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I ^92 — 1 6^:?;6 — 1 677 — 1 687 

With a genealogy of Samuel Gorton's descendants to the present time 

Compiled from various accounts, histories, letters, and published and unpublished records 


Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the New York Genealogical and Bio 
irraphical Society, the Rhode Island Historical Society, the American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, etc. Author of "Bible Prophecies," "Symbolic Lanffuasre," " Anti- 
quated Words," "Dictionary of the Bible," "Dictionary of Religious Sects," "Short 
stories," etc. Collaborator with Hampton L. Carson, LL. D., in the preparation of 
"The History of the Supreme Court of the United States." 





Iv/.. •• i(is ffeiiijivec 

MAR 20 1 908 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1907, 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 





That all the principal facts belonging to the history of Samuel Gorton 
and his companions and the affairs with which they were associated, 
that are necessary to an understanding of them and a correct judgment 
regarding them, have never been given, alone, not with others, in one 
unbroken collection, and the desire expressed by many that these truths 
from every source should together shed their light upon these subjects, 
are the reasons above others that have prompted their gathermg and 
issuing in this volume. r ,• 

In this an essay is not intended, nor a discussion of subjects or opin- 
ions, but the setting in their order before the reader the various perti- 
nent accounts and records ; some of which when alone are misleading, 
others which explain the truth with fairness, many of which were 
written to defame the men and decry the measures they upheld, few of 
which were written to extoll them, and many of which, recording but 
events, have long laid unread and unpublished. We have in this fol- 
lowed 'the originals of the writings, quoting in full as many of them 
as were not precluded from this by their great length or the amount of 
their irrelevant matter; then endeavoring to as closely bide their phrase 
as permitted by the required abridgment of them. We have been spar- 
ing with our words of either praise or blame for those who have taken 
part in the transactions; giving rather the facts to show whatever is 
due them. 

While a satisfied dominating people learn late by their experience, 
the student and observer so far transcends them in knowledge that his 
attainments often are, as such, beyond their recognition And, too, from 
the general uncertainty, the reasonable suspicion, and worthy caution 
regarding untried things, the unselfish motives of some men have been 
misunderstood and the wisdom of their efforts unperceived by the peo- 
ple of the times in which they lived. If the members of all religious 
societies were not intolerant towards others who thought differently 
from them, they might, under then the political incitements, have 
become intolerant toward them upon gaining the strength to rule them. 
The weakness and consequent sufferings of some of them helped them 
earlier than others to see the wrong of punishing to correct belief and 
earlier to discern that the remedy was in the separation of Church and 

The records of all the Colonies show that the Providence Colony had 
a larger share of troubles than any other colony ; that the reason for this 
" larger share " was her storming by all the other colonies, that " her 
storming " arose from two inciting conditions. These " inciting con- 
ditions " were — the first, the prospect of the other colonies that her 
lands, located and inhabited without a charter, might be obtained by 
them. The second, the desire of the other colonies that her inhabitants, 
outcasts and refugees now aggrieved and unrestrained accusers, might 
be again brought under their jurisdiction for punishment. 



The records of events in the Providence Colony 3how that the troubles 
there were principally from two sources — one operating from without, 
the other aided from without, but operating from witJ:;in. 

They show that the Providence Colony was founded and upheld and 
the interests of its people served principally by two loyal men, their fol- 
lowers and successors — one by his procuring the place ai'd settling it, 
the other by his defending it, and as a consequence maintainu^'p' it. 
' They show that the Colony was nearly dismembered by the -nternal 
dissensions created principally by two disloyal men, subjects and agents 
of other colonies, their followers and successors ; one by his fraudu- 
lently claiming the lands, the other by his persistently asserting, in . 
opposition to the will of the people, his authority to rule them. 

The greatest of these causes of turbulence was that regarding the 
lands. And for the possession of the lands, really more than for their 
religious opinions, the loyal people and rightful owners of the lands 
were assailed with the then political weapon of vile heresy and otherwise 

During the earlier period of this history the printing press was an 
institution of only the then powerful colony of Massachusetts; and not 
until about one hundred years after was a printing press established 
in the smaller and weaker colony of Providence and Rhode Island — 
unfortunately long after much of the best of the writings of the later 
colony were destroyed and the colonies' history, written by its enemies, 
had been in varied versions published and industriously spread through- 
out the land. Largely from this cause, all the men of those times who 
led in advancing the condition of their fellows in this colony have been 
the subjects of unlimited falsehood and calumny. Although men have, 
at every period since then, been assailed, there have been printing presses 
in every land, and many of them in the accused ones' hands, we 
therefore not left as were the early readers and later readers of this early 
history, dependent for information regarding men upon their enemies' 
accounts of them, but have the utterances of both their enemies and 
friends. However, we rejoice that the odium which rested upon the 
founders of the Providence and Rhode Island Colony as a result of the 
disadvantages related has been by the gradual revelations of truth 

The loyal sons and daughters of the State have ever honored and cher- 
ished, and their posterity will always hold in exalted remembrance, those 
who, by their unselfish love and labors for mankind, wrought out so 
much for us. 

Doctor Lewis George Janes, in a valuable article on Samuel Gorton, 
published in the May, 1898, number of the New England Magazine, 
writes : " The nineteenth century has furnished an Easter morning for 
many of the worthies of our earlier period. Buried beneath the dust of 
centuries, with the stones of prejudice and obliquy sealing the mouths 
of their sepulchres, they have awaited the potent touch of the angel of 
the new historical method to remove the obstructions, tear from their 
forgotten forms the dusty cerements of misunderstanding and neglect 
and reveal to the world the living realities of their self-sacrificing labors 
and the results which are our leading inheritance. 

To most readers, even the ordinary student of history, this work will 
be new and instructive, and, we trust, interesting. A. G. 

Philadelphia, Pa., July i, 1907. 



Time, place and baptism of Gorton in Gorton, England — His education and re- 
ligious training — A clothier in London — Business transactions preparatory to 
leaving for the colonies — His wife Mary daughter of John Maplet — Landing 
with his family in Massachusetts Colony — Laws prohibiting non-new-church- 
men from living in Massachusetts Colony — Banishment of Wheelright, Aspin- 
wall and others from Massachusetts — Gorton and Vassal settle in Plymouth 
Colony — Gorton volunteers in militia raised in response to Massachusetts col- 
onies' call for aid to suppress the Indian invasion — His opposition to the pro- 
posed laws — Important issues of the election — Vassal and others disqualified 
from voting — Prince of Massachusetts Colony made Governor of Plymouth 
Colony — Why the Massachusetts Colony chose Prince for Plymouth's Gov- 
ernor — The Rev. Dr. Chauncey's troubles in Plymouth — The Massachusetts 
methods under Prince adopted — Prince banishes Gorton from Plymouth Col- 
ony — Dissatisfaction of Plymouth people, and therefore fines and disfran- 
chisements — Vassal heads movement for religious toleration — Winslow's de- 
nunciation of Vassal's movement — How justice was administered by Prince at 
Plymouth — Gorton goes to Pocasset Aquidneck Island. 


The settlement of Pocasset Aquidneck Island — Magistrate Coddington deposed 
from oflSce in Massachusetts — Deacon Aspinwall banished from Massachusetts 
— Rev. John Clark, Coddington, Aspinwall and others sign a compact for a 
new government — Coddington called to answer in the court at Boston — Clark, 
through Williams, obtains the island — Clark settles on the island — Coddington 
settles there over a month later — Mrs. Hutchinson leaves Boston — Her settle- 
ment upon the island — The Boston church disciplines Coddington and others 
— Coddington adds the Massachusetts order of Elders to his government — 
Coddington and his Elders left out of office at the succeeding election — Over- 
throw of the government of Elders — Coddington again removes, carries off the 
records, and starts another town and church government — Gorton and Hutch- 
inson organize a model civil government on the island — Hutchinson Gov- 
ernor and Chief Judge — Gorton Deputy Governor and Assistant Judge, and 
the first Quarterly Courts and the first Trial Juries in the colony — They change 
name of town to Portsmouth — Coddington makes propositions to restore him 
to government — He seeks a patent for the island — Gorton opposition to Cod- 
djngton's^ return to government — Coddington writes to Winthrop and seeks 
aid — Desired help sent from Boston — The return of Coddington with his 
Elders and their usurping of the government — Massachusetts and Plymouth 
methods adopted — Anonymous accounts and what really happened at Ports- 
mouth — Coddington troops quell the disturbance — Gorton leaves the island — 
Clark and Linthal break from Coddington and join the liberal party — Dis- 
memberment of the church — Beginning of the Baptist Church — Lenthal's de- 
parture — ^The exodus from the island. 




Coddington's and Benton's coquetry with the Massachusetts government — Moosh- 
asuck, or Providence, settled by Roger Williams- -He obtains written grants for 
it and for Aquidneck Island — He divides the land to please the objectors to his 
liberal policy — William Arnold lays large claims to lands — Inception of the 
fraudulent land claims, difficulties resulting from them and the inability to 
settle the disputes regarding the claims. 


Gorton's arrival in Providence — Arnold's complaint — Gorton retires from Provi- 
dence to land in Papaquinapaug — The Arnold Pawtuxet claimants forge papers 
to further extend their land claims — They become subjects of Massachusetts 
to obtain for the enforcement of their claims that government's assistance — 
The Massachusetts government commissions Benedict Arnold to obtain from 
Miantinomi his submission and cession of the Narragansett lands to them — 
Miantinomi sells Occupesuatuxet to Greene — Providence notified by the Massa- 
chusetts government of their jurisdiction over them and cited to trial at 
Boston — Gorton replies to Massachusetts' notice to Providence — Gorton buys 
Shawomet, or Warwick — Its settlement, government and town orders. 


Williams departs frem Providence for England to secure a charter — The 
Colonies' League — Massachusetts government orders their Captain-General 
to put the colony on a war basis — Their troops to move under the leadership 
of William Arnold against Greene and others at Providence, Pawtuxet and 
Occupasnetuxet to capture and bring them to Boston for trial — Miantinomi 
again brought by Arnold to the court at Boston, and again refuses them sub- 
mission or cession of his lands ; refuses to deny the sale of his lands to his 
friends — Two of Miantinomi's subjects seduced to submission to Massachu- 
setts — Shawomet settlers notified by the Massachusetts government of their 
jurisdiction over them and summoned to Boston for trial — Gorton's reply to 
the Massachusetts notice to Shawomet — Occupesuatuxet and Shawomet settlers 
noti.^ed by Massachusetts of their intended military advance upon them — 
Providence invaded by the Massachusetts troops — The settlers of Occupes- 
natuxet flee to Shawomet — Shawomet beseiged by Massachusetts soldiers — 
Massachusetts troops send to Boston for reinforcements — Captives sent to Bos- 
ton — Benedict and William Arnold commissioned by Massachusetts to seize those 
who escaped — The captives', Gorton and others, imprisonment in Massachu- 
setts — Their release and banishment by the Massachusetts court from Mas- 
sachusetts, from Providence and from their own Shawomet lands — They 
arrive upon the island — Island Aquidneck's name changed to Rhode Island. 


The Narragansett Nation — Extent of its domain — War and stratagem — Miantinomi 
captured and his sons slain — Denial by Massachusetts of the sachem's right 
to the land or to sell it to Greene, Gorton and Williams — Gorton intercedes for 
the life of Miantinomi — Miantinomi put to death and word justifying it sent 
to Cannonicus — Grief of the Narragansetts — The sachems send for Gorton to 
visit them — Gorton secures from them their submission and cession of their 
dominion — The Narragansetts called to answer for what they had done and 
their reply to Massachusetts — Cordial reception of Gorton by the people upon 
his return to the island — Gorton again chosen Magistrate — Gorton and others 
settle down on the island to abide the arrival of the charter — Political reunion 
of the church — Coddington writes to Winthrop of Gorton's adherents' opposi- 
tion to him and to Massachusetts — Coddington's attempt to deliver Gorton 
again to the Massachusetts court prevented by the island people. 



Williams arrives with the charter for government of mainland and island, sll 
as " Providence Plantations " — Organization of government — Williams Gov- 
ernor, Clark Deputy Governor, Gorton Assistant and Judge — The people sub- 
scribe to the King and his laws under the charter — A code of laws for the 
government of the colony — Deputies, or Commissioners, sent from all the 
towns — Imprisonment for debt abolisiied — Cannonicus again grants Narragan- 
sett lands (Wickford) to Williams — Williams leaves Providence, builds a 
Trading House on his grant and settles on it — Assembly of the chartered gov- 
ernment at Portsmouth — Movement to allot lands at Wickford and to return to 
Shawomet — Rival claims of Plymouth and Massachusetts — Arnold directed 
by Massachusetts to remove any who should settle — Coddington and his briefless 
court — His danger from the people — Massachusetts government attaches Prov- 
idence and Shawomet, and sends to bring the people to Boston — Massachu- 
setts begins war against the Narragansetts — Soldiers sent against them — Mes- 
sengers' and soldiers' repeated attempts to secure the Narragansetts' submis- 
sion and to bring their chieftains to Boston — Repeated failures of their mission 
— The messengers visit Williams at his Trading House, receive a letter from 
him and return to Boston — The Colleagued colonies declare war against the 
Narragansetts— Reasons fo.- the war ordered to be published — Three hun- 
dred troops and a fleet and other men for it ordered raised and a fort built upon 
Shawomet — Notice from Williams to Massachusetts of a treaty of neutrality 
entered into between the Narragansetts and the government of the Providence 


The August 9, 1645, Assembly of the Government of the Providence Planta- 
tions at Newport— Letter from the Assembly to Massachusetts — Their desire 
for civil government to preserve their lives and liberties caused them to pro- 
cure a charter — The Earl of Warwick recognizes and approves the organization 
of the government under the charter — Those in the government dare not yield 
themselves delinquent to answer at Massachusetts court — The government to 
employ messengers to prosecute the cause of the Providence Plantations before 
the government of England — Massachusetts claims to possess a prior charter 
for the Narragansett territory — Gorton chosen by the Assembly their Commis- 
sSner to England — Troops march against the Indians and Whites of the Prov- 
idence Plantations- — Gorton, about August 16, 1645, departs on his mission — 
Plymouth's forces opposite Providence — Army delayed while messengers are 
again sent to treat with the Narragansetts — The Narragansetts send for Wil- 
liams and Wickes to council with them — The conditions of peace with Massa- 
chusetts signed — The official notice, August 2-j, 1645, of the alleged patent for 
the Narragansett lands sent by Massachusetts to the Providence government. 


The mortgages and deeds secured by the Athertons, Arnolds and other Massa- 
chusetts subjects for Narragansett, Shawomet and Providence lands — Provi- 
dence Plantations people subscribe to their chartered government — It grants 
them lands — The Massachusetts court meets October i, 1645, and grants Shaw- 
omet lands to their subjects — Brown, a Plymouth subject, forbids the Massachu- 
setts subjects to settle on it — Captain Cook sent to England to aid other agents 
there defend Massachusetts' actions — Vassal's religious toleration movement 
extends to Massachusetts — Gorton's departure from Manhattan — He, in Janu- 
ary, 1645-6, reaches England — His complaint to the Parliament Commissioners. 


The King's flight, April 27, 1646, from Oxford — Gorton publishes his complaint 
and the Narragansett Indians' submission and cession — The falsity of Massa- 
chusetts' claim of a patent for Narragansett exposed by the President of the 
Parliament Commission in open session — Parliament Commissioners' mandate 
to Massachusetts confirming their grant to Williams and commanding observ- 


ance and obedience — The wisdom and moderation of Gorton petition com- 
mended — The Massachusetts English agent, Peters, sends for the Governor ot 
Massachusetts to come over and assist in overturning what Gorton had accom- 
plished — Coddington renders Massachusetts and Peters great assistance — 
Coddington's letter to Winthrop — He denies the freedom of the island to his 
opponents — Representatives of mainland and inland towns had joined the 
government of the Williams charter — Coddington still maintains his government ; 
derides liberty of conscience; sends records and papers to Massachusetts for 
their English agents' use against the chartered government — Winslow sent 
by Massachusetts to England to assist Peters and others and to reply to Gorton 
— Mather terms Winslow an Hercules — His pre-eminent abilities — His other 
equipmerts — Favorable conditions for Massachusetts — A printing press at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. — A plethoria of Massachusetts books and writings — Winslow has 
a day appointed for an audience before the Parliament Commissioners. 


The hearing before the Parliament Commissioners — Winslow's and Gorton's re- 
quests — The Parliament Commissioners refuse all of Winslow's requests and 
grant all of Gorton's — Winslow proceeds to have the Providence charter called 
in — Winslow again defeated — The Providence charter to stand — Massachu- 
setts commanded to not remove the people, but to assist and protect them — 
Gorton and Winslow correspondence — No further opposition from Winslov/ — 
Gorton leaves England for home. 


A union Assembly, May, 1647 — The Model Civil Government under English laws 
as first drawn up by Gorton and Hutchinson at Portsmouth on the island now 
agreed to by all the parties — All men privileged to " walk as their consciences 
persuaded them, in the name of Jehova their God " — Two governments — The 
Model Civil Government and the Judge and Elders Government contrasted — ■ 
Coggershall made second President, or Governor, of the chartered govern- 
ment — Coddington, for third time left out of office, goes to Boston — War- 
wickers attempt to resettle at Warwick — Massachusetts sends Benedict Ar- 
nold and other of their officers to disperse them, and grants their lands to 
others — President Coggershall visits Warwick and interposes for his people. 


Gorton's return from England — He is detained by the Massachusetts government 
in Boston until after his government election is over — Coddington declared 
elected to the head of the Providence government — Providence government 
Assembly denounce the fraud, suspend Coddington, and choose and install Capt. 
Jerry Clark President of the Providence government — Coddington indicted for 
treason and his flight from the colony — Coddington offers himself and lands 
to the leagxie of colonies — They refuse him — He ofiFers himself and lands to 
Plymouth — Providence and Gorton party successfully oppose him — Codding- 
ton's letter to Winthrop accounting his disgrace. 


The Assembly and election of May, 1649 — John Smith chosen President; Clark, 
Gorton, Sanford and Olney assistants : Williams Auditor — Deferred suits 
against Coddington — Nicholas Easton President — The government in com- 
plete order — Renewed aggressions and attempted subversion of the char- 
tered government with a view to the absorption of the Providence Plantations 
by the other colonies — Massachusetts annexes Warwick and Pawtuxet to their 
territory — Winslow resigns from the service of Massachusetts — Armed inva- 
sion of the Providence Plantations — Gorton chosen President of the Providence 
government — Coddington pretends to an English commission to govern — 


Williams sent by the Providence government to England — The secession of the 
island — Coddington assumes its government — The passage of Gorton's Anti- 
Slavery Act the first in America — Arnold-Pawtuxet claimants pose as Prov- 
idence, Pawtuxet and Warwick Commissioners to assist Coddington — Their 
rump assemblies. 


Word from Williams from England that no commission of government had been 
issued to Coddington — English councils order against Coddington pretensions 
to government, and order Providence government to care for the island — 
Coddington absents himself from the colony — The Coddington government 
maintain their organization and choose Sanford their President — An agreement 
effected for restoring the island to the chartered government — Williams re- 
turns — Williams President — Leverett appointed agent for Massachusetts in 
England — Coddington returns to the island, his subscription to the Providence 
government and his destruction of the records — The choice of Gorton by 
Coddington and the Assembly as arbitrator of the difficulties besetting Cod- 
dington — The court condemns Harris, leader of the Arnold-Pawtuxet claimants, 
for treason. 


Gorton's letters to Cromwell and to Clark defending the Quakers — Recording of 
the forged land title made by the Pawtuxet claimants — The Providence gov- 
ernment applies first to the King for a new charter of government — The 
Arnold-Pawtuxans delay Clark's commission from Providence government 
until after Winthrop, Jr., had secured the Connecticut charter of government — 
Petition of Warwick men to the King — Letter to the court of Massachusetts — 
New charter received — The King's order — The Narragansett Indian grant — 
The death of ex-President Smith. 


The Assembly under the new charter — Gorton named in it as one of the incorpo- 
rators — A Representative — Change of name from Providence to Rhode Island 
and Providence Plantations — The King appoints Commissioners to settle the 
disputes of the colonies — Instructs them to see if the Narragansetts' sub- 
mission and cession secured by Gorton prove true — They confirm the Narragan- 
sett submission and cession— Gorton names the unsettled territory the King's 
Province — Samuel Gorton, Jr., appointed a magistrate in it — Commissioners 
declare all claims of the other colonies to lands vvfithin it to be void, and place 
it in the Rhode Island and Providence governments' keeping — They order the 
removal of Massachusetts subjects from it — Massachusetts court refuses to 
heed the orders of the King's Commissioners — The King commands the Gov- 
ernor and Council of Massachusetts to send representatives to answer in 


The King's compliments in a letter to the government of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations — The Massachusetts court send ship-masts to the King 
in lieu of agents to answer before him — The Massachusetts people protest 
against the course of their magistrates — Pawtuxet claimants capture the Court 
of Trials — They protest against Williams and his opposition to them — Morton's 
scandalous book — ^Gortoa's letter to Morton — Williams' letter to the Plymouth 
court — Gorton's le'tter to Governor Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut. 


The King Philip's War — The swamp battle — Capture of Philin's wife and son — 
The Narragansetts' extinction — Warwick destroyed — Providence and Paw- 
tuxet burned, and two of the family of Massachtisetts ex-subject and Pawtuxet 
claimant slain. 



The Massachusetts court unable to longer delay obedience to the King's com- 
mands — They send Stoughton and Buckley to England — Rhode Island Assembly 
choose Danford and Baily, of Newport, as agents to England — Their departure 
delayed pending the suits of the Pawtuxet claimants — Trial of the Pawtuxan 
claims and verdict in their favor — Warwick men appeal, and resolve to carry 
a petition to England — Gorton, Greene and Holden again chosen to lay a peti- 
tion before His Majesty — Gorton's death — Green and Holden depart immedi- 
ately with the petition — They procure from the King in council a stay of pro- 
ceedings—A powerful petition — Its presentation by the Warwick men to the 
King — King orders the Massachusetts government to send other agents em- 
powered to negotiate a settlement and to repeal the obnoxious laws — They 
send Nowell and Richards — Quo-warranto issue summoning the corporation 
of Massachusetts to England — The Massachusetts charter pronounced void — 
King Charles the Second's death — King James' declaration under which the 
intolerant practices of the leagued colonies end. 


Permanent return of Warwick people to their homes — The triumph of religious 
freedom and end of attempted subjugation of the Providence and Rhode Island 
lands and people — The adoption of their principles as the cardinal doctrine of 
the Nation — Closing events in Gorton's life — Honors accorded him — His char- \ 
acter and his teachings. \ 

SAMUEL Gorton's homestead, Warwick. 


Time, place and baptism of Gorton in Gorton, England — His education and re- 
ligious training — A clothier in London — Business transactions preparatory to 
leaving for the colonies — His wife Mary, daughter of John Maplet — Landing 
with his family in Massachusetts Colony — Laws prohibiting non-new-church- 
men from living in Massachusetts Colony — Banishment of Wheelright, Aspin- 
wall and others from Massachusetts — Gorton and Vassal settle in Plymouth 
Colony — Gorton volunteers in militia raised in response to Massachusetts Col- 
ony's call for aid to suppress the Indian invasion — His opposition to the pro- 
posed laws — Important issues of the election — Vassal and others disqualified 
from voting — Prince of Massachusetts Colony made Governor of Plymouth 
Colony — Why the Massachusetts Colony chose Prince for Plymouth's Gov- 
ernor The Rev. Dr. Chauncey's troubles in Plymouth — The Massachusetts 

methods under Prince adopted — Prince banishes Gorton from Plymouth Col- 
ony — Dissatisfaction of Plymouth people, and therefore fines and disfran- 
chisements — Vassal heads movement for religious toleration — Winslo\v's de- 
nunciation of Vassal's movement — How justice was administered by Prince at 
Plymouth — Gorton goes to Pocasset Aquidneck Island. 

Samuel Gorton was born in the year 1592' in the town of Gorton," 
then adjoining, but now included within the city of Manchester, Eng- 
land; where his fathers had lived for many generations, not unknown 
in the records of the heraldry of England.* At this place he was brought 
up and received his early education. 

During the receding days of his minority England was under the 
rule of the Conformist King James. The canons drawn up by the 
Convocation of 1606 inculcated obedience to the monarch's reign, 
deduced the origin of government from patriarchal blood, declared that 
no one should be admitted to sacred orders without a title, denounced 
all liberal views, and pronounced anathemas on all who rejected the 
canons' teachings. These canons were maintained by the higher clergy 
who zealously lent themeslves to the support of the King's prerogative 
and to the shaping of everything to his views. The celebrated schools 
were under the control of persecuting Bishops. Laud was conspicuous 
in the universities, and so great was the corruption therein that many 
parents were discouraged from sending their children to them.* The 
Universities of Cambridge and Oxford were set in opposition to the 
Parliament. Cambridge, as early as 1603, had passed a grace that 
whoever should oppose any part of the doctrine or discipline of the 
Church of England should be suspended from any degree to be taken.' 
The University of Oxford pronounced a solemn decree that by the 
doctrine of the Holy Scripture it was unlawful to appear against the 

'Gorton's letter, 4th Series, Mass. Hist. Collections vii, 604. Bantism at College 
Church, Feb. 12, 1502-3. Dr. Howard's Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica 
New Series, 1877, Vol. i, pp. 321-5. ^No records of the very ancient town 

of Gorton prior to the year 1685 can be found; they, doubtless, havinar been 
destroyed in the troublesome times during and preceding the reign of Charles 
the First. As until the close of his reign all English lands vested in the Sover- 
eign, and were parcelled out by him to his favorites, it is probable that the land 
was held by one of the name who sat off " The Gorton Parish Estate to the 
maintenance of religious worship in the parish." "Gorton's letter to 

Nathaniel Morton, Force's Tracts, Vol. iv. The Heraldic Seal ; Gules, ten billets 
or a chief of the second ; crest — a goat's head erased, ducally gorged, which was 
used by the Gortons, is shown in Dr. Howard's Miscellanea, Vol. i. p. ^^70. 
•Cobbitt's Parliamentary History, ii, 674, etc. "Price's Nonconformists 



King upon religion or any other account whatever ; and all persons to be 
promoted in future to any degree were required to make oath that they 
detested the opposite doctrine and would always continue to have the 
same opinion. 

Gorton's religious training was received in the English Church. In 
an address to Charles the Second he says : " I drew my tenets ' from the 
breast of my mother the Church of England.' " ' To the fundamental 
doctrines taught by the Church he ever firmly held, yet to the practices 
of that time in the Church and in the new Church set up in Massachu- 
setts he was a Nonconformist. 

We have referred to the corruption at that time in the Universities 
and the conditions under which sacred orders on scholastic degrees 
were at that time obtained from them that the reader should understand 
why the younger generation of conscientious Nonconformists, however 
much their delight in the opportunities for advancement in learning, 
were not only discouraged from attending, but were constrained even 
to condemn these famous schools ; and because Gorton, having thanked 
God that he was not prepared for the ministry in them, " not bred up 
in the schools of human learning," and so " drowned in pride through 
Aristotle's principles,'" his enemies untruthfully proclaimed that he 
despised all human learning. Gorton had a high appreciation of learn- 
ing, and was himself possessed of more literary education than any of 
the Rhode Island founders save Williams. He was instructed by able 
tutors, and he received a classical education from them ; being studious, 
he became an accomplished scholar, more than ordinarily skilled in the 
languages and learned in English law; and his library was enriched with 
the standard " volumes in which the ancient statutes " of his country 
" were written." In law and in politics he understood his rights better 
than did Williams or the proprietors, or the elders and magistrates of ' 
Massachusetts.* He approved of well educated ministers and teachers, 
and opposed only those of them who enforced for themselves the 
" divine rights " which had been taught them in the ancient schools. 
He ever gave his support to every means providing for liberal educa- 
tion and advancement of the people, and upheld, he says, in answer to the 
charges made against him, " not scrupling any civil ordinance for the 
education, ordering or governing of any civil state." " 

It appears that he did not leave home till the age of about twenty-five 
or thirty ; whether employed until that time in study or business we can 
learn only from that " he had not engaged in any servile employment 
until he settled in the colonies." '" His father had been a London mer- 
chant and a member of a guild, and his own wealth (from the length 
and peristence of his legal controversy in the colonies and in England) 
seems to have exceeded that of any of the early settlers in the Provi- 
dence and Rhode Island Plantations.* 

Papers preserved show that in 1635 he was carrying on the business 
of clothier in London. On the i8th of June of that year John Dukinfield, 
of Dukinfield, County of Chester, England, gave him a release of all 
actions and claims of action, etc., from the beginning of the world to 
that date, apparently in the closing up of his business in London pre- 
paratory to his departure for New England. " He yearned." he writes, 
"for a country where he could be free to worship God according to 

i? ^^"^'3."^' j.' ,4S4.; ii, 09. ^ "Calletider's Historical Discourse, p. 92. 

R. I. Hist. Collections, Vol. iv. ''Gorton's letter to Morton Force's 

Tracts, Vol. iv. »Henry C. Dorr, in R. I. Hist. Collections. R. I. Col- 

lections, II. 80. Forces Tract No. vi, ,^g. 40. 'Gorton's Innocencv's 

Defense, Staple's Ed., p. 42. "Rider's R. I. Hist. Tract 17. Force's 

Tract No. vi, 76. *Dorr :Proceedings Mass. Hist. Society, new Series, 


what the Bible taught him, as God enabled him to understand it." 
" Samuel Gorton was," says Mackie, " one of the noble spirits who 
esteemed liberty more than life, and, counting no sacrifice too great for 
the maintenance of principal, could not dwell at ease in a land where 
the inalienable rights of humanity were not acknowldeged or were 
mocked at. With all its industrial prosperity, its pleasing attractions 
to the eye of sense, its proud public annals and its dear private memories, 
England could not retain him from adventuring upon the then dread 
Atlantic and seeking out a spot among the self-denying settlers of a 
barren coast and a savage wilderness, where in thought, deed, word and 
act he might be free." ^ " I left my native country," he says, " to enjoy 
liberty of conscience in respect to faith toward God and for no other 
end." ' 

His wife who came with him to New England was Mary Maplet, 
daughter of John Maplet, gent, of St. Martin's le Grand, London, and 
Mary, his wife,* a lady of education and refinement; and, as he wrote of 
her, " as tenderly brought up as any man's wife in the town," " little 
prepared to share with him the hardships of his exceptionally hard 
pioneer experience. Her father was, it appears, the son of the Rev. 
John, whose people had, if the assertion is true, early acquired a com- 
petency in the business of dealer in shoes. 

The freedom of his disbursements and the advantages of education 
he extended to the members of his family reveal the comfortable condi- 
tion of his circumstances and the elevated character of his daughter's 
early environments. That she was accorded by her parents the superior 
advantages enjoyed by the other children while she was with them seems 
reasonable.' After her departure she was supplied by them with herds 
of choice breeds of cattle for the stalls and pastures belonging to her 
New England home. 

Gorton landed in Boston in March, 1636-7, at the age of forty-four 
years, with his wife, his eldest son Samuel, then six years of age, and 
one or more other children. 

It was a surprise to him and to many others, who, like him, came to 
New England to enjoy liberty of worship and escape the persecutions 
at that time of the English government, to find upon landing here that 
the new rulers had established over the new colony a new church gov- 
ernment as austere as the old one from which they had departed ; and to 
maintain it admitted as citizens only such as could qualify for the new 
church, both in form and doctrine.' That every person not holding to 
the new rulers' opinion. Judge Story says, four-fifths of the people were 
thus disfranchised of all the privileges of a citizen, to vote or to hold 
land ; that the freeman's oath had been changed under Endicot, from the 
government of King Charles and was to the government of Massachu- 
setts,* and was required to be given to every man above the age of six- 

Vol. iii, No. 4, p. 210. 'Mackie's life of Samuel Gorton, 2d Series 

Spark's American Biographies, v, 319. 'Gorton: R. I. Collections, ii, 42. 

•Will of Mary Maplet and bequest to daughter Mary, wife of Samuel Gorton, in 
New England. N. E. Hist, and Genealogical Register, xliv, 384. Will of Dr. 
John Maplet and bequest to his sister, Mary Gorton. N. E. Hist, and Genealo- 
gical Reg., xlvi, 153; li, 199. Deed, April 9, 1662, signed by Samuel Gorton, Sr., 
and Mary, his wife; Early Prov. Reeds., 3d Book, brass clasp, p. o, 13, or Book 
2, brass clasp, p. 613. Among Samuel Gorton's children were John, Mary and 
Maplet. "Letter to Morton, Force's Vol. iv. "Mary's brother. 

Dr. John Maplet, who settled in Bath, Eng., was graduated A. M. and M. D. at 
Oxford ; was elected one of its Preceptors ; afterwards was Principal of Gloucester 
Hall, now Worcester College. Guidott said of him : " He was learned, candid 
and ingenious, a good Physician, a better Christian, and an excellent Latin Poet." 
Guidott's Lives, Stephen's & Lee's Diet. National Biographies, Macmillan & G>., 
T893. 'Mass. Rec. 1631, i. "Mass. Rec. 1634, i, 115, 117. 


teen,* with the penalty of his being punished and his land, if he had any, 
confiscated in case of his refusal to take it." Magistrates were empow- 
ered to fine or imprison all persons absenting themselves from the ser- 
vices of their church,' and no one could be admitted to the freedom of 
the commonwealth who had gathered in any other church meeting;' 
that no one without the magistrates' leave should inhabit in the colony;' 
and that the magistrates were to examine and license those who could 
settle.' Those who had settled in violation of these laws were com- 
manded to depart. The orders were required to be enforced with severe 
penalties. Every person was forbidden to entertain a stranger in their 
house; to allovv^ them the use of a lot; or vitermine an habitation." 

The time of Gorton's arrival was also in the midst of the proceedings 
against Wheelright, the brother-in-law of Annie Hutchinson, which pro- 
ceedings began on the 19th day of March, 1636-7. He says that upon 
his arrival he found the people at great variance in points of religion, 
prosecuting it very hotly in their public courts unto fines and banish- 
ments of men of good report, both for life and doctrine even among 

There is no evidence or intimation anywhere that he took any part 
in these controversies, and from his writings we infer that it is not 
probable that he did. " He discovered that the liberty which he sought 
was not here; that the practice here was far short of the profession as 
he understood it ; and the liberty which they practiced was only a liberty 
for themselves and not for their other fellow-Christians." ' Only by 
avoiding the attention of the magistrates could he have remained as 
he did with his family where he landed, barely long enough to rest 
from the fatigue of the voyage, make a hasty prospect and find a place 
where one with the liberty he sought would be allowed to settle. Within 
about two months from the time of his landing he took up his residence 
in Plymouth, intending to make that his home. 

The Plymouth government was in some respects more liberal than 
that of Massachusetts. The Pilgrims, unlike the Puritans, had sub- 
scribed in their compact to the King and his statutes for their govern- 
ment.* Although they had this early enacted that " no one shall live 
within the government of Plymouth without the leave and liking of the 
Governor and two of the Assistants," ' they did not require of settlers 
that strict conformity to their church which prevailed in Massachusetts. 
Their freeman's oath was to King Charles; their Governor was chosen 
directly by the votes of the freemen, and they recognized the franchise 
right of nearly all settlers. 

William Vassal, a man of fortune, who was one of the original Assist- 
ants named in the charter of the Massachusetts company and a founder 
of that colony, being dissatisfied with the proscriptive government set 
up there, returned to England, but recrossed the sea in 1635-6, settling 
in Plymouth colony. 

Cotton, in his reply to Williams' Bloody Tenet, says that Gorton 

"Mass. Rec. i, 137, 130. "Mass. Rec. i, 137. Gammel's Life of Williams, 

2d Ser., Spark's Am. Biographies, iv., 41, 42. 'Mass. Rec. i, 140. 

*Mass. Rec. i, 168, Mar. 3, 1635-6. 'Mass. Rec. 1630-S, i, 76, 103, i47. 

*Mass. Rec. i. 141 ; 2d Ed. Winthrop, i, 100; Johnson Bk. ii, ch. 22, Pref. LXXX. 
•Mass. Rec. R. I. Collections, ii, 46. Winslow's Defense. Armstrong's Hist. Bap- 
tists, 683. R. I. Hist. Tract v, 57. 2d Ed. Savage's Winthrop, ii, 209. Hutch- 
inson's Hist. Mass., i, 26, 62, 147. *Wheelright was banished from Mass. 
by the government under Winthrop and Dudley, who then, " according to the 
word of God," chose themselves Magistrates for hfe. 2d Ed. Winthrop, i, 220. 
R. I. Collections, ii, 42. 'Chief Justice Brayton, R. I. Hist. Tract 17, 
p. 9. *Ply. Rec. xi, 6 Intd. Edgarton Rverson's Loyalists of America, 
i, II, 14. »Ply. Rec. xi, 26. '"Judge Brayton, R. I. Hist. Tract 



remained in Boston until there was sent over " directions to demand a 
£100 debt" of a citizen; "as if [though Cotton does not say it] his 
going was occasioned by the demand of and his refusal to pay an honest 
debt. If Cotton meant to intimate such refusal it is against the whole 
course of a long life of eighty-five years, forty years of which were 
passed in New England. He removed but about a day's journey from 
Boston. The courts were as open at Plymouth as at Boston, and he 
might have been followed to Plymouth, but he was not. But there are 
some facts which, in this connection, it may be proper to state, viz., 
Cotton's book was published in London in May, 1647, ^^" years after 
Gorton left Boston. Gorton was then in England, prosecuting his 
complaint against Massachusetts. The most speedy communication with 
Rhode Island was not open to him. He could not send by way of 
Boston, but only by way of the Dutch at Manhattan. This was long, 
tedious and difficult. Yet on the 30th day of September, 1647, about 
four months from the time Cotton's statement was first made public, 
the release of John Dukinfield, before mentioned, dated nearly two years 
before Gorton left England, was put by Gorton's directions upon the 
Colony Records at Newport, the most public place it could be recorded, 
and is the only instrument of the kind upon those records." " 

Gorton began housekeeping at Plymouth in a part of a house he hired 
of Ralph Smith for a term of four years, taking a written lease for 
that time. The early opposition in Massachusetts to Roger Williams 
obliged him to retire to Plymouth. Finding difficulties here, he returned 
to Massachusetts, from whence he was banished. While in Plymouth 
he served as assistant to this Smith, who was then the pastor of the 
church at Plymouth. Smith " had," a church authority said, " the mis- 
fortune to possess more zeal than prudence." Upon the request of the 
congregation, he had, before the period of this narrative, resigned his 
pastoral charge and was rapidly falling into disgrace. (To purloining, 
etc., see through the whole Plymouth Colony Records.) 

On the 7th of June following Gorton's settlement in Plymouth, the 
Colony, in response to a call from Massachusetts, resolved to send 
thirty men as soldiers, and as many more as were necessary, to Massa- 
chusetts to man a vessel to aid them in the Pequot war. The men 
volunteered for this service, and among the volunteers on the 7th day 
of June were Samuel Gorton and Thomas Gorton, the latter by some 
believed to have been his father and by others to have been a bachelor 
brother, who generally accompanied him.* His prompt and voluntary 
enrollment in this service for a neighboring colony this early reveals 
to us that which was ever afterwards observed in him, an unselfish 
readiness to, under all circumstances, fearlessly bear the responsibilities 
and perform the duties of a citizen " in the defense of the rights of 
others, as well as of himself." " They may well have deemed him a 

J useful instrument at his first coming.?' * 

The political issues at Plymouth were, at the time of Gorton's arrival 

I there — the time approaching the annual election — of unprecedented 
interest and importance, for the reason that changes in the government 
were proposed, intended to subvert its order according to the Statutes 
to which the Pilgrims had subscribed to that of the Judaic system of 
intolerance which was established in Massachusetts. The church party 
of Plymouth and Massachusetts had rallied under the leadership of 
Prence of Duxboro, a Massachusetts Puritan, hostile to everything 
opposed to the church and zealous to submit everything to its rule, and 

17, p. 15. *Ply. Rec. i, 61, omitted from the Index. Hutchinson's Papers, 

59-62. The Pequot war was hegtm in Mar., 1637. The Fort was taken May 26, 
1637. The war ended in Sept., 1638. ^Judge Brayton. Gorton waa 


had selected him for Governor of Plymouth Colony. In 1636 eight 
Deputies had met, four from Plymouth and two from each of the other 
towns, and in conjunction with the court revised and codified the laws.* 
These Deputies were selected for only this purpose; were without any 
instructions by the people to introduce a representaitve system, although 
such a system these Deputies reported.' Later in the same year another 
step was taken by the court which was clearly in the direction of a rep- 
resentative system. The function of the General Assembly was divided 
the meetmgs for legislation were to be kept distinct from those upon 
the election, and in the latter voting by proxy was permitted." Another 
Act contrary to the will of the people followed, changing the character 
of the government "from popular to representative," transferring the 
power which was in the whole body of the freemen to Commissioners 
or Deputies, taking away from the people the choice of their Governor 
and giving the choice to a body of delegates. The old yet present method 
of rulers of so doctoring the Statutes that the will of the people cannot 
prevent the perpetuation of the rule of those who are in office. And, 
further, to better insure the election of subservient delegates, the number 
of freemen were diminished, William Vassal and other most worthy 
men being disqualified from voting. 

The patent under which the lands were held was to " William Brad- 
ford, his heirs, his associates and assigns." This, joined to the other 
perils of the new system, occasioned alarm to the people, and filled them 
with apprehension lest citizenship and the land would, as in Massachu- 
setts, be granted only to a few strictly qualified church members. Con- 
ferences between the Deputies and the people were held, which resulted 
in the suspension for a while of the conveyance of land by the Governor 
and Assistants.^ 

The church party, however, by arbitrary methods soon prevailed, and 
succeeded both in making Prence the Governor and in the adoption of 
representative government; but the majority party did not quietly yiel* 
to the change, the popular voice was after the excitement, even unr'^r 
the disadvantage of quasi-representation, in a measure expressed oy 
laying aside the Governor at the next election; and, although the new 
system which had been adopted in violation of the will of the people 
was maintained, it was maintained only by means of attending agreeable 
compensating concessions; by Bradford, who succeeded Prence, sur- 
rendering the charter rights in the lands to all of the freemen, and by 
admitting all who had taken the oath of fidelity to the government to 
a voice in choosing the delegates for the elections.' 

One of the reasons, says the Rev. Cotton Mather, why they of Massa- 
chusetts chose that Prence should be Governor of Plymouth was his 
hostility to the exercise of the gift of the established ministry by private 
brethren; and this point, he says, was gained in his election.' "Private 
brethren" were those not approved by the new church, whether they 
had or not received church orders. 

In May, 1638. there came to Plymouth an eminent scholar and 
preacher of the Gospel, who was born in the same year as Gorton, and 
of whom he speaks as " a Godly man ; " learned in the original languages, 
a professor some time of Greek and of the Hebrew, now silenced as a 
minister in England. He had been sent for to be settled as the minister 
of Plymouth, but, differing from the church as he found it here, the 

afterwards convinced that the wars upon the Indians were unnecessary, and he 
opposed them and that which followed the sale and enslavement of the captives 
•Ply. Rec. xi, 6. 'Palfrey's Hist. N. Eng.. i, 546. »Ply. Rec. 

f>. 80. 'Ply. Rec. xi, 31. 33. »Ply. Rec. xi, 91, etc. 

'First Am. Ed. Mather's Magnalia, i, 106. »In 1654 Chauncy was elected 


matter was submitted to the members of Plymouth and other colonies. 
All were against Chauncy and he was not settled. After preaching as 
aid to Raynor for a while he was called to Scituate, the town adjoining, 
in Plymouth Colony, where he remained, although with frequent troubles, 
for more than twelve years." 

Gorton, we are assured, was the most determined leader of the people 
in their opposition to the church system, not even excepting their active 
leader Vassal. Gorton also was one of those who, for the exercise of 
the gift of the established brethren, was a subject of the hostility of 
Prence, the point gained by his election. 

The law referred to against harboring strangers was now for the first 
rigidly enforced by Prence's administration, in deporting those who 
were not in harmony with it in their belief and conduct. 

There was and had been for some time prior to November, 1638, 
living in Gorton's family a widow by the name of Ellen Aldridge, a 
woman of good repute, careful of her reputation, who had lately come 
over and was employed by his wife as a servant in the family. " It had 
been whispered privately that she had smiled in the congregation (a 
similar instance is recorded in an early law docket of Trumbull's. 
" Susan Smith, on the Lord's day during Divine service, did smile." 
Fined five shillings and costs of prosecution), and the Governor Prence 
sent to know her business, and commanded, after punishment as the 
bench see fit, her departure and also anyone who brought her ' to the place 
from which she came.' " Gorton says they proposed to deport her as 
a vagabond, and to escape the shame threatened to be put upon her she 
fied to the woods, where she for several days remained, returning at 
night to his home for shelter. Gorton appeared at court [Dec. 4, 1638] 
in defense of her, showed that the offense was not recognized in the 
English law, to the protection of which he appealed, and that she was 
no vagabond, that she was a woman of good report and by diligent labor 
earning her bread. He was charged with deluding the court of her, 
and he was bound to answer for this contempt at the next sessions. 

Gorton had now made Plymouth his home for eighteen months, and 
he was described as quiet and peaceable ; a useful citizen ; kind, court- 
eous, agreeable. He appeared at the next sessions of the court to defend 
himself for defending this woman ; was fined for seditious conduct and 
limited to fourteen days to remain in Plymouth. This is Gorton's truth- 
ful account of it, agreeing exactly with the official records. 

During the agitation attending this the emotions of Ralph Smith, the 
ex-pastor before mentioned, became excited, and he, taking sides against 
Gorton, ordered him to vacate the house. Gorton persuaded Smith to 
leave the matter to Deacon Cook and others for arbitrament, but the 
Governor Prence, learning of it, imperiously commanded the papers 
out of their hands and destroyed them. This Ralph Smith afYair, which 
was not a case in court, was settled in Smith's favor by the former 
case which was in court, by its act of Gorton's banishment, which, of 
course, compelled him to abandon the house. 

The only charge of the court against Gorton, the alleged sedition, 
occurred in the half hour at the court in which he appeared for defend- 
ing this woman." 

successor to Henry Duster, the first President of Harvard College. Stephen's 
Diet. Nat.^Biog. Brayton, R. I. Hist. Tract 17. Mass. Gen. Reg. X, 105. Baylie's 
Plymouth, ii, part 2, pp. 258-265, Seq. "Charles Dean, in an article 

published in 1850, unfairly compares Gorton's story of Plymouth's dealings with 
his enemies' story of it. Mr. Dean is unfair because he ignores Plymouth's 
official records of it, which show that only Gorton's account of it is true. Ply. 
Rec, i, 100, 105. Force's Tracts, Vol. 4, Nos. 6 and 7. Judge Brayton, R. I. 


This action against Gorton was very unpopular. People, such as 
inhabit our towns and make up our courts to-day, would have appeared 
and been heard in opposition to the magistrates ; but those of that gener- 
ation had been bred under oppression, and been, many of them, by sad 
experience, made docile to those who claimed the divine right to rule 
them. Yet the people left upon the official docket a record that is, 
although in quiet form, a remarkably strong and Unanimous Protest 
to the Proceedings. Every one of the sixteen, upon whom the court 
depended for the trial and its orderly proceeding, attested their dis- 
approval and dislike to it by their absence. All of them were fined once, 
and most of them twice, and many of them three times, by the magis- 
trates for persistent non-attendance.' This, like most of the other per- 
secuting trials in Plymouth and Massachusetts, was conducted by a 
handful of church-magistrates in their own imperious way. To the 
honor of Plymouth and Massachusetts it can be said that they never 
were approved by the ^people. 

William Vassal, before referred to, who had settled in Plymouth 
Colony, was one of the foremost in the movement to abolish the dis- 
tinctions that were maintained in civil and church state, and to have 
the government administered wholly by the laws of England. Nine 
men, but two of half the whole number of freemen from Vassal's town, 
Scituate,^ were at this same court of Prence's at which Gorton was 
sentenced, presented for speaking disrespectful of the Governor and 
magistrates or assistants, and for without license admitting strangers 
and foreigners to their houses and lands.' When, in 1645, Vassal's 
movement had extended beyond Plymouth and into Massachusetts, 
Winslow of Plymouth wrote to Winthrop of Massachusetts a letter of 
commiseration on account of it, with a description of what had been 
attempted at Plymouth and a lamentation in the following strain that 
such a spirit of toleration had arisen and was prevailing: "The sum 
of it was," said Winslow, " to allow and maintain full and free toleration 
of religion to all men that would preserve the civil peace and submit 
unto government. But the Governor, Mr. Prence, and myself expressed 
the sad consequences that would follow [yet, notwithstanding, it was 
required according to order to be voted], and the Governor would not 
allow it to come to vote, as being that would eat out the power of godli- 
ness." " You would have admired to have seen how sweet this carion 
relished to the deputies." " If you have heard of the particulars and the 
persons, especially the ringleader of the rout, you may gather the more 
insight by this general." * Though early a liberal Governor, he 
(Winslow) later imbibed some of the persecuting spirit of Massachu- 
setts.° But a majority of the General Court of Plymouth, among them 
Brown, Hatherly, Standish and Freeman, were in favor of Vassal's 
movement. Yet, knowing this, Prence the Governor could override the 
Deputies and the people, and even violate the established order of the 
court, as he did by refusing to put the question to vote.* 

Prence, " the only persecuting Governor of the Plymouth colony," ' 
industriously and relentlessly enforced the Puritan church policy. His 
very first act as Governor was the whipping of Web Abey, upon the 
unreliable testimony of the same before-named Ralph Smith, that the 
man had upon a Sunday bestowed some labor upon his garden. Richard 
Smith, a prime leading man in Taunton, for his conscience' sake, many 

Hist. Tract 17, Seq. 'Ply. Rec, i, 104, 126. ^Twenty-two 

freemen, nineteen others, in all but forty-one, was the entire adult male popula- 
tion of the town. Baylie's Hist. Ply. Colony, i, 282. ^Ply. Rec, i, 106. 
'Winslow's letter, Hutchinson's Papers, 172-175. "Loyalists of America, 
i, 97. 'Loyalists of America, i, 104. 'Loy. of Am., i, 12, 104 


difFiCuIties arising, was compelled to leave, and settled in Narrangansctt." 
And one. Master Doughty, a minister and a man of means when he 
came to the colony, was ruined by fines and then forced to go away with 
his wife and children.* Not all of these, or of other like cases, are 
entered in the official records, yet those that are there are too numerous 
to here permit their further enumeration. Bradford, the people's can- 
didate, succeeded Prence in the chief office; and Prence did not for 
nineteen years thereafter, not until Bradford's death, and with the 
assistance of the Massachusetts magistrates, again secure the office.'" 
His temper was then the same, severe and unimproved by his experience 
and long waiting. Upon regaining the Governorship and judicial seat, 
his first act was to appoint a committee to revise the laws. New ones 
against the Quakers were under his leadership immediately enacted, 
and the law that the Governor should hold the office " one whole year, 
no more," ' was to provide, as in Massachusetts, for a tenure for life, 
changed to " until another be elected." ' Now, under the representative 
system which he had been foremost in establishing and by the delegates 
of his promotion and handling, he was many times re-elected to the office. 
His rule was one of exceptionally severe persecution and cruelty.* 

Having made but brief reference to the court in whick Gorton was 
tried, let us return to it for some particulars of the trial. The court is 
the accuseer. At the first hearing the court, enlarging upon a point, 
aggravated the matter more than Gorton thought it deserved, so much 
so that he said they " were speaking hyperbolically." The magistrate, 
not understanding that term, turned to their Elder, Brewster, for an 
explanation, and the explanation was that he, Gorton, had told the 
magistrate " that he lied." Gorton " thought that this would not do to 
apply to the Scripture of Truth." At the final hearing Jonathan Brew- 
ster, the son of the ruling Elder and the one that explained the hyperbole, 
was the Foreman of the Jury. Winslow says, Gorton being called, and 
the Governor (Prence), because he was weary of speech to other causes, 
requested one of the magistrates, who was present at the commitment 
and privy to the whole cause, to state the cause of his bonds in the 
great affront he had given the government. The magistrates, Gorton 
asserted, should not be parties and judges; that the place of a Prosecutor 
was not in the Judge's seat, but " down here where a Prosecutor should 
stand ; " and he called the people to witness how their liberties v/ere 
abused. The cause was stated, however, by one of the magistrates, the 
one who presided at the first trial. Magistrates and divers Elders were 
allowed to speak as Prosecutors, while, though there was no Attorney 
at Plymouth to speak for Gorton, the Foreman of the Jury moved that 
he should not be allowed to speak for himself. His reference to the 
English Statutes was not regarded. Magistrate nor Elder would listen 
to recitations from them, but all urged that punishment should be 

The following is Chief Justice Brayton's description: "I have en- 
deavored to figure to myself the court scene as it occurred at that trial. 
Here is a tall, spare man, with arms proportional, and urging gestures, 
a man of independent spirit, as intelligent as any member of the court 
before which he appears, having a character for truth, for honesty, for 
morality, for courtesy to all, and for Christian charity; a quick sense 
of justice, earnest in the defense of the rights of others, as well as of 
himself; having a just pride in his ancestry, no one of whom had ever 

note. "Roger Williams' letter, Br. State Paper Office. 'Baylie's 

Hist. Ply., i, 289, 290. "Ply. Rec. and Bradford's Hist. Ply., 362. 

'Ply. Rec, xi, 7. 'Brigham's Ply. Laws, 37. 2d Ed. Winthrop, i, 219, 

220 and note. 'Ply. Rec, i and ii. *R. I. Hist Tract 17. 


been thus treated, whose boast it was that he never laid his hands in 
violence upon any human being, not even upon his children ; a man who, 
though he would avoid the ecclesiastical law at home or here, yet desired 
to be governed in all civil respects by the common laws of England with 
its ancient Statutes. He is here for the first time arraigned for any 
offense whatever. The charge now is that he endeavored to keep away 
from the court a reputable woman, charged with no offense (a servant 
in his own family), to prevent the disgrace upon her of being treated 
as a vagabond and her to remain a faithful servant. 

" The court here was one in whose breast alone by the Statutes of 
Plymouth was vested the kind and the measure of punishment of every 
misdemeanor ' as God had enlightened them.' 

" This man was standing before this court and in the presence of a 
jury empanelled to try his case, and awaits the charges to be stated by 
the Prosecutor or accuser. 

" It came from the court which sits in judgment and from the mouth 
of that member, who, when the court ivas held more private, stated the 
charge with such gross aggravation, and who now probably states it with 
the same aggravation. 

" Is it strange that he should object to his accusers sitting as his 
judges? and should say that the place of an accuser should not be in 
the judgment seat, but ' dozm here,' the place of a Prosecutor. ' Let 
them not be parties and judges' 

"They continue to sit in judgment. He attempts to defend himself; 
he most likely called their attention to the ancient laws of England, 
and in the language of these laws, for he says, elsewhere, he was not 
allowed to speak in their language. He endeavors to defend himself, 

"And now the foreman of the jury, the son of the ruling elder who 
explained the hyperbole, not content with performing his duty as an 
impartial juror, rises and moves the court that he shall not be allowed 
to speak for himself, and, there being no Attorney at Plymouth, in effect 
that he should not be defended. 

" What would such a man in such a presence and under such circum- 
stances be likely to say or do? 

" Would he, while his accusers sat in judgment upon him, quietly 
asquiesce in the justice of it? or would he not rather challenge them for 
partiality and that zvarmly? and when his objection was rudely over- 
ruled, is it strange that he shoidd say with warmth, somewhat mingled 
with indignation, ' Let them not be parties and judges; ' or that his long 
arm should be stretched out either toward the bench or to the audience, 
with the spirit that moved him? 

" He attempts to refer to the laws of England [he is a loyal man] as 
bearing upon the question of his guilt ; they are not allozved to be named. 
He attempts to speak in the 'language of them;' he cannot speak 'in 
their language.' and his defense is restrained. 

" Now the foreman of that body of men who are to try him, and who 
he supposed were impartial, rises and attempts to cut him off from 
further hearing and to close his mouth. 

_" I repeat, what would such a man, of an independent and fearless 
spirit, be likely to do or say under these circumstances? Would he not 
rise to his full height, and, breasting himself to the storm, not merely 
warmed, but fired with indignation, vent himself in impassioned lan- 
guage, and breathe out his feelings of wrong and oppression? would he 
not be eloquent [for he is said to have been eloquent], and might he not 
be excused, if, moved by the spirit, his gestures were vehement, if he 
' threw his arms about? ' 


"All this defense and attempted defense were pronounced to be tur- 
bulent and seditious ; and so, on the 4th day of December, 1638, he was 
sentenced to depart from Plymouth, his home, his hired house, his wife 
and children, and to be beyond the utmost bounds of it within fourteen 

His departure from Plymouth was in the extremity of New England 
mid-winter, and happened in the midst of the greatest tempest of wind 
and snow recorded of the times, from the severity of which many of the 
colonists were frozen and perished." " When the snow was up to the 
knee and rivers to wade through up to the middle, and not so much as 
one Indian to be found in that extremity of weather to afford either 
fire or harbour, such as themselves had, being retired into the swamps 
and thickets, where they were not to be found in any condition, we lay 
divers nights together, and were constrained with the hazard of our 
lives to betake ourselves to Narragansett Bay." ' Through which he was 
preserved and came within the limit of his sentence, on December i8th, 
to Pocasset, the nearest settlement, of abouty twenty families, on the 
upper portion of Aquidneck Island. This island is in area nearly one 
thirty-fifth part of the colony. 


The settlement of Pocasset Aquidneck Island — Magistrate Coddington deposed 
from office in Massachusetts — Deacon Aspinwall banished from Massachusetts 
— Rev. John Clark, Coddington, Aspinwall and others sign a compact for a 
new government — Coddington called to answer in the court at Boston — Qark, 
through Williams, obtains the island — Clark settles on the island — Coddington 
settles there over a month later — Mrs. Hutchinson leaves Boston — Her settle- 
ment upon the island — -The Boston church disciplines Coddington and others 
— Coddington adds the Massachusetts order of Elders to his government — 
Coddington and his Elders left out of office at the succeeding election — Over- 
throw of the government of Elders — Coddington again removes, carries off the 
records, and starts another town and church government — Gorton and Hutch- 
inson organize a model civil government on the island — Hutchinson Governor 
and Chief Judge— Gorton Deputy Governor and Assistant Judge, and the 
first Quarterly Courts and the first Trial Juries in the colony — They change 
name of town to Portsmouth — Coddington makes propositions to restore him 
to government — He seeks a patent for the island — Gorton's opposition to Cod- 
dington's return to government — Coddington writes to Winthrop and seeks 
aid — Desired help sent from Boston — The return of Coddington with his 
Elders and their usurping of the government — Massachusetts and Plymouth 
methods adopted — Anonymous accounts and what really happened at Ports- 
mouth — Coddington troops quell the disturbance — Gorton leaves the island — 
Clark and Lenthal break from Coddington and join the liberal party — Dis- 
memberment of the church — Beginning of the Baptist Church — Lenthal's de- 
parture — the exodus from the island. 

Pocasset, the first settlement upon the island, was made in 16,^7-8 by 
John Clark and his followers, who were of the party of Massachusetts 
Puritans in smypathy with John Wheelright. At the Massachusetts 
May, 1637, election all the magistrates were chosen from the party of 
the Covenant of Works, and Vane, Coddington and Dummer of the 
opposite, Covenant of Grace, the party to which John Cotton for the 
time adhered, were left out of ofifice. 

The defeated magistrates showed their sense of injury by leaving the 
seats appointed for the magistrates at the public worship, though Win- 

•Dec. 15. 1638, 2d Ed. Winthrop, i, 344. 'Simp. Defense, R. I. Hist. 


throp sent to them, desiring them to sit with him; and, on the day 
appointed for a Fast, October 12, 1637, on occasion of the Pequot 
war, they deserted the Boston congregation and spent the day with 
Wheelright at Mt. VVolHston, Hstening to him/ 

More than sixty male members of the Boston Church had remon- 
strated to the proceedings against Wheelright. One of them, Deacon 
Aspinwall, a magistrate, was dismissed and banished.' Deacon Cogger- 
shall, another representative, although not a signer, but a justifier, was 
dismissed." Most of the other remonstrators were required to deliver 
up their arms. From among the latter John Clark proposed and Win- 
throp advised a removal of them from the jurisdiction. After some 
prospecting they met Roger Williams, upon whose advice they concluded 
to settle upon the island of Aquidneck, which he, out of love for Clark, 
agreed to secure for them;'" and they returned to Boston to arrange 
for removal in the spring. 

On March 7th, 1637-8, Clark, Aspinwall, Coggershall, Coddington and 
others, in all nineteen in number, most of them long esteemed members 
of the church at Boston, and most of whom were under no offense at all 
and were never censured,' drew up, in one, a church covenant and com- 
pact of government, vv^ith the references. Exodus xxiv. 3, 4; First 
Chronicles xi. 3; Second Kings xi. 17, affixed to it, to all of which they 
subscribed.^ The form was that of the Puritans submitting themselves 
to God and the Bible, to be ruled thereby, being different from the 
Pilgrims, who subscribed to the King and his Statutes for their govern- 
ment. Coddington, who had long served as a magistrate, who was one 
of the magistrates that expelled Williams from Salem," having larj^e 
experience in government, they made judge— the sole judge to rule them. 
This was a fortnight before the excommunication of Mrs. Hutchinson.* 
After the signing of the compact and thereupon, March 12th, Deacons 
Coggershall, Coddington and several others of the party were called 
to appear at the court in Boston to answer about their departure or 
remaining, Winthrop advising them to go off only for a time and then 
to return.^ 

On the 24th of the month Williams obtained the island of Aquidneck 
for them. The Sachems, Cannonicus and Miantinomi, had three years 
before made a verbal tenure to him of Mooshausic. He now drew up 
to himself a formal grant for it, and also a grant to Clark's company 
for Aquidneck and two other small islands, which these Sachems exe- 
cuted. " It was obtained," Williams says, "by love; not price nor money; 
by the love and favor which that honorable gentleman (Vane) and 
myself had with that great Sachem Miantinomi. Thousands could not 
have bought of him Providence, Pautuxet or Aquidneck, or any other 
land I had of him." Upon Williams' advice a gratuity of some beads, 
coats and socks was made up by Clark and his party and given to the 
Sachems. " I," Williams says, " drew up a writing in as sure a form 
as I could at that time, for the benefit and assurance of the present and 
future inhabitants of the island."" And, as Coddington was made the 

Collections, ii, 47. ^Ellis' Life of Annie Hutchinson, Snark's Am. Biog^ 

246, 259. «Elhs Annte Hutchinson, 343. oEllis' Annie Hutch- 

inson, 274, 275. '"Clark's Acct., 4th Mass. Collections, ii, 24 25 

'Callender s Hist. Discourse, R. I. Collections, iv. 81. ^'Island Compact 

original records and " copy " in Bartlett's R. I. Rec. i, 52. Boston Church Cove- 
?f,"*j' ?• I- Collections, iii, 126. ^The Magistrates or Assistants who 

filled the offices of Governor, Deputy Governor and Treasurer, the latter Codding- 
ton, are mentioned by the last named titles, instead of by their names in the 
printed records of this sitting of the Court of the Assistants. ' *Mrs. 

Hutchinson's trial was in Nov., 1637. Her detention followed. Her banishment 
was Mar. 22, 1637-8. *Elli"' « • ^' • • 

Biographies, 2d Ser., vi. • 

'ill^-'„-'*'""',^,^"*^^V'r''""' ■■''9. 34.^- Spark's Am. 
Williams letter, Narragansett Club Papers, ▼, 


head of Clark's company, the grant was drawn to " Coddington and his 

Clark, with most of the company, immediately settled on the island. 
Afterwards, on the 26th of April, Coddington, with his family, joined 
them. At their first meeting following, May 13th, they located the town 
Pocasset and a meeting house. They " gathered a church " of excom- 
municated and admonished members of the Boston and Roxbury 
churches, of members still attached to these churches who had never 
been censured nor dismissed, and some new professors.' They adopted 
a freeman's oath or terms of admission to membership in their govern- 
ment, which was of fidelity, not to known civil laws, but to the laws of 
Moses, according to the opinion of "the judge in matters of judgment." 
And they sat up a court which was a modern Sanhedrim, its govern- 
ment, except in the sympathy briefly tempering it to those who held to 
the covenant of grace, of slight improvement on the one they departed 
from in Massachusetts. 

Mrs. Hutchinson, who had been convicted of heresy and confined in 
Massachusetts, upon her release, the 28th of March, 1637-8, went to 
Mt. Wolliston (Braintree) to her husband, who had joined with the 
others in procuring the island of Aquidneck, and they, with other 
friends, during the summer went to the island. Whether Mrs. Hutch- 
inson's admittance as an inhabitant of the new island town was accom- 
panied with her reception to the church is uncertain but very likely, 
for the church, which was organized before her arrival, had " objection- 
able members." 

Those of the island church whom the Boston church still hoped to 
influence were called into question for receiving the objectionable mem- 
bers and for participating in such a sin. Coddington, being on a visit 
to Boston, was brought under the discipline of the church there, con- 
fessed himself in fault, and was solemnly admonished ; and others of 
them, who were wont frequently to visit Boston, were called to answer 
by the authorities. The members of the island church were thus dealt 
with as often as opportunity afforded, and by the performance of such 
acts of discipline, so often, its leading members became greatly weaned 
from attachment to Mrs. Hutchinson and the so-called antinomians.' 

There was the same difference between Gorton's views of government 
and the government established here that there was at Plymouth. It was 
not the bare objection attribvited to him that the islanders were without 
a charter. Although Plymouth had one " by which," he said, " authority 
was derived, which authority I reverenced," her government was 
scarcely less objectionable to him on account of it. His objections to 
the government on the island were that those who administered it 
observed not the laws of England, of whom they were subjects, nor the 
rights they provided for her subjects, that they had received no grant 
of sovereignity from her, nor were they ruling by the suffrage of a 
majority of the people, but had set themselves up as rulers and were 
governing by their own interpretations of laws from the Bible. Gorton 
was a student of law. His library he brought with him from England 
contained the standard authorities," and he understood his own and the 
people's rights better than did these judges and elders." 

The few admitted " freemen " who sustained Coddington's govern- 
ment had already become a moiety of the people, and even they, most of 

*2d Ed. Winthrop's, i, 357. Callender's Hist. Discourse, 81. Ellis' Annie Hutch- 
inson, 326. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i. 138. 'Ellis' Annie Hutchinson, 327. 
*R. I. Collections, ii, 80. Library to Samuel, Jr., Austin's Genealogical Diet. 
"Dorr in R. I. Collections. 'Minutes Warren Baptist Assn., 1849. 


them, had become dissatisfied and desired relief from its despotic ten- 
dency. It, on the 22d day of January, within a month after Gorton's 
arrival there, impelled probably by the necessity of stemming an out- 
break of the opposing masses, adopted an amendment for the purpose 
of gaining a firmer administration ; by which the form of the government 
was changed from that of Hebrew judges to Hebrew judges and elders, 
a form more highly Puritan and more in keeping with the church 
order. This was effected by " choosing and calling " the " elders of the 
church,' Coggershall, Easton and Brenton, " into the place of Elder- 
ship " in the government, to rule with Coddington, and to allot only to 
acceptable tenants the use of the soil.^ The Judges and Elders to account 
for their acts to the body of freemen every quarter of the year, that 
what had been done might be confirmed or repealed by the act of the 
body. The Sergeant was to attend all meetings of the Judges and Elders 
and to inform them of all breaches of the law of God that tended to civil 

The government was, under this form, carried on at Pocasset a little 
less than four months ; whether the rulers gave an account to the body 
of freemen at the end of the quarter, April 2d, does not appear from the 
records, but on the 28th day of that month the majority* of the freemen 
were that dissatisfied with their government that they would not endure 
it longer. They, therefore, put out Coddington and the three Elders 
and chose in the place of the former William Hutchinson.^ 

Gorton was the principal leader in this movement, the overthrow of 
the government of Judges and Elders, who, he said, had " changed the 
government from what it was originally," and who here, as elsewhere, 
had denied freedom to all but themselves. No charges of official 
derelictions appear of record against the deposed leaders, although an 
" offering " shortly after issued by themselves implies that such had 
been made.* That they had been despotic in their administration is 
proven in that of the seventy-three now inhabitants but twenty-three 
had been made " freemen," and thus the large majority of more than 
two-thirds of the inhabitants were debarred from holding land and from 
the right to vote. Besides, to this large dissatisfied majority who were 
not freemen were added, on account of Coddington's denial of them of 
the land rights justly claimed by them, nearly all of the original compact 
freemen and nearly two-thirds of all who had been made freemen. 

Coddington being named in the Indian grant, his right in the land 
was evident, while the rights in it of the others with whom he joined in 
securing it, but who had not their names placed in the grant, was sub- 
jected to change and question. British lands were at this time held under 
the feudal system, the Indian Sachems being recognized by the English 
government as the feudal lords of the soil. Coddington, by virtue of 
the Indian grant, himself assumed the lordship and disposal of the island 
in tenantry only and to those who pledged fealty to his government and 
became his friends. The land was voted by Coddington and his council 
to this tenantry' for occupancy and improvement, and was again voted 
away from them if they opposed his intended doings or failed to build.' 

As a consequence of these conditions the land troubles became severe 
and continued so, events encouraging Coddington, while the land hold- 
ings remained in this unsettled state for thirteen more years, when, 
after about half of those who had joined in securing Aquidneck had 
from the various causes departed from the island, those remaining, 

«R. I. Records, i, 63, 64. 'R. I. Records, i. 65. Callender's R. I. Col- 
lections, iv, 116. *Judge Brayton's R. I. Hist. Tract. 17. "zd 
Ed. Winthrop, i, 356. *R. I. Rec, i, 93. 'Records, i, 54. 55, 
May 20, 1638. 'Records, i, 59, 68. 'Records, i, 45, 51. R. I. 


by fortuitous circumstances hereinafter related, drew from him an 
acknowledgment of the land rights that belonged to them." 

As before, when left out of office in Massachusetts, Coddington and 
the three Elders, with Dyre the clerk, and two of the original members, 
John Clark and Henry Bull, and two other persons, Jeremy Clark and 
Thomas Hazard, who had not been admitted members, determined to 
remove and propagate a new plantation. 

These ex-officials took the books of records and land evidences of the 
Pocasset government, which they had no right to, with them, and with 
the others, in all nine persons, removed twelve miles down the island, 
where they started, April 28, 1639, the town of Newport.'" For their 
government they resolved " our determination shall be by Judge and 
Elders," and while at Pocasset the Judge had but one, they resolved 
now for a government of greater strength, " the Judge to have double 
voice," or vote. " They carried on this government at Newport as they 
had at Pocasset, with this variation only : The Judge, who before had 
but one, now had a double voice. They still judged according to the 
law of God as the Judge should determine." This was not a civil gov- 

Gorton and his friends, the majority of the people, those who remained 
at Pocasset, none the less than others acknowledged the presence of the 
necessity for government and approved of government of necessity 
without a charter, sanctioned by the people and in accordance to known 
statute law. 

Two days after removal from Pocasset of those who had been left 
out of office, on April 30th, those that remained at Pocasset that had not 
been members of the government — inhabitants dwelling there — with 
William Hutchinson as an original member, by a written compact, 
whereby acknowledging themselves " legal subjects of King Charles," 
they bound themselves " into a Civil body politic, unto his laws, accord- 
ing to matters of justice." To this compact, already acknozvledging His 
Majesty's Lazvs for their government, each member " particularly 
recorded," " underwrote " his " agreement " and " acknowledgment." 

William Hutchinson and Samuel Gorton lead the list of subscribers 
to this compact. Among the names subscribed to it, Samuel Gorton, 
John Wickes, Sampson Shotten and Robert Potter, residing there, were 
afterwards original purchasers of Shawomet — none of them members 
of the church compact. 

The record of this new compact further is: "According to the intent 
of the foregoing instrument, we, whose names are hereunto particularly 
recorded, do agree, jointly, as by major voice, to govern ourselves b}^ 
the ruler or judge amongst us in all transactions for the space of one 
year, he behaving himself according to the tenor of the same." " 

The names of chief officers of this new government were erased from 
the records by a succeeding administration, but we learn from Baylie 
that they chose William Hutchinson [who is first on their list of mem- 
bers] Governor.' They chose one, and Samuel Gorton is next on their 
list of members. Deputy Governor. They terminated the office of 
Elderships and chose four they called Assistants. These, with a 
Recorder, Treasurer and Sergeant, for the help of the Governor in his 

Hist. Tract, ist Ser., iv, 22, 24. After the King Phih'p's War, when the records 
of the many early settlers were destroyed and nearly all the land of the island 
stood in the names of Coddinsrton and his serviceable friends, the lands were by 
Legislative Act confirmed absolutely to those in whose names they were at the 
time of the passage of the Act recorded. "Nicholas Easton. one of the 

three who were appointed Elders, gave the name Newport to the new settlement. 
R. I. Collections, vii, 330. 'Chief Justice Brayton, Rider's Hist. Tract, 

17. p. 47- ^Portsmouth, R. I. Rec, i, 70, 71. Rider's Hist. Tract, 17. 

•Baylie's Dissuasive from the Errors of the Times to 1645, p. 150. Palfrey's 


sdmiiiistration for one year. The titles of Governor, Deputy Governor 
and Assistants were given to the officers of the government in their 
official records, and they were the first of these titles in the colony/ 

" It was a government to exist for one year. It was a government 
of law — English law. They provided for courts to be held every year 
and every quarter of the year, and for a jury of twelve men to do right 
betwixt man and man." 

The men chosen as Assistants might consult among themselves and 
put an end to controversies not amounting in value to £40 sterling. The 
Judge, with the jury to decide it, if brought to the public court. This 
■uas the first government in the colony with Magistrates governing only 
in civil things; also zvas the earliest provision for a jury trial, and for 
regular courts for the trial of causes made in the colony. 

This government differed as wide as the poles from any system at the 
Bay, or as yet at Newport. " It was the first government in the colony 
organized like our government of to-day and maintained by universal 
suffrage. No religious tests of political qualifications were prescribed, 
every permanent inhabitant was a citizen. The government at Newport 
continued to be administered as it had been — justice and judgment to 
be impartial, according to the law of God." 

They, at Pocasset, were living under a different form of government — 
an entirely different system — had acknowledged their allegiance and 
submitted to the laws of their King, and were now living under a com- 
pact which swept away the whole Puritan polity.^ It was a model 
government. It changed the name of the town to Portsmouth. It held 
regular meetings monthly.* 

They at Newport, governing there, desired to be restored to govern- 
ing at Pocasset, now Portsmouth, and had at an early meeting appointed 
Commissioners to negotiate with the '" brethren at Pocasset " for this 
end ; but neither Hutchinson, Gorton or any others in place in the Ports- 
mouth government entertained the negotiators or tlieir proposals. Not 
discouraged, they at Newport, on the 25th of November, 1639, further 
ordered that the Commissioners formerly appointed to negotiate the 
business with our brethren at Pocasset shall give them our proposi- 
tion under their hands, with their answers, and shall give reply unto 
it, and so shall return to the body a brief of what they therein have 
done.' They also appointed a committee for the purpose of obtaining a 
patent for the island. 

We are not informed what all the inducements were which Codding- 
ton offered to effect the restoration of his government to Pocasset. 
Those with him at Newport had been liberally allotted land, and would, 
with Portsmouth, have larger bounty of lands and of homes to be con- 
fiscated when they returned.* The Pocasset brethren were without a 
land title, could not pass any, nor secure any from Coddington unless 

Hist. N. Engf., i, 515 note. 2d Ed. Winthrop's Journal, i, 356. 'Ellis' 

Life of Annie Hutchinson. Portsmouth and R. I. Reeds. There were thirty-one 
who signed the Compact for Civil Government, and whose names are upon the 
original papers. Tv/o of these names, those of Wm, Aspinwall and Thos. Savage, 
were crossed over hy some one and are omitted from the printed records ; but 
they belong to the list. Both of these men lived in Pocasset all the while Hutch- 
inson was Governor. Savage did not leave until Feb. 2, 1639-40, after Coddington 
had provided to return there. Asoinwall was there when the Boston Church 
Committee visited the island Feb. 28, 16.^0-40, and for two years after. With all 
the mutilation which the R. I. records underwent in the hands of the Coddington 
party, to favor their government, many errors, aggravating the deception, were 
also made in the copying, arranging and printing of them. They should be 
reprinted from the originals. *Chief Justice Brayton in R. T. H. Tract, 

Tst Ser., 17, pp. 50, 51. 'Records, i, 72. 'Records, i. 94. 

'Records, i, 99. "Indian Grant, R. I. Rec, i, 45. '"Records, I, 


they, by again supporting him, became " his friends." ' It appears, too, 
that the government by Judge and Elders was not to be readopted by 
him if he were again received by them. Another, a significant " offer- 
ing," is recorded from the Newport brethren to the Pocasset brethren — 
" That, as natural subjects to our Prince and subject to his laws, all 
matters that concern the peace shall be by those that are officers of the 
peace transacted; and all actions of the case or department shall be in 
such courts as by orders are here appointed, and by such Judges as are 
deputed, heard and legally determined." "* The members did not set 
their names to this. It was signed by their Secretary and sent " to the 
Pocasset brethren." It was a revelation of its authors' deficient knowl- 
edge of law and their past disregard for it, and an offer to reform by 
adopting and thereafter observing legal methods in their proceedings. 
The Pocasset or Portsmouth people had individually subscribed to the 
English statute laws. Among other propositions of Coddington's was 
that he made to his henchmen, stated by him in his letter to Winthrop, 
as a condition of his return — that Gorton and other leaders of the liberal 
party should be driven from the island. Considering the eager desire of 
the Coddington party for office and the wrath which they cherished 
against those who opposed them, this promise, it will be seen, was cal- 
culated to arouse them to great exertion. 

Coddington, writing to Governor Winthrop, December 9, 1639, fifteen 
days after, says : " I am removed twelve miles further up into the island. 
They gathered a church and intend to choose officers shortly, and desire 
better helps in that kind when the Lord is pleased to send them, and 
would gladly see what means doth lie in us to obtain them. Things are 
in far better pass, divers families being come in, and have given satis- 
faction. Mr. Gorton and Mrs. Hutchinson oppose it. It was hatched 
while I was in the Bay, and the Lord, I hope, will shortly put an end to 
it. Mr. John Coggershall, Mr. William Brenton and Sergeant Balston 
do desire to have their services presented to your worship." ' 

This conference of Coddington's committee — what he terms as his 
removal up the island — was a meeting with not more than one or two 
of the Portsmouth men, and was not an acceptance of his government 
or of the people there, of his propositions or his authority. Gorton says: 
" I knew of none that was present at their meeting but a Clergyman to 
bless then." ' 

The " helps " who Coddington solicited from Winthrop the church 
was pleased to supply him. In February, 1639-40, a deputation. Wild 
says, of " four men of a loving and winning spirit " were sent by the 
Boston church to visit its members upon the island, to discipline some 
and to reclaim others. There are but three, William Hibbins, Edward 
Gibbons and John Oliver, named in the manuscript returns, but Mr. 
Lenthal, who went to Newport at the same time and remained to teach 
there, may have been the other member. The deputation lodged the 
first night of their journey at Mt. Wolliston with Mr. Savage, who had 
but a few days before (February 6, 1639-40) left Portsmouth. The 
second night they were met on the way by one who came from Taunton 
and conducted them to his house. Oliver and Lenthal. after leaving 
Taunton, for a time lost their way, but on the third day, February 28th, 
they all came to Portsmouth.* Their return was made in the meeting 
house at Boston after Cotton had finished his public exposition, March 
16, 1639-40. At Portsmouth* they met Deacon Aspinwall, the banished 
one, and brothers Sanford and Balston, the latter now the innkeeper 

93- '4th Ser. Mass. Hist. Collections, vii, 278, 279. 'Force's 

Tract, Vol. iv, Tr. 7, p. 8. ^Lenthal was in August, 1640, within six 

months from his arrival, made a freeman upon the island, and during the same 


of the town, who with others gave them a meeting, listened to the read- 
ing of the church's letter, and gave satisfactory answers. The next day 
they visited Newport and were entertained by Coggershall, the dismissed 
member, who would not receive the church's letter unless they of the 
island were acknowledged to be a lawful church, which the deputation 
had no commission to do. 

