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life ol ^ai»t SatkV'ttf- 

Agents for the sale of the Early English Text Society's Publications. 

BEELIN : AsHEB & Co., 53, Mohrenstrasse. 

KEW YOEK: C. Sceibner & Co.; Leypoldt & Holt. 

PHILADELPHIA : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 

FROM THE ROYAL MS. 17 A. xxvn., &c., 

^itft Its min msiml 







BY N. TRiiJBNER & CO., 67 aks 69, LUDGATE HILL. 



PSDrrxD BT •TXPHur Avtmsk aks boms, 


If this edition should prove to be useful, it will chiefly be 
[ due to those who, by encouragement or otherwise, have as- 
I siated the editor ia his work. He therefore thinks he cannot 
I make a better use of his preface than in giving the names 
r of, and conveying his thanks to, his helpers. 

The Revd. James Morton and the Eevd. Charles Hardwick, 
and those of their works, of which use has been made, are 
named in the Introduction below. As the former, I am sorry 
to say, is no more amongst the living, I think it proper to 
give a brief account of the life and works of this distin- 
guished scholar. 

The Revd. James Morton, B.D., Vicar of Holbeach, etc., 
was a native of Kelso. He was ordained Deacon in 1811 
and Priest in 1812, by the Bishop of Durham. He was a 
ten-year man, of St. John's College, Cambridge, and took the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity on July 1, 1824. He became 
Vicar of Holheach in 1831, etc.^ He died at the Vicarage 
of Holbeach, Lincolnshire, July 31, 1865, aged 82. As an 
I author or editor, be published the Memoir and Poetical 
I Bemains of Dr. John Leiden, 1812; the Monastic Annals of 

Teviotdale, 1833 ; the Legend of St. Eatherine, 1841, for the 
Abbotaford Club ; and the Ancren Eiwle, 1853, for the Camden 

The Eevd. J. Morton's knowledge of Middle English was 
profound, and almost surprising, if we consider the then state 
of English Philology. As a proof of this may be cited hia 
translations of the Ancren Riwle and St. Katherine, which, 
apart from some slight mistakes, deserve to be called exact, 
and are still useful. 

The Revd. W. W. Skeat's share in this edition is nearly 
as important as those of the two scholars juat mentioned. 
His experienced hand will bo easily discernible in the notes 
on the TV. 387, 538, 1309, 1617, 1690, 1827, and 1940. 

The editor likewise begs to give his thanks to Mr. F. J. 
Fumivall and Mr. Henry Hucks Gihbs, who, by their con- 
scientious revisions, have greatly contributed to the accuracy 
of the texts. 

The editor is well aware of, and does not try to make an 
excuse for, the many imperfections of hia work, which came 
to hia notice too late to be removed. He, however, begs his 
readers to consider that a work but seldom receives the form 
its editor intended to give it in starting. 





Katherine of Alexandria is one of those saints, the originals 
of whom are so much shrouded in mystery, that, but for some 
unmistakeably historical evidence turning up in their behalf, 
it remains at the historian's discretion whether he will accept 
their existence or reject it. 

Though with respect to our St. Katherine, from a com- 
paratively early date till up to the time of the Eeformation, 
doubts have been raised and inquiries made as to the bona 
fidea of her hagiologists, the question of her existence has not 
been settled — so far as with the present material this could 
be done — until very recently, by a little treatise entitled ' An 
Historical Inquiry touching 8t, Catherine of Alexandria, to 
which is added a Semi-Saxon Legend, by Ch. Hardwick, 
Cambridge, 1849,' in which the learned author disposes of his 
subject with such research and impartiality, that in taking from 
him the few particulars wo require regarding the history of 
our saint and her legend, we need not be afraid of being led 

Though, if true, the incidents of the saint's life were so 
full of special interest, that they could not possibly pass or 
remain unnoticed by contemporaneous or later writers, we 
nevertheless look in vain for anything like a proof of her 
existence for many centuries after her supposed death. A 
passage in the Historia Ecclesiastica by Eueebius (who wrote 
shortly after her death), has, from its resemblance to some 
incidents in the legend of our saint, been thought an allusion 
to her. But as by some other strong evidence, Eusebius, who 
adds no name, is almost conclusively proved to allude, in the 
passage rei'erred to, not to St. Katherine, but to St. Dorothea, 
likewise a native of Alexandria, the above assumption can 
safely be dismissed as unfounded. 


The first undoubted allueioa to, and at the same time narra- 
tive of, St. Katherine's life and passion, is contained in the 
BO-called Meoologium Basilianum, a collection of legends com- 
piled for the use of the Emperor Basil the Pirst, who died 
in 886. Aa it is interesting to see how considerably the 
legend has been changed and enlarged in the course of a few 
centuries, I reprint it from the oldest edition existing, pub- 
lished at Urbioo in 1717,' adding a translation below it. 

'H Mop-TV! AixaTtptva ffevero awii 'AXf^apSpciav, Ov^drjjp paat\t'irKOV 
71V01, irXovaiov Koi ivld^ov' eSfiofUpot ^afu. Evipvi/t Se iura/>xoi'<ro, 
tftadev tXXjjuiictt ipdfifima, Kai t^eVern ao(l»'/' Xa^ovaa Kal rfXSsairai 
TTairraiv Twir eOvSiu. 'ETreTEXEiTa ie iopTi/ TaTs eiZiiXoit jrapa twv i.\\ijvaiv' 
xa! Bempooaa ra fuin atfia^oftsva, eKvwTjBij. xal an-^XPet- eii TOf jSamXea 
Ma^i/iivoii, Kal ilpiXovfiKTjaei' avTov, eiVoDo-a, oVi fiia ti EfyeoTeXHras- 
Osoc fiuj/To Kai trpoamivei^ elBiiXoi^ a^jrvJ(pls ; eiceivo^ 8e iicpaniaei' 
airniP, leal in/ioip^aaTo iir\ypSi^. Kai /itra toSto S^epfv o ffaaiXevii 
revTijKOina /i^TOpas, Kai eittei' owtois" oTt iiaXe'x^'jTS wpov t})v 
Alicavepivav, Kai Treiame ainrjv. iav r-jdp /i,^ viK^ai/re ain^v, Travrat iipai 
KaTaxavaui irvpl. 'EkeTcoi he tSovif^, OTl iuiKljBqaav, eftaima&ijaav, 
Kal ovTois inavifaav a'jreKclpaXiaOii £e cat aim]. 

Tbe martyr AikHterina, was tlie daughter of a rich oud noble chieftain of Alemn- 
dris. She whs very beautiful, and being at the same time highly talented, she 
devoted herself to Grecian literature, and to the etodf of the languages of all nations, 
and BO became wiao and learned. And it happened that the Greeks held a festiTal 
in honour of their idols ; and seeing the slaughter of the animals, she was ao greatly 
miived that she went to the King Maidminus and expostulated with him in these 
words: "Why hast thou left the liyins God to worship lifeless idols?" But the 
emueror caused her to be thrown into prison, and to he punished eevereljr. Ho then 
ordered fiftj' orators to be brought, and bade them to reason with Aikateiina, and 
eonfuta her, threatening to bum them all if they should fail to overpower her. The 
(irstors, however, when they saw themselves vaniluished, received baptism, and were 
burnt forthwith. She, on tko contrary, was beh^ed. 

Upon this simple narrative are founded — whether directly or 
not is left open to doubt — the elaboration in Greek by Simeon 
Metaphrastes of about the beginning of the tenth century, and 
another and somewhat later version (likewise in Greek) by one 
Athanasios. The latter story, of which up to the present only 
two copies are known to exist,^ is evidently the prototype of 

I Vol. i. page 213. 

' The first in the library at Vienna, the other in the Bodleian Library at Oiford 
(Earoecian Collection, No. 180), the two, so far as we could ascertain, only differing 
in minor points, as transpositions or insertions of words. 



the Latin legend printed in the present edition, which in ita 
turn again is, as will be seen, the original of our Middle- 
English, or rather Late-Old-Euglish poem. 

There are a great many more Middle- English versions, both 
in the library of the British Museum and elsewhere. Many of 
them have already been edited hy J. O. Halliwell, Horstmana 
the indefatigable publisher of legends, and others. Other 
versions are, I understand, on the point of being published. 
It would lead me too fur to examine them all, even if I were 
to give no more than a short account of their respective dialects, 
ages und forms. Nearly all of them, moreover, do not go 
back upon Athanasioa's version, but upon Simeon's, and so 
claim our interest only in a secondary degree. 

With regard to elaborations of the legend in general, and 
without confining ourselves to English soil, there are several 
which I cannot pass unmentioned. One I name because of 
its author's name, he being no less than the Italian Pietro 
Aretino, the great reviver of antiquity ; ' another, on account 
of the works of art by which its copies are embellished, and 
the interesting circumstances which attended its origination. 
It was composed at the command of Philip the Good of Bur- 
gundy, by his secretarj', Jean Mielot.^ 

In this work is already to be found St, Katherine's genealogy, 
baptism, and marriage with the Divine Saviour, fictions which 
are no doubt derived from an older source, as they are fre- 
quently met with in English legends of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries.^ 

Finally, I mention, as the highest possible development our 
legend could attain to, — a fate which only a very few other 
legends shared with it, — some adaptations for the stage. And, 
indeed, it was not to he expected that the thoroughly dramatic 
character of the plot, which, even in the quickest perusal, 

' There are two old prints ct tlie ' Divine ' Aretino's Vita di Catterina Verrina 
in tlie poaeeBSion of the Br. Mm. Both of ihem are Euppoeed to have been printed in ^ 
Venwe. tUo one probahly in ia40, the other a year later. 

' Copies of this work, which is more nn independent ereation than a Tersion or 
eUboration, are to be found at Paris and BrUEBels. A ronovation of it, together with 
fMnmilea of the most elaborate miniatiirea and numerous modiiru driiwiwES, was 
pabliihed two jenm a^ in Paris. 

> Harl. MS. 2258, Cott. Tit. A. xxti. 



any sensible reader must become aware of, should remain 
unnoticed ' by the stuff-huufrry writers of the great epochs 
of the French and Enghsh Dramas. 

There were two attempts to adapt our legend for the stage, 
and both of them proved failures. It is not for me to inquire 
into the reasons of this fact, but some of them are so obvious 
that a few words will suffice to point them out. 

That Saint Germain's play did not succeed is evidently 
due in the first place to the general conservative tendencies of 
the Prench classic drama, but in particular to the way in which 
the character of the heroine is treated. The spectator or 
reader cannot reasonably he supposed to take interest in the 
doings and sayings of a person whose behaviour is of such 
invariable saintliness, and whose entire individuality is raised 
80 unattainably high above the common standard of men. 

The same drawback is found in Drydeu's tragedy, ' Tyrannick 
Love,' and the absence of tlie other, which we took occasion to 
blame in the French trag^die, is wholly made up for by the 
emptiness of the character of the Emperor, whose rants have 
always been the sport of criticism, and were at length, if we 
may trust his own confession, the shame of the poet. 

I cannot conclude this chapter without some further re- 
marks concerning the history of our saint, though these 
remarks may take us back to the point from where we started, 

As I said above, it has not been, possible to establish the 
existence of a person whose life can resemble in the slightest 
the particulars given by the imperial hagiologist, in whose 
legendary, St. Catherine is, for the £rst time, undoubtedly 

Now in the history of Christianity, we meet with very many 
oases where features and attributes of pagan gods or heroes have 
been transmuted into those of the persons of the Trinity, the 
holy mother, or the saints, or where traits of the evil spirit and 
his followers have been imparted to pagan gods. This occurred 

' We hear from Matthew Paris of n miracle play of St. Ciitlierine, whieli Geoffrey, 
a lenmed Norman, ami future abbot of St. Albans, wrot« and intended to bare acted 
by his scholars. See Matt. I'aria. Vita. Abb, S. Alb. p, 56. And by a strange 
coincidence, this note of Matthew's — for nothing bnt this ia Ipft us — * ' " 
time, the first trace of theiLtrical representation in Eoglaad altogeihor. 



sometimea to such an extent, that in certain times, and certain 
countries hordering on those which were already Christianized, 
it must have heen difficult for people to keep these two sets 
of divinities asunder. These were the countries where the 
most capricious changes and transmutations of this kind were 
likely to occur, where goda and heroes worshipped of yore, 
might continue to be so in a new guise after Christianity 
had taken firm hold of the country. And in a country like 
Egypt, where between the second and fourth centuries the 
struggle of pagan worship was fiercest and moat tenacious, 
the heated imagination of the people must have heen par- 
ticularly apt for transmutations of this kind. Now it so 
happens by a strange coincidence, that the figure which, in 
this time and in this struggle of worship against worship, 
plays the most important part, is that of a woman — of a 
woman whose character and intentions were as pure, her 
abilities as high, as her fate was tragic and melancholy. 
What, then, is more natural than that a person whose 
talents were so extensive, the particulars of whose life were 
BO full of thrilling interest that they must Lave made an in- 
deKble impression upon the popular mind, — that such a person, 
I say, should continue to be regretted and revered when the 
sanguinary struggle was settled, and when the worship for 
the cause of which she had waged war, and finally suffered 
death, was in the end overpowered and destroyed ? 

I scarcely need say that I mean the pagan philosopher 
Sypatia; and I cannot hut express my astonishment that no 
one before me thought of untwining the knot in such a simple 
and natural way ; so striking are the similarities of the life of 
our saint with that of her pagan paragon.^ Time, place, and 
background exactly agree. Both ladies are of high and noble 
origin; both deeply, and from their childhood, imbued in the 
Bciences of paganism ; both reasoning with philosophers, and, 

I indeed, philosophers themselves; both suffering and dying for 


s^idfiutaUj' came across an intereBtiiig article in the Fortniclitly Reriew, 
dh a subject similar to ours, discussing the tranafonnation, Dj the Middle 
p Jkges, o£ VirgiliuB the I'oet into Virgilius the inohautec. The learned writer cliises 
*■"! diMusaion with tha j uditious remarlt that, if Virgil had lived after the Christian 
1, the popular belief would no doubt havo miide him a saint. 


their belief. Here, too, in the religious story as in Egyptian 
history, we have a repreBentative of the worldly power play- 
ing an ominous part in the tragedy, he being in reality 
the only slayer of the virgin. If we come to speak of the 
alterations which the plain historical facts have undergone, 
there is indeed not one of them which might not easily be 
accounted for, either by the change of religion or by the 
s of times.' 




The Latin legend does not appear here in print for the first 
time. Besides the copy of an old print which Mr. Hardwick 
mentions in his Inquiry, and which, on the ground of some MS. 
notes found in it, is supposed to have been made by Kolhof 
of Cologne, there are two more copies of a different edition of 
it in the possession of the British Museum, which is believed 
to have been printed at Bale about the end of the fifteenth 
century, though neither place nor date is mentioned.' 

The text I give is that of MS. Cotton, Caligula A. viii., 
written in Roman characters, and by a rather careless hand, 
of about the middle of the eleventh century. The writer 
was indeed ao careless in hia transcription as to make a revision 
of it necessary. There are three or four hands discernihle 
in the corrections : some of them date from a comparatively late 
period, though none of them seems to he later than the end 
of the thirteenth century. But even the revisers left many 
blunders uncorrected, which will easily be detected by con- 
sulting my footnotes. 

' It ia printed and Tionnd with a tract on Chriat'a passion, the whole bein^ 
entitled ; Vasaio Johannia Kannemann Sacre Theologic Professor Ordinis minonim. 
KerDOQ alins tractatua de Chriati patsione. Una cum legeuda beate Eatheiine 



These notes represent the Tarious readings of a Leipzig MS., 
a town once famoua for its culture of the saint.' This MS, is 
in Gothic characters, and carefully written, and secma to be 
about as old as the Cotton MS. The reason why I did not put 
the Leipzig MS. into my text is simply because it necessarily 
cannot be so closely related to tho Middle-English elaboration 

• as the English MS., the peculiarities of which account for 
certain omissiona or miHtranalationa in the English text. The 
same reason caused me to retain the old punctuation and the 
old spelling, quaint as they are. The only change I made, be- 
sides extending the abbreviations, was to put v, U" and j, instead 
of u, V, and i, wherever in modern times it is usual to do so. 

■ And this course was taken to facilitate the readiug. I should 
have liked to render e by ae, which in certain cases it is in- 
tended to represent. But as in my MS. the use of this e is 
anything but regular, — not to mention those abbreviations in 
which it was impossible to use it at all, — I had to abstain from 
putting ae. A few accents occur on the last leaves. I have 
given them as a kind of curiosity, rather than with the view of 
being accurate. In regard to part of the revision mentioned 
above being posterior to the elaboration, I took care to note 
every correction, and give the original reading whenever it could 
be found out with any certainty. The various readings of the 
Leipzig MS. are restricted to those conveying a diiferent idea or 

■ relativity. Orthographical differences have not been registered. 
I abstained from giving tho various readings of the prints. 
As they are almost as carelessly printed as the Cott. MS. Is 
written, the readings would only have swelled the notes 
without affording great benefit. I make sure that the two 
MS8. are fully sufficient, not only for my special purpose, 

tbut for giving a clear idea of the original text, and of its 
literary merits. 
As I have elsewhere' closely collated the Latin test with its 
M.E. elaboration, one might think I could have done without 

The large palntiDgs coTering the walls of one of the arcades of vhat is son the 
[JiiiTersity, lepTceonting acenta from the saint's pnseioQ, will be known pechupa tu 

of my reHders. Ibene pnintiuea are not without some artistie merit. 

In a disquisitiuu entitled : Ueber den Vttl'usaei der Neuant^Lsaicluisvhcn 
mde Ton Eatharina, An^lia, vol. T. pp. 110-122. 




the Tjatin altogether, especially if I commented on all the 
passages requiring a atill closer collation. But apart froia 
the advantage of always having the chance of consulting the 
original in case of the many puzzles offered hy the M.E. text, 
I hope to receive the thanks of many a scholar for printing the 
whole, as I have every reason to believe that MSS. as well 
aa prints of this Latin text, are exceedingly scarce, a fact winch, 
considering the numerous French and German elaborations 
based upon it, ia certainly to be regretted, and could not but 
seriously tell upon the various inquiries written about them. 


This Middle English version has been edited twice already. 
First, by the Eev. James Morton for the Abbotaford Club, then 
by the Eev. Mr. Hardwick for the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, as an appendix to hia above-mentioned Inquiry (p. vii), 
But as, not to mention other shortcomings, neither of these 
editions makes use of more than two of our MSS. (Cott. and 
Reg.), and as the number of the copies printed was in both 
cases ridiculously small, the work had to be redone, and an 
edition to be published large enough to render the interesting 
document accessible to a wider circle of philologists. 

In the ninth annual report of the Early English Text 
Society,' the Committee announced that Dr. Morris intended 
to do the edition. But when, about the beginning of 1883, 
I applied to him for further information, I waa told that it 
had been given up long ago. 

So I came to undertake it. When it was all but finished, T 
was invited to do it for the Society. I heard at the same time 
that the Rev. Prof. Skeat had taken the work in band, and 
carried it on considerably far, but that he would kindly resign 
in my favour, seeing that I had nearly finished mine. 

The MSS. are amall quartos of about six incbea in height and 
five in breadth, all three written in the former half of the 
thirteenth century,^ the oldest of them being no doubt MS. 








Heg, 17 A, xxvri. ; the youngest, MS. Cotton Titus D. xviii. 
With, regard to the relation of the MSS. to each other, I 

i refrain from proving at great length what almost every line of 
the poem teaches us, namely, that the Bodleian MS. NE. A, 
3, 11, and the Royal MS., are tranacriptiona from one and 
the same copy Z, which, with the Cotton MS. — whether directly 
or no ifi doubtful — ia again transcribed from another lost copy, 
which I shall call X. 

Numerous agreements in details of spelling point to the fact 

that there cannot be many copies intervening between Z and X 

on the one hand, and C(otton MS.) and X on the other hand, 

and we could be certain that X is the first, i.e. the elaborator's 

I own copy, but for some awkward blunders which betray the 

I writer of X as not knowing the sense of the word or passage 

f he was about to write, a want of judgment which surely the 

I author cannot be thought capable of. 

We now come to a point which, I am afraid, it will be rather 
r difficult for me to make plausible to the reader, I mean the 
arrangement of the M.E. text, 

I am perfectly aware of the objections so often made to so- 
called critical editions, and am myself convinced of their sound- 
■ ness. Like many others I am of opinion — an opinion which 
here as in my own country is rapidly gaining ground — that 
dialects as we find them in the purified editions of the Lach- 
mann-School are practically impossible. The really spoken 
dialects, — even if we take the word in its narrowest sense, — 
must have allowed tbo changing of sounds and forms, just 

■ as their modern descendants do, in which, apart from certain 
peculiarities constituting their essence, we find nothing but 
fluctuation and gradation ; and this, not only in districts of the 
narrowest possible limits, but in individuals. A critical edition 
of the Lachmann kind, produced by eliciting normal sounds, 
and substituting them for every variation occurring in the 

IM8S., such an edition was from the beginning out of question. 
Nevertheless, in my case matters lay so as to make a 
diplomatic edition as unadvisable as its reverse. Here were 
three MSS., two of them undoubtedly old, the third rich in 
later forms, each of them frequently dropping words, omit- 



ting sentences which would have rendered a fluent reading, 
and still more the appreciation of a metre, all but impoBaible. 
At the same time the MSS. supplied each other so easily and 
fully, and the variations were often so insignificant (in many 
verses none at all), that in at least half of the lines the original 
reading was morally certain. 

Under these circumstances the only course advisable was to 
make one MS. the base of the text, correcting and altering it 
whenever the concurrence of the two others proved it to be 
wrong. That such a course is impossible with C(otton MS.) 
will be evident from what I have said about its relation to the 
other MSS. B(odleian MS.}, on the other hand, is defective, 
wanting three leaves in the middle of the poem. There re- 
mains only R{oyal MS.), which though somewhat carelessly 
written, deserves our confidence on account of the many 
archaic forms it has preserved. 

In this way, of course, we upon the whole only reach the 
reading of Z. But I think it better to be contented with 
a safe reading of Z, than to try for X, whose reading in many 
cases could not he found but by guesses. My partiality for Z 
does not of course go the length of accepting simple and ofevioug 
mistranscriptions ; hut, on the other hand, it will be good to stick 
to the reading of R whenever the congruence of B with C can 
be accounted for by a mutual though independent alteration 
on their part. This latter course will be taken in the case of 
archaic words and forms such as 'mid(t),' which B and C often, 
though not always mutually, change for ' wiS ;' and in the 
case of the few dual forms and the fuller terminations of verbs 
and adverbs, which are pretty faithfully preserved by R, but 
frequently mutilated by B, and still oftener by C. In the 
terminations of adjectives and substantives the confusion is 
greatest, and nearly the same in all our MSS. Here the 
greatest reserve was necessary, and I have, in accordance with 
my principal rule, deviated from R only when B and C agree 
with each other. 

There are a few instances where, either by internal evidence 
or by the wording of the Latin original, C is shown to be right, 
In such cases as these, I thought it right to go with C, pre- 


serving, however, as far as possible the spelling of Z. Still less 
in numher are those cases where X must have been corrupt, 
and where each copyist tried to get some sense into his 
copy. Here no other course was left me than to take as a 
guide the faint resemblances of the MS8., and the reading of 
the Latin original, and ho to restore what had in all probability 
been the reading intended by the author. Where, however, 
in such a case the MSS. agreed with each other, I unhesita- 
tingly accepted the reading, however corrupt it seemed, and 
I however easy and plausible ita emendation. The Notes will 
Jflhow several new words, and many old ones employed in a 
Itense which they were hitherto unknown to imply. It would 
mhe rash, therefore, and certainly anything but critical, to Ten- 
l.ture on the emendation of readings so well supported. 

frequently softena the anlauting / to w, that is, v. 

■"Whenever this m is no more than a peculiarity of Z's, and not 

3 hack to X {as it ia but in two cases), I gave it up 

MfoT the Xj which C always has as ' anlaut.' I admit that I 

Jought not to have done so, as it is highly probable that this u 

■ Was something more than an orthographic whim, and that it 

Findicates the same change of sound which has but recently been 

advocated for the O. and M.H.G. anlauting u-v from /. Still, 

this cannot be altered now. 

With respect to abbreviations, the characters f and T: have 
been put in the text, aa it seemed doubtful whether the original 
had jiei ant or j>ni and. Their expansions, whenever they 
occur, are noted in the various readings, 'q^ €l' and 'ib'u' 
Lave been expanded to /otto's and lesti, as they are mostly 
feund when written in full. Still, I have thought fit to note 
i abbreviations whenever they occur. Other abbreviations 
liave been expanded without notice being given, as their 
J is beyond all doubt. 
The use of the initials is that of modern times. The pre- 

IBervation of tho ancient custom would in the present case have 
been preposterous, and a great hindrance to cursory reading. 
^t is known that as a rule the copyists of the time only put 
fen initial when they began a new break. 
I I highly regret having been obliged to leave the old 
L • - 

. ^ occu 





interpunctuation, a matter so important and eveii essential in 
the caae of a poem ; but since the coincidence of the three MSS. 
would alone have been conclusive as to the division of the lines, 
and as I could not possibly have given more than the punc- 
tuation of one, no other course was left me. Suffice it to say 
that the punctuation found in the three MSS. agrees better by 
far with my division than with that of Morton. The Latin 
quotations had to be left out of the English text. This was 
a necessary consequence of my printing the Latin original from 
which these quotations are taken unaltered. Still, the passages 
where they occur are pointed out in the various readings. 


Unlike Lajamon's Brut, — that interesting work towering in 
lonely height, and in point of language as well as subject 
pointing back to times of long ago, — our Katheime stands m 
tlie midst of, and in the closest relation to, a aeries of documents 
of nearly the same date, all pursuing the same object, all 
written in the same dialect. 

The creation of the writings I shall have to mention m the 
course of this chapter, extends over a penod of about forty 
years, beginning with the Ancren Riwle, written about 1200, 
and ending with the so-called Wohunge of ure Louerd, the 
Ureisun of God Almihti, the Lofaong of ure Louerde, and 
some smaller pieces, all contained in Dr. Morris's collection of 
Old English Homilies. 

The dialect is that of the middle portion of Southern 
England, the Ancren Eiwlo pointing furthest to the south, 
Hali Meidenhad along with Sawle Warde farthest to the north, 
the rest occupying the intermediate districts. The object of 
all these tracts is obviously enough the love between the 
Son of God and the pious nun or (more generally) maiden. 
The form is partly pvose, partly poetry. From the didactical 
prose of the Ancren Riwle we pass over to the didactical 
poetry of Hali Meidenhad and Sawle Warde, and from these to 
the narrative poetiy of the three sister- legends. The poetry 



of the pieces mentioned is all of the same kind. It is, ia 
my opinion, the four-accent metre which ia such a favourite 
with the Old-German poets. And this metre forms the only 
point that our poems have in common with Lajamon'a 
.Brut, But even in this respect they differ from it ia not 
attempting the end rhyme. 

The form of the minor pieces is undoubtedly prose, but prose 
of such poetic strain, such lyrical colour, as to fulfil the higher 
demands of poetry infinitely better than is done by any of the 
professed poems of the time. 

The simplicity and sincerity exhibited in these prayers, 
with the extensive and at the same time exclusive use 
phrases and ideas taken in more or less modified form from 

ill works as the Ancren Hiwle, Hali Meidenhad, and Sawle 
works which areprofeasedlyaddressed tonuns — induced 
me to consider the prayers as being the immediate and practical 
result of the fanatic and ascetic spirit pervading those didactic 
tracts. To this suggestion of mine I gave vent in a short 
disquisition printed in the Anglia, vol. v., and entitled : ' Eine 
englische Schriftatellerin aus dem Anfange des 13. Jahrhun- 
derts,' in which such interesting matters came to light that I 
should really wish the inquiry to be taken up and completed 
by a historical student. 

Mr. Morton's and Mr, Cockayne's opinion that the Ancren 
Eiwle, Hali M,, Sawle W., the three legends, the Oreisun of 
St, Mary, ' and other tracts now lost,' were written by one and 
the same person, is not only a priori quite improbable, but has 
been finally disproved by my inquiry entitled : ' Ueber die 
Terfasser einiger Neuags, Schriften,' the contiouation of which 
will be found in Anglia, vol, v. 

The results of this inquiry are, in short, that the three 
legends and Hali Meidenhad were written by three different 
authoi-s. The legend of St, Katherine by one, those of St. 
■Margaret and Juliana by another, and the Homily by a tbii-d. 
order in which they are just given represents their actual 

iccession, which forms another subject of my inquiry. That 

ili M. was the last written, is evident from the fact that, in 
all the rest are distinctly referred to. 


The style in which St. Katherine is written is in truth quite 
different from that of the rest. The style of the two other 
legends with which it oflers most points of comparison, is ex- 
ceedingly dry, and — owing to the elahorator'a predilection of 
strong passages, high-sounding words, and passionate scenes, — 
fluctuates abruptly between the two extremes of Bweetishnesa 
and coarBeness. Like the writer of the other two legends, 
the author of 8t. Kath. abridged and elaborated the narrative 
of his original, but he so arranged his alterations that the 
result was quite the reverse of their treatment. 

Much more than is the case with St. Juliana and St. Margaret 
the character of Saint Katherine is depicted in the original as 
impetuous and vindictive ; in one word, anything but saintly, 
if we take this expression in its current meaning ; but instead. 
of elaborating and finishing up these traits as is done by the 
author of the two other legends, our writer abolishes them, and 
curtails them wherever he can. The character of the maiden's 
adversary shares this mitigating treatment. The Latin test 
shows him as one of those artful and bloodthirsty tyrants, who 
may well have existed in those barbarous times, whose cha- 
racters however are entirely unfit for poetic purposes. The 
poet puts in the fore-ground his fatal and impotent grappling 
with an opponent weak in appearance, but in reality too strong 
for him and all his power, and thus makes him, no doubt un- 
intentionally, the worthy object of the reader's compassion. 
"We likewise approve of the elaborator's consistently curtailing 
the reflective element so exuberant in the original. He omits 
learned quotations, superfluous and tedious conversations, his- 
torical allusions, and so forth. By such alterations as these, 
the narrative becomes terse and dramatic. 

The author was less fortunate in endeavouring to follow 
closely the learned and long-winded breaks of his original. 
Every such attempt — as nobody acquainted with the shattered 
state of the M.E, grammar will find surprising — must of necessity 
end with a general break-down, and for this reason we should 
have liked him to strike ofl' still more of the controversy, espe- 
cially as this does not seem to be the strongest part of the 




Ab to interpolations, tbey are small and scarce compared 
with those in St. Margaret, Moreover, tlie longest of them, ex- 
tending to no lesa than sixty lines, is in all probability not of 
our author's own make. A passage in form and succession of 
images and ideas perfectly coinciding with this passage, is 
found in the first part of the O.H.G. poem 'Himmel und 
Helle,' a poem which, curiously enough, is in its unrhymed 
form unique in O.H.G-., and forms the only perfect analogy 
to our three legends, and to numerous other Old and Middle 
English poems of the same class. The common original is, I 
suppose, a Latin tract on the beauties of heaven, which is 
either lost or has not yet turned up. 


In a previous treatise' I have proved that the legend of 

atherine, as well as those of St. Margaret and St, Juliana, 

I and the homily Hali Meidenhad, are written in the same form 

■ with Otfrid the monk of Weissenburg's great poem, coaimouly 

called ' Krist,' of the ninth century. 

This metre is commonly referred to as the ' Tierheber,' that 
' four-accent metre,' and its principal characteristics are the 
I following : 

1. The verse is essentially based upon the logical or word- 

. Every verse must have at least four syllables capable of 
p tearing this tone. 

~ . The number of syllables not capable of bearing this tone 
I may rise to three, or may be wanting entirely. 

4. Syllables of the kind mentioned under 3 can bear an arti- 
ficial or, as we might style it as well, verse-accent, but this 
they cannot do except when followed by at least one syllable 
of the same class, and preceded at the same time by a syllable 

I raised by the logical or woi'd-tone, 

5. The syllable concluding the verse, whether short or long, 
( whether capable or incapable of bearing the tone, is always 

The same Inqvilrj [Anglia, vol. t.) as is mentioned aboTe, on page lis. 


accented, so that a, wben tlie verse ends with a dissyllable,' the 
first syllable of which bears the tone, both syllables receive 
the tone reap, accent ; ^. when the verse ends with a trisyllable, 
the first syllable of which bears the tone, and the second 
is short, the first and the last syllables are accented ; and 
that when 7. the verse is concluded by a trisyllable, the first 
syllable of which, as in the former case, bears the tone, 
but the second is long;, all the three syllables receive the 
tone resp. accents. — Words of more than three syllables are 
compounds, which are treated as if they were single words. 

6. The law given under 5 sufiers but one exception : when- 
ever the verse concludes with a dissyllable, the first syllable of 
which, though bearing the tone, ia short, the last syllable re- 
mains unaccented. 

In iUuatration of the foregoing laws, I give a few examples 
from my text. 

First thesis * or ' auftact' wanting : 

dni Maxince iUoredi 10. Weox umhe hwiU \ w/'e^^e ham hUweonin 

Second thesis wanting : 

f tear he atdidtk 23. f Ui into R6me 28. [ dllc to hia^enddm 35. 

Third thesis wanting : 

wdr^ king 6f ^ iond 27. iuehdn wi^ his Ide ] f6r to wkr^gin ham 
iBilS 54-5. 

Fourth thesis wanting : 

f fioU Ulle^ toil t6 89. ah se s6m ha )cald ham 127. 0/ hire 
hirdebdldii 139. M iMrde a gwiich nkr% 140. 

Second and fourth theses wanting (very often) : 

meidht t mii^hAd 137. tnawmUet tetnpU H2. hwei tcitrider hit 
wiri 151. a^iin gdde» wilU 172. 

Second and third theses wanting Cseldom) : 

of trio 6^er of dan 266. 

Third and fourth theses wanting : 

6f^en hdl'i gad \ as te Miser stdd \ himdng f s&nf&l sldht \ offisUin 
dhti 196-9. ne ne mei nd J>% 225. f hit nd wis mdn 323. 

• I need scarcely tell mj- readers that I Dnly count the syllables following lie 
one bearing the tone, tbia latter one of course incmdcd. 

= In using tenns such as these I ask for the reader's indulgence. Taken strittly, 
tbey are ceiiaiul)' out of place in Gemmnio prosody ; but in BicliaiigB for that, they 
are widely knowu and— short. 




omiif^Kerift 8H. 

laHe hi n 


First, second and third theses wanting : 

diamlicke to h'm 406. C6d heUi mi fider 463, 

First, second and fourth theses wanting : 

mmh-et m6th 850. Urhmin 1 i^re 1475. 

Verses without any thesis : 

ma hwlieh jcis riad 580. *rf« g6dil wire 1200. 

Verses with no thesis wanting : 

wrS mauer an ne keeche'6 ki 257, JVe nAiie^ ke ^urh S^er ying 274. 
for yi. f je MB iehea ham 278, \feng m \ka to ipeokeni 312. f euch 
mon dh to Mrsumin 352. 

Verses with theses consisting of two syllables are very 

First thesis consisting of three syllables : 

t wiVi hia ones wit aiedrpen 691. 

Second thesis consisting of three syllables : 

»'» dllt mine diarm r/inis 575. t khuat of oi 
/<»■ a6m ae ha CrUt cleopede 1328. 

Third thesis consisting of three syllables : 

•f n6ip'Ser siurien nemdhin 361. pa, }et, r 

Cases of the fourth thesis consisting of three s 
seem to occur in our legend. 

Dissyllabic words concluding the verse ; the first syllable is 

for yi Uofmon dnt )i Iducrd 679. ai ^dh ha g6des tcirht 273. 
^ hiore iche heaU 872. 

The first syllable is short : 

hare Ma^em g6des 147. a]einh \i Mare nome 651. 6ti!er wrSer- 
wlnea wUm 642. 

The concluding word consists of three syllables, the second of 
which is short ; 

6fteat bd togederh 113. ^ nan nea hire iit»n\ng 118. 1 wende hare 
teiheUs 129. }e iheret ia in hioueni 183. U6d dl UhUdegH 204. 

The case of verses concluding with words of three syllables, 
the second of which is long, is of some importance, as here the 
only difference between the English and German way of treat- 
ing the metre comes in. 

Prof. Trautmann, who first proved the existence of the 
Otfridic verse in England, in his inquiry into the metre of 

e 2027. 
do not 


Lajamon'a Brut, found that these triayllablea, when concluding' 
the verae, can be treated in two different waya, namely, they 
can be accented either on each syllable, {as is done by Otfrid,) 
or only on the iirst and the last, and I believe I have observed 
that the former, and no doubt original accentuation must be 
used wherever it can be with convenience, that is, without over- 
burdening the preceding thesea, while the latter, peculiar to 
the English four-accent metre, is to be considered as a kind 
of expedient. 

I subjoin a selection of verses illuatrating this twofold way 
of accentuation: 

d/hiirlxllnge ii. of hire childhddi 79. sw&ceke jeineUppit 128. 
/6r}mMhnis»i 209. jriirA hia wiis&ngi 187. bh^S mleflichi 345. 
}{ne Uoiitngks 788. wisVwhe % wdrlichi 82. 1 ewi^itt hire \e miutrii 
133. t wksd6m tu uiUliehi 165. f dlh dwer Uasungk 344. for lifel 
is % i^ami 381. ^aren biiUn Mrungk 497. C6men dlle slrilindi 732. 

Je hwih in ewdrterne 601 or \e hwili in ewdrterni. 

of wdrldliche ivUddmh 525 or of wMdliohe teisdomei. 

f werm in ealUnde 535 or ^ v?irin in estlondL 

felden ow Uhliehk 569 or ^elden ow hHiUeU? 

It will be observed that there is very seldom a doubt as to 
the choice between the two kinds of accentuation, and I 
believe that upon the whole, wherever such a doubt is 
possible, the threefold accentuation ought to be chosen, espe- 
cially in verses, the concluding words of which are plainly 
discernible compounds, which, aa stated above, are to be treated 
like single and separate words. 

This observation leads us back to the great influence which 
the logical or word-tone still has upon our metre. This word- 
tone may, under ordinary conditions, enable a monoayllable, no 
matter whether short or long — provided it conveys an intolli- 
gible and distinct conception (as substantives, verbs, adjectives, 
adverbs, and certain clasaea of pronouns ^)— to bear the stress 
both of arsis and thesia, or, as we may say, to bear the arsia 
unsupported by a following thesis (law 1). 

' The greater part (thoee concludiDg with a compound) of the aboTa apBCimena . _ 
serve to eiemplifj the atru^le between (word-) tone and. (versB-) accent. This 
Btruggle oannot be much yauoger than the metre itself, though in German; it began 
much Inter. We all know how it ended. 

' BemouBtcallve, intenogative, and indefinite prononos, and nomerals. 



This licence, if it deserves this name, goes farther still. Any 
monosyllable, even the most insignificant and the most used 
for filling up the thesis, may bear both arsis and thesis at the 
Bame time, if it is heightened by the rhetorical tone (which, in 
fact is no more than a higher power of the logical one), thftt 
is, when in sensible recitation it would receive a high accent 
or stop. 

It is this very liberty which qualifies our metre, like it did the 
old alliteration, for distinctly rendering the nicest shades and 
lights of rhetoric ; and this is what accounts for the favour 
that our metre used to find with the poets, and, still more, the 
preachers of the time. 

"What I mean by 'rhetorical tone' is plain. However, I 
add a few examples out of many, just to show how delicately 
our poet felt in this respect. 

CUopeH }eo Ymges gAfki 360. }if\n wiitt fi io» 399. \eo f ham 

' mdkie^ 500. fi qui'S ha keiter 750. Fek yudB J># meiden 828. 

. y-krh him 1 6n his 1075, f U hic6m m6n 1209. &nt tak ice cu^in 

dttt for to fiUnin ham 1985. him jiei ha iweo^s^ 6h 1327. 

I Ae M $ glid^ mi 1521. )^ ant ti pduiim 2433. J)^/- M6yses fdtti 


Judged according to the strictness of the above rules, these 
Tersea are one arsis short, some of them even two ; but if we read 
them as an intelligent understanding will or should direct na, 
\ all of them are as complete as can be. 

Another bind of rhetorical tone seems to exist, when, by its 

[ Btreas, not merely a syllable is singled out, but when the tone ia 

f more or less equally divided all over the line, as in uncommonly 

fervent passages of prayers, or, where we may frequently hear 

it still, in important and strongly urged sentences of sermons 

and controversies. 

This kind of rhetorical tone appears to be applied in the 
following verses : 

ant mm hl6d ant Idn 908. >e( U is sd^ goild 924. da didlich mon 
I 927. )8( tii of \it yiag 980 (both kinds of tone are here combined). 
\yit i» i id's g6dd IQ-n. for \iyH he we% WOi. fdr hk triowe l&ue 
1 1377. \>ir hd hiuen iip 1407. swd ^et nan tie met 1775. as an 
I ^nres diiue 1998. fei beo Jleschlich 2H0. i» dire w6rlde w6rld 
1 2504. 



It seems highly probable, especially if we think of our 
modern analogies, that in exceptional cases like the above- 
mentioned, even casual and verbal inflections, etc., were able 
to bear both arsis and thesis, as in bitiSn 6/ an 870,' f^len 
noicS^r sdr 1164, 6nswir4de pa 1296, pi* tee echdwi'S pi 
1349, 0' Mni king 1909, wit /e hicMk ma 1941, and 
Almihii gbdd 1981, a verse which, taken strictly, docs not be- 
long to this class, but which could not conveniently be put 
elsewhere. The concluding syllable of Almihti is certainly no 
inflection, but mihti is no compound either ; at least it could 
hardly have been felt as such at the time our legend was written. 
The case is the same with hnli when used in connection with gast. 
In this formula, as is natural, it occurs very often, and always 
bears two tones or accents, not only in our legend (1. 1402), but 
in St. Margaret, St. Juliana, etc., etc. 

The number of the verses, especially of the last two cate- 
gories, I have tried to make complete. And their scarcity 
might be a proof of the versifier's skill, even if there wa« no 
other reason to account for them. 

Formerly I used to explain verses such as these as defective 
or corrupt. But when I observed that all or nearly all the 
verses of this kind occurred in passages of the greatest rhetorical 
or poetic vivacity and force, I gradually came to the conclusion 
that the one might account for the other. 

That there do occur defective verses in our legend is a fact 
as undoubted as it is natural, if we take into consideration the 
way in which these old compositions were preserved and handed 
down to us. The number of defective verses is however exceed- 
ingly small. As in the above I have given the pseudo-corrupt 
verses, the few really corrupt ones will be easily detected and, 
the greater part of them, as easily corrected. 

It may be useful to show my metrical rules, with all their 
limitations and restrictions, applied to a longer piece of the 
poem. For this purpose I choose the description of Paradise, 
not only because in it the accentuatiou is perhaps the most 
intricate and difficult in the whole poem, but because this 

' Still an is more liktlj to be a corruption frnm u'h^, which would moke the verse 


same piece best shows vliat degree of musical beauty aod re- ^| 

dundance our metre was capable of. 


As a matter of course, some 

verses will allow of a different ■ 

accentuation ; but I can only 

accent these according to my ^| 

understanding and reading of them. 


1640 Btio nu >enne, Porphire, 


£lle pleiende s^met, ■ 

stole 1 understont me : 

alle lahinde somet, ^M 

Constu biiJden a lurh, 

^ner iliche lustl, ^H 

(nwi« f Jjin heort^, 

bvite liunuDgt^ ; ^M 

1614 al abiit^n bitnimet 

1660 for }ir is & Ifht, ^H 

viX a d^orewiirSe wal, 

1 latinde leom^. 

sclim'nde, ^ schenr^, 

H"e niht His ter neau^r 

of ffmstanes steapra 

ne neauer na nowcfn ; 

1648 >en is eni st«orr^ ; 


ne eileS ).er na mun 

% euch bold >rinwi« 

now^er sorh^ no sar, 

brat is hit bearndi. 

nowSer heate ne oheU, 

\ leitinde al ou leie ; 

nowlSer hunger ne ^lirst, 

16S2 ^af terints 


ne nan offrunchung^ : 

glisttnde 1 gleamind^, 

for nis ter nawt h(ttr6s, 

ds hit were aeoluir 

dh is al batewd, 

o«er gold snieat^ ; 

swottr^ 1 swettr^ 

1656 istenet euch struts 


Jen eauer eni halewf. 

mid deorew(ir%e stands, 

i f heouenliche load, 

of mfah'che heowes, 

i f endelese l(f, 

imgngH tog^deres, 

i jie wunnen V te w6ol4n 

1660 iallket \' ismak^t 


>driiwuniendi : 

BB eni gles smdB^at ; 

1 monie ma murh«6n 

bute aloh T slec, 

Jen alio mSn rafthten 

6auer illehe sumerlieh ; 

wis hare mu'S miinn^n, 

1664 % am >e biirbmdn 

1700 -i tell^u wi'S tungSn, ^| 

sfeouea s^es brfhtr^ 

>ah ha aa tald^n ; H 

>6ii beo >o sunn^, 

>e neauer ne Linux's ^M 

gleowiade of euch gleo. 

now^er ne leased, ^1 

1668 ^amareilichesluad? 

1704 ah leaste% aa mdrS, ^| 

for nawfht ne derue? liam ; 

se tongr^ bo mard. ^^M 

ne nawlht ne wonted ham 

Jof >u jet witen wiUt '^1 

of dl f ha wtlne^ 

hwilcche wihtes fer heon, ^H 

1672 oSer mahen wila'm ; 


>eT as al Jis bllsae ib, ■ 

alio slngi'nde so met, 

jtif J-BT is orcost ^H 

Sbs lifleouitS 

6%oreniahtd, ^M 

6uoh an mid o^ere ; 

(eh >e onsweri.^ : ^M 


1712 A'L $ eauer oht [s, 

a i8>£rfhw6r; 

1 hw4t Be noht wiir* nla, 

f nta ter nohwer. 
1716 jef (.ueekeat: Hw^t6ht? 

Bdn cor^lich elia 

no m^i hit aeon, ich seggB, 

ne nan 6or?]ich e 
1730 hercnln ne liBren, 

ne heorte J>eneh^n of 
t, hure, meal^ wi¥ n 
hwet te worldui 
1724 haue« ijarket (ills >t 
lie him ariht luuiiB. 

The opinion contended for in this chapter, that the legend is 
written in the so-called Otfridic metre, has for the first time 
been disputed by Dr. Schipper in hia ' Engliache Metrik.'^ 
To recapitulate his arguments I think superfluous, the more 
so as hia work will be in the hands of all interested in the 
controversy. I content myself with mentioning that the author 
entirely denies the presence of an accent or minor tone, 'neben- 
ton,' as it is commonly called (in words like iAr&, l&verd&s, 
heoueni, etc.), on which the metre under discussion is known 
to be principally founded ; and this he does, not only for 
Middle English, but for the later stages of the Old English 
dialects as well. The restrictions, however, which Dr. Schipper 
makes in favour of compounds, and such words as once having 
been compounds might still have been recognizable as such by 
the contemporaries of the poem in dispute {and be reckons 
amongst these, forms like Imird, stislkr, /eirM, etc.), and the 
fact that Dr. Schipper did not take into consideration the moat 
important and decisive of all arguments, namely the rhymes, 
except in a wholly unsatisfactory manner, prompted me to 
resume and deepen my inquiry, the results of which I laid 
down in a critique on Dr. Schipper's ' Englische Metrik,' 
which was published in the 'Anglia' some months ago. 

I do not flatter myself that I have found the philosopher's 
stone in the conclusions arrived at in my critique, but I shall 
certainly stick to them until some other and more satisfactory 
explanation is found for the facts there treated of. And as up 
till now Dr. Schipper has not openly refuted them (I can only 
consider the few remarks appended to his refutation of other 
critiques as evasory), I see no reason why the arguments 

' SoDn, Strausa, 18S2. 




brought forward io my critique should not atill be as conclusive 
and aa valid as they were when first published. 

I shall here give the moat important parts of my argument, 
thus coinplying with a desire communicated to mo by the So- 
ciety. The reader will ho be enabled to form his own opinion. 

"It is evident from the polemics of this chapter (the sixth 
of the 'Engliache Metrik') that anything can be proved by 
anything, so long as we work with such scanty material as that 
which Dr. Schipper uaea in his present argument. One argument 
haa been left unnoticed by him almost entirely up to now, and 
that just happens to be the most important one, and, in fact, 
the only one which allows of a positive conclusion. 

This argument is the rhyme. By the rhymes it was once 
proved' that the inflectional terminations of Old- and Middle- 
Eigb-German words in poetry' were capable of bearing a 
Terse-accent (neben-ton), and in this way it was that we got to 
a certainty as to the nature of Otfrid's metrical system, and of 
all the many atropbical forma baaed upon it ; and just so in the 
present caae, the only evidence from which we can safely derive 
conclusions must be looked for in the rhymes. 

If we can adduce a sufficient number of rhymes in which 
inflections rhyme with each other, or with monosyllabic 
words, tbe accentability of these inflectiooa and (by way of 
corollary) the existence of the ' four-accent ' verse and metre 
must be considered as proved, in the first place for the 
Engliah poem under discussion, in the second for the whole of 
its epoch. 

Old-Englisb, it ia true, is not rich in rhymes. The so- 
oalled Rhyming poem ia, considering tbe date of its origin, so 
perfectly rhymed that this fact alone speaks strongly in favour 
of its foreign make, and the few and short poetic excurses 
in the Chronicles afford too insignificant material to be of 
great help to us. By the way, however, I mention the rather 

' By Lttchmann. 

* Tbia ' in poetry ' is a later addition. "We owe it to Prof. Traatmmin, who, m 

Ba|!adoiia duHjuisition on Otfrid's verae, Halle, Niemeyer, 1877, piwod lo a 

(Wriainty thnt this wa^ of acpentUHtion wBa not admissible in prose, as Lachmann 

lud contended. This view, Bhunneci up to now aa coming from tlie anglleist quarter, 

1... L-i. .i_ 1. — ..1 — J ,_^ J Qp^m dj proper genuanisW, 


suggestive rhymes : icyreidn : mettcedn, heortdn : bards, mcenddn ; 
beceorodon, stei^e stearc : [uwrfer-] peodddn, selected from the 
poem on the Conqueror's death. 

The first poem yielding a sufficient quantity of rhymes is 
Lajamon's Brut. It will be said by way of objection to my 
choosing this poem, that the Brut is not rhymed throughout, 
and that for this reason it is diffiuult to know whether a rhyme 
is intended or accidental. I hope, however, to remove this 
scruple by selecting specimens in the moat careful manner 
possible. Only from the closest surroundings and out of the 
midst of rhymed passages shall I select them, and, on the other 
hand, I shall keep a sharp look-out for rhymes ufed more than 
once. Lastly, I shall use only the last two volumes of Sir F. 
Madden's edition, having recourse to the first for no more than 
corroboration of the facts taken from the other two. 

These precautions will be found to be wholly sufficient. 

Before entering into our diaquiaition proper, it will not be 
useless to drop a few remarks relating to the history of rhyme 
in general. 

Let us remember how the minor tone (neben ton) originated 
in Old High German. It was engendered by treating (I.) 
simple polysyllabic words as compounds. This fact is easy 
to explain. Keeping in view the history of the Teutonic 
languages, we see that compounds are formed by simple 
words coalescing with other words, the separate meaning of 
which, though for a long time understood, is steadily effaced 
till it loses itself in that of the first word. Outwardly, this 
change shows itself by the last word gradually losing its sepa- 
rate tone, and becoming weakened and shortened, owing to the 
greater stress naturally resting upon the determining syllable. 
In this manner compounds have always been formed, and are 
still formed, so that if we take one of our modern languages or 
dialects at any epoch we like, we find an abundance of such 
compounds in every stage of development. And if this is the 
case with modern languages, — where from plain reasons this 
process is partly interrupted, — how much more must it have 
been so with dialects entirely free, and unstinted in the display 
of their creative powers. In fact, there is no theoretical differ- 




ence between ai'mple words and compounds ; and whether the 
second syllable of a word be called formal or inflectional, it 
was once a separate word, witb a meaning of its own and a 
tone of its own. 

Let ua apply this to poetry. Here are three words : heilfimt, 
heilant, heilem, which are compounds in different stages of de- 
velopment, but atill all capable of bearing two tones each. So 
that if any of the three ends a verse, we may either rhyme both 
flyllablea of the word or only the last. 

With dissyllabic words or compounds the first syllable of 
which is short, the case is slightly different, though not theo- 

The stages corresponding to the first two words above still 
bear two tones, and the liberty of rhyming the two syllables or 
only one is quite the same. The third, however, can bear no 
more than one tone, on the root syllable ; and a word of the 
type of gibu can be rhymed only on both syllables. 

In the place whence I take these remarks, I have explained 
this inconsistency by saying that only in words of the type o£ 
heilem, could the first syllable be stretched out so long in pro- 
nouncing as to fully correspond to the first and most accented 
part of the compound, whereas the syllables of dissyllables with 
abort roots like gibu, followed each other so rapidly in pronun- 
ciation, that both together would correspond to no more than 
the second part of the compound. But whatever may be the 
reason, there is the fact, and we must take it into account, 
I hold, however, that there must have been a time when 
even these short-rooted words were capable of bearing two 
tones like all the others, though this may have been before 
our metre came into use. And there is some reason to 
believe that, in many of the so-called defective and appa- 
rently rhymeleas verses in Otfrid, Lajamon, and others, we 
can see the last lingering traces of this older and uniform 
way of accentuation, 

(II.) Another way leading to the minor or ' neben-tou ' was 
the following: 

There are many words in Old H. German, which, originally 
dissyllables with roots long by position, frequently occur also 


^H There 



afterwards in a trisyllabic form, from having inserted an 
anomaloTiH vowel between tbe consonants ending the root. The 
latter trisyllabic form is even the comraon one, at least in 
O.H.G., and the return to the old form ia here a sign of the 
deterioration of the language. 

The tranaition from one atate to the other was of course not an 
abrupt, but a gradual one, nor was it likely that in such a case 
the third syllable (which ia naturally and at the end of a verse 
even necessarily poaaessed of a minor tone), would lose this tone 
after tbe word had been contracted. 

So we have forms and accentuations like Ufeluhdn and Mfil- 
Mii, piporakin &ni pipdrghi, Msaino and biamd. 

Nor will transitions, like meiiian, gi&ello, from meinjnn and 
giscJfjo, etc., — the older forms of which are not very remote from 
genuine tri syllabi am,- — have failed to bear upon the accentuation 
of our worda. 

Now the same circumstances which gave birth and rise to 
the O.H.G. metrical system are to be found in exactly the 
same way in Old and Middle English; and if we add to this the 
fact that the 'dimeter iarabicus acatalecticua ' of the church- 
hymns (which, as we have some reason to suppose, was the 
model of our verse), was practised in English as well as in Ger- 
man cloisters, it would be surprising indeed if in both countries 
a verse of the same nature and the same accentuation should 
not have sprung up. 

In order to put in the right light the following specimens 
selected from the Brut, I shall accompany them by others taken 
from different Old High German poema, the rhymes of which 
are beyond all doubt as to their being intended. The ao-called 
' Anno-Lied ' will be preferred as best suiting my purpose. It 
is both in point of language and rhyming licenses very similar 
to the Brut. 

And now for my task. I had beat begin with the trisyllabic 
rhyme words described above under 5 ^ (see page xxii). These 
words have, aa is known, two accents, that is to say, the word- 
tone on the first, and the minor tone or verse-accent on the last 
syllable. For the rhyme, only these two syllables are important, 
the intermediate one is not essential, as it is unaccented. 




Full rhymes after the type oi fiUorane: giborane (Kriat I 
S3, 37) do not often occur in Brut; I may mention, however, 
iticorene : foylorene II 83, scomede : gromede H 151, <^ere : 
brff&ere 11 188, Much more frequent are half-rhymes, or 
assonances, amongst which, after the type of herige : me.nige 
(An. L. 442), the moat innocent occurring are : Aeiiene : heoiiene 
III 26, wunie: icumene III 295, iwitene: scipene II 183 (see a 
eimilar rhyme, ibidem 249), ihouene : mcorene III 209, tciinien : 
tumeres 11 189. More daring are kauene : hcBle'&e III 136, 
eleopedr-n : simuene II 88, and still more so ItBuarda : hauene 
I 64, for the latter of which we find a good analogy in vuristia : 
diur/iigin (An. L. 600). 

The rhymes or assonances just mentioned lead us on to 
those trisjllahic rhymes in which only the last syllables, i.e. 
those bearing the minor accents, rhyme with each other. 
Indeed, it is hard to believe that in haiieite : h<ek'Se III 136, 
ihak\ed : ifulejed III 180, ckrekea : /lokerea III 195, beiene : 
ifarene III 209, sec/iien: mderen III 151 (cf. edtUn : vorderin 
An. L. 348), the intended rhyme does more than embrace the 
last syllables — a fact which is still more corroborated by such 
specimens as gadere : fimchek I 78, makede : »rn^e)e III 335, 
Itateren : icerien III 237, hauede : scipeiie III 242, istnrmede : 
niakedeit I 71 and Zangustel : Methahel I 114, But we are forced 
to admit the possibility of rhyme upon the minor tone wher- 
ever one of the two parts constituting the rhyme ia divided 
and broken in such manner, that only the concluding mono- 
jsyllabic word rhymes with the last syllable of the trisyllabic 
word. Here are to be mentioned such rhymes as Hmrcuhs: 
wes I 56, Toteiies -.pes I 76, pus : Membricius 1 39, 43, and 
innumerable caaea in which the subat. men (plur.) rhymes 
with the inflectional ending -eii. The rhyme men : ktem-ren^ 
in 109, ia a full one. There are of course also half-rhymes 
in which /leom (Dative case of heo) is generally used. As 
Bpectmens from the An. L. I give man : generian 224, offene : 
i 789, as full rhymes ; brunieun : sturm 126, as half-rhyme 
All of these rhymes being suggestive enough 
adilL'd an anomnloua ri (so-called 


for any one who knows that where there ia a rhyme there ia 
an accent. 

Aa indicated ahove, there are also in Lajamon's language 
a great number of words which fluctuate between dis- and 
trisyllabism.. From the Brut I quote only, jCMi^e, 
hure^e, ckitderen, seokuen, dnijede, aiieoieesle, fe)erest, muchele, 
for hafde, }if^e, burhe, children, seoluen, deide, aneowste, feireti, 
much ; and it seems to be quite at the discretion of the poet 
to employ which form he likes. 

To exemplify the use of words of this kind in constituting 
the rhyme, I give first some specimens from the An. L. : 
havite : sagile 178 : lante 403 : Eirmanitin 662 ; sagite 800, 
havitin: spraehin 340: lantin 496, but irgezzin : heiti 412, 
hattin ; dadin, 620 ; vurislin : diurftigin GOO, but vuralia : hrustin 
732, werilte : vehtinde 180 : sedele 372, elsewhere spelt werlt, 
Kertti, which forms unfortunately do not occur as rhymes ; 
worthy of notice, however, is werilte : swertin 454. 

In the Brut we have — partly on account of the greater licence 
in the use of anomalous vowels, partly becauae of the larger 
materia] — a much greater choice of rhymes of that kind. I 
content myself with mentioning : sweuene : jeueSe III 132 
(elsewhere }f/^c), ihak^ed : ifule^ed III 180 (elsewhere ifid^ed), 
c/ereken : kokerea III 195 (elsewhere cleries). The greatest 
licence is found in murie : Ambresburie (for burhe), II 268, and 
iounede : munede {for munte), II 260, III 187. As certainly 
no one ever spoke munede as it is spelt in these places (the 
spelling doubtless only indicates the way in which words 
differing in number of syllables were made to agree with 
each other in reading'), this last specimen leads us into 
the midst of the hybrid rhymes proper, that ia, of those 
interesting rhymes which consist of a trisyllabic (simple com- 
pound or broken) word, and a genuine and unchangeable dia- 

Before giving specimens I take leave to draw the atten- 
tion of the reader to the striking similarity in the construction 
of rhymes between the two poems. 

' Tte first e in wimidi: as it appears waa slurred over, and lia a in munte stretched 


I divide the epecimeDS into two sections, according to the 
character of the root-syllables of the dissyllables eroployed. 

An. L. diuiii/i : gliimte 70, Kiininge : stur/ne 248, inne : brunigen 
!96, suelenin : einii 336, \acif-'\menigin : Eilbin S33, tcideicin : sidde 
Y 604, gigenca : eariwa 654, vogite : \_Ar-'}nolle 794, [ougi-']stiriiin : 
i~teid»re 848, nahjn : mantg man 422. lirut Imeden : peoden III 
J 44 ; leoden III 297, dw^en : makieii II 31, dai'ien : ica^eyen III 72, 
ifullehm : fmedS III 194, iurcfSede : sw^e III 104, 195, 
1 iMndene : a>cte6e I 343, bo}ede : leode III 89, Noreine : Denetie 
\ III 88, 252, bihedde : cleopede III 210, hoden : ckopedeit II 264, 
mihaten : maidenen III 18, tnedewe : siede III 214, ^areice : pare 
L m 89, driktene : Hide III 187, seide : maidene III 38, i^ekene : 
j kene III 164, gadere : gode III 189, g^dere : pede III 9, 
I 4e)e/ie : I'sejcn II 109 (cf. ceichin : eigine An, L. 536J, Sexstorius : 
] Boecus III 5, ueoren : weorede III 191, cunmsmen : cud'Sen II 160, 
I.A<E«/e men : iadm II 263, ibroht to me : cehte II 132, tciden sm : 
I blf&e III 13, r(cje men : rwsden II 263, Atcje me/i : isechen I 393, 
r Febua : seide Pus II 95. 

Ad, L. Akxatiderin : /a«if/i 206, gescephte : bezziste 54, gesindin : 
L SiCiVia 362, A™«aM : /wrfia 370, ^mho : langere 694, /asfertn : 
^gebaidin 814, N/nm ««n : mnden 62, Cristisman : minnan 70, 
J, £ffle(M-]s^retwje maM i bidwingan 276. Brut Brattes : Fulgenes 
I'll 8, )&/e(fe : cmyjfes I 101, [^r-]«wres men : Brutten III 48, 
V-£«»rf^w^ : \iinge II 190 : fowrfe II 208,/un(ffl : wunede III 234, 
[Aurec/en : corBfM III 233, a/t^re : oSefe III 272, wintren : mondrien 
IfJI 195 : Kuneden II 284, /e^e : werede III 198, answerede : 
Vicorden I 45, Sorffrfe : Brutte III 132, beondes : mmeden III 218, 
I fnarjen : aturien III 251, Acewene : habben I 399, Ainyen : wi'menCTi 
I, III 208, cunnes men : Brutten II 36, sotides-rnon : Lunden II 144, 
I'womnecf wes : fonrfes III 6, after heom : imahten III 246, sake 
I *«» : aahte III 45, icie (o : cerde III 79, Penda: sende pa III 243, 
1 Penda : iwunded pa III 276, 8(je» to : cnibtes I 426, biwiten 
[ Aram : [in'^w-JiwiKnew III 97, 6«!e)s ^o : bigunnen II 61. 

To those who are readily persuaded, the above-mentioned 
rhymes will sufficiently prove the presence of an accent in the 
inflectional endings of the words of Middle-EngHsh. How- 
ever, in following up my argument I hope to iind proofs of 
still greater conclusiveness. 


Rhymes like dtede : h<Euede II 136, ^eorenden : teifmen I 429, 
Imusdi : m<^hti II 157, ehildere : kinge II 115, roTienen (for 
ronmn=aongB) : monnen 11 165, Bruttes : bureden II 2 (cf. 
Bruttes : hiburden I 325}, bring us gradually and without any 
leap down to those rhymes, both rhyme-words of which are 

Instead of giviog specimens of dissyllabic rbymes, which, 
would be of no conclusiveness whatever, I sketch rapidly 
another way, already referred to above, in which the minor 
tone was likely to take possession of inflectional syllables. 

Amongst the specimens given above we have such rhymes aa 
sinin sun : miideti ; ieonmed wea : londes, which are constructed 
in just the same way as An. L. vkheit : vHi breiht 192, 
wichaft : iri craft 299. Brut awikedom : wimmm II 202, wifmon i 
seined on III 249, feorlic : deqpe dich II 93, both rhyme-words 
of which are compounds. The following equally dissyllabic 
rhymes are constructed in like manner, vorhUam : gehorsam An. 
L. 246, tfep/nort : m/mon Brut I 79,akwa: batwa I lOl, foreword: 
orcliwrd II 116, teifmen : [w^-linnen II 65, comen : bvrmen (for 
bvrhmen) II 145, seif> me : hehne III 88 and from these a short 
and direct way leads ua to rhymes consisting of equally simple 
rhyme-words as An. L. nuster : Lanier 965, wanter : grunte 218, 
226; 'BiMt hundred: tcwnrfwil 101,224: Lunden 11 Q'A: gninden 
III 77 : grvnde I 332, 334, II 191, III 199, Wahvain : bihaluen. 
Ill &&,J)ohte: dohter II 221, and to the very frequent rhymes of 
drihtin : Hhfe : nihte, etc. If the last two words are taken as 
the end of the line of development, every one looking with 
unprejudiced and impartial eyes at the specimens given in the 
last paragraph, is bound to admit that there is no trace what- 
ever of a leap or bound in their construction. So that whoever 
admits that such words as vor/dsam : gehorsam ; wepmon : wifmon, 
are rhymed as well as accented upon both syllables (which the 
author of the ' Englische Metrik ' admittedly does) is forced to 
admit the same possibility or rather necessity aa to rhymes like 
lihte : nikfe, representing the concluding link of our chain of 

I resume the argument at the point where it was dropped 
before the digression in the foregoing paragraph. 


I spoke of the claaa of rhymes composed of equally dissyllabic 
eimple rhyme- words. The reader will remeniher the way in 
which the presence of a minor tone in the last syllables of 
trisyllabic words was proved. In the aanie way the presence of 
that tone can be proved with regard to dissyllabic words. It is 
superfluous to cite specimens exemplifying the gradual transi- 
tion. The rhyme of the 6r8t part of the compound with the 
first syllable of the single word grows leas and less discernible, 
till at last only the latter part of the compound and the second 
Byllable of the simple word rhyme with each other. 

The rhymes engendered by this kind of licence arc very nu- 
merous in An. L. The monosyllable most in use in such cases is 
man, which generally occasions the return of the old inflectional 
ending -an, that elsewhere in this document is softened down 
into -in -en. There are, however, half-rhymes, as man : sicken 
710. Assonances of another kind are quam : virlouchinan Sl'i : 
I ginadin 772. In Middle- English, where men or heom, — and in a 
lesser degree nion, nom, com — were very favourite monosyllables, 
the necessity of such a violent assimilation was not so urgent. 
As specimens of full rhyme I may cite here men : streten III 
72 : iwur'&en III 164 : horeii III 166 : burhien III 169 : a)m 
L III 291 : igohtenll 192, etc. As interesting analogies to the 
R aseimilations cited from the An. L. we find here mon : habbeon 
. Ill 277 ; wifmon : Judm I 172. 

Just as the inflectional -en, we find -e in rhyme. Amongst the 
monosyllables used for rhyming with the inflectional ~e, the 
pronouns me, pe, he are the favourites. But the substantive sm 
also seems to have been used for the same purpose. On a fore- 
going page I had occasion to mention the hybrid rhyme widen 
etc ; hl^e, to which may here be added the rhymes of se {he, sea) 
with iamw {for homne !) Ill 229 : isene ibidem : ferde I 47 : 
[ %wein (Dat. c. for mdne') I 149 : Dense III 200 : ende III 201: 
I BruiUine III 281 ; pusende III 284 : scele II 14, uolcke I 394, 
I II 15 : fitiide III 222. Half-rhymes are formed by means of 
r treo, preo, to, ido, pa, »ica, and the like. 

There can be no doubt either as to the inflectional -es being 
L Eble to constitute a rhyme. Unfortunately I have found only 
I two specimens, viz. teas : cunnea II 607, ar&i : tsrmes III 118. 


As rbymea of Bimilur structure, however, may be mentioned, 
Flandres : tees III 115; Luces : terns III 81 : us III 2; txAis : 
iu-is II 103 ; cm-nis : iwis III 190. 

Much more frequently is the ending -ed employed in 
rhyme. Rhymea like blf6emod : iblissed III 191 (cf. hali mot : 
hundred III 277) ; hMd : istronged II 4 : isomned III 38 ; 
Modred: itimbred III 127, offer a short and direct transition to 
full rhymes like iued : ifoatred III 277 ; imenged : bet III 142, 
iaet : iaemed III 9:J, desd : for-demed I 425 and half-rhymes like 
bidteled : wrd II 107; s^g : iwunded I 341 ; wod : bidaled II 
3 : iwrd&'^ed II 76; biweaued : godd I 6*7; the structure of 
which corresponds perfectly with that of the rhymes abbed: 
god II 124, 127 (cf. gode II 123) : rM II 125, 129, 
manmet : god III 170, and the Teutonic har-fot : gdd I 377. 

Besides those above mentioned, I could not find any other 
endings used as rhymes. Only for the sake of complete- 
neaa I mention rhymes in -est (superl.), which, — though even 
the author of the 'Metrik' concedes its capability of bearing 
a minor tone, — occurs much too seldom to build strong theo- 
ries on. 

The inflection of the second person sing, of verbs is not to 
be met with, any more than that of the plural and third person 
sing. pres. — at least not in full rhyme. 

Ill the foregoing pages I have spoken of dissyllabic rhymes 
in which the word-tone and minor-tone were bound together. 
Great as this licence seems, there ia a still greater one to 
be found where the rhyme consists of only the syllables 
bearing the minor tone, or, in other words, where minor tone 
rhymes with minor tone, aa in Cadwa{'&)lan : londen III 256 : 
kenipen III 257 : Anglen III 257 : eorlen III 258 : stundea III 
275 : icuttden III 277 : ihaten III 278, balutcen : ikoten III 268, 
beor)en : hundeii II 451 ; in vol. III. pp. 58-59, a passage of no 
less than sixteen verses in succession may be found connected 
by rhymes of this kind; andnwarede : kinge III 123, iherdf : 
icome "ill 259, iene : sm'Se III 55, iheled : ineif&ered III 203, 
hundeit : togaderes III 274, gripes : fujeies III 120, beornes : 
Bruffes II 46, etc. From Old H.G. I quote : gehelfen : gel&. 
teren Arnateiner Marienleich 207, Jilkn /dhen Letch vom 


heiligen Georg 37, mdlo : herigo ibid 1, voike : geselte An. 

L. a»4. 

I abstain from giving more specimens. 

The foregoing pages seem to sbow the way in wbicb poets, 
with the view of lightening their work, were gradually led from 
one rhyming licence to another, till, at last, the conaonance of 
the rhyme-worda was scarcely perceptible. But, in reality, 
the genealogy of the rhyme was just the reverse, and I only 
chose the above method of argument for convenience sake. 

The rhymes upon the accent or minor tone no doubt first 
came into existence, since they were the easiest and most 
consistent with the coram.on and prosaic way of accentuation. 

The specimens given in the above sketch sufficiently show 
! what I intended to prove. 

As where rhyme is, there is accent, I have shown that tri- 
syllables, without regard to their root- syllables, had an accent 
ninor-tone on their last syllables, the same as dissyllables, 
except that here things depend on the length of the root, for 
only inflections of dissyllables with long root- syllables can bo 
found rhyming. 

come to the last conclusion. The same accentuation 
which words receive at the ends of verses is, if necessary, like- 
wise admissible when these words stand in the middle of verses.' 

The i-esult of thus transferring this accentuation from the 
end to the middle of verse, is the line of Otfrid's four-accent 


& has suffered comparatively little damage in onr text. 

Before n, m, it is weakened, as in most of the O.E. dialects, 
into 0, except in anan 31, 440, etc., and cang 258, acangri 
2018, the derivation of which has not yet been made out with 
sufficient certainty (Swed. kdng ?). 

e before m, m instead of o (a), we find in hicen 389, penne 426, 
774, imengel 608. eo inpeonne 2468. 

' Very often, i 
tunea whole vereea eBem to be rhymoi 
< For the Old and Middle £tigUs)i j 




e in scheonie belongs of course, as in scheop, etc., to a pre- 
ceding guttural. 

a before r renaaina nearly everywhere. The only exceptions 
are onsiccre 357, aber 1544, ger&um 798, dearnliche {Old E. 
already dente) 406, 575, 576, wearnen 769, bearnde 1650, 

Before / exceptions are equally scarce. Vacillating between 
a, ea («) are aldrene 81, 800, wealt 218, 504, 556, 933, 1067, 
gmeal 1588; ea is certain only in alitealdend 618, 1723, 1765, 
hea/den 686, ireaU 1780, 2036, )eald 127, ftea^tfcn 1609. 

Before A or ir (=/'s) tbe exceptions are still fewer. Only in 
seh, has a been replaced by e. 

Before the rest of the consonants, a has not been preserved so 
purely. But even here all the three tests not seldom agree in 
having a : thus it is tbe rule in such words aa makten, schafte, 
ischapen, habben, etc. 

For a, which, in Old E., ia mostly replaced by a, B, as a 
rule has e, B ra, C a. That E, represents the reading of the 
original, ia sufficiently evident from the fact that in about 
fifty of the words concerned (a great number of which are 
in very frequent use in our text, as cict'^, fpf, dei, and the 
various forms of seggen), C leaves its a in favour of the vowel 
Dsed in R, a favour which is not returned by either R or B 
but in a very few instances, as in wattres 271, was 527, ra'&e 
555, tat 1338, and hwas 680, 765, etc., which last word we may 
safely suppose began to lengthen its vowel in. that time. 

ea for Old E. a occurs in ilea%et 1895. 

e as an old ' umlaut ' of & occui's wherever it is to be found 
in Old E. ; this e very seldom vacillates between ea, e, a, as 
in mereminnes 1490. 

( is even more uncertain than d. Just as in O.E. it fre- 
quently changes with the older e and co; unfortunately very 
often this change is not carried out simultaneously by the 
MSS, of my text. R, however, seems to be right again, aa 
the following specimens will show. 

eo is certain in iceorre 20, 2399, gko, gleowinde 1667, /eole, 
89. 159, 799, 2052 ; leornin llO, 386, 938, etc. ; heorle, 86, 
168, 181, etc. ; eor^e, 353, 1017, etc. ; io/eopet 462, 2346, 
2375; neomm 653, 765, 1001, 1180; sieorren 714;/eor, 823; 



Vweorrin 1348, 2039; ateortnaJcet 1537 ; heoueiw 1574, 1731, 
I 1984, 2417 ; jeorne, 1576 ; heonne 2068 ; ^eouen 37 ; /leoiees 1658; 
[ tintreohe 1948 ; eornen, 3268, 

Fluctuating between e, eo ; sra?/" 58, 69 ; ideopet 88, 360 
Jeole 119, 121, 860, etc. ; heouene 183, etc., speokene 312, 1677, 
8; beoren 45S, 2458; seo/wen 493; /orjeo(eS 1368; heonne 
I 1383 ; AeorCe 1495, 2116 ; seoumsvSes 1665 ; biieoten 2113 
; tintreohe 1504, 2131; ^o=Si>» 1519. 

Fluctuating between e and i : elsterten 700 ; firreste 1554 
I jiracrfe 1579, 2387 ; fehtea 766 ; r(««e^ 2477. 

Fluctuating between eo, o, ia only sweord 2180, 2234, 2404. 

The old e sound is preserved in cwe^e 867, helpen 1140, je(^/!e» 
I 1280, wTeA-e« 2049, ^elden 2216, A^^rae 364, 2461, achetde 809. 

eo attenuated into o, occurs only in world, 

ea stands for e, i, eo, in chear, chearren, 2288-9. 

I for Old E. y is only to be found in furhisiw, kiiig, and the 
I other compounds with h'ne, kinehurb, kinemot, etc. 

Elsewhere j" equals Old E. i. 

6=01d E. 6 except in leoirsin 1519, and marken 605, etc., the 
I latter of which is no doubt assimilated to those with ar in 
I their roots ; it evidently goes back to the by-form mergen. 

ij=01d E. fi, y, except in -luker 2086, comparative of -ffcA. 

A (except in the few cases where already in O.E. it had been 
I obscured into 6, as in nonie/i, mone^, ]eomere, etc.) has been pre- 
I served in its old purity. Exceptions, only lo, 98, keiser 306 
, steak, 338, 714, 1854, and hehte 73, etc. The two latter 
I are, I suppose, assimilated to similar forms {steiip, Mt?). 

fe umlaut of d is subjected to the same fluctuations as a, um- 
I laut oid. As before, E. mostly offers ^, B ea, C d. As for the two 
\ former vowels, a kind of rule may be established, in so far as i is 
I certain wherever it is to be derived from a Teutonic a, whereas ea 
\ takes its place where it answers to Goth, ai, O.H.G. ei. Exceptions 
( aToJlesch, ledden, 2219, '^313, lerdenAm, del 669, on the one hand ; 
I read% J^ear, 8,23,/earlac,o_ffearet,etc., mealen 1319, on the other. 

Certain d, we have only in halewi 1692, rawe 1930 (Old E. 
[ rdice and r(Eice) tcra^'^e 2048, dak 99, staneite 2480. 

Uncertain and fluctuating between e, a, ea, we find the vowel 
I in i^di, wre'S'&e 154, 1903, ctceteit 539, idealet 752, arerde 1060, 




1111, bireadde 1230, unwreste 1260, Uaxle'S 1704, 2164, eskfst, 
1716, leaten 1790, read 1975, ikd 1202, ctane 2247, 2265, Ataafe, 


AIbo with eo tbis vowel is sometinies found changiDg, as in 
feorlich 2056 and leoief^ ; and we find it fluctuating between n 
and eo in the Eume two words 1995 and 2252. 

i = O.E. i except in heanin 1020, 2402. 

( = O.E. i is occasionally broken into eo as in O.E. Cf. -Inker 
mentioned under H. 

6 is, with only a few exceptions,^O.E. d : the uncertainty in 
irod wed 31, evidently arises from assimilation to the past part. , 
of wreden, 1257. Iii /,cf 181 and step {steap) 713, 1852, the 
original vowel seems to have been affected by a similar cause. 

Uncertain as either o, eo, or e, we find it in Wodnesdei, 2184. 

a = O.E. a. y. 

O.E. ed, Goth, iu answers to eo in St. Katherine. 

O.E. ed, Goth, du answers to en, except in a few words, of 
which dir^ and heh, with their divers forma and compounds, are 
the most frequently used. 


The inflectional m, wherever preserved, is weakened to n. 

In other cases it is O.E. m. 

n is frequently dropped in the inflections of substantives, and, 
though more seldom, in those of the verb, and in the preposi- 
tions in, on, the indefinite article and the first and second 
persons of the poss. pronounsj el«. Single n instead of double 
n is put in forms like speokene, one, with the exception of 
donne 782, etc, underfonne 2234, where it is always preserved. 

p inserted in inempriei. 

b the same as in O.E. 

/ in anluut seldom represented by u, as in v!e-<t. In inlaut 
between vowels or liquids softened into \i,=v the vibrating 
(buzzing) labiodental aspirate, as in bileaiie 319, halue 20, deouka 
2312, derure 947, culurene 1823. The first signs of this trans- 
mutation we can observe already in Old E. (cf. Sievera, Gram- 
matik, § 194). 


i in auslaul often takes the place of d. MS. B goca farthest 
' in this respect. In preothi^e 1413, it stands for (. 

d in aiislaut seldom replaces t; i«end 711. Sometimes d is 
nsed instead of dd, as in ischntd, iprud 1449. Nearly always 
omitted in otmcere-de-rt, c written for ds in mi/ce 295. 

/, ^, the first of which signs is used in anlaut, the latter 
anywhere else. /> in anlaut, and after words ending with s, d, I, 
is often replaced by I. 'S omitted in wurgi^ 272. t is written 
for tt, i.e. ij> in mahtu 1494, ^chaUit 2132, etc. 

except that it stands for double s (ISs) in hlisful 1857, does 

not offer points worth notice. More interesting is the ligature 

I ac which, except in eker 867, sco/meistres 521, es/cen 1716, memke 

3, in our text, appears as sch. Only once in ules is sch 

' narrowed into s, a, change peculiar to the Middle Kentish 

I dialect. 

c (A) is by far the moat interesting consonant in the dialect : — 


a used before all guttural vowels, whereas A: precedes vowels 
of palatal character, that is, e, and i, y (the umlaut of u). 
From the former rule only two words are excepted, hasten, 945, 
and Katerine, which are of foreign origin, and to the latter the 
only exception is hicherde 1183, 2228, 2229. Doubtful are 

^M bikimet 1291, and nowcin 1840, 2^95. 

^H . Before E (old) and eo, C (so fa 

^^B>Be in childhade 79, dieosen 1871. 


^^K wa 
^f tal 

) becomes ch, 


Te is preserved in most instances. In spek 308, it has given 

1 way to k. In euch, hcuch, swuc/i, -Ikh, the ch is apparently 

taken from the dissyllabic forma, an explanation, however, which 

does not account for the change of ia into ich, and ac into ah. 

In the word last mentioned, the dissolution of the c is gone 

already so far as a slender aspiration, but the last state it 

i is in pitili 348 (O.E. pyllic), for which the text ( 

I vhere re&ds /lullich, as in 11. 357, 847, 2333. 




the hard guttural has partly remained intact, and partly 
beiin palatalized. From want of material I cannot make a 
thorough examitiation aa to whether or not my text agrees 
with the rule set up by Mr. Sievera in hia Grammatik, § 206, 6. 
The fact that eh doea not precede either d or d certainly 
speaks in ita favour. Other vowels are followed by either k or 
ch, as in eche 298 (but ecnesse 2505), speche 451, biseche, 2343, 
cnaaleehi'S 1343, 1379, loken, 790, bokes, 837, token 2060, kokeres ! 
419, lokede 1206, ihroken 1201, ntrikinde 732, iiciket 1740, pikes 
1929, steike 1937 ; but rkhe 47, 50, 60, liches 1045 (cf. licoma < 
2202), iliche 1663, aiker 25, orike 63, siie/ 825, w/iAv^ 1660, 
blikede 2364, fe/uien 2092, brucha 334, mHcAe^ 456, ftrucAe/ 
2003, meoke 103, s;!fo^-me 312, breoke'6 1294. Although the 
use of the gutturals in the foregoing specimens ia pretty 
regular, and might suggest certain ideaa, I abatain from 
founding any rule upon such scanty materials. It must not 
be forgotten, however, that in the text there is no word 
showing (in inlaut) k after e, 6 ; or c/i after 6, 6, I, it. 

When the hard guttural stands by another consonant, 
the following eeeras to be the rule : c remaiua intact when 
followed, and is palatalized when preceded, by the other con- 
sonant ; exceptions from the latter part of thia rule are wlonke 
M2,ponki 2382, werkes 1016, iike 1095, 1199. 

