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Plate X 



Robinfon Crufoe 



VOL. Ill 









THAT homely proverb used on so many occa- 
sions in England, viz., " That what is bred 
in the bone will not go out of the flesh," was never 
more verified than in the story of my life. Any 
one would think that, after thirty-five years* afflic- 
tion, and a variety of unhappy circumstances, which 
few men, if any, ever went through before, and 
after near seven years of peace and enjoyment in the 
fulness of all things, grown old, and when. If ever. 
It might be allowed me to have had experience of 
every state of middle life, and to know which was 
most adapted to make a man completely happy ; 
I say, after all this, any one would have thought 
that the native propensity to rambling, which I 
gave an account of In my first setting-out In the 
world to have been so predominant in my thoughts, 
should be worn out, the volatile part be fully evacu- 
ated, or at least condensed, and I might, at sixty- 
one years of age, have been a little Inclined to stay 
at home, and have done venturing life and fortune 
any more. 


Nay, further, the common motive of foreign 
adventures was taken away in me ; for I had no 
fortune to make ; I had nothing to seek : if I had 
gained ten thousand pounds, I had been no richer; 
for I had already sufficient for me, and for those 
I had to leave it to ; and that I had was visibly 
increasing ; for having no great family, I could not 
spend the income of what I had, unless I would 
set up for an expensive way of living, such as a 
great family, servants, equipage, gaiety, and the 
like, which were things I had no notion of, or 
inclination to ; so that I had nothing indeed to do 
but to sit still, and fully enjoy what I had got, and 
see it increase daily upon my hands. Yet all these 
things had no effect upon me, or at least not 
enough to resist the strong inclination I had to go 
abroad again, which hung about me like a chron- 
ical distemper. In particular, the desire of seeing 
my new plantation in the island, and the colony I 
left there, ran in my head continually. I dreamed 
of it all night, and my imagination ran upon it all 
day ; it was uppermost in all my thoughts ; and 
my fancy worked so steadily and strongly upon it 
that I talked of it in my sleep ; in short, nothing 
could remove it out of my mind : it even broke so 
violently into all my discourses that it made my 
conversation tiresome, for I could talk of nothing 
else : all my discourse ran into it, even to imper- 
tinence , and I saw it in myself. 

I have often heard persons of good judgment 
say that all the stir people make in the world about 


ghosts and apparitions is owing to the strength of 
imagination, and the powerful operation of fancy in 
their minds; that there is no such thing as a spirit 
appearing, or a ghost walking, and the like : that 
people's poring affectionately upon the past con- 
versation of their deceased friends so realises it to 
them that they are capable of fancying, upon some 
extraordinary circumstances, that they see them, 
talk to them, and are answered by them, when, in 
truth, there is nothing but shadow and vapour in the 
thing, and they really know nothing of the matter. 
For my part, I know not to this hour whether 
there are any such things as real apparitions, spec- 
tres, or walking of people after they are dead : or 
whether there is anything in the stories they tell 
us of that kind, more than the product of vapours, 
sick minds, and wandering fancies : but this I 
know, that my imagination worked up to such a 
height, and brought me into such excess of va- 
pours, or what else I may call it, that I actually 
supposed myself often upon the spot, at my old 
castle, behind the trees ; saw my old Spaniard, 
Friday's father, and the reprobate sailors I left 
upon the island ; nay, I fancied I talked with them, 
and looked at them steadily, though I was broad 
awake, as at persons just before me : and this I 
did till I often frightened myself with the images 
my fancy represented to me. One time, in my 
sleep, I had the villainy of the three pirate sailors 
so lively related to me by the first Spaniard and 
Friday's father that it was surprising: they told 


me how they barbarously attempted to murder all 
the Spaniards, and that they set fire to the provi- 
sions they had laid up, on purpose to distress and 
starve them ; things that I had never heard of, and 
that indeed were never all of them true in fact; but 
it was so warm in my imagination, and so realised 
to me, that, to the hour I saw them, I could not be 
persuaded but that it was, or would be, true : also 
how I resented it, when the Spaniard complained 
to me ; and how I brought them to justice, tried 
them before me, and ordered them all three to be 
hanged. What there was really in this shall be seen 
in its place: for however I came to form such 
things in my dream, and what secret converse of 
spirits injected it, yet there was, I say, much of it 
true. I own, that this dream had nothing in it liter- 
ally and specifically true ; but the general part was 
so true, the base villanous behaviour of these three 
hardened rogues was such, and had been so much 
worse than all I can describe, that the dream had too 
much similitude of the fact ; and as I would after- 
wards have punished them severely, so, if I had 
hanged them all, I had been much in the right, 
and even should have been justified both by the 
laws of God and man. — But to return to my story. 
In this kind of temper I lived some years; I had 
no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours, no 
agreeable diversion, but what had something or 
other of this in it ; so that my wife, who saw my 
mind wholly bent upon it, told me very seriously 
one night that she believed there was some secret 


powerful impulse of Providence upon me, which 
had determined me to go thither again ; and that 
she found nothing hindered my going but my being 
engaged to a wife and children. She told me that it 
was true she could not think of parting with me ; but 
as she was assured that if she was dead it would be 
the first thing I would do, so, as it seemed to her that 
the thing was determined above, she would not be 
the only obstruction ; for, if I thought fit, and re- 
solved to go — Here she found me very intent 
upon her words, and that I looked very earnestly 
at her, so that it a little disordered her, and she 
stopped. I asked her why she did not go on, and 
say out what she was going to say ? But I per- 
ceived that her heart was too full, and some tears 
stood In her eyes. " Speak out, my dear," said I ; 
" are you willing I should go ? *' " No," says she, 
very affectionately, " I am far from willing ; but if 
you are resolved to go," says she, "and rather than 
I would be the only hinderance, I will go with you : 
for though I think it a most preposterous thing 
for one of your years, and in your condition, yet, 
if it must be," said she, again weeping, " I would 
not leave you ; for If it be of Heaven you must 
do it ; there is no resisting it : and if Heaven make 
it your duty to go, he will also make It mine to go 
with you, or otherwise dispose of me, that I may 
not obstruct It." 

This affectionate behaviour of my wife's brought 
me a little out of the vapours, and I began to con- 
sider what I was doing: I corrected my wandering 


fancy and began to argue with myself sedately what 
business I had, after threescore years, and after such 
a life of tedious suiferings and disasters, and closed 
in so happy and easy a manner; I say, what busi- 
ness had I to rush into new hazards, and put my- 
self upon adventures fit only for youth and poverty 
to run into ? 

With those thoughts I considered my new en- 
gagement; that I had a wife, one child born, and 
my wife then great with child of another; that I had 
all the world could give me, and had no need to 
seek hazard for gain ; that I was declining in years, 
and ought to think rather of leaving what I had 
gained than of seeking to increase it; that as to what 
my wife had said of its being an impulse from 
Heaven, and that it should be my duty to go, I had 
no notion of that; so, after many of these cogita- 
tions, I struggled with the power of my imagina- 
tion, reasoned myself out of it, as I believe people 
may always do in like cases if they will : and, in a 
word, I conquered it; composed myself with such 
arguments as occurred to my thoughts, and which 
my present condition furnished me plentifully with; 
and particularly, as the most effectual method, I 
resolved to divert myself with other things, and 
to engage in some business that might effectually 
tie me up from any more excursions of this kind; 
for I found that thing return upon me chiefly when 
I was idle, and had nothing to do, nor anything of 
moment immediately before me. To this purpose 
I bought a little farm in the county of Bedford, and 


resolved to remove myself thither. I had a little 
convenient house upon it; and the land about it, I 
found, was capable of great improvement; and it was 
many ways suited to my inclination, which delighted 
in cultivating, managing, planting, and improving 
of land; and particularly, being an inland country, I 
was removed from conversing among sailors, and 
things relating to the remote parts of the world. 

In a word, I went down to my farm, settled my 
family, bought me ploughs, harrows, a cart, wag- 
gon, horses, cows, and sheep, and setting seriously 
to work, became, in one half-year, a mere country 
gentleman : my thoughts were entirely taken up in 
managing my servants, cultivating the ground, en- 
closing, planting, etc. ; and I lived, as I thought, 
the most agreeable life that nature was capable of 
directing, or that a man always bred to misfortunes 
was capable of retreating to. 

I farmed upon my own land; I had no rent to 
pay, was limited by no articles; I could pull up or 
cut down as I pleased; what I planted was for my- 
self, and what I improved was for my family; and 
having thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I 
had not the least discomfort in any part of life as 
to this world. Now I thought indeed that I enjoyed 
the middle state of life which my father so earnestly 
recommended to me, and lived a kind of heavenly 
life, something like what is described by the poet, 
upon the subject of a country life — 

" Free from vices, free from care. 
Age has no pain, and youth no snare.** 


But, in the middle of all this felicity, one blow 
from unseen Providence unhinged me at once; and 
not only made a breach upon me inevitable and in- 
curable, but drove me, by its consequences, into a 
deep relapse of the wandering disposition, which, 
as I may say, being born in my very blood, soon 
recovered its hold of me, and, like the returns of 
a violent distemper, came on with an irresistible 
force upon me, so that nothing could make any 
more impression upon me. This blow was the loss 
of my wife. It is not my business here to write an 
elegy upon my wife, give a character of her par- 
ticular virtues, and make my court to the sex by 
the flattery of a funeral sermon. She was, in a few 
words, the stay of all my affairs, the centre of all 
my enterprises, the engine that, by her prudence, 
reduced me to that happy compass I was in, from 
the most extravagant and ruinous project that 
fluttered in my head, as above, and did more to 
guide my rambling genius than a mother's tears, 
a father's instructions, a friend's counsel, or all 
my own reasoning powers, could do. I was happy 
in listening to her tears, and in being moved by 
her entreaties ; and to the last degree desolate and 
dislocated in the world by the loss of her. 

When she was gone the world looked awkwardly 
round me. I was as much a stranger in it, in my 
thoughts, as I was in the Brazils, when I first went 
on shore there ; and as much alone, except as to 
the assistance of servants, as I was in my island. I 
knew neither what to think nor what to do. I saw 


the world busy around me : one part labouring for 
bread, another part squandering in vile excesses or 
empty pleasures, equally miserable, because the end 
they proposed still fled from them: for the men 
of pleasure every day surfeited of their vice, and 
heaped up work for sorrow and repentance ; and 
the men of labour spent their strength in daily 
struggling for bread to maintain the vital strength 
they laboured with : so living in a daily circula- 
tion of sorrow, living but to work, and working 
but to live, as if daily bread were the only end 
of wearisome life, and a wearisome life the only 
occasion of daily bread. 

This put me in mind of the life I lived in my 
kingdom, the island ; where I suff'ered no more corn 
to grow, because I did not want it, and bred no more 
goats, because I had no more use for them ; where 
the money lay in the drawer till it grew mouldy, 
and had scarce the favour to be looked upon in 
twenty years. 

All these things, had I improved them as I ought 
to have done, and as reason and religion had dic- 
tated to me, would have taught me to search farther 
than human enjoyments for a full felicity ; and that 
there was something which certainly was the rea- 
son and end of life, superior to all these things, and 
which was either to be possessed, or at least hoped 
for, on this side the grave. 

But my sage counsellor was gone ; I was like a 
ship without a pilot, that could only run afore the 
wind : my thoughts ran all away again into the old 


affair ; my head was quite turned with the whim- 
sies of foreign adventures ; and all the pleasant, 
innocent amusements of my farm, my garden, my 
cattle, and my family, which before entirely pos- 
sessed me, were nothing to me, had no relish, 
and were like music to one that has no ear, or food 
to one that has no taste : in a word, I resolved to 
leave off housekeeping, let my farm, and return 
to London ; and in a few months after I did so. 

When I came to London, I was still as uneasy 
as I was before ; I had no relish for the place, no 
employment in it, nothing to do but to saunter 
about like an idle person, of whom it may be said 
he is perfectly useless in God*s creation, and it is 
not one farthing's matter to the rest of his kind 
whether he be dead or alive. This also was the thing 
which, of all circumstances of life, was the most 
my aversion, who had been all my days used to an 
active life ; and I would often say to myself : " A 
state of idleness is the very dregs of life '' ; and 
indeed I thought I was much more suitably em- 
ployed when I was twenty-six days making a deal 

It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when 
my nephew, whom, as I have observed before, I 
had brought up to the sea, and had made him com- 
mander of a ship, was come home from a short 
voyage to Bilboa, being the first he had made. He 
came to me, and told me that some merchants of 
his acquaintance had been proposing to him to go 
a voyage for them to the East Indies and to China, 


as private traders. " And now, uncle/* says he, 
" if you will go to sea with me, I will engage to 
land you upon your old habitation in the island ; 
for we are to touch at the Brazils." 

Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a 
future state, and of the existence of an invisible 
world, than the concurrence of second causes with 
the ideas of things which we form in our minds, 
perfectly reserved, and not communicated to any 
in the world. 

My nephew knew nothing how far my distem- 
per of wandering was returned upon me, and I 
knew nothing of what he had in his thought to say, 
when that very morning, before he came to me, 
I had, in a great deal of confusion of thought, and 
revolving every part of my circumstances in my 
mind, come to this resolution, viz., that I would 
go to Lisbon, and consult with my old sea-captain ; 
and so, if it was rational and practicable, I would go 
and see the island again, and see what was become 
of my people there. I had pleased myself with the 
thoughts of peopling the place, and carrying in- 
habitants from hence, getting a patent for the pos- 
session, and I knew not what; when, in the middle 
of all this, in comes my nephew, as I have said, 
with his project of carrying me thither in his way 
to the East Indies. ** 

I paused a while at his words, and, looking stead- 
ily at him, " What devil," said I, " sent you on this 
unlucky errand P " My nephew stared, as if he had 
been frightened, at first; but perceiving that I was 


not much displeased with the proposal, he recov- 
ered himself. "I hope it may not be an unlucky 
proposal, sir," says he; "I dare say you would be 
pleased to see your new colony there, where you 
once reigned with more felicity than most of your 
brother-monarchs in the world." 

In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with my tem- 
per, that is to say, the prepossession I was under, 
and of which I have said so much, that I told him, 
in a few words, if he agreed with the merchants, 
I would go with him : but I told him I would not 
promise to go any farther than my own island. 
"Why, sir," says he, "you don't want to be left 
there again, I hope?" "Why," said I, "can you 
not take me up again on your return?" He told 
me it would not be possible to do so ; that the 
merchants would never allow him to come that way 
with a laden ship of such value, it being a month's 
sail out of his way, and might be three or four. 
" Besides, sir, if I should miscarry," said he, " and 
not return at all, then you would be just reduced 
to the condition you were in before." 

This was very rational, but we both found out 
a remedy for it ; which was to carry a framed sloop 
on board the ship, which being taken in pieces, and 
shipped on board the ship, might by the help of 
some carpenters, whom we agreed to carry with us, 
be set up again in the island, and finished, fit to 
go to sea in a few days. 

I was not long resolving; for indeed the impor- 
tunities of my nephew joined so effectually with my 


inclination that nothing could oppose me: on the 
other hand, my wife being dead, I had nobody con- 
cerning themselves so much for me as to persuade 
me to one way or the other, except my ancient good 
friend the widow, who earnestly struggled with me 
to consider my years, my easy circumstances, and 
the needless hazards of a long voyage; and, above 
all, my young children. But it was all to no pur- 
pose; — I had an irresistible desire to the voyage; 
and I told her I thought there was something so 
uncommon in the impressions I had upon my mind 
for the voyage that it would be a kind of resisting 
Providence if I should attempt to stay at home : 
after which she ceased her expostulations, and 
joined with me, not only in making provision for 
my voyage, but also in settling my family affairs 
for my absence, and providing for the education of 
my children. 

In order to this, I made my will and settled the 
estate I had in such a manner for my children, and 
placed in such hands, that I was perfectly easy and 
satisfied they would have justice done them, what- 
ever might befal me ; and for their education, I 
left it wholly to the widow, with a sufficient main- 
tenance to herself for her care: all which she richly 
deserved, for no mother could have taken more care 
in their education, or understood it better ; and as 
she lived till I came home, I also lived to thank 
her for it. 

My nephew was ready to sail about the begin- 
ning of January 1694-5; and I, with my man Fri- 


day, went on board in the Downs the 8 th; having, 
besides that sloop which I mentioned above, a very 
considerable cargo of all kinds of necessary things 
for my colony ; which, if I did not find in good 
condition, I resolved to leave so. 

First, I carried with me some servants, whom I 
proposed to place there as inhabitants, or at least 
to set on work there, upon my account, while I 
stayed, and either to leave them there, or to carry 
them forward, as they would appear willing : par- 
ticularly, I carried two carpenters, a smith, and a 
very handy, ingenious fellow, who was a cooper by 
trade, and was also a general mechanic ; for he was 
dexterous at making wheels,and hand-mills to grind 
corn, was a good turner, and a good pot-maker; 
he also made anything that was proper to make of 
earth, or of wood ; in a word, we called him our 
Jack-of-all-trades. With these I carried a tailor, who 
had offered himself to go a passenger to the East 
Indies with my nephew, but afterwards consented 
to stay on our new plantation ; and proved a most 
necessary, handy fellow as could be desired, in many 
other businesses besides that of his trade : for, as 
I observed formerly, necessity arms us for all em- 

My cargo, as near as I can recollect, for I had 
not kept account of the particulars, consisted of a 
sufficient quantity of linen, and some English thin 
stuffs, for clothing the Spaniards that I expected 
to find there; and enough of them, as, by my cal- 
culation, might comfortably supply them for seven 


years : if I remember right, the materials I carried 
for clothing them, with gloves, hats, shoes, stock- 
ings, and all such things as they could want for 
wearing, amounted to above two hundred pounds, 
including some beds, bedding, and household stuff, 
particularly kitchen utensils, with pots, kettles, pew- 
ter, brass, etc., and near a hundred pounds more in 
iron-work, nails, tools of every kind, staples, hooks, 
hinges, and every necessary thing I could think of. 

I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets, 
and fusees; besides some pistols, a considerable 
quantity of shot of all sizes, three or four tons of 
lead, and two pieces of brass cannon ; and because 
I knew not what time and what extremities I was 
providing for, I carried a hundred barrels of pow- 
der, besides swords, cutlasses, and the iron part of 
some pikes and halberds : so that, in short, we had 
a large magazine of all sorts of stores: and I made 
my nephew carry two small quarter-deck guns more 
than he wanted for his ship, to leave behind if there 
was occasion ; that, when we came there, we might 
build a fort and man it against all sorts of enemies; 
and, indeed, I at first thought there would be need 
enough for all, and much more, if we hoped to 
maintain our possession of the island ; as shall be 
seen in the course of that story. 

I had not such bad luck in this voyage as 1 had 
been used to meet with; and therefore shall have 
the less occasion to interrupt the reader, who per- 
haps may be impatient to hear how matters went 
with my colony : yet some odd accidents, cross- 


winds, and bad weather, happened on this first 
setting-out, which made the voyage longer than I 
expected it at first : and I, who had never made but 
one voyage, viz., my first voyage to Guinea, in 
which I might be said to come back again as the 
voyage was at first designed, began to think the 
same ill fate attended me; and that I was born to 
be never contented with being on shore, and yet 
to be always unfortunate at sea. 

Contrary winds first put us to the northward, 
and we were obliged to put in at Galway in Ireland, 
where we lay wind-bound two-and-twenty days; 
but we had this satisfaction with the disaster, that 
provisions were here exceeding cheap, and in the 
utmost plenty ; so that while we lay here, we never 
touched the ship's stores, but rather added to them. 
Here, also, I took in several live hogs, and two 
cows, with their calves ; which I resolved, if I had 
a good passage, to put on shore in my island ; but 
we found occasion to dispose otherwise of them. 


WE set out on the 5th of February from Ire- 
land, and had a very fair gale of wind for 
some days. As I remember it might be about the 
aoth of February, in the evening late, when the 
mate, having the watch, came into the round-house, 
and told us he saw a flash of fire, and heard a gun 
fired ; and while he was telling us of it, a boy came 
in, and told us the boatswain heard another. This 
made us all run out upon the quarter-deck, where, 
for a while, we heard nothing; but in a few min- 
utes we saw a very great light, and found that there 
was some very terrible fire at a distance: immedi- 
ately we had recourse to our reckonings, in which 
we all agreed that there could be no land that way 
in which the fire showed itself, no, not for five hun- 
dred leagues, for it appeared at WN W. Upon this 
we concluded it must be some ship on fire at sea; 
and as, by our hearing the noise of guns just be- 
fore, we concluded that it could not be far off, we 
stood directly towards it, and were presently satis- 
fied we should discover it, because, the farther we 


sailed, the greater the light appeared; though, the 
weather being hazy, we could not perceive any- 
thing but the light for a while. In about half an 
hour's sailing, the wind being fair for us, though 
not much of it, and the weather clearing-up a little, 
we could plainly discern that it was a great ship on 
fire in the middle of the sea. 

I was most sensibly touched with this disaster, 
though not at all acquainted with the persons en- 
gaged in it : I presently recollected my former cir- 
cumstances, and in what condition I was in, when 
taken up by the Portuguese captain ; and how much 
more deplorable the circumstances of the poor 
creatures belonging to that ship must be, if they had 
no other ship in company with them. Upon this, 
I immediately ordered that five guns should be 
fired, one soon after another; that, if possible, we 
might give notice to them that there was help for 
them at hand, and that they might endeavour to 
save themselves in their boat : for though we could 
see the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night, 
could see nothing of us. 

We lay by some time upon this, only driving 
as the burning ship drove, waiting for daylight; 
when, on a sudden, to our great terror, though we 
had reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the 
air; and immediately, that is to say, in a few min- 
utes, all the fire was out, that is to say, the rest of 
the ship sunk. This was a terrible and indeed an 
afflicting sight for the sake of the poor men ; who, 
I concluded, must be either all destroyed in the 


ship, or be in the utmost distress in their boat, in 
the middle of the ocean; which, at present, by 
reason it was dark, I could not see. However, to 
direct them as well as I could, I caused lights 
to be hung out in all the parts of the ship where 
we could, and which we had lanterns for, and kept 
firing guns all the night long; letting them know, 
by this, that there was a ship not far off. 

About eight o'clock in the morning we discov- 
ered the ship's boats by the help of our perspect- 
ive glasses; found there were two of them, both 
thronged with people, and deep in the water. We 
perceived they rowed, the wind being against them; 
that they saw our ship, and did their utmost to 
make us see them. 

We immediately spread our ancient^ to let them 
know we saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal 
for them to come on board ; and then made more 
sail, standing directly to them. In little more than 
half an hour we came up with them ; and, in a 
word, took them all in, being no less than sixty- 
four men, women, and children; for there were a 
great many passengers. 

Upon the whole, we found it was a French 
merchant-ship of three hundred tons, home-bound 
from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master 
gave us a long account of the distress of his ship; 
how the fire began in the steerage, by the neglig- 
ence of the steersman; but, on his crying out for 
help, was, as everybody thought, entirely put out; 
but they soon found that some sparks of the first 


fire had gotten into some part of the ship so dif- 
ficult to come at that they could not effectually 
quench it; and afterwards getting in between the 
timbers, and within the ceiling of the ship, it pro- 
ceeded into the hold, and mastered all the skill and 
all the application they were able to exert. 

They had no more to do then but to get into 
their boats, which, to their great comfort, were 
pretty large; being their long-boat, and a great 
shallop, besides a small skiff, which was of no great 
service to them, other than to get some fresh water 
and provisions into her, after they had secured 
their lives from the fire. They had, indeed, small 
hope of their lives by getting into these boats, at 
that distance from any land; only, as they said well, 
that they were escaped from the fire, and a pos- 
sibility that some ship might happen to be at sea, 
and might take them in. They had sails, oars, and 
a compass ; and were preparing to make the best 
of their way back to Newfoundland, the wind blow- 
ing pretty fair, for it blew an easy gale at SE. by 
E. They had as much provision and water as, with 
sparing it so as to be next door to starving, might 
support them about twelve days ; in which, if they 
had no bad weather, and no contrary winds, the 
captain said he hoped he might get to the Banks 
of Newfoundland, and might perhaps take some 
fish, to sustain them till they might go on shore. 
But there were so many chances against them in 
all these cases, such as storms, to overset and 
founder them ; rains and cold, to benumb and per- 


ish their limbs ; contrary winds, to keep them out 
and starve them, that it must have been next to 
miraculous if they had escaped. 

In the midst of their consternation, every one 
being hopeless and ready to despair, the captain, 
with tears in his eyes, told me they were on a sud- 
den surprised with the joy of hearing a gun fire, 
and after that four more ; these were the five guns 
which I had caused to be fired at first seeing the 
light. This revived their hearts, and gave them 
the notice, which, as above, I desired it should, 
viz., that there was a ship at hand for their help. 
It was upon the hearing of these guns that they 
took down their masts and sails: the sound com- 
ing from the windward, they resolved to lie by till 
morning. Some time after this, hearing no more 
guns, they fired three muskets, one a considerable 
while after another; but these, the wind being con- 
trary, we never heard. 

Some time after that again, they were still more 
agreeably surprised with seeing our lights, and hear- 
ing the guns which, as I have said, I caused to be 
fired all the rest of the night : this set them to 
work with their oars, to keep their boats ahead, at 
least, that we might the sooner come up with them ; 
and, at last, to their inexpressible joy, they found 
we saw them. 

It is impossible for me to express the several 
gestures, the strange ecstasies, the variety of post- 
ures, which these poor delivered people ran into, 
to express the joy of their souls at so unexpected 


a deliverance. Grief and fear are easily described ; 
sighs, tears, groans, and a very few motions of the 
head and hands, make up the sum of its variety ; 
but an excess of joy, a surprise of joy, has a thou- 
sand extravagances in it : there were some in tears ; 
some raging and tearing themselves, as if they had 
been in the greatest agonies of sorrow ; some stark 
raving and downright lunatic; some ran about the 
ship stamping with their feet, others wringing their 
hands; some were dancing, some singing, some 
laughing, more crying; many quite dumb, not able 
to speak a word ; others sick and vomiting: several 
swooning, and ready to faint ; and a few were cross- 
ing themselves and giving God thanks. 

I would not wrong them neither ; there might 
be many that were thankful afterwards, but the pas- 
sion was too strong for them at first, and they were 
not able to master it : they were thrown into ecsta- 
sies, and a kind of frenzy ; and it was but a very 
few that were composed and serious in their joy. 

Perhaps, also, the case may have some addition 
to it from the particular circumstance of that na- 
tion they belonged to ; I mean the French, whose 
temper is allowed to be more volatile, more pas- 
sionate, and more sprightly, and their spirits more 
fluid, than in other nations. I am not philosopher 
enough to determine the cause; but nothing I had 
ever seen before came up to it. The ecstasies poor 
Friday, my trusty savage, was in, when he found 
his father in the boat, came the nearest to it; and 
the surprise of the master and his two companions, 


whom I delivered from the villains that set them 
on shore in the island, came a little way towards 
it; but nothing was to compare to this, either that 
I saw in Friday, or anywhere else in my life. 

It is further observable that these extravagances 
did not show themselves, in that different manner 
I have mentioned, in different persons only ; but 
all the variety would appear, in a short succession 
of moments, in one and the same person. A man 
that we saw this minute dumb, and as it were 
stupid and confounded, would the next minute be 
dancing and hallooing like an antic ; and the next 
moment be tearing his hair, or pulling his clothes 
to pieces, and stamping them under his feet, like 
a madman ; in a few moments after that, we would 
have him all in tears, then sick, swooning, and, had 
not immediate help been had, he would in a few 
moments have been dead; and thus it was, not with 
one or two, or ten or twenty, but with the great- 
est part of them: and if I remember right, our 
surgeon was obliged to let blood of about thirty 
of them. 

There were two priests among them, one an old 
man, and the other a young man; and that which 
was strangest was, the oldest man was the worst. As 
soon as he set his foot onboard our ship, and saw 
himself safe, he dropped down stone-dead, to all 
appearance; not the least sign of life could be per- 
ceived in him : our surgeon immediately applied 
proper remedies to recover him, and was the only 
man in the ship that believed he was not dead. 


At length he opened a vein in his arm, having first 
chafed and rubbed the part, so as to warm it as 
much as possible : upon this blood, which only- 
dropped at first, flowing freely, in three minutes 
after the man opened his eyes ; and a quarter of 
an hour after that he spoke, grew better, and in a 
little time quite well. After the blood was stopped, 
he walked about ; told us he was perfectly well ; 
took a dram of cordial which the surgeon gave him, 
and was what we called come to himself. About 
a quarter of an hour after this, they came running 
into the cabin to the surgeon, who was bleeding a 
Frenchwoman that had fainted, and told him the 
priest was gone stark mad. It seems he had begun 
to revolve the change of his circumstances in his 
mind, and again this put him into an ecstasy of 
joy; his spirits whirled about faster than the ves- 
sels could convey them, the blood grew hot and 
feverish, and the man was as fit for Bedlam as any 
creature that ever was in it : the surgeon would not 
bleed him again in that condition, but gave him 
something to doze and put him to sleep, which, 
after some time, operated upon him, and he awoke 
next morning perfectly composed and well. 

The younger priest behaved with great command 
of his passions, and was really an example of a seri- 
ous, well-governed mind: at his first coming on 
board the ship, he threw himself flat on his face, 
prostrating himself in thankfulness for his deliver- 
ance, in which I unhappily and unseasonably dis- 
turbed him, really thinking he had been in a swoon; 


but he spoke calmly, thanked me, told me he was 
giving God thanks for his deliverance ; begged me 
to leave him a few moments, and that, next to his 
Maker, he would give me thanks also. 

I was heartily sorry that I disturbed him, and 
not only left him, but kept others from interrupt- 
ing him also. He continued in that posture about 
three minutes, or little more, after I left him ; then 
came to me, as he had said he would, and, with a 
great deal of seriousness and affection, but with 
tears in his eyes, thanked me, that had, under God, 
given him, and so many miserable creatures, their 
lives. I told him I had no room to move him to 
thank God for it, rather than me, for I had seen 
that he had done that already ; but, I added, that 
it was nothing but what reason and humanity dic- 
tated to all men; and that we had as much reason 
as he to give thanks to God, who had blessed us 
so far as to make us the instruments of his mercy 
to so many of his creatures. 

After this, the young priest applied himself to 
his countryfolks ; laboured to compose them ; per- 
suaded, entreated, argued, reasoned with them, and 
did his utmost to keep them within the exercise of 
their reason ; and with some he had success, though 
others were for a time out of all government of 

I cannot help committing this to writing, as per- 
haps It may be useful to those into whose hands 
it may fall, for the guiding themselves In all the 
extravagances of their passions ; for if an excess of 


joy can carry men out to such a length beyond the 
reach of their reason, what will not the extravagances 
of anger, rage, and a provoked mind, carry us to ? 
And indeed, here I saw reason for keeping an ex- 
ceeding watch over our passions of every kind, as 
well those of joy and satisfaction as those of sor- 
row and anger. 

We were something disordered, by these extra- 
vagances among our new guests, for the first day ; 
but when they had been retired, lodgings provided 
for them as well as our ship would allow, and they 
had slept heartily, — as most of them did, being 
fatigued and frightened, — they were quite another 
sort of people the next day. 

Nothingof good manners, or civil acknowledg- 
ments for the kindness shown them, was wanting; 
the French, it is known, are naturally apt enough 
to exceed that way. The captain and one of the 
priests came to me the next day, and desired to 
speak to me and my nephew: the commander 
began to consult with us what should be done with 
them ; and first, they told us that we had saved 
their lives, so all they had was little enough for a 
return to us for that kindness received. The cap- 
tain said they had saved some money, and some 
things of value, in their boats, catched hastily out 
of the flames, and if we would accept it, they were 
ordered to make an offer of it all to us : they only 
desired to be set on shore somewhere in our way, 
where, if possible, they might get a passage to 
France. My nephew was for accepting their money 


at first word, and to consider what to do with them 
afterwards ; but I overruled him in that part, for 
I knew what it was to be set on shore in a strange 
country: and if the Portuguese captain that took 
me up at sea had served me so, and took all I had 
for my deliverance, I must have starved, or have 
been as much a slave at the Brazils as I had been 
at Barbary, the mere being sold to a Mahometan 
excepted ; and perhaps a Portuguese is not a much 
better master than a Turk, if not, in some cases, 
much worse. 

I therefore told the French captain that we had 
taken them up in their distress, it was true, but that 
it was our duty to do so, as we were fellow crea- 
tures ; and we would desire to be so delivered, if 
we were in the like, or any other extremity ; that 
we had done nothing for them but what we be- 
lieved they would have done for us, if we had been 
in their case, and they in ours ; but that we took 
them up to save them, not to plunder them ; and 
it would be a most barbarous thing to take that 
little from them which they had saved out of the 
fire, and then set them on shore and leave them ; 
that this would be first to save them from death, 
and then kill them ourselves ; save them from 
drowning,and abandon them to starving; and there- 
fore I would not let the least thing be taken from 
them. As to setting them on shore, I told them, 
indeed, that was an exceeding difficulty to us, for 
that the ship was bound to the East Indies ; and 
though we were driven out of our course to the 


westward a very great way, and perhaps were di- 
rected by Heaven on purpose for their deHver- 
ance, yet it was impossible for us wilfully to change 
our voyage on their particular account ; nor could 
my nephew, the captain, answer it to the freighters, 
with whom he was under charter-party to pursue 
his voyage by the way of Brazil : and all I knew we 
could do for them was to put ourselves in the way 
of meeting with other ships homeward bound from 
the West Indies, and get them a passage, if pos- 
sible, to England or France. 