Mrs. Hutchinson, of Portsmouth, refused to acknowledge the Boston 
church. Mrs. Dyre, who afterwards became a Friend and lost her life 
by it, acknowledged the church and desired communion with them; and 
Deacon Aspinwall, the only one of the compact of first settlers who had 
been banished from Massachusetts, was satisfied with the righteousness 
of the church's proceedings against him and others." 

Among the objections raised by the members who were under disci- 
pline were: That the church had first broken the covenant with the 
exiles ; that the covenant binds no longer than a member remains with 
the church ; that parents and wives being cast out of the church, neces- 
sity is laid upon others to go with them to supply their wants ; that they 
had been driven out of the country. To which the Deputies made the 
following: Answer 1st. If the church should break covenant with you, 
yet that doth not loose the covenant between the church and you. Ansv.'er 
2d. Though some of the members of the church had a hand in his 
(Aspinwall's) censure and banishment, yet it follows not that the church 
should deal with them when he suffered justly for his errors and his 
misapplying of his doctrine, to raise up much trouble and commotion, to 
the great detraction both of church and commonwealth ; therefore, we 
cannot see that the church hath violated their covenant with you or 
dissolved your covenant with us; therefore, brethren, do not walk like 
lambs in a large place, but return, that we may watch over you, for we 
seek not yours, but you and your good and peace. Answer 3d. The 
necessity to go with castout parents and wives to care for them was 
denied. Answer 4th. Mr. Winthrop affirms that his advice was not as 
Governor, nor as the mouth of the court, but only in Christian love, to 
depart for a time till they could give the court satisfaction. He answers 
he did not advise all to depart, for he persuaded Mr. Coddington ear- 
nestly to stay, and did undertake to make his peace with the court. 
Neither did the court banish or drive any away but two, Mr. Aspinwall 
and Mrs. Hutchinson. Some were under no offense at all with the court, 
as our Brother Hazard. 

Brother Hibbins promised and Brother Coddington accepted that the 
church covenant should be sent to them. The junior Hutchinson re- 
quested that he be dismissed from the covenant, but it was refused him, 
and he was advised to agree to the justice of the church's act in casting 
out his mother, Mrs. Annie Hutchinson, who, with Mr. Gorton, would 
under no conditions acknowledge the church, and were reported to be 
holding meetings in their houses.' 

On the I2th of March, 1640, the day before the deputation's departure, 
a meeting, presided over by Coddington, was held at Newport, attended 
by some of the up-island men. With only eighteen out of the seventy- 

ir>onth of August, 1640, he left the island and departed for England. 
*The deputation got the names of the towns confused, sometimes calling one town 
by the name of the other ; this, probably, was the result of Coddington having the 
record books from Pocasset, which town had but eight months before changed 
the name to Portsmouth. "Aspinwall was later. Mar. 27, 1642, fully 

restored in the church. " He made," says Winthrop, " a very free and full 
acknowledgment of his error and seducement, and that with much detestation 
of his sin." Wheelright, who was banished and went to New Hampshire, also 
tendered his submission and was restored to the church. Mass. Records, iii. 6. 
*The Boston Church, not being all agreed, deferred sending the covenant to them. 


three Portsmouth freemen, only thirty-five from both towns, out of 
ninety, only five out of nineteen of the first compact of settlers, but a 
small minority in every way present, it " agreed, by this body united," 
and " embraced " the few present who were signers of the old church 
compact,' and proceeded as a court for both towns, although recognizing 
no one as a member of that government who became a freeman under 
the civil compact of government. They received as new members five 
of the latter who were present at the meeting, and disfranchised the 
five soon after the five had voted to sustain the union and it had been 
pronounced perfected.' The large majority of Portsmouth freemen were 
never allowed to belong to Coddington's body of citizens ; yet at one of 
his later courts, claiming jurisdiction over them, it was facetiously 
" agreed " that they were " a democracy," " that is to say, it is in the 
power of the body of freemen, orderly assembled, or the major part of 
them, to make and constitute just laws.'" They adopted this much of 
the Portsmouth government's methods of proceedings : That they 
would drop their titles of Judge and Elders ; that the officers of the 
government should be Governor, Deputy Governor and Assistants;" 
and that Portsmouth continue to be the name of the town. They 
appointed courts, consisting of Magistrates and Jurors, for both towns, 
to determine all causes of action that should be presented.' They also 
agreed that officers should be chosen by themselves for both towns, and 
that the Governor and two Assistants should be from one town and the 
Deputy Governor and two Assistants should be from the other town. 
They thereupon chose officers for both towns ; but instead of following 
the order they had suggested and adopted, that the towns should share 
the offices equally, they chose both the Governor, Coddington. and the 
Deputy Governor, Brenton, from those who belonged in Newport and 
were of that government. The office of an Assistant was, as a ruse, 
voted to ex-Governor Hutchinson, of Portsmouth, and then before the 
end of the term voted to their Elder, Nicholas Easton, of Newport." On 
account of the probable insurrection, an alarm was appointed, to which 
all of the inhabitants of the island were commanded to answer at their 
peril.^ Sheffield states that the most important person (Governor 
Hutchinson) in what he styles the Gorton government abandoned it 
and petitioned to be reunited to the people of Newport. The statement 
that he so petitioned is an error. Those of Newport were the petitioners. 
Hutchhinson resisted at first, but finally yielded to the petitioner's per- 
suasions and " was embraced " by them.* 

Winthrop, in referring to the overthrow of the Portsmouth govern- 
ment, calls Hutchinson a weak man. He may not have considered that 
Hutchinson and his supporters were in an unfairly disadvantageous 
position, were without any grant for any land. They were possessed 
or dispossessed, according to the practice, by the vote of those who had 
gone to Nev/port and carried the record of their acts with them. Cod- 
dington unyieldingly held the Indian grant of the island and sought to 
obtain a patent for it to himself, to confirm his title." Hutchinson and 
his followers were in the position of tenants, who would, in the event of 

2d Ed. Winthrop, i, 396. Coddington's letter, 4th Ser. Mass. Collections, vi, -^is- 
?2o. Robert Keayne's MSS. notes, Archives Mass. Hist. Soc. 2d Ser. Mass. 
Collection, x_, 184. Ellis* Life of Annie Hutchinson, 328-7.-16. ''Ante. 

'R. I. Rec, i, 119. °" They meant by it an equality of political rights 

only among the members of the few or rulinor classes." Dorr in R. I. Hist. Soc. 
Proceedings, New Ser., iii, 230. '"R. I. Rec, i, 100, 102. 

'Records, i, 103. ^The Church hath chosen Theophilus Easton their 

Magistrate, for so they call him [their Elder, Nicholas Easton]. Coddington's 
letter to Winthrop, 4th Mass. Col., 278. 'Records, i, 103. 

*Records, i, 94, 100. 'Records, i, 94. He represented to the English 


Coddington's further success, likely be evicted; and Hutchinson seems 
to have placed above every other consideration that of saving to others 
of Portsmouth, more than to himself, their rights in the land. 

Hutchinson was not chosen Assistant at their next election. Had he 
been willing to accept it, they had no further use for him. Bailey men- 
tions the unfounded rumor referred to by Williams, " that Mrs. Hutchin- 
son opposed magistracy and persuaded her husband to lay down his 
office of Governor." This false charge of " opposition to magistracy " 
was made by the church party, not only against her, but against Williams 
and against Gorton at the very time Gorton was filling the office of 
magistrate,* and against everyone who opposed the church magistrates. 
Mrs. Hutchinson opposed only these and gave her support to others, of 
whom her husband was one. She was opposed to the magistracy of 
Coddington, assuredly from the time he acknowledged to the Boston 
congregation that he erred in departing from their church at Boston, 
and she aided in deposing him from the Pocasset government. She, 
as Coddington complained, opposed his return as magistrate ; and she 
may have persuaded her husband to lay down the office he had accepted 
in the sinful alliance as assistant magistrate to the usurping church 
magistrate Coddington. 

In this assumption of Coddington at Newpwort to extend his govern- 
ment to and over Portsmouth there were present, as we have seen, but 
five of the original compact of first settlers, and a still smaller minority 
of the whole people than of those he had made freemen. There were 
upon mainland and island, prior to the charter, no other freemen than 
those who were made freemen by a compact of settlers. Those who 
were made freemen by the Portsmouth government were not present 
nor admitted to a voice in Coddington's proceedings, and it is clear that 
he had no rightful jurisdiction over the Portsmouth people.' 

The return of the deputation to Boston was within four days after 
the Newport meeting, at which Coddington assumed to be the Governor 
over the whole island. The Deputies do not, in the account preserved, 
mention their stopping again on their return at Taunton. Yet, at about 
this time, a number of officials from Massachuset*;^ and the island met 
there and arranged for disposing of their troublesome opponents. 

Taunton, first settled in 1638 by Captain William Poole and his sister, 
Lady Elizabeth, was a border town upon the main road between the 
island and Massachusetts, and was a convenient and popular resort for 
men of public affairs and for general travellers. At different times 
and upon various occasions there met here [some of them under Com- 
missions from the Governors and Assistants of Massachusetts] Boston, 
Roxboro. Salem and other Massachusetts magistrates and ministers, 
and ex-Governor Prence, Deputy Governor Brenton and other Plymouth 
and island churchmen and politicians. Captain Poole's son John mar- 
ried the daughter of Deputy Governor Brenton of the island, and later 
Brenton bought a farm at Taunton and for a time made it his home. 
Here Coddington took refuge and passed much of his time when he later 

.povernment that he owned it. Seq. "Gorton, as Winthrop said, ''^ acknowl- 

pd(Ted magistracy to be an ordinance of God in the world, as marriape." 2d. Ed. 
Winthrop, ii, 17.?. *It is impossible to do full jujstice to the men who 

constituted the Model Civil Government, or to the measures they pursued ; for 
Coddington's government, by its connivance, secured the records, and the names 
and official stations of Hutchinson, Gorton and others, and many things unfavor- 
to the Coddingtons were eliminnted from them. None of the names of those 
who were signers and members of the Civil Compact, and only the names of the 
six who were original members of the First Compact of Coddington's,_ were 
allowed to remain in his records; leaving us with but the little information of 
service to us, which escaped the vigilance of Coddington's government, and the 
little which is obtained from accidental sources. R. I. Rec, i, 71, 75, 81. Ellis 


Page 31, For William Arnold read William Coddington. 

Page 33, Lines at top of page were repeated and the following lines- 
omitted from Williams' letter: and covetous and unchristian during late 
storms, Coddington, who never had a foot of land but by one nian of 
Providence, turns Providence men oif except they gratify his worldly 
selfish ends and conditions." 

Page 39, For " the signatures of Miantinomi and Williams, which were 
appended to the memorandum, were forgeries." read No Sachem's names, 
and but Arnold's and Williams' names zvere affixed to the memorandum. 
Willianis' name zvas forged to it. 

Page 44, For " a few," read so fezv. 

Page 54, For Wm. D. Ely, Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, 18S7-88, read 
William D. Ely, Proceedings of Rhode Island Historical Society, 1887-88. 

Page 94, For Early Reeds, of Prov. vi, 56 read Early Reeds, of Prov. 
XV, 56. 

Page 113, To "was prevented by the Pawtuxet party from being re- 
corded." add altho this land Papaquinepaug, Gorton bought of one of 
them, they, as we have seen, re-claiming it after he ivith others had 
planted it and erected buildings on it. 

Page 116, For "first Governor under the new charter; largely attri- 
butive to the limited voting privilege maintained in Newport." read 
first Governor under the nezv charter. Largely attributive to the limited 
voting privilege maintained at Nezvport, Arnold and Brenton held the 
office of Governor for -fifteen years between them continuously. 

Page 134, For " Some time after the Pequot war was closed in 1639, 
and our charter from Parliament." read Some time after the Pequot 
war {war closed in 1639) and our charter from Parliament. 


was compelled to make flight from the island. The town received an 
unusual degree of attention from Prence, and under him and the laws 
against foreigners and strangers was the scene of many harrowing 
acts of persecution." 

A snare, instigated by the men at the Taunton gatherings, similar 
to that which had in the Plymouth proceedings against Gorton's maid 
served so effectually in disposing of those against whom no charge of 
crime would be effectual, was laid upon the island for Gorton and like 
unsubmissive islanders.'' 

Three months now had passed since Coddington's assumption of gov- 
ernment over Portsmouth. Gorton had lived there for eighteen months, 
" disturbing no man, conducting himself civilly to all men and court- 
eously." Notwithstanding the defection of Hutchinson from the model 
government at Portsmouth, it vv-as supported by Gorton and nearly all 
of the Portsmouth people, and they maintained it and its courts for the 
town, which courts were the only ones recognized as courts there by the 
people. A quarterly or circuit court of Coddington's, one of those 
appointed for the town of Portsmouth at the Newport meeting, was to 
make an attempt in Portsmouth at sitting. A difficulty was to get causes 
for trial before this court. Its summons would not be heeded by any 
Portsmouth people. Action was brought into it by the following pro- 
ceeding: William Brenton, one of its Judges, who was one of the 
Elders with Coddington that had the year before been put out at Ports- 
mouth, who went with him to Newport and was Elder there with him, 
and who was at the Newport meeting declared, as a resident of Ports- 
mouth, Deputy Governor over the whole island, himself made a com- 
plaint and himself an arrest of a house-maid of Gorton's, and this for 
an alleged trespass and assault on a woman. He arraigned the maid 
before this court, himself and Coddington presiding. As at Plymouth, 
Samuel Gorton now came to the aid of his servant. The kindness of 
his heart prompted him to appear in this court in which she was detained, 
Vv'hose jurisdiction he and the people denied, to release or defend her.'° 

Here, as at Plymouth, there was no cause against Gorton. Here 
there was a self-constituted court sitting with the intent of following 
the Plymouth course and condemn him for contempt when he should 
appear in it. 

We find no letter over Coddington's name describing his hoped for 
" end to it." But an anonymous informant gave an account, which is 
the only account ever said to have been given by a witness to it. None 
of the many witnesses to this — it was no trial — and the scenes follov/ing 
it ever owned this account or gave another of it ; and, too, while William 
Arnold and many others such as he, who were witnesses, were diligently 
proclaiming everything that could cast discredit on Gorton, and that 
boldly over their names. 

From the anonymous account, in what no doubt is Winthrop's manu- 
script, and the conditions presented by Coddington sitting with his court 
of trial at Portsmouth, where more than three-quarters of the inhabit- 
ants denied its jurisdiction, it is clear that there occurred there much 
of what would occur to-day if the magistrates of one town attempted 
to sit in another. Gorton vehemently protested against the unfairness 
and illegality of the proceedings. Coddington called upon his followers 

Life of Annie Hutchinson, 326. ^Ante. Plymouth Rec, i and ii. Plain 

Dealing, 3d Mass. CoHections, iii, 107. R. I. Col., iii, 208. ®R. I. Hist. 

Col., iii, 298. R. I. Hist. Tr., 17, p. 57, etc. Baylie's Hist. Plymouth, i, 285-290. 
Force's iv, tract 7. Lechford's Plain Dealing's, .?d Mass. Collections, iii, 95, 106, 
107, 402, 403. '"Judge Brayton, Rider's Tract, X7- 'The first 

preserved story of the fracas was given by one of Coddington's henchmen, and 


in the room to eject him. Gorton in turn called upon those of the home 
government, who had subscribed to the King and his well-known laws, 
to take away Coddington. Coddington's men laid hold upon Gorton 
to remove him, while Randall Holden, John Wickes and others, the 
Portsmouth people, stopped the way. The court was, it appears, without 
a trial broken up into a hand-to-hand conflict, Coddington, in his zeal, 
personally engaging in it.' The Portsmouth people, among them Gorton, 
with clothes torn, for the time the victors, pursued Coddington in his 
flight. Coddington, however, had come prepared for war by encamping 
near by some soldiers, and by calling upon them partly restored his 
order. John Wickes, Randall Holden and a number of others, most 
substantial men of Portsmouth, were anathematized by Coddington's 
court for denying its legality and jurisdiction. 

Gorton and others, leaders of his party, some of whom were of the 
first purchasers of Aquidneck, abandoned the island. The houses and 
persons of the remaining Coddington opponents were then searched 
[by those who had complained of the like treatment to themselves 
when they were in Massachusetts] and a confiscation made of their 
arms. Gorton and those who left the island with him went to Provi- 
dence.' Clark, the leader of the movement for settling upon Aquidneck 
and for whom Williams secured the island of the Sachems, who had up 
to this time yielded to Coddington and been his pastor, now broke from 
him, gave up the settled church, joined the Liberal party and never after 
took part in government under Coddington. Lenthal, who came but 
about six months before at Coddington's call for helps, as the teacher, 
had with the others taken part against him, and all within a few weeks 
had a rupture with the church regarding baptism, had a release from his 
position, had a free school opened' and had been compelled to close it, 
now, with the others who had taken part against Coddington, left the 
island ; and Nicholas Easton was fined for breach of order and left out of 

The breaking away of Clark and Lenthal, and the establishing by 
Lenthal of the free school in the summer of 1640, probably was the 
beginning of the Baptist Church on the island, though we find no full 
account of its organization until some time after. Although it does not 
appear that Coddington again attempted to hold a court of trials at 
Portsmouth, the others who were leaders in the Liberal party, who 
tried to remain to live there, among them Mrs. Hutchinson and her 
family of sixteen and her friends, were so continually harrassed and 
threatened with being taken and sent for discipline to Massachusetts 
that they became terrorized and left the island. John Wickes, William 
Aspinwall, Richard Carder, Randall Holden, Edward and William 
Hutchinson, John Porter, Thomas Savage and Sampson Shotten were, 
some of them imprisoned, most of them disfranchised, and all of them 
and their families and friends with other opponents of Coddington, 
including a large share of the original compact of purchasers, plundered 

is the one from which the others are taken. By his story, they, of course, whipped 
Gorton ; but, as the story proceeds, it reveals the certainty that the unpreserved 
accounts by Gorton's friends told that they whipped Coddington ; for it sets 
forth the fact that, although Coddington did make Gorton run, he didn't let Gorton 
catch him. N. E. H. and G. Reg. ^These " intoxicated sectaries," 

Mather wrote, swarmed over into the main, where they also purchased some 
tracts of land now covered with the towns of Providence and Warwick, for all 
of which they obtained at last a charter. Magnalia, Book vii. ^ 'That 

i.s one in which the liberal studies were taught. Aug., 1640. Sheffield's Paper 
35. Thomas Litchfield, in his manuscript of " Plain Dealings," wrote " Mr. 
Lenthal his Controversy " at the head of his article on " The Dissolution of the 
Church at Newport, the Lack of Employment of Clark and Lenthal, and Gorton s 
Departure for Providence." *R. L Collections, vii, 330. "Williams 


some of them imprisoned, most of them disfranchised, and all of them 
and their families and friends with other opponents of Coddington, in- 
cluding a large share of the original compact of purchasers, plundered 
of their lands and dwellings and driven from Aquidneck. For the time 
and number, in proportion to population, no exodus from Massachusetts 
exceeded the exodus under Coddington from the island. 

It was among the terms of Coddington's return that the towns should 
each choose and have their own magistrates for the affairs of their own 
towns. Coddington's assumption was that of a general court, the law- 
maker and superior judiciary for the island. There was no prospect 
that the large majority of Portsmouth people all opposed to him would 
ever submit to his government for the further reason that he disfran- 
chised or debarred them from voting for or against him, he accepting 
as his electors only his pledged friends. 

Williams, in a letter written some years after, thus refers to it: "At 
Rhode Island, how many instances come therein which I have ready by 
me of Coddington : a worldly man, a selfish man, nothing for public, but 
all for himself and private. I will not mention particulars at^ Ports- 
mouth and Newport, of which I have told him as I had opportunity." ' 

Gorton, in a letter to Nathaniel Morton, written some years after, 
makes these references to the Plymouth and Portsmouth troubles: "I 
say no more of this now, though I can say much more, with the testi- 
mony of men's consciences; but I have been silent to cover other men's 
shame and not my own; for I could wish to be a bondsman so long as 
I live upon the face of the earth, in human respects, that all the agita- 
tions and transactions between the men of New England and myself 
v/ere in print without diminution or extenuation. It should be a crown, 
yea, a diadem, upon my grave if the truth, in more public or more 
private agitation, were but in prose, though not in poetry, as it was acted 
in all the places wherein you seek to blemish m.e. I perceive what 
manner of honor you put upon me in [Aquidneck Island] Rhode Island, 
which the actors may be ashamed of, and you to be the herald. I have 
been silent of these things done at Plymouth and Rhode Island and 
elsewhere, and am still in many respects, but have not forgotten them. ^ 

"And I have heard that some of Plymouth, then in place, were insti- 
gators of the island. I could name the parties of both places, being met 
together at Cohannet (Taunton). I carried myself obedient to the 
government at Plymouth, so far as became me at the least, to the great 
wrong of my family, more than is above said, as can be made to appear 
if required; for I understood they had commission wherein authority 
v;as derived, which authority I reverenced ; but Rhode Island at that 
time had none; therefore, no aiitliority legally derived to deal with me; 
neither had they the choice of the people, but set up themselves." * 

The aversion Gorton expressed to the government of Coddington on 
the island, we see, was not alone that it had no charter. He asserted 
what was true, that there was no kind of right in Coddington's claim 
to sovereignty; that absolute sovereignty could be obtained only by 
individual commission from the English government; and without this, 
with or without a charter, legal sovereignty was bestowed only by a 
majority of all such inhabitants as were by the laws of England freemen. 
Coddington had no commission from either the Crown or [except for 
the first few weeks of his residence on the island] from the majority 
of English freemen. 

letter, Proc. R. I. H. Soc., 1875-6. 'Force's Tract No. 7, Vol. iv. This 

has been artfully so quoted of Gorton as to make him appear to ordinary readers 
as of the time and an opponent of the government of the State. The reference 
is to the island of Aquidneck long before it was named Rhode Island. It is to 
ie regretted that when the State arose it was not named Narragansett. 


Gorton was none less practical than other men in accepting the fair 
necessities of the situation, and in paying reverence to any government 
that had the choice of the people, for the time, until firmly planted by 
a charter from England. The proof of this is absolute, he having been 
the leader in organizing the non-chartered model civil government on 
the island, which was established by the voice of the whole people.^ 


Coddington's and Benton's coquetry with the Massachusetts government — Moosh- 
asuck, or Providence, settled by Roger Williams — He obtains written grants for 
it and for Aquidneck Island — He divides the land to please the objectors to his 
liberal policy — William Arnold lays large claims to lands — Inception of the 
fraudulent land claims, difficulties resulting from them and the inability to 
settle the disputes regarding the claims. 

It was the naturally indulged hope of the Massachusetts magistrates 
and of the visiting elders that Coddington would at a convenient time 
submit himself and the island to their government; but on September 
13, 1640, within about six months after the return of the Massachusetts 
" helps/' who were sent to Coddington, from their visit to the island, 
Coddington and Brenton, as Governor and Deputy Governor of the 
island, the new titles they had appropriated from the Hutchinson and 
Gorton government, elevated with their success and unmindful of their 
obligations to their colleagues, Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts 
and his Magistrates and Elders, joined with the Governors of Hartford 
and New Haven in a letter to Winthrop concerning the latter's policy 
toward the Indians, and advising him to join with them in a course of 
proceedings. This was rightly considered by Winthrop and the Massa- 
chusetts covirt a freak of obstreperousness on the part of the newly 
fledged leaders, and the Massachusetts court accordingly resolved that, 
while they agreed with them in regard to the suggested course of pro- 
ceedings, they refused to have any correspondence with them as men 
not to be capitulated with by us for themselves or for the people of the 
island. The Massachusetts court also assented to all the propositions 
laid down in the aforesaid letter, " but delivered their answer to New 
Haven and Connecticut men only, excluding Mr. Coddington and Mr. 

As before mentioned, Roger Williams, on account of the opposition 
against him by the Massachusetts people, had been obliged to leave there 
and settle in Plymouth. Differences also arising between him and the 
Plymouth people, he left there [Dr. Bentley, ist Mass. H. S. Col., vi, 
246; R. I. H. S. Col., vii, 72], returning to Massachusetts, from whence 
he was banished. In anticipation of his expulsion from Massachusetts 
he, in the years 1634 and 1635, had several treaties with Cannonicus 
and Miantinomi, the two Chief Sachems of the Narragansetts, regard- 
ing lands for a settlement in Narragansett Bay,' and they granted him 
the lands of Mooshasuck; it was a verbal grant. Early in 1635-6 he 
with only a young lad, Thomas Ano;ell, then in his employ, sailed down 
the river toward the home of the Sachems, whom he had accompanied 
there in the preceding year." When reaching a cove, he describes, the 
Sachems, in expectation of his coming, having gone out to him, met him 
with loud demonstrations of joy. Others, in other boats, followed along 
out of curiosity and the hope of gain. Of these who followed, he says, 

'Samuel Gorton by Judge Erayton. "Mass. Rec, i, 305. "Williams' 

statement, R. I. H. S. Col., vii, 85. Hinton, Knapp & Choules Hist. U. S., 1, 107 
note. ''^Foster Papers, R. I. H. S. Col., vii, 80, 'Williams, R. I. 


he gave leave to Harris, destitute; Smith, banished; Wickes, poor; and 
a lad Verin, to join him. And a settlement was in May or June, 1636, 
made by this company, Williams, Angell, Harris, Smith, Wickes, Verin, 
numbering six. Williams says : " I, in a sense of God's merciful provi- 
dence to me in my distress, called the place Providence." He had no 
partners. It was, he says, granted him in exchange principally for 
friendly service to the Indian Sachems Cannonicus and Miantinomi, 
and what cost there was attending it was borne by him alone.* His 
object was to parcel it among such as were on account of religious 
differences denied land in Massachusetts. A " compact in a civil way 
for government, by consent and arbitration, was formed ; and members 
admitted by Williams into a fellowship with him in the land, to be by 
them parcelled out at a small cost paid into the town fund, to all men 
of moral lives and refugees from religious persecution. 

Among others who followed were two men William Arnold and Bene- 
dict Arnold. They were Massachusetts' agents : Benedict also merchants' 
agent for arms, ammunition and liquors. During May 1637 a trouble 
arose; regarding which as Roger Williams writes, a boisterous and des- 
perate man, the young Verin, having assaulted his wife so furiously with 
blows as to endanger her life, because of her attending religious meetings, 
the town council disfranchised him until he should amend his conduct. 
Benedict Arnold supported Verin and with poor wit derided the Williams 
or town covenant, asserting that as Verin dealt with his wife according 
to his conscience it would be a violation of the covenant to punish or 
restrain him, (Book Notes Vol. 24, Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, and following.) 

Other men were, as they came, admitted into the association. Not 
all joined, and some who did join parted from it, some returned to 
Massachusetts; so but two of those who came with Williams are among 
the " we six which came first " to whom " the first portions of grass 
and meadows were appropriated ; " and but one of those, Harris, among 
the first twelve, viz., William Harris, John Throckmorton, William 
Arnold, Stuckley VVestcott, John Greene, Thomas Olney, Richard 
Waterman, Ezekiel Holliman, Francis Weston, Robert Cole, William 
Carpenter, Thomas James, whom, Williams states, were the first twelve 
admitted into fellowship with him in the land. These men did not pay 
anything to Williams, but those afterwards admitted, and the member- 
ship soon increased to over a hundred, paid thirty dollars each into 
the town fund, and from this fund thirty pounds were given him on 
account of his time and expenses.* 

On August I, 1637, John Greene, one of the twelve above named, a 
surgeon by profession, was taken into custody by Massachusetts officers 
and bound by their court in one hundred marks for speaking contempt- 
uously of their Magistrates. Although Williams sent a letter to Win- 
throp interceding for him, he was on September 19th fined twenty 
pounds. Following this, letters were sent by Greene and others to the 
Massachusetts court, which incurred their further displeasure, and, it 
appearing to the court that others of Providence were in the same cor- 
rupt judgment and practice, it was ordered that they should keep from 
their jurisdiction under penalties as the court should see fit.** A number 
of landless or new men subscribed probably during this August" to the 
government in the town book, among them Benedict Arnold. William 
Arnold earlier had been admitted to the association of government and 

Rec, i, 22. 25. Nar. Club, vi, 305, 306. R. I. H. Tr., 14. 'Williams, 

May 17, 1637. Nar. Club, v, 4-6, Book notes, xxii, iii. "'Soul Liberty," 

by Sidney S. Rider, Prov. 72. 'Williams, in Deed of Dec. 20, 1661. 

^Mass. Rec, i, 224. Turner's Greenes in Col. Hist. Greene Family. 'The 

subscription Williams wrote for the men without families. Judge Brayton, Tr. 


a fellowship in the land. To this association he ever adhered in name, 
but was disloyal to it from the beginning, and ever both secretly and 
openly in hand with Benedict in envious clamors and efforts to hamper 
and destroy it and turn over to Massachusetts the government and the 

The grant as first made to Williams was a verbal one, but on " the 
24th of the first month, commonly called March, in the second year of 
our planting," in 1637-8, Williams wrote and these Sachems executed 
an evidence of the grant " to Roger Williams ;" and Miantinomi went, 
Williams says, " on account of the envious clamor of some against 
himself, with him and other white men around the granted tract and 
sat its bounds." ' 

At the time of the settlement of New England, and prior to the death 
of Charles the First, the King was the only landholder in absolute fee 
in England. All lands were vested in the Sovereign and were parcelled 
out to his military and political supporters. These feudal lords held 
them, though subject to escheat, in perpetuity from father to son. These 
lords, who were also legislators, judges and executioners, in turn par- 
celled the lands among their supporters the occupants or vassals, vAio 
could not transmit it to their posterity. With the Cromwellian revolu- 
tion began the annihilation of vassalage and the ownership of land by 
the individual, a title in fee simple. With this change a few certain 
men of Providence, who had shown a desire to become feudal lords 
and who were quick to see the value which individual possession of the 
land would be to them, objected to Williams' liberal policy in admitting 
so many to share in its distribution ; and " as a peace offering," Williams 
says, " and that he might be free " to pursue his intended policy at 
Providence he, on October 8th, 1638, made to the first thirteen, that is, 
himself and the twelve whom he had admitted to fellowship with him 
as town trustees, a written conveyance of the land in the original 
grant; and then he with them made a written conveyance to themselves, 
as trustees for a new town in which they might be more guarded in their 
allotments, of all that part of the land west of a line afterwards to be 
established. The Williams grant was, after this, given two names : The 
whole of it, the " Grand Purchase of Providence," and the western part 
of it, the " Pawtuxet Purchase." Williams showed his disrelish of this 
in designating these twelve associates as " the first monopolizing twelve," 
though eight of them did not follow the leaders in the monopoly. But 
four only of them made claim of individual ownership in the nevvly 
set-off lands.* 

William Arnold and his son Benedict Arnold and son-in-law William 
Carpenter and one Robert Cole immediately settled upon a part of what 
they called the Pawtuxet purchase, and newcomers were not admitted 
as landholders. Benedict Arnold associated with himself twelve men 
in rivalry with Williams, and claimed to be the government of the people 
of Providence. Their's were compulsory methods. Complaints were 
made by these men that the Providence people were trespassing on their 
purchase. Williams denying their pretensions, the cry arose, " What 
is Roger Williams; we will have present bounds set," and the matter 
of setting a line between Providence and Pawtuxet was referred to four 
men, one of whom was William Harris, who became leader for the 
Pawtuxet claimants. 

In July, 1640, a report of failure to settle the difficulty was made by 

17. 'Nar. Club, vi, 300. R. I. H. Tr., 2d Ser., 4, pp. 23, 51. Lands of 

R. I., Sidney S. Rider. ^26. Ser. R. I. H. Tr., 4. PP- i-i3. 46, 65. "Brought 

the murmuring aftercomers and monopHzing twelve to a oneness by arbitration. 
Williams' Book Notes, xix, p. i. ist Ser. R. I. H. Tr. 14. p. 58. «" The 


them with propositions for the location of the line of separation, for a 
system of government in which five town managers should dispose of 
affairs by compulsory arbitration, and that " the tovv^n by five men shall 
give every man a deed of all his lands lying within the bounds of the 
plantation, to hold it for after ages." These propositions, in a paper 
dated July 27th, purporting to be a combination agreement, printed 
among the Early Records, was never acted upon by the inhabitants or 
landholders of Providence, or agreed to, or so signed, or ever recorded 
in Providence. We will lay it open when it was recorded ten years 
later in Massachusetts. The earliest deed now known is one from 
William Harris to William Arnold, dated August 29, 1640, and, 
although we find no record of the deed from the town to Harris, it is 
probable that he received one, the first their town committee granted 
under the proposed order. The second deed known is from the town 
of Providence to William Arnold, under date of April 14th, 1641. The 
recording of other deeds folowed." 

The scheme of the Pawtuxet claimants to acquire the lands developed 
the remarkable adroitness of William Harris, who, as their leader with 
claims and processes, " robbed us," Roger Williams says, " even by a 
kind of force ever since the birth of the town," and so kept the honest 
landholders unsettled and alarmed that they, Williams said, " lived in 
no order but rout, as Harris beasts, as he calls all who cross him." " 


Gorton's arrival in Providence — Arnold's complaint — Gorton retires from Provi- 
dence to land in Papaquinapaug — The Arnold Pawtuxet claimants forge papers 
to further extend their land claims — They become subjects of Massachusetts 
to obtain for the enforcement of their claims that government's assistance — 
The Massachusetts government commissions Benedict Arnold to obtain from 
Miantinomi his submission and cession ov the Narragansett lands to them — 
Miantinomi sells Occupesuatuxet to Greene — Providence notified by the Massa- 
chusetts government of their jurisdiction over them and cited to trial at 
Boston — Gorton replies to Massachusetts' notice to Providence — Gorton buys 
Shawomet, or Warwick — Its settlement, government and town orders. 

The people of Providence had for about three years been engaged in 
their land disturbances when Gorton arrived there. He, after settling 
there, did not have any personal difficulties with anyone. One of the 
men who gladly hailed his arrival there was John Greene, surgeon, 
whose experience with the Massachusetts magistrates we have related. 
The settling down of Gorton and his island friends, Holden, Shotten, 
Potter and Wickes, at Providence would be an ally to Williams' party 
there, whom, Arnold said, were already " so many ; " and would 
strengthen the resistance to the pretensions of the Pawtuxet claimants ; 
and Arnold, who with his friends had secured the positions of town 
managers, opposed their reception to the town privileges, to either hold 
land or vote. A meeting of the five town managers was held on May 
25, 1641, in which the subject of admitting Gorton and his friends 
to the town was considered, some of the managers addressing the meet- 
ing in Gorton's favor. These addresses were not preserved, and we are 
again compelled to gather from his enemies' accounts. Arnold addressed 
the meeting, expressing his dissent from what those favorable to 

Forgeries," Williams' Deed and " The Lands of R. Island," by Sidney S. Rider. 
"Nar. Club and R. I. H. Tr. 14. Williams said Harris' boundless bounds were 
impossible to fix, hence we lived in rout until 1643, when he procured the charter, 


Gorton had said, and asked : " What may we expect if he could get him- 
self in with and amongst us, where are so many, as we see, ready to 
tread us under their feet, whom he calls his friends?" 

To be freed from these embarrassments and to avoid the contentions 
the people of Providence were engaged in, Gorton and a number of 
those who were attached to him, Holden, Carder, Shotten, Potter and 
Wickes from Portsmouth, and Warner and Power of Providence, 
quietly retired from the early settled portion of Providence and pur- 
chased a claim of Robert Cole, one of the Pawtuxans, to a parcel of 
land upon Papaquinapaug river, a small stream issuing from Masha- 
paug pond, flowing through what is now Roger Williams Park into 
Pawtuxet river. Here at Papaquinapaug, outside of but adjoining the 
early settlement, they resided during the fall and winter of 1641 and 
summer of 1642, built houses and bestowed their labors to raise up 
means to maintain their wives and little ones.* 

A few months after this the town managers appointed arbitrators for 
Francis Weston of Providence, one of Williams' twelve, who, witn John 
Greene and others of Williams' twelve, did not agree to the Pawtuxans* 
methods in an action by the Pawtuxan settlers for trespass upon their 
claimed land, who rendered a judgment against him for fifteen pounds 
and proceeded to levy by execution upon his cattle. Greene questioned 
the fairness of the proceedings, and joined with Weston, who, with 
perhaps six or seven others of Williams' company, aided to resist; 
whereupon a complaint was, on November 17th, 1641, drawn up by 
Benedict Arnold to the Massachusetts court against John Greene and 
others, including Samuel Gorton, who had championed their cause and 
was the most able advocate of their rights among them. Arnold's com- 
plaint stated that it was sought by Pawtuxet men to attach on Francis 
Weston's cattle and impound them, when the cry was raised, " Help, 
sir, help," and " they hurried away the cattle," and " so they do at any 
time if any of theirs is attached." It closed by asking aid " to bring 
wrongdoers to satisfaction." This complaint and petition was written 
by Benedict Arnold and signed by himself and but the Pawtuxan claim- 
ants William Harris, William Arnold and son-in-law William Carpenter, 
of thoee who had been of Williams' company, in all by twelve men, 
Arnold's company. It was not " a petition of the people of Providence," 
as it was falsely headed. It was unofficial and unknown at the time to 
the people of Providence, and it represented nobody but the petitioners.' 
The Massachusetts magistrates, however, in reply advised them to 
" submit themselves to some jurisdiction," " then we had a calling to 
protect them." ' 

In the August 1642 sessions of the Massachusetts Court, Benedict 
Arnold was engaged with their other officers to visit Miantinomi, the 
Chief Sachem of the Narragansetts, to compel his attendance at Boston 
to induce him to deny the sale he had made of the land to Williams, 
to submit himself and tribe with their lands to Massachusetts or to show 
what right he had to his lands and dominion.* He appeared at their 

'On April 9, 1662, Samuel Gorton deeded, his wife Mary joining, Papaquinapaug 
Sand, which was passed from Robert Cole unto himself by a deed bearing date 
the loth of Jan., 1641. Early Record Book, iii, p. 013. Williams said: "We 
lived in no order but rout " from the annoyance of the Pawtuxans, but the pur- 
chase by Gorton of one of their claims should have secured relief from them. 
'R. I. H. S. Col., ii, 191-193. A fraudulent copy of the petition with Williams' 
name attached ; a fraudulent Williams letter : and a fraudulent Presentment of 
the Grand Jury were all in i6i6 sent by Coddington to Winslow in Mass. for his 
use in England, which he took there and published in his charges against the 
people and charter of the Providence Plantations. 'ist. Winthrop, ii, 59. 

*Mas3. Rec, ii, 24. Palfrey, i, 121. 'Simp. Def., 1646, p. 14. R. I. H. 


court, but, true to his friends of the Providence Plantations, he would not 
deny his sales, defended his rights and refused to submit anything to 
Massachusetts ; whereupon the court forbade him to sell land without its 
permission and ordered the disarmment of his people. 

The Pawtuxans extended their claims; the Sachems now complained; 
they had occupied and built upon land for which no right had been pur- 
chased.* The new town grant, it will be remembered, was all the land in 
the original Indian grant to Williams which lay west of the Providence 
settlement. That is all the land west of a line running north and south 
which the claimants desired to establish, which could appear to have been 
in the original. With this in view the claimants had obtained the 
original deed of Williams and added to it a memorandum which, pretend- 
ing it was done from Williams request by the Sachems, interpreted the 
stated bounds upon the streams to mean all the land bounding upon the 
stream in its whole length and upon all its branches. The signatures of 
Miantinomi and Williams which were appended to this memorandum 
were forgeries. Williams says regarding it: "After Miantinomi had 
sat our bounds in his own person, because of the envious clamor of some 
against myself, one amongst us, not I, recorded a testimony or memo- 
randum of a courtesy, added, upon request, by the Sachems, in these 
words, * up streams without limits ; ' so far all the meadows and at last 
all the uplands must be drawn into this accidental courtesy, and yet upon 
no consideration given, nor the Sachems knowledge, or hand or witness; 
nor date." The date of 1639 was after this forged to it.' 

On September 8th following, the Pawtuxet claimants, William Arnold, 
Benedict Arnold, Robert Cole and William Carpenter, but, excepting in 
this instance William Harris, four in number, undeterred by the greatest 
indignation expressed and the strongest opposing efforts made by Wil- 
liams, Throckmorton, Greene, Wickes, Waterman, Holliman, Gorton, 
Holden, Brown, and nearly all the other land holding, reliable people 
in Providence or Williams government, and regardless of the great 
v/rong they were inflicting on the whole people, treasonably violated 
their pledge to the compact of government they had subscribed to with 
Williams, and submitted their person and lands to the jurisdiction of the 
Massachusetts colony. They were accepted by Massachusetts " as the 
place," Providence, over which Massachusetts now, by virtue of the sub- 
mission of these four men, assumed jurisdiction or government, " was 
like to be of use to them if they had occasion to go out against the 
natives. It gave an opening into Narragansett Bay." And the new sub- 
jects were at once commissioned as officers to preserve order and exe- 
cute the warrants of the Massachusetts courts in their newly claimed 
dominion Providence.' 

The claim of Massachusetts to jurisdiction over Providence, based on 
the submission of William and Benedict Arnold and Cole and Car- 
penter, these four people, is surprising. " What would Massachusetts 
have said if the English government had treated Morton and RadcliflF as 
competent to surrender the political rights of the Massachusetts 
colony?"' The manifest injustice of the means resorted to by the ene- 
mies of Williams and Gorton confirm the suspicion that in their professed 
desire to establish an orderly government they were not honest nor the 
claims they set up just. Robert Cole, now by this, one of the Massachu- 
setts peace officers in Providence, had shortly before, when at Roxbury 

Tr., 2d. Ser., 4, p. 69. 'The memorandum, Judge Staples says, was 

written by Thomas Tames, Annals of Providence. " The Forgeries " 

with " Deed Given to Roger Williams," and " The Lands of R. Island," by Sidney 
S. Rider, Prov. R. I. H. S. Col., v, 27, Nar. Club, vi, 387-394. ^Mass. 

Rec, ii, 26, 27. ist Winthrop, ii, 35. 'Doyle's Puritan Colonies, i, 328. 


in their colony, been disfranchised by them for drunkenness and sen- 
tanced to wear a D of red cloth, continuously displayed for a year, upon 
his outward garment. '"' Even the astute magistrates in Boston must 
have smiled to see Robert Cole in the attitude of plaintiff and asking 
their intercession for the establishment of an orderly and quiet govern- 

" The people of Providence had made great sacrifices in providing a 
refuge for soul liberty and were strongly opposed to this proceeding of a 
small minority of their number, yet the Bay colony did not regard the 
wrongfulness of the request profered to it. It was desirous of breaking 
up the refuge of heresy by the " fresh river of Mooshasuck and Wanas- 
quatucket, and also an opening to its own citizens a passage to the Naf- 
rangansett Bay." The conduct of the Massachusetts colony in extend- 
ing its laws beyond its chartered limits and into the midst of an inde- 
pendent colony was rightly regarded by Gorton and his friends as a 
flagrant act of usurpation." " The operations under the acts of the 
Arnolds and their partners and Massachusetts, so dangerous and damag- 
ing to the peace and prosperity of the Narragansetts Bay inhabitants, 
lasted sixteen years.' Harris did not attach himself with the others of 
the party to Massachusetts, yet he more than the others appears the 
genius of the claims and of the methods of " rout " which were pursued 
so fiercely. 

When the settlers at Papaquinapaug began to make improvements 
upon their purchase and on the outlying wild land there, Arnold and his 
Pawtuxet partners appeared with claims for trespass against them. 
Gorton said: "These pretended subjects of Massachusetts thus far 
fetched, had learned this device, that whereas some of us had small par- 
cels of land laid out to build houses upon and plant corn, and all the rest 
lay commons and undivided, as the custom of the country for most part 
is, they would permit us no more land to build upon or to feed our cattle, 
unless we would keep upon that which they confess to be our proper 
right ; and they would of no division but by foot or by the inch, and that 
we could neither have room to set a house but part of it would stand on 
their land,* nor put a cow to grass but immediately her bounds were 
broken; and then presently must the one be pulled down and the other 
put in pound to make satisfaction, or until satisfaction be made for both. 
So by this unreasonable and palpable slight of their pretended subjects, 
together with the power of their so irregular a government, we plainly 
perceived a snare was laid to entrap us again ; not only to hinder to pro- 
vide for our families, but to bereave us again of what God through our 
labors and industries had raised up unto us as means to maintain our 
families." ^ 

The hostility of the Pautuxet partners in not less degree was displayed 
toward Greene and others at Providence, who yet remained there and 
contended for their rights there. Unable longer to endure the annoy- 
ance of the Pawtuxet partners and to avoid further contentions at Prov- 
idence, Greene and a number of those who were attached to him con- 
cluded upon a removal. On October ist, 1642, Miantinomi sold to John 
Greene the lands south of the Providence and Pawtuxet grant of Wil- 
liams; separated from it by the Pawtuxet river, known as Occupesua- 
tuxet, with adjoining meadows and a small island; the deed being signed 
also by Socononico, the local Sachem.* 

!S7''^*^^T^•V ^V^o Mass Rec, 1, I07-II2. R. I. Collections, ii. 50. 
'Mackeys Life of Samuel Gorton 2d Sen Spark's Am. Biograohies, v, 342. ■<4^ 

•:. .,, . r. /^'■"°'^^. ?'^*\^-J- '' "I- 'Winthrop's Book of News 

said that Gorton, perceiving the Pawtuxet men's titles to be weak, went and huilt 
houses upon thejr po-<;'-<=sions. ^^ j_ Collection, ii, 47 era 

«Proc. R. I. H. Soc, 1887-8, p. 49. Williams said: "We lived in no order but 


The Massachuesetts Court, on October 28th following, agitated by the 
Narragansett chiefs' disregard of their orders by the recent further sale 
of land to the heretics, and acting by virtue of the claim of jurisdiction 
acquired through the submission of the Arnolds, sent by the hand of one 
of them, their newly made officers, a notice directed to " Our Neighbors 
of Providence," asserting their sovereignty over them and citing them 
to trial for complaints to the court at Boston; with the warning if you 
shall proceed to any violence you must not blame us if we shall take like 
course to right them." 

The reply to this notice, although the notice was directed particularly 
to Providence, but to Greene and all the land-holding settlers who re- 
sisted the Pawtuxans and Massachusetts pretensions, was believed to 
have been written by Gorton, although signed also by Greene, and in all 
by twelve men, the backbone of Williams' government, living in Provi- 
dence and its outlying places." 

"Now brought face to face, as it were, with the arbitrary power in the 
Bay, these loyal men, true to their allegiance to the crown of England, 
desiring above all things that which the Massachusetts objected that they 
had not, authority from the crown as Massachusetts had to set up a 
government and thereby to enjoy the liberties and the laws of England, 
were brought face to face with a power in the Bay which had repudiated 
all the laws of England, all the constitutional safeguards of civil liberty, 
which had denied their allegiance to the King, by virtue of whose 
charter they were enabled to rule within the limits defined therein, and 
were governed by no laws for many years save what existed in the 
heart of the magistrate. 

These earnest loyal men now had simply to choose between civil lib- 
erty and bowing down to this arbitrary power and going into their courts 
to be tried and judged and it might be punished. With true English hearts 
they chose the first at once. They claimed that the laws of England were 
theirs and that English liberty was theirs ; that they came from the mother 
country to these shores clothed with them; that it was their birthright; 
and they had an abiding confidence that the government at home would 
in the end vindicate those rights and liberties of theirs, they trusted in 
God and their allegiance and answered." ' [Given with Judge Brayton's 

" We lately received an irregular note subscribed to by four men of 
the chief among you. We could not give credit to the truth thereof, 
because we thought that men of your parts and professions would never 
have prostituted their wisdom to such an act, that is, to assume a juris- 
diction beyond their charter limits. 

"Whereas you say Robert Cole and William Arnold and others have 
put themselves under the government and protection of your jurisdiction, 
which is the occasion you have now got to contend with us; we wish 
your words were verified, and that they were not elsewhere to be found, 
that is, out of your jurisdiction. 

" We know neither the one nor the other have power to enlarge the 
bounds by King Charles limited unto you. 

" In that you invite us into your courts to fetch you equal balanced 
justice, upon this ground that you are become one with our adversaries, 
and that both ' in what they have and what they are.' Now if we have 
our opponents to prefer his action against us, and not so only, but to 
be our council, our jury, and our judge, [for so it must be, if you are one 
with them as you affirm], we know beforehand how our cause will be 

rout " from the annoyances of the Pawtiixet claimants. 'R. T. Collec- 

tions, ii. 'Judge Brayton, R. I. H. Tract 17, p. 81. 'Force's 


ended, and see the scale of your equal justice turned already, before we 
have laid our cause therein; and can but admire to see you carried so 
contrary to your received principles. 

" Further we know that the chief among you have professed that we 
are not v/orthy to live and, if some of us were amongst you we should 
hardly see the place of our abode any more. 

" When we have to do in your jurisdiction, we know what it is to sub- 
mit to the wise disposition of our God. When you have to do amongst us 
in the liberties he hath given us, we doubt not but you shall find Him 
judge amongst us, beyond any cause or thing you can propose unto us; 
and let that suffice you, and know that you cannot maintain a jurisdic- 
tion, but you must reject all inroads into other men's privileges, and so 
do we. 

"We profess right unto all men, and do no violence at all, as your 
rescripts threaten to do us; for we have learned how to discipline our 
children or servants without offering violence unto them; even do we 
know how to deal with our deboist, and, yea, inhuman neighbor, or [if 
you will] nabals, without doing any violence, but rather rendering unto 
them that which is their due. 

" Nor shall we be forward to come so far to find you work upon your 
request, till we known that you bear another mind than others of your 
neighbors do with whom we have had to do in this country, whose pre- 
tended laws we have stooped under to the robbing and spoiling of our 
goods, the livehood of our wives and children, thinking they had labored, 
though groping in gross darkness, to bring forth the truth in the right 
and equity of things, or being such as have denied in the public courts 
that the laws of our native country should be named amongst them ; yea, 
nasty and insufferable places of imprisonment for speaking in the lan- 
guage of them. 

" Yea, they have endeavored, and that in public expressions, that a 
man accused by them should not have liberty to answer for himself in 
open court, as in Plymouth. 

" But the God of vengeance unto whom our cause is referred, never 
having our protector and judge to seek, will show himself in our deliver- 
ance out of the hands of you all." 

[They might be excused for being a little prophetic] 

" We resolve, therefore, to follow our employment and to carry and 
behave ourselves, as formerly we have done, and not otherwise, for we 
have wronged no man, unless with hard labor, to provide for our families 
and suffering idle and idle drones to take our labors out of the mouth 
and from the backs of our little ones, to lordane it over us." 

[And a little more prophecy. They may be excused for a little more 

" We will not be dealt with as before we speak ; in the name of our 
God we will not ; for if any shall disturb as above, secret hypocrites shall 
become open tyrants and their laws appear to be nothing else but mere 
lusts in the eyes of all the world." 

A^nd they conclude: 

" Countrymen, [we can but call you so,] though we find your carriage 
to be far worse than these Indians." 

They seem to have understood the character of their adversaries better 
than their enemies themselves seemed to. We shall afterwards find that 
the civil injuries, and only such which they then desired to redress, were 
not inquired about, nor redress attempted. 

Having sent this letter to the General Court, then in session, with in- 

Tract 6, p. 22. Rider's Tract 17, p. S6. Williams said: "We lived in no order 


tent that the country might be informed of what the court and magis- 
trates were doing, Gorton says : " Wethought it meet for the possession 
of our peace, together with the compassion we had for our wives and 
little ones, to leave the houses and the rest of our labors lying near unto 
these [Arnolds, Cole and Carpenter] their pretended subjects and re- 
move to territory where there could be no claim thereto or pretense to 

Gorton had been advised to go far from Providence by John Warner, 
who had returned from Boston and reported the threatenings he heard 
there against him. And by William Collins, a scholarly young minister, 
formerly of Gloucester, England, recently from Hartford, Ct., now of 
Portsmouth Aquidneck, — son-in-law of Mrs. Hutchinson, who with 
Francis Hutchinson had been cast into prison at Boston and kept many 
months in durance. He upon his release and on his return to Ports- 
mouth stopped to visit Gorton and urged him to go with him and the 
party of Mrs. Hutchinson to the Swedes or Dutch settlement, for, he 
said, " upon his knowledge the Mass. intended in a short time to take his 
life if he abode in any of the English plantations." But Gorton refused 
to go under the government of any foreign Prince, " as he had neither 
been false to his King nor country nor to his conscience."" He, with a 
few of his friends, took up their abode at Shawomet, within the Narra- 
gansett territory, but beyond the Pawtuxet river and beyond where any 
English settlement had been made. 

Shawomet, or Warwick. 

The original settlement of Shawomet was made in December, 1642, 
by Gorton and five or six others of his partners in its purchase.' The 
whole number of purchasers were Samuel Gorton, Randall Holden, John 
Wickes, Richard Carder, Sampson Shotten, Robert Potter, John Warner, 
John Greene, Francis Weston, Richard Waterman, William Woodale, 
whose names are inserted in the conveyance, and Nicholas Powers, un- 
derstood to have been and who shared as a purchaser with them — twelve 
in all ; but some of them never resided there. Within two months after 
the settlement, on January 12th, they received from Cannonicus and 
Miantinomi and the subordinate Sachems a proper deed for the land."* 
They formed themselves into an association for civil government by arbi- 
tration, like that at Providence, and made rules which they agreed to 
observe and by which their proceedings were to be governed. They 
chose from among themselves for such government the regular or accus- 
tomed officers. The receipts from the sale of lots were to be paid to the 
Treasurer; and by John Warner, whom they made Secretary, their rec- 
ords were to be kept. 

The following early items were recorded by Warner, the handwriting 
corresponding with his later signature and writings: 

Town Orders. 

The purchasers of the plantation do order and conclude first: 
That none shall enjoy any land in the neck called Mishaomet but by 
grant of ye owners and purchasers. 

but rout " from the annoyance of the Pawtuxet claimants. *R. I. Col., 

ii, 57, 60. '"Settlement of Warwick 1642," by Wm. D. Ely, Proc. R. I. 

H. S., 1887-88, pp. 40-46, and 1890-91, pp. 41-43. ^"Cannonicus and 

Miantinomi were the Chief Sachems of the Narragansetts. See Coddington's 
deposition, 2d Mass. Col., vii, 76, 77. Williams' letter in Hazard's Col., i, 613. 
Gorton did not buy this land in violation of any law over it, as Holland states 


That every acre of meadow shall have its proportion of upland, as the 
neck may afford. 

That we lay our highways into the neck in the most convenieni; places 
as we think fitting. 

That no man shall directly or indirectly take in any cattle to common 
hut only milk cattle and laboring cattle. 

That whomsoever is granted a lot, if he does not fence it and build a 
dwelling house upon it in six months, or in forwardness thereto, for ye 
neglect his lot is to return to ye town to dispose of. 

That for the town proper to all the inhabitants is to be from ye front 
fence to the neck into the country four miles; and that no part of the 
common shall be appropriated to any but by the major part of all ye 
inhabitants; and that every inhabitant is to have six acres to his house 
lot, for which he is to pay ye Treasurer 12s., and this four mile com- 
mon is annexed to every man's lot. 

Several other " orders " follow ; one specifying the manner in which a 
person could be received into the company; he was to be " propounded " 
and afterwards balloted for, and if accepted pay the sum of ten pounds 
sterling. The fourteenth order provided that " no man in the town is to 
sell strong liquor or rock to the Indians for to drink in their houses, and 
if it be proved he that so breaks this order shall pay to the Treasurer 
five shillings for each offense." Subsequently, after the organization of 
the government under the charter, this last order was strengthened by 
the addition of wine to the prohibited liquors.' 

Their tov/n records were more than ordinarily neatly kept; much of 
them written in good stenography. 

Writers have idly commented on the absence at Providence and Shaw- 
omet of a judiciary and wondered how at the latter place they would 
have determined cases of resistance to their rule. The six men first above 
named as of the purchasers of Shawomet were all who first settled there.^ 
The others of the purchasers, who were most of them early Providence 
men, remained at Providence and Occupasnetuxet intent if they had to 
leave upon harvesting their fields before leaving. John Warner did not 
move his family to Shawomet until when six months after the first 
settlement Massachusetts commissioners and soldiers were ordered to 
Providence to treat with him. Some of the purchasers of Shawo- 
met never became residents there. There was no selfish strife among 
the scarcely more than half dozen men there,* and what need had 
a few for a "judiciary" during the few months, less than a year, 
there, in which short time they had by daily hard labor cleared 
some forest and hardly finished erecting but four little dwellings, 
v/hen they were carried off to Boston ; none of them permitted to live 
there again until long after a government awaited them under a charter. 
A true and complimentary description of the Shawomet settlers was 
given by William Harris, whom Williams quotes in denouncing " his 
monstrous Diana up streams without limit, so that he might antedate 
and prevent as he speaks, the blades, brisk, mettlesome, sharp, keen, 
active young men of Warwick."* 

in Proc. of Mass. Hist. Soc. 'Town Reeds. Fuller's Hist. Warwick, 

13, 14- "Johnson, the author of "The Wonder-working Providence of 

Zion's Saviour in New England," gives the number as five or six who encroached 
and began to build. 'R. I. Col., ii, 96. *Nar. Club 6, p. 392. 

*' Lands of Rhode Island," 98, 99. "The later " Petition of John Clark 



Williams departs from Providence for England to secure a charter — The 
Colonies' League — Massachusetts government orders their Captain-General 
to put the colony on a war basis — Their troops to move under the leadership 
of William Arnold against Greene and others at Providence, Pawtuxet and 
Occupesuatuxet to capture and bring them to Boston for trial — Miantinomi 
again brought by Arnold to the court at Boston, and again refuses them sub- 
mission or cession of his lands ; refuses to deny the sale of his lands to his 
friends — Two of Miantinomi's subjects seduced to submission to Massachu- 
setts — Shawomet settlers notified by the Massachusetts government of their 
jurisdiction over them and summoned to Boston for trial — Gorton's reply to 
the Massachusetts notice to Shawomet — Occupesuatuxet and Shawomet settlers 
notified by Massachusetts of their intended military advance upon them — 
Providence invaded by the Massachusetts troops — The settlers of Occupes- 
uatuxet flee to Shawomet — Shawomet besieged by Massachusetts soldiers — 
Massachusetts troops send to Boston for reinforcements — Captives sent to Bos- 
ton — Benedict and William Arnold commissioned by Massachusetts to seize 
those who escaped — The captives', Gorton and others, imprisonment in Massa- 
chusetts — Their release and banishment by the Massachusetts court from 
Massachusetts, from Providence and from their own Shawomet lands — They 
arrive upon the island — Island Aquidneck's name changed to Rhode Island. 

Massachusetts in her assumed authority over the unchartered settle- 
ments denided their right of government; declaring that "the govern- 
ment at home would not endure a plantation without a patent." 

The unchartered government of Providence was, in the absence of the 
King's authorization, insufficient in either law or unity to command the 
obedience of their subjects, had they been numerically strong enough, to 
resist the encroachments of the chartered governments. Gorton had 
urged these reasons for the need of a charter for the Narragansett Bay 

After Massachusetts had, by virtue of the Arnolds' submission, as- 
serted her claim to Providence, including the far-reaching Pawtuxet, it 
became evident to others of the settlers that their independence, their 
only guarantee of any rights with religious freedom, could not be longer 
maintained without a charter. Williams, Clark and others of the liberal 
party who had now come to acknowledge Gorton's theory of security 
and stable government, joined in petitioning the English government for 
a charter for government,' and chose Williams for the responsible posi- 
tion, which he accepted, of proceeding without longer delay to England 
to secure one. Williams says : " Upon the frequent exception taken by 
Massachusetts that we had no authority for civil government, I went pur- 
posely to England to secure one." * 

When, in February, 1642-3, Williams sat out on his mission "to seek 
this favor and protection from the mother country," he was not allowed 
to enter or leave Boston, Mass., so he proceeded to New York, then 
Manhattan. While enroute he witnessed the Indian assaults upon the 
Dutch settlements at New Haven and upon Long Island, in which were 
massacred many of those who had been driven from the island of Aquid- 
neck by the rule of Coddington. Not until June did a ship for an Eng- 
lish port sail from Manhattan, and on this he secured passage.' Cod- 
dington's government had the September previous appointed a com- 
mittee to secure them a patent for the island.* Massachusetts already 
had Agents Peters and Weld in England making strenuous efforts to 

and others" relates that the petitioners did in 1643 secure a charter. 
'Williams' letter to Prence and Mason, ist Mass. Collec, i. 275-283. 4th Mass. 
Collec, ii, 40. 4th Mass. Collec, vi, 186. R. I. Rec, ii, 159-162. Rider's R. I. 
Hist. Tract 17, p. 88. Greene's Hist. R. I., p. 15. Gammel's Life of Williams, 
p. 116. 'Cotton's Bloody Tenets Washed. Williams Bloody Tenets of 

Persecution Intd. *R. I. Rec, i, 125. 'Hugh Peters, Thomas 


secure them a patent for the Narragansett territory, including Provi- 
dence, Shawomet and the island, and Williams' departure was just in 
time to prevent it being patented to others." 

After Williams' departure from Providence, and before he set sail 
from Manhattan, the colonies of Massachusetts, New Haven and Con- 
necticut concluded an alliance in what was termed a United ofifensive and 
defensive league against heretics and the Indian tribes who had not sub- 
mitted to their governments. The colony of Plymouth was not repre- 
sented, but was whipped in at the October sessions. The Providence or 
Narragansett Bay colonies, being made up largely of heretics and refu- 
gees from the other colonies of New England whom the league essayed 
to suppress, were not invited to join in it." They later repeatedly ap- 
plied for admission in the hope of securing peace and relief from oppres- 
sion,' but it was refused them principally upon the ground alleged, that 
they had no charter and belonged to the other colonies." Military prepa- 
rations were made by Massachusetts to subdue the heretical colonists to 
their government before Williams* return. The initial military move- 
ment was directed against John Greene and others of Providence and 
Occupasuetuxet, who yet clung to their homes and were preparing to 
make crops from their lands.^ On May loth, the Massachusetts Court 
directed Captain General Cook, who was in chief command of the troops, 
to put the colony upon a war basis,* ordered a company of soldiers sent 
" to Providence," and appointed commissioners to go under the leader- 
ship of their Commissioner, William Arnold, to treat with Greene and 
with Warner and Waterman of Providence, who, with Waddle and Pow- 
ers, continued to reside there. On May 20th, the Massachusetts Court 
issued a Commission to William Arnold, Benedict Arnold, William Car- 
penter, Richard Chasmore, Christopher Hanksworth and Stephen 
Arnold, and to all and any of them, to apprehend the bodies of John 
Greene and his son John, Richard Waterman and Nicholas Powers, and 
to bring them to Boston, before the Governor or some other magistrate, 
to be proceeded with according to justice; and if need and occasion be 
they to take aid of any other English or Indians which are under the 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts; and to seize all the cattle of the said John 
Greene which cannot now be found as they might hereafter find' and 
either send them to the Governor at Boston or to keep them safe till the 
Governor send for them." ' This was eighteen months after Gorton left 
Providence, six months after the time he left Papaquinepaug and moved 
to Shawomet, more than four months before Massachusets asserted her 
claim to Shav;omet, anyone there notified of any claim or anyone dis- 
turbed who lived there. 

The Massachusetts commissioners who had unsuccessfully urged the 
chiefs of the Narragansett tribe to deny first the sale of Providence to 
Williams and second the sale of Occupasuetuxet to Greene, now dili- 
gently pressed the Narragansett Sachems" for the submission of the 
tribe, the cession of their dominion to Massachusetts and to deny the 
sale of Shawomet to Gorton. Miantinomi upon the urgent solicitation of 

Weld, William Hibbins, John Winthrop, Jr., and Thomas Lichford went together 
to England Aug. 3, 1641. Hibbins and Winthrop returned in Sep., 1642. Thomas 

J 76. Turners Greenes in Colonial History 23. ^Williams' letter, R. I. 

Rec., i. 458. 'Testim.ony of John Greene, Jr., to Court at Newport, 

Book Nnotes, Vol. 3, No. 21, pp. 241-244. ''Mass. Rec, ii, 39. 

'Ante p. Post p. R. I. Collec, ii, 207, 211, 212. In Oct., 1658, the Arnolds 
were required by the Mass. Court to give bonds for any judgment for damages 
secured against Mass. by Greene, before it would dismiss the Arnolds from the 
Mass. jurisdiction. Mass., Rec, iv, Pt. i, 333, 356. 'Mass. Rec, ii. 


Commissioner Benedict Arnold and others, accompanied them again to 
the court at Boston, but he would not engage with the court in any 
negotiations. To all blandishments and inducements he was unyielding, 
and even the threat made by Benedict that the sale of the land to Gorton 
should cost Miantinomi his head failed to swerve the loyalty of this noble 
chief from his friends. Far from yielding them a submission or acced- 
ing to any of their wishes, he boldly acknowledged his sale of Occupasue- 
tuxet and Shawomet and avowed his right to make them.' Thereupon 
two of Miantinomi's subjects were employed by Arnold and the other 
Massachusetts commissioners to effect their purpose. One of these, 
Socononco, the local Sachem of the tract including Occupasuetuxet, 
and the other, Ponham, the local Sachem of Shawomet. They were in- 
duced by presents, the expectations of great gain and the hope of being 
elevated to independent sachemdoms to say that they signed the deed of 
sale of the land not voluntarily but from fear of Miantinomi. This state- 
ment, although shown to be untrue, if true effected not the validity of the 
sale, for they were subjects of Miantinomi, and according to all Indian 
usage removed at their chief's pleasure. They, on June 22d, 1643, sub- 
mitted themselves as subjects of Massachusetts. This gave the Massa- 
chusetts Court a pretext for jurisdiction over Occupasuetuxet and Shaw- 
omet similar to that which it made by virtue of the submission of the four 
men before mentioned over Providence ; but it was far short of what 
the Commissioners hoped to secure, — Miantinomi's submission and the 
rightful cession he could have made to them of the broad range under his 
dominion. The two Indians " came," Winthrop says, " to our govern- 
ment by Benedict Arnold," who was " allotted four pounds for his pains 
in procuring them,* and Arnold was granted permission to supply them 
with powder and shot as he had occasion. They were the most degraded 
and venial characters, ready tools at the service of any one who could 
supply them with rum and tobacco.^ Neither Socononco nor Ponham 
could wait until the victims would again abandon their land and houses ; 
they had already entered their dwellings and had reasons not stated by 
Winthrop " for wishing to be released from responsibility to the Shaw- 
omet people. They were both thieves, and Ponham, having on one occa- 
sion crep down a chimney and rifled a house in the absence of its 
owner, was captured as he was attempting to escape by the same outlet. 
Perhaps the Massachusetts magistrates were not insensible of the ridicule 
thrown upon them. Ponham was afterwards shot by Massachusetts sol- 
diers near Dedham. Hubbard says, "Among the rest of the captives at 
that time was one of Ponham's sons, a very likely youth and one whose 
countenance would have bespoken favor for him had he not belonged to 
so barbarous and bloody Indian as his father."* 

The next session of the Massachusetts Court was on the 7th of Sep- 
tember, following the submission of the two Indians. The Commission- 
ers of the United League met at the same time in Boston. The Indian 
Sachems in the eastern portion of Long Island submitted themselves, 
their tribes and lands to the colonies which v^^ere within the league, and 
these tribes became to them a tributary people. The Massachusetts 
commissioners reported their possession of Narragansett lands secured, 
as they claimed, through the submission of the two forenamed Indians. 

ii, 115, 121, 123. R. I. Collec, ii, 265. Deposition of Benedict Arnold, R. I. 
Collec, X, 56. Lands of R. I., 97. Drake's Book of the Indians. 
27i 35- '2d Savage's Winthrop, ii, 97, 100, 145. Palfrey's Hist. N. Eng., 

*Hildreth's Hist. N. Eng., i, 292. ist Winthrop, ii, 120. 2d Winthrop, ii, 147, 
148. Mass. Rec, ii, 21, 38, 40, 41. "R. I. Collec. vii, 100. Greenes 

of Warwick 13. "Bryant's Hist. U. S., ii, 79 note. R. I. Collec, ii, 267. 

'Hubbard's Indian Wars. 'Johnson gives the number as five or six who 


On the I2th of Sepptember the Massachusetts Court caused the settlers 
of Shawomet to be informed through the before named subjected officers 
of the submission of the two Indians and of the consequent Massachu- 
setts jurisdiction over the Shawomet land and people, and summoned 
Gorton, Wickes, Holden, Potter, Weston, Carder, Warner and Woodale, 
who were now living at Shawomet, to appear at Boston to answer com- 
plaints against them. 

Seldom ever have men been so goaded beyond endurance and to the 
verge of desperation as were these men. After they had for peace sake 
abandoned their own houses and lands and gone to the forest outside the 
claims of every one, v/here they now, in all but seven of them,^ not at- 
tempting to enforce their religious opinions on any one, and having done 
no man wrong, as shown at their trial at Boston later on, they prayed to 
be left only with what was their own alone; followed here and sum- 
moned to Boston.^ 

In reply to the Massachusetts notice " we told them," says Gorton, 
" that we, being so far out of their jurisdiction, could not, neither would 
v/e acknowledge subjection unto any in the place where we were, but only 
the State of old England, who only had right unto us, and from whom we 
doubted not, but in due season we should receive directions for the well 
ordering of us in all respects; and in the meantime we lived peaceably 
together, desiring and endeavoring to do wrong to no man, neither Eng- 
lish nor Indian ; ending all our ditiliculties in a neighborly and loving way 
of arbitration mutually chosen amongst us." * 

On September 19th the Massachusetts court sent another notice, by the 
hands of the subjected officers, to Providence and Shawomet, informing 
them that they would shortly send Commissioners for satisfaction, with a 
sufHcient guard for their safety agaist any violence or injury; if re- 
ceived they would be left in peace, otherwise to right themselves by force 
of arms. The military movements of the Massachusetts authorities 
against Greene and others at Providence and Occupasuetuxet and Gor- 
ton and others as Shawomet was directed by Benedict Arnold, who 
gave notice to Massachusetts of the proceeding of these men to secure 
themselves and reported that they were ready to meet the Massachusetts 
forces." Almost immediately following the notice the Commissioners, 
accompanied by a company of forty soldiers under command of Captain 
Cook, Lieutenant Atherton and Edward Johnson, the latter the author of 
" Sion's Savior in New England." were dispatched to Providence. Upon 
the approach of the troops Greene and the others wanted by the Massa- 
chusetts government, yet living at Providence and Occupasuetuxet, fled 
to Shawomet. The soldiers marched through Providence, making sure 
that none should escape, and on to Shawomet in pursuit of them. Thus 
by their fleeing brethren while the people of Shawomet were in the field 
at their employment the news of the approach of soldiers reached them. 
The commissioners and soldiers came to a halt September 28, 1643 be- 
fore Shawomet. A message was sent out to the commissioners, who 
proved to be the officers of the company of soldiers, that if they would 
come to treat in any way of equity and peace they would be welcome, but 
not to set a foot upon Shawomet in a hostile way. 

An answer was returned by the same messenger that they desired to 
convince them of their error, to turn them from evil, but if there was no 
way of turning them, then they should look upon them as men prepared 
for slaughter, and proceed with convenient speed to its execution. 

The return of this answer from the officers frightened the women and 

encroached and began to build. 'Mass. Rec, ii, 41. R. I. Collec, ii, 93. 

•Simplicity's Defense, Staples' Ed. 96. ^zd Winthrop, ii, 146. 


children^ who fled to the woods, to the Indians and to the other settle- 
ments. The less than twelve men fortified themselves as best thev 
could in one of the log houses." Gorton was the last to enter the citadel, 
having delayed that he might help his wife to a place of safety.' Many 
people of Providence, not of those pursued by the troops, who being 
deeply affected with the proceedings, who had followed on to witness the 
result and to aid their brethren, were prevented by threats and the ap- 
parent hopelessness of success from assisting them. They, however, pre- 
vailed upon Captain Cook and his officers to enter into a parley. At the 
interview the Shawomet men inquired of the strangers the cause of their 
coming, the latter alleged that the former had intruded upon the subjects 
of Massachusetts, and that they held blasphemous errors which they 
must repent of or go with them to the Bay to answer in the courts 
respecting them. 

The Shawomet men answered that they could not yield, that their ad- 
versaries should be their judges, and, too, they being so far out of their 
jurisdiction, but proposed to refer the matter to mutually chosen arbitra- 
tors. This proposition so commended itself to those present that a truce 
was agreed upon until word could be received from Massachusetts. 
Meantime the soldiers broke open the Shawomet people's houses and 
their desks and took away their writings,* quartered themselves upon 
their cattle and drove away those who had come to see them. 

Four of the Providence men, the excellent and venerable Chad Brown, 
who now was first pastor of the Providence Church while Williams was 
in England; Thomas Olney, William Field and William Wickenden, all 
ministers, wrote on October 2d to the Governor of Massachusetts praying 
him to accept the fair and reasonable propositions made to him; but Win- 
throp in his reply declined acceding to the proposition. 

The truce was terminated by the return of the messengers and an- 
nounced by the discharge of guns and the seizure of all the cattle, 
eighty head, which were turned over to William Arnold, and other 
stock and property of the settlers, and a message "was sent to Gorton in- 
forming him that the truce, which had been no truce, was ended." Gor- 
ton and his men were no cowards. The intruders, four times their 
number proceeded to establish themselves and open fire upon the settlers 
and besieged them for many days; and until the approach of the Sab- 
bath, when Gorton indulged in the hope that the sanctity of the day 
would afford them a day of rest, but in this he and his friends. were dis- 
appointed, for on the Sabbath morning fireworks were prepared with 
the intention of burning the house, which had served as the settlers fort- 
ress. The fire that was set to burn the house was extinguished. The 
besieged, however, though they had arms during all this time, discharged 
not a piece against them, being loth to spill the blood of their country- 

At length more soldiers were needed, and the intruders sent to Massa- 
chusetts for aid, and the besieged, seeing that in the end they would have 
to yield, sought once more a parley and consented to accompany the 
officers or commissioners to Massachusetts ; provided they might go as 
" free men and neighbors." The conditions were allowed and the troops 
summoned to return home. The Captain, having been admitted into the 
castle of the besieged, immediately, in violation of the articles of capitu- 
lation, seized upon the arms of the settlers, gave them with ammunition 
to the subjected Indians, used Gorton and those with him as captives 

*" The block-house of Samuel Gorton," probahlv built of logs with their sides 
squared r^nd laid one on the other. 'The wives of John Greene and 

Robert Potter died from fright and exposure in their flight. 'R. I. Collec, 

ii, IDS, 200, 225. Force's iv Tract, 6, p. 53. 'Mass. Rec, ii, 53, 54. 


and marched them through the " Town Street " of Providence as if it 
were their jurisdiction, on to Boston for trial. The men captured at 
Shawomet were Samuel Gorton, Randall Holden, John Wickes, Richard 
Carder, Sampson Shotten, Robert Potter, John Warner, WilUam Wad- 
del and Francis Weston. Richard Waterman and Nicholas Power sur- 
rendered themselves and appeared at the trial with the rest of them,' 
but another warrant ,was issued to the before-named subjected officers 
for the arrest of John Greene and John Greene, Jr., who had taken 
refuge on the island of Conanicut and avoided being taken," with direc- 
tions to bring them to Boston. The assent upon the people of Shawomet 
was nine months from the time the first of them settled there. 

At the trial no one complained of any injury or wrong, not a person 
but the ministers and magistrates appeared against them.' Out of their 
writings the magistrates framed twenty-six gross opinions. Upon Gor- 
ton's denial of the constructions they had given his writings he was com- 
manded by Dudley, upon penalty of irons, to be silent. Mr. Bradford 
very courageously and at much risk to his interests * prevented further 
questioning unless he was free to speak to them.* 

The captured men were for their heretical opinions condemned as 
blasphemous enemies of the Lord Jesus and were sentenced * and im- 
prisoned, narrowly escaping the penalty of death by the refusal of the 
people to concur in the judgment of the Elders. All of the magistrates 
save three were of the opinion that Gorton ought to die, but the greater 
part of the deputies,'* who were chosen by the people, dissented.' Gorton 
was confined at Charleston and the others in other towns until March, 
1644, the whole winter, and set at liberty then because the proceedings 
had never the approval of the people, the masses, and it was dangerous 
longer to keep them.' 

The order for the release of the prisoners was passed by the General 
Court on March 7th, but when it was presented to Gorton accompanied 
by a smith to file off his fetters, he refused to part with them on the 
conditions presented, and declared he would wait for " fairer terms of 
release." " When the constable returned with the chief men of the 
town, who ordered the irons to be removed by force, Gorton relaxed his 
resolution and left the prison." This was on the thirteenth of March or 
after. " Gorton and his friends were so kindly received in the various 
houses in Boston that the jealousy of the Magistrates was aroused and 
the Governor took upon himself the responsibility of issuing a warrant 
commanding them to leave town within the space of two hours." They 
were also forbidden to be longer than fourteen days in Massachusetts, 
in or near Providence or any of the lands of Ponham or Socononco [their 
own land] or elsewhere in our jurisdiction."' 

With free consciences they set out for the island. " Was Captain Cook 
a good captain?" asked some of them of an Indian chief at whose wig- 
wam they were entertained on their journey. " I cannot tell," he 
answered, "but Indians account of those as good captains where a few 
stand out against many." They lodged the last night of their journey in 

"Greenes of Warwick in Colonial Hist. 4. "' We never had accusation 

brought against us but that arose from the magistrates and ministers, for we 
walked so as to do no man wrong." Gorton in R. I. CoUec, ii, 54- , 'A 

penalty imposed of fine or whipping for taking heretics by the hand is related 
by lohn Clark in his " 111 News from New England." 4th Mass. Collec, ii, 
•R. I. Collec. J ii, 133. '•Sentence. Mass. Rec, ii, 52, R. I. Collec. ii, 134 

and note. ^Upon the whole vote there was a majority of two in Gorton's 

favor. 2d Mass. Collec, viii, 69. R. I. Collec, ii, 134. 232. "Winslow's 

Defense. R. I. Collec, ii, 276. 2d Winthrop, ii, 177. '2d Winthrop, 

179 and note. Judge George A Bray ton's Defense of Samuel Gorton. 
•Mass. Rec, ii. 57, R. I. Collec, ii, 148-150. '"There bath been no 


their houses at Shawomet, where, perceiving that Shawomet was not 
expressly named in the order of the court banishing them, they ad- 
dressed a letter of inquiry from " the government of Shawomet " by 
Wilham Warner, secretary to Governor Winthrop; he replying that it 
was included in the territory forbidden them. They did not wait there 
for the reply to their letter, for Gorton says they arrived on the island 
within the limit of their banishment. Again, " about a week after," 
says Winthrop, " we sent men to fetch so many of their cattle as might 
defray our charge, both of the soldiers and of the court which spent many 
days about them and for their expenses in prison. It came in all to about 

The greatest injustice to Gorton was not in anything we have related, 
but in the untruthful account of him circulated by Massachusetts writers, 
not to justify the people of Massachusetts for they never did approve 
of it, but to justify the Magistrates' and Elders' proceedings. Gorton 
said, truthfully, that " they labored to give the country satisfaction by 
rehearsing gross opinions of us, and interpretation of our writings 
which we abhor. That we denied the holy ordinances of Christ because 
we could not join with them in their way of administration. That we 
denied all civil magistracy because we could not yield to their authority, 
we being above twenty-four miles out of their bounds, which we should 
not have questioned if we had been within them. Our humble respects 
unto all such authority hath been made manifest to all men.'" 

Through the history of these people and their struggles for life, liberty 
and the possession of their homes yet forty-three troubled years before 
allowed peaceable and permanent possession of them, " Shawomet has 
become a name not only memorable but consecrated by the heroism, 
the suffering and the Christian patience of Samuel Gorton and his com- 


The Narragansett Nation. 

The Narragansett Nation — Extent of its domain — War and stratagem — Miantinomi 
captured and his son slain — Denial by Massachusetts of the Sachem's right 
to the land or to sell it to Greene, Gorton and V/illianis — Gorton intercedes for 
the life of Miantinomi — Miantinomi put to death and word justifying it sent 
to Cannonicus — Grief of the Narragansetts— The Sachems send for Gorton to 
visit them — Gorton secures from them their submission and cession of their 
dominion — The Narragansetts called to answer for what they had done and 
their reply to Massachusetts — Cordial reception of Gorton by the people upon 
his return to the island — Gorton again chosen Magistrate — Gorton and others 
settle down on the island to abide the arrival of the charter — Political reunion 
of the church — Coddington writes to Winthrop of Gorton's adherents' opposi- 
tion to him and to Massachusetts — Coddington's attempt to deliver Gorton 
again to the Massachusetts court prevented by the island people. 

