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Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology 

in the 

Johns Hopkins University 

The Johns Hopkins Press 





Preface ix 

Introduction 1 

Digest of Bhavadevasuri's Parcvanatha Caritra 25 

Sarga the First 

Invocation of Arhats and Divinities 25 

Frame story : The brothers Kamatha and Marubhuti 25 

Story of Lalitanga and his servant Sajjana 26 

Parable of the hunter who was moved to compassion 28 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 29 

Fable of the swan and the crow 32 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 33 

Story of the parrot that brought the fruit of immortality .... 34 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 35 

Story of the Cravaka Gandhara who rejected magic art. . . . 36 

Story of Lalitanga, concluded 38 

Frame story: The enmity between the brothers Kamatha 

and Marubhuti 38 

Two parables 40 

Frame story: The enmity between the brothers Kamatha 

and Marubhuti, continued 41 

Sarga the Second 

Frame story : King Kiranavega 43 

Story of Prince Bhima and his friend Matisagara 44 

Parable of the six men who started to destroy a hostile village 44 

Story of King Naladharma and the deer 45 

Parable of the illusory deluge 45 

Story of King Naladharma and the deer, continued 47 

Story of Prince Bhima and his friend Matisagara, continued. 

The wicked Kapalika 47 


iv Contents 


Story of Prince Bhima and his friend Matisagara, continued. 

Qibi motif 51 

Story of mother and son punished for cursing one another by 

implication 54 

Parable of the impatient beggar who went to hell 56 

Story of King Vasu who violated the truth 56 

Story of the thief who was destined to die like Absalom. 

Unavertable fate 60 

Story of the chaste royal pair Sundara and Madanavallabha 63 

Story of the miserly merchant Dhanasara 67 

Story of the two brothers, one stingy, the other generous. ... 68 
Story of the merchant Kubera and Qri, the goddess of For- 
tune : The gold-man 69 

Story of the miserly merchant Dhanasara, continued 70 

Brahman and dish of grits 71 

Frame story: Kiranavega's conversion and death 71 

Sarga the Third 

Frame story: King Vajranabha and his infidel cousin 

Kubera 73 

Story of King Vikrama as parrot 74 

Simile of the three skulls, illustrating discretion 79 

Story of King Vikrama as parrot, continued 79 

Episode, illustrating the superiority of soul purification over 

meritorious deeds 80 

Story of King Vikrama, concluded 81 

Story of Sumati, the evil-minded, whose vices were corrected 

by discernment 83 

Story of Prabhakara and his king, wife, and friend 86 

Story of King Hariccandra's courageous endurance 91 

Frame Story: Conversion of Vajranabha and Kubera, and 

death of Vajranabha 102 

Sarga the Fourth 

Frame story: Story of the Emperor Suvarnabahu (with Qa- 

kuntala motifs), and his death 104 

Sarga the Fifth 
Frame story: Early life of the Arhat Parcvanatha 108 

Contents v 
Sarga the Sixth 


Frame story: Marriage and later life of the Arhat Pargva- 
natha 113 

Episode of the Brahman Datta who was afflicted with leprosy 116 
Frame story : Life of Pargvanatha, continued : Meghamalin's 

attack and conversion 117 

Frame story: Life of Pargvanatha, continued. Sermon on 

the fourfold dharma 118 

How Dhanamitra acquired respect for knowledge 119 

Parable showing how Eohini managed her pancaka of rice. . 120 

How Dhanamitra gained respect for knowledge, continued. . 121 

Story of the pardoned thief Vasanta 122 

Story of the four merchants' sons, and of Sundara 124 

Story of the minister who found happiness after his wife's 

death 125 

Story of the four merchants' sons, continued 126 

Parable of the golden peacock feather 127 

Parable of the monkey-pair who became human 127 

Story of the four merchants' sons, continued 127 

Story of the girl who died because she had four wooers 129 

Story of the four merchants' sons, concluded 130 

Frame story: Pargvanatha continues his sermon on dharma 130 

Story of Madanarekha and her son Nami. David and Uriah 130 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumara 136 

Previous births of Sanatkumara and the Yaksa Asita 138 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumara, concluded 139 

Story of the two princes Pundarika and Kandarika 142 

Frame story : Life of Pargvanatha, continued 144 

Sarga the Seventh 

Frame story : Life of Pargvanatha, continued 145 

The adventures of Princes Amarasena and Yarasena 145 

The faithful Parrot couple, and the son who fell in love with 

his own mother 151 

Story of Vanara/ja, the waif who became king 157 

Parable of the selfish religious and the unselfish Pulindra. . 161 
Parable of the man who wished to rid himself of his vixen 

wife 163 

vi Contents 


Allegory of the four friends on the treasure island of human 

existence 164 

Frame story : Life of Parcvanatha, continued 166 

Sarga the Eighth 

Story of the misogynist Sagaradatta who was redeemed by a 

clever woman 168 

Story of the four pupils who, even tho sinning, obtained per- 
fection . . 170 

Story of Bandhudatta 170 

Prenatal history of the thief in the guise of an ascetic 174 

Story of Bandhudatta, continued 175 

Story of Bandhudatta's former lives 177 

Story of Qrigupta, gambler, thief, and murderer, who was 

ultimately redeemed 178 

Parable of the pitcher that fell from the old woman's head. . 180 

Story of Bandhudatta, concluded 180 

Frame story : Life of Parcvanatha, concluded. His nirvana 181 

Additional Notes: 

Note 1, to p. 29 : Promise to return 183 

Note 2, to p. 30 : Overhearing 185 

Note 3, to p. 30 : Proclamation by drum 185 

Note 4, to p. 30 : Princess and half the kingdom 186 

Note 5, to p. 31 : On a certain aspect of the overhearing 

motif 186 

Note 6, to p. 31 : Miraculous cures 187 

Note 7, to p. 32 : Hansa bird and crow 187 

Note 8, top. 34: Biter bit 188 

Note 9, to p. 39 : Lecherous ass 188 

Note 10, to p. 44 : Dreams as auguries 189 

Note 11, to p. 45 : Eating grass 191 

Note 12, to p. 47 : Wicked ascetics 191 

Note 13, to p. 51 : Qibi motif 192 

Note 14, to p. 52 : Animated statues and dolls 192 

Note 15, to p. 52 : Marriage with a low-caste person 195 

Note 16, to p. 57 : The sin of sacrificing a dough cock 

(pistakurkuta) 195 

Contents vii 


Note 17, to p. 62 : Poison-damsel 198 

- Note 18, to p. 62 : Pragmatic ctoka 199 

Note 19, to p. 64 : Josef and Potifar's wife 199 

Note 20, to p. 65 : Pancadivyadhivasa 199 

Note 21, to p. 68 : Goddess Fortune 202 

Note 22, to p. 69 : Gold-man 202 

Note 23, to p. 69 : Barber and potter 202 

Note 24, to p. 83 : Childlessness 203 

Note 25, to p. 88 : Dohada, or pregnancy whim. 204 

Note 26, to p. 89 : Horse with inverted training 204 

Note 27, to p. 100 : Human sacrifices 205 

Note 28, to p. 131 : David and Uriah 206 

Appendix I : Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions 208 

1. Proverbs quoted in Bohtlingk's Indische Spriiche 209 

2. Stanzas which either are proverbs, or are, more or less, 

like proverbs 211 

3. Some proverbial expressions 217 

Appendix II : The language of Parcvanatha 220 

1. Prakrit influence 220 

2. Lexical matters 224 

3. Proper names 234 

4. Grammatical matters 237 

Text Corrections 240 

Indexes 243 

1. Index of Names 243 

2. Index of Subjects 250 


The publication in India, in the year 1912, of Bhavade- 
vasuri's Pargvanatha Caritra opens out, for the first 
time, a more connected and complete account of the life 
and supposed teachings of the penultimate Jaina Tir- 
thamkara, or Savior, Parcva or Pargvanatha. The lives 
of the twenty-two Saviors preceding Parcva are pure 
myth. The last Tirthamkara, Vardhamana or Nirgran- 
tha Jnatrputra, 1 best known as Vira or Mahavira, pre- 
sumably a historical personage, regarded by the Jainas 
as the real founder of their religion, is supposed to have 
lived either in the last half of the sixth, or in the first 
half of the fifth century b. c. Pargvanatha is said to 
have preceded Vira by only 250 years, 2 a passably mod- 
erate time, as Hindu time conceptions go. But beyond 
the persistent and, on the whole, unitarian character of 
his story and his teaching, there is little to show that he 
was an historical personage. Be this as it may, the 
doctrines ascribed to Pargva are fundamental in Jaina 
religion, and Pargva's personality figures large in the 
Jaina legend and in Jaina consciousness. The life of 
Pargva, including his nine pre-births, as presented in 
Bhavadeva's work, is the first complete account of 
Pargvanatha published to the Western world. And his 
account of Pargva 's life, along with the many stories 
woven into it, adds to the chain of Hindu fiction books a 
jewel of no mean price. 

1 Prakrit Nataputta or Nayaputta, turned erroneously into Sanskrit 
Jfiataputra or Jnatiputra; in Sanskrit the correct Jnatrputra does not fig- 
ure. See Jacobi, Indian Antiquary, ix. 158 ff. 

3 The Jainas say that he was born 817 b. c. 


x Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Were it not for the other chronicles of Parcvanatha, 
whose manuscripts are scattered thru Indian and Euro- 
pean libraries, 3 the text which I treat here would call for 
a complete translation and elaboration. Yet such a treat- 
ment, undertaken without reference to the parallel ver- 
sions, would remain not much less fragmentary than that 
presented here. For these versions, in the light of other 
experience, would not only clarify one another recipro- 
cally, but they suggest a synoptic edition of the Parcva- 
natha Caritras as the only ultimately satisfactory schol- 
arly end. 

Operations along this line are precluded by the present 
world conditions. In lieu thereof it has seemed to me 
well to promote a preliminary familiarity with the 
Parcvanatha cycle. The body of this essay consists of a 
full digest of the frame story and the illustrative stories 
which are boxed in, in the usual exigent Hindu fiction 
manner. The frame story contains the fullest extant 
account of the Jain Savior Parcvanatha 's life, preceded 
by a series of nine pre-births, beginning with the two hos- 
tile brothers Marubhuti (the ultimate Parcva) and Ka- 
matha (the ultimate Asura Meghamalin). These pre- 
births are described with the meticulous care of a chron- 
icle of real life, and with the sincerity of a devout 
believer. The hostility of the two brothers is carried on 
thru all pre-births; in each of them the incarnation of 
Kamatha kills the incarnation of Marubhuti, until Maru- 
bhuti's soul ripens into that of the Savior Parcva, and 
until Meghamalin is converted to the worship of Parcva. 

The intercalated stories count among the best of Jaina 
fiction. One of these, namely, ' Vikrama's adventures in 
the body of a parrot, ' I have translated in full and elabo- 
rated on pp. 22-43 of my paper, ' On the art of entering 

3 See p. 1 ff. 

Preface xi 

another's body/ in the Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, vol. lvi, pp. 1-43. This is no better 
than many others, e. g., the story of King Hariceandra's 
courageous endurance, 3.556 f£. ; or the story of Vanaraja, 
the waif who became king, 7.501 f£. The present work 
gives a sufficient account of them all. The stories as a 
whole, as well as the individual motifs which enter into 
them, are accompanied or illustrated by references to 
parallels, on a scale perhaps not attempted hitherto in 
connection with any fiction text. A good many of these 
remarks proved to be too cumbersome to incorporate as 
foot-notes on the pages of the story itself ; they are rele- 
gated to a rubric of Additional Notes, following immedi- 
ately after the main text. 

The Digest of the Stories, the main part of the work, 
is preceded by an Introduction which deals briefly with 
the sources of the Parcva legend, and then epitomizes 
the legend itself. In this way the frame story of Parcva 
is marked off from the incidental or emboxed stories. 
The Pargvanatha, is, however, not only a story text, but 
also a sort of Niti-gastra, or ' Book of Moralities.' A 
thousand or more niti-stanzas, follow the entire range 
of Jain morality, beginning at the top with dharma 
(religion), and going downward thru niti (conduct or 
tact) to artha (worldly wisdom), and kautilya (shrewd- 
ness or trickery). Many of these stanzas belong to the 
floating stock, long familiar thru Bohtlingk's Indische 
Spriiche, and many that are new are just as shrewd or 
racy as the old. A brief account of the substance of this 
niti is given in Appendix I. 

Further, the language of the book is rich in new 
materials: The influence of the Prakrit languages, the 
primary literary vehicle of the Jains, is at work in the 
otherwise excellent Sanskrit of the author. The text is 

xii Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

unusually liberal in its use of new words and expressions. 
Some of these are known to the native Lexicografers 
and Grammarians ; others are explained by the Editors 
of the text; yet others must be made out more or less 
precisely from the connection, or by intuition. There are 
also, as might be expected a large number of new proper 
names, personal and geographical. These matters are 
treated in Appendix II. 

The text, on the whole, is not edited badly, tho the 
Editors themselves print a long list of corrections. I 
have added some 75 corrections of my own which, I hope, 
will prove advantageous for a final critical edition, as 
well as for the sense of the stories. 

Maubice Bloomfield. 


This essay is based upon Qri Bhavadevasuri's Pargva- 
natha Caritra, edited by Shravak Pandit Hargovinddas 
and Shravak Pandit Bechardas (gravakapandita-harago- 
vindadasa-becaradasabhyam samgodhitam) . Benares, 
Virasamvat, 2048 (a. d. 1912). Professor Lenmann, in 
his List of Digambara Manuscripts in Strassburg, 
WZKM. xi, p. 306, mentions an Oxford ms. of a Parcva- 
natha Caritra by Sakalakirti. 1 A manuscript of the same 
work by the same author is also catalogued by E. G. 
Bhandarkar, in his Report on the search for Sanskrit 
manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency (Bombay, 1887), 
in the list of Digambara mss. (pp. 91-126, nr. 12). A third 
Pargvanatha Caritra, by Udayaviragani, is cataloged by 
Rajendralalamitra, in his Catalog of Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts in the library of the Maharaja of Bikaner (Cal- 
cutta 1880), nr. 1502; and a fourth, by Manikyacandra, 
on pp. 157-164 of Peterson's Third Report on search of 
Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Circle (Bombay 
1887). J. Burgess, Indian Antiquary, ii. 139, note, has 
the following statement: " It (namely, the Pargvanatha 
Caritra) was written by ' Briddha Tapa Gacha ' in Sam- 
vat 1654, and occasionally calls this Jaina by the name 
of Jagannatha. — Delamaire, Asiat. Trans, vol. i, pp. 428- 
436.' ' As the Asiatic Transactions are not accessible, I 

1 According to C. M. Duff, The Chronology of India, p. 260, one Sakala- 
kirti probably composed in 1464 the Tattvarthasaradipaka ; cf. Leu- 
mann's List, p. 302. Sakalakirti is also author of one of several Canti- 
natha Caritras; see Guerinot, Essai de Bibliographie Jaina, p. 90, and cf. 
pp. 75, 84, 399. See also Weber, Berlin Handsohriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, 
pp. 903, 1091-2. 


2 Life and Stories of Parcvanatha 

do not undertake to appraise this statement. The name 
given the author (Vrddhatapagacha) does not conform, 
but there is no reason why there should not exist a Parc,- 
vanatha Caritra of that date. 

There is also a Parcvanatha Kavya by Padmasundara, 
listed by Auf recht in his Catalog of the Bodleian Library 
nr. 70 (p. 392) ; and referred to by Weber in his Berlin 
Handschriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, p. 1016, note 2: 
Bhadrabahu's Kalpasutra 149-169 contains a very brief 
and jejune Life of Parcva which does not touch upon the 
dramatic episode of his relation to Kamatha (Katha, 
Meghamalin) and Dharana (Dharanendra). And the 14th 
sarga of the Catrumjaya Mahatmyam, in its first 97 stan- 
zas, gives a brief account of Parcva's history which is 
evidently based upon previous Caritras; see Weber, in 
the Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. 
i, part 4, pp. 83 if. (cf. pp. 37 if.) ; also J. Burgess, Indian 
Antiquary, xxx, pp. 302 if. For the very secondary 
' Parcvanatha Caritram ' of the commentator Laksmi- 
vallabha see below. 

The Pracasti describes Bhavadevasuri's spiritual de- 
scent or pontifical succession, beginning, as frequently is 
the case, with Sudharma, that disciple of Mahavira, who 
followed Gautama Indrabhuti as spiritual leader of the 
Jains after Mahavlra's and Gautama Indrabhuti 's death. 
Next comes Kalikasuri, belonging to the Khandillagacha. 2 
In this form the name occurs in the list of Gurus in 
Dharmasagaragani's Gurvavalisutra. 3 Since this text 
mentions his sister, the nun Sarasvati; his conquest of 
King Gardabhilla; and his connection with the dispute 
about keeping the Paryusana (Pajjusan), 4 Kalikasuri is 

2 The name of this Gacha is otherwise unknown. Is it connected with 

8 See Weber, Handschriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, p. 1001. 
4 See SBE. xxii. 296 ff. 

Introduction 3 

identical with Kalakacarya or Kalikacarya who lived 453 
years after Mahavira. The Qrikalakasuriprabandha, 
fourth in the Prabhavaka Carita (pp. 36 ff.) 7 tells his 
life ; see also Weber, Pancadandachattraprabandha, p. 7, 
note 1 (Berlin Academy 1877) ; Jacobi in ZDMGr. xxiv. 
247 if. ; Leumann, ibid, xxvii. 493 if. ; Stevenson, The 
Heart of Jainism, pp. 75 if. 

The succeeding Gurus are Vijayasihha, whose Pra- 
bandha is the sixth in Prabhavaka Carita (pp. 69 if.); 
then Virasuri, whose Prabandha is the twentieth in the 
same collection (pp. 272 ff.) ; next the Municvara Qrrji- 
nadevasuri (yo dharmam aropya gune vicuddhadhyane- 
suna moharipum bibheda) ; after that other distinguished 
Suris of the name Crijinadeva (gurukrame punah criji- 
nadevakhya babhuvur varasurayah) ; then a teacher 
Yagas (=? Yagodevasuri) ; and finally Bhavadevastiri 
who composed his work in Qripattana in ravivigvavarsa 

Judging from the unitarian character of the Parcva 
legend, systematic accounts of his pre-births and life, 
such as are likely to be given in the unpublished Parcva 
Caritras listed above, probably do not diverge greatly. 
The following story of Parcva's pre-births and life is 
based on Bhavadevasuri's published ' History/ and a 
small prose Sanskrit account, incorporated in Laksmi- 
vallabha's commentary to the Uttaradhyayana-Sutra 
(Calcutta, Samvat 1936 = a. d. 1878), pp. 682, line 7 to 
688, last line. This version also styles itself Parcvanatha- 
caritram. Since it differs somewhat from Bhavadeva- 
suri, it is likely to be derived from one of the other 
Parcva Caritras, but the differences are not such as to 
change the character of the story as a whole. The two 
accounts are hereafter designated as Bh and L. 

The story opens in the city of Potana, where rules 

4 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

under magnificent auspices King Aravinda with his wife 
Dharani. Aravinda has a Purohita, Vicvabhuti, whose 
wife, Anuddhara, 5 bears him two sons Kamatha and Ma- 
rubhuti. 6 Kamatha has for wife Varuna; Marubhuti's 
spouse is Vasumdhara. Vicvabhuti retires from active 
life to pious contemplation, dies, and goes to heaven, fol- 
lowed there by his desolated widow, Anuddhara. Kamatha 
and Marubhuti remain behind, sorrowing for their par- 
ents. A great Sage, Harigcandra, preaches the Law to 
such purpose, that Marubhuti is weaned from all terres- 
trial attachments and becomes a disciple, whereas Ka- 
matha, whose heart is not pierced by the Sage's instruc- 
tion, remains a slave of his passions. Owing to Maru- 
bhuti's abstention, his wife, Vasumdhara, lives in en- 
forced chastity, and becomes love-mad. For a time she 
repels Kamatha 's advances, but finally submits to his 
unbridled lust. Blinded by love, they live in incestuous 
adultery. Varuna, Kamatha 's wife, observing, reports 
the affair to Marubhuti. Whereupon he goes to a distant 
village, returns in the guise of a holy beggar, and asks 
Kamatha for shelter. Kamatha permits him a nook in 
his house, 7 so that, while pretending sleep, he becomes 
witness to the misconduct of his brother with his own 
sister-in-law. He reports the affair to King Aravinda, 
just but stern monarch. The King has Kamatha mounted 
upon an ass, marked with many insignia of shame, and 
expelled from the city. 

Kamatha, disgraced, deprived of wealth and relatives, 
roams solitarily in the forest, broods revenge, and bides 
his time. He happens upon a hermitage in the forest, 
takes sacred vows, and practices asceticism upon a moun- 

6 L: Anudari. 

6 First pre-hirth of the pair. 

7 For Bh.'s grhakone L. has caturhastamadhye. 

Introduction 5 

tain. In the mean time Marubhuti becomes despondent, 
because of the dire retribution he has brought upon his 
brother. Even tho restrained by King Aravinda, he goes 
to the forest to conciliate Kamatha. Throwing himself 
upon his knees, he begs forgiveness, but Kamatha takes 
up a stone, and with a single blow crushes his brother's 
head, and, with it, his own sacred vows. While in pain 
from that mortal blow Marubhuti harbors distressing 
thoughts (artadhyana). As result, he is reborn as a wild 
elefant, s leader of a herd in the Vindhya mountains. 
Varuna, Kamatha 's wife, blind with fury, also dies, is 
reborn as a she-elefant, and becomes his mate. Wildly 
they roam together in the forest. 

King Aravinda, living on the pinnacle of worldly pleas- 
ures, one day contemplates a great storm. In the manner 
of a Pratyekabuddha, 9 he is reminded by the breaking of 
the clouds of the perishableness of all things in the sam- 
sara, and decides to abandon the world. He takes vows 
with a teacher, and wanders alone thru towns and villages. 
In the course of these wanderings he succeeds in con- 
verting to the faith of the holy Jina Saints the merchant 
Sagaradatta, head of a caravan. Going on his way, Saga- 
radatta comes to the spot where the elefant chief (Maru- 
bhuti) is in the habit of disporting himself with his 
females. While he is camping on the banks of a lake, the 
elefant comes there to drink, and proceeds to attack his 
caravan, slaying and dispersing. Aravinda 's spiritual 
insight tells him that the time to enlighten the elefant 

8 Second pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

9 The meaning of this word is probably ' enlightened by some particular 
thing, circumstance, or occurrence,' as is the case each time in the Jain 
legends about the four kings in Jacobi's Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in 
Maharastrl, pp. 34 fL; cf. Jatakas 378, 408. The word is rendered other- 
wise by translators and lexicografers. 

6 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

has come. He places himself in kayotsarga posture, 10 
and reverently approaches him. Aravinda reminds him 
of his former high estate as Marubhuti, and bids him 
desist from his mad folly. Marubhuti, remembering his 
former existence, reverently signifies with his trunk that 
his faith is restored. Whereupon, after Aravinda has 
retired, the elefant lives piously on sun-warmed water 
and dry leaves, repenting his career of fright and de- 

In the mean time, Kamatha, unchastened even by his 
murder of Marubhuti, loathed of men, dies in a troubled 
state of soul, and is reborn as a kurkuta-serpent. 11 Kill- 
ing or endangering all living beings, he infests the forest, 
and finally bites the elefant Marubhuti, who then dies 
while contemplating the Law (dharmadhyana), to be 
reborn as a god in the Sahasrara heaven. 12 The kurkuta- 
serpent (Kamatha) on its death, is reborn as a hell- 
dweller in the Pancamavani hell, 13 suffering the tortures 
of that hell. 

On the Vaitadhya mountain stands the sumptuous city 
of Tilaka, ruled by the Vidyadhara king Vidyudgati with 
his queen Tilakavati. 14 The soul of the elefant falls from 
the eighth Kalpa, to be reborn as prince Kiranavega. 15 

10 ' Relaxation of the body ' : ' The ascetic stands immovable, his arms 
held stiffly downward, his knees pressed together, his feet four fingers' 
length apart; his toes stretched forward.' So according to R. G. Bhandar- 
kar, Report on the search for Sanskrit Manuscripts, 1887-91, p. 98 note. 
The word is rendered ' statuesque posture ' by Tawney in his Translations 
of Kathakoga, p. 54, and Prabandhacintamani, p. 137 ; ' hockende stellung,' 
Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, vocabulary, under kaussagga. Steven- 
son, The Heart of Jainism, p. 250, describes the * kausagga ' position, as 
with legs crossed and hands in lap; cf. also p., 257. 

u Second pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

33 Third pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 
38 Third pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

34 Called Kanakatilaka in L. 

15 Fourth pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

Introduction 7 

Vidyudgati, taking the vow, makes over his kingdom to 
Kiranavega. Kiranavega also, in time, turns from con- 
cerns of the body to those of the soul, and makes over the 
kingdom to his son Kiranatejas. Kiranavega goes to 
Puskaradvipa, and passes some time in penance on the 
mountain of Vaitadhya in company with an image of the 
Jina. The soul of the kurkuta-serpent is reborn as a 
great serpent (mahahi). 16 Owing to their prenatal hos- 
tility the serpent bites Kiranavega, who dies forgivingly, 
and is reborn as a god in Jambudrumavarta. 17 The ser- 
pent is burned by a forest-fire, and goes to the Dhuma- 
prabha hell. 18 

The soul of the former Kiranavega, in due time, falls 
from its high estate, and is reborn as Prince Vajranabha, 
son of Laksmivati, 19 queen of Vajravirya, king of Qu- 
bhamkara. 20 He grows into every bodily and mental per- 
fection, so as to become fit mate for Vijaya, daughter 
of King Candrakanta of Badgadeca. While still heir- 
apparent, Vajranabha, together with an infidel cousin of 
his, Kubera, is converted by the sage Lokacandra. His 
father, King Vajravirya, retires from the world; Vaj- 
ranabha, after him, rules piously and righteously with his 
queen Vijaya, who presents him with a son, Cakrayudha. 
Vajranabha, in turn, has misgivings as to stability of 
the world and its attractions; appoints Cakrayudha his 
successor; takes the vow with the Jina Ksemamkara; 
and wanders as a mendicant to Sukachavijaya. In the 
mean time the soul of the serpent, returning from hell, 

18 Fourth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 
17 Fifth pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

" Fifth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. L. calls this stage, paficamaprthi- 

19 L. corruptly, aksimataya bharyayah. 
10 Sixth pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

8 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

is reborn as a wild Bhilla, Kurangaka, 21 infesting the 
mountain Jvalana. As Vajranabha happens to be present 
there in kayotsarga posture, Knrangaka, ont of prenatal 
hatred, hits him with an arrow. Vajranabha, tho struck 
fatally, remains free from evil thought, merely remark- 
ing that he had been killed by the soul of the Bhilla in a 
former existence. He is reborn as a god, Lalitanga. 22 
Kurangaka, when he dies, goes to the Saptamavani hell. 23 
The soul of Vajranabha falls from heaven and enters 
the womb of Sudarcana, wife of King Vajrabahu 24 of 
Surapura. The queen dreams the fourteen great dreams 
which augur the birth of a Cakravartin (emperor). In 
due time a son, Suvarnabahu 25 is borne; he grows up 
with every accomplishment. The king takes the vow, 
leaving the kingdom to his son. One day Suvarnabahu 
is carried off by a horse of inverted training to a her- 
mitage, where he meets a royal maiden and her com- 
panion, quite in the manner of the Qakuntala story. He 
carries away with him this maiden, Padma, daughter of 
Ratnavali, widow of the Vidyadhara king of Eatnapura, 
and becomes, by the aid of his wife's Vidyadhara rela- 
tives, a Cakravartin. In time he is converted by the 
Tirthamkara Jagannatha. One day, as he stands with 
a Jain image in the forest of Ksiragiri, he is attacked by 
a lion, inhabited by the soul of the Bhilla Kurangaka, 
reincarnated in the lion's body, 26 after leaving hell. He 
dies forgivingly; is reborn as a god in the Mahapra- 

21 Sixth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

22 Seventh, pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

23 Seventh pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

24 L. Kulicabahu. 

23 Eighth pre-birth of Marubhuti soul. In L. the boy is named Kana- 
28 Eighth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

Introduction 9 

bhavimana heaven; 27 but the lion, at his own death, goes 
to the fourth hell. 28 

The soul of Marubhuti, after having passed thru nine 
existences as high-born man or god, finally is reincarnated 
in the womb of VamadevI, queen of the mighty Iksvaku 
king, Acvasena of Varanasi. The events of this incar- 
nation are described in the fifth sarga of our text with a 
degree of minuteness that reminds one of the Buddhology 
on the one hand, and of Mahavira's birth on the other 
hand. Not only the court of Benares, but also the entire 
Jaina Olympus is joyously interested in the gestation, 
birth, growth, and education of the future Lord of the 
World. Because the pregnant queen had seen in a trou- 
bled night a serpent by her side (parcvatah), therefore 
he is called Pargva. In accordance with a profesy he 
marries Prabhavati, the perfect daughter of Prasenajit, 
king in Kugasthala. But, in order to fulfill this item of 
his destiny, he must first convert a truculent rival for 
Prabhavati 's hand, Yavana, king of Kalmga. 

In the mean time the soul of the lion, the Kamatha 
soul, is reborn as Katha, 29 son of a Brahman, named 
Rora. Owing to the death of his parents, he is brought 
up by charity; carries on a miserable existence begging 
from house to house, shy and given to fear. Disgusted 
with life he turns ascetic, and subsists on the roots of 

One day Parcva sees Katha, surrounded by a great 

37 Ninth pre-birth of the Marubhuti soul. 

23 Ninth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul. 

29 L. does not mention this name, but substitutes the original eponymic 
Kamatha. Oatrumjaya Mahatmyam 14. 12 has Katha, but the variant 
Kamava points to the alternate Kamatha. Evidently the two names are 
interchangeable. This is the tenth pre-birth of the Kamatha soul, destined 
in the next birth, as the Asura Meghamalin, to be converted to Pargva's 

10 Life and Stories of Pargvanaiha 

concourse of people, performing the severe five-fire-pen- 
ance (pancagnitapas). And lie sees that Katha has 
thrown a great serpent into a fire-pan which stands npon 
the fagots of the fire. He asks the reason for this pitiless 
practice, inconsistent with Katha 's own austerities. 
Katha replies that kings might understand elefants and 
horses, but that sages alone understood religion. Parcva 
has the fire put out ; the agonized serpent comes out ; and 
Parcva makes his people show honor to him. Absorbing 
the essence of their worship, the serpent is reborn as 
Dharana, the wealthy king of the Nagas in Patala, the 
subterranean home of the serpents. Katha, as the result 
of his false practice, is reborn as an Asura by name of 

Parcva, happening to see on the wall of his palace a 
picture of the Arhat, Nemi, 30 who had taken the vow 
early in life, decides to do the same, and to undertake 
the enlightenment of the world. Preparatory to his con- 
secration he distributes vast alms. To the songs and 
music of the people he goes to a hermitage where the 
very trees and plants rejoice over his presence. At the 
foot of an acoka-tree he renounces power and wealth, 
plucks out his hair, and, at the age of thirty, obtains the 
knowledge due to mental perfection. He wanders from 
place to place, instructing, and acclaimed as a Saint. 
While standing in the forest of Kaucambi in the kayot- 
sarga posture, the serpent-king Dharana comes in great 
state to do him honor, performs a mimic representation, 
and during three days holds an umbrella over his head 

80 L. calls him Aristanemi. This name also, e. g., in Merutunga's Upa- 
degacata or Mahapurusacarita ; see Weber, Die Handschriftenverzeichnisse 
der Kgl. Bibliothek zu Berlin, ii, p. 1025. It is in fact the fuller name of 
the 22nd Arhat; see Kalpasutra 170 ff.; Uttaradhyayana 22. 4ff. The two 
names interchange in Jain literature, Nemi being hypocoristic. 

Introduction 11 

to protect him from the sun. He wanders again, to many- 
places, to find out where dwells the enemy Illusion. The 
Asura Meghamalin (the soul of Kamatha) attacks the 
Lord Parcva with tigers, elefants, and scorpions, but, 
when he shows no fear, they slink off, as tho ashamed. 
Meghamalin then tries to submerge him in the waters 
produced by a fearful thunderstorm ; even then the Lord 
does not budge from his place and his pious meditations. 
Dharana, finding out by superior insight that Kamatha 
is attacking the Lord, fashions by means of his serpent 
hoods an umbrella over his head : the Lord stands there 
like a royal hahsa bird, submerged in a deep trance, 
retaining his equanimity in the face of both Kamatha's 
attacks and Dharana's devotion. Dharana then excori- 
ates Meghamalin 's hatred of the Lord, pointing out that 
he had done him no injury, but on the contrary, had saved 
him from the sin of burning up Dharana on the occasion 
of his uncanny practice. Meghamalin then repents, 
resorts to the Lord, and goes home, determined to devote 
himself to piety. Thus ends the drama of the persecution 
of the soul of Marubhuti by the soul of Kamatha, carried 
on thru ten existences. 

Then Parcva returns to his native city of Kagi (Vara- 
nasi), where he reaches the state of Kevalin with all its 
supernatural powers. His father, Acvasena ; his mother, 
Varna ; and his wife, Prabhavati, come out to honor him ; 
Acvasena sings a hymn in his praise. Parcva continues 
to wander and preach, until he realizes that Nirvana is 
at hand. He then goes to the Sammeta mountain, and 
practices a month's asceticism. He attains to various 
forms of spiritual refinement, up to the point when his 
karma is destroyed. He dies and reaches the summit of 
heaven. Qakra bathes the body with the fluid of the 
ocean of milk, and adorns him with divine jewels. The 

12 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

gods place his body upon a pyre of sandal, and ponr fra- 
grant substances upon it. Cloud-youths (meghakuma- 
rakah) quench the pyre. Over the bones of the Lord the 
gods erect a jewel stupa, and then disperse to their vari- 
ous homes. 

In the present Pargvanatha Caritra the accounts of the 
pre-births, birth, life, and nirvana of the Saint, being the 
frame of the Caritra, are interrupted by fiction episodes 
which make up the bulk of the work. It will be conveni- 
ent to assemble here in succession the passages which 
deal with Pargva himself, including the account of his 
pre-births : 

1. 17-60 : Story of the brothers Kamatha and Maru- 

1. 670-797 : The enmity between Kamatha and Maru- 


1. 815-885 : The enmity between Kamatha and Maru- 

bhuti, concluded. 

2. 1-51 : King Kiranavega. 

2. 1027-1065: Kiranavega 's conversion and death. 

3. 1-104: King Vajranabha and his infidel cousin 


3. 1034-1108 : Conversion of both, and death of Vaj- 


4. 1-161: Cakravartinship of Suvarnabahu and his 


5. 1-254 : Early life of the Arhat Pargvanatha. 

6. 1-149 : Marriage and later life of the Arhat Parc- 

6. 166-213 : Life of Pargvanatha, continued : Megha- 

malin's attack and conversion. 
6. 214-279: Life of Pargvanatha, continued: Sermon 

on the four-fold dharma. 

Introduction 13 

. 6. 1343-1360 : Life of Pargvanatha, continued. 

7. 1-7: Life of Pargvanatha, continued. 

7. 826-838; Life of Pargvanatha, continued. 

8. 358-393: Life of Pargvanatha, concluded. His 


* # * 

The prenatal history of Pargva (Marubhuti) and Ka- 
matha represents a type of fiction in which a pair of 
souls are held in relation to one another by the tie of 
love or hatred, thru a succession of parallel births. Pro- 
fessor Leumann has elaborated the story of Citta and 
Sambhuta (the Prakrit Bambhadatta story) in two ar- 
ticles in vols, v and vi of the Vienna Journal of Oriental 
Studies. Here a pair of fond souls pass thru successive 
existences, until, in the end, one of them makes an abor- 
tive attempt to save the other from perdition. A faint 
suggestion of the same motif is found in the story of 
Brahmadatta, Kathas. 3. 27 £f. ; 114. 17 ff. An impressive 
example of hatred in successive births is contained in the 
story of Sanatkumara (Prakrit Sanamkumara) in Parg- 
vanatha Caritra 6. 1011 f£. ; Kathakoga, pp. 31 ff . ; and 
Devendra's Prakrit version: 31 King Vikramayacas falls 
in love with Visnugri, beautiful wife of the merchant 
Nagadatta. The king's jealous wives kill her by sorcery. 
The king is grieved to the point of madness, until his 
chief men show him the festering, evil-smelling body of 
Visnucri. He turns ascetic, is reborn in heaven, falls 
thence, and is born again as the merchant Jinadharma. 
In the mean time Nagadatta, dying in sore affliction, is 
reborn as the Brahman Agnicarman. Agnicarman, hav- 
ing turned ascetic, wanders to Rajagrha, the city of King 
Naravahana. There also arrives Jinadharma. Agnicar- 

81 See Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, pp. 20 ff. 

14 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

man sees him, and, goaded on by his prenatal enmity, 
says to the king: ' Sire, if I may be allowed to eat a 
pndding of rice and milk off the back of this merchant, 
I will break my fast, but not otherwise.' The ascetic 
eats from a red hot dish placed on the back of Jina- 
dharma ; when the meal is finished, the dish is wrenched 
from his back together with blood, sinews, flesh, and fat. 
But the victim bears patiently the fruit of his actions in 
a former life, turns ascetic, and is reborn as Indra. Agni- 
carman is reborn as Airavana, the elef ant on which Indra 
rides. The latter falls from that position and, after vari- 
ous animal rebirths, comes into existence again as the 
Yaksa Asita. Indra, too, falls, to be reborn as the 
emperor Sanatkumara. The two finally meet in a great 
combat, in which the Yaksa is conquered, but, being im- 
mortal, his final discomfiture takes the form of flight. 

The Prakrit Samaraiccakaha and its Sanskrit digest, 
Pradyumnasuri's Samaraditya Samksepa, deal with nine 
existences (bhava) of the Prince Gunasena and the Brah- 
man Agnigarman. In each of these the soul of Agnicar- 
man is controlled by hatred of the soul of Grunasena, and 
in each existence the reincarnation of G-unasena is de- 
stroyed by that of Agnicarman, until G-unasena reaches 
final emancipation. 

Anent Dhammapada 291 (' Not hatred for hatred '), 
Buddhaghosa's Dhammapada Commentary, 21. 2, tells 
how a girl eats the eggs of a hen, whereupon the hen 
prays that she may be reborn as a EaksasI, or ogress, fit 
and able to devour the children of her enemy. In 500 suc- 
cessive existences they return hatred for hatred. In time 
the girl is reborn as a young woman of Savatthi, and 
the hen is reborn as an ogress. The ogress devours two 
children of the young woman, and is about to seize the 
third, when the young woman seeks refuge in the monas- 

Introduction 15 

tery. The Buddha admonishes them to return good for 
evil. 32 

In Kathakoga, pp. 8 if., two Brahmans, Devadharma 
and Devagarman, obtain two urns of gold, which they 
agree to bury on the bank of a river, and then seek more 
wealth. Coming to a well, the elder brother tells the 
younger to see if there is water, pushes him over while he 
is looking, but is himself also dragged in by the younger. 
They both perish ; are reborn as pairs of animals, until, in 
their fifth birth, they again rise to the position of Brah- 
man brothers. Whenever they come over the spot where 
the two urns are buried, they fall to quarreling, but at 
home they are on the best of terms. A Saint explains the 
phenomenon as due to their prenatal quarrel, whereupon 
they are converted, die, and go to the world of the gods. 

In addition to ' successive birth in pairs ' the story 
exploits another well-established fiction motif, namely 
' hostile brothers/ The last illustration contains both 
motifs. The motif ' hostile brothers ' begins with Ma- 
habh. 1. 209. 1 if. : Two brothers, Sunda and Upasunda, 
obtain thru ascetic practices control of the world. Brah- 
man grants them immunity from death, except at one 
another's hands. They proceed to drive the gods from 
heaven, and to extirpate the Brahmanical caste. Vicva- 
karman fashions a woman, Tilottama, so entrancing that, 
at the sight of her, Sthanu Mahadeva develops four faces, 
and Indra a thousand eyes. The two brothers, as soon 
as they see Tilottama, both fall in love with her, and slay 
one another as the result of their rivalry. 33 

33 See Burlingame, in the Introduction to his Translation of this work, 
p. 127. 

"This story is repeated in Kathas. 15. 135 ff. (45. 382), and retold of a 
pair of Asuras, Ghanta and Nighanta, Kathas. 121. 229. Tawney, in a note 
to his Translation of Kathasaritsagara, vol. ii, p. 629, draws attention to 

16 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

In Pargvanatha 4. 53 if., at the death of the king of 
Ratnapura, his two sons quarrel over the succession, so 
that the widowed queen Ratnavali finds it advisable to 
take her daughter Padma for safety to the hermitage of 
her uncle Galava. Similarly in Dharmakalpadruma ii, 
the princes Qura and Vira fight for the sovereignty of 
Kaucambi, so that their sister Jayamala has to be placed 
in safety with her uncle, King Candraketu of Ratnapura. 
In Pargvanatha 6. 280 if. the destiny of two princes, Vi- 
jaya and Candrasena is determined by their hostility. 

In Ralston 's Tibetan Tales, p. 279, two princes, the 
older Ksemamkara, the younger Papamkara, go on an 
expedition to a jewel island, fill their ship with jewels, 
but are shipwrecked. They get to shore; Papamkara 
robs Ksemamkara of jewels which he has fastened to his 
girdle, puts out his eyes with a thorn, and leaves him on 
the shore. Papamkara returns home, succeeds to the 
throne, and is desired for son-in-law by a neighboring 
king who had previously offered his daughter to Kse- 
mamkara. The daughter refuses, and asks for a sva- 
yamvara. Ksemamkara, now a blind vagabond musician, 
stands at the svayamvara, to one side. The princess 
throws the garland upon him, thus marrying him to the 
remonstrances of the people. Thru saccakiriya 34 (' truth 
declaration ') Ksemamkara regains his sight, and is re- 
instated as rightful heir to the throne. 

"Jf TP "Jt" 

As regards other versions of the Parcva legend, the 
Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam (14. 1-97) treats Parcva 's life 
briefly, but in essential accord with our Caritra account. 

the story of Otus and Ephialtes (Preller's Griechische Mythologie, vol. i, 
p. 81), and cites Grohmann's Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 35. 

34 For this important motif see Burlingame, ' The Act of Truth,' JRAS., 
1917, p. 449. 

Introduction 17 

It omits, however, all pre-births, beginning with his de- 
scent from the Pranata Kalpa (Caritra 5. 29). This text, 
however, alludes to the enmity of Parcva and Katha 
(Kamatha) during the course of ten prebirths and birth 
(14. 42, dacabhavaratih Kathasurah). There are minor 
differences ; e. g. Prabhavati, Parcva's wife, is the daugh- 
ter of a King Naravarman, instead of Prasenajit, Nara- 
varman's son (Caritra 5. 145 if.). But, in general, per- 
sonal as well as geographical references agree with those 
of the present text. 

The Kalpasutra (149 ff.) not only disregards the pre- 
natal history of the Saint, beginning with his descent 
from the Pranata Kalpa, but, furthermore, omits all 
reference to Kamatha (Katha) and the serpent king 
Dharana. We may suspect that Kamatha has a histori- 
cal kernel, being some sectarian, hostile to Parcva's Jina 
doctrine. The Kalpasutra agrees with the Caritras as 
to his birth-place, Benares, and his family: his father 
King Acvasena; his mother Varna (Vamadevi). 35 The 
story of his marriage to Prabhavati, daughter of Pra- 
senajit, king of Kucasthala, is ignored in the Kalpasutra, 
but it is stated that he lived thirty years as a house- 
holder ; more precisely the Caritra, 6. 105 ; 8. 377, has it 
that he was thirty years old when his niskramana took 
place. The Kalpasutra points out at the beginning of its 
sketch that the five most important moments of Parcva's 
life happened when the moon was in conjunction with 
the asterism Vicakha. Any suspicion that this state- 
ment is artificially systematic passes away in the light 
of Parcvanatha Caritra 5. 30, 43; 6. 108, 217; 8. 370, 
where are described, in order, the Saint's conception; 
his birth ; his wandering out into houselessness and pluck- 

* Pargva has the metronymic Vameya in 5. 106. 


18 Life and Stories of Parqvanatha 

ing out his hair; his attainment to the state of Kevalin; 
and his final salvation. All authorities agree explicity as 
to this chronology; they also state that Parcva lived a 
hundred years : Kalpasutra 168 ; Qatrumjaya Mahatmy- 
am 14. 96 ; Caritra 8. 377. The texts agree that the chief 
of Parcva 's Qramana following was the Ganabhrt Arya- 
datta; see Kalpasutra 161; Catrumjaya Mahatmyam 14. 
68 36 ; Caritra 6. 1352 ; 7. 1 ; the systematized list of the 
early followers of Parcva in their total, as given in the 
Caritra 6. 1352, 1363 differs a good deal from that of 
Kalpasutra 160 ff. 

In one matter the Kalpasutra does not seem to be on 
all fours with an important point of tradition, or, at 
least, is very inexplicit. The name of the Saint, Parcva, 
1 Side,' is explained irrelevantly in the Kalpasutra, but 
the Commentator remarks that the name was given him 
because his mother, before his birth, while lying on her 
couch, saw in the dark a black serpent crawling about. 
This accords with the other authorities, especially our 
Caritra 5. 125, 126 : ' While the Saint was in his mother's 
womb, she saw by night, tho it was dark, a serpent mov- 
ing about. At once she told her husband, who bore it in 
mind, decided that the serpent was the embryo's power 
(garbhasya prabhavah), and, therefore, named his son 
Parcva. ' 3T Now it is worth while to point out, in this 
connection, that serpent lore or mythology figures to an 
extraordinary extent in the Parcva legend. Jain tradi- 
tion, especially iconografic tradition, assigns to each Ar- 
hat or Tirthamkara two attendant geniuses, or servitors ; 
see of recent literature, J. Burgess in the Appendix 
to his Translation of Biihler's Indian Sect of the Jainas, 

88 This text mentions ten unnamed Suris, led by Aryadatta. 

37 On name-giving in deference to a dream see additional note 10, on p. 189. 

Introduction 19 

pp. 66 ff. ; Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 313. In our 
Caritra, 7. 827 ff., Parcva 's servants are described verb- 
ally: 38 ' A black, four-armed Yaksa, Parcva by name, 
who was born at that Tirtha, who carried as an umbrella 
the hood of a cobra, who had the mouth of an elefant, 
who had a tortoise as chariot, who held an ichneumon 
and a serpent in his two right arms, bhaktah parcve 
1 bhavad vibhoh (became a devotee at the side of the 
Lord).' According to Hemacandra, Abhidhanacinta- 
mani 43, Parcvanatha has a servant bearing his own 
name. This is the Qvetambara view of Parcvanatha's 
male attendant; see particularly, Burgess, Indian Anti- 
quary, xiii. 276. 

According to another tradition, current among the 
Digambaras, Pargva's male attendant is the serpent- 
prince Dharana (Dharanendra) whom Parcva saver 
from the cruelty of Kamatha or Katha (see 6. 50-68) ; cf. 
Burgess, Indian Antiquary, xxxii, pp. 459-464. The 
Parcva group reproduced there shows Dharanendra (rid- 
ing on a tortoise). Burgess remarks on p. 463: ' Among 
the Digambara Jainas in the Kanarese district in South- 
ern India, there appear to be differences in the icono- 
graphy, especially of the attendant Yaksas and goddesses 
(Yaksinis), compared with that of the Qvetambaras, as 
described by Hemacandra. ' Of course, the present Cari- 
tra text takes the Qvetambara view. 

Pargva's female attendant, or Yaksini, 39 is named 
Padmavati. She is described in our Caritra 7. 828 as 
golden-complexioned ; of distinguished might; having a 
kurkuta-serpent as chariot; holding in her two right 
hands a lotus and a noose, in her two left hands a fruit 

38 This is, as far as 1 know, the first verbal description published. 
89 Such female divine aids are known familiarly in Jaina literature as 
CasanadevI, Casanadevata, or Gasanasundarl; see p. 167 of this work. 

20 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

and a hook ; cf . the figure of Padmavati, sitting on a cock 
(-serpent), in Burgess ' reproduction. 40 The same group 
shows a serpent underneath the figure of Parcvanatha 
himself, that being the cognizance or symbol of that Saint 
thruout Jaina tradition. Parcva's head is covered with 
seven cobra hoods 41 in the group mentioned, as well in 
a statue of the Saint at Elura, reproduced in Ferguson 
and Burgess, Cave Temples of India, plate lxxxvi. 
Parcva's attendants have each five cobra hoods over their 
heads. All this, together with the role which the Serpent 
King, Dharana, plays in the life of the Saint, Pargva- 
natha Caritra 6. 50 fT. ; 6. 143 ££. ; especially Dharana's 
dramatic part in the final reconciliation between Parcva 
and Kamatha, shows that the legend connects Parcva 
definitely with serpent mythology. The account of his 
name accords with this feature of the Parcva story. 42 

There are other minor points of difference between the 
Kalpasutra and the Caritra, but both the precision and 
the moderation observed by the writers in the matter of 
Parcva 's life history warrant a settled tradition and 
after all, perhaps, a modicum of historical foundation. 
See Jacobi, Indian Antiquary, ix. 160 fr*. ; Tawney in his 
Translations of Prabandhacintamani, p. 133, note 2; 
Kathakoca, p. viii. 

Some of the features of the Parcva legend occur not 
only in connected legends, but also incidentally in such 

40 Burgess' explanation (1. c.) of Padmavati's cognizance (cihna) as a 
hansa is not in accord with the present description, nor with his reproduc- 
tion which shows distinctly a cock under the figure of Padmavati. 

41 The Ganadharasardhagatakam of Jinadattasuri speaks of Pargva wear- 
ing nine serpent's hoods, parcvanathanavaphanadharana; see Weber, Ver- 
zeichnisse, vol. ii, p. 982. Rauhineya Carita, stanza 422, states distinctly 
that Dharanendra, here called ' Naga king of Patala,' covers him with 
seven hoods* 

a Cf. Oldham, J'RAS. 1891, pp. 384-386. 

Introduction 21 

texts as deal with, or allude to the 23d Arhat. Thus, in 
the Kalyanamandira Stotra of Siddhasenadivakara, 43 the 
congenital hostility to the Lord on the part of Kamatha 
is alluded to. In stanza 2 Parcva is designated as kama- 
thasmayadhumaketu, which Jacobi, with the aid of the 
commentary, renders by, ' verfinsterer des liebesgottes ' 
(Comm. kamathasmaya = smara). It seems to mean 
primarily, l he who clouds (obscures) the smile of Ka- 
matha, i. e., ' changes his smile to grief, ' or the like. More 
in accord with the legend is stanza 31: rajahsi rosad 
utthapitani kamathena cathena yani chayapi tais tava na 
natha hata, ' the dust which the rogue Kamatha from 
anger cast up did not as much as hit thy shadow,' allud- 
ing to Kamatha 's (Meghamalin's) final efforts against 
the Lord, when he attacked him with a great storm, from 
which he was saved by the serpent-king Dharana. Again, 
in the Kathamahodadhi of Somacandra the story of Ka- 
matha 's unholy fire-practice with the serpent 44 is told 
briefly, along with Meghamalin's conversion, to wit (with 
some corrections) : varanasyam nagaryam pancagnisa- 
dhanaruparh tapah Kamathas tapati | anyada gavaksa- 
sthena Qri-Parcvakumarena tapasapujavyaprtah piirjano 
bahir dadr^e avadhina | kasthamadhye prajvalan bhu- 
jamgag ca | tatra gatva prajvalakasthamadhyat sarpo 
bahir karsitah | namaskaro dattah | sa (sc. sarpo) Dha- 
ranendro jajne | re murkha kim ajnanam tapas tapasi | 
dayadharmam na janasi 'tyadivakyais tapaso janasa- 
maksam dhikcakre svamino diksagrahananantaram 
kayotsargasthasya tapasajivo Meghamali musalapra- 
manadharabhir niropasargam cakara | tam sahamanasya 
Dharanendraphanamandapadhahsthitasya svaminah ke- 

43 See Jacobi, Ind. Stud. xiv. 376 ff. for this collection of perfervid bhakta- 

"Extracted in Weber, Handschriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, p. 1102 ff. 

22 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

valajnanam utpede | Dharanendrabhayabhito Meghamali 
prabhupadayor lagnah | mithya duhkrtam dadau. 

Dharana or Dharanendra, king of the serpents, con- 
tinues a lively existence in Jain writings as saint and 
thaumaturge. In Merutuiiga's Prabandhacintamani, p. 
311, the king of Patala, Dharanendra, cures the Jain 
doctor Abhayasiiri by licking his body with his tongue, 
afterwards showing him Stambhanaka, the holy place of 
Parcva. In Kathakoca, p. 184, he saves King Cetaka, 
when he falls into a well while holding an image of the 
Jina in his hand. See also Weber, Bhagavati, p. 211. 
Dharana continues in relation with and is worshiped by 
Vardhamana, 45 the 24th Arhat ; see Weber, Berlin Hand- 
schriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, pp. 991, 1036; he is men- 
tioned together with Padmavati, Parcva 's Yaksini, ib. 
1039, being the alternate of the above mentioned Yaksa 
(Pargva) as attending genius of the Arhat. 

Many holy places connected with Pargva 's career of 
self-culture or evangelism, as mentioned in this Caritra, 
seem to have enjoyed wide fame among the Jains. Thus, 
in 6. 140, and in the first stanza of the Pracasti at the 
end of the book, Kalikunda, a tirtha on lake Kunda, so 
called, because it was near the Kali mountain (kaleh 
kundasya asannabhavitvat), is quoted Qatrumjaya Ma- 
hatmyam 14. 25 ff. ; in Hahsaratna's Ullekha (prose 
version) of the same work (see Weber, 1. c, p. 1073) ; and 
in Viraprabandha, cloka 9 (Prabhavaka Carita, p. 206). 
Two other tirthas or towns of our text, Ahichatra, 6. 145, 
and Kurkutecvara, 6. 167, whose names are explained by 
legends, are mentioned in the Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam 
14. 34-40, and in the same Ullekha. A tirtha named Stam- 

45 Or Mahavira, who is understood to have been in the beginning of his 
career a Qramana follower of Pargva; see Ayaranga^Sutta 2. 15. 16. 

Introduction 23 

bhanaka, which I do not remember to have seen in our 
Caritra, but which is mentioned in the first verse of the 
Pragasti, is closely associated with Parcva in Prabandha- 
cintamani, pp. 311, 312, ' the Jina Parcvanatha of Stam- 
bhanaka,' and i Stambhanaka, a holy place of Parcva- 
natha ' ; see also the same text, p. 275, and Weber, ibid., 
992, 1039. The Pragasti in its first stanza mention in 
addition, a number of tirthas: at Mathura, Cafikhapura, 
Nagahrada, Latahrada, and Svarnagiri; they may be 
connected with the Parcva legend in general, but do not 
occur in our Caritra. Presumably, as coming from a 
later time, Merutunga, Prabandhacintamani, p. 309, men- 
tions an image of the Saint set up in the temple of Dvara- 
vati, which remains unharmed after Dvaravati was 
burned and overwhelmed by the sea. 46 The Caritra has 
no occasion to take account of this later legend, any more 
than of the late tradition that King Kumarapala (circa 
1125 a. d.) erected an image of the Saint in the name of 
his father in the Tribhuvanapala temple in Vagbhata- 
pura ; see Merutunga, p. 219. 47 Images or caityas of the 
saint are frequently mentioned in Jain literature; see 
Parcvanatha Caritra 6. 137, 166 ; Prabandhacintamani, p. 
34; Weber, Ind. Stud. xv. 290; Handschriftenverzeich- 
nisse, pp. 1039, 1047, 1049, 1050, 1053, 1076. Stotras, such 
as Indra sings in honor of the newly born Saint in 5. 
105 f£. ; or such as Parcva's father himself sings in honor 
of the Saint in 6. 247 ff., continue to be sung ; see ibid., 
471, 928, 938, 943, 992, 1012, 1033, 1039, 1001. Processions 
(yatra) and mimic representations (natyavidhi), such as 
our text mentions in 6. 134, 143, continue to be performed 
in honor of the Lord ; see Weber, ibid., 274, 1054-56. 

46 See Jacobi, ZMDG. xlii. 493 ff. 

47 Cf. Buhler, Ueber das Leben des Jaina Moriches Hemachandra, pp. 40, 41. 



Sakga the Fikst 

Invocation of Arhats and Divinities 

Author's proemium in praise (mangala) of the Jaina 
Arhats, Nabheya, Qantinatha, Nemi, Parcvanatha, and 
the collective Jinendras that liberally bestow holy knowl- 
edge. 1 Adoration of Vagdevi (Sarasvati), the Moon, and 
other divine personifications, closing with a statement 
of the purpose of the book, namely the history (carita) 
in eight chapters (sarga), describing the ten existences 
(pre-births and birth) of the holy Jina, Lord Parcva, 
whose superlative qualities are praised beforehand in 
ecstatic language (1-16). 

Frame Story: The brothers Kamatha and Marubhuti 

Flowery description of the city of Potana. There 
ruled magnificently King Aravinda with his Queen Dha- 
rani, endowed with every womanly virtue (25). He had 
a wise Purohita, 2 Vicvabhuti, whose virtuous wife Anud- 
dhara bore him two sons, Kamatha and Marubhuti. Ka- 
matha 's wife was Varuna; Marubhuti's, Vasumdhara. 

1 Analogous to the stotras, stavas, or stutis which play a more important 
role in Jaina religion than in Buddhism, or even Brahmanical sectarian- 
ism; see as specimens the Oobhanastutayah. of Cobhanamuni (Jacobi in 
ZDMG. xxxii. 509 ff. ) ; or the Bhaktamarastotra, and the Kalyanamandira- 
stotra (the same author in Indische Studien, xiv. 359 ff.) Cf. Guerinot, 
Essai de Bibliographie Jaina (Annales du Musee Guimet, vol. xxii), pp. 
203 ff. 

2 Combination of chaplain and chancellor. 


26 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

They passed their lives in the pleasures of the senses. 
Vicvabhuti, in time, made over the care of his house to 
his sons, lived in fast under the direction of a holy 
Teacher, pondered with his whole soul the mantra of the 
Paramesthinamaskara, 3 and, abandoning his body, was 
reborn as a god in the Saudharma heaven. Also his 
bereaved wife Anuddhara, desolated over the loss of her 
husband, thinking that for her there was no further hap- 
piness, practised profound penance and died (17-37). 

Kamatha and Marubhuti performed in sorrow the 
funeral rites for their parents. Then the great Sage 
Hariccandra, compassionate and generous, arrived in a 
park outside the city. The citizens, singing songs of 
praise, swarmed about him like bees, attracted by the 
fragrance of his virtues. The two brothers also went 
there, anxious to dispel their grief for the loss of their 
parents thru the consolations of religion. The Sage 
preached the Law (dharma), winding up with the fol- 
lowing illustration : Devotion to religion leads to success, 
as in the case of Lalitanga ; the reverse leads to destruc- 
tion, as in the case of his servant, Sajjana (38-60) : 

Story of Lalitanga and his servant Sajjana* 

In the city of Qrivasa ruled Naravahana, whose wife 
Kamala bore him a son, Lalitanga, endowed with many 
engaging qualities, prominent among them munificence, 
which he carried on to the point of passion (73). "With 

3 Mantra addressed to the five Paramesthins, Yugadiga (Rs.abha), 
Canti (Cantinatha), Nemi (Aristanemi), Pargva, and Vira (Mahavira) ; 
see Weber, Uber das Oatrumjaya Mahatmyam, p. 15. The prayer is used 
by Jams as last resort in danger, and before death; see, e. g. Kathakoga, 
pp. 104, 124, 214, and often in this book. 

4 This story in briefer form in Kathakoga, p. 160 ff.; and in Suvaba- 
huttarikatha, nr. 72 (see Hertel in Festschrift an Ernst Windisch, pp. 

Story of Lalitanga and his servant Sajjana 27 

him grew up a servant named Sajjana, by nature evil 
(durjana). Tho people spoke adversely of this attach- 
ment, Lalitanga would not discard Sajjana. One day the 
king presented a valuable ornament to the prince, who 
gave it away, because he questioned a gift from one who 
imposed burdens. Sajjana informed the king. He flew 
into a rage, but, after citing Lalitanga into his presence, 
because of his youth, merely chided him gently, pointing 
out the virtue of thrift with a view to preserving the 
resources of the kingdom. Even tho liberality be the 
greatest of virtues, moderation is the best norm: ' when 
one eats too much camfor the teeth fall out ' (102). He 
must not destroy his possessions, for some day he will 
have to shoulder the responsibilities of the kingdom (61- 

Lalitanga, impressed by his father's expostulations, 
checked his excessive generosity. His. petitioners, in 
their turn, blamed him, because he, the crest-jewel of the 
princes of liberality had, now, without apparent reason, 
and contrary to his practice, become an ordinary stone. 
The world can not live if the moon withdraws her digit, 4 * 
the giver his tribute, or the cloud its water. They added 
many other arguments (131), until Lalitanga, tho still 
torn by conflicting emotions, again began to give. The 
king angrily had the doors of the palace shut upon him. 
Lalitanga then decided that he could not remain where 
liberality, which secured people's love, was construed as 

149 flf. ) . According to Leumann, in a note on p. 239 of Tawney's Trans- 
lation of the Kathakoga, the story is found also among the Avagyaka tales. 
Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 279; Kingscote, Tales of the Sun, pp. 65 ff., 
present some of the traits of this story. More remotely, ZMDG. lxi. 49; 
Jataka 417. The allegory of Lalitanga in Parigistaparvan 3. 214 ff. has 
no connection with the present story. 
** See Bohtlingk, Indische Spruche, nr. 1576. 

28 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

a sin. In the secrecy of the night, he set out in a certain 
direction, mounted on a beautiful horse (111-141). 

Sajjana, knowing from certain signs what the prince 
was about, was prompted by his evil nature to follow him 
on foot. Lalitanga bade him tell something diverting. 
Sajjana embarked upon an argument as to the relative 
merits of virtue and vice, in which he, of course, took the 
side of vice. He advised Lalitanga to practice vice, and 
to acquire wealth by robbery. The latter replied that 
fortune obtained thru unrighteousness, like a lamp, illu- 
mines objects for a while, but, when it goes out, there is 
nothing but darkness. They agreed, on a bet, to lay 
their dispute before arbiters, Lalitanga engaging to be- 
come Sajjana's servant, in case the arbiters. decided that 
vice procures success. On arriving at a village, Sajjana 
asked the elders in the assembly house whether success 
arises from virtue or vice (158). Taken unawares, they 
decided in favor of vice. Sajjana then made Lalitanga 
give up to him his horse, which he spurred on, so that 
Lalitanga had to run after him, as a servant, bathed in 
sweat, to the jeers of Sajjana. Lalitanga, in turn, told 
him that he was badly named Sajjana (' good man ') 
since there was no evil man (durjana) like unto him: 
1 You are worse than the hunter who spreads havoc, for 
he who advises evil is worse than he who does it ' (111- 
167) : 

Parable of the hunter who was moved to compassion 

A certain hunter in a forest, his bow at the point of 
his ear, was implored by a gazelle facing death to be 
spared, until she had nursed her young, otherwise sure 
to perish from hunger. She would take upon herself the 
consequence of the great five sins, if she did not return 

Story of Lalitanga 29 

after having nursed them. 5 When the hunter still 
doubted her, she agreed to take upon herself the yet 
greater sin of him that gives evil advice to one that 
asks, or practices mischief upon one that confides. The 
hunter let her go. When she returned and asked the 
hunter how she might escape from his arrow, the latter 
became disgusted with continuously threatening the lives 
of animals, and bade her avoid his right side and live 6 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 

Lalitanga continued his arraignment of Sajjana with 
pious saws and illustrations, until the latter exclaimed: 
' wise man and counselor of perfection, why do not 
your virtues grant you your wishes ? You are like the vil- 
lager whose mother told him that he must under no cir- 
cumstances give up wealth once acquired. Then he caught 
hold of a bull by the tail, and was dragged and killed by 
him, because, tho people called to him, " let go, let go," 
the fool would not let go. 7 Like that fool you have but 
one idea. If you want to make another bet as to the 
merits of virtue and vice, there is nothing left but that 
you should pluck out your eyes.' The prince, in passion, 
agreed (168-191). 