O.E. cc in our text takes the form of ccA, which, in streche, 
appears simplified into cli ; whilst on the other hand ech in 
hwucche, 445, 1032, 1707, and ewuccJie 2190, is an anomaly, 
standing for ch. 

O.E. eg becomes gg in our text, as in leggen 772, segg^, 321, 327. 

The old ligatures cl, en, cr, ew, are still in use. The last of 
them ia changed into gu in quo^. 

As to the use of g and j in anlauf, it is impossible to for- 
mulate a rule from the scanty materials of our text ; for wo 
find ^arewe 1734, jitj-A-/« 1735 ; and on the other hand togederei 
gederin 989, ageide 1249, gea^ 1883, not mentioning inter- 
changes which apparently nothing can account for. So, for | 
, I. 215, we find \ulde. but 1. 231 vnforguU, L 499 




offers jonge, which in 1. 2469 Is uncertain. In spite of all these 
irregularities, however, we may say that g haa in most cases 
been palatalized before e, i, co. 

The prefix jtf- has dwindled into a single vowel i. The suffis 
ig had a similar fate, except that it sometimes reappears when 
the word is inflected. Of reiiti, for instance, we have the forma 
leitfeien 843, tcitiei/e 489 (but iritt/Mi 533). 

for iniaui and ausJaut, we may lay down the rule that g, 
vhen preceded by consonants and guttural vowels, beoomea h, 
■whereas it ia perfectly vocalized and becomes i when preceded 
by palatal vowels. Only one single exception from the first 
part of this rule ia to be met with in buriholde» 439, which as 
simple, however, is always spelt burh-ea 6, 9. To the second 
part of our rule several exceptions occur, in hehent 416, fehere 
2291 (comparative ; the posit, is always 8peIt/«V(e)), tphen 278, 
atihen 1012, hike 1381, and mhde» 129, 1051, which last word, 
however, is, in 1. 891, in better accordance with our rule spelled 
wife* for iei]ele» {?). 

There is not much to be said about h. It is lost in anlaiit 
'before /, in lotritige 143, Imlinge 144, etc., the same as before r, 
BB in rake 1138, r!i%e 555, 972, ream 2293, arwMen 1137, 
reffSeren 60, etc. A in inlniit is omitted in hest, a form which in 
my text not seldom interchanges with the older hehent. 

The semivowel ic, which in our MSS., except in quo^, is 
rendered by the old win, is, in inlaut, upon the whole preserved 
intact. Not mentioning the cases where in Old E. it was 
allowed to drop, it is omitted in ichulle, besides which, how- 
ever, the regular formula ich wulle ia still in use. AVith the 

illowing vowel it is blended in eiich and in hii, which pro- 
Imiscuoualy appears beside the old Itici. It lias darkened the 
following vowel in the various forma of tniUen, vnlleii, in 
uummoii, hiruch, swuch ; irorlif, S'rord, qvffS. It has diaappeared 
'Without leaving a trace in nat, nes, neren, forms in use already 
in Old E. 

The semivowel Teutonic / was rendered by j in Old E., and 
this custom ia retained by our scribes. Only in infnut it ia 
uently replaced by /, while, on the other hand, it is some- 

Imes hardened into g, as in icur^gede 59, 508, biblodcget 204, 


atudgi 1264 ; and in herhede 336, it even passes over into the- i 
guttural line. 

Over / and r we need not loae many words. I shall only 
mention that like m and n, r is frequently dropped in inflec- 
tions. This is always the case with I in tuch, hwuch, iwueh, 
and their by- forms. 


A rapid glance at the forms of our text will teach us that 
the obliteration of the language had already gone so far as 
to make the classification used in O.E. grammar inadvisable. 
The only way to bring some order into our materials, is to 
treat each case separately. 

The form of the nominative ia changed in a few cases. Final 
e is dropped in wil{l) 371, added in acarterne 671, hea^ene 36, 
iDununge 242^, and others terminating in -ting, -ing ; the 
oblique case of ica, tceaiie is (beside the old form) used as a 
nominative, cf. 1166-7. 

The genitive case in the singular of masculine and neuter 
substantives is commonly denoted by -es. 

keiseres 3, healendea GYi, fium-es 1998, wek 1864, deiei 1077, 
meideneg 909, 2062, blodes 1398, Bwinhes 805, cimnes, 1912. 

Our text is in accordance with other writings of the aame 
period in using the noun proper without the genitival termina- 
tion. So we find Belial for Bellals 1906. The word feder, 
however (which elsewhere, like tnoder, brff^er, siister, and dohler, 
is still without the sign of the genitive case), has in federes 619, 
assimilated itself to the rest of the genitives. 

The same termination is applied in the genitive case of fem. 
nouns: meremiiines 1490, worldea ItO'i, 1723, cristenes 2045, 
/e/rfj8 2192. 

AJixandrea 47, is not necessarily of Alexander, as Morton \ 
has sometimes rendered it, but more probably of Alexandria, or 
Alexandria, as the Latin text puts it. 

The adverbial genitive ni/ites 1077 is in use as of old. 

The dative and accusative cases mostly coincide in form. 
There is, however, a marked difference to be noticed according I 



Eto the prepositions they are connected with. Sir F. Madden, 

i ID the Introduction of his well-known edition of Lajamon's Brut, 

f puts forth the opinion that when the Brut was written, the 

prepositions which formerly governed the dative had changed 

this case for the accusative. This may apply to the Brut, but 

it certainly does not to our Katherine. 

»for and mid {'n'^), it ia true, appear to govern the accusative 
case everywhere, with the exception of only a few cases, as for 
neode 9, and mid rihte 769. 
But in the case of in and of, the dative case is not bo rare. I 
£nd »■»... /i/1694, hwl 21, 1693, kond 1779, kus 1807, niht 
2189, ier 43, mei^/iad 137, bur 138, burh 46, 64, mod 60, anliad 
931, slnf 940, J>ing 1032, 1035, world 1224 ; bul in . . . halie 
416, h»de 535, 1304, atalle 683 ; o/ . . . god 100, gleo 145, hird 
156, dfff'S 165, 337, 1334, blod 204, /reo, dan 266, gold, seoluer 
)3, u-ind 217, dH 436, land 586, drif 701, creft 814, lam 
S90, 2150, world 1626, niht 1741, /o/c 2010, lei 195, tfasd 196. 

^401, monhad 985, //rtfir 980, ft/ 885, mwS 192 ; but o/ 

vorlde 80, 97, 472, cMldhade 79, tceje 126, a^fe 143, 199, 231, 
Y^ode 392, burhe 2317, !«7Ce 1285, !«>Ac 1235. 

After to, the dative case is employed nearly as often as the 

{accusative case ... . hea'&endom 35, healent 182, 2067, 

ping 245, 993, leaf 384, }elp 470, /i/ 478, dea'& 566, «(ri/ 795, 

twcfl/rffiHi 1765, lauerd 2066, 2128, /my 993, and the frequent 

^&-dei; but io . . . baleure, bis'i/ere 552, Criste 694, 2181, 2492, 

ka«e 2206, /fA/e 14, twye 1300, Me, 62, 200, 1898, londe 7. 

And on seems to have stuck to the old construction : we find 

. blode 1543, breoste 190, /lalue 121, Hue 2360, rarfe 1901, 

■oWfl 45, ivorlde 526, 1068, and only on . . . dei 339, ^^, 2014, 

wit 110. 

Of other prepositions I shall only mention lute . , . mel 

^819, ajeiiiea . . . heast 2218, u'P&uten . . . burh 2240, toicard . . . 

effS 2268, from . . . bale 2295, and governing the dative case, 

mder . . . schclde 809, bi . . . bane 2177. 

For the nominative case in the plural number (such forms 

B Jet 499, and men 799, of course, excepted) we have two 

^terminations -cs and -en ; the former mostly used with masculine 

iand neuter nouns, the latter with feminine nouns. There are 



exceptions (though not bo numerous as to make the rule im- I 
practical), which may be partly remains of the old declensions 
(as many of the icenk subBtantives), but lliey may be also partly 
due to change of gender. We know, for instance, from 11. 781 
and 1026, that hileaue and ded^ have become feminines, and J 
from I. 2037 that medschipe has become neuter. 

For the {^nitive plural, the termination -e is the rule, as ia 
breoste 3122, kinge 2211, mHdene 237a, 2425, ichafie 882, smelh 
617, ]>inge 253, worlde, 663, 2504. Very seldom we find tha 
termination of the weak declension (O.E. e>ia) employed, as in 
aldrme 81, 100, cnihteHe 1538, culurene 1823, dtthene 2469, ' 
kempene 2469. Beside the ancient form -menne 6, we find a 
form without umlaut : monne .... 450, 2022. An analogy we 
have in the fluctuation between meniiesse and monuesse 985. 

The only exception to, the above rule we have in foreign i 
words, as in maumetea temple, Latin teniplo idolonim, iiunes leohe, 
Latin lacu lemiitm, marlirs licomes (no Latin equivalent). Here , 
the genit, seems to have taken the form of the nom. aoc 
tnnrtirs, maumes, which forms are, no doubt, infiuenced by J 

The accusative pi. is almost without exception the same ia I 
form with the dative and, of course, the nominative. So we have I 
men a. 33, d. 144 ; prfaies a. 2002, d. 40 : godeg a. 147, d. 53;, J 
tintreohen a. 1887, d. 41 ; godes a. 2088, d. 53 ; ehnen a. Ill, 
d. 307 ; deoaeten n. 553, d. 311 ; creftes a. 1052, d. 256 ; engle$ ] 
n. 291, d. 1830; icorde& a. 374, d. 311, 378; sahen, a. 358, 
d. 383 ; meidres a. 467, d. 446 ; hoiiden a. 1358, d. 494 : nrnea | 
a. 109, d. 575 : Mngea n. 324, d. 637 ; earen n. 497, d. 1128; 
weolen n. 1035, d. 1695 ; ^e=8 a. 1266, d. 191 ; cnihtes n. 1738, I 
d. 1436; lefdis n. 2338, d. 1478; dahes a. 1824, d. 1918; j 
hweoles a. 1919, d. 1941 ; fuheks a. 3092, d. 2245. 

Wherever these cases differ, we are certain that this has ] 
nothing to do with the inflections, as in wiheles a. 129, icilet \ 
d. 891. 

As to murli'Seti n. 1697, 2159, ntiirh^es d. 2186, the termina- ] 
tion of the nominative seems to Ijave been a double on 
is doubtlessly the case with/»i^, the accusative pi. of which is J 
in 11. 934, 999, formed after the old fashion, while in 11. 1 




and 370, the word shares the fate of the other masculinea 
and neuters. It is the same with tcord, the plural of which is 
sometimes icordea, as in 11. 311, 316, sometimes word, as ia 11. 
482, 488. 

As interesting plural forms I have further to mention schep 
60, deor A. 2244, and the quite irregular bule a. 61, which, in 
0.£., is weak masc. 


The most frequent termination of adjectives ia -e. But to 
judge from our material, however scanty it may be, the use of 
this termination docs not seem to have been arbitrary. So 
when employed subatantivally, the adjective appears in the 
singular without inflection, as in kafful 1038, in the plural with 
-e, as in fie o'6re 30, poure, riche 50, neodfuk, nakede, 102, 
summe 37, 39. The same seems to apply to the adjective being 
employed predicatively, aa in }ung 66, feier, freoUeh 68, and 
tpode 2269, ideine 2009. Only in the case of its being used aa 
an attribute does the use of the inflectional -e seem to have 
been left at the writer's discretion. 

In our text, as in other writings of the period, there are 
some traces to be met with of adjectives being followed by the 
indefinite article hy way of inflection, and this not only when 
the adjective is used substantivally where this course is fully 
carried out in modern grammar, as in pe cudiUste an, 821-2 
(also inverted /e an modgesle 1240), but also when employed as 
an attribute, as in leouest an wummon 2420, 

The comparison of adjectives exhibits no striking peculiarities 
any more than the formation of adverbs ; both are, on the whole, 
formed on the same principles as in O.E. Changes of sound 
have been mentioned in their proper place. 

Of pronouns inflected like adjectives, several have preserved 
their old forms ; ilhe we find only in the expression mid let tike 
713, 789 ; of (»)««, a genitive sing, occurs anes 1959, 1961, 
nanes 1912 ; and of al a genitive plur. aire 253, 587, 592, 
a form which is in use up to a comparatively late period. As 
to the use of al and a//e, I observe that the latter form is 
employed wherever in the plural it is used substantivally or 



attributively, while the former (a!) is made use of in all other I 

Of seolf we find the sing. nom. seo!f 1095, the ace. acoluen ' 
1144, the same form for the dat. 1835, and plur. nom. GZ^ 
ace. 130, 2353. We meet, however, already with traces indi- 
cating that this old difference is going to be abolished. "We 
find the form seolf £ot the sing. ace. 58, 1835, 1901, and for the ' 
dative 96. 


Of the first and second persons sing, we have the nom. ich 
/)(, and the ace. dat. me J>e. Of the forms of the dual, we are 
sorry not to find certain instances.- It ie, however, more than 
probable that MS. B in tcit 1012, and unc 1515, represents 
the reading of the original. 

The plural is complete : we je for the nom. us, ow, for the 
ace. dat. and ure 802, oicer 1277, for the genitive. 

The third person is nearly as poor in forms as the first and 
second sing. Of the sing, we meet with the nom. he and hit, 
and the ace. dat. him, hit. Of the dative of the latter form, 
moreover, we cannot find a specimen. 

The feminine gender of this pronoun deserves special notice. 
The common form is ha. In elevated passages, however, the 
older form heo ia still in use. So we find it in U. 116, 168, 726, 
742, 1319, 2372. Dat. and ace. is hire. The plural form for 
all genders is ha, which in elevated passages, as in the case of 
the fem. sing., is replaced by heo, 365,740, 1143. The dat. 
ace. is ham. For the genit. we have a rather doubtful specimen 
in heore 872, for which, as this is the form in impassioned 
passages, the common form would be hare. 

I must not forget to mention that there are some traces of 
an absolute pronoun coming into use : hire and him are some- 
times used for he and ha, and this is mostly the case when the 
pronoun is followed by seolf, seoluen, cf. 1. 1083. If we could 
find A t'sseo?/' instead ai himseolf, we might easily account for the 
changebyseo^being taken for a substantive. In connection with 
ane^^allone, mili/, the pers. pronoun was similarly treated some- 
times, aiie 2265, See also Maetzner's Glossary under an, ane. 



As in O.E. these proaouns are framed by treating the geni- 
tive of the personal pronouns as a nominative. The first and 
second persons which were declined in O.E. lost their inflec- 
tions in our dialect, — occasional changes in their form, as in 
owei; oicre, having nothing to do with cases. To tho different 
forms of min, pin, the rule applies which I gave when 
treating of the adjectives, save that the fuller forms vnne,pine 
are occasionally to be met with before substantives in the 
plural and (very seldom') in the singular, where forms like /;, 
mi, are the rule. 

The possessive pronoun of the third person remains unde- 
clined, as in O.E. Changes of hare 129, and keore 252, are 
accounted for like those of ha and heo mentioned on the last 
page; and the form hise 1954, 22^5, is to be explained by 
assimilation to the possessive pronouns of the Ist and 2nd 
persons singular. 



In the following tables the forms put i 
the common ones, while the others i 

N. >e8 228, 431,517, 
etc., jia 1488. 

; are considered to 
understood to be 

>;s 24, 77, etc., Jjeoa 
103, 354, 1861, 
to8 1387. 

Jia 894, 1035, 1405, 

fis 210, 342, etc. 

J-eoa 417, 2388, fis 

L j>ia 275, 598, et^. 
^ >BB, 1762. 

mental, fins 910. Cf. Jus ido dede, literally^by this done 
deed^by the accomplishment of this deed. 

B. JieoB 879, 1918, 
■ m(?) 730, 2082, 


N. }e 197, etc. 

G. Jiea 2123, >e 2201. 
D. J»e 182, etc. 



f 27, ete., ]>e 828, 

bes 20G2. 
>e 43, etc., >ot 203, 

980, 1693-4, etc. 
>e 689, 725. 

,. fe 264, etc., Jieno 
1183, J-en 1184. 
Instr, ^i 85, fe Then connected with comparativcB, 413. 

J>e 468, 748, etc. 

be 9, >eH 2045. 

1934, 2480. 
J>e 244, 757. 

N. >e 34,etc.,>eo92, 
500, 950; 2389, 

G. J-e 6. 

D. J-e 144, etc., Jeo 

j-e 30, 1928. 

J-e 410, 1941, etc. 

fo 836, etc. >B 1330, 1358. 

A glance at the foregoing tables teaches us that there are 
some traces, however few, of the old richness of form. The 
modern look of the latter table is due to /e having taken 
poseession of nearly all cases and genders, f; however, still 
firmly holds its place in at leaet the nominative and (with a 
slight deviation from the old practice) dative, so that I am 
inclined to explain its being used elsewhere by a change of 
gender, kinedom 1624, 2149, at least, and kird 2413, 2426, 
have evidently become neuters. That the use of peo beside 
fie in the nom. and dat. plur. of masculines is analogous to 
that of heo beside ha, and keore beside hare, is obvious from 
the passages where they occur. 


Of interrogatives, we find the nom. hva 168, neuter hitet 
2212, genit. kwuH, and two forms for the instrumental, namely, 
hwi 992, 968=why, and hu 956. 959=how, which, however, 
are not yet strictly kept asunder, hicucche 1707, 1632, seemg 
to have been used as a kind of plural. 




All of these pronouns could be employed as relative pro- 
nouns, if we are allowed to judge by our material. I find 
kira used as a relative 516 (p), hv;et 1723, hwas 680, 765, hicam 
223, 281, 1216, kwi 507, and hmtch (as) 157. 

As a common relative, however, two forma of the definita 
article are employed : />e and /ei ; the former of which is 
preferred by the plural, the latter by the singular. 

Only a few of these pronouns are found in the text. For the 
O.E. iitan, Z has me, and C has regularly men. O.E. aelc is 
eucA, which, when employed absolutely, i.e. substantively, 
coalesces with the indefinite article euchan, 54, 57 ; swyfc is 
aiBUch ; PulUc is puUi{ch) 348, 847, 2333; fed feaica is fe{a)we 
949, which is occasionally replaced by M 34. O.E. {n)d,wiht I 
found in several forms : ewt 996, oht 1913, noht 1714, nawt 
1689, and the archaic form tiawiht 283, 473. 

The number of the numerals is equally small. I give theiu 
D a table : 


an{e) 99, 367. 

twa 67, dat. tiea 973, tweim 1515. 
yroo 1777, 2182. 
foter 1919, 1991. 
tene 793. 
twenti 67. 

Aundreti^) 1810. 
itiietil{d) 2011. 

ear{e)siB 883. 
o^er 1458. 
^ridde 1949 

iuimtu^e 21S2. 
yrittu'Se 43. 

I shall restrict myself to pointing out those peculiarities of 
the verbal forms of the text, which are most important in 
regard to the dialect. For the present indicative, the legend 


has the following terminations: -e, -eat, -e^, for the singular, 
and f"'S for the plural, the latter termination of which, in the 
case of inversion, i.e. when closely followed by the personal 
pronoun, undergoes the same changes as in O.E. In the same 
case the termination of the second person singular is changed 
so that it drops the concluding t, at the same time transforming 
the aspirate of the pronoun into the corresponding tenuis. 

The terminations of the present optative, are -e for the 
singular, -en for the plural, the latter of which is altered in. 
the same case and in a similar manner as the corresponding 
termination of the indicative mood. 

The terminations of the imperative and the present participle 
are -e, -eS and -ende, that of the infinitive -en, in its ohlique 
form -ene, which is preceded by io in consonance with tbe rest 
of the Southern dialects. 

In the case of -j'a- formations, wbich are pretty regularly 
preserved in our dialect, the -e- of all these terminations is 
mostly absorbed by -i-, the rest of the word- formative element. 

The preterite of weak verbs is formed by adding -de, -des(, 
-de in the singular, 'den in the plural ; and these terminations 
change their media for the tenuis in cases similar to those 
which brought about the same changes in O.E. 

For the optative I cannot quote sufficiently certain speci- 

The termination of the preterite participle is commonly -ed, 
curtailed in certain cases, into -rf and -t. Also in the forms 
of the preterite, tbe formative element -Ja- is, though much leas 
frequently, preserved. It very seldom, however, appears as - 
Mostly it is softened down into -e-. 

The old richness of form in what Prof. Sievers calls the 
' third weak conjugation ' is happily preserved, though habben ■ 
87, libben 706, and seggen 327, are the only words left of it : 
pres. sing, habbe 466, segge 868, hattest 755, seist 391, Aa»eS 
817, m^ 486, Uui& 1754 ; plur. habbefi 395, segg^ 321 ; opt. 
sing, habbe 3267; imp. sing, kaue 1573, sei{\) 1350; part. 
Ihtiende 1220; pret. sing, hefde 111, seide, 153; plural he/den ' 
95, seiden 532 ; part, ihauet 466, iseid 1993. 

The strong verbs deserve a special treatment. The termina- 




tiona of the present indicative, optative and infinitive, and tlie 
pres. part, are the same with those of the weak verha. And 
for an imperative the hare stem is used. The terminations of 
the preterite are the same as in O.E., with llie only difference 
that the termination of the plural has been weakened to -eii. 
There are, however, some noteworthy disagreements in tlia 
formation of this preterit*. I pass over the simple changes 
of the stem -vowel, though sometimes they may imply a 
change of more importance. I believe I have done enough 
in pointing them out in the Vowel-changes. The only case 
worthy of being repeatedly quoted is that of u-arpen 18, 591, 
weorp 835, 2031, awarpen past part. 1277 ; which forms clearly 
enough point to the verb being transferred to tho reduplicative 
conjugation, though the preterite plural wurpen 1813, still sticks 
to the ablauting class. 

Other forms suggesting the same kind of change are -drcdde 
1336, preterite participle of dreden 622, and slepten 1426, 
preterite plural of s/epen, and a doubtful fonn bearnde (0 
heaminde) 1650, preterite singular of leornen. The change is 
complete in kten 1464, preterite singular leUe 354, 791, 
plur. letieti 2329. Only the imperatives, dred 2144, /'}l 
1920, are still in accordance with the O.E. grammar. A 
change of another kind is found in cheosen 1871, which has 
formed a new pret. part, ichosen 834, its old part,, however, 
being still in use, though mostly as an adjective icoren{e) 1394, 
1596, 1635, 3143. A strange confusion has taken place in the 
forma of drehen [dreien) 1087, 1097, 1736, 1891, 2101, and 

Idrahen 1891, 1966. Only the forms of the latter word are 
complete, and frequently employed in our legend {unless the 
doubtful form drehde 1160 is meant to be the preterite of the 
former), as droke 2434, di-oh 1087, 1363, drohen 2124, 2173, 
idrahen 1949, but all these forma are promiscuously used for to 
ttiffer, as well as for to draw, drag, A similar confusion consists 
in hekie^::^he was called being sometimes put for het'=-he ordered, 
caused, as in 1. 432. The reverse has not been observed. 
Finally, may be mentioned the anomalous verb -gan 519, 
which, in addition to its old weak perfect eode 746, 1204, -eoden 
1601, is beginning to frame another preterite from wmUen. Ii» 



tho sense of eo<te{n) we finde tcende 918, wenden 1732. The old 
past part. \a atill preaerred in ouergan 519. 

The forma of only three other anomalous verba are im- 
portant, and at the same time copious enough to be allowed 
some space in this short surrey. The first is the verb 
Bubatantive, the second is fcullen, and the third achulkn. The 
following are the certain forma of beon to be found in our 
legend: present ind. sing. 2 p. art 387, 2034; 3 p. is 38], 
393, plur. SeoS 503. Opt. sing, beo 511, 560, plur. beon 507, 
preterite ind. aing. 3 p. ues 36, etc., plur. weren 1336, opt. aing. 
were 898, 969, 1219, plur. weren 633, 1275, infinitive beon 601, 
imp. sing, beo 2041, plur. beo^ 2343. 

Our forms of uttllen are, pres. ind, aing. 1 p. irHlle 878, I30I, 
1493; 2 p. tcull 505, 1018; 3 p. urule 562, 763, 787, plural 
wulle^ 1746, 1759, and tcuUen 1324 : pret. ind. aing. 2 p. waldeat 
1866 ; 3 p. tcalde 626. 

The forms of achulkn are perhapa the moat uniform in our 
dialect. They are the following : lat and 3rd persona sing. 
prea. ichal 942, 241 ; 2nd peraon schalt 396, plur. scfiulen 394 : 
8nd person sing. pret. achulded 458 ; 3rd person schulde 604, 
plural schiilden 288. 

The foregoing remarks are intended to ahow the most im- 
portant changes the Old English grammar has suffered in the 
dialect of St. Katherine, as well as to give a short survey of 
the aounda and forms characteristic and deciaive enough for 
ascertaining the nature of this dialect, and therewith the place 
of origin of our legend. 

Summing up the reaulta of this treatise, and comparing the 
various characteristic aounda and word-forms with those of other 
writings, I come to the conclusion that the dialect is closely 
akin to that of Lajamon's Brut, the Ancren Iliwie, and even 
more, if possible, to that of the sister Legenda of Seinte Mar- 
herete and Juliana, all of which are proved to be written in a 
more or less pure Southern dialect. As to the exact district in 
which theae three legenda may have been written, I do not 
venture a definite opinion. Still the uumeroua agreementa with 
the dialect of Lajamon'e Brut on the one hand, and that of the 
Ancren Iliwie on the other, point to the legend having been 





written somewhere between "Worcestershire and Dorsetshire — 
say Gloucestershire. The later form of this dialect, aa repre- 
sented in Robert's well-known chronicle, would not oppose the 
above sssumption. 


On the left-hand side stands the Latin text ; on the right, 
and closely following the Latin, is the M.E. text. The numbers 
in brackets are those of Morton's edition. Below the texts are 
printed the various readings of the M.E, text, which are thus 
explained. The case of words or verses wanting, needs no 
explanation. In case of a MS. having more words than the 
text, the first word of the text is given along with the surplus 
word or words, when occurring in the middle of the verse. 
"When the alterations are too extensive, the whole line is 
printed, introduced by the words 'R (B or C)' writes, etc. In 
case of words being transposed, the words, when not more than 
two, are given in the order of the text, with the note 'trans- 
posed.' If their number exceeds two, the words are printed 
in the order of the respective MSS. 

Below the various readings of the English text are given 
those of the Latin text. MS. L(eipzig) is not mentioned, 
except when it cornea into contact with MS. C(otton). 

Below the Latin notes is printed the translation of the M.E. 
poem into Modern English, aa closely following the former as 
was feasible. It was the express wish of the Society to have 
a modern translation, and for that purpose I used Morton's, 
aimply altering and completing it wherever I thought advisable. 


1. E (MS. Hbq 

ir A. s. 



Pol. lo.— 104. Sawlea Waria. FpI. 13*. -p . . 

line 290 ^ 

„ llfl.— 37n. Katherma. 

„ lia 

cu[-meii] . 

340 ■ 

„ 11a. moderTjurh . . line 46 

» 14* 

of' . . 

39'^ ■ 

„ Hi. dale . . . „ 99 

„ 15a 

!i[-nan] . 

440 ■ 

„ lao. gleowuiige . , „ 145 
„ 12*. fiali . . . „ 193 

„ 154 

^sdom . 

*S* ■ 

„ I6a 

wiBdoms . 

526 ■ 

„ 13a. wiir[-«raimt] . „ 24i 

„ 16i 

te . . 





M.E. M3S. 

Fol. 17fl. war[-nede8tl . line 625 

Fol. 27a. cleopoda 

. line 1558 ■ 


„ 668 

» 274 

bn . 

. „ 1606 H 


stad . 

» 716 

„ 28a 

. ., 1657 H 



,- 760 

„ 284 


. „ 1709 H 


„ 810 

„ 29b 


- ,. 1757 ■ 



„ 869 

„ 2B» 

ta . 

1806 ■ 



„ 904 

„ 30> 


. „ 18.iO H 


feole . 

„ 949 

„ 30* 

him . 

. „ 1898 ■ 


„ 997 

„ 31a 

■ >. 1951 ■ 


lit . 

„ 1048 

;, 314 


. „ 200-2 ■ 


>nrli . 

„ 1093 

„ 32fl 

hu . 

. „ 2047 ■ 



„ 324 

flesch . 

,, 20SI ^M 

, 23a 


','. 1187 

„ 33a 

. „ 2138 V 



„ 1232 

„ 33* 

niht . 

. „ 2189 ■ 


„ 1277 

„ 34a 

. „ 223S 


tah . 

„ 1323 

,, 344 

ham . 

. „ a-wa 


Ah . 

„ 1308 

„ 3Sa 


. „ 23-<3 


,. 1418 

„ 364 

of . 

. .. 2:iS5 


„ 1*60 

„ 3Sb 

wiSin[-m-51 . ., 2435 


% . 

„ 1613 

„ 364 

eoli . 

. „ 2483 

Fol. 37o 

—66a. Margarets. 

„ 56a 

—70a. JuliHna. 

„ 70a 

—704. Oreisun of eeinto Marie (mcomplete) . 

All of these are apparently written by the same h 


Foil. 7la.—97a. contain a tract on Christ's Passion, illus- 

trated with drawings of relics, etc., by a fourteenth- century 


2. B (MS, NE. A. 3, 11). 

Fol. 1B.-18«. Kstherina 

Fol. 9*. rihte . 

. line 1509 

ceo[-deren]. . line 60 

„ lOfl 

hire . 

„ 1573 


„ 124 

„ 10* 

rihte . 

. „ 1638 


„ 11a 


. „ 1706 


seheUche . 

, 249 

„ 11* 

] ■ >. 1767 


Bteape. . 

, 307 

„ 12fl 


. „ 1830 


, 37i 

„ 12* 


. „ 1888 


hflhte '. '. 

, 432 

„ 13o 

of . 

. „ 1963 


fecit . 

, 489 

» 13* 


. „ 2016 


^to . . 

, S62 

» ll" 

. „ 2076 



, 618 

,, 14* 


. „ 2133 


Btuds . 

, 683 

„ 15b 


. „ 2193 


hlgon. . 

, 745 

„ 154 

. „ 2i6l 


ge . 

, 810 


. „ 2307 


Intel- . . 

, 877 

hire . 

. „ 2364 



, 1316 

e : 

. „ 2421 



, 1379 

„ 174 

. ■ „ 2476 



, 1447 

- Fd. ISo.— 36&. MargeretE. 

„ 36*.— 66b. Juliana, 

„ 76a.— 84*. Sawlea Wanle (incomplete). 


The whole MS. ia written by one and the same ha 



3. C [MS. CoTT. Tit. D. : 


Fola. 15. — 12b. divers alphabets, and fol. 136. index of the 
older MS., both writteo in fifteenth- century charactera. The 
following pieces are in double columns, and are all written in 
a thirteenth-century hand. 

FdL 144. — lOSo. Aaoren Biwle (wants fhe beginiuag). 
„ 106*.— 112*. Sawlta Warda. 
„ 112* — I2Ts. Hali Meidenhiid. 
,, 127fl.— 133a. Wohunge, 
„ 133*.— U7*. Katherine. 










































Fol, 1406 
„ 141a 

coU a 

woi^en . „ 


„ 111* 

14-11] ■ .. 


ranohe . „ 


„ 1420 

,i[-nen . „ 




„ 142* 

he . „ 


wult . „ 


„ 143a 

ioh ae . „ 

repTobabo „ 



„ 143* 

;; l 


„ 1440 

ake . „ 


wit . „ 


„ 144J 



ne. . „ 


„ I46fl 

to. . ,. 


ah. . „ 


„ 1456 

heoenlioliB „ 


BDhal . „ 


» 146a 

up[-on]. „ 


iifliw . „ 


„ liSb 

>at . „ 


rake . „ 


„ 147a 

ihart . „ 




„ 147* 

fltille . „ 



Page viai, 1. 10, read eu/id,)0os. 

F. -riii, 1. 18, put half atop afler aM/v. 

viii, 1. 20, intert half Btopa/i«r cKainjaar, 
P. xziv, 1. 13, read Mhniati. 
P. xivii, 1, 13, put hut ia Eoman typo. 
P. xlTiit, 1. 12, r«(i 2428. 
P. ilviii, 1. 24, Aelegodes a. 2088, d. 53. 
P. 3, 1. 1 {from the holtom), read aa ■were. 
P. 4, 1. 20, read biforen. 

P. 6, 11. 11—13, insert commaa after bileaue, hehte, and dohter. 
P. 8, 1. 6, read haU gast. 
P. 8, 1. 20, put comma after seoluea. 
P. 32, 1. 13, put Ml atop after Jrof. 
P. 32, 1. 1 {from the bottom), read the High Father. 
P. 34, 1. 22, read hehengel. 
P. 35, 1. 14,_pM( comma after oueral. 
P. 39, 1. 23, read wiBalle. 

P. 39, 1. ] (from the hotlom), read likewise /<w entirely. 
P. 41, 1. 9 [from the bottom), dele B heaste. 
P. 49, 1, S {from the bottom), read that it is, 
P. 54, I. 5 (from ike bottom), read jawa/or rule. 
P. 57, 1. 7 {from the bottom), read that is, to become mim. 
P, 62, 1, 1 {from the bottom), read to thee now. 
P. 65, 1. 16, pat full stop after hcafden. 
P. 76, L 21 {v. 1579) read alfha. jimede. 
P. 84,1. 13, read hvet se, 

P. 87, 1. 4 {from the bottom), read every where /or aupreme. 
P. 93, 1. H (v. 1892), read mo for mi. 
P. 93,1. 15 (v. 1893), read mi for me. 
P, 96, 1. 3 {from the bottom), read whirling/or sound. 


P. 96, 1. 12 {from the hottom), read: 'B. writes rewe bireawe. 
P. 1 02, 1. 7 {from the bottom), read reaRonable for convinced. 
P. 131, note on 1. 782, read imperative for indicative, and dele the | 

following aentettee. 
P. 1 32, note on 1. 854, add : argument ; see 1. 689, flit, and 1. 720, 

JUtm^to argue. 
P. 133, 1. I, read viorldmen. 
P. 133, 1 14, read than C does 
P. 134, betwe nnotesonll 1042 and 1054, insert ; 1044awflSfa. This | 

aeeimilation to {orma like \ohte, hrohte, rahte, talite, does 

not seem to have been observed yet ; the naual M.E. pre- 

tonte of vah^n is valede Of amecehen, O.E. tmecean, 

{urms like tmethte, amahte are very common. 
P. I3S, note on 1 1137, read jaws, from O.E. Araea, O.H.G. raeho, 

ioT path, powir reach 
P. 135, betwten notes on 11 1145 and 1155, inaert: 1151 ewiten; 

Aolfnc in his translation of Alcuini Interrogationes, lately 

edited by M!'Lcan in Angha, vii. 2, IS, uses cnottum in 

exactly the same sense 
P. 135, last lint, read neodeks 
P. 136, 1. 14, read prefix /or suffix. 
P. 137, note on 1. 1262, add : The modem dolt=aimpleton, fool, is 

an old past part, of dullen now used as a substantive. 
P. 138, note on I. 1311, read Bouterwek's. 
P. 139, note on 1. 1367, read utnumm. 

P. 139, note on I. I486, add : See Maetzner'a Glossary under /i»i. 
P. 142, note on 1. 1660, read Bonterwek'a. 
P. 143, note on 1. 1690, after 1655, insert: Still comp. Cant. Tales 

3207 setewale, O.Fr. eitoml. 
P. 143, between notes on U. 1699 and 1709, imert : 1702 C Wwhm« 

seems to be a different word from {li)linnen. Its past part. 

we apparently have in tho modem bhtnt. Does it mean 

to get blunt or dull, to decrease ? 
P. 144, note oa 1. 1841, read stonden. 
P. 144, »ote on 1. 1908, read horU. 





The Histoet op St. Katheetne and Hee Legexd. vii 

OuE MAinrscEiPTS — The Latin Text . . . xii 

The Middle English Text xiv 

The Position op the M.E. Elaboeation in Contem- 


The Meteical Eoem op the Legend . . . xxi 

Phonology — Vowels xxxix 

Consonants -yln 


ApJECTIYES ........ yliX 

Peesonal Peonouns 1 

Possessive Peonouns li 

Demonsteative Peonoun li 

Depinite Peonoun lii 

Inteeeogativb and Relative Peonouns . . . lii 

Indepinite Peonouns liii 

I^UHEEALs liii 

Veebs liii 

Dialect Ivi 

The Aeeangement op the Texts, etc. . . . Ivii 

Repeeences to the M.E. MSS Ivii 


NOTES 125 



31SC3HP3C ipa@@31© ©ajE^CCffi 

, VM Banctorum forfia geata ad memoriam poaterorum 
tranacribimus, quid aliud agimus nisi ut ita dicam 
quoddam incentivum bellicmn' promovemua. per 
quod imbelles animos auditorum ad bella dominica 
ut cum pro laborum exercitiis coronaa adquisitas 
I certi de spe retributionia ardentiorea fiant ad tole- 
, boc sane perpendeutea. quia non leve aut inane 
constat, ease.^ premium, pro quo aancti dei corpora sua diria tor- 
mentorum auppliciis tradiderunt ? Hec mihi cauaa extitit. qua gloriose 
Virginia katerine memorabilem certamiiiis agouem stili oflScio pro- 
posui enarrandum. ut dum infirniioria sexua constanciam. et iiibe- 
cille'' etatia virtutem attendimua. hoc nobia ad ignoininiam et oppro- 
brium iure quia easo dicat. quod puellas teneraa per ignem et lerrum 
ad patriam celestem tendere videmus:' et noa barbati homines nee per 
pacem. (fol. 169b) cbriatum aequi curamus; Et forte aliquia dicat 
tidem catholicam per totum orbem diaaeminatam • Chriati nomen 
ubique gentium fateri. et quia cbristianitaa in suia principibua * jam 
religiosa. jamque fidelis est^ jam persecutionia procella detumuit, jam 
vincula et -verbera. carcerea. et eculeos et cetera auppliciorum' genera 

J Ineipil prologus I'l 

^^HiA Ineipit p 




procul cessisse manifestum est:' et ideo diriBticolis jure non potest 
iraputari. si his nostria temporibus penalibus tormentis non pro- 
bantur, quia peraecutiouis ' occasio^ aedata pace jam quievit; Huic 
quisquis ille est tale daraus respousum ; Virgo hec non uniformi 
persecutiouia genere inpugnabatur. cui a fronte externus hostia ^ 
a tergo incumbebat domesticus et occultua ; Alia emm intelligenda 
eat persecutio. que inmanior et magis noxia est:* et quam non mater ialia 
intorquet severitna. aed Tioiorura* giguit advemtas ; Porro hec gene- 
roaa virago gemioa oppugnantiura acie circumsepta. et furentem 
persequentiura rabiem constanter^ evicit, et conglobataa yiciorum 
aciea viriliter debellavit ; Vnde geinino gloriosa triumpho non 
inutiliter ut spero ad informandaa mentes proponitur. que puellari 
corpore aic aexum vicit et aecalum. ut et uoxia carais oblectamenta^ 
vitaret. et victorioaa passione tormentorum genera superaret ; De hac 
igitur pro edificatione locuturi talo aumamua* exordium. 

[TJradunt annalea hiatorie. quod constantinua qui gubemacula 
imperii a patre conatantio' suscepit. que uno et trigin — (fol, 170a) — 
ta annis moderator egregiua tenuitr' pacem ecclesiia post decern annos 
quibua a persecutoribua vexabantur indulsit. 

Hie coDstantinua cum rem pub- 
licam strenue in galliis procura- 
ret i pretorii militca rome maxen- 
tium herculii filium qui privatus 

Constantin % Masence 

as in keiserea atude 
4 helieat i Rome. 

Ah Constantia f erde, 

]iurh )'e burhmonne read, 

in to Fronclonde, 
8 t wunede summe hwile ^ea 


,, CB a. 

■ C originally obtceta m 

3 R ant, C sum, E hwilos >er. 
■anftr added from above. 



lucania raorabatur augustuni 
Duncupaverunt ; 

Inde inter const an tin um et 
raxentium ' bellum civile exor- 
tum est. Maxeatius si qu idem 
prelio fugatus, Alexandrie parti- 
bus sese recepit; Audiens autem 
conatantinum intra illiricum si- 
num bellis undique conaurgenti- 
bus detineri :^ 

ipse repentina rabie incitatus. ec- 

for f« burheB neode ; 
1 Maxenco stooreile 
Jie refschipe in Rome. 

12 Weox umbe hwilo 

n-re¥*e ham bitweonen, 

% comon to fehte. 

Wcs Maxonce ouercumea 

16 t fleah into Alixandre. 
Conatantiu walde efter 
t warpen Lim Jieoane. 
Ah, BO wide him weox 

20 weorre on eucb habie, 
t nomoliohe in an loud 
Tlirie hatte, 
f tear he atstutte. 

24 pa Maxence iherde J>ia 
f he wes of him siker 
t of his cume carles 
war^ king of f load 

28 f lei into Rome 
as duden meast alle 
f^o oSrc of ]'e Torlde. 
Bigon anan aae wed wulf 




9 G burli ueds. 10 RB itat, R etorede. 11 
B wceaiSSe, R him. C bitwenen. U RB sal 

6ra maience vres ouorcumen. 16 RB tu 
OBtentin, C after. 18 BB ant. 19 H 
■lid from above, eilcbe^ C hall. 

B i. 12 R hwiles. 13 C weorra /or wreBfia 
:, R to be fehta, C fihte. IS C Wa&, K wrila 
It, R fleh, Blixavindre. 17 C Cnnatantin, B 
BO, wide {dot abovt p by miitake), C wei. 20 
21 C it 1 (il txpunged), E afler 

or e ffaad), CB a, B lont. 23 R yrie, C bet 23 C * to nrhe (tic). R ter, etetntte, 
B fxcept -ft the woirfj of iMa veme indistinH. 21 C herdo. 26 C was. 26 E ant, 
B canne, E karles, C carelee. 27 B war keng, E Jiat, K lont. 28 B fa. 29 C diden. 
30 R oSere, world, B weorlde. 31 B Bigea, K m, C wod. 

the dtv's need ; and Mexence dicectod the government in Rome. There grew after a while 
wrath between them, and the; uame to battle. Maienee wea overcome and fled into Alci- 
uidria. Constentiiie wanted b) follow hint and drive him out thence. But war (wais) grew 
to him BO wide (ellenaive) on every side, and espeoialiy in a conntry Called lUyria, thai he 
stopped there. When Maience heard this that he was {could be) eecnre respecting him and 
without anxiety abont hia coming, he got (made himself) king of that country which waa 
■abject to Rome as was almost all the others (rest) of the world. He began anon like a mad 


cleaiam christi zelo idolatrie per- 
sequi instituit:' et ad profana sa- 
crificia chriatianoa aut premiis 
aut tormeatia incurvare ; 

[A]nno igitur^ regni sui trice- 
simo quinto' residens in civitate 
alexandrinorum.' feralia per viei- 
iias provincias misit edicta^ jubena 
Christianos diis buis imniolare:' 
aut penalibiia cruciatibus interire ; 

32 to weorria hali ehirclie 

1 dreien oristene men 

Jie lut f ter weren 

alle to lieaSeiidom, 
3G hoa^cae as he wea ; 

sum mo furli muchele fsouea 

1 misliche medea 

BUnime Jiurh fearlao 
40 of eisfale {reates ; [^''J 

least wis stroage tiatreohea 
t licomliche piaea. 

1 Je fif 1 Jrittu^e jer 
44 of Hb rixliage 

i Jib moderbarh 
of Alixandres riche 
i 1 sende heaste 1 bode 
Be wide Be f load Tcea 
ji poure ba 1 riche 
cornea J^er beforen him 



Extat bujaamodi edietum. ab eo per regionea cireumquaque et 
nationes emiaauni ; Maxeiitius imperator. bis qui edictis nostris adqui- 
escent. aalatem ; lubet nostra imperialia aaajesfas oinnea orbia 
Dostri incolaa divites et pauperes ad noa asque convenire. et nostre 
inatitutionia aeateatiam audire ; Si qaia jueaioni nostre contraire 
presumpserit. sciat se capitali seDtentia puniendum; Auditis itaque 

32 C werren. 33 K ant, C drabea, B dreaien. 35 K heSenedom. 36 E heffienB. 37 
R teoue. 3fl KB ant, B ineden. 39 C enme, R farlac. *0 E of his fule, C eifule. 
■II C last, R tintreo, C tintrohen. 42 EB aut. 43 B ant. 44 S. rislunge. 46 C kioe- 
wtle. 47 R aliianndres, 48 B ant, E he for %, hestc, C heast. 49 R so-ao, B wid, 
C >e, B lont, C was. 61 R omila jer, EB hiuoren, C toforen. 

' alezandrie. * C originally dicta. 

wolf to parsecula holj clivircli and to draw Christian men the few that thoto were all to 
heathenism, heathea as be was; some by la^e ^fts and divers rewards, some throu^^h fear 
of his awfol threats. At last with severe tonnents and bodily pains. — In the thirty-fifth 
yflar of hia reign he eat on (his) royal throue in the capital of the kinjidom of Aleiandria. 
aad seat command and proclamation, as wide as tho land was, that both poor and rich should 


tirannice jusaioniB naandatia. fit conventua universalis ad pretoriuin 
regis; [Pjostera autem die sedena pro tribunali, jubet omnea intro- 
duci :' et preconis voce^ acclamare.^ 

ut ad templum deorum suorum 52 tfl ^e temple, i Je tun 
of hia healSene godes, 
omnea pariter convenirent. £^^^3^ ^^.j^ l,i, j^^ 

for to wur^gin ham wi^ 
et quia hora sacer — (fol. 170i) — dotes aris thu: 
imperator solenne sacrificium diia offerret :! 
mox omiies incurvati ante aim 

era deorum. juxta possibilitatem 
suam. divitea quidem tauroa et 
oves, pauperes vero volucres vivos 
offerrent : 

mponerent. et 

56 Comen alle to his bode 
% eucban Li bia euene, 
biforen Maxence seolf 
wurSgede his maumez : 
) Jie riche reoSeren 1 schep [GO] 
1 bule, bwa se mibte, 
brohten to lake ; 
J'e poare cwike briddes. 

Porro imperator ut erat regio accinctua ornatu. et militari ambitu 
stipatua preveniens obtulit sacrificium tauroa centum triginta ; Hinc 
regea et principes. hiuc magistri militum. bine prefecti et tribunicie 
dignitatis illustres peraone prout gratiorea tiranno aparere ' nitebantur. 
formoaa diis animalia immolabant ; Quibus vero ad aollempnem pompam 
aacrificiorum armenta uon suppetebant. passeres et volatilia que pote- 
rant inferebant ; Auditur per univeraam civitatem vox diversa ani- 
malium. perfunditur tellus efiuao sanguine bidentium ; fit sonus 

63 B of nearlj/ incisible; C hiM, E tefiene. 65 E wurgin, B 'i™ri!gi[n ham ? effaced], 
C warBthipen. 67 R bi hia [origiiiall;/ bia, hi insert, d /rem abov). 58 E hinoreii, 
C bifore, i [bi]uorE, effaced; C self. 69 R to wnigen, C wurtScbpeda, B wurdgede, 
S. muwinez. 60 R roSeren, B reodeien {three Uul Uttert almoit inviaible), C scheop. 
61 R BO mabte. 63 RB biohte. 


come there before bim to the temple, in tbe town, of his heathen goda, each with bis offering 
[0 worship them with. 'I'hey came all at his bidding and every one aceoriiine to bis property, 
befure Maience himself worshipped his idols. The rich bronght oien and sheep, and, whoso 
coold afCoid it, buU^, as otferiags ; the poor, lire birds. In this same city there was dwelling a 



confuBia plauaibus et choria altemantibus.^ in tantum nt tremni 
telluB aut exultare aut aane indignari tantis mortibuB (!)* videretur; 

[H]ac in urbe Alexandrinorum 64 In yie ilke burh wes 

wunieade a meiden 

erat quedam puella annorum duo Bwi=8e jtmg of jerea 

de vigiuti. speciosa valde:' aed 

qaod pluris est religiosa fide :* 

que regia costi^ quondam filia 

unica. patre jam defuncto filie 


Ilec parentum orbata solatio te- 

nera licet etate. familiam que suc- 

cessione hereditaria sibi inheserat 

pervigili cura gubernabat:' non 

quia aervorum aut ancillarum 

immerosa turba quod inter prima 

twa wone of twenti 

68 feier 1 freolich 
o wlite % o weatum 
ah jet, f is mare ■wurS, 
Bte^clfest wi^innen, 

72 of troowe bileauo 

anes kingee Cost beb.t«; 
anlepi iioht<!r 
icuret clergeftse 

76 Eatfirine inDmpnet. 
pia meiden wes ba^a 
federles t moderlea 
of hire childhode. 

80 Ah fah ha jung were, 
ha heold hire aldreae bird 
wisliche 1 warliche 
i Jie heritage ^ i Je herd 

84 -p com of hire hurde : 
nawt for Jii f hire Jiuhte 
god in hire heorte 



84 B I, CB omit ilke, C was, 67 C two. 68 E feier (r tddrdfram abfvt). B feira, 
feir, 69 R wastuo. 70 B ant fir ah, E woa /or ia, B unirdiS. 71 R aWSelueit, 
C ata^elfest, B steii^elueat. 72 B bileoue. 73 C Ane. 75 C clereesce (c expunged, 
B above it), B cleHrKeese. 77 B )ieob, (J was, il boSen. 78 B feodertes. C faderles. 
80 B gang. 81 C held, eldrene, B ealdrene. 82 B aut worlicbe. 83 KB eritage, B sat 
eard. 84 C of bira tranepoaed, faurSe. 85 H >i far fi % 86 R omitt in biro baotte. 

' C originally aUij^nanlbm. ■ mntibia, ' C eosli added on margin, L omits eosli. 

maiden veiy young in yaare, (no older thnn) two (years) less tban twenty, fair and of noble 
aspect in faee and stature, and. tbat wbicb is more estimable, steadfast within, of true faith : 
the only daughter of a king called Cost; an excellent scholar, named Katbeiine. This maiden 
was both fatherless and motherless from her childhnod. But though she was yoimg, she 
niainlained her parents' servants wisely and warily in the heritage and in the household tbat 
came to her by hirth ; not because in her heart it seemed to her good to haTe many under her, 


raortales putant delectabatur. sed 
quia non sine crimine ease puta- 
bat. si paternutn ceusum avide 
retinens. fame et inedia quemlibet 
eorum perire pateretur :' quippe 
que nichil cum mundo habere 
oommuae decreverat ; De his tan- 
tura eoIHcita ex omni (fol. 171(i) 
Bubstantia patris paululum eibi 
reservabat. cetera in usus paupe- 
mm consumendo patrioa thesauros 

fiitus exaurierat ;^ 
Non ipsa puellaree jocoa, 
non amatoria carmina videre aut 

to haliLen monie under hire ; 
88 % beon icleopet lefiii, 

f feole teUe^ wel to; 

uh ba lia wea ofiearet [90] 

of acheome % of aimne, 
92 jef Jeo weren todreauet, 

o^er misferden, 

p hire for^fedcrea 

liet<len ifoatret. 
96 For hire aeolf ne kepte ha 

nawt of ^e worlde. 

piis, !o, for hare sake 

ane dale ha etheold 
100 of hhe caldrone god [100] 

1 sponde al f olSer 

in neodfule t ia nakede. 

peoa milde, meoke meiden 
104 )Feoa lufsume lefdi 

mid laateleae latea 

no luuede heo nane lihte plohen 

ne nane aotte aongea. 
lOa Salde ha nane ronnoa 

leomin no luatncn [^'"3 

a: B habba, C mpnie habbe {tramposilian indiealed). 88 C iclepet, lafdi, B leafdi. 89 
C tellBn. ao C ba«e, was, offeard. Bl C acbome. 92 H -fl/ur jef, C jif, todreaaed, 
K todr^oet. 91 C fortf£adres, B for^feadres. 96 R ifoetred. £ iuoEtreb. S6 C Eelf, 
Kheo. 97 It world. 99 B, hco. G athetd. 100 R line ieantin^. C eliieae. 101 B ant. 
ll)2 R neodCol, C nedfnls, B l, ant. i. 103 C meke. 104 B >ca lufaum, C lafdi, B lonfdi. 
lOo h wiij. C afler 'xiS the word lufsume croassd aut, R iBBlelfs, fi leostclese. 106 C ha, 
glahen. 107 R luuBronnea/oceottesoages. 108 R beo, soages /or Tounea, 110 C leornen, 



' exhauseiat. 

lad bo called lady, that manv bighly esteem ; but sbe was afraid botb of shame and sin, if 
thej wbom bar forefatbera bad fostered (brought up) nere disperstd, or evil befell them. >'or 
henelt' sbe did not care for tbe world, 'i'lius (look 1) for their sake abe retained dub part of 
her parents' property and spent all tbe other an the needy and the naked. This mild, meek 
-laiden, this IotoIt lady with chast« looks, loTed uo frivolous plays nor foolish songs. Kor 
love talk, but had over on boly wiit ber eyes or her 

would she learn ditties nor listen ti 




' audire Tolebat. divinis tantum- 

ah eauer ha beMe on ball wiit 


modo et his attentius scripturie 

1 1 2 ehnen o^er heorte, 


iiisistebat ; 

[Hjanc pater ab annis puerili- 
bus studiis Uberulibus imbuendam 
tradiderat. quibua decenter omata 
tunc temporia nulla sophiatice ar- 
tia argutia poterat eupplaiitari ; 
Et quamvis multi experiendi 
studio litterati' objectis earn 

oftoat ba togederes. 

Hire feder hefde iset hire 

earliche to lare, 
U6 T heo, fiirh >ea haligast, 

UBdernoni hit so wel 

^ nan nes hire euening. 

Modie moiatrea t feola [120^ 
120 fondeden hire ofte 

swi^e foole halne 

queationibuB attemptaseent :' 

for to undenieomen hire ; 

ah nes >er nan f mahte 
124 neauer oanea wrenchen hire 

mid alle hia crofti crokea 

Tit of >e wele ; 

ah ae aone ha jeald ham 
128 Bwucche jeincleppea 

1 wende hare wihelos. [130] 

upon ham seoluen. 

^ al ha icneowen ham ■ 

stultoB se et idiot as recogno- 

133 crauant % ouercumen, ^| 

scentes. earn sane insuperabilem 

1 cweSen hire Jie meiatrie ^H 
1 te menske al up. ^| 

reUqnernnt; Ilia custoa Tirgini- 

pus hwil ha wiate hire, ^| 

Ul B euer. 112 H horte. lU C fader, B Eeader. 116 E writ^ aarliche to leaf 1 to 
lare. 116 B ant, R icritn % leo nndeniene Mt, C B >e. 117 E wn(« >urli ;.eii hali giat 
sowEl, CTOderQsm. 118 C ne w»a/«- nea, B euenig. 119 C B Modi, Bant, C fale. 
120Bhireofte(raB«;wwrf. laiCfeU. 122 Bte, Cundemimen. 123 C ter.B J-ear, Cmihtfl. 
124Hneuerenes. 125 CB wi«, E al, C hise. I2i~n5 irampoud bi/ C. 127 E Bwa.lieo, 

seloen. 131 C cncowen. 133 B ant ; oweteD applied en Ih^ margin. 13* B meske. 

' C originaUy literate. 

heait, oftenest both together. Her fatbec Iiad aet her early to learning, and slie, through 
the Holj GtioBt, acquired it so well that none vas her equal. Many proud scholars tried her 
often, to entrap (catch) her in very many waj-a ; but there was Done that might, with ail hia 
crafty wiles, erer once entice her ont of tho way ; but so eoon she dealt them such countec- 
fltrokes and turned their wiles upon themselves, that they actnowledRed ttemaelveB craven 
and overcome, and jielded her entirely the mastery and the glory. Thus while she guarded 





Eatis sae taliter ia palatio patria 

■ Teaidebat. cum ex tempio idolorum 

hinc sonus animalimn et tibici- 

num. hinc multimodum ' geniia^ 



aoribua ipsius inaonuit ; Stupens 
itaque causam celeranter jubet 
mquiri ; 


^MBaaumptis sec una atiquibus de 

^H&milia. ad templum usque pro- 

peravit ; Ibi queruloso gemitu 

cum ex nuntio audisset ;' 

136 t Jiohte aa to witen hire 

meidea i mei%had, , 

as ha act in a bur 

of hire burdeboldea [^^0] 

140 ha ihprdo a swuch nurlS 

to wart te awariede 

maumetea temple, 

lowinge of f ahte, 
144 ludmge of J-e men 

gleowinge of euch gleo, 

to heriea t horaumin. 

hare hea^onc godea ; 
148 as ha Jiis iherde 

1 nuste jet hwet hit wea, [150] 

ha aonde swi^e for to witen 

hwet wunder hit were. 
152 Sone se hire sonde com ajein, 

1 soide hire f so^e 

tea swa itend of wreS^e wes 

f wod ha waide wiir^en, 
156 Het up of hire hird 

hwuch as ha walde 

% wende hire )iiderward. [160] 

If out ter swiSe feole 

13S C ai, B B. 137 C meidenhad. 138 B burli. 139 C burSebgldes. 140 C >a herds ha 
a, R heo, mnrhfle, C malS. HI C toward, R fe, B aweariedo. 1*2 R mawraetea. 143 
R lowung, £ lonlnde. 144 R luding, C )>a. 146 R gleowange, B glenwinde. 146 C 
kersniDea. 147 R he«ene. 149 C hwat, B wet /or hwet, C was. 160 J) te. 151 C hwat. 
152 Qso, C again. lo3 C }e. Ifi4 C wia-Sfie; vea omitted, B viritct heo vies bva itend 
of wreafii^e. loS R. walde vurSen franspoaed. B iwurdea. 156 R vfler hire lAi letter* 
yta-w expungid. 157 S heo. 158 RBant, R f ideward, B f iderwart. C Ifond, R f er, 
U bwdSo (leeond itroki of n expwiged) . 

' Ong[nallj the same, aft-crwards altered to muUiinodorum. ' Omita genm. 

herself, and thought ever to keep hi 
her hereditaij mansion she heard si 

p hcFfelt a midden in maidenhond. aa she eat in a room of 

J _ _ _.. . " ! in the direction of the Bccursed idols' l«mple, 

lowing of tBttle, shouting of men, and all kinds of music, \t> honour and reverenoe tSeir 
heathen gods. As she heard this and wist not jet what it was, she sent immediately te learn 
what wonder it might be. As soon aa her messenger returned, and said to her tho truth, she 
was so kiudled with wrath that she was about to go mad. She called up of her household such 
a« she would and went thitherward. She found thero a great number crying and screaming 


deplorantes quosdam inspexit. 

160 joindeT: jurinde, 


qui se' cliristianos' esse fate- 

1 feotiade unjuldeliche 
wis reowtule reames, 


bantur. sed metu mortis ad pro- 

"p criatene weren 
164 1 leaffule in godes lei ; 


phana sacrificia impellebantEr ; 

ah, for dred of denS, 
duileD yea deoueles kc 
as J-e teuSene duden. 


Hie' veliemcnti dolore cordis 

168 Hwa wea wurse j^en beo, 
beorte iwundet, inwi'B, 


aauciala. deliberaterroTjeumhujuB- 

for ]ie wrecclics f lia seh ^M 
swa wra^e werkes wurcbea ^| 

172 ajeiu godes wiUo ? ■ 

modi sacrificium liberali auctori- 

pobto J-ftb as ha wea 
f.uldi % J-oIemod 

tate dampnare:' simul et tironni 

ae jung Jing aa ha wea, 
176 bwet bit mahto joinen, 

Jia heo hire ane were 


male sanum edictum improbare; 

ajein se kune keiaere 
T, al his kinericho. 

Tenena itaqoe paululum intra 

180 Stod Btille ane hwde, 


ae ailentiura tacite' quidem sed 

% bef biro heorte up 
to ]?e behe bealent 


abalto fudit orationem ; 

Je iherot is ia beouene. 
184 Bisobte hira help, 1 bap 

160 C )eiende, jnrendB. 162 R rewMe remes, B reow«fale. 163 B Je. 16* R leaffol, 
CBi, Rlay. 166 C diden, C£ -p/!"- >es, R be8>ea (eie) deooela, B deofles. 167 R heSene, 
B heiidene, C diden. 168 C was, B bene, R hire /or heo. 170 B >et, R heo iseh, verm 
ITO-80 nearli/ wviiible. 171 R bihUb bwh, B ee. C ^^[^eP] indislitKt. 172 R ajeiiieB, 
Cajain. 173 R hen. ITfi R so, heo, C waa. 176 C hwat, mihte, B jeinin. 177RCB}ah 
far Jia, C ha. 178 C ajain, R so, CB keiser. 179 B ant, K onala ul. 180 B Btot 

1H2 C helend, B healant. 183 C f iliered, beiiene. 184 B ant. 1 

' C le inserted from above. ' ee chriilianoi transposed. ' kiac. < C originally tacita. | 

and j-elliag impatienllj with meful lamentationa, who were Christiana and believing in God's 
law : hut, throngh fear of death, performed the devil's sacrifice as the heathen did. Who 
was inwardly, in heart, worse wounded than she, for the wrotches whom she saw work Buch 
evil works against God's will P Sho thought, however, aa she was patient and mild, b'-- 
mg a thing, ■»'--■■'—■-'-■--■ ■ - '* * ■ ■ -— -— ^ '- 

a alone (b) etrire) against so powerful ml 


I EiDC pectus et linguam christi 
TDUDtens signaculo. audenter ad 
conspectum iinperatoris prorupit:' 
ubi inter ceaorum atragem ani- 
mal! um. et araa inmundi cruoris 
sorde contactas. supra omues fia- 
gitioaua' idolatra ominebat ; 

[I]ntrogressa ergo^ beata virgo. 
sic ait tiranno ; (fol. 171i) 

Salutation em tibi imperator 

T. wisdom, as wisliciie 
as al Je world is iwuld 
Jiurh his wissuiige. 

188 Jjreftor wopnode hire 
mid so^e bileauo 
T: wrat on hire brt'oste 
1 biforen hire te^ 

192 1 tunge of hire mu^ 
ye ball rode taken 
1 com leapinde tax's 
al itend of ^e lei 

196 of }6Ti hali gast, 
as to keiser stod 
bimong f sunful slabt 
of p islein alite 

200 deouele to lake 

f eucb waned weoued 
of >e mix maumez 
run of f balefule 

204 blod ul biblodeget 
t bigon to jeien 
ludere steuene ; 
" Oretimge, keiser, 

208 walde wel bicumen Je 




IBS B anl^ C wiaednni, B me. 186 C wealt, B iweld, 188 C prafter. 189 CBwiS. 
190 B ant. 191 R B ant biuorcn, C om<7« t, a teeti. 192 B ^ to tunge, C leritei % 

hire tuDge. 193 C owtV. rode. 194 B ant, R lepimje. 196 B hh d itent R omiti ]-e. 
196 CB >B, 197 R ye, B Blot. 198 R ^e, C suneful, B Bojifule. 200 R deoalen. 
201 E vfuriet, weouet. 202 C fa, E mawmez. 3U3 C >at, balefulle. 20* C blod 
emillei/. btblodkad. 20S B ant. 206 R atefne, B eteaueae. 207 B Gretiage. 

208 R wcl tiinitted, biemnea ye tramposed, C B biuame. 

' C ociginaUj/aysfioiiM. * Omits eijo. 

SKviour that is honoured in heaven. She sought ot him help and auccesa and wisdom, as 
wisBly as all the world is governed through his direction. Thereafter she armed herself with 
Irue faith and marked oa her breast and before her teeth and the tongue of her mouth the 
lign of the holy cross, aod came bounding forth all idndled with the flame of the Holy Ghost, 
BB the emperor stood nmoag that Binfal slaoghtei of the cattle slain as a sacridee to the devil, 
10 that each accursed altar of the fuul idols ran all besmeared with that baleful blood, and 
(she) began to cry with a loud voice : " Greeting, emperor, would well become thee for thy 



proferre nos et ordinis dignitaa et 
rationis via promonebat:'' si hec 
ista que cultibua demonum exhi- 
bea quamquam in nullo proficua 
aed omnino noxia aint atque danip- 
nOBa i si hec inquam creator! tuo 
impend eres. 

et Bolam illiua majestatem ado- 
randam mtelli'gerea. per quern 
regea regnant, per quem ele- 
menta mundi^ initium aump- 
serunt' atque subaistunt. qui non 
innoxiorum cede animalium. eed 
fide et salutarium observantia* 
mandatorum delectalur ;^ 

for f ii 

jcf J>u y\i like jeld, 

■f tu dest to deouelen, 
212 f forded >e ba«e 

i licome t i sawle 

1 alle ■f hit driueS ; 

jcf ]>u hit jnlde 
216 t jeue to his wurSmunt 

\t: Bcheop ye 1 al Jie world, 

% wait J-urh hifl wisdom [220] 

al -p ischapen is. 
220 Ich walde, king, greten Ja 

jef Jiu understode 

\ he ane is to herien, 

J'urh hwam 1 under hwam 
224 alle kinges rixle^ ; 

"' ne mei m> )mg 

wi^stonden his wille, 

Jiali he muche Jiolie. [229] 

228 pes heouenliche lauerd luueS 

treowe bilcauo 

1 nowSer blod ne ban 

of unforgult ahte ; 
232 ah f me halde 1 heie 

hia halewnnde heaatea. 

210 C |if, Bgef,Rille. 211 C dost. 212 B forSd((S. 213 C in— in,R licom. 2U B 
fa.Cdriuen. 216 C )if. 216 U jeone, wur^mund, B wui^emimt. 217 C ■<fi for fii-st yti, 
aihao, R ant. -lli B ant, B 1 al wait, C weald, B welt. 219 B ^ al. 220 E keieer 
far king; ip^ten, C grele. 221 C jif, E ^ai. 222 B he him ane. 224 C riilen, 
B -nsM. 225 C mai. 226 B iwil. 228 B heoueneliche, C heuenliehe. 230 B ant 
nowder. 232 C man for me. 233 C halewende. £ balewiade, C beaste. 

' premcneiat. ' ifenieiiia mtmdi transposed. ' C originally sumterimt. ' C oriKiaally 
obsa-vaata. ' Balutaraim nbaervaiilia tiacspoBed ; mandaliirum deliclalar tranapoaed. 

glory (hiebneas) it thou (gaveBt) this same tribute, wbicb thou dost to devilH, and which 
destroys thee both in body and in soul aud all that pursue the same course ; it thou payedet 
and E^Test it to his honour who made thee and all the world, and rules by his wisdom 
all that is made. I would greet thee, kine, if thou undcrEtoodest that he aloae is to be 
praised, through whom and under wliom all Icings rule ; nor may anytUng withstand his 
will, though be has much forhearancc. This heavenly Lord loveth true faith and neither 
blood nor bone of innocent cattle ; but that we keep and rsvereace his sanctif png behests. 





Hanc temeritas humaua 
nullo' pemitiosius ofiTendlt. qui 

ut rationaliacreatura rebus iDsensi- 
bilibus cultum divinitatia exibeat i 
et Lonorem invisibilis mujestatis 
ad viaibilea transferat creaturas ; 

Etenim malorum omnium in- 
ventor diabolua. inter omnea sce- 

a ^iog hwer^urh 
muiihele madschipa 
236 wreS^elS him wilS mare 

^en f Bchafte of mon 

f he scfaop % }ef schad [240] 

ba of god t of nnel 
240 J>urh wit 1 f arh wisdom 

Gchal wur^en Be forlS, 

nt of his witte, 

^rh )'e awariede gast, 
244 ^ he jelt \q wnr^munt 

to witlosc fing, 

^ te feont wunelS in, 

^ he ahte to godd ; 
248 1 herc^ ^ hersumeS 

seholicho schaftes, [350] 

blodles X bflnles, 

t leomen huten liue, 
252 as he Bchulde his ^ heoren 

t ate finge sehuppont, 

^ is godd unBehelich. 

pe feont )io findeS euch uuel, 
256 bimong alle hia crokinde oreftes, 

■wiHS neaiier an ne keccheS he 

234 E In-aryurh. B3S R medschipe. 2H6 B wreoBefi, C wra^SeS, B omits wiB. 
237 fill fe/aj-t. Rschaft. 3S8 fi acheop, C schend. 239 B ufel. 2it C B wurSe, 
H tmilt Be. B noriS. 242 C wit. 243 B Jfut. 244 C wurBscbipe, B wurtiemunt. 
34fi B unnitlew, B imwitelese. 246 G f«ocd. 247 B ]iet, gode. 1248 B ant, C harefi 
{tumA e Krillm over a), B herietS. 249 C sebait. 260 S. 1 blodles, B aat 

351 B ant, C limen, viSut«, B bute. 262 B soulde, C % omilled, heren. 263 B ant, 
ichopflnt. 254 B god. 255 C feond, fifor seeowrf je, E fiut, al for euch. 256 G oniti bia, 

B hiss. 257 B kecheS. 

jriginally nxfe. 

Nor is tbere anytbinB by wbicb the great folly of man angi^rB bim (with) mora tbiin that the 
oeatare man whom he made and gave Cho faculty of iliBtinguishing both good and evil by 
lEoson nod windom. should lu9s his wit so far, thriiugh the accarsed spirit, tliat he payn 
Iho worship, which he ought to pay to God, to senselesa things, that the fiend dwells in ; 
and honours and reveres vieible creatures, bloodless and boneless, and limba without 
life, as he should the Creator of himself and of them and of all things, who ia the inTisible 
God. The fieud that inieateth every evU, among all hia crooked crafts, with none catohetb he 



lerum auonim artes nulla dubioa 
pernitioaius appetit, nee alias a dei 
cultu subtilius avocat. quam -ut 
cum sciamus noa deo soli' debere 
quod formamur et^ iiascimur ; 
bee omnia elementia mundi as- 
cribi debere auadeat. quibua voa 
divinitatis^ iiumen attribuitia et 
appositie* nominibua pro deo sin- 
gula atque universa veneramini. 
nulla alia rationem* (!) in banc 
erroneam opinionem traducti. nisi 
quod coetemam deo esaentiam in 
se servare videntur ; 

Que plane a deo ex nicbilo facta 

crDftiluker oang men, 

1 d « t bileaue, 

60>nfh mlt« mea 

f 1 1 n to w t n wel 

f h b SI} tene, 

b 1 h htforS 

264 > If h nliehe feder. 



ft ^ f tan, 

n^er, furh mare raedtwhipo, 
268 of gold o^er of seoluer, [270] 
% jeouen htim misliche nomen 


of ai 

of wind 1 wude 1 ■wettres 
272 t LersumeS 1 wurgiS 

as y&h. ha godes weren. 

Ne naueS he Jiurb o^er J'ing 

i Jrta bileaue ibroht ow 
276 bute f ow Jinnche^ 

■p ha Bohulen Icasten a, 

for >i f je ue schen ham [280] 

neauer biginnen. 
280 Ah fcr nis but«ii an godd, 

Jiurh hwani witerliche 

9fil B ahte, CB wite. 263 B 1 {iaiirlril 

I It heoueaeliuhB. C henenliclie fader, 

267 C laadschipe, B nieadscbipe. 


fi™ abavi) iborene ant, C iborne. K broht. 
B feader, 265 C make, B makie, C swuche, E rt 

26S seiner. 269 B ant, C jiuon. R nome. 271 R oi for % of jvr %, C wattres, 
B weattres. 272 E hereundS. C wurclieiS, B ant wurt5gi-S. 273 C tab ; hit /or ha. 
27* C e/l/r oSer the Utters o« expuaged, B oder. 276 C bote >at, Jiunehe. 277 R 
sehnlden. C lasten, E aa, B &. a78 EB sehnlen for aehtn. 279 E nener. 280 C bot, a. 
281 B fur. 
' d^ soil tranaposed. ' inaerta el. ' C originally nposilis. * divitatit. ' ratime. 

more craftily foolish men, nor leadeth them to nnbelief, than (in) that he malteth men who 
onght to know well that they are begotten, born and brought forth through tho beavenlr 
Father, to make such idols of wood or of stone, or, through creater foUy, of gold or of 
Bilver, and givt5 them divers names of sun or moon, of wind, wood and rivere, and revere and 
worship them as if they were gods. Nor hath he by any other means brought ynu into this 
belief but that it seems to you that they shall last for ever, bceanse that you never saw their 
beginning. But there is only one God, through whom assi^edly all these things were made, 




Bnnt;' et in hano mundi formam 
miral)ili conspiratione sociata ; 

Que Bieut initium ex dei crea- 
ione' sum peer unt. 

'. perhennitatem ejus beneficio 

msequentur ; 

Et ideo coeterna deo non sunt, 
quia impossibile ^ est craeaturam' 
temporaliter factam. creatori auo 
qui est sine tempore i 
^t couaempitemam ; 


1 solus est s 

la alle wcren iwrahto, 

% of nawilt ; 1 i Jiis world 
284 istt us for to froTirin 

1 for to fremien ; 

't algn-a as euch Jiing hefde 

beginnuDge of liia godloc, [290] 
288 alswa schulden oUe 

habben emiuage, 

jef he f waldc. 

Englea t Hawlon, 
292 Jiurh f ha bigunccn 

ahten 1 mahten. 

endin furh cunde ; 

ah he, Jiurh bis milce 
296 1 godlec of bia grace 

make^ ham ^ ba beo% 

in ecbe butcn endo ; [30( 

1 Jerfore nis na Jiing 
300 eucniug ne ecbe 

■wi'S godd, f je gremie^ ; 

for be is hare aire scbuppent, 

1; scbeop bam in sum time 
304 1 na timo nes neauer 

f he bigon to beon in." 

282 R ha. omliud. 283 B ant— ant, E uawt, seeo'id 1 emillid, B weorlde. 281 C frouren. 
386 B uit, RB omil ivr, C framien. 286 C And. iiafdo. 2BT C biciunioge. 2SS 
C scliulen. 289 C endinge. 290 C jii, R Iia, waldeu. 297 B maked, C bedn. 298 C in 
cmillai. 299 E toruore, B Jeniore. 301 C gremien B gremied. 302 C schnppend 
Mgit half nf second p rut »/), B schupent. 303 B ant, schop, E al /or ham, B i. 30* 

mtt ant. 305 K he ne bigon. 

lU' C origiiially eratiom. ' C originally impassiMe, ^ C originalljr cr 

tod of nothing ; and placed in this world to comfort na and to benefit na ; and oIbc aa averr- 
thing had a beginning of hia goodne.=3, so should all thinga haye an end, were he to will It. 
Angela and souls, aa fhey had a beginning, ought and might naturally haTe an end ; hut he, 
throngh his mercy and goodness of his grace, makes them to be eternal without end. And 
Ihereiore thore is nothing equal to nor everlasting with God, whom yon ptnvoliB ; for He is 
the Creator of them all, and made them in time (in some time : lo-day or yesterday] 
and there never was a time in which he (hunseli) began to asast." The emperor 



Talibus ergo dmnitas non est asseribenda. que sub dei dispoaitione 
posita non que sue' volunlatia aunt (fol. 172fl) faciunt. sed a deo in- 
posite aerviunt rationi ; Dum (!)' ergo non sunt plurea. sed unus naa- 
centium et viventium forniator est deusr' qui aicut omnia creayit. ita 
imperio suo omnia cohercet atque diaponit ; Tibi ergo iraperator per- 
pendere opus eat:' ut cum tu quidera homo sis et ideo mortalia. et tu 
prout terreni imperii exigit principatua multis mortalium milibus 
preea. si quis horum debitum tibi apecialiter honorem alio conferret. 
et alteri quamlibet' potenti aut inpotenti decollato sibi a te beneficio 
faraulaturus insisteret. num. tu non* buuc reum majeatatia judicares. 
et quera promptiorem in tua fidelitate animadverterea. Luic omnem 
honorem depoaito fraudulonfo condonures ? Miranda ergo eat aed 
timenda tibi dei patientia. qui cum te aublirai imperio quod mortalea 
magni eatimant preease hominibua voluit. tu tamen tantis ejua in- 
gratus beneficiis. rebus insensibilibus attribuia, quod conferre debueras 
illius magne majestati ; 

[C]um bee puella loquitur, ira- P^ ^"ser blstarede hire 

perator jamdudum visu in virgi- ^"^ »"''^^ «*'^«P'' '^^^'^'^ [310] 

nemdefiso.vultusipsiuaclaritatem ^°^ ^^^ ^ ""^ «P<''' J" 
ct verborum conatantiam tacitua 

conaiderabat ; Dehinc in verba 
liujuamodi erupit ; 

Speciosa quidera bee ista foreiit 
o Tirgo que asseris. si rat ion is 
munimento fulcirentur; 

Swi^c ho awundrede him 
of hire wliti weatum, 
1 Bwi^oro of hire wordea, 

il2 1 feng on Jiub to sjfeokene : 
" pi leor is, meidea, 
t ti inul5 murie ; 
% witti % wise 

ilG wordcs hit weren, 

306 B bistearede, 307 B ewide, R atEap. 308 K spec. 309 K him omillrd. 

310 1{ wastun. 311 B ant, C awiSre, B ewider. 312 C speliea. 31* E mnri. 
316 'S. wordee h Mt {sic), B w^ucdes. 
' C lue inserted from above. ' Bit. ' originally quemlibit. * I omils iion, C 


Ked at her with sMning oyea while she epake thus. Much was 
utiful form, and more at bet words, and began thoa to speak ; " Thy Ci 

■'• -' '■— i^-i- e witty and wise words, if thoy 

[i pleasaQt ; and i^ese w 




leren false : 
witen wel f xae Inlien 
e bilcauet u re lei [^21] 

320 hcfde labe spruug. 

K'oB vero non ignoramus oranes 
religion um sectas et universos sa- 
crorum ritus rationalibiis manasse 
primordiia ; 

Komani namque principea justicia semper et religione mortales 
omiies preeuntea. totum in leges suas orbem redegerunt; Non ergo 
vaoa eupersticio eat his uti' cerimoniis. quibua loiiga etas religionis 
auetoritatera dedit. et servata tot seculis fides, sequendos monet nobis* 
esse (fol. 17'Zb) parentes. qui feliciter secuti aunt suoa ; 

Vestre autem credulitatia secta. 
ita BUperflua et irrationabilis est 
ut nulli sane menti recipienda* vi- 
dealur; Quidenim tam absurdura 
et ab humana ratione tam alienum. 
qiiam ut jeaum queni judei cruci- 
iixerunt dei filium asseratis. quem 
x-irilis iguara conaortii virgo con- 
ceperit. conceptum clauso utero 
pepererit* qui a discipulo traditus 
crucis Buspendio interierit, de 
cruce triduane sepulture moras 
pertulerit. de sepulchro re- 

Ah ol f je segge^ 
ia se BUtcl sotschipe, 
f hit na wis mon, 

324 ah witlese, hit weue^. 

Me hwet is mare medschipi 
yen for to l«uen on him, 
1 aeggen he is godaB suue, 

325 fe f Gin-s demden 
1 heaBene ahongede 
1 'f he wes akennet 
of Marie, a meiden, 

332 buten monneB man, 
1 iboren huten 
bruche of hire bodi, 
deide 1 wca iburiet, 


317 C fif. 318 a we amitlcd, Wfiiten {Jirat e expunged). C lahos, B la>Bn. 319 R ley. 
331 C svggen. 3'i22 E swa. Sii B witttese, C wenen. 323 C hwat, madschipe, 
B meaitschipe. 327 B ant, C seg^en ■f, he. 328 B ornitt he, B fe far % |iwg indtitinel, 
R gi«i!B. 339 E heiSane, C heaCe. E ahongan, bongeden. 330 C am-ii 1, B anl; 
E tet, C waa. 332 ealirel;/ entilled by C, 333 C utrilft wifiuM, R wriUi t iboren of hire 
bodi, B wrtta % iboren of bire bate. 334 R writa buten bruche. 335 fi ant, C 

' C originallj ut. ' moritl nobis transposed. = C originally feipUnda, 

* C ociginally peptril. 

irere not fnlse : but vre know veU that onr lairs, our belief, and onr faitb had a legitimate 
orim. But bU thut yim mj is such manifeet £ol!j, that no wiae man, but witless, would 
cradit it. Now (Why) what is greater madness than to believe in him, and say that he ia 
n of God, whom Jews condenmed and heathens han^ ? and that he vas bom of Mary, 
lan and (born) in epotkss purity, (tbflt he) died and it 

I maiden, without 


Bumpto Spirit Q siirrexerit.' que 


sane omnia vana et null! 
credibilia liabeiitur ; 

Nee sufficit vobia tam stulto 
error! adibere consensum. niei et 
inmortales deos nostroa sol em 
et lunom temeraria^ insectatione 
condempnetis :' quorum bene6cio 
utentes mortalea bono rem qui 
numinibua debetur non solvere 
Bine offenaione non poasunt ; 

Quem^ enim tam remoia celi plaga et secreta orbis regio ab 
bumana conversations adeo aervat ignotum. ut magno deo soli Toti- 
Tara non exibeat religionis culturam P Quo gens tam barbara. quo 
lune celi di vinos non attribuat honores ? 

[A]d hec summotenus virgo ore fees meiden !ett« lutel ^M 

Bubridena. tiranno ait ; Tota in er- of al f lie aeide, ^M 

rore* veatra disputatio ex boc esse 356 1 amirkinde sme^eliclie ^ 

336 % herhcde hdlc ; 

1 azBs of dea«, 

1 eteah in to heouene ; 

% schitl eft, o domesdei. 
340 cumeu ba to demen 

Je cwilce 1 te deude — 

hwa walde ileuen J^is, 

f is as noht wur^, 
344 f olle owcT leaaunges 

beo^ onlefliclie. 

Ah jetne fnmche¥l ow a 

to forleoaen ow Jus 
348 in JniUi misbileaue ; 

ah ga^ jet t segge? acheome 

hi ure imdeadliehe godes, [|33l 

)ie Biinne 1 te mone, 
352 f ouch moa ah to hersumia 

1 herien in cor^e," 



338 E hereiede. 337 It ftroas, 
C henene. 339 B Rnt. 340 B 
B Bse, C nowt. 316 li unleflich. 
B ant, R eegeS, C eclioniB. S50 B 
362 CB te Jor to, C her for hersiun 
C emirkende. 
' C originally mrresclt. ' C originally 

II ant, steh, oiaila in ; to J'e heonene, 
nt. 312 CB ileue. 343 R is al as, 
inoli. 318 CBi. 34B Romiisjet; 
;dlitlie, imdeaSlielia, B undeaddelichB. 
354 S. J>i3. 3S5 B emits al. 36G K B unt, 


* C originally n 

buried, and harrowed hell ; and arose from death, and ascended into heaven, and ehall again, 
on doomaday, come to judge both the quitk and the dead ? Who would believe thia, whicli 
ia aa nothing worth, so that all your leasings are incredible F Bat yet it aeeraeth not to you 
enough to flBBtroy (lose) yourself thus in suMi onbelief ; but yon even go and say shame oon- 
cerning our immortal gods, tho Sua and the Moon, which every man {{n earth oognt to honour 
and worship P " Thia maiden thought little oi all that he said, and smiling complacently 



jef Tiim Jiullich ouswere : 
" Alle ich iBBo Jane sAen 
sotliche iaette. 