At the time of the first settlement of the English in Narragansett 
the Narragansett nation was without a rival or equal among the tribes 

small noise of Master Gorton and his friends being disciplined [by Mass.]. It 
is worth the inquiry to ask what conviction and conversion hath all these hostil- 
ities, captivatings, courtinps, imprisonments, chainings, banishments, etc., wrought 
Upon them." Roger Williams. Austin's Collections of Williams' Writings. 
^''R. I. Collec, ii, 120. 'William D. Ely and John A. Howland in Proc. 

R. I. H. Soc, 1887-88, p. 44- William D. Ely, Proc. R. I. H. Soc, 1890-91, pp. 


of the east. Cannonicus was its Chief, and no eastern tribe could 
compare v/ith it either in extent of jurisdiction, number of warriors, 
firmness and wisdom of government, or industry of its people. Its 
Chief had full and undoubted jurisdiction over the inhabitants of a 
tract of country extending from the Nimpuck country, which is now 
Oxford, Mass., in the north, southerly to the ocean, including Manesses 
(or Block Island) and a part of Long Island. It began on the east with 
Seekonk river and the eastern shores of Narragansett Bay, and ex- 
tended westward, including the islands, to the Pawcattuk river or 
perhaps beyond it to the borders of the tribe which dwelt " in the trust 
of Pequot river, now called the Thames, and was under the control of 
the fierce and bloodthirsty enemy of the Narragansetts, Uncas, a chief 
who had rebelled against Sassacus, the Pequot Sachem, and detached 
from its allegiance a considerable portion of his nation, of which he 
had formed a distinct tribe. 

The general name of Narragansetts was applied to all the inhabitants 
of this long tract of country ; but they were divided into several petty 
tribes with each its under-sachem and local name; and this appellation, 
in its original and restrictive sense, belonged only to that tribe which 
dwelt on the southwestern shores of the bay. This was the chief tribe, 
or the most distinguished of all the tribes of which the nation was 
composed, and the Sachem or ruler of this tribe was consequently the 
Grand Sachem, and his jurisdiction and government extended over 
the entire country here described bounds of the nation. 

More than this, the Wampanoags to the east were subject to them, 
but their chief, Massasoit, formed an alliance with the Whites, gave 
them a portion of the lands he had subjected to Cannonicus and Mian- 
tinomi; and was reinstated at the head of an independent confederacy. 

After the extermination [Sept., 1638] of the Pequot tribe, a treaty 
\vas arranged by the Whites between Miantinomi, nephew of Cannonicus 
and now active Chief of the Narragansetts, and Uncas, the treacherous 
Chief of the Mohegans, agreeing to an oblivion of the past, and that 
new complaints should be submitted to the Whites for arbitration. 

The treaty was not kept inviolate. Uncas established himself in 
the popularity of the Whites at Boston and grew more insolent to his 
Narragansett brethren. He threw out menaces, uttered the names of 
their honored dead and jeered at their memory. For a succession of 
injuries done to his friends and kindred, Miantinomi complained first 
to Connecticut and was told that they did not coimtenance or justify 
the wrongs. He then complained to Massachusetts and was told that 
if Uncas had done him or his friends wrong and would give no satis- 
faction, he was at liberty to take his own course. He had thus fulfilled 
the obligations of the treaty to the letter. The arbitrators had declined 
acting and he went about to redress his wrongs in his own way. 

The two armies approached each other over a place since called 
Sachems' Plain; and here Uncas proceeded to carry into effect a 

Before the battle commenced, he stepped from his ranks and desired 
a parley [the two armies thereupon halting within bowshot of one 
another], and suggested that "stout men fight it out" in a personal 
battle. This refusal was what Uncas had anticipated, and the moment 
it was uttered he fell flat on the ground and his men discharged^ their 
arrows over him upon the tmsuspecting Narragansetts. They yielded 
to the shock, broke and fled. They were pursued, many falling beneath 
the stroke of tomahawk and war club. Among the slain were two sons 

4,1-43. *The Sachem wore an arrow-proof jacket that had been pr«- 


of Cannonicus and a brother of Miantinomi. In the heat of the pursuit 
the Mohegans were arrested by the shout of Uncas, announcing the 
capture, the fall of Miantinomi." 

Miantinomi had been the friend of Williams and Gorton in their 
distress. When Gorton and his persecuted followers removed to Shawo- 
met, the kind and generous Chieftain received them and their families 
with generous hospitality and granted them land upon which to dwell 
among them, and he was not in the day of his tribulation forgotten. 

The right of Miantinomi to grant this land Massachusetts denied, 
and after having seduced his under-sachems to renounce his authority 
the Magistrates of Massachusetts summoned the independent chief 
himself to appear before them, as judges in their own cause, to show 
by what right he had made the grant and how he claimed jurisdiction 
over his own subjects. 

' It was during the heat of the proceedings of the Boston Commissioners 
against Gorton and his friends that Gorton learned that Miantinomi 
,had become the captive of Uncas, the favorite and protege of Massa- 
chusetts. He immediately interposed, requiring Uncas to release his 
prisoner, and threatening him with vengeance if he refused. The 
shrewd Mohegan thereupon surrendered his prisoner, but to the public 
authorities at Hartford. To the latter, neither Gorton's efforts or 
Miantinomi's earnest plea that he be delivered to his Shawomet and 
Providence friends were availing.^ The authorities at Hartford retained 
him, even after the payment by the Narragansetts to Uncas of a large 
ransom,* a prisoner until the Commissioners met at Boston in Septem- 
ber," when they sought the advice of the Elders, who upon the pretense 
that he, in what he had done, had not consulted them according to the 
treaty or agreement — the evident ground for the decision, however, 
being that all their efforts had proven that he could not be seduced from 
his allegiance to Gorton and Williams and made to renounce his deeds 
of land to them, and submit himself and his dominion to the government 
of Massachusetts — gave their opinion that he deserved to die.^ The 
Commissioners thereupon returned him to Uncas, commanded Uncas 
to put him to death, and engaged to save him harmless of the conse- 
quences.' He was killed while the troops were besieging Gorton and 
his party in the block building. Winthrop sent a letter to Cannonicus 
justifying the execution, and, " that the Indians might know that the 
English did approve it, sent twelve or fourteen muskateers to abide 
awhile " with Uncas for his protection.* 

Upon the receipt of the news of the death of Miantinomi, " one 
universal wail of grief passed through all Narragansett." Loud lamen- 
tations, day and night, burst from groups of women and children and 
aged men, whilst the warriors blackened their faces, sharpened their 
hatchets and muttered dreadful imprecations. 

" The chief and most aged peaceable father of the country, Cannoni- 
cus, having buried his sons, he burned his own palace and all his goods 
in it [among them to a great value] in a solemn remembrance and in a 
kind of humble expiation to the Gods."" And Pessacus, one of the 
successors and the brother of Miantinomi, sent messengers to the 
Governor of Massachusetts, informing him of his determination to 
avenge the death of their Sachem. 

sented to him by Gorton ; but that this at all retarded his action, as writers have 
asserted, is not probable. ^Trumbull's Hist. Conn. 131. *5th Mass. 

Collec, i, 331. R. I. Collec, vii, 64. "Hollister's Hist. Conn., i, 122. 

•Acts, Corns. United Colonies, Sep. 1643, PP- 9-12. 2d Winthrop, ii, 158 and note. 
R. I. Rec, i, 137. Gammel's Life of Williams, 125. R. I. Collec, vii, 167. 
'Trumbull's Hist. Conn., i, 136. ''2d W .nthrop, ii, 161, 162, 301. 

•Williams' Key, Nar. Club, i, and in Complete Works of Hon. Job Durfee, LL. D., 


The sturdy resistance of Gorton to the injustice of the Massachusetts 
authorities/" his restoration to freedom, the plea he had made for Mian- 
tinomi, and his ever kindly interest in the welfare of the red people 
gave him the highest favor any man had attained to among them ; and 
the Sachems, immediately upon Gorton's freedom and arrival upon the 
island, sent messengers to him, to recount to him their wrongs, to express 
their sympathy and love for him and their surprise and joy at his release. 
When they returned he accompanied them. The Sachems, seeing the 
approach of the vessel, sent a band of lusty men who met him and 
conducted him to the old Sachem Cannonicus, multitudes of Indians 
coming forth joyfully to meet him. Directly upon Gorton's arrival 
among them, on April 19th, a General Assembly of the Narragansett 
Nation was called by their Chiefs for the public manifestation of the 
sense of the wrong done them and for the adoption of measures to right 
them. An accusation, plainly false, was made by the Massachusetts 
Magistrates against the planters of encouraging the Narragansetts to 
war. The Narragansetts, at this time a powerful tribe, needed no 
encouragement to leap in avenging warfare ; they ached for it. Only 
Gorton's influence with them and their heed to his persuasion that they 
refrain from violence and await the better righting of their wrongs 
by the English government, which all felt sure would be done, restrained 
them from the slaughter of many Massachusetts settlers. An Act of 
Submission, which the Massachusetts Commissioner had been unable 
to obtain from them, was procured from them by Gorton. Williams 
had not yet returned with the charter, and so from necessity, as well 
as propriety, the submission was taken to the parent government. A 
formal act, setting forth their reasons therefor, submitting themselves 
and granting their entire dominion to the government of the King, was 
drawn up by Gorton, and it was subscribed to by Pessicus, Chief 
Sachem, brother and successor of the late Miantinomi, and Cannonicus 
and his son Mixan.' The article vv'as also a peace treaty in which they, 
yielding to Gorton's advice, agreed not to war for revenge, but to 
submit their wrongs and their redress to the justice of Great Britain; 
and although civil war in England prevented that government from 
protecting them in their rights or redressing their grievances and the 
killing of Miantinomi went unavenged, the Narragansetts, out of regard 
for Gorton and Williams, never violated this agreement, even after 
they had despaired of relief from England. They remained neutral 
in war until forced from it by the other colonies assaulting them.'' 

At the time of Gorton and his company's release " the triumph of 
Massachusetts seemed complete; yet within forty days this despised 
handful of men, by a master stroke, snatched victory from defeat." 
With matchless statesmanship they induced the Narragansett Indians 
to cede the coveted Narragansett territory to the King, and thus raised 
a perpetual bulwark against a final conquest of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations by Massachusetts Bay.' 

The Article of Submission and Cession by the Narragansett Nation 
contains the following: We, the Chief Sachems, Princes or Governors 
of the Narragansetts [in that part of America now called New England] 

Chief Justice R. I. '"R. I. Collec, vii, 194. Gorton was a clever lin- 

guist; his eldest son also. They were of the few who understood the Indians 
and could converse with them freely. *" Rhode Island's claim to a 

tract of territory on which without doubt depended her existence," Dr. Henry 
E. Turner in Colonial Hist, of Greene Family. " They," of Shav/omet, " fearing 
to be again troubled, the Mass. seeking a patent for some of the Narragansett 
country, they procured an actual and solemn submission of the Sachems," Cal- 
lender in R. I. Collec, iv, 90. ^Judge Durfee, His Works, Gladding 

and Proud, Prov., 1849. »Wm. D. Ely, Proc. Mass. Hist. See, 1887-88. 


together with the joint and unanimous consent of all our people, bend- 
ing their hearts with one consent, freely and voluntarily give ourselves, 
peoples, lands, rights, inheritances, and possessions in themselves and 
their heirs successively forever, unto the government of Prince Charles, 
King of Great Britain, forever, to be governed according to the ancient 
laws established in the realm and kingdom of England, as loving and 
obedient subjects of his Majesty; to be ruled according to his princely 
wisdom, council and laws of that honorable State of old England, upon 
conditions of His Majesty's royal protection and righting us of wkat 
wrong is or may be done unto us. To have our causes heard and tried 
according to his just and equal laws. Nor can we yield ourselves unto 
any that are subjects themselves in any cause; having ourselves been 
the Chief Sachems or Princes successively of the country time out of 
mind. And for our present and lawful enacting hereof, being so far 
remote from His Majesty, we have by joint consent made choice of 
four of his loyal and loving subjects, our trusty and well beloved friends, 
Samuel Gorton, John Wickes, Randall Holden, and John Greene, 
whom we have deputied and made our lawful Attorneys and Com- 
missioners, not only for the acting and performing of this our deed, 
but also for the safe custody, careful conveyance and declaration 
hereof unto his grace." 

The Chief Sachems having been sent for by Massachusetts to make 
their appearance at Boston and answer for what they had done to the 
General Court then approaching, replied, on May 24th, in a letter con- 
taining the following: 

We understand you desire that we should come to Massachusetts 
at the time of your Court now approaching. Our occasions at this same 
time are very great, and the more because of the loss in that manner 
of our late deceased brother, upon which occasion, if we should not 
stir ourselves to give testimony of our faithfulness unto the cause of 
that, our so unjust deprivation of such an instrument as he was amongst 
us for our common good, we should fear his blood would lie upon us; 
so we desire your reasons why you seem to advise us not to go out 
against our so inhuman and cruel adversary, who took so great a 
ransom to release him and his life also. Our brother was willing to 
stir much abroad to converse with men, and we see a sad event there- 
upon. Take it not ill therefore, though we resolve to, keep at home, and 
so at this time do not repair unto you according to your request ; and the 
rather because we have subjected ourselves, our lands and possessions, 
with all the rights and inheritances of us and our people, either by 
conquest, voluntary subjection or otherwise, unto that famous and 
honorable government of that royal kingdom of King Charles, and that 
State of old England, to be ordered and governed according to the laws 
and customs thereof; not doubting of the continuance of that former 
love that hath been betwixt you and us. but rather to have it increase; 
hereby being subject now (and that with joint and voluntary consent') 
unto the same King and State yourselves are; so that if any small 
thing of difference shall fall out betwixt us, only the sending of a 
messenger may bring it to right again; but if any great matter should 
fall (which we hope and desire will not nor may not), then neither 
yourselves nor we are to be judges ; and both of us are to have recourse 
and repair unto that honorable and just government.* 

On June 20th a General Court of the Commissioners put in trust 
for the publication of the Act of Submission was held, and a letter was 

*R. I. Rec, i, 134. 'R. I. Rec, i, 136. «R. I. Rec, i, 138. This 

submission of the Narragansetts to the government of England of the land as 


prepared by them and copies subscribed to by their Secretary, sent 
to both the Massachusetts Court and that of the United Colonies then 
assembled [there being, Gorton says, fear and jealousies raised up in 
their minds that the Narragansetts would harm them], informing them 
of the voluntary performance of their act of the cession of their lands 
and of their agreement to abide a peaceable settlement of all difficulties 
between them, the latter thus concluding: That so not ourselves only, 
who are eye and ear witnesses hereof, but you also, may follow our 
occasions and employments without any extraordinary care or fear of 
the people aforesaid. But if either you or we find anything among 
them too grevious to be borne, they not making any violent assault upon 
us, we know whither and to whom we are to repair and have recourse 
for redress, as we bend our allegiance and subjection unto our King 
and State, unto which they are become fellow-subjects with ourselves; 
and therefore of necessity His Majesty's princely care must reach unto 

Upon the receipt of this at Boston, messengers were again dispatched 
to the Sachems to persuade them to repudiate the transaction and yet 
submit to Massachusetts, and to dissuade them from taking counsel 
from men, Winthrop says, "such as we had banished;'" but when the 
messengers came to Cannonicus he would not admit them into his 
wigwam and remained within, while the messengers stood for two 
hours out in the rain.^ When he did admit them, he lay long on his 
couch and would not speak to them more than a few forward speeches, 
but referred them to Pessicus, who, coming after some four hours, 
showed them into an ordinary wigwam and there had conference with 
them the most part of the night. 

The seizure of Shawomet and the new light Cannonicus " had gained 
respecting the weakness of his neighbors did not move him to break 
the faith which he had pledged to them. He might have done it with 
impunity and with profit. The Boston theologians, who had found 
reasons wherewith to satisfy the conscience of the Magistracy with the 
death of Miantinomi, could have found equally good ones to justify 
Cannonicus in the repudiation of the grants to misbelievers such as 
Gorton and Williams; but against all hopes of favor or money the old 
barbarian kept his word." The messengers were answered, Winthrop 
says, " full to the question,'" and they returned, without accomplishing 
anything, to Boston. 

No measure could be more offensive to the Massachusetts Magistrates 
than the cession act of the Narragansetts procured by Gorton, or could 
more provoke their resentment, because it was their own intention and 
practice to "acquire the subjection of the same territory.'"" They had 
fruitlessly made every effort to obtain it. No act ever better sensed 
the main purpose of its promoter than this. It was by the King and 
his Commissioners held to be the original of all claims to the territory ; 
cutting the knoj of the question pending between the disputants for it; 
was declared by them to be the best of all claims, and therefore they 
definitely allotted this territory to the government of the Williams' 
charter, for which he who drew the act intended it."* 

The whole Liberal party, and that comprised seven-eighths of the 

was then the Enelish practice was virtually but a session of sovereignty, as 
England acknowledged to the Narragansetts the use or disposition of the soil, 
and assayed to protect them in their right to it. The Mass. Court vainly sought 
the Narragansetts submission for their claimed double right of sovereignty and 
the use or disposition of the soil to settlers. ''2d Winthrop, ii, 203. 

•R. I. Collec, vii, 161, 191. *2d Winthrop, ii, 203. Nar. Club, ii. 

"Chalmers' Political Annals, Book i, ch. xi, p. 273. 'R. I. Rec, iii, 40, 


people inhabiting Providence, Shawomet and Aquidneck Island, had 
been alarmed and distressed by the proceedings of Massachusetts, and 
were deeply in sympathy with Gorton and the others of the Shawomet 
people. William Arnold, in a letter to Massachusetts,'' writes : " The 
most part of the colony stand affected with them against Massachusetts' 
dealings." Made shelterless in New England mid-winter, " only the 
kindness of their friends saved their wives and children from utter 
extermination."^ The large share of the inhabitants of Portsmouth 
had been members with Gorton of the model civil government he v/ith 
Hutchinson established there. Those who were driven away were 
only the leading ones of Coddington's opponents. The larger part of 
the Liberal party remained there. They were the popular and majority 
party, and were emphatically law and order men, ardent advocates of 
civil government and civil magistracy there, and were opposed to no 
magistracy but that which was corrupt and that had illegally set itself 
up. The restoration to the island of Gorton, their leader and so able 
an advocate of their principles, was of " much strength '" to the cause 
and was accordingly hailed with delight by the people. Although 
Coddington at Newport claimed jurisdiction over the Portsmouth people, 
and tried in his high court such of them as he could entrap in it, 
Portsmouth men maintained their own courts, chose their own officers, 
and for these all enjoyed the franchise privileges; and they, immediately 
upon Gorton's arrival, chose him to the office of Judge or Magistrate 
as an expression of their loyalty and affection.' In this office he was 
continued for many years." Coddington did not hold his court in 

Trusting that "in due season they would receive directions for their 
well ordering " and the protection that would enable them to return 
to their homes at Shawomet, the banished people, Gorton with them, 
quietly settled down upon the island; they and the people of Portsmouth 
eagerly awaiting the arrival of the charter.' 

About two years previous to this,* Deacon Aspinwall of Portsmouth, 
who was the only one of the first island settlers that Massachusetts 
had banished, had returned to the church. " He made," says Winthrop, 
" a very firee and full acknowledgement of his error and seducement, 
and that with much detestation of his sin." Mr. Wheelright, who had 
occasioned the separation and emigration of the company to the island, 
eventually also tendered to the church his submission. The church 
authority was well established in Coddington's court, so far as it could 
exercise its authority. Though he " maintained " his court at Newport, 
its work was at about an end, the business resting with the local Magis- 
trates of the towns. He wrote to Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts 
the following: "Gorton is here against my mind and shall not be 
protected by me. A party here adhere to Gorton and his company in 
both plantations and judge them so much strength to the place, but are 
no friends to us and you."* As they remained on the island and did not 
depart, as did the Hutchinsons and others, the correspondence was 
continued between Massachusetts and those here now " members of 
their church," to again deliver them into their hands, but the people 

41, 61. 62, 63. Fuller's Hist. Warwick, 28. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, igS- Palfrey's 
Hist. N. E., ii, 603. Williams, Nar. Club, vi, R. I. Collec. 'R. I. Collec., 

ii, 207-212. ^Turners Greenes of Warwick. 'Coddington's 

letter, post p. 'Winthrop's Defense, 83, post p. Arnold's Hist. R. I., 

i, 160. The local judges were later made the Commissioners and 

Deputies or Representatives of the towns in the charter government. 
"' Gorton had no intention of immediately leaving Rhode Island." Palfrey, ii, 
223 note. R. I. Collec, ii, 165. Force's iv, Tract 6, p. 96. 'On Mar. 

27, 1642. "Mass. Arch., ii, 4, 5. "R. I. Collec, ii, 165. 



having notice thereof did akogether detest such a course; so they still 
abode and followed their employment.'" Both Williams and Gorton 
in their writings referring to Aquidneck called it Rhode Island. Dur- 
ing this year the island was officially given this name. 


Williams arrives with the charter for government of mainland and island, al! 
as " Providence Plantations " — Organization of government — Williams Gov- 
ernor, Clark Deputy Governor, Gorton Assistant and Judge — The people sub- 
scribe to the King and his laws under the charter — A code of laws for the 
government of the colony — Deputies, or Commissioners, sent from all the 
towns — Imprisonment for debt abolished — Cannonicus again grants Narragan- 
sett lands (Wickford) to Williams — Williams leaves Providence, builds a 
Trading House on his grant and settles on it — Assembly of the chartered gov- 
ernment at Portsmouth — Movement to allot lands at Wickford and to return to 
Shawomet — Rival claims of Plymouth and Massachusetts — Arnold directed 
by Massachusetts to remove any who should settle — Coddington and his briefless 
court— His danger from the people — Massachusetts government attaches Prov- 
idence and Shawomet, and sends to bring the people to Boston — Massachu- 
setts begins war against the Narragansetts — Soldiers sent against them — Mes- 
sengers' and soldiers' repeated attempts to secure the Narragansetts' submis- 
sion and to bring their chieftains to Boston — Repeated failures of their mission 
—The messengers visit Williams at his Trading House, receive a letter from 
him and return to Boston — The CoUeagued colonies declare war against the 
Narragansetts — Reasons for the war ordered to be published— Three hun- 
dred troops and a fleet and other men for it ordered raised and a fort built upon 
Shawomet — Notice from Williams to Massachusetts of a treaty of neutrality 
entered into between the Narragansetts and the government of the Providnce 

Charles the First had left Whitehall, then the seat of the English 
government, on January loth, 1642-3, before Williams left Providence, 
and Parliament had, in November, 1643. constituted Commissioners 
empowered to dispose of all things regarding the Plantations;' from 
whom Williams, on the 14th of March, 1643-4, procured a charter for 
the " Providence Plantations," '' bounding northward and northeast 
on the patent of Massaclrusetts, and southeast on Plymouth patent, south 
on the ocean, and on the west and northwest by the Indians called the 
Narragansetts; the whole tract extending about twenty-five miles into 
the Pequot river and country. And, whereas, divers well affected and 
industrious English inhabitants of the towns of Providence, Ports- 
mouth and Newport, in the tract aforesaid, have adventured to make 
a near neighborhood and society with the great body of the Narragan- 
setts; and have also purchased and are purchasing of the natives other 
places which may he convenient for Plantations : and, whereas, the 
English have represented their' desire to the Earl and Commissioners 
to have their beginning approved and confirmed by granting unto them 
a Free Charter of Civil Incorporation and Government, that they may 
order and govern their Plantations in such a manner as to maintain quiet 
and peace both among themselves and toward all men zvith zvhom they 
shall have to do. In due consideration of said premises, the said Robert 
Earl of Warwick, Govern«r-in-Chief and Lord High Admiral of the 
said Plantations, and the greater number of the said Commissioners 
whose names and seals are here underwritten and subjoined, do by the 
aforesaid ordinance of the Lord and Commons give grant and confirm 

*R. I. Rec, i, 143, 144. R. I. Collec, iv, 222. 'This territory and its 


to the aforesaid inhabitants of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth 
and Newport a free and absolute Charter of Incorporation, to be known 
by the name of the Incorporation of Providence Plantations^ in the 
Narragansett Bay; together with full power and authority to rule them- 
selves and such others as shall hereafter inhabit within any part of the 
said tract of land."^ 

The patent provided for prospective settlements, covering as was 
intended and had been planned by these people, besides the lands where 
settlements were established, any lands now granted or that should 
hereafter be granted for settlement by the Indians to Gorton and his 
friends, who were preparing to build dwellings when Williams departed.* 

Williams upon his return was saved from the long route via Man- 
hattan by a letter furnished him by Northumberland, Fernwick and 
ten other Parliament peers and Commoners, commanding the Massa- 
chusetts Magistrates to not molest him and to regard the charter; wdth 
which letter and charter he, on September 17th, 1644, landed at Boston. 
Upon Williams' arrival with the charter and shield to his planters 
from the aggressions of the Massachusetts rulers, bitter censures were 
poured out by the latter upon the heads of Peters and Weld, their 
unsuccessful agents.** The delight of the settlers of the Providence 
Plantations was great and expressed by public demonstrations. The 
charter, says Gorton, " was joyfully received by the entire colony,'" 
by those of Shawomet not the least, for it gave to all the plantations 
the power of government that would, it was thought, protect them in 
the peaceful possession of their lands and homes. 

The Parliament Commissioners, after Williams' departure on August 
19th, 1644, ia response to complaints which had been sent to them of 
the invasion of the Plantations and the imprisonment of Gorton and 
his companions, sent a letter of reproof to the Massachusetts authori- 
ties, which letter probably as early as October reached them.' Yet the 
Massachusetts Court, undismayed by all, on October 17th, 1644, sent 
a letter forbidding any person intending to settle at Shawomet to do so, 
and asserted their resolutions to maintain what they called their rights.' 

" With all expedition," in October or November, 1644, at Portsmouth, 
" a joint course was held for instructing the people into the power of 
the charter and liberties thereof, for the exercise of the authority in the 
execution of law for the good and quiet of the people." Representatives 
from all the towns in the colony were present, and they formed an 
organization of government under the charter, which included all the 

government could not well have been named otherwise than Providence Planta- 
tions, for Providence was the main settlement and there was not then such a 
place as Rhode Island : This name was given by the Island Court to Aquidneck 
Island on Mar. 13, 1643-4, after the last reading of Williams' charter upon its 
passage by the Foreign Commissioners in England. R. I. Rec, i, 127. R. I. 
Collec, iv, 88. 'R. I. Rec, i, 143-146. English land at this time was 

owned by the government. Its patent, as that to Mass., was both a grant of 
dominion, i. e., the right to govern the inhabitants of it and a c^ant of the right 
of loyalists to its use. One of Williams' offenses to Mass. was his _ assertion 
that they should not receive the use of the land from Eng. This opinion was 
held also by Gorton and most others of the Prov. Plantations, and in accordanca 
with this view the patent applied for and received by Williams granted only 
dominion, recognizing the Indians as the rightful lords to its use. This right 
the inhabitants of Prov. Plantations received by grant from the Indians. The 
Feudal system of government ownership of English lands was shortly afterwards 
abolished. *There was no town upon the wild lands called by the Indians when Williams went to obtain the charter, but before he returned 
the settlers had built there and been driven from the town, now of about four 
little dwellings. 'Remarks of Thomas Aspinwall. Sidney S. Rider, 

Pub. Prov. 'R. I. Collec, ii, 121. 'Baylie's Hist. Plymouth, i, 

250. 'R. I. H. Tract 17, p. no. R. I. Collec, ii, 166. 'Gorton's 


towns within the Narragansett tract, under the name of the Incorpora- 
tion of the Providence Plantations.' No records of the names of the 
corporators and of only part of its officers are preserved. Williams 
iwas chosen Governor;'" Clark a Representative of Newport, doubtless 
one of "the Commissioners" present whom Coddington says "joined 
them,'" was chosen Deputy Governor;' Gorton was chosen an Assistant 
and Judge ;^ and other Commissioners from Portsmouth and Shawomet 
accepted offices to which they were chosen.* 

By this charter organization " it was then that the inhabitants of the 
State first became a corporate people."° This was the beginning, with 
Williams the first Governor, of the government of the present State. 
The Plantation of Providence immediately subscribed to, constructed 
and conducted its government under it and in accordance with the 
charter provisions. It enforced its orders. It was, according to the 
then highest earthly authority, the English government, a legally con- 
stituted and legally organized government, and although most of the 
early records are destroyed, sufficient evidence to assure us of the 
exercise of its authority at this time remains. It was the beginning of 
the chartered government granting and maintaining unlimited freedom 
in matters of conscience and franchise rights to all its people. A 
remarkable code of laws, one of the earliest compilation of laws in 
American history, in which Gorton's wisdom and literary talent, and 
also his superior legal acquirements, are apparent, was drawn up for 
the government of the colony. "In the construction of this code, caie 
was taken to avoid the errors of which Gorton had complained in the 
judicial procedures of the other colonies by making each section con- 
form to existing English law, reference to the corresponding English 
Statutes being placed at the end thereof." It forbade imprisonment for 
debt, and in other respects was in advance of contemporary legislation. 
The position against witchcraft indicates a prevailing scepticism here 
at the time when Massachusetts was under the spell of the delusion, 
soon to break out in an appalling epidemic of persecution.' The men 
of Shawomet were particularly accused by the Massachusetts authori- 
ties, in a letter addressed to the agent of the colony in England, for 
" crying out against them that putteth people to death for witches, for 

account in R. I. Collec, ii, 165, 166, R. I. H. Tract 17, P- no. "Had an organi- 
zation of the whole colony in the fall at Portsmouth, Gorton and others accepting 
the places to which chosen." Judge Brayton in Rider's Tract 17. 
"Williams in his letter, R. I. Rec, i, 458, writes: "Myself the Chief-officer in 
this colony," see his letter in latter portion of these pages. R. I. Collec. iii, 
159-162. Williams was in 1652, "as well as before this time, elected to the 
office of President or Governor of the colony." Judge Durfee, His Works, 177. 
^Coddington's letter to Winthrop, Nov. 11, 1646, "The Commissioners have joined 
them in the same charter." "Capt. John Laveret of Mass. writes, in 

about 1651, to Thos. Tempee of London, Eng. : "It is creditably reported that 
Rhode Island has chosen one John Clark their Deputy Governor, and intend \kj 
send him to complain to his Majesty." Hutchinson Papers 382, 383. In Nov., 
1651, Clark sailed on that mission from Boston, and in the same month Leveret 
followed him to answer him. At no period after 1644-7 was Clark a Deputy 
Governor until 1670. Thus it appears that the titles of the chief officers in the 
organization, 1644, were Governor, Deputy Governor and Assistants. The 
government modeled after that of Hutchinson and Gorton upon the island. 
'" An Incorruptable Key, by Samuel Gorton, at the time of penning hereof m the 
place of Judication, Rhode Island, Providence Plantations, printed in the year 
1647." This was printed while he was in England. '"'We, by the 

general vote of all the colony, have been chosen into the place of judicature for 
the orderly execution of the authority of the charter." Gorton's account, Force's 
Tract, Vol. iv. R. I. Collec, ii, 121, 165, 166. Winslow's Defense, 83. 
•Judge Durfee, His Works, 481, pub. 1840 at Prov. and Boston. Dr. 

Janes' Life of Samuel Gorton. 'William Arnold's letter to Winthrop 

in Book of News, in Winslow's Defense, copy of letter in R. I. Rec, i, 235. 


they say tliere be no other witches upon earth nor devils but your own 
pastors and ministers, such as they are.'" 

The order from the Massachusetts Court of October 17th was 
received; and letters from the Earl of Warwick, President of the Board 
of Parliament Commissioners, were, as in divers times before, received 
by the Commissioners of the new government, enclosing directions to 
the neighboring colonies to respect the chartered rights and expressing 
his resolution to maintain the charter granted to Williams.' " Upon 
this the country about us was more friendly and wrote to us as an 
authorized colony, only the difference of our consciences much ob- 

There are no preserved records of a January or February General 
Assembly. By plunder and by fire and otherwise the greater part of 
the records at Providence for the years 1644, 45, 46 were destroyed. 
Seldom were books used then, but the records kept on separate sheets 
of paper. If any book of general affairs was kept, it is missing. When 
a Town-book was used, the proceedings of the Prc'»'*'^«ince Plantations 
and the colony of Providence Plantations — proceedings of both bodies — 
were entered indiscriminately in it, and it is not always clear in 
what capacity an act was done.'" The general business, to begin with, 
was hardly more than talk about lands where, during the winter months, 
few could settle. The people of the towns of Portsmouth and Newport 
maintained their town governments. They had chosen and sent their 
representatives to the Assembly of the chartered government and been 
joined to it. " The Commissioners," as Coddington stated, " had joined 
them in the same charter." Yet Coddington assumed to sit in a court 
of his own, which was elected by a limited few, who were by him made 
his freemen or electors upon pledging themselves to sustain him. This 
he asserted as a superior court, making laws for the whole island and 
trying the cases brought into it. Although for many months without 
a sitting and its justice and legality denied by so formidable an opponent 
as Clark at Newport and Gorton at Portsmouth, and with them a large 
majority of the whole island people, he so maintained what he called 
" government " as to hold back from the chartered Assembly the busi- 
ness of these towns. Very little general business for the charter govern- 
ment arose until after Coddington's leaders joined it, and then in draw- 
ing the numerous bills of indictment against Coddington. 

On April 14th' a court was held by the Deputies or Commissioners,' 
and on the 19th of the same month a number of the " free inhabitants " 
were granted twenty-five acres each of land, they subscribing with its 
acceptance their " obedience to the authority of King and Parliament 
established in the colony according to our charter."' In the records 
" Town " gave place to " The Plantation," and English law under author- 
ity of King and Parliament superseded " arbitration." An order was 
issued from one of " said Courts " on the August 4th following,' and 
" warrants " commanding attendance at their court were issued by the 
Chief-officer Williams in the name of the King and Parliament; the 
warrants served by their Sergeant. The form of government now, with 
an Executive head and his Assistants, and its Courts and its Attendants, 
differed m.aterially from the former one. It was the long desired 
authority and judicial order for the people.^ 

"Letter of Aug. 9, 1645, from the Assembly of the Colony of Prov. Plantations, 
Mass. Arch., ii, 6. post p. 'Williams' letter, R. I. Rec, i, 458. Williams' 

letter, ist Mass. Collec, i, 278. '"Early Prov. Rec, xv, 5, 7. 9, -^7. etc. 

*Apr. 14, 1644. ^Early Rec, ii, 6. 'Early Rec, ii, 29. 

*Early Rec, xv, 7. *Early Reeds, of Prov., xv, 9. Chronological Con- 

struction, Lands of R. I., 84. If what we have of the records of the beginning 


Cannonicus and the other Narragansett Sachems had, since tTie grants 
they had made to Greene and to Gorton, again exercised their right 
which Massachusetts had forbidden them of disposing of their lands, 
and had granted a still larger tract outside of Providence to Williams. 
This land was situated about where later the town of Wickford was 
built. It was free from conquest or other rights than those of the 
Narragansetts and of the English government granted in the charter. 
Williams, to be freed from the anno3'ances of the Pawtuxans, now 
sought relief here, erected a Trading House and took up his abode 
on it." Although the course of Harris or the Pawtuxet claimants was 
yet far from ended, this rout of Williams from Providence was the 
last rout of any prominence they effected, for with the charter a little 
more stable order was established.' 

An Assembly of the government of the Providence Plantations was 
held at Portsmouth in May of this year, 1645, against which a riotous 
demonstration v;as made by its opponents, they also breaking into the 
houses of Gorton and others, destroying their writings and carrying 
off the volumes in which the laws were printed.* At this session a 
movement was made for apportioning some of the lands of the late 
grant among settlers. Preparations were also made for returning 
home by some of the Shawomet people; but all of this was cut short 
by a burst of opposition from Plymouth and Massachusetts, who were 
at rivalry for the territory. Brown of Plymouth had, on April 13th, 
been dispatched by the Plymouth Court" to look after their interests. 
He " found them assembled in a meeting house granting land and such 
awful things," and he, in the name of Plymouth, forbade both the 
exercise of government under the charter and the distribution of the 
land. The Massachusetts Court also forbade the officers and Commis- 
sioners of the new government to exercise any authority under the 
charter or to distribute the land, or anyone to settle at Shawomet; and 
directed their Commissioner, Benedict Arnold, to remove any who 
should settle there." " Massachusetts claimed the Sachems' last grant 
by various rights, among them that of conquest from the Pequots ; " 
so the Commissioners were dissuaded from alloting any land to the 
settlers for the present or until the matter could be amicably composed ; 
" though," says Williams, " I questioned not our rights, etc., yet I 
feared it would be inexpedient and offensive and procreative of their 
heats and fires, and the dishonoring of the King's Majesty.'" 

Coddington and Brenton opposed the proceedings of the Assembly, 
although keeping aloof from it, apprehending danger from the people.* 

The disturbances at Providence had increased since Gorton left there. 
The Pawtuxet claimants, after the departure of Gorton and Williams 
from among them, became more defiant. On June 5th, 1645, the people 
of Providence were, upon complaint of William Arnold, served with 
Massachusetts attachments upon their lands.* Gorton says : " They 
ceased not to send out their warrants amongst us," and again a number 

of the government of the Providence Plantations were all together in order in 
one volume the organization and working order of the charter government 
would be in them clearly apparent. The government was not dependent on 
Coddington and his Elders joining it. 'Williams' letter, Nar. Club, vi, 

3.^3-351. R- I- H. Tr., xiv, 57 note. Williams had been living there some time 
when Arnold visited him there in June, 1645. Mass. Rec. '"We lived 

in no order but rout as Harris' beasts, as he calls all who cross him. until God 
was oleased to help me to procure a charter." Williams' letter, R. I. H. Tr 14. 
»R. I. Collec, ii, 80. "Ply. Rec, 2d Winthrop, ii, 270. '"Mass. 

Rec, ii, 1 17. 'Williams, Nar. Club, vi, 333-351. 'Arnold's 

Hist. R. I., i, 160. 'Force's iv, Tr. 6, p. 98. 'Simp. Def., Staples' 


of the people were summoned to Boston for trial ;* and the few aban- 
doned, unfinished houses and the lands at Shawomet were applied for 
and occupied by Massachusetts subjects. War was begun against the 
Narragansetts and white colonists, neither of whom had raised an arm 
either of aggression or resistance. 

On June 18th a company of forty armed men was sent by the Massa- 
chusetts Court to join their ally Uncas, the Mohegan Chief, against 
the Narragansetts.' Meantime messengers were sent by the court to 
the Narragansetts to exact terms from them." 

On June 28th a " meeting extraordinary " of the Commissioners of 
the United Colonies, in response to a call from the Massachusetts Court,^ 
began at Boston. This court continued five weeks in session.* The war 
against the Narragansetts having begun,^ requiring speedy course, it 
was agreed to take that first into consideration. The action of the 
Massachusetts Commissioners in having, without the previous consent 
of all the United Commissioners, sent the soldiers against the Narra- 
gansetts caused much sharp discussion." The Commissioners now met 
ordered the messengers. Sergeant John Davis, Benedict Arnold and 
Francis Smith, to secure the attendance of Cannonicus, Pessicus and 
other Narragansett Sachems at Boston and to inform them, in case they 
refused to come, that soldiers had been sent against them,' but that 
war should cease during negotiations.^ 

The Sachems received the messengers with great suspicion, vowed 
that Arnold, who acted as interpreter, had in his former meetings with 
them misrepresented them and had threatened them with the accom- 
plished act, the death of Miantinomi, their Chief, for selling land to 
the proscribed people. Although the Sachems showed surprising com- 
posure in refraining from violence, three of them stood behind Arnold 
with raised hatchets while he was speaking.' The messengers, fearing 
danger and not hoping of better success at present, departed. They 
stopped that night at the Trading House of either Smith or Williams.* 
Before leaving, they had an interview with Williams and received from 
him a letter to the United Commissioners; they then proceeded to 
Arnold's house at Providence or Pawtuxet, where they received a 
report of other threatening behavior of the Narragansetts from Arnold's 
family." And they returned to the court at Boston with Williams' 
letter, a report of what they heard and had done, and of the rude usage 
they received from the Sachems ; whereupon a Declaration of War 
against the Narragansetts was made and the reasons for it were ordered 
to be published." Another company of soldiers was despatched to the 
aid of the Mohegan Chief with all expedition, and the rest of the forces 
from Massachusetts and Plymouth were ordered to join them at 
Seekonk on the eastern bounds of Mooshasuck, to enter the Narragan- 
sett country. Three hundred troops were ordered to be raised to be 
sent forth by the 226. of August at the furthest; and the officers were 
appointed and assigned to the command of them. A fleet of barks 
and other vessels, an additional force as seamen and mariners and 
ammunition and provisions were provided ; works for defense were 
ordered to be constructed, and soldiers advanced to Shawomet to build 
a fort upon it.' 

Ed. 167. 'Mass. Rec, iii, 39, 40, 42. Hutchinson's Papers, i, 167. 

'Hutchinson, i, i6i. 'Mass. Rec, iii, 29. June 18, 1645. 

■Hutchinson, i, 153-155. 'Hutchinson, i, 154. '"Hutchinson, i. 167. 

'Acts Commissioners United Colonies, i, 32, 33. 'Hutchinson, i, 161. 

•Acts Com. United Cols., i, 54. ''Hutchinson, i, 154, 162. 

'Hutchinson, i, 162. 'Hutchinson, i, 155, 164. 'Acts Com. 

United Cols., i, 34-36, 37, 39. Mass. Rec, ii, 72 ; iii, 40, 41. Fuller's Hist. 


The letter conveyed by the messengers to the Court of the United 
Commissioners, from Williams, informed them that a treaty of neu- 
trality was entered into between the Narragansetts and the government 
of the Providence Plantations.' 


The August 9, 1645, Assembly of the Government of the Providence Planta- 
tions at Newport — Letter from the Assembly to Massachusetts — Their desire 
for civil government to preserve their lives and liberties caused them to pro- 
cure a charter — The Earl of Warwick recognizes and approves the organization 
of the government under the charter — Those in the government dare not yield 
themselves delinquent to answer at Massachusetts court — The government to 
employ messengers to prosecute the cause of the Providence Plantations before 
the government of England — Massachusetts claims to possess a prior charter 
for the Narragansett territory — Gorton chosen by the Assembly their Commis- 
sioner to England — Troops march against the Indians and Whites of the Prov- 
idence Plantations — Gorton, about August 16, 1645, departs on his mission — 
Plymouth's forces opposite Providence— Army delayed while messengers are 
again sent to treat with the Narragansetts — The Narragansetts send for Wil- 
liams and Wickes to council with them — The conditions of peace with Massa- 
chusetts signed — The official notice, August 2T, 1645, of the alleged patent for 
the Narragansett lands sent by Massachusetts to the Providence government. 

Early in August and during the sessions of the Court of United Com- 
missioners at Boston an Assembly of the government of the Providence 
Plantations was held at Newport. During the latter's sessions Brown 
visited the island, urging the claims of Plymouth and forbidding the 
government tQ proceed. Here he remained some time, Gorton says, 
visiting the people of Newport at their houses, forbidding them to 
yield obedience to the charter." Brown met Gorton here, who was an 
officer of the chartered government, and, Winslow says, still held the 
office of local Magistrate on the island.'" The Massachusetts Court 
also again served an order on the members of this Assembly, forbidding 
them to exercise any government, either in Pawtuxet or Providence, 
which, Winthrop says, they, from fear, did not disregard entirely. 
Their deliberations regarding it and why they would not yield to it are 
given in a letter written by Williams, subscribed to by the Secretary, 
on August 9th, 1645, and addressed to the Massachusetts Court. The 
letter, after acknowledging the receipt of the Massachusetts letter, 
prays for "honorable attention" to the following: 

"A civil government we honor and desire to live in for all those good 
ends, which are attainable thereby, both of public and private nature. 
This desire caused us humbly to sue for a charter from our mother 
State and government; but as we belive your consciences are persuaded 
to govern our souls, as well as our bodies, and, yourselves will say, we 
have cause to endeavor to preserve our souls and liberties, which your 
conscieiices must necessarily deprive us of, and either cause greater 
distractions and molestations to yourselves and us at home, or cause 
our further removal and miseries, we cannot but wonder, that being 
now found in a posture of government from the same authority, unto 
which you and we equally subject, you should desire us to forbear the 
exercise of such a government, without an express from that authority 
directed to us. 

Warwick, 25. Hazard's Collec, ii, 27-51. 'Hutchinson, i, 146, 154, 

'R. I. Collec, ii, 167, 168. 2d Winthrop, ii. 270, 308. Force's iv Tr.. 6, p. 98. 
"Winslow, 83, Arnold, i, 160. Gorton, Staples' Ed. »The 6th monttt 


"And we the rather wonder because our charter as it was first granted 
and first established, so it was also expressly signified unto you all in 
a letter from divers Lords and Commons, at the sending out of our 
charter, out of a loving respect both to yourselves and us. 

" Besides, you may please to be informed that His Excellency, the 
Lord Admiral, hath lately divers times been pleased to own us under 
the notion of Providence Plantations, and that he hath signified unto 
us (as we can show you in writing) the desire of Plymouth to infringe 
our charter, but his oivn favorite resolution not only to maintain our 
charter to his uttermost power, but also to gratify us with any favors, 
etc. In all of which respects we see not how we may dare to yield 
ourselves delinquents and liable to answer in your court, nay, as your 
writing seems to import, why we cast not away such noble favors and 
grace unto us. It is true that divers amongst us express their desire 
of composing this controversy between yourselves and us, but consider- 
ing that we have not only received a challenge from yourselves, but also 
from Mr. Fenwick and also from Plymouth and also from some in the 
name of the Lord Marquis Hamilton (all of which claims we never 
heard until the arrival of our charter), we judge it necessary to employ 
our messengers and agents unto the head and fountain of all these 
streams and there humbly to prostrate ourselves and cause for a final 
sentence and determination — and this we are immediately preparing 
to do without any secret reservations or delays, not doubting but 
yourselves will feel satisfied with this our course. And in the interim, 
although you have not been pleased to admit us unto considerations of 
what concerns the whole country, as you have others of our countrymen, 
yet we cannot but humbly profess our readiness to attend to all such 
friendly and neighborly courses, and ever rest you assured in all ser- 
vices of love. 

" Henry Walton, Secretary. 

" The Colony of Providence Plantations, 

Assembled at Newport, 9th, 6th Mo., 1645.' 

" To the Right Woshpls and their much Houn'd Friends and Contry- 
men. The General Court of the Massachusetts Colonic assembled 
at Boston." 

This letter from this Assembly was sent to Winthrop by Williams. 
He " never," he says, " received the least reply."* 

Gorton, Holden and Greene were employed by the Assembly as the 
messengers and agents to the home government to present the cause of 
the Providence government and the people for a determination. 

The reasons for the war were published by the United Colonies on 
August nth at Boston; and word was sent by the Massachusetts 
officers to the officers of the Providence Plantations, who were probably 
yet in Assembly, that if they should stand as neutrals and not go out 
in the work with them they would make plunder of them. 

The first company of Plymouth troops left Plymouth on August 
15th.' The officers in command were commissioned " sole judges of 
the necessity of the expedition," to " have power to use and execute " 
fine, corporal punishment and capital punishment, and to seize both 
Indian and White suspects, which latter were the adherents to the 
chartered government, the leaders of the liberal or majority party 
of the Providence Plantations, and to bring them to Boston.* 

was August, old style. The Secretary's name was first printed Watson, but in 
the original document it is plainly Walton. Mass. Arch., ii, 6. Proc. Mass. 
Hist. Soc, June, 1862. " Remarks on the Narragansett Patent " published by 
Sidney S. Rider, Providence. ^Williams, 4th Mass. Collec, vii, 627. 

•Ply. Rec, ii, 90, *Acts Com. United Cols., i, 37-40- "Gorton's 


Gorton departed immediately without doubt following this and the 
close of the Assembly sessions. The condition was insufferable. The 
pass had been reached where it was impossible to proceed further in 
carrying on the government without further aid from the mother coun- 
try, or for the people longer without such aid to recover or maintain 
their possessions, to save their lives, or at least to save themselves 
from being taken as heretics or suspects for discipline and punishment 
to Boston. Gorton went to England only as a last resort in the extrem- 
ity of necessity, as the recent Assembly's letter to the Massachusetts 
Court expressed, " to preserve the souls and liberties " of the people in 
this emergency. The two other Agents and Commissioners of the char- 
tered government, Holden and Greene, went with him. They, too, as 
in Williams' case, were not allowed to enter the Massachusetts Colony 
to take ship from Boston, and so were forced, like him, to travel for 
this purpose to New York, that is, Manhattan." 

After their departure, the Plymouth forces under Capt. Standish 
rendezvoused at Seekonk, upon the river opposite Providence. While 
here encamped with his troops before the Massachusetts forces came, 
Standish, observing that some of Providence received the Narragansetts 
into their houses familiarly, he demanded of them to lay aside their 
neutrality and declare which side they were on. Gorton, in his plea 
to the English government, stated as dispatched to him, that Standish 
summoned the Providence Plantations to renounce the neutrality and 
declare themselves to be either on his side or enemies.' 

The Massachusetts army was delayed by considerations of the magni- 
tude and expense of such a war, her accountability to the English 
government, the protests of the Providence Plantations and many of 
the Massachusetts people.' This resulted in having, on August i8th, 
another committee, consisting of Capt. Harding and Mr. Wilbour, with 
Benedict Arnold again as interpreter (all of them paid subjects of 
Massachusetts, although not residents there), appointed to visit the 
Narragansetts to treat with them." The Narragansetts this time refused 
to council with the committee unless they dispensed with the services 
of Benedict Arnold, accusing him as before of being their enemy and 
of misrepresenting them.* Arnold also, fearing, refused to go without 
an armed guard of a hundred men. The Narragansetts sent for 
Williams and Wickes, the latter one of those formerly chosen by the 
Narragansetts their Commissioners to make known their submission 
deed and grievances to England, to come and council with them. 

The Narragansetts, having honorably abided by their agreement and 
refrained from making their threatened avenging war,'" until every 
vantage ground was acquired by the United Colonies, and considering 
that as the allied armies of these colonies and the Mohegans had or 
were about to invade Providence and Warwick to seize both Indian 
and white suspects, the impending war if continued would, as intended 
by those who waged it, destroy the refugee settlements and sacrifice 
the lives of many of these white people; as a matter of prudence, as 
well as from faith in the Royal protection and eventual righting of 
" what wrong is or may be done," after the matter was laid before 
Parliament by the colonies' messengers, Williams counseled the Narra- 

departure was about Aug. i6, 1645. He wrote his "Incorruptible Key" after 
be in 1644 returned to and before his departure from the island; published in 
London and printed on its title, " Penned in Rhode Island." •Gorton's 

Defense, 93, Winslow's Defense, 85. 'Mass. Rec, iii, ?o. *Mass. 

Rec, ii, 122-125. Acts Com. United Cols., i, 41, 42. 'Acts Com. United 

Cols., i, 42, 43. R. I. Collec, ii, 265. 3d Mass. Collec, i, 8. '"Ante pas-ina. 


gansetts to accept, at a present sacrifice, the hard terms of peace that 
the United Colonies offered them. 

The Narragansetts, although now a strong nation, moved by their 
love for these men and confiding in the belief that the English govern- 
ment would right the wrong and enforce the redress which was the 
condition of their submission and cession, when this should be fully 
presented to it, accepted the advice of their councillors and consented 
to what was a disastrous agreement, making of their nation a tributary 
people. The treaty, which bound them to unjust and almost impossible 
obligations and conditions of peace, required four of the Indian chil- 
dren, which were delivered to the Magistrates as hostages for their 
fidelity, was concluded at Boston the 27th day of August, 1645.' 

The letter following, giving some of the particulars of the present 
settling of these difficulties, was on November 20th sent to Gorton's 
destination in England : 

" We are all in health at this present and cheerful [the great want is 
your company], though men generally more invective than ever. The 
Bay had provided an army to go against the Narragansetts had they 
not been prevented in the very interim thus : Capt. Harding informed 
the court of the difficulty of the enterprise, upon which the court 
employed him and Mr. Wilbour to go to the Narragansetts and take 
Benedict Arnold to interpret. When they came to Benedict, he refused 
to go without a hundred men in arms, only to possess them with danger 
to effect his bloody plot; upon which Mr. Williams being sent for to 
Narragansett, and also myself, to inquire of us what the minds of 
these mad people were to kill men for nothing, I went to Providence 
athinking to go with Master Williams ; but when I came there he was 
gone with the Captain and Mr. Wilbour upon Benedict's refusal. I 
staid their return, and their agreement was to have Pessicus go into 
the Bay, and Master Williams was necessitated to put himself hostess 
until his return. The news coming into the Bay did so vex the ministers 
that Mr. Cotton preached upon it, that it being so wicked an act to 
take Master Williams with them, being one cast out of the church. 
It was all one as to take counsel of a witch, and that those who did it 
were worthy to die; upon which Mr. Wilbour was ready to die for 
fear he would be hanged. So then the Indians went down and they 
compelled them to cease war with Uncas and to pay them five hundred 
pounds for charges of court and provisions for soldiers, and to leave 
four of their Chiefs' children till the money be paid, and to leave four 
of their chief men till the children came; and to promise them not to 
sell any land without their consent. This being done, they came home 
again and sent a man to tell me what was done, telling me that if 
the Lord in England help them not they are like to suffer at present; 
but still they say they are not afraid of them, but only give them their 
demands rather than to war before the Lord hear of it, that all may 
see they mean no hurt to English, but will submit to the laws of Eng- 
land ; concluding it is but lent, it will come home with advantage both 
to their wisdom and profit. Pessicus hath been often with me to desire 
me to inform you of these things. With great desire to see you again, 
your ever loving friend J. W., Nov. 20, 1645."^ 

The Narragansetts, now prevented from protecting Williams and his 
friends of the Providence Plantations against Massachusetts, as they 
were disposed to do upon occasion, the Massachusetts Court, before 
the close of the day on which the treaty was signed and they obtained 

'Acts. United Coins., i, 44, 49. Drake's Book of the Indians. *R. I. 

Collec, li, 170-172. '"Then Chief-officer of the Colony," Williams, 


the hostages, on August 27th, 1645, sent to Williams as the Chief- 
officer' of the new government an ofificial notice of their possession of 
what they called a patent for the lands of the Narragansetts, " wherein 
Providence and the island of Aquidneck are included."* The paper 
they called a patent bore the date of December loth, 1643, which was 
more than three months prior to the date of the charter obtained by 
Williams; nearly one and three-quarter years before the present official 
assertion and brandishment of it as a charter over the Providence 


The mortgages and deeds secured by the Athertons, Arnolds and other Massa- 
chusetts subjects for Narragansett, Shawomet and Providence lands — Provi- 
dence Plantations people subscribe to their chartered government — It grants 
them lands — The Massachusetts court meets October i, 1645, and grants Shaw- 
amet lands to their subjects — Brown, a Plymouth subject, forbids the Massachu- 
setts subjects to settle on it — Captain Cook sent to England to aid other agents 
there defend Massachusetts' actions — Vassal's religious toleration movement 
extends to Massachusetts — Gorton's departure from Manhattan — He, in Janu- 
ary, 1645-6, reaches England — His complaint to the Parliament Commissioners. 

The Narragansetts were not long able to endure the imposed penalty 
and forfeits, and Major Atherton of Massachusetts and other astute 
Commissioners of the United Colonies, who had organized for the 
purchase of Indians lands, " assisted them," and received therefore a 
mortgage and deed of the great tract designated " the Atherton pur- 

Those charged with the government of the Providence Plantations 
did not, however, "yield themselves delinquent to Massachusetts." 
Williams replied to the Massachusetts Court, to Winthrop, he says, 
in words " he believed weighty and righteous ; '" and they continued 
to hold their Assemblies and granted to the landless inhabitants many 
of the unoccupied acres, the people almost unanimously subscribing 
to and " agreeing to yield obedience to the authority established in the 
colony according to the charter."* 

The Massachusets Court met on the first of October. During its 
sessions the Shawomet lands were again applied for by its subjects 
and ten thousand acres of it granted to twenty families who, under 
Benedict Arnold, attempted to possess themselves of the property." 

During this October William Arnold placed on record in Boston a 
deed for the lands, from the sub-Sachem Socononico to 
William Arnold, Robert Cole and William Carpenter, who all had 
subjected themselves to Massachusetts ; it bearing the date of January 
30th, 1641, antedating the original deed of January I2th, 1642, for 
Shawomet which Gorton obtained from the Chief Sachem Miantinomi. 

During the same year Benedict Arnold placed on record in Boston a 
deed for the Shawomet lands as far as the Pawtuxet river extended, 
from the subjected sub-Sachem to himself, a subject of Massachusetts. 
It was dated 1644. 

Also in same year William Arnold procured and placed on record in 
Boston a deed for the Meshanticut land, which was the southern 

4th Mass. Collec, vii, 627. *R. I. Rec, i, 133. "R. I. Rec, i, 

133. R. I. Collec, iii, 161. 'R. T. Rec, ii, 128. 'Williams' 

letter. *R. I. Collec, v, 60. Staples' Annals of Prov.. 60, Jan. 19, 

1645-6. Early Rec, Prov. R. I. H. Tr., 14, p. 36 note. *Mass. Rec, ii. 


portion of Providence, from the subjected sub-Sachem to himself. 
All these deeds were secretly obtained and secretly taken with the 
sub-Sachems to Boston and there recorded. They were never recorded 
in Providence. The purpose of the Arnolds being to throw the Colonies' 
lands under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, when these deeds to them 
would be effective."* 

Brown of Plymouth, who had remained long upon the island visiting 
the people and had been convinced of the justice of Gorton's cause 
while tarrying there, proceeded thence to Shawomet, where the Massa- 
chusetts subjects had gone to view for settlement, and forbade them in 
the name of Plymouth, declaring that the land belonged to Gorton. 
This being reported to the court, it sent a messenger to Plymouth to 
inquire if they approved this.' This court ordered that Richard Salton- 
stall and Capt. Cook should be joined with Mr. Pocock (a man of 
eminent ability and influence with the English government, who had 
lately been engaged by Massachusetts with the other Commissioners 
in England for Massachusetts) in negotiating for them before the Right 
Honorable the Earl of Warwick and the rest of the Commissioners of 
Plantations, etc., or before the high court of Parliament, if occasion 
required, concerning the two late grants or charters for the govern- 
ment or jurisdiction of lands adjoining to Narragansett Bay.^ If it 
were the younger Saltonstall, he did not leave for some time after.* 
Sr. Richard Saltonstall, who was in England and had in 1632 ably 
defended Governor Endicott of Massachusetts before the King's Council, 
was of but little present service to Massachusetts, he having experienced 
changed convictions regarding the justice of what he had defended 
and might be called upon to defend. From England he wrote : " To 
Mr. Cotton and Mr. Wilson, preachers to the church which is at Boston 
in New England: It doth not a little grieve my spirit to hear what 
sad things are reported daily of your tyranny and persecution in Nev/ 
England."* Capt. Cook, who had victoriously led the troops in the 
early assault upon the settlers of Providence and Shawomet, had, in 
one of the later invasions of Providence and Shawomet under his 
command, been himself, with some of his company, captured, but 
probably now had been released. He soon made his departure. 

A petition, the petitioners led by William Vassall of Scituate, Ply- 
mouth, for the government to allow and maintain full and free tolera- 
tion of religion to all men who would preserve the civil peace and 
submit unto government, which had been signed by a large share of 
the people of Plymouth and had fruitlessly been presented to the govern- 
ment there, was, through the added efforts of Dr. Robert Childs at 
Boston, signed by many of the most influential and presented to the 
Deputies or Representatives of the people in the government of Massa- 
chusetts without any better success. It will be remembered that upon 
zn earlier movement and introduction of a resolution regarding it 
the Plymouth Governor, Prence, would not allow a vote." After the 
failure of the Massachusetts Deputies to effect anything for the petition- 
ers, the petition was presented to the Massachusetts court and then to 
the home government, entreating that His Majesty clear the govern- 
ment of the colonies of the distinction between church and civil state 
and the transactions of those that eovern.' 


128, 129; iii, 49. Arnold's Hist., i. 191. '"The Lands of R. Island, 

Preliminary note and pp. 60-112, i6q. 218, 219, 229, etc. Suffolk Records, Boston 
Book, i, Doc. 6,^. »2d Winthrop, ii, 308. 'Mass. Rec, iii, 48. 

Mass. Rec, iii, 171, Oct. 18, 1649. "Hutchinson's Papers, ii, 127. 

Loyalists of America, by Egerton Ryerson, D.D., LL.D., i, 117-122. 

Ante pagina. '2d Winthrop, ii, 319, 347. Hutchinson's Papers, i. 



Peters and Weld, who were upon Williams' outstripping them for a 
charter ordered by the Massachusetts Court to return and give a 
particular account of their work at home, however, remained there, 
and other writings about the cause of the colony of Massachusetts 
were sent to them. 

Gorton had to wait some time at Manhattan for transportation, and 
then he could secure passage only to Holland, where he again lay await- 
ing passage into England. When upon arriving, the Massachusetts 
agents who had so long preceded him had their story widely promul- 
gated and had secured the placing of themselves and such clnef men of 
England as were their friends upon the committees to which the business 
was referred; an obstacle to the forwarding of the business or to any 
just hearing that could be removed only by much work and almost the 
wearing out of the weaker party with expense and long waiting.' 

The King, with his tired troops, was a fugitive among the mountains 
of Scotland; and, although he held Oxford, a tree was oftener the 
canopy of State under which he held council. 

Gorton's intimacy with his excellent and potent friend, the Earl of 
Warwick, President of the Board of Parliament Commissioners, and 
his access to the records of the Board's proceedings, were quick assur- 
ances to him that no patent for the Narragansett country had been 
granted to Massachusetts. What they had reported as one was but the 
draft of one which was without [the Massachusetts agents, Weld and 
Peters, having failed to secure them] the majority of the signatures of 
the Parliament Commissioners. The Massachusetts agents being de- 
feated in the strife for a patent by Williams, had sent their incompleted, 
unpassed, unregistered, worthless paper to Massachusetts as an evi- 
dence of their, although defeated, yet earnest endeavors.' Yet, undis- 
mayed and still trying to throw off the blame put upon them by Massa- 
chusetts, they were now diligently laboring to have the patent to 
Williams recalled and their embryo-patent perfected. In Gorton's 
first work there, he says, he met " both ministers and Magistrates and 
others," of Massachusetts, " pleading their cause that the said charter 
might be authentic, which would have happened if Warwick men had 
not opposed it."* 

Weld and Peters were able and serviceable men to Massachusetts 
and formidable opponents to Gorton and the Providence Plantations. 
Weld was one of the Synod who found and " confuted " the eighty-two 
" Wheelright errors," and was the editor of Rise, Reign and Ruin, a 
volume of preposterous stories, believed to have been compiled by Win- 
throp, of the horrible freaks of the dissenters he styled " antinomians,"" 
a book widely distributed and read and believed by many in New Eng- 
land and England, prejudicing them against dissenters such as Williams, 
Hutchinson and the rest of the Providence Plantation people.' 

Peters, too, was an assiduous and successful laborer for Massachu- 
setts and a man of great influence with Cromwell. He took an active 
part in the transactions of the Commonwealth and became Cromwell's 
favorite Chaplain and Counsellor. He possessed a spirit of unconquer- 
able energy and perseverance, was fervid and impressive in his elo- 
ciuence, popular as an orator, and of great courage. He preached before 
the court that tried the King Charles the First, urging his condemnation, 
and after the sentence (according to the fashion in England) before the 

205, 222. Mass. Rec, iii, 90, Nov. 4, 1646. 'R. I. Collec, ii, 228. 

•Ante and post p., Proc. Mass. Hist. See, 1862, Aspinwall's Remarks on the 
Narragansett patent. *R. I. Rec, ii, 80. '"First published in 

1644 with Weld's "Preface" and "Some Additions." 2d Winthrop, i, 284, 293, 
310, 314; ii, 30, 92, 164, 260. Ellis' Annie Hutchinson, 301. 'Arnold's 


execution preached the funeral sermon to the King, a terrible denun- 
ciation.' This glimpse at the formidable character of the men and 
measures of Massachusetts reveals but faintly a few of the obstacles 
against which it was Gorton's heroic task to contend. 

The Complaint or Memorial of the Providence Plantations to the 
Parliament Commissioners was set forth in a paper written by Gorton 
dated January i6th, 1645-6, prepared doubtless during his voyage. It 
told of the wrongs inflicted upon the people of these plantations, their 
removal from their houses and lawfully purchased possessions, the 
trials for error in their religious opinions, the usurpations by the 
Colonies of power not granted in their charters, and their tyrannical 
use of it upon them, and their banishment, not only from the territory 
granted to them in their charter, but from all the land purchased by 
themselves of Miantinomi beyond their limits, of Massachusetts and 
Plymouth claims and their jointly violating and obstructing the charter 
granted to Williams, and the commands of Massachusetts and of Ply- 
mouth that they refrain from exercising any authority of the govern- 
ment they had organized under the charter and in which themselves 
were officers. It recounted the wrong done to the Narragansett nation, 
and set forth their act of submission and cession to the English govern- 
ment of all their dominion ; the proceedings of Massachusetts and 
Plymouth against the Narragansetts to take the country they had 
ceded to England, and which fell within the compass of the charter 
granted to Williams, by destroying them with the sword. It also 
stated that word had been sent to Providence that if they should stand 
as neutrals in the war and not go out with them in the work they would 
make plunder of them. 


The King's flight, April 2-], 1646, from Oxford — Gorton publishes his complaint 
and the Narragansett Indians' submission and cession — The falsity of Massa- 
chusetts' claim of a patent for Narragansett exposed by the President of the 
Parliament Commission in open session — Parliament Commissioners' mandate 
to Massachusetts confirming their grant to Williams and commanding observ- 
ance and obedience — The wisdom and moderation of Gorton's petition com- 
mended — The Massachusetts English agent, Peters, sends for the Governor of 
Massachusetts to come over and assist in overturning what Gorton had accom- 
plished — Coddington renders Massachusetts and Peters great assistance — 
Coddington's letter to Winthrop — Ble denies the freedom of the island to his 
opponents — Representatives of mainland and inland towns had joined the 
government of the William.s charter — Coddington still with his briefless court ; 
derides liberty of conscience ; sends records and papers to Massachusetts for 
their English agents' use against the chartered government — Winslow sent 
by Massachusetts to England to assist Peters and others and to reply to Gorton 
— Mather terms Winslow an Hercules — His pre-eminent abilities — His other 
equipments — Favorable conditions for Massachusetts — A printing press at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. — A plethoria of Massachusetts books and writings — Winslow has 
a day appointed for an audience before the Parliament Commissioners. 

The absence of the King, his flight from Oxford on the 26th of April, 
1646,' preventing communication with him, Gorton published the Act 
cf the Narragansetts and the principal matter of his complaint in a 

Hist. R.I., i, 62-65. Palfrey's Hist. N. E., i, 495, 496 notes. '3d Mass. 

Collec, ix, 286. Barry's Mass., i, 207. Ryerson's Loyalists of America, i, 85, 125. 
Echard's Hist. Eng., 3d London Ed., Book i, 778, Charles First, Book iii, 656. 
"Disrael's Life of Charles First, ii, 391-443. ^Force's tract 6, Vol. iv. 


volume entitled " Simplicity's Defense Against Seven Headed Policy," 
from London, August 3d, 1646/ 

Gorton's petition contained no plea for redress for losses nor for 
injuries done him or anyone, but that the Massachusetts Magistrates be 
restrained from exercising authority beyond their chartered jurisdic- 
tion, and that the rights of the natives and the natural and chartered 
rights of the people of the Providence Plantations be regarded, and 
they be restored to their lands and houses under them." 

At a full meeting of the Parliament Commissioners of Plantations, 
to whom Gorton's memorial was addressed, the Lord High Admiral, 
the Earl of Warwick, informed Gorton in open board that he knew' 
of no other charter for these parts than that Mr. Williams had obtained, 
and he was sure that charter Massachusetts pretended had never 
passed the table.'' There was no registry of any such paper, and an 
examination of it disclosed that its date, December loth, 1643, was a 
Sunday when Gorton was languishing in Massachusetts in irons. It had 
not the names to it of a majority of the Parliament Commissioners, 
which was necessary for it to pass, if they were genuine signatures.' 

A mandate was drawn up by the Parliament Commissioners to the 
government of Massachusetts which silenced its profession to any other 
late charter than that to Williams, affirming this grant and to its pro- 
visions commanding the Massachusetts Magistrates' obedience. A copy 
of the^ complaint and petition was enclosed with the mandate of the 
Commissioners, dated May 15th, 1646, to Massachusetts, viz.: "To 
suffer the petitioners and all others, late inhabitants of Narragansett 
Bay, freely and quietly to live and plant upon Shawomet and all other 
lands included in the patent lately granted to them zvithoiit extending 
your jurisdiction to any part therein, or otherwise disquieting their 
consciences or civil peace, or interrupting them in their possession, 
until we have received your answer to their claims in point of title 
and you shall have received our further orders therein. 

The Parliament Commissioners also commended the wisdom and 
moderation of the petitioners. They say : " You may take notice that 
we found the petitioners' aim and desire in the result of it zvas not so 
much a reparation for tvhat had passed as a setting their habitation 
for the future under that government by a charter of civil incorporation, 
which was heretofore granted them by ourselves. The Narragansett 
Bay was divers years inhabited by those of Providence, Portsmouth and 
Newport who are interested in the complaint, and that the same is 
wholly without the bounds of the Masachusetts patent." And they 
required the trespassers to remove any persons who had taken posses- 
sion of Shawomet lands by their authority, and permit the petitioners 
to pass through their territory without molestation to their own homes.' 
This was signed by the Lord High Admiral, the Earl of Warwick, the 
President of the Board of Parliament Commissioners, and by a majority 
of the other members.' Capt. Cook was not allowed to return to New 
England. He joined Cromwell's army, and in 1652 met his death in 
the campaign in Ireland. 

Randall PTolden, who went to England with Gorton, was made the 
bearer of the mandate of the Parliament Commissioners to Massachu- 

R. I. Collec, ii, 59, 60, 234, 2.15. "Lord's and Commons' letter in R. I. 

Collec, ii, igS- Letter from Warwick, 228. "'Never passed the Council 

table nor registered." R. L Rec, ii, 161, 162. R. I. Collec, iii, 161, 162. 
*2d Mass. Collec, vii, 104. Col. Aspinwall. Mass. Hist. Soc Proc, 1862. Narra- 
gansett Patent, Sidney S. Rider, Prov., " No such thing upon record in any court 
in Ens ; had searched the records." Brenton. "Theirs there, but not ours." 
Hutchinson, Mass. Arch., ii, 26. *R. L Rec, i, 365-369. R. I. Collec, 

19s, 228. 'Among the signers was Mr. Fenwick, the grantee, in an 


setts and the glad news to the Providence Plantations. He arrived 
at Boston on September 13th, 1646. He brought with him also a pass- 
port of same date from the Lord High Admiral and nine other of the 
Commissioners, directed to the government and Magistrates of Massa- 
chusetts, in it repeating their order and further requiring that Samuel 
Gorton and his company might land at any port in New England and 
" pass without any of your let or molestations through any part of the 
continent of America within your jurisdiction to the said tract of land. 
Hereof you may not fail and this shall be your warrant." Gorton 
remained in England upon the further business requiring him. 

A report of the complaint and petition made by Gorton had been 
received in Masachusetts long before the official copy enclosed with 
the mandate was received, and other papers about the case were sent 
by the Massachusetts Court to Peters and Wild, their agents in Eng- 
land ; but in November the Massachusetts Court received word from 
Peters that the writings which were sent over last were not sufficient, 
and for the Governor to come over and assist them ;" but it was feared 
that if the Governor went he would be detained there, and so it was 
resolved to send another and also to send new writings to strengthen 
their position. 

Coddington, as he says, " to further that end," engaged in serving 
them with material for amplifying their writings against Gorton and 
the Providence Plantations, craftily preparing for Massachusetts " The 
Sum of the Presentment," as he called it, against Gorton, and secretly 
entertaining at his home upon the island Massachusetts emissaries 
whom he despatched in the morning early. He writes to Governor 
Winthrop on November nth the following: " I thought meet to inform 
you that your son, Mr. John and all his departed from our island on 
the 3d day in the m.orning early; the wind not being good to clear 
them further than Block Island, but on the 4th day in the morning it 
was very good, so that I doubt not they are all safely arrived before the 
storm began; by whom I received your letter of the 21st of October. 
For Gorton and his company they are to me as they ever have been, 
their freedom of the island is denied and was zvlien I accepted the place 
I now have. The Commissioners have joined them in the same charter, 
though we maintain the government as before. To further that end 
you wrote of, I sent to Mr. Cotton to be delivered to Mr. Elliot, that 
requested it, zvhat zcas entered upon the records, under the Secretary's 
hand; which I do think you may do well to make use of, because I hear 
it sinks most with the Earl, where they have liberty of conscience. 
Mr. Peters' writes in that you sent your son p'secute f and so in haste 
not doubting as occasion serves, to approve myself yours ever, William 
Coddington." ' 

These passages from letters to Governor Winthrop exhibit the rela- 
tion of Coddington to the Colony of Providence Plantations. He is the 
instrument employed by Massachusetts to defeat the union of the towns, 
by which alone they could hope to secure independence of her. He is 
employed by her agent to procure from the public records such 
extracts as might be made to appear objectionable to the honorable 

old patent for which a claim had been made. Ante p. '"2d Winthrop. iJ, 

92, 260, 332, 334. 'Thos. Peters of Saybrook. who was younger brother 

of Hugh Peters of Salem, one of the foreip^n asrents of Mass., went to Eng. in 
1646 and returned no more. Trumbull's Hist. Conn., i, 292, 299. Savage's Diet, 
4th Mass. Collec, vii, 428 note. And neither Hugh Peters nor Thomas 

Weld ever returned to New England. Coddington who soon joined them all there, 
writes cf Hugh Peters : " I was merry with him and called him the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury." * Purposely to execute. * Mass. 


Board of Commissioners for foreign plantations; and how super- 
serviceable he desires to be in this capacity he shows by insiduously 
calling particular attention to the act relating to liberty of conscience 
as likely to sink most with the Earl of Warwick, the President of the 

The Massachusetts Court, upon receipt of the mandate and the call 
for help from Peters, addressed themselves unto Mr. Winslow to take 
another voyage for England, that he might thus procure their deliver- 
ance from the designs of many troublesome adversaries that were 
petitioning unto Parliament against them; and this Hercules, having 
been from his very early days accustomed unto the crushing of that 
kind of serpents, generously undertook another agency. He sailed from 
Boston the middle of December, 1646." 

Winslow was selected as the one pre-eminently qualified for the most 
important mission. He was accounted " the most able and earnest " 
advocate in the colonies. "A fit man," Winthrop said, " to be employed 
in our affairs in England, both in regard to his abilities of presence, 
speech, courage and understanding, as also being well known to the 
Commissioners.'" With portions of the Island's public records, and 
" The Sum of the Presentment against Gorton " supplied by Codding- 
ton,' the " Book of News " by Winthrop,' the writings of other Magis- 
trates and ministers, an address from the Massachusetts Court charg- 
ing almost everything against the heretics to justify the Magistrates' pro- 
ceedings against them, and various captured papers copied " not verbatum 
only, but literatum,"^ he was the best all-round equipped and reinforced 
advocate that an opponent, " almost without friends," ever met and 
stood up against alone." Then, too, " the times had greatly changed " 
since the granting of the charter to Williams; now "the Puritans being 
in power in England, Mr. Winslow had great advantage in the business 
from the credit and esteem which he enjoyed with that party.'" 

During the twenty years of Parliament and Commonwealth reign, 
1640 to 1660, Massachusetts was the favorite of Cromwell. They 
enjoyed the favor that no other colony enjoyed or received, the commo- 
doties of all nations free of duty.' They had other advantages over the 
neighboring colonies. They had the exclusive control of the only 

Arch. *Dr. H. E. Turner, ist R. I. H. Tr., No. 4. "Cotton 

Mather's Magnalia, Book ii, ch. i. 2d Winthrop, ii, 346, 359, 365, 387. Mass. 
Rec, ii, 161, 165. Gov. Haynes of Conn, went over probably as a colleague to 
Winslow in the same vessel with him, and remained as much as a year and a half 
in Eng. Palfrey's Hist. N. E., ii, 176 note. •> 2d Winthrop, ii, 346. 

'See Appendix. 'R. I. Collec, ii, 197, 198, 200. 4th Mass. Collec, vi, 

181, 182. Ante p. The book of News contained a pretended copy of a letter 
of Williams to Winthrop, accusing Gorton of "bewitching" the people with his 
new and radical opinions, which probably originated at this time with Codding- 
ton's Presentment. It bears date Mar. 8, 1646, supposedly just before, but really 
after Gorton's departure for England. Gorton had been chosen and dispatched by 
Williams and all of his friends to sustain his charter. They were intense friends 
and coadjutors, and this pretended copy of Williams' letter for the Mass. magis- 
trates' use against them and in England manifestly was an invention. No such 
letter in writing was ever found, and Winthrop seems to have preserved all of 
them. A printed coppy of the printed pretended letter is among the Narragansett 
Club's edition of Williams' preserved letters. Dr. Janes' " A Forgotten Founder 
of Our Liberties," p. 35 note. 'R. I. Collec, ii, 105, 198, 200, r?o2. 

Winslow's Hyp. Unmasked, Part First. Force's iv, Tr. 6, p. 53. ^"The 

Gov. Winthrop, Mr. Tyng, Capt. Keayne and the Auditor General were appointed 
a Committee to see to the transcription of all such instruments for furnishing 
Mr. Winslow for affairs in Eng., to be delivered to him before he go on board. 
Mass. Rec, ii, 171. Mr. Tyng was one of those who with Capt. Cook were 
arrested when upon one of the after-marches upon Providence and Warwick. 
4th Mass. Collec, vi, 380 ; vii. 284. 'Winslow's Memorial Intd., p. 52. _^ 

'Ryerson's Loyalists of America. !, 85-89, 112, 178. Palfrey's Hist. N. F., ti, 
bk. 2, ch. X, p. 393. 'Ryerson's loy. of Amer., i, 183. Hildreth's 


printing press (that at Cambridge) in America for nearly twenty 
years, with licenses prohibiting the publication of any book or paper not 
approved by them.' For want of a sufificient population it was not 
until 1709 that a printing press could be maintained in Providence or 
on the island.* There was, as a consequence of these conditions, a 
plethora of only Massachusetts books and writings, many being printed 
and sent over to England. 

Winthrop says that upon Winslow's arrival there he had a day 
appointed for audience before the Earl of Warwick and the Commis- 
sioners of Plantations, Gorton appearing in Rhode Island's (the Provi- 
dence Plantations) defense." Although Winslow was, as Mather says, 
an " Hercules," and he also had " great advantages in the business" 
through his assistant Massachusetts agents and counsellors and official 
friends, Gorton unaided and almost alone, had the " herculean talk." 
Added to the Massachusetts array of influence and talent against him 
was the ingenious opposition that came from Coddington and the other 
opponents of the charter, the Arnolds. In but few instances did man 
ever defend a cause so successfully against such an avalanche of 
assailants and assaults, his assailants having such unfair advantage of 
him.' The virulent book " Rise, Reign and Ruin of the Antinomians " 
was now extensively circulated and read in England. It cited instances 
of alleged monstrous births among the Providence people as proofs of 
their moral monstrosities and their disfavor with the Almighty, and 
intimated charges of witchcraft against them.' Cotton's book " Bloody 
Tenets Washed" was also published at this time in London;' and the 
" Book of News " with the address of the Massachusetts Court and 
the other before described writings to justify the proceedings against 
Gorton, together with the other material furnished by Coddington, had 
been printed and distributed, and were included by Winslow in his 


The hearing before the Parliament Commissioners — Winslow's and Gorton's re- 
quests — The Parliament Commissioners refuse all of Winslow's requests and 
grant all of Gorton's — Winslow proceeds to have the Providence charter called 
in — Winslow again defeated — The Providence charter to stand — Massachu- 
setts commanded to not remove the people, but to assist and protect them — 
Gorton and Winslow correspondence — No further opposition from Winslow — 
Gorton leaves England for home. 