They arrived at Qakhapura and submitted their dis- 
pute to some people, who again, as destiny would have it, 
decided as before. Sajjana then addressed Lalitanga: 
' thou, that are drunk with truth, king among princes, 
expert in doing good to others, treasury of righteous 
deeds, tell what you will do now! ' Lalitanga, goaded 

5 See additional note 1 on p. 183. 

"This passage contains the root chut: see Lexical notes, p. 232- 
7 This suggests loosely the anecdotes about letting go the bear, told by 
Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from the Panjab, pp. 174, 293. 

30 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

by his mockery, as if by a knife fresh from the whet- 
stone, went to the forest, stood under a banyan tree and, 
called the Forest-divinities (vanadevyah) and the World- 
protectors (lokapalah) to witness that Truth alone is vic- 
torious. The divinities showered flowers upon him. He 
then plucked out his eyes, 8 and gave them to Sajjana, 
who rode off, recommending him to live on the fruit of 
the tree whose blossoms destroy all prosperity, whose 
branches endow with virtue. The prince, in great des- 
pair and want, still clings to virtue: i Virtue alone is 
permanent, there is no other road to success in the three 
worlds! ' (191-207). 

After sunset Lalitanga, alone under the banyan tree, 
overheard 9 some Bharanda-birds asking a certain old 
bird in their midst to report the news. He narrated, 
to wit : ' In the city of Campa rules Jitacatru who has a 
daughter Puspavati, dearer than life. Her charms of 
person are perfection itself, but a trick of destiny has 
rendered all vain, since she is blind. 10 On a certain occa- 
sion the king sat in the assembly-hall, his daughter on 
his lap, reflecting that she could not be married on 
account of her bodily defect. He then proclaimed, by 
beat of drum, 11 that he who would furnish sight to the 
princess should obtain her as wife together with half the 
kingdom.' 12 Then a young bird asked the old bird: 
' Father, is there any means by which her eyes may 
be restored? ' The old bird first answered evasively, 

8 Papamkara takes out his 'brother's, Ksemamkara's, eyes, Ralston, Tibe- 
tan Tales, p. 282; they are later restored. Loss and restoration of eyes 
also ZMDG. lxi. 50; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 386, 

•See additional note 2 on p. 185. 

M See Benfey, Pancatantra i. 370. 

33 See additional note 3 on p. 185. 

n See additional note 4 on p. 186. 

Story of Lalitanga 31 

1 because by night, surely, trees have ears/ 13 but finally 
was cajoled into betraying his secret. He told that, upon 
that very tree there was a creeper whose sap, when ex- 
tracted, restored sight (208-235). 

Lalitanga felt with his hands for the creeper, cut a 
branch off with his knife, and poured its sap into his 
eye-sockets. At once, tho it was night, he could see every 
object. 14 Then he took more of the potent herb, and 
crawled in among the tail-feathers of the old bird 15 who 
had previously announced that he would fly to Campa 
in the morning. In this way he arrived in a park of that 
city. He bathed, went into the city, and announced his 
purpose. He was cited to the presence of the king, 
who inquired after his family and country, but Lalitanga 
pressed his mission. Having filled the princess ' eyes 
with the sap of the creeper, her sight was promptly 
restored, whereupon she expressed her devotion to the 
prince. The king arranged a sumptuous marriage, gave 
Lalitanga half his kingdom, so that henceforth he lived 
like a Dogundaka immortal, 16 in great splendor (236-268). 

One day, Lalitanga, standing at a window of his palace, 
beheld Sajjana in a wretched plight : ragged, disheveled, 
his veins standing out like serpents, repulsive as a skele- 
ton, like one who has come up from hell. Sajjana was 

13 See additional note 5 on p. 186. 

14 See additional note 6 on p., 187. 

16 Traveling in the tail-feathers of a gigantic bird of the nature of a 
vulture brings Caktideva to the golden city, in Kathas. 26. 34. In Deven- 
dra's story of Udayana (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 29, lines 
12 ff . ) Kumaranandi fastens himself to the middle legs of two three-legged 
Bharunda birds, which carry him to the siren island of Pancasela. In Ka- 
thas. 117. 81 Manoharika mounts a bird which carries her to the city of the 
Vidyadharas. In Catrumjaya Mahatmyam 10. 88 the draught from the 
wings of Bharanda birds set afloat a foundered ship. Cf. Weber in the 
note on p. 31 of his essay on the last mentioned text. 

" For this term see p. 226. 

32 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

begging alms from door to door. Overcome by pity, 
Lalitanga bad bim cited to bis presence, and asked 
wbetber be knew bim. Sajjana did not recognize bim, 
but taking bim to be a strange king, replied : ' Who does 
not know tbe sun, or tbe cloud bigb in heaven? ' 17 Lali- 
tanga then recalled himself to his memory, by telling 
how he had plucked out his eyes, whereupon Sajjana 
stood with bis face downcast, as if desirous to escape 
even into hell. But the king made him bathe, take food, 
and put on becoming clothes, saying : ' To-day my king- 
dom has borne fruit, since in it you, my comrade in mis- 
fortune, 18 have arrived. Therefore enjoy happiness with 
a mind free from care! ' Sajjana then, in pretended 
humility and contrition, told a hard-luck story: how, 
after leaving Lalitanga, he had been attacked by thieves, 
robbed, and beaten ; and bow he had come to realize with 
his own eyes the fruit of sin. He did not consider himself 
fit to associate with the king. But Lalitanga generously 
pointed out that he would not have attained his own 
exalted and happy state, but for Sajjana 's companion- 
ship. Sajjana had been the touchstone wherewith tbe 
gold of Lalitafiga's virtue had been tested (269-295). 

Queen Puspavati, suspicious of Sajjana, advised Lali- 
tanga to treat him generously, but to keep bim at a dis- 
tance. They should no more associate than the swan and 
the crow (296-305) : 

Fable of the swan and the crow 19 

A crow, while hunting fish, tumbled into a pool, and 
was rescued by a bahsa-bird and his mate on tbe plan 

17 For this trait see my paper on Muladeva, Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, vol. lii, p. 649. 

13 Cf. this text 3. 321, and Muladeva, 1. c, p. 643. 
19 See additional note 7 on p. 187. 

Fable of the swan and the crow 33 

of the tortoise on the stick. 20 The crow invited the hahsa 
for a visit, and he accepted in the teeth of the remon- 
strances of his mate. The crow and the hahsa went into 
the forest, and perched amicably npon the branch of a 
nimba-tree. 12 There the crow defecated npon the head 
of a king who had come to rest nnder that tree, and then 
flew away. The hahsa was shot down with a sling-shot 22 
by one of the king's men, and, when they expressed sur- 
prise at seeing a crow in the shape of a hahsa, the latter 
recited: ' I am not, great king, a crow, but a hahsa who 
lives in limpid water. Addiction to the society of the 
vile brings death, without donbt ' (306-322). 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 

Puspavati continued to describe Sajjana keenly, as a 
conch-shell, white outside, full of tortuosities inside. 
But the prince would not abandon Sajjana, for fate has 
it that noble men tend to associate with villains, just as 
camfor loves charcoal. Sajjana then sowed suspicion 
and dislike for Lalitanga in the mind of his father-in-law, 
and finally betrayed to him with feigned reluctance the 
supposed secret of their relation. Sajjana pretended 
that he himself was the son of King Naravahana (Lali- 
tanga 's father), and that Lalitanga was the son of a 
mahiyasya kaurikasya. 23 Of attractive person, but 

20 See the author in JAOS. xxxvi. 60. Two birds take each the end of 
stick into their bills: the animal to be rescued catches hold of the stick 
by mouth. 

21 The acrid fruit of this tree is no good, except to be eaten by crows ; 
see Bohlingk's Indische Spniche 3733. The snuhi tree is similarly despised, 
Parcvanatha 7. 14. 

32 dhanurgulika : the word recurs as dhanurgolika in 3. 189. 

w The translation of the Kathakoga has ; potter ' in the place of this 
group of syllables. For low, cunning types (barber and potter) see addi- 
tional note 23 on p. 202. 

34: Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

ashamed of his caste, he had left his home to roam in 
strange lands. The king then ordered some servants of 
his to slay that night any man who came alone by a cer- 
tain ronte to the palace. When night came he sent a 
call to Lalitanga to come to him in the palace, by that 
route. But Puspavati, alert and suspicious, induced Lali- 
tanga to send Sajjana in his place, whereupon the latter 
was duly slain by the king's men. 24 Puspavati heard the 
uproar, and bade Lalitanga flee outside the city with an 
army. His father-in-law threatened war, but his minis- 
ters checked him with wise cautions, illustrating by the 
following story the folly of hasty action (323-381) : 

Story of the parrot that brought the fruit of immortality. 
Strike but hear 25 

In a great forest in the Vindhya mountains, on a ban- 
yan-tree, lived a pair of parrots. Theirs was a beloved 
young parrot. One day it flew off, but being very young, 
it fell upon the ground. A hermit picked it up, took it 
to his hermitage, fed it, educated it, and treated it like 
a son. One day the young parrot overheard the abbot 
of the hermitage tell his pupils that in the middle of the 
sea there was an island, Harimela, in whose north-east 
corner stood a large mango-tree, bedewed with ambrosia ; 
and that the fruit of this tree restored youth by curing 
deformities, diseases, and old age. The young parrot, 
remembering his decrepit parents, considered that he 

u See additional note 8 on p« 188. 

"See the author, in Festgruss an Ernst Windiseh, p. 359 (with note). 
In addition to the parallels there given see also Siamese Paksi Pakaranam, 
in Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 350 (nr. xvii) ; Taylor, Catalogue Raisonne" 
of Oriental Manuscripts, vol. iii, p. 615; Kingscote, Tales of the Sun, p. 
350. Cf. Benfey, Pancatantra i, 416. Parrot and poison-tree in different 
application, Mahabh. 13. 5. 1 ff. 

Story of the parrot and the fruit of immortality 35 

might now pay the debt of their love. He flew to the 
magic tree and fetched one of the mangoes, but, on return- 
ing, grew tired and fell into the ocean, keeping the fruit 
in his bill (406). A merchant by the name of Sagara 
picked him up ; the parrot, out of gratitude, presented him 
with the fruit, after which he flew away to get another. 
The merchant decided to make the virtue of the fruit 
universally accessible. When he arrived at Jayapura, 
he presented it to the king then ruling, who had it planted, 
in order to reproduce the fruit for the benefit of his 
people (435). But a serpent, carried in the beak of a 
bird, happened to drop poison 26 upon one of the man- 
goes, so that it ripened and fell to the ground. The 
keeper of the garden joyously took it to the king who 
gave it to his chaplain, and he ate of it and died. The 
king in rage had the tree cut down. But a host of men, 
afflicted with incurable diseases, ate of its fruit for 
euthanasia (sukhamrtyave), and became thereby like 
unto the God of Love. The king, discerning the true 
state of things, regretted his rash act, and lost pleasure 
in his kingdom (382-454). 

Story of Lalitanga, continued 

On hearing this illustration of the evil effects of hasty 
action King Jitacatru sent one of his ministers to Lali- 
tanga, and obtained from him the true account of his life. 
The king, in mixed joy and sorrow, sent trusty messen- 
gers to report everything to Lalitanga 's father, King 
Naravahana in Qrivasa. Naravahana, delighted and 
grateful to Jitacatru, asked him to send back Lalitanga. 
Jitacatru apologized humbly to his daughter and his son- 

" For snakes spitting venom into food see Tawney's note in his Trans- 
lation of KatMsaritsagara, ii. 296; Catrumjaya Mahatmyam 14. 207. 

36 Life and Stories of PdrgvandtJia 

in-law for the wrong he had done them, made over his 
entire kingdom to Lalitanga, and retired to the forest 
(484). Lalitanga returned with Puspavati to his father 
Naravahana, who joyfully proposed to him the succession 
to the throne, and his own retirement from the world 
(512). After a polite and lengthy discussion between 
the two, Lalitanga accepted the responsibility, and ruled 
his dual kingdom in prosperity and happiness (455-538). 
Naravahana, now a Royal Sage (rajarsi) arrived at a 
park near the city, to visit Lalitanga. The latter in great 
joy went out with zenana and retinue to greet him. Nara- 
vahana preached the Law with particular reference to 
the Jain virtue of samyaktva (perfection), illustrating 
by the following story (539-569) : 

Story of the Qravaka 21 Gandhdra who rejected 
magic art 

In the city of Vasanta lived a Jain disciple, pious and 
virtuous, named Gandhara. Once, when he was honoring 
the gods in a Jain temple, a Vidyadhara, 28 named Maha- 
jaina, admiringly offered him the choice of magic arts 
(vidya). Gandhara refused, because he was not inter- 
ested in successes limited by particular conditions (au- 
padhika), since these result only in pain. But finally he 
was induced to accept a certain magic charm, which he, 
in turn, imparted to a friend of his, Skandila by name, 
because he himself had no use for it (584). Skandila 
went to a cemetery to execute the charm, filled a basin 
with live coals, and placed it under a tree. He then 

27 Designation of Jaina lay disciples. 

28 Literally, ' Science-holder,' a species of demigods, famed for their 
knowledge of magic art, especially the art of (travelling in the air (khe- 

Story of the Cravaka Gandhara 37 

started to climb a rope which he had fastened to a branch 
of this tree. This rope he had to cut while hanging upon 
it. But, when he had cut one strand of it, he became 
afraid of falling into the basin, and came down again to 
the ground. While gathering courage to try the charm 
once more, a thief came along with a jewel-casket which 
he had stolen from the palace of the king. The thief, 
frightened by the knowledge that he was pursued by the 
king's men, asked Skandila what he was about. Skan- 
dila told him all, and the thief proposed to barter the 
charm in exchange for the jewel-casket. 29 Skandila 
agreed, and taught the thief the charm. The latter 
climbed the rope, cut successively its four strands, where- 
upon the Science 30 named Adhisthayini, ' Floating/ 
delighted with his courage, furnished him with a car on 
which he ascended to heaven (599). In the morning the 
king's men, shouting on all sides, 31 ' Catch him, bind 
him, the thief has been caught with the goods,' ran up 
to Skandila. Thereupon the thief in the role of a Vid- 
yadhara produced a big stone, and cried out in heaven, 
' Whosoever shall injure my Teacher Skandila, upon him 
will I cast this rock.' The bailiffs, frightened, reported 
the occurrence to the king, who came and asked the thief 
reverently how Skandila came to be his Teacher. He 
told the story which they all absorbed in astonishment 

29 The thieves' trick of dropping loot or presenting loot to an innocent 
person, so as to avert suspicion from one's self, belongs to the refinements 
of the steyacastra: see this text 2. 452 ff., 652 ff.; 8. 124 ff.; Kathas. 10. 
167; Dhammapada Commentary 5. 8; 12. 5 and 9; Jataka 444; Samaraditya- 
samksepa 2. 188 ff., 492 ff.; 6. 102, 465 ff.; 8. 518 ff. 

30 For these ' Sciences,' or vidyas see my paper, ' On the Art of Entering 
another's Body,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. lvi 
(1917), pp. 4ff. 

21 Read in 600 visvagvyaharaka for visvag vyaharaka. 

38 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

Story of Lalitanga, concluded 

Naravahana continued his panegyric on the virtue of 
samyaktva which remains valid even if good conduct is 
infringed upon (caritrayane bhagne'pi). Lalitanga 
greatly honored Naravahana, and received further in- 
struction. He built a magnificent Jaina temple, in whi^h 
he set up an image of Nabheya (Esabha). Under tne 
influence of his father's teaching he renounced his king- 
dom, entered upon the vow of complete resignation 
(samastavirati-vrata), died, and went to heaven. Falling 
from thence he will obtain final perfection (siddhi) in 
Videha (605-669). 

Frame story: The enmity between the brothers, Kamatha 
and Marubhuti 32 

The story returns to the Sage Hariccandra (see verse 
40), thru whose influence many people were converted, 
among others Marubhuti, who was weaned from pas- 
sion, devoted himself to the Law, and practiced many 
virtues. Kamatha, whose heart was not pierced by 
the Sage's instruction, remained unenlightened. Owing 
to Marubhuti 's chastity his wife Vasumdhara became 
love-mad, and, after first repelling Kamatha's advances, 
finally submitted to his unbridled lust. Blinded by love, 
they constantly indulged in incestuous adultery (683). 
Varuna, Kamatha 's wife, observing, reported the affair 
to Marubhuti. Thereupon he went to a distant village, 
but returned in the guise of a holy beggar (karpatika), 
and asked Kamatha for shelter. The latter assigned to 
him a corner of his house, where, pretending to sleep, 
he became witness to the misconduct of his brother with 

a See Introduction, p. 13 ft". 

Kamatha and Marubhuti 39 

his own wife. He reported the affair to the king, Ara- 
vinda, just but stern monarch, who had Kamatha forcibly 
mounted upon an ass, 33 marked with many insignia of 
shame, and expelled from the city (700). 

Kamatha, disgraced, deprived of wealth and relatives, 
roaming solitary in the forest, brooded revenge against 
his brother. He decided to bide his time. Consumed by 
wrath, yet unable to retaliate, he happened upon a her- 
mitage in the forest, took sacred vows (diksa), and prac- 
ticed asceticism on a mountain. In the mean time Maru- 
bhuti became despondent on account of the dire retribu- 
tion he had brought upon his brother. Even tho re- 
strained by the king, he went to the forest to conciliate 
Kamatha (717). He threw himself upon his knees and 
begged forgiveness, but Kamatha took up a stone and 
with a single blow smashed his brother's head, and at 
the same time his own ascetic vow. While in pain from 
that mortal hurt Marubhuti harbored distressed thoughts 
(artadhyana) ; he was, therefore, reborn as a wild ele- 
fant, 34 leader of a herd in the Vindhya mountains. His 
sister-in-law Varuna also, blinded by anger, was born 
as a she-elefant, and became his mate. Wildly they 
roamed together in the forest (727). 

King Aravinda, living at the pinnacle of worldly 
pleasures, one day contemplated a great storm. The 
breaking of the clouds reminded him of the perishable- 
ness of all things in Samsara. Disgusted with his own 
excessive indulgences, he decided to abandon the world 
and its pleasures. His wives begged him not to abandon 
them, nor to expose the kingdom to danger. Neverthe- 
less he took the vow in the presence of a teacher, and 

23 See additional note 9 on p. 188. 

34 Second pre-birth of the future Parcva. 

40 Life and Stories of Pdrcvandtha 

wandered about solitarily thru towns and villages. Dur- 
ing these roamings he met a merchant, Sagaradatta, who 
asked him where he was going. He replied that he was 
going to Mount Kailasa, to honor the gods. Sagaradatta 
asked whether there was any profit in honoring these 
hand-made gods. Aravinda replied that his gods were 
the twenty-four Arhats, Rsabha, etc., who had sur- 
mounted passion, were omniscient, were honored by 
Cakra. By their teaching of the Law, they had become 
the saviors of every being. These Arhats must be wor- 
shipped, and alms must be given without doubt or ques- 
tion, as is illustrated by the following parables (670-797) : 

Two parables 

Two merchants, Nandaka and Bhadraka, occupied 
adjoining shops. Bhadraka steadily attended to his busi- 
ness in the morning; Nandaka, on the other hand, went 
to a temple to worship. Bhadraka became jealous, think- 
ing that Nandaka must be rich to be able to neglect his 
business. Nandaka, in his turn, thought that Bhadraka, 
in the absence of competition, would be making hay while 
the sun shines, that is, that Bhadraka would be doing 
business while he was spending his time in worshiping 
the Prince of Jinas. Owing to his evil doubts (kuvi- 
kalpa) he lost the fruit of his merit in worshiping the 
Savior (805). 

A rich merchant's son, while sitting in his shop, was 
accosted by a mendicant Sage who asked for alms. 
Gladly he poured ghee into his bowl in an unbroken 
stream (akhandadharaya). The Sage, out of fear that 
he would curtail the merit of the merchant which grew 
as fast as he poured, did not withdraw his bowl. Then 
the giver became dubious, thinking, ' What will the soli- 

Kamatha and Marubhuti 41 

tary ascetic do with so much ghee, if he does not even 
now let up! ' As fast as he was thus doubting, he kept 
falling step by step from the world of gods which he had 
been reaching thru his good deed. The Sage, who knew 
this, explained to him the wonderful virtues of giving, 
and the injurious effects of doubt (798-814). 

Frame Story: The enmity between the brothers Kamatha 
and Marubhuti, continued 

In consequence of the instruction of the Eoyal Sage 
Aravinda, Sagaradatta became a Jain disciple (cravaka). 
Going on his way, Sagaradatta arrived at the place where 
the elefant king, Marubhuti, was in the habit of disport- 
ing himself with his females. Sagaradatta camped on the 
banks of a beautiful lake. The elefant Marubhuti came 
there to drink, and proceeded to attack Sagaradatta's 
caravan, slaying and dispersing. Aravinda knew thru 
his profound insight (avadhi) 35 that the time to en- 
lighten the elefant had now come. He placed himself in 
kayotsarga position; the elefant came to his side and 
revered him. Aravinda reminded him of his former 
state as Marubhuti, and exhorted him to abandon his 
mad folly. Marubhuti then remembered his former birth 
as a Qravaka, paid his respects to the Sage, and signified 
with his trunk that his faith was restored. Varuna, his 
mate, as well as many people, including Sagaradatta, 
accepted the faith. Then Aravinda retired to the moun- 
tain Kailasa ; the elefant Marubhuti lived piously on sun- 
warmed water and dry leaves, repenting that he had 
inflicted destruction and terror upon living beings (815- 

35 See for this term, Leumann in Tawney's Translation of Kathakoga, 
p. 241 note. 

42 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

In the mean time Kamatha, unchastened even by the 
murder of Marubhuti, ignored by his teacher, despised 
by other ascetics, had died in a troubled state of mind 
(artadhyana), and was reborn as a kurkuta-serpent. 36 
Killing or endangering all living beings, he infested the 
forest, and finally bit the elefant Marubhiiti. The latter 
died in the thought of the Law (dharmadhyana), there- 
fore was reborn as a god in the Sahasrara heaven, 37 
where he was acclaimed by celestial females. Varuna 
also was reborn in heaven as Marubhuti's wife; they 
lived there in the highest enjoyment of the pleasures of 
the senses. The kurkuta-serpent (Kamatha) was reborn 
as a hell-inhabitant in the Pancamavani hell, 38 suffering 
all the tortures of that hell (858-885). 

38 This is the second pre-birth of the future Asura Meghamalin. The 
fabulous serpent, called kurkutoraga, kurkutahi, kukkutoraga, kukkutahi, 
kukkutabha, occurs here for the first time in literature. It is likened in 
stanza 860 to a winged Yama (jatapakso yama iva), and, therefore, is con- 
ceived as a winged dragon. But it figures as a mere cock in the sculpture 
described on p. 19 ff. 

37 This is the third pre-birth of the future Parcva. 

88 This is the third pre-birth of the future Asura Meghamalin. 

King Kiranavega 43 

Sarga the Second 
Frame Story: King Kiranavega 

On the Vaitadhya mountain stood a sumptuous city, 
Tilaka, in which ruled a Vidyadhara king, Vidyudgati, 
with his beloved wife Tilakavati. The soul of the elefant 
(Marubhiiti) fell from the eighth Kalpa (astamat kalpat) 
into the womb of Tilakavati, to be reborn as prince 
Kiranavega. 1 In due time that prince was married to 
Padmavati, daughter of an important vassal of the king. 
The king, after giving instructions to his ministers and 
preaching royal wisdom to his son, made over to him his 
kingdom, and took vows with the celebrated Guru Sagara 
(34). Kiranavega had a son, Kiranatejas, who grew up 
finely. A Sage, Suraguru by name, arrived at a park 
outside the city, and delivered a sermon culminating in 
the five-fold vow (pancavrata 2 ), being the duties in 
lighter form (arm) of the householder (grhin) in distinc- 
tion from the ascetic (yati). The five duties are: ahihsa, 
' non-injuriousness ' ; satya, i truth ' ; asteya, ' non- 
theft ' ; brahmacarya, ' chastity ' ; and aparigraha, ' non- 
acquisition. ' Ahihsa, or l non-injuriousness, ' is de- 
scribed and illustrated by the following story (1-51) : 

1 This is the fourth pre-birth of the future Parcva. 

' For these vows see e. g. Ayaranga-Sutta 2. 15 ; Tattvarthadhigamasutra 
7. 1 (BibL Ind.) ; V. S. Ghate, The Indian Interpreter, vol. x, p. 31, where 
the fifth vrata is styled akimcanya (akinichanya! ). These five vows are 
in accordance with the teaching of Mahavlra, rather than the reputed 
teaching of Parcva, which postulates only four vows, omitting the brahma- 
carya. Thus, explicitly, Uttaradhyayana Sutra 23. 12; cf. Biihler, fiber die 
Indische Secte deT Jaina, p. 101 ; Stevenson, The Heart of Jainism, p. 49. 

44 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Story of Prince BMma and his friend Matisagara 

In Kamalapura ruled king Harivahana. His queen, 
Malati, dreamed that she had a lion in her lap. 3 . The 
king called in a Brahman skilled in the Science of 
Dreams, which he explained in a brief ' Traumschlussel ' 
(67). Next, he interpreted the particular dream of the 
queen: she would be delivered of a noble son. In due 
time a prince was born, and named BMma. Simultane- 
ously the king's minister, Buddhila, had a son, Mati- 
sagara, who became Burma's friend and adviser. 4 One 
day, while the prince was sitting in the lap of his father, 
the gardener of the Campaka park announced the arrival 
of the Sage Abhinanda. Greatly rejoiced, the king, the 
prince, and the court went there to greet him, and hear 
his sermon. BMma and his friend Matisagara were con- 
verted, and enjoined especially not to injure innocuous 
living things. This the Sage illustrated by the following 
parable (52-106) : 

Parable of the six men who started to destroy a hostile 


The first of the six men proposes to kill both men and 
beasts; the second advises that the human beings be 
killed, but why the beasts ? The third says, the men alone 
must be killed, not the women; the fourth narrows it 
down still further by proposing that only men in arms 
are to be slain ; and the fifth proposes that even of those 
in arms only they that actually fight should be slain. 

3 See additional note 19, on p. 189. 

4 This relation between prince and minister's son, or prince and other 
youthful friend, is constant and fundamental in fiction; e. g. Kathas. 28. 
115; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 5, 1. 18. 

Parable of the illusory deluge 45 

Finally the sixth says, ' He who is without enemies does 
not have to kill any one ' (vina gatrun ghatah karyo na 
kasya cit). The six men are designated respectively as 
Black, Blue, Grey, Brilliance (tejas), Lotus (padma), 
and White. But the best of all is he by whom all persons 
are protected from enemies ( 107-112 ). 5 

Story of King Naladharma and the deer 

The Sage continues his illustration of ahihsa, to wit: 
King Naladharma of Vijaya and his minister Tilaka, 
while hunting, came upon a deer with long and strong 
horns. As the king was about to cast his arrow, the deer 
told him not to slay, since it was a Ksatriya's business 
to protect (tra) from injury (ksatat). 6 A king must not 
kill grass-eaters: even enemies that eat grass must be 
spared 7 (123). When the king was surprised at the 
deer's speech, the minister explained that the animal 
must be an Avatar of a god or demon. They followed 
the animal which led them to a young Sage, and bade 
them make obeisance to him. They did so, and were 
rewarded with a sermon. The king then, surprised at 
the youth of the Sage, asked him why he had retired from 
the world. The Muni told the following parable (113- 

Parable of the illusory deluge 

King Bhuvanasara of Siddhapura rules under the 
guidance of his minister Mahamati. One day players 
from the Dekkhan are permitted to present a spectacle 

5 For the spirit of this parable cf. Mahabharata 12. 95. 

6 This pun is as old as Mahabharata 12. 59. 127. It recurs in Piircva 
3. 600. Jacobi, Das Mahabharata, p. 131, and Hertel, Das Pancatantra, 
p. 6, translate ksatat by, ' from loss.' This seems to me to slip iby the point. 

7 See additional note 11, on p. 191. 

46 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

and concert at the court. In the midst of the festivity 
the door-keeper announces an astrologer who desires an 
audience. The king is impatient at the disturbance, but 
the minister points out that the astrologer is more im- 
portant than the spectacle. The astrologer is then ad- 
mitted ; he is robed in white, and holds a book in his hand. 
After exchange of courtesies, the astrologer predicts that 
on that very day a deluge shall arise, turning that city 
into an ocean (153). At once a vividly described storm 
and deluge break out, which drive the king and the minis- 
ter to the seventh story of the palace. 8 After reproach- 
ing himself for neglect to attend to his spiritual welfare, 
the king makes the five-fold obeisance (pancanamaskrti 9 ) 
in his mind, when, all at once, a ship arrives (168). As 
he starts to board the ship, lo, there is no water, no cloud, 
no ship, no thunder. When the king asks the alleged 
astrologer to explain, he says that he is no astrologer, 
that he is a magician who has exhibited hocus-pocus 
(indrajala). The king then draws the moral that life 
and its attractions are also illusory; happiness, like a 
candle, sputtering in the wind, is impermanent. He 
makes over his kingdom to Prince Harivikrama and turns 
Ascetic (cj-amana) (137-182). 

8 The seventh story of a pa/lace is a cliche* of Hindu fiction. See this text 
2. 339; 5. 204; 6. 610, 1118; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 8, 1. 1; 
p. 48, 1. 33; Kathakoga, pp. 130, 185; Parigistaparvan 2. 674: Jatakas 62 
and 458; Samaradityasamksepa 4. 391; Paficatantra 1. 5; Pancadanda- 
chatraprabandha 2 (p. 31). For the uses of the higher stories of Hindu 
palaces, see Weber's and Jacobi's remarks on p. 68, note, of the former's 
translation of Pancadandachatraprabandha, Transactions of the Berlin 
Academy, 1877. 

8 Made in succession to the different grades of Jaina Saints and Teachers ; 
see, e. g. Kalpasutra 1. 

Prince Bhima and his friend Matisagara 47 

Story of King Naladharma and the deer, continued 

King Naladharma complained that, unlike the Sage then 
teaching, he was, because of his sins, unripe for eman- 
cipation. Thereupon the Sage taught him to cultivate 
perfection (samyaktva). The king asked who was the 
deer that had brought about his purification. The Sage 
replied that the deer in a former birth was Naladharma 's 
friend and spiritual adviser; he had practiced wrong 
asceticism, had died, and had been reborn in that place as 
a Yaksa. He had then become pious by constant associ- 
ation with himself, and, out of his love for Naladharma 
in the previous life, had changed into a deer in order to 
bring about his enlightenment. The deer now appeared 
in the form of a Yaksa; told that he, like the king, had 
reached perfection (samyaktva) ; received additional in- 
struction from the Sage ; and returned to his Yaksa home. 
The king also returned to his capital; erected an image 
of the Arhat; became a Great Disciple (maha^ravaka) ; 
and will in future attain perfection (siddha) (183-194). 

Story of Prince Bhlma and his friend Matisagara, 
continued. The Wicked Kapdlika 10 

At the end of these illustrations the Sage Abhinanda 
(verse 75) continued to instruct Bhlma (here called Bhi- 
masena) in piety, and in the duty of enlightening others. 
Bhlma returned home, and devoted himself to dharma 
(religion), happy in the worship of the gods. A certain 
Qaiva ascetic (kapalika), a rogue, arrived into the pres- 
ence of Bhlma and his friend Matisagara. He told them 
that he was in possession of a Science, called ' Earth- 

10 See additional note 12, on p. 191. 

48 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

Shaking ' (bhuvanaksobhini), 11 which he had cultivated 
for twelve years, but that it still required a final per- 
formance in a cemetery. For this he needed Bhima as 
his aid. Matisagara warned Bhima not to mix himself 
up with a rogue, but the prince, confident of his own 
virtue (dharma), persisted in cooperating with the rogue 
(213). They arrived at the cemetery, where the Kapa- 
lika, after drawing a circle and adoring some divinity, 
attempted to prepare Bhima's hair-lock, intending to cut 
off his head. Bhima saw thru the deceit; told him that 
courage alone was his top-lock (mama sattvam eva gikha- 
bandhah) ; and to proceed with his business. The rogue 
then, realizing that his trick would not work, prepared to 
cut off Bhima's head by force, and, by way of prelimin- 
ary, made the whole world shake by his terrible doings. 
Bhima stood undaunted. The rogue then told him, that, 
if he would freely yield his head, he would be born to 
bliss in another birth. After further give and take, 
Bhima jumped upon the shoulders of the Kapalika; the 
latter flew up in the air, threw Bhima off, and, as he fell, 
a Yaksini (Siren) received him in her folded hands, and 
took him to her house (228). 

He found himself siting upon a divine throne, and was 
addressed by the Yaksini. She told him that he was in 
the Vindhya mountain, in her magic pleasure-house ; that 
her name was Kamalaksa ; that she was living a licentious 
life with a retinue of gods; and that she had seen him 
falling, as he was hurled down by the Kapalika. She had 
taken care of him out of love ; moreover she put herself 
and her retinue at his service. Bhima playfully described 
her condition, as showing that not only earth-dwellers, 
but also the wise gods were subject to the lure of love. 

11 For these ' Sciences ' see my article, ' On the Art of Entering another's 
Body,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. lvi, pp. 4 ff. 

The wicked Kapalika 49 

He recommended her to call to mind the Jina who de- 
stroys the serpent's poison of Kandarpa (the God of 
Love), and who acts like the Great Garuda charm 12 (ma- 
hagarudamantrabharh jinam). Kamalaksa declared that 
Bhima 's mere speech has cured her of the poison of illu- 
sion, and asked him to teach her the salvation which 
destroys all pain (195-244). 

While they were thus communing, sweet sounds arose, 
which Kamalaksa explained as coming from the chants 
of Munis. Bhima rejoiced; Kamalaksa showed him the 
way to the Munis, and then proceeded to her own home, 
promising to return with her retinue. While Bhima was 
paying his respects to the Munis, headed by their Guru, 
a great she-serpent (mahabhuja) appeared from heaven, 
and alighted before him. Wondering what she was, and 
whither she was going, he sprang upon her back. Desir- 
ing to cross the heavens, he shone there like Acyuta 
(Krsna), mounted upon the Kaliya-serpent, like a mari- 
ner whose ship is wrecked and who desires to save him- 
self upon a plank 13 (261). After traversing many rivers, 
forests, and mountains, they came upon a temple of 
Kalika (Durga), built, or adorned with men's bones, 
skulls, etc. In the centre of that temple stood a frightful 
image of Kalika, in front of which he saw the wicked 
Kapalika holding a beautiful man (who turns out to be 
Matisagara) by the hair. Bhima hid himself, in order to 

"A charm that cures snake poison. 

13 The phalaka or kasthaphalaka, ' wooden board,' represents the sten- 
ciled method by which shipwrecked mariners save (themselves and get to 
shore; see, e. g. Pargvanatha 2. 261; 2. 925; 8. 21; Kathas. 25. 46; 36. 99; 
52. 328; 67. 61; Dagakumaracarita i, p. 9; Samaradityasamksepa 4. 98; 5. 
155, 218, 269, 278, 360; 6. 106; 7. 508. This is one of the features of ' nau- 
fragium,' ' shipwreck,' one of the most prized devices of Hindu fiction. 
This links itself with the motifs, ' Treasure-Island,' ' Jonah,' and ' Sirens.' 
Of all this elsewhere. 


50 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

see what the Kapalika would do, and that he might then 
suit his actions to the occasion. The Kapalika addressed 
his victim : ' Unhappy wretch, think quickly of thy favo- 
rite divinity, before I cut off thy head in honor of this 
Kalika ! ' In this plight Matisagara resorted first to the 
Jina, and then to Bhima. The Kapalika told him that in 
attempting to sacrifice Bhima, who had, as he thought, 
the proper characteristics, he had lost him; that the latter 
was at this time with Bhiksus in the Vindhya mountains ; 
therefore he had brought him, Matisagara, to be sacri- 
ficed in his stead. Bhima then sprang upon him, threw 
him upon the ground, and put his foot upon him. As he 
was about to kill him, Kalika bade him not to slay her 
child, that was ever collecting skulls for her. That he 
was just about to furnish the 108th skull, by whose means 
she would fulfil her purpose. Moreover, pleased with 
Bhima's heroism, she bade him ask a gift. Bhima en- 
treated her to desist thenceforth from the slaughter of 
living beings and other crimes, in order that she might 
thus obtain perfection (siddhi). Ashamed, because a 
mere man, even tho of noble mind, was the source of her 
enlightenment, she consented to his wish, and then van- 
ished from sight (295). Matisagara related how he hap- 
pened to have gotten into the power of the Kapalika. 
When Bhima had disappeared, the court was in despair. 
The house-divinity then showed herself, told what had 
happened to Bhima, and predicted that Bhima would 
return in time. Yet Matisagara, after consulting sun- 
dry omens, 14 went in search of Bhima, was seized by the 
Kapalika, and saved by Bhima. At the end of his report 
the Kapalika also underwent change of heart, and re- 
sorted to the protecting grace of Bhima (245-314). 

u In the present text, as in all fiction texts, omens are both consulted 
intentionally, or deferred to when they happen incidentally; see 1. 324; 
3. 149; 6. 550, 937; 8. 19, 333 ff. 

Prince Bhima and his friend Matisdgara 51 

Story of Prince Bli'ima and his friend Matisdgara, 
continued. Qibi motif 

While they were thus conversing, a great elefant ap- 
peared, placed Bhinia and Matisagara upon his back, flew 
up into heaven, and deposited them outside a deserted 
city. 15 Bhima, leaving Matisagara outside, fearlessly 
entered alone the empty but wealthy city. He saw there 
a lion with a man in his paws, about to eat him. He 
requested the lion to release the man, and the lion, in turn, 
asked him how then he was to subsist. Bhima, taking the 
lion to be a god, told him that the gods were not in the 
habit of eating morsels, 16 and that he should be ashamed 
of himself. But, if he really could not still his desire for 
human flesh, he would give him some from his own body 17 
(328). The lion refused, because his victim had inflicted 
injuries upon him in a former birth which would keep 
alive anger, yea even thru a hundred existences. Bhima 
then took the man from the lion by force, and threw him 
over his back. The man became invisible, but held Bhima 
by the hand, and led him into a palace. Bhima ascended 

"Deserted cities figure frequently in fiction: Parcvanatha 6. 314; Bam- 
bhadatta (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 7, 1. 28) ; Kathakoca, p. 
129; Kathasaritsagara 43. 46; Hertel, Das Paficatantra, p. 109, note 4; 
Pancadandachatraprabhanda 2 (p. 27); Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from 
the Panjab, p. 87. 

" See also 2. 292. This is an addition to the usual signs of the gods : 
they do not sweat; are dustless; do not wink their eyes; cast no shadow, 
and do not touch earth with their feet. See the author in Proceedings of 
the American Philosophical Society, vol. lvi, p. 28, note 60. In Valahassa 
Jataka (196) the bodies of Yakkhinis turn cold after eating human flesh. 
The signs of the gods are freely exploited in Fiction as well as in Epic. 
Additional examples: Parcvanatha 7. 503; Dacakumaracarita, ii. 15; 
Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 16. Even Raksasas participate in these charac- 
teristics; see Parker, Village Folk- Tales of Ceylon, i. 145, and Jataka 1. 

17 See additional note 13, on p. 192. 

52 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

to its seventh 18 story, was greeted by sweet sounds from 
gala-wood statutes which descended from their posta- 
ments and conducted him to a golden throne. 19 The sta- 
tues offered to bathe him, whereupon he requested them 
to fetch Matisagara. Both were then bathed and feasted. 
Bhima fell into a sleep, and heard in his dream the voice 
of a god who told him that he was pleased with his prow- 
ess, and, therefore, bade him choose a gift. Bhima asked 
him what city that was, and why it was devoid of life 

The god told: This is the city of Hemapura; its king 
was Hemaratha, who had a Purohita, named Canda, 
hated of all men. The king also was cruel by nature, 
and, on mere suspicion, inflicted severe punishment. An 
enemy of Canda, spread a report that he was intimate 
with a low-born woman 20 (matangi) . The king consulted 
an ordeal, and, tho he did not determine the truth, had 
Canda wrapped in hemp and boiled in oil. Canda had 
no chance before he died to wear away his sins, and there- 
fore, was reborn as a Eaksasa, named Sarvagila (' All- 
devourer '). He remembered the hostilities of his former 
birth, came to that city, hid away all its people, and, hav- 
ing assumed the shape of a lion, carried off King Hema- 
ratha. He had been greatly surprised when Bhima, in 
heroic pity, had released Hemaratha, but, nevertheless 
had arranged for Bhima's entertainment, and had again 
brought out the people of the city. No sooner had he 
said this than all the people put in their appearence (315- 

Then Bhima's teacher (v. 251) arrived by the road of 
heaven. All four, namely Bhima, Matisagara, the Rak- 

18 See note 8, on p. 46. 

"See additional note 14, on p. 192. 

80 See additional note 15, on p. 195. 

Prince Bhima and his friend Matisdgara 53 

sasa (sc. Canda), and Hemaratha went to pay their devo- 
tions to him; this he rewarded by a longish sermon on 
the futility and destructiveness of wrath, in consequence 
of which Canda was converted (370). While the Muni 
was still speaking a great elefant came rushing on with 
a roar that scattered the assemblage. Bhima tamed him, 
whereupon he also paid his respects to the Sage. The ele- 
fant then changed his form to that of a Yaksa, declared 
that Hemaratha was his son in a former birth, and that 
he himself, thru evil associations, had ruined his per- 
fection (samyaktva), and had become a Vyantara. The 
Sage then preached on samyaktva. Afterwards Bhima 
visited Hemaratha 's palace where he was received as an 
honored guest. They exchanged fair and pious speeches 
(390). Kali (Kalika, w. 145-244) arrived, accompanied 
by the Kapalika. The goddess informed Bhima that his 
family was distressed at his absence, and that she herself 
had promised that he would return shortly. Bhima was 
seized by a longing for his home. The gods came upon 
the scene and announced the arrival of the Yaksini Ka- 
malaksa, who told of her conversion by Bhima and the 
Sages. The Yaksa then produced a car by magic ; Bhima 
and Matisagara mounted it for their homeward journey. 
In due time they arrived at a park near Kamalapura, 
their native city (414). There Bhima adored the gods 
and the Jina, the Lord of the world (425). King Nara- 
vahana, his father, heard of his arrival ; the king and the 
queen went to greet Bhima, who threw himself at their 
feet. Bhima and Matisagara returned in triumf on a 
state elefant. Matisagara, on request, narrated Bhima's 
adventures. Naravahana gave many princesses in mar- 
riage to Bhima, consecrated him as king, and himself 
took the vow (diksa). Bhima also in the end took to the 
forest. Because he abstained from killing, teaching 

54 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

others also to abstain, he obtained the highest success in 
the two worlds (355-438). 

Story of mother and son punished for cursing one 
another by implication 21 

The narrative here passes from ahihsa (injury by 
deed) to the demonstration that injury by words also is 
reprehensible : In Vardhanagapura lived a man of good 
family, Sadvada, with his wife Candra, and a son Sarga. 
Sadvada died poor. Candra subsisted by doing chores 
in other people's houses, while Sarga gathered wood in 
the forest. One day, when Sarga was away at the forest, 
Candra was called to carry water to a merchant's house. 
Before leaving she fondly hung up an excellent meal for 
her son in a hammock, and went to the merchant's house. 
In the evening Sarga returned, threw down his wood, 
but, not seeing his mother, hungry and thirsty, as he was, 
waxed exceeding wroth. When the mother finally ar- 
rived, worn out from her day's work, Sarga said to her 
roughly: ' How long, wretched woman, will you stand 
there, impaled on a staked ' Thereupon she retorted 
petulantly: ' Are your hands cut off, that you can't take 
your supper out of the hammock and eat it? ' In due 
time both became Jain ascetics, died, and went to the 
heaven of the gods (451). Falling from that state, the 
soul of Sarga was reborn as Arunadeva, the son of Ku- 
maradeva, a merchant of Tamalipti ; the soul of Candra, 
as Devini, 22 the daughter of a rich merchant Jasaditya 

11 The same story, with less obvious application, in S'amaradityasamksepa 
7. 492 ff. Cf., remotely, Parigistaparvan 2. 316 ff.; and Hertel, Das Pafica- 
tantra, p. 108, note 4. 

83 In the sequel also Devini. Samaradityasamksepa has the Prakrit form, 
Dei'ni, taken over from the Samarai'ccakaha. 

Story of mother and son punished for cursing 55 

in Patalapura. A marriage was arranged for the pair, 
but Arunadeva, not being ready to marry, started on a 
mercantile expedition with a friend of his, Mahecvara. 
Their ship was wrecked, but they reached the shore near 
Patalapura. Mahecvara left his friend in a ruined tem- 
ple, to get food, before the latter should put in appear- 
ance as bridegroom. Arunadeva, worn out by fatigue, 
fell asleep. Then the former Sarga as well as his former 
mother Candra were both overtaken by their karma in 
their previous birth. A robber cut off Devini's hands, 
while she was promenading in the garden, in order to 
steal her bracelets. Beadles took up his pursuit ; he fled 
into the ruined temple where Arunadeva was sleeping. 
There he dropped the bracelets and his sword. 23 Aruna- 
deva woke up; thought that the divinity of the temple 
had made him a present ; hid away the bracelet ; and was 
just wondering what the sword meant, when the beadles 
arrived in pursuit, took him for the thief, and beat him, 
until the bracelets fell from him. They brought him 
before the king by whose command he was impaled upon 
a stake. Mahecvara returned, missed Arunadeva, and, 
on inquiry, learned that a thief had been captured there. 
Suspecting disaster, he soon came upon Arunadeva im- 
paled, and at the sight broke into terrible lamentations, 
falling down in a faint. When he came to he explained 
that the victim was Arunadeva. In his despair he at- 
tempted to kill himself with a rock, but was restrained 
by the spectators (476). Jasaditya also heard of the 
occurrence, went there with Devini ; and at the sight fell 
in a faint. On recovering he begged to enter the funeral 
fire. The king heard of the affair, went there, and con- 
soled Jasaditya by pointing out the irresistible power of 

23 See note 29, on p. 37. 

56 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

karma. The Sage Amarecvara came along and instructed 
them all. The king was taken with remorse at his hasty- 
action ; he himself and Jasaditya took the diksa ; and even 
the thief repented. Arunadeva, Devini, and the thief 
went to heaven (439-499). 

Parable of the impatient beggar who went to hell 

The text passes from the theme of injurious words to 
that of injurious thoughts, illustrating: A certain wan- 
dering beggar came into the neighborhood of the Vai- 
bhara mountain. Because he got no alms, he conceived 
the following evil thought: ' There is plenty to eat and 
drink, and yet no one gives me alms. Therefore I shall 
seize all.' In deep dudgeon and fierce thought he 
climbed to the mountain top, tore off a huge rock, and 
pitilessly cast it down; in its downward course all the 
world was destroyed. He himself was ground to pieces 
and went to hell as a dramaka 24 (499-505). 

Story of King Vasu who violated the truth 


The text turns to the second of the five light vows 
(anuvrata), namely truth-telling (verse 46), and illus- 
trates : King Abhicandra of Quktimati had a son named 
Vasu. A teacher, Ksirakadamba, had a son Parvata. 
Vasu, Parvata, and another boy, named Narada went to 
school with Ksirakadamba. Once, while they were study- 
ing by night on the top of the palace, sleep overcame the 
pupils, but the teacher overheard two ascetics who were 
wandering in the heavens and observing the school, say 
to one another: ' One of these three boys will go to 

"See p. 233. 

"Cf. MahabMrata 12. 337. Iff. 

Story of King Vasu who violated the truth 57 

heaven; the other two to hell ' (519). The teacher, 
grieved, desired to find out which was which. So he gave 
to each of them a cock made of dough (pistakurkuta), 2511 
saying : ' These are to be slain where no one sees. ' Vasu 
and Parvata i slew ' theirs in lonely places, but Narada, 
looking about in every direction, reflected : ' Yonder Sun 
sees; I see; the birds see; the Protectors of the World 
see; and all that are gifted with higher knowledge see. 
There is no place where no one sees. Therefore I must 
not slay the cock ; the Teacher has merely desired to test 
our intelligence. ' 26 They reported what they had done 
to the teacher, who rejoiced at Narada's insight, but 
grieved because his teaching had failed in two out of 
three cases. He therefore retired to the forest. Parvata 
took his place as teacher; in due time, Narada became 
expert in all knowledge, and returned home (546). 

Then King Abhicandra took vows ; Vasu ruled as his 
successor, and became famous all over the earth for his 
love of truth. It happened that a certain hunter of deer 
cast an arrow which was lost in the ridge of the Vindhya 
mountain. When he went to investigate why the arrow 
was lost he found, by feeling about, an atmosferic crys- 
tal. 27 He then understood that this had seemed to him a 

251 See the additional note 16, on p. 195. 

28 Analog to this story, Silavimarisana Jataka ( 305 ) : ' There is no such 
thing as secrecy in wrong doing ' ; cf . Morris, Folk-Lore Journal iii. 244. 
The motif is as old as Mahabharata 13. 42. 17 ff. : e Nothing can he hidden 
from the two dancers (day and night) and the six dice-players (the *ix 
seasons) .' 

47 akagasphatika, or khasphatika ' atmosferic crystal/ is either candra- 
kanta, ' moon-stone,' or suryakanta, ' sun-stone.' Apparently one of their 
qualities is to be invisible and to make anything into which they are fixed 
float in the air. In general acceptance the moonstone is formed from the 
coagulation of the rays of the moon, and dissolves under the influence of 
it9 light. 

58 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

gazelle, as does the shadow of the earth in the moon, 28 
and that, without touch, he would nowise have found out 
what it was. He decided to make a present of it to King 
Vasu, who accepted it and rewarded the hunter; had it 
secretly fixed into the base of his throne; and then had 
the workmen who did this killed. The crystal had the 
effect of making the throne float in the air; this the 
people thought was due to the power of his truthfulness. 
The report was spread that the gods hovered about him 
on account of his truthfulness; in consequence he ob- 
tained the reputation called Urjasvim (' Mighty '), so 
that kings in fear of him became his vassals (558). 

It came to pass that Narada visited Parvata, who had 
become Ksirakadamba's successor as a teacher of the 
Vedas. He overheard the teacher explain the expression, 
ajair yastavyam, by mesair yastavyam, i. e., ' one should 
sacrifice goats. ' Narada was scandalized. 29 He insisted 
that ajair in the phrase meant ' three-year old grain,' 
because that cannot be born again. 30 Parvata referred 
to the authority of the Nighantu, 31 and insisted that 
Ksirakadamba had interpreted it the other way. They 
finally bet that he who was wrong should have his tongue 
cut out, and that their former fellow-pupil, King Vasu 
should decide the controversy (567). Parvata's mother 

28 The moon is mrganka ' having the figure of the deer,' or gacanka, ' hav- 
ing the figure of the hare.' 

29 Such practice, as, indeed, all slaughter, is heinous in the eyes of Jains 
and Buddhists; e. g. Prabandhaointamani, pp. 93, 320; Mattakabhatta 
Jataka (18); also Jatakas 20, 50.- The idea is by no means strange to 
Brahmanism; see, e. g., how Mahabh. 14. 28. 6ff. decries goat sacrifice as 
hirisa, ' injury.' Cf. Biihler, uber das Leben des Jaina Monches Hemachan- 
dra, p. 39. 

30 trivarsikani dhanyani na hi jayanta ity ajah. The same pun argument 
occurs Mahabh. 12. 337. Iff.; Paficatantra, 3. 2. 

31 Cf. Yaska's Nirukta 4. 25; 6., 4. 

Story of King Vasu who violated the truth 59 

knew that he was wrong. In distress she went to King 
Vasu and begged him to save Parvata, 32 by deciding that 
ajah meant ' goats.' Vasu at first refused to take part 
in this act of perfidy, but in the end succumbed to the 
specious argument that his first duty was to protect the 
son of his former Teacher. A great assembly of wise 
men was called together ; over it presided Vasu, floating 
in the air on his magic throne, like the moon in the sky 
(584). Narada and Parvata presented their contentions, 
each calling upon Vasu to decide in accordance with the 
truth. The wise men at the assembly also solemnly con- 
jured Vasu by all the gods and the laws of the universe 
to speak the truth. Nevertheless Vasu ruled that ajah 
meant ' goats.' Then the gods angrily shook his throne, 
so that he fell to the ground. Narada refused to look 
any longer upon the face of the 'dog-cooker,' 33 who 
gave false witness. Vasu went to hell. The gods kept 
on destroying his successors, until eight of them had per- 
ished (598). The story is concluded with an impressive 
panegyric on truth, which must not be violated even in a 
dream or in jest (506-608). 

83 diyatarh putrabhiksa mahyam mahipate, ' Give my son to me as alms, 
ruler of the earth! ' 

33 ovapaka, cvapaca, gvapacika, Prakrit sunahapaya, primarily designa- 
tion of a Pariah, and thence standard term of opprobrium; see Pargvanatha 
3. 619, 858: Dagakumaracarita ii, p. 30; Muladeva, in Jacobi, Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen, p. 63, 1. 21. In Mahabh. 12. 141. 1 ff., Vigvamitra, during a 
famine, tries to steal the leg of a dog from a Candala, an act so degrading 
tliat the Candala himself tries to dissuade him. In Kathas. 13. 148, 189 
branding a dog-foot on the forehead is a sign of degradation. Cf. Benfey, 
Das PaScatantra, vol. i, pp. 439, 445. 

60 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

Story of the thief who was destined to die like Absalom. 
Unavertable fate 34 

The text turns to the third of the five light vows (anu- 
vrata), namely abstention from theft (verse 46), pic- 
turing forcibly its wickedness. Worse than murder, it 
causes death alive; it defiles as the touch of a Matanga 
even with a finger, and so on. Then follows illustration 
by story: In Qripura ruled a king, Manamardana. A 
young man of good family and well educated, Mahabala 
by name, gradually lost his relatives, began to lead a 
dissolute life, and, from a gambler, became a thief. 
Once he went by night to steal in the house of a mer- 
chant named Datta. As he peeked into the house thru 
a lattice-window, he saw Datta quarrelling bitterly with 
his son over some trifling disagreement of accounts. 35 
Out of decency he reflected, that a man who would aban- 
don sleep in the middle of the night, and quarrel with 
his diligent and proper son over such a trifle, would 
die of a broken heart, if he were to steal his property. 
So he went to the house of a hetaera, Kamasena. He 
saw her lavish her professional ministrations upon a 
leprous slave, as tho he were a god. He decided that 
he could not afford to steal from any one as greedy for 
money as all that (626). Then he went to the house of a 
Brahman and saw him sleeping with his wife on a couch. 

84 The notion that specific fate, or fate imposed by supernatural power, 
is unavertable is a fruitful psychic motif of fiction: Mahabharata 1. 41. 
Iff.; Hitopadega in Braj Bhakha 4. 3 (Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 56, with 
parallels); Nirmala Pathaka 2. 6 (Hertel, ib., p. 283); Kathakoca, pp. 
147-157; Dhammapada Commentary 9. 12; Ralston, Tibetan Tales, pp. 
273 ff. Cf . ZDMG. Ixv. 434 fl\, 440, 441, 449. 

K Unintelligible words : vigopakaikasya 'melato lekhyake, ' an account 
not agreeing by a single vigopaka ( 1 ) . The word vigopaka occurs in Rau- 
hineya Carita; see p. 233. 

The thief who was doomed to die like Absalom 61 

A dog 36 urinated into the Brahman's hand, who said, 
' Thank you! ', as he rose with a start. The thief re- 
flected that such was the Brahman's greed (for alms) 
that it persisted even while he was asleep ; he, therefore, 
must not steal there (639). 

He then decided to eschew mean folks ; and broke into 
the king's palace. There he saw the king resting with 
his queen on a couch. As he stood there, intending to 
rob, a serpent came thru a hole in the door, bit the hand 
of the queen that hung outside the bed, and glided away. 
Greatly astonished, he forgot his own business, and si- 
lently followed the serpent to the ground floor. There 
the serpent took on the form of a great bull, and with a 
roar proceeded to kill the keeper of the main door of the 
palace. 37 The thief caught hold of the bull's tail, and 
asked him who he was, why he had come here, and what 
he would do next. The bull replied in a human voice, that 
he was the servant of Yama ; 38 that he had come, at his 
command, to kill the queen and the doorkeeper ; and that 
on the next day the architect of the new palace of the 
king would fall from one of its turrets. The thief then 
made the bull tell him how he himself would die. Reluc- 
tantly the bull informed him that he would die hanging 
on the branch of a banyan tree which stood on the king's 
highway. The thief then let go the bull's tail. Next day 
the architect died, as predicted; the thief, af right over 
his own impending death, went to a distant village, and 

"The text reads khuna for guna. 

87 pratoll means ' the main street of a town ' ; pratoli-dvara, ' the gate 
opening upon that street. 5 

88 See the story, ' Lord of Death,' in Steel and Temple, Legends of the 
Panjab, pp. 207 ff. (same as Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 219 ff.) ; R. S. Mu- 
kharji, Indian Folk-Lore, pp. 92 ff.; McCullooh, Bengali Household Tales, 
pp. 1 ff. Serpent as messenger of death as early as Mahabh. 13. 1. 35. 

62 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

took the diksa (initiation) with an ascetic that lived near 
by (650). 

While the former thief, Mahabala, was preaching as- 
ceticism in the forest, a thief who had stolen a jewel 
casket from the king's palace came running np, pursued 
by the king's beadles, dropped the casket in front of 
Mahabala, 39 and fled. No sooner had Mahabala taken up 
the casket, which was like a ' poison-maiden,' 40 than the 
beadles came along, surrounded him, and accused him of 
the theft. They beat him with their fists and with staffs, 
fettered him, and led him to execution. Then Mahabala 
recited a c,loka, which described the grip of his fate. 
His captors wondered what he meant, and brought him 
before the king, in whose presence he repeated his cloka, 
narrating all his experiences. The king determined that 
he should escape his impending doom. Mahabala asked 
to be removed from the fateful banyan, but the king suc- 
ceeded in allaying his apprehensions. In due time Maha- 
bala rode out with the king upon a mettlesome horse, 
which became unmanageable, and dashed under that very 
banyan. Mahabala (Absalom-like) was caught in the 
throat by a thorn in a branch of that tree. The horse ran 
off, and he hung there dying, but reciting his gloka at the 
very end 41 (668). The king mourned Mahabala pite- 
ously, had him cremated in sandal-wood, and retired 
broken-spirited to his palace (699). Two Munis came 
along, and enlightened the king, so that, by the road of 
■justice, he reached a state of imperishableness (padam 
avyayam) (609-722). 

39 See note 29, on p. 37. 

40 See additional note 17, on p. 198. 

41 See additional note 18, on p. 199. 

Story of Sundara and Madanavallabha 63 

Story of the chaste royal pair Sundara and Madana- 

The text turns to the fourth of the five light vows 
(anuvrata), namely chastity (verse 46) : one should see, 
and yet not see others' wives; even the gods extol the 
glories of the chaste. The theme is illustrated by the 
following story : Good King Sundara of Dharapura had 
but a single wife, Madanavallabha, crest-jewel of good 
women. The pair had two exemplary sons, Kirtipala and 
Mahapala. The king regarded all other women as sisters 
(sodaryavrata), 42 wherefore his reputation reached to 
heaven. Once, in the middle of the night, the house divin- 
ity of the king told him, sad-faced, that his would be a 
rude fate, but that she herself might be able to postpone 
his troubles until after his youth had passed. The king, 
however, realizing that his trials must be due to his 
karma, chose to shoulder them without delay (740). He 
placed his kingdom in charge of his minister Subuddhi, 
took his wife and children, and, in garb suitable to his 
prospective humble life, went forth, appraising his past 
grandeur at the value of a blade of grass. A thief 
promptly robbed him, while he w T as asleep on the road, 
of the provisions he had taken with him, and also took 
his signet-ring. Plagued by hunger and thirst, guarding 
his daintily reared wife, and cajoling his crying boys, he 
arrived at the city of Prthvipura (750). 

Outside the walls of that city camped a merchant, 
named Qrisagara. He allowed the exiles a place in his 
camp to live. The king was unaccustomed to work, his 
two boys too small. But the queen, by feminine instinct 
(strisvabhava), showed skill in house-work, and earned 

42 See the note on 6. 773 ff. 

64 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

their living by doing chores in neighboring houses, such 
as sweeping away cow-dung, and so on. They were 
treated kindly, and were given cast-off clothing, and 
coarse, cold food. Near there camped another caravan 
where she did some work. Its head, Somadeva, became 
enamored of Madanavallabha, but she rejected him scorn- 
fully. He then affected to treat her honorably, but in the 
end carried her off with him on a journey to his own city 
(768). Even then his designs were foiled by her virtue 
and regard for her husband (772). 

King Sundara, much afflicted by his separation from 
his beloved queen, chided his fate, but remained there 
awaiting developments. A merchant, Qrisara, happened 
where he was, pitied his sad condition, and offered him 
shelter and food, in exchange for which he and his boys 
were to tend a temple which the merchant had built. This 
he did to the satisfaction of the merchant, until one day 
the merchant noticed the two boys hunting birds. In 
punishment for this childish offence, 43 he beat them, 
broke their bows and arrows, and told the king, father 
of such boys, that he could no longer live with him. To- 
gether with his boys he again started to wander, crossed 
a wild and dangerous forest, and arrived at an unford- 
able river. He put one of his boys on his shoulder, 
crossed the river, and left him there. But, on returning 
to fetch the second, he was carried off his feet by the 
flood, and barely saved himself by means of a log of wood 
which came floating his way. Thus all three were separ- 
ated. Eacked by despair, he finally gathered courage to 
move on (813). He managed to reach a village, was en- 
tertained by a householder, but the housewife made im- 
proper advances to him 44 (821). Leaving this forbidden 

43 The offence from the Jain point of view, however, is grave. 
"See additional note 19, on p. 199. 

Story of Sundara and Madanavallabha 65 

ground, he came to Qripura, in the outskirts of which 
city he went to sleep under a mango tree. The king of 
Qripura having just died sonless, the five oracle method 
(pancadivya-adhivasana 45 ) of finding a successor was 
employed. The procession of elefant, horse, chowries, 
umbrella, and water-jug, headed by the court arrived at 
the spot where Sundara slept. The horse then neighed, 
the elefant roared, the water-jug emptied itself on the 
king, the umbrella stood over his head, and the two chow- 
ries waved. He was carried in triumf on the back of the 
elefant to the city, and received the homage of the minis- 
ters and vassals. Not even in all this glory did King 
Sundara, devoted to his own most beloved wife, think of 
marriage, for sooner than have two wives a man should 
go to prison, or exile, or hell (838). 

