practice certainly existed. 

On August 13 they entered into residence 
at the " seagirt Castle," as some writer described 
it, at Kingsgate, though it was still in a state 
of considerable unpreparedness. Its situation 
gave the opportunity for some picturesque 
writing, and one provincial evening paper in- 
formed its readers that " at high water the sea 
washes the very battlements of the Castle." It 
did not mention what was happening to the 
basement in the meantime. 

The Castle makes a great feature in the land- 
scape, standing rather like Tantallon Castle, 
on the verge of the cliff. Mr. Alfred Harmsworth 
(now Lord Northcliffe), living at Elmwood, St. 
Peter's., writes expressly to thank him for the 
great improvement in the landscape wrought 
by the reconstruction. 

Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff writes to him 
from Colchester, respecting the great annual 
feast of bivalves for which that place is famous : 

September 20th, 1903. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY There is a great desire amongst 
good people that you should be the principal guest at 
the Oyster Feast here, on Thursday, the 22nd inst., 
at 1/2 p. 1 o'clock. It is not a political occasion in the 
strict sense, like the Colston dinner at Bristol ; but is 
nevertheless an opportunity for an eminent public 
man to say anything that he wishes to say. 

The Mayor after consultation with other leading 
personages asked me last night to sound you on this 
subject, of course if you say " yes " by letter or telegram 
I will immediately communicate with him, and he will 
send a formal invitation. 


I need not say that we have a " corrupt interest " in 
your saying " yes " because, if you do, you will naturally 
come to us for a couple of days ; but about this Julia 
is writing to Lady Avebury. 

Come if you possibly can. It is really a rather big 
business and there is, goodness knows ! plenty to talk 
about. The Country never more wanted wise guidance. 
Ever most sincerely yours, M. E. GRANT DUFF. 

Apparently, however, he was not able to 
accept this invitation, which to a true oyster 
lover would have been irresistible. 

Mr. Chamberlain's proposal for a retaliatory 
tariff against nations, which imposed a heavy 
duty on our imports from them, was agitating 
the commercial world at this time, and was the 
occasion of Lord Avebury 's writing to Lord 
Irassey : 

I0th November 1903. 

MY DEAR BRASSEY The London Chamber of Com- 
merce will have to consider what position it will take 
at the spring meeting of the Association, and I think 
we ought to submit our views in the form of a resolution 
or resolutions. If so, notice must be given before the 
end of the year. 

Ought we not therefore to be having some meeting 
to consider the position ? I enclose two resolutions. 
Something like No. 1 we might, I think, put on the 
Agenda paper of the Association ; No. 2 I only suggest 
as an instruction to our Delegates. You may not 
concur, and indeed, I should myself individually prefer 
something more definite ; and in any case I doubt not 
you will improve the wording. 

I should wish to support you, and only throw this 
out as a tentative suggestion. Yours sincerely, 


The Rt. Hon. Lord Brassey. 


That Great Britain has just cause of complaint at 
certain restrictions and unfair arrangements directed 



against the Commerce and the Empire, and that the 
Chamber of Commerce would support His Majesty's 
Government in measures of retaliation, provided always 

(1) Every effort has been previously made in the 

way of representation and remonstrance ; 

(2) That retaliation should be effective ; and 

(3) That it should not seriously injure other branches 

of British Manufactures or Commerce. 


That this Chamber is not prepared to commit itself 
to Mr. Chamberlain's proposals, but would carefully 
and sympathetically consider any proposals which 
would tend to benefit and promote the Commerce 
between the Mother Country and the other portions 
of the Empire. 

Lord Brassey replied that the resolutions 
seemed to him very suitable and judicious, and 
that he proposed to submit them to the Council 
(of which he was President) for private dis- 
cussion at an early day. He expressed a hope 
that the Government might not hurry either to 
a decision on this point or to a general election. 

On November 24 Lord Avebury went to Paris 
with his daughters, Ursula and Irene. On the 
26th he notes : 

Lunched with Siecle at the Cafe Durand. Visited 
the Chamber of Deputies and Senate. Received by 
President Loubet at the Elysee and had to propose 
his health. Banquet at Grand Hotel. Sat between 
Fallieres, President of Senate (and afterwards of the 
Republic), and Berthelot. Had to speak. 

27th. Credit Lyonnais. Lunch at Chamber of 
Commerce. Received by the President of the Conseil 
Municipale at the H6tel de Ville. Spoke again. Bank 
of France. The President sent us his box at the Opera 
Othello. Left in the middle to go to reception at 
Palais Bourbon. 


28th. The Anthropologists gave me a lunch. British 
Chamber of Commerce. Dined with D'Estournelles de 
Constant Automobile Club. Spoke again. 

29th. Home. A very interesting and successful 
time. Every one most kind. 

It is a tolerably full five days for a man who 
had not been in the best of health for a month 
previously. He does not seem to* have suffered 
at all from these exertions, for on the very next 
day he was at the " Royal Society meeting and 
dinner. Sat between Lord Roberts and Curie 
(the discoverer of radium)." However, he had 
to write from High Elms on December 1 : " Still 

Two days later, notwithstanding, he was again 
in London " to see the Duke of Devonshire 
about a Free Trade meeting in the City, and 
had a long talk with him about the whole situa- 
tion. He is trying to keep the Liberal-Unionist 
Organisation going on a basis of neutrality, 
but does not seem sanguine." 

Mr. Chamberlain had arranged for a meeting 
in the City to put forward his tariff views, and 
there was a strong desire on the part of many 
of the City people, including Lord Avebury, to 
get the Duke to address a meeting after Mr. 
Chamberlain, by way of a counter-stroke. 

Proposals were made during the year for 
translation of some of Lord Avebury's books 
into Welsh, into Catalan, etc. ; but the most 
remarkable tribute of all to their world-wide 
vogue is given by the University of Allahabad, 
which at this time instituted The Pleasures of 
Life, as one of the books to be taken up for its 



degree of B.A. He was constantly having letters 
asking leave to translate one or other of his 
books into some dialect of India, and in the 
East generally they were received with a wonder- 
ful acclaim. The quaint idioms employed by 
some of those who submit proposals for transla- 
tion suggest speculation as to the versions that 
they are likely to produce, and one of the corre- 
spondents evidently attaches a value to the title 
of Esquire, which it has rather lost in our own 
estimation. We may be very sure that Lord 
Avebury, in his extremely delicate consideration 
for the feelings of others, was genuinely pained 
when he read of the trouble which he had caused 
this sensitive soul. " Formerly," this Oriental 
scribe writes, " your Lordship used to address 
' Mr.' or ' Esquire,' but I don't know why your 
Lordship have omitted in the last two letters. 
Although I did not gain or lose anything by it, 
but still I wonder." 


(AGE 70) 

IN 1904 Lord Avebury attained the age which 
the Psalmist rather meagrely allotted as the 
average span of man's life. At this time he 
was as mentally alert as in his prime, and as 
physically active as most men of fifty. He had 
a slight figure, walked with a light step, and 
the number and variety of his daily tasks were 
hardly less remarkable than ever. Mentally 
and morally the man of seventy was quite 
extraordinarily like the boy of seventeen. In 
the case of most men we find that they have 
certain tolerably well-defined phases in their 
lives. There are points at which we may say, 
" Such and such an event happened, and its 
effect was to create a marked change in him." 
In the exceptional case of this exceptional man 
we do not find such change. The character 
was formed at an unusually early age, by his 
almost premature entry into business life, by 
the parental influences, naturally bearing most 
strongly on the eldest son, and by the invalu- 
able precept and example of the high-souled and 




simple man of science, Mr. Darwin, whom he 
had the rare fortune to find at his very gates. 

Under this uncommon combination of cir- 
cumstances the boy became a man really before 
due time, and the character then formed remained 
serenely steadfast and unshaken until the very 
last. He kept his youthful and, in respect of 
its simplicity, his almost childlike outlook un- 
impaired, and was scarcely less mentally alert 
in the last years than in the very springtide of 
his days. Changing his pursuits and interest 
with an easy versatility which was a perpetual 
surprise, he applied the same method of per- 
sistent industry, and the same spirit of steadfast 
cheerfulness to each in turn. His walk had not 
lost its elasticity. Apart from his greyish hair 
and beard, his face had a young freshness, and 
the charming kindliness of his expression became 
even more marked as the years passed serenely 
over him. 

On January 6 they went for a few days to 
Kingsgate, returning to London on the 18th, 
and on the 19th gave a ball at their St. James's 
Square house. The youngest daughter, Irene, 
now Mrs. Pelham, was just coming out. 

On February 1 he notes : " Free Food meeting. 
Dined at Londonderry's then to Lansdowne 
House Irene's first party. Much talk with the 
Duke of Argyll, Duke of Bedford, and Camper- 
down about Fiscal Policy and the Liberal Union 
Association. Also with Chamberlain on Fiscal 
Policy. He is very confident the Colonies would 
meet us halfway. I see no reason to think so." 
On the 5th he writes again : " Had a long 


conference with the Duke of Devonshire and 
Lord James about Liberal Unionist Association 
matters." Three days later the Duke was 
speaking at the Free Trade meeting, already 
referred to, at the Guildhall " a capital speech, 
and all went off well. I moved the vote of 
thanks " is Lord Avejmry's account of the 

That comment of his on Mr. Chamberlain's 
optimism about the Colonies " I see no reason 
to think so " is characteristic of a rare quality 
of his mind which made his counsel very valuable. 
Though he had schooled himself also into a 
bright optimism of outlook, he never allowed 
his hopes and wishes to cloud the clarity of his 
vision, never let the wish be father to the thought. 

He had to cancel some of his engagements 
about this time owing to a bad cold. On March 
4 he was working at home, on the Amended 
Sunday Closing Bill. "Do not like it," he 
writes. " Sent it on to Corbett with suggestions. 
Had a long talk with Cochrane about the Early 
Closing Bill. Saw Mr. Reeves and suggested a 
deputation to the Home Office. Also wrote 
suggesting a deputation to shopkeepers." But 
the last note, for that day, is " Temperature 
up and I was sent to bed." He was not able 
to go out for more than a week. 

On the 18th they all started for the Riviera 
where he had taken the Villa Clythia, at Valescure. 
There is a pleasant golf course there, in beautiful 
surroundings, and with golf, expeditions to see 
the amphitheatre and other remains at Frejus, 
and with Lord Rendel to see his extensive 


and beautiful gardens near Cannes, the time 
passed very pleasantly until April 23, when they 
returned to High Elms. 

During his absence he had been appointed 
to the office of Foreign Secretary to the Royal 
Academy, in succession to Mr. Lecky, and also 
to the post of President of the Society of Anti- 

While he assumed these additional burdens, 
he had resigned the Presidency of the Association 
of the Chamber of Commerce, Sir W. H. Holland 
being appointed to succeed him. A vote of 
thanks was passed to him for " the quite excep- 
tional services you have rendered the Association 
during your term of office " a testimony to 
the keen conscientiousness with which he always 
carried out the manifold duties of this nature 
which he undertook. 

On the 27th he writes : " Dinner to celebrate 
my 70th birthday. All my children, Henry 
and Mary, Neville, Conny and Edith, Monty 
and Nora, Beaumont and Edgar, R. and Mary 
Birkbeck, Ethel with Rolfe, Honoree and 
Phyllis. Very thankful." 

On May 4 he was in the chair of the British 
Empire League, when the Duke of Devonshire 
resigned the presidency and Lord Derby was 
elected in his place. On the 7th, in spite of its 
being " very wet," he went over from Kingsgate 
to Sandwich and took part in the Parliamentary 
Golf Handicap : " Played against Stonor and 
did a fair round, for me, but he won." 

Reference has been made already to his models 
in sand and baize, showing the mode in which 


mountains are formed, under pressure. He gave 
an account of it, on the 12th of this month, before 
the Royal Society, exhibiting the models. 

On the 19th his book on Free Trade was 
published, and on the same day he gave one of 
his breakfast parties to the following guests : 
" The Aga Khan, Seth Lowe, Ives Guyot, A. B. 
Kempe, Major Craigie, F. Galton, L. A. Hanbury, 
C. Rothschild, A. Hope Hawkins, F. Macmillan, 
R. S. Dickinson and B. D. Jackson." He had 
two more breakfast parties this year, and of 
the second he writes as " my last breakfast 
party " ; but this meant, no doubt, the last for 
the present summer only. In spite of this form 
of hospitality being " archaic " as one of his 
friends ungratefully spoke of it, he always seems 
to have collected a large and interesting gathering. 

It was in July of this year that he began 
working at a paper on the forms of stems. 

He was not altogether in accord with some 
of the leaders of his party as to the best policy 
with regard to promoting the Free Trade prin- 
ciples on which they were all agreed. On July 
18 he writes : " To a small meeting at Devon- 
shire House to consider our Free Trade Policy 
James, Portman, Lichfield, H. Hobhouse, St. Loe 
Strachey and Gull. I did not agree with most 
of the others, as I thought it would have been 
better to have stayed in the Liberal -Unionist 
Association and fought the Protectionists." 

Some twelve months earlier, as has been noted, 
the end of his thirty years' war for early closing 
had appeared in sight, and this August saw the 
consummation of all his work. They were at 



Kingsgate, and he had actually been bathing in 
the sea, and was none the worse for it. On the 
llth he had to go up for the second reading of 
the Bill in the House of Lords, and on the follow- 
ing day it passed its third reading. The entry 
in the diary for that day is curious : " Mr. 
Pelham and Mr. Ponsonby came ; also a large 
falcon, which sat some time on the terrace. The 
Early Closing Bill passed." 

The singular point raised in the following 
letter from Sir E. Ray Lankester, almost deserves 
to rank among the curiosities, in a small way, 
of science. 

BRITISH MUSEUM (Natural History), 


Sept. 24th. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY At p. 351 of the 1900 edition 
of your Beauties of Nature you say that Wyville Thomson 
mentions a kind of Crab (Ethusa granulata) : 

(a) Which living near the surface has well-developed 
eyes ; 

(b) When in deeper water eyestalks are present, but 
the animal is apparently blind, the eyes themselves 
being absent whilst 

(c) In specimens from 700 fathoms, the eyestalks 
have become fixed and their terminations combined 
into a strong pointed beak. 

I am about to figure and describe the original speci- 
mens, and what I venture to ask you is whether you 
have any notes or reference beyond the quotation from 
Norman given by Wyville Thomson at p. 176 of the 
Depths of the Sea. 

The curious thing is this that you mention three 
stages of the eyes whereas Norman only mentions two, 
and his specimens only show two. But most curiously 
an intermediate stage has turned up from the coast 
of Africa, within the last six months ! ! ! I want to 
know if perhaps you had some note on the subject 
other than what occurs in Depths of the Sea. Of course, 
as no figure and only short descriptions were published 


by W. T. and Norman, there is no intention whatever 
on my part of making out that you were inaccurate. 
I owe to your interesting little book my first knowledge 
of the Crab in question, and am very grateful to you 
for it. I shall refer to you as an unconscious prophet 
if as seems likely you were not provided with 
unpublished details. Sincerely yours, 


It seems as if he really had to be credited 
with the gift of prophecy, for he does not appear 
to have been at all able to inform Sir Ray 
Lankester of the source of his information. 

M. Milne - Edwards, however, writes, with 
regard to specimens of Cymonomus granulatus, 
that " Comme ces specimens habitent des pro- 
fondeurs tres variables (de 300 a 350 metres), 
on peut conclure que la transformation des yeux 
en pointes rostrales est fonction, non point de la 
distribution bathymetrique, mais de la distribu- 
tion geographique." 

That is to say that he thinks the difference is 
found in different places, rather than at different 
depths, the modification of the eye peduncles to 
rostra being a peculiarity of the more Northern 
variety, for which Professor Ray Lankester 
suggests rank as a separate species under the 
name of C. Normani. 1 

On the 17th they went down, a family party, 
Lord and Lady Avebury, Ursula, Irene, and 
Harold, to be guests of Dr. Butler, the Master 
of Trinity, for the British Association meeting 
at Cambridge. There were also, staying at the 
Lodge, Mr. A. J. Balfour, Mrs. Griffith, and 

1 Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du "Talisman" : 
Crustactes Dteapodes, par A. Milne-Edwards et E. L. Bouvier, p. 39. 



others. His notes of the visit are as follows : 
" Thursday, to F. Darwin's opening address, 
moved vote of thanks. Friday, spoke in the 
Economic Section on Fiscal Policy. Saturday, 
took the chair at Marr's lecture to the Working 
Men, and read a paper on " Mountain Building." 
Sunday, Trinity Chapel in the morning. With 
Ursula and Irene to do illustrations for my 
paper. Monday, read my paper on "Forms of 
Stems." Thiselton Dyer made a nice speech, 
and it has been well reported. Tuesday, to 
hear A. Evans's paper on Crete. Seconded 
vpte of thanks. Wednesday, home. I had two 
talks with Balfour on Fiscal Policy. He ex- 
plained that when he spoke of a total reversal, 
he only meant in certain cases. He held out, 
however, no hope of any good economy and seemed 
to think a 5 per cent duty all round might be 
necessary, and could not be called Protection ! 
A most interesting and delightful week." 

The report of his paper on the " Forms of 
Stems " is worth quotation, both on account of 
the interest of the subject, and as showing the 
mode of his inquiry and study of Nature. 


22nd August 1904 

Some plants have round stems, some square, some 
triangular, some pentagonal. No doubt there are 
reasons for these and other forms, but the author found 
no explanation in botanical works. 

It is of course important for plants, as for architects, 
to obtain the greatest strength with the least expenditure 
of material. To do this it is necessary that the plant 
should be equally liable to rupture at every point when 


the strain is equal. If not, it is obvious that a certain 
amount of material may be removed from the strongest 
part without increasing the danger of rupture. If the 
stem of a plant, or any other pillar, is affected by pres- 
sure say of wind one side will be extended and the 
other compressed, while between them will be a neutral 
axis, and both extension and compression will be greatest 
along the surface farthest from the neutral axis. It 
follows, therefore, that the strongest form is where the 
material is collected as far as possible from the neutral 
axis. The two bars cannot, however, be entirely 
separate, and must, therefore, be connected by a bar 
or bars. This is the origin of the well-known girder. 

If the forces to be resisted act in two directions at 
right angles to one another, two girders must be com- 
bined, one at right angles to the other. 

If the forces act in all directions, a circular series of 
girders will be required, as Schwendener and others have 
pointed out. This is the case in the stems of trees, 
where the woody fibres form a ring, only separated in 
places by what are known as the " medullary " rays. 
This is the reason for the prevalent round form of stems. 

The question then arises, Why is this form not 
universal ? As regards plants having quadrangular 
stems, it may be pointed out that when the leaves were 
in opposite pairs, each pair at right angles to those 
above and below, as, for instance, in the dead nettle, 
the strain of the wind would be mainly in two direc- 
tions, and the "double girder" would be the best 
form. If so, we should expect to find quadrangular 
stems associated with opposite leaves. The author 
then took the British flora, and showed that plants 
with quadrangular stems always have opposite leaves, 
and that plants with opposite leaves have generally, 
though with exceptions, quadrangular stems. The 
reasons for these exceptions were then considered. 

Passing to triangular stems, it was pointed out that 
they might be accounted for by the same considerations. 
Many Monocotyledons, but not all, have the leaves in 
threes. Sedges, for instance, all have more or less 
triangular stems, while in grasses they are round. 
Now, sedges have leaves in threes, while in grasses they 
are in two rows or ranks. 

In plants with pentagonal stems the same relation 


prevails. The bramble, for instance, has a stem more 
or less pentagonal, and the leaves are in whorls of fives, 
a character, as he incidentally observed, which throws 
light on the number of petals and sepals. The petals 
represent a whorl of leaves, and as a rule, when the 
whorl consists of five leaves, the flower has five petals 
and five sepals ; while when the leaves are opposite a 
whorl would consist of four leaves, as, for instance, in 
veronica, where also there are four petals. Thus, then, 
the author finally remarked, plants have worked out 
for themselves, millions of years ago, principles of con- 
struction so as to secure the greatest strength with the 
least expenditure of materials, which have been gradu- 
ally applied to the construction of buildings by the 
skill and science of our architects and engineers. 

At the end of the month they were back at 
Kingsgate again, and he writes of seeing a large 
school of porpoises passing close in by the cliff. 

In the middle of October Lord and Lady 
Avebury, with Ursula and Irene, were staying 
at Alnwick Castle for a few days, and he made 
geological excursions in the neighbourhood, to 
Bamborough, Warkworth, and various places of 
interest. At the end of the month he went for 
the day to Sunningdale to luncheon with his old 
friends the Hookers. Sir Joseph Hooker was not 
only an old friend but a very old man. " Found 
him wonderfully well," he writes. " Much talk of 
old times. He gave me a medallion of .himself." 

Lord Avebury had been much dissatisfied 
with the way in which the advocates of protec- 
tion spoke of coal as a " raw " material, seeing 
that so large a percentage of its cost to the 
consumer consists in payment of the labour of 
its extraction and conveyance, etc. With a view 
of finding out approximately what proportion 
of the cost would be thus created, he wrote 


inquiring of Sir Arthur Vivian, whose knowledge 
of the Welsh coal trade was intimate. Sir 
Arthur replies : 

November 24,th, 1904, 

MY DEAR AVEBURY . . . Very little House coal is sent 
comparatively from the Welsh Coal-fields to London 
as a rule, the highly bituminous coal is brittle, and in 
our Morfa Colliery we do not in consequence, get 25 
per cent of Large in our working, although we have 
one good vein, and of an excellent quality. I think 
the following figures might be taken roughly to represent 
the division of the cost of a house coal, worth 25s. per 
ton in London, viz. : 

10s. Cost of working inclusive of 6d. or 9d. per ton 


10s. Railway carriage, truck hire, terminals, etc. 
5s. Cartage, commission, storage, rates, waste, and 

profit, etc. 


If, as you say, the Royalty should represent the 
value of the coal in situ, the profit should be the return 
on the Capital employed. I cannot help regarding 
myself the present rate of wages (owing to the pressure 
of the Trades Union), as far too high for the permanent 
benefit of the Welsh Coal Trade, and many of the smaller 
Winding Collieries have been stopped, probably never 
to be opened again, as the " falls " which occur in the 
steep measures, are so extensive when the levels are 
no longer watched and kept in repair. 

Very many thanks for your kind invitation. I hope 
some day you will be able really to come and see me 
here. Yours sincerely, ARTHUR P. VIVIAN. 

It shows the variety and wide sympathy of 
his outlook, that on November 14 he took the 
chair at Bromley at a Salvation Army Meeting, 
at which Mrs. Booth was speaking. She dined 
with them at High Elms before the meeting, and 
Lord Avebury writes : " Ursula and I drove 



her over. She seemed simple and earnest, and 
held her audience. What she said was true and 
sensible, and not exaggerated." 

His book on Free Trade went into a second 
edition towards the end of the year. Its success 
was, in part, due to the individual and independent 
way in which he addressed himself to this greatly 
vexed question. One Liberal candidate writes 
that he proposes giving a copy to a " leading 
resident in each village not only on account of 
its intrinsic merit, but because I think that your 
name may induce Conservatives and Liberal 
Unionists to read the book. The ordinary Free 
Trade Tract they would not look at, and anything 
emanating from the Cobden Club they would not 
touch with their fingers." 

It is quite true that his character and freedom 
from any suspicion of violent Party bias gave 
a peculiar value to anything that he wrote on a 
political question. 

The " popular " books, so to speak of them, 
continued to enjoy a wonderful success. There 
was a second edition of the Esthonian edition 
of The Pleasures of Life. The account of this 
seventieth year of his life may close with an 
extract from a letter received about this time 
from a Californian correspondent. It is typical 
of an immense number of its kind received from 
all parts of the world ; and whatever be Lord 
Avebury's place in English literature, it is prob- 
able that no other writer has ever had so many 
letters of gratitude from readers, unknown to 
him personally, of many nationalities. 


MY ESTEEMED SIR I take the extreme pleasure of 
informing you of one of the many who have been greatly 
benefited by your noble works, particularly The Use of 
Life, and The Pleasures of Life. Nothing better could 
I have prayed for than these, no greater fortune could 
have been thrust upon me. I can never be too thankful 
for having made their acquaintance ; for I consider 
them my best friends, they have caused a complete 
change, a contrast, in my life. It seemed as if I had been 
underground all my life, and suddenly found an exit 
to a bright world. 

I only wish your books will do for others what they 
have done for me. I have health and strength for 
which I am very thankful, and now the only thing I 
ask the Lord for in my prayers, except the blessing of 
others, is that I may acquire wisdom, for with it I can 
retain my health and strength, aid others to be happy, 
and consequently be happy myself. . . . 


AGE 71 

DURING the previous year Lord Avebury had 
been tolerably free from gout, but had developed 
a new propensity to catch rather severe colds, 
which had given much uneasiness to Lady 
Avebury, who was always his most devoted 
nurse in illness, as she was his constant com- 
panion in health. But generally speaking in 
1905 he seems to have thrown off the disposition 
to take chills, and except for one rather sharp 
and short attack of something like influenza, 
towards the end of November, he enjoyed perfect 
health, and made his usual vigorous use of it, 
playing golf, taking his children to dances, and 
going to many social functions besides pursuing 
his political work, business, and various studies. 
They did no very extensive touring, as in some 
former years, and more and more we find visits 
to the now thoroughly comfortable Kingsgate 
Castle, taking the place of these longer outings. 
He contrived to give his breakfast parties through- 
out the season. At one of them the distinguished 




Arctic voyager, Dr. Nansen, was a guest, lately 
returned from his famous Polar expedition. 

He was always keen to win his golf matches, 
and his diary generally records their result 
with jubilation, if he were victorious but he 
was not so concentrated on the game as to be 
incapable of interest in its natural surroundings. 
The present Lord Selby, son of the late Speaker, 
told me that he was amazed, when playing golf 
with him at Richmond, to see him take a small 
bottle from his pocket, fill it with water from 
a pond on the course, cork it up again, and put 
it back into his pocket. His purpose was to 
examine the water under the microscope in order 
to discover what small animal or vegetable life 
it might contain. I have never seen him do 
this, but at North Berwick, when the waiting, 
in the congested state of the green, has seemed 
interminable, I have seen him occupy the weary 
intervals by taking a lens from his pocket and 
examining the stones of one of the walls that 
cross the course, in order to ascertain the 
species to which the lichen belonged that grew 
on it. 

His artist brother-in-law tells a story of him, 
that once, when they were together at the Louvre, 
admiring its priceless beauties, Lord Avebury 
suddenly became absorbed in contemplation of 
a tiny fossil shell in the stone base of one of the 
statues. To the mingled amusement and distress 
of the brother-in-law's artist soul, he evinced 
an interest in this little shell far keener than in 
all the masterpieces of art which the great gallery 




He was still busy about the Early Closing 
and Sunday Closing Bills. " We had a confer- 
ence," he writes, on January 19, "of London 
Shopkeepers, with the Bishop in the Chair, t< 
consider the Early Closing Bill, which wi 
unanimously approved. The Bishop made 
capital speech. They passed me a very cordij 
vote of thanks. Incidentally the Sunday Closin{ 
Bill came up, and they seemed very glad to he* 
that I was going to re -introduce it. Altogethei 
we had a very satisfactory meeting." The Iat1 
Bill came up in the House of Lords on March 
when he notes : " The Government proposed 
amendment to reject the Bill, but have a Sele< 
Committee. However, we stood to our guns, 
and finding that the feeling of the House 
with us, they withdrew their opposition, an< 
let the Bill through. It is going to a Sel( 

In January Lord Goschen writes to him 01 
questions of finance ; especially with regard 
the stock of gold supposed to be in the count] 
at different periods. Lord Goschen' s 
position is indicated by what he writes of " th( 
nonsense of our being unable to pay for 01 
imports without a drain upon us." He calculat< 
that the surplus import of gold over the expoi 
for the last thirteen years was 42,000,000. 
Remarkable figures, coming from a source oi 
such undeniable authority ! 

There was some lengthy correspondence 01 
the same subject between him and Lord Goschei 
in April, initiated by a letter to the Times oi 
Sir Joseph Lawrence with which Lord Goschei 


vehemently, and Lord Avebury rather less 
strongly, disagreed. 

In May Eric went to Eton, where his brother 
Harold had been for some years. Lord Avebury 
affectionately writes : " We are very sorry to 
lose him." On the 12th a note in his diary reads 
rather quaintly : " Received the Diplodocus." 
The Diplodocus is that immense reptile which 
we regard with wonder and alarm at the Natural 
History Museum, and sometimes re-create with 
terror in our nightmares. It was given by Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie, who attended at the formal 
presentation, when it was received by Lord 
Avebury on behalf of the British Museum. Dr. 
Holland, who had set up the cast, was there also, 
and gave a descriptive account of the great 
occasion. Lord Avebury, Mr. Carnegie, Sir 
George Trevelyan, and Professor Geikie were 
the other speakers. The same day he went 
" down to the Chamberlains at Highbury. The 
Lord Chancellor, Lord Halsbury, Haldane, and 
others there a large dinner." The occasion 
was the appointment of Lord Halsbury, in 
succession to Lord Avebury, as Warden of the 

He accepted re-election as President of the 
Society of Antiquaries, being expressly urged 
to undertake it on account of some little friction 
between some of the members at that time. 
The trouble was quickly smoothed over, and 
peace restored. 