Under these unauspicious prospects for Gorton the hearing before 
the Commissioners of Parliament was called on May 25th, 1647. Win- 
slow, without evidence for the territorial claims made by Plymouth 
and Massachusetts, was constrained to principally rely for his success 
upon the common weapon against heretics; the calumny furnished him 
against the Providence agent and people ; and Gorton's election as a 
Magistrate was mentioned by him as a catastrophe and evidence of the 
danger threatening the colonies from such men as he. Winslow's 
address was arranged in three parts. The first was Winthrop's News, 
adroitly edited and improved, and the Massachusetts Court's charges, 
urging the injurious results that would follow in respect to the Massa- 
chusetts attempts to convert the Indians, if Gorton and company should 

United States, i, 456. 'Greene's Hist. R. I., 129. "2d Winthro)., 

ii, 387. •Ryerson's Loy. Amer., i, 97, 138. ^ad Winthrop, i, 

^98 notes. "Rider's Hist. Tr 17, pp. 14, 15. Armitage's Hist. Baptists, 


be " countenanced and upheld," and the other writings all " examined 
and allowed by the general court holden at Boston." The second part 
was a further account of Gorton, falsely accusing him of blasphemy 
and of encouraging the Indians to war. The third part was " The Cause 
of the Planting of New England " reviewed, with efforts to show that 
great danger threatened the colony from " such as Gorton and his 
company," that the practice of Massachusetts was not to punish for 
heresy, but for contempt " toward the authority God had betrusted " 
to them ; that the " severe law " complained of they " never did or will 
execute the rigor of," but were " loth to repeal or alter the law because 
we would leave it " to " bear witness against their judgment and prac- 
tice."' Winslow's defense was soon after republished with a full table 
of contents under the titles of " The Danger of Tolerating Levelers " 
and "A More Particular Account Including the Former One." By 
these and various other methods the heretics were made to appear odius 
to many and deserving of all or more than the most charged or that 
could be done to them. 

Winslow, in his address to the committee, made five requests : First, 
that they would " strengthen the cause of Massachusetts by their favor- 
able approbation." Second, that they would never suffer Samuel Gorton 
any more to go to New England. Third, that they would suffer New 
Plymouth to enjoy their former liberties in the line of their government, 
which included their the Providence government's " very seat even," 
Providence and Shawomet. Fourth, that they would " patronize " him in 
the "just defense" Vv?hich he was making and thus place his constituents 
under obligations to " engage with and for the Parliament and the 
Commoners against all opposers of the State (England) to the last 
drop of blood in their veins."'" 

Not all of Gorton's address to the committee on this occasion is 
preserved, but Winslow's requests Gorton probably offset with the same 
requests as applied for himself and Providence, among them that the 
English government would " never suffer Winslow any more to go to 
New England." The result of the trial was the refusal by the Parlia- 
ment Commissioners to Winslow of every one of his requests and the 
granting of those of Gorton ;' and the issuance by them of a second 
letter to Massachusetts, admonishing them to confine their jurisdiction 
to within the limits of their sole patent. 

They say : " We did not intend by our former letter to restrain the 
bounds of your jurisdiction to a narrower compass than is held forth 
in your letters patent. Our resolution took rise from an admittance 
that the Narragansett Bay, the thing in question, was wholly without 
the bounds of your patent, the examination whereof will, in the next 
place, come before us, and whereas our said direction extended not 
only to yourselves, but also to all the other governments and planta- 
tions in New England whom it might concern, we declare that we 
intended thereby no prejudice to any of their just rights, nor the 
countenancing of any practice to violate them."^ 

Winthrop says: "The Commissioners having thus declared them- 
selves to have an honorable regard of us and care to promote the 
welfare of the four United Colonies and other English plantations 
to the eastward, for they had confirmed Mr. Rigby's patent of Ligonia, 
and by their favorable interpretation of it had brought it to the seaside, 

646. 'Young's Chronicles. "Pref. Hyp. Unmasked. 

'Winslow was " never suffered any more to go to new England," but was given 
a position in the Eng. army. Mather's Magnalia, Book ii, ch. i. Gorton soon 
returned to his government with a letter from the Lord Admirable, commanding 
the non-molestation of himself and people. 'May 25, 1647. ist Winthrop, 


whereas the words of the grant laid it twenty miles short [they were 
but twenty-four miles short of Shawomet] and had put Mr. Ferdinand 

Georges out of all as far as Soco, our agent proceeded to have the 
charter, which they had lately granted to those of Rhode Island and 
Providence, to be called in."^ To this object the efforts of Winslow 
and his assistants were applied, to be again defeated, the Commissioners 
deciding that the charter they had granted to Williams should stand. 
Massachusetts " was prohibited " from acting under the Weld paper 
and enjoined to confine their jurisdiction to the territory defined in their 
charter. The Massachusetts Magistrates never placed the Weld paper 
upon their government records, for it would have been too difficult to 
explain if they were called upon so to do by the English government 
or their Commissioners. It was not again during sixteen years men- 
tioned. Its promoters wisely let it sink into oblivion.* The Parliament 
Board decided that Commissioners upon the ground should examine 
and determine to which charter all the disputed territory belonged. 
And they issued, July 22d, 1647, another order to Massachusetts that 
" the government wherein whose jurisdiction they (the inhabitants) 
shall appear to be, not only not to remove them, but to encourage them 
with protection and assistance." These orders were all signed by a 
majority of the Parliament Commissioners and by those who were 
claimed as signers of the Weld paper. 

Gorton received from the Parliament Commissioners, single-handed 
against numbers of the most able and influential, all he asked for and 
ail he could wish, except a " visible force " to compel the Massachusetts 
Magistrates to obey Parliament's mandates. The internal difficulties 
in England having a paramount claim upon the thoughts and resources 
of Parliament, the governments of the colonies were necessarily for 
the time neglected; yet, as a result of Gorton's work, the government 
of the Providence Plantations under their charter was so confirmed 
and determined that a fusion of all the parties on main land and island 
ensued, resulting in an agreement by them to the order established by 
the charter. Peace, however, was deferred, principally by the intrigues 
of Coddington and the impunity with which Massachusetts pursued 
her own way during the reign of Cromwell. 

" The final issue of Gorton's address to the Parliament Commission- 
ers," Arnold says, " not only prevented the Parliament from revoking 
their first decision, but also to have it confirmed, to the final discom- 
fiture of their implacable enemies.'" 

Gorton says : " Mr. Winslow and myself had honorable correspond- 
ence in England and before the honorable committee, which he himself 
referred to, and not to wrong the chart I saw nothing to the contrary 
but that I had as good acceptation in the eyes of that committee as he 
himself had, although he had a greater charter and larger commission." 
Winslow and Gorton were early friends, dating from before the diffi- 
culties between the Providence Plantations and Massachusetts. Though 
as agent for Massachusetts to defend them against Gorton's complaints 
Winslow was obliged to make their defense against his judgment and 
v/ith great reluctance, with such representations as they directed, some 
of them he would not have made of his own motion; and of Gorton, 
Winslow in his discretion is compelled to say that "time v/as when 
his person was precious in my sight." There must have been something 
spiritual about him to have drawn from him such an expression of 

ii, 319, 320. '2d Winthrop, ii, 386, 390, 391. *R. T. Rec, ii, 

162. Col. Aspinwall, Mass. H. Soc. Proc, 186.3. Remarks on Narragansett 
Patent, Sidney S. Rider, Prov. 'Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 219. 


affectionate regard. Winslow seems to have felt it necessary to excuse 
himself for saying the hard things he did say of him.' 

Gorton, with the assurance of no further opposition from Winslow, 
in the spring of 1647-8 left for home with directions from the President 
of the Board of Parliament Commissioners of Plantations and with a 
letter commanding his protection in passing through Massachusetts. 
He and Winslow parted friends.' Winslow resigned his agency for 
Massachusetts and accepted an English commission from that govern- 
ment, and died at sea on the expedition against Hispanoli.' 

There were many critical periods in the early history of the State. 
This was the first, and none could be more critical. Her chartered rights 
had been by her more powerful and influential rival denied, her terri- 
tory taken by armed possession and another government set up over it. 

It has been suggested that the claims Gorton presented were so just 
that success could not otherwise than attended his efforts. The 
justice of a cause does not insure it. The spirit of justice did noC 
govern rulers generally, and the wonder is that he, against such multi- 
tude and variety of special and influential opposition, prevailed and pre- 
vented the Providence charter from being called in, the pretended Weld 
charter from being completed, the refugees from being delivered for 
punishment as requested, and the land from being divided up among 
the other colonies. The founding of the State is due to Roger Williams. 
Its preservation is due to Samuel Gorton. 


A union Assembly, May, 1647 — The Model Civil Government under English laws 
as first drawn up by Gorton and Hutchinson at Portsmouth on the island now 
agreed to by all the parties — All men privileged to " walk as their consciences 
persuaded them, in the name of Jehova their God " — Two governments — The 
Model Civil Government and the Judge and Elders Government contrasted — 
Coggershall made second President, or Governor, of the chartered govern- 
ment — Coddington, for third time left out of office, goes to Boston — War- 
wickers attempt to resettle at Warwick — Massachusetts sends Benedict Arnold 
and other of their officers to disperse them, and grants their lands to others — 
President Coggershall visits Warwick and interposes for his people. 

Of the owners of Shawomet now living at Portsmouth, Judge Bray- 
ton says: "They were all law and order men and for civil govern- 
ment. They all held allegiance to the crown of England and claimed 
to be governed by the laws of the Kingdom. They all held that the 
civil power could not rightfully meddle with the consciences of men or 
with their religious belief. They claimed that the laws of England were 
theirs and that English liberty was theirs; that they came from the 
mother country to these shores clothed with them; that it was their 
birthright, and they had an abiding confidence that the government 
at home would in the end vindicate those rights." Besides these men, 
most of the inhabitants of Portsmouth were the same minded. They 
were the subscribers to the civil compact and were the members of 

U"'^^^^^"^*^"' ^- I- Hist. Tr. 17. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i. 168. Hutchinson's 
Hist. Mass., 1, 552 Gortons letter to Morton. Force's Tracts, Vol. iv. 
'Aspinwall, Proc. Mass. His. Soc, 1862. "Acts Coms U Cols i 192- 

194- Hutchinson's Hist Mass., i. 187. It is a singular fact that nearl'y 'all of 
the agents sent by the Mass. government to plead their cause to the Ene. govern- 
ment, Thos. and Hugh Peters, Thos. Weld, Capt. Cook, Edward Winslow and 
others, were never allowed to return. "Arnold's Hist. R. I. i 122 


that government, but were not of the government that Cojjdington now 
pretended over them. All these and the large majority of the whole 
of the people of the Providence Plantations had been anxiously await- 
ing to know what would be the final issue of Gorton's mission, trusting 
that the charter would be sustained and their rights and liberties pro- 
tected by law. The intelligence that the pretentious Weld paper was 
not a charter and that the Parliament Commissioners were zealous to 
uphold the charter granted to Williams were both " tidings of great 
joy to these people," and the means of so generally terminating the 
internal opposition as to bring about the union of those who had been 
Coddington's leading supporters with the chartered government.' 

A General Assembly at Portsmouth, May i8th, 1847, had, upon the 
suggestion of the Providence Commissioners, the call of the govern- 
ment to them all, a full representation from all the towns." The 
Commissioners representing Providence in the government, and the only 
body of Commissioners the names of which are preserved were Gregory 
Dexter, William Wickenden, Thomas Olney, Robert Williams, Richard 
Waterman, Roger Williams, William Field, John Greene, John Smith, 
and John Lippitt. There were two kinds of Commissioners from the 
island. The two sets, each chosen by the inhabitants of their own town, 
and the one set chosen by Coddington's limited number of freemen 
for both towns, the whole island. After much sparring, the Portsmouth 
Commissioners obtained a rule under which they proceeded to " act 
alone according to the Assembly's instructions," declaring themselves 
to be " as free as any other town in the colony." The Newport Com- 
missioners, however composed, were, that is 'those who were successful 
as such and were seated, most of them Coddington's friends. 

Shawomet had but about six settlers when the charter was written, 
but, as the reader has seen, provisions were made in the charter for 
all both present and furture settlements within its stated bounds. Gorton 
having named it Warwick, in honor of his friend the Earl of Warwick, 
it was represented with the other towns. Portsmouth, to insure the 
stability of their independence of Coddington, proposed an act that 
each town govern its own affairs, but the friends of the latter prevailed 
with an amendment that they " might work either apart or jointly,'" 
which left the matter in its unsettled condition, disappointing the 
people's expectations and heightening the feeling of unrest and dissat- 
isfaction. The Providence Commissioners' desires were expressed in 
resolutions, among them that all subscribe to the laws of England as 
had their Portsmouth friends, and the acceptance of the model of 
government that had been shown to them by their worthy friends of 
the island. The following propositions of the Portsmouth Commission- 
ers were adopted: That the plantations assent to receive and be gov- 
erned by the laws of England — not the church compact of Coddington; 
that " each town should have apart for the transaction of particular 
affairs a charter of civil incorporation ; " and that the model of govern- 
ment and laws which they submitted be accepted by the whole repre- 
sentation for the colonies.^ 

Peterson, in his history of Rhode Island, says that when the Codding- 
ton faction joined the charter government of the Providence Plantations 
"the town of Providence instructed their Commissioners to hold a 
correspondence with the whole colony 'in the model that hath been 
lately shown unto us by our worthy friends of the island,' and it appears 
that the plan of the government was framed by the people of the island 
and shown to those of Providence, who agreed to adopt them; and 

"•R. I. Rec, I. 'R. I. Rec, i, 191. »R. I. Rec, i, 43, 44, 147 


thus from the legislation of the people of the island the free institu- 
tions emanated." But he does not credit to the proper islanders the 
principles which he says " operated like leaven in diffusing itself 
through the minds of the masses and formed the nucleus out of which 
ultimately sprang the Declaration of Independence." The government 
agreed to was not that of Coddington's, but that of Hutchinson-Gorton's 
on the island." 

The government agreed to by all present provided for a President 
and Chief Justice and four Assistants or Associate Justices, for a 
Court of Election annually in May, and for General and Quarterly 
Courts; for a Grand Jury, that men have their preemptory and other 
challenges to the full as they have them in England; and for a Jury 
of Twelve men of the same town where the Court of Trial is held. 
The general code of laws, which concerned all men, was first approved 
by the towns [as the States adopted the Constitution and still adopt 
amendments] and was ratified by the General Assembly of the whole 
people. All legislative power was placed ultimately in the whole 
people in General Assembly convened. Towns might propose laws [as 
States amends to the Constitution] and the approval of a General Court 
of Commissioners might give them a temporary force; but it was only 
the action of the General Asembly (the General Government) which 
could make them general and permanent for all persons within the 
colony. But the towns had their local laws [as the States have theirs], 
which could not be enforced beyond their own limits ; and they had their 
town courts [as the States have State courts], >vhich had exclusive 
original jurisdiction over all causes between its own citizens.* 

The code contained rules, among them one severely condemning a 
judge for stooping to the roll of the advocate, directing that the judge 
in charging the jury " should mind the inquest of the most material 
passages and arguments that are brought by one and other for the 
case and against it, without alteration or leaning to one party or 
another, v.'hich is too commonly seen." And recorded that " as it would 
be too prejudical to the place or quiet government thereof for a man 
out of a discontented self-will, or other pretense, not to resign, together 
with his office belonging to the colony, island or town, to him that is 
chosen and appointed thereto. Be it therefore enacted by the authority 
of the present Assembly that whosoever hath or shall hereafter have 
books, papers or parchments that belong to the colony, island or town, 
or any other things appertaining thereto, shall within one month after 
another be chosen and appointed to take the charge thereof, deliver 
up safely into his hands all such books, papers, parchments and other 
things that were in his custody. And be it further enacted that he that 
shall not resign and deliver the books, papers, parchments and other 
things above specified within one month as he is appointed shall forfeit " 
as provided. It was enacted that a solemn profession before a judge 
should be accounted of as full force as an oath. 

At the close of the code appears these words : " These are the laws 
that concern all men, and these are the penalties for the transgression 
thereof, which by common consent are ratified and adopted throughout 
the whole colony; and otherwise than thus what is herein forbidden, 
all men may walk as their consciences persuade them, every one in the 
name of God; and let the saints of the Most High walk in the 

This government was the first one in these Plantations to have a judiciary or 
magistracy troverning in only civil things. All its features were adopted, except- 
ing that of the chief officer. This may have been the result of Coddington's 
friends' pledge to vote only for him for Gov. or Judge. ^Historical 

Discourse, by Hon. Job Durfee, R. I. Rec, i, 191-208. "R. I. Rec, Dr. 


colony without molestation, in the name of Jehovah their God, forever 
and amen."* 

The form and character of this government was the exact antipode 
of Coddington's. The members of Coddington's court were selected 
by a very limited franchise. The members of his court were, up to 
nearly this time, no more enlightened with the belief in the rights of 
others to rule or to enjoy their opinions than were their Massachusetts 
brethren. They, like them, had removed not because they disavowed 
the doctrine of coercion, but because they did not like themselves to be 
the subjects of its application. All those who went off to Newport and 
installed Coddington to judge with double voice took the Bible as their 
code of State. Only through the stern experience that came to them 
after they became Baptists or Quakers did they receive into their minds 
the sunlight from the despised doctrine. " They possessed not that clear 
appreciation of the great democratic principles of civil and religious 
liberty "° that was possessed by their despised brethren. In Gorton 
and Williams Church and State were distinct, but in Coddington they 
were at this time confounded.' 

This Assembly has been called the Union Assembly, for in this all 
the principal ones of Newport and Coddington's followers joined the 
chartered government; the most prominent of them, his late Elder 
Coggershall, given the office of President or Governor and each of 
most of his other leaders given place. While this effected the recon- 
ciliation of the leading ones of Coddington to the government, it was 
a disappointment to Coddington, who was in this for the third time 
left out of office. He departed for Boston. 

The penalty prescribed by Massachusetts to the owners of Shawomet 
to, at the peril of their lives, venture upon any portion of it was, not- 
withstanding Parliament's orders, unrevoked; but relying upon the 
observance of the orders, some of them, now " in anticipation of the 
joys long hoped for, peace in their possessions," returned to their home. 
"Having now received our orders," August 8th, 1647, they chose a 
town council, but they were not allowed to settle down in the place. 
There were forty years more of hardships and struggles for them 
before they were left in peace. Massachusetts now assumed to dispose 
of the land at Warwick to her subjects, and granted ten thousand acres 
to settle upon, provided government over it and sent Benedict Arnold 
and other of their officers to apprehend the bodies of the owners, to 
appraise damages against them and demand satisfaction.* Upon this 
Governor Coggershall went to Warwick, and in the name of his govern- 
ment forbade the Massachusetts su'ojects to intermeddle; whereupon 
the Massachusetts Court resolved to again send forces against them, 
but deferred it until more should be learned from their foreign agents, 
they yet failing to observe that they had no right outside the territory 
limited to them in their patent ° 

We have in previous pages answered the absurd accusation that 
Gorton or the people of Warwick would not have a government until 
by a charter. He was the leading organizer, and moVe than one-half 
of those who became the original owners or settlers of Warwick were 
members of the model civil government now adopted by the charter 
government, and for their active promotion of it and participation 
m It were denied the island. 

The Providence settlers composed their difficulties by arbitration, and 

Janes' Samuel Gorton, p. 60. "John M. Mackie, 2d Ser. Sparks' Am. 

f J.°S-„ "^'^.333- 'Armitage's Hist. Baptists, 672. Eighteen years after 

this L^oddington wJis converted and became a Friend and Liberalist. 
5th Mass. Coilec. \ 347. '2d Winthrop, ii, 386, 390. "Staples' 


were for eight years without a judiciary." The first six men of War- 
wick had scarcely need of even their provision for " loving arbitration " 
for the settling of their difficulties; for but nine months were allowed 
them there; busy months in building three or four little houses before 
they were with the six of Providence carried off to Boston jail;"* and 
from that time on, after they formed a government, or for more than 
thirty years thereafter, Warwick was but the camp and fort for soldiers 
and the pillage ground of the subjected Indians. The few " habitations 
were destroyed by fire and otherwise," and the few once its inhabitants 
were scattered and had no place for a government, scarcely even a 
roofed dwelling. 


Gorton's return from England — He is detained by the Massachusetts government 
in Boston until after his government election is over — Coddington declared 
elected to the head of the Providence government — Providence government 
Assembly denounce the fraud, suspend Coddington, and choose and install Capt. 
Jerry Clark President of the Providence government — Coddington indicted for 
treason and his flight from the colony — Coddington offers himself and lands 
to the league of colonies — They refuse him — He offers himself and lands to 
Plymouth — Providence and Gorton party successfully oppose him — Codding- 
ton's letter to Winthrop accounting his disgrace. 

A year had passed since the last Assembly and the Commissioners of 
Portsmouth and Newport had not composed their difficulties. Codding- 
ton and his remaining adherents were trying yet to enforce the edicts 
of this court over the whole island, and left nothing unturned to destroy 
the government which had been established under the Charter.* The citi- 
zens of Portsmouth had again in town meeting expressed their independ- 
ence of the Newport men's rule over them, and ordered the clerk to re- 
announce their resolution to act in the approaching General Assembly 
separately. The feeling between them and Coddington's adherents. 

Annals. 'Gammell's Life of Williams. 2d Sparks' Am. Biog, iv, 133. 

*We omitted to state that half of the men captured by the Mass. troops had not 
seen Shawomet, but were residents of Providence ; were either taken by the 
troops at Providence as they passed through it, or at Shawomet after having fled 
there before the advancing soldiers. Cotton said : " This company was made 
up of those friends of Mr. Williams." They were members of Williams' church, 
of other churches and of no churches, whom Gorton never disturbed in their 
religion, but to whom, as to others, he preached the fundamental truths of the 
Christian religion when they chose to listen ; which was crime sufficient, so then 
considered. " Gorton, desiring to speak his mind, fully set it forth as the mind 
of himself and his company, whereof those of Mr. Williams, his friends were no 
small part," Cottor, Nar, Club, ii, 16, 17. To Williams' addresses to Cotton, 
the declared inefificiericy of such means, the branding of such methods, and 
censure of them — " There hath been no small noise of Master Gorton and hi 
friends being disciplined, or as the Papists call it, disciplined in the school ot 
the New Eng. churches. It is worth the inquiry to ask what conviction and con- 
version hath all these hostilities, captivatings, courtings. imprisonments, chain- 
ings, banishments, etc., wrought," and " when such tinriehteous and most un- 
christian proceedings are exercised against them." Cotton defends proceedings 
by accusing Gorton, not only of heresy, but uniustly of wrongfully taking the 
Indian lands. Nar. Club, iv, 22(), 228. Gorton did not accept the mission to the 
Eng. government on, as his decriers stated, his sole account, as we have seen 
from the resolutions of the Aug. 9, 1645, Assembly sessions; and Winslow, in 
describing his Parliamentary services, writes : " Gorton also appearing in defense 
of Rhode Island, Providence Plantations," and his petition contained no plea for 
redress for losses nor for injuries done him or anyone, but that the Mass. magis- 
trates be restrained from exercising authority beyond their chartered jurisdiction, 
and that the rights of the natives and the natural and chartered rights of the 


which had been continually growing, now became so severe as to 
threaten the existence of the colony.' 

Gorton was upon his return voyage to the colonies relieved from his 
former long route via Manhattan by the order of the Parliament Com- 
missioners to the Massachusetts Court that " we do also require that 
you suffer the said Gorton and company to pass through any part of 
that territory which is under your jurisdiction, toward the said tract 
of land, without molestation, they demeaning themselves civilly, any 
former sentence of expulsion or otherwise notwithstanding."* His 
safety was also further provided by the Earls of Northumberland 
and Warwick, by a passport or letter from them directed to the Massa- 
chusetts Magistrates, especially commanding their obedience to the 
issued orders. Under these circumstances he had taken passage direct 
for Boston, where he arrived on May loth, 1648. This was in season 
for him to be in Providence at the opening of the nearing Assembly 
to testify in impending suits against Coddington and take part in the 
election. When he landed in Boston the Massachusetts Court was in 
session. The success achieved by Gorton in his mission made him 
the most popular and likely candidate for the Presidency of the char- 
tered government. This, together with the evidences which he possessed 
of Coddington's treason papers and colonies records, the latter sent to 
the aid of the Massachusetts agents in England, which, if laid before 
the Assembly, would render Coddington's chances of election certainly 
fatal, impelled the Massachusetts Magistrates promptly, in defiance of 
the order to them from the Parliament Commissioners and in collusion 
with Coddington who was with them in Boston, to cause Gorton's 
arrest and detention. 

The General Assembly of the Providence Plantations met on May 
l6th, 1648, the regular sessions at Providence. They at once appointed 
Rufus Barton, of Warwick, and Capt. Jeremy Clark, of Newport, as 
delegates to proceed with their protest to the Massachusetts Court 
against its high-handed proceedings. The Massachusetts Court, which 
was apprised of the Assembly's movements, avoided a hearing of the 
delegates and further delayed the matter by adjourning before the 
delegates' arrival." The delegates, hearing when they reached Dedham 
that the court had adjourned, wrote to Winthrop in terms becomingly 
severe yet deferential, asking leave to wait upon him with the request 
which they had in charge. 

The Assembly resolved itself, as was the customary procedure, into 
a Court of Election and the election of State officers followed. It 
appears certain that either Capt. Clark or Gorton were the candidates 
for President of the government party. Coddington was put in nomi- 
nation by the opposing party, with the result that the latter was, 
although not present to meet the charges and evidences of disloyalty 
that were lodged with the court against him, and was not present during 
any of the Assembly's sessions, declared elected. Jeremy Clark, Roger 
Williams, William Baulston and John Smith were chosen Assistants. 

people of the Providence Plantations be regarded." The Parliament Commission- 
ers also commended the wisdom and moderation of his plea. They say : " "^'ou 
may take notice that we found the petitioners' aim and desire in the resul* of 
it v;as not so much a reparation for what had passed as a settling their habita- 
tions for the future under that government by a charter of civil incorporation, 
which was heretofore granted them by ourselves. The Narragansett Bay was 
divers years inhabited by those of Providence, Portsmouth and Newport, who aie 
interested in the complaint, and that the same is v;holIy without the bounds of 
the Mass. patent." Lord's and Commons' Reeds. Collects., previously cited. 
'Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 221 Ports. Town Rec. *R. I. Collec, ii, 196. 

'ad Winthrop, i, 293. *The oath of office was not taken of or given by 


Immediately upon the announcement of the result of the election, upon 
divers bills of complaint against Coddington and Baulston, their mem- 
bership of the body was suspended. They never appeared to defend 
themselves or attempt the impossible task of clearing themselves of the 
charges against them, and were never engaged nor installed in office." 
Capt. Jeremy Clark of Newport, who was a leader of the liberal party 
upon the island, was deputed President, and he, with the other officers 
chosen and engaged, was engaged and installed in the office of President 
to serve until another one be installed ; but as none other was installed 
during that term, he only was the President for that term' and the 
third President or Governor of the Providence Plantations under the 
charter [Williams and Coggershall having been the first and second], 
or the second President since the principal Coddington followers joined 
them. It was evident that Coddington was not chosen or " elected " to 
be President, for the immediate poll of these same men showed their 
majority adverse to him and suspending him. The result of very similar 
conditions in the future reasonably assures us that they intended the 
office for Gorton at this election. In preventing Coddington's installa- 
tion and preserving the government from the perversion for which he 
was conspiring, they accomplished much, considering the crooked meth- 
ods in operation against them. John Clark was a member of this 
Assembly, an opponent of Coddington, never having since 1640 accepted 
an office under him. 

The Massachusetts Court on the 13th of the month reconsidered what 
they had done, took up the letter from the Earls which Gorton had 
presented to them, and believing " that it could be no prejudice to our 
liberty, and our Commissioners being still attending the Parliament, 
it might much have disadvantaged our cause and his expedition if the 
Earl had heard that we should have denied him so small a request " as 
to obey his or the other Parliament Commissioners' instructions, " re- 
called their former order," permitted Gorton's release by only the cast- 
ing vote of the Governor — so late that one from Boston could not reach 
Providence during the Assembly's sessions and election — and gave him 
the farcical grant of " a week's liberty to provide for his departure." 

Portsmouth secured from the May Assembly the passage of its orig- 
inal act regarding the courts, that they be organized and held in each 
town separately ; the courts of each town to be composed of six men 
of the town. These local judges were also the Commissioners or 
Representatives of their towns, and together constituted the General 
Assembly. From them each town chose an Assistant, who with the 
President composed the General Court and Senate. The island was 
freed of any plausible claims of Coddington's. The first bill of indict- 
ment, or " Presentation of the Grand Jury," that was drawn up in the 
colony v;as against Coddington and was presented at this session.* 

Nine days after this, on May 25th, he writes to Governor Winthrop 
of Massachusetts that Capt. Partridge and Baulston and himself were 
in disgrace with the people of Providence and Warwick and Gorton's 
adherents on the island, and that he fears " Gorton will be a thorn in 
their and our sides."* And Williams a few weeks afterwards writes 
that the colony was in the throes of " civil dissensions," the President 
Jeremy Clark as the Captain of the Providence and Gorton party in 
defense of the chartered government, and Alexander Partridge as 

them; they were never invested with authority, and were not until 1654 restored 
as members of the government. 'Callender, R. I. H. S. Collec, iv, 268. 

Foster, R. I. H. S. Collec, vii, 87. R. I. Reeds 'Ante p. R- L Rec, i. 

194, 196, 198, 202, 203, 210. "Hutchinson's Papers, i, 253. 



Captain of the Pawtuxet and Coddington party arrayed against them." 
In what appears to have been a short conflict, in which but one was 
killed but many wounded, Partridge's forces were defeated; and Cod- 
dington, after again writing to Massachusetts for help, was obliged 
to flee from the vengeance of the people and take refuge in Taunton.' 

On August 15th William Arnold wrote to the Massachusetts govern- 
ment informing them that Pomham, one of many Massachusetts subjects 
vvfho were still maintained by Massachusetts upon the land at Warwick, 
killing the cattle, entering the homes by force and committing other acts 
of violence upon such of the owners as ventured there," had been 
warned to the court at Plymouth and appealed to Massachusetts to 
have the case tried by them, as the interpreters to the Plymouth Court 
were all of the Gorton party, and as Mr. Brown, one to try the case, 
favored the company of Gorton and was very friendly with him. "Also 
being desirous to acquaint your worships of my fear that if there be 
not a speedier course taken the court will be deprived of jurisdiction 
in these parts by those who claim that it is under the Providence 
patent.'" He complained also of the trespass of such as returned to 
Warwick or to what he claimed were the Pawtuxans' lands, and on 
August 2ist, Massachusetts, in response to this and in defiance of the 
Parliament orders to let these people freely live " without extending 
their jurisdiction or otherwise disquieting them," again sent their offi- 
cers to Warwick to assess damages and demand redress. 

In the September following, Coddington applied, he said, " in behalf 
of our island," to the Commissioners of the United Colonies to be 
received into a perpetual league with them. The masses of the people 
of the island had not authorized him to petition for them. His was 
like Arnold's early petition " in behalf of Providence ; " it represented 
less than a dozen individuals besides himself." The application was 
refused by the United Commissioners out of respect to the mandates 
of the Parliament Commissioners. The result of Gorton's efforts now 
saved Coddington and the island subjection to Massachusetts." Codding- 
ton then personally presented himself at the court of Plymouth to 
subject himself and the island to them. Here he was met by represen- 
tatives of the loyal party, Holden and Warner, both from Warwick,, 
who declaimed against Plymouth receiving him or accepting any pre- 
tended subjection of the island. "They showed," Williams says, "to 
the satisfaction of the court that it would be a violation of their 
charter,"* and Plymouth refused him. Coddington in his petition to 
Plymouth said that Portsmouth inclined to it, when it was only Baulston 
of Portsmouth, who represented only himself, that inclined to it. A 
majority of the inhabitants cf Portsmouth were among those whom 
Coddington termed " Gorton's adherents on the island." Some of the 
exiles from Shawomet to Portsmouth ever remained there. Half of 
the Portsmouth Representatives to the last Assembly were in 1639 
signers and members with Gorton to the civil compact and model gov- 
ernment. Neither Coddington's nor Baulston's course were approved 
by a respectable fraction of the inhabitants of either town or the 

At this time the opposition of Codington and his supporters and his 
course with the other colonies brought the government so near to the 
verge of its existence that an arbitration of the difficulties was proposed 

"3d Mass. Collec, ix, 278, 279, 280. 4th Mass. Collec, vii. 284. " Greenes of 
Warwick." '4th Mass. Collec, vii, 284. ^Fuller's Hist.^ War- 

wick. Holden and Greene's Petition, 1678. '5th Mass. Collec, i, 360. 

Wm. Arnold's letter, Aug. 15, 1648. 'Hutchinson's Papers, i, 255. 

'Hutchinson's Papers, i, 256. "Williams' letter, 3d Mass. Collec, ix. 


by both the Massachusetts Court and Williams.* In a letter regarding 
this, Williams says he was bold to suggest arbitration, to which Provi- 
dence and Mr. Easton, though opposed to it, yielded, a reference for 
settlement to John Winthrop, Jr., and some other friends.' Arnold, 
in his history of Rhode Island, says that " had they submitted " a settle- 
ment of the difficulties to arbitration as proposed, " the charter would 
have been virtually annulled by the act of its holders; the schemes of 
the surrounding colonists to appropriate the rest of the State might 
have proved successful. The Providence Plantations would soon have 
been absorbed by Massachusetts and Connecticut." Happily, the War- 
wick delegatets interposed and prevented it. 

But the Ship of State had yet greater tempests to encounter. Cod- 
dington, encouraged and aided by Massachusetts, and intending by 
every means, if possible, to rule, had in the month before the Assembly 
and election provided that " financial resources for his occasions " 
should in June be at his call at Boston; and on September 13th, 1648, 
he wrote to Winthrop: "Yours conveyed by Mr. Baulston to Taunton 
received. I shall suddenly leave the island for England by the next, 
if God will, and shall be glad and ready to serve you there." On Jan- 
uary 29th a vessel sailed on which he took passage." 

A special General Assembly was called after Coddington's departure, 
and was held at Warwick in March, the beginning of the new year 
1649, the records of which are missing, but we learn that the President, 
Capt. Jeremy Clark, was yet upon field duty and not present at the 
opening of the sessions. Williams was solicitated to be present as 
moderator, but he did not attend; yet an act of oblivion was passed 
which he had recommended." The charters for the towns provided 
for in a previous act, were issued, or re-issued, at this session.' 

The many orders from Parliament upon the Massachusetts Magis- 
trates to repeal the proscriptive acts against Gorton and others were 
unheeded. Randall Holden, having business in Boston which required 
his presence there, petitioned the Massachusetts Court that the sentence 
of banishment against him might be revoked in order that he might 
personally attend to it. He was informed that an attorney could attend 
to the business as well as himself.' 


The Assembly and election of May, 1649 — John Smith chosen President; Clark, 
Gorton Sanford and Olney Assistants: Williams Auditor— Deferred suits 
against' Coddington— Nicholas Easton President— The government in com- 
plete order — Renewed aggressions and attempted subversion of the char- 
tered government with a view to the absorption of the Providence Plantations 
by the" other colonies— Massachusetts annexes Warwick and Pawtuxet to their 
territory Winslow resif^ns from the service of Massachusetts — Arm_ed inva- 
sion of the Providence Plantations— Gorton chosen President of the Providence 
government— Coddington pretends to an English commission to govern— 
Williams sent by the Providence government to England — The secession of the 
island — Coddington assumes its government — The passage of Gorton's Anti- 
Slavery Act the first in America— Arnold-Pawtuxet claimants pose as Pfoy- 
idence, Pawtuxet and Warwick Commissioners to assist Coddington — Their 
rump assemblies. 

271. *Mass. Rec, iii, 202. 'Williams' letter, 3d Mass. CoHec, 

ix, 27T. ^3d Mass. Collec, ix. 279-283. _ "^d Mass. Collec, 

ix, 282, 283. It was not as the editorial note in the printed Colony Records 
asserts, that Williams was chosen because Coddington had gone to England. 
The conditions had not by Coddington going to England been changed. Cod- 
dington was not a member cf the government, had been expelled. None other 
than Jeremy Clark had been installed President, and, as he was on military duty, 
V/illiaras was solicited to act in his place as Moderator of the Assembly's ses- 
sions. *R. I. Rec, i, 214. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 226. 'Mass. 


On May 22d, 1649, the General Assembly and Court of Election was 
held at Warwick ; Williams acted as moderator. John Smith, of War- 
wick, was chosen President. Thomas Olney of Providence, John Sand- 
ford of Portsmouth, John Clark of Newport, and Samuel Gorton of 
Warwick were chosen Assistants and were engaged. Smith and Gorton 
declined, and for this, as the law was, were fined, but they served and 
their fines were remitted. This election was a complete, though brief, 
triumph for the liberal or government party. Warrants were issued 
by the President of the colony and served by the Constable of Provi- 
dence on the Arnolds to appear at the General Court for trial.^ The 
suits pending against Coddington were, on account of his absence in 
England, deferred to a later session. There was unobstructed working 
order in the government for a season; the people happily and profitably 
employed, required little legislation. A massive stone garrison house 
that had been planned by President Smith was erected by him at War- 
wick, both as a fortress and his residence.* The government, Williams 
says, was in complete order. The encroachments of the adjoining 
colonies were and had been for some time met by an effectual resist- 
ance, and judgments had been obtained in the courts and executions 
enforced by a number of the injured Providence and Warwick people 
against Arnold and other Pawtuxet pretended Massachusetts subjects.* 

On May 22d, 1650, the General Assembly and Court of Election was 
held at Newport. Nicholas Easton was elected President. William 
Fields of Providence, John Porter of Portsmouth, John Clark of New- 
port, and John Wickes of Warwick were chosen Assistants and all 
were engaged. The Assembly received peremptory orders from the 
Bay not to prosecute any suits against the men of Pawtuxet who had 
refused to pay taxes, accompanied by threats of intervention.' The 
short but a year, of peace was expelled. Supplies of powder and 
magazines and of arms proportioned to the population of the place were 
ordered established in every town of the Providence Plantations;' and 
a special convention of delegates from all the towns was called by the 
President to consider the invasion of their territory.' 

Renewed life was at this time given to the agressive movements of 
Plymouth and Massachusetts and to the dissensions which had been 
maintained by the Pawtuxans and by Coddington, by rumors of the 
latter's designs on the colony and the changes encouraging to them, which 
had taken place in England. When Coddington arrived there the King 
was beheaded, the Puritans were in power, the House of Lords and the 
Parliament Commissioners who had granted the charter to Williams 
and the petition to Gorton had been abolished by Cromwell; the Com- 
monwealth declared, and the supreme power vested in a State Council; 
many things favoring Plymouth, Massachusetts and Coddington, and 
a reputed scheme of the latter to make himself life Governor of the 
island. Plymouth and Massachusetts, encouraged by these prospects, 
renewed their disputed claims to Warwick and Providence before the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies. Massachusetts passed an act 
to annex Warwick and Pawtuxet to Suffolk, one of their own counties, 
and again sent officers to bring the people there to Boston for trial.' 

On September 5th the United Commissioners met at Hartford. A 
letter to them from Winslow was read, requesting them to engage 
another agent in his place and declining their further service.'" The 

Rec, ii, 275. 'Errly Rec. Prov., xv, 27. *Hist. Warwick, 262. 

Wm. Arnold's letter, R. I. Collec, ii, 207, 212. 'May, 20, 1650. 

'May 23, 1650, R. I. Rec, i, 223. 'Prov. Town Rec, June 27, 1650. 

'Mass. Rec, iii, 201. R. I. Hist. Tract, 17, p. 120. Early Reeds, of Prov. 
"Acts Commis. United Colonies, i, 162, 163. Winslow writes: "I shall be more 
wary hereafter how I engaged in business of that nature." ist Winthrop, ii. 


Commissioners ordered twenty well-armed men sent into the Narra- 
gansett country/ and a company of twenty others from Massachusetts 
soon followed/ A letter was received by the Commissioners from 
President Easton, protesting in the name of the government of the 
Providence Plantations against the war they were waging, and declar- 
ing his government and Warwick, where Gorton lived, to be bound 
mutually to support one another.* 

At the following October sessions of the Providence Plantations it 
was, on account of the difficulties and dangers threatening them, ordered 
to raise £200 to send Williams to England. 

The Pavvtuxet claimants now, 1650, entered upon the Suffolk records 
at Boston what they called a combination agreement to a line described 
between Providence and their claimed purchase. No signatures are 
upon it, nor any certification of authority nor of adoption. It had never 
been agreed to by the town council or people of Providence, and never 
was entered upon the records of Providence. A paper purporting to 
be a copy, bearing the date of July T.y, 1640, and thirty-six names, all 
written on it by a town clerk twenty-two years after, and marked 
" copied 1662" by him and found among ancient papers, has been 
printed in the Providence Early Records.* 

Coddington, on March 6th, 1650, applied to the English Council of 
State for the government of " two small islands called Aquetnet, alias 
Rhode Island, and Quinunagate," which his petition stated he had a 
right to by discovery and purchase of the Indians and had quietly 
enjoyed ever since."* He stated to the council, and showed to them by 
Winslow's assertion, that they were not within the patent for Providence 
Plantations. Winslow had so stated in his petition and prayed that 
they be declared in Plymouth's. An auspicious account of these proceed- 
ings reached Coddington's friends in April, and President Easton, who 
had for four years now been a member and loyal defender of the chartered 
government, abandoned it. The Providence Plantations were not repre- 
sented in the case of Coddington before the English Council, and nothing 
having been produced by Winslow showing that the desire of Codding- 
ton should not be granted, a resolution to grant him the commission 
was by their vote, April 3d, 1651, adopted. 

We do not find records of the annual May Assembly and Election, 
but it appears from other data that it was at the regular time held, and 
that Roger Williams acted in the place of the President as moderator 
of its sessions; for a letter was at this time directed by the Massachu- 
setts Court to him, again forbidding the collection of taxes from 
Arnold, Cole, Carpenter and others of the Pawtuxet party, Massachu- 
setts' pretended subjects.* Samuel Gorton was chosen President. We 
do not find who were chosen Assistants. The records of the sessions 
were destroyed by the Coddington faction, and we have only such infor- 
mation regarding it as is obtained from other sources. The names of 
the President and Commissioners or Representatives appear in records 
following.' That the people should now choose Gorton to lead them 
through the present complex and future threatening difficulties, and 
that he should accept a so arduous and hazardous and unpropitious an 
undertaking, is an expression of the deep-grounded faith of the people 
in his faithfulness, zeal and steadfastness, and a monument to the 
undaunted courage of their indubitable champion. 

272, 280, 118-320. Hazard's, Ji, 178. Hutchinson's Collec, 229. 'Acts 

Corns. U. Cols., i, 168. 'Mass. Rec, Hi, 218. 'Acts Corns. U. 

Cols., i, 170. *"The Lands of Rhode Island," by Sidney S. Rider, 

Providence, 91-95, etc. "Intp. Entry Book, Vol. xcii, p. 64. 

•Mass. Rec, iii, 228. *R. L Rec, i, 235. 'Journal of the Council 


The following copy of the Council's resolution was, with a letter 
from Winslow, received by Massachusetts about the first of August: 
"Whereas, by a late Act of Parliament of October last, it is granted 
to the Council of State to have power and authority over all such 
islands and all other places in America as have been at the cost and 
settled by the people and authority of this nation, and thereon in any 
of the said islands and places to institute government and to grant 
commission or commissions to such person or persons as they shall 
think fit, and to do all just things and to use all lav/ful means for the 
benefit and preservation of said plantations and islands in peace and 
safety until the Parliament shall take other and fuller orders there; any 
letters patent, or other authority formerly granted or given to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, do make and constitute William Coddington to 
be Governor of the said island (Rhode Island and Conanicut Island). 
He to be assisted by counsellors not exceeding the number of six, nomi- 
nated by the people and approved by him."* Coddington arrived upon 
the island about the first of September." 

The Commissioners of the United Colonies met September 4th at 
New Haven. They had the letter from Winslow read, and expressed 
their regrets at losing his further service.^" They then directed a letter 
to the island informing Coddington they were pleased that the Parlia- 
ment Council had committed the government of the island to his hands, 
and desired to receive assurance from him that those who had taken 
refuge from their jurisdiction would be delivered to them.' They 
received a letter from William Arnold containing the following: "I 
thought it my duty to give intelligence unto the much honored court 
of that which I understand is now working here in these parts, so that 
if it be the will of God an evil may be prevented before it comes to too 
great a head, viz. : Whereas Mr. Coddington have gotten a charter of 
Rhode Island and Conimacuke Island to himself,^ he have broken the 
force of their charter that went under the name of Providence, because 
he have gotten away the greater part of that colony.' Now these com- 
pany of the Gortonists that live at Shawomout and that company of 
Providence are gathering of £200 to send Mr. Roger Williams unto the 
Parliament. They of Shawomout have given £100 already and there be 
some of Providence that have given £10 and £20 a man, to help it 
forward with speed. It is a very great pity such a company as they 
are. There may be some mischief and trouble upon the whole country 
if their project be not prevented in time, for under the pretense of 
liberty of conscience about these parties there to live all the scum, 
the runaways of the country. They are making haste to send Mr. 
Williams away. Some of them of Shawomout that crieth out much 
against them which putteth people to death for witches,* for say they, 
there be no witches upon earth nor devils but your own pasters and 
ministers.' and such as they are."* 

of State, Vol. 146, p. 155. 'Turners Greenes of Warwick. 

"Acts Corns. U. Colonies, i, 196-198. ^Acts Corns. U. Colonies, i, 215, 216 

"It was believed by Coddington's followers that he had obtained a patent and 
that it invalidated the Williams' charter ; but the Providence Plantation govern- 
ment and its friends in Eng. seasonably prevented any patent or Commission 
being issued to him upon the resolution. 'Rhode and " Conimacuke " 

Islands were about one-thirty-fifth part of the territory of the colony. 
•During the ten years beginning 1645 there were seven persons put to death for 
the crime of witchcraft in ICew Eng. Murray, i, 294. Hinton, Knapp & Choules* 
Hist. U. S., id Ed., i, 68. 2d Winthrop, ii, .-!47, 798, etc. " Before i6!;2 there 
were thirty-six trials of accused persons and eight canital executions." " The 
Romance of Am. Colonization," 149, 150. °" The Elders, especially 

Wilson and Norton, instigated and sustained the government in its worst cruel- 
ties." Bryant's Hist. U. S., ii, 462. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 273. Ryerson's 
Loyalists of America, i, 122. "" Which last observation, I must say. 


A letter from V/arwick was read complaining of the " oppressions 
and wrongs amounting to great damage since we first possessed the 
place, being forced thereby to seek to that honorable State of old 
England for relief, which did unequitably draw great charge upon us 
to the further impoverishing of our estates; and finding favor for 
redress we were willing to waive for the time [in regard to the great 
troubles and employment that then lay upon the State] all other losses, 
statute wrongs, we then underwent, so that we might be replanted in 
and upon that our purchased possessions, and enjoy them peaceably 
for time to come, without disturbance or molestation. Since our 
gracious grant from the honorable Parliament in replanting us in this 
place, we have been and daily are pressed with intolerable grievances 
to the eating up of our labors and wasting of our estates, making our 
lives, together with our wives and children, bitter and incomparable. 
Insomuch that groaning under our burdens we are constrained to make 
our addresses to that honorable Parliament and State once again to 
make our just complaint against our causeless molestors, who by them- 
selves and their agents are the only cause of this our re-uttering our 
distressed condition. May it please, therefore, this honorable Assembly 
to take notice of this our solemn intelligence given unto you as the most 
public authorized society appertaining unto and interested in the United 
Colonies whom our complaints do concern, that we are now preparing 
ourselves with all convenient speed for old England, to make our griev- 
ances known again to that State, which falls upon us by reason that 
the order of the Parliament of England concerning us hath not been 
observed nor the enjoyment of our privileges permitted to us ; in that 
we have been prohibited and charged to acquit this place since the 
order of Parliament given out and known to the country ; in that we 
have had warrants sent to submit us to Massachusetts Courts, and 
officers employed amongst us to that purpose; in that these barbarian 
Indians about us with the evil minded English mixed, under pretense 
of some former personal subjection to the government of Massachusetts, 
cease not to kill our cattle, ofYer violence to our families and vilify 
authority of Parliament vouchsafed to us ; in that we are restrained 
and have been this seven or eight years passed of common commerce' 
in the country, and that only for matters of conscience.'" 

This letter from Warwick induced Massachusetts to lay before the 
United Commissioners a paper alleging that what she had done had 
been done with the Commissioners' approval. The Plymouth Commis- 
sioners in attendance declared that which the Massachusetts Magis- 
trates claimed was done by Mr. Winslow and Mr. Collyer, concerning 
the resignation to them of any of Plymouth's interests in Warwick or 
Providence, was not in the power of Mr. Winslow or Mr, Collyer to 
resign, nor of Massachusetts to receive; and that Mr. Winslow and 
Mr. Collyer had several times publicly denied that they either did or 
intended to resign any part of the jurisdiction of Plymouth to the 
Magistrates of Massachusetts. And what right or authority the govern- 
ment oi Massachusetts had to send for Samuel Gorton inhabiting so far 
out of their jurisdiction they understood not. That the Plymouth 
Commissioners dia not refer the matter to the determination of the 
rest of the Commissioners at Boston; and what authentic writings the 
Governor of Plymouth signed the Massachusetts Commissioners did 
not show. If they meant a writing signed by the Governor and some 
particular persons, the Commissioners of Plymouth cannot own it, 

has very much of a Samuel Gorton ring to it." Dr. Henry E. Turner. R. I. 
Hist. Tract, 4, pp. 36. R. I. Rec. i, 234. 235. 'Arts Corns. U. Colonies, 

i, 217. 'Acts Corns. U. C, i, 221, 222. Hazard's Hist. Collec, 


having particularly and in the Court of Plymouth protested against it.* 

The Massachusetts Commissioners, remembering the order of the 
Parliament Commissioners that the bounds of a patent should be set 
out by a jury of uninterested persons, and that all inhabitants within 
the limits so set forth should fall under the government established 
by the patent, and that the resignation claimed was not with the full 
consent of the inhabitants of Warwick who pretended an interest in 
Williams' patent, and would not by any peaceable means be brouglit 
under the Massachusetts government, and being desirous to prevent 
inconvenience and to settle peace, resolved to relinquish the rights and 
title they had and the lands of Warwick to Plymouth, that they engage 
to administer justice therein to the inhabitants. That means be used to 
reduce Warwick to submission to the government of Plymouth. . There- 
fore, the subjected Indians and officers of Massachusetts were sent with 
all convenient speed to Plymouth's assistance.' 

The Massachusetts patent gave her three miles south of Charles river 
or the southwest point of it, and v/estward indefinitely on that line which 
is the present north line of Connecticut and Rhode Island, and by no 
possible construction could it be tortured to mean anything south of it. 
The grant to Plymouth gave them no right of territory west of the east 
shore of Narragansett Bay. But suppose Plymouth had grounds for 
such a claim, by what rule of law could she divest herself of any 
territory pertaining to her patent except by the surrender of it to the 
sovereign authority from which she derived it? And supposing she 
had that power, how could Massachusetts, whose existence depended 
on her patent, which expressly defined her limits and gave no power to 
expand them, pretend as in the case of Warwick and Providence, on 
the plea of voluntary subjection and release by Plymouth, and after- 
wards, as in Narragansett, on the plea of conquest, to exercise sover- 
eign power outside the limits of her patent?'" 

There was during this year another display of the intolerance of the 
Massachusetts authorities, this time against some members of the loyal 
party at Newport; the whipping on September 6th of Obadiah Holmes, 
one of the best and most respected of its inhabitants. " Upon the Lord's 
day, July 20th, at the home of one of the brethren whom they went to 
visit," in the town of Lynn, Mass., John Clark, pastor, James Crandall 
and Mr. Holmes were taken upon a warrant, brought before the 
" ordnary " and cast into prison " for drawing others aside after their 
erroneous judgment." Holmes was fined £30, Clark £20, Crandall 
£5, and on refusal to pay they were " to be well whipped." Some 
indulgent and tender-hearted friends, Clark tells us, contrary to his 
judgment, paid his fine. Thus some one paid the fine of Crandall and 
proposed to pay that of Holmes. Holmes had earlier, while at Ply- 
mouth, been presented to the court there for holding religious meetings 
and took refuge on the island. He was a man of high character and 
importance, a member of the Newport church to which he afterward 
succeeded Clark as pastor. He would not consent to the paying of his 
fine and was whipped thirty stripes.' 

A General Assembly session of the Providence Plantations began 
on November 4th at Providence, over which Samuel Gorton presided, 
and at which Roger Williams, John Clark, Robert Williams, son of 
Roger Williams, John Wickes, John Greene, John Smith, Robert Porter 
and others, a majority of the loyal members, were present. The time 
of this session was " the most eventful era in Rhode Island history, 
and this session of the Assembly one of the most important it ever 

'Acfs Corns. U. Colonies. Mass. Rec, iii, 216. '"Dr. Turner in Greenes 

of Warwick Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, 1862, pp. 41, ^^. 'John Clark's 


held. Upon the success of its measures depended the preservation or 
dismemberment of the colony of the present State." 

It was asserted by Massachusetts and the Pawtuxet party, but it was 
not, as will see, admitted, as the editor of the printed colonial records 
states, that the Council of State's resolution had vitiated the charter. 
The leading men of the colony were present' at this Assembly, and 
they promptly and emphatically expressed their confidence in the charter 
and government in the following resolution :° " That we do profess 
ourselves unanimously to stand imbodied and incorporated as before, 
by virtue of our charter granted unto us by the honorable State of old 
England, and thereby do according to our legal and settled order 
choose and appoint our officers, institute laws according to the consti- 
tution of the place and capacity of our present condition, prosecuting, 
acting and executing in all matters and causes for the doing of justice, 
preservation of peace and maintaining of all civil rights between man 
and man, according to the honorable authority and true intent of our 
aforesaid charter." Arnold, Baulston and Torey, leading men of the 
island, afterwards [in 1660] addressed a communication to the British 
government, in which they say " that by virtue of the charter of 1643-4 
the government of the colony has ever since been to this time main- 
tained." It is. Judge Durfee says, the same corporate body which has 
perpetuated its existence by accepting and adopting the changes in its 
constitution up to the present day.' 

The £200 voted at a former session to send Williams to England, the 
Warwick people having, as William Arnold complained, immediately 
raised the one-half, being now available, Williams was commissioned 
as the agent of the chartered government to England, to depart imme- 
diately. The majority of the people of the island and the loyal people 
of Newport, whose number there largely exceeded Coddington's 
" freemen," had selected Clark to secure the repeal of the council's 
resolution, and he sailed with Williams. 

There were good reasons, many thought, why it was advisable to have 
a new charter, among them, for more definitely locating the boundary 
lines, the present charter bounding only thus : " Northward and north- 
east on the patent of Massachusetts and southeast on Plymouth patent," 
etc. ; for a constitutionel guarantee of religious freedom, the silence 
upon religious matters observed in the present charter, giving the 
people liberty to govern themselves, although the best that could be 
secured when it was granted, not precluding religious discrimination 
being introduced under it, if the party to this obtained control of the 
government, which prospect seemed not altogether improbable; and too, 
since the Parliament Commissioners who granted the charter had been 
removed, Charles the First had been brought to the block, England 
declared a Commonwealth, and Parliament had appointed a Council of 
State for the affairs of government, a charter of later authority was 

Through most intense broils, during the disruption of the union by 
Coddington and the threatened invasion by Massachusetts' and Ply- 
mouth's ready and hostile forces, imperiled through intrigue, and beset 
with the lawless acts of the Arnolds and Pawtuxans, and in the midst 
of an insurrection inspired and supported by these parties and factions, 
Gorton, without the valued presence of Williams and Clark during their 
necessary absence, by his prudence, fearlessness and firmness, held the 
despoilers at bay, and well and comparatively peaceably administered 
the affairs of this young republic. Winslow was wise in his prediction 

" 111 News from N. Eng," 4th Mass. Collec, ii. 'R. I. Rec. i, 235. 

•R. I. Rec, i, Zii. 'Judge Job Durfee's Complete Works. 


in 1644, when Gorton was chosen a Magistrate at Portsmouth, that the 
church magistracy had much to fear from it, but erred in his prediction 
that " full and free toleration of religion would eat out the power of 
government." Unlikely did he then think that a government would be 
established and sustained by the free suffrage of a people enjoying the 
legal right of religious freedom ; and that Gorton would be selected 
for the leading trust in it, while himself would depart to not return, 
severing his connection with the colonies. One of his last official com- 
munications was to Massachusetts during this period of emotion, to 
inform them of the English Council's pleasure that they surrender their 
patent.' " These things,"' a petition of the Massachusetts Court reads, 
" make us doubt and fear what is intended toward us." " This was," 
Palfrey says, " a time of more than common sensibility in Massachu- 
setts. "° A joint effort of the colonies was now, through Massachusetts 
relinquishing her long asserted right and title in Narragansett and 
engaging to aid in enforcing the claims to it of Plymouth and others, 
resolved upon to subdue the Providence Plantations. The embarrass- 
ments of the colony and the burden or responsibility resting upon those 
to whom its affairs were entrusted increased daily. Yet through the 
storm and " over troublesome waves the little ship of State sailed during 
the year 165 1, tossed by billows on every side, but still bearing a crew 
of valiant men, whose courage and wisdom was equal to the emer- 

The facts, contraray to the representation upon which the English 
Council's resolution was based, were quickly shown to them, convincing 
them that they had acted under misapprehensions and restraining their 
further action, for it does not appear from their journal that any 
Commission upon the order was made out to Coddington. He, after 
waiting in vain for it over a year, or until April 14th, 1652, a few days 
before Gorton's term as President of the colony expired, signed as an 
expedient and last contention, a paper acknowledging the interests 
of the original purchasers in the island, and assayed to assume its 
government. As when in earlier days a significant paper was sent to 
" the brethren at Portsmouth," this acknowledgment gained the support 
of many of the inhabitants of the island, all of whom were without land 
titles, daily fearing that they would be deprived of their possessions. 
In the acknowledgment he states that the land had since its purchase 
remained in his hands and had been a great source of trouble.* 

On May i8th the General Assembly and Court of Election of the 
Providence Plantations convened at Warwick. The President, Samuel 
Gorton, was moderator of its sessions. John Smith of Warwick was 
elected President, and Thomas Olney of Providence and Samuel Gorton 
of Warwick were chosen Assistants for the ensuing year. The island 
did not send representatives to this Assembly. 

This session passed an Act for the Emancipation of Slaves: The 
iirst legislative edict of emancipation of slavery that ivas adopted in 
America. In this remarkable statute Gorton's literary style is clearly 
evident, and he was without doubt its author and principal promoter.' 

The Massachusetts Act in the " Body of Liberties " forbade the 
bondage of only those who were Massachusetts born. It did not eman- 

*Ryerson's Loyalists of America, i, to8 note. "Palfrey's Hist. N. Enj?., 

ii, 395 note. Winslow's Defense. 'Fuller's Hist., p. 45. °R. I. 

Rec, i, 50. Coddington's Petition to Eng. Council, Ante p. "Dr. Janes' 

"A Forgotten Founder of Our Republic," Preston & Rounds, publishers. Provi- 
dence. Stephen Hawes, in his " Chronolopn/ of Ancient and Modern History," 
p. 172. See Shepherd & Dillingham, publishers, N. Y., 1871, records that "Gorton 
and Williams in 1652 made a decree against slavery in R. Island." Gorton was 
the leader of this Assembly ; Williams was in England undoing Coddington. The 


cipate her slaves.'" The Massachusetts Act of 1646 was the sending 
home of a stolen negro/ and did not affect the other slaves they held. 
The Gorton Act' abolished life servitude, and it is the only legal enact- 
ment abolishing involuntary life servitude that was passed in those 
early times in any of the colonies. By its terms all slaves or bondsmen 
living in or brought into the colony were ordered to be set free within 
ten years. If taken under fourteen, they were to be set free at the a"-e 
of twenty-four years, as the manner was with English servants. The 
man who would not let them go free, or should sell them elsewhere 
to the end that they might be enslaved to others for a longer time, 
should forfeit to the colony forty pounds. The price of a slave then 
was but twenty pounds. These early legislators were not sustained in 
their advanced humane act, for the colony did, notwithstanding it, 
tolerate life ownership or slavery very long afterwards. And one 
hundred years thereafter legislators took up the question of the emanci- 
pation of slaves just where Gorton had once placed it so long before. 

The breaking out at this time of a war between England and Holland 
interrupted the commerce between the colony and the Dutch plantations. 

William Arnold, Benedict Arnold, William Carpenter, Robert Cole, 
the Massachusetts subjected agents, and others of the Pawtuxet claim- 
ants living on lands on the outskirts of Providence and adjoining 
Warwick, claimed to live and claimed ownership both in Providence 
and Warwick, and injected themselves into the town councils of both 
places and into the colony government in support of their land schemes 
and the claims of Massachusetts and Coddington. The latter was again 
a refugee from the colony, the people having rebelled against the 
government he but a month ago attempted to organize on the island, 
and he having fled again to Boston, again taking the island records." 

On July 29th the towns were ordered to select judicious men for a 
General Court called to transcribe letter and instructions to the colon^r's 
agent in England. The order is signed Samuel Gorton, Deputy Presi- 

The next sessions of the Assembly was on October 28th at Provi- 
dence. The President, John Smith, was moderator. They transcribed 
a letter to Williams in England encouraging him in his work of 
" unweaving such irregular devices wrought by others amongst us as 
have clothed us with so sad events as the subjecting of some amongst 
us to other jurisdictions;" in the work of "preventing the approach 
of Massachusetts and Plymouth upon us; they beginning to unite in 
one against us, such as before in some respects were separate ; " and 
in the work of upholding the charter and government ; and suggesting 
that if it be the pleasure of the Council to appoint him as Governor for 
one year it would establish for the present the government until the 
question of jurisdiction and chartered rights could be settled, so the 
government be honorably put upon the place and much weight for 
hereafter added in the constant and successive derogations of the 
government. It is the John Greene of Warwick, recorder, whose name 
is signed to this letter.' 

enslaving of captumed Indians was opposed by Go'-ton. R. I. Rec, 1, 70. 
CTiurch's Indian Wars, 51. Prov. Reeds.. 1676. Arnold's Hist. R. Island. 
"Force's Tract, Vol. iv. '2d Winthroo, ii. 300, 462. »R. I. 

Rec, i, 243. "Hildreth's Hist. U. S.. Ed. 1848, Vol. i, p. 395. 

•Early Reeds, of Prov., vi, 56. "The Index to the Bartlett Colonial 

Records is misleading. Under the head of Roger Williams is " Letter of John 
Greene to Roger Williams, then in England ; and " Dissatisfaction of General 
Court to certain complaints in the above letter." The Index should read : 
" Letter from the Assembly subscribed to by John Greene, recorder, to Roger 
Williams" [R. I, Rec, i, 249, Oct. 28, 1652, John Smith, President General 


The Pawtuxet men and Massachusetts subjects, calling themselves 
Commissioners " lovingly chosen from Providence and from Warwick,'' 
were on hand at Providence during the Assembly's sessions, and imme- 
diately drew up a letter from Providence," complaining that the Warwick 
people, President Smith and others in Assembly now at sessions say 
that they so " lovingly chosen " " are no lawful committees," and com- 
plaining that the letter to Williams in England about their irregular 
devices, subjecting to Massachusetts and the sad events thereof, " is a 
just cause of offense to them;" and to this letter of complaint they 
attach a copy of the letter complained oV 

A call for a sessions of the Assembly at Warwick on December 20th 
was made by the President John Smith, accompanied with advice for 
the members to " keep in order and union till the return of our agent 
from England." Without doubt the members who attended the previous 
sessions, and who were regularly chosen at the last election, met in 
answer to the call and were presided over by President Smith. They 
maintained their order and union intact; but members of the Arnold 
and Coddington factions, unfairly chosen Commissioners, obtained the 
record books and the large part of the records of their rivals' meetings 
were removed, preserving those of themselves. According to these 
records, so kept until Williams' return and preserved with headin;??, 
" The General Court," etc., indicating that they were the government, 
the self-styled Commissioners of the Pawtuxet faction met, they say, 
in answer to the call of the President." There was but one regular 
Commissioner among them. The President or Assembly never acknowl- 
edged them as Commissioners or members. It would have been a 
surrender to the Arnold and Coddington factions; but the latter sent 
word to President Smith that they, being assembled according to his 
order, entreated that he would be pleased to afford them his presence; 
ordered Hugh Bewett, one of their number whom the Assembly had 
indicted for treason, to appear before them for his trial; resolved to 
maintain their organization; again entered their protest to the letter 
the Assembly in October last sent to Williams,* and ordered President 
Smith fined for not meeting with them.'" They record a protest made 
by the Commissioners to their usurpations and an appeal from their 
acts received by them from the President, John Smith, and from 
Samuel Gorton. 


Word from Williams from England regarding Coddington and the Council's 
resolution — That no commission to Coddington for government had ever been 
issued upon it — The English Council make an order against Coddington's 
pretensions to government and order the Providence government to care for 
the island — Coddington absents himself from the colony — The Coddington 
government maintain their organization and choose Sanford their President — • 
An agreement effected for readmitting the island to the government under 

Assembly] ; and " Dissatisfaction of Pawtuxet Party to certain complaints about 
them in the above letter." *R. I. Rec, i, 247. 'R; I. Rec, i, 

247, 248. They claimed lands and residences on both sides of the river, and so 
claimed themselves to be Commissioners from both towns. 'Their 

Secretary was John Greene, not of Warwick, but of Narragansett. R. I. Rec, 
iii, 56, 57, "Greene Family." 'R. I. Rec, i, 256. Early ProY. Rec, 

XV, 60, 65. "R. I. Rec, i, 259. 'This order is not in the 


Finally, an agreement acceptable to a majority of each — the Commis- 
sioners, members of the chartered government, and the Pawtuxet party, 
and the island party — was effected for replacing the island under the 
chartered government, by accepting Easton of the island as President 
of the organization under the charter until Williams' return, and staying 
the operation in towns of such laws as they had not participated in 
enacting; and on May i6th, 1654, a General Assembly of the Providence 
Plantations was held at Providence for carrying out these provisions. 
Gorton, as an Assistant, was among the members of the chartered 
government present, he heading the list of these representatives; and 
with them were Pawtuxet and Island men. Officers for all the towns 
were for the time being chosen, many of the worn champions of the 
government giving up place to secure the desired union and peace. 

The important positions held by Gorton and others of Warwick in 
the government of the colony during these years of unhappy discussions 
indicate the estimation in which they were held by the people. That 
the colony was not entirely broken up by its enemies within and without 
may be ascribed to the wisdom and prudence of a few men of the loyal 
tov/ns who firmly held the reins of government during this period." 

During August, 1654, Williams returned. He brought with him letters 
from the " Lord Protector " Cromwell confirming the charter. Clark 
remained, both to protect the colony's interests and to attend to some 
private business.* 

Williams, shortly after his return, sent the following to the Pawtuxet 
men : " Since I set the first step of an English foot in these wild parts, 
and had maintained a chargable and hazardous correspondence with 
the barbarians, and spent almost five years* time with the State of 
England to keep off the rage of English against us, what have I reaped 
of the root of being the stepping stone of so many families and towns 
about us but grief and sorrow and bitterness? I have been charged 
with folly for that freedom and liberty which I have always stood for: 
I say liberty and equality both in lands and governm.ent. I have been 
blamed for parting with Mooshassuck and afterwards Pawtuxet, which 
were mine own as truly as any man's coat upon his back. I am told 
that your opposites thought on me and provided, as I may say, a sponge 
to wipe off your scores of debt in England, but that it was obstructed 
by yourselves, who rather meditated on m.eans and new agents to be 
sent over to cross what Mr. Clark and I obtained. But, gentlemen, 
blessed be God, who faileth not, and blessed be his name for his wonder- 
ful providence, by which alone this town and colony and that great 
cause of truth and freedom of conscience hath been upheld to this day.'" 

On August 31st there was an Assembly of the government at War- 
wick. A full representation was present from all the towns, and an 
engagement for readmitting the island to the government under the 
authority of the charter was signed by all of them. They ordered a 
" Court of Election to be held upon Tuesday, ye 12th of ye next month, 
and to be kept at Warwick, which officers then chosen shall be engaged 
and stand til ye Court of Election in May next." 

A General Assembly and Court of Election was held the 12th of the 
next month and Williams was chosen President, but nearly all of the 
other offices were given to members of the Island and Pawtuxet parties. 
Among the Representatives and offi.cers v/ere Baulston, Coggershall, 
Easton, Harris and Arnold, the latter yet a subject of Massachusetts. 

•Fuller's Hist. Warwick, a^. Apr.endix. iii. "R. I. Rec, ii, 78, 79- The 

follov/ing year Clark published his Bible Concordance and Lexicon, the fruit 
of many years' studv and labor, and at the time the most complete of the works 
for its purpose. 'R. I. Rec, i, 351. 'R- I- Rec, i, 284. 'Rec, 1, 287-289. 


The courts of trials for the mainland towns were continued as they 
ever had been, separately; but for the Island towns Newport obtained 
the privilege of holding them jointly, which reopened upon the island 
the subject of former agitations and difficulties.' Instructions were 
sent to Clark; and the letter following, of Williams, in reply to one 
received from Vane which chided the Plantations for their dissensions, 
v;as approved, subscribed to by the clerk and sent to him: " To Sr. Henry 
Vane — Sir, Your letter w^as directed to all and every one of the particu- 
lar towns of this Providence Colony. From the first beginning to this 
day we reaped the sweet fruits of your constant loving kindness and 
favor toward us. Oh Sir, whence then is it that you have bent your 
bow and shot your sharp and bitter arrows now against us? Whence 
is it that you charge us with dissensions, divisions, etc.? Sir, we humbly 
pray your gentle acceptance of our trifold answer. First, we have been 
greatly disturbed and distressed by the ambition and covetousness of 
some amongst ourselves. We were in complete order until INIr. Codding- 
ton, wanting the public self-denying spirit which you commend to us 
in your letter, procured by most untrue information a monopolie of 
part of the Colony, viz., Rhode Island to himself, and so occasioned 
our general disturbance and distractions. Secondly, Mr, Dyre by 
private contention with Mr. Coddington, being instructed to bring 
from England the letter from the Council of State for our reunion, 
he, contrary to the State's instructions and expressions, plungeth himself 
and some others in most unnecessary grief, who protest against such 
abuse. Sir, our third answer is, that we may not lay all the blame upon 
other men's backs, that possibly a sweet cup hath rendered many of 
us wanton and too active; for we have long drank of the cup of as 
great liberties as any people that we can hear of under the whole heaven. 
We have not only been long free — together with all English — from 
the iron yokes of wolfish Bishops and their Popish ceremonies — against, 
whose cruel oppressions God raised up your noble spirit in Parliament — 
but we have sitten quiet and dry from the streams of blood spilt in the 
war in our native country. We have not felt the new chain of the 
Presbyterian tyrants, nor in this colony have we been consumed with 
the overzealous fire of the so-called Godly and Christian magistrates.'" 

At the May election, 1655, at Providence, Williams was again chosen 
President. On June 28th the Assembly convened at Portsmouth. The 
letter from Cromwell, a brief of what his Council had ordered, was 
read and r'^corded." Roger Williams, Samuel Gorton, William Baul- 
ston and Benedict Arnold were ordered to form and subscribe letters 
to John Clark and the Lord Protector.' 

The following, under date of November 15th, was sent to Massachu- 
setts by Williams: "Concerning four English families at PaAvtuxet, 
may it please you to remember that two controversies they have long 
under your name maintained with us to a constant obstructing of all 
order and authority amongst us. To our camplaint about our lands, 
they lately have proposed a willingness to arbitrate, but to obey his 
Highness' authority in the charter they say they dare not for your 
sakes, though they live not by your laws nor bear your common charge, 
nor ours, but evade both under color of your authority. Since it has 
pleased first the Parliament and then the Lord Admiral and Committee 
for Foreign Plantations, and since the Council of State and lastly the 
Lord Protector and his council, to continue us as a distinct colony, yes, 
and since it hath pleased yourselves by public letters and references to 
us from your public courts, to own the authority of his Highness 

"Cromwell's order 1655, Mar. 29. Ri. I. Rec, i, 316. *R. I. Rec, i, 395- 


amongsi. us; be pleased to consider how unsuitable it is for yourselves 

if these families at Pawtuxet plead the truth — to be the obstruction of 
all orderly proceedings amongst us. I grieve that at this instance and 
by these ships this cry and the premises should trouble his Highness 
and his Council : For the reosonable preventing of which is this humble 
address presented."' 

The complaints in this letter from the Assembly to John Clark and 
complaints from Obadiah Holmes and others against Massachusetts 
were presented to Cromwell ; but Capt. Leverett, who was on November 
13. 1655, appointed by Massachusetts their agent/ and who had taken 
a number of French forts in America, served in the army under Crom- 
well and enjoyed much of his favor, prevented his inquiry into the 
conduct of Massachusetts; although he admonished her and censured 
her for banishing her seducers.* 

Both the subjected Whites and the subjected Indians were still 
maintained by Massachusetts upon the lands of others, in constant 
obstruction to order and the authority of the Providence charter; and 
the General Assembly issued a warrant to bring them before the court 
to answer the complaints of the inhabitants against them. 

Forty-two was the total number of male inhabitants of Providence 
at this time. Warwick had thirty-eight, Portsmouth seventy-one, and 
Newport had ninety-six " freemen," but it had over three hundred 
inhabitants, which was over two-thirds of the population of the whole 
colony;' and a more than corresponding amount of wealth and amount 
of control in the government. By the " freemen's " act a restrictive 
elective franchise, an inheritance from Coddington's government, still 
maintained at Newport, the old leaders there, as he had done, kept 
themselves in official place, and then, by assaying to represent the whole 
and exceeding number of inhabitants, they lead in the management of 
the affairs of the colony. Coddington, who during the height of the 
commotion upon the island had been obliged to flee for safety from I'le 
inhabitants and remain for a time away, had returned to Newport, and sent as a Representative to the Assembly at its March sessions. 
Objections were at once made to his sitting, but they were overruled 
" for the comfort of all parties," and as his old leaders had " inconsid- 
erately imposed the service upon him." Claims against Coddington 
for depredations of his government upon the Dutch Colonies were 
brought to the attention of the Assembly by a Council of State letter, in 
reply to which they ordered that a letter be sent to Clark manifesting 
Coddington's subjection to the authority of the charter and acting to 
free him from the danger of former troubles, complaints and penalties. 
An injudicious partisan resolution was passed to destroy such portions 
of the records as were unfavorable to Coddington— that they should 
"be cut out and delivered to him." This embraced what he had 
extracted from them, and they, with those now included, covered the 
most eventful and interesting of the colony's early history, from its 
beginning up to and including the troubles that compelled Gorton's 
despatch for England and the time of Gorton's Presidency of the colony ; 
but one page with a reference to the latter having escaped their dili- 
gence; the eventful times immediately preceding and following the 

5^?' J TVT '^- h ^^'^V '- •'22-325. 'Mass. Rec, iv, Pt. 5, p. 251; Com. 

dated Nov. 23 1655. Hutchinson's Papers, 272. 300. 310. ist Winthrop, ii, 247 
r^' -1 r c ^"t?f""sons Hist. Mass. National Magazine, Dec. 1893. British 
council of State Papers, 1, 44.;. Leverett was, for his success in managing the 
cause of Mass before Cromwell, made a Major General and granted one thousand 
acres ot land by Mass. upon his return to the colony. Mass. Rec, iv, Pt. :;. 
K. 1. Collec, vii, 204. «R. I. Rec. i, 332. "Letter of Leverett *o 


departure of Williams and Clark for England — measures of the Assembly 
from May, 1651, to May, 1652, and most of the doings of the November 
4th, 1651, session, which was considered one of the most important in 
Rhode Island history.* Without doubt many of these records were 
unrecoverable, and on this account many of the members may have 
thought this the most feasible way of settlement. It was, however, 
decided, upon a vote to the question, that Coddington's fine about the 
records should not be returned to him. 

The Massachusetts authorities still, in 1656, extending their sover- 
eignty over the Providence Plantations, sent their Marshal General 
with his subalterns into Providence to arrest Richard Chasmore [who 
formerly acted with William Arnold of the Pawtuxans and was one of 
the persons to whom the Massachusetts warrant of May 20th, 1643, to 
seize John Greene's cattle, was directed] for, Savage says, " probably 
some crookedness in religion." While he was in the custody of the 
Massachusetts Marshal in Providence, he was with a Providence 
warrant rescued from the Massachusetts officers.' 

No reply was received from Massachusetts to the November letter 
regarding the subjected families. The depredations of the subjected 
Indians upon the people of Warwick were unabated and their lawless 
acts were encouraged by their settlement near them, on that side of 
the Pawtuxet river, of the Massachusetts agents who supplied them 
with arms and powder.* Having received no reply to his letter, Williams 
wrote to Governor Endicot, who, in response to this, offered to suspend 
the act of banishment yet in force long enough for him to come to 
Boston ; and provisions were made by the town of Warwick for the 
expense of the journey; but before departing he again addressed a 
letter to the General Court of Massachusetts in which he referred at 
length to the lawlessness of the natives whom Massachusetts was sus- 
taining there, and also to the troubles occasioned by the subjected 
settlers at Pawtuxet. In this letter he said concerning Warwick: "I 
am humbly confident that all the English towns and plantations in all 
New England put together suffer not such molestation. It is so great 
and so oppressive that I have daily feared the tidings." And concern- 
ing families at Pawtuxet v,'ho subjected themselves to Massachusetts: 
" Their obstruction is so great and constant that without your prudent 
removal of it it is impossible that either his Highness or yourselves can 
expect such satisfaction and observance from us as we desire to render."* 
The obstructions were not removed by the visit of Williams, but what 
was deemed gratifying progress was made by an agreement that the 
controversy should be closed by arbitration. 

At the next election. May 20th, 1656, Williams was chosen President. 
William Harris, now Pawtuxet leader, appeared as a Representative 
from Providence; Gorton, Holden, Wickes and Greene, and two of the 
Pawtuxet partners, one of whom was Benedict Arnold, appear as 
Representatives from Warwick. But could the latter have been seated, 
for he, a Massachusetets subject and their warrant server, represented 
only the Pawtuxans and Massachusetts and could have been chosen at 
only the Pawtuxans' meeting. He had established himself on the 
Warwick side of the Pawtuxet river as a merchant with Boston goods, 
and also as an agent for provisions and arms; Massachusetts, proscrib- 
ing the sale of the latter goods to the Providence and Warwick people, 
directing him to sell only to the Whites and Indians who subjected 
to her and to such others as were incited against the townspeople. 
The sale of strong drink and wine to Indians was prohibited by War- 

Endicott, Hutchinson's Papers, ri, zy. *Mass. Rec, ii. *R. I. Rec. 


wick, yet the Sachem Cutohamoke and his company obtained it there. 
Arnold had before this entertained and dealt with this Sachem, and 
there is no doubt but that he, and not the Warwick settlers as accused, 
sold this Sachem and his company their liquor." The business of the 
trials. State vs. Coddington, being called, they were upon his petition 
and on account of the commotion of the people still prevailing, continued 
to await further orders from England. Coddington had multiplied the 
lawsuits against him by getting into violent contentions with Dyre. 
In this they both signed a paper signifying their submission to an 
award of five referees, of whom Gorton was one, for the settlement 
of all difficulty between them.' 

In this year " a new occasion given by an old spirit for oppression 
arose." People of a new religion appeared on our shores, and the 
authorities in the other colonies made cause against them and cast them 
in prison. Undeterred by threatening consequences, Gorton gave them 
his active and practical sympathy, conveyeing to them the assurances 
of his Christian love in hopeful plans for their release and to provide 
a place where they might enjoy their liberty. " It does not appear," 
says Judge Staples, " that difference of opinion or religion excluded 
any from his benevolence or charity." 

Four of the early Quaker Missionaries had arrived in Boston. Before 
they landed, officers v/ere despatched by the government to bring them 
on shore. After being examined, they were committed to prison, there 
to remain till the return of the ship that brought them, and then to be 
carried back to England. 