The king's two sons separately wandered far, but in 
time each arrived at Qripura and met at the watch of the 
town. The merchant Somadeva also, having Madana- 
vallabha, their mother, in his caravan, came to that city, 
and asked the king for watchmen for his caravan. The 
two boys were assigned to this duty. By night, in order 
to pass the time, the younger asked the older to tell him 
a story, whereupon he told him his own story. Their 
mother, Queen Madanavallabha, still attached to Soma- 
deva's camp as woman of all work, lying awake sadly, 
overheard 46 the boys, recognized them as her long-lost 
children, came out, and embraced them with tears. Soma- 
deva was angered by this occurrence, and had the boys 
brought before the king. Him they told what had hap- 
pened between them and the woman from the camp. The 
king then questioned Somadeva, who told him that the 
woman had been carried with his caravan from Prthvl- 

46 See additional note 20, on p. 199. 
46 See additional note 2, on p. 185. 


66 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

pura, and that she had conducted herself nnexceptionably 
as a woman of good family (850). The king sent for her, 
but she would not go out alone. Then he himself went 
to the camp, found her meanly clad, and ailing. He ad- 
dressed her tenderly, but she stood with her eyes cast 
upon his feet, struggling with conflicting emotions. The 
king, after humbly blaming himself for his shortcomings, 
had her conducted on an elefant to the palace, and they 
entered the state chamber. Then the king appointed his 
sons provincial rulers, after which the entire family, as 
the result of their virtue and courage, lived together 
happily (866). 

In the meantime the minister Subuddhi, whom Sun- 
dara had left in charge of his kingdom in Dharapura, 
had placed the king's shoes on the throne, 47 and kept 
faithful charge of his trust. When he heard of the events 
that happened to his king Sundara in Cripura, he sent a 
messenger to report the continued homage of his sub- 
jects, and their intense longing to see him again in their 
midst (876). The king left his older son in charge of 
Qripura, and returned with his wife and other son to 
Dharapura, where he was acclaimed jubilantly by min- 
isters, vassals and citizens (881). 

The next day a profetic Sage arrived at a park out- 
side the city. The king went out to pay his respects, and 
asked him to describe his previous karma. The sage told 
him that he and his queen had existed in a previous birth 
in Campa as the merchant Cankha and his wife Qri. They 
had lived piously, but on account of their youth had fallen 

47 Signifying that the king still ruled. So in the Ramayaiia, Bharata 
places his exiled brother Rama's shoes upon the throne, as a sign that 
Rama is the true king of Ayodhya. See also the two padukas, sym- 
bolizing the dominion of Yugadiga (Rsabha) in the Catrumjaya Mahat- 
myam, Indian Antiquary xxx. 243 top. 

Story of the miserly Dhanasdra 67 

from grace. They were then born into their present 
state, had fallen into misfortune, but had been saved by 
their virtue. Sundara and his wife continued to live pious 
and virtuous lives, died peacefully, and went to heaven 


Story of the miserly merchant Dhanasdra 

The text turns to the fifth and last of the light vows 
(anuvrata), namely greedlessness (aparigraha 48 ), illus- 
trating by story: In the city of Mathura lived a mer- 
chant, named Dhanasara, who counted his wealth by 
lakhs and crores, but was exceedingly stingy. The sight 
of any of his people giving alms would make him shut 
his eyes and fall in a faint. If his neighbors gave alms, 
a thing which he did not see, but heard of, the mere report 
of that would make him flee. If urged to give for reli- 
gious ends, he would shut his teeth, and stand motionless. 
He changed the first syllable of the word dana, ' giving ' 
(namely, da) to na, namely ' not.' 

The ill repute of his stinginess became so great that 
no one would mention his name (906). Once upon a time 
he dug for treasure and made a find, but, as he looked at 
it, it turned to living coal. Another time he found treas- 
ure, but it turned to vermin, serpents, and scorpions. 49 
Just as he was beating his breast in grief over this dis- 
appointment, he was told of the wreck of one of his ships. 
Almost choked with grief, he stood like a stone fence. 
Then he determined to go to sea to retrieve his wealth. 
Eemembering the city of Mahakrpana (' Stingytown '), 
which he had once visited, he set out for that. His ship, 

48 Otherwise known as akimcanatva or akimcanya. 

"Gold turns to scorpions, Indian Antiquary xix. 311; Man waring, Ma- 
liratti Proverbs, p. 217 (note on nr. 1675). 

68 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

laden with precious wares, encountered a fierce gale and 
was smashed into a hundred pieces (924). But he saved 
himself upon a plank, 50 landed in a forest, and reflected 
upon the folly of his greed. In that forest he saw a Sage, 
paid his respects to him, and asked him why he had 
become a miser, and why he had lost his wealth. The 
Sage narrated (891-930) : 

Story of the two brothers, one stingy, the other generous 

In Dhatakikhandabharata lived two brothers, Dhana- 
dhya and Grhasambhuta. At the death of their father the 
older, as head of the family, was upright and generous ; 
the younger was stingy, and hated to see his older brother 
practise generosity. Yet Qri (' Fortune ') attended the 
older, so that he prospered notwithstanding his open- 
handedness, whereas the younger was abandoned by 
Qri. 51 In time the older brother abandoned the world, 
died, and was reborn as a distinguished god in the Sau- 
dharma heaven ; the younger, having done scant penance, 
also died, and was reborn as an Asura (941) ; ' You 
(namely, Dhanasara of the preceding story) are derived 
from the Asuras, but the older, having fallen from Sau- 
dharma, was born in Tamalipti as the son of a wealthy 
merchant, and attained the wisdom of a Kevalin: I am 
he. This accounts both for your stinginess, and the loss 
of your wealth ' (945). The Sage then continued to dis- 
course on generosity and stingines, illustrating by story 
(931-958) : 

See note 33, on p. 49. 

See additional note 21, on p. 202. 

The gold-man 69 

Story of the merchant Kubera and Qrl, the goddess of 
fortune: The gold-man 52 

In the city of Qrivicala ruled King Gunadhya. There 
lived Kubera, a wealthy merchant. Once upon a time 
Qri, the goddess of fortune, who is like a fickle woman 53 
(verse 953), spoke to him in a dream: ' I have lived here 
in your house for seven seasons (paryaya) ; now I wish 
to go ; I have come to take leave of you. ' He asked for 
a delay of four days, which she granted. Kubera then 
gave away his entire property to the unprotected, poor, 
wretched, and to his own relatives. On the fourth day 
he joyously lay down upon an old bed, feigning sleep. 
The goddess arrived, he pretended to be aroused, and 
told her that he had been lying in deep, pleasurable sleep, 
because he no longer had any of the cares of wealth 
(972). He then asked Qrl what he should do, whereupon 
she suggested that he might find some means of checking 
her waywardness. When Kubera did not react upon this, 
but bade her go as she desired, Qrl confessed that his 
pious acts had renewed her attachment to him. In order 
to make it possible that she should stay with him (that 
is to say, in order that he should be rich again), she 
advised him to go to her temple, where he would find a 
man in ragged clothes. Him he should invite and feed; 
then touch his foot with a staff, whereupon he would turn 
into a gold-man (svarnapurusa) (978). 

In this way he obtained the gold-man. No matter how 
much gold he broke off him, he did not grow less. Then 
a barber 54 came to serve him, found out what had hap- 
pened, and decided to try the same game. In due course 

51 See additional note 22, on p. 202. 

53 See additional note 21, on p. 202. 

54 See additional note 23, on p. 202. 

70 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

he saw such a man standing in the temple of the divinity, 
invited and fed him, and then struck his foot with a cud- 
gel. But the man fell at the blow, cried aloud, armed 
police arrived on the spot, and took the barber before the 
king. He told of the gold-man in Kubera 's house, and 
how everything had happened differently when he had 
tried it. Whereupon Kubera was cited into the royal 
presence, and told the entire marvel from beginning to 
end. The king rejoiced that so pious a man as Kubera 
resided in his kingdom, honored him, and dismissed the 
barber. Others followed Kubera 's example and led gen- 
erous lives (959-989). 

Story of the miserly merchant Dhanasara, continued 

Upon hearing these sermons and stories Dhanasara 
told the Sage that henceforth he would keep for himself 
only one-fourth of such wealth as he might acquire, and 
distribute the rest in the cause of religion. The Sage 
accepted his declaration, and instructed him still further. 

Later on Dhanasara went to Tamalipti on business, but 
also passed some time in honoring the Jina. In the town 
there was a house which had been depopulated by a 
Vyantara demon. There Dhanasara lived in the com- 
pany of a Jina image. By night, until sunrise, the demon 
angrily haunted him, assuming terrible forms. But Dha- 
nasara kept calm, so that the demon was much impressed, 
and told him to ask a favor. Dhanasara asked nothing ; 
so the god, of his own accord, advised him to return 
home to Mathura, and there become rich again. Dhana- 
sara accepted this advice, in order to purge himself of 
stinginess. He returned to Mathura, found there his for- 
mer property, in due time became enormously rich, built 
a lofty Jaina temple, made other benefactions, and re- 

Kiranavega's conversion and death 71 

tained only a fourth part of his wealth (1001). He died 
in fast, and became a god in the Saudharma heaven. He 
will obtain salvation in Videha (990-1014). 

Brahman and dish of grits 55 

The text proceeds to show that greed, even if only in 
thought (atilaulyata-dhyana), is reprehensible, illustrat- 
ing by a version of ' The Brahman in the Potter's Shop ' : 
A certain mendicant obtaining a dish of grits, settled 
to sleep in a temple with the dish at his feet. There he 
ruminated as follows : ' I shall sell these grits and buy a 
she-goat with the money; sell the goat and her kids and 
get a milch-cow ; sell the milch-cow and get a she-buffalo ; 
sell the she-buffalo and get a noble mare, whose superb 
colts will procure great wealth. Then I shall build a 
lovely palace with a couch of state, gather a retinue, in- 
vite my relatives, marry the beautiful daughter of a most 
distinguished Brahman, and have by her a son with all 
the perfect characteristics. He will gradually grow up, 
until one day I shall see him in the courtyard crying, 
whereupon I shall, in a rage, strike my wife with my foot 
— thus ! ' Then he saw his dish smashed, his grits scat- 
tered — and greatly grieved (1015-1026). 

Frame Story: Kiranavega's conversion and death 

The Sage thus finished the exposition of the iive light 
vows (anuvratani) of the house-holders, which corres- 
pond to the great vows (mahavratani) of ascetics. Many 
people were converted. King Kiranavega turned from 

68 See my article, ' On recurring Psychic Moitife in Hindu Fiction, JAOS. 
xxxvi. pp. 26 ff. See also Dhammapada Commentary 3. 4; Parker, Village 
Folk- Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, pp. 197, 304, 306. 

72 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

concerns of the body to concerns of the sonl, and became 
as one who has attained salvation while yet alive (jivan- 
mukta). There are four different grades of men who 
according to their varions characters are influenced dif- 
ferently by stories. They are connected with the three 
so-called gunas, or ' qualities ': tamas, ' darkness '; ra- 
jas, ' passion '; and sattva, ' goodness/ culminating in 
sattvika narottamah, ' most excellent men of sattva 
character 56 (1038). Kiranavega then thanked the Sage, 
resorted to his protection, and made over his kingdom 
to his son Kiranatejas. With the permission of the Guru 
he went to Puskaradvipa, and passed some time on the 
mountain of Vaitadhya, in austere penance, carrying an 
image of the Jina. The soul of the kurkuta serpent (1. 
858 ff:.) came from hell, being reborn there as a great 
serpent. 56a Owing to their prenatal enmity the serpent bit 
Kiranavega. The later regarded this as the result of his 
karma, died contentedly and forgivingly, and was reborn 
as a god in JambMrumavarta. 57 The serpent was burned 
by a forest-fire, and went to the DMmaprabha hell, 58 
which is vividly described. Final blessing (1027-1065). 

56 The same classification in 6. 544, and a similar application of the gunas 
in Mahabharata 14. 36. 1 ff. 

56a Fourth pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. 

57 Fifth pre-birth of the future Par^va. 

58 Fifth pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. 

King Vajrandbha and his cousin Kubera 73 

Sakga the Thikd 

Frame story: King Vajrandbha and his infidel cousin 


Kiranavega fell in due time from his high estate of 
god, and was reborn as Prince Vajranabha, 1 son of Lak- 
smivati, the wife of Vajravirya, king of Qubhamkara. He 
grew into every bodily and mental perfection, so as to 
become the fitting mate of Vijaya, daughter of Can- 
drakanta of Badgadeca, with whom he lived wisely and 
piously ( 20 ) . It happened that he had a visit from a cousin 
(matulanandana), by name of Kubera, an infidel, hated 
even by his own father. Kubera mocked Vajranabha's 
piety, advising him to ' fulfil every desire of his mind, 
speech, and body/ While Vajranabha was trying to re- 
form Kubera, the great Sage Lokacandra arrived in a 
park outside the city. They both went to hear him 
preach a lengthy sermon on a variety of topics (58). 
Kubera remained sceptical, upheld the advantages of a 
sensual life, and supported his position by rationalistic 
arguments (65). The Sage gently reproved and refuted 
him, and, in the course of exposition of the Jaina doc- 
trine, arrived at the four worldly (laukika) virtues, which 
are the theme proper of this Sarga. These are vinaya, 
' tact ' ; viveka, ' discernment ' ; susamga, ' association 
with good people ' ; and susattvata, ' resolute courage ' 2 
(98). The text next defines the first of these virtues, il- 
lustrating by the following story (1-104) : 

1 Sixth pre-birth of the future Pargva. 
a See Calibhadra Carita 1. 21: 2. 2. 

74 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot 2a 

In the city of Avanti, in the land of Avanti, ruled the 
mighty and accomplished King Vikrama, by the side of 
his noble and lovely queen Kamalavati. One day he ad- 
dressed the people assembled in his hall of audience: 
■ Ah, tell me ! Is there anywhere any accomplishment, 
science, wealth, or intelligence, so marvelous as not to be 
found in my kingdom? ' 3 A stranger in the assembly 
rose up and declaimed aloud : ' Long have I roamed the 
treasure-laden earth, but I have not beheld a union of the 
rivers of glory and knowledge like unto thee. In Patala 
(Hades) rules Vasuki (the beautiful king of the ser- 
pents) ; in heaven Qakra (Indra). Both these, invisible 
as they are, are realized by the mind thru thy majesty, 
Euler of the Earth ! ' He then went on to praise the min- 
isters, warriors, and wives of the king, but found just a 
single shortcoming in the king, namely, that he was ig- 
norant of the ' Art of entering another 's body. ' The king 
asked: * Where is this to be found? Tell me quickly! ' 
The other replied : ' On the mountain of Qri, in the keep 
of a man Siddhecvara. ' 4 The king dismissed the assem- 
bly, put his minister in charge of his kingdom, and, eager 
to obtain this science, went out from the city by night, 
without regard to danger or hardship. In due time he 

2a This is, perhaps, the most interesting and original story of the book. 
It has been treated in relation to its congeners, and translated in full, by 
the author in his essay, ' On the art of entering another's body,' Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. lvi (1917), pp. Iff. The 
translation with annotations is on pp. 22-43. 

3 For this sort of boastful inquiry see, e. g., Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Er- 
ziihlungen aus dem Maharastri, p. 39; Leumann, Die Avacyaka-Erzahl- 
ungen, ii. 8. 3 (p. 15). 

4 The name means ' Lord of Magic' 

Story of King Viler ama as a parrot 75 

reached the mountain of Qri, beheld Siddhecvara, ob- 
tained his favor, and was accepted as a pnpil (127). 

Now a certain Brahman had been on the spot a long 
time ahead of Vikrama, hoping to acquire the same sci- 
ence. But the very devotion he showed became a plague, 
because of his constant importunity. On the other hand, 
the Master was pleased with the king's devotion, which 
was coupled with tact and disinterestedness, so that he 
begged Vikrama to accept from him the ' Art of entering 
another's body,' in discharge of the debt imposed by the 
king's devotion (133). 

Upon hearing this, Vikrama, indifferent to his own in- 
terests, perceiving the disappointment of the Brahman, 
begged the Teacher rather to confer the science upon the 
Brahman. The Teacher said: ' Do not give a serpent 
milk to drink! He is unworthy, and with an unworthy 
person the science works great mischief. Think how, 
once upon a time, a Master of Magic, seeing the bones of 
a lion, made the body of the lion whole, and undertook 
to give him life ; how, warned by his people, he neverthe- 
less, in his madness, gave him life; then the lion slew 
him. 5 Notwithstanding this warning the king fervently 
embraced the Master's feet, and prevailed upon him to 
bestow the science upon that Brahman. After that, out 
of respect for the command of the Master, he also ac- 
cepted it himself (144). 

Vikrama, in the company of the Brahman, returned to 
Avanti, confiding to him on the way his own history. 
Leaving the Brahman outside the city, he entered alone, 
in order to observe the state of his kingdom. Noticing 
that the people within the palace were upset, because the 

D This refers to a familiar fable: see Benfey, Das Pancatantra i. 489; ii. 
332; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 131. 

76 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

state elefant had died, he returned to the Brahman and 
said to him : ' Friend, I have a mind to disport myself by 
means of my science ; I shall enter into the elefant, so as 
to see something of what is going on in the city. Do you 
act as guardian beside my body, so that, with your help, 
I shall not fail to recognize it. ' Thus he spoke, there left 
his own body, and entered into the carcass of the elefant, 
which then, as before, disported itself blithely. Then 
that base-souled Brahman, violator of faith, betrayer of 
friend, reflected : ' Of what use to me is my own wretched 
body, plagued by racking poverty; I will enter Vi- 
krama's body, and serenely rule the kingdom! ' Thus he 
did. The fake king entered the palace quivering like an 
animal of the forest, because he did not know how to 
behave, and where to go. Holding on to the arm of the 
minister, he sat down on the throne; the king's retinue 
bowed before him. The assembled multitude cried, c Fate 
has restored to life the king of the elefants, and the king 
of men has returned again. This is indeed sugar falling 
into milk ' 6 (160). 

But the fake king continued to act strangely, so that 
the people wondered whether some god or demon, in the 
guise of the king, had not taken possesion of the vacant 
throne; or whether the king's mind was not wandering. 
The minister decided that the king's mind was sure to be 
restored by the nectar of Kamalavati's speech, and had 
him conducted to her. The queen rose in confusion, and, 
when she looked at him, fell to the ground in a faint. On 
being restored, and hearing his voice, she was greatly 
grieved and thought, ' He looks like my beloved, yet 
afflicts me like an enemy.' When the king asked her to 
explain her perturbation, she answered artfully: ' Your 

6 The same figure, garkaradugdhasamyogah, in 6. 1349. 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot 77 

Majesty! At the time when you started upon your jour- 
ney, I uttered a fond prayer to Candi for your safe re- 
turn, vowing not to look upon my beloved before adoring 
her. Now, having failed to do so, Candi felled me to the 
ground. Therefore I shall let you know myself, king, 
the time for paying devotion to the goddess.' The king 
then retired (173). 

At this time the minister was adorning the state ele- 
f ant 7 for the royal entry, so that the people should see 
their sovereign, at length returned. Now the menials who 
were painting the ornamental marks on the elefant dis- 
cussed the fake king's strange conduct, and Vikrama saw 
thru the treachery of the Brahman. Bitterly regretting 
his misplaced confidence, he decided to escape, lest the 
rogue should mount as a tuft upon his wretched person. 
This he did, escaping hot pursuit in a distant forest, 
where he took rest in the shade of a banyan tree. There 
he perceived a man standing between the trunks of the 
tree, engaged in killing parrots with a sling-shot. 8 The 
king, worried by his great and unwieldy body, decided to 
make a change, and entered into the body of a parrot. 
Then this parrot said to the hunter, ' Friend, what do 
you want to be killing so many parrots for? Take me to 
Avanti, and you will surely get a thousand tanka coins 
for me; you must, however, give me assurance of per- 
sonal safety.' This the hunter did, and went with the 
parrot to Avanti, where he stood on the king's highway, 
offering the parrot for an exorbitant price, and justify- 
ing that price on the ground that the parrot could recite 
whatsoever Qastras people asked for (195). 

At this juncture some attendant maids of queen Kama- 

7 Now inhabited by Vikrama. 

s dhanurgolika : the word recurs in our text, 1. 317, in the form dhanur- 
gulika. Neither compound is in the Lexicons. 

78 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

lavati arrived. The parrot who knew well their disposi- 
tions, as soon as he was accosted by one of them, recited 
in a sweet voice : ' Pierced by the arrow of thine eyes, O 
graceful lady, one deems oneself happy and lives; not 
pierced, one dies : here is a marvelous Science of Arch- 
ery. ' After some further give and take, the maid re- 
ported to the queen, and she promptly commissioned her 
to buy the parrot. This she did ; the hunter went to his 
home. When the parrot saw Kamalavati joyfully coming 
to meet him, he extended his right wing, and chanted 
sweetly: ' queen, in order to uphold thy weight, as 
thou restest on his left arm, Vikrama holds the earth as 
a counter-balance on his right arm.' The queen replied 
smiling : ' parrot ! what you say amounts to this, that 
one cannot, unless he rules the earth, drag the load of a 
woman. Very pointedly you have stated that we impose 
a great burden: what wise person would not be pleased 
with a statement of the truth? ' She put him into a 
golden cage, tended him in person, fed him upon every 
delicacy, and constantly regaled herself with the nectar 
flow of his conversation (209). 

As time went by, the queen and the parrot engaged in a 
contest of riddles and charades, both simple and intricate, 9 
on the whole counting among the most interesting of that 
species of jeux d'esprit in Hindu literature (227). Again, 
the queen asked the parrot to recite some well-spoken 
words, devoted to salutary instruction (hitopadega). The 
parrot complied, discoursed on deliberation in speech and 
action; on rectitude and kindness; on wrath, envy, and 
malice; winding up with the simile of the three skulls, 
illustrating the value of discretion (233) : 

9 They are expounded on pp. 31-35 of my translation of thi9 story, cited 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot 79 

Simile of the three skulls, illustrating discretion 10 

A certain king of yore caused his wise men to make 
the test of the three skulls, that had been brought by a 
stranger from another land. On that occasion, a thread 
put into the ear of one of the skulls came out of its mouth : 
the price of that skull was a farthing (kaparda), because 
it would blab what it had heard. Again, a thread put 
into the ear of the second skull came out at the other 
ear : the price of that skull was a lakh, because it forgot 
what it had heard. But the thread inserted into the ear 
of the third skull went straight down its throat: that 
skull was priceless, because what it heard remained in 
its heart. ' Conforming with this, O queen, who, that 
has ears and hears reference to another's guilt, does not 
become discreet in mind? ' (238). 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot, continued 

Kamalavati's soul was so delighted with the parrot's 
discourse, that she promised to live and die with him. 
But the wise parrot answered : ' Say not so, beloved wife 
of a king! Of what account am I, a wee animal, beside 
thee, beloved of King Vikrama 1 ' The queen said : l My 
eye tells me that my beloved has returned, but my mind 
says not; I shall devise some means to dismiss the king. 
But you, as a husband, shall afford me delight, that do I 
here declare.' The king-parrot then realized that his 
science had been of profit to him, for how else could he 
have tested the heart of the queen! (245). 

Next, the queen asked the parrot to instruct her on the 

10 This is named trikapallpariksanam, for which see the citations in note 
81 on p. 36 of the above-mentioned translation. See also Hertel, Das 
Paficatantra, p. 46. 

80 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

essence of religion, which the parrot did, in accordance 
with the familiar teaching of the Jaina vows, winding np 
with the superiority of mental purity as compared with 
ascetic practice. This he illustrates by the following 
story (252) : 

Episode, illustrating the superiority of soul purification 
over meritorious deeds 

A wise king heard that his brother Soma, a Sage, was 
sojourning in a park outside his city. He went to pay 
his respects, listened to the law from his mouth, and re- 
turned to the palace. The chief queen then made the fol- 
lowing vow : ' I shall in the morning salute this Sage, and 
not take food before he has feasted.' Now, on the road 
between the city and the park, there was a river. When 
she arrived there by night the river was in flood, too 
deep for crossing. In the morning she asked her husband 
how she might obtain her heart's desire. The king said: 
' Go cheerfully with your retinue, adore the River god- 
dess, and with pure mind recite, " 0, Goddess River, if 
my husband has practised chastity, since the day on which 
he paid his devotions to my brother-in-law, then promptly 
give me passage." n The queen reflected in surprise: 
' Why now does the king, fifth Protector of the World, 
say such an absurd thing! Since the day of his devotion 
to his brother, I have become pregnant by him with a son ; 
that wifely state of mine he knows full well. ' Neverthe- 
less, out of wifely devotion, she went with her retinue to 
the bank of the river, honored the River goddess, and 
made the truth-declaration, 12 as told by her husband. At 

11 The notion that rivers may be induced by prayer to furnish passage is 
a very old one in India; see Rig-Veda 3. 33. 9; 4. 19. 6. 

u satyacravana = the Buddhist saccakiriya; see Burlingame, JRAS., 1917, 
pp. 429 ff. 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot 81 

once the river banked its waters to the right and to the 
left, became shallow, and the qneen crossed. 

After revering and feasting the Sage, she told him her 
story, and asked how her husband's inconceivable chastity 
could be valid. The Sage replied : ' When I took the vow, 
from that time on the king also became indifferent to 
earthly matters. But as there was no one to bear the 
burden of royalty, he kept on performing his royal acts, 
in deed, but not in thought. The king's chastity is valid, 
because his mind is unspotted, even as a lotus that stands 
in the mud. ' 

The queen then bade adieu to the Sage, and asked him 
how she was to recross the river. The Sage told : ' You 
must say to the Goddess Eiver, " If that Sage, since tak- 
ing the vow, has steadily lived in fast, then give me pas- 
sage! " ' The queen, in renewed surprise, went to the 
bank of the river, recited the words of the Sage, crossed, 
and arrived home. She narrated all to the king, and 
asked, ' How could the Sage be in fast, since I myself en- 
tertained him with food! ' The king replied: ' You are 
simple, queen, you do not grasp the spirit of religion: 
the lofty-minded Sage is indifferent to both eating or 
non-eating. Mind is the root, speech the crown, deed the 
branch-expansion of the tree of religion: from the firm 
root of that tree everything springs forth.' Then the 
queen understood (286). 

Story of King Vikrama as a parrot, concluded 

When the queen had heard this speech of the parrot, 
she recognized the parrot's true character: i My falter- 
ing mind was under delusion ; this is the king, here speaks 
his voice ! ' She went to sleep rejoicing. Then the parrot- 
king, noticing there a house-lizard, entered into it, that 

82 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

he might further test the queen. When the queen awoke, 
and saw the parrot still, she tried to rouse him with ten- 
der words and endearments. Failing to do so, she fell 
into a faint, and, when she came to, mourned the parrot 
piteously, but finally bathed and anointed his body, pre- 
paratory to his funeral rites, in the course of which she 
would, as a faithful wife, commit her body to the flames 
along with her spouse. 

When the fake king heard this he exclaimed in con- 
sternation, ' Alas, alas, this kingdom, without Kamala- 
vati, will be profitless to me : I must restore her to life. ' 
He left the body which he had usurped, and entered that 
of the parrot. The king promptly left the lizard, and re- 
sumed his own body. Eesplendent, like a mighty mass 
of glowing clouds, Vikrama quickly went to the presence 
of the queen (305). At the sight of him Kamalavati grew 
radiant as a garland of lotuses. Having perceived that 
his speech, his gait, his habit, and his regard were just 
as before, she fell at his feet and clung to him. The king 
teased her about her love for the parrot, but she averred 
that the parrot was now violently repulsive to her (312). 

The king took the parrot in his hand and said : ' What 
have we here, Brahman? ' The parrot replied: ' That 
which befits them that deceive their teacher, their king, 
and their friend.' The king, recognizing his contrition, 
consoled him by pointing out that his companionship had 
enabled him to pass the troublous experience of the sci- 
ence. 13 Then the Brahman showed that he was fully peni- 
tent : ' Full well thou knowest, king, what sort of com- 
panionship thou didst enjoy with me, that has strayed 
from my own house and body — tricker of friend, sover- 
eign, and teacher. It does not befit thee to see and to 

M See the note 18 aibove on p. 32. 

Story of Sumati, the evil-minded 83 

touch me. Seize me by the left foot, and cast me some- 
where, that I may devote myself to a better life. All this 
shall serve thee as a lesson in the wickedness of men! ' 
The king's heart was still more softened; he dismissed 
him in peace to a life of religious devotion. Vikrama con- 
tinued to rule his kingdom happily in Kamalavati's 
society. Thus the science, obtained by him thru tactful 
conduct, led to a happy issue, but the very same science 
imposed great misery upon the Brahman who was want- 
ing in that virtue (105-324). 

Story of Sumati, the evil-minded, whose vices were 
corrected by discernment 

The Sage next expounds the second of the ' worldly 
virtues ' (see verse 98), namely, viveka, or l discernment. y 
Upon this he lavishes ecstatic praise, illustrating by the 
following story: King Qrisena in Qripura had a Puro- 
hita, named Soma, who was childless. The king was wor- 
ried, for fear that his successor should be deprived of 
spiritual support to his rule, in case the Purohita failed 
to have a son. He advised Soma to make an appeal for 
a son to his household divinity. 14 This he did, threaten- 
ing to die of starvation, 15 in case she should not grant his 
wish (341). The goddess had no available child; there- 

14 See additional note 24, on p. 203. 

15 Threat of suicide, usually ' by entering the fire,' or by starvation 
('hunger-strike') is one of the constant minor progressive motifs. The 
idea is closely related to the so-called dharaa (Hopkins, JAOS. xxi. 146 ff.) ; 
so, e. g., in Jataka 90. The point of the threat is, to exact some wish, 
which is then regularly granted. Thus in Prabhavaka Carita, p. 9, gloka 
138 (Vajraprabandha) Rukminl tells her father that she wishes to marry 
Vajra, else she will enter the fire. In fact love-matters furnish the most 
frequent occasion for the threat. In Pargvanatha the motif appears in 
3. 606; 6. 568; 8. 96. The theme will furnish a substantial article for the 
Encyclopedia of Fiction. 

84 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

fore, in her perplexity, she went to a Yaksa who had 
attained perfection, and told him that Soma was threat- 
ening snicide. If he shonld happen to fulfil his threat, 
people would then cease to pay her devotion (puja). The 
Yaksa advised her to trick the Purohita, by promising 
him a son, but that he should be a rake, gambler, and 
thief. The Purohita consulted the king, who advised him 
to accept her promise, but, with the additional stipulation, 
that the son should be gifted with discernment (viveka), 
the corrective of all shortcomings. He got the consent 
of his goddess to this proposition, and then mated with 
the second concubine of his household. 16 After that he 
reflected, remorsefully, that his son would be low-born, 
despised by his own family, and that the king also would 
become disgusted with him. Again he took counsel with 
the king, who reassured him, and pointed out that the 
' sun of discernment ' would dispel the darkness of guilt 

In due time, Soma had a son born him, and, when he 
grew up, the father himself instructed him. While teach- 
ing a group of pupils he placed him in an underground 
chamber, sitting the while on a bench over it expounding 
the Qastras. In order to make sure that the boy under- 
stood what was being taught, Soma tied a string to his 
own thumb, passed the other end to his son, to shake 
whenever he did not understand. One day Soma recited 
the niti-stanza : 17 ' Wealth is dissipated in three ways : by 
giving it away; by enjoying it ; and by losing it. He who 
does not give it away, or does not enjoy it, his money is 
lost in the third way.' Sumati pulled the string; his 

18 See additional note 15, on p. 195. 

17 See Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, 2757, and the literature there cited. 
See also Bhojaprabandha, stanza 63, and compare Prabandhacintamani, 
p. 111. 

Story of Sumati, the evil-minded 85 

father again expounded the ck>ka; the boy again pulled 
the string. Then his father dismissed the other pupils, 
and, calling his son out of his hiding, chided him for his 
failure to comprehend. But the boy pointed out that gifts 
fittingly bestowed, in truth, are never lost, or fruitless, 
whereas, the personal enjoyment of wealth is for the 
moment, for this world alone, and, therefore, lost (375). 
Soma rejoiced over his son's wisdom, and reported the 
occurrence to the king, who ascribed the boy's wisdom to 
his viveka. He had him brought in state to his court, and 
installed in the hereditary office of Purohita (386). 

On some occasion the king asked Sumati what was the 
cause of the different stations which souls occupy in the 
world. Sumati skilfully met this test by pointing out that 
actions (karma), founded upon discernment or non-dis- 
cernment, regulate fate in subsequent births. Thus the 
emperor Bharata, tho steeped in the mud of royal pleas- 
ures, obtained thru discernment release from samsara, 18 
but the fish Tandula, owing to his guilt in eating other 
fish, went to the seventh hell. 19 The king acclaimed his 
wisdom (394). 

However, the evil propensities which the family divin- 
ity had profesied, were bound to come out. One day, Su- 
mati stole a necklace belonging to the king, and lived in 
fear of discovery henceforth. His discernment told him 
how little sense there was in his living the terror-stricken 
life of a thief, favorite of the king as he was. He re- 
stored the necklace (399). Another time he was tempted 
by one of the queens, 20 attracted by his charming person. 
But his discernment pointed out to him that the wife of 
his king must be regarded in the light of a mother, and 

28 Cf. Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, pp. 158, 170. 
19 Apparently alluding to some fable. 
30 See additional note 19, on p. 199. 

86 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

that the punishment for intercourse with the wife of 
another is cutting off of one's head in hell, and infamy 
like that of Indra, because he violated Ahalya, the wife 
of Gautama. 21 He therefore managed to conserve his 
chastity (405). Again, he was attacked by the desire to 
gamble, but checked himself by realizing that gambling 
is the chief of passions, and that King Nala and others 
were by it plunged into misfortune. Thus his discern- 
ment overcame his third temptation (410). One day 
Sumati asked the king why he showed such implicit trust 
in him, tho it was not the habit of kings to be confiding. 
The king replied that there was no reason for distrust, 
because he, Sumati, came from the Purohitas of the royal 
family. Then Sumati again asked why he had been 
chosen while yet so young, and the king answered that 
|he had desired to test the unfolding of his discernment. 
This he supported by the familiar punning allusion to the 
uselessness of a ' strong bow without string ' = ' good 
family without virtue.' 22 The king then told him the 
story of his life, which he listened to with downcast face. 
In the end Sumati entered upon the path of virtue (325- 

Story of Prabhakara and his ~king, wife, and friend 

The sage then turns to the third worldly virtue (lau- 
kika guna), namely, keeping good company (susamga, or 
susamsarga). By contact with a touchstone, brass be- 
comes gold; by contact with gold, glass becomes a jewel. 


21 From Catapatha Brahmana 3. 3. 4. 18 on to Kathasaritsagara 17. 137 ff. 
See my Vedic Concordance, under ahalyayai. For lechery of the gods see 
Vasavadatta (Gray's translation, p. 130, with note) ; Dagakumaracarita i, 
p. 44; Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, nr. 2170. 

22 savarigo 'pi dhanurdando nirgunah kim karisyeti; see Bohtlingk, In- 
dische Spriiche, nr. 5369. 

23 Cf. Bohtlingk, ibid., 1618. 

Story of Prabhakara 87 

This he illustrates by the well-known (lokakhyata) story 
of Prabhakara (527) : In Virapura lived a virtuous 
Brahman, named Divakara, who had a son named Pra- 
bhakara, addicted to every vice: alchemy, 24 gambling, 
quarreling, and vagabondage. His father excoriated his 
evil ways, and bade him master the Qastras, drink the 
sap of poetry, acquire the proper accomplishments, prac- 
tice virtue, and thus raise high the family. Prabhakara 
answered all that with jeers and jibes : ' the Qastra does 
not quench thirst; nor poetry still hunger ' ; and so on. 
The father sadly deplored his ownership of such a son, 
but in the end, out of parental affection, presented him 
with a gloka memorialis, recommending association with a 
grateful king; marriage of a noble wife; and choice of a 
disinterested friend 25 (442). The father died. A friend 
informed Prabhakara, just as he was gambling, of his 
father's death. So engrossed did he remain in his pur- 
suit, that he bade the friend attend to the funeral. After 
a time Prabhakara, remembering his gloka, started to 
travel. On the road he heard of a certain village chief 
(Thakkura), Sihha by name, ungrateful, empty-headed, 
and stuck-up; to him he resorted for patronage. While 
in his service, he was married by him to a low-born, 
coarse, and ignorant slave-girl ; he also struck up friend- 
ship with a rapacious merchant, named Lobhanandi 

It so happened that the Thakkura was cited to the 
presence of the king, and Prabhakara accompanied him 
thither. Prabhakara recited a gloka in the hearing of the 
king, whose import was that birds of a feather should 
flock together. 26 The king was so much pleased that he 

M dhaturh dhamati. 

34 Cf. Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, nrs. 691, 1859. 

" Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, nr. 4933; cf. 5290, 5643. 

88 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

rewarded Prabhakara with the gift of a city. Moreover, at 
the latter 's request, the Thakkura was entrusted with the 
sovereignty of a province. Prabhakara also disposed the 
king so favorably towards Lobhanandi, that he, who had 
been poor, became very rich (455). Now the Thakkura 
had a pet peacock whom he loved better than a child. It 
came to pass that Prabhakara 's low-born wife was taken 
with a pregnant woman's whim 27 (dohada) for the pea- 
cock's flesh. Prabhakara, instead of giving her the flesh 
of this peacock, gave her some other, and hid away the 
Thakkura 's pet. 28 As soon as the peacock was missed, 
the drum was sounded, and a reward of 800 dinars 
promised him who would tell of its whereabouts. Then 
his wife, deciding to get rid of him, and, at the same time, 
to obtain the reward, touched the drum. 29 She went be- 
fore the Thakkura, told him of her whim for peacock's 
flesh, pretending at the same time that she had tried to 
keep Prabhakara from killing the king's pet. Out of ex- 
cessive love for her, he had killed the peacock, and given 
her his flesh. The Thakkura sent his soldiers after Pra- 
bhakara, but he escaped to Lobhanandi 's house, intend- 
ing to test his friendship. He told him also that he had 
slain the Thakkura 's peacock. Then Lobhanandi betrayed 
him; he was fettered, and brought before the Thakkura. 
He appealed to him pathetically to pardon this one fault 
of his, but was bidden inexorably to produce the peacock, 

27 See additional note 25, on p. 204. 

88 A similar story in Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 151 ff. In Jataka 159; 
Chavannes, Cinq Cent Contes Chinois, nr. 20, the flesh of a peacock is eaten 
for its curative quality. In the sequel of the present story Prabhakara 
hides away a king's son, in order to test the king's generosity. This also is 
the theme of a story in Vikrama Carita (Indische Studien xv. 321 ; Lescal- 
lier, Le Trone Enchante, p. 110). In Jataka 86 a king is tested by doing 
him an injury; in Jataka 218 a boy is hidden away. 

28 See additional note 3, on p. 185. 

Story of Prabhakara 89 

or meet death. Prabhakara, after reciting his father's 
gloka, produced the peacock, and then went away, reflect- 
ing sadly on the results of evil association with an un- 
worthy lord, wife, and friend (484). 

He wandered about until he arrived at the city of Sun- 
dara, where he happened upon Gunasundara, the son of 
the king of that city, practicing military tactics on the 
field for military exercise (khalurika) outside the city. 
They struck up acquaintance : Prabhakara, finding him a 
gracious and noble prince, took service with him, in the 
hope of purging himself of the contact with his former 
evil lord (495). Then he married a noble, faithful and 
discreet wife, Cri by name ; also, he gained the friendship 
of Vasanta, a rich and generous merchant. At the death of 
his father, Gunasundara, succeeding, chose Prabhakara 
for his minister. It happened that the two went on an 
expedition, riding two noble horses of inverted training. 30 
When they, not knowing the peculiarity of the horses, 
attempted to check them, they ran off at a fierce gallop, 
landing them in a great forest, far away from their reti- 
nue. As they were galloping along, Prabhakara plucked 
three myrobalans from a tree. With these, one by one, 
he restored the king, who had been overcome by thirst 
and hunger. In time, they were found by the king's reti- 
nue, and were brought back to the city in triumf and 
great rejoicing (520). 

Now the five-year old son of Gunasundara was in the 
habit of visiting Prabhakara 's house, to play there. He 
wore a child's necklace. In order to test the king's qual- 
ity, Prabhakara, one day, hid the boy out of sight. At the 
end of a long and vain search, the king was not only 
deeply grieved, but also much perplexed, because he knew 

30 See additional note 26, on p. 204. 

90 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

that the boy had gone to the house of the minister. All 
the court, excepting Prabhakara, assembled mournfully 
about the king on his throne. Then Prabhakara 's wife 
asked him why he did not, on that day, go to the palace. 
He replied, that he did not dare to do so, because he had 
himself slain the boy in a fit of madness. He furthermore 
pretended that she had told him in the past, that the boy 
had cast the evil eye 31 on her on account of some pre- 
natal hostility (531). She went to the merchant Vasanta, 
for advice. He reassured her, and promised her that he 
would protect his friend with his life and his wealth. In 
the presence of the king he accused himself of the mur- 
der. While the king was in a state of doubt, Prabha- 
kara 's wife appeared before him, exonerated Vasanta, 
and assumed the guilt, pretending that the boy had been 
slain to satisfy a pregnancy whim of hers. Then Prabha- 
kara, greatly perturbed, presented himself in person, and 
claimed that he had slain the boy in a fit of mental aber- 
ration, while living in fear of a misfortune which threat- 
ened him (542). The king, still perplexed, finally con- 
cluded that he could not punish Prabhakara, because he 
had saved his life in extreme need by giving him the three 
myrobalans. But for that, there would now be no king, 
nor kingdom ; no son, and no royal train. When Prabha- 
kara had thus tested the king, he produced the boy, 
sound and smiling, to the supreme happiness of the king. 
Then Prabhakara narrated his life's story, that hinged 
on the Qloka given him by his father. The king forgave, 
and they continued in the relation of mutually confiding 

3 * In Mahabh. 8. 87. 171 the heroes Karna and Oalya cannot endure the 
look of their enemies. In Viracarita xvi (Indische Studien, xiv. 127) Sanaka 
curses Udagoca, so that he whom she shall look at in her wedding hour 
shall die. Evil eye (jettatura), also in Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, p. 108; 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, i. 11, 173, 177. 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 91 

king and minister. Prabhakara lived happily in the pos- 
session of a noble lord, a good wife, and a faithful friend 

Story of King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 32 

The text turns to the exposition and praise of the last 
of the four worldly virtues (laukika gunah), namely 
sattva, or * courageous endurance/ ending with the fol- 
lowing illustration: King Hariccandra, of Iksvaku de- 
scent, ruled in Ayodhya. One night he heard a bard recite 
a Qloka in praise of sattva ; 33 this the king, much im- 
pressed with its meaning, memorized. In the morning a 
disturbance arose, because a boar was rampant in the 
Cakravatara forest, tearing down trees and creepers, and 
endangering the peace of the ascetics living therein. The 
king rode into the forest, was told by his two companions, 
Kapiiijala and Kuntala, where the boar was, and, in due 
course, brought him down (585). The king, curious to 
know how much injury he had done to his unstable target, 
sent Kapiiijala to see. Kapiiijala, on his return, bade 
the king go and see for himself. The king found the vic- 
tim covered with blood ' like a burning forest-fire/ so 
that he suspected him to be of divine origin. Kapiiijala, 
who knew the truth, tried to keep the king from closely 
investigating, but the king persisted, and found the victim 

83 This story is a skilful fictional rifacimento of an epic narrative, told in 
Markandeya Purana 7. It is dramatized in Ksemendra's, or Ksemigvara's 
play Candakaugika, edited by Jayanmohana Carman (Calcutta 1867), 
translated by L. Fritze, under the title ' Kaugika's Zorn,' Leipzig, Reclam's 
Universalbibliothek, No. 1726 (cf. Pischel, Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 
1883, p. 1217). Echoes of the same story may be found in Chavannes, Cinq 
Cent Contes et Apologues Chinois, nrs. 6 and 13, and in Stokes, Indian 
Fairy Tales, pp. 224 ff. On the character of the Epic story see Muir, Ori- 
ginal Sanskrit Texts i 2 , pp. 379 ff. 

M Cf. Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, nrs. 6147-9. 

92 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

to be a pregnant doe. Being greatly distressed at his 
mortal sin of having slain an embryo, he decided to go to 
the hermitage, in order to obtain there absolution for his 
sin. As he entered with his two friends, he was received 
kindly, but, when he asked whether there was any expia- 
tion possible for the crime of killing the embryo of a doe, 
the chief Sage of the hermitage answered evasively that, 
' while Hariccandra was king, no injury could happen to 
their hermitage ' (603). 

At that point a tumult arose, out of which was heard 
the voice of the Sage's daughter, Vancana. She wailed: 
1 mother, if this doe of mine shall die, then I will starve 
myself to death ! ' And her mother in turn wailed : ' If 
you will starve yourself, then I will do likewise; bereft 
of you, life is of no use to me.' The Sage had the two 
women brought into his presence, and, with wily intent, 
asked Vancana why she was crying. In this manner he 
elicited from her the statement that she was crying over 
the loss of the doe, her play-fellow, raised by her from 
childhood. The Sage, now acting as if he did not know 
that the king was the offender, depicted in lurid colors, 
the misfortune that would befall his house thru the death 
of his daughter and his wife, as well as the loss of his 
spiritual sanctity. He then pretended to wonder whence 
such an unexpected calamity could have arisen during the 
rule of a king of the royal line of Iksvaku. The king, 
( greatly dejected, exposed his guilt by asking what he 
should do : he could punish others, but not himself. The 
Sage hid his face in his garment of bark, excoriated the 
king with sharp invective, which he kept up even after 
the king offered to enter the fire, abandon the country, 
or take the vow (628). The Sage remained inexorable, 
but finally, at the suggestion of his pupil Angaramukha, 
acting as his accomplice, prescribed that the king should 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 93 

make over to him his kingdom and all his possessions. 
The king consenting, the agreement was ratified in the 
presence of another pupil of the Sage, Kautilya 34 by 
name, who had come from Benares (641). Even then 
Vancana pretended that she would enter the fire together 
with the doe, until the king bought her off with the prom- 
ise of a lakh of gold. The king returned with train to his 
city of Ayodhya (648). 

Now the king's wise and trusty minister, Vasubhuti, 
hearing the whole story from Kuntala, guaged both the 
king's folly in making his promises, as well as the Sage's 
wile. He therefore told the king that he must not give 
up his kingdom, and make himself homeless. But the 
latter insisted on keeping his pact, and asked Vasubhuti 
to procure the lakh needful for the assuagement of Van- 
cana. He did so. When the Sage arrived with Angara- 
mukha, the money was handed him. The Sage asked, 
1 What is that? ' The king told him that it was the money 
for Vancana. The Sage refused to be paid from the 
king's treasury, because that meant paying him with his 
own money, since the king had previously given him all 
his possessions (669). The king, next, bade Vasubhuti 
procure from merchants a loan of the amount needed, but 
they, by the magic power of the Sage, had become hostile, 
and refused, on the ground that the Sage henceforth was 
their king. Even when he appealed to them in person, 
they persisted in refusing (678). A lengthy controversy 
arose between the king and Vasubhuti on the one side, 
and the Sage and Angaramukha on the other side, in the 
course of which the latter two abused the king, charging 
him with breaking faith, and ruining his and his family's 
reputation. The king finally sent for the jewels of his 
Queen, Sutara by name. She herself appeared on the 

u The meaning of this name is ' Trickster ' 

94 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

spot, and offered her jewelry, but the Sage refused, on the 
ground that her property also belonged to the king, and 
therefore to himself, so that it was not available to ex- 
punge the debt to Vancana. Kuntala then took a hand in 
these recriminations, accusing the two Brahmans of being 
Baksasas (ogres) in disguise. The Sage thereupon 
cursed him, so that he became a jackal, infesting ceme- 
teries (707). 

The king sought to soothe the Sage, but the Sage 
spurned him with his foot. Then Bohitagva, the little son 
of the king, begged the Sage not to strike his father, but 
to take himself in payment. The Sage, moved to tears, 
whispered to Angaramukha that his tear-choked throat 
was unable to make answer. But Angaramukha advised 
him not to release the king. Harigcandra then asked for 
a month 's delay, within which he might obtain the money. 
The Sage asked whether he would beg the money; the 
king replied that a scion of the Iksvaku house might give 
alms, but could not beg for them. He explained further 
that he would sell himself in order to pay up (716) . Then 
the king was acclaimled for his noble resolution by by- 
standing ascetics. Sutara proposed to follow him into 
exile, clinging to her decision in the teeth of his and the 
Sage's remonstrances (724). In the end the Sage con- 
sented to the departure of Harigcandra and Sutara, on 
the condition that they leave behind all their possessions 
and jewels. Then Vasubhuti, outraged by the Sage's 
rapacity, called him a Brahmaraksasa, 35 and was prompt- 
ly punished by being turned into a parrot. The king, 
with wife and son, started on his journey, followed by 
the tearful people of his city, whom he finally dismissed 
with a voice softened by love (738). 

36 That is to say, in this connection, a Brahman ogre. 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 95 

They traveled on the high-road, until Sutara was worn 
out with fatigue. The king consoled her by pointing out 
that they were near Varanasi (Benares), and bade her 
rest under a campaka tree on the shore of the Ganga. 
While she was sitting there in sad thought, crying, with 
her head covered, Rohitacva began to whimper for food. 
The king forgetfully cried out: ' Sirrah, give the child 
sweetmeats! ' When no one responded, the child again 
cried. His mother grieved over the sad lot of a descend- 
ant of the imperial house of Bharata, while the king real- 
ized that he had fallen low indeed, when he no longer 
could give his child some breakfast. He entertained him, 
by pointing out the birds disporting themselves on the 
Ganga, but, after a little, the boy again wailed : ' Daddy, 
I am very hungry! ' It happened that an old woman 
came journeying along, carrying her provisions for the 
journey on her head. As she asked the way to the city, 
she observed that the family, notwithstanding their sorry 
plight, bore the marks of royalty. When Rohitacva again 
begged his mother for food, the old woman offered some 
of hers. But the boy, keen set as he was, yet being the 
son of a courageously enduring man (sattvikasya suta- 
tvatah), refused. The king told her that he did not accept 
doles given in pity. Whereupon she went her way (762). 

The king bade the queen rise, if she were over her 
fatigue, but she tried to discourage the journey, because 
Varanasi belonged to an enemy. The king averred that 
he must somehow get the money for the Sage; Sutara 
offered herself to be sold as a slave. The king replied that 
they must be sold altogether, if any were sold. Touch- 
ingly Rohitacva begged his mother not to sell him, but 
to let him stay with her : he would do without sweetmeats. 
She consoled him by promising that he would become an 
emperor (cakravartin). They arrived at Benares, and 

96 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

went to the market-place. The king pnt grass on his 
head, 36 as a sign that he was there in the character of a 
slave. Again Rohitacva was distressed; his father, to 
cheer him, promised him an elefant (778). After more 
sad reflections, the king proposed to Sutara, that she and 
the child return to the honse of her father, bnt the faith- 
ful wife refused to disgrace him: rather would she die, 
or become the slave of an enemy (786). A Brahman 37 
came along, looking around for hired help. Attracted by 
HariQcandra's form and presence, he asked him why he 
was demeaning himself as a menial. The king remained 
silent. The Brahman then surveyed Sutara and Rohi- 
tacva, ; struck by their distinction, he blamed the Qastras 
for their inaccurate characterization of the different 
classes of men. The king corrected him: the Qastras 
speak truly; their state is due to fate (karma, daiva). 
In the end the Brahman bought Sutara at a price fixed 
by himself, five thousand gold pieces, with the stipulation 
that twice that sum should be her ransom. Rohitacva 
persistently clung to his mother, so that the Brahman 
had to knock him down twice (804). But in the end he 
took pity, and, at Hariccandra's suggestion, bought the 
boy also for a thousand. Then he went to his home with 
Sutara and Rohitacva (808). 

At this juncture the Sage and his damned soul, or 
advocatus diaboli, Angaramukha, appeared on the scene, 
to collect the debt due the Sage. The king offered what 
he had obtained from the sale of his wife and child, but 
the Sage angrily rejected it as not being enough. Anga- 
ramukha suggested that he should go to King Candrace- 

* In the Candakaugika 50. 2, when King Harigcandra wishes to sell him- 
self as a slave, the stage direction is girasi trnam krtva; see additional 
note 11, on p. 191. 

87 His name is given later on as Vajrahrdaya, ' Stone-Heart.' 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 97 

khara of Varanasi, and ask for the money. Hariccandra 
refused to beg money from an enemy: lie would rather 
work as a Canclala, and pay from his earnings. Oppor- 
tunely an old Nisada, Kaladanda by name, dressed in a 
loin-cloth, a staff in his hand, came along, and hired him 
as a watchman in a cemetery of which he had charge. He 
was to rifle the corpses of their garments, and save the 
half-burned faggots of the funeral-pyres. His pay was 
to be half-shares. The king agreed, stipulating that his 
share was to be paid to the Sage. The latter, hearing this 
arrangement, broke out in praise of the king's courage 
and faith. The king and Kaladanda went to their ceme- 
tery (828). 

Now a pestilence suddenly broke out in that city of 
Varanasi, which took off people by the thousand. The 
king called his minister Satyavasu in consultation. On 
the way to the king, he was addressed by a certain man, 
Kalahahsa, carrying a parrot in a cage. On inquiry, 
Kalahahsa said that he was bringing the parrot to king 
Candragekhara, because the parrot was versed in all the 
Qastras. 38 When the two were in the presence of the king, 
he complained of the pestilence, inexplicable, because 
both himself and his people were leading exemplary lives. 
He bade the minister find out its cause. Just then ar- 
rived a bawd (kuttini) 39 who had lost her ' daughter ' by 
the pestilence. Beating her breast, she arraigned the 
king's character, as being the cause of the pestilence, and 
the death of her charming daughter, Anafigasundari. 
The king, outraged by her cruel and false accusation, con- 
sulted the minister, who suggested the intervention of a 
mighty sorcerer that had come from Ujjayini. The magi- 

M See my paper, ' On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction,' Festgruss an Ernst 
Windisch, pp. 349 ff. ; and above, p. 77. 

" See for this stock figure of fiction, the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc. vol. lii, p. 631. 


98 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

cian, cited, explained that the pestilence was due to the 
sport of a Raksasi (ogress) (845). At the request of the 
bawd he at once restored Anangasundarl to life. The 
king still doubted the power of the sorcerer, until the 
latter boasted that he could bring Vasuki from Patala ; 40 
Indra from heaven; or Lanka (Ceylon) from the ocean. 
He then was given the materials for a great magic rite, 
by means of which he compelled the supposed Raksasi to 
fall down within his magic circle, where she lay still, the 
people shrinking away from her, as mice from a cat (855). 
King Candragekhara expressed admiration for the 
skill of the magician, who then pointed out that it was 
now the king's turn to perform his part by punishing the 
Eaksasi. The king ordered the minister to call the exe- 
cutioner 41 (meaning Kaladanda). Instead, the minister 
called Kalahahsa, and, when he put down his cage, Can- 
dragekhara asked what was in it. The minister an- 
swered : i an omniscient parrot-king, ' and bade the parrot 
sing the king's praise, which he did (862). The magician 
reminded the king of the punishment due to the Raksasi ; 
just then Kaladanda (the executioner) arrived, followed 
by Hariccandra. The parrot joyfully acclaimed Harig- 
candra as king, but he angrily denied the allegation, and 
told the parrot not to talk nonsense. Then the minister 
told the executioner to uncover the Raksasi 's face; he 
bade Hariccandra do so. When the latter looked at her, 
he saw that she was his wife, queen Sutara. Convinced 
as he was that she could not be a Raksasi, 42 he again 

40 The king of the serpents from his subterranean home. 

41 Here called cvapaca, ' dog-cook ' ; see the note on p. 59. 

""Raksasls often assume the form of beautiful women; consequently- 
beautiful women are accused, justly or unjustly, of being Raksasis; see 
Kathas. 32. 157; Kathakoca, pp. 106, 116, 153; Dagakumaracarita, ii, p. 38; 
Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, pp. 5 ff. Cf . Tawney's note in his Translation 
of Kathasaritsagara, vol. ii, p. 631. 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 99 

recognized the cruel hand of fate. Since he would neither 
acknowledge her guilt, nor divulge his true station in the 
justice hall of his enemy, he decided to await the decree 
of destiny. King Candragekhara then spoke admiringly 
to his minister of Sutara 's beauty, whereupon the parrot 
hailed Sutara as queen and daughter of TJgmara. Can- 
dragekhara thought him foolish or drunk, but the parrot 
insisted that he was right. Candragekhara quizzed both 
Harigcandra and Sutara, but both continued to assert 
that they were what their stations showed them to be. 
After a consultation between the king and his minister, 
Harigcandra was ordered to bring on an ass which Su- 
tara was made to ride. 43 Then the parrot, outraged, 
undertook to pass thru an ordeal to prove that Sutara 
was a queen, and not a Raksasi. He was subjected to a 
fire-ordeal, from which he emerged unscathed. The 
assembled audience acclaimed Sutara as a Sati (noble 
wife), and not a Raksasi; the magician was dismissed as 
an impostor; the parrot put back in his cage. After 
Sutara had been released from the ass, Harigcandra, by 
the order of the Candala, returned to the cemetery, won- 
dering at the part that the parrot had played in the un- 
folding of his destiny (902). 

Harigcandra entered the frightful cemetery, infested 
by foul animals, demons, and sorcerers, evil-smelling with 
the stench of corpses. There he heard wails, which 
sounded as tho they came from some woman who had lost 
her husband. He answered, asking the reason of her 
lament. She pointed to a noble man hanging head down 
upon a branch of a banyan tree. When he asked the man 
the cause of his evil plight, he turned out to be Mahasena, 
son of Candragekhara, carried off, together with his be- 

** See additional note 9, on p. 188. 

100 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

loved wife, by a Vidyadhari, who desired to institute a 
great sacrifice (mahahoma) with the flesh of his body 44 
(920). Just then the Vidyadhari had gone to bathe in 
the Ganga. Harigcandra, eager to die while performing a 
service to another, prevailed upon Mahasena to escape 
with his wife, Harigcandra acting as his substitute in the 
Vidyadhari 's sacrifice. Joyfully he tied himself, face 
down, to the branch of the banyan tree (934). On her 
return the Vidyadhari asked a retainer to ascertain 
whether the sacrificial man bore auspicious marks. The 
retainer found that he bore the marks of an emperor 
(cakravartin). She then appealed to Harigcandra to 
show courage, in order that the science ' All-conquering ' 
(vigvavagikaravidya), 45 accruing from this sacrifice, be 
kind and liberal to her. She began to cut off his flesh, 
but the sound of a jackal caused a disturbance. She asked 
her retainers to stop the noise, because it might arouse 
some ascetic. This actually happened, whereupon the 
Vidyadhari was greatly distressed. Harigcandra sug- 
gested that she should finish by cutting off his head. But 
she replied that such a procedure would violate the order 
of the sacrifice. An ascetic then appeared, raging over 
the desecration of the hermitage, whereupon the Vidya- 
dhari vanished with her retinue (954). 

The ascetic, rummaging about, came upon Harigcandra, 
hanging from the tree, his flesh cut from his body. From 
certain signs he was led to ask him whether he was Harig- 
candra, and, when he said yes, he asked whether he had 
paid the debt owing the Sage. Harigcandra replied that 
the payment would be complete in a few days. The 
ascetic turned out to be Kautilya, the Sage's witness to 

** See additional note 27, on p. 205. 

45 For these personified ' Sciences ' see the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. lvi, pp. 4 ff . 

King Harigcandra's courageous endurance 101 

his contract with Harigcandra. Kautilya blamed him for 
lending himself to a sacrifice while in debt. Harigcandra 
hung his head in shame. Then Kautilya went home, after 
having cured him with herbs, lest he might die, and de- 
fault on his debt. The king remained downcast, because 
he had neither paid his debt, nor aided the Vidyadhari in 
finishing her magic. While engaged in these reflections, 
he was ordered by his master, the Nisada, to take the 
garment off a corpse, which was then coming to the ceme- 
tery. The king learned from a lamenting woman that the 
corpse was that of her son, and found it not in his heart 
to snatch the garment off her boy. For this he was chided 
by the Nisada, who told him that there was no shame in 
doing this, since it was the custom of their caste (974). 
The woman continued her lament, until Harigcandra 
gathered that she was Sutara, and that the dead boy was 
his son Rohitagva. Both father and mother grieved 
greatly. Sutara explained that Rohitagva had been sent 
into the forest to gather fagots and flowers, had been 
bitten by a snake, and had perished there for want of 
treatment (990). Tho he now knew that the corpse was 
that of his own and only son, and understood the agony 
of Sutara over the loss of her only child, he asked her 
for the boy's garment, in order to fulfil his duty to his 
employer, the Nisada (1001). 

Then a shower of flowers rained upon him from heaven, 
and his heroism was acclaimed to the beat of drums. All 
at once he found himself in Ayodhya, upon his throne, 
with Rohitagva playing in his lap, his minister Vasubhuti 
and his faithful Kuntala by his side, both in reverential 
attitude. And Sutara was chatting with a friend, both 
having come to see a play (1007). In front of him was 
his assembly, citizens were engaged in festivities. As he 
gazed in bewilderment, wondering whether he was dream- 

102 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

ing or mad, two gods, Candraeuda and Maniprabha, told 
him that he was indeed a lucky mortal, whose courage 
was being acclaimed by Vastospati (Indra) himself be- 
fore the heaven-dwelling gods (1014). That his noble 
soul had regained for him his kingdom ; that Vasubhuti, 
in the body of the parrot, had proved the purity of Sutara 
by passing thru the ordeal of fire; and that Kuntala, in 
the body of the jackal, had by his shriek, foiled the 
Vidyadhari's sacrifice, and thus saved him. That, more- 
over, the entire episode of his life, beginning with the 
boar adventure, had been a drama of illusion (kutana- 
takam). They then asked him to choose a gift, but all 
the king desired was, that his noble courage should con- 
tinue with him. The two gods returned to heaven, and 
Hariccandra continued to rule prosperously and piously 

Frame Story: Conversion of Vajranabha and Kubera, 
and death of Vajranabha 

The text returns to the frame story at the beginning 
of this sarga. The infidel Kubera was converted by the 
Sage Lokacandra's elaborate exposition of the four 
* worldly virtues.' Kubera, furthermore, inquired after 
those virtues which reach beyond the world (lokottara). 
Lokacandra explained that the same worldly virtues, 
applied to the highest aims, constitute the virtues that 
reach beyond life (lokottara gunah). At the end of the 
Sage 's sermon on this theme, Kubera asked him to be his 
Guru (1048), and to instruct him on the four following 
points : choice of divinity ; manner of worship ; essential 
right (tattva) ; and the fruit accruing therefrom. The 
Guru told him that the Jina was the highest divinity, and 
expounded the manner of his worship ; the nine essential 
rights, and their fruit (1069). 