Thefirstpartof the proposal was so generous and 
kind, they could not but be very thankful for it ; but 
they were in a very great consternation, especially 
the passengers, at the notion of being carried away 
to the East Indies: they then entreated me that, 
seeing I was driven so far to the westward before 
I met with them, I would at least keep on the same 
course to the Banks of Newfoundland, where it was 
probable I might meet with some ship or sloop that 
they might hire to carry them back to Canada, 
from whence they came. 

I thought this was but a reasonable request on 
their part, and therefore I inclined to agree to it ; 
for, indeed, I considered that to carry this whole 
company to the East Indies would not only be an 
intolerable severity upon the poor people, but would 
be ruining our whole voyage, by devouring all our 
provisions ; so I thought it no breach of charter- 
party but what an unforeseen accident made ab- 
solutely necessary to us, and in which no one could 


say we were to blame ; for the laws of God and 
nature would have forbid that we should refuse to 
take up two boats' full of people in such a distressed 
condition ; and the nature of the thing, as well re- 
specting ourselves as the poor people, obliged us 
to set them on shore somewhere or other for their 
deliverance: so I consented that we would carry 
them to Newfoundland, if wind and weather would 
permit ; and if not, that I would carry them to 
Martinico, in the West Indies. 


THE wind continued fresh easterly, but the 
weather pretty good; and as the winds had 
continued in the points between NE. and SE. a 
long time, we missed several opportunities of send- 
ing them to France; for we met several ships 
bound to Europe, whereof two were French, from 
St. Christopher's; but they had been so long beat- 
ing up against the wind that they durst take in no 
passengers, for fear of wanting provisions for the 
voyage, as well for themselves as for those they 
should take in ; so we were obliged to go on. It was 
about a week after this that we made the Banks of 
Newfoundland; where, to shorten my story, we put 
all our French people on board a bark, which they 
hired at sea there, to put them on shore, and after- 
wards to carry them to France, if they could get 
provisions to victual themselves with. When I say 
all the French went on shore, I should remember 
that the young priest I spoke of, hearing we were 
bound to the East Indies, desired to go the voyage 
with us, and to be set on shore on the coast of Coro- 


mandel; which I readily agreed to, for I wonder- 
fully liked the man, and had very good reason, as 
will appear afterwards: also four of the seamen 
entered themselves on our ship, and proved very 
useful fellows. 

From hence we directed our course to the West 
Indies, steering away S. and S. by E. for about 
twenty days together, sometimes little or no wind 
at all, when we met with another subject for our 
humanity to work upon, almost as deplorable as 
that before. 

It was in the latitude of twenty-seven degrees 
five minutes north, on the 19th day of March, 
1694-5, when we spied a sail, our course SE. and 
by S. : we soon perceived it was a large vessel, and 
that she bore up to us, but could not at first know 
what to make of her, till, after coming a little nearer, 
we found she had lost her main topmast, foremast, 
and bowsprit; and presently she fired a gun, as a 
signal of distress : the weather was pretty good, 
wind at NNW., a fresh gale, and we soon came to 
speak with her. 

We found her a ship of Bristol, bound home 
from Barbadoes, but had been blown out of the road 
at Barbadoes a few days before she was ready to sail, 
by a terrible hurricane, while the captain and chief 
mate were both gone on shore; so that, besides the 
terror of the storm, they were in an indifferent case 
for good artists to bring the ship home. They had 
been already nine weeks at sea, and had met with 
another terrible storm, after the hurricane was over. 


which had blown them quite out of their knowledge 
to the westward, and in which they lost their masts, 
as above. They told us they expected to have seen 
the Bahama Islands, but were then driven away 
again to the southeast, by a strong gale of wind at 
NNW., the same that blew now: and having no 
sails to work the ship with but a maincourse, and 
a kind of square sail upon a jury foremast which 
they had set up, they could not lie near the wind, 
but were endeavouring to stand away for the Canar- 
ies. But that which was worst of all was that they 
were almost starved for want of provisions, besides 
the fatigues they had undergone: their bread and 
flesh were quite gone; they had not one ounce left 
in the ship, and had had none for eleven days. 
The only relief they had was, their water was not 
all spent, and they had about half a barrel of flour 
left; they had sugar enough; some succades, or 
sweatmeats, they had at first, but they were de- 
voured ; and they had seven casks of rum. 

There were a youth and his mother, and a maid- 
servant, on board, who were going passengers, and, 
thinking the ship was ready to sail, unhappily came 
on board the evening before the hurricane began ; 
and having no provisions of their own left, they 
were in a more deplorable condition than the rest : 
for the seamen, being reduced to such an extreme 
necessity themselves, had no compassion, we may 
be sure, for the poor passengers ; and they were, 
indeed, in a condition that their misery is very hard 
to describe. 


I had perhaps not known this part if my curi- 
osity had not led me (the weather being fair, and 
the wind abated) to go on board the ship. The 
second mate, who, upon this occasion, commanded 
the ship, had been on board our ship, and he told 
me, indeed, they had three passengers in the great 
cabin that were in a deplorable condition. "Nay,*' 
says he, " I believe they are dead, for I have heard 
nothing of them for above two days ; and I was 
afraid to inquire after them," said he, " for I had 
nothing to relieve them with." 

We immediately applied ourselves to give them 
what relief we could spare; and, indeed, I had so 
far overruled things with my nephew that I would 
have victualled them, though we had gone away 
to Virginia, or any other part of the coast of Amer- 
ica, to have supplied ourselves; but there was no 
necessity for that. 

But now they were in a new danger ; for they 
were afraid of eating too much, even of that little 
we gave them. The mate or commander brought 
six men with him in his boat, but these poor 
wretches looked like skeletons, and were so weak 
that they could hardly sit to their oars. The mate 
himself was very ill, and half-starved : for he de- 
clared he had reserved nothing from the men, and 
went share and share alike with them in every bit 
they ate. 

I cautioned him to eat sparingly, but set meat 
before him immediately; and he had not eaten three 
mouthfuls before he began to be sick, and out of 


order ; so he stopped a while, and our surgeon 
mixed him up something with some broth, which 
he said would be to him both food and physic; 
and after he had taken it, he grew better. In the 
mean time, I forgot not the men ; I ordered vict- 
uals to be given them, and the poor creatures 
rather devoured than ate it; they were so exceed- 
ing hungry that they were in a kind ravenous, and 
had no command of themselves ; and two of them 
ate with so much greediness that they were in 
danger of their lives the next morning. 

The sight of these people's distress was very 
moving to me, and brought to mind what I had 
a terrible prospect of at my first coming on shore 
in my island, where I had never the least mouthful 
of food or any prospect of procuring any, besides 
the hourly apprehensions I had of being made the 
food of other creatures. But all the while the mate 
was thus relating to me the miserable condition of 
the ship's company, I could not put out of my 
thought the story he had told me of the three poor 
creatures in the great cabin, viz., the mother, her 
son, and the maid-servant, whom he had heard 
nothing of for two or three days, and whom, he 
seemed to confess, they had wholly neglected, their 
own extremities being so great: by which I under- 
stood that they had really given them no food at 
all, and that therefore they must be perished, and 
be all lying dead, perhaps, on the floor or deck 
of the cabin. 

As I therefore kept the mate, whom we then 


called captain, on board with his men, to refresh 
them, so I also forgot not the starving crew that 
were left on board; but ordered my own boat to 
go on board the ship, and, with my mate and twelve 
men, to carry them a sack of bread, and four or 
five pieces of beef to boil. Our surgeon charged 
the men to cause the meat to be boiled while they 
stayed, and to keep guard in the cook-room to 
prevent the men taking it to eat raw, or taking it 
out of the pot before it was well boiled, and then 
to give every man but a very little at a time: and 
by this caution he preserved the men, who would 
otherwise have killed themselves with that very 
food that was given them on purpose to save their 

At the same time, I ordered the mate to go into 
the great cabin, and see what condition the poor 
passengers were in; and if they were alive, to com- 
fort them, and give them what refreshment was 
proper: and the surgeon gave him a large pitcher, 
with some of the prepared broth which he had 
given the mate that was on board, and which he did 
not question would restore them gradually. 

I was not satisfied with this ; but, as I said above, 
having a great mind to see the scene of misery 
which I knew the ship itself would present me 
with, in a more lively manner than I could have it 
by report, I took the captain of the ship, as we 
now called him, with me, and went myself, a little 
after, in their boat. 

I found the poor men on board almost in a 


tumult, to get the victuals out of the boiler before 
it was ready ; but my mate observed his orders, 
and kept a good guard at the cook-room door; and 
the man he placed there, after using all possible 
persuasion to have patience, kept them ofFby force : 
however, he caused some biscuit-cakes to be dipped 
in the pot, and softened with the liquor of the 
meat, which they called brewis, and gave them every 
one some, to stay their stomachs, and told them 
it was for their own safety that he was obliged to 
give them but little at a time. But it was all in 
vain ; and had I not come on board, and their own 
commander and officers with me, and with good 
words, and some threats also of giving them no 
more, I believe they would have broken into the 
cook-room by force, and torn the meat out of the 
furnace ; for words are indeed of very small force 
to a hungry belly : however, we pacified them, and 
fed them gradually and cautiously for the first, and 
the next time gave them more, and at last filled 
their bellies, and the men did well enough. 

But the misery of the poor passengers in the 
cabin was of another nature, and far beyond the 
rest; for as the ship's company had so little for 
themselves, it was but too true that they had at first 
kept them very low, and at last totally neglected 
them ; so that for six or seven days it might be 
said they had really no food at all, and for several 
days before very little. The poor mother, who, 
as the men reported, was a woman of sense and 
good breeding, had spared all she could so aifec- 


tionately for her son that at last she entirely sunk 
under it; and when the mate of our ship went in, 
she sat upon the floor or deck, with her back up 
against the sides, between two chairs, which were 
lashed fast, and her head sunk between her shoul- 
ders, like a corpse, though not quite dead. My 
mate said all he could to revive and encourage her, 
and with a spoon put some broth into her mouth. 
She opened her lips, and lifted up one hand, but 
could not speak ; yet she understood what he said, 
and made signs to him, intimating that it was too 
late for her, but pointed to her child, as if she 
would have said they should take care of him. 
However, the mate, who was exceedingly moved 
with the sight, endeavoured to get some of the 
broth into her mouth, and, as he said, got two or 
three spoonfuls down; though I question whether 
he could be sure of it or not: but it was too late, 
and she died the same night. 

The youth, who was preserved at the price of his 
most affectionate mother's life, was not so far gone: 
yet he lay in a cabin bed, as one stretched out, with 
hardly any life left in him. He had a piece of an 
old glove in his mouth, having eaten up the rest 
of it : however, being young, and having more 
strength than his mother, the mate got something 
down his throat, and he began sensibly to revive; 
though by giving him, some time after, but two or 
three spoonfuls extraordinary, he was very sick, 
and brought it up again. 

But the next care was the poor maid : she lay all 


along upon the deck, hard by her mistress, and 
just like one that had fallen down with an apoplexy, 
and struggled for life. Her limbs were distorted ; 
one of her hands was clasped around the frame 
of a chair, and she griped it so hard that we could 
not easily make her let it go: her other arm lay 
over her head, and her feet lay both together, set 
fast against the frame of the cabin-table : in short, 
she lay just like one in the agonies of death, and 
yet she was alive too. 

The poor creature was not only starved with 
hunger, and terrified with the thoughts of death, 
but, as the men told us afterwards, was broken- 
hearted for her mistress, whom she saw dying for 
two or three days before, and whom she loved most 

We knew not what to do with this poor girl ; for 
when our surgeon, who was a man of very great 
knowledge and experience, had with great applica- 
tion recovered her as to life, he had her upon his 
hands as to her senses ; for she was little less than 
distracted for a considerable time after, as shall 
appear presently. 

Whoever shall read these memorandums must 
be desired to consider that visits at sea are not like 
a journey into the country, where sometimes peo- 
ple stay a week or a fortnight at a place : our busi- 
ness was to relieve this distressed ship's crew, but 
not lie by for them ; and though they were willing 
to steer the same course with us for some days, yet 
we could carry no sail, to keep pace with a ship 


that had no masts : however, as their captain begged 
of us to help him to set up a main topmast, and a 
kind of a topmast to his jury foremast, we did, as 
it were, lie by him for three or four days ; and then, 
having given him five barrels of beef, a barrel of 
pork, two hogsheads of biscuit, and a proportion 
of peas, flour, and what other things we could spare, 
and taking three casks of sugar, some rum, and 
some pieces-of-eight from them for satisfaction, we 
left them, taking on board with us, at their own 
earnest request, the youth and the maid, and all 
their goods. 

The young lad was about seventeen years of age, 
a pretty, well-bred, modest, and sensible youth, 
greatly dejected with the loss of his mother, and, 
as it seems, had lost his father but a few months 
before, at Barbadoes : he begged of the surgeon to 
speak to me to take him out of the ship, for he said 
the cruel fellows had murdered his mother : and, 
indeed, so they had, that is to say, passively, for 
they might have spared a small sustenance to the 
poor helpless widow, that might have preserved 
her life, though it had been but just enough to keep 
her alive : but hunger knows no friends, no rela- 
tion, no justice, no right ; and therefore is remorse- 
less, and capable of no compassion. 

The surgeon told him how far we were going, 
and that it would carry him away from all his 
friends, and put him in as bad circumstances al- 
most as those we found him in, that is to say, 
starving in the world. He said it mattered not 


whither he went, if he was but delivered from the 
terrible crew that he was among; that the captain 
(by which he meant me, for he could know no- 
thing of my nephew) had saved his life, and he was 
sure would not hurt him ; and as for the maid, he 
was sure, if she came to herself, she would be very 
thankful for it, let us carry them where we would. 
The surgeon represented the case so affectionately 
to me that I yielded, and we took them both on 
board, with all their goods, except eleven hogsheads 
of sugar, which could not be removed or come at ; 
and as the youth had a bill of lading for them, I 
made his commander sign a writing, obliging him- 
self to go, as soon as he came to Bristol, to one 
Mr. Rogers, a merchant there, to whom the youth 
said he was related, and to deliver a letter which I 
wrote to him, and all the goods he had belonging 
to the deceased widow ; which I suppose was not 
done, for I could never learn that the ship came to 
Bristol, but was, as is most probable, lost at sea ; 
being in so disabled a condition, and so far from 
any land, that I am of opinion the first storm she 
met with afterwards she might founder in the sea; 
for she was leaky and had damage in her hold, 
when we met with her. . 

I was now in the latitude of nineteen degrees 
thirty-two minutes, and had hitherto a tolerable 
voyage as to weather, though, at first, the winds 
had been contrary. I shall trouble nobody with 
the little incidents of wind, weather, currents, etc., 
on the rest of our voyage; but to shorten my story. 


for the sake of what is to follow, shall observe, that 
I came to my old habitation, the island, on the 
loth of April, 1695. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ small difficulty 
that I found the place ; for as I came to it, and went 
from it, before, on the south and east side of the 
island, as coming from the Brazils, so now, com- 
ing in between the main and the island, and hav- 
ing no chart for the coast, nor any landmark, I did 
not know it when I saw it, or know whether I saw 
it or not. 

We beat about a great while, and went on shore 
on several islands in the mouth of the great river 
Oronoco, but none for my purpose; only this I 
learned, by my coasting the shore, that I was under 
one great mistake before, viz., that the continent 
which I thought I saw from the island I lived in was 
really no continent, but a long island, or rather a 
ridge of islands, reaching from one to the other side 
of the extended mouth of that great river ; and that 
the savages who came to my island were not pro- 
perly those which we call Caribbees, but islanders, 
and other barbarians of the same kind, who inhab- 
ited something nearer to our side than the rest. 

In short, I visited several of these islands to no 
purpose; some I found were inhabited, and some 
were not ; on one of them I found some Spaniards, 
and thought they had lived there; but speaking 
with them, found they had a sloop lay in a small 
creek hard by, and came thither to make salt and 
to catch some pearl mussels, if they could ; but 
that they belonged to the Isle de Trinidad, which 


lay farther north, in the latitude of ten and eleven 

Thus coasting from one island to another, some- 
times with the ship, sometimes with the French- 
men's shallop, which we had found a convenient 
boat, and therefore kept her with very good will, 
at length I came fair on the south side of my 
island, and presently knew the very countenance 
of the place ; so I brought the ship safe to an anchor, 
broadside with the little creek where my old hab- 
itation was. 


As soon as I saw the place, I called for Friday, 
and asked him if he knew where he was ; he 
looked about a little, and presently clapping his 
hands, cried, " O yes, O there, O yes, O there," 
pointing to our old habitation, and fell dancing and 
capering like a mad fellow ; and I had much ado 
to keep him from jumping into the sea, to swim 
ashore to the place. 

" Well, Friday," says I, " do you think we shall 
find anybody here or no ? and do you think we 
shall see your father ? " The fellow stood mute as 
a stock a good while, but when I named his father 
the poor affectionate creature looked dejected, and 
I could see the tears run down his face very plen- 
tifully. " What is the matter, Friday," says I ; " are 
you troubled because you may see your father ? " 
'' No, no," says he, shaking his head, " no see him 
more : no, never more see him again." " Why so," 
said I, "Friday? how do you know that?" "O 
no, O no," says Friday; " he long ago die, long ago ; 
he much old man." "Well, well," says I, " Friday, 


you don't know ; but shall we see any one else, 
then ? " The fellow, it seems, had better eyes than 
I, and he points to the hill just above my old house ; 
and though we lay half a league off, he cries out, 
" We see, we see, yes, yes, we see much man there, 
and there, and there/* I looked, but I saw nobody, 
no, not with a perspective glass, which was, I sup- 
pose, because I could not hit the place ; for the 
fellow was right, as I found upon inquiry the next 
day ; and there were five or six men all together, 
who stood to look at the ship, not knowing what 
to think of us. 

As soon as Friday told me he saw people, I 
caused the English ancient to be spread, and fired 
three guns, to give them notice we were friends ; 
and in about half a quarter of an hour after, we per- 
ceived a smoke arise from the side of the creek; so 
I immediately ordered the boat out, taking Friday 
with me, and hanging out a white flag, or a flag of 
truce, I went directly on shore, taking with me the 
young friar I mentioned, to whom I had told the 
story of my living there, and the manner of it, and 
every particular both of myself and those I left 
there ; and who was, on that account, extremely 
desirous to go with me. We had besides about 
sixteen men well armed, if we had found any new 
guests there which we did not know of; but we 
had no need of weapons. 

As we went on shore upon the tide of flood, near 
high water, we rowed directly into the creek ; and 
the first man I fixed my eye upon was the Spaniard 


whose life I had saved, and whom I knew by his 
face perfectly well : as to his habit, I shall describe 
it afterwards. I ordered nobody to go on shore at 
first but myself; but there was no keeping Friday 
in the boat, for the affectionate creature had spied 
his father at a distance, a good way off the Span- 
iards, where indeed I saw nothing of him ; and if 
they had not let him go ashore, he would have 
jumped into the sea. He was no sooner on shore 
but he flew away to his father, like an arrow out of 
a bow. It would have made any man shed tears, 
in spite of the firmest resolution, to have seen the 
first transports of this poor fellow's joy when he 
came to his father : how he embraced him, kissed 
him, stroked his face, took him up in his arms, set 
him down upon a tree, and lay down by him ; then 
stood and looked at him, as any one would look 
at a strange picture, for a quarter of an hour to- 
gether; then lay down on the ground, and stroked 
his legs, and kissed them, and then got up again, 
and stared at him; one would have thought the 
fellow bewitched. But it would have made a dog 
laugh the next day to see how his passion ran out 
another way; in the morning he walked along the 
shore, to and again, with his father several hours, 
always leading him by the hand, as if he had been 
a lady ; and every now and then he would come 
to the boat to fetch something or other for him, 
either a lump of sugar, a dram, a biscuit-cake, or 
something or other that was good. In the afternoon 
his frolics ran another way ; for then he would set 


the old man down upon the ground and dance 
about him, and make a thousand antic postures 
and gestures; and all the while he did this, he 
would be talking to him, and telling him one story 
or other of his travels, and of what had happened 
to him abroad, to divert him. In short, if the same 
filial affection was to be found in Christians to 
their parents in our part of the world, one would 
be tempted to say there would hardly have been 
any need of the fifth commandment. 

But this is a digression: I return to my landing. 
It would be needless to take notice of all the cere- 
monies and civilities that the Spaniards received 
me with. The first Spaniard, who, as I said, I 
knew very well, was he whose life I had saved : he 
came towards the boat, attended by one more, 
carrying a flag of truce also: and he not only did not 
know me at first, but he had no thoughts, no no- 
tion of its being me that was come, till I spoke to 
him. "Senhor," said I, in Portuguese, "do you 
not know me? " At which he spoke not a word, 
but giving his musket to the man that was with 
him, threw his arms abroad, saying something in 
Spanish that I did not perfectly hear, came forward 
and embraced me ; telling me he was inexcusable 
not to know that face again, that he had once seen 
as if an angel from heaven sent to save his life : 
he said abundance of very handsome things, as a 
well-bred Spaniard always knows how ; and then, 
beckoning to the person that attended him, bade 
him go and call out his comrades. He then 


asked me if I would walk to my old habitation, 
where he would give me possession of my own 
house again, and where I should see they had made 
but mean improvements : so I walked along with 
him; but, alas! I could no more find the place 
again than if I had never been there ; for they had 
planted so many trees, and placed them in such 
a posture, so thick and close to one another, and 
in ten years' time they were grown so big, that, in 
short, the place was inaccessible, except by such 
windings and blind ways as they themselves only, 
who made them, could find. 

I asked them what put them upon all these fort- 
ifications: he told me I would say there was need 
enough of it, when they had given me an account 
how they had passed their time since their arriving 
in the island, especially after they had the misfor- 
tune to find that I was gone. He told me he could 
not but have some satisfaction in my good fortune, 
when he heard that I was gone in a good ship, and 
to my satisfaction ; and that he had oftentimes a 
strong persuasion that, one time or other, he should 
see me again ; but nothing that ever befel him In 
his life, he said, was so surprising and afflicting to 
him at first, as the disappointment he was under 
when he came back to the Island and found I was 
not there. 

As to the three barbarians (so he called them) 
that were left behind, and of whom, he said, he had 
a long story to tell me, the Spaniards all thought 
themselves much better among the savages, only 


that their number was so small : "and," says he,"had 
they been strong enough, we had been all long ago 
in purgatory"; and with that he crossed himself 
on the breast, " But, sir," says he, " I hope you will 
not be displeased when I shall tell you how, forced 
by necessity, we were obliged, for our own pre- 
servation, to disarm them, and make them our sub- 
jects, who would not be content with being mod- 
erately our masters, but would be our murderers." 
I answered I was heartily afraid of it when I left 
them there, and nothing troubled me at my part- 
ing from the island but that they were not come 
back, that I might have put them in possession of 
everything first, and left the others in a state of sub- 
jection, as they deserved; but if they had reduced 
them to it, I was very glad, and should be very far 
from finding any fault with it; for I knew they 
were a parcel of refractory, ungoverned villains, 
and were fit for any manner of mischief. 

While I was thus saying this, the man came 
whom he had sent back, and with him eleven men 
more. In the dress they were in it was impossible 
to guess what nation they were of; but he made 
all clear, both to them and to me. First he turned 
to me, and pointing to them, said, "These, sir, are 
some of the gentlemen who owe their lives to you " ; 
and then turning to them, and pointing to me, he 
let them know who I was ; upon which they all 
came up, one by one, not as if they had been sail- 
ors and ordinary fellows, and the like, but really 
as if they had been ambassadors of noblemen, and 



I a monarch or great conqueror: their behaviour 
was to the last degree obliging and courteous, and 
yet mixed with a manly, majestic gravity which 
very well became them ; and, in short, they had so 
much more manners than I that I scarce knew how 
to receive their civilities, much less how to return 
them in kind. 

The history of their coming to, and conduct in, 
the island, after my going away, is so very remark- 
able, and has so many incidents which the former 
part of my relation will help to understand, and 
which will, in most of the particulars, refer to the 
account I have already given, that I cannot but 
commit them, with great delight, to the reading 
of those that come after me. 

I shall no longer trouble the story with a rela- 
tion in the first person, which will put me to the 
expense of ten thousand "said Fs,'* and "said 
he's," and " he told me's," and " I told him\" 
and the like; but I shall collect the facts historic- 
ally, as near as I can gather them out of my mem- 
ory, from what they related to me, and from what 
I met with in my conversing with them and with 
the place. 

In order to do this succinctly, and as intelligibly 
as I can, I must go back to the circumstances in 
which I left the island, and in which the persons 
were of whom I am to speak. And first, it is nec- 
essary to repeat, that I had sent away Friday's 
father and the Spaniard (the two whose lives I had 
rescued from the savages), in a large canoe, to the 


main, as I then thought it, to fetch over the 
Spaniard's companions that he left behind him, in 
order to save them from the like calamity that he 
had been in, and in order to succour them for the 
present; and that, if possible, we might together 
find some way for our deliverance afterwards. 

When I sent them away I had no visible ap- 
pearance of, or the least room to hope for, my own 
deliverance, any more than I had twenty years 
before, much less had I any foreknowledge of what 
afterwards happened. I mean, of an English ship 
coming on shore there to fetch me off; and it could 
not but be a very great surprise to them, when 
they came back, not only to find that I was gone, 
but to find three strangers left on the spot, pos- 
sessed of all that I had left behind me, which would 
otherwise have been their own. 

The first thing, however, which I inquired into, 
that I might begin where I left off, was of their 
own part ; and I desired he would give me a par- 
ticular account of his voyage back to his country- 
men with the boat, when I sent him to fetch them 
over. He told me there was little variety in that 
part, for nothing remarkable happened to them on 
the way, having had very calm weather and a 
smooth sea. As for his countrymen, it could not 
be doubted, he said, but that they were overjoyed 
to see him (it seems he was the principal man among 
them, the captain of the vessel they had been ship- 
wrecked in having been dead some time); they 
were, he said, the more surprised to see him, because 


they knew that he was fallen into the hands of the 
savages, who, they were satisfied, would devour 
him, as they did all the rest of their prisoners; 
that when he told them the story of his deliver- 
ance, and in what manner he was furnished for 
carrying them away, it was like a dream to them, 
and their astonishment, he said, was somewhat like 
that of Joseph*s brethren when he told them who 
he was, and told them the story of his exaltation 
in Pharaoh's court; but when he showed them the 
arms, the powder, the ball, and provisions, that he 
brought them for their journey or voyage, they 
were restored to themselves, took a just share of 
the joy of their deliverance, and immediately pre- 
pared to come away with him. 

Their first business was to get canoes: and in 
this they were obliged not to stick so much upon 
the honest part of it, but to trespass upon their 
friendly savages, and to borrow two large canoes, 
or periaguas, on pretence of going out a-fishing, 
or for pleasure. In tliese they came away the next 
morning. It seems they wanted no time to get 
themselves ready; for they had no baggage, neither 
clothes nor provisions, nor anything in the world 
but what they had on them, and a few roots to eat, 
of which they used to make their bread. 

They were in all three weeks absent ; and in that 
time, unluckily for them, I had the occasion of- 
fered for my escape, as I mentioned in my other 
part, and to get off from the island, leaving three 
of the most impudent, hardened, ungoverned, dis- 


agreeable villains behind me that any man could 
desire to meet with; to the poor Spaniards* great 
grief and disappointment, you may be sure. 

The only just thing the rogues did was that, 
when the Spaniards came ashore, they gave my let- 
ter to them, and gave them provisions, and other 
relief, as I had ordered them to do; also they gave 
them the long paper of directions which I had left 
with them, containing the particular methods which 
I took for managing every part of my life there ; 
the way how I baked my bread, bred up tame goats, 
and planted my corn ; how I cured my grapes, 
made my pots, and, in a word, everything I did ; 
all this being written down, they gave to the Span- 
iards (two of them understood English well enough): 
nor did they refuse to accommodate the Spaniards 
with anything else, for they agreed very well for 
some time. They gave them an equal admission 
into the house, or cave, and they began to live very 
sociably; and the head Spaniard, who had seen 
pretty much of my methods, and Friday's father 
together, managed all their affairs : but as for the 
Englishmen, they did nothing but ramble about 
the island, shoot parrots, and catch tortoises ; and 
when they came home at night, the Spaniards 
provided their suppers for them. 

The Spaniards would have been satisfied with 
this had the others but let them alone ; which, how- 
ever, they could not find in their hearts to do long, 
but, like the dog in the manger, they would not eat 
themselves, neither would they let the others eat. 


The differences, nevertheless, were at first but 
trivial, and such as are not worth relating, but at last 
it broke out into open war: and it began with all 
the rudeness and insolence that can be imagined, 
without reason, without provocation, contrary to 
nature, and, indeed, to common sense : and though, 
it is true, the first relation of it came from the 
Spaniards themselves, whom I may call the ac- 
cusers, yet, when I came to examine the fellows, 
they could not deny a word of it. 

But before I come to the particulars of this part, 
I must supply a defect in my former relation; and 
this was, I forgot to set down, among the rest, that 
just as we were weighing the anchor to set sail, 
there happened a little quarrel on board of our ship, 
which I was once afraid would have turned to a 
second mutiny; nor was it appeased till the cap- 
tain, rousing up his courage, and taking us all to 
his assistance, parted them by force, and, making 
two of the most refractory fellows prisoners, he laid 
them in irons; and as they had been active in the 
former disorders, and let fall some ugly, dangerous 
words, the second time he threatened to carry them 
in irons to England, and have them hanged there 
for mutiny, and running away with the ship. This, 
it seems, though the captain did not intend to do 
it, frightened some other men in the ship ; and some 
of them had put it into the heads of the rest that 
the captain only gave them good words for the pre- 
sent, till they should come to some English port, 
and that then they should be all put into gaol, and 


tried for their lives. The mate got intelligence of 
this, and acquainted us with it; upon which it was 
desired that I, who still passed for a great man 
among them, should go down with the mate, and 
satisfy the men, and tell them that they might be 
assured, if they behaved well the rest of the voyage, 
all they had done for the time past should be par- 
doned. So 1 went, and after passing my honour's 
word to them, they appeared easy, and the more 
so when I caused the two men that were in irons 
to be released and forgiven. 

But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor 
for that night; the wind also falling calm next 
morning, we found that our two men who had been 
laid in irons had stole each of them a musket, and 
some other weapons (what powder or shot they 
had we knew not), and had taken the ship's pin- 
nace, which was not yet haled up, and run away 
with her to their companions in roguery on shore. 
As soon as we found this, I ordered the long-boat 
on shore, with twelve men and the mate, and away 
they went to seek the rogues ; but they could neither 
find them or any of the rest, for they all fled into 
the woods when they saw the boat coming on shore. 
The mate was once resolved, in justice to their 
roguery, to have destroyed their plantations, burned 
all their household-stuff and furniture, and left 
them to shift without it ; but having no orders, he 
let it all alone, left everything as he found it, and, 
bringing the pinnace away, came on board without 
them. These two men made their number five ; but 


the other three villains were so much more wicked 
than they that, after they had been two or three 
days together, they turned the two new-comers out 
of doors to shift for themselves, and would have 
nothing to do with them ; nor could they, for a 
good while, be persuaded to give them any food: 
as for the Spaniards, they were not yet come. 

When the Spaniards came first on shore, the 
business began to go forward : the Spaniards would 
have persuaded the three English brutes to have 
taken in their two countrymen again, that, as they 
said, they might be all one family ; but they would 
not hear of it : so the two poor fellows lived by 
themselves; and, finding nothing but industry and 
application would make them live comfortably, they 
pitched their tents on the north shore of the island, 
but a little more to the west, to be out of danger of 
the savages, who always landed on the east parts 
of the island. 

Here they built them two huts, one to lodge in, 
and the other to lay up their magazines and stores 
in ; and the Spaniards having given them some corn 
for seed, and especially some of the peas which I 
had left them, they dug, planted, and enclosed, after 
the pattern I had set for them all, and began to 
live pretty well. Their first crop of corn was on the 
ground; and though it was but a little bit of land 
which they had dug up at first, having had but a 
little time, yet it was enough to relieve them, and 
find them with bread and other eatables ; and one of 
the fellows, being the cook's mate of the ship, was 


very ready at making soup, puddings, and such 
other preparations as the rice and the milk, and such 
little flesh as they got, furnished him to do. 


THEY were going on in this little thriving post- 
ure, when the three unnatural rogues, their 
own countrymen too, in mere humour, and to in- 
sult them, came and bullied them, and told them 
the island was theirs ; that the governor, meaning 
me, had given them the possession of it, and no- 
body else had any right to it ; and that they should 
build no houses upon their ground unless they 
would pay rent for them. 

