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Plate XVI 



Robinfon Crufoe 












The next day, giving them a salute of five 
guns at parting, we set sail, and arrived at the 
Bay of All Saints, in the Brazils, in about twenty- 
two days, meeting nothing remarkable in our 
passage but this : that about three days after we 
had sailed, being becalmed, and the current setting 
strong to theENE, running, as it were, into a bay or 
gulf on the land side, we were driven something out 
of our course, and once or twice our men cried out, 
" Land to the eastward " ; but whether it was the 
continent or islands we could not tell by any means. 
But the third day, towards evening, the sea smooth, 
and the weather calm, we saw the sea, as it were, 
covered towards the land with something very 
black. Not being able to discover what it was till 
after some time, our chief mate, going up the main- 
shrouds a little way, and looking at them with a 
perspective, cried out it was an army. I could not 
imagine what he meant by an army, and thwarted 
him a little hastily. " Nay, sir/' says he, " don't be 
angry, for 't is an army, and a fleet too ; for I be- 


lieve there are a thousand canoes, and you may 
see them paddle along, for they are coming towards 
us apace." 

I was a little surprised then, indeed, and so was 
my nephew, the captain ; for he had heard such 
terrible stories of them in the island, and having 
never been in those seas before, that he could not 
tell what to think of it, but said, two or three times, 
we should all be devoured. I must confess, con- 
sidering we were becalmed, and the current set 
strong towards the shore, I liked it the worse; 
however, I bade them not to be afraid, but bring 
the ship to an anchor as soon as we came so near 
to know that we must engage them. 

The weather continued calm, and they came on 
apace towards us ; so I gave order to come to an 
anchor, and set all our sails : as for the savages, 
I told them they had nothing to fear but fire, and 
therefore they should get their boats out, and 
fasten them, one close by the head, and the other 
by the stern, and man them both well, and wait 
the issue in that posture : this I did, that the men 
in the boats might be ready with sheets and 
buckets to put out any fire these savages would 
endeavour to fix to the outside of the ship. 

In this posture we lay by for them, and in a little 
while they came up with us ; but never was such a 
horrid sight seen by Christians : though my mate 
was much mistaken in his calculation of their num- 
ber, yet when they came up we reckoned about a 
hundred and twenty-six ; some of them had sixteen 


or seventeen men in them, some more, and the least 
six or seven. 

When they came nearer to us, they seemed to be 
struck with wonder and astonishment, as at a sight 
which doubtless they had never seen before ; nor 
could they, at first, as we afterwards understood, 
know what to make of us. They came boldly up, 
however, very near to us, and seemed to go about 
to row round us ; but we called to our men in the 
boats not to let them come too near them. This 
very order brought us to an engagement with them, 
without our designing it : for five or six of the large 
canoes came so near our long-boat that our men 
beckoned with their hands to keep them back, which 
they understood very well, and went back, but at 
their retreat about fifty arrows came on board us 
from those boats, and one of our men in the long- 
boat was very much wounded. However, I called 
to them not to fire by any means ; but we handed 
down some deal boards into the boat, and the car- 
penter presently set up a kind of fence, like waste 
boards, to cover them from the arrows of the sav- 
ages, if they should shoot again. 

About half an hour afterwards they all came up 
in a body astern of us, and so near as that we could 
easily discern what they were, though we could not 
tell their design ; and I easily found they were some 
of my old friends, the same sort of savages that I 
had been used to engage with ; and in a short time 
more they rowed a little farther out to sea, till they 
came directly broadside with us, and then rowed 


down straight upon us, till they came so near that 
they could hear us speak : upon this I ordered all 
my men to keep close, lest they should shoot any 
more arrows, and made all our guns ready ; but 
being so near as to be within hearing, I made Fri- 
day go out upon the deck, and call out aloud to 
them in his language, to know what they meant; 
which accordingly he did. Whether they under- 
stood him or not, that I knew not ; but as soon as 
he had called to them, six of them, who were in the 
foremost or nighest boat to us, turned their canoes 
from us, and stooping down, showed us their naked 
backsides, just as if, in English, saving your pres- 
ence, they had bid us kiss . Whether this was 

a defiance or challenge we knew not, or whether it 
was done in mere contempt, or as a signal to the 
rest ; but immediately Friday cried out they were 
going to shoot, and, unhappily for him, poor fellow, 
they let fly about three hundred of their arrows, 
and, to my inexpressible grief, killed poor Friday, 
no other man being in their sight. The poor fellow 
was shot with no less than three arrows, and about 
three more fell very near him; such unlucky marks- 
men they were ! 

I was so enraged at the loss of my old trusty serv- 
ant and companion that I immediately ordered five 
guns to be loaded with small shot, and four with 
great, and gave them such a broadside as they had 
never heard in their lives before, to be sure. They 
were not above half a cable-length off when we fired ; 
and our gunners took their aim so well that three or 


four of their canoes were overset, as we had reason 
to believe, by one shot only. 

The ill manners of turning up their bare back- 
sides to us gave us no great offence ; neither did I 
know for certain whether that which would pass for 
the greatest contempt among us might be under- 
stood so by them or not; therefore, in return, I had 
only resolved to have fired four or five guns at them 
with powder only, which I knew would frighten them 
sufficiently : but when they shot at us directly, with 
all the fury they were capable of, and especially as 
they had killed my poor Friday, whom I so en- 
tirely loved and valued, and who, indeed, so well 
deserved it, I thought myself not only justifiable 
before God and man, but would have been very 
glad if I could have overset every canoe there, and 
drowned every one of them. 

I can neither tell how many we killed, nor how 
many we wounded, at this broadside, but sure such 
a fright and hurry never was seen among such a 
multitude. There were thirteen or fourteen of their 
canoes split and overset in all, and the men all set 
a-swimming : the rest, frightened out of their wits, 
scoured away as fast as they could, taking but little 
care to save those whose boats were split or spoiled 
with our shot; so I suppose that many of them were 
lost; and our men took up one poor fellow swim- 
ming for his life, above an hour after they were all 

The small shot from our cannon must needs kill 
and wound a great many ; but, in short, we never 


knew anything how it went with them, for they fled 
so fast that in three hours, or thereabouts, we could 
not see above three or four straggling canoes, nor 
did we ever see the rest any more ; for a breeze of 
wind springing up the same evening, we weighed, 
and set sail for the Brazils. 

We had a prisoner, indeed, but the creature was 
so sullen that he would neither eat nor speak, and 
we all fancied he would starve himself to death. But 
I took a way to cure him ; [for I made them take 
him and turn him into the long-boat, and make him 
believe they would toss him into the sea again, and 
so leave him where they found him, if he would not 
speak: nor would that do, but they really did throw 
him into the sea, and came away from him, and then 
he followed them, for he swam like a cork, and called 
to them, in his tongue, though they knew not one 
word of what he said. However, at last they took 
him in again, and then he began to be more tract- 
able, nor did I ever design they should drown him. 

We were now under sail again ; but I was the 
most disconsolate creature alive for want of my man 
Friday, and would have been very glad to have 
gone back to the island to have taken one of the 
rest from thence for my occasion ; but it could not 
be; so we went on. We had one prisoner, as I have 
said, and it was a long time before we could make him 
understand anything : but, in time, our men taught 
him some English, and he began to be a little 
tractable. Afterwards, we inquired what country 
he came from, but could make nothing of what he 


said ; for his speech was so odd, all gutturals, and 
he spoke in the throat in such a hollow, odd man- 
ner that we could never form a word after him. 
And we were all of opinion that they might speak 
that language as well if they were gagged as other- 
wise ; nor could we perceive that they had any oc- 
casion either for teeth, tongue, lips, or palate, but 
formed their words just as a hunting-horn forms a 
tune, with an open throat. He told us, however, 
some time after, when we had taught him to speak 
a little English, that they were going with their 
kings to fight a great battle. When he said kings, 
we asked him how many kings ? He said they 
were five nation (we could not make him under- 
stand the plural j), and that they all joined to go 
against two nation. We asked him what made them 
come up to us ? He said, " To makee te great won- 
der look." Here it is to be observed that all those 
natives, as also those of Africa, when they learn 
English, always add two ^s at the end of the 
words where we use one; and they place the accent 
upon them, as " makee," " takee," and the like ; 
and we could not break them of it ; nay, I could 
hardly make Friday leave it off, though at last he 
did. ' 

And now I name the poor fellow once more, 
I must take my last leave of him : Poor honest 
Friday ! We buried him with all the decency and 
solemnity possible, by putting him into a coffin, 
and throwing him into the sea ; and I caused them 
to fire eleven guns for him : and so ended the life 


of the most grateful, faithful, honest, and most 
affectionate servant that ever man had. 

We went now away with a fair wind for Brazil ; 
and in about twelve days' time we made land, in 
the latitude of five degrees south of the line, being 
the north-eastermost land of all that part of Amer- 
ica. We kept on S. by E. in sight of the shore 
four days, when we made Cape St. Augustine, and 
in three days came to an anchor off the Bay of 
All Saints, the old place of my deliverance, from 
whence came both my good and evil fate. 

Never ship came to this port that had less busi- 
ness than I had, and yet it was with great difficulty 
that we were admitted to hold the least correspond- 
ence on shore ; not my partner himself, who was 
alive, and made a great figure among them, not 
my two merchant trustees, not the fame of my 
wonderful preservation in the island, could obtain 
me that favour. But my partner remembering that 
I had given five hundred moidores to the priory 
of the monastery of the Augustines, and two hun- 
dred and seventy-two to the poor, went to the 
monastery, and obliged the prior that then was to 
go to the governor, and get leave for me person- 
ally, with the captain and one more, besides eight 
seamen, to come on shore, and no more ; and this 
upon condition, absolutely capitulated for, that we 
should not offer to land any goods out of the ship, 
or to carry any person away without licence. They 
were so strict with us as to landing any goods that 
it was with extreme difficulty that I got on shore 


three bales of English goods, such as fine broad- 
cloths, stuffs, and some linen, which I had brought 
for a present to my partner. 

He was a very generous open-hearted man ; 
though, like me, he came from little at first ; and 
though he knew not that I had the least design of 
giving him anything, he sent me on board a present 
of fresh provision, wine, and sweetmeats, worth 
above thirty moidores, including some tobacco, 
and three or four fine medals of gold. But I was 
even with him in my present, which, as I have said, 
consisted of fine broad-cloth, English stuffs, lace, 
and fine hollands : also I delivered him about the 
value of one hundred pounds sterling, in the same 
goods, for other uses ; and I obliged him to set 
up the sloop, which I had brought with me from 
England, as I have said, for the use of my colony, 
in order to send the refreshments I intended to 
my plantation. 

Accordingly, he got hands and finished the sloop 
in a very few days, for she was already framed; and 
I gave the master of her such instructions as that 
he could not miss the place ; nor did he miss them, 
as I had an account from my partner afterwards. 
I got him soon loaded with the small cargo I sent 
them ; and one of our seamen, that had been on 
shore with me there, offered to go with the sloop 
and settle there, upon my letter to the governor 
Spaniard to allot him a sufficient quantity of land 
for a plantation, and giving him some clothes and 
tools for his planting-work, which he said he un- 


derstood, having been an old planter at Maryland, 
and a buccaneer into the bargain. I encouraged the 
fellow, by granting all he desired; and, as an addi- 
tion, I gave him the savage whom we had taken 
prisoner of war to be his slave, and ordered the 
governor Spaniard to give him his share of every- 
thing he wanted with the rest. 

When we came to fit this man out, my old part- 
ner told me there was a certain very honest fellow, 
a Brazil planter of his acquaintance, who had fallen 
into the displeasure of the Church. " I know not 
what the matter is with him," says he, " but on my 
conscience I think he is a heretic in his heart, and 
he has been obliged to conceal himself for fear of 
the Inquisition "; that he would be very glad of 
such an opportunity to make his escape, with his 
wife, and two daughters; and if I would let them 
go to my island, and allot them a plantation, he 
would give them a small stock to begin with ; for 
the officers of the Inquisition had seized all his ef- 
fects and estate, and he had nothing left but a little 
household stuff,. and two slaves: "and," adds he, 
"though I hate his principles, yet I would not have 
him fall into their hands, for he will be assuredly 
burned alive if he does." I granted this presently, 
and joined my Englishman with them ; and we 
concealed the man, and his wife and daughters, 
on board our ship, till the sloop put out to go to 
sea ; and then, having put all their goods on board 
some time before, we put them on board the 
sloop after she was got out of the bay. 


Our seaman was mightily pleased with this new 
partner ; and their stocks, indeed, were much alike 
rich in tools, in preparations, and a farm ; but no- 
thing to begin with, except as above : however, 
they carried over with them, which was worth all 
the rest, some materials for planting sugar-canes, 
with some plants of canes, which he, I mean the 
Portugal man, understood very well. 

Among the rest of the supplies sent to my ten- 
ants in the island, I sent them by the sloop three 
milch-cows and five calves, about twenty-two hogs 
among them, three sows big with pig, two mares, 
and a stone-horse. For my Spaniards, according 
to my promise, I engaged three Portugal women 
to go, and recommended it to them to marry them, 
and use them kindly. I could have procured more 
women, but I remembered that the poor prose- 
cuted man had two daughters, and that there were 
but five of the Spaniards that wanted ; the rest 
had wives of their own, though in another country. 

All this cargo arrived safe, and, as you may eas- 
ily suppose, was very welcome to my old inhabit- 
ants, who were now, with this addition, between 
sixty and seventy people, besides little children, of 
which there were a great many. I found letters at 
London from them all, by way of Lisbon, when 
I came back to England, of which I shall also take 
some notice immediately. 

I have now done with the island, and all man- 
ner of discourse about it ; and whoever reads the 
rest of my memorandums would do well to turn 


his thoughts entirely from it, and expect to read 
of the follies of an old man, not warned by his own 
harms, much less by those of other men, to beware 
of the like ; not cooled by almost forty years' 
miseries and disappointments ; not satisfied with 
prosperity beyond expectation, nor made cautious 
by afflictions and distress beyond imitation. 

I had no more business to go to the East Indies 
than a man at full liberty has to go to the turnkey 
at Newgate, and desire him to lock him up among 
the prisoners there, and starve him. Had I taken 
a small vessel from England, and gone directly to 
the island ; had I loaded her, as I did the other 
vessel, with all the necessaries for the plantation, 
and for my people ; taken a patent from the gov- 
ernment here to have secured my property, in sub- 
jection only to that of England ; had I carried over 
cannon and ammunition, servants, and people to 
plant, and taken possession of the place, fortified 
and strengthened it in the name of England, and in- 
creased it with people, as I might easily have done ; 
had I then settled myself there, and sent the ship 
back laden with good rice, as I might also have 
done in six months' time, and ordered my friends 
to have fitted her out again for our supply ; had I 
done this, and stayed there myself, I had at least 
acted like a man of common sense. But I was pos- 
sessed with a wandering spirit, and scorned all ad- 
vantages : I pleased myself with being the patron 
of the people I placed there, and doing for them 
in a kind of haughty, majestic way, like an old patri- 


archal monarch, providing for them as if I had been 
father of the whole family, as well as of the planta- 
tion : but I never so much as pretended to plant 
in the name of any government or nation, or to 
acknowledge any prince, or to call my people sub- 
jects to any one nation more than another : nay, I 
never so much as gave the place a name, but left 
it, as I found it, belonging to nobody, and the 
people under no discipline or government but my 
own; who, though I had influence over them as a 
father and benefactor, had no authority or power to 
act or command one way or other, farther than vol- 
untary consent moved them to comply. Yet even 
this, had I stayed there, would have done well 
enough; but as I rambled from them, and came 
there no more, the last letters I had from any of 
them were by my partner's means, who afterwards 
sent another sloop to the place, and who sent me 
word, though I had not the letter till I got to Lon- 
don, several years after it was written, that they 
went on but poorly, were malcontent with their 
long stay there ; that Will Atkins was dead ; that 
five of the Spaniards were come away ; and though 
they had not been much molested by the savages, 
yet they had had some skirmishes with them ; and 
that they begged of him to write to me to think of 
the promise I had made to fetch them away, that 
they might see their country before they died. 

But I was gone a wild-goose chase, indeed ! and 
they that will have any more of me must be con- 
tent to follow me into a new variety of follies, hard- 


ships, and wild adventures, wherein the justice of 
Providence may be duly observed; and we may 
see how easily Heaven can gorge us with our own 
desires, make the strongest of our wishes be our 
affliction, and punish us most severely with those 
very things which we think it would be our utmost 
happiness to be allowed in. Whether I had busi- 
ness or no business, away I went: it is no time 
now to enlarge upon the reason or absurdity of my 
own conduct, but to come to the history ; I was 
embarked for the voyage and the voyage I went. 
I shall only add a word or two concerning my 
honest Popish clergyman ; for let their opinion of 
us, and all other heretics in general, as they call us, 
be as uncharitable as it may, I verily believe this 
man was very sincere, and wished the good of all 
men : yet I believe he was upon the reserve in many 
of his expressions to prevent giving me offence; 
for I scarce heard him once call on the Blessed 
Virgin, or mention St. Jago or his guardian angel, 
though so common with the rest of them. How- 
ever, I say, I had not the least doubt of his sincer- 
ity and pious intentions on his own part; and I am 
firmly of opinion, if the rest of the Popish mis- 
sionaries were like him, they would strive to visit 
even the poor Tartars, and Laplanders, where they 
had nothing to give them, as well as covet to flock 
to India, Persia, China, etc., the most wealthy of 
the heathen countries ; for, if they expected to 
bring no gains to their church by it, it may well be 
admired how they came to admit the Chinese Con- 


fucius into the calendar of the Christian saints. — 
But this by the by. 

A ship being ready to sail for Lisbon, my pious 
priest asked me leave to go thither ; being still, as 
he observed, bound never to finish any voyage he 
began. How happy had it been for me if I had 
gone with him ! But it was too late now : all things 
Heaven appoints for the best: had I gone with 
him, I had never had so many things to be thank- 
ful for, and the reader had never heard of the sec- 
ond part of the travels and adventures of Robin- 
son Crusoe: so I must here leave exclaiming at 
myself, and go on with my voyage. From the 
Brazils we made directly over the Atlantic Sea to 
the Cape of Good Hope, and had a tolerable good 
voyage, our course generally south-east, now and 
then a storm, and some contrary winds, but my 
disasters at sea were at an end ; my future rubs and 
cross events were to befal me on shore, that it 
might appear the land was as well prepared to be 
our scourge as the sea. 

Our ship was on a trading voyage, and had 
a supercargo on board, who was to direct all her 
motions after she arrived at the Cape, only being 
limited to a certain number of days for stay, 
by charter-party, at the several ports she was 
to go to. This was none of my business, neither did 
I meddle with it; my nephew, the captain, and 
the supercargo, adjusting all those things between 
them as they thought fit. 


We stayed at the Cape no longer than was 
needful to take in fresh water, but made the 
best of our way for the coast of CoromandeL We 
were indeed informed that a French man-of-war 
of fifty guns, and two large merchant ships, were 
gone for the Indies ; and as I knew we were at war 
with France, I had some apprehensions of them ; 
but they went their own way, and we heard no 
more of them. 

I shall not pester the reader with a tedious de- 
scription of places, journals of our voyages, varia- 
tions of the compass, latitudes, trade-winds, etc. ; 
it is enough to name the ports and places which 
we touched at, and what occurred to us upon our 
passing from one to another. We touched first at 
the island of Madagascar, where, though the peo- 
ple are fierce and treacherous, and very well armed 
with lances and bows, which they use with incon- 
ceivable dexterity, yet we fared very well with them 
a while; they treated us very civilly; and, for some 
trifles which we gave them, such as knives, scis- 


sors, etc., they brought us eleven good fat bullocks 
of a middling size, which we took in, partly for 
fresh provisions for our present spending, and the 
rest to salt for the ship's use. 

We were obliged to stay here some time after 
we had furnished ourselves with provisions ; and I, 
who was always too curious to look into every 
nook of the world wherever I came, was for going 
on shore as often as I could. It was on the east 
side of the island that we went on shore one even- 
ing; and the people, who, by the way, are very 
numerous, came thronging about us, and stood 
gazing at us at a distance; but as we had traded 
freely with them, and had been kindly used, we 
thought ourselves in no danger; but when we saw 
the people, we cut three boughs out of a tree, and 
stuck them up at a distance from us; which, it 
seems, is a mark in that country, not only of a 
truce and friendship, but when it is accepted, the 
other side sets up three poles or boughs, which is 
a signal that they accept the truce too. But then 
this is a known condition of the truce, that you are 
not to pass beyond their three poles, towards them, 
nor they to come past your three poles, or boughs, 
towards you ; so thatyou are perfectly secure within 
the three poles, and all the space between your 
poles and theirs is allowed like a market for free 
converse, traffic, and commerce. When you go 
there, you must not carry your weapons with you; 
and if they come into that space, they stick up 
their javelins and lances all at the first poles, and 


come on unarmed ; but if any violence is offered 
them, and the truce thereby broken, away they run 
to the poles, and lay hold of their weapons, and 
the truce is at an end. 

It happened one evening when we went on shore 
that a greater number of their people came down 
than usual, but all very friendly and civil ; and they 
brought several kinds of provisions, for which we 
satisfied them with such toys as we had; their 
women, also, brought us milk and roots, and sev- 
eral things very acceptable to us, and all was quiet; 
and we made us a little tent or hut of some boughs 
of trees, and lay on shore all night. 

I know not what was the occasion, but I was not 
so well satisfied to lie on shore as the rest ; and 
the boat riding at an anchor about a stone's cast 
from the land, with two men in her to take care 
of her, I made one of them come on shore ; and 
getting some boughs of trees to cover us also in 
the boat, I spread the sail on the bottom of the 
boat, and lay under the cover of the branches of 
the trees all night in the boat. 

About two o'clock in the morning we heard one 
of our men make a terrible noise on the shore, 
calling out, for God's sake, to bring the boat in, 
and come and help them, for they were all like to 
be murdered ; at the same time I heard the fire of 
five muskets, which was the number of the guns 
they had, and that three times over ; for, it seems, 
the natives were not so easily frightened with guns 
as the savages were in America, where I had to do 


with them. All this while I knew not what was the 
matter, but rousing immediately from sleep with 
the noise, I caused the boat to be thrust in, and 
resolved, with three fusees we had on board, to land 
and assist our men. 

We got the boat soon to the shore, but our men 
were in too much haste; for being come to the 
shore, they plunged into the water, to get to the 
boat with all the expedition they could, being pur- 
sued by between three and four hundred men. Our 
men were but nine in all, and only five of them had 
fusees with them; the rest had pistols and swords, 
indeed, but they were of small use to them. 

We took up seven of our men, and with dif- 
ficulty enough too, three of them being very ill 
wounded; and that which was still worse was that, 
while we stood in the boat to take our men in, we 
were in as much danger as they were in on shore; 
for they poured their arrows in upon us so thick 
that we were glad to barricade the side of the boat 
up with the benches, and two or three loose boards, 
which, to our great satisfaction, we had by mere 
accident in the boat. And yet, had it been day- 
light, they are, it seems, such exact marksmen 
that if they could have seen but the least part of 
any of us, they would have been sure of us. We 
had, by the light of the moon, a little sight of them, 
as they stood pelting us from the shore with darts 
and arrows ; and having got ready our fire-arms, 
we gave them a volley, that we could hear, by the 
cries of some of them, had wounded several ; how- 


ever, they stood thus in battle array on the shore 
till break of day, which we suppose was that they 
might see the better to take their aim at us. 

In this condition we lay, and could not tell how 
to weigh our anchor or set up our sail, because we 
must needs stand up in the boat, and they were as 
sure to hit us as we were to hit a bird in a tree 
with small shot. We made signals of distress to 
the ship, which, though she rode a league off, yet 
my nephew, the captain, hearing our firing, and 
by glasses perceiving the posture we lay in, and 
that we fired towards the shore, pretty well under- 
stood us ; and weighing anchor with all speed, he 
stood as near the shore as he durst with the ship, 
and then sent another boat, with ten hands in her, 
to assist us : but we called to them not to come 
too near, telling them what condition we were in. 
However, they stood in near to us, and one of the 
men taking the end of the tow-line in his hand, 
and keeping our boat between him and the enemy, 
so that they could not perfectly see him, swam on 
board us, and made fast the line to the boat; upon 
which we shipped out a little cable, and leaving 
our anchor behind, they towed us out of the reach 
of the arrows ; we all the while lying close behind 
the barricado we had made. 

As soon as we were got from between the ship 
and the shore, that we could lay her side to the 
shore, she run along just by them, and poured in a 
broadside among them loaded with pieces of iron 
and lead, small bullets, and such stuff, besides the 


great shot, which made a terrible havoc among 

When we got on board and out of danger, we 
had time to examine into the occasion of this fray ; 
and, indeed, our supercargo, who had been often 
in those parts, put me upon it; for he said he was 
sure the inhabitants would not have touched us 
after we had made a truce, if we had not done 
something to provoke them to it. At length it 
came out that an old woman who had come to sell 
us some milk had brought it within our poles, and 
a young woman with her, who also brought some 
roots or herbs; and while the old woman (whether 
she was mother to the young woman or no they 
could not tell) was selling us the milk, one of our 
men offered some rudeness to the wench that was 
with her, at which the old woman made a great 
noise. However, the seaman would not quit his 
prize, but carried her out of the old woman's sight 
among the trees, it being almost dark : the old 
woman went away without her, and, as we may 
suppose, made an outcry among the people she 
came from, who, upon notice, raised this great 
army upon us in three or four hours ; and it was 
great odds but we had all been destroyed. 

One of our men was killed with a lance thrown 
at him just at the beginning of the attack, as he 
sallied out of the tent they had made : the rest came 
off free, all but the fellow who was the occasion of 
all the mischief, who paid dear enough for his black 
mistress, for we could not hear what became of 


him a great while. We lay upon the shore two days 
after, though the wind presented, and made sig- 
nals for him, and made our boat sail up shore and 
down shore several leagues, but in vain, so we were 
obliged to give him over; and if he alone had suf- 
fered for it, the loss had been less. 

I could not satisfy myself, however, without ven- 
turing on shore once more, to try if I could learn 
anything of him or them : it was the third night 
after the action that I had a great mind to learn, 
if I could by any means, what mischief we had done, 
and how the game stood on the Indians' side. I 
was careful to do it in the dark, lest we should be 
attacked again ; but I ought, indeed, to have been 
sure that the men I went with had been under my 
command, before I engaged in a thing so hazard- 
ous and mischievous as I was brought into by it 
without design. 

We took twenty as stout fellows with us as any 
in the ship, besides the supercargo and myself, 
and we landed two hours before midnight, at the 
same place where the Indians stood drawn up 
the evening before : I landed here, because my 
design, as I have said, was chiefly to see if they 
had quitted the field, and if they had left any marks 
behind them of the mischief we had done them ; 
and I thought if we could surprise one or two 
of them, perhaps we might get our man again, by 
way of exchange. 

We landed without any noise,and divided our men 
into two bodies, whereof the boatswain commanded 


one, and I the other. We neither saw nor heard any- 
body stir when we landed ; and we marched up, 
one body at a distance from the other, to the place ; 
but at first could see nothing, it being very dark ; 
till by and by our boatswain, who led the first 
party, stumbled and fell over a dead body. This 
made them halt a while; for knowing by the cir- 
cumstances that they were at the place where the 
Indians had stood, they waited for my coming up 
there. We concluded to halt till the moon began 
to rise, which we knew would be in less than an 
hour, when we could easily discern the havoc we 
had made among them. We told thirty-two bodies 
upon the ground, whereof two were not quite dead; 
some had an arm, and some a leg shot off, and one 
his head ; those that were wounded, we suppose, 
they had carried away. 