Conversion of Vajrandbha and Kubera 103 

Prince Vajranabha, in the company of Kubera, re- 
turned to the city. His father, King Vajravirya, made 
over to him his kingdom, and took the vow. Vajranabha, 
while ruling piously and righteously, was taken, in his 
turn, with misgivings as to the stability of the world and 
its allurements. He also decided to seek salvation. Not- 
withstanding the protest of his son Cakrayudha, he ap- 
pointed him his successor, and turned mendicant. He 
wandered to Sukacchavijaya. There the soul of the 
serpent (2.1048) had been reborn as a wild Bhilla 46 by 
name of Kurangaka, who infested the mountain of 
Jvalana. Vajranabha went there and placed himself in 
kayotsarga posture, fearless in the midst of the howls 
of elefants, jackals, Raksasas, and so on (100). Kuran- 
gaka, out of prenatal hatred, hit Vajranabha with an 
arrow. Vajranabha, tho struck fatally, remained free 
from evil thought, remarking that he had been killed by 
the soul of the Bhilla in a former birth. He was reborn 
as the god Lalitanga. 47 Kurangaka, when he died, went 
to the Saptamavani hell 48 (1034-1108). 

** Sixth pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. — Bhilla is the designation 
of wild forest dwellers. 

47 Seventh pre-birth of the future Pargva. 

** Seventh pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. 

104 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

Saega the Fotjkth 

Frame story: Story of the Emperor Suvarnabahu (with 
Qakuntala "motifs 1 ), and his death 

King Vajrabahu of Surapura had. a lovely and virtuous 
wife, named Sudarcana. The soul of Vajranabha (of the 
previous sarga), in due time, fell from heaven, and en- 
tered the womb of Sudarcana. The queen had the ' four- 
teen great dreams,' 2 which herald the birth of a Cakra- 
vartin (emperor). In due course she gave birth to a boy 
whom the king named Suvarnabahu 3 (15). He grew up 
so accomplished as to permit the king, who had become 
averse to the world, to take the vow, and to leave his 
kingdom in charge of his son. One day Suvarnabahu 
mounted an inversely trained horse, 4 which galloped off 
when checked by the rein. The horse did not stop until 
they came to a lake. After bathing in its clear waters, 
the king saw in front of him an ascetic's grove full of 
antelopes. His right eye twitched, 5 which encouraged 
him to enter the grove in joyous anticipation (32) . There 
he saw a maiden, surrounded by companions, engaged in 
sprinkling creepers. The king thought her more beautiful 
than Rambha 6 ; she seemed the quintessence of the 

1 The story of Oakuntala (Mahabh. 1. 69 ff.) is, occasionally, the prototype 
of love affairs between heroes and hermitage maidens. The present adven- 
ture is direct imitation. See also the story of Kadaligarbha, Kathas. 32. 
99 ff ., and the story of Rum, Kathas. 14. 76 ff. 

2 See additional note 10, on p. 189. 

8 Eighth pre-birth of the future Parqva. 
4 See additional note 26, on p. 204. 

8 A good omen. Very frequent motif ; see, e. g. Samaradityasamksepa 
5. 186, 289; 7. 374, 438. 
a The loveliest of the Apsaras, or heavenly nymphs. 

Story of the Emperor Suvarnabahu 105 

charms of Nagas, Vidyadharas, and immortal women. 
While engaged in this thought, the maiden and a com- 
panion entered a bower of flowers. There she began to 
sprinkle a bakula-tree with her mouth, to the delight of 
its blossoms. 7 Ravished by her charms, the king reflected 
that she could not be an ordinary hermitage servitor, but 
must be of royal descent (39). Now a bee flew into the 
face of the maiden. She asked her companion to protect 
her, but received the reply, that this was King Suvarna- 
bahu 's business. Then the king showed himself, and asked 
who dared to injure her, while the son of Vajrabahu was 
protector of the earth. The maidens remained silent. 
When the king again asked whether anything was dis- 
turbing their pious practices, the friend found courage 
to say, that during Suvarnabahu 's rulership no one could 
do so; that a bee merely had disturbed her friend (47). 
Then she asked him who he was. Unwilling to declare 
himself, he pretended to belong to the king's retinue, 
commissioned by the king to protect the hermitage from 
intrusion. But the maiden knew him to be the king him- 
self (52). 

The king then asked who her mistress was. With a 
sigh she replied that her name was Padma, the daugh- 
ter of Ratnavali, the wife of the Vidyadhara king of 
Ratnapura. At his death his sons had quarreled, 8 the 
kingdom had been distracted; therefore Ratnavali had 
taken her young daughter to that hermitage, whose abbot 
was Ratnavali 's brother Galava (55). A soothsayer had 

7 Just as the agoka tree blossoms when touched by the foot of a young 
and lovely woman, so does the bakula tree blossom when sprinkled by the 
mouth of lovely femininity. The kadamba blossoms with the roar of the 
thunder. And day and night lotuses open their calyxes to the rays of sun 
and moon. 

8 See p. 16. 

106 Life and Stories of Pargvanatfoa 

profesied that Padma would be the wife of the Cakra- 
vartin Suvarnabahu, 9 carried there by a run-away horse. 
The king, recognizing the hand of destiny, asked to see 
the Sage. The maiden (whose name turned out to be 
Nanda) told him that the Sage had gone to pay his 
respects to another Muni, but would return on that day. 
Then an old nun told Nanda to go with Padma to greet 
the Sage. Nanda reported to the Sage the king's arrival, 
whereupon he extoled the profet who had predicted it. 
Together with the ladies he went to do honor to the king, 
who received him with distinction. The Sage told him of 
the prof esy, and the pair were wedded by the Gandharva 
rite of marriage (69). 

Padma 's stepbrother, Padmottara, a Vidyadhara king, 
arrived, paid his respects to Suvarnabahu, and bade him 
follow him to the mountain of Vaitadhya, there to assume 
lordship over the Vidyadharas. The king consented. 
With Padma he mounted the heaven-going chariot of the 
Vidyadhara. Padma mourned her separation from her 
mother, the hermitage maidens, the gazelles, and the 
flowers she had been tending (80). Pointing out her 
glorious destiny, Eatnavali consoled her, bidding her live 
as an exemplar of wifely devotion. They arrived at the 
mountain of Vaitadhya, where Suvarnabahu was conse- 
crated king of the Vidyadharas. After staying there for 
some time he returned to his own city (96). He acquired 
the fourteen great jewels, 10 celebrated the great festival 
(mahotsava) of eighteen days, and dispatched the wheel 
of sovereignty from his armory into the easterly direc- 

8 Predestined marriages, a cliche" of Hindu notion, recur in this text, 5. 
168; 8. 168. 

10 In Buddhist texts (Mahavastu, p. 108 of Senart's edition); Mahasu- 
dassana Sutta (Sacred Books of the East, xi. 251 ff.) seven 'jewels' of 
the Cakravartin are mentioned. So also Kathas. 101. 23. 

Story of the Emperor Suvarnabahu 107 

tion. He cast an arrow which fell down before the king 
of Magadha, as he was sitting in his assembly hall. The 
king angrily took it up, but, when he read on it the name 
of Suvarnabahu, he went with presents in his hands 
to conciliate him. Suvarnabahu also conquered succes- 
sively Varadama and Prabhasa, respectively the gods of 
the southern and western directions ; Sindhu ; the divinity 
of Vaitadhya; and other kings and divinities, so as to 
control the whole earth (116). Kings and gods then con- 
secrated him emperor by the great consecration (maha- 
bhiseka), which lasted twelve years, being performed with 
water from holy bathing places (tirthas). He acquired 
sixty-four thousand wives; thirty-two thousand kings 
became his vassals. He had countless elefants, chariots, 
cities, and villages. Thus he ruled long in all the glamour 
of a Cakravartin (120). 

One day, as he was sitting upon the roof of his palace, 
he heard of the arrival of Jagannatha, the Tirthamkara 
(Savior). Kemoving his imperial insignia, he humbly 
went to greet him. After receiving instruction from him, 
he became enlightened, and decided to devote himself to 
salvation. He took the vow with Jagannatha, became an 
accomplished disciple (gitartha), and continued to per- 
fect himself still farther (144). Once, when he stood with 
a Jain image in the forest of Ksiragiri, he was attacked 
by a lion, inhabited by the soul of the Bhilla Kurangaka, 11 
who had been reincarnated in the lion's body after leav- 
ing hell (see 3.1095 if.). He died forgivingly; was reborn 
as a god in the Mahaprabhavimana heaven 12 ; but the 
lion, at his own death, went to the fourth hell 13 (1-161). 

u Eighth pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. 
"Ninth and last pre-birth of the future Parcva. 
u Xinth pre-birth of the future Meghamalin. 

108 Life and Stories of PdrgvandtJia 

Saega the Fifth 
Frame story: Early life of the Arhat Pdrcvandtha 

The soul of the lion (see 4.146), after passing thru 
wretched animal existences, was reincarnated as Katha, 1 
the son of a Brahman, named Bora. Both his parents 
died as soon as he was born, so that he had to be brought 
up by charity. As a grown man, he also carried on a 
miserable existence, wandering from house to house, shy 
and given to fear. One day, observing some rich men, 
resplendent in their finery, he became disgusted with life. 
Concluding that the rich owed their opulence to their 
penances in some previous existence, he decided to 
follow their example, turned ascetic, and subsisted on the 
roots of plants (8). 

The soul of Suvarnabahu, on the other hand, was rein- 
carnated in the womb of Vamadevi, queen of the mighty 
Iksvaku king Acvasena of Varanasi (Benares). The soul 
descended on the fourth day of the dark half of the 
month Caitra, under the constellation Vicakha. Fourteen 
great dreams of the queen, 2 here explained elaborately 
in a kind of key, or ' traumschlussel,' announced to her 
the arrival of a glorious and virtuous son (37). At the 
end of an undisturbed period of pregnancy, the queen was 
delivered on the tenth day of the black half of the month 
Pausa, under the constellation Vicakha (43). All nature 
rejoiced at the event. The eight ' region maidens ' (dik- 
kumari) of the lower world came on to acclaim the 
mother of the world, who had furnished the torch that 

1 Tenth and last pre-birth of the Kamatha soul, the future Meghamalin. 
a <See additional note 10, on p. 189. 

Early life of the Arhat Pdrgvandtha 109 

would illumine the world, and prepared the festival of 
the birth of a Jina (55). The eight region maidens of 
the upper world showered flowers upon him. Other sets 
of eight divine maidens 3 each came from a different 
quarter to wait upon mother and son (68). Four region 
maidens from the island of Rucaka cut his navel-string, 4 
buried it in a pit which they filled with jewels, and 
planted diirva-grass over it. Variously they continued 
to minister to mother and child, showering blessings upon 
them (77). A great tumult arose in heaven; the seats of 
the gods shook. Indra came from heaven ; sang a hymn 
in praise of the mother ; bestowed gifts upon mother and 
child. Hari, the thirty-three Vasavas, the ten Vaima- 
nikas, the thirty-two Vyantara lords, and other divini- 
ties 5 garlanded and bathed the child (96). Suras danced 
and sang about him, and performed other festal acts. 
Qakra, after performing sorcery for his good luck, 
praised him as the future Savior of the three worlds (112). 
Indra placed ambrosia into the thumb of the baby to 
suck, 6 and appointed five Apsaras as his nurses 7 (116). 
Other Vasavas, coming from mount Meru, performed an 
eight day soma sacrifice to the eternal Arhats. Queen 

3 The names of these varieties of maidens are cataloged pedantically in 
sts. 51 ff. 

4 According to Kathakoca, p. 80, the day on which the navel-string is cut 
is auspicious. 

5 See for these classifications, Burgess, Indian Antiquary, xxx. 28; Hertel, 
Paricistaparvan, pp. 14 ff.; Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 181. 

9 In Mahabh. 3. 126. 31 Yuvanagva begets a son out of his thigh. Indra 
gives the boy his first finger to suck ; hence his name Mandhatar ( = mam 
dhatar, ' self -sucker ')• A different pun on this name, in Ralson, Tibetan 
Tales, p. 1 ; see the note there. 

7 In the Tibetan Tales a noble child is regularly handed over to eight 
nurses, two to carry him, two to suckle him, two to cleanse him, and two 
to play with him; see pp. 52, 273, 279. See also the descriptions in Jatakas 
538 and 547. 

110 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Varna rejoiced in her son. The king, apprised of the 
happy event, had prisoners released in his honor. The 
people were jubilant. When the time for name giving 
had come, the queen remembered that she had seen in a 
troubled night a serpent moving by her side (parcvatah). 
This she had told the king, who interpreted the serpent 
as the power of the boy ; therefore he named him Pareva 8 
(126). He was petted by his nurses, the Apsaras, and 
sucked the ambrosia which Indra had put into his thumbs, 
whenever he was hungry. Young gods, in the shape of 
beasts and birds, sported for his delight (129). 

He grew up with every youthful bodily perfection, be- 
cause he possessed the twenty-two auspicious character- 
istics, so that all the accomplishments came to him of 
themselves. On reaching manhood his manly charms de- 
lighted numerous maidens (144). On a certain occasion a 
man, admitted to the audience hall of the king, reported 
that in Kugasthala there had ruled a king Naravarman, 
who had taken the vow at the end of a glorious career, 
after having made over his kingdom to his son Prasenajit 
(155). The latter had an altogether perfect daughter, 
Prabhavati. She had once heard in the park a song in 
praise of Par^va's perfections, since then had been beside 
herself with longing for him, and had been encouraged 
by her retinue in the hope that she would obtain him as 
her own (171). Prabhavati's parents had understood 
and approved of her feelings ; Prasenajit, with a view to 
Pareva, had decided to institute a svayamvara 9 (178). 

8 On name-giving by dream see note on p. 190. The name Pareva thus 
means, ' Side/ In Viracarita xxiii (Indische Studien xiv. 137) a pregnant 
woman sees a serpent and, therefore, begets a serpent. 

8 Ceremony by which a maiden of high caste chooses her own husband. 
She throws a garland over the man of her choice. The events just described 
echo the story of Nala and Damayanti. 

Early life of the Arhat Pargvandtha 111 

But Yavana, king of Kalinga, had been angered at the 
thought that Prabhavati should be given in marriage to 
any one but himself. He had therefore beleaguered 
Kucasthala with a great host. The speaker himself, 
Purusottama, father of the minister Sagaradatta, had 
been sent by Prasenajit to report these events to 
Acvasena, so that the latter might act accordingly (186). 
On the strength of this report, Acvasena, being wroth, 
made preparations to go to the assistance of Prasenajit 
in Kugasthala. When Parcva heard of this, he promptly 
came out of his play-room; acknowledged his father's 
ability to prevail in war; but offered instead to gain the 
end in view by instructing Yavana (193). His father 
consented. Parcva started with Purusottama and a great 
equipment. On the way Matali, Indra's charioteer, at 
Indra's bidding, offered him Indra's car and his own 
services as charioteer. On arriving in Kugasthala Parcva 
dwelt in a seven-storied palace, 10 erected for him by the 
gods in the middle of a park. He sent an ambassador to 
announce to Yavana his peaceful mission, advising him 
to abandon the siege. But Yavana refused angrily; 
would not hear of either Parcva or Acvasena ; and threat- 
ened the ambassador with death at the hand of his sol- 
diers (215). An old minister of his, however, warned 
them not to destroy the kingdom by attacking the ambas- 
sador of the holy Lord Parcva. After they had desisted, 
he soothed the ambassador's wounded feelings by promis- 
ing to do honor to Parcva (221). The minister then urged 
Yavana to conciliate Parcva: a contest with him would 
be like that of a spark with the sun ; of a lion with a hare ; 
of Garuda (Tarksya) with a crow; of the elefant with 

10 See note 8, on p. 46. 

112 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Kunthu. 11 He pointed out, moreover, that Indra's car 
with Matali as charioteer was at Parcva's disposal (227). 
Yavana saw the folly of his ways, tied an axe to his 
throat, 12 went submissively to the audience hall of 
Pargva, and was received and dismissed forgivingly 
(239). When Prasenajit heard this he brought Prabha- 
vati to be his happy bride. Pargva said that he had come 
to act as his protector, and not to marry a maiden. 
Whereat Prabhavati was sorely grieved. Prasenajit 
proposed to join him on his return to Benares, and to 
interview his father. To this Pargva consented; they 
returned to Benares and were received in state (1-254). 

m Apparently a legendary allusion either to the 17th Jaina Arhat (Kal- 
pasutra 185 ff.) ; or to a Jaina Emperor (Cakrin) of that name. The Arhat 
Kunthu (Kunthunatha) is mentioned frequently in the Jain Angas, as well 
as in ancillary writings; see Weber, Handschriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, 
Index, p. 1289; Indisohe Studien, xvi. p. 278, note 1; Stevenson, Heart of 
Jainism, pp. 56, 313. 

"See additional note 11, on p. 191. 

Marriage of the Arhat Pargvanatha 113 

Sakga the Sixth 

Frame story: Marriage and later life of the Arhat 

King Aevasena rejoiced at the sight of Parcva and 
Prabhavati, greeted Prasenajit, and inquired after his 
mission. Prasenajit, pointing out Prabhavati's love, 
asked that she be chosen as Parcva's wife. 1 Aevasena 
replied that he shared his wish, but that Parcva had 
grown averse to life and royal glory, and longed for 
nirvana, so that he did not know what Parcva might do. 
They both went to Parcva, and stated their desire. Parcva 
answered that eternal, and not perishable possessions 
were his desire ; that, therefore, he wished to uproot the 
tree of existence. Aevasena agreed that such desire, of 
itself, spelled salvation, but asked that he should first 
fulfil his father's heart's desire, by founding a family 
(14). Parcva consenting, festive preparations were made. 
Prabhavati was adorned in all the splendor of a royal 
bride (29). Parcva, arrayed brilliantly, riding a white 
elefant, arrived at the marriage pavillion (34). The 
marriage took place; wedding gifts were bestowed; the 
people were entertained with sumptuous festivities; the 
bridal couple went to their house and passed their days 
in marital bliss (49). 

Once, when the Lord was standing at a window of his 
palace, he noticed a great concourse of people. On inquiry, 
he found that they had come to do honor to the ascetic 
Katha (see 5.1 ff\). Out of curiosity the Lord also went 

1 In Samaradityasamksepa 1. 5 Prabhavati is said to be Pargva's murti, 
' embodiment.' 


114 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

to see, and found Katha performing the severe five-fire 
penance (pahcagnitapas 2 ). And he saw that Katha 
had thrown a great serpent into a fire-pan, which stood 
upon the fagots of his fire. He asked the reason for this 
pitiless practice, inconsistent with Katha 's own austeri- 
ties. Katha replied that kings understood only elefants 
and horses ; that religion was understood by Sages alone 
(59 . Paxcva ordered the fire put out ; the agonized serpent 
came out ; and the king made his people do honor (namas- 
kara) to him. Absorbing the essence of this worship, the 
serpent was reborn as Dharana, the wealthy king of the 
Nagas 3 (63). Katha, on the other hand, as the result of 
his false practices, was reborn as an Asura (demon), by 
name of Meghamalin (68). 

One day in spring Pargva entered a palace in his park, 
and saw there, painted on a wall, the picture of Nemi, 
the Arhat, engaged in ascetic practice. Eeflecting that 
Nemi had taken the vow in early life, he decided that he 
himself also would abandon the samsara. The Sarasva- 
tas and other divinities descended from the Heaven of 
Brahma, and encouraged him to save the world (77). At 
night, while lying on his bed in meditation, he decided 
to undertake the task of enlightening the world (83). In 
the morning, after informing his parents of his decision, 
he began to distribute alms, preparatory to his consecra- 
tion (diksa). He gave away enormous riches. The Va- 
savas from heaven, and princes of the earth prepared his 
consecration. He shone like the wish-tree of heaven (kal- 
padru). He mounted a wonderful palankin, and, to the 

3 Consists of sitting between four fires, the sun as fifth burning down 
upon the head. 

3 See above, p. 19. For serpents, saved from danger, see Kathakoga, p. 
87, and Tawney's note there. In each case, as in the sequel of the present 
story (see p. 118) they show gratitude. 

Later life of the Arhat Pargvanatha 115 

songs and music of bards, acclaimed by the people of the 
city, went to a hermitage to enjoy the glories of renuncia- 
tion (102). There the very plants and trees rejoiced 
over his presence. At the foot of an agoka-tree he re- 
nounced power and wealth, plucked out his hair, 4 and, 
at the age of thirty, obtained the knowledge due to mental 
perfection. Indra gathered five fistfuls of his plucked 
hair in his own robe, and threw them into the milk-ocean 
(110). Three hundred princes took the vow with him. 
Finally, after the gods, Asuras, and kings had left him, 
he remained behind in kayotsarga posture (113). 

On the next day he went to a place called Kopakata, to 
obtain food in the house of a householder named Dhanya. 
He was received joyously, and given what he needed, to 
the applause of gods and men (120). Next he wandered, 
until he came into the forest of Kadambari, at the foot of 
the Kaligiri mountain, and remained with a Jain image 
on the shore of lake Kunda. An elefant, named Mahi- 
dhara, coming there to drink, remembered the events of 
his former life, in which he had been a householder, 
named Hemala. In the company of a friend, named 
Supratistha, he had taken the vow of Qravaka ; had been 
mocked for his small body; had been angered thereby; 
had craved a large body, and therefore, had been reborn 
as a mountain-like elefant. Desiring now, tho an animal, 
to do honor to the Lord, he went into the lake and plucked 
lotuses which he placed at his feet (133). The gods ar- 
rived, worshiped the Lord with fragrant substances, and 

* Obligatory and universal practice of the Jaina Arhats and Yatis 
(monks); see Kalpasutra in the lives of the Arhats; Kathakoga, pp. 85, 
194; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharastri, p. 38, 1. 33; Daga- 
kumaracarita i, p. 47. As Pargva was first among the Jains to practice 
this form of austerity, he is known as Luncitakega ' Plucked-Head.' In 
Samaradityasamksepa 5. 576, gatakega, ' hairless ' is the designation of a 
Jaina monk. In explanation see, e. g., Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 32. 

116 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

joyously performed a mimic representation. The her- 
mits of that region spoke of this occurrence to King 
Karakandu, 5 in Campa, who thereupon came to greet the 
Lord. The gods set up an image of the Lord which the 
king adored; he built for it an extensive caitya. The 
image had the power to grant desires, and to remove 
untoward influences (139). The lake Kunda became a 
purifying tirtha, assuming the name Kalikunda, because 
the mountain Kali was in its vicinity. 6 The elefant died 
piously in due time at that tirtha, and was reborn as a 
wealthy miracle-performing Vyantara. Pargvanatha 
then went to Qivapuri, and placed himself in kayotsarga 
posture in the forest of Kaucamba. The serpent king 
Dharana (see v. 63), remembering his former kindness, 
arrived there in great state to do him honor, and per- 
formed a mimic representation. During three days he 
held an umbrella over the Lord's head to protect him 
from the sun. From that time on the city there was 
called Ahichattra (' Mushroom/ lit., Serpent's umbrel- 
la '). He then went to Eajapura, where King Igvara 
came to do him honor. At the sight of the Lord the king 
remembered the events of a former birth, and narrated 
them to his minister (1-49) : 

Episode of the Brahman, Datta, who was afflicted with 


In former days there lived in Qrivasantapura a Brah- 
man, Datta by name, skilled in omens and horoscopes. 
Having become afflicted with leprosy, he was despised by 
his family, and went to the Ganga to die. As he was 

6 First of the four historic Pratyekabuddhas. For their history and 
literary belongings see Charpentier, Paccekabuddhageschichten, pp. 35 ff. 
a kaleh kundasyasannabhavitvat ; seep. 22. 

Meghamdlin's attack and conversion 117 

about to enter the water, a Vidyadhara Sage warned him 
that there was no profit in cutting the branch, but that he 
must cut the karma root of the tree of misfortune : * Make 
the great elixir of the Jina take away every sickness ! ' 
When Datta asked what was that elixir, the Bishi re- 
plied: ' The five-fold vows, accompanied by perfection, 
and overthrow of mental blindness.' Datta was con- 
verted. One day he went into a caitya and asked a Sage 
there, whether or not a person with his affliction was fit 
to worship the gods. The Sage replied that even ascetics 
worshiped the gods with bodies fouled by dirt. He then 
told him that he would be reborn as a cock. When Datta 
was distressed at this prospective misery, he consoled 
him by the promise that, after having fulfilled his karma, 
he would see a Sage in Eajagrha, would remember his 
former birth, would then die from fasting, and ultimately 
become Icvara, king in Rajapura. ' All this happened as 
predicted, and now, Minister, I who came in this royal 
procession to do honor to Parcvanatha, have remembered 
my former birth ' (150-165). 

Frame story: Life of Pargvanatha, continued. 
Meghamalin's attack and conversion 

Having worshiped Parcva, Icvara had a caitya built 
on the spot where the Saint had been in kayotsarga pos- 
ture. In it he placed an image of the Saint. The caitya 
then obtained the name Kukkutecvara, 7 the city there 
being called Kukkutecvara. The Lord then wandered 
again, surveying the earth, to find the place where 
dwelled the enemy Illusion. The Asura Meghamalin 
(formerly Katha: see v. 68), prompted by his prenatal 

T ' Cock-Icvara, symbolizing the prenatal history of the king. 

118 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

hostility, attacked Parcva 8 with tigers, elefants, and 
scorpions, but, when the Lord showed no fright, they 
slunk off, as tho ashamed. Then the Asura tried to sub- 
merge him in the waters produced by a fearful thunder- 
storm, but the Lord did not budge from his place and 
from his pious meditations (90). The serpent king Dha- 
rana found out, by avadhi insight, 9 that Katha was attack- 
ing the Lord, went there with his divine wives, and placed 
lotuses at the feet of the Lord. By means of his seven 
hoods he fashioned an umbrella over his head ; 10 the Lord 
stood there like a royal hahsa bird, submerged in a deep 
trance (194). The wives of Dharana honored him with 
songs and the music of instruments. But the Lord re- 
tained his equanimity in the face of both Dharana's 
devotion and Kamatha's xl attacks. Dharana then exco- 
riated Meghamalin's hatred of the Lord, pointing out 
that he had done him no injury, but, on the contrary, had 
saved him from the sin of burning him (Dharana) on the 
occasion of his unholy practice (see p. 114). Meghamalin 
then repented, resorted to the Lord, and went home, de- 
termined to devote himself to piety (213). 

Frame story: Life of Pdrgvandtha, continued: Sermon 
on the fourfold dharma 

Thereupon Parcva went to his native city of Kagi, 12 
where he reached the state of Kevalin with all its super- 
natural powers. The thrones of the gods shook; they ac- 

8 Here called Grivameya, 'the holy son of Varna' (his mother). 
"See for this term Tawney's Translation of Kathakoca, p. 241 note. 

10 Dharana figures, alternately with Pargvayaksa, as the male attendant 
spirit of Parcva. Jain sculptures show Parcva regularly with seven cobras 
covering his head; see above, pp. 18 ff. A serpent king protects with his 
hoods Padumakumara in Jataka 472; cf. The Orientalist, vol. i, p. 146. 

11 The name Kamatha goes back to the first pre-birth of Meghamalin. 
" Or Varanasi, ' Benares.' 

Row Dhanamitra acquired respect for knowledge 119 

claimed him, showered marks of favor upon him, and 
built for him a magnificent resting place (242). Acva- 
sena, his wife Varna, and Parcva's wife, Prabhavati, 
went out to do him honor. Acvasena sang a hymn in his 
honor, after which he and his train encamped (257). 
Parcva then preached on the banks of the Gaiiga and 
Yamuna, pointing his sermon towards the fourfold dhar- 
ma consisting of charity (dana), virtue (cila), asceticism 
(tapas), and character (bhava). 13 Turning to the defini- 
tion of charity, he established three kinds: giving of 
knowledge ( jnanadana) ; bestowing security from fear or 
danger (abhayadana), and furnishing support to religion 
(dharmopastambhadana) . These he illustrated by stories, 
beginning with jnanadana (166-279) : 

How Dhanamitra acquired respect for knowledge 

King Jayanta of Rajapura had, by his wife Kamala- 
vati, two sons, Vijaya and Candrasena, both virtuous. 
But, owing to sins in a former birth, they were unfor- 
giving and intolerant towards one another. One day 
Jayanta received a letter from Kurudeva, a vassal king, 
stating that Sevala, king of Simala, was attacking his 
villages and disturbing the country. Jayanta appointed 
the older prince, Vijaya, to lead his troops against Se- 
vala, whereupon the younger, Candrasena, turned angrily 
from the palace. The king and his ministers remonstrated 
with him, pointing out that it would be improper to 
appoint him over the head of his older brother, but he 
remained sulky. Vijaya set forth, and, after trying to 
bring Sevala to reason, was challenged by him. The 

13 The same four-fold division of the dharma is employed freely as the 
pivot of stories; see Hertel, Das Paficatantra, p. 108. Cf. also Samara- 
dityasamksepa 3. 156, 157; 7. 24, and Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 229. 

120 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

armies came to grips ; Vijaya was defeated, and brought 
back by the ministers. Then Jayanta, about to go out to 
battle himself, was implored by Candrasena to intrust 
the command to him, which the king did. Candrasena 
conquered Sevala, and was therefore appointed heir- 
apparent to the throne in place of Vijaya (312) . Shamed 
by his disgrace, Vijaya wandered to a deserted city, 14 
where he passed the night in a temple. In the morning 
he saw there a Sage who instructed him in the Law. In 
consequence thereof he took the vow, and received elabo- 
rate instructions on many points of religion. These led 
to the ■ pentad of noble great vows ' (sanmahavrata- 
pancakam), which is to be dealt with in the manner in 
which Eohini managed her pancaka-measure of rice. Vi- 
jaya then asked to be told the parable of Eohini (280- 

Parable showing how Rohini managed her pancaka of 

rice 15 

A merchant, Datta, desired to find out which of his four 
daughters-in-law was most fit to superintend his house- 
hold. He gave them each a pancaka of rice, and told 
them to manage it in such wise, that they could any time 
return the measure. The first daughter-in-law thought 
he was crazy, and threw the rice outside. The second 
thought it was sacrificial leavings, and ate it. The third 
kept the rice carefully. But the fourth, Eohini, 16 sowed 
it, and made it multiply. After five years he asked for 
the rice to be returned. The first three daughters-in-law 
were assigned inferior duties, 17 but Eohini was appointed 
mistress of the household (389-399). 

34 See note 15, on p. 51. 

" For this parable of the talents cf. Kathakoca, p. 80. 

M The name Rohini seems to be chosen symbolically: it means 'Grower.' 

17 See Lexical Notes, under, ujjhika, p. 228. 

How Dhanamitra gained respect for knowledge 121 

How Dhanamitra gained respect for knowledge, 

' Just as the youngest wife obtained increase of her 
rice, and superiority over all her rivals, so, prince, must 
the pentad of vows, by fitting conduct, be brought to in- 
crease! ' Vijaya remained with the Guru, and engaged 
in study. After further instruction, the Guru installed 
him in his own position as teacher, went to the mountain 
of Sammeta, and there entered nirvana. Vijaya obtained 
high distinction as a teacher, but grew tired of his pro- 
fession, which merely dried up his throat. The elders 
encouraged him, but he insisted that ascetic practice, 
even without learning, constituted a Pandit. He died 
unconfessed, and went to the Saudharma heaven; fell 
thence ; and was reborn in Padmapura as Dhanacarman, 
the son of a merchant named Dhana (413). His father 
had him instructed, but, because he had sinfully despised 
knowledge in a previous birth, nothing stuck to him. The 
father, in distress, tried many devices to correct this, but 
nothing succeeded. One day he went with his son to a Sage 
to ask why his son was stupid. The Sage explained his 
son's plight, as due to contempt of knowledge in a previ- 
ous birth. When Dhanagarman heard this, he remembered 
his former existence, and, on the advice of the Sage, 
started to get learning by every effort. Again he died ; 
was reborn as a god in Saudharma-; fell from that estate ; 
and returned to earth as Dhanamitra. Once more he 
could retain no knowledge. However, as result of an un- 
worldly life, he recollected his former existence, where- 
upon his aversion to knowledge fell away from him. He 
took the mendicant's vow. By constantly laboring to 
impart knowledge he himself obtained the knowledge of 
a Kevalin; used himself as an example to show the evil 

122 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

consequent upon contempt of knowledge; and thus led 
many people to perfection (400-438). 

Story of the pardoned thief Vasanta 18 

Parcva then turns to the exposition of the second of 
the charities, namely, the gift of security from fear or 
danger (abhayadana: see v. 273), illustrating by story: 
King Drama of Vasantapura had five hundred wives, at 
their head the lovely Priyamkara. It happened that a 
young thief was caught with his loot, and brought before 
the king. When the king quizzed him, he told that he was 
Vasantasena, son of the merchant Vasudatta in Vindhya- 
pura. Spoiled in bringing up, he had become addicted to 
gambling, had committed many indiscretions, and had 
finally been driven from home by his father (458). He 
had then become a vagabond beggar, sleeping in empty 
temples, addicted to vice and gambling, and had finally 
found his way to that city. Seeing people enjoy them- 
selves, he had been seized by a craving for pleasure, had 
committed theft, and been taken by the king's bailiffs: 
' Do thou now, O king, decree the customary doom! ' 

Tho moved by pity, the king condemned him to be im- 
paled. Then queen Priyamkara begged the king to lend 
her poor Vasanta 19 for one day, in order that she might 
satisfy his curiosity as to the pleasures of the samsara. 
The king consented. She took him with her to her house ; 

u This story reappears in an inferior and briefer version in Samara- 
dityasamksepa 9. 578 ff. It is analogous to Shakespeare's Prolog to Taming 
of the Shrew. The notion of royal power granted for a limited number of 
days appears in the present text 7. 426; Dhammapada Commentary 10. 9; 
12. 4. Related with this theme is the idea of 'beggar on horse-back'; see 
Jatakas 241, 306. 

a9 Vasantaka with intentional diminutive suffix; see p. 238. 

Story of the pardoned thief Vasanta 123 

had him bathed, clothed, and adorned most elaborately. 
She herself stood by his side, serving him with a great 
variety of dainty food (480). At the end of this feast he 
was placed npon a conch, and entertained with wonderful 
stories. Next, he was put upon a mettlesome horse, and 
led by a great retinue past the palace, to be exhibited 
before the king who stood at a window. In the evening 
he was housed in a dwelling outside the city, where he 
was entertained by the songs and blandishments of slave 
girls. In the morning he was put back into his former 
clothes ; like a fallen flag, he was returned to the king who 
made him over to the executioner (492). 

But now the second queen asked to entertain him for 
a day, and, in the same way, one after another, every 
queen of the court treated him with ever increasing lux- 
ury, rivaling with each other in these performances, so 
that he lived like a Dogundaga 20 god. And yet his soul 
was not satisfied (495). Now the last of the five hundred 
queens, Qilamati 21 by name, a sort of Cinderella wife, 
who was ordinarily too modest to importune the king for 
his favors, asked him to let her determine what was to be 
done to the thief. She then entertained him not at all 
sumptuously, but conferred upon him the gift of abhaya, 
freedom from fear, or safety. The thief, who had been 
dejected thruout his luxurious experiences with the other 
queens, now rejoiced more than tho he had obtained the 
suzerainty over the three worlds. In the morning the 
king observed that he was wearing a wholly different look 
from that of the preceding days. When asked the reason 
the thief said : l When the word impalement had entered 
my ear like poison, all the world was empty for me. Food 

20 For this term see p. 226. 
31 ' Queen Virtuous.' 

124 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

seemed offal; water, poison; the palace, the house of 
Yama (Pluto) ; the bed, like arrows; sandal, the ground- 
up body of my brother; my horse, an ass; my chair of 
state, an old winnowing- shovel ; my jewels, chains; my 
necklace, a wreath of pots ; my turban, a crown of thorns. 
My attendants seemed like lunatics ; the soldiers, like exe- 
cutioners ; music, like the confused beating of drums ; and 
the poets seemed engaged in senseless shrieking. But 
to-day the world seems full to me, because the blessed 
Qilamati has conferred upon me the gift of abhaya ' 
(520). The king thus became aware of Qilamati's supe- 
rior character, showed her affection and made her chief 
queen. Yasanta also henceforth, by the king's favor, 
lived happily and prosperously; in due time he took the 
vow, died, and went to heaven (439-532). 

Story of the four merchants' sons, and of Sundara 22 

Parcva then turns to the exposition of dharmopastam- 
bhadana, ' furnishing support to religion ' (v. 273), by 
gifts to mendicants of food, shelter, medicine, clothes, 
and utensils, illustrating by story: During the rule of 
King Jayanara there lived in Jayapura four rich merch- 
ants ' sons who were friends : Candra, Bhanu, Bhima, and 
Krsna. They lived in luxury on their parents, until they 
reached manhood. Then Candra bethought himself that 
the time had come to support himself ; his friends fell in 
with his state of mind. They communicated with their 
parents, who warned them of the dangers of travel by sea 
and in strange lands. In the face of these warnings, and 
notwithstanding unfavorable omens, they started upon 
an expedition (563). A violent storm wrecked their ship, 
but Candra saved himself upon a plank. 23 Deeply de- 

22 The same story, with, changed names in Kathakoca, pp. 70 ff. 

23 See note 13, on p. 49. 

Story of the minister and his dead wife 125 

jected, because he had brought disaster upon his friends, 
he hanged himself upon a tree (568). A Sage cut him 
down, and told him that, if he really was tired of life, he 
had better make away with himself in the near-by holy 
bathing place (tirtha) of Kamuka. On the way there he 
heard a voice three times, saying, ' Act not in haste.' 
This, he discovered, came from another Sage, who bade 
him not to act like a woman ; that only the living behold 
happiness. This he illustrated by the following story 
(533-575) : 

Story of the minister who found happiness after his 
wife's death 24c 

Bhanu, minister of King Candrasena of Qrimangala- 
pura, lived in great mutual affection with his wife Saras- 
vati. One morning Sarasvati rose dejectedly from bed, 
and, on pressure, explained that she had had a dream 
in which Bhanu had conversed with another woman. 
This came to the ear of the king who decided to make a 
test of Sarasvati's devotion. He sent off Bhanu to Jaya- 
pura, and managed that a false report of Bhanu 's death 
should reach Sarasvati. She promptly died of a broken 
heart (586). The king, remorseful about his jest, fell at 
Bhanu's feet, and asked for a favor. When Bhanu 
granted it, the king told him that his wife had died in 
consequence of his practical joke, but that he, Bhanu, 
should not follow her to death. Bhanu granted the re- 
quest, on the condition that the king should not ask him 
to marry again. Bhanu, on returning home, carried on a 
cult with his wife's bones, ever wailing and craving death,, 

24 Hertel, Das Paficatantra, pp. 140 ff.; reports this story as nr. 7 in the 
GujaratI Paficakhyanavarttika, and as also occurring in Hemavijaya's 

126 Life and Stories of Pdrcvamltha 

but keeping himself alive, on account of his promise to 
the king (597). Finally, he decided to cast her bones into 
the Gahga during his lifetime. There the daughter of the 
king of Benares, also Sarasvati by name, heard him wail, 
asked his story, and, on hearing it, fell into a faint. 
Restored by her companions, she told the king, who had 
been cited to the spot, that she had remembered her for- 
mer existence, in which Bhanu had been her husband. 
The king married her to Bhanu, and they lived together 
in happiness (605). Later on the king took the vow, leav- 
ing Bhanu to rule in his stead. Suddenly Sarasvati sick- 
ened of an incurable fever. Bhanu, in despair, went to 
the seventh story of the palace M to cast himself down. 
A Carana Sage, wandering over the heavens, stopped 
him, and advised him to resort to the dharma and the 
Jina. Bhanu blissfully consented; went with the Sage to 
Sarasvati 'S bedside; she was cured, and also converted. 
They lived in royal splendor, until they took the vow, 
making over the kingdom to their son (576-619). 

Story of the four merchants 7 sons, continued 

The Sage who was instructing Candra then continued : 
' Now I am Bhanu; desist, Candra, from suicide thru 
ignorance! ' Candra asked how he was to get over his 
grief for the loss of his wealth and friends. Bhanu re- 
commended the (fivefold) obeisance to the Lord, warned 
him against the desire of having things too much his own 
way (atilaulya), illustrating by two parables (619-629): 

See note S, on p. 46. 

Story of the fow merchants' sons 127 

Parable of the golden peacock feather -"' 

A certain person, by the favor of a STakga, is permitted 
to pick up a golden feather every day as it. falls from the 
plumage of a golden peacock. Not. content with this slow 
process of accumulation, he foolishly captures the pea- 
cock, only to find > j i rn like any other peacock. On coming 
home, his feathers are ordinary feathers, whereat he is 
sorely grieved (630-634). 

Parable of the monkey -pair who became human 2T 

A fond pair of monkeys arrive at the holy bathing- 
place Prapata, on the side of which they climb a tree. 

The tree being very shaky, they tumble into the water, 
and come out a lovely pair of human beings. The male, 
.surprised and delighted, proposes to his mate to try an- 
other fall, on the chance that they should become im- 
mortal £ods. The wise female warns him against 
excessive greed, but he tries the fall, turning again into 
a monkey. She goes off with a Vidyadhara (635-640). 

Story of the four merchants' sons, continued 

The Muni then bade Candra remain content, where- 
upon Candra went to Puspapura, where he prospered 
greatly. One by one his three friends turned up; they 

M A secondary, rather illogical version of this story in Jataka 136. The 
idea of birds yielding gold is as old a.s Mahabh. 2. 62. Cf. Benfey, Das 
P,u>atantra, i. 378. 

"Cf. Piicm 7. 4o2fr.; Park;istaparvan 2. 407 ff.; Kathakooa, p. 60; 
Kathaprakaf.-a, in Gurupujakaumudl, p. 122; Prabandhacintarnarii, p. 283; 
P;n>;ikhyanavarttika nr. 37, reproduced by Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 
150. Leumann, in Hertel's Translation of Park;ifstaparvan, p. 234, cites 
KalpahhTmya Pedhiya 283, and 1 .nahliadra^anin's Vh;e.savacyaka Bhasya i. 
B62. Of. alio Samarfidity;t-<niik^epa 2. 173 ff. 

128 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

also prospered under his instruction. Candra and Bhanu 
were by nature upright and kind; the other two rather 
tricky. In time they were possessed with a longing to 
return home. They crossed the sea, and traveled by cara- 
van. Meeting at a village a Sage who had fasted a month, 
they appointed a menial, named Sundara, to see to his 
feeding. Sundara was greatly rejoiced at the chance to 
perform a deed so holy : 28 the benefit of this act accrued 
to all, but especially to Sundara himself (660). In due 
time the four were reborn as divinities among the Jyo- 
tiskumara gods. Candra and Bhanu fell from that estate, 
and became sons of rich merchants, named Qrivardhana 
and Manorama ; Bhima and Krsna also fell, and were born 
as Sundari and Rukmini, daughters of a rich merchant. 29 
The two men married the two women and lived with them 
in great affection. The soul of Sundara was reborn as 
Vicvasena, king in Vicvapura (666). The two merchants 
undertook a trade expedition to Vicvapura, and there 
waited upon Vicvasena. On account of their prenatal 
love for one another, he received them kindly. Together 
they went to pay their respects to a Sage, who instructed 
them by a sermon, leading up to the exposition of samata 
or samya (' equipoise/ or i equanimity ')> illustrated by 
the following story (641-690) : 

28 Cf . my paper, ' The Character and Adventures of Muladeva/ Proc. 
Amer. Philosoph. Soc, vol. lii, p. 643, bottom. Especially in Jain and Budd- 
hist literature, such an act is performed frankly for the reward that 
is sure to follow; see Prabandhacintamairi, p. 24; Kathako<ja, pp. 53, 60, 
64, 79, 181; Pareva 7. 29; Jatakas 307, 415; Dhammapada Commentary 
17. 3; 24. 12. Cf. the legend in Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 219. 
Kathas. 27. 95 illustrates the same feeling in Brahmanical fiction; cf. the 
story of Punyabala, Benfey, Paficatantra, ii. 537. Contrariwise forgetful- 
ness, after promise, to break the fast of an ascetic (parana) is regarded as 
a great sin: see Oatrumjaya Mahatmyam (Indian Antiquary xxx. 297); 
Pradyumnasuri's Samaradityasamksepa 1. 109 ff. 

29 They are born as women in allusion to their defective character, above. 

The girl who died because she had four wooers 129 

Story of the girl who died because she had four wooers 


Nanda, lovely daughter of the merchant Candana in 
Qrlpura, was promised in marriage by four of her rela- 
tives to four different men. When they came severally 
to marry her, they got into a quarrel, whereupon Nanda, 
in order to remove its cause, entered the fire. One wooer 
entered the fire with her ; the second, disgusted with life, 
wandered to a distance; the third took her bones, and 
started for a holy bathing place to dispose of them there ; 
the fourth built a mound 31 over what was left of her. 
Then he went to the city to beg alms, which he deposited 
there, watching over the mound by day and night (705). 
The wooer who had gone abroad managed to acquire the 
magic art called i Eesuscitation ' (samjivini), returned 
with it, and joyously restored Nanda to life. Now a dis- 
pute arose, as to which of the four wooers was entitled to 
Nanda. A wise man decided, that he who had taken her 
bones to the holy bathing place was her son ; that he who 
had restored her to life was her father ; that he who died 
with her was her brother; but, that he who had fed her 
was her husband (712). The text then strains to draw 
the parallel : just as support by food is the essential need 
in marriage, so equipoise is essential for salvation (691- 

30 This is the second story of Vetalapaneaviricati; Kathas. 76; Baital 
PachisI (Oesterley, pp. 39, 183); Laksmlvallabha in his Commentary to 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra (translated by Charpentier, Paccekabuddhage- 
schichten, p. 125). Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 108, note 7, reports the 
story also from the Dharmakalpadruma. A very interesting variant, in 
Jiilg, Mongolische Marchen, p. 235; cf. Benfey, Das Pancatantra, p. 490; 
Kleinere Schriften, vol. ii, p. 233. The story has also passed into folk-lore; 
see Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 378, and the note at 
the end. 

31 sthandilaka. In Kathakoca, p. 105, a sthandila is made in the place of 


130 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Story of the four merchants' sons, concluded 

After listening to further instruction from the Sage, 
King Vicvasena (formerly Sundara) asked why he felt 
so great a love for the two merchants. The Sage narrated 
the events of the four merchants' sons' lives, as well as 
that of Sundara himself. In the end they all took the 
vow, became gods, and will, in due time, obtain the station 
of Siddhas, or ' Enlightened ' (718-732). 

Frame story: Pdrgvandtha continues his sermon on 



Having concluded his exposition of the threefold dana, 
Parcva turns to the second branch of the dharma, namely 
Qila, or ' virtue ' (see 6.272), which he subdivides and 
classifies, especially with regard to its application to 
ascetics (yati) on the one hand (ten vratas), and to 
householders (grhin) on the other (twelve vratas) 32 
(767). He then turns to that highest virtue which even 
the gods find difficult to observe, namely bramharupa, or 
avoidance of illicit attachment to those who belong to 
others. This he illustrates by the following story (732- 

Story of Madanarelchd and her son Nami. David and 

Uriah 33 

In the city of Sudar^ana, in the land of Avanti, ruled a 
king Maniratha; he had a younger brother Yugabahu. 
Yugabahu had a wife, Madanarekha, beautiful and vir- 

32 Cf . Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, pp. 205 ff. 

83 A fine Prakrit version of this story, in Jacobi's Ausgewahlte Erzahl- 
ungen, pp. 41 ff.; also Kathakoca, pp. 18 ff. A variant of part of the same 
theme in Kathakoga, pp. 14 ff. According to Leumann, in a note to Taw- 

Story of Madanarekhd and her son Nami 131 

tuous. Maniratha became infatuated with Madanarekha's 
beauty, sent her flowers, betel, and so on, but she took 
them as signs of kindness on the part of an elder brother. 
Then he sent a female messenger to ask her to be, as his 
wife, queen of the realm. She rejected his addresses, 
warned him that hankering after strange women led to 
hell, and bade him relinquish his wicked lust (787). The 
prurient king, realizing that, as long as his brother was 
alive, Madanarekha would not consent, looked for a 
chance to kill him. 34 (791). One night Madanarekha 
dreamt of the moon, 35 and was told by her husband that 
she would beget a brilliant son. It was in the spring of 
the seasons that Yugabahu went one day with Madana- 
rekha, in pregnant condition, to a park to witness the 
sports of the townspeople. At night he retired to an 
arbor of kadali-trees, protected by a small guard (807). 
Then Maniratha, sword in hand, asked the guard where 
his brother was, pretending that he wished to protect him 
in the wood. Maniratha entered the arbor, and, when 
Yugabahu rose up excitedly, told him to come to the city, 
because it was not advisable to remain there. Thereupon 
Maniratha smote him on the shoulder, so that he fell in 
a faint to the ground. Madanarekha cried out in horror : 
' Alas, an unknightly deed ' ; Yugabahu's guard came run- 
ning to the spot. The king pretended that he had care- 
lessly let his sword fall out of his hand (815), but the 
guards, understanding the whole proceedings, took the 
king away to the palace by force. The facts were told to 
Yugabahu 's son, Candrayacas, who, in great distress, 

ney's Translation of Kathakoga, p. 236, a version of this story is contained 
in the commentary on Avacyaka-Niryukti 17. 45. For it3 literary con- 
nections see Charpentier, Paccekabuddhageschichten, pp. 84 ff. 

M See additional note 28, on p. 206. 

35 See additional note 10, on p. 189. 

132 Life and Stories of PdrgvandtJia 

hurried with physicians to attend to his father 's wounds 
Madanarekha perceived the symptoms of death, went 
close to Yugabahu's ear, and in a soft voice instructed 
her moribund husband. With impressive speech she bade 
him die in peace and forgiveness, and to resort to the 
religion of the Jina. The fire of Yugabahu's anger was 
quenched by the nectar of Madanarekha ? s words ; he died, 
thinking pure thoughts, and became a god in the world 
of Brahma (855). 

Madanarekha, afraid that the king, in his unbridled pas- 
sion, would seize her and slay her child, wandered away 
into the forest, where she lived upon fruits and water. In 
the middle of the night she gave birth to a son, endowed 
with auspicious marks. In the morning she placed in the 
hand of her babe a seal marked with the name of Yuga- 
bahu, wrapped him up in a jeweled shawl, left him there 
in an arbor of plantains, and then went to a lake to wash 
her clothes. While she was bathing there, she was tossed 
up in the air by a water-elefant. 36 As she was falling 
from the sky, she was intercepted by a Vidyadhara youth, 
who was on his way to the island of Nandicvara. Bewil- 
dered by her beauty he took her to the Vaitadhya moun- 
tain. She cried pitifully, told him what had happened, 
and begged him to rescue her child, who was in danger of 
being killed by wild beasts, or perishing from hunger. 
The Vidyadhara agreed, on condition that she should 
accept him as her husband (872). He explained that he 
was Maniprabha, the son of Manicuda, a Vidyadhara 
king in the city of Ratnavaha. His father had taken the 
vow, had gone as a hermit to the island of Nandigvara, 
and had placed him on the throne. (Moreover, her son had 
been discovered in the forest by Padmaratha, king of 

38 jalabha : for this interesting new word see p. 225 bottom. 

Story of Madanarekhd and her son Nami 133 

Mithila, who had been run away with by his horse. 37 He 
had taken the boy, and given him to his wife Puspamala, 
who was cherishing him as her son. All that he had 
learned from the Science called Prajnapti (' Pre- 
science '). 38 Now she should kindly adorn his throne 

The queen, anxious to preserve her vows to her dead 
husband, 39 sparred for time. She asked the Vidyadhara 
to allow her to make a pilgrimage to Nandicvara, after 
which she would comply with his desire. Together they 
worshiped there the images of the eternal Arhats, 
Esabha, Candranana, Varisena, and Vardhamana. They 
then paid reverence to the Sage Manicuda, 40 who in- 
structed them in religion to such purpose, that Mani- 
prabha declared himself thenceforth the brother and 
servant of Madanarekha. Madanarekha asked the hermit 
for tidings of her son. He related that, ' long ago there 
were two princes who died and became gods. One of 
them fell and became king Padmaratha ; the other became 
your son. Padmaratha, when run away with by his horse, 
found your son, and gave him to his wife Puspamala, on 
account of his love for him in his former existence. He 
is living happily in Mithila ' (897). 

While the hermit was telling this there arrived a god 
in great state. He first circumambulated Madanarekha 
to the right three times, 41 and bowed down before her; 

OT See additional note 26, on p. 204. 

88 See the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. vol. lvi. pp. 4 ff. 

"As sati, or devoted wife. 

40 Maniprabha's father. 

" This ethnic practice, Latin dextratio, Celtic desiul, famous in Hindu 
ritual, is also a standard mode of showing honor in fiction; see this text, 
6. 997; Kathas. 14. 30; 15. 137; 43. 214; 63. 83; 100. 54; 106. 84; 107. 126; 
Dacakumaracarita i, p. 37; ii, p. 1; Jatakas 193, 251, 276, 457; Kathakoga, 
pp. 23, 27; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen aus dem Maharastri, pp. 14, 

134 Life and Stories of Pdrcvandtha 

after that lie did reverence to the hermit and sat in front 
of him. Maniprabha considered his behavior out of place, 
but the Sage explained that the god was the soul of Yuga- 
bahu become god in the fifth Kalpa ; that Madanarekha 
had made Yugabahu's peace with everyone when he was 
at the point of death ; that, therefore, Madanarekha stood 
in the relation of religious instructor to this god. The 
god then asked Madanarekha what he might do to please 
her, and she asked him to take her to Mithila, that she 
might behold the face of her son; after that she would 
devote herself to religious works (914). The god took 
her to Mithila, where they met a holy woman in a neigh- 
boring nunnery, who preached to them the true religion. 
When the god offered to take Madanarekha to the palace 
to see her son, she answered that there was no profit in 
natural affection, the cause of samsara, and that she 
would take refuge with the feet of the holy women living 
there. The god then returned to heaven. Madanarekha 
took the vow, received the name of Suvrata, and com- 
menced a course of austere asceticism (921). 

By the power of her son all princes were made subject 
to Padmaratha, who, therefore, bestowed upon him the 
name Nami. 42 When he had grown up, Padmaratha 
married him to 1008 wives ; he himself, after destroying 
his karma by severe penance, went to bliss. After that, 
Nami, having subdued all kings, ruled the realm. Now 
in the very night in which Maniratha killed his own 
brother Yugabahu, he was bitten by a serpent and went 
to the fourth hell. He was succeeded by Candrayagas, 

1. 18 (tippayahinam= tripradaksmam) ; 45, 1. 15; Paricistaparvan 2. 44. 
See Tawney's notes to his Translation of Kathasaritsagara, vol. i, pp. 98, 
573; vol. ii, pp. 365, note, 629. 

42 There is untranslatable pun here: 'subjected' is nata, from the root 
nam; Nami is construed as ' subject or.' 

Story of Madanarekhd and her son Nami 135 

Yugabahu's son. It happened that one of king Nami's 
elefants tore out his hitch-post and started for the 
Vindhya forest. He was caught and tamed by king Can- 
drayagas. Nami, hearing of this, sent an envoy to Can- 
drayagas, demanding his property, but his request was 
rejected haughtily. Thereupon he laid siege to Sudar- 
gana, Candrayagas' capital city (936). 

The nun Suvrata, mother of both kings, came upon the 
field, and was received with distinction by Nami. After 
pointing out the futility of war in general, she divulged 
to him that he was battling against his own brother, and 
that she herself was his mother. Suvrata next went to 
Candrayagas and told him the same history. Both 
brothers hastened to meet one another in mutual love; 
Candrayagas resigned his kingdom to his younger 
brother, and Nami's royal splendor blazed like the sun 

It happened that king Nami contracted a fever that 
lasted six months. When all expedients of the doctors 
had failed, the queens themselves began to pound sandal- 
wood 43 for his benefit. The tinkling of their bracelets 
annoyed the king, so that, by his order, the queens took 
off their bracelets one after another, but each left one 
bracelet on her wrist for luck. The king then, no longer 
hearing the sound, inquired whether the queens had 
stopped pounding sandal. The ministers explained that 
they were still pounding, but that no sound came from a 
single bracelet. From this the king saw a light, namely, 
that the solitary state is bliss. 44 When he had recovered 
from his fever, he placed his son on the throne, and took 
the vow. Indra, wishing to tempt Nami, stood before him 

43 Sandal is proverbially cooling. 

*'Xami is one of the four traditional Pratyekabuddhas; see the note 
on p. 116. 

136 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

in the guise of a Brahman, and said: ' King, show com- 
passion to living creatures. This city, without you, 
laments for its ruler. ' The hermit answered : ' Mankind 
receive the fruit of their own individual actions; so I 
attend to my own business/ The Brahman next said: 
1 The city of Mithila is in flames. ' The hermit answered : 
4 In the burning of the city of Mithila nothing of mine 
burns.' The Brahman said: ' Set up a rampart round 
the city/ The hermit said: ' Round the city of self- 
control I have set up the rampart of soul peace, and 
mounted on it the engine of prudence.' Indra tried still 
other lures, but, when the Sage remained firm in his 
resolve, he praised and circumambulated him thrice to 
the right, 45 and flew up to heaven. The Sage attained to 
bliss, and his mother Madanarekha reached the state of 
purity (773-998). 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumara.^ 

Parcva then turns to the exposition of the third item 
of the dharma, namely tapas, ' asceticism,' illustrating 
by the story of the Emperor Sanatkumara : In the land 
of Bharata, in the district of the Kurus, in the city of 
Hastinagapura, ruled king Acvasena, together with his 
beloved queen Sahadevi. A prince, Sanatkumara, en- 
dowed with all good characteristics, was born to them, 
after he had been announced to his mother by the f our- 

45 See note 41, on p. 133. 

*° A Prakrit version, in Jaoobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharastri, 
pp. 20 ff.; a Sanskrit version in Kathakoea, pp- 31 ff.; and in Laksmi- 
vallabha's commentary on the Uttaradhyayana- Sutra, pp. 522 ff. This 
story is told by itself, as ' Sanatcumara Cadha,' digested in Taylor's Cata- 
logue Raisonn£, vol. iii, p. 248 ff. Of. Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 159. 
A different story of Sanatkumara's Cakravartinship is told in Samara- 
dityasamksepa 5. 28 f . 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumara 137 

teen great dreams. 47 He was brought up in the company 
of a boy named Mahendrasihha, with whom he played in 
the sand. 48 After he had grown to manhood, the prince, 
one spring day, mounted a noble horse, named Abdhikal- 
lola, 49 which flew up in the air. The king went out to 
search for his son, but did not find him. Then Mahendra- 
sihha told the king to desist from the search, and himself 
started to look for his friend. After roaming in a great 
forest during a year, he heard one day the sound of 
cranes, and, going forward, perceived Sanatkumara 
recreating in the company of ladies on the shore of a lake. 
At the same time a bard was singing a verse in glowing 
praise of the prince. Mahendrasihha went to meet him, 
and there was great joy on both sides. Sanatkumara 
asked his friend how he had come there; inquired after 
his parents ; and, finally, Mahendrasihha asked to be told 
the prince's adventures (1039). 

Prince Sanatkumara said that he did not think it be- 
coming in him to narrate his own exploits. So he called 
his Vidyadhari wife Bakulamati, and, alleging that he 
was overcome by sleep, requested her to enlighten his 
friend. She told how the horse, which had carried off 
Sanatkumara, had entered a great forest, had galloped 
unchecked, until, on the third day, it fell down exhausted 
with hunger and thirst. The prince wandered about in 
search of water, until he fell senseless under a sapta- 
chada tree. A Yaksa sprinkled him with water from lake 
Manasa, and, at his request, took him to that lake to bathe 
and drink. While siting on the shore there, he was seen 

47 See additional note 10, on p. 189. 

^pansukriditah: our 'making mud pies together/ standard expression 
for boy friends; see the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. lii, p. 616, note 3. 

49 In the Prakrit version, p. 20, 1. 20, the name of this horse is Jalahi- 

138 Life and Stories of Pdr^vandtha 

by another Yaksa, named Asitaksa, who had been his 
enemy in a former birth. Mahendrasihha asked what was 
the cause of the enmity between the prince and the Yaksa. 
Bakulamati narrated (1056) : 

Previous births of Sanathumdra and the Yaksa Asita 50 

King Vikramayacas of Kancanapura had five hundred 
lovely wives. In the same city lived a merchant, Naga- 
datta, who had one exceedingly beautiful wife, Visnucri. 
One day, the king saw her, succumbed to her fascinations, 
and took possession of her as a member of his harem. 
Nagadatta wandered about in despair, calling her with 
endearing names, while the king, deeming himself lucky, 
passed his days in degraded satisfaction. But the queens, 
tortured by jealousy, slew Visnugri by sorcery, and now 
the king was exceedingly grieved. He would not permit 
his ministers to perform funeral rites over her body, so 
they cast her body into a park outside the city. The king 
continued to abstain from eating and drinking, until they 
took him, on the third day, to the park, and showed him 
the cadaver of Visnugri, overrun by worms, dripping with 
putrefaction, eyes picked by crows, infested by birds of 
prey, and smelling foully. The king became averse to 
the world, and took vows with a teacher, Sudharma. 
Having performed severe asceticism, he was reborn in 
the third Kalpa, fell thence, and was born again in Batna- 
pura as Jinadharma, the son of a merchant. In the mean- 
time Nagadatta had died from grief, passed thru many 
animal existences, and finally was born in Sihhapura, as 
the Brahman Agnigarman. As wandering, three-staved 51 

50 See p. 13, and the additional note 28, on p. 206. 

91 tridandin, 'carrying a bunch of three staffs'; see Tawney, Kathakoga, 
p. 33, note; Hertel, Pari^istaparvan, p. 189. 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumdra 139 

ascetic, he reached the city of Ratnapura. There he was 
invited by king Naravahana to break his fast. It hap- 
pened at this very time that the merchant Jinadharma 
came there, and was seen by Agnigarman. Eemembering 
his enmity in a former life, he said to the king: i Sire, if 
I may be allowed to eat a hot pudding off the back of this 
merchant, I will break my fast, but not otherwise. ' After 
some remonstrance the king consented, out of regard for 
the ascetic. When the meal was finished the dish was 
wrenched from the merchant's back, together with blood, 
sinews, fat, and flesh. The victim bore patiently the 
fruit of his actions in a former life, turned ascetic, and 
was reborn as the god Indra in the Saudharma heaven. 
The three-staved ascetic also died, and was reborn as 
Airavana, Indra's elefant. Both fell from their stations, 
Airavana was reborn as the impious Yaksa Asitaksa; 
Indra as the prince Sanatkumara. This is the cause of 
their enmity (1091). 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumdra, concluded 

Then a terrific conflict arose between the Yaksa and 
Sanatkumara, in which the Yaksa not only employed 
weapons, but also the elements and demons. But, after 
many indecisive bouts, Sanatkumara finally felled the 
Yaksa with a blow of his fist. Tho smashed into a hun- 
dred pieces, the Yaksa, being immortal, did not die, but 
fled. Gods and Vidyadharas in heaven shouted the vic- 
tory cry, and rained a shower of flowers upon the hero 

Afterwards Sanatkumara proceeded to the forest Nan- 
dana, saw there the eight daughters of the Vidyadhara 
King Bhanuvega, and was conducted by them to their 
city of Priyamgama. The prince was received by Bhanu- 

140 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

vega, who told him that a Sage had predicted that the 
conqueror of Asitaksa would become the husband of his 
eight daughters. Sanatkumara married the eight. Later 
on he freed a captive princess, Sunanda from the thrall 
of a Vidyadhara, named Vajravega, and married both 
her, as well as Sandhyavall, the sister of that Vidya- 
dhara. After that he engaged in a great conflict with the 
Vidyadhara king Acanivega, slew him, and wrested from 
him his royal fortune. He married yet a hundred more 
Vidyadhara maidens, and thus accumulated 110 wives 
(1168). After that he went to his native city of Hastina- 
gapura, and ruled there as Cakrin, or emperor (1175). 