360 CleopcBt )n?o Jiinges godes, [360] 
'Ji now^er Bturien ne mahen 
ne Bteoren ham seoluen, 
but en as Jio hohe king 

364 hat ham of hcuene — 
1 heo biihc* to him 
Ba schufto to his schuppeat ? 

patet. quod iia' de quibua Bermo 
eat et ceteris elementia divinitatis 
nomen inaniter attribuitis, nee' il- 
lis inesse sed preease divioitatem 
attenditis;' quia alterius adju- 
mento divinitas eola non indiget. 
Bed una in se et siniplex atque per- 
fects eat quia incorporeua et in- 
visibilia. et incorruptibilia deua 
est:' ad cujua nutura hec ipsa 
mundi elementa velut factori buo 
(fol. 173ff) famulantia inpositia 
ofHciia subvenire* conspiciniua. 

et pro meritia hominum dei* judicio vitales mortalibus aut cor- 
ruptiorea^ auraa ingerunt; Nullam^ igitur divinitatis esaentiam^ tali- 
bus constat inesae. quibua officii uaturalia obaervantia non ex proprio 
arbitrio. aed ex creantis pendet imperio ; Aapice cursum solis luneque 
discursus. et utrique cotidie per viciasitudines temporum vel ortum 
vel occasum repetendum; Superventu noctis sol diem perdit. quem 
tamen nee semper iUuminat, dum nubium objeetu excluditur ; Luna 
sui patitur detrimentum. et plenitudiuem luminia aub constitutions 
creatoria aut perdit aut recipit ; Varios preterea aiderum lapsus 
ilidern conaiderare licet, accessum quoque^ maris et recessum. quod 
alternantibua motibua aut sereno quiescit aut tempeal.ate turbatur ; 
terra imbribus infusa raoUitur.'" eadem aut gelu stringitur aut calore 
aiccatur ; Quin et aspectu dei" metuena contrenaiscit.'^ ac se imperio 
subditam motu ipso fatetur; Ipsum aerem perniciosior'^ alitus sepe 
corrumpit et dum gravaverit efficit'* peatilentem ; Vincuntur fuaia ad 

3G7 R Dosware. 358 B ^, C i, sea. 360 B sottUclie, R aotliub, iseide. 360 clepea, j>oa, 
B bing. 361 C eturie. 362 E slocon, C aolueti. 363 C B but«, C te, E heh. 364 
B ta/er of, B heoncue. 366 B hea^for haheS. 366 H, schat, C Buliup^^Dd. 

' Ml. ' inaarta in. * attuidilia omitted in L, added on margin in C. * anlurvirt. 
' domini. ' eorrvplionii. ' Nulla. " etaenlia. ' L 5«o. C oripinall j judjik, the last 
nlUble n( wliirh is scraped out, but bj anotber baad again added on tbe maigin. 
w melUieil. " domiiii. " C oriirinallv coHlieMcscil . " C originallj' pemicioiiBiiar. 

gave Wm this answer; " I perceive that all thy aayings are foolishlj' ordered (put in order). 
Call you those thingn gods, which nnn neither atir nor (when m'>ved) Hteer their conrae, eicejit 
u the high king of heaven bids them, and tbej submit to him like creatures to their creator ? 


dominum precibua pluvie. et prolixa ruraum aerenitas supplicatione 
mutatur.; Adverte igitur qualiter cuncta hec elementa aut inposite 
serviunt rationi. aut in uaus hominuin necessttrioa ex gratia conditoris 
vertuntur ; Hec aunt* que pro deo yenerantes adoratia, nee intelligitis 
qoantam creatori contumeliam ad vestram nisi converst fueritia eter- 
nam dampnationem infertia. B 

qui unua et incommutabilia deus Nis buten an godd, ^| 

in se perraanens numquam (fol. 
173b) desinit ease quod est cuius 

J OS ich ear soide, | 

f al fc world wrahte 
1 alle worldliche Jiinges ; [370] 

conaempiterna^ divinitas potenter ^ ^^ „urehe« his wil 

omnia mutat nee rautatur ; 372 bute men ane. 

Quod ai ita eat immo quia ita est 
inipromtu eat. 

Desine igitur talis predicare. 
que nulla valent ratione compro- 

falso dii eatimantur et error 

Stille beo ]m Jienne 

1 stew Bwuclie wordea ; 

for ha beo^ al witless, 

376 1 windi of wisdom." 
pe keiser wundrede him 
swi^e of hire wordes, 
1 wediude cwelS : 

380 " Meiden, ich iseo wel, 
for sutel is 1 e^aene 
o Jfiae Buliiche sahen, 
f tu were iset jung 

884 to leaf ^ to lare. 



[SJtupena imp era tor in Terbie 
puelle ait ; Quantum ex verbis 
tuia adverti ;' faa 681:* 

naaiia a primis annia erudienda 
persedisaes.^ nullo inferior in- 

368 H ye fir t, C >at/or % 370 B al, J-ing. 371 C And. 373 K buo (ti imdtrliHii 
and e inaerted inaUad, Bpparetillg hy ether hand). 374 E Bwucche. 376 C beon. 
376 R B ant, E wundi. 378 C swuche/cr hire. 379 E ant, E 1 al wedinde, 380 C eeo 
381 B sntfll hit ia, B ateana. 382 R aifar a, C J>ulliche. 383 B Jiet, gnng, E ieat jnng 
' omits tuK(. ' ttmpiUrna, ' C originaIlyattr(i. ' C originally pAi/opiSoruBi. 
' C originally perstcthei. 

There is but one Gad, as I hafora eoid, who made all the world and all -woridly things : and 
all thin)i;B worl: his will but man only. Be thou still then, and stop such irords ; for they are 
all Toid of reason, and empty of wisdom." The emperor wondered greatly at her words, and 
angrily said: "Maiden, I see well, for itis manifest and easily seen by thy stranga words, that 
thou Wert set young to belief and learning. But of such doctrina Iboa host (so) learned 

^^^^^^H LIFE OF 31 ^M 

doctrina paluiaaeB. et deoruni 

All of swuch larspel 


J-u haucst leaue ileornet. 

f tu art Jieronoat 


388 al to deope ilearct, 

hwen Jiu forowe^est, for ]ji Crist, 

nmnina divinitatis h on ore vacua 

ureundedlichegodea; [391 J 

nequaquam astrueres ; 

'i seist lia beo« idele 

392 -i empti of gode. 

Ah waatu nil hwet is ? 

Dum ergo noa' incepta sacra 

"We scliulen tringcn Ui ende 

peragimua. te interim'^ opperiri^ 

f we bigunnen habbeS ; 

oportet. quia nobiacum itura es 

396 \ tu schalt, Jju motild. 

ad palatium. et regiia honoranda 
muneribua ei noatria ad quieacia 
juBBionibus ; 

to curt cumea Beo'Sen, 

1 kinemcde ikepen, 
jef J-u wult f i wil [40U] 
400 iwcuden to ure ; 

for jef hit went ajein us, 


Ee schal J-e na teone ' 


ne tintreobe trukien." 

BT Hec diceoB.* accito clanculum 

404 pa he )ua befde iseid. 

Quntio miait litteras regio anulo 

cleopede an of his men 

signataa per infra jacentes pro- 

deamlicbe to bim, 

% sende iseelede writes 

vinciaa. ad omnes rethorea et 

408 -wiX bia abne kinering 

386 B 1 >■ Ah, C hrespBl. 386 hanes, 
389 B forcwedast, C godd for Crist. 390 

R oaiil, leaue, Ueorned. 388 C leared. 

B undeBUche. undeadliohe. 391 B ant, 

EideL 392Cemti. 393 RB o™( nu, C hwat, B wet. 394 C B bringe. 396 B ant ; ^H 

W for Ya. 397 CB cuma, E BO«Sen, 

C ei'Sen. 398 B 1 >ine mede, C kepe. '^M 

3W C jif. 400 wenden, B iwende. 401 

C )if, ajain, E ageiues. 402 C teiie. 403 ^M 

E lintreo, V. Hukie. 404 B >iaa befde tra«^c 

>!id. 406 C elenede, hise. 406 R dendiohe, ^H 

C dettmelioliG, B dearUche. 407 B ant. C ueolede, Biselede.' 40S B wid. ^M 

' omits 110!. ^ inaertB mm. ' originally operiri. * Imperator tnaxentiua for ^H 

(thy) teliet that thou art in that reapect all i 

ton deeply learned, vhen thou, for thy Christ, ^H 

thou now what is to bo done P We ahall hri 

ng to an end what we have begun ; and thou ^^H 

shiktt, thou bubbler, then como to eourt, and rt 

leeive royal meed, it' thou wilt bend thv will to ^M 
I thee troublennd tonnent." When he had thus ^H 

ours ; for, if it ?oea against us, there shall not f ai 

ipokea, he called one of his men privately to him, and sent WTitings sealed with his own royal ^H 


grammaticos. et qiiibua In doctrina 
faraa celebrior nomen adqiiiaierat. 
ut ii' omnea ad pretorium alex- 
idrinorutn^ sine rccusutione oc- 
currant. eo atudiosiu3 quo illoB 

altis imperator honoribus donan- 
doa promittit. et inter primes 
palatii auia interease consiliia. tan- 
tum ai banc coiitionatricem teme- 
rariam auis assertiooibua aupera- 
tam reddiderint.' 

et hunc imperatori optatum reportaverint triumphum. 
quatinuo blaspliemiaa quaa diia 1 wenden Jro hokeres 

420 of his hoa^ene godes 
magnia irrogaverat. in auum caput 

jeont al his kineriche [410] 

to alio Jie icudde clerkea, 
1 het ham hihin toward him 

412 hare cume awiSe; 

1 swa muche ]je awiSere 
f he bihet to media ham 
mid awilSe heh mede, 

416 ImakienhomhehestiahiBhaHe, 
jcf ha Jioos modi motild 
m ah ten. 







refuaas agnoscat. quia rationia 
ordo oxigit. ut primum arte ora- 

toria qua se jactanter attollit^ re- 
vincatur.5 postmodum vero ei diia 

imtnolare detrectat. peuali cruci- 
atu intereat ; 

Paruit nuntiua (fol. 174o) regis 

upou hire heaued ; 

f ha were on aire earst 

iken '\ icnawen, 
424 f nis bute dusilee 

al f ha driueB ; 

t Jireft«r Jiecne 

fordon 1 fordemed, 
428 }ef ha nalde leanen 

f ha jet Icfde, 

1 hare lahe luitien. 

pea sonde wende him for^. 



409 C jont. 411 C And. B ont; fet ha/or hot ham, C hiheE, B towart. 412 C come. 
413 C muchel, BviSre. 414 G meden. S mea^in. 415 C wiS, B wid, R fcinemirfie /oi' 
BwiCeheli; meden. 416 C miiken, omili ham. 417 C jif, 418 CB oneroorae, C raihtdn. 
419 B ant wende, R hire for fo. 420 R heSene. 421 R uppon, heauet, B heanead. 
422 Bf/orf; erst. R Barest. 423 B ifcannen ant, H icnawea. 42fi Bant. 427 Bant, 
£ tcHlei foidou hire "t ferdemon ; C fordemet. 42S C jif. 429 B >«t. 430 B ant, htien. 

431 R JieoB. 

' alexandrinum. 

* C originallf attoUat. 


rinz to all ths celebrated clerks, and commandiid them Co hasten quicklr to come to him ; 
ana ao much the more (quickly), because he promised ta rcwajil them with right higli meed 
and to make them highest in his hall, if the; might overcome this proud preacher, and turn 
the inaalting mockeries away from his heathen gods upon her own head ; so that it might be, 
ftrst ot all, known and acknowledged, that all that she aims at is but folly; and thereafter 
that she ahould he destroyed and condemned, if she would not forsake that which she still 
belicTed, and lore their liiw, This mesGengei went forth, as the Eing commanded, and he 


mandatis. et expletis i 
Bacrilegis offiuiis. 

operator 432 hs fe king hehte ; 

1 he hoold on to herien 

^^Wirginem jubetcompreliendiet ad 
palatium duci. 

quam blando primum sermone 
cepit affari; Nomen inquiens tuum 
puella aut genua, et quoa in studiis 

liberaliliLta magistros habuiati pe- 

nitua ignore, sed specioaa facies 

et decora te alto aanguine ortain 

proteatatur. et loquendi peritia in 

laudem refunderetur magiatro- 

rnm. nisi in hoc uno oberraasea. 

quod diis ominipotentibus (sic)' 

derogando contumelioaa peralatia ; 

his heaBene 

wiB mialiche lakes, 
436 long time of Jie dei, 

f he idon hefde ; 

1 wende J-a, jfe wari, 

toward his buriboldea, C'HO] 
440 1 bod bringen anan 

Jfis nieidcn biforen him, 

1 soide to hire fus ; 

" Nat iuh nowSer Jji noine 
444 ne ich ne cnawe {.i cun, 

no hwucchemen Jiuhaueat ihaued 

hiderto to rooistrea. 

Ah )ii Hchene nebscheft 
448 1 ti semliche schape 

echaweB wol f tu art [450] 

froo monne foster ; 

t ti Bwuti speche 
452 Waldo of wisdom 1 of wit 

beoren ^e witnesae, 


456 f tu so muchol misaeist 

132 C te. 133 B omit) %, C -f, for % lie; held; a/itr to tAi umrd heaSs rnored eu/. 
431 B heSene, B lieai^De, R niiLvmez. 436 R loage, C dai. 138 B ant, C ]>e omilltd ; 
weri, Eawiiride. 439 B tonart, K te /or hia. 410 B sat, Rhet/iirbed. HI RB 
taiaoren. 142 B snt. Ill R cnawe >e ue )iL 115 R hvuclie, ihsuet, C haned. 
117 C nebscliaft. 148 B ant. loO R monnes. 4fil B ant, R sputi (>i<t), B swuti 
(doubtfut ifvor y,. 163 C bera, B baore, wittnesse. 151 C )± 465 Bmswmez. 
456 £ so muclie, C misseiat i^firtt b iuaerted from aboce). 
^ omrtipatentibiia. 

(the latter) kept on to worahip hia heathen idola with divers offeriuffs, long time of the day, 
till that he hud done ; and then went, the wretch, io hia palace, and bade bring immediately 
thia maideiL before him, and spoke to her thus : " I know neither thj neme nor do I know 
thy laee, nar what kind of men thou hast hitherto had aa maaters. But thy fait fcainrea 
and thy ae^mly shape show well that thon art the child of noblemen ; and thy 
speech would beai witness of tby wisdom and lutdeiBlaBdiiig if than didst Dot mistake 
Cerning our idols, whicb thott bo greatly lerileet and nuKkesl otlr gods ; who shouldst, 



[RJeBpondens puella dixit ti- 

Si nomen queria* Katerina 

dicor. costi quondam regia filia; 

Liberalium artiura non ignobiles 

dock) res quantum ad inanem 

mundi gloriam habui. de quibus 

quia nicbil micbi quod esset con- 

ducibile ad bcatcm \tfam contu- 
lervint. tota bee eorum memoria 
aileacat; Postquam enim naiiibi* 
tenebrosam erratice doctrine noc- 
tem deserui ; Audivi enim beatam 
voeem evangelii domini mei jeau 

t ure godea hokerest; 

f sclinldeat, as we doS, 

heien % herien." [-ISOjl 

460 Ha onswerede 1 scide : 

" Jef }n ffult mi nome witen, 

ich am. Eaten ne icieopet. 

Jef [tu WTilt enawen mi cun, 
464 ich am kingca dohtcr ; 

Cost hehto mi feder ; 

1 habbe ihauet hiderto 

swi^e hehe meiatres. 
468 Ah for >i f te lare 

f hoo me lerUen, ["^^''S 

limped to idol jelp, 

1 failed to bijete 
472 1 to wur^schipe of Je worlde, 

ne ne helped nawiht 

eche lil to habben, 

ne jelpe ich nawiht )>rof. 
476 Ah sone ae ich aeh Je loome 

of Jie ao^e lare 

^ leaded to eche lif , 

ich leafde al ■p o^er, [4B0J 

480 1 too me him to lauerd I 

t makede him mi leofmon, fl 

467 B Bnt 4SS R fet. 459 C tieieu ham 1. 460 It heo him onswere (de nddedfromM 
above), ant. 461 C }if, wilt. 462 B icleoped (d lerillm ever t). 463 C jif, wilt, R ienawfin, 
C B cnawe. 464 R b expunged after am. 465 C fadei, B foader. 466 C haae, ihaued. 
467 RBmonie/orhebe. 46S Rt/or Ah. 46B C ha, B learden. 471 Bant, C biieate 
472 B omils %. R for fir 1 to, B wuidwhipe, E w-tM. 474 H winnen for habben, 
B haben. 476 R ich ne jelpe, C nawt, B J'erof. 476 R bo, iseh, 477 R bali/or soSe. 
47S B J>B, to f eche. 4bO RB ant,C tok, R lauerd (e wiifftn weri]. 481 R leouemoD. 
' C originally traiino. ' nomm querU tranGposed. ' omita mUhi. 

do, honour and reverence them." She anewered and Mid : " If thou wilt know my name, I 
am called Eatherine. If thou wilt know ray lineage, I am a king's daughter. Cost waa 
the name of mj father ; and I have had hitherto very diatinguiahed roaBtera. But because 
the learning which they tanght me serves to tain glory, and tends to the gain and to the 
honour of the world, and helpeth not at all to attain everlasting life, I hoast not of it. But 
as soon as I saw the light of the true learning that leads to eternal life, I forsook al] the 
other, and took Mm for my lord and made him my love, who said the«e word^ hy one of 



cliristi. cui me Hponaam et ancillam 
foedere stabili devovi. cuius nu- 
mine inspiratua multo ante tem- 
pore ex Yoce ipsius propheta ela- 
niabat dicena ; Perdam Bapientiam' 
Bapiuntium et intellectum intelli- 
gentium reprobubo ; 
Audieram et illud propheticum ; 
Deus autem noster in celo, omnia 
quecumque voluit fecit ; 
Simulacra gentium 
■^rgentum et aurum. 

>era manuum haminum ; 
p8 abent et non loquntur^ usque 

j^ui confidunt in eis; £t alibi:' 
:s dii gentium demonia; Alio- 
f gain tu qui manu hominia forma- 
I tOB omnipotentes deoa asaeris. quos 

Jie feoB word seide 

f urh an of his witejcE : 
484 ' Ichulle fordon ]?e wisdom 

of j'eos wise worldmcn, 

he sei^i % awarpen Je wit 

of Jieoae world witti.' 
488 Ich herde eit Jeos word 

of an o^er witege : [490] 

' TJre god is in heouene 

f wnrcho^ al f be wule. 
492 peOH maumez beolS imafcet 

of gold, 1 of seoluer, 

al wi^ monnes honden 

mii^ bute speulip, 
496 ebncn. buton sib^e, 

earen buten lierunge, 

honden buten fidungc, 

fet buten jonge. [500] 

500 peo f bam niabie^ 

molen boon ilicb bam, 

1 aUe f on bam trusted ! ' 

Ah nu f\i seist f ba bco5 
504 alweldinde godes, 

twnlt^ ich dobamwor^scbipe: 

4S'2 C t, yis, B seide perdsm . . . reprubabo. 433 tntiTilii omitl 
Peidam . . . reprobabo. 481 K -^ is icikulle, B Icb chulle, fordo. 

R waipen, C awarpe, 487 R ]>eos, C ^ttie. 488 C ^ia. 4S9 d. wiw^u uuiu . . . hutuiu 
\ al »irit a -(• Similes illia i„ OB nicege Deua ■ . . aurum asque ml aimilea illis finat. 
400 Rfisnre, gocld, B Vre,go1S, Cbeoene. 481 E tFe/nrj!r«( t . C wile. 4B2Rniawmez, 
Cbeon. 493 Ralmid/orot.OBeluer. 494 Csmidal. 495Cwi-Kute. 198 BBpohnon (3K),C 
wi*ate, B bute, silShtSe. 497 Cwi^uten, huringB, Rherung. 498 CB bute, C felinge. 499 CB 
'*"" ^ heom, Cmakien. 501 C B mot«, E ilicha heom tranepBied. fi03 B aut, fia, omiti 

£03 C jiiit, fi bead. 504 C alwealdende, B alls weldlnde. 606 B wurdacMpe. 
' C aapienliam added on margin. ' inserts e( cetera. 

Is ; ' I shall destro}' the wisdom of those wise worldling, he saith, and cast Aova 
itanding of tho prudeut of this world.' I heard again these words of another 
pconbet: 'Our God is in heaven, who doeth all that be will. These idols are made of 
gold, and of sUver, all by the bauds of man ; a mouth without speech (ha«e they), eyes 
— ithout sight. Bate without hearing, bands without feeling, feet without walking. May 

f that make them be li 

> tbem, and all tbev that trust in them ! ' 

it tlitit they Bie idl-powerfiil goda, and wilt that I should do worship to them. Show ' 



corpore prostrate et vuUu huinili schaw Bumhwet of ham, 

adoras. postquam me de cultura for hwi La beoa wur¥e 

ipsorumi euades. certura potentie ggg for to beon iwur^get ? 

(fol. 1746) sue experimentuin oa- , „■ ■• -^ 

1 J J 'i lor ear nulhcli nowser 

ham heien ne henen. 

Dum enim aculptura artificis ex politi aut arte mecliaiiica ex ere 
masaa in hominem formaDtur. aut in ligno et lupido vclut eenaili 
Tigentia membra insculpuntur, reatat ut ora loquantur. oculi videant.! 
aurea audiant. manua pulpent. et cetera official nature' quod simulant 
peragant;* Sin autem vana plane religio immo inaania eat* talibus 
divine potentie honorem aascribi. qui nee cultoribus suis beneBcia ulla 
prestare. nee oifensi Be vindicare poasuut. certe quia nee ae esse sciunt..a 
dum materia inaenaibilia ; in * quamcumque earn similitudinem miseriB'T 
nee forme gaudet nitore. nee monstruoae^ vilem rei imaginem* ex-l 
horret.'" quin potius tauto est illia" in templo marmoreo sedem habere..] 
quanto in iiimuiidis cloacia jacere ; igitur deoa'^ venerabilea. quibus^ 
nee honor inpensus be ni volenti am. nee contemptua parit offenaionem; 
felices talium numinum cuitorea, quibua" tanta in neceaaitate non. | 
asaunt. in tribulatione non auccurrunt. in periculia non defendunt ; 

" Nat ich hwuch jii Jioht heo, 
512 quolS j!e king Ma! 

" ah ivordes Jiu haueat iaohc. 
Ah f'olo nu ane hwile, 
1 tu Bchalt ifinden 
516 hwa Je onawerie." 

508 C eciieaw, euraliwafc. 607 C hwiit far bwi. fiOl 
B iwnrdget. 609 E er. C milich, B nulle ich. 610 R ba 
quoS, B qt<. 613 C haues. 515 B ant, B u:ha1d. 516 
' forum. ' I. iJieiuiH ; C origioally the aame. ' m 
" omits ai. * C in inserted from above; L omits in. ' 
" C originBUy miiittruose. ' nee viltni inoHjfruots rei imagi; 
" iiii. " dii. " C guibta added on margin. 

tt thj mcaniag is," quoth t) 
MaicBce, " but words tlion bast enough. Bnt hate patience non awhile, anil thou si) 
find wbo mil ane^vei thee." The messenger, in couise of time, when he had g 

[R]egius interea nuntius pera- 
[ gratis provincie finibua alexan- 
B driam revertttur :' duceus secum 
I' qtiingungmta^ viros. 
[ qui ae in omui doctrina egiptiorum 
I etartiumliberalium.immoiDomni 
l.flapientia mundi escellere ultra 
Vomnes mortalis aaserebant; Hoa 
■introductoa. iiiiperator sciscitari 
Bcepit:' de doctrina et eapientia 

»ram; Illi e contra multa^ 

refemnt. et quod inter universos 
wrientales oratorie facultatis^ et 

aapientie arcem tenebant; 

Sed tu' inquiunt imperator 

617 B ulritta pea sondes mo 
B ant, a oinita 1 J-urhsoht. 
623 R wisdoniB. 628 C - 

fes sonde sm on, ambe 

Jia he hefde al 'f load 

ouergan 'I Jmrhsoht, 
520 com, % trolite wi¥ him 

fifti Bcolmeistres, 

of alle Jie creftes 

^ clere ah to cunnen, 
524 % in alle wittes 

of worMliche wisdomes 

wisest on worlde. 

po king wes awi^e 
528 icwemet, t walde 

■witca jel ha w 

Be wise 1 se witti 

aa me loreseide ; 
532 1 ha somet seiden, 

■Ji wittiest ha weren 

of alle Jie meistrea 

■p weren in 
S36 't heaued of J>e heste, 

t mt'st nomecu^e icud 

of alio clergies. 

"Ah Jiu," cwe^enla, " keiser, 

(fnl. 175a) nobia habea aperire 540 aheat to cuBen 

I. C )if. sao R m~i 
S32 C And. B ant, R heo, G 
63e R heauet, C hehato. 637 C 
C sniiVi keiser. 610 cntinly omitted by C. 
* C arigiually qaiquaginta. ' mulla 

1 tt}ein umte long, B log. BIB C ha, B Ion 
620 B ant. S2t C Bcolemttiatrcs. 623 B >B olaaro. 
627 C was, C swiSa wel. 

_ forawends, R uoreHeide. 

lomen. ' 633 B witiest. 535 R [>8t, E jje, C eoatlonde. 
630 C Gwea^eo, B qne^en, R heo, 

a iaaerted from above. 

' C originally _/aeH/(o(es. 

the land and Booght it thronjh, camo and brought with him fifty schoolmaaters, of all tha 
crotta that clerk ought to know, and in all aciencea of worldly wisdom tha wisest in the 
world. The king wna eitremelj pleased, and wished to know if they were aa wise and sa 
intelligent a they were said to be ; and they ali of tliem said that they were uf most under- 
Btaniiing of all the masters that were in the East, and the chief of the iiighest, a, 
the most renowned for ali kinds of knowledge. " But thou," said they, "OEnipe 



quaDam causa e nostris sed- 
ibus evocatos hue venire volu- 
ieti. si mugDum aliquid out divi- 
num est quod per nos tibi 
queraa exponi ; lUe respondit ; 
Eat penea nos javenis quidem 
etate puella. sed verbonim afflu- 
entia et sensu ut nobis videtur 
incomparabiliter aatuta ^ queetiam 
viros disputando victoa reddit et 
elingnea aed quod altius me' urit, 
in mortal! um deorum noatrorura 
culturara inanem esse non Bolum 
aaaerit i sed vana simulacra de- 
monum affirmat; Poterani sane 
banc vi regia ad aacrificandum in- 
pellere. aut penalibua tormentis' 
extinguere^ :' aed pluria nobis esao 
■videtur. ei fieri poteat vestris earn 

argumentis inclausam confutare :' 
et ad viam rationis infiectere; 

Quibua ai obstinatiua reatiterit. 

for hwet icud fing 

^u heto UB hider to 

1 he ham onswereda ; 
544 " Her is a meiden 

junglich of jerea, 

ail so swi^G witti 

1 wia on hire wordea, 
548 ^ ha wis hire anea mot 

meistreS us alle. 

Ah jet mc tconeS mare, 

■f ha tukeS ure godea 
552 to bulewe t to bismere ; 

1 seiS hit beo* deoulen 

■p in bam dearie^. 

Ich mabte iuob ra^e wel, 
556 habhen aweld bire, 

jof ha nalde wi^ luue, 

■wiB InBer eio lanhure. 

Ah jet me Jrancbe? beter 
560 f ha beo ear ouercumen 

■wis desputinge ; 

"X jef ha Jie jet ■wule 

Jien ha wat bire woh, 
564 wiSstonJen ajein us, 

ich hire ■wule don 


[550] I 


641 C bwat, B icudd. 542 C cumen. 643 R B ant, B onswereS, B ontewerede. 
C jaiwliiig, B on for of. 646 R so. 647 R of fir on, C hiau fir hire. 660 C tenelt. ] 
fiSl £1 tuket. 662 R b^e, ■biaemere. 563 B seiA, C bcon, (ieauckn, B deoflen. 651 1 
R daritfS, B dcariefie {last Utter expanged). 555 C milite, B rea«e. 556 C awealt. J 
667 Cyd. 63S RoMtiieie. 560 R writu :-)) heo bso ofcumen ear. 561 E deBpnting,T 
B dflsputimge. 562 C [if, J-a, 564 C ajain. 666 C wile. 

' C originally exiiiigan. 

tell ns for irhHt notable cause thou badcst us to come Mtlier ; " and he answered them : 
' Here is a maiden jrouns; in years, but so exceedingty intelligent and wise in her warde, 
with her reasoning alone masters us all. But it grieres me yet more, that she 
ir ^ods into contempt and derision ; and says they are dorila that lurt within 
might speedily enough have compelled her, if she woold uot with love, with, 
horror at least. But yet to me it eeemeth better that she be first orercame witl^ 
; and if she will still, when she knows her error, resist us, I shall put her to thS' 


11^ ^H 



earn exquisitia tormeotis 
I faciam interire ; 

I Tos autem si hanc auperare preva- 
I Ineritia i 

I altiB voa muneribus donates ad 
I propria remittam. aut si id potius 
I digttis "i 

liotemis consiliis meis^ tob pre- 
I «ipuo8 interesse concedam ; 

I Ad hec verba imperatoria. unua 
[ eorum vebementer indignatus ^ 
[■stomacLanti yoce respondit; 
I magnum imperatoria consilium, o 
I memoria dignam aententiam i qui 
I ob degenerem uniua puelle con- 
K flictum eapientea mundi de remotia 
t^portibus jussit iDTitari. cui satis 
rfdisBO potuerat unum ex' clien- 
ttulis nostria adveraum omnes oc- 
Pcidui orbis philosopbos 

to f e derueste deaS 

f me mei hire demen ; 
568 t ■wis kinewurSe jeouea 

jelden ow hohliche 

ower jong hider, 

jef }e ajeia wulle^ ; [570] j 

572 o^er, jef ow is wilre 

for to wunien wi^ me, 

JO schulen heon mine readosmen 

in al!e mine deame ruces 
576 1 mine dcame deden." 

J?a onswerede J>e an 

swiSe prudeliche, 

J-ua, to Jie prude prince : 
580 "Hei! hwuoh wis read 

of se icudd keiaer [580] 

makien ae monie 

clerk ea ta cum en e, 
584 X se awiSe crefti, 

of alle olergiea 

nt of Alisaadres lend 

Jie aire leste ende, 
588 to motia wi^ a wcidcn ! 

Me an mahte of ure men 

■wis his mot meistren, 

667 G mni, demet (t ezpunged, li«e abom e preceding). 668 li ant. C made for }eouei. 
689 R ower hwile for ow hehliche. 670 entii-ely amilled 4t R, C goag. 671 R i (fit ' 
(if, aiain, willeS. 672 C [if. B ivmre. 673 B te, C B wunie. 674 E schuU, C beo, , 
tenSeBmen, Ereadraen. 576 Ederua, Bran. 576 R derne, C dedes. S7J Boatswerede. 678 
BpradelicliB (r imerled fraa above), C pnidliclie. 679 R omitu )tis. 6S1 R bo, C a' 

iiudd, Bcud, 682 CB 


680 EB 01 

;, C creftiw | 

' lUDBl pBinful death that it 

let! transpoeed. 

.0 doom her to ; Rnd with n 

lyal giftB repay you highly 
^ , , . desilttble to yon to remain with 

. yBshali he my connfielinrs in all my secret coondla and my secret ondertaltin^." Then 
■Itawered one ol them right proudly thus. \a the proud prince ; " Ha ! what wise eouusd , 

thiaj of BO renowned an eitiperor, to make so mHoy clerks, and euch right tikDful ones in al 
ands of knowledge to coma out of the remotcrt bouads of the land of AJexandria b 
rgua with a maiden 1 Surely one of our meu might with his reasoning master, aiid niUi j 


productum disputarer' 
nedum tot sapienteB uniua cQusa 
puelle Ycxari compelleret ; Sed 
quaDtulacutnque est producatur in 
presentiam nostrara de qua dicis 
■ puella. ut cognoscat se nondum 
■vidisse ant audisse preter liodie 
Bapientera ; (fol, 175i) 

[Sjervabatur' interea virgo 

San eta sub custodia.^ sola contra 

quinquagiiita pugiiatura. cui nun- 

tius supervenit de coneilio regis 

et de conflictu in craatinum con- 

atituto; Nichil tamen ex his 

famula chriati turbatur. sed in- 

perterrita militie sue agonem 

domino commendabat dicens ; 

1 wi^ his anea wit awaipen, 
592 J-e aire -sriBesto pSOlJ 

^B wune^ bi westen. 

Ah, hwuch se ha enuer heo, 

let bringen hire forB, 
S96 f ha understoade 

f ha ne stod neauer, 

bate bifoien dusie." 
600 f ia meiden wea bichiset 

Jfo hwile in cwarteme 

1 i cwalmhuse. [600] | 

Com a sonde 1 Boide hire 
604 f ha schiilde cumen for* 

to fehtea in J^e marhen 

ane ajein fiiti. 

Nee J?ia meiden nawiht 
608 herfore imenget 

in hire mod inwiS j 

ah, buten ench f earlac, 

bitahte al hire f eht 
612 in hire healeades hond, 

% bigon U, him [SI"}! 

to bidden feos bone : 

" Crist, godd, godes anna ! 

G92 C Tisieta. 663 R -ft. 894 R eo heo. 597 C yat, B stoS. S9S }<en, >U, dai, S 
this line eotirtly. 599 R biuoren, C bifore, B biuore. 600 C yes. B beos, C vim. 
E >eo, B i. 602 C in, cwalmhufl. 60* K mne marhen for cumen forS, B cume, 
mrilei : cmnen iorS to fehten, B i. 606 C ^lun, B uifti. 607 C tis, S n&vhit, B lien 
far nawiht. 608 C ferfore, B heniore, R nswiht/or herfore. 610 E farlac, 612 H hi 
omitttd; healindes, B helendea, hont. 613 RB Rnt. 614 B bidde, C ]iea. 

' C originally [S'\en!biitaT. ' lub custodla virgo aaneta. 

hiB wit alone overthrow, the wisest ot all that dwell in the Wert. But, whalsoevot she bi 

let hei be bionfht forth, that she may understand that she stood never, ere this day, 

before fools." This maiden was shut up the while in prison and in the toi 

There came a meseeiieer and told hei that she must come forth to contend on 

slone against fifty. This maiden wos no whit on that account troubled within her mind^ 

but, witbout anj' fear, committed all her battle into her SaviDur's hand, and beg 

to him tbis prayer ; " Christ, Uod, thoa Bon of God I sweet compassionate Jeau, of all oc 



sapientia et dei virtus altisaimi 

jeau bone, qui tuoa milites ne 

Jjater preasuras mundi formidare 

debuissent. nee' minis adversan- 
tium turbarentur. 

Kpia eo9 coneolattone preinunirB 
Signatus es dicens. dum steteritis 

tatfl regee et presides, nolite pre- 

Sogitare quomodo aut quid loqua- 

lisim. ego enim dabo vobis os et 

616 Bwete softe lenu, 

aire smellc swotest ! 

]iu alwealdende godd ! 

Jii fedorcB wiBdom ! 
620 >u f tabtest Jine 

■p ha ne sehuldon now^er 

diueriii ne dreden 

for teone, ne for tiutreohe, [6203 
624 nefornan worldlieh wondrea^oj 

ab wamDdoat bam ■wol 

bu me bam walde Jrealin' 

1 leaden nnlahelicbe, 
628 1 elnedeat bam awa, 

^ bam Tea e^ to drebeu 

al p me dude bam, 

t al ^ ba drcbon 
632 for Ji deore luue, 

deorewTirSe lautrd ! [630] 

1 eeideat Jib aeoluen, 

' Hwen je atondeS bif oren 
636 liiugea % eork's, 

ne Jienche )e nequer bwet 

ne hn je echulen seggcn ; 

for ichtille jeouen ow 
640 ba timge % tale, 

ne ib'n. ei7 R sniealle. 618 S. Blweldeade, B alwealdiode. 619 C federeg, £ feadreB. 

1 Kte/m-ii, Ctahtes. 621 B sclnde /of scliulden. 622 C diaerea. 623 R tintreo, 

~'-ehe. 624 C B na, C worldes, R wondre^e, B wontreaiSe. 625 C wearnadtie. 628 

L, breaten, B tbreatin. 628 R act. C elnedes, omila ham. 

L, dudim nr dudo? 631 R ant, drehden, C druhi'n. (>32 

634 H B seoluen Dum .... presides etc., C Eelaen Dum . 

B bidoren. C bifore, E biuore, 836 B ant. 637 C bwat^ B hweat, 

^nlle, C fiuen. 

C was, eati. 63Q 
uorewurSe. 633 B 
oog. 636 B bweng, 
19 C icb wule, B ich 

sweetest! tbnn Almighty God 1 thy Father's wiBdom ! thou that didst teach thy disciples 
that thay shonld neither tremble nor dread for trouble nor lor torment, nor any worldly 
tribntation, hut warnudst them well how men would threaten and treat Ihem onlawfully, 

K. didst comfort them bo, tbat it was easy for them to endure all that men did to them, 
■11 that they BuffocL-d for thy dear lore, precious Lord I and thyself didst say, ' Wbea 
gtand brfore tings and nobles, think je never what or how ye eball speal ; tor I abfill 

- 33 


BQpieritiam. cui non potemnt re- 
eiatere et contradicere omnes ad- 
versarii vestri. adeato famule tue 
et da aermonem rectum et bene 
aonantem in os meum ut ii' qui 
ad derogandum nomiiii tuo con- 
venerunt, non prevaleant adver- 
sum me ; Sed verbi tui virtute 
consternati hebetatia sensibus aut 
penitua obmutescant. aut conversi 
nomino {eic}^ tuo dent lion orem 
et gloriam ^ qui solus cum patre et 
Bpiritu sancto es et eria gloriosus 

f an ne Bchal of alle 

ower wi^orwines witen [640] 

hwet he warpe a word ajein oi 
GH Lauord, wune wi? me, 

1 liald f tu bihete us, 

^ sctc, It'su, Bwiicche sahen 

i mi mulS to raarhen, 
648 t jef swuch mahto 

1 atreng^G i mine wordes, 

f feo Jie beo^ i< 

ajeinea ^i < 
653 mo to undomeomene, [650jl 

moten miaaen f rof, 

Aweld, Jiurh pi wiadom, 

tare worldliche wit ; 
656 t ]:urli pi muchele mihtfi, 

^eistre ham swa f ha heon 

mid alle istewet 1 stille, 

o^cr iwente to jie, 
660 1 ti nome mir'Sgin, 

Jie wi¥ godd hehfedor, [660] 

% wi¥ pen hali gast, 

)'urhwuiie8t ia aire worlde world 

641 E nan for an. 843 C hwat, ajain. 644 B lanerd (d added from above), 3 laaert. 
645 B halt, R f et, C fat, liiliet. 646 C sette, B ihesu, C ih^u, svaehe, B swete swets (aic) 
f-r Bwucche. 64fi H swncehe, B eef , C |if, mihte. 649 R strencSa. 650 G -p for fe, 
B icimieii. 661 R cmtia aieinee, C ajainee, tt R deorevarSe, 662 B ajemes me hi to 
(dc) ; abi-tie aieines and icamen ]ii Ihroe Aarisonlal litiea indicating th$ order of loords at giten 
iv our tent; C to undemeome me. 663 C miasB, 654 E awed, C aweald, B awelt, 655 
E B ant. 657 B meatre, omiti '^, 658 B amiH mid, 669 R B wenden. 660 B ant fi. 
E wurgin, C -wur^ched (d expanaed and lint abort e), B wnrdgin. 661 C * for >^ 
It heMeader, C fader. 662 E ant, omita wiS, C B >e/or fen. 663 B omita worlde. J 

give yon both tongae and speech, so that not one of all year adrerearies shall know what 
ward he m.«.y object against you.' Lord, ahide with me, and keep that which tlion didat 
pramiae us, and put, O Jobu, Buch sajinga in my mouth to-morrow, and give such power and 
strength to my words, that tliey who are come aj^inst thy dear name, to tempt me, may 
fail thereof. OTemik, by thy wiadoni, their worldly prudence ; and, hy thy great power, 
maatfr them so that they may be totally cheeked and silent, or conrerted to thee, and 
worship thy name, that with God the Father, and with the Holy Ghost, eyer liTest is the 


in secula amen; Kecdum verba 
compleverat, et ecce aBgelus do- 
mini appaniit illi. eujua vultus 
claritate. locus quo virgo clausa 
^■tenebatur mira choruscationo ful- 
gurabat. ex qua virgo stupore et 
admiratione pene defecerat; Cui 
angelus ; Ne paveaa inquit deo 
grata' puella :" aed constanter age. 
(fol. 176ff} quia tecum est dominus 

I pro cujuB honore certamen iniati. 
ipse affluentia verbi impetum fun- 
Sfit in ore tuo. cui non tantum 

Nofde ha bute iseid swa, 

f aa ongol ne com 

UhtiBde, wis swuch 
i leome, from beouene, 

■p ha wes sumdel 

offruht 1. oflearet ; [( 

for al fe cwarteme, of his c 
I leitoie o leie. 

Ah Jie engel ehiede hire 

t sweteliche seido, 

" Ne beo fu nawiht ofdred, 
5 drihtinea dohter ; 

hald bardiliche 

on f tu hftuest bigannen : 

for yi leofmon % ti lauerd, 
] for hwag deorewiir^e nomc 

Jiu undemome Jiie strif, 

is mit te eaaerihwer, 

i stude 1 i stalle, 
i ^e wel wule witen ]ie. 

He bihat te f he wula 

i Ji niuS healden 

flowinde wettrea 
i of wittie TTordea, 


661 R aa, ecoease amen, 686 B tcritea : -^ ter ne com an etig«l. 667 lihtende. 668 
C fram, htuene. 663 C whs. 670 R offruh, C offeared, B ofiert. 672 E leilede al o. 
67S B oidret. 677 B halt, R beidelicbe. 678 C B o, C hauBB. 679 R leouemon, 
C iefmoa, B laaert. 680 B o-niis deorewmiSB. 681 C underneome, 682 C B wiiS fe. 
683 B ant. 684 C -j^, wile, R vel wute transposed, CB wite. 685 C idle. 687 
(J watbea, B weattrea. 688 C nitti. 
f 'deo grata tranapoaed. 

^iTOrld of all irorldi eteroally." Si. 
mcb light, from heaven, that she w ^ 

hia coming, waB illuminated with flame. Bat the a 

e had but epoken, nhen on angel same descending, with 
19 eomewhat affrighted and afraid ; for all the pnEon, by 

n Ti_. ii._ ! 'irted bet and Eweetlj suid, 

„ .._.,,... idfaatly to that thott hast 

begun : for thy beloTad and thy Lord, foe whose precious name thou hast undertaken this 
etnfe, is witii thee eyetrwliere, in (every) place and port, who will well guard thee. Ho 
pronuses thee that he will poor into ibj mouth Sowing stroma of prudent woida, that ahall 




non prevalebunt resistere adver- 
aarii, aed^ novo atiiporis genere 
confusi convertentur ad chriatum. 
et hii cum pal ma m arty Hi 
intra vita januam recepti, multos 
ad fidem chriati* auo roborabunt 
esemplo; Tu autem brevi tempore 
cursum certain inis tui Tictoriosa 
morto coDsummabis. et eic inter 
ehoroa virgineoa suscepta inmor- 
tali aponao perhenniter adherebis; 
£^0 sam micbael arch an gel us 
testamenti. dei. missus a deo hec 
tibi evangelizare ; His dictis. con- 

f c BchulGn ^ flit of ]iine fan 

BwiftHehe afellen ; [689] 

1 Bwuch wunder ham achal 
692 f unchen of Jri wiBdom, 

-p ha wuUg? alio 

■wen den to Criete, 

1 cmDen, J-urh niBTtirilom, 
696 to (Irihtin in hoouena, 

Monie schulen tumen 

to treowe bileaue 

Jturh hare forbisae ; 
700 1 tu schalt eone etsterten 

al >e atreng^e of )is strif [700] 

)>urh a stalewur^e de?, 

t heon {lODiie unciorfon 
704 i }e feire ferreden 

1 i J^G murie of meidnes, 

% libbon liuoB ende 

wi^ leBu Crist Jil lauerd 
708 yi leofmon, in heouene. 

Ich hit am Michael, [TlOjl 

godea heh en gel, 

t of heouene isend 
712 for to seggen }e Jjub ; 

t mid tet Uke 8t«p u' 



689 C -fl for jfri( Jie, R -p for second Jie, B echule. 690 B Bwiftflliche auellen, K afalten.' ■ 
693 C wJlafi. 69t fi iwenden, B wende. 695 E ant, C B eanio. 698 C drihten, 
henene. 697 B sclialB. 698 B treow. 700 C atotirten. 701 K strancSe, B deS expunged 
after streng«e. 703 B etealewnrhiSB, (J deaiS. 703 C B beo, R B imiienion. 70* 
Buerredene. 705 Rmeidenes, B meiddnea. TfH) Rant, C libbe, B liueai (sic). 707 C ii. 
70B C 1 ti, R leoaemon, C lefmon, heuene. 709 R miuael, D Mihel. 711 B ant, C heasBB^ 
B iaent. 712 B te/or to, C eegge, R fia /or fua. 713 C f, R steh. '■ 

qoictlj overtlirow the arguraeota of th; foea : and each naader aball thj wiedom seem to 
them, that thej will all tora to Cliriat, and come, throsgh murtjrdom, to the Loid in 
heaven. Many aball turn to trna faith throi^h their example ; and thou ahalt Boon escape 
all the BeTerity of this strife, by a death endurw with coaelancy, and abalt he then rEcaired 
into tho fair and joyful fellowship of maidens, and live eternally with Jeans Christ thy 
Xjord and thy beloved, in heaven. I am called Michael, God's Archangel, and aent it — 
heaven to tell thee thus," and with that he w*~' — — ' """' *■" *'■" '""" ''^'° ""■'■' 

t up and ascended 

stars. Thismaidi 



'mno discessit ab ea ; Ad hanc 
K&ia virgo dei in agonia robo- 
(ata.exBpectatquammox vocetur^ 
i laborem certamiDis. 

[S]eden8 itaque pro tribunali 
imperator inemoratos oratores 
adesse jubet. puellam itidem ad 
pretorium jubena adduci ; Ilia tri- 
umph ale cnicis aignum sibi inpri- 
mena. inperterrita yadit ad pa- 
latium ; 

I]Fit ex OTuni civitate concursua. 
sd audiendas controversias dispu- 
taBtium; Stant ex ad verso ora- 
tores pomposo^ eloquentie faatu 
tnmentear' stat et puella' fidens 

t steah to Jie steorrcn. 

peoH meiden f ich munne, 
716 Etod, ^UTh JieoB steuene 

starcliehe iatrenget j 

t abad baldeliche 

olSet me oome 1 fatto bire [720] 
720 to fliten -wi^ >e fifti. 

Maxence, iae marhen, 

set in kineaeotle ; 

% bed bringen biforeu'him 
724 JreoB modi moteres, 

1 te meiden wi^ ham. 

Heo wi^ Crtstes croa 

cnichode hire oueral. 
728 t com baldeliche hiforen 

pea feondes an foster, [730] 

t ajein Jies fifti, 

alle ferliche freken. 
732 Comen alle strikinde, 

Jie atrengest te swi^est 

of eauer euch atrete, 

for to heren Jis strif . 
736 St«den on an half 

Jieos meistres so monie, 

1 unimete modi ; 

% Bteah. TI5 C ]iis, B icnnie. 713 B stot, C Jiis, It Btefne, B Bt«auene. 
717 B Bleroliche, C istreogSet. 718 RB ant. 718 C ti! -p men, CB com, It ant 
721 C in fe /e>- ine. 722 C B i. 723 R bed briogen Iratupasid. R B hiuoren. 724 
B lies, C modie. 726 R ant. C mid. 728 R baldehthe iofS biuoim, B biuoren, 739 
C >eoe. 730 C ajain, K ieoe. 731 R feorlicbe, frenken, C frecbea. 733 R omili }e, 
"- ■■ >e Btcengoatii Ewi'SeBt. 734 C ewoh. 735 B te ybr to, C B hare. 737 C >es, 
738 B ant, unimeS, C imiinete, 
L invileiur, C originally nivflur. > pempoti. * C originally jiwfiwi .' 

a I apeak of, stood, by tMs voice mightily etrengthened ; aad waited with fortitude till 
uiey cnme and fetched her to dispute with the fifty. MuiencE, on the meirow, eat on his 
royal throne, and bade bring before him those proud rhetoricians, and the maiden with tham. 
She with Christ's cfdbb crossed heraeU' all over, and came boldly before this foster-child of 
tha devil, and against the fifty, all formidable antagoniata. Ail came eagerly haslening, 
the Btrongest the speedieEt, out of erery atreet, to bear this strife. Ou one sida stood tbe 
masters, so many and so exceedingly pioud ; this maiden on the other side. They aU beheld 



in domino; Uli torvo vultu in- 
becillam' etatem contuebantur. 
ista corde tactto ausilium de celo 
postulabat ; 

Stomachatur^ tiranDus. quod diem 
iDgrato consumunt ailentio ; 
Cui paella ; 

Tuinquit imperator pugnara istara 
baud equo judicio proordinaati. 
contra unam puellulam^ (fol, 1766) 
quinquaginta oratores oppouens. 
quoa etiain regiis muneribus in 
premium viotorie donandos* pro- 
mittis. me autem donativum nul- 
lum expectare jubea; 

Egovoro liujus quodcumque fuerit 
certain in is premio diu fraudari 

]joo8 meiden on o^erhalf. [740] 
TiO Heo biheolden biro 

bokerliehe alle ; 

% beo stod hercnende, 

1 biheold efter help 
744 up toward beouoae. 

pe king bigon to wreSSen, 

f te del eode awei, 

1 beo ne duden nawibt ; 
748 1 te eadie Kateriiie 

bigon for to aeggen : [750] 

" pu," quo^ ba, " keiser, 

nnuest nawt Jiifl strif 
752 ribtwislicbe idenlet, 

f dest fifti meistreB 

to motin wi^ a meiden ; 

% bauest bam bibatea, 
756 jef ba mahen oa me 

fe berre bond habbea, 

kinewur'Se meden ; 

"i me, nawibt under al, 
760 fe moti, a meiden, 

Ab ne drede icb nawibt 
f mi lauerd nule wol 




73B C JpIb. 740 C bihfllden, 742 B ant, otniis heo; etot, heronede, R hercBBdo 
(b inserted fnm abovi). 743 B ant, biheolt, C after. 744 B towart, C heuene. 74S 
C WTftS«en. 746 C awai. 747 C didfln. 748 B fe, R edie. 749 B te, C aegge. 
760 C ^ /or quoS, B heo. 751 R WriUt fa nauest nawt rihtwiBliche ()>u in a laiatUr 
apparmlly latin- hand). 752 R writei bis strif idealet, C idelet. 763 B fu/or f. 754 
C muten, B moti. 755 R ant. 756 C [if. 757 B hunt. 760 C li. 761 C ajain. 
762 R ich me mimiht. 763 R toifor -(i, B lauert, E wnle. 

1 imbedllem. ' C originally StomacJiaiiiur. > paellam. ' ineerts aat. 

her contemptuously ; and she stood listening, and looted for he!p np toward heaven. The 
king began to wax wroth, tliat the day was passing away, and they did nothing ; and the 
bieased Katherine began to say; " Thou hast not, emperor," quoth sho, "fairly arranged 
this contest, who makest fifty masters to dispute witii one maiden; and hast promised 
them, if they be able to liave the hig-her hand of me, royal rewards ; and lo me, nothing 
whatever, who, a maiden, dispute against them all. But I fear not that my Lord, for 



1 timeo. erit ipae mihi preraiuin 

in cujus nomine pugoatura' cam- 

I pum istum aggredior. chriatus 

l-dominus qui est spes et corona 

tantium ; Vnum a te quero 

E^aod mihi negare jure non potes. 

But ei mihi aora victoriam contu- 

f lerit, deutn meum vel tunc credu- 

I lusadorarenedifferas; Indignatua 

\ bA hec tirannas. noa est inquit 

I tuum nobiscondicionem imponere. 

( da creduUtate mea cura te nulla 

sollicitet ; Tu age quod agia. nobis 

inatat videre an deus tuus vie- 

toriam tibi annuerit ; 

764 jeldon me mi hwile, 

for hwaa nome ich underaeome 

to fehten o )>i3 wise. 

Ah jette me an hwet, 
768 f tu ne maht iiawt 

weamen mid rihte ; L^'"] 

]ei me is ileuet, 

f'urh mi leoue lauerd, 
772 for to leggon ham adun, 

f tu Jiin misbileaue 

lete yenae, lauhure, 

% lihte to ure." 
776 "Nai," quoB he, hottfirliche, 

as him f hoker )iuhte, 

"ne li¥ hit nawt to fe 

to leggen loha upon me. [780] 
780 Of mine bileaue, 

heo ha duhti o'Ser dusi, 

naue ]?u nawt to donne. 

Do nu f ta schalt don ; 
784 1 we Bchulen lustnin 

hu yi lauerd % ti leof, 

f al fin bileaue is upon, 

wule werien to del 

764 C B iBlda. 766 R underno. 766 H for to fehtin, C filitan, K fiase. 767 C hwat. 
769 R wBcnia, CB woame wiS. 770 C (if, leucd, E ileuet. 771 C laue, B Uuert. 
772 B te. 773 li )>i. 774 E (i«iU >enne lanhure. 778 B B q«, q, heterliche, 
B hatterHche. 777 Cjjo/orhim. 778 Conii(#hit. 779 B leggu, B uppon, C B upo. 
780 G emili mine. 783 B Jiet, R to inmr'ed from aloM. 784 R 1) aat. CB Bchiile. 
78ft Eaat,Clof. 786 R fe/orli, CB >i, C leaue, Buppon. 787 C B werie, R wcriMi 
>e to, C doi. 788 R of line. 

' G originallf pugnala. 

whose name I nndertako to fight in thia wise, will not well reward m. ,--., .., 
But Rrant mu one thiug, whicli thou mayeat not refuse with imtioe ; it it is punnitted to mo, 
Ihrough mf dear Luid, to eet them down, that thou wUt then, at least. foFBake thy 
unhehet and descend to oura ( = our faith)." "Nay," quoth he, angrily, as if [or becauirf) 
he thoiu:ht himself innilt«d, "it lieth not with thea to dictate law* to ne. Inr^ardof my 
faith : ha it Bouad, or foolish, thou hast nothing to do therewith. Do now that which thou , 
hast to do, and we ehali listen how thy Lord and thy beloved, in whom is all thy belief, I 




H [S]Ic puella 

788 yino leasunges." 

pis mciden, mid tet ilke, 
lukede on o^er hali, 
1 lette him iwurfien; 


^M ad oratorea converso dicit ; 

792 1 toe on toward 
Jieos fif 8i?e tens 
to talien o Jiis wise. 

^V Poatquam preniiia incitatl ad dis- 

" Nu je dies to Btril 

796 beo« isturet hidere, 

ior to beon mid gold 

putandum coDTenistis seuiores. et 

% geraum igrette ; 

'i se feoio culSe men 

hie confiuentem turbam ad audi- 

800 ba "t utcumenc 
copni'6 t kcpt'^ 

endum spectare videtis :* turpe eat 

bwuch ure ia kempe 
804 lure ow is to leosen 

profeasionia Testre nomen et coro- 

ower Bwinkes Ian, 
>e looted so lutel of. 

nam tacendo omittere ; 

1 sparieS ower epecbe ; 

808 % Bchome ow is to Bcbuderin ^| 

lengre imder achclde, 


1 schunien f je sehulen to. ^| 

Scbeote^ for=5 sum word, 


812 1 let ufl onswerien, 


788HofHne. 789 E mit, C ■». 792 E B ant, C tok. B towart. 793 C ba ^ 
B bes. 7B4 R tauelin, C bise. 796 C beon, iaturad, H onit, hidere. 797 B le. 



C B wi-N, B gold added in margin. 798 B & 

Q for 1, C lersum. 799 E so. 800 



807 C omit, % B BpeirieS, C owre. 808 K soheome, C Bchuderen. 810 R ant, B ki^^M 

Bchule, S. eclilen (ais). 81^ B Datswerien. 


win defend to-dnT tliy leaEings," This maidon, upon this, loolied on tho other side, and ^ 

left him to himaelf, and began to apeak to those five thnca ten in this wiae : " Now je ore 

eatirelf come hither to this contest, in ordei 

- to he greeted iiith gold and treasu 

re; and 

t and are anxious (to see] which of oi 

i is the 

were harm to you to lose the waffa 

of TOUT 

toil, of which (the wages) you (seem to) think so lightly, since you spare your speech ;' and 
shame is it fur you to shrink longer under shield, and siiun that you should go to. Shoot 

forth some word and let us answer him who is 

eonaidored (to he) the greatest champion and 



r8i quia eat in vobia' attica'^ elo- 
I quentia preditus. aut latina ora- 
K tioue inbutus :' proferat in medium 
I quod auimo concepit ; 

Hic^ unu8 qui* natu prior, et re- 
thorum peritissimus videbatur re- 
spondit ; Te potiua audire primum 
debemus. cujus cauaa labo-{fol. 
177a}-rioBum iter aggredi con- 
pulsi &umus. 

I Ego vero inquit puella poatquam 
depoaito gentilitatis errore chriati 
sacramentis ineitata^ sum. ro- 

I bnstas et fuco verborum plenaa 

]je meast kempe ia ieud 

t kenest ot ow alle of ^e creft, 

f he, f is nomeou^eBt 
6 t meast con, cume cuSe f rof, 

1 ^ he liaue^ in heorte ; 

{nnweeohulentalientake [820] 

ut of hia tunge) 
% teneli wiS me." 

"Nai," quolS ^e cuddeste 

an of ham. alle, 

" ah nu we heolS of se feor 
4 for Jie iSut hidere, 

fu Bchalt setten aikel forS, 

1 seggen carat hwet tu wult, 

t we schulen seo'S^en." 
3 "Ich," quo^ ]ie nieiden, [830] 

" Bone Be ich awei warp 

ower witlese lei, 

1 k'omede T; luuede 

2 Jie liflule leane 
of hali chirche, 
Jie ich ichoBen habhe, 
ich aweorp wiS alle 

3 f e gliatinde wordes 
f heo^ in ower bokes 

i cuddest. 8-22 C 

ye. hiilor. 82S CB sette. S26 R an 

829 E 50, C BWai, B weorp. 830 R ley. 

834 C -p, i/or ich, clieosen. 835 R al. 83f 

' inaerlB aal. ' L alien, C otigindly Ihe 

■15 C terilit )ieo 

( came. 817 B >et, R B emit he. '818 R neu 
on for of. 820 R tauele. 821 KBC qiS. 
823 B omila nu, H bo, for. 82* R iflulit for 
earesl, C hwat. 827 C B aeo«en. 828 C %. 
831 RB ant. 832 R liful, lare/cr leaaa. 

" B gUistinde. 837 C beon, owra. 

the most intrepid of ail you of the cmfts, that he who is most renowned and knows 
nmy give proof thsFeof. and of what he has in his heart ; (now we ehall take balihlii 
of bis tongue) and argue with me." "Nay," quoth the moat renowned of them all, ' 
now we have jonmejed bo far hither for thee, thou shalt put sickle forth, and sa 

wilt, and then we shall." " I," quoth the maiden, " as soon as I had throwi 
senaeleaa religion, and learned and loved the life-giving belief of holy Church, 
ve ctioBen, I cost away entirely the ghttering words that are ii 


:a (which 



^B dictionos. quibiu vos Mtos ad 

(J-e beo« wl^uten godleic [840} 

1 empti wi^Sinnen) 

840 f je beo^ mit toswollen, 

^m instantem pugnamvideo occurrere. 

nawt wi=S wit ah wi« wind 

of nno wlonke wordoB, 

f flinched se greate, 

has inquam dictionea penitus ab- 

844 1 beo« godleae J-ah 

% bare ot euch blisae, 


}ah fe blisaea ow frof. 

Low! fulliohiaal 

848 f je >enche'6 to dei [R50J 

for to weorrin me wiS : 

philoBopbicas' homeri dissercionea 

Ho mere a motes, 

et ariatotelis circumplecteotes 

t Aristotles turnea; 

852 Eaculapiea creftea, 

Billogiamos. esculapii quoque et 

"i Galieuea grapea ; 

galieni sagacissirnaB latentium 

PhUistiones fiitfia, 

rerum inventionea. aed et philis- 

^ Pktiines botes ; 

tionis cum platone ceterorumque 

856 'I alle jieos writorea writes 
f je wreo^ie'S ow on. 
pah ieh beo in alle [860] 
of ae earUche ileoret, 

famoaa auctorum Tolumina repro- 

bavi. et quamvia hia omnibua adeo 

inbuta adeo informata sim. ut nul- 

860 f ich ne font nawt feole 

lum in hia mihi secundum repe- 

neaner min ouening, 

838 C -p, beon, wiSute, B godleo. 840 C beon. CB wiS, 841 B nawit, wint. 843 iflP 

wordea Is addtd from abet,,). 843 B J-e, E so 

. 844 R ant. C be«. 845 R ant, B bean). 

S46 E blissin. 847 E lo. 848 C bonchen 

, H weorrin for dei, C dai. 849 C weorre. 

Bweorri, EwHiejmewiStodei. 850 B Homera, Emotee {s sAferf/^maiiwe). B&l Runt. 

C Arlitolee, B aristncles. 852 R eaculapi 

Kes. 853 R eallienes, C uHenes. 854 

B wreoSUn. omiu ow, R nppon for ou. 858 B emila icb beo. 859 £ so, B ileant 

(t tWW™ ««■ d). 860 C fond, fele. 861 C 

mhie. ^ 

' C on^ahy philo!ophia». ^M 

are emptj vitbin and roid of guodness), nhi 

irewith jb are iiiflated (not with wisdom but 

wilh the vind of notbing but pompous iro[^) 

, that seem to you so great, and are worthleaa 
ce in thera. Lo ! such is all that ye think 

though, and bare of mv joy, though ye rejoi 
tQ-da.y to strive against me with: Homer's r. 
erafts, and Qalen^B grips ( = art); PbUiatio's 

areumentationB, and Plato's books ; and all 

these writers' writings that ye lean upon. Though 1 am instructfld in all these from aneh 

(an) early (age), that I never found many equal 

to me, yet, because they are full of rain-glory, 




rterim. tamen quia vaaa suut 
omnia et a vera beatltudine alieoa. 
. heo ista penitus abrogans. judico 
e inter tos nichil aliud scire niai 
■ Iiunc qui est vera scientia et cre- 
tdentium beatitudo Hempiterna. do- 

riniiiuin meuin leaum christum, 

I qui dixit ^ per prophetam. 

I Perdam aapientiara eapientium, et 

lantellectum intelli gentium repro- 

babo. Hinc{!)^ est qui in preteritia 

generationibuB viam et disciplinam 
juetitie preceptis salutaribus pre- 

J-ah, for J'i f ha beolS 

ful of idel jelp, 
864 1 empti of f eadi 

1 Mule lam, 

fll ich forsake her, 

t cweSe ham al sker up ; 
868 % segge f ich ne eon [870] 

ne ne cnawe na creft 

buten of an, 

p ia soS wit 1 wisdom 
872 T heore eehe heala 

f him riht leue'8 ; 

f is lesu Crist, 

mi lauerd t mi leofmou, 
676 ^e Buide, as ich soidc eur, 

'I jct wnle soggen, 

' IchuUe fordon J-o wisdom [ 880] 

of Jieoa wise world men, 
880 t awarpen fie wit 

of Jjeose world witti.' 

pes aire schafte schnppent, 

schawde ure earestc aidren, 
884 Adam % Eue, I 

)e wit ^ to wej of li(, 

bui'h his halwundQ hanxt ; 



BS2 B ah for fah. 864 R ant, R B Imli/or eadi. 865 R ant, B omila % R liffuL 888 
B foTBske ham her. 867 R eveoiSe. B aaiila ham, C nlle, B suher. 868 R ant, i. 
870 CBbnle, R omi'i of. 871 B. ant. 872 C heore of eche. 875 R iDouenon, C 
lefmon. B laaert 876 C -)), R oimti Jie eeide ; seide ear trampeud. B77 C wile, R Bejraen 
. . ■ iatellecCnm etc, C seggen pordam aapi. Bap \ intel', B Ferdrim ■ . . iatel — 
Ifur thit three leaeia are toantuiff. 878 C wisedom. 879 C >eo9e, amiU wise. BSO 
■ warpen, awarpe. 881 R feos, C wittie. 882 R ])e, C schuppend. 893 eaztU, I 
SU R ant. 886 C okHi his ; halewende, heat, B heute. 1 

' dicit. > Bic. 

and Toid of that bleated and life-giving doctrine, I now utterly forsake tbem, aod giva 
them all dean up, and saj that I neither comprehend nor know aiiT power but of one alone, 
who is the true undcrBtanding and wiBdom and the eternal salration to those that rightly 
beliere in him, that is, Jeaua Christ, my Ixird and my bi'loved. who aaid, as I said before, 
111 will say, ' I shall deaCroy the wisdom of tbese wise worldlings, and reject the 
anding of the prudent of tbifl world.' Thu moker of all creiitures showed our first 
I, Adam and Eve, the understanding and the way of hfe, by Iub hallowing command ; 




^B per que cultores suob ad inmortalia 

1 hefde ham bihaten 

888 jef ha ham wel heolden. 

[890] ■ 

^m Tite premia incitavit. Qui genus 

heoueaeliche nieden. 

^m humanum per diakolum a para- 

Ah fe wrencht'ule feont, ^M 
furh ooden, wi^ hia wiloa ^| 

^B disi deliciis dolenB cxclusum. 

892 weorp ham ut sone 
of paraises selh^en 
into >is liflesG lif ; 
%alf Uhte of ham twa 

896 sohulde forleosen, 
)ef f godes godlec 

nere Jte mare. 


Jie Bwa muohe luuede qb 

900 fah he lulSere ahte, 

hianovissimis temporibus cum esaet 

f he lihte nu late, 

of heoTienliche leomen ; 

% for fi f he is. 

inviaibilis deus de virgiiie carnem 

904 to ure sih^e unsehelich 
in his ahne cundo, 
com 1 creap in ure. 

assumpsit, per quam visibilia appa- 

for to beon isohen Jrin, 

908 % nom blod t ban 


of a meidenes bodi. 

reret. et presentiam suam nobis 

pus he achrudde 1 hudde Mm, ^ 

aire Jinge schuppent. 


912 mid ure floschliche sehrud, H 

887 K tcrilei ant }ette bam. 888 C lif, R hen, C hclden. 889 C heuenlicbe. 890.^1 
C feond. 891 C onde, o>,.ils Iiis, R mites [t doubl/ul ; hole •'» MS.). 892 C weaip..^H 
893 C paraiBe, selh«e. 89* C Meaee. 895 C And. 890 E uotleoeen. 897 C A.^H 
godleic, E goddlec. 899 % se. 900 C >e for he, imiH ahts. 901 C omili f be.-^H 
bale. 902 C heuenliehe, Umen. 903 It ant 907 C isehe. BOS C nam. 909 C tmilt L.^H 
911 C Echnppend. 912 C m«. ^M 

fiend, through BDVT, nith hia wilee cast theni soon out of the joys of PaiadiBe into (hlK^H 
lifeless life ; and all who descended of tfiOBe two wuuld p«nsb, if that God'B goodnenj^H 
were not the prealer. who so much loved us, althongh he little (?) ought, that he defended.' ^H 
now in these latter days, from the heavenly light, and because he is, to our eight, invisibla '^H 
in his own nature, winie and crept into ours, that he might be eeon therein, and tw* ^H 
hlood and hone of a maiden's body. Thus did he, the maker of all things, ebioud and hitto H 



qua et mirabilibus operum 
signis. et nature passibilis experi- 
inentis nobis quia deus et homo 
set verua apparuit. 

Lc est dominus noster. bio est 

t schawde us his nebscheffc, 

1 wcolc, hwil bis wil wes, 

bimong ■worldlicbe men ; 
916 1 >a be befde arudd us 

of feondea raketeben, 

wendo up, aa be walde, [920] 

to wunien Jjer be wune% aa 
920 wiSuten wonunge. 

Swa f we witen wel 

Jarb wundreB f be wrabte, 

f na men no mahte, 
924 ■p be is so? godd ; 

% eft, Jiurb f ho frowede, 

% }iolede de'6 on rode, 

aa dedlicb mon, 
928 f he is ec eo« mon : 

' of bis feader so% godd, [930] 

1 of bia moder so^ mon 

in anbad ba somet ; 
932 Bo¥ godd 1 so^ mon, 

weldiade t wissiade 

alle worldliche fing, 

efter his wille. 
936 pes is mi lauerd 

f icb on leue, 

913 C Bcheaude, nehsehaft. 91* R ant, C welc, wiUe, Rvea {s addtd from aioiii), C w 
916 C ta, arud. 917 C mrilis o£ be feoades ra^e. 918 C he weade. 919 £ to omM 
C ai. 920 C -wiSute waiiuiiee. 921 C wita. 922 hat. 923 C mihte. 925 R a 
926 C dea«, o. 927 C daafiioha. 928 R fat. 929 C fader, 930 E, ant, C imlU 
931 C somen. 932 R ant, C wHtei »>$ mon ^ eo^ godd. 933 C vealdlnde, R a 
935 C after. 93fi C JiSa ; te/or mi. 937 C onii/i ieh. 

himself with our fleshly clothing, and showed ub his conntenance. and walked, while it w: 
tus will, among worldly men ; and when he had rid us of the fiend's chains, he went u; 
aa he designed t« dwell where he ever dwelleth withont waning. So that we know wf 
hj the miracles which he wronght, which no man could work, that he is trae Grod ; ai 
then fsecondlj'. fnrthermore) , in that he aufered and endured death upon the crosa, as 
mortol man, that he ia also true man ; of his Fatter true God, of hia routlier true man, i 
tmity both together ; true god aud true man, ruling and guarding all worldly thing 
according to his will. This is my Lord in whom I believe, this is all the learning that I no 


philoaophia mea. hie victoria mea. ^as is al ]?e lare 

■p ich nu leorni : [^^O^l 

940 >es is >e, i >is strif, 
In hujua nomine si qua ingruunt schul strengen me ajein ow. 

In his hali nome ich Bchal 

leten lihtliche 
cuucta adversantia auperabo."' cui 944 of al f je cunnen 

kaatea agein me, 

facile est in paucis et in multia For nis him no derure 

948 for to adweachen 

feole f-ea fewe, [950jJ 

aalvoa facere credeutea. hii'orea Jieo f him riht 

leuo^ 1 luuieB." 

Nee dum verba virgo sancta compleverat. cum unua furiali (fol. J 
1776) spiritu in risum excicatua («/c).' totam regiam blasphenia 
replevit dicens. O cives. o romani imperii alta nobilitas:' usque quol 
hec stulta christianorum aupersticio injurias diis nostria irrogabit P 1 
Nimirum ingrati deorum benoficiia utimur. ai frivola puelle hujui 
deliramenta inpunita pretereant Et nos sane ab ea sperabamus^ in- 
aigne aliquid audire. postquam tanti estimata est pro qua romane 
arcia patricius sapienteB mundi aibi accerairi voluit. et ecce priiicipium 
orationia sue fecit de quodam ieau quem chriatianorum fabule deum m 
suum esBB teatantur:' qui quondam a disoipulo suo traditus et morii^ 
adjudicatus^ in ipso mortis periculo aibi adesae non* potuit. Huno 
diacipuli aui noctuma fraude aublatum. raentiti sunt post triduanam 
aepulturam triumpbata morte aurrexiaae:' et ad cumulum figmentorum 

938 C J-is. 
C leote, R 
949 C tele, 

940 C fis; ^ for fie. 9*1 C stren^e, ajaia. 942 ( 
iihtlieh. 945 a|aia. 946 E bo. 947 C na. 948 ( 
feawe. S50 C Wute, E uiritei biuoren -p him luaieiS. 

'eschea aduQ. 

is is that nhich, in this strife, shall strengtlien me against yon. In Ma hol;^ nama 
eem lightly all that ye can object against me, liott many soever ye he ; for it la 
ifficnlt foi him to throw dowQ many than few, before those who truly believe and 




soorum in celum ascendisse testificati Buiit, Ad hec virgo respondil.^ 
Ego principium orationis mee jure ab ipso cepi qui est renim omnium 
principium. fons et origo boDoi'um. Per quera dous pater banc in- 
explicabilem mundi fomiara cum non eBset condidit. qui sane omnia 
e't me et te int«r omnia:'* per quem omnia in quo omnia' visibilia et 
invisibilia constant. 

Cui retbor. Si deus inquit ut aa- 
aeris aut dei £Hub erat. mori* 
quomodo potuit P 

BJSi homo, mortem auperare quo- 
modo prevaluit ? Hoc plane contra 
totius mundi rationem et legem 
nature esse constat, ut inmortaba 
mori poaait :' 

et legem mortia vincere queat 
mortalis. Cum utique et ai aliquo 
modo concedatur f 
ut deus aut homo debeat predi- 

962 An, for ham alio, 
onswerede 1 scidc, 
" Jef he wea, aa Ju seist, 
so? godd 1 godea mine, 

956 hu mahte he aa mon 
derfliche deien ? 
jef he ■wes soS mon, 
hu mahte he doa¥ 

960 Alle wiae ^itea wel 
■p hit is ajein riht, 
'i ajein leaue 
of euch cundelich lahe, 

964 f godd, f-e is undedlich 
mahe do¥ drchen, 
1 deacllich mon. mahe 
de? ouercumen : 

968 t fall liit mahte nu beon 
^ he ba were, 
BO? godd % so^S mon 
efter f tu munaest, 


9fi4 C jif, R we3 (a added from aioee), C t 
BfiS C iif, was, o.«i(.! eo«. 963 C raihte. 
965 C deaS. 067 C deuS. 968 R ant, 
971 C after. 

' Beata Salerina dixit for Ad. A. v. reap. 
(X gUB emHia inserted. ' omita in quo omm 

aa, tn. 958 C mihte. 957 C dea^lioh. 

961 C ai)em. 964 C -t>, iiudeadliob. 

C And, tab, mihte, beo. 969 C ba{S«. 

ereavil et «t mulla paueii ineludam tpu ut 

loTe bim." One, for th^m all, answered and said, " If hu were, as thou sajest, tme God and 
&.e Eon of God, how might hs aa a man miserablj' die? If he were tme man, how might 
ha overcome death P All wiso men know well that it ia against right, and against the 
permission of every natural law, that God, who ia iiDmortal, may undei^ death ; and that 
'-' le death ['and even though it might be that he were both, true God 

a mortal n 



cari. certum sit alterutnim fieri 

pOBBe :' gimul utrumque ease non 


Cui virgo respondit. 

Vestre autem video controversie 

hec eat subtilitaa. ut in eo. 

quod credere noa vultia recepta 
parte una:' quod integrum eat 
snbruatis. Tidelicet ut cum deus 
sit "i homo ease non posait tanquam 
omnipotenti deo hoc inpossibile 
esse conatet. ut qui potenter . . . 

it omnia facere^ denicbilo:'' idem 

972 an he mahte iiioh ra^e 

don of feoB twu Jring; 

ba somet, nanea weis." 

Heo ne sohte nawiht, 
976 ah seide ananriht ajein : 

" pis is nu ]?e derfschipo 

of Jii dusi onsware, 

t to deopnesae, [980] 

980 ^ tu of ^ ^iag 

^ to niis^unchelS, 

underfest ^ an half 

t dustcst adun J-e o^ere : 
984 ]7e godcundnesse of godd, 

for mennesBO of his monhod 

as J^ah Je almihti 

no mohte nawt ^eos twa 
9S8 misliche cundes 

gederin togederes. [990] 

Je ! ne makede he mon 

of lam to his ilicnesse ? 
992 Hwi echulde he forhohien. 

to wurlSen to ■p f'ing 

^ is iwcnd upon him ? 

t hwen he hit mahte don 
996 huten ewfc to leosen 




leese, C godcundniHse (sn 

1 omits his, C manhad. 987 C mihte, 

993 C HurSe. 9Bi C iwent, E nppon. . 

jet, C duuteB, -^, o^er. 984 R 
from above by anolher hand], 986 C 
989 C gfderen. 990 C omiCa ne. SSl&isfi 
995 C And. 

' C . . . it omnia facere added on nmrgin, in L these 
inserts the words ofnxia el Aoiuiiitin ciaavit de iiihila. 

and tme man according to thy words, one of theee two things he might readily enough do ; but 
both toeethei bj no meiins." She deliberated not, but replied immediato!]' : "This is now the 
strength of thy foolish answer, and its depth, that thou of a thing that to thee mis-seemeth. 
admittest one part and rejectest the other, — the divine nature of Ood, for the hnmanitj' of 
bis manhood ; as though the Almighty might not join together these two distinct natures. 
Tea ! made he not man of cUy after his likeness P "Why should he disdain to become that _ 
thing which is formed after him P And when he might do it without losing aught of majertj, 1 



substantivam hominia form am 
(fol. 178fl) induere non possed 

per quam mvisibiliB' videri et in- 
pasaibilia mori potuisset. 
Tu vero si rei veritatem scire pre- 
optas. depone false sapicntie super- 
cilium i et assume formam diaci- 
puU. ut cum ex rebus ineoarra- 

^Bhilem dei potentiam agooveris i 
Vel tune credulus non derogea in 

of his tehnesse, 

hwi were Eiin eruelS to don 

(fef alle >ing mei, [iOOO] 
1000 1 wule al ^ god is) 

to ncomen moimeB cuitde, 

% beoE iaehen so? mou, 

godd fah unsehlich 
1004 in his ahne cunde ; 

1 Jolien, as so% mon, 

de^ bwen him. Jjuhte ? 

Ah jef Jju wult siker heon 
1008 ■f ao^ Leo -p ich segge, 

leaf \\ lease wit 

f tu wlencheat te La, [iOIO] 

\ liht to ure lare, 
1012 ^ tu mnhe stihen 

to undcrstoudcu in him 

godes muchele strencSe 

1018 Jjurh his wundri werkes 

t wur^Sful in eor^e. 

For nultu nawt tenne 

^ tu BcliuldoBt heien 
1020 heanin na mare: [1020] 

^ ia, i soS godd 

•c Ml him, earfS, IOOO 

997 C amits his. 9D8 E h {^expmged) far Mm; «miU to, C we 

C wile. 1001 C neome. 1002 C bco, isehe. 1003 C unaehelicli. imb K amitt BoB. 
1006 CdeflB ; yea for hwen. 1007 E ant /or ah, C jif, wilt. 1008 R 9e<y6, Ci. 1010 
C wlenehea. 1011 E ant, C tliht (j!rs< t expunged). 1U14 C gtren^e. lOlS H ant, 
"■ ' ■ " "' ' " ■' le (raiiipoMrf. 1019 Cschuldea. 

la all things, and wills all that i« good}, 
_ man, though God invisible in hia own 
natoTB ; and Bufier death aa very man, when it seemed good to him ? But ii thou wouldst 
he certain that what L say is true, forsake thy false wisdooi in which thou hoasle^t, atid 
condescond to receive our learning, that thou majest mount up to understand in him God'a 
great power, and uot man's mi^ht, by his marvellous aud honourable works upon earth. 
For then tboa wilt no more de«pUe that which thou Bhouldest extol : that ia, the weakneas 


eo homiala quam voluntarius as- 
Bompait imfirmitatem. 

Kam cum in re omni loeatima- 
biles sint divitie dei maximo in 
honoro aui nominis approbando 
provocandia ad fidem homiuibus 
majestaa vera oatenditur ubi virtus 
imperiosa mortuis vitam refua- 
dit r" cecis lumen restituit. Hujua 

tnonEes unmibte 

f he neodelea nom 
1024 upon him seoluen, 

us for to Baluiu, 

% makicn us stronge 

Jjurh his uBstreucSe ? 
1028 His unstrenr,=5i; ich cleopie, 

f he wea, as mon, cundeliche 

ofbungret t weri, [1030j. 

% pinen maht* f olien. 
1032 In euch )>ing o£ >e world 

beo¥ autel '\ e^sene 

J>e weolen of godea wisdoni ; 

[mh in Jris an J^ing 
103G he schawde, % sntelede inoh, 

^ he wes soK godd, 

(Jie leaded euch leaflul 

to treowe hileaue, 
1040 % his leouo nome [1040] 

to hericn 1 to heien), 

Jia he wi^ his steuene 

'pe stomcne aatearde, 
1044 1 mid hia word awahte 

Je liflese liches 
to lif % to leoiaen. 
pus ne dude neauer 


1023 It ]>et, CuotSeles. 1024 B uppon, G seluen. 1025 C Bannea. 102S R mnkea. 1027 

C unatreng^e. 1028 C unstrei^B, i, clepie. 1029 C t 
1033 C eutele. 1034 C % folian for weolen. lOSfl C i. 
1037 R JJst. C was. 1038 C % leafful mon. 1040 E 
B Btefne. 1043 C areitrde. 1044 C wiS. 1046 B oat, C let 

C pise, mihte. 
1036 C Bchcaude, B ant. 
nl. 1042 C >at for ><^J 
e. 1047 C >iG, dide. «■ 

of man in the true God ; which he volunlaril]' took upon himeel 
firm by his infirmitj'? His infirmitj J call it, tkat he was, as 

B US, and make m 

_ J . ., . _ , ... , a natural manner 

hongry and woiuy, and was capable of enduring pain. In ererj thing of the world the 
benefits of God's wisdom are juanifeBt and easily seen ; though in this one thing he showed, 
and made it manifest enough, that he was true God (who leadeth every faithful man to true 
belief, and to bonoor and exalt his dear name], that he with hia voico raised up the dead, sud 
with his word awoke the lifeless corpaas to Hfe and to light. Thus neier did any mortal man 


nimirum singulariter est ud 


randa deitatis potentia, qui non 
magicis' camiiaibuB 

Bed sola divina potentia 
mortuorum epiritus revocat ad 
corpora:' cujus potenti virtute 
claudis greasus redditur. leprosi 

1048 nan dedUch mon 

Jurh hia ancs mihte, 

jefhegoddnere. [1050] 

O^re Jiurli wihelea 
1052 1 ]?urli wicclieca'eftes 

wurclii^ aiunme wundies, 

1 bijuUB unweoten, 

fw weno¥ p hit beo awft 
1056 aa hit on. che here% ham. 