The two men, thinking they were jesting at first, 
asked them to come in and sit down, and see what 
fine houses they were that they had built, and to 
tell them what rent they demanded ; and one of 
them merrily said, if they were the ground-land- 
lords, he hoped, if they built tenements upon their 
land, and made improvements, they would, accord- 
ing to the custom of landlords, grant along lease; 
and desired they would get a scrivener to draw 
the writings. One of the three, cursing and raging, 
told them they should see they were not in jest; 
and going to a little place at a distance, where the 


honest men had made a fire to dress their victuals, 
he takes a firebrand, and claps it to the outside 
of their hut, and very fairly set it on fire ; and it 
would have been burned all down in a few min- 
utes, if one of the two had not run to the fellow, 
thrust him away, and trod the fire out with his feet, 
and that not without some difficulty too. 

The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's 
thrusting him away that he returned upon him, with 
a pole he had in his hand, and had not the man 
avoided the blow very nimbly, and run into the 
hut, he had ended his days at once. His comrade, 
seeing the danger they were both in, ran in after 
him, and immediately they came both out with 
their muskets, and the man that was first struck at 
with the pole knocked the fellow down that had 
begun the quarrel with the stock of his musket, and 
that before the other two could come to help 
him ; and then, seeing the rest come at them, they 
stood together, and, presenting the other ends of 
their pieces to them, bade them stand off. 

The others had fire-arms with them too; but one 
of the two honest men, bolder than his comrade, 
and made desperate by his danger, told them, if 
they oflTered to move hand or foot they were dead 
men, and boldly commanded them to lay down 
their arms. They did not, indeed, lay down their 
arms, but seeing him so resolute, it brought them 
to a parley, and they consented to take their 
wounded man with them and be gone ; and, indeed, 
it seems the fellow was bounded sufficiently with 


the blow. However, they were much in the wrong, 
since they had the advantage, that they did not dis- 
arm them effectually, as they might have done, and 
have gone immediately to the Spaniards, and given 
them an account how the rogues had treated them ; 
for the three villains studied nothing but revenge, 
and every day gave them some intimation that they 
did so. 

But not to crowd this part with an account of 
the lesser part of the rogueries, such as treading 
down their corn, shooting three young kids and a 
she-goat, which the poor men had got to breed up 
tame for their store, and, in a word, plaguing them 
night and day in this manner, it forced the two men 
to such a desperation that they resolved to fight 
them all three, the first time they had a fair oppor- 
tunity. In order to this, they resolved to go to 
the castle, as they called it (that was, my old dwell- 
ing), where the three rogues and the Spaniards all 
lived together at that time, intending to have a fair 
battle, and the Spaniards should stand by, to see 
fair play: so they got up in the morning before 
day, and came to the place, and called the English- 
men by their names, telling a Spaniard that an- 
swered that they wanted to speak with them. 

It happened that the day before two of the Span- 
iards, having been in the woods, had seen one of 
the two Englishmen,whom, for distinction, I called 
the honest men, and he had made a sad complaint 
to the Spaniards of the barbarous usage they had 
met with from their three countrymen, and how 


they had ruined their plantation, and destroyed 
their corn that they had laboured so hard to bring 
forward, and killed the milch-goat and their three 
kids, which was all they had provided for their sus- 
tenance ; and that if he and his friends, meaning 
the Spaniards, did not assist them again, they 
should be starved. When the Spaniards came home 
at night, and they were all at supper, one of them 
took the freedom to reprove the three Englishmen, 
though in very gentle and mannerly terms, and 
asked them how they could be so cruel, they being 
harmless, inoffensive fellows ; that they were put- 
ting themselves in a way to subsist by their labour, 
and that it had cost them a great deal of pains to 
bring things to such perfection as they were then 
in. One of the Englishmen returned very briskly, 
" What had they to do there ? that they came on 
shore without leave ; and that they should not 
plant or build upon the island ; it was none of 
their ground." " Why," says the Spaniard, very 
calmly, " Senhor Inglese, they must not starve." 
The Englishman replied, like a rough-hewn tar- 
pauling, " They might starve and be d — d ; they 
should not plant nor build in that place." " But 
what must they do then, senhor ? " said the Span- 
iard. Another of the brutes returned, "Do? d — n 
them, they should be servants, and work for them." 
" But how can you expect that of them?" says the 
Spaniard; " they are not bought with your money: 
you have no right to make them servants." The 
Englishman answered, the island was theirs ; the 


governor had given it to them, and no man had 
anything to do there but themselves ; and with 
that, swore by his Maker that they would go and 
burn all their new huts ; they should build none 
upon their land. " Why, senhor," says the Span- 
iard, " by the same rule, we must be your servants 
too." "Aye," says the bold dog, "and so you 
shall too, before we have done with you " (mixing 
two or three " G — d d — n me's " in the proper in- 
tervals of his speech). The Spaniard only smiled 
at that and made him no answer. However, this 
little discourse had heated them ; and, starting up, 
one says to the other, I think it was he they called 
Will Atkins, " Come, Jack, let*s go, and have t' 
other brush with *em ; we '11 demolish their castle, 
I *11 warrant you ; they shall plant no colony in 
our dominions." 

Upon this they went all trooping away, with 
every man a gun, a pistol, and a sword, and mut- 
tered some insolent things among themselves, of 
what they would do to the Spaniards too, when 
opportunity offered ; but the Spaniards, it seems, 
did not so perfectly understand them as to know 
all the particulars, only that, in general, they threat- 
ened them hard for taking the two Englishmen's 

Whither they went, or how they bestowed their 
time that evening, the Spaniards said they did not 
know; but it seems they wandered about the coun- 
try part of the night, and then, lying down in the 
place which I used to call my bower, they were weary. 


and overslept themselves. The case was this: they 
had resolved to stay till midnight, and so take the 
two poor men when they were asleep, and, as they 
acknowledged afterwards, intended to set fire to 
their huts while they were in them, and either burn 
them there, or murder them as they came out ; as 
malice seldom sleeps very sound, it was very strange 
they should not have been kept awake. 

However, as the two men had also a design upon 
them, as I have said, though a much fairer one than 
that of burning and murdering, it happened, and 
very luckily for them all, that they were up, and 
gone abroad,before the bloody-minded rogues came 
to their huts. 

When they came there, and found the men gone, 
Atkins, who, it seems, was the forwardest man, 
called out to his comrade, " Ha, Jack, here 's the 
nest, but, d — n them, the birds are flown." They 
mused a while, to think what should be the occa- 
sion of their being gone abroad so soon, and sug- 
gested presently that the Spaniards had given them 
notice of it ; and with that they shook hands, and 
swore to one another that they would be revenged 
of the Spaniards. As soon as they had made this 
bloody bargain they fell to work with the poor 
men's habitation : they did not set fire, indeed, to 
anything, but they pulled down both their houses, 
and pulled them so limb from limb that they left 
not the least stick standing or scarce any sign on 
the ground where they stood ; they tore all their 
little collected household-stuff in pieces, and threw 


everything about in such a manner that the poor 
men afterwards found some of their things a mile 
off their habitation. When they had done this, 
they pulled up all the young trees which the poor 
men had planted ; pulled up an enclosure they had 
made to secure their cattle and their corn ; and, in 
a word, sacked and plundered everything as com- 
pletely as a horde of Tartars would have done. 

The two men were, at this juncture, gone to find 
them out, and had resolved to fight them wherever 
they had been, though they were but two to three; 
so that, had they met, there certainly would have 
been bloodshed among them ; for they were all very 
stout, resolute fellows, to give them their due. 

But Providence took more care to keep them 
asunder than they themselves could do to meet ; 
for, as if they had dogged one another, when the 
three were gone thither, the two were here ; and 
afterwards, when the two went back to find them, 
the three were come to the old habitation again : 
we shall see their different conduct presently. 
When the three came back like furious creatures, 
flushed with the rage which the work they had been 
about had put them into, they came up to the 
Spaniards, and told them what they had done, by 
way of scoff and bravado ; and one of them, step- 
ping up to one of the Spaniards, as if they had been 
a couple of boys at play, takes hold of his hat as it 
was upon his head, and giving it a twirl about, fleer- 
ing in his face, says to him, " And you, Senhor 
Jack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce, if you 


do not mend your manners.'* The Spaniard, who, 
though a quiet civil man, was as brave a man as 
could be, and withal a strong, well-made man, 
looked at him for a good while, and then, having 
no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely up to him, 
and with one blow of his fist knocked him down, 
as an ox is felled with a pole-axe ; at which one of 
the rogues, as insolent as the first, fired his pistol 
at the Spaniard immediately : he missed his body, 
indeed, for the bullets went through his hair, but 
one of them touched the tip of his ear, and he bled 
pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard be- 
lieve he was more hurt than he really was, and that 
put him into some heat, for before he acted all in 
a perfect calm ; but now, resolving to go through 
with his work, he stooped, and took the fellow's 
musket whom he had knocked down, and was just 
going to shoot the man who had fired at him, when 
the rest of the Spaniards, being in the cave, came 
out, and, calling to him not to shoot, they stepped 
in, secured the other two, and took their arms 
from them. 

When they were thus disarmed, and found they 
had made all the Spaniards their enemies, as well 
as their own countrymen, they began to cool, and, 
giving the Spaniards better words, would have 'their 
arms again; but the Spaniards, considering the feud 
that was between them and the other two English- 
men, and that it would be the best method they 
could take to keep them from killing one another, 
told them they would do them no harm, and if they 


would live peaceably, they would be very willing 
to assist and associate with them as they did before : 
but that they could not think of giving them their 
arms again while they appeared so resolved to do 
mischief with them to their own countrymen, and 
had even threatened them all to make them their 

The rogues were now no more capable to hear 
reason than to act with reason ; but being refused 
their arms, they went raving away, and raging like 
madmen, threatening what they would do, though 
they had no fire-arms. But the Spaniards, despis- 
ing their threatening, told them they would take 
care how they offered any injury to their plantation 
or cattle, for if they did, they should shoot them as 
they would ravenous beasts, wherever they found 
them ; and if they fell into their hands alive, they 
should certainly be hanged. However, this was far 
from cooling them, but away they went, raging and 
swearing like furies of hell. As soon as they were 
gone, the two men came back, in passion and rage 
enough also, though of another kind ; for having 
been at their plantation, and finding it all demol- 
ished and destroyed, as above, it will easily be 
supposed they had provocation enough. They could 
scarce have room to tell their tale, the Spaniards 
were so eager to tell them theirs; and it was strange 
enough to find that three men should thus bully 
nineteen, and receive no punishment at all. 

The Spaniards, indeed, despised them, and 
especially, having thus disarmed them, made light 


of their threatenings: but the two Englishmen 
resolved to have their remedy against them, what 
pains soever it cost to find them out. But the Span- 
iards interposed here too, and told them that, as 
they had disarmed them, they could not consent that 
they (the two) should pursue them with fire-arms, 
and perhaps kill them. " But," said the grave Span- 
iard, who was their governor, "we will endeavour 
to make them do you justice, if you will leave it 
to us ; for there is no doubt but they will come to 
us again, when their passion is over, being not able 
to subsist without our assistance : we promise you 
to make no peace with them without having a full 
satisfaction for you ; and upon this condition we 
hope you will promise to use no violence with them 
other than in your own defence." The two Eng- 
lishmen yielded to this very awkwardly, and with 
great reluctance ; but the Spaniards protested that 
they did it only to keep them from bloodshed, and 
to make all easy at last. " For," said they, " we are 
not so many of us ; here is room enough for us 
all, and it is a great pity we should not be all good 
friends." At length they did consent, and waited 
for the issue of the thing, living for some days 
with the Spaniards, for their own habitation was 

In about five days' time the three vagrants, tired 
with wandering, and almost starved with hunger, 
having chiefly lived on turtles' eggs all that while, 
came back to the grove ; and finding my Spaniard, 
who, as I have said, was the governor, and two 


more with him walking by the side of the creek, 
they came up in a very submissive, humble man- 
ner, and begged to be received again into the family. 
The Spaniards used them civilly, but told them 
they had acted so unnaturally by their countrymen, 
and so very grossly by them (the Spaniards), that 
they could not come to any conclusion without 
consulting the two Englishmen and the rest ; but, 
however, they would go to them, and discourse 
about it, and they should know in half an hour. 
It may be guessed that they were very hard put 
to it : for, it seems, as they were to wait this half- 
hour for an answer, they begged they would send 
them out some bread in the mean time, which they 
did ; sending at the same time a large piece of 
goat's flesh, and a boiled parrot, which they ate 
very heartily, for they were hungry enough. 

After half an hour's consultation, they were 
called in, and a long debate ensued ; their two coun- 
trymen charging them with the ruin of all their 
labour, and a design to murder them ; all which 
they owned before, and therefore could not deny 
now. Upon the whole, the Spaniards actedthe mod- 
erator between them ; and as they had obliged the 
two Englishmen not to hurt the three while they 
were naked and unarmed, so they now obliged the 
three to go and rebuild their fellows* two huts, one 
to be of the same, and the other of larger dimen- 
sions than they were before; to fence their ground 
again where they had pulled up their fences, plant 
trees in the room of those pulled up, dig up the 


land again for planting corn where they had spoiled 
it, and, in a word, to restore everything in the same 
state as they found it, as near as they could ; for 
entirely it could not be, the season for the corn, 
and the growth of the trees and hedges, not being 
possible to be recovered. 

Well, they submitted to all this ; and as they had 
plenty of provisions given them all the while, they 
grew very orderly, and the whole society began to 
live pleasantly and agreeably together again ; only, 
that these three fellows could never be persuaded 
to work, I mean for themselves, except now and 
then a little, just as they pleased : however, the 
Spaniards told them plainly that if they would but 
live sociably and friendly together, and study the 
good of the whole plantation, they would be con- 
tent to work for them, and let them walk about and 
be as idle as they pleased: and thus, having lived 
pretty well together for a month or two, the Span- 
iards gave them arms again, and gave them liberty 
to go abroad with them as before. 

It was not above a week after they had these 
arms, and went abroad, but the ungrateful creatures 
began to be as insolent and troublesome as before: 
but, however, an accident happened presently upon 
this which endangered the safety of them all ; and 
they were obliged to lay by all private resentments, 
and look to the preservation of their lives. 

It happened one night that the Spanish gov- 
ernor, as I call him, that is to say, the Spaniard 
whose life I had saved, who was now the captain, or 


leader, or governor of the rest, found himself very- 
uneasy in the night, and could by no means get 
any sleep : he was perfectly well in body, as he told 
me the story, only found his thoughts tumultuous; 
his mind ran upon men fighting and killing of one 
another, but he was broad awake, and could not by 
any means get any sleep: in short, he lay a great 
while; but growing more and more uneasy, he re- 
solved to rise. As they lay, being so many of them, 
upon goats' skinslaid thick upon such couches and 
pads as they made for themselves, and not in ham- 
mocks and ship beds, as I did, who was but one, 
so they had little to do, when they were willing to 
rise, but to get up upon their feet, and perhaps put 
on a coat, such as it was, and their pumps, and they 
were ready for going any way that their thoughts 
guided them. Being thus got up, he looked out : 
but, being dark, he could see little or nothing; and 
besides, the trees which I had planted, as in my 
former account is described, and which were now 
grown tall, intercepted his sight, so that he could 
only look up, and see that it was a clear starlight 
night, and hearing no noise, he returned and laid 
him down again: but it was all one; he could not 
sleep, nor could he compose himself to anything 
like rest; but his thoughts were to the last degree 
uneasy, and he knew not for what. 

Having made some noise with rising and walk- 
ing about, going out and coming in, another of 
them waked, and calling, asked who it was that was 
up. The governor told him how it had been with 


him. "Say you so?" says the other Spaniard; 
"such things are not to be slighted, I assure you; 
there is certainly some mischief working near us"; 
and presently he asked him, "Where are the Eng- 
lishmen?" "They are all in their huts," says he, 
"safe enough." It seems the Spaniards had kept 
possession of the main apartment, and had made 
a place for the three Englishmen, who, since their 
last mutiny, were always quartered by themselves, 
and could not come at the rest. "Well," says the 
Spaniard, " there is something in it, I am persuaded, 
from my own experience. I am satisfied our spirits 
embodied have a converse with, and receive intel- 
ligence from, the spirits unembodied, and inhabit- 
ing the invisible world ; and this friendly notice is 
given for our advantage, if we knew how to make 
use of it. Come," says he, "let us go and look 
abroad; and if we find nothing at all in it to justify 
the trouble, I '11 tell you a story to the purpose that 
shall convince you of the justice of my proposing 

In a word, they went out, to go up to the top of 
the hill where I used to go ; but they being strong, 
and a good company, not alone, as I was, used none 
of my cautions, to go up by the ladder, and, pull- 
ing it up after them, to go up a second stage to 
the top, but were going round through the grove, 
unconcerned and unwary ,when they were surprised 
with seeing a light, as of fire, a very little way off 
from them, and hearing the voices of men, not one 
or two, but of a great number. 


In all the discoveries I had made of the savages 
landing on the island, it was my constant care to 
prevent them making the least discovery of there 
being any inhabitant upon the place; and when by 
any occasion they came to know it, they felt it so 
effectually that they that got away were scarce able 
to give any account of it; for we disappeared as 
soon as possible; nor did ever any that had seen 
me escape to tell any one else, except it was the 
three savages in our last encounter, who jumped 
into the boat; of whom I mentioned I was afraid 
they should go home and bring more help. 
Whether it was the consequence of the escape of 
those men that so great a number came now together, 
or whether they came ignorantly, and by accident, 
on their usual bloody errand, the Spaniards could 
not, it seems, understand; but whatever it was, it 
had been their business either to have concealed 
themselves, or not to have seen them at all, much 
less to have let the savages have seen that there 
were any inhabitants in the place; or to have fallen 
upon them so effectually as that not a man of them 
should have escaped, which could only have been 
by getting in between them and their boats: but 
this presence of mind was wanting to them, which 
was the ruin of their tranquillity for a great while. 

We need not doubt but that the governor and 
the man with him, surprised with this sight, ran 
back immediately, and raised their fellows, giving 
them an account of the imminent danger they were 
all in, and they again as readily took the alarm ; 


but it was impossible to persuade them to stay 
close within, where they were, but they must all 
run out to see how things stood. 

While it was dark, indeed, they were well enough, 
and they had opportunity enough, for some hours, 
to view them by the light of three fires they had 
made at a distance from one another ; what they 
were doing they knew not, and what to do them- 
selves they knew not. For, first, the enemy were 
too many; and, secondly, they did not keep to- 
gether, but were divided into several parties, and 
were on shore in several places. 

The Spaniards were in no small consternation 
at this sight ; and when they found that the fellows 
ran straggling all over the shore, they made no 
doubt but, first or last, some of them would chop 
in upon their habitation, or upon some other place 
where they would see the token of inhabitants; 
and they were in great perplexity also for fear of 
their flock of goats, which would have been little 
less than starving them, if they should have been 
destroyed: so the first thing they resolved upon 
was to despatch three men away before it was light, 
two Spaniards and one Englishman, to drive all 
the goats away to the great valley where the cave 
was, and, if need were, to drive them into the very 
cave itself. Could they have seen the savages all 
together in one body, and at a distance from their 
canoes, they resolved, if there had been a hundred 
of them, to have attacked them ; but that could not 
be obtained; for they were some of them two miles 


off from the other; and, as it appeared afterwards, 
were of two different nations. 

After having mused a great while on the course 
they should take, and beating their brains in con- 
sidering their present circumstances, they resolved, 
at last, while it was still dark, to send the old 
savage, Friday's father, out as a spy, to learn, if 
possible, something concerning them ; as what they 
came for, what they intended to do, and the like. 
The old man readily undertook it; and stripping 
himself quite naked, as most of the savages were, 
away he went. After he had been gone an hour or 
two, he brings word that he had been among them 
undiscovered ; that he found they were two parties, 
and of two several nations, who had war with one 
another, and had a great battle in their own coun- 
try : and that both sides having had several prison- 
ers taken in the fight, they were, by mere chance, 
landed all on the same island, for the devouring their 
prisoners and making merry; but their coming so 
by chance to the same place had spoiled all their 
mirth; that they were in a great rage at one an- 
other, and were so near that he believed they would 
fight again as soon as daylight began to appear; 
but he did not perceive that they had any notion 
of anybody being on the island but themselves. 
He had hardly made an end of telling his story 
when they could perceive, by the unusual noise 
they made, that the two little armies were engaged 
in a bloody fight. 

Friday's father used all the arguments he could 


to persuade our people to lie close, and not be seen: 
he told them their safety consisted in it, and that 
they had nothing to do but lie still and the savages 
would kill one another to their hands, and then 
the rest would go away ; and it was so to a tittle. 
But it was impossible to prevail, especially upon 
the Englishmen; their curiosity was so importunate 
upon their prudentials that they must run out and 
see the battle : however, they used some caution 
too, viz., they did not go openly, just by their own 
dwelling, but went farther into the woods, and 
placed themselves to advantage, where they might 
securely see them manage the fight, and, as they 
thought, not be seen by them; but it seems the 
savages did see them, as we shall find hereafter. 
The battle was very fierce; and, if I might be- 
lieve the Englishmen, one of them said he could 
perceive that some of them were men of great brav- 
ery, of invincible spirits, and of great policy in 
guiding the fight. The battle, they said, held two 
hours before they could guess which party would 
be beaten ; but then, that party which was nearest 
our people's habitation began to appear weakest, 
and, after some time more, some of them began to 
fly ; and this put our men again into a great conster- 
nation, lest any one of those that fled should run 
into the grove before their dwelling for shelter, and 
thereby involuntarily discover the place; and that, 
by consequence, the pursuers would do the like in 
search of them. Upon this they resolved that they 
would stand armed within the wall, and whoever 


came into the grove, they resolved to sally out 
over the wall and kill them : so that, if possible, 
not one should return to give an account of it: 
they ordered also that it should be done with their 
swords, or by knocking them down with the stocks 
of their muskets, but not by shooting them, for fear 
of raising an alarm by the noise. 

As they expected, it fell out: three of the routed 
army fled for life, and, crossing the creek, ran 
directly into the place, not in the least knowing 
whither they went, but running as into a thick 
wood for shelter. The scout they kept to look 
abroad gave notice of this within, with this addition, 
to our men's great satisfaction, viz., that the con- 
querors had not pursued them, or seen which way 
they were gone ; upon this, the Spaniard governor, 
a man of humanity, would not suffer them to kill 
the three fugitives, but, sending three men out by 
the top of the hill, ordered them to go round, come 
in behind them, and surprise and take them pris- 
oners; which was done. The residue of the con- 
quered people fled to their canoes, and got off to 
sea; the victors retired, made no pursuit, or very 
little, but, drawing themselves into a body to- 
gether, gave two great screaming shouts, which they 
supposed was by way of triumph, and so the fight 
ended: and the same day, about three o'clock in 
the afternoon, they also marched to their canoes. 
And thus the Spaniards had their island again free 
to themselves, their fright was over, and they saw 
no savages in several years after. 


After they were all gone, the Spaniards came out 
of their den, and viewing the field of battle, they 
found about two-and-thirty men dead on the spot: 
some were killed with great long arrows, some of 
which were found sticking in their bodies; but 
most of them were killed with great wooden swords, 
sixteen or seventeen of which they found on the 
field of battle, and as many bows, with a great 
many arrows. These swords were strange, great, 
unwieldy things, and they must be very strong men 
that used them : most of those men that were killed 
with them had their heads mashed to pieces, as we 
may say, or, as we call it in English, their brains 
knocked out, and several their arms and legs 
broken ; so that it is evident they fight with in- 
expressible rage and fury. We found not one man 
that was not stone-dead, for either they stay by 
their enemy till they have quite killed him, or they 
carry all the wounded men that are not quite dead 
away with them. 

This deliverance tamed our Englishmen'for a great 
while ; the sight had filled them with horror, and 
the consequences appeared terrible to the last degree, 
especially upon supposing that some time or other 
they should fall into the hands of those creatures, 
who would not only kill them as enemies, but kill 
them for food, as we kill our cattle ; and they pro- 
fessed to me that the thoughts of being eaten up 
like beef or mutton, though it was supposed it 
was not to be till they were dead, had something 
in it so horrible that it nauseated their very stom- 


achs, made them sick when they thought of it, and 
filled their minds with such unusual terror that 
they were not themselves for some weeks after. 
This, as I said, tamed even the three English brutes 
I have been speaking of, and, for a great while after, 
they were tractable, and went about the common 
business of the whole society well enough; planted, 
sowed, reaped, and began to be all naturalised to 
the country. But some time after this they fell into 
such simple measures again, as brought them into 
a great deal of trouble. 

They had taken three prisoners, as I observed; 
and these three being lusty, stout young fellows, 
they made them servants, and taught them to work 
for them ; and, as slaves, they did well enough ; but 
they did not take their measures with them as I 
did by my man Friday, viz., to begin with them 
upon the principle of having saved their lives, and 
then instruct them in the rational principles of life ; 
much less of religion, civilising, and reducing them 
by kind usage and affectionate arguings ; but as 
they gave them their food every day, so they gave 
them their work too, and kept them fully employed 
in drudgery enough ; but they failed in this, by it, 
that they never had them to assist them, and fight 
for them, as I had my man Friday, who was as 
true to me as the very flesh upon my bones. 

But to come to the family part. Being all now 
good friends, for common danger, as I said above, 
had effectually reconciled them, they began to con- 
sider their general circumstances; and the first thing 


that came under their consideration was, whether, 
seeing the savages particularly haunted that side of 
the island, and that there were more remote and 
retired parts of it equally adapted to their way of 
living, and manifestly to their advantage, they 
should not rather move their habitation, and plant 
in some more proper place for their safety, and 
especially for the security of their cattle and corn. 
Upon this, after long debate, it was concluded 
that they would not remove their habitation ; be- 
cause that, some time or other, they thought they 
might hear from their governor again, meaning me, 
and if I should send anyone to seek them, I should 
be sure to direct them to that side ; where, if they 
should find the place demolished, they would con- 
clude the savages had killed us all, and we were 
gone; and so our supply would go too. But as to 
their corn and cattle, they agreed to remove them 
into the valley where my cave was, where the land 
was as proper for both, and where, indeed, there was 
land enough : however, upon second thoughts, they 
altered one part of their resolution too, and resolved 
only to remove part of their cattle thither, and 
plant part of their corn there ; and so if one part 
was destroyed, the other might be saved. And one 
part of prudence they used, which it was very well 
they did, viz., that they never trusted those three 
savages, which they had prisoners, with knowing 
anything of the plantation they had made in that 
valley, or of any cattle they had there, much less 
of the cave there, which they kept, in case of ne- 


cessity,as a safe retreat; and thither they carried 
also the two barrels of powder which I had sent 
them at my coming away. But, however they re- 
solved not to change their habitation, yet they 
agreed that as I had carefully covered It first with 
a wall or fortification, and then with a grove of trees, 
so seeing their safety consisted entirely In their 
being concealed, of which they were now fully 
convinced, they set to work to cover and conceal 
the place yet more effectually than before. For this 
purpose, as I planted trees, or rather thrust In 
stakes, which In time all grew up to be trees, for 
some good distance before the entrance into my 
apartments, they went on in the same manner, and 
filledup the rest of that whole space of ground,from 
the trees I had set, quite down to the side of the 
creek, where, as I said, I landed my floats, and 
even into the very ooze where the tide flowed, not 
so much as leaving any place to land, or any sign 
that there had been any landing thereabout: these 
stakes also being of a wood very forward to grow, 
as I have noted formerly, they took care to have 
them generally much larger and taller than those 
which I had planted ; and as they grew apace, so 
they planted them so very thick and close to- 
gether that, when they had been three or four 
years grown, there was no piercing with the eye 
any considerable way Into the plantation; and, as 
for that part which I had planted, the trees were 
grown as thick as a man's thigh, and among them 
they placed so many other short ones, and so thick, 


that, In a word, it stood like a palisade a quarter 
of a mile thick, and it was next to impossible to 
penetrate it but with a little army to cut it all 
down ; for a little dog could hardly get between 
the trees, they stood so close. 

But this was not all ; for they did the same by 
all the ground to the right hand and to the left, 
and round even to the top of the hill, leaving no 
way, not so much as for themselves, to come out 
but by the ladder placed up to the side of the hill, 
and then lifted up, and placed again from the first 
stage up to the top ; and when the ladder was taken 
down, nothing but what had wings or witchcraft to 
assist it could come at them. This was excellently 
well contrived ; nor was it less than what they after- 
wards found occasion for; which served to convince 
me that as human prudence has the authority of 
Providence to justify it, so it has doubtless the 
direction of Providence to set it to work, and if we 
listened carefully to the voice of it, I am persuaded 
we might prevent many of the disasters which our 
lives are now, by our own negligence, subjected to : 
but this by the way. 

I return to the story. — They lived two years 
after this in perfect retirement, and had no more 
visits from the savages. They had indeed an alarm 
given them one morning, which put them into 
a great consternation ; for some of the Spaniards 
being out early one morning on the west side, or 
rather end, of the island (which was that end where 
I never went, for fear of being discovered), they were 


surprised with seeing above twenty canoes of Indi- 
ans just coming on shore. They made the best of 
their way home, in hurry enough; and giving the 
alarm to their comrades, they kept close all that day 
and the next, going out only at night to make their 
observation : but they had the good luck to be mis- 
taken ; for wherever the savages went, they did not 
land that time on the island, but pursued some 
other designs. 

And now they had another broil with the three 
Englishmen ; one of whom, a most turbulent fel- 
low, being in a rage at one of the three slaves, which 
I mentioned they had taken, because the fellow had 
not done something right which he bid him do, 
and seemed a little untractable in his showing him, 
drew a hatchet out of a frog-belt, in which he wore 
it by his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not 
to correct him, but to kill him. One of the Span- 
iards, who was by, seeing him give the fellow a bar- 
barous cut with the hatchet, which he aimed at his 
head, but struck into his shoulders, so that he 
thought he had cut the poor creature's arm off, ran 
to him, and, entreating him not to murder the poor 
man, placed himself between him and the savage, 
to prevent the mischief. The fellow, being enraged 
the more at this, struck at the Spaniard with his 
hatchet, and swore he would serve him as he in- 
tended to serve the savage; which the Spaniard 
perceiving, avoided the blow, and with a shovel 
which he had in his hand (for they were all work- 
ing in the field about their cornland) knocked the 


brute down. Another of the Englishmen, running 
at the same time to help his comrade, knocked the 
Spaniard down ; and then two Spaniards more came 
in to help their man, and a third Englishman fell 
in upon them. They had none of them any fire- 
arms, or any other weapons but hatchets and other 
tools, except this third Englishman ; he had one 
of my rusty cutlasses, with which he made at the 
two last Spaniards, and wounded them both. This 
fray set the whole family in an uproar, and more 
help coming in, they took the three Englishmen 
prisoners. The next question was, what should be 
done with them ? They had been so often muti- 
nous, and were so very furious, so desperate, and 
so idle withal, they knew not what course to take 
with them, for they were mischievous to the high- 
est degree, and valued not what hurt they did to 
any man ; so that, in short, it was not safe to live 
with them. 

The Spaniard who was governor told them, in 
so many words, that if they had been of his own 
country, he would have hanged them ; for all laws 
and all governors were to preserve society, and those 
who were dangerous to the society ought to be ex- 
pelled out of it ; but as they were Englishmen, and 
that it was to the generous kindness of an English- 
man that they all owed their preservation and de- 
liverance, he would use them with all possible len- 
ity, and would leave them to the judgment of the 
other two Englishmen, who were their countrymen. 

One of the two honest Englishmen stood up, 


and said they desired it might not be left to them ; 
" For," says he, " I am sure we ought to sentence 
them to the gallows " : and with that he gives an 
account how Will Atkins, one of the three, had pro- 
posed to have all the five Englishmen join together, 
and murder all the Spaniards when they were in 
their sleep. 

When the Spanish governor heard this, he calls 
to Will Atkins, " How, Senhor Atkins, would you 
murder us all ? What have you to say to that? " 
The hardened villain was so far from denying it 
that he said it was true : and, G — d d — n him, they 
would do it still, before they had done with them. 
" Well, but Senhor Atkins," says the Spaniard, 
" what have we done to you, that you will kill us? 
And what would you get by killing us ? And what 
must we do to prevent your killing us ? Must we 
kill you, or you kill us ? Why will you put us to 
the necessity of this, Senhor Atkins?" says the 
Spaniard, very calmly and smiling. Senhor Atkins 
was in such a rage at the Spaniard's making a jest 
of it that, had he not been held by three men, and 
withal had no weapon near him, it was thought he 
would have attempted to have killed the Spaniard 
in the middle of all the company. This hairbrain 
carriage obliged them to consider seriously what 
was to be done: the two Englishmen and the Span- 
iard who saved the poor savage were of the opinion 
that they should hang one of the three, for an ex- 
ample to the rest; and that particularly it should 
be he that had twice attempted to commit murder 


with his hatchet ; and, indeed, there was some rea- 
son to believe he had done it, for the poor savage 
was in such a rf?iserable condition with the wound 
he had received that it was thought he could not 
live. But the governor Spaniard still said no; it 
was an Englishman that had saved all their lives, 
and he would never consent to put an Englishman 
to death, though he had murdered half of them; 
nay, he said, if he had been killed himself by an 
Englishman, and had time left to speak, it should 
be that they should pardon him. 