He had a disappointment in the summer in 
regard to the Sunday Closing Bill. He writes, 
June 29 : " The Sunday Closing Bill was down 



for Committee. No notice of opposition nor a 
single amendment was put down, so that the 
friends of the Bill were not summoned. To our 
great surprise both Lansdowne and Spencer 
spoke against the Bill, and it was thrown out 
on a motion of Wemyss. Felt some indignation, 
but though the course was very unusual, am 
satisfied that there was no intentional want of 

A great domestic event of the year, besides 
Eric's going to Eton, was the engagement and 
marriage of his daughter, Irene, to Mr. E. H. 
Pelham, son of the President of Trinity College, 
Oxford. They became engaged at the end of 
July, and were married in the beginning of 
December. The younger daughter was thus 
the first to be married. Mr. Pelham was in the 
Education Office, and private secretary to Mr. 
Birrell when the latter was head of the Board of 

On August 12, Lord Avebury took part 
in rather a memorable ceremony, namely : 
" Luncheon to the French Fleet at Westminster 
Hall. It was a remarkable sight. I was between 
Strathcona and M. le Ponsard, Chief Engineer. 
Halsbury, Balfour, the Speaker, and Morley, 
spoke for us all well, especially Balfour. The 
French seemed very pleased." 

An entry in his diary of two days later may 
indicate his principal literary activities at this 
time : " Am working at an article on ' Books,' at 
new editions of The Scenery of Switzerland, The 
Pleasures of Life, and Free Trade and at my 
Botany book also at speeches for the opening 


of a public library at Salisbury, and for the un- 
veiling of a statue of Sir T. Browne at Norwich." 

The Botany book referred to came out at 
the end of November under the title of The Life 
History of British Plants, and was very well 
received. He was at Salisbury opening the 
library spoken of, on October 2. On the 18th 
he went to Norwich as the guest of Mr. Gurney 
Buxton to unveil the statue of Sir Thomas 
Browne. Mr. Buxton, in his letter of invitation, 
gives him the choice of " a shoot or golf " as an 
added inducement. He would have little hesita- 
tion in choosing the latter, and indeed, says that 
they had a very pleasant game on the Norwich 
course, which is a very good one of its inland 

Shooting was not a sport which had at any 
time made much appeal to him, but he did take 
out a gun now and then, and Sir Herbert Maxwell 
has sent me a nice little anecdote about him : 
" He was standing at the end of a covert, waiting 
for the beaters to come out. A country man was 
beside him, either as loader or general attendant. 
Beside them was a heap of stones gathered off 
the fields. Lubbock, always ready to quicken 
the intelligence of any who might be in his 
company, said to the man : 

c Do you know how these stones were made ? ' 

' Why, sir, I 'spect they growed, same as 

6 Well,' rejoined Lubbock, ' but if they lay 
there for fifty years, they would not get any 

6 No, sir, in course they wouldn't same as 



'taturs. Take 'taturs out o' the ground and 
they stops growinV : 

The statue of Sir Thomas Browne is in the 
form of " a bronze sitting figure, executed by 
Mr. Henry Pegram, A.R.A." The writer of the 
above adds that " the Corporation of Norwich 
has given an almost ideal site for the statue, 
facing the spot where he lived for very many 
years, and close upon our great City Church, 
in the Chancel of which he lies buried." It 
was very appropriate that Lord Avebury should 
perform the ceremony of unveiling, both on 
account of his own eminence in the pursuits 
which distinguished Sir Thomas Browne, and 
also by reason of his ancestral association with 
the county of Norfolk and the possession, still 
in the family, of the old property of Lamas. 

Professor Davis, of Harvard University, was 
at High Elms for one of the Sundays of this 
month, and subsequently wrote to him : 



October 23rd, 1905. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY While the recollection of 
my brief visit to High Elms is still as vivid as it will 
always be delightful, let me tell you at once how much 
I enjoyed it particularly the charming walk with you 
and the little conference in the Library on Glacial 
erosion. This reminds me of another item ; namely 
the lakes of the Engadine which Heim has explained 
without any consideration of glacial action. All such 
explanations of features in the glaciated parts of the 
Alps must, I think, be revised ; it is quite possible, in 
the present view of glacial work, that the change in 
the place of the watershed between the Inn and the 
Maira, which Heim attributes entirely to normal river 
work, may be largely due to ice ; and that the little 


lakes may be, at least in part, rock basins, and not 
entirely the result of obstruction by delta barriers. 

May I speak of yet another matter ? In your 
England, the meandering valley of tjie Wye is instanced, 
if I remember correctly, as an illustration of the meander- 
ing habit of rivers, this habit having been explained, in 
preceding paragraphs, as the result of free swinging on 
open flood plains or valley floors. There seems to be 
an omitted item, namely, that the meandering of the 
Wye (and of various other rivers whose meanders are 
incised, or enclosed, like the lower Seine, the Moselle, 
the Ozage) was originally developed on an ancient 
valley floor, whose level lay somewhere about the 
present hill-tops, and that the present meanders of the 
river and of the valley that it has cut are inherited and 
increased from the previously developed meanders, 
and thus brought into the early stage of the new cycle 
of erosion (introduced by general elevation of the 
region). Strongly developed meanders in a strongly 
meandering young valley, with steep sides and narrow 
floor, are not, it seems to me, within the possibilities 
of a single cycle of erosion. Strong meanders are 
features of normal maturity, and if they occur in associa- 
tion with youthful features, such as narrow valleys, 
there seems to be no way of explaining them so well, 
as by inheritance from a previous cycle, in which 
maturity or even old age had been reached. The 
Torridge, in Devonshire, I think, is a good example of 
a competent, or fitting, incised meandering river ; and 
one of its loops has been cut off, leaving an isolated 
hill around which the river no longer swings so it 
appears on the new-coloured one-inch map. 

Please present my compliments to Lady Avebury 
and your daughters, and do not let the seven-legged 
Phlebisco be too seriously associated in your small boy's 
memory with Standard Natural History. Sincerely 
yours, W. M. DAVIS. 

Towards the end of November he repeated 
a visit which he had paid the year before, going 
to Sunningdale to luncheon with Sir J. Hooker. 
He notes that he found him, in spite of his 
advanced age, very well, and that he gave Lord 



Avebury an ingenious micrometer, but Lord 
Avebury himself caught a chill and slight influenza 
which laid him up, when he returned home, for 
a week. On the first day that he was out, after 
the attack, he took the chair at the first meeting 
of an association of which the object was among 
the most important of the many efforts for good 
that he made in his life. This was the Anglo- 
German Friendship Society, formed for the 
purpose of promoting a more friendly feeling 
between the two countries. At the end of the 
meeting a telegram expressive of goodwill was 
sent to the Kaiser, who replied through Prince 
Biilow : 

His Majesty the Emperor has received your lord- 
ship's telegram, and I am authorised by His Majesty 
to transmit his sincerest thanks to you and to all those 
who share your feelings of friendship and goodwill. 

Subsequently to his telegram, Prince Biilow 
had made a speech in which he spoke of a " pro- 
found dislike " of England for Germany. Lord 
Avebury on behalf of the Committee wrote to 
him : 

Sth December 1905. 

DEAR PRINCE BtfLOW Our Anglo-German Friend- 
ship Committee desires me to thank His Majesty the 
Emperor for the gracious message he has been good 
enough to send us through your Serene Highness. 

Our Committee regret to observe that in your 
Highness' opinion Germany has " to reckon in England 
with a profound dislike towards us." 

No doubt certain newspapers seem to be doing their 
best to sow feelings of ill-will between the two countries. 
We are convinced, however, that the real opinion of 
England has been misrepresented to Your Excellency, 
and that no such " profound dislike " actually exists. 
I have the honour to be, yours very respectfully, 




He also made the following suggestion to 
Lord Lansdowne : 

9<A December 1905. 

MY DEAR LANSDOWNE You will no doubt have 
seen that Prince Biilow has followed up his friendly 
telegram to me, by some unfortunate remarks, attribut- 
ing to England " a profound dislike " to Germany. 

It seems very important if possible to remove this 
misapprehension. Do you think His Majesty, who 
has done so much for the peace of Europe, could see 
his way to send a telegram either to our Committee, 
or to the Prince, expressing his sympathy with our 
movement, or his conviction that our countrymen 
generally are animated by no such feelings towards 
Germany ? 

Of course this is unusual, and may be impossible, 
but the circumstances are unusual. 

If it is impossible, or if you think it unadvi sable, 
please excuse my having troubled you. 

If something of the kind could be done it would be 
a charming termination (for the moment), of your 
tenure of the Foreign Office a termination which I 
need not say that I greatly regret. Believe me, yours 
very sincerely, AVEBURY. 

The King, however, was very ill at the time, 
and for that, among other reasons, Lord Lans- 
downe could not see his way to commend the 
suggestion to His Majesty. 

Prince Billow himself, however, replied to 
Lord Avebury in a straightforward and candid 
way, which went far to remove the ill impression 
caused by the unfortunate words of his speech. 

Der Reichskanzler. 

BERLIN, 13th December 1905. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I duly received your kind 
letter and I gladly avail myself of this opportunity to 
thank your Lordship on my own account for having 
promoted by your Caxton Hall meeting the cause of 
good relations between England and Germany. The 



hearty and straightforward way in which you treated 
this important question will effectually contribute, I 
trust, to bring about between our two nations the 
understanding and mutual appreciation which we both 
desire with equal earnestness. I remain, dear Lord 
Avebury, yours gratefully, BULOW. 

It may be noted, however, in spite of the 
Prince's friendly tone, that he does not express 
any conviction that the " dislike " of England 
for Germany of which he spoke is an illusion. 

This first meeting made an excellent impres- 
sion both here and in Germany. To Britons, 
the comments on the German side are of the 
greater interest, and one or two of the resolutions 
which Lord Avebury received from Germany 
may sufficiently show its reception there. 

Die Altesten 
Der Kaufmannschaft von Berlin. 

den 18 ten Dezember 1905. 

Unsere Ihnen gestern gesandte Depesche, betreffend 
die zum Zwecke einer Kundgebung zu Gunsten eines 
freundschaftlichen Verhaltnisses zwischen Deutschland 
und England am 17. d. Mts. in den Salen des Berliner 
Borsengebaudes veranstaltete Versammlung, beehren 
wir uns hierdurch unter nochmaligen Beischluss de 
einstimmig gefassten Resolution mit dem Hinzufiigen 
zu bestatigen, dass ein Bericht iiber die Versammlung 
nachfolgen wird. 
Die Altesten der Kaufmannschaft von Berlin. 


An Lord Avebury, London. 


BERLIN auf den 17. Dezember 1905, in die Sale des 
Borsengebaudes einberufene und von mehr als 2000 
Personen aus fast alien Berufszweigen besuchte Ver- 
sammlung begriisst mit Freuden alle Bestrebungen, 


die auf Herstellung und Aufrechterhaltung freund- 
schaftlicher Beziehungen zwischen der Englischen und 
Deutschen Nation gerichtet sind. > 

Indem sie die Wiinsche fur ein gutes Einvernehmen 
zwischen beiden Volkern, die in verschiedenen von 
hervorragenden Mannern Gross-Britanniens in London 
veranstalteten Versammlungen zum Ausdruck gebracht 
worden sind, auf das Warmste erwidert, spricht sie die 
tJberzeugung aus, dass ein freundschaftliches Verhalt- 
nis zwischen Deutschland und England dazu berufen 
ist, nicht nur die Interessen beider Nationen sondern 
auch die geistige und wirtschaftliche Entwickelung der 
Welt auf das Wirksamste zu fordern. 


Handed in at Neubrandenburg, Mecklb. 


To Lord Avebury, 

High Elms, Farnboro, Kent, R.S.O. 

Empfangen Mylord aus deutschen Privathausern 
den Ausdruck herzlichster Zustimmung zu Ihren 
Bestrebungen einer Wiederherstellung alten Jahren 
Vertrauensverhaltnisses zwischen England und Deutsch- 
land. Frau Von Klinggraff, Pastor Reiter von Prollius 
Stubbendorf, Fraulein von Klinggraff, Kammerherr 
von Klinggraff Pinnow, Graf Stahn Siepen, Frau von 
Klinggraff Pinnow, Miss Lilly Meyer. 

Der Handelsvorstand, Niirnberg, 
An Lord Avebury, London. 

NORNBERG, den 30. Dezember 1905. 

Unter Bestatigung ihres heutigen Telegramms beehrt 
sich die Handelskammer Niirnberg Euerer Lordschaft 
folgende gestern gefasste Resolution zur Kenntnis zu 
bringen : 

" Der Handelsvorstand Niirnberg spricht im Verein 
mit den Handelsvertretungen von Fiirth, Erlangen, 
Ansbach, Weissenburg, PRothenburg und Schwabach 
voile Zustimmung aus zu den in Deutschland und 
England immer entschiedener hervortretenden Bestre- 
bungen fiir Beseitigung der Missverstandnisse und fiir 
ferneres friedliches Zusammenwirken beider Lander. 


Ebenso wie seither Stammesverwandschaft, historische 
Entwicklung und gemeinsame Errungenschaften ai 
alien Gebieten menschlicher Kulttir beide Volker 
vereinigt haben, so erscheint auch jetzt freundschaftliche 
Verstandigung geboten, um unverandert in friedlichem 
Wettbewerb nebeneinander ihre geistigen und materiellen 
Interessen zu fordern." 

Der Handelsvorstand, Niirnberg, Der Vorsitzende, 

Der Syndikus, DR. HEYN. 

There are many more of the like tenor, 
member of the German Embassy in Londoi 
writes : 

Many thanks for your kind letter. You will havt 
seen that our public opinion and press is very ready 
grasp the hand of friendship you extended across th< 
North Sea. The London press might well, I think, 
have taken up the movement more than they have don< 

I should not like to trouble you with a long letter, 
but I feel I must explain the one point you mentionc ~ 
in your letter. I know that people in England do no1 
realise the deplorable effect which has been created ii 
Germany by the so-called " Revelations " of the Math 
The English people start from a different point of view, 
so they do not understand the sore feeling created ii 
Germany. You must, however, not forget, that th( 
" Revelations " were never denied in England, am 
that they said England had not only encoura^ 
Delcasse* to go to war with us, but had even promis( 
to help him. I am afraid nearly everybody in German; 
believes the story told by the Matin. 


MANCHESTER, den 20th December 1905. 

MY LORD I have the honour to inform you thai 

at a large Christmas gathering of Germans, engaged i] 

the commerce of Manchester, the following resoluti< 

was unanimously passed : 

" That cordial thanks be accorded to the Rigl 
Honourable Lord Avebury for the eminent services 
he is rendering to the two nations in trying to bring 



about more friendly relations between England and 

I have the honour to be, my Lord, 6"tc. 

There are addresses also from Kiel, Frankfurt, 
and many other German towns. 

The following is a typical specimen of his reply 
to the various resolutions and letters. It is to 
the Merchants' Guild at Berlin. 

DEAR SIR I have duly received the courteous 
resolution passed at your important meeting. It will, 
I am sure, be seen " by our countrymen with much 

In spite of sensational paragraphs in certain news- 
papers, the general feeling in Great Britain is certainly 
an earnest desire to remain on terms, not merely of 
peace, but of friendship with your great country. 

It is, I observe, alleged in one of your leading papers 
that the holding of our meeting is "in itself uncontro- 
vertible proof of the existence of these hostile feelings 
in Great Britain." This is a mistake. Statements 
imputing hostility to us, and even an intention of 
declaring war having been made several times in 
Germany, the object of our meeting was to assure your 
countrymen that we entertain no such sentiments or 
intentions. On the contrary, we recognise in no grudg- 
ing spirit how much the world owes to your Statesmen 
and Writers, your Philosophers and Men of Science ; 
and we hope you will believe that so far from being 
animated by unfriendly feelings, the vast majority of 
Englishmen respect and admire Germany, and wish 
happiness and prosperity to you and your Countrymen. 


The terrible tragedies enacted on the European 
stage since Lord Avebury's death afford a curi- 
ously sardonic comment on all these and the like 
well-meant efforts to promote a better under- 
standing and a rational friendship between the 
two great branches of the Teutonic race. 



A rather incautious expression used at this 
time by Mr. Bonar Law drew from Lord Avebury 
the following : 

llth December 1905. 

DEAR MR. BONAR LAW As Chairman of the Anglo- 
German Friendship Committee I have been requested 
to write to the papers in correction of the extraordinary 
statement attributed to you that our productions are 
excluded from Germany. 

I have been careful not to assume that you said so, 
as I suppose there must be some mistake in the report. 
I am, yours truly, AVEBURY. 

Mr. Bonar Law replied : 

12th December 1905. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY In reply to your note of the 
llth, it is hardly necessary to say that I never stated 
that " our productions are excluded from Germany " ; 
but I have pointed out in the past, and shall no doubt 
frequently point out in the future, that our manufactures 
are largely excluded from the German market. That 
is a statement, however, which would not, I presume, 
be questioned by any one who has studied the course 
of trade between Germany and this country during the 
past 25 years, and who is aware that the average rate 
of duty in Germany upon our manufactured goods is 
somewhere about 25 per cent. 

I may add that I have no sympathy with any feeling 
of hostility towards Germany, and have never said 
anything to encourage such a feeling. I fully realise 
that the Germans have imposed these duties because 
it pays them to do so, and I am doing what little I can 
to induce our countrymen to act in the same spirit and 
adopt also the fiscal system which will pay us best. 
Yours truly, A. BONAR LAW. 

Lord Avebury's final letter in this short 
correspondence touches a vital source of the 
" dislike " to Germany attributed to Great 
Britain in his reference to the support needed 
by Prince Billow for his Navy Bill. 


16th December 1905. 

DEAR MR. BONAR LAW I do not>suppose any Free 
Trader would agree with you that our manufactures are 
" largely excluded from the German market." 

Moreover, if the amount of our trade with Germany 
is diminished, and our manufacturers suffer, we maintain 
that Germany's trade with neutral markets is still 
further diminished and our exports thereby gain as 
much as, or more than they lose. 

But why single out Germany ? just when relations 
are rather strained, and Billow wants an excuse for his 
Navy Bill ? If Germany charges 25%, France, Italy, 
the United States and Russia have as you know 
even higher average duties. I am, yours sincerely, 


His summary for the year runs : 

There have been new cheap editions of The Pleasures 
of Life, The Use of Life, The Beauties of Nature, Free 
Trade, and The Scenery of Switzerland. I also brought 
out at last my Life History of British Flowering Plants. 

Eric went to Eton. 

Harold passed his Little-go at Cambridge. 

Irene married H. Pelham. 



(AGE 72) 

EARLY in 1906 Lord Avebury suffered a very 
grievous loss in the death of his old and dear 
friend, Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff. On January 
11 he writes : "A sad day. I went to take 
leave of poor Grant Duff, who is dying. He 
was quite himself but very weak. He took my 
hand and asked me to do what I could for Lady 
Grant Duff and the children, and then dozed 
off, but woke up now and then. When I was 
going he asked me to kiss him, and said how 
much I had done for him. I was so distressed 
that I could not say as much as I should have 
liked. He has been a true friend and I shall 
cherish his memory. How much we have seen 
and done together." 

Though so simply drawn, it is a most touching 
picture. It was a friendship which was soon 
to be linked the closer in his retrospect by the 
marriage which took place this year of his daughter 
Ursula to Sir Mountstuart's son Adrian. Lord 
Avebury was one of the executors, and this 
business gave him some little extra work during 




the year. It was on the day following his 
visit that his old friend died. 

Lord Avebury wrote an appreciation of him 
in the Spectator : " The charming article in the 
Spectator. It was so kind and nice," is the 
comment on it of the member of the family who 
was soon to be his son-in-law. 

Lady Ritchie's letter on the subject is so 
delightful that it demands quotation : 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have just been reading 
with sympathetic response your letter about Sir 
Mountstuart. How well you have told the history, 
and how gratefully I remember his kindness and out- 
coming friendly graciousness. Some people seem to 
be like Radium, and give and give and never fail. 
Lady Grant Duff took me in to see him only a few 
days before that sad 12th of January. I thought he 
had never talked more delightfully. I am so glad you 
have given his old friends the satisfaction of finding 
what they are all thinking put into words and fact. 

Don't think of answering this ; it is only for my own 
satisfaction that I write, not to give you trouble. 
Yours always sincerely, ANNIE RITCHIE. 

He was pressed at this time to become President 
of the Moral Instruction League, but though he 
sympathised in a measure with its objects, he 
declined one of the reasons given for his decision 
being that he was not " so young as he was." 
It is the first time that we find him sounding 
this note of recognition that he had lost any of 
his youthful energy. It is possible enough that 
his old friend's death may have given him an 
intimation that his advancing years claimed a 
little more consideration than he was at all 
disposed to pay them. 



He writes in answer to the request that he 
should undertake the Presidency : 

DEAR SIR I am flattered by the wish of the Com- 
mittee that I should be nominated for the Presidency 
of the Moral Instruction League. 

There are, however, two points on which I should like 
some information : 

(1) Does the League oppose Bible teaching, or only 
endeavour to secure Moral teaching ? 

(2) What would be expected of the President ? 

I am not so young as I was, and my time is very 
much taken up. 

Apart from the question of age, he did not 
find himself in entire sympathy with the aims 
of the League, and writes finally : 

DEAR SIR I have now carefully considered the 
papers you have been good enough to send me. 

So far as the importance of Moral Instruction is 
concerned I am heartily with the League, and might 
have been ready to accept the Presidency on the under- 
standing you mention. 

I fully recognise also the difficulty of introducing 
dogmatic teaching into State supported schools. 

On the other hand, it seems to me a mistake to mix 
up the two questions. 

The Bishops advocate " Christian " teaching. In my 
view this does not necessarily imply dogmatic teach- 
ing, from which the sayings of Christ were singularly 
free. Dogmatic theology is in the main a subsequent 

However this may be, we weaken, as it seems to 
me, our effort to secure moral teaching (which by itself 
would have very wide support) by coupling it with 
the struggle to exclude Dogmatism. 

Under these circumstances, though I am quite ready 
to remain a subscriber to the League, I feel that the 
President ought to be able to support both its principles, 
and I fear, therefore, I must ask you to excuse me. 

He thought it would be desirable to have a 
resolution in the House of Lords on the subject 



of Sunday Trading, and consulted tlje Archbishop 
of Canterbury, urging him to move it. To 
which the Archbishop replied, fully approving 
the terms of the resolution and promising it his 
support, but affirming emphatically that Lord 
Avebury, and none other, was the man to 
introduce it. 

Accordingly, on March 9, he brought forward 
in the House of Lords his motion on what he 
now terms Sunday Shopping, rather than Trading, 
and carried it without a division. A Joint 
Committee of both Houses was appointed to 
consider it, and he was elected Chairman. The 
Committee reported strongly against Sunday 
Shopping, and in favour of legislation to give 
effect to that view. The Committee took up 
much of his time during the summer. 

This year, as has been observed, we hear him 
for the first time speaking of himself as capable 
of somewhat less than his youthful power of work. 
Nevertheless, by way of exhibiting how much, 
even at this date of comparative leisureliness, 
he was able to put into an ordinary day, we may 
note his entry for February 8. He had gone 
down the previous day to Liverpool. We may 
be very sure that he had done several hours' 
work at one or other of his books before the first 
entry for the 8th of " British and Foreign Marine 
Insurance annual meeting at 11.30. Then to 
the University, where the V.C. (Dale) and 
Herdman showed me round. Then to lunch 
at the University Club, where Mr. A. Theodore 
Brown had invited the V.C., Major Ross, Professor 
Shevington, Herdman, Mr. Carse, and Mr. Moore. 


Then to Formby and had nine holes of golf. 
Then a deputation of Liverpool tradesmen about 
Early Closing. Then the Library and Philo- 
sophical Society's dinner. I spoke on the future 
of Europe and the necessity for economy." It 
is not a bad day's work for a man of his age, 
though for him by no means an unusual one. 

" The Future of Europe " is the title of an 
article from his pen in the Nineteenth Century 
for March of this year. M. E. de Constant 
writes to him with reference to it : 

PARIS, le 14 mars 1906. 


CHER LORD AVEBURY Je recois enfin votre article, 
" The Future of Europe." 

Je vous en felicite et vous en remercie. Je le fais 
traduire en Frangais. 

Pouvez-vous m'en donner 400 tirages a part (si vous 
en avez) et meme 700, pour les membres du COMITE de 
GROUPE DE L' ARBITRAGE ? Je me chargerais de le leur 
envpyer, ce serait bien utile et bien opportun. 

Egalement pouvez-vous demander a M. Shaw- 
Lefevre de m' envoy er ce qu'il a ecrit pour la limitation 
des depenses navales ? 

Je vous envoie par ce courrier le discours que j'ai 
prononce" au Senat sur ce sujet. Affectueusement a 


And this further letter from M. de Constant 
refers to the International Conciliation movement 
in which Lord Avebury had taken a foremost 
part in Great Britain. 

CHER LORD AVEBURY J'ai pu constater le bon 
effet de votre genereuse et sage initiative. 

De mon c6te je fais mon possible pour contribuer a 
ameliorer les relations franco-allemandes. 

Le jour ou, de part et d'autre, nous aurons reussi, 
vous pour 1'Angleterre et moi pour la France, alors il 



sera utile, je crois, de coordonner notre action. D'ici 
la nos efforts, tout en convergeant vers le meme but, 
doivent continuer a rester independants. 

C'est ce que j'ai explique a 1'excellent M. Fox en le 
chargeant pour vous de mon meilleur souvenir. Votre 
cordialement devoue, 


P.S. En raison de 1'etat des esprits en France et 
des facheuses manifestations re*centes en Allemagne, 
j'ai strictement borne mon action a des demarches 
privees, reservant pour une autre fois Faction publique. 

J'ai ete satisfait du langage du prince de Billow que 
j'ai vu longuement, et, en general, des sentiments qui 
m'ont ete exprimes par toutes les personnalites alle- 
mandes que j'ai rencontrees. 

Nous avons eu, dimanche, notre premier diner de 
la Conciliation Internationale sous la presidence du 
Professeur Foerster qui est pour vous, comme pour moi, 
un auxiliaire de tout premier ordre. 

Mr. Karl Blind, who wrote, much in advance 
of his time, on social subjects, was appreciative 
of Lord Avebury's efforts for a better inter- 
national understanding. 

MY LORD As a reader and admirer of your scientific 
works, for many years past, and being grateful to you 
for the courageous and righteous part you have taken 
for restoring friendly relations between England and 
Germany, I trust you will allow me to send, by this 
mail, a number of the New Age, which contains the 
beginning of an article, by me, on the same subject. 
Believe me, yours faithfully, KARL BLIND. 

At this time Lord Avebury and Mr. Karl 
Blind were not personally acquainted, but an 
introduction was effected a little later in the 
same year, w r hen Lord Avebury was acting 
something of the part of a national entertainer 
to some distinguished German visitors. Mr. 
Blind took much interest in British politics, and 



was a member of what he himself writes of as 
the " Duke of Devonshire's Free-Trade Club." 

The Duke was more in accord with Lord 
Avebury on this Free Trade question than other 
leaders of the party. The diary of February 15 
notes : " Party meeting at Lansdowne House. 
Balfour opened, then the Duke of Norfolk 
proposed a vote of confidence in him as leader, 
and Colonel Sanderson seconded. The Duke of 
Devonshire made a Free Trade protest. Chamber- 
lain answered, and Hicks Beach rejoined. Hugh 
Cecil spoke, asking if we were to be everywhere 
opposed, and got no satisfactory reply ! The 
speeches were all good and conciliatory, but 
the result will, I feel, be disastrous if Protection 
is to be really the policy of the Party." 

On the 21st of the same month he writes : 
" Shop Hours Committee meeting at Cannon 
Street Hotel. The Bishop of London could not 
come, so I took the chair. Everything was very 
harmonious. They also passed a unanimous 
vote in support of our Sunday Bill. Then to a 
meeting of the Unionist Free-Trade Club. Some 
of them very militant. I took the line that we 
can do more for Free Trade by acting as loyal 
members of the Unionist Party on other questions, 
and this was, I think, the general feeling." 

On March 9 he " moved the House of Lords 
that Sunday Shopping required the serious and 
earnest attention of H.M. Government. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury supported strongly, 
though advocating more inquiry. The Govern- 
ment (Tweedmouth) accepted, and offered a 
Joint -Committee. Lansdowne approved, but 



was also for more investigation. The Duke of 
Northumberland, Kinnaird and I maintained 
that the inquiry had been very thorough and 
we did not see what more information could be 
gained. We accepted, however, the Joint Com- 
mittee, which no doubt is a step gained." 

The Presidency of the London Institution 
was an office which he relinquished this year, 
owing to " advancing years." A resolution was 
unanimously passed by the proprietors : 

That we greatly regret the retirement of our President, 
Lord Avebury, from the Presidential Chair of this 
Institution : and desire his Lordship's acceptance of 
our warm and sincere thanks for the services he has 
kindly rendered in that capacity during the past 
twelve years. 

Lady Avebury had been far from well towards 
the end of March, and mainly for her health 
they went to Valescure early in April, returning 
home on the last day of the month. The change 
and the sunshine appear to have set Lady 
Avebury up again, and he also enjoyed his time 
there, playing golf and making expeditions. 