Ah wea, Jiurh f ho wea 

B0% godd, in hia cnnde 

icuplet wi^ ure, 
1060 arerde >e dcade, [1060] 

hotnede blinde, 

]te dumbe, t te deauc, 

hoalde halte 1 hcraerede, 
1064 1 euch. unheale, 

1 draf of Jie awedda 

awariede wihtes ; 

X aa alweldt^nde, 
1068 wrahte her, on worlde, 

al ^ he waide ; 

T jef Ju nult, nanes 'weia, 

■witen f he wrahte [1071] 

1072 ]3ulliche wundrea J 


1048 C na, daadlich. 1049 C atae /or anea. 1050 C jif. 1051 B. o'Sei, C oJtb. 
1062 R ant, C omiti Jmrh. 1063 C wnrcheS. I0S4 K ant, C bijoleS, unwiten, K 
unweotan (Aatoon o and t a Uller enaed), 1056 C ■(>, R beiwien JiB endveneS the ayUabiauB 
ihlledaul and ixpuixged. 1060 C arenrde. 10S2 E ant, C lOfil and 10S2 iraaipoied. 
IMS C healede, R ant, houeie. 1061 E ant. 1065 E ant, iredde. 1067 C ainealdent. 
1070 E ant, And jif. 

God. Others tbiuugli wiles snd witchcraft, 
«, who ween tliat is ao aa it aeemeth to the eje. 
isture joined with ours, that be laiaed the dead, 
cured the blind, the dumb, and the deaf, healed the lame and the bumpbactied, and every 
disease, and drore the accniaed beings out of the insane ; and, m supreme ruler wrought here, 
in this world, whaterei he would. And if thou wilt not, by any means, acknowledge that he 


fieri ab bominikus in nomine ejus 
vel certe multooiens facta 


Qui ei deus non esset :' 

mortuia vitam dare non posset. 
Si homo non fuisset ^ mori ut 
homo non potuisset 

Nam idem chriatus deus est qui 
et idem chrlatus homo est qui 
mortem sua diyinitate destruxit ; 
Idem quippe^ dei filius qui divini- 

kf, lanhure, ^ tn isiat, — ■ 
miracles ■^ bc¥ matet jet 
)iuTii him, 1 on his 

1076 deorewur^e nome, 
doies 1 nihtes. 
Ah boo nu bo^ cnawes, 
)ef ich riht segge: [1080] 

1080 pu seist he ne milite nawt 
godd ha heon 1 mon. 
Ah ;ef he nere so^ godd, 
1 undeadlich him seolf, 

1084 hu mahte ho lenen 
lif to f e deade ? 
1 jef ho nere so^ mon, 
hu mahte he drchen 'p he droh, 

1088 1 dtien se derfliche ? [1090] 


mortem suara [sic) ^ came suscepit, 

purh Jiis sutele^ 8oB 

al f ich segge, 

% tat he ia godd seolE, 

1092 Jie duBte dea^ under him, 
Jurh ^ he is drihtin 
meinf ul 1 almihti ; 
■^ )>e ilke seolf is godea sum 

1096 ]je onont f he godd wea 

1073 C aest. 11)74 R bis men /or be9, C maked, R getM. 1076 R nnt, omili on. 1077 
C daies. 1079 C yd. 1D81 C bit hea godd, R aat. 10S2 C belaem Ah and )if the tpllMt 
ml blotted out. 1083 R ant, undealieii, G self. 1084 C mihle, leanen. 1086 R ant, 
C And, }if. 1087 C mihte. 1088 R ant, so, C derffulliche. 1091 E ant, omiU he, C > 
for iat 1 self. 1092 C J>at 1094 R ant. 109d E ant seoU >e iHls, C And, sM. 109S 
C%'B, oimont, C was. 

' ana in. ' chriitia for qnippi. 

wrought euch loirBcIes as these ; beliere at least what thou seest, — mirsdea that are done vet 
tlirough him, and in his precious name, daily and nightly. But be now candid ; ackitowlodge 
it if I say rightly. Thou sajest that he might not be both God and man. But it he were 
not yery God, and immortal Inmaelf, how could he beatow life npon the dead P And if he were 
not yery man, how could he suffer what he did Buffer, and die eo painfully ? Throngh this 
all that I eay ig manifested to be true, Etnd that he is yery God. who cast death under him, 
by reason that he is the Lord powerful and almighty. And the very same ia God's son, who, 


^^^^^^M LIFE 


tate mori non potuit. earns 


no mahte drehen nadeS; [1100] 

us est quam mortalera d( 

'ua in- 

1 tab deido ah fleschliche. 

Por ha ho underfeng haa 

mortaKs suscepit :' 

1 100 1 flesch of ure cunde 

f is hruchel % dedlich, 

for to deien in hire ; 

for fi f he we8 
1104 undedlich in his a!me, 

na in hire ne mahte 

nanes weis deien 

buteninure. [lUO] 

et idem 

1108 pes ao%e godd \ godes aune, 


)e deide onont ure 
cunde f he hefde. 

dei filius came 

aras, 1 arerde 


1112 him seoluen from deaSe : 


for >ah he were dedHch, 


Jurb f be men wes, 


onont his mennesse. 

sue divinitatis :* 

1116 T; deide, aaichseide, 


he ne losede na lif, [1120] 


onont f he godd wes, 


ne undedlichncsae 


1120 onont his dribtnease ; 
ah wea eauer % is 
drihtin undedlich. 

1097 E mahtc he drehen, C drehe 

, deaS. 

1098 Chah. 1099 E, undemeng. 1100 Eon 

ftfof. 1101 R ant, C deadlich. 1 

103 CwB 

C wiSnten. emi?. in. 1108 C be 

, fi ant. 

1109 C-|i. llll H ant, C arearde. 1U2 

C self, frnra. 1113 C deadlieh. 

1114 C 

waa. 1116 C mannesse. 1116 Eant. I1I8 

C via. 1119 C nndeadliehneBse. 

1121 C 

inaamocli as he was God, miglit no- 

t suffer death, and yet diad, but only in the flesh. For be ^| 

flBBamed both buno and flesh o£ i 

™r natu: 

re, which is frail and mortal, that he might die ^H 

therein : hecause he waa immortal in his i 

)nn (nature), nor might bo in any wise die in it ^M 

bnt only in pure. This true God, i 

>nd God's 

: son, who died as to our nature that he had. arose ^H 

and raised himself from desth ; tor 

though. : 

inasmueh as he was nlan, he waa mortal in regard ^H 

W hi» hnmao nature and died, as 

I ^d.l 

ne lost no life in regard that he waa God. nor ^H 

immortality in regard to hia being 

Lord ; but waa ever, and is, the Lord immortal. Thus, ^H 


Mors itaque non chmtum sed in ^^" '^° ^'^^' 

1 124 dea% ne akaste nawt Crist, 
se christua mortem occidit. ah Crist ouereom deK, [1129] 

1 sloh hire, in him seolnen." 

Non est igiturtam' inops fidei nostre aut egena defensio. ut in^ sui' 
defensione externis tantum inoitatiir* testimoniia. Tu autem bi adhuc 
incredulus dubitas:' audi inimundoa* demoniorum spiritus* quibus di- 
Tinitatis numen attribuitis audi inquam sub hujaa vocabuli invoca- 
tione conterritos christum dominnra et dei filium non negare. ac" 
velat reos cum tormeuta seviunt queationum non quod placeat dicere 
sed quod extorquetur fateri. Igitur si fidei nostre credulitatem * 
derogatis. diis saltern Testria credite:' aut si ulteriua (fol, 17Si) pudor 
non est negent^ certe bomines, quo'" deraones etiam" con fi. tent ur.'" 
Sed dicis micbi. quia vana demoiium eommeuta pro ratione et volu- 
bilem inmundorum" spirituum sententiam pro fidei" proponani ex- 
perimento. Ego plane non ut cbristus spirituum inimundorum tesli- 
rooniis indigeat bee iatcrsero. sed quia invita demonum confessio non 
levi'^ estimatione pensanda est quia nisi iuvisibilibus cruciatibus 
agerentur,'* Sed te miror formam tocius scientie preferentem cbristum 
deum esse non solum dubilare. sed mortis" opprobrio majestateni '^ 
ipsius derogando obscurare. cum tu ipse pernoscas vestrorum auctorura 
Tolumina testari ejus divinitatcm, et crucem quam irrides '^ proferrer 
ex quibus interim duorum tibi profero exempla. Plato enim-" quem 
doctissimura oc sapientissimum perliibetis. cum de revelanda cbristi 
majestate loqueretur. his verbis etiam signum illius intimaWt futurum 
astruens deum cujus signum circuDdatam" et deversatum^ eat. Si- 
bille perinde predivina ut asseritis carmina proprietat«m saiicti no- 

1124 Cacasle. 11-25 C deaS. 1126 C selaen. 
I omits raw. ' C '« inaerted from above. ' biu. ' C ari^inallr ■wiVi^ii''. ' imBiimrfiV™ 
oponensare. * maits tpmlm. '■ at. " erfdiliCali, ' C ongaallj Htgil. '<> quod. " cmilx 
(fiofli. " /uttMur. " L innrfonim, C origiiially ii-cuntorum. " omilB pro Jidei. 
'^ C originally U. " inserls 'tirre Mligm pre i fnilitu iicmtHt ipiam amp*r toittia 
H mtKt'mlur. ■'' merlem, " majtitati. " irridtiii. ** omitB mini. " ciretimrelHHdaliiat. 

a nalitj, dcatfa orErthrew not Christ, but ChHii ocfrthievr death, and ^levbim, in hinuelf." 



minis personarunt cum dignilate nature hec eadem deum posten uno 
Tersu crucemque aignavit. quam tos erroneia disputationibua reftitatis 
predictum poema ita ponens. felix ille deus ligno qui pendet ab alto. 
Vide disputantibua quidem verbis expressia' utriusque confeaaionem. 
Ille futurum deaignat quia manifestandum in homine dtsignat. Hec 
felicem vocat. quia divinam previdet in liominia fragilitate virtutem 
et in ejusdem hominis morte vietoriam. Quos tamen non iccirco aequi 
convenit. quia bia velut per aomnium veram aapientiam loqui ali- 
quando pertnissum est. STeque ut gentilitas ex deo presentiam^ 
raeruisse videretur. sed ut christum deum ac del filium etiam vestri 
loquerentur auctores. Qui cum pene in oranibua falsi sint in lioc 
probabilius erraverunt. Ecce tibi pauea de niultia. Si te ad cre- 
Ueudum non alliciunt audita et visu probata rerum miracula. vel 
invitam demonum (fol, 179(i) animadverte confessionem. Quod si 
neo bis dignuin consentire estimas. vel tuis crede auctoribus. I^am 
ne in hoc me prejudicave habea quod immundorum spirituum quos 
vos pro diis colitis, aut veatrorum testimoniis auctorura utimur pro 
approbatione fidei^christiane. Poteram equidem tibi ex scriptura 
sacra que apiritu divinitatia eat condila. poteram inquam tibi inte- 
raerata teBtimoniorum.' mille proferre aignacula. aed eat specioaa* vic- 
toria adversarium telis auia velut propriia laqueia irretire.^ et auctorum 
Buorum testimoniia confutare. quia quorum fidem aapnaria {!).'' 
eorum teatimonia non recipis. Ecce me Christi fide munitam dii tui 
loquentem si aurea babent ad audieodura audiant. et si posaunt pro- 
hibeant. aut ta' certe pro eia loquere. et ego respondeo. 

His auditia. retbor reapondit. Si AUe J-e o^ere liercneden 

,. , . T , 1- ■ L 1128 mid swi^e open earen, 

predicta miracula ut credi jubea '^ 

ah herto onswerede 
^o.n€aB (,n for ham aUe -. 

19 wide open, but beieto uue answered far tbem all ; " li the Loiil, 



" Jef drihtin, J>c darede 
1132 in ure mennBBse, 

wrahte Jieoa wundrcs, 

aa Jiu wult f we ileuen, 

hwi waldo ho Jrowin aa he dudi 
113C T: >olien de« on rode ? [1141} 

Hwen ho com to arudden 

of doa^cB rako o^re, 

hwi dcide ho him seoluen ? 
1140 1 hu mei ho helpen o^ro 

% heon hiforen o^ro, 

^e fiurhferde dea^ as heo (loS ? 

Hefde he, lanhuro, 
1H4 him etoluen aleset, 

sum walde hopicn 

% hahben bileauo 

to hia alcaunge." 
1148 Jet cwe% Jia meiden, 

% aeide him tojeines, 

" Ich hahbe uncnat et 

of )ieos cnotti cnotten, 
1152 )ef >ii wult icnawen. 

Ah her, Ju wenoat jet 

f tu wonen ne >erf, 

f godd, Jte ia iin>roi 

in bomitiG deus preBtitit. num- 

quid auscipere et pati crucem de- 

buit? Aut qiiam ob tausam alios 

erepturua' a morl.e. ipse etiam 

niorte non caruit ? 

Vel certo quomodo aliia proderit. 

qui sibi prodease non potuit. cum 

in sua liberatione etiam aliis spem 

liberationis contulUaet ? 
Ad hec virgo respondit. 

Et in hoc etiam eslimatio tua fal- 
litur. si in crucia affixione^ inpas- 

1131 C jif, f, dearede, 1132 C mom 
abore). C >al, leum. 1136 R ant, C J-olie, dea1S, < 
1139 C seluen, 1;40 K ont, C raihte /or mei, o».i/« o'S 
C % dee's use vel as heo doiS. 1 113 R he -fi lanhure. 
C hnpen. 1146 R ant, C habbe. 1H8 C qS. 1149 
Bmla cnotti; cnottee. 1162 C )if, yu hit wult. 1 
li-ampoiid, C wene, fiirf. 1165 C -f/ar ffl, rajrowlinh. 

' ereclarua, ' C originally affiiximie, 

who WRS hidden in our humnn natnre, wrought these miracles, ae thon wilt have ns to heliete, 
■why did he wish to endure pain as he did. and snifec death on the croBa ? When he came to free 
others from the rule □{ death, why died he himself F and how can he, who passed throngh 
dealh as they do, be better than others and aid them P Had he, at least, deliteied himself, 
one might hope and have faith in his power to deliver." Yet quoth this maiden, and 
said to him in mily, " I have undone some of these knotty knots, if thuu wilt he sensihle of 
it. But here, tliou supposcst still that which tbon needest not eoppose, that God, who ia 





34 C al/i»- as, R wult (t added frim 
■ ■■ 1138 R raketehen, C o^tb. 

1141 E ant, binoren. IW 
144 G seluen, alesed. 1143 
nt, Ctfflsainea. 1151 C >eoBe 
C iBtte. 1154 E wenen ne 


Bibilem deum pasaionetn doloria et 
mortis auatinuisse arbitrarie. 

Kon enim 
Datura celestis 
Gen sit 

1156 Jirowede, o^er Jiolode 
pine olSer passiun, 
o Je deore rode, 
onont f he godd wea, 

] IGO o*?er dea^ drehde. ' 

Ne mahte — ^ wite Jiu — 
his heouenliche euade 

1164 felen now«er sar [U70] 

ne sorhe upo Jjo oruche ; 
ah al ]fe weane 
% te wa wcnte 

1168 upon Je unatronc^e 
of f undenw fleach, 
f he neodelca uom, 

1172 bute suime ane, 

up on him aeoluen. 

godd, fe is al freo, 

ne mei nun uuel festnin ; [1 180] 

117C ne mahte me now^er godd, 
onont f he godd was, 
beatin ne bin den, 
ne holdon ne neomen )et, 

1180 for godd is unneomelieh ; 
ah Jiurh f e mon ^ he ■wea 

Ilfi6 C >rowde. 1157 Rpawium. 11S8 C $e. 1159 Cwbe. U60 entirely emitted 
bi/&. 1162 C heuGoliche. 1164 C^fele, B otnili nowiSer. 1165, liatl, 1167, ali tlu 
thra lines are hft eul entirely by R. 1168 R ujipou, C upo, unetrengSB. 1169 C 
undecuB. 1170 C Eoi5elea, nam. 1173 Kupp. 1174 C -Ji. 1175 C mai, featoBn. 1178 
C mihle, man /«■ me. 1177 C whk. 117S C beaten. 1179 R virites ne neoraea ne 
baldBa ; C balde, uimen. 1180 C he /or godd, vnneomolicli. IISI C was. 

incapable of saffering, suffered, or endured pain or auSeriag, on the dear frOi», or 
underwent death, in respect that hB was God. His heavenly nature might uot — 
know thuu thifl— in any wiaa fee! either sore or sorrow upon the croaa ; but all the 
grief and tlie woe fell npon the weakness of that assumed flei<h, which he Tolnnterily took 
1 himaelf, together with all our misery eieept sia only. On Crod, who ia all-fi^ 
iTil can fasten ; nor might God, ia that he was God, be heatea or bound, ac held 
, for God cannot he taken. £ul Ihroiigh the man that he was ahrouded 

deum infirmitas 


^Hkb omni paasione deus nee pati 
potuit nee teaeri. 
Bed quendam de 

flfaiii inconprehensibilis et liber 


diabolo per assamptum 

hominem egit triuniphmn. 

cum in ligno materiam 
camia inponens. 
eum sinQ sui injuria 
per hoTninem 
qui hominem 
cum dei injuria 
egerat in delictum. 
Homo ergo 
Don diviuitas 
cruci affix sua est 

et qui pecaverat 
per lignum. 
fixuB in HgDO est. 

isctrudd t ihudd wi?, 

he bicherdo ^cne feont, 
118-1 % schrenchto yen aide deouel, 

1 teschrapet his heaued. [ 1 1 SOj-B 

Nea nawt iteiet to ^e treo 

yer he deide upon, to drahen 
1188 hutca fleschtimher. 

Ah swa he, wi^uten woh, 

adwoBchte 1 adun warp 

fena wi^erwine of helle, 
1192 mon, i mocnes eunde, 

ye mid woh hefde 

to do^ idrahen moncun [1200]|B 

j>urh dedlich aunne. 
11D6 fJus wes, as ich munuc, ni 

t nawt godes drihtnesse, 

Jiurhdriuen upon ^e rode : 

yah he in. ye ilko time 
1200 80^ godd were. 

Ah man, for mon ye misdude, 

J-olcde dom t deide ; 

1204 hette 1 eode on bote, 
as his ahne goddlec 
lahede Lit 1 lokcde. 


and, 1184 E ant, C schienctB (t ulcered from 1 or h). 
(b expunged, i aliM-e it), E hefda far heaned. 1 187 E 
I18B Cbute, 1189 C wi1Snt«. 1190 C adweachde, 
wis, 1194 C daaiS, R mon to fir moncun. 119.5 
JiHt/or I'UH, C WBS. 1198 Euppon, Co. 1199 i, 
■,niiBdidB. l-202Httnt; between 1201 a^d 1202 R has 
1203 C Ami. 1204 R ant, C o. 12U5 R ah. fir aa. 

IIBS C ischmd, ihud. 1183 C fe> 
1186 E leachrapB, ojMt(8 his, Ches 
uppon, C npon for to drehea eawt. 
WBOrp. 1191 C >e. 1193 C -p, 
C dea^liche, R saunen. 1196 U 
>Bt/oc>c, pine Wartime. 1201 C 
M* iBBrdi heWe ant eode on bote %. 
C godlee. 1206 B him /or hit, ant. 

aad hidden within, he oatvdttcd the fiond, snd foiled the old deril, and ehaied his head 
(i.e. put him to shame). There was nothing bound to ihs tree that he died apon, to suffer, 
bnt corporeal matter. But thus he, without wrong, as man, in human nature, orertlirew and 
cast down the helliBh adyeiBarj', who wroneiulij' had drawn niaoMnd to death through mortal 
sin. Thus, as I said, was man, and not God's majesty, pierced through upon the cross ; though 
ha at the same time waa true God. But (as) man, for man that transgreBsed, he auffercd 
judgment and died ; and (as) God, in man, tot man's sin, made amends and did peoance, as 



Hec ieo fuit assumendi hominem 

precipiie ratio vel voluutaa. ut 

peccatum ab homine coDtractum 

per hominem tolleretur. et ab illo 

fides re8mTec-(fo]. 1796)-tioiii3 in- 


quem primum resurgere 

Const a ret 
.iPotens equidem erat deus 
per angelum 

quem^-ia aut per aliquam 
celestem virtutem pros tr a to 
diabolo hominem eripere 
si voluisaet Sed omnia 
cum ratione ."agens deua. 
sic modum atatuit victorie. ut qui 
hominem subjuga rat. per hominem 

^■fotens E 
^Bper ang< 

~ .., 

Low yia maltede him 
1208 f ho underteng mon, — 

f te bnicheii f mon 

hefde ibroken. ajein him, 
1212 weren ibet )mrh mon, 

1 f he arise oareat [1220] 

from dea^e to liuo 

f ne drede^ na de^, 
1216 ]jurh hwam. we mabten habbeu 

sikere bileaiie 

to arisen alle efter him. 

EB were ure lauord, 
1220 liuiende godes aune, , 

to awarpea his unwine, 

% reauin him his hondiwero, 

f be wis wob etbeold, [1230] 
1224 on euch wise m ^b world 

f be eauer waldo, — 

wis an unlepi word, 

je, wis bia an wil ; 
1228 ah }o witti weldent 

% te rihtwise 

bireadde bit swa swiSe wel, 

^ be ^ 

120S H nademeng. 1210 unites f tat fe num. 1211 C ajaiu him ibrokea. 1212 
C were, B ibrokea /oi' ibet. 1213 R ant, C aiiaede, dt far eaiest. 1214 C fram, R nmifa 
to line. 1 215 C deaS. K deJS to liua. 1216 R teiitee ^lub ne makten him habbea oJOM 
^urh /uiii him separately three iinrs, to he read therefore )>urh bim we eta., C maheu, haae. 
1218 C after, omtrs him. 1319 C Ea'S. 12'i2 G reauen. bondeweru. 122^ C atheld. 
1224 C ewe, i, E o.»,ls f-e. 122S C fat, R h fsr he. 1226 C owiti an. 1227 jea. 
1228 C weaMenf. 1229 R wrilei ant te rihtwise we (we expunged) godd. 1230 
C bicadde, ae ; R swide. 1231 C mon added on the aaigin. 

id against 
a life tl 

I take upon him man, 
im, should be eipiat 

his own majest; ordained and delermined it. Behold this ni 
— that is, he beoflme man,— that the sins which man had sinned as 
through man, and that he arose the first from death lo a 1. . 

through whom (whioli ?) we might have sure belief that we all shall aiiie after him. Easy 
were it for our Lord, the son of the living God, to overtlirow his adversarj, and rescue from 
Jb^ his handiwork, which he wronglnllj' detained, in whatever way in the world he would, — 
"^■''" " single word, yoii, with hia mere will ; but the wise and rigiiteous ruler designed it so 
itlywell, that he whu overcume man should he overthrown hj man, with meekuess and 



Hec et alia roulta dum beatissima 

Tirgo diaaereret. stupefoctus rethor 

et cuncti ora- 
tores. quid coQtra- 



Bed turbati 

atque confuai 


dei virtute 


se contuentes 


Quibiis indignatuB 
imperator. cum 

1232 were aksBt ^nrli b 

wi« meokelec 1 liste, [1240] 

nawt wi¥ luSer strene^e ; 

f he ne niahfe nanes weis 
1236 meanen him of wohe." 

Hwil Jiia eodi meidea 

motede 1 mcaldo 

yia 1 miichele mare, 
1340 Je an modgeste of hnm 

f mealde tojeia hire, 

■wsrS swa awuadret 

of hire wittio wordca, [12503| 
1244 1 Bwa offearet 1 ofiruht, 

t alle hise feren, 

f nefde hare nan tunge 

to tauelin a tint wiS. 
1248 Swa flwi^e godes grace 

ngaate t ageide ham, 

f euch an bibeold oKet 

as heo bidweolot weren : 
1252 f nan ne seide na wiht, 

ah fieteu stille aae atan, [1260] 

cwich ne cwe^ Jer neuer an. 

^es keiaer hicapede ham, ^ 

1256 t, aamon^bigon I 

1233 C raekeldc, E ant, C Inste. I23i C streogSe. 123fi C mihte, 1837 C hnila, >eo«. 
1238 K motcde ]-is nat. 1339 C ]iub. [240 C t. modieste. 1241 C to)ain. 121:2 C nsrd, 
awundred. 1243 C witti. 1244 B ant, GoffBored. I2ib entireli/ otniiltd bj B.. VHQ 
K hedi¥. 1247 C Teuelin, dint, emili wiJS. 1248 C ee. 1249 C agide. 1260 C bibeld. 
1251 C Kritea aa he bidwioled o«er (o«cr bhlted o«t) were. 1262 C fat, >iDg /or 
wiht, 1263 Raa be/oTBBa. 1264 R -fi cwic, cwed, C neaner. 1256 li rfcoiammcemiilh 
t&ti tme. It f e, C bij^apede. 1266 R ant, B eae, aoiila -f,. 
' C originally «.a»iMi. 

(wise) lipsign, not with rnde strength ; that be might no wise bemoan himself of wrong." 
while this bleaeed maiden ceasoDdd and discooreed this and mucli more, the proudest one of 
those who spolie against her, beeame so lilled with admiratioa at her wise words, and so aiaaled 
and awed, (he) and all his t'ellowa, that none of them had tongue to object anything aguin. 
So grestl^did God's RracDcont'oundandawe them, that ea<.'h one looked at the other ae if ther 
were bewitthed ; so that none of them said anj-thiDg, but tliey sat Btjll as Blone, nor did one ojf 
them move or speak. This Emperur gazed at them, iind, like a man that began to rave and to 




^I^rore nimio 

to wcden 1 to wur^en 


ut of his ahne witte, 
wodeliche jeide : 

^H Quid VDS ignavi 

1260 " Hwet nu, unwreste me 


^M et degeiieres 


^1 hebetatis 


^H aensibus 

nu is ower stunda ! 
1264 Hwi studgi )e nu, [ 


^B sic ommutescitid P 

1 stcucati^ 80 stills ? 
Nablie je te« ba 
t tuDge to sturien ? 

Sicciiie V03 

1268 la nu 8B storlicho 


unstreugot ower strong? < 


1 ower wit awealt, 

^K Tirtus femnea (sic) 


swa f te mihte 1 1« mot 

^P perdomabit? 
■^ Num Batia 


schaImei3trenowaUe?[1280] H 

Ue jff fifti wimmen. 

auperque ease non 

^ poterat ad 

'S- -i tah f er ma weren, 


nominiam omnium 

L philoaopbor 

um 1276 hefden mid wordes 


^^■'Bi quinquagenae : 

aut eo amp] 

[ius ^^'^^ °-^ awarpen, 

nero hit soheodlac inoh, 


^^vfemine verbia unu 

.m e vobia t 

'^^' 1 achir Hcheome, to alio 


^m cissent P 

1280 f jelpe? of lare ? 


^B If tmc autem o 

Nu is aba scheome measi 

■■■ m 

^■^7 e. ant. 125H CB wit. 12S» 

E wodlicbe, C eeide. 1260 C Hwat, unwreaste. ^H 

^■pei S.iaifor'i, wac( 

ire, B ei. 126-. 

i T: B deaS, B ant, C dul, 126J C owre. 

1264 ^m 

^^B ttodiie, B «ml> nu. 

1208 ^1 

^^K nra, fi eteorUclie. 

l'.!eg C unstreng«et, B unstreeed (>»), U atrencj^e. 1270 B ant. ^M 

^^Kretd. 1^72 B a. B > 

«,, C mekE. 1274 C jif, E wummen. 1276 R ant, E bah. 

1276 ^m 

^^BB MiS, worde. 1277 K awurpen < 

)WBratt. 1279 E ant. schir (h .n.« (trf rtw. 

oborB,, H 

^^n sdhome, 11 to aw alle 

. 1280 R > al (al bklUd oat), leipSS. B lore (or lare?). 

I2BI ^M 

^F '> 

«m«. ' C 

71011 added on margin, L omits non. 


go out of hia (own) reas 
MT weak man! o/dtad 
BtillP HaTBnotvBbc 

on, furiouslj eaid : ■■ What now. ve worthlfss men, and weaker tiian ^| 

and of dull wit . 

1 now is your time 1 Why leave ye off now, and stop ^M 

ith teeth ami tonRUB to "move F la your strentfth now bo 

gma, ^ 

anfeebled, and your wil 

; 80 overpowered 

, that the energy and reasoning of eo meek a 

>udu H 

shall master yon allF 

But if fifty wt 

imen, and though there were m.iro, had with 

., their) H 

words ovorcome one of 

nt be disgrace enough, and sheer sliame. to i 

lU who ^M 

boost of learaine '^ No 

w is the greatfist 

shame of all ; that a single maiden, with het mouth ^H 


pudor quinquaginta 

robust! ssim OS oratorea ab extremis 

mundi partibus.electos una puella 

turbine verborum auorum eo usque 

sttonitos reddit.^ ut hi quid vel 

contra mutiant prorsus non 


Hie unu9 qnem aibi magistrunfi 
et ducem preesae ceteri fatebantur. 
tiraano ita respondit. 
Hoo unum tibi imperator dicam. 

unde orientalium turba oratorum 
testis nobis est constantissiina :' 
quod usque in presRuti auditorio' 

f im imlopi raeidon, 

wi« hire anes mu«, [1290^1 
1284 haue^ swa biteueiet, 

iteraet, 1 iteiet, 

alle italde bi tale, 

fif sv6e tone, 
1238 icudde t icorene, 

1 of fcorrene ifat, 

f al )o beo5 blodles, 

bikimet, of ow seoluea. 
1292 Hwider is ower wit 

1 owor wisdom iwent ? [1 300] I 

Brooked on, for bismere, 

1 biginneS sum bwet ! " 
1296 Ondswcrcde ]ja 

}ie an f te o?re 

boolden for heste 

1 hcaued of ham alle, 
1300 1 cwc« tof-ekiiige: 

'■ An hwot ichulle f tu wite, 

^ wo habbe'B witnesae 

ofaUoJ-e wise [1310} J 

1304 f hco¥ in eatlonde, 

■p neauor, a^et tea dei, 

ne fundo we nowhwer 

1282 C B oail an. 12S4 R bitanelet oir, B biteaeHt. 1235 C itemed, B ant, C i1 
128S R ant. icorne. 1289 R ant, feoreoe, C fecrone. 1290 G bean. 1291 C ikimi 
aelnen. 1292 C Hvi^er, owre. 1293 R ant, iwend, B ineat (t wtitttn evir d; 
C breke^, R bisiimeie. 1296 R ant, C bwat. 129e R Onswere (de added fret 
B Ontswerede, Binita Jia. 1 297 C ■)! for^ril fe, B J-e he far 1 1«, R o«ere. 1298 C held( 
hebete BB best. 1299 S. ant, heauet. 13U0 B King. 1304 C hwflt, B ioh chilli 
laOi B witnese, 1303 R >iBB fir fe wise. 1301 B }e, C beon, R wunie« /or 
C eaatlonde. 1305 C a^et, ],a, dai. 1306 fi nobwer (b imerled/ioin ahvt). 

' reddidit. ' L habenl, C originally the eame. ' adjitlorie. 

I^mes ten, all told by lale, celebrated aaj'J 
, „ ,, „ , 3 all powerleeB, Btupelied, snd out of jonrfj 

reason. Whjther ia your understanding and yonr wisdom gone f Proceed, for shame, ain^^ 
begin Gometblng ! " lie whom the others re);arded ss the principal and ebief of them d 
then answered, and asidto the King : " One thing I would that thou know, that w 

y uf all the wise that are in the East, that never, until this day, have we anywbs 



nullus ae nobis ante hac in verVna 
et mundi sapientia conferre pre- 
eumpsit. Si autera jactantibua {sic) ' 
conserere verba presumpsit. con- 
tinuo victus et confuaua recesait, 
De puella vero ista longe alia ratio 
eat in qua ut vera tibi loquar. non 
limalis homo loquitur. 

L divinua quidara spiritua. qui 

■jUne baud mortale Bonans noa in 

I Btuporem et ad mi rati on em adco 

L«onTertit :' ut ad injuriam ipsius 

B<3iriBti de qua loquitur, aliquid 

l.dicere aut penitus iiesciamuar' aut 

f omnino formidemua. 

Nam ut cbristi nomen et divini- 

tatis ejus potentiam aimuique 

erucis ipsius miaterium^ predicari 

L 1807 E so, C Be, C B deop. 1308 B fe, CB sputi. 
J iSlO Kneucrao. 1311 B aeomen /oral torn. 13 
■iJQfram. 1313 Bnmifciis, C nis hit nawt, lihtllch. 
^ISIT R moDlicli mot. 1318 H -funot. 1319 C omi 
an /or mot. 1320 C heuenlith. 1321 C aiain. 

JCwe/or /Mine, Rdurran. 1325 C ajMn. 1326 C 

( uraaSSin. 1327 B heo, C trcoi 
friaSS B ant. 1330 B ant, mihte. 
' jaslBHtiui. 

nan swa deope ilearet 
1308 f durste sputin wi^ ua; 

% jcf he come in pkue, 

nere he neauer se prud, 

f ho ne taldc him al torn 
1312 ear he tumde irom lis. 

Ah nia nawt lihtHche [1320] 

of )iiB meidencB mot ; 

for, ich so^ schal seggen, 
1316 in hire ne mote's na mou. 

For nawt nis tit monlich 

mot "p ha meale?, 

no nawt nis heo f haue^ mot ; 
1320 ah is an heouenlich gast 

(% tah we cu^en, [1330] 

1324 ne nullen ne ne duren) 
warpcn na word ajoin 
to ■wporrin ne to wre^^en 
him f ha wtco'Sl? on 
1328 for eone se ha Cnat cl«optde, 
1 his no me nempnede, 
1 te muchele mihles 
of his hehnesse 1 schawde 

1309 Rant. C jif, E, Lom, CB i. 
2 R er, S tuiile, B turnde him from, 
1315 B for jef ioli. iai6 C moteB, 
natrt, B nis hit heo, omila mot, fi Dl 
1323 Rant. C nefoi- % bah. 1324 


RwreDiSsS bire on. 1328 B s 
ant, schawds (a itturted /ri 
■/lialtrium, C originally the 9 

, ., wraHKen, 
a heo, C clepede. 


ioaui anj' one bo deep learned that he dared to dispute with us ; and, if he came in 
pnhlic, were he ever so proud, that he did not reckon himself quite tame ere he turned 
from us. But of this maiden's rensoning there is nothing to be despised ; for, I shall speak 
the truth, ia her reasoneth no (mere) man. For it is not human reasoning that she 

klttereth, nor is it she that holila (this) dispute ; but there is a heavenly spirit in her so 
(drerse to ua, that we cannot (nor if we could, would we nor dare we) object a word again to 
eontend with or U> displease him whom she trusts in : for as soon as she called upon Christ, 
■nd named his name, and Hie great might of his majeetf, and then showed manifestij the 


ab ea audiyimus. confusa Bunt 
viscera, corda nostra tremuerunt. 
et omuea corporis senaua (fol. 
ISOff) stupendo aufugenint. Undo 
te diutius fallere iraperator nolu- 
mus. Bed oonstanter fatemur -^ quia 

1332 seoS^en Buteliohe [Ift 

{le deopschipe t ta decne r 

of his deaS on rode, 

a1 wat awci ure worldliche wit, ■ 
1336 swa we weren adredde 

of his drihtnesae ; 

1 tat we ktmiiS Jie wel, 

ktiaer, 1 cu¥e¥, 

nisi aliara sectam probabilioribus experiraentis 
quos hue usque coluimus nobis ostenderis. 

Tentilatam de diis J 

ecce omnes' convertiniur ad 
christum:' quia ipsum vere deum 
et dei filium confitemur. per quera 
tanta mortalibus beneficia pres- 

tant :' ' 

que per virgin* 

audi vim us. 

1340 ^ we leauo^ J;i lalie 

t al J'ine bik-aue, [1350] I 

^ turned alio ta Criate ; 

1 her we cnawleclieS him 
1344 ao^ godd, ^ godes suae ; 

■p 80 lauche godlec 

cadde us alle on eor^e, 

■p woh haut% eni mon 
1348 to weonin him mare. 

pis we schawi^ fe nu ; 

Bfi ^ tu wult nu." 

fe keiser kaste his heaued, 
1352 aswodmon, ofwrel5«e;[1361] 1 

1332 C seo'Sec, Butellichs. 1333 R diKipachpe {tic; geeond p insn-ttd from aiove), JtM 
Aeopaesse, R unt, C dcaine. 1334 C fi a. 1335 C anai, 1336 B adrcde. 1337 R rixluoM I 
for drihtnesBB. 1338 C And, B % 1339 E keieer (r added from abore). 1341 C B ^-J 
1342 C turntin, C B mat. 1343 R ant, B cnawleehii?. 134* C goddes. 13*5 E » ■" 
goddlec, C Bodleic- 1346 R ia/-r on. 1348 C weorren. 1349 C BchiiweB. 1360 C w 
atniti ua, B >at. 1361 B kcste, R heauet. I3fi2 R o for of, C vra^e. 
' omita BHina. ^ preatantar. 

depth and the hidden mysteries of his death on the cross, all our worldly wit Sei 
were eo in dread of his sovereignty ; and this we make well known thee, En , 
declare, that we leave thv religion, and all thy faith, and turn all to Christ, And hers w. 
ftokuowledge him true God, and the son of God; who showiid us oil so much goodnea 
on earth, that it were wrong in any man longer to contend with him. This ' ' — 
ia thee ; say now what thou wilt." The Empeior threw up his head, as a madman 

Audienshec tiranous. precipitibus 



furiis sgitatus accenao in medio 
civitatis^ vehementissirao igne. 
jusait omnes' ligatia manibus et 
pedibus penalibua incendiia 
craciari. Qui dum traberentur ad 

T; berninde as he wes 
of grome '\ of teoae, 
bed bringen o brune 
1356 an ad amidden Jie burb ; 
1 ba bindcn ham awa 
Jie fet % te honden 
p ha wrungen ajein ; 
1360 tij-ereade leie, 

% i f>e leitinde fur, [1370] 

hot warpen euch fot. 

Ab mo droh bam to hare deaS, 

ignem. unus eonim ceteros horta- 1354 1,3 jeide bus be an 
1 elnede J;e oSre : 

batur dicens. aocii et commili- " 0, leoue iferen, 

feire is ue ifallen ; 

tones raei quid agiraua ? Poatquam 1 368 ah jct we forjeote^ ua : 
Nu f e deore dribtia 

nostros deua longos miseratus er- areaw ua, t toe read 

of ure aide dusiscbipes, [1380] 
1372 f we driaen longe, 

T haueS idiht ns todei 
for to drehen J^ia dea^, 
]3iirh hia milde milce ; 
1376 f weforleten >is lif 
for his treowe luue 

rorea ad banc auam gratiam vocare 
dignatue eat ut vel in fine fidei 
aacre privilegio et aancti e 

1353 RBant, C bearninde al as, was. 1358 C a. fur /or ad, CB amiilde, 1357 Rant 
1358 R net. 1359 B >rungeii. C ejain. 1360 E ant, omiU leie, B lei. 1361 B }et, 
C leitende. 13fl3 C men, E deB. 1364 C -Ji for be 1365 R ant, o«ere, 1366 C leue, 
feren. 1368 C for(Bt««. 1369 B deorre. 1370 B arew. 1371 C to /or oi. R omilii me, 
al«e (sic). 1372 B ^e. 1373 E ah for %. 1374 C amilt for, B te for to, C B drehe, 
E dei5. 1376 C forleasB, B forlete. 1377 R 1 fie /or for hifl, C leue /or treowe. 

and inflamed as be was with anger and vesation. bade that a lire b« kindled in the midst of 
the Eitv ; and so to bind both theii feet and their hands tliat they ached again ; and into 
tbe red flame and blaziDi; fire, eommaiided each man of them to he cast. As men dragged 
them to their death, one of them cried thns and comforted the others: "0. my dear 
usoeiatee. fair hath it befallen us ; but yet we forget ourselves, Now the dear Lord bath 
pitied us, and had consideration for our old follies that wc long practised, and bath appointed 
na lo-dajr to sufier this death, through hia mild mercy ; that vre should lose this life for Ma 

^H 64 UF 


^H cognitiooe non fraudaremur. 

in treowe btleaue, ^^H 

1 i J-e cnawlechunge ^H 

^^P cur non properamus ante vite exi- 

1380 of Lis kinewurSe nome, ^B 

hwi ne liibe we for to beon 

^H turn ipsius signaculo et sacro fontis 

Ifulbot as he het his, [1391] 

car we faren heonnc. " ,^ 

^1 utero ' innovari P Cum hec diceret* 

1381 Ab he iseid hefde ^M 

biHohten, as ha stodon, ^H 

^B rogabant unanimiter pretiosam 

die ia &n ateueac ^H 

f tes meiden moste, ^H 

virginera christi. ut lavacro sa- 

1388 i ]ie wur^Bchipe of godd, ^| 

■wi^ hulwende wcttres ^ 

lutifero perfunderentur. 

bihealden ham allc. [1400] 

QuibuB electa dei ait. 

Ah heo ham onsweredc, 

1392 % swoteUche seide, j 

Ne paveatia o fortisaimi militea 

" Ne drede je ow aawiht, ^H 

cnihtes icorene ; ^H 

christi. conatantea estote. et de 

for je schulen beon ifulhet, ^H 

baptismo solliciti ne^ aitia. erit 

139C T beten alle J-e bnichen ^M 

f je ibroken habbeB ^H 

vobia aalutare baptismum sangui- 

in ower blodes rune : 

nis veatri perfusio, et ignis iste 

T: tia ferliche f ur [1410] 

1400 schal lihtec in ow 

oruciatorius flamnieum spiritua 

J-e halwende lei ^^ 
of ]>o hali gast, ^M 

aancti ignem vobia inferet. 

. 1381 B hihi, E we nu for, B te for to. "^ 

1382 C ifuihtnet, hiae, 1383 H iearea. 

honne, C henoe. 1386 C £ a, E e^fne. 

1387 B Jiet, E tU. 1388 E jna /or i >e. 

1389 E halwuiide, C halewende, B weattrea, 

C wattrea. 1390 C biheolden. 1391 R 1 for Ah, B ontswerdo, 1392 E BwetelicbB. 

1394 H iconie. 1365 C ifulhtaet. 1396 E ant. C owre/w- >e. 1398 C owre. ISSg ^ 

E ant, <,mil, ferliolie. B omiH fur. HOI E halwimde. J^^ 

> U,vac,o for «te™. ' die^: 

eat. ' solliciti ne transposed. ^^M 

tme love in tme faith, and in the acknowledginf; of his anpreme naioe, why do not ve hasten '^^ 

, heforewefarehen^f" When ho had said 

(this) they aU. as they Btood. with one voice be 

nought that this muiden should, in the woiKhip 
m all. But she answered, and aweetlj sai£ 

of Goi with eanctitjing waters sprinkle the 
" Dread je not, chosen champions ; for tc eha 
TB haTe broken in the flowing of your blood ; 

Q be baptized, and repair all the breaches that 

and this feariul lire shaU light up in jon the 

iianctif]-iiig flame of the Hoi; Ghoet, whiuh, ii 

1 fiery tongues, Idndled the apostles." While 



His dictis. assunt ministri. et' 

JU33U iraperatoria ligatia manibua 
et pedibus sarictos dei martires 
mediis flamiuia ingerunt. 

et sic inter estuantis^ flammas * 
incendii dominum confitentes. fc- 
lici martirio coronati ad dorainum 
migraverunt. tercio decimo die 
menaia novembria. 
In quibua illud eomparuit insigoe 
miraculum ut indumenta eorum 
aut capilli capitum eorum nullam 
ab igne lesionem Bustinerent. 
Yultua autem illorum rosei coloris 
decore emicabant. 

ut dorraientea potiua quam cs- 

■iinctos putarea. unde raulti con- 

versi ad dominum crediderunt. 

fe, in farene tungen, 
1404 ontende Jie apostles. 

Me weorp bum mid tis ilke word 

amidde ^e leie ; 

)'er ha heu.en up 
1408 hare honden to hooncne ; 

^ Bwa somct readliche, [1420] 

Jiiirh 3gH martirdom, 

ferden, wiS miir^e, 
1412 icrunet, to Crista, 

o Jie Jreottu^e dei 

of Nouembrea monelS. 

Ah f wes miracle muchel, 
1416 f nowSer nea iwemmet 

claS f ha hcfden, 

ne her of hare hcafden, 

Ah mit ae awi'Se lufsume 
1420 1eoreshaleien, [1131] 

se rudie 1 ae reade 

ilitet eanereuch leor 

as lilie ileid to rose, 
1424 ^ aawilit ne fuhte hit 

f ha weren deade, 

ah f ha slepten 

Ewoteliche a aweouete ; 

1403 Cii, CBi, EmfefiireiiE,tuQge. 1404 C oateadede. 1403 C [M.]ea {apace UJi for 
M). warp, R mit; tet for tis, omils word. 1406 E aniit, le. 1407 B fear. 1408 
S. teirard for to, C hauene. 1409 E ant, C Boma, R somed ferder (sic) redjiolie. 1410 
B martyrdoni. 1411 E to heouene far ferden, B nerden, C murhi5e. 1413 C JrittnSfl, 
B fraotirHe. 1416 E >et, C vaa, R muthel (1 icn'fUn aver r). 1416 C fat, R noWer/or 
ooiri^BT, jwenminet, B iwemnBt. 1417 C but. 1418 C hear, B ■fha blotted out after 
her, Roa/orof.liefden, Cheaued. 1419 RB wifi. E sq, o.niVj Bwii5fl ; lofsum, B lanfsume. 
1421 EiintBwi«e/or/rir<BB; ewa far seaind se. 1422 Eileitet,euereuch. U24EBnawt. 
1426 C fat. 1427 E in aa for a, C o, E aweouet. 

' iuBerts ex. ' letuanlei. ' C otigiaally_;6iinmis. 

this was spokea, they were cast amid the flame. There they lifted up their hands t^ heaven ; 
and so together readilj, through bleiued martj^om, went, with juf , urowned to Christ, on ths 
lliirteenth day of the month of November. And tttia was a great miracle, tliat neither were 
&e clothes injm^d that they had on, nor a hair of their heads. But with aach loTely 
. g ijipj, 1^ ^^ rnddy and so red-colonred every oounterance, aa lily Iwd to roaa, 

ot seem that they were dead, but that they slept sweetly in a slumber ; so that 


142 a Bwa f feole tumden 

to treowe bileaue, [14403 

1 Jioledcn anan dea^B 
i Jje noma of driLtin. 

1432 Comen cristene a niht, 
% nomen hare bodies, 
t bibiirieden ham 
deorlicho, as hit deh 

1436 drih tines cnihtes. 

pa Jis wos idofl Jus, 

bet eft yo keiser 

f me schuldo Eaterine 

1440 bringen biforeB him ; 

tirannus Tidens sanctam Tirginem immutabiliter fidei tenere con- 
stantiam. nee miniB aut ter-(fol. 180t)-roribu8 turbari, arte quadam 
temptat animum illius emoUire. ut ad profana sacrificia vel promisais 
infractam' valeat incKnare. 

Honim corpora cHristiani noctu 
rapieotee sepelierant. 

His ita gGstis. 

Dixit itaque illi. 
virgo generosa 

o digna imperiali purpura facies. 
utioam advertat juvenilia pru- 
deotia tua. 

% Jus to Lire cleopede : 

" mihti maiden ! 

witti wummon ! 
1444 wur^munt 1 alle 

■wurSschipe ivitrSe ! 

scbene nebscboft 

% sehape se swi^e aemlieh, 
1448 f scbulde beon Be prudeliche 

isohrud t iprud ba [1460] 

wis pel 1 wi¥ purpro : 


1428 C fela, B tnnjBn. 1*30 K vmila anaa. 1432 B natt. 1434 K tibureden, C bibiuiden. 
1435 E oiaiU deorliche, C deamlicha, R omils deh, H37 C was. B ido, R iwiifi Jins. 1439 
C men, R scnlde. 1440 B briogo, RB biaoren. 1441 E ant, C tus, clepede. 1444 
C wurBmund. 1446 R nebacheft. 1447 fi ant, emUa se. 1448 R Bwn for -fi, C B beo, 
E swa pradeUehe (sic), C prndliche. 1449 R iecradd, iprudd, C omits ba. 1450 R pal, ant. 
' fraciam. 

m&ay tamed to true faith, and straightway suffered duath in the narae nf the Lord. 
Chnstiane eame by night, and took their bodies, and bnriiid them sumptuously, as was due 
to the Lord's cliampions. When this was thus done, the Empflror again eoramanded that 
they shouid liring Katherine before him ; and thus addressed hot : " mighty maiden, 
wise woman ! worthy of honour and of all reverence ! beauteoufl CQuntenanee and moat 
seemly shape, which ought to be bo loagnificently decked and adorned with pall and with 


qnanto erga ' te dolore soUicitor. quod immortalium deorum nostrorum 
culturaiii non solum aapernaria sed et Hpirituum iumundorum in eis 
maleficia' esse tostificaris. quibus cultorea suos fallendo decipiaat. et 
aubtilibuB iuaidiis deceptoa iuferualibuB peaia obnoxioa faciaut. Unde 
te ab hac temeraria lacerations resipisci^ coovenit ne et ipai tanto 
magia injuriaoi aibi illatam ulcisci incipiant. quanto ipai adhuc tui 
patientea meritoa tibl non* inferunt^ cruoiatua. 

IConaule ergo iuyentuti tue ^'™ '^™^ "^ >^ i^"^«' 

I 1452 areowfi wUte; 
I 1 tac read, sell 

I meiden, to Jie seolueu. 

«t saerifica diis noetris et eris se- ""^ ^ S^et 

cunda poat reginam in palatiomeo. 
et ad nutuTU tuum cuncta regni 

1456 f tu igremet haueat ; 

1 tu Bchalt, efter >e owen, 

eauer Jre o^er beoa 

in hallo t i buro : [1470] 

1460 1 al ichuUe dlbten. 

■ Jib dodoa of mi kinedom 

aogotia .pectabunt. .H^, j ,„ j|,„,i, 

ut quoa dignoa honore judicaveris. hii regiis donentur bonoribuB, quoa 
autem in honore" manure jussevia. illia aufBciat intra domorum Euarum 
latibula vel manere inglorios. Intra regnum meum adbibeaa quoa velia. 
excludas quoa decreverisJ In aulicura miniaterium recipiantur. quoa 
recipia. abiciantur quos deicis. In hoc uno a te diatet* regina. quod 
regie thoro vincta legali matrimonio non fraudabitur. ceterum tu 
imperialibus consiliia. tu provincialibus edictis princeps et moderatrix 

U52 C arewB. 1463 C nim far tac. 1454 E vfnmmon for meiden, B ataiU meiden : K 
of/or to; >i, C seluen. 14*5 R ant, igtet. 1456 B be 
I4G0 B omila al, C al ick wulo, B d ich chulle, B dikt 
H62 C after. 

^^^ ' C originally irpo. ' maliciam. ' reaipiicere. * nmits non. ' in/eriat. " inionoros 
^^Hln tM honore. ' G deeiwirii added on margia, for nluch L puts nelii. ' C origiuallj distal. 

r thy youth; taka pily on thy face; and hate regard, lovely maiden, b 

J — . a_ —iiicli thon haat angered ; and thou ehalt, after the queen 

e the decrees of my Idngdon 


Ne^ hoc aolamvacat' facio et ego 
tibi sceptrifere imaginia ' atatuam 
in medio civitatis erigi. a cunctia 
civibua aalutandam at omnibus 


Seus mibi majeetatis fuerit. qui 
libet noxio Tenia negabitur. qui 
turus inclinaverit, 
Poatremo in quo te altiua^ beare 
Taleam. nisi intra deas templum 
tibi de insigni'' marmore erigam ? 

Hie* virgo in riaum paulo excitata 
tiranno ait. 

Ah jet i segge mare : 
HG4 ichuUa leten makien ]ie 

of gold an ymage, 

as cwcn ieruact ; 

t swa me schal, amid te bui 
1468 Bcttcn hit ou heh up. 

J?reft«rme Bchalbeoden [1480] 

t bodica hit oueral, 

f alle ye jrer bignlS 
1472 grcten hit o f>i nome, 

1 1juhen J^ertoward, 

allt; ye to ■wurSmunt, 

burhmtn Tl o'Sre. 
insalutatam preteriet.* Nulli quam^ 
se banc ad atatuam'^ pronior roga-f 

1476 Oq ende yu schalt hahben, 
hehlicho, as an of ure 
heuonliche lefdia, 
of maxbrestan a temple, 

1480 f schal aa stondoc, [1490] 
Lwil f te world stout, 
to witnesse of ]?i wurSschipe." J 
Eaterine onswerede, ■ 

1484 smirkinde sura del, ^ 

1483 CI for Ah, B ich. H64 B Ich cliulle, R leoten, C B lete, makie, 1465 B golt. 
1467 K uit^ C niBii/i»- me, K amidde, )ie, B smit, R borli imerted fi-om abmie in other hait/t 
andiiik. 1469 B ferefkir.C jrafter, men. 1470 E ant. 1471 C-f tec/or Jie Jier. 1473 C B 
liuhe, B Jiertowart. 1474 R wnrdmunt, C wniiJmund. 1476 H oSerfl. 1477 B heheeliohe. 
1478 B heonenlicbe, C Mdia. B leafdis. 1479 R marbre a atan a. 1480 C ai, B a. 1481 
B worlt, E (rmits stont. 1482 C wuiiSmund. 1483 B ontawerede. 1484 C smirkenda. 

' ori^ally the eame, but altered bj later tand to nee, ' C originally vocat. 
' C originally imagnis. ' C letter erased between i and e ; L preterierit, ' a4 itaiuam 
Aanc. ^ le aitiui transposed. '' C originally Imignum. ^ hi«e. 

entirely as tbon jn^eet. And, moreover, I say : I sball canse to be mude an ima^ of thee 
of gold, as a crowned qneen ; and it ehall bo set np on high, in the middle oi the city. And 
then it shall be commanded and proclaimed everywhere, that all who pass by ikall salute it 
in thy name ; and all citizens and others shall bow towsrd it in reverence of thee. Finally, 
then shalt haie. aa one of our celesfdal goddesses, a costly temple (raised to thee) of marble 
Bkioe, that shall stand for ever, while the world standetb, to (bear) witness of thy worship." 
S»therine answered, s miling somewhat, and said to the king, " Fail flattereth (singethF) 



1 cweS to Jje kinge, 
" Feire oleS ^i ma*, 
\ TDuric fa makest hit 
14S8 Ah ich diede f tis drenm 
me dreie toward dea^e, 
as de% mereminnes. [1500] 

I O me felicem^ honoris privilegio. cui erigatur statua ab homini- 

baa salutauda. ab hominibus reneranda. O me inquam felicem si 

vel hoc unum merear ut fiam aurea. (fol. ISld) Sed nee ex toto in- 

felix ero. si vel argenteam esse contingat, Erit' inter trapezetaa eon- 

tentio. de estimalione ponderis et pretii. Qaod si ne id fortuna presti- 

terit sim si ita^ necesae est' quovis ignobili metallo aut certe expolita* 

^^ de marmore. duin salutationem a commeantibus venerationem a couvi- 

^^^'Sntibus ut promittis inveniam. Verum cetera lineamenta statue iocq 

^^Kquolibetcunque metalli genere in formam conveniant. hoc unum a te 

^^ imperator si fas est scire preopto que erit ilia insignis materia, alena. 

viTificans. atque discernens, ex qua oculi ad videndum. aures ad audi- 

endum.* os lingua ad loquendum et cetera queque informentur. que 

eeuBu vigentia salutationes hominum audiant:' videant. et intelligaiit. 

Warn si bee lata' defuerint. quid refert michi^ feminei vultua decorem 

dan :* an simie turpem imagiuem aptari ? Sed dicis naicbi. Non erit 

^^Lignobilis memoria :' cum pretereuntes formam bujus modi intuebuntur' 

^^Bet dicent. Hec est ilia'" egregia virgo katerina :' que deum suum re- 

^^ftlinquens hoc tarn felici commercio vitam suain. memori evo conserva- 

^^^»it. me tunc infelicem.'^ cum me inanibus fabulis vulgi booorabit 

^^B^sania. Veruntamen si ait hec interim inanis recordatio quantumlibet 

-" ' m. dum regio metu pressua'^ banc micbi vulgus venerationem 

1485 E ant. 1487 R ant. 
tOTUrt, C deaSS, 1*90 B me 
_ > iuaerta timlo. ' iusertB et 
> omits aur. ad aud. ' C u 

1488 R omiu ich. 1489 C ooiiU me ; dmMo, B drBaie ; 
jeminnea, C terites as dD« mare -p tu muntiMt. 
Im. ^ C originally (a. * inserts lie. ' C QriginallyfrpofiaM. 
' felicem. '^ C originally pj'MiH. 

But tliyllsittery aud thine angor both avail thee equally. 




exibeat. eed aves celi haudquaquam iatud verebuntur. duin milvus et 
corvua ' undecunque avolantes sedem in me eibi usurpabunt. et itomunda 
digesti cadaveris proluvio^ faciem meam innotabunt. Quid interim 
pueri facturi aunt, qui divinum cause miaterium venerari neecienteH, 
hue Bimul egesturi convenient?^ decus o raichi espetendum* apostasie 
merito^ privilegium.^ cbristura relinquere et demonum cultibua me 
j ubet imperator inberere. Quid tu ad hec iraperator ? An in diebua meis 
bee statua insignia erigetur ? Erit scibcet ex bac niicbi vita' ]ocun-(fol. 
181i)-dior. etaa productior ^ aura salubrior cenaua opulentior? Si 
autem in morte" resolute corpore boc decus forme michi instauratur. 
quero an micbi boc prestare valeat. ut caro mea non videat corruptionem, 
et libera a vermibus servetur ad reeurrectionem ? Que int«rea animft J 
per banc quam promittis statuam prestabitur beatitudinia corona 

Desine ergo imperator. deaine talia 

jam suadere. que sit acelua etiam 

cogitare. Stultum valde est te in 

boc elaborare." in quo laboris 

nullum poteria emoluraentum ad- 

Ah al ye helped an, 
1492 Jiin olbaunge t tin eie. 

Ful wel icliulle f tu wite, 

no malitu, wiS na Jiing, 

wenden mill lieorte 
1496 from him f ich heie, 

1 aa wule herien. 

Bihat al -p tu wult, 

Jrrcap Jreftcr inoh, 
1500 1 freatef tu boo weri: [1510] 

no mei me wunne no weole, 

no nan ■worldea wur^achipe, 

14S2 R olhnnng, C olbtnnnfre, B fing for bin, 
chuUe, R tu hit wite. 1494 B mritea ne maht ti 
1496 C fram. 1497 R ant, C a! (aa f) B na m 
frafter. IBOORJireat. ISOlCwele. 1602 CBi 
' C originall)' carnuui, ' pre pluvie, ' etm 
gaid eaiia commmctwm ego comnamora 
ori^nally the same. ' inserts pro quo. 
for which L has proveotior. ' inserts 
lervabitur earn tanetii incormptibilia prei 

'. eiei (laet i espnngBd). 1493 B wel ich 
wiS na whit. 149a C B wende. C hertis. 
itted; wbUb. 1499 R {irent, B frep, C 
I, C weorldes, R wurdsctipB, B wuriSalape. 
niuni ; after this L inserts the words Aui 

fo percfplttra, ? " C originally elabart. 

I would have thee to tnow well, thou niaToet not, hy no tneens, turn my heart from Him 
whotn I eialt, and will ever praiBe. Proniise whatever thou wUt, argue aa much as thou 
likc^t, and threaten till thou art weary - neither joy nor prosperity, nor any worldly houoor, 



I qnirere 
Ohristus me sibi 

kaponsam adoptavit. 

[■ego me christo 

1 epoDsam indisso- 

[ ciabili federe 

F optavi.' I lie 

L gloria mea. 

I ille generoaitas 
1 1' ille amor ' 
meus. ille dulcedo 
et dilectio mea. 

[ Huie Bemel 

P dicata." 

bland im en ta 
me. aon 

ne mei me nowBer teone 
1504 ne tintreohe tumea 

from mi leofmoanes luue, 

■p ieh on leue. 

He Iiaue^ iwediet him to 
1508 mi mei^had mit te ring 

of rihte bileaue, [1520] 

1 ieh hahhe to him 

treoweliehe itake me. 
1512 Swa wit heo^ ifeatnet 

1 iteiet ia an, 

t Bwa ]ie eiiott« is ionut 

bituhhen uno tweien, 
1516 f nemei hit liste 

ne luSer atrengSe now^or 

of na Huiende mon 

leowsin ne leo^ien. [1530] 
1520 He ia mi lif T: mi Inuc ; 

he is '^ glede^ me ; 

mi BO%e blisse buucn me, 

mi weole t mi ■wunne ; 
1524 ne nawt no wilni ieh ellea. 

Mi swete lif, se swoteliche 

1603 C tene. 1504 R tintreo, C tintrehe. 1505 C fra, It leoue raDnnes, C lefmonnes, 
E leofmones. 15U7 C iwedded. I5U8 R mel (e ixputtged), C meidenhad, B Diitte te, 
CB wiii fe. 1509 E treowB /or rihle. 1510 It ant, C Aad. 15U C treweliche, B 
tteowliche. 1612 C we, R ifefnetr [aic), C iieatned, B iuestnet, 1S13 R wrilei 'i; io an 
16U Hant, Cenot/or cnotte. 1615 E bitweonen, CB us, R twa. 1616 R ms 
B mlied fitna alvnia), C luste. 1617 B etreDcfie. 1518 B virilsi of na mon liuiende. 
JEIS Blowdn,CleoBen, leiSieu. 1620 R ant. 1621 C gladieS, B gteadeS. 16-22 K bunt^n, 
g.boae, B bnue. 1623 B omiUJint mi, C wele, R ant; B 1 al mi. 1524 It wiln, C wilna 
"6 B 1qu8 for lif, ewa, C Bofteliche {o vtritten over t», f over a). 

' aeptavi. * amator. ^ dieatam. 


neither BufferinB nor ton 
He has wedded himself 
devoted mjeelf to him. 
'' itwiit ua two, thst neither craft 

my virgin Bl 

from the loie of my beloved, in whom I believa. 

1 witli tho ring of true belief, and I have truly 

umiod and bound into one, and the knot is so itni' 

cruel force of auy liying man may loosen or slaelten it 

ia my life and my love ; and he it is that gladdeneth me; mykue blisa ^in the noild) above 

my wealth and my joy ; nor do I desire anything else. Uy sweet life, bo sweeUy dolll 


ab ejus 
confesBione ' 

he smeche^ me '\ BmeallelS, 
f al me [luncheS sauure 

1528 % 3ofte f he eent me. 

Stuto nu )peime, % stew >e, 

1 stllle >me wordes, [ISilJ 

for ha heoS me unwur¥ ; 

1532 f wite }a to wisse." 

Tunc maxentiiis ait. Consulere quidem juventuti tue si adquieviaseB 
Yi'rgo decreveram ^ sed quia uon aoluni obstinata mente oblatos honores. 
Bed et ealutem et vilam te' parvi pendere video:' ecce ego austerioria 
judicii verbo consilium do.* ut tu sane aut diis nostris sacrifices, aut 
crudeli morte intereas. Cui puella respondit. Cam ipse rex celorum 
deuB et dominus meus jesus cbristus. pro me a diaboio temptari a 
udeis (sic) ^ comprehendi. ab iniquo judice morti adjudicari non renuit.^ 
dignum est ut et ego pro ejus nomine non solum penaa. sed si sic 
necease est etiam mortem sustineam. Ipse se^ pro me domino patri 
sacrificium. dedit. goudium michi eat.* ut et ego illi^ me bostiam 
gratam offerre merear. Tu nunc gloriaris quod in me et in aervia 
dei'" poteatatom habeas, veniet tempus et propc est cum diabolus suam 
in te potestatem exerceat. et penas quas servia christi ad tempus 
ingeria. tu in etemia cruciatibua recipies. Ego autem tanto m.e grati- 
orem futuram esse confido. quanto pro ejus nomine momentanea. 
tormentorum genera sustineam. Tu nunc iniquo judicio me aolam 
qucris perdere. fateor aane quia aola ad christum non propero.^'^ 
Nam de hoc (fol. 182a) palatio tuo. numeroaa turba jam chri8t6« 
aanumerata eat. 

162B C amecoheS, K ant, C smelle^. 

1 C originally confiiaine. ' C o 
margin, for which L has inibo. ° i 
" C originally iUt. '<• tma/w dei. 

1628 a ant. 
riginaUy detr 

1629C]ra/ornu, Ra 
uiram. " omits te. 

,nt. 1532 H fat. 
• C do added on 
!hi est tranepoBed. 

be taste and smell to 
tboa then, and desist, 

me, that all seems to me • 
and silence thy woids, for 

lelicions and soft that he sends ma. Stop 
to me they are worthleiss ; tliat tnow then 



Hie' tiranniia ira et furore inebria- 

taa beatam virginem jussit a mi- 
nistris comprehendi et expoliatam 
ecorpionibua cedi 

J7e king no cu^e na wit, 
ah bigon to cwakien, 
T, nuBte hwet seggen. 

1536 Het on wode wise 

strap en hire steurtnakct, 
I beaten hire bare flesLb 
1 biro freoliche bodi [1550] 

1540 mit caottode scbiu^en ; 

dehinc obscuro carceria ergastulo claudi. TTbi cum duceretur. coq- 

stanter tiranno ait. Ego plane in ejus nomine libena flagellis cedi 

ego tenebroai carceris ergastulo^ angustiari non refugio.* Tu michi 

^Htenebraa ingeria. certum ait tibi quia per baa lux perpetua miobi 

^^E]paratur tibi autem tenebre eteroales ancceduot.* Tunc juaaa tirannica* 


^H corp 

Iminiatri explentea ferreia virgia 
corpus tenerum lacerabant. 
et dum verberando alii deficiobant:' alii auccedebant. 

T: swa mo dude Bone, 
f hive leofliche lich 
li^erede al o blode : 

Manet interim i"irgo laudaus^ 

1544 ah hoo hit Uhtliche a 
1 lahinde folede. 

et dec gratiaa agena. Seiacitatur tirannua an verberibua infracta regiis 

I tnandatis obediat. ut relasetur a pena, Sed virgo feriente robustior. 

Hiperante sublimior. aciscitanti conatanter respondit. cania inpu- 

na wit. 1835 fi ant, C hwitt. 

aerled from above). 1539 C freliclie. 

■ IHO C B vtiS, C cnotte, K acurgen. C schurgen (r 'inierlid from aboie) . 1 61 1 C And, B 

ant, C men, B awa me Iranspaiied, C dide. 1542 C leflicbe. 16*3 B a/or o. 1644 K 

ant/w sh, E hihlliclie {second h altered Jrom t). 1645 E ant, Jiiildeliclia/o)' lahinde. 

' ergtuitile in C supplied on maigin. ' instead of erg. ang, mow ref. L haa tha 
■orem ampUcti gaudeo qai corpna imim pro me dedit ad JlagsUa qui mandum 
tintiiB carceria angugti ciaiAstra non rffugit- * ^uccedent. ^ G oii^nallf 
' laad-ibil indiBtinet. 

. ^ The king did not know what to do nor what to say, but hegan so tremble. Ha 

anded, in mad wiaa, to strip her atark naked, and heat her bare flesh and her fair hody 

itty scourges. And this was done forthwith, so that her IotbIj bodj was aU 

\T with hlood ; but uho bure it lightly, and suffered it smiling. Altei this he com- 


H^ dent 

^B tu V 
^V cetej 

dentisaime. fac quodcunque nequiaaima mens excogitare potest, ego 
per penas illi me reddere habeo. qui me per penas rcdimere digDatuB 
est. Talibus cruciatibus quandoque ' videbis me cum sauctia in gloria, 
tu vero eteraia crucialibua deditus dolebia fanta et talia in me et io-^ 
ceteris famulia cbristi prevuluisse. 

Clauditur ex jussu^ virgo regio* 

I carcere tenebroao fame et aiti 

bis senia diebus crucianda* 

Het hire Jrefter 
ka^tcn in cwalmhaB, 
1 548 1 bed balden hire Jiiia ; 

f ha now^er ne ete, [1560S 

tweolf dahoB fulle. 

sub prefinito edicto, ne cell lumen'' videat. ne aliud quam tenebn 
horrentes^ inspiciat. Sed ne in his' christus famulam euam deaeroit.! 
assunt illi angeli de celo confortantes cam et inestimabili claritativl 
fulgore locum penitua irradiantes. adeo ut euatodea qui a^ foris ex-fl 
cubiaa obaervabant pre timore in stuporem mentia converterentur,^ 
Kullus tamen horum. tiranno nuntiare quid viderat presumpsit pn>J 
feritate sua, 

Accidit autem ut maxentius® pro 1552 Bicom to f te king, 

■ 1 ,■!, 1 Miisenee, moste fearen: 

causia inatantibuB extrema re- ' ' 

T ferde into Je flrreste 
gionia confinia adiret. ^^^^ „f Alixandre. 

Pernotuit interea regine'" crudeHasima viri sententia de beata katerina. 
qualiter innocentem virginem per sapientea secuH tractaseet et quo-j 

1546 C Jirafttr. ISJ? B kcsttBn, C B i, K in a ewaJrahua. 1548 K ant, C het for b 
15411 B uowditr, R omili ne. 1550 C laese, £ Itasse. 1551 C tnclf ikics. 16 
C [BJieom (jpncs Uft for B), omili to. 1663 C laren, B fearrua, 1654 R ant, umid JH 
first, C ferreEtfl. 

' C originally qiianqiu. * insBrlfl imperaloria. ' regia. ' C originBlly 
' eeli lumen transpoBed. ' Icnebras ^aic) Aorrenrfa* transposed. ' hie for in hii. 
* tiraiiiui for tnaxeniiiu. '" origmally rtgiie, 

manded tliat ehe should be cast into the torture-hooBG, and kept therein ; so tbut she GhoiilL 
Doitber eat, Iobb nor more, full twelve dnja. It happened that the king, Maience, had to gvfl 
on a ioume; ; and (he) joDinejed inU tHe faiUiest end of Alexandria. Hie Queen, Aug — ^ 



motto illi puellaribus verbis' evicti et ad fidem cliriati converBi. 
gloriosa (fol. 182^) paesione de mundo eraigraaaent, De quo facto 
vir ejus indignatua. dum virgo diia libamina offerre noluissed (sic) diria 
cesam scorpioiiibua sub arta ciistodia carceris jusait recludi. ubi per 
duos denoa^ dies justa crudelis regis seDtentiam puella innocens nullo 
cibi aliinento frueretur. Audiens regina ferale conjugia edictum. licet 
geotili errore teneretur. tamen animi ingenita' bonitate tenere etatis 
Bortem miseratur iniquam. 

Fit anxia videre faciem i 
et colloqui. 

1556 pe oweu Auguste longeda 
for to aeon )'is ineiden, 

id persentiscat vir ejus vebementer formidat. Talia meditando. 
regiam domuni solitaria deambulabat. Pit illi optato eventu obviam 
princeps militie quidam nomine porphiriua. vir strenuua. quantum ad 
temporalem aecuH dignitatem conailio prudens. fide promptua. amici 
secrctum intra clauatra* ailentii* ■ 

Hunc ad i 

evocana imperatnx 

% cleopede to hire Porpldre, 
cnUiteue prince, [1571] 

aperit^ voluntatem suam simulque poatulat. ut amotia aut placatis 
cuatodibue carceria. viau et colloquio Virginia potiretur. Nam ut tibi 
inquit porphiri que me aoUicitant. aperiam. 

multa bac in nocte 

1560 1 BeidD him a aweucn 
f hire wea iachawet : 

quorum amblgua revelatio me adeo auspensam reddit. ut quocunque 8i 
horum exitus aive in adversum sive in proaperum vertat. eorum aani 
eventum mature superventurum certiaaimc cognoscam. 

1557 B te/or to, sen, C meiden katerme. 1558 S. ant, C clepede, R porfirie. 
15fil C >at, woe, iacheawed. 

> vcrbii inserted by kter band after cvieli. ' duodenoa. ^ iiigtnti. ' 
' altered b; later band into silentiait. < inEOrts ei. 

1560 B ant. 
mita slamfra. 

IB tMe maiden, and called to her Forpbiri 

! knigbte, and told 



^ hft Boh aitten 
yis meiden mid monie 
1564 hwite wur^Kehe men, 

111 abuten biaet ; 

% heo wes hire geolf fer 
1568 imong, as hire J-uhte, 

1 te an toe ane 

guldcne crane, 

1 sotte on hire heauet, 
1572 aseide tohire Jius : 

" Haue, ewen, ane crun 

isent to of heouene." 

X for fi, ha seide, 
1576 hire lustfl swi^e jeome 

speoken mit te meiden. 



Vidcbam Bane banc de qua loqui- 
mur puellam intra septa domi- 
cQii sedentem ineetimabili clari- 
tate circumfullam et viroa dealba- 
toB circumsedentes. quorum vultus 
inapicere pre claritate baud pote- 
ram. Ilia autem me intuens jubet 
propius accedere. et de manu unius 
ho rum qui assistebant coronam 
auream accipiens capiti raeo ira- 
ponebat. dicena michi bee verba. 
Ecoe tibi o imperatrix corona e 
celo mittitur. a domino meo jcsu 
obristo. Qua ox Tisione suspensa 
nee somnum c^pere. iiec bore 
uniu8ino-(fol. 183«)-meiitoquiea- 
cere poBBum 

ita cor tremulum me ad videndam virgiaem' exagitat. Per te ergo 
michi viam ad puellatn euudi et videadi facultatem dare precor o 

Cui porpbiriiis roepondit. Tuum 
est domina augusta imperare quod 
via. michi perficere que jubeaB 
animo conatat. 

Unde et me ad hoc ipsum promptum invenies famulum. licet impera- 
toria iram sciam pro certo me non posae vitare. si reacierit. Nam de 

1662 B aitte. 1563 E fflos, C wi'S. 1564 C toriles hwite meidnee inohe, B wnrliche. 
1666 R ant, meidenea, C mrilea wurSIiche men. 1566 K ant a>, G emits al, C B abute. 
1567 B oBiKjliira, C was, self. 1569 R ant, B 1 f te, CB a /or ane. 1671 C upon, 
heaued. 1S73 C B a. 1574 C isend, Rfrom/a.-of. 1675 tt ant, C And. 1577 C speke, 
B Bpeoke, C B wiS, C fis far te, B fe, 1678 K Porfirie, C omiia hire. 1579 R heo, C 
jeraede, B )irade. 

' videndam virpintm, transposed. 

liim a dream that had appeared to htr : that she saw this maiden sitting with many venerable 
men ctalhed in white, and maidens not a fev placed all round ; and she was herself among 
them, aa she thought, and one took a crown of gold, and set it upon her head, and spoke to 
herthuB: " Receive, Queen, a crown sent to thee from heaven." And therefore she said 
she desired most earnestly to sp eak with ttie maiden. Foiphiriue granted all that she desired ; 

Porphire jettedo hire 
■^1 ha jirnede ; 



puella de qua loqueris cnideliter ab imperatore actum constat, quia et 
ego interfQi. quando ab externis' finibua sapientes convocatos. discep- 
tare adversus puellani constituit. et promisais muneribua s! victam 
redderent. vebementer incitavit. Illi autem adversua earn stare nee 
hora una^ prevaluerunt, scd ilico conversi. deutn bunc quern puella 
predicabat publics fatebantur. TJnde et indignatus imperator. omnes 
ignibus tradi imperavit* In quibus illud inirabile contigiase vidi et ego. 
quod in hia omnibua nee in capillia aut in veatimentia ulla ignia lesio 
conparuit. Qua^ re fateor o regioa. ex illo die sic verba illiua quibus 
ipsa deo3 noatroa exprobravit, sic inquam cor meum titillando aollici- 
tant.* ut quidquid diis esibemua totum frivolum reputem et inane. 
Unde nisi lex nostra cbristiaoorum sectam penitua abhorruisaed 
facile quis poterat me ad cultum cbristi impellere. Sed tu quoniam^ 
opportune ut puto consilium meum prevenicndo commooea. quid restat 
niai ut'' euatodes carceris mercede ad consilium nostrum inflectamus. ut 
et ipsi celare boc ipsum studeant ? Nee mora, porphiriua ad consensum 
custodes emoUivit. 

Igitur de prima vigilia noctis 
regina et porphirius proccdunt ad 
carcerem. et introeuntea viderunt 
care e rem ineatimabili claritate 
undique choruseare, eujua ex 
fulgore perterriti corruerunt in 
terram. {fol. 1836) Mox ineatima- 
bilia odor auavitatis naribus* infu- 

1580 1 leadde hire anan, i fe nibt, 

to Jie cwarteme. 

Ah swuch leome 1 liht 

leitede Jrinuo, 
1384 f ne mahten ha nawt 

lokin Jier ajeinea ; 

ah feollen ba, for f earlac, 

dun duuelrihtea. 
1588 Ah an se swi^e swote smeal 

com anau >refter, [1601] 

1680 R ant, C i^e aiht aniin. 15S2 R 
heo, omil! nant. 1SS6 C loken, B I 

B. fariao, B faarleM. 1587 S. adun. 
jier eftar. 

IS83 C brin. I68t C fat, mihtao, E 
no-, R tojeme», C B;iiines. UU C felle, 
8 R swa, oiaiti eviiSe, C smal. \&S9 B 

il. * insrrtfl ex. ° C originttUy Kllieilam, 

and conducted her in the night immediately to the prison. But Each brightness and light 
shone therein, that they might not look toward it ; but both fell, throus-h fear, down 
headlong. But such an exquiaitel<r sweet odour immediatel; aucceeded, which cbased away 



BUS. ad spem meliorem confortavit, f aoide awei f fearlac 

'\ frourede ham sonc. 

Sargite inquid virgo egregia. et 1592 "AriselS," quo* Katerine, 
" ne drode je nawiht, 

ne paveatis. quia et vos yocat 

christus' ad palmam. Surgeotes 
autera conteplati (sic)^ aunt puel- 
lam sodentcm. et augelos del 
plagaa et carnis scissuras' aroma- 
tico unguine circumfoventes. qui- 
bu3 caro et cutis superficies ia 
admirabilem decorem vertebantur. 

for Je deore drilitin haueW 
idiht ow ba Jie blisf ule 

1596 cruno of hia icoreue." 

pa ha weren iseteu up, [1610] 
Bcheu as )ie cngles 
wi^ smirlcB of aromaz 

1600 smiredea hire wuaden, 
t bieodeu swa ]'e bruchei 
of hire bodi, al tobroken 
of J>e beatiEge, 

1604 f tet fleach % te fel 
wurSen swa feire, 
f ha awuiLdreden bam 
Bwi=5e of f sih^e. [1620] 


Vident etiam et seniores circunisedontes, quorum, vultus inedicibili 
lucis candore emicubant. Horum ab uno qui astabat cbristi virgo 
coronam aecepit velut aureo colore rutilantera. et regiue capiti' im- 
poBuit. Dixitque cireurasedeutibua senioribua.^ Hec est^ ilia domini 
mei de qua postuiaveram regina. quam milicie et corone nostre a deo 
consortem'' michi depoposceratn, Sed et hunc qui aasistit miUtem in 
nostre sortis numerum aacribi volumus. Ad bee illi inquiunt. O 
pretioaa cbristi margarita. super bis preces tuas ille suscepit. pro 

1680 S. farlac. 1591 S ant. 1692 :R B qS. C %. 1693 B. omifi je. ISde C hue. 
1S9B B writes iselien as nn engel, (! te, 1600 C emererten, wundes. 1601 R B ant, C 
brnches, 1602 B of hire of hiro (sw). 1P03 R testing, B beattuage. 1604 C J-at, te/er 
tet, B tet/or to. 1606 B worsen, so, E awa swiSe feira. Ili07 R jia, C >ftt. 

' vetat thriiltw troitRposed. * eontcmplali. ^ eamii ictinirai transposed. * rtgine 
eapili tmnspotied. ' C originally hanoriiui. * otnils eil. ' C origiaallj' lorltm. 

the fear and eomfortal thom forthwith. "Arise," aaid Catherine, "dread je nothing, 
for the dear Lord has appointed for you hoth tha blissful crown of his elect." When they 
were raised up, they saw bow the angels with aramatic oiatmeat anointed her wounds, ana 
treated with such care the hurts of her body, all laeeiated with the beatii^, that the flesh 
and the akin became so fail, that they wondered greatly at the dght. £at this maiden 



cujus amoTG flagella et carceris horrorem non timuiati. aed et eterno 
federe ab ipso collatum tibi esse coaataf . ut pro quibusoueque ipsius 
niajestatem interpellaveria inpetratum reportes.' Hob interim qui visi- 
tatioais^ gratia tibi assistunt acito inter primiciaa labonim tuorma jam 
aacriptos^ quos trumphalt pasaione ante te celica regna excipient* 
coronatos. Mox milicie agone peracto. to ille inmortalia aponaus 
intra vite eteme januam auacipiet, ubi tibi modulia dulcc aonoria 
celica organa reaonabuat. ubi clarissima virginum turba inter lilia^ 
roseis floribua vernantia sequuntur agnum quocunque ierit. His dictis, 
beata virgo reginam conaolari ce- 1608 AIi Jiis raeiden bigon 

pit dicena. lam regina forti animo 
esto. quia poat boc triduum itura 
ea ad deum. Ne ergo momentanea 
penarum genera form ides, quia 
non aunt condigne paasiones hujua 
temporia ad intermi-(fol. 184o)- 
nabilem gloriam que talibus pro 
chriato penis omeretur.^ Ne ergo 
verearia regis temporalis aut mor- 
taEs sponei. 

to boalden ham ba^e, 

T: to ^0 cweu seide, 

" Owen, icoren of lesu Crist, 
1612 beo au stale wur^e, 

for Ju Bcbalt atihen biforon me 

to dribtin ia heoueao. 

Ne beo ]?u nawiht ofli-ubt 
1616 for pinen, f farelS for^ [1630] 

in an hondhwile ; 

for wi^ swuoohe Jju scbalt 

buggen 1 bijeoten 
1620 j>e eadelese LHssen. 

Ne dred tu nawt to leauen 

bin eor^lieho lauerd 

qoi hodie in sua superbit potential et eras putreda et vermia futurua 
eat ne verearia inquam ejus consortium aspemari. 