There is conclusive evidence that Gorton was not a Quaker. With 
the individuals imprisoned at Boston he had no personal acquaintance ; 
no sectarian views or private friendship, therefore, could have induced 
him to correspond with them, yet on the i6th of September, 1656, he 
addressed them from Warwick the following: 

" The report of your demainor with some others of the same mind 
with you formerly put in possession of the place of your present abode, 
as is represented to us, as also the errand you profess you came with 
unto these parts, hath much touched my heart ; so that I cannot with- 
hold my hand from expressing its desires after you. If God has brought 
you into these parts as instruments to open the excellences of the taber- 
na,cle, wherever the cloud causeth you to abide, no doubt but this your 
improvement shall be an effectual preface to your work, to bring the 
gainsayers to naught ; which my soul waiteth for, not with respect to 
any particular man's person, but with respect to that spirit of wicked- 
ness gone out into the world to deceive and tyranize ; and in that respect 
my soul saith, O Lord, I have waited for thy salvation. But our Lord 
may please to send some of his saints unto us to speak words which 
the dead hearing they shall live. I may not trouble you further at 
this time, only if Vv'e knew that you had a mind to stay in these parts 
after your enlargement [for we hear you are to be sent back to Eng.] 
and what time the ship would set sail, or could have hope the Master 
would deliver you, we would endeavor to have a vessel in readiness 
when the ship goeth out of harbour to take you in and set you where 
you may enjoy your liberty."' 

Callender says that Gorton " was strenuously opposed to the doctrine 
of the' Quakers."' He, however, indulged in no personal abuse of them, 
or of anyone for their differing with him in doctrine or religion. In 

i, 322, 341-345. '"Wnrwick Town Orders, ante pagina. Warwick letter 

to Mass., post pagina. The Lands of R. I., 42, 43. 'Nar. Club, vi. 

Hildreth's Hist. U. S.. i, 398. ^Gorton's letters to the Quakers in full in 

Staples Ed. Simp. Def., R. I. Collec, ii, introduction. *R. I. Collec, 



the debates with the Friends at Newport, Providence and Warwick, 
in which WilHams, Gorton and others engaged and out of which much 
bad feeling arose from the accusations and personahties indulged in 
by some of the debaters, the records* show that, although Gorton was 
rated a disputant quite the equal of any," he was deficient in the then 
common " talent of being disagreeable to all those whose belief and 
practices differed from their own," he almost alone escaping the charge 
of having uttered unkind words against them. His Quaker friends, 
solicitous in his behalf, complain that Priest Wilson would have him 
put to death for differing with him in religion. 

Had the benevolent project of Gorton been carried out, the little 
company of Friends would have been the earliest apostles of the new 
faith on the shores of the Narragansett. In their reply they stated that 
the master of the vessel had been placed under such heavy bonds to 
set them ashore in England as to render the undertaking hopeless." 

Other admirable letters of Gorton's in defense of the Quakers fol- 
lowed. Of his above correspondence Judge Staples says : "The sentiments 
and feelings which it displays are the more to be honored and appre- 
ciated, because in his time, and in this country especially, they were 
seldom avowed." It is a high achievement to be tolerant toward others 
in matters of religion even to-day. 

Benedict Arnold had, since the May Assembly last, moved to Newport 
and become the leader of the Pawtuxans' adherents there. He was 
made President at the May, 1657, election. 

At the March, 1657-8, sessions a letter from Sr. Henry Vane was read 
and given to Mr. Gorton. Samuel Gorton and Benedict Arnold were 
ordered to draw up an answer to the request of the United Colonies, 
that the Providence colony should remove the Quakers and prohibit 
their coming into it; to which letter the clerk should subscribe. Arnold 
and Gorton did not agree upon a letter, and both wrote one. " We 
conceive," wrote Arnold, " that their doctrines tend to very absolute 
cutting down and overturning relations and civil government among 
men if generally received. But as to the damage that may in likely- 
hood accrue to the neighbor colonies by their being here entertained, 
we conceive it will not prove so dangerous (as else it might) in regard 
to the course taken by you to send them away out of the country as 
they came among you." Arnold's conservative letter (although imput- 
ing the overturning of civil government to an acceptance of the Friends' 
doctrine) he, Arnold, subscribed to.' Gorton's radical and character- 
istic letter the clerk subscribed to as the court directed. Gorton's letter 
reads: "Now whereas freedom of different consciences to be protected 
from enforcement was the principal ground of our charter, both with 
respect to our humble suit for it, as also to the true intent of the honor- 
able and reverend Parliament of England in granting the same to us; 
which freedom we still prize as the greatest happiness that men can 
possess in this world: Therefore we shall for the preservation of our 
civil peace and order the more seriously take notice that these people 
and any others that are here or shall come amongst us be impartially 
required, and to our uttermost constrained to perform all the duties 
requisite toward the maintainage of the right of his Highness and the 
government of that most reverend Parliament of England in the colony ; 
which is most happily included under the same domain and graciously 

iv, 9. ^Firebrands Quenched, 232, 247, Apx. New England Judged. 

Geo. Fox Digged out of His Burrows, Mather's Mapnalia. Williams' letter, 
Proc. R. I. Hist. Soc, 1875-6. Mackey's Life of Samuel Gorton. 
'R. I. Hist. Pub., New Ser., iii, 210. =Nar. Club, v, Intd., 3, 4, 20, 43. 

*R. I. Rec, i, 376-378. 'R. I. Rec, 378-3S0. 'Arnold's Hist. 


taken into protection thereof. Humbly craving their advice and order 
how to carry ourselves in any further respect toward these people, that 
therewithal! there may be no damage or infringement of that chief 
principal of our charter concerning freedom of conscience. And we 
also are so much the more encouraged to make our address unto the 
Lord Protector, his highness and government aforesaid, for that we 
understand there are or have been many of the aforesaid people suffered 
to live in England: yea, even in the heart of the nation. And thus 
with our truly thankful acknowledgement of the honorable care of the 
honorable gentlemen Commissioners of the United Colonies, for the 
peace and welfare of the whole country, as expressed in their most 
friendly letter, we shall at present take leave and rest."* 

The doings of Harris, Pawtuxet leader, engaged much of the atten- 
tion of the Assembly during the May sessions. He with others of the 
party, the Massachusetts subjects, persisted again in the refusal to pay 
taxes, in which action they were protected by Massachusetts. He 
openly denied the obligation of obedience of himself and others to the 
government,' and made, occording to Williams' charge, " notorious 
attempts to draw all the English subjects of the colony into a traitorous 
renouncing of their allegiance and subjection." A complaint was filed 
against him which grew into a charge for high treason, and the court 
directed the Attorney General to take charge of the case. 

At the following June, 1657, sessions John Easton was made Attorney 
General, and he and John Wickes were ordered to propose to the 
Assembly the course of the Harris trial. Upon the hearing the court 
declared his conduct to be both contemptuous and seditious ;"* and the 
Assembly then directed the papers, comprising Harris' writings, the 
charge against him and his reply to be sent to Clark to lay before the 
English government; directing Clark to command the matter in our 
and the Commonwealth's behalf for further judgment; and held Harris 
in the sum of £500 sterling, with his son Andrew, to perform the order 
of the court. The ship by which the papers against Harris were sent 
was lost. 

In Mav, 1658, Mary Gardner, a Friend, resident of Newport, wife 
of one of the Island Commissioners, and the mother of many children, 
with one babe at her breast, was, while attending a Friends' meeting 
taken by the Massachusetts authorities to Boston before John Endicott, 
who sentenced her to be whipped with ten lashes, as well as her com- 
panion Mary Stanton who accompanied her to help bear the child. 
After their very sore journey and (according to man) hardly accom- 
plishable, through a wilderness of above sixty miles between Rhode 
Island and Boston, the whipping was bloodily executed upon their bare 
backs with a three-fold knotted whip of cords, and then they were 
continued fourteen days longer in prison. 

The further consequence to the Providence colony from the official 
presence of Massachusetts subjects had become a matter of greater 
agitation, since one of them had become the Governor; and they were 
commanded to get out from one or the other colony. Accordinsrly, 
during Mav and June of the year 1658. William Arnold, Benedict 
Arnold, William Carpenter and Robert' Cole of the Pawtuxet party, 
who had sixteen years before subjected to Massachusetts, and had so 
long escaped taxation and been the cause of much of the trouble, were 
upon their petition discharged from allegiance to that government, and 
became freemen of the government at home in which they had been 

R. I., i, 262. "R. I. Rec, i, 364. ^William Arnold and William 

.<* i 


holding office.' The elder one of the Arnolds soon after complained 
to the Massachusetts Court and petitioned them for an addition to the 
payment he had received for services rendered them. In his complaint 
he stated that some of the cattle of Gorton's, which had been turned 
over to him, had been " gotten away from him and he had been put 
into very much trouble " by it ; that a number of Warwick people had 
obtained judgments against him in the colony courts and he had been 
obliged to pay at one time "£io," at another "£60," and at other times 
" great costs and damages." The Massachusetts Magistrates, moved 
by this humble petition, replied to him that as he had left the protection 
of the Massachusetts Court and their jurisdiction, and joined with the 
people of whom he complained, they judged it not equity that the court 
make him satisfaction ; but that he might have liberty to reimburse 
himself by again seizing upon the persons and estates of these people.* 


Gorton's letters to Cromwell and to Clark defending the Quakers — Pawtuxans 
substitute forged deed for that of Williams' — Deeds confirming the fraud — 
Papers secretly recorded in Massachusetts — Williams' declaration : " Con- 
firmation of no reality. Myself, Providence and Warwick robbed " — The 
Providence government applies first to the King for a new charter of govern- 
ment — The Arnold-Pawtuxans delay Clark's commission from Providence gov- 
ernment until after V/inthrop, Jr., had secured the Connecticut charter of 
government — The Pawtuxans' motives — Trouble ensuing — Petition of Warwick 
men to the King — Letter to the court of Massachusetts — New charter received 
— The King's order — The Narragansett Indian grant confirmed — The death of 
ex-President Smith. 

In the Assembly, November 2d, 1658, Mr. Gorton with three others 
drew up a letter to Mr. Clark to be presented to his Plighness and 
Council, in defense of the right of asylum granted to the friends by 
the government of the Providence Plantations. The letter mentioned 
the papers in the case against Harris, sent the year previous, the wreck 
of the vessel and their loss, and that new papers in the case were 
ordered which could not be gotten ready to send with this letter, but 
would be sent " by the next opportunity." It acknowledged the love for 
Mr. Clark by the colony and their further trust to his council and care. 
It then proceeds as follows : " We have now a new occasion given by 
an old spirit with respect to the colonies about us which seems to be 
offended with us because of a sort of people called by the name of 
Quakers, who are come amongst us and have raised up divers who seem 
at present to be of their spirit; whereat the colonies about us seem 
to be offended with us being the said people have their liberty amongst 
us, and entertained into our houses, or into our Assemblies ; and for the 
present we have found no just cause to charge them with the breach 
of the peace. And the offense our neighbors take ap^ainst us is because 
we take not some cause against these people. Sir, this our earnest and 
present request unto you in this matter, that as you m^v perceive in 
our answer to the TTnited Colonies, that we flee as to our refuse in all civil 
respects to his Highness and honorable Council, r><5 not being subject 
to any other in matters of our civil estate; so may it please you to have 

Carpenter petitioned. May 26. 1658. to he released and their associates joined 
them in the petition June i, 1658. Mass. Rec, iv, 332, 333. Book Notes, Vol. 
23, No. 22. ^'William Arnold's Petition and the Mass. Magistrates' 


an eye and care open in case our adversaries should seek to undermine 
us in our privileges granted unto us, and to plead our cause in such 
sort as zve may not be compelled to exercise any civil power over men's 
consciences, so long as human order in point of civility is not corrupted 
or violated; whereof many of us have large experience and do judge 
it to be no less than a point of absolute cruelty. And so with our hearty 
love, etc. Warwick, November 5th, 1658."^ 

On February 7th, 1658-9, the Pawtuxet party, by its leaders William 
Harris and William Arnold, reinforced the evidences of the Pawtuxan 
claims by submitting to the town meeting of Providence fraudulent writ- 
ings, in what they falsely declared in the following words to be a 
genuine copy of the original Indian deed to Williams: 

" The seventh of the twelfth month, 1658-9, at our Town Court, 
William Arnold of Pawtuxet came into this present court and did 
acknowledge that these two copies, to wit, of William Harris' and 
Thomas Olney's and which hath these words in them as followeth are 
the true words of that writing called the Town Evidence of Providence; 
and that which is wanting in the now writing called the Town Evidence 
which agreeth not with those copies was torn by accident in his 
home in Pawtuxet."* 

This pretended copy of the original deed contained the forged 1639 
dated memorandum, before mentioned, and an interpolation in the torn 
portion, the whole describing more than one-half the lands in the 
present State." 

Following this came three writings obtained by Harris and partners 
from the living Sachems, by which they "confirm" the supposed acts 
of their revered deceased Chiefs Cannonicus and Miantinomi." They 
all bear date 1659-60, one year after the fraudulent deed was shown 
in town meeting. The conspiracy was now complete. The three deeds 
" confirmed " to them the lands along the river Pawtucket and Pawtuxet 
and the land between them, and, as a matter of course, under the 
transfer of October, 1638, and the " combination " dividing line recorded 
at Boston in 1650, by which all lands v/est of the line went to the 
Pawtuxet purchasers, all of the new lands " confirmed " by the younger 
Sachems fell to the Pawtuxet owners. Harris and his partners now 
owned eight-tenths, and their claim antedated and included John 
Greene's purchase, Gorton's purchase, and the whole territory, whether 
owned by Indians or white men, of what is now the State of Rhode 
Island, north of the present town of Exeter, a tract comprising not far 
from three hundred thousand acres.' 

From the reading: of Williams' letters, printed in the Narragansett 
Club and other publications, it seems that the largest share of his time 
was employed in combiting the pawtuxet claimants' pretensions. He 
exerted himself continuously and to his very utmost against them. 
His protestations that " Harris hath robbed us," and " Both our town? 
(Providence and Warwick') and myself have been notoriously abused 
and robbed," and " Prodij^ious and w^onderful to me how they can 
srmee^e out a confirmation from ye surviving Sachems of what had 
no realitv no more than dreams and castles built in ye air,'" and like 
protestations of Gorton, Greene and all loyal others, were for the time 

Reply, R. T. Conec. 5i. sot-^ts. ^R. T. Rec, 1, .ioi;-79Q. *Early 

Rec. iv, 70. ''The T. grids of Rhode T<5lqnd bv Sidney S. Rider, Prov., 

pp. 61-112. *R. T. Rec.. 5, .?5-?8. Staples' Annals, ^^67-^69. 

»2d R. T. Hist. Tr.,_"Nro. 4. Book Notes, Vol. 22, No. 4. "The Forgeries con- 
nected with the Orio-innl Deed oriven to Roger Williams by the Sachems " and 
"Lands of R. Island." Sidney S. Rider. Portsmouth Rec. i". 93. 'Further 

condemnation of the Pawtuxans' work in Williams' letter, R. I. Hist. Tr., No. 14. 


powerless to prevent the Pawtuxet claimants' advancement. Such 
predominance did they obtain over the Providence Council that in town 
meeting, April 27th, following the receipt of the " confirmatory " deeds, 
it was ordered that William Harris and John Sayle should levy upon 
every man of Providence what he should pay of the expense incurred 
in confirming the Pawtuxet land title." 

At a May sessions of the Assembly a commission was ordered to be 
made out and sent to Clark in England." 

On June ist, 1660, Mrs, Dyre, the wife of William Dyre of the 
Island, was, while within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, taken 
before their court, tried and sentenced to death for thrice visiting 
Boston, she being a Quaker ; and suffered, regardless of all the mainland 
and Island people could do to prevent, and her husband's pathetic 
pleadings, the death penalty on Boston Commons. This was five days 
after Charles the Second had ascended the throne of England, but 
about five weeks before his accession to the throne was known in 
New England. 

When the August Providence Plantations Assembly convened, their 
former order to send Clark his commission had not been complied with 
and the order was repeated at this sessions. 

At the October, 1660, sessions His Majesty's Declaration was read 
and ordered proclaimed to the people. Former sessions had resolved 
to send instructions to Clark to proceed with the colony's business in 
England and to send him a commission from the government, which 
he before never had, he having gone as the agent for the loyal or 
liberal party on the Island, after the secession of the Island from the 
government led by Coddington. Notwithstanding this, the engagement 
of Clark and supplying him with his credentials had been delayed and 
was prevented by those opposed to him, by securing a committee 
composed entirely of themselves, to whom they had the order for 
carrying it out entrusted six Pawtuxan and the old Coddington 
party men. These, " or any fewer of them," were intrusted to write 
to Clark and to send a commission to him if they thought '* it neces- 
sary.'" The placing of this business in the hands of these men and 
entirely at the discretion of themselves, or so few as one of them, 
shows to what extent the Pav/tuxans and their Newport allys were in 
control and how they dominated the government. 

The committee as provided did not think it " necessary " to send 
Clark a commission. He had but too recently gone to England as their 
opponent and complainant, and had been instrumental in having them 
deposed from the Island government, and it was quite soon for him 
to plead for them the favor of office. The Assembly now again ordered 
Clark's commission sent to him, and again men of the same party, 
Benedict Arnold and William Baulston with the Recorder, were con- 
stituted the committee to draft and send it to him.^ As a consequence, 
it was witheld from Clark; and Mr. Merrick and Alderman Peck of 
London were employed as foreign agents, and the papers and a petition 
sent to them.' 

The Massachusetts Court, called in October, refused to proclaim the 
new King or to address him. In November the Massachusetts Magis- 
trates received word from Leverett regarding the complaints which 
were prefered against them to the King and Council, and a General 
Court was called and an address, essaying to justify the imprisonments 
and executions complained of, was drawn up to the King on December 

•Early Rec, ii, 127. Lands of R. Tslanrl. '"R. T. Rec, i, 414, 421. 

'R. I. Rec, i, 42. ^Oct. 18, 1660, R. I. Rec, i, 433. ^Williams* 


19th and sent to him.* To this the King replied in a letter dated 
February 15th, 1 660- 1, offering them immunity from their past offenses 
and promising them the liberty which he had declared to all his subjects ;' 
to which the Massachusetts Court, on August 7th, gave due considera- 
tion, enacted that His Majesty should be proclaimed, and drew up an 
address to him which they did not for the present send to him. On Sep- 
tember 9th, 1661, the King, having been informed that a number of the 
Quakers were imprisoned, a number of them had been executed, and 
others were in danger of undergoing the like, issued a mandamus to 
the Massachusetts government, commanding their compliance with his 
former orders, and that if there were any Quakers condemned to suffer 
death or other corporal punishments, or imprisoned and obnoxious to 
the like condemnation, to forbear to proceed any further against them; 
and to forthwith send them, whether condemned or imprisoned, over to 
England for trial.* 

This mandate was received by the Massachusetts Court in November, 
and they forthwith proceeded to declare that the necessity of preserving 
religious order and peace had rendered the enactment of laws against 
Quakers necessary, and concluded by saying, "All this notwithstanding 
their restless spirits have moved some to return and others to fill the 
royal ear of our Sovereign Lord the King with complaints against 
us, and have by their unwearied solicitations in our absence so far 
prevailed as to obtain a letter from his Majesty to forbear their corporal 
punishment or death; although we hope and doubt not but that if his 
Majesty were rightly informed he would be far from giving them such 
favor, or weakening his authority here, so long and orderly settled. 
Yet that we may not in the least offend his Majesty this court doth 
hereby order and declare that the execution of the laws in force against 
Quakers as such, so far as they respect corporal punishment or death, 
be suspended until this court take further order.'" 

For the Massachusetts Court to send their prisoners to England 
would be to send " loud and swift witnesses " against the Massachusetts 
government. If they had no prisoners they could not send any; so they 
cunningly met the emergency by discharging the prisoners from custody ; 
and they appointed Simon Bradstreet and John Norton to proceed to 
England to present their address and declaration, to assure the King 
of their loyalty and to secure the interest of those who might have 
influence Vv'ith the King and his Chancellor; but they did not depart 
until nearly three months after.' 

At the May Assembly and election of the Providence Plantations, 
William Brenton of the Island was chosen President. Although the 
employment of another agent than Clark, either alone or as an associate, 
was distasteful to the loyal partv, William Brenton, Benedict Arnold, 
William Dvre, Randall Holden, John Greene, Samuel Gorton, and Roger 
Williams were put in nomination for a choice of one or two to be 
employed with Clark at the Court of Charles the Second. In the 
direction of a new charter, Roger Williams, William Fields and Zacha- 
riah Rhodes of Providence, John Porter, John Roome and Wi jam 
Baulston of Portsmouth, Benedict Arnold, Joseph Torrey and William 

letter, R. I. Rec, t. 3^1, ante p. -Ryerson's Loyalists of ^J^^^-\lll: 

133. Mass. Rec, iv, Pt. i, pp. 449-4S6. ^Loyalists of Amer ca by Eg^- 

ton Ryerson, D. D.. LL. D., Vol. i, p. i35- Hutchinson's ^Papers, 33. 334, or u, 
51 52. "KinR's Mandamus in Hazard's Collec., 11, 59S and in Sewall S 

Hist of the Quakers. Reference thereto in Mass. Rec. iv, Pt. 2,_ p. 34- 
'Declaration of the Mass. Court of Nov. 27, 1661. m Mass Rec ly, Pt. 2. P- 34- 
Hazard's Collec. ii, 596. «Bradstreet and Norton sailed Feb '?-p Tcltnd 

»R. LRec, i, 442. '"R. I. Rec, i, 445, 446. 'Lands of R. Island, 


Brenton of Newport, Samuel Gorton, John Greene and John Wickes 
of Warwick were selected as a committee to receive the old charter 
from Williams, to send it to England, to draw up an address to his 
Majesty in behalf of the colony and to give copies of it, together with 
a copy of the subjection deed of the Narragansetts to the agents em- 
ployed, for the use of the colony in England." This was a working 
committee, the aggressive members of the loyal party having secured 
place upon it. 

The lands Potowomut had been purchased for " the inhabitants of 
Warwick." Trouble regarding it ensuing, the deed was turned over 
to Benedict Arnold for the use of the colony. It was not turned over 
to the colony and fell into the hands of private owners/ 

The following was sent by Gorton to the General Court of Massachu- 
setts : 

"After our long continued patience and forbearance in lying under 
the burdens of wrongs and injuries, which you have done unto us ; wait- 
ing to see when your own ingenuity would prompt and provoke you 
to return unto us some responsible satisfaction; but seeing no appear- 
ance thereof, but the continuation of oppression, in withholding our 
rights, in not releasing our tedious exile; in some of yours irregularly 
intruding upon our lawful liberties; and in your encouraging of the 
Indians to oppress us intolerably to this day, presuming upon your 
protection therein and threatening of us with your maintaining of them 
in their doings continually; and when some (out of compassion) have 
laid our wrongs open before the Commissioners of the United Colonies, 
some of the chief of you, whom we spare to name, have answered with 
great zeal ' Let them alone ; let the Indians destroy them.' Therefore, 
think it not much that vv^e are now at the last constrained to appear 
before you in these our lines, to present unto you our long resented 
and now resolved thoughts. Our grievances we briefly reduce into 
these four heads, which, as occasion shall serve and call for, we shall 
amplify, prove and express every one in their several particulars, viz. : 

" I. Your cruel and unjust seizure upon our persons and estate, by 
Capt. George Cooke, Edward Johnson and Humphrey Atherton, com- 
missioned by you with the soldiers, both English and Indians under 
their command; sent against us. His Majesty's subjects, who live 
peaceably, doing harm to no man, and far out of all your jurisdiction. 
Your above said soldiers, contrary to law, in an hostile manner, broke 
open our houses, spoiling our bedding by lying on them in their trenches, 
living upon our cattle in the time of their besieging us, and driving 
away the rest of our great cattle, amounting to a great number, into 
the Massachusetts, and there disposing of them to your use; also when 
we did hang out the King's colors, to signify to whom we did adhere, 
your soldiers shot them through and through immediately ; and, con- 
trary to your Commissioners' and soldiers' agreement with us, that we 
should go with them as neighbors and freemen unto Massachusetts, to 
answer anything that could be objected against us, which said aq^ree- 
ment of ours was on purpose to save the spilling any blood, upon which 
we invited them into the house wherein we were besierifed. they imme- 
diately, upon their entrance into our said house, seized upon our arms 
and persons, carrying us all away as slaves and captives, leaving our 
houses and necessaries in them to be pillaged by the Indians, who 
accordingly did destroy our goods and habitations by fire and other- 
wise; our wives and children being fled into the woods and other places 

228, 229. *R. I. Collec, ii, 224-230. ^. I. Rec, i, 448. 


for safety, but in regard of hardships sustained herein, to some of them 
it proved loss of Hfe and to others loss of limbs. 

" 2. The second general head of our grievances is, our false imprison- 
ment for the space of one whole winter season and more, lying in chains 
and fetters of iron, and yet to work for our livings by the sentence of 
your court, or else to be starved, according to the doctrine of the chief 
of your ministers, preached for the edification of the people in the 
same season ; and when in your court privately held, you put^ us upon 
questions concerning our religion, thinking to ensnare us, having noth- 
ing else to object against us, telling us that we answered upon life or 
death, we told you that we could not give you your due honor in the 
place where you sat; but as you were related to the King's Majesty, 
who had committed the same unto you (though out of your jurisdiction, 
we held ourselves to stand in a neighborly relation unto you) ; and 
therefore told you that we acknowledged the King and his laws to be 
the fountain and head of your government; and that if it were so, that 
you prosecuted us to take away our lives after our goods, we did then 
humbly make our appeal to the King's Majesty for our trial, and could 
not be heard ; but not having the breach of any law against us, you put 
it to the major vote wdiether we should live or die; and being our lives 
escaped only two votes, as some of the deputies of the General Court 
informed us, some of you would have it put to vote again, only the 
Governor answered it was the finger of God and it was the best to let 
it pass as it was. Our imprisonment, as above said, after this was done, 
was a time which had many hours in it, wherein you had hope to get 
something against us by one means or other; but if every hour wherein 
you sought this (by our own law) answer the King's laws for such 
imprisonment it will amount to some considerable account upon your 

" 3. The third general head is, our causeless banishment and exile 
continued upon us unto this day, which is now upon the expiration of 
eighteen years; not only to the disgrace of our persons, in making us 
appear obnoxious in the eyes of men, as though we were guilty of 
some notorious crimes, but also to the depriving of us of common 
commerce amongst men, whereby we have for so long time been hin- 
dered of the benefit of the course, opportunity and state of things in 
the country, in way of trade, in regard of the places of exportation and 
importation of all commodities being amongst you, where Vv^e by your 
law may not come, upon peril of death ; and yourselves know that many 
amongst you and some nearer to our abodes, being favored and encour- 
aged by you (since the time of our unjust punishment), raised their 
estate to the sum of many thousand pounds a man, whilst we have sat 
under oppressions intolerable; having things not at the second, but at 
the third or fourth hand, for the necessary supply of our families, to 
mitigate their groans under the burdens which you have laid upon 
us, which groans have gone up. And yourselves know also that divers 
of us were in as good capacity (if not better) to have advanced our 
estates as many of those who are so increased, when Captain, Lieuten- 
ant and soldiers came first against us. when yourselves had nothing to 
do, unless you took yourselves to be the only reformers of the world, 
to bring them all to the bent of your bow, as the chief of your ministers 
have professed ; that so far as you found yourselves to have the power 
of the sword, you ought to subdue all to the form of your Church and 

State. , . . , .1. 

"4. The fourth general head of our complamt is, the great charge 
and expense you have put us unto, for the recovery and repossessmg of 
our lands, which you had seized upon, as well as upon our persons 


and estate; banishing v.s from them also, though under deceitful and 
ambiguous terms, taking that for granted which was not true; accord- 
ing to other of your dealings towards us, as evidently shall appear in 
its due place and season, whereupon we were necessitated, for supply 
of our present wants, to make use of our friends beyond modesty and 
all ordinary courtesy, when you had cast us out of house and harbor 
and place of abode, taking from us not only our goods of all sorts, 
which were our livelihood, but our lands also; leaving us destitute of 
any place wherein we might employ ourselves to sustain our wives 
and little ones; thinking thereby either to drive us among the Indians 
remote, to our ruin, or else to the Dutch Plantation, where many of our 
English people, men, women and children, were so inhumanly massacred 
immediately' before (by the barbarous Indians in those parts), which 
was one effect of your banishing them from among yourselves. In 
this case, we, being deprived of all liberty to pass through any of your 
plantations, to go for England, to make known unto the King's Majesty; 
being put in trust (also) with the chief Sachems about us, who^ earnestly 
desired to submit their persons and lands unto His Majesty's protec- 
tion, seeing yourselves laying claim unto and prosecuting by the sword 
for such large dominions in these parts, perceiving that we were 
delivered out of your hands, beyond all expectation, and that we pro- 
fessed ourselves to be subjects and servants to the Great Sachem of 
Old England. We were upon this twofold occasion forced to travel 
to the Dutch plantation to take shipping, where we lay long upon 
expense before an opportunity could be had ; then transporting ourselves 
into Holland we lay long there again for a passage into England. 
When arrived, your friends and agents did v/hat they could to hinder 
the dispatch of our business, thinking thereby to wear us out in the 
want of means to maintain ourselves; some of your chief friends, both 
in England and also of this country, being of the committee to which 
our business was referred, by which means the time was much pro- 
longed before a termination of the justice and equity of our cause. 
And yourselves know that the said committee ivere pleased to take 
notice {in their letter concerning the repossessing of our plantation) of 
our modesty and moderation, in that zve did not for that present time 
urge or sue for reparation of other wrongs zve underzvent, because of 
the troublesome times in those days. But we were willing to stay till 
a better and more fit season offered itself; only the repossessing of our 
plantations was of present necessity; whereupon we might labor with 
our hands for the preservation of our wives and children ; which they 
most willingly granted unto us, seeing that justice and equity called 
for the same. The accomplishment thereof in our loss of time, expense 
of money and arrearages, our families were forced in our absence 
(which absence was not only from our families in our voyage for 
England, but also from our lands from which you had banished us), 
was no small charge, for such as you had left naked of all manner of 
help, thinking thereby to tread us under foot forever, and our children 
after us, such as should never be able to use any means for any satisfac- 
tion hereafter. If the great cattle you took from us be well calculated 
according to ordinary increase for so many years, as you have the use 
and benefit of them, it will amount to a very considerable sum, besides 
all other charge and detriment; and we understand that now is a time 
of repairing of losses and righting of wrongs, formerly done in our 
native country, where we doubt not our wrongs will be taken into con- 
sideration among the rest. And though yourselves would not allow 
our humble appeal to the Royalty of the late King, yet we hope you 
will not hinder our humble addresses unto His Majesty that now is. 


Wherefore considering the premises as things shall be explained and 
amplified according to the particulars necessarily comprised, which 
you cannot be ignorant of, and being that we respect you as gentlemen 
of the same country out of which we came, also as neighbors here in 
this remote wilderness, and respecting you as wise and understanding 
men, we are, in the truth and sincerity of our hearts (for neighborly 
peace and society in these Hie Majesty's dominions), willing to propose 
unto you judicious and serious consideration, viz.: That if, in your 
judgments, you shall be pleased to propound unto us such a plausible 
way (which may stand with His Majesty's authority and not prejudice 
nor demean our cause) for a home composure of these differences, 
unto moderate satisfaction, we shall most willingly and freely address 
ourselves thereunto. Otherwise, take knowledge, that our resolution 
is, with all convenient speed to make our humble addresses to the 
King's Majesty, in way of petition and particular declaration there- 
upon, that His Majesty will be pleased to determine the matter by his 
council, or whom His Majesty shall be pleased to appoint. We under- 
stand that yourselves have received good encouragement from His 
Majesty of late, which is our encouragement also that he will the more 
willingly take the cause into consideration. Take knowledge, therefore, 
that we do, by these presents, give you seasonable notice of our intended 
proceedings about the premises, that so you may be ready to make your 
best defense. And of this warning given unto you we keep a copy, 
testified unto by sufficient witness; it being a seasonable time now, 
fitting your opportunity, for we understand that your agent has lately 
com.e over out of England and is shortly to return thither again, so that 
you may give him full instructions for the management of your cause. 
This also you may be pleased to take cognizance of that if you put 
us unto the prosecution of our intended resolution, in our humble 
addresses to His Majesty, the damage which we shall charge upon 
you will amount to a very great sum. as by visible demonstrations and 
rational and undeniable calculation and account it shall appear ; besides 
our false imprisonment, and wrongs done by Indians in killing our 
cattle, planting and wearing out our best land, pilfering and purloin- 
ing our goods, etc.. for the space of so many years, whom we expected 
to be removed without delay. If we hear not from you speedily con- 
cerning the premises, then we take it for granted that you put us to 
the prosecution of our abovesaid resolution, and intend to give us a 
meeting in England, for the intent and purpose as aforesaid. We con- 
clude, with our desire to know of you, whether you count us free in 
point of egress and regress in any of your plantations or jurisdiction, 
to go about their or any other of our lawful employments without 
disturbance as free subjects of His Majesty in his dominions, carrying 
ourselves (as in our constant custom and practice we have done) 
according unto the rules of humanity and sobriety. And if we have 
not a speedy answer from you in this point also, we shall consider 
you hold us still as under the bondage of a causeless banishment; and 
we shall seek to accommodate ourselves elsewhere for transportation, 
to obtain redress. And so we take our leave, and remain, though poor, 
yet your loving and peaceable neis^hbors. From Warwick in the Colony 
of Providence Plantations, the 22d of August, l66i."* 

The commission for Clark, which was ordered drawn out in May, 
1660, and at each subsequent sessions, v/as still withheld from him by 
the adverse committee who had it in charge. And its forwarding was 
still further retarded by the Assemblv or Governor Brenton at the 
August 27th Assembly session, appointing Benedict Arnold and William 
Dyre with the Recorder Torry, another more inactive committee.' to 


take charge of and send it to him. The tactics were much the same as 
those which were by these same men made use of in 1653 to dictate 
the terms of re-union by withholding the Council's letter. 

At the May election of 1662 Benedict Arnold was chosen President. 
The General Court at two different times during the year, both sessions 
held at Warwick, addressed letters to Massachusetts to convince them 
of the justice and necessity of their resolution to preserve and defend 
the privileges of the colony and its jurisdiction " to the eastward of 
Pawcatuck river:" "Especially considering that you (Mass.) have 
by a more particular and especial instrument from your Lord's Commons 
for Foreign Plantations under his Majesty our Sovereign Lord the 
King, been absolutely prohibited from entering upon any part of this 
jurisdiction. We do promise you that we will live by you in all loving 
and quiet sort, not doubting but we shall be supported therein by the 
divine power, and in due season also, to be thereby enabled to persuade 
such as now intrude here upon us to decline their insolent proceedings. 
And we withal do declare that if any of ours at Pawcatuck or else- 
where in the colony have entered on the just rights and interests of any 
(whom you call your subjects, either English or Indians) illegally, 
that upon complaint legally made unto our Court of Justice, held in 
the name and by the authority of his Majesty in this colony, they the 
aggrieved parties shall have redress in all just and equal manner."* 

The loyal and liberal party was this year successful in electing Roger 
Williams President of the Town Council of Providence. The Pawtux- 
ans' " confirmation " deeds held by Harris were on April 4th put on 
record. On the same day the original deed to Williams of Mooshasuck 
was recorded. The Pawtuxet party had prevented this being done 
before, vowing that theirs was a correct copy." 

On July 27th of this year a deed made on April 9th, 1662, by Samuel 
Gorton — his wife Mary joining — of Pawtuxet land, which "was passed 
from Robert Cole unto himself by a deed bearing date the loth of Jan- 
uary, 1641,"° was prevented by the Pawtuxet party from being recorded; 
their claims antedating and covering " all the lands purchased by Gorton 
and his companions."' 

Throughout the colony and in the Assembly the selection of the 
individuals upon whom the government should, in the event of a new 
charter, devolve,, was a grave matter of contention; the government 
under the present charter now being officered principally by members 
of the Coddington and Arnold organization who were unwilling to 
yield them up to others. An assemblage made up largely of Newport 
men, and in which Benedict Arnold was named as the President, was, 
as a necessity to avoid more serious delay, acceded to by the loyal 
party. Undoubtedly, Clark would if unhampered have named an ever 
loyal man to head the government, although the naming now of any 
other than the present incumbent, Arnold, for the place would have 
resulted in deposing him from ofifice. The Pawtuxans, Arnolds and 
Coddingtons now being dictators upon the matter urged for any charter, 
agreed that Clark should proceed alone with the colony's business, 
that all the papers should be delivered to him, and the commission 
which had been made out to him, but which the committee in charge yet 

*R. I. Rec, i, 460, 470, 495. »Tlie original Williams' deed is preserved 

^t ProvidetiQe. A photo engravure of it and also a copy of the fraudulent copy 
which the Arnold Pautuxans prepared can be had of Sidney S. Rider of 
Providence. Book Notes, Vol. 2, No. 4. The Lands of Rhode Island. The 
Arnold forgery was not, during the lives of both father and son. recorded. 
T^arlv Rec. Book, iii, n. 13: orinted cony, ii, 26. 'The Forgeries, 2d. 

Ser. R. I. Hist. Tract No. 4. Sidney S. Rider. «R. T. Rec, i. 44R. Book 


detained, should be sent to him.* Yet some of the opponents of Clark, 
not having gained all they wished, refused to support the program 
adopted and persevered in acting independently and obstructing and 
longer delaying the urgently needed proceedings. 

The Massachusetts agents, Bradstreet and Norton, who went to 
England, were met in London by Clark and Holmes and by a number 
of Friends, among them John Copeland, whose mutilated ear was a 
swift witness against them of the trials and persecutions he and his 
fellows had suffered in Boston. George Fox was present at the confer- 
ence with them and questioned the agents so closely that they became 
confused.' The Rhode Island men, Clark and Holmes, met these agents 
before the King and exposed the falsity of their profession of toleration 
and obedience, and challenging them to cite one single act of duty or 
loyalty in support of their profession as loyal subjects." Yet the King 
continued to Massachusetts their privileges, as they promised they 
would act with loyalty and toleration in the future; and Bradstreet 
and Norton presently returned, bearing a royal letter dated June 28th, 
1662, in which the King recognized the church and promised oblivion 
of past offenses ; but he demanded the repeal of all laws inconsistent 
with due authority, an oath of allegiance to the royal person, as for- 
merly in use, but dropped since the commencement of the late civil 
war, the administration of justice in his name; complete toleration 
for the Church of England ; the repeal of the law which restricted the 
privilege of voting and tenure of office to church members, and the 
substitution of property qualifications instead; finally, the admission 
of all persons of honest lives to the sacraments of Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper.' 

The " Petition of John Clark and others of Rhode Island.'" which was 
under the direction of the committee, was finally delivered to Clark 
and was presented by him to the Councillors of the King. It was for 
a confirmation of the present charter, and recited that the petitioners 
did in the year 1643 secure from the Commissioners of Plantations a 
charter of incorporation, whereby they were empowered to choose 
their own officers and to make their own laws with the limitation that 
they should be so near the laws of England as the nature of the con- 
stitution of the place would admit; and that having grounded the 
government thereon, they humbly craved they might find such grace 
in his Majesty's sight that under his wing they mighty not only be 
sheltered, but caused to flourish in their civil and religious concern- 
ment. And the commission, which was made out and dated October 
i8th, t66o, over two years ago, was delivered to him. It_ authorized 
him to act as the agent of the colony in perpetuating the liberties and 
boundaries and amenities of the colony according to the true intent 
and meaning of all contained in the charter " bearing date one thousand 
six hundred and forty-three ; " the old charter which those who drew 
the commission once so earnestly opposed, but under which they now 
were installed in office. 

There is not a word regarding religious liberty in this 1643 cliarter, 
although to be protected from enforcement was, as Gorton said, the 
principal ground for it. It provided this by granting the people full 
authority to rule themselves in a form agreed to by the greater part 
of them. This was sufficient only as long as the people's will could 
be expressed. Now constitutional prohibition of religious enforcement 

Notes, Vol. 22, No. 4. ^Bryant's Hist, of the United States, H, 197. 

"Clark's 111 News from New Ennjland, 4tli Ser. Mass. Collec, ii. Loyalists of 
Amer., 1, 143. ^Hildreth's Hist. U. S., i, cK^xiv, 453- Kind's letter in 

Loyalists of Amer., i, 140, and in Hazard's Collec, ii, 605. ^R. L Rec, 



was desired to permanently assure it. " The only safety," Gorton said, 
" was in prohibiting the Magistrates to intermeddle between God and 
the conscience of men." 

A letter and the " Address from Rhode Island to King Charles the 
Second "' was sent to Clark by the select men ; the address setting forth 
" that it was much on their hearts if they might be permitted to hold 
forth a lively experiment, that a most flourishing State might stand 
and best be maintained with a full liberty in religious concernment ; 
craving to receive from his Majesty a more absolute, ample and free 
charter of civil incorporation, while permitted with freedom of con- 
science to worship the Lord our God." 

While Clark was delayed by the withholding of his credentials, 
John Winthrop, Jr., was engaged in advancing the passage of a 
charter for Connecticut, which described that colony's bounds as east 
upon the Narragansett river.* The draught of this charter thus preced- 
ing that of the Rhode Island charter came finally before the Council 
board before the objectional portion was revealed to Clark, and he 
could not at this stage combat it. Winthrop says : " Mr. Clark might 
have done their business before my arrival, or all the time since. I 
should not have offered anything therein. Why he did not act about 
their business before, when he would have none to oppose, or all the 
time when he should have no opposition from myself or any other, I 
know not the reason. I had not the least intention of wronging them." 

The Providence and Rhode Island grant was to Patatticuck river, 
at that time also called Narragansett river. The Council explained 
that they did not intend to grant away from it any of its territory. 
Winthrop agreed with Clark upon the terms " Patatticuck river called 
Narragansett river," and this line of division was, not however without 
many years of troublesome and expensive trials for both colonies, 
sustained by the King's Commissioners.* 

Benedict Arnold was for the year 1663 elected President of the 
colony, and five of the six Providence Representatives chosen were 
also of the Pawtuxet party. The Pawtuxet party also obtained a two- 
thirds majority in the Providence Town Council; and again ordered 
that no land should be granted within the Pawtuxet claim. A struggle 
in the Assembly and local courts, led by Harris, for the possession of 
the lands they claimed, followed; Harris, by electing controlling rr.r.jori- 
ties in the Town Council and General Assembly, attempting politically 
to accomplish his object.'' Although but four men held eight of the 
ten shares in this claim to nearly the whole State, it is not suprising 
that these few bhould have so large a following; for the land, the stake 
for which they played, was of such monstrous financial value that 
their success would insure the dispensing of rich bounties to their 

At a General Assembly held at Newport on November 24th, 1663, 
the new charter from Charles the Second, brought over by Capt. Baxter, 
was read. The earnest struggles for religious liberty had, in the con- 
stitutional prohibition of the exercise of civil authority over men's 
consciences, gained the final victory. It limited the power of civil 
government to civil things. The charter recites from the Committee 

i, 485. *R. I. Rec, i, 489-491. 'R. I. Collec, iii, 190-213. 

"Mass. Archives. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 380. 'The use in the Conn, 

charter of the name Narragansett instead of Patatticuck for the boundary river 
was doubtless the work of Harris, who had been made the paid agent for the 
Prov. government and also for Conn. Had the contention of Conn, under it 
been sustained, the Narragansett lands claimed by the Pawtuxans would have 
been awarded to them. '2d R. I. Hist. Tract, 4, p. 80. *Lands 


of Select Men's Address to the King " That it is much in their hearts 
if they may be permitted to hold forth a lively experiment, that a most 
flourishitig civil state may stand and best be maintained with a full 
liberty in religious concernment.'" 

All the rights granted in the earlier charter were confirmed in this, 
the original right and title of the Indians and their concession of the 
Narragansett territory through Gorton to the English government for 
the government of the Providence Plantations was recognized and 
confirmed. The names of the men from the different parties, upon 
whom the government under the new charter should devolve until the 
next May election, as had been agreed upon and sent to Clark, were 
inserted in the charter; but those who had borne the chief burdens and 
sacrifices in the cause did not receive the chief honors. The Newport 
organization and the Pawtuxans were now in a majority sufficient to 
command for themselves most of the prominent places. The Governor 
named, therefore, was not Williams or a representative of the liberal 
party," but Benedict Arnold, and he became by this appointment the 
first Governor under the new charter ;' largely attributive to the limited 
voting privilege maintained in Newport. Arnold and Brenton held 
the office of Governor for fifteen years between them continuously, and 
they with Easton and later Coddington continuously for twenty-one 
years (with the exception of one year) until the death of all of them.* 

The name " Providence Plantations " in the Williams charter, Gorton 
said, disturbed the men of Newport. In the new charter Rhode Island 
was prefixed to the name of the colony. Gorton, one of the few of the 
liberal party who obtained recognition under the new charter, was 
named in it as one on whom the government should devolve, was a 
member of the Assembly that received the charter, and was a member 
of the next Assembly in March, in which the new charter was adopted. 
Under the new charter the Governor, the Deputy Governor, and four 
of the ten Assistants were Newport men, and of the Deputies Newport 
had six to four from any other town.* The preponderating population 
of Newport was from Massachusetts; it was nearly a Massachusetts 
government. The political consequences of the other towns than New- 
port were thus destroyed, and the government, though with constitu- 
tional liberty established in it, passed from the hands of those whose 
early struggles founded and maintained it. These thereafter " shared 
but few favors and seldom secured any official recognition or distinc- 

Most of the early officers of the government, like Gorton, as he says, 
" never persued earthly honor." Conscience and duty actuated them 
in taking upon themselves the dangerous responsibilities that confronted 
them; and sacrifice and suffering without honor in their day was their 
earthly portion. The infirmities of age and long continued public 
service, as at last pled by Gorton, were the only laudable reasons for 
laying down this unthankful work. Except in the cases of Arnold 

of R. Island, loi, io6, 255. "R. I. Rec, ii. 4, 5. '"R. I. Collec, 

vii, 204. 'Arnold was chosen Chief-officer before the new chartef 

arrived. To name or not to name him as Governor in the charter was one of 
the obstructions in proceedings. To not have so named him at this time would 
have deposed him from the office. "Arnold and Coddington, through 

their extensive land acquisitions and political favors, and the favors of commerce 
extended to them by Mass., became possessed of large wealth, exceeding that of 
any other two men in the colony. Coddington, in 1665, abandoned the church 
and Puritan party and became a Friend and Loyalist, and was thereafter the 
Governor of the colony and a commendable citizen, sth Mass. Collec, i, 330 
note. 2d Savage's Winthrop, ii, 179. R. I. Collec, ii^ 52. Mass. Rec, ii, 48. 
«R. I. Rec, ii, 39- *R- I- Rec, i, 515-517. *Dr. Cathcart. The 


and Coddington, there was hardly an example of personal ambitious 
strife for place in the colony until after the government was established 
very secure and its offices were provided with emoluments. Samuel 
Gorton and John Smith served as Presidents of the colony during the 
culminating period of the attempted subversion of its government and 
the transferring of its dominions to the other colonies, the most trying 
period, and met with judgment and courage every emergency; pre- 
served the valued rights by their charter granted to them, and happily 
lived to see the cause for which they labored triumph. 

The new charter also contained the express provision that the inhabit- 
ants of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations should have perfect 
freedom to pass and repass without let or molestation into the other 
colonies, and to hold intercourse with such of their people as were 
willing, " any act, clause, or sentence in any of the said colonies pro- 
vided or that shall be provided to the contrary notwithstanding." 
Accompanying the charter was an open letter from the King to the 
Governor and Council of Massachusetts, expressly calling their atten- 
tion to the signification of his will as provided in his charter, and 
requiring their obedience, which letter he sent through the hands of 
the Governor and Council of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 
evidently to assure to all the parties interested a knowled,c:e of its tender 
and his will. Its receipt was, by the Governor and Council of Massachu- 
setts on November i8th, 1663, acknowledged.* 

A remarkable fact regarding this charter is that it was so liberal in 
its provisions that it was not changed by the revolution, but remained 
in force until 1842. It was in advance of other instruments in provid- 
ing protection in the matter of religious worship. When, later, the 
Liberalists complained of this deficiency in the United States Consti- 
tution and addressed Washington upon the subject, urging an amend- 
ment, the request commended itself to his judgment and he replied that 
had he known the needed protection was not accorded fully in the Con- 
stitution he never would have signed it. The amedment was introduced 
by Madison and, in spite of violent opposition at the first, Congress 
passed it." 

That Charles the Second should favor the experiment of civil govern- 
ment with liberty of conscience and provide for the enforcement of 
religious freedom, first in this banished colony, is largely due to the 
exemplary life, earnest entreaties and convincing eloquence of Gorton, 
Clark and Williams. His letters^ show that he was well disposed to 
grant them this favor.' He had pledged " that no man shall be dis- 
quieted or called in question for difference of opinion in matters of 
religion which do not disturb the peace of the kingdom," in his famous 
declaration from Breda in 1660.* In his letter to Endicott the same 
year he says : " Neither shall we forget to make you and all our good 
people in those parts equal partakers of those promises of liberty and 
moderation to tender consciences expressed in our gracious declaration." 
And the identical language of his declaration from Breda (with the 
selectmen's entreaty to him "to hold forth a lively experiment, with ^ 
a full liberty in religious concernment ") was inserted in the new charter ' 

R. I. and Prov. Plantation was the first, or the second if we prant the first to 
the colony of North Carolina, to declare itself " free from all dependence on 
the crown of Great Britain." This she did May 4, 1776. She then refused to 
enter the Compact of United Colonies until constitutional reliRious freedom 
was adopted. 'Kind's letters in Ryerson's Loyalists of America. 

Williams' letter, R. I. Collec, iii, 163. R. I. Rec, i, 459. Warwick letter, R. I. 
Rec, 11, 79- 'Rapin. 2d London Ed., n, 616. Echard, 3d London Ed., 

the Commonwealth Book, iii, 761-763. ^Charter in R. L Rec, ii, S- 


by his special order, and by him defended in open court before it was 
sealed and he signed it." 

By enforcing freedom in the American colonies the promotion of 
the Episcopal religion was accomplished; but, however, its operation 
here was most desirable and beneficial. Massachusetts was offered a 
new charter on the same terms as Narragansett and refused it. Then 
her charter fell. This was the last effective act of Charles the Second 
relative to Massachusetts, for before a new government could be settled 
the Monarch died. His death and that of the charter were nearly 
contemporary/" James the Second, immediately upon his accession to 
the throne, in resentment of the disobedience and belligerancy of Massa- 
chusetts and indignant less with the Narragansett than with the Massa- 
chusetts heretics, appointed a Royal Governor and a Royal Commission 
which changed, for the time being, the whole face of New England.' 

We passed with but a mention one of the proceedings of the last 
Assembly, which was attended with much importance. The Indian 
Kings of the Narragansett nation were by invitation of the Governor 
and Council present. The deed and submission sent by them to his 
Majesty by Mr. Gorton was read to them, which they reaffirmed and 
owned to have executed. This submission deed of the Narragansetts 
secured by Gorton well stood all the ridicule that Massachusetts writers 
could bestow upon it. No instrument ever more fully than this served 
its chief purpose. Massachusetts had commissioned Arnold and others 
to secure this same thing, but failed in it, and subjected but two of the 
petty Sachems." The submission of the Narragansett Chiefs with their 
dominion in tlie interests of the Providence Plantations before others 
had seduced them, which latter would have facilitated the efforts of 
Weld to secure Massachusetts a patent and of Winslow to call in the 
grant to Williams, was a master policy; notwithstanding England was 
unable to return to the Narragansetts, for the deed the redress and 
protection which was due for it. And although Miantinomi fell in 
death, doubtless earlier than he would have fallen had be submitted to 
Massachusetts, the same fate awaited those who did submit to Massa- 
chusetts after their land had been gotten from them.' 

This Indian grant was recognized as the highest authority by tb.e 
Parliament Commissioners, and in the charter as the best of all grants; 
so all-sufficient as to supercede all others; and the grant in the body of 
the charter is, therefore, given to the Rhode Island and Providence 
colony of dominion over this land.* 

Without this deed the colony could not have retained any considerable 
part of the Narragansett domain; and the importance attached to it 
by all the colonies is evident from what we have recounted. It was 
by virtue of this act that the King's Commissioners sitting at Warwick 
erected it into the King's Province, named its bounds, and gave to the 
Governor and his Assistants of the colony of Rhode Island and Provi- 
dence its entire control, forbidding others trespassing upon_ it. The 
charter says that as the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations " are 
seized and possessed by purchase and consent of the natives to^ their 
full consent, and they having by near neighborhood to and friendly 

Ryerson's Loyalists of Amer.. ?, cTi. v. ^"Barry's Hist. Mass., First 

Period, xvii, 478. 'Ryerson's Loy?lists of Amer., i, cVi. vi. 

^Acts Corns. U. Cols., i. 32, etc. 'Canonchet, the son and successor to 

the Chiefdom of Miantinomi. when cantured was offered his life if he would 
secure the submission of his Tribe, which refusing, he was killed and quartered. 
The Tribes that rHd submit, and the pettv Sachems whom Arnold induced to 
submit, were afterwards killed. Hubbard's Indian Wars, etc. *CoI. 

Aspinwall, Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc, i860, pp. 39-41 ; 1862, pp. 41, 77. 


society with the great body of the Narragansett Indians given them 
encouragement, of their own act to subject themselves, their people 
and lands unto us, it shall not be lawful for the rest of the colonies to 
invade or molest the native Indians or any other inhabitants within the 
land and limits mentioned, they having subjected themselves unto us 
and being by us taken into our special protection, without the knowl- 
edge and consent of the Governor and company of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations,"^ 

Shortly prior to March, 1664, the death occurred of John Smith, 
former President of the colony. He was an early settler in Providence, 
a subject of the vengeance of the church Magistrates of Massachusetts, 
and prior to 1648 permanently settled at Warwick ; was one of the first 
members of the government under the charter and one of its most 
earnest defenders. He served the colony loyally and faithfully in 
various ways, and as President during very troublesome times and to 
him a most trying period. Happily, he lived to see religious freedom 
secured to the colony in its constitution. The town of Warwick 
appointed Gorton administrator of his estate. 


The Assembly under the new charter — Gorton named in it as one of the incorpo- 
rators — A Representative — Change of name from Providence to Rhode Island 
and Providence Plantations — The King appoints Commissioners to settle the 
disputes of the colonies — Instructs them to see if the Narragansetts' sub- 
mission and cession secured by Gorton prove true — They confirm the Narragan- 
sett submission and cession — Gorton names the unsetled territory the King's 
Province — Samuel Gorton, Jr., appointed a magistrate in it — Commissioners 
declare all claims of the other colonies to lands within it to be void, and place 
it in the Rhode Island and Providence government's keeping — They order the 
removal of Massachusetts subjects from it — Massachusetts court refuses to 
heed the orders of the King's Commissioners — The King commands the Gov- 
ernor and Council of Massachusetts to send representatives to answer in 

The first Assembly of the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 
under the new charter sat at Newport March ist, 1664. Samuel Gorton 
was, as we have stated, named in it as one of the incorporators of the 
government, so also were Benedict Arnold, William Coddington and 
William Baulston. The appointments named in it were Arnold, Gov- 
ernor; Brenton, Deputy Governor; Coggershall, Clark and Baker, 
Assistants, all of Newport ; Baulston and Porter, Assistants, of Ports- 
mouth ; Field, Olney and Williams, Assistants, of Providence; and Greene 
and Smith, Assistants, of Warwick. The vacancv occasioned by the 
death of Smith was filled by the choice of Randall Holden. The Assem- 
bly appointed the Superior Court at Newport semi-annually to be held 
by the Governor and six of the Assistants with or without the aid of 
the Deputy Governor. Five of twelve colony officers were required to 
be citizens of Newport. The Governor, Deputy Governor and three of 
the Assistant justices, thereafter of Newport, and five out of each 

"R. I. Rec, ii, 4, 15, King's letter. Letters from the colony to the King and 
Lord Clarendon, Sept. 4. 1666. R. I. Rec. ii, 155. 156, 556, 562: iii. 40, 61, 63, 
63, etc.; iv, 370-373. King's letter, ist Mass. Collec, v, 221: 2d. Mass. Collec, 
yn, 98-112; Arnold's Hist. R. L, i, 315. .^16. Sheffield's Paper. National 
Magazine, 62. «R. L Rec. Book Notes, xix, 19, p. 70. 


twelve of the grand and petit jury were to be Newport men. Every 
town was deprived of the power of electing one-half of its council, the 
election of half given to the vote of the whole colony.' Newport had 
surpassed the other towns in population, wealth and social influence; 
had now a more than corresponding political interest, and filled most 
of the offices of the government. Its accessions were of a character 
very different from those of the early settlements, which were of a 
people many of whom, after having been impoverished by fines and 
penalties, had escaped almost penniless to enjoy in the wilderness the 
scant returns of labor and the hoped for large reward of freedom from 
religious oppression. Its accessions were largely Puritan men of wealth 
who came to the new port of enterprise for business. This Puritan 
element was made by the rulers the privileged electorate, thereby keep- 
ing them in power. Without regard for or sympathy with the liberal 
element it held controlling influence in the colony for more than a 

The change in the official title of the colony, dictated by the Newport 
island men and made by prefixing the name of the island to it, led to 
the colony being called by the island's name ; and it also loaned strength 
to the error, encouraged by the followers of Coddington then in power 
in the government, that prevailed for many years, that the government 
of the colony had its origin in his government on the island. The 
name of the State should be Narragansett. 

Those governing at Newport from the beginning felt but little interest 
in the mainland towns to which they had against their will been united* 
Previous to Clark's return from England the colony had paid him the 
amount agreed upon for his services and also sent to him an extra 
allowance for his greater encouragement in its behalf, Gorton being 
one who guaranteed the amount apportioned to his town.° Upon 
Clark's return the Assembly promptly assumed the debt which was 
contracted in 1651 for his departure, and to this added a gratuity and 
assessed £600 upon the towns for it, £80 of it being assigned as War- 
wick's portion. To this Warwick for good reasons objected. The main- 
land had alone paid the expenses of Williams, the government agent, 
and it belonged to the island alone to pay the departure expenses of 
Clark their agent.'" Clark had but recently, during the coming in of 
the King, been employed by the government,' and for this all his 
expenses and claims had been paid with an extra allowance. The 
Warwick people had, Williams said, been for the past twenty years 
subjected to a loss of £100 annually. Holden said in all £4,000 from 
the depredations of those who had betrayed the government, without any 
relief from the government;' and they rightly thought that the island 
should pay Clark's departure expenses, and if a further payment to him 
by the government was deemed just it should be assessed upon those 
who had betrayed the government and proudly done wrong of a higher 

Others joined with Warwick in the protest to the Newport men's 
proceedings, but it was unheeded, and in October (1664) the arrearage, 
now £200, was ordered to be collected from the different towns. Unwar- 
rantable reflections having been cast upon the patriotism of the Warwick 
people, they in the December following addressed a letter to the 
Assembly then in session which vindicated their unrivalled interest 
in the colony and the justice of the course they would recommend, 

'Judge Durfee's address, 1847. *R. I. Collec, vii, 211. 'R. I. 

Rec, i, 4801482, 510; ii, 7T, 478, 479, SM, 5i5. SSS ; in, 22. "R. I. Rec, 

ii, 78-80. 'R. I. Rec, ii, 515, 558. T^. I. Rec, 1, 341-345: 


stating that they almost alone bore the expense of the first mission, 
that of Gorton, Greene and Holden to England to sustain the colony, 
and had done none less for it than any others had done, and this done 
on their own charge, travel and loss of time, never receiving a penny 
from any of the other towns; that when the men of Massachusetts had 
drafted a charter for Narragansett, during the height of their credit 
in England, and had both ministers and Magistrates pleading that it 
might be made authentic, these Warwick men only prevented it.' War- 
wick, however, paid the amount that had been assessed to her without 
abatement; and at an Assembly at Warwick, June 21st, 1670, ordered 
£300 to be raised to send Clark and Greene to England to now oppose 
the claims Connecticut made by the precedence of her new charter 
with bounds including, as they thought, portions of the Providence 
colony. Clark did not go, his death occurring soon after.* 

The King finding it impossible to secure compliance and necessary 
to compose the differences of which he received complaints, and to do 
justice to numerous demands at his royal hands, on the 22d of April, 
1664, appointed Col, Richard Nichols, Sr. Robert Carr, Knight, George 
Cartwright, Esq., and Samuel Meverick, Commissioners to visit the 
colonies in New England to examine and determine all complaints and 
appeals in all causes and matters, as well military and criminal, and he 
sent under date of April 23d, 1664 letters to both the Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island governments " acknowledging his duty to see that 
justice be administered to all his subjects."* 

The King's letter of June 28, 1662, brought over by Bradstreet and 
Norton, nearly two years past, remained unpublished, but now upon 
the appointment of the royal Commissioners was made public and 
several other letters from the King acknowledged,' with a protest 
against the royal Commissioners in what they term a " supplication " to 
the King, dated October 25th, 1664.' It was replied to by the King on 
February 25th, 1664-5. The letters of the King of February 15th, 1660, 
September 9th, 1661, June 28th, 1662, April 23d, 1664, and February 
25th, 1665, show the groundlessness of the Massachusetts Magistrates* 
statements and reveal what they contended for under the rights of 
conscience was the right of preventing others, and what they claimed 
under the pretense of charter rights was absolutism, refusing to submit 
even to inquiry as to whether they had encroached upon the rights and 
territories of their White and Indian neighbors, or made laws and 
regulations and performed acts contrary to the laws of England, and 
to the rights of others of the King's subjects. The King's letter of 
February 25th, 1664-5, i" answer to the supplication is not given by 
Hutchinson in his history. This and a letter from Lord Clarendon in 
answer to a copy of the supplication that was sent to him, and a letter 
from Robert Boyle in reply to a letter sent to him, and upon the subject 
of this address to the King and their rejection of the royal commission, 
may be read with advantage to those who would pursue this subject 

In January, 1664-5, the Commissioners appointed by the King arrived. 

iii, 58-62. ^ «R. I. Rec, ii, 78-80, 127. ♦An error in the printed 

records assigns this sessions to Newport : but from the minutes of the Governor 
and Magistrates of Newport, held the Friday previous and hat held the Oct. 
following, it is evident the place was Warwick. "King's letter, Hazard's 

Hist. Collec., ii, 6341637. Ref. to in Loyalists of Amer., i, 176. '2d Mass. 

Collec., viii, 47. 'Supplication in Mass. Rec, iv, Pt. ii, 120-133, and in 

Loyalists of Amer., i. 153-150- 'King's letter of Feb. 25, 1664-5 in 

Ryerson's Loyalists of Amer., i, i66-i6g, and in Hutchinson's Collec. of State 
Papers, 390, or ii, 115. Lord Clarendon's letter in Hutchinson's Hist. Mass., 
1, 544, and in Loyaliss of Amer., i, 160. Robert Boyle's letter in 2d Mass. Collec, 


They were well received by the people of the Providence and Rhode 
Island Plantations. The Indian Princes gave them a long petition. 
Among their complaints of injustice was that the Massachusetts Com- 
missioners had first caused them to be fined, then took their country in 
mortgage to satisfy the sentence, and would inveigle them out of it." 

One of the King's most implicit instructions to his Commissioners 
was " to see if it prove true " that the Narragansetts had submitted 
their domain to Charles the First of their will; and accordingly their 
first business in Narragansett was to visit the headquarters of the tribe 
at Pattamsquscot, where a council with them was held and the sub- 
mission of the Narragansett Chiefs were confirmed; whereupon the 
Commissioners then, there on the 20th of March, 1664-5, formally 
received the grant, commanded it to be called by the name Gorton 
applied to it, " The King's Province," and commissioned men of the 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, their Governor and Assist- 
ants its Magistrates and rulers.'" We do not find Samuel Gorton 
named as one of these Magistrates. He was now seventy-three years 
of age, and had on account of the infirmities of age refused to longer 
serve in the office of Assistant, although he was Magistrate at Warwick 
and did serve as Assistant in the place of absent ones; and so doubtless 
served as his son did and with him as Magistrate for the King's 
Province. His interest in the grant may have prevented his appoint- 
ment by the Commissioners or have made him unwilling to accept such 
an appointment. The Magistrates named were appointed to serve until 
May 3d following, and then the Governor and his Assistants or Magis- 
trates were to rule. Plis son, Samuel Gorton, Jr., was an Assistant and 
was one of the Court of Justice that sat in the Province.' And the 
Commissioners issued this order : " Having received from some of 
the principal Sachems of the Narragansett Indians a submission or 
surrender of themselves, their subjects and their lands to the protection, 
government and dispose of our dread sovereign, giving us a deed dated 
April 19th, 1644, wherein they and all the other Sachems of that coun- 
try did then submit, subject and give over themselves to his late Majesty, 
we, his Majesty's Commissioners, command that no person of what 
colony soever presume to exercise any jurisdiction but such as procure 
authority from us ; and we also declare that " The King's Province " doth 
extend to Pawcatuck river; and whereas. Major Atherton and others 
of the Massachusetts pretend a mortgage of a great part of the said 
country, and whereas, there is also two purchases pretended to, of two 
great tracts of land by the same, in which deed there is no mention of 
any consideration, and that it appears that the said pretending purchasers 
knew that the said country was submitted to Jiis Majesty, as well by 
zi'ifness as by said submission being eighteen years ago printed. We, 
his Majesty's Commissioners, having heard the whole business, do 
declare the said purchases to be void and order and command that the 
said purchasers shall quit and go off the said pretended purchased 


vii, 4g-t;i, and in Loyalists of Amer., i. 161. 'R. I. Collec, ii, 128. 

"R. T. Pec. ii, 03, 94. ^R. I. Rec, ii, 5g2. =R. I. Rec, ii, 

50, 60. The R. I. Reeds., i. 466, contain what is certified to by Edw. Rawson, 
=ecy. of he Mass. Court, as a letter written by the command of Charles the 
Second, dated June 21, 1663, Chut thirteen davs after Charles sifrned the new 
charter of the R. I. and Prov. Plantation"! accordincr the risrht of John Scott and 
others of the Atherton company to the Narras^ansett territory, which writing is 
of doubtful authenticity. Scott was an active supporter of the reputed Narra- 
gansett patent, and he was afterwards convicted and imnrisoned for forcrery 
and other crimes [Palfrey's Hist. N. E., ii, 564 note and 583 note. AspinwalTs 
remarks on the Narragansett patent, Sidney S. Rider, Pub., 28-37 note]. Seq. p. 


The Commissioners then sat to hear the complaints of the town of 
Warwick. The Massachusetts Magistrates refused to appear before 
the Commissioners to answer the numerous complaints of Warwick 
or of others or to indicate their claims or acts, and denied the right 
of the Commissioners to hear and determine causes. A letter was 
received by the Commissioners from Williams stating that he had been 
many years engaged in pleading with Massachusetts and in behalf of 
his loving friends of Warwick with the Massachusetts Magistrates, who 
would be pleased were Mr. Gorton and his friends destroyed, and advis- 
ing that the Massachusetts colony be reduced to obedience'. The 
petition that was four years since addressed by the people of Warwick 
to the General Court of Massachusetts, complaining of the continued 
oppression and suffering occasioned by the remaining subjected inhabit- 
ants and giving notice that they should proceed before the King in 
council unless some arrangements were made satisfactory to them, the 
Massachusetts Court having given no heed to, now twenty-two years 
after the first occasion for complaint arose, during which tim.e there had 
been unremitted depredations and oppression regardless of the many 
orders and the prohibition in the charter, and yet debarred the privi- 
leges of trade, their goods exchang.ed second or third-handed, their 
property destroyed by the subjected inhabitants who occupied their best 
lands, and the order of banishment to this day unrepealed, they of 
Warwick now laid their precise and commendably brief complaint 
before the Commissioners.* This, at this late day, was the first petition 
to the government for reparation that Gorton or any of the Warwick 
people had made. There was in this no claim for damages to the 
person, but only for property losses. From this it is more than probable 
that they would not have sought redress had they, after the first assault 
on them, been allowed to settle down in peace. 

The Commissioners, after the hearings, issued on April 4th from 
Warwick an order " that all those gifts or grants of land lying on the 
eastern side of Pawcatuck and a north line drawn to the Massachusetts, 
made by his Majesty's colony of the Massachusetts to any person what- 
soever, or by that usurped authority called the United Colonies, to be 
void."^ And on April 17th they ordered the removal of all both Indians 
and Whites, Massachusetts subjects, from these lands." 

The Massachusetts Magistrates, in lieu of their appearance before 
the King's Commissioners, put forth on May 30th, 1665, what they 
called an apologetical reply, a document of " vituperation and obscurity 
of meaning," in which they incorporated the pith of " Hypocrisy 
Unmasked," including in it the old petition of Benedict Arnold and his 
company. As nearly twenty-five years had elapsed since the events 
referred to had occurred, it was clear enough that the consequences which 
the petition pretended were completely falsified. It, therefore, suited 
the General Court to quote the Providence petition as stating that 
Gorton and his company were already the vile and dangerous men 
which the petitioners only said they might become in a certain con- 
tingency. In other words, the court so garbled the petition as to make 
It assert as an existing fact that which was only put as a possible 
consequence. However heretical it may appear, it is difficult to escape 
the suspicion that the Puritans sometimes showed signs of human 

note. 'R. I. Rec, ii, 136. 'Warwick's complaint, dated Mar. 

4, 1664-S, in R. I. Collec, ii, 231, and in 2d Mass. Collec, viii, 68. 
^R. I. Rec, ii, 93. 'R. I. Rec, ii, 132. 'Bryant's Hist. U. S.. 

ii, 71. 'Loyalists of Amer., i, 145. 2d, Mass. Collec, viii, 55-58 ; other 


On May 2d, 1665, Colonel Nichols and all the other King's Commis- 
sioners with him drew up, signed and forwarded to the Massachusetts 
Court an address regarding its refusal of its members to appear and 
defend themselves, and regarding a report circulated that the King 
had sent here to take away any civil liberties. It said: "We declare 
as false and protest that they are diametrically contrary to the truth, 
as ere long we shall make it appear more plainly. These personal 
slanders with which we are calumniated, as private men we slight; as 
Christians we forgive, and will not mention; but as persons employed 
by his sacred Majesty we cannot suffer his sacred honor to be eclipsed 
by a cloud of black reproaches and some seditious speeches without 
demanding justice from you against those who have said, reported or 
made them."° And the Commissioners on May i8th addressed to the 
Massachusetts Magistrates the following: "The end of the first plant- 
ers coming hither was, as was expressed in your address, the enjoyment 
of the liberty of your own conscience. We, therefore, admire that you 
should deny liberty of conscience to any, and especially when the King 
requires it, and that upon a vain conceit of your own that it will disturb 
your enjoyments which the King often hath said it shall not."' 

And Commissioner Col. Cartwright addressed to Mr. Gorton the 
following: "These gentlemen of Boston would make tis believe that 
they really think that the King has given them so much power in their 
charter to do unjustly, that he reserved none for himself to call them 
to account for doing so. In short, they refuse to let us hear complaints 
against them, so that at the present we can do nothing in your behalf; 
but I hope shortly to go to England, where, if God bless me thither, 
I shall truly represent your suffering and your loyalty. Your assured 
friend, George Cartwright. Boston, May 26, 1665.'"" 

The three Commissioners Carr, Cartwright and Meverick on July 
26th, 1665, addressed the Massachusetts Court as follows: "We thought 
when we received our commission and instructions that the King and 
his Council knew what was granted to you in your charter, and what 
right his Majesty had to give us such a commission and commands; 
and we thought the King, his Chancellor and his secretaries had suffi- 
ciently convinced you that this commission did not infringe your 
charter ; but since you must needs misconstrue all these letters and 
endeavors, and that you will make use of that authority which he hath 
given you to oppose that sovereignty which he hath over you, we shall 
not loose more of our labors upon you, but refer it to his Majesty's 
wisdom, who is of power enough to make himself to be obeyed in all 
his dominions."^ The Commissioners also wrote to their government, 
among other things regarding the Massachusetts Magistrates, that 
" Seven years they can easily spin out in writing. If writing will serve 
the turn, as they suppose it will, they can keep the business in agitation 
until the King 'and all his secretaries there and all his good subjects 
here be weary of it. Both the readiest and surest way is for his 
Majesty to take away their charter, which they have several ways for- 
feited, but that without a visible force will not be effected."^ 

The Commissioners composed some differences with the Dutch 
settlers, finally arranged for the removal of the subjected Indians 
[delivering to Ponham £20, " ordered as a present unto him if he would 

letters of the Comniis. Seq. ■;8-64. '2d. Mass. Collec, viii, 75-77; other 

Corns, letters, Seq. 81-87, 90. "R. I. Collec, ii, 246.^ ^Reference 

is made to an order signed in Aug., 1665, by all of the King's Corns, upon the 
subject of complaint prepared against Mass., which order we are unable to find. 
Staples. ^O'Calligan's Documents, etc., iii, 102. Hutchinson's Collec, 

412-420, or ii, 139-150, is King's Coms. report. *R. I. Rec, ii, 127-129, 


find a place to live upon " away from Warwick] ; and finding their 
authority still resisted by the government of Massachusetts Bay, re- 
ported the result to the King and Lord Chancellor in December, 1665. 
The report answered the inquiries the King had instructed them to 
make and gave much other information at length. It stated that " the 
Narragansett Sachems did in the year 1644, by writing, surrender 
themselves, their people and country into the late King's protection; 
two of which Sachems now living did actually in their own persons 
surrender themselves, people and country into his royal Majesty's 
protection before his Commissioners, and deliver to them that very 
deed made in 1644, which has been carefully kept by Mr. Gorton. This 
Narragansett country is almost all the land belonging to this colony, 
which cannot subsist without it. This colony, which now admits all 
religions, even Quakers and Generalists, was begun by such as Massa- 
chusetts would not suffer to live among them, and is generally hated by 
the other colonies, who endeavored several ways to suppress them. 
They (the other colonies) maintained other Indians against the Narra- 
gansett Indians. The Commissioners of the United Colonies disposed 
of a great part of his country, pretending they had conquered it from 
the Pequot Indians; but evidence being made that the Narragansetts 
had conquered it before the English began their war, and that the 
right was in him v/ho sold it to the Rhode Islanders; and his Majesty's 
Commissioners, not thinking it justifiable for any colony to dispose of 
land without their own limits, determined it for the Rhode Islanders."* 

The King, upon receiving the report from his Commissioners, ordered 
their return.* He at the same time addressed a letter to Massachusetts, 
stating that as he had received full information from his Commissioners 
of their treatment in the several colonies, in all of which they had 
received great satisfaction but only in that of Massachusetts, and not- 
withstanding many expressions of loyalty from those who govern that 
colony, so believe that his Majesty hath no jurisdiction over them, but 
that all persons must acquiesce in their judgments, however unjust, his 
Majesty thought fit to recall his Commissioners, which he hath at the 
present done, that he might receive a more particular account from 
them; and his Majesty expressly commanded the Governor and Council 
of Massachusetts to forthwith send representatives to England to 
answer before him the coinplaints prepared against them, and for their 
conduct to the Commissioners; and he further expressly charged that 
the Governor and Council of Massachusetts immediately set all persons 
at liberty who had been imprisoned for petitioning or appealing to his 
Commissioners ; and for the better prevention of all differences ordered 
that the bounds and limits of the several colonies made by his Majesty's 
Commissioners continue to be observed until his Majesty should find 
cause to alter them. That full obedience be given to his signification 
of his pleasure in all particulars." 

582; iii, 40, 61 ; iv. 373. *King's letter to his Corns., dated Apr. 6, 1666. 

'King's letter to Mass., dated Apr. — , 1666, probably in full in Ryerson's Loyal- 
ists of Amer., i, 169-171. King's letter dated Apr. 10, 1666, in Hutchinson's Hist. 
Mass., i, 547, 548. The copy of his Majesty's Signification to the Mass. Colony 
was surreptitiously conveyed over to them by some unknown hand before the 
original came to Boston ; and formerly the very original of Mr. Meverick's 
petition to the King and Council, concernini? the Mass. Colony, was stolen out 
of the Lord Arlington's office in Whitehall by one Capt. Scott and delivered to 
the Governor and Council at Boston. This I affirm positively to be true, though 
when I questioned Scott upon the matter he said a clerk gave it to him. 
[Letter of Nichols to Morrice, in O'Calligan's Documents, etc., iii, 136.] This 
Scott, one of the most active in the pretended Narragansett purchases, and who 
obtained the reputed accord to his right therein from the King [see ante p. 122], 
was finally brought to trial in Connecticut and convicted under ten charges, one 



The King's coir.pliments in a letter to the government of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations — The Massachusetts court send ship-masts to the King 
in lieu of agents to answer before him — The Massachusetts people protest 
against the course of their magistrates — Pawtuxet claimants capture the Court 
of Trials — They protest against Williams and his opposition to them — Morton's 
scandalous book — Gorton's letter to Morton — Williams' letter to the Plymouth 
court — Gorton's letter to Governor Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut. 

The following from the King was at the same time communicated to 
the governmenl: of the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations: 
" Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well ; having received so full 
and satisfactory account from our Commissioners, both of the good 
reception you have given them and also of your dutifulness and obedi- 
ence to us, we cannot but let you know how much we are pleased 
therewith, judging that respect of yours toward our officers to be the 
true and natural fruit which demonstrates what fidelity and affection 
toward us is rooted in your hearts. And although your carriage doth 
of itself most justly deserve our praise and approbation, yet it seems 
to be set off with more lustre by the contrary deportment of the colony 
of Massachusetts; as if by their refractoriness they had designed to 
recommend and heighten the merit of your compliance with our direc- 
tions for the peaceable and good government of our good subjects in 
those parts. You may, therefore, assure yourselves that we shall never 
be unmindful of this your loyal and dutiful behavior, but shall upon 
all occasions take notice of it to your advantage, promising you our 
constant protection and royal favor in all things that may concern 
your safety, peace and welfare."" 

Colonel Cartwright was made the bearer of the sum of the Proceed- 
ings of the King's Commissioners and of other letters to his Majesty 
and the Lord Chancellor, and of other papers to England. In his 
passage the vessel was captured by the Dutch and his papers were taken 
and never recovered.' Copies were ordered by the Rhode Island 
Assembly to be sent to England by the first opportunity. 

With the closing of the work' of the King's Commissioners there 
dawned a new era of joy to Gorton and the other Providence and 
Warwick settlers. They secured, now for the first time, a measiire of 
what they so long ago hoped for under the first charter, " peace in the 
quiet enjoyment of their possessions." On account of the difficulties 
there had been but few accessions to the inhabitants of Warwick ; they 
were in all but a handful of impoverished adventurers ; but comparative 
peace for nine years followed the favorable decisions for them, when 
again their dwellings, with those of the Providence people's, were 
destroyed by the Indian wars. 

The King's last letter occasioned the calling of the Massachusetts 
Court in an extraordinary session*. It, however, refused to obey the 
King's order to again send representatives to vindicate their acts before 
him";" and in the' fall thev met again according to adjournment. To 
this court nearly two hundred of the principal inhabitants of Massachti- 
setts, "our fathers," the editor of the Danforth papers writes, "who 

of them bein? for forcerv, and sentenced to pay a fine of £200. to be imprisoned 
durinsj- the pleasure of the court, and to Rive bonds t othe amount of £500 tor 
future good behavior. [Conn. Reeds., ii, 16. comp. 430.], ^'"f j ■»,'"' 

R I Rec. ii, T49. 'Hutchinson's Hist. Mass., 1, 250. °?d Mass. 

Collec viii 98. 'sd Mass. Collec, viii, 108, 109. ^Ryersons 

Loyalists of Amer., i, t8i note. Sessions Oct., 1666. Petition in Hutchinson s 
Collec, S11-513, or ii, 248-215, and in 2d Mass. Collec, vm, 102-107. 


exhibited so much good sense and sound poHcy," protested against the 
course of the Magistrates, but they still refused to send representatives, 
and this time instead sent two large masts' thirty-four yards long and 
a shipload of timber, the freight thereon costing them sixteen hundred 
pounds^ sterling, as a present to the King, which he graciously accepted. 
And the fleet in the West Indies being in want of provisions, a subscrip- 
tion and contribution was recommended through the colony for bring- 
ing in provisions to be sent to the fleet for his Majesty's service.' Further 
action w'as suspended for a time, as Charles was absorbed by exciting 
questions at home, his war with Denmark and Holland and his intrigues 
with France. 