Both on account of his exertions on behalf 
of a better understanding between Great Britain 
and Germany, and also because both his scientific 
and his popular books were well known in that 
country, he was distinctly a persona grata to the 
German nation. This year London was visited 
by two distinguished bodies of German guests, 
the first being a company of burgomasters of 
some of the more important German towns, 
and the second of fifty editors of German news- 
papers. He took an important part in the 



entertainment of both sets of visitors. Lord 
Lyveden, on behalf of " the German visits 
organising Committee," invited him to take the 
chair at a dinner to the burgomasters, styled 
the Anglo-German Friendship Banquet, at which 
some three hundred were present, and a day or 
two later he escorted the visitors to be presented 
to the King at Buckingham Palace. " The 
King," Lord Avebury writes, " shook hands with 
them, and made them a very nice little speech. 
Then to luncheon at the Mansion House about 
a hundred and fifty present." 

The visit of the editors was in the latter end 
of May. Lord Avebury writes on the 21st : 
" About 50 German editors are over. I took 
them to the Lord Chancellor, and then to Haldane 
on the House of Commons terrace, and in the 
evening took the chair at the dinner. There 
were about 300. The Lord Chancellor and Bryce 
made the principal speeches on our side. H. 
Spender also was good. Dr. Barth made an 
excellent one from theirs." 

Three days later he " took the German editors 
over the Natural History Museum," and the day 
following " to Windsor. They laid a wreath on 
the Queen's tomb. Luncheon was in the Orangery. 
It was a fine day, and they all enjoyed it very 
much or seemed to do so." The day following, 
the " Lord Mayor gave them a sumptuous 
luncheon at the Mansion House " which, we 
may hope, for the sake of the amity of nations, 
they also enjoyed very much, though Lord 
Avebury does not tell us so. 

The Duke of Argyll wrote to him strongly 



pressing him to accept the Presidency of the 
Committee for organising the Franco - British 
Exhibition, which it was proposed to hold in 
London in 1908. But he declined the rather 
onerous post, though expressing all sympathy 
with the objects of the Exhibition. 

On May 9, just after his return from the 
Riviera, he was at work again, doubtless under 
the impelling influence of his friend Lord Courtney, 
at the old task on which they had laboured 
in common proportional representation. He 
writes, under that date : " We had a proportional 
representation meeting at St. James's Square. 
Courtney, Westlake, Sir F. Pollock, Sir J. Gorst, 
Bernard Shaw, and the Bishop of Hereford spoke. 
The speeches were all good, and some amusing." 

Later in the year Lord Courtney is again 
urging him to further exertions in the same 
cause. The Proportional Representation Society 
had organised an illustrative election. Some 
thirteen thousand voting papers were sent in, 
and altogether it was a great success. At 
Woolwich, especially, the working men showed 
great interest in it. 

Lord Courtney writes of it : 

December 5th, 1906. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY Our Election promises to be a 
great success. We shall probably have about 10,000 
voting papers. The counting will begin to-morrow 
night (Wednesday) at 6 o'clock at Caxton Hall, West- 
minster. If you can come, as you half-promised, come 
about 5.55 and call us to order at 6 sharp, when I may 
say a few words the fewest possible, so that the counting 
shall go straight away. 

Encouraged by our great success we shall try our 



old method and the Tasmanian method, and we expect 
the first stage to be over by 7.30, when there will be J 
hour for refreshment, and the whole business concluded 
not later than 9.30. 

The mechanical arrangements are very good, and 
more than half the Counties will have had a previous 
drill, so that there ought to be no hitch. 

Come and start us if you can. Yours faithfully, 


In July the Sunday Closing Committee brought 
out their report. On the 16th he writes: "They" 
(the Committee) " agreed that Sunday Trading 
was on the increase and ought to be restricted, 
that the fines should be increased, and that the 
shop assistants should have a rest one day in 
seven," and, three days later : " We finished our 
report. They accepted the fines we proposed 
and practically the exemptions, leaving, however, 
the hour over. So that they have really agreed 
to all the essence of the Bill, and strongly recom- 
mended legislation. Beauchamp, however, for 
the Home Office, wished the drafting left over, 
and considered that to recommend a particular 
Bill was outside our reference. This seems to 
me absurd, but for the sake of getting the recom- 
mendation unanimous I agreed." 

Up to the end of July his health had been very 
satisfactory all this year, but on the 27th he had 
gout and took to his bed, and was suffering more 
or less all the following month. It was not until 
August 21 that he was able to get downstairs to 
breakfast, and his note on Monday, August 6, 
his own special Bank Holiday, is rather pathetic : 
" Still ill, and have never before been so helpless. 3 
It was during the course of this illness that his 



daughter Ursula became engaged to Adrian, the 
son of his old and lately gone friend, Sir Mount- 
stuart Grant Duff, and the engagement was a 
source of mixed satisfaction and sorrow to him, 
for he writes : " Ursula has accepted Adrian 
Grant Duff. We shall miss her terribly, but I 
have much confidence in Adrian, and believe that 
he will make her happy." They were married 
on October 22, and went to Italy for the honey- 
moon. In the meantime Lord Avebury, with 
the elasticity of his wonderful constitution, had 
quite regained his health, and there are many 
entries recording golf, generally at Mitcham, in 
the diary for this month. His illness, however, 
had obliged him to break several engagements. 
He had been invited to open the extended 
building of the Liverpool Museum, and also to 
go to York for a public function, which he had 
to give up. He retired, at the end of the year, 
from his directorship of the London Trust 
Company. On the other hand, he accepted the 
Presidency of the Sociological Society, of the 
Royal Microscopical Society, and also of the 
British Constitutional Association, none of which 
involved many attendances. 

The Constitutional Association published this 
year, as one of its leaflets, a paper by Lord 
Avebury, On Municipal and Government Trading. 1 
He remarks that in his book with the same title 
he had endeavoured to prove (and saw no reason 
to change his opinion) : 

1. That Local Expenditure is increasing more rapidly 
than rateable property. 

1 Municipal and National Trading, by Lord Avebury (Macmillan, 5s.). 


2. That Local indebtedness is increasing more rapidly 
than rateable property. 

3. That Municipal Trading cannot fail to give rise 
to difficult labour problems, and may lead to serious 

4. That profits are only made, if at all, when munici- 
palities have a monopoly ; they are confined to businesses 
such as the manufacture of gas, which has long been 
established and reduced to regular rules ; that even in 
such cases the accounts have been so kept as to make 
it impossible to determine what the real result has been ; 
that the profit, if any, has been but small ; and that much 
more satisfactory and remunerative results might have 
been obtained if the works had been leased to private 
companies or firms. 

5. That Municipal Trading has seriously interfered 
with private enterprise and commerce. 

6. That the State management of railways is open to 
similar objections ; that on State railways the fares are 
higher, the trains slower, fewer, and less convenient, and 
that to introduce questions of railway management into 
the domain of politics is open to serious objections. 

7. That it is unwise to give votes to those who pay 
no rates, and unjust to withhold them from those who do. 

8. That Government and Municipal Trading by 
reducing the demand for labour, while increasing prices 
and raising rates, has injured, not only the ratepayers 
generally, but especially the working classes ; and if 
carried to its logical conclusion it will involve the loss 
of their freedom. 

The leaflet proceeds to develop these pro- 
visions, and its second part is devoted to argu- 
ments against the Government's operation of 
such services as railways and telegraphs. 

In December he was at Eton, staying with 
Dr. Hornby, as the principal guest, on Founder's 
Day. He returned thanks for the " Guests," 
and proposed the familiar toast of " Floreat 
Etona," coupled with the headmaster's name. 
Dr. Hornby had mentioned, in writing to him, 




that they designed the function that year to 
have something of the character of a welcome 
to Natural Science, and this, of course, they 
were the better able to impart to it with Lord 
Avebury as one of the guests. Presumably it 
was to be taken as a sign of a more liberal and 
modern outlook of the School beyond the classical 
boundaries. There were also at the dinner 
Professor H. Miers, the Waynflete Professor of 
Mineralogy at Oxford, and Professor G. C. 
Bourne, the Linacre Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy at the same University old Etonians, 



(AGE 73) 

THE London Municipal Society, in 1907, was 
fighting the London County Council Election 
on the side of economy, and Lord Avebury, 
with one or two others, was asked to speak his 
views into a gramophone. The speeches were 
then fired off, night after night, in different parts 
of London, until the day of the election. It was 
a novel mode of appeal, which attracted the 
electors and, it was claimed, had much effect 
on the elections. He also read part of a chapter 
from one of his books into the gramophone at 
the same time, and the record was deposited at 
the British Museum, with other records of a 
like kind. 

Early in the year they were at Kingsgate, 
and he relates that " an angler-fish, about 3j 
feet long, was thrown up on the beach. The 
coastguardsman informed one of the footmen 
about it, the footman told the nurserymaid, the 
nurserymaid told Maurice (the youngest of his 
children), and by that time it had become a 
whale ! " 




It was about this date that Lord Avebury 
began to work at a new book, for which he chose 
the title Peace and Happiness. A more appro- 
priate title for a book from his pen could not 
easily be found, for he was a typical incarnation 
of these two excellent human attributes. Doubt- 
less his sources of happiness and content were 
very many, though his life had its troubles like 
those of other men. Yet there are few anniver- 
saries of his birth on which he does not end the 
entry in his diary with the words : "I have 
much cause to be thankful." We may admit 
that he had cause, and may be confident that 
the words came from his heart. Besides the 
busy fulness of his life, which in itself must 
have been most satisfying, he was fortunate in 
the devotion of Lady Avebury and in the 
friendly affection of all his children. It was a 
real friendliness, as of coevals, which existed 
between father and children. On March 2 of 
this year he notes : " Took Maurice to his first 
pantomime Sindbad." It is a pleasant picture 
presented : and we may be sure that the father, 
through the enjoyment of the son, had scarcely 
less delight than the boy himself in this drama 
of great marvels. One of his entries this year 
runs : " Eric went back to school. He is a 
dear fellow and as good as gold. He has been 
acting as my secretary, and we have been working 
at pollen together. I always miss the boys 
when they go to school, but never more than 
this time." 

At another date he says, " Eric enters so 
into all my pursuits, and likes being with me so 



much, that I really feel the boy is as keen as I 
am, and does not only do it out of affection." 

Except for a few colds and minor ills, he was 
in excellent health and vigour all through this 
year, playing golf energetically, and giving his 
breakfast and other parties. One of his breakfast 
guests, who also came to his house at other times 
as a visitor, was probably the most popular man 
in England that year " Mark Twain." 

In February he was asked by the New York 
press to telegraph his views as to a reform of 
the American Currency, which was urgently 
needed. His observations in reply were ex- 
tensively circulated in the United States. 

On the 25th he brought in a Bill to amend 
the law relating to Debentures, on behalf of 
the Bankers, the Chambers of Commerce, and, 
in fact, the whole commercial community. A 
recent decision had reversed the commonly re- 
ceived interpretation of the law, and thrown 
things into confusion. The Bill passed the House 
of Lords, and the Government introduced its 
provisions into their Companies' Act Amendment 
Bill, which covered other ground as well. In 
May, when the Bill itself came up, he proposed 
several other amendments which were agreed to 
in the Lords. His views on Free Trade met 
with a good deal of kindly response in France, 
where the question of income-tax was being 
discussed at this time. The following letter on 
the subject is interesting both on its own account 
and for Lord Avebury's reply : 


Ce 2 mars 1907. 

CHER LORD AVEBURY Je vous serais bien recon- 
naissant si vous vouliez nous dire, pour notre gouverne 
personnelle, votre opinion de I'impot sur le revenu en 
Angleterre. Nous aimerions savoir, ici, d'un homme 
aussi competent que vous, si cet impot est populaire 
en Angleterre. 

Vous savez que le gouvernement fran9ais a 1' intention 
d'etablir I'impdt sur le revenu en France. La question 
agite enorm6ment le pays et, d'une faon generate, le 
projet est excessivement impopulaire. 

On a repondu aux critiques du gouvernement qu'en 
Angleterre, en Amerique et en Italic les peuples se sont 
soumis avec facilite a cet impot. Nous aimerions 
savoir si cette opinion est exacte et, dans le cas ou 
cela ne serait pas et ou vous-meme vous partageriez 
cet avis vous seriez dispose a ecrire pour le Matin, 
sous votre signature, un article pour faire ressortir que 
1' income- tax ne plait pas au peuple Anglais. 

Dans le cas ou vous-meme, parce que vous seriez 
d'un avis contraire, ne seriez pas dispose a nous ecrire 
cet article, pourriez-vous nous recommander un homme 
anglais, dont le nom est connu en France qui, croyant 
sincerement que I'impdt sur le revenu en Angleterre 
est mauvais, voudrait nous faire cet article ? 

Agreez, cher Lord Avebury, mes sentiments les plus 
devoues et les plus respectueux. JULES HEDEMAN. 

In answer he sent the following reply : 

En reponse a votre lettre je peux dire que le " Income 
"ax " n'est pas populaire en Angleterre mais qu'il est 
difficile de le diminuer parce qu'il ne frappe que le 

On peut aussi dire qu'il n'est pas juste parce qu'il 
pese egalement sur le revenu provenant de 1' effort 
individuel, comme par exemple celui d'un medecin, 
d'un avocat ou d'un comme^ant, et sur le revenu 
provenant des Rentes ou des obligations de chemins 
de fer. 

Chez nous cependant c'est un impdt qui date de 
longtemps quoiqu'a present il soit plus eleve qu'a 
1'ordinaire. II y aurait une plus grave objection si 




c'etait un imp6t nouveau. A mon avis, il est tou jours 
in juste de changer le systeme des impots. Quand il y 
a longtemps qu'ils existent, tout s'accorde avec eux 
les gages, les heures et les conditions du travail, etc. ; 
mais en introduisant un nouveau systeme, on boule- 
verse, on derange tout ; on comble les uns de bienfaits 
et on accable les autres de nouveaux fardeaux. 

Lorsque c'est absolument necessaire, comme en temps 
de guerre par exemple, on est oblig de prelever de 
nouveaux impots afin de distribuer les charges de 1'fitat 
aussi justement que possible. Quand on le fait, non 
par besoin, mais pour faire profiter les uns aux depens 
des autres, alors il me semble que ce n'est ni juste ni 
sage. AVEBURY. 

Although his various activities were still so 
many, we find him yet again this year declining 
several suggestions that he would almost certainly 
have complied with when he was a little younger. 
He was invited to deliver the " Herbert Spencer " 
lecture at Oxford, but did not feel that he was 
able to undertake it, and it was again suggested 
to him that he should accept the Chairmanship 
of the London County Council, but this also he 
felt obliged to decline. Mr. Hugh Chisholm, then 
editing the new edition of The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, wrote asking him to contribute two 
articles, one on Representation and the other 
on the Vote, but he replied that he did not feel 
that he had the needful leisure for their writing. 

He continued, however, to take the chair 
at very many meetings and dinners. On April 
15, for instance, he was in the chair at a meeting 
in Exeter Hall on the income tax, and this, 
incidentally, led to his taking the presidency of 
the Income Tax Reduction League. A week 
later he gave his presidential address to the 
Society of Antiquaries, and in the evening took 


the chair at their dinner ; and two days after 
that again he was in the chair at a Proportional 
Representation meeting. These are not to be 
reckoned as anything approaching an exhaustive 
account of the public functions which he pre- 
sided over or attended, but merely as typical 
of his activity in this direction at a time when 
he deemed that he was shaking himself com- 
paratively free of his burdens. Proportional 
Representation engaged much of his atten- 
tion during June, when he was sitting on Lord 
Courtney's House of Lords' Committee on the 

In July he carried the Limited Partnership 
Bill through the House of Lords, and it sub- 
sequently passed the House of Commons. It 
was introduced at the request of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and legalised here the Commandite 
system which had been found to work well on 
the Continent and in the United States. 

They moved down to Kingsgate in the summer, 
and while there he had the shock of hearing 
of the sudden death, from heart failure, of his 
youngest brother Edgar. Earlier in the year he 
had lost one of his older friends in Sir Michael 
Foster, but the death of Edgar, quite a young 
man, was tragic in its surprise. Only in this 
very year the younger brother had written a 
note of thanks for Lord Avebury's congratulations 
on his appointment as Deputy- Governor of the 
Bank of England. He had said how he looked 
forward to the work as a change from the brewing 
business, in which he had been engaged for 
thirty years. 



Some of the French papers confused the 
identity of Edgar with Lord Avebury, and sup- 
posing it to be the distinguished eldest brother 
who was suddenly dead, had highly eulogistic 
and sympathetic accounts of his life and deeds. 
He had thus the unusual experience of reading 
some of his own obituary notices. A personal 
friend and fellow geologist, M. Margerie, wrote 
to Lady Avebury : 

(CALVADOS), 11 septembre 1907. 

MADAME J'ai etc" profondement attriste d'apprendre 
hier, par un journal, la mort de votre cher et venere 
mari. II y a quelques semaines, j'avais eu 1'honneur 
de lui ecrire, pour repondre a I'aimable invitation qu'il 
s'etait donne la peine de m'adresser, a propos du 
Centennaire de la Societe Geologique de Londres. Je 
me faisais une fete de me retrouver, pour quelques jours 
ou quelques heures, dans la compagnie de cet homme 
excellent, dont la science egalait la bonte ! 

II y a plusieurs annees deja que nous ne nous etions 
rencontres ; mais, a differentes reprises, les envois 
qu'il voulait bien me faire de ses travaux me permettaient 
toujours d'admirer sa lucidite, son ferme bon sens, et 
surtout, si j'ose dire, son incorrigible optimisme. La 
est, sans doute, le secret de la sympathie qu'il inspirait 
a tous ceux qui 1'approchaient : indulgent, autant que 
modeste, il ne pouvait pas avoir d'ennemis ! 

Je ne suis pas qualifie pour apprecier son ceuvre, 
comme savant, dans le domaine de ses etudes favorites : 
Biologic et Archeologie prehistorique. Mais ce que je 
puis affirmer, c'est que, comme Geologue, il nous a 
rendu les plus grands services : son petit livre sur la 
structure des Alpes Suisses a fait penetrer les resultats 
de maint travail technique dans 1' esprit de bien des 
gens qui, sans lui, n'en auraient pas eu connaissance. 
Je me souviens encore de son juvenile enthousiasme a 
la vue des grandes cuisses de 1'Oberland, quand nous 
etions ensemble a Miirren en 1894 ! 

Oui, dans toute la force du terme, c'est une belle 
ame qui s'en va ! 



Daignez agreer, Madame, 1' expression de mes con- 
doleances les plus respectueuses et les plus sympathiques. 


Ancien President 

de la Societe Geologique de France. 
44 rue de Fleurus, Paris VI. 

The above was followed, rather more than a 
week later, by a letter of apology to Lord 
Avebury himself: 



September 22nd, 1907. 

MY DEAR LORD I must congratulate you, first, and 
thank you for your amiahle words. I was misled by 
an announcement in the Parisian paper Le Journal of 
September 10th, where the confusion with your brother 
was accentuated by a somewhat detailed account of 
your own scientific (and political) career, presented as 
the deceased Lord's (sic) curriculum. 

It is, really, too kind of you to insist again for receiving 
my visit. I may assure you it shall afford me great 
pleasure. Being unacquainted, as yet, with the details 
of the arrangements taken by the Geological Society, 
I can only state that my plan should be to stop at 
Kingsgate in coming back from Cambridge say the 
2nd or 3rd of October, and ask you the permission to 
defer more particulars till I am in London. Very 
respectfully yours, EMM. DE MARGERIE. 

Will you excuse me, before Lady Avebury, for my 
letter of the llth inst. ? 

The following brief letter of misplaced con- 
dolence is wittily redeemed by its sequent. 

(ARDENNES), 12. ix. 07. 

Je viens d'apprendre la douloureuse nouvelle de la 
mort de Lord Avebury, et je me fais un devoir d'adresser 
a Lady Avebury 1' expression de ma profonde et respec- 
tueuse sympathie. Cette perte sera vivement ressentie 
par tous les amis de la sienne, et nul ne lui donnera 
plus de regrets que moi, qui venais d'etre tout recemment 
de la part du defunt, 1'objet d'un temoignage flatteur 



par 1' off re d'hospitalite si gracieuse dont il avait bien 
voulu m'honorer. A. DE L APPARENT, 

Secretaire perpetuel 
de 1' Academic des Sciences. 

(ARDENNES), 18. ix. 07. 

CHER LORD AVEBURY J'applaudis de grand coeur 
a la resurrection que vous m'annoncez, heureux de 
penser que prochainement j'aurai 1' occasion de ni'en 
assurer moi-meme ; car je serai a Londres le 26, le 
President de la Soci&te G^ologique de France, en ce 
moment malade, m' ay ant prie de remplir a sa place la 
delegation et de presenter 1'adresse de notre Societe. 

Avec mes respectueux hommages pour Lady Avebury, 
et mes regrets de lui avoir inflige un veuvage injustifie, 
je vous prie de me croire Votre tout deVoue, 


Lord Avebury felt his brother Edgar's death 
very keenly. " The youngest of us," he writes, 
" the first to go ! A terrible blow and quite 
unexpected. A most useful life, and most loved 
by us all. He was most kind to all his brothers 
and sisters." Of the funeral he says, " There 
were many more there than I had expected, 
including the Governor and several of his Bank 
of England colleagues." 

The occasion to which M. Margerie refers as 
likely to bring him to London, and later to 
Kingsgate as Lord Avebury 's guest, was the 
centenary of the Geological Society. Many of 
the geologists, both British and foreign, went 
to Kingsgate after the meeting in London, and 
Lord Avebury records that he found their visit 
of the greatest interest. It was an interest 
keenly reciprocated, as several letters from foreign 
correspondents show. His old friend, Dr. Heim, 
the leading geologist of Switzerland, writes : 



ZURICH, V., 2. x. 1907. 

MY DEAR LORD I always remember with great 
pleasure the delightful and charming day of tranquillity 
and peace I passed at Kingsgate Castle. It was a day 
of beautiful rest in the struggle of life. . . . 

From London I wrote a card to my bookseller 
(Miiller) in Zurich, to command to him, to send to you 
my papers : Geschlechtsleben and Ballonfahrt, and I hope 
you will find some interest in it, especially in the first- 
named. To read The Use of Life is, as my daughter 
said, " better than to go to church." 

From London I went to Oxford, a town full of interest 
and a curious mixture of old and new mind, which would 
not be possible, for instance, in our country. We had 
a delightful excursion to Stonesfield. Returned to 
London, I spent again two days in the Kensington 
Museum. One should rather have two weeks. The 
beauties of the Museum and the interest I took in many 
specialities of it, made it impossible to give the time 
for a visit to Cambridge. 

On the 7th October I was obliged to be in Zurich. 
In Brussel I had a most interesting day with Rutot in 
the Museum. He showed me his recently-found flint 
implements out of a stratum underlying marine oligocene, 
and convinced me of the oligocene man. The most 
striking is the comparison of the implements of the 
Tasmanian 50 years ago with Oligocene Man in Belgium. 
There is a wonderful accuracy ! Tasmanians were 
" oligocene men," a pity that they are extinct ! . . . 

In the autumn he wrote a letter to the Times, 
which was followed by some correspondence 
on the subject of Old Age Pensions. Lord 
Lansdowne writes to him in reference to it : 

September 20th, 1907. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY I have been reading with great 
interest the correspondence in the Times initiated by 
you upon the subject of old age pensions. The discussion 
has been most instructive, and we are all indebted to 
you for having started it. 

I am, I confess, profoundly alarmed at the outlook. 



The present Government have, in effect, committed 
themselves to the policy, which, in my opinion, is a 
disastrous one. Asquith will, no doubt, try to discover 
a moderate solution of the difficulty, and it may perhaps 
be possible to do something in the way of the encourage- 
ment of thrift by the State. I have always been in 
favour of discriminating between deserving and un- 
deserving poverty, and mitigating to some extent the 
severity of the workhouse system. But this is a widely 
different thing from what is asked for by the Trades 
Union Congress. 

My object in writing, however, is not to express my 
views upon a subject of which I have no special know- 
ledge, but to ask you where one can get Blackley's 
paper, to which you and others have referred. I see 
you speak of no less than five public Inquiries into the 
subject of old age pensions. Is there any one of these 
which is more deserving of careful study than the rest, 
or is there any witness whose evidence is particularly 
worth reading ? 

The note of warning which you sounded in the 
House of Lords, in the debate upon the Appropriation 
Bill, was indeed needed. Yours sincerely, 


The Right Hon. Lord Avebury. 

In November he was asked to send across the 
Atlantic a message of goodwill on the successful 
installation of wireless telegraphy spanning the 
great ocean, and this message, which appeared 
in the New York Times of October 18, was the 
first ever thus transmitted. 

The same month he was elected Rector of 
St. Andrews University for the following year, in 
succession to Mr. Andrew Carnegie, who writes 
him in congratulation : 

NEW YORK, November 12th, 1907. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY Hearty congratulations upon 
your election as Lord Rector of Saint Andrews 


Glad you are my successor, am certain you are to 
fall under the charm of that oldest of Scottish seats of 

Have just read your cabled views upon National 
Banks here. It could not be obtained, the people are 
unwilling to create one, but we hope to get Congress 
to allow Banks to increase circulation, say 20 or 25%, 
upon their assets without pledging Government Bonds, 
but paying a fine increasing as the amount swells, so 
that only in emergencies will Banks keep the extra in 

This meets the views of the Banking Association. 

We hope also to invite Governments to make treaties 
for Arbitration with us, the President Secretary of State 
and Senate being now nearly in accord. 

With renewed congratulations and best wishes. 
Very truly yours, ANDREW CARNEGIE. 

The Emperor of Germany visited England in 
the winter, and the Anglo -German Friendship 
Committee took the opportunity to present him, 
by Lord Avebury's hand, with an address express- 
ing the hope that goodwill might prevail between 
the two great branches of the Teutonic people. 
Lord Avebury was very anxious to have a clause 
in the address insisting on the mutual benefit of 
diminishing, or at least arresting the growth of, 
armaments, but from the German side, when 
the draft of the proposed address was submitted 
to them, Count Metternich requested the omission 
of the clause. 

In answer to the request Lord Avebury writes : 

November 1st, 1907. 

DEAR COUNT METTERNICH My colleagues would 
very much regret to omit the clause about a reduction 
of armaments. 

They consider that the gigantic armaments of 
European Countries constitute a danger to the peace 


of Europe ; that the enormous taxation they involve 
is a great drawback to the prosperity of both Germany 
and England, and must increase the present tendency 
to discontent and socialism. 

My colleagues do not underrate the practical diffi- 
culties, and the paragraph only refers to reduction as 
an object to be aimed at. They had hoped there was 
general unanimity so far, and that the paragraph was 
not therefore controversial. 

However, we agree that an address of welcome 
should be worded so as to be acceptable, and if you 
still wish it they will therefore omit the passage, and 
consequently the following paragraph. I am, yours 
very sincerely, AVEBURY. 

His Excellency, The Count Metternich. 
To which Count Metternich replies : 

LONDON, November 1st, 1907. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am much obliged for your 
letter of to-day. 

The question of the limitation of armaments has 
been up to a recent date a controversial one amongst 
the Governments represented at the Hague Conference. 
The English and German Governments held, as is well 
known, different views on the subject. No Govern- 
ment has, so far, been able to find a formula by which 
the armaments question could be usefully approached. 
Many people in this country and elsewhere have expressed 
the opinion that an international discussion of the 
question would at present do more harm than good. 

The limitation of armaments being a question of 
controversy and in no way connected with the 
Emperor's visit to England, I could not help saying, 
on my opinion being asked, that it had better be left 
out of your address. 

One may be a lover of peace and yet believe that 
the question of armaments is not ripe for negotiations 
in the present state of European affairs. 

It seems to me that your Committee is taking the 
right line in fostering peace by trying to strengthen 
the friendly feeling between our two nations. Before 


you can, with any hope of success, ask the great nations 
of Europe to limit their means of defence you must 
first alleviate any feeling of distrust which may prevail 
among them. This, your Committee has been doing, 
and I venture to express the hope that you will continue 
in your efforts which are, at the same time, humanitarian 
and useful, as every high-minded person in Germany 
and in England will gratefully acknowledge. 

I have explained my views at greater length to Mr. 
Fox to-day, and I feel sure that, in its present shape, 
your admirably worded address of welcome will give, as 
it is meant to give, much pleasure to the Emperor. 
Believe me, yours sincerely, P. METTERNICH. 

Lord Avebury felt that the point, thus in- 
sisted on, must be yielded, but concedes it with 
the final protest : 

November 2nd, 1907. 

DEAR COUNT METTERNICH Thanks for your letter. 
I had hoped that at any rate Germany, France and 
England might have come to some understanding as 
to armaments. 

If the present gigantic expenditure continues your 
manufacturers and ours will find it more and more 
difficult to compete with those of the United States 
and other less heavily burdened countries. 

I fully share your views of the importance of culti- 
vating friendly feelings, but the increase of armaments 
tends terribly in the opposite direction. 

However, or should I say moreover, I can imagine 
no difference of opinion between our two countries 
which may not be arranged by a little of that friendly 
feeling which I hope and believe really exists on both 
sides. Believe me, yours very sincerely, AVEBURY. 

His Excellency, The German Ambassador. 