When we had made, as I thought, a full discov- 
ery of all we could come to the knowledge of, I was 
resolved forgoing on board; but the boatswain and 
his party sent me word that they were resolved to 
make a visit to the Indian town, where these dogs, 
as they called them, dwelt, and asked me to go 
along with them ; and if they could find them, as 
they still fancied they should, they did not doubt 
of getting a good booty; and it might be they 
might find Tom Jeffry there : that was the man's 
name we had lost. 

Had they sent to ask my leave to go, I knew 
well enough what answer to have given them ; for 
I should have commanded them instantly on board, 


knowing it was not a hazard fit for us to run, who 
had a ship, and ship-loading in our charge, and a 
voyage to make which depended very much upon 
the lives of the men; but as they sent me word 
they were resolved to go, and only asked me and 
my company to go along with them, I positively 
refused it, and rose up, for I was sitting on the 
ground, in order to go to the boat. One or two of 
the men began to importune me to go : and when 
I refused, began to grumble, and say that they were 
not under my command, and they would go. 
" Come, Jack," says one of the men, " will you go 
with me ? I '11 go for one." Jack said he would, — 
and then another, — and, in a word, they all left 
me but one, whom I persuaded to stay, and a boy 
left in the boat. So the supercargo and I, with the 
third man, went back to the boat, where we told 
them we would stay for them, and take care to take 
in as many of them as should be left ; for I told 
them it was a mad thing they were going about, 
and supposed most of them would run the fate of 
Tom Jeffry. 

They told me, like seamen, they would warrant 
it they would come off again, and they would take 
care, etc.; so away they went. I entreated them to 
consider the ship and the voyage, that their lives 
were not their own, and that they were entrusted 
with the voyage, in some measure ; that if they 
miscarried, the ship might be lost for want of their 
help, and that they could not answer for it to God 
or man. But I might as well have talked to the 


mainmast of the ship. They were mad upon their 
journey, only they gave me good words, and 
begged I would not be angry ; that they did not 
doubt but they would be back again in about an 
hour at farthest; for the Indian town, they said, 
was not above half a mile off, though they found 
it above two miles before they got to it. 

Well, they all went away; and though the at- 
tempt was desperate, and such as none but madmen 
would have gone about, yet, to give them their 
due, they went about it as warily as boldly. They 
were gallantly armed, for they had every man a 
fusee or musket, a bayonet, and a pistol ; some of 
them had broad cutlasses, some of them had hang- 
ers, and the boatswain and two more had pole- 
axes; besides all which they had among them thir- 
teen hand-grenadoes : bolder fellows, and better 
provided, never went about any wicked work in the 

When they went out, their chief design was plun- 
der, and they were in mighty hopes of finding gold 
there ; but a circumstance, which none of them 
were aware of, set them on fire with revenge, and 
made devils of them all. When they came to the 
few Indian houses which they thought had been 
the town, which was not above half a mile off, they 
were under a great disappointment, for there were 
not above twelve or thirteen houses; and where 
the town was, or how big, they knew not. They 
consulted, therefore, what to do, and were some 
time before they could resolve ; for if they fell upon 


these, they must cut all their throats, and it was 
ten to one but some of them might escape, it be- 
ing in the night, though the moon was up; and if 
one escaped, he would run and raise all the town, 
so they should have a whole army upon them: 
again, on the other hand, if they went away and 
left those untouched, for the people were all asleep, 
they could not tell which way to look for the town : 
however, the last was the best advice ; so they re- 
solved to leave them, and look for the town as well 
as they could. They went on a little way, and found 
a cow tied to a tree ; this, they presently concluded, 
would be a good guide to them ; for, they said, the 
cow certainly belonged to the town before them, 
or to the town behind them ; and if they untied her, 
they should see which way she went: if she went 
back, they had nothing to say to her ; but, if she 
went forward, they would follow her: so they cut 
the cord, which was made of twisted flags, and the 
cow went on before them, directly to the town ; 
which, as they reported, consisted of above two 
hundred houses or huts, and in some of these they 
found several families living together. 

Here they found all in silence, as profoundly 
secure as sleep could make them ; and, first, they 
called another council, to consider what they had 
to do ; and, in a word, they resolved to divide them- 
selves into three bodies, and so set three houses 
on fire in three parts of the town ; and as the men 
came out, to seize them and bind them (if any re- 
sisted, they need not be asked what to do then), 


and so to search the rest of the houses for plunder: 
but they resolved to march silently first through 
the town, and to see what dimensions it was of, 
and if they might venture upon it or no. 

They did so, and desperately resolved that they 
would venture upon them : but while they were 
animating one another to the work, three of them, 
who were a little before the rest, called out aloud 
to them, and told them that they had found Tom 
JefFry : they all ran up to the place, where they 
found the poor fellow hanging up naked by one 
arm, and his throat cut. There was an Indian 
house just by the tree, where they found sixteen 
or seventeen of the principal Indians, who had 
been concerned in the fray with us before, and two 
or three of them wounded with our shot; and our 
men found they were awake, and talking one to 
another in that house, but knew not their number. 

The sight of their poor mangled comrade so 
enraged them, as before, that they swore to one 
another they would be revenged, and that not an 
Indian that came into their hands should have any 
quarter; and to work they went immediately, and 
yet not so madly as might be expected from the rage 
and fury they were in. Their first care was to get 
something that would soon take fire, but, after a 
little search, they found that would be to no pur- 
pose; for most of the houses were low, and thatched 
with flags and rushes, of which the country is full : 
so they presently made some wildfire, as we call it, 
by wetting a little powder in the palm of their 


hands; and in a quarter of an hour they set the 
town on fire in four or five places, and particularly 
that house where the Indians were not gone to 

As soon as the fire began to blaze, the poor 
frightened creatures began to rush out to save their 
lives, but met their fate in the attempt ; and espe- 
cially at the door, where they drove them back, the 
boatswain himself killing one or two with his pole- 
axe ; the house being large, and many in it, he did 
not care to go in, but called for a hand-grenado, 
and threw it among them, which at first frightened 
them, but, when it burst, made such havoc among 
them that they cried out in a hideous manner. In 
short, most of the Indians who were in the open 
part of the house were killed or hurt with the gre- 
nado, except two or three who pressed to the door, 
which the boatswain and two more kept, with their 
bayonets on the muzzles of their pieces, and dis- 
patched all that came in their way : but there was 
another apartment in the house, where the prince 
or king, or whatever he was, and several others 
were ; and these were kept in till the house, which 
was by this time all in a light flame, fell in upon 
them, and they were smothered together. 

All this while they fired not a gun, because they 
would not waken the people faster than they could 
master them ; but the fire began to waken them 
fast enough, and our fellows were glad to keep a 
little together in bodies ; for the fire grew so rag- 
ing, all the houses being made of light combustible 


stuff, that they could hardly bear the street between 
them ; and their business was to follow the fire, 
for the surer execution. As fast as the fire either 
forced the people out of those houses which were 
burning, or frightened them out of others, our 
people were ready at their doors to knock them on 
the head, still calling and hallooing one to another 
to remember Tom Jeffry. 

While this was doing, I must confess I was very 
uneasy, and especially when I saw the flames of the 
town, which, it being night, seemed to be just by 
me. My nephew, the captain, who was roused by 
his men, seeing such a fire, was very uneasy, not 
knowing what the matter was or what danger I was 
in, especially hearing the guns too, for by this time 
they began to use their fire-arms; a thousand 
thoughts oppressed his mind concerning me and 
the supercargo, what would become of us ; and at 
last, though he could ill spare any more men, yet 
not knowing what exigence we might be in, he takes 
another boat, and with thirteen men and himself 
comes on shore to me. 

He was surprised to see me and the supercargo 
in the boat, with no more than two men; and 
though he was glad that we were well, yet he was 
in the same impatience with us to know what was 
doing; for the noise continued and the flame in- 
creased; in short, it was next to an impossibility 
for any men in the world to restrain their curiosity 
to know what had happened, or their concern for 
the safety of the men : in a word, the captain told 


me he would go and help his men, let what would 
come. I argued with him, as I did before with the 
men, the safety of the ship, the danger of the voy- 
age, the interest of the owners and merchants, etc., 
and told him I and the two men would go, and 
only see if we could at a distance learn what was 
like to be the event, and come back and tell him. 
It was all one to talk to my nephew as it was to 
talk to the rest before; he would go he said ; and he 
only wished he had left but ten men in the ship ; for 
he could not think of having his men lost for want 
of help ; he had rather lose the ship, the voyage, 
and his life and all ; and away he went. 

I was no more able to stay behind now than I 
was to persuade them not to go: so, in short, the 
captain ordered two men to row back the pinnace, 
and fetch twelve men more, leaving the long-boat 
at an anchor; and that when they came back, six 
men should keep the two boats, and six more come 
after us : so that he left only sixteen men in the 
ship; for the whole ship's company consisted of 
sixty-five men, whereof two were lost in the late 
quarrel which brought this mischief on. 

Being now on the march, you may be sure we 
felt little of the ground we trod on; and being 
guided by the fire, we kept no path, but went di- 
rectly to the place of the flame. If the noise of the 
guns was surprising to us before, the cries of the 
poor people were now quite of another nature, and 
filled us with horror. I must confess I was never 
at the sacking a city, or at the taking a town by 


storm. I had heard of Oliver Cromwell taking 
Drogheda, in Ireland, and killing man, woman, and 
child ; and I had read of Count Tilly sacking the city 
of Magdeburg, and cutting the throats of twenty- 
two thousand of all sexes; but I never had an idea 
of the thing before, nor is it possible to describe it, 
or the horror that was upon our minds at hearing 
it. However, we went on, and at length came to the 
town, though there was no entering the streets of 
it for the fire. The first object we met with was the 
ruins of a hut or house, or rather the ashes of it, 
for the house was consumed; and just before it, 
plain enough to be seen by the light of the fire, lay 
four men and three women killed, and, as we 
thought, one or two more lay in the heap among 
the fire ; in short, there were such instances of rage 
altogether barbarous, and of a fury something be- 
yond what was human, that we thought it impos- 
sible our men could be guilty of it ; or if they were 
the authors of it, we thought they ought to be every 
one of them put to the worst of deaths. But this 
was not all : we saw the fire increased forward, and 
the cry went on just as the fire went on ; so that we 
were in the utmost confusion. We advanced a lit- 
tle way farther ; and, behold, to our astonishment, 
three naked women, and crying in a most dread- 
ful manner, came flying as if they had wings, and 
after them sixteen or seventeen men, natives, in 
the same terror and consternation, with three of 
our English butchers in the rear; who, when they 
could not overtake them, fired in among them, and 


one that was killed by their shot fell down in our 
sight. When the rest saw us, believing us to be 
their enemies, and that we would murder them as 
well as those that pursued them, they set up a most 
dreadful shriek, especially the women, and two of 
them fell down, as if already dead, with the fright. 
My very soul shrunk within me, and my blood 
ran chill in my veins, when I saw this ; and I be- 
lieve, had the three English sailors that pursued 
them come on, I had made our men kill them all. 
However, we took some ways to let the poor fly- 
ing creatures know that we would not hurt them ; 
and immediately they came up to us, and kneel- 
ing down with their hands lifted up, made piteous 
lamentation to us to save them, which we let them 
know we would ; whereupon they crept all together 
in a huddle close behind us as for protection. I left 
my men drawn up together, and charging them to 
hurt nobody, but if possible to get at some of our 
people, and see what devil it was possessed them, 
and what they intended to do, and to command 
them off; assuring them that if they stayed till day- 
light, they would have a hundred thousand men 
about their ears : I say, I left them, and went 
among those flying people, taking only two of 
our men with me ; and there was indeed a piteous 
spectacle among them; some of them had their 
feet terribly burned, with trampling and running 
through the fire, others their hands burned; one 
of the women had fallen down in the fire, and was 
very much burned before she could get out again ; 


and two or three of the men had cuts in their backs 
and thighs, from our men pursuing; and another 
was shot through the body, and died while I was 

I would fain have learned what the occasion of 
all this was, but I could not understand one word 
they said ; though, by signs, I perceived some of 
them knew not what was the occasion themselves. 
I was so terrified, in my thoughts, at this outrage- 
ous attempt that I could not stay there, but went 
back to my own men, and resolved to go into the 
middle of the town, through the fire, or whatever 
might be in the way, and put an end to it, cost 
what it would. Accordingly, as I came back to my 
men, I told them my resolution, and commanded 
them to follow me ; when at the very moment came 
four of our men, with the boatswain at their head, 
roving over heaps of bodies they had killed, all 
covered with blood and dust, as if they wanted more 
people to massacre, when our men hallooed to them 
as loud as they could halloo ; and with much ado 
one of them made them hear, so that they knew 
who we were, and came up to us. 

As soon as the boatswain saw us, he set up a 
halloo like a shout of triumph, for having, as he 
thought, more help come ; and without waiting to 
hear me, " Captain," says he, " noble captain ! I 
am glad you are come ; we are not half-done yet : 
villainous hell-hound dogs ! I '11 kill as many of 
them as poor Tom has hairs upon his head : we 
have sworn to spare none of them ; we '11 root out 


the very nation of them from the earth": and thus 
he ran on, out of breath too with action, and would 
not give us leave to speak a word. 

At last, raising my voice, that I might silence 
him a little, " Barbarous dog ! " said I, " what are 
you doing? I won't have one creature touched 
more, upon pain of death : I charge you, upon your 
life, to stop your hands, and stand still here, or you 
are a dead man this minute." " Why, sir," says he, 
" do you know what you do, or what they have 
done ? If you want a reason for what we have done, 
come hither " ; and with that he showed me the 
poor fellow hanging, with his throat cut. 

I confess I was urged then myself, and at an- 
other time would have been forward enough ; but 
I thought they had carried their rage too far, and 
remembered Jacob's words to his sons Simeon and 
Levi — cc Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce ; 
and their wrath, for it was cruel." But I had now 
a new task upon my hands ; for when the men I 
carried with me saw the sight, as I had done, I had 
as much to do to restrain them as I should have 
had with the others ; nay, my nephew himself fell 
in with them, and told me, in their hearing, that 
he was only concerned for fear of the men being 
overpowered; and as to the people, he thought not 
one of them ought to live ; for they had glutted 
themselves with the murder of the poor man, and 
that they ought to be used like murderers. Upon 
these words, away ran eight of my men, with the 
boatswain and his crew, to complete their bloody 


work ; and I, seeing it quite out of my power to 
restrain them, came away pensive and sad ; for I 
could not bear the sight, much less the horrible 
noise and cries of the poor wretches that fell into 
their hands. 

I got nobody to come back with me but the 
supercargo and two men, and with these walked 
back to the boat. It was a very great piece of folly 
in me, I confess, to venture back as it were alone ; 
for as it began now to be almost day, and the alarm 
had run over the country, there stood about forty 
men, armed with lances and bows, at the little place 
where the twelve or thirteen houses stood men- 
tioned before ; but by accident I missed the place, 
and came directly to the seaside ; and by the time 
I got to the seaside it was broad day ; immediately 
I took the pinnace and went on board, and sent her 
back to assist the men in what might happen. 

I observed, about the time that I came to the 
boat's side, that the fire was pretty well out, and 
the noise abated : but in about half an hour after 
I got on board I heard a volley of our men's fire- 
arms, and saw a great smoke : this, as I understood 
afterwards, was our men falling upon the men who, 
as I said, stood at the few houses on the way, of 
whom they killed sixteen or seventeen, and set all 
the houses on fire, but did not meddle with the 
women or children. 

By the time the men got to the shore again with 
the pinnace, our men began to appear ; they came 
dropping in, not in two bodies as they went, but 


straggling here and there in such a manner that a 
small force of resolute men might have cut them 
all off. But the dread of them was upon the whole 
country ; and the men were surprised, and so fright- 
ened, that I believe a hundred of them would have 
fled at the sight of but five of our men. Nor in all 
this terrible action was there a man that made any 
considerable defence ; they were so surprised be- 
tween the terror of the fire and the sudden attack 
of our men in the dark that they knew not which 
way to turn themselves ; for if they fled one way 
they were met by one party ; if back again, by 
another ; so that they were everywhere knocked 
down : nor did any of our men receive the least 
hurt, except one that sprained his foot, and another 
that had one of his hands burned. 

I was very angry with my nephew, the captain, 
and, indeed, with all the men, in my mind, but with 
him in particular, as well for his acting so out of 
his duty, as commander of the ship, and having the 
charge of the voyage upon him, as in his prompt- 
ing, rather than cooling, the rage of his blind men 
in so bloody and cruel an enterprise. My nephew 
answered me very respectfully, but told me that 
when he saw the body of the poor seaman whom 
they had murdered in so cruel and barbarous a 
manner, he was not master of himself, neither could 
he govern his passion : he owned he should not 
have done so, as he was commander of the ship ; 
but as he was a man, and nature moved him, he 
could not bear it. As for the rest of the men, they 


were not subject to me at all, and they knew it well 
enough ; so they took no notice of my dislike. 

The next day we set sail, so we never heard any 
more of it. Our men differed in the account of the 
number they had killed; but according to the best 
of their accounts, put all together, they killed or de- 
stroyed about one hundred and fifty people, men, 
women, and children, and left not a house standing 
in the town. As for the poor fellow Tom Jeffry, as 
he was quite dead (for his throat was so cut that his 
head was half off), it would do him no service to 
bring him away ; so they only took him down from 
the tree, where he was hanging by one hand. 

However just our men thought this action, I was 
against them in it, and I always after that time told 
them God would blast the voyage ; for I looked 
upon all the blood they shed that night to be mur- 
der in them ; for though it is true that they had 
killed Tom Jeffry, yet Jeffry was the aggressor, had 
broken the truce, and had violated or debauched a 
young woman of theirs, who came down to them 
innocently, and on the faith of the public capitu- 

The boatswain defended this quarrel when we 
were afterwards on board. He said it was true that 
we seemed to break the truce, but really had not; 
and that the war was begun the night before by the 
natives themselves, who had shot at us, and killed 
one of our men without anvjust provocation ; so 
that as we were in a capacity to fight them now, we 
might also be in a capacity to do ourselves justice 


upon them in an extraordinary manner ; that though 
the poor man had taken a little liberty with the 
wench, he ought not to have been murdered, and 
that in such a villanous manner ; and that they did 
nothing but what was just, and what the laws of God 
allowed to be done to murderers. 

One would think this should have been enough 
to have warned us against going on shore among 
heathens and barbarians : but it is impossible to 
make mankind wise but at their own expense ; and 
their experience seems to be always of most use to 
them when it is dearest bought. 

We were now bound to the Gulf of Persia, and 
from thence to the coast of Coromandel, only to 
touch at Surat ; but the chief of the supercargo's 
design lay at the Bay of Bengal ; where if he missed 
his business outward-bound, he was to go up to 
China, and return to the coast as he came home. 

The first disaster that befel us was in the Gulf of 
Persia, where five of our men, venturing on shore 
on the Arabian side of the gulf, were surrounded by 
the Arabians, and either all killed or carried away 
into slavery : the rest of the boat's crew were not 
able to rescue them, and had but just time to get 
off their boat. I began to upbraid them with the 
just retribution of Heaven in this case ; but the 
boatswain very warmly told me he thought I went 
farther in my censures than I could show any war- 
rant for in Scripture ; and referred to Luke xiii. 4, 
where our Saviour intimates that those men on whom 
the tower of Siloam fell were not sinners above all 


the Galileans. But that which put me to silence in 
the case was that not one of these five men who 
were now lost were of those who went on shore to 
the massacre of Madagascar, so I always called it, 
though our men could not bear the word " mas- 
sacre " with any patience. 

But my frequent preaching to them on the sub- 
ject had worse consequences than I expected; and 
the boatswain, who had been the head of the at- 
tempt, came up boldly to me one time, and told 
me he found that I brought that affair continually 
upon the stage; that I made unjust reflections upon 
it, and had used the men very ill on that account, 
and himself in particular ; that as I was but a pas- 
senger, and had no command in the ship, or con- 
cern in the voyage, they were not obliged to bear it; 
that they did not know but that I might have some 
ill design in my head, and perhaps to call them to 
account for it when they came to England ; and that, 
therefore, unless I would resolve to have done with 
it, and also not to concern myself any farther with 
him, or any of his affairs, he would leave the ship ; 
for he did not think it was safe to sail with me 
among them. 

I heard him patiently enough till he had done, 
and then told him that I confessed I had all along 
opposed the massacre of Madagascar, and that I 
had, on all occasions, spoken my mind freely about 
it, though not more upon him than any of the rest; 
that as to having no command in the ship, that was 
true; nor did I exercise any authority, only took the 


liberty of speaking my mind in things which pub- 
licly concerned us all ; and what concern I had in 
the voyage was none of his business ; that I was a 
considerable owner in the ship ; in that claim, I con- 
ceived I had a right to speak even farther than I 
had done, and would not be accountable to him or 
any one else ; and began to be a little warm with 
him. He made but little reply to me at that time, 
and I thought the affair had been over. We were at 
this time in the road at Bengal ; and being willing to 
see the place, I went on shore with the supercargo, in 
the ship's boat, to divert myself; and towards even- 
ing was preparing to go on board, when one of the 
men came to me, and told me he would not have 
me trouble myself to come down to the boat, for 
they had orders not to carry me on board anymore. 
Any one may guess what a surprise I was in at so 
insolent a message; and I asked the man who bade 
him deliver that message to me ? He told me, the 
cockswain. I said no more to the fellow, but bade 
him let them know he had delivered his message, 
and that I had given him no answer to it. 

I immediately went and found out the super- 
cargo, and told him the story; adding, which I 
presently foresaw, that there would be a mutiny in 
the ship ; and entreated him to go immediately on 
board the ship in an Indian boat, and acquaint the 
captain of it. But I might have spared this intel- 
ligence, for before I had spoken to him on shore 
the matter was effected on board. The boatswain, 
the gunner, the carpenter, and all the inferior of- 


fleers, as soon as I was gone off in the boat, came 
up, and desired to speak with the captain ; and 
there the boatswain, making a long harangue, and 
repeating all he had said to me, told the captain, in 
a few words, that as I was now gone peaceably on 
shore, they were loath to use any violence with me, 
which, if I had not gone on shore, they would 
otherwise have done, to oblige me to have gone; 
they therefore thought fit to tell him that, as they 
shipped themselves to serve the ship under his 
command, they would perform it well and faith- 
fully ; but if I would not quit the ship, or the cap- 
tain oblige me to quit it, they would all leave the 
ship, and sail no farther with him ; and at that 
word "all," he turned his face towards the main- 
mast, which was, it seems, the signal agreed on be- 
tween them, at which all the seamen, being got 
together there, cried out, "One and all! one and 
all ! " 

My nephew, the captain, was a man of spirit, 
and of great presence of mind ; and though he was 
surprised, you may be sure, at the thing, yet he 
told them calmly that he would consider of the 
matter ; but that he could do nothing in it till he 
had spoken to me about it. He used some argu- 
ments with them to show them the unreasonable- 
ness and injustice of the thing: but it was all in 
vain ; they swore and shook hands round before 
his face that they would all go on shore, unless he 
would engage to them not to suffer me to come 
any more on board the ship. 


This was a hard article upon him, who knew 
his obligation to me, and did not know how I 
might take it: so he began to talk smartly to them; 
told them that I was a very considerable owner of 
the ship, and that, in justice, he could not put me 
out of my own house ; that this was next door to 
serving me as the famous pirate Kidd had done, who 
made a mutiny on the ship, set the captain on 
shore on an uninhabited island, and ran away with 
the ship ; that let them go into what ship they 
would, if ever they came to England again it would 
cost them very dear ; that the ship was mine, and 
that he could not put me out of it ; and that he 
would rather lose the ship and the voyage too than 
disoblige me so much; so they might do as they 
pleased: however, he would go on shore and talk 
with me, and invited the boatswain to go with him, 
and perhaps they might accommodate the matter 
with me. But they all rejected the proposal, and 
said they would have nothing to do with me any 
more ; and if I came on board, they would all go 
on shore. " Well," said the captain, "if you are all 
of this mind, let me go on shore and talk with 
him." So away he came to me with this account, 
a little after the message had been brought to me 
from the coxswain. 

I was very glad to see my nephew, I must con- 
fess ; for I was not without apprehensions that they 
would confine him by violence, set sail, and run 
away with the ship; and then I had been stripped 
naked in a remote country, having nothing to help 


myself: in short, I had been in a worse case than 
when I was alone in the island. But they had not 
come up to that length, it seems, to my satisfaction ; 
and when my nephew told me what they had 
said to him, and how they had sworn and shook 
hands that they would, one and all, leave the ship 
if I was suffered to come on board, I told him he 
should not be concerned at it at all, for I would 
stay on shore; I only desired he would take care 
and send me all my necessary things on shore, and 
leave me a sufficient sum of money, and I would 
find my way back to England as well as I could. 
This was a heavy piece of news to my nephew, 
but there was no way to help it but to comply ; so, 
in short, he went on board the ship again, and sat- 
isfied the men that his uncle had yielded to their 
importunity, and had sent for his goods from on 
board the ship; so that the matter was over in a 
few hours, the men returned to their duty, and I 
began to consider what course I should steer. 


I was now alone in the most remote part of the 
world, as I think I may call it, for I was near 
three thousand leagues by sea farther off from 
England than I was at my island; only, it is true, I 
might travel here by land over the Great Mogul's 
country to Surat, might go from thence to Bassora 
by sea up the Gulf of Persia, and take the way of 
the caravans, over the Desert of Arabia, to Aleppo 
and Scanderoon ; from thence by sea again to Italy, 
and so overland into France ; and this put together 
might at least be a full diameter of the globe, or 

I had another way before me, which was to wait 
for some English ships, which were coming to Ben- 
gal from Achin, on the Island of Sumatra, and get 
passage on board them for England. But as I came 
hither without any concern with the English East 
India Company, so it would be difficult to go from 
hence without their licence, unless with great fav- 
our of the captains of the ships, or the Company's 
factors, and to both I was an utter stranger. 


Here I had the mortification to see the ship set 
sail without me; a treatment I think a man in my 
circumstances scarce ever met with, except from 
pirates running away with the ship, and setting 
those that would not agree with their villainy on 
shore. Indeed, this was next door to it, both ways ; 
however, my nephew left me to servants, or rather 
one companion and one servant; the first was clerk 
to the purser, whom he engaged to go with me, 
and the other was his own servant. I took me also 
a good lodging in the house of an Englishwoman, 
where several merchants lodged, some French, two 
Italians, or rather Jews, and one Englishman; here 
I was handsomely enough entertained: and that I 
might not be said to run rashly upon anything, I 
stayed here above nine months considering what 
course to take, and how to manage myself. I had 
some English goods with me of value, and a con- 
siderable sum of money ; my nephew furnishing 
me with a thousand pieces-of-eight, and a letter of 
credit for more, if I had occasion, that I might not 
be straitened, whatever might happen. 

I quickly disposed of my goods to advantage, 
and, as I originally intended, I bought here some 
very good diamonds, which, of all other things, 
were the most proper for me, in my present cir- 
cumstances; because I could always carry my whole 
estate about me. 