This was so positively insisted on by the gov- 
ernor Spaniard that there was no gainsaying it ; and 
as merciful counsels are most apt to prevail, where 
they are so earnestly pressed, so they all came into 
it: but then it was to be considered what should be 
done to keep them from doing the mischief they 
designed; for all agreed, governor and all, that 
means were to be used for preserving the society 
from danger. After a long debate, it was agreed, 
first, that they should be disarmed, and not per- 
mitted to have either gun, powder, shot, sword, 
or any weapon ; and should be turned out of the 
society, and left to live where they would, and how 
they would, by themselves ; but that none of the 
rest, either Spaniards or English, should converse 
with them, speak with them, or have anything to 
do with them : that they should be forbid to come 
within a certain distance of the place where the rest 
dwelt ; and if they offered to commit any disorder, 
so as to spoil, burn, kill, or destroy any of the corn, 


plantings, buildings, fences, or cattle belonging to 
the society, they should die without mercy, and 
they would shoot them wherever they could find 

The governor, a man of great humanity, musing 
upon the sentence, considered a little upon it; and 
turning to the two honest Englishmen, said, " Hold ; 
you must reflect that it will be long ere they can 
raise corn and cattle of their own, and they must 
not starve ; we must therefore allow them provi- 
sions " : so he caused to be added that they should 
have a proportion of corn given them to last them 
eight months, and for seed to sow, by which time 
they might be supposed to raise some of their own; 
that they should have six milch-goats, four he- 
goats, and six kids given them, as well for present 
subsistence as for a store; and that they should 
have tools given them for their work in the fields, 
such as six hatchets, an adze, a saw, and the like ; 
but they should have none of these tools or pro- 
visions, unless they would swear solemnly that 
they would not hurt or injure any of the Spaniards 
with them, or of their fellow Englishmen. 

Thus they dismissed them the society, and turned 
them out to shift for themselves. They went away 
sullen and refractory, as neither content to go away 
nor to stay ; but as there was no remedy, they went, 
pretending to go and choose a place where they 
would settle themselves ; and some provisions were 
given them, but no weapons. 

About four or five days after, they came again 


for some victuals, and gave the governor an ac- 
count where they had pitched their tents, and 
marked themselves out a habitation and planta- 
tion ; and it was a very convenient place, indeed, 
on the remotest part of the island, NE., much 
about the place where I providentially landed in 
my first voyage, when I was driven out to sea, the 
Lord alone knows whither, in my foolish attempt 
to sail round the island. 

Here they built themselves two handsome huts, 
and contrived them in a manner like my first hab- 
itation, being close under the side of a hill, having 
some trees growing already on three sides of it, so 
that, by planting others, it would be very easily 
covered from the sight, unless narrowly searched 
for. They desired some dried goats'-skins, for beds 
and covering, which were given them ; and upon 
giving their words that they would not disturb the 
rest, or injure any of their plantations, they gave 
them hatchets, and what other tools they could 
spare ; some peas, barley, and rice, for sowing ; 
and, in a word, anything they wanted, except arms 
and ammunition. 

They lived in this separate condition about six 
months, and had got in their first harvest, though 
the quantity was but small, the parcel of land they 
had planted being but little ; for, indeed, having 
all their plantation to form, they had a great deal 
of work upon their hands ; and when they came 
to make boards and pots, and such things, they 
were quite out of their element, and could make 


nothing of It : and when the rainy season came on, 
for want of a cave in the earth they could not keep 
their grain dry, and it was in great danger of spoil- 
ing ; and this humbled them much : so they came 
and begged the Spaniards to help them, which they 
very readily did ; and in four days worked a great 
hole in the side of the hill for them, big enough 
to secure their corn and other things from the rain ; 
but it was but a poor place, at best, compared to 
mine, and especially as mine was then, for the 
Spaniards had greatly enlarged it, and made several 
new apartments in it. 

About three quarters of a year after this separa- 
tion, a new frolic took these rogues, which, to- 
gether with the former villainy they had committed, 
brought mischief enough upon them, and had very 
near been the ruin of the whole colony. The three 
new associates began, it seems, to be weary of the 
laborious life they led, and that without hope of 
bettering their circumstances ; and a whim took 
them that they would make a voyage to the con- 
tinent from whence the savages came, and would 
try if they could seize upon some prisoners among 
the natives there, and bring them home, so to 
make them do the laborious part of their work for 

The project was not so preposterous, if they had 
gone no farther : but they did nothing, and pro- 
posed nothing, but had either mischief in the de- 
sign, or mischief in the event: and, if I may give 
my opinion, they seemed to be under a blast from 


Heaven ; for if we will not allow a visible curse to 
pursue visible crimes, how shall we reconcile the 
events of things with the divine justice? It was 
certainly an apparent vengeance on their crime of 
mutiny and piracy that brought them to the state 
they were in ; and they showed not the least re- 
morse for the crime, but added new villainies to it, 
such as the piece of monstrous cruelty of wound- 
ing a poor slave, because he did not, or perhaps 
could not, understand to do what he was directed, 
and to wound him in such a manner as made him 
a cripple all his life, and in a place where no sur- 
geon or medicine could be had for his cure.: and 
what was still worse, the murderous intent, or, to 
do justice to the crime, the intentional murder, for 
such to be sure it was, as was afterwards the formed 
design they all laid, to murder the Spaniards in 
cold blood, and in their sleep. 


BUT I leave observing, and return to the story. 
The three fellows came down to the Span- 
iards one morning, and in very humble terms de- 
sired to be admitted to speak with them ; the 
Spaniards very readily heard what they had to say, 
which was this: That they were tired of living in 
the manner they did ; and that they were not handy 
enough to make the necessaries they wanted, and 
that having no help, they found they should be 
starved ; but if the Spaniards would give them leave 
to take one of the canoes which they came over in, 
and give them arms and ammunition proportioned 
to their defence, they would go over to the main 
and seek their fortunes, and so deliver them from 
the trouble of supplying them with any other pro- 

The Spaniards were glad enough to get rid of 
them, but very honestly represented to them the 
certain destruction they were running into ; told 
them they had suffered such hardships upon that 
very spot that they could, without any spirit of 


prophecy, tell them they would be starved, or mur- 
dered, and bade them consider of it. 

The men replied, audaciously, they should be 
starved if they stayed here, for they could not work, 
and would not work, and they could but be starved 
abroad ; and if they were murdered, there was an 
end of them ; they had no wives or children to cry 
after them : and, in short, insisted importunately 
upon their demand ; declaring they would go, 
whether they would give them any arms or no. 

The Spaniards told them, with great kindness, 
that if they were resolved to go, they should not 
go like naked men, and be in no condition to de- 
fend themselves: and that though they could ill 
spare their fire-arms, having not enough for them- 
selves, yet they would let them have two muskets, 
a pistol and a cutlass, and each man a hatchet, 
which they thought was sufficient for them. In a 
word, they accepted the offer ; and having baked 
them bread enough to serve them a month, and 
given them as much goat's-flesh as they could eat 
while it was sweet, and a great basket of dried 
grapes, a pot of fresh water, and a young kid alive, 
they boldly set out in the canoe for a voyage over 
the sea, where it was at least forty miles broad. 

The boat, indeed, was a large one, and would 
very well have carried fifteen or twenty men, and 
therefore was rather too big for them to manage; 
but as they had a fair breeze, and flood tide with 
them, they did well enough. They had made a 
mast of a long pole, and a sail of four large goats'- 


skins dried, which they had sewed or laced to- 
gether; and away they went merrily enough: the 
Spaniards called after them, "Buenviage'' ; and no 
man ever thought of seeing them any more. 

The Spaniards were often saying to one another, 
and to the two honest Englishmen who remained 
behind, how quietly and comfortably they lived, 
now these three turbulent fellows were gone: as 
for their coming again, that was the remotest thing 
from their thoughts that could be imagined; when, 
behold, after two-and-twenty days' absence, one of 
the Englishmen, being abroad upon his planting 
work, sees three strange men coming towards him 
at a distance, with guns upon their shoulders. 

Away runs the Englishman, as if he was be- 
witched, comes frightened and amazed to the gov- 
ernor Spaniard, and tells him they were all undone, 
for there were strangers landed upon the island, 
but could not tell who. The Spaniard, pausing a 
while, says to him, "How do you mean, you can- 
not tell who? They are the savages, to be sure.*' 
"No, no," says the Englishman; "they are men 
in clothes, with arms." " Nay, then," says the 
Spaniard, "why are you concerned? If they are 
not savages, they must be friends; for there is no 
Christian nation upon earth but will do us good 
rather than harm." 

While they were debating thus, came the three 
Englishmen, and, standing without the wood, which 
was new planted, hallooed to them : they presently 
knew their voices, and so all the wonder of that 


kind ceased. But now the admiration was turned 
upon another question, viz., What could be the 
matter, and what made them come back again ? 

It was not long before they brought the men 
in, and inquiring where they had been, and what 
they had been doing, they gave them a full account 
of their voyage in a few words, viz., that they 
reached the land in two days, or something less ; 
but finding the people alarmed at their coming, 
and preparing with bows and arrows to fight them, 
they durst not go on shore, but sailed on to the 
northward six or seven hours, till they came to a 
great opening, by which they perceived that the 
land they saw from our island was not the main, 
but an island ; upon entering that opening of the 
sea, they saw another island on the right hand, 
north, and several more west; and being resolve4 
to land somewhere, they put over to one of the 
islands which lay west, and went boldly on shore : 
that they found the people very courteous and 
friendly to them ; and that they gave them several 
roots and some dried fish, and appeared very so- 
ciable ; and the women as well as the men were 
very forward to supply them with anything they 
could get for them to eat, and brought it to them 
a great way upon their heads. 

They continued here four days ; and inquired, 
as well as they could of them, by signs, what na- 
tions were this way, and that way ; and were told 
of several fierce and terrible people that lived al- 
most every way, who, as they made known by signs 


to them, used to eat men; but as for themselves, 
they said, they never ate men or women, except 
only such as they took in the wars ; and then, they 
owned, they made a great feast, and ate their pris- 

The Englishmen inquired when they had had 
a feast of that kind; and they told them about two 
moons ago, pointing to the moon, and to two fin- 
gers; and that their great king had two hundred 
prisoners now, which he had taken in his war, and 
they were feeding them to make them fat for the 
next feast. The Englishmen seemed mighty de- 
sirous of seeing those prisoners ; but the others, 
mistaking them, thought they were desirous to 
have some of them to carry away for their own eat- 
ing: so they beckoned to them, pointing to the 
setting of the sun, and then to the rising; which 
was to signify that the next morning at sun-rising 
they would bring some for them ; and, accordingly, 
the next morning, they brought down five women 
and eleven men, and gave them to the English- 
men, to carry with them on their voyage, just as 
we would bring so many cows and oxen down to 
a seaport town to victual a ship. 

As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were 
at home, their stomachs turned at this sight, and 
they did not know what to do. To refuse the pris- 
oners would have been the highest affront to the 
savage gentry that could be offered them, and 
what to do with them they knew not. However, 
after some debate, they resolved to accept of them; 


and, In return, they gave the savages that brought 
them one of their hatchets, an old key, a knife, 
and six or seven of their bullets ; which, though 
they did not understand their use, they seemed par- 
ticularly pleased with; and then, tying the poor 
creatures' hands behind them, they dragged the 
prisoners into the boat for our men. 

The Englishmen were obliged to come away as 
soon as they had them, or else they that gave them 
this noble present would certainly have expected 
that they should have gone to work with them, 
have killed two or three of them the next morning, 
and perhaps have invited the donors to dinner. 
But having taken their leave, with all the respect 
and thanks that could well pass between people, 
where, on either side, they understood not one 
word they could say, they put off with their boat, 
and came back towards the first island ; where, when 
they arrived, they set eight of their prisoners at 
liberty, there being too many of them for their 

In their voyage, they endeavoured to have some 
communication with their prisoners; but it was 
impossible to make them understand anything; no- 
thing they could say to them, or give them, or do 
for them, but was looked upon as going to murder 
them. They first of all unbound them ; but the poor 
creatures screamed at that, especially the women, as 
if they had just felt the knife at their throats; for 
they immediately concluded they were unbound on 
purpose to be killed. If they gave them anything 


to eat, it was the same thing ; they then concluded 
it was for fear they should sink in flesh, and so not 
be fat enough to kill. If they looked at one of 
them more particularly, the party presently con- 
cluded it was to see whether he or she was fattest, 
and fittest to kill first; nay, after they had brought 
them quite over, and begun to use them kindly, 
and treat them wel.l, still they expected every day 
to make a dinner or supper for their new mas- 

When the three wanderers had given this unac- 
countable history or journal of their voyage, the 
Spaniard asked them where their new family was; 
and being told that they had brought them on 
shore, and put them into one of their huts, and were 
come up to beg some victuals for them, they (the 
Spaniards) and the other two Englishmen, that is 
to say, the whole colony, resolved to go all down 
to the place and see them; and did so, and Fri- 
day's father with them. 

When they came into the hut, there they sat all 
bound ; for when they had brought them on shore, 
they bound their hands, that they might not take 
the boat and make their escape ; there, I say, they 
sat, all of them stark naked. First, there were three 
men, lusty, comely fellows, well-shaped, straight 
and fair limbs, about thirty to thirty-five years of 
age; and fivQ women, whereof two might be from 
thirty to forty ; two more not above four- or five- 
and-twenty; and the iifth, a tall comely maiden, 
about sixteen or seventeen. The women were well- 


favoured, agreeable persons, both in shape and fea- 
tures, only tawny ; and two of them, had they been 
perfect white, would have passed for very hand- 
some women, even in London itself, having pleas- 
ant, agreeable countenances, and of a very modest 
-behaviour; especially when they came afterwards 
to be clothed and dressed, as they called it, though 
that dress was very indifferent, it must be con- 
fessed; of which hereafter. 

The sight, you may be sure, was something 
uncouth to our Spaniards, who were, to give them 
a just character, men of the best behaviour, of the 
most calm, sedate tempers, and perfect good hu- 
mour, that ever I met with ; and, in particular, of 
the most modest, as will presently appear: I say, 
the sight was very uncouth, to see three naked men 
and five naked women, all together bound, and in 
the most miserable circumstances that human na- 
ture could be supposed to be, viz., to be expecting 
every moment to be dragged out, and have their 
brains knocked out, and then to be eaten up like 
a calf that is killed for a dainty. 

The first thing they did was to cause the old In- 
dian, Friday's father, to go in, and see, first, if he 
knew any of them, and then if he understood any 
of their speech. As soon as the old man came in, 
he looked seriously at them, but knew none of 
them; neither could any of them understand a 
word he said, or a sign he could make, except one 
of the women. However, this was enough to 
answer the end, which was to satisfy them that 


the men into whose hands they were fallen were 
Christians; that they abhorred eating men or wo- 
men; and that they might be sure they would not 
be killed. As soon as they were assured of this, 
they discovered such a joy, and by such awkward 
gestures, several ways, as is hard to describe ; for, 
it seems, they were of several nations. 

The woman who was their interpreter was bid, 
in the next place, to ask them if they were willing 
to be servants, and to work for the men who had 
brought them away, to save their lives ; at which 
they all fell a-dancing; and presently one fell to 
taking up this, and another that, anything that lay 
next, to carry on their shoulders, to intimate that 
they were willing to work. 

The governor, who found that the having women 
among them would presently be attended with 
some inconvenience, and might occasion some 
strife, and perhaps blood, asked the three men what 
they intended to do with these women, and how 
they intended to use them, whether as servants or 
as women ? One of the Englishmen answered, very 
boldly and readily, that they would use them as 
both; to which the governor said, " I am not going 
to restrain you from it; you are your own masters 
as to that; but this I think is but just, for avoiding 
disorders and quarrels among you, and I desire it 
of you for that reason only, viz., that you will all 
engage that if any of you take any of these women, 
as a woman or wife, that he shall take but one : and 
that having taken one, none else shall touch her; 


for though we cannot marry any one of you, yet 
it Is but reasonable that while you stay here, the 
woman any of you takes should be maintained by 
the man that takes her, and should be his wife; I 
mean,*' says he, "while he continues here, and that 
none else shall have anything to do with her." All 
this appeared so just that every one agreed to it 
without any difficulty. 

Then the Englishmen asked the Spaniards' if 
they designed to take any of them ? But every 
one of them answered no : some of them said they 
had wives in Spain, and the others did not like 
women that were not Christians : and all together 
declared that they would not touch one of them : 
which was an instance of such virtue as I have not 
met with in all my travels. On the other hand, to 
be short, the five Englishmen took them every 
one a wife, that is to say, a temporary wife : and 
so they set up a new form of living ; for the Span- 
iards and Friday's father lived in my old habita- 
tion, which they had enlarged exceedingly within. 
The three servants which were taken in the late 
battle of the savages lived with them, and these 
carried on the main part of the colony, supplied 
all the rest with food, and assisted them in any- 
thing as they could, or as they found necessity 

But the wonder of the story was how ^ve such 
refractory, ill-matched fellows should agree about 
these women, and that two of them should not 
pitch upon the same woman, especially seeing two 


or three of them were, without comparison, more 
agreeable than the others : but they took a good 
way enough to prevent quarrelling among them- 
selves ; for they set the five women by themselves 
in one of their huts, and they went all into the 
other hut, and drew lots among them who should 
choose first. 

He that drew to choose first went away by him- 
self to the hut where the poor naked creatures 
were, and fetched out her he chose ; and it was 
worth observing that he that chose first took her 
that was reckoned the homeliest and oldest of the 
five, which made mirth enough among the rest; 
and even the Spaniards laughed at it : but the 
fellow considered better than any of them that it 
was application and business they were to expect 
assistance in as much as in anything else ; and she 
proved the best wife of all the parcel. 

When the poor women saw themselves set in a 
row thus, and fetched out one by one, the terrors 
of their condition returned upon them again, and 
they firmly believed they were now going to be 
devoured. Accordingly, when the English sailor 
came in and fetched out one of them, the rest set 
up a most lamentable cry, and hung about her, 
and took their leave of her with such agonies and 
affection as would have grieved the hardest heart 
in the world ; nor was it possible for the English- 
men to satisfy them that they were not to be im- 
mediately murdered till they fetched the old man, 
Friday's father, who immediately let them know 


that the five men, who had fetched them out one 
by one, had chosen them for their wives. 

When they had done, and the fright the women 
were in was a little over, the men went to work, 
and the Spaniards came and helped them ; and in 
a few hours they had built them every one a new 
hut or tent for their lodging apart ; for those they 
had already were crowded with their tools, house- 
hold stuff, and provisions. The three wicked ones 
had pitched farthest off, and the two honest ones 
nearer, but both on the north shore of the island, so 
that they continued separated as before ; and thus 
my island was peopled in three places ; and, as I 
might say, three towns were begun to be built. 

And here it is very well worth observing that, 
as it often happens in the world (what the wise 
ends of God's providence are, in such a disposi- 
tion of things, I cannot say), the two honest fel- 
lows had the two worst wives ; and the three repro- 
bates, that were scarce worth hanging, that were 
fit for nothing, and neither seemed born to do 
themselves good, nor any one else, had three clever, 
diligent, careful, and ingenious wives: not that the 
first two were bad wives, as to their temper or 
humour, for all the five were most willing, quiet, 
passive, and subjected creatures, rather like slaves 
than wives ; but my meaning is they were not alike 
capable, ingenious, or industrious, or alike cleanly 
and neat. 

Another observation I must make, to the hon- 
our of a diligent application, on one hand, and to 


the disgrace of a slothful, negligent, idle temper, 
on the other, that when I came to the place, and 
viewed the several improvements, plantings, and 
management of the several little colonies, the two 
men had so far outgone the three that there was 
no comparison. They had, indeed, both of them 
as much ground laid out for corn as they wanted, 
and the reason was, because, according to my rule, 
nature dictated that it was to no purpose to sow 
more corn than they wanted ; but the difference 
of the cultivation, of the planting, of the fences, 
and, indeed, of everything else, was easy to be seen 
at first view. 

The two men had innumerable young trees 
planted about their huts, so that when you came 
to the place, nothing was to be seen but wood : 
and though they had twice had their plantation 
demohshed, once by their own countrymen, and 
once by the enemy, as shall be shown in its place, 
yet they had restored all again, and everything 
was thriving and flourishing about them : they had 
grapes planted in order, and managed like a vine- 
yard, though they had themselves never seen any- 
thing of that kind ; and by their good ordering 
their vines, their grapes were as good again as any 
of the others. They had also found themselves out 
a retreat in the thickest part of the woods ; where, 
though there was not a natural cave, as I had found, 
yet they made one with incessant labour of their 
hands, and where, when the mischief which fol- 
lowed happened, they secured their wives and 


children, so as they could never be found ; they 
having, by sticking innumerable stakes and poles of 
the wood which, as I said, grew so readily, made 
the grove unpassable, except in some places where 
they climbed up to get over the outside part, and 
then went on by ways of their own leaving. 

As to the three reprobates, as I justly call them, 
though they were much civilised by their settle- 
ment, compared to what they were before, and 
were not so quarrelsome, having not the same op- 
portunity ; yet one of the certain companions of a 
profligate mind never left them, and that was their 
idleness. It is true they planted corn, and made 
fences ; but Solomon's words were never better 
verified than in them, " I went by the vineyard of 
the slothful, and it was all overgrown with thorns " ; 
for when the Spaniards came to view their crop, 
they could not see it in some places for weeds, the 
hedge had several gaps in it, where the wild goats 
had got in and eaten up the corn ; perhaps here 
and there a dead bush was crammed in, to stop 
them out for the present, but it was only shutting 
the stable-door after the steed was stolen : whereas, 
when they looked on the colony of the other two, 
there was the very face of industry and success upon 
all they did ; there was not a weed to be seen in 
all their corn, or a gap in any of their hedges ; and 
they, on the other hand, verified Solomon's words 
in another place, "that the diligent hand maketh 
rich"; for everything grew and thrived, and they 
had plenty within and without ; they had more tame 

rLAl L Xl 


cattle than the others, more utensils and necessa- 
ries within-doors, and yet more pleasure and di- 
version too. 

It is true the wives of the three were very handy 
and cleanly within-doors, and having learned the 
English ways of dressing and cooking from one of 
the other Englishmen, who, as I said, was a cook's 
mate on board the ship, they dressed their hus- 
bands' victuals very nicely and well ; whereas the 
others could not be brought to understand it : but 
then the husband, who, as I say, had been cook's 
mate, did it himself. But as for the husbands of 
the three wives, they loitered about, fetched turtles' 
eggs, and caught fish and birds ; in a word, any- 
thing but labour, and they fared accordingly. The 
diligent lived well and comfortably ; and the sloth- 
ful lived hard and beggarly; and so, I believe, gen- 
erally speaking, it is all over the world. 

But now I come to a scene different from all that 
had happened before, either to them or to me; and 
the original of the story was this : Early one morn- 
ing, there came on shore five or six canoes of In- 
dians or savages, call them which you please, and 
there is no room to doubt they came upon the old 
errand of feeding upon their slaves; but that part 
was now so familiar to the Spaniards, and to our 
men too, that they did not concern themselves 
about it, as I did ; but having been made sensible, 
by their experience, that their only business was to 
lie concealed, and that if they were not seen by any 
of the savages, they would go off again quietly, when 


their business was done, having, as yet, not the least 
notion of there being any inhabitants in the island ; 
I say, having been made sensible of this, they had 
nothing to do but give notice to all the three 
plantations to keep within-doors, and not show 
themselves, only placing a scout in a proper place, 
to give notice when the boats went to sea again. 

This was, without doubt, very right ; but a dis- 
aster spoiled all these measures, and made it known 
among the savages that there were inhabitants 
there ; which was, in the end, the desolation of al- 
most the whole colony. After the canoes with the 
savages were gone off, the Spaniards peeped abroad 
again ; and some of them had the curiosity to go 
to the place where they had been, to see what they 
had been doing. Here, to their great surprise, they 
found three savages left behind, and lying fast 
asleep upon the ground. It was supposed they had 
either been so gorged with their inhuman feast that, 
like beasts, they were fallen asleep, and would not 
stir when the others went, or they had wandered 
into the woods, and did not come back in time to 
be taken in. 

The Spaniards were greatly surprised at this 
sight, and perfectly at a loss what to do. The Span- 
ish governor, as it happened, was with them, and 
his advice was asked, but he professed he knew 
not what to do. As for slaves, they had enough 
already ; and as to killing them, they were none of 
them inclined to that: the Spanish governor told 
me they could not think of shedding innocent 


blood : for as to them the poor creatures had done 
them no wrong, invaded none of their property, 
and they thought they had no just quarrel against 
them, to take away their lives. And here I must, 
in justice to these Spaniards, observe that, let the 
accounts of Spanish cruelty in Mexico and Peru 
be what they will, I never met with seventeen men 
of any nation whatsoever, in any foreign country, 
who were so universally modest, temperate, virtu- 
ous, so very good-humoured, and so courteous, as 
these Spaniards ; and as to cruelty, they had no- 
thing of it in their very nature ; no inhumanity, no 
barbarity, no outrageous passions ; and yet all of 
them men of great courage and spirit. Their tem- 
per and calmness had appeared in their bearing the 
insufferable usage of the three Englishmen ; and 
their justice and humanity appeared now in the 
case of the savages, as above. After some con- 
sultation they resolved upon this: that they would 
lie still a while longer, till, if possible, these three 
men might be gone. But then the governor Span- 
iard recollected, that the three savages had no boat; 
and if they were left to rove about the island, they 
would certainly discover that there were inhabitants 
in it ; and so they should be undone that way. 
Upon this they went back again, and there lay the 
fellows fast asleep still, and so they resolved to waken 
them, and take them prisoners ; and they did so. 
The poor fellows were strangely frightened when 
they were seized upon and bound ; and afraid, like 
the women, that they should be murdered and eaten ; 


for It seems those people think all the world does 
as they do, eating men's flesh ; but they were soon 
made easy as to that, and away they carried them. 

It was very happy for them that they did not 
carry them home to their castle, I mean to my 
palace under the hill; but they carried them first 
to the bower, where was the chief of their country 
work, such as the keeping the goats, the planting 
the corn, etc. ; and afterwards they carried them to 
the habitation of the two Englishmen. 

Here they were set to work, though it was not 
much they had for them to do; and whether it 
was by negligence in guarding them, or that they 
thought the fellows could not mend themselves, I 
know not, but one of them run away, and, taking 
to the woods, they could never hear of him any 

They had good reason to believe he got home 
again soon after, in some other boats or canoes 
of savages who came on shore three or four weeks 
afterwards; and who, carrying on their revels as 
usual, went off in two days' time. This thought 
terrified them exceedingly ; for they concluded, and 
that not without good cause indeed, that if this fel- 
low came home safe among his comrades, he would 
certainly give them an account that there were 
people in the island, and also how few and weak they 
were: for this savage, as I observed before, had 
never been told, and it was very happy he had not, 
how many there were, or where they lived ; nor 
had he ever seen or heard the fire of any of their 


guns, much less had they shown him any of their 
other retired places ; such as the cave in the valley, 
or the new retreat which the two Englishmen had 
made, and the like. 

The first testimony they had that this fellow had 
given intelligence of them was that, about two 
months after this, six canoes of savages, with about 
seven, eight, or ten men in a canoe, came rowing 
along the north side of the island, where they never 
used to come before, and landed, about an hour 
after sunrise, at a convenient place, about a mile 
from the habitation of the two Englishmen, where 
this escaped man had been kept. As the Spaniard 
governor said, had they been all there, the damage 
would not have been so much, for not a man of 
them would have escaped : but the case differed 
now very much, for two men to fifty was too much 
odds. The two men had the happiness to discover 
them about a league off, so that it was above an 
hour before they landed ; and as they landed a mile 
from their huts, it was some time before they could 
come at them. Now, having great reason to be- 
lieve that they were betrayed, the first thing they 
did was to bind the two slaves which were left, and 
cause two of the three men whom they brought 
with the women (who, it seems, proved very faith- 
ful to them) to lead them, with their two wives, 
and whatever they could carry away with them, to 
their retired places in the woods, which I have 
spoken of above, and there to bind the two fellows 
hand and foot, till they heard further. 


In the next place, seeing the savages were all 
come on shore, and that they had bent their course 
directly that way, they opened the fences where the 
milch-goats were kept, and drove them all out; 
leaving their goats to straggle in the woods, whither 
they pleased, that the savages might think they 
were all bred wild; but the rogue who came with 
them was too cunning for that, and gave them an 
account of it all, for they went directly to the place. 

When the two poor frightened men had secured 
their wives and goods, they sent the other slave 
they had of the three who came with the women, 
and who was at their place by accident, away to 
the Spaniards with all speed, to give them the 
alarm, and desire speedy help ; and, in the mean time, 
they took their arms and what ammunition they 
had, and retreated towards the place in the wood 
where their wives were sent; keeping at a distance, 
yet so that they might see, if possible, which way 
the savages took. 

They had not gone far, but that from a rising 
ground they could see the little army of their ene- 
mies come on directly to their habitation, and, in 
a moment more, could see all their huts and house- 
hold stuff flaming up together, to their great grief 
and mortification ; for they had a very great loss, 
to them irretrievable, at least for some time. They 
kept their station for a while, till they found the 
savages, like wild beasts, spread themselves all over 
the place, rummaging every way and every place 
they could think of, in search of prey ; and in par- 


ticular for the people, of whom, now, it plainly- 
appeared they had intelligence. 

The two Englishmen seeing this, thinking them- 
selves not secure where they stood, because it was 
likely some of the wild people might come that 
way, and they might come too many together, 
thought it proper to make another retreat about 
half a mile farther; believing, as it afterwards hap- 
pened, that the farther they strolled the fewer 
would be together. 


THEIR next halt was at the entrance into a very 
thick-grown part of the woods, and where an 
old trunk of a tree stood, which was hollow and 
vastly large ; and in this tree they both took their 
standing, resolving to see there what might offer. 
They had not stood there long, before two of the 
savages appeared running directly that way, as if 
they already had notice where they stood, and 
were coming up to attack them ; and a little way 
farther they espied three more coming after them, 
and five more beyond them, all coming the same 
way : besides which, they saw seven or eight more 
at a distance, running another way ; for, in a word, 
they ran every way, like sportsmen beating for their 

The poor men were now in great perplexity 
whether they should stand and keep their posture, 
or fly ; but, after a very short debate with them- 
selves, they considered that, if the savages ranged 
the country thus before help came, they might per- 
haps find out their retreat in the woods, and then 


all would be lost: so they resolved to stand them 
there ; and if they were too many to deal with, 
then they would get up to the top of the tree, from 
whence they doubted not to defend themselves, 
fire excepted, as long as their ammunition lasted, 
though all the savages that were landed, which was 
near fifty, were to attack them. 

Having resolved upon this, they next considered 
whether they should fire at the first two, or wait 
for the three, and so take the middle party, by 
which the two and the five that followed would be 
separated : at length they resolved to let the first 
two pass by, unless they should spy them in the 
tree, and come to attack them. The first two sav- 
ages confirmed them also in this resolution by turn- 
ing a little from them towards another part of the 
wood ; but the three, and the five after them, came 
forward directly to the tree, as if they had known the 
Englishmen were there. Seeingthemcomesostraight 
toward them, they resolved to take them in a line 
as they came ; and as they resolved to fire but one at 
a time, perhaps the first shot might hit them all 
three : for which purpose the man who was to fire 
put three or four small bullets into his piece ; and 
having a fair loophole, as it were, from a broken 
hole in the tree, he took a sure aim, without being 
seen, waiting till they were within about thirty yards 
of the tree, so that he could not miss. 

While they were thus waiting, and the savages 
came on, they plainly saw that one of the three was 
the runaway savage that had escaped from them ; 


and they both knew him distinctly, and resolved 
that, if possible, he should not escape, though they 
should both fire; so the other stood ready with his 
piece, that if he did not drop at the first shot, he 
should be sure to have a second. But the first was 
too good a marksman to miss his aim; for as 
the savages kept near one another, a little behind, 
in a line, he fired, and hit two of them directly: 
the foremost was killed outright, being shot in the 
head ; the second, which was the runaway Indian, 
was shot through the body, and fell, but was not 
quite dead ; and the third had a little scratch in 
the shoulder, perhaps by the same ball that went 
through the body of the second ; and being dread- 
fully frightened, though not so much hurt, sat down 
upon the ground, screaming and yelling in a hide- 
ous manner. 

The five that were behind, more frightened with 
the noise than sensible of the danger, stood still at 
first : for the woods made the sound a thousand 
times bigger than it really was, the echoes rattling 
from one side to another, and the fowls rising from 
all parts, screaming, and every sort making a dif- 
ferent noise according to their kind ; just as it was 
when I fired the first gun that perhaps was ever 
shot off in the island. 