P.S. I hope you will not think I am taking too 
great a liberty in expressing my views but I have, as 
you know, special opportunities of forming an opinion, 



and if the present state of things continues I foresee 
great danger to all thrones, and the certainty of suffering 
to your people and ours. 

He notes that " The Emperor was very 
gracious. He talked some minutes with the 
deputation and spoke strongly of the importance 
of peace and goodwill to both countries." 



(AGE 74) 

THE range of Lord Avebury's activities was so 
wide and the rapidity with which he passed from 
one subject to another so remarkable, that its 
record is apt to become just a little bewildering 
to a mind accustomed to a more sober pace and 
less varied interests. 

On January 15 of this year he writes : 
" With Alice and Eric to St. Andrews to be 
installed as Lord Rector. The Students received 
us at the station most kindly and their red gowns 
made a very effective scene. The girls lined the 
stairs. They dragged us to Donaldson's, stop- 
ping in the Quadrangle, where he made a little 
speech." Sir James Donaldson was the Principal. 
The following day Lord Avebury was installed as 
Rector, given the degree of LL.D., and delivered 
his address. The students were on their best 
behaviour and made an excellent audience. In 
the evening he dined with the Professors and 
made another short speech, afterwards meeting 
the students in the Library. 

On the 17th he received the Delegates from 
other Scotch Universities and spoke again. He 




dined at one o'clock with the students, and in 
the afternoon had tea with them. After tea 
they had a dance. 

On the 18th he played golf in the morning 
and made an expedition in the afternoon to the 
Spindle Rock. 

On the 20th he was at Dundee, where he went 
over Messrs. Cox's works, had luncheon at the Club 
and afterwards gave an address on Free Trade. 
When the address was over the students met him 
and dragged the carriage to the College, where 
there were a few short speeches. Finally he was 
escorted to the station, where the students sang 
songs till the train came in. Altogether it was a 
most successful time. He received many highly 
appreciative letters about the Address which may 
be read at length in the St. Andrews University 
Magazine, called College Echoes. 

" Thanks," writes one of his friends whom he 
had not met for a long time, " for your altogether 
charming address, the most delicately and subtly 
delightful thing of the kind I have ever read. I 
hope it will be published in full very shortly and 
made very widely accessible. It is the brightest 
and most hopeful and stimulating talk to young 
men on the relation of true culture to happiness 
and to duty, and it would do real good to have 
such an address widely distributed, not only 
among people such as you spoke to, but among 
the members of Workmen's Clubs and all kinds 
of such bodies." 

" You had a happy inspiration," is the phrase 
in another letter, " and clothed it in taking 



Referring to his Free Trade speech at Dundee, 
which the Cobden Club published, Lord Welby 
writes : 

February 8th, 1908. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY I have read your speech before 
sending it on to be printed. It is the best defence of 
Free Trade which I have seen for a long time admirable 
and the Cobden Club is doing a real service to the 
cause in publishing it. 

I confess I have become anxious about the future of 
the cause. Our intelligence is that the tariff reformers 
are working all they know in cottage and public. 

I am afraid the majority of the City are tariff 
reformers. Is there any means, think you, by which 
the sensible moneyed men east of Temple Bar could be 
brought to appreciate the danger which threatens ? 
Yours sincerely, WELBY. 

Sir Swire Smith writes, referring to the same 
speech : 

March 27th, 1908. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have just read your little 
pamphlet on Free Trade and with all my heart I thank 
you for it. Tariff Reform is filling the air and it must 
be met by our best men. One does not often after 
reading a book presume to write to the author, but 
in this instance I wish to say how grateful to you every 
patriotic Englishman who realises the danger before 
us must feel for your sacrifices in preparing that 
address and in going to Dundee to deliver it. But 
your labour will be repaid. I began by marking the 
paragraphs that impressed me by their weight and 
force, and I find that I have marked nearly every 
paragraph in the address which is just packed full of 
" nuggets," arranged in the orderly fashion of the author 
in his unexampled simplicity and directness of aim. 
And I venture to predict that any fair-minded and in- 
telligent enquirer who reads it will find more facts and 
arguments in favour of our present system than in all 
the writings and speeches of the Tariff Reformers put 


You have supplied a perfect armoury for Free Trade 
speakers, and therein you will find your " exceeding 
great reward " in giving so substantially of your best, 
in defence of our country's well-being. With all good 
wishes, believe me, yours sincerely, SWIRE SMITH. 

Lord Avebury also had some correspondence in 
the Times, with Mr. Bonar Law, on Free Trade. 
It is perhaps superfluous to say that the arguments 
of neither conveyed the slightest conviction to 
the other. 

He was much occupied with the business of 
the Chamber of Commerce. In fashion eminently 
British they " had a dinner to discuss gold 
reserves." He was in the chair at this dinner 
and made the opening speech on the subject. 
It resulted in the appointment of a committee 
of which he was Vice-chairman, the Chairman 
being Sir A. Spicer, the President of the Chamber. 

On March 16 he was speaking in the House 
of Lords in favour of a Proportional Representa- 
tion Bill introduced by Lord Courtney. It was 
carried in the Lords and referred to a Committee 
which eventually reported in its favour. On 
the following day he reintroduced the Shops 
Sunday Closing Bill, and the day after that 
delivered the presidential address, on " Seeds," 
to the Royal Microscopical Society. He gave 
up the Presidency of the Society of Antiquaries 
this year, receiving a very appreciative vote of 
thanks for his services. 

He was working at intervals at his Peace and 
Happiness book, and in the midst of these and 
various other occupations received the letter 
below from Sir F. Darwin. 



CAMBRIDGE, March 24th, 1908. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY There is going to be a 
memorial volume of essays next year in connexion 
with the Centenary of my father's birth and the jubilee 
(though we shall avoid this horrid word) of the Origin. 
The editor wants an article on " Darwinism and Politics " 
or " Politics in relation to Evolution " or some such title. 
Do you think you could see your way to writing such 
an article ? The idea is to have articles comprehen- 
sible to the educated layman, and therefore not too 

We shall probably get F. Galton to write on Eugenics, 
which would be the only article that could clash with 
one on Politics, and such clashing could easily be avoided 
by arrangement. 

If you are inclined to help us, will you let me have 
an approximate title. Of course the above titles are 
the merest suggestions we leave the scope of the essay 
to you. 

I think the average article will be 15 to 20 pp., large 
8vo. Yours sincerely, 


It was a suggestion which made a strong appeal 
to him, for many reasons, but he did not quite 
see how to treat the subject, and after some 
consideration thought it best to decline. He did 
accept, however, the proposal conveyed in the 
following invitation : 

HANTS, May 8th, 1908. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY It was the unanimous wish 
of the Committee on the Darwin-Wallace Celebration, 
at their meeting yesterday, that you should be requested 
to give a short address at the Celebration on July 1st, 
and I was asked to write to you on the subject. 

It is suggested that your remarks should follow the 
presentation of the medals to the 7 selected recipients, 
and their replies. 

It was felt that your old friendship with Darwin and 




the close association of your work with his, rendered it 
peculiarly appropriate that you should speak on this 
occasion, and I very much hope that you may be willing 
to do so, for I am sure that your participation will add 
very greatly to the success of the celebration. 

It is not proposed to have any other speakers, beyond 
the President and the medallists or their representa- 

The medallists chosen are : Wallace, Hooker, Haeckel, 
Strasburger, Weismann, Galton and Lankester. 

Hoping very sincerely that you may be able to do 
the Society this further service. I am, yours very 


As the time for the meeting drew near he 
wrote to Dr. Wallace inviting him to one of the 
breakfast parties, which he still continued. Dr. 
Wallace writes rather sadly in reply : 

June 23rd, 1908. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY Thank you very much for 
your kind invitation. I regret that I have for years 
been obliged to renounce such delights as breakfasts 
with my friends. I have been obliged to adopt the 
plan of ' no breakfast* and * no dinner ' either only eating 
once, in the middle of the day, which I find the only 
means of keeping off attacks of asthma, and keeping 
me in such health that I can still do a little work. 

I shall probably come up to the " celebration " on 
the 1st, for the day only, as there are convenient trains, 
and that will involve less fatigue and risk than a more 
prolonged stay away from my household gods. 

Allow me to wish every success to your Bill for 
preserving beautiful birds from destruction. 

To stop the import is the only way short of the 
still more drastic method of heavily fining every one 
who wears feathers in public, with imprisonment for 
a second offence. But we are not yet ripe for that. 
Yours very truly, 



He had introduced the Bill, of which Dr. 
Wallace speaks, under the title of the " Importa- 
tion of Plumage Bill" in May. It was carried 
through its third reading in the Lords in July, 
but lost in the House of Commons. A like fate 
also befell his Municipal Voting Bill. He did 
carry through certain amendments to the Old 
Age Pensions Bill, but not that on which he had 
most set his heart, which was to introduce the 
contributory principle, on the German Model. 
The Shops Sunday Closing Bill also went through 
its third reading in the Lords, only to be lost in 
the Commons. It will be noticed that his legis- 
lative measures had not the same success after 
his accession to the Upper House, and it seems 
most natural to ascribe the lesser success in 
some degree to the absence of his most simple 
and, perhaps on that very account, most per- 
suasive eloquence in the place where these 
measures were in the greatest danger and where 
their opponents were most numerous and active. 
In May he was before a House of Commons 
Committee, giving evidence in favour of the 
Daylight Saving Bill. It was a Bill of which 
the provisions, if they had become law during 
his life, would have affected him far less than 
most men, for his habits had been much those of 
a Daylight-saver all his life through. 

An interesting appreciation of the Duke of 
Devonshire is given in his diary in a short and 
epigrammatic form which is full of meaning. It 
is under date March 24 : " In the afternoon the 
sad news came of the death of the Duke of Devon- 
shire. He has, I think, been oftener right and 


seldomer wrong than any of our other leaders." 
It is praise as high as it is discriminating. On 
the 28th he writes : " Memorial service for the 
Duke of Devonshire. What a loss ! " 

A loss which touched Lord Avebury even 
more closely in personal relations was that of 
Sir John Evans who died a few weeks later in 
the same year. Lord Avebury writes of him as 
" One of my oldest and greatest friends. It has 
been one of the privileges of my life to have 
enjoyed his friendship." 

He was at Kingsgate when he received this 
sad news. He had gone there after a visit to 
Avebury, with his daughter, Mrs. Pelham, and 
his old friend Mr. Philip Norman, to see some 
excavations that were in progress opening out 
an old ditch. He found that the diggers were 
down about fifteen feet and had disinterred 
many bits of Norman pottery down to a four- 
foot depth. Below that were Romano - British 
evidences down to six feet three inches, and at 
seven to eight feet British pottery, which he 
ascribes, with a query, to the Bronze Age. 
Near the surface, or about one foot down, they 
had found a pipe which he dates approximately 
at the Jacobean time. 

They were at Kingsgate the greater part of 
June, and at the end of the visit he notes : 
" While we have been here I have worked at 
(1) Obituary notice of poor Evans, (2) Propor- 
tional Representation Society's address, (3) 
Darwin jubilee address, (4) Correcting proofs 
of Society of Antiquaries' address, (5) Royal 
Microscopical Society address, (6) New Edition of 



Free Trade and (7) my new book." Such were a 
few of his self-set holiday tasks even at the age 
which he had now reached. He was very well 
and active, however, physically as well as men- 
tally, this year, in spite of a few minor illnesses. 
He played golf when he had the opportunity. 
The Kingsgate golf course is within the distance 
of a full drive of the garden of the Castle. The 
early autumn was passed at Kingsgate with occa- 
sional visits to London. They had bought a new 
house, 48 Grosvenor Street, and slept in it for the 
first time on August 30. Lord Avebury writes that 
he regrets the old St. James's Square house, but 
that the new house is " nice and bright and in 
some ways more convenient." On October 18 
he went with his daughter, Mrs. Pelham, to 
Edinburgh, where they were the guests of Lord 
and Lady Salvesen. He had been invited to give 
the opening address to the Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society, and the secretary had suggested 
the "Scenery of Switzerland" as a suitable subject. 
In previous years the Society had been addressed 
by such distinguished men as Sir Henry Stanley, 
Dr. Nansen, Captain Scott, R.N., Lord Roberts, 
Sir G. T. Goldie, and Lord Milner. On the even- 
ing of his arrival in Edinburgh he went to a 
dinner of the Merchants' Company, and made a 
speech, and on the following day gave his lecture 
to the Royal Geographical Society. The Presi- 
dent of the Society was his old friend, Professor 
James Geikie. 

Later he received the " Livingstone " Gold 
Medal of the Society, with the following minute : 




held on the 8th October 1908, Professor James Geikie, 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Society, in the 

On behalf of the Recommendations Committee the 
President intimated that the Committee unanimously 
proposed the award of the Society's Livingstone Medal 
for 1908 to The Right Honourable Lord Avebury, 
P.C., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., "for his valuable con- 
tributions to Geographical Science." This award was 
unanimously approved by the Council. 

At the end of November he spoke at the 
Royal Society's dinner and in December presided 
at a meeting of the Proportional Representation 
Society in Caxton Hall where they had an 
illustrative election. It was so far successful 
that out of 21,000 voters there were only 17 
spoilt papers. 


(AGE 75) 

IT is one of the most grievous conditions of our 
human life that if it be prolonged at all beyond 
the normal span each successive year is inevitably 
marked by the loss of now one and now another 
of the friends whose sympathy has done much 
to give life its value. Lord Avebury's lot was 
in many ways an exceptionally happy one. The 
young wife whom he had married in his middle 
age repaid his affection with a whole - hearted 
devotion, and his relations with his children had 
the friendliness of a brother's love united to the 
protective authority of a father : yet, as the 
years went by, he could not evade the shadow 
cast by the death of some most near and dear. 
As we have seen, the first of his brothers to be 
taken was the youngest, Edgar, and in all the 
early part of 1909 Lord Avebury was very 
anxious about the health of Beaumont. Of all 
the brothers, Beaumont was the one on whom 
the painful family heritage of gout had always the 
strongest grip, and it became apparent that his 
fine constitution would not be able to endure 
its repeated attacks much longer. Rolfe, also, 



Lord Avebury's son, had for long been in most 
indifferent health, so that the year opened with 
a double anxiety. There are entries in the diary 
recording that the state of one or the other 
invalid became so critical that he hurried to see 
him, fearing the worst, and then again that the 
account was better and that there was hope of a 
rally. But finally on March 19 he writes : " Poor 
Beaumont died, after a long illness most patiently 
borne. He will be much missed and much grieved 

On May 5 his diary says, " Bad news of Rolfe," 
and on the llth, " The sad news of poor Rolfe's 
death a terrible loss." 

After these two blows it is little wonder that 
on his silver wedding day, only a week later, he 
writes : " Our silver wedding. We had looked 
forward very much to it, but it is all so sad. 
We had many nice presents and kind congratu- 

During all this year his own health seems on 
the whole to have been good. He was very 
variously busy, and played golf frequently. One 
of his games was with Lord Selby, the Speaker, 
but in November of this year he, another of 
Lord Avebury's old friends, was taken. 

No doubt it will be readily understood that, 
many as were the public functions which he 
fulfilled during his life, the addresses and lectures 
that he delivered, and so on, they were as nothing 
in comparison with the requests which were 
made to him, requests that he would often have 
liked to comply with, had even his wonderful 
economy of time made it possible. Anything 



that had to do with adding lustre to the name of 
his old friend and mentor, Charles Darwin, came 
with a special appeal to him. Mr. Alington, head 
master of Shrewsbury .School, writes to him at 
this time asking him to give the boys a " chance 
of really knowing a little more of their most 
distinguished representative " and praying him 
to give them a lecture on Darwin. Under all 
the circumstances, however, he felt himself unable 
to undertake it. He regretted the severance in 
this year of his long connection with the British 
and Foreign Marine Insurance Association, which 
was taken over by the Royal. His colleagues on 
the board gave him a handsome piece of plate in 
recognition of his services as their Chairman. He 
was President of the City Free Trade Association 
and took the chair at their meeting and was 
active in opposition to that Budget, introduced 
by Mr. Lloyd George, by the rejection of which 
the House of Lords went far towards signing its 
death warrant. In December he had an article 
on the Budget in the Nineteenth Century. He has 
kept, among his correspondence, the following 
letter from Miss Marie Corelli, which came to him 
rather as a surprise, since he had not suspected 
this very popular writer of an interest in matters 
of national finance. 

Private. MASON CROFT, 


DEAR LORD AVEBURY I hope I may, on the privilege 
of a brief acquaintance, take the liberty of writing you 
these few lines. 

I have followed with keen attention your discussion 
with Mr. Lloyd George on the evil idea of the Land Taxes, 
which are already causing misery by the dismissal of 



hundreds of workers on landed estates, who had thought 
they were safe for life. 

If Mr. Lloyd George wants the Four Millions he writes 
of to-day, why not copy the sagacity of the French 
when they raised the huge German indemnity ? 

They taxed every advertisement (beyond a certain 
size) a halfpenny and this applied to all hoardings 
and announcements at Railway Stations and other 
places. It was a simple tax to which no one made any 
objection, it was paid readily, and not felt. It was not 
a tax which drove people off the land, as the one now 
proposed will do. 

In France, too, at that time every one paid a half- 
penny on theatre tickets above five francs. 

A tax on public advertisements would be scarcely 
felt by any one. Newspaper men could charge a little 
more for advertisement space and really the tax 
would harm no section of the community, while it 
would bring in a huge sum. 

Forgive me if I dare to make this humble suggestion 
to one of your wisdom and perspicuity but I am a 
witness of the daily despair of agricultural toilers who, 
having their little homes on estates where the owners 
have ever been their friends and helpers, are trembling 
lest they be turned adrift to shift for themselves else- 
where, all through the real cruelty and short-sightedness 
of the proposed tax which will drive them off the land. 
And it seems to me that there are many things which 
might be taxed in preference to the soil on which man, 
with much labour, gets his bread. 

Do think of an advertisement tax ! it would be what 
the French did most successfully. There was a half- 
penny stamp tax, too, on every magazine and news- 
paperand even this would be far better than taxing 
the land. 

I have not seen you since you kindly supported me in 
saving the Shakesperian property here but I always 
read all you say. Sincerely yours, 


July 1, 1909. Mr. Lloyd George asks you " how to 
get the four millions." There are plenty of ways 
even by taxing other " luxuries " than advertisements. 



On March 1 he writes : " Last week I carried 
a resolution at the Council of the Chamber of 
Commerce that we should not support the Protec- 
tionist resolutions to be moved at the meeting 
of the Associated Chambers of Commerce. The 
Protectionists called a special meeting to rescind 
this, but the feeling was against them, and 
eventually we agreed to an adjournment sine 
die, so as to let them down easily. 

" March 2. Meeting of the Associated Cham- 
bers of Commerce. Belfort moved a Protec- 
tionist resolution and there was a long debate. 
I spoke on the Free Trade side. Eventually the 
resolution was carried by a small majority, but 
as it required two-thirds, nothing will be done." 

On the 3rd he was again speaking at the 
Chambers of Commerce, first on Forestry and 
then on the report of the Banking Committee. 

His energy continues to seem inexhaustible, 
and he was wonderfully well and active. On 
April 30 he notes : " My birthday. Very kind 
letters. I am thankful for so many blessings. 
Royal Academy dinner sat between Fitzmaurice 
and the Danish Minister. Saw a great number 
of old friends. During the Easter holidays I 
have been principally working at pollen. Eric 
has been helping me. At the dinner Asquith 
referred to the portrait of Lloyd George which, 
he said, would be viewed with interest and 
mixed feeling. Lloyd George was next but one 
to me, Fitzmaurice being between us, and he 
turned round and said, ' Many of them would 
certainly like to see me hung on the line.' ' 

He had his breakfast parties still going at 



this time. After one of these, on May 6, he 
writes : " First meeting of City Free Trade 
Committee. They asked me to write them a 
manifesto in favour of Free Trade. At 1.30, 
meeting of Bankers. They asked me to write a 
manifesto against the Budget, to be considered 
next week. Meeting of the Council of Foreign 
Bondholders at 3. Was re-elected President. 
At the House of Lords carried three amendments 
to the Government's Electric Lighting Bill, 
against Municipal trading. Eric went back to 
Eton. Shall miss him very much. 

"May 7. Golf at Richmond with Sir H. 
Graham. Annual meeting of Selborne Society. 
A large gathering and many interesting exhibits." 
It all hardly reads like the journal of a man who 
is feeling the weight of years and is shaking off 
many of his burdens. Yet this, in fact, it is. 
He spared himself no trouble, however, in the 
campaign against Protection. 

Early in the year he had received a letter from 
Mr. C. F. Mallet, who was acting as honorary 
secretary to the Free Trade Union, asking him 
to take the chair at a Free Trade Demonstration, 
of a non-party character, to be held in London. 
He assented to the request, and later notes in 
regard to it : " Took the Chair at a Free Trade 
meeting at the Queen's Hall, which was quite 
full and admirably organised. The Prime 
Minister, Balfour of Burleigh, Sir Swire Smith, and 
H. Vivian spoke. I spoke about a quarter of an 
hour, and was very well received." 

He had been invited, "as one of Charles 
Darwin's oldest friends," to " make a short speech 



in the Senate House at Cambridge, on June 23, 
at the presentation of addresses." This was on 
the occasion of the Darwin centenary, which it 
gave him keen regret to be unable to attend. 
His old friend Sir J. Hooker writes touchingly 
with reference to his absence : 

CAMBRIDGE, June 24,th, 1909. 

MY DEAR AVEBURY You are much missed here, 
but by none so sincerely and sympathetically as myself, 
feeling deeply as I do for you in your great sorrow. 

This has been the most wonderful scientific gathering 
conceivable, but to me in many respects a mournful 

Except Mr. Huxley, there has been no link in what 
was the long chain of my active life (other than the 
Darwin family) a life in which you had so large a 
share, and still so full a share of reminiscences. To 
have seen you here would have gladdened me more 
than I can express. 

As it is, I am here under the strictest orders, and 
only allowed peeps at the marvellous gatherings at the 
Halls, Colleges, and Gardens. 

To me the most interesting thing of all is the 
Exhibition of Portraits, Books, Letters and Instruments, 
and other objects in connection with the Darwin and 
Wedgwood families. 

It will probably be kept open after the " Celebration," 
and if so, and you could spare a few hours for a visit 
to it, you would, I am sure, feel repaid. Ever, dear 
Avebury, your affectionate old friend, 


An interesting note which was, by his per- 
mission, shown among the Darwin manuscripts 
at this Celebration is from Mr. Darwin, running : 

KENT, Wednesday Eve. 

MY DEAR WATERHOUSE Will you be so kind as to 
take the trouble to send me a proper form for proposing 


a member (eldest son of Sir J. Lubbock, who some day 
will, I think, be a good and active Naturalist) for the 
Entomological Soc. 

The letter proceeds to other subjects. The 
" Sir J. Lubbock " above is, of course, Lord 
Avebury's father. 

Early in May of this year he had paid a visit 
to Avebury, of which he writes : " With Alice, 
Ursula, Johnny, Norman, Eric, and Maurice to 
Avebury. The ditch is a foot deeper than when 
we were here last year. They have found two 
deer-horn picks and some flakes nothing of 

His diary of July 9 has an entry worthy of 
note : " Golf at Richmond," it begins, " with 
Lord Halsbury, Lord Saltoun, and Harold." 
Then, "Dined at 'the Club,' to celebrate the 
Bicentenary of S. Johnson. Rosebery in the 
Chair, both Archbishops and A. Balfour, Curzon, 
Butcher, Lord H. Cecil, Sir A. Lyall, Sir D. M. 
Wallace, Rathmore, Sir W. Anson, Carlisle, Sir 
E. Poynter, Lord G. Hamilton, Welby, Sir C. 
Bridge, etc." An interesting gathering and an 
interesting occasion. 

It has often been seen how great was the 
popularity of those books of Lord Avebury, of 
which The Pleasures of Life is perhaps the best- 
known type, among the peoples of the East, and 
perhaps it might not be easy to say how much 
they have contributed, by the introduction of 
Oriental readers to the highest thought of the 
West, to a better understanding of the West by 
the East. He notes as a singular fact that the 
first application for leave to translate his latest 



book of this kind, Peace and Happiness, was from 
a Gujerati translator. A little later his publishers 
wrote to him : 

24th November 1909. 

MY LORD We forward herewith an interleaved 
copy of your book On Peace and Happiness which our 
Indian correspondent, Mr. E. Marsden, about whom 
we wrote to you, has gone through with a view to 
preparing, as you kindly agreed that he should, an 
edition of the book for use in High Schools and for 
candidates for Matriculation at the Indian Universities. 

Mr. Marsden has a great experience of the needs 
and capacities of Indian boys, and we feel little doubt 
that he has had good reason for the omissions which 
he suggests. If you approve of what he has done 
kindly return the copy, so that we may have the revised 
book put into type. We are, your Lordship's obedient 
servants, MACMILLAN & Co., LTD. 

This chapter may be brought to a close with a 
curious and appreciative letter from the editor 
of a Japanese magazine. 

The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, 
High Elms, Farnboro, R.S.O., 
Kent, England. 

March 25th, 1909. 

DEAR SIR Your most cordial letter, together with 
the valuable advice to the young people of our country, 
and a fairly represented likeness of yourself, has been 
received in good condition. And for these I beg leave 
to do myself the justice to open the present letter with 
a few words of my heartfelt thanks for your kindness. 
Indeed, I do not know what words would be adequate 
to express my gratitude for your sympathetic endeavour. 
When I look again and again at your likeness while 
reading your famous and suggestive works, I feel just 
as if I were listening to your lecture before your presence. 
Nothing has given me more pleasure than this. As 
soon as I received your letter and written advice, I 
published them in the latest number of our magazine, 



which surely adorned the magazine very rich, and 
glorified its pages as I expected. 

It is more than this ; your writings, when they are 
given out, it has created everlasting impressions to the 
readers, and gave a great deal of inspirations to the 
young minds in particular. 

Who, what man, or in a more concrete sense, what 
writer has ever given greater inspiration to, and valuable 
hints to the use of life to our readers than you have 
done so this time ? In fact, it is our pride as well as 
of our readers to have published your discourse in your 
honour through our magazine. 

To-day, I have had the pleasure of sending your 
excellency two copies of the same number by another 
mail, and in which you will find your valuable article 
printed, and your photo and personal letter reproduced 
in photograph-printing. 

When a man is given with a Photo from others and 
not return thanks with that of himself is not good 
manners, and therefore I herewith enclose a Photo of 
myself, taken recently. And again, I enclose a few 
pieces of picture post-card that represent the sceneries 
of, and life of, this country. I hope your excellency 
will please like them. 

I also take great pleasure to tell you that when 

to-day I have met with Mr. M , a friend of mine, 

who is the translator of your valuable Use of Life 
and have spoken of you and your contribution to our 
magazine, he praised the latter to the skies. He also 
tells me that his translated work has been in good sale 
among the young men of Japan, and is now ready to 
publish his re-translated MSS., because his former 
version has been roughly rendered, so this time he has 
done his best not to spoil the correct ideas and refined 
style of the original. 

From several sources, I have above mentioned, I 
have become the earnest and faithful pupil of your 
excellency, though I have not yet had the honour to 
see your excellency, and I hope you will ever teach me ; 
I shall never make myself to act against your instructions. 

In fine, I have a favour to beg of you. It is that you 
will please write me a short discourse under the subject, 
" How can common sense be cultured in the best way ? " 
there is good reason to ask you of this. Englishmen 



are most clever and delightful, and as a friend of man 
they are the best in the world, I am sure. At the same 
time they are full of common sense. This is the sort 
of thing that we Japanese feel always envious. Our 
young men, on the contrary, lack this branch of practical 
wisdom to our regret, and often they make themselves 
in the last the failure of life. In order to improve this 
gross defect, I thought it necessary, nay, no better way 
than listen to your valuable advice again, and thus has 
led me boldly to ask your trouble. 

If you have some pictures representing your mansion 
and the Bank to which you are President, kindly send 
them to me. The idea involved is that I hope thereby 
to adorn our magazine with them to greater admira- 
tion of your excellency by our readers. And again, if 
you are in possession of some copies of newspapers or 
magazines published in your country, and in which 
contain your addresses or lectures delivered before 
the public, aiming at the success, happiness, or character 
building of young men, please favour me with their 
sending. If you kindly allow this proposal, I shall 
soon translate into Japanese and publish in our magazine 
in your honour. 

Of course, if I can get them in Japan, I shall buy 
them, but it cannot. 

If I have something to do for you within my power 
in this Country to reciprocate your kindness, please let 
me know. To do my best in the line of such kind of 
work is my duty and delight. 

Again thanking your excellency for your kindness 
in anticipation, and hoping your excellency everlasting 
health. I am, dear Sir, your most humble pupil. 



(AGE 76) 

THE principal public interest in the early part of 
the year was the General Election. Lord Ave- 
bury had made a speech at Chislehurst in which 
he spoke highly of the political opinions, char- 
acter, and ability of the member for the Division, 
Mr. H. W. Forster. Following these remarks 
Mr. Forster wrote that some of the Free Trade 
Unionists in the Constituency found a difficulty 
in consenting to vote for him, and saying that 
he thought a large number would change their 
point of view if they knew that he had Lord 
Avebury's support. In these circumstances he 
asked Lord Avebury to write him a letter, which 
he might circulate, expressing the sense of his 
remarks in the Chislehurst speech. Lord Avebury 
readily consented and wrote as requested. In the 
event Mr. Forster was returned with a triumphant 
majority of over four thousand. 