After a long stay here, and many proposals made 
for my return to England, but none falling out 
to my mind, the English merchant who lodged 


with me, and whom I had contracted an intimate 
acquaintance with, came to me one morning. " Coun- 
try man," says he, "I have a project to commun- 
icate to you, which, as it suits with my thoughts, 
may, for aught I know, suit with yours also, when 
you shall have thoroughly considered it. Here we 
are posted, you by accident, and I by my own 
choice, in a part of the world very remote from 
our own country ; but it is in a country where, by 
us who understand trade and business, a great deal 
of money is to be got. If you will put one thou- 
sand pounds to my one thousand pounds, we will 
hire a ship here, the first we can get to our minds ; 
you shall be captain, I '11 be merchant, and we '11 
go a trading voyage to China : for what should we 
stand still for? The whole world is in motion, roll- 
ing round and round ; all the creatures of God, 
heavenly bodies and earthly, are busy and diligent : 
why should we be idle ? There are no drones in the 
world but men; why should we be of that number?" 
I liked this proposal very well, and the more 
because it seemed to be expressed with so much 
good will, and in so friendly a manner. I will not 
say but that I might, by my loose unhinged cir- 
cumstances, be the fitter to embrace a proposal for 
trade, or indeed anything else ; whereas, otherwise, 
trade was none of my element. However, I might 
perhaps say, with some truth, that, if trade was not 
my element, rambling was, and no proposal for see- 
ing any part of the world which I had never seen 
before could possibly come amiss to me. 


It was, however, some time before we could get 
a ship to our minds, and when we had got a ves- 
sel, it was not easy to get English sailors; that is 
to say, so many as were necessary to govern the 
voyage and manage the sailors which we should 
pick up there. After some time we got a mate, a 
boatswain, and a gunner, English : a Dutch carpen- 
ter, and three Portuguese foremastmen. With these 
we found we could do well enough, having Indian 
seamen, such as they were, to make up. 

There are so many travellers who have wrote the 
history of their voyages and travels this way, that 
it would be very little diversion to anybody to give 
a long account of the places we went to, and the 
people who inhabit there : these things I leave to 
others, and refer the reader to those journals and 
travels of Englishmen, of which many, I find, are 
published and more promised every day; it is 
enough for me to tell you that we made this voy- 
age to Achin, in the Island of Sumatra, and from 
thence to Siam, where we exchanged some of our 
wares for opium and some arrack; the first a com- 
modity which bears a great price among the Chinese, 
and which, at that time, was much wanted there. In 
a word, we went up to Suskan, made a very great 
voyage, were eight months out, and returned to 
Bengal; and I was very well satisfied with my ad- 
venture. I observe that our people in England 
often admire how officers which the Company send 
into India, and the merchants which generally stay 
there, get such very great estates as they do, and 


sometimes come home worth sixty or seventy thou- 
sand pounds at a time. But it is no wonder, or at 
least we shall see so much farther into it, when we 
consider the innumerable ports and places where 
they have a free commerce, that it will be none; 
and much less will it be so when we consider that 
at those places and ports where the English ships 
come there is such great and constant demand 
for the growth of all other countries that there is 
a certain vent for the returns, as well as a market 
abroad for the goods carried out. 

In short, we made a very good voyage, and I 
got so much money by my first adventure, and 
such an insight into the method of getting more, 
that had I been twenty years younger I should 
have been tempted to have stayed here, and sought 
no farther for making any fortune : but what was 
all this to a man upwards of threescore, that was 
rich enough, and came abroad more in obedience to 
a restless desire of seeing the world than a covet- 
ous desire of gaining by it ? And, indeed, I think 
it is with great justice I now call it restless desire, for 
it was so. When I was at home, I was restless to go 
abroad ; and when I was abroad, I was restless to 
be at home. I say, what was this gain to me? I 
was rich enough already, nor had I any uneasy de- 
sires about getting more money ; and therefore the 
profit of the voyage to me was of no great force 
for the prompting me forward to farther under- 
takings ; hence I thought that by this voyage I had 
made no progress at all, because I was come back, 


as I might call it, to the place from whence I came, 
as to a home : whereas my eye, which, like that 
which Solomon speaks of, was never satisfied with 
seeing, was still desirous of wandering and seeing 
more. I was come into a part of the world which I 
was never in before, and that part, in particular, 
which I had heard much of, and was resolved to 
see as much of it as I could ; and then I thought 
I might say I had seen all the world that was worth 

But my fellow-traveller and I had different no- 
tions: I do not name this to insist on my own, for 
I acknowledge his were the most just and the most 
suited to the end of a merchant's life ; who, when 
he is abroad upon adventures, it is his wisdom to 
stick to that, as the best thing for him, which he is 
like to get the most money by. My new friend 
kept himself to the nature of the thing, and would 
have been content to have gone like a carrier's 
horse, always to the same inn, backward and for- 
ward, provided he could, as he called it, find his 
account in it. On the other hand, mine was the 
notion of a mad rambling boy, that never cares to 
see a thing twice over. But this was not all: I had 
a kind of impatience upon me to be nearer home, 
and yet the most unsettled resolution imaginable 
which way to go. In the interval of these consulta- 
tions, my friend, who was always upon the search 
for business, proposed another voyage to me 
among the Spice Islands, and to bring home a 
loading of cloves from the Manillas, or thereabouts ; 


places, indeed, where the Dutch trade, but islands 
belonging partly to Spaniards; though we went not 
so far, but to some other, where they have not the 
whole power, as they have at Batavia, Ceylon, etc. 

We were not long in preparing for this voyage ; 
the chief difficulty was in bringing me to come into 
it : however, at last, nothing else offering, and find- 
ing that really stirring about and trading, the profit 
being so great, and, as I may say, certain, had more 
pleasure in it, and had more satisfaction to my 
mind, than sitting still, which, to me especially, was 
the unhappiest part of my life, I resolved on this 
voyage too, which we made very successfully, touch- 
ing at Borneo and several islands whose names I do 
not remember, and came home in about five 
months. We sold our spice, which was chiefly 
cloves and some nutmegs, to the Persian merchants, 
who carried them away to the Gulf; and making 
near five of one, we really got a great deal of money. 

My friend, when we made up this account, 
smiled at me : " Well now," said he, with a sort of 
agreeable insult upon my indolent temper, "is not 
this better than walking about here, like a man of 
nothing to do, and spending our time in staring 
at the nonsense and ignorance of the Pagans ?" 
"Why, truly," says I, "my friend, I think it is, 
and I begin to be a convert to the principles of 
merchandising; but I must tell you," said I, "by 
the way, you do not know what I am doing; for 
if I once conquer my backwardness, and embark 
heartily, as old as I am, I shall harass you up and 


down the world till I tire you ; for I shall pursue it 
so eagerly, I shall never let you lie still." 

But, to be short with my speculations, a little 
while after this there came in a Dutch ship from 
Batavia ; she was a coaster, not an European trader, 
of about two hundred tons burthen; the men, as 
they pretended, having been so sickly that the 
captain had not hands enough to go to sea with, 
he lay by at Bengal ; and having, it seems, got 
money enough, or being willing, for other reasons, 
to go for Europe, he gave public notice he would 
sell his ship. This came to my ears before my new 
partner heard of it, and I had a great mind to buy 
it; so I went to him and told him of it. He con- 
sidered awhile, for he was no rash man neither ; but 
musing some time, he replied, " She is a little too 
big; but, however, we will have her." According- 
ly, we bought the ship, and agreeing with the 
master, we paid for her and took possession. 
When we had done so, we resolved to entertain the 
men, if we could, to join them with those we had, for 
the pursuing our business ; but on a sudden, they 
having received, not their wages, but their share 
of the money, as we afterwards learned, not one of 
them was to be found; we inquired much about 
them, and at length were told that they were all 
gone together by land to Agra, the great city of 
the Mogul's residence, and from thence were to 
travel to Surat, and go by sea to the Gulf of Persia. 

Nothing had so much troubled me a good while 
as that I should miss the opportunity of going 


with them, for such a ramble, I thought, and in 
such company as would both have guarded and 
diverted me, would have suited mightily with my 
great design; and I should have both seen the world 
and gone homewards too. But I was much better 
satisfied a few days after, when I came to know 
what sort of fellows they were ; for, in short, their 
history was, that this man they called captain was 
the gunner only, not the commander; that they 
had been a trading voyage, in which they had been 
attacked on shore by some of the Malays, who had 
killed the captain and three of his men ; and that 
after the captain was killed, these men, eleven in 
number, had resolved to run away with the ship, 
which they did, and brought her to Bengal, leav- 
ing the mate and five men more on shore, of 
whom hereafter. 

Well, let them get the ship how they would, 
we came honestly by her, as we thought, though we 
did not, I confess, examine into things so exactly 
as we ought ; for we never inquired anything of 
the seamen, who would certainly have faltered in 
their account, contradicted one another, and per- 
haps contradicted themselves ; or one how or other 
we should have had reason to have suspected them : 
but the man showed us a bill of sale of the ship, 
to one Emanuel Clostershoven, or some such name, 
for I suppose it was all a forgery, and called him- 
self by that name, and we could not contradict him; 
and withal, having no suspicion of the thing, we 
went through with our bargain. 


We picked up some more English sailors here 
after this, and some Dutch ; and we resolved for a 
second voyage to the south-east for cloves, etc., 
that is to say among the Philippine and Molucca 
isles ; and, in short, not to fill up this part of my 
story with trifles when what is to come is so re- 
markable, I spent, from first to last, six years in this 
country, trading from port to port, backward and 
forward, and with very good success, and was now 
the last year with my new partner, going in the ship 
abovementioned, on a voyage to China, but de- 
signing first to Siam, to buy rice. 

In this voyage, being by contrary winds obliged 
to beat up and down a great while in the Straits 
of Malacca, and among the islands, we were no 
sooner got clear of those difficult seas than we 
found our ship had sprung a leak, and we were not 
able, by all our industry, to find out where it was. 
This forced us to make some port ; and my part- 
ner, who knew the country better than I did, di- 
rected the captain to put into the river of Cambodia ; 
for I had made the English mate, one Mr. Thomp- 
son, captain, not being willing to take the charge of 
the ship upon myself. This river lies on the north 
side of the great bay or gulf which goes up to Siam. 
While we were here, and going often on shore for 
refreshment, there comes to me one day, an Eng- 
lishman, and he was, it seems, a gunner's-mate on 
board an English East India ship which rode in 
the same river, at or near the city of Cambodia ; 
what brought him hither we knew not; but he 


comes to me, and speaking English, " Sir," says 
he, " you are a stranger to me, and I to you, but 
I have something to tell you that very nearly con- 
cerns you." 

I looked steadfastly at him a good while, and 
thought at first I had known him, but I did not : 
" If it very nearly concerns me," said I, " and not 
yourself, what moves you to tell it to me ? " "I 
am moved," says he, "by the imminent danger 
you are in, and, for aught I see, you have no 
knowledge of it." " I know no danger I am in," 
says I, "but that my ship is leaky, and I cannot 
find it out ; but I intend to lay her aground to- 
morrow, to see if I can find it." "But, sir," says he, 
" leaky or not leaky, find it or not find it, you will 
be wiser than to lay your ship on shore to-morrow 
when you hear what I have to say to you : do you 
know, sir," said he, " the town of Cambodia lies 
about fifteen leagues up this river ? And there are 
two large English ships about five leagues on this 
side, and three Dutch." "Well," said I, "and what 
is that tome?" " Why, sir," said he, " is it for 
a man that is upon such adventures as you are, to 
come into a port and not examine first what ships 
there are there, and whether he is able to deal with 
them? I suppose you do not think you are a 
match for them ? " I was amused very much at his 
discourse, but not amazed at it, for I could not con- 
ceive what he meant ; and I turned short upon him 
and said, " Sir, I wish you would explain yourself; 
I cannot imagine what reason I have to be afraid 


of any of the Company's ships, or Dutch ships; I 
am no interloper ; what can they have to say to 
me ? " He looked like a man half-angry and half- 
pleased, and pausing a while, but smiling, " Well, 
sir," says he, " if you think yourself secure, you 
must take your chance; I am sorry your fate 
should bind you against good advice : but assure 
yourself, if you do not put to sea immediately, 
you will the very next tide be attacked by five 
long-boats full of men, and perhaps, if you are 
taken, you will be hanged for a pirate, and the 
particulars be examined afterwards. I thought, 
sir," added he, " I should have met with a better 
reception than this, for doing you a piece of serv- 
ice of such importance." " I can never be un- 
grateful," said I, " for any service, or to any man 
that offers me any kindness; but it is past my 
comprehension what they should have such a de- 
sign upon me for : however, since you say there 
is no time to be lost, and that there is some vil- 
lanous design on hand against me, I will go on 
board this minute, and put to sea immediately, if 
my men can stop the leak, or if we can swim with- 
out stopping it : but, sir," said I, " shall I go 
away ignorant of the cause of all this ? Can you 
give me no further light into it ? " "I can tell you 
but part of the story, sir," says he; " but I have a 
Dutch seaman herewith me, and I believe I could 
persuade him to tell you the rest; but there is 
scarce time for it : but the short of the story is 
this, the first part of which, I suppose, you know 


well enough, viz., that you was with this ship at 
Sumatra; that there your captain was murdered 
by the Malays, with three of his men ; and that 
you, or some of those who were on board with 
you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned 
pirates. This is the sum of the story, and you will all 
be seized as pirates, I can assure you, and executed 
with very little ceremony ; for you know merchant 
ships show but little law to pirates, if they get 
them into their power." "Now you speak plain 
English," said I, " and I thank you ; and though 
I know nothing that we have done like what you 
talk of, for I am sure we came honestly and fairly 
by the ship; yet seeing such a work is doing as 
you say, and that you seem to mean honestly, I 
will be upon my guard." " Nay, sir," says he, 
"do not talk about being upon your guard; the 
best defence is, to be out of the danger ; if you 
have any regard for your life, and the lives of all 
your men, put to sea, without fail, at high water; 
and as you have a whole tide before you, you will 
be gone too far out before they can come down ; 
for they will come away at high water, and as they 
have twenty miles to come, you will get near two 
hours of them by the difference of the tide, not 
reckoning the length of the way ; besides, as they 
are only boats, and not ships, they will not ven- 
ture to follow you far out to sea, especially if it 
blows." "Well," said I, "you have been very 
kind in this ; what shall I do for you to make you 
amends ?" " Sir," says he, "you may not be willing 


to make me any amends, because you may not be 
convinced of the truth of it : I will make an offer 
to you ; I have nineteen months' pay due to me 
on board the ship , which I came out of Eng- 
land in ; and the Dutchman that is with me has 
seven months' pay due to him ; if you will make 
good our pay to us, we will go along with you : 
if you find nothing more in it, we will desire no 
more ; but if we do convince you that we have 
saved your lives, and the ship, and the lives of all 
the men in her, we will leave the rest to you." 

I consented to this readily, and went immedi- 
ately on board, and the two men with me. As soon 
as I came to the ship's side, my partner, who was 
on board, came out on the quarter-deck, and called 
to me, and with a great deal of joy, "Oho! O ho ! 
we have stopped the leak ! we have stopped the 
leak ! " " Say you so ? " said I, " thank God ; but 
weigh anchor then immediately." " Weigh ! " says 
he : " what do you mean by that ? What is the 
matter?" "Ask no questions," said I; "but all 
hands to work, and weigh without losing a min- 
ute." He was surprised, but, however, he called 
the captain, and he immediately ordered the anchor 
to be got up ; and though the tide was not quite 
down, yet, a little land breeze blowing, we stood 
out to sea. Then I called him into the cabin, and 
told him the story ; and we called in the men, and 
they told us the rest of it: but as it took up a great 
deal of time, before we had done a seaman comes 
to the cabin door, and called out to us that the cap- 


tain bade him tell us we were chased. " Chased ! " 
says I ; "by what ? " " By five sloops, or boats/' 
says the fellow, " full of men." " Very well," said 
I ; " then it is apparent there is something in it." 
In the next place I ordered all our men to be called 
up, and told them there was a design to seize the 
ship, and to take us for pirates, and asked them 
if they would stand by us, and by one another : 
the men answered cheerfully, one and all, that they 
would live and die with us. Then I asked the cap- 
tain what way he thought best for us to manage a 
fight with them ; for resist them I was resolved we 
would, and that to the last drop. He said readily 
that the way was to keep them off with our great shot 
as long as we could, and then fire at them with our 
small-arms, to keep them from boarding us ; but 
when neither of these would do any longer, we 
should retire to our close quarters ; perhaps they 
had not materials to break open our bulk-heads, or 
get in upon us. 

The gunner had, in the mean time, orders to 
bring two guns to bear fore and aft, out of the steer- 
age, to clear the deck, and load them with musket 
bullets and small pieces of old iron, and what came 
next to hand ; and thus we made ready for fight. 
But all this while we kept out to sea, with wind 
enough, and could see the boats at a distance, being 
five large long-boats, following us with all the sail 
they could make. 

Two of those boats (which by our glasses we 
could see were English) out-sailed the rest, and were 


near two leagues ahead of them, and gained upon 
us considerably, so that we found they would come 
up with us ; upon which we fired a gun without 
ball, to intimate that they should bring to, and we 
put out a flag of truce, as a signal for parley ; but 
they came crowding after us, till they came within 
shot, when we took in our white flag, they having 
made no answer to it, and hung out a red flag, and 
fired at them with shot. Notwithstanding this, they 
came on till they were near enough to call to them 
with a speaking-trumpet which we had on board ; 
so we called to them, and bade them keep off, at 
their peril. 

It was all one : they crowded after us, and en- 
deavoured to come under our stern, so as to board 
us on our quarter ; upon which, seeing they were 
resolute for mischief, and depended upon the 
strength that followed them, I ordered to bring 
the ship to, so that they lay upon our broadside ; 
when immediately we fired five guns at them, one 
of which had been levelled so true as to carry away 
the stern of the hindermost boat, and bring them 
to the necessity of taking down their sail, and run- 
ning all to the head of the boat to keep her from 
sinking; so she lay by, and had enough of it; but 
seeing the foremost boat crowd on after us, we 
made ready to fire at her in particular. While this 
was doing, one of the three boats that was behind, 
being forwarder than the other two, made up to 
the boat which we had disabled, to relieve her, and 
we could see her take out the men ; we called again 


to the foremost boat, and offered a truce, to parley 
again, and to know what her business was with us ; 
but had no answer, only she crowded close under 
our stern. Upon this our gunner, who was a very 
dexterous fellow, run out his two chase-guns, and 
fired again at her, but the shot missing, the men in 
the boat shouted, waved their caps, and came on ; 
but the gunner, getting quickly ready again, fired 
among them a second time, one shot of which, 
though it missed the boat itself, yet fell in among 
the men, and we could easily see had done a great 
deal of mischief among them. But we took no 
notice of that, wore the ship again, and brought our 
quarter to bear upon them, and firing three guns 
more, we found the boat was almost split to pieces ; 
in particular, her rudder and a piece of her stern 
was shot quite away ; so they handed her sail im- 
mediately, and were in great disorder. But to com- 
plete their misfortune, our gunner let fly two guns 
at them again : where he hit them we could not 
tell, but we found the boat was sinking, and some 
of the men already in the water : upon this, I im- 
mediately manned out our pinnace, which we had 
kept close by our side, with orders to pick up some 
of the men, if they could, and save them from 
drowning, and immediately come on board the ship 
with them, because we saw the rest of the boats 
began to come up. Our men in the pinnace fol- 
lowed their orders and took up three men, one of 
whom was just drowning, and it was a good while 
before we could recover him. As soon as they were 


on board, we crowded all the sail we could make, 
and stood farther out to sea ; and we found that 
when the other three boats came up to the first, 
they gave over their chase. 

Being thus delivered from a danger, which, 
though I knew not the reason of it, yet seemed to 
be much greater than I apprehended, I resolved 
that we should change our course, and not let any 
one know whither we were going : so we stood 
out to sea eastward, quite out of the course of all 
European ships, whether they were bound to 
China or anywhere else within the commerce of 
the European nations. 

When we were at sea, we began to consult with 
the two seamen, and inquire what the meaning of 
all this should be ; and the Dutchman let us into 
the secret at once, telling us that the fellow that 
sold us the ship, as we said, was no more than a 
thief that had run away with her. Then he told us 
how the captain, whose name too he told us, though 
I do not remember it now, was treacherously mur- 
dered by the natives on the coast of Malacca, with 
three of his men ; and that he, this Dutchman, and 
four more, got into the woods, where they wan- 
dered about a great while, till at length he, in par- 
ticular, in a miraculous manner, made his escape, 
and swam off to a Dutch ship, which, sailing near 
the shore in its way from China, had sent their 
boat on shore for fresh water ; that he durst not 
come to that part of the shore where the boat was, 
but made shift in the night to take the water farther 


off, and swimming a great while, at last the ship's 
boat took him up. 

He then told us that he went to Batavia, where 
two of the seamen belonging to the ship arrived, 
having deserted the rest in their travels, and gave 
an account that the fellow who had run away with 
the ship sold her at Bengal to a set of pirates, which 
were gone a-cruising in her ; and that they had al- 
ready taken an English ship and two Dutch ships 
very richly laden. 

This latter part was found to concern us directly, 
though we knew it to be false ; yet, as my partner 
said, very justly, if we had fallen into their- hands, 
and they had had such a prepossession against us 
beforehand, it had been in vain for us to have de- 
fended ourselves, or to hope for any good quarter 
at their hands ; and especially considering that our 
accusers had been our judges, and that we could 
have expected nothing from them but what rage 
would have dictated, and an ungoverned passion 
have executed ; and therefore it was his opinion 
we should go directly back to Bengal, from whence 
we came, without putting in at any port whatever ; 
because there we could give a good account of our- 
selves, could prove where we were when the ship 
put in, of whom we bought her, and the like ; and, 
which was more than all the rest, if we were put 
upon the necessity of bringing it before the proper 
judges, we should be sure to have some justice, 
and not be hanged first and judged afterwards. 

I was sometime of my partner's opinion; but after 


a little more serious thinking, I told him I thought 
it was a very great hazard for us to attempt return- 
ing to Bengal, for that we were on the wrong side 
of the Straits of Malacca, and that if the alarm was 
given, we should be sure to be waylaid on every 
side, as well by the Dutch of Batavia as the Eng- 
lish elsewhere; that if we should be taken, as it 
were, running away, we should even condemn our- 
selves, and there would want no more evidence to 
destroy us. I also asked the English sailor's opin- 
ion, who said he was of my mind, and that we 
should certainly be taken. This danger a little 
startled my partner, and all the ship's company, 
and we immediately resolved to go away to the 
coast of Tonquin, and so on to the coast of 
China; and pursuing the first design as to trade, 
find some way or other to dispose of the ship, 
and come back in some of the vessels of the 
country, such as we could get. This was approved 
of as the best method for our security ; and ac- 
cordingly we steered away NNE., keeping above 
fifty leagues off from the usual course to the east- 
ward. This, however, put us tosome inconvenience; 
for, first, the winds, when we came to that distance 
from the shore, seemed to be more steadily against 
us, blowing almost trade, as we call it, from the E. 
and ENE.,so that we were a long while upon our 
voyage, and we were but ill provided with victuals 
for so long a run ; and, which was still worse, there 
was some danger that those English and Dutch 
ships, whose boats pursued us, whereof some were 


bound that way, might be got in before us, and, if 
not, some other ship bound to China might have 
information of us from them, and pursue us with 
the same vigour. 

I mustconfess, I was now very uneasy,and thought 
myself, including the late escape from the long- 
boats, to have been in the most dangerous condition 
that ever I was through my past life ; for whatever 
ill circumstances I had been in, I was never pur- 
sued for a thief before; nor had I ever done any- 
thing that merited the name of dishonest or fraud- 
ulent, much less thievish ; I had chiefly been my 
own enemy, or, as I may rightly say, I had been 
nobody's enemy but my own ; but now I was em- 
barrassed in the worst condition imaginable; for 
though I was perfectly innocent, I was in no con- 
dition to make that innocence appear; and if I had 
been taken, it had been under a supposed guilt of 
the worst kind. This made me very anxious to make 
an escape, though which way to do it I knew not, 
or what port or place we could go to. My part- 
ner seeing me thus dejected, though he was the most 
concerned at first, began to encourage me, and de- 
scribing to me the several ports of that coast, told 
me he would put in on the coast of Cochin China, 
or the Bay of Tonquin, intending to go afterwards 
to Macao, a town once in possession of the Portu- 
guese, and where still a great many European 
families resided; and particularly the missionary 
priests usually went thither, in order to their going 
forward to China. 


Hither then we resolved to go; and accordingly, 
though after a tedious and irregular course, and 
very much straitened for provisions, we came with- 
in sight of the coast very early in the morning; 
and upon reflection on the past circumstances we 
were in, and the danger if we had not escaped, 
we resolved to put into a small river, which, how- 
ever, had depth enough of water for us, and to see 
if we could, either overland or by the ship's pin- 
nace, come to know what ships were in any port 
thereabouts. This happy step was, indeed, our 
deliverance; for though we did not immediately see 
any European ships in the Bay of Tonquin, yet 
the next morning there came into the bay two 
Dutch ships ; and a third, without any colours 
spread out, but which we believed to be a Dutch- 
man, passed by at about two leagues' distance, steer- 
ing for the coast of China ; and in the afternoon 
went by two English ships steering the same course; 
and thus we thought we saw ourselves beset with 
enemies both one way and the other. The place we 
were in was wild and barbarous ; the people thieves, 
even by occupation or profession; and though, it 
is true, we had not much to seek of them, and, 
except getting a few provisions, cared not how little 
we had to do with them, yet it was with much dif- 
ficulty that we kept ourselves from being insulted 
by them, several ways. We were in a small river 
of this country, within a few leagues of its utmost 
limits northward ; and by our boat we coasted north- 
east, to the point of land which opens the great Bay 


of Tonquin ; and it was in this beating up along 
the shore that we discovered we were surrounded 
with enemies. The people we were among were the 
most barbarous of all the inhabitants of the coast, 
having no correspondence with any other nation, 
and dealing only in fish and oil, and such gross 
commodities; and it may be particularly seen that 
they are the most barbarous of any of the inhabit- 
ants. Among other customs, they have this one, 
viz., that if any vessel has the misfortune to be 
shipwrecked upon their coast, they presently make 
the men all prisoners or slaves ; and it was not long 
before we found a piece of their kindness this way, 
on the occasion following. 

I have observed above that our ship sprung a 
leak at sea, and that we could not find it out ; and 
it happened that, as I have said, it was stopped unex- 
pectedly in the happy minute of our being to be 
seized by the Dutch and English ships in the Bay 
of Siam ; yet as we did not find the ship so per- 
fectly tight and sound as we desired, we resolved, 
while we were at this place, to lay her on shore, 
and take out what heavy things we had on board, 
and clean her bottom; and, if possible, to find out 
where the leaks were. Accordingly, having light- 
ened the ship, and brought all our guns and other 
moveables to one side, we tried to bring her down, 
that we might come at her bottom; but, on second 
thoughts, we did not care to lay her on dry ground, 
neither could we find out a proper place for it. 

The inhabitants, who had never been acquainted 


with such a sight, came wandering down to the shore 
to look at us; and seeing the ship lie down on one 
side in such a manner, and heeling in towards the 
shore, and not seeing our men, who were at work 
on her bottom with stages, and with their boats, 
on the off-side, they presently concluded that the 
ship was cast away, and so lay fast on the ground. 
On this supposition, they all came about us in two 
or three hours' time, with ten or twelve large boats, 
having some of them eight, some ten men in a 
boat, intending, no doubt, to have come on board 
and plundered the ship; and if they had found us 
there, to have carried us away for slaves to their 
king, or whatever they call him, for we knew no- 
thing of their governor. 