At that time a god, named Samgama, came from the 
heaven of Ictoa to the court of Indra in the Saudharma 
heaven. Samgama 's lustre outshone the gods there, as 
the sun outshines the moon and the stars. The gods 
asked Indra, whether there existed any other god as lus- 
trous as he, and Indra answered, that Sanatkumara in 
Hastinagapura outshone even the gods. The two gods, 
Vijaya and Vaijayanta, went to the presence of Sanatku- 
mara, 52 while he was engaged in anointing himself, and 
found that his beauty exceeded even Indra 's description. 
Sanatkumara bade them wait, went to make an elaborate 
toilet, and then exhibited himself once more in all his still 
greater royal splendor. But then they appeared dejected 
and said: ' Alas, that all this perfection of beauty, bril- 
liance, and youth of men should be seen one moment, and 
then vanish ! ' They went away. The emperor, in aston- 
ishment, looked at his bedizened two arms, and found 
that they had grown dim; looked upon his breast, hung 
with necklaces, and saw that it had become unbeautiful. 

n Cf. for this part of the story, Leumann, Die Avagyaka-Erzahlungen, pp. 
34-36, in the Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. x, nr. 2. 
For Western parallels see J. J. Meyer, Hindu Tales, p. 88, note. 

Story of the Cakravartin Sanatkumdra 141 

He exclaimed: ' Alas, in the world all is perishable: 
beauty, youth, and brilliance; no one craves a pudding 
mixed with poison. ' He placed his imperial diadem upon 
his son, took the vow with the Guru Vinayamdhara, and 
wandered forth into homelessness. His people followed 
him on his way for six months, but he did not look upon 
them even with a lion's glance 53 (1213). 

It came to pass that, after a fast of two days and a 
half, he was given porridge with goat's buttermilk, after 
which he fasted again for two days and a half. Owing to 
this regimen he was afflicted by seven diseases: scab, 
fever, cough, asthma, nausea, 54 opthalmia, and pain in 
the body, which he bore for seven hundred years, while 
performing the severest austerities. Owing to this, he 
obtained the power to cure diseases, but, even thus, he 
did not apply any remedy to his own body. Again he was 
praised by Indra in Saudharma, and the same two gods 
(Vijaya and Vaijayanta), having assumed the guise of 
two Cabara physicians, 55 went before him, and offered to 
remove his diseases. Then he rubbed his finger with his 
spittle, and made it bright as gold, 56 and said : ' Ah, if you 
are true doctors, then do ye quickly cure the disease 
whose name is Samsara.' They replied, that the deep- 
seated disease Samsara they could not cure ; that he him- 

63 sirihavalokana, ' the lion's backward look.' 

64 annaruci : KathakoQa, p. 36, reads annaruci ; the Prakrit version bhatta- 
chando. The last two seem to mean the opposite, namely, ' morbid appe- 
tite.' But Prakrit bhattachanda may be Skt. bhakta, + achanda, and aruci 
is the medical term for ' lack of appetite.' It seems, therefore, that Par<rva- 
natha has the right word, and that Kathakoca is to be corrected accord- 

55 Wandering village doctors; they occur also in Samaradityasaihksepa 
6. 402. 

66 To show that he might cure himself, if so disposed, see additional note 
6, on p. 187. 

142 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

self was the mighty physician. Then they went their 
way. But the Saint Sanatkumara, having fulfilled his 
life, went to the Kalpa of bliss called (after him) the 
Sanatkumara Kalpa (999-1231). 

Story of the two princes Pundarika and Kandarika 57 

Parcva then turns to the exposition of the fourth divi- 
sion of the dharma, namely bhava, or ' character ' (see 
6.272). This is extoled as the soul of the dharma, the 
friend of its heart, the doorkeeper to bliss, etc., followed 
by many other ecstatic similes. Its importance is illus- 
trated, as follows (1237) : In the city of Qripundarikini 
ruled King Mahapadma, whose lovely and virtuous wife 
Padmavati bore him two sons, Pundarika and Kanda- 
rika, both of them proficient in war and learning (castra- 
Qastra-vicaradau). King Mahapadma was converted by 
the sermon of a Guru, who had come to the park Nalini- 
vana in company with many Sthaviras, or Elders. He 
made over his kingdom to Pundarika (1254). In time, 
the same Sthaviras returned^ whereupon Pundarika, 
along with his brother and retinue, went out to pay their 
respects. Pundarika, in his turn, was converted, pro- 
posed to take the diksa, 58 and to pass his sovereignty on 
to Kandarika (1266). Kandarika, however, himself also 
seized by the spirit of the occasion, insisted upon becom- 
ing monk. After some argumentation Pundarika per- 
mitted him to take the vow, and arranged a great festival 

67 A Pimdarika-Kandarika-(KundarIka)-katha is mentioned in Weber, 
Handschriftenverzeichnisse, vol. ii, pp. 950 and 1103. But see the different 
story connected with the same two names in Kathakoga, pp. 13 ff. The 
present legend seems to be familiarly known to the Jains; see Stevenson, 
Heart of Jainism, p. 159. 

Bs Consecration for an ascetic life. 

The two princes Pundarika and Kandarlka 143 

of departure (mahan niskramanotsavah). 59 For a long 
time Kandarlka lived in pious bliss (1284). But one 
spring-time, when all nature became sensuous, and the 
people celebrated the season of love, the Muni, over- 
whelmed by his youth, fell from grace. In consequence 
thereof, he was abandoned by his pious associates, and 
despised by his Guru (1305). After a time Kandarlka 
returned to a park outside the city, and bade the keepers 
call his brother, King Pundarika. Upon his arrival 
Kandarlka showed his changed state, whereat his brother 
warned him against the consequences of his fall, pointing 
out the worthlessness of everything, except the law of the 
Jina. But Kandarlka, deaf to remonstrance, asked his 
brother for the kingdom. Pundarika gladly agreed ; they 
exchanged their insignia — the royal insignia for the 
marks of the Sadhu (1319). Kandarlka then entered the 
palace, accompanied by citizens, ministers, etc., wearing 
black looks on their faces ; despised by them, because he 
had gone out like a lion, and returned like a jackal. Greed- 
ily he, that was accustomed to the spare food of the for- 
est, ate to repletion of the rich food set before him. He 
was attacked by cholera, colic, and pain. His attendants 
would not minister to his needs, because he had fallen 
from grace. While planning to kill in the morning his 
ministers and physicians, who contemned him, he died in 
evil thought (raudradhyana), and was born as a hell- 
dweller in the Saptamavani hell (1330). 

Pundarika, considering himself lucky in having 
reached the Law that is hard to attain, went to a Guru 
to be initiated in the asceticism that would destroy his 
karma. In his presence he renounced the eighteen items 
of sin, such as injuring life, falsehood, etc., and gave up 

M Cf . Buddhist mahanikkhamana. 

144 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

the things of pleasure and desire. He died after his soul 
had been purged of its filth' by the water of bhava, and 
became a superior god in the heavenly palace, called Sar- 
varthasiddha (sarvarthasiddhakhye vimane) (1232- 

Frame story: Life of Pdrgvanatha, continued 

At the end of this sermon on the fourfold dharma many 
were converted, or even reached perfection. Among 
them was Parcva's father, King Acvasena (verse 257), 
who took the vow, after having made over his kingdom 
to his son Hastisena. Then also Vamadevi (Varna, his 
mother), and Prabhavati (his wife), took the vow. Ten 
distinguished men, Aryadatta 60 and others, took the vow, 
and became heads of assemblies (ganabhrt) . Lord Parcva 
poured divine perfume, procured by Qakra, upon their 
heads. The gods also showed them honor, and Pargva, 
after having further instructed them, went to a temple 
(devachanda) in the north, to enjoy there the bliss of 
tranquility (1343-1360). 

80 Cf. above, p. 18. The list here of Parcva's Ganabhrts is: Aryadatta, 
Aryaghosa, Vasistha, Brahman amaka, Soma, Cridhara, Varisena, Bhadra- 
yacas, Jaya, and Vijaya. 

The Princes Amarasena and Varasena 145 

Sakga the Seventh 
Frame story: Life of Pargvandtha, continued 

At this juncture the Jain leader (ganabhrt) Aryadatta 
(6. 1352), a follower of Parcva, undertook to preach, in 
order to strengthen devotion to the Jina: Wise people 
become ascetics (yati) ; those destined to be reborn be- 
come (pious) householders (grhin). If the latter show 
honor (puja) to the Arhats, the tree of their existence 
becomes fruitful. The puja is threefold, consisting either 
of flowers, unhusked grain (aksata), or hymns of praise 
(stotra). The ' flower honor ' (puspapuja) is illustrated 
by the following story (7) : 

The adventures of Princes Amarasena and Varasena * 

In the city of Bsabha ruled King Kuga. In his domain 
lived the merchant Abhayamkara with his wife Kugala- 
mati. They employed two laborers, of good disposition; 
one to do house-work, the other to tend cattle. Once these 
laborers contrasted complainingly their destiny with that 
of their master: ' We poor wretches, shut out from all 
human interests, pass fruitlessly thru existence, like a 

1 Thi3 story, with variations, in Kathakoga, p. 125 ff. ; and in the Guja- 
rati Pancakhyanavarttika. nr. 34 (see Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 147, 
who cites other Kathas, containing the same story ) . ' The Adventures of 
Rup and Bussant,' in Swynnerton's Romantic Tales from the Pan jab, pp. 
410 ff., shares some features with the present story. Thus, the manner in 
which the two princes are driven from home by a hateful step-mother; 
their entrance upon a life of adventure; and their separation from one 
another. In other respects the stories diverge. Yet more remote is, ' The 
two Brothers,' Steel and Temple, Wide- Awake Stories, pp. 138 ff. See also 
Rouse's Translation of the Jatakas, vol. iv, p. 117 note. 

146 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

snuhi-tree 2 (14). The merchant became aware of their 
thought, took them to the temple of the Jina, and in- 
structed them to honor the Jina with flowers. They did 
not react upon his advice; so he brought them before a 
Muni who also recommended them to exercise this form 
of piety. The herdsman possessed 25 kapardakas. With 
these he bought flowers with which to honor the Jina ; but 
the other, the house servant, had no money. He was ad- 
vised to practice asceticism (tapas) and, accordingly, 
decided to give his own food to any mendicant that hap- 
pened along. A sage came to beg for food ; to him he gave 
all he had. The merchant, delighted at his devotion, gave 
him other food, and showed both of them great kindness 

The two servants, after death, were reborn respectively 
as Amarasena and Varasena, in the womb of Vijayadevi, 
wife of a Kalinga king, Siirasena. 3 A relative of Sura- 
sena had dispossessed him of his kingdom, but he, later 
on, found favor with the king of Gajapura, who presented 
him with four villages, in one of which, Sukara, he re- 
sided. The two boys grew up* beautiful and accom- 
plished, but a co-wife, Jaya by name, conceived hatred for 
them. Once Siirasena went to serve the king. On his 
return Jaya feigned anger, and entered the ' anger 
house' (kopagrha, * swearing room') 4 (42). She ac- 
cused the two boys of having made improper advances 
to her, which she had barely warded off. 5 'Act now in 
accordance with the customs of a noble family (kuloci- 
tam) ! ' Siirasena, uxorious and gullible, in wrath, ordered 

a Euphorbia Antiquorum; its juice is an emetic. The tree is despised, 
like the nimba in Pargvanatha 1. 316. 
a Probably Ourasena. 

4 Mentioned also by Swynnerton, 1. c, p. 412. 
6 See the additional note 19, on p. 199. 

The Princes Amarasena and Varasena 147 

a Matanga, 6 named Canda, to go outside the village, 
where the two boys were sporting with their horses, to 
cut off their heads, and show them to him. The Matanga, 
wondering why the king was in such rage at his two vir- 
tuous boys, went to them, and told them. They, in turn, 
told him to do as their father commanded: they must 
have committed some heinous crime, else their father 
would not have given so severe an order. Canda induced 
them to take flight, after first assuaging their fear for 
his own safety. He took their two horses to show the 
king, and had two skulls of clay fashioned and painted 
over. These also he showed to the king, who ordered him 
to place them in a hole outside the village. 7 The evil co- 
wife was triumfant (59). 

The two princes wandered to a lone and dread forest, 
described grafically (77). There they discussed their 
father's rage, concluding that it was due to their step- 
mother's machinations. Amarasena falling asleep, Vara- 
sena overheard 8 the conversation of a parrot couple. 
The male said: ' These two youths are worthy of good 
fortune, but there is nothing at hand to help them with.' 
The female replied: ' On the mountain of Sukiita, in a 
deep ravine, grow two mango-trees whose seed has been 
sprinkled by the Vidyadharas with their ' Science ' (vid- 
ya). We heard them say, these trees have each a magic 

• A low caste man. 

7 This is a motif of rather wide application : order to slay disobeyed by 
pitying executioner. It recurs in Parcvanatha in the story of Vanaraja, 
7. 501 ff., again in connection with a boy; see the parallels there men- 
tioned. See also Kathas., 3. 40 ff.; 5. 41; Vikrama Carita (Indische Stu- 
dien xv. 229, 236, 237; Lescallier, Le Tronie Enchant, pp. 66 ff.); ZMDG. 
lxi. 53; Frere, Old Deccan Days, pp. 6 ff . ; 662ff.; Bhojaprabandha, Part i; 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, L 161. Cf. Benfey, Das Pancatantra, 
vol. i, p. 593. 

8 See the additional note 2, on p. 185. 

148 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

property: he who eats the fruit of one of them is made 
king on the seventh day after ; he who has the fruit of the 
other in his stomach, from his mouth fall every morning 
500 dinars into his rinsing water. 9 Now you took with 
you a fruit of each of these trees, so this is your chance 
to do good. ' The male agreed, the birds flew off: , and left 
the two fruits behind (99). 

Varasena gave the royalty fruit to Amarasena, keep- 
ing the gold-producing one for himself. With the gold 
which he duly found in his rinsing water he procured 
clothes, food, and other luxuries. On the seventh day 
they arrived at Kancanapura, whose king had just died 
without successor. Amarasena lay asleep under a tree 
outside the city, was duly selected as king by the five- 
oracle process (pancadivyadhivasana), 10 and was led in 
state to the city, where he henceforth ruled as king (115). 
Varasena, unwilling to intrude upon his brother in his 
high station, gave himself over to pleasure, living in the 
house of a courtezan, iMagadha by name. His brother 
searched for him diligently, but vainly, and finally forgot 
him in the stress of his regal cares (128). 

Varasena lived in such extravagant splendor, as to 
arouse the cupidity of Magadha's bawd, or ' mother.' 11 
Having induced Magadha to coax out of him the secret 
of his wealth, she gave him a cuta fruit as an emetic, 12 
in order to obtain the gold-producing mango. Since, how- 
ever, in her stomach it had no magic power, she ejected 

9 Cf. Jiilg, Kalmiikische Marchen, p. 11, for the manner in which gold- 
spitting is acquired, and the trick by which Varasena, in the sequel, Is 
robbed of this delectable property. Also Oukasaptati 7. See additional 
note 22, on p. 202. 

10 See the additional note 20, on p. 199. 

11 See for this stock figure of fiction, the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc, vol. lii, p. 631. 

32 This feature of the story occurs also Kathas. 108. 77 ff. ; and in the 
Pancakhyanavarttika, cited in the note on p. 145. m 

The Princes Amarasena and Varasena 149 

Varasena from her house. His magic possession gone, 
he wandered outside the city to a cemetery (146). In the 
middle of the night four thieves came there. He over- 
heard them quarrel about the division of their loot: a 
pair of shoes, a staff, and an old garment; and learned 
that every morning 500 jewels fall from the garment; 
that the staff beats off swords ; and that the shoes carry 
one to any place that one thinks of. 13 Offering to arbi- 
trate their quarrel, he sent one thief to each of the four 
directions, while pretending to reflect on the case. As 
soon as they were gone, he put on the shoes, flew off with 
the other two magic articles, went back to the city, and 
lived in great state on the proceeds of the jewels, like a 
Dogundaga 14 god (163). The bawd, hearing of this from 
a servant maid, again waxed greedy. Having dressed up 
Magadha in a white garment, 15 she told Varasena that she 
had expelled him from her house because of her excessive 
attachment to Magadha. But why, on coming to the city, 
did he not return to his own house % Magadha, from the day 
of his expulsion on, had been angry, and had not spoken 
to her ; tho he was alive, Magadha had mourned him ; she 
had lived only thru him ; and so on. Varasena saw thru 
the slut's guile, yet decided to return. In due time, in 
answer to her greedy importunities, he told her about the 
shoes ; that he was in the habit of fetching his wealth by 
putting them on and flying with them. After a while, 
feigning sickness, she made him carry her by means of 
the magic shoes to a temple of Kama, on an island in mid- 

08 Stock motif, from the story of Putraka, Kathas. 3. 45 ff ., to Panca- 
dandachattraprabandha 1 (p. 17), to Chavannes, Cinq Cent Contes 
Chinois, vol. iii, p. 259 (hat of invisibility; shoes for walking on water; 
stick that strikes dead). 

M See p. 226. 

u Mourning costume. 

150 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

ocean, where, she pretended, she could divest herself of 
her evil. On arriving there she told him to precede her 
in worshiping Kama. When he entered the temple, leav- 
ing the shoes behind, she stepped into them, and flew 
away, leaving Varasena to his sad reflections (186). 

As Varasena wandered about there, a Vidyadhara ar- 
rived in the air, inquired the cause of his trouble, and 
imbued him with courage. He bade him stay there a 
fortnight, worship the divinity of the temple, and enjoy 
himself in the park which had been planted by the gods ; 
after that period he would conduct him home. The Vid- 
yadhara forbade him to go near two trees 16 which were 
standing in front of a caitya ; after that he provided him 
with provisions, and went away. Yet it happened one day 
that Varasena smelled of the blossom of one of these two 
trees, whereupon he was immediately transformed into 
an old ass. 17 On his return the Vidyadhara, by making 
him smell of the blossoms of the other tree, restored him 
to his original form (204). After five days the Vidya- 
dhara took him back to Kancanapura, with a blossom from 
each of the two trees in his possession. Again the bawd 
appeared before him, this time with her knees bandaged. 
She pretended that a Vidyadhara had snatched the shoes, 
while Varasena was performing his devotion in the tem- 
ple of Kama, and that she had thus injured herself while 
following him. On arriving at her house, Varasena 
tricked her into the belief that he had a drug which re- 

w For taboo, or forbidden things see Kathas. 26. 72; Vasavadatta (Gray's 
Translation), p. 136; Steel and Temple, Wide-Awake Stories, p. 415; 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 121. 

"Animal transformation: see Kathas. 71. 273; Prabandhacintamani, p. 
174; Kathakoca, pp. 50, 130, note, 135, 137. See Tawney, Translation of 
Kathasaritsagara, vol. ii, p. 168, note 2, and Index, under, Animal Trans- 

The Faithful Parrot Couple 151 

stored youth. She fell into the trap : first he secured his 
cloth and staff ; then, by giving her the ass-making flower 
to smell, turned her into a she-ass. 18 The courtezans over 
whom the bawd presided, raised a disturbance before 
King Amarasena^ who laughed when he heard their story. 
He sent policemen, ministers, and vassals to apprehend 
Varasena, but he beat them off with his magic staff. 
Thereupon he went himself, out of curiosity to see what 
was up. As soon as Amarasena saw his brother he em- 
braced him, and ultimately made him crown-prince (yu- 
varajan) (242). At the request of the king, Varasena 
gave the bawd the second flower to smell, thus restoring 
her to her natural form. In due time the brothers were 
reunited with their father; their stepmother was for- 
given, because her act had been instrumental in procur- 
ing the boys' kingdom; the trusty Canda was rewarded. 
A Muni explained their happy fate. Amarasena's gift to 
the Sadhu, in his previous birth, but more especially Va- 
rasena's offering of flowers, out of his pittance of 25 
kapardakas, had had the effect of procuring their brilliant 
success. The Muni promised them happiness in subse- 
quent births, and ultimate salvation. They lived happily 
and piously, and finally reached the world of Brahma 

The faithful parrot couple, and the son who fell in love 
with his own mother 19 

The discourse turns to the second form of puja, 
namely, with unhusked grain, which is illustrated by 
story: In the city of Qripura, i n the neighborhood of a 

M Ass-making flower occurs also in Rauliineya Carita, and in Kingscote, 
Tales of the Sun, p. 106. Cf. the additional note 9, on p. 188. 
13 Essentially the same story, in Kathakoga, pp. 42 ff. 

152 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Jaina temple, dwelled upon a great mango tree a devoted 
pair of parrots. The female was seized by a pregnancy- 
whim 20 for a head of rice which grew in a field belonging 
to King Qrikanta. When the male pointed out the danger 
to his own head thru pilfering from the king's field, she 
chided him for being a coward. Thereupon, in shame, he 
brought her a head of rice day by day, until the king, 
noticing the depredation, was told by the watch that the 
parrot was the culprit. The king told the watch to trap 
him; the male was caught while the female looked on, 
and brought before the king. The latter was about to 
slay the male with his sword, when the female inter- 
vened ; offered herself in his stead ; explained her delicate 
condition; and pointed out that her mate did not count 
his life worth a blade of grass by the side of her wish 
(290). The king, in banter, told the male that he, tho 
famed for wisdom in the world, 21 was yet enough of a fool 
to jeopardize his life for the whim of a woman. The 
female retorted, that a man will abandon father, mother, 
wealth, etc., but not his wife, ' just as you, king, did 
abandon your own life for the sake of queen Cridevi : how 
can you then blame the parrot ? ' The king, surprised at 
her acquaintance with his history, bade her narrate, to 
wit (295) : 

Qridevi, one of the king's wives had consulted a cer- 
tain nun (parivrajika) as to means by which she might 
become the king's favorite. The nun gave her a philtre 
to put into the king's drinking water, and taught her a 
mantra which promptly impelled the king to cite her, in 
great state, to his presence, hereafter to be treated as 
chief queen. But, not yet satisfied with this proof of the 

20 See the additional note 25, on p. 204. 

21 See my paper, ' On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction,' in Festgruss an 
Ernst Windisch, pp. 354 ff. 

The Faithful Parrot Couple 153 

king's love, she desired to be convinced that he would die 
in the event of her own death. The nun gave her a * root ' 
(mulika) which produced a death-like trance when put 
into the nose, promised at the same time to revive her 
by means of a second mulika 22 (317). The queen did as 
bidden. The king, in despair, after his doctors and 
wizards had failed to revive her, ascended the pyre with 
her, as she was about to be cremated (327). The nun 
then turned up and revived the queen. The king, delighted, 
offered her a great reward, which she refused, asking only 
for the privilege of begging in his city. He had a sump- 
tuous pavillion built for her, and, when she died in evil 
thought (artadhyana), she was born again as that very 
she-parrot which was begging the king for the life of her 
offending mate. At that very moment she had remem- 
bered the events of her former birth (339). 

The king then granted the life of the male parrot, as 
well as provision for their sustenance. They returned to 
their tree, where the female, her pregnancy whim satis- 
fied, laid a pair of eggs. Just then a co-wife who lived 
on the same tree also laid an egg. It happened that the co- 
wife went out for grain, whereupon the first she-parrot, 
jealous of her, stole her egg. "When the cowife on return- 
ing exhibited her distress by rolling on the ground like 
a carp (gaphari), the first wife grew penitent, returned 
the egg, and thus gained merit. The parrots and their 
offspring then lived happily (357). A wandering ascetic 
(caranagramana) happened along, and praised the Jinen- 

33 Devices of this sort are discussed by the author in Proceedings of 
American Philosophical Society, vol. Hi, p. 627, note 22. See also ZMDG. 
lxi. 45; Hertel, Das Paficatantra, p. 109, note 4; Kathas, 12. 42 (cf., Taw- 
ney, vol. i, p. 572) ; Dagakumaracarita, ii, p. 26; Pancadandachattrapra- 
bandha, 4 (pp. 42, 44, where the magic pill is called gutika) ; Samara- 
dityasamksepa 6. 114 (again, gutika). 

154 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

dra in the Jina temple with an elaborate hymn (366). 
The ascetic pointed out that the merit of honoring (puja) 
the Jina with unhusked grain (aksata) produced imperish- 
able (aksata) glory. When the parrot pair heard this, 
they decided to act accordingly. Thru the merit of that 
act they and their offspring attained to the abode of the 
gods (375). 

After enjoying heavenly bliss the souls of the parrot 
pair fell, and were reborn as king Hemaprabha of Hema- 
pura and his wife Jayasundari. The soul of the co-wife 
parrot was reborn as Eati, the king's other favorite 
among hundreds. The king was taken with fever which 
could not be cured, 23 even by resorting to the gods (397). 
A Eaksasa, KelTkila by name, told the king by night that 
he might be cured thru the sacrifice of one of his wives. 
The king told his ministers, who pointed out the impro- 
priety of such unkingly conduct. None the less the king 
decided to tell his wives, whereupon Eati begged him to 
allow her to sacrifice herself. As she leapt into the fire, 
the Eaksasa, delighted with her courage, caught her in 
his arms, and removed her to a distance (412). He then 
offered her a gift, which she accepted, asking that her 
husband should long remain sound. After granting this, 
he threw her into a golden lotus, whereupon the multitude 
acclaimed her, because she had given life to her husband 
(417). The king, out of gratitude, offered her a gift, but 
she pointed out that his life was the most desirable gift 
of all. "When he insisted, she reserved the gift for a future 
occasion (421 ). 24 

"This is accompanied by a controversial description of fever and its 

** This turn is common in fiction : see my paper on Muladeva, Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. lii, p. 638 (note 47) ; 
Kathako$a, p. 48; Prabhandhacintamani, p. 129; Jatakas 6, 461, 528. 

The Faithful Parrot Couple 155 

It came to pass that Rati asked the house divinity for 
a son, promising in return to offer to her as a bali-offer- 
ing Jayasundari 's son. Thereupon, when each queen 
begot a promising boy, Rati considered how she might 
fulfil her promise to the house divinity. She remembered 
the gift she had in reserve with the king, and asked him 
for control of the kingdom during five days 25 (427). The 
king granted her wish. Then she had Jayasundari 's boy 
taken away from her, put into a chest which was placed 
on the head of a slave girl, and deposited in the grove of 
the temple of the divinity. There the Vidyadhara king 
of Kancanapuh saw the boy, substituted a dead child in 
his place, and placed him before his wife, pretending that 
she had born him during sleep. She, being sterile, asked 
him why he was mocking her. He then told the truth, but 
induced her, that was childless, to accept the boy as her 
son, whereupon they raised and educated him (438). 
Rati, triumfant, then had the substituted dead child 
returned to Jayasundari, who henceforth passed her days 
in grief (441). 

The Vidyadhara couple named their adopted boy 
Madanankura, and had him instructed in the magic arts 
(vidya) of their race. Madanankura, while roaming in 
the heavens, once perceived his mother, Jayasundari, 
standing sadly at a window of the palace. Falling in 
love with her, he put her upon his chariot. She, in turn, 
was taken with love for him. The people and the king 
observed the rape of the queen, and the king was grieved. 

The young parrot pair, children of the faithful parrots, 
that had gone with them to heaven (verse 375), knew by 
superior insight that their brother 26 (Madanankura) had 

* See note on p. 122. 
" In a later birth. 

156 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

carried off his own mother. Assuming the guise of a pair 
of monkeys, they jumped upon a branch of the tree under 
which Madanankura sat with his mother. The male 
monkey suggested to the female that they should bathe in 
the holy bathing place of Kamuka, which has the property 
of turning animals into the glorious state of men. 26a The 
female refused to enter into the arrangement, because 
the human being under them, who had eloped with his 
own mother, was too depraved even to have his name 
mentioned. From this Madanankura gathered that he 
was Jayasundari 's son, and, simultaneously, Jayasundari 
gathered that she was his mother (459). They verified 
their relation by consulting a Muni, who, in turn, referred 
them to a Kevalin in Hemapura. 27 Madanankura asked 
his foster parents for his true life's history, but was 
referred by them to the same Kevalin in Hemapura (473). 
They went to his presence, were joined there by King 
Hemaprabha, and were told the entire story, beginning 
with Kati's prayer to the house divinity for a son (482). 
He explained that Jayasundari's separation for sixteen 
years from her son was the retribution for her having, in 
her former existence, put to grief her co-wife parrot for 
sixteen seconds, at the time when she had stolen her egg. 
Rati begged Jayasundari 's pardon for the wrong she had 
done her (493) . The king asked the Sage what good deed 
in a former existence had elevated him to his present high 
station, and was told that his offering of unhusked rice 
to the Jina was responsible for his luck. In time the king 
and his family obtained salvation (265-500). 

2611 See the parable on p. 127. 

27 A similar story is told roughly in Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, pp. 105 ff. 

Story of Vanardja 157 

Story of Vanardja, the waif who became king 28 

Aryadatta's exposition turns now to the third variety 
of worship, namely, by song of praise (area). This is 
illustrated by story: In the city of Ksitipratisthita, 
under the rule of king Susthita, lived a young man of 
good family, but orfaned, poor, and evil-minded. He 
begged from house to house in the city, but on account of 
his shabby appearance, got nothing, and finally left the 
city in disgust (513). In a wood he met a Sage, who 
preached to him the Law. Impressed by the sermon, he 
showed reverence to the Sage, asked for help in his sore 
plight, and was advised by him to address a certain song 
of praise to the Jina. He did so, adding a prayer that he 
might attain to the exalted station of king Susthita. In 
due time he died, and was reborn as the child of a servant 
woman in the house of Soma, the king's Purohita (542). 

This event was reported to the Purohita, as he was 
sitting in the durbar next to the king. On hearing it he 
was surprised, his head shook, and his nails split omi- 
nously. The king, noticing this, asked him to explain. 
The Purohita told him that a slave-girl in his house had 
brought forth a son, destined to usurp his, the king's, 
royal power (547). The king rose from the throne and 
dismissed the assembly. He reflected that fate might 
indeed bring about this seemingly impossible consumma- 
tion ; that the boy might usurp his kingdom over the head 
of his own son ; therefore he decided to cut out the disease, 
while it was still curable. He ordered a cruel retainer, 
Canda, to slay the infant son of the servant woman. At 

M A close parallel to this story in Kathakoca, p. 168 ff. See also Cha- 
vannes, Cinq Cent Contes, nr. 45 ; and Hertel in ZDMG. lxv. 447 ff., 454 ff. 
The story seems to have an historical kernel; see Prabandhacintamani, 
pp. 32 ff.; Stevenson, Heart of Jainism, p. 82. 

158 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

dusk, when the woman happened to be out, he got hold of 
the boy, and carried him under a mango tree near an old 
dry well in the forest. But when he bared the child, its 
face brilliantly illumined the forest, so that Canda, in 
surprise and joy, decided to ignore the king's cruel man- 
date to kill the godlike child, that seemed marked for great 
fortune. 29 He left the child under the tree, told the king 
that he had executed his command, and was rewarded 
munificently (566). 

In the morning a gardener discovered the child in the 
forest, which had flowered out miraculously in the splen- 
dor of new vegetation. Being himself childless, he de- 
cided that the forest divinity, pleased with him, had pre- 
sented him with this wonderful child. He brought it to 
his wife, who received it with delight, spread the report 
that she had born it, and arranged a birth festival. They 
gave the boy the name of Vanaraja (' Forest King '). 
When the boy was five years old, the gardener's wife 
went, one spring day, to pay her respects to the king with 
a garland of various flowers, and the boy, out of curiosity, 
went with her (591). The Purohita of the king, sitting 
by, again was affected by the same omens : his head shook, 
and his nails split. This he interpreted as before, and 
verified by certain auspicious marks on the body of the 
boy, which he expounded at length in accordance with the 
rules of palmistry (samudrika castra) 30 (630). The king 
called Canda, and told him: ' Be not afraid! Tell the 
truth, was the boy killed by you, or not? ' Canda told 
him the truth. In the evening he ordered a follower of 
his, Bhimasena, to kill the boy. Bhima, seizing the boy 
who was playing outside the gardener's house, took him 

29 See note 7, on p. 147. 

80 A full treatise of the subject is comprised in Qlokas 596-630., 

Story of Vanaraja 159 

away from the city. The boy asked Bhima: ' Father, 
where are you taking me to? ' Bhima's heart softened, 
and he said: ' I shall take you where you shall have a 
good time.' 31 Thereupon he took him to a wild forest, 
where stood a temple with an image of a Yaksa, Sundara 
by name, left the boy in his charge, and went off. The 
boy said to the image: ' Give me sweetmeats (modaka), 
I am hungry,' and touched the belly of the Yaksa. The 
Yaksa, tho of stone, gave him sweetmeats 32 (642). Then 
a merchant arrived, Kecava by name, who lay worrying 
by night, because his bulls had been lost. The Yaksa 
told him in a dream not to worry : his bulls would return 
in the morning. Furthermore he bade him, seeing that 
he was childless, to accept Vanaraja as a son. To this 
the merchant agreed. In the morning his cattle came 
back; he returned home to the city of Sugarma; made 
over the boy to his wife ; and educated him until he was 
sixteen years of age. It happened that the merchant 
traveled to the city of the king (who desired Vanaraja's 
death), and appeared before him. Bidden to sit down, 
he did so, but when Vanaraja saw the king, he remained 
standing erect (653). The Purohita, beholding the boy, 
divine in appearance, again split a nail, and repeated his 
prediction that the king would lose his kingdom thru him. 
The king, unable to understand how the boy had man- 
aged to survive, since he had commissioned a trusty 
servant to kill him, wondered if he were an Asura, Vyan- 
tara, or Vidyadhara. He asked the merchant whether he 
really was his son, and when he affirmed the relation, got 
him to leave the boy with him for some time. Eeluctantly 
he did so, consoled by Vanaraja himself (666). The king, 

M sundara, pun on the name Sundara in the sequel. 

ffl Cf . 3. 131: 'Even stone idols, to whom devotion is paid with intent 
mind, straightway show delight.' 

160 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

externally kind, appointed Vanaraja provincial com- 
mander. His adopted father, Kecava, sent him great 
wealth (672) . It happened that the king sent his own son, 
Prince Narasinha, to suppress a rebellions vassal, but 
Narasinha was defeated. Then he sent Vanaraja, who 
was victorious, and became famous in the world. Since 
the king had hoped that Vanaraja might perish, he be- 
came surly and sent camel drivers (austrika) with a letter 
to Narasinha, commanding him to poison Vanaraja 
(vanarajasya datavyam visam). The camel drivers 
stopped overnight in the temple of the Yaksa Sundara, 
who changed the message so as to read : ' Kamala is to 
be given to Vanaraja (kamala vanarajasya datavya). 33 
Thereupon Narasinha gave his sister, the Princess 
Kamala, with great ceremony, as wife to Vanaraja. The 
latter, along with his bride and Narasinha, returned to 
the city. The king, tho rejoicing at the defeat of the 
rebellious vassal, was grieved over Vanaraja's marriage, 
and his unshakable prosperity. Tho again baffled, he 
once more plotted his destruction (709). 

He called two Matangas of his, and told them secretly 
to slay any one who might come by night to worship the 
divinity at the door of the palace. He then told Vanaraja 
that he had promised to worship that divinity at the time 
Vanaraja had gone forth against the rebellious vassal, 

38 In the parallel, KatMkoca, p. 172, the alteration is, much better, from 
visam to visa. Possibly the Parcva version is a blend of two forms in one 
of which the alteration is from kamalam in the sense of ' drug ' to Kamala. 
As the trick stands here, it is rather foolish. Cf. Indian Antiquary x. 190; 
xi. 84. The presence or absence in a word of the small anusvara dot 
changes Prakrit adhiyau ' he shall study,' to amdhiyau, ' he must be 
blinded,' in the tragic story of Kunala as told in Paricistaparvan 9. 14 ff. ; 
cf. Divyavadana, pp. 417 ff. Further instances of the Uriah letter in 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, pp. 193, 195, 275, 276, 389; 
vol. iii, pp. 73, 76, 291, 294. 

The selfish religious and the unselfish Pulindra 161 

and commissioned him to do so in his behalf. Vanaraja 
accepted the order, bnt, when he went to execute it, was 
intercepted by Narasihha, who undertook the mission in 
his stead. Narasinha was thus killed by the sharp swords 
of the ambuscading Nisadas 34 (719). When the king 
found out the miscarriage of his horrible plot, he wailed 
bitterly, but, realizing the inevitable fatality of this chain 
of events, asked Vanaraja's pardon, made over his king- 
dom to him, and went into the forest (731). Vanaraja 
lived happily with his beloved Kamala. A Muni, Nan- 
dana by name, arrived in the Nandana park. Vanaraja 
went out to greet him, and asked him how he came by so 
unusually successful a career. The Muni told him that 
his praises 35 of the Jina in a former birth were respon- 
sible for his happiness. Vanaraja then remembered his 
former birth, and devoted himself henceforth fervidly to 
Jaina duties (501-747). 

Parable of the selfish religious, and the unselfish 
Pulindra 36 

The text rounds out its disquisition on piija with the 
claim that worship must be disinterested, otherwise it is 
futile, illustrating by the following parable: A certain 
religious, Mugdhaka by name, came from a distance to 
worship and make expensive and showy offerings to an 

34 See additional note 8, on p. 188. 

35 This is the third way of honoring the Jina, as preached above, c;loka 4. 
38 Benfey, Das Pancatantra, vol. i, p. 389 : ' In a South-Indian legend the 

sacrificer takes out his eyes and puts them into the eye-sockets of a statue 
(Mackenzie Collection ii. 5). This is a phase of the Cibi motif (see p. 
192) which often involves loss of the eyes by way of self-sacrifice or con- 
tempt of life; see Subha, Theri-gatha, nr. 71; Jataka 499; Jatakamyla 
nr. 2; Cariyapit&ka 1. 8; Avadana-gataka nr. 34; Avadana-kalpalata nr. 
91; Chavannes, Cinq Cent Contes, nr. 197; Divyavadana pp. 407-417; Pari- 
cjstaparvan 9. 14-54; Kathas. 28. 18-24. 

162 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

image of Qiva, inhabited by a Vyantara. Constantly he 
prayed: i Since thon, Lord, art pleased, may my for- 
tunes ever prosper; to thee alone, do I resort. Show 
favor, supreme Lord! ' Thus importuned, the god be- 
came worried (sacinta). Then the religious observed 
that his offering had been removed. He made another, 
and stood in hiding to see what would happen to it. A 
rough Pulindra ( ! pulindraka), 37 with bow and arrow in 
his left hand, with flowers in his right, and his mouth 
full of water, came there in a hurry, pushed aside with 
his foot the previous offering, squirted water out of his 
mouth, threw down a heap of flowers, and reverenced the 
idol. Thereupon the pleased god started to hold conver- 
sation with the Pulindra. The religious, observing this, 
grew angry. After the Pulindra was gone, he abused the 
god: ' Just as he is a Pulindra, so you are a Katapii- 
tana ; 38 you converse with a low-born individual, but you 
do not show yourself to me, even in a dream ! ' (761) . The 
god told him to wait; he would show him the difference 
between himself and the Pulindra. Next day, when the 
religious came there, he saw that the god was blind of 
one eye. The religious deplored this greatly, and hinted 
that the god's association with low-born people (meaning 
the Pulindra) had got him into this evil plight. "While 
he was thus condoling, the Pulindra came along, took in 
the situation, gouged out his own eye with an arrow, and 
gave it to the idol. The god offered the Pulindra what- 
ever he might desire, but he wanted nothing, and went 
as he came. The god pointed the moral: the divine 
powers do not take delight in external worship (bahya- 

97 See pp. 223 and 230. 

88 A kind of preta, or ghost* According to Manu 12. 71, the ghost of a 
renegade Ksatriya. 

The man who wished to rid himself of his wife 163 

puja), but in devotion showing itself in courageous action 
(sattvika bhakti) (748-768). 

Parable of the man who wished to rid himself of his 

vixen wife 39 

The discourse turns to the theme of unreasonable 
desires, showing by parable that they defeat their own 
end: A gentleman, Soma, in Devapura, handsome, 
accomplished, and virtuous, had a wife Rudra, of opposite 
qualities, yet devoted to her husband. They quarreled so 
as to resemble a face with an earring in one ear. The 
husband, reflecting that he could not get rid of her any 
more than a tree of its creeper, decided to make certain 
that he would at least be rid of her in another existence. 
Having heard of a holy bathing place (tirtha), named 
Kamuka, on the mountain of Parna, he went there to die, 
leaving all he had behind. He jumped from the mountain 
with the wish that Rudra should not be his wife in another 
birth. But his wife, who had found out his intention, 
went there also and committed suicide in the same way, 
while wishing that she should have the same husband in 
another birth. The divinity of the tirtha opined that 
worship is rewarded by the gods, only when unencum- 
bered by wishes. Epecially in asking the Jinendra for 
dharma (religion) or moksa (salvation) one should not 
harbor hope for personal advantage: it will bear small 
fruit (769-781). 

"For vixens see Pancatantra 4. 6; Kathas. 74. 156; Cukasaptati 46 
Jataka 13. Cf. Benfey, Das Pancatantra, vol. i, pp. 519 ff. 

164 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Allegory of the four friends on the treasure island of 
human existence 

Aryadatta has now completed his sermon on the virtues 
of piija, as guide of householders into a happy state ; he 
now issues a final warning that the blessing of holy reli- 
gion is difficult to attain, and that men, when they have 
reached the treasure island of human existence, 40 should 
not waste their capital there as did the merchant Miidha 
in the following allegory: 

In the city of Qrivasantapura lived four merchants, 
friends of one another: Caru, Yogya, Hitajna, and 
Mudha. They went on an expedition to a jewel island 
across the sea, Katnakara (' Jewel-mine ') by name. 
Caru, staid and cool, a skilled appraiser, accumulated a 
complete assortment of jewels in their five different colors 
(788). Yogya also, being instructed by Caru, did some 
business, and got to know something of the art of apprais- 
ing jewels. And, tho he was rather flighty, being given to 
pleasure and dalliance, he managed to accumulate some 
treasure. Hitajna did not himself know how to judge 
jewels, swallowing whole whatever any one told him. He 
also gladly listened to Caru, but nothing remained in his 
mind, because he was foolish, and given to running about 
to plays and other amusements. So he was cheated by 
rogues, and collected glass and other worthless stuff 
(794). Miidha, finally, knew nothing himself, did not ask 
Caru, did not hear what he said, or attach importance to 
it. A fool, who thought himself clever, he accumulated 
only conch-shells and other rubbish, and lost much wealth. 
Cheated by rogues, and not relying upon his friends, he 

40 According to a familiar belief of the Jains, the state of man is the most 
favorable stepping-stone to nirvana, more so than the state of god. 

The four friends on the treasure island 165 

foolishly passed his time (796). Cam, having filled a 
vessel full of jewels, wished to depart, and called upon 
his friends to return, if they had gained their ends. 
Yogya was unwilling to leave the island, acknowledged 
regretfully that he had neglected to attend sufficiently to 
business, and begged Caru to see to it that he also should 
accumulate a real fortune; then he would go with him. 
Hitajna showed the glass and other trifles which he had 
accumulated to Caru. Caru reproved him, and taught 
him how to appraise jewels. Thus he also managed to 
get some wealth, and followed Caru (806). Mudha, when 
asked by Caru, replied petulantly that he had no means 
with which to go. Caru offered him capital wherewith to 
do business, so that he might be able to get away. But 
Mudha said that his home was where he was enjoying 
himself; 41 that he was immersed in all sorts of pleasures, 
and engrossed with spectacles, and that he would stay 
just where he was (873). 

The allegory is explained: The city of Vasantapura 
represents the vulgar herd. The four friends are yati 
'Ascetic,'; graddha, 'Faithful'; bhadraka, 42 'Good'; 
and mithyadrsti, ' False-sight.' The jewel-isle is mortal 
existence; the crossing of the sea is the entrance of the 
soul into a womb ; the arrival by ship on the island is the 
attainment to the position of mortal man, owing to good 
karma. Caru, who filled his ship with the five different 
kinds of jewels, representing the planting in himself of 
submission to the five vows on the part of the ascetic 
( yati ) , the fifth being brahma. 43 Yogya 's desire for wealth, 
which resulted in the acquisition of but little, represents 

** Ubi bene ibi patria. 

43 Also in 2. 190. 

43 Comm. : brahmacaryam, or chastity. 

166 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

devotion to the lighter vows (anuvrata) on the part of a 
house-holder (grhin) who has first devoted himself to a 
life of the senses. 44 Hitajna, whose folly induced him to 
collect glass and other baubles, by the goodness (bhad- 
ratvena) of his soul becomes altogether devoted to reli- 
gion. 45 Mudha, who is deceived by rogues, so as to collect 
shells and other trash, represents the choice of irreligion 
on the part of one who sees falsely thru the prompting of 
unlawful impulses. That Caru induced Yogya and 
Hitajna to go to their homes, represents their enlighten- 
ment by an ascetic who is on the eve of salvation (yater 
asannamoksasya) ; that they, thru respect for Caru, 
regained their wealth, represents submission to the true 
religion on the part of the craddha and the bhadraka. 
That Mudha, tho instructed by Caru, did not go to his 
home, represents the disregard of salvation on the part 
of the worthless, even when taught by the teacher (823). 
The three first (yati, craddha, and bhadraka) attain sal- 
vation; the fourth (mithyadrsti), like Mudha, remains in 
the ocean of samsara. The wise man who remembers this 
essential instruction must strive, even tho it be late, to 
attain salvation (782-825). 

Frame Story: Life of Pargvanatha, continued 

After the Ganabhrt (Aryadatta) had finished his ser- 
mon, all the people paid reverence to Lord Parcva, and 
then dispersed to their various homes. A black, four- 
armed Yaksa, Parcva by name, who was born at that 
tirtha, 46 who carried as an umbrella the hood of a cobra, 
who had the face of an elefant, who had a tortoise for a 

44 Such a one is called craddha, 'Faithful,' above. 

45 That is, his devotion to religion, after error, constitutes him a 

* The connection does not make it clear which holy place is meant. 

Life of Pdrgvandtha 167 

vehicle, who held an ichneumon and a serpent in his left 
two forearms, a citron and a serpent in his right two 
forearms, became a devotee at the side of the Lord. 47 
Then a four-handed goddess, Padmavati by name, arose 
at that tirtha, golden of complexion, of distinguished 
might, having a kurkuta-serpent as chariot, holding in 
her right two hands a lotus and a noose, in her left two 
hands a fruit and a hook. She also stood, as orderly of 
the Arhat (casanadevata 48 ), at the side of the Lord. 49 
Then the Lord, followed by the assembly (samgha), went 
elsewhere, the wheel of the law upon a throne going in 
front, a drum sounding in the air. He was served by an 
umbrella and by chowries. He went on his journey upon 
golden lotuses, and, as he went, trees bent, thorns turned 
down; the seasons, the sense-objects (sound, smells, etc.), 
the winds, and the birds were propitious. By the might 
of his lordship diseases fled to a distance of 100 yojanas ; 
and where he dwelt, from there vanished hostility and 
other afflictions. Superior to every one, the lotus of his 
feet ever attended by scores of gods, the Lord traversed 
the earth (826-836). 

*" The text has here, bhaktah pargvo' bhavad vibhoh, where pargvo must 
be changed to pargve; compare stanza 830. 

46 So here ; elsewhere gasanadevi or gasanasundari. Hemacandra, Abhi- 
dhanacintamaiii 44-46 has a list of these female orderlies which serve each 
Jina. They are pictured in full panoply in the iconografy of the Jinas; 
see p. 19. Padmavati, as conceived by the Digamlbaras, is reproduced on 
a plate in connection with Burgess' article, Indian Antiquary xxxii, pp. 
459 ff., which is copied by Guerinot, Essai de Bibliographic Jaina, opposite 
to p. 281. See Parigistaparvan 9. 93; 12. 214; Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam 
sarga 2 (Burgess, Indian Antiquary, xxx. 246) ; Pancadandachattrapra- 
bandha, p. 8; Kathakoga, p. 27. 

49 Pargvayaksa, or Dharanendra ( see, p. 19 ) and Padmavati are the 
traditional attendant male and female spirits of the 23d Tirthamkara; see 
Burgess, Appendix to Biihler, Indian Sect of the Jainas; Stevenson, The 
Heart of Jainism, p. 313. 

168 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Saega the Eighth x 

Story of the misogynist Sdgaradatta, who was redeemed 
hy a clever woman 

The Lord of the world, in the course of his progress, 
in time arrived at Pundradeca. There, in the city of 
Tamralipti, lived a pious young merchant's son, Sagara- 
datta by name. In a former existence he had been a 
priest, and had been poisoned by his lewd wife. Cast out 
while unconscious he had been revived by a shepherd's 
wife (gokulini). He then became a wandering ascetic 
(parivraj), and, after death, was reborn as Sagaradatta. 
Owing to the memory of his former birth, he became a 
woman-hater. The kind shepherdess, who also died in 
piety, was reborn as the beautiful daughter of a merch- 
ant. Sagara cast longing eyes upon her; his relatives, 
knowing his sentiments, chose her as his wife ; but his eye 
only was pleased with her, not his, mind. For he looked 
upon women af right, as tho they were swords (6). 

Then the woman, undismayed, wrote him a gloka mes- 
sage : l Why, o wise man, dost thou neglect a devoted 
lady? The full-moon day makes shine the moon; light- 
ning, the ocean; woman, the householder. ' Sagara re- 
plied with a Qloka : 2 ' Like a river, woman is by nature 
unstable, tends downward ; she is ill-behaved, stupid, de- 
stroys both partners.' Again, concluding that his mind 
was poisoned by the memory of a woman's corruptness in 
a former birth, she sent him a second gloka : ' Surely, the 

1 The episodes in this sarga are in loose connection with the frame story 
containing the life of Parcva. The sarga is probably a later addition. 

2 See Bohtlingk, Indische Spruche, nr. 7209, and note 18, on p. 199. 

Story of the misogynist Sdgaradatta 169 

fault of a single woman must not be visited on her race : 
is the full-moon night to be shunned because of the dark 
night before the new-moon? ' Then Sagara, attracted by 
her insight and cleverness, married her, and enjoyed hap- 
piness with her (13). 

Sagara started on an expedition, but seven times his 
ship was wrecked. On reaching home he became despond- 
ent, until he saw some one draw from a well seven times, 
but get no water until the eighth. He again started for 
Ceylon, was driven by a storm upon a treasure island, 
and gathered a mass of treasure. On the way home, he 
was thrown overboard one night by his ship's crew. He 
floated ashore on a plank 3 to the city of Patalapatha, 
where he was seen by his father-in-law, who was travel- 
ing on business. On arriving home he recovered, by the 
aid of the king, his wealth from the mutinous crew, who 
had also returned (23). 

As part of his generous benefactions he decided to 
fashion a divine image of precious jewels, and asked the 
dharmatirthikas 4 what divinity would procure salvation 
(mukti). A certain Apta or Proficient told him to invest 
with divinity a precious jewel. 5 When he had gone thru 
the act eight times 6 he was to think of a certain goddess, 
who would tell him what he wished to know. He did this, 
whereupon a certain divinity placed before him a golden 
image of the Arhat. Returning to the Sadhus who had 
advised him, he showed them the image, and asked them 
who this god was, and how he was to be placed. They 
told him to consult Parcvanatha in Pundrade^a. Parcva 

3 See note on p. 49. 

4 Some sort of Jain Sages. 

3 sadratnam adhivasya; see Edgerton, JAOS. xxxiii. 164, and additional 
note 20, on p. 199. 

6 This in allusion to his own seven failures, and success the eighth time. 

170 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

instructed him on these matters; Sagara placed the 
image, and delightedly worshiped it. But, when Sagara 
the next day desired to take the vow with Pargva, the 
Lord, together with his retinue, had moved to another 
place (1-33). 

Story of the four pupils who, even tho sinning, attained 


Parcva had four well-born pupils, named Qiva, Sun- 
dara, Soma, and Jaya. They asked Parcva whether they 
would attain perfection (siddhi) in their present exist- 
ences. Pargva answered in the affirmative, whereupon, 
feeling secure, they devoted themselves to riotous living. 
But in time, when moksa (salvation) was at hand, they 
regretted their lapses, resorted to Parcva, attained the 
knowledge of Kevalins, and became Siddhas (34-48). 

Story of Bandhudatta 7 

At that time there lived in Nagapuri a merchant, 
named Dhanapati, who had an excellent son, named Ban- 
dhudatta. He married Candralekha, the daughter of 
Vasunanda. At the moment when the bride's bracelet 
was tied around her arm, she was bitten by a serpent, and 
died. In the same way six wives died as fast as he mar- 
ried them. He was, therefore, regarded as a ' poison- 
hand ' (visahasta), 8 and could not obtain any other 
maiden. His father, seeing him despondent, sent him on 
an expedition to Ceylon, where he acquired great wealth 
(53). On his return he was shipwrecked, but, catching 

7 Several features of this story recur in Samaradityasamksepa 6. 62 ff. 

8 See additional note 17, on p. 198. 

Story of Bandhudatta 171 

hold of a plank, 9 reached a treasure island. He managed 
gradually to climb the mountain of jewels, where he saw 
a jeweled caitya containing an image of the Arhat Nemi. 
Certain Sadhus who lived there, hearing his story, con- 
verted him to the religion of the Jina (58). A Vidya- 
dhara, Citrangada by name, himself a devout Jaina, was 
pleased with his piety, took him home, entertained him, 
and offered him the choice of two gifts : either the Science 
of flying thru the air, or a maiden in marriage. Bandhu- 
datta remained silent, which the Vidyadhara interpreted 
to signify the maid. A niece of his, Mrgankalekha, told 
the Vidyadhara that she had a friend, Priyadargana, in 
Kaugambi, about whom a Sage had predicted that she 
would beget a son, and then take the vow (64). 

Then Bandhu was sent in charge of some Vidyadharas 
to Kaugambi, where there was a temple of Parcva. He 
lauded Parcva with an elaborate hymn. While thus en- 
gaged, Jinadatta, the father of his prospective bride, 
came there to praise the Jina, was pleased with Bandhu's 
piety, took him home, and married him to Priyadargana. 
He lived there four years, at the end of which he started 
home with his wife in a pregnant condition (85). After 
passing thru a wild forest, his caravan, camping by a 
lake, was attacked by Bhillas, 10 belonging to a village 
chieftain, Candasena. They brought the loot with Priya- 
dargana to Candasena. He saw her dejected, and learned 
from her that she was the daughter of Jinadatta. As- 
tonished at this revelation, he bowed before her, and told 
her that she was his sister, because she was the daughter 

9 See note on p. 49. 

10 Encounters with Bhillas, Cabaras, Mlechas, Tajikas, Pulindas, Kiratas, 
Abhiras, Nisadas, wild hunters, and robbers, are as much stock motifs of 
Hindu fiction, as are encounters in forests with thieves and robbers in 
Western fiction. 

172 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

of his benefactor, Jinadatta. The latter had once saved 
him from being executed as a thief (92). Then he asked 
her what he might do for her: 11 she told him to find 
Bandhudatta, from whom she had been separated in the 
melee of the attack. He went in search, but did not find 
him, whereupon he took oath that he would enter the fire, 
in case her husband was not restored to her within six 
months. Candasena then sent out all his Bhillas, but even 
so they did not find Bandhu. In great worry, Candasena 
concluded that Bandhu, in despair, had made away with 
himself (98). He decided to take Priyadargana back to 
Kaugambi, after she had brought forth her child; after 
that he would enter the fire. While in this state of mind, 
a handmaiden announced that Priyadarcana had born a 
son. Thereupon he vowed to his house divinity, Canda- 
sena by name, 12 that he would offer up ten men 13 to her, 
in case Priyadargana and her son should remain in good 
health for a month. After 25 days had passed peacefully 
he sent out his men to capture ten men fit for sacrifice 

In the meantime Bandhudatta had wandered despair- 
ingly in the Hintala forest. Unable longer to endure 
separation from Priyadarcana, he was about to hang 
himself upon a saptachada tree, when he saw a separated 
hansa-bird couple reunited, 14 gathered hope from the 
sight, and decided to return to his own city. But worry- 
ing, because it seemed improper to return without his 

11 The trait of gratitude in otherwise depraved Bhillas or Oabaras is 
not uncommon ; see, e. g. Samaradityasamksepa 6. 62 ff. ; 7. 287 ff . In the 
first of these instances the hero's name is also Bandhudatta. 

M Mentioned later in verse 168 in the short form Canda = Durga. 

13 See note on p. 205. This feature in Samaradityasamksepa 6. 49 ff. 

14 The separation of a pair of harisas is typical of separated lovers ; see 
Gray's translation of Vasavadatta, p. 57, note 11; Samaradityasamksepa 
5. 162, 185, 232, 273, 490 ff. 

Story of Bandhudatta 173 

wife, he decided to go to an uncle of his, Dhanadatta by- 
name, in Vicala, to borrow from him the money where- 
with to ransom Priyadargana from her captor, the Qa- 
bara chief. As he traveled, he came, tired, to the house of 
a Yaksa, and there met another wayfarer. He found out 
that he was from Vigala, so he inquired after the welfare 
of his uncle Dhanadatta. The traveler related that Dha- 
nadatta's son and his wife had offended the king, and 
were confined in prison ; that Dhanadatta had undertaken 
to ransom them; and, for that purpose, had set out for 
Nagapuri, to get the money from him, namely Bandhu- 
datta. In despair at this prank of fortune, Bandhudatta 
remained there, awaiting Dhanadatta, who was sure to 
come that way to Nagapuri. After five days Dhanadatta 
with some friends came along and halted at the same 
shrine. Bandhu made sure it was his uncle, but did not 
reveal his own identity (123). 

In the morning Bandhu went to bathe in a river, near 
which he discovered in a mine-pit a copper chest full of 
treasure. Then he made himself and his adventures 
known to Dhanadatta, and offered him the chest where- 
with to ransom his family. Dhanadatta refused, bidding 
him first to ransom his wife, Priyadarcana (128). In the 
mean time soldiers of the king arrived, and held up every 
one who had passed there on the suspicion of robbery. 
Dhanadatta and Bandhudatta, frightened, threw the 
chest down by the temple of the Yaksa, were discovered 
in the act, and cross-examined about themselves and 
treasure. They alleged that they were merchants from 
Vigala, on their way to Lata, and that the treasure was 
inherited. The king's minister, who was with the sol- 
diers, himself opened the chest, and discovered the king's 
name upon jewels contained therein (135). He suspected 
that the chest was only part of the loot taken from the 

174 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

king ; had them beaten ; but could extract no more infor- 
mation. They were thrown into a hell-like pit, but noth- 
ing further came to light (138). 

Now at the end of six months a certain rogue in the 
garb of an ascetic, 15 having been caught with money on 
his person, was brought before the minister. Because a 
mendicant should not have so much money, he was con- 
demned to death as a thief, and taken outside by the 
soldiers. He then confessed that he had formerly stolen 
the king's treasure, of which the chest was a part, and 
all was duly found except that chest (144). The thief 
then tells his story. He is the son of a Brahman in the 
city of Pundravardhana ; his name is Qridhara. Once he 
saw some men apprehended as thieves, and cried out that 
those criminals ought to be executed. A Muni repri- 
manded him for his ignorance, telling him that those 
offenders were merely harvesting the fruits of a previous 
existence: ' You also will certainly gather the fruit of 
your previous faults.' When asked to explain, the Muni 
narrated (49-150) : 

Prenatal history of the thief in the guise of an ascetic 16 

In the city of Garjana, you lived as a pious Brahman, 
named Candradeva. There also lived a celebrated as- 
cetic, Yogatman. Now a certain widow, Viramati by 
name, went off with a gardener, named Sinhala ; as fate 
would have it, Yogatman disappeared on the same day. 
When all the people of the town gossiped that Viramati 
had gone somewhere, you stated that she had certainly 
eloped with Yogatman; the people, therefore, became 

15 See additional note 12, on p. 191. 

16 This story recurs in Samaradityasamksepa 4. 201 fl. 

Story of Bandhudatta 175 

scurrilous about that ascetic (159). Having committed 
this detestable (nikacitam 17 ) deed, you died, and were 
reborn successively as goat, jackal, and whoreson, being 
now in your fourth birth. The Brahman (Yogatman) 
died of mouth disease 18 in all his existences, and was 
reborn into his same state. Therefore you still have a 
remnant of your karma to work off (151-156). 

Story of Bandhudatta, continued 

The thief continued his history : 19 Frightened by the 
Muni's exposition, he had resorted to asceticism under 
the instruction of a Guru. Out of regard for him the 
teacher had bestowed upon him the Sciences (vidya) of 
going in the air, and of opening locks, with the proviso 
that these would prove ineffective, unless he preserved 
purity of life and avoided lies. But, in case he did lie 
from carelessness, he was to stand in water up to his 
navel, and, with his arms held upward, recite the vidyas 
1008 times. The teacher then went to heaven, but the 
thief, dissolute person that he was, did everything other- 
wise. Next day some women in the forest inquired why 
he was an ascetic. He told them, because his wife had 
died ; moreover he did not perform the expiation for this 
lie. Next, he performed theft by night, 20 and was seized 
by guards, whereupon the Science of going in the air 

17 See p. 230. 

18 Symbolizing the slander from which he had suffered. 

n This feature of the thief's story, less well told, recurs in Samaraditya- 
samksepa 4. 218 ff. The theme of Jataka 474 is likewise the power of lies 
to suspend the action of a profitable magic charm. See also Paksi Paka- 
ranam xx, in the analysis by Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 351; and Samara- 
dityasamksepa 6. 41 ff. 

30 By the aid of the lock-opening science or charm, verse 158. 

176 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

failed to operate. Therefore, the thief concluded, ' do 
what is customary ' (163). 

The minister asked the thief why one jewel casket 
was missing, 21 and he answered that some traveler had 
found it by chance (daivatas). The minister then merci- 
fully discharged him, and called the two confined sus- 
pects. 22 After they had repeated their story, they were 
released. But, as they went their way, they fell into the 
hands of the Bhillas, whom Candasena had ordered to cap- 
ture victims for his goddess Canda. 23 They were joined 
to others who had been caught for the same purpose, 
being kept in the temple of the goddess. The chieftain 
Canda arrived with Priyadarcana and her boy. Consid- 
ering that she would not be able to endure the sight of the 
horrible rite, he covered up her eyes with a garment (170). 
It happened that Bandhudatta was first to be brought on 
for the sacrifice. As he pronounced the paramesthinamas- 
kara, 24 his wife recognized his voice, and uncovered her 
eyes. The chieftain released him, and asked his pardon 
(177). Bandhudatta begged off the other victims, the 
goddess thereafter being content with praise, flowers, and 
the like. He then introduced his wife to Dhanadatta who 
blessed her and praised her husband. Their boy was 
named Bandhavananda in allusion to Bandhu's name and 
the fact that he was a joy to his relatives. Dhanadatta 
with the money he needed (to ransom his family) re- 
turned home. Bandhudatta, escorted by the Bhilla chief, 
returned to Nagapuri, was honored by the king, and the 
story of his adventures converted many to the religion 
of the Jina (157-191). 

21 Namely, that which Bandhudatta had found. 

22 Bandhudatta and Dhanadatta. 

"Mentioned previously by fuller name as Candasena; see verse 101. 
24 See note on p. 26. 