A little more than a year after Lord Avebury's 
death the ties between his family and the Forsters 
were drawn closer by the marriage of his son 
Harold to Dorothy, the eldest daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Forster. 




One of Lord Avebury's points in his arguments 
in favour of Free Trade is well given in the 
following letter, which forms part of a short 
correspondence with Mr. Douglas Murray : 

DEAR MB. DOUGLAS MURRAY It is quite true, as 
Mr. Ellis Barker says, that we imported last year 
147,700,000 of manufactured and semi-manufactured 
articles, but, on the other hand, we exported 297,000,000. 

He alleges that on the imports our workers lost 
100,000,000. Would he maintain that on our 
297,000,000 foreign workers lost ? 

If not, why not ? On the other hand, if he does, 
surely this shows the absurdity of his contention. 

All Commerce is exchange. It cannot be carried 
on unless both parties gain. If one loses, he will 
not go on. Evidently, therefore, both the U.K. and 
foreigners benefited by the Trade, and would suffer if 
Mr. Barker's views were carried out. 

Or look at it from another point of view. We import 
from some country, say Belgium, 1,000,000 of manu- 
factures, and pay for them by 1,000,000 of some other 
manufactures. He alleges that by stopping our import 
we should save, say, 100,000. But Belgium by stopping 
our import to them would by the same reasoning save 
100,000 in the same way. 

Thus by stopping the Commerce between them 
England and Belgium would each gain 100,000. Is 
not this an absurd contention ? I am, yours very 
truly, AVEBURY. 

With the view of assisting the Free Trade 
party in Canada he sent out a letter which was 
published in several of the papers of the Dominion. 
A correspondent writes to him, respecting it, 
that " the phenomenon of an Englishman in a 
prominent position telling a protected country 
that it is making a mistake and actually daring 
to be proud of England and of the triumph of her 
Free Trade is something so new that it deserves 
to be called revolutionary. If we can go on in 


this way and pose as the attacking force, not even 
200,000,000 of taxation will upset Free Trade 
in England, however much such a burden be 
opposed to its fundamental conditions." 

A letter from him, of this year, to Mr. Charles 
Stewart, contains what Mr. Stewart very justly 
writes of as " an admirably succinct statement 
of the advantages of Proportional Representa- 
tion." " Without Proportional Representation," 
Lord Avebury affirms, " a central party is, I 
believe, impossible. A system of election such 
as ours favours two extremes, and crushes out 
moderate men and independent thinkers." 

Mr. Stewart was a zealous collaborator in the 
Free Trade cause, and he and Lord Avebury had 
many points of view in common. In another 
letter to Mr. Stewart Lord Avebury writes : "I 
especially value your approval " (this was with 
reference, I think, to his Free Trade speech at 
Dundee, which the Cobden Club published) and 
adds, "As to theology, are we not going as 
quickly as is wise ? The change since you and I 
were young is really astonishing, and I do not feel 
myself properly equipped for definite theological 

They are words that may remind us of the 
immense change which the passage of those 
years had seen, and also express his character- 
istically moderate attitude of mind towards that 
change which he had in some degree helped to 
bring about. 

On January 11, Lady Avebury 's birthday, they 
had their usual dance for the children at High 
Elms. Nevertheless the year opened for him 


with a heavy cloud upon it. For a considerable 
while his sister Mary, Mrs. Birkbeck, of whom he 
was very fond, had been most seriously ill, and 
he continually expresses anxiety about her. It 
was, however, in quite another quarter that the 
first, most unexpected blow fell. On the 25th 
he writes : " Received the grievous news of poor 
Henry's death under an operation. We did not 
know he was in any serious danger, or that any 
operation was in contemplation, which makes 
the blow all the heavier." On the following day 
he notes his relief at hearing that the death 
had been painless, occurring before return of 
consciousness after the anaesthetic. He adds : 
" He was always a good and affectionate brother 
to me, and I shall miss him terribly." 

Mrs. Birkbeck lingered on, with little hope of 
restoration to health, through February, but on 
the 27th he has again to make a painful entry : 
" My poor sister Mary died this morning at 4. 
Her end was quite peaceful and without suffering. 
I shall miss her terribly. In the lonely years 
after I left Eton she was my greatest com- 

Lady Avebury, at the same time, was in 
constant anxiety about her mother, Mrs. Pitt 
Rivers, and was very frequently with her until 
Mrs. Pitt Rivers' death on May 19. And in the 
meanwhile the whole nation had been thrown 
into mourning by King Edward's death on the 
6th of the same month. 

Lord Avebury writes on the 6th : " To 
Buckingham Palace to inquire after the King. 
He died at 11.45. How great a loss ! " And the 



following day : " British Museum meeting. Then 
to an informal meeting of the Festival of Empire, 
which will probably be postponed." (It was.) 
" Then to the Privy Council. First signing. 
Then the King came in and made an admirable 
speech. Then we took the oath and kissed 
hands. Then signed some things which required 
three signatures." On the 17th he says, " To 
the reception of the King's coffin in Westminster 
Hall. Very impressive ceremony and beautiful 
little service." 

So far as his own private and also the national 
mourning permitted, Lord Avebury maintained 
his usual active part in public functions, speaking 
in the House of Lords, attending the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Anglo-German Friendship Com- 
mittee, the British Empire League and many 
more, generally in the chair, besides continuing 
to give his breakfast parties, but towards the end 
of May he had started a severe cough and all 
through June was more or less ailing, though he 
would not consent to be treated as an invalid. 

On May 25 he writes : " Roosevelt wrote to 
ask if I would come and see him, which I did. 
He was very pleased and genial. We talked of 
Big Game protective colouring " (the ex-President 
had lately come from a big-game shooting tour 
in Africa), " the importance of which he thought 
greatly exaggerated also of the Natural History 
Museum, of his European tour, in which he 
seemed to regret the endless ceremonials, of 
Lecky's Map of Life, and of American millionaires 
and trusts." 

That same day he went to Kingsgate, and on 




the 30th had "a round of golf at Sandwich 
with Johnny and Harold." 

Early in June he was at the dinner given to 
Roosevelt by the Society for the Preservation of 
the Fauna of the British Empire. He says that 
" Roosevelt made an interesting speech and 
enlarged on his view about protective colouring. 
He praised our officials warmly." 

On the 15th he was in the chair at a " Meeting 
of the Anglo -German Friendship Committee, 
which was well attended. Lamington, Brassey, 
Sir F. Lascelles and Weardale spoke all well 
and shortly." And two days later, " Took the 
chair at the annual meeting of the Society for 
the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Prince F. 
Duleep Singh read a good paper on old Norfolk 
Houses. There was a large attendance." 

The next day, a Saturday, they went to Cam- 
bridge, to stay over the Sunday with the Master 
of Trinity. But on the following Saturday, the 
25th, his entry for the day ends laconically : 
" Bad throat," and this bad throat was, no doubt, 
the culmination of trouble which had been gather- 
ing for a long while, and was the beginning of a 
long period of ill -health, perhaps too bravely 
combated. From time to time he regained such 
vigour that he could play golf and resume most 
of his avocations, but he was never really quite 
his old self again, and seemed to lose weight. He 
was at High Elms at this time and was laid up for 
rather more than a fortnight. On July 12 he 
writes : " Slowly improving. Went up to town, 
but I have cancelled all my engagements." On 
the 20th they motored down to Kingsgate. 


In many ways he was an ideal patient : he 
had so many resources that confinement to the 
house was not nearly so irksome to him as to 
most active men. His gratitude for any acts of 
kindness, even the simplest, was most touching, 
and man never -had a more devoted nurse than 
he in Lady Avebury. Another most faithful 
and affectionate attendant deserves more than a 
word of recognition, the old family servant, 
whom no one ever called by any other name than 
" Bessie." She had come to them first, from 
Rushmore, as children's nurse; and had been 
with them some twenty-two years. She was far 
more friend than servant. When all was well she 
was (and is) the pivot about which the household 
management turned, and in all accidents and 
trouble, from a child's cut finger to the most 
serious illness, it was to " Bessie " that applica- 
tion was made, both as the first and the last 

Maurice Lubbock, the youngest son, was at 
Mr. Price's school at Broadstairs, only a mile or 
two from Kingsgate. Occasionally Lord Ave- 
bury would ask the whole school to the Castle, 
where he would show them marvels through the 
microscope, and talk to them in a way that 
delighted them. " Isn't he jolly to us ? " one 
of the boys said to Mr. Price as they went home 
from one such entertainment. No doubt tea, 
with good things to eat, made an important part 
of it all, but they keenly enjoyed Lord Avebury 's 
company and talk, and it was an enjoyment 
which was quite mutual. Children always 
amused him. One of the boys, after looking 




through the microscope at many curious and 
beautiful objects, said : "I tell you what, you 
ought to look at an ant through the microscope 
it's awfully funny." 

The narrator of this little incident said that 
the twinkle of humour which was always lurking 
in the corner of Lord Avebury's eye gleamed out 
just a trifle more brightly at this recommendation 
that he should study an ant. It was just like 
him, and like his delicate consideration for the 
feelings of other people, that he did not reply to 
the boy that he had before this looked at a 
magnified ant. All he said was " Ah, yes 
perhaps we will try that another time." It is 
an answer which shows not only his kindness, 
but also his quickness at appreciating another's 
point of view. The more obvious answer might 
have made the boy feel that his suggestion was 
as foolish as it was thoughtless, but on the spur 
of the moment it would not have occurred to all 
of us that this would be its effect, and with the 
least intention of doing so we might have hurt 
the extreme sensitiveness of the boy. Lord 
Avebury recognised the risk immediately and 
went clear of it. 

He was working again now at new editions 
of Prehistoric Times and The Origin of Civilisa- 
tion. The following letter to Mr. Sidney Hart- 
land, on the interesting, if speculative, subject of 
the estate of matrimony at the time when men 
were learning to be somewhat different from the 
apes, is due to this revision of his old books : 



KENT, 28th June 1910. 

DEAR MR. HARTLAND I have just finished the second 
vol. of your Primitive Paternity, and must read the first, 
which somehow I had overlooked. 

I am glad to see that you have arrived, apparently 
quite independently (p. 95), at the conclusion which 
I think I first suggested in my Origin of Civilisation 
(1870, pp. 70-2) ; but does it not follow that some of 
the customs, which we both refer to, are recognitions 
of prior tribal rights ? 

I had also been struck, as you have, by the many 
cases of deferred marriage, and visits by stealth which 
it seemed, and seems, to me are to be accounted for in 
the same way. 

The case of family groups as among apes does not 
seem to me a case of " marriage," which you rightly 
limit to relations " recognised by law or custom, and 
entailing rights and duties." I am, yours truly, 


To which Mr. Hartland replied : 


1st July 1910. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I am much obliged for your 
kind letter of the 28th June. I certainly think that 
you long ago showed very strong reasons for holding 
that the original condition of mankind was that of 
promiscuity. Little value seems to me to be attached 
to Westermarck's argument which so many anthropo- 
logists have been inclined to accept. If man was 
evolved from an anthropoid it must have been from one 
that was gregarious. The higher apes of which he makes 
so much have, owing to their solitary habits, got into 
a side-track and so rendered further evolution impossible ; 
and they have been surpassed in the race of life by man. 

The gradual limit of promiscuity led ultimately to 
individual marriage, and it seems clear that some of 
the customs referred to are vestiges of prior rights of 
the group. More than that, may we not say that the 
mental attitude disclosed in the practices which form the 
subject of my chapter on Marital Jealousy is a relic of 
the state of Promiscuity ? 

But I was anxious to avoid controversy which would 


have occupied much space and was not essential to 
my thesis. Hence I confined myself to a single hint 
on pp. 242-3, vol. ii. 

Marriage of course cannot be predicated of apes 
or any other non-human creatures, though their habits 
sometimes present a remarkable analogy to marriage. 
I am, dear Lord Avebury, yours truly, 


Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury. 

Mr. Hartland is the author of several books 
touching this subject, but his principal one is 
the Primitive Paternity to which Lord Avebury 

By August 12 he was actually so much better 
as to play " a few holes with Northcliffe." Lord 
Northcliffe was their neighbour at Kingsgate, and 
the Kingsgate golf course, as has been said, was 
quite near the Castle. On the 23rd he records 
with pride : " Maurice and I beat Lord Halsbury 
and Harold at golf." But probably these efforts 
were greater than he should have made, for on 
the following day he was unable to go to London 
as he had intended. They went up, however, on 
September 1, and the same day Harold went to 
America, where he was to be for a while in a 
business house in Boston. 

For several weeks after this he was able to 
resume the normal active course of his life. On 
October 13, for instance, he writes : " Carried 
unanimously in the Chamber of Commerce a 
resolution calling on Government not to assent 
to the annexation of Corea by Japan unless 
Japan could agree not to increase the Corean 
duties." On the 25th he had " golf at Rich- 
mond, with Hubbard," and on the following day 


" took the Chair at a large meeting in the Cannon 
Street Great Hall on British Empire Trade 
Marks. They decided in favour after an interest- 
ing discussion. Then took the Chair at an Old 
Age Pensions meeting." The next day he had 
one of his breakfast -parties, and two days 
later " motored to Sunningdale to lunch with the 
Hookers, dropping Alice at Eton on the way. 
Eric flourishing. Found the Hookers very well. 
He has a photograph of the greatest oak in the 
world. It is in California, and is called ' the 
Hooker oak.' ' Very appropriately,' said a neigh- 
bour, ' as you planted it.' " The distinguished 
botanist was of an advanced age, but perhaps 
scarcely of such patriarchal years as to have 
planted the greatest oak in the world. 

The following day he writes : " Bad cold." 
But still " saw Sir F. Lascelles about an 
Anglo-German Conciliation Committee. Then to 
London Chamber of Commerce to discuss the 
Declaration of London." 

Following that, however, which was on the 
last day of October, comes the announcement on 
November 1 : " Philpot " [the doctor] " sent me to 
bed." However, he was soon up again prob- 
ably sooner than he should have been and full 
of engagements, but on the 19th the order was 
more drastic : " to bed for a fortnight." This was 
to give him the rest which he much needed, but 
would not take, as much as on account of the 
cold and cough which were heavy on him. After 
this, until the end of the year, he went once to 
the Bank, but attended no public function. 

He was busy, however, from his room. Lord 


Sanderson writes to him, in December, relative 
to a reply which he addressed to the Times in 
answer to an attack by Mr. Lloyd George on the 
House of Lords, that a connection of his was so 
much struck by the letter that he had asked 
the House of Lords Defence League to have it 
published and disseminated as a leaflet. This 
was done, in the following form : 


(Reply to MR. LLOYD GEORGE) 

Mr. Lloyd George asserts that the Lords "are not 
in touch with the realities of life." This assertion is 
not only incorrect, but absurd, as the House of Lords 
probably contains a larger number of practical business 
men and experienced Statesmen than any other Second 
Chamber in the world. 

Lord Avebury himself a member of the Upper 
Chamber, and one of the best all-round men in the 
country has answered Mr. Lloyd George conclusively 
in the following letter to the Times, November 29, 1910 : 

" The question now before our countrymen is whether 
we should, or should not, have a really effective Second 
Chamber. The experience and opinion of the civilized 
world of the United States, of France, Germany, 
Italy is almost unanimous ; and our Government have 
instituted Second Chambers in all our great self-govern- 
ing Colonies. There are now about a dozen countries 
with Single Chamber Government, including Costa Rica, 
Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, 
St. Domingo, Salvador, Servia, and Turkey, all of which, 
with one or perhaps two exceptions, are insolvent. We 
have, moreover, ourselves already tried the Single 
Chamber system and found it intolerable. 


" Mr. Lloyd George, however, takes a different view. 
That is a matter of opinion, and in matters of opinion 
a minority, however insignificant, may be right. 


" But Mr. Lloyd George gives his reasons, and states 
facts which can be brought to the test of experience. 

" He attacks the House of Lords, because he says 
that Peers ... * are not in touch with the realities of life.' 
. . . The earning of bread by the sweat of their brow 
is unknown to them. . . . They know nothing of the 
responsibility and the anxiety of conducting a business, 
great or small. They know nothing of the daily worries 
of the trader's existence the care and thought spent, 
the knowledge and the experience gathered in a million 
ways in earning a living. 

" These statements, even if true, have nothing to 
do with the issue now before the country, since the 
House of Lords has intimated its readiness to consider 
any wise, even if drastic, proposals for reconstruction. 


" But are Mr. Lloyd George's statements true ? 
Has he correctly stated the facts ? Certainly not. 
The present House of Lords comprises the heads of 
the Church and the Law ; of the Army and Navy, and 
of those who have fulfilled the following offices : 

Cabinet Minister or Head of a Government 
Department . . . . . .94 

Lord-Lieutenant, Viceroy or Governor-General . 20 
High Commissioner or Governor of a Colony . 24 
Privy Councillor ...... 112 

and others who have held offices of great importance 
and responsibility. Coming to men of business, the 
House of Lords numbers among its members four 
Presidents or ex-Presidents of the Associated Chambers 
of Commerce, three of the London Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Chairman of the London Bankers, the Chair- 
man of the Country Bankers, the President of the 
Association of English Bankers, the Chairmen of several 
of our great railway companies, of the London and 
North- Western, the Great Western Railway, the Great 
Northern, etc., the heads of our greatest shipping and 
shipbuilding companies Messrs. Harland & Wolff's, 
Cunard's, Furness, Wilson, etc. ; amongst banks and 
financial houses, the heads of the London County and 
Westminster, of the London Joint-Stock, of Rothschilds, 
Barings, Glyns, Robarts, Gibbs, Hubbards, etc. 



" This list might be much extended, and as I cannot 
suppose that Mr. Lloyd George would deliberately 
state what he knew to be untrue, I can only conclude 
that he really knows nothing about the House of Lords, 
and that he himself, as he incorrectly alleges of them, 
' is not in touch with the realities of life.' The members 
of the House of Lords, in fact, so far from being, as Mr. 
Lloyd George seems to imagine, a number of useless 
and inexperienced idlers, are in reality a body of very 
hard workers, and men of immense experience. 

" (Signed) AVEBURY." 

At the end of November he received, from 
Dr. Rene Worms, a letter informing him of his 
election as Correspondent of the Institute of 

Lundi, 28 novembre 1910. 

CHER ET HONORS PRESIDENT Je vous ai telegraphic 
pour vous annoncer votre election. Voici maintenant 
quelques details. 

Pour le nouveau poste de correspondent vacant, la 
section de Zoologie presentait : 

en l fere ligne, vous-meme ; 

en 2 ifeme ligne le professeur J. Loeb, de New York, 

physiologiste ; 
en 3 ifeme ligne, ex aequo, les professeurs : 

O. Hertwig, de Berlin K . , . 

R. Hertwil, de Munich } histologistes. 

von Thering, actuellement a Sao Paulo (Bresil). 

L'filection, par 1' Academic des Sciences tout entiere, 
a eu lieu cet apres-midi. II y avait 40 votants. Vous 
avez eu 28 suffrages. Vos concurrents s'en sont partage 
12. Comme vous aviez la majorite absolue vous avez 
etc immediatement proclame elu. 

Mon pere et moi sommes particulierement charmes 
de ce beau succes, bien du a vos grands travaux 
scientifiques, et qui cree un lieu nouveau entre vous et 
notre patrie. 

Vous pourrez envoyer un mot personnel a mon ancien 



maitre, le Dr. E. L. Bouvier, professeur d'entomologie 
au Museum d'histoire naturelle, qui a fait en d'excellents 
termes le rapport a 1' Academic sur vos travaux, au nom 
de la section de Zoologie, dont il est membre. II 
suffira de 1'adresser au Museum (Paris), ou il a son 

Je vous renouvelle avec une veritable joie mes 
felicitations, qui s'adressent aussi a Lady Avebury et 
a vos enfants. Et je vous prie d'agreer, cher et honore 
President, 1' assurance de mon entier devouement. 


Prince Roland Bonaparte telegraphed to 
him : " Toutes mes felicitations et mes meilleurs 
souvenirs " ; and he had many other congratu- 

An interesting application was made to him in 
the same month by the Aga Khan, Ameer Ali, and 
others on behalf of the Mussulmans in London, 
that he should give his name to a Committee 
formed for the purpose of obtaining for them 
a place of worship in London, " of which the 
want is keenly felt by all classes of His Majesty's 
subjects who are flocking to England in ever- 
increasing numbers from all parts of the King's 

Reference has been made above to his going 
on the last day of October, probably with some 
injury to his health, to the Chamber of Commerce 
to discuss the Declaration of London. He did 
not see eye to eye with the majority of the 
Chamber on this subject, especially on the point 
of the immunity. Finally he addressed the follow- 
ing Memorandum to the Council : 


Private and Confidential. 


12th November 1910. 


(Memorandum by the RIGHT HON. LORD AVEBURY) 

As other members of the Declaration of London 
Committee have sent round their views, and as I am 
unfortunately unable to attend on Monday, and do not 
concur with the conclusions, I think I may be allowed 
also to bring some considerations before the Council. 

1. Some years ago the Council did me the honour of 
requesting me to bring the Declaration of Paris before 
the House of Commons, with the view of making private 
property at sea free of capture or seizure. I asked to 
be allowed to consult Lord Salisbury, who was then 
Prime Minister. 

He told me that he quite agreed with the Council ; 
that if I brought forward a motion in the House of 
Commons the Government would support it, and that 
we should be " pushing at an open door." But he 
feared that France would oppose, and he suggested that 
I should see our Ambassador at Paris, which I did. 
He agreed with Lord Salisbury. 1 The French Govern- 
ment, he said, regarded such an arrangement as clearly 
a great advantage to us and would certainly oppose. 
Under these circumstances nothing was done. 

At the late Hague Conference, the subject came up for 
discussion. The proposal to make private property at 
sea free of capture and seizure met with general support, 
but, to my great astonishment and regret, was opposed 
by our Government. 

The Admiralty apparently consider that our Fleet 
is so strong we should lose by the change. They forget 
that while our Fleet is the strongest, on the other hand 
our mercantile marine and our property at sea is 
enormously greater than that of most other countries. 
We stand to lose in fact " Lombard Street to a China 
orange." In round figures half the ships on the ocean 
fly the British flag, and if we deduct those of Norway, 
Sweden, Holland and other countries, with which we 
should all agree that war is out of the question, it is 

1 Fide Letter of Lord Lytton, supra, vol. i. p. 275. 


clear that we have much to lose and little or nothing 
to gain by maintaining the right to destroy enemy's 
private property at sea. 

In the Crimean War our Fleet went to the Baltic, 
and destroyed some Russian produce. It was Russian 
produce in the sense of having been produced in Russia. 
But whose property was it ? It belonged to English 
merchants, and was insured in English offices. Take 
again the depredations of the Alabama. Great Britain 
paid eventually 3,000,000 for the damage done to 
" American shipping," that is to say, shipping under 
the American flag. 

But this very shipping was much of it insured in 
English companies. That of which I was Chairman 
had to pay many thousands of pounds, and then we 
were taxed to pay the American Government for the 
injury done to our own property. If we found ourselves 
unfortunately at war, the shipping of our enemy would 
probably not venture to sea. But the loss to them 
would be trifling. Ours no doubt would still go on, 
but there would be a war premium on goods shipped 
in English bottoms. The rate might no doubt be small, 
but a very small extra rate of insurance would tend to 
drive merchandise from British vessels and under neutral 

I submit then that as we now stand we can inflict 
no serious injury on an opponent by maintaining the 
right of seizing private property at sea, and that an 
alteration of the law would be better for all, but especially 
for us. 

2. I now come to the vital question of our food 
supplies. Four-fifths come from foreign countries, and 
I am convinced that neither the United States nor 
Russia nor any other country from which we derive 
our supplies, would suffer their commerce to be interfered 

We can hardly suppose that we shall lose control of 
the Channel, but as long as goods can pass from Calais 
or Ostend to Dover, we may depend that London will 
not starve as long as there is food in Paris or Berlin. 

At any rate, the fact that the bulk of our food supply 
comes over the sea is a main reason which makes it so 
important for us that private property should be free 
of capture and seizure at sea. 



3. Lastly, I come to the question of blockade. The 
development of railways makes this a matter of com- 
paratively little importance to Continental Nations. 
In the Crimean War we blockaded the Russian Baltic 
Ports. The only result was that Russian goods came 
through Prussia, and we had to pay the extra cost of 

I do not I confess think that there is much danger of 
our ports being blockaded. That any foreign country 
could blockade London and Southampton, Plymouth, 
Bristol, Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Hull does 
not seem to me to be within the range of practical 
politics. Still an arrangement which increases the 
difficulty of blockade seems to me to be, as far as 
it goes, in our favour. 

Under these circumstances and without committing 
myself to every word in the Declaration of London, I 
hope the London Chamber of Commerce will give the 
great weight of its support to what is, I believe, as far 
as it goes, a step in the right direction and a distinct 
advantage to our commerce. 

With reference to the above, Mr. Leverton 
Harris writes to him : 

I4th November. 

DEAR LORD AVEBURY I have been very much 
interested in the Declaration of London, and that is my 
excuse for troubling you. I have read most carefully 
your Memo, to the London C. of Commerce. With 
every word almost I agree except the last Paragraph. 
In Parliament and out I have advocated Immunity of 
capture for private property at sea, and I was equally 
disappointed with you at our throwing over this doctrine. 
But my main reason for objecting to the Declaration of 
London has been that it appears to me to be based on 
exactly opposite principles to those which you and I 

Instead of freeing our ocean trade from capture, it 
increases the risks. 

1. It legalizes the sinking of neutral prizes. 

2. It makes neutral vessels coming to our peaceful 
ports with food for the civil population liable to be 
captured and destroyed. 



3. It does nothing to prevent the conversion of 
merchant vessels into commerce destroyers on the high 

4. When we are neutrals it permits our shipping to 
be sunk and creates much uncertainty. 

For instance, if I ship flour or rails or fuel to a belli- 
gerent port, who is to say whether that port is to be 
considered a base of supply ? If it is so considered my 
vessel (a neutral) may be captured and sunk. How 
can I fix my freight or my insurance premium under 
these conditions ? 

I am a shipowner and underwriter and I have studied 
the Declaration carefully I gave evidence before the 
Food Supply Committee of National Guarantee of War 
Risks, and my honest conviction is that the Declaration 
intensely aggravates the evils which both you and I de- 
plore. Please forgive me for troubling you, and believe 
me, yours faithfully, F. LEVERTON HARRIS. 

A copy of the Memorandum was sent by Lord 
Avebury to Sir Edward Grey, who replied that he 
was glad to see that the conclusions arrived at by 
the Chamber had not Lord Avebury's support, 
and stating that the Chamber's objections to the 
Declaration were really based on a misapprehen- 
sion of the International Law touching the point 
misapprehension which he hoped would shortly 
be removed by a forthcoming Blue-book. Lord 
Avebury had emphasised the fact, in his state- 
ment to the Chamber, that so long as we kept 
command of the Channel our food supplies were 
secure ; and Sir Edward says that he was glad to 
see emphasis thus directed to a fact that was 
very frequently lost sight of. 


(AGE 77) 

IT was in July of this year that Lord Avebury 
sat to Sir Hubert von Herkomer for that admir- 
able portrait of which a reproduction forms the 
frontispiece of this volume. It shows him very 
much as he had been for the last thirty years 
spare and active of figure, bright and youthful 
in complexion, with a look of sagacity and at the 
same time of the greatest kindliness in his eyes. 
When this picture was exhibited in the Academy 
one of the family was greatly amused, standing 
behind some unknown young lady who was 
looking at it, to hear her exclaim to her com- 
panion in the vernacular of the day, " Oh, isn't 
he a darling ? " with immense emphasis on the 
word of affection. Her appreciation was really 
not amiss, and is justified by the characteristic- 
ally gentle expression in the eyes, which the 
painter has given well. 

It was the moment for the portrait. On and 
off, from June 27 to July 13, he was sitting for it, 
noting that the painter made the sittings very 
pleasant ; and at the end of the month he became 




very seriously ill. But all the first part of that 
year he was in tolerable health and very busy. 
They had a dance in the house at High Elms for 
the young people as usual, on the llth, Lady 
Avebury's birthday, and on the same day he had 
been to London for a meeting of the Costa Rica 
bondholders. Indeed, the later years of this 
long and busy life were by no means the least 
cheerful and peaceful. As one who knew him 
intimately writes : "It was a great pleasure to 
his friends to see how happy and serene were the 
closing years of one whose sensitive nature must 
often have suffered deep pain in the harsh things 
of life." It was a pain wonderfully concealed 
by the habit of self-control in which he had 
educated himself, but it was always a keenly sensi- 
tive nature which underlay that outward serenity. 
The Anglo -German Friendship Committee, 
which developed during the year into a wider 
" Association," continued to take up a good deal 
of his time. He was in the Chair on January 18 
at a meeting of the Committee when it was 
resolved that they should merge in the larger 
body. On March 20 he interviewed the Lord 
Mayor respecting an inaugural meeting of the 
Association at the Mansion House in May. On 
the 26th he saw Sir F. Lascelles, and on April 2 
the Duke of Argyll, on business connected with 
the forthcoming meeting. As a matter of fact a 
small inaugural meeting, previously to that at 
the Mansion House, was held, rather contrary to 
his wishes, on April 5. The big meeting was held 
in the Egyptian Hall at the Mansion House on 
May 1. 