When they came up to the ship and began to 
row round her, they discovered us all hard at work 
on the outside of the ship's bottom and side, wash- 
ing, and graving, and stopping, as every seafaring 
man knows how. They stood for a while gazing 
at us, and we, who were a little surprised, could 
not imagine what their design was ; but being will- 
ing to be sure, we took this opportunity to get 
some of us into the ship, and others to hand down 
arms and ammunition to those that were at work, 
to defend themselves with, if there should be oc- 
casion ; and it was no more than need: for in less 
than a quarter of an hour's consultation, they 
agreed, it seems, that the ship was really a wreck; 
and that we were all at work endeavouring to save 
her, or to save our lives by the help of our boats; 


and when we handed our guns into the boats, they 
concluded by that motion that we were endeavour- 
ing to save some of our goods ; upon this they took 
it for granted we all belonged to them, and away 
they came directly upon our men, as if it had been 
in a line of battle. 

Our men, seeing so many of them, began to be 
frightened, for we lay but in an ill posture to fight, 
and cried out to us to know what they should do. 
I immediately called to the men that worked upon 
the stages to slip them down, and get up the side 
into the ship; and bade those in the boat to row 
round, and come on board; and those few of us 
who were on board worked with all the strength and 
hands we had, to bring the ship to rights; but, 
however, neither the men upon the stages nor 
those in the boats could do as they were ordered, 
before the Cochin Chinese were upon them ; and 
two of their boats boarded our long-boat, and began 
to lay hold on the men as their prisoners. 

The first man they laid hold on was an English 
seaman, a stout, strong fellow, who, having a mus- 
ket in his hand, never offered to fire it, but laid it 
down in the boat, like a fool, as I thought ; but he 
understood his business better than I could teach 
him, for he grappled the pagan, and dragged him 
by main force out of their boat into ours, where 
taking him by the ears, he beat his head so against 
the boat's gunnel, that the fellow died in his hands ; 
and, in the mean time, a Dutchman, who sto^d 
next, took up the musket, and with the butt-end 


of it so laid about him that he knocked down five 
of them who attempted to enter the boat. But this 
was doing little towards resisting thirty or forty 
men, who fearless, because ignorant of their danger, 
began to throw themselves into the long-boat, 
where we had but five men in all to defend it; but 
the following accident, which deserved our laugh- 
ter, gave our men a complete victory. 

Our carpenter being prepared to grave the outside 
of the ship, as well as to pay the seams where he 
had calked her to stop the leaks, had got two ket- 
tles just let down into the boat, one filled with boil- 
ing pitch, and the other with rosin, tallow, and oil, 
and such stuff as the shipwrights use for that work ; 
and the man that attended the carpenter had a great 
iron ladle in his hand, with which he supplied the 
men that were at work with the hot stuff: two of 
the enemy's men entered the boat just where this 
fellow stood, being in the fore-sheets ; he immedi- 
ately saluted them with a ladleful of the stuff, boil- 
ing hot, which so burned and scalded them, being 
half-naked, that they roared out like bulls, and, en- 
raged with the fire, leaped both into the sea. The 
carpenter saw it, and cried out, " Well done, Jack ! 
give them some more of it " : and stepping for- 
ward himself, takes one of the mops, and dipping 
it in the pitch-pot, he and his man threw it among 
them so plentifully that, in short, of all the men in 
the three boats there was not one that escaped be- 
ing scalded and burned with it, in a most frightful, 
pitiful manner, and made such a howling and crying 


that I never heard a worse noise : for it is worth 
observing that, though pain naturally makes all 
people cry out, yet every nation has a particular 
way of exclamation, and makes noises as different 
from one another as their speech. I cannot give 
the noise these creatures made a better name than 
howling, nor a name more proper to the tone of 
it; for I never heard anything more like the noise 
of the wolves, which, as I have said, I heard howl 
in the forest on the frontiers of Languedoc. 

I was never better pleased with a victory in my 
life; not only as it was a perfect surprise to me, 
and that our danger was imminent before, but, as 
we got this victory without any bloodshed, except 
of that man the fellow killed with his naked hands, 
and which I was very much concerned at, for I 
was sick of killing such poor savage wretches, even 
though it was in my own defence, knowing they 
came on errands which they thought just and knew 
no better ; and that though it may be a just thing, 
because necessary (for there is no necessary wicked- 
ness in nature), yet I thought it was a sad life, 
when we must be always obliged to be killing our 
fellow-creatures to preserve ourselves ; and, indeed, 
I think so still, and I would even now suffer a 
great deal, rather than I would take away the life 
even of the worst person injuring me; and I be- 
lieve all considering people who know the value of 
life would be of my opinion, if they entered seri- 
ously into the consideration of it. 

But to return to my story. All the while this 


was doing, my partner and I, who managed the 
rest of the men on board, had with great dexter- 
ity brought the ship almost to rights, and having 
got the guns into their places again, the gunner 
called to me to bid our boat get out of the way, 
for he would let fly among them. I called back 
again to him, and bid him not offer to fire, for the 
carpenter would do the work without him ; but bid 
him heat another pitch-kettle, which our cook, who 
was on board, took care of. But the enemy was so 
terrified with what they had met with in their first 
attack that they would not come on again ; and 
some of them who were farthest off, seeing the ship 
swim, as it were, upright, began, as we suppose, to 
see their mistake, and give over the enterprise, 
finding it was not as they expected. Thus we got 
clear of this merry fight, and having got some rice, 
and some roots and bread, with about sixteen hogs, 
on board, two days before, we resolved to stay here 
no longer, but go forward, whatever came of it; for 
we made no doubt butwe should be surrounded the 
next day with rogues enough, perhaps more than 
our pitch-kettle would dispose of for us. We there- 
fore got all our things on board the same evening, 
and the next morning were ready to sail: in the 
mean time, lying at anchor at some distance from 
the shore, we were not so much concerned, being 
now in a fighting posture, as well as in a sailing 
posture, if any enemy had presented. The next day, 
having finished our work within board, and find- 
ing our ship was perfectly healed of all her leaks, 


we set sail. We would have gone into the Bay of 
Tonquin, for we wanted to inform ourselves of 
what was to be known concerning the Dutch ships 
that had been there; but we durst not stand in 
there, because we had seen several ships go in, as 
we supposed, but a little before : so we kept on 
northeast, towards the Island of Formosa, as much 
afraid of being seen by a Dutch or English mer- 
chant ship, as a Dutch or English merchant ship 
in the Mediterranean is of an Algerine man-of-war. 

When we were thus got to sea, we kept on north- 
east as if we would go to the Manillas or the Philip- 
pine Islands, and this we did that we might not fall 
into the way of any of the European ships ; and then 
we steered north, till we came to the latitude of 22 
degrees, 30 minutes, by which means we made 
the Island Formosa directly, where we came to an 
anchor, in order to get water and fresh provisions, 
which the people there, who were very courteous 
and civil in their manners, supplied us with will- 
ingly, and dealt very fairly and punctually with us 
in all their agreements and bargains, which is what 
we did not find among other people, and may be 
owing to the remains of Christianity which was once 
planted here by a Dutch missionary of Protestants, 
and is a testimony of what I have often observed, 
viz., the Christian religion always civilizes the 
people and reforms their manners, where it is re- 
ceived, whether it works saving effects upon them 
or no. 

From thence we sailed still north, keeping the 


coast of China at an equal distance, till we knew we 
were beyond all the ports of China where our Eu- 
ropean ships usually come; being resolved, if pos- 
sible, not to fall into any of their hands, especially 
in this country; where, as our circumstances were, 
we could not fail of being entirely ruined. 

Being now come to the latitude of thirty de- 
grees, we resolved to put into the first trading port 
we should come at; and standing in for the shore, 
a boat came off two leagues to us, with an old 
Portuguese pilot on board, who, knowing us to be 
an European ship, came to offer his service, which, 
indeed, we were glad of, and took him on board; 
upon which, without asking us whither we would 
go, he dismissed the boat he came in, and sent it 

I thought it was now so much in our choice to 
make the old man carry us whither we would that 
I began to talk to him about carrying us to the 
Gulf of Nanquin, which is the most northern part 
of the coast of China. The old man said he knew 
the Gulf of Nanquin very well, but smiling, asked 
us what we would do there? I told him we would 
sell our cargo and purchase China wares, calicoes, 
raw silks, tea, wrought silks, etc., and so would re- 
turn by the same course we came. He told us our 
best port had been to have put in at Macao, where 
we could not have failed of a market for our opium 
to our satisfaction, and might for our money have 
purchased all sorts of China goods as cheap as we 
could at Nanquin. 


Not being able to put the old man out of his 
talk, of which he was very opinionated or con- 
ceited, I told him we were gentlemen as well as 
merchants, and that we had a mind to go and see 
the great city of Peking, and the famous court of 
the monarch of China. "Why then," says the old 
man, "you should go to Ningpo, where, by the 
river which runs into the sea there, you may go up 
within five leagues of the great canal. This canal is 
a navigable stream, which goes through the heart 
of that vast Empire of China, crosses all the rivers, 
passes some considerable hills by the help of sluices 
and gates, and goes up to the city of Peking, being 
in length near two hundred and seventy leagues." 

"Well," said I, " Senhor Portuguese, but that 
is not our business now; the great question is, if 
you can carry us up to the city of Nanquin, from 
whence we can travel to Peking afterwards?" He 
said he could do so very well, and that there was 
a great Dutch ship gone up that way just before. 
This gave me a little shock, for a Dutch ship was 
now our terror, and we had much rather have met 
the Devil, at least if he had not come in too fright- 
ful a figure ; and we depended upon it that a Dutch 
ship would be our destruction, for we were in no 
condition to fight them; all the ships they trade 
with into those parts being of great burthen, and 
of much greater force than we were. 

The old man found me a little confused, and 
under some concern, when he named a Dutch 
ship ; and said to me, " Sir, you need be under no 


apprehensions of the Dutch; I suppose they are 
not now at war with your nation?" "No," said I, 
"that 's true; but I know not what liberties men 
may take when they are out of the reach of the 
laws of their own country." "Why," says he, "you 
are no pirates; what need you fear? They will not 
meddle with peaceable merchants, sure." 

If I had any blood in my body that did not fly 
up into my face at that word, it was hindered by 
some stop in the vessels appointed by nature to 
circulate it, for it put me into the greatest disorder 
and confusion imaginable ; nor was it possible for 
me to conceal it so but that the old man easily 
perceived it. 

" Sir," says he, " I find you are in some disor- 
der in your thoughts at my talk; pray be pleased 
to go which way you think fit, and, depend upon 
it, I '11 do you all the service I can." " Why, sen- 
hor," said I, " it is true, I am a little unsettled in 
my resolution at this time, whither to go in par- 
ticular ; and I am something more so for what you 
said about pirates. I hope there are no pirates in 
these seas ; we are but in an ill condition to meet 
with them, for you see we have but a small force, 
and are but very weakly manned." " O, sir," says 
he, " don't be concerned. I do not know that there 
have been any pirates in these seas these fifteen 
years, except one, which was seen, as I hear, in the 
Bay of Siam, about a month since; but you may 
be assured she is gone to the southward; nor was 
she a ship of any great force, or fit for the work: 


she was not built for a privateer, but was run away 
with by a reprobate crew that was on board, after 
the captain and some of his men had been mur- 
dered by the Malayans, at or near the Island of 
Sumatra." " What ! " said I, seeming to know no- 
thing of the matter, " did they murder the cap- 
tain ? " " No," said he, " I don't understand that 
they murdered him ; but as they afterwards ran 
away with the ship, it is generally believed that 
they betrayed him into the hands of the Malayans, 
who did murder him ; and perhaps they procured 
them to do it." "Why then," said I, "they de- 
serve death as much as if they had done it them- 
selves." "Nay," says the old man, "they do deserve 
it; and they will certainly have it, if they light 
upon any English or Dutch ship; for they have 
all agreed together, that if they meet that rogue 
they '11 give him no quarter." " But," said I to 
him, " you say the pirate is gone out of these seas ; 
how can they meet with him then? " " Why, that's 
true," says he, " they do say so ; but he was, as I 
tell you, in the Bay of Siam, in the river Cam- 
bodia; and was discovered there by some Dutch- 
men who belonged to the ship, and who were left 
on shore when they ran away with her; and some 
English and Dutch traders being in the river, they 
were within a little of taking him : nay," said he, 
"if the foremost boats had been well seconded by 
the rest, they had certainly taken him ; but he, 
finding only two boats within reach of him, tacked 
about, and fired at those two, and disabled them 


before the others came up, and then, standing off 
to sea, the others were not able to follow, and so 
he got away ; but they have all so exact a descrip- 
tion of the ship that they will be sure to know her ; 
and wherever they find her they have vowed to 
give no quarter either to the captain or seamen, 
buttohangthemallupat the yard-arm." "What ! " 
said I, "will they execute them right or wrong; 
hang them first, and judge them afterwards ? " "O 
sir," says the old pilot, " there is no need to make 
a formal business of it with such rogues as those; 
let them tie them back to back, and set them 
a-diving, 't is no more than they deserve." 

I knew I had my old man fast on board, and 
that he could do no harm, so that I turned short 
upon him : " Well now, senhor," said I, " this is 
the very reason why I would have you carry us up 
to Nanquin, and not put back to Macao, or to any 
other part of the country where the English or 
Dutch ships come; for be it known to you, senhor, 
those captains of the English and Dutch ships are 
a parcel of rash, proud, insolent fellows, that 
neither know what belongs to justice, nor how to 
behave themselves as the laws of God and nature 
direct; but being proud of their offices, and not 
understanding their power, they would act the mur- 
derers to punish robbers; would take upon them 
to insult men falsely accused, and determine them 
guilty without due inquiry : and perhaps I may 
live to bring some of them to account for it, when 
they may be taught how justice is to be executed; 


and that no man ought to be treated as a criminal 
till some evidence may be had of the crime, and 
that he is the man/' 

With this I told him that this was the very ship 
they attacked, and gave him a full account of the 
skirmish we had with their boats, and how fool- 
ishly and cowardly they behaved. I told him all 
the story of our buying the ship, and how the 
Dutchman served us. I told him the reasons I had 
to believe the story of killing the master by the 
Malayans was true, as also the running away with 
the ship ; but it was all a fiction of their own to 
suggest that the men had turned pirates, and they 
ought to have been sure it was so before they had 
ventured to attack us by surprise, and oblige us 
to resist them ; adding that they would have the 
blood of those men, whom we killed there in just 
defence, to answer for. 

The old man was amazed at this relation, and 
told us we were very much in the right to go away 
to the north; and that if he might advise us, it 
should be to sell the ship in China, which we might 
very well do, and buy or build another in the 
country; "and," said he, "though you will not get 
so good a ship, yet you may get one able enough 
to carry you and all your goods back again to Ben- 
gal, or anywhere else." I told him I would take his 
advice when I came to any port where I could find 
a ship for my turn, or get any customer to buy this. 
He replied, I should meet with customers enough 
for the ship at Nanquin, and that a Chinese junk 


would serve me very well to go back again; and 
that he would procure me people both to buy one 
and sell the other. "Well, but, senhor, ,, said I, 
"as you say they know the ship so well, I may, 
perhaps, if I follow your measures, be instrument- 
al to bring some honest innocent men into a ter- 
rible broil, and perhaps to be murdered in cold 
blood; for wherever they find the ship, they will 
prove the guilt upon the men, by proving this was 
the ship, and so innocent men may probably be 
overpowered and murdered." "Why," says the 
old man, "Til find out away to prevent that also; 
for as I know all those commanders you speak of 
very well, and shall see them all as they pass by, 
I will be sure to set them to rights in the thing, 
and let them know that they had been so much in 
the wrong ; that though the people who were on 
board at first might run away with the ship, yet it 
was not true that they had turned pirates; and that, 
in particular, these were not the men that first went 
off with the ship, but innocently bought her for 
their trade; and I am persuaded they will so far 
believe me as at least to act more cautiously for 
the time to come." 

While these things were passing between us, by 
way of discourse, we went forward directly for Nan- 
quin, and in about thirteen days' sail came to an 
anchor at the south-west point of the great gulf of 
Nanquin ; where, by the way, I came by accident 
to understand that two Dutch ships were gone the 
length before me, and that I should certainly fall 


into their hands. I consulted my partner again in 
this exigency, and he was as much at a loss as I 
was, and would very gladly have been safe on shore 
almost anywhere: however, I was not in such per- 
plexity neither ; but I asked the old pilot if there 
was no creek or harbour which I might put into 
and pursue my business with the Chinese privately, 
and be in no danger of the enemy. He told me, if 
I would sail to the southward about forty-two 
leagues, there was a little port called Quinchang, 
where the fathers of the mission usually landed from 
Macao, on their progress to teach the Christian 
religion to the Chinese, and where no European 
ships ever put in : and if I thought to put in there, 
I might consider what further course to take when 
I was on shore. He confessed, he said, it was not 
a place for merchants, except that at some certain 
times they had a kind of a fair there, when the 
merchants from Japan came over thither to buy 
the Chinese merchandises. 

We all agreed to go back to this place ; the name 
of the port, as he called it, I may perhaps spell 
wrong, for I do not particularly remember it, hav- 
ing lost this, together with the names of many other 
places set down in a little pocket-book, which was 
spoiled by the water by an accident ; but this I re- 
member, that the Chinese or Japanese merchants 
we corresponded with called it by a different name 
from that which our Portuguese pilot gave it, and 
pronounced it as above, Quinchang. 

As we were unanimous in our resolution to go 


to this place, we weighed the next day, having only- 
gone twice on shore where we were to get fresh 
water; on both which occasions the people of the 
country were very civil to us, and brought us 
abundance of things to sell to us, I mean of pro- 
visions, plants, roots, tea, rice, and some fowls, but 
nothing without money. 

We came to the other port (the wind being con- 
trary) not till five days, but it was very much to 
our satisfaction ; and I was joyful, and I may say 
thankful, when I set my foot on shore, resolving, 
and my partner too, that if it was possible to dis- 
pose of ourselves and effects any other way, though 
not every way to our satisfaction, we would never 
set one foot on board that unhappy vessel more ; 
and, indeed, I must acknowledge that, of all the 
circumstances of life that ever I had any experience 
of, nothing makes mankind so completely miser- 
able as that of being in constant fear. Well does 
the Scripture say, "The fear of man brings a snare"; 
it is a life of death, and the mind is so entirely op- 
pressed by it that it is capable of no relief. 

Nor did it fail of its usual operations upon the 
fancy,byheighteningevery danger, representing the 
English and Dutch captains to be men incapable 
of hearing reason, or of distinguishing between 
honest men and rogues; or between a story cal- 
culated for our own turn, made out of nothing, on 
purpose to deceive, and a true genuine account of 
our whole voyage, progress, and design ; for we 
might many ways have convinced any reasonable 


creature that we were not pirates ; the goods we had 
on board, the course we steered, our frankly show- 
ing ourselves, and entering into such and such 
ports ; and even our very manner, the force we had, 
the number of men, the few arms, little ammuni- 
tion, short provisions ; all these would have served 
to convince any men that we were no pirates. The 
opium and other goods we had on board would 
make it appear the ship had been at Bengal. The 
Dutchmen, who, it was said, had the names of all 
the men that were in the ship, might easily see 
that we were a mixture of English, Portuguese, and 
Indians, and but two Dutchmen on board. These, 
and many other particular circumstances, might 
have made it evident to the understanding of any 
commander, whose hands we might fall into, that 
we were no pirates. But fear, that blind, useless 
passion, worked another way, and threw us into the 
vapours; it bewildered our understandings, and set 
the imagination at work to form a thousand terri- 
ble things that perhaps might never happen. We 
first supposed, as indeed everybody else had related 
to us, that the seamen on board the English and 
Dutch ships, but especially the Dutch, were so 
enraged at the name of a pirate, and especially at 
our beating off their boats and escaping, that they 
would not give themselves leave to inquire whether 
we were pirates or no; but would execute us off- 
hand, as we call it, without giving us any room for a 
defence. We reflected that there really was so much 
apparent evidence before them that they would 


scarce inquire after any more; as, first, that the ship 
was certainly the same, and that some of the sea- 
men among them knew her, and had been on board 
her; and, secondly, that when we had intelligence 
at the river of Cambodia that they were coming 
down to examine us, we fought their boats and fled; 
so that we made no doubt but they were as fully 
satisfied of our being pirates as we were satisfied of 
the contrary; and, as I often said, I know not but 
I should have been apt to have taken those cir- 
cumstances for evidence, if the tables were turned, 
and my case was theirs; and have made no scruple 
of cutting all the crew to pieces, without believing, 
or perhaps considering, what they might have to 
offer in their defence. 

But let that be how it will, these were our ap- 
prehensions; and both my partner and I scarce 
slept a night without dreaming of halters and yard- 
arms, that is to say, gibbets ; of fighting, and being 
taken ; of killing, and being killed : and one night 
I was in such a fury in my dream, fancying the 
Dutchmen had boarded us, and I was knocking one 
of their seamen down, that I struck my doubled 
fist against the side of the cabin I lay in, with such 
a force as wounded my hand grievously, broke my 
knuckles, and cut and bruised the flesh, so that it 
awaked me out of my sleep. 

Another apprehension I had was the cruel us- 
age we might meet with from them if we fell into 
their hands : then the story of Amboynacame into 
my head, and how the Dutch might perhaps tor- 


ture us, as they did our countrymen there, and 
make some of our men, by extremity of torture, 
confess those crimes they never were guilty of, or 
own themselves and all of us to be pirates, and so 
they would put us to death with a formal appear- 
ance of justice; and that they might be tempted 
to do this for the gain of our ship and cargo, which 
was worth four or five thousand pounds, put all 

These things tormented me and my partner, too, 
night and day, nor did we consider that the cap- 
tains of ships have no authority to act thus ; and if 
we had surrendered prisoners to them, they could 
not answer the destroying us, or torturing us, but 
would be accountable for it when they came to 
their own country; this, I say, gave me no satisfac- 
tion; for if they were to act thus with us, what 
advantage would it be to us that they should be 
called to an account for it ? or if we were first to 
be murdered, what satisfaction would it be to us 
to have them punished when they came home? 

I cannot refrain taking notice here what reflec- 
tions I now had upon the vast variety of my par- 
ticular circumstances; how hard I thought it was 
that I, who had spent forty years in a life of con- 
tinual difficulties, and was at last come, as it were, 
to the port or haven which all men drive at, viz., 
to have rest and plenty, should be a volunteer in 
new sorrows by my own unhappy choice ; and that 
I, who had escaped so many dangers in my youth, 
should now come to be hanged in my old age, and 


in so remote a place, for a crime which I was not in 
the least inclined to, much less guilty of. 

After these thoughts, something of religion 
would come in; and I would be considering that 
this seemed to me to be a disposition of immedi- 
ate Providence, and I ought to look upon it and 
submit to it as such; that although I was innocent 
as to men, I was far from being innocent as to my 
Maker ; and I ought to look in and examine what 
other crimes in my life were most obvious to me, 
and for which Providence might justly inflict this 
punishment as a retribution ; and that I ought to 
submit to this, just as I would to a shipwreck, if it 
had pleased God to have brought such a disaster 
upon me. 

In its turn, natural courage would sometimes 
take its place, and then I would be talking myself 
up to vigorous resolutions; that I would not be 
taken to be barbarously used by a parcel of merci- 
less wretches in cold blood; that it were much 
better to have fallen into the hands of the savages, 
though I was sure they would feast upon me when 
they had taken me, than by those who would per- 
haps glut their rage upon me by inhuman tortures 
and barbarities ; that in the case of the savages I 
always resolved to die fighting to the last gasp, and 
why should I not do it now, seeing it was much 
more dreadful, to me at least, to think of falling 
into these men's hands, than ever it was to think 
of being eaten by men ? for the savages, give them 
their due, would not eat a man till he was killed 


and dead, but these men had many arts beyond 
the cruelty of death. Whenever these thoughts 
prevailed, I was sure to put myself into a kind of 
fever with the agitation of a supposed fight; my 
blood would boil, and my eyes sparkle, as if I was 
engaged, and I always resolved to take no quarter 
at their hands ; but, even at last, if I could resist no 
longer, I would blow up the ship and all that was 
in her, and leave them but little booty to boast of. 
The greater weight the anxieties and perplex- 
ities of these things were to our thoughts while 
we were at sea, the greater was our satisfaction 
when we saw ourselves on shore; and my partner 
told me he dreamed that he had a very heavy load 
upon his back, which he was to carry up a hill, and 
found that he was not able to stand longer under 
it ; but that the Portuguese pilot came and took it 
off his back, and the hill disappeared, the ground 
before him appearing all smooth and plain : and 
truly it was so ; they were all like men who had a 
load taken off their backs. For my part, I had a 
weight taken off from my heart that it was not able 
any longer to bear; and, as I said above, we resolved 
to go no more to sea in that ship. When we came 
on shore, the old pilot, who was now our friend, 
got us a lodging and a warehouse for our goods, 
which, by the way, was much the same: it was a 
little house, or hut, with a larger house adjoining 
to it, all built with canes, and palisadoed round 
with large canes, to keep out pilfering thieves, of 
which, it seems, there were not a few in that country: 


however, the magistrates allowed us a little guard 
and we had a soldier with a kind of halberd, or 
half-pike, who stood sentinel at our door; to whom 
we allowed a pint of rice, and a little piece of 
money, about the value of three-pence, per day, so 
that our goods were kept very safe. 

The fair, or mart, usually kept in this place, had 
been over some time ; however, we found that there 
were three or four junks in the river, and two Japan- 
ers, I mean ships from Japan, with goods which 
they had bought in China, and were not gone 
away, having some Japanese merchants on shore. 
The first thing our old Portuguese pilot did for us 
was to get us acquainted with three missionary Rom- 
ish priests who were in town, and who had been 
there some time converting the people to Christian- 
ity; but we thought they had made poor work 
of it, and made them but sorry Christians when 
they had done : however, that was none of our busi- 
ness. One of these was a Frenchman, whom they 
called Father Simon; another was a Portuguese, 
and the third, a Genoese; but Father Simon was 
courteous, easy in his manner, and very agreeable 
company ; the other two were more reserved, seemed 
rigid and austere, and applied seriously to the work 
they came about, viz., to talk with, and insinuate 
themselves among, the inhabitants, wherever they 
had opportunity. We often ate and drank with 
those men; and though, I must confess, the con- 
version, as they call it, of the Chinese to Christian- 
ity is so far from the true conversion required to 


bring heathen people to the faith of Christ, that it 
seems to amount to little more than letting them 
know the name of Christ, and say some prayers to 
the Virgin Mary and her Son, in a tongue which 
they understand not, and to cross themselves, and 
the like ; yet it must be confessed that the religion- 
ists, whom we call missionaries, have a firm belief 
that these people will be saved, and that they are 
the instruments of it; and, on this account, they 
undergo not only the fatigue of the voyage, and 
the hazards of living in such places, but oftentimes 
death itself, with the most violent tortures, for the 
sake of this work. 

But to return to my story. This French priest, 
Father Simon, was appointed, it seems, by order of 
the chief of the mission, to go up to Peking, the 
royal seat of the Chinese Emperor, and waited only 
for another priest, who was ordered to come to 
him from Macao, to go along with him; and we 
scarce ever met together but he was inviting me to 
go that journey; telling me how he would show 
me all the glorious things of that mighty empire, 
and, among the rest, the greatest city in the world : 
"a city," said he, "that your London and our 
Paris, put together, cannot be equal to." This was 
the city of Peking, which, I confess, is very great, 
and infinitely full of people; but as I looked on 
those things with different eyes from other men, 
so I shall give my opinion of them in a few words 
when I come in course of my travels to speak more 
particularly of them. 