1608 C As /or Ah ; tia. Ifl09 R omila baiSe. 1812 B stealewurte. 1613 C stihe, E 
binoreii, Cbifore, E biuore. 1614 C beoane, 1616 B Jte feareiS. 1617 B bonthwile. 
161B Cewnche. 1BI9 C bi)aten "b buggen, R Bat, B bijeate. 16*20 EaniiMJie, Ilendelease. 
1621 R leaaeuea {laal ea expunged), C leoeen/or leaaeo. 
I originnllr rspor(aiii. ' C originally KisifaWBis. ^ C originally a«iri*o(o*. ^ aecipitnt. 
■ * " "■ ' '' r> . ., ,-.-.<.. j^^^ 1 luperiil p ■ ■■ ■ 

iriginoUy Ilia, 

' L tTntrealur, C originally tmin 

'' luperiil poienlia tranepoaed. 

b^iiD to ancoaragfl tliem both, and said to tha Queen, " Qneen, chosen of Jeans Christ, 
be now steadfast, for thoa shalt aseend before me to the Lord in heaven. Be thoa no whit 
afraid foi pain, that departetb in a little vhila j ior with guch thoa shalt pntchase and acqnire 


pro rege eterno et inmortali 

sponso domino jeau christo. qui 

pro caducis honoi'ibus donat eteroa 

premia. pro transiturie largitur 

sine fine man sura. 

Ad heo verba beate virginis por- 


for IcBu Crist, f ia king 
1624 off echa kinedom; 

)pe jelt for Jie false 

■wur^schipe of ^is world [1640] 

heoucnerickea wiinne; 
1628 for Jiingf aone aU«, 

weole f aa leatol! 

Feng ]7a Porphiri 

quia prime cohortis 
Bionibus pollebat 

cepit rogando inBistero. quenam 
ilia essent premia que Buis chnBtua 
militibua pro dampnis 
temporalibua recompenaabit. 

prefecturam agebat. et magis^ rerum pot 


to freinen Jiis meiden 
1632 hwucche ■weren Jie medo: 
1 to endelese lif 
f godd haueS ileuet 
his icorene, for Jre luren 
1636 t tis worldliche lif, [1650] 
f ha leoseS for Jie luue 
of rihte biieane. 
Heo onswerede ^ aeide, 
1640 " Bbo nu Jienne, Porphii 
stille T^ understont me : 

quia bominem mortalem quamlibet ait potena. quamlibet dives, quam- 
libet incolumia. nulla unqnam tanta vigilantia. tanta circumspectio 
eum^ prevenire^ valet, ut quacunque ait conditione a statu auo baud 

1623 R >e, B Jiet. 1624 E omiU f. 1626 C 1, for _fi>-sl >e, jeld. 1B26 R wnreehipe, 
B wurdschipe. 1627 C heuenericbes, B heooeiicliFfl. 1629 C wele, ai, B n, C lasted. 
1630 B Wende /«■ Feng, B porfirie. 1631 It freinin. 1632 C B were. 1633 
E Krilra ant tet endel€« lif. 1634 S, ilenct, C ileaued. 1635 C his leue icorcne, B lure. 
1636 E TTOcldlich, B wotlfilicha {fral 1 inserted from abese). 1837 B heo, Se far ]>e, 
1639 B onteiterede, B ant. 1610-1641 entirely omitted by%,C anderElond, B is for me. 
' majnis. ' citcamipectio ttan tranapOBBd. ' preniiimre. 

Cui virgo. Audi inquit porphiri. 
et animadverte. 



endless joys. Fenr not to leave thy earthly lord for Jesus Clirist, who is king of the 
ererlaatjng kingdom ; nho pveth instead of the false honour of this world the juy of the 
kingdom of heaven ; for a tmcg that eoon falleth away, happiness that ever Isstcth." Than 
began ForphiriUB to ask this maidiin of what nature were the rewards and the endless life that 
God hath granted to his olett, for the loss of this worldly life, which they lose for the loTe of 
true faith. She answered and said, " Be now slill then, Forpbirins, and uoderstand me : 



qnaquam iramutetur. Intuere diligentius quam brevis est vita homi- 

nis. ipse rerum divicie quamlibct longo tempore et magno laboie 

quesite. quain celeri lapsu effluunt. Quid enim forenses querimonie 

raliud clamant, nisi rerum patrimonia eublata? Animadverte an 

I ipse urbes ejusdem dignitatis statuiu adliuc retinent. quo primo 

tempore fundate conetiterant. Quod si ita est immo quia ita 681:* 

nunc in adversum mentis defige intuitum. Et quia interrogando 

Bciscitaris que sunt et quanta ilia premia que suis christus pro 

transitoriis ' rependit. sic accipe. Porro si bee que sub celo sunt 

fam fluxa atque fugitiva aliquo modo foront espetenda. cur non 

mnlto magis que super celos sunt lirma et stabilia mentes bumanaa 

I Hon oblectent, preaertim cum ilia nee ad votum possunt retineri. 

1 ista semel accepta (fol. 1846) ultra non possunt amittip Mundua 

[ iete velut career est tenebrosus. in quo nuUus ita nascitur. ut non 

I moriatur. ilia superna patria pro qua fit mundi conteniptus. 

\ velut civitas est 

Constu bulden a burh, 

inwi^ i yin heorte, 
1644 al abuten bitrumet 

\fiS a dcorewurSe wal, [1660] 

achininde, 'i schoare, 

of jiuiBtanea ateapro 
1648 J-en is eni Bteorre ; 

t euch bold friawi^ 

briht as hit beamde, 

1 leitinde al oa leie ; 
1652 t alf teriais 

[ 1«2 B [C]onatu{a;weB;efl:/r»-C),RBbur. 1643 Bomitai. 1644 Eat al, CB abute, 
I' C bituined. 164fi C derewuTSe, B deorepur^e (lie). 1646 B. schiniii. C Echinende, 
LilSaiit. 1647 K urifM j-en eni w {virpunged) jimatanes steappre. 1648 C otniO is,B ra 

'fit mi. 1649 B ant, B bolt. 1650 K berade, C bearainde were far benmda. 1651 

Sltitede, CB 0. 1652 K ant, C And, Jiat. 

' C originally traniloriii. 

t thon, within tby beort, build [imagine] a 

^uniogf arid biigateir, oF p 

1 it bright as 11 it Trerac 

sitj inclosed all round with a precicm 

^^B ^ LIFE OF ^^^^^^1 

glistinde 1 gleaminde, 

as hit were seoluer 

o«er gold smeato ; [1670] 

1656 istonct euch strcto ^| 

mid deorowurSe stanes, ^H 

of mialiche heowes, ^H 

imenget togederea, ^H 

1660 isliket % ismaket ^H 

as eni g!es sme^est ; ^H 

bate sloh t slec, B 

eauer iliche sumerlich ; ^H 

1664 ^ alle f-e burhmen ^ 

seouea si«efl brihtre [1680] 

sole numquam indigens ubi nulla' 

Jjea beo fe aunne, 

gleowinde of euch gleo, h 

1 668 ^ a mare iliche glead ? H 

for nawiht ne denied ham ; ^H 

inquietant.^ sed perhennia leticia. 
jocunditas oterna. felicitas rcgnat 

ne nawiht ne wonted ham ^H 

of al f ha wilne^ ^H 

1672 oSermahenwilnin; ^ 


alle singinde aomet, 
aae lif ieouie, 

euch an mid o«ere ; [1690] 

1676 aJle pleiende aomet. 

1863 C cliatende, It ant. 1664 C seluer. 1655 C smdSc. 1656 C istanet, B Istoanct 
1657 C U wis. 1658 C misljcli. 1680 E ant, C arites % Miket \ iameSet, 1661 C gka. 
1662 Cwii5ute, B8leclilco*/«f/r=™B4™.}/«-slBe. 166* E ant. 1665 C seaen riUe, 
BBeoneBi«6. 1666 Bomifsfe. 1887 H gleownnge. C gleowinge, (wMBd g erpH«?*rf ; d 
ahoveii). 1668 B eoer/ora, C ai.gkda. 1670 C o™(j>«( ne, B nawMt. 1671 R heo, 
B WQlle«/or wilne«. 1672 R nder, B msho. C wilnen. 1873 C eingende, somen. 1874 
K as, C leoi, B leoni. 1875 C B wi«, C oSer, B odec. 1678 B pleinde, C somen. _0 

' inserts here tlie words lurbal adverait. 

u nulla nfseaailiu anguslat molmtia nulla. ^^| 
perpet'ta for tempilerna. ^^^k 

glittfirmg and gleaming, as if it were silTer or pare gold ; every street payed with prooioua 
stones, of Tariona hues, mingled together, and polished and smoothed as the smootheat glass ; 
without slough or mnd, always eqaally BumraerlikB ; and all the citizens Bevsn times brighter 
than the sun can be, rejoicing with every kind of music, and eTermote alike glad ? for nothing 
moIestB them ; nothing is wanting to them of aU that they vriah or can desire ; ail singing 
together, like true loveraT;?) each with other ; all playing together, all rejoicing together, ever 

• ■ M 


alle lahindo BomGt, 
eauor iliohe lusti, 
liute linnuDgo ; 
1680 for >er is a lihi, 
^ leitinde leome. 
Ne niht ais ter Eoau 

1684 ne eilelS fer na mon 

nowBer eorlio ne Bar, [1700] 
now^er heate ne chele, 
uow^er hnnger ne f urst, 

1688 ne nan of J-unchunge ; 
for nis ter nawt Wttres, 
ah is al b^,tewil, , 

Bwottre % swettre 

1692 }ea eauer eni lialewi, 
i f hoouenliche lond, 
i f cndelese lif, 
i f-e wunnen 1 te weokn 

1696 ]jurhwunieiidB : [iTllj 

T: monie ma murh^en 
J-en alle men mahten 
wis hare m\rS munnen, 

1700 1 tellen wiS tungen, ' 

Jiah ha aa talden ; 

BS77 C laheude, somen. 1678 B euer, ilicb. 1678 S aa bate, linim^, C blinaim^, 

ghtngimge. lem Ra&Uhtlrangxmd. 1681 K ant. C '^ a leilinde. 1682 B )ier. 1683 
> newdn. 1681 R oilet, E eille^. R emih na. 1687 H iilieeea hunger and ne, tA« words 
e ctlale leraped out but itill legibU, C )<TUst. 1688 C of]>unchinge. 1G89 B \ax, 
'. omitt nawt. 1630 K bate- or bate-wil, C awetewil, B bratewil. 1B91 E awote ant, 

C swottre for ewettre. 1692 R euer, B ei, C haliwei, B healewi. 1G93 C ^at, heuenliohe. 

1694 B endeles. 1696 B ant. 169T R murSen. 1698 C mihtea. 1699 B mimieD. 

1700 B tunge. 1701 E a/or ha, C si, B a. 

ineny, withoat ceasing ; for there is always light, and shining brightness. It is sover 
. there, nor is there ever an^ annoyance \ nor does there either sorrow or soio, beat ai 
. hanger or thirst, or anj reroorae, afflict enj man ; for thera is nothing bitter there, 
it all is gratifving (p), sweeter and sweeter than ever any balm in that hearenly conntiy, 
IBB life, m the ^oy and the felicity tbat contiuaetb for ever : and many more 
LQ all men could with their moatha mention, and with their tongues tell, thougb I 


Si queris quid ibi sit ubi tanta et 

talis beatudo{!j' consistit, aliter 

dici non potest, nisi quicquid 

boiii est ibi est et quicquid roali 

est nusquaiu est. 

Quod inquis bonum ? 

niud est dico. quod oculus non 

■vidit." nee auris audivit. 
nee in cor hominis asceadit. 
que preparavit deus diligenti- 
bus Be. 

Jie neauor ne linnet 

now'Ser ne lesse^, 
1704 ah leaste^ ua mare, 

sc Icngre Be mare. [17203i 

Jef ];u jet witen wult 

hwucche ■wih.tcB ^er beon, 
1708 Jier as al }i.i blisse is, 

jef f er is oroost 

o^er eni ahte, 

1712 AI ji eaiicr oht is, 
al is ycT ibwer ; 
1 hwetse »oht wurlS me, 
f nis ter noliTer. [17aOj| 

1716 Jcfjiueskest: Hn-etoht? 
Kaa eor^lich ebe 
ne laei iiit seon, ich. aegge, 
ne nan eor^Hch eare 

1720 hercnin ne hercn, 

ne heorte JenchcB of mon, 
1, hure, meale vn!S mil's, 
hwet te worldes wealdent 

1724 haue« ijartet alle foo [1740^ 
be him ariht luuielS." 

1702 C Be/or fe, R%C hlnnnetS, B limieS (?). 1703 B oe ne leassffi, C laaaeiS. ITOtl 
C laBteS, C ai, B a. 170o B so— so. 1706 C jif, B get, C B wite. 1707 B fear, R bon. 
ITOS B >ear, C OMiia al ; tia, K wriUa }et as fia blisee is al. 1709 C }U, B fear. 1710 
Bei. 1711 BoDtawerie. 1712 Cgod/oroht. 1713 C tec, eihwer. B iwer. 171* Bail 
for'i, C And, huat, R bo. It wurd, B omili vraS. 1716 E amils f, B fer, C nowhwer. 
171B C vrritea jiS^URBkesthwatoht ilaat htler ezpuiffed). 1717 C J>at nan, £ eofSliche. 
ITiaRiseon. 1719 B eor«liclie 1720 C heronen, 1721 K of mon fenchen. 1732 ! 
R ant, lire. 1723 C twat, R weldent 1724 C tn/or alle. 1723 C -p, ciht, d 

> btaliludo '' ntai vidil orulus. ■ 

they spots for ever ; nor do they ever cease or diniinisli, bnt last tor evermore, the longer 
the more. It thou wouldst further know what land of beings there ace, where all this 
huppineaa is, whether there IB wealth or any posaeBsions, I answer thee : All whataoaver is 
good, is there everywhere , and whatsoever is northlosa, is nowhere there. If thou aakeat, 
what possessions F I saj, that no earthly eye may see thent, nor any earthly eai listen to or 
hear, nor may heart of man conceive, and, much leas, speak with month, what the Ruler uf 
the world haa prepared foi those who love him righuy.'' Forphiiiua and Augusta were 



Ad hanc felicitatem quidam divitiia constipatua anbelabat. dicens. 
TJaque quo me deu9 in hoc mundi' squalentia pulvere retines ? Usque* 
adeo eitientem^ ad te spiritum intra carnia ergastulum reprimia? Uaque 
quo prolongatur incolatua meus P Hec est iUa desiderabilia patria. ubi 
non est luotus neque clamor, nequo dolor, sed absterget deua omnem 
lacrimatn ab oculis sanctorum, de qua dicit udus ex suia. satiabor dum 
manifestabitur gloria tua. Parva quidem aunt que dico ad ea que 
viau et rerum veritate esperieria. ei fidelia uaque in fiuem persevera- 

lam leti de civium superuorum 
present! Tisione. et beate Virginia 

I oonaolatione. regirta simul et por- 
phiriua procedunt de carcere. 

I parati ad omnia que tortor insauus 

t poterit inferre pro cbriati nomine 

I suatinenda! 

I Fit quealio a militibus quo in loco 

Iporphiriua cum regina pernoc- 
let.'* Quibus ipse ait. 

' Qqo ego pernoctasaem :' voa ne 

PorphiiQ t Auguste 

wur^Dn, of l-eos wordes, 
1728 se swiSe wiloweme, 

1 se hardi ior ^i 

■p ha toEden iselien 

sih^en of heoueue, 
1732 f ha wendeu from hire, 

ahuten J>e midniht, 

jarewe to alle Jie wa [1750] 

f era mou mahte ham ;arkin 
1736 to drehen for dribtin. 

Freineden Porphire 

alle his cnihtes 

hwor he hefde, wiS Jie cwen, 
1740 iwuuet 1 iwiket, 

swa longe of Jie niht ; 

1728 R Potfirifl, B [P]orphire (space left for P), 

1727 C iwarSen, : 

i, C mihte, It mnilt ham, C iarken, B jarki 1736 B drehe. 1737 R portiria, 
ra738 R tfrilei ba his cnihtea aUe, C hise. 1739 C hefden. 1740 a ant, C iwakil. 
I74I C ee. 

', by these words, so well pleased, and were bo emboldened, becauee that they had 
visionn of heaven, that they returned from her, about midnight, ready to Bnffar lor tha 
d all die woe that any man mifflit prepare for them. All his knights asked Porphiriui 
■ ' ' ■ rrieii, with the q^ueen, so much of the mgM ; and PorphiriiM 


1 Porphire ham seide, 
" Hwer ich liabbe iwiiet 

1744 ich on wel f je witen, [17613 
for wel ow Bcbol iwur^en, 
jef je me wulle^ 
lustnin 1 leuen ; 

1748 for nabbe icb nawt Jeos aibt 
i worldlicbe ■wecchon, 
ak babbe in hcouenliche iwaket, 
Jier as me ribte mi bileaiie, 

1752 Jier me unwreah me Jie wei, 

f leaded to Hue, [HTO] 

Jier as me liueS aa 

in blisse buten cuch bale, 

1756 i wunne buten euch wa. 
For ^i, jef je beo^ mine, 
as under me iaette, 
1 wulloS alle wis me 

1760 in eche murh^e wunien, 
leaned to leuCB lengre 

queaieritis. Etenim Bummum vobis 
et utile boaum erit bi in conBiliis 
meis adquiescitiB. quod contigit 
I miclii noa teirenis sed divinis ex- 
cubiis invigilasse ' quibus michi 
via vitae revelata est et vere deita- 
lia cognitio reserata. 

Quo circa si mei estis. et (fol. 

lH5a) gaudere luecum' optatis. 

idola Tftna que bucusque coluimus 

relinquite. f merre« ow ^ aUe >eo [1780; 

1764 f ham to lute« ; 

1742 E B ent, C And, K porfirie, C Porphire (P alined Jna, p). 17*3 R liw« 
BO kh, C iwaket. 1745 C wurtSen. 1746 C jif. 1747 E heren /or lauen. 1741 
E nabti, C >iB, B teos. 1749 E, omits i ; iweoehet. 1750 R ainiti in, C hanonlicte 
1761 R mi for me, R B omit mi, B }eax as me ]jear as me (>ic), R bileaae gchawde mib, 
C wrilet bet is al mi rihte bileaue. 1763 B fear, C men fir first ma, R unwreh. 176* 
B to t Uf, C Uf. 1754 as omitw. C men, ai, B a. 1766 C B i, B buta. 1 " 
G buten eucb bale 'wa (encb bale blotted out), B mnita encb. 1767 G jif, beoa. 1 
R isBt, B isete. 1769 B Bnt. 1701 E leflued, C leue. 1762 C B o, E feoa, C J-ee 
t JeaBe, E tnawmes. 1763 C >at, B f e, E merriS, B mearreS, K ow alle t Jiflo. 1 
B ]ie, B teritia j) \o heom luti^. 

' C originallj invigilatsem. ^ gavdere mfcutn transposed. 

eaid to tbem, " Where I have stopped I grant gladly that je sboold know, for it aba) 
well with yon, if you will liEten to me and belicTe ; for I have not this oigbt watched in 
worldly watehiugB, but (I) bare (watched) in heavenly (ones), there where my faith was cor- 
reoted, the way maoorered to me, which leadeth to life, where men Htd for ever in bleBsedness 
without any cril, in joy withont any sorrow. Therefore, if ye be my friends, as ye are 
placed under mo, and wish all to dwell with me in everlasting Joy, ceaso to believe longer 
on these false idols, which destroy you and all those who bow to them ; and turn to the 

et nnnm deum qui 

omnia et nos inter omnia 


filiomque ejus 

jesum ohristum 



^nia ipBe est deua et dominator 
I omnium seculorum. In cujuB 

po testate constat universalis 
I machina mundi. 

qui credentea 


1 wondo^ to ]to wBaldent, 

^ al )>e world wrahte, 

godd heonoalich feader, 
1768 each godes ful ; 

1 heiolS 1 herielS 

his an deorewur^e suae, 

lesu Crist hatte ; 
1772 1 te hali gaat, hare heire lu 

I>e lihtelS of ham ha«e, [1791] 

1 limeS togedereSj 

Bwa f nan ne mei 
1776 sundrin from oSere; 

alle J-reo an godd, 

almihti oner al ! 

for he halt in his hond — 
1780 f is, wisse? % -wealt— 

Jie heouene 1 te eor^e, 

]>e sea, % te annne, [1800] 

% alle ischepene J^ing, 
1784 eehene t unachene. 

peo f leue* J is bo^, 

t leaned f lease, 

% bnhaume 1 heisame 
1788 halde'S his heastes, 

he haueB bihaten ham 

1766 B Ant, R weldrat. 1786 B fe. 1767 C heneolich, fader. 1769 R oat for _flrii \ 
C And; he /or herieS. 1770 E mnili an. 1771 EC ih'u. 1772 RB ant, C buXiB for 
beire. 1773 C >, a B ba. 1774 H anL 1776 C nmdren, B suadri, C fram, C B OSei. 
1779 B hunt. 1780 B wcall (a iniertidfrBa aioix). 1781 R ts, C heuene, R ant, oi%. 
1732 RsoL>, ant. 1783 R oiuita aUe ; \schapene, CMngea. 1784 R Bohno, snt, ITSfi 
B ]refir -p, R leaue'S (a gjyiiwjerf), C lemieS. 1T86 R ant, C >at, B >et. 1787 C And, 
R bnbsum, ant, beisum. 17SS B ballS^, E heastea. 

Ruler, who madu all the world, God (our) heavcslj Father, full of all goodness : and exalt 
and praise his only and dear soil, whose name is Jesus Christ ; and the Holy Ghost, th« lore 
of them both, whicli proceedoth from them both, and uniteth them together, so that nonu of 
them may be aundercd from the other ; all three (being) one God, almighty, Bupreme ! for 
be holds m his hand — that is, directs and mlea — heaieii and earth, the sea, and tl 
all created things, risible sad inriBible. To those who believe this truth, and rejeotthst 
falsehood, itnd compliant and obedient Veep his commandments, he has promised that ' '" 




per beat am 

katerinam nobis nunc 

primum innotuit. 

quam maxeutius 

imperator in carcere 

vesano clausaoi tenet judicio. 

Erant ducenti 

et eo ampliua milites. 

quibus a porphirio 

talia refer untur.' 

qui mox idola van a 

■f he iianL wale leeten 

f is bliase buten ende, 
1792 i }>e ricbe of beoEene ; [1810] 1 

t bwa se is ewa unseli 

f be Jiis Bcbunie, 

ne scbal him neauer teone 
1796 ne tintreobe trukien 

in inwarde helle. 

To longe we babbe^ 

idriuen ure dusiscbipes ; 
1800 1 be bauelS ij-olet uh, 

Jio Jiolemode lauerd : 

ne we nusten bwet we dnden 

a«et be undutte ub, [1821}! 
1804 1 tahte us treowe bileaue, 

Jurh f eadie moiden 

Eatcrine, f te king 

pine¥ in cwftlmhua 
1808 1 JjencheS to acwellen." 

piia be talede wel 

wrS twa hundrot cnibtes, 

1 wi^ ma jet, f jeuen anan upifl 
1812 bare jeomere biloaue, [1831J 

1 wurpen alle awei 

bare witlese lei, 

17B2 R morli'Be for riche, C heuena. 1793 E ant, C And, R bo for ge, E ae >r Bwmd 
1796 B emits ichei, C tona. 1796 R tintreo, C tintreho. 1798 K tloage {i <ixpuagiS}2 

E >olon.odfl. 1802 C hwat, diden. 1803 C aflat. !fl04 C Irewe, B Uesue. 1805 E b^ 
edie, C B eadi. l807Eine, Bi. 1808 R ant. 1809 R laH«. 1810 C hundie*. ISIJ' 
R ant, C f at, E jeuene. 1813CB al, Cawai. 18U Rnj^tohare witleBebileaueoflmrBltW 

' refirsbantw. 

bestnw on them tbat which is bliss vrtthout end, in the kingdom of heaven ; and wboBoeva 
is so unblest that he refuses this, pain and tannent shall never cease to him in the innai befl 
Too long have we practised oar abaurditiea ; and he, the long-suffering LoM, has h 
patience with sa ; noc knew we what we were doing until he unstopped oor ears, and tangM 
na true faith, through that bleaspd maiden Katherine, whom the king tonnents in tortn~" 
bouse, and pmposee to kill." Thoe well diaconrsed he with two hundred knights, and w 
still more, who sliaightway renounced theit wretched faith, and caat all away their se""' 


roapuentea. ad christum 
conversi aunt. 
Servabatur interea virgo 
christi ill carcei-B juxta 
dictum' imperatoria. et quia 

bis eeiiis diebus sine alimento earn 

ease tiraimus jusserat qui danielem 

per prophetam in lacu leonum 

pavit. ipse innocentcm puellam 

per hoa dies miaaa de celo Candida 

columba fovere non deatitit. 

Expletia vero diebus apparuit ei 

dominus cum multitudine ange- 

lorum quem sequebatur innumera 

turba Tirginum. 

Cui domiDus. 

Agnosce inquit" filia agnosce 

torem tuum pro cujus nomine 

% wenden to Crista. 
1816 Crist ne forget nant 

f he ne nom )eme 

to hire f me heold jet 

aa Jie keiser het, hutu mete 1 mel 
1820 i Jie cwarteme : [1840] 

ah wi^ ft 

Jiurh hia ahne e 

i pulurene iliche, 
1824 feilde hire al J'e tweolf dahea ; 

as he dnde Daniel, 

Jiurh Abaouc Je prophete, 

i J'e liunea leohe, 
1828 )er he in lutede. 

Uro lauerd him si 

wi'S englea, % wi? n 

meidnes mid a 
1832 wr6 swuch dream % drihtfare 

as drihtin deah to c 

t Bchawde him 1 suteledo 

him seolf to hire seoluen, 
1836 % spec wi* hire, % a 

" Bihald me, deore dohter! 

bihald tin hehe healent, 

for hwaa nome J>u hauest al 

1816 E ant. 1816 B [C]rist (tpate lefl/in- C). 1817 R v^Hei to neoman jeme. 1818 
Gnieii,Md. 1819 C te baiaer, K &nt. 1821 Root for ab, C houone. 1823 in, R calare. 
liohB. 1824 E aot/or al, C twelt. 1826 C dide, B. omiti Daniel. 1826 E omits furh, 
Kbbacuc. 1827 C lehe. 1829 C eeU. 1830 EB ant. IS31 fi metdenee, C mednn, 
OB win. 1832 R ant, B drihtfere. 1833 Cdrihlea \b expiKigcd, i nbone it), R ah /ac 
deah, B deb, C cumen. 18^4 C BcKeairde, B ant. 1836 C self, Kluen. 1S3S R ant 
Jor KcoHd%. 183T B Bihait If wHtlm ovtr d). 1838 B bihalt, )iin, R beh, C liealend. 
' fdklviH. ' C originallj inguid. 

law, and turned t« Chrirt. Christ neither forgot 

e nnconCfirOfd about h 

Daniel, through Eabakkuk Che prophet, in the den of the lions, wherein he lay. Our Lord 
himself came with angels, and with many maidens likewise, with such a melodv and maje^' 
approach as it became the Lord to como with ; and appeared, and manifestod himself Co he 
sua spoke with her, and said, " ileheld me, ieax daughter ! Behold thy great Saviour, for 


laboriosi certaminia cursum cepisti 
constans esto 

et ne paveas' quia ego tecum sum 
nee te desero. 

Eat etenim non parva turba ho- 
minum^ per te nomini meo credi- 

tura. Hec dicens. in celum sese 

recepit. quern Tirgo longo euntem 
intuitu sequebatur. 

I imperator 

1840 undernumenf>isnowcin![1860] 

Bco stalewar^e t stond wel. 

Nc yart Jiu dreden na de^ ; 

for lo ! wi'S hwucclie ich habbe 
1844 to dou Je i mi kinedom, 

■p is ]iiu, wi^ me ■ 

imeane, ae mi leofmon. | 

Na Jiing ne died tu, 
1818 forichameauerwiBjTe,[I8"0] 

do f me do ^e ; 

1 moaie actulen Jurh Je 

jet tumou to me." 
1852 Mid )iia ilke steap up 

mit tet heouenlicli bird, 

% steah in to fe heoueue 

^ heo bibeold efter 
1836 bwil ba aa mahte, 

blisful 1 ba=5e. [1879] 

Under [lia, com Je Jura Maxeuce, 


expletis c 

a pro quibus icrat. 

alexandrinorum redit ad urbem. 
Poatera die 

Jjc wedwulf, Je heavens bund 
) ajein to his kineburb. 
peoa meiden ine marben 

1S40 B nndemame, newcin. 1841 E ant, B etont. 1842 C y&H, L ^earf, 
drede, G dea^. 1843 R hwuch. 1844 C B do. X846 S >e, C tin. 1846 R Icouemon. 
1847 B dret. 1849 C men. 1850 E ant. 1851 C B tumo. 1852 E ant mit, C B wiS, 
E tet for Jiia, atcp. 18S3 C wi^ al -f,, B wiS % C heouenlicha. 1854 E ant, steh, 
C heueno. 1866 C biheld, B biheolt, C after. 1856 B a, C leriiej at hwil ha milite. 
1867 K ant, 1858 H Vnder, C B [Tjnder hpaix left for V). 1859 B wedde, C wode, 

'^ " " '^ ■ "" ,i,in 1 QA I C^ I Vf. r,^ ink 


£ heSene, B bunt. 1860 G ajain. 
' C originallj' pavearis. 

1861 G i fe /or ine. 

^ turba fieminum ti'aneposed. 

whose nnme Ihou hast undertaken all this haidsliip '. Be conrageous and stand firm. Thou 
needest not drend any death ; for behold ! with whom I have appointed to place thee in my 
Mnsdoni, which is thine, in fellowship with me, as my beloved. Dread thou nothing, for 
I am ever with thee, whatever men do to thoe ; and through thee shall many yet tnm to 
me." "With this he went up with that heatenly houBehold, and ascended into heaven ; and 
she continued looking after (them) as long as she could, hlissful and blithe. Meanwhile, the 
demon Maxenco, the mod wolf, the heathen hound, returned to his royal city. The maidea 



sedente eo ia solio 8uo, fit conventus magistratuuni et tribunitie 
dignitatis. Tunc rex circumatan-(fol, 1856)-tibu8. preseutetur nobis 
inquit temeraria ilia ' puella. ut sciamus ai vol fame urgente ad 
culturam dcorum poterit incurvari, 
Educitur itaque de careers virgo wea ibroht biioren him. 

speciosa. tribunali regio presentanda. Que cum in ejus staret pre- 
Bentia. vultumque ejus' quern tanto dierum spatio attenuatum' je- 
junio estimarat. multo formosiorem et eplendidiorem esse videret. 
arbitabatur (!) ^ clandestine^ o£Bcio^ ei subrainistrata alimenta. TTnde 
furore coinmotus. carcerarioa jubet excruciari. nisi fateautur. a quo 
et per que" virgo cibia in carcere fuiaaet sustentata. At cbristi virgo 
ne custodes aui cauaa innocenter cruciarentur. cogitur aperire quod 
clam esae hominibua malebat. Ait itaque tiranno. Tu imperator bunc 
locum inter homines tenere debueras. ut noxios corrigeres. non ut 
cruciarea innocentes.* Veruntamen te locum judicis indigne tenere ex 
hoc manifeatum est quod homines ab hac ai qua eat culpa innoxios 
perire infando jubea Judicio. Ego plane cibum ab homine corporalem 
nullum accepi, eed qui suos militee in fame et tribulatione deserere 
nescit ipse me ancillam suam per angelura auum celestia cibi ali- 
mento nutrire dignatus est ipse deus raeua. amator meus ipae pastor 
et sponaua unicus' meus. Ad hec tirannua doloa in pectore versaoa. ne 
a circum stantibus tamqwam iniquus et inplacabilia ^* accusaretur 

., ,, 1 he liiiTon to fon oa 

ait puelle. 

■^ 1864 >13SC8 weis towart lure : 

Tedet me puellara regJo sanguine'^ ortam, magicis depravatam 
consiliis ab ingenuia progenitoribua adeo degenerari ut inmortalium 
deorum nostrorura culturam non solum abhorreat. eed etiam inju 

1862 C was, R 1)iuoren),B bhioren. 1863 RE ant, R omili he, B uon. 
R >isse, wise, omili towart hire, toward. 

MBcrw. '" C oiiginaMj plaaiSilii. " saHgune. 

864 C D fieee, 

' C originally 
» C originally 

t, WM bioDght before Hm, and be be^an to addtess her in tbia ni 



oaie Terbis derogando (fol. ISfis) inmundorum spirituum fantasia ad 
iUusionem faominuiii denotet. 

Unde licet te servare quam per- 

dere maluissem. 

" fis me were leouere, 
jof >u wel waldest, [1889] 
to habben 't to baldon )>e 
i cwic, Jen to acwellen Je, 

aperi nobis quid libi infra datas inducias consilium aequi decrevisti. 

Necesse eat enim presenti^ delibe- 
ratione quod vis unum^ e duo- 
biiB cligere. aut diis sacriEcare 
ut Tivas. aut exquisitis tormeutis 
corpus tenerum dila^scrari ut per- 

Cui ciiterina respondit, 

Vivere sane opto. sod ut luicbi 

vivere christuB ait. 

mori autem pro eo non tiineo. sed 

potius diligo. quia moriendo pro 

eo inter minabilis vite emolumen- 

tum lucrari me confido. 

fu most node, no=5eIes, 

an of f'os twtt ouren 

t ciiooson ananriht : 
1872 libbon, }cf Jra loist lac 

to uro liuiende godes ; 

o¥or, jof Jju rnilt nawt, 

(IreorilichG deien." 
18T6 pis meidon, sane anan, 

onswerede t aeide: [1900n 

" Lei me for to libben, swa 

■p ich ne leose nawt him 
1880 ^ is mi lil ^ mi leof , 

lesu Crist mi lauerd. 

Ko nawiht ne drede icli 

na de^ f ouergealS, 
1884 for f cndelese lif, 

f be haueS ileuet me 

ananrilit Jreftor, 

1865 K J-e for fis. C wilre for 

1866 C )if. 1867 R sni 1868 B MweBe, 
it % 1872 E Ubbe, C [if. 1874 C jif, B unit 
nant tranapoted, K no for aaict. 187l> B \ii schalt dreoritiche, E dreocliche, C drerilicbe. 
1876 B [JJjis {spacs h-fifor p). 1877 B him oatBweceds, K ant. 1878 C let, omiH for to, 
Btelibbe. 1879 C i. 1880 R fe, C leof ^ mi lif . 1881 C ih'u. B ni /oc mi. 1883 C na 
amitud ; deaj!, B ouergaiS. 1884 E endeles. 1885 R ileuet, C ileaued. 18S6 B ^er after. 
' pressnie. ^ omite uijunt. 

were more to my wish, if thou indeed wouldsi, to haye and to bold thea living than to kill 
tbeo. Thou must needs, however, epeedily elect and choose one of these two : hi liye, if 
thou offerest Bocrifiee to our Kviiig gods ; or, if thou wilt not, to die miserably." This 
maiden, immediately, answerod and said, "IJet me lire, bo that I lose not him who is mj 
life and my belovL'd, Jgsus Christ my Lord. I Dothing dread a death th^t soon passes over, 
for that endlese life, which he hath granted to me straightway thereafter. Tnen bethink 


Nam etsi tu tonnentis corpus meum dilacerari facias, babeo sane 
deum' meum jesura christum. qui ex hoc mortali corpore corpus 
miehi immortale reatituet. et licet in corpus meum quod inevitabili 
lege nature in mortem resolvi expectat. licet inquam in eum sevi- 
endi ad terapus habeas potestatem :' in animam meam nulla tibi data 
est^ potestas. nisi hoc tuum esse mentiaris. quod corporeo per te 
destructo habitaculo.'' ipsa libero volatu ad auctorem suum gaudens 

Tu ergo tiranne quecuiique pe- 

naliiira tor men tor um machina- 

menta* potes excogitare ne 


quia vocat me dominus meus jeaus 


Ah Jju bijenche ui 


1888 teoaen 1 tinticohen 
]ie iiJro meast dcrue 
f eni deadlich flosch 
mahc drehen t drahen, 

1893 for mi longed heonnoward : 
for mc lauerd, Icsu Crist, 
mi deorewur^e leofraon, 
lutel ear me haueS ilea'Set ; 

cui non tauros mugientes. non oves innocuas. 

sed carnem et sauguinein meum 1896 T: wcl is me f ich mot 

ha mi flesch 1 mi hlod [1920] 
msacrificium offerre desidero quia ^^^^ ^-^^ ^^ ]^^_ 

et ipse semet ipsum pro me optulit i"^ o^r^de to his feder, 

1900 for mo 'I for al folc, 
deo patri in holocaustum. ]^la^ geolf on J-e rode." 

1887 B bi>ench, C be fir me, E omi(» anan. 1888 E ant, tintreon, C tintrehen. 1889 
B -p, measie, omits derue. 1890 11 i, euei eni, B ei, R drdliuh. 1891 B omita 'i drahen. 
1892 R heoneward, li heonewRrt. 1893 KC ih'a. 1S91 C derewurSe, E iDaoeraon. 
189fi H terita lulel or hot tq toren me lie haueS ilB^et, HaiieS Ueacied ma, B Inttel, ileaSet 
i^il e msertedfrom above). 1896 R ant. 1897 C faa«e (a warlj/ iHiimilt), E ant. 
18B9 C IS fader, B feader. 1900 E anl, B nole. 1901 C self, E uppon/w on, C B o. 
' dominsm lor dium, ' omits i-il, ' omits habilacalo. * C originally machinaniela. 

tbee quickly of torments and tortures, tlie severest of all that anj mortal flosh maj endure or 
mffer, for 1 long to go hence : because my Lord, Jesua Christ, mv deorlj' beloved, has 
recently invited me ; and well is me that I may aSer hoth my fleeh and my biood as a 
nciiflee to bim, who olfeiedto Me father, for me and for all people, hiioBeU upon the cnua." 


Veruntaoieii dico tibi et Tere dico. quia ia proximo superveniet tibi 
dies ultionis, quo ehi-istua auscitabit tibi adversarium de fide quam 
impugnare non cessas. qui ab hoatili corpore caput infandum. gladio 
recidet ultore. et de sceleratieaime sangune' tuo dii tui id eat manes 
infernalea execranda sumeiit libamina. Foteras tamen tante animad- 
versionis judicium eva-(fol. 186S)-dere ai consilio meo adquieacens 
idola vana relinqueres. et fidei christiane culturam devotus arriperes. 
Ad hec tiranuus ut leo violentus dentibus frendens. in vocum bujua 
modi erupit. Quid ignavi talia sustinemusP Uaquc adeo deoa noatroa 
tarn contemptibiliter ab iata malefica incantatrice'' derogari patiemur, 
quin totum corpus membratim discerpi' faciamua. ne et ceteri cbria- 
tiani adveraus deos eimili insultatione barbarizare * presumant ? 
Ergo agite omnea quibuscunque deorum injuria cure est appre- 
hendits magam^ istam et diris auppliciis excruciatam. morte crude- 
liesima earn facito interire, tunc deum suum de cujus ee jactat 
presidio ai fas es6 provocet aibi ad ausilium. Factum est autem 
cum traberetur* ad aupplicium. quidam miaerantea virginee forme 
decorem indigna morte perire. suadebant virgini ut imperatori potiua 
obedire deberet. quam resistendo florentem amitteret juventam.'' O 
inquiunt o forma virginei decoris. o solaria species candoris. quenam 
tanta mentis obstinatio ista est ut generosi sanguinis puella cui di- 
vitie et honores gratis offeruntur. voluntarium mortis compendium 
eligat? virgo digna imperio. consule florentiasime juventuti tue. 
et ne negligas pulcbritudinia tue vernantem speciem immatura morte 
perire. Quibus venerabilia virgo reapondit. Deponite o viri planctua 
hujus inania lamenta. nee de pulcbritudinia* mee dispendio quereloaaa 
deperdite" voces, quia car o mea que vobia florere vide tur. velut feuura^" 
et gloria ejus tanquam floa feni dum" mox abeunte spiritu (fol. 187rt) 
marceecit.^- et consumpta vermibua reditura est in pulverem, unde pri- 
mordialis esaentie aumpsit originem. De meo igitur interitu nolite 
flere neque aolliciti esse, quia michi talis '^ cruciatus non eat iute- 

' sanguine. ' intatilria. ^ C originally diieerpinne. * C originallj barbo:are. 

' C originsUy tnognam. " insertB ieata viri/a. ' Juventulcm. ' omits puiekrUudiiiii. 
> dwptrdile. <° inserts eit. " C dum scored ont and exptrnged. '"' mareemt. " omits (alit. 



ritus' ad consmnftionem.^ sed transitus ad vitum, non intentua ad 
erumpnam sed transitus ad gloriam. Super vos potius talea expendite 
gemitus. quia vobia non tranBitus manet ad spem reparationia. sed 
interitus ad erumnam eteme perditionia. His verbis beate virginis 
quidam eorum compuncti. Bubtraxerunt se ab idolorura cultura et 
iperatoris.' sed qualia de Virginia paasione fieret exitus attentiua 

fiuperveniens autem vir quidam 
.^omiae cbursatea nrbis prefectus. 
et ipse vir belial. furientem regem 
ad novam acceudit insaniam. et 
tormenta * tormentia accumulat. 
O msgne inquit imperator. 

Hwil Jie king wool al 

in wis of wreSSe, 
1904 com a burtreue, 

as Jie f wea Jes deoulea budal, 

Belial of heUe, 

Cursates helite, [1930] 

1908 % tus on hell deopcde : 

"0 kene king! 

icudd koiaer ! 

tt* padet te tanto tempore unius femine obluctatione teneri? Audi 
WiUgo imperator. 

I Non videt adhuc caterina tale 
I tormenti. quo exterreatur^ 
it adquieacat tibi ad immolandum 

jet ne aeh Katerine 
1912 nones cunnea pine 
f ha oht dredde. 
Do iiio dede, 
nil ha Jius JreateS 
1916 1 JireapeS ajein Jie, 
iia magnis noatria; lube ergo Hat hwil ha wed ttis, [1940] 

. .a fl [H]wil {fptice left for H), wweol. 1903 C viraMe, B wresMe. 1905 C was ; ts 
■jV fee; deoueles, B deofles. 1908 E ant, C clepede. 1910 C ioud. 1912 It pinen. 
1813 B omili oht, C ah to for oht, K of /or oht ; dredeiS, C drede. 1914 C idon. 1916 
£ ant >reBtcS, B >repeiS, C ajein. 1917 It heo, C ]>ub. 

' C otiginallj inlritiu. ^ C originalljf coniumathnem. ' inaerts here the words 

eeiHBiuniime non tainai id palam ease voliiani propter melum itaperaloria. * lornuMani. 
* flmn (or non. ' C originally txterereatur. 

While the Emg hoiled nil within with anger, thiire camu a. prefect of the city, as one 
. iMt was the d«Til'a herald, Belial's uf hell, ChuTEUtea by name, sad thus called up to him : 
H O Taliant Kitiy; ! renuwned Emperor ! Eatherine has seen as yet no Idiid of pain that ithe 

m 1« dread. Use aerarity, now that she thiaa threatens and diaputea against thee. 

ik while she is llius mad, that within three days four wheels be niodo, and then 


ut infra triduum hoc Bint facte 
quattuor rote et siout ego dicta- 
vero. extremi rotarum orbea et 
intimi circuli. clavis prominenti- 
bu8 et accutis (!) prefigantur. 
B,adii vero articulares quibua aU 
trinsecus' rotarum orbea juncti^ 
reguntur ;'^ serris preacutis 
denso ordine et mordaci acumine 

Has juxta rotas caterina 
expoaita. volubilem inpetum se- 
dens intueatur. ut vel eio volventis 
machine stridor terror em incutiat. 
et incurvetur ad Bacram deorum 
culturam et Tivat. Sia autem. mox 
rotali inpacfa machinamento, hino 

iiLwi% )ieos ])reo dabea 

jarktn fowr hweoles, 
1920 'i let ))urhdriueii frefter 

Je spaken 1 te felion 

mid imcne gadien ; 

Bwa f te pikes 
1924 1 te iraene prconoe 

Be Bcharpe T, se starke 

borien Jiurli ^ beoren for^ 

feoron^ olSer half, [1950] 
1928 'p a! J>eliweolesbeoii)mrhspitet 

mid kcnre pikes Jpen eni cni^ 

rawe bi rawe. 

Let Jjonne turnen hit 
1932 tidlicte abuten; 

8wa f Katerine, 

mit tet grisliche rune, 

hwon ha Jior bisit 
1936 T, bisi* >er upon, [II 

swike hire sotadhipes, 

T, ure wil wurclie ; 

■ o^cr, jel ha nule no, 

1940 ha schal been tohwi^erot, 

wilS Je hweoles swa, 

in an hondhwile, 



,_,..,.._,_, _. . ,. .._. 1920 R ant, omito let. 192»' 

C speatien, K ant, G S aelieu. 1022 C B wiS, B imenne. 1924 R ant. 1925 E swa— ewa, 
Bsterke. 1926 H ant, S beore. 1927 B omits fcor, CB o. 192B R ai omilled ; te, 
C 'ft, hweall>eo, burbspited. 1929 R mit, B, li omtV pikes, B m. 1930 R lewe bireawe. 
1931 R ant let, G t«niie. 1932 C emUiiehefar tidlicbe. 1933 S )«t, R B Kat«nne Bcbal. 
1934 CB wiS f. B ™i'» rone. 1938 B ant, C bihalt for bisi«; ter, R uppon. 

1937 RB Bwiken. 1938 R ant, E B wurchen. 1939 R % for oSer, C jif, B jaf -p ha. 
1940 CB beo, G tohwilSered. 1941 RbwilS. 1912 B boat bwile. 

' ultrimciHt. ' Junelt. ' teguniur. 

tbat tho spokes and felloes be pierced tbioogh with iron goads ; bo tbat the spikes and the 
iron noils, so shjup and so sb^ng, pierce throngh and project far on the ol^er side, so 
tbat all tbe wheels maj be spiked ^oroughly with keener spikes than any knife, row by row. 
Let it then be tamed ewiftly round ; so that Eatherine, with the dismal Bound, when she 
Bits by and looke thereupon, may cease her follies, and work onr will ; or, if she will not, 
she Ehall be wbirled in pieces, by the wheels, in BOob a manner, in an inatan^ that alt who 


inde serris et clavis inordacibus $ alle f hit bihaldo^S 

diacerpta ad terrorem cbristiaao- 194* achulen gnire habben." 
rum inaudito pereat exemplo, pe king hcrcnede his read, 

Nee mora, jubet fieri tirannus. 1 wes sone, aa he bet, [1970] 

quod Buadet infandissimus doH architectua (fol. 187'^). 

Fiunt rote studiosius.' J'eos heane 1 teos hatele 

et ad perntciem gentilium maturius J 

apparantur. 1948 tintreohe itimbret ; 1 

Et jam dies tercius^ illuxerat. T: wea, J;e Jiridde doi, idrahen, 

instat tirannus accelerari rotarum penale tormentum. et virginera si 
ulterius restiterit illigari et inplicari mediam ut inpulau rotali serre 
preaccute corpus teneruin dilacerarent, ut ceteri chmtiani crudeli 
mortis exemplo conterrerentur.' 

Parent ministri sevientis' belue Jiider as ]io reuen J 

wercn eauer iwunet; I 

mandatia et rote in medio pretorii 1952 1 te king heold ta, 1 

of Jjis eadi meiden, I 

exposite Jiiae kinemotes. ' 

terrorem oircumapectantibua incutiebant. at rirgo nuUo penali^ appa- 
ratu terrebatur. Mena narnque^ k christo fundata. nee blandimentis 
mulc^ri poterat. nee minia abatorreri. 

1B43 B JTB for secB'id -p. 19*4 B schulo. 1945 C reai5. 19J6 R ant, C was. 1947 
C )>i8, B >eB, R ant, U tia, B tes, lieatek, 1948 K treon for lintiei.he, B tiolreoh, 
itimlirett. 1949 R ant. omiis tcbb, C was, te, dai. 1950 C te. 1951 R euer iwunet 
trmiptaed, G wimet. 1952 R ant, C And, R >a. 19fi3 R omita eadi, ^ a. for eadL 
1954 Bliis. 

' C originfilly stHdiestis. ' ttrtia. ' C originally conlenrentur. ' C originallj 

— ■-- s C originallj ygitefu. ' iiaque iot nataqae. 

P'lwhold it shaB have horror." The king listened to Ills connsel, and soon, as lie commanded, i 

L' yrae this liateful and detea^ble instmment of torture conatraoted ; and was. on the third day, J 

drawn to the place where the prefacta UBre ever wont (to be) ; and the king then held, 1 

Goucermug tMe blessed maiden, bis loyal coondl. This tormenting engine wa^ detiaed tu ] 


Rot arum penalia machina hac 
arte espolita erat. ut due uno 
or dine volTerentur. due autem 
contrario in pet u agerentur. ut ille 
deorsum lacerando contraberent, 
iste rep iign antes ' sursum devo- 
rando inpingerent. 

Has inter media cbriati faraula, 
expoaita inter aerraa et 

pis pinfule gin wea [1980} 
1956 o awuch wise iginet, 

f te twa tumden 

ei'Ser wi^ward o^er; 

T: anea weis ba«e : 
I960 Je o'Ser twa turnden 

anea weia alswa, 

ah tojeia Jo oSre ; 

swa f hwen Jie twa 
1964 waldcn kasten upward 

J-ins f ha cahten, [1990] 

("c o^re walden diaLen hit 

1 dusten dunewardea ; 
1968 Be grialiohe igrei^et, 

f grure grap ench mon 

hwen he lokode Jron. 

Her, amid hoapes, 
1973 wea }ia meiden iaet, 

for to al torendea, 

I reow^fulliche torondin 




tarincaa ferreaa' ex motu rotarum membratim diacerperetur. mieero 
mortis gene re. 

jef ha nalde hare read [2000] 
1976 heren ne hercnin. 

1966 B [p]ia (ipace left for p), R pinfnl, C was. 1956 H of for o, E sanihc, It igiunct. 

1967 C >at, B tiirden. 1958 B elder, R wiiS far wiSwurd. 1939 R ant, ba«eti. 1960 
E atnila twa, B tnrden. 1962 C tojain, E o«ere. 1963 R omilt hwen, B hwenne, E te. 
1964 B lieasten, appait. 1968 R kahten, B chahten. 1966 R OSei, B odre, E drahea je 
diahen hit (tie). 1967 R 1^ dast«n omt^eij; doneicard. 1968 R so, igre^et. 1969 R>et. 
l!lTl B amidden, S amidde, RB omit heapea. I9T2 C was, tie. 1973 B al for to, B te, 
C toronden, RB torenden roowliche. 1S74 R ant, C rewfnlliche, torendea. 1975 C )i/, 
nS. I97S C hercnen. 

' repugitando. ' C Originally _/OTTea. 

euch a mamier, that two (of the wheals) turned eilber contrary to the other, and (yet) both 
one way : (be other two turned one way also, bnt contrary to the former ; bo that when the 
first two would cast upward whataoever thing they caught, the other two would draw it 
and daflh it downwards : ao frightfully (waa it] contrived, that horror seized every one when 
he looked upon it. Here, into the centje of it, was thie maiden placed, lo be lul toni and 
pit«OQsly rent, if she would cot listen to their advice nor obey. But she lifted up her eyea, 


Virgo interea erectie in celum 
oculis. tacite orationis verba ud 
deum f undebat. 
DeuB omnipotens 

Ab heo kasta up hire ehnen, 
1 cleopede toward heouene, 
ful heh mid hire heorte, 
1980 ah wrfi stille eteaene : 
" Almihti godd, 


qui te in pericuKs et neceaaitate invocantibus pia opitulatione eub- 
venire non desinis exaudi me in hac Qeceasitate ad te' clamantem. 

et prcsta ut penalia hec fabrica 
eeleatia ictu fulminia attrita diasol- 
vatur. ut manifeatam potentie tue 
glorificent nomen tuum sanctum. 

c\rS nu JiinB mihte ; 

'\ menake nu fin hehe nome, 

1984 heouenliche lauerd ! [2010] 
1, for to feBtnin ham 
in treowe hileaue 
Je heoB to Jie itumde, 

1988 T: Maxence T: alle hise 
halden ham mate, 
emit Be smertliche herto, 
f alle JieoB fowr hweolea 

1992 tohwi^erin to atuechen." 

quod eat bene dictum iu eecula. Ta scis domine quia non timore 
paasiouis bee obaecro que aitienti corde quovis mortie genere ad 
tfi venire et te videre deaidero. aed ut bii qui per me' credituri 
sunt, certiores de tuo adjutorio. et constantiores in confesaione tui 
noroinia perseverent. 

1977 C kaat, B ieaste, E hehneE, C ehne. 1978 E sut, B towart, C heuens, 1979 
C hthe, C B wHa. 1B80 R ant far ah, B omiti stille, R atefns. 1981 B Al mihte. 
1982 CB Jii, R mihteB. 1983 C meaEte {of m enli/ one rfoitw ilroke viiiilt), B mesie. . 
1985 B te, C featni. 1986 C B i. 1987 C -f , beon. 1988 R ant fir smimd 'i ; his, 
1990 R BO, C omiti as, B smciOrdUiche, C ])«rto. 1991 B al, C Jiise, B fower, E hweol. 
1BB2 R tohwidErin, C tohwiSerBn, C B stnceiiaH. 

' omits ad te. ' inserts in te. 

confirm thoae in true faith w 
hold Chetnsctvea confouDded, f 
asunder in pieces." Tliis w 

irt, bat witb still voiCB; "Almighty Ood, 
'liffh oame, heavenly Lord ! and in onjec to 
■rted. unto thee, and tliat Maience and all his party 
liarply upon it, that all the four wbeele ma'" "" 
said, when an angel came, with wondeiful J 

1 flight 



Necdum verba rirgo finierat. et 
ecce angeluB domini de celo de- 
Bcendens illam molem' vebementi 
turbiuiB ictu inpactam tanto (fol. 
188b) inpetu concussit. ut niptis 
compagibua partes avulae super 
infusum populum tanta vi ex- 
cuterentur,^ ut quattuor milia do 
ipsa turba gentilium una turbine 

pis woa uaeo^e iseid, 

f an engel ne com, [2020] 

wifi ferliohe afluhte 
1996 fleoninde aduneward, 

T: draf J-erto dunriht 

as an Jrunres dune ; 

% duste hit a swnch dunt, 
2000 f hit higou to clatoria 

al t to cleouen ; 

toburaten '\ tobrekcn, 

aa f ah hit were hruchel gles, 
2004 ba j-c troo T: te im, [203{ 

T; ruttn for^ wiS awuch ru 

Je etuccbcn of ba^e 

bimong ham as ba stodea 
2008 T: seten Jer abiitcn, 

f ter weren isleine 

of f awariede folc 

fowr ^uaent fulle. 

I chaldeia babilonioitl 

ilia uimirum non degenerata^ ulcione. quam ( 
fomax olim exegerat. Quid plura P 

Dolor et 2012 fer me mahte iheren [2039] 
confuaio J-e healSene hundes jellen 

gentilium. % jcien "^ juren on eucb half, 

et* Tox et ];e cristeno kenchen 

1993 € wae, R unneSe, B unneafie, iseit. 1995 C feorlicbs, B fsrlich. 1996 E fieonninde, 
B mJuneitiu-t. 1997 entirely omitted by E. 1998 C B a. 1999 E omits hit. 2000 
C elatecBn, B cleatmn. 2001 E al 1 transpeitd, C cleuea. 2002 R boreten, C tobrestfin, 
E ant. 2003 C tali, gleas. 2004 C baiSe /or ba >e, R treon, B tet/nr te. 2005 E ant. 
2006 E stucclieDes. 2008 E ant. 2008 E islein. 2010 R omils % B nolo. 2011 C 
tnsend. 2012 B fear, C men, mihte, heren. 2013 E huiSene. 2014 E aat/or first % 
C etniU 1 jeien. 
• illam molem transposed. ^ C originally exeuteretitr. ' C originally degerala. • omits it. 

flving downwards, and drore etraielit down towards it like a tbnnder-dap : and strnck it such 
ablow, that it began Id rattle and to cleave asunder ; both the wood and the iron bnrst and 
broke asunder aa if it had been brittle gloss, end iho fragments of both darted forth nith 
such rapidity among them oa they stood and snt around it, that there were slain of that 
accurxed folk full four thousand. There one might have beu^l the heathen hoiuids yell and 



exultatio chriatianorum. 
Ipse tirannua dentibus frendens. 
^B«t meate turbatus quid agat ex- 

Erat dudiim regina deauper 
spec tan a divine ultionia prodigiale 
signum. et que priua se oecul- 
tftbat propter me turn viri sui. 
nunc arrepto itinere ae in con- 
spectu belue MYientia constanter 

Quid tu inquiena miaerande' con- 
junx contra deum eluctarisP 
Que te inaania d crudelia belua 

2016 1 herien }ti-a healent, 
fe helped hise oueral. 
pe keiaer al acanget, 
hefdo iloBet mondream, 

2020 T: dearede al odeadet, 
dniicniode T. dreori, 
1 drupest aire monne. [2050] 
pe cwen stod eauor stills 

2024 on heh, 1 biheold al ; 
hefde ihad hire a^et ta, 
'\ hire bileaue iholen. 
pa, jet, ne mahte ha na mare ; 

2028 ah dude hire aduu swilSe, 
'\ forS, wiSutea fearlac, 
ouer Jiderwardea ; 
T^ weorp hire biforen [2060J 

2032 Jien awariede wulf, 
T; jeide lude steuene, 
" Wreccho mon f tu hit art ! 
hwerto wultu wreastliu 

2036 wi^ ]iB worldes woaldeut ? 
Hwet medsohipe makelS fe, 
bu bittrB balefule beast ! 

2016 CBherie, Efe, B>ea8(taHBrBM:piiw5erf), Rhealen, Chealend. 2017 R his. 2018 
B akanget wea. 2019 B )lef (>te), C ilosed, B mondrem. 2020 B Bnt, darede, B adedet. 
2021 R durcninde, C dmpainde, dreri. 2022 H ant. 2023 B [p]fl {iptn k/l far p), atot. 
2024 B biheolt. 2025 R ibiidd, C uStt, E Jio, C tenne for ta. 2026 B sat, C ihel {a/ltr 
1 iwa Ulteri covtred bi/ ink blot, the last of these Uttira thi bottom part of tohioh I'a Hill 
vUibli it mml probabty a. B ihale. 2027 B B \b for ha, B }et ^ ae ; omiU ho, B omili 
na. 2029 C B wiSute, £ tarlac. 2030 G o fot /or ouer, S a uet /or ouer, fi B bidevardBa. 
2031 R ant, B B biuoran, C bifore. 2032 B nwariede wed wait. 2033 C ludera, B lut, 
S abifae. 2034 B t'et. 2033 B walcto, C wrestlea. 2036 £ weldeat, B welalden. 
2037 C bwDt, madschjpe, B meadacbipe. 2038 £ beat. 

' C originalljr miaerante. 

cry and gi 

this vhile on hieh, and beheld all in eilence; ehe 

himself mortiiled, downcast and 

1 Kloomj, t 
all in eilen 

le tbe Saviaur, who helpeth his 
: the ]0f of hiamiin li£e. and hid 
apirited of men. The cjuisen stood all 
1 concealed her (thou^blB) until 

id advanced, without fear, thitherward ; and cast herself before 
with a loud Toica, " Wrelibed man that thou art, wherefore wilt thou wrestle 
world's ruler? What madiieBS malteth thee, thou bitter baleful 


and cried ^_ 
with the ^H 


adversus' factorem tuum con- 
surgere'' cogit? 

a him f wnhie {"B 
) T alle worldliohe fing ? 

An tu prospero exitu finire arbitraria certamen quod adveraus deum 
et famulos famulasque ipaius aumpsisti ? 

Agnosce vel nunc in present! 

facto quam potens est christian- 

orum deus' et quanta animad- 

versione te ipsura per ae dampna- 

turua eat qui uno letu fulminis tot 

milia Lominum hodie coneumpsit. 

Porro multi gentilium qui^ ad 

hoc spectaculum convenerant. 

Tidentes magnalia dei converai ad 

christum :' publica voce clamabant 


Beo nu ken 1 cnawes, [2070] 
of f 'f tu isehen taueat, 
hu militi '\ ha meinful, 

2044 hu heh 1 hu hali, 

is 'pBR cristouoB'godd, 

Crist, ^ ha herie^. 

Hu wrakeliche, wenestu, 

2048 wule he, al o wra^^e, 
wrcken on f e, wrecche ! 
fo haue¥ todriuen wiB a dunt, 
T: fordon, for >e, todei [2080] 

2052 seiboloJjUBent? 
1 monie, mid alle, 
of ^ hea^one folc 
f alle woren isiheu hider 

2056 for to seon {-ia fcorlich." 
Sone SB ha Jiis soheu, 
T, herden swa Jie owen speoken, 
aUe Bomet tumdon, [2090] 

2060 1 token to jeien ; 




2039 C weocTBii, B weoiri, ^efar him ; ]-et. Z0-.0 B worldlich, C fii^es. 2042 K omiti 
■p, C fat t, B t tet, 2043 E ant. 2047 H winkefoUiclie, B weneat tn. 2048 C omilM 
he, R ant for al o, B amitt o, R wre'SSe, B wraiSe. 2049 E omits wreken, B WTBoken, 
E uppon for on, C B o. 2050 C t- 2062 E bo, C fusend. 2063 C 1 omitud ; wilS, 
2054 E hedene. 2055 B ib, E iselten, B ieehene, jiider. 2066 B \sfor to, R aeon {hoU 
IN laS. ; a almoat invisible), G B seo. 20l\1 B BBfor se ; ioehen. 2068 E ant, ibeiden, 
C fa ewen awa, apeien. 2053 C somen. 2060 E aat. 
' adiierinita. * inaurgere. ' christiawirum dews transposed. ' C originally quia. 

■who created thee and all earthly things ? Be now consinced and acknowledge, from what 
thou haat seen, how mighty, and how powerful, how high and bow holy, is the God of thia 
Christian, Christ, whom she worships. How vengefully, thinkest thou, will he, all incensed, 
avenge himself on thee, wreteh ! who haa scattered with a stroke, and destroyed, on thy 
account, to-day so many thouaands ? and many, moreover, of that heathen folk who had oU 
journeyed hither to see thia wonder." As soon as they saw this, and heard the queen apeak 
thus, tiicy all at once Inmed, and took to cry out, " Truly, very worthy, and deserving of all 



Vere 'magnuB eat deua ohria- 
tianorum, cujua nos servoa ab 
hodiemo' die constanter profite- 
mur. Nam dii tui idola vana 
sunt. quQ nee sibi nee cultoribua 
Buis aliquid preatare possunt His 
aaditis tirannus collegit Be in 
omnem furorem adverauB eoB, aed 
vehementiuB^ adversue reginam. 
in vocem hujusmodi erQpit. 
Quid f.ii inquiens regina* ita 
loqueris ? Num to quoque magicia 
artibua aeductam 

" "VViterliche, miiclie wur^, 

1: wur^e alia wur^schipe 

is ]ies moidenes godd, 
2064 Crist, so« godes buhg ; 

T: to him we kenni'S 

1 cnaweS to lauerd 

1 to heh healent 
2068 heoime for^wardcs, 

"I tine mix maamez f^lOO] 

alle boon amanaet ; 

for ha hb mahon now^or 
2072 belpen ham seoluen, 

ne heom f hani serui^." 

pe king walde wedea, 

Bwa him. gromede wi'S ham, 
2076 ah wi'S Je cwen awi^eat. 

Biheold hire heterliche ; 

'\ higon to Jreatin hire 

]'U8oa>iase wise: [2110] 

2080 " Hu nu, dame, dotestu ? 

Cwen, acongestu nu 

mid alle fea oSre ? 

Hwi moteatu se mfldliche? 

christianorum aliquia subvertit ut et tCi quoque omnipotentes decs 
nostros (188S) reliuqueres. per quos imperii nostn eumma consistit?' 

2062 E aut, C •mirS, E wimiscliipB, C WTirSchipe. 2064 C godd /or boS. 2065 B ant, 
C to {6ol/i letters expunged), E kenniS (k altered from h), C ionnofi. 2066 E tml. 2067 
C healeod. 2069 B aat, B mawmei. 2070 E awariet/ar anuuwt, C unumsed. 2071 
B B mabe. 2072 C eelaen. 2073 C ham for heom, seruSS. 2075 E so, C gremede. 
2076 E ^ /or ah ; aire meast/o'- Bwi«e9t. 2077 C Biheld, B biheolt, R hatterliche. 
2078 E ant, freaten. 2079 C B o. 2080 B [HJu {space left for H), C Nu fia- Hn, 
B duMBt tu. 20B1 E akangestu, omiU no, B a-cangeat tu nu. 2082 G wiS, B >eOB, o^eie. 
20S3 E Eo, C madliche, B meadliehe. 

' hoiiema. ' omite veheinentius. ' C originally regna. * C oiigioally etnsisti. 

woislup is the maiden's God, Cluisb, the very Son of God ; and to him we take and acknowledge 
■ ■ as Lord, and (aa) the great SaTiouc from henceforth ; and thv vile idola may all be accursed ; 
■' ' ' ' irthosewho serve them.'' The king was about to 

for they can neither help HiemBelvea, 
traatic, BO angry was he with them, but with 
and began to threaten her in this manner: " 1 
too, i{Ueen, infatuated, with all the rest F Why 

lac. ue looKea upon her flereely, 
dame, dost thou doto F Art thou 
thou Eo madly ? 1 swear by tha 



Que mala^ infelicitas mea. ut qui ad culturam deorum nostromin 
ilienoB coartabam. jam peatiferum subversionis venenum faiiiiUarius '^ 
domui mee inserpere videam. et unieam lectuH mei consortem bujua 
morbi contagione vexari contuear ? Porro si me ita amor conjugalia 
eraolliverit. ut pro regine erronea mutabilitate deorum con turn el i am 
ego negligam. quid restat. nisi ut cetere imperii romane matrone. 
hujus ejusdem erroris^ exempluin imitantea \'iro8 proprios a cultura 
deorum evertant.' et ad fabulosam chriatianorum aectam totum regni 
corpus incurvare presumant P 

Juro' ergo tibi per magnum 
deorum imperium 6 regina. quod 
niai maturius ab hac stultlcia. 
resipiaceDS diis immolaveria. caput 
tuum a cervice recisum et carues 
feris et volatilibus dilacerandaa 
bodie reiciam. 

Nee tamen tu celeri morte vitam 
finisse letaberia quam ego extortis 
primo mamillis longo faciam 

2084 let Bwerie bi )e mihtes 
of UTB godes muchele, 
bute jef Ju Jie timluker 
do }te i Jjo jeintum, 

2088 1 TITO godea greto 

f tu gromest nu^e, [2120] 
ich schal aohnwiii fau mi sweord 
bite i >i swire ; 

2092 1 leotL'n toluken Jii flesch 
Jie fuheles of ]ie luftc ; 
% jet, ne schaltu nower neb 
Be libtlicbc etsterten ; 

2096 ah Btrengre Ju acbalt Jiolien; 
for icbulle leoten luken 
T: teon Jie tittes awei 
of yiaa bare breosten, [2130} 
cruciata 2^00 r^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

2084 B mahteB. 2086 C jit. 2088 R an fir % 20H9 E nufe. 2090 B Ic, C I, echave, 
aword, B eweort. 2092 C lete, B leote, toluki. 2094 E ant, C And, B Bchlnit (^rsl 1 
txptiiiged). 2005 B sn, C ittfilerten. 2096 R stregrs. 2097 B for icb chuilo, C B leote. 
2099 C B teo. 209B B beare. 2100 B ant, C B do, C dea«, B de^. 
• L mo/ton ; C originally bih^h. ' famUiarit. ' ejusdem errnrit transposed. 

* averianl. ' C originaBy lure. 

might of ow great gods, except thoa the sooner put thyself in the way back again, and 
greet our goda whom thou now proTokeat, I shall show how my aword (can) hite in thy 
neck : and let the fowls of the air tear thy flesh. And yet, neither shalt thou by any means 
near eo lightly excspe ; bnt thou ehalt suffer severer pam : for I shall canse the teats to be 
torn and pulled away from thy bare bTeasts, and afterwards pat iLee to death, the direst thing 





deruest J'ing to drehea." 

" Alio Jiine Jrreatea 

ne drede ich," quo? ha, ' 

2104 Eauer ae fu mare wa 

Tubet igitur cru delis tirannaa mi- 
Diatria. con temptibi liter reginam 
apprehendere matronara. et trans- 
fisas clavia ferreia maraillas ab 
imo pectore extorqueri, 
Que cum ad locum aupplicii 
duceretur. respiciena ad beatam 

for mi neowe loofmou, 
Jie ich oa wi? luue leue, 

2108 se ]ju wurchest mi wil 

% mi wcole miire. [2140] 

Do na J?enue hihendliehe 
f tu hauest on heorte, 

2112 for of me ne achaltn 

bijeoteu na wiht mare." 
Sone se he underatod wel 
f he ne sturedo hire nawt, 

2116 het, on hat heorto, 

unhendeliche no omen hire ; 
% hute dom ananriht, 
Jiurhdriuen hire tittes [2150] 

2120 •wi'S irnene noilea, 

T: renden ham up hetterliche 
wis ]je breoate roten. 
Ab )oa deoules driueles 

2124 drohen to fordon hire, 

2101 ealirelif amittid 6y R. 2103 R fine >ine (»«o*i >ine txpunged). 2103 H dred, omitt 
owfS htt, B C q«, nawt/oi' nolit. 210i R bo. 2106 E ant, C weane {ipartly oovtred bg 
mk blot), B wane, C doat. 2106 C newfl, E leouemon, C lefmon. 2107 ■)), R lena for 
lune {Jiral e ttfurged and a abovi it). 2108 E bo, mi wi [wi underlined) wU, C wurches. 
2109 R ant. 2110 R bieQtIii'he. 2112 B ecliiih tu. 2113 C bt^ote, B Mjeote, R omilt 
wibt. 2114 B B [SJone {ipaa left for S), B aa /r>r se; under (etcxl added from sioo), 
Bnnderetot. 2116 Cherta. 2II7 fc nimen. 2118 C wi^ute /or bute. 2120 B neillea. 
2121 B reade, R hatterliEhe, G hetcrliche. 2122 B breost. 2123 C deoueles, B deoflol (aie). 

to ondergD." " All thy threats I nothing dread," qnoth she. " The mnre woe Boever and 
tbs more Buffering thou inflict««t on me. for mj new belored, on whom I with love belJeTe, 
so much the more doet thou work my will and my welfare. Do therefore now quickly that 
wbich thou hast at heart, for of me thoii sbalt obtain nothing more." As soon he he 
understood well that ho moved her not, he commanded. \a hot heart, to seize her rudely ; 
and immediately without judEement, to pierce through her nipples with iron naila, and rend 
Ihem up cruelly with the breast -roots. Aa the devil's servants were dragging her to destroy 



CATEEINAM dixit. Teneranda 
chriato Yirgo fimde preces ad 

dominum pro cujus nomine cer- 
taminis hujua' luctamen appre- 
hendi, ut. infra instautem^ pas- 
sioiiia hujua articulum' confirmet 
cor meum. ne caro inflrma mentem 
cogat imbellem* deficere. ne coro- 
nam q^uam Diilitibus suia a christo 
promiasam contestabaria,^ 
ego tnetu passion is amittam. 
Ad quam pretiosa virgo. ne 
timeas inquit 6 veneranda et 
deo dileota reglna. sed viriliter 

hfl biseh toward 

Eatcrine, '\ aside, 

" Eadi meiden ! Gmi 
2128 to ]?i leoue lauerd, 

for hwaa luue ich fto 

f mebilimc'S mefus; [216ofl 

■f he i fe tintreolie 
2132 ^ ich am iturnd to, 

hardi min heorte, 

f tet wake ulea 

ne wnrai neauer mi mod 
2136 Bwa f ich alakie 

to ofseruin heouemiche; 

f ich ne forga iieauer, 

for fearlac of na pine, 
2140 f heo flesclilicli, [2170] 

Jie crune f Crist haue^, 

efter f tu cwiddest, 

ilcuet hia icorene." 
2144 "Ho died tu nawt," quolSJ 

"deorewur^e cwen, 1; deore 

wi^ drihtin of heouene ; 


2125 B towart. 2I2a RB ant. 2127 E emdi. Z12S C leae. 2129 B luuo {aeeond u 
mterled froM abovi). 2130 C men /or _fii-el me, B biliraieS, R >U8 bQimeiS me. 2131 
It tintreo, C trntrebe. 2132 H iham for ich am, B itumt, C i tarn for itamd. 2133 
Sheardi, C olniM beorte. 2134 Cttsftn-tet, K fleecli. 213S C i, GB eaim /or elskie. 
2137 C ofeomea for ofseruin, heacnriche, B heoueriche, B beanenericlice irunne. 213S 
E t/or % 2139 E farlac, C fearlaie. 2140 B fleBOhlic. 2141 B be. 2142 C after. 
2143 R ilenet, C hise, E icome. 2144 B [N]b (apace lift for N), H dredd, C q, B qS, 
CKat.' 2146 C derewuiSe, B dt!orew[Q]r«e ? {hole in MS.), E ant, dere. 2148 
C beaene. 

' in C, here arfiai/um Hotted oat. ' itulanle. 
altered to ->*, njid again, bj another hand, on the margin 

her, she looked toward Katherine, and said, " Blessed maiden ! commend'me to thy dear 
Lord, for wbose love 1 euffer that men thns tearmj limbs; that he in the torment that I am 
brought to, may pat such resolution inta my heart, that this iFeak fleeh may never impair my 
courage so that I ehould fail to deserre the Mngdom of heaven ; (and) that I may never 
fareso, through fear of any pain, that ie corporeal, (he crown which CliriBt hath, according 
to what thou say est, bestowed upon hia elect." " Dread nothing." qaoth Katherine, " dearest 
q^ueen, and dear to the Lord of heaven ; for there is granted thee to-day, (in exchange) for 



age i quia, Iiodie tibi pro transi- 
torio regno commutabitur eter- 
num. (fol. 189o) pro mortal! 
sponso inmortalem tibi ad- 
quires, pro penis requiem per- 

pro celeri obitu. 





natal e principium. 

Ad banc vocem venerabilis ma- 

trona in agonia robustior effecta. 

tortores aponte bortatur. ne ti- 

rannica jussa ultra morentur. 

for ]ie ia ileuet todei, 
2H8 for an lutel eoi^lich lond, 

j) heoTienliGhe kinedom ; 

for a mon of lam, [2180] 

Je fe is Ifluerd of Uf ; 
2152 for fia lutle pine, 

fe ali^ ia lute hwile, 

endelesc reste 

ia Jic riche of heouene ; 
2156 for Jiis swifte pine, 

^ aswike^ se aone, 

blissen buten ende, 

'\ mnrh^en aa mare. 
2160 Ne nawiht ne wen ]ni [2190] 

f tu nu forwur^e ; 

for nu Jju biginnest earst, 

T: art iborcn, to libben 
2164 i^ lif ^ least*^ 

aa buten linunge." 

j?e cwen, J>urh fieos stenene, 

■wea 8wi?e istrenget; 
2168 T; ae stalewurSe, 

^ ha feng to cleopien 

upon Jie cwellerca, [2200] 

1 Lihede bam to donne 

2147 K ilenet, C ileDitd. 214B CD a, B laat. 2149 B writea J>e kinedom at heoui>ne, 
heuenlicli. 2151 Chim +>>■ Je >e ; hi {t aUercdfrom i). 2152 K fa/or >ifl. 2153 
C -p. C B i, B an /or lute ; hondwile >i- hwile. 2155 C B i, C hanene. 2156 dtvt. 
2167 C ]iat, B ).b, R ao. 2159 R ant, C d, B b. 2160 t /or Ne ; nairt, wane. 2161 
Cheo for -aiii^ expanded). 2162 B im insertid fnm ai^vi, R earest. 2163 B ibort. 
2164 C lastetS. 2165 ai, B a bute. C ende/or liDungG, B loDirunge. 2166 C yie, B bes, 
B stefne. 2167 C was, B ktraget. 2168 R ant bo, B steelevmt^e. 2169 £ >et, bigtiu 
for feng, B uang, C clepien, 2170 E uppon, C B upo. 

thia little pain, whiub aubsideB in a litue while, endlcaa reat in tbe Mngilom of baarea ; (or 
thia trnnaiton' euffiiring-, that ceases so eoon. ]o;a without end, and glailiiesa orennnie. Do 
not thou think that Dan thon perishKBt ; for now 1}ioii first beginneat, and ait born. t« live in 
the life that Instetb ever without end.'' The queen, by tbeaBnorda, wiia greatly etreugitheued ; 
and H) Bt«adlaijt, that abe began to call to tbe executioiieis, and urged them to do what they 



Tunc ministri extra civitatem 
earn ducentes. ferreis. hastilibus' 
regias mamillaB traiciunt. et sic 
Buspensaa ab imo crudeliter pec- 
tore mammaB evellunt. De bine 
gladio percussa. felici niartirio 
migravit ad chriBtum. vicesima 
tercia die mcoaia novembria feria 

Porphiriua vero noctu assumptoa^ 

secum quibus sec re turn suuui 

palam esse voluit. corpua regioe 

et martiris con di turn aroniatibus 

2172 ^ham 

t heo duden ; drohen liire 


T tuhen hire tittca 
2176 up of 

bi ]>e bare baae, 

wilS eawlea of ime ; 

1 Bwipten of frefter, [2210] 
2180 mid swoord, bire heaued 

% beo swart to Criate 

upon ])c )roo "X twentu^e dd.' 

of Nouembres mone^ ; 
2184 1 f wea on an Wwlneadei 

f ba )ms wende, 

martir, to }b murh'Sea 

■p neauer ne wonie^. 
2188 Porpbiro ananriht 

forde >ider i J-e niht [ [21 

'\ swuccbe wis bim of bis men 

f bo wel trusts on ; 
2192 T: al J-esleMis licome 

leofliobe smirede 

wis aiairles of aromaz 

swote Bmellinde, 
2196 1 blburiede bire 




2172 C was. 2173 B ant, C And, didea. 3174 C B wiSuta, R tiiarhflietoa, bnrbjiiM, 
B burh}eteii. 2175 R ant, diphea/or taken. 2176 C breosle. 2177 E bifie/or bi fo, 
B beare, 2178 K ewlea. 217B R ant, spiteden/or Bwipten, B fereftcr. 2180 CB wl-S, 
C Bword, B Bweon, R heaiiet. 2181 B fl ant, C mterf, B swaatf. 2182 B uppon, C B 
upo, R a /or 1- 2184 B ant ; -Ji inierlfd /rom above, R tat, C B n, C wediiesdei, B 
weodnesdei. 2186 C wento, 2186 R omUi }e. 2187 B J-e. 2188 E Portirie. 21BI) 
E ant, swncli, C hise, 2192 C >e, litfdies, B leafdia. 2193 C bfliche, emeredc, B. 
emireden. 219G R biburieden. 

' C originally hmtilibiu, ' in C two last letters on oraeure, L aaeiimplii. 

'were commanded. And tbey did so; and drew her witbout tbe gates of tbecity; and 
polled oS tbe paps from ber breasts, by the bare bone, nitb iron awls ; and atteTvaiae, with 
a sword, utmck off her head : and she ascended to Christ upon tba three-and-twentietb day 
of November's month ; and that was on a Wednesday that she thus weat, as a martyr, to the 
jays that never wane. Porphirtus immediately went thither in the night, and with him Bneh 
of his men as he could finnly trust ; and affectjonatcly anointed all the lady's body with 
8weet-smelling aromatic ointment, and buried her as became a martyr and a queen. Men 




Mime autem facto fit questio de 
corpora rcgine. quia illud auatu- 
lisaet. De quo cum multos' suppli- 
cium pertrabi vidgret porpliiriua. 
conatanter ante tribunal impBra- 
toris irruit dicens. 

Quid tu homines innoxioa puniri 
mandasti imperator 

aa hit deh murtir 

% cwen for to doiine. 

Me com i fie marhon, [^2230] 
2200 het witen hwa liefde, 

ajein ^e kinges forbode, 

f licotne iled ^eoimo. 

pa Porphire isoh feole, 
2204 f me seide hit upon, 

gulteleae, loaden 

% dreien t» dea^e, 

leop ioT^ wi^iite feailac, 
2208 % com biforen fe keiaer, 

1 koneliche cleopede, [2240] 

" Sei, ]jii Sathanessoa Bune, 

Jiu kinge forcu^eat ! 
2212 hwet coaatu to [leoB men 

j5 tu ]jus leadest ? 

Lowr ! icham her, ]iu hatele gaat, 

mid alio mine hirdmcn, 
2216 to jelden reisnn for ham. 

velut Bacrilegii reos quos potiua defensos esse oportuerat.^ ai fe 
nature religio' humana corpora a feris et volatilibus toUenda esse 
docuiaaetP Qua in re vesano te spiritu agitari manifestum estr' 
qui humania corporibua nee etiam aepulturam indulges. Que etenim 

2197 a emils deh, B Martyr. 2198 R ant, owen dah for, B te, 2199 C Men, B [Mia 
(ipoM It/l for M), E ine for i be. 2201 R 3.)aae», C ajain, B forbad. 3202 C dad, 
B ilead. 2203 £ porfirie, C eeli, fele. 2204 G ]?at, B >e, C men, E nppaa. 
3205 C guitlese. 2208 R ant, C draien, B dreaien. 2207 E buten, farlae. 2208 R B 
binoren, C tofore, 2210 C Sattanase, B satbiineBse. 2211 B king. 2222 C hwat, 
B const tu to, C tea. 2213 C leadea. 221* B heateliche. 2215CBwi«. 2216 B ialde, 

' C ofiginallf mvllii. 

' opinverat. 

' C originally relio. 

eama on the morrow, and commanded ingnirj to be made, who had, contrary to the lung's 
prohibition, taken the body thence. When Porpbiriue saw many guiltless men, who were 
accused of it, led and dragged to death, he sprang forward without fear, and came before the 
emperor, and boldly cried, " Say, thou aon of Salsn, thou moet infamoua of all kings I what 
knowest thou against these men whom thou thus treatest f Lo ! here am I, thou hateful 
demon, with all my household, to answer for them. Condemn, then, me and mine, becauae 


gens tain barbara hujusmodi judicium edidit. ut vel cadaver exanime 
terre matris gremio aepeliri prohiberet ? Veruntamen antequam inno- 
centes perire consentiam. e! reos esse judicaB qui cbristi martirem 
sepelienrnt. reatum hujusmodi non formido.' 