However, all being silent again, and they, not 
knowing what the matter was, came on uncon- 
cerned, till they came to the place where their com- 
panions lay, in a condition miserable enough ; and, 
here the poor ignorant creatures, not sensible that 


they were within reach of the same mischief, stood 
all of a huddle over the wounded man, talking, and 
as may be supposed, inquiring of him how he came 
to be hurt; and who, it is very rational to believe, 
told them that a flash of fire first, and immediately 
after that thunder from their gods, had killed those 
two and wounded him : this, I say, is rational ; for 
nothing is more certain than that, as they saw no 
man near them, so they had never heard a gun in 
all their lives, nor so much as heard of a gun; 
neither knew they anything of killing and wound- 
ing at a distance with fire and bullets : if they had, 
one might reasonably believe they would not have 
stood so unconcerned in viewing the fate of their 
fellows, without some apprehensions of their own. 

Our two men, though, as they confessed to me, 
it grieved them to be obliged to kill so many poor 
creatures, who, at the same time, had no notion 
of their danger; yet, having them all thus in their 
power, and the first having loaded his piece again, 
resolved to let fly both together among them ; and 
singling out, by agreement, which to aim at, they 
shot together, and killed, or very much wounded, 
four of them ; the fifth, frightened even to death, 
though not hurt, fell with the rest; so that our men, 
seeing them all fall together, thought they had killed 
them all. 

The belief that the savages were all killed made 
our two men come boldly out from the tree before 
they had charged their guns, which was a wrong 
step ; and they were under some surprise when they 


came to the place, and found no less than four of 
them alive, and of them two very little hurt, and 
one not at all : this obliged them to fall upon them 
with the stocks of their muskets; and first they 
made sure of the runaway savage, that had been 
the cause of all the mischief, and of another that 
was hurt in the knee, and put them out of their 
pain : then the man that was hurt not at all came 
and kneeled down to them, with his two hands held 
up, and made piteous moans to them, by gestures 
and signs, for his life, but could not say one word 
to them that they could understand. However, 
they made signs to him to sit down at the foot of 
a tree hard by; and one of the Englishmen, with a 
piece of rope twined, which he had by great chance 
in his pocket, tied his two hands behind him, and 
there they left him : and with what speed they could 
made after the other two, which were gone before, 
fearing they, or any more of them, should find the 
way to their covered place in the woods, where their 
wives, and the few goods they had left, lay. They 
came once in sight of the two men, but it was at 
a great distance ; however, they had the satisfaction 
to see them cross over a valley towards the sea, 
quite the contrary way from that which led to their 
retreat, which they were afraid of; and being satis- 
fied with that, they went back to the tree where 
they left their prisoner, who, as they supposed, was 
delivered by his comrades, for he was gone, and the 
two pieces of rope-yarn, with which they had bound 
him, lay just at the foot of the tree. 


They were now in as great concern as before, 
not knowing what course to take, or how near the 
enemy might be, or in what numbers: so they 
resolved to go away to the place where their wives 
were, to see if all was well there, and to make them 
easy, who were in fright enough, to be sure ; for 
though the savages were their own countryfolk, yet 
they were most terribly afraid of them, and perhaps 
the more for the knowledge they had of them. 

When they came there, they found the savages 
had been in the wood, and very near that place, 
but had not found it: for it was indeed inaccessible, 
by the trees standing so thick, as before, unless the 
persons seeking it had been directed by those that 
knew it, which these did not: they found, there- 
fore, everything very safe, only the women in a ter- 
rible fright. While they were here, they had the 
comfort to have seven of the Spaniards come to 
their assistance: the other ten, with their servants, 
and old Friday, I mean Friday's father, were gone 
in a body to defend their bower, and the corn 
and cattle that was kept there, in case the savages 
should have roved over to that side of the country ; 
but they did not spread so far. With the seven 
Spaniards came one of the three savages who, as I 
said, were their prisoners formerly ; and with them 
also came the savage whom the Englishmen had 
left bound hand and foot at the tree: for it seems 
they came that way, saw the slaughter of the seven 
men, and unbound the eighth, and brought him 
along with them ; where, however, they were obliged 


to bind him again, as they had the two others who 
were left when the third ran away. 

The prisoners now began to be a burthen to 
them ; and they were so afraid of their escaping that 
they were once resolving to kill them all, believing 
they were under an absolute necessity to do so for 
their own preservation. However, the Spaniard 
governor would not consent to it; but ordered, for 
the present, that they should be sent out of the way, 
to my old cave in the valley, and be kept there, 
with two Spaniards to guard them, and give them 
food for their subsistence, which was done ; and 
they were bound there hand and foot for that night. 

When the Spaniards came, the two Englishmen 
were so encouraged that they could not satisfy them- 
selves to stay any longer there; but taking five of 
the Spaniards and themselves, with four muskets 
and a pistol among them, and two stout quarter- 
staves, away they went in quest of the savages. And 
first they came to the tree where the men lay that 
had been killed; but it was easy to see that some 
more of the savages had been there, for they had 
attempted to carry their dead men away, and had 
dragged two of them a good way, but had given it 
over. From thence they advanced to the first rising 
ground, where they had stood and seen their camp 
destroyed, and where they had the mortification 
still to see some of the smoke: but neither could 
they here see any of the savages. They then re- 
solved, though with all possible caution, to go for- 
ward towards their ruined plantation ; but a little 


before they came thither, coming in sight of the 
sea-shore, they saw plainly the savages all embarked 
again in their canoes, in order to be gone. They 
seemed sorry, at first, that there was no way to come 
at them to give them a parting blow; but, upon the 
whole, they were very well satisfied to be rid of 

The poor Englishmen being now twice ruined, 
and all their improvements destroyed, the rest all 
agreed to come and help them to rebuild, and to 
assist them with needful supplies. Their three coun- 
trymen, who were not yet noted for having the 
least inclination to do any good, yet as soon as they 
heard of it (for they living remote eastward, knew 
nothing of the matter till all was over), came and 
ofl^ered their help and assistance, and did, very 
friendly, work for several days, to restore their hab- 
itation, and make necessaries for them. And thus, 
in a little time, they were set upon their legs 

About two days after this they had the further 
satisfaction of seeing three of the savages* canoes 
come driving on shore, and, at some distance from 
them, two drowned men: by which they had rea- 
son to believe that they had met with a storm at 
sea, which had overset some of them; for It had 
blown very hard the night after they went off. 

However, as some might miscarry, so, on the 
other hand, enough of them escaped to Inform the 
rest, as well of what they had done as of what had 
happened to them, and to whet them on to another 


enterprise of the same nature ; which they, it seems, 
resolved to attempt, with sufficient force to carry 
all before them : for except what the first man had 
told them of inhabitants, they could say little of 
it of their own knowledge, for they never saw one 
man; and the fellow being killed that had affirmed 
it, they had no other witness to confirm it to them. 

It was five or six months after this before they 
heard any more of the savages, in which time our 
men were in hopes they had either forgot their 
former bad luck or given over hopes of better ; 
when, on a sudden, they were invaded with a most 
formidable fleet of no less than eight-and-twenty 
canoes, full of savages, armed with bows and ar- 
rows, great clubs, wooden swords, and such-like 
engines of war; and they brought such numbers 
with them that, in short, it put all our people into 
the utmost consternation. 

As they came on shore in the evening, and at 
the easternmost side of the island, our men had 
that night to consult and consider what to do ; and, 
in the first place, knowing that their being entirely 
concealed was their only safety before, and would 
be much more so now, while the number of their 
enemies was so great, they therefore resolved, first 
of all, to take down the huts which were built for 
the two Englishmen, and drive away their goats 
to the old cave ; because they supposed the sav- 
ages would go directly thither, as soon as it was 
day, to play the old game over again, though they 
did not now land within two leagues of it. In the 


next place, they drove away all the flocks of goats 
they had at the old bower, as I called it, which 
belonged to the Spaniards; and, in short, left as 
little appearance of inhabitants anywhere as was 
possible: and the next morning early they posted 
themselves, with all their force, at the plantation 
of the two men, to wait for their coming. As they 
guessed, so it happened : these new invaders, leav- 
ing their canoes at the east end of the island, came 
ranging along the shore, directly towards the place, 
to the number of two hundred and fifty, as near 
as our men could judge. Our army was but small, 
indeed ; but that which was worse, they had not 
arms for all their number neither. The whole ac- 
count, it seems, stood thus : first, as to men, seven- 
teen Spaniards, five Englishmen, old Friday, or 
Friday's father, the three slaves taken with the 
women, who proved very faithful, and three other 
slaves, who lived with the Spaniards. To arm 
these, they had eleven muskets, five pistols, three 
fowling-pieces, five muskets or fowling-pieces 
which were taken by me from the mutinous sea- 
men whom I reduced, two swords, and three old 

To their slaves they did not give either musket 
or fusee, but they had every one a halberd, or a 
long staff, like a quarter-staff, with a great spike of 
iron fastened into each end of it, and by his side 
a hatchet ; also every one of our men had a hatchet. 
Two of the women could not be prevailed upon 
but they would come into the fight, and they had 


bows and arrows, which the Spaniards had taken 
from the savages when the first action happened, 
which I have spoken of, where the Indians fought 
with one another ; and the women had hatchets too. 

The Spaniard governor, whom I have described 
so often, commanded the whole; and Will Atkins, 
who, though a dreadful fellow for wickedness, was 
a most daring, bold fellow, commanded under him. 
The savages came forward like lions; and our men, 
which was the worst of their fate, had no advant- 
age in their situation; only that Will Atkins, who 
now proved a most useful fellow, with six men, 
was planted just behind a small thicket of bushes, 
as an advanced guard, with orders to let the first 
of them pass by, and then fire into the middle of 
them, and as soon as he had fired, to make his 
retreat as nimbly as he could round a part of the 
wood, and so come in behind the Spaniards, where 
they stood, having a thicket of trees before them. 

When the savages came on they ran straggling 
about every way in heaps, out of all manner of 
order, and Will Atkins let about fifty of them pass 
by him ; then seeing the rest come in a very thick 
throng, he orders three of his men to fire, having 
loaded their muskets with six or seven bullets 
apiece, about as big as large pistol-bullets. How 
many they killed or wounded they knew not, but 
the consternation and surprise was inexpressible 
among the savages; they were frightened to the 
last degree to hear such a dreadful noise, and see 
their men killed, and others hurt, but see nobody 


that did it; when, in the middle of their fright. 
Will Atkins and his other three let fly again 
among the thickest of them ; and in less than a min- 
ute the first three being loaded again, gave them 
a third volley. 

Had Will Atkins and his men retired immedi- 
ately, as soon as they had fired, as they were ordered 
to do, or had the rest of the body been at hand, to 
have poured in their shot continually, the savages 
had been effectually routed; for the terror that was 
among them came principally from this, viz., that 
they were killed by the gods with thunder and 
lightning, and could see nobody that hurt them ; 
but Will Atkins, staying to load again, discovered 
the cheat ; some of the savages, who were at a dis- 
tance spying them, came upon them behind; and 
though Atkins and his men fired at them also, 
two or three times,and killed above twenty, retiring 
as fast as they could, yet they wounded Atkins 
himself, and killed one of his fellow-Englishmen, 
with their arrows, as they did afterwards one Span- 
iard, and one of the Indian slaves who came with 
the women. This slave was a most gallant fellow, 
and fought most desperately, killing five of them 
with his own hand, having no weapon but one of 
the armed staves and a hatchet. 

Our men being thus hard laid at, Atkins wound- 
ed, and two other men killed, retreated to a rising 
ground in the wood ; and the Spaniards, after firing 
three volleys upon them, retreated also ; for their 
number was so great, and they were so desperate, 


that though above fifty of them were killed, and 
more than as many wounded, yet they came on in 
the teeth of our men, fearless of danger, and shot 
their arrows like a cloud ; and it was observed that 
their wounded men, who were not quite disabled, 
were made outrageous by their wounds, and fought 
like madmen. 

When our men retreated, they left the Spaniard 
and the Englishman that were killed behind them ; 
and the savages, when they came up to them, 
killed them over again in a wretched manner, 
breaking their arms, legs, and heads, with their 
clubs and wooden swords, like true savages; but 
finding our men were gone, they did not seem to 
pursue them, but drew themselves up in a ring, 
which is, it seems, their custom, and shouted twice, 
in token of their victory ; after which they had the 
mortification to see several of their wounded men 
fall, dying with the mere loss of blood. 

The Spaniard governor having drawn his little 
body up together upon a rising ground, Atkins, 
though he was wounded, would have had them 
march and charge again all together at once ; but 
the Spaniard replied, "Senhor Atkins, you see how 
their wounded men fight; let them alone till morn- 
ing ; all the wounded men will be stiff and sore with 
their wounds, and faint with the loss of blood ; and 
so we shall have the fewer to engage." This advice 
was good ; but Will Atkins replied merrily, " That 
is true, senhor, and so shall I too, and that is the 
reason I would go on while I am warm." " Well, 


Senhor Atkins," says the Spaniard, " you have be- 
haved gallantly, and done your part : we will fight 
for you, if you cannot come on ; but I think it best 
to stay till morning " : so they waited. 

But as it was a clear moonlight night, and they 
found the savages in great disorder about their dead 
and wounded men, and a great noise and hurry 
among them where they lay, they afterwards re- 
solved to fall upon them in the night ; especially 
if they could come to give them but one volley 
before they were discovered, which they had a fair 
opportunity to do ; for one of the Englishmen, in 
whose quarter it was where the fight began, led them 
round between the woods and the seaside westward, 
and then turning short south, they came so near 
where the thickest of them lay that, before they 
were seen or heard, eight of them fired in among 
them, and did dreadful execution upon them ; in 
half a minute more eight others fired after them, 
pouring in their small shot in such quantity that 
abundance were killed and wounded ; and all this 
while they were not able to see who hurt them or 
which way to fly. 

The Spaniards charged again with the utmost 
expedition, and then divided themselves in three 
bodies, and resolved to fall in among them all to- 
gether. They had in each body eight persons, that 
is to say, twenty-two and the two women, who, by 
the way, fought desperately. They divided the 
fire-arms equally in each party, and so the halberds 
and staves. They would have had the women kept 


back, but they said they were resolved to die with 
their husbands. Having thus formed their little 
army, they marched out from among the trees, and 
came up to the teeth of the enemy, shouting and 
hallooing as loud as they could ; the savages stood 
all together, but were in the utmost confusion, hear- 
ing the noise of our men shouting from three quar- 
ters together : they would have fought if they had 
seen us ; for as soon as we came near enough to 
be seen, some arrows were shot, and poor old Fri- 
day was wounded, though not dangerously ; but 
our men gave them no time, but, running up to 
them, fired among them three ways, and then fell 
in with the butt-ends of their muskets, their swords, 
armed staves, and hatchets, and laid about them so 
well that, in a word, they set up a dismal scream- 
ing and howling, flying to save their lives which 
way soever they could. 

Our men were tired with the execution, and 
killed or mortally wounded in the two fights about 
one hundred and eighty of them ; the rest, being 
frightened out of their wits, scoured through the 
woods and over the hills, with all the speed fear 
and nimble feet could help them to ; and as we did 
not trouble ourselves much to pursue them, they 
got all together to the seaside where they landed, 
and where their canoes lay. But their disasters 
were not at an end yet ; for it blew a terrible storm 
of wind that evening from the sea, so that it was 
impossible for them to go off; nay, the storm 
continuing all night, when the tide came up, their 


canoes were most of them driven by the surge of 
the sea so high upon the shore that it required in- 
finite toil to get them off; and some of them were 
even dashed to pieces against the beach, or against 
one another. 

Our men, though glad of their victory, yet got 
little rest that night; but having refreshed them- 
selves as well as they could, they resolved to march 
to that part of the island where the savages were fled, 
and see what posture they were in. This necessarily 
led them over the place where the fight had been, 
and where they found several of the poor creatures 
not quite dead, and yet past recovering life ; a sight 
disagreeable enough to generous minds; for a truly 
great man, though obliged by the law of battle to 
destroy his enemy, takes no delight in his misery. 
However, there was no need to give any orders 
in this case, for their own savages, who were their 
servants, dispatched these poor creatures with their 

At length they came in view of the place where 
the more miserable remains of the savages* army 
lay, where there appeared about a hundred still : 
their posture was generally sitting upon the ground, 
with their knees up towards their mouth, and the 
head put between the two hands, leaning down upon 
the knees. 

When our men came within two musket-shots of 
them, the Spaniard governor ordered two muskets 
to be fired, without ball, to alarm them : this he 
did, that by their countenance he might know what 


to expect, viz., whether they were still in heart to 
fight, or were so heartily beaten as to be dispirited 
and discouraged, and so he might manage accord- 
ingly. This stratagem took ; for as soon as the sav- 
ages heard the first gun and saw the flash of the 
second, they started up upon their feet in the great- 
est consternation imaginable : and as our men ad- 
vanced swiftly toward them, they all ran screaming 
and yelling away, with a kind of howling noise, 
which our men did not understand, and had never 
heard before : and thus they ran up the hills into 
the country. 

At first our men had much rather the weather 
had been calm, and they had all gone away to sea ; but 
they did not then consider that this might probably 
have been the occasion of their coming again in such 
multitudes as not to be resisted, or, at least, to come 
so many, and so often, as would quite desolate the 
island, and starve them. Will Atkins, therefore, 
who, notwithstanding his wound, kept always with 
them, proved the best counsellor in this case : his 
advice was to take the advantage that offered, and 
clap in between them and their boats and so de- 
prive them of the capacity of ever returning any 
more to plague the island. 

They consulted long about this ; and some were 
against it, for fear of making the wretches fly to the 
woods and live there desperate, and so they should 
have them to hunt like wild beasts, be afraid to stir 
out about their business, and have their plantation 
continually rifled, all their tame goats destroyed, 


and, in short, be reduced to a life of continual dis- 

Will Atkins told them they had better have to 
do with a hundred men than with a hundred na- 
tions : that as they must destroy their boats, so they 
must destroy the men, or be all of them destroyed 
themselves. In a word, he showed them the neces- 
sity of it so plainly that they all came into it : so 
they went to work immediately with the boats, and, 
getting some dry wood together from a dead tree, 
they tried to set some of them on fire, but they were 
so wet that they would not burn ; however, the fire 
so burned the upper part that it soon made them 
unfit for swimming in the sea as boats. When the 
Indians saw what they were about, some of them 
came running out of the woods, and, coming as near 
as they could to our men, kneeled down and cried, 
" Oa, Oa, Waramokoa," and some other words of 
their language, which none of the others understood 
anything of; but as they made pitiful gestures and 
strange noises, it was easy to understand they begged 
to have their boats spared, and that they would be 
gone, and never come there again. But our men 
were now satisfied that they had no way to preserve 
themselves, or to save their colony, but effectually to 
prevent any of these people from ever going home 
again : depending upon this, that if even so much 
as one of them got back into their country to tell 
the story, the colony was undone : so that, letting 
them know that they should not have any mercy, 
they fell to work with their canoes, and destroyed 


them every one that the storm had not destroyed 
before ; at the sight of which the savages raised a 
hideous cry in the woods, which our people heard 
plain enough, after which they ran about the island 
like distracted men ; so that, in a word, our men 
did not really know at first what to do with them. 
Nor did the Spaniards, with all their prudence, 
consider that, while they made those people thus 
desperate, they ought to have kept a good guard at 
the same time upon their plantations ; for though, 
it is true, they had driven away their cattle, and the 
Indians did not find out their main retreat, I mean 
my old castle at the hill, nor the cave in the valley, 
yet they found out my plantation at the bower, and 
pulled it all to pieces, and all the fences and plant- 
ing about it; trod all the corn underfoot, tore up the 
vines and grapes, being just then almost ripe, and 
did our men an inestimable damage, though to 
themselves not one farthing's worth of service. 

Though our men were able to fight them upon 
all occasions, yet they were in no condition to pursue 
them, or hunt them up and down ; for as they were 
too nimble of foot for our men, when they found 
them single, so our men durst not go abroad single, 
for fear of being surrounded with their numbers. 
The best was, they had no weapons ; for though 
they had bows, they had no arrows left, nor any 
materials to make any ; nor had they any edge-tool 
or weapon among them. 

The extremity and distress they were reduced to 
was great and indeed deplorable; but, at the same 

Plate XIII 


time, our men were also brought to very bad cir- 
cumstances by them : for though their retreats were 
preserved, yet their provision was destroyed, and 
their harvest spoiled; and what to do, or which way 
to turn themselves, they knew not. The only re- 
fuge they had now was the stock of cattle they had 
in the valley by the cave, and some little corn which 
grew there, and the plantation of the three Eng- 
lishmen, Will Atkins and his comrades, who were 
now reduced to two; one of them being killed by 
an arrow, which struck him on the side of his head, 
just under the temples, so that he never spoke 
more: and it was very remarkable that this was the 
same barbarous fellow that cut the poor savage 
slave with his hatchet, and who afterwards intended 
to have murdered the Spaniards. 

I looked upon their case to have been worse at 
this time than mine was at any time, after I first 
discovered the grains of barley and rice, and got 
into the manner of planting and raising my corn, 
and my tame cattle: for now they had, as I may 
say, a hundred wolves upon the island, which would 
devour everything they could come at, yet could 
be hardly come at themselves. 

When they saw what their circumstances were, 
the first thing they concluded was that they would, 
if possible, drive them up to the farther part of the 
island, south-west, that if any more savages came 
on shore they might not find one another: then 
that they would daily hunt and harass them, and 
kill as many of them as they could come at, till they 


had reduced their number; and if they could at last 
tame them, and bring them to anything, they would 
give them corn, and teach them how to plant, and 
live upon their daily labour. 

In order to this, they so followed them, and so 
terrified them with their guns, that in a few days, 
if any of them fired a gun at an Indian, if he did 
not hit him, yet he would fall down for fear ; and so 
dreadfully frightened they were that they kept out 
of sight farther and farther; till, at last, our men 
following them, and almost every day killing or 
wounding some of them, they kept up in the woods 
or hollow places so much that it reduced them to 
the utmost misery for want of food ; and many 
were afterwards found dead in the woods, without 
any hurt, absolutely starved to death. 

When our men found this, it made their hearts 
relent, and pity moved them, especially the Span- 
iard governor, who was the most gentleman-like, 
generous-minded man that I ever met with in my 
life; and he proposed, if possible, to take one of 
them alive, and bring him to understand what they 
meant, so far as to be able to act as interpreter, and 
go among them, and see if they might be brought 
to some conditions that might be depended upon, 
to save their lives and do us no harm. 

It was some while before any of them could be 
taken ; but being weak and half-starved, one of 
them was at last surprised and made a prisoner. He 
was sullen at first, and would neither eat nor drink; 
but finding himself kindly used, and victuals given 


him, and no violence offered him, he at last grew 
tractable, and came to himself. They brought old 
Friday to him, who talked often with him, and told 
him how kind the others would be to them all; 
that they would not only save their lives, but would 
give them part of the island to live in, provided 
they would give satisfaction that they would keep 
in their own bounds and not come beyond it to 
injure or prejudice others ; and that they should 
have corn given them to plant and make it grow 
for their bread, and some bread given them for 
their present subsistence; and old Friday bade the 
fellow go and talk with the rest of his countrymen, 
and see what they said to it ; assuring them that if 
they did not agree immediately they should be all 

The poor wretches, thoroughly humbled, and 
reduced in number to about thirty-seven, closed 
with the proposal at the first offer, and begged to 
have some food given them ; upon which twelve 
Spaniards and two Englishmen, well armed, with 
three Indian slaves and old Friday, marched to the 
place where they were. The three Indian slaves 
carried them a large quantity of bread, some rice 
boiled up to cakes and dried in the sun, and three 
live goats; and they were ordered to go to the side 
of a hill, where they sat down, ate their provisions 
very thankfully, and were the most faithful fellows 
to their words that could be thought of; for, except 
when they came to beg victuals and directions, they 
never came out of their bounds: and there they 


lived when I came to the Island, and I went to see 

They had taught them both to plant Corn, make 
bread, breed tame goats, and milk them; they 
wanted nothing but wives, and they soon would 
have been a nation. They were confined to a neck 
of land, surrounded with high rocks behind them, 
and lying plain towards the sea before them, on the 
south-east corner of the island. They had land 
enough, and it was very good and fruitful ; about 
a mile and a half broad, and three or four miles in 

Our men taught them to make wooden spades, 
such as I made for myself, and gave among them 
twelve hatchets and three or four knives ; and there 
they lived the most subjected innocent creatures 
that ever were heard of. 

After this the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquil- 
ity with respect to the savages till I came to re- 
visit them, which was about two years after; not 
but that, now and then, some canoes of savages 
came on shore for their triumphal, unnatural feasts ; 
but as they were of several nations, and perhaps 
had never heard of those that came before, or the 
reason of it, they did not make any search or in- 
quiry after their countrymen ; and if they had, it 
would have been very hard to have found them out. 

Thus, I think, I have given a full account of all 
that happened to them till my return, at least, that 
was worth notice. The Indians or savages were 
wonderfully civilised by them, and they frequently 


went among them ; but forbade, on pain of death, 
any one of the Indians coming to them, because 
they would not have their settlement betrayed 
again. One thing was very remarkable, viz., that 
they taught the savages to make wicker-work, or 
baskets, but they soon outdid their masters; for 
they made abundance of most ingenious things 
in wicker-work, particularly all sorts of baskets, 
sieves, bird-cages, cupboards, etc. ; as also chairs to 
sit on, stools, beds, couches, and abundance of other 
things, being very ingenious at such work, when 
they were once put in the way of it. 

My coming was a particular relief to these 
people, because we furnished them with knives, 
scissors, spades, shovels, pick-axes, and all things 
of that kind which they could want. With the help 
of those tools they were so very handy that they 
came at last to build up their huts, or houses, very 
handsomely, raddling or working it up like basket- 
work all the way round : which was a very extraor- 
dinary piece of ingenuity, and looked very odd, but 
was an exceeding good fence, as well against heat 
as against all sorts of vermin; and our men were 
so taken with it that they got the wild savages to 
come and do the like for them; so that when I 
came to see the two Englishmen's colonies, they 
looked, at a distance, as if they all lived like bees in 
a hive. As for Will Atkins, who was now become 
a very industrious, useful, and sober fellow, he had 
made himself such a tent of basket-work as, I 
believe, was never seen ; it was one hundred and 


twenty paces round on the outside, as I measured 
by my steps ; the walls were as close-worked as a 
basket, in panels or squares of thirty-two in num- 
ber, and very strong, standing about seven feet 
high ; in the middle was another not above twenty- 
two paces round, but built stronger, being octagon 
in its form, and in the eight corners stood eight 
very strong posts ; round the top of which he laid 
strong pieces, pinned together with wooden pins, 
from which he raised a pyramid for a roof of eight 
rafters, very handsome, I assure you, and joined 
together very well, though he had no nails, and only 
a few iron spikes, which he made himself too, out 
of the old iron that I had left there ; and, indeed, 
this fellow showed abundance of ingenuity in sev- 
eral things which he had no knowledge of: he 
made him a forge, with a pair of wooden bellows 
to blow the fire; he made himself charcoal for his 
work ; and he formed out of the iron crows a mid- 
dling good anvil to hammer upon: in this manner 
he made many things, but especially hooks, staples 
and spikes, bolts and hinges. 

But, to return to the house. After he had pitched 
the roof of his innermost tent, he worked it up 
between the rafters with basket-work, so firm, and 
thatched that over again so ingeniously with rice- 
straw, and over that a large leaf of a tree, which 
covered the top, that his house was as dry as if it 
had been entiled or slated. Indeed, he owned 
that the savages had made the basket-work for 
him. The outer circuit was covered as a lean-to, all 


round this inner apartment, and long rafters lay 
from the thirty-two angles to the top posts of the 
inner house, being about twenty feet distant; so 
that there was a space like a walk within the outer 
wicker wall and without the inner, near twenty 
feet wide. 

The inner place he partitioned off with the same 
wicker-work, but much fairer, and divided into six 
apartments, so that he had six rooms on a floor, 
and out of every one of these there was a door; first 
into the entry, or coming into the main tent, and 
another door into the space or walk that was round 
it: so that walk was also divided into six equal 
parts, which served not only for a retreat, but to 
store up any necessaries which the family had occa- 
sion for. These six spaces not taking up the whole 
circumference, what other apartments the outer 
circle had were thus ordered : As soon as you were 
in at the door of the outer circle, you had a short 
passage straight before you to the door of the inner 
house : but on either side was a wicker partition, 
and a door in it, by which you went first into 
a large room, or storehouse, twenty feet wide, 
and about thirty feet long, and through that into 
another, not quite so long: so that in the outer 
circle were ten handsome rooms, six of which were 
only to be come at through the apartments of the 
inner tent, and served as closets or retiring-rooms 
to the respective chambers of the inner circle; and 
four large warehouses, or barns, or what you please 
to call them, which went through one another, two 


on either hand of the passage, that led through 
the outer door to the inner tent. 

Such a piece of basket-work, I believe, was never 
seen in the world, nor a house or tent so neatly- 
contrived, much less so built. In this great bee-hive 
lived the three families, that is to say. Will Atkins 
and his companion ; the third was killed, but his 
wife remained, with three children, for she was, it 
seems, big with child when he died: and the other 
two were not at all backward to give the widow her 
full share of everything, I mean as to their corn, 
milk, grapes, etc., and when they killed a kid, or 
found a turtle on the shore; so that they all lived 
well enough ; though it was true, they were not so 
industrious as the other two, as has been observed 

One thing, however, cannot be omitted, viz., 
that, as for religion, I do not know that there was 
anything of that kind among them: they often, 
indeed, put one another in mind that there was 
a God, by the very common method of seamen, 
viz., swearing by his name : nor were their poor 
ignorant savage wives much better for having been 
married to Christians, as we must call them : for as 
they knew very little of God themselves, so they 
were utterly incapable of entering into any dis- 
course with their wives about a God, or to talk 
anything to them concerning religion. 

The utmost of all the improvement which I can 
say the wives had made from them was, that they 
had taught them to speak English pretty well ; and 


most of their children, which were near twenty in all, 
were taught to speak English too, from their first 
learning to speak, though they at first spoke it in 
a very broken manner, like their mothers. There 
was none of these children above six years old when 
I came thither, for it was not much above seven 
years that they had fetched these five savage ladies 
over; but they had all been pretty fruitful, for they 
had all children, more or less ; I think the cook's 
mate's wife was big of her sixth child: and the 
mothers were all a good sort of well-governed, 
quiet, laborious women, modest and decent, help- 
ful to one another, mighty observant and subject 
to their masters (I cannot call them husbands), 
and wanted nothing but to be well instructed in the 
Christian religion, and to be legally married ; both 
which were happily brought about afterwards by 
my means, or, at least, in consequence of my 
coming among them. 


HAVING thus given an account of the colony 
in general, and pretty much of my runagate 
English, I must say something of the Spaniards, 
who were the main body of the family, and in whose 
story there are some incidents also remarkable 

I had a great many discourses with them about 
their circumstances when they were among the 
savages. They told me readily that they had no 
instances to give of their application or ingenuity 
in that country ; that they were a poor, miserable, 
dejected handful of people; that if means had been 
put into their hands, yet they had so abandoned 
themselves to despair, and so sunk under the weight 
of their misfortunes, that they thought of nothing 
but starving. One of them, a grave and sensible 
man, told me he was convinced they were in the 
wrong; that it was not the part of wise men to give 
themselves up to their misery, but always to take 
hold of the helps which reason offered, as well for 
present support as for future deliverance : he told 


me that grief was the most senseless insignificant 
passion in the world, for that it regarded only things 
past, which were generally impossible to be recalled, 
or to be remedied, but had no views of things to 
come, and had no share in anything that looked 
like deliverance, but rather added to the affliction 
than proposed a remedy; and upon this he re- 
peated a Spanish proverb, which, though I cannot 
repeat in just the same words that he spoke it in, 
yet I remember I made it into an English proverb 
of my own, thus : 

In trouble to be troubled. 

Is to have your trouble doubled. 

He ran on then in remarks upon all the little 
improvements I had made in my solitude ; my un- 
wearied application, as he called it; and how I had 
made a condition which in its circumstances was 
at first much worse than theirs, a thousand times 
more happy than theirs was, even now when they 
were all together. He told me it was remarkable 
that Englishmen had a greater presence of mind, 
in their distress, than any people that ever he met 
with : that their unhappy nation and the Portu- 
guese were the worst men in the world to struggle 
with misfortunes ; for that their first step in dan- 
gers, after the common efforts were over, was to 
despair, lie down under it, and die, without rous- 
ing their thoughts up to proper remedies for 

I told him their case and mine differed exceed- 
ingly ; that they were cast upon the shore without 


necessaries, without supply of food, or present sus- 
tenance till they could provide it ; that, it was true, 
I had this disadvantage and discomfort, that I was 
alone; but then the supplies I had providentially 
thrown into my hands, by the unexpected driving 
of the ship on shore, was such a help as would 
have encouraged any creature in the world to have 
applied himself as I had done. "Senhor," says the 
Spaniard, "had we poor Spaniards been in your 
case, we should never have got half those things 
out of the ship, as you did: nay," says he, "we 
should never have found means to have got a raft 
to carry them, or to have got the raft on shore 
without boat or sail; and how much less should 
we have done if any of us had been alone ! " Well, 
I desired him to abate his compliment, and go on 
with the history of their coming on shore, where 
they landed. He told me they unhappily landed 
at a place where there were people without pro- 
visions ; whereas, had they had the common sense 
to have put off to sea again, and gone to another 
island a little farther, they had found provisions, 
though without people ; there being an island that 
way, as they had been told, where there were pro- 
visions, though no people; that is to say, that the 
Spaniards of Trinidad had frequently been there, 
and had filled the island with goats and hogs at 
several times, where they had bred in such multi- 
tudes, and where turtle and sea-fowls were in such 
plenty, that they could have been in no want of 
flesh, though they had found no bread; whereas 


here they were only sustained with a few roots and 
herbs, which they understood not and which had 
no substance in them, and which the inhabitants 
gave them sparingly enough; and who could treat 
them no better, unless they would turn cannibals, 
and eat men's flesh, which was the great dainty of 
their country. 