But, first, I come to my friar or missionary. 
Dining with him one day, and being very merry 
together, I showed some little inclination to go with 
him ; and he pressed me and my partner very hard, 
and with a great many persuasions, to consent. 
" Why, Father Simon," says my partner, " should 
you desire our company so much? you know we 
are heretics, and you do not love us, nor cannot 
keep us company with any pleasure." " O," says he, 
"you may perhaps be good Catholics in time; my 
business here is to convert heathens, and who knows 
but I may convert you too ? " " Very well, Father," 
said I, "so you will preach to us all the way?" "I 
will not be troublesome to you," says he; "our re- 
ligion does not divest us of good manners: besides, 
we are here like countrymen; and so we are, com- 
pared to the place we are in; and if you are Hu- 
guenots, and I a Catholic, we may be all Christians 
at last; at least, we are all gentlemen, and we may 
converse so, without being uneasy to one another." 
I liked this part of his discourse very well, and it 
began to put me in mind of my priest that I had 
left in the Brazils; but this Father Simon did not 
come up to his character by a great deal : for though 
Father Simon had no appearance of acriminal levity 
in him neither, yet he had not that fund of Christ- 
ian zeal, strict piety, and sincere affection to re- 
ligion, that my otfier good ecclesiastic had. 

But to leave him a little, though he never left 
us, nor soliciting us to go with him ; we had some- 
thing else before us at first, for we had all this while 


our ship and our merchandise to dispose of, and we 
began to be very doubtful what we should do, for 
we were now in a place of very little business ; and 
once I was about to venture to sail for the river 
of Kilam, and the city of Nanquin : but Provid- 
ence seemed now more visibly, as I thought, than 
ever, to concern itself in our affairs ; and I was en- 
couraged, from this very time, to think I should 
one way or other get out of this entangled circum- 
stance, and be brought home to my own country 
again, though I had not the least view of the 
manner. Providence, I say, began here to clear up 
our way a little : and the first thing that offered 
was that our old Portuguese pilot brought a Japan 
merchant to us, who inquired what goods we had; 
and, in the first place, he bought all our opium, 
and gave us a very good price for it, paying us in 
gold by weight, some in small pieces of their own 
coin, and some in small wedges, of about ten or 
eleven ounces each. While we were dealing with 
him for our opium, it came into my head that he 
might perhaps deal for the ship too, and I ordered 
the interpreter to propose it to him. He shrugged 
up his shoulders at it when it was first proposed to 
him ; but in a few days after he came to me, with 
one of the missionary priests for his interpreter, 
and told me he had a proposal to make to me, 
which was this : he had bought \ great quantity of 
goods of us, when he had no thoughts of proposals 
made to him of buying the ship : and that, there- 
fore, he had not money enough to pay for the ship : 


but if I would let the same men who were in the 
ship navigate her, he would hire the ship to go to 
Japan ; and would send them from thence to the 
Philippine Islands with another loading, which he 
would pay the freight of before they went from 
Japan, and that at their return he would buy the 
ship. I began to listen to his proposal, and so eager 
did my head still run upon rambling that I could 
not but begin to entertain a notion of going myself 
with him, and so to sail from the Philippine Islands 
away to the South Seas : accordingly I asked the 
Japanese merchant if he would not hire us to the 
Philippine Islands, and discharge us there. He 
said, No, he could not do that, for then he could 
not have the return of his cargo; but he would dis- 
charge us in Japan, at the ship's return. Well, still 
I was for taking him at that proposal, and going 
myself; but my partner, wiser than myself, per- 
suaded me from it, representing the dangers, as 
well of the seas as of the Japanese, who are a false, 
cruel, and treacherous people; likewise those of the 
Spaniards at the Philippines, more false, cruel, and 
treacherous than they. 

But to bring this long turn of our affairs to a 
conclusion : the first thing we had to do was to con- 
sult with the captain of the ship, and with his men, 
and know if they were willing to go to Japan : and 
while I was doing this, the young man whom my 
nephew had left with me as my companion for my 
travels came to me, and told me that he thought 
that voyage promised very fair, and that there was 


a great prospect of advantage, and he would be 
very glad if I undertook it ; but that if I would 
not, and would give him leave, he would go as a 
merchant, or how I pleased to order him ; that if 
ever he came to England, and I was there and alive, 
he would render me a faithful account of his suc- 
cess, which should be as much mine as I pleased. 
I was really loath to part with him ; but considering 
the prospect of advantage, which was really con- 
siderable, and that he was a young fellow as likely 
to do well in it as any I knew, I inclined to let 
him go ; but I told him I would consult my part- 
ner, and give him an answer the next day. My 
partner and I discoursed about it, and my partner 
made a most generous offer : cc You know it has 
been an unlucky ship," said he, cc and we both re- 
solve not to go to sea in it again ; if your steward 
[so he called my man] will venture the voyage, I 
will leave my share of the vessel to him, and let 
him make the best of it ; and if we live to meet in 
England, and he meets with success abroad, he 
shall account for one-half of the profits of the ship's 
freight to us ; the other shall be his own." 

If my partner, who was no way concerned with 
my young man, made him such an offer, I could 
do no less than offer him the same : and all the 
ship's company being willing to go with him, we 
made over half the ship to him in property, and 
took a writing from him, obliging him to account 
for the other ; and away he went to Japan. The 
Japan merchant proved a very punctual, honest 


man to him ; protected him at Japan, and got him 
a licence to come on shore, which the Europeans 
in general have not lately obtained ; paid him his 
freight very punctually ; sent him to the Philip- 
pines, loaded with Japan and China wares, and a 
supercargo of their own, who, trafficking with the 
Spaniards, brought back European goods again, 
and a great quantity of cloves and other spices ; 
and there he not only paid his freight very well, 
and at a very good price, but, not being willing to 
sell the ship then, the merchant furnished him 
goods on his own account ; and with some money, 
and some spices of his own which he brought with 
him, he went back to the Manillas to the Span- 
iards, where he sold his cargo very well. Here, hav- 
ing got a good acquaintance at Manilla, he got his 
ship made a free ship ; and the Governor of Ma- 
nilla hired him to go to Acapulco in America, on 
the coast of Mexico, and gave him a licence to land 
there, and to travel to Mexico, and to pass in any 
Spanish ship to Europe with all his men. He made 
the voyage to Acapulco very happily, and there he 
sold his ship ; and having there also obtained al- 
lowance to travel by land to Porto Bello, he found 
means, somehow or other, to get to Jamaica, with 
all his treasure ; and about eight years after came 
to England exceeding rich, of which I shall take 
notice in its place : in the mean time, I return to 
our particular affairs. 

Being now to part with the ship and ship's com- 
pany, it came before us, of course, to consider what 


recompence we should give to the two men that 
gave us such timely notice of the design against us 
in the river Cambodia. The truth was, they had 
done us a very considerable service, and deserved 
well at our hands ; though, by the way, they were 
a couple of rogues too : for as they believed the 
story of our being pirates, and that we had really 
run away with the ship, they came down to us not 
only to betray the design that was formed against 
us, but to go to sea with us as pirates ; and one of 
them confessed afterwards that nothing else but 
the hopes of going a-roguing brought him to do it. 
However, the service they did us was not the less ; 
and therefore, as I had promised to be grateful to 
them, I first ordered the money to be paid them 
which they said was due to them on board their 
respective ships ; over and above that, I gave each 
of them a small sum of money in gold, which con- 
tented them very well ; then I made the English- 
man gunner in the ship, the gunner now being 
second mate and purser; the Dutchman I made 
boatswain ; so they were both very well pleased, 
and proved very serviceable, being both able sea- 
men, and very stout fellows. 

We were now on shore in China : if I thought my- 
self banished and remote from my own country at 
Bengal, where I had many ways to get home for my 
money, what could I think of myself now, when I 
was got about a thousand leagues farther off from 
home, and perfectly destitute of all manner of pro- 
spect of return? All we had for it was this, that in 


about four months' time there was to be another 
fair at the place where we were, and then we might 
be able to purchase all sorts of the manufactures 
of the country, and withal might possibly find 
some Chinese junks or vessels from Tonquin, that 
would be to be sold, and would carry us and our 
goods whither we pleased. This I liked very well, 
and resolved to wait; besides, as our particular 
persons were not obnoxious, so if any English or 
Dutch ships came thither, perhaps we might have 
an opportunity to load our goods, and get passage 
to some other place in India, nearer home. Upon 
these hopes we resolved to continue here ; but, to 
divert ourselves, we took two or three journeys 
into the country. First, we went ten days' journey, 
to the city of Nanquin, a city well worth seeing, 
indeed; they say it has a million of people in it: it 
is regularly built, the streets all exactly straight, 
and cross one another in direct lines, which gives 
the figure of it great advantage. But when I come 
to compare the miserable people of these countries 
with ours, their fabrics, their manner of living, their 
government, their religion, their wealth, and their 
glory, as some call it, I must confess that I scarcely 
think it worth my while to mention them here. It 
is very observable that we wonder at the grandeur, 
the riches, the pomp, the ceremonies, the govern- 
ment, the manufactures, the commerce, and con- 
duct of these people; not that it is to be wondered 
at, or, indeed, in the least to be regarded, but be- 
cause having a true notion of the barbarity of those 


countries, the rudeness and the ignorance that pre- 
vails there, we do not expect to find any such thing 
so far off. Otherwise, what are their buildings to 
the palaces and royal buildings of Europe ? What 
their trade to the universal commerce of England, 
Holland, France, and Spain? What are their cities 
to ours, for wealth, strength, gaiety of apparel, rich 
furniture, and infinite variety? What are their ports, 
supplied with a few junks and barks, to our navi- 
gation, our merchant fleets, our large and power- 
ful navies? Our city of London has more trade 
than half their mighty empire : one English, Dutch, 
or French man-of-war of eighty guns would be 
able to fight almost all the shipping belonging to 
China : but the greatness of their wealth, their trade, 
the power of their government, and the strength 
of their armies, may be a little surprising to us, be- 
cause, as I have said, considering them as a barb- 
arous nation of pagans, little better than savages, 
we did not expect such things among them. And 
this, indeed, is the advantage with which all their 
greatness and power is represented to us ; other- 
wise, it is in itself nothing at all, for what I have 
said of their ships may be said of their armies and 
troops : all the forces of their empire, though they 
were to bring two millions of men into the field 
together, would be able to do nothing but ruin the 
country, and starve themselves, if they were to be- 
siege a strong town in Flanders, or to fight a dis- 
ciplined army. One good line of German cuirassiers, 
or of French cavalry, might withstand all the horse 


of China : a million of their foot could not stand 
before one embattled body of our infantry, posted 
so as not to be surrounded, though they were not 
to be one to twenty in number: nay, I do not boast 
if I say that thirty thousand German or English 
foot, and ten thousand horse, well managed, could 
defeat all the forces of China. And so of our fortified 
towns, and of the art of our engineers in assaulting 
and defending towns: there is not a fortified town 
in China could hold out one month against the 
batteries and attacks of an European army; and, 
at the same time, all the armies of China could never 
take such a town as Dunkirk, provided it was not 
starved — no, not in a ten years' siege. They have 
fire-arms, it is true, but they are awkward and un- 
certain in their going off; and their powder has but 
little strength. Their armies are badly disciplined, 
and want skill to attack, or temper to retreat; and, 
therefore, I must confess, it seemed strange to me, 
when I came home, and heard our people say such 
fine things of the power, glory, magnificence, and 
trade of the Chinese; because, as far as I saw, they 
appeared to be a contemptible herd or crowd of 
ignorant sordid slaves, subjected to a government 
qualified only to rule such a people : and were not 
its distance inconceivably great from Muscovy, and 
the Muscovite Empire in a manner as rude, im- 
potent, and ill governed as they, the Czar of Mus- 
covy might with ease drive them all out of their 
country, and conquer them in one campaign: and 
had the Czar (who is now a growing prince) fallen 


this way, instead of attacking the warlike Swedes, 
and equally improved himself in the art of war, as 
they say he has done ; and if none of the powers 
of Europe had envied or interrupted him, he might 
by this time have been Emperor of China, instead 
of being beaten by the King of Sweden at Narva, 
when the latter was not one to six in number. As 
their strength and their grandeur, so their naviga- 
tion, commerce, and husbandry are very imperfect, 
compared to the same things in Europe: also in 
their knowledge, their learning, and in their skill 
in the sciences, they are either very awkward or 
defective, though they have globes and spheres, 
and a smattering of the mathematics, and think 
they know more than all the world besides : but 
they know little of the motions of the heavenly 
bodies ; and so grossly and absurdly ignorant are 
their common people that when the sun is eclipsed, 
they think a great dragon has assaulted it, and is 
going to run away with it ; and they fall a-clatter- 
ing with all the drums and kettles in the country, 
to fright the monster away, just as we do to hive 
a swarm of bees. 

As this is the only excursion of the kind which 
I have made in all the accounts I have given of 
my travels, I shall make no more such ; it is none 
of my business, nor any part of my design, but to 
give an account of my own adventures through a 
life of inimitable wanderings, and a long variety of 
changes, which, perhaps, few that come after me 
will have heard the like of: I shall therefore say 


very little of all the mighty places, desert countries, 
and numerous people I have yet to pass through, 
more than relates to my own story and which 
my concern among them will make necessary. 


Iwas now, as near as I can compute, in the heart 
of China, about thirty degrees north of the line, 
for we were returned from Nanquin : I had, in- 
deed, a mind to see the city of Peking, which I 
had heard so much of, and Father Simon impor- 
tuned me daily to do it. At length his time of going 
away being set, and the other missionary who was 
to go with him being arrived from Macao, it was 
necessary that we should resolve either to go or 
not ; so I referred it wholly to my partner, and 
left it wholly to his choice, who at length resolved 
it in the affirmative ; and we prepared for our 
journey. We set out with very good advantage, as 
to finding the way, for we got leave to travel in the 
retinue of one of their Mandarins, a kind of vice- 
roy or principal magistrate in the province where 
they reside, and who take great state upon them, 
travelling with great attendance, and with great 
homage from the people, who are sometimes great- 
ly impoverished by them, being obliged to furnish 
provisions for them and all their attendants in their 


journeys. That which I particularly observed, as 
to our travelling with his baggage, was this, that 
though we received sufficient provisions both for 
ourselves and our horses from the country as be- 
longing to the Mandarin, yet we were obliged to 
pay for everything we had, after the market price 
of the country, and the Mandarin's steward col- 
lected it duly from us ; so that our travelling in 
the retinue of the Mandarin, though it was a very 
great kindness to us, was not such a mighty favour 
in him, but was a great advantage to him, consid- 
ering there were about thirty other people travelled 
in the same manner besides us, under the protec- 
tion of his retinue ; for the country furnished all 
the provisions for nothing to him, and yet he took 
our money for them. 

We were twenty-five days travelling to Peking, 
through a country infinitely populous, but I think 
badly cultivated; the husbandry, the economy, 
and the way of living miserable, though they boast 
so much of the industry of the people : I say mis- 
erable, if compared with our own, but not so to 
these poor wretches, who know no other. The 
pride of the people is infinitely great, and exceeded 
by nothing but their poverty, in some parts, which 
adds to that which I call their misery : and I must 
needs think the naked savages of America live much 
more happily than the poorest sort of these, be- 
cause as they have nothing, so they desire no- 
thing: whereas these are proud and insolent, and 
in the main are in many parts mere beggars and 


drudges ; their ostentation is inexpressible ; and, if 
they can, they love to keep multitudes of serv- 
ants or slaves, which is to the last degree ridicul- 
ous, as well as the contempt of all the world but 

I must confess, I travelled more pleasantly aft- 
erwards in the deserts and vast wildernesses of 
Grand Tartary than here ; and yet the roads here 
are well-paved and well-kept, and very convenient 
for travellers : but nothing was more awkward to 
me than to see such a haughty, imperious, insol- 
ent people, in the midst of the grossest simplicity 
and ignorance; and my friend Father Simon and 
I used to be very merry upon these occasions, to 
see the beggarly pride of these people. For exam- 
ple, coming by the house of a country gentleman, 
as Father Simon called him, about ten leagues off 
the city of Nanquin, we had first of all the honour 
to ride with the master of the house about two 
miles; the state he rode in was a perfect Don 
Quixotism, being a mixture of pomp and poverty. 
His habit was very proper for a scaramouch, or 
merry-andrew, being a dirty calico, with hanging 
sleeves, tassels, and cuts and slashes almost on 
every side: it covered a taffety vest, as greasy as 
a butcher's, and which testified that his honour 
must be a most exquisite sloven. His horse was 
but a poor, starved, hobbling creature, and he had 
two slaves followed him on foot to drive the poor 
creature along : he had a whip in his hand, and he 
belaboured the beast as fast about the head as his 


slaves did about the tail; and thus he rode by us, 
with about ten or twelve servants, going from the 
city to his country-seat, about half a league before 
us. We travelled on gently, but this figure of a 
gentleman rode away before us; and as we stopped 
at a village about an hour to refresh us, when we 
came by the country-seat of this great man, we saw 
him in a little place before his door, eating his re- 
past. It was a kind of a garden, but he was very 
easy to be seen ; and we were given to understand 
that the more we looked at him the better he would 
be pleased. He sat under a tree, something like 
the palmetto, which effectually shaded him over the 
head, and on the south side ; but under the tree 
was also placed a large umbrella, which made 
that part look well enough. He sat lolling back in 
a great elbow-chair, being a heavy corpulent man, 
and had his meat brought him by two women 
slaves ; he had two more, one of which fed the 
squire with a spoon, and the other held the dish 
with one hand, and scraped off what he let fall upon 
his worship's beard and taffety vest with the other; 
while the great fat brute thought it below him to 
employ his own hands in any of those familiar 
offices, which kings and monarchs would rather do 
than be troubled with the clumsy fingers of their 

I took this time to think what pains men's 
pride puts them to, and how troublesome a haughty 
temper, thus ill managed, must be to a man of 
common sense; and leaving the poor wretch to 


please himself with our looking at him, as if we 
admired his pomp, though we really pitied and 
contemned him, we pursued our journey. Only 
Father Simon had the curiosity to stay to inform 
himself what dainties the country justice had to 
feed on in all his state, which he had the honour 
to taste of, and which was, I think, a mess of 
boiled rice, with a great piece of garlic in it, and 
a little bag filled with green pepper, and another 
plant which they have there, something like our 
ginger, but smelling like musk, and tasting like 
mustard; all this was put together, and a small 
piece of lean mutton boiled in it, and this was his 
worship's repast ; four or five servants more at- 
tended at a distance, who, we supposed, were to 
eat of the same after their master. 

As for our Mandarin with whom we travelled, 
he was respected as a king, surrounded always 
with his gentlemen, and attended in all his appear- 
ances with such pomp that I saw little of him but 
at a distance; but this I observed, that there was 
not a horse in his retinue but that our carrier's 
pack-horses in England seemed to me to look 
much better ; though it was hard to judge rightly, 
for they were so covered with equipage, mantles, 
trappings, etc., that we could scarce see anything 
but their feet and their heads as they went along. 

I was now light-hearted, and all my trouble and 
perplexity that I have given an account of being 
over, I had no anxious thought about me, which 
made this journey the pleasanter to me ; nor had 


I any ill accident attended me, only in passing or 
fording a small river my horse fell, and made me 
free of the country, as they call it, that is to say, 
threw me in: the place was not deep, but it wetted 
me all over. I mention it, because it spoiled my 
pocket-book, wherein I had set down the names 
of several people and places which I had occasion 
to remember, and which, not taking due care of, 
the leaves rotted, and the words were never after 
to be read, to my great loss as to the names of 
some places I touched at in this journey. 

At length we arrived at Peking : I had nobody 
with me but the youth whom my nephew, the 
captain, had given me to attend me as a servant, 
and who proved very trusty and diligent ; and my 
partner had nobody with him but one servant, who 
was a kinsman. As for the Portuguese pilot, he 
being desirous to see the court, we bore his charges 
for his company, and to use him as an interpreter, 
for he understood the language of the country, and 
spoke good French, and a little English; and, in- 
deed, this old man was a most useful implement 
to us everywhere ; for we had not been a week at 
Peking, when he came laughing, " Ah, Senhor 
Inglese," says he, " I have something to tell you 
will make your heart glad ! " "My heart glad!" 
says I ; " what can that be? I don't know anything 
in this country can either give me joy or grief, to 
any great degree." " Yes, yes," said the old man 
in broken English, "make you glad, me sorry." 
" Why," said I, " will it make you sorry ? " " Be- 


cause," said he, "you have brought me here 
twenty-five days' journey, and will leave me to go 
back alone, and which way shall I get to my port 
afterwards without a ship, without a horse, without 
pecune" : so he called money, being his broken 
Latin, of which he had abundance to make us 
merry with. In short, he told us there was a great 
caravan of Muscovite and Polish merchants in the 
city, preparing to set out on their journey by land 
to Muscovy, within four or five weeks, and he was 
sure we would take the opportunity to go with 
them, and leave him behind, to go back alone. 

I confess I was greatly surprised with this good 
news, and had scarce power to speak to him for 
some time ; but at last I turned to him, " How do 
you know this ?" said I. " Are you sure it is true ? " 
" Yes," says he ; "I met this morning in the street 
an old acquaintance of mine, an Armenian, who is 
among them : he came last from Astracan, and was 
designing to go to Tonquin, where I formerly 
knew him, but he has altered his mind, and is now 
resolved to go with the caravan to Moscow, and 
so down the river Wolga to Astracan." "Well, 
senhor," says I, "do not be uneasy about being 
left to go back alone ; if this be a method for my 
return to England, it shall be your fault if you go 
back to Macao at all." We then went to consult 
together what was to be done ; and I asked my 
partner what he thought of the pilot's news, and 
whether it would suit with his affairs? He told me 
he would do just as I would ; for he had settled 


all his affairs so well at Bengal, and left his effects 
in such good hands, that, as we had made a good 
voyage here, if he could vest it in China silks, 
wrought and raw, such as might be worth the car- 
riage, he would be content to go to England, and 
then make his voyage back to Bengal by the Com- 
pany's ships. 

Having resolved upon this, we agreed that if 
our Portuguese pilot would go with us we would 
bear his charges to Moscow, or to England, if he 
pleased ; nor, indeed, were we to be esteemed over- 
generous in that neither, if we had not rewarded 
him farther, the service he had done us being really 
worth more than that : for he had not only been 
a pilot to us at sea, but he had been like a broker 
for us on shore ; and his procuring for us the 
Japan merchant was some hundreds of pounds in 
our pockets. So we consulted together about it, 
and being willing to gratify him, which was but 
doing him justice, and very willing also to have him 
with us besides, for he was a most necessary man 
on all occasions, we agreed to give him a quantity 
of coined gold, which, as I compute it, came to 
about one hundred and seventy-five pounds ster- 
ling, between us, and to bear all his charges, both 
for himself and horse, except only a horse to carry 
his goods. Having settled this between ourselves, 
we called him to let him know what we had re- 
solved. I told him he had complained of our being 
to let him go back alone, and I was now to tell 
him we were resolved he should not go back at 


all ; that as we had resolved to go to Europe with 
the caravan, he should go with us ; and that we called 
him to know his mind. He shook his head, and said 
it was a long journey, and he had no pecune to 
carry him thither, or to subsist himself when he 
came there. We told him we believed it was so, 
and therefore we had resolved to do something for 
him that should let him see how sensible we were 
of the service he had done us, and also how agree- 
able he was to us : and then I told him what we 
had resolved to give him here, which he might lay 
out as we would do our own ; and that as for his 
charges, if he would go with us we would set him 
safe on shore (life and casualties excepted) either 
in Muscovy or England, which he would, at our 
own charge, except only the carriage of his goods. 
He received the proposal like a man transported, 
and told us he would go with us over the whole 
world; and so we all prepared for our journey. 
However, as it was with us, so it was with the 
other merchants : they had many things to do ; 
and instead of being ready in five weeks, it was 
four months and some days before all things were 
got together. 

It was the beginning of February, our style, 
when we set out from Peking. My partner and 
the old pilot had gone express back to the port 
where we had first put in, to dispose of some 
goods which we had left there: and I, with a Chinese 
merchant whom I had some knowledge of at Nan- 
quin, and who came to Peking on his own affairs, 


went to Nanquin, where I bought ninety pieces of 
fine damasks, with about two hundred pieces of 
other very fine silks of several sorts, some mixed 
with gold, and had all these brought to Peking 
against my partner's return : besides this, we bought 
a very large quantity of raw silk, and some other 
goods, our cargo amounting, in these goods only, 
to about three thousand five hundred pounds ster- 
ling; which, together with tea, and some fine 
calicoes, and three camels'-loads of nutmegs and 
cloves, loaded in all eighteen camels for our share, 
besides those we rode upon ; which with two or 
three spare horses, and two horses loaded with 
provisions, made us, in short, twenty-six camels and 
horses in our retinue. 

The company was very great, and, as near as I 
can remember, made between three and four hun- 
dred horse, and upwards of one hundred and twenty 
men, very well-armed, and provided for all events : 
for as the Eastern caravans are subject to be at- 
tacked by the Arabs, so are these by the Tartars ; 
but they are not altogether so dangerous as the 
Arabs, nor so barbarous, when they prevail. 

The company consisted of people of several 
nations; but there were above sixty of them mer- 
chants or inhabitants of Moscow, though of them 
some were Livonians ; and to our particular satis- 
faction, five of them were Scots, who appeared also 
to be men of great experience in business, and of 
very good substance. 

When we had travelled one day's journey, the 


guides, who were five in number, called all the gen- 
tlemen and merchants, that is to say, all the pas- 
sengers except the servants, to a great council, as 
they called it. At this council every one deposited 
a certain quantity of money to a common stock, 
for the necessary expense of buying forage on the 
way, where it was not otherwise to be had, and for 
satisfying the guides, getting horses, and the like : 
and here they constituted the journey, as they call 
it, viz., they named captains and officers to draw 
us all up, and give the word of command, in case 
of an attack, and give every one their turn of com- 
mand ; nor was this forming us into order any 
more than what we found needful upon the way, 
as shall be observed. 

The road all on this side of the country is very 
populous, and is full of potters and earth-makers, 
that is to say, people that temper the earth for the 
China-ware ; and as I was coming along, our Por- 
tugal pilot, who had always something or other to 
say to make us merry, came sneering to me, and 
told me he would show me the greatest rarity in 
all the country, and that I should have this to say 
of China, after all the ill-humoured things I had 
said of it, that I had seen one thing which was not 
to be seen in all the world beside. I was very im- 
portunate to know what it was : at last he told me 
it was a gentleman's house built with China-ware. 
" Well," says I, " are not the materials of their 
buildings the product of their own country, and so 
it is all China-ware, is it not ? " " No, no," says 


he, " I mean it is a house all made of China-ware, 
such as you call it in England, or, as it is called in 
our country, porcelain." " Well," says I, " such a 
thing may be ; how big is it ? Can we carry it in 
a box upon a camel ? If we can, we will buy it." 
" Upon a camel ! " says the old pilot, holding up 
both hands ; " why there is a family of thirty peo- 
ple lives in it." 