Coadempna certe ai audes. quod Fordcm, nu, me '\ mine, 

contra imperium tuum ancillam" f "^' "J""''^ > ^° ^^"^t' I^^^SO] 

f licome awei leddeo, 
christi" Bepelivi. 3320 1 Icidou in ec.r«e." 

expetendum cunctia fidelibus crimen sepulture humane. TJtinam et 
hoc micbi obiciae. ut ceteri relaxentur. Certe hoc crimine (fol. 189S) 
soluB ego periclitari desidero. Nam ego sum qui gloriosam christi 
martirem. et ego chriati confessor, sepulture gremio accumulavi. 

" Nu ]iu art," quo^ Jie king, ^1 
" ken 't icnawen fl 

f tu iiauest dea^ ofeamed ; " 
2224 t >urh jie, alio fo ti^re. 

Hie* tirannuB velut alto vulnere sancius. pro plantu rugUum velut 
amens altum emisit, quo tota regia pertonuit. 6 me miserura. 
6 omnibus miserandum. ut quid me in hanc erumpnosam vitam 
natura luater edidit. cum tollitur omne quod noatri imperii precipne 
summa requirit? Ecce porphirius qui erat unicus^ auime naee custos. 
et tocius laboris solatium, in quem ah omni cura et soUicitudine re- 
clinabar velut singulare michi presidium, ecce hie nescio qua de- 
monura infeatatione aupplantatus, deorum noatrorum culturam'' 
aepematur. et ilium iesum quem vesana turha christianorum pro 

2217 31 ant. 2218 R for fnr % C ajain, R heat. 2219 B loadden. 2220 E eorde. 
2221 B [N]u («paM le/l /hr S), R «H<™ Nu art tu iken q« fd kiug, C q. B q«, 2222 
E ken omitled ; ant, B ienawes. 2223 C haues, E de«, R B ofeeruet for ofeamed. 2221 
B ant, oSere. 

' refermido. ' omits aacillam. ' C adds cAriali on the margin ; L inserts famulain. 

body, s 

and bait acknowledged that thou hast dcaerved death ; and 
. But because tbou art a reuonued knigblj and 1^ chief of them 



deo colit. utpote raente captus publica voce confitatur. Hie nimi- 
rum reginam a lege patria et cultura deoruin subvertit. nee alias 
querendus nobis est' conjugalia^ dementie architectiis. Et quamvia 
irreparabile michi dampnum de conjiige abeo coaatet illatum. hoc 
potiua eligo ut resipiacens ab hac stulticia. decs sibi plaeabiles red- 
dat. et in nostra ut ceperat amicitia perduret. quam nostre' animad- 
versionia sententiani experiatur. Hia dictia, juaait omnea com- 
militonea ipaiua qui lateri ejua adherebant. coram se adduci. quibua 
aeorsum advocatis. dura de porphirii conversione questionem faeeret, 
omnea una Toce se chrietianoa esse protestabantur. nee metu mortis 
& fide christi et porphirii societate ullatenua dilapsuroa. Hie tiran- 
nus aliquos eorum putans terrore penarnm a propoaito poaae revo- 
cari. jubet eos* esquiaitia crucian suppliciis. Quoa cum ad locum 
aupplicii pertrahi porphiriua intueretur:' timena ne timore paaaionia 
mentcs eorum turbarentur. dixit tiranno. Quid hoc iraperator aibi' 
Tult. quod horum principem et caput dimittia me inquam dico. et 
membra inferiora^ pera^queris? Nam niai me victum primo red- 
dideria. inanem in his laborem consOmia. Ab hia ergo querere ai 
quid babes:' ego pro eis iibi asto rafio-{{o\. 190a)-nem redditurus. 
Dicit ei tirannua. 

Tu caput et princeps horum es 
ut asaeria. oportunum est ut til de 
te istia prebeaa exemplum. vide- 
licet ut primus ab hac^ atulticia 
reBipiacas, et nobiscum glorioae 

Ah for )'ii art icudJ cniht, 
1 heaued of ham alle, 
cheoa jet of Jeoa twa : 

2228 o«er chear ananriht, [221 
■f te olSre choarron Jjurh Jie, 
% tu schalt libheu, 
t heon leoE t wur^ me ; 

2232 o^er, jef >u nult no, 

' nebia til transposed. ' omita cimjagatis. > omits noatrl. ' omits <m. ' C originaUj 
DiiJy»; L invnTfl(or si*( transposed. ° C originalljf t«/eiio(fl. ' C originallj Aona (P) . 



vivas, aut certe' primus^ 
iutereas. Ita locutuB. 


jiibet tunc cum' ceteris comniili- 
tonibus suis extra civitatem trabi. 
et amputatia capitibus corpora in- 
Quod et factum est ; 

streche for? fine swire 

Bcliarp sweord to uaderfonne, 

Porphire 1 alle hise 
2236 heolden ham togedei 

% wis se 80^0 gabbc 

gremedon him ee Bare [2270^ 

f he het hotterliche, 
2240 anan wi^uten }e hurh, 

bihefden ham, eucb fot 

1 leauen hare bodies 

unbiburiet alle, 
2244 fode to wilde dcor, 

T: to luftfuheles. 

His heaste wes ifor^et, 

T alle clane bibefdet ; 
2248 ah, for al hia forbode, 

nea hit ■f te bodies 

neren ifatte i fe niht 

1 feire biburict. 
2252 Nftlde nawt godd leoter 

his martirs licoines 

liggen to forleoaen, 

■p hefde bihaten 
2256 f an her of hare fax 

ne schuldo forwur^en. 


2233 Euoi«, CB Jii. 2234 C aword, KB underuonne, C imdetfon. 2236 R porfli 
B his. 2236 C helden, B bi lederes. 2237 £ ant, swa. 223S B so. 22od 
R hatterUche, C heterliche. 2210 C B wiiSnte. 2212 C leafden. 2243 C imKbimed, 
B unbnriBt. 2244 B willde. 2246 B snt. 2246 R heste. C ieaat, was, B iuorSeL 
2247 E ant, C eleanB, E biliefdeft, C bibefded. 2248 B forbod. 2260 C ifat. 2251 
E ant. 2252 C ieten. 2263 B Msrtjrs. 2264 R m-ilet ligKen for to leoEeo. 2266 R J.B. 
2266 E Jiet, C heaneS/or fai. 2267 C forlosen/of forwiu«en, B forworSaen. 

' C nrigiuall; timU. ' omits printut, ' C adds eum on the margin. * dimiiii. 

le sharp swoid." Foiphirios and all bis knig'htB adhered to each 
taunts vexed him bo sore that he furiously save orders to behead 

forth thy neck to receiv 

other, and with such ti „,, __.. 

^ , , ^ , leave all then- bodies unburied, as 

food l« irild beasts, and to fowls of the air. His best was performed, and they were every 
one beheaded ; but, notwithstanding his proiiibition, it hindered not that the bodies were 
taken away in the night and honuUTably buried. God would sot sufier his mart^' corpses to 
]ie topeii^ who had promised l^at a hair of l^eir heads (hair) should not perish. The king's 

Oonaummata' itaque eat* horum passio menae novembrio die vicesima 
quarta feria quinta. Fostera autem die sedens pro tribunali 

impiifisimus tirannuB. nee dum 
tnartirum sanguine saciatua beat- 
am CATEEINAM jubet sibi pre- 

eui sic ait.^ Quaraquam tu omnium 
horum rea sis quos arte magica 
depravatos mortia compendium 
aubire feciati. ai tamen ab er- 
roris proposito animum revo- 
carea. et diia omnipotentibus 
thura offer ea :'* 

poteraa nobiacum feliciter regnare. 

et prima in regno noatro nomi- 

nari. Ne noa ergo'' diutiua pro- 

traliaa. quod vis 

pe jet neanawt JieskingeBjiurst, 
■wis al JjiB blod, ikdet; [229J] 

2260 ah tet Katerine cumen 
swi^e biforen him. 
Ha wes sone ibroht for?, 
T: he brec on to seggeil, 

2264 " pah Jm beo schuldi 
]ie ane of alle clane ; 
Jiah fu wi^ Jil wicchecreft 
habhe imaket se monie 

2268 to eornen toward bare deaS, 
aa ha weren woie ; [2301] 
jet, jcf Ju wiSdreiest te, 
"X wult greten ure godes 

2272 ase for¥ as J^u ham hauest 
igremet ^ igabbet, 
Jill maht, in alio marble, 
longe lihben wi? me, 

2276 t meast Bchalt beon cuS ieudd 
in al mi kineriche. 
No lead tu us na leagre ; 
ah loke nu, hiliuc, [2311] 

2258 B rp]a («po« &/* Jor t>). C[p] a >>■ f e (space left for V). C B >e for J^eB, B omil, 
buret. 2260 E katerine ewi^e cumea, G Enter' cume. 2261 R omiU ewi-fie, S B biuoren, 
C omilt him. 3262 R 'I heo, C was, R uor3. 2203 C bigon for breo on. 2265 B of 
ham Hlle, C cleans. 2266 B Iticc1lecre9. 2267 C haueat, R bo. 22eS C omita to, K 
towarS, B towart, R deS. 2209 B as >ab ba. 2270 C )if, wii^draheate. 2271 B ant 
wale, B wnlle, R ure godes igceten. 2272 H as. 22T4 B miui5e. 2275 B libbe. 2276 
E ant, B beo, C cud ^ iouJ. 2279 R bliue. 

• C originally eensmnpla. ' Hague eit transposed. ' tl dixit for eui lie ail. 

* C original!)' eftrei. ' omita triio- 

thirst was not bveq yet, with all this blood, cooled ; but be ordered Katherine to come 
qieedily before Mm. She was soon brought forth, nnd ha broke on to say, " Though thou 
«rt g:nilty of all the reat ; though thou, with thy witchcraft, hast made' eo mony to run 
towiuils their death, as if they were nind ; yet, if tbon retract and wilt anlute our ^ds 
as well as thou haat grieiei! and mocked them, thou mayest, in all pleasure, live long timo 
with me, aad ebalt he moat celebrated and renowned in all my kingdom. Put as off no 
longai ; but nonaider now, quickly, whether it k preferable for thee to do what I propass to 



ex duobus unum elige. 
aut maturius aris libamina inferas. 
aut hodie £1 cervice gladio caput 
avulsam raiaerabile prebebit' in- 
tuentibus spectaculum. 
Cui virgo respondens.^ 
Non eat inquit miserabile spec- 
taculum. cui de occasu ortus auc- 
cedit gloriosuB. 

de morte immortalitaB. de merore 
jocunditas :' de tristicia gaudia 
mercantur' etema. 

Te ergo protrabere diutius tiranne 
non quero. Fac quecunque animo 
concepiati. paratam me esse vide- 
bis'ad omnia sustinendaquemicbi 
inferre potueria dum dommum* 

2280 bwelSer Jie beo leouere 
don f ich f e leare, 
1 libben }ef >u swa dest ; 
o^er, JiiaUke dei, 

2284 BO dreoribche deien, 
■p ham schal agriaen 
alle f hit bihaldeB." 
"Nai," quo^ Katerine, 

2288 " nia nawt grislicb aih^e 

to Bcon fallen f fing [2321] 

$ schal ariaen, J^urh f fal, 

a Jiusontfalt te fehere, _ 

2292 of dea'S to bf nnde^bch ; J 
1; to arisen from ream ^M 

to aa lestinde lahtre ; ■ 

from bale to eche hbsse ; 

2296 from wa to -wTinne, % to weole 
Nawiht, king, ne kepe ieh 
f tu hit fir fiiHti ; [2331] 

2300 ah hat bihendliohe ■ 

f tu hauest in heorte, ^| 

for ich am jarow to al ]je wa -^B 
f tu const me jarkin, 


den. 22S7 B [N]ai hpace left , 
I, Bfalle, C omits % Kt king fa 
lenre fir iekere. 2292 R deS, 

t, C iif, E omili swa, G dost. 2283 E o-Ser 

; dreoliche. 2286 C -p alle li»iii. 2286 C otniti aUe, B }«. C 

■e left for N), q«, C 0,. 2288 C ladlioh /or grislicli, 22S9 

king fallen. 2290 B >e, arise. 2291 C jmsendfald, ]>e, 

B sehenre far febera. '2292' E deS, E nndedlich, B undeaSlieii. 2293 B arise, C faam. 

2294 C si, B a, C lastende, B leastiude, R lealitre. 2295 C friim. 2296 C fiam, winae, 

R ant, C wele. 2298 E nawih, B Nawbit, E kep. 22B9 C icritti ^ tu lengre hit firsti. 

2300 C toritei ah hat ta hiheodeliche, R hihentliche. 2301 C on /or in. 2302 R alle. 

2303 R coast me Iranipoaed, C jaiken. 

* C oiigiatilj pribit. ' reapandil. ' lueeedunt for titfrcatitur. * mm viifeiii ttamrpoaed. 

' C dominum added on margin ; L has regem. 

thee, and to live ii thou doet so ; or, this very day, to die so dismally, tiiat all who hehold it 
shall shudder." " Nay," quoth Eatherine, " it is not a loathly sight to see a thing fall that 
shall life again, throagb that fall, a thousand times fairer, — from death to life immortal; 
and to rise fiom weepiug to eveilastiag vladness ; from misery to eternal bliss ; from 
sorrow to joy, and to welfare that ever endureth. I care not at all, king, tbal thon 
ahouldst longer delay it ; command then speedily what thou hast at heart, for I am prepared 



meum videre et 



a gaum aequentibuB 

interesse merear. 

Sic effatam tirannus furiali spiritu 


chriati virginem a conapeetu suo 
B.abstractam jubet extra portam ci- 
vitatia decollari. Que cum ad locum 
pasaionis' prefixum properaret. 
respiciens vidit turbam multam 
virorum et mulierum aequentium 
Be atque plan-(fol. 1906)-g6ntium. 
inter quaa precipue virgines et 

2304 f ich iseon mahe 

mi lufBTime leotmon, 
"X beoa ibroht se bli^e 
biinong mine feolahes, 

2308 >e follii« him oueral [2340] 
i ]ie f eire f erreden 
of uirgineB in heouene." 
JJo king, as ]ie f woa iardrenct 

2312 wi^ fes deoulea puiaua, 
nuste hwet meanen : 
ah hot swiSe don hire ut 
of hia ehsih^e, 

2316 T, hihefden hire utewi« 
Jie harren of ]?6 burhe. 
Heo as me ledde hire, [2350] 
lokede ajeinward, 

2320 for ludinge f ha herde, 
T: seh sihen efter hire 

■wepmcn 1 
2324 mid wringinde hondefl 

Ah ]>e meidenea aire meost, 
wis sari mod 1: aorhful, 

2314 a mid /or don, B wiB/or &>a ; omili at. 2316 C ahSe, 

B hehnbtie. 2316 B biheafdia, imiti hire. 2318 C men. 2319 C ii)Eiinniird, B ageinvail;. 
2320 a for >e ladings, iherde. 2321 B B ant, B omiti sihea, C after. 2322 B omils 
healSeBa, 2323 R weopmen, C winunen. 2324 CB wiB, E griadinda, wringenda. 2325 
C 1 wepinde, 2326 It ant /or All ; la, B meidnes. 
' patiioni, 

for all the pain tliat thou canst provide for me, bo that I may see my beloTed, who in bo 
worthy of love, and joyfuUj' be brought among my companions, that follow him everjrwhere 
in the fair company of lirgiaa in heaven." The king, as one who was dninken with tha 
deril's poiBon, wist not what to tbinlc : he commanded, however, to put her quickly out of 
liis sight, and behead her without the barriers of the city. She, as they conducted her. 
looked back again, on account of the noise ehe beard, and saw many heathen, men and 
women, running after her, wringin" their hands and weeping sore. But the maidens most of 
all, in sad and sorrowf ol mood, and the rich ladies, let tears trickle. And ehe turned again, 


matrone nobilea lamentabantur.' 

Ckinveraa igitur ad' illas.' dixit. 
generose matrone fl TirgineB 
clarissime nolite obsecro paa- 
Bionem meam lamentabili planctu 

I Bi nature pietaa Toa 
uUa erga me incitat ad miBera- 
tionem. congaudete precor michi* 
potiuB quia video chriBtum me 
Tocantem qui est amor meuB. 
rex et Bponsua meus. qui est 
mercea^ copiosa sanctorum, deeus 
et decor^ virginum. 
Vos vero'' planctum* iatum lacri- 

2328 T te ricbe lefdia, [2360] 

letten teares treondlin; 
1 heo biwende bire ajein, 
sumdol iwre^Set, 
2332 % etwat bam hare wop 
wi^ JiuUiclie wordes : 
" Jo lefdia % je meidaea, 
jef jG weren wise, 

2336 nalde je nawt bringen mi 
for? toward bliase 
mid Be bale bere ; [2370] 

nalde je neauer remen 

2340 ne makien reow^e for me, 
J>c fare to ecbe reate, 
into jie richo of beouene. 
Bco* bli^e, icb biseobe ow, 

2344 jef je me blisse unaen ; 
for icb isBo lean Crist, 
Jie cloope^ me 1; oopne^ ; 
]>e ia mi laaerd 1 mi luna, 

2348 mi lif T: mi leofmoa, [2380] 
mi wunna 1 mo iweddet, 
mi murb^e T; mi mode 
T: meidene crune. 

2362 Ower wop weiide=S 




2a2S B ant, C lafdis, B leafdis. 2329 R leoteo, C Ireadka, B troudlin. 2330 It ant, 
C And, ^Bin. 2331 R iwreSet, B iwraaSet, C wrilfs anmliwiit iwraiHSet. 2333 R ant, 
C etwat Uecotid t vrHtten over d), B eadwat. 2334 C lafdis, B leaEdie, E ant, meidenes. 
2335 C jit 2336 C B bringe. 2337 B towart. 2338 C B wl«, R bo. 2310 B maUe, 
B reoSe. 2341 C -p, B feare, 2342 C heaene. 2343 B bKf a. 2344 C jU, C B anneS. 
2345 C seo, RC ih'n. 2346 C -p; after cleupei? Cht Kord after expunged, R wriUi fe 
copneiS ant cleope^ me. 2347 C t- 2348 B 1 mi ; leoiiemon. 3350 B aob 

' C originally lamtabatitr. ' omits igitar ad. ' ilia. ' prectr tnichi tranflposed. 
' C originally taer. " C originally deetra x L has corona. ' ergo for vera. * C originally 

Bomdwhat angered, and chid them for their weeping in words like thGEO : " Te ladies and ye 
maidens, if ye were wiee, ye would not conduct me forth toward bli^ with aach doleful facea 
(features) ; tb would never lament nor make sorrow for me, who go to eternal test, intfl the 
kingdom of lieaven.. Bo cheurful, I beseeeh you, if Te wish me joy ; for I see Jems Chriet, 
who calleth me and waitolh for me ; who ia my Lord and my love, my life and my beloved, 
my joy and my betrothed, my rejoicing and my reward, and the crown of virgins. Turn all 



mabilem quem inaniter in me 
deperdilis iu yos ipaas' conver- 
tite. ne voa in hoc geotilitatis 
errore diea suppreraa deprehendat. 
pro quo fletus eternoa aubeatia. 


Hec locuta a^ percuaaore orandi 
,Bpatiuiu indulgSri aibi poposcit. 
Quod cum Bpiculator aanueret.* 
psa eleyatis in celum oculia* 

oravit dicens. 
decua ot salua 

ttl on OT seolueu, 

leate je eft wepen 

echeliche in helle, 
2356 for f hea^eiiB lif 

f je ia liggeS ; 

as je SGhullen alle, [2390] 

buten. jef je forleten, 
2360 bwil je beo% o Uue, 

ower misbileaue." 

As ha befde iseid tus, 

bisohte f vvS ^e brond, 
2364 as hit blikede buuen hire, 

'\ sehulde hire bone beon, 

f he for hia freolec, 

firatede hire, '\ fremode, 
2368 J-e hwUe f ha bubo hire, 

1 bede ane hone. [2401] ' 

He jettede hire t jef 

bliSeliche leaue ; 
2372 t hoo biheold upward, 

wi^ upabeuen heorte ; 

t cneolinde dune ward, 

[lua to Criate cleopode : 
2376 " Lauerd, loome 1 lil 

of aUa riht bileafde ; [2410] 

2353 C selaen. 2351 B lost, B eft wepeu Iranapoeed. 2336 R heSeae, B headeue. 23S7 
C liggen. 2359 CB bnte, C omifi gef, B foileattio. 2360 Cbeon. 2362 £ iseid >as 
tranipoHd. 2363 C him /or -p, B ^e, bioat. 2365 B sculde, C bone. 2366 C fieokic. 
2367 K MSedfl/or firstoiB, ant. 2368 It f eo/or be, C hwil, K hao. C buhde. 2370 R ant 
he, ant, C wii5 fur jef, R jef hire. 2372 E ant, C And, B bihaolt, upwart. 2371 E omiu % 
B dunawart, 2375 C B criBt. 2376 C [L]auerd {,paie left for L), R ant. 2377 E rihta, 
BB bileaue. 
' omits ipiai. 'Co euppUed on maigin. ^ C second e altered from t. * oettlii in telnm. 

your weeping upon yoiirselyes, lest ye once more weep eternally in hell, for that heathen life 
in which ye lie; aa ye shall all, eicept ye leave off your nnbelief whilst ye are in life." 
When she had tbns spoken, she requested him who liad the sword, as it gleamed above her, 
and was to be her slayer, that he of his liberality, would delay for her, and indulge her, wltils 
she bowed herself and prayed a prayer. He granted and gave her permiseion cbeerfully ; 
and she laolied upwaroB, with uplifted tiearC; and Imeeling- down, she thus called upon 
Christ: " Lord, ligkt and life of all true believers ; mild Jesa, who art thyself the reward 



^m credentiura. 6 spes et gloria vir- 

milde leau, f art te seolf ' 

meidene mede ; 

^M ginum jesu bone. 

2380 ihered % ihciet 

beo Jiu, hohe boalent ! 

^B gratiaa tibi ago :' qui me intra col- 

1 ye ich Jjonld, lauerd, 

legium ancillarum tuarum con- 

f tu hauest ileuet me, 

2384 % waldeafc f ich were 

numerare dignatua es. 

i >e tale of >ino wummen. 

Fac ergo hanc cum ancilla tua 

Lauerd, milce me uu. 

1 }ette me f ich jirae ; [2420] 

2388 ich hidde }o J-eoa bone,— 

cunque in kudam et gloriam^ 

f alle Jieo f munno^ 
mi pine 1 ml passiuu, 

tuam paBBionia mee memoriam 

Jo to luue, lauerd, 

2392 % cleopIeS to me hwen ha 

egerint, sive in exitu anime sue 


fie derf of dea^ drelien, 

o¥er hwen se ha hit eauer do^, 

aut etiam in quacunque anguatia 

me iovocaverint r' celerem pro- 

in neode % in nowcin, 

2396 hiheutliche iher ham, 

pitiationis tue obtineant effectum. 

heouenUche healent ! [2430] 

Aflei from ham al uuel, 

Fugiat ab eia pestilentia et fames. 

morbua et cladea:' et universa 

2400 T; imtidi wederea ; 

hunger 1 euch hete 

aurarum intemperies. 

Je hcane^ ham % harmi^ ! 

237B C ih'a, B >e far % C be self. 2380 B iheret, R imt, C iheied. 2381 C healend. 

2382 B, al foi-% C And, te. 2383 R ilenet, C ileauet, B UeueS. 2385 RB omii Jw, 

C winimen. 3387 R aDt. jirni, C jeme. 2389 C t-oa for Yeo ; >at, B fe /w tMonrf % 

R iiiuani«. 2391 C tobe; leue ftr lune. 

2392 C clepien. 2393 E *. de-S. 23flt 

heouenlice, C heuenliche (halt in MS. : I and part ef i teaming), R laueid for "bealeot, ^H 

worre, ant. C woue, B weone. 2401 R ant, ^M 

heata. 2102 C -p. B ie&mS. ant, C harme«, 

S heaimi«. V 

' ona^e obiecro. 

> gloriam el lavden. 

of maidenB ; praised and aialted be tliou, erea 
hast permitted me. and wouldat that I shoul 

savionr ! And I thanl thea. Lord, that thou 

be in the nnmber o£ thy women. Lord, bo 

gracious tc ma now, and srant me what I deair 
who mantion my pain and my passion, far Ioy 

: I request of thee this boon,— that all those 

of thee. Lord, and invoke me when they am ^M 

tbou lial«a Iji them speedily, heavenly Saviour I Make to flee from them all gtU, botili^H 



Fiat in finibus eorum terre fecunda meaBio. aer salubrior.^ et secunda^ 

elementorum gratia^ jocunda fructuum ubertaa. 

Ecce Lowr ! her ich abide 

* agone domine jesu cbriste ferientia gladiu 

jam expleto certamiE 

Tu quod camifex tollere non 2404 fe bito of sweordes egge. 

pe f me to dea'Se do's, 
potest precor Buscipe spiritum do al ^ he mei doa, 

neome f ho neomea mei, — 
meum :! et per raanuB sanctorum 3408 f Hi of mi licome ; [2441] 

mi sawie ich sende to ]je, 

angelorum in eterne^ quietia^ 
eede'' cum aanctia virginibus con- 
fov&ri jube^. 

Necdom orationem compleverat :* 
et ecce tox hujusmodi de aullimi* 
nube emiasa ad earn redditur. 
Veni dilecta mea. speciosa mea:' 
ecce tibi beatitudinis j&Qua aperi- 

healent, ia heouene ; 
hat f ha heo iset, 

2412 Jmrh J-ine haU engles, 
i f heouenliche bird 
biraoug Jiiae meidnes." 
Nefde ha hutea iseid swa, 

2416 f ter ne com a ateueae 

sihiade from heouene ; [2450] 
" Cum, mi leoua leofmon ; 
cum nu, min iweddet, 

Low, f e jete of eche lif 
ahit te al iopenet ! 

2403 R hwer for her, C ich ahide her. 2404 C Bwordea. 2105 C dende doiS, S. wiiUs 
}e t tia deB me deU W, B uiHUa ^e ■(> deS me to deaS. 2406 C OBii(s den. 2407 C nime, 
niiae, B Dwme far aeomen. 2108 C Jie. 240S R ihc, C i, £ seoden. 2410 S. hehe 
healent, C healend, heaene. 2413 C heuealiche, B hirt. 2414 R nieideB. 2415 
B [NJefde {spaet left for N), C B buW, B ibede for iseid, C tuB fur ewa. 2416 R Btefne. 
2417 G Btlhende fram. 2418 R leuuemon. 2419 CJiu/nrnu. 2420 C a. 2421 R |et, 
C )at«. 2422 C ftbid, iopaned. 

' C origiualiy aolubrier. ^ aeamdam. ' ffratiam. * insertH mei. ' eterna, ' guiete. 
' omits sede. ' luilimi. 

them I hoi 1 ahide here the bito of the sirord'a edge. Ltit turn tliat puM 11 
all tliat ho may, let him take wljat he can take,— tlie life of my body ; I sei 
the«, Saviour, in heaven ; command that it he placed, by thv holv ansela, in 
household among thj maidens." She had no sooner spoke 
dflBcsnding from iieaven : ' ' Come, my dearly beloved : tome 
women ! Behuld, the gate of eteciml life awaits thee fully o[ 

a death, do 

. thus, than there came a vouifl 
ow, my spouse, most beloved of 
tned ! The abode of Bvery joy 



tur. ecce (fol. 191a) quietis eterne 
manaio tibi parata adventum tuum 
espectat. jam in oceursum tuum 
chorus ille virgineua' sanctorum 
exultantiboB auimis cum trium- 
pliali adventat corona. Veni ergo, 
et ne soIlicitSris^ de donis que 
postulaar' nam et his qui pas- 
sionem tuam devotia mentibua 
oelebrayerint. et qui in periculis 
et neceBsitatibos tk inTocayerint. 
presidia optata. et opem celerem 
de oelo promitto. 

Facta ergo hac voce :! christi 
virgo lacteara cervicem proten- 
dens spiculatori ait. 
Ecce* Tocor a domino meo Jesu 
christo. tfl* jam impiger ager'et 

pe wTinunge of euch wrmno' 
2424 kepeB t copne^ Jd cume. 

Lo ! al ^ meidene mot 

1 tet hird of heouene, 

cumo^ her ajoia ^e, [2460] 
2428 mid kempcne crune ! 

Cum nu, 1 DO beo f u 

na f ing o dute 

of al -f tu ibeden hauest 
2432 alls }eo f munneS 

{le % ti passiun, — 

hu Jju deaS drohe, — 

wiB inwarde heorte, — 
2436 in cauer euch time 

f heo to >e cleopien [2470]' 

wi^ lnue 1 riite bileaue, 

ich bihate ham hihcntlicho 
2440 help of heoueneriche.'' 

Heo, wi¥ Jeoa stouene, strahto 

for^ Bwiitliche 

];e snawhwite swire, 
2444 1 cwelS to J'e cwellere 

" Mi lit, t mi leofmoa, 

Icsu Crist, mi lauerd, 

haue^ nu icleopet me. [2480] 



2423 II wuiinimge, B euhc. 2424 R ant, C come, 2425 E Ion, BJie. 2426 G fat, heuene. 
2427 B MtobB, C ajaio, B Bgein. 2423 CBwi«. 2429 E ant. 2430 E ofdutet /or o date. 
2431 R amitt tu. 2432 R >et/or -f.. B ]>e/i»- -p, E mnnniB. 2433 R ant. 2434 K dd?, 
2435 E wis in wi« inwarde (eic), C inwarde {hole in MS.: lower part of e feasting). 2438 
R eoer. 2437 C elepie-B. 2438 it t wi« rihte, B riht. 2439 R lelp for MientUche, C 
hihendelicte. 2440 B hihontliche for help, liettena for heouenenehe, B heouericlie, 
2441 C >is, Eetefne. 2442RBuotS. 2443 B snahwite. 2445 K leonemon. 2446 
E C ih'n. 2447 C omita nu ; iclepet, me to him. 

' C originally virgima. ' C originally soUcillrii. ' inaerta ejfo. * inaerta aulem. 

expectetli nnd longeth for thy cc 

heaven, are coming tomeettliee, with theerownofcooquero. , ^ 

in re^;ard to all that than hast prayed foi. All those who mention thee and thy passion — 
how thOQ eudnredstdeath,— with sincere heart, — at every time they shall inroke thee witJl 
loTB Bad true faith, I promise them help speedily from the kingdom of heaven." She. at 
Iheaa words, sttetchcd forth quickly her snow-white neck, and said t 

IB Christ, my life, my heloved, and my Lord, hat^ n 

> called n 

« him. Now then 



redde expletum quod k tiranno 
acceplati mandatum. 
Mox ille insurgens, decollavit earn. 
Quo ex facto;' due res memoria 
digne' apparuerunt. una quia lac 
pro sanguine in testimonium virgi- 
nalis innocentie de corpore ejus 
effuBum terram uberius irrigavit ^ 
altera quia mox angeli acces- 
serunt. et assumptura corpus per 
altum aerea^ subvehentes in monte 
Synai deposuerunt :' 

qui mona £1 loco oecisionia cjua 
distat itinere viginti et eo ampliu 

quo in loco ii 

1 land era 

2448 Do an Jienne hihentlicho 
■^ te is ihaten." 
% he, as ha het him, 
hef f hatele sweoril up, 

2452 % awipte hire o£ f heaued. 
I f iJke etude, anan, 
iwurSen twa wundres. 
pe an of j^e twa wes, 

2456 f ter sprong ut, mid te dunt, 
mile imenget wi« blod, [2490] 
to beoren hire witnesse 
of hire hwite mei^had. 

2460 pe o?er wes, f to engles 
lihten of heuene, 
% heuen hire on heh up, 
1 heren for^ hire hodi, 

2464 % hiburieden hit 

i Jie mnnt o£ Synai, 

fter Moyses fatte 

f lahe et nre lanerd, [2500] 

2468 from J-eonne aa ha deide 
twonti dahene jong, 
t jet ma, as pilegrimes, 
p wel witen, segge^. 

2472 per nre lauerd wurche^ 

244S C hihendUche. 2460 C Anci. 2451 B heatele, C sword. 2*52 C >iit, R heanflt. 
2463 Cbat,atede. 2464 B iwot«en. 2465 C omiis of be twa. 2456 aptang, R rait, 
C litis, & amiO te, C >e. 2467 R omiti vilS. 246!t B iwitnesae, B wittaesse. 2469 
R hwite (h added from above), C meidenliad. 2460 C >at far fia ; was, E engela (a added 
fnm above). 2461 R iromfar of, B heouene. 2462 R ant, up on heh. 2465 B synay. 
2466 R moises. 2467 C at. 2468 C tram, R heo. 2469 C goDg. 2470 R nnt, 
G And, B jettB, C mare. 2471 B Jie, C mritea eeggen ■[> wel witen. 2472 B fear. 
' Bientoria diijnt transposed. ' aera. ' C ejiia BUppliod on margin ; L omits e/m. 

e bade him, ha lifted np tha 

___ __ ___ .__ ,. _.,_ _„..., , instantly two miracles wcra 

Ono of thom was. that there sprang ont. with the stroke, milk mingled with blood, 
to bear her witness of her pnre vicinity. The other was, that angels descended fron 
hearen. and carried her np on high and bore away her body, and buried it in the monntein 
of Sinai, where Moses received the law from our Lord, twenty days' jonmey from the place 
where she died, and atill more, as pilgrims say, who hare sure intelligence. There our Lord 


dommi fiunt miracuU. 
Inter que et hoc unum inaigQe 
constat miraculum. quod de se- 
pulchre ipsiuB rivuB olei inde- 

ficienter manare videtur. 
Nam et de mirmtia ossibus que 
de sarcofago cum oleo effluunt. 
ubicunque asportantur. salutaris 
olei liquor stillare non desiuit. 
ex quo peruDcta dobilium corpora 
celeriB medicine opem reportant. 
Paaaa est ergo beata EATEHINA 
menssnovembrio.^ vicesima quinta 
die. feria sexta :' bora tercia 
servans videlicet diem et horam 
qua cbriatua pro mundi ra- 

se feole wundres for hire, 

Ah bimong ham allc, 
2476 {>iB ia an of >e heste,— [2510j| 

f t«r rinne^ a 

eoile iliche r 

t striked a stream ut 
2480 of f Btanene >ruh 

ji ha in rested. 

jet of Jie lutle banes, 

J-i' flowed ut wi^ Jio eoile, 
2484 flowed oTSer eoQe ut; [2519] 

hwider se me eauer bere^ ham, 

t hwer se ha beolS ihalden, 

f healed alle uueles, 
2488 'i hotae'S men of each ba 

f rihte bileaue habbe^. 

pus wtnde Jie eadie 

moiden Katerina, 
2492 icrunet, to Criste, 

from eorSliche pinen, 

i Nouembrea moneS, 

>e fif % twentu^e dei, [2530]| 
2496 t Fridei, onont te under: 

i Jie dei 1 i Je time 

2473 H Bwa. 2475 R biraong (g added from above). 2478 E ifl inurted from above, 
C hohBte. 2477 C renne« ai, B a. 2*78 E eoli, B eoUe (i imerleifrom abovi), E riuet. 
2480 R Jib, C >ur!i. 2481 E heo. 2482 E omiW fe. 2483 C is, flowsn. B eoU, B eoilla. 
2484 R eoU. 2489 E -ft hwider, so, C men, E before bereS thi lyllabU be iiottei eut 
and expunged. 24K6 E ant. bo heo, C beon. 2487 C heales. 2488 B ant. 2489 B >e, 
C libt, babben. 2490 E Mb for lie ; edi, C eadi. 2493 C fram. 2464 noaembru. 
2495 E a for \, C dai. 24Se R ant, C fridai, E omiU to. 2497 C daL 
' novewAri. 

worlietb ao many mimclee, an ber acconnt, as no iDonth may recount. Bnt, among them all, 
this is one of the greatest,— that there nmneth oil eTermore alike abundantly, and a. Btream 
rushes ost of the etone cofhn, in which she rests. Also, from the small bones, which dew 
out with the oil, other oil lloweCh out, (which) whithersoever they are carried, and whcreao- 
GTer Ihey are kept, heals all diseases, and relieveth men, who have true faith, and evei; 
distress. Thus went the blessed maiden Eatherine, crowned, to Christ, from earthly psin, 
in the laoath ai Koiember, the twenty-fifth day, and on Friday, about tJie Uiidem : in the 



demptione ad passionem 


properavit : 

cui honor et laus et gloria, et 

potestas est per immortalia secula 


f hire deore leof mon 

lesu, ure lauerd, 
2500 leafde lif on rode 

for hire % for us alle. 

£eo he, as healent, 

iheret % iheiet, 
2504 in abe worlde world, 

a on ecnesse ! 



Explicit vita et passio Sancte KATERINE virginis et MARTIRIS. 

2498 R yety omits deore ; leouemon. 2499 R ih'u crist ure, C ih'u. 2500 R lefde, C B o. 
2601 R ant. 2502 C ase, healend. '2503 C ihered, R writes in heihunge ant in herunge. 
2604 R worldene/or worlde, B worlt/or world. 2505 R aa. 

^ seculorum for AMEl^. 

day and at the time that her dearly beloved Jesns, onr Lord, gave up his life upon the cross 
for her and for us all. May he, as Sayiour, be praised and exalted, in the world ot all 
worlds, ever to eternity ! Amen ! 


4. The same verae St. Jul. p. 9, 

11. CI Jul. p. 13, le refichipe of rom». 

15. R ^es ; the acribe took the toin of his original for a Jwwi. 

23. C by an oironeoua separatioa of letters formB a word derived 
from O.E. earh = cowardly. This is one of the numerous alterations 
by which, however clever, C spoiled onr text. 

27-28. Cf. Jul. 13, of alle ]ie hndes f ]ierto liggi6. 

29-30. Oae of our poet's historical reminiscences. 

67. Aelfrie, Hom. i. 582, renders the same idea by ; l« hi» agenre 
hAfem j ha/en, hdfen meaning property. See also 1. 880 be ^aea tnannes 
haefene, translated by Thorpe : according to a man's property. As 
it is impossible to prove dfen to have been used in O.E, in a similar 
expression, it ia not improbable that our euene became the heir of, that 
is, received the functions and partly the meaning of kafen, when the 
latter came to be disused. 

62. The sense demands hrohten, as referring to the plurals \e riohe 
ie poure. In Z broAle seems to refer to Aw» 61. This construction, 
however, would deprive the principal sentence of ita verb. 

68. Cf. 8t. Jul. 7,feir %/reoUche juhe^e. 

69. C£. St. Marg. p. 2, o/wlite 1 oftcmtum. 

83. ftwi^from O.E. fo!iri=c««(orf!a, quite distinct from i»W {81 and 
elaewhere), from O.E. hirSd=famiUa. In consequence of the similarity 
of these words in our dialect, they must have been often confounded 
with eacli other ; already in O.E. we have a by-form of heard spelt 
hyrd, and hlrid very often appears contracted to kird. 

117, 122. In those versos wo have undertteomen ia two distinct 
meanings. Stratmann only gives as its meaning ewseipere, reprehendere, 
■which would suit 117, but not 122. Here the context requires a 
meaning like to try, tempt. And indeed, in the Latin text, we find 
txperiri, or rather attemptare, answering to it. 

125. Cf. St. Jui. 35, Mi's kii ere/ti froies. 8eei 1. 256 croMnde oreftei. 

124—126. Cf. St. Jul. 43, terenehen sum rihtmu ut of jie weie; Bt. 
Marg. 4, wenehen ut of\e weie. 

138. £ Iwrh : a similar mistake occurs in line 1642. 


140. The Latin text with, sontu demamlH hut's == no!»e, as B has it. 
It eoemB to me beyond doubt that K and C here mutually, though 
iBdependently, altered the text. Evidently they did not know the word, 
which in the time of our legend was already yery rare aad ohsolete. 

145. Cf. 1. 1667, with various readings. The difference between the 
terminationB of -tinge and those of -itide is rapidly disappearing. It is 
known that the &rst iuBtance of their being confounded occurs in. 
the older test of Lajamon'a Brut. 

149. The clumsy-looking inaertion-of this verse was necessary, as 
in 11. 146-47 the cause of the noise had already been stated. 

155. Cf. Jul. 67, (f) iBod he walde ifottr^en; Marg. 7, ffomeh wodh« 
walde iww^en. 

162. The same verse is used in Juliana 7. 

168. U Aire is either the possessive pronoun referring to the follow- 
ing ktorte, or it is the so-called absolute pronoun. Cf. I. 2151 C him. 

169=wounded in heart. Atwi»=O.E. keortp-i Instr. — a case which 
in the documents of the time is very scarce. The same construction 
might have been applied in 11. 608-9 : mode immget inwPS. 

181-2. Cf. Marg. 5, ahef hire keorte heatted uppuford to ye heouene. 

186. \wald might 'he = inwalde, in power. But then tho passage 
would give no sense, and, even apart from this, C seems to hint at 
i{-wald) not being the preposition, hut the prefix ]*-. A similarly- 
worded passage in Marg. p. 5, al f ick itcald ah 1 am of lauerd, does 
not throw much light on our case. There likewise the word in 
question can, by assuming a suitable punctuation, be taken for a form 
of the O.E. verb ^ewealdan. The apocope is nothing unusual in our 
dialect. A few verses below we find it in ne dred ich. 

204. C. This excessive hardening of the old Germanic tie-vowel i 
{remnant of tie-syllable -ata-) is only to be seen in one other place — 
and this curiously enough in the same word bihlodeke — in MS. T of 
the Ancren Hiwle. 

232. For reading C, see note on 1. 1176. 

238-39. Cf. Old Engl. Horn. i. 97, summe iaeead godra gast and 
tifele, and Hali M. 25, as tah ha nefden wit in ham ne tteeire echead as 
mon }taue^ ba of god 1 of uftel; Sawles W. 255, sehad hituhhe god 
ant uuel. 

243. Bf^r seeU. 138, 281, 1642. 

245. tvitUse. Z in correcting the verse destroys the sense. 

252. heoren as genit. is co-ordinated to hia and aire yinge. For 
the vowel see 1. 872. The concluding coosonant might suggest the 
idea that, like other Germanic dialects, Middle English was about ta 
develop a poss. pron. out of the genit. of the personal pronoun. Still, 
it is more likely that we have here a case of the so-called nunnation. 
Cf. the modem prov. own, yown, theirn. That it was C who altered 
the text, we may infer from the inconsistency of this alteration. By 
dropping 1, he tries to make heren inflnitive, without thinking of the 
tie-Towel, which everywhere else he has faithfully preserved. 



255. Cf, Jul. 43, he (]>« deouel) ifint ewek uuel. I might have put 
tte form of R in the text, seeing that maay more contractions of thia 
kind are preserved, not only in U, but often in C and B as well. 

256. BAiw. See 11. 1382, 1738, 1954, 1988, 2017, 2235. Theform 
is very common in our dialect as it ia ia several others. Does the 
concluding -«, like the -n mentioned in the preceding note, mean an 
inflection ? "We find the oldest specimen of the form in the Sason. 
Chron. trader the year 1 123. 

258. See note on 1. 2018. 

268. Cf. Jul. 21. ihoren % iirohtfor^. 

276. ^ is not final, but heads a substantival sentence, yunehe ia 
no doiiht an ulteration. C hote (see 1, 280 C) is a very late form, 
showing that the vowel was already shortened. 

282-3. According to the Latin test, we ought to have iwrahteofnawikt. 
The corruption, if such it is, reaches hack as far as S. Very likely the 
poet intended the following division ; hd dlle ioerhi \ iierdhte of 
ndwiht I 1 i yU wdrld iaette (cf. iwrahie) ia /6r to frdurin I etc. 

288. The Latin original with eonsequentw requires tchulen (C), but 
the conditional sentence in 1. 290 requires schdden. 

290. B maiden, no nunnation, bat a plural, referring to ha. 

298. eeha employed as a substantive, ae ia Jul. p. 35. 

311. swi'Sere. B has the right form of the adverb, if judged by the 
roles of O.E. grammar. 

316. For Mt see the various readings of 1. 273. 

319. As lahe (I. 2467}, O.E. la}a, is never found with ' amiant,' it is 
obvioas that fot is of Iforman origin, and derived from, tiie Latin legem. 

320. To judge by the Latin rationalii, it is not improbable that 
lak« is miHcopied from laJiede, past part, (iadic. 1. 1206). Another 

on would be to derive it from O.E. Idh. 

). The author of St. Marg. translated the same words quern 
Jttdei eraeifixerunt with the same verses. See my disquisition, Anglia, 
V, 101. 

360. )>!< omitted or mutilated to t. 

366. tekafU, old plural gesceafta ? or sing, with anomalous -e, as it 
occurs some pages before. 

871-2. Cf. Aelfred'a Metra, iv. 25, ealla geicea/ta hyra'& \inre 
haese . . . Mian men a/ium, and Marg. 9, 1 halt tine Itedea bate mon 
one. La Marg., as here, the passage has no equivalent in the Latin 

374. Stewrni is literally to ttoie. Stow that is still the common 
thieves' slang for hold your tongue. 

385-90. This phrase is meaningless. Evidently the elaborator 
intended to avoid antiquarian matters. See Latin text. 

387, "^tronont is still preserved in Ijowland Scotch thereanent, which 
means eonceming thai matter. 

396. motUd ia only once more to be found, in Old Engl. 
Horn. i. 205. There it means mediator, defender; ^/et tu heo mi 



motild a^eines mine eoult /on. Hero it Beeme to liave the meaning I 
of tattler. 

416, Perhaps I shonld have left out him in accordance with C, 
and on account of the metre, hamin 1. 414 being conspicuoas enough to A 
serve as object to both verbs {meditn and makien). Cf, U. 866-7, 
where moreover the place of the object is not nearly so conspicnoua I 
as it is here. B's attempt to repeat the pronoun is rather suggeetiv 
as to the reading of our passage. At the same time we are reminded of I 
the contraction heat for hehest, rather common on the following pages 
(see for inst. 1. 536). Bat even asBuming iiberties such as these, the I 
verse remains had. In B, by following the Latin test too closely, the 
words of 11. 417-430 are somewhat clumsily arranged, R tries to , 
correct, but destroyB the Benae entirely. 

423, ilen 1 ienawen hem or hen 1 enaurea beon {1. 2041)=io he or fid | 
eotismoui er convinced Cf. Aelfric'e Horn. i. 510, feeniewe hit mdnei" ' 
eonactoui of and acknowledging his crime. See ibid, 168, 378. Horia I 
aid Blancheflur (ed Lumby) 189-90 i po Florid higan kU eoHiaH j 
icketce And to Dm u beon ikneae=hegan to get known to, etc. ; see ibid. [ 

447-8. Cf. St. Marg. 4, and-o/yi aemli acliape ant of }% aehenf\ 
neUehaft. | 

451, swuti (not in Stratmann) might be derived from O.E. aeedt, \ 
ewijt^troop hand, cf. ewMol, swedtol. Still we have this adject, already ] 
in the form of sutel (1. 381). More probable is the derivation from. I 
twite, cf. sicptnis. B. tputi reminds us of the foreign word [da) • 
gpuiim=to argue, which occurs several times ia the poem. I 

467. On account of the Latin text, I decided on choosing the j 
reading of C. 

476. Ah is oat of place here, for would be better, answering t 
enim of the Latin text. 

477, kali answers better to sanctioris than »6^e does. Still the \ 
copyist may accidentally have hit upon the right word. 

480. me; dativus ethicas. 
484-7. 1 Corinthiana i, 18. 
490-503. Psalm oxv. 3-8. 

507. Even now for why is used besides why ; the latter is ci 
to be the more fashionable of the two, 

513, A good idea, which, aa it appears, had no little influence upon, j 
the poet's elaborating the speeches of our Saint, 

514, ^Im employed transitively meana to tolerate, but to Kait \ 
when employed absolutely. The transitive verb ahiden we have j 
in 1. 2403. 

631. foreaeide, forewenie, neither of these compounds is to be found J 
in Stratmann. 

538. M.E. clergie= knowledge, very common in Piers Plowman, and J 
quite distinct from modom English clergy. The former is derived. J 
&om O.Fr. clergie. Low Latin clerida, the latter from O.Fr. elergii, f 




Low Latin elerieatui. Owing to tteir derivation, the French forma 
hud a different accent. In M.E. presumably this difference was lost. 
Still, in our passage the accentuation is quite in acoordnnce with the 
history of the word. We are forced to read of dlle clergih. "Worth 
noticing is the rhyme elergif : feleeeti in John Audelay's poems, 
ed. Wright, p. 33. As to examples of c?»r^>=mod. cltrgy, we may 
cite Roh. of Glonc, p. 563 ; and Bob. of Brmine, Langt. Chron., pp. 
283, 286. 

545. The Latin text has jueenia. Still, nowhere else can we find 
the word j««j/mj applied to women; it ia doubtless an alteration of 
C's. ^eonfflie, on the contrary, we find twice in tha Anglo-Saxon 
Glosses pnblished hy Bout^rweck in Haupt's Zeitachrift, is. 485, 490. 
In each place it is the translation of pubescena. In M.E., so far aa 
I know, the word is only found in one other place, namely, in 
St. Brandan, ed. Th. Wright, p. 33, meaning young or ralher 
youTig. Tor B putting en instead of of, cf. 11. 547, 819, and note 
onl. 1100. 

547. C him for hire must be explained either as relating to the 
grammatic gender of tnetden, or as the form which we find later on so 
frequently used for the ace. of ha in the writings of Southern authors, 
as Dan Michel and Shoreham. To regard this form as an archaism 
and direct descendant from Gothic, we have a better right than Morris 
(Reader, 1864, May 26, p. 689), as only the genit. im» (or dat. ttai) 
of the Gothic pers. pron. ; hut never could such a form as ija the Aec. 
case explain and be the ancestor of our hise {h)y>. It goes without 
saying that iu this case s must have had the vibrating, buzzing sound. 
Cf. Sievers, Gram. p. 67. Tor on see end of preceding note. 

551-2. Cf. Hali M. 17, t tukiS hire al to wa>idre=and throws 
{drams) her entirely into destruction. 

658. Cf . Jul. 29, for h'>6er m ; Hali M. 43, god^s lu'Stre eie ; further, 
two more passages in this legend, 11. 1234 and 1516, where hi^er 
gtrmo'^e is contrasted with Hate. These passages — together with the 
frequent use in Marg. and Jul. of the word in connection with the 
names of the heathen tyrant, as Olihrius b« lu^ere, Elewsiuihe lu^ere, 
— will give us a fair notion of the moaning of the word. It ia rude, 
eruel, rehntleaa, rather than appalling. 

593. %Bune^, better would be w«bi>B, as on account of the Latin 
omnes, Je aire wiseste must be taken as plural. The conjecture would 
at the same time correct the verse. See 1304 E p wume'S ir —"—■■'• 
Interesting is the close resemblance of a passage in La;. Brut, i 
b« isrt ye rieeheste mon 
pe rixleo'6 on londen 
and )>« aire toiieste 
ye wune% under weolene. 

697-98. Cf. Eomaunt of the Rose 692, 

That Iwaa never ernt er that dag 
Sojolgfnor so leel higoo. 

n estlonde. 
i.p. 122. 



601-2. Cf. Morg, 4, into emarterTU ant into ewalmhui, and Brut, i. 31 
vt o/fon quaroeme 
of fan qualekute. 
Ihid. 160, Hto duden heo in quarterne tn ane qiialehuse. Judging by 
the two last-quoted passages, the guarteme seems to have been nothing 
but a cell in a quaUhiue^ prison or death-house rather (both quale and 
qualm meaning tux, mwi). lu oiii legend and in St. Margaret this 
difference is effaced. 

617. Cf. Marg. swotett to smealhn. 

630. men, I consider to he no more than a dialectal peculiarity oi 
C'b, especially as it governs the singular. See note on 1. 1176, It 
is not quite plain what kind of relationship exists between our me, 
the old man, and tiun ; man and me govern the sinK., men the plural. 
The first specimen of me we meet with, is ia the Saxon Chron. under 
the year 1124. 

632. The regular preterit forms of drehen, O.E. dreo^an, are very rare 
in M.E. This may have been the reason why E, and U altered the text, 
the latter replacing drehen by a word of similar spelling and meaning, 
the former using a weak form, another specimen of which we have in 
1. 1160. But as the plur. pret. only appears as drohen, dro]en, drowmt, 
and (bo far aa I know) suffers no 'umlaut,' the form in question might 
as well be a mistake occasioned by B's eyes straying to the foregoing 
line. As my chapter on the dialect vriU show, the relationship 
between the two verbs drahen and drehen ia anything but clear in our 
text. Their meaning is in many points the same, and their forma 
display almost every shade of the O.E. vocalism. 

635-43. St. Matthew x. 18, 19. 

654. The Latin text seems to require R awed. Still it is unlikely 
that C and B independently departed from their originals in esaiitly 
the same point; not to mention that the words ^urk Jj( wisdom do 
not well agree with the meaning of aweden. But above all it must be 
remembered that there is scarcely an instance of aweden being used aa 
a transitive verb. In Aelfric'a Horn. ii. 510, Mis ^eow-cnapena dn 
icearS yearle awed, where Leo translates awed with wuethend gemaeht, 
the word is simply to be taken as adjective, as in many cases it plainly 
stands for wod. In M.E. the construction is the same. The first and 
only exception dates from a comparatively late period, and leaves no 
doubt concerning its eonstruction. It occurs in lie Owi and Nightin- 
gale 509, A sumere eheorles awede^. However, several lines of our 
poem (aucli as 1. 556, and still more graphically, 1. 1270,) speaJi for 
the wording of the verse. 

669. C with iwmtte=cmverti ia doubtlessly right ; its auxiliary verb 
is heon in 1. 657. This infinitive is co-ordinated to lew'igin 1. 660. 
The translation is too literal and clumsy. 

663-4. The usual conclusion of prayers. Cf. Grein, Bihl. der Aga. 
Prosa, p. I, on teorulda tooruldum ; ibid. p. 266, on eenisM Amen. Also 
in M.E. in frequent use. See EaH JI. pp. 17 and 29; Marg. pp. 7, S 
and 22 ; and Jul. pp. 65 and 69. 




665. See 11.1993, 2415. Cf. Jul. 69, [JV^/rfe ha hutt isiid ima J-af an 
engel nt com; and Marg. 19, Nefde ha buU iieid ilea f ai ^ eor%e lit 
higon to cwakien. 

672. Ci. Jul. 13 ( luilindt hie; and Marg. 9, ant l«iUd« al o Iti*. 

705. In meidngi, in accordance with the old grammatical law (after 
a long root syllable), the intermediate vowel is omitted. In our time 
the law ia more frequently broken than observed. The common 
Epelling is meidenes, deoaeUi, etc. 

709-12. This passage, Kke many others, baa been made use of by 
the author of Juliana. On p. 37 he 'writes : 

Ich hit am qw^ Jia unwiht 
gode» heh eagel 
for ie >f.gge \i \ii 
iient ti from hiouene. 
See my inquiry, Tleber den Verfaeser der Ags. Legende von Katherina, 
Anglia v, 103. 

715. Cf. Jul. 5, feos meiden % teo» martyr \at ieh mutme; antl Uarg. 
2, ]>« meiden ^e w« munnid. 

729. Cf. Marg. 2, \ieosfiondei anfoiter. 

732-4. Cf. Marg. 17, ttrikeii men \iderward \»a^ of eau«r»uch stre/e 
for to eeo pe aeorhe, etc. strik«n=to run, rush, flow, stream (cf. ' u 
stream of people '). The same expression occurs 1. 2479. 

757. Cf. The Gest Hyst. of the Destr. of Troy, 9571, We might 
holly the herre hand hane note for ay. Similar is Sal. & Sat. 500, uS ^at 
he gewendeV, o» ^A wyrsan hand. 

767. an hu>et^»ome or one thing or lehat (in the expression T tell yon 
what or one thing). It is a kind of indefinite pronoun; iutnhwet is 
formed in the same luannier. It occurs once more in 1. 1301. Cf, 
Marg. 5, ah an hioei ieite bu. 

762. naue \u is the indicative mood. The concluding »t, or » ratlier, 
has been dropped, because of the sncceeding dental fricative. Worthy 
of notice is the construction in nay>t to donne hahhen of, etc.~fo have 
nothing to do with, etc., which is nowhere else to be met with. 

786. See Maetzner, Gram, under Inversion of prepositions, ii. 2. 
Same construction 11. 810, 857, etc. 

791. Cf. AncrenB. 96, lete^ hine iwur^en^let him ie, leave him alone. 

792. ontakeH = to begin. Bather common in this sense. See Strat- 
mami, s.v. tahn. 

795. alles, O.E. ealles, of similar meaning to mid alle or tei'd alit — 
altogether, guite. 

797. igreten=to honour, didinguish. See 11. 207 and 220. Cf.Beow. 
tceal manig o'Serne godum gegritan. 
1 800. uleumene-^et^ne from afar, or experts. A compound found 
j nowhere else, as yet. 

801. kepen must hs-^to care, be anxiout, curious, as in 1. 229S, Naiciht 
king ne kepe ich,=I do not care at all, king, etc. For the phtasu 
I see L 2424. 



me = off (C) [je] ;#o(el5 gaHtBl? = which jfoapriiemlittlef There 
is hardly any construction in this and the fallowing sentences. 

817. This line, rendering the words quod ammo oancepit, has, in an 
awkward and sen se-obacu ring way, been apxwnded to a break which 
gave a translation already amply sufficient of the contents of the Lstia 
passage. To judge by the wording of the latter, it is best to tnke the 
verse as co-ordinated with t meatt eon. Still, according to the original, 
it ought to be subject to \ruf (\. 816) and read "h of f he AawaS, etc. 
Another addition patched in a similarly clumsy manner on to a pre- 
ceding sentence, we have m.'X. te deopnesse, 1. 979, which syntactically 
is co-ordinated with dtrfichipe, 1. 977. Still worse is I. 1160, o^w 
dea?6 drehde, which verse, taken strictly, ought to follow closely 
1. 1157.— 11. 818-19 are parenthetic, and I. 820 is co-ordinated with 
cume CTiSe \rof. The word eume[n) just mentioned, ia the sense of 
the usual hicamen^to become, is nowhere else to be met with. 

824. Jlutten (Stratm. jluttc =^ migratio) = to travel, toil, is, in the 
form to jlit, still applied to birds of passage. In Scotland the same 
word meajja to move, change lodging. Cf. Sawle W, 251, ha flutter 
from fe heate into ^e eheaU. 

835. In this and the succeeding lines the reader will easily perceive 
the influence of the Latin style. 

831. Probably here the poet wrote godUe, which was misunderstood 
by X already, so that here we should have a nice antithesis. There 
are many traces of this c unchanged, as the various readings will show. 

853. grapea^ tricks. This word is nowhere else to be found in M.E. 
In O.E. it ia not uncommon. — Galiea is no doubt the old Galen. ' The 
insertion of i is a common mistake throughout the Middle Ages. 
Chaucer also has Galisn. 

854. flit O.'H.G.flh^ zeal, diligence, artifke. 
857. See note on 1. 1327. 

860. nav>t feole is redundant. I fancy the poet forgot to blot out 
those words. 

8B4. It is pretty certain that Z is wrong here. At any rate, and 
without regard to the alliteration, C eadi answers better to beatitudine 
than Itali does. 

866-7. See note on 1. 416. 

870. The division of the verse, which is here particularly distinct, 
makes it pretty certain that the poet wrote dnh or rather dnni. 

872. C, by cleverly inserting of, changes the pronoun heore into a 
substantive, O.E. heorra. In this way, however, the accessory sentence 
loses its connection with the rest of the break. See note on 1. 252. 

873. See 1. 961. I think I ought to have translated: that rightljf 
trust, {have vonfidence) in Mm. Cf. Met. 2699, }e jiisum dr^era/tum long 
lyfdon. To believe in is onlewn in our dialect. There are two mora 
prepositions to be found in connection with O.E. gelyfan, namely, M 
and in. They are not preserved in our legend, gelyfan with simple 
dat. or ace. o. => to belitve. See 1. 1785. 




879. uieorldmen (so I ought to have printed) is already in use ia 
0,E, uieoriildnieTi = worldlings, laymen. 

882. Cf. Marg. U, aire lehefte schjtppmt. 

891. ondm, old ace. Bing. 

892-3. Hearly the same wordB are used by the Devil in Jul. 39 ; 
Joh hit am ^ warp ut 
adam % em 
o/paraise selk^t. 

893. To Judge by the Latin deliciia, selfySen ia no doubt original, 
Comp. itreng^en Sawlea W. 255. 

900-1. Though the words \ah he [a«] lufisre ahte [to lumen] (for a 
siinilar ellipsis see 1. 247) even without the ellipses do not give a satis- 
factory aease, still I believe them to come closer to the original 
reading than C, whose alteration, tlioush clever as usual, is clearly 
shown as eueh by the Benselesa ^ah which he forgot to change for 
^at. As to the wording o£ the passage, a friend has suggested 
that we might translate it as it stands, viz, though he found (lit. 
posaessed or had) ftw] wicked; to find wicked or perveiM being still a 
common idiom. £ut this translation seems to me too much forced 
even for our poet's style. My idea is that the poet wrote lutel 
instead of lu'Sere ; in this way we should get a sensible meaning (see 
my translation). Another and perhaps better suggestion would be 
to put he for he, and to translate ye lufi»re like )>« cweade ia the 
Ancren It. by 'the Evil One.' The meaning of the passage would then 
be ; Though the devil aught. 

901-2. Cf. Jul. 63, liktest hider to ua of heouenliche leomen. See 
my inquiry, Anglia, v. 103. 

908-9. Cf. Jul. 63, t nome hlod 1 ban of ^at meare metden. 

914-5. Cf. Marg. 1, ^e wunede hwil his wille wee bimong worldllehe 

916-7. See note on 1. 1137. 

933-4. Cf. Marg. 9, J>m lerahtest ant weldeat alls worldliohe }ing. 
946. Singular case of the simple particle »e employed in a concessive 
sentence. The common construction will be found in 1. 1310, 
9S1. See note on 1. 873, 
969-70. Wrongly translated. We ought to have 

f he an were 

«(jS godd o^er «o^ rntrn 
979. See note on 1. 817. 

984. goddnesse is nowhere else to be found in the meaning of 
divinity; ioi this reason I preferred the reading of C. Aelfric too 
opposes godcmidnya to menniscnyg ; see Horn. ii. 6. 

985. nt&nnetse ia either a corruption of msnnitcrtys (see foregoing note), 
or is a formation of our poet's own invention, like unhroicliah 1. 1155, 
compared to the old un^rowigendlic. (Comp. Sawie W, 25, untalelich 

I and unyolelieh.) There is no doubt as to its meaning : in 1. 1132 it 
1 plainly renders homine. Though the terminations -itessc, -had do 




certainly lend a different shade to the ■words, we need not trouble 
ourselves about a tautology. Our test is full of them. It ia very 
tempting to think of the modem meanness.' But if it was this, we 
should expect meanneue in B (here unfortunately wanting), and man- 
nssse in C (see my Remarks on the Sound-Laws). C, it is tnte, has 
inannesse, but that a bore is short, is evident from 1. 1 1 32, where C has 
monnesie. Ia C, the short a before n fluctuates between a and o. 

990. }», O.E. )6&, generally anawering to tritly .' verily! here only 
adds intensity to the question = modem Why ? 

994. O.E. Kendan has, besides the usual lueaning, those of lo ehangs, 
framfonn. Here the word appears to mean to form {after). For the 
construction, cf. Andreas 586-8, he gehalgode win of wAtere and wendan 
hit ... . on\d heteran gecynd. 

998. For the omission of the pars, pronoun either as subject or as 
object, either relating to a word or a sentence, compare 11. 458, 1057, 
1319-20, 1367, 1689-90, and the passage quoted from the Bmt ia 
note onl. 1291. 

1000. One of the poet's phrases awkwardly inserted. It ia fre- 
quently met with in the writings of the period. 

1015. E is no doubt original : nan monnet mihte meaaa not the power 
of man. C na monnes is pronoun = no ioi^'*. 

1018-20. nuU{u) is an auxiliary verb to keanin, goveming 1. 1019, 
as an objectival sentence, 

1025. O.F. aalu»r or (with / vocalized) Mituer=to save, redeem. 

1042, This and the four following lines belong closely to the words 
yis an ying, which they suhatantiate. C ^at may be original perhaps. 
Still the accessory sentence referred to can also be considered as 

1054. unweote ^ fool, is a masc. subst. of the weak declension. 
Besides here, Stratm. finds it only in Ancren E. 8, and Maig. 6. Bee 
Grein, Gloss, unwita plur. utiwitan. 

1056. here'&=it penetrates, enters. Cf. 1. 1926/orlS leoren=to p^M' 
trale, project. "We might literally -translate, as it enters their eye. 
See Jfaetzner, Glossary, s.v. hearen. 

1060. Subject wanting; see note on 1. 998. There would be no 
difficulty if , instead of the first vies (I. 1057), we had he. Still, the poet 
evidently intended to introduce 11. 1060 ff. with f he. 

1061-2, C, by transposing these lines, destroys the sense. 
■ 1063. healde R (Z ?), the more archaic form. See note on 1. 705. 

1060-4. Cf. Marg. 1, "i hotnede blinde ^e dumhe % te deaue ant te deads 
arearde to lif ant to komen ; ibid. 20, noteHer halt ne koueret nofter dambt 
ne deaf; and Jul. 63, bit Healdest alls tinheale % te deade of dea^e. 

1065. See note on I. 655. 

1074. That R (Z ?) altered here, appears from the past. part, fnahet 
which it preserved. This oversight of R's is of greater weight than 
the more literal consonance of his men with ab hominihue, the sense of 
which, moreover, ia sufficiently rendered by C. As to ^ette, R (Z ?) 


■witB compelled to use this anomaloUB hrm as, in coaseqnence of his 
alteration, the dirision of the verse waa changed, and one more accent 

1078. Cf. Hali M. 25, and Jul. 55. Maetzner, in his GloBsary, aup- 
pOBSB enawes to be the genit. of a suhat. *tmaw, with the meaning of 
knowledge, witness (?). The meaning is plain enough from the passagee 
referred to^oonfeM, be candid. See note on 1. 423. 

1088. C derffuUieke: thiB compouad is nowhere else to he met with. 
The succeeding; lines show how little the poet understood the syntac- 
tical atrueture of his original. 

1100. In our legend the prop, on is not seldom used for of, e.g. in 

I. 819. This reminds us of similar casea in modern dialects, aa those 
of Wiltshire and Middlesex. See note on 1. 545. 

1106. E. (Z?), as it supplies the proa, he, apparently did not cafflh 
the sense of this passEige. The sentence in question is co-ordinated to 
the one commencing with 1. 1103. Anyhow, C here makes the ira- 
preaaion of being original. 

1120. drihtneeae: this form is not to be met with in O.E., except in 
a very doubtful paasage of the Genesis. See Groin's Gloss, a. v. q. 
In M.E. the word is only found thrice elsewhere; twice in our legend, 

II. 1197 and 1337, and once in O.E.Hom. i. 101, in a document 
which may he some thirty years older than our Eath. 

1122. ido dede is another instrumental=a/ier the aeeompUshing of 
the deed, in deed, in realily. 

1132. See note on 1. 985. 

1137. See 11. 916-7. Cf. Marg. 11, }e arrudde me so redlich of hU 
reowliche rake; rake^patk, power, reach. 

1145. In good O.E. hopian is the only recognized form. 

1155. un^roiBlich is, I presume, a compound of our poet's own 
invention. Aelfrio renders passihilis with yTowtgendlii: ; see Hem. 
i. 120, ii. 6. 

1156. Here, as often before, a(Z?) ia formally older than C. 

1157. The native word for passiun is the almost forgotten prowung. 
See Crist 1130 and 1188. O.H.G. druunga. 

1 156-58. Cf. Jul. 63, }olede»tpine t pasiiun ]nirh giteea read o rode. 

1160. The line shows us a very late form, drehde. We might 
suspect the genuineness of the line. Still it is sufBciently warranted 
by the Latin tnoriig. For the construction, see note on 1. 817. 

1169-70. Though just here R shows ns many proofs of its writer's 
careleaaness, I have no doubt hut that in some points it is more original 
than C. The words wnd^ruo jlmeh is the literal translation of assvmpta 
eamia. Compare U. 1099-1100 and 1208 with the corresponding 
passages of the Latin text. C's alteration is clever, as usual. Still 
the compound underue is unique and of doubtful meaning. This (by 
the way) is one of the few instances in which the use of « for f in 
'anlaut' can bo traced back as far as to X. See note on 1. 2134. 
As to neo^eles, C does not appear to like this word. Whenever it 


doubt, but a g 

occnre, lie altera it to noielea. Here the alteration produces a kind 
of antitbeBiH. But in 1. 1023 it is altogether unjustifiable. 

1171. noiiiinn, a word of doubtful deriyation, meaning misery (?). 

1176. The usual form of the indefinite pers. pron. in C is men. 
See note on 1. 630. From the form man I infer that C believed lie 
had here the antithesis of God and man, bo frequent in the preceding 
pages. The same mistake occurs in 1. 232. 

1180. tmneomelich {mcomprehensibiliK) is, I suppose, like unproieh'ch 
(1, 1155), one of our poet's own formations. It is nowhere else to be 
met with. 

1185. The wording of this passage is very uncertain. I preferred 
C, not as if I thought it more consonant with the Latin text, but 
because it ia at least intelligible. For there are several donbts as to 
its tnistwortbincBB. Nowhere but here does the sufBx to appear with 
its vowel weakened to «. The apocope as applied to the termination 
of the ind, pret. is equally strange, and quite unparalleled in our text 
and various readings. Lastly, the miswritten lies (for Am) gives an 
impression that C was already about to copy a word beginning with 
Against accepting the reading of R, there is only one 
a grave one. "What is the meaning of echrape f The woid 
e else to be found. To suggest its identity with the subst. 
tehrap—trap, gin, cited by Halliwell in his Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words, and, by way of corollary, to suggest hefde, to stand 
for hejte=tied, fa»tened, J had better leave to bolder emendatora. 

1186-8. Here no doubt R represents the reading of the original. 
And indeed the meaning of the Latin passage is here so awkwardly 
rendered that alterations were foreseen. Misled by the preceding sen- 
tence, C believed a pers. pron. he, suppressed as usual, to be the subject 
of the capital sentence. Accordingly, _^«scA^i»iJw could only appear to 
hira as an object governed by drahen. The supply of eawt was a 
natural consequence of the mistake. C, however, was not aware that 
the passage lost in logical sense what it gained in ajmtactical lucidity. 
The construction which our poet intended is quite a different one. 
Flesehiimher is not object, but subject ; and to drahen (for drahenne) ia 
employed absolutely like the gerund in Latin. Morton, with good 
taste, follows R, and not C. 

1 1 94. Here apparently R (Z ?) made a mistake (by hearing wrong ?). 
Still, after all, his reading does not seem unacceptable if we take the 
first to to be the preposition representing the dat. c, and the second 
to be the adverb separated from the verb (drahen) it belongs to. 

1197. See note on L 1120. 

1205. Z divinity, C goodneis. Either may be right. 

1206. Wen=to decide, determine, a meaning not mentioned by Strat- 
mann. In the aister legends the word is frequently used in ' ' 

liil3. arise, like icere, is opt. pret. The defective form artsede (C) 
docs not seem to occur except hero. A similar form is bukde, 1. 2368, 
for which Z writes buke. 



} my Bound-Laws), O.E. the 
I wrong, as we find tlie un- 
text without ' umlaut' ; see 
the alliteration.— w('^ for 
Morton in a note explains 


1247. tint no doubt stands for iind (sei 
e&Tae= splinter, chip, bit. C with dint ii 
disputed form of this word to Ije in our 
11. 1999 and 2050. Compare moreovei 
ferW!^ = against it, Latin text : contra. 

the meaning of tauelin a dint aa to make a move, adding that it is 
an allusion to the game at tables or backgammon. He docs not say 
where he found this explanation. 

1249. ageide. Maetzner (who knows no other specimen of this word), . 
and Stratmaan (who from "Wright's Polit. Song of Engl, and Handlyng 
Synne, cites awes and awe aa fonns of a verb of similar meaning) both 
of them derive the word from Goth, [o/-, in-, v»-) agjan. The Sound- 
Laws show that this derivation ia faulty. Aa is ohvious from the fact 
that g was here preserved, and from its alliterating with a-gdste, godm 
and grace, the O.E. form of it would be a-geien or a-gieti. The mean- 
ing seems to be similar to that of a-gante. I mention, however, 
Goth {ga-) geigan = to gain, win (over ?), which from its form might 
well be the ancestor of our a-gien. As in ageide, ei changes with i in 
in kat^wei, 1. 1692. 

1251. R is right with wersw ; see teten, 1. 1253. 

1254. The form cwich is remarkable for the loss of its inflectional 
consonant, or rather its dissolution in the preceding guttural. In 
ewe^ this loss is quite common. The root-vowel of cwich makes it 
probable that the form is derived from O.E. cwician and not cweccan. 
cwe^ like cwich is hist. pres. ; the preterit form of the same person ia 

1255. iigapede derived from O.E. gipan=^to open the mouth, yawn, 
ia not to be met with elsewhere. A very near relative of it, we have 
in our M.H.G. {an-) -hapfen, see Nib. (ei Bartach), 75 and 1700. 
As the derivation cannot be doubted, I might have put Iigapede in 
the text. 

1262. dul{C)8.ii&duU{Z) ■^s.rt.'^r^t. oi dulUn=tohlunt, dull, are, lite 
their modern equivalents dull and dulled, used both propeily and 
metaphorically. So the text of the Ancren Eiwle, 292, writes dulti 
neilee ; one of the readings however, is diille neilee ; and Lydgate, 
Minor Poems, p. 19, writes, f>i brain is dul; but in the Towneley Myst. 
98, we find » am ner hande dald, so longe have i nappid. 

1265. steuenten — a word which ia not to be met with elsewhere in 
M.E.— answers to O.E. stemnettan, as our steuene (1. 1386) to O.E. 
stemn[e). Grein renders stemnettan (Byrhtno? 122) by to withstand, 
resist. Here it seems to have the more general meaning of to slop {short). 

1268. ttorlich (like its simjile form) meaning strong, heavy, is, besides 
here, only to be found in Laj. Brut. 10647. The adv. here ia best 
rendered by much. 

1284. biieuelet. This compound is not mentioned in Stratra. It 
evidently means to ocm-come, oeerreach, and was, I suppose, originally 
used in playing the game at tables. 


—NOTES, LINES 1286-1338. 

1286. a. J-cil. 71, allilalde bi iale Kotu gfSt Ime. See my inquiiy, 
Mglia, v. 103. Similar is Loj. Brut. iii. 100, J/ ii tak. The ex- 
pre'Esion all told is still in. commoa use. 

1291. bikimet. Halliwell, in his Diet., mentions a modem pro- 
■rincial word kimei^eroK, awry, eilty, which is most probably however 
of Celtic denTatioti. We have the root in Shnkspere's kam ; cf. kim- 
kam, kam^atety from Welsh earn, of which kim seems to ho a weakened 
form. From M.H.G., Lexer quotes the doubtful form erhimen, which 
would pretty well answer to our word. Its meaning is supposed to be 
to become weak, ill, miserable. That the meaning of the M.E. forms 
is a similar one, is evident from Laj. Brut, iii. 47, aeet ^e kai»ere i 
moult he akimed (v. a. dumbs .') weore, amwwe nauer nan ;' no ajof 
^iseen eorlen. The syntactical structure is, I think, satisfactorily 
explained by Maetzner (see his Gloss. B.v. bikimet). He considers the 
auxiliary verb bed^ as relating separately and equally to hlodlet, 
bikimet, and ofotc leolwen. 

1294. onbreken. This compound is nowhere else to be found. Its 
meaning is no doubt that of to begin ; see 1. 2263, where Z has hree on 
and C bigon. The same word anhrecken is used in German ior the 
beginning ol day or night. 

1301. See note on 1. 767. 

1309. irt place =preseat, Schmidt, Shak. Lexicon. We also find in 
pretence ; in public is the nearest modem phrase. 

1311. torn either means tame, and is here used ironically, or it is 
derived from O.E. t6m (O.N. td/nr, O.L.G. tdmi, O.H.G. [wirfnr-] 
B«D»ier)— empty. B replaces torn by aeomen (the same B 1. 1319), 
the meaning of which can bo inferred from Bouterwook's Angels. 
GloBsen, Haupt'a Zeitschr. is. 438, where eertavt is rendered by 
acmam i eampede, and still better from Aelfric's Hom. i. 4, S* 
toweardan coatnunga acumen. 

1313. For the omission of the pere. pron. see cote on I. 998. 

1315. R j#/^ is in perfect accordance with the Latin id. It is very 
tempting to put it in the text, the more so as we should thus improve 
the verse. StiU, the coincidence of C with B weighs too heavily 
to be ignored. 

1316. C motef, Midlandism. 

1319. For reading B, see note on I. 1311. 

13'J3-4. Here C seems to have misunderstood the grammatical 
structure of his original. I should not much object to his replacing 
1 by »e ; hut by putting me for nc, he marred the sense. 

1327. wreo^ien, O.E. wre^ian in its proper sense means to mppoti. 
One would therefore expect the same construction as that used in 
1. 857. R makes use of a refl. pron., but connects it with a verb 
which it does not suit. 

1335. wat, O.E. toUati'^to ga. 

1337. See note on 1. 1120. 

1338, See note on 1. 20G5. 



1348-9, Here again Z, in the terminations, is older than C. 

1359. O.E. WTingan=to torturv, also to siiffer pain, ache: to ache again 
is still said. In our text we find the word employed in both aenses. 
Here it is intransitive, in 1. 2324 transitive, as mid icringinde honden 
obviously stands for mid itorungeiu honden {compare ict'B iipaheuen 
heorte 1. 2373) or terinffindt kare hondm, (c£. King Horn ed. "Wisamann 
I. 114 : wringinde here honde), and ia a contraction of both. 

1362. Cf. Jul. 67, he ham het e^tehfot heafdea bicoruen ; euehfot, douht- 
leBS, means eaeh man, and is the eommon metaphor (pars pro toto). 

1369-70. Already in O.E. the construction o£ {a)hreov!ait is very 
uncertain : Ps. Ben. 40*, me hreowe'6 fiit, ^<tt ic, etc. ; ften. 1276, 
Areaw Hine strp&e ^at he, etc. In M.E. the confusion is greater still : 
Onn. 5566, ffimm reowe}} of Ms a^hen wok. Ancren H. 66, him areowe 
tnf^he he merciful to you ; and here we even have the nom. of the 
person, and the ace. or dat. of the matter. 

1370-1. Compare 1. 1453, where B reads to instead of of. 

1367. An adverb in connection with/alien (with dttt.=(o happen) is 
nowhere else to be met with. But substantives are. Aa for instance, 
Will, of Pal. 324, SwieAe grace may >« falle ; and Alis. Fragm. 490, 
grace you falle (opt.). Hence it ia probable that our feire is a sub- 
atantive, O.E. *f0.gru derived frorafager, as triedu, etretigu, are formed 
from their respective adjectives. 'This suggestion is borne out by 
a passage in Jul., % hire utnunme feire=her extraordinary heauty, where 
feire cannot possibly be an adjective, 

1409-12, Cf. Jul. 67, t ferden aUe martyr* wPS mwK^e to heouene, 
and Marg. 19, ant stihen alle marigre wi^ murh^en to heouene. 

1419-23. The same image we have in Jul. 21, hire lafiams leor 
Uliet ilicnesM % rudi aae rose. — ilitet= coloured from O.X. litr=eolour, 
R we suppose thought of leiten=to bla%e, O.H.G. lougeien. 

1435. "We prefer B to C, because deh agrees better with deorliche= 
preliose, and can be found elsewhere in connection with it ; so in 1. 21 97 
and Jul. 77, where the adverb is quite a similar one. The Latin only 
in appearance supports C. deamliche is quite superfluous, as nocta 
rapienlee is already represented in anihl and nomin. 

1453. See I!. 1370-1 with various readings, 

1484. O.E. emercian^auhridere. Seeing that io smirk is still in. 
common use, it is certainly strange that, except here, the word is 
nowhere else to be fonad in M.E. — so far as we at present know. 

1486. Hlen=io flatter (?) ia not to be met with except hero and in 
Hali M. 3, ae ti ma? ttle^. Stratra. takes it to be a corruption of 
■ O.E. 6lecca!t. Bat as the later forms of this word, here and in the 
sister-legends, are olhnen or olhtnen, this derivation must be rejected. 
Our verse, as well as that in H.M., speaks for its being accented itle'S. 
Still, aa there do occur defective verses both here and in the homily, 
I mention an idea suggested to me, according to which our word ia 

to flatter, to soothe or to entice with faii 
Dictionary, 1658. Cf, note on 1. 2134. 

Hexham's Dutch 


1490. C does not seem to have understood the wok 
His reading is another proof of his conjectural abilitiea. 

1491-2. Cf. Marg. 5, /or al me is an Jim olhnungf ant tin eie. 

1493. Cf. Jul. 15, ich ehalle f he teiti hit Jul teel. See my inquiry, 
Anglia, v. 103. 

1503-6. Cf. Jul. 29, /or nulk (eh hawn Ms iuw f ich on hue ne for 
luug tiefor h'Ser eis. 

1514. The flame image we find in H.M. 33, beo \e cnut ienute ami 
ofwedlae, etc. A similar phrase is stUl used. 

1515. tv>a and tweien are both grammatically wrong. I preferred 
the latter form, aa it is hard to believe that both U and C mutually 
changed the modem form tioa for the oldur tweten. With the fore- 
going une it is just the reverse. B aad C were only too likely t« drop 
this nearly obsolete form. 

1525. A similar effusion occurs in Marg. 4, he it leqflukest Uf for to 
hkin upon ant steoteat to emtallen ne his sieote sauur, etc. 

1530-2. Cf. Marg. 4, for unu7ttr'6 ^et mile f u wel me bed's ^ine toordet 
See my inquiry, Anglia, v. 101. 

1533. eu%» naieit, literally =iM«w nothing, that is, was at kis wits* 
md. See 1. 868, and note on 1. 2212. 

1535. Seel. 2313. 

1536-43. The same phrase is used in Marg 5, and Jul. 17, 27, 29, 
57. See my inquiry, Anglia, v, 1(J1, This scene appears to have 
been very attractive to the author of Jul. and Marg. 

1546-7. Cf. Marg. 4, ant het him hasten into cwarteme ant into 

1560-1. For the Latin ef. multa enim pasaa sum hodie per visum 
propter eum, Matt, xxvii. 19. 

1569. An apparent mistake on the part of the ekborator : ie an can 
only relate to one of the old men, but not lo the Saint, as would 
be expected from the wording of the Latin original. 