On January 20 there is an entry in his diary : 
" I have been working at my answers to criticisms 
on Prehistoric Times and the History of Civilisa- 
tion." A letter on the subject of primitive 
marriage, which was one of the vexed questions 
that this criticism raised, has been quoted in 
the previous chapter. Under the same date he 
notices a book which he shortly afterwards 
published with the title of Marriage, Totemism 
and Religion. In one entry in the journal it is 
referred to as " Marriage, Exogamy and Religion," 
as if this title, indicating the attention given in 
its pages to the question of marriage outside the 
tribe, had been contemplated for it ; but eventu- 
ally it came out under the former heading. 

He had given up his work on " pollen," which 
has been spoken of once or twice, and of all his 
studies of the kind this was the one from which he 
deemed that he had least result. He contributed 
a paper, dealing chiefly with the shapes of different 
pollen, to the Microscopical Society, and I well 
remember his telling me that some of the pollen 
globes which were discharged to fly in the air 
were roughened on the surface, and he wondered 
whether this roughening had a like effect to the 
nicking of the surface of a golf ball, and helped it 
to fly farther ; for it is well known that a smooth- 
faced golf ball will fly hardly at all. His son 
Eric, as already noticed, was his chief helper in 
this study, and he used, when his father was ill, 
to take him about the long terraces at High Elms 
and the grass rides through the woods, in a Bath- 
chair, talking to him all the time and speculating 
about Nature. 


In the beginning of February they went to 
London from Kingsgate. On the 6th he attended 
the opening of Parliament. He began his break- 
fast parties again, and went out to dinners, and 
gave dinner parties at his own house. On the 
15th he was at a Free Trade meeting, on the 23rd 
at the Council of Foreign Bondholders, and so on. 
These and the like engagements made frequent 
calls on his time and attention throughout the 
first half of the year. At the Chamber of Com- 
merce meeting on March 14 he notes that " they 
voted against the Declaration of London." The 
following day he was at the meeting about the 
British Empire Trade Mark, of which he writes 
that " it was to have been at the Council Chamber, 
but so many applied for tickets that it was 
decided to hold it in the Guildhall, which was 
about half-full." With regard to the Declara- 
tion of London and the Chamber of Commerce he 
states with satisfaction, on April 20 : " Moved a 
resolution of the Council of the London Chamber 
of Commerce in favour of making private property 
at sea free of capture and seizure, and to my 
surprise carried it unanimously." It was a point 
at which he had been aiming for a long while. 

During May and June he was attending 
meetings of the British Empire League, of the 
Festival of Empire, of the Selborne Society, and 
so on, as well as many social functions, includ- 
ing taking Lady Avebury to a Court. He was 
present at the opening of the Festival of Empire, 
which he describes as " a long day, but everything 
very well arranged. We got our seats quite 
easily and the Concert was very good." Then 


to the Dominions Club, where they had tea with 
the Duke of Argyll and Princess Louise. " At 
six the King and Queen came and were very nice. 
She thanked me for my books." Towards the 
end of the month he notes that he had interesting 
talks with Sir Wilfrid Laurier and with General 
Botha, who were in England. 

All this while the House of Lords was in much 
anxiety about its very existence and in more than 
two minds as to the manner in which, if at all, 
that existence, in any practical legislative sense, 
was to be prolonged. He attended a " Meeting 
of Opposition Peers at Lord Curzon's to consider 
Lansdowne's House of Lords Bill. I said a few 
words. At the House of Lords afterwards Lans- 
downe brought in his Bill." This was on May 8. 
Almost the last of his public acts for a period of 
many weeks was towards the end of July, when 
he writes : " Thursday 20th. Wound up the 
debate on the Parliament Bill in the House of 
Lords. We did not divide " ; and " Friday 21st. 
Large meeting at Lansdowne House. Asquith's 
letter to Balfour was read announcing that the 
King has consented to make enough Peers to 
swamp the House of Lords. Halsbury, Selborne, 
Salisbury, Northumberland, Norfolk, Somerset 
and others for dying in the last ditch, but Lans- 
downe and, I think, the majority considered that 
as the Bill must pass it was no use to let them 
also make a Radical House of Lords." 

Proportional Representation at which he had 
long worked so hard was occupying him still, and 
he was at a meeting in its favour on June 16. A 
few days later he was at Sunningdale, lunching 


with his very old and dear friend Sir J. Hooker, 
of whom he writes : " Found him very well, but 
he will be 93 in a few days. I fear it may be the 
last meeting of the X Club." The foreboding 
was only too soon realised. The great botanist 
died in December of this year " a wonderful 
man and most kind friend, the last of our little 
group, " as Lord Avebury records pathetically. 

On July 15 is a brief entry, most unlike his 
usual optimism, in Lord Avebury's diary : " Very 
tired." Nevertheless he continued to fulfil his 
engagements for a week longer, until on July 23 
he had an attack of something like ptomaine 

By the 27th he had recovered sufficiently to 
be able to go by motor to Kingsgate, arriving, as 
he admits again, "very tired." On the same day 
Maurice came home from Mr. Price's private 
school at Broadstairs " with good reports," and 
a day or two later came Eric too, from Eton. 
Their cheery company helped Lord Avebury a 
great deal in bearing his illness. He managed 
to get to London for the day twice during the 
month, on business of importance, and they had 
a succession of visitors at the Castle. But he 
confesses that it was rather too much for him ; 
and in the beginning of September his heart was 
found to be weak and his pulse intermitting, and 
he was kept very quiet for a time, during which 
he worked at a review on " Inter-racial Problems " 
for the Fortnightly. He was well enough to return 
to High Elms on the 15th. 

He was there when he received the following 
telegram from the New York American : 


Lord Avebury, 

High Elms, Down, Kent. 

Mr. William Randolph Hearst, proprietor New York 
American, maintains in letter to weekly budget that 
proposed reciprocity treaty between United States and 
Canada is first important step ever taken to bring 
about better understanding between English-speaking 
Nations and advance civilization. Hearst also says, 
if United States Markets were offered to England she 
would not refuse them, and why should Canada be 
advised to refuse ? Would appreciate your Lordship's 
views either for or against. 

He replied : 

23rd Sept. 1911. 

SIR I do not think it can be correctly maintained 
that the Reciprocity Treaty between the U.S. and 
Canada would be the " first important step taken to 
bring about a better understanding between English- 
speaking Nations." 

At present England admits American products free, 
or in the few cases where there are import duties imposes 
corresponding excise duties on our own manufacturers. 
The United States, on the contrary, impose on an average 
over 70 per cent duties on our produce. So again 
while the U.S. prevent any British ship carrying goods 
from one U.S. port to another, we impose no such 
vexatious restrictions on the U.S. Shipping. Thus 
while we do all in our power to promote, the U.S. do 
all they can to hamper and restrict, Commerce. This 
is much to be regretted, but the result is not so injurious 
to us as might be supposed, because the tendency is to 
shut U.S. goods out of neutral markets ; so that most 
of what we lose in the U.S., we gain in the rest of the 

If the U.S. adopted Free Trade it would be some 
advantage to us, but an enormous benefit to the U.S. 
Protection enriches the few at the expense of the many, 
and speaking generally the rich at the expense of the 

Canada apparently considers that the Reciprocity 
Treaty would not have benefited her. It seemed to 
me that it was a small stage in the direction of Free 


Trade. If it were so I believe it would have been an 
advantage to both countries, but on that I express no 

During October he made a considerable re- 
covery, went several times to the City and en- 
tertained guests at High Elms. Amongst them 
was his old friend Lord Courtney, who told a 
story of John Burns taking an American and a 
Canadian to the terrace of the House of Commons. 
They spoke contemptuously of the Thames as 
compared with the Mississippi and the St. 
Lawrence. " You're wrong," Burns said. " The 
Mississippi's a great mass of dirty water, and the 
St. Lawrence is a great mass of clean water, but 
the Thames is liquid history ! " 

Another guest at High Elms this month was 
M. Boustany, who had translated some of his 
books into Arabic. He told Lord Avebury that 
The Pleasures of Life was the first book ever 
published in the Soudan. He printed three 
thousand copies in Arabic of The Use of Life, and 
was at that time preparing a second edition. 

It is rather interesting to speculate how the 
Arabic translator contrived to curb his vivacious 
Oriental Pegasus, with his high-flying metaphors, 
down to the placid measure in which Lord 
Avebury writes. The following is a specimen of 
this translator's letters and of the magnificent 
idiom into which, presumably, he had to recon- 
struct the English prose : 

DEAR SIR My globe has been rotating and revolving 
for several months since the splendid visitor of our 
firmament " showed up " as a rainbow in disguise, 
bearing the immortal name of a mortal being I refer 
to the " Song of May." It is a fact, My Lord, that I 


am too late to reply to your Lordship's P.S. in her last 
letter to the humble Wadih ; but even now it is 
perhaps still too early for the gardener = Boustany, to 
shake the most tender branch of his life. 

May it not be " too much asking " to please cast away 
a fraction of an hour by casting a glance on the " Prodigal 
Son," considering at the same time that it has taken me 
above four months of solitary meditation and contem- 
plation. Though only four hours of a night to write it, 
and once written, again a considerable number of days 
of hesitation to depart with it as a " picture of me " 
destined to fall under the sight of Lord Avebury. 

Dear sir, it is a critical moment but my beats and 
throbs are as regular as ever. "To be or not to be, 
this is the question " : Whether I should stick to my 
present post of 10 per 1 moon's revolution, and continue 
to live on the figures (only ten in shape) I add and 
register and die when Death knocks ... or bid this 
routine together with colleagues, friends and relatives 
farewell, and entrust myself to the sea, with the sole 
hope of one day ashoring on the British Isles, with the 
twofold ambition of shaking hands with the author of 
The Use of Life and On Peace and Happiness, and of 
challenging that day's circumstances, thus : come 
what may ; here have I come ; Oxford is my goal ; 
a foul or a fall ; a failer or a fool ; I want to know more 
and become more. I may be hung ; I may be stabbed ; 
I may be smashed and ground to earth ; but starvation 
can never be a cause to my death. . . . For Work is 
Nature's kind tiger, and no cruel Humanity can dare 
mutilate its arm. . . . ? 

My Lord ! This is the question whose answer alone 
could stand in the way of this letter in which I beg to 
inform you that the book will be out of press in the 
course of the next twenty days, in the second place that 
my readers will be only too anxious to contemplate the 
portrait of their author of Peace and Happiness ; and 
in the third place, that it is to be dedicated to an English 
" gentleman," under whom I am practising my " routine." 
But may it be the main object of this letter and its 
" appendages " to clear out My Lord's " not quite sure 
that I am addressing you by the right style, if not 
please excuse it and tell me how I should do so next 
time when you write." My dear lord pray do not 



regret that you have been honouring and rendering 
" useful," " peaceful," and " happiness-full " a poor 
creature known as Your faithful servant, 

Lord Avebury wrote a letter to the Times this 
month protesting against the Italian expedition 
against Tripoli, and received from the " Groupe 
Parliamentaire Ottomane " a telegram conveying 
their gratitude for " Pesprit juste et humanitaire 
que vous avez manifeste par votre lettre." 

While laid up during the later months of the 
year he also wrote a review of the Duke of Devon- 
shire's life, from the Free Trade point of view, 
and an article on Free Trade in the Nineteenth 

Towards the end of November Lord Avebury 
was again kept to his bed. The doctors tested a 
sample of his blood and it was found to be lacking 
in the red corpuscles. They seem to have been 
a little puzzled as to the name by which to label 
his illness, for continuously ill more or less, 
unquestionably he was. I was shocked by his 
wasted aspect, when I saw him for the first time 
for several months. No doubt he felt himself 
to be gravely ill. I see interpolated, at a later 
date than the original entry, " my last game of 
golf," in the diary for September 2, and I am 
afraid this meant that, looking over his journal 
at the end of the year, he had made up his mind 
that his last game had been played. Neverthe- 
less, I had the pleasure of playing with him in a 
foursome, at Kingsgate, many months later, and 
he completed nine holes without much fatigue. 
It was, however, little more than a brief respite, 


before the end. The doctors eventually agreed 
that his illness was a well-known and very serious 
form of anaemia. 

He got gradually better during the last month 
of 1911, and his final entry for the year is satisfac- 
tory, if brief enough : " Saturday 31st. Better." 

The following is his own short summary of 
what he apparently regarded as the most import- 
ant events of this year. 

Published Marriage, Totemism and Religion. 

New editions of Use of Life, Scenery of England, and 
Pleasures of Life. 

March 21st. Took the Chair at the dinner of the 
City of London Free Trade Association. 

May 1st. Spoke at Anglo-German Friendship Meet- 
ing at Mansion House. Much larger than we had 

June 22nd. Coronation. Very long ceremony. 

June 27th. Herkomer began painting my picture 
for the Phoenix. 

July 3rd. Carried an amendment limiting life of 
House of Commons to 5 years. This was the only 
substantial amendment to which the House of Commons 

July 20th. Wound up the debate on the Parliament 
Bill in the House of Lords. 

23rd. Seized with an attack of ptomaine poisoning, 
which left me an invalid for the rest of this year. 

August 31st. Wrote an article for Fortnightly on 
Inter-racial Problems, and in Nineteenth Century on 
Duke of Devonshire and Free Trade also an introduc- 
tion to Hutchinson's book on Nature. 

December 10th. Hooker died. A wonderful man 
and a most kind friend. The last of our little group. 

There is some little significance, in addition 
to their pathos, about these final words. It is 
likely that when Lord Avebury wrote them he 
had in mind his feUows of the "X Club," such 
as Professors Huxley and Tyndall, Mr. Herbert 



Spencer, Sir J. Hooker, Professor Busk, and so 
on, but it is possible too that they bore a wider 
meaning. They indicate a truth of which even 
Lord Avebury himself was perhaps not quite 
fully conscious yet a truth of which we find 
sufficient evidence that in spite of his faculty 
for friendship, which was very considerable, and 
in spite of the great variety of acquaintance 
which his many-sided life brought to him, the 
men of science, those with whom he had worked 
in the fellowship of the earlier and more im- 
pressionable years, were those whom he regarded 
as his real life companions. It was to them, to 
their "little group" that, in his heart, he felt 
himself to belong. 


(AGE 78) 

AFTER the turn of the year Lord Avebury was 
rather better. He writes that he came down to 
breakfast for the first time on January 4. On the 
24th he was able to go to the Bank, but early 
in February he was again laid up, and passed 
several days in bed. By the 10th he was suffi- 
ciently recovered to attend a meeting at the 
British Museum, and on the 28th they had a 
dinner party. 

The constant anxiety of Lord Avebury's 
illness was telling on Lady Avebury at this time, 
as was not unnatural. She was never away from 
him, and from day to day never knew how he 
might be. His diary notes that she was too 
unwell to appear at this dinner party, and that 
his daughter, Mrs. Adrian Grant Duff, did hostess 
for her. Lord Avebury admits that he found it 
" rather an effort." 

In March he saw the Lord Mayor several 
times about a scheme he had in hand for supply- 
ing the poor in cities with cheap coal in winter, 
but all these activities were paid for by an 

VOL. II 305 X 



increased feeling of weariness afterwards. It is 
scarcely needful to say that he was a most serene 
and resigned patient. No word of protest was ever 
heard from him. He took a considerable interest 
in his own case, as a scientific study, and writes : 
" We are supposed to have 3| litres of blood, i.e. 
3,500,000 cubic centimetres : each cubic centi- 
metre contains 5,000,000 corpuscles : one ought 
to have 3,500,000 x 5,000,000 = 17,500,000,000,000, 
so that I have 8,800,000,000,000 too few ! No 
wonder I am ill." This terrific computation 
he makes after the doctors had told him that 
he had only half as many of the red corpuscles 
as he should. So he continued, performing 
such duties, social, political, and other as he 
was able, and resigning himself tranquilly to 
the sick-room in the intervals with a heroism 
which is rather pathetic. It was thus with him 
until June, when they went to High Elms, and 
he is able to write : " Sunday 9th. We have had 
a pleasant and peaceful time, and I am ever so 
much better. I wrote to the Times on 6 Strikes,' 
and the letter has been reproduced in a good 
many country newspapers." The next day 
they went up to London; on the Tuesday he 
dined out, "the first time for some months," and 
on the day after " To Chambers of Empire 
meeting. Coming in late, I was much gratified 
at receiving quite a small ovation by clapping 
of hands. In the afternoon to Buckingham 
Palace : the King and Queen were very gracious, 
congratulated me on being better, and begged 
Alice to take care of me and not let me do too 



About a week later he " had slight set-back," 
and no doubt Lady Avebury was very glad to 
get him down to Kingsgate, on the 20th, away 
from the many calls, to which he would always, 
if it were possible, respond, that were made on 
him in London. 

During July and August they had a succession 
of visitors, chiefly from Friday or Saturday till 
Monday. I see by his diary that I went there 
on the last day of August, and it must have been 
at this time that he played nine holes of golf, in 
a foursome, as mentioned in the previous chapter. 
I believe that this really was the last game he 
ever played. 

They were at High Elms in September, where 
also they had guests from time to time, among 
them his sister Harriet, home from Canada. 
" She was as bright and cheery as ever," he writes. 
" She seems to like Canada." He finished in 
this month his paper on " Pollen " for the Royal 
Microscopical Society's Journal, and an article 
on the Declaration of Paris for the Nineteenth 
Century. At the beginning of October they were 
back in London, and he was resuming his duties, 
his breakfast parties, his attendance at the House 
of Lords, and so on, almost as in past years. 

Yet, all the while, the pernicious anaemia 
was upon him and, no doubt, strengthening its 
hold, though with occasional relaxings. Lady 
Avebury writes to me about the whole course of 
his illness. " In that summer " (1910) " he got 
a fearful cough, which was the real beginning of 
everything. Then the following summer he had 
that sudden attack of ptomaine poisoning in the 



dead of night, and twice he fainted. Harold and 
I were up with him all night. . . . The last 
meeting he went to (on Free Trade, I think) at 
the Cannon Street Hotel, I took him to with 
trembling and fear ; but he spoke beautifully, 
firmly, and was quite audible at the end of the 
enormous hall. He never looked once at his 
notes. He looked so frail, I shall never forget 
my agony nor my joy when it was over and I got 
him safely away. The last speech he ever made 
was in this house " (48 Grosvenor Street), " when 
they came with an illuminated address from the 
British-German business. The Duke of Argyll 
read it out. I remember he stood with little 
Henry Pelham and Jean Grant Duff " (grand- 
children), " holding their hands, and they took a 
flash-light photograph of the three, and Henry 
burst into tears because of the flash and noise." 

For the moment, however, and during the 
latter months of 1912, he was able to lead some- 
thing not unlike his ordinary greatly occupied 
life. On October 10 he had a breakfast party, 
and in the afternoon, at the Chamber of Com- 
merce, "proposed my resolution on making private 
property at sea free of capture and seizure. There 
was a feeling for a special committee, to which 
I agreed. They are to report by the middle of 

The following account was drawn up of the 
resolution, and of a previous meeting on the 
same subject : 




Lord Avebury has given notice that he will move 
the following resolution at the meeting of the Council 
on Thursday, October 10, 1912, at 2.30 P.M., viz. : 

" That having regard to the increasing dependence 
of finance, trade, and industry upon international 
peace and goodwill, this Council re-affirms its 
resolution of April 20, 1911, viz. : 

" * That in the opinion of this Chamber private 
property at sea should be declared free 
from capture and seizure.' 

" That a resolution to this effect be submitted by 
the London Chamber to the next meeting of the 
Associated Chambers of Commerce of the United 

For the information of Members of the Council, Lord 
Avebury has furnished the following Memorandum on 
the proceedings at the meeting above referred to: 

" At the meeting of the Council of the London 
Chamber of Commerce on April 20, 1911, the Right 
Hon. Lord Avebury (ex-President) drew attention 
to the question of the capture of private property 
at sea and the need for international agreement 
thereon, and moved 

" ' That in the opinion of this Chamber private 
property at sea should be declared free of 
capture and seizure.' ' 

He did so, he said, with a feeling of great responsi- 
bility, as he believed that the question was one of vital 
importance to our trade and commerce. 

Lord Salisbury was strongly in favour of making 
private property at sea free of capture and seizure, and 
Lord Loreburn was of the same opinion. The Admiralty, 
it was true, had, he believed, hitherto opposed the 
proposal on the ground that we had the strongest Navy, 
and should, therefore, be giving up a powerful weapon. 
No doubt we had the strongest Fleet, but on the other 
hand our property at sea was far and away the greatest, 


nor could we attack foreign countries without damaging 
our own property. Our Navy exceeded that of any 
two Powers, but our mercantile marine exceeded that 
of all the other European Powers put together. Take 
two typical countries Germany and Spain. He was 
not one of those who believed in a war with Germany. 
Our main interests and those of Germany were identical. 
He knew, and he was sure that Germans knew, that the 
day war was declared would be a black day for both. 
He only took Germany as an illustration. Our mercan- 
tile marine was over 12,000,000 tons, that of Germany 
under 3,000,000, and that of Spain under 500,000. Our 
exports were over 556,000,000, those of Germany 
367,000,000, and of Spain 40,000,000. Of the German 
amount, however, by far the greater part went overland. 
That which went by sea, and which alone we could 
confiscate, was under 90,000,000, as compared with the 
566,000,000 which we had at stake. In most cases 
the difference was even greater. It should be remembered 
also that foreign property was largely insured in our 
English insurance companies. Moreover, as merchants 
must have a clean policy of insurance, they must, if 
we were at war, pay a war risk on goods in our ships, 
while they would not have to do so if they shipped in 
neutral vessels. The rate, no doubt, would be low, 
but the profits of ship-owners were not high, and the 
effect would be to give foreign ship-owners a substantial 

It was said sometimes that under the Declaration of 
Paris privateering was abolished, but the new arrange- 
ment of arming swift ocean steamers practically re- 
introduced it. 

Again, the fact that we were an island made the 
matter much more important. Our imports all came 
by sea ; those of other countries came to a great extent 
overland, and in war even more would do so. Our 
stake at risk could not therefore be measured by the 
amount of imports, because much of theirs came by 
land, while all of ours arrived by sea. 

In fact our risk compared with that of other countries 
was, to use a well-known saying, like Lombard Street 
to a China orange. 

We had heard a great deal of late about our supplies 
of raw materials and of food in times of war. There 



was much evidence to the effect that, under existing 
circumstances, war would raise prices considerably 
some said immensely. As regards raw materials, this 
would place our manufacturers at a great disadvantage 
in comparison with neutral countries. Our enemy, 
on the other hand, would get his supplies overland, and 
would not be so much affected. 

The supply of food was, if possible, even more im- 
portant. Many were very anxious on this point. 
The resolution, however, would remove any cause of 
apprehension. Our supplies, both of raw materials 
and of food, would be absolutely secured. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that Germany's 
excuse for the sudden expansion of her Navy was the 
desire to protect her commerce. If, however, private 
property at sea were declared free of capture and 
seizure, she would, he presumed, be willing to reduce 
her sea forces, and both countries would save many 
millions a year. 

Under the existing system we had much to lose and 
little to gain ; if private property was made free of 
capture and seizure we should lose little and gain much. 

From all these considerations it was of vital import- 
ance to us that private property at sea should be 
rendered free from capture and seizure. 

Finally, he wished just to say how much he regretted 
our action from a moral point of view. He heard with 
a feeling of astonishment that we opposed, at the Hague 
Conference, this wise and statesmanlike proposal. We 
did not oppose, however, because the proposal was 
against our interests, but because the resolution did 
not go far enough, and might, we feared, be evaded. 
The reasons given did not affect the principle, nor con- 
flict with the resolution he now proposed. In any case 
we ought not, unless for the gravest reasons, oppose 
the general wishes of other civilised nations. In this 
case he had attempted to show that our interests were 
the same as theirs. He trusted and believed that 
public opinion in this country would ere long and he 
hoped soon induce the Government to reconsider their 
determination ; and he would rejoice to see the London 
Chamber of Commerce take steps to secure this great 
and beneficent reform. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. A. J. Hollington, 



supported by Sir Albert K. Rollit (ex-President) and 
other speakers, and carried unanimously. 



The Main Provisions are as follows : 

1. Privateering is and remains abolished. 

2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the 
exception of contraband of war. 

3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband 
of war, are not liable to capture under enemy's 

4. Blockades, in order to be legally binding, must be 
effective ; that is to say, maintained by a force 
sufficient really to prohibit access to the enemy's 

On the 16th of the same month (October) he 
had another breakfast party, and " in the after- 
noon took the Chair at a large meeting of the 
British Empire Trade Mark Provisional Council 
at the House of Lords." Later in the year he 
attended meetings of the Anglo-German Friend- 
ship Conference, of the Council of Foreign Bond- 
holders, of Managers of the Royal Institution, 
" introduced a deputation to the Dominions 
Royal Commission on the British Empire Trade 
Mark. They asked many questions, and we were 
there from 2 till nearly 5," a meeting of the 
British Museum, of the Committee of Propor- 
tional Representation, of the Phoenix Assurance, 
of the Guayaquil and Quito Railway Commission, 
etc., etc. It is really a bewildering multiplicity 
of occupations to conceive in relation with a 
man of his years and of his health. And all the 
while he was giving his breakfast -parties and 
attending occasional social functions. 


His last note for the year, on its last day, 
runs : " We had a fancy dress ball, which was 
very pretty, and every one seemed to enjoy them- 
selves." He took a most cheerful part in it, 
robed in the cap and gown of the Lord Rector of 
St. Andrews University. Every one said how 
well it became him and how well he looked. At 
12 o'clock he was urged to go to bed, but pleaded, 
almost as a child might, to sit up a little longer, 
saying " I am enjoying myself so." 


LAST DAYS (1913) 
(AGE 79) 

THE doctors told Lady Avebury that one of the 
most distressing symptoms of the form of anaemia 
under which Lord Avebury suffered was, as a 
rule, a gradual loss of brain power and reasoning 
ability. Probably it is an evidence and a result 
of his more than normal sanity of brain and 
clarity of thought that until the very end his 
mental operations continued perfectly lucid and 
with their energy but little diminished. It is 
true that in his summary for 1912 he wrote : 
" Most of the year I was more or less ill and up 
to very little," but we have seen by what standard 
we are to measure this " very little " of which he 
writes, and are obliged to confess that it would 
amount to a very adequate year's work for most 
men in youth and health. 

Early in the New Year they had at High Elms 
" A large party of young people for the Bromley 
Ball," and this was followed by another ball at a 
neighbour's house on the following night. On the 
8th he was laid up with " a little gout." The 
next day the doctors ordered him to bed and 




rest, and on the 15th he was so much better that 
they were able to move to London. On the 
21st he was in the Chair at that meeting at the 
Cannon Street Hotel of which Lady Avebury 
gives the pathetic account quoted in the last 
chapter. His own entry referring to it is : 
" Took the Chair at the Free Trade meeting in the 
Great Hall at Cannon Street. It was crammed, 
and many standing. Balfour of Burleigh, 
Brassey, Ritchie, Inchcape, Hugh Bell, A. Morley, 
Blyth and Lawrence Currie spoke. S. H. Morley, 
Sir E. Speyer, A. D. Elliot and many other 
leading City men were there. Altogether it was 
a great success." 

Mr. Elliot remarks of this occasion, that he 
well remembers being present, and on the plat- 
form, though with no claim to rank among " City 
men." " Lord Avebury's speech on January 21, 
1913," he writes, " was a really admirable one, 
and I remember being a good deal vexed that such 
a convincing bit of reasoning was not adequately 
reported by the Press." 

Characteristically, Lord Avebury sounds no 
note here of any exceptional effort which such a 
performance must have cost him, in the condition 
of his health, nor does he express any of the fears 
felt by Lady Avebury. That which to others 
seemed an act of astonishing courage, he carried 
through as the most simple matter of course. 

Lady Avebury speaks of this meeting as the 
last that he attended. It was, in fact, the last of 
anything like the same scale, but on the very 
next day he "attended the City meeting to 
protest against the Representation Bill." 


On the last day of the month he writes : " Not 
having been quite so well I have been kept in bed 
and could not go to the Home Rule division." By 
the 6th of February, however, he was well enough 
to travel to Kingsgate. They were there for a 
week, and then "to London. We had beautiful 
weather, but both Alice and I were very suffering. 
I have an article in the Nineteenth Century on 
' A Study of Preference,' in which I endeavour to 
show that if duties are not to be put on either 
Raw materials or Food, no preference can be 
given, for the simple reason that the Colonies 
send us nothing else." 

On February 22 he writes : " I was able to go to 
the British Museum meeting. We had the wonder- 
ful Sussex skull exhibited the most Simian of any 
yet found. I have been, since we got back, able 
to do very little, and principally worked at my 
new edition of Prehistoric Times" 

This " Sussex " skull is that generally called 
the Pilt-down skull, from the place, in Sussex, 
where it was found. 