While the people of the Providence colonies had been engaged in 
arresting the invasions of their foreign foes, the Pawtuxet party, their 
internal foes, had been politically undermining them, having now nearly 
secured the control of the government. William Harris, his brother 
Thomas Harris and William Carpenter, all three of them Pawtuxet 
partners, obtained the places of Assistants, and four Assistants with 
the Governor or Deputy Governor, formed the high Court of Trials. 
Thus setting as judges in this court, which was likely to have before 
it their causes, they might have considered the object of their 
scheme to acquire the lands of nearly the whole colony well nigh 
accomplished. Many struggles with them and the towns of Providence 
and Warwick before the local courts followed. Not succeeding in 
these, they continued the strife to strengthen themselves greater polit- 
ically by electing controlling majorities in the town councils and in the 
General Assembly. The papers upon the subject, which were sent from 
Warwick to Clark for his use before the King and Council against 
them, were by spy or traitor obtained by them and held at Newport 
ior their service." Litigation and costly trials were kept up by them 
against the colony and against the towns of Providence and Warwick 
to secure an acknowledgment of their claims and place them in posses- 
sion of the land. 

On November 19th, 1667, a protest similar to the nearly thirty years old 
one by the same party, Arnold and his eleven others against Gorton 
and others of Providence, was issued now against Williams for " keep- 
ing up a difference with Pawtuxet men," signed by " Sixteen Proprietors 
of the town." These proprietors were the barest minority of the people 
of the town, and ten of them were either Harris partners or closely 
allied blood relatives of these partners." Harris, arraigned at court 
for calling an Assembly without warrant and for making another rout 
of settlers from the lands at Providence, admitted his guilt and plead 
the justification of his acts.' And the violent and threatening acts 
of the Massachusetts government were such that the Rhode Island and 
Providence Assembly passed an act of war of defense against them.' 

In 1669, while Gorton in advanced years had retired from official 
cares, Nathaniel Morton published a libellous and most scandalous book. 

'2d Mass. Collec, viii. no. 'The freight £1600 the Mass. Magistrates 

paid on these presents amounted to within £400 of all the Warwick people asked 
for twenty-two years' spoliations and damages. "Hutchinson's Hist. 

Mass., i, 257. Ryerson's Loyalists of Amer., i, 180-182. Col. Nichols' letter to 
Mass. May 19, 1667, enclosing a letter from the King, in Hutchinson's Papers, 
ii. 139- Col. Nichols' letter to Mass., June 12, 1668, regarding the King's letter 
of Apr. 10, 1666, in Hutchinson's Papers., 427, or ii, 156. *R. I. Rec, ii. 

78. ''Book Notes, Vol. i.^, No. 23. Harris. Arnold and Carpenter had 

bought of the other original claimants and now claimed three-fourths of all 
the lands deeded to Williams, and all lands west, north and south as far as the 
Pawtuxet river and its branches extended under the forgery. Lands of R. 
Island, 101, 106. 'R. I. Rec, ii. 208. 'R. L Rec, ii, 206. 


Morton professed to have derived the greater part of his information 
from Bradford's history, but an examination of this discloses that there 
is nothing set down in that history relating to Gorton. Morton also 
had been for years the keeper of the Plymouth records, so would have 
known that what he .wrote of Gorton was wrong had he not avoided 
consulting them. Gorton wrote to him the following indignant letter of 
denial : 

" I understand that you have lately put forth a book of records ; 
whether of Church or State I know not, but this I know, that I am 
unjustly enrolled in it. You peremptorily judge of one you know not, 
for I am a stranger to you; besides that, your understanding reacheth 
not the things whence God exerciseth his people (I Cor. ii, 14) with 
wishes of better things in you and all men. I must give you a true 
description of our understanding from the Apostle Jude, verse ten: 
therefore I have no railing speech to return, or judgment of blasphemy 
(as the words are), either to seek any revenge of myself or to comply 
with any such spirit I dare not; but I dare not but comply with the 
spirit of the Apostle in this his saying: The Lord rebuke thee (Jude 9). 
My second word concerns your assuming authority to canonize and 
put into the rank and number of Saints such men when they are dead 
v/hich in their lifetime were persecutors, especially you having acknowl- 
edged them to be such yourself; as also to throw down under your 
feet and make as brute beasts having only hope in this present life 
such as are known to be fearers of God, worshipping him instantly day 
and night, though they be not acknowledged to be such by some par- 
ticular Sectaries as yourself, for you are no orthodox Christian because 
you deny the whole and complete word of God to be concerned in the 
present state of the chuch of Christ, and. have chosen a part of it only 
to concern your present profession ; therefore a Sectarie and no Catholic 
Christian. But for these things you seek to besmear me with, which 
return justly upon yourself, mine adversaries shall be my judges where 
any spark of humanity remains. I have often wondered in my younger 
days how the Pope came to such a height of arrogance, but since I 
cam.e to New England I have perceived the height of that triple crown 
and the depth of that sea whence such things arise, and not from the 
presence of Peter, but from the corrupting of the Apostles' doctrine, 
bending and bowing it to comply with corrupt avarice, pride and super- 
stition and vain imaginations of the minds of men setting up their gods 
at Dan and Beersheba (if you understand the etymology of the words). 
And the glory there is no other but that the Levitical Priests carved 
below the mount of God, forming it of the ear and heart jewels of 
the Egyptians, adorning carnal Israel who turn back in their hearts 
into the house of bondage whence they were delivered. 

"A third word I have to say concerns your office of record; mistake 
me not, I meddle not with your record further than they concern myself. 
Do not vest my words, as once they were in a letter taken in pieces, and 
what was plainly expressed to be spoken of the clergy was applied to 
the Magistrates, to make me obnoxious among men; and when the 
truth appeared it was professed that it was done by a reverend Divine 
before the State of England, who got no honor there by that, whoever 
he was. Deal fairly with me, as I shall do with you and all men. I 
then affirm that your record is fetched further than Cape Cod, namely, 
from him who was from the beginning a murderer also; and truth he 
abode not in, nor can he abide it. And I take it to be the highest 
point of murder to strike at the life of the soul, which life is the spirit 
of Christ, which I profess to live by and account all other life not 
worthy the name of life with respect unto that (Gal. ii, 20). Your 


record, therefore, comes from afar. It ariseth out of the bottomless 
pit, the smoke whereof is as a stifling fog of darkness in your book. 

" It is untruly recorded concerning Plymouth's dealings with me ; 
conceals many passages that were enacted and falsifies things expressed. 
A difference between Mr. Ralph Smith and myself was not the occasion 
of Plymouth's dealings with me. If you had recorded truly you would 
made report that Plymouth's dealings with me had been their threat- 
ening of a widow, one Ellen Aldridge, who they said they would send 
out of the colony as a vagabond ; whereas nothing was laid to her 
charge, only it was whispered that she had smiled in your congrega- 
tion ; and she having been a woman of good report in England, and 
newly come over; being careful of her credit, she fled into the woods 
to escape the shame which was threatened to be put upon her, there 
remaining several days and nights, at the least part of the nights, and 
absented herself again before people stirred in the morning. My speak- 
ing on her behalf (she being then my wife's servant) was the occasion 
that Plymouth government took to deal with me. Whereupon they 
called me to a court more privately held to examine me, and one of 
them indulging upon a point aggravating the matter more than it 
deserved, I said he spoke hyperbolically ; whereupon they asked your 
Elder then present what was the meaning of that word, and he was 
pleased to expound it that I told the Magistrate that he lied. And this 
was their dealing with me; and accordingly they gave their own con- 
struction of what I spoke afterwards. Only in your court more pub- 
licly, the foreman of the jury (your Elder's son, Jonathan Brewer) 
befriended me so much as to move the court that I should not speak 
on my own behalf at all, and there jA^as no Attorney to be had in those 
days that I knew of. 

" In the time of these agitations Mr. Smith took offense at me. 
Whether of himself or instigated I know not. neither know I any occa- 
sion I gave him, unless it was because his wife and others of his family 
frequented very usually morning and evening family service, and so 
did a religious maid living then with your teacher, Mr. Reyner. Mis- 
tress Smith after expressing herself how glad she was that she could 
come into a family where her spirit was refreshed in the ordinances of 
God as in former days. In this offense taken by Mr. Smith he applied 
himself to the Governor of Plymouth for help to break his covenant 
made with me, I having hired one part of his house for the term of 
four whole years. Whereupon I was persuaded to put the matter to 
arbitrament. The men were appointed, my writings delivered as I 
remember. John Cooke was one, an eminent member of your church, 
who shortly after said the writings were commanded out of their hands 
by the Governor' (Prence), insomuch that they could do nothing to 
issue the matter, neither could I procure my writings again unto this 
day, lest the justice of my cause should appear to any. But the court 
proceeded to fine and banish, together with sentence given that my 
family should depart out of my own hired house (Acts xxviii, 30) 
within the space of fourteen days upon the penalty of another great 
sum of money besides my fine paid, and their further wrath and dis- 
pleasure. Which time to depart fell to be in as mighty a storm of 
snow as I have seen in the country; my wife being turned out of doors 
in the said storm with a young chjld at her breast (the infant having 
at that very time the measles breaking out upon it, which the cold 
forced in again, causing sickness nigh unto death), who had been as 

■The Gov. uniformly wrote his name Prence, though Morton and others wrote 
It Prince. Bradford's Hist. Plymouth, 362. "Plymouth Reeds., i, 100, 


tenderly brought up as any man's wife then in that town; and I myself 
to travel in the wilderness I knew not whither; the people comforting 
my wife and children when I was gone with this, that it was impossible 
for me to come alive to any plantation. I say no more of this now, 
though I can say much more, with the testimony of men's consciences ; 
but I have been silent to cover other men's shame and not my own, for 
I could v/ish to be a bondsman, so long as I have to live upon the face 
of the earth, in human respects, that all the agitations and transactions 
that have passed between the men of New England and myself were 
in print without diminution or extenuation, without covert false deal- 
ing or painted hypocrisy. It should be a crown, aye a diadem upon 
my grave, if the truth in more public or more private agitations were 
but in prose though not in poetry, as it was acted in all the places 
wherein you seek to blemish me" (Job xix, 23, 24; xxxi, 35, 36). 

" I perceive what manner of honor you put upon me in Rhode Island, 
which the actors may be ashamed of and you to be their herald. I 
have been silent of things done at Plymouth, Rhode Island and else- 
where, and am still in many respects, but have not forgotten them. I 
have heard that some of Plymouth then in place were instigators of 
the island. I could name the parties of both places, being met together 
at Cohannet (Taunton). I carried myself obedient to the government 
of Plymouth so far as became me, at the least to the great wrong of 
my family more than in above said, as can be made to appear if 
required; for I understood they had commission wherein authority was 
derived, which authority I reverenced ; but the island at that time had 
none, therefore, no authority legally derived to deal with me; neither 
had they (Coddington's court) the choice of the people, but set up 
themselves. But such fellows as you can bring men to the whipping 
post at their pleasure either in person or name without fault committed, 
or they invested with any authority. 

"Again I affirm you to be a deceitful recorder, in that you declare 
that I have spoken words (or to that effect) that there is no state nor 
condition of mankind after this present life. I do verily believe that 
there is not a man, woman or child upon the face of the earth that 
will come forth and say that ever they heard any such words come out 
of my mouth. And I appeal unto God, the judge of all secrets, that 
there was never such a thought entertained in my heart. Therefore, 
I do verily believe it was hatched in the bosom of the proper author of 
your scroll. I am far from the opinion you slander me with, for I 
hold and shall through God maintain that he who takes upon him to 
be an interpreter of God's word and brings not eternity into the things 
or matters whereof he speaks, that man is a false prophet or interpreter 
of the word of God. You could not have clothed me witli any piece 
of Saul's armor that would have fitted me worse than this scandal, 
and I know you have many pieces thereof among you. 

" Whereas you charge me with passion, I know not your meaning in 
that word. It is an ambiguous phrase, but through God's goodness I 
know the passion of Christ. And the Apostles' saying, that he fulfils 
the rest of his passion in the flesh (Col. i, 24), and he being in a mul- 
titude of passions (2 Cor. i, 12, 23). And I know that Elijah was a 
man of passions, yet he was strong in prayer. And here you extort 
a word from me which I thought would have gone in secret to the grave 
with me, for I never uttered it with my lips to any, though my heart 
hath resented it many a time. The thirty-three years is upon expiration 
since I arrived first in New England, in which tract of time I have 

105. Judge Brayton, R, I. H. Tr., No. 17. "Force's Tract, Vol. iv. 


washed my face with tears day and night in the ordinances of Jesus 
Christ, under the scandals, reproaches, calumniations and wrorigs put 
upon me, for no other reason (though covered with other wizards) 
but for the profession of Jesus Christ. Yet have not these passions 
been in any imbittered sourness of spirit, but from enlarged desires, 
when the thing desired hath been presented as in Joseph when he saw his 
brethren, and in Jacob when Rachel appeared unto him. And I know 
they are reserved in a bottle of transparent glasses and written 
not on the black lines of the oldness of the letter, but in the lines of the 
light of life, or newness of the spirit. And I well know that God 
hath turned men's dealings with me into schools of learning (over- 
shooting them in their own bow), as God did in that carnal and cruel 
act of Joseph's brethren, that the glory might be in themselves and not 
in him" (Gen. xlv, 4, 5). I have told you in this a small portion of my 
passion, yet more than was my purpose to have done. Scandalize me 
for it, and tell the wrold of it again and also of what I have lost by 
it; and whilst you are calculating and summing up the number of days 
contained in so many years I will appeal to God, the searcher of hearts, 
as a witness of the truth which I now write. Let me tell you this much, 
that I write now in passion, for it draws tears from mine eyes to see 
the nature of man (which I myself by nature am) so evidently and 
perspicuously appear in you; for he that writes or speaks of the word 
of God and cannot apply unto himself (in a true sense) whatsoever 
is contained therein, he is no true minister of salvation, but of con- 
demnation (2 Cor. iii, 9; xi, 26, 27). But let this stand as a parable 
to you and your teachers, whilst you in the meantime vent your corrupt- 
ing and contagious poison. 

"And whereas you say in your records that I am a sordid man in 
my life. I tell you what I say of that, and do you hide it from none: 
That I dare be so bold as to lay my conversation among men to the 
rule of humanity with any minister among you. In all the passages of 
my life which God hath brought me through from my youth unto this 
day, that it hath been as comely and innocent as his, according to present 
occasions, so that nothing shall be covered or painted over with 
hypocrisy. Whose ox or whose ass have I taken, or when or where 
have I lived upon other men's labors and not wrought with my own 
hands for things honest in the sight of men, to eat my own bread? But 
these things are beneath my spirit, either to speak or write ; but you 
force to apologize; for would any man think that the spirit of one 
man should be so audaciously impudent as to bring forth such falsities? 

" I would say something of the foundation of your church at Plymouth 
if I thought it were not a matter too low to talk of, for when suit was 
made to the church in Holland, out of which your church came, to 
procure a dismission of a sister there to the church of Plymouth, though 
the gentlewoman upon occasion had been in New England divers years, 
yet a dismission would not be granted. Their preaching member then 
with them I knew to be a godly man and was fam.iliarly acquainted with 
him now about half a hundred years ago in Gorton, where I was born 
and bred and the fathers of mv body for manv g-enerations. The Elders 
gave the ground and reason that they could not dismiss their sister to 
the church at Plymouth in New England because it consisted of an 
apostacised people fallen from the faith of the Gospel, and when through 
such importunities a writing was procured, properly of advice to their 
sister how to carry herself, her husband the solicitor, whom you know, 
I need not to name, and I think you know after what manner the writing 
was read in your church by your ancient Elder: part conceded and 
part expounded to the best. If you know not I do, for I was present, 


Now to have this testimony of aspersion concerning the foundation 
of your church by the mother out of which you came may be consid- 
ered, I think you can say, little more orders of the church of Rome. 

"A fourth word I have to say concerning the stuff, as you contempt- 
uously call it. What stuff you ignorantly make of the word of God. 
For the rest of your expressions, which you charge upon us, you falsely 
apply them. We never called sermons of salvation, tales ; nor any 
ordinances of the Lord an abomination or vanity; nor holy ministers, 
necromancers. We honor, reverence and practice these things; there- 
fore through guilt you falsify our intent. And, however, you terra 
me a belcher out of error, I would have you to know that I hold my 
call to preach the Gospel of Christ not inferior to the call of any 
minister in the country, though I was not bred up in the schools of 
human learning; and I bless God that I never was, lest I had been 
drowned in pride through Aristotle's principals and other human 
philosophy. Yet this I doubt not of, but that there hath been as much 
true use made of the languages within this twenty years past for the 
opening of the Scripture in the place where I lived as hath been in 
any church in New England. When I was last in England through 
importunities I was persuaded to speak the word of God publicly in 
divers and eminent places as any were then in London; and also about 
London and places more remote; many times the ministers of the place 
being hearers, and sometimes many together at appointed lectures in 
the country. I have spoken in the audience of all sorts of people and 
personages under the title of a Bishop or a King; and was invited to 
speak in the presence of such as had the title of Excellency; and I was 
lovingly embraced wherever I came, in the word uttered, with the 
most eminent Christians in the place. And for leave-taking at our 
departure, not unlike the ancient custom of the Saints upon record in 
the Holy Scriptures, and I daresay as evident testimony of God's 
power going forth with his word spoken, manifested as ever any in 
New England had, publicly and immediately after the words delivered; 
the people giving thanks to God that ever such came to be uttered 
among them; with entreatly to stay, and further manifestations, in as 
eminent places as are in England; whence myself did know the Doctors 
of note had formerly preached and at that time such as had more honors 
than ordinary preachers have; who gave me the call thither in way of 
loving Christian fellowship, the like abounding in the hearer. There- 
fore, I know not with what New England is leavened or spirited. 
Indeed, once in London three or four malignant persons caused me to 
be summoned before a committee of Parliament because I was not 
a university man. I appeared and my accusers also, one of them a 
schoolmaster in Christ's Hospital, another or two Elders of independent 
or separated churches, who were questioned what they had against me. 
They said I had preached. Divers of the committee answered and said 
that was true, they had heard me. The chairman asked my accusers 
what I had said. They said I had spoken of cherubims, but they could 
not repeat anything; but they said they were sure I had made the 
people of God sad. But the sum of all their accusations was brought 
out in a book which they said contained divers blasphemies. The 
book was only that which was printed concerning the proceedings of 
the Massachusetts against myself and others. The honorable committee 
took the book and looked over it and found no such thing there as 
they ignorantly suggested. Then my accusers desired Mr. Winslow 
might be called forth, whom they had procured to appear there, whom 
they thought would oppose me strongly with respect to the book. He 
spoke judiciously and manlike, desiring to be excused, for he had noth- 


ing to say concerning me in that place ; his business with me lay before 
another committee of ParHament ; which gave the Table good satis- 
faction. My answers and arguments were honorably taken by the 
chairman and the rest of the committee, and myself dismissed as a 
preacher of the Gospel. 

" Some of you have upbraided us as not having the word of God with 
us because of our paucity. I think those called Quakers are as many 
as you; but I think them never the better for this multitude, nor the 
Papists who cover that part of the earth called Christendom. It hath 
ever been the way of the world to make itself great by multitude (Gen. 
X, 8, 9, 10; Hosea i, 7, 11) ; but Christ stilleth his flock to be little and 
his disciples few (I Cor. xvi, 19). 

"A fifth word I have to say is, in that you send the reader to a book 
printed by Edw. Winslow for a more full and perfect intelligence. 
Mr. Winslow and myself had humanlike correspondence in England, 
and before the honorable committee which he referred himself unto; 
and not to wrong the dead, I saw nothing to the contrary but that I 
had as good acceptation in the eyes of that Committee as himself had, 
though he had a greater charter and a larger commission than myself 
had. I do not know or remember any particulars in that book, for since 
the publishing thereof I have always had my thoughts exercised about 
things of better and greater concernment. I saw it in London, but read 
but little of it ; and when I came over to these parts my ancient friend, 
Mr. John Brown, discoursing v«/ith me about those affairs in England, 
told me he had read such a book printed or put forth by Mr. Winslow. 
I told him I had seen it, but read very little of it. Mr. Brown, you 
know, was a man approved among you and elsewhere (for aught I 
know or ever heard) wherever he came; an Assistant in your govern- 
ment, a Commissioner for the United Colonies, etc., who thus spoke 
to me in our discourse. I will not pervert nor alter a word of the will 
or words of the dead. I say he affirmed this unto me, that he would 
m„aintain that there were forty lies printed in that book ; and I doubt 
not but Mr. Brown's word and judgment in his time would have been 
a'^ceptable and taken by any of you as authority regarding the book. 
Therefore add thy writing unto it if any spark of humanity be left, 
to inform your readers of the truth of things ; or else take it to your- 
self that you are he who goes about to seduce and corrupt the minds of 
men with falsities. Warwick, June 30th, 1669. Samuel Gorton.'"'" 

It is not known that Morton was wanting in the humanity to add the 
writing in acknowledgment of his errors, for such a writing could not 
at the time been published in the colonies, the only press then in the 
colonies being that which was under the control of the Massachusetts 

There were many people in Massachusetts and in Rhode Island who 
felt the need of something to justify their history, and accordingly the 
truth as Gorton had made plain was suppressed, and the scandalous 
fiction of Morton was seized upon with avidity and copied and recopied 
in hundreds of thousands of books, and is to be found in all libraries 
having new England histories ; while the truth, the letter of Gorton's 
here given, the writer could find but in one of the public libraries in 
the second largest of our cities. The circulation of Morton's fable 
was so profuse that it became the generally accepted correct life sketch 
of Samuel Gorton. 

The following from Roger Williams was sent to Major Mason and the 
Court of Plymouth: "When the next year after my banishment 

Tr. 7. The first printing press in R. I. 1745, Holmes' Annals. ^R. I. 


(1636-1637) the Lord drew the bow of the Pequot war against the 
country in which Sir the Lord made yourself with others a blessed 
instrument of peace to all New England, I had my share of service to 
the whole land in that Pequot business inferior to very few that acted, 
for I upon letters received from the Governor and council at Boston, 
requesting me to use my utmost and speediest endeavors to break and 
hinder the league labored for by the Pequots against the Mohegans and 
Pequots against the English, the Lord helped me immediately to put 
my life into my hand. Three days and nights my business forced me 
to lodge and mix with the bloody Pequot ambassadors, whose hands 
and arms, we thought, wreaked with the blood of my countrymen, 
when God wondrously preserved me and helped me to break to pieces 
the Pequot negotiation. Considering (upon frequent exceptions against 
Providence men) that we had no authority for civil government, I 
went purposely to England, and upon my report and petition the Parlia- 
ment granted us a charter of government for these parts, so judged 
vacant on all hands. When at Portsmouth on Rhode Island some of 
ours, in a General Assembly (November, 1644) motioned their planting 
on this side Pawcatuck river, I, hearing that some of the Massachusetts 
reckoned this land theirs by conquest (from the Pequots), dissuaded 
from the motion until the matter should be amicably debated and corn- 
posed ; for though I questioned not our right, etc., yet I feared it would 
be inexpedient and offensive and procreative of these heats and fires, 
to the dishonoring of the King's Majesty. Some time after the Pequot 
war was closed in 1639, and our charter from the Parliament (March 
14, 1643-4) the government of Massachusetts wrote (August 2.y, 1645) 
to myself, then Chief-officer in this colony, of their receiving of a 
patent from the Parliament for the then vacant lands, as an addition to 
the Massachusetts, etc., and thereupon requesting me to exercise no 
more authority, etc., for they wrote their charter was granted some few 
weeks before ours (Ante, p. — ). I returned what I believed righteous 
and v^eighty to the hands of my true friend, Mr. Winthrop, the first 
mover of my coming into these parts, and to that answer of mine I 
never received the least reply; only it is certain that at Mr. Gorton's 
complaint (May, 1646) against the Massachusetts the Lord High 
Admiral, President, said openly in a full meeting of the Commissioners 
that he knew no other charter for these parts than what Mr. Williams 
had obtained, and he was sure that that charter which the Massachusetts 
Englishmen pretended had never passed the table. Upon our humble 
address by our agent, Mr. Clark, to his Majesty (1661), and his gracious 
promise to renew our former charter, Mr. Winthrop by some mistake 
had extended upon our line, and not only so, but, as it is said, upon the 
lines of other charters also. But the King's Majesty sending his 
Commissioners (1664) to reconcile the differences of and to settle the 
bounds between the colonies, yourselves know how the King himself, 
therefore, hath given a decision to this controversy. Our grant is 
crowned with the King's extraordinary favor to this colony, as being a 
banished one, in which his Majestv declared himself that he M'ould 
experiment, whether civil government could consist with such liberty 
of conscience. This his Majesty's grant was startled at by his Majesty's 
high officers of State, who were to view it in course before sealing, 
but fearing the lion's roaring they couched, against their wills, in 
obedience to his Majesty's pleasure. Some of yours, as I heard lately 
told tales to the Archbishop of Canterbury, viz. : That we are a profane 
people and do not keep the Sabbath, but some do plough, etc. But, 


first, you told him not how we suffer freely all other persuasions, yea, 
the common prayer, which yourselves will not suffer.'" 

In 1675 Gorton received information that the Connecticut Indians 
intended to invade the Narragansett country. He had early, by his 
influence with the Narragansetts, prevailed upon them to observe peace, 
to abide the tribunal of the English government and refrain from 
avenging the death of their Chief; and he sent a request to Governor 
Winthrop of Connecticut that he would have the now intended invasion 
forbidden. Continuing upon the subject, Gorton writes: "My thoughts 
are in exercise concerning the policy of the English in these parts. 
People are apt in these days to give credit to every flying and false 
report, and not only so, but they will report it again, and by that means 
they become deceivers and tormentors of one another by speech and 
jealousies. There is a rumor that the Indians are in combination to 
root out the English, which many fear (for my own part, I fear no such 
thing) as though God brought his people hither to destroy them. I 
rather fear our vain hopes groundless expectations, that they will 
become Christians, when they are invested with naught else but litteral 
principles and grounds of hypocrisy. The Gospel is of a purer nature 
than to consist in ornaments and telling of history without revealing 
the mystery thereof, which is Christ in his saints the hope of glory. 
I remember the time of the wars in Ireland (when I was young, in 
Queen Elizabeth's days of famous memory), when much English blood 
was spilt by a people like imto these, the Earl of Terrone being their 
leader, where many valiant soldiers lost their lives, divers noble men 
earnest for religion, whose names are upon my heart still ; and in my 
latter days I have been in company with ancient preachers of God's 
word, men of God, now fallen asleep, v/ho have lamented the loss of 
some of those noble m.en (naming them) with weeping tears, having 
in their lifetime been intimate with them in religious and godlike con- 
cernments. I think we have no cause to suspect God's hand toward us 
in these parts, which hath removed us into a place more suitable for 
us, wherein the people are multiplied beyond thoughts of heart ; and 
with all the natives decreasing by war among themselves and by dis- 
ease. If God make room by such means for the spreading of the 
English, it seems more suitable than the sword unto that royal leave 
which was granted to his subjects to plant themselves in these parts; 
and also to the charge given together with it, namely, that none of the 
English should take any lands from the natives without giving them 
satisfaction for it. And is it to be doubted that the not observing this 
charge is a great and universal grudge among the Indians at this day; 
while men take up lands and plant upon them as their own, without 
any retribution ; at the least not to the Chief Sachems, if any small 
thing at all, to some base, inferior fellow, which makes the Sachems 
afraid lest by this means in short time they shall be spued out of the 
country for want of land to reside upon. And for aught that I have 
learned, this was the cause of that barbarous slaugther made of our 
friends at the Dutch plantations. Sir, my humble submission consists 
in my prayers to God for you and yours."^ 

Rec, i, 437-460. Nar. Club Papers. "Rhode Island's Gift to the Nation," by 
Sidney S. Rider. ^4th Mass. Collec, vii, 627. ^Arnold's Hist. 



The King Philip's War — The swamp battle — Capture of Philip's wife and son — 
The Narragansetts' extinction — Warwick destroyed — Providence and Paw- 
tuxet burned, and two of the family of Massachusetts ex-subject and Pawtuxet 
claimant slain. 

In 1675 began what is known as the PhiHp's war, the final conflict 
between the colonies and the Indians, which resuhed in the latter's 
extermination. Though the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations 
hardly took an active part in it, her geographical position caused her 
to suffer more than the other colonies. Warwick being more exposed, 
was one of the chief sufferers. The storm had been gathering ever 
since the tragic death of Miantinomi. Although neither England nor 
Rhode Island could give the Narragansetts the expected redress, they, 
through the advice chiefly of Gorton and Williams and the friendship 
existing between them and the people of Providence, allowed the death 
of their Chief, Miantinomi, to pass unavenged.. But they were eventu- 
ally, and from circumstances that left them no honorable choice, forced 
into the conflict. Philip, the second son of Massasoit, was the Chief of 
the Wampanoags. His elder brother Wamsutta, who had succeeded 
his father as Sachem, had fallen under suspicion of the settlers, been 
seized and confined, from the effects of which, it was believed, he fell 
into a fever and died. Philip succeeded his brother as Sachem, and 
the English, suspecting him of plotting against them, charged him and 
with such proofs that he made a confession, and submitted to the dis- 
arming of all his people. Subsequently, a new exaction was made, 
requiring him to pay a £200 penalty, and not to sell land or make 
war without the consent of Plymouth. Philip, in a reply to a friend 
who tried to persuade him from the contemplated war, complained: 
" They tried my people by their own laws and assessed damages which 
they could not pay. Their land was taken. At length a line o^ division 
was agreed upon between the English and my people, and I myself 
was to be responsible. Sometimes the cattle of the English would 
come into the cornfields of my people, for they did not make fences 
like the English. I must then be seized and confined till I sold another 
tract of my country for satisfaction of all damages and costs. Thus 
tract after tract is gone; but a small part of the dominion of my ances- 
tors remains. I am determined not to live till I have no country." 

Acting upon this, he appealed to the sympathies and the recollections 
of wrong to the different tribes, and urged them to forget their ancient 
animosities and combine for restoring them to their liberties and their 
domain. He gathered around him a great body of warriors, joined 
with him most of the other tribes, and the general war was commenced. 
The Narragansetts remained neutral. They received with kindness, 
fed, clothed and nursed the old men, women, children and disabled 
warriors that took refuge with them. These acts drew down upon them 
the more the hostility of the English " and opened for them the gulf 
for their destruction." The Narragansetts v/ere ordered to give them 
up; Canonchet, the son and successor of Miantinomi, refused, and a 
force of eleven hundred and thrity-five men, besides volunteers that 
joined it, marched through the towns of Providence and Warwick 
against them. On the next day, December nth, the armv was on the 
inarch to the place where the Indians had taken refuge. Here occurred 
the celebrated " Swamp " battle. Upwards of two hundred of the 
English were killed and wounded. Within the enclosure or fort five 
hundred Indian wigwams were set on fire, in the flames of which 


perished not less than three hundred of the sick and wounded, the 
infants and aged. The entire loss of the Indians in killed, wounded 
and prisoners was not less than one thousand, including those who 
perished in the burning wigwams. This was the principal and decisive 
battle, though afterwards there were several skirmishes and many 
towns were burned. 

About the middle of January one of the elder Sachems of the Narra- 
gansetts sent a message to General Winslow, requesting a month's 
delay in order to adjust the terms of peace; but he regarded this as 
an artifice to gain time, and shortly after, on January 27th, 1676, 
marched to the swamp where they were posted. They, anticipating 
his approach, abandoned this country, pursued by the English forces, 
and seventy of their people were captured and killed. Ten times in 
the course of 1676 the English swept the devoted region and rooted 
out all that dared to remain; all were killed, captured, or dispersed, 
many perishing miserably by famine. From the 27th of January, 1676, 
the day of the departure of the main body, the Narragansetts ceased to 
exist as a distinct people. They blended with the followers of Philip 
and shared his fortunes. 

Canonchet, the son of Miantinomi, the last grand Sachem of the 
Narragansetts, was captured in the month of April. He was offered 
his life if he would procure the submission of his tribe. This he refused 
to do. When told he must die, he replied : " I like it well. I shall 
die before my heart is soft, or I have said anything unworthy of 
myself." To insure the fidelity of the friendly tribes by committing 
them to a deed that would forever deter the Narragansetts from seeking 
their alliance, it was arranged that each of them should take a part 
in the execution. Accordingly, the Pequots shot him, the Mohegans 
cut off his head and quartered him, and the Natics, who joined the 
English, burned his body and sent his head as " a token of love and 
loyalty to the Commissioners at Hartford."^ 

July 2d " the English army marched to the south and surprised them 
in a cedar swamp near Warwick. A great slaughter ensued. Mangus, 
the old queen of the Narragansetts, a sister of Ningret, was taken and 
with ninety other captives was put to the sword. One hundred and 
seventy-one Indians fell in this massacre, without the loss of a single 
man of the English. Thence they scoured the country between Provi- 
dence and Warwick, killing many more." 

" Captain Church was commissioned by Governor Winthrop to pro- 
ceed with a volunteer force of two hundred men, chiefly Indians, to 
attack Philip in his retreat near Mount Hope. For several days they 
pursued the Indians from place to place, killing many and taking a 
large number of prisoners, among whom were Philip's wife and only 
son." Philip was subsequently pursued into a swamp, where he was 
shot through the heart by Alderman, an Indian, whose brother Philip 
had indignantly slain because he had counselled him to sue for peace. 
Thus perished Philip, who declared he would not live until he had no 
country. His head was sent to Plymouth, where it remained set up 
on a pole for twenty years ; one hand was sent to Boston as a trophy, 
and the other was given to Alderman, who exhibited it for money. 
The body was quartered and hung upon four trees as a vivid illustra- 
tion of the barbarity of the age.* Philip's chief councillor, Anawon, 
escaped from the swamp with most of Philip's followers, but was a 
few days after captured by Capt. Church, who sent him alive to Ply- 

R. I., i, 411. Hubbard's Indian Wars, 157, 158, etc. *ist. Am. Ed. 

Magnalia, ii, 498, 499. Quartered with an axe. *Lands of R. Island, 


mouth, where he was shot. Most of the other captives who were con- 
spicuous for their bravery or position met a similar fate." Quinapin, 
a cousin of Canonchet, and next in command to him in the great swamp 
fight, with his brother, was tried at Newport by a council of war and 
\vas shot. The young Metacomet, son of Philip, with many other 
captives, was sent to Spain and the West Indies, where they were sold 
as slaves. Until after the invasion of the Narragansetts, the people 
of Rhode Island appear not to have participated in the war with their 
Indian neighbors, and regarded it as at least of doubtful justice; but 
when commenced, it left them no choice. They subsequently so far 
followed the example of other colonies as to execute one if not two 
of the Narragansett under-Sachems as adherents of Philip, and to sell 
some of the captives, not as slaves for life, but as servants for a ter:;i 
of years.* To this sale some men who had been leaders in the liberal 
party agreed, but Gorton v/as not one of them; we never find him 
violating the unwavering prmciples of his character by engaging in 
so inconsistent an act.^ 

The war was now at an end ; not a single free Narragansett remained 
in the country they had lately occupied. The Warwick settlers, from 
their exposed situation, had early^ removed their stock and goods to 
Portsmouth ;° but their dwellings, all with the exception of one of stone, 
had been burned, every field had been laid waste, and the bridges as well 
as every other improvement destroyed; the people for the second time 
found a home on the island. Tradition says that Gorton was rowed 
by friendly Indians across the bay to a place of safety. Providence 
was burned, destroyed, only five houses remaining, and Pawtuxet also 
was burned ; and William Carpenter, one of the Pawtuxet partners, 
ex-subject of Massachusetts, who lived on land of Warwick, was 
despoiled of 200 sheep and 50 cattle, and two of his household were 


The Massachusetts court unable to longer delay obedience to the King's com- 
mands — They send Stoughton and Buckley to England — Rhode Island Assembly 
choose Danford and Baily, of Newport, as agents to England — Their departure 
delayed pending the suits of the Pawtuxet claimants — Trial of the Pawtuxan 
claims and verdict in their favor — Warwick men appeal, and resolve to carry 
a petition to England — Gorton, Greene and Holden again chosen to lay a peti- 
tion before His Majesty — Gorton's death — Greene and Holden depart immedi- 
ately with the petition— They procure from the King in council a stay of pro- 
ceedings — A powerful petition — Its presentation by the Warwick men to the 
King — King orders the Massachusetts government to send other agents em- 
powered to negotiate a settlement and to repeal the obnoxious laws — They 
send Nowell and Richards — Quo-warranto issue summoning the corporation 
of Massachusetts to England — The Massachusetts charter pronounced void — 
King Charles the Second's death — King James' declaration under which the 
intolerant practices of the leagued colonies end. 

175, Baylie's Hist. Plymouth, Pt. 3, p. 136. Hubbard's Indian Wars. Disjointed 
fingers and toes of Narragansett prisoner. ^Judge Durfee's Works. 

R. I. Rec, ii, 549. 'Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 419- Mackey's Life of 

Gorton. Gammel's Life of Williams, 149- R- L Collec, v, 170. Most of the 
leaders of the liberal party opposed enslaving the captives ; we find Ralph Ead, 
a member of the 1639 Model Govt., actively opposing it. Portsmouth Rec, i, 
70. R. I. Collec, ii, 152 and note. Church's Indian Wars, Boston, 1845, p. 51. 
'Directly after the hanging of Poagonet, R. I. Rec, ii, 519- °R- I- Rec, 

ii, 533. '"Austin's Allied Families, 58. Foster Papers, R. I. Rec, n, 

556, etc. Hubbard's Ind. Wars, 214. Church's Philip's War. Lands of R. 


Charles the Second had now for some time, at least since the time 
of the closing in 1667 of the work of his Commissioners, been absorbed 
with exciting questions at home to the unavoidable neglect of the colonies, 
during which interval, although the signification of his will respecting 
the bounds set by his Commissioners had been in some parts regarded 
by the Massachusetts Magistrates, his other wishes were not obeyed; 
and the Narragansetts, for whom he had undertaken to provide protec- 
tion, had been destroyed. But the continued complaints and urgent 
appeals to him from the neighboring colonies against the proceedings 
of the Massachusetts Bay rulers now awakened his renewed attention.' 
The Massachusetts Court, unable to longer delay in violation of the 
King's repeated commands" to send representatives to appear before 
him, on October 30th, 1676, sent Stoughton and Buckley to England.' 

The Rhode Island Assembly in May, 1677, chose Sanford and Baily, 
of Newport, agents to the government in England;* but their departure 
was delayed pending the suits of the Pawtuxet claimants. 

Harris, having in the trials in behalf of the Pawtuxet claimants been 
unsuccessful, had in 1675 gone to England and laid a petition before 
the King. Harris petitioned for a commission of eight judges, two of 
whom should come from each of the four colonies of Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, assisted by a jury of 
twelve men, two of whom should come from Plymouth, four from 
Massachusetts, three from Connecticut and three from Rhode Island; 
and a royal order granting Harris' petition was issued. Plymouth, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut had been possessed of much more than 
one-half of the entire colony of Rhode Island and had claims enough 
set up to cover the whole, and Harris was at this time in league also 
with Connecticut, acting as her agent in England in urging her claims 
against the colony of Rhode Island. Plarris was at the same time in the 
pay of Connecticut for advancing her claims to Narragansett ; of 
Plymouth for advancing her claims to Providence and Pawtuxet; and 
of the Rhode Island government — the Newport Cabal — for advancing 
his own and his partners' claims to Providence and Warwick; the 
Pawtuxet partners being willing that any government should have juris- 
diction that vv^ould aid them in possessing the soil. A bill from Harris 
for his services was presented to the court at Newport on October 
27th, 1662, and another for his service against the town of Warwick was 
presented to the court at Newport on November 17th, 1677.'' Nine of 
the twelve jurymen came from Plymouth, Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut colonies. These colonies wanted jurisdiction over these lands. 
Rhode Island seemed doomed. This court prepared for business in 
Boston and then adjourned to meet November 17th, 1677, in Provi- 
dence. Four days later the jury rendered their verdict in favor of 
Harris, sustaining the claims of the Pawtuxet party to the whole 
northern and western portions of the colony west of the line of separa- 
tion from Providence, which was recorded by them in Boston, and 
placed the running of the line as requested by Harris upon the town of 
Providence. A delay was effected by Providence denying the line to 
be run. 

The Warwick people, alarmed both at the success of the Pawtuxans 
and the claims urged by Connecticut to the Narragansett dominion, on 
the 29th of November' resolved to, at their own expense (any of the 
other towns contributing to it thr.t chose to), send the former potent 

Island. 'Ryerson's Loyalists of Amer., i, 187. *Hutch5nson'9 

Papers, 210-510. 'Mass. Rec, v, 163. *R. I. Rec, ii, 580. 

•Preserved in the Mss. Arnold's Hist. R. I., i, 432-438. 'Arnold's Hist. 


agents of the colony' to lay a petition clearly reciting these causes to his 
Majesty for his determination. Gorton's death occurred on the loth 
of the next month, December, but Greene and Holden departed with 
the petition almost immediately thereafter. They were received by the 
King, as he had promised, with his most gracious favor, and forthwith 
procured from him in council a stay of the proceedings.' This order 
from the King, although not the final act, was nevertheless fatal to the 
claims of the Pawtuxans, for contemporary with this the political 
prestige of the party passed and Rhode Island was again saved from 
destruction. " Gorton and his companions triumphed at last. Rhode 
Island owes them a heavy debt.'" 

The many orders of Parliament and of his royal hand and the express 
provisions of his charter, that the inhabitants of the Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations should have perfect freedom to pass and repass 
without let or molestation into the other colonies, and to hold inter- 
course with such of their people as were willing, " any act, clause or 
sentence in any of the said colonies provided or that shall be provided to 
the contrary notwithstanding," and his letter with it expressly calling 
the Governor and council of Massachusetts to it and requiring their 
obedience, had been by the Massachusetts rulers to this day unheeded. 
In the hearing before the King and council the Warwick men at once 
fell upon Massachusetts and the Massachusetts agents " with great 
severity in a petition, relating the facts of the case, exposing the falla- 
cies of their opponents, repelling their attacks upon the loyalty of Rhode 
Island and adducing record proofs of the disloyalty of Massachu- 
setts," concluding with a series of requests; first, that a Supreme Court 
of jurisdiction over all the colonies might be erected in New England, 
whereby equal justice might be rendered, boundary disputes adjusted 
and civil war, which must otherwise result from " the oppression of 
an insulting and tyrannical government," might be averted; second, 
that the royal letter of 1666, confirming the acts of the Commissioners 
in behalf of Rhode Island, might be renewed; third, that Connecticut 
might be compelled to restore the town of Westerly taken from Rhode 
Island by force; and lastly, that the decisions of Massachusetts against 
Warwick men, especially the decree of banishment against them, now of 
thirty-five years' standing, might be annulled. The original of " this 
masterly State paper, as conclusive as it is severe,'"" is filed in the 
Bristish State Paper Office.^ It is not printed in the Rhode Island 
Historical Collection, although it should be, as it is the only one of 
Rhode Island's papers preserved that is a fitting reply to the apologetical 
reply of Massachusetts. Rhode Island does herself injustice by publish- 
ing in her collection, as she does, one without the other. 

The petition was accompanied by various documents corroborating 
the position advanced by its authors. These documents are not all 
filed with the petition, but are scattered among other papers in the 
same and other volumes in the British State Paper Office. Reference 
is made to a letter in answer to Gorton's addressed to the King which 
cannot be found, unless one of the letters, April 27th, 1678, December 
13th, 1678, July 4th, 1679, and a peremptory order requiring the Massa- 

R. I., i, 434, 463. ^Arnold's Hist., i, 434- "Rider's R. I. IT. 

Tract. 2d Ser., No. 4. 'Wm. D. Ely, John A. Rowland, R. I. Hist. 

Soc. Proceedings, 1887-88, 1890. Massachusetts owes him a heavy debt, for had 
the Providence Plantations been brought under their jurisdiction and the refu- 
gees surrendered to them, as they requested of Coddington, the early writers 
could not as they did justify all the disciplining acts, so great would have been 
their number. '"Arnold's Hist., i, 446. 'New Eng. Papers^ 

iii, 24-27. A portion of an address from Warwick men to King Charles the 


chusetts Magistrates to revoke the order of banishment is that to which 
reference is intended. 

On April 27th, 1678, the King addressed the Massachusetts Court 
a letter of rebuke and instructions ; among the latter that the oath of 
allegiance as established by law in England be administered to all of 
the proper age.' 

The Warwick men, who in point of talent had few or no superiors 
in the colony, showed themselves fully competent for the most difficult 
labors of defense or negotiation, and were fully employed in the defense 
of the rights of the colony. The Newport agents remained at home. 
An advertisement, dated July 30th, 1678, and signed by Simon Brad- 
street and others of Boston, styling themselves a company to dispose 
of the Narragansett lands, was posted in Newport and other towns; 
and Connecticut had petitioned to the King for a part of the Narragan- 
sett territory. The Warwick men were called upon to answer the 
averment of the petitioners. This they did with signal ability. The 
printed advertisement to dispose of the Narragansett land was presented 
by them to the Royal Council, and an order was at once issued for 
the Massachusetts agents to appear and show upon what title the lands 
were claimed. The Massachusetts Agents informed the Council that it 
was a private claim. This admission, together with the representation of 
Greene and Holden in answer to the Connecticut petition, was embraced 
in an order of council issued the same day requiring that notice should 
be sent to New England to leave King's Province in its present condi- 
tion, and that those who claimed ownership or jurisdiction there should 
forthwith send agents to prove their right before the King. The following 
week a peremptory order was issued a^nnulling the sentence of banish- 
ment that had been passed by the Massachusetts Court against the 
Warwick people thirty-five years before, and commanding the said 
court to repeal the same and to allow those persons, at all times, free 
access within their jurisdiction. The terms of the order were imusu- 
ally decided and indicate a strong feeling of condemnation in the 
Royal Council at the arbitrary conduct of Massachusetts toward the 
adherents of Gorton.^ 

This was a gratifying advance toward ending the occasion for the 
complaints of the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations against 
Massachusetts and other colonies. The Warwick men were longer 
detained upon incidental matters of the colony, after effectually dispos- 
ing of which they returned home. The agents for the other colonies, 
not offering anything to induce their lordship to differ in opinion 
from that expressed in his order of December 13th, a decree was later 
issued declaring void all other than the Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations claims.' 

The services of the Warwick men to the colony were rendered 
gratuitious; and they neither asked or received any payment for their 
passage to England nor maintenance while there. After their return, 
the government at Newport voted them £45, which they had paid on 
the colony's account in England, and £15, the amount of their passage 

Second in sth Mass. Collec, i, 505. Callender's Discourse, R. I. Collec, iv, 92, 
mentions the address of Gorton to King Charles the Second, presented in 1679. 
Chalmers' Annals, Book i, ch. viii, 197, 198; ix, 273. "Hutchinson's 

Papers, 515, 516, or ii, 253. Mass. Rec, v, 193. Reference thereto in R. I. 
Rec, iii, 62. "Arnold's Hist., i, 452, 493. R. I. Rec, iii, 18, 37, 41, 

58, 60, 67. Original Pet. in British State Paper Office, New Eng. Papers, iii, 
49. Order upon it xxxii, 312, ante p. 'Arnold's Hist., i, 505. R. L 

Rec, V, 370-373. 'Arnold's Hist., i, 447 note ; R. I. Rec, iii, 47. July, 


The Massachusetts agents returned with a letter from the King to the 
Massachusetts Magistrates bearing date July 24th, 1679,' with com- 
mands to send over other agents within six months from the receipt 
of the letter, empowered to negotiate a settlement, to repeal all laws 
that were contrary to the laws of England, requiring suitable obedience 
in respect to freedom and liberty of conscience, and appointing Edward 
Randolph a collector and surveyor for the colonies. Another letter 
on September 30th, 1680, commanded obedience to the former letter, 
and that the representatives to attend his Council be sent within three 
months from the reception of the present order.' This letter led to 
the calling of a special court, and Samuel Nowell and John Richards 
were elected as agents to England, according to the King's commands ; 
but with power so restricted as to render them incapable of giving 
satisfaction, and a writ of quo-warranto was issued June 27th, 1683, 
summoning the Corporation of Massachusetts Bay to defend their acts 
against the complaints and charges made against them; and judgment 
was entered the next year pronouncing their charter void.* 

The person selected by the King to govern the people of the provinces 
was Pusey Kirk, but before his commission and instruction were com- 
pleted all was delayed by the demise of King Charles, which took place 
the 6th of February, 1685. 

Dudley was commissioned by the new King as Governor, with instruc- 
tions to give universal toleration of religion. Dudley was within seven 
months superseded by Andros, with instructions of a more stringent 
character, which instructions he fulfilled to the letter. 

It is singular that toleration in Massachusetts should have been 
proclaimed by the arbitrary James in a declaration above and contrary 
to the law for which he received the thanks of the ministers of that 
colony, but which resulted in the loss of his crown in England.' 

James* Declaration of Indulgence was proclaimed 1687, and now 
for the first time Quakers, Baptists and Episcopalians enjoyed tolera- 
tion in Massachusetts. That system or religious tyranny, coeval with 
the settlement of New England, thus unexpectedly received its death- 
blow from a Roman Catholic, who professed a willingness to allow 
religious freedom to others as a means of securing it for himself.'* 


Permanent return of Warwick people to their homes — The triumph of religious 
freedom and end of attempted subjugation of the Providence and Rhode Island 
lands and people — The adoption of their principles as the cardinal doctrine of 
the Nation — Closing events in Gorton's life — Honors accorded him — His char- 
acter and his teachings. 

It was in the spring of 1677, after the Indian war, that Gorton and his 
people again, and this time permanently, returned to Warwick, their 
home, a barren waste; themselves, most of them, destitute of all earthly 
goods to start again, many of them now in their old age, at the foot, 

1679- 'Hutchinson's Papers, 519-522, or ii, 257-261. Letter in Ryer- 

son's Loyalists of Amer., i, 187-189 notes. 'Ryerson's Loyalists of 

Amer., i, 193, 194. Hutchinson's Papers, 522-525, or ii, 261-264. 'Loyalists 

of America, i, 207-210. "Loyalists of Amer., i, 216. "Hildreth's 

Hist, of the U. S. of America, ist Sen, ii, 109. 'Arnold's Hist, i, 192. 


the toiling rounds of life's ladder. With undaunted courage they set 
to rebuilding their dwellings. Yet suffering as they were from despolia- 
tion, few people were as happy as they who now enjoyed the triumph 
of the principles for which they had set apart their lives ; unmolestedly 
laboring to rear for themselves comfortable abodes and surroundings, 
while worshipping God according to the dictates of their own con- 

In reviewing the efforts of Massachusetts to extend her jurisdiction 
and to attach to herself any residents of the Providence Plantations, 
and to lead the people in revolt against the charter, the claims of the 
other colonies and the great sufferings and trials that the people 
endured, the historian of Rhode Island says : " As v,-e examine the 
progress of this deeply laid scheme and observe the steadiness v/ith 
which it was pressed through a long series of years, we cannot but 
admire the firmness of our ancestors in foiling at every turn, nor can 
we fail to recognize the hand of a Supreme pov/er in preserving a colony 
whose peculiar principles at first made it an object of aversion, and 
finally were adopted as the cardinal doctrine of a whole nation.'" 

On the 4th of June, 1677, Gorton v/as chosen to the Town Council of 
Warwick for the ensuing year, and his son Samuel was at the same time 
chosen Treasurer. On November 27th the father signed a deed of 
lands in the Narragansett country to his sons and his six daughters and 
their husbands ; and on the 27th of November by another deed he 
divided the remainder of his estate among his three sons, Samuel, John 
and Benjamin. To Samuel for aid in supporting the family w^hile 
he was absent in England he gives his homestead and library; he also 
committed to him the care of his mother, providing that she be main- 
tained with convenient housing and necessaries and that means should 
be furnished for her " recreation in case she desired to visit her 

Before the close of the year, on or the days before the loth of 
December, the leader of these early struggling and liberty-loving people, 
Samuel Gorton, was called to his rest, he being eighty-five years of age. 
Ripe in years spent in good works, " always enjoying the confidence 
of his fellow-townsmen,"^ and " retaining to the close of his days the 
affectionate esteem of his fellows and fellow-citizens."^ " Gentle and 
sympathetic in private intercourse, generous and sympathetic in nature, 
he awarded to others the same liberty of thought and expression which 
he claimed for himself."* " He was universally beloved by all his 
neighbors and the Indians, who esteemed him not only as a friend, 
but one high in communion with God in heaven. Gorton was a holy 
man, wept day and night for the sins and blindness of the v/orld; his 
eyes were a fountain of tears and always full of tears; a man full of 
thought; had a long walk out through the trees or woods, where he 
constantly walked morning and evening, and even in the depth of night, 
alone by himself for contem.plation."" In one of his last letters, that to 
Governor John Winthrop, Jr., of Connecticut, he mentions death with 
the request that it "be accompanied with a requiem at his departure, 
the burden of which should be this: 'that true Christian religion con- 
sists only in that vv'herein the soul of a believer continues still in com- 
munion with the Spirit of God in Christ, when the natural body is gone 
down to the grave.' '" 

'Warwick Records : Austin's R. I. Genealog. Diet. ; Dr. Janes' " Samuel Gorton, 
a Forgotten Founder of Our Liberties." ^Chief Justice Staples' Int. 

to R. I. Collec, ii. Jared Sparks' Am. Biographies, ist Ser., xv. ^Oliver 

Payson Fuller. "Dr. Ezra Styles' acct. from the aged Mr. John Angel, 

R. I. Collec. '4th Ser. Mass. Collec, vii, 626. ''Hon. Samuel 


" I have read almost every word that is legible of the records of the 
colony from its first settlement till after the death of Gorton. From the 
first establishment of the government he was almost constantly in 
office, and during a long life there is no instance of record to my knowl- 
edge of any reproach or censure cast upon him, no complaint against 
him, although history furnishes abundance of evidence that there was 
no lack of enemies to his person, principles or property. This can 
hardly be said of any other settler in the colony of any standing. It 
was this fact that fixed my opinion of the general tenor of his conduct 
and the uprightness of his character. I remember an instance in which 
he applied to be excused from serving in the Court of Commissioners, 
and assigned his long services as a reason. He constantly enjoyed 
the confidence of his fellow-townsmen and received from them the 
highest honors in their gift.'" " To the charge made against Lim by 
Morton he could truly as well as indignantly say : ' Whose ox or whose 
ass have I taken, or when or where have I lived upon other men's 
labors and not wrought with my own hands for the things honest in 
the sight of men to eat my own bread?' None could gainsay him, 
although his reputation for morality as well as righteousness was laid 
broadly open and in the search for everything picked clean to the 
bone.'"* " The whole tenor of his life shows that he was conscientious, 
sincere and in all matters of fact honest and truthful.'" " The com- 
munity in the rr.idst of which he lived, trusted and honored him to the 
last, and few testimonials to integrity of character are better than 
this. It is a remarkable circumstance that he always retained the 
affection of his neighbors and friends. The few ' dissenting freemen ' 
of Warwick never were his neighbors or friends, but were interloping 
enemies who followed him to Warwick to decry his virtues, to break 
up the settlement, to obtain his land. He generally succeeded in satis- 
fying the candid. That he must have been possessed of great and shin- 
ing virtues is sufficiently evident from the fidelity with which his 
early adherents followed through life his changing fortunes and by 
their never-failing confidence in his worthiness to fill public office 
of the highest trust and of the greatest importance to the general 

He was their chosen Representative to the Assembly in the years 
1649. 51. 52, 55. 56, 57. 58, 59. 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, and 66; served a 
number of terms in the Upper House, corresponding to the present 
Senate; was Associate Judge of their highest court; and was their 
President or Governor for the term beginning in 1651 and ending in 
1652. He was a multitude of times selected to audit the accounts of the 
colony, to care for the Lord Admiral's letters and other highly-prized 
documents, and more than any other man in the colony called upon 
to draw up important State papers, many of these now unfortunately 
no longer extant; and his old age was continually honored by the gift 
of the most important civil offices.^ 

Sidney S. Rider, whose knowledge of these early men, obtained 
from a lifelong study of their works, is not exceeded by anyone living, 
says that Gorton was " one of the most learned men then living in 
New England" (Lands of Rhode Island. 201). In the languages, in 
the law and in letters he was exceedingly proficient. His early asso- 
ciations good; his wife as tenderly reared as any lady in the colony; 
her family educated and refined; her brother a college president, an 

Eddy in 2d Ed. Savage's Winthrop. 'Bryant's Hist. United States, ii, 

68. *Col. Thos. Aspinwall in Remarks on Narragansett Patent. 

'"Mackey. '2d Ed. Sparks' Am. Biog., Life of Samuel Gorton, v, 376. 


excellent Latin poet. And their family relations with Gorton and with 
one another appear to have been the best, they sending to him and to 
their daugther the herds of fine-bred cattle — among the first in the 
colony — for the pastures about his pioneer home. Mr. Rider in his 
forthcoming "Constitutional History of Rhode Island" will show that 
Gorton had no intellectual superior in New England ; and that in courage 
he was not less than sublime. To Samuel Gorton, for his work in sus- 
taining and preserving the charter and government, Wililam D. Ely 
says: "Rhode Island owes him a great debt." 

During the year 1667 he had declined to again accept a government 
office, he then being seventy-five years of age. The year preceding his 
death his eldest son, Capt. Samuel, was chosen a Representative, and 
served in the House and in the Senate to defend the now constitutionally 
established principles of soul liberty for sixteen successive years. Under 
the order of the King's Commissioners, that the Governor and his 
Assistants or Magistrates should rule in the Narragansett Province, 
the latter was one of the Magistrates to govern there, and was one of 
tl:e Court of Justice who sat in the Province. He was selected to 
oversee the laying out and allotment of the lands of East Greenwich, 
'* that it be fairly done," was one of those selected to answer the twenty- 
seven questions sent from the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council to 
the colonies, and for many years served upon the committees who 
drafted the colonies' letters to the King. Samuel Gorton has been 
honored also in the persons of his other sons and numerous of his 
descendants. His sons John and Capt. Benjamin were among the 
founders of the town of East Greenwich, those to whom the colony 
granted five thousand acres of land. Capt, Benjamin was a Repre- 
sentative in both the House and Senate. Gorton's grandson. Othniel, 
also was a Representative, and Othniel. Jr., was for seven full terms 
a member of the General Assembly from Warwick, and in 1761, in 
connection v/ith Stephen Hopkins and Job Bennett, Esquires, was 
directed to prepare a reply to the questions which had been proposed 
by the Lords Commissioners of the Plantations; was Speaker of the 
House in 1787, and the same year was one of a committee to draft a 
letter from the colony to the American Congress. In June, 1788, he 
resigned his position in the Assembly and became Chief Justice of the 
Superior Court, which position he retained until May, 1791.' " General 
Nathaniel Greene, next to George Washington, the most eminent mili- 
tary leader in the contest with Great Britain, traced his lineage directly 
to John Greene and Samuel Gorton, noble founders of the liberties 
which he fought to sustain ; as did also Colonel Christopher Greene of 
Revolutionary fame. Albert Gorton Greene, a descendant of John 
Greene, Samuel Gorton and Randall Holden, three of the original 
settlers of Warwick, became a judge of the Municipal Court in the city 
of Providence, and is well known to three generations as the author 
of ' Old Grimes " and other popular ballads and poems. The late 
Governor Henry Lippitt and the recent Chief Magistrate of Rhode 
Island, the Hon. Charles Warren Lippitt, as well as the late Lieutenant 
Governor, Samuel G. Arnold, the historian of the State, and the present 
Lieutenant Governor, Lewis S. Chanler, of New York, and the present 
Bishop, Henry C. Potter, of New York, are direct descendants of 
Samuel Gorton.'" Among his descendants are several each of United 
States Senators, Members of Congress, Major Generals. Governors of 
States, Judges of Supreme Court, Senators and Assemblymen, Church 

R. I. Records. *R. I. Hist. Tract, No. 10. *Dr. Janes in 

" Samuel Gorton, a Forgotten Founder of Our Liberties." 'Oliver 


Bishops, and Aloderators, Renowned Missionaries, Distinguished 
Authors, Etc., representing nearly every State and Territory in the 
Union. Some scores of his descendants served with honor and distinction 
in the early wars, the Revolution, the war of 1812 with Great Britian, the 
Civil War, and in the United States Congress, and very many of his living 
descendants are eminent in literature and the professions. 

His published works are: "Simplicity's Defense," "Incorruptible 
Key," " Saltmarsh," " The Common Plagues," and "Antidote Against 
Pharisaical Teachings.." A Commentary on the Lord's Prayer was 
left by him in manuscript, unpublished. 

One does not find in his published works any detailed system of faith ; 
he did not attempt to build up a sect or claim anything new in revela- 
tion or Scripture interpretation. His religious opinions, if peculiar 
then, are no more so now than exists in any congregation. " The 
essential gospel truths as held by the great body of evangelical Chris- 
tians of the present day are those that were held and preached by him."* 
He made but small account of the forms of religious worship and laid 
not much stress upon most of the dogmas of theology ; a right temper 
of heart being in his view the one thing needful, and the union of the 
believer with Christ in love the great saving doctrine of revelation." 
A thorough study of his theological writings by one well qualified for 
an understanding and proper comparison of their teachings with the 
various systems has been made by Dr. Janes, President of the Brooklyn 
Ethical Association, whose exposition of them and conclusions regard- 
ing them he has published in his " Life of Samuel Gorton," to which 
the reader is referred, from which by permission we briefly quote in the 
following. : " By far the best and most complete exposition of Samuel 
Gorton's religious convictions is to be found in a remarkable manuscript 
in his ov/n handwriting which has never been published, but which 
is preserved in the library of the Rhode Island Historical Society in 
Providence. The manuscript to which I refer is a running commentary 
on the Lord's Prayer. I have examined many papers of contemporary 
and more recent dates, but with the exception of those left by his eldest 
son, Capt. Samuel Gorton, who was evidently instructed by his father, 
and whose handwriting resembles his so closely as to be distinguishable 
from it with difficulty. I have never seen any so clear, systematic and 
scholarly in appearance. When the reader has searched dilligently 
beneath the quaint and involved phraseology, bristling with scriptural 
references and illustrations, and come into sympathetic contact with the 
living thought of the writer, the surprising thing which is discovered 
is the remarkable modernness of many of Samuel Gorton's ideas. It 
goes_ without saying that he was not 'orthodox,' according to the con- 
ventional standard of his time, nor yet, perhaps, of our own; but we 
everywhere touch the personality of a vigorous and independent thinker, 
who in many directions foreshadov/ed the views of the advanced thinkers 
of a later day. Some of his enemies denounced Samuel Gorton as an 
atheist. He was as remote as possible from atheistic leanings. He was 
not even affiliated with the deism of his own and the succeeding centur}^ 
His theology was profoundly Christian. The Scripture references to 
the Father,_Son and Holy Spirit he interprets as recognitions of 'spirit- 
ual distinctions in the nature of Christ.' They are not separate persons 
of a godhead, but distinctions of the divine activity, having a unity ' not 
found elsewhere, but only in Christ.' 

" With Channing Samuel Gorton also taught the essential divinity of 
human nature — the equal nearness of the divine spirit to the sinner and 

Payson Fuller, Hist. Wk., 303. 'Incorruptible Key, ?3. •Com- 


to the saint. He recognizes a divine spark in every human soul, and 
to this he made his appeal." He also, however, accepted the eternal 
antagonism of good and evil as an unquestionable fact, both in scrip- 
tural teaching and in human experience. The tendency of the one is 
to eternal life; of the other to eternal death. He, therefore, taught a 
conditional immortality, wholly dependent upon the character of the 
individual. ' Neither can any salvation hold proportion with the son 
of God/ he says, ' but freedom from sin.' This saved him from the 
errors of Antinomianism.' The doctrine of imputed sin and imputed 
righteousness he denounces as unworthy of the divine character. * God 
was in Christ reconciling men unto himself, not imputing their sins.' 
Nor is this work of reconciliation limited to any historical period. 
' God is eternally a creator, eternally a redeemer, eternally a conservator 
of peace.' The substance of his teaching is that righteousness is life 
eternal ; sin is eternal death. There is no arbitrary penalty inflicted at 
the close of man's earthly career, or on some future day of judgment; 
it is the intrinsic and natural result of evil action." 

Mr. Gorton distinguished four distinct stages in the historical develop- 
ment of religious ideas: the family, the national, the apostolic, and the 
spiritual or universal. Considering the period in which he wrote, and 
the fact that the Bible seems to have been almost his only text book, 
his conclusions are remarkably consistent with those of modern students 
of sociology and comparative religion. 

The temptation is great to continue this line of exposition and quo- 
■tation, but I must bring it to a close with one or two additional passages 
further illustrative of the ethical quality of his thought. All virtue, 
he taught, even the goodness of God, consists wholly in the service 
of others. " The goodness of God's nature is such," he says, " that it 
cannot subsist or be without communicating itself with another; other- 
wise his goodness should be useless, which cannot be admitted for one 
moment of time, for there is an impossibility thereof. The natural 
temporary or typical goodness of any creature is useless unless it be 
communicated with another; God never made any creature in heaven 
or in earth simply for itself, but for the use of another; how infinitely 
more is this true of God, who hath made himself in Christ to be the 
goodness of the world." 

With Theodore Parker, he taught that the entire creative energy was 
expressed in the divine nature, to conceive which as purely masculine 
was inadequate, anthropomorphic and irrational ; and in one of the most 
striking passages in his Commentary on the Lord's Prayer he argues 
for the equal recognition of woman in the church, as a teacher of 

In philosophy Samuel Gorton was an original thinker, rather than 
a student of past systems. In theology he Vv'as far in advance of the 
prevailing thought of his time. Only a few of the minor sects of our 
own day have yet approximated to his views as to the equal position 
of woman in the pulpit and the church ; only an occasional strong and 
independent mind has reached his conception of religion as a birthright 
of the individual soul, to which belongs the inalienable privilege of 
investigation and interpretation, free from priestly mediation and secta- 
rian bias.' 

Regarding the Holy Ordinances, such as Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, he scorns the Massachusetts Elders' charge that he denied them 

mentary Mss., ii, 14, 57. 'Gorton was not a follower of Annie Hutch- 

inson, " His theology was original and peculiarly his own." Commentary 
Mss., 58, Dr. Janes, 97, »" Samuel Gorton, a Forgotten Founder of 

Our Liberties," by Dr. Janes. 'Incorruptible Key Introd. 


because he could not join with them in their way of administering, 
and say : " We revere and practice them." Regarding the law, " Not 
scruphng," he says, " any civil ordinance for the education, ordering 
or governing of any civil State." Regarding magistracy, " Keep the 
office,," he says, " according to sobriety within the compass of civil 

"Authority," he says, " cannot safely be entrusted to Magistrates if 
their place of office be not bounded within the compass of civil thinr;s." 
He argues clearly and logically in the introduction to his " Incorruptible 
Key " that if Magistrates are permitted to extend their authority to 
things spiritual they are consistently bound to enforce their own con- 
victions of religious duty, and to persecute all who dissent therefrom. 
The only safety is in forbidding them " to intermeddle between God 
and the consciences of men; in this way only is the preservation and 
honor of all States in their several ways of rule and government."'" 

One-fourth of the whole number of the original purchasers of War- 
wick were members of the First Church organized by Roger Williams 
at Providence; and Ezekiel Holman, also a member, and two others, 
William Arnold and Stuckley Westcott, also members — just one-half 
of the original members of Williams' church were early settlers of 
Warwick.^ The last two were early dissenters from Williams' church 
and continuous disturbers of the peace of the Providence settlers, as well 
as of the quiet Warwickers. All the others of these joined Gorton in 
support of the governm.ent and in unyieldingly resisting every effort 
of violence, compromise or arbitration to bring them under any authority 
that would deprive them of their civil rights or religious freedom. 
" There is no evidence of their interfering in the affairs of their neigh- 
bors, or cultivating any differences among themselves ; on the contrary, 
no community on the continent were more sedulous in courting the 
good will and confidence of the natives and none practiced more 
forbearance and endurance under trials, such as are rarely paralleled."' 

It was within the short time of six months from the final return of the 
Warwickers, not more than a dozen of them, to their lands which were 
divested by the war of all improvements, in which short time they could 
not have erected more than three or four dwellings, that Gorton's 
death occurred. There had not been, therefore, an opportunity for the 
establishment of a church there before his death. For about five months 
only from the completion of the first dwelling was a meeting-house 
here provided him, wherein he conducted religious service, attended 
by the few Episcopalians, Quakers or Baptists, not a sufficient number 
of whom could agree to any one system for the organization of such 
a church." Cotton Mather said of them that he could not learn they 
" were agreed or any one principal so much as this, that they were to 
give one another no disturbance in the exercise of religion."* They 
were stigmatized by their opponents, as also they " that crieth out much 
against them that putteth people to death for witches."" At this time 
" all professed to believe in witchcraft, excepting only those few enlight- 
ened philosophers who were branded as impious atheists."' 

Gorton's advanced position upon the question of human slavery is 
here worthy of attention. It superseded by about one hundred years 

'"Incorruptible Key, Rhode Island, 1645, Introduction. Samuel Gorton, Preston & 
Rounds, Publishers, Providence. ^Fuller's Hist. Warwick, 298. 

'Dr. Henry E. Turner. 'Not until about fifty years after Gorton's 

death, in about 1725, was any denominational society, and that the Baptist, 
able to organize a church at Warwick. "Cotton Mather in Magnali, ii, 

449- °Wm. Arnold's letter, ante p. *Pref. to Offor's Ed. 

Increase Mather's Remarkable Providences. 'Dorr's Controversies with 


other like legislation upon the subject. His treatment of the Quakers 
also may be alluded to as an illustration of his practical love of freedom. 
Although differing with them and strenuously opposing what he con- 
ceived to be their errors, he defended their rights and gladly gave them 

"After the venerable founder of Providence," says his biographer, 
" no man was more instrumental in establishing the foundation of equal 
civil rights and soul liberty in Rhode Island than Samuel Gorton." In 
his letter to Clark for presentation to the Lord Protector, Cromwell, 
he writes " to plead our cause in such sort as we may not be compelled 
to exercise any civil power over men's consciences, so long as human 
orders in point of civility are not corrupted and violated." 

He was possessed of more literary education than any of the founders 
save Williams. In law and politics he understood his rights better than 
did the Elders and Magistrates of Massachusetts; and he at all times 
showed the courage of his convictions, and he appeared to have asserted 
no propositions which he could not legally maintain.' Samuel G. Arnold 
regarded him as " one of the most remarkable men who ever lived." 
His astuteness of mind and Biblical learning made him a formidable 
opponent of the Puritan heirarchy. By his bold example, by his written 
and spoken word he did much that should make his name ever freshly 
remembered by the friends of civil and religious liberty throughout 
the wide world.' 

Dr. Janes says : " No portrait or adequate description of this for- 
gotten Founder of our Liberties has been handed down to our time. 
The writer of his brief biography tells us that ' his bearing was court- 
eous, his feelings lively, his mind vigorous and well informed.' From 
such hints as we may obtain from various sources we may picture him 
as a man of tall stature, marked features and gentlemanly address; 
blue-eyed — a typical Saxon; of an earnest and sympathetic nature; 
persuasive of speech in conversation and exhortation, and freely empha- 
sizing his thoughts with appropriate gestures; quick to resent injustic, 
and bold in his denunciation of wrong-doers ; more eloquent and effective 
in his spontaneous utterances and unstudied efforts than in the formal 
and labored style of his written treatise." 

Judge Brayton says he was " a man of independent spirit, having a 
character for truth and honesty, for morality, for courtesy to all and 
for Christian charity; a quick sense of justice, earnest in the defense 
of the rights of others as well as of himself, whose boast it was that 
he never laid his hands in violence upon any human being, not even 
upon his children." 

Bryant says he was sympathetic and affectionate, and with all he was 
frank and above suspicion, his purity and sincerity unquestioned. 

The Boston Transcript in a recent article refers to him as " the sturdy 
Rhode Islander " and " a noble-minded patriot and thinker." No leader 
of any of the reform movements has inspired his followers with a higher 
degree of trust, confidence and affection. 

Chief Justice Durfee, in a discoure before the Rhode Island Historical 
Society, said : " Samuel Gorton, the chief man of the settlement of 
Shawomet, was a person of the most distinctive originality of character. 
He was a man of deep, strong feeling, keenly alive to every injury, 
though inflicted on the humblest of God's creatures. He was a great 
lover of soul liberty and hater of all shams. He was a learned man, 
self-educated, studious, comtemplative, a profound thinker, who, in 
his spiritual meditation amid ancient Warwick's primeval groves, wan- 

the Freeholders. 'John M. Mackey. 'John M. Mackey. 


dered off into infinite and eternal realities, forgetful of earth and all 
earthly relations. He did indeed clothe his thoughts at times in clouds, 
but then it was because they were too large for any other garment. 
No one, who shall rivet his attention upon them, shall fail to catch 
some glimpse of giant limb and joint and have some dim conception of 
the colossal form that is enshrouded within the mystic envelopment. 
Yet in common life no one was more plain, simple and unaffected than 
Gorton. That he was courteous, affable and eloquent his very enemies 
admit, and even grieviously complain of his seducing language. He 
was a man of courage, and, when aroused, no hero of the Iliad ever 
breathed language more impassioned or effective. Nothing is more 
probable than that such a man, in the presence of the Massachusetts 
Magistrates, felt his superiority and moved and spoke with somewhat 
more freedom than they deemed suited to their dignity ._ Far more 
sinned against than sinning, he bore adversity with heroic fortitude; 
and if he did not conquer, he yet finally baffled every effort of his 
enemies. The misfortunes and annoyances to which he was subjected 
exceeded in severity and duration that of any other of the prominent 
settlers of the colony, and through it all he bore himself in a manner 
that commands our admiration." 

The house that Gorton erected, and where he lived the nine months 
before he was taken captive to Boston, is supposed to have been shortly 
after destroyed. The house which he, upon his return from England 
and return to Warwick in 1648, erected and in which he lived until the 
King Philip's war in 1675, was, with every other there, destroyed. The 
house built and occupied by him during the few summer months between 
the time of his last return there and his death was about two miles 
distant from the first-mentioned spot. It lay at the head of a small 
rove which winds its M^ay through pleasant meadows, a little distance 
inland from what was formerly called Cowesett, now Greenwich Bay. 
The house faced the water and had a southwestern exposure, whereby 
it was fanned in summer by refreshing breezes from the sea and was 
visited in winter by the warm air, fabled to blow from the Indian 
heaven. In other directions gently sloping hills sheltered it from the 
inclemencies of a northern climate; a prattling brook, still skirted with 
the remains of ancient elms, ran hard by, down the gradual declivity 
into the cove; and on both sides were spread out ample fields, the 
fertility of whose soil must have annually clothed them with variegated 
beauty, and the golden rewards of labor. No fairer spot can be found 
upon the Narrai-ansett shores; none within whose quiet, sunny solitude 
the founder of Shawomet could better have spent the tranquil evening 
of his eventful and much harrassed life. Also upon the rising ground 
in the vicinity his aged eyes were often gladdened with the sight of 
the pleasant shores and placid waters of the bay and its numerous 
islands, of Mount Hope in the distance, of the heights of Providence 
in the north, and of the line of ocean glittering in sunlight on the 
southern horizon. Tradition says that part of the timbers and stone 
of Gorton's house are still preserved in the dwelling which stands near 
the site of the ancient household, and which is now inhabited by some 
of his descendants. It also points to the family burying-ground, lying 
a short distance in the rear of the house, as the place, " now without 
overarching tree or mound," where the hoary patriarch was interred. 
But the exact spot where his ashes repose is marked by no pious stone 
or monumental marble. Yet if without other honors, may it at least 
ever be their privilege to sleep beneath the green sward of a free 


The first published account of the treatment of Gorton while on the 
island was by an English clergyman named Lechford, who passed some 
time in Massachusetts, but not in Rhode Island, and who, in the company 
of Hugh Peters, Thomas Weld, William Hibbins and John Win- 
throp, Jr., all Massachusetts agents, on August 3d, 1641, "loosed from 
Boston," in his book " Plain Dealings," issued from London, Eng., 
November i6th, 1641, in the words following: "There lately they 
whipped one Master Gorton, a grave man, for denying their power and 
abusing some of their Magistrates with uncivil terms. The Governor, 
Master Coddington, saying in court, you that are for the King lay hold 
on Gorton, and he again on the other side called forth, all you that 
are for the King lay hold on Coddington. Whereupon Gorton was 
banished from the island; so with his wife and children he went to 
Providence." On the page with this he tells us that deer in New 
England are " as big as some lions," that " barley there is inferior to 
the product in England," and that " beans also there are very good." 
" In many passages," writes Cotton, " Plain Dealings might be called 
false and fraudulent;" and he probably does not mean the ones refer- 
ring to the Massachusetts products. [3d Series Mass. Collection, iii, 
5Sy 397'' Cotton's Ways of Cong. Churches Cleared, 71; Narragansett 
Club Papers, ii, 219, note.] The second published account was by 
Winslow in 1646-7 in that part of his book Winthrop's Book of News 
in full, edited and improved. It is the anonymous account. The book 
contains also a copy of William Arnold's letter, a copy of Benedict 
Arnold's petition, a copy of the alleged letter of Roger Williams, and 
a copy of the paper drawn up for Winslow's use in England, called 
" The sum of the presentment of the grand jury " against Gorton, 
by Coddington. A portion of what appears to have been Winthrop's 
Book of News, including copies of portions of the Island Records which 
were " over the secretary's hand," and Coddington's letter naming some 
of the messengers who secured them, and calling attention to what 
Peters had written in, was published by Charles Dean, so lately as 
1850, with a companion article by himself, in which he unfairly ignores 
the fact that Gorton was one of the leaders and Magistrate in the 
Portsmouth government in 1639 and was still a Magistrate in 1644-1645 
when Brown visited him. Dean also ignores the official records of 
certain events that are proof contrary to the drift of his reasoning. 


The paper " The sum of the presentment of the grand jury " was a 
fabulous writing of Coddington's, conceived by him in spite and for 
Winthrop's and Winslow's use to aid them in their fight against Gorton 
and the Williams charter in England. There is not any mention of a 
trial, verdict, sentence or punishment of Gorton at any time in the 
records or in the copies of them which Coddington " furnished over the 
secretary's hand " to Winthrop and his agents. Up to the time of 
Coddington's reassumption of rule at Portsmouth, himself, the Judge 
and the Elders decided all complaints; he had no grand jury or petit 
jury. [Mar. 10-12, 1639-40; July, 1640; R. I. Reeds., i, 98, 103.] Under 
Hutchinson's government, the first to inaugurate regular courts, dispense 
with Elders and provide a jury, the Governor and his Assistants decided 
whether any complaints should be brought to the public courts. [Apr. 



30, 1639; Rec. i, 71.] Upon Coddington's reassumption he and his 
Elders ordered his courts to consist of Magistrates and jury, as organ- 
ized by the Hutchinson government [Rec. i, 103], and further following 
their example, dropped the titles of Judge and Elders for that of Gov- 
ernor and Assistants invested with the office of Justice of the Peace, 
according to the law " that the Hutchinson government had adopted " 
[Rec. i, 100, loi]; but later Coddington and his court, heedless of the 
law and their agreement, ordered their court (Mar. 16-17, 1641-2) "to 
be held according to the ancient form and custom [Ante, p. — ], former 
orders contrary herewith made void," and Coddington again attempted 
with Elders to call any court either general or sessions. [Rec. i, 123.] 