1576. httten with the simple infinitive is in accordance with the old 
grammatical practice. Boow. 1792, Geat ungemetes wel rdjhe rand- 
wigan redan lytte. La;, iii. 153, ne lusien (nunnation) heom hidtr 
uaren. Already, in Rob. of GIoc, however, we find a specimen 
exemplifying the construction which came into general use later on, 
Chron. p. 582, App. Aa whoso list to looke may find in hire legion. 

1587. The compound duuelriktes is nowhere else to he found. Of 
similar formation and meaning is duuelunge, Marg. 20. 

1590. Jleide = fugavit, from O.E. jligan, ON. fieuj<*, O.H.G. 
{ar-yiaugan. The compound a-fieien occurs 1. 2398. 

1602. bigan{ffan), with the meaning of to attend to, is common in O.E, 
So Aelfrie, in hia Horn, ii, 74, spiiaks of a hegangan, relating to a 
vineyard. Bo far as we can see, this is the only passage where the 
word refers to a disease. 

\6n. hondhwile (ae^i.l942)=moment. See P. Plowman, B. 19.267. 
To the examples of Stratm. add 1. 7346 of Troy-book (E.E.T.S.). 


1642, The succeeding description of Paradise is an insertion of 
the elaborator's. This insertion agrees in so many points witli the 
first part of the O.H.G. poem colled Himmel und Hclle (Mullenhoff 
and Scherer, Denimaler, xxs.), that it ia worth while here to tian- 
Bcrihe from that poem those pnssages which most illustrate this 
curiouH fact. Compare U. 1642-55 with H. u. H. 11. 13-19. 

Jiiu burff ist gestijtet 

Slit alUr tiuriie meiei 

ediler gei»tgimm6n, 

der himelmereffrimz6it. 

der burgs Jundamenta 

die portaejock die mUre 

da% »int die tiuren tleina; 
11. 1656-62 with H. u. H. 11. 85-44 : 

Siu ist m iro ifrdnon 

das rdtloheidnte golt; 

Siu ist in ffoldes seiitil 
tamo doe durhUehte glat 
alliu durhacouwig 
joh durhlAter. 
U. 1664-79 with U. 45-66 : 

J)d uriss^t al ein anderen 
die himiiiigen erhen 
die die hurg i&ent 
in durhak67tm tugindan 
dn alter miitetAte pjUga. 
Dd rtcki>6t din mtnna 
mil aller miltfroteida. 

Ddns habet reatl 
der engilo vrdnank 
daz tuozze gotei leunmhh 
din geittliche mendi 
der tcundertiuro blmentdank 
aller gotet woUno 
dd ist dat zieriste here 
allm in einhel. 
withU. 81-96: 

3a itt alle» guotes uhergmwht 

tnit siehenno habenne, 

der dumoktette trtSst, 

diu meiete tigira. 

dd nist forektdne nieht 

niehein miuehebeda. 

dd iet einmuott, 


U. 1723-5 withU. 

aller mamminde meiat, 

der ttillitte liut, 

diu sich«rt rdtca. 

da i»t der goten friuttdo 


d& nitl »und6ne itat, 

sorgdno wixtede. 

dd niat ungesundes meht. 

heile meitt i»t ddr. 

I>a% iat dai fiireile guol 

da% der tore gegarawet tit 

gates tr&tfrivnden 

mil into le niezienne 

iemfr in iwa. 

I Bttoiild not fail to mention that there are Bonie passages of the ' 
Apocalypse (they are easily found in the Notes to the above-mentioned 
edition of ' H. und H.,' and the rest of the ahortar O.H.G. documents) 
■which ore used in both poems. Still, these few passages can in no way 
explain the great number, and, what is moro important, the succession, 
of the coinciding passagoB, and we are thus compelled to assume the 
existence of one and the same (presumably Latin) original, of which the 
parts in question of the German and English poems are elahorations. 
For, though the use of a German writing by an English author in 
those early days would not be unprecedented, there is no sign in the 
wording of the legend which proves this to he the fact. As striking 
as the wording, is the similarity with regard to the metre. But though 
up to the present 'H. n. H.' is the only German poem in which the 
so-called Otfridic metre is employed unrhymed, still we are far from - 
considering this as a proof of plagiarism. The fat* of early German 
literature has been BUch, that it is but too likely that our ' H, u, H.' is 
the only poem of its kind lucky enough to have escaped the freijuout 
wholesale destructions which, as we have no reason to douht, robbed 
ns of the best pari; of our early literary documents. 

1642. Cf. 'H. u.H-'Jary; Jwr ia an alteration of Z. See note on 1. 243. 
1647-8. Cf. Marg. 9, ateappre yene sUorren ant ^ene fimataxea. 

1655. mneate= purified, pure. Cf. Tlds!^ 91, amaetea goldeg. The 
same phrase in El. 1309, and Sal. and Sat. 15. In M.E. the word, besides 
here, only occurs in Marg. 11, aire gold smeateat. C sme^e=amooth 
less befits the situation. 

1656. O.E. stttman^to aet with atonea, as Bwords, rings, and the like. 
Here it means to pave. 

1660. inmahet is nowhere else to he met with in M.E. It is the past 
pari;, of O.E. atnacigan, which in Bouterweok's Glosseu (Haupt, 476) 
answers to demulcere=to smooth, make plain. The same word apparently 
we have in the slang »moek-face=heardleaa, ejfemitutU faee. C iame^et ; 
because of the preceding and succeeding sm^e, sr^Seai can scarcely be 



considered aa original, though in a metrical respect it would be pre- 

1662. »he=m»d, dirt{1), ia, except here, only to be found in 
PaUadms oa Hiisb. 2, 152. 

1665-6. This phrase is in great favour with the authors of the 
period. See for inst. Marg. 23, Jrar Ao *eAt'neS seoumtaltl achenre \ffn 
ye sunue. It is likewise made use of by tho authors of Hali JI, 
Ancren R. and Sawle "W". (263). 

1667. Cf. note on 1. H5. 

1674. A singular compound, which reminds ub of O.E. Uqf-llf, 
translated by Groin by belomd, amiable; houie= loving, lovtr (moiiem 
lovy ?), wanting in our dictionaries, is nowhere else to he found than 
here and in Hali M. 27, moni \ing ham schal twinnen 1 tweinen ^at la^ea 
leouie men=many a thing that lovers loathe tkall separate and diewtile 

1690. I do not know what to do with reading Z, though it 
evidently cornea nearer to the original (alliteration) than that of C, 
who, as be did once before, replaces the word unknown to him by one 
picked at random from the surronnding lines. Cf. note on 1, 1665. I 
now feel qnite sure that R writes hatewil and not hatewil. What is 
the meaning? Docs it mean that which hates or abates the will or 
wish? StiU, it is an adjective and not a substantive. There is no 
snch word or form as hrate. 

1691. B no doubt ia right. Similar grammatical alliterations, aa 
we might call tbem, were in gi'oat favour already in O.E. times. 
"We find the word siceet riiymed in each degree of comparison. Ancren 
E 102, swote % Steele ; ibid. 398, and Marg. 1 1, swotest 1 sicetest. 

1699. The same old and favourite phrase we find in 1. 2474. Cf. 
Marg. 6, mare f era eni mw^ hit cu^e miinnen. 

1709. oreost, O.N. orkostr, a word imported by the Danes, 

1712. oht not derived from dm/d, but O.E. aht=dignus, leorthg, good 
(Lat. text boni), in contrast with noht wur^-^ nothing worth (Lat. text 
mali). This a, notwithstanding its shortness, is, as here, often found 
with ' umlaut ' o. 

1722. hure, O.E. huru=»Ull less. 

1724. C makes use of the modem analytic dative. 

1728. teileweme— cheerful. 

1740. ivmnet here must have the n 
the same, as in 1. 67a, where w«n 
irom O.E. wieian^to dwell, rem 
Bnperflnous, it even spoiled the metre. 

1743. Objectival sentence governed by triten. 

1749-50. R'a alterations are clever. Still, the use of the transitive 
B meaningless. 

1751. This is ono of those passages proving that even X was not 
I the poot's own copy. Following both tbe Latin original and the nn- 
I disputed words of the English text as closely as possible, I bare 

e my best to render the line intelligible. 

ing of lo stop, stay, remain, 
B opposed to a}ein teulle^. iwiket 
C'a emendation was not only 


1770-2. Cf. Jul. 55, T> his sulliche sun* ihem oriit hatte 1 te hali 
ffaet, etc. 

1773. Cf. Jul., beo/Aam ha glided and Marg. 2, f fflit of inc ba'Sm. 

1779 ff. Cf. Old Engl. Horn. i. 219. 

ha hdlt mid his mihU 
he/ene and aor^e 
and alh fmeefte 
huten jesmcinee 

1785. See note on 1. 873. 

1798. haue'S ia one of those late forms whiph are so frequent in C. 

1803. From O.E. dyttan=to stop, close, O.H.Q. dutam (Otfr.), 
M.H.Oi luteen. The simple form occurs Ancren R. 82. 

1827. Uoh{e),iromO.'E. MhiOM-d. luog^specia, cubilef The deri- 
vation is very doubtful. Still we have reason to believe that our Uunet 
hohe is literally, laht of lions, because the Vulgate of Daniel vi. 7 has 
in lacum leonum. See la^e^lah, m Stratra., and cf. Coventry Mysteries, 
ed. Hallivell, p. 387, into the lake of lyonys to Hant/el the propkeie. 
This derivation would give us another eo for O.E. d. lafe=la/ce, it a 
true, occurs nowhere else as leohe I The usual forms are laie, hie. 

1832. The compound drihtfare occurs nowhere but here. 

1841. wel standen^ to resist, standfirm. 

1850-51. Cf. Marg. 21, mt tu art eadi . . . . ant alle >«i ^ }wh Jw 
schulen iiirnm to me. 

1852-54. Cf. 11. 713-14. 

1865. teilre, on account of the initial, might be right, though in 
this very passage the alKteration leaves much to be desired. Still I 
preferred Z, as the word does not occur except in compounds sueh as 
selficil, wilomeme, etc. We may add that Leo regards this syllable 
-tail- as an old substaative no longer used in the simple form. 

1870. Z or C, either may be right. To cure, Maetzner attributes 
the meaning of ehoiee, decision. The latter, or rather resolution, would 
be the meaning required in our case. C shows ewren as a verb (Inf.), 
the past part, of which we find in 1, 75. Tautology we have in one 
reading as in the other. 

1887. C shows the ethic dative. The ordinary dative however is 
to be preferred, as the description of the torments without any indica- 
tion as to their object must seem strange. 

1901-2, page 94, line 27 &., see Esaias xl. 6 : Omnis cairo fomvm et 
gloria ejus sicutjloe agri. 

1908. on heh when connected with verbs of motion=itp to {thf i 
emperor's seat, throne). Cf. I. 2462 and Jul. 37, on heh in hire heart* ] 
[^ha] eleopede to eriite. In U. 1977 and 8 it is replaced by up and 
up toteard. When conueeted with verbs of rest, it ia to be translated 
=abovt, as in 11. 2023-4, ^e cwen stod eauer atille on heh = on her 
elevated seat, throne. Cf. adun, I. 2028. 

1913. B agrees better with the Xat. text than C does. Even the 
blunder in E hints at B being original. C, which does not seem to ■ 


underetand the meaning of oht, is as before (see IL 1712 and 1716) 
forced to make an alteration. 

1917 ff. This passage offers the atrongest proof that the author of 

IJnl. knew and pirated our legend. Cf. Jul. 57 f. : 
t lette o wodi wite 
a awPSe umnderlieh hweol 
meten 1 makien 
ant ^urhapitien kit al ^^B 

toi'S spoken t felien ^^M 

]>icke t ^reofali ^M 

uii% irnene gadim ^^| 

kens to keoruen ^^| 

al pat ha rinen to ^^| 

. . . ^hvtoUfl komen 
swingen hit swifthohe 
1 turnert hit abuten, etc. 
See my inquiry, Anglia, v. 104. The Latin passage corresponding to 
this minute description consiata of only a few words. 

1919. It Aweol, an old plural, which only metrical considerations 
prevented me from putting in the text. See 1. 1991 R; in 1. 1928 
the poet evidently wrote ye hweol and heon. Z here did nothing hut 
render the plural more discernible. But C, considering hweol to bo 
sing., altered both article and verb, 

1921. padie(n) is nowhere else to be found except here and Jul. 57. 
A form ftiUy answering to it does not occur in O.E. It best agrees 
however with O.E. gdd, the modem forms of which are goad, gad. 

1924. preones. Cf. &en. and Es. 1872, Bold prmea % rtnges. O.E, 
predtt, OS. pr}6n=point. 

1933-4. Here C agrees better with the Latin test than Z does, 

11940. tohwi''6eret is more literally foreihly whirled in pieces. To 
whither is to hurl teith a whitstiTtg sound, to whiz. See gtthedirand in 
Barbour's Brace, ed. Skeat, 17. 684j where Hart's edition has whid- 
igring. The word refers to the rapid whir aud whirl of the swiftly 
revolving wheel ; it is onomatopoetie and very expressive. 
1942. For hondhwile see note on 1. 1617. 
1948. Cf. Jul. 19, tw/w tintreohe }at je me make iimhrin. 
1951. ivntnet bclI. to ganne or eumenne. A liberty, which as a rule 
is restricted to auxiliaries, is here conferred upon a simple verb, reue 
commonly answers to the Lat. prefeetus (comp. legends of Jul. and 
Marg.) ; here it renders yretor. The whole passage ia very carelessly 
^m translated. 

^H 1954. hiHemote{s) occurs nowhere else. Here the old mtena^emot 
^H Tould be in its place. 

^^^ 1955. The poaition of the wheels is evident from the Latin passage, 
^^B which upon the whole is happily rendered. I except lino 1958, 
^^1 vhich mars the sense of the whole, and had better have been left out. 


1968. iffrerSet reiexatogin, 1. 1955. 

1971. amidhapee. The rule that O.E. y is u or I in Katt. appears to 
be broken here. The latter part of the compoimii is not derlTed from 
O.E. ^«dy=modem heap as should ba expected, but from O.E. hyp» = 
hip. Decisive as to the Hhortness of the vowel, is Jul. 69, amidheppet, 
and decisive both as to vowel and meaning, Marg. 10, »toa f hi» {^et 
draken) bodi toharH omidheppes. Here the word cannot possibly be 
translated other than in the middle (centre) of the body. Por tbe forma- 
tion, compare the modem amidihipi. 

1973-4. This is another of the so-called grammatical rhymes. It 
occurs once moie in Marg. 6, rondin 1 rendin. 

1974. reow'6/ulliche occurs only once more in Marg. 4. Its descea- 
dant ruthfully is still in use. 

1977-BO. Cf. Jul. 37, ttilU bate tteauene on heh in hire heorte cleopede 
to mete, and Marg. 18, ant heo hiheold up on heh ant cleopede toward 
heouene. See my inquiry, Anglia, v. 104. 

1981-2. Cf. Marg. 7, ant ou^ ^i mahte on me almihti godd. 

1989. mate adject, or past part, of maten, O.P. mater-ir-^to over- 
ihrmv, conquer. Cf. Ancren R. maten 1 oueroammi. 

1990. Cf. Marg. 22. emat emertliche adun. 
1992, Here, as often before, E ia good and old. 

1995. The compound afluhte= flight is nowhere else to he met with. 

1996. Jletmin{de) is unique likewise. 
1998. Cf. Morg. 20, m ^ah a }unre dunedt. 

2018. aeangien (see 1.2081), which occurs nowhere but in our legend, 
is derived from the more frequent adject, oang (1. 256) =foolieh, mad. 

2021. My reading, I hope, comes nearest that o£ the original, 
C, I am afraid, made use of his old expedient (see drupent 1. 2022) ; 
and durcninde, though Stratm. shows that dearatien sometimes appears 
in this form, cannot be right, as the vowel would not at all agree with 
the changes ea underwent in other words of the legend, drucnin, as 
■well as drvpnin, mean to be cast down, to be dejected. For tJie vowel 
ui for a, see 1. 1644 C. 

2019. The compound mondream ia nowhere to be found but here 
and in Laj. Brut. 23945. 

2022. Cf, Marg. 16, drupett aire }inge. 

2035. The subject must be supplied from 1. 2023, 

2027. b« j«< is probably n mistake of Z. See 11. 2258 and 2094, 
There is, however, some reason to believe that the sentence introduced 
by y> }et was meant by the elahorator to be relatival, similarly to the 
construction in the Latin. It is certainly suspicious tliat ha in R, and 
na in B, are wanting. The fullness of C's reading would then be 
another proof of hia sagacity. 

2028. don with refl. pron. =to betake one's ielf. Cf. Ancren R, 
Stdmide^ one a]ean ]w ueonde t he de'S htm o fluhte translation of 
Reeiatite diabolo et Jugiei a vobis, Gaw. 1305 So dot hire forth at f« 
dore. Still in nse ; cf , Mark Twain, A Tiamp Abroad, ii. 7 (Tanchnitz 



^^^ ' auela 
^B Bothi 

ed.), he did himtelf away, etc. For adun see on keh I. 2024. See note 
on 1. 1908. 

2080. Thia line contains the greatest puzzle in the whole text. 
How came C and B in o uot, net to agree with each other ? Did K 
guess, or preserve the true rending ? That it ia true, seems doubtleas. 
Even now over is in common use in connection with th^e and hm-e, 
and, though in this case it ia necessary to change the adverb of 
repose into one of motion, its presence here, aa in many similar cases 
of tautology, may he easily acoountcd ior by its emphasizing the 
following pid^wardes. At any rate there was no occasion whatever 
ioi the poet assuring us that the queen went to her husband on foot, 
and not (let us say) on horseback. 

2033. Here C probably gives the original form of the word. The 
phrase is typical already in O.E. See 1. 601 hludrg ttefne. Cf. however 
Marg. 22, ^ide lude ate/he and Jul. 65, feiden lud iteuene. 

2038. Cf. Marg. II, f hahfulle teurm ant $ bittre beet. 

2041. See note on 1. 423. 

2045. Notwithstanding the Latin ehrUtianorum, ehridenes is cer- 
tainly not plural, — the gen, of which would be oAriiiene in our dialect, — 
bnt the gen. sing, of the fern, gender, and relates to the saint. For 
more examples, see my Introduction. From other documents I quote 
Ancren R. 70, Summes kurteisie M no^eleoi itv/md hire to uuele. 

2056. fiorlieh adject, employed as sahf,i.=wonderful, horrible tight, 
wonder. Cf. Will, of Pal. 3280, Moohefole himfolwed thatfsrU to behold. 

2065. The shorteat way to get out of the difficulty would be to 
omit to. As, however, both M8S. (Z) agree, and as, moreover, a 
construction of kennen very similar to this (namely, with ace. and the 
prep, til, cf. Maetzner Gloss.) can be found, I ahatain from any 
alteration whatever. C took the easiest course in omitting to, and so 
producing the more common construction, in which, for instance, we 
find the word in 1. 1338. That cnawe^ wants an object (it ia to be 
supplied from to him) is nothing out of the way, considering the loose 
syntactical structure of the poem ; in 1. 1774, for instance, ham muat be 
supplied from of ham t. 1773. There are many more examples of this 

2092. ieh sohal muat be supplied from 1. 2090. See 1. 2097. C and B 
dropped the termination of the infinitive, as they do in 11. 2098 and 2100, 

2092-3. Cf. Jul. 13, ieh schal leote wilde dear to (uken 'i to teore ^a 
\ jeoM yifleachfode to fuheles of the lufte. 

2094. See note on 1. 2027. 

2130. E and B, each in his own way, try to bring order into the metre, 
B by displacing the words, B by considering the indefinite pron. me aa 
implying a plural, and so bringing the verb up to throe syllables. 

2134, ules for Jieech, as the common spelling is. For u instead of 
/ in 'anlaut,' see note on 11. 1169-70 j « is often put for sek in 
' aualaat ' in MS. T of the Ancren Eiwie, and ia the rule in Kentish, 
Both peculiarities of spelling are traceable back to X. 



2150-1. Cf. Hali M. 5, ^ trwkie for a man of lam )« Kevmliek* 

2151. C Mm, the abs. pron. so common in modem dialects. 

2178. Cf. Aelfric's Horn. i. 450, and him nfan mid iaenum ffeaf«m 
'Sffdon, ete. The iron fork seems to have been a favourite instrument 
of torture. It is likewise referred to in Marg. 6, and in Sawie W. 

2180. stceorutn" to ucerve, ascend, nowhere else to be found in this 

2196. As the Lat. text has sepelivit, and the concluding n of the 
piet. plur. is preserved in our text without exception, hibiirieden must 
be wrong. The mistake is eaaOy explained by the context. 

2204. There is a phrase in Germ an similar to this i we might almost 
literally translate d^en man e» avf den tap/ sunagle. 

2205, leaden (like dreien in the following line) refers to ded'Se. See 
notes on II. 2213 and 2278. 

221 1. hvffe old gen. plur. The usual form in the wxitinga of our 
period and dialect is kingene. 

2213. leaden here and in 2318 must have the meaning of te lead 
aioay prisoner. I do not know if this ellipsis occurs anywhere else- 
See notes ou 11. 2205 and 2278. 

2214. Lowr. Derivation unknown. Stratmann's explanation is too 
hazardous. See however 1. 2403, where E. writes hw hwer. Lour 
occurB once more in Ancren E. 1 52, Jch here goldhord ; lour hit h»- ! 

2214-6. These lines are the translation of the Latin words printed 
in italics on jv^ge 111. This is the only important transposition 
occurring in the elaboration. There is throughout the whole, no other 
evidence compelling us to assume that the poet read the Latin text 
over before he began to translate it. 

2223. "We prefer C on account of the alliteration. 

2243-4, C3. Marg. 19, strecche forS fi >iieire sehttrp sweord io 

2247. alk clme; see 1. 2265, and Old Engl. Horn. i. 231 alU Blone= 
all of them, all without exception. We have a similar phrase in German 
rein alle based upon the same idea ; rein=chan=^elane. 

2258. See note .jn 1. 2027. 

2263. See note on 1. 1294. 

2273. gabben, O.E. gahhan, O.IT. gahba=to gcoff, deride, taunt, very 
frei^uent in M.E. from gahhe (see 1. %237)=insult, boastful word, taunt, 

2276. ctrfi ieudd. These words are, especially in later wTitingH, 
often confounded with each other. The literal meaning of the phrase 
is tnown ai famous. Cf. Ancren R. 342, alle cudd 1 cv^e sunnen. 

2278. The meaning of leaden we can easily infer from the saint's 
answer, 11. 2298-9. It ia, to keep in suspense. For aught I know, the 
word ia nowhere else to be found in this sense. See notes on U. 2205 
and 2213. 



2288. That C altered the text here, is evident from agrisen, 1. 2285. 

2292. Already in O.E. {un)dea'6Uch and {un)deadlieh are used ag 
synonyms. C£. Aelfric Horn. ii. 186, ^<st dn deadlle man tnihte eahie 
middaneard o/ereeon, and King Alfied'a Anglo-S. versioQ of Boethius, 

I the original 
i that between. Germtm toedlioh 

O.E. feor and fpr ; Jinttn, which 
delay, oocurs once more in 1, 2;j67, 
ing with O.H.G. neijan^la 

ed. by Fox, 80, 30, liilk 
difference to have been the sam 
and st»rhliek. 

3298. For kepen see note on 1. I 

2299. fir. Comparative of feot 
is employed here in the sense of tt 
where it appears to have the a 
tpart, show indwlgenee. 

2304. C MDa is auperfluons ; f by itself can imply a final or cou- 
Becutive relation. Cf. II. 344-5, ^ alle oioer leatunges beo^ unlefliche. 

2314. Z is meaningless, unless we have here one of our modem 
ellipses. Ah however, if such were the case, the direct speech should 
have been used in 1. 2315 as well, the reading of C must be considered 
as original. Cf. Jul. 31, Ah hehte twi^e don hire ut of hu ehsih'Se. 
This passage, whether pirated or no, throws sufficient light upon the 

2316-7. uteiei'S, standing for the usual mrSuim. barre{}i)'=har, 
turnpike, is a very free translation of porta. 

■ 2318. See note on 1. 2213. 

2324. See note on 1. 1359. 
2329. treondlm, a very scarce derivative from O.E. trendel=circh, 
hall, top, meaning to turn, to fall in turning. Cf. Owl and Ifight. 135, 
Jej ^pel trendli from Jion ireaws. See Kares's Glossary, by flalliwell 
and Wright : to trend, v.n. To turn in an oblique direction : a nautical 
term chiefly applied to the direction of a coast, which occurs still in. 

• the journals of seamen. ' to trundle a hoop ' is common everywhere. 
2330. bitoe-nde ioi bitBente=tiirned round, back. 
2338. bale bere=lainentaiilia planetm. here might surely he the 
same word which we find in WiUiam of Pal. (see &loss.), and which 
there means noise. But, not to mention the possibiiity that our bere, 
meaning here and elsewhere doleful features, may later on have de- 
veloped the meaning of noise, I think it wrong to give up our word, 
, the extraction and meaning of which is so certain and well testified. 

If or a word the derivation o£ which is wholly unknown up to the present. 
2349. mi refers to wunne, as much as to me iweddet. The construc- 
tion cannot be imitated in modem EngHsh. In German it would be : 
mein mir verlobter. 
2391. Here again C largely altered the text. See Latin original. 
2398. For aflei, see note on 1. 1590. 
2401. To judge by its form, hete might be O.E., either the same or 
ft&fo; fortunately for ua the same phrase is used in Laj. Brut. ii. 446 ; 
and as here liste rhymes with mete=meat, food, it is plain that our hete 
means hatred. 


2403. See note on L 2214. 

2416-7. Cf. Jul. 37, torn t\Uni« adun softs from heojtene a stettene 
yst Slide, etc. 

2424. Same phrase 1. 801. 

2448-9. Cf. Marg. 22, do nu hro^ir hihentUche \d te is ikatm. See 
my inquiry, Anglia, t. 102. 

2474. See note on 1. 1699. 

2478. riw=lurgely, derived from O.E. rif, O.H". rifr. The aflj. 
riff=general, universal, is still in nee. 

Interesting, though somewhat loss enthusiastic, is MandevU's de- 
scription of this miracle. He writes : And besydt the highe Ateti»r«, 
3 degrees efheighte, is the Fertre of Alahastre, where the bones of Seyntt 
Kateryne iiyn. And th^ Prelate of the Monies leheieethe the Relykes to 
thePilgrymes. Andmthan Instrument of Sylver, he frotethe the Bones ; 
and thanw tber gothe ovt a iytylle Oyle, as thoughe it tcere a manor 
swetunge, that ii nouther lyehe to Oyle ne to Bawme ; hut it is fuUe 
swete of smelh : And of thai thei jwen a Utylle to the Pilgrymes ; for 
there gothe out hut Utylle qttantHee of the Lihour. See Voyage and 
Travftile of Sir John M. edited by J. 0. Halliwell, page 60. 

2479. Bee note on 732-4. 

2496. under, O.E. undem, O.L.G. undorn, undem, Goth, undaums, 
O.H.G. untarn, the time from nine to twelve o'clock in the morning 
(Stratm.). Still, according to the Gospel, our Lord died hetween the 
6th and the 9th hour, i.e. between 12 and 3 in the afternoon. 

^^^H isi ^^^^^^1 


The cnmnt English meaning ace printed in italia. The aateriak (•) repreeeniB H 
words and lorme not occurring in the text. The astarislted Itej-worda are taken ^1 

from the Titrious readings. ■ 

a, a, an, one, 65, etc.; an, 21, etc. ; 

adweschen, inf., to annihilate, 948 ; 

aiie 2, 99, etc. ; anes, 73, 548, 

adwescbte, pret. aing., 1190. 

591, 1048, 1283, 1959, 1961. 

alellen, inf., to overthrow, 690. 

a. 8ee<m. 

aflei, imp., from *afloien, to drive 

a, always, (/w ever), 277, 664, 

away, 2398. 

1668, 1680, 250.5 ; aa, 136, 

aflubte,/i?A(, rapidity, 1995. 

1480, 1497, 1629, 1701, 1704, 

agaate, pret. Biiig.,from *ugaBten, 

1754, 1856, 2169, 2165, 2294, 

toantate, 1249. 


ageide, pret. sing., from *ageiL'n, 

aa. See a. 

(oow»(?), 1249. 

Abacuc, noun proper, 1826. 

ajein, againit, back, 152, 172, 178, 

abad. See abide. 

401, 564, 571, 606, 643, 730, 

aber, pret. sing., from *abooren. 

941, 945, 961, 962, etc. 

to tolerate, 1544. 

aieines, agaimt, 651, 761, 1585, 

abide, 1 p.Bing.preB.,/j-om*abiden, 


to abide, await, 2403 ; abad, 

ajeinward, hackwardn, 2319. 

pret. fling., 718; abit, 3 p. sing. 

agrisen, to thudder, 2285. 

pres., 2422. 

ah, 3 p. to have, be obliged to, 352, 

abuten, about, round, 1366, 1644, 

523, etc. ; aheat, 2 p. sing, proe.. 

K 1733, 1932, 2008. 

540; ahte, pret. fling., 247, 900; 

ahten, p]., 261, 293. 

H *acangien, to get mad, 2081 ; 

ah, but, S, 19, etc. 

^ acanget, pp. 2018. 

ahest. See ah. 

acomen, overcome, 1311. 

abne, own, 408, 905, 1104, 1205, 

acwellen, to kill, 1808, 1868. 

1258, 1822. 

oA, firt, pyre, 1356. 

aJiongeden, from *8hoagieii, to 

Adam, 884. 

hang up, 329. 

adeadet, pp. from *adeBdea, to 

alit«, ahten. See ah. 

mortify, 2020. 

ahto, cattle, urealth, 143, 199,231, 

adredde, pp. from •adreden, to be 


afraid, 1336. 

akaste, pret. sing., Jrom 'akaBten, 

^L adim, iJEww, 772, 983, 1190, 2028. 

to overlhrote, 1124: akast, pp. 

^B aduneward, <j(wnteari^, 1996. 1232. H 

^H ^Hi^^l 

^H akennet, pp. from *akeimen, to 

arearde, pret. sag., from •aroaren, 

■ hear, 330. 

to rear up, 1060; arerde, 1111. 

■ al, «;;, 101,131,etc.; alle, 29, 35, 

areaw. See^Kow. 

■ eto. ; aire, 253, 302, 422, etc. 

areow, imp., from *areowen, to 

■ aide. 0^ 1184, 1371. 

pity, 1452; aieaw, pret, sing., 

H aldroQ, parmU, 883 ; aldrese, 81 ; 


^ ealdrene, 100. 

Hierde. See arearde. 

aleset, pp. j^ont *ale8eii, to redeem, 

ariht, righHy. 1725. 


alesimge, redemption, 1H7. 

arisen, inf., to arise, 1218, 2290, 

aliS, from *aliggen, to decay, cease, 

2293; arieelS, imp. plnr., 1592, 

1628, 2163. 

arise, pret. opt., 1213 ; araa, 

Alixandre, Alexandria, 16, 1555 ; 

pret. sing., 837, 1111. 

AUsaadres, 47, 586. 

Ariatotlea, Ariitotle, 851. 

alle. -Swal. 

aromaz, arojnatio ointmnt, 1599, 

alles, entireh/, 795. 


8lmiiiti,oif»i>A^,986,1094, 1778, 

art. See beon. 


arudden, inf., to rid, free, 1137; 

aire. See al. 

arudd, pp. 916. 

alBwa,jtM^iro, 286. 288, 1961. 

as, as, 3, 29, etc. 

alwealdende, omnipotent, 618 ; al- 

ase, like, 31, 1674. 

weldende, 1067 ; alweldinde, 

astearde, pret. sing., from *aste- 


aron, to reeuscitate, 1043. 

am. See beon. 

aawikeS, 3 p. sing, pres., from 

*aawilcen, to cease, 2157. 

execrate, 2070. 

a«ct, till that, 719, 1305, 1803, 

amid, in the middle, eentre, 1467, 


1971 ; amidde, 1406 ; amidden. 

atstutte, 3 p. pret. sing., from 


*atstutten, to remain, 23. 

an, »ole, mere, allone, only, 1227 ; 

Auguste, Ai^usta, 1556, 1726. 

ane, 222, 372, 606, 842, 1172, 

awahte, pret. am^.,from *awakien. 


to ateake v.a., 1044. 

an. See^rst a. 

awariede, pp., from *awarien, to 

anan, anon, 31, 440, 1430, 1580, 

curse, 141, 243, 1066, 2010, 

1589, 1811, 1876, 1887,2240, 



awarpen, inf., to lay low, 486, 591, 

ananrilit, qutekly, rapidly, 976, 

880, 1221 ; aweorp, pret. sing.. 

1871, 1886, 2118, 2188, 2228. 

835; awarpen, pp. 1277. 

ano. See a. 

awoalt. See aweld. 

ane. &« an. 

*awed, imp., from *awedeii, to 

anes. Seefirits.. 

render insane, %bi; awedde, pp.. 

anhad, witty, 931. 


■anlepi, miqw, only, 74, 1226, 

awci, away, 746, 829, 1335, 1590, 


1813, 2098, 2219. 

ant {-i), and, 1, 8, etc. 

aweld, imp., from *awealden, to 

apoBtles. 1404. 

conquer, tame, 654 ; aweld, pp.,, 

araa. Stt arisen. 

556 ; awealfc, pp., 1270. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^H 1S3 ^^1 

^F a^reorp. See aworpen. 

2264,2280, 2411, 2429, 2502; 

^M awaadrcde, pret. sing., from 

been, pres. opt. plur., 507, 658, 

V *awiiiidrien, to wonder, 309 ; 

1707, 1928, 2070; beo, imp. 

awundreden, plur., 1606 ; awun- 

sing., 373, 675, 1078, 1615, 

dret, pp., 1242. 

1640, 1841,2041, 2381;beo«, 

imp. plur., 2343 ; Tea, pret. 

ba, loth, 50, 90, 113, ete. ; baSe, 

aing., 16, 139, etc.; were, 2 

■ 77, 212j beire, 1772. 

pera., 383 ; weren, pret. plur., 

■ baldeliche. boldly, 718, 728. 

2, 35, 163, etc. ; were, opt. 

■ bale, miiwahU, 2338. 

sing., 80. 151, 969, 998, 1200, 

■ bale, MiWy, 1755, 2295, 2488; 

1210, 1232, 1654, 1865, 2003, 

■ balewe, 552. 

2384; wereE, opt. plur., 1212, 

■ balefule, baUjul, 203, 2038. 

1251, 1275, 1632, 2269, 2335. 

B balewe. See bale. 

beoren, inf., to bear, carry, 453, 

■ ban, bone, 230, 908, 1099; bane. 

2458; beoren, pres. opt, 1926, 

2177; banes, 2482. 

beren, pret. plur., 2463 ; bereS, 

banles, boneleaa, 250. 

1 p. sing, prea., 1056, 2485 ; 

bare, bare, 845, 1538, 2099, 2177. 

iboren, pp., 333, 2163 ; iborone, 

barren, plur., from *baiTe, bar. 

pp., 263. 


beo«. Sen been. 

batewil, ? ? ? 1690. 

bere, face, mien, 2338. 

ba«e. See ba. 

beren. See beoren. 

bealden, to comfort, 1609. 

bereS. See beoren. 

beamde, pret. sing., from "beor- 

beminde. See beamde. 

nen, to bum, 1650; beminde, 

beton, inf., to expiate, 1396 ; bette, 

pres. part., 1353. 

pret. sing., 1204 j ibet, pp., 

■ beast, beast, 2038. 


B beaten,^i«< 1538 ;beatin, 1178. 

betere, beUer, 559. 

^1 beatiuge, beating, 1603. 

be«. See beon. 

■ bed. See beoden. 

bette. See bet«n. 

■ bede. S«« bidden. 

^H belre. <Se« ba. 

biblodeget, pp. from *bibli>degen. 

^1 Belial, 1906. 

to bloody, 204. 

^B beiaume, obedient, oheymme, 1787. 

biburiede, pret. sing., from *bibu. 

^B beo. <S«« beon. 

rien, to bwy, 2196 ; biburieden. 

■ beoden, to command, 1469; bed, 

plur., 1434,2464; biburiet,pp.. 

■ pret. Bing., 440, 723, 1355, 


Wk 1548. 

bicapede, pret. sing., fi-om *biga- 

^1 beon, iiii.,^i«,S01,50S,574,etc.; 

pen, to stare at, 1255. 

^1 am, 1 p., 462, 464, 1848, 2214, 

bicherde, pret. sing.j^om *biclje- 

■ 2302 ; art, 2 p., 387, 449, 2034, 

aren, to outwit, 1183. 

■ 2163, 2281, 2225, 2378 ; is, 3 p., 

biciuset, pp., from *biclu8en, to 

H 219, 222, 313, 322, etc. ; beo«, 

inehee, 600. 

■ pres. ind. plur., 262, 297, 345, 

bieom. See bieumen. 

^1 etc.; be«, 1074; beo, pres. opt. 

bicumen, inf., to become, happen. 

^1 sing., 511, 560. 594, 781, 858, 

208 ; bieom, pret. aing., 1209, 

H 946, 1008, 1500, 1666, 2140, 



bidden, inf., lo pray, 614 ; bidde, 

I p. sing, prea., 2388; bede, 

pret. opt., 2369 ; ibeden pp., 

bidweolet, pp., Jrmn *bedweolien, 

toiawiteh, 1251. 
bieoden, pret. plur., from *bigin, 

tonurs», 1601. 
biforea, b^/ort, 51, 68, 1141, 

1440, 1613, 1862, 2031, 2208, 

biga^, pres. -plur., from *bfgan, (o 

pati hy, 1471. 
bijeoten, mi., to hegei,ohtatn, 1619, 

2113; bijetcne, pp-, 262. 
bi^ete, gaia, possession, 471. 
bijetene. jSw bijeoten. 
bigiunon, inf., to begin, 279 ; 

biginneet, 2p. aing.prea., 2162 ; 

biginne^, imp. plur., 1295 j 

bigon, pret. sing., 31, 205, 305, 

613, 745, 749, 1256, 1534, 

1608, 1863, 2000, 2078 ; bigun- 

nen, pret. plur., 292 ; bigunnen, 

pp., 395, 678. 
biginnunge, beginning, 287. 
bigon. See biginnen. 
bijuli'S, pres. plur., from *bijulin, 

to beguile, 1054. 
bigunnen. See biginnen. 
bihalde^, pres, plur,, from *bi- 

balden, to behold, 1943, 2286; 

bihald, imp. sing., 1837, 1838; 

bibeold, pret. sing., 743, 1250, 

1855, 2024, 2077, 2372 ; bi- 

heolden, pret. plnr., 740. 
bibat. See bibate. 
bihate, 1 p. sing, pres., from 

*bihaten, to promise, 2439 ; 

bibat, 3 p., 685 ; bibat, imp., 

1498 ; bihote, 2 pers. pret. 

sing., 645; bibet, 3 p., 414 ; 

bibaten, pp., 755, 887, 1789, 

bihefden, inf., to hhend, 2241, 

2316; bibefdet, pp., 2247. 
bihealden, topow upon, 1390. 

bibeold. See bihalde*. 
bibet, bibete. See bibate. 
bikimet ? ? ?, hent, crooked from 

one' I right self or mind f 1291. 
bileaue, belief, 72, etc. 
bilimeS, 3 p. sing, prea., from 

•bilimien, to ditmember, 2130. 
biliue, quickly, at once, 2279. 
bimong, among^st), 198, 256, 915, 

2007, 2307, 2414, 2475. 
binden, to bind, U78, 1357. 
birewide, pret. sing., from *bi- 

readen, to deiign, 1230. 
biseche, 1 p. sing, pres., from 

♦bisechen, to beseech, 2343 ; 

biBohte, pret. sing., 184, 2363; 

biaohten, plur., 1385. 
biseh, pret. sing., from *biseon, to 

look, glanee, 2125 ; biai%, 3 p. 

sing, pres., 1936. 
biset, pp.,/ro(» "bisStten, lo he»»t, 

surround, 1566. 
bisit, 3 p. sing, pres., from *bl- 

citten, to ait by, 1935. 
bisi^. See biseb. 
bismere, disgrace, sJtame, 552, 1294. 
bisobte, bisohten. See biaecbe. 
bistarede, pret. sing., from 'bi- 

starien, to stare at, 306. 

to commit, 611. 
bite, bite, 2404. 
bite, pres. opt., from *biten, to 

bite, 2091. 
biteuelet, pp., from *bitonelon, to 

gull, 1284. 
bijienebe, imp. sing., from *bif'en- 

cben, to invent, 1887. 
bitrumet, pp.,_^om *bitrumien, to 

inclose, 1644. 
bittre, bitter, 2038 ; bittrea, 1689. 
bituhhon, bitwixt, 1515. 
*bituined, pp., from *biti]nen, to 

inclose, 1644. 
bitweonen, betwem, 13. 
biweade, pret. aing., from *bi- 

wenden, to turn, 2330. 


H blikede, pret. sing., from *bliki0n, 

hreatt, 190; breosten, dat. plur., 

■ to ghatn, 2364. 

2099, 2176 ; breaste, gen. plur.. 

■ blinde, the Hind, lOGI. 


■ blisful, htiuful, 1857; blisfule, 

briddes, plur. o/*brid, bird. 63. 

■ 1595. 

briht, bright, 1650; brihtre.comp., 

■ blisae, hlis,, 845, 1522, 1708, 


■ 1T5S, 1T91, 22S5, 2337, 2344; 

bringen, inf., to bring, 394, 440, 

H blissen, plur., 1620, 2158. 

595, 723, 1440, 2336; brohte, 

^M blissen, pres. opt. plur., from 

pret. sing., 520 ; brahton, plur., 

■ *bIiBsieii, to be glad, 84G. 

62 ; ibroht. pp., 263, 275, 1862, 

■^ bliBsen. S^fiblisse. 

2262, 2306. 

bli=5e, hUtlu, 1857, 2306, 2843. 

brond, sword, Irani, 2363. 

blilSelicbe, gladly, 2371. 

bruche, «», wound, 334, 1203; 

blod, hlood, 204, 230, 908, 1897, 

bruchen, plur., 1210, 1396, 

^ 2259, 2457; blade, 1543; blodee, 


K 1398. 

bruchel./rni/, 1101,2003. 

H blodles, Uwdlem, »trmgthUii, 2S0, 

bruchen. Sea bruche. 

■ 1290. 

brune,/r«; obrune, on fire, burn- 

■ , *bliHiiie«,pm.plur.,>>w*bluii- 

ing, 1355. 

■ nen, to get blunt or dull, to A>- 

budel, herald, beadle, 1905. 

■ creme?, 1702. 

buggen, to buy, 1619. 

^m bode, command, 48, 56. 

buhe. See buhe*. 

■ bodi, body, 333, 909, 1539, 1603, 

buheiS, prea. plur., from *buhen. 

■ 2463; bodioB, plur., 1433, 2242, 

to bow, itoop, 365; buhe, opt. 

■ 2249. 

sing., 2368 ; buhen, opt. ptur.. 

\ bodien, to command, 1470. 


bodies. See bodi. 

bokes, plur. of *bok, book, 837, 

huiden. to build, 1642. 


b«le, plur.,;^m*bule, S«C,m,61. 

bold, building, 1643. 

*bunen??? 1522. 

bone, prayer, boon, 614, 2369, 

bur, room, chamber, bower, 138; 


bure, 1459. 

bono, learer of ieali, mvrderer. 

burde, birth, 84. 


burdeboldes, plur., from *burde- 

borien, pres. opt. plur., from 

bold, heriditary vianeion, 139. 

•borien, to pierce, 1926. 

burh, city, borottgh, 64, 1356, 

1467, 1642, 2240; burhe, 2317; 

botnede. Swbotne^. 

burhes, gen. sing., 9. 

botne^, 3 p. pres. sing, or plur.. 

burhjetes, plur., from *burhjet. 

from *botnien, to cure, 2488; 

town-gate, 2174. 

botnede, pret. eing., 1061. 

burhraen, plur., from *burhmon, 

brec. See breoke^. 

citizen. 1475, 1664; burh- 

breokeS, imp. pirn-., /rom'breoken, 

menne, gen. plur., 6. 

to breah ; (*onbreoken, to begtn). 

burhreue, prefect of a city, 1904. 

1294; brec, pret. sing., 2;i63; 

buriboldes, plur., froxt *burh- 

ibroken, pp., 1211. 1397. 

bold, townhall, palace, caslle? 

breoate, dkt. sing., from 'breast, 



^H 186 GLOSSAET. ^^H^^^l 

V bute, lut, without, except, 276, 

■ etc.; buten, 261, 280, etc. 


■ buuen, above, 1522, 2364. 

cneolinde, pres. part., from *cnBO- 

lin, to kneel, 2374. 

cnif, knife, 1929. 

cahten. See keccheB. 

cniht, hniffht, warrior, 2225; 

cang, dull, foolitk, 238. 

cnihtes, n. a. d. plur., 1394, 

carles, u^iYAouf anxiety, 26. 

1436, 1738, 1810; cnihtene, 

chear. :S«e chearren. 

gen. plur., 1559. 

chearren, pres. opt., /rom •chear- 

cnotte, nom. sing., inot, 1514; 

ren, to turn, 2229 ; chear, imp., 

cnotten, plur., 1151. 


cnottede, pp., from *cnottien, to 

chele, cold, frost, 1686. 

knot, 1540. 

cheoaen, inf., to ekoow, 1871 ; 

caotten. Sae cnotte. 

cheoB, imp. sing., 2227 ; icheo- 

cnotti, knotty, 1161. 

sen, pp., 834. 

com, come, comea. See cumen. 

childiade,dat.o/*childhad, thild- 

con, const. See cunnen. 

hood, 79. 

Constantin, noun pr., 1, 5, 17. 

chirche, ckureh, 32, 833. 

constu. See cunnen. 

clane, elettn, 2247, 2265. 

copne^, 3. p. aiiig. pres,, from 

cla«, plur. D/*cla«, eloth, 1417. 

*copnien, to long for, 2346, 

claterin, to erack, 2000. 

2424; copni*, pres. plur., 801. 

cleopien, inf., to call, 2169; 

Cost, noun pr., 73, 465. 

eleopie, I p., 1028; cleopest. 

crauant, craven, 132. 

2 p., 360 ; cleopeS, 3 p., 2346 ; 

cleopieK, plur., 2392; clepien, 

to creep, 906. 

opt., plur., 2437 ; oleopede, 

creft, craft, 814, 869; creftea, 

pret. sing., 405, 1328, 1558, 

plur., 256, 522, 852. 

1908, 1978,2209, 2375; iele- 

crefti, crafty, 125, 684. 

opet, pp., 88, 462, 2447. 

creftiluker, comp. of *creftilich. 

cleouen, to split, 2001. 

eraftily, 258. 

clerc, scholar, 533 ; clerkes, plur., 

Crist, ChriH. 389, 615, 707, 874, ■ 

410, 583. 

1124, 1125, 1328, 1611, 1623, 

1771, 1816, 1881, 1893, 2046, 

clergies, plur. of *clergie, science, 

2064,2141,2345,2446; Crista, 

538, 585. 

694, 1342, 1412, 1815, 2181, 

clerkes. See clerc. 

2492; CristeB, gen., 726. 

cnawe. Sec cnawen. 

cristone, Chrittian, 33, 163, 1432, 

cnawen, inf., to know, kam, 463 ; 

2015; ctistenes, gen. aing.. 

cnawe, 1 p. eing. prea., 444, 


869 ; cnawe=S,pre8.pliir., 2066 ; 

crokes, plur. o/*crok, trick, 125. 

icnawea, pp., 428. 

crokinde, part, pres., /rom *crokin. 

cnawes, witness? 1078, 2041. 

to lend, curve, 256. 

cnawelS. See cnawen. 

croa, eroes, 726. 

cnawleehe?, pres. plur., from 

cruohe, cross, 1165. 

*cnawlechin, to achiowledge, 

cruchede, pret. sing., from *cra- 


chien, to cross, 727. 

^^^^^^^^^^H ^M 

crnne, wowk, 1570, 1573, 1596, 

culSe, cu^en. See cunnen. 

2141,2351, 2428. 

cudde. 8ee ou«eE. 

known, 540 ; cuSelS, prea. plur.. 

^m ouddeste, sup. of *cud, renowned, 

1339; cu«, imp., 1982; cudde. 


pret. aing,, 1346; icud, pp., 

^M culurene, gen. plur., from *culure. 

537, 641, 813; icudd, 581, 

W doV0, 1823. 

1910, 2225, 2276 ; icudde, 410, 

cum. ^acumen. 


cnme, pres., eominff, 26, 413, 671, 

ou^c^. See cu«en. 


cwakien, to tremble, quale, 1534. 

cnme. See cumen. 

cwaJmhuB, death -home, prison, 

cnmen, inf. to come, 340, 397, 604, 

1547, 1807; cwalmhuae, 602. 

695, etc, ; cnraene, 542, 583, 

cwarteme, cell, prison, 601, 671, 

1833; cume«, pres. sing., 2427 ; 

1581, 1820. 

cnme, prea. opt., 816 ; cum. 

cwellere, ea^ecutioner, 2444 ; owel- 

imp., 2418, 2419, 2429; com. 

leres, plur., 2170. 

pret. sing., 84, 152, 194, 520, 

owen, queen, 1457, 1466, 1556, 

603, 666, etc. ; comen, pret. 

1573, 1610, 1611, 1739, 2023, 

plnr., 14, 51, 56, 732, 1432; 

2058, 2076, 2081,2145, 2166, 

come, pret. opt., 719, 1309; 


icnmene, pp., 650. 

cwe^e, 1 p. sing, prea., from 

cumene, cnme^. See cumen. 

*cwe^en, fa say, speak, 867 ; 

cun, family, lineage, manner, teiie, 

owe«, 3 p., 379, 1148, 1254, 

444, 463 ; cunnes, gen. sing.. 

1300, 1484, 2444 ; quo«, pret. 

1163, 1912. 

aing., 512, 750, 776, 821,828, 

cunde, kind, nature, 294, 905, 

1592,2103, 2144, 2221, 2287; 

1001, 1004, 1058, 1100, 1110, 

cwe^en, pret. plur., 133, 539. 

1162, 1192; cnndea, plur. 988. 

cwio, licinp, alive, 1868; cwike, 

cundelich, natural, 963. 

63, 341. 

oundeliche, adv. in a natural 

owich, 3 p. Biug, prea., from 

mann^, 1029. 

•cwitien, to move, altr, 1254. 

cnndeB. See cnnde. 

ewiddcBt, 2 p. sing, pres., from 

ounnen, inf., to know, he able to. 

*cwiddien, to tell, make known. 

623 ; con, 1 3 p. sing, pres.. 


816, 868 ; coast, 2 p. sing. 

cwibo. See cwic. 

prea., 2303; oonstu=const bu. 

1642,2212; cnnnen, pres. plur.. 

944, 1322; ou^e, pret. aing. 

daheue, dahes. See dci. 

1533; cii«en, plur., 1323. 

dale, part, 99. 

cunnea. «^ cun 

dame, ladg, 2080. 

curen, to choose, or plur. o/*oure, 

Daniel, noun pr., 1825. 

^m ehoiee, 1870 ; icuret, pp., 75. 

darede. See dearie*. 

H Cnrsatea, noun pr. 1907. 

deade, dead, 341, 1060, 1085, 

^B curt, court, 397. 

1425; ded, 1262. 

^H cu^. See cu^en. 

A.BB.^<:h,deadli/.morlal, 966, 1890 ; 

^m culS, adj., renowned, 2276; cu«e. 

dedlich, 927, 1048, 1101, 1113, 

^H 699, 816. 



1 ' 

^H ^^^^^^1 

^H dcah, 3 p. sing. pre8.,//-o!n *diiLen, 

deorUche, lumpluouily. 1435. 

H tobieome.suii, 1883 ; dtib, 1433, 

deouel, ace. aing., devil, 1184; 

^F 2197. 

deouele, dat., 200 ; deoueles. 

dearieB, pre8.p]ur.,^0OT *dearien, 

gen., 166; deoules, 1905,2123, 

to Iwk, hide oneself, 554 ; dearede. 

2312; deoulen, nom. plur., 553 ; 

pret. BiBg., 2020 ; darede, pret. 

deonelen, dat. plur., 211. 

Hug., 1131. 

dorf, pain, painful, entel, 2393; 

deame, dark, hidden, 575, 576; 

diirue, 1889 ; derure, comp., 

denie, 1333. 

947; derueet, sup., 2101; de- 

deamUclie, privately, 406. 

rueate, 566. 

dea«, death, 165, 337, 566, 959, 

AerQiaho, pain/ally,mi»eraMy, 957, 

1092, 1124, 1142, 1160, 1334, 


1363, 1374, 1430, 2223,2268, 

derfachipe, laeenesi, vHeneag, 977. 

2292, 2393, 2434 ; de^, 702, 

deme. 8m deame. 

926, 965, 967, 1006, 1097, 

derue, deruest, deraeate. See 

1125, 1136, 1194, 1215, 1842, 


1883; dea=5e, 1112, 1214, 1489, 

derueS, 3 sing. preB.,_yro»»*denien, 

2100,2206,2405; deaSes, gen.. 

to grieve, offiict, 1669. 


derure. See derf. 

deaue, the dmf, 1062. 

despntiage, argument, 661. 

ded. See deade. 

deet, de«. 5« don »nrf dea«. 

dede, deed, 1123, 1914; deden. 

dihteu, to arrange, constitute, 1460 ; 

plur., 676, 1461. 

idiht, pp., 1373, 1595, 1843. 

dedlich. See deadlich. 

diuerio, tu tremble, 622. 

deh. See deah. 

do. See don. 

dei, day, 436, 598, 746, 787, 848, 

dohter, daughter, 74, 464, 676, 

1305, 1413, 1949, 2182, 2283, 


2495, 2497; deies, gen. eing., 

dom, judgment, 1202,2118. 

1077;dahe8, plur., 1551, 1824, 

domesdei, doomsday, 339. 

1918 ; duliene, gen. p!ur., 2469. 

don, inf., to do, 566, 783, 973, 995, 

dden, inf., to die, 957, 1088, 

998, 1844, 2100, 2281, 2406 ; 

1102, 1106, 1875,3284; deide, 

donne, 782, 2171, 2198; do, 

pret. BiBg., 335, 1098, 1109, 

1 per8.,505; dest, 2per8., 211, 

1116, 1139,1187,1202,2468. 

753, 2105, 2282; de=6, 3 pers.. 

deies. See dei. 

1490, 2405 ; do«, prea. plur , 

demen, inf., to deem, judge, 340, 

458, 1142, 2394 ; do, opt. 

567;d<;ineBt, 2siiig.prea., 1462; 

1849, 2087, 2406; do, imp.. 

demden, pret. plur., 328. 
deope, deeply, 388, 1307. 

783, 1914, 2110, 2448; dude, 

pret. aing., 630, 1047, 1135, 

1541, 1825, 2028 ; duden, plur.. 

29, 166, 167, etc. ; ido, pp , 

deor, plur., deer, 2244. 

1123, 1914 ; idon, 437, 1437. 

deore, dear, 632,651, 1158, 1369, 

donne. See don. 

1594, 1837,2145, 2498. 

dotestu, 2 sing, pre8.,=doteBt Jiu, 

deore wurlSe, precious, 633, 680, 

from *dotien, to rave, 2080. 

1076, 1645, 1657, 1770, 1894, 

do«. See don. 


draf. See driue^. 

^^^^^^V ^M 

^ drahen, inf., to mfer, iraw, 1187, 

♦drupninde, part, pres., from 

■ 1891, 1966; droh, pret. emg., 

*drupnin, to be dejected, 2021. 

^1 1087, 1363; drohe, 2 pers., 

dude, duden. See don. 

^1 2434 ; drohea, pret. plur.. 

duhti, good, worthy, doughty, 781. 

■ 2124, 2173; idrahen, pp., 1194, 

dult, pp. o/*didlen, to blunt, dull. 



^ dream,, 1488, 1832. 

dumbe, the dumb, 1062. 

dred. See dreden. 

dun, adv. down, 1587. 

died, fear, 165. 

dune, din, 1998. 

dredde, drede. See dreden. 

dunewardea, downwards, 1967; 

dreden, inf., to dread, fear, 622, 

duneward, 2374. 

1842 ; drede, 1 pers. sing, prea., 

dunrikt, right down, 1997. 

762, 1488, 1882, 2103; dredeS, 

dunt, blow, stroke, 1999, 2050, 

Spars., 1215 ; drede, prea. plar.. 


1393, 1593; dred, imp., 1621, 

♦dureninde, part. pres. of *dearc- 

1847,2144; dredde, pret. opt 

nien ? to hide oneself, 2021. 

sing., 1913. 

duren, pres. plur. from *durren, 

drede=5. See dreden. 

to dare, 1324; dureto, pret. 

^_ drehde. See drehen. 

Bing., 1308. 

^L drehen, inf., to suffer, draw, 629, 

dusi,/Wi>A, 781, 978 ; dusie, 599. 

H 965. 1087, 1097, 1374, 1736, 

duBilec,/o%, 424. 

H 1891,2101,2393; dieien, 33, 

duBischipea, plur. of *du8ischipe. 

^1 2206; dreie, opt. sing., 1489; 

folly, 1799. 

H drebde, pret. sing., 1160; drehen 

duBte. See dusten. 

H (C. druhen), pret. plur., 631. 

duaten, inf., to throw, strike, dash, 

V dreori, ffloom;,, miserable, 2021. 

1967 ; duatest, 2 p. aing. prea.. 

dreoriUche, miteraUt/, 1875, 2284. 

983; dnsta, pret. sing., 1092, 

dj/MboB, glorious proeeesion, 1832. 


&nb.tha.,tke Lord, 696, 1093, 1122, 

dute, doubt, 2430. 

1131, 1369, 1431, 1594, 1B14, 

dauelrihtea,iw(icfl%, 1587. H.'il- 

■ 1736, 1833, 2146; drihtines. 

liwell gives ' devcling ' a similar 

■ gen., G76, 1436. 

form,=!aying flat, and quotes 

■ drihtneBse, glory, splendour, 1120, 

Arthur and MerHn 287 and 

■ 1197, 1337. 

Bevis of Hampton 27. 

^1 driuelee, plur. of *driuel, ilave. 

^1 servant, 2123. 

eadi, hleasei, blissful, holy, 8G4, 

^H driuen. See driuG%. 

1237, 1953, 2127; eadie, 748, 

^H drine%, 3 p. sing, pres., to do, 

1805, 2490. 

^H drive, rush, 425 ; pres. plur.. 

ealdrene. See aldren. 

■ 214; draf, pret. sing., 1065, 

eanes, once, 124. 

H 1997; driuen, pret. plur., 1372 ; 

ear, before,first, ere, 509, 560, 698, 

^H idriuen, pp., 1799. 

876, 1312, 1383, 1895. 

^B droh, drohe, drohen. See drahen. 

eare, ear, 1719; earen, plur., 497, 

^H druicninde,p!Lrt. p^es.,//-on)*d^uc- 


^■ nin, to stun, he stunned, 2021. 

eareat, frsi, 1213 ; eareste, 883 ; 

^H drupest, sup. of *diup, dejected, 

earst, 422, 2162. 


earliche, Mr/y, 115, 859. 

^H 160 ^^^^^H 

^H earst. See ecirest. 

eorlcB, plur. of *eorl, nohU, tori, 1 

■ eaaei, ever, always. 111, 394, 734, 


H ]I21, 1225, 1458, 1663, 1678, 

eomen, int., to run, 2268 ; rinne^. 

H 1692, 1712, 1848, 1951, 2023, 

3 p. sing, prea., 2477 ; ron. 

H 2104, 2394, 2436, 2485. 

pret. sing., 203. 

^1 eauereuch, every, 1422. 

eorl5e, earth, 352, 1017, 1346, 

^F eaueriliwer, everywhere, 662. 

1781, 2220. 

eawlea, plur. o/*eawel, awl, 2178. 

eor«lich, earthly, 1717, 1719, 

eo, aUo, 928. 

2148; eor^liehe, 1622, 2493. 

eohe, eUrnal, ettmity, 298, 300, 

ernde, imp,, from *emdieii, to 

474, 478, 872, 1624, 1760, 

commend, 2127. 

2295. 2341, 2421. 

erue«, dijicult, 998. 

echeliche, eternally, 2355. 

Esculapies, gen. of *Esoulapie, 

ecnesse, eternity, 664, 2605. 

IkcuUyiiui, 852. 

eft, again, farther, 339, 488, 925, 

eakest, 2 p. aing. prea., from 

i438, 2354. 

•eakien, to ask, 1716. 

after, after, aBCwding to, 17, 743, 

eatlonde, dat. of *e8tlond, eastern 

935, 971, 1218, 1457, 1462, 

land, £att, 535, 1304. 

1855, 2142, 2321. 

e«, easy, 1219. 

egge, edge, 2404. 

etc, pret. or pres. opt. 8ing.,_^0M 

ehe,ny«,1056, 1719 ; etneii, plur.. 

*eteu, to eat, 1549. 

112, 307, 496, 1977. 

etheold, pret. aing., from *etlial- 

ehsih^e, (eyey»isht, 2315. 

den, to retain, detain, 99, 1223. 

eie, terror, 558, 1492. 

e^aene, easily seen, plain, 381, 

eile^, 3 p. aing. prea.,^i»n*eilen, 


to mole»t, 1684. 

etsterten, to escape, 700, 2095. 

eisfule, awful, 40. 

etwat, pret. aing., from *etwiton. 

ei^er, either, 1958. 

to reproach, 2332. 

elles, else, 1524. 

euch, each, every, 20, 201, 256, 

elnede, 3 p. aing. pret., from 

286, etc. 

*eliuen, to strengthen, comfort. 

euchan, eeery one, 54, 67. 

673, 1366; elnedeat, 2 p., 628. 

Kue, Me, 884. 

empti, empty, void, 392, 839, 864. 

eueoe, condition, property, 57. 

ende, end, part, district, 298, 394, 

eueniug, equal, 118, 300, 861. 

687, 706, 1476, 1556, 1791, 


endelese, enrf/m, 1620, 1633, 1694, 

fal, fall, 2290. 

1884, 2154. 

fallen, inf., to fall, belong, 2289; 

endin, to end, 294. 

failed, 3 p. sing, prea., 471; 


engel, angel, 666, 673, 1822, 1994 ; 

pp., 1367. 

englea, plur., 291, 1598, 1830, 

Mse,fahe, 317, 1626. 

2412, 2460. 

fan, plur. of »fa, foe, 689. 

eni, any, 1347, 1648, 1661, 1692, 

fare, faren, fare^S. See fearen. 

1710, 1735, 1921. 

fatte, pret. sing., front *fateii, to 

eode. See gaS, 

fetch, 719, 2466 ; ifat, pp., 1289; 

eoile, oil, 2478, 2484. 


ifatte, 2250. 


tax, ih Mir of the head, 2256. 
feader, father, 929, 1767; feder, 

114, 264, 465, 1899; federes, 

gen, Bing., 619. 
fearen, inf., to fare, tranel, go, 

1553 ; fare, 1 pers., 2341 ; 

fare^, pres. plur., 1616 ; faren, 

opt. plur., 1383. 
fearlac,/#ar, 39, 610, 1586, 1590, 

2029, 2139, 2207. 
fedde, pret. sing., from *fedeE, to 

fted, 1824. 
feder. St« feader. 
federles, /flWer&M, 78. 
fehero. See feier. 
fehten, to fight, 60S, 768 
feier, fair, beauiifal, 68 ; feire, 

704, 1867, 1486, 1606, 2261, 

2309; fehere, comp., 2291. 
fel, «£iM, 1604. 
felen, to feel, 1164. 
felien, plur. ^*felie, felloe, felly, 

felungo, /««?(n^, 498. 
feng. See fon. 
feolahes, plur. of *fellahe, i!<m- 

pamon,felloie, 2307. 
feole, many, 89, 119, 121, 799, 

860, 947, 1428, 2052, 2203, 

feollen. See fallen, 
feondes. See feont. 
feont, fend, devil, 246, 255, 890, 

1183; feondes, gen. aing., 729, 

feor, far, remote, 823, 1927; fir, 

I comp., 2299 ; firrcste, sup., 
teoiMch, fearful, v!onderful,ieonder, 
2056; ferliohe, 731, 1399, 1995. 
feorrene,/(W,/»-pm afar, 1289. 
ferde, pret. sing., from *feren, to 
iroiW, JO, 5, 1554,2189; ferden, 
pret. plur., 1411. 
feren, plur. of *fere, companion, 


ferliche. See feorlich. 
ferreden, company, 704, 2309. 
festnin, to fasten, confirm, 1175, 

1985; ifestnet, pp., 1512. 
fet. See fot. 
fewe, few, 949. 
M,five, 43, 793, 1287, 2495. 
&ta, fifty, 521, 606, 720, 730, 753, 

findoS, 3 p. sing, pres., /row 

*finden, to find, invent, 255 ; 

font, pret. sing., 860; funde, 

pret. plur., 1306. 
fir, firreate. See feor. 
firstede. See flrsti, 
fir8ti,8ing. opt. preB.,/rOT« *firBtiea, 

to delay. 2299; firstede, pret. 

sing., 2367. 
fleaL, pret. sing., from *fleon, to 

fy,pe, 16. 
fleide, pret. sing., Jrom *fleien, to 

drive, 1590. 
fleoninde,pie8.part.,of ??? 1996. 
fleseh, jie»h, 1100, 1538, 1604, 

1890, 1897, 2092; ulea, 2134. 
AeBiihlw'h, fieshly, eorporaal, 2140; 

fleBcliliehe, 912, 1098. 
fleechtimber, corporeal matter, 

flit, argument, 

; flites, plur., 

fliten, to argue, 720. 

flowed, Sprea. Bing.,/roi»*flowen, 

to fiow, 2483 ; flowed, pres. 

plur., 2484 ; fiowinde, part. 

pres., 687. 
fode,>irf, 1821, 2244. 
folc, folk, peopU, 1900, 2010, 

folhiS, 1 pres. plur., ^/roTO^^olhia, 

to follow, 2308. 
fon, inf., to take, begin; (*onIon, to 

begin.) 1863; feng, pret. sing., 

312, 1630, 2169. 
foudeden, pret. plur., from *fon- 

dien, to try, 120. 
ioi, for, 9, etc. 

^H 163 GLOSSARY. ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

forbisne, extmpU, 699. 

fremien, to promote, indulge, 289 ; ^H 

io-rhoAe, prohibition, 2201, 2248. 

fremede, pret. sing., 2367. ^M 

forcuSeat, sup., of *forcuB, de- 

hao,free, noble, 450, 1174. H 

^ praved, 2211. 

K forowe^Bst, 2 p. sing, pres., >-otn 

ireolich, noble, 68 ; freoliche, 1 539. 

Fridei, Friday, 2496. 

^P fordem, imp., from •fordemen, to 

*fri*ede, pret. sing., /rum *&iSien, 

condemn, 2217; fordemed, pp., 

to leave undisturbed, 2367. 


from,/rf»», 1312, etc. 

fonion, inf., to undo, ruin, 484, 

Fronclonde, IVanee, 7. 

878, 2124; foideS, 3 p. sing. 

frourede. See frourin. 

pres., 212; fordon, pp., 427, 

frourin, inf., to console, 284 ; frou- 


rede, pret. sing., 1591. 

fordrenct, pp.,_^-om *fordrenolien, 

fuhelea, pltir. of •fuhel, bird, 

to make drunk, 2M I. 


foreseide, pret. sing., from *fore- 

ful, full, 863, 1493, 1979; fulle, 

BPggen, to foretell, 531. 

1551, 2011. 

♦forewende, pret. Bing., from *fore- 

fule, foul, 40. 

wenen, to forethink, 531. 

fuUo. See ful. 

^L forga, lp.8iDg.pres.,/rowi*forgan, 

funde. See finde^. 

■ to forgo, 2138. 

iMt,fire, 1361, 1399. 

^H iorjeote^, pres. plur., from •for- 

iuieine,_fiery, 1403. 

^B jeoten, fo /orye(, 1368; forjet. 

H pret. sing., 1816. 

ga. See ga*. 

^1 forhohien, to dindain, 992. 

gabbes, plur. of *gabbe, taunt, 

^V forlensen, to low, perish, 347, 


^ 896, 2254. 

gadien, plur. o/*gadie, goad, 1 922. 

forleten, pres. opt. plur., from 

Galienea, gen. of QaHen, Galen, 

*forleten, to leave, 1376, 2359. 


forsake, 1 p. sing, pres., from 

fare we. See jarow. 

fforsaken, toforsaie, 866. 

jarkin.inf.,(o^/-e;Mr«, 1735, X919, 

lorf; forth, flwoy, 194, 241, 263, 

2303; ijarket, pp., 1724. 

431, 595, 604. 811, 825, 1616, 

jarow, rearfy, 2302 ; jarewe, 1724. 

1926, 2005, 2029, 2207, 2233, 

gast, eiMst, 116, 196, 243, 662, 

2262, 2272, 2337, 2442, 2463. 

1320, 1402, 1772, 2214. 

toTf,tedeieB, forefathers, 94. 

ga«, pres. plur., 347 ; ga, imp.. 

forSwaides, adv., forward, 2068. 

1445; eode, pret. sing., 746, 

forwur^ea, inf., to peri*h, 2257 ; 


forwnrSe. pres. opt. sing., 2161. 

je, y»a, naff even, 290. 

foster, (foster-)ehild, 450, 729. 

je, ffe, you, 278. 

tot, foot, man f, 1362, 2241; fet, 

jeald. Seajeldcn. 

499, 1358. 

gederin, to gather, collect, 989. 

iowT,four. 1919, 1991,2011. 

;ef. See jeouen. 

fceinen, inf., to ask, 1631 ; freine- 

jef, if, 92, 210, 215, etc. 

den, pret. plur., 1737. 

jeide. See jeien. 

freken, plur., o/*freke, ehampim, 

jeien, inf., to exclaim, scream, 205, 


2014, 2060; jeide, pret. sing., 


ART. 163 

H 1260, 1364, 2033 ; ;eiiide, prea. 

gleaminde, pres. part.,//om *glea- 

■ part, IGO. 

min, to gleam, 1653. 

^f jeiacleppea, plur, of *jeiiiclep. 

glede^, 3 p. sing, prea., from 

tumnterntroke, 128. 

*gledien, to gladden, 1521. 

jeinde. See jeien. 

gleo, play, mmic, 145, 1667. 

)Binen, to projii, hip, 176. 

gleowinde, pres, part., from *gleo- 

jeintaru, eountertum, 2087. 

wien, to amuse oneself, play, 

jeld, tribute, offer, money, 210. 


jelden, inf., to repay, 569, 764, 

gXeowiBso, playing, music, 145. 

2216; jelt, 3p. Bing.prea., 244, 

glea, glass, 1661, 2003. 

1625; jeald,3p.pret. sing., 127; 

glistinde, pres. part., /rom 'glisten. 

fulde, pret. opt. sing., 215. 

to glitter, 636, 1653. 

jellen, to yell, 2013. 

god, good, property, 86, 100, 233, 

jelp, vain-glory, 470, 863. 

1000; gode, 392; godes, gen., 

jelpe, 1 p. sing. -pTeB.,from *}elpeii. 


to boa»t, 475; jelpelS, pres. 

godcuadnesse, divine natwe, 984. 

plur., 1280. 

godd, god, 247, 254, 280, etc. ; 

jelt. SwjeWen. 

godea, gea. eiag., 164, 172, 

}eme, care, attention, 1451, 1817. 

etc. ; godes, plur., S3, 147, 

^eomere, miserable, 1812. 

273, etc. 

jeont, OTW, 409. 

goddlec, divinity, majesty, 1205. 

jeome, very much, 1576, 

gode, godes. See god and godd. 

^1 jeouen, plur. of *)eoue, gift, 37 ; 

■ jeoues, 568. 

godleic, goodness ? ?, 838. 

■ ^eouen, inf., to give, 269, 639 ; ;ef. 

godlese, godUss, 844. 

^M imp., 648 ; jef, 3 p. pret. sing., 

gold, gold, 268, 493, 797, 1465, 

■ 238, 357, 2370; }euen, pret. 


^1 pi., 1811 ; }eue, pret. opt. eiog., 

jong, way, walking, 570, 2469; 


jonge, 499. 

^K jeoues. See jeouen. 

grace, mercy, 1248. 

^M jer, year, 43 ; jeree, pi. 66, 545. 

grap, 3 p. sing. pret.,>-DBi *gripen, 

^H gersum, treasure, 798. 

to sei:te, 1969. 

H }et, y«^, agaift, now, 70, 149, 

grapea, plur. of *grap, art, trick. 

H 846, etc. 


^1 ;ete, gate, door, 2421. 

greate, great, 843. 

^M jette, imp., from *jetten, topermii. 

gremeden. S«« gremest. 

■ 767, 2387 ; jettede, pret. aing.. 

gromeat, 2 p. sing, prea., from 

■ 1578, 2370. 

♦gremien, to anger, 2089 ; gre- 

^H jeuo, jouen. See jeouen. 

mie¥, prea. plur., 301 ; gre- 

^1 limstanes, plur. of *}imBtaii, gem. 

meden, pret. plur., 2238 ; 


igremet, pp., 1456, 2273. 

^1 gin, engine, 1955. 

gret, grete. See greten. 

^1 jime, 1 pera. pres. aing., from 

greten, inf., k salute, honour, 220, 

^H *;imen, to yearn, wish for, 2387; 

2271 ; gret, imp., 1455 ; grete, 

^H ;iniede, pret. sing., 1579. 

opt., 2088 ; greten, opt. plur., 

^B GiwB, plur. o/*Giw, .7"^, 328. 

1472; igrette, pp., 798. 

^H glead,y/ai;, 1668. 

gretunge, honour, 207. 

^H 164 GLOSSARY. V^^^^H 

H grielich, htthly, 2288 ; grifiliche 

halewunde, $anetif>/ing, 233 ; hal- 

■ 1934, 1968. 

■wende, 1389, 1401 ; halwnnde. 

^ grome, anger, 1354. 


gromede, pret. sing., from *gro- 

half, half, tide, manner, 736,'739, 

iDien, to he angry leith, 2075. 

790, 982, 1927, 2014; halue, 

gnire, kotror, 1944. 1969. 

20, 121 

juhBBe, youth, yovthfid age, 1451 

ha\i,holy, 32, 111, etc. 

julde. Set jelden. 

hallo, hall. 416, 1459. 

guldene, golden, 1570. 

halt See balden. 

gultleae, jrui7fi«M, 2205. 

halte, the lame, 1063. 

jUDg, yoMt^, 66, 80, 175, 383. 

halue See half. 

^unglicb, youngith, 545. 

halwende, balwunde. See hale- 

♦jungling, youngling, 545. 


}uren,iiif.,to^roo«,2014; jurinde 

ham, Mm, 13, etc. 

pree. part., 160. 

hap, luci., tucceei, 184. 

hardi, h«rdy, 1729. 

ha, JtA«, f%, 60, 131, etc. 

hardi, pres. opt. sing. ,_/}■«» *hatdiD, 

habbe. Set habben. 

to harden, make hardy, 2133. 

habben, inf., to Aaw, 87, 289, 474 

hardiHcbe, hardily. 677. 


hare, their, 98, 302, etc. 

1944; habbe, 1 p. sing. pres. 

harmi*, pres. sing. ?, from *har- 

466, 834, 1150, 1510, 1743 

min, to harm, 2402. 

1750, 1843;liaueBt, 2 p., 386 

hat, A)(, 2116. 


2042, 2111, 2223,2272, 2391 

cause, be called, 364 ; hat, imp., 

2383, 2431; haueB, 3 p., 817 

1917, 2300, 2411; bote, 2 p. 

1284, 1373, 1507, 1594, 1634 

sing, pret., 542 ; bet, 3 p. pret. 

1724, 1789, 1800, 1885, 1895 

King., 156, 411, 1362, 1382, 

2050, 2141,2447; habbe«,preB 

1438, 1536, 1546, 1819, 1946, 

plur., 395, 1397, 1798, 2489 

2116, 2200, 2239, 2260,2314, 

habbe, opt. amg., 2267 ; bane 

2460 ; ihaten, pp. 2172, 3449 ; 

imp., 1573; hefde, pret. sing. 

hatte, med. sing., 22, 1771 ; 

Ill, 114, etc.; befden, pi., 95 

hehtc, 73, 432, 465, 1907. 

1276, 1417, 1730; itaued, pp. 

haue, bauest, haue*. See habben. 

445 ; ihftuet, 466. 

he, he, 23, etc. 

habbe*. See habben. 

beafden. See beaued. 

hald, halde. See balden. 

bealde. Saeheale*. 

balden, inf., to hold, 1179, 1548 

healden, (o year, 686. 

. 1867, 1989; halt, 3 p. eing 

prea., 1779; halde*, prea. plur. 

healendea. See healent. 

1788; hald, imp., 645, 677 

healent, mviour, 182, 1838,2016, 

halde, opt. sing., 232 ; heold 

2067, 2381, 2397,2410, 2502; 

pret-siiig., 81,433, 1818, 1952 

bealendes, gen., 612. 

heoldon. pret. plur., 888, 1298 

healeS, 3 p. sing, pres., from 

2236; ibalden, pp., 2486. 

♦healen, to heal, cxre, 2487; 

halde*. Sw balden. 

bealde, pret. sing., 1063. 

halewi, halm, 1692. 

heane, hateful, 1947. 

heano^. S^eheanin. 

heanin, inf., tohate, despine, 1020 ; 

heaneS, prea, sing. ?, 2402. 
heapes, gen. sing., o/"*heape, hip, 

heaats, command, commmdment,iB, 
2246; iieast, 886, 2218; heustes, 
pliir., 233, 1788. 
heate, heat, 1666. 
hea%endom, heatkmdom, 35. 
bea^ene, heathen, heathens, 36, 53, 
1859, 2013, 2054, 2322, 2356. 
hea.ueA, head, chief, 421, 535, 1185, 
1299, 1351, 2180, 2226,2452; 
heauet, 1571 ; heafden, plur., 
hef, pret. sing., from *hel)ben, to 
heave, lift, 181, 2451; heuen, 
pret. plur., 1407, 2462. 
befde, hefden. See liahben. 
heh, high, great, 416, 1468, 1908, 
1979, 2024, 2044, 2067, 2462; 
hehe, 182, 363, 467, 1838, 
1983, 2381; herre, comp., 757; 
hehest, sup., 4, 416; heste, 
536, 1298, 2476. 
tehengel, arehanffel,'IlO. 
hehest. See heh. 
hehfeder, ITiffh Father (elsewhere 

=patriareh), 661. 
hehliohe, highly, cadh/, 569, 1477. 
hehnesae, majesty, 109, 997, 1331. 
hehte. See ha.t. 
Lei, Oh !, 580. 
^^L heien, inf., to revere, 459, 510, 
^H 1019, 1041 ; heie, 1 pera. Eing. 

^^B pres., 1496; heie%, imp. pi., 

^^B 1769; heie, opt. sing., 232 ; 

^H iheiet, pp., 2380, 2503. 

^1 heUe, hell, 336, 1191, 1797, 1906, 
^H 2355. 

^H help, help, 184, 743, 2440. 
^H helpen, inf., to help, 1140, 2072; 
^^1 Lelpe%, 3 p. eing. pres., 473, 

^H 1491, 2017. 

^H heo, ehe, they, 106, 365, etc. 
^^^ heold, heolden. See halden. 


heom, them, 2073. 

heonno, hence. 1383, 2068. 

heonueward, hence, 1892. 

heore, their, 872. 

heoren, their », 252. 

heortfi, heart, 86, 112, 817, 1495, 

1643, 1721, 1979, 2111, 2116, 

2133, 2301, 2373, 2435. 
heouone, heavm, 183, 338, 490, 

668, 696, 708, 711, 744, etc. ; 

heuene, 364, 2461. 
heoueneliche, heavenly, celestial, 

889; beouenlich, 1320, 1767, 

1853; heouenliche, 228, 264, 

902, 1162. 1693, 1750, 1984, 

2149, 2397, 2413; heuenliohe, 

heoueneriche, heavenly kingdom, 

2440 ; heouenliche, 2137 ; 

heoueneriches, gen., 1627. 
heowes, plur. o/*heo, colour, hue, 

her, here, 544, 866, 1153, 1343, 

1971, 2214, 2403, 2427. 
her, hair, 1418, 2256. 
heronede. See herenin. 
hercnende. See herenin. 
hwcnin, inf., to hear, listen to, 

1720, 1976; hercnende, pres. 

part., 742 ; hercnede, pret. 

sing., 1945. 
herd, herd,flocl, 83. 
herde, herden. See heren. 
hcren, inf., to hear, 735, 1720, 

1976; hereS, 3 p. sing, prea., 

248; herde, pret. aing., 483, 

2320; herden, pret. plur., 2058. 
here^. See heren. 
herfore, on that aeeount, 608. 
hcrhede, pret. sing , from *her- 

hien, to harrow, 336. 
herien, inf., to glorify, celehrate, 

146, 222, 353, 433, 459, 610, 

1041, 1497, 2016 ; herie«, 3 p. 

sing., 2046; herieS, imp. pi., 

1769; iheted, pp., 2380; iheret, 

183, 2503. 

^^B JM GLOSS ART. ^^^^^^^H 

^H linie%. Sm herien. 

•houore, hitmp, 1063. ' 

^H heritage, Afritage, 63. 

H hem. _ Sm heh. 

hu, how, why, 638, 785, 956, 959, 

^V hersumin, inf., to adore, reverence, 

1087, 1140,2043, 2044, 2047, 

■ 146, 352 ; hersume*, 3 p. pres. 


■ aing., 248; plur., 272. 

hndde, pret. sing., from *hnden. 

H berto, hereto, to it, m it, 1129, 

to hide, 910; ihud, pp., 2025; 


ihudd, 1182. 

herunge, hearing, 497. 

hund, hound, dog, 1859; hundea. 

herte. Ssa heh. 

plur., 2013. 

het. See hat. 

hondret, AMwrfrt-ii. 1810. 

hete, hatred, 2401. 

hunger, AuBi/w, 1687,2401. 

heterUche, >rM/y, enwi^y, 2077 ; 

hure, much less, 1722. 

hettcrUohe, 776, 2121, 2Z39. 

hwa, toho, 61, 342, 516, 1793, 

heuen. See hef. 


heneoe. See heonene. 

hwam, aihom. 223, 281, 1216. 

heuenlieho. See heoueEeliche. 

hwas, whose, 680, 765. 1839, 2129. 

hider, hither, 542, 570, 2055; 

hwen, when, 389, 635, 995, 1006, 

hidere, 796, 824. 