Story of Bandhudatta's former lives 177 

Story of Bandhudatta's former lives 25 

Twelve years later in the autumn of the year, Parcva 
came to Nagapuri. Bandhudatta went out to do him 
honor, and asked what karma of his had caused the death 
of his first six wives ; why his separation from Priyadar- 
gana; and why his captivity. The saint narrated (199) : 

In the Vindhya forest lived a fierce Qabara chieftain, 
Qikharasena, who had a wife, Qrimati. They entertained 
a Sadhu who had lost his way, in return for which he 
instructed them especially in ahihsa. 26 Once the chief 
and his wife were attacked by a lion. The chief was about 
to discharge his bow, when he was reminded by Qrimati 
of the Sadhu's instruction. He desisted; they were both 
devoured by the lion, being reborn in the Saudharma 
heaven as gods who lived an enormous length of time 
(209). Qikharasena fell, was reborn in Cakrapuri in 
Videha as Mrganka, son of the Bhilla king Kuru- 
mrganka; his wife, as Vasantasena, daughter of Kuru- 
mrganka's brother-in-law King Subhusana. Again they 
were united in marriage. Mrganka 's father turned as- 
cetic, so that the son became king (213). His karma, left 
over from his Bhilla life, sprang up, to wit : A king, Var- 
dhana in Jayapura, demanded Vasantasena, his beloved 
wife, else he would wage war against him. They joined 
in battle, Vardhana was defeated, fled, but later on en- 
gaged Mrganka and killed him. Owing to his raudra- 
dhyana (fierce thought), Mrganka went to the sixth hell, 
joined on the funeral pyre by Vasantasena (220). Rising 
thence, they were reborn on the island of Puskara, in the 
homes of two laborers, and again married. Owing to 

■ This episode recurs in Samaradityasamksepa 8. 255 ff. 
28 See above, p. 43. 

178 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

good deeds they again attained to the world of Brahma, 
fell thence, and were reborn into their present state, 
namely, as the children of merchants. Their misfortunes 
in their present lives were due to karma left over from 
their lives as Bhillas (225). 

Bandhudatta expressed his delight at having met the 
Lord Pargva, and having been led by him from vice to 
virtue. He asked for further instruction, and heard 
many items of the true religion (saddharmagastra), il- 
lustrated finally by the following story (192-236) : 

Story of Qrigupta, gambler, thief, and murderer, who 
was ultimately redeemed 

A merchant, Mahldhara, enjoyed the favor of Nala, the 
righteous king of Varjayanti. The merchant had a son, 
Qrigupta, addicted to every vice. On one occasion Mahl- 
dhara poured out his heart before the king, but even he 
was unable to help. Mahldhara, related that Qrigupta 
had broken into the house of a merchant, Soma, and 
robbed him of his all. To compensate, he offered to give 
all his own property. The king consoled him, and, when 
he learned from the people of the city that Qrigupta had 
stolen 25,000 gold pieces, he restored them from his own 
treasury (250). After chiding a negligent watchman, he 
upbraided Qrigupta, and bade him return the loot. Qri- 
gupta denied all knowledge of the theft, whereupon the 
king proposed resort to an ordeal. Qrigupta asked who 
was the complainant ; the king assumed the role, and ap- 
pointed the judges. Then Qrlgupta checked the action of 
the ordeal by means of a magic mantra, so that he re- 
mained untouched by the fire of the heated ploughshare. 
The king was desolated by his own apparent injustice as 
complainant, and declared that he himself must suffer the 

Story of Qrigupta 179 

thief's punishment (259). At the urgent request of his 
ministers, as well as Qrigupta's father, he finally agreed 
to subject Qrigupta to a second ordeal, this time super- 
vised by a manager of ordeals (divyamantrika), named 
Kucalin (266). In this ordeal Qrigupta's hands were 
burned, whereupon he confessed. Out of regard for his 
father, Qrigupta was allowed to go free, but was ban- 
ished. He went to Gajapura, there met Kugalin, slew 
him, but was caught, and hanged upon a tree. The weight 
of his body broke the branch, he fell to the ground, re- 
gained consciousness, and fled to a distance (274). Ar- 
riving at a jungle he heard the sermon of a Muni, and was 
converted (286). 

While going to sleep upon the branch of a banyan tree 
he overheard the conversation of a pair of parrots. 27 The 
male told the female that he had learned from a certain 
Sage that there was a tirtha at Qatrumjaya to which all 
the blessed Sadhus, beginning with Qripundarika 28 had 
resorted ; by bathing there one might rise in the scale of 
existences. Qrigupta asked the parrot to communicate 
to him the instruction which he had received from the 
Sage, which he did. Thereupon Qrigupta turned ascetic, 
and the parrot went to the mountain of Qatrumjaya 

In the mean time Qrigupta's father had gone in search 
of his son. He found him a devout ascetic, and took him 
home with him. The king received him kindly. The par- 
rot, who had in the mean time become a god in the Sanat- 
kumara Kalpa, visited him in a dream, and told him that 
he would die at the end of seven days. Qrigupta devoted 
his last days to severe penance, died, went to heaven, and 
will gradually attain perfection (237-328). 

27 See additional note 2, on p. 185. 

28 See the story on p. 142. 

180 Life and Stories of PdrgvandtJia 

Parable of the pitcher that fell from an old woman's head 

Parcva's sermon goes on to show that diligent stndy 
of the Qastras imparts refined judgment, as shown by the 
following parable : Two pupils, studying on the bank of 
a river, saw an old woman with a pitcher of water on her 
head. The granny, delighted with their sight, asked them 
whether her son, who had gone to foreign parts, would 
return safely. At the thought of her son, old as she was, 
her limbs began to shake ; the pitcher fell from her head, 
and was smashed upon the ground (333). At the sight 
of this mishap, one of the pupils had a stupid intuition, 
and said, that was a sign that her son was dead. The 
other pupil told the first not to talk nonsense, and bade the 
old woman go home, she would find that her son had re- 
turned. The granny found her son at home. Delighted, 
she went to the house of the pupils ' teacher, and got him 
to ask the wise pupil how he had read from the seemingly 
sinister omen of the broken pitcher the happy arrival of 
her son (338). The pupil said that he had read it out 
of the union of the water with the earth. The teacher 
praised him, and predicted that he would become a 
teacher of noble men (329-342). 

Story of Bandhudatta, concluded 

After this instruction, Bandhudatta asked the Lord 
what would be the fate of himself and wife. Parcva pre- 
dicted that, after death, they would go to the Sahasrara 
heaven ; fall thence ; become respectively emperor and em- 
press in Videha ; turn ascetics after having enjoyed the 
world; and then enter into perfection (siddhi). There- 
upon Bandhu and his wife took the vow (347), and finally 
obtained moksa (salvation) (349-357). 

Life of Pargvanatha 181 

Frame Story: Life of Pdrgvanatha, concluded. His 


Lord Parcva, knowing that nirvana was at hand, went 
to the Sammeta mountain 29 (363). In the company of 33 
Munis he practised a month's asceticism (368). He at- 
tained to various forms of spiritual refinement, to the 
point when his karma was destroyed (ksmakarma), died, 
and reached the summit of heaven (lokagram asadat). 
Cakra bathed the body in the fluid of the ' ocean of milk ' 
(ksirambhodhijalaih), and adorned it with divine orna- 
ments (378). The gods placed his body upon a pyre of 
sandal and aloe wood, and threw fragrant substances 
upon it (383). Cloud youths (meghakumarakah) quench- 
ed (vyadhyapayan) the pyre (385). Over the bones of the 
Lord the gods erected a jeweled stupa, and then dispersed 
to their several homes (358-393). 

" Henceforth known as the mountain of Pargvanatha ( Pargvanatha- 
gikhara); see Indian Antiquary ii. 354. According to Wilson, Asiatic 
Researches xvii, p. 276, there is a temple of Pargvanatha on Mount Sameta 
Sikhar or Parasnath in Pachete, on the frontier of Ramgarh, described in 
' Description of the Temple of Pargvanatha at Samet Sikhar,' by Lieut-Col. 
William Franklin, in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, i. 
507 ft*. See also Colebrooke's Essays, 2 vol. ii, p. 191, note 3. 


These are, in general, longer comments whose presence in the 
body of the book would interrupt the connection, or distract the 
attention of the reader. They are for the most part either small 
treatises, or bibliografical summaries of the leading fiction motifs 
which are braided into the stories. The author, with a view to 
future encyclopedic treatment (see his Program in the Journal of 
the American Oriental Society, xxxvi. 54 fi\), has undertaken to 
furnish these motifs with that caption under which it seemed to 
him fit or likely that they may in future pass current among stu- 
dents of fiction. For these subjective conclusions he begs, where 
possible, the complacent, or even indulgent consent of other workers 
in this field. Settled conventions in this regard are a prime tech- 
nical help in the systematical study of fiction, more important than 
personal preferences, however justified these might be when taken 
up singly by themselves; consider, e. g., such motif captions as 
1 Cave Call/ ' Tortoise-on-Stick/ or * Count not your chickens before 
they are Hatched/ on pp. 58 ff. of the article cited above. 

The numerous citations following, for the most part, explain 
themselves. The Dacakumara Carita is cited in the edition in two 
volumes, by Buhler and Peterson, in the Bombay Sanskrit Series, 
volumes x and xlii. Pradyumnacarya's Samaradityasamksepa (ed. 
Jacobi, Ahmedabad 1906) is cited as Samarad. The source of the 
last-mentioned work, the Prakrit Samaraiccakaha, is not completely 
in my hands, and is, therefore, cited rarely. 

Additional note 1, to p. 29 : Promise to return. 

This motif of fiction may be designated conventionally as, 
* Promise to return.' The return, on its face, it always to sure 
destruction or to an evil fate ; yet turns out happily for the returner. 
In Kathasaritsagara 123. 170 ff. Kegata comes upon a Raksasa who 
proposes to devour him. Kegata swears that he will return, aftei 
having done a service he promised. He is allowed to go, and 
marries Rupavati. In the night, after lying awake despondently, 
he starts to return, but is followed by Rupavati, who has noticed his 


184 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

queer actions. The Raksasa acclaims him a noble man, but pre- 
pares to eat him. Kupavati says, ' Bat me, for if my husband is 
eaten, what will become of me?' The Raksasa says, ' You can live 
on alms, if any one refuses to give you alms, his head shall split 
into a hundred pieces/ Then she says, ' Give me my husband by 
way of alms.' The Eaksasa will not give him : his head splits into 
a hundred pieces. — ft". B. This story introduces two additional 
familiar motifs: 'Head bursting' (e. g., Brhaddevata 4. 120; 
Parevanatba 2. 812; Jatakas 210, 358, 422) ; and 'Devil Tricked' 
(< Dummer Taufel ') ; e. g. Kathas. 28. 156 ft. ; ZDMG. lxi. 20, with 
note on p. 69. 

Vetalapancavingati : Qivadasa, 9 ; Kathasaritsagara 84 ; Baital 
Pachisi 9, Madanasena is engaged to Samudradatta. Dharmadatta 
sees her, falls in love with her, and exacts from her a promise that 
she will come to him, untouched, on her bridal night. Her husband 
generously permits her to go to her ardent lover. On the way she 
is seized by a thief, who is also ravished by her beauty. She tells 
him of her tryst with Dharmadatta, and begs him to wait for her 
return, because she must keep her promise. When she comes to 
Dharmadatta, she tells what has happened. Rejoiced at her truth- 
fulness, he lets her return to the thief, who in turn is moved by 
her faith, and allows her to return to her husband, with whom she 
lives happily ever after. — For parallels outside India see Tawney 
in his Translation of Kathasaritsagara, vol. ii, p. 281; Oesterley, 
Baital Pachisi, p. 197 if. 

Hitopadega in Braj Bhakha (Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 56, 
who cites a variant from Hemavijaya's Katharatnakara) : A cow 
strays from the herd, is attacked by a hungry lion, but begs him 
to spare her, until she has given suck to her calf. The lion allows 
her to go, but when she approaches her calf, the latter notices her 
grief, and refuses to suck. The cow tells of her promise; the calf 
accompanies the cow back to the lion, because its grief for its 
mother would, in any case, have killed it. The lion is rejoiced, 
and declares that the cow henceforth is his sister; the calf his 

Jataka 513, a king is seized by an ogre, while hunting. The ogre 
allows the king to go home on a promise to return next day to be 
eaten. His heroic son returns in his place, but is spared by the 

Additional Notes 185 

Additional note 2, to p. 30 : Overhearing. 

One of the most fecund of Hindu story motifs is ' Overhearing/ 
either under natural human circumstances, or, oftener, in the 
sequel of magical interference in the fate of the hero of the story 
on the part of some sentient beings. In the latter case, especially, 
overhearing serves as deus ex machina, to save from death, sickness, 
or grave danger ; to lift from poverty, or low station, to wealth and 
glory; and to instruct in wisdom or morality. The conversing 
parties are usually a pair; sometimes a large or indeterminate 
number; rarely a soliloquist. Birds are the favorite conversers; 
spirits and Raksasas (' dumme taufel ') are common, but other ani- 
mals and even men occur. The subject will figure as an important 
rubric in the future Encyclopedia of Hindu Fiction. By way of 
preliminary bibliography we may mention: Chandogya-Upanisad 
4. 1. 2; Mahabharata 13. 42. 17 ff.; Pancatantra 2. 2; 2. 5; 3. 10; 
Kathasaritsagara 5. 20 ff.; 11. 63 ff.; 17. 115 ft.; 20. 162; 26. 28; 
28. 123; 29. 128 ft.; Vikrama Carita 11 and 14 (Indische Studien, 
xv, pp. 344, 359); Lescallier, Le Trone Enchante, pp. 30 ff.; 
Jatakas 284, 314, 386, 445; Parcvanatha Caritra 2. 518 ft., 839 ff.; 
3. 382; 7. 87, 428 ff.; 8. 287 ff.; Paricjstaparvan 7. 290 ff.; Katha- 
koga, pp. 49 ff., 55 ff., 125 ff., 160 ff. ; Prabandhacintamani, p. 174; 
Kathaprakaga (Eggeling in Gurupujakaumudi, pp. 121, 123) ; Su- 
vabahuttarikatha. nr. 71 (Hertel. in Festschrift f. Ernst Windisch, 
pp. 149 ff.) ; Hemavijaya's Katharatnakara, nr. 29 (Hertel, Das 
Pancatantra, p. 145) ; Pancakhyanavarttika, nrs. 26 and 34 (Hertel, 
ibid. 145, 147) ; Jiilg, Mongolische Marchen, pp. 11, 147 ff.; Kal- 
miikische Marchen, pp. 27 ff., 53 ff.; Siamese Paksi Pakaranam 
nr. 24 (Hertel, ibid., p. 351) ; Pavie, Contes Populaires du Cam- 
bodge, pp. 110 ff.; Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, pp. 40 ff., 105 ff., 
132 ff.; Frere, Old Deccan Days, pp. 74 ff., 120 ff., 136 ff.; Steel 
and Temple, Wide- Awake Stories, pp. 138 ff. ; Stokes, Indian Fairy 
Tales, p. 5; Neogi, Tales Sacred and Secular, p. 87; ZDMG. lxi. 
26; Indian Antiquary, iv. 261; x. 366 ff.; xi. 342; xvii. 75. 

Additional note 3, to p. 30 : Proclamation by drum. 

Proclamation or advertizing is regularly done by beat of drum. 
He who responds to the advertizement touches the drum, and is 
brought before the king for a hearing. Thus Parcvanatha 3. 460, 

186 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

Prabandhacintamani, p. 112; Kathakoga, pp. 29, 151, 164; Pan- 
catantra 5. 13; Qukasaptati 46; Suvabahuttarikatha nr. 72 (Hertel, 
in Festschrift fiir Ernst Windisch, p. 151) ; Jatakas 27, 231, 233, 
241, 243, 257, 432; Story of TJdayana (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Er- 
zahlungen, p. 29, 1. 6) ; Pancadandacbattraprabandha 4 (p. 44) ; 
Samarad. 4. 145 ft. ; Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, pp. 25, 91, 213. 

Additional note 4, to p. 30 : Princess and half the kingdom. 

The offer on the part of a king, of the princess' hand and half 
the kingdom, or half the kingdom by itself, is a cliche of the fairy 
tale; see, e. g., Kathasaritsagara 29. 164; 64, 85; Cukasaptati 46; 
Pancadandachattraprabandha 4 (p. 44) ; ZDMG. 61. 21 ; Suva- 
bahuttarikatha (Festschrift fiir Ernst Windisch, p. 151) ; Ealston, 
Tibetan Tales, p. 43 ; Frere, Old Decean Days, p. 37 ; Day, Folk- 
Tales of Bengal, pp. 25, 78; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, 
vol. i, p. 142; Neogi, Tales Sacred and Secular, pp. 61, 67, 125. 
See Benfey, Das Paricatantra, i. 520, 522. 

Additional note 5, to p. 31 : On a certain aspect of the overhearing 


This curious statement must not be regarded as a general proverb, 
such as ' the earth hears/ or, ' walls have ears/ but as a brachylogic 
allusion to a definite occurrence. Kathakoga, p. 164, states in the 
same connection : i My child, I will tell you in the day, after look- 
ing round, and not at night. Very cunning people wander about 
under the banyan-tree, like Vararuci.' This stanza is quoted in 
Sanskrit in nr. 26 of the Gujarat! Pancakhyanavarttika (see Her- 
tel, Das Paricatantra, p. 144, note 2), to wit: diva niriksya vakta- 
vyam ratrau naiva oa naiva ca, samcaranti mahadhurta vate vara- 
rucir yatha. According to Hertel this stanza stands' also at the 
head of nr. 29 in Hemavijaya's Katharatnakara. The stanza 
alludes to the well-known story, Kathas. 5. 14 If., in which Vararuci 
solves the riddle why the dead fish laughed, and so saves the life 
of a Brahman, and himself gets out of a tight place. The same 
notion of hindering overhearing appears also in the Kathaprakaga ; 
see Eggeling in Gurupujakaumudi, p. 121. This trait of fiction 
tends to become quasi-proverbial, but does not quite reach the status 
of a proverb. 

Additional Notes 187 

Additional note 6, to p. 31 : Miraculous cures. 

Miraculous or skilful cures are common in fiction. Thus, e. g., 
secretions of ascetics cure diseases in our text, 6. 1226; Kathakoga, 
p. 36; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen aus dem Maharastri, p. 27, 
1. 35 if. ; dust from ascetics' feet does the same thing, Dagakumara- 
carita, ii, p. 45 ; leprosy is cured by dung, Hertel, Das Pancatantra, 
pp. 128, 279. Poison is cured by prayers, charms, or charmed 
water, Kathakoga, p. 102; Dagakumaracarita, i, pp. 11, 49; Jacobi, 
1. c, p. 83, verse 274\ Especially the jewel from a serpent's head 
cures poison in Campakagresthikathanakam ; see Hertel, ZDMG. 
lxv, pp. 436 note 1, 451. See also the tale of Jivaka in Ralston, 
Tibetan Tales, pp. 58 ff. Cf . Benfey, Das Pancatantra, vol. i, pp. 
518, 534. For folklore, see Steel and Temple, Wide-Awake Stories, 
p. 417, bottom. 

Additional note 7, to p. 32 : Hansa bird and crow. 

This fable of the hansa and the crow, as well as its integral 
traits, are most popular in Hindu fiction. The fable itself Hito- 
padega, 3, 4; Jataka 140; Hemavijaya, Katharatnakara, 90; Pan- 
cakhyanavarttika, nr. 20 (the last two quoted or cited by Hertel, 
Das Pancatantra, p. 143) ; Rouse, The Talking Thrush, pp. 53, 203. 
Alluded to fragmentarily, Kathakoga, p. 165. The Siamese Paksi 
Pakaranam contains two fables directed against any kind of inter- 
course between swan and crow; see Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 
348, 353. The lowness of the crow is contrasted with the distinc- 
tion of the hansa in Kathakoga, pp. 186, 223; Samayamatrka 
(Meyer's Translation), p. xvii; ZMDG. lxi. 51 note 4, 57; Boht- 
lingk's Indische Spruche, 1137, 1613, 1616, 3500, 6211. Kathas. 
112. 96 asks, 'How can a crow and a female swan ever unite?' 
See also the old fable of the race between the hansa and crow, 
Mahabh. 8. 41. 1 ff., and cf. Jataka 160. For defecating crow see 
also Spruche 5204; Parker, Folk-Tales, vol. i, p. 224. 

In Pancatantra 2. 3; Purnabhadra 1. 12 association between 
hansa and owl results in destruction of the former. On the other 
hand the vile crow is contrasted with other birds than the hansa, 
especially the kokila: Kathas. 21. 80; Pargvanatha 5. 174; Bambha- 
datta (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen), p. 5, 1. 20; Spruche, 
1612, 1922, 2928, 3248, 6124, 7292. Other animals that misbehave 

188 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

are the cock, Jatakas 284 and 370; and the monkey, Jatakas 174, 
244, 278, 404, 412. 

Additional note 8, to p. 34: Biter bit. 

This is the popular fiction motif which may be designated, c Biter 
bit/ i Often the harm that one wishes to do to another, recoils on 
one's self, as a ball thrown against a wall/ Kathas. 20. 213. In the 
version of the present story in the Suvabahuttarikatha, no*. 72, the 
plotting servitor (here a barber) is boiled in oil. In the story of 
Vanaraja, Pargvanatha 7. 710 2. (see p. 157), Narasinha, son of 
King Susthita who plots against Vanaraja, is killed instead of 
Vanaraja, and Susthita comes to grief. The son of the treasurer 
who sends Ghosaka to be killed by a potter, changes places 
with Ghosaka and is killed, Dhammapada Commentary 2. 1 (page 
80 of Burlingame's Digest). In Kathas. 20. 195 ff. King Aditya- 
prabha plots to victimize the Brahman Phalabhuti, but, instead, 
his own son Candraprabha comes to grief. Excellent * Biter 
bit' stories are told in Julg, Kalmiikische Marchen, pp. 43 ff., 
55 ff. ; Kathako^a, p. 130. The theme is implicated with that of 
the ' Uriah letter'; see note on p. 160. For other Oriental and 
Western parallels see Benfey, Pancatantra i. 320; Tawney, Trans- 
lation of the Kathasaritsagara, vol. i, p. 162 note ; and Cosquin, Le 
conte de ' la chaudiere brouillante et la f einte maladressee ' dans 
l'lnde et hors de l'lnde, Revue des Traditions Populaires, January- 
April, 1910. For the same psychic motif in folklore see Steel and 
Temple, Wide-Awake Stories, p. 408. Cf. also Indian Antiquary, 
x. 190; xi. 84 ff. 

Additional note 9, to p. 39 : Lecherous Ass. 

The popular conception that the ass is a lecherous animal is 
reflected especially in ritualistic texts and fiction. Weber, In- 
dische Studien, x. 102, and Pischel, Vedische Studien, i. 82 ff., 
have gathered a considerable number of passages from both kinds 
of sources; cf. also Benfey, Pancatantra, i. 432. In fable and 
fairy-tale the ass scarcely ever appears out of this role; see, e. g. 
Pancatantra 4. 7; Hitopadeca 3. 3; Kathas. 63. 134; ZDMG. lxi. 
20; Dhammapada Commentary 1. 9 C . In Parcvanatha 7. 225 a 
bawd (kuttini) is turned into a she-ass; similarly in Pancadanda- 

Additional Notes 189 

chattraprabandha 3 (p. 39). In Vikrama Carita (Indische Stu- 
"dien xv. 252; Lescallier, Le Trone Enchante, p. 4) Indra's door- 
keeper atones for his unchastity in the same distressing way. But 
the more frequent use of this idea as an incidental or progressive 
motif in fiction is, as here, ' ride on the ass ' on the part of the 
delinquent. Thus Pargvanatha 3. 885; Vetalapancavingati (Qiva- 
dasa) 21; Ealston, Tibetan Tales, p. 232; Samayamatrka (Meyer's 
Translation), p. 79, note. The ideal procedure is, to place the 
delinquent face to tail, holding the tail of the ass in hand in place 
of bridle, and so to be paraded round the city. See Elliot's History 
of India (ed. Dowson), vi. 300, and cf. Weber's note to Paiica- 
dandachattraprabandha, p. 75. 

Additional note 10, to p. 44: Dreams as auguries. 

The science of dreams is especially expert in foretelling the birth 
of a noble son, or of a son who is, quite unexpectedly, destined to 
become a king. Conspicuous are the fourteen great dreams that 
indicate, especially in Jain literature, the birth of a Tirthamkara 
(Savior), or a Cakravartin (emperor) ; they are described with the 
utmost elaboration in Kalpasutra 32 ff. Otherwise, e. g., Pargva- 
natha 3. 10; 4. 13; 5. 31; 6. 1014; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzah- 
lungen, p. 4, 1. 34; p. 20, 1. 16; Nirayavalisuttam, ed. Warren, 
Aanteckingen, pp. 22 ff. (Amsterdam Academy, 1879). Sixteen 
great dreams are treated by Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 
314 ff. ; Wilson, Mackenzie Collection i. 148; Weber, Qatrumjaya 
Mahatmyam, p. 37, note 2; J. Burgess, Indian Antiquary, xxx. pp. 
293, 298. Cf. Bidpai's fables (Keith-Falconer) xxxi ff., 209 ff. 

Drinking the moon, or being entered by the moon, or seeing the 
moon is an equally frequent augury of royalty. The Tirthamkara 
Candraprabhu is born, after his pregnant mother has longed to 
drink the moon ; see Stevenson, The Heart of Jainism, p. 53. Mii- 
ladeva dreams that the full-orbed moon has entered his belly, 1 a sign 
that he will become king. The sight of the moon in a dream 
secures to Madanarekha (Madanareha) an imperial son, in the 
story of Nami. 2 In Parigistaparvan 8. 231, a pregnant woman 
desires to drink the moon, a sign that her son will become king. 

1 Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 62, 1. 5. 

1 Jacobi. ibid., p. 41. 1. 23 ff . ; Kathakoca, p. 19; Pargvanatha 6. 792. 

190 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

In Kathakoga, p. 71 queen Qrisundari is foretold by dream of the 
moon that she will be the mother of king Kurucandra. See also 
Samarad. 5. 8. 

Again, a dream lion is a sign of royalty. Thus the present pas- 
sage; Samarad. 2. 8; and Parigistaparvan 2. 52, where Dharini, 
after seeing a lion in a dream, conceives a son, Jambu, who is an 
incarnation of the god Vidyunmalin. The rebirths of Gunasena 
and Agnigarman in Bradyumnasuri's Samaradityasamksepa 2. 8, 
357; 3. 10; 4. 13; 5. 8; 7. 8; 8. 8 are regularly heralded by glorious 
dreams. And Kunti gives birth successively to three sons, each 
ushered in by auspicious dreams in the Qatrurhjaya Mahatmyam 
(Burgess, Ind. Ant. xxxi. p. 299). Cf. also Kathakoga, p. 64. 
For other dreams that augur royalty see my article on Muladeva, 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. lii, p. 646, 
note 63. 

In other ways also dreams are associated with child birth and 
child happiness. Especially, children are named to match dreams. 
In Qalibhadra Carita 2. 51 Bhadra, wife of the merchant Gobhadra, 
sees a ripening rice-field, and bears a son who is given the name 
of Qalibhadra (' Rice-luck '). In the present text, 5. 125, the Saint 
Pargva owes his name to a dream. Apparently this mode of nam- 
ing is particularly popular with the Jainas ; see the accounts of the 
naming of the Arhats in Stevenson, The Heart of Jainism, pp. 
51 ff. Similarly, Kathakoga, p. 125, queen Kumudini sees a heap 
of jewels in her sleep, therefore names the son with whom she is 
pregnant Ratnagikha (' Jewel-crest '). Kathakoga, 146, queen Ma- 
danasena sees in a dream a lotus lake; when her son is born they 
give him the name Madanagekhara. Kathakoga, 195, the girl 
Davadanti (Damayanti) is so named because, when her mother 
is pregnant with her, she sees in her dream an elefant (dantin) 
being burned in a forest fire (dava). See also Jataka 547. 

In Dagakumaracarita i. 6 a queen beholds towards morning an 
auspicious dream vision, hearing the words, ' Conceive by His Ma- 
jesty the fruit of the creeper that fulfils wishes.' Thereupon she 
conceives a child, the blossom of her beloved's heart's desire. 
Kathas. 43. 143, King Karpuraka of Karpurasambhava is visited 
in a dream by Qiva, who says : ' Rise up, a daughter shall be born 
to you, who shall be superior to a son, whose husband (Narava- 
hanadatta) shall obtain the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas. In 

Additional Notes 191 

the tale of Domuha, 3 one of the four Pratyekabuddhas, Gunamala, 
king Domuha's queen, has seven sons, but no daughter. She vows 
an oblation to the Yakkha, called Mayana. She obtains a daugh- 
ter, announced by a dream, in which she receives a cluster of 
blossoms from the tree Parijata. And she names her Mayana- 
manjari, ' Love Blossom.' 

For sixteen inauspicious dreams, see Jataka 77. 

Additional note 11, to p. 45 : Eating grass. 

Enemies must be spared, when they place themselves in the 
humble condition of non-carnivorous animals. For, carnivorous 
animals, that do not eat grass, are, by implication noxious, and may 
be slain; cf. Benfey, Paficatantra ii. 316 (i. 599). On the prin- 
ciple of noblesse oblige human beings that present themselves by 
some sign in the character of grass-eaters are exempt from injury. 
See this text 3. 592; Prabandhacintamani, pp. 93, 300. Accord- 
ingly, in Pargva 3. 377, king Haricgandra puts grass on his head 
to show that he is willing to sell himself into slavery. In Pra- 
bandhacintamani 161, 279 grass and water are thrown, by way of 
challenge, into the house of a prospective disputant, to symbolize 
his ultimate submission. See Tawney on p. 210 of his Translation 
of Prabandhacintamani; Pischel, Proceedings of the Eoyal Prus- 
sian Academy, 1908, vol. xxiii, pp. 445 ff. — Note that in Pargva- 
natha 5. 227, 229 ; Samarad. 2. 409, 412, a sword or axe is tied to 
the throat, as a more obvious sign of submission. 

Additional note 12, to p. 47 : Wicked ascetics. 

Kapalikas are worshipers of Civa of the left hand (gakta), who 
carry skulls of men as ornaments, and eat and drink from them. 
They are always engaged in evil and cruel magic for their own 
aggrandizement, or their own lust, thus acting the role of the 
malignant wizard in Hindu fiction. The tales about them, or 
about wicked Yogins or mendicants are legion. As a rule they 
come to grief in the end. See, e. g. Kathas. 24. 82 ff. ; 38. 47 ff. ; 
121. 6 fi. ; Vetalapancavingati 24; Catrumjaya Mahatmyam 10. 
99 ff.; Pargvanatha 8. 139; Samarad. 4. 183 ff.; 6. 467; 7. 201 ff.; 

"See Jacobi, Ausgewiihlte Erzahlungen, p. 39, 1. 15 ff. 

192 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Lescallier, Le Trone Enchante, pp. 177 ft. ; Neogi, Tales Sacred 
and Secular, pp. 93 ff. ; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, 
pp. 347, 359, 367. 

Additional note 13, to p. 51 : Cibi motif. 

The story of king Cibi (Civi), or Uemara, in which he offers 
his own flesh in order to spare other life, from Mahabh. 3. 130, 197 ; 
13. 32 and Jataka 499 (Qivi- Jataka), and Kathas. 7. 88 on, is not 
only itself reiterated in narrative and Buddhist sculpture, but 
becomes typical of noble self-sacrifice. Especially the Vikrama 
Carita makes its hero a sort of standard Cibi, whose audarya (' na- 
tive nobility ') obliges him to sacrifice himself for others; see 
Weber, Indische Studien xv. 314, 333, 335, 347, 396, 410, 421, 424; 
Lescallier, Le Trone Enchante, pp. 94, 164. Brahmanical, Budd- 
hist (Hindu, Chinese, and Tibetan), and Jaina literature vie with 
each other in exploiting the idea. The subject is one of the 
standard motifs of fiction. Of more recent literature (since Ben- 
fey, Das Pancatantra, vol. i. 388) we may mention Chavannes, 
Cinq Cent Contes, nr. 2; Rockhill, JAOS. xviii. 3, 5; and Hertel, 
Das Pancatantra, pp. 14, 296, 375, bottom. In the present text see 
also 3. 42 ff. ; 7. 749-769, and cf . the note on the last-named passage, 
p. 159. 

Additional note 14, to p. 52 : Animated Statues and Dolls. 

Aside from the classical throne statues (sinhasana-puttalika: 
Indische Studien xv. 185 ff.), animated statues occur frequently in 
fiction. Especially single idols become alive, as occasion demands. 
In Parcva 7. 638 ff. a hungry boy says to the image of a Yaksa, 
' Give me modaka, I am hungry/ touching the belly of the Yaksa, 
who, tho made of stone, gives him sweetmeats. Cf. the saying in 
3. 331 of the same text, i Even stone idols, to whom devotion is 
paid with intent mind, straightway show delight.' In Parcva 7. 
763 a foolish religious visits an idol of Civa, and finds that it has 
gone blind of one eye. The religious is very sorry, expresses loath- 
ing for the dastardly deed, but himself does nothing. A Pulindra 
comes along, sees the same thing, gouges out his own eye, and 
places it in the socket of the idol's eye (Benfey, Pancatantra i. 389, 
quotes a similar South-Indian story). In Jataka 155 the Bodhisat 
and his father Gagga attempt to pass the night in a house haunted 

Additional Notes 193 

by a Yakkha who lives on a pillar. In Balston,Tibetan Tales, p. 
81, a gate-keeper of Yaigali dies, and is born again among the 
demons. He asks the inhabitants of Vaicali to confer upon him 
the position of a Yaksa, and to hang a bell around his neck. When- 
ever any foe to the inhabitants of Vaigali appears, he will make the 
bell sound, until the foe is arrested, or has fled. In Prabandha- 
cintamani, p. 312, an image of Ganega on the banks of the Sipra 
is worshiped by a Brahman of Avanti. By way of recompense the 
image teaches the Brahman the grammar of Panini. In Jiilg's, 
Mongolische Marchen, p. 240, King Ardschi-Bordschi (Bhojaraja) 
has 71 wives, the noblest of whom he asks to consecrate herself for 
the throne. As she approaches the throne a wooden statue ad- 
dresses her : ' Stop, the wife of the saintly King Vikramaditya 
never had an improper thought away from her husband; if you 
are such, receive consecration ; if not, desist ! ' Cf . Benf ey, Panca- 
tantra i. 248. In Paricistaparvan, 3. 249, Lalitanga is smuggled 
into the harem by the queen's order, in the disguise of a Yaksa 

Very often statues are animated by beautiful women destined 
for love. In Viracarita xiii (Ind. Stud. xiv. 119) a Brahman, 
Eaviprabhu, sees in a Civa temple four wooden statues, one of 
which is so beautiful that he looks at it uninterruptedly for eight 
days. The figure then steps out of the wood, and discloses herself 
as an Apsaras, conjured into a wooden statue, until a man should 
look at her unceasingly for eight days: that man should be her 
husband. Similarly, Kathas. 121. 145 ft\, the heavenly nymph 
Kalavati is cursed into a temple statue, until that temple, which it 
has taken many years to complete, shall perish, and be leveled to 
the ground. Her lover, the gambler Thinthakarala, by a trick, 
gets the temple destroyed, and lives ever after happily with Kala- 
vati. Cf. with this Vasavadatta turned to stone by a hermit's 
curse in Subandhu's novel; see Gray's translation, p. 136, note 7 
(folk-lore parallels). Once more, Kathas. 37. 8 ff., a Vidyadhara 
maiden Anuragapara, enters an image of Gauri, carved on a stone 
pillar. A merchant's son, Nigcayadatta, comes there, first anoints 
his limbs, and then places unguent on the pillar in order to anoint 
his back, by rubbing it against the stone. The maiden in the pil- 
lar, enamoured of him, rubs his back for him; he seizes her hand, 
makes her come out of the pillar, and ultimately marries her. 

194 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandiha 

Kathas. 123. 130 n\ Vikramaditya, in company with a Vetala, 
enters a temple, and beholds there a dance before a Linga, executed 
by singers and players. At the end of the spectacle the dancing 
nymphs disappear in the figures carved on pillars of the temple; 
in the same way the singers and players go into the figures of men, 
painted on the walls. The Vetala says : ' Such is this heavenly 
enchantment produced by Vicvakarman, lasting forever, for this 
will always take place at both twilights.' 

There are next, animated dolls, which are inhabited by more or 
less divine persons. In Viracarita vii (Ind. Stud. xiv. 108) Cala- 
vahana hears the cry of a woman, who declares that she is Sam- 
rajyalaksmi (' Royal Fortune'), wailing over the downfall of vir- 
tue in the world. She desires to live four days in the body of a 
beautiful woman. Calavahana vows that he will marry all maidens, 
in order that she may find refuge on his breast. The Brahmans 
fear that the castes will become confused, and implore Karna- 
kumari (perhaps, Kanyakumari = Bhavani), who promises aid. 
Brahma gives a doll made of dough to the Brahman Camika; she 
turns into a beautiful maiden. Calavahana wishes to wed her, but, 
as the veil is being drawn from the bride, she proves to be Karna- 
kumari. Calavahana flees horrified, and penetrates thru Abhihrada 
into hell. 

In Viracarita xi (Ind. Stud. xiv. 116) Parvati makes for herself 
a doll girl, Candanaputri, so beautiful, that she sees fit to hide her 
from the sight of her spouse. She hides her away in Malayagiri, 
where she goes daily to adorn her. Qiva becomes suspicious, dogs 
her steps, sees the doll, and, when alone with her, caresses her. 
When the goddess finds out the misdemeanor of her creature, she 
curses her into a she- jackal, the curse to last until she has born a 
child to Civa. 

Less often than might be expected, animated statues or dolls 
appear in the role of automatons (Hebrew, Golems). In Ralston. 
Tibetan Tales, p. 361, a mechanician sends an artificial maiden to 
wait upon a guest. She washes his feet, and then stands still. 
Desiring to enjoy her, he seizes her by the hand, whereupon she 
collapses and turns into a heap of chips. In Julg, Mongolische 
Marchen, pp. 235 if., one of four shepherd boys fashions a woman 
out of wood ; the second of them paints her yellow ; the third gives 
her i characteristic marks ' ; and the fourth breathes into her the 

Additional Notes 195 

-breath of life, so that she becomes a charming, marriageable woman. 
The four boys quarrel as to who is the rightful owner, and the case 
is decided, as follows : ' He who made the figure is her father ; he 
who gave her her color, her mother ; he who gave her the character- 
istic marks, the Lama ; he who breathed life into her, her husband/ 
This story is analogous to that of the dead bride (Pargva 6. 691 ff.). 
See p. 129, and Hertel, Das Paricatantra, p. 376. 

There are finally a number of stories in which a statue or gold 
figure serves as a model of a beautiful woman which arouses the 
love of a man : Kathakoca, p. 149 ff . ; Ralston, p. 191 ; Jataka 328 ; 
Dhammapada Commentary 16. 5. At this point the theme passes 
into that of ' picture and dream maidens/ to be treated elsewhere. 

Additional note 15, to p. 52 : Marriage with low-caste person. 

Marriage, or intercourse with a low-born person is condemned, 
criticized, or regretted, Mahabh. 13. 47. Iff.; Pargvanatha 3. 
350 ff ., 449 ff. ; Prabandhacintamani, p. 46 ; Dagakumaracarita, i, 
p. 67; Jatakas 152; 465; Bambhadatta in Jacobi, Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen, p. 5, 1. 20 ff. ; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, 
vol. iii, p. 309. It is like the mating of hansa or kokila with a 
crow, reprobated in all Hindu literature; see note 7, on p. 187, and 
cf. my paper, ' On talking birds ' in Festgruss an Windisch, p. 
355, note. Nevertheless, ' the heart-deer of some noble lover runs 
occasionally into the net of the hunter love,' even tho the beloved 
person is low-born, as is shown by the chain of stories beginning 
with Kathas. 112. 89 ff. Cf. the above-mentioned paper, ' On talk- 
ing birds/ p. 358; Catrumjaya Mahatmyam (Indian Antiquary, 
xxx. 296). In the first story of Pancadandachattraprabandha, no 
less a personage than Vikramaditya marries a clever low-born 
maiden. The story in the end justifies this by a verse: i Garner 
high knowledge from low people; money from the impure; nectar 
from poison; a beautiful wife from a low family (cf. Manu 2. 238- 
239; Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, nr. 6227). 

Additional note 16, to p. 57 : The sin of sacrificing a dough cock 


The extreme attitude of Jaina religion in forbidding ahinsa, or 
injury of living things, takes, in this instance, the view that it is 
criminal to injure even the image of a living thing, namely a 

196 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

pistakurkuta, or pistamaya kurkuta, c a cock made of dough.' In 
Samaradityamksepa 4. 260 ff., Surendradatta, beloved son of King 
Amaradatta and Queen Yagodhara, rules in Vicala; he is married 
to the beautiful Nayanavali. Discovering 'the messenger of 
Dharma' (a grey hair: see JAOS. xxxvi. 57 ff.) in his head, he 
decides to take vows, and tells Nayanavall, who pretends to be so 
attached to him, that she would follow him into homelessness. But 
by night, while reflecting how hard it would be, after all, to leave 
behind Nayanavall, he discovers her in a bower, in the company of 
a hunchbacked night watchman, who is chiding her because she has 
come late. Surendradatta is about to cut down both, but is deterred 
by the low caste of the offender, and his purpose of turning ascetic. 

He has an evil dream about which he consults his mother Yago- 
dhara. She advises him to make a sacrifice of living things from 
earth, water, or air to the family divinities, to avert the evil 
(cantikarma, averruncatio) . He is horrified at the suggestion, pro- 
posing instead to offer flesh and blood from his own body. As he 
is about to use his sword on himself, his mother stops him, bidding 
him sacrifice a cock who is just then crowing. But he persists in 
refusing to injure any other than himself. 

He then consents to a proposal of his mother that he offer a cock 
made of dough (pistakurkuta). The mother ' slays ' the cock with 
his sword, in front of a family divinity, with the express prayer 
that the sacrifice avert the evil dream. She then orders the cook 
to prepare the cock's * flesh ' ; the son eats of it, after his mother 
has pointed out that it is only make-belief flesh. He thus estab- 
lishes for himself a fateful karma, which his mother shares with 

Surendradatta makes over his kingdom to his son Gunadhara, 
and proposes to go out into the life of an homeless ascetic. Nayana- 
vall decides to poison him, so as not to have to join him. In order 
to elude the eyes of the poison-detecting cakora birds, she sets 
unpoisoned food before him, but gives him a poisonous magic pill 
with his rinsing-water. This he drinks down with the water and 
falls to the ground. A watchman perceives the situation, but, while 
he calls physicians, Nayanavall, in pretended grief, falls upon her 
husband and chokes him to death. 

Surendradatta is reborn as a peacock on the mountain of Silin- 
dhra. While still young, he is caught by a hunter, who presents 

Additional Notes 197 

him to an officer living in Nandapataka. He grows up, living on 
worms, suffering from thirst, cold, and heat. In time, the officer 
presents him to king Gunadhara, Surendradatta's own son. In 
the meanwhile his mother Yacodhara, who has also died, of diar- 
rhoea, is reborn as a fleet dog in the village of Dhanyapuraka. This 
dog is also presented to Gunadhara, who conceives affection for both 
dog and peacock. One day the peacock climbs to the turret of the 
palace, and sees there his former wife Nayanavah" in amorous inter- 
course with the hunchback. Remembering his former birth, he 
angrily pecks at her with claws and bill. She takes up an iron 
hammer belonging to the hunchback, and hits the peacock on the 
head, so that he rolls down stairs where the king is amusing himself 
by gambling. The king cries out, ' catch him, catch him ! ' The 
dog (Surendradatta's former mother) seizes the peacock by the 
throat. Somebody hits the dog on the head, who, spitting blood, 
lets go; both animals fall to the ground, nearly dead. Surendra- 
datta, in his death throes, reflects on the dire karma which has 
consigned him to the life of a worm-eater, and to die eaten by a 
dog. Thus both animals perish. 

Similarly, Surendradatta and Yagodhara pass thru other animal 
existences, full of suffering and degradation. First, as antelope and 
serpent, in which the antelope catches the serpent by the tail, and 
the serpent bites the antelope in the foot. Next, as rohita fish and 
crocodile, in which the crocodile is killed in the act of swallowing 
the fish ; the fish is caught and eaten by Gunasena and Nayanavali, 
his former son and faithless wife. In the last animal existence 
they are reborn in the womb of a hen. At the moment of their 
birth a cat eats the mother; the two eggs fall upon an ash-heap, 
are covered up by a female sweep (tyajanti), and are hatched out 
as a cock and hen of fine plumage. They come into the possession 
of an officer, who presents them to Gunadhara for his sport. The 
king goes to a pleasure grove, where he is attended by the officer 
with the two cocks. There the officer meets a Sage, listens to his 
sermon, but refuses to renounce the slaughter of animals. The 
Sage reproves him, assuring him that, unless he does so, he will 
endure the same fate as did this pair of cocks who had in a former 
birth 'killed' a cock made of dough (pistakurkuta). As he sum- 
marizes the story of their tragic rebirths, the cocks are enlightened 
and give forth a joyous crowing. King Gunadhara, sporting with 

198 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

his queen Jayavall in a tent, hears their noise, tells her that he will 
make a hit by sound, and slays the pair with an arrow. The cocks 
are then reborn as the boy Abhayaruci and the girl Abhayamati in 
the womb of Jayavall, and in due time all are converted and saved. 

Additional note 17, to p. 62: Poison-damsel. 

The idea that a woman, or, more rarely, a man, may thru per- 
sonality, exercise a baneful influence is common. It has crystallized 
into the term visakanya, ' poison-damsel ' ; or visa-hasta ' poison- 
handed'; or visangana c poison- woman.' The notion is frequently 
put to use in fiction. In Parigistaparvan 8. 327, king Nanda has 
a beautiful girl fed on poison, and in due time marries her to 
Parvata. When he seizes her hand, her poisonous sweat penetrates 
thru his skin, he dies, and Candragupta takes possession of the 
kingdom. Such a poison-damsel figures in a plot against Candra- 
gupta, Mudraraksasa (ed. Hillebrandt), p. 15, 1. 11; p. 131, 1. 6; 
p. 133, 1. 1. In Kathas. 19. 42 the minister Yogakarandaka sends 
poison-damsels as dancing girls among the host of King Vatsa. 
For this trick Tawney, in a footnote on p. 149 of the first volume 
of his Translation, aptly compares the xith tale in Gesta Koma- 
norum, where an Indian queen sends a poison-damsel to Alexander 
the Great, but Aristotle frustrates the stratagem. Benfey, Das 
Pancatantra, vol. i, p. 598, reports from the Anvar-i-Suhaili a simi- 
lar tale, in which a queen has the chin and neck of her rival, a slave 
girl, rubbed with poison, in order to kill her husband, who is, how- 
ever, rescued by a faithful servant. This trick costs a lion his life 
in Jataka 93, where he licks a doe smeared with poison for his 
destruction. In the 71st tale of the Suvabahuttarikatha the min- 
ister Siddreh quenches king Dharmdat's desire for king Kam- 
sundar's daughter, by telling him that she is a poison-damsel; see 
Hertel in Festschrift an Ernst Windisch, p. 146. 

The same idea is carried out figuratively. In Parcvanatha 8. 51 
Bandhudatta marries Candralekha, but she dies at the wedding by 
serpent's bite ; in the same way six wives die as soon as he marries 
them. He is, therefore, regarded as a ' poison-hand,' and can 
obtain no further maidens. Cf. the story of the woman who slew 
eleven husbands, Kathas. 66. 78 fL In Cukasaptati 46. 47 a Brah- 
man's wife is such a holy terror as to be named Karagara ' Poison- 
Hand'; cf. Benfey, Pancatantra, i. 521. 

Additional Notes 199 

There exists in India a treatise for finding out whether a woman 
is a ' poison-damsel.' It is called Visakanya-laksana. It is part of 
a treatise on horoscopes; see Weber, Handschriften-Verzeichnisse, 
vol. i, p. 263 (nr. 879), note 2. 

Additional note 18, to p. 62 : Pragmatic gloka. 

This motif may be designated as pragmatic, or, perhaps, drastic 
gloka. Such stanzas figure in the Nala Episode of Mahabharata, 
16 and 17; Kathas. 20. 35, 212; Vasavadatta (Gray's Translation, 
p. 93) ; Kathakoca, p. 28; Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam (Indian Anti- 
quary, xxx. 241) ; Jatakas 214, 338, 373. Love messages in cloka, 
Pargvanatha 8. 8 ff. ; Samarad. 2. 93 ff. ; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Er- 
ziihlungen, p. 12, 1. 3. See for this entire theme, Benfey, Panca- 
tantra, vol. i, pp. 320, 598 ; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 46, 142, 
233, 297, 375; Charpentier, Paccekabuddhageschichten, pp. 3 ff., 
25 ff., 35 ; the author in Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, vol. lvi, p. 14, note 27; Gray in the Introduction to his 
Translation of Vasavadatta, p. 35. 

Additional note 19, to p. 64: Josef and Potifar's wife. 

This motif is one of the stock of incidental and progress making 
devices of Hindu fiction. It takes three forms : either the woman 
tempts and the man rejects her ; thus particularly in the impressive 
Mahapaduma Jataka (472). Or, a woman, out of hatred, pretends 
that a man has made overtures to her, so as to get him into trouble. 
Or, finally, more rarely, the woman tempts, and the man succumbs. 
A preliminary bibliografy of the subject is as follows : Mahabh. 1. 
103. Iff.; 13. 19. lff.-20 end; Kathasaritsagara 7. 57; 20. 118; 
49. 30; Pargvanatha 3. 400; 7. 44; Jataka 472; Samarad. 2. 91 ff.; 
5. 98 ff. ; Kathaprakaga, in Gurupujakaumudi, p. 125 ; Ealston, 
Tibetan Tales, pp. 102, 206, 282; Steel and Temple, Wide-Awake 
Stories, p. 222. Cf. W. A. Clouston, The Book of Sindibad, pp. 
xix ff . 

Additional note 20, to p. 65 : Pancadivyadhivasa. 

This subject receives additional light from several passages of 
our text. The theme has been treated a good deal recently, especi- 
ally by Edgerton in his article, c Pancadivyadhivasa, or Choosing a 

200 Life and Stories of Pargvandtha 

king by Divine Will/ JAOS. xxx. 158 ft.; by J. J. Meyer, Hindu 
Tales, pp. 131, 212; and by Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 374 (ef. 
pp. 144, 148, 155, 372, 373, 382, 385). Edgerton's explanation is 
unquestionably correct; that of the other two scholars, obviously 
conceived independently, is not very different. 

The gerund adhivasya occurs in 8. 26. A merchant Sagara has 
become rich, therefore, wishes to set up a jeweled ikon (ratnabimba- 
cikih). He requests the dharmatirthikas to tell him what god will 
confer salvation. They tell him to invest with divine or divinatory 
power a precious jewel (sadratnam adhivasya), and to think of 
some divinity who would then tell him. Sagara does so, whereupon 
a certain divinity places before him a golden image of the Arhat. 

There are two passages in which the pancadivyadhivasa is em- 
ployed to choose a king. In 2. 826 ft. king Sundara, who has gotten 
low down in the world, goes to sleep under a mango tree, and is 
thus chosen, to wit : 

tada tatra pure rajni vipanne putravarjite, 
hasty-agva-camara-chatra-kumbhakhyam adhivasitam, 
bhramat tatrayayau divyapancakam yatra sundarah. 
gilena sundararh cjghram upavistarh vilokya tarn, 
hayena hesitam hastipatina vrnhitam krtam, 
duritaksalanayevapatat kumbhambu mastake, 
uparistat sthitam chatrarh lulitam camaradvayam. 
sa karmdram atharuhya divyavesadharo nici, 
mantryadibhir nato nitya pravistah puram utsavaih. 

' Then there in the city (Qripura) the king died, leaving no son. 
The divyapancakam (' oracle-pentad '), infused with divinatory 
power (adhivasitam), and having the designation, ' Elefant-horse- 
chowrie-umbrella-pitcher/ roaming about, arrived at the spot where 
Sundara was. On account of his (Sundara's) virtue the oracle 
soon noticed him (lying under a tree). The horse neighed; the 
elef ant-prince roared; the water of the pitcher poured itself upon 
his head to wash away misfortune; the umbrella stood over him; 
and the pair of chowries fanned. Sundara mounted the prince of 
elef ants, and, dressed in divine (magic) garments, revered by the 
ministers and other dignitaries, was conducted by night with festive 
doings to the city/ 

Additional Notes 201 

The other passage, 7. Ill ff., concerns the exiled prince Amara- 
sena who has reached Kaficanapura : 

tasming ca samaye tatra pure raja mrto 'sutah. 
tato hasty-agva-kalaga-chatra-camaralaksanam, 
bambhramiti pure devadhisthitam vastupancakam. 
naram rajyadhararh kam cit tenanvesayata bahih, 
gatva so 'marasenakhyah kumarah sahasagritah. 
ariidho 7 tha gajaskandham divyavesadharo nrpah, 
pranamya mantrisamantanagarair abhinanditah. 
uparistad dhrtachatrah gvetacamaravljitah, 
purah kautukibhir lokaih krtasaihgltamangalah. 
grnvan jayajayaravarh janad iksitum agatat, 
pure pravigya gobhadhye nitya rajyam karoti sah. 

'At that juncture the king there in the city died sonless. Then 
the five objects defined as elefant, horse, pitcher, umbrella, and 
chowries, inhabited by god (or, a god), roamed about the city. 
Seeking some man who should rule the kingdom, the oracle went 
promptly outside, where was Prince Amarasena. Dressed in divine 
(magic) garments, he mounted as king upon the back of the ele- 
fant, and was acclaimed by the ministers, vassals, and citizens who 
bowed down before him. The umbrella stood above him ; the white 
chowries waved over him. In front went the admiring people, 
singing songs and uttering blessings. Hearing the repeated cry of 
victory from the people, who had come to look on, he entered the 
festively adorned city, and ruled with discretion.' 

Here the word devadhisthitam, ' god-ridden/ (in a good sense) 
is perhaps the clearest explanation of adhivasita, as yet available. 
But Pargva, no more than other texts, tells precisely how the five 
royal insignia are imbued with their divinatory power. Parigista- 
parvan 6. 236, pancadivyany abhisiktani, seems to indicate conse- 
cration by water — the Hindu equivalent of coronation — as the 
method, or, perhaps better, one of the methods. This coincides 
with Prabandhacintamani, text, p. 288, where the elefant alone is 
mentioned, tatraputrini nrpatau pancatvam upagate sati sacivair 
abhisiktapattahasti nikhile pi nagare yadrchaya babhrama. But 
there is no reason why this should not have been accompanied, or 
diversified by the use of mantras, perfumes, etc.; see Edgerton, 1. c, 
p. 163, top. 

202 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

I would remark that, in the end, the attention of folk-lore, which 
frequently alludes to the practice, concentrates itself upon the ele- 
fant; see Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vols, i, pp. 65, 81, 
90, 92, 99; iii. 381, 382 (here royal elefant and hawk). 

Additional note 21, to p. 68 : Goddess Fortune. 

Thus LacchI (Laksmi), the royal Fortune of the Vidyadhara 
Asanivega goes over to Sanariikumara (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Er- 
zahlungen, p. 23, 1. 37). See also Cukasaptati 6; Jatakas 284, 382; 
Neogi, Tales Sacred and Secular, pp. 102 ff. Cf . also Hertel, Das 
Pancatantra, p. 55, bottom (with parallels on p. 56) ; Hertel, ibid. 
p. 125. Cf. for Cri in general Kathakoga, p. 225; Yiracarita xix 
(Indische Studien, xiv. 131) ; Kathaprakaca in Gurupujakaumudi, 
p. 126; Prabandhacintamani, p. 11; Hertel, ibid., p. 383. 

Additional note 22, to p. 69 : Gold-man. 

The story of the ' gold-man ' is familiar from the Pancatantra 
on : e. g. Pancatantra 5.1; Purnabhadra's frame story in the open- 
ing of the fifth book; or Ksemendra's Brhatkathamanjari version 
5. 2; see Benfey, Pancatantra ii. 322 ff.; Fritze, Pancatantra, p. 
350 ft 2 . Cf. Benfey, ibid. i. 478; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 125, 
281, 332. Aside from the present story, the ' gold-man ' is men- 
tioned very frequently: Vikrama Carita (Indische Studien, xv. 
278, 436) ; Suvabahuttarikatha 68 (Hertel in Festschrift an Ernst 
Windisch, p. 145) ; Prabandhacintamani, pp. 10, 276, bottom (cf. 
Tawney's Translation, p. 207, bottom) ; Alberuni (Sachau's Trans- 
lation), vol. i, p. 192. Cf. the note on ' gold-spitting,' p. 148. 

Additional note 23, to p. 69 : Barber and Potter. 

The barber is the stock-figure in fiction for the low-born, cun- 
ning rascal, and butt of fortune. He is among men comparable to 
the jackal and crow among the animals (Bohtlingk, Indische 
Spriiche 3400). ' Son of a barber by a courtezan/ in Parigista- 
parvan exhausts the vocabulary of opprobrium. In Mahabh. 
13. 27. Iff., Matanga finds out that he is the son of a barber, 
and tries by asceticism to become a Brahman, but he can only reach 
the station of wizard, cultivated by woman. In the place of the 
rascally Sajjana in the Lalitanga story (p. 26 ff.) the Suvabahut- 

Additional Notes 203 

tarikatha, nr. 72, puts a barber ; see Hertel, in Festgruss an Wind- 
isch, p. 149. In Supparaka Jataka (462) a stingy king is called 
* son of a barber.' In Dhammapada Commentary 2. 3 C the king's 
barber agrees to cut his throat for money. But in Kathas. 32. 
147 ff. a barber, whose wife the king has seduced, gets the better 
of that king by a not too savory trick. For further illustrations 
see Jatakas 190, 421; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 72, 125, 281, 
287, 332; ZDMG. lxi. 25. 

Curiously enough, occasionally, in Jain texts, the potter takes 
the place of the barber in these estimates : Bhojaprabandha, stanza 
48 (Nirnayasagara Press, 1913) ; p. 75, edition of Jib. Vidya- 
sagara; Parcvanatha 1. 334; Kathakoga, p. 166. Cf. Stevenson, 
The Heart of Jainism, p. 213 : ' One should therefore never be a 
blacksmith, a limeburner, or a potter, or follow any other trade in 
which a furnace is used, for in a fire many insect lives are de- 
stroyed.' Very dubious reason. 

Additional note 24, to p. 83 : Childlessness. 

In fiction childlessness figures frequently, and rather mechan- 
ically. It is, of course, always obviated, children being procured 
by the merit of prayer and sacrifice ; by magic, by asceticism ; and 
by simples. Thus, by prayer to sundry divinities or saints, in 
Vikrama Carita (Indische Studien, xv. 320; Lescallier, Le Trone 
Enchante, p. 106); Parigistaparvan 2. 51; Jataka 458; Dagaku- 
maracarita i, p. 3; ii, p. 23; Samarad. 4. Iff.; Ralston, Tibetan 
Tales, pp. 51, 247. In Mahabh. 3. 127. 3ff.; Kathas. 13. 57 ff. a 
king obtains thru sacrifice a boy, named Jantu; and as he wants 
more children, is told to sacrifice Jantu. The panacea asceticism 
procures children in Mahabh. 3. 106. 7; 3. 293. Iff. In Kathas. 
55. 149 ff. austerities and endurance of danger have the same effect. 
Kathas. 39. 5 ff. employs a magic potion; the same text, 9. 10, an 
oblation of rice, milk, sugar, and spices; Neogi, Tales Sacred and 
Secular, p. 88, a drug; in Ralston, p. 21, Indra sends a drug. The 
mango fruit procures children in texts that are far apart : Mahabh. 
2. 16. 29 ; Siamese Paksi Pakaranam (see Hertel, Das Panca- 
tantra, p. 349) ; Day, Folk Tales of Bengal, p. 117. The Kama- 
gastra literature catalogs a riotous welter of drugs, plants, and 
magic; see Richard Schmidt, Beitrage zur Indischen Erotik, pp. 
891 ff. J. J. Meyer, in the Introduction to his Translation of 

204 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

Dagakumaracarita, p. 54, refers to extreme cases in which sterile 
queens are proffered to the male world in general, in order to pro- 
cure an heir to the throne. 

Additional note 25, to p. 88 : Dohada, or pregnancy whim. 

This is one of the most constant and fruitful of fiction motifs. 
It ranges all the way from a desire on the part of the woman to 
eat her husband's entrails, in Pradyumnacarya's Samaradityasam- 
ksepa 2. 361, or to eat flesh off her husband's back, in Ealston, 
Tibetan Tales, p. 84, to the desire to hear the instructions of a great 
Saint, especially common in Buddhist and Jain texts ; e. g. Pargva- 
natha 6. 793. In Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam (Indian Antiquary xxx. 
299) Kunti on the occasion of her third conception sees, in her 
dreams, Indra, and consequently longs to kill Danavas with arrows. 
In the rebirths of the principal personages in the Samaraditya- 
samksepa, as doubtless, in its Prakrit prototype, the Samaraicca 
Kaha, pregnant women are afflicted with dohada in nearly every 
instance; see 2. 13, 361; 3. 15; 4. 444; 5. 10; 6. 388. A prelimin- 
ary bibliografy, subject to indefinite increase is as follows : Kathas. 
22. 9; 30. 46; 34. 31; 35. 117; 46. 27; Jatakas 292, 309, 338, 342, 
389, 400, 445 1 ; Dhammapada Commentary 4. 3 a ; 5. 15 a ; 6. 5 b ; 
Pargvanatha 6. 793; 7. 275; Kathakoga, pp. 43, 53, 64, 177; Qali- 
bhadra Carita 2. 56, 60; Paricjstaparvan 1. 246; 2. 61; 8. 231; 
Maharastri Tales (Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen), p. 34, 1. 26; 
p. 41, 11. 25, 27; Qatrumjaya Mahatmyam (Ind. Ant. xxx.), pp. 
297, 299 (pluries) ; Jiilg, Kalmiikische Marchen, p. 31; Ealston, 
Tibetan Tales, pp. 84, 247. See Benfey, Das Pancatantra, vol. i, 
p. 539; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 5, 108, note, 196, 284; Trans- 
lation of Parigistaparvan, p. 41, note 2. See the interesting article 
on ' Doladuk ' = dohada, by Groonetilleke in The Orientalist ii. 
81 ff. Schmidt, Beitrage zur Indischen Erotik, p. 393, discusses 
the etymology of dohada, citing opinions of Luders, Jolly, Auf- 
recht, and Bohtlingk. 

Additional note 26, to p. 89 : Horse with inverted training. 