They gave me an account how many ways they 
strove to civilize the savages they were with, and 
to teach them rational customs in the ordinary way 
of living, but in vain; and how they retorted it 
upon them, as unjust, that they, who came there 
for assistance and support, should attempt to set up 
for instructors of those that gave them food; inti- 
mating, it seems, that none should set up for the 
instructors of others but those who could live 
without them. 

They gave me dismal accounts of the extremities 
they were driven to; how sometimes they were 
many days without any food at all, the island they 
were upon being inhabited by a sort of savages that 
lived more indolent, and for that reason were less 
supplied with the necessaries of life, than they had 
reason to believe others were in the same part of 
the world ; and yet they found that these savages 
were less ravenous and voracious than those who 
had better supplies of food. Also, they added, they 
could not but see with what demonstrations of wis- 
dom and goodness the governing providence of God 
directs the events of things in the world; which, 
they said, appeared in their circumstances; for if, 


pressed by the hardships they were under, and the 
barrenness of the country where they were, they 
had searched after a better to live in, they had then 
been out of the way of the relief that happened to 
them by my means. 

They then gave me an account how the savages 
whom they lived among expected them to go out 
with them into their wars ; and, it was true, that 
as they had fire-arms with them, had they not had 
the disaster to lose their ammunition, they should 
have been serviceable not only to their friends, but 
have made themselves terrible both to friends and 
enemies'; but being without powder and shot, and 
yet in a condition that they could not in reason 
deny to go out with their landlords to their wars, 
so, when they came into the field of battle, they 
were in a worse condition than the savages them- 
selves ; for they had neither bows nor arrows, nor 
could they use those the savages gave them: so 
they could do nothing but stand still, and be 
wounded with arrows, till they came up to the teeth 
of their enemy ; and then, indeed, the three hal- 
berds they had were of use to them; and they would 
often drive a whole little army before them with 
those halberds, and sharpened sticks put into the 
muzzles of their muskets: but that, for all this, 
they were sometimes surrounded with multitudes, 
and in great danger from their arrows, till at last 
they found the way to make themselves large tar- 
gets of wood, which they covered with skins of 
wild beasts, whose names they knew not, and these 


covered them from the arrows of the savages : yet, 
notwithstanding these, they were sometimes in 
great danger; and five of them were once knocked 
down together with the clubs of the savages, which 
was the time when one of them was taken prisoner, 
that is to say, the Spaniard whom I had relieved; 
that at first they thought he had been killed ; but 
when they afterwards heard he was taken prisoner, 
they were under the greatest grief imaginable, and 
would willingly have all ventured their lives to 
have rescued him. 

They told me that when they were so knocked 
down, the rest of their company rescued them, and 
stood over them fighting till they were come to 
themselves, ail but him who they thought had been 
dead ; and then they made their way with their hal- 
berds and pieces, standing close together in a line, 
through a body of above a thousand savages, beat- 
ing down all that came in their way, got the victory 
over their enemies, but to their great sorrow, be- 
cause it was with the loss of their friend, whom the 
other party, finding him alive, carried off, with 
some others, as I gave an account before. 

They described most affectionately how they 
were surprised with joy at the returnof their friend 
and companion in misery, who, they thought, had 
been devoured by wild beasts of the worst kind, 
viz., by wild men ; and yet how more and more 
they were surprised with the account he gave them 
of his errand, and that there was a Christian in any 
place near, much more one that was able, and had 


humanity enough, to contribute to their deliver- 

They described how they were astonished at the 
sight of the relief I sent them, and at the appear- 
ance of loaves of bread, things they had not seen 
since their coming to that miserable place ; how 
often they crossed it and blessed it as bread sent 
from Heaven; and what a reviving cordial it was 
to their spirits to taste it, as also the other things 
I had sent for their supply; and, after all, they 
would have told me something of the joy they 
were in at the sight of a boat and pilots, to carry 
them away to the person and place from whence 
all these new comforts came, but it was impossible 
to express it by words, for their excessive joy nat- 
urally driving them to unbecoming extravagances, 
they had no way to describe them but by telling 
me they bordered upon lunacy, having no way to 
give vent to their passions suitable to the sense 
that was upon them; that in some it worked one 
way, and in some another; and that some of them, 
through a surprise of joy, would burst into tears, 
others be stark mad, and others immediately faint. 
This discourse extremely affected me, and called 
to my mind Friday's ecstasy when he met his father, 
and the poor people's ecstasy when I took them up 
at sea after their ship was on fire; the joy of the 
mate of the ship when he found himself delivered 
in the place where he expected to perish; and my 
own joy, when, after twenty-eight years' captivity, 
I found a good ship ready to carry me to my own 


country. All these things made me more sensible 
of the relation of these poor men, and more affected 
with it. 

Having thus given a view of the state of things 
as I found them, I must relate the heads of what 
I did for these people, and the condition in which 
I left them. It was their opinion, and mine too, 
that they would be troubled no more with the 
savages, or, if they were, they would be able to cut 
them off if they were twice as many as before ; so 
they had no concern about that. Then I entered 
into a serious discourse with the Spaniard, whom I 
call governor, about their stay in the island ; for as 
I was not come to carry any of them off, so it would 
not be just to carry off some and leave others, who, 
perhaps, would be unwilling to stay if their strength 
was diminished. On the other hand, I told them I 
came to establish them there, not to remove them ; 
and then I let them know that I had brought with 
me relief of sundry kinds for them ; that I had been 
at a great charge to supply them with all things 
necessary as well for their convenience as their 
defence; and that I had such and such particular 
persons with me as well to increase and recruit their 
number as by the particular necessary employments 
which they were bred to, being artificers, to assist 
them in those things in which at present they were 
in want. 

They were all together when I talked thus to 
them ; and before I delivered to them the stores I 
had brought, I asked them, one by one, if they had 


entirely forgot and buried the first animosities that 
had been among them, and would shake hands with 
one another, and engage in a strict friendship and 
union of interest, that so there might be no more 
misunderstandings and jealousies. 

Will Atkins, with abundance of frankness and 
good humour, said they had met with affliction 
enough to make them all sober, and enemies enough 
to make them all friends; that, for his part, he 
would live and die with them; and was so far 
from designing anything against the Spaniards that 
he owned they had done nothing to him but what 
his own mad humour made necessary, and what he 
would have done, and perhaps worse, in their case ; 
and that he would ask them pardon, if I desired 
it, for the foolish and brutish things he had done 
to them, and was very willing and desirous of liv- 
ing in terms of entire friendship and union with 
them, and would do anything that lay in his power 
to convince them of it : and as for going to Eng- 
land, he cared not if he did not go thither these 
twenty years. 

The Spaniards said they had, indeed, at first dis- 
armed and excluded Will Atkins and his two coun- 
trymen for their ill conduct, as they had let me 
know, and they appealed to me for the necessity 
they were under to do so ; but that Will Atkins 
had behaved himself so bravely in the great fight 
they had with the savages, and on several occasions 
since, and had showed himself so faithful to, and 
concerned for, the general interest of them all, that 


they had forgotton all that was past, and thought 
he merited as much to be trusted with arms, and 
supplied with necessaries, as any of them : and they 
had testified their satisfaction in him, by commit- 
ting the command to him, next to the governor 
himself; and as they had entire confidence in him, 
and all his countrymen, so they acknowledged they 
had merited that confidence by all the methods 
that honest men could merit to be valued and 
trusted ; and they most heartily embraced the occa- 
sion of giving me this assurance, that they would 
never have any interest separate from one another. 
Upon these frank and open declarations of 
friendship, we appointed the next day to dine all 
together; and, indeed, we made a splendid feast. 
I caused the ship's cook and his mate to come on 
shore and dress our dinner, and the old cook's 
mate we had on shore assisted. We brought on 
shore six pieces of good beef, and four pieces of 
pork, out of the ship's provision, with our punch- 
bowl, and materials to fill it ; and, in particular, I 
gave them ten bottles of French claret, and ten 
bottles of English beer : things that neither the 
Spaniards nor the English had tasted for many 
years, and which, it may be supposed, they were 
very glad of. The Spaniards added to our feast 
five whole kids, which the cooks roasted : and three 
of them were sent, covered up close, on board the 
ship to the seamen, that they might feast on fresh 
meat from on shore, as we did with their salt meat 
from on board. 


After this feast, at which we were very innocently- 
merry, I brought out my cargo of goods : wherein, 
that there might be no dispute about dividing, I 
showed them that there was a sufficiency for them 
all, desiring that they might all take an equal quan- 
tity of the goods that were for wearing: that is to 
say, equal when made up. As, first, I distributed 
linen sufficient to make every one of them four 
shirts, and, at the Spaniards' request, afterwards 
made them up six; these were exceedingly comfort- 
able to them, having been what, as I may say, they 
had long since forgot the use of, or what it was to 
wear them. I allotted the thin English stuffs, which 
I mentioned before, to make everyone a light coat 
like a frock, which I judged fittest for the heat of 
the season, cool and loose ; and ordered that when- 
ever they decayed they should make more, as they 
thought fit: the like for pumps, shoes, stockings, 
hats, etc. 

I cannot express what pleasure, what satisfaction, 
sat upon the countenances of all these poor men 
when they saw the care I had taken of them, and how 
well I had furnished them. They told me I was a fa- 
ther to them ; and that, having such a correspondent 
as I was in so remote a part of the world, it would 
make them forget that they were left in a desolate 
place ; and they all voluntarily engaged to me not 
to leave the place without my consent. 

Then I presented to them the people I had 
brought with me, particularly the tailor, the smith, 
and the two carpenters, all of them most necessary 


people ; but, above all, my general artificer, than 
whom they could not name anything that was more 
useful to them : and the tailor, to show his concern 
for them, went to work immediately, and, with my 
leave, made them every one a shirt, the first thing 
he did ; and, which was still more, he taught the 
women not only how to sew and stitch, and use 
the needle, but made them assist to make the shirts 
for their husbands, and for all the rest. 

As to the carpenters, I scarce need mention how 
useful they were; for they took to pieces all my 
clumsy, unhandy things, and made them clever con- 
venient tables, stools, bedsteads, cupboards, lockers, 
shelves, and everything they wanted of that kind. 
But, to let them see how nature made artifiters at 
first, I carried the carpenter to see Will Atkins's 
basket-house, as I called it: and they both owned 
they never saw an instance of such natural ingenu- 
ity before, nor anything so regular and so hand- 
ily built, at least of its kind: and one of them, 
when he saw it, after musing a good while, turning 
about to me, " I am sure," says he, " that man has 
no need of us ; you need do nothing but give him 

Then I brought them out all my store of tools, 
and gave every man a digging-spade, a shovel, and 
a rake, for we had no harrows or ploughs; and to 
every separate place a pick-axe, a crow, a broadaxe, 
and a saw ; also appointing that, as often as any 
were broken or worn out, they should be supplied, 
without grudging, out of the general stores that I 


left behind. Nails, staples, hinges, hammers, chisels, 
knives, scissors, and all sorts of iron-work, they 
had without tale, as they required: for no man 
would take more than he wanted, and he must be 
a fool that would waste or spoil them on any 
account whatever; and, for the use of the smith, 
I left two tons of unwrought iron for a supply. 

My magazine of powder and arms which I 
brought them was such, even to profusion, that 
they could not but rejoice at them ; for now they 
could march as I used to do, with a musket upon 
each shoulder, if there was occasion; and were able 
to fight a thousand savages, if they had but some 
little advantages of situation, which also they could 
not miss, if they had occasion. 

I carried on shore with me the young man whose 
mother was starved to death, and the maid also: 
she was a sober, well-educated, religious young 
woman, and behaved so inoffensively, that every 
one gave her a good word; she had, indeed, an un- 
happy life with us, there being no woman in the 
ship but herself, but she bore it with patience. After 
a while, seeing things so well ordered, and in so 
fine a way of thriving upon my island, and consid- 
ering that they had neither business nor acquaint- 
ance in the East Indies, or reason for taking so 
long a voyage ; I say, considering all this, both of 
them came to me, and desired I would give them 
leave to remain on the island, and be entered 
among my family, as they called it. I agreed to this 
readily ; and they had a little plot of ground allot- 



ted to them, where they had three tents or houses 
set up, surrounded with a basket-work, pallisadoed 
like Atkinses, adjoining to his plantation. Their 
tents were contrived so that they had each of them 
a room apart to lodge in, and a middle tent, like a 
great storehouse, to lay their goods in, and to eat 
and drink in. And now the other two Englishmen 
removed their habitation to the same place ; and so 
the island was divided into three colonies, and no 
more, viz., the Spaniards, with old Friday, and the 
first servants, at my old habitation under the hill, 
which was, in a word, the capital city ; and where 
they had so enlarged and extended their works, as 
well under as on the outside of the hill, that they 
lived, though perfectly concealed, yet full at large. 
Never was there such a little city in a wood, and 
so hid, in any part of the world ; for I verily be- 
lieve a thousand men might have ranged the island 
a month, and, if they had not known there was such 
a thing, and looked on purpose for it, they would 
not have found it; for the trees stood so thick and 
so close, and grew so fast-woven one into another, 
that nothing but cutting them down first could dis- 
cover the place, except the only two narrow en- 
trances where they went in and out could be found, 
which was not very easy: one of them was close 
down at the water's edge, on the side of the creek, 
and it was afterwards above two hundred yards to 
the place; and the other was up a ladder at twice, 
as I have already formerly described it ; and they 
had also a large wood thick-planted on the top of 


the hill, containing above an acre, which grew 
apace, and concealed the place from all discovery 
there, with only one narrow place between two 
trees, not easily to be discovered, to enter on that 

The other colony was that of Will Atkins, where 
there were four families of Englishmen, I mean those 
I had left there, with their wives and children ; three 
savages that were slaves ; the widow and the children 
of the Englishman that was killed; the young man 
and the maid ; and, by the way, we made a wife of 
her before we went away. There was also the two 
carpenters and the tailor, whom I brought with me 
for them; also the smith, who was a very necessary 
man to them, especially as a gunsmith, to take care 
of their arms ; and my other man, whom I called 
"Jack-of-all-trades," who was in himself as good 
almost as twenty men ; for he was not only a very 
ingenious fellow, but a very merry fellow ; and be- 
fore I went away we married him to the honest maid 
that came with the youth in the ship I mentioned 

And now I speak of marrying, it brings me nat- 
urally to say something of the French ecclesiastic 
that I had brought with me out of the ship's crew 
whom I took up at sea. It is true, this man was a 
Roman, and perhaps it may give offence to some 
hereafter if I leave anything extraordinary upon 
record of a man whom, before I begin, I must (to 
set him out in just colours) represent in terms very 
much to his disadvantage, in the account of Pro- 


testants : as, first, that he was a Papist ; secondly, a 
Popish priest; and thirdly, a French Popish priest. 
But justice demands of me to give him a due char- 
acter ; and I must say he was a grave, sober, pious, 
and most religious person; exact in his life, extensive 
in his charity, and exemplary in almost everything 
he did. What then can any one say against being 
very sensible of the value of such a man, notwith- 
standing his profession ? though it may be my opin- 
ion, perhaps, as well as the opinion of others who 
shall read this, that he was mistaken. 

The first hour that I began to converse with him 
after he had agreed to go with me to the East Indies, 
I found reason to delight exceedingly in his conver- 
sation ; and he first began with me about religion in 
the most obliging manner imaginable. " Sir," says 
he, " you have not only under God [and at that he 
crossed his breast] saved my life, but you have ad- 
mitted me to go this voyage in your ship, and by your 
obliging civility have taken me into your family, giv- 
ing me an opportunity of free conversation. Now, 
sir, you see by my habit what my profession is, and 
I guess by your nation what yours is ; I may think 
it is my duty, and doubtless it Is so, to use my 
utmost endeavours, on all occasions, to bring all 
the souls I can to the knowledge of the truth, and 
to embrace the Catholic doctrine; but as I am here 
under your permission, and in your family, I am 
bound, in justice to your kindness, as well as in 
decency and good manners, to be under your 
government ; and therefore I shall not, without 


your leave, enter Into any debate on the points of 
religion in which we may not agree, farther than 
you shall give me leave." 

I told him his carriage was so modest that I could 
not but acknowledge it ; that it was true we were 
such people as they called heretics, but that he was 
not the first Catholic I had conversed with without 
falling into inconveniences, or carrying the questions 
to any height in debate ; that he should not find him- 
self the worse used for being of a different opinion 
from us ; and if we did not converse without any 
dislike on either side, it should be his fault, not 

He replied that he thought all our conversation 
might be easily separated from disputes ; that it was 
not his business to cap principles with every man 
he conversed with ; and that he rather desired me 
to converse with him as a gentleman than as a re- 
ligionist ; and that, if I would give him leave at any 
time to discourse upon religious subjects, he would 
readily comply with it, and that he did not doubt 
but I would allow him also to defend his own 
opinions as well as he could ; but that, without my 
leave, he would not break in upon me with any such 
thing. He told me farther that he would not cease 
to do all that became him, in his office as a priest 
as well as a private Christian, to procure the good 
of the ship, and the safety of all that was in her ; 
and though, perhaps, we would not join with him, 
and he could not pray with us, he hoped he might 
pray for us, which he would do upon all occasions. 


In this manner we conversed ; and, as he was of 
the most obliging, gentleman-like behaviour, so he 
was, if I may be allowed to say so, a man of good 
sense, and, as I believe, of great learning. 

He gave me a most diverting account of his life, 
and of the many extraordinary events of it ; of 
many adventures which had befallen him in the 
few years that he had been abroad in the world ; and 
particularly this was very remarkable, viz., that in 
the voyage he was now engaged in he had the mis- 
fortune to be five times shipped and unshipped, 
and never to go to the place whither any of the 
ships he was in were at first designed. That his 
first intent was to have gone to Martinico, and that 
he went on board a ship bound thither at St. Malo : 
but, being forced into Lisbon by bad weather, the 
ship received some damage by running aground in 
the mouth of the river Tagus, and was obliged to 
unload her cargo there ; but finding a Portuguese 
ship -there bound to the Madeiras, and ready to 
sail, and supposing he should easily meet with a 
vessel there bound to Martinico, he went on board, 
in order to sail to the Madeiras ; but the master 
of the Portuguese ship, being but an indifferent 
mariner, had been out of his reckoning, and they 
drove to Fayal ; where, however, he happened to 
find a very good market for his cargo, which was 
corn, and therefore resolved not to go to the Ma- 
deiras, but to load salt at the Isle of May, and to 
go away to Newfoundland. He had no remedy in 
this exigence but to go with the ship, and had a 


pretty good voyage as far as the Banks (so they call 
the place where they catch the fish) ; where, meet- 
ing with a French ship bound from France to 
Quebec, in the river of Canada, and from thence 
to Martinico, to carry provisions, he thought he 
should have an opportunity to complete his first 
design ; but when he came to Quebec the master 
of the ship died, and the vessel proceeded no 
farther: so the next voyage he shipped himself for 
France, in the ship that was burned when we took 
them up at sea; and then shipped with us for the 
East Indies, as I have already said. Thus he had 
been disappointed in five voyages, all, as I may call 
it, in one voyage, besides what I shall have occa- 
sion to mention farther of the same person. 

But I shall not make digression into other 
men's stories, which have no relation to my own : 
I return to what concerns our affairs in the island. 


HE came to me one morning, for he lodged 
among us all the while we were upon the 
island, and it happened to be just when I was going 
to visit the Englishmen's colony, at the farthest 
part of the island; I say, he came to me, and told 
me with a very grave countenance that he had for 
two or three days desired an opportunity of some 
discourse with me, which he hoped would not be 
displeasing to me, because he thought it might in 
some measure correspond with my general design, 
which was the prosperity of my new colony, and 
perhaps might put it, at least more than he thought 
it was, in the way of God's blessing. 

I looked a little surprised at the last part of his 
discourse, and, turning a little short, " How, sir," 
said I, "can it be said that we are not in the way 
of God's blessing, after such visible assistances and 
wonderful deliverances as we have seen here, and 
of which I have given you a large account ? " " If 
you had pleased sir," said he, with a world of mod- 
esty, and yet with great readiness, " to have heard 


me you would have found no room to be displeased, 
much less to think so hard of me, that I should 
suggest that you have not had wonderful assist- 
ances and deliverances ; and I hope, on your behalf, 
that you are in the way of God's blessing, as your 
design is exceeding good, and will prosper: but, 
sir, though it were more so than is even possible 
to you, yet there may be some among you that are 
not equally right in their actions ; and you know 
that, in the story of the children of Israel, one Achan 
in the camp removed God's blessing from them, 
and turned his hand so against them that six-and- 
thirty of them, though not concerned in the crime, 
were the objects of divine vengeance, and bore the 
weight of that punishment." 

I was sensibly touched with his discourse, and 
told him his influence was so just, and the whole 
design seemed so sincere, and was really so relig- 
ious in its own nature, that I was very sorry I had 
interrupted him, and begged him to go on : and 
in the mean time, because it seemed that what we 
had both to say might take up some time, I told 
him I was going to the Englishmen's plantations, 
and asked him to go with me, and we might dis- 
course of it by the way. He told me he would the 
more willingly wait on me thither, because there 
partly the thing was acted which he desired to 
speak to me about ; so we walked on, and I pressed 
him to be free and plain with me in what he had 
to say. 

"Why then, sir," says he, "be pleased to give 


me leave to lay down a few propositions, as the 
foundation of what I have to say, that we may not 
differ in the general principles, though we may be 
of some differing opinions in the practice of par- 
ticulars. First, sir, though we differ in some of the 
doctrinal articles of religion, and it is very unhappy 
it is so, especially in the case before us, as I shall 
show afterwards, yet there are some general prin- 
ciples in which we both agree, viz., that there is 
a God ; and that this God having given us some 
stated general rules for our service and obedience, 
we ought not willingly and knowingly to offend 
him, either by neglecting to do what he has com- 
manded, or by doing what he has expressly for- 
bidden ; and let our different religions be what they 
will, this general principle is readily owned by us 
all, that the blessing of God does not ordinarily 
follow presumptuous sinning against his command ; 
and every good Christian will be affectionately con- 
cerned to prevent any that are under his care living 
in a total neglect of God and his commands. It is 
not your men being Protestants, whatever my 
opinion may be of such, that discharges me from 
being concerned for their souls, and from endeav- 
ouring if it lies before me, that they should live in 
as little distance from enmity with their Maker as 
possible, especially if you give me leave to meddle 
so far in your circuit." 

I could not yet imagine what he aimed at, and 
told him I granted all he had said, and thanked him 
that he would so far concern himself for us ; and 


begged that he would explain the particulars of 
what he had observed, that, like Joshua, to take 
his own parable, I might put away the accursed 
thing from us. 

" Why then, sir,*' says he, " I will take the lib- 
erty you give me; and there are three things, which, 
if I am right, must stand in the way of God's bless- 
ing upon your endeavours here, and which I should 
rejoice, for your sake, and their own, to see re- 
moved : and, sir, I promise myself that you will 
fully agree with me in them all, as soon as I name 
them ; especially because I shall convince you that 
every one of them may, with great ease, and very 
much to your satisfaction, be remedied. First, sir," 
says he, "you have here four Englishmen, who have 
fetched women from among the savages, and have 
taken them as their wives, and have had many 
children by them all, and yet are not married to them 
after any stated, legal manner, as the laws of God 
and man require ; and therefore are yet, in the 
sense of both, no less than fornicators, if not liv- 
ing in adultery. To this, sir, I know you will 
object that there was no clergyman or priest of any 
kind, or of any profession, to perform the cere- 
mony ; nor any pen and ink, or paper, to write 
down a contract of marriage, and have it signed 
between them : and I know also, sir, what the 
Spaniard governor has told you ; I mean of the 
agreement that he obliged them to make when they 
took the women, viz., that they should choose them 
out by consent, and keep separately to them, which, 


by the way, is nothing of a marriage, no agreement 
with the women, as wives, but only an agreement 
among themselves, to keep them from quarrelling. 
But, sir, the essence of the sacrament of matri- 
mony [so he called it, being a Roman] consists 
not only in the mutual consent of the parties to 
take one another as man and wife, but in the 
formal and legal obligation that there is in the con- 
tract to compel the man and woman, at all times, 
to own and acknowledge each other ; obliging the 
man to abstain from all other women, to engage 
in no other contract while these subsist, and, on all 
occasions, as ability allows, to provide honestly for 
them and their children ; and to oblige the women 
to the same, or like conditions, mutatis mutandis, 
on their side. Now, sir," says he, " these men may 
when they please or when occasion presents, aban- 
don these women, disown their children, leave 
them to perish, and take other women and marry 
them while these are living '' : and here he added, 
with some warmth, " How, sir, is God honoured 
in this unlawful liberty ? and how shall a blessing 
succeed your endeavours in this place, however 
good in themselves, and however sincere in your 
design, while these men, who at present are your 
subjects, under your absolute government and 
dominion, are allowed by you to live in open 
adultery ? " 

I confess I was struck with the thing itself, but 
much more with the convincing arguments he sup- 
ported it with ; for it was certainly true that though 


they had no clergyman upon the spot, yet a formal 
contract on both sides, made before witnesses, and 
confirmed by any token which they had all agreed 
to be bound by, though it had been but breaking 
a stick between them, engaging the men to own 
these women for their wives upon all occasions, 
and never to abandon them or their children, and 
the women to the same with their husbands, had 
been an effectual lawful marriage in the sight of 
God ; and it was a great neglect that it was not 
done. But I thought to have got off my young 
priest by telling him that all that part was done 
when I was not here ; and they had lived so many 
years with tKem now, that if it was adultery it was 
past remedy ; they could do nothing in it now. 

" Sir," says he, " asking your pardon for such 
freedom, you are right in this that, it being done 
in your absence, you could not be charged with 
that part of the crime ; but, I beseech you, flatter 
not yourself that you are not therefore under an 
obligation to do your utmost now to put an end 
to it. How can you think but that, let the time 
past lie on whom it will, all the guilt, for the future, 
will lie entirely upon you? because it is certainly 
in your power now to put an end to it, and in no- 
body's power but yours." 

I was so dull still that I did not take him right; 
but I imagined that, by putting an end to it, he 
meant that I should part them, and not suffer them 
to live together any longer; and I said to him I 
could not do that, by any means, for that it would 


put the whole island into confusion. He seemed 
surprised that I should so far mistake him. "No, 
sir," says he, " I do not mean that you should now 
separate them, but legally and effectually marry 
them now; and as, sir, my way of marrying them 
may not be easy to reconcile them to, though it 
will be effectual, even by your own laws, so your 
way may be as well before God, and as valid among 
men; I mean, by a written contract signed by both 
man and woman, and by all the witnesses present, 
which all the laws of Europe would decree to be 

I was amazed to see so much true piety, and so 
much sincerity of zeal, besides the unusual impar- 
tiality in his discourse as to his own party or church, 
and such true warmth for preserving the people 
that he had no knowledge of or relation to ; I say, 
for preserving them from transgressing the laws of 
God, the like of which I had indeed not met with 
anywhere : but recollecting what he had said of mar- 
rying them by a written contract, which I knew he 
would stand to, I returned it back upon him, and 
told him I granted all that he had said to be just, 
and on his part very kind; that I would discourse 
with the men upon the point now, when I came to 
them; and I knew no reason why they should scru- 
ple to let him marry them all, which I knew well 
enough would be granted to be as authentic and 
valid in England as if they were married by one of 
our own clergymen. What was afterwards done in 
this matter I shall speak of by itself. 


I then pressed him to tell me what was the sec- 
ond complaint which he had to make, acknowledg- 
ing that I was very much his debtor for the first, 
and thanked him heartily for it. He told me he 
would use the same freedom and plainness in the 
second, and hoped I would take it as well; and 
this was that notwithstanding these English sub- 
jects of mine, as he called them, had lived with 
those women for almost seven years, had taught 
them to speak English, and even to read it, and 
that they were, as he perceived, women of toler- 
able understanding, and capable of instruction, yet 
they had not, to this hour, taught them anything 
of the Christian religion, no, not so much as to 
know that there was a God, or a worship, or in 
what manner God was to be served; or that their 
own idolatry, and worshipping they knew not 
whom, was false and absurd. This, he said, was 
an unaccountable neglect, and what God would cer- 
tainly call them to account for, and perhaps, at 
last, take the work out of their hands — he spoke 
this very affectionately and warmly. " I am per- 
suaded," says he, " had those men lived in the sav- 
age country whence their wives came, the savages 
would have taken more pains to have brought 
them to be idolaters, and to worship the Devil, 
than any of these men, so far as I can see, have 
taken with them to teach them the knowledge of 
the true God. Now, sir," said he, " though I do 
not acknowledge your religion, or you mine, yet 
we would be glad see the Devil's servants, and the 


subjects of his kingdom, taught to know the gen- 
eral principles of the Christian religion : that they 
might, at least, hear of God, and a Redeemer, and 
of the resurrection, and of a future state, — things 
which we all believe ; they would have, at least, 
been so much nearer coming into the bosom of the 
true church than they are now, in the public pro- 
fession of idolatry and devil-worship.** 

I could hold no longer ; I took him in my arms 
and embraced him with an excess of passion. 
" How far,'* said I to him, " have I been from un- 
derstanding the most essential part of a Christian ! 
viz., to love the interest of the Christian Church, 
and the good of other men*s souls : I scarce have 
known what belongs to the being a Christian.*' 
" Oh, sir, do not say so,*' replied he ; " this thing is 
not your fault." " No," said I, " but why did I 
never lay it to heart as well as you ? ** " It is not 
too late yet,** said he ; " be not too forward to con- 
demn yourself.** " But what can be done now ? ** 
said I ; " you see I am going away.** " Will you 
give me leave to talk to these poor men about it? ** 
" Yes, with all my heart," said I ; " and will oblige 
them to give heed to what you say too." "As to 
that," said he, " we must leave them to the mercy 
of Christ ; but it is your business to assist them, 
encourage them, and instruct them ; and if you give 
me leave, and God his blessing, I do not doubt 
but the poor ignorant souls shall be brought home 
to the great circle of Christianity, if not into the 
particular faith we all embrace, and that even while 


you stay here/' Upon this I said, " I shall not 
only give you leave, but give you a thousand 
thanks for it." What followed on this account I 
shall mention also again in its place. 

I now pressed him for the third article in which 
we were to blame. "Why, really," says he, "it is 
of the same nature ; and I will proceed, asking 
your leave, with the same plainness as before ; it is 
about your poor savages, who are, as I may say, 
your conquered subjects. It is a maxim, sir, that 
is, or ought to be, received among all Christians, 
of what church, or pretended church soever, viz., 
the Christian knowledge ought to be propagated 
by all possible means, and on all possible occasions. 
It is on this principle that our Church sends mis- 
sionaries into Persia, India, China ; and that our 
clergy, even of the superior sort, willingly engage 
in the most hazardous voyages, and the most dan- 
gerous residence among murderers and barbarians, 
to teach them the knowledge of the true God, and 
to bring them over to embrace the Christian faith. 
Now, sir, you have such an opportunity here to 
have six- or seven-and-thirty poor savages brought 
over from idolatry to the knowledge of God, their 
Maker and Redeemer, that I wonder how you can 
pass such an occasion of doing good, which is really 
worth the expense of a man's whole life." 

I was now struck dumb, indeed, and had not one 
word to say. I had here a spirit of true Christian 
zeal for God and religion before me, let his par- 
ticular principles be of what kind soever : as for 


me, I had not so much as entertained a thought of 
this in my heart before, and I believe I should not 
have thought of it ; for I looked upon these sav- 
ages as slaves, and people whom, had we any work 
for them to do, we would have used as such, or 
would have been glad to have transported them to 
any other part of the world : for our business was 
to get rid of them ; and we would all have been sat- 
isfied if they had been sent to any country, so they 
had never seen their own. But to the case ; — I say, 
I was confounded at his discourse, and knew not 
what answer to make him. 