1137, 1935, 1963, 1970, 2392, 

hiderto, hith&rto, 446, 466. 


hihe, hihede. See hihin. 

hweolea, plur. of *hweol, wheel. 

hihendUche, quicily, 2110, 2300; 

1919, 1928, 1941, 1991. 

hihentliche, 2396, 2439, 2448. 

hwer, where, 1741, 1743, 2486. 

hihia, inf., to hasten, urge. 41 1 ; 

hwer>urh, iy which, 234. 

hihe, pres. plur., 1381 ; hihede, 

hwerto, wherefore, 2035. 

pret. sing., 2171. 

hwet. what, thing, 149, 151, 

him, him, 18, etc. 

393, 1301, etc. 

hird,/am%, household, 81, 1853, 

hwe^er, whether, 2280. 

2413, 2426. 

hwi, why, how, 507, 992, 998, 

hirdmea, plur. of *hirdmon, ier- 

1135, 1139, 1264, 1381, 2083. 

vant, follower, 2215. 

hwidor, whith^, 1292, 2485. 

hire, her, 81, et«. 

hwil, whiht, 308, 914, 1237, 

his, Am, 44, etc.; Mse, 1245, 

1481, 1856, 1902, 2359. 

1954, 1988, 2235. 

hwile, sub8., while, 8, 12, 180, 

hit, it, 149, etc. 

514, 601, 764,2153,2368. 

hoker, fnoehry, 777 ; hokeres. 

hwite, white, 1564, 2459. 

phir., 419. 

hwuch, which, 157, 511, 680, 

hokerest, 2 p. sing, pres., from 

594, etc. ; hwucohe, 445, 1632, 

*hokerien, to mock, 457. 

1707, 1843. 

hokorliche, moekingh/, 741. 

Homerea, gen. D/*Honier, 850. 

hond, hand, 612, 757, 1779; 

i, /or ich, 1463. etc. 

honden, plur., 494, 498, 1358, 

i, 4, etc. See in. 

1408, 2324. 

iheden. See hidden. 

hondhwile, monMvt, 1617, 1942. 

ihct. See beten. 

hondiwerc, handiioork, 1222. 

iboren, iborene. See beoren. 

hopien, to hope, 1145. 


ibroht. See bringea. 

^^^^^^1 OLOSSART. IQT ^H 

V ibroten. fiMbreoke*. 

ifulhet, pp., Jrom *fiilLen, fo hap- 

^1 iburiet, pp. of *burieii, to buru, 

tize, 1382, 1395. 

W 335. 

igabbet, pp., from *gabbien, to 

^ ich, I., 368, etc. 

mock, 221 Z. 

ichoeen. Set cheosen. 

ijarket. See jarkin. 

iehulle. SMwule. 

iginet, pp., from *ginnen, to rfa- 

icleopet. Se« cleopien. 

vine, 1956. 

icBawen, inf., to knoie, experienee, 

igreiSet, pp., frmi greiKon, to 

1152;icneoweii, pret. pi., 131. 

prepare, 1968. 

ienut, pp., from *cnutteii, to knit, 

igremct. See gremeat. 


igrette. See greten. 

ioorea, eleeied, 1611; icorene, 

ibalden. Sm balden. 

1288, 1394, 1596, 1635, 2U3. 

ihaten. See hat. 

icnmet, pp., front *enineii, to 

ibaued, ibauet. See habben. 

crown, 1412, 1466, 2492. 

iheiet. See beien. 

icudd, icudde. See eu^en. 

iher, iberde. See iheren. 

icumene. See cumen. 

ihered. See berien. 

icuplet, pp., from *caploo., to tie, 

iberen, inf., to hear, listen to, 

^ eoupk, 1059. 

2012; iber,imp.,2396; iberde. 

^L icuret. See curen. 

pret. sing,, 24, 140, 148. 

^M icwemet, pp., from *cwemea, to 

iberet. See berien. 

■ pUa>ej2% 

ibolen, pp., /row *belon, to conceal, 

^H idealet, pp., /rom ^dcalen, to deal, 


■ divide, 752. 

ihud, ibudd. S^abudde. 

■ idel. idU, vain, void. 470, 863; 

ihwer, everywhere, 1713. 

V idele, 391. 

ikelet, pp., from *kelen, to eool. 

idihfc. Se« ditteu. 


ido, idon. See don. 

iken, knowing, aemille, conicioui, 

idraten. See drahen. 


idriuen. See drvae'S. 

ikepen, inf., to receive, 398. 

H^ Igbu, ^Ma«, 616, 646, 707, 874, 

ilearet. See leaio. 

^m 1611, 1623. 1771, 1881, 1893, 

ilea*et,pp.,/»-e»t*lea«ien, (dc*<H, 

^B 2345, 3378, 2446, 2499. 

invite, 1895. 

^1 ifoUea. See faUen. 

iled. See loadeti. 

^H ifat, ifatte. See fatte. 

ileid. See leggen. 

^H iferen, plur. of *i£ere, companion. 

ileornet. See leornin. 

H fellow, 1366. 

ileuen, inf., to believe, 342 ; prea. 

^B ifestnet. See festnin. 

opt. plur., 1134. 

H ifinden, inf., to find, 515; ifont. 

Ueuet, pp., from *louen, to alhte. 

^B 3 p. pret. sing., 159. 

grant, 770, 1634, 1885, 2143, 

^B iflut, pp., from *fluttien, to travel. 

2147, 2383. 

■ _ fiit, 824. 

ilich, like to, 501 ; iliche, alike. 

^fl ifont. See ifinden. 

1663, 1668, 1678, 2478. 

H iforSet, pp., from *for=Sien, io 

iUche, hedy, figure, likeness, 1823. 

H effect. exeeuU, 2246. 

iUcnesse, Ukeneia, 991. 

^H ifoBtret, pp., from *fostrien, to 

ilitet, pp., from ♦litin, to colour. 

^H rear, nourish, 95. 



^H 166 ^^^^^^^^^^1 

H^ ilke, Mm«, ton/, 64, 210, 1093, 

ismaket, pp., from *amakien, to 

■ 1199, 1405, 2283, 2453; tery 

emoothe, 1660. 

V moment. 718, 789, 1852. 

*iBnie¥et, pp., from *8me^ien, to 

^* iloset. See losede. 

smooth, 1660. 

imakot. See makien. 

istenet, pp., from *3teneii, to lay 

imeaoe, in common, 1846, 

out Kith stonte, to pave, 1656. 

imenget, pp., from *nien}ten, to 

istewet. See atew. 

mix, trovblt, 608, 1659, 2457. 

iatrenget. See atrengea. 

imong, among, 1563. 

isturet. See aturien. ' 

i, in, in, 3, 4, 43, etc.; ine, in 

itake. See take. 

the, 1861. 

italde. See tellen. 

inempnet. See nempnedo. 

iteiet, pp., from *teien, to tie. 

inoh, enough, 346, 555, 972, 1036. 

1186, 1285, 151.3. 

1278, 1499 ; inolie, 513, 1565. 

itemet, pp., from *teiiiieii, to tamti, 

into, in to, 2342. 


inwarde. inner, sincere, 1797, 2435. 

itend, pp., from *tenden, to kindle. 

inwi^, within, 169, 609, 1643, 

154, 195. 

1903, 1918. 

itimbret, pp., from *timbrien, to 

iopenet, pp., from *opemen, to 

itttM, 1948. 

open, 2422. 

itumd, iturade. See tumen. 

ipnid, pp.,/rDm *pruden, to pride, 

ijjolet. See Jolien. 

here=to drees ehoicil^, proudly, 

iwaket, pp., from *wakien, to 


wake, 1750. 

im, iron, 2004; ime, dat., 2178. 

iwald. See wealt. 

irnene, adj., iron, 1922,1924.2120. 

iweddet, pp., from *weddien, to 

iechapen. See acheop. 

wed, marry, 1507, 2349, 2419. 

iaehftwet. See schawin 

iwemmet pp., from *weniinen, to 

ischepene. See scheop 

soil, 1416 

iactrud, isohnidd See schrudde 

iwcnd See wenden. 

iseelede, pp., from *seelin, to teal, 

iwenden, inf., to turn, ply, lend. 



iseh, isehen See iwon 

iwent, iwente. See wenden. 

laeid See eeggea 

iwiket, pp , from *wikieii, to 

isend, iscnt See sende 

dwell, stay, 1740, 1743. 

iBBo See iseon 

iwrahte See wurchen. 

iseon, mt , to nee, percette, 2304, 

iwre^%et See wre^Sen. 

isiat, 2 amg. pre* , 1073 , iseh. 

iwundet, pp , from *wimdieii, to 

pret. smg., 2203, isehen, pp., 

wound, 169. 

907, 1002, 1730, 2042. 

iset. See scttcn. 

iwur^ea, in!,, to become, get, he, 

iseten. See aittea. 

791, 1745; pret. plur., 2454. 

isette. See setten. 

iwur^got. See wur^gin. 

isihen. See eihoa. 

isiat. Se« iseon. 

kaaten, inf., to cast, throw, 945, 

ialein, ialeine. See eldh. 

1547, 1964; kaste, pret. sing., 

ialiket, pp., from *8likieii, to dtck. 

1351, 1977. 

polish, 1660. 

Eaterine, Katherina, 76, etc. 

^^^^1^1 ^H 

kBCche^, 3 p. sing, pres., from 

*ladlich, hatUy, 3288. 

*kecchen, (e MicA 257; cahten, 

laho, law, 430, 779, 963, 1340, 

pret. p!ur., 1965. 


teiser, emperor, 197, 207, 306, 

khe, adj., lote, ancient ? 320. 

377, etc.; kaiaere, 178; kei- 

lahede, pret. sing., front *lahien. 

serea, gen. sing., 3. 

to make a lav!, ordain, 1206. 

kempe, champion, victor, 802, 813 ; 

latinde, pres. part., from *lalilien, 

kampene, gen. plur., 2428. 

tolauqk, 1545, 1677. 

ken, knowing, sensible, 2041, 2222. 

lahtre, laughter, 2294. 

kenchen, to laugh, 2015. 

lake. See lao. 

kene, hm-dj/, strong, sharp, 171, 

lam, clay, 991, 2150. 

1909 ; kenre, comp., 1929 ; 

Ian, reward, 805. 

keneat, sup., 814. 

lanhnre, at least, 558, 774, 1073, 

keneliche, boUlg, 2209. 


kenest. See kene. 

lare, learning, doctrine, 115, 384, 

kenni^S, pres. plur.,/roin*kennen, 

468, 477, 865,938, 1011, 1280. 

to proftss, annovnee, 133S, 

larspel, doctrine, 385. 


lastelese, hhmeless, 105. 

kenre. See kene. 

late, lately, recently, 901. 

kepe, 1 p. sing. pre8.,/roin*kepia. 

lates, plur. of *late, koh, face. 

to care, he anxious for, 2298 ; 


kepe%, 3 p. prea. eing., 2424; 

lauerd, Lord, 228, 480, 633, 644, 

kepeS, pres. plur., 801 ; kepta. 

679, 707, etc. 

pret. sing., 96. 

lead, leadde. See leaden. 

kepe%, kepte. See kepe. 

leaden, inf., to lead, treat, 627, 

kinebuih, royaJpa&w, eastU, I860. 

2205 ; leadest, 2 p. sing, pres.. 

2213; leaded, 3 p. sing, prea., 

H 1844, 2149. 

259, 478, 1038, 1753; lead. 

^H kinemede, royal meed, 398. 

imp., 2278 ; leadde, pret. sing.. 

^H kinemotes, plur, o/kineiaot, royd 

1580; ledde, 2318; ledden, 

H council, 1954. 

pret. plur., 2219; iled, pp., 

■^ kineriche, kingdom, 179, 409, 


■ 2277. 

leaf, helief, US, 384; leane, 386, 

^H kinering, royal ring, 408. 

832, 962. 

^m kineseotle, throne, 45, 722. 

leaf, leafde. See leauen. 

H kinewiir«e, royal, noble, 568, 758, 

leaflul, faithful, 1038 ; leaffule, 

H 1380. 


H king, Mng, 27, 220, 863, 432, 

leapinde, pres. part.,/rom *leapen. 

^B 510, etc. ; kinge, dat. sing.. 

to bound, 194; leop, pret. sing.. 

^1 1300, 1485; kinges, gen, sing., 


H 73, 464, 2201. 2258; kinges, 

leare, 1 p. sing, prea., j^om *learen. 

^H nom. pi., 224, 636 ; kinge, gen. 

to teach, 2281 ; lerden, prrt. 

H pi., 2211. 

plur. 489; ilearet, pp., 38B, 

859, 1307. 

^M lac, offering, present, 54, 166, 

lease, loose, false, 1009, 1762, 

^M 1872; lake, 62, 200, 1898; 


H lakes, plur., 435. 

least, last, 41 ; leate, 587. 

^^B ^^^^^^^^^^H 

H^ leasteu, M., to last, 277 ; Ieste%, 

leohe, den, 1827. ' 

^1 3 p. smg. pros., 1629; leaete%, 

leorae, light, gleam, 476, 668, 

■ 2164; leaete^, pres. plur., 

1582, 1681, 2376; leomen. 

^1 1704; lesLinde, pres. part., 

plur., 902, 1046. 

■ 2294. 

leomen, plur., o/'Ieom, limh, 251. 

leop. See leapjnde. 

^ leoiing, 344, 788. 

leer, leir,faee, 313, 1422; leores, 

lesue, leave, permitiifm, 2371. 

plur., 1420. 

leauen, inf., to leave, desert, 428, 

leornede. See leoniin. 

1621, 2242; leaae*, prea. plur., 

leomin, 110; leomi, 1 p. sing. 

1340, 1786; leaf, imp. smg., 

pres., 940 ; leornede, pret. eing.. 

1009; leaue«, imp. plur., 17ei; 

831 ; ileomet, pp., 386. 

lef, imp., allow, 1878; leafde. 

leose. See leosen. 

pret. eing., 479, 2500. 

leoaen, inf., to lose, 804, 996; 

lefdi, lady, 88, 104, etc.; lefdis, 

Icose, 1 p. sing, pres., 1879 ; 

gen. sing., 2192; lefdis, plur., 

leose^, pres. plur., 1637. 

1478, 2328, 2334. 

leoten, inf., io let, cause, permit, 

leggen, inf., io lay, put, 772, 779; 

value, 2092, 2097, 2252; leten. 

leist, 2 p. Bing. pres., 1872; 

943, 1464 ; leoteS, pres. plur.. 

leiden, pret. plur., 2220 j ileid, 

806; lete, prea. opt. sing., 774; 

pp., 1424. 

let, pret. sing., 695, 812, 1920, 

lei. See liggen. 

1932; lette, 354, 791; lettan. 

lei, Ima, religion, 164, 319, 830, 

pret. plur., 2329. 


leoue, leouere, leouest. See leof. 

\e\, fire, fame, 195, 1401; leie, 

leo^ien, io slacken, 1519. 

672, 1360, H06, 1651. 

leowsia, toloosm, 1519. 

leiden. See leggen. 

lerden. Se$ leare. 

leie. See lei. 

lesse. See lutol. 

leien. See liggen. 

lease's, pres. plur., from *leB8en, 

leist. See leggen. 

to diminish, 1703. 

loitede, pret. sing., from *Ieiten, 

leste. See least. 

lo flame, glow, 672, 1583; 

leste, oonj., lest, 2354. 

leitinde, pres. part., 1361, 

lest^n, to give, 1790. 

1651, 1681. 

leste%, lestinde. See leasten. 

lenen, to heataw, lend, 1084. 

let. See leoten. 

Itngre. See long. 

leue. See leuen. 

leof, deitr, beloved, 2231 ; leoue, 

leuen, inf., to believe, 326, 1747, 

771, 1040, 1366, 2128, 2418; 

1761 ; leue, 1 p. sing, prea., 

leouere, comp., 1866, 2280; 

937, 1506, 2107 ; leue«, pres. 

leouest, sup., 2420. 

plur., 873, 961, 1785; lef, imp. 

leof, subs., sweetheart, 785, 1880. 

sing., 1073; lefde, pret, sing,, 

leofliche, lovely, 1542; affection- 


ately, 2193. 

Hbben, inf., io live, 706, 1872, 

1878, 2163, 2230, 2275, 2282; 

875, 1846, 1894, 2106, 2305, 

liue=S, 3 p. sing, prea., 1734; 

2348, 2418, 2445, 2498; leof- 

liuiende, prea. part., 1220,1518, 

monues, gen. sing., 1505. 



lich, lody, 1542 ; lichea, plur,, 

licome, corpie, hody, 213, 2192, 
2202, 2219, 240S ; licomes, 
plar., 2253. 

licomliclie, hodily, 42. 

lif, life, joy, 474, 478, 686, 894, 
1046, 1085, 1117, 1376, 1520, 
1633, 1686, 1694, 1880, 1884, 
2151, 2164. 2292, 2348, 2356, 
2376, 2408, 2421, 2445, 2500; 
liue, dat., 251, 1214, 1753, 
2360 ; Hues, gon. aing.. 706. 

liffule, fall of Ufa, life-giving, 832, 

lifleouie, plur. of *Iifleoni ? life- 
long or tru« lover ? 1674. 

lifleae, lifeless, 894, 1045. 

liggen, ini., to lie, belong, become, 
2254; li?, 3 p. sing, pres., 
778 ; Iigge«, pres. plur., 2357 ; 
lei, pret. sing., 28; leien, pret. 
plur., 1420. 

liht, Buba., light, 1582, 1680. 

liht. See lihteS. 

lihte, adj., light, frivolom, 106. 

lihteu, to kindle. 1400. 

liktelS, 3 p. sing., to aligM, 
descend, 1773 ; lihte, pros, opt., 
775 ; liht, imp., 101 1 ; lihtiude, 
pres. part., 667; lihte, jffet sing., 
901 ; lihten,pret. plur., 2461. 

lihtliche, lightly, 943, 1544, 2095. 

lihtliche, adj.wnmon, tMua^, 1313. 

lilie, lily, 1423. 

lime^, 3 p. sing, pres., from 
•limen, to lime, glue, ITli.. 

limped, 3 p. aing. prea., from 
*Iimpen, to belong, tend, 470. 

linnet, 3 p. pres. sing., from 
♦linnen, to eease, 1702. 

linnunge, end, ceasing, 1679; 
linunge, 2165. 

liste, design, craft, 1233, 1516. 

li%. See liggea. 

li^erede, pret. aing., front *Li?e- 
rieu, to foam, froth, 1543. 

Hue, Hues. Sea lif. 

Iiue%, liuiendc. See libben. 

liunea, gen. plur., of *liun, lion, 

lo, lo! look! behold! 98, 1843, 

2425 ; low, 847, 1207, 2421 ; 

lowr, 2214, 2403. 
loke. See lokin. 
lokede, pret. aing., from *]oken, 

to lock, resolve, determine, 1206. 
lukin, inf., to look, consider, 1585 ; 

loke, imp. aing., 2279; bbede, 

pret. siug., 790, 1970, 2319. 
lend, land, country, 49, 518, 586, 

1693, 2148. 
long, long, 436, 517; longe, 1372, 

1741, 1798, 2275; leugre, 

comp., 809, 1761, 2278. 
longede. See longed, 
longed, 3 p. Bing. pres., from 

*longien, to long for, desire, 

1892; longede, pret. aing., 1556. 
losede, pret. sing., from *losien, 

to lose, 1117 ; iloset, pp., 2019. 
low. See lo. 
lowinge, lowing, 143. 
lowT. See lo. 
lude, loud, 2033; ludere, dat., 

ludinge, noise, 144, 2320. 
lufsum, loueh/i 313; lufBume, 104, 

1419, 2305. 
lufte, Aat.from *luft, air, 2093. 
luftfuhelea, plur. of "luftfuhel, 

bird of the air, 2245. 
luken, to draw, pull, tear, 2097. 
*lungunge, longing? desire? 1679. 

Perhaps miiteritten from lin- 
nunge, end, ceasing. 
lure, loss, 804 ; luren, plur., 1635. 
lost*, pret. sing., from *luat«n, to 

desire, 1576. 
lusti, merry, 1678. 
lustnon. See luatnin. 
lustuin, to hear, listen to, 784, 

1747; lustnon, 110. 
lui,few, little, 35; lute, dat., 2153. 


X78 ^^^^^^^^^^1 


Intede, pret. ring., Jrom *lutien, to 

1762, 2069; manmeteB, gen. 

hehidim, 1828. 

plur., 142. 


Intel, little, 354, 806, 1895, 2148 ; 

MaxencG, noun pr., 1, 10, 15, 24, 


lude, 2152, 2482 ; IcBse, comp.. 



me, Now ! Why > bttt, 325, 589, 

Iu«er, rode, cruel, relmtlen, 558, 


1234, 1517; latere, 900. 

me, one {theif, yov), 238, 567, 626, 

lute's, pres. plur., from *luten, to 

719, 1176, 1405, 1751, 1752, 

bow, 1764. 

2012, 2130, 2199,2204, 24S5. 

lntle. See lutel. 

mealde. See mealo. 

laue, hve, 557, 632, 1377, 1505, 

meais,'u£.,to speak, 1722; mealde. 

1520, 1637, 1772,2107, 2129, 

pret. Bing., 1238, 1241. 

2347, 2391, 2438. 

meanen, to moan, mean, think, 1236, 

Inuede. See Inuien. 


luuernnes, plur. of *liiueniii, love 

meast. See muche. 

talk, 109. 

mede, meed, reward, 415, 2350, 

luuien, inf., to love, 430 ; luueS, 

2379; meden, plur., 38, 758, 

3 p. sing. preH., 228 ; luuie^. 

889, 1632. 

prea. plur., 951, 1725; limede. 

mcdin, to reward, 414. 

pret. BiBg., 106, 831, 999. 

mcdliche, madly, 2083. 
raedschipe, madneM, 267, 325, 

ma. See muehe. 

2037 ; madsehipe, 236. 

madsehipe. See mcdsohipe. 

mei, 1 and 3 p. sing, pres., of 

mahe, mahen, malit, matte, mah- 

*muhen, to may, can, be able 

ten, mahtu. See mei and mihtc. 

of 225, 567,1140, 1175, 1501, 

makede, makeet, maket, inake%. 

1503, 1516, 1718, 1775,2406, 

See makien. 

2407, 2474; maht, 2 p., 768, 

makien, inf., to male, 265, 416, 

2274; mahtu=malit >u, 1494; 

58^, 1026, 1464, 2340; makest. 

maken, pres. plur., 361, 756, 

2 p. sing., 1487; makeS, 3 p. 

1672, 2071 ; mahe, opt. sing.. 

sing., 260, 297, 3037 ; makie^. 

965, 966, 1012, 1891, 2304; 

pres. plur., 500 ; makede, pret. 

maht«, pret. sing., 123, 176, 

sing., 481, 990, 1207 ; maket, 

555, etc.; mihte, 1080; mahten, 

pp. 1074; imaket, 492, 2267. 

pret. plur., 293, 418, 1216, ' 

makio^. See makien. 

1584, 1698. 

meidea, maiden, 65, 77, etc. ; 

marbrestan, marble done, 1479. 

meidenes, gen. sing., 909, 1314, 

mare. See muche. 

2063 ; meidenes, plur., 2326 ; 

marhen, taorrote, mtmmg, 603, 

meidnes, 705, 1565, 1831, 

647, 721, 1861, 2199. 

2334,2414; meidene, gen. plur,, 

Marie, Mary, 881. 

2351, 3379, 2426. 

martir, nartyr, 2186, 2197 ; mar- 

Tociahd, powerful, 1094, 2043. 

tirs, gen. pi., 2253. 

ineistien,m{., to master, 590,1273; 

raartirdom, martt/rdom, 695, 1410. 

moistre^, 3 p. aing., 549 j 

mate, done, vanquished, 1989. 

meistre, imp., 657 

manmez, plur. of *maumet, idol. 

meiBtTea,plur„fl/*meiBter, master, 

59, 202, 265, 434, 455, 492, 

119,446, 467,534,737,753. 



QLO^ABT. 173 ^H 

meistrio, rmelery, 133, 

inisnome, pret. opt. sing., from 

meiShad, MarrfCTiAW, 137, 1508, 

♦misneoraen, to mistake, 454. 


misseist, 2 p. sing, pres,, from 

md, ww;, 1819. 

men. See mon. 

missen, to fail, mite, 653. 

menu esse, human nature, 985, 

mistmncheV, 3 p. aing. prcB,,/roM 

1115, 1132. 

•miabunchen, to seem Krottg, 

menske, glory. 134. 


menske, imp., from *menakeii, to 

mit. See mid. 

dignify, 1983. 

mix, dirt=dirty, vile, 200, 2069. 

meoke, meek, 103, 1272. 

mod, mood, mind, courage, 609, 

meokelec, meekneM, 1233. 

2135, 2327. 

mercminnea, gen, sing., of *iaere- 

inoder, motlier, 930. 

minne, mermoii, 1490. 

raaAerh\xth, capital, principal lou)n. 

merreS, prea. plur., from *merren, 


to mar, destroy, 1763. 

moderleaa, moihsrlesa. 28. 

meat. See muche. 

modi, hardy, brave, 417, 724, 738; 

mete, meat, eatables, 1819. 

modie, 119; modgcate, eup., 

mi, my, mine, 647, etc. ; min, 


1496, etc.; mine, 575, etc. 

mon, man, 237, 323, 352, etc. ; 

Michael. 709. 

monnes, gen. sing., 235, 332, 

mid, foith, 105, 126, etc. ; mit, 

494, 1001, etc. ; men, plur.. 

662, etc. 

83, 144, 258, 260, etc. ; monne, 

midaUe, too, in addition, witJial, 

gen. plur., 450, 2022. 

1831. Sw-wiBolle. 

moncun, mankind, 1194. 

midniht, midnight, 1733, 

mondream, Joy of human life. 

mihtfl, snba., might, poteer, 656, 


1015,1049, 1271, 1982; mahte. 

mone, moon. 270, 351. 

648; mihtea, plur. 1330, 2084. 

mone«, month. 1414, 2183, 2494. 

mihti. mighty, powerful, 1442, 

monhad, the being a man, humanity, 



mile, viilk, 2457. 

monie, mamj, 87, 582, 697, 737, 

milce, mercy, 295, 1375, 

1563, 1697, 1830, 1850, 2053, 

niiloe, imp., from *milcien, to he 

2267, 2322. 

graeioui, 2386. 

monlich, human, 1317. 

milde, mild, 103, 1375, 2378. 

monne. See mon. 

min, mine. See mi. 

most. Sec mot. 

miracle, miracle, 1415; miracles. 

mot, argument, riasoniny, moot. 

pinr., 1074, 

assembly, 548, 590, 1271, 1314, 

miflbileane, xmlelief, 348, 773, 

1318, 1319, 2425; motea, plur.. 



miadude, pret. aing.,>om *misdoD, 

mot, 1 p., to must, may, 1896; 

to tranegrets, J201. 

most, 2 p., 1869; moten, prea. 

miaferden, pret. plnr., from *mia- 

plur., 501, 653 ; moste, pret. 

fearen, to go wrong, 93, 

aing., 1387, 1553. 

^m misliche, variotu, divert, 38, 269, 

motede. See motin. 

^m 436, 988, 1658. 

moten. See mot. 

^^M J^^^^^^^H 

^V Djoterea, plur. of *motere, mooter, 

751; nauelS, 3p., 274; nabbe, 

■ dispittator, 724. 

pres. plur., 1266; naue, imp.. 

^1 motes. See mot. 

782; nefdo, pret. sing., 665, 

^H moteBtn, inote%, mnti. £«« motin. 

1246, 2415. 

^1 motild, fitnale diiputatoi; 396, 

nai, JVfly.' 776, 821, 2287. 


nakede, ths naked, 102. 

^r motin, inf., to moot, argue, 588, 

nalde. Sm nuUicb. 

754 ; moti, 1 p. pres. sing., 760 ; 

nan, nane. See na. 

moteatTi=motestfiu, 2 p., 2083; 

nat, 1 p., /rom *nuten, to ignore, 

mote^, 3 p., 1316; motode, 

not to know, 443, 511; nuste. 

pret. sing., 1238. 

pret. sing., 149, 1635, 2313; 

Moyses, Moieg, 2466. 

nusten, pret. plur., 1802. 

muche, mueh, 227, 413, 989, 1345, 

naue. See nabbe. 

2061; muchel, mucA, great, 

uawiht, mthing, not, 283, 473, 

456, 1415; muohele, great 

475, 607, 675, 747, 759, 762, 

{muck), 37, 236, 656, 1014, 

etc. ; nawit, 1533. 

1239, 1330, 2085; raa, comp., 

nawt, not, 85, 346, 751, 768, 778, 

more, 1811 ; mare, 70, 236, 267, 


fi50, 898, 1020, 1239, 1348, 

ne, not, nor, 109, etc. 

1463, 1530, 1668, 1704, 2027, 

neauor, never, 124, 257, 279, etc.; 

2104, 2105, 2109, 2159, 2477 ; 

neuer, 1254. 

moast. Blip., moat, greatest, 813, 

nebschaft, /ams, 447, 1446; neb- 

816, 1281, 1889, 2276, 2326; 

Bchoft, 913. 

mest, 537 ; meaat, almoet, 29. 

nede (inst. of *ned, nemaity). 

munne. See munnen. 

neede, 1869. 

munnen, inf., to say, mention, re- 

nefdo. Set nabbe. 

count, 169^,2474 ; muime, Ip. 

neb, nigh, near, 2094. 

preB. Biag., 715, 1196 ; mun- 

neQes, plur. o/*neil, nail, 2120. 

nest, 2 p. 971 ; munae^, prea. 

nempnede, pret. sing. , from *nemp- 

plur., 2389, 2432. 

nen, to name, eall, 1329 ; inemp- 

munt, mountain, 2465. 

net, pp., 76. 

murh=Se, mirth, joy, 1760, 2274, 

neode, deitre, want, need, 9, 2395. 

2350;mur«e,1411; murh^en, 

neodelea, UHCo»st^ained{ly), 1023, 

plur., 1697, 2159; murliSes, 



neodfule, the needy, 102. 

murie. merry, Joyful, 314, 705, 

nooraen, inf., to take, aeiume, 1001, 


1179,2117,2407; neome, pres. 

miiS, mouth, 192, 314, 495, 647, 

opt. eing., 2407 ; nom, pret. 

686, 1486, 1699, 1722, 2474. 

aing., 908, 1023, U70, 1817; 

nomen, pret. plur., 1433. 

na, no, none, 225, 234, etc. ; nan. 

118, 123,624, etc.; cane, 106, 

nere, neren, nee. See nia. 

107, etc. ; nanes, gen., 974, 

neuer. S«. neaner. 

1070, 1106, 1163, 1235, 1912. 

'aiA,nigM, 1432, 1580, 1682, 1748, 

nabbe, 1 p. prea. sing., /rom 

1741,2189,2250; nibtes, gen., 

♦nabben, to be in want of, not 


to have, 1748; nanest, 2 p., 

nis, 3 p. sing, pros., from *ne 

^^^^m^H^H ^1 

^^^^F h* ^. ^ 

beon, mi to it, 234, 280, 299, 

of, of, from. 79, etc. 

etc.; nea, pret. ind. emg., 118, 

*ofcumen, pp., from *ofemnen, (o 

123, 304, etc. ; nere, pret. opt. 

sing., 898, 1050, 1082, 1086, 

ofdrad, pp., from *ofdroden, to 

1278, 1310; aeren, pret ind. 

fear, 675. 

plur., 2250; pret. opt. plur.,317. 

•ofdutet, pp., fi-om *ofduten, to 

no, not, 1939, 2232. 

douht, 2430. 

noht, nothmg, 343, 1 714, 2103. 

ofeamed, pp., from *ofearaea, to 

nohwer, nowhere, 1715; nower, 

earn, deterw, 2223. 

2094 ; nowhwer, 1306. 

offearet, pp., from *oiloaren, to 

nom. See neomen. 

frighten, 90, 670, 1244. 

Home, name. 443, 461, 651, 660, 

otfrin, to offir, 1898 ; otfrede, pret. 

680, 765, 942, 1040, 1076, 

Bing., 1899. 

1329, 1380, 1431, 1472, 1839, 

offiubt, pp., from *offurliton, to 

1983; nomen, plur., 269. 

frighten, 670, 1244, 1615. 

ofhungret, pp., from *ofhungron. 

cuSeat, comp., 815. 

U hmgn; famish^ 1030. 

nomeliche, eapeeially, 21. 

ofaeniin, to deserve, 2137. 

nomen. 5^ neomen. 

ofte, often, 120; oftest, sup., 113. 

^ nomen. S«. nome. 

H no'Seles, mt the leas, in »pite of all, 

oht, good, worthy, genuins, 1712, 

H 1869. 


^B Ifouembres, gen. of Ifouembre, 

oht, ought, anything, 1913. 

■ November, 1414, 2183, 2494. 

oOmnnge, battery, 1492. 

■ nowcin, mUeryf 1171, 1683, 1840, 

on, on, in, 2, 20, etc. ; o, 41, 45, 

■ 2395. 


■ nower. Sm nohwor. 

on, 1 p. sing, pres., from *uiuieii. 

^H now^ei, neith^, 230, 361, 443, 

not to grudge, to allow, 1744 ; 

^1 509, 621, 1164, 1176, 1416, 

unnen, prea. plur., 2344. 

■ 1503, 1S17, 1549, 1685, 1686, 

onden, aco. sing. ? of "onda, envy, 

1687, 1703, 2071. 


nn, nou>, 393, 503, 514, 795, 818, 

onont, concerning, in regard to, 

823, 968, 977, 1078, 1260, etc. 

about. 455, 1096, 1109, 1115, 

nQllicli=iiuUe ich, 1 prea. sing.. 

1118, 1120, 1159, 1177, 2496. 

■ from *nullen, not to iviU, 509 ; 

onaware, answer, 978; onawcre, 

■ niilt, 2 p., 1070, 1874, 2232; 


^1 no]tu=iitLlt>ii, I018;niile,3p., 

onawerede. See onawerien. 

H 763, 1939; nullen, prea. opt. 

onawerien, inf., to aniwer, 812; 

H (ind.?) plur., 1324; nalde,pret. 

onswerie, 1 p,, 1711; onawarie, 

H sing., 108, 428, 657, 1975, 

prea. opt. aing.,516; onswerede, 

^H 2252, 2336, 2339. 

pret. aing., 460, 543, 577, 953, 

^H niirV, noise, 140. 

1129, 1296, 1391, 1483, 1639, 

^B. nuBto, nnsteii. Seen&t. 


H iiu«e, am, 2089. 

ontende, pret. aing,, from *on- 


tandan, to kindle, 1404. 

■ 0, intcrj., 0/ 1366. 

open, <5>fln, 1128. 

■ o. S^eon. 

orcoat, wealth, 1709. 

^^1 GLOSSARY. ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

H^ a%er, or, 93, 112, etc. 

ponre, poor, 50, 63. 

■ a%er, other, otheri, 101, 274, 479, 

preonea, pinr. of *preon, luul. 

■ 489, 739, 790, 803, etc. ; o«ere. 

point, 1934. 

H 983, 1127, 1675, 1776; o«re, 

prince, yri'nw, ehiif, 579, 1559. 

H 30, 1051, 113B, 1140, 1141, 

prophetB, prophft, 1826. 

H 1297, 1365, 1475, 1962, 1966, 

prud, proud, 1310; pmde, 579. 

^f 2082, 2224, 2229. 

prudeliche, proudly, gorgeously, 

oner, over, 2030. 

578, 1448. 

oueral, everywhere, all oner, 727, 

puiBun, ^oMOB, 2312. 

1470, 1778, 2017, 2308. 
oaercnmen, inf., to overcame, 418, 

purpre, y«r;;&, 1450. 

quolS. See cweSe. 

803, 959, 967 ; oueicom, prat. 

sing., 1125, 1231; ouercumen, 

rake, mate, jaws, 917, 1138. 

pp., 15, 132, 560. 

raketehen, plur. o/^'raketeie, chain, 

ouergealS, 3 p. Bing. pres., from 


*ouergaji, to traverse, go over, 

ra=Se, quickly, readily, 555, 972. 

pnss over, 1883; ouergan, pp.. 

luwe, rom, line, 1930. 


read, advice, counsel, regard, 6, 

ow, you, yows, 275, 276, 346, etc. 

580, 1370, 1453, 1945, 1975. 

ower, your, of you, yours, 344, 

reode, adj., red, 1360, 1421. 

570, 642, 805, 807, 830, etc. 

readesmen, plur. of *reade8mon, 

counsellor, 574. 

paraises, gen. o/*parai8, Paradise, 

readlicho, readily, 1409. 


vaesmn, passim, 1157, 2390, 2433. 

reames, pi. 162. 

pel, paU, 1450. 

reauin, to rob, bereave, 1222. 

PhilistioaeB, gen. of *Pliilistion, 

reiadbipe, government, 11. 

PhiUitio, 854. 

reiaun, account, 2216. 

pikes, plur. of *pic, pike, spike. 

reraen, to Keep, lament, 2339. 

1923, 1929. 

renden, inf., torend, lacerate, 2121. 

pilegrimes, plar. of *pilegrim. 

reolSeren, plur. o/'*reoSer, rather, 

pilgrim, 2470. 

ox, 60. 

pine, pain, 1157, 1912, 2139, 

reowfule, ruffM 162. 

2152, 2156, 2390; pinen,plur.. 

roow^e, sorrow, 2340. 

42, 1031, 1616, 2493. 

reow^fulliche, ptiwtts^, 1974. 

pine«, 8 p. sing, prea., from 

re8te,mil, 2154, 2341. 

*pin™. to torment, 1807. 

rested, 3 p. sing, prea., from 

pinfule, tormenting, 1955. 

*re8ten, to rest, 2481. 

•plane, place, presence, 1309. 

reuen, plur. of *roue, prefect, 

Platunes, gen. of *Platun, Plato, 



pleiende, pres. part., from *pleien. 

2155, 2342. 

to play, 1676. 

riclie, rich, noble, 50, 60, 2328. 

plohen, plur. o/*pblie, play, 106. 

riht, right, 873, 950, 961, 1079, 

Porphire, Porphirms, 1558, 1578, 

2103; rihte, 769, 1509, 1638, 

1640, etc. 

2438, 2489. 

^m .177 ^ 

rihtbileafde, thogewAo have the true 

1618, 2230, 2276; Mhaltu= 

faith, trw believers, 2377. 

Shalt >u, 2094, 2112; Bcbuleu, 

rihte, pret, sing., from *rihteii. 

pres. plur., 277, 394, 574, 638, 

to direct, correct, 1751. 

689,697, 784. 810, etc.; schul- 

rihtwise, righteous, 1229. 

len, 2358; Bchuldeat, 2 p. pret. 

rihtwiaUche, hmettly, fairly, 753. 

sing., 468, 1019; Bchulde, 3 p. 

ring, ring, 1508. 

252, 604, 896, 992, 1439, 1448, 

riime^. See eornen. 

3357, 2366 ; schuldeu, pret. 

plur., 288, 621. 

risle^, pres. plur., from *rijdien, 

Bchape, shape, fgtire, 448, 1447. 

to rule, 224. 

BCliarp, sharp, 2234 ; scharpe, 

rixlinge, reign, 44. 


rode, (TOM, rood, 193, 926, 1136, 

schaw, Bchawde, schaweS. See 

1158, 1198, 1334, 1901, 2600. 


Rome, Rome, 4, 11, 28. 

schawin, inf., to show, 2090 ; 

ron. See eornen. 

Bciiawe?, 3 p. sing, pres., 449 ; 

ronnes, plur.o/*ron, lovejtoem, 108. 

schawiS, pres. plur., 1349; 

rose, fwe, 1423. 

Bchaw, imp., 606; Hchawde, 

roten, plur. (i/*rote, root, 2122. 

pret. Bing., 883, 913, 1036, 

rudie, rurfrfy, 1421. 

1331, 1834; iachawet, pp., 1561. 

run, secret, mystery, 1333 ; ruaea, 

schelde, dat. of* &chAA, shield, 809. 

plur., 575. 

acheudlac, shame, disgrace, 1278. 

rune, stream, flow, course, 1398, 

acliene, leautiful, bright, 447, 

1934, 2005. 

1446; schenre, comp., 1646. 

raten, pret. plur., from *ruten, to 

Bcheome, shame, 91, 349, 1279, 

dart, 2005. 

1381 ; schome, 808. 

acheop, pret. sing., _^om*acheapen, 

^H eahen, plur. of *Bahc, expression, 

to create, shape, 217, 303 ; 

^M »aying, 358, 882, 646. 

schop, 238 ; ischapen, pp., 219 ; 

^1 sake, iake, 98. 

ischapeue, pp., 1783, 

■ sdlum, Ho «»ii#, 1025. 

8cheote%, imp. plur.,/ro»» *ac!ieot- 

■ Bar, sore, ache, 1164, 1635. 

ea, toshoot,%U. 

H Bare, adv., «we. Utterly, 2238, 

aoiep, plur. o/*schep, sheep, 60. 

^1 2325. 

Bchininde, pres. part., from 

■ sari, sad, 2327. 

*schiuen, to skim, 1646. 

^^ SathaneBBes, gen. of *Sathanes, 

BcMr, sheer, mere, 1279. 

H .Safan, 2210. 

schome. See acheonie. 

^H Baunre, savoury, delieiou; 1527. 

Bchop. See aeheop. 

H Bawie, w< 213, 2409 ; sawlen, 

Bchrenchtfl, pret. sing., frora 

^1 plur., 291. 

*Bchrenclien, to cheat, 1 184. 

^^ Bchad, faculty of distinction, 238. 

Bchrud, clothing, shroud, 912. 

^H Bchaite, creature, product, 237, 

achrudde, pret. aing.,/»'om*sclirud- 

^1 366, 882 ; BchafteB, plur., 249. 

ea, to shroud, 910; ischrud.pp.. 

^H Bchal, 1, 3 p., U owe, be obliged. 

1449; ischrudd, 1182. 

^H {ehall, oi^ht) to be or have to {do). 

schulde, Bchulden, schuldest, 

^H 241, 339, 402, etc. ; sahalt, 2 p.. 

sohulen, schullen. See sehal. 

^H 396, 515, 783, 1457, 1476, 1613, 

schuldi, guUty, 2264. 



^B ^^^^^l^^^^l 

■ BClmnien, inf., fa «>w, *Aa», 810; 

aeoluer, «&w, 268, 493, 1654. 

■ Bchuuie, pres. opt. aing., 1794. 

aeon, inf., to see, 1557. 1718, 

■ Bchuppent, creator, 253, 302, 366, 

2056, 2289; aeh, pret. sing.. 

■ 882, 911. 

170, 476, 1562. 1911, 2321; 

^1 BChurgon, pliir.o/*schurge, scourge, 

sehen, pret. plur., 278, 1598, 


2057. See iaeon. 

^1 Bcolmeiatrea, plur. of *acolmeiater, 

seoSen, then, afterwards, 397 ; 

H eehoolmader, 521. 

8Go'6=Sen, 827, 1332, 

■ ee. S^Bwa. 

aeoucn, seven, 1665. 

■ aeo, fMt, 1782. 

seruiS, prea. plur., frow *aeruin, 

^ ^Sge. Sm aeggen. 

to ierve, 2073. 

seggen, inf., to mif, 327, 638, 712, 

set, setcn. See sitten. 

749, 826, 877, 1315, 1535, 

Betten, inf., to set, put, 825, 1468 ; 

2263. 2471 ; aegge, 1 p. sing. 

sete, imp., 646 ; aette, pret. 

pres., 868, 1008, 1079, 1090, 

aing., 1571;i8et, pp., 114, 284, 

1463, 1718; seiat, 2 p. sicg. 

383, 1972, 2411; iaette, 359, 

prea., 391, 503, 954, lOSO; 


aei^, 3 p sing, prea., 486, 

sihen, to go, tealk, run, 2321 ; 

553; Begged, prea. plur., 321, 

aihinde, prea. part., 2417 ; 

349; aei, imp., 1350, 2210; 

isihen, pp., 2055. 

aeide, 1, 3 p. pret. aing., 153, 

aih^e, sight, vision. 496, 901, 

355, 442, 460, 482, 603, etc.; 

1607, 2288; sih«en, plur.. 

Beideat, 2 p. pret. aing., 634 ; 


aeiden, pret. plur., 532; iaeid. 

aikol, sieHe, 825. 

pp., 404, 665, 1384, 1993,2362, 

aiker, mre, certain, 25, 1007 ; 


sikere, 1217. 

aeh. See aeon. 

eingiade, pres. part, of *Bingen, 

seheliche, visilU, 249. 

losing. 1673. 

sei. See aeggen. 

si?e, times {as in four, five, times), ■ 

sehene, pp., visible, 1784. 
aeide, aeiat, sei^. See eeggen. 

793, 1287 ; aiSea, 1666. 

Bitten, to sit, 1562 ; aet, pret. 

Belh^en, plur. of *aelhSe, j'oi/, 

sing., 45, 138, 722 ; aeten, pret. 

Mist, 893. 

plur., 1253, 2008 ; iaetcn, pp., 

aeli, blissful, 1410, 1453. 


aemlich. seemly, pkasan^, 1447 ; 


semliche, 448. 

aende, 1 p. aing. pres., o/*8enden 

slakie, 1 p. aiaji. prea., from 

to send, 2409 ; seat, 3 p. pros. 

*Hlakien, to elack. relax, 2136. 

sing., 1528 ; aende, pret. aing., 

alee, mud, 1662. 

84, 150, 407; isend, pp., 711; 

slepten, pret. plur., from *alepen. 

isent, 1574. 

to shep, 1426. 

aeolf, self 58, 96, 1083, 1091, 

sloh, slough, 1662. 

1095, 1567, 1829, 1836, 1901, 

sloh, pret. sing., from *8lean, to 

2378; aeoluen, 130, 362, 634, 

slay, 1126; islein, pp., 199; 

1024, 1112, 1126, 1139, 1144, 

isleine, 2009. 

1173, 1291, 1454, 1835,2072, 

^medl, smell, 1588; smelle, gen. 


plur., 617. 

^^^^^M ^M 

smeallo*, 3 pora. aing. pres. from 

spec. See speoken. 

♦smeUen, to smell, 1526 ; smell- 

Bpeche, speech, 451, 496, 807. 

inde, pres. part., 2195, 

apek. See apeoken. 

smeate, pure, purijted, 1655. 

spende, pret. Bva^.,from *spenden, 

smechelS, 3 p. sing, pres., from 

to spend, 101. 

*ameccben, to taste, 1536. 

Bpeokon, inf., to speak, 1577, 

BmellG. See etoeai.. 

2058; Bpeokene, 312; spec. 

emellindfl. See amealleS. 

pret. aiug., 1836; spek, 308. 

smertliche, imartli/, tliarply, 1990. 

sprong, pret. sing., from *flpriii- 

fime^est, sup. of *6ine^e, smooth, 

geu, to spring, 2456. 

1666, 1661. 

Bpning, origin, 320. 

sme«etiche, smoothly, lightly, 356. 

sputia, to argue, dispute, 1308. 

smirede.pret. smg.,/m/n *6mirien, 

stalewur^e, steadfast, brave, 702, 

tosmear, anoint, 21S3; smiredea, 

1612, 1841. 2168. 

pret. plur., 1600. 

stalle, dat. of *stal, stand, post, 

emirkinde, pres. part., from *8mir- 

station, 683. 

kien, to smirh, imile, 356, 1484. 

sfac, stone, 266, 1353; stanes, 

.smirles. ointment, 1599, 2194. 

plur., 1657. 

^_ Btnit, imp.,/nwi*Bmiteii, to smite. 

atanene, of stone, stony, 2480. 

^^ 1990. 

starcliche, mightily, 717. 

^H snawhwite, snow-white, 2443. 

Starke, strong, 1925. 

H softe, soft, mild, 616, 1628. 

steah. See atihen. 

^H solite, pret. siag., from *aechen. 

Bteap, pret. sing., from *Btapeii, 

H to seek, 976. 

to step, go, 1853; atep, 713. 

H Bomet, together, 632, 931, 974, 

steape, shining, 307; Bteapre, 

H 1409, 1673, 1676, 1677, 2059. 

comp., 1647. 

Bteoren, inf. to stem; govern, 362 ; 

^H sondosmon, messenger, 517. 

H sone, triwn, 107, 476, 700, 829, 

flteoire, star, 1648; steorren, plur., 

H 892, 132S, 1541, 1591, 1628, 


H 1876, 1946, 2057, 2114, 2157, 

steortnaket, stark-naked, 1537. 

H 2262. 

ate'Selfest, eomtant, steadfast, 71. 

^H Bonge3, plur. o/*gong, song, 107. 

Bteuene, voiee, 206, 716, 1042, 

^H sorhe, sorrow, 1165, 1685. 

1386, 1980, 2033, 2166, 2416, 

^1 sorhful, sorrowful, 2327. 


^H so^S. sooth, true, right, 871, 924, 

steuenti*, pres. plur., from 

^H 929, 930, 932, 955, 958, 970, 

•stenenten, to stop, 1265. 

^B 1002, 1005, etc.; so^e, 153, 

stew, imp., froin *Btewien, to 

^1 189, 477, 1108, 1622, 2237. 

stow, stop, dxsist, 374, 1529; 

^H Botlicbe, foolishly, 359. 

iatewet, pp. 658. 

^H Botschipe, folly, 322 ; sotachipea, 

stihen, inf., to ascend, 1012, 1613; 


stcah, pret. sing., 338, 714, 

^H Botte, >o;i'«A, 107. 


^^H spakeu, plur. of *8pake, K^ioie, 

stille. still silent, 180, 373, 658, 


1253, 1265, 1641, 1980, 2u23. 

^H BparieB, proa, plur., from 'sparion. 

atillo, imp., from *stiJleE, to 

^H to ipar«, 807. 

slop, v.a., 1530. 

H 180 01^ 


^V Btod. See Btonden. 

Bnm, «offl«, 303, 811,1145; Bamme, 

■ Btonden, inf., lo liand, HBO; 

8, 37, etc. 

V stont, 3 p. sing, pres., H8I; 

BUmdel, lomeiehat, a littU, 669, 

stonde«,pre8.plur.,635; atond, 

1448, 2331. 

imp., 1841; etod, pret. sing.. 

sumerlich, summerlike, 1663. 

180, 197, 696, 716, 742, 2023; 

Btoden, pret. plur., 736, 1385, 

summe. See mrm. 


Bundrin, to separate, le separated. 

storliche, ffreatlff, 1268. 

sundered, 1776. 

Btorueae, pp. Jrom *Bteoruen, to 

sane, son. 327, 616, 955, 1095, 

die, 1043. 

1108, 1220, 1344, 1770,2064, 

Btrahte. See atreche. 


Btream, stream, 2479. 

Bunful, »injul, 198. 

streche, imp. sing.,/rofl»*Btrecclien, 

Buime, «■», 91, 1172, 1195. 

to streteA, hold, 2233; strahta, 

Buime, sun, 270, 351, 1666, 1782. 

pret. sing., 2441. 

antel, plain, evident, 322, 381, 

sti'enc^o. See streng'Se. 


Btrengen, to fortify, »trengthen. 

Butelcde. See sutelelS. 

941; istrenget, pp., 717,3167. 

BUtele^, 3 pere. sing, prea., to 4« 

atrengGBt. See stronge. 

shown, manifested, to show, mani- 

atrengSe, strength, 649, 701, 

fest, 1089 ; autelede, pret, aing., 

1517; strenc^e, 1014, 1234, 

1036, 1834. 


suteUche, manifestly, 1332. 

9tretfi,«(rfl((, 734, 1656. 


Btrif, strife, JigU. quarrel, 681, 

657, 665, 921. etf. ; se, 49, etc. 


swarf, pret. sing., _^oni*8weoruen, 

striked, 3 p. sing, prea., from 

to float, wave, 2181. 

*striken, to run, rush, 2479; 

swcorf, sword, 2090, 2180, 2234, 

Btrikimde, prea. part., 732. 

2451 ; Bweordes, gen. sitig.. 

atronge, s(ron^, 41, 1026 ; strengre. 


comp., 2096 ; aticngest, sup.. 

aweouBte. dat. of *8weouet. 


slumber, 1427. 

strupen, to strip, 1537. 

swerie, 1 p. eing. prea., from 

atucchen, plur. of *8tucche, piece, 

*Bwerien, to swear, 2084. 

fragment, stick, 1992, 2006. 

ewcte, sweet, 616, 1625 ; awettre, 

Btude, stead, plane, 3, 683, 

comp., 1691. Seeswote. 


sweteliche, sweetly, 674. 

studgi, prea. plur., from *8tudgin, 

*8wetewil, so sweet as you may 

to stop, eease, 1264. 

wish ?, 1690. 

atunde, time, 1263. 

Bwettre. See awete. 

aturede. See sturien. 

Bweuen, dream, swoon, 1560. 

eturiea, inf., to stir, move, 361, 

1267; sturede, pret. sing., 


2115 ; isturet, pp., 796. 

awiftliche, swiftlt/, quickly, 690, 

stute, imp. sing., pom *Btutteii, 


to leave off, desist, 1529. 

swiie, pres. opt. sing., from 

sulliche, strange, mysterious, 382. 

*Bwiken, to stop, 1937. 

^H OLOB8\IIY. 181 ^H 

BwinkeB, gen. ring, of *3wiDC, 

tellen, inf., to tell, ipeah, eount, 

labour, pain, 805. 

1700; tellers, pres. plur., 89; 

awipte, pret. sing,,/n»»i*Bwippen, 

talde, pret. sing., 1311 ; talden. 

to ttriks, 2452 ; awiptea, pret. 

pret. plur., 1701 ; italde, pp.. 

plui., 2179. 


Bwire, neek, 2091, 2233, 2443. 

temple, t^nple, 52, 142, 1479. 

Bwi^e, very, quicUy, very much. 

tone, ten, 793, 1287. 

much, 66, 121, 150, 307, 

tenno. See ]jeane. 

309, etc.; swi^ere, comp., 311, 

teon, inf., to draw, pull, 2098 ; 

413; swi^eat, sup., 733, 2076. 

ttihen, pret. plur., 2175. 

Bwote, amet, 1588, 2195; awottre. 

ieoixe, pain, grief, 402, 623, 1354, 

comp., 1691; awotest, Hup.,617. 

1503,1795; teonen, plur., 1888. 

See swete. 

teone?, 3 p. sing., from *tooneQ, 

swoteHche, meetly, 1392, 1427, 

to grieve, 550. 

1525. See sweteliehe. 

teria. See >erin. 

awucli, siieA, 140, 385, 648, 667, 

tea. See ];es. 

691, 1582, 1832, 1956, 1999, 

tesohrapet, pret. sing., from *to- 

2005; swucehe, 128, 265, 374, 

achrapiea ?, to ahave ?, terape f. 



Synai, Sinai, 2465. 

tet. See bet. 

te«, plur. of *to«, tooth, 191, 


ta. See pa. 

teueli. See tauelin. 

tac. See take. 

ti. See >i. 

tah. See {.iih. 

tidliche, swiftly, 1932. 

tahteat, 2 p. pret. sing., from 

time, time, hour, 2, 303, 304, 

^ *techen, to teach, 602 ; tahte, 

436, 1199, 2436, 2497. 

^L 3 p. sing, pret., 1804. 

timluker, comp. o/*tiinlich, early. 

^H take, inf., to take, begin, 818 ; ta.c. 

quick. 2086. 

^H imp., 1453; toe, pret. sing., 

tine. See >iiie. 

^1 480, 792, 1370, 1569; token. 

tint, splinter, bit, 1247. 

^H pret. plur., 2160; itake, pp., 

tintreohe, pain, torture, 403, 623, 


1504, 1796, 1948, 2131 ; tin- 

^m taken, ^ien, sign, 193. 

treohen, plur., 41, 1888. 

^B talden. See tellen. 

tis. See ym. 

^B tale, number, 640, 1286, 2385. 

tittes, plur. of *titte, tit, teat. 

^H talien, inf., to epeak, preach, 

2098, 2119, 2175. 

H speechi/g, 794, 818; talede, 

to, to, 7, 14, 56, ete. 

H pret. Bing., 1311. 

tobreken, pret. plur., from *to- 

H tat. See >et. 

breoken, to break, tear in pieces, 

2002; tobroken, pp. 1602, 

^H teueli, pres. opt. eiug., 820. 

toburaten, pret. plur., from *to- 

■ te. See]^. 

borsten, to burst asunder, 2002. 

^M te. See }[. 

too. See take. 

^M tear. See >ear. 

todei, to-day, 1373, 2051, 2147. 

^H tearea, plur. o/*tear, tear, 2329. 

todreauet, pp., from *todreauen. 

^M ter. Sie >er. 

to disperse, 92. 

^^P 183 ^^^^^H 

^H todrinen, pp., from *todriuen, to 

turneS. Set turaen. 

H dUper»e. 2060. 

tufl. See >us. 

^1 *toforen, befon, in the present of, 

twa, two, 67, 995, 973, 987, 1810. 


1870, 1957, 1960, 1963. 2227, 

^M togedeTBS, together, US, 9B9,IG59, 

2454, 2455; tweien, 1515. 

■ 1774, 2236. 

tweien. See twa. 

^F tojein, againit, amtrary to, 1241, 

twenti, twenty, 67, 2469. 


twentu^e, twentieth, 2182, 2495. 

toieines, against, 1149. 
toKwiSerin, prea. opt. pi., from 

tweolf, twelve, 1551, 1824. 


>a, when, then, there, 24, 404, etc. ; 

1992; tohwi^eret, pp., 1940. 

ta, 1952, 2025; J-e/or fa, 562. 

tokea. Sw take. 

>ah, though, 80, etc.; toh, 1275, 

toluken, to tear inpieeen, 2092. 


torn, tSTM, 1311. 

be, the, 6, ete.; te, 134, etc. 

toreadcn, to rend in pieces, 1973; 

be. S««>a, >i. 

torondin, 1974. 

bo, thee, 208, etc. 

toawoUen, pp., from *toBwe!]en, 

>ear. See >er. 

to etcell to «;««», 840. 

ben, when, 563. 

toward, to, towards, 411, 439, 744, 

J-en. ace. dat. of >e, the, tc the. 

792, 1489, 1978, 2125, 2268, 

116, et«.; >eae, 1183, 1191, etc. 

2337; towart, 141, 1864. 

fen, than, 168, 237, 326, etc.; 

treo, wood, tree, 266, 1186, 2004. 

>ene, 598. 

treondlin, U roll, tricUe, 2329. 

bencho. See Jtenchen. 

>eachen, inf., to think, 1721; 

treowe, true, right, 72, 229, 698, 

1039, 1377, 1378, 1429, 1804, 

fencheS, 3 p. pres. sing., 1808 ; 


Jtenche*, pres. plur., 848; 

treoweHohe, truly, 1511. 

fenche, iiap., 637; >olite, pret. 

trukien, to fail, 403, 1796. 

sing., 136, 173. 

trustees, pres. plur., to trust, 502 ; 

>ene. S.^ ben. 

trusts, pret. siag., 2191. 

>enne, then, 373, 426, 703, 774, 

tn. See ju. 

etc.; tenae, 1018. 

tuke^, 3 p. sing, pres., from 

feo, ihoee, 92, 360, 500, 1650. 

H-\>.\s.\eji, to drav>, pull, 551. 

>eonne, thence, 18, 2202. 2468. 

tun, tomn, 52, 

>eo3, this, these, 103, 104, 354, 

timge, tongue, 192, 640, 819, 

etc.; >eo8e, 487. 

1246, 1267; tungea, plur.. 

beotinde, pres. part.,/r(Wi*beoten, 

1403, 1700. 

to cry, yell, 161. 

tumde. See tumen. 

>er, there, 35, 51, etc.; ter, 159, 

turaen, inf., to turn, go, 697, 1 504, 

etc. ; fear, 8 ; tear, 23, etc. 

1851, 1931 ; turned, pres. plur., 

Jierf, 2 p. sing. pres.,/rom*furuBn, 

1342 : turnde, pret, aiag,, 1312 ; 

to need, 1154, 1842. 

turnden, pret.plur.. 1428, 1957, 

ferin (terin), therein, 1652. 

1959, 2059;itTinid, pp., 2132; 

ferfore, therefore, 299. 

itumde, 1987. 

f oronout. in that reaped, 387. 

turaes, plur. o/*tum, teile, artifice. 

ferto, towards it, 1997. 


fertoward, towards it, 1473. 

^H 183 ^H 

J-erupon, ih»reupon, 1936. 

2078 ; >reate*, 3 p. aing. prea.. 

{-es, ilAJs, these, 228, etc.; tos, 

1915; breate, imp., IQOO. 
brefter, thereafter, after, 188, 42G, 


]>BS,gm. of ],e, of the, 2045. 

1469, 1499, 1546, 1589, 1886, 

bet if), that, the, 23, eto. ; tet 

1920, 2100, 2179. 

1853, 1934; tat (>Bt), 1091, 

>reo, tyet, 1777, 1918. 2182. 

1338, etc. 

J.reottu«e, thirtieth, 1413; frit- 

J-i, inrtr. of }e, the, that, iy the, 

tn^B, 43. 

82, etc.; ti, 2291, etc.; )>g. 

>ridde, third, 1949. 

413, 2068 ; te 2291. 

brin, therein, 907, 1548; brinno, 

fi, thy, thine, 313, etc. ; ti, 314, 


etc.; >m, 109, etc.; fine, 620, 

brinwilS, therein, within it, 1649. 
>rittu«e. See f reottuBe. 

etc.; tine, 2069. 

>ider, IMt/itT, 1950,2189. 

frof, thereof il5, 653, 816, 846. 

>iderward, thitherward, 168; >ider- 

ron, thereon, on it, 1970. 
>rowin, inf., to sufer, 1135; 

■wardeB, plur., 2030. 

bin,>ine. 8ee\i. 

W, thing. 175, 225, etc.; Hng, 

frowedo. pret. aing., 925, 


plur., 973, 999, 1783, 2040; 

bnih, co^n, trough. 2480. 
'-a, 210, etc.; tu, 515, eto. 

binges, 360, 370 ; >inge, gon. 

plur., 263, 911. 

luhte. See fmnchen. 

bis, tki>, 24, etc. ; tis, 1488. 
^- >i9BB, dat. o/>js, to this, 2079. 

■uldi, patient, 174. 

Jiulli, such, tucMike. 348; )mllich, 

^K jjisseB, adverbial gen. of Jjb, in 

357, 847 ; >ulliche, 1072, 2333. 

^H thie, 1864. 

Junehen, inf., to seem, 692 ; fun- 

■ \o\A, tho^ht, bU. 
^H >ohte. See fenchen. 

ehe«, 3 p. sing, pres., 276, 346, 

659, 843, 1527; fuht*, pret. 

^1 fole, Jiolede, Jjoleden. See bolien. 
^1 folemod, long-ivffering, mild, 174 ; 

sing.,85,777, 1006, 1424.1568. 

)unres, gen. aing. of *]iiinor, 

■ bolemode, 1801. 

■ boQe. See >oUen. 

^m jwUen, to mffer, wait, 1006, 1031, 

thunder, 1998. 

fuih, through, hy, 6, 116, etc. 

furhdriuen, inf., to pierce, 1920, 

■ 1136, 2096; foUo> 1 P- ^ing. 

2119; Jiurhdrinen, pp., 1198. 

^1 pree., 2129; folie, opt. eiag., 

Jmrhferde, pret. w.D^.,from •Jturh- 

^1 227; }o\e, imp. aing. 614; 

feren, to pasi through, 1142. 

H >olede, prot. sing., 926, 1166, 

forhsoht, pp., from* furhaechen, 

^M 1202, 1645; >o1 eden, pret. plur.. 

to seek through, 619. 

^P 1430; ifolet, pp., 1800. 

furhspitet, pp.,/rom *j7urliapitien. 

^H fonki, 1 p. sing, pres., from 

to pieree, 1928. 

H *>onkieu, to thank, 2382. 

furhwunert, from *)urhwiinien. 

^^ freapeS, 3 p. siag. pres., from 

to stay or live for ever, 663; 

^K *jTeapien, to argun, qvatrel. 

Jjurhwoiiieiide, part, prea., 

^H 1916; >Teap, imp., 1499. 

1696, 2297. 

^^1 breate. See freatin. 

^H Jireates, plur. of *breat, threat. 

'Ure, devil, giant, 1858. 

'urst, thirst, IB87, 2258. 

^M menace, 40, 2102. 

us, thut, 98, 135, 308, 312, S43, 

^H freatin, inf., to threaten, 626, 

etc.; tos, 1908, 1917,2362. 




>Tisent, thmt/and, 2011, 2052. 

unea'Se, searealy, hurily, lit., not 


J-uaentfalt, tlwuamd times, 2291. 

easily, 1993. 
unforgult, innocent, not guilty, 231. 
unheale, di>tase, 1064. 

uirginea, plur. ^*uiTgiiie, virgin, 

unhendeliche, rudely, 2117. 



untniet«, immoderately, 738. 

ules. See flesch. 

ulo*, 3 p. sing, prea., from *uIeE 

unlefliche, incredible, 345. 

or*flen?(o>(ter, 1486. 

unmihte, infirmity, 1022. 

Binbe, afier, 12, 617. 

unnen. 5« on. 

Bnbiburiet. wtburied, 2343. 

ahle, 1180. 

une, us, us two, 1515. 

unaeheliob, invisible, 254, 904; 

uncnut, pp., from ♦uncnutten, to 

unsehlich, 1003. 

undo, 1150. 

unsehene, invisible, 1784. 

undeadUeh, immortal, 1083; iiii- 

unseli, unblest, unhappy, 1793. 

deadliche,350; undodlich, 964, 

1104, 1122; undodliche, 390. 

1027, 1028, 1168. 

unstrenget, pp. of *anBtreDgen 

under, under, 17, 223, 759, 809, 

to bereave of strength, weaken, 

1092, 1758, 1858. 


Tinder, subs., Uhdem, midday, 

unjirowlich, incapable of suffering. 



underfeng. Sw underfonne. 

un>uldeHche, impatiently, 161. 

underiest. See underfonne. 

underfonne, inf., to take, accept, 

unweoten, plur., of *uaweote, 

receive, assume, 2234 ; undor- 

fool, 1054. 

fest, 2 p. sing, pres., 982 ; iin- 

uawine, enemy, 1221. 

derfeng, pret. sing., 1099, 1208; 

*unwitlese, not senseless, 245. 

underfon, pp., 703; nndemo. 

unwreah, pret. sing., from *un- 

pp., 1169. 

wreon, to reveal, 1762. 

undemeomen, inf., to catch, under- 

nn-wreste, impotent, u>orthless,l26(i. 

take, 122; andenLeomene, 852 ; 

unwur*. unworthy, 1531. 

uaderaeome, 1 p. pres. sing.. 

up, up, 134, etc. 

765; undemome, 2 p. pret. 

upaheuen, pp. from *upahebben, 

sing., 681; underaom, 3 p. 

to heave, lift up, 2373. 

pret. sing., 117; undemumen, 

upon, upon, 130, etc.; upo, 1165. 

pp., 1840. 

upwopi, vpward{s), 1964, 2372. 

nnderstonden, inf., to' understand, 

ure, o«i-, ours, 318, 319, etc. 

MB. us, 284, 401, etc. 

stonde, opt. sing., 596 ; nnder- 

ut, out, 126, etc. 

stont, imp., 1641; understod, 

utcumene, pp. from *uteumen, 

pret. sing., 2114; understode. 

to come out, to come from afar ? 

pret. opt. sing., 221. 


unde^Iich, immortal, 2292. 

utewiS, tc»(^(Hri, 2316. 

unduttfi, pret. sing., from *un- 

uuel, evil, disease, 239, 255, 1175, 


dutten, to matop, open, 1803. 

2398 ; uneles, plur., 2487. 

^^1 GLOSSAKT. 16Q ^^H 

wa, frief, toot, aorroio, 1167, 1734, 

wel, tmll, 177. 208, 261, oic. ^M 

1756, 2104, 2296, 2302. 

*wclcweino, aatisfted, pleiued, con- ^| 

■wake, weak, silly, miierahh, 1261, 

tent. 1728. ■ 

2134; waere, eomp., 1261. 

weldent. See wealdent. S 

■wal, wall, 1645. 

weldinde. .S» woalt ■ 

walde,walden,waldeBt. Swwulo. 

wen. See wenra. ■ 

■wait. See wealt. 

wende. S»e weuden. ^| 

■wari, ioreteh, scoundrel, 438. 

wenden, inf., togo, turn, 419, 694, ^ 

waned, pp.,/»-(im ♦warien, to ettru, 

1495 ; went, 3 p. sing, pros., 

damn, 201. 

401; wende«, imp. plur., 1765, 

■warliche, earefulhi, warilt/, 82. 

2352; wendo, pret. sing., 129, 

wamedest, 2 p. sing, pret., front 

168, 431, 438, 918, 2185. 

2490; wente, 1167; wtndi-n, 


pret. plur., 1732, 1815; iwoml, 

■warpen, inf., to throw, merihrow, 

pp., 994 ; iwont, 1203 ; iwcuto. 

18, 1325, 1362; warpo. prea. 


sing, opt,, 643 ; warp, pret. 

wencn, inf., to think, suppose. 

sing, 829, IISO; weorp, 892, 

1164 ; wenest, 2 p. sing, pi'us., 

1405, 21131; wurpen, pret. 

1153; wenoBtu=wemj8t Jtu, 

plur., 1813. 

2047 ; wone«, pros, plur., 324, 

■warS. See wurXen. 

1053; wen, imp. sing., 2100. 

wastn. See witen. 

went, wonte. See wcnden. 

^_ wat, pret. sing., from *witen. 

weol, prat, sing., f-om *wttllen, 

^L U go, 1335. 

to boil, foam, 1902. 

^H wat. See witen. 

weole, pret. sing., from * walk en, 

H wealdent, rider, 1723, 1765, 2036; 

to go, walk, 014. 

^M weldent, 1228. 

weolo, bliss, happineit, 150], 

^H wealt, 3 p. eing. preB., from 

1523, 1629,2109, 2296; wcoleii. 

^1 *wealden, to have in one's 

1034, 1696. 

^1 power, to rvle, 1780; wait, 

weorp. See warpen. 

^1 218; weldinde, prea. part., 933; 

weorre, war, 20, 2399. 

H iwald, pp., 186. 

weorrin, to war, fight against, 

H -weane, v>oe,grief, 1166, 2105, 2399. 

quarrel with, 32, 849, 1326, 

^H -weamen, to deni/, 769. 

1348, 2039. 

^H wecchen, plnr. o/'*wecche, watch, 

weoned, altar, ZOX. 

H guard, 1749. 

weojE, pret. sing., from *waxen, 

^H wed. iSe« weden. 

to grow, originaU, 12, 19. 

H wed, tno^, 31, 1859. 

wepen, pres. opt, plur., from 

H weden, inf., torora, 1257,2074; 

♦wepen, to weep, 2354 ; we- 

^H wed, 3 p. eing. pree., 1917; 

pinde, pr«i. part., 2325. 

^H wedinde, pres. part., 379. 

wcpmen, plnr. of *wepmon, man, 

^K wederes, plur. of *weder, weather. 


^M itorm, 2400. 

wepnede, pret. plur,, /row *wop- 

^^1 wedinde. See weden. 

nien, to arm, 188. 

^M wei, wag, 885, 1752; weie, dat.. 

were, weren. See heaa. 

^H 126; weis, gen., 974, 1070, 

weri, uwflfy, 1030, 1500, 

^H 1106, 123fi, 1864, 19S9, 1961. 

werieo, to froteet, defend, 787. 

^^P 180 GLa^SART. ^^^^^^1 

^B wcrtes, plur. o/*wcrk, icork, 171, 

wistc. See witen. 


wi«, with, against, 41, etc. 

^1 wes. Se« beon. 

wtSalle, too, in addition, uithal, 

^1 vesten, ^m<, Occident, 593. 

835. See mi^lle. 

^H veBtum, /^ur0, «fafur#, 69, 310. 

wit, pron., tee two, 1612. 

^H -wettreB, plut. of *wetter, mater. 

wit, wit, seme, wisdom, Bcience, 

^1 rtVw, 271, 687, 1389. 

240,452, 486, 591, 655, 841, 

^H Tricchecreft, mUlwroft, charm, 

871, 880, 886, 1009, etc.; 

^1 2266; wiochecreftes, plur.. 

witte, dat., 242, 1258; wittea, 


plur., 524. 

^F wiheleB, plur. of *wilio], sorcery, 

wiSdreiest, 2 p. sing, pres., from 

deceit. 129, 1051; wiles, 891. 

•wi^dreben, to withdraw, re- 

-wiht, leing, wight, thing, hit, 

tract, 2270, 

1252; Trihtea, plur., 1707. 

wite. See witen. 

wil, mil, 371, 399, 914, 1227, 

witcge, prophet, 489 ; wite;eii. 

1938, 2108; wiUe, dat., 172, 

plur., 483, 

226, 935. 

witen, iuf., to protect, guard, 136, 

wileweme, content, pleased, »atis- 

684; wiste, pret. sing., 135. 

Jied, 1728. 

witen, inf., to know, 150, 261, 

wilde, wiU, 2244. 

461, 529, 642,1071, etc.; wagtu. 

wiles. See wihelea. 

2 p. sing. preB.=wast ^u, 393 ; 

wiUe. &ewil. 

wat, 3 p. sing, pres., 563; 

wilneS. See wilnin. 

witen, prea. plur., 318, 921, 

wilnin, ifif., to wish, long for. 

960, 1744, 2471 ; wite, opt. 

1672; wilni, 1 p. pres. sing., 

Bing., 1161, 1301 1493, 1532. 

1524; wilne*,pre8. plur., 1671. 

witerliche, truly, asiuredlt/, 281, 

■wiire, comp. of *wil, agreeable. 


desirable, 572. 

wi^erwine, enemy, 1191 ; wi^er- 

wines, plur., 642. 

wind, w)«rf, 271, 841. 

wi^innen, within, 71, 839. 

■win^, full of witid, emplt/, 376. 

witlese, senseless, foolish, fool, 245, 

winnen, to win, gain, 474, 

324, 375, 830, 1814. 

wis, adj. wwe, 323, 547, 680 ; wise. 

witnesBe, witness, testimony, 453, 

315, 485, 530, 879, 960, 1303, 

1302, 1482, 2458. 

2335; wisest, sup., 526; wiseste. 

wi^stonden, to resist, withstand. 


226, 564, 

wisdom, wisdom, science, 185, 218, 

witte, wittes. See wit. 

240, etc, ; wisdomes, pi,, 525. 

witti, wise, intelligent, prudent. 

wise, subs., taise, nay, manner, 

316, 487, 530, 546, 881, 

766, 794, 1163, 1224. 1636, 

1228, 1443 ; wittie, 688, 1243 ; 

1966, 2079. 

wittiest, sup., 633. 

wise, wisest, wiseste. See wis. 

wi^ute, without, 2207 ; wi=5uten, 

wisUche, witelt/, prudently, 82. 

838, 920, 1189, 2029, 2174, 

wisae, certain, 1532, 


wisseS, 3 p, sing, pros., from 

wi^ward, against, contrary to. 

•wissien, to direct, rule, 1780; 


wissinde, pres. part., 933. 

wleachest, 2 sing, pres., from 

^^^^^^^^^^H ^H 

•wlencien, to pride in, locut of. 

■wreEchea, to entice, wrench, draw, 



wlite, face, hmuUfulfaee, 69, 1452. 

■wrenchfule, dcmtful, artful, 890. 

■wliid, beautiful, 310. 

wreo^e^, 3 p. sing, prea., from 

wlonke, bright, ghowy, jtroui, 842. 

•wreo^ien, ta lean (on), trust 

-ffi-od, insane, mad, farioui, 155, 

(in), 1327; wreo«ie«, pres. 

1352; wode, 1536,2269. 

plur., 857. 

wodeliche,>«'o(*«^, 1359. 

vreW^e, ang^r, ire, 13, 154, 1903, 

"Wodnesdei, Wedneiday, 2184. 

1352 ; wraK«e, 2048. 

■woh, wrong, injwitiee, 663, 1189, 

wre««en, inf., toanger, 745, 1326. 

1193, 1223, 1347; wohe, dat., 

■wre«Ke«, 3 p. aing. pres., 236; 


iwre=S«et, pp., 2331. 

wondreaBe, pain, fy-ihulation, 624. 

■wringinde, pres. part., from 

wone, wanting, deficient, 67. 

*wringen, to wring, preei, 2324 ; 

wonie*, pres.plnr.,/rom*womeii, 

wruagDn, pret. plur , 1359. 

Ufail, beeome deficient, 2187. 

writ, writ, writing, 111 ; writes. 

wonted, 3 p. sing, pres., fo he 

plur., 407, 856. 

wanting, 1670. 

writares, gen. plur, of *writer, 

writ^, 866. 

-wop, weeping, 2332, 2.'j52. 

writes. See writ. 

vord, UKM-if, M^m^, 643, 811, 

wrungen. Sec wringinde. 

1226, 1326, 1406 ; word, plur., 

wude, wood, forest, 271. 

482, 488; wordes, 311, 316, 

wule, 1 p. sing, prea., from 

874, 378, 513, 547, etc. 

*wuUen, to will, thall, 5B5, 

world, world, 186, 217, 2B3, 396, 

877, 1497; ichuUe=ich wulle, 

487, 663, 881, 1032, 1224, 

484, 639, 878, 1460, ■ 1464, 

1481, 1626, 1766; worlde. 

1493, 2097; wult, 2 p. sing. 

dat. sing., 30, 97, 472, 526, 

prea., 399, 461, 463, 505, 

1068; worldeB, gen. sing.. 

etc. ; wultu=wult >u, 2035; 

1502, 1723, 2036; worlde, 

wule, 3 p. 491, 562, 684, 686, 

gen. plur., 663, 2504. 

787. 1000, 1790, 2048; wulle=5, 

■worldlich, worldly, 624; -world- 

prea. plur., 671, 693, 919, 

Hohe, 370, 625, 655, 915, 934, 

1746, 1759; walde, 1, 3 p. 

1335, 1636, 1749, 2040. 

pret. sing., 17, 155, 157, etc.; 

worldmen, plur. of *worldmoa, 

waldest, 2 p. pret. sing., 1866, 

%»w», wordting, 485, 879. 

2384 ; walden, pret. sing., 

wrahte. See wurchen. 

1964, 1966. 

♦wrafcefuUiche, vengefullg. 2047. 

wait, wolf 31, 1859, 2031. 

■wmkeUche, vengefully, 2047. 

wuUe«, wult, wultu. See wule. 

■wrat, pret. sing,, from *writea, to 

wummon, mman, 1443, 2420; 

write, 190. 

wammen, plur., 2323, 2385; 

wia^e, minerable, evil, 171. 

wiiniuen, 1274. 

wraSKe. See wre^^e. 

wunden, plar. of 'wunde, wound, 

wreaatlm, to lereatle, 2035. 


■wrecche, wretched, wretch, 2034, 

wuuder, wonder, miracle, 151, 

2049; wreccbcB, plur., 170. 

691 ; wundres, plur., 922, 1072, 

■wreken, ta avenge eneeelf, 2049. 

1133, 2454, 2473. 


■wundrede, pret. fang., fi-on 
drien, to wonder, 377. 

wnndri, wonderful, 1016. 

wane, wunede, wune^, 

■WTinien, inf., to lice, dwell, stay, 
MM to, 573, 919, 1760; wiine«, 
3 p. sing. prcB., 246, 919 ; 
wune^, plur., 593; wime, imp. 
eing., 644 ; wimieude, pres. 
part., 65 ; wunede, pret. sing., 
8 ; iwnnet, pp., 1740, 1951. 

■WTiiiiie,_;oy, happineti, 1501, 1523, 
1627, 1756, 2296, 2349, 2423 ; 
wunnen, plur., 1695. 

■WTimmge, dieelling-place, 2423. 

■wurche. See wurchen. 

■WBTohen, inf., to work, effect, do, 
171 ; wuiehest, 2 p. aiDg. pres., 
2108; ■wurche^, 3 p. sing, 
pres., 371, 491, 2472; wur- 
chilS,pre8. plur., 1053; wurche, 
pres. opt., 1938 ; wTiJite, pret. 
sing., 369, 922, 1068, 1071, 
1133, 1766, '2039; iwrahte, 
pp., 282. 

wurgi?. See wur'Sgin. 

■wurpen. See warpen. 

WUTBI, pres. opt. sing., fivm 

•wursien, to impair, 2135. 
wurS, teorth, worthy, 70, 343, 

1714, 2061, 2231 ; wnr=5e, 507, 

1445, 2062. 
■wurSen, inf., to grow, heeotnt, 

originate, 241, 993, 1257 ; 

warB, pret. sing., 27, 1242; 

wurKcn, pret. plur., 1605, 

-wnv^i\\\,worthy,hortowahU, 1017. 
wurSgin, inf., to revere, worehip, 

55 ; ■wurgi^, pres. plur., 272 j 

■wurlSgin, opt. plur., 660 ; 

wur'Sgede, pret. aing., 59 ; 

iwur^get, pp., 608. 
wur^liche, venerable, 1564. 
wnr^munt, honour, reverence, 216, 

244, 1444, 1474. 
wurSsehipe, worship, reverence, 

472, 505, 1388, 1445, 1482, 

1502, 1626, 2062. 

Tlirie, Illyria, 22. 
ymage, image, statue, 1465. 


«!fartn (Kitaliali itcxt ^wcid^J 

lift aj ^iiiiit fatltcrtiu. 

rlKlM THE ROl'AL MS. 17 

iiford Library 

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V. w. aoat, iir.A. a.. wt* 

Appendix or tasr aanicoporai)' Bagllrli 


'■■^^^^^ •■•^ 


111 Huld mpiltlU«lT. 


n It. Ed. Ker. Pror. Kkeni. \_At trm. 

d. ttii>.Di.K.HnRta,l 

s, nl. Vtvt, WDIt'lmr, 


« /nr 1883 fl«(i 18M uiW bn ehmH/n-i 

nl Bcriinn, ml, 8. 1, 

, U.A, I'urt U. [At Prat. 

Ia. (^*^™. 

t, I17 Locil Bonwn, ed. S. L. Lue, e,a. rut 1 II. 

Hi-v. Ptof. Sl«n. Bud J, U, Honfla, [ 

i. RH. J.M.Cgwvi-t, Bi, I 

, ed. Pn)f. Zu^uin. Purl 

a WoBsi (died IS3a), 1 

rMtn, Hi. ._ 

'(ut. J. E. B. Mojof, M.A. I'urt 1 

XXXI, Tbk Aluikm'Jivk Romakih or Ai.mi.UBii »nu Ou-uiHt'ii. ed, 
XXXU ai'iKKBT'l "ESGIA^B IH He»»t VUI.'g Tiuv," Hut 1, 

ed. i4, J. HtrtlaKe, U.A. Si. 
SXSllt. amTiEoinsoniHlenftllilitHbTiSored Vj^'Jie^ttKB. B 

>, eO. S. J. Uoougt, LK 

d.ll."rrta|W.U«. 1 

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