It was on the 27th of the month that, as he 
says, and as before told by Lady Avebury, " the 
Duke of Argyll, Sir F. Lascelles, Sir E. Tritton, 
and other members of the Anglo-German Friend- 
ship Committee came to Grosvenor Street and 
presented me with a charming but, I fear, too 
complimentary address." On March 4 he writes : 
" There is to be a Hindoo translation of The Use 
of Life. There is already one in Urdu, Gujerati, 
and Mahratti." 

One of their guests at Kingsgate this month 
was Mr. Norman Angell, who had not long before 



rather astonished the world with his book, The 
Great Illusion, aiming to show that the victor 
in war had nothing to gain by victory. Lord 
Avebury writes : " Angell is going to America to 
organise peace associations. I could not quite 
understand how or in what capacity." Never- 
theless it is likely that we may see a trace of Mr. 
Angell's influence in an article to which Lord 
Avebury makes reference on April 7 : " The 
Times has a letter of mine on Private Property 
at Sea in time of War, and the Post has inserted 
an article I drew up for a German paper on the 
Tripoli and Balkan Wars, in which I maintain 
that the aggressors, though apparently victorious, 
will gain nothing by the wars." 

On April 12 they had a few people the last 
guests he entertained at High Elms. " Lady 
Sligo and Lady Isabel Brown, Mr. and Lady M. 
Watney, and Hirst " the last, the editor of the 
Economist, a zealous fellow- worker. On the 14th 
he writes : " They all went except Goodhart." 
[This was Mr. A. M. Goodhart, the Eton Master, 
who had arrived the day before the others.] " I 
was laid up with enlarged heart, but was able to 
go down and see them all a little, one by one." 
On the 15th they motored up to Grosvenor Street, 
but he had to return to bed as soon as he arrived 
there, and reports himself as " still very feeble- 
reading and doing proofs." 

His account of himself on the 30th is brighter : 
"My 79th birthday. A baddish morning, but 
was able to get down after luncheon. Many of 
the family came, and I had many kind letters 
and telegrams." 


On May 3 he " saw Sir W. Collins on University 
of London business." It was his last effort at 
anything like public work; and on the 10th he 
writes : " Got out for a turn in the garden. Have 
gone through a time of much suffering." The 
entry of the following day records the coming of 
the Grant Duffs to Grosvenor Street and the birth 
of another Grant Duff grandchild and that 

record is the last. 


He died sixteen days after the date of this 
last entry, at 3 A.M. of May 28, 1913. His mind 
was absolutely clear up to the last two days, when 
he became, as it seemed, unconscious to all his 
surroundings excepting Lady Avebury, whose 
hand he held and kissed, while he smiled with 
that wonderfully kind expression which his face 
never lost again and again all the last day of his 

He had been most anxious to be moved to 
Kingsgate, and on the 22nd, by the doctor's 
consent, had made the journey by motor. He 
stood the fatigue well, though he was very weak, 
and twice that night said that it had been worth 
the effort. On the Friday a bed was made up 
for him in the cloisters, and he was carried down 
to it in time to hear the new clock, which had 
been put up in the courtyard, strike eleven. It 
had been a joint present to him from some of the 
family, on his 79th birthday, and he was much 
pleased with the tone of its strike. He stayed 
out, on the bed in the cloisters, till five in the 
afternoon, but in the evening he began to fail 
rapidly. He grew restless if Lady Avebury left 



him for a moment, and she was with him virtually 
all the time until the Wednesday morning when 
he died. The end was absolutely peaceful : he 
passed from unconscious life to death. 

On the 30th his body was taken to High Elms. 
Letters and telegrams of condolence poured in 
from all parts of the globe. He was buried on 
Saturday, May 31, in the Farnborough church- 
yard. The ceremony was the most simple that 
can be imagined. In the words of the Times 
report, " There was no hearse, there were no 
carriages ; all the mourners walked. The plain 
oak coffin was borne on the shoulders of men 
he had known, and was followed by his family, 
a few intimate friends, and groups of tenantry 
and servants. The procession from High Elms 
wound in a long line down the drive, across the 
public road, and, entering a wood, passed along 
a wide grass lane, altogether some three-quarters 
of a mile, to the church, which was crowded with 
friends and neighbours." 

The service was read by Doctor Butler, the 
Master of Trinity, assisted by the Rev. Herbert 
Pelham and the Rev. E. J. Welch ; and he was 
laid in a grave above which now stands a beauti- 
ful cross, in full view, across the valley, from the 
old home at High Elms. 

Accordingly as a man has lived wisely and 
kindly, so must his death be mourned when his 
wisdom and kindness are taken from those who 
have relied upon them. No words can express 
the sense of loss, as of an unfailing prop and 
comfort, of a guide as sagacious as he was affec- 
tionate, felt by Lord Avebury's family and, above 



all, by his devoted widow. He had been the 
ever-present friend in all difficulties, and for 
many years he and Lady Avebury had hardly 
been apart. Such grief may scarcely bear to be 
touched on in a page which is to be scanned by 
the public eye, but if any account at all adequate 
has been given here of Lord Avebury 's character, 
and of the closeness of the mutual affection which 
drew him and Lady Avebury together, the pro- 
found and irreparable gap left by his death may 
be tolerably understood. 

Above his grave stands his monument in 
stone. His living memorial is the imperishable 
gratitude of thousands whose lives have been 
made less grievous by his legislation and whose 
souls have been cheered and strengthened by 
the high thoughts which he has given to their 


Prehistoric Times. As Illustrated by Ancient Remains and the 

Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. May 1865. 

Williams & Norgate. 
The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man. 

Feb. 1870. Longmans, Green & Co. 
Monograph on the Collembola and Thysanura. Ray Society. 

The Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects. Oct. 1873. Mac- 

millan & Co. 
British Wild Flowers considered in Relation to Insects. Nov. 

1874. Macmillan & Co. 
Addresses, Political and Educational. May 1879. Macmillan 

& Co. 

Scientific Lectures. June 1879. Macmillan & Co. 
Fifty Years of Science. Jan. 1882. Macmillan & Co. 
Ants, Bees, and Wasps. 1882. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 
On Representation. June 1885. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 
Flowers, Fruits and Leaves. Feb. 1886. Macmillan & Co. 
Chapters in Popular Natural History. 1886. National Society. 
The Pleasures of Life. Part I. June 1887. Macmillan & Co. 
The Senses of Animals. 1888. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 
The Pleasures of Life. Part II. April 1889. Macmillan & Co. 
La Vie des Plantes. 1889. J. B. Bailliere et Fils. 
The Beauties of Nature. Oct. 1892. Macmillan & Co. 
Seedlings. 2 vols. 1892. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 
The Use of Life. Oct. 1894. Macmillan & Co. 
The Scenery of Switzerland. June 1896. Macmillan & Co. 
On Buds and Stipules. 1899. Kegan Paul, Trench & Co. 
The Scenery of England. Feb. 1902. Macmillan & Co. 
Coins and Currency. 1902. John Murray. 
Essays and Addresses. Dec. 1903. Macmillan & Co. 
Free Trade. May 1904. Macmillan & Co. 
Notes on the Life History of British Flowering Plants. Nov. 

1905. Macmillan & Co. 
VOL. II 321 Y 


Happiness and Thrift. Jan. 1906. Macmillan & Co. 

On Municipal and National Training. Nov. 1906. Macmillan 

& Co. 

On Peace and Happiness. Feb. 1909. Macmillan & Co. 
Marriage, Totemism and Religion. 1911. Longmans. 

Besides the above, published in book form, he contributed a 
very large number of articles, many of which have been noticed 
in the course of these volumes, on various subjects, to British and 
Foreign journals. 


Aberdare, Lord, letter from, on 
bill to amend company law, i. 

Abingdon Abbey School, i. 9-14 

Acceptance of Bills Act, i. 160 

Addington, Lord, i. 197 

African Society, address to, ii. 172 

Aga Khan, The, ii. 124, 125, 170, 
199, 288 

Airy, Sir William, i. 58 

Alexandra, Queen, i. 183 

Ameer AH, ii. 288 

Ancient Monuments, Bill to pro- 
vide for better preservation of, 
i. 126-127, 150, 153, 167, 173-174 

Anderson, Miss Mary (Madame 
Navarro), i. 205 

Andre, C., letter from, on pro- 
portional representation, i. 203- 

Angell, Norman, ii. 316-317 

Angerstein, Mr., i. 66 

Anglo-German Friendship Move- 
ment, ii. 216 et seq., 231, 232, 
249-252, 278, 279, 294, 312 

Anson, Sir William, ii. 171 

Antiquaries, Society of, ii. 211, 

Antrobus, Sir Edward, ii. 136 

Ants, Bees, and Wasps, i. 135, 183 

Archaeological Institute, i. 82 

Argyll, Duke of, letters on 
Darwinism, i. 298, 299 ; on 
glacial age, 323 ; ii. 232, 297 

Armaments, Anglo-German limita- 
tion of, ii. 249-252 

Arnold, Sir Edwin, on Sir John 
Lubbock, i. 291-293 

Athenaeum, The, review of Pre- 
historic Times, i. 75 
Athenaeum Club, Sir John Lub- 
bock's connexion with, ii. 166- 
Atlantic cable, i. 83-85 

Avebury, antiquity of, i. 86-87, 

Avebury, Lady. See Lubbock, 

Avebury, Lord. See Lubbock, 

Sir John 
Avebury, Lord (son), i. 46, 166, 

174, 204 ; ii. 77 

Bagehot, Walter, on Prehistoric 

Times, i. 89-90 ; on Clearing 

House returns, 91, 95 
Balfour, Rt. Hon. A. J., letter on 

Telephone Bill, ii. Ill, 134 
Balfour, Rt. Hon. Gerald, ii. 134 
Ball, Sir Robert, letter from, on 

the Ice Age, i. 304 
Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 

i. 155 
Bank Holidays Act, i. 119-126 ; 

ii. 66-67 
Bank Holidays, sobriety on, i. 

195, 196 ; ii. 79 
Beach, Sir Michael Hicks. See 

St. Aldwyn, Lord 
Beaconsfield, Lord, i. 96, 97, 121, 

Beauties of Nature, i. 322, 323, 

333 et seq. ; ii. 200 
Bedford, Duke of, i. 179 
BelVs Life on Bank Holiday Act, 

i. 124-125 

Belper, Lord, ii. 150, 151 
Bentham, George, i. 58 
" Bessie," ii. 280 
Bills of Exchange Bill, i. 188 
Bimetallism, ii. 2, 58, 60, 82 et seq. 
Birch, H. M., i. 17, 18, 19 
Birkbeck, Robert, i. 1, 97, 218 
Birkbeck, Mrs. Robert (sister), i. 

218 ; death of, ii. 277 
Bishop, Irving, letter to, on 
thought-reading experiment, i. 



Bismarck, Count, i. 179 

Blind, Karl, letter from, ii. 229 

Bonaparte, Prince Roland, ii. 288 

Bonney, Professor T. G., letter on 
the glacial age, i. 322-323 ; ii. 
63, 64 ; letter on Scenery of 
England, 153-154, 175 

Booth, Mrs., ii. 205 

Boulton, G. B., i. 288 

Bourne, Professor G. C., ii. 237 

Boustany, M., ii. 300 

Boyd, Rev., A. K. H., ii. 72, 73, 

Bramwell, Sir Frederick, i. 209 

Brandreth, Mrs., i. 61 

Brassey, Lord, ii. 191, 192 

Bright, Rt. Hon. John, letter from, 
on " best 100 books," i. 219 

British Empire League, ii. 39-42, 
46-48, 60, 80, 108, 278, 296 

Broadhurst, H., i. 286 

Browne, Sir Thomas, statue of, 
ii. 213-214 

Budge, Dr. E. A. Wallis, ii. 58 ; 
letter regarding Coins and Cur- 
rency, ii. 160-164 

Buds and Stipules, On, ii. 103, 112 

Biilow, Prince, ii. 216 ; letter 
from, 217-218 

Burns, Rt.Hon. John,i. 316; ii.300 

Busk, Sir E. H., i. 170 

Busk, Professor George, i. 23, 39 ; 
Sir John Lubbock's apprecia- 
tion of, 40, 50, 51, 58, 63, 87 ; 
death of, 233 

Busk, Mrs., i. 39, 87 

Butler, Dr. H. M., ii. 319 

Buxton, Lord, i. 93, 166, 182, 197, 
222, 279, 282, 283 ; letter from, 
on Dock Strike, 284-285 ; ap- 
pointed Colonial Under-Secre- 
tary, 332 

Buxton, Gurney, ii. 213 

Buxton, Mrs. Sydney (daughter), 
i. 166, 182 ; letter from, 279- 
280, 310, 314 ; letter from, 332 ; 
death, 335 

Cambon, Paul, letter from, sending 

cross of the Legion of Honour, 

ii. 188 
Cambridge University, Peterhouse 

Sexcentenary, i. 209 
Canadian Reciprocity Treaty, ii. 

Carnegie, Andrew, letter on Coins 

and Currency, ii. 164, 211 ; 

letter from, 248-249 

Cavendish, Lord Frederick, mur- 
der of, i. 187-188 

Chamberlain, Rt. Hon. Joseph, 
i. 274, 334 ; ii. 19 ; letter from, 
124, 191, 192, 193, 196, 211 

Chambers of Commerce, Associa- 
tion of, ii. 117, 128, 129, 267 

Chambers, Robert, i. 93 

Chaplin, Rt. Hon. H., ii. 2, 3 ; 
letter from, on bimetallism, 4-5 

Chisholm, Hugh, ii. 242 

Churchill, Lord Randolph, i. 228 ; 
letter from, on gold coinage, 

Clarence, Duke of, his intended 
marriage, i. 315, 316 

" Club, The," i. 325 ; ii. 113 

Coinage Committee, i. 309, 326 

Coins and Currency, ii. 157 et 

Colchester Oyster Feast, ii. 190- 

Colenso, Bishop, i. 9 

Collier, Hon. John, ii. 1 

Collins, Sir W., ii. 318 

Commercial Intelligence Com- 
mittee, ii. 129 

Companies Act, Bill to amend, i. 
164-165, 167 

Cook, Sir E. T., i. 307, 308 

Corea, annexation of, by Japan, 
ii. 283 

Corelli, Marie, letter from, on 
Lloyd George finance, ii. 265- 

Coronation Stone (Lia Phail), 
ii. 138 

Courtney, Lord, i. 202, 207, 211 ; 
ii. 54 ; letters from, 123, 233, 
256, 300 

Cox, Harold, ii. 152 

Creyke, Archdeacon, i. 33 

Currency, Royal Commission on, 
i. 228 et seq. 

Curtis, Sir William, i. 3 

Daily News, article on Bank 
Holidays, i. 125 

Darwin, Charles, i. 9, 15, 23, 25, 
32, 33, 40, 41, 42 ; publication 
of Origin of Species, 49-50 ; 
letter to, 55-56, 57, 58, 92 ; on 
The Origin and Metamorphoses 
of Insects, 130 ; on Prehistoric 
Times, 148, 176, 180 ; death of, 
and funeral, 183 et seq. ; cen- 
tenary of birth, 257-258, 269 ; 
letter of, 269-270 ; letters from, 



i. 39, 45, 48-49, 73-74, 130, 148, 
151, 176 
Darwin, Sir Francis, i. 184 ; ii. 

256 ; letter from, ii. 257 
Davis, Professor W. M., letter 

from, ii. 214-215 
Daylight Saving Bill, ii. 259 
Debentures Bill, ii. 240 
de Constant, D'Estournelles, 

letters from, ii. 228, 229 
de Lesseps, M. Ferdinand, i. 208 
De Lubyck, ancient form of 

Lubbock, i. 1 

Dental Practitioners Act, i. 160 
de Perthes, M. Boucher, i. 51 
Derby, Lord, i. 137 ; ii. 60 
Desborough, Lady, anecdote of, 

ii. 67 

Desborough, Lord, ii. 67 
Devonshire, Duke of, i. 164, 263 ; 
letter from, on Imperial Federa- 
tion League, ii. 40, 47, 48, 193, 
197 ; death of, 259-260 
d'Hondt, M., on Proportional Re- 
presentation, i. 214-215 
Dimsdale, Sir Joseph, ii. 170 
Disraeli, B. See Beaconsfield, 


Dock strike, i. 278 et seq. 
Dock Warrants, i. 232-233 
Donaldson, Sir James, ii. 253 
Dreams, notes of, ii. 156, 157 
Duff, Adrian Grant, ii. 224, 


Duff, Mrs. Adrian Grant (daugh- 
ter), i. 215, 305, 336, 337 ; ii. 55, 
59, 77, 130, 192, 201, 204, 205 ; 
marriage of, 224, 235 
Duff, Sir M. E. Grant, i. 178, 181 ; 
letter from, 327 ; Geographical 
Society and women Fellows, 
ii. 17, 48, 70, 74, 105, 113 ; letter 
from, 123, 134 ; letter from, on 
Colchester Oyster Feast, 190 ; 
death of, 224 
Dufferin, Lord, on The Use of Life, 

ii. 34 

Dutt, Romerli, ii. 104, 105 
Dyke, Sir W. Hart, i. 66, 74 

Eames, Bromley, ii. 189 

Early Closing movement, i. 150, 
266, 286 ; ii. 6, 20, 21, 43, 60, 
134-136, 149-151, 179, 180, 199, 
200, 210 

Edinburgh, University of, Ter- 
centenary Celebration, i. 208 

Edison, T. A., i. 183 

Edward VII., King, i. 183; 

Theatres Bill, 310 ; telegram 

from, ii. 168, 169, 170, 232 ; 

death of, 277-278 
Elementary Schools, curricula for, 

i. 129 

Elliot, Arthur, i. 138 
Ellis, Sir J. Whittaker, i. 280, 281 
Endowed Schools Act, Bill to 

amend, i. 127-129 
Entwistle, Mr. (great-uncle), i. 

Essays and Addresses, ii. 172, 180 
Essays and Reviews, i. 57 
Eton, visit to, ii. 236-237 
Evans, Sir John, i. 23, 56, 85, 86, 

309 ; death of, ii. 260 
Eversley, Lord, on the Ancient 

Monuments Act, i. 168 
Examiner, The, on Prehistoric 

Times, i. 75 

Falsification of Accounts Bill, i. 

Farrer, Lord, i. 302 ; letters from, 

318-320, 321, 322 ; ii. 83 
Fawcett, Rt. Hon. Henry, i. 155 
Fenton, Miles, i. 195, 196 
Ferguson, James, i. 86, 87 
Fildes, Sir Luke, ii. 139 
Fitch, Sir G. J., i. 170 ; ii. 49 
Flower, Sir W. H., letters from, ii. 

84, 85-86, 98 

Forestry, Committee on, i. 217 
Forms of stems, ii. 202-204 
Forster, H. W., ii. 274 
Forster, Rt. Hon. W. E., i. 127, 

Fortnightly Review, article in, 

ii. 298 
Foster, Sir Michael, i. 170 ; ii. 49 ; 

letter to, 125 ; death of, 243 
France and England, relations 

between, ii. 126-128 
France, Bank of, letter from, ii. 


Franco-British Exhibition, ii. 232 
Frankland, Edward, i. 63, 64 
Franks, Sir A. W., on Prehistoric 

Times, i. 75 
Frazer, Sir James, letters from, on 

religion and magic, ii. 146-148, 

Free Trade, ii. 199, 206, 268, 275, 

302, 315 
Fremantle, Sir C., i. 309, 326 ; 

ii. 54, 55, 95 
Friedrich, Empress, i. 313 


Gallon, Sir D., i. 51 

Gallon, Francis, on The Use of 
Life, ii. 34 

Gaulois, letter to, ii. 126 

Geikie, Professor James, ii. 63, 
211, 261 

Geographical Society and Female 
Fellows, ii. 17 

Geological Society, Gold Medal 
from, ii. 174-175 ; centenary of, 

George V., King, ii. 297 

George, Rt. Hon. D. Lloyd, ii. 265, 
266, 267 ; and House of Lords, 
285 el seq. 

Gladstone, Rt. Hon. W. E., i. 96, 
99, 113 ; on ancient metals, 145 ; 
visit to High Elms, 156-157, 174, 
175, 178 ; anecdote of, 190, 196, 
199, 200, 207 ; on income tax, 
209 ; General Gordon, 216, 
223, 225; introduces Home 
Rule Bill, 226, 296, 297; 1 
notes, 309-310, ii. 19; address 
to, on retirement, 24 et seq. ; 
death of, 97 ; anecdote of, 145, 
146 ; letters from, i. 145 ; ii. 

Gladstone, Mrs., i. 174, 332 

Goebel, Professor K., letter on 
Buds and Stipules, ii. 112 

Gold Defence Association, ii. 82 

Golden Bough, The, ii. 146 et seq., 
188, 189 

Goldsmid, Sir Julian, i. 169 

Goodhart, A. M., ii. 317 

Gordon, General, i. 216 

Goschen, Lord, i. 309 ; ii. 210 

Gosse, Edmund, ii. 164 

Graham, Cunninghame, i. 328 

Graham, Sir H., ii. 268 

Graham, Thomas, i. 58 

Grant, Sir J., i. 332 

Granville, Lord, i. 136, 137, 164 

Great Thoughts, letter to, on the 
twentieth century, ii. 31-32 

Grehfell, H. R., letter on bi- 
metallism, i. 431 ; letter from, 

Grenfell, Riversdale, i. 37 

Grey, Sir Edward, ii. 292 

Gripper, Alderman, i. 210 

Grosvenor, Lord Richard, i. 216 

Grueber, H. A., ii. 157, 158 

Gull, Sir W., i. 169 

Gully, W. C. See Selby, Lord 

Gurney, Russel, i. 129 

Guy's Hospital, ii. 39 

Haldane, Lord, ii. 211 
Halsbury, Lord, i. 165 ; ii. 211, 283 
Hambro, Sir Everard, i. 328 ; ii. 21 
Hamilton, Archibald, i. 95, 97 
Hamilton, Lord George, ii. 171 
Harcourt, Sir William, i. 267 ; on 

Income Tax, ii. 16, 26, 27; 

letters from, i. 329-330 ; ii. 16 
Hare, Thomas, letter from, on 

Proportional Representation, i. 

213, 214 
Harris, F. Leverton, letter on 

Declaration of London, ii. 291- 


Harrison, Charles, i. 316 
Harrison, Frederic, i. 226 ; letter 

from, on King Alfred Millen- 
ary Commemoration, ii. 86-87; 

letter on best hundred books, 

55 et seq. 

Harrow School, lecture at, i. 335 
Hartington, Lord. See Devon- 
shire, Duke of 
Hartland, E. S., letter from, ii. 


Hay, Hon. John, ii. 91 
Head, Barclay, ii. 158 
Head, Sir Edmund, i. 97 
Heddle, Professor, ii. 72 ; ghost 

story by, 73 
Hedeman, Jules, letter to, ii. 241- 

Heim, Dr., letters from, ii. 61, 62- 

63, 247 
Herbert, Sir Robert, letter from, 

on British Empire League, ii. 

46-47, 48 
Herbert, R. G. W., letter from, 

ii. 188 
Hereford, Lord James of, ii. 121 ; 

letter from, 123, 197 
Herkomer, Sir Hubert von, ii. 293 
Herschell, Lord, i. 170 
Hillingdon, Lord, i. 313 
Hirst, F. W., ii. 317 
Hirst, Thomas Archer, i. 63, 79, 87 
Hoar, Senator, ii. 67, 68 
Hoare, Robin, i. 286 
Hobhouse, Lord, on Endowed 

Schools Act, i. 127 et seq. ; 

letter from, 128-129 
Holland, Sir W. H., ii. 198 
Holmesdale, Lord, i. 66 
Home, Lady, i. 12 
Home Rule, i. 216, 223, 225 ; city 

protest, ii. 18 
Hooker, Sir Joseph, i. 23, 49, 63, 

64 ; letter on The Senses of 



Animals, 269 ; letter from, 325 ; 
ii. 204-215 ; letter on Darwin 
centenary, 269, 284 ; death of, 

Hordern, Miss. See Lubbock, 
Lady (wife) 

Hordern, Rev. Peter, i. 34 

Hornby, Dr., i. 98 ; ii. 236 

Horner, Leonard, i. 58 

Hovelaque, Professor, letter on 
The Use of Life, ii. 68-69 

Hubbard, Rt. Hon. J. G. See 
Addington, Lord 

Hughes, Thomas, i. 129 ; on the 
scouring of the White Horse, 
192-193, 337 ; letters from, 129- 
193, 337 

" Hundred best books," i. 219 el 
seq. ; Mr. Ruskin's views on, 
261, 307, 308 ; Mr. Frederic 
Harrison on, ii. 55 et seq., 91 
et seq. 

Hutton, R. H., letter from, i. 100- 

Huxley, Leonard, i. 88 

Huxley, T. H., i. 23, 43, 44, 55, 
56, 57, 63, 79, 88, 108, 117, 131, 
148, 176, 200 ; ii. 27, 28 ; on 
The Use of Life, 34, 303 ; letters 
from, i. 44, 117-118, 258 ; ii. 34 

Iddesleigh, Lord, letter from, on 

" best 100 books," i. 220-222 ; 

ii. 116 ; letter from, 117 
Imperial Federation League. See 

British Empire League 
Income Tax, collection of, ii. 15, 16 
Income Tax, farmers', ii. 26, 27 
Income Tax Reduction League, 

ii. 242 

Indian Currency, ii. 97-99 
International Library Conference, 

ii. 81, 82 
Irish Institute of Bankers, ii. 96 ; 

inaugural address, 98 

Jameson Raid Committee, ii. 77, 78 
Jessel, Sir George, i. 169 
Jowett, Professor, i. 57, 174 

Kammalahs, petition on behalf of, 

ii. 70 et seq., 87 
Kaiser, the, ii. 216, 249, 252 
Kelvin, Lord, ii. 121 
Kimberley, Lord, ii. 133 
King, Rev. Bryan, i. 132 
Kingsgate Castle, purchase of, 

ii. 139 et seq., 190 

Kmgsley, Charles, i. 23, 33, 37, 43 ; 
letter on Prehistoric Times, 91-92 
Knight, Professor, ii. 75 
Knowles, Sir James, i. 131 
Kruger, Paul, ii. 116 

Lanciani, Professor, i. 286 

Lankester, Sir E. Ray, recollec- 
tions of Lord Avebury, i. 59 ; 
letter from, ii. 200-201 

Lansdowne, Lord, i. 108 ; letter 
to, ii. 217 

Lapparent, A. de, letters from, ii. 

Laurence, Sir W., i. 164 

Law, Rt. Hon. A. Bonar, corre- 
spondence with, on trade with 
Germany, ii. 222-223, 256 

Lawrence, Sir Joseph, ii. 210 

Layard, Sir A. H., i. 96 

Leaf-forms, study of, i. 179-180 

Lecky, W. E. H., i. 248 ; letter 
from, ii. 104 

Lee, W., i. 102 

Leet, F. L., ii. 96 

Legion of Honour, Cross of, con- 
ferred, ii. 188 

Leighton, Lord, i. 208, 309 

Life and Letters of Charles Darwin , 
i. 184 

Limited Partnership Bill, ii. 243 

Linnean Society, elected President, 
i. 174 ; paper on Limits in 
Vision of the Lower Animals, 
179, 303 ; portrait for, 311 

Lister, Lord, ii. 149 ; letter on 
Early Closing Bill, 150 

Literature, Royal Society of, ii. 

Lloyd, Edward, i. 3 

Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper, letter 
on Bank Holiday Act, ii. 66 

Lobuk, Robert, i. 2 

Lockyer, Sir Norman, i. 108 ; 
letters from, on Stonehenge, ii. 

Lodge, Sir Oliver, ii. 184 

London Bankers, by F. G. Hilton 
Price, i. 2 

London County Council, i. 269 et 
seq., 300 et seq., 314, 315 
finance of, 317, 318 et seq. 
portrait painted for, ii. 1 
declines Chairmanship, 45 

London, Declaration of, ii. 289 
et seq., 296 

London Institution, ii. 231 

London Municipal Society, ii. 238 


London University election, ii. 
48 et seq. 

London University, reconstitution 
of, ii. 48 et seq. 

Loubet, M., ii. 128, 188 

Louise, Princess, ii. 297 

Lowe, Robert (Lord Sherbrooke), 
i. 50, 95, 119, 126, 127, 169 

Lowe, Mrs., i. 50 

Lubbock, Alfred, i. 81 

Lubbock, Basil (nephew), ii. 101 

Lubbock, Beaumont (brother), 
i. 177, 201 ; ii. 263 ; death of, 

Lubbock, Edgar (brother), i. 81, 
177 ; death of, ii. 243-246 

Lubbock, Eric (son), ii. 19, 138, 
140, 141, 170, 175, 176, 211, 223, 
239, 253, 268, 295, 298 

Lubbock, Frederick (brother), i. 
82, 177 

Lubbock, Gertrude (daughter), i. 
166, 181, 188, 197, 199 

Lubbock, Harold (son), ii. 106, 
211, 223 ; marriage of, 274, 283 

Lubbock, Henry (brother), i. 22, 
177, 290 ; death of, ii. 277 

Lubbock, Hugh (nephew), i. 204 

Lubbock, Irene (daughter). See 
Pelham, Mrs. 