He looked earnestly at me, seeing me in some 
disorder — " Sir,*' says he, " I shall be very sorry 
if what I have said gives you any offence." " No, 
no,'' said I, " I am offended with nobody but my- 
self; but I am perfectly confounded, not only to 
think that I should never take any notice of this 
before, but with reflecting what notice I am able to 
take of it now. You know, sir," said I, " what cir- 
cumstances I am in ; I am bound to the East Indies 
in a ship freighted by merchants, and to whom it 
would be an insufferable piece of injustice to detain 
their ship here, the men lying all this while at vict- 
uals and wages on the owners' account. It is true, 
I agreed to be allowed twelve days here, and if I 
stay more, I must pay three pounds sterling per 
diem demurrage ; nor can I stay upon demurrage 
above eight days more, and I have been here thir- 
teen already ; so that I am perfectly unable to engage 
in this work, unless I would suffer myself to be left 


behind here again ; in which case, if this single ship 
should miscarry in any part of her voyage, I should 
be just in the same condition that I was left in here, 
at first, and from which I have been so wonderfully 
delivered." He owned the case was very hard upon 
me, as to my voyage, but laid it home upon my con- 
science, whether the blessing of saving thirty-seven 
souls was not worth venturing all I had in the world 
for. I was not so sensible of that as he was. I re- 
turned upon him thus : " Why, sir, it is a valuable 
thing, indeed, to be an instrument in God's hand 
to convert thirty-seven heathens to the knowledge 
of Christ ; but as you are an ecclesiastic, and are 
given over to the work, so that it seems so naturally 
to fall into the way of your profession, how is it then 
that you do not rather offer yourself to undertake 
it than press me to do it ? " 

Upon this he faced about just before me, as he 
walked along, and putting me to a full stop, made 
me a very low bow. "I most heartily thank God 
and you, sir," said he, " for giving me so evident 
a call to so blessed a work ; and if you think your- 
self discharged from it, and desire me to undertake 
it, I will most readily do it, and think it a happy 
reward for all the hazards and difficulties of such 
a broken, disappointed voyage as I have met 
with, that I am dropped at last into so glorious 
a work." 

I discovered a kind of rapture in his face while 
he spoke this to me ; his eyes sparkled like fire, his 
face glowed, and his colour came and went, as if 


he had been falling into fits; in a word, he was fired 
with the joy of being embarked in such a work. I 
paused a considerable while before I could tell what 
to say to him ; for I was really surprised to find a 
man of such sincerity and zeal, and carried out in 
his zeal beyond the ordinary rate of men, not of his 
profession only, but even of any profession whatso- 
ever. But after I had considered it a while, I asked 
him seriously if he was in earnest, and that he would 
venture, on the single consideration of an attempt 
on those poor people, to be locked up in an un- 
planted island for perhaps his life, and at last might 
not know whether he should be able to do them 
good or not ? 

He turned short upon me, and asked me what 
I called a venture ? " Pray, sir," said he, " what do 
you think I consented to go in your ship to the East 
Indies for?" "Nay," said I, "that I know not, 
unless it was to preach to the Indians." "Doubt- 
less it was," said he ; " and do you think, if I can 
convert these thirty-seven men to the faith of Je- 
sus Christ, it is not worth my time, though I should 
never be fetched off the island again ? Nay, is it 
not infinitely of more worth to save so many souls 
than my life is, or the life of twenty more of the 
same profession ? Yes, sir," says he, " I would give 
Christ and the Blessed Virgin thanks all my days, 
if I could be made the least happy instrument of 
saving the souls of those poor men, though I were 
never to set my foot off this island, or see my nat- 
ive country any more. But since you will honour 


me with putting me into this work, for which I will 
pray for you all the days of my life, I have one 
humble petition to you besides." " What is that ? " 
said I. " Why," says he, " it is that you will leave 
your man Friday with me, to be my interpreter to 
them, and to assist me ; for without some help I 
cannot speak to them, or they to me." 

I was sensibly touched at his requesting Friday, 
because I could not think of parting with him, and 
that for many reasons : he had been the companion 
of my travels ; he was not only faithful to me, but 
sincerely affectioilate to the last degree; and I had 
resolved to do something considerable for him if 
he outlived me, as it was probable he would. Then 
I knew that as I had bred Friday up to be a Protest- 
ant, it would quite confound him to bring him to 
embrace another profession ; and he would never, 
while his eyes were open, believe that his old mas- 
ter was a heretic, and would be damned ; and this 
might, in the end, ruin the poor fellow's princi- 
ples, and so turn him back again to his first idol- 
atry. However, a sudden thought relieved me in 
this strait, and it was this : I told him I could not 
say that I was willing to part with Friday on any 
account whatever, though a work that to him was 
of more value than his life ought to be to me of 
much more value than the keeping or parting with 
a servant. But, on the other hand, I was persuaded 
that Friday would by no means agree to part with 
me: and I could not force him to it without his 
consent, without manifest injustice ; because I had 

Plate XV 


promised I would never put him away, and he had 
promised and engaged to me that he would never 
leave me unless I put him away. 

He seemed very much concerned at it, for he 
had no rational access to these poor people, seeing 
he did not understand one word of their language, 
nor they one word of his. To remove this dif- 
ficulty, I told him Friday's father had learned 
Spanish, which I found he also understood, and he 
should serve him as an interpreter. So he was much 
better satisfied, and nothing could persuade him 
but he would stay and endeavour to convert them; 
but Providence gave another very happy turn to 
all this. 

I come back now to the first part of his objec- 
tions. When we came to the Englishmen, I sent 
for them all together, and after some account given 
them of what I had done for them, viz., what nec- 
essary things I had provided for them, and how 
they were distributed, which they were very sens- 
ible of, and very thankful for, I began to talk to 
them of the scandalous life they led, and gave them 
a full account of the notice the clergyman had taken 
of it; and, arguing how unchristian and irreligious 
a life it was, I first asked them if they were mar- 
ried men or bachelors ? They soon explained their 
conditions to me, and showed that two of them 
were widowers, and the other three were single 
men, or bachelors. I asked them with what con- 
science they could take those women, and lie with 
them as they had done, call them their wives, and 


have so many children by them, and not be law- 
fully married to them ? 

They all gave me the answer I expected, viz., 
that there was nobody to marry them; that they 
agreed before the governor to keep them as their 
wives, and to maintain them and own them as their 
wives; and they thought, as things stood with 
them, they were as legally married as if they had 
been married by a parson, and with all the formal- 
ities in the world. 

I told them that no doubt they were married in 
the sight of God, and were bound in conscience to 
keep them as their wives; but that the laws of men 
being otherwise, they might desert the poor women 
and children hereafter; and that their wives being 
poor desolate women, friendless and moneyless, 
would have no way to help themselves. I therefore 
told them that, unless I was assured of their honest 
intent, I could do nothing for them, but would 
take care that what I did should be for the women 
and children without them ; and that, unless they 
would give me some assurances that they would 
marry the women, I could not think it was conven- 
ient they should continue together as man and 
wife ; for it was both scandalous to men and offens- 
ive to God, who they could not think would bless 
them if they went on thus. 

All this went on as I expected; and they told 
me, especially Will Atkins, who now seemed to 
speak for the rest, that they loved their wives as 
well as if they had been born in their own native 


country, and would not leave them upon any ac- 
count whatever: and they did verily believe their 
wives were as virtuous and as modest, and did, to 
the utmost of their skill, as much for them and 
for their children as any women could possibly do ; 
and they would not part with them on any account : 
and Will Atkins, for his own particular, added that 
if any man would take him away, and offer to carry 
him home to England, and make him captain of 
the best man-of-war in the navy, he would not go 
with him, if he might not carry his wife and child- 
ren with him ; and if there was a clergyman in the 
ship he would be married to her now with all his 

This was just as I would have it: the priest was 
not with me at that moment, but was not far off; 
so, to try him farther, I told him I had a clergy- 
man with me, and, if he was sincere, I would have 
him married next morning, and bade him consider 
of it, and talk with the rest. He said, as for him- 
self, he need not consider of it at all, for he was 
very ready to do it, and was glad I had a minister 
with me, and he believed they would be all willing 
also. I then told him that my friend, the minister, 
was a Frenchman, and could not speak English, 
but I would act the clerk between them. He never 
so much as asked me whether he was a Papist or 
Protestant, which was indeed what I was afraid of; 
so we parted: I went back to my clergyman, and 
Will Atkins went in to talk with his companions. 
I desired the French gentleman not to say any- 


thing to them till the business was thorough ripe : 
and I told him what answer the men had given me. 

Before I went from their quarter, they all came 
to me and told me they had been considering what 
I had said; that they were glad to hear I had a 
clergyman in my company, and they were very will- 
ing to give me the satisfaction I desired, and to be 
formally married as soon as I pleased; for they were 
far from desiring to part with their wives, and that 
they meant nothing but what was very honest when 
they chose them. So I appointed them to meet me 
the next morning, and, in the mean time, they 
should let their wives know the meaning of the 
marriage law ; and that it was not only to prevent 
any scandal, but also to oblige them that they should 
not forsake them, whatever might happen. 

The women were easily made sensible of the 
meaning of the thing, and were very well satisfied 
with it, as indeed they had reason to be: so they 
failed not to attend all together at my apartment 
next morning, where I brought out my clergyman ; 
and though he had not on a minister's gown, after 
the manner of England, or the habit of a priest, 
after the manner of France, yet having a black vest, 
something like a cassock, with a sash round it, he 
did not look very unlike a minister; and as for his 
language, I was his interpreter. But the seriousness 
of his behaviour to them, and the scruples he made 
of marrying the women because they were not bap- 
tized and professed Christians, gave them an ex- 
ceeding reverence for his person ; and there was no 


need, after that, to inquire whether he was a clergy- 
man or not. Indeed, I was afraid his scruples would 
have been carried so far as that he would not have 
married them at all ; nay, notwithstanding all I was 
able to say to him, he resisted me, though mod- 
estly, yet very steadily : and at last refused abso- 
lutely to marry them unless he had first talked with 
the men and the women too; and though I at first 
was a little backward to it, yet at last I agreed to 
it with a good will, perceiving the sincerity of his 

When he came to them he let them know that 
I had acquainted him with their circumstances, and 
with the present design; that he was very willing 
to perform that part of his function, and marry 
them, as I had desired ; but that, before he could 
do it, he must take the liberty to talk with them. 
He told them that in the sight of all indifferent 
men, and in the sense of the laws of society, they 
had lived all this while in open fornication; and that 
it was true that nothing but the consenting to marry, 
or effectually separating them from one another, 
could now put an end to it ; but there was a dif- 
ficulty in it, too, with respect to the laws of Christ- 
Ian matrimony, which he was not fully satisfied 
about, viz., that of marrying one that is a professed 
Christian to a savage, an idolater, and a heathen, 
one that Is not baptized; and yet that he did not 
see that there was time left to endeavour to per- 
suade the women to be baptized, or to profess the 
name of Christ, whom they had, he doubted, heard 


nothing of, and without which they could not be 
baptized. He told them he doubted they were but 
indifferent Christians themselves : that they had but 
little knowledge of God or of his ways, and there- 
fore he could not expect that they had said much 
to their wives on that head yet; but that, unless 
they would promise him to use their endeavours 
with their wives to persuade them to become 
Christians, and would, as well as they could, in- 
struct them in the knowledge and belief of God 
that made them, and to worship Jesus Christ that 
redeemed them, he could not marry them; for he 
would have no hand in joining Christians with 
savages; nor was it consistent with the principles 
of the Christian religion, and was indeed expressly 
forbidden in God's law. 

They heard all this very attentively, and I de- 
livered it very faithfully to them from his mouth, 
as near his own words as I could ; only sometimes 
adding something of my own, to convince them 
how just it was, and how I was of his mind : and I 
always very faithfully distinguished between what 
I said from myself, and what were the clergyman's 
words. They told me it was very true, what the 
gentlemen said, that they were very indifferent 
Christians themselves, and that they had never 
talked to their wives about religion. " Lord, sir," 
says Will Atkins, " how should we teach them re- 
ligion? why, we know nothing ourselves; and be- 
sides, sir," said he, "should we talk to them of God 
and Jesus Christ, and heaven and hell, it would 


make them laugh at us, and ask us what we believe 
ourselves. And if we should tell them that we be- 
lieve all the things we speak of to them, such as of 
good people going to heaven, and wicked people 
to the Devil, they would ask us where we intend to 
go ourselves, that believe all this, and are such 
wicked fellows as we indeed are. Why, sir, 'tis 
enough to give them a surfeit of religion at first 
hearing; folks must have some religion themselves 
before they pretend to teach other people." "Will 
Atkins,'* said I to him, "though I am afraid that 
what you say has too much truth in it, yet can you 
not tell your wife she is in the wrong; that there 
is a God, and a religion better than her own; that 
her gods are idols ; that they can neither hear nor 
speak ; that there is a great Being that made all 
things, and that can destroy all that he has made; 
that he rewards the good and punishes the bad ; 
and that we are to be judged by him at last for all 
we do here? You are not so ignorant but even 
nature itself will teach you that all this is true; and 
I am satisfied you know it all to be true, and be- 
lieve it yourself" "That is true, sir," said Atkins; 
"but with what face can I say anything to my wife 
of all this, when she will tell me immediately it 
cannot be true?" "Not true! "said I; "what do you 
mean by that?" "Why, sir," said he, "she will 
tell me it cannot be true that this God I shall tell 
her of can be just, or can punish or reward, since 
I am not punished and sent to the Devil, that have 
been such a wicked creature as she knows I have 


been, even to her, and to everybody else ; and that 
I should be suffered to live, that have been always 
acting so contrary to what I must tell her is good, 
and to what I ought to have done." "Why, truly, 
Atkins,'' said I, "I am afraid thou speakest too 
much truth"; and with that I informed the cler- 
gyman of what Atkins had said, for he was impa- 
tient to know. " O," said the priest, " tell him there 
is one thing will make him the best minister in the 
world to his wife, and that is, repentance ; for none 
teach repentance like true penitents. He wants no- 
thing but to repent, and then he will be so much 
the better qualified to instruct his wife : he will then 
be able to tell her that there is not only a God, and 
that he is the just rewarder of good and evil, but 
that he is a merciful Being, and with infinite good- 
ness and long-suflFering forbears to punish those 
thatoflfend; waiting to be gracious, and willing not 
the death of a sinner, but rather that he should 
return and live : that oftentimes he suffers wicked 
men to go a long time, and even reserves damna- 
tion to the general day of retribution : that it is 
a clear evidence of God and of a future state that 
righteous men receive not their reward, or wicked 
men their punishment, till they come into another 
world; and this will lead him to teach his wife the 
doctrine of the resurrection and of the last judg- 
ment. Let him but repent for himself, he will be 
an excellent preacher of repentance to his wife." 

I repeated all this to Atkins, who looked very 
serious all the while, and who, we could easily 


perceive, was more than ordinarily affected with it: 
when being eager, and hardly suffering me to make 
an end — " I know all this, master," says he, "and 
a great deal more ; but I have not the impudence 
to talk thus to my wife, when God and my con- 
science know, and my wife will be an undeniable 
evidence against me, that I have lived as if I had 
never heard of a God or future state, or anything 
about it ; and to talk of my repenting, alas ! [and 
with that he fetched a deep sigh, and I could see 
that the tears stood in his eyes] 't is past all that 
with me." " Past it, Atkins ?" said I ;" what dost 
thou mean by that ? " " I know well enough what 
I mean," says he; "I mean *tis too late, and that 
is too true." 

I told the clergyman, word for word, what he 
said : the poor zealous priest, — I must call him 
so, for, be his opinion what it will, he had certainly 
amost singular affection for the goodof other men's 
souls, and it would be hard to think he had not 
the like for his own, — I say, this affectionate man 
could not refrain from tears ; but, recovering him- 
self, said to me, "Ask him but one question : Is 
he easy that it is too late ; or is he troubled, and 
wishes it were not so ? " I put the question fairly 
to Atkins ; and he answered, with a great deal of 
passion, how could any man be easy in a condition 
that must certainly end in eternal destruction? that 
he was far from being easy ; but that, on the con- 
trary, he believed it would, one time or other, ruin 
him. " What do you mean by that ? " said I. Why, 


he said, he believed he should one time or other 
cut his throat, to put an end to the terror of it. 

The clergyman shook his head with great con- 
cern in his face, when I told him all this; but turn- 
ing quick to me upon it, says, " If that be his case, 
we may assure him it is not too late ; Christ will give 
him repentance. But, pray,** says he, "explain this 
to him ; that as no man is saved but by Christ, and 
the merit of his passion procuring divine mercy for 
him, how can it be too late for any man to receive 
mercy ? Does he think he is able to sin beyond the 
power or reach of divine mercy? Pray tell him, 
there may be a time when provoked mercy will no 
longer strive, and when God may refuse to hear, but 
that it is never too late for men to ask mercy ; and 
we that are Christ's servants are commanded to 
preach mercy at all times, in the nam e of Jesus Christ, 
to all those that sincerely repent ; so that it is never 
too late to repent." 

I told Atkins all this, and he heard me with 
great earnestness ; but it seemed as if he turned off 
the discourse to the rest, for he said to me he would 
go and have some talk with his wife; so he went 
out a while, and we talked to the rest. I perceived 
they were all stupidly ignorant as to matters of 
religion, as much as I was when I went rambling 
away from my father; and yet there were none of 
them backward to hear what had been said; and all 
of them seriously promised that they would talk with 
their wives about it, and do their endeavours to 
persuade them to turn Christians. 


The clergyman smiled upon me when I reported 
what answer they gave, but said nothing a good 
while ; but at last, shaking his head, "We that are 
Christ's servants," says he, "can go no farther than 
to exhort and instruct; and when men comply, 
submit to the reproof, and promise what we ask, 
'tis all we can do ; we are bound to accept their 
good words ; but, believe me, sir," said he, "what- 
ever you may have known of the life of that man 
you call Will Atkins, I believe he is the only sin- 
cere convert among them : I take that man to be 
a true penitent: I will not despair of the rest; but 
that man is apparently struck with the sense of his 
past life, and I doubt not, when he comes to talk 
of religion to his wife, he will talk himself effectu- 
ally into it ; for attempting to teach others is some- 
times the best way of teaching ourselves. I know a 
man, who, having nothing but a summary notion 
of religion himself, and being wicked and profli- 
gate to the last degree in his life, made a thor- 
ough reformation in himself by labouring to con- 
vert a Jew. If that poor Atkins begins but once 
to talk seriously of Jesus Christ to his wife, my 
life for it, he talks himself into a thorough convert, 
makes himself a penitent; and who knows what 
may follow?" 

Upon this discourse, however, and their promis- 
ing, as above, to endeavour to persuade their wives 
to embrace Christianity, he married the other two 
couple; but Will Atkins and his wife were not yet 
come in. After this, my clergyman, waiting a while, 


was curious to know where Atkins was gone ; and 
turning to me, said, " I entreat you, sir, let us walk 
out of your labyrinth here, and look; I dare say we 
shall find this poor man somewhere or other talk- 
ing seriously to his wife, and teaching her already 
something of religion/* I began to be of the same 
mind ; so we went out together, and I carried him a 
way which none knew but myself,and where the trees 
were so very thick that it was not easy to see through 
the thicket of leaves, and far harder to see in than 
to see out; when coming to the edge of the wood, 
I saw Atkins and his tawny wife sitting under the 
shade of a bush, very eager in discourse : I stopped 
short till my clergyman came up to me, and then, 
having showed him where they were, we stood and 
looked very steadily at them a good while. We ob- 
served him very earnest with her, pointing up to 
the sun, and to every quarter of the heavens, and 
then down to the earth, then out to the sea, then 
to himself, then to her, to the woods, to the trees. 
"Now," says the clergyman, "you see my words 
are made good, the man preaches to her; mark him 
now, he is telling her that our God has made him and 
her,and the heavens, the earth, the sea, the woods,the 
trees, etc." " I believe he is," said I. Immediately 
we perceived Will Atkins start upon his feet, fall 
down on his knees, and lift up both his hands. We 
supposed he said something, but we could not hear 
him ; it was too far for that. He did not continue 
kneeling half a minute, but comes and sits down 
again by his wife, and talks to her again ; we per- 


ceived then the woman very attentive, but whether 
she said anything to him, we could not tell. While 
the poor fellow was upon his knees, I could see the 
tears run plentifully down my clergyman's cheeks, 
and I could hardly forbear myself; but it was a 
great affliction to us both that we were not near 
enough to hear anything that passed between them. 
Well, however, we could come no nearer, for fear 
of disturbing them ; so we resolved to see an end 
to this piece of still conversation, and it spoke loud 
enough to us without the help of voice. He sat 
down again, as I have said, close by her, and talked 
again earnestly to her, and two or three times we 
could see him embrace her most passionately ; an- 
other time we saw him take out his handkerchief 
and wipe her eyes, and then kiss her again, with a 
kind of transport very unusual ; and after several 
of these things, we saw him on a sudden jump up 
again, and lend her his hand to help her up, when 
immediately leading her by the hand a step or two, 
they both kneeled down together, and continued 
so about two minutes. 

My friend could bear it no longer, but cries out 
aloud, "St.Paul! St. Paul! behold he prayeth." I was 
afraid Atkins would hear him, therefore I entreated 
him to withhold himself a while, that we might see 
an end of the scene, which to me, I must confess, 
was the most affecting that ever I saw in my life. 
Well, he strove with himself for a while, but was 
in such raptures to think that the poor heathen 
woman was become a Christian that he was not 


able to contain himself; he wept several times, 
then, throwing up his hands and crossing his breast, 
said over several things ejaculatory, and by way of 
giving God thanks for so miraculous a testimony 
of the success of our endeavours ; some he spoke 
softly, and I could not well hear others ; some in 
Latin, some in French ; then two or three times the 
tears would interrupt him ; that he could not speak at 
all ; but I begged that he would contain himself, and 
let us more narrowly and fully observe what was 
before us, which he did for a time, the scene not 
being near ended yet ; for after the poor man and 
his wife were risen again from their knees, we ob- 
served he stood talking still eagerly to her, and we 
observed her motion, that she was greatly affected 
with what he said, by her frequently lifting up her 
hands, laying her hand to her breast, and such other 
postures as express the greatest seriousness and at- 
tention : this continued about half a quarter of an 
hour, and then they walked away; so we could see 
no more of them in that situation. I took this in- 
terval to talk with my clergyman ; and first, I was 
glad to see the particulars we had both been wit- 
nesses to, that though I was hard enough of belief 
in such cases, yet that I began to think it was all 
very sincere here, both in the man and his wife, 
however ignorant they might both be, and I hoped 
such a beginning would yet have a more happy 
end: "And who knows," said I, "but these two 
may in time, by instruction and example, work 
upon some of the others?" " Some of them? " said 


he, turning quick upon me ; " aye, upon all of them : 
depend upon it, if those two savages, for he has 
been but little better as you relate it, should embrace 
Jesus Christ, they will never leave it till they work 
upon all the rest ; for true religion is naturally 
communicative, and he that is once made a Christ- 
ian will never leave a pagan behind him if he can 
help it." I owned it was a most Christian principle 
to think so, and a testimony of true zeal, as well 
as a generous heart, in him. " But, my friend," 
said I, " will you give me leave to start one dif- 
ficulty here ? I cannot tell how to object the least 
thing against that affectionate concern which you 
show for the turning the poor people from their 
paganism to the Christian religion : but how does 
this comfort you while these people are, in your 
account, out of the pale of the Catholic Church, 
without which you believe there is no salvation ? 
so that you esteem these but heretics, and for other 
reasons as effectually lost as the pagans themselves." 
To this he answered, with abundance of candour, 
thus: "Sir, I am a Catholic of the Roman Church, 
and a priest of the order of St. Benedict, and I em- 
brace all the principles of the Roman faith ; but yet, 
if you will believe me, and that I do not speak in 
compliment to you, or in respect to my circum- 
stances and your civilities; I say, nevertheless, I do 
not look upon you who call yourselves reformed, 
without some charity : I dare not say (though I 
know it is our opinion in general) that you cannot 
be saved; I will by no means limit the mercy of 


Christ so far as to think that he cannot receive you 
into the bosom of his Church, in a manner to us 
unperceivable ; and I hope you have the same 
charity for us : I pray daily for your being all re- 
stored to Christ's Church, by whatsoever method 
he, who is all- wise, is pleased to direct. In the 
mean time, sure you will allow it consists with me, 
as a Roman, to distinguish far between a Protest- 
ant and a Pagan; between one that calls on Jesus 
Christ, though in a way which I do not think is 
according to the true faith, and a savage or a bar- 
barian, that knows no God, no Christ, no Redeemer ; 
and if you are not within the pale of the Catholic 
Church, we hope you are nearer being restored to 
it than those that know nothing of God or of his 
Church: and I rejoice, therefore, when I see this 
poor man, who, you say, has been a profligate, and 
almost a murderer, kneel down and pray to Jesus 
Christ, as we suppose he did, though not fully 
enlightened ; believing that God, from whom every 
such work proceeds, will sensibly touch his heart, 
and bring him to the further knowledge of that 
truth in his own time : and if God shall influence 
this poor man to convert and instruct the ignorant 
savage, his wife, I can never believe that he shall 
be cast away himself. And have I not reason then 
to rejoice the nearer any are brought to the know- 
ledge of Christ, though they may not be brought 
quite home into the bosom of the Catholic Church 
just at the time when I may desire it, leaving it to 
the goodness of Christ to perfect his work in his 


own time, and in his own way? Certainly, I would 
rejoice if all the savages in America were brought, 
like this poor woman, to pray to God, though they 
were all to be Protestants at first, rather than they 
should continue pagans or heathens ; firmly believ- 
ing that he that had bestowed the first light to them 
would farther illuminate them with a beam of his 
heavenly grace, and bring them into the pale of 
his Church, when he should see good." 


1WAS astonished at the sincerity and temper of 
this pious Papist, as much as I was oppressed by 
the power of his reasoning ; and it presently occurred 
to my thoughts that if such a temper was universal, 
we might be all Catholic Christians, whatever church 
or particular profession we joined in; that a spirit 
of charity would soon work us all into right princi- 
ples ; and as he thought that the like charity would 
make us all Catholics, so I told him I believed had 
all the members of his church the like moderation, 
they would soon all be Protestants. — And there 
we left that part; for we never disputed at all. 

However, I talked to him another way, and tak- 
ing him by the hand, " My friend," says I, " I wish 
all the clergy of the Romish Church were blest with 
such moderation, and had an equal share of your 
charity. I am entirely of your opinion: but I must 
tell you that if you should preach such doctrine in 
Spain or Italy, they would put you into the Inqui- 
sition." "It may be so," said he; "I know not 
what they would do in Spain or Italy ; but I will not 


say they would be the better Christians for that se- 
verity ; for I am sure there is no heresy in abound- 
ing with charity." 

As Will Atkins and his wife were gone, our busi- 
ness there was over, so we went back our own way ; 
and when we came back, we found them waiting 
to be called in : observing this, I asked my clergy- 
man if we should discover to him that we had seen 
him under the bush or not; and it was his opinion 
we should not, but that we should talk to him first, 
and hear what he would say to us ; so we called him 
in alone, nobody being in the place but ourselves, 
and I began with him thus : 

" Will Atkins," said I, " prithee what education 
had you ? What was your father ? " 

W. A. " A better man than ever I shall be : 
Sir, my father was a clergyman." 

R. C. " What education did he give you ? " 

W. A. "He would have taught me well, sir; 
but I despised all education, instruction, or cor- 
rection, like a beast as I was." 

R. C. " It is true, Solomon says. He that de- 
spises reproof is brutish." 

W. A. "Aye, sir, I was brutish indeed, for I 
murdered my father : for God's sake, sir, talk no 
more about that, sir ; I murdered my poor father." 

Pr. " Ha ! a murderer ! " 

Here the priest started (for I interpreted every 
word as he spoke) and looked pale : it seems he 
believed that Will had really killed his father. 

R. C. " No, no, sir, I do not understand him 


so : Will Atkins, explain yourself; you did not 
kill your father, did you, with your own hands ? " 

W. A. " No, sir, I did not cut his throat ; but 
I cut the thread of all his comforts, and shortened 
his days : I broke his heart by the most ungrate- 
ful, unnatural return for the most tender and affec- 
tionate treatment that father ever gave, or child 
could receive." 

R. C. "Well, I did not ask you about your 
father, to extort this confession : I pray God give 
you repentance for it, and forgive that and all your 
other sins; but I asked you because I see that 
though you have not much learning, yet you are 
not so ignorant as some are in things that are good ; 
that you have known more of religion, a great deal, 
than you have practised." 

W. A. "Though you, sir, did not extort the 
confession that I made about my father, conscience 
does ; and whenever we come to look back upon 
our lives, the sins against our indulgent parents 
are certainly the first that touch us ; the wounds 
they make lie deepest, and the weight they leave 
will lie heaviest upon the mind, of all the sins we 
can commit." 

R. C. " You talk too feelingly and sensibly for 
me, Atkins ; I cannot bear it." 

W. A. " You bear it, master ! I dare say you 
know nothing of it." 

R. C. " Yes, Atkins ; every shore, every hill, 
nay, I may say every tree in this island, is witness 
to the anguish of my soul for my ingratitude and 


bad usage of a good, tender father ; a father much 
like yours, by your description : and I murdered 
my father as well as you. Will Atkins ; but I think, 
for all that, my repentance is short of yours too, 
by a great deal." 

I would have said more if I could have restrained 
my passions ; but I thought this poor man's repent- 
ance was so much sincerer than mine that I was 
going to leave off the discourse and retire ; for I 
was surprised with what he had said, and thought 
that instead of my going about to teach and instruct 
him, this man was made a teacher and instructor 
to me in a most surprising and unexpected man- 

I laid all this before the young clergyman, who 
was greatly affected with it, and said to me, " Did 
I not say, sir, that when this man was converted 
he would preach to us all ? I tell you, sir, if this 
one man be made a true penitent, here will be no 
need of me ; he will make Christians of all in the 

But having a little composed myself, I renewed 
my discourse with Will Atkins. " But, Will," said 
I, " how comes the sense of this matter to touch 
you just now ? " 

W. A. " Sir, you have set me about a work that 
has struck a dart through my very soul ; I have 
been talking about God and religion to my wife, 
in order, as you directed me, to make a Christian 
of her, and she has preached such a sermon to me 
as I shall never forget while I live." 


R. C. " No, no, it is not your wife has preached 
to you ; but when you were moving religious ar- 
guments to her, conscience has flung them back 
upon you." 

W. A. "Aye, sir, with such force as is not to 
be resisted." 

R. C. " Pray, Will, let us know what passed 
between you and your wife ; for I know something 
of it already." 

W. A. " Sir, it is impossible to give you a full 
account of it; I am too full to hold it, and yet have 
no tongue to express it ; but let her have said what 
she will, and though I cannot give you an account 
of it, this I can tell you, that I have resolved to 
amend and reform my life." 

R. C. " But tell us some of it : how did you be- 
gin, Will ? For this has been an extraordinary case, 
that is certain. She has preached a sermon, indeed, 
if she has wrought this upon you." 

W. A. " Why, I first told her the nature of our 
laws about marriage, and what the reasons were 
that men and women were obliged to enter into 
such compacts as it was neither in the power of one 
nor other to break; that otherwise, order and jus- 
tice could not be maintained, and men would run 
from their wives, and abandon their children, mix 
confusedly with one another, and neither families 
be kept entire, nor inheritances be settled by legal 

R. C. "You talk like a civilian, Will. Could 
you make her understand what you meant by in- 


heritance and families ? They know no such things 
among the savages, but marry anyhow, without 
regard to relation, consanguinity, or family ; bro- 
ther and sister, nay, as I have been told, even the 
father and the daughter, and the son and the 

W. A. '* I believe, sir, you are misinformed, and 
my wife assures me of the contrary, and that they 
abhor it ; perhaps, for any farther relations, they 
may not be so exact as we are ; but she tells me 
they never touch one another in the near relation- 
ship you speak of" 

R. C. " Well, what did she say to what you 
told her?" 

W. A. " She said she liked it very well, and it 
was much better than in her country." 

R. C. " But did you tell her what marriage 
was r 

W. A. " Aye, aye ; there began our dialogue. 
I asked her if she would be married to me our way. 
She asked me what way that was. I told her mar- 
riage was appointed by God ; and here we had a 
strange talk together, indeed, as ever man and wife 
had, I believe." 

N. B. This dialogue between Will Atkins and 
his wife I took down in writing, just after he had 
told it me, which was as follows : 

Wife. " Appointed by your God ! Why, have 
you a God In your country ? " 

W. A. "Yes, my dear, God Is In every coun- 


Wife. " No you God in my country; my coun- 
try have the great old Benamuckee God." 

W. A. " Child, I am very unfit to show you 
who God is : God is in heaven, and made the 
heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that in 
them is.'* 

Wife. " No makee de earth ; no you God 
makee all earth ; no makee my country/' 

Will Atkins laughed a little at her expression 
of God not making her country. 

Wife. " No laugh ; why laugh me ? This no- 
thing to laugh." 

He was justly reproved by his wife, for she was 
more serious than he at first. 

W. A. " That 's true, indeed; I will not laugh 
any more, my dear." 

Wife. " Why you say you God makee all ? " 

W. A. "Yes, child, our God made the whole 
world, and you and me, and all things; for he is 
the only true God, and there is no God but him ; 
he lives for ever in heaven." 