I was then curious, indeed, to see it ; and when 
I came to it, it was nothing but this : it was a tim- 
ber house, or a house built, as we call it in Eng- 
land, with lath and plaster ; but all this plastering 
was really China-ware, that is to say, it was plas- 
tered with the earth that makes China-ware. The 
outside, which the sun shone hot upon, was glazed, 
and looked very well, perfectly white, and painted 
with blue figures, as the large China-ware in Eng- 
land is painted, and hard as if it had been burnt. 
As to the inside, all the walls, instead of wainscot, 
were lined with hardened and painted tiles, like 
the little square tiles we call galley-tiles in Eng- 
land, all made of the finest China, and the figures 
exceeding fine, indeed, with extraordinary variety 
of colours, mixed with gold ; many tiles making 
but one figure, but joined so artificially, the mortar 
being made of the same earth, that it was very 
hard to see where the tiles met. The floors of the 
rooms were of the same composition, and as hard 
as the earthern floors we have in use in several 
parts of England ; as hard as stone, and smooth, 
but not burnt and painted, except some smaller 


rooms, like closets, which were all as it were paved 
with the same tile : the ceiling, and all the plaster- 
ing work in the whole house, were of the same 
earth ; and, after all, the roof was covered with tiles 
of the same, but of a deep shining black. This was 
a China-ware house, indeed, truly and literally to 
be called so, and had I not been upon the journey, 
I could have stayed some days to see and examine 
the particulars of it. They told me there were 
fountains and fishponds in the garden, all paved 
on the bottom and sides with the same ; and fine 
statues set up in rows on the walks, entirely formed 
of the porcelain earth, and burnt whole. 

As this is one of the singularities of China, so 
they may be allowed to excel in it ; but I am very 
sure they excel in their accounts of it ; for they told 
me such incredible things of their performance in 
crockery-ware, for such it is, that I care not to re- 
late, as knowing it could not be true. They told 
me, in particular, of one workman that made a ship, 
with all its tackle, and masts and sails, in earthern- 
ware, big enough to carry fifty men. If they had 
told me he launched it, and made a voyage to 
Japan in it, I might have said something to it, in- 
deed ; but as it was, I knew the whole of the story, 
which was, in short, asking pardon for the word, 
that the fellow lied : so I smiled, and said nothing 
to it. 

This odd sight kept me two hours behind the 
caravan, for which the leader of it for the day fined 
me about the value of three shillings; and told me, 


if it had been three days' journey without the 
wall, as it was three days' within, he must have 
fined me four times as much, and made me ask 
pardon the next council day : I promised to be 
more orderly ; and, indeed, I found afterwards the 
orders made for keeping all together were abso- 
lutely necessary for our common safety. 

In two days more we passed the great China 
Wall, made for a fortification against the Tartars ; 
and a very great work it is, going over hills and 
mountains in a needless track, where the rocks are 
impassable, and the precipices such as no enemy 
could possibly enter, or indeed climb up, or where, 
if they did, no wall could hinder them. They tell 
us its length is near a thousand English miles, but 
that the country is five hundred in a straight meas- 
ured line, which the wall bounds, without measur- 
ing the windings and turnings it takes: it is about 
four fathoms high, and as many thick in some 

I stood still an hour, or thereabout, without 
trespassing our orders (for so long the caravan was 
in passing the gate), to look at it on every side, 
near and far off, I mean that was within my view ; 
and the guide of our caravan, who had been ex- 
tolling it for the wonder of the world, was mighty 
eager to hear my opinion of it. I told him it was 
a most excellent thing to keep out the Tartars ; 
which he happened not to understand as I meant 
it, and so took it for a compliment ; but the old 
pilot laughed: " 0,Senhor Inglese," says he, "you 


speak in colours. " " In colours ! " said I ; " what 
do you mean by that ? " " Why, you speak what 
looks white this way, and black that way : gay one 
way, and dull another. You tell him it is a good 
wall to keep out Tartars; you tell me by that it is 
good for nothing but to keep out Tartars. I un- 
derstand you, Senhor Inglese; I understand you; 
but Senhor Chinese understood you his own way." 
" Well," says I, " senhor, do you think it would 
stand out an army of our country-people, with a 
good train of artillery, or our engineers, with two 
companies of miners ? Would not they batter it 
down in ten days, that an army might enter in bat- 
talia ; or blow it up in the air, foundation and all, 
that there should be no sign of it left ? " " Aye, 
aye," says he, " I know that." The Chinese wanted 
mightily to know what I said, and I gave him leave 
to tell him a few days after, for we were then almost 
out of their country, and he was to leave us in a 
little time after this; but when he knew what I said, 
he was dumb all the rest of the way, and we heard 
no more of his fine story of the Chinese power and 
greatness while he stayed. 

After we passed this mighty nothing, called a 
wall, something like the Picts' wall, so famous in 
Northumberland, built by the Romans, we began 
to find the country thinly inhabited, and the peo- 
ple rather confined to live in fortified towns and 
cities, as being subject to the inroads and depre- 
dations of the Tartars, who rob in great armies, 
and therefore are not to be resisted by the naked 


inhabitants of an open country. And here I began 
to find the necessity of keeping together in a cara- 
van as we travelled, for we saw several troops of 
Tartars roving about; but when I came to see them 
distinctly, I wondered more that the Chinese Em- 
pire could be conquered by such contemptible fel- 
lows ; for they are a mere horde of wild fellows, 
keeping no order, and understanding no discipline 
or manner of fight. Their horses are poor lean 
creatures, taught nothing, and fit for nothing; and 
this we found the ;first day we saw them, which 
was after we entered the wilder part of the coun- 
try. Our leader for the day gave leave for about 
sixteen of us to go a-hunting, as they call it, and 
what was this but hunting of sheep : however, it 
may be called hunting, too, for the creatures are 
the wildest and swiftest of foot that ever I saw of 
their kind ; only they will not run a great way, and 
you are sure of sport when you begin the chase, 
for they appear generally thirty or forty in a flock, 
and, like true sheep, always keep together when 
they fly. 

In pursuit of this odd sort of game, it was our 
hap to meet with about forty Tartars ; whether 
they were hunting mutton as we were, or whether 
they looked for another kind of prey, we know not ; 
but as soon as they saw us, one of them blew a 
kind of horn very loud, but with a barbarous 
sound that I had never heard before, and, by the 
way, never care to hear again: we all supposed 
this was to call their friends about them, and so it 


was; for in less than ten minutes a troop of forty 
or fifty more appeared at about a mile distance; 
but our work was over first, as it happened. 

One of the Scots merchants of Moscow hap- 
pened to be amongst us, and as soon as he heard 
the horn he told us that we had nothing to do but 
to charge them immediately, without loss of time; 
and drawing us up in a line, he asked if we were 
resolved. We told him we were ready to follow 
him ; so he rode directly towards them. They stood 
gazing at us like a mere crowd, drawn up in no 
order, nor showing the face of any order at all; 
but as soon as they saw us advance, they let fly 
their arrows, which, however, missed us very hap- 
pily : it seems they mistook not their aim, but their 
distance; for their arrows all fell a little short of 
us, but with so true an aim that, had we been about 
twenty yards nearer, we must have had several 
men wounded, if not killed. 

Immediately we halted, and though it was at a 
great distance, we fired, and sent them leaden bul- 
lets for wooden arrows, following our shot full gal- 
lop, to fall in among them sword in hand, for so 
our bold Scot that led us directed. He was, in- 
deed, but a merchant, but he behaved with that 
vigour and bravery on this occasion, and yet with 
such cool courage too, that I never saw any man 
in action fitter for command. As soon as we came 
up to them, we fired our pistols in their faces, and 
then drew : but they fled in the greatest confusion 
imaginable. The only stand any of them made was 


on our right, where three of them stood, and, by 
signs, called the rest to come back to them, having 
a kind of scimitar in their hands, and their bows 
hanging to their backs. Our brave commander, 
without asking anybody to follow him, gallops up 
close to them, and with his fusee knocks one of 
them off his horse, killed the second with his pis- 
tol, and the third ran away ; and thus ended our 
fight : but we had this misfortune attending it, 
that all our mutton we had in chase got away. 
We had not a man killed or hurt; but as for the 
Tartars, there were about five of them killed : how 
many were wounded we knew not ; but this we 
knew, that the other party were so frightened with 
the noise of our guns that they made off, and never 
made any attempt upon us. 

We were all this while in the Chinese dominions, 
and therefore the Tartars were not so bold as after- 
wards: but in about five days we entered a vast, 
great, wild desert, which held us three days' and 
nights' march; and we were obliged to carry our 
water with us in great leathern bottles, and to en- 
camp all night, just as I have heard they do in the 
Desert of Arabia. 

I asked our guides whose dominion this was in ; 
and they told me this was a kind of border, that 
might be called no man's land, being a part of 
Great Karakathay, or Grand Tartary: but, how- 
ever, it was all reckoned as belonging to China, but 
that there was no care taken here to preserve it 
from the inroads of thieves, and therefore it was 


reckoned the worst desert in the whole march, 
though we were to go over some much larger. 

In passing this wilderness, which was at first very- 
frightful to me, we saw, two or three times, little 
parties of the Tartars, but they seemed to be upon 
their own affairs, and to have no design upon us; 
and so, like the man who met the Devil, if they had 
nothing to say to us, we had nothing to say to them ; 
we let them go. Once, however, a party of them 
came so near as to stand and gaze at us : whether 
it was to consider if they should attack us or not, 
we knew not: but when we were passed at some 
distance by them, we made a rear guard of forty 
men, and stood ready for them, letting the caravan 
pass half a mile or thereabouts before us. But after 
a while they marched off; only we found they 
saluted us with five arrows at their parting, one of 
which wounded a horse, so that it disabled him, 
and we left him the next day, poor creature, in great 
need of a good farrier : they might shoot more ar- 
rows, which might fall short of us, but we saw no 
more arrows or Tartars that time. 

We travelled near a month after this, the ways 
not being so good as at first, though still in the 
dominions of the Emperor of China, but lay for the 
most part in villages, some of which were fortified, 
because of the incursions of the Tartars. When we 
were come to one of these towns (it was about two 
days and a half journey before we were to come to 
the city of Naum), I wanted to buy a camel, of 
which there are plenty to be sold all the way upon 


that road, and horses also, such as they are, because, 
so many caravans coming that way, they are often 
wanted. The person that I spoke to, to get me a 
camel, would have gone and fetched one for me; 
but I, like a fool, must be officious, and go myself 
along with him : the place was about two miles out 
of the village, where it seems they kept the camels 
and horses feeding under a guard. 

I walked it on foot, with my old pilot and a Chi- 
nese, being very desirous of a little variety. When 
we came to the place, it was a low marshy ground, 
walled round with a stone wall, piled up dry, with- 
out mortar or earth among it, like a park, with a 
little guard of Chinese soldiers at the door. Hav- 
ing'bought a camel, and agreed for the price, I came 
away, and the Chineseman that went with me led 
the camel, when on a sudden came up five Tartars 
on horseback ; two of them seized the fellow and 
took the camel from him, while the other three 
stepped up to me and my old pilot, seeing us, as it 
were, unarmed, for I had no weapon about me but 
my sword, which could but ill defend me against 
three horsemen. The first that came up stopped 
short upon my drawing my sword, for they are 
arrant cowards ; but a second coming up on my left, 
gave me a blow on the head, which I never felt 
till afterwards, and wondered, when I came to my- 
self, what was the matter, and where I was, for he 
laid me flat on the ground; but my never-failing 
old pilot, the Portuguese (so Providence, unlooked 
for, directs deliverances from dangers which to us 


are unforeseen), had a pistol in his pocket, which 
I knew nothing of, nor the Tartars neither : if they 
had, I suppose they would not have attacked us; 
but cowards are always boldest when there is no 
danger. The old man, seeing me down, with a bold 
heart stepped up to the fellow that had struck me, 
and laying hold of his arm with one hand, and 
pulling him down by main force a little towards 
him with the other, shot him in the head, and laid 
him dead upon the spot. He then immediately 
stepped up to him who had stopped us, as I said, 
and before he could come forward again, made a 
blow at him with a scimitar which p he always wore, 
but missing the man, cut his horse in the side of 
his head, cut one of the ears off by the root, and a 
great slice down by the side of his face. The poor 
beast, enraged with the wound, was no more to be 
governed by his rider, though the fellow sat well 
enough too, but away he flew, and carried him quite 
out of the pilot's reach, and at some distance, rising 
upon his hind legs, threw down the Tartar, and 
fell upon him. 

In this interval, the poor Chinese came in who 
had lost the camel, but he had no weapon: how- 
ever, seeing the Tartar down, and his horse fallen 
upon him, away he runs to him, and seizing upon 
an ugly ill-favoured weapon he had by his side, 
something like a pole-axe, but not a pole-axe nei- 
ther, he wrenched it from him, and made shift to 
knock his Tartarian brains out with it. I3ut my old 
man had the third Tartar to deal with still ; and see- 


ing he did not fly, as he expected, nor come on to 
fight him, as he apprehended, but stand stock-still, 
the old man stood still too, and fell to work with 
his tackle, to charge his pistol again; but as soon 
as the Tartar saw the pistol, away he scoured, and 
left my pilot, my champion I called him afterwards, 
a complete victory. 

By this time I was a little recovered; for I 
thought, when I first began to wake, that I had 
been in a sweet sleep ; but, as I said above, I won- 
dered where I was, how I came upon the ground, 
and what was the matter. But a few moments after, 
as sense returned, I felt pain, though I did not 
know where ; so I clapped my hand to my head, 
and took it away bloody: then I felt my head ache; 
and then, in a moment, memory returned, and 
everything was present to me again. I jumped upon 
my feet instantly, and got hold of my sword, but 
no enemies in view: I found a Tartar lie dead, and 
his horse standing very quietly by him ; and, look- 
ing further, I saw my champion and deliverer, who 
had been to see what the Chinese had done, com- 
ing back with his hanger in his hand. The old man, 
seeing me on my feet, came running to me, and 
embraced me with a great deal of joy, being afraid 
before that I had been killed; and seeing me bloody, 
would see how I was hurt: but it was not much, 
only what we call a broken head ; neither did I after- 
wards find any great inconvenience from the blow, 
for it was well again in two or three days. 

We made no great gain, however, by this vie- 


tory, for we lost a camel and gained a horse ; but 
that which was remarkable, when we came back 
to the village, the man demanded to be paid for 
the camel ; I disputed it, and it was brought to 
a hearing before the Chinese judge of the place. 
To give him his due, he acted with a great deal of 
prudence and impartiality ; and, having heard both 
sides, he gravely asked the Chineseman that went 
with me to buy the camel, whose servant he was ? 
" I am no servant," says he, " but went with the 
stranger." " At whose request?" says the justice. 
" At the stranger's request," says he. " Why then," 
says the justice, "you were the stranger's servant 
for the time ; and the camel being delivered to his 
servant, it was delivered to him, and he must pay 
for it." 

I confess the thing was so clear that I had not 
a word to say : but, admiring to see such just 
reasoning upon the consequence, and an accurate 
stating of the case, I paid willingly for the camel, 
and sent for another ; but, you may observe, I did 
not go to fetch it myself any more, for I had 
had enough of that. 

The city of Naum is a frontier of the Chinese 
Empire : they call it fortified, and so it is, as fort- 
ifications go there ; for this I will venture to affirm, 
that all the Tartars in Karakathay, which, I believe, 
are some millions, could not batter down the walls 
with their bows and arrows; but to call it strong, 
if it were attacked with cannon, would be to make 
those who understand it laugh at you. 


We wanted, as I have said, above two days' 
journey of this city, when messengers were sent 
express to every part of the road to tell all travel- 
lers and caravans to halt till they had a guard 
sent for them ; for that an unusual body of Tartars, 
making ten thousand in all, had appeared in the 
way, about thirty miles beyond the city. 

This was very bad news to travellers ; however, 
it was carefully done of the governor, and we were 
very glad to hear we should have a guard. Accord- 
ingly, two days after, we had two hundred soldiers 
sent us from a garrison of the Chinese, on our left, 
and three hundred more from the city of Naum, 
and with these we advanced boldly; the three 
hundred soldiers from Naum marched in our front, 
the two hundred in our rear, and our men on each 
side of our camels, with our baggage, and the whole 
caravan in the centre : in this order, and well pre- 
pared for battle, we thought ourselves a match for 
the whole ten thousand Mogul Tartars, if they 
had appeared; but the next day, when they did 
appear, it was quite another thing. 

It was early in the morning, when, marching 
from a well-situated little town, called Changu, we 
had a river to pass, which we were obliged to 
ferry; and, had the Tartars had any intelligence, 
then had been the time to have attacked us, when 
the caravan being over, the rear guard was behind; 
but they did not appear there. About three hours 
after, when we were entered upon a desert of about 
fifteen or sixteen miles over, behold, by a cloud of 


dust they raised, we saw an enemy was at hand ; 
and they were at hand, indeed, for they came on 
upon the spur. 

The Chinese, our guard on the front, who had 
talked so big the day before, began to stagger; 
and the soldiers frequently looked behind them, 
which is a certain sign in a soldier that he is just 
ready to run away. My old pilot was of my mind; 
and, being near me/called out, "Senhor Inglese," 
says he, "those fellows must be encouraged, or 
they will ruin us all ; for if the Tartars come on, 
they will never stand it." "I am of your mind," 
said I ; "but what must be done?" "Done[!" says 
he, "let fifty of our men advance, and flank them 
on each wing, and encourage them ; and they will 
fight like brave fellows in brave company : but, 
without this, they will every man turn his back." 
Immediately I rode up to our leader, and told him, 
who was exactly of our mind; and accordingly fifty 
of us marched to the right wing, and fifty to the 
left, and the rest made a line of rescue; and so we 
marched, leaving the last two ^hundred men to 
make a body by themselves, and to guard the 
camels; only that, if need were, they should send 
a hundred men to assist the last fifty. 

In a word, the Tartars came on, and an innum- 
erable company they were: how many we could 
not tell, but ten thousand, we thought, was the 
least: a party of them came on first and viewed our 
posture, traversing the ground in the front of 
our line; and, as we found them within gun-shot, 


our leader ordered the two wings to advance swiftly, 
and give them a salvo on each wing with their 
shot, which was done; but they went off, and I 
suppose back, to give an account of the recep- 
tion they were likely to meet with; and, indeed, 
that salute cloyed their stomachs, for they imme- 
diately halted, stood a while to consider of it, and 
wheeling off to the left, they gave over their de- 
sign, and said no more to us for that time; which 
was very agreeable to our circumstances, which 
were but very indifferent for a battle with such a 

Two days after we came to the city of Naun, 
or Naum ; we thanked the governor for his care of 
us, and collected to the value of a hundred crowns, 
or thereabouts, which we gave to the soldiers sent 
to guard us; and here we rested one day. This 
is a garrison, indeed, and there were nine hundred 
soldiers kept here; but the reason of it was that 
formerly the Muscovite frontiers lay nearer to them 
than they now do, the Muscovites having aban- 
doned that part of the country which lies from this 
city west for about two hundred miles, as desolate 
and unfit for use ; and more especially being so very 
remote, and so difficult to send troops thither 
for its defence: for we had yet above two thousand 
miles to Muscovy, properly so called. 

After this we passed several great rivers, and two 
dreadful deserts, one of which we were sixteen days 
passing over, and which, as I said, was to be called 
no man's land ; and, on the 13th of April, we came 


to the frontiers of the Muscovite dominions. I 
think the first town, or fortress, whichever it may 
be called, that belonged to the Czar of Muscovy, 
was called Arguna, being on the west side of the 
river Arguna. 

I could not but discover an infinite satisfaction 
that I was so soon arrived in, as I called it, a Christ- 
ian country, or, at least, in a country governed by 
Christians ; for though the Muscovites do, in my 
opinion, but just deserve the name of Christians, yet 
such they pretend to be, and are very devout in 
their way. It would certainly occur to any man who 
travels the world as I have done, and who had any 
power of reflection, what a blessing it is to be 
brought into the world where the name of God and 
a Redeemer is known, adored, and worshipped; and 
not where the people, given up by Heaven to strong 
delusions, worship the Devil, and prostrate them- 
selves to stocks and stones ; worship monsters, 
elements, horrid-shaped animals, and statues or 
images of monsters. Not a town or city we passed 
through but had their pagods, their idols, and their 
temples, and ignorant people worshipping even the 
works of their own hands. Now we came where, at 
least, a face of the Christian worship appeared ; where 
the knee was bowed to Jesus ; and whether ignor- 
antly or not, yet the Christian religion was owned, 
and the name of the true God was called upon and 
adored, and it made my soul rejoice to see it. I 
saluted the brave Scots merchant I mentioned above 
with my first acknowledgment of this; and taking 


him by the hand, I said to him, " Blessed be God, 
we are once again amongst Christians." He smiled, 
and answered, " Do not rejoice too soon, country- 
man ; these Muscovites are but an odd sort of 
Christians ; and but for the name of it, you may 
see very little of the substance for some months 
farther of our journey." "Well," says I, "but still 
it is better than paganism and worshipping of 
devils." " Why, I will tell you," says he, " except 
the Russian soldiers in the garrisons, and a few 
of the inhabitants of the cities upon the road, all 
the rest of this country, for above a thousand miles 
farther, is inhabited by the worst and most ignor- 
ant of pagans" ; and so, indeed, we found it. 


We were now launched into the greatest piece 
of solid earth, if I understand anything of 
the surface of the globe, that is to be found in any 
part of the world; we had, at least, twelve thousand 
miles to the sea, eastward; two thousand to the 
bottom of the Baltic Sea, westward; and above 
three thousand, if we left that sea and went on west, 
to the British and French channels; we had full 
five thousand miles to the Indian or Persian Sea, 
south; and about eight hundred to the Frozen Sea, 
north. Nay, if some people may be believed, there 
might be no sea, north-east, till we came round the 
pole, and consequently into the north-west, and so 
had a continent of land into America, the Lord 
knows where; though I could give some reasons 
why I believe that to be a mistake. 

As we entered into the Muscovite dominions a 
good while before we came to any considerable 
towns, we had nothing to observe there but this: 
first, that all the rivers run to the east : as I under- 
stood by the charts, which some in our caravan had 


with them, it was plain all those rivers ran into the 
great river Yamour, or Amour ; which river, by 
the natural course of it, must run into the East 
Sea, or Chinese Ocean. The story they tell us, that 
the mouth of this river is choked up with bulrushes 
of a monstrous growth, viz., three feet about, and 
twenty or thirty feet high, I must be allowed to say, 
I believe nothing of it; but, as its navigation is 
of no use, because there is no trade that way, the 
Tartars, to whom it alone belongs, dealing in no- 
thing but cattle, so nobody, that ever I heard of, 
has been curious enough either to go down to the 
mouth of it in boats, or come up from the mouth 
of it in ships, as far as I can find : but this is cer- 
tain, that this river running east, in the latitude 
of about fifty degrees, carries a vast concourse of 
rivers along with it, and finds an ocean to 
empty itself in that latitude: so we are sure of 
sea there. 

Some leagues to the north of this river there are 
several considerable rivers, whose streams run as 
due north as the Yamour runs east, and these are 
all found to join their waters with the great river 
Tartarus, named so from the northermost nations 
of the Mogul Tartars; who, as the Chinese say, 
were the first Tartars in the world; and who, as our 
geographers allege, are the Gog and Magog men- 
tioned in sacred story. These rivers running all 
northward, as well as all the other rivers I am yet 
to speak of, make it evident that the northern 
ocean bounds the land also on that side ; so that 


it does not seem rational in the least to think that 
the land can extend itself to join with America 
on that side, or that there is not a communication 
between the northern and eastern ocean : but of 
this I shall say no more ; it was my observation 
at that time, and therefore I take notice of it in 
this place. 

We now advanced from the river Arguna by 
easy and moderate journeys, and were very visibly 
obliged to the care the Czar of Muscovy has taken 
to have cities and towns built in as many places 
as it is possible to place them, where his soldiers 
keep garrison, something like the stationary soldiers 
placed by the Romans in the remotest countries 
of their empire; some of which that I had read of 
were placed in Britain, for the security of commerce, 
and for the lodging travellers ; and thus it was 
here: for wherever we came, though at these towns 
and stations the garrisons and governors were Rus- 
sians and professed Christians, yet the inhabitants 
were mere pagans ; sacrificing to idols, and worship- 
ping the sun, moon, and stars, or all the host of 
heaven ; and not only so, but were, of all the hea- 
thens and pagans that ever I met with, the most 
barbarous, except only that they did not eat men's 
flesh, as our savages of America did. 

Some instances of this we met with in the coun- 
try between Arguna, where we enter the Musco- 
vite dominions, and a city of Tartars and Russians 
together, called Nertzinskoi, in which is a contin- 
ued desert or forest, which cost us twenty days to 


travel over. In a village, near the last of these 
places, I had the curiosity to go and see their way 
of living, which is most brutish and insufferable: 
they had, I suppose, a great sacrifice that day ; for 
there stood out, upon an old stump of a tree, an 
idol made of wood, frightful as the Devil ; at least, 
as anything we can think of to represent the Devil 
can be made. It had a head not so much as re- 
sembling any creature the world ever saw; ears 
as big as goats* horns, and as high; eyes as big as a 
crown-piece; a nose like a crooked ram's-horn,and 
a mouth extended four-cornered, like that of a lion, 
with horrible teeth, hooked like a parrots under- 
bill : it was dressed up in the filthiest manner that 
you could suppose: its upper garment was of sheep- 
skins, with the wool outward ; a great Tartar bon- 
net on the head, with two horns growing through 
it : it was about eight feet high, yet had no feet or 
legs, nor any other proportion of parts. 

This scarecrow was set up at the outer side of 
the village; and when I came near to it, there were 
sixteen or seventeen creatures, whether men or 
women I could not tell, for they made no distinction 
by their habits, all lying flat upon the ground round 
this formidable block of shapeless wood. I saw no 
motion among them any more than if they had 
been all logs of wood, like the idol, and at first I 
really thought they had been so; but, when I came 
a little nearer, they started up upon their feet and 
raised a howling cry, as if it had been so many 
deep-mouthed hounds, and walked away, as if they 


were displeased at our disturbing them. A little 
way off from the idol, and at the door of a tent or 
hut, made all of sheep-skins and cow-skins dried, 
stood three butchers, — I thought they were such : 
when I came nearer to them, I found they had 
long knives in their hands; and in the middle of 
the tent appeared three sheep killed, and one young 
bullock or steer. These, it seems, were sacrifices to 
that senseless log of an idol; the three men were 
priests belonging to it, and the seventeen pros- 
trated wretches were the people who brought the 
offering, and were making their prayers to that 

I confess I was more moved at their stupidity 
and brutish worship of a hobgoblin than ever I was 
at anything in my life; to see God's most glori- 
ous and best creature, to whom he had granted so 
many advantages, even by creation above the rest 
of the works of his hands, vested with a reason- 
able soul, and that soul adorned with faculties and 
capacities adapted both to honour his Maker, 
and be honoured by him, sunk and degenerated to 
a degree so very stupid as to prostrate itself to a 
frightful nothing, a mere imaginary object, dressed 
up by themselves, and made terrible to them- 
selves by their own contrivance, adorned only 
with clouts and rags ; and that this should be the 
effect of mere ignorance, wrought up into hellish 
devotion by the Devil himself; who, envying to his 
Maker the homage and adoration of his creatures, 
had deluded them into such sordid and brutish 


things as one would think should shock nature 

But what signified all the astonishment and re- 
flection of thoughts : thus it was, and I saw it be- 
fore my eyes, and there was no room to wonder at 
it, or think it impossible: all rny admiration turned 
to rage, and I rode up to the image or monster, 
call it what you will, and with my sword made a 
stroke at the bonnet that was on its head, and cut 
it in two; and one of our men that was with me 
took hold of the sheepskin that covered it, and 
pulled at it; when, behold, a most hideous outcry 
and howling ran through the village, and two or 
three hundred people came about my ears, so that 
I was glad to scour for it, for we saw some had 
bows and arrows ; but I resolved from that moment 
to visit them again. 