This feature of narration is a great favorite with Jain writers. 
Such an animal does the unexpected, because its rider does not 
know its peculiarity: when he checks it with the reins the horse 

1 Here ' showing a fancy for sour and strange tastes.' 

Additional Notes 205 

runs away and leads him into adventure. Thus explicitly Jataka 
546 (Fausboll, vol. vi, p. 408 bottom). Pargva 3. 500 uses for in- 
verse training the expression vaiparityena giksita; in 4. 25, prati- 
paciksitva. In Devendra's Maharastri stories the same idea is 
expressed by vivariyasikkha = viparitagiksa ; see Jacobi, Ausge- 
wahlte Erzahlungen, p. 20, 1. 21; p. 45, 1. 6; p. 48, 1. 27; p. 84, 
1. 12. The same sort of horse figures in Kathakoga, p. 102, and in 
Prabandhacintamani, p. 286, where the word, according to Taw- 
ney's reading in the Translation of that text, is viparyastabhyasta. 
See also the story in Laksmivallabha's commentary on Uttaradhy- 
ayana Sutra, quoted without citation of place by Charpentier, 
Paccekabuddhageschichten, p. 126. An elefant trained in a similar 
manner is mentioned in Jataka 231. Otherwise runaway horses in 
general carry heroes into adventure: Kathasaritsagara 5. 80; 18. 
88; 32. 106; 94. 13; Dagakumaracarita i, pp. 4, 5; Kathakoga, pp. 
22, 23, 31; Pargvanatha Caritra 6. 877, 896; Kathaprakaga, in 
GurupujakaumudI, p. 122. A runaway elefant in Jacobi, 1. c, p. 
35, 1. 2. Eelated with this is the magic horse that carries to a 
great distance; see Gray's Translation of Vasavadatta, p. 117 with 

Additional note 27, to p. 100: Human sacrifices. 

Human sacrifices appear in fiction in a variety of aspects, two of 
which are quite standard or stenciled. First, the wild folk of the 
mountains especially of the Vindhya range, namely, the Qavaras, 
Bhillas, Pulindas, Tajikas, etc., are in the habit of offering up men 
to Durga (Candika, Bhavani) in the ordinary routine of their 
lives. Usually their chieftains, bearing ferocious names (e. g. 
Sinhadanstra, Kathas. 56. 22), instigate the sacrifice. Thus, 
Kathas. 10. 141, 189; 22. 64; 55. 220; 61. 158; 101. 300. Occa- 
sionally they have in view some particular end; see Pargvanatha 8. 
101; Samarad. 6. 91. Similarly, in Dhammapada Commentary 8. 
9, thieves desire to make a votive offering of a man's flesh and 
blood to the forest divinity (cf. ibid. 8. 3). A cobra has to be 
propitiated by a human offering in Parker, Village Folk-Tales of 
Ceylon, vol. i, p. 58. Secondly, wicked Kapalikas, worshippers of 
Qiva of the left hand, or wicked demons, need human sacrifices for 
magic practices, usually in order to obtain some vidya, or ' Science ' 
which confers supernatural power: Kathas. 38. 59; Vetalapanca- 

206 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

vingati 24; Pancadandachatraprabhandha 2 (p. 24) ; Lescallier, Le 
Trone Enchante, pp. 177 ff.; Pargvanatha 3. 903 ff.; Neogi, Tales 
Sacred and Secular, pp. 93 if. In Kathas. 20. 104 the statement 
is made quite explicitly that eating human flesh confers power to 
fly. In the present instance the Vidyadhari is noteworthy, because 
she is by nature already in possession of the vidyas. 

But there are also human sacrifices by other persons, and for a 
variety of other purposes. In Kathas. 20. 53 a queen wishes to 
make a human sacrifice, in order to confer prosperity upon her 
lord. In Viracarita xiii (Indische Studien xiv. 120) king Harya- 
mara offers three men to Candika, in order to get access to heaven. 
In Dhammapada Commentary 5. 1 the heir-apparent of the king 
of Benares vows to offer the blood of a hundred kings and hundred 
queens to a spirit, if he comes into the kingdom on the death of 
his father. In Mahabh. 3. 127. 3 ff. ; Kathas. 13. 57 ff. an only son 
is sacrificed to obtain many children. In Pargvanatha 7. 422 ff. ; 
Kathakoga, p. 48 queen Eati asks the house divinity for a son, 
promising in return, to offer her, as bali-offering, her co-wife's, 
Jayasundari's, son. In Kathas. 26. 140 some fishermen attempt to 
sacrifice a man to Durga, in order to avenge the supposed murder 
of their father. In Kathas. 37. 39 men are sacrificed by the son 
of Muravara, a Turuska, to be sent as companions to his dead 
father. In Kathas. 51. 101 even the great Rama, in a fit of wicked- 
ness, desires to perform a human sacrifice with a man having aus- 
picious marks — the latter qualification being expressed or implied 
elsewhere in these accounts. — For the subject as a whole see Taw- 
ney's note to his Translation of Kathasaritsagara, vol. i, p. 445, 
where it is discussed in connection with the Vedic reminiscence of 
a purusamedha, * human sacrifice/ undertaken by gods with the 
body of the noble Asura Namuci. 

Additional note 28, to p. 131 : ' David and Uriah/ 

Hindu ethics extol the virtue of respecting other peoples' marital 
relations (sodaryavrata) ; see Pargvanatha 2. 723 ff.; 5. 22. Such 
a person is called paranarisahodara, ' he who regards the wives of 
others as sisters,' ZDMG. xxiii. 444; see the story of Veda and 
Uttanka in Mahabh. 1. 3. 90; Kathas. 34. Iff.; Prabandhacinta- 
mani, p. 234 (king Kumarapala treats his neighbors' wives as 

Additional Notes 207 

. But the gods themselves have set a frightful example of unchas- 
tity, incest, and worse; see the catalog of their sexual crimes In 
Dagakumaracarita i. pp. 44, 71; and Gray's Vasavadatta, p. 129. 
Men are no better ; hence stories of the ' David and Uriah ' variety. 
In addition to the present gripping account, king Vikramayagas, 
' possessor of a hundred wives/ corrupts Visnucri, the beautiful 
spouse of the merchant Nagadatta, with baleful results that extend 
thru several rebirths; see the episode in the story of Sanatkumara, 
Parcvanatha 6. 1057 ff. ; Kathakoga, p. 32 ff.; Jacobi, Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen in Maharastrl, p. 24, 11. 14 ff. 1 See also Hitopadega 
1. 8; Kathas. 32. 147 ff.; 34. 10 ft.; Jatakas 120, 194, 314, 443; 
Dhammapada Commentary 5. 1; Kathakoga, pp. 13 ff. (cf. p. 235) ; 
Nirmala Cravaka, reported by Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 231 ff. ; 
Benfey, Kleinere Schriften, vol.' ii, p. 101. 

1 A variant of this story, briefly treated, in the Catrumjaya Mahatmyam, 
sarga 1; see Indian Antiquary xxx. 241; cf. p. 292. 



The Pargvanatha Carita is at the bottom, and in the main, a 
Jaina dharma and niti text (religion and morals), therefore, 
abounds in proverbial stanzas and expressions. Quite a large num- 
ber of them coincide with those incorporated in Bohtlingk's well- 
known collection, Indische Spruche. But others, not less entitled 
to figure as didactic apophthegms, do not occur in Bohtlingk's lists. 
Indeed, Jaina texts contain so large a number of new niti-stanzas, 
as to call for a renewed endeavor to assemble this class of compo- 
sitions in one place. The Pargvanatha contains presumably more 
than a thousand such stanzas, of which the following account aims 
to point out some of the more interesting. 

Niti consists not only of solid stanzas devoted to didactic or pro- 
verbial themes, but also to incidental statements woven into other 
discourse. These have not been collected at all, tho they are not 
less interesting than the set stanzas. Kathasaritsagara stops several 
hundred times to spice its narrative with wise saws and reflections 
which amount to proverbs. Proportionally the prose Kathakoga 
and Prabandhacintamani are even more lavish with such sayings, 
which are just as much proverbs as, e. g., Manwaring's Mahratti 
Proverbs. They are a constant element in Jain narrative, both 
Sanskrit and Prakrit. A collection of such sayings, arranged 
thematically, would be a valuable contribution to nfti-literature. 
For they also will be found repeating themselves, as does„ e. g. the 
proverb, ' Two swords do not go into one scabbard,' in Jacobi's 
Maharastri Tales, p. 58, 1. 31, which recurs in Samarad. 3. 24. 

In the following I point out, first, a considerable number of niti 
stanzas which figure in Bohtlingk's corpus. 1 Next, by selection, 
some stanzas out of many, which will ultimately figure in the 
larger corpus of the future, especially after most of the Jaina Cari- 
tras shall have been edited and extracted for this purpose. Finally, 

1 Similarly the Prabandhacintamani contains 22 stanzas which recur in 
Bohtlingk's collection. They are indicated in the footnotes to Tawney's 


Proverbs and proverbial expressions 209 

there is a list of incidental proverbial passages which do not 
embrace an entire stanza. 

1. Proverbs quoted in Bohtlingk's Indische Spriiche. 

1. 102 — Bo. 6921. 
sarvatha sarvakaryesu madhyasthyam gasyate nrnam, 
dantapatah kathaih na syad atikarpurabhaksanat. 
Bohtlingk's mss. read pagyate which he corrects to drgyate. Our 
gasyate is the true reading. He translates: 'Allerdings tritt bei 
dem menschen eine gleichgiltigkeit gegen alle sachen zu tage : wie 
sollten einem vom iibermassigen genuss vom kamfer nicht die zahne 
ausfallen ? ' In this rendering the second ardharca is a non sequi- 
tur. Is not Bohtlingk mistaken ? I would render : ' Ever in all 
concerns moderation is recommended for men: how can excessive 
consumption of camf or fail to result in the loss of teeth ? ' In this 
sense alone the second half hinges properly upon the first half. For 
the second half cf. Pargva 1. 15. 3, garkaram agnatam dantavya- 
thayai kim na karkarah. See Pancadandachattraprabandha, pp. 
45, 80. 

1. 103 = Bo.. 2504; Kathakoga, p. 161 

tarudaho 'tigitena durbhiksam ativarsanat, 
atityagad anaucityam atih kutrapi nesyate. 
Bohtlingk has ati for our atih : the latter seems rationalized. Boht- 
lingk's emendation of neksyate (so also the mss. of Kathakoga) is 
supported by our text. Yet nesyate may be lectio facilior. 

1. 105 = Bo. 3708. 

nityarh krtavyayah svairam merur apy apaciyate, 
tejasiva gate vitte naro 'ngarasamo bhavet. 
Bohtlingk's Mss. read in a: krtavyayasvairam, which he corrects 
to krtavyayasvarno. Our reading is the best: 'Even (mount) 
Meru grows less because he ever freely wastes.' Bohtlingk emends 
in b apariyate to apaciyate, thus brilliantly anticipating our text. 
Pargva continues with two stanzas (106-107) which deal well with 
the different attitude of the world towards rich and poor; they 
seem to echo Carudatta's stanzas on this theme in the opening of 

1. 118 = Bo. 1576; Kathakoga, p. 162, top 

1. 123 = Bo. 6676; Kathakoga, p. 162, top 

210 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

1. 179 = Bo. 6150 
Our text reads papakarma for papam karma. Bohtlingk notes the 
reading papakarmam. 

1. 181 = Bo. 3753 

1. 379 = 36. 7458 

1. 688 = Bo. 2589 

trnani bMmir udakarh vak caturthi ca sunrta, 
satam etani gehesu nocchidyante (text, no chidyante) kada 
This form of the second ardharca is quoted by Bohtlingk; his ver- 
sion in the text is, etany api satam gehe nocchidyante kada ca na. 

2. 211: the opposite Bo. 1726 

kim karoti kusamsargo nijadharmadrdhatmanah, 
sarpagirsositah kim na harate 'hivisarh manih 
' What effect hath evil association upon him whose soul is firm in 
its own righteousness? Why does not the jewel that dwells in the 
head of the serpent absorb the poison of the serpent? Bohtlingk's 
stanza : 

kim karisyati sarhsargah svabhavo duratikramah, 
pacyamraphalasamsargi kasayo madhurah krtah 
' What effect has association with others, since one cannot escape 
one's own nature ? Consider how can acrid taste be rendered sweet 
by contact with the mango ? ' 

2. 710 (cf. Pargva 2. 794) : Bo. 5181 (cf. Bo. 2487, 3519) 

2. 792-3 : cf . Bo. 4226 

3. 220 : cf . Bo. 7518 
3. 367: Bo. 2757 

danam bhogas tatha nacah syad dravyasya gatitrayam, 
yo na datte bhunkte ca trtlyasya gatir bhavet 
Bohtlingk's version in the text (cf. bibliografy of the stanza in his 
note) : 

danam bhogo nagas tisro gatayo bhavanti vittasya, 
yo na dadati na bhunkte tasya trtiya gatir bhavati. 
3. 415: Bo. 1831 
3. 416: Bo. 5389. 
3. 422 : cf . Bo. 1618 

3. 442 : Bo. 1859. The same sentiment from an opposite point 
of view, Bo. 691 

Proverbs and proverbial expressions 211 

3. 452 : Bo. 4933 ; cf. 5290, 5643 
3. 511: Bo. 4186 
3. 569 : cf. Bo. 6147-9 
Our text's pada d reads ratnasamjnabhidhiyate for Bohtlingk's rat- 
nasamkhya vidhiyate. 
3. 1042: Bo. 2922 
Our text seems corrupt (cf. Bohtlingk's note) : 

bhusito 'pi cared dharmam yatra tatracrame ratah, 
samah sarvesu bhivtesu na lingam tatra karanam 

6. 417: Bo. 97 (cf. 4912) 

Our text reads bhavet instead of dahet, at the end of the stanza. 

7. 301: Bo. 6826 

Our text has pada c in better form than Bohtlingk's emended form : 
karye nyayye 'pi na sveccha, ' no free will even in duty to be per- 
formed,' for Bohtlingk's, balyakale 'pi na sveccha, ' no free will 
even in childhood.' His text intends naryye kale, but even that is 
inferior to Parcva. 

8. 10: Bo. 7209 

Our text has an expurgated version : 

stri nadivat svabhavena capala nicagamini, 

udvrtta ca jadatmasau paksadvayavinagini. 
' Woman, like a river, is by nature fickle and downward inclined ; 
when she breaks her bounds, she foolishly destroys both sides ' (her 
own and her husband's, with allusion to the banks of a river). The 
Jain writer dodges the touch of obscenity contained in the Subha- 
sitarnava. A stanza of similar import, Bo. 7561. 
8. 118: Bo. 2793 
8. 315 (phrase, yati vangah samunnatim) : Bo. 6681. 

2. Stanzas which either are proverbs, or are, more or less, like 


The Parcvanatha Caritra contains so large a number of didactic 
stanzas, as to approximate the text to a nitigastra. In a sense they 
are all of them proverbial. But there is, after all, a difference 
between purely religious stanzas and proverbial stanzas. It is the 
difference between dharma on the one hand, and niti or artha or 
kautilya on the other hand. In the following are quoted or cited 
a number of such stanzas, out of the great mass, as reflect or 

212 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

approach most closely to the popular proverb, in distinction from 
the religious stanza. These are wanting in Bohtlingk's collection, 
but they are not distinguishable in tenor from those that are there : 
1. 48 : aghatam api kalyanam sughatad api kutatah, 

yatha pracasyate tadvad mugdho 'pi sukrti narah. 
'As gold even unbeaten is esteemed more than the well-constructed 
counterfeit, thus the pious man, even tho he be foolish.' 
1.51: chinnamulo yatha vrkso gatagirso yatha bhatah, 
dharmahino dhani tadvat kiyatkalam lalisyati. 
'As a tree whose root is cut, as a soldier whose head is gone, thus is 
the rich man devoid of virtue. How long will he disport himself ? ' 
1. 108 : vicuddho 'pi gunavrato na vina laksmim gobhate, 
unmilati yatha citram na vina krsnatulikam. 
' The excellent devotee of virtue (with punning allusion to the bow 
in the words vicuddho and guna) does not prosper without fortune. 
A painting does not unfold itself without the painter's black brush.' 
1. 119-131, all dana proverbs (1. 123 = Bo. 6676) : see Bo. under 

1. 180-183 (1. 181 = Bo. 3754) 

1. 184 : svadusvadanabhijnag ced draksasu karabho mukham, 
vakrikuryat tatas tasarh madhuryam kvapi kim gatam. 
' If the young elefant crooks (withdraws) his mouth, because he 
does not know the taste of sweet in grapes, is their sweetness there- 
fore gone somewhere ? ' 

1. 288 : vyanjayanty agham anyesam khala galanavastravat, 
adhah ksipanti santas tu mahahradavad ambhasam. 
' Eogues disclose the faults of others like a drip-cloth (shows 
water) ; but good men strike down (hide) them as a great lake (the 
impurity) of its waters.' Cf. also 1. 287 

1. 300-304: descriptions of evil-minded persons. So also 1. 330. 
1. 351 : rjuta dhanvagunayor astu vastus varupatah, 

karyasiddhau pragasyate vakrataiva tayoh punah. 
' Granting that bow and string are straight by nature of the object, 
yet it is desirable that they should bend, in order to accomplish 
their purpose.' 

1.376: gurutvam ca laghutvam(ca) gribhavabhavato jadah, 

vadanti tat punar daksah sadvivekavivekatah. 

' Importance and insignificance, fools say, depend upon the presence 

Proverbs and proverbial expressions 213 

or absence of fortune ; clever folk say, upon the presence or absence 
of keen discernment.' 

1. 377 : nirvivekanararh nari prayo 'nyapi na kanksati, 
kirii punah grir iyam devi purusottamavallabha. 
'As a rule even another woman does not hanker after a man want- 
ing in discernment. How much less Fortune (Cri), the goddess, 
beloved of noblest men ! ' 

1. 398-403 : stanzas inculcating support of parents by children, 
especially 400 : 

matrpitror abharakah kriyam uddigya yacakah, 
mrtagayyapratigrahi na bhuyah puruso bhavet. 
' He that does not support his parents ; the beggar that prescribes 
what is to be done (beggars must not be choosers) ; he that accepts 
the bed of a dead person, he is no longer a human being.' 

1.412-13: two stanzas extoling helpfulness (upakara). 

1. 421 ; 3. 124; 6. 363 ; 7. 121 : all four deal with the aspirations 
of men of different characters (nlcah, madhyamah, uttamah). 

1. 506 : ' spare the rod, and spoil the child.' 

1. 537-8: two stanzas describing ideal king. 

1. 679 : pradipa-sarsapau glaghyau laghii api gunojjvalau, 
mahantav api na gresthau pradipana-bibhitakau. 
The commentary pradipana = visavigesah. Cf. Bo. 334. Here is 
a trick: the small fruits (and small words) are better than the 
large fruits (and large words) ; pradipa seems to be some small 

1. 763 : kim jatikusume vahnih ksipyate kim mahakari, 

mrnale badhyate kim va rambha krakacam arhati. 
' Does one throw fire on a jessamine blossom? Does one fasten a 
big elefant to a lotus fibre? Or is Eambha (the heavenly nymph) 
fit for the saw '( ?), or ' fit for the krakaca hell ' ? Cf. krakacayate 
• tear like a saw,' 3. 620; see p. 231. 

2. 177: krtas tarunyacaitrena ye sphurannavapallavah, 

gat atpatradrumay ante jarasa phalgunena te. 
' The bursting young shoots which are produced in the spring 
month (caitra) of youth become trees with falling leaves in the 
autumn month (phalguna) of old age.' The stanza is one of four, 
illustrating excellently the impermanence of life. For gatatpatra- 
drumayante see p. 231. 

214 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

2. 239 : mohandhanam sukhayante visaya duhkhada api, 
loham dhatturitanaih hi katham na kanakayate. 
' The senses of them that are blind with folly are pleasurable, tho 
they really give pain. For how does not the copper color of them 
that are poisoned by dhattura appear golden ? ' 

2. 367 : raso lavanatulyo na na vijnanasamah suhrt, 

dharmatnlyo nidhir nasti na krodhasadrgo ripuh. 
' There is no taste like salt ; no friend like knowledge ; no treasure 
like virtue; no enemy like anger.' 

2. 513 : mattadviradasamkage yauvane 'narthakarini, 

purusasyadhirudhasya na gastrad anyad ankugam 
6 The man who is mounted (in authority) over worthless youth, 
that is like a mad elefant, has no elefant's hook other than 

2. 540 : taj jalam yat trsarh chindyat tad annam yat ksudha- 
bandhur yo dhlrayaty artam sa putro yatra nirvrtih. 
' Water is what quenches thirst; food is what drives off hunger; 
a relative is he who comforts the afflicted; a son is he with whom 
there is happiness.' 

2. 596 : uccarudhair narair atma raksaniyo 'tiyatnatah, 
durarohaparibhrangavinipatah suduhsahah 
' The soul of men of high station must be guarded with exceeding 
care. Hard to bear is a fall when one tumbles from a high place.' 
2. 600 : jalam galanavastrena vivekena gunavrajah, 

saddanena grharambho vacah satyena gudhyati. 
' Water becomes pure by a drip-cloth ; the multitude of virtues by 
discernment; the householder's state by kind gifts ; speech by truth.' 
2. 648 : mastakasthayinam mrtyum yadi pagyed ayaih janah, 
aharo 'pi na rocate kim utakrtyakarita. 
' That person, at whose head stands death, does not take pleasure 
even in food ; how much less in the performance of crime.' 
2. 757 : kim krtam vidhina yavat gilam akhanditam, 

gatam tat tu yada kalam sampady api vipattayah 
' What has been accomplished by (evil) destiny, as long as virtue 
is unimpaired? But when that (virtue) has perished, there is fail- 

Proverbs and proverbial expressions 215 

2. 792 repeats almost verbatim Samaradityasarhksepa 6. 118. See 
the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. lvi. 33, note 74. 

2. 833 : varam karagrhe ksipto varam degantarabhraml, 

varam narakasamcari na dvibharyah punah puman. 
' Better for a man to be thrown into prison, better to wander in 
strange lands, better to dwell in hell, then to have two wives.' 

3. 143 : kalakalapasampanna upakartuh paranmukhah, 

na bhavanti mahatmanah sarasah gikhino yatha. 
• Noble men, after they have been enriched by a pack of accomplish- 
ments, do not turn their faces from their benefactor, like peacocks 
from the pool (from which they have drunk).' The point of the 
passage is the pun upon kalapa, which means both, ' bundle/ and, 
' peacock's tail ' (noble men do not turn their backs upon their 

3. 229-233 : see the author in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, 
p. 35. 

3. 265 : sati patyuh prabhoh pattir guroh gisyah pituh sutah, 
adege samgayam kurvan khandayaty atmano vratam. 
'A good wife, that doubts the command of her spouse; a soldier, 
that of his king; a pupil, that of his teacher; a son, that of his 
father, break their vows.' 

3. 422, 423 : two good stanzas, with familiar comparisons, on 
keeping good or evil company. 

3. 493 : balye 'pi madhurah ke 'pi draksavat ke 'pi cutavat, 
vipakena kadapindravaruniphalavat pare. 
What kind of plant or tree is indravaruni ? Not in Lexs. 

3. 557 ff. : praise of sattva, ' noble courage.' 

3. 785 : varam mrtyur varam bhiksa varam sevapi vairinam, 
daivad vipadi jatayarii svajanabhigamo na tu. 
1 Better death, beggary, service with enemies, when destiny has 
brought misfortune, than appeal to one's relatives.' 
3. 1104: upeksya lostakseptaram lostam dagati mandalah, 
sinhas tu garam apeksya garakseptaram iksate. 
'A dog waits upon him that throws a clod, and bites the clod (re- 
trieves), but a lion disregards the arrow, and gazes at him that 
discharges the arrow.' Here mandalah = gva, hitherto quoted only 
by Lexicografers. Cf. Bo. 2087, 2184, 4979, 7322. 

216 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

4. 95 : gunaih sthanacyutasyapi jay ate mahima mahan, 

api bhrastarh taroh puspam na kaih girasi dharyate. 
' Great glory arises thru virtue for a man, even if he has fallen 
from his station. The blossom even that has fallen from the tree, 
by whom is it not worn on the head ? ' 

4. 156 : ikso rasarh yathadaya kurcakas tyajyate janaih, 
dharmasaram tathadaya deham tyajati panditah 
c Just as people take the juice of the sugar-cane, and leave the stalk, 
so does a wise man take the essence of virtue, and disregard his 

5.182: svayam achidya grhnano mrgendro vicruto harih, 
anyadattam tu gaur ichan varakah pagur ucyate. 
' Because he himself tears and snatches (his food), the lion is cele- 
brated as king of animals. But the cow, which desires what is given 
by others, is called a wretched beast.' 

6. 67 : labhate 'lparh dhanam sthulagravoddhare 'pi karmakrt, 

tad bahu (read, tadbahu) svalpabharenapy arjayed rat- 
'A laborer gets small riches, even if he lifts heavy stones ; a connois- 
seur of jewels, even if he carries the smallest weight, may profit 
much from it.' 

6. 181 : kastham angaratam yati bhasmatam gomayadikam, 

vahnau kirnam suvarnaih tu suvarnotkarsatarh vrajet. 
' Wood becomes coal; dung and the like, ashes; but gold cast into 
fire attains to the highest quality of gold.' 

6. 418 : devanam bhasate pujam karoti vividhausadhan, 
mantrikan ahvayaty arto nimittajnans ca prchati. 
' He who is in trouble worships the gods, prepares many sorts of 
herbs, calls in magicians, and consults interpreters of omens.' 

7. 82 : gangaya valukam vardher jalam manam mahagireh, 

matimanto vijananti mahilaya manas tu na. 

' Wise men can tell how 'much sand there is in the Ganga ; how 

much water there is in the ocean ; the measure of a great mountain ; 

but not the mind of a woman.' 

This stanza in Prakrit, in the story of Agadadatta, stanza 322 

(Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 86) : 

gangae valuyam say are jalam himavao ya parimanam, 
jananti buddhimanta mahilahiyayam na-yananti. 

Proverbs and proverbial expressions 217 

7. 97 : adityaya tamah srstarh meghaya grismagosanam, 
margagramas tu vrksaya duhkhinas tupakarine. 
'Against darkness the sun has been created; against the drouth 
of summer, the cloud ; against the fatigue of the traveler, the tree ; 
and against sufferers, the benefactor.' 

7. 312 : nari svayamprabha patyuh prasadat syan naro na tu, 

ratrir indum vinapi syad divaso na ravim vina. 
'A woman must shine by the favor of her lord, but not the man 
(by the favor of a woman). Night can be without moon, but not 
day without sun.' 

8. 18 : daivo 'pi gafikate tebhyah krtva vighnang ca khidyate, 

vighnair askhalitotsahah prarabdham na tyajanti ye. 
' Even fate fears and weakens, after having created difficulties for 
those who endure difficulties unfalteringly, and do not abandon 
what they have undertaken.' 

8. 247 : caurag caurarpako mantri bhedajiiah kanakakrayi, 

annadah sthanadag caiva caurah saptavidhah smrtah 
*A (straight-out) thief; a betrayer of thieves; a minister; one who 
knows how to instigate strife; a purchaser of stolen goods; one 
who feeds a thief; and one who gives him shelter, are reputed the 
seven-fold kinds of thief.' Neither arpaka, nor arpaka is quotable ; 
its translation is in the air. Kanakakrayi, literally ' blind-buyer ' ; 
cf. Gautama 12. 50. The last two kinds of thieves are reprobated 
in Manu 9. 278; Yajnavalkya 2. 276. The stanza probably comes 
from a Smarta text. 

3. Some proverbial expressions. 

1. 75 : jalaih pusto 'pi kim vardheh sukhaya vadavanalah, ' Does 
the submarine fire, even tho tempered by the waters of the ocean, 
give pleasure ? ' 

1. 135: usnikrtam api sviyam caityam yati . . . payah, ' Water, 
tho heated, returns to its own cool temperature.' 

1. 153 : garkaram agnatam dantavyathayai kim na karkarah, 
' Does not a stone ruin the teeth of them that eat pebbles ? ' Cf . 
p. 209. 

1.167: atinindyo hi papasya karakad upadegakah, ' He who 
teaches sin is more reprehensible than he who practices it.' 

1. 320 : nicasamgaprasangena mrtyur eva na samgayah, ' The 

218 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

habit of associating with the low surely brings death.' Cf. Bo. 

1. 323 : gafikhah. . . . dhavalo bahir atyantam antas tu kuti- 
lasthitih, 'A conch-shell is exceedingly white outside, but inside its 
condition is crooked (cunning, plausible rascal). 

1. 326 : karpurasya katharh na syad angarena samam ratih, ' How 
can there be wanting affinity between camf or and coals ? ' Cf . Bo. 
7291 : karpiirah pavakasprstah saurabham labhatetaram, ' Camf or 
touched by fire becomes much more fragrant/ 

1. 561 : aphalo 'pi tarus tapam harate margayayinam, 'A tree, 
even tho it bears no fruit, shields wanderers from heat.' 

2. 22 : sampurno ? pi ghatah kiipe gunachedat pataty adhah, 
' Even a full bucket falls into the well, when the rope breaks.' (In 
relation to guna in the hackneyed double sense of ' rope/ or 
6 virtue'). 

2. 481 : anyatha cintitam karyam karmana kriyate 'nyatha, 
e The scheme planned one way is executed in another by karma/ 

2. 781 : pataham vadayed daivo yatha, nrtyet tatha krtl, ' Fate 
sounds the drum; the performer (man) dances to its tune/ 

2. 848 (p. 136, last line) : satyam abhanakam jatam yato raksas 
tato bhayam, 6 There is a good proverb : i From the quarter from 
which protection is expected comes danger/ This is indeed a famil- 
iar proverb, imbedded in proper surroundings in the Kathakoga: 
amrte visam utpannam siiryad andhakaram candramasah anga- 
ravrstih yato raksas tato bhayam. . . . See Tawney's Translation 
of Kathakoga, p. 14, lines 12-16, and the note on that passage, p. 
235. For amrte visam utpannam, see, in turn Pargva 3. 220, visam 
apy amrtayate . . . anukule vidhau nrnam, and Pargva 2. 792, 
pratikiile vidhau kimva sudhapi hi visayate. 

3. 146 : svachatvena gabhiro 'pi dargayaty udadhir manin : ( The 
ocean, tho deep, because it is clear, displays the jewels (at its 

3. 425 : agvah krgo 'pi gobhayai pusto napi punah kharah, ' The 
lean horse, not the fat ass, is graceful/ 

7. 447 : kubjah karoti kim drstva taruccagikhare phalam, ' What 

can the dwarf do when he sees a fruit on the high crown of a tree ? ' 

7. 659 : trtiyoddayane . . . mayuro 'pi hi grhyate, ' At the third 

Proverbs and proverbial expressions 219 

flying-up the peacock is sure to be caught/ (' If at first you don't 
succeed, try, try again'). 

7. 754 : vrkso 'py apakve pidyeta chidyamane phale dhruvam, 
' Even a tree, when a fruit is cut from it, surely suffers in its 
unripe part.' 

8. 55 : nicair uccaic, ca punsam hi cakranemi kramad daga, ' Up 
and down misfortune (and good fortune) come to men like the 
movement of the felly of a wheel.' (Caprice of quickly changing 

2.160: dugdhe carkarapatah, ' Sugar dropped in milk'; 6. 
1349; carkaradugdhasamyogah, ' Union of sugar and milk.' (Ex- 
cessive good fortune). The opposite of this, 7. 448: ksaraksepah 
ksate krtah, ' Throwing acid on a wound.' 

7. 518 : mahavrksa vicesena grismakale hi gadvalah, ' Great trees 
are especially verdant in summer time.' (Help by the great when 
one is in direst need). 



1. Prakrit influence. 

Jaina Sanskrit texts, presumably, never quite escape Prakrit 
influences. This has been observed, e. g., by Jacobi, Parigista- 
parvan, Preface to his Edition, p. 9 ; by Tawney, in his Translation 
of Kathakoca, pp. xxii n\ ; and by Weber, in his Edition and Trans- 
lation of Pancadandachattraprabandha, p. 5. The Pargvanatha, 
tho written in the main in excellent Sanskrit, has a number of Pra- 
krit back-formations into Sanskrit which it employs with surprising 
regularity. Chief of these is the ' root ' vidhyai in the sense of e go 
out,' ' be quenched ' = Pali-Prakrit vijjhai, from Skt. vi-ksai, 
' burn out/ Thus 3. 893 : 

ity uktva pagyatam eva tesam gatabhayah gukah, 
jhampam adac ca vidhyato 'gnig casthad aksatah gukah, 

' So saying, the parrot, without fear, in the very sight of them, took 
a jump (into the fire) : the fire was quenched, and the parrot stood 
unscathed.' Similarly the past participle in 6. 854, iti vakyamrtais 
tasya vidhyatah krodhapavakah, ' thus the fire of his anger was 
quenched by the nectar of her words '; and 6. 1322, vidhyatam iva 
pavakam, ' like an extinguished fire.' More figuratively, in 6. 609, 
vidhyatadhih, c one whose courage has gone out,' and, yet more sec- 
ondarily, 3, 361, hitadegasudhavidhyatamanasah, ( whose mind has 
become calm (quenched) by the nectar of wise instruction.' 

The primary present active of the verb is vidhyayati, in 3. 297, 
davo 'pi ghananirena vidhyayati, ' even a forest fire is quenched by 
heavy showers.' The causative in the sense of ' put out,' e extin- 
guish,' occurs several times: 1. 489, tapam pitur vidhyapayan, 
' quenching the wrath of his father ' ; 8. 385, citam vyadhyapayan x 
ksirambhobhir meghakumarakah, ( Cloud-youths quenched (Parg- 
va's) funeral pyre with fluid from the milk (ocean) '; and 8. 243, 

3 Here the composite character of ' root ' vi-dhyai comes to light, as the 
augment follows the preposition. 


The language of the Pargvanatha 221 

na megho vidyutarh vidhyapayati (misprinted, vidhyayapati), 'the 
cloud does not quench the lightning.' 

Outside the Pargvanatha this verb is not rare, 2 but nowhere else 
is it employed as familiarly as here. Pargvanatha knows genuine 
Sanskrit expressions for the same idea, as shows 2. 811, nirvapita- 
samtapa, ' whose sorrow has been extinguished.' But he has fallen 
into the diction of Jaina Prakrit literary speech; e. g., Bambha- 
datta, in Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharastri, p. 3, 1. 
26, vijjhavio kohaggi, ' the fire of his anger was quenched'; cf., in 
Pali, Milindapanho, p. 46, 1. 5, aggim avijjhapetva, ' not having 
put out the fire.' See Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen, 
§ 326 ; Anderson, Pali Glossary, p. 105. The whole business would 
come as a shock to a Pandit in Benares. 

The root ut-tar in the sense of i descend ' is a doublet of ava-tar, 
chosen doubtless with a view to metrical convenience. Tho ut-tar, 
' descend ' occurs also in Vetalapancavingati (see Pet. Lex.) it is 
hardly doubtful that it is a Sanskrit back-formation from Prakrit, 
where oyarai and uttara'i are interchangeable ; see Jacobi, Preface to 
Parigistaparvan, p. 9. Thus Pargva has, 2. 132, uttirya vahat ; 2. 269, 
uttirya bhujat; 7. 236, uttirya gajat; 7. 639, agvad uttirya; 3. 899, 
udatarayat rasabhat; 3. 896, samuttarya rasabhat; 2. 76, svan- 
gad uttarya; 2. 449, gikyakad annam uttarya; 2. 802, sutam ut- 
tarya (skandhat). But 8. 294, agokad avatirya; 2. 320; 3. 935, 
vyomno 'vatirya, or, 'vatatara; 2. 432, avatirya vimanatah; 7. 
243, avatirnau bhuvam svargat. In its more proper sense of ' bring 
up,' or, i bring out,' ut-tar seems rare : 1. 309, uttarya niratah. It 
would seem, however, that ava-tar is preferred in the sense of ' de- 
scent from heaven, or from on high,' in distinction from ut-tar 
which means mostly ' dismount.' 3 

The root cat i fall,' ' get into,' tho not restricted to Prakritizing 
texts, yet figures with notable frequency in Jaina Sanskrit. Thus 

2 See Hemacandra, Anekarthasamgraha 3. 201; and Johansson, IF. iii. 
220, note; Zachariae, KZ. xxxiii. 446. Cf. Wackernagel, Altindische Gram- 
matik, i, p. liii. The Samaradityasaxhksepa has vidhyatah in 5. 196 ; vidhyii- 
pyeta, passive of causative, in 6. 435; and the noun derivative from the 
causative vidhyapana in 6. 434. 

3 Saramadityasariiksepa, derived from the Prakrit Samarai'ccakaha, simi- 
larly has, rathad uttirya, 1. 163; vatad uttirya 4. 235; uttara turamgamat, 
4. 45; uttirya dvipat 7. 202; on the other hand divac. cyutah, avatirnah, 
6. 9, but also asanad avatirya, 4. 555. 

222 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

also here: 1. 35; 2. 580, 633; 3. 506; 6. 1157, 1348; 7. 175, 222; 
8. 354. Especially in connection with kare, ' get into one's hand/ 
e. g. 2. 633, cintamanir iva catito bhupatih kare, ' like a wish- jewel 
the king got into his hand,' sc, so that he could serve under him.' 
Similarly, e. g., Pancadandachattraprabandha, p. 37, 1. 15, ' asmat- ■>' J ^ 
kare catati; Rauhineya Carita, stanza 173, haste catisyati. See Ka- 
thakoga, p. xxii; Hertel, Das Parickntantra, p. 327. 

The ' root ' vi-kurv is clearly a Sanskrit back-formation of Pra- 
krit viuvva'i, viuvvae (past participle viuvviya ; gerund viuvviuna) ; 
see Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit- Sprachen, § 508. The verb 
means everywhere, ' produce by magic' Thus in 1. 601 a thief who 
has, by means of a certain rite, gone up in the air produces by magic 
a big rock, vikurvya mahatim gilam, wherewith he threatens his 
pursuers. Similarly 2. 352, vikurvya sinharupam, ' having as- 
sumed magically the form of a lion ' ; 2. 411, suvimanam vikurvya, 
' having created by magic an excellent car'; 5. 101, caturvrsim 4 
vikurvya tadvisanotthaih snapayamasa varibhih (prabhum) ; 6. 
1129, vidyavikurvite saudhye muktva (mam), ' having left me in 
a palace, constructed by magic science ' ; 8. 384, vikurvya vahnim 
vatam ca vahnivayukumarakah, ' Fire and Wind Kumarakas (di- 
vine beings) having created by magic fire and wind.' Examples 
from Prakrit in Leumann, Die Avagyaka-Erzahlungen, p. 35, 1. 6, 
kalasunagaruvam viuvvai, ' he assumed the form of a black dog ' ; 
in Jacobi, 1. c, p. 53, 1. 8, pasayam viuvviuna, 'calling forth by 
magic a palace '; p. 26, 1. 21, viuvviyam manipidham, i a jewel-floor 
created by conjury'; p. 44, 1. 5, viuvviyam varavimanam, 'a car 
created by magic' 

Parcvanatha has a ' root ' ava -|- lag in the sense of 6 serve,' or 
' cultivate.' Thus 7. 35, tena nrpam avalagata (gloss, sevama- 
nena), 'by him who was serving the king'; 7. 42, rajno 'valaga- 
yam, 'in the service of the king'; 7. 591, blmpasyavalagayam 'in 
the service of the king.' Avalag is a Sanskrit back-formation from 
Prakrit olagga, past participle in the sense of ' following,' Jacobi, 
Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, p. 66 , 1. 8. From this there is an 
infinitive olaggium, ib., p. 35, 1. 3. Jacobi derives this ' root ' olagg 
from Skt. anulagna ' attached to,' which is sufficiently doubtful 

4 Some sort of a horned animal : ' having produced by magic a caturvrsf, 
he bathed the Lord in the water coming out of its horns.' 

The language of the Pargvanatha 223 

from the point of view of sound. But there need be no question 
about the provenience of avalag from olag, abstracted from olagga, 
or the like. 

The word visamsthula ' lax/ ' flaccid/ occurs in 1. 188; 3. 574. 
According to Zachariae, BB. xi. 320 ff., it is a Sanskrit back-forma- 
tion from Prakrit visarhthula = Skt. vicranthula ; cf . Wackernagel, 
Altindische Grammatik, i, p. liii. The word is late ; its occurrences 
are largely in the drama and in Jaina texts. 

The instrumental imaih for ebhih is firmly established in Pra- 
kritizing Jaina Sanskrit texts. It occurs here in 1. 805; 6. 767; 
7. 398. The same Prakritism in Samaradityasamksepa 4. 508, 
619; 6. 385; 8. 520; I seem to remember having seen it also in 

Further, sa as a latent positive prefix, contrasted with a, negative 
or privative : sa-jnana, ' knowledge,' with a-jnana, ' ignorance/ 6. 
377 (frequent both in Pali and Prakrit). Similarly, hi = dhik, 
' alas/ 4. 78 (dhik, e. g., in 4. 81). 5 ucchanna for utsanna, 8. 347, 
is probably a mere matter of Prakritic writing, as often in Sanskrit 
manuscripts. Similarly proper names occasionally show Prakrit 
sounds: Javana, for Yavana, 5. 192; Jasaditya, or Jagaditya, 2. 
453, 496 ; 6 DevinI (Samarad. 7. 505, Deim), 2. 453, for Devini, 
2. 488. Duplications like jaya-jaya-rava, 6. 1103; 7. 115; ha-ha- 
rava, 6. 1131; kila-kila-rava, 6. 1100; utkila-kila-rava, 3. 905, are 
also of popular origin; see Speijer, ZMDG. lxv. 316. 7 There are 
also a few inverted compounds, in accordance with a marked ten- 
dency of popular diction, both in Pali and in Prakrit 8 : naraika = 
ekanara, 'a certain man/ 1. 317; drsti-bhrasta = bhrasta-drsti, 
' having lost sight/ 1. 397; karna-durbala = durbala-karna, i weak- 
eared/ i. e., ' accessible to calumny/ 2. 348. In 6. 154 kasayaksa 
seems to mean ' sins of sight ' = drsti-kasaya. 

Finally Prakritic influence is at the back of an occasional hyper- 
Sanskritism ; see the words ksatra = khatra, p. 225 ; and pulindra 
= pulinda, p. 230 ; and davaraka and da vara = Skt. doraka and 
dora, p. 239. 

B hi and dhik alternate in the drama. 
" Perhaps, Skt. Yacaditya. 

7 See, however, kuha-kuha-rava in Vasavadatta (Gray's Translation), 
p. 204. 

8 See last Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen § 603. 

224 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

2. Lexical matters. 

The text contains a considerable number of words which are 
quoted in native lexical or grammatical works, but have not, up to 
date, been found in literature; their rareness is made evident by 
glosses which the editors think it necessary to add in almost every 
case. Thus, kalyanam (kanakam), ' gold/ 1. 48, 782 (see under 
proverbs, p. 212); culbam (tamram), i copper,' 1. 782; kalada 
(suvarnakara), ' goldsmith/ 1. 79 ; 9 panigrhiti (vadhu), * wif e/ 
1. 570; 10 kigala (pallava), ' shoot (of plants)/ 1. 623; ardaka 
(yacaka), ' beggar/ 1. 626; prajya (bahughrta), ' having much 
ghee/ 1. 627; pradipana (visavigesah), ' some sort of poison/ 1. 
679; gantu (pantha), ' wayfarer/ 1. 818 ; 1X durga, 2. 309, 'name 
of a bird'; candila (napita), ' barber/ 2. 988; kalinja (kata), 
' mat/ 3. 79; khalurika (gramasthanam), ' grounds for military 
training/ 3. 487; krayaka, ( buyer/ 3. 821; pheranda (grgala), 
'jackal/ 3. 904; mandala (gvan), c dog/ 3. 1104; udaram-bhari, 
' nourishing one's belly/ 5. 6; aganjitah (abhitah), 'unterrified/ 
6. 376 ; 12 arthapayati, ' expound/ 3. 364 (quoted only by gram- 
marians) ; attahasa, ' loud laughter' (of Vetalas). 13 

In 2. 124 occurs a root cukk, apparently in the sense of obtain 
(gloss, cukkitah, samaptah). An animal, pursued by a king, afraid 
for its life, addresses the king : 

cukkitas tava kim koge 'ntahpure nagare 'pi va, 
dlnan agaranan evam yad asman hansi bhupate, 

1 Why are we gathered (alive) into your provision house, zenana, 
or city, if you thus slay us wretched, unprotected (animals), 
king ? ' Dhatupatha has, cukk, cukkayati : vyathane, artau, vya- 
sane, implying that the otherwise unquoted root means, ' injure/ or, 
' oppress/ in addition to the sense assumed here. 

Other words, explained by glosses of the editors, are not men- 
tioned in the Lexicons : Of especial interest in the nonce-formation 
ehireyahira, ' servile/ 6. 82. Adjective from the expression ehi re 

'Pet. Lexs. only from Lexicografers. Mon. Will., Jaina. 

10 Lexicografers, also panigrhita. 

11 In this sense only Unadi-Sutra 1. 70. 

"Dhatup. has a root gafij, ' roar/ in the sense of garj. 
13 Both atta and attatta, in the sense of ' loud,' or, ' very loud/ are cited 
only by Lexicografers. 

The language of the Pargvanatha 225 

yahi re, ' come here sirrah, go sirrah ! ' Used with kriya i work ! ' 
Glossed, ehi re, yahi re, yasyam kriyayam sa ehireyahira, tarn. 
Further, kaccola, in abhrakam kaccolamukhamatram, ' a little 
cloud of the size of the mouth of a jar/ 2. 155 ; glossed, kaccolam 
patravigesah, ' some kind of vessel.' — vyapa, ' extension,' in rddhi- 
vyapa, ' extension of prosperity,' 3. 123 ; glossed, vyapo vistarah. — 
tvatya, ' thine,' 3. 465; glossed, tvatyas tvadlyah; cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gramm. § 1245 bd . — caturi, ' pavillion in which marriage is solemn- 
ized,' 6. 1345 ; glossed, panigrahanamandapah, ' cori ' iti bhasa- 
yam. — lalli, l flattery/ i cajolery/ in lallim krtva, 7. 122, where 
lallim is parafrazed by catuni. — andhala, i blind/ 7. 141 ; glossed, 
andha. — nirgadha, ' bottomless/ 2. 83 ; glossed, atalasprg. — abha- 
raka, i non-supporter/ 1. 400; glossed, aposaka (sc. matrpitroh). — 
akamatha, ' dwelling in grief/ 1. 701. In pun on the proper name 
Kamatha, sadaiva Kamatho 'py evam abhud akamathas tatha. 
Gloss, akam duhkham, tasya mathah sthanam, akamathah. In the 
sense of ' pain ' aka (=a-ka) occurs in TS. 5. 3. 2. 1. Lexico- 
graf ers cite it in the sense of ' sin.' — osita, l dwelling/ i settled ' = 
a -f- usita, 1. 828; glossed, sthita. — mahadivya, in the sense of 
divya, 'ordeal/ 2. 350; glossed, agnipatadina guddhipradarganam 
divyam. — aghata, i incongruous/ ' paradoxical/ 2. 663, 664; 
glossed, aghatam, aghatamanam. — atijaras, ' superannuated/ 3. 
1083 ; glossed, jaram atikranta. — tuchagravas, ' small-eared ' (of a 
horse), 4. 23; glossed, tuchakarna. — raja-vidvara, apparently i in- 
ternecine war/ 4. 54 ; glossed, rajyaklegah. — atirati, * of exceeding 
loveliness/ 4. 118; glossed, atiratayah, ratim atikrantavatyah. — 
apratichanda, i the like of which is not/ 6. 230; glossed, anupama. 
— ksatra, 14 ' offal/ 6. 513, glossed, ksetraksepyo malah. — jalabha, 
' water elefant/ 6. 869 ; glossed, jalahastin. The word is the equiv- 
alent of nira-hastin in st. 866. In Devendra's Prakrit version of 
this story, jalakari, and jalagaa; see Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzah- 
lungen, p. 43, 11. 16 and 21. Kathakoga (Tawney's Translation), 
p. 21, has ' water elefant/ in its version of the same story. To be 
added to the list under suffix abha in Whitney, Skt. Gramm., 

M I suspect that ksatra is a hyper-Sanskritism for khatra. In Rauhmeya 
Carita 155, 156, 178, 325 ksatra is clearly used in the sense of khatra 
' breach made by a thief,' ' tunnel ' : araksakagrhe ksatram pradaya sar- 
vasvarii jagrhe (155); ksatraih dvare (156); patitaih ksatraih mandire 
(178); ksatram patitam janagThe (325). 


226 Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatha 

§ 1199 a . — sarvamsaha-ruha, ' tree/ 7. 67, glossed, vrksa. For sar- 
vamsaha see Indian Antiquary, ix. 185. 

The following words are new, or rare; their meaning apparent 
from the connection: 

aksatra-krt, ' performer of unknightly deeds/ 1. 177. 

dogundaga, or dogunduga, a 'kind of god': dogundaga iva- 
marah, 1. 267, 'like a Dogundaga god'; dogundwga-surabhasarh 
vidhapya, 6. 495, ' having created the semblance of a Dogunduga 
god'; dogundaga ivamarah, 7. 163, 'like a Dogunduga god/ The 
word is identical with dogundika, Kathakoca, p. 63, ' a god in the 
Dogundika heaven.' 

galanavastra, ' drip-cloth/ ' sieve/ 1. 288 ; 2. 600. 

dhanurgulika, 1. 317; and dhanurgolika, 3. 189, 'sling-shot.' 

curni, 'flour' (=curna), 1. 386, 823; 3. 191; 7. 351 (here mis- 
printed cuni, for curni). 

bahya-rus, ' superficially gruff/ ' of stern demeanor/ 2. 18 : tvaya 
. . . bhavyam bahyarusa, 'you must adopt stern demeanor.' 

asammad, ' taking no pleasure/ 2. 76. Neither saihmad, nor its 
negative are cited in the Lexicons. 

indra-varana, ' Indra's elefant/ 2. 105. Kef erring to Airavana. 

caturgatika, in caturgatikaduhkhadah . . . bhavah, ' existence 
which causes pain to them that pass thru the four states ' (appar- 
ently, the four acrama, or stages of religious life), 2. 136. Cf. 
caturacramika, caturacramya, and caturagramin. 

bhadraka, ' a certain grade of Jaina lay devotee/ 1. 618; 2. 190; 
7. 819, 822. In 7. 822 it figures by the side of graddha, another 
grade in the development of devotees. 

mahabhuja, fern., ' great serpent/ 2. 256 ; bhuja, fern., ' serpent/ 
2. 259 ; bhuja, masc, ' serpent/ 2. 269. 

kavalika, derivative of kavala, ' consisting of morsels/ 2. 292. 
Prince Bhima is converting Kalika (Durga) from her practice of 
eating the flesh of corpses: kim te kavalikaharavikalaya maha- 
misair blbhatsaih. Gods do not eat morsels (devah kavalaharino 
nahi), 2. 326; see the note there. 

karna-durbala, ' weak-eared/ i. e. ' accessible to calumny/ 2. 348. 

pistakurkuta, ' cock made of dough/ 2. 523, 524 ; see the note 
to that passage. 

urjasvini, 'name of a Magic Eeputation ' (prasiddhi), 2. 557. 

dramaka, ' designation of a kind of hell inhabitant/ 2. 505. 

The language of the Pargvanatha 227 

Occurs also, in a different sense in Rauhineya Carita 18, in a pas- 
sage reported under vicopaka, p. 233. 

dhanuskika, ' little bow/ 2. 785. In the compound, dhanuskika- 
gara-vyagra-kara, ' with hands busy with little bow and arrow ' ; cf . 
dhanuh-garan in 786. 

bahu-dhava, ' having many husband,' ' wanton,' 2. 798. In 
double entente, ' having many dhava trees.' 

divyapancakam, i the five ordeals by which a king is chosen, 2. 
827. See the note on p. 199 bottom. 

dharani-dhava, ' husband of the earth,' ' king,' 2. 856. Perifrasis 
of mahi-pati, etc. Cf. dharanl-dhara. 

danta-gakata, ' tooth-wagon,' ' set of teeth,' 2. 899. In danta- 
gakatam baddhva, ' keeping his mouth shut,' tpKos oBovrwv. 

parakayapravega, ' art (vidya) of enterting another's body,' 3. 
119 ff. For other designations of the same magic practice see 
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, p. 6. 

patta-kunjara, ' state elefant,' 3. 150 = patta-hastin, Prabandha- 
cintamani, p. 288. 

raja-pati, ' royal procession,' 3. 174. Tawney, p. 179 of his 
Translation of Prabandhacintamani, p. 286 y 1. 1, renders ra/japa- 
tika by ' king's circuit.' The latter form also in Pancadandachat- 
traprabandha 1 (Weber, p. 11, 1. 4, where the treatment is erro- 

gudha-caturthaka = gudha-caturtha-prahelika, ' a charade in 
which the fourth verse of a stanza has to be guessed,' 3. 219 ff. 
Cf . dodhaka, ' charade in which two verses have to be guessed,' Pra- 
bandhacintamani, p. 157. See Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, 
p. 32. 

trikapali-pariksana, ' test of the three skulls,' 3. 234. See Proc. 
Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, p. 36, note 81; Hertel, Das Panca- 
tantra, p. 46. 

divyaghata, ' divine workmanship,' 3. 327 : 

bhojye vacasi danadau sadvivekan narah param, 
pratistharh labhate loke divyaghatad ivopalah. 

' In eating, speaking, bestowing of alms and other acts, shrewd dis- 
cernment confers upon a man the highest position in the world, as 
a jewel thru divine workmanship.' 

katare, ' particle of surprise or admiration,' 3. 492 ; 8. 48. Gloss, 
adbhutartham avyayam. ' an indeclinable, expressing wonder.' 

228 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Also in Qalibhadra Carita 2. 58, glossed by agcaryabhutam ; in 
Hemacandrasuriprabandha, gloka 63 (Edition of the Prabhavaka 
Carita, p. 300), katare jananlbhaktir uttamanam kasopalah, ' Be- 
hold, devotion to one's mother is the touchstone of noble men ! ' 
The word occurs also in Kathakoga, in a stanza printed in Taw- 
ney's Translation, p. 234, in a note on p. 3, lines 25-28, katare 
karma-laghavam, i strange to say, my karma is light ! ' Pischel, 
Hemacandra's Grammatik der Prakritspracben, vol. i, p. 157 
(anent iv. 350), prints a doubtful and unexplainable word katari, 
of which he cites a variant kutare in vol. ii, p. 187. This, presum- 
ably, is the same word. 

dhaukaniya, 'to be given as a present,' 3. 499. Derived from 
dhaukana, i present.' 

hedavitta, apparently, ' horse-owner,' ' horse-dealer,' 3. 499. Cf . 
hedavuka in Mitaksara to Yajnav. 2. 30, and hedavukka in Lexi- 

kautastya = kutastya, ' coming whence,' 3. 618. 

antaralapin, ' he who interrupts by talking ' ; slang, ' butts in 9 ; 
German ' dreinredner,' 3. 690. 

guddhi-talika, ' clapping of hands, or sign with hands, that a 
person tried by ordeal is innocent,' 3. 894. 

vijijnapayisu, ' desiring to report or communicate,' 3. 1010. 
Glossed, vijnapayitum ichuh. 

uttapti, 'act of plaguing, tormenting,' 3. 1021. 

raksa-pottalika, ' some kind of protecting mark, or amulet,' 5. 75. 
Cf. raksa-pattolika. 

samasphalaya-, causative, in samasphalayamasur mithah pa- 
sanagolakau, ' throw at one another,' 5. 76. See a -f- sphal. 

caturvrsl, e some kind of an horned animal,' 5. 101. 

puskali-gravaka, ' a kind of Jain lay disciple,' 6. 156. 

trivapri, ' triple mound, or wall,' 6. 225. 

ujjhika, 'the kitchen maid who throws offal from the kitchen 
on the garbage pile,' 6. 399. Gloss, tyagini. Four wives have 
duties assigned them, each more important, or dignified than the 
preceding : 

ujjhika bhasmapunjadau rasavatyam ca bhaksika, 
bhandagare raksita tu grhasvamye ca rohini. 

' (The first) threw the garbage on the ash-pile and other (garbage) 
piles; (the second became) the tastress in the kitchen; (the third) 

The language of the Pargvanatha 229 

took charge of the storehouse; but (the fourth) Kohini was placed 
in charge of the household.' As regards the gloss tyagini, above, 
Samaradityasamksepa 4. 421 shows tyajanti in the sense of ' female 

cangiman, or, cafigima, ' discernment,' or ' discerning,' in the 
compound cangineksana, ' with discerning look,' 6. 448. 

mimajjisu, ' desiring to dive,' 6. 455. 

prasthanaka, l expediting,' 6. 457. 

krsnaksaravidhi, seemingly, ' some thieves' magic,' 6. 458. 

anumrti, ' act of following to death,' 6. 593. 

mukta-bana, ' one who has shot his arrow,' apparently in the 
sense of, ' having done one's utmost.' Describes physicians (muk- 
tabanesu vaidyesu) 6. 609. 

saha-mrta, ' a man who enters the pyre with a woman,' 6. 707. 
Lexs. only saha-mrta, ( a woman performing suttee.' 

kayasa, 'body,' in mano-vak-kayasa, 6. 762. The word has a 
rather intricate history. Intermediate between itself and kaya lies 
an s-stem kayas which is sure to result on the analogy of manas, 
and vacas which often accompany it ; see the author in Amer. Jour, 
of Philol., xvi. 415. After that kayasa still further imitates ma- 
nasa. The word may be of Prakritic origin. 

kad-agraha, i evil inclination, or whim,' 6. 787. 

dipa-kalika, ' flame of a torch,' 6. 857. Lexs. only as name of a 
commentary on Yajnavalkya. 

evam-vac, i so speaking,' 6. 898. 

acamla, ' a kind of penance,' 6. 1180 (acamla-vardhamanakhyam 
tapas). According to Hoernle, Indian Antiquary xix. 239, note 
31, it means eating dry food simply moistened or boiled in water. 
The word occurs also in Kathakoga, p. 84. For its Prakrit cor- 
respondent ayambilabaddhamana see Glossary to Jacobi's Ausge- 
wahlte Erzahlungen, s. v.; and Meyer, Hindu Tales, p. 87, note, 
whose explanation of the word is very doubtful. Leumann, Aupa- 
patika-Sutra, p. 101, has the word in the form, Prakrit ayambila- 
vaddhamanaga = Sanskrit ayamamlavardhamanaka, the latter 
being a doubtful construction on the part of the author. 

gabara-vaidya, ' a certain class of (low born) physicians,' 6. 
1223; Samarad. 6. 402; Prakrit savara-vejja, Jacobi, Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen, p. 28, 1. 4. 

mumursaka, ' about to die,' 6. 1306. Ordinarily, mumursu. 

230 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

kopa-grha, ' anger-chamber ' (' swearing-room '), 7. 42. 

ati-kujita, ' great howl/ 7. 176. 

aupayacitaka, 'fond prayer/ 7. 180 = upayacitaka, 3. 171; 
Samarad. 4. 645. Neither in the Lexs. 

sarirjivani-nasya, masculine, i errhine to resuscitate with/ 7. 332. 
Cf. nasya, 7. 316. 

gophani, ' some sort of cannon-like war instrument/ 7. 6181. 

pulindra and pulindraka = pulinda, ' designation of a rude for- 
est-dweller/ 7. 756, 759. Hypersanskritism, as tho pulinda were 
Prakrit for Sanskrit pulendra. Cf. govinda = gopendra. 

gokulini, ' shepherd's wife/ 8. 3. 

dharma-tirthika, f designation of a Jain religious/ 8. 25. 

bhrgu-pata, ' suicide by throwing one's self down a precipice/ 
8. 98. 

nikacitam, sc. karma, i loathed/ ' loathsome/ 8. 155. So also 
Samaradityasamksepa 2. 363 (nikacitakarma) . In the latter text, 
1. 196, nidanam nikacayam, £ loathing the fetter of existence, or 
sin'; and, 8. 521, nyakacayat, ' treated with contumely.' 

divya-mantrika, 6 manager of ordeals/ 8. 266. 

punagcyava, 6 rebirth downward in the scale of reincarnations/ 
3. 1060. Cf. punarmrtyu. 

pratipa-giksatva, i inverted training (of a horse)/ 4. 25 = vi- 
paritya-giksatva. See note on p. 204 bottom. 

bhavanadhipah (vingatih), ' Lords of natal stars/ 5. 92. 

kurkutoraga, ( cock-serpent/ 1. 859. See note on p. 21. 

anangabhara, perhaps kenning for ( female breast.' See the 
author in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, p. 23, note 48. 

-krmika, in sadgunakrmika, ' practicing/ 3. 322. Perhaps for 
karmika, quoted by Lexicografers. 

There are a number of new onomatopoeic words: bumba-rava, 
6 noise of echoing thunder/ 2. 157; ' battle-cry/ 7. 680; cilicili- 
svara, ' sound of the bird called durga/ 2. 309 ; utkilakila-rava, 
' noise made by a Dakini (witch)/ 3. 905 (cf. kila-kila) ; kinkilli 
(text, nkikilli), perhaps, ' cry of joy/ 6. 253; kila-kilayita, neuter, 
* sound made by ghosts (preta)/ 7. 145; bhut-kr, ' sound bhut, 
made by an ass/ 7. 203 (cf. phut-kr). 

The text shows a considerable number of new denominal (deno- 
minative) verbs, as well as denominal participles and abstract 
nouns, which are formed directly upon a primary noun, omitting 

The language of the Pargvanatha 231 

the intermediate verbal stage : kamalayate, ' be as a lotus/ 2. 52 ; 
kanakayate, ' shine as gold/ 2. 239 ; prayagcittayati = prayagcittl- 
yati, ' undergo penance/ 2. 599 ; visayate, ' turn poison/ 2. 792 ; 
tamayate, i grow dark/ 2. 793 (gloss, tama iva acarati) ; kutayate, 
'grow false/ 2. 793; arthapayati, ' expound/ 3. 364 (quoted by 
Grammarians) ; anaganlyati, * desire to commit suicide by starva- 
tion/ 3. 608 (gloss, anaganam ichati) ; bhrtakiyati, ' act as a hired 
man/ 3. 788; divasayate, ' play the part of day/ 6. 354; garaniyati, 

* resort for protection/ 6. 1128 (gloss, garanam ichati) ; arnavayate, 
' act as an ocean/ 6. 1280; vratiyati, ' desire to take the vows/ 8. 64 
(gloss, vratam abhilas) ; karabhayate, ' become an elefant/ 8. 74. 

More problematic are the following : gatat-patra-drumayate, ' act 
as a tree with falling leaves/ 2. 177. The root gat carries on a pre- 
carious existence in Dhatup., but not in the sense assumed (cf. cat, 
p. 221). The stanza is translated on p. 213. 

krakacayate, ' tear like a saw '( ?), 3. 620 (krakaca, e saw '). The 
stanza reads: 

vancana tv aha marii tata citam arodhum adiga, 
kim na vetsi mamainya hi maranam krakacayate. 

' Vancana however said : " Father, order me to mount the pyre ; 
do you not know that the death forsooth of my doe tears like a 
saw? ' Cf. 1. 7631, kim va rambha krakacam arhati; see p. 213. 

Denominative participles and abstract nouns : dhatturita, ' poi- 
soned by the dhattura plant/ 2. 239 ; kalakalayita, ' confusedly 
noisy/ 3. 1077 ; tanmayayita, from tan-maya, ' permeated with/ 
c identified with/ 6. 518 (gloss, tammayayitam, tanmayam ivacari- 
tam) ; malayita, £ wreathed/ ' garlanded/ 6. 926; nigumbhita, 
f slain/ from nigumbha, ' slaughter/ 8. 219 (gloss, marita) ; dha- 
valana, from dhavalaya-, ' illumination/ 3. 286 ; anakulana. from 
anukulaya-, ( act of making favorable/ 3. 338. 