Wife. " Why you no tell me long ago ? " 

W. A. " That 's true, indeed ; but I have been 
a wicked wretch, and have not only forgotten to 
acquaint thee with anything before, but have lived 
without God in the world myself." 

Wife. "What! have you a great God in your 
country, you no know him ? No say ' O * to him. 
No do good thing for him ? That no pos- 

W. A. " It is true, though, for all that ; we live 


as if there was no God in heaven, or that he had 
no power on earth." 

Wife. " But why God let you do so ? Why he 
no makee you good live ? " 

W. A. " It is all our own fault." 

Wife. " But you say me he is great, much great, 
have much great power, can makee kill when he 
will, why he no makee kill when you no serve him, 
no say ' O * to him, no be good mans ? " 

W. A. " That is true, he might strike me dead ; 
and I ought to expect it, for I have been a wicked 
wretch, that is true ; but God is merciful, and does 
not deal with us as we deserve." 

Wife. " But then do you not tell God thankee 
for that too ? " 

W. A. "No, indeed, I have not thanked God 
for his mercy, any more than I have feared God 
for his power." 

Wife. " Then you God no God ; me no think 
believe he be such one, great much power, strong: 
no makee kill you, though you make him so much 

W. A. " What ! will my wicked life hinder 
you from believing in God.^ What a dreadful 
creature am I ! and what a sad truth is it that the 
horrid lives of Christians hinder the conversion 
of heathens ! " 

Wife. " How me think you have great much 
God up there [she points up to heaven] and yet 
no do well, no do good thing ? Can he tell ? Sure 
he no tell what you do ? " 


W. A. "Yes, yes, he knows and sees all things; 
he hears us speak, sees what we do, knows what we 
think, though we do not speak." 

Wife. " What ! he no hear you curse, swear, 
speak de great damn ? " 

W. A. " Yes, yes, he hears it all." 

Wife. " Where be then the much great power 
strong? " 

W. A. "He is merciful, that is all we can say 
for it; and this proves him to be the true God; 
he is God, and not man, and therefore we are not 

Here Will Atkins told us he was struck with 
horror, to think how he could tell his wife so 
clearly that God sees, and hears, and knows the 
secret thoughts of the heart, and all that we do, and 
yet that he had dared to do all the vile things he 
had done. 

Wife. " Merciful ! What you call that?" 

W. A. " He is our father and maker, and he 
pities and spares us." 

Wife. " So then he never makee kill, never 
angry when you do wicked ; then he no good him- 
self, or no great able." 

W. A. " Yes, yes, my dear, he is infinitely good 
and infinitely great, and able to punish too ; and 
sometimes, to show his justice and vengeance, he 
lets fly his anger to destroy sinners and make ex- 
amples ; many are cut off in their sins." 

Wife. " But no makee kill you yet; then he 
tell you, may be, that he no makee you kill: so 


you makee de bargain with him, you do bad thing, 
he no be angry at you when he be angry at other 

W. A. "No, indeed ; my sins are all presump- 
tions upon his goodness; and he would be infin- 
itely just if he destroyed me, as he had done 
other men.'* 

Wife. "Well, and yet no kill, no makee you 
dead ; what you say to him for that ? You no tell 
him thankee for all that too ? " 

W. A. " I am an unthankful, ungrateful dog, 
that is true.'* 

Wife. " Why he no makee you much good bet- 
ter ? you say he makee you." 

W. A. " He made me, as he made all the world : 
it is I have deformed myself and abused his good- 
ness, and made myself an abominable wretch." 

Wife. " I wish you makee God know me; I no 
makee him angry, I no do bad wicked thing." 

Here Will Atkins said his heart sunk within him, 
to hear a poor untaught creature desire to be taught 
to know God, and he such a wicked wretch that he 
could not say one word to her about God but what 
the reproach of his own carriage would make most 
irrational to her to believe ; nay, that already she had 
told him that she could not believe In God, because 
he, that was so wicked, was not destroyed. 

W. A. " My dear, you mean you wish I could 
teach you to know God, not God to know you ; for 
he knows you already, and every thought in your 


Wife. "Why then he know what I say to you 
now; he know me wish to know him ; how shall me 
know who makee me ? '* 

W. A. "Poor creature, he must teach thee, I 
cannot teach thee ; I will pray to him to teach thee 
to know him, and forgive me, that am unworthy to 
teach thee/* 

The poor fellow was in such an agony at her de- 
siring him to make her know God, and her wishing 
to know him, that he said he fell down on his knees 
before her, and prayed to God to enlighten her mind 
with the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and to 
pardon his sins, and accept of his being the un- 
worthy instrument of instructing her in the princi- 
ples of religion : after which he sat down by her 
again, and their dialogue went on. — This was the 
time when we saw him kneel down, and hold up his 

Wife. "What you put down the knee for? What 
you hold up the hand for? What you say ? Who 
you speak to ? What is all that ? *' 

W. A. "My dear, I bow my knees in token of 
my submission to him that made me ; I said * O * to 
him, as you call it ; and as your old men do to their 
idol Benamuckee ; that is, I prayed to him." 

Wife. " What you say ' O * to him for ? " 

W. A. " I prayed to him to open your eyes, and 
your understanding, that you may know him, and 
be accepted by him." 

Wife. " Can he do that too ? " 

W. A. "Yes, he can ; he can do all things." 


Wife. " But now he hear what you say ? " 

W. A. " Yes ; he has bid us pray to him, and 
promised to hear us." 

Wife. " Bid you pray ? When he bid you ? How 
he bid you ? What! you hear him speak ? " 

W. A. " No, we do not hear him speak ; but he 
has revealed himself many ways to us." 

Here he was at a great loss to make her under- 
stand that God has revealed himself to us by his 
word, and what his word was, but at last he told it 
her thus : 

W. A. " God has spoken to some good men in 
former days, even from heaven, by plain words ; and 
God has inspired good men by his Spirit; and they 
have written all his laws down in a book.*' 

Wife. " Me no understand that ; where is 
book ? " 

W. A. " Alas ! my poor creature, I have not this 
book ; but I hope I shall one time or other get it 
for you, and help you to read it." 

Here he embraced her with great affection ; but 
with inexpressible grief that he had not a Bible. 

Wife. " But how you makee me know that God 
teachee them to write that book?" 

W. A. " By the same rule that we know him to 
be God." 

Wife. " What rule ? What way you know 

W. A. " Because he teaches and commands no- 
thing but what is good, righteous, and holy, and 
tends to make us perfectly good, as well as perfectly 


happy ; and because he forbids, and commands us 
to avoid, all that is wicked, that is evil in itself, or 
evil in its consequence/' 

Wife. " That me would understand, that me fain 
see ; if he teachee all good thing, he makee all good 
thing, he give all thing, he hear me when I say ' O ' 
to him, as you do just now; he makee me good, 
if I wish to be good ; he spare me, no makee kill 
me, when I no be good ; all this you say he do, yet 
he be great God : me take, think, believe him to 
be great God ; me say ' O ' to him with you, my 

Here the poor man could forbear no longer, but 
raised her up, made her kneel by him, and he prayed 
to God aloud to instruct her in the knowledge of 
himself, by his Spirit; and that by some good pro- 
vidence, if possible, she might some time or other 
come to have a Bible, that she might read the Word 
of God, ^nd be taught by it to know him. — This 
was the time that we saw him lift her up by the 
hand, and saw him kneel down by her, as above. 

They had several other discourses, it seems, after 
this, too long to be set down here ; and particularly 
she made him promise that since he confessed his 
own life had been a wicked abominable course of 
provocations against God, that he would reform it, 
and not make God angry any more ; lest he should 
make him dead, as she called it, and then she would 
be left alone, and never be taught to know this God 
better ; and lest he should be miserable, as he had 
told her wicked men would be, after death. 


This was a strange account, and very affecting 
to us both, but particularly to the young clergy- 
man; he was indeed wonderfully surprised with it, 
but under the greatest affliction imaginable that he 
could not talk to her, that he could not speak Eng- 
lish, to make her understand him ; and as she spoke 
but very broken English, he could not understand 
her; however, he turned himself to me, and told 
me that he believed that there must be more to 
do with this woman than to marry her. I did not 
understand him at first, but at length he explained 
himself, viz., that she ought to be baptized. I 
agreed with him in that part readily, and was for 
going about it presently. "No, no; hold, sir," 
said he ; " though I would have her be baptized by all 
means, yet I must observe that Will Atkins, her 
husband, has indeed brought her, in a wonderful 
manner, to be willing to embrace a religious life, 
and has given her just ideas of the being of a God ; 
of his power, justice, and mercy : yet I desire to 
know of him if he has said anything to her of Jesus 
Christ, and of the salvation of sinners ; of the 
nature of faith in him, and redemption by him; 
of the Holy Spirit, the resurrection, the last judg- 
ment, and a future state." 

I called Will Atkins again, and asked him; but 
the poor fellow fell immediately into tears, and told 
us he had said something to her of all those things, 
but that he was himself so wicked a creature, and 
his own conscience so reproached him with his hor- 
rid ungodly life, that he trembled at the apprehen- 


sions that her knowledge of him should lessen the 
attention she should give to those things, and make 
her rather contemn religion than receive it; but he 
was assured, he said, that her mind was so disposed 
to receive due impressions of all those things, and 
that if I would but discourse with her she would 
make it appear to my satisfaction that my labour 
would not be lost upon her. 

Accordingly, I called her in, and, placing my- 
self as interpreter between my religious priest and 
the woman, I entreated him to begin with her ; but 
sure such a sermon was never preached by a popish 
priest in these latter ages of the world: and as I 
told him, I thought he had all the zeal, all the 
knowledge, all the sincerity of a Christian, without 
the error of a Roman Catholic; and that I took 
him to be such a clergyman as the Roman bishops 
were, before the Church of Rome assumed spiritual 
sovereignty over the consciences of men. In a word, 
he brought the poor woman to embrace the know- 
ledge of Christ, and of redemption by him, not 
with wonder and astonishment only, as she did the 
first notions of a God, but with joy and faith; with 
an affection, and a surprising degree of understand- 
ing, scarce to be imagined, much less to be ex- 
pressed; and, at her own request, she was bap- 

When he was preparing to baptize her, I en- 
treated him that he would perform that office with 
some caution, that the man might not perceive he 
was of the Roman Church, if possible, because of 


other ill consequences which might attend a differ- 
ence among us in that very religion which we were 
instructing the other in. He told methatas he had 
no consecrated chapel, nor proper things for the 
office, I should see he would do it in a manner that 
I should not know by it that he was a Roman 
Catholic himself, if I had not known it before; and 
so he did ; for saying only some words over to him- 
self in Latin, which I could not understand, he 
poured a whole dishful of water upon the woman's 
head, pronouncing in French very loud, " Mary " 
(which was the name her husband desired me to 
give her, for I was her godfather), " I baptize thee 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost"; so that none could know any- 
thing by it what religion he was of. He gave the 
benediction afterwards in Latin, but either Will 
Atkins did not know but it was French, or else did 
not take notice of it at that time. 

As soon as this was over, we married them ; and 
after the marriage was over, he turned to Will At- 
kins, and in a very affectionate manner exhorted 
him not only to persevere in that good disposition 
he was in, but to support the convictions that were 
upon him by a resolution to reform his life ; told 
him it was in vain to say he repented if he did not 
forsake his crimes : represented to him how God 
had honoured him with being the instrument of 
bringing his wife to the knowledge of the Christian 
religion, and that he should be careful he did not 
dishonour the grace of God ; and that if he did, he 


would see the heathen a better Christian than him- 
self; the savage converted, and the instrument cast 
away. He said a great many good things to them 
both; and then recommending them to God*s good- 
ness, gave them the benediction again, I repeating 
everything to them in English; and thus ended 
the ceremony. I think it was the most pleasant and 
agreeable day to me that ever I passed in my whole 

But my clergyman had not done yet; his 
thoughts hung continually upon the conversion of 
the thirty-seven savages, and fain he would have 
stayed upon the island to have undertaken it; 
but I convinced him, first, that his undertaking 
was impracticable in itself; and, secondly, that 
perhaps I would put it into a way of being done 
in his absence to his satisfaction: of which by 
and by. 

Having thus brought the affairs of the island to 
a narrow compass, I was preparing to go on board 
the ship, when the young man I had taken out of 
the famished ship's company came to me, and told 
me he understood I had a clergyman with me, and 
that I had caused the Englishmen to be married 
to the savages; that he had a match, too, which he 
desired might be finished before I went, between 
two Christians, which he hoped would not be dis- 
agreeable to me. 

I knew this must be the young woman who 
was his mother's servant, for there was no other 
Christian woman on the island ; so I began to per- 


suade him not to do anything of that kind rashly, 
or because he found himself in this solitary circum- 
stance. I represented to him that he had some con- 
siderable substance In the world, and good friends, 
as I understood by himself, and the maid also ; 
that the maid was not only poor, and a servant, 
but was unequal to him, she being six- or seven- 
and-twenty years old, and he not being seventeen 
or eighteen ; that he might very probably, with my 
assistance, make a remove from this wilderness, 
and come into his own country again ; and that then 
it would be a thousand to one but he would repent 
his choice, and the dislike of that circumstance 
might be disadvantageous to both. I was going to 
say more, but he interrupted me, smiling, and told 
me, with a great deal of modesty, that I mistook 
in my guesses, that he had nothing of that kind in 
his thoughts ; and he was very glad to hear that I 
had an intent of putting them in a way to see their 
own country again ; and nothing should have put 
him upon staying there but that the voyage I was 
going was so exceeding long and hazardous, and 
would carry him quite out of the reach of all his 
friends ; that he had nothing to desire of me but 
that I would settle him In some little property in 
the island where he was, give him a servant or two, 
and some few necessaries, and he would settle him- 
self here like a planter, waiting the good time when, 
if ever I returned to England, I would redeem them ; 
and hoped I would not be unmindful of him when 
I came to England : that he would give me some 


letters to his friends in London, to let them know 
how good I had been to him, and in what part of 
the world and what circumstances I had left him 
in ; and he promised me that whenever I redeemed 
him, the plantation, and all the improvements he 
had made upon it, let the value be what it would, 
should be wholly mine. 

His discourse was very prettily delivered, con- 
sidering his youth, and was the more agreeable to 
me because he told me positively the match was 
not for himself I gave him all possible assurances 
that if I lived to come safe to England I would 
deliver his letters, and do his business effectually : 
and that he might depend I should never forget 
the circumstances I had left him in ; but still I was 
impatient to know who was the person to be mar- 
ried : upon which he told me it was my Jack-of-all- 
trades and his maid Susan. I was most agreeably 
surprised when he named the match ; for indeed I 
thought it very suitable. The character of that man 
I have given already ; and as for the maid, she was 
a very honest, modest, sober, and religious young 
woman ; had a very good share of sense, was agree- 
able enough in her person, spoke very handsomely, 
and to the purpose, always with decency and good 
manners, and neither too backward to speak, when 
requisite, nor impertinently forward, when it was 
not her business : very handy and housewifely, and 
an excellent manager; fit, indeed, to have been 
governess to the whole island, and she knew very 
well how to behave in every respect. 


The match being proposed in this manner, we 
married them the same day ; and as I was father 
at the altar, as I may say, and gave her away, so I 
gave her a portion ; for I appointed her and her 
husband a handsome large space of ground for their 
plantation ; and, indeed, this match, and the pro- 
posal the young gentleman made to give him a 
small property in the island, put me upon parcel- 
ling it out amongst them, that they might not 
quarrel afterwards about their situation. 

This sharing-out the land to them I left to Will 
Atkins, who was now grown a sober, grave, man- 
aging fellow, perfectly reformed, exceedingly pious 
and religious, and, as far as I may be allowed to 
speak positively in such a case, I verily believe he 
was a true penitent. He divided things so justly, 
and so much to every one's satisfaction, that they 
only desired one general writing under my hand 
for the whole, which I caused to be drawn up, and 
signed and sealed to them, setting out the bounds 
and situation of every man's plantation, and testi- 
fying that I gave them thereby severally a right to 
the whole possession and inheritance of the re- 
spective plantations or farms, with their improve- 
ments, to them and their heirs, reserving all the 
rest of the island as my own property, and a cer- 
tain rent for every particular plantation after eleven 
years, if I, or any one from me, or in my name, 
came to demand it, producing an attested copy of 
the same writing. 

As to the government and laws among them, I 


told them I was not capable of giving them better 
rules than they were able to give themselves ; only 
I made them promise me to live in love and good 
neighbourhood with one another; and so I pre- 
pared to leave them. 

One thing I must not omit, and that is, that 
being now settled in a kind of commonwealth among 
themselves, and having much business in hand, it 
was but odd to have seven-and-thirty Indians live 
in a nook of the island, independent, and, indeed, 
unemployed ; for, excepting the providing them- 
selves food, which they had difficulty enough to 
do sometimes, they had no manner of business or 
property to manage. I proposed, therefore, to the 
governor Spaniard that he should go to them with 
Friday's father, and propose to them to remove, 
and either plant for themselves, or take them into 
their several families as servants, to be maintained 
for their labour, but without being absolute slaves ; 
for I would not admit them to make them slaves 
by force, by any means ; because they had their 
liberty given them by capitulation, as it were ar- 
ticles of surrender, which they ought not to 

They most willingly embraced the proposal, and 
came all very cheerful along with him : so we al- 
lotted them land, and plantations, which three or 
four accepted of, but all the rest chose to be 
employed as servants in the several families we 
had settled; and thus my colony was in a manner 
settled, as follows: The Spaniards possessed my 


original habitation, which was the capital city, and 
extended their plantations all along the side of the 
brook, which made the creek that I have so often 
described, as far as my bower; and as they increased 
their culture, it went always eastward. The Eng- 
lish lived in the northeast part, where Will Atkins 
and his comrades began, and came on southward 
and south-west, towards the back part of the Span- 
iards; and every plantation had a great addition of 
land to take in, if they found occasion, so that they 
need not jostle one another for want of room. All 
the east end of the island was left uninhabited, that 
if any of the savages should come on shore there only 
for their usual customary barbarities, they might 
come and go; if they disturbed nobody, nobody 
would disturb them; and no doubt but they were 
often ashore, and went away again, for I never heard 
that the planters were ever attacked or disturbed 
any more. 

It now came Into my thoughts that I had hinted 
to my friend the clergyman that the work of con- 
verting the savages might perhaps be set on foot 
in his absence to his satisfaction, and told him 
that now I thought it was put in a fair way ; for the 
savages being thus divided among the Christians, 
if they would but every one of them do their part 
with those which came under their hands, I hoped 
it might have a very good effect. 

He agreed presently in that, if they did their 
part. "But how," says he, " shall we obtain that 
of them?" I told him we would call them all to- 


gether, and leave it in charge with them, or go to 
them, one by one, which he thought best; so we di- 
vided it, he to speak to the Spaniards, who were all 
Papists, and I to the English, who were all Pro- 
testants; and we recommended it earnestly to them, 
and made them promise that they would never 
make any distinction of Papist or Protestant in 
their exhorting the savages to turn Christians, 
but teach them the general knowledge of the true 
God, and of their Saviour Jesus Christ; and they 
likewise promised us that they would never have 
any differences or disputes one with another about 

When I came to Will Atkins's house (I may call 
it so, for such a house, or such a piece of basket- 
work,! believe, was not standing in the world again), 
there I found the young woman I have mentioned 
above and Will Atkins's wife were become intimates ; 
and this prudent religious young woman had per- 
fected the work Will Atkins had begun: and though 
it was not above four days after what I have related, 
yet the new-baptized savage woman was made such 
a Christian as I have seldom heard of in all my ob- 
servation or conversation in the world. 

It came next into my mind, in the morning be- 
fore I went to them, that, amongst all the needful 
things I had to leave with them, I had not left them 
a Bible, in which I showed myself less considering 
for them than my good friend the widow was for 
me, when she sent me the cargo of a hundred pounds 
from Lisbon, where she packed up three Bibles 


and a prayer-book. However, the good woman's 
chanty had a greater extent than ever she imagined, 
for they were reserved for the comfort and instruc- 
tion of those that made much better use of them 
than I had done. 

I took one of the Bibles in my pocket, and when 
I came to Will Atkins's tent, or house, and found 
the young woman and Atkins's baptized wife had 
been discoursing of religion together, for Will 
Atkins told it me with a great deal of joy, I asked 
if they were together now, and he said yes; so I 
went into the house, and he with me, and we found 
them together very earnest in discourse. "Oh, 
sir," says Will Atkins, "when God has sinners to 
reconcile to himself, and aliens to bring home, he 
never wants a messenger; my wife has got a new 
instructor; I knew I was as unworthy as I was in- 
capable of that work; that young woman has been 
sent hither from heaven; she is enough to convert 
a whole island of savages." The young woman 
blushed, and rose up to go away, but I desired 
her to sit still ; I told her she had a good work 
upon her hands ; and I hoped God would bless 
her in it. 

We talked a little, and I did not perceive they 
had any book among them, though 1 did not ask: 
but I put my hand into my pocket, and pulled out 
my Bible. "Here," says I to Atkins, "I have 
brought you an assistant that perhaps you had not 
before." The man was so confounded that he was 
not able to speak for some time; but recovering 


himself, he takes it with both his hands, and turn- 
ing to his wife, "Here, my dear," says he, "did I 
not tell you our God, though he lives above, could 
hear what we said? Here 's the book I prayed for 
when you and I kneeled down under the bush; 
now God has heard us, and sent it/' When he had 
said so the man fell into such transports of pas- 
sionate joy that between the joy of having it, and 
giving God thanks for it, the tears ran down his face 
like a child that was crying. 

The woman was surprised, and was like to have 
run into a mistake that none of us were aware of, for 
she firmly believed God had sent the book upon 
her husband's petition. It is true that provident- 
ially it was so, and might be taken so in a conse- 
quent sense; but I believe it would have been no 
difficult matter, at that time, to have persuaded the 
poor woman to have believed that an express mes- 
senger came from heaven on purpose to bring that 
individual book; but it was too serious a matter 
to suffer any delusion to take place ; so I turned to 
the young woman and told her we did not desire 
to impose upon the new convert in her first and 
more ignorant understanding of things, and begged 
her to explain to her that God may be very pro- 
perly said to answer our petitions when, in the 
course of his providence, such things are in a par- 
ticular manner brought to pass as we petitioned 
for; but we did not expect returns from heaven in 
a miraculous and particular manner, and it is our 
mercy that it is not so. 


This the young woman did afterwards effectu- 
ally, so that there was, I assure you, no priestcraft 
used here; and I should have thought it one of the 
most unjustifiable frauds in the world to have had it 
so. But the surprise of joy upon Will Atkins is real- 
ly not to be expressed ; and there, we may be sure, 
was no delusion. Sure no man was ever more thank- 
ful in the world for anything of its kind than he 
was for the Bible ; nor, I believe, never any man 
was glad of a Bible from a better principle; and 
though he had been a most profligate creature, 
headstrong, furious, and desperately wicked, yet 
this man is a standing rule to us all for the well in- 
structing children, viz., that parents should never 
give over to teach and instruct, nor ever despair 
of the success of their endeavours, let the children 
be ever so refractory, or, to appearance, insensible 
of instruction; for, if ever God, in his providence, 
touches the conscience of such, the force of their 
education returns upon them, and the early in- 
struction of parents is not lost, though it may have 
been many years laid asleep, but, some time or 
other, they may find the benefit of it. Thus it was 
with this poor man: however ignorant he was of 
religion and Christian knowledge, he found he had 
some to do with now more ignorant than himself, 
and that the least part of the instruction of his good 
father that now came to his mind was of use to him. 

Among the rest it occurred to him, he said, how 
his father used to insist so much on the inexpress- 
ible value of the Bible, the privilege and blessing 


of it to nations, families, and persons: but he 
never entertained the least notion of the worth of 
it till now, when being to talk to heathens, savages, 
and barbarians, he wanted the help of the written 
oracle for his assistance. 

The young woman was glad of it also for the 
present occasion, though she had one, and so had 
the youth, on board our ship, among their goods, 
which were not yet brought on shore. And now 
having said so many things of this young woman, 
I cannot omit telling one story more of her and 
myself, which has something in it very informing 
and remarkable. 

I have related to what extremity the poor young 
woman was reduced, how her mistress was starved 
to death, and died on board that unhappy ship we 
met at sea, and how the whole ship's company was 
reduced to the last extremity. The gentlewoman 
and her son, and this maid were first hardly used, 
as to provisions, and at last totally neglected and 
starved; that is to say, brought to the last ex- 
tremity of hunger. One day, being discoursing with 
her on the extremities they suffered, I asked her if 
she could describe, by what she had felt, what it 
was to starve, and how it appeared. She told me she 
believed she could, and she told her tale very dis- 
tinctly, thus: 

"First, sir," said she, "we had for some days 
fared exceeding hard, and suffered very great hun- 
ger; but at last we were wholly without food of any 
kind, except sugar, and a little wine and water. 


The first day, after I had received no food at all, 
I found myself, towards evening, first empty and 
sick at the stomach, and nearer night much in- 
clined to yawning and sleep. I lay down on a couch 
in the great cabin to sleep, and slept about three 
hours, and awaked a little refreshed, having taken 
a glass of wine when I lay down : after being about 
three hours awake, it being about five o'clock in the 
morning, I found myself empty, and my stomach 
sickish, and lay down again, but could not sleep at 
all, being very faint and ill; and thus I continued 
all the second day, with a strange variety, first hun- 
gry, then sick again, with retchings to vomit. The 
second night, being obliged to go to bed again with- 
out any food, more than a draught of fresh water, 
and being asleep, I dreamed I was at Barbadoes, 
and that the market was mightily stocked with pro- 
visions ; that I bought some for my mistress, and 
went and dined very heartily. I thought my stom- 
ach was as full after this as it would have been 
after a good dinner; but when I awaked, I was ex- 
ceedingly sunk in my spirits to find myself in the 
extremity of famine. The last glass of wine we had 
I drank, and put sugar in it, because of its having 
some spirit^to supply nourishment; but there being 
no substance in the stomach for the digesting office 
to work upon, I found the only effisct of the wine 
was to raise disagreeable fumes from the stomach 
into the head; and I lay, as they told me, stupid 
and senseless, as one drunk, for some time. The 
third day, in the morning, after a night of strange, 


confused, and inconsistent dreams, and rather doz- 
ing than sleeping, I awaked ravenous and furious 
with hunger; and I question, had not my under- 
standing returned and conquered it, whether, if I 
had been a mother, and had had a little child with 
me, its life would have been safe or not. This 
lasted about three hours ; during which time I was 
twice raging mad, as any creature in Bedlam, as my 
young master told me and as he can now inform 

"In one of these fits of lunacy or distraction I 
fell down, and struck my face against the corner of 
a pallet bed, in which my mistress lay, and, with the 
blow, the blood gushed out of my nose; and the 
cabin-boy bringing me a little basin, I sat down and 
bled into it a great deal; and as the blood came 
from me, I came to myself, and the violence of the 
flame or fever I was in abated, and so did the raven- 
ous part of the hunger. Then I grew sick, and 
retched to vomit, but could not, for I had nothing 
in my stomach to bring up. After I had bled some 
time, I swooned, and they all believed I was dead; 
but I came to myself soon after, and then had a 
most dreadful pain in my stomach, not to be de- 
scribed, not like the colic, but a gnawing, eager pain 
for food ; and towards the night it went off, with a 
kind of earnest wishing or longing for food, some- 
thing like, as I suppose, the longing of a woman 
with child. I took another draught of water, with 
sugar in it ; but my stomach loathed the sugar, and 
brought it all up again ; then I took a draught of 


water without sugar, and that stayed with me; and 
I laid me down upon the bed, praying most heart- 
ily that it would please God to take me away; and 
composing my mind in hopes of it, I slumbered 
a while, and then waking, thought myself dying, 
being light with vapours from an empty stomach. 
I recommended my soul then to God, and earnestly 
wished that somebody would throw me into the 

" All this while my mistress lay by me, just, as 
I thought, expiring, but bore it with much more 
patience than I ; gave the last bit of bread she had 
left to her child, my young master, who would not 
have taken it, but she obliged him to eat it; and 
I believe it saved his life. 

" Towards the morning I slept again; and when 
I awoke, I fell into a violent passion of crying, and 
after that had a second fit of violent hunger. I got 
up ravenous, and in a most dreadful condition ; had 
my mistress been dead, as much as I loved her, I 
am certain I should have eaten a piece of her flesh 
with as much relish, and as unconcerned, as ever I 
did eat the flesh of any creature appointed for food ; 
and once or twice I was going to bite my own arm. 
At last I saw the basin in which was the blood I 
had bled at my nose the day before : I ran to it, and 
swallowed it with such haste, and such a greedy ap- 
petite, as if I wondered nobody had taken it before, 
and afraid it should be taken from me now. After 
it was down, though the thoughts of it filled me 
with horror, yet it checked the fit of hunger, and I 


took another draught of water, and was composed 
and refreshed for some hours after. This was the 
fourth day ; and thus I held it till towards night ; 
when, within the compass of three hours, I had all 
the several circumstances over again, one after an- 
other, viz., sick, sleepy, eagerly hungry, pain in the 
stomach, then ravenous again, then sick, then luna- 
tic, then crying, then ravenous again, and so every 
quarter of an hour ; and my strength wasted exceed- 
ingly. At night I laid me down, having no comfort 
but in the hope that I should die before morning. 

" All this night I had no sleep ; but the hunger 
was now turned into a disease ; and I had a terrible 
colic and griping, by wind, instead of food, having 
found its way into the bowels ; and in this condi- 
tion I lay till morning, when I was surprised with 
the cries and lamentations of my young master, 
who called out to me that his mother was dead. I 
lifted myself up a little, for I had not strength to 
rise, but found she was not dead, though she was 
able to give very little signs of life. 

"I had then such convulsions in my stomach, 
for want of some sustenance, that I cannot de- 
scribe ; wi*th such frequent throes and pangs of ap- 
petite that nothing but the tortures of death can 
imitate; and in this condition I was when I heard 
the seamen above cry out, ' A sail ! a sail ! * and 
halloo and jump about as if they were distracted. 

" I was not able to get off from the bed, and my 
mistress much less ; and my young master was so 
sick that I thought he had been expiring. So we 


could not open the cabin-door, or get any account 
what it was that occasioned such confusion ; nor 
had we any conversation with the ship's company 
for two days, they having told us that they had not 
a mouthful of anything to eat in the ship ; and this 
they told us afterwards, they thought we had been 
dead. It was this dreadful condition we were in 
when you were sent to save our lives : and how you 
found us, sir, you know as well as I, and better 

This was her own relation, and is such a distinct 
account of starving to death as, I confess, I never 
met with, and was exceeding entertaining to me. 
I am the rather apt to believe it to be a true ac- 
count, because the youth gave me an account of a 
good part of it ; though, I must own, not so dis- 
tinct and so feeling as the maid : and the rather, 
because it seems his mother fed him at the price 
of her own life. But the poor maid, though her 
constitution being stronger than that of her mis- 
tress, who was in years, and a weakly woman too, 
she might struggle harder with it : I say, the poor 
maid might be supposed to feel the extremity some- 
thing sooner than her mistress, who might be al- 
lowed to keep the last bit something longer than 
she parted with any to relieve the maid. No ques- 
tion, as the case is here related, if our ship, or some 
other, had not so providentially met them, a few 
days more would have ended all their lives, unless 
they had prevented it by eating one another; and 
that even, as their case stood, would have served 


them but a little while, they being five hundred 
leagues from any land, or any possibility of relief, 
other than in the miraculous manner it happened. 
— But this is by the way ; I return to my disposi- 
tion of things among the people. 

And, first, it is to be observed here that for many 
reasons I did not think fit to let them know any- 
thing of the sloop I had framed, and which I thought 
of setting up among them, for I found, at least at 
my first coming, such seeds of divisions among 
them that I saw plainly had I set up the sloop, and 
left it among them, they would, upon every light 
disgust, have separated, and gone away from one 
another, or perhaps have turned pirates, and so 
made the island a den of thieves, instead of a plan- 
tation of sober and religious people, as I intended 
it. Nor did I leave the two pieces of brass cannon 
that I had on board, or the two quarter-deck guns 
that my nephew took extraordinary, for the same 
reason : I thought it was enough to qualify them 
for a defensive war against any that should invade 
them, but not to set them up for an offensive war, 
or to go abroad to attack others ; which, in the end, 
would only bring ruin and destruction upon them. 
I reserved the sloop, therefore, and the guns, for 
their service another way, as I shall observe in its 

Having now done with the island, I left them 
all in good circumstances, and in a flourishing 
condition, and went on board my ship again the 
6th of May, having been about twenty-five days 


among them ; and as they were all resolved to stay 
upon the island till I came to remove them, I 
promised to send them farther relief from the Bra- 
zils, if I could possibly find an opportunity : and, 
particularly, I promised to send them some cattle, 
such as sheep, hogs, and cows ; as to the two cows 
and calves which I brought from England, we had 
been obliged, by the length of our voyage, to kill 
them at sea, for want of hay to feed them. 


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