Lubbock, John, ancestor, i. 2 

Lubbock, Sir John (Lord Ave- 
bury), family history, i. 1-4 ; 
childhood, 5-9 ; earlymterest in 
insects, 6 ; early school life, 9- 
14 ; interest in Natural History, 
12, 13 ; impressions of Eton, 
16-17, 19-21 ; entry into busi- 
ness, 22 et seq. ; first lecture, 23 ; 
intercourse with Darwin, 23 ; 
first scientific work, 23, 33 ; 
elected member of the Royal 
Institution, 23 ; early business 
experience, 28 et seq. ; cricket, 
29 ; joins militia, 30 ; daily 
routine of work, 30, 31, 32 ; 
attends British Association for 
first time, 33 ; meets Miss 
Hordern (Lady Lubbock), 34, 
35 ; goes abroad for first time, 
36; meets Sir Charles Lyell, 
36, 37 ; discovers skull of musk 
ox, 38-39 ; paper on Ento- 
mostraca, 39 ; Darwin's influ- 
ence on, 40-42 ; marriage, 42 ; 
"On the Respiration of In- 
sects," 43 ; paper on the 
Daphnia, 44; Fellow of the 

Royal Society, 44 ; suggests 
Country Clearing, 47-48 ; Origin 
of Species, 49-50 ; " Palaeo- 
lithic " and " Neolithic," 51 ; 
elected to Council of Royal 
Society, 52 ; anecdotes, 52-55 ; 
visits Switzerland, 56 ; scientific 
papers, 56 ; Essays and Reviews, 
57 ; lecture on Lake Habita- 
tions of Switzerland, 58-59 ; 
sense of humour, 60 ; scientific 
activity, 60-61 ; invited to 
stand for parliament (City of 
London), 62-63; "X Club," 
63-64 ; candidate for West 
Kent, 66 et seq. ; death of father, 
67 ; letters and diaries, 68-69 ; 
relations with family, 70 et seq. ; 
loses election, 74 ; Prehistoric 
Times, 74-75 ; on London Clear- 
ing System, 76 ; in railway 
accident, 77-78 ; paper on the 
Bronze Age, 80 ; appointed to 
Senate University of London, 
80 ; love of cricket, 81 ; archae- 
ology, 82-83 ; Atlantic cable, 
84-85 ; visit to Hallstatt, 86 ; 
as to ages of Avebury and 
Stonehenge, 86-87 ; Red Lion 
Club, 88 ; suggests publication 
of Clearing House returns, 90 ; 
" On the Primitive Conditions 
of Man," 93 ; invited to stand 
for University of London, 94- 
95 ; on Royal Commission, 97 ; 
Public School Commissioner 
ibid. ; at eruption of Vesuvius, 
ibid. ; visit to Switzerland, 98 ; 
West Kent election, 98-99 ; 
ancient bronze, 100 ; elected 
M.P. for Maidstone, 103 ; 
maiden speech, 103-108 ; Royal 
Commission on Scientific In- 
struction, 108 ; introduces bill 
to deal with absconding debtors, 
108 ; parliamentary cricket 
match, 108-109 ; objects in 
entering parliament, 110-111 ; 
publishes Origin of Civilisation, 
115-116; visits Liverpool slums, 
117 ; first President of Anthro- 
pological Institute, 117-118 ; on 
reduction of National Debt, 
118-119 Bank Holidays Act, 
119-126 newspaper comments, 
122-125 testimonial from 
bankers' employes, 126 ; An- 
cient Monuments Bill, 126-127 ; 



Endowed Schools Act (amend- 
ing bill), 127-129 ; curricula for 
Elementary Schools, 129 ; meta- 
morphoses of insects, 129-130 ; 
relief measures (siege of Paris), 
131 ; purchase of land at 
Avebury, 131-133; Shopkeepers 
and Shop Assistants Bill, 133- 
134 ; begins study of ants, 
135 ; Vice-Chancellor of London 
University, 136-137 ; Patents 
Bill, 138 ; trip down the Dan- 
ube, 138-141 ; his tame wasp, 
141-142 ; excavations in Greece, 
142-145 ; his mother's death, 
147 ; early closing of shops, 150 ; 
Ancient Monuments Bill, 150 ; 
second Maidstone election, 150 ; 
on insects and flowers, 151-152 ; 
Ancient Monuments Bill, 153 ; 
Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 
155 ; Stonehenge, 156 ; Glad- 
stone's visit, 156-157 ; origin of 
1 notes, 158-159 ; Trustee of 
British Museum, 160 ; Dental 
Practitioners Act, 160 ; Accept- 
ance of Bills Act, 160 ; LL.D. of 
Dublin University, 162 ; Presi- 
dent of Institute of Bankers, 
162 ; asked to stand for the 
City, 164 ; bill to amend com- 
pany law, 164-165 ; death of 
first* wife, 165-166 ; Companies 
Act, 167 ; Ancient Monuments 
Bill, 167 ; defeated at Maid- 
stone, 168-169 ; elected M.P. 
for University of London, 169 
et seq. ; Ancient Monuments 
Bill, 174-175 ; meetings with 
Gladstone, 174, 175 ; President 
of Linnean Society, 174 ; 
Jubilee meeting of British As- 
sociation, 175 ; visits Glad- 
stone, 178 ; study of leaf-forms, 
179-180 ; marriage of daughter 
(Mrs. Sydney Buxton), 182 ; 
forestry, 182 ; electric lighting, 
183 ; "death of Darwin, 183 
et seq. ; attitude towards re- 
ligion, 186-187 ; meeting with 
Ruskin, 188 ; Irving Bishop 
and thought-reading experi- 
ment, 189 ; Senses of Animals, 
190 ; sobriety on Bank Holi- 
days, 195-196 ; on reduction 
of National Debt, 198 ; pro- 
portional representation, 201 
et seq. ; second marriage, 206 ; 

proportional representation, 207; 
University of Edinburgh, 208 ; 
at Cambridge, 209 ; propor- 
tional representation, 211 et 
seq. ; Seedlings, 215 ; Arbitra- 
tion question, 216 ; parliament- 
ary work, 217 ; paper on Ants, 
Bees, and Wasps, 218 ; unveils 
statue of Sir J. Mason, 218 ; 
best hundred books, 219 et seq. ; 
lecture on Reading, 223 ; Shop 
Hours Regulation Bill, 223-224, 
228 ; Home Rule Bill, 225 et 
seq. ; currency and gold coinage, 
228 et seq. ; bimetallism, 231 ; 
Dock Warrants, 232-233 ; The 
Pleasures of Life, 235 et seq. ; 
Public Libraries Bill, 250; 
Public Accounts, 250 et seq. ; 
Mr. Ruskin, 260-262 ; letter on 
Ireland, 263-264 ; London 
County Council, 269 et seq. ; 
breakfast parties, 273 ; Declara- 
tion of Paris, 274 et seq. ; Dock 
strike, 278 <et seq. ; Gas Com- 
panies' dispute, 287 : Privy 
Councillor, 289 ; golf, 290-291 ; 
Home Rule, 294 et seq. ; Duke 
of Argyll and Darwinism, 298, 
299 ; Chairman, London County 
Council, 300 et seq. ; Linnean 
Society, 303 ; peninsulas in the 
Southern Hemisphere, 305-306 ; 
hundred best books, 307, 308 ; 
Coinage Committee, 309 ; 
threatened omnibus strike, 
311 ; Reform Club, 312 ; re- 
signs Secretaryship of London 
Bankers, 313 ; resigns Chair- 
manship, London County Coun- 
cil, 314, 315 ; intended marriage 
of Duke of Clarence, 315, 316 ; 
London County Council, 317 
et seq. ; The Beauties of Nature, 
322 et seq. ; Chamber of Com- 
merce, 324 ; " The Club," 325 ; 
Coinage Commission, 326 ; Shop 
Hours' Amendment Bill, 328 
et seq. ; General Election, 330 ; 
Beauties of Nature, 333 et seq. ; 
death of Mrs. Sydney Buxton, 
335 ; On Seedlings, ii. 1 ; bi- 
metallism, 2 ; address to Work- 
ing Men's College, 6-15 ; Income 
Tax, 15, 16 ; Geographical 
Society and women Fellows, 17 ; 
City Home Rule protest, 18 ; 
death of Professor Tyndall, 20 ; 


Early Closing movement, 20- 
21 ; diary, 22-23 ; address to 
Mr. Gladstone, 24 et seq. ; 
farmers' Income Tax, 26 ; 
fossils at Murren, 28-29 ; on 
the twentieth century, 31-32 ; 
The Use of Life, 32 et seq.; 
London Society for Extension 
of University Teaching, 37, 39 ; 
Imperial Federation League, 
39-42 ; London County Coun- 
cil, 44 el seq. ; British Empire 
League, 46-48 ; General Elec- 
tion, 48 et seq. ; Foreign Bond- 
holders, 54 ; hundred best 
books, 55 et seq. ; The Scenery of 
Switzerland, 58, 60 et seq. ; 
Kammalahs, 70-72 ; anecdotes, 
73 ; Jameson Raid, 77, 78 ; 
Diamond Jubilee, 80 ; Inter- 
national Library Conference, 
81 ; bimetallism, 80 et seq. ; 
Zoological Society, 84-86 ; use 
of phonograph, 89-90 ; issue 
of " Best Hundred Books," 91 
et seq. ; London and Irish 
Bankers, 95, 96 ; Indian cur- 
rency, 97-99 ; recreation, 102- 
103 ; Royal Historical Society, 
105 ; Telephone Bill, 107-111 ; 
" The Club," 113 ; seats for 
shop assistants, 114 ; South 
African War, 116 ; Association 
of Chambers of Commerce, 117 ; 
offer of peerage, 118 et seq. ; 
congratulations, 121 et seq. ; 
University of London, 125-126 ; 
France and England, 126-128 ; 
Associated Chambers of Com- 
merce, visit to Paris, 128-129 ; 
President Royal Statistical 
Society, 129 ; death of Queen 
Victoria, 133 ; Early Closing 
movement, 134-136 ; Stone- 
henge, 136, 137 ; Coronation 
Stone, 138 ; purchase of Kings- 
gate Castle, 139 et seq. ; science 
teaching in University of Lon- 
don, 141 et seq. ; religion and 
magic, 146 et seq. ; Early 
Closing movement, 149-151 ; 
Scenery of England, 152 et seq. ; 
dreams, 156 ; Coins and Cur- 
rency, 157 et seq. ; Nobel prize, 
164-166; Athenaeum Club, 166- 
170 ; Geological Society, 174- 
175 ; Early Closing movement, 
179 ; tablet to Lord Macaulay, 

180-181 ; experiment in moun- 
tain-building, 181-184 ; religious 
views, 184-185 ; Legion of Hon- 
our, 188 ; The Golden Bough, 
188-189 ; Tariff Reform, 191- 
192 ; Indian translations of 
books, 193-194 ; Tariff Reform, 
196 ; Sunday Closing Bill, 197 ; 
Early Closing movement, 199- 
200 ; Forms of Stems, 202-204 ; 
coal, 205 ; Early Closing and 
Sunday Closing Bills, 210 ; the 
Diplodocus, 211 ; luncheon to 
French Fleet, 212 ; Life History 
of British Plants, 213 ; Sir 
Thomas Browne's statue, 213- 
214 ; Anglo-German Friendship 
Society, 216 et seq. ; death of 
Sir M. E. Grant Duff, 224-225 ; 
Moral Instruction League, 225- 
226 ; Sunday Trading, 227 ; 
" The Future of Europe," 228- 
229 ; visit of German burgo- 
masters and editors, 232 ; pro- 
portional representation, 233 ; 
Sunday closing, 234 ; Municipal 
and National Trading, 235-236 ; 
gramophone speeches, 238 ; 
American currency, 240 ; De- 
bentures Bill, ibid. ; death of 
brother Edgar, 243-246 ; old- 
age pensions, 247-248 ; rector 
of St. Andrews, 248-249 ; Anglo- 
German friendship and limita- 
tion of armaments, 249-252 ; 
St. Andrews University, 253- 
254 ; Free Trade speech, 254- 
256 ; Darwin- Wallace celebra- 
tion, 257-258 ; legislative activi- 
ties, 259 ; death of Sir John 
Evans, 260 ; Royal Scottish 
Geographical Society, 261-262 ; 
opposition to Lloyd George 
Budget, 265 et seq. ; Royal 
Academy dinner, 267 ; Darwin 
centenary, 269-270 ; popularity 
of books, 270-273 ; Free Trade, 
275-276 ; on Primitive Paternity, 
282 ; Mr. Lloyd George and the 
House of Lords, 285 et seq. ; In- 
stitute of France, 287 ; Declara- 
tion of London, 289 et seq. ; 
study of pollen, 295 ; Canadian 
Reciprocity Treaty, 299 ; ill- 
ness, 302, 305 et seq. ; private 
property at sea, 309-312 ; Free 
Trade meeting, 315 ; last days 
and death, 316-320 



Letters to : 

Addington, Lord, i. 198 
Argyll, Duke of, i. 298, 299 

Bates, , i. 305-306 

Bishop, Irving, i. 189 
Brassey, Lord, ii. 191 
Bridge, Sir John, ii. 79 
Bulow, Prince, ii. 216 
Buxton, Lord, i. 93 
Churchill, Lord Randolph, 

i. 230 

Cook, Sir E. T., i. 308 
Darwin, Charles, i. 55-56 
Devonshire, Duke of, i. 39- 

40, 47 

Farrer, Lord, ii. 83 
Foster, Sir M., ii. 125 
Frazer, J. G., ii. 146 
Gaulois, ii. 126-127 
Granville, Lord, i. 136, 137 
Great Thoughts, ii. 31-32 
Harcourt, Sir W., i. 329 ; 

ii. 15 

Hartland, E. S., ii. 282 
Hedeman, Jules, ii. 241-242 
Huxley, T. H., i. 118 
Lansdowne, Lord, ii. 217 
Law, A. Bonar, ii. 222-223 
Lloyd's Weekly, ii. 66-67 
Manning, Cardinal, i. 278 
Merchants' Guild, Berlin, 

ii. 221 
Metternich, Count, ii. 249- 

250, 251-252 
Murray, Douglas, ii. 275 
Moral Instruction League, 

ii. 226 
New York American, ii. 


Norfolk, Duke of, ii. 45 
Reid, Andrew, i. 294, 296, 

Rucker, Professor, ii. 53, 

St. Aldwyn, Lord, ii. 186- 


Salisbury, Lord, ii. 118, 149 
Sellar, A. Craig, i. 263-264 
Stokes, Sir Gabriel, i. 211 
Sweden, Bank of, ii. 159 
Thompson, Silvanus, ii. 50, 


Times, The, ii. 2, 107, 302 
Lubbock, Sir John William (father), 
i. 2, 3, 5, 26, 29, 30, 40, 62; 
racecourse at High Elms, 64, 
66 ; death, 67 ; letter from, 
73 : ii. 270 

Lubbock, Lady (mother), i. 7; 
records of Sir John Lubbock's 
childhood, 8, 10, 13, 26, 27 ; 
death of, 147 

Lubbock, Lady (first wife), i. 34, 
35 ; marriage, 42, 61 ; in rail- 
way accident, 77-78, 79, 85, 86, 
87, 89 ; death of, 165-166 

Lubbock, Lady (Lady Avebury) 
(second wife), i. 179, 200, 205 ; 
marriage, 206, 217, 218, 261, 
309, 331, 336 ; ii. 28, 54, 67, 76, 
87, 88, 106, 128, 140, 170, 171, 

175, 231, 239, 253, 277, 296, 
305, 307, 318, 320 

Lubbock, Maurice (son), ii. 131, 

176, 239, 280, 283, 298 
Lubbock, Dr. Montagu (brother), 

i. 177, 178 
Lubbock, Sir Neville (brother), 

i. 177 
Lubbock, Norman (son), i. 188, 

204 ; ii. 100, 130 

Lubbock, Robin (nephew), ii. 101 
Lubbock, Rolfe (son), i. 181 ; ii. 

263 ; death of, 264 
Lubbock, Ursula (daughter). See 

Duff, Mrs. Adrian Grant 
Lubbock, Notes on the History and 

Genealogy of the Family of, by 

Robert Birkbeck, i. 1 
Lyall, Sir Alfred, i. 332 
Lyell, Sir C., i. 23, 36 ; letter from, 

37, 58, 62, 148 
Lytton, Lord, letter from, on the 

Declaration of Paris, i. 275- 

Lyveden, Lord, ii. 232 

M'Crea, Rev. J. B., i. 75 
Macmillan & Co., Messrs., letter 

from, on Indian translation of 

Peace and Happiness, ii. 271 
MacNeill, Swift, ii. 103 
Mallet, C. F., ii. 268 
Manchester Free Library, ii. 177- 

Manning, Cardinal, i. 131, 163 ; 

on early closing movement, 227- 

228, 278, 282, 283, 285, 287 ; 

letters from, i. 163, 227-228, 272 
Margerie, M. de, letters from, ii. 


Marjoribanks, Sir D. C., i. 175 
Marriage, Totemism and Religion, 

ii. 295 
Mason, Sir J., unveils statue of, 

i. 218 


Maxwell, Sir H. E., letter from, on 

" Nationalities," i. 257 
May, Sir T. E., i. 174 
Metaphysical Society, i. 100-102 
Metternich, Count, letter from, on 

question of armaments, ii. 250- 


Michels, M., letter from, ii. 126 
Miers, Professor H., ii. 237 
Military Education, speech on, 

i. 103-108 

Mill, John Stuart, i. 74 
Miller, Dr., i. 108 
Millerand, M., ii. 128 
Milner, Lord, letters from, on 

London Society for the Exten- 
sion of University Teaching, 

ii. 37-39 
Moral Instruction League, ii. 225- 


Morier, Sir R., i. 208 
Morley, Arnold, i. 183 
Morley, Lord, i. 267, 268 ; ii. 121 ; 

letter from, 122 

Morley, Samuel, i. 129, 194, 195 
Morlot, M., i. 56, 98 
Mountain-building, an experiment 

in, ii. 181-184, 198 
Muhlberg, Dr., ii. 55 
Mulholland, Mrs. (daughter). See 

Van Zandt, Mrs. 

Mundella, Rt. Hon. A. J., i. 129 
Municipal and National Trading, 

ii. 235-236 
Municipal Voting Bill, ii. 259 

Nansen, Dr., i. 273 

Napoleon III., i. 135 

" Nationalities of the British 

Islands," letter to the Times, 

i. 253 et seq. 
National Debt, on reduction of, 

i. 118-119 
News of the World on first Bank 

Holiday, i. 122-124 
Nineteenth Century, articles in, 

ii. 228, 302, 307, 316 
Nobel Prize, ii. 164-166 
Nobunori Honda, i. 247 
Norfolk, Duke of, ii. 44, 45 
Norman, George Warde, i. 66 
Norman Philip, i. 26, 27, 109, 

205 ; ii. 136, 260 
Northbrook, Lord, letters from, on 

Indian currency, ii. 99-100 
Northcliffe, Lord, ii. 190, 283 
Northcote, Sir Stafford. See Id- 

desleigh, Lord 

Northumberland, Duke of, i. 263 ; 

ii. 138 
Nubar Pasha, i. 141 

O'Connor, T. P., ii. 19 

Origin and Metamorphoses of In- 
sects, i. 129 ; Darwin on, 130 

Origin of Civilisation, i. 115, 239 ; 
ii. 281, 295 

Origin of Species, i. 49-50 

Overstone, Lord, letter from, on 
origin of 1 notes, i. 158-159 

Owen, Professor, i. 44 

Pall Mall Gazette, i. 252 
Palmerston, Lord, anecdote of, 

i. 311 
Paris, Declaration of, i. 274 et seq. ; 

article on, ii. 307 
Pasteur, M., i. 232 
Patents Bill, i. 138 
Pater, Walter, i. 248 
Peace and Happiness, ii. 239, 256, 


Pelham, E. H., ii. 212 
Pelham, Mrs. (daughter), i. 226 ; 

ii. 192, 196, 201, 204 ; marriage 

of, 212, 223, 260, 261 
Pelham, Rev. Herbert, ii. 319 
Percy, Dr., i. 96, 99, 100 
Pigorini, Professor, i. 286 
Pitt, Miss Alice Fox (afterwards 

Lady Lubbock, q.v.) 
Playfair, Lord, i. 129 
Pleasures of Life, i. 219, 232, 235 

et seq., 269, 272, 289 ; ii. 102, 

132 ; Indian translations, 193- 

194, 206, 207, 271, 300 
Plumage, importation of, intro- 
duces bill, ii. 259 
Polvclinic, the, ii. 112 
Prehistoric Times, i. 74, 75, 89, 90 ; 

Kingsley on, 91-92, 99, 115, 148, 

239, 322 ; ii. 281, 295, 316 
Prestwich, Sir Joseph, i. 23 ; 

letter from, 38-39, 51, 56 ; ii. 


Price, F. G. Hilton, i. 2 
Proportional Representation, i. 

201, 207, 211 et seq., 217; ii. 

233, 256, 262, 276, 297 
Public Accounts Committee, i. 

250 et seq. 

Public Libraries Bill, i. 250 
Public School Commission, i. 97, 

Punch and Sir John Lubbock, i. 




Ramsauer, M., i. 86 

Rathbone, W., i. 133 ; letter 

from, 134 
Rawlinson, Sir H., letter from, on 

financial arrangements of Baby- 
lonia and Assyria, i. 162-163 
Redistribution Bill, i. 207 
Red Lion Club, i. 88, 89 
Reform Club, i. 312 
Reid, Andrew, i. 294 et seq. 
Religion and Magic, ii. 146-148, 


Renan, M., i. 232 
Rendel, Lord, ii. 197 
Ribblesdale, Lord, ii. 179 
Ridding, Dr., i. 98 
Ripon, Lord, i. 300 
Ritchie, Lady, ii. 121 : letters 

from, 122, 225 
Ritchie, Lord, ii. 151 
Rivers, General Lane Fox Pitt, 

i. 179, 200, 206 

Rivers, Mrs. Pitt, death of, ii. 277 
Roosevelt, Theodore, ii. 278, 279 
Rosebery, Lord, i. 300, 301, 302 ; 

letters from, 321, 324, 326 
Royal Literary Fund, ii. 178 
Rucker, Professor, ii. 53, 54 ; 

letter to on science teaching in 

University of London, 141 et 

Ruskin, John, i. 188 ; letter from, 

on the " Shape of Leaves," 224 ; 

letter from, 260-261, 262 ; ii. 

115, 171 
Russell, Rt. Hon. G. W. E., i. 332 

St. Aldwyn, Lord, ii. 106, 107; 
letter from, on Unionist Free 
Trade Association, 185-186 

St. Andrews University, Chancel- 
lorship of, ii. 129 ; rectorship 
of, 248-249, 253 

St. Hilaire, B., letter from, on 
British rule in India, i. 161-162 

St. Thomas's Hospital, address at, 
i. 335 

Salisbury, Lord, i. 274; letter 
from, 278, 289 ; ii. 27, 28 ; on 
The Use of Life, 34 ; letter offer- 
ing peerage, 118, 128, 133 ; and 
Early Closing Movement, 134, 
135 ; letter to, 149, 150, 151 

Salmon, Sir D., i. 121 

Salvesen, Lord, ii. 261 

Samuelson, Sir B., i. 108 

Say, M. Leon, i. 131 

Scenery of England, The, ii. 103, 

106, 115, 130, 137, 148, 152 

et seq. 
Scenery of Switzerland, The, ii. 58, 

60 et seq., 155 
Schliemann, Dr., letter from, on 

excavations in Greece and Asia 

Minor, i. 142-145 ; on Trojan 

discoveries, 149 

Scientific Instruction, Roval Com- 
mission on, i. 108 
Scott, D. H., letter from, on Dar- 
win-Wallace celebration, ii. 257- 

Sea, private property at, ii. 309- 

Sears, E. J., report on sobriety on 

Bank Holidays, i. 196 
Seats for Shop Assistants Bill, 

ii. 114 

Seedlings, On, i. 215 : ii. 1 
Selby, Lord, letter from, ii. 124 ; 

letter on Scenery of England, 

153, 264 
Sellar, A. Craig, letter to, i. 263- 

Senses of Animals, i. 190, 267, 269, 

288-289, 293 
Sessions, Robert, i. 27 
Sharpey, Dr., i. 108 
Shop Hours' Amendment Bill, i. 

328 et seq. 
Shop Hours' Regulation Bill, i. 

217, 223, 228 
Shopkeepers and Shop Assistants 

Bill, i. 133-134 

Shuttleworth, Sir A. Kay, i. 108 
Simon, M. Jules, letter from, ii. 

Smith, Rev. Alfred Charles, on 

purchase of land at Avebury, 

i. 132-133 ; on Stonehenge, 194 
Smith, Professor H. J., i. 108, 176, 


Smith, Martin Tucker, i. 121 
Smith, Sir Swire, letter from, on 

Free Trade speech, ii. 255-256, 


Smith, Rt. Hon. W. H., i. 129 
South African War, ii. 130, 187 
Spectator, the, article on Sir M. E. 

Grant Duff, ii. 225 
Spencer, Herbert, i. 63, 79 ; letter 

from, ii. 45, 70 ; letter on the 

White Horse, 70; and Nobel 

Prize, 164, 165; letter from, 


Spicer, Sir A., ii. 256 
Spottiswoode, W., i. 57, 63, 64, 197 


Stanhope, Lord, i. 167 

Stanley of Alderley, Lady, i. 209 

Steenstrup, Professor, i. 61 

Stewart, Charles, ii. 276 

Stokes, Sir Gabriel, i. 83 ; letter 
from, on Atlantic cable, 84-85, 
108 ; Proportional Representa- 
tion, 212 ; letter on Beauties 
of Nature, 333-334; letter on 
Scenery of England, ii. 155-156 

Stonehenge, age of, i. 86-87 

Stonehenge, preservation of, ii. 
136, 137 

Sunday Closing movement, ii. 197, 
210, 211-212, 234, 256, 259 

Sunday Trading, ii. 227, 230-231 

Swansea, Lord, i. 99 

Tankerville, Lord, i. 263 

Tariff Reform, ii. 191-192, 193, 

196, 197 
Tauchnitz, Baron, and The Use of 

Life, ii. 34 
Taylor, Isaac, letter from, on 

" Nationalities," i. 259 
Tedder, Henry, on Sir John 

Lubbock's connexion with the 

Athenaeum Club, ii. 166-170 
Telephone Bill, letter to the Times, 

ii. 107-111 

Temple, Archbishop, i. 57, 282 
Temple, W. Cowper, i. 129 
Theatres Bill, i. 310 
Theory of Probabilities, by Sir John 

William Lubbock, i. 3 
Thompson, Professor Silvanus, 

ii. 49, 50, 51 
Times, the, on University of 

London election, i. 173 ; letters 

on Bimetallism, ii. 2-3, 5 
Trevelyan, Sir G. O., letters from, 

on The Pleasures of Life, i. 248, 

249 ; letter on Lord Macaulay, 

ii. 180-181, 211 
Tricoupi, M., ii. 21 
Tupper, Sir Charles, i. 328 
Twain, Mark, ii. 240 
Tyndall, John, i. 23, 55, 56 ; letter 

from, 58, 63, 79, 87, 88; at 

Mount Vesuvius, 97, 148, 331 ; 

death of, ii. 20, 303 

University of London, Sir John 
Lubbock's election for, i. 169 
et seq. ; ii. 125 ; science teach- 
ing in, 141 et seq. 

University Teaching, London So- 
ciety for Extension of, ii. 37-39 

Use of Life, The, ii. 32 et seq., 
68-69, 90, 102, 132, 300, 316 

Van Zandt, Mrs. (daughter), i. 46, 

158, 166, 197, 199, 205, 325, 

326 ; ii. 67 
Vaughan, Cardinal, on The Use of 

Life, ii. 34 

Vesuvius, eruption of, i. 97 
Victoria, Queen, death of, ii. 133 
Vivian, Sir Arthur, letter from, 

on Welsh Coal Trade, ii. 205 

Wallace, A. R., on Prehistoric 

Times, i. 76, 187 ; letter from, 

ii. 258 

Waller, Mrs., ii. 117 
Waring, Mr., i. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 

Wasmann, Professor, on Senses of 

Animals, i. 293-294 
Waterlow, Sir Sydney, i. 150, 168 
Wede, R. B., i. 309 
Welby, Lord, letter from, on 

Free Trade speech, ii. 255 
Welch, Rev. E. J., ii. 319 
Welldon, Bishop, i. 335 
Wells, H. G., i. 27 
Wells, Joseph, i. 27 
West Kent Liberal Association, 

their Home Rule resolution, 

i. 226 

Westminster, Duke of, i. 265 
Westminster Hall, i. 208 
Wheatstone, Sir Charles, i. 33 
Whewell, William, i. 33 
Whitbread, Samuel, i. 216 
Wibel, Professor, i. 99, 100 
Wilberforce, Bishop, i. 50, 57 
Wilks, Sir S., i. 170 
Wood, F. J., i. 170 
Working Men's College, address 

to, ii. 6-15 
World, the, on Sir John Lubbock, 

i. 154-155 
Worms, Dr. Rene, letters from, 

ii. 30, 287-288 
Wright, Mr. Justice, i. 133 
Wright, Thomas, i. 83 

" X Club," i. 63-64, 303 
Zoological Society, ii. 84-86, 98 

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Book 81ip-20m-8,'61(C1623s4)458 


Hutchinson, H.G. 
Life of Sir John 


Call Number: 




14 ft