Quite a number of words occur with more or less form change, 
as compared with their correspondents in the Lexs. Thus : 

ulluntha in sollunthavacana, ' ironic speech/ 1. 194. The Lexs. 
cite ulluntha, but the quotations show ulluntha only (always in 
composition). Also, ullunthana, in ullunthanaih (plur. tant.), 

* mockery/ 3. 436. 

svahpati = svarpati, ' Indra/ 3. 403. 

rajyadhur, in composition = rajyadhura, ' burden of govern- 
ment/ 3. 272. 

232 Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

anumodana, fern. == anumodana, neut., ' joy with/ ' sympathy 
3. 284. 

bhuml-grha = bhumi-grha, ' underground chamber/ 3. 364. 
granthaphala, probably = granthiphala, ' designation of a tree/ 

1. 608. 

kasapatta = kasapattika, 'touchstone/ 3. 1022. 

vimrstar, for vimarstar, or vimrastar), noun of agency, ' reflect- 
ing/ 'conservative/ 3. 653. Perhaps to be corrected (vimrasta- 
rah). See also the list of words with suffix -ka, below. 

There are some very rare words, and words which occur only in 
Jain texts. Thus : 

dittha and davittha, ' X and Y, as names of irrelevant persons/ 
3. 58: 

sa eva purusah sarthanama gesas tu bibhrati, 
svakhyam ditthadavitthadigabda iva nirarthikam, 

' That man alone (namely, he who carries perfection to the highest 
point) has the name 'Successful' (Sartha) ; the rest carry their 
names senselessly, like names of the class Dittha and Davittha.' 
Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. xiii. 421. 

jalagaya = jadagaya, ' foolishness/ in tyaktakhilajalagayah, e hav- 
ing given up all foolishness/ 1. 29; jalagaya = jadagaya occurs 
once or twice in Kathas. 

ajanani, 'non-birth' (curse word), 1. 182. 

hilana, ' injury/ 6. 434. Cf. hilayate, 'be wroth at/ 6. 1322. 

gri-karl, ' easy-chair/ 6. 519. Glossed, sukhasanam. 

raura, 'laborer/ 8. 221. Parigistaparvan 8. 72, 291 has rora in 
the same sense. 

nirangika, ' veil/ 8. 185. The word occurs in Parigistaparvan 

2. 8, 144, 496, and is listed in Hemacandra's Deginamamala 2. 20, 
and 90 (here nirangi) ; Samarad. 4. 555 also has nirafigi. Tawney, 
Translation of Kathakoga, p. xxiii, quotes nirangi as a Prakrit 

j/chut, ' escape/ 1. 175, in tava banapraharatah katham chutye, 
' how shall I escape from the blow of thy arrow.' The word occurs 
in the expression, samkatac chutitah (or chuttitah), 'escaped from 
danger/ in Prabandhacintamani, p. 20; see Tawney's Translation, 
p. 13, note 4; in the same sense in Samarad. 9. 234, and in Eau- 
hineya Carita 365. Weber, Pancadandachattraprabandha, p. 26 
emends effectively budhyate to chutyate: katham chutyate tasyah 

The language of the Pargvanatha 233 

kalaratryah sakagat, ' how is one released from the presence of this 
(witch) Kalaratri'; see his note 130, and p. 66, note 2. The root 
is listed in Dhatup., and seems to mean literally, ' cut off ' (chotana, 
* act of cutting off ') . 

A number of words remain unclear, or altogether unintelligible : 
a vasvapanika, 5.85. and avas vapini, 5.113. Clearly from root s vap . 
Would seem to mean 'sleeping-charm/ or the like. Indra gives it 
to a queen with child (85), and later on (113) takes it away again. 
Followed in 5. 85 by pratirupa, and in 5. 113 by pratirupaka. All 
four words not in Lexs. ; a vasvapanika, i sleeping charm ' in Pari- 
cistaparvan 2. 173; avas vapini, apparently in the same sense, in 
Rauhineya Carita 14, to wit : 

kathayitva khaned gartam dattvavasvapinim api, 
yati jagarayitva so 'kalanfyag ca duhsahah. 

vigopaka, in the expression, tavad vigopakaikasyamelato lekhyake 
kalim kurvantam, 2. 620. Here a thief, about to rob a rich merch- 
ant's house, sees that merchant quarreling with his son because a 
single vigopaka does not meet (does not agree?), amelato, in a 
letter, lekhyake; see p. 60. The word also in Rauhineya Carita 18, 
which reads thus: 

tasya grasah krtah kidrk bhuktahatte vigopakah, 
vasann eko varo gramo dramakag ca grham prati. 

The word dramaka in this passage does not tally with ' hell-inhabi- 
tant ' in Pargvanatha 2. 505 ; see p. 56. 

nidayaka, glossed, ucchedaka, apparently in the sense of ' weed- 
ing/ 6. 348 : 

mahatam dusanoddharad upakari khalah khalu, 
mudha nidayakam sasyaksetre ko nabhinandati, 

'A rogue, verily, who removes the faults of noble men, is a bene- 
factor. Who does not praise him that weeds vainly in a field of 
grain ? ' Neither nidayaka nor ucchedaka is in the Lexs. ; the sense 
of this niti-stanza is not clear. 

masa-tusadibhih, glossed by, munivigesaih, i by distinguished 
Munis/ 6. 410 : vinaivadhyayanam siddhir lebhe masatusadibhih, 
' without any kind of study the Sages so designated have attained 
to perfection.' 

234 Life and Stories of Parcvanatha 

gironyuiichanaka, 6. 1188, possibly, - some kind of arrangement 
of the hair of the head ' : 

prstau ca cakrina kim bho ihagamanakaranam, 
kevalam tan dhunitah sma gironyunchanakam kila, 

1 And when the emperor asked them : " Why, gentlemen, have you 
come here ? " they merely shook. . . .' This passage is wanting in 
the corresponding places, Kathakoca, p. 35, middle, and in the 
Prakrit version, Jacobi, Ausgewahlte Erzahhmgen, p. 27, 1. 5. 
Eauhineya Carita, stanza 122, describes the following little cere- 
mony which the mother of the thief Eauhineya undertakes in honor 
of his first theft: 

nyunchanani vidhayagu pradiparh saptavartibhih, 
vidhaya tilakam mata putrayety agisam dadau. 

utpanika, apparently, ' open-handed/ ' liberal/ 2. 913. 

kanalika, in darganiya-kanalika, 1. 627. Glossed, kanallkam 
uccagilpam api. Seems to refer to some part of a Jaina temple. 

herayitva, in herayitva sanmasam, perhaps, ( waiting.' 

niropa, apparently, ' instruction/ ' advice/ 7. 171. 

mahiyasya kaurikasya( !) sutah, 1. 334. Apparently e the son of 
some man of lowly occupation.' In the corresponding passage, 
Kathakoga, p. 266, 1. 5, ' son of a potter/ ; see the note 23, on p. 33. 

caurarpaka, and kanakakrayin, 8. 247. Two of the seven kinds 
of thief, listed in a versus memorialis, see p. 217. 

kandavikayate, apparently from kandavika, f baker/ 6. 362. Un- 
intelligible in its connection. 

pradipa, in the compound pradlpa-sarsapau seems to be the name 
of some small useful grain, 1. 679; see p. 213. 

indravaruni-phala, ' some kind of fruit/ 3. 493. See p. 215. 

3. Proper names. 

The text abounds in new proper names of all classes : names of 
gods, goddesses, Vidyadharas, Yaksas, and Eaksasas; names of 
kings, princes and queens ; names of Saints, male and female, Brah- 
mans, Purohitas, ministers ; names of merchants, and other gentle- 
men, and their wives and children; names of low-born men and 
courtezans. Geographical and topical names repeat, in general, 
those that are current in other Jain chronicles ; yet there are many 

The language of the Pdrgvandtha 235 

new ones : names of countries, cities, villages ; of mountains, forests, 
and parks; of lakes and rivers; of tirthas, caityas, and other holy 
places; names of heavens, and abodes of delight. As in other nar- 
rative texts, beginning with the Epic, domestic animals and inani- 
mate objects of utility receive names ; thus Abdhikallola, ' a horse,' 

6. 1024; Palaka, < a chariot/ 5. 81. 

The following lists contain words which are not in the Lexs., but 
quite a number occur in published Jain texts, and others are very 
likely to turn up in future publications of the same class. It is 
scarcely necessary to point out that here, as in other fiction, a good 
part of the names are symbolic of the character of the persons or 
localities named. 

Names of divine or demonic beings : In 5. 51, 56, 60, 62, 64, 66, 
67, 68 are listed 56 heavenly maidens, called Jyotiskumarikas, or 
otherwise defined, many of them new, and doubtless products of 
fancy, for the nonce. Gods like Maniprabha, 3. 1012; Yaradana, 
4. 105; Natyamala, 4. 414; Saihgama, 6. 1177, need not to be 
taken too seriously, or regarded as permanent members of the Jain 
Olympus. The Yaksas, Asitaksa, 6. 1092; and Sundara, 7. 639; the 
Raksasas, Sarvagila, 2. 351 ; and Kelikila, 7. 398, are conventional 
products of free fancy. Naigamesin is added, 5. 80, to Naigamesa, 
Nemeso, 'a demon that afflicts children,'; see Winternitz, JRAS., 
1895, pp. 149 ff. Tandula is the name of a fabulous fish. New 
Vidyadharas and Vidyadharis are: Vidyudgati, 2. 5; Candravega 
and Bhanuvega, 6. 1138; Acanivega, 6. 1139; Mahajaina, 1. 573; 
Madanankura, 7. 442; Sarhdhyavali, 6. 1135; Mrgankalekha, 8. 
63. Candasena, 8. 101 is another name for Canda, Candika (Dur- 
ga) in 8. 101. 

Names of kings and princes : Kiranavega, and Kiranatejas, 2. 
11; Gupila, 2. 88; Naladharma, 2. 115; Bhuvanasara, 2. 137; 
Harivikrama, 2. 181; Abhicandra, 2. 508; Manamardana, 2. 616; 
Vajravlrya, 3. 6; Hemaratha, 3. 485; Suvarnabahu, 4. 15; Krta- 
pala, 4. 107; Kurudeva, 6. 286; Sevala (= Cevala), 6. 287; Mani- 
ratha, 6. 773; Yugabahu, 6. 774; Maniprabha, 6. 873; Nami, 6. 
992; Surabhi, 6. 1125; Varasena, and Amarasena, 7. 37; Susthita, 

7. 504; Candasena (Bhilla chieftain), 8. 87; Kurumrganka, 8. 210. 
Dandaratna is the name of a general, 4. 107. 

Names of queens and princesses : TilakavatI, 2. 8 ; Madanarekha, 

236 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

6. 774; Sahadevi, 6. 1013; Bakulamatl, 6. 1041; Yijayadevi, 7. 36; 
Jayasundarl, 7. 377. 

Names of Brahmans and other religious, Purohitas, ministers, 
and teachers: Yigvabhuti, 1. 28; Ksirakadamba, or °dambaka, 2. 
511, 519; Parvata, or °taka 2. 544, 570; Angaramukha, 3. 610, or 
Angaravaktra, 3. 682, or Angara, 3. 692; Kautilya, 3. 639; Yajra- 
hrdaya, 3. 878; Satyavasu, 3. 832; Katha (= Kamatha) and Eora, 
his father, 5. 1, 3; Yinayamdhara, 6. 1210; Mugdhaka, 7. 750, or 
Mudha, 7. 785; Yogatman, 8. 151. In 6. 1352 3. note the list of 
Parcva's ten Ganabhrts; see p. 144. 

Names of merchants and gentlemen: Nandaka and Bhadraka, 
1. 798; Sadvada, 2. 440; Sarga, 2. 441; Igvara (hypocoristic of Ma- 
hegvara), 2. 456 (cf. 455) ; Aruna (hypocoristic of Arunadeva, 2. 
459, cf. 452); Jasaditya (also Jagaditya), 2. 453 ff. : Qrisara, 2. 
776; Dhanasara, 2. 893; Dhanadhya, and Grhasambhuta, 2. 931; 
Lobhanandi, 3. 450; Hemala, 6. 127; Dhanagarman, 6. 414; Mano- 
rama, 6. 663; Jinadharma, 6. 1075; Abhayamkara, 7. 70; Hitajna 
Yogya, and Caru, 7. 785; Bandhavananda, 8. 186; Snpratistha 
6. 128. 

Names of lowly persons : Kaladanda, name of a Msada, 3. 825 
Prakrti, name of a servant, 7. 11. 

Names of Brahmans' wives and daughters, nuns, and hetaeras 
Anuddhara, 1. 30; Devini (also Devini), 2. 453; Yancana, 3. 608 
Yisnugri, 6. 1058 ; Kugalamati, 7. 10 ; Suvrata, 6. 921 ; Balacandra 
8. 223; Ganini, 8. 223; Anangasundari, 3. 841; Maghadha, 7. 126 

Names of countries: Sukaccha, 2. 1; Sukacchavijaya, 3. 1094 
Tamisraguha, 4. 107 ; Mandalavati, 4. 108 ; Simala, 6. 287 ; Pundra 
deca, 8. 1; Kopakata, ' locality,' 6. 114; Harimela, ' island,' 1. 393 

Names of cities : Tilaka, 2.1; Kamalapura, 2.52; Yardhanaga- 
pura, 2. 440; Patalapura, and Patalapatha, 2. 453; 8. 21; Maha- 
krpana, ' Stingytown/ 2. 915; Crivigalapura = Yicalapuri, 2. 959; 
Cubhamkara, 3.1; Kukkutecvara, ' city and caitya,' 6. 167; Yigva- 
pura, 6. 666 ; Eatnavaha, 6. 873 ; Priyasamgama, * Yidyadhara city,' 
6. 1109; Rsabha, or Rsabha, 7. 8; Garjana, or Garjana, 8. 150; 
Cakrapuri = Cakrapura, 8. 210; Kugalasthala, 5. 146; Ksitipra- 
tisthita, 7. 502 (also in Samaradityasamksepa 1. 48). 

Yillages: Sukara, 7. 36; Hillara, 8. 354. 

Mountains: Jvalanadri, 3. 1095; Ksiragiri, 3. 145; Sukuta, 7. 
89 ; Piirna, 7. 776 ; Kaligiri, 6. 125. 

The language of the Pargvanatha 237 

Forests and parks: Qakravatara, 15 3. 573; Kslravana, 4. 145; 
Campaka, ' park/ 2. 75 ; Nalimvana, 6. 1243. 

Kivers : Nimagna, and Unmagna, 4. 109. 

Lakes: Kunda, or Kalikunda, 6. 125, 140. For other occur- 
rences of this important locality see above, p. 22. 

Tlrthas: Kamuka, 6. 570; Prapata, 6. 635. 

Designations of heavenly abodes: Sahasrara, 1. 867; 8. 345; 
Jambudrumavarta (vimana), 2. 1057; Sarvarthasiddha (vimana), 
6. 1322; Nirmalanandasagara, 3. 1106; Mahaprabhavimana, 4. 
157; Sanatkumara (kalpa), 8. 322. 

4. Grammatical matters. 

The list of novelties in grammatical forms is not inconsiderable. 
It includes some forms cited by Grammarians, but hitherto un- 
quoted in the literature. Thus, as regards verbal inflection the 
present sthagati, ' cover/ 8. 131; the na- present dhunitah, 'they 
two shake/ 6. 1188. The unaccented a-class participle a-ganan. 
1 not counting/ 2. 663, is new, being glossed by a-ganayan, regular. 
The third plural iyrati, ' they go/ from iyarmi, 7. 824, is rare 
(Paricistaparvan 1. 14). The aorists adhavista, ' he ran/ 4. 25; 
and ahvasta, ' he called/ 1. 341 (also Samarad. 5. 96), are known 
only to Grammarians. The form a-tathas, injunctive from root 
aorist of a -f- tan, 1. 177, is new. The corresponding augmented 
form is quoted only by Grammarians. The passage reads: tad 
evam kathyate te yan ma papamatim atathah, ' this story is thus 
told thee, that thou mayest not spin thy evil designs.' There are 
two new aorist passives 3d sing. : agrahi, ' he was taken/ 8. 58; and 
asthapi, 'he was placed/ 2. 398. 16 The reduplicated aorist causa- 
tive samaciskarat, ' he prepared/ 3. 935, is novel, both as regards 
the verb category and the propagation of the s. 

More anomalous are : bibharamcakre = bibharambabhuva, ' he 
carried/ 2. 638; and the perifrastic active participle kathayama- 
sivan, ( he narrated/ 2. 958. The latter novelty is paralleled by 
dapayamasivan, l he caused to be given/ Samarad. 4. 67 ; cinta- 

* Name of a tirtha in Vikraraa Carita (Ind. Stud. xv. 362) ; Prabandha- 
cintamarii, p. 100. 

19 Samaradityasarhksepa has the following unquoted corresponding forms : 
aprachi 6. 42; 7. 152; api 4. 120; acinti 7. 51: arpi 7. 302; vyajfiapi 2. 408. 
Cf. Whitney, Roots of the Sanskrit Language, p. 240. 

238 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

yamasivan, ib. 5. 294; jnapayamasivan, ib. 5. 478. 17 Anomalously, 
vyakti-syat = vyaktl-bhavet, ' shall be unfolded/ 6. 725. 

As regards syntactic usage the causative gerund vismarya, ' for- 
getting/ in the sense of vismrtya, occurs 3. 179, 321. Imperatives 
in prohibitive expressions with ma are perhaps unusually frequent : 
ma prcha, 3. 759; ma kurusva, 3. 929; ma vilambasva, 3. 492; ma 
vikrestastu ( ! ) , 'let him not sell/ 3. 771; ma bhava, 5. 213; ma 
kuru, 6. 298; 7. 328; ma bruhi, 6. 904; ma vada, 7. 89, 410. 

In noun inflection the anomalous combination yaty uce === yatir 
uce, 'the ascetic said' (yaty glossed by munih), 6. 158. In noun- 
formation the desiderative participle cikih, ' desiring to do ' (gloss, 
kartum ichuh), occurs 8. 25. The word is reported by the Gram- 
marians, being probably a Jaina word, as it occurs also Parigista- 
parvan 7. 9 ; 8. 453. Stem rai, ' wealth/ in the compound ratna- 
rai-rupyaih, 6. 225, is otherwise authenticated only by rai-kr, ' con- 
vert into property/ reported by Grammarians. The comparative 
suffix -taram is very frequently added to finite verbs; e. g., akara- 
yattaram, 1. 430; cf. Whitney, Skt. Gramm. § 473 c . 

The suffix ka shows occasionally its latent diminutive or pejora- 
tive function : 18 mayaka, ' by wretched me/ 1. 478 ; 2. 409, 874 ; 
anyakat, ' other mean thing/ 1. 419 ; 19 abhraka, ' small cloud/ 2. 
155 (gloss, kaccolamukhamatram). In 3. 296, 420, daivakam 
means ' wretched fate ' = durdaivam 7. 723. In 3. 79 sransat- 
kalinja-grhaka seems to mean, ' a little hut made of tumble-down 
mats' (gloss, kalinjah = katah). In 3. 171 upayacitakam, and in 
7. 180 aupayacitakam seem to mean 'fond prayer'; in 7. 80 ali- 
kaka, * wretched falsehood.' In 2. 785 dhanuskika seems to mean 
'little bow.' In a case or two words with -ka alternate with the 
same word without -ka, apparently with diminutive intention: 
Pulindraka, i common Pulindra/ 7. 756 ; Vasantaka, c poor Va- 

17 These occurrences show predicative usage, as is to be expected. The 
words are really substitutes for the past active participle in -tavant which 
is employed regularly, indeed practically without exception, as a finite 
predicate thruout Sanskrit literature. This point of syntax is ignored by 
Western grammars. 

18 Edgerton's searching study on these functions of -ka does not, unfor- 
tunately, include the post-Vedic period; see JAOS. xxxi. 93 if. 

19 Such pejorative pronouns carry on a rather lively existence in Sama- 
radityasamksepa, to wit takam 2. 278; mayaka 2. 185; 4. 201, 330; asakau 
4. 141, 513. 

The language of the Pargvandtha 239 

santa,' 6. 469. In other cases this differentiation is much less pro- 
nounced, or altogether undeterminable : Ksirakadamba, or, Kslra- 
kadambaka, 2. 511, 519, ' name of a teacher'; grha-godhaka, 3. 
289 = grha-godha, 3. 304, 'house-lizard'; avasvapanika, 5. 85 = 
avasvapinl, 5. 113, apparently ' sleeping charm or draught'; see 
p. 233. In 3. 365 davaraka = davara, means i string'; in 1. 304 
guna is glossed by davaraka: both are rare Jain words, hyper- 
Sanskrit for dora, or doraka, rare Sanskrit words of the same mean- 
ing (dora occurs in Rauhineya Carita). In a few other words with 
superadded -ka, not listed in the Lexicons, the suffix is probably 
simply formative, in the maner of the Prakrits : srastaraka, ' couch,' 
3. 340; 6. 1335; andaka, 'egg/ 7. 349, 350; castrlka, < knife,' 1. 
198; sthandilaka, 'mound,' 6. 705 (cf. Kathakoga, p. 105). 

A few ku- compounds are wanting, perhaps intentionally, in the 
Lexicons : ku-samga, ' evil association,' 1. 481 ; ku-vikalpa, ' false 
determination,' 1. 805; ku-mani, 'false jewel,' 4. 2. 


1. 56 : sphurtimati, for sphurtimati 

1.75: vardheh, for varddheh; printed correctly vardhi, e. g., 
1. 404 
1. 167 : atinindyo hi, for atinindyo ? hi 
1. 169 : vyadha, for vyadhah 
1. 246 : vardhapyase, for varddhapyase 
1. 341 : yatkrtyadega, , for yat krtyadeca 
1. 343 : ma iti, for me iti 
1. 376 : insert ca after laghutvam 
1. 600 : visvagvyaharaka, for visvag vyaharaka 
1. 636 : vairajya for vai rajya° 

1. 666 : varddhakam, ' old age/ for vardhakam. So also 2. 822 
1. 68S : nocchidyante, for no chidyante 
1. 781 : in the gloss on udvase correct girjane to nirjane 

1. 884 : jatu cit, for jatucit 

2. 10 : gritilakavatya, for gritilakavalya 

2. 213 : bhimo, for bhibho 

2. 232 : astapadam aham, for astapadag aham 

2. 307 : tittiri torane, for tittiritorane 

2. 316 : nijaprsthe, for nijaprste 

2. 319 : sphutam, for sphutam 

2. 327 : nahi, for nahim 

2. 350 : ganaig, for sanaig 

2. 369 : adyaprabhrty, for adya prabhrty 

2. 518 : parasparam, for parasvaram 

2. 268: guna, for khuna (thru suna) 

2. 674: vidhaya, for vidhayarh 

2. 741 : ukta, for uktva 

2. 759: kanikadi, for kanikkadi; also 2. 917 

2. 802 : skandhe, for skandharii 

2. 881 : muditasyah, ' with joyous faces/ for muditasya 

2. 894 : degantaravanijyaya, for degantarvanijyaya 

2. 938 : °bandhavat, for °vandhavat 


Text corrections 241 

2.978: sprastavyo, for sprstavyo 
2. 1001 : maharddhikah, for mahardhikah 

3. 124: tasyagu, for yasyagu 

3. 129 : tathanyad, for yathanyad 

3. 155 : pravartyanta, for pravartanta 

3.215: yaya, for yatha 

3. 217: kaulika% for kolika° 

3. 220 : change arrangement and punctuation : see Proc. Amer. 
Philos. Soc, vol. lvi, p. 32, note 72 

3. 309 : degantaryena, for degantarena 

3. 364: divide after bhumigrhasthasyopari 

3. 380 : tatha, chatrasya, for tathacchatrasya 

3. 436 : ullunthanais, for ullanthanais 

3.864: sa candala, for saccandalo 

3. 884 : raksaslkarma,, for raksasi karma 

3. 890 : am iti, for ameti 

3. 891 : prati, for pratim 

3. 988 : putram, for putra 

3. 989 : agat, for agah 
3. 1072 : grivajranabho, for gri vajranabho 

4. 51 : raj araksy am, for rajaraksam 

5. 51 : puspamala tv°, for puspamalatv 

5. 64 : navamika, for navamiaka 

5. 147 : °pravartanat, for prarvatanat 

5. 192: yavanas, for javanas (Prakritism) 

6. 64: katha, for kata 

6. 67: tadbahu, for tad bahu 

6. 132: carupadmani, for caru padmani 
6. 187 : tesam, for kesam 

6. 215 : dhatakitale, for dhataki tale 

6. 237 : nairrtyam, for nairtyarh 

6. 253 : nkikillir, probably for kinkillir, c cry of joy '( ?) 

6. 313 : vijayo, for vinayo 

6. 719 : hrdi, for hradi 

6. 1181 : yatha rupam, for yatharupam 
6. 1352 : vasistho, for vagistho 

7. 34 : gurasenakhyah, for sura 

7. 279 : jivitanihsprhah, for °nisprhah 
7. 351 : curnihetor, for cuni° 


242 Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

7.4:35: daivena, for devena 

7. 634 : dele the interrogation mark at the end of the first 

7. 828 : parcve, for pargvo 

8. 9 : pratiglokarii, for prati glokam 
8. 108 : nihsvo, for nisvo 

8. 243 : vidhyapayaty , for vidhyayapaty 
8. 246 : me 'paradhinah, for me paradhinah 
8. 379 : 'rudan, for rudan 


The following abbreviations are used : B. = Brahman ; Ci. = city ; Co. = 
country; F. = forest; G. = god, or goddess; K. = king; M. = merchant ; 
Mi. = minister; Mo. = mountain ; P. = prince or princess; Pu. = pupil; 
Q. = queen; R. = river; S. = sage; T. = teacher. 

1. Index of Names 

Agnigarman, B. 13, 14, 138, 139 
Angaramukha, Pu. 92, 93, 94, 96 
Acyuta = Krsna, 49 
Anangasundari, hetaera, 97, 98 
Anuddhara, Purohita's wife, 4, 16, 

18, 24, 26 
Abdhikallola, horse, 137 
Abhayamkara, M. 145 
Abhayasuri, Jain Doctor, 22 
Abhicandra, K. 56, 57 
Abhinanda, S. 44, 47 
Adhisthayini, ' Floating,' magic art, 

Amarasena, P. 145 ff. 
Amaregvara, S. 56 
Ayodhya, Ci. 91, 93, 101 
Aravinda, K. 4, 5, 6, 24, 39 (bis), 41 
Aristanemi, Arhat, 26 n. See Nemi 
Arunadeva, M. 54 ff. 
Avanti, Co. 74, 130 
Avanti, Ci. 74, 75, 77 
Aganivega, Vidyadhara K. 140 
Agvasena, K., Pargva's father, 9, 11, 

17, 108, 113, 119, 136, 144 
Asitaksa, a Yaksa, 14, 138, 139 
Ahalya, Gautama's wife, 86 
Ahichattra, Ci. 22, 116 

Aryadatta, Ganabhrt, 18, 144, 145, 

157, 164, 1*66 
Aryaghosa, Ganabhrt, 144 n. 

Iksvaku dynasty 9, 94, 108 
Indra, 15, 23, 86, 109, 115, 135, 139- 
141. See Cakra 

Icana, G. 140 
Igvara, K. 116, 117 

Ujjayini, Ci. 97 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra 3 
Udayavlragani, author of a Pargva- 

natha Caritra, 1 
Udagoca, woman afflicted with evil 

eye, 90 n. 
Udayana, story of, 31 n. 
Upasunda, B. 15 
Uglnara, K. 99 

urjasvini, ' Reputation,' 58 
Rsabha, Arhat, 26 n., 38, 40, 133; 
Ci. 145 

Airavana, Indra's elefant, 139 

Katha, B. 2, 9, 17, 108, 113, 114, 117, 

118. See Kamatha 
Kandarika, P. 142 ff. 
Kathamahodadhi, Jaina work, 21 
Kadallgarbha, story of, 104 n. 
Kandarpa, G. of love, 49. See Kama 
Kapinjala, king's aid, 91 
Kamatha, B. x, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 

17, 19-21, 24, 26, 38, 39, 41, 42, 

118. See Katha 
Kamalapura, 44, 53 
Kamala, Q. 26; P. 160 
Kamalaksa, a Siren, 48, 49, 53 
Kamalavati, Q. 74, 76 ff., 82, 83, 119 
Karakandu, K. and Pratyekabuddha, 

116 ' 



The Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

Karna, a hero, 90 n. 

Kalaharisa, a man, 97, 98 

Kali, Kaligiri, Mo. 115, 116 

Kalikunda, a tirtha, 22, 116 

Kalifiga," Co. 9, 111, 146 

Kalpasutra, 17, 18 

Kalyanamandirastotra, Jain poem, 
21, 24 m' 

Kancanapura, or °puh, 138, 148, 
150, 155 

Kadambarl, F. 115 

Kama, 6. 149. See Kandarpa 

Kamasena, hetaera, 60 

Kamuka, a tirtha, 125, 156, 163 

Kaladanda, a Nisada, 97, 9S 

Kalikastiri, Kalakacarya, and Kali- 
kaearya, names of a Jain teach- 
er, 3 

Kalika (Kali), Durga, G. 49, 50, 53 

Kagi, Ci. 118. See Varanasi 

Kiranatejas, P. and K. 7, 42, 72 

Kiranavega, P. and K. 43, 71, 73 

Klrtipala, P. 63 

Kukkutegvara, Ci. and Caitya 22, 

Kunala, P. 160 n. 

Kunthu, Arhat and Cakravartin, 

Kunda, lake, 22, 115, 116 

Kuntala, king's aid, 91-102 

Kubera, infidel, 7, 73, 102, 103; M. 

Kumaradeva, M. 54 

Kumaranandi, M. 31 n. 

Kumarapala, K. 28 

Kurafigaka, a Bhilla, 75, 103, 107 

Kuru, Co. 136 

Kurudeva, K. 119 

Kurumrganka, a Bhilla K., 177 

Knca, K. 145 

Kugalamati, M.'s wife, 145 

Kugalin, magician, 179 

Kueasthala, Co. 9, 17, 110 

Krsna, G. 49; M. 124, 128 

Kelikila, a Raksasa, 154 

Kecava, M. 159 

Kailasa, Mo. 41, 41 

Kopakata, Co. 115 
Kautilya, Pu. 93, 100, 101 
Kaucambi and Kaugamba, Ci. Co. 

and F. 10, 16, 116, 171 
Ksitipratisthita, Ci. 157 
Ksirakadamba, and °dambaka, T. 

56 ff. 
Ksiragiri, F. 8, 107 
Ksemamkara, P. 16, 30 n.; Jina, 7 

Khandillagacha 2 

Gafiga, R. 95, 100, 116, 119, 126 
Gajapura, 146, 179 
Gandhara, a Cravaka, 36 
Garuda (Tarksya), 111 
Garjana, Ci. 174 
Gardabhilla, K. 2 
Galava, S. 16, 105 
Gunasundara, P. 89 
Gunasena, P. 14 
Gunadhya, K. 69 
Gurvavallsutra, Jain work, 2 
Grhasambhuta, M. 68 
Gautama, S. 85 
Gautama Indrabhuti, T. 2 

Ghanta, an Asura, 15 n. 

Cakrapuri, 177 
Cakrayudha, P. 103, 110 
Canda, a Purohita, 52, 53; a Ma- 
tanga executioner, 147, 151, 
157, 158 
Candakaueika, a drama, 91 n. 
Candasena, a Bhilla chieftain, 

' 171 ff, 176 
Candasena ,( Canda = Durga) 172; 

"Canda 176; ' Candi 77. AUG. 
Candana, M. 129 
Candra, M. 124, 127 
Candrakanta, K. 7, 73 
Candraketu, K. 16 
Candraciida, G. 102 
Candradeva, B. 174 
Candrayacas, P. 131, 134 
Candralekha, M.'s daughter, 170 

Index of Names 


Candragekhara, K. 97-99 

Candrasena, P. and K. 16, 119, 125 

Candra, a lady, 54 

Candranana, an Arhat, 133 

Campaka, F. 44 

Campa, Ci. 30, 31, 66, 116 

Cam, M. 164 ff. 

Citta and Saihbhuta, story of, 13 

Citrangada, a Vidyadhara, 171 

Cetaka, K. 22 

Jagannatha, an Arhat, 8. 107 

Jambudrumavarta, heaven, 7, 72 

Jaya, a Gariabhrt, 144 n.; Pu. 170 

Jayanara, K. 124 

Jayanta, K. 119 

Jayapura, 35, 124, 125, 177 

Jayamala, P. 16 

Jayasundari, Q. 154 ff. 

Jaya, Q. 146 

Jasaditya, M. 54 

Jitagatru, K. 35 

Jinadatta, a gentleman, 171 ff. 

Jinadharma, M. 13, 14, 138, 139 

Jvalana, Mo. 8, 103 

Tandula, a fabulous fish, 85 
Tattvarthasaradipaka, a Jiaina work, 

TamaliptI, Ci. 54, 68, 70, 168 
Tilaka, M. 45 
Tilaka, Ci. 6, 43 
Tilakavati, Q. 6, 43 
Tilottama, a nymf, 15 
Tribhuvanapala, site of a temple, 23 

Datta, M. 60; B. 116 

Digambara and Cvetambara icono- 

grafy, 19 
Divakara, B. 87 

Devadharma, and Devagarman, B. 15 
Devapura, 163 
Devini, M.'s daughter, 54 ff. 
Dramaka, a hell-inhabitant, 56 
Druma, K. 122 
Dvaravati, temple of, 23 

Dhana, M. 121 

Dhanadatta, M. 173, 176 

Dhanapati, M. 170 

Dhanamitra, M. 121 

Dhanagarman, M. 121 

Dhanasara, M. 67, 70 

Dhanadhya, M. 68 

Dhanya, a householder, 115 

Dharana ( Dharanendra ) , king of the 
Nagas, 2, 10,' 11, 17, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 114, 116, 118, 167 n. 

Dharmakalpadruma, Jain Fiction, 

Dharmasagaragani, a Jain author, 2 

Dhataklkhandabharata, Co. 68 

DharanI, Q. 4, 24 

Dharapura, 63, 66 

Dhumaprabha, hell, 7, 72 

Nandaka, M. 40 

Nandana, S. 161; F. 139 

Nanda, P.'s companion, 106; M/s 

daughter, 129 
Nandigvara, island, 132 
Nami, K., and Pratyekabuddha, 

130 ff., 134 
Naravahana, K. 13, 17, 26, 33, 35, 

36, 38, 53, 110, 139 
Narasiriha, P. 160 ff. 
Nala. K. 86. 178 
Naladharma, K. 45, 47 
Nalinlvana, park, 142 
Nagadatta, M. 13, 138 
Nagapuri, 173, 176 
Nagahrada, a tirtha, 23 
Nataputta or Nayaputta, an Arhat, 

Nabheya, an Arhat, 24. 38 
Narada, Pu. 56 ff. 
Nighanta, an Asura, 15 
Nirgrantha Jnatrputra, an Arhat, ix 
Nemi, an Arhat, 10, 24, 114, 117. 

See Aristanemi 

Pancadandachattraprabandha 3 
Pancamavani, hell, 6, 42 


The Life and Stories of Pargvanatha 

Pancasela, an island, 31 note 

Padmapura, 121 

Padmaratha, K., 132 

Padmasundara, a Jain author, 2 

Padma, P. 8, 16, 105 

Padmavatl, P. or Q. 43, 142; Parg- 
va's Yaksim, 19, 20, 22, 167 

Padmottara, a Vidyadhara, 106 

Parna, Mo. 163 

Parvata, Pu. 56 ff. 

Patalapatha, Ci. 169 

Patalapura, 55 

Patala, 10, 22, 74, 98 

Papamkara, P. 16, 30 n. 

Pargva, Pargvanatha, an Arhat. ix- 
xii, 9, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 
23, 24, 26 n., 108 ff., 110, 113, 
114 ff., 115 ff., 118, 130, 144, 
166, 181; Pargva's histories, 1, 
2; Pargvanatha Kavya, 2. 

Pargvayaksa, the Arhat's attendant 
genius, 19, 118 n., 166 

Pundarika, P. 142 

Pundradega, Co. 168, 169 

Pundravardhana, Ci. 174 

Purusottama, an ambassador, 111 

Puskaradvipa, an island, 7, 72, 177 

Puspapura, 127 

Puspamala, Q 133 

Puspavati, Q. 30, 32, 33, 34, 36 

Prthvrpura, 63, 65 

Potana, Ci. 3, 24 

PrajSapti, ' Science,' 133 

Pradyumnasuri's Samaradityasam- 
ksepa, 14, 183 

Prapata, a tirtha, 127 

Prabandhacintamani, by Merutunga, 
20, 23 

Prabhakara, B. 86 ff. 

Prabhavaka Carita, 3, 22 

PrabhavatI, Pargva's wife, 11, 17, 
71, 110, 113, 119, 144 

Prabhasa, G. 107 

Prasenajit, K. 17, 74, 110, 113 

Pranata Kalpa, 17 

Priyamkara, Q. 122 

Priyamgama, Ci. 139 
Priyadargana, M.'s wife, 171 ff. 

Bakulamati, Q. 137 

Badgadega, Co. 7, 73 

Bandhudatta (Bandhu), M. 170 ff., 

Bambhadatta, story of, 13 

Bandhavananda, M.'s son, 176 

Buddhaghosa's Dhammapada Com- 
mentary, 14 

Buddhila, Mi. 44 

Brahma heaven 114, 132, 151 

Brahmanamaka, a Ganabhrt, 144 n. 

' Briddha Tapa Gacha/ author of a 
Pargvanatha Carita 

Bhaktamarastotra, a Jaina work, 
24 n. 

Bhadraka, M. 40 

Bhadrabahu, author of Kalpasutra, 

Bhadrayagas, a Ganabhrt, 144 n. 

Bharata, Emperor, dynasty, land, 
85, 95, 136 

Bhanu, M. 124, 128; Mi. 125 

Bhanuvega, a Vidyadhara K. 139 

Bhavadevasuri, author of Pargva- 
natha Caritra ix, 1-3 

Bhlma, M. 124, 128 

Bhimasena (Bhima), P. 44 ff.; 
51 ff.; retainer, 158 

Bhuvanasara, K. 45 

Magadha, Co. 107 
Magadha, a hetaera, 148, 149 
Manicuda, a Vidyadhara, 132 
Maniprabha, G. 102; a Vidyadhara, 

" 132, 134 
Maniratha, K. 130 ff., 134 
Matisagara, P.'s companion, 44, 47- 

Mathura, Ci. and tirtha, 23, 67, 70 
Madanarekha, Q. 130 ff. 
Madanavallabha, Q. 63 ff. 
Madanankura, a Vidyadhara P., 

Index of Names 


Manorama, M. 128 

Manoharika, P. 31 n. 

Marubhuti, B. x, 4-6, 9, 11, 13, 24, 

26, 41, 42 
Mahakrpana, ' Stingytown,' 67 
Mahajaina, a Vidyadhara, 36 
Mahapadma, P. 63 
Mahaprabhavimana, heaven, 8, 107 
Mahabala, a thief, 60 
Mahamati, M. 45 
Mahavira, an Arhat, ix, 2, 26 n. 
Mahasena, P. 99 

Mahidhara, M. 178; an elefant, 115 
Mahendrasiriha, P.'s companion, 137 
Mahegvara, M. 55 
Manikyacandra, author of a Pargva- 

natha Caritra, 1 
Matali, Indra's charioteer, 111 
Manamardana, K. 60 
Malati, Q. 44 
Mithila, Ci. 133, 136 
Mugdhaka, B. 161 
Mudha, M. 164 ff. 
Mrganka, a Bhilla prince, 177 
Mrgankalekha, a Vidyadhari maid, 

Meghakumarakah, ' Cloud- Youths,' 

Meghamalin, an Asura, x, 2, 10, 11, 

21, 42 n., 103 n., 107 n., 114, 117, 

Meru, Mo. 109 

Yama, G. 124; his messenger, 61 
Yamuna, R. 119 
Yavana, K. 9, 111 
Yagas, T. 3 
Yugabahu, P. 130 ff. 
Yugadlga, 26 n. See Tlsabha 
Yogatman, S. 174 
Yogya, M. 164 ff. 

Rati, Q. 154 ff. 

Ratnapura, 8, 16, 105, 138, 139 
Ratnakara, ' Jewel Isle,' 164 
Ratnavali, Q. 8, 16, 105, 106 
Ratnavaha, Ci. 132 

Rambha, ' heavenly nymf,' 104 
Rajagrha, Ci. 13, 117 
Rajapura, 116, 119 
RukminI, M.'s daughter, 128 
Rucaka, an island, 109 
Rudra, a lady, 163 
Ruru, story of, 104 n. 
Rohim, B.'s lady, 120 
Rora, B., 9, 108 
Rohitacva, P. 94 ff., 101 

Laksmivati, Q. 73 

Laksmlvallabha, author of a life of 

Pargva, 2, 3 
Lanka (Ceylon), 98, 169, 170 
Lata, C. or Co. 173 
Latahrada, a tirtha, 23 
Lalitanga, P. 26 ff.; G. 8, 103; in 

Paricistaparvan, 27 n. 
Luncitakega, ' Plucked-Head,' name 

of Pargva, 115 n. 
Lokacandra, S. 7, 73, 102 
Lobhanandi, M. 87 ff. 
Vancana, hermitage maiden, 92 ff. 
Vajranabha, K. 7, 8, 73, 102-104 
Vajrabahu, K. 8, 104, 105 
Vajravirya, K. 7, 103 
Vajravega, a Vidyadhara, 140 
Vanaraja, K. xi, 157 ff. 
Varadama, G. 107 
Varasena, P. 145 ff. 
Varuna, B.'s wife, 4, 5, 24, 38, 39, 

41, 42 
Vardhana, K. 177 
Vardhanagapura, 54 
Vardhamana, an Arhat, ix, 22, 133 
Vasanta, M. 89, 90 
Vasantapura, 122, 164, 165. See 

Vasantasena, M.'s son (also Vasan- 

taka) 122 
Vasantasena, P. 177 
Vasifltha, a Ganabhrt, 144 n. 
Vasu, K. 56 
Vasunanda, M. 170 
Vasumdhara, B.'s wife, 4, 24, 38 
Vasubhuti, Mi. 93, 94, 101, 102 


The Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

VagdevI, G. 24 

Varna, Vamadevi, Q., Pargva's moth- 
er, 9, 11, 17, 108, 110, 119, 144 

Vameya, metron. of Pargva, 17. See 

VaranasI, Ci. 9, 11, 17, 93, 95, 97, 
108, 126. See Kaci 

Varisena, an Arhat, 133; a Gana- 
bhrt, 144 n. 

Vasuki, K. of serpents, 74, 98 

Vastospati, G., 102 

Vikrama, K., as parrot, x, 74 ff. 

Vikramayagas, K. 13, 138 

Vijaya, P. 16, 119, 121; G. 140, 141; 
a Ganabhrt, 144 n. 

Vijayasinha, T. (and his Praband- 
ha) 3 

Vijaya, P. Q. 7, 73 

Vijayavati, Q. 146 

Videha, Co. 38, 71, 177, 180 

Vidyudgati, a Vidyadhara K. 6, 7, 

Vinayamdhara, T. 141 

Vindhya, Mo. 5, 34, 39, 48, 50, 57, 

Vindhyapura, 122 

Vigala, Ci. 173 

Vigvakarman, G., 15 

Vigvapura, 128 

Vigvabhuti, a Purohita, 4, 24, 26, 
38, 39 

Vigvasena, K. 128, 130 

Visnugri, M.'s wife, 13, 138 

Vira, an Arhat, ix, 16 

Virapura, 87 

Viraprabandha, a Jain work, 22 

Viramati, a widow, 174 

Vlrasiiriprabandha, a Jain work, 3 

Vaijayanta, G. 140, 141 

Vaijayanti, Ci. 178 

Vaitadhya, Mo. 6, 7, 43, 72, 106, 107, 

Vaibhara, Mo. 56 

Cakuntala story, 8, 104 
Caktideva, P. 31 n. 

Cakra, G. 11, 40 74, 109, 144, 181. 

See Indra 
Cakravatara, Fo. 91 
Caflkha, M. 66 
Cankhapura, 23 

Catruihjaya, tirtha and Mo. 179 
Catrumjaya Mahatmyam, a Jaina 

work, 2, 16, 18, 22 
Calya, a hero, 90 n. 
Canti, Cantinatha, an Arhat, 24, 

26 n. 
Cantinatha Carita, a Jaina work, 1 
Cikharasena, a Cabara chief, 177 
Cibi, pious K., 51, 100, 192 
Civa, image of, 162; Pu. 170 
Civapurl, 116 
Cilamati, Q. 123 
Cuktimati, Ci. 56 
Cubhamkara, Ci. 7, 73 
Qura, P. 16 
Cobhanastutayah of Cobhanamuni, 

a Jaina work, 24 n. 
Cri, 'Fortune' 68, 69, 202; M.'s wife 

66; B.'s wife 89; Mo. 74, 75 
Crikanta, K. 152 
Crikalakastiriprabandha, a Jaina 

work, 3 
Crigupta, M.'s son, 178 
QridevT, Q. 152 
Cridhara, a Ganabhrt, 144 n.; B.'s 

son, 174 
Crijinadevasuri, T. 3 
Cripundarika, S. 179. See Pundarika 
Crlpundarikini, Ci. 142 
Qrlpura, 60, 65, 83, 151 
Crlmangalapura, 125 
Crimati, wife of a Cabara chief, 177 
Crlvasantapura, 116. See Vasanta® 
Crivahana, M. 128 
Crlvameya, metron. of Pargva, 118 n. 

See Vameya 
Crlvasa, Ci. 26, 35 
Crivigalapura, 69 
Crlsagara, M. 63 
Crisara, M. 64 
Crisena, K. 83 

Index of Names 


Cvetambara and Digambara icono- 
grafy, 19 

Sakalaklrti, author of various Jaina 

texts, ix, 1 n. 
Samgama, G. 140 
Saj jana, a servant, 26 ff. 
Satyavrata, Mi. 97 
Sadvada, a gentleman, 54 
Sanaka, S. 90 n. 

Sanatkumara, emperor, 13, 14, 136 ff. 
Sanatkumara Kalpa, 142, 179 
Sandhyavall, a Vidyadhara P. 140 
Saptamavani, hell, 8, 103, 143 
Samaraicca Kaha, a Jaina work, 14 
Sammeta, Mo. 11, 121, 181 
Sarasvati, a nun 2; M.'s wife, 125 
Sarga, a gentleman, 54 
Sarvagila, a Raksasa, 52 
Sarvarthasiddhavimana, heavenly 

abode, 144 
Sahadevi, Q. 136 
Sahasrara, heaven, 6, 42, 180 
Sagara, or Sagaradatta T. 43; M. 

5, 35, 40, 168; Mi. Ill 
Sinha, a Thakkura, 87 ff. 
Sirihapura, 138 
Sirihala, a gardener, 174 
Siddhapura, 45 

Siddhasenadivakara, Jain author, 21 
Siddhesvara, T. 74, 75 
Sindhu, Co. 107 
Simala, Co. 119 
Sukara, a village, 146 
Sukuta, Mo. 147 
Sukacchavijaya, Co. 7, 103 
Sutara, Q. 93-96, 98, 99, 101 
Sudarcana, Ci. 130, 135 
Sudarcana, Q. 8, 104 
Sudharma, T. 2 
Sunanda, P. 140 
Sunda, B. 15 

Sundara, a Yaksa, 159; K. 63 ff., 

128 ff.; P. 170; Ci. 89 
Sundari, M.'s daughter, 128 
Supratistha, a gentleman, 115 
Subuddhi, Mi. 63, 66 
Subhusana, K. 177 
Sumati, a Purohita, 83, 84, 86 
Suraguru, S. 43 
Surapura, 8, 104 
Suvarnabahu, K. 8, 104, 108 
Suvrata, a nun, 134, 135 
Sugarma, Ci. 159 
Susthita, K. 157 
Surasena, K. 146 
Sevala, K. 119 
Soma, P. 170; a Purohita, 83-85, 

157; S. 80; a Ganabhrt, 144 n.; 

a gentleman, 163; M. 178 
Somacandra, a Jain author, 21 
Somadeva, M. 64, 65 
Saudharma, T. 138; heaven, 26, 68, 

71, 121, 139-141, 177 
Skandila, a magician, 36, 37 
Stambhanaka, Ci. 22 
Sthanu Mahadeva, G. 15 
Svarnagiri, a tlrtha, 23 

Harisaratna, a Jain author, 22 

Hari, G. 109 

Harimela, an island, 34 

Harivahana, K. 44 

Harivikrama, P. 46 

Hariccandra, K. xi, 91 ff.; S. 4, 26, 

Hastinagapura, 136, 140 
Hastisena, P. 144 
Hitajna, M. 164 ff. 
Hintala, Fo. 172 
Hemacandra, a Jain author, 19 
Hemapura, 52, 154, 156 
Hemaprabha, K. 154, 156 
Hemaratha, K. 52, 53 
Hemala, a householder, 115 


The Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

2. Index of Subjects 

Abhayadana, gift of freedom from 

fear, 119, 122 
Absalom motif, 60 ff. 
agoka-tree, 10 

adoption of children, 155, 158, 159 
adultery, incestuous, 4, 38 
ahirisa, 'non-injury,' 44, 177 
ajair yastavyam, double meaning of, 

alchemy, vice, 87 
alms, 4, 40, 128 
' anger-house,' 146 
animal transformation, 94, 150 n. 
Apsaras, as nurses, 109 
Apta, 'Proficient,' 169 
Arhats (twenty-four), 18, 40 
artadhyana, evil thought before 

death, 5, 39, 42, 153. See rau- 

art of entering another's body, xi, 

74 ff. 
artha, worldly wisdom, xi 
ascetics and householders, con- 
trasted, 43, 71, 130, 145, 165, 

ass, lecherous, 188; ass-ride, 4, 39, 

99; change into, 150, 151 
Asuras, 68, 115, 118, 159 
atmosferic crystal, 57 
attendants of Arhats, 18, 166 
auspicious marks, 100, 206. See, 

avadhi, ' spiritual insight,' 41, 118 
' axe at throat,' 112, 191 

Barber, 33 n., 69, 202 

'bawd' (kuttini), 97, 148 ff. 

' beggar on horseback,' 122 n. 

bets, 28, 29, 58 ff. 

Bhadraka, a kind of disciple, 166 

Bharanda, or Bharunda birds, 30, 

31 ' 
bhava, 'character,' 142 

Bhillas, 8, 103, 107, 171 ff., 176-8. 

See Cabara 
' birds of a feather/ 87 
' biter bit,' 34, 161, 181 
boar hunt, 91 
Brahman, greedy, 61; traitor, 76; 

and dish of grits, 71 
Brahmaraksasa, 94 
broken pitcher, parable of, 180 
' bull by the tail,' 29, 61 
bull, messenger of death, 61 

Cabara chief 173; Cabara physi- 
cians, two 141. See Bhillas 

Cakravartin (Cakrin), 'emperor/ 8, 
95, 100, 104, 106, 107, 136, 140 

camfor and coal, affinity between, 33 

Carana Sages, 56, 126, 153 

Casanadevata, °devi, °sundari, des- 
ignations of female attendants 
of Arhats, 19 n., 167 n. 

Castras (virtues) derided 29, 87 

cemetery, 36, 48, 97, 99, 101, 149 

cila, 'virtue,' 130 

characteristics, auspicious 110; of 
royalty, 95. See, auspicious 

characteristics of the gods, 51 

charades, 78 

chastity, Jaina vow, 63 

childlessness, 83, 155, 203 

circumambulation, 133, 136 

cloka, memorialis, 87, 89-91; prag- 
matic, 62, 87, 199; message, 
168 ff. 

' Cloud-youths/ 181 

cock, rebirth as, 117 

comrade in misfortune, 32 

' count not your chickens/ 71 

co-wife, 138, 153 

Craddha, Jain disciple, 166 

Cravaka, Jain disciple, 41, 115 

crow, filthy, 33, 181 

Index of Subjects 


cures, miraculous, 30, 101, 141, 

154 n., 187 
curses, 94; curse by implication, 54 
cuta fruit, emetic, 148 

'Dancers, two' (day and night), 

57 n. 
'David and Uriah,' 13, 130 ff., 138, 

death, unavertable, 61 
depositing loot (by thieves), 37, 55, 

62, 174 
deserted city, 51 
deserted temple, 55, 122 
dharma, fourfold, 119, 144 
dharmadhyana, death in piety, 6, 42 
dharmopastambhadana, supporting 

religion, 119, 124 
'dice-players, six' (seasons), 57 n. 
diksa: see vows 
dog urinates into outstretched hand, 

dog-cook, 59, 98 

dog-foot, branded on forehead, 59 n. 
Dogundaga, Dogunduga, Dogundika, 

a kind of god, 31, 123, 149," 226 
'dough-cock,' 57 ff., 195 
dream, causes jealousy, 125 
dreams, as auguries, 44, 52, 69, 131, 

179, 189 
dreams, fourteen, 8, 104, 108, 137 
dreams, science of, 44, 108 
drum, proclamation by, 30, 88, 185 

' Earth-shaking Science,' 47 

eating grass, 45, 191 

elefant, wild or destructive, 39, 53. 

embryo, slaying of sinful, 92 
essential rights, nine, 102 
euthanasia, 35 
evil acts, ever seen, 57 
evil eye, 90 
evil report, 32, 174 
executioner, 98, 147, 157, 158, 160 
exile, 4, 39, 179 

eyes, gouged out, 16, 29, 30, 161 n. 
eyesight restored, 30 n., 31 

Falling from grace, 142 ff. 

father and sons, separated by fate, 

five-fold penance, 10, 21, 114 

five-fold obeisance, 46, 126 

five-fold vows, 43, 48, 117 

flower offering, 145, 146, 151 

forest divinity, 30, 158 

former existence, memory of, 41, 
116, 117, 126 

Fortunatus articles, 149 

four grades of men as regards char- 
acter, 72 

four wooers of one girl, 129 

fratricide, 5, 15, 39, 131 

fruit of immortality, 33, 334 

Gamblers and gambling, 60, 84, 86, 

87, 122, 178 
Gandharva marriage, 16, 106 
Garuda charm, cures poison, 49 
gatakega, ' hairless,' designation of 

Jain ascetics, 115 n. 
girl with four wooers, 129 
gitartha, a kind of Jain proficient, 

Golden City, 31 n. 
golden peacock's feather, 127 
'gold-man,' 69, 102 
gold yielding birds, 127 n. 
gold spitting, 148 (cf. 149) 
good family, guarantees virtue, 86 
grammatical novelties in Parcva- 

natha, 237 ff. 
gratitude of king, 90 
grass-eaters, and, grass on head, 45, 

96, 191 
greedlessness, 67 
gutika, ' pill,' and the like, 153 n. 

Harisa and crow, fable of, 32, 187 
hansa birds reunited, 172 
hasty action, 34, 125 


The Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

hermitage, 8, 10, 34, 92, 100, 104-106 
hiding away king's pet to test him, 

88 n., 89 
horse flies up in the air, 137 
horse, runaway, 62, 133, 204 
horse with inverted training, 8, 89, 

104, 204 
hostile brothers, 15, 16, 105, 119, 135 
hostility, prenatal, 6 ff., 13 ff., 139 
house divinity, 63, 83, 155 
house-lizard, 81 
human candle, 52 
human sacrifice, 100, 154, 155, 172, 

176, 205 
hunter, compassionate, 28 
hunting birds, 64, 77 

Illusory deluge, 45 

images of Jains, 70, 72, 107, 115- 

117, 169 
impalement, 54, 55 
indrajala, hocus-pocus, 46 
infidel, 7, 28 ff., 73, 102, 103 

Jackal, 94, 100 

jewel-casket, 37, 176 

'Jewel-island,' 16, 164 

jewels, fourteen great, 106 

Jonah, 49 n. 

' Josef and Potifar,' 64, 85, 146, 199 

Kaliya serpent, 49 

Kalpa, third, or fifth, 134, 138; Sa- 

natkumara Kalpa, 142, 179 
Kapalika (ascetic), wicked, 47-50, 

53, 191 
kayotsarga posture, 6, 8, 10, 41, 103, 

Karpatika, mendicant, 38 
karma, determines future life, 66, 

85, 96, 99, 117, 156, 174, 177 

Kataputana, ghost, 162 
Kevalin, perfect Jaina, 11, 18, 68, 

118, 121, 156, 170 
king-making fruit, 148 
king's boast of greatness, 74 

king not recognized, 32 
knowledge, gift of, 119 
ksatriya, explained by pun, 45 
kurkuta serpent, 6, 7, 42, 72 

Lechery of the gods, 86 

leprosy, 116 

' lion-making,' fable, 75 

log, used as raft, 64 

low-caste women, marriage with, 52, 

84, 87, 195 
love-charm, 152 
lying, expiation of, 175 

Magic, spurned, 36, 99 

magic ' Arts,' or c Sciences ' : see, 

' 'Sciences.' 
mango fruit, bestows immortality, 34 
mango tree with magic fruits, 147 
marriage, predestined, 106, 110 
Matanga, defiles, 60; acts as execu- 
tioner, 147. See Nisada 
Mahacravaka, Jain adept, 47 
mendicant, impatient, parable of, 56 
mendicant, in disguise, 4, 38, 174 
mental aberration, 90 
military exercise, field for, 89 
milk-ocean, 115, 181 
mimic representation, 23, 116 
miser, 67 ff. 

monkey-pair, turn human, 127, 156 
' moon-stone,' 57 n. 
mother and son, in love, 155 
myrobalans, three, keep a king from 

starving, 89 
munificence, virtue of, discussed, 
26; contrasted with niggardli- 
ness, 68 

Nagas, or serpents, 105, 114 
name-giving by dream, 110, 19T) 
new and rare words in Parcvanatha, 

224 ff. 
Nighantu, 58 

nimba-tree, 33. Cf. snuhi-tree 
nirvana, 113, 121, 181 
Niaada, low caste, 101, 161. See 


Index of Subjects 


niti, xi, 208 ff. 
nursery motifs, 109 

Omens, good or evil, 50, 104, 157-159 

oracle for choosing king, 65, 148, 199 

ordeals, 52, 99, 178, 179 

ordeals, master of, 179 

order to slay, disobeyed, 147, 158, 

Otus and Ephialtes, story of, 16 n. 
overhearing, 30, 65, 147, 179, 185, 


Palmistry, 158 

paramesthinamaskara, 26, 176 
parivrajika, 152 
parrots, wise and faithful, 33, 34, 

77 ff., 94, 97, 98, 147, 151, 152, 

peacock, pet, 88 
peacock's flesh, curative, 88 n. 
pestilence, 97 
plank, saves in shipwreck, 49, 68, 

124, 169, 171 
players from the Dekkhan, 145 
playing in the sand, 137 
plucking out hair, 10, 17, 115 
' poison-damsel,' and, ' poison-hand,' 

62, 170, 198 
poisoning by wife, 168 
poison-tree, 34 n. 
poison upon fruit, 35 
poor man without care, 69 
postponed gift, 154, 155 
potter, 33 n., 202 
Prakrit influence on Jaina Sanskrit, 

xi, 220 
Pratyekabuddha, 5, 116 n., 135 n. 
pregnancy whim, 88, 90, 152, 204 
princess and half the kingdom, 30, 

promise to return, 28. 182 
proverbs and proverbial expressions, 

208, 217 
pujfi, threefold, 145 
Pulindra, unselfish, parable of, 161 

pupil pulls string when he does not 

understand teacher, 84 
Purohitaship, hereditary, 83, 85 

Quarrelsomeness, 87 

Rakaasas, 94, 103, 154; Raksasis, 

14, 98, 99 
Raksasls as beautiful women, 98 n. 
raudradhyana, evil thought before 

death, 143, 177. See artadhy- 

rebirth in pairs, 13 
' Region-Maidens,' 108 ff. 
remembrance of former life, 41, 116, 

117, 126 
report, evil, 32, 174 
riddles and charades, 78 
River Goddess, 80, 81 
rivers permit passage, 80 
root produces trance, 153 

Saccakiriya, or, ' truth-declaration,' 
16 n., 80 

samata, or samya, ' equipoise,' 128 

samyaktva, perfection, 47, 53, 84, 

samsara, 39, 85, 114, 122, 134, 141 

Sarasvata divinities, 114 

SatI, devoted wife, 82, 99, 133, 154, 

saviorship of the world, 10, 114 

'Sciences' (vidya), magic, 37, 47, 
100, 129, 133, 147, 155, 171, 175 

serpent, mythology, 18; drops poi- 
son, 35; bite, 101, 170; messen- 
ger of death, 61; saved from 
danger, 114 n.; as vehicle, 49; 
seven hoods of, 118 

seventh story of palace, 46, 52, 111, 

Siddhas, ' Enlightened,' 130, 170 

Siren, 48, 49 n. 

slavery, selling one's self into, 94, 

snuhi-tree, 33 n., 146. Cf. nimba- 


The Life and Stories of Pdrgvandtha 

songs of praise (stotra, etc.), 23, 

24 n., 109, 119, 145, 154, 157, 

161, 171 
sorcery, kills co-wife, 138 
sovereignty, wheel of, 106 
soul purification, superior to pious 

works, 80 
state elefant, 76, 77 
statues, animated, 52, 192 
' strike but hear,'- 34 
suicide, attempted, threatened, or 

committed, 55, 83, 92, 93, 117, 

125, 129, 163, 172 
' sun-stone,' 57 n. 
susamga, association with good, 73, 

susattvata, noble courage, 73 ff., 

91 ff. 
svayamvara, 16, 110 

Tabu, 150 

tapas, third division of dharma, 136 

talents, parable of, 120 

1 Taming of the Shrew,' analog to 

prolog of, 122 n. 
Temporary royalty, 122 n., 155 
temptation of Nami, 136 
thieves, 32, 55, 60, 63, 84, 85, 122, 

149, 172, 174, 175, 178. See, 

depositing loot 
three skulls, parable of, 78, 79 
' thumb-sucking,' 109 
Tirthamkara, or Savior, 18, 107 
tortoise-on-stick, 33 
travelling in tail-feathers of bird, 31 
treasure chest, 173 
treasure digging, 67 

treasure island, 49 n., 164, 169, 171 
treasure turns to coal, etc., 67 
trees have ears, 31, 186 
trick arbiter, 149 
truth, inviolable, 56 

Unavertable fate, 60, 157 
unhusked grain offering, 145, 151, 

154, 156 
Uriah letter, 160 

Vaimanika, gods, 109 
Vasava, gods, 109, 114 
Vidyadhara and Vidyadhari, gods, 

100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 117, 127, 

132, 137, 139, 140, 147, 150, 155, 

159, 171 
vinaya, tact, 73, 75 
viveka, discernment, 73, 83-85 
vixen wife, 163 
vows taken (diksa), 39, 43, 53, 57, 

62, 103, 104, 107, 108, 114, 115, 

120, 121, 126, 135, 138, 141, 142, 

Vyantara, demons, 53, 70, 109, 116, 

159, 162 

Water-elefant, 132 

wealth, how to use it, 84 

woman-hater, 168 

worldly virtues, four, 73, 102 

s World-protectors,' 30 

wrath, futility of, 53 

Yaksa, god, 47, 53, 84, 127, 137, 159, 
173; Yaksini 48; Yaksas and 
Yaksinis, attending Arhats, 19, 
166 ff.' 

yatra, procession, 23 


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