Our caravan rested three nights at the town, 
which was about four miles off, in order to provide 
some horses which they wanted, several of the 
horses having been lamed and jaded with the bad- 
ness of the way, and long march over the last des- 
ert; so we had some leisure here to put my design 
in execution. I communicated my design to the 
Scots merchant of Moscow, of whose courage I had 
sufficient testimony: I told him what I had seen, 
and with what indignation I had since thought that 
human nature could be so degenerate; I told him, 
if I could get but four or five men well armed to 
go with me, I was resolved to go and destroy that 
vile, abominable idol, and let them see that it had 


no power to help itself; and consequently could 
not be an object of worship, or to be prayed to, 
much less help them that offered sacrifices to it. 

He laughed at me. Says he, "Your zeal may be 
good, but what do you propose to yourself by it ? " 
" Propose !" said I; "to vindicate the honour of 
God, which is insulted by this devil-worship." 
" But how will it vindicate the honour of God," 
said he, "while the people will not be able to know 
what you mean by it, unless you could speak to 
them, and tell them so? And then they will fight 
you, and beat you too, I '11 assure you ; for they 
are desperate fellows, and that especially in defence 
of their idolatry." "Can we not," said I, "do it in 
the night and then leave them the reasons and the 
causes in writing in their own language?" "Writ- 
ing!" said he; "why there is not a man in five 
nations of them that knows anything of a letter or 
how to read a word anyway." "Wretched ignor- 
ance ! " said I to him : " however, I have a great 
mind to do it ; perhaps nature may draw inferences 
from it to them, to let them see how brutish they 
are to worship such horrid things." " Look you, 
sir," said he, "if your zeal prompts you to it so 
warmly, you must do it; but, in* the next place, I 
would have you consider, these wild nations of 
people are subjected by force to the Czar of Mus- 
covy's dominion, and if you do this, it is ten to one 
but they will come by thousands to the Governor 
of Nertzinskoi, and demand satisfaction ; and if 
he cannot give them satisfaction, it is ten to one 


but they revolt; and it will occasion a new war 
with all the Tartars in the country. " 

This, I confess, put new thoughts into my head 
for a while, but I harped upon the same string still ; 
and all that day I was uneasy to put my project 
in execution. Towards the evening the Scots mer- 
chant met me by accident in our walk about the 
town, and desired to speak with me: " I believe," 
said he, " I have put you off your good design; I 
have been a little concerned about it since: for I 
abhor idolatry as much as you can do." "Truly," 
said I, " you have put it off a little, as to the exe- 
cution of it, but you have not put it out of my 
thoughts ; and I believe I shall do it before I quit 
this place, though I were to be delivered up to 
them for satisfaction." "No, no," said he, "God 
forbid they should deliver you up to such a crew 
of monsters ! They shall not do that neither; that 
would be murdering you indeed." "Why," said I, 
"how would they use me?" "Use you!" said he, 
"I'll tell you how they served a poor Russian, 
who affronted them in their worship, just as you 
did, and whom they took prisoner, after they had 
lamed him with an arrow, that he could not run 
away : they took him and stripped him stark naked, 
and set him upon the top of the idol-monster, and 
stood all round him, and shot as many arrows into 
him as would stick over his whole body; and then 
they burnt him, and all the arrows sticking in him, 
as a sacrifice to the idol." "And was this the same 
idol?" said I. "Yes," said he, "the very same." 


"Well," said I, "I will tell you a story." So I re- 
lated the story of our men at Madagascar, and how 
they burnt and sacked the village there, and killed 
man, woman, and child, for their murdering one of 
our men, just as it is related before; and I added 
that I thought we ought to do so to this village. 

He listened very attentively to the story ; but 
when I talked of doing so to that village, said he, 
" You mistake very much ; it was not this village, 
it was almost a hundred miles from this place ; but 
it was the same idol, for they carry him about in 
procession all over the country." " Well," said I, 
" then that idol ought to be punished for it; and it 
shall," said I, " if I live this night out." 

In a word, finding me resolute, he liked the de- 
sign, and told me I should not go alone, but he 
would go with me, but he would go first and bring 
a stout fellow, one of his countrymen, to go also 
with us : " and one," said he, cc as famous for his 
zeal as you can desire any one to be against such 
devilish things as these." In a word, he brought me 
his comrade, a Scotsman, whom he called Captain 
Richardson ; and gave him a full account of what 
I had seen, and also what I intended; and he told 
me readily he would go with me if it cost him his 
life. So we agreed to go, only we three. I had, in- 
deed, proposed it to my partner, but he declined it. 
He said he was ready to assist me to the utmost, 
and upon all occasions, for my defence; but this 
was an adventure quite out of his way : so, I say, 
we resolved upon our work, only we three and my 


man-servant, and to put it in execution that night 
about midnight, with all the secrecy imaginable. 

However, upon second thoughts, we were willing 
to delay it till the next night, because, the caravan 
being to set forward in the morning, we supposed 
the governor could not pretend to give them any 
satisfaction upon us when we were out of his power. 
The Scots merchant, as steady in his resolution for 
the enterprise as bold in executing, brought me 
a Tartar's robe or gown of sheep-skins, and a bon- 
net, with a bow and arrows, and had provided 
the same for himself and his countryman, that the 
people, if they saw us, should not determine who 
we were. 

All the first night we spent in mixing up some 
combustible matter with aqua vitae, gunpowder, 
and such other materials as we could get; and, hav- 
ing a good quantity of tar in a little pot, about an 
hour after night we set out upon our expedition. 

We came to the place about eleven o'clock at 
night, and found that the people had not the least 
jealousy of danger attending their idol. The night 
was cloudy; yet the moon gave us light enough to 
see that the idol stood just in the same posture and 
place that it did before. The people seemed to be 
all at their rest; only, that in the great hut, or tent, 
as we called it, where we saw the three priests whom 
we mistook for butchers, we saw a light; and going 
up close to the door, we heard people talking as if 
there were five or six of them ; we concluded, there- 
fore, that if we set wildfire to the idol, these men 


would come out immediately, and run up to the 
place to rescue it from the destruction that we in- 
tended for it; and what to do with them we knew 
not. Once we thought of carrying it away and set- 
ting fire to it at a distance, but when we came to 
handle it, we found it too bulky for our carriage ; 
so we were at a loss again. The second Scotsman 
was for setting fire to the tent or hut, and knock- 
ing the creatures that were there on the head, when 
they came out; but I could not join with that; 
I was against killing them, if it were possible to 
avoid it. " Well, then," said the Scots merchant, 
" I will tell you what we will do : we will try to 
make them prisoners, tie their hands, and make 
them stand and see their idol destroyed." 

As it happened, we had twine or packthread 
enough about us, which we used to tie our fire- 
locks all together with : so we resolved to attack 
these people first, and with as little noise as we 
could. The first thing we did, we knocked at the 
door, when, one of the priests coming to it, we 
immediately seized upon him, stopped his mouth, 
and tied his hands behind him, and led him to the 
idol, where we gagged him that he might not make 
a noise, tied his feet also together, and left him on 
the ground. 

Two of us then waited at the door, expecting 
that another would come out, to see what the mat- 
ter was ; but we waited so long till the third man 
came back to us; and then nobody coming out, 
we knocked again gently, and immediately out 


came two more, and we served them just in the 
same manner, but were obliged to go all with them, 
and lay them down by the idol some distance from 
one another; when, going back, we found two more 
were come out to the door, and a third stood be- 
hind them within the door. We seized the two, 
and immediately tied them, when the third step- 
ping back, and crying out, my Scots merchant went 
in after him, and, taking out a composition we had 
made, that would only smoke and stink, he set fire 
to it and threw it in among them : by that time the 
other Scotsman and my man, taking charge of the 
two men already bound, and tied together also by 
the arm, led them away to the idol, and left them 
there to see if their idol would relieve them, 
making haste back to us. 

When the furze we had thrown in had filled the 
hut with so much smoke that they were almost 
suffocated, we then threw in a small leather bag of 
another kind, which flamed like a candle, and fol- 
lowing it in, we found there were but four people, 
and, as we supposed, had been about some of their 
diabolical sacrifices. They appeared, in short, fright- 
ened to death, at least so as to sit trembling and 
stupid, and not able to speak neither, for the 

In a word, we took them, bound them as we had 
done the other, and all without any noise. I should 
have said we brought them out of the house, or 
hut, first ; for indeed we were not able to bear the 
smoke any more than they were. When we had 


done this, we carried them all together to the idol : 
when we came there we fell to work with him ; 
and first we daubed him all over, and his robes 
also, with tar, and such other stuff as we had, which 
was tallow mixed with brimstone : then we stopped 
his eyes and ears and mouth full of gunpowder ; 
then we wrapped up a great piece of wildfire in his 
bonnet ; and then sticking all the combustibles we 
had brought with us upon him, we looked about 
to see if we could find anything else to help to 
burn him ; when my Scotsman remembered that 
by the tent, or hut, where the men were, there lay 
a heap of dry forage, whether straw or rushes I do 
not remember ; away he and the other Scotsman 
ran and fetched their arms full of that. When we 
had done this, we took all our prisoners, and 
brought them, having untied their feet and un- 
gagged their mouths, and made them stand up, and 
set them before their monstrous idol, and then set 
fire to the whole. 

We stayed by it a quarter of an hour, or there- 
abouts, till the powder in the eyes and mouth and 
ears of the idol blew up, and, as we could perceive, 
had split and deformed the shape of it : and, in a 
word, till we saw it burned into a mere block or 
log of wood ; and setting dry forage to it, we found 
it would be soon quite consumed ; so we began to 
think of going away : but the Scotsman said, " No, 
we must not go, for these poor deluded wretches 
will all throw themselves into the fire, and burn 
themselves with the idol." So we resolved to stay 


till the forage was burnt down too, and then came 
away and left them. 

After the feat was performed, we appeared in the 
morning among our fellow-travellers, exceeding 
busy in getting ready for our journey; nor could 
any man suggest that we had been anywhere but 
in our beds, as travellers might be supposed to 
be, to fit themselves for the fatigues of the day's 

But the affair did not end so : the next day came 
a great number of the country people to the town 
gates, and in a most outrageous manner demanded 
satisfaction of the Russian governor for the in- 
sulting their priests, and burning their Cham Chi- 
Thaungu. The people of Nertzinskoi were at first 
in a great consternation, for they said the Tartars 
were already no less than thirty thousand strong. 
The Russian governor sent out messengers to 
appease them, and gave them all the good words 
imaginable; assuring them that he knew nothing 
of it, and that there had not a soul in his garrison 
been abroad, so that it could not be from anybody 
there ; but if they could let him know who did it, 
they should be exemplarily punished. They re- 
turned, haughtily, that all the country reverenced 
the great Cham Chi-Thaungu, who dwelt in the 
sun, and no mortal would have dared to offer vio- 
lence to his image but some Christian miscreant; 
and they therefore resolved to denounce war against 
him and all the Russians, who, they said, were 
miscreants and Christians. 


The governor, still patient, and unwilling to 
make a breach, or to have any cause of war al- 
leged to be given by him, the Czar having strictly 
charged them to treat the conquered country with 
gentleness and civility, gave them still all the good 
words he could. At last he told them there was 
a caravan gone towards Russia that morning, and 
perhaps it was some of them who had done them 
this injury; and that if they would be satisfied with 
that, he would send after them to inquire into it. 
This seemed to appease them a little ; and accord- 
ingly the governor sent after us, and gave us a par- 
ticular account how the thing was; intimating withal 
that, if any in our caravan had done it, they should 
make their escape ; but that, whether we had done 
it or no, we should make all the haste forward that 
was possible ; and that, in the mean time, he would 
keep them in play as long as he could. 

This was very friendly in the governor : how- 
ever, when it came to the caravan, there was no- 
body knew anything of the matter ; and as for us 
that were guilty, we were least of all suspected. 
However, the captain of the caravan for the time 
took the hint that the governor gave us, and we 
travelled two days and two nights without any con- 
siderable stop, and then we lay at a village called 
Plothus : nor did we make any long stop here, but 
hastened on towards Jarawena, another of the 
Czar of Muscovy's colonies, and where we expected 
we should be safe. But upon the second day's 
march from Plothus, by the clouds of dust behind 


us at a great distance, some of our people began 
to be sensible we were pursued. We had entered 
a great desert, and had passed by a great lake 
called Schaks Oser, when we perceived a very great 
body of horse appear on the other side of the lake, 
to the north, we travelling west. We observed 
they went away west, as we did, but had supposed 
we would have taken that side of the lake, whereas 
we very happily took the south side; and in two 
days more they disappeared again: for they, be- 
lieving we were still before them, pushed on till 
they came to the river Udda, a very great river 
when it passes farther north, but when we came 
to it we found it narrow and fordable. 

The third day, they had either found their mis- 
take, or had intelligence of us, and came pouring 
in upon us towards the dusk of the evening. We 
had, to our great satisfaction, just pitched upon a 
place for our camp, which was very convenient for 
the night; for as we were upon a desert, though but 
at the beginning of it, that was above five hundred 
miles over, we had no towns to lodge at, and, in- 
deed, expected none but the city Jarawena, which 
we had yet two days' march to : the desert, how- 
ever, had some few woods in it on this side, and 
little rivers, which ran all into the great river 
Udda; it was in a narrow strait, between little but 
very thick woods, that we pitched our little camp 
for that night, expecting to be attacked before 

Nobody knew but ourselves what we were pur- 


sued for: but as it was usual for the Mogul Tar- 
tars to go about in troops in that desert, so the 
caravans always fortify themselves every night 
against them, as against armies of robbers ; and it 
was therefore no new thing to be pursued. 

But we had this night, of all the nights of our 
travels, a most advantageous camp ; for we lay be- 
tween two woods, with a little rivulet running just 
before our front, so that we could not be sur- 
rounded, or attacked any way but in our front or 
rear. We took care also to make our front as 
strong as we could, by placing our packs, with our 
camels and horses, all in a line on the inside of 
the river, and felling some trees in our rear. 

In this posture we encamped for the night ; but 
the enemy was upon us before we had finished our 
situation. They did not come on us like thieves, 
as we expected, but sent three messengers to us, 
to demand the men to be delivered to them that 
had abused their priests, and burned their god 
Cham Chi-Thaungu with fire, that they might burn 
them with fire; and upon this, they said, they 
would go away, and do us no further harm, other- 
wise they would destroy us all. Our men looked very 
blank at this message, and began to stare at one 
another, to see who looked with the most guilt in 
t hei r faces : but nobody was the word ; nobody did it. 
The leader of the caravan sent word he was well 
assured that it was not done by any of our camp ; 
that we were peaceable merchants, travelling on 
our business ; that we had done no harm to them 


or to any one else ; and that, therefore, they must 
look farther for their enemies who had injured 
them, for we were not the people; so desired them 
not to disturb us, for, if they did, we should de- 
fend ourselves. 

They were far from being satisfied with this for 
an answer : and a great crowd of them came run- 
ning down in the morning by break of day, to our 
camp; but seeing us in such an unaccountable sit- 
uation, they durst come no farther than the brook 
in our front, where they stood, and showed us 
such a number that indeed terrified us very much : 
for those that spoke least of them spoke of ten 
thousand. Here they stood and looked at us a 
while, and then, setting up a great howl, they let 
fly a cloud of arrows among us ; but we were well 
enough fortified for that, for we sheltered under 
our baggage, and I do not remember that one of 
us was hurt. 

Some time after this, we saw them move a little 
to our right, and expected them on the rear; when 
a cunning fellow, a Cossack of Jarawena, in the pay 
of the Muscovites, calling to the leader of the cara- 
van, said to him, "I'll go send all these people away 
to Siheilka " : this was a city four or five days' 
journey at least to the right, and rather behind us. 
So he takes his bow and arrows, and getting on 
horseback, he rides away from our rear directly, as 
it were back to Nertzinskoi; after this, he takes a 
great circuit about, and comes directly on the army 
of the Tartars, as if he had been sent express to 


tell them a long story, that the people who had 
burnt the Cham Chi-Thaungu were gone to Si- 
heilka, with a caravan of miscreants, as he called 
them, that is to say, Christians; and that they had 
resolved to burn the god Schal-Isar, belonging to 
the Tongueses. 

As this fellow was himself a mere Tartar, and 
perfectly spoke their language, he counterfeited so 
well that they all took it from him, and away they 
drove in a most violent hurry to Siheilka, which, 
it seems, was five days' journey to the north ; and 
in less than three hours they were entirely out of 
our sight, and we never heard any more of them, 
nor whether they went to Siheilka or no. So we 
passed away safely on to Jarawena, where there 
was a garrison of Muscovites, and there we rested 
five days, the caravan being exceedingly fatigued 
with the last day's hard march, and with want of 
rest in the night. 

From this city we had a frightful desert, which 
held us twenty-three days' march. We furnished 
ourselves with some tents here, for the better 
accommodating ourselves in the night; and the 
leader of the caravan procured sixteen carriages, or 
waggons of the country for carrying our water or 
provisions; and these carriages were our defence, 
every night, round our little camp ; so that had 
the Tartars appeared, unless they had been very 
numerous indeed, they would not have been able 
to hurt us. 

We may well be supposed to want rest again 


after this long journey : for in this desert we neither 
saw house nor tree, and scarce a bush ; though we 
saw abundance of the sable-hunters, who are all 
Tartars of the Mogul Tartary, of which this 
country is a part ; and they frequently attack small 
caravans, but we saw no numbers of them together. 

After we had passed this desert, we came into a 
country pretty well inhabited ; that is to say, we 
found towns and castles, settled by the Czar of 
Muscovy, with garrisons of stationary soldiers, to 
protect the caravans, and defend the country against 
the Tartars, who would otherwise make it very 
dangerous travelling ; and his czarish majesty has 
given such strict orders for the well guarding the 
caravans and merchants that, if there are any Tar- 
tars heard of in the country, detachments of the 
garrisons are always sent to see the travellers safe 
from station to station. And thus the Governor of 
Adinskoy, whom I had an opportunity to make a 
visit to, by means of the Scots merchant, who was 
acquainted with him, offered us a guard of fifty 
men, if we thought there was any danger, to the 
next station. 

I thought, long before this, that as we came nearer 
to Europe we should find the country better in- 
habited, and the people more civilized ; but I 
found myself mistaken in both : for we had yet the 
nation of the Tongueses to pass through, where 
we saw the same tokens of paganism and barbarity 
as before ; only, as they were conquered by the 
Muscovites, they were not so dangerous ; but for 


rudeness of manners, and idolatry, no people in 
the world ever went beyond them : they are clothed 
all in skins of beasts, and their houses are built of 
the same ; you know not a man from a woman, 
neither by the ruggedness of their countenances 
nor their clothes ; and in the winter, when the 
ground is covered with snow, they live underground 
in vaults, which have cavities going from one to 

If the Tartars had their Cham Chi-Thaungu 
for a whole village or country, these had idols in 
every hut and every cave: besides, they worship the 
stars, the sun, the water, the snow, and, in a word, 
everything they do not understand, and they un- 
derstand but very little; so that every element, 
every uncommon thing, sets them a-sacrificing. I 
met with nothing peculiar to myself in all this 
country, which I reckon was, from the desert I 
spoke of last, at least four hundred miles, half of 
it being another desert, which took us up twelve 
days* severe travelling, without house or tree ; and 
we were obliged again to carry our own provisions, 
as well water as bread. After we were out of this 
desert, and had travelled two days, we came to 
Janezay, a Muscovite city or station on the great 
river Janezay (Yenisey), which, they told us there, 
parted Europe from Asia. 

Here I observed ignorance and paganism still 
prevailed, except in the Muscovite garrisons ; all 
the country between the river Oby and the river 
Janezay is as entirely pagan, and the people as 


barbarous, as the remotest of the Tartars ; nay, as 
any nation, for aught I know, in Asia or America. 
I also found, which I observed to the Muscovite 
governors whom I had an opportunity to converse 
with, that the poor pagans are not much wiser, or 
nearer Christianity, for being under the Muscovite 
government ; which they acknowledged was true 
enough : but that, as they said, was none of their 
business : that if the Czar expected to convert his 
Siberian, Tonguese, or Tartar subjects, it should 
be done by sending clergymen among them, not 
soldiers : and, they added, with more sincerity than 
I expected, that they found it was not so much 
the concern of their monarch to make the people 
Christians as it was to make them subjects. 

From this river to the great river Oby we 
crossed a wild uncultivated country, barren of 
people and good management; otherwise it is in 
itself a most pleasant, fruitful, and agreeable coun- 
try. What inhabitants we found in it are all pagans, 
except such as are sent among them from Russia : 
for this is the country, I mean on both sides the 
river Oby, whither the Muscovite criminals that 
are not put to death are banished, and from whence 
it is next to impossible they should ever come away. 

I have nothing material to say of my particular 
affairs till I came to Tobolski, the capital city of 
Siberia, where I continued some time on the fol- 
lowing occasion. 

We had now been almost seven months on our 
journey, and winter began to come on apace; 


whereupon my partner and I called a council about 
our particular affairs, in which we found it pro- 
per, as we were bound for England, and not for 
Moscow, to consider how to dispose of our- 
selves. They told us of sledges and reindeer to 
carry us over the snow in the winter-time ; and, 
indeed, they have such things that it would be in- 
credible to relate the particulars of, by which means 
the Russians travel more in the winter than they 
can in summer, as in these sledges they are able to 
run night and day: the snow, being frozen, is one 
universal covering to nature, by which the hills, 
vales, rivers, and lakes are all smooth and hard as 
a stone, and they run upon the surface, without 
any regard to what is underneath. 

But I had no occasion to push at a winter jour- 
ney of this kind ; I was bound to England, not to 
Moscow, and my route lay two ways : either I must 
go on as the caravan went, till I came to Jaroslaw, 
and then go off west for Narva, and the Gulf of 
Finland, and so to Dantzic, where I might possibly 
sell my China cargo to good advantage ; or I must 
leave the caravan at a little town on the Dwina, 
from whence I had but six days by water to Arch- 
angel, and from thence might be sure of shipping 
either to England, Holland, or Hamburgh. 

Now, to go any of these journeys in the winter 
would have been preposterous : for as to Dantzic, 
the Baltic would have been frozen up, and I could 
not get passage ; and to go by land in those coun- 
tries was far less safe than among the Mogul Tar- 


tars : likewise, to go to Archangel in October, all 
the ships would be gone from thence, and even the 
merchants who dwell there in summer retire south 
to Moscow in the winter, when the ships are gone; 
so that I could have nothing but extremity of cold 
to encounter, with a scarcity of provisions, and must 
lie in an empty town all the winter: so that, upon 
the whole, I thought it much my better way to let 
the caravan go, and make provision to winter 
where I was, at Tobolski, in Siberia, in the lati- 
tude of about sixty degrees, where I was sure of 
three things to wear out a cold winter with, viz., 
plenty of provisions, such as the country afforded, 
a warm house, with fuel enough, and excellent 

I was now in a quite different climate from my 
beloved island, where I never felt cold, except when 
I had my ague; on the contrary, I had much to do 
to bear any clothes on my back, and never made any 
fire but without-doors, which was necessary for 
dressing my food, etc. Now I made me three good 
vests, with large robes or gowns over them, to hang 
down to the feet, and button close to the wrists; 
and all these lined with furs, to make them suf- 
ficiently warm. 

As to a warm house, I must confess I greatly dis- 
liked our way in England of making fires in every 
room in the house in open chimneys, which, when 
the fire was out, always kept the air in the room 
cold as the climate ; but taking an apartment in a 
good house in the town, I ordered a chimney to 


be built like a furnace, in the centre of six several 
rooms, like a stove ; the funnel to carry the smoke 
went up one way, the door to come at the fire went 
in another, and all the rooms were kept equally 
warm, but no fire seen, just as they heat the 
bagnios in England. By this means, we had always 
the same climate in all the rooms, and an equal 
heat was preserved ; and how cold soever it was with- 
out, it was always warm within : and yet we saw no 
fire, nor were ever incommoded with smoke. 

The most wonderful thing of all was that it 
should be possible to meet with good company here, 
in a country so barbarous as that of the most north- 
erly parts of Europe, near the frozen ocean, with- 
in but a very few degrees of Nova Zembla. But 
this being the country where the state criminals of 
Muscovy, as I observed before, are all banished, 
this city was full of noblemen, gentlemen, soldiers, 
and courtiers of Muscovy. Here was the famous 
Prince Gallitzen, the old General Robostiski, and 
several other persons of note, and some ladies. By 
means of my Scots merchant, whom, nevertheless, 
I parted with here, I made an acquaintance with 
several of these gentlemen ; and from these, in the 
long winter nights in which I stayed here, I received 
several very agreeable visits. 

It was talking one night with Prince , one 

of the banished ministers of state belonging to 
the Czar of Muscovy, that the discourse of my 
particular case began. He had been telling me 
abundance of fine things of the greatness, the mag- 


nificence, the dominions, and the absolute power 
of the Emperor of the Russians: I interrupted him, 
and told him I was a greater and more powerful 
prince than even the Czar of Muscovy was, though 
my dominions were not so large, or my people so 
many. The Russian grandee looked a little sur- 
prised, and, fixing his eyes steadily upon me, be- 
gan to wonder what I meant. I told him his won- 
der would cease when I had explained myself. First, 
I told him I had absolute disposal of the lives and 
fortunes of all my subjects; that, notwithstanding 
my absolute power, I had not one person disaf- 
fected to my government, or to my person, in all 
my dominions. He shook his head at that, and 
said there, indeed, I outdid the Czar of Muscovy. 
I told him that all the lands in my kingdom were 
my own, and all my subjects were not only my 
tenants, but tenants at will; that they would all 
fight for me to the last drop ; and that never 
tyrant, for such I acknowledged myself to be, was 
ever so universally beloved, and yet so horribly 
feared by his subjects. 