Under Coddington the Sergeant [Rec. i, 65] or Secretary [Rec. i, 
95, 96] was required to receive complaints and commend them to the 
Judge and Elders [Jan. 29, 1639-40; Rec. i, 103, 106, 124] ; and Codding- 
ton disposed with even this shortly. [Rec. i, in, 123.] No such form 
as a Presentment or Indictment was practiced or understood at this 
time — the summer of 1640 — by Coddington and his court on Aquidneck 
Island under the Pentateuchal system. There were Coroners and 
Inquest Juries appointed to inquire into the manner of violent death ; 
but no court practice or provision for a Grand Jury for Indictment or the 
finding of a bill of particulars of complaints against the offenders to 
be presented to the court with the offenders for trial. The regular 
method of procedure was much like that before a Justice of the Peace 
or our Police Courts to-day, and this was all that was required in that 
sparsely settled village of less than seventy-five male inhabitants, where 
the court was comfortably held in the small room of some settler's 
little log dwelling. In Connecticut, while trial by jury was practiced 
early [Conn. Rec. i, 84, 90], the Grand Jury for Indictment was not 
adopted till September, 1643 [Conn. Rec. i, 91, 93], and there was no 
Grand Jury for Indictment in Rhode Island until the adoption of the 
code for the government under the 1643-4 charter. The minutes of 
appointments of some kind are inserted with the erroneous editorial date 
of 1643 in the Bartlett records. They don't belong there ; the men 
named in the appointments were not residents or freemen at that time, 
and not till many years after. The correct time and date of this was 
not before the Code, and after this not until in 1648 was the first Grand 
Jury for indictment called or required. [May and June, 1648; Rec. i, 
209, 211.] With the Code was the process first provided that an accused 
or suspected person should be the subject of an inquest by a Grand 
Jury or a bill of counts of Indictment presented to the court for his 


From the time of Samuel Gorton's return from England to the colony, 
1648, until the time when Newport, outstripping the other towns in 
population and political influence, controlled the affairs of the colony, 
the records of his public life [even without the records of his Presi- 
dential term, 1651, which records were destroyed] show that there 
was no man in the colony more popular or given more honor, and that 
he was habitually placed on important legislative Committees, serving 
on more of them than any other person, where a knowledge of law and 
superior literary skill was required. The compiler of the printed 
Colonies Records has indexed to Gorton but a fraction of the Committees 
on which the records show he served, while others who the records show 
served on less than he are indexed on many more; and, too, the favored 
ones have their Committees named, while if they are indexed to Gorton 


at all they are indexed by only the meaningless numerals of the page. 
Others on Committee with Gorton and to write to Cromwell and Clark 
are indexed to indicate it, while Gorton is not; and, again, where Gorton 
is on Committee to write to Clark, he is not indexed on it at all. Begin- 
ning with Gorton's and Williams' appointment on Committee to write 
letters to Cromwell and Clark [beginning here because the records of 
Gorton's services preceding this are too nearly all destroyed to fairly 
compare with his contemporaries' records] from this appointment. 
Vol. i, p. 321, to the end of the volume, Gorton served on fourteen 
Committees, while nine were the most upon which service was rendered 
by the next most popular citizen. These are but a few of the many 
omissions of the records' compilers. The living disloyal ones of the 
State are, as of old, natural policticians, and succeed in obtaining places 
on the Committees selected for public work. The General Assembly 
recently printed, at the cost to the State, a pamphlet setting forth that 
Benedict Arnold, not Roger Williams, was the author of " Soul Liberty." 
[Report, p. 30, 1901 ; Reply, Book Notes, Vol. 20, No. 7.] Will some 
such loyal State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation man as 
were Judge Brayton, Judge Staples and Judge Durfee, and are William 
D. Ely and Sidney S. Rider, write a history of the State. No proper 
truthful history of the State has ever been published. It is in justice 
due from the Legislature to its people that it places in all the important 
libraries of the United States a proper history of the State; for at 
this late day few libraries contain any other books of this " history " 
than those by the old antagonistic writers. 


The Deeds usually referred to as Wills : 

I, Samuel Gorton, with respect to the great affection I bear to my son- 
in-laws and daughters, do fully give to them all right, etc., in that neck 
of land in Narragansett which was given unto Mr. Randall Holden and 
myself, and do grant unto son Daniel Cole and daughter Maher one- 
sixth part. (Also one-sixth) to son John Sanford and daughter Mary, 
son William Mace and daughter Sarah, son John Warner and daughter 
Anna, son John Crandall and daughter Elizabeth, son Benjamin Barton 
and daughter Susannah, the bounds thereof being more largely ex- 
plained in the deed bearing date May 27, 1659. 

Signed and sealed November 2'j, 1677, in Warwick. 

JOHN GREENE, Assistant, 


For good will, etc. — To son Samuel Gorton, Jr., being enlarged the 
more upon my mind by reason of his being instrumentally a great sup- 
port unto me to help bring up my family when my children were young, 
etc. ; unto whom also I commit the care of my beloved wife during her 
widowhood, if she live to be a widow, and appoint that she shall be 
maintained, &c. ; also to have somewhat convenient for recreation in 


case she desire to visit her friends . . in consideration of the prem- 
ises, to said son Samuel all right to my house and lot in Warwick, 
with appurtenances; and, further, my right in township of Warwick . . 
and a patch of marsh which is mine, for maintaining the widow Eliza- 
beth Moore in her lifetime and for the charges of her decent burial. 
Also to son Samuel aforesaid one-third of my right of purchase be- 
yond township of Warwick, having given other two-thirds to sons John 
and Benjamin. 

I freely pass over all said lands as specified in the premises unto said 
son Samuel as well as the goods, moveables and chattels, and also my 
Library, together with all my deeds and writings. 

In witness whereof, etc., I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
27th day of November, 1677, Warwick. 


Signed and sealed in presence of 
JOHN GREENE, Assistant. 



The stone house and fortress, built in 1649, by President John Smith. It, after his death in 1664, 
passed from his widow's family, the Sweets, to Thomas Greene, who occupied it, and whose descend- 
ants lived in it for many generations, and who were from this styled the Stone Castle Greenes. This 
house and the house of Samuel Gorton which was built by him during the summer of 1677, were probably 
the only completed houses that were in Warwick at the time of Samuel Gorton's death, in Decem- 
ber, 1677. 











Afemitr of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, the Rhode Island Historical 
Society and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Two •': !)!cs Seueived | 

I IVJAft 20 1908 

COr'l A- 

Copyright, 1907, by 





The work of gathering data concerning Samuel Gorton and his 
descendants was begun by the subscriber many years ago. When the 
records of several thousand descendants had been obtained, a sufficient 
number to encourage the long-cherished desire for its publication, the 
Gorton Association, a company of many years' standing, whose mem- 
bership included the oldest living descendants, unreservedly gave their 
collection of several hundred names and records, with much information 
which had been handed down from the earlier generations, into my 

While my work was intended to embrace only the records of Samuel 
Gorton, his sons and their descendants (as to include the records also 
of his daughters and their descendants would extend it to a greater task 
than I could in my time accomplish), such records of his daughters and 
their descendants as have unsought for come to me have been included. 
Further information regarding some of these may be obtained from the 
published vital records of Rhode Island. Corrections and additions 
that can be made to any of the within records are solicited for publica- 
tion in an appendix volume. 

My hearty thanks are extended to the multitude, too numerous to be 
all named here, of friends who have cheerfuly rendered me valuable 
assistance ; Captain George O. Gorton, of Providence, having given 
much of his time for many years to the searching of the original records 
of the Rhode Island towns to obtain required data. And the late 
George H. Greene, Esq., of Lansing, Mich., who had compiled a 
genealogy, but despairing of living to publish it, gave me his records 
of the descendants from marriages of Gortons with Greenes. Since this 
the work of the late General George Sears Greene, " The Greene 
Family," has been published which includes these branches, with, in 
many instances, more extended notes than I have given. 

The within-named descendants of Samuel Gorton number many 
thousands, with fairly complete records of most of them ; among them 
many prominent people, Bishops and Christian missionaries of renown, 
Generals in the Continental and United States Armies, United States 
Senators and Members of Congress, State Governors and Judges of 
the Supreme Court, distinguished authors, College Professors, and 
other men and women of note. The pleasure experienced by me, 
through the acquaintances made and otherwise, in the preparation of 
this work has been very great, and will continue in my sharing that of 
interested ones in its reading, in the strengthening of our already 
happy bonds of union, and in the inspiration it shall give to many to 
follow in the paths of honor and active good citizenship the lives of 
those whose illustrious examples are given. 

Adelos Gorton. 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1907. 



No extensive research has been made for information regarding the 
origin of the Gortons. The earHest mention of the name, we have 
found, is that of WilHam Gorton as witness to a will in the County of 
Warwick in 1 542. William Gorton is again witness to a will in the 
same county in 1555. The will of John Holmes, September 15, 1568, 
mentions as the issue of James Gorton, of the town of Haughton, his 
son Thomas Gorton, of the town of Aspull, and grandson Thomas 
Gorton, of the town of Addington, etc. From these and other records 
it appears that Thomas Gorton, of Addington, had the children follow- 
ing: Richard, who must have been born prior to the year 1540, for 
he was proprietor of the Lion Inn in the County of Middlesex, and 
reference is made to his wife Ann, who was the widow of Robert 
Robertson, gentleman of London, May, 1563; he was of Warwick and 
Winwick in 1581 ; v»^ill proved at Chester in 1587; James, of Haughton 
and West Haughton; Alice; Robert, who at his death left a widov*?, 
probably Elizabeth, and a daughter; Thomas, a farmer at Addington 
in 1 581; Francis, who married, May 4, 1574, Elizabeth Burdsell ; 
Nicholas, a farmer in 1 581, died young, for his widow Ann was buried 
June 24, 1608; Adam, who was Council at Droysdale in 1607, will 
recorded 1629; William, of Gorton Parish, Lancaster County; will 
proved at Chester in 1588. James and Alice are recorded as children to 
James; Agnes as child of Robert; Nicholas, b. 1575, Parish of Gorton; 
Thomas, b. 1582; John, who married, May i, 1608, Katharine Leigh; 
Katharine, b. 1584; William, b. 1587; and Samuel, b. 1592, February 
I2th, who married Mary Maplet, as the children of Thomas; Frances, 
Isabel and Mary as the children of Francis; Elizabeth as the child of 
Nicholas; Otwell, Richard, Thomas, Adam and Samuel as the children 
of Adam, of Droysdale. Records of succeeding English-born generations 
are to be found in Dr. Howard's Miscellanea (Dr. Howard's Miscella- 
nea Genealogica et Heraldica, New Series, Vol. ii, pp. 44, 345, 346.) 

The Coat of Arms and Seal used by the Gortons in the early cen- 
turies. (Dr. Howard's New Series Miscellanea Genealogica et Her- 
aldica, Vol. i, pp. 321-325. 2)7^-Z79) 




The only Gortons who, as we can find, were among the early emigrants 
to the American Colonies were John, who settled at Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts, and who had nine children: Mary, born about 1639; Mary, 
b. June 21, 1641 ; Sarah, Hannah, Mary, Alice, Elizabeth, John, and 
Abraham. All but Sarah, Mary, Alice and Abraham died young and 
unmarried ; and only of Abraham can we find any records or descend- 
ants. Abraham married. May 31, 1683, Mary Sumner, and had Mary, 
b. March 24, 1684, and John, b. March 9, 1686; and of these we 
cannot find any descendants. Stephen, who was of Massachusetts in 
1638, but left there for one of the Southern Colonies, and Thomas and 
Samuel, who landed in Massachusetts from the town of Gorton, Eng- 
land, settled first in Plymouth and finally on the island Aquidneck, now 
a part of the State of Rhode Island. The Gortons were not numerous, 
and the few above-named as emigrants appear to be all of them who 
early emigrated to the colonies. For the period of about two centuries 
there were no other Gortons than the descendants of these few to be 
found in America. 


SAMUEL GORTON, clothier, of London, was born in 1592* in Gorton 
(now incorporated within the city of Manchester), "where the fathers 
of his body had lived for many generations, not unknown to the 
Heraldry of England."* He was reared in the Established Church. In 
an address to King Charles the First he said that he sucked in the 
so-called peculiar tenets attributed to him from the breasts of his 
mother the Church of England. To the fundamental doctrines taught 
by the church he ever firmly held, although he was a Nonconformist. 
England was under the rule of the Conformist King James. Laud was 
conspicuous in the universities ; and they had declared it to be unlawful 
to be opposed to the king upon religion or any other subject.* Gorton 
,was instructed by private tutors, and, being of studious habits, he 
secured a classical education, became well read in English law and 
more than ordinarily skilled in the languages. " One of those noble 
spirits who esteemed liberty more than life, and counting no sacrifice 
too great for the maintenance of principal, could not dwell at ease in 
a land where the inalienable rights of humanity were not acknowledged." 
He left his native country, he says, " to enjoy liberty of conscience in 
respect to faith toward God and for no other end."* 

He landed at Boston in March, 1636, with his wife Mary"* (daughter 
of John Maplet, gent, of St. Martin's le Grand, London, and Mary 
his wife), his son Samuel and one or two other children. At the time 
of his arrival the Massachusetts government was proceeding against 
Wheelright, the brother-in-law of Annie Hutchinson. He says he found 

['Gorton's letter to Gov. John Winthrop, Jr., 4th Ser. Mass. Hist. Collections, 
vii, 604. Baptism, Feb. 12, 1592, Collegiate Church, Records N. E. Hist, and 
Gen. Diet., LI, 199. Dr. Howard's Miscellanae Genealogea et Heraldica, New 
Series of 1877, Vol. i, pp. 321-325, 378, 379. "Letter to Nathaniel Morton, 

Force's Tracts, Vol. iv. 'Price's Nonconformists in England, Vol. i, 

P- 454. Vol. ii, p. 99. *Mackey's Life of Samuel Gorton, Sparks' American 

Biographies. "Will and Bequests of Mary Maplet to her daughter, Mary, 

wife of Samuel Gorton, dated Dec. 12, 1645, and of Dr. John Maplet to his 
sister, Mary, wife of Samuel Gorton, dated Apr. 13, 1670, N. E. Hist and Gen. 
Register, Vols, xliv and xlvi. Deed of Samuel Gorton and wife, Mary, of 
lands bought of Robert Cole, laying upon Massapaug stream, close to the town 
of Providence, Book 2, brass clasp, p. 613. "Plymouth Records, Vol. i. 


the people of the colony at great variance in points of religion, prose- 
cuting it very hotly in their courts unto fi.nes and banishments. Their 
laws prohibiting non-subscribing churchmen from living there, he took up 
his residence in Plymouth, which was then a more liberal colony. In 
June, 1637, he, while a resident of Plymouth, joined one of the military 
companies which was raised in response to Massachusetts' call for aid 
to defend themselves against the Pequot Indians.* In 1638 he led the 
opposition to the illiberal changes, delegate representation, etc.. thrust 
into the government by Prence, the then Governor of Plymouth, was 
snared into Prence's court and, for his contempt for it, banished. In 
1639, at Pocasset, Aquidneck Island, he was a freeman and a member 
of the second or civil compact of government; the first government 
upon the island of Aquidneck or Rhode which had as its official heads 
a Governor — Governor Hutchinson — a Deputy Governor and Assist- 
ants ; the first to grant universal suffrage ; the first that constituted 
regular Quarterly Courts, and the first with a jury for the trial of 
causes. They changed the name of the place to Portsmouth. In 1640 
he, with many other members of the civil government, was driven from 
the island by the former deposed ruler, Judge Coddington, who had 
violently reassumed government. In 1640 he settled on land he pur- 
chased of Robert Cole at Papaquinapaug, near Massapaug Pond adjoin- 
ing Providence. This land with the buildings he had erected thereon 
he abandoned on account of claims made by his opponents with fraudu- 
lent underlying titles. In 1642 he purchased of the first owners, the 
Narragansett Sachems, the lands of Shawomet and founded the town 
he named Warwick. In 1643 he was made a prisoner by soldiers sent 
by the Massachusetts Magistrates who coveted the land, tried for 
heresy and confined at Charleston. He was in 1644, at Portsmouth, 
immediately upon his release and return to the town, chosen a Magis- 
trate by the people. In 1644 he secured from the Narragansett Indians 
their deed in dominion of all their lands, their submission to the 
English government, and their appointment of him as their Represen- 
tative and " beloved Commissioner " to attach them to the colony, for 
which Roger Williams had departed to obtain a charter. In 1644, 
upon Williams' return with the charter, which included the Narragan- 
sett lands (the greater part of the present State), a government was at 
once organized with Williams as Governor and Gorton as one of the 
Assistants: "The Government of the Providence Plantations." In 
1645, after nearly two years of ineffectual operation of the government 
owing to the obstructions of the Arnolds and Coddington and the war 
waged against it by the adjoining colonies, Gorton was chosen Com- 
missioner to lay the grievances of the government before the Englis'n 
Parliament. As expressed in Williams" letter, " to preserve the lives 
and liberties of the people." In August, 1645, he took ship from Man- 
hattan. In 1646 he secured from the Parliament Commissioners a 
mandate commanding the other colonies not to disturb the petitioners 
and inhabitants living within the bounds of their charter. Upon this, 
in 1647, a union of all the settlements with the chartered government 
was effected. In 1648, May loth, he, upon his return, landed in Boston, 
where he was so detained by the Massachusetts Magistrates in collu- 
sion with the Arnold-Coddington faction, in violation of the Parlia- 
ment order, that it was impossible for him, a promising candidate for 

p. 61. 'Letter from the chief officers of the Assembly of Providence 

Plantations at Newport, Aug. 9, 1645, in Proc. Mass. Hist. Society, 1862. 
Remarks of Narragansett Patent, Sidney S. Rider, Publisher, Providence. Wil- 
liams' letter, 4th Mass. Collections, vii, 627. *Act. R. I. Reeds., Vol. i, 


the chief office in the colony, to reach his government to be present at 
their annual court and election; whereupon Coddington, the Arnold 
candidate for the Presidency, whose treasonable acts and papers had 
confronted Gorton while in England, and against whom Gorton's testi- 
mony was desired by the court before the election, Coddington, against 
whom various bills of indictment thus deferred were pending, was 
fraudulently declared elected! the majority of the court being against 
him, and they immediately suspending him from the government, and 
deputing and installing Jeremiah Clark President of the colony. In 
1649 Gorton was chosen a member of the Assembly. In 165 1, in the 
midst of the continued movement of all the other colonies in their at- 
tempted subversion of the colony to the governments of Plymouth and 
Massachusetts, and during the time that Williams was absent, while 
laying before the English Parliament the continued grievances of the 
colony, the most trying period of their history, Gorton was chosen the 
President of the colony ; and, with his Assistants, proved, in the words of 
the historian of Warwick, the "crew of valiant men whose courage and 
wisdom were equal to the emergency." In 1652 he draughted and as- 
sisted to enact the first legal enactment abolishing slavery — involuntary 
life servitude in the colonies' Hawes, in his history, says that Gorton 
and Williams drew up this Act, but Williams was then in England, had 
gone there the year before. This law, so early, could not be sustained. 
Not until about one hundred years after this was the like statute again 
enacted. He was one of the incorporators named in the 1663 new 

From 1664 to 1667 he was Deputy, a Judge in the high court and 
equivalent of present State Senator; was again chosen to this position 
in 1670, and, on account of his age only, he being seventy-nine years 
old, he declined the proffered continuation in office. 

Although he is represented by some writers as a man given to anger, 
he appears mild when compared with many others of that period. It 
is observable that his friends and the people, nearly all of whom were 
of dissimilar religious views who lived in Warwick, did not fall out 
with him or complain of him. They had no difficulties among themselves 
but that were lovingly arbitrated, and he " never raised his hand in 
violence against any human being, not even against his own children." 
In the debates with the Friends, in which he with Roger Williams and 
others took part against them, he is the one almost alone that exhibited 
no anger, flung no epithets, and is not accused by his opponents, as most 
of the others are, of unkindness or incivility. Although doctrinally 
opposed to them, he sent letters of loving sympathy to those that were 
imprisoned, and he was about the only man of prominence of that time, 
we can find, who kindly respected, even advocated, the rights of others 
to opinions differing with his own. To the cause of human liberty 
there is in American history no greater example of a lifetime of 
unselfish, unflinching sacrificial devotion Nearly all of the accounts 
we have of Samuel Gorton in our libraries are copies of the political 
fables that were used in the attempt to destroy the government and 
obtain the lands of the Providence Plantation people." 

We quote from the words of the Hon. Job Durfee, one of the most 
able of the Chief Justices of the Rhode Island Supreme Court. He 
writes : " Samuel Gorton was a person of the most distinctive origi- 
nality of character. He was a man of deep, strong feelings, keenly 
alive to every injury, though inflicted on the humblest of God's creatures. 
He was a great lover of soul liberty and hater of all shams. He was 

p. 243. •The Lands of Rhode Island, by Sidney S. Rider, Providence.] 


a learned man, self-educated, studious, contemplative, a profound 
thinker, who in his spiritual meditations amid ancient Warwick's prime- 
val groves wandered off into infinite and eternal realities, forgetful 
of earth and all earthly relations. He did indeed clothe his thoughts 
at times in clouds, but then it was because they were too large for any 
other garment. No one who shall rivet his attention upon them shall 
fail to catch some glimpse of giant limb and joint, and have some dim 
conception of the colossal form that is enshrouded within the mystic 
envelopment. Yet in common life no one was more plain, simple and 
unaffected than Gorton. That he was courteous, affable and_ elegant, his 
very enemies admit, and even greviously complain of his seductive 
language. He was a man of courage, and when aroused no hero of the 
Iliad ever breathed language more impassioned or effective. Nothing 
is more probable than that such a man, in the presence of the Massa- 
chusetts Magistrates, felt his superiority and moved and spoke with 
somewhat more freedom than thev deemed suited to their dignity. 
Far more sinned against than sinning, he bore adversity with heroic 
fortitude; and if he did not conquer, he yet finally baffled every effort 
of his enemies." 

On November 27, 1677, he deeded to his son Samuel the homestead 
at Warwick, to his son John all lands west of Warwick, other lands to 
Benjamin; and further deeded for love, etc.. to sons-in-laws and 
daughters lands in Narragansett, viz. : To Daniel Cole and wife Maher, 
John San ford and Mary,' William Mace and Sarah, John Warner and 
Ann, John Crandall and Elizabeth, and Benjamin Barton and Susanna. 
To son Samuel he commits " the care of my beloved wife during widow- 
hood, if she live to be a widow, and she to be maintained with con- 
venient housing and necessaries ; " provision is also made for her 
" recreation in case she desires to visit her friends." 

Samuel died in the year 1677 in December, probably the loth day 
of the month, aged within a few days of eighty-six years. The time 
of Mary's death is unknov/n. His body rests in the Gorton burial 
ground at Warwick, and her body also probably rests there. No monu- 
ment of marble or stone has ever marked their graves. 
Children : 

2. Samuel Gorton, born 1630, married Susanna Burton, 

3. Mary Gorton, born , married (i) Peter Greene, married (2) John 


4. Maher Gorton, born , married Daniel Cole. 

5. John Gorton, iDorn , married Margaret Weeden. 

6. Benjamin Gorton, born , married Sarah Carder. 

7. Sarah Gorton, born , married William Mace. 

8. Ann Gorton, born , married John Warner. 

9. Elizabeth Gorton, born , married John Crandall. 

10. Susanna Gorton, born , married Benjamin Barton. 

[John and Mary Maplet had John, Josceline, Elizabeth, Mary, and probably other 
children. John was learned, candid and ingenious and an excellent Latin poet, 
President of Worcester College and later eminent in medicine and Physician 
extraordinary to the King. Elizabeth married (i) Samuel Champlin, married 
(2) William Hamm. She left children Samuel Champlin and Elizabeth Champlin, 
the latter marrying a Mr. Warrington. Mary married Samuel Gorton. (Stevens' 
Cyclopedia of National Biography Guidott's Lives of the Physicians of Bath, 
Eng., New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vols, xliv, xlvi.) ] 


2. SAMUEL= GORTON ( Samuel' ), eldest son, was born at Gorton, 
Lancaster County, England, in 1630. He came with his father to New, 
England in 1636, was with him through all his troublesome experiences, 
and lived with him at Warwick on the homestead assigned to the first 
settlers of town. His father deeded to him all interests in the property 
and also his library and all papers and writings, by reason of the great 
assistance he had been to him in the support of the family when, as 
he said, his children were young and he was necessarily absent from 
wife, family and home. He, like his father, early obtained the friend- 
ship and good-will of the Indian tribes about them and became pro- 
ficient in speaking and writing their language, and his earliest public 
service appears to have been as Court Interpreter between the English 
and Indians. He was Captain of the military company of the town. In 
1678 a member of the court at Newport engaged in the trial of Indians 
for depredations committed during the King Philip's War. During 
the eight years 1676-1683 he was a member of the Upper House of the 
Assembly, an Assistant Judge. Later he filled the office for two terms, 
was elected for another term and declined to serve. He married, Decem- 
ber nth, 1684, Susanna Burton, daughter of William and Hannah 
(Wickes) Burton, born 1665. Samuel died September 6, 1724, and 
Susanna married (2) Richard Harris. She died June 25, 1737. 
In his will, made December 21, 1721, he calls himself in his ninety- 
second year; bequeaths to his wife Susanna all housings and lands 
for life, and at her decease to sons Samuel and Hezekiah and daughter 
Susannah Stafford. The house he had erected on the farm that he 
received from his father had been sold by him to Samuel Greene, who 
married his niece Mary, daughter of his brother Benjamin. 

Samuel was a man after his father's heart and of whom he often wrote 
in terms of praise and affection. And although now in less trying times 
than formerly, he discharged well the obligations of citizenship, well 
attended to public and private duties, and lived and died, honored and re- 
spected by all who loved what was right and good. There had not been 
and there was not at this time any independent church in Warwick, nor 
was there any there for many years to come. During the earlier times 
the people there were not only too few, but were too frequently scattered 
to organize any religious society; and not until after the year 1700 were 
its settlers of sufficient number to gather from them a society of any 
one church on belief. Although Samuel, Sr. has been so over charged 
with trying to establish a church or religion, we do not find in his 
recorded words or acts, that he attempted to propogate a new church or 
religion. His tenets, he said he drew from his mother the church of Eng- 
land, and he, it appears did not deem them inconsistent with member- 
ship in any denomination that was Christian. It was " refreshment in the 
ordinances of God," a personal piety that he recommended and pro- 
claimed; and it was coercion of his freedom that he condemned. The 
Rev. Cotton Mather, said he, could not find that the people of Warwick, 
the followers of Gorton were agreed upon any other principal so much as 
that they would not disturb one another in their worship or opinion. 
The name Gortonoges was not given to them by their religious op- 
ponets nor given to them to distinguish their religion. The name 
v;as given to them by the Indians and on account of the Indian's 
belief that they were a strong people, to distinguish them from other 
Whites, whom they called Wattaconoges. But the name was quickly 



taken up by their enemies and applied to them as denominating a 
sect. If, however, we may with the other evidences accept for its 
application the so high church authority as Cotton Mather, we are 
grateful that they have so spread and that so extensively has pre- 
vailed, what he describes as constituting their main doctrine. (Gorton 
1645, R. I. Collec. ii. Hist. Warwick 23.) 
Children : 

11. Samuel Gorton, Jr., born June i, 1690, married Freelove Mason. 

12. Hezekiah Gorton, born January 11, 1692, married Avis Carr. 

13. Susannah Gorton, born June 4, 1694, married Joseph Stafford. 

3. MARY^ GORTON (Samuer) was probably the second child, born 
either in England or shortly after Samuel's arrival in New England. 
She was married (i) about 1657 to Peter" Greene, son of John' and 
Joanne (Tattersall) Greene, who was born at Salisbury, Middlesex 
County, England, in 1621, and came with his parents to the colonies in 
1635. He inherited his father's homestead in old Warwick, where he 
died February, 1659. Mary had no children by this marriage. She 
married (2) April 17, 1663, John Sanford, son of Lieutenant John and 
Elizabeth (Webb) Sanford, of Portsmouth. He was born June 4, 
1633; died 1687. She died 1688 in Tiverton, R. I. 

John Sanford was in 1654 chosen President of the island of Rhode 
Island government, during the time that the island was separated from 
the chartered or main government, by the Coddington faction. After- 
wards he was successively Treasurer, Commissioner, Recorder, Deputy, 
and Attorney General of the chartered government. (Greene Family, 

P- 63) 
Children : 

14. Mary Sanford, born March 20, 1664, married . 

15. Eliphalet Sanford, born February 20, 1666 

16. John Sanford, born June 18, 1672, married, wife's name unknown. 

Among his descendants are the following — note below. 

17. Samuel Sanford, born October s, 1677. 

[M. Louise' (Brownell) Clark, Ridgefield, Conn. ; Willis Lord' Brownell, East 
Orange, N. J.; Anna H.* (Brownell) Hutcheson, Hempstead, L. I.; Caroline R.* 
(Brownell) Smith, dec; Asa Cook* Brownell, Jr., Manhasset, L. I.; Edward H.* 
Brownell, dec. (Asa Cook' Brownell, Sarah* (Grinnell) Brownell, Zebedee' Grin- 
nell, Mary* (Sanford) Grinnell, John' Sanford, Mary^ Gorton, SamueP.) ] 

4. MAHER' GORTON (Samuel'), if born in Plymouth, was the infant 
whom her mother, " in delicate health," had " at the breast sick with 
the measles " in the great storm during the family's journey from 
Plymouth to Aquidneck Island. She married Daniel Cole, son of 
Robert and Mary. Robert Cole was the one from whom Samuel Gorton 
made his first purchase of land in the colonies; land about Pawtuxet 
on the outskirts of the town of Providence; land which, with the 
buildings erected after the purchase, Gorton and his party abandoned 
on account of claimants with fraudulent underlying titles ; he then 
purchased, as he said, " of the first owners, the Indians." Daniel was 
born in 1642 in the vicinity of Pawtuxet, and died November 29, 1692, 
probably at Moschets Cove, now Glen Cove, Long Island, where they 
settled and where many of their descendants still reside. 
Children : 

18. Samuel Cole. 

19. Bergaman Cole. 

20. Joseph Cole. 
31. Susanna Cole. 

22. Sarah Cole, married Ishabod Hopkins. 

23. Daniel Cole. 

24. Mary Cole. 

25. Ann Cole, married Thomas Wickes. 


5. JOHN' GORTON ( Samuel'). We find no data from which to fix 
the time or place of his birth. He was given by his father all his lands 
west of Warwick, including land in Cranston. He married, January 
25, 1665, Margaret Weeden. In 1668 he bought land with orchard and 
buildings of William and Hannah Burton. In 1677 he and forty-seven 
others received a grant from the colony of 5,000 acres of land in East 
Greenwich in consideration of their " services in King Philip's War." 
East Greenwich then included what is now West Greenwich, the latter 
having been set from it in 1741. John was a mariner, and this occasion 
of protracted absence from home may account for the but few refer- 
ences to him that we find among the records of the town and colony. 
The date of his death is inscribed on the Warwick records as occurring 
February 3, 1714; no data regarding his wife Margaret is given. 
Children : 

26. Othniel Gorton, born September 22, 1669, married Mercy Burlingame. 

27. Samuel Gorton, born July 22, 1672, married Elizabeth Collins. 

28. John Gorton, born , married (i) Patience Hopkins, married (2) 

Elizabeth Peirce. 

29. Benjamin Gorton, born 1682, died April 15, 1745, unmarried. 

30. Daughter Gorton, born . 

6. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Samuel') lived the greater part of his life 
at Warwick. He married, December 5, 1672, Sarah Carder, daughter of 
Richard and Mary. He was among those who were in 1677 granted 
5,000 acres, to be called East Greenwich, in consideration of their 
"services in King Philip's War." He was in 1686 Deputy, or member 
of the Upper House of the Rhode Island Legislature, Captain of the 
military company and at the time of his death. He died December 25, 
1699. Sarah died August 8, 1724. His will, made August 25, 1721, 
proved August 7, 1724, mentions his wife, sons and daughters and the 
latter's husband, s surnames. 

Children : 

31. Mary Gorton, born October 31, 1673, married Samuel Greene. 

32. Sarah Gorton, born about 1675, married John Wickes. 

33. Benjamin Gorton, born about 1678, married Ann Lancaster. 

34. Samuel Gorton, born May 3, 1687, married Elizabeth Greene. 

35. Alice Gorton, born , married George Thomas. 

36. Maplet Gorton, born , married Thomas Remington. 

8. ANN' GORTON (Samuel') married, August 7, 1670, John' Warner, 
son of John' and Priscella (Holman) Warner, who was born August 
1, 1645; died April 22, 1712. His father John^ was the founder of the 
Warner family in the colony, was an inhabitant of Providence in 1637, 
and had one of the " Home lots " near where the " What Cheer " build- 
ing now stands; was one of the purchasers of Shawomut (Warwick), 
one of those captured and imprisoned by the Massachusetts Magistrates 
who coveted the land, member of Warwick's first town concil, its 
first Town Clerk, and Clerk of the General Assembly in 1648. His 
mother, Priscilla, was daughter of Rev. Ezekil Holman, who was 
associated with Roger Williams in the First Church of Providence. 
John' in 1654 went to England with his father, but was sent for by his 
grandfather, Ezekil Holman, to inherit his property. He was Deputy 
to the Assembly 1672, '74, '79, '83, '85, '90, and in 1762 a contributor 
toward building the Quaker meeting-house at Mashapaug. 
Children : 

37. John Warner, born June s, 1673, married (i) Elizabeth Coggershall, 

married (2) Susanna Pearce, married (3) Elizabeth Cov/ell. 

38. Priscilla Warner, born , married (1) Jeremiah Crandall, married 

(2) Abraham Lockwood. 

39. Mary Warner, born , married Jeremiah Westcott. 

40. Ann Warner, born . 

41. Ezekel Warner, born , married Sarah Bennett. 


9. ELIZABETH' GORTON (Samuel') married, June i8. 1672, John 
Crandall, Jr. His father, John, was one of the efders of the Baptist 
Chrurch at Newport, the first elder of the church at Westerly; was 
Deputy while at Newport. In 1696 John, Jr., was at Narragansett. He 
died in 1704. (See Austin's One Hundred and Sixty Allied Families.) 
Children : 

42. John Crandall. 

43. Elizabeth Crandall, married Wilcox. 

44. Mary Crandall, married Phillips. 

45. Peter Crandall. 

46. Samuel Crandall. 

10. SUSANNA^ GORTON (Samuel") married. Tune 18. 1672. Benja- 
min° Barton, son of Rufus' and Margarette, born 1645, died 1720. She 
died May 28, 1734. His father Rufus came from England and first settled 
where the city of New York now stands, and is said to have been the 
first settler there, but left there to escape the persecution of the Dutch, 
he being a Quaker, and settled in Portsmouth, R. I.; lived later in 
Warwick and was a Magistrate there. He was in 1648 sent by the 
Rhode Island Assembly to Massachusetts to secure the release of their 
Commissioner, Samuel Gorton, who having just returned from England 
was detained by the Massachusetts Magistrates, in violation of the 
Parliament's letter, until after the Rhode Island election. The home- 
stead at Warwick is now, or was recently, owned by Benjamin Rufas 
Barton, a descendant of the seventh generation. (Fuller's History of 
Warwick, p. 40; Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island.) 
Children : 

47. Rufas Barton, born 1673, married Sarah Robinson. 

48. Andrew Barton, married Rebecca Low. 

49. Mary Barton, born May i, 1678. married Jabez Greene. 

50. Phebe Barton, married, August 5, 1704, Henry Tucker. 

51. Naomi Barton, married (i) Ebenezer Slocum, married (2) Edward 


52. Elizabeth Barton, born . 


11. SAMUEL' GORTON (SamueP Samuel') was born July 29, 1690, 
at Warwick; married, June i, 1715, Freelove Mason, daughter of Elder 
Joseph and Lydia (Bowen) Mason. He moved from Warwick to 
Swansey, Mass, where his last five children were born. He died in 
January, 1784, and was buried from his son Deacon Benjamin's house, 
Warwick, January 23; funeral sermon by Elder John Gorton. Inven- 
tory filed March 8, 1784. Elder Joseph Mason, of Warren, R. I., in 
will March 26, 1748, mentions his daughter, Freelove Gorton, and 
granddaughter, Susannah. 


53. Samuel Gorton, born March 7, 171 7, married (i) Ruth Slade, married 

(2) Frances (Rice) Graves. 

54. Freelove Gorton, born August 27, 1718. 

55. Ann Gorton, born September 7, 1721. 

56. Lydia Gorton, born February i, 1723. 

57. Benjamin Gorton, born July 2, 1725, married Avis Hulett. 

58. William Gorton, born . 

59. Joseph Gorton, born , married Mary Barton. 

60. Susanna Gorton, born June 6, i734- 

61. Hezekiah Gorton, born July 9, 1736. 

12. HEZEKIAH' GORTON (Samuer Samuel') was born June ii, 
1692, at Warwick; married, August 20, 1719, Avis Carr, daughter of Ed- 
ward and Hannah (Stanton) Carr, of Jameston, R. I. He was bom May 
29, 1698, died February 17, 1733. She died 1784. He and wife Avis, 
January 4, 1720, gave a receipt to Edward Carr, Jr., for legacy from her 
father. He was in 1724 granted the right to operate a ferry between 
Warwick Neck and Prudence Island. His will was filed April 10, 1749, 
and the administration was to Samuel Gorton ; but this probably was his 
nephew, Samuel, for his son Samuel seems to have been the one 
who is recorded in Warwick as having died November i, 1720. 

62. Samuel Gorton, born May 21, 1720. 

13. SUSANNA' GORTON (Samuel' Samuel') was born June 4, 1694, 
in Warwick, and married Joseph^ Stafford, Jr., son of Joseph^ and Sarah 
(Holden) Stafford. She died August 29, 1734, in Warwick. Joseph 
Stafford, Jr., was a blacksmith, a Major and later a Colonel in the 
Militia. He was the grandson of Thomas' Stafford, who came from 
Warwickshire, England, and settled in Plymouth colony in about 1626, 
where he built the first corn mill built in this country; whence he 
removed to Providence, where he erected the first grist mill in Rhode 
Island. He soon after removed to Warwick and spent the remainder 
of his days there. He secured a considerable tract of land at the head 
of Mill Cove, including the present mill site, where he erected another 
mill. He lived on the north side of the stream, where stands the house 
formerly occupied by the Lippitt family and lately owned by Amos 
Greene. Joseph, Jr.'s mother, Sarah Holden, was the daughter of 
Randall Holden, one of the purchasers of Shawomet or Warwick. 
(Fuller's History of Warwick, 63; Greene Family, 108; Stafford Fam- 
ily, p. 63.) Thomas' and Elizabeth Stafford had Thomas, who married 
Jane Dodge; Samuel, who married Mercy Westcott, daughter of Stuck- 
ley ; Joseph, who married Sarah Holden ; Deborah, Hannah and Sarah. 
Children : 

63. Mercy Stafford, born June 2, 1717, married John Waterman. 

64. Joseph Stafford, born at Warwick, January 6, 1719. married, May 27, 

1739. Rebecca Arnold, of Capt. William. 



65. Susannah Stafford, born August 15, 1721, died December 15, 1721. 

66. Susannah Stafford, born March 10, 1723, married Alexander McGregor. 

22. SARAH' COLE (MaheP Samuer) married Ischabod Hopkins, 
who was born in 1660. They lived at Cedar Swamp, Oyster Bay, Long 
Island. She died in 1725. He died January 25, 1730; will dated March 
17, 172s, proved February 25, 1730. (Long Island Genealogies, by 

67. Thomas Hopkins, married, 1738, Margaret, lived at North Castle, West- 

chester County, N. Y. 

68. Daniel Hopkins, married Amey Weeks; he died 1763. 

69. Elizabeth Hopkins, married, 1734, Benjamin Birdsall, of Rye. 

70. Sarah Hopkins, born 1719, married, 1736, Michael Mudge, died 1815. 

71. Dinah Hopkins, married Nehemiah Merritt. 

72. Ann Hopkins. 

25. ANN' COLE (Maher" Samuel') married, February 20, 1702, 
Thomas' Wickes, of Warwick, son of John* and Rose (Townsend) 
Wickes and grandson of John' and Mary. Thomas' was broth«r of 
John', who married Ann's cousin, Sarah Gorton. Thomas' and also his 
parents moved from Warwick to Musolo Cove, Oyster Bay, Long 
Island. John* Wickes was the founder of the Wickes family in the 
colony, one of the purchasers of Shawomet (Warwick), one of those 
imprisoned with Samuel Gorton for heresy, a Representative to the 
Assembly of the government of the Providence Plantations. 
Children (whose births are all recorded at Warwick) : 

73. Althalia Wickes, born October 10, 1704. 

74. Mary Wickes, born August 15, 1706, married, 1727, Clement Weaver, of 


75. Sarah Wickes, born March 18, 1708, married, May 22, 1735, Nathaniel 

Peirce, of Preserved. 

76. Thomas Wickes, Jr., born January 28, 1710, married (i) Thankful , 

77. John Wickes, born February 6, 1712. 

78. Daniel Wickes, born May 10, 1714, died September 28, 1723. 

79. Benjamin Wickes, born August 18, 1716, married, February 15, 1739, 

Alice Bennett. 

80. Joseph Wickes, born May 31, 1719, married (i) Mary Greene, married 

(2) Bridget Price. 

81. James Wickes, born February 2, 1722. 

82. Samuel Wickes, born February 2, 1722, died March 4, 1722. 

83. Robert Wickes, born February 2, 1722, died February 16, 1722. 

26. OTHNIEL' GORTON (John* Samuel'). His birth, September 22, 
1669, is recorded in Warwick. Married Mercy Burlingame, daughter of 
Roger and Mary. Pie died June 13, 1733, and she died soon after. 
He was an inn holder with other occupations in Warwick. In the year 
1726 he sold land to his sons Israel and John, of Providence. Served 
many times and in both Houses of the Rhode Island Legislature, and 
was Captain of militia company in the town. In his will, June 5, 1733, 
proved June 29, 1733, he names his wife Mary as executrix, and 
bequeaths to sons Israel and John the property at Mashantatack, 
Cranston, where they lived; to son Othniel the homestead and lands 
in Scituate and Warwick; to wife and daughter Frances money and 
all movables. 

Children : 

84. Israel Gorton, born , married Freelove Burlingame. 

85. John Gorton, born 1693, married Hannah . 

86. Frances Gorton, born March 15, 1707, married Jeremiah Peirce, Jr. 

87. Othniel Gorton, born October i, 1718, married Theadosia Hopkins. 

27. SAMUEL' GORTON (John' Samuel'), born July 22, 1672, at 
Warwick, marired. May 9, 1695, Elizabeth Collins, born November i, 


1672, daughter of Captain Elizur and Sarah (Wright) Collins. During 
the years 1714 to 1718 he was Deputy to the Rhode Island Legislature. 
He died June 5, 1722. His will bequeathed to wife Elizabeth use of 
household and all movables ; to his son Edward the old place, so called, 
which honored father John formerly dwelt on and lot at Horses Neck ; to 
son Samuel the homestead farm; to son William lot at Soweset; and to 
daughters Ann, Margaret, Sarah, Elizabeth, money, etc. The Warwick 
records of deaths give, under date September 9, 1724, " Elizabeth, wife 
of Samuel of John and Elizabeth." Doubtless should be " of John' and 
Margaret;" Samuel of John and Elizabeth was yet a lad. 
Children : 

88. Ann Gorton, born February 19, 1696, married Daniel Remington. 

89. Edward Gorton, born May 18, 1698, married Hannah Matteson. 

90. Margaret Gorton, born May 12, 1701, married Samuel Whitman. 

91. Samuel Gorton, born January 2, 1706, married Mary Rice. 

92. William Gorton, born 1708, married Mercy Matteson. 

93. Sarah Gorton, born 1710, married Thankful Collins. 

94. Elizabeth Gorton, born 1716, married Benjamin Tallman. 

28. JOHN' GORTON (Jno' Sam'l') was made a freeman at Warwick 
in 1696. He married (i), February 2, 1700, Patience Hopkins, daughter 
of Thomas and Sarah Hopkins, of Providence. Lived at Papaquinapaug 
(in some records Papapaug), Mashapaug, now in the town of Cranston, 
and at East Greenwich and Westerly; and was in 1705 a Deputy to the 
Assembly from the latter town. He was on December 17 of the same 
year deeded land by his father John. (Warwick Land Evidences, Piook 
2, p. 10.) He married (2) at Nantucket, November 17, 1717, Elizabeth 
Peirce. (New England Historical and Genealogical Register, LI, 55.) 
The name, although written Peirce in the marriage docket at Narra- 
gansett, was written by herself Percy, and according to the record of 
her son John, " Elizabeth Percy, of Northumberland and Lancaster 
Counties, granddaughter of Jocelyn Percy, Eleventh Earl of Northum- 
berland." John was when at sea a ship captain, but passed much of 
his time in England near his ancestral home. Nantucket was a prin- 
cipal port, where he and Elizabeth met after passage in different vessels. 
(John Gorton, Jr.'s, Bible Imprint, 1770 Record, 1771.) "John, son 
of John," was in May, 1722, readmitted a freeman of the colony. 
" Land that I, John Gorton, bought of Peter Greene " was, January 
20, 1750, conveyed to Thomas Rice by John Gorton, sailor. (Book 7, 

P- 431 •) 
Children : 

95. Patience Gorton, born December 12, 1700, married Ebenezer Cook. _ 

96. Benjamin Gorton, born 1701, died 1775; gravestone in Old Warwick 

burial ground. 

97. Samuel Gorton, born 1703, died 1723 or 1724. Young Gorton was lost 

during storm and vessel wreck between Rhode Island coast and New 
London, Conn., August 9, 1723. (Hempstead Diary, Conn. Archives.") 
"Samuel Gorton 2d, of John and Elizabeth, died Sept. 9, 1724." 
(Warwick Records.) A likely error, and he may have been designated 
as the second to distinguish him from another older, among those 
living, bearing same name. 

98. Hopkins Gorton, born April, 1704, died March 27, 1725; gravestone, 

burial ground, Hartford, Conn. 

99. William Gorton, born , married, 1736, Lydia Collins. 

100. Priscilla Gorton, born . 

loi. John Gorton, born , married (i) Hannah Champlin, married (2) 

Sarah (Berry) Babcock. 
102, Samuel Gorton, born , married Mary Grant. 

31. MARY' GORTON (Benj.' SamT) was born at Warwick, Octo- 
ber 31, 1673. She married, January 24, 1694, Samuel' Greene, youngest 
son of Deputy Governor John* and Ann (Almy) Greene (John'), born 


January 30, 1670-71, at Occupasuetuxet, the neck of land which his 
grandfather purchased, October i, 1642, of Miantinomi. He in 1718 
purchjised the farm at Apponang, Warwick, that was originally owned 
by Samuel Gorton, where he resided. This homestead became a favorite 
resort of Lafayette, Franklin, Rochambeau, Colonel Sullivan, and other 
notable personages. General Nathaniel Greene and Catherine Little- 
field were married in the west room by Elder John Gorton. The prop- 
erty is at present occupied by his descendants. He was a farmer and 
mill owner, Captain of the military company. Deputy to the General 
Assembly, and Justice of the Peace. He died September 18, 1720. 
She died January 7, 173 1-2. John' Greene, surgeon, the founder of the 
Greene family in this country, came from Salisbury, England, in 1635, 
first settled in Massachusetts; was fifth in the deed of Roger Williams' 
first purchase at Providence, the purchaser of Occupasuetuxet, and with 
Samuel Gorton and others purchaser of Shawomet, Warwick. He was, 
with Samuel Gorton and others, captured and imprisoned by the Massa- 
chusetts authorities, and was one of the Commissioners to whom the 
Narragansett nation entrusted the deed of their dominions. After the 
arrival of the charter and an organization of government under it with 
Roger Williams as President, on account of obstructions to the opera- 
tion of the government, interposed by the other colonists, he, with 
Samuel Gorton and Randall Holden, went in August, 1645, to England 
as Commissioners for the government to lay their grievance before 
Parliament. (Letter from the Assembly to Massachusetts in Mass. 
Archives. Colonel Aspinwall, Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Society, 1862. 
Roger Williams' letter, R. L Collections, iv.) These Commissioners 
secured from Parliament the order that preserved the charter and 
Rhode Island as a State. Samuel and Mary (Gorton) Greene were 
the parents of a Governor (William), the grandparents of a Governor 
(William, Jr.), the great-grandparents of a United States Senator 
(Hon. Ray Greene), the great-great-gandparents of a Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor (William Greene), and the great-great-great-grandparents of 
Deputy Governor and United States Senator Samuel G. Arnold, the 
State Historian. (The Greene Family, Fuller's Hist. Warwick, pp. 

30, 3I-) 
Children : 

103. William Greene, born March 16, 1695, married Catharine Greene. 

104. Mary Greene, born August 25, 1698, married Thomas Fry. 

105. Samuel Greene, born October 22, 1700, married Sarah Coggershall. 

106. Benjamin Greene, born January 5, 1702-3, married Almy Angell. 

107. Ann Greene, born April 5, died June 30, 1706. 

32. SARAH' GORTON (Benj.= SamT) was born probably in War- 
wick, where she lived and where she died January 31, 1753. She 
married, December 15, 1698, John' Wickes, son of John' and Rose 
(Townsend) Wickes, born August 8, 1677, died December 27, 1741. 
He was Town Clerk for twenty-eight years and Representative to the 
Assembly for thirty-three years. His grandfather, John', was the 
founder of the Wickes family in the colony and one of the purchasers 
of Shawomet, one of those imprisoned with Samuel Gorton for heresy, 
and a Representative to the Assembly. His descendants are numerous. 
One of the Coweseet, Warwick, farms set off in 1684, lying about a mile 
east of Rock Hill schoolhouse, still remains in their possession. (His 
Warwick, p. 78.) 
Children : 

108. John Wickes, born February 26, 1699, married 

109. Sarah Wickes, born September 21, 1700, married Benoni Waterman, 
no. Rose Wickes, born August 12, 1702, married Randall Holden. 


111. Robert Wickes, born December 22, 1704, married Margaret Barton. 

112. Elizabeth Wickes, born February 25, 1707, married Philip Greene. 

113. William Wickes, born August 2(>, 1710, married Maplet Remington. 

114. Richard Wickes, born October 23, 1712, married Barbara Holden. 

115. Thomas Wickes, born September 8, 1715, married, January 16, 1752, 

Ruth Brown, of William. 

1 16. Mary Wickes, born December 11, 1717, died July 18, 1746. 

II. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Benj.* SamT), born in about 1678 in 
Warwick, married Ann Lancaster, daughter of William Lancaster; 
lived at Warwick and East Greenwich, and was in 1713 a Deputy to 
the General Assembly. He later settled upon a tract he purchased 
September 20, 1717, for £500 of Peter and Mary Mason — " 500 acres, 
bounded westerly and northwesterly on the great pond called Twenty 
Mile Pond, alias Massapeage." It was in the town, now county, of 
New London, but was reckoned within the town of Norwich, which it 
adjoined, and he was always listed as a resident of that town. Massapeg 
Pond, also called Gardner's Lake, is situated in the present towns of 
Norwich, Bozrah and Colchester. The landscape surrounding it is of 
exceeding beauty. Massapeg Station is on the New London and 
Williamantic R. R., about four miles from Norwich and eight miles 
from New London centre, and about six miles from the lake, which is 
now a favorite resort for people of affluence. 

William Lancaster settled at Norwich at about the same time that 
Benjamin Gorton settled there. The records show close intimacy 
between the families. The graves of their son, Robert Lancaster, 1694- 
1770, and his wife, Elizabeth, 1706-1782, and of their son, John, 1738—, 
and his wife, Anna Bentley Tripp, 1755-1831, and of Mercy Lancaster 
are in the Christ's Church burying-ground at Chelsea. The children 
of Robert and Elizabeth, so far as known, were James, 1734, Elizabeth, 
1736-1813, John, 1738, Mercy, 1742-1807, Mary, 1744, Ann, 1745, Wil- 
liam, 1749. (Miss Caulkin's MSS. Historical Society, New London.) 

Benjamin Gorton died in 1737. Administration upon his estate was 
granted to his widow, Ann, August 9, 1737, and later at her desire to 
son, Lancaster. Ann died during the following year. 

117. Benjamin Gorton, born about 1701, died 1736 or '07. 

118. Sarah Gorton, born , married, 1725, Edward Rogers. 

119. Stephen Gorton, born March 21, 1704, married Sarah Rogers Haynes. 

120. William Gorton, born . 

121. Lancaster Gorton, born , married, 1734, Priscilla. 

122. Joseph Gorton, born 1715, married Hannah Leffingwell. 

123. Ann Gorton, born , unmarried 1769. 

124. Mercy Gorton, born , married Samuel Leffingwell. Jr. 

34. SAMUEL' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel') was born at Warwick, 
where, and at Providence, he made his home. He died at Warwick 
August 21, 1723. He married, July 25, 1706, Elizabeth Greene, born 
May 8, 1787, daughter of Thomas' (Thomas^ John' and Ann (Greene) 
Greene, the latter the daughter of Major John* Greene, Deputy Gov- 
ernor. Samuel Gorton was Deputy to the Assembly 1708. (See No. 31 
and Greene Family, Nos. 2, 33.) 

125. Alice Gorton, born August 8, 1707, married Stephen Lowe. 

126. Elizabeth Gorton, born November 26, 1709. 

137. Samuel Gorton, born September 14, 1711, married Welthian Spencer. 

128. Thomas Gorton, born May 2, 1713, married Penelope Brown. 

129. Benjamin Gorton, born February 11, 1715, married Mercy Foster. 

130. Ann Gorton, born July 22, 1718, married David (or Daniel) Spencer. 

131. Richard Gorton, born June 15, 1720. 

132. John Gorton, born April 22, 1723, married (i) Rhoda Bowen, married 

(2) Phebe Sheldon. 


35. ALICE' GORTON (Benjamin* Samuer) married, January 20, 
1704, George Thomas, son of John, born August 20, 1681, died 1740. The 
marriage is recorded at both Warwick and Jamestown, R. I. He lived 
also in North Kingstown. 

Children : 

133. Sarah Thomas, married, June 9, 1723, Jonathan Nichols. 

134. Mary Thomas, married Thomas Fay. 

135. George Thomas, married Elizabeth Maunly. 

136. John Thomas. 

137. Benjamin Thomas. " Benjamin Thomas, of Richmond, R. I., married, 

April 27, 1766, Susannah Dyre, of West Greenwich." (W. Gr. Reeds.) 

138. Peleg Thomas. " Peleg Thomas, of Richmond, married, May 2, 1760, 

Russella Aylesworth." (W. Gr. Reeds.) 

139. Samuel Thomas, married Ruth Gould. 

140. Daughter Thomas. 

141. Alice Thomas, married Robert Hazard, Jr., ; ..^ 

142. Elizabeth Thomas, married Thomas Freedom.' ' 

(Records of descendants, if gathered and sent to A. Gorton, will be published 

in an appendix to this volume.) 

36. MAPLET' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel'), named after her 
grandmother, Mary (Maplet) Gorton, marired at Warwick, December 
28, 1710, Thomas* Remington, Jr., son of Thomas' and Mary (Allen) 
Remington, born 1682, died September 25, 1723. (John' Reming.on, 

John' Remington and Elizabeth, his wife, emigrated in 1637 from 
Yorkshire, England, to Newberry or Haverhill, Essex County, Mass., 
with them sons John", Thomas* and Jonathan^ John' Remington, who 
probably was the progenitor of all of that name in Rhode Island, first 
settled in Haverhill, Mass. He became a citizen of Portsmouth, R. I.. 
in 1669. His sons were Stephen*, John, Jr.,' and Thomas'. Thomas' 
settled on Prudence Island, and subsequently located in Warwick and 
bought farm No. i on Coweset plot, containing 240 acres, of John 
Warner and Philip Sweet, in 1693, for £57. He married Mary Allen. 
His children consisted of eight sons and two daughters. The sons were 
John*, Thomas, Jr.,* William*, Daniel*, Joseph*, Stephen*, Matthew*, r;nd 
Jonathan*. The daughters were Prudence* and Mary*. Thomas, Jr.,* 
William* and John* received by the will of their father all his land?, 
they to pay legacies to the other children. Thomas, Jr.,* bought the 
adjoining farm. No. 2, on Coweset plot, the one originally assigned to 
John Smith, President in 1652 of the colony. Daniel* married Ann* 
Gorton, No. 88. Thomas F. Remington now owns and lives on the farm 
where his ancestors plowed the first furrow in the virgin soil. (N. E. 
Historical and Genealogical Register, Vols. 29, 42, 43. Fuller's Hist. 
Children : 

143. Maplet Remington, born July 11, 1712, married (i) William Wickes, 

married (2) Josiah Arnold. 

144. Mary Remington, born May 17, 1715. 

145. Stephen Remington, born June 26, 1720. 

146. Thomas Remington, born August 19, 1723, married Abigal Eldred. 

37. JOHN' WARNER (Ann' Samuel'), born in Warwick, June 5, 1673, 
died there November 5, 1732. He married (i), November 27, 1694, 
Elizabeth Coggershall, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Timberlake) 
Coggershall, born April 23, 1674, died March 13, 171 1. He married (2), 
August 6, 1713, Susannah Pearce, daughter of Giles' (Richard') and 
Elizabeth (Hall) Pearce, born May 7, 1679, died August 4, 1727. He 
married (3), September 24, 1730, Elizabeth Cowell, who died without 
issue some time after 1732. At a "Monthly Meeting" of the Society of 


Friends, held at Mashapaug in 1702, John* Warner was a contributor 
toward building a meeting-house there. 
Children : 

147. John Warner, born August 8, 1695, married (i) Mary Burlingatne, 

married (2) Abigail Brown. 

148. Elizabeth Warner, born April 19, 1697, married Knowles. 

149. Ann Warner, bom April 29, 1699. 

150. Susan Warner, born September 4, 1701. 

151. Rachel Warner, born February 8, 1704, married, January 18, 1741, 

Ephraim Arnold. 

152. William Warner, born August 31, 1706, died March 9, 1711. 

153. Samuel Warner, born December 13, 1708, married Kesiah Brown. 

154. Mary Warner, born September 5, 17:4. 

155. Priscilla Warner, born January 10, 1716, died March 17, 1716. 

156. William Warner, born March 4, 1718, married Susanna ii.-ii^.. 

38. PISCILLA' WARNER (Ann' Samuel'), birth date unknown, died 
February 24, 1750; married (i) Jeremiah Crandall, son of John and 
Hannah Crandall, of Newport, R. I., died 1718; married (2) Abraham 
Lockwood, who died June, 1747, without children. (Austin's Allied 

157. Jeremiah Crandall, born June 25, 1702, died prior to i"-'3, unmarried. 

158. Ann Crandall, died prior to 1725, unmarried. 

159. John Crandall, born October 1, 1704, died December 30, 1725, unmarried. 

160. Hannah Crandall, married Robert Austin. 

161. James Crandall, born September 4, 1706, died September 13, 1728, 


162. Sarah Crandall, died near 1721, unmarried. 

163. Experience Crandall, born December 28, 1709, married David Sprague, 

of David ; had Jeremiah. 

164. Patience Crandall, died near 1725, unmarried. 

165. Susanna Crandall, born March 11, 1715. 

166. Mary Crandall. born May 13, 171 7. 

39. MARY* WARNER (Ann' Sam'l') married Jeremiah* Westcott, son 
of Jeremiah' (Stuckley*) and Eleanor (England) Westcott, born ia 
Warwick, October 7, 1666, died February 23, 1757. 
Children : 

167. Zephaniah Westcott. 

168. Thomas Westcott, born May 5, 1707. 

169. Jabez Westcott. 

170. Eleanor Westcott, born 1711, married William Stone. 

41. EZEKEL* WARNER (Ann* SamT), birth date unknown, died Sep- 
tember 16, 1761 ; married at Warwick, May 30, 1717, Sarah Bennett, 
daughter of Samuel and Sarah (Forman) Bennett, born January 31, 
1693, died soon after 1761. 
Children : 

171. John Warner, 

172. Martha Warner, who married a Mr. Searle. 

173. Sarah Warner. 

174. Ann Warner, who married a Mr. Fenner. 

47. RUFUS' BARTON (Susanna* Sam'l'), born 1673, died 1752, mar- 
ried, November 4, 1704, Sarah Robinson, daughter of Rowland and Mary 
(Allen) Robinson, of Kingstown. 

Children : 

175. Rufas Barton. 

176. Rowland Barton, born April 7, 1709, married Freelove Stafford, of Amos. 

177. Margaret Barton, born , married Robert Wickes. (See No. 11 1.) 

178. Sarah Barton. 

179. William Barton. 

48. ANDREW* BARTON (Susanna* Samuel') married Rebecca Low. 


daughter of John' and Mary (Rhodes) Low (Anthony' Low and wife 
Frances, John' Low and wife Elizabeth). Mary Rhodes was daughter 
of Zachariah and Joanna (Arnold) Rhodes. Andrew Barton died 
April 9, 1723, and his wife died shortly after. 

180. Benjamin Barton, born 1703, married (i) Mary Haile, married (2) 

Lydia Brown. 

181. Samuel Barton. 

182. Andrew Barton. 

183. RuFAS Barton, married Catharine Rhodes. Greene, No. 789. 

184. Anthony Barton. 

185. Phebe Barton. 

186. Susanna Barton. 

49. MARY' BARTON (Susanna' Samuel'), born May i, 1678, died 
March 6,1713; married, March 17,1698, Jabez' Greene, born May 17,1673, 
died October i, 1741, son of James^ and Elizabeth (Anthony) Greene 
(John* Greene). They were Quakers and the meetings were frequently 
held at their house. They were the grandparents of Major General 
Nathaniel Greene. Jabez inherited the Iron Forge at Potowomut, where 
he and his children carried on the business. He married (2), May 
23, 1716, Mary Whitman, daughter of Valentine Whitman, of Provi- 
dence, and had Mary, who (i) married Caleb* Greene of John^ of West 
Greenv/ich (Beryam', John' Greene, not of the Warwick family) ; and 
(2) married Charles Atwood. 

Children : 

187. Susanna Greene, born June 20, 1699, married William Chadsey. 

188. James Greene, born April 24, 1701, married Elizabeth Gould. 

189. Benjamin Greene, born February 16, 1704, married Ann Hoxie. 

190. Jabez Greene, born July 26, 1705, married Mary Gould. 

191. Nathaniel Greene, born November 4, 1707, married (i) Phebe Greene, 

married (2) Mary Mott. 

192. John Greene, born February 14, 1710, married Ann Hoxie. 

193. Rufas Greene, born June 2, 1712, married Martha Russell. 

50. PHEBE' BARTON (Susanna' Samuel') married, October 5, 1704, 
Henry Tucker, born October 30, 1680, son of Abraham and Mary 
(Slocum) Tucker. 

Children : 

194. Susan Tucker, born June 8, 1706. 

195. Mary Tucker, born July 12, 1708. 

196. Patience Tucker, born October 31, 1710. 

197. Henry Tucker, born April 8, 1713. 

198. Benjamin Tucker, born October 21, 1716. 

199. Abraham Tucker, born February 16, 1719. 

51. NAOMI' BARTON (Susanna' Samuel') marired (i) Ebenezer 
Slocum, born January 20, 1686, died October, 1715; marired (2), July 13, 
1 72 1, Edward Carr, born September 14, 1689. 

Children : 

200. Ruth Slocum. 

201. Edv/ard Carr. 

202. Benjamin Carr. 


53. SAMUEL* GORTON (Sam'l' SamT SamT), born at Warwick, 
March 7, 1717, died at Warwick 1777. Married (i), at Swansey, 
December 9, 1742, Ruth Slade, born October 13, 1724, died December 
18, 1764, daughter of William and Hannah (Mason) Slade; married 
(2), at Warwick, May 5, 1768, Frances (Rice) Graves, born January 
II, 1734, widow of Ebenezer Graves and daughter of Thomas* and first 
wife, Mary (Holden) Rice (John° John' John' Rice). 

Samuel* Gorton was a distinguished physician, lived at Swansey 
(probably that part of Swansey which was, with a part of Rehobeth, 
included in the town of Warren, Bristol County, R. I., but was shortly 
after 1648 awarded to Massachusetts), Voluntown, Conn., and at War- 
wick. He and many of his descendants are buried in the old Gorton 
burial ground, sometimes spoken of as the Coweset ground on the 
Coweset road, homestead farm of his son, Deacon Benjamin. His 
will, dated July 7, 1777, proved September 8, 1777, mentions wife, 
Frances — sons, Benjamin, Samuel, Peleg, Hezekiah, Slade, William, 
John Anthony; daughters, Ruth Wood, wife of William, Mary Wilbur, 
wife of Thomas, Freelove (not 18), Catharine, Elizabeth, and Waite. 

William Slade was of Swansey and Rehobeth. He served in the Rev- 
olutionary War, enrollment April 19, 1775, and in March from Rehobeth 
to Triverton, R. I., with Lieut. Samuel Brown, Aug., 1780. (Mass. Sol- 
diers and Sailors, Vol. vi. The R. L Revolutionary War Records are 
kept by R. H. Tully, Esq., State Reed. Com., Newport.) 
Children : 

203. Samuel Gorton, born March 6, 1743, married a Brandt, died soon after 

without issue. 

204. Ruth Gorton, born December 15, 1744, married William Wood, of 

William ; had William, Sarah and other children. 

205. Mary Gorton, born November 13, 1746, married Thomas Wilbur. 

206. Peleg Gorton, born January 11, 1750, married Dorcas Wood. 

207. Hezekiah Gorton, born 1752, married Whitford. 

208. Benjamin Gorton, born April i, 1754, married Thankful Whiteford. 

209. Slade Gorton, born , married, 1777, Mary Whitford. 

210. William Gorton, born October 15, 1760, married Sarah Whitford. 

211. Freelove Gorton, born 1761, married Daniel Wickes, of Thos., No. 248. 

212. John Gorton, born , married Brandt. 

213. Anthony Gorton, born , married (i) Coventry, married (2) 

Phebe Gorton. 

214. Sarah Gorton, born August 29, 1769, probably died young; not men- 

tioned in her father's will, 1777. 

215. Catharine Gorton, born 1771, died January 29, 1785. 

216. Elizabeth Gorton, born 1774, married John Gorton. 

217. Waitie Gorton, born 1776, married, June 19, 1796, William Weaver. 

57. BENJAMIN* GORTON (Sam'l' SamT SamT), born, Swansey, 
Mass., July 2, 1725, married, July 18, 1762, Avis Hulett, daughter of 
Captain John Hulett, of Scituate, R. I. The marriage is recorded at 
both Scituate and Warwick. 
Children : 

218. Susanna Gorton, born September 21, 1763, married James Wilbur, 558. 

219. William Gorton, born April 10, 1764, married Hannah Wightman. 

220. John Gorton, born December 21, 1765, married (i) Hope Brown, (2) 

Elizabeth Gorton. 

221. Joseph Gorton, born September 2, 1768, married Mary Wilbur, 560. 

222. Nancy Gorton, born , married Philip Gorton, 6ig, of William. 

223. Benjamin Gorton, born May 17, 1775, married Alice Low. 

224. Amos Gorton, born May 20, 1777, married (i) Avis Warner, (2) Rhoda 


225. Samuel Gorton, born , married . A sailor, died at sea; son, 

Silas E. Gorton. 

226. Hail Gorton, born 17P6, r/;arried T'a"nah Howard. 


59. JOSEPH* GORTON (Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT) was probably born 
in Swansey, although we do not find his birth recorded there. He 
married, January i, 1762, Mary* Barton, born November 20, 1740, 
daughter of Benjamin and Mary (Haile) Barton, of Warren, R. I. 
(Andrew* Susanna* Samuel^ Gorton). Mary was sister to General 
Wiiiiam" Barton, who captured General Prescott at Newport, Revolu- 
tionary War. Mary died March 4, 1772. Joseph served in Esquire 
Millard's Company, Colonel Waterman's Regiment, R. I. Militia, No- 
vember 21, 1776, December 4, 1776, January 9, 1777, Revolutionary War. 
Time of his death unknown. 
Children : 

227. Hezekiah Gorton, born November 21, 1763, married Mrs. Asa (Bow- 
ditch) Potter. 

22S. David Gorton, born November 24, 1768, married Alice Whitford. 

229. Mary Gorton, born March 4, 1770, married Levi or Sevin Kinnecut. 

63. MARCY* STAFFORD (Susanna' Saml= Sam'T), born at War- 
wick, June 2, 1717, married at Warwick, January 7, 1741, Captain John* 
Waterman, Jr., son of Captain John' and Anne (Ohiey) Waterman, 
grandson of Resolved* Waterman and wife, Mercy Williams, daughter 
of Roger Williams. Captain John's* first wife was Hannah Townsend, 
by whom he had Thomas and Hannah. Richard' Waterman, the founder 
of the family of this name in the colony, came from England with 
Roger Williams. He was first a resident of Salem in 1636, and sub- 
sequently of Providence and one of the original members of the first 
church there. He was one of the original purchasers of Shawomet 
(Warwick), and was with the other purchasers arrested by the soldiers, 
detained awhile by the Massachusetts Magistrates, then expelled from 
their jurisdiction, in which they included Shawomet, and forbidden 
to return to it upon pain of death. He lived chiefly in Providence and 
Newport, dying in the latter place. Captain John° Waterman was the 
first of the name who made Warwick a place of permanent residence. 
His only two sons, John and Benoni, and one daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Samuel Gorton's descendants. (109, Fuller's Hist. Warwick, 
' 12, 165, The Greene Family.) 

233. William Waterman, born July 28, 1744, married Phebe Arnold. 

234. Marcy Waterman, born 1746, married Waterman Tibbitts. 

235. Anne Waterman, born May 27, 1748, married John Clapp. 

236. Sarah Waterman, born 1750, married Nathan Babcock. 

66. SUSANNA* STAFFORD (Susanna' Samuel' Samuel'), born at 
Warwick, March 10, 1723, married at Warwick, Jan. 4, 1739, Alexander 
Children : 

237. James McGreggor, born October i, 1740, and others. 

71. DINAH* HOPKINS (Sarah' Maher' SamT) married Nehemiah* 
Merritt (Thomas' Joseph'), born 171 5, died 1794. He moved from 
Mamaroneck, Westchester County, N. Y., to Quaker Hill, Dutchess 
County, N. Y., in 1758. He and nine others claimed 2,500 acres on 
east side of Hudson river, 1761. Lived at Beekmans, Dutchess County, 
in 1762, at Queensburg, Warren County, in 1763. Sold saw mill to 
Abraham Wing; granted, 1774-1793, to his sons land in the Oblong, 
Dutchess County. 
Children, by first wife: 

238. Daniel Merritt. 

239. Nehemiah Merritt, born January 14, 1741, married Phebe Wing. 

240. IscHABOo Merritt. 

241. Ann Merritt. 


76. THOMAS* WICKES, JR. (Ann' Maher' SamT), born at War- 
wick, Jan. 28, 1710. Captain Thomas' first wife's name was Thankful, 
who was the mother of the first two children. He married (2), October 
9, 1748, Elizabeth, who was the widow of William Williams, who was 
the mother of the next two children. His third wife's name was Sarah, 
the mother of four children. 
Children : 

242. Hannah Wickes, born August 3, 1742, married, 1761, George Whitford, 

and had seven children. 

243. Mary Wickes, bom November 30, 1744, died February 4, 1750. 

244. Asa Wickes, born June 18, 1750. 

245. Sarah Wickes, born September 6, 1751. 

246. Ann Wickes, born January 25, 1758. 

247. Benjamin Wickes, born July 30, 1760. 

248. Daniel Wickes, born April 19, 1762, married Freelove Gorton, No. 211. 

249. Paul Unis Wickes, born February 19, 1765. 

79. BENJAMIN* WICKES, (Ann' Maher' Samuel'), born Aug. 18, 
1716, at Warwick, died there March 24, 1757; married, February 15, 
1739, Alice Bennett, of East Greenwich. 

Children : 

250. Renewed Wickes, born August 2, 1739, married, October 9, 1757, Thomas 


351. Stuckley Wickes, born September 29, 1743, married (i) Elizabeth 

Greene, (2) Barbara Langford, (3) Welthian Allen. 

352. Benjamin Wickes, born March 27, 1745, at Warwick. 

80. JOSEPH* WICKES (Ann' Maher' SamueP), born May 31, 1719, 
married (i), July 30, 1741, Mary" Greene (Ebenezer* Peter" James' 
John'). He was married (2), June 22, 1758, by Elder John Gorton, to 
Bridget Price. 

Children : 

253- Joseph Wickes, born May 10, 1742. 

254. Waite Wickes, born March 26, 1744. 

255. Ebenezer Wickes, born June 17, 1746. 

256. Daniel Wickes, born November 5, 1749. 

257. Miriam Wickes, born August 2, 1752. 

258. Mary Wickes, born July 19, 1754. 

259. William Wickes, born July 30, 1756. 

84. ISRAEL* GORTON (0th.' John' SamT) married Freelove Bur- 
lingame, daughter of Thomas^ (Roger') and first wife, Martha (Lippitt), 
Burlingame. (See will of Thomas Burlingame in Austin's Genealogical 
Dictionary, p. 32.) He was a Captain in the Militia. August 9, 1733, 
a partition deed of land between Israel and John was made, wherein 
each reserved the right to bury in the old burial ground on the home- 
stead farm, where their father and mother are buried. The land is on 
the opposite side of the road from the Ore Beds, Cranston. He died 
in 1778. April, 1774, will of Captain Israel Gorton, proved November 
7, 1778, Cranston, mentions wife, Freelove, son, Israel, daughters, 
Marcy Knight and Freelove Manchester, his sister, Frances Pearce. 
(Prov. Reeds., Book 9, p. 242.) 

Children : 

260. Marcy Gorton, born 1722, married Robert Knight. 

261. Freelove Gorton, born November, 1725, married Matthew Manchester. 

262. Israel Gorton, born , married Anne Searle. 

85. JOHN* GORTON (Othniel' John* SamT), born 1693. He lived at 
Popaquinapaug, abbreviated in some of the old records to Papapaug, 
in Pawtuxet, now Cranston, and upon the stream called Mashapaug or 
Massapaug. It is related of him that he was married to Elizabeth 
Percy, only daughter of Barron Algeron Seymour Percy, who after- 


wards returned to England and married Hugh Smithon, the founder 
of the Smithonian Institute at Washington, D. C. This probably is a 
portion of the career attributed to his uncle, John. His wife, at the 
time of the birth of his daughter, Sarah, 1720, was Hannah, according 
to the inscription upon the gravestone, which reads, Sarah, wife of 
Stuckley Westcott and daughter of John and Hannah Gorton. He 
died in 1777 intestate; was buried in Cranston in homestead burial 
ground, on the farm opposite the Ore Beds. The Town Council 
appointed, August 4, 1777, Captain Edward Knight and John's son-in- 
law, Abraham Chase, to settle the estate. 
Children : 

263. Sarah Gorton, born September 20, 1720, married Stuckley Westcott, Jr. 

264. Mary Gorton, born , married Abraham Chase. 

265. Phebe Gorton, born , married William Edmonds. 

86. FRANCES* GORTON (OthnieP Jno.= Sam'l'), born Mar. 15, 1707, 
at Warwick, married Jeremiah* Peirce, Jr., born Februray 18, 1710, at 
East Greenwich, son of Jeremiah* and Abigail Peirce (Giles^ Richard'). 
He was a mariner. Children were born in Warwick. 

Children : 

266. Caleb Peirce, born July 15, 1734, married Margaret '.Martin) Peirce. 

267. Mary Peirce, born February 21, 1736. 

268. James Peirce, born July 7, 1737. 

269. Barbara Peirce, born July 24, 1738. 

87. OTHNIEL* GORTON (Othniel' John' Sam,;!'), born at Warwick, 
October i, 1718, married, June 3, 1735, TheodoVa Hopkins, born April 
13, 1718, daughter of Joseph' and second wife, Martha (Whaley), 
Hopkins, and granddaughter of Thomas' and Sarah Hopkins, of East 
Greenwich. " Othniel Gorton was a member of the General Assembly 
from Warwick during the years 1757, 1758, 1759, 1780, 1786, 1787. In 
1761 Mr. Gorton, in connection with Stephen Hopkins and Job Bennett, 
Esquires, was directed to prepare a reply to the questions which had 
been proposed by the Lord's Commissioners of the Plantations. He 
served on the committees to inquire into the conduct of suspected 
persons. He served as Speaker of the House in 1787, and this same 
year was one of the committee to draft a letter to Congress, showing 
the reasons why Rhode Island sent no delegation to the Convention 
at Philadelphia. In June, 1788, he resigned his position in the Assem- 
bly and became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, which position 
he retained until May, 1791." (Rider's Historical Tract 10, Fuller's 
History of Warwick.) His will, dated December 11, 1788, proved 
June 27, 1797 — executors, wife, Theodora, and grandson, Othniel Gor- 
ton Wightman — provides care for the graves of his wife, Theodora, 
and two daughters, Theodora and Mary, then deceased, and mentions 
grandsons, Othniel Gorton Wightman and Rufas Gorton Spencer, great- 
grandson, Gorton Arnold (son of George and Mary), and daughters, 
Zilpha Hopkins, wife of Joseph, and Mary Wightman, wife of Philip. 
Othniel and Theodora are buried on the Vaughan farm, Warwick; 
no stones. 

Children: ^,. 

270. Theodora Gorton, bom June 3, 1736, died young. 

271. Zilpha Gorton, born February 11, 1737, married Joseph Hopkins. 

272. Marcy Gorton, born , married Philip Wightman. 

273. Mary Gorton, born , married Christopher Spencer. 

88. ANN* GORTON (Samuel' John' Samuel'), born at Warwick, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1696, married, February 16, 1722, Daniel* Remington, born 
at Warwick 1689, died at Warwick March 12, 1787, son of Thomas' 


and Mary (Allen) Remington (John' Remington). See No. 36. Daniel 
was a ship carpenter and builder. 
Children : 

274. Samuel Remington, bom, Warwick, June i, 1723. 

275. Mary Remington, born, Warwick, August 17, 1725, married Holden 


276. Daniel Remington, born, Warwick, February 11, 1727. 

277. Thomas Remington, born , married Freelove Nichols. 

89. EDWARD* GORTON (Samuel' John^' SamT), born at Warwick, 
May 18, 1698, married, March 9, 1720, Hannah'' Matteson, daughter 
of Zachariah' and first wife, Sarah, and granddaughter of James' and 
Hannah (Field) Matteson, of Providence. This name is also written 
Matthewson. Hannah' was the great-granddaughter of John Field, of 
Providence. Zachariah's'' second wife was Joanna Eddy, by whom 
he had no children. Among the old lists of proprietors, early inhabit- 
ants of town of Warwick, is one entitled "A List of ye Draft of ye 
Last Division Drawn May ye 21st, 1748," in which Edward Gorton 
appears as present owner of the property originally owned by John 
Gorton. Edward lived on the west side of what was and is now known 
as Gorton pond. He died in 1786. His will, March 8, 1784, proved 
June 12, 1786, mentions wife, Hannah, daughters, Freelove, Jerauld 
(wife of Duty), Sarah Stafford (wife of Stuckley), Hannah Greene, 
Anna (Anne) Rice (wife of Job), son, Caleb. 

Children : 

278. Freelove Gorton, born May 9, 1722, married Dutee Jerauld. 

279. Sarah Gorton, born July 4, 1724, married Stuckley Stafford. 

280. John Gorton, born September 23, 1726. 

281. Hannah Gorton, born January 16, 1729, married Elisha Greene. 

282. Caleb Gorton, born November 17, 1731, married Mary Brown. 

283. Edward Gorton, born May 24, 1734, married Mary Greene. 

284. Caleb Gorton, 2d, born February 5, 1738. 

285. Ann Gorton, born February 5, 1738, married Job Rice. 

90. MARGARET GORTON (Sam'l' John' SamT), born at Warwick, 
May 12, 1701, married, November 11, 1724, Samuel Whitman, third 
son of George and Elizabeth Wightman, grandson of George and 
Elizabeth (Updyke) Wightman. The earlier gravestone spelled their 
names Wightman, the later ones Whitman. George Wightman, Jr., 
in his will gives £50 to Margaret Wightman, widow of son, Samuel, 
and same to grandsons, Samuel, Benjamin, George and Asa. They 
lived at Warwick, where their children were born. 

Children : 

286. Samuel Whitman, born July 2j„ 1725. 

287. Benjamin Whitman, born November 2, 1727. 

288. Penelope Whitman, born April 14, 1729. 

289. George Whitman, born November 8, 1731. 

290. Freelove Whitman, born May 22, 1734. 

291. Diana Whitman, born January 30, 1736, married Joseph Arnold. 

292. Margaret Whitman, born August 22, 1738. 

293. Asa Whitman, born July 25, 1740. 

91. SAMUEL* GORTON (Samuel" John' Samuel'), born at Warwick, 
January 2, 1706, married, January 21, 1731, Mary Rice, born January 
24, 1710, daughter of Captain John and Elnathan (Whipple) Rice. 
Samuel was Justice of the Peace in Warwick, where his children were 
born. He deeded, June 25, 1729, to Ebenezer Cook, land bounding 
"upon land that was given to my uncle, John Gorton." (Book iv, p. 
99.) On same day, land in Warwick is deeded to him by Ebenezer Cook 
and wife. Patience. August 8, 1748, he deeds to Ebenezer Cook, of 
East Greenwich, land in Coweset, bounded by Othniel Gorton's and 


Jeremiah Peirce's land. (Book vii, p. 361.) He died February 16, 
1796. His will, June, 1793, proved September 12, 1796. 