After amusing him with these riddles in govern- 
ment for a while, I opened the case, and told him 
the story at large of my living in the island ; and 
how I managed both myself and the people that 
were under me, just as I have since minuted it 
down. They were exceedingly taken with the story, 
and especially the prince, who told me, with a sigh, 
that the true greatness of life was to be masters of 
ourselves; that he would not have exchanged such 


a state of life as mine to be Czar of Muscovy ; and 
that he found more felicity in the retirement he 
seemed to be banished to there than ever he found 
in the highest authority he enjoyed in the court 
of his master the Czar; that the height of human 
wisdom was to bring our tempers down to our cir- 
cumstances, and to make a calm within, under the 
weight of the greatest storms without. When he 
came first hither, he said he used to tear the hair 
from his head, and the clothes from his back, as 
others had done before him; but a little time and 
consideration had made him look into himself, as 
well as round him, to things without : that he found 
the mind of man, if it was but once brought to 
reflect upon the state of universal life, and how 
little this world was concerned in its true felicity, 
was perfectly capable of making a felicity for itself 
fully satisfying to itself, and suitable to its own 
best ends and desires, with but very little assistance 
from the world. The air to breathe in, food to sus- 
tain life, clothes for warmth, and liberty for exer- 
cise, in order to health, completed, in his opinion, 
all that the world could do for us ; and though the 
greatness, the authority, the riches, and the pleas- 
ures which some enjoyed in the world had much 
in them that was agreeable to us, yet all those 
things chiefly gratified the coarsest of our affections, 
such as our ambition, our particular pride, avarice, 
vanity, and sensuality ; all which, being the mere 
product of the worst part of man, were in themselves 
crimes, and had in them the seeds of all manner 


of crimes; but neither were related to, nor con- 
cerned with, any of those virtues that constituted 
us wise men, or of those graces that distinguished 
us as Christians ; that being now deprived of all the 
fancied felicity which he enjoyed in the full exer- 
cise of all those vices, he said he was at leisure to 
look upon the dark side of them, where he found all 
manner of deformity, and was now convinced that 
virtue only makes a man truly wise, rich, and great, 
and preserves him in the way to a superior happi- 
ness in a future state; and in this, he said, they 
were more happy in their banishment than all their 
enemies were, who had the full possession of all 
the wealth and power they had left behind them. 
" Nor, sir," says he, "do I bring my mind to this 
politically, by the necessity of my circumstances, 
which some call miserable; but, if I know anything 
of myself, I would not now go back, though the 
Czar my master should call me, and reinstate me 
in all my former grandeur : I say, I would no 
more go back to it than I believe my soul, when 
it shall be delivered from this prison of the body, 
and has had a taste of the glorious state beyond 
life, would come back to the gaol of flesh and 
blood it is now enclosed in, and leave heaven, to 
deal in the dirt and crime of human affairs." 

He spoke this with so much warmth in his tem- 
per, so much earnestness and motion of his spirits, 
that it was evident it was the true sense of his soul ; 
there was no room to doubt his sincerity. I told 
him I once thought myself a kind of monarch in 


my old station, of which I had given him an ac- 
count ; but that I thought he was not only a mon- 
arch, but a great conqueror; for that he that has got 
a victory over his own exorbitant desires, and the 
absolute dominion over himself, whose reason en- 
tirely governs his will, is certainly greater than he 
that conquers a city. " But, my lord," said I, " shall 
I take the liberty to ask you a question ? " "With 
all my heart," says he. " If the door of your lib- 
erty was opened," said I, "would you not take hold 
of it to deliver you from this exile? " "Hold," said 
he, " your question is subtile, and requires some se- 
rious, just distinctions, to give it a sincere answer ; 
and I will give it you from the bottom of my heart. 
Nothing that I know of in this world would move 
me to deliver myself from this state of banishment, 
except these two : first, the enjoyment of my rela- 
tions; and, secondly, a little warmer climate: but I 
protest to you that to go back to the pomp of the 
court, the glory, the power, the hurry of a minister 
of state ; the wealth, the gaiety, and the pleasures 
of a courtier ; if my master should send me word 
this moment that he restores me to all he banished 
me from, I protest, if I know myself at all, I would 
not leave this wilderness, these deserts, and these 
frozen lakes, for the palace at Moscow." " But, my 
lord," said I," perhaps you not only are banished 
from the pleasures of the court, and from the power, 
authority, and wealth you enjoyed before, but you 
may me absent too from some of the conveniences 
of life : your estate, perhaps, confiscated, and your 


effects plundered ; and the supplies left you here 
may not be suitable to the ordinary demands of 
life." fC Aye," says he, "that is as you suppose me 
to be a lord or a prince, etc. ; so, indeed, I am ; but 
you are now to consider me only as a man, a hu- 
man creature, not at all distinguished from another; 
and so I can suffer no want, unless I should be vis- 
ited with sickness and distempers. However, to put 
the question out of dispute, you see our manner: 
we are, in this place, five persons of rank ; we live 
perfectly retired, as suited to a state of banishment ; 
we have something rescued from the shipwreck of 
our fortunes, which keeps us from the mere neces- 
sity of hunting for food ; but the poor soldiers, who 
are here without that help, live in as much plenty 
as we, who go into the woods and catch sables and 
foxes : the labour of a month will maintain them a 
year ; and, as the way of living is not expensive, so 
it is not hard to get sufficient to ourselves. So that 
objection is out of doors. " 

I have not room to give a full account of the 
most agreeable conversation I had with this truly 
great man ; in all which he showed that his mind was 
so inspired with a superior knowledge of things, so 
supported by religion, as well as by a vast share of 
wisdom, that his contempt of the world was really as 
much as he had expressed, and that he was always 
the same to the last, as will appear in the story I 
am going to tell. 

I had been here eight months, and a dark, dread- 
ful winter I thought it ; the cold so intense that I 


could not so much as look abroad without being 
wrapped in furs, and a mask of fur before my face, 
or rather a hood, with only a hole for breath, and 
two for sight ; the little daylight we had was, as we 
reckoned, for three months, not above five hours 
a day, and six at most ; only that the snow lying 
on the ground continually, and the weather clear, 
it was never quite dark. Our horses were kept, or 
rather starved, underground, and as for our serv- 
ants, whom we hired here to look after ourselves 
and horses, we had, every now and then, their fin- 
gers and toes to thaw and take care of, lest they 
should mortify and fall off. 

It is true, wi thin-doors we were warm, the houses 
being close, the walls thick, the lights small, and 
the glass all double. Our food was chiefly the flesh 
of deer, dried and cured in the season ; bread good 
enough, but baked as biscuits; dried fish of several 
sorts, and some flesh of mutton and of the buffaloes, 
which is pretty good meat. All the stores of pro- 
visions for the winter are laid up in the summer, 
and well cured: our drink was water, mixed with 
aqua vitae instead of brandy ; and for a treat, mead 
instead of wine, which, however, they have excel- 
lent good. The hunters, who venture abroad all 
weathers, frequently brought us in fine venison, 
and sometimes bear's flesh, but we did not much 
care for the last. We had a good stock of tea, with 
which we treated our friends, as above, and we lived 
very cheerfully and well, all things considered. 

It was now March, the days grown considerably 


longer, and the weather at least tolerable; so the 
other travellers began to prepare sledges to carry 
them over the snow, and to get things ready to be 
going: but my measures being fixed, as I have said, 
for Archangel, and not for Muscovy or the Baltic, 
I made no motion; knowing very well that the 
ships from the south do not set out for that part 
of the world till May or June, and that if I was 
there by the beginning of August, it would be as 
soon as any ships would be ready to go away ; and 
therefore I made no haste to be gone, as others did : 
in a word, I saw a great many people, nay, all the 
travellers, go away before me. It seems, every year 
they go from thence to Muscovy for trade, viz., 
to carry furs, and buy necessaries, which they bring 
back with them to furnish their shops : also others 
went on the same errand to Archangel; but then 
they all being to come back again, above eight 
hundred miles, went all out before me. 

In the month of May I began to make all ready 
to pack up; and, as I was doing this, it occurred to 
me that, seeing all these people were banished by 
the Czar of Muscovy to Siberia, and yet, when 
they came there, were left at liberty to go whither 
they would, why they did not then go away to 
any part of the world, wherever they thought fit; 
and I began to examine what should hinder them 
from making such an attempt. But my wonder was 
over when I entered upon that subject with the 
person I have mentioned, who answered me thus: 
"Consider, first, sir," said he, "the place where we 


are; and, secondly, the condition we are in: espe- 
cially the generality of the people who are banished 
hither. We are surrounded with stronger things 
than bars or bolts : on the north side an unnavi- 
gable ocean, where ship never sailed, and boat never 
swam ; every other way, we have about a thousand 
miles to pass through the Czar's own dominions, 
and by ways utterly impassable, except by the roads 
made by the government and through the towns 
garrisoned by his troops : so that he could neither 
pass undiscovered by the road, nor subsist any other 
way : so that it is in vain to attempt it." 

I was silenced, indeed, at once, and found that 
they were in a prison every jot as secure as if they 
had been locked up in the castle at Moscow; how- 
ever, it came into my thoughts that I might certainly 
be made an instrument to procure the escape of 
this excellent person ; and that, whatever hazard I 
ran, I would certainly try if I could carry him off. 
Upon this I took an occasion, one evening, to tell 
him my thoughts. I represented to him that it was 
very easy for me to carry him away, there being 
no guard over him in the country; and as I was 
not going to Moscow, but to Archangel, and that 
I went in the retinue of a caravan, by which I was 
not obliged to lie in the stationary towns in the 
desert but could encamp every night where I would, 
we might easily pass uninterrupted to Archangel, 
where I would immediately secure him on board 
an English ship, and carry him safe along with me; 
and as to his subsistence, and other particulars, it 


should be my care, till he could better supply him- 

He heard me very attentively, and looked 
earnestly on me all the while I spoke; nay, I could 
see in his very face that what I said put his spirits 
into an exceeding ferment: his colour frequently 
changed, his eyes looked red, and his heart fluttered, 
that it might be even perceived in his countenance; 
nor could he immediately answer me when I had 
done, and as it were hesitated what he would say 
to it; but after he had paused a little, he embraced 
me, and said, "How unhappy are we, unguarded 
creatures as we are, that even our greatest acts of 
friendship are made snares unto us, and we are 
made tempters of one another! My dear friend,'' 
said he, "your offer is so sincere, has such kind- 
ness in it, is so disinterested in itself, and is so cal- 
culated for my advantage, that I must have very 
little knowledge of the world if I did not both 
wonder at it, and acknowledge the obligation I 
have upon me to you for it. But did you believe 
I was sincere in what I have often said to you of 
my contempt of the world? Did you believe I spoke 
my very soul to you, and that I had really obtained 
that degree of felicity here that had placed me 
above all that the world could give me? Did you 
believe I was sincere when I told you I would not 
go back, if I was recalled even to be all that I once 
was in the court, with the favour of the Czar my 
master? Did you believe me, my friend, to be an 
honest man; or did you believe me to be a boast- 


ing hypocrite?" Here he stopped, as if he would 
hear what I would say; but, indeed, I soon after 
perceived that he stopped because his spirits were 
in motion, his great heart was full of struggles, and 
he could not go on. I was, I confess, astonished 
at the thing as well as at the man, and I used some 
arguments with him to urge him to set himself 
free; that he ought to look upon this as a door 
opened by Heaven for his deliverance, and a sum- 
mons by Providence, who has the care and dis- 
position of all events, to do himself good, and to 
render himself useful in the world. 

He had by this time recovered himself: "How 
do you know, sir," says he, warmly, " but that, 
instead of a summons from Heaven, it may be a 
feint of another instrument ; representing in allur- 
ing colours to me the show of felicity as a deliver- 
ance, which may in itself be my snare, and tend 
directly to my ruin? Here I am free from the 
temptation of returning to my former miserable 
greatness ; there I am not sure but that all the 
seeds of pride, ambition, avarice, and luxury, which 
I know remain in nature, may revive and take 
root, and, in a word, again overwhelm me ; and 
then the happy prisoner, whom you see now mas- 
ter of his soul's liberty, shall be the miserable slave 
of his own senses, in the full of all personal liberty. 
Dear sir, let me remain in this blessed confine- 
ment, banished from the crimes of life, rather than 
purchase a show of freedom at the expense of the 
liberty of my reason, and at the expense of the 


future happiness which I now have in my view, 
but shall then, I fear, quickly lose sight of: for 
I am but flesh; a man, a mere man; have passions 
and affections as likely to possess and overthrow 
me as any man : O be not my friend and tempter 
both together ! " 

If I was surprised before, I was quite dumb now, 
and stood silent, looking at him, and, indeed, ad- 
miring what I saw. The struggle in his soul was 
so great, that though the weather was extremely 
cold, it put him into a most violent sweat, and I 
found he wanted to give vent to his mind ; so I 
said a word or two, that I would leave him to con- 
sider of it, and wait on him again, and then I with- 
drew to my own apartment. 

About two hours after, I heard somebody at or 
near the door of my room, and I was going to 
open the door, but he had opened it, and came in. 
" My dear friend," he says, " you had almost over- 
set me, but I am recovered. Do not take it ill 
that I do not close with your offer ; I assure you 
it is not for want of sense of the kindness of it in 
you ; and I came to make the most sincere ac- 
knowledgment of it to you ; but I hope I have 
got the victory over myself." "My lord," said I, 
" I hope you are fully satisfied that you do not 
resist k the call of Heaven." "Sir," said he, "if it 
had been from Heaven, the same power would 
have influenced me to have accepted it : but I hope, 
and am fully satisfied, that it is from Heaven that 
I declined it ; and I have infinite satisfaction in the 


parting, that you shall leave me an honest man 
still, though not a free man." 

I had nothing to do but to acquiesce, and make 
professions to him of my having no end in it but 
a sincere desire to serve him. He embraced me 
very passionately, and assured me he was sensible 
of that, and should always acknowledge it ; and 
with that he offered me a very fine present of 
sables, too much, indeed, for me to accept from a 
man in his circumstances, and I would have avoided 
them, but he would not be refused. 

The next morning I sent my servant to his 
lordship with a small present of tea, and two pieces 
of China damask, and four little wedges of Japan 
gold, which did not all weigh above six ounces or 
thereabout, but were far short of the value of his 
sables, which, when I came to England, I found 
worth near two hundred pounds. He accepted the 
tea, and one piece of the damask, and one of the 
pieces of gold, which had a fine stamp upon it, of 
the Japan coinage, which I found he took for the 
rarity of it, but would not take any more ; and he 
sent word by my servant that he desired to speak 
with me. 

When I came to him, he told me I knew what 
had passed between us, and hoped I would not 
move him any more in that affair ; but that, since 
I had made such a generous offer to him, he asked 
me if I had kindness enough to offer the same to 
another person that he would name to me, in whom 
he had a great share of concern. I told him that 


I could not say I inclined to do so much for any 
but himself, for whom I had a particular value, 
and should have been glad to have been the in- 
strument of his deliverance ; however, if he would 
please to name the person to me, I would give 
him my answer. He told me it was his only son ; 
who, though I had not seen him, yet he was in 
the same condition with himself, and above two 
hundred miles from him, on the other side the 
Oby ; but that, if I consented, he would send for 

I made no hesitation, but told him I would do 
it. I made some ceremony in letting him under- 
stand that it was wholly on his account ; and that 
seeing I could not prevail on him, I would show 
my respect to him by my concern for his son : but 
these things are too tedious to repeat here. He 
sent away the next day for his son ; and in about 
twenty days he came back with the messenger, 
bringing six or seven horses loaded with very rich 
furs, and which, in the whole, amounted to a very 
great value. His servants brought the horses into 
the town, but left the young lord at a distance till 
night, when he came incognito into our apartment, 
and his father presented him to me, and, in short, 
we concerted the manner of our travelling, and 
everything proper for the journey. 

I had bought a considerable quantity of sables, 
black fox-skins, fine ermines, and such other furs 
as are very rich, in that city, in exchange for some 
of the goods I had brought from China : in par- 


ticular for the cloves and nutmegs, of which I sold 
the greatest part here, and the rest afterward at 
Archangel, for a much better price than I could 
have got at London; and my partner, who was 
sensible of the profit, and whose business more 
particularly than mine was merchandise, was might- 
ily pleased with our stay, on account of the traffic 
we made here. 

It was the beginning of June when I left this 
remote place, a city, I believe, little heard of in the 
world ; and, indeed, it is so far out of the road of 
commerce that I know not how it should be much 
talked of. We were now reduced to a very small 
caravan, having only thirty-two horses and camels 
in all, and all of them passed for mine, though my 
new guest was proprietor of eleven of them : it was 
most natural also that I should take more servants 
with me than I had before ; and the young lord 
passed for my steward : what great man I passed 
for myself I know not, neither did it concern me 
to inquire. We had here the worst and the largest 
desert to pass over that we met with in our whole 
journey ; I call it the worst, because the way was 
very deep in some places, and very uneven in 
others ; the best we had to say for it was that we 
thought we had no troops of Tartars or robbers to 
fear, and that they never came on this side the 
river Oby, or at least but very seldom ; but we 
found it otherwise. 

My young lord had a faithful Muscovite, or 
rather a Siberian servant, who was perfectly ac- 


quainted with the country, and led us by private 
roads, so that we avoided coming into the princi- 
pal towns and cities upon the great road, such as 
Tumen, Soloy Kamskoi, and several others ; be- 
cause the Muscovite garrisons which are kept there 
are very curious and strict in their observation 
upon travellers, and searching lest any of the ban- 
ished persons of note should make their escape 
that way into Muscovy. But by this means, as we 
were kept out of the cities, so our whole journey 
was a desert, and we were obliged to encamp and 
lie in our tents, when we might have had very good 
accommodation in the cities on the way : this the 
young lord was so sensible of that he would not 
allow us to lie abroad when we came to several 
cities on the way, but lay abroad himself, with his 
servant, in the woods, and met us always at the 
appointed places. 

We were just entered Europe, having passed the 
river Kama, which in these parts is the boundary 
between Europe and Asia, and the first city on the 
European side was called Soloy Kamskoi, which is 
as much as to say, the great city on the river Kama; 
and here we thought to see some evident alteration 
in the people ; but we were mistaken : for as we 
had a vast desert to pass, which is near seven hun- 
dred miles long in some places, but not above two 
hundred miles over where we passed it, so, till we 
came past that horrible place, we found very little 
difference between that country and the Mogul 
Tartary : the people are mostly pagans, and little 


better than the savages of America ; their houses 
and towns full of idols, and their way of living 
wholly barbarous, except in the cities, as above, 
and the villages near them, where they are Christ- 
ians, as they call themselves, of the Greek Church; 
but have their religion mingled with so many relics 
of superstition that it is scarce to be known in some 
places from mere sorcery and witchcraft. 

In passing this forest, I thought, indeed, we 
must (after all our dangers were to our imagina- 
tion escaped, as before) have been plundered and 
robbed, and perhaps murdered, by a troop of 
thieves : of what country they were I am yet at a 
loss to know, but they were all on horseback, car- 
ried bows and arrows, and were at first about forty- 
five in number : they came so near to us as to be 
within two musket-shots, and asking no questions, 
surrounded us with their horses, and looked very 
earnestly upon us twice : at length they placed 
themselves just in our way ; upon which we drew 
up in a little line, before our camels, being not 
above sixteen men in all ; and being drawn up thus, 
we halted, and sent out the Siberian servant, who 
attended his lord, to see who they were : his mas- 
ter was the more willing to let him go, because he 
was not a little apprehensive that they were a Sibe- 
rian troop sent out after him. The man came up 
near them with a flag of truce, and called to 
them ; but though he spoke several of their lan- 
guages, or dialects of languages rather, he could 
not understand a word they said : however, after 


some signs to him not to come nearer to them, at 
his peril, the fellow came back no wiser than he 
went : only that by their dress, he said, he believed 
them to be some Tartars of Kalmuck, or of the 
Circassian hordes, and that there must be more of 
them upon the great desert, though he had never 
heard that any of them were seen so far north 

About an hour after, they again made a motion 
to attack us, and rode round our little wood to see 
where they might break in ; but finding us always 
ready to face them, they went off again ; and we 
resolved not to stir for that night. 

This was small comfort to us ; however, we had 
no remedy : there was on our left hand, at about 
a quarter of a mile distance, a little grove, and very 
near the road ; I immediately resolved we should 
advance to those trees, and fortify ourselves as well 
as we could there : for, first, I considered that the 
trees would in a great measure cover us from their 
arrows ; and, in the next place, they could not come 
to charge us in a body : it was, indeed, my old 
Portuguese pilot who proposed it, and who had 
this excellency attending him, that he was always 
readiest and most apt to direct and encourage us 
in cases of the most danger. We advanced imme- 
diately, with what speed we could, and gained that 
little wood ; the Tartars, or thieves, for we knew 
not what to call them, keeping their stand, and not 
attempting to hinder us. When we came thither, 
we found, to our great satisfaction, that it was a 


swampy piece of ground, and on the one side a very 
great spring of water, which, running out in a little 
brook, was, a little farther, joined by another of 
the like size ; and was, in short, the source of a 
considerable river, called afterwards the Wirtska : 
the trees which grew about this spring were not 
above two hundred, but very large, and stood 
pretty thick, so that as soon as we got in we saw 
ourselves perfectly safe from the enemy, unless 
they attacked us on foot. 

While we stayed here waiting the motion of the 
enemy some hours, without perceiving they made 
any movement, our Portuguese, with some help, 
cut several arms of trees half off, and laid them 
hanging across from one tree to another, and in a 
manner fenced us in. About two hours before 
night they came down directly upon us : and though 
we had not perceived it, we found they had been 
joined by some more of the same, so that they were 
near fourscore horse ; whereof, however, we fancied 
some were women. They came on till they were 
within half-shot of our little wood, when we fired 
one musket without ball, and called to them in the 
Russian tongue to know what they wanted, and 
bade them keep off: but they came on with a 
double fury up to the wood side, not imagining 
we were so barricaded that they could not easily 
break in. Our old pilot was our captain, as well as 
our engineer, and desired us not to fire upon them 
till they came within pistol-shot, that we might be 
sure to kill ; and that when we did fire, we should 


be sure to take good aim : we bade him give the 
word of command, which he delayed so long that 
they were some of them within two pikes' length 
of us when we let fly. We aimed so true that we 
killed fourteen of them, and wounded several 
others, as also several of their horses ; for we had 
all of us loaded our pieces with two or three bul- 
lets at least. 

They were terribly surprised with our fire, and 
retreated immediately about one hundred rods from 
us, in which time we loaded our pieces again, and 
seeing them keep that distance, we sallied out, and 
catched four or five of their horses, whose riders 
we supposed were killed: and coming up to the 
dead, we judged they were Tartars, but knew not 
how they came to make an excursion of such an 
unusual length. 

We slept little, you may be sure, but spent the 
most part of the night in strengthening our situa- 
tion, and barricading the entrances into the wood, 
and keeping a strict watch. We waited for day- 
light, and when it came, it gave us a very unwel- 
come discovery, indeed : for the enemy, who we 
thought were discouraged with the reception they 
met with, were now greatly increased, and had set 
up eleven or twelve huts or tents, as if they were 
resolved to besiege us: and this little camp they 
had pitched upon the open plain, about three quar- 
ters of a mile from us. We were, indeed, surprised 
at this discovery; and now, I confess, I gave my- 
self over for lost, and all that I had; the loss of 


my effects did not lie so near me, though very con- 
siderable, as the thoughts of falling into the hands 
of such barbarians, at the latter end of my journey, 
after so many difficulties and hazards as I had gone 
through, and even in sight of our port, where we 
expected safety and deliverance. As to my partner, 
he was raging, and declared that to lose his goods 
would be his ruin, and that he would rather die 
than be starved; and he was for fighting to the 
last drop. 

The young lord, as gallant as ever flesh showed 
itself, was for fighting to the last also ; and my old 
pilot was of the opinion that we were able to resist 
them all in the situation we were then in ; and thus 
we spent the day in debates of what we should do. 
But towards evening we found that the number 
of our enemies still increased, and we did not know 
but by the morning they might be a still greater 
number: so I began to inquire of those people 
we had brought from Tobolski, if there were no 
private ways, by which we might avoid them in 
the night, and perhaps retreat to some town, or get 
help to guard us over the desert. The Siberian, 
who was servant to the young lord, told us if we 
designed to avoid them, and not fight, he would 
engage to carry us off in the night, to a way that 
went north, towards the river Petrou, by which he 
made no question but we might get away, and the 
Tartars never the wiser : but, he said, his lord had 
told him he would not retreat, but would rather 
choose to fight. I told him he mistook his lord; for 


that he was too wise a man to love fighting for the 
sake of it; and that I knew his lord was brave 
enough, by what he had showed already; but that 
his lord knew better than to desire seventeen or 
eighteen men to fight five hundred, unless an un- 
avoidable necessity forced them to it; and that, if 
he thought it possible for us to escape in the night, 
we had nothing else to do but to attempt it. He 
answered, if his lordship gave him such orders he 
would lose his life if he did not perform it: we 
soon brought his lord to give that order, though 
privately, and we immediately prepared for the 
putting it in practice. 

And, first, as soon as it began to be dark, we 
kindled a fire in our little camp, which we kept 
burning, and prepared so as to make it burn all 
night, that the Tartars might conclude we were 
still there ; but as soon as it was dark, and we could 
see the stars (for our guide would not stir before), 
having all our horses and camels ready loaded, we 
followed our new guide, who I soon found steered 
himself by the North Star. 

After we had travelled two hours very hard, it 
began to be lighter still; not that it was quite dark 
all night, but the moon began to rise, so that, in 
short, it was rather lighter than we wished it to be; 
but by six o'clock the next morning we were got 
above thirty miles, having almost spoiled our 
horses. Here we found a Russian village, named 
Kermazinskoy, where we rested, and heard no- 
thing of the Kalmuck Tartars that day. About 


two hours before night we set out again, and trav- 
elled till eight the next morning, though not quite 
so hard as before; and about seven o'clock we 
passed a little river, called Kirtza, and came to a 
good large town inhabited by Russians, called 
Ozomoys: there we heard that several troops of 
Kalmucks had been abroad upon the desert, but 
that we were now completely out of danger of 
them, which was to our great satisfaction. Here we 
were obliged to get some fresh horses ; and having 
need enough of rest, we stayed five days; and my 
partner and I agreed to give the honest Siberian 
who brought us thither the value of ten pistoles. 
In five days more we came to Veuslima, upon 
the river Wirtzogda, and running into the Dwina : 
we were there, very happily, near the end of our 
travels by land, that river being navigable, in seven 
days' passage, to Archangel. From hence we came 
to Lawrenskoy the 3d of July; and providing our- 
selves with two luggage boats, and a barge for our 
own convenience, we embarked the 7th, and ar- 
rived all safe at Archangel the 18th; having been 
a year, five months, and three days on the jour- 
ney, including our stay of eight months at Tobol- 
ski. We were obliged to stay at this place six 
weeks for the arrival of the ships, and must have 
tarried longer had not a Hamburgher come inabove 
a month sooner than any of the English ships: 
when, after some consideration that the city of 
Hamburgh might happen to be as good a market 
for our goods as London, we all took freight with 


him ; and, having put our goods on board, it was 
most natural for me to put my steward on board 
to take care of them : by which means my young 
lord had a sufficient opportunity to conceal him- 
self, never coming on shore again all the time we 
stayed there; and this he did that he might not be 
seen in the city, where some of the Moscow mer- 
chants would certainly have seen and discovered 

We then set sail from Archangel the 20th of 
August, the same year; and after no extraordinary 
bad voyage, arrived safe in the Elbe the 18th of 
September. Here my partner and I found a very 
good sale for our goods, as well those of China 
as the sables, etc., of Siberia; and dividing the 
produce, my share amounted to three thousand 
four hundred and seventy-five pounds seventeen 
shillings and threepence, including about six hun- 
dredpounds' worth of diamonds which I purchased 
at Bengal. 

Here the young lord took his leave of us, and 
went up the Elbe, in order to go to the Court of 
Vienna, where he resolved to seek protection, and 
could correspond with those of his father's friends 
who were left alive. He did not part without tes- 
timonies of gratitude for the service I had done 
him, and his sense of my kindness to the Prince 
his father. 

To conclude, having stayed near four months 
in Hamburgh, I came from thence by land to The 
Hague, where I embarked in the packet, and ar- 


rived in London the 10th of January, 1 705, having 
been absent from England ten years and nine 
months. And here I resolved to prepare for a 
longer journey than all these, having lived a life 
of infinite variety seventy-two years, and learned 
sufficiently to know the value of retirement, and 
the blessing of ending our days in peace. 



NO. 7?