Children : 

294. Benjamin Gorton, born July 11, 1732, married Sarah Earle. 

295. Ruby Gorton, born January 18, 1735, died August 31, 1736- 

296. Jonathan Gorton, born November 25, 1737, married Sarah Arnold. 

297. Sarah Gorton, born September 10, i739. married Israel Bowen. 

298. Elizabeth Gorton, born November 28, 1741. died December 27, 1744. 

299. Elnathan Gorton, born July 4, 1743, married Aaron Bowen. 

300. John Gorton, born June 11, 1745. 

92. WILLIAM* GORTON (Sam'l' John' Sam'l'), born at Warwick, 
1708, married, January 7, 1730, Mercy Matteson or Mathewson, daugh- 
ter of Zachariah and first wife, Sarah, sister of his brother Edward's 
wife. They lived in Warwick, where their children were born. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Elder John Gorton. They are both 
buried in Old Warwick. Stone of William marked " W. G., 1789;" 
stone of Mercy marked " M. G., 1788." 


301. William Gorton, born May 20, 1732, married Submit Briggs. 

302. Nathan Gorton, born October 11, i734, married Mary Pearce. 

303. Elizabeth Gorton, born January 14, 1738, married William Wood, Jr. 

304. Patience Gorton, born August 8, 1740. 

305. Mercy Gorton, born June 3, 1744, luarried Ci) Oliver Gardner, (2) 

Thankrul Palmer. 

306. John Gorton, born August 12, 1753, married Phoebe Stone. 

307. HuLDA Gorton, born December 11, i755- 

93. SARAH' GORTON (Sam'l' John' SamT), born at Warwick 1710, 
married. May 19, 1728, Thankful Collins, born August 27, 1700, son 
of Thomas and Abigail (House) Collins. Sarah died at Warwick 
November 11, 1732, and Thankful married (2), December 3, 1733, 
Lydia Burgess. For children of this marriage, see Warwick Reeds. 

308. Elizabeth Collins, born January 26, 1729. 

309. Sarah Collins, born April 27, 1731. 

310. Thomas Collins, born June 5, 1732, married, May 29, 1755, Ann Sweet, 

of Richard, of West Greenwich. 

94. ELIZABETH* GORTON (Sam'l' John' SamT), born at Warwick 
December i, 171 5, married, January, 1735, Benjamin Tallman, of Ports- 
mouth, R. I., born June 19, 1710, son of Benjamin' (Peter') and Patience 
(Durfee) Tallman. Patience Durfee was daughter of Thomas Durfee. 
(Durfee Genealogy, by William F. Reed, Washington, D. C.) Eliza- 
beth died November i, 1800, aged about 80. (Grandson Eleazer Tall- 
man's Family Bible.) Their first three children were born at Warwick; 
the seven following were born at Portsmouth. 


311. Peleg Tallman, born March 25, 1736, married Sarah Soule. 

312. Thomas Tallman, born March 28, 1738, married Abigail Nichols. 

313. Patience Tallman, born December 15, 1740, married . 

314. Benjamin Tallman, born September 15, 1742, married (i) Rhoda 

Church, (2) Lucretia Williams. 

315. Elizabeth Tallman, born June 27, 1746, married . 

316. HuLDA Tallman, born September 15, 1749, married . 

3x7. Samuel Tallman, born December 7, 1751- 

318. Annie Tallman, born January 9, 1753. 

319. Phebe Tallman, born , living and unmarried in 1817. 

320. Gorton Tallman, born September 23, 1759. 

95. PATIENCE* GORTON (John' John' SamT), born at East Green- 
wich December 12, 1700, married at Providence, July 21, 1721, Ebenezer 
Cook, born at East Greenwich September 16, 1698, son of John and 


second wife, Hannah (Harris), Cook. Ebenezer Cook and wife, Pa- 
tience, June 25, 1729, conveyed land in Warwick to Samuel Gorton 
(Book 7, p. 361); the same day he granted land by Samuel* Gorton 
(Samuel* John- Samuel'), "bounding upon land that was given to 
my uncle, John Gorton" (Book 4, p. 99). August 8, 1748 "Ebenezer 
Cook, of East Greenwich," was granted land by Samuel Gorton, land 
situated in Warwick (Book 7, p. 361). 

John Cook bought, October 8, 1690, of William Parker, five acres at 
" Potapaug quarter" (Indian name of Essex on west bank of Connecti- 
cut river), and built a house and planted an orchard; June 19, 1696, 
sold it to William Purchase (Saybrook, Conn., Reeds.). His first wife 
is believed to have been Mary Sprague, of Rhode Island. He second 
married, prior to 1691, Hannah Harris, born February 11, 1669, daugh- 
ter of Captain Harris, of Middletown, Conn., and his wife, Mary Weld, 
of Roxbury, daughter of Joseph Weld, who settled at Saybrook in 
1690. John made his will August 15, 1698, and mentioned in it his 
children as " John, Mary, Daniel, Sarah, and an unborn child ; " but 
he lived until January 16, 1705. Hannah, his wife, died prior to Decem- 
ber 28, 1734. His heirs at this time are recorded as Daniel Cook, 
Ebenezer Cook and Sarah Burlingame. Daniel was father of Governor 
Nicholas Cook of Rhode Island. The birth of Ebenezer's and Patience's 
first child is registered both at Providence and East Greenwich; the 
others at the latter place only. 
Children : 

321. Hannah Cook, born June 5, 1722, married William Wall. 

322. Lydia Cook, born August 10, 1724, married Caleb Sheffield. 

323. John Cook, born December 11, 1726. 

324. Patience Cook, born January 18, 172S, married (i) Samuel Greene, (2) 

Oliver Hazard. 

325. Ebenezer Cook, born May 7, 1731, married Welthian Fry. 

326. Mary Cook, born June 25, 1733. 

Z2T. Hopkins Cook, born July 17, 1735, married (i) Anne Arnold (2) Mar- 
garet Peirce. 
328. Job Cook, born October 13, 1737. 

99. WM.* GORTON (John' John' Samuel'), birth date not recorded, 
married, 1736, Lydia Collins, born at V'/esterly, R. I., 1714, daughter 
of John' and Susanna (Daggert) Collins, granddaughter of John'' and 
Abigail (Johnson) Collins, great-granddaughter of Henry* and Ann 
Collins. John° Collins was a Friend preacher lived in Westerly, in the 
sections set off in 1738 as Charlestown and in 1757 as Hopkinton. His 
wife, Susanna, was from Marblehead, near Lynn, Mass. John' Collins' 
wife, Abigail, was daughter of Richard Johnson, who came from Eng- 
land in 1630. Henry' Collins came from England in 1635 in the ship 
Abigail with his wife, Ann, and four daughters and three servants and 
settled in Lynn, Mass. 

William Gorton was probably born at Mashapaug or Westerly. 
(Mashapaug was included in the incorporation, 1754, of the town of 
Cranston.) He was living at Mashapaug when his first child was 
born, the record in Benjamin's Family Bible reading " Benjamin Gorton, 
born on the Mashapaug farm, July 25, 1737." Daniel Rogers, who lived 
with William Gorton's children in New London, Conn., left a gene- 
alogical manuscript, now in the possession of J. Lawrence Chew, of 
New London, in which among the records of this family it reads: 
" William Gorton came from Rhode Island, Massapeg." Plis children 
were probably all born in Rhode Island, for the earliest record we find 
of him in Connecticut is January 24, 1758, as lessee of a farm of 
Matthew Stewart. This farm was by Stony Brook, about five miles 
from New London village, nine miles from Black Point, in New 


London town, the section set off in 1801 to Waterford. In December, 
1761, he was a Delegate to the Friends' Convention at or near Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., and vv^as drowned on the Hudson by the capsizing of 
the boat in which he was returning home. His will, dated New London, 
November 4, 1761, proved before Judge Gurd Salstontal, December 
24, 1761, witnessed by his wife's brothers, John and Hezekiah Collins, 
and the Town Clerk, John Owen, mentions all of his children but 
Lydia, who probably was then deceased. (Will is recorded at New 
London and Indexed, in error, under letter I.) His wife's death notice 
appears in the Connecticut Gazette as follows : " Died — Mrs. Lydia 
Gorton, November 20, 1809, aged 95." 

Children : 

329. Benjamin Gorton, born July 25, 1737, married Mehitable Dou:.;lass. 

330. Mary Gorton, born September 30, i739. married (i) Reuben Beebe, (2) 

Jediah Caulkins. 

331. John Gorton, born June 2, 1742, married (i) Mary Mannaring, (2) 

Susanna Davis. 

332. Lydia Gorton, born August 6, 1744. died unmarried. 

333. Sarah Gorton, born December 31, 1746, married Charles Brown. 

334. William Gorton, born September 21, 1748, married (i) Phebe Daniels, 

(2) Louis Hall. 

335. Collins Gorton, born August 23, 1752, married Naomi Keeny. 

loi. JOHN* GORTON (John' John' SamT), b. probably in Westerly, 
married (i) Hannah Champlin ; married (2), November 9, 1764, at 
Westerly, Sarah (Berry) Babcock (widow), daughter of Richard and 
Susanna Berry. He lived in Warwick, South Kingstown and Westerly; 
owned lands around Usquepaug and on Teft's Plains, in South Kings- 
town and the adjoining part of Westerly that was in 1738 set off as 
Charlestown and in 1747 set off as Richmond. His house must have 
been within South Kingstown, for he was numbered with the inhabit- 
ants of that town, and had, with his help, fourteen Whites and two 
Indians in his family (R. I. Census, 1774). The minutes of the 
Quaker meetings, year 1782 and prior, contain the names of Hatmah, 
Elizabeth, Ruth, and Sarah Gorton. He was present from South 
Kingstown, with his sons, John, Joshua and William, at the marriage, 
1785, of his daughter, Elizabeth (Minutes Friends' meetings). In 
his will, July 8, 1787, he calls himself of Westerly, and here his will 
is recorded. The farm on which he lived a part, if not all, of the 
time he was in South Kingstown was afterwards occupied by Judge 
Wagner' Weeden (Mercy* Mary' John* Othniel' John' Samuel* Gorton. 
See this line and also No. .). 
Children : 

336. Hannah Gorton, born , married, September 30, 1773, Daniel 

Vaughan, of Newport, R. L 

337. Elizabeth Gorton, born , married, March 30, 1785, Nathan Spencer, 

of William and Margaret, of East Greenwich, R. L ; had son, Joshua. 
She died 1787, and Nathan married (2) Ruth Anthony. 

338. Ruth Gorton, born about 1757, died August, 1845, unmarried. 

339. Anna Gorton, born , married George Spencer, of East Greenwich, 

R. L, and had three daughters. 

340. Mary Gorton, born , married Samuel Vaughan, of East Greenwich ; 

had son, Daniel, who lived and died at Newport, unmarried. 

341. John Gorton, born July, 1763, married Alice Hull. 

342. Joshua Gorton, born November 21, 1767, married Eunice Cottrell. 

343. William Gorton, born 1772, married Elizabeth . 

344. Sarah Gorton, born July 4, 1776, married Saxton Berry. • 

102. SAMUEL* GORTON (John' John' Sam'l') was born probably in 
Westerly; married Mercy Grant. He lived on Teft's Plains, South 
Kingstown, and that part of Westerly which was in 1738 set off to 
Charlestown, and then in 1747 set off as Richmond, R. I.; also in the 


town, now county, of New London, Conn. In 1773 he applied to join 
the Friends' Society at South Kingstown and was received by them, 
he, nevertheless, enlisting and serving in Colonel Brewer's Regiment, 
Revolutionary Army, register 1777. In 1778 he gave fifty-five years 
as his age. 
Children : 

345. Grant Gorton, born April 5, 1753, married Mary Lawton. 

346. Mary Gorton, born September zy, 1755, at Richmond, R. I. (Westerly 

347. John Gorton, born April i, 1766, married Sarah Gates. 

103. WILLIAM* GREENE (Mary' Benj.= SamT), born at Warwick 
March 16, 1695, married, December 30, 1719, his second cousin, Cath- 
arine Greene, born March 31, 1698, died November 28, 1777, daughter 
of Captain Benjamin' and Susanna^ (Holden) Greene (Thomas^ Greene 
John') (Randair Holden). He lived on what became known as the 
Governor Greene Homestead, which his father purchased of his brother- 
in-law, Samuel Gorton. Portions of the house, built by the latter, are 
still standing; it is a house of much historic note (No. 31). He was 
Representative to the Rhode Island Assembly for five years, was for a 
number of terms Deputy Governor, and Governor for eleven years, 
dying in office, February 25, 1758. (Rhode Island Records.) 

348. Benjamin Greene, born August 19, 1724, married Mary (Fry) Gould. 

349. Samuel Greene, born April 28, 1727, married Patience Cook. 

350. William Greene, born August 16, 1731, married Catharine Ray. 

351. Margahet Greene, born November 2, 1733, married Rufas Spencer. 

352. Catharine Greene, born December 9, 1735, married John Greene; no 

353. Christopher Greene, born April 18, 1741, died May 30, 1741. 

104. MARY* GREENE (Mary' Benj.= Samuel'), born at Warwick 
August 25, 1698, died October 28, 1739; married, December 31, 1719, 
Thomas Fry, Jr., born February 16, 1691, died 1782, son of Thomas 
and Welthian' (Greene) Fry (Thomas^ Greene John*). He was Dep- 
uty 1726-40-46. Thomas Fry, Sr., was Deputy Governor 1727-29, 
Clerk of the House of Deputies and Speaker of the House of Deputies 
for five years. Thomas, Jr., married (2), November 11, 1740, Eleanor 
Greene, daughter of Richard and Eleanor (Sayles) Greene. Richard 
was a brother of first wife's father, Samuel. By second wife he had 
two children, Amey and Richard. 
Children : 

354. Welthian Fry, born October 19, 1720, died March 27, 1734. 

355. Mary Fry, born July 15, 1722, married (i) Daniel Gould, (2) Benjamin 

356. Thomas Fry, born December 29, 1723, married, December 23, 1742, 
Mary Mauney, daughter of Col. Peter, and had Mary, b. April 27, 
1744, and probably other children. 

357. Ann Fry, born May 14, 1725, married a Mr. Gardner. 

358. Sarah Fry, born December 21, 1726, married Richard Greene. 
3S9' John Fry, born January 22, 1728, married Mary Tillinghast. 

360. Samuel Fry, born March 22, 1729, married (i) Lucretia Coggershall, 
(2) Deborah Greene. 

361. Hannah Fry, born April 16, 1730, married, February 6, 1755, James 
Sherman. (Narragansett Hist. Reg., 1884.) 

362. Elizabeth Fry, born November 18, 1732, died November 20, 1732. 

363. Ruth Fry, born May 20, 1734, married Pardon Tillinghast. 

364. Joseph Fry, born March 3, 1736, married Eleanor Greene. 

105. SAMUEL* GREENE (Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born at Warwick 
October 22, 1700, died September 15, 1780, married Sarah Coggershall, 
born December 22, 1704, died February 3, 1790, daughter of Joshua 

jl and Mercy (Nichols) Coggershall, great-great-granddaughter of John 


Coggershall, who was President of the colony in 1647. Samuel lived 
at Apponaug, Warwick, on the farm and mill property he inherited 
from his father, and continued the saw and grist mills and fulling 
business there. His descendants have continued in possession of the 
property for three generations. 

365. Samuel Greene, born December 7, 1725, died unmarried. 

366. Almy Greene, born September 8, 1727, married Oliver Arnold. 

367. Joshua Greene, born February 24, 1730, married Mehitable Manton. 

368. Mercy Greene, born 1731, married John Walton. 

369. Caleb Greene, born April 23, 1737, married Mary Tibbitts. 

370. Christopher Greene, born April 18, 1740, married Abigail Davi?. 

106. BENJAMIN* GREENE (Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born at War- 
wick January 5, 1702, married, September 2, 1730, Almy (or Mary 
Almy) Angell, daughter of James and Susannah (Wilkinson) Angell, 
granddaughter of John and Ruth (Field) Angell and great-grand- 
daughter of Thomas and Alice Angell, from London, England, who 
came with Roger Williams to Providence in 1636. (Talcott's N. E. 
Families, p. 87.) Benjamin was a mariner; his home on Coweset Bay, 
Warwick. He in 1730 sold mansion house, and land in Coweset, and 
in 1738 sold land in Warwick and moved to North Parish (now Mont- 
ville), New London, Conn. Almy died in about 1740, and he married 
(2) Margaret Strickland, daughter of Peter Strickland. (Baker's 
Hist. Montville, Conn.) 
Children : 

371. Mary Greene, born January 28, 1732, married Nathan Comatock. 

372. Christopher Greene, born September 7, 1733, married Mercy Stoddard. 

373. Delight Greene, born July 30, 1735, married John Rogers. 

374. Stephen Greene, born February 19, 1737, married Mary Rhodes, born 

1737. He died 1819; she died 1827. 

375. Almy Greene, born 1740. 

376. Benjamin Greene, born April 7, 1752, married Abigail Dodge. 

377. Samuel Greene, died unmarried. 

378. Margaret Greene, married Henry Osborn. 

379. Anne Greea'E, married Peter Rogers, probably son of Peter'' and Grace 

(Harris) Rogers (James* James' James" James' Rogers). 

108. JOHN* WICKES (Sarah' Benjamin' Samuel'), born at Warwick 
February 26, 1699. He married, but his wife's name does not appear to 
us upon any records. He probably died soon after his marriage, but 
the time is also veiled in equal obscurity. The Warwick records state 
that John Wickes died July 4, 1735, and that Sarah, daughter of John 
and Barbara, was born March 4, 1736. Barbara Holden married (i), 
March 20, 1735, Richard Wickes, brother of John, and she married (2), 
October 5, 1740 (as the "widow of Richard Wickes"), John Wells. 
The Sarah born 1736 was of Richard, and she married in 1755 John 
Low (see 114). 

Children : 

380. Sarah Wickes, of John, m.arried, February, 1734-5, James Briggs. 

(Warwick Reeds.) 

109. SARAH* WICKES (Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), born at Warwick 
September 21, 1700, died November 11, 1786, married, February 11, 1725, 
Colonel Benoni* Waterman, son of Captain John' and Anne (Olney) 
Waterman, grandson of Resolved' Waterman and wife, Mercy Williams, 
daughter of Roger Williams (Richard' Waterman) (No. 63). 
Children : 

381. Mary Waterman, born May 6, 1726, married (i) Fones Greene, (2) 

Thomas Greene. 

382. John Waterman, born August 25, 1730, married Sarah Potter. 

383. Benjamin Waterman, born May 22, 172,2, died young. 


no. ROSE* WICKES (Sarah' Benjamin* Samuel'), born at Warwick 
August 12, 1702, married, January 3, 1724, Ensign Randall* Holden, 
son of Major Randall' (Randall') and Be thia* (Nathan* Richard') 
(Waterman) Holden. He later was commissioned Colonel. Randall' 
Holden, the founder of the family of this name, was one of the most 
conspicuous men in the colony, the larger portion of his life being 
spent in offices of various grades. He was born in Salisbury, England. 
He was one of Dr. Clark's party, a signer, March 7, 1738, of a compact 
for a new government, and with Roger Williams was, March 24, 1638, 
witness to the deed of Acquidneck Island, upon which they established 
a town and government which they named Pocasset. He was later a 
member of the civil government organized there April 30, 1639, which 
was first in the colony to have a Governor, quarterly courts, trial 
juries, and impartial suffrage; they re-named the town Portsmouth. 
He v^^as one of the original proprietors of Warwick. After the charter 
for the Providence colony was received and a government organized, 
on account of the obstructions to the government and the war waging 
against it by the adjoining colonies, he with Samuel Gorton and John 
Greene were commissioned by it to appeal to the En.^lish f?overnment 
for protection. He in 1645 salied with his companions from Man- 
hattan. He returned home, landing in Boston September 13, 1646, 
bringing with him the Parliament's mandate, which effected the union, 
May 18, 1647, of all the settlements with the chartered government — 
the mandate to suffer the petitioners and inhabitants of Narragansett 
Bay, and all others as might join them to live within the bounds men- 
tioned in the charter, without disquieting them or interrupting them. 
There were probably other children of Ensign Randall and Rose than 
those here given. 
Children : 

384. Randall Holden, born November 25, 1726, married Naomi Potter. 

385. Barbara Holden, born August 2, 1744, married John Greene. 

111. ROBERT WICKES (Sarah' Benj.= Samuel'), born at Warwick 
December 22, 1704, married Margaret* Barton, daughter of Rufas' and 
Sarah (Robinson) Barton, granddaughter of Rowland and Mary 
(Allen) Robinson (Susannah* Gorton Samuel', Nos. 10, 47). 
Children : 

386. Sarah Wickes, born August 11, 1742, married Thomas Greene. 

112. ELIZABETH' WICKES (Sarah' Benj.* Samuel'), born at War- 
wick February 5, 1707, died December 23, 1776, married, August 12, 
1731, Judge Philip* Greene, born March 15, 1705, died April 10, 1791, 
son of Major Job' and Phebe (Sales) Greene (John* Greene John'). 
Phebe Sales was the daughter of John and Mary (Williams) Sales and 
granddaughter of Roger Williams. Philip Greene was a leading man 
in public affairs. Assistant and Deputy in the General Assembly, and 
for a period of twenty-five years was Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas. (Greene Family.) 

Children : 

387. Phebe Greene, born March 25, 1732, married Anthony Lowe. 

388. Sarah Greene, born September 19, 1733. died January 14, 1740. 

389. Job Greene, born October 24, 1735, died January 20, 1739. 

390. Christopher Greene, born May 12, 1737. married Anna Lippitt. 

391. Philip Greene, born March 25, 1739. died February 6, 1740. 

392. Elizabeth Greene, born September 2, 1742, died 1822 unmarried. 

(Story of Dr. Benjamin Franklin and Betty Greene in "The Greene 

393. William Greene, born October 25, 1746, married Welthian Lippitt. 

394. Mary Greene, born March 14, 1748, married John Greene. 

395. Sarah Greene, born May 16, 1752, married Griffith Greene, No. 532. 


113. WILLIAM* WICKES (Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), bom at War- 
wick, August 26, 1710, died at Warwick November 21, 1744, married, 
September 16, 1733, Maplet* Remington, daughter of Thomas and 
Maplet' (Gorton) Remington (Benjamin' Gorton Samuel'). William 
Wickes was a mariner. After his death Maplet married (2), December 
15, 1745, Captain Josiah Arnold. We do not find any record of children 
of William and Maplet, although William lived eleven years after his 
marriage. Josiah and Maplet had at least three children. See Nos. 
36, 143- 

114. RICHARD* WICKES (Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), born at Warwick 
October 23, 1712, married, March 20, 1735, Barbara* Holden, daughter 
of Elder Charles' and Penelope (Bennett) Holden. granddaughter of 
Lieutenant Charles^ and Catharine' (Greene) Holden (John' Greene 
John') (Randair Holden). If the death date, July 4, 1735, in Warwick 
records is not intended for Richard, he died about this time, for " Bar- 
bara Wickes, widow of Richard, married, October 5, 1740, John Wells," 
and had Penelope, Mary, Barbara, Anstress Holden, and John Holden 
Wells. Penelope married Oliver Greene and had seven children 
(Greene Family, p. 164). The only child of Richard and Barbara was 
bom, as it appears, after his death and the records written — as many 
of them were written, long after the occurrence of the events recorded — 
after Barbara had married John. (Warwick Records.) 
Children : 

396. Sarah Wickes, born March 4, 1736, married John Low. 

117. BENJAMIN* GORTON (Benj.^^ Benj.' Samuel'), born about 
1701 in Warwick, went with his parents to the farm adjoining xXorwich, 
Conn., in 1717. He and his brothers were numbered among the earliest 
settlers in Norwich and New London. He was. May 14, 1725, granted 
land in New London in the north Parish, now Montville. In 1729 his 
and his brother Stephen's rates in the First Ecclesiastical Society of 
New London were abated. He and brother, Stephen, July 26, 1736, 
conveyed land at Wanwecas Hill, Norwich, to Thomas Stoddard; wit- 
nesses, William Hyde and John Roger (Vol. 7, p. 352). He died 
before October 4, 1737, as at this time his brother, Stephen, declares, 
in a deed, himself to be the eldest surviving son of Benjamin Gorton. 

The greater part of the Probate and Vital Records of New London 
were destroyed by Benedict Arnold, great-grandson of the Rhode Island 
Governor of that name, in his raid upon the town during the war of 
the Revolution, September, 1781. (Stevens' Dictionary of National 

118. SARAH* GORTON (Benjamin' Benjamin' Samuel'), born about 
1703, married, March 25, 1725, Edward* Rogers, born May 14, 1702, 
son of James' Rogers, who died in Norwalk in 1735 (James' James'). 
Sarah evidently died soon after marriage, as Edward married (2), 
July 22, 1728, Mary Bailey, of Westerly, R. I. 

119. STEPHEN* GORTON (Benjamin' Benjamin' Samuel'), bom in 
Rhode Island, March 21, 1704, married, August 31, 1726, Sarah (Rog- 
ers) Haynes, widow of Jonathan Haynes, daughter of James^ and 
Mary (Jordan), granddaughter of James' and Elizabeth (Rowland) 
Rogers. Stephen Gorton was on March 28, 1726, at the early age of 
twenty-two years, ordained a Baptist minister, and the same year he 
organized in the parish now Waterford, New London, the first Baptist 
Society in New London and probably the first in Connecticut. (Knight's 


History of Baptists, Providence, R. I., 1827. " Stephen Gorton was 
ordained at ye Baptist meeting-house by Isaac Foxes, Monday, Novem- 
ber 28, 1726." Diary of Joshua Hempstead, p. 117.) A Baptist Asso- 
ciation, the largest then ever held in America, was held at Rehobeth, 
Mass., June 21, 1729. Among the Elders present was Stephen Gorton, 
of the Baptist Society of New London (Knight's Hist. Baptists). The 
same year his and his brother Benjamin's rates to the First Eccle- 
siastical Society in New London were abated (Old Manuscript Reeds., 
New London Court House). He, on October 4, 1737, in a deed in 
which he calls himself the eldest surviving son of Benjamin Gorton, 
conveys to " brother Lancaster Gorton " his interest in land at Wan- 
wecas Hill, Norwich (Book 8, p. 2). Isaac Fox having promised land 
— Fox later gave the land on which to build a meeting-house at Great 
Neck, now in Waterford — Elder Gorton in 1754 disposed of the interest 
he had with his brothers in a lumber mill at the head of Niantic river, 
and the same year he built, largely with his own material and means, 
a Baptist church on it — the first church of that denomination that was 
erected in any parish in New London. It was afterwards known as 
the Fort Hill Pepper Box, or First Baptist Church of New London. 
(Isaac Fox's will is witnessed by Joseph Gilbert, Deacon; Stephen 
Gorton, Elder, Elizabeth Tober, members of Pepper Box Baptist Church. 
History of Montville.) 

Stephen most successfully conducted the pastOi„te of the infant 
Baptist Society in New London during these early and trying times 
for thirty-eight continuous years, eighteen years of the time before he 
was able to erect a building of their own to worship in and for twenty 
years thereafter in the new church building. In the year 1774, the 
thirty-eighth year of his pastorate and the seventy-first year of his 
age, a division arose among the members of the church and he was 
driven from it. There was no substantiated charge made by the pre- 
vailing ones against him, a man of seventy years of unblen^ished life, 
nor did they show themselves to be of superior piety in assaulting him 
and then taking the Bible from the pulpit and throwing it into the 
street after him, and then tearing the church records to shreds. Five 
years later, in 1779, he moved to Southington in Hartford County, and 
soon after died, aged about 76 years. He was buried beside his wife, 
Sarah, whose death had preceded his, at the Fort Hill. Great Neck, 
also called Pepper Box, burying ground, adjoining the church. (Tim- 
low's Hist. Southington, Family Records.) The Rev. Daniel Sprague, 
formerly of Rhode Island, succeeded him as pastor of the church. The 
Rev. Zadock Darrow was pastor there for over forty years. Stephen 
had no children. 

121. LANCASTER* GORTON (Benj.» Benj.' Samuel'), born about 

1708 in Rhode Island, married, about 1734, Priscilla . He died 

November 8, 1756. On July 26, 1736, Lancaster and Benjamin convey 
land at Wanwecas Hill, Norwich, to Thomas Stoddard (Book 7, p. 352). 
Lancaster and his brother, Joseph, deed land to Adonijah Fitch, at 
Wanwecas Hill, November 7, 1737 (Book 8, p. 234). Lancaster bought 
and sold land in Norwich, 1738, 1739, 1740 (Book 8, pp. 112, 213, 234). 
He, on April 13, 1739, sold land in New London, adjoining land of 
Matthew Stewart, to William Manwaring. brother of Oliver Manwar- 
ing. He was on February 5, 1740, granted by Philip Turner land 
adjoining burial place in Norwich. (Book 8, p. 344. "Mrs. Lancaster 
Gorton " was in full communion with the First Church of New London, 
July 29, 1744. On December 31, 1740, Lancaster received by deed from 
his sister, Mercy, land that she "received from honored father, Benja- 


min Gorton.") He was Lieutenant in the Continental Navy 1747 to 
1756, and then in the Army; came home from camp at Greenbush, 
Albany, and died two days afterwards (Hempstead Diary). It was in 
derision of the motely appearance of the Connecticut troops, later 
encamped here, that the English Army Doctor, Shackburg, composed 
the first four verses of the now world-wide favorite song and called it 
"Yankee Doodle." (Sylvester's Hist. Rens. Co., N. Y.) 

397. Elizabeth Gorton, born November q, 1736. 

398. Benjamin Gorton, born October 27, 1738. 

122. JOSEPH* GORTON (Benjamin" Benj'min' SamT), born 171 5 ni 
Greenwich, R. I., married. May 9, 1738, Hannah Leffingwell, daughter 
of Lieutenant Daniel and Sarah (Bill) Leffingwell, of Norwich, Conn. 
On December 31, 1740, he and brother Lancaster are granted "land 
which she received of her honored father, Benjamin Gorton, at Wan- 
wecas Hill," by sister Mercy. He, on April 28, 1750, as "Joseph 
Gorton, of Norwich," was granted land in the North Parish of New 
London. (In old style the year commenced on the 25th of March. The 
new style, the year beginning January i, was adopted 1751.) He, 
"Joseph Gorton, of Norwich, aged 44," enlisted April 6, 1759, in Cap- 
tain Moore's Company, in the French War, and served as Sergeant; 
after two years' service, died 1761 at Canaan, Conn., while on his way 
home. His brother, Rev. Stephen Gorton, brought home his remains. 
His widow, Hannah, in 1763 married Daniel Rogers, of Colchester. 
She died 1780. They had eight children; we can learn the names of 
but seven. (Provincial Troops of N. Y. State, Norwich, Conn., Reeds.) 
Children : 

399. Sarah Gorton, born May 5, 1739. married Jabez Rogers. 

400. Hannah Gorton, born December 3, 1742, married Elias Lathrop. 

401. Ann Gorton, married Thaddeus Lathrop. 
^yy^ I 402. AnNiE Gorton, married Jared Huntington. 

/ 403. Welthia Gorton. 
/ 404. Joseph Gorton, born August 22, 1755, married Susanna Hibbard. 

405. Benjamin Gorton, born May 28, 1758, married (i) Mary Foster, (2) 

Nancy Martin. 

124. MERCY* GORTON (Benjamin' Benjamin' SamT), of Norwich, 
married, February 6, 1740-1, Samuel Leffingwell, son of Samuel and 
Hannah (Gifford) Leffingwell. She died in 1794. Their children 
v/ere born in Norwich. 

Children : 

406. Wealthy Leffingwell, born December 10, 1740. 

407. Benjamin Leffingwell, born February 2, 1743. 

408. RoswELL Leffingwell, born April 4, 1745, married Arena Leffingwell. 

409. Samuel Leffingwell, born June 28, 1748, married Elizabeth Baker. 

410. Hannah Leffingwell, born December 25, 1749. 

411. Abigail Leffingwell, born April 2, 1752. 

412. Mary Leffingwell, born August 20, 1756. 

413. Lois Leffingwell, born April 13, 1759. 

125. ALICE* GORTON (Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born at V/arwick, 
August 5, 1707, married there, February 18, 1725, by Thomas Wickes, 
Assistant, Lieutenant Stephen" Low, son of Anthony* and Mary 
(Arnold) Low (John* Anthony' John'). He was afterwards a Colonel 
of the Militia; lived at Warwick and was a prominent man. After 
Alice's death he married Susannah (Palmer) Carpenter-Byles, and 
had a daughter, Susanna, who married Captain William Waterman, 
see No. 1147. Stephen and Alice (Gorton) Low were the great- 
grandparents of Governor Henry Lippitt of Rhode Island, and the 


great great-grandparents of Governor Charles Warren Lippitt of Rhode 



414. Elizabeth Low, born June 14, 1726, married (i) John Parker, (2) Owen 


415. John Low, born June 19, 1731, married Sarah Wickes. 

416. Rebecca Low, born October 30, 1733, married James Warner, ^76. 

417. Mary Low, born April 9, 1735, married Thomas Greene. 

418. Sarah Low, born August 22, 1737, died prior to July, 1787. 

419. Alice Low, married, December 31, 1761, Jonathan Dexter, of John, and 

had Philip, Joseph and others. 

420. Annie Low, born January 5, 1741, married Benjamin Greene. 

421. Stephen Low, born 1748, married (i) Susanna Gorton Hadway, (2) 

Elsie Angell. 

126. ELIZABETH* GORTON (Sam'l' Benj.' SamT), born at War- 
wick, November 26, 1709. She could not have been, as some have 
thought, the Elizabeth who married, January, 1735, Benjamin Tallman, 
for Benjamin's ten children were born, the first, Peleg, March 26, 1736, 
and the last one, Gorton, September 23, 1759, when this Elizabeth 
would have been about fifty years old. Benjamin's grandson Eleazer's 
Family Records give the death of his grandmother, Elizabeth, " in the 
year 1800, aged about 80." Benjamin has many namesakes on the line 
of the Elizabeth he married. (See No. 94.) 

127. SAMUEL* GORTON (Samuel' Benj.* Samuel'), born at War- 
wick, July 14, 171 1, married, March i, 1740, Welthian Spencer, born 
February 16, 1719, daughter of John" and Mary (Fry) Spencer, grand- 
daughter of John' and Audrey' (Greene) Spencer (John'' Greene John'). 
He was, at the time of his marriage, living at Providence, to which 
place his father had moved shortly before his death. He, after his 
marriage, moved to East Greenwich, vv-here his only two children were 
born and where he died. Welthian's brother, Captain Rufas Spencer, 
married Margaret" Greene (William* Greene, Mary' Gorton, Benjamin' 
Samuel'). "Welthian Gorton, widow, married, October 11, 1747. 
Thomas Nichols, of James. (For Spencer Ancestry, see Greene Family 
and Spencer Family, by Henry Whittemore.) 

Children : 

422. Mary Gorton, born May 24, 1741. 

423. Samuel Gorton, born July 5, 1743, married (i) Elizabeth Brown, (2) 

Frances Carder. 

128. THOMAS* GORTON ( Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born at War- 
wick, March 2, 1713, married at Providence, December 6, 1739, Penelope 
Brown, born February 11, 1720, daughter of Daniel and Mary Brown. 
He lived about twenty-two years after his marriage, and we find record 
of but one of his children. At Providence, April 17, 1761, widow Pene- 
lope was appointed administratrix. 

Children : 

424. Daniel Gorton, born September 23, 1740. 

129. BENJAMIN* GORTON (Sam'l' Benj'min' Sam'l'), born Decem- 
ber II, 1715, married, March i, 1740, Mercy Foster, daughter of George 
and Mary (Weaver) Foster, of East Greenwich. In 1741 that portion 
of East Greenwich where he lived was set off as West Greenwich. 
He died in 1767. His will, dated September 3, 1767, proved November 
7, 1767, mentions wife, Mercy, sons. Captain Thomas, Captain Benja- 
min, Samuel, George and William. 

Children : 

425. Thomas Gorton, born about 1741, married Susanna Pearce. 

426. Benjamin Gorton, born about 1743, married Deborah Weaver. 


427. Samuel Gorton, born 1745, married Eunice Austin. 

428. George Gorton, born September, 1748, marned Lydia Aylesworth. 

429. William Gorton, born July 28, 1750, married Welthian Tillinghast. 

130. ANN* GORTON (Samuel' Benjamin' SamT), born at Warwick 
May 22, 1718, married, July 17, 1745, David Spencer, born October 12, 
1723, son of Benjamin^ and (2d wife) Patience (Hawkins) Spencer. 
She was living at East Greenwich at the time of her marriage, where 
the birth of her first two children are recorded. They evidently moved 
from that town. 

430. Stephen Spencer, born June 14, 1748. 

431. Gorton Spencer, born May 24, 1752. 

132. JOHN- GORTON (Sam'f Benjamin" SamT), born at Warwick, 
April 22, 1723, died June 6, 1792, married (i), August 31, 1746, Rhoda 
Bowen, born November 13, 1726, died June 13, 1781, daughter of 
Ezekiel Bowen, of Cranston and Providence. He married (2), May 
II, 1783, Phebe Sheldon, widow of the Rev. Benjamin Sheldon; no 
issue of this marriage. Elder John Gorton, of Warwick, was ordained 
a Baptist minister in 1753, and became one of the most popular minis- 
ters in the colony. He was the pastor of the church at East Greenwich 
for many years, and preached in a meeting-house that stood not far 
from the shore, but which has been demolished. He officiated at the 
marriage of General Nathaniel Greene. Two hundred and eighty-one 
of the marriages at which he officiated are recorded in his handwriting 
in a book still preserved by Henry W. Greene, of Warwick. 

432. Barbara Gorton, born April 13, 1748, died September 30, 1750- 

433- John Gorton, born February 25, 1749, married (i) Deborah Spink, (2) 
Mary Clark. 

434. PiiEBE Gorton, born May 13, 1751, married Peleg Olin. 

435. Elizabeth Gorton, born February 3, 1753, married Charles Briggs. 

436. Mary Gorton, born December 4, 1754, married Jeremiah Pearce, Jr. 

437. Bowen Gorton, born December s, 1756, died October 12, 1824, probably 


438. Rhoda Gorton, born November 17, 1759, died June 9, 1763. 

439. Anna Gorton, born February 9, 1762, married Silas Andrews. 

440. Benjamin Gorton, born August 11, 1764, married Hannah Gardner. 

135. GEORGE- THOMAS (Alice' Benjamin' SamT), called "Captain 
George Thomas, Jr., of North Kingstown, married, February 7, 1733, 
Elizabeth Mauney, of Captain Peter" (East Greenwich Reeds.). He 
married (2), February 9, 1738, Elizabeth Phillips (widow). There 
probably were more than the following — 
Children : 

441. George Thomas, born November 12, 1734, married Hannah Arnold. 

442. Mary Thokas, married, January 3, 1782, Gideon Gardner, of Ephrain-u 

139. SAMUEL- THOMAS (Alice' Benjamin' Samuel') married, 1736, 
Ruth Gould. Lived in North Kingstown. 
Children : 

443. Juriah Thomas, born May 15, 1737. 

444. George Thomas, married (i) Phebe Lockwood, (2) Martha Aylesworth, 

of Philip. 

445. Gould Thomas. 

446. Alice Thomas. 

447. Samuel Thomas. 

448. Elizabeth Thomas. 

141. ALICE- THOMAS (Alice' Benjamin' Samuel') married, Dec. 
15. 1753. Robert Hazard, Jr. 


Children : 

449. Martha Hazard, born February 27, 1755. 

450. Ruth Hazard, born February 26, 1759. 

451. Abigail Hazard, born January 4, 1762. 

142. ELIZABETH* THOMAS (Alice' Benj.= Samuel') married, Jan- 
uary 30, 1736, Thomas Freeborn, son of Gideon. 

Children : 

452. Elizabeth Freeborn, born October 3, 1736. 

453. Gideon Freeborn, born June i, 1738. 

454. George Freeborn, born November 25, 1740. 

143. MAPLEr REMINGTON (Maplet' Benjamin" Samuef), born at 
Warwick, July 11, 1712, married (i) at East Greenwich, September 
16, 1733, William* Wickes, born at Warwick August 26, 1710, died in 
Warwick, November 21, 1744, son of Jolin' and Sarah' (Gorton) Wickes 
(Benjamin" Gorton, Samuel'), Nos. 32, 113. We do not find record 
of any children of this marriage. She married (2) at Warwick, 
December 15, 1745, Captain Josiah" Arnold, son of William* and Chris- 
tiana Arnold (Israel Arnold, Stephen" William'). Captain Josiah was 
first married, December 9, 1731, to Elizabeth Vaughan. William Arnold, 
the founder of the family of this name in the colony, came from Eng- 
land in 1635; removed from Hingham, Mass., to Providence in 1636; 
was a land owner in Providence, Pawtuxet and Warwick. He was 
prominently connected with the public affairs of the colony. For other 
records of Captain Josiah and Maplet see " Greene Family." 

455. David Arnold, born 1746, married Waite Lippitt. 

456. Sarah Arnold, born May 24, 1748, married Abraham Lippitt. 
4S7- Benedict Arnold, born November 20, 1752, married Sarah Potter. 

146. THOMAS* REMINGTON (Maplet' Benjamin" Samuel), born at 
Warwick, August 19, 1723, died April 12, 1808, married, December 14, 
1744, Abigail Eldred, born 1723, died April 14, 1766, daughter of 
Robert and Hannah Eldred. He was Captain Thomas. 
Children : 

458. Hannah Remington, born May 11, 1746, married, December 15, 1763, 

Henry Tibbetts, son of Henry Tibbetts. 

459. Thomas Remington, born October 24, 1747, married, December 20, 1772, 

Mary Rice, of Captain Holden Rice. He served in the Revolutionary 
War, was a Judge several years, and resided at Coventry, R. I. 

460. Maplet Remington, born June 16, 1749, married, January 29, 1769, 

William Rice, of Thomas. One of their children was Jeffery Amherst 
Rice, married, December 8, 1803, Elizabeth Burlingame ; had a son, 
Joseph Burlingame Rice, married, September 14, 1832, Sarah Luther 
Burt ; their eldest son is Joseph William Rice, of Providence, R. L 

461. Sarah Remington, born January 29, 1751, married Charles Holden. 

462. Benjamin Remington, born September 2, 1752, married Phebe Man- 


463. Mary Remington, born March 26, 1754, married (i), December 9, i773. 

Joseph Bennett, of John, (2), May 18, 1777, Josephus Rice, of Capt. 

464. John Remington, born November 2, 1756, married, December 17, 1780, 

Mary Tillinghast, of Samuel. He was a Captain in the Revolutionary 
Army ; died at North Adams, Mass. 

465. Jonathan Remington, born September 9, 1758, married . He 

settled in Berkshire County, Mass. ; served in the Revolutionary War, 
and frequently represented the district Cheshire in the Legislature 
previous to 1793. 

466. James Wolfe Remington, born May 28, 1760. 

467. Henry Remington, born July 28, 1764, married, September 18, 1785, 

Margaret LeValley, of Peter. He served in the Revolutionary War, 
was a Judge of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1808, and a fluent 
and energetic debater. He had Mary and other children. 


147. JOHN* WARNER (John' Ann' Samuer), born August 8, 1695, 
died April 7, 1773, at Warwick, married (i), October 23, 1719, Mary 
Burlingame, daughter of Thomas Burlingame. She died January 30, 
1728. He married (2), June 26, 1729, Abigail Brown, daughter of 
Judah Brown. He lived in Warwick on the north side of the road 
at the turn near Warner's brook. The old Warner burial ground is 
on the road leading to Conimicut. 
Children : 

468. John Warner, born August 5, 1720. 

469. TnoMA.s Warner, born March 4, 1722, married Phebe Greene. (Six 

children, Greene Family, No. 223.) 

470. Ann Warner, born August 21, 1723, died November 4, 1739. 

471. Amos Warner, born September 24, 1725. 

472. Mary Warner, born November 25, 1727. 

473. William Warner, born April 5, 1730, married Waite Sweet. (6 chil- 

dren, R. I. Vital Records.) 

474. Elizabeth Warner, born October 23, 1731. 

475. Hannah Warner, born November 11, l'733. 

476. James Warner, born May 12, 1735, married Rebecca Low, 416. 

477. Priscilla Warner, born January 19, 1737. 

478. Almy Warner, born February 10, 1739. 

479. EzEKiEL Warner, born October 17, 1740. 

480. Elisha Warner, born November 8, 1742. 

481. Peter Warner, born July 10, 1745, died July 16, 1747. 

482. Isabel Warner, born November 24, 1748. 

153. SAMUEL* WARNER (John' Ann' Samuer), born at Warwick, 
December 13, 1708, married, February 19, 1730, Kesiah Brown, of 

Children : 

483. Samuel Warner, born November 25, 1730. 

484. Rachel Warner, born November 4, 1732. 

485. Sarah Warner, born May 25, 1735. 

486. Phebe Warner, born April 3, 1737. 

4S7. Kesiah Warner, born February 27, 1739. .i. 

488. Ann Warner, born October 9, 1740. ™j 

156. WILLIAM* WARNER (John' Ann' Samuel'), born at Warwick, 
March 4, 1718 married, January 27, 1740, Susanna Briggs, daughter 
of Robert Briggs, of East Greenwich. 
Children : 

489. William Warner, born December 27, 1740. 

490. Lois Warner, born November 14, 1742. 
49X. Susannah Warner, born August 25, 1744. 

492. Holliman Warner, born October 11, 1746. 

493. Mary Warner, born March 23, 1749. 

494. Waite Warner, born August 9, 1751. 

160. HANNAH* CRANDALL (Priscilla' Ann' Sam'l') married Robt. 
Austin, son of Jeremiah' and Elizabeth Austin. They lived at Kings- 
town, Westerly and Charlestown, R. I. He bought of George Ninigret, 
" Chief Sachem of the Narragansett Country," 130 acres in Charles- 
town for £270. (Austin's 160 Allied Families.) He died .752; Han- 
nah's death, by a few months, preceded his. 
Children : 

495. Robert Austin, born , married and had Joshua and Lydia Austin 

and other children. 

496. Jeremiah Austin, born March 24, 1730, married Margaret Congdon. 

170. ELEANOR* WESTCOTT (Mary' Ann' Samuel'), born 1711, 
died on or near to Feb. 21, 1786, married Wm.' Stone (John' Hugh'). 
Children : 

497- William Stone, born 1733, married Lydia Westcott. , 

498. Freelove Stone, born 1736, married Ephraim Westcott. Jv 


499. Jabez Stone, born 1740, married (1) Sarah Taylor, (2) W. Greene. 

500. Jeremiah Stone, born 1745, married Dianah Knight. 

501. James Stone, born 1753, married Rebecca Sheldon. 

180. BENJAMIN' BARTON (Andrew' Susanna' SamT), born 1703, 
married (i), 1727, Mary Haile, born April 11, 1708, died November 
4, 1744, daughter of Richard and Mary (Bullock) Haile. He married 
(2), May 26, 1746, Lydia Brown, born April 28, 1720, died October 
9, 1808, daughter of John and Mary (Pierce) Brown. He lived at 
Warwick, Swansey and Warren, R. I. 
Children : 

Phebe Barton, born November 25, 1728, at Warwick. 

Benjamin Barton, born January 25, 1733, at Swansey. 

Nathan Barton, born February i, 1735. 

Amos Barton, born May 26, 1737. 

Richard Barton, born February 9, 1739. 

Mary Barton, born November 20, 1740, married Joseph Gorton, No. 59. 

Rebecca Barton, bom October, 1743. 

Haile Barton, born September 28, 1744. 

David Barton. 

William Barton, born May 26, 1748, died October 22, 1831. He was General 
in the American Army, War of the Revolution : captured General Prescott, 
July 10, 1777. (History United States and Rhode Island.) 

Anne Barton. 

Susanna Barton. 

Leth Barton. 

183. RUF'S' BARTON (Andrew' Susanna^ Samuel'), born , 

married Catharine Rhodes. 
Children : 

Phebe Barton, born July 21, 1737. 

John Barton, born March 6, 1738. 

Andrew Barton, born December 24, 1740. 

RuFAs Barton, born February 22, 1743. 

Rebecca Barton, born July 16, 1746. 

Catharine Barton, born July 16, 1746. 

Zachariah Barton, born February 11, 1748. 

Holden Rhodes Barton, born February 23, 1751. 

Waite Barton, born October 20, i753- 

Roseamond Barton, born December 31, 1755- 

Mary Barton, born February 18, 1758. 

187. SUSANNA' GREENE (Mary' Susanna' SamT), born June 30, 
1699, died 1787, married, 1719, William Chadsey, born 1692, died 1787. 
Children : 

504. Jabez Chadsey, born 1720, married (i) Honor Huling, (2) Mary (God- 

dard) Carey. 

505. Mary Chadsey. 

506. Richard Chadsey. 

507. Susanna Chadsey. 

508. Jane Chadsey. 

509. William Chadsey. 
SIC. Naomi Chadsey. 

511. Phebe Chadsey. 

512. John Chadsey. 

513. Elizabeth Chadsey. 

188. JAMES' GREENE (Mary' Susanna' SamT), born Apr. 24, 1701, 
died 1789, married (i) Elizabeth Gould, who died in 1733; married (2) 
Hannah Tucker, who died in 1787. James was a physician; but was 
a partener with his brother in the iron mills at Potowomut and Coventry. 
Children : 

514. James Greene, born 1727, married Susanna Fry. 

515. Elizabeth Greene, born i735. married, 1763, Silas Clapp. 

516. Paul Greene, born 1736, married (i) Sarah Hall, (2) Aanna Wing. 

517. Jabez Greene, born 1737, married Mary Greene. 


518. Abraham Greene, born 1740, married (i) Patience Arnold, (2) Mary 


519. Hannah GreenEj born 1743, married Nathan Greene. 

520. Ruth Greene, born 1748, married (i) John Greene, (2) John Langford. 

189. BENJAMIN* GREENE (Mary' Susanna' Sam'I'), born Feb. 
16, 1704, married Ann Hoxie, daughter of Joseph Hoxie, of Westerly, 
R. I. He was with his brother owner of the iron works at Potowomut 
and Coventry. 

Children : 

521. Sarah Greene, born September 14, 1736, married Nicholas Bragg, Jr. 

522. Benjamin Greene, born April 23, 1738; moved to N. Y. State. 

523. Mary Greene, born March 5, 1739. 

524. Ann Geeene, born December 31, 1742. 

190. JABEZ' GREENE (Mary' Susanna' Sam'l'), born July 26, 1705, 
married (i) Mary Gould, sister of Elizabeth and daughter of Jeremiah 
Gould. She died 1732. He married (2) Susanna Arnold, daughter of 
Philip and Susanna (Greene) Arnold. 

Children : 

525. Jeremiah Greene, born 1726, died 1730. 

526. Elizabeth Greene, born 1728, married John Mott (Jacob* John' Adam^). 

527. Jeremiah Greene, born 1731, married Mary Goddard. 

528. Susanna Greene, born 1736, married Silas Weaver; no children. 

529. Mary Greene, born 1737, married (i) Edward Gorton, Jr., (2) Charles 

Holden, No. 283. 

530. Margaret Greene, born 1740, married Jacob Greene, No. 535. 

531. Catharine Greene, born 1747. 

532. Griffin Greene, born 1749, married Sarah Greene, No. 395. 

191. NATHANIE^L GREENE (Mary' Susanna' Samuel'), b. Novem. 
ber 14, 1707, died October 1768, married (i), September 13, 1733, 
Phebe' Greene (2d cousin), of Benjamin* Benjamin' Thomas' John' 
Greene, who died May 3, 1737; married (2), April 18, 1739, Mary 
Mott, daughter of Jacob and Rest (Perry) Mott, who died March 7, 
1753. He was a Quaker preacher. 

Children : 

533. Benjamin Greene, born 1734, married Freelove Tillinghast ; no children. 

534. Thomas Greene, born 1735, died 1760; unmarried. 

535- Jacob Greene, born March 7, 1740, married Margaret Greene, 530. 

536. Phebe Greene, born 1741, died 1741. 

537. Nathaniel Greene, born July 2^, 1742, married Katharine Littlefield. 

538. William Greene, born November i, 1743, died unmarried; served in 

Revolutionary War. 

539. Elisha Greene, born December 10, 1746, married Jane Flagg. 

540. Christopher Greene, born July 3, 1748, married (i) Katharine Ward, 

(2) Deborah Ward. 

541. Perry Greene, born November 9, 1749, married Elizabeth Belcher. 

192. JOHN* GREENE (Mary' Susanna' SamT), bom February 14, 
1710, married Ann Hoxie, widow of his brother, Benjamin. He was 
a partner with his brothers in the iron works. 


542. Gideon Greene, born 1745, married Mary Rowland. 

193. RUFAS* GREENE (Mary' Susanna' SamT), born June 2, 1712, 
died December, 1784, married, February 3, 1735, Martha Russell, 
daughter of Joseph and Mary (Tucker) Russell. He was an iron 
manufacturer with his brothers, and was engaged also in mercantile 
business. Resided at East Greenwich. 


543. Abraham Greene, born October 2, 1736, married (i) Eleanor Langford, 

(2) Mary Reynolds. 

544. Russell Greene, born March 9, 1738, married Barbara Casey. 


545. Phebe Greene, born December 2, 1740, maried Sylvester Greene. 

546. Mary Greene, born March 20, 1743, married John Reynolds. 

547. Joseph Greene, born March 20, 1745, married Patience Sheffield, of 


548. RuFAS Greene, born March 17, 1748, married Margaret . 

549. William Greene, born May 13, 1749, married, April 18, 1773, Mary 

Sheffield, of Caleb, No. 908a ; moved to N. Y. State ; may have had 

550. Caleb Greene, born August 31, 1751, married Phebe Russell. 

551. Charles Greene, born July 28, 1753, married Phebe Sheffield, of Benj. 

552. Stephen Greene, born January i, 1756, married Patience Wall. 

553. Martha Greene, born April 20, 1758, died April 30, 1759. 

554. Jonathan Greene, born April 16, 1760; removed to Hinesboro, Vt. 

555. David Greene, born April 16, 1760, married Eunice Hopkins. 

556. Martha Greene, born June 2;^, 1763, married George Harris. 


205. MARY° GORTON (Samuer Samuel' Samuel= Samuer), born at 
Swansey, November 13, 1746, married, December 2, 1764, Thomas* 
Wilbur, son of Thomas' and Mercy (Bowen) Wilbur (Thomas' Daniel* 
Thomas'). They lived in Swansey, the portion now Somerset, Mass., 
where she died February 27, 1831. The first of the Wilbur family in 
America, William', came from England and settled in Portsmouth, 
R. I. Daniel^ went to Swansey, where he died in 1641. His grave- 
stone at Somerset reads : " In memory of the first settler of Swansey."" 
Children : 

557. Peleg Wilbur, born February 22, 1765, married Marcy Gooding. 

558. James Wilbur, born September 2, 1766, married Susanna Gorton, No. 

218, (2) Patience Cook, j" 
559- Joseph Wilbur, born , died in infancy. 

560. Mary Wilbur, born May 19, 1771, married Joseph Gorton, No. 221 

561. Phebe Wilbur, born February 16, 1773, married David Whitman, (2) 

Alex Havens. 

562. Ruth Wilbur, born 1775, married Cranston Evans. 

563. Patience Wilbur, born March 6, 1777, married Jonathan Purington. 

564. Chloe Wilbur, born July 11, 1780, married John Gardner. 

565. David Wilbur, born March 16, 1783, married Sarah B. Gardner. 

566. Thomas Wilbur, born October 4, 1785, married Mary Ann Rice. 

206. PELEG' GORTON ( Samuel' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), born at 
Swansey, January 11, 1750, married, January 22, 1769, Dorcas Wood, 
born April 23, 1747, daughter of Silas and Jane (Capwell) Wood. 
Silas Wood served in the Southern Army, Revolutionary War; drew 
pay from the State of Rhode Island August i, 1780. Peleg Gorton in 
about 1778 moved from Rhode Island to Vermont, and thence in 1781 
to New York State and purchased and settled on land laying upon 
the boundaries and in both the present counties of Rensselaer and 
Columbia, near the villages of Stephentown and Lebanon Springs. He 
served in Colonel R. Van Rensselaer's Regiment, Albany County Militia, 
and otherwise in the Revolutionary War. He was very successful in 
business and finances, and during the war loaned money to General 
Washington and the Revelutionary cause. He in 1781 with five others 
bought the township of Painted Post, Steuben County, N. Y., on a 
portion of which the city of Corning now stands, and settled his sons 
upon the purchase — Peleg, Moses, Rufas, and Stephen on the west, and 
Benjamin, Russell, Silas, and Samuel on the east side of the Chemung 


river. Peleg and his daughter, Dorcas, were in 1802 killed by the 
running away of his horse near his home, and were buried on the 
farm. The farm, near Lebanon Springs, is or was recently occupied 
by Will Kent Hatch. The gravestones need attention. His widow, 
Dorcas, went to live with son, Rufas, where she died August 28, 1830; 
gravestone is still standing at Corning, N. Y. 
Children : 

567. Peleg Gorton, born October, 1769, married Lydia Wilkey. 

568. Dorcas Gorton, born , married (i) Ischabod Paterson, (2), Thomas 


569. Benjamin Gorton, born 1772, married Rachel Wolcott. 

570. Moses Gorton, born September 27, 1773, married Eunice Towner. 

571. Rufas Gorton, born October 3, 1774, married Elizabeth Towner. 

572. Sarah Gorton, born March 20, 1776, married Jacob Cole. 

573. Ruth Gorton, born 1778, married Joseph Cole. 

574. Stephen Gorton, born 1779, married Cleopatra Young. 

575. Russell Gorton, born 1781, married Rachel Loomis. 

576. Silas Gorton, born March 25, 1782, married Elizabeth Spring. 

577. Samuel Gorton, born 1783, married Sophia Case. 

578. Betsey Gorton, born , died young. 

579. Polly Gorton, born , died young. 

580. Nancy Gorton, born , died young. 

207. HEZEKIAH' GORTON (Samuel' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'). 
Birth and birthplace we are unable to learn or anything of his marriage, 
excepting that his wife was a daughter of George and Hannah (Wickes) 
Whitford and a sister of his brothers, Benjamin's, Slade's and William's 

Children : 

581. Phebe Gorton, born about 1775, married, October 21, 1792, Gideon 

Wood, of Joseph. 

583. Mary Gorton, born , married, December 3, 1798, Thomas James, 

of Allen. 

583. Hezekiah Gorton, born , married Mary (Watson) Griffin. 

584. Samuel Gorton, born , married Hannah* Gorton, 607, of Slade, 209. 

585. William Gorton, born , married . 

208. BENJAMIN" GORTON (Samuel* Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), b. 
April I, 1754, married by Elder John Gorton on May 30, 1780, at 
Warwick, Thankful Whitford, born August 2"], 1763, died 1834, daugh- 
ter of George and Hannah (Wickes) Whitford, of Warwick. He was 
a Deacon of the Baptist Church, a prominent and generous man, lavish 
in his hospitality. Of his seventeen children, he reared sixteen of 
them to adult age, lived to see them married and many grandchildren 
torn. It is said that rarely if ever was there the equal to the multitude 
of his own household and his and their friends, and the abundance of 
good fellowship enjoyed by them at his home. He died November 18, 

Children : 

586. Mary Gorton, born April i, 1781, married Daniel Stone. 

587. Benjamin Gorton, born June 17, 1782, married Mary Sprague. 

588. Charles Slade Gorton, born January 24, 1784, married Mary Taft. 

589. Phebe Gorton, born December 6, 1785, died October 3, 1786. 

590. Hannah Gorton, born April 15, 1787, married Elisha Arnold. 

591. Sophia Gorton, born May 11, 1788, married Palmer Tanner, (2) Pardon 

593. James Wilbur Gorton, born November 3, 1790, married Hannah. Lost 
at sea ; had son, Samuel. 

593. George Gorton, bom April 24, 1792, thought to have been married. 

Warwick Records show settlement of estate in 1820, January 20, of 
George Gorton, who had been in the U. S. service. 

594. Barbara Gorton, born April 13, 1794, married Freeman Wing. 

595. Silas Casey Gorton, born April 7, 1796, married Sophia Moore. 

596. Samuel Gorton, born January 22, 1798, married Elizabeth H. White- 



597. Barton Whitfoed Gorton, born May 21, 1799, married Mercy StaflFord. 

598. Peleg Gorton, born May 31, 1801, married Margaret Young. 

599. Thomas Wickes Gorton, born April 9, 1803, married Elizabeth Carr. 

600. Richard Gorton, born June 29, 1805, married Abbie Ann Arnold. 

601. Isaac Gorton, born May 20, 1807, married Mary Shipper. 

602. EvERLiNE Gorton, born March 25, 1809, married George Hutchins. 

209. SLADE' GORTON (Samuer Samuel' Samuef Samuel'), b. about 
1757, married, December 11, 1777, by Elder John Gorton, Mary Whit- 
ford, daughter of George and Hannah (Wickes) Whitford, of Warwick. 
He served in the Revolutionary War. It is stated upon good authority 
that he had seven boys, but we can learn the names of but four of 

Children : 

603. George Gorton, married, died away from home near year 1851. 

604. Peleg Gorton, died December 24, 1872, unmarried. 

605. Job Gorton, born December, 1791, married Antha Matteson. 

606. Israel Gorton, born 1799, married Mary Ann Whitford. 

607. Hannah Gorton, married (i) Samuel Gorton, 584, Hezekiah, 207, (2) 

David Shippee. 

608. Susan Gorton, married Freelove Shippee; no more known. 

609. Mary Gorton, married Casey Wood; had daughter, Almira, who married 

George Goodwin. 

210. WILLIAM" GORTON (Samuel* Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), b. at 
Warwick, October 15, 1760, married, November 24, 1785, Sarah Whit- 
ford, born August 29, 1766, daughter of George and Hannah (Wickes) 
Whitford, of Warwick. 

Children : 

610. Catharine Gorton, born September 16, 1786, married (i) Moses Barlow, 

(2) John Place. 
6x1. Sarah Gorton, born March 27, 1788, married Elijah Arnold. 

612. Oliver C. Gorton, born April 18, 1790, married Deborah Sweet. 

613. Russell Wickes Gorton, died young. 

211. FREELOVE' GORTON (Samuel* Samuel' Sam'l' Sam'l'), birth 
not recorded in Warwick, married, November 24, 1785, Daniel Wickes, 
born April 19, 1762, son of Captain Thomas* (dec.) and (3d wife) 

Sarah ( ) Wickes, No. 76. We can learn of only the following 


614. Sarah Wickes, born June 10, 1797, at Coventry, R. I. 

213. ANTHONY" GORTON (Samuel* Sam'l' SamT SamT), married 
(i) Coventry; married (2) at Warwick, September 10, 1796, Phebe' 
Gorton, born August 16, 1774, daughter of William" and Submit 
(Briggs) Gorton (William* Samuel' John' Samuel'). 
Children : 

615. Warren Gorton, born November 6, 1797. 

616. Catharine Gorton, born October 2, 1799. 

617. Phebe Gorton, born 1802, "married, March 2, 1828, Thomas Rhodes." 

216. ELIZABETH" GORTON (SamT Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), born 
1774, died November 8, 1859, aged 85, married, December 13, 1812, 
John' Gorton, her cousin, son of Benjamin and Avis Hlulett Gorton. 
John's first wife was Hope Brown, by whom he had nine children. 
John and Elizabeth were for a while of Baltimore, Md., but later of 
Charleston, Mass., where Mr. Gorton had lived many years and where 
he died. (See No. 220.) 

219. WILLIAM" GORTON (Benj.* Samuel' Samuel' SamT), born 
at Warwick, May 10, 1764, married by Elder John Gorton at Warwick, 


October i, 1786, Hannah Wightman, daughter of PhiHp and Marcy' 
(Gorton) Wightman, granddaughter of Judge Othniel* and Theodora 
(Hopkins) Gorton (Nos. 272, 795). 
Children : 

618. Susanna Gorton, married Daniel Southwick, (2) Stanley Carter; de- 

scendants unknown. 

619. Philip Gorton, married Nancy Gorton, No. 222 ; no further records. 

620. RuFAs Gorton. 

621. Samuel Gorton. 

622. Othniel Gorton, born July s, 1795, married Hannah Hartshorn. 

623. Theodora Gorton, born July 5, 1795, married Nathan Perkins. 

624. Benjamin Gorton. 

625. Mercy Gorton, married a Mr. Seagreaves. 

626. Ann Gorton. 

627. Thomas Gorton, married Continued. 

628. Silas Gorton, married Clarissa Brown, of Vermont ; lived at Rutland, 

Vt. ; no children. 

629. Hiram Gorton, died unmarried. 

220. JOHN' GORTON (Benjamin* SamT Sam'l= Sam'l*), born at 
Warwick, December 21, 1765, married (i), February 13, 1787, at Provi- 
dence, Hope Brown, born 1762. They settled in Charlton, Mass., where 
Hope died February 22, 1811. He married (2), December 18, 1812, 
Elizabeth Gorton, cousin, born 1774, daughter of Dr. Samuel and 
Frances (Rice-Graves) Gorton. John was a hatter by trade. He lived 
for a while in Baltimore, Md., but for the greater part of his life 
in Charlton, Mass., where he died September 15, 1838. Elizabeth died 
November 8, 1859. 

Children : 

630. George Brown Gorton, born April 20. 1788, married Phebe Dexter. 

631. Daniel Gorton, born April 4, 1790, married Lydia Peirce. 

632. Hope Ann Gorton, born January 20, 1792, married James Dexter. 

633. John Anthony Gorton, born May 20, 1794, married Thankful Ingraham. 

634. Sanford Gorton born April 15, 1796, married (i) Roxena Wheelock, 

(2) . 

635. Benjamin ti. Gorton, born March 10, 1798, married Euthera White. 

636. Edwin Gorton, born May 14, 1800. 

637. Independence W. Gorton, born June 10, 1801, married Maria Haines. 

638. Avis Melisa Gorton, born January 20, 1803, married (i) James Riley, 

James Dexter. 

221. JOSEPH' GORTON (Benj.* Samuel' Samuef Samuel'), born 
at Warwick, September 2, 1768, died at Coventry, R. I., June 6, 1864, 
married Mary (Polly) Wilbur, cousin, born May 19, 1771, died October 
18, 1842, daughter of Thomas and Mary° (Gorton) Wilbur, No. 560. 
Children : 

639. Mason Gorton, born June 6, 1800, married Sarah Nichols Whitford. 

640. Wilbur Gorton, born April i, 1802, went west; married; died December 

1, 1848; had Mason and other children. 

641. Mary Gorton, born November 18, 1803, married Ezekiel Johnson Whit- 


642. Benjamin Gorton, born June 30, 1805. married Hannah Reynolds. 

643. Alfred Gorton, born January 16, 1807, died October 27. 1851, unmarried. 

644. Albert Gorton, born May 5, 1809, died at an early age. 

645. Thomas T. Gorton, born August 6, 1815, died May 14, 1862, unmarried. 

223. BENJAMIN" GORTON (Benj.' Samuef Samuel' Samuel'), born 
May 17, 1775, died August 18, 1828, at Warwick, married Alice Low, 
born 1771, "died October 30, 1852, in the 82d year of her age," daughter 
of Deacon Stephen' and Susanna*. No. 421. Benjamin Gorton was by 
trade a hatter. No children known. 

224. AMOS' GORTON (Benj.* Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), born at 
Providence, R. I. May 20, 1777, married (i) Avis Warner. After her 


death he married in 181 5 Rhoda Remington, born at South Wallingford, 
Vt., January 27, 1797, died there September 2, 1872, daughter of Jona- 
than and Martha (Sprague) Remington. Amos Hved at Warwick, went 
from there to WalHngford, Vt., where he passed the remainder of his 
life and where all of his children were born. He drove a team in the 
regular freight business between Wallingford and Troy, N. Y. He 
died July 17, 1840. 
Children : 

646. Jacob Warner Gorton, born April 24, 1799, died in infancy. 

647. Jacob Warner Gorton, born April 5, 180 1, lived to manhood, unheard 


648. Amos Hale Gorton, born February 6, 1803, married Mahala Remington. 

649. Nancy Gorton, born March 4, 1805, married Caleb Eddy. 

650. Mary (Polly) Gorton, born March 18, 1807, married Robert Maxham ; 

no children. 

651. Asa Gorton, born October 17, 1808, married Electa Gilmore. 

652. Oliver Gorton, born September 20, 1810, married Mary Granger. 

653. Hosea Gorton, born October 11, 181 2, married Marilla Dewey. 

654. Esther Warner Gorton, born December 19, 1814, married Willard 


655. Harriet Priscilla Gorton, born January 18, 1816, married Ira Phillips. 

656. John Whipple Gorton, born January 4, 1818, married Rosanna Andrews. 

657. Avis Alma Gorton, born December 17, 1820, married Leonard Aldrich. 

658. Rhoda Jane Gorton, born January 29, 18^:3, married Allen Conger. 

659. Susan M. Gorton, born January z-j, 1826, married Ozro Eddy. 

660. Sarah Clarinda Gorton, born August 7, 1828, married (i) William 

Warner, (2) James Metcalf. 

661. Alice Gorton, born July 15, 1830, married Leonard Brockway. 

662. Benjamin Gorton, born January 27, 1833, married Cynthia Andrews. 

226. HAIL" GORTON (Benj.* Samuel' Samuef Samuel'), born 1786, 
married at Providence, July 8, 1812, Hannah Howard, born 1782, "died 

November i, 1847, in the 66th year of age," daughter of C Howard. 

He was by trade a hatter, " died June 2.^, 1823, in 38th year of age." 
Children : 

663. Hannah M. Gorton, born March 22, 1812, married Nathaniel Willard. 

664. Hope B. Gorton, born July 19, 1815, married Albert G. Franklin. 

665. Hail Gorton, born 1818, married Ann Frances Phillips. 

666. Julia Ann Gorton, born 1820, married Stephen D. Gray, of Bristol, 

R. L ; three children, died in infancy. 

227. HEZEKIAH' GORTON (Joseph* Sam'l' SamT SamT), born at 
Warwick, November 21, 1763, married by Elder John Gorton at Volun- 
town, Conn., September 12, 1781, Mrs. Asa Potter, nee Bodwitch, born 
July 25, 1762. Her given name does not appear on record. He was 
a Baptist minister; went to New York State, where he passed the 
greater part of his life. He at one time was settled for twenty years 
over a parish at Broadalbin, in Fulton County, N. Y., and here most 
of his children were born. 

Children : 

667. Sarah (Sally) Gorton, born November 4, 1782, married Isaac Morse. 

668. Mary (Polly) Gorton, born September 7, 1784, married Willard Joslin. 

669. Joseph Gorton, born June 20, 1786, married Rachel Gortches. 

670. Elizabeth (Betsey) Gorton, born November 4, 1788, married Charles 


671. Susan Gorton, born September 11, 1791, died unmarried. 

672. Hezekiah Gorton, born December 2, i793i married Alpha Capron. 

673. Philanthro Gorton, born April 25, 1796, married Betsey Moore. 

674. Lydia Gorton, born July 23, 1798, married Peleg Havens. 

675. Nancy Gorton, born December 30, 1803, married Peter Moray. 

676. Asa Gorton, born 1804, married Harriet Sherman. 

228. DAVID' GORTON (Joseph* Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), born at 
Warv/ick, November 24, 1768, married by Elder John Gorton, March 


19, 1789, Alice Whitford, born July 16, 1770, daughter of George and 
Hannah (Wickes) Whitford, of Warwick. Her name is written alter- 
nately Alice and Elsie. They settled in Manfield, N. Y., where he died 
in about the year 1830. Elsie then went to live with daughter, Rachel, 
in Bloomfield, Conn., where she died in July, 1855. 
Children : 

677. Mary Gorton, born 1790, married Philip White. 

678. Joseph Gorton, born November 5, 1792, married Phebe Baxter. 

679. Hannah Gorton, born July 7, 1795, married William Hoswell. 

680. George Gorton, born , married Betsey Burr. 

681. Susan Gorton, born May 12, 1799, married (.1) Henry Baxter, (2) 

Ransom J. Greene. 

682. John Gorton, born April 19, 1801, married Johanna Sheldon. 

683. Silas C. Gorton, born 1803, married (i) Diadamie Meade, (2) Lucy 


684. Rachel Gorton, born December 14, 1805, married Wilson Gillette. 

685. Phebe S. Gorton, born July i, 181 1, married John Robinson. 

686. Hezekiah Gorton, born 1814, married Sallie A. Edmonds. 

687. Alpha Gorton, died in infancy. 

688. Betsey E. Gorton, born January 21, 181 8, married (i) James Brown, (2) 

William Henry. 

233. WILLIAM" WATERMAN (Marcy* Susanna" Sam'l' SamT), b 
at Warwick, July 28, 1744, died February 23, 1839, married, March 10, 
1768, Phebe Arnold, daughter of Philip and Phebe Arnold. He was 
a Captain in the Revolutionary Army. 

Children : 

689. John Waterman, born 1769, married Phebe Weaver. 

690. Mary Waterman, born March 10, 1772, married John Cook; had Phebe, 

who died in childhood. 

691. William Waterman, born November 12, 1774. 

692. Philip Waterman, born December 13, 1776. 

693. Benjamin Waterman, born November 25, 1778. 

694. Marcy Waterman, born October 13, 1780, married James Greene. 

695. Resolved Waterman, born March 23, 1791. 

234. MARCY' WATERMAN (Marcy' Susanna' Sam'l' Sam'l') mar- 
ried Waterman Tibbitts. 

Children : 

696. Charles Tibbitts, born 1765, married Margaret Remington, of Jona- 

than, of Cranston, and had Julia. 

697. John Waterman Tibbitts, born 1768, married Sukey* G. Cook. 

698. Henry Tibbitts, born 1770; a Surgeon in U. S. N. ; died at sea on the 

" General Greene." 

699. Daniel Tibbitts, born 1777, supposed lost at sea October, 1804. 

700. Benjamin Tibbitts, born 1780, married Almy Arnold. 

701. Lafayette Tibbitts, married a lady from Newport, married (2) a daugh- 

ter of a French nobleman. 

235. ANN" WATERMAN (Marcy' Susanna' Samuel' Samuel'), bom 
May 27, 1748, died September 19, 1844, married, August 31, 1775, John 
Clapp, son of Silas and Mary" (Greene) Clapp (John* Peter John' 
John\ Greene Family, p. 154, Fuller's Warwick, p. 169). 
Children : 

706. Silas Clapp, born August 29, 1776, married Sylvania Andrews. 

707. Mary G. Clapp, born August 30, 1778, died February 11, 1769, in her 

90th year, unmarried. 

708. John G. Clapp, born August 8, 1780, married Catharine Godfrey. 

709. Thomas Clapp, born March 26, 1782, married Hannah Smith. 

710. Anna Clapp, born September 6, 1784, died March 10, 1876. She retained 

her faculties, and received her friends on her 91st birthday. 

711. William Clapp, born January 24, 1786, died October 31, 1873, married 

Mary Reynolds, died 1896, aged 99 years, 6 months; no children. 

712. Waterman Clapp, born April 18, 1788, married Eliza Woodward. 

713. Mary Clapp, born May 19, 1792, died December 9, 1873, in 82d year, 



236. SARAH' WATERMAN (Marcy* Susanna' Samuef Samuer), b. 
1750, died January 16, 1826, married Nathan Babcock. 
Children : 

714. Thomas Babcock. 

715. John Babcock. 

716. Erastus Babcock. 

717. Nathan Babcock. 

239. NEHEMIAH" MERRITT (Dinah* Sarah' Maher= Samuel'), born 
January 14, 1741, died 1793. He married, June 25, 1760, at Quaker 
Hill, Dutchess County, N. Y., Phebe Wing, daughter of Abraham and 
Anstis (Wood Wing. He was a "merchant of Washington township." 
He sold to son, Consider, about fifty acres in Great Nine Partners' 
Tract for £300, October 8, 1790. 
Children : 

718. Abraham Merritt. 

719. Anna Merritt. 

720. Daniel Merritt. 

721. Consider Merritt. 

722. Morgan Merritt. 

723. Isaac Merritt. 

724. Hannah Merritt. 

725. Sarah Merritt. 

726. Jacob Merritt. 
T2T. Mary Merritt. 

728. Benjamin Merritt, born June 21, 1777, married Thankful Scott. 

729. Ruth Merritt. 

251. STUKT^LEY" WICKES (Benj'min* Ann' Maher' SamT), born at 
Warwick, September 29, 1743, married (i), December 26, 1765, Eliza- 
beth Greene, daughter of Deacon Thomas Greene (three children). 
He married (2), October 14, 1768, Barbara Langford, daughter of 
John Langford, of East Greenwich (one or two children). Pie married 
(3) Welthian Allen. 
Children : 

730. Eleanor Wickes, married, January 26, 1794, Benjamin Tiffany, of 


731. Elizabeth Wickes, married Whitman Sweet. 

732. Alice (Elsie) Wickes, married, July 3, 1794, Isaac Gardner, of Isaac. 

733. Desire Wickes, born 1769. 

734. Powers Wickes, married, October i, 1794, Susanna' Pearce, of Giles 

(Elizabeth* Caleb" Frances* OthnieP John= Samuel'). 

735. Barbara Wickes, born September 26, 1775, married, January 24, 1799, 

Rufas Gorton Spenced, No. 798. 

736. Stuckley Wickes, born September 15, 1780, married, November, 181 7, 

Almy M. Whitman, of Othniel G., No. 793. 

737. Welthian Wickes, born June 17, 1781, married, February 24. 1802, 

John Godfrey, of Joshua. 

738. Stephen Wickes, born November 14, 1782, married Elizabeth Dorrence; 

a physician ; his son, Stuckley, had two sons, Stephen and Franklin, 
who died prisoners of war at Andersonville. 

739. Nancy Wickes, born October 4, 1784, married Christopher Spencer, of 


740. Sarah Wickes, born May 5, 1787, died early m life. 

741. Samuel Wickes, married ; had Mary R. and other children. 

742. Benjamin Wickes, born September 26, 1792. 

743. Hope Harris Wickes, born August 30, i794- 

260. MARCY' GORTON (Israel' Othnief John' Samuel'), born 1722, 
died October i, 1809, married, August 29, 1742, Robert Knight, born 
July 4, 1722, died April 18, 1791, son of Robert and Mary* (Potter) 
Knight. Mary* Potter was of John' and Jane (Burlingame) Potter 
(John' Robert' Potter). Robert Potter sailed from England in 1634, 
settled in Rhode Island in 1636; was one of the original purchasers of 


Shawomet. Robert Knight was a contributor towards building the 
first Friends' meeting-house at Mashapaug. They lived in Cranston. 
Children : 

744. Ruth Knight, born , married, October 25, 1761, William Knight. 

745. Mercy Knight, born , "sister of Ruth, married, February 26, 1764, 

Benjamin Waterman, of Johnstown." 

746. ZiLPAH Knight, born , married Nicholas Sheldon. 

747. Robert Knight, born June 12, 1750, married Elizabeth Hammond. 

748. Mary Knight, born , married William Greene. 

749. Freelove Knight, born , married William Potter. 

750. Anne Knight, born 1760, married Joseph Potter. 

25i. FREELOVE' GORTON (Israel* Othniel' John= SamT), b. No- 
vember, 1725, died Jan. 6, 1795, married, 1741, Captain Matthew Man- 
chester, born at Tiverton, now in Rhode Island, October i, 1720, died 
September 14, 1801, son of Thomas and (ist wife) Sarah (Earle) 

Manchester. The Captain was an innkeeper at Scituate in 1769. Dying 
intestate, the Town Council appointed Nehemiah Knight administrator. 
Buried in Cranston. 
Children : 

751. Job Manchester, born July 3, 1742, married Hannah Potter. 

752. Mary Manchester, born December 3, 1743, married, December 25, 1763, 

Stephen Knight. 

753. Sarah Manchester, born December 29, 1745, died prior to 1754. 

754. John Manchester, born March 29, 1747, died young. 

755. Freelove Manchester, born June 3, 1748, married, September 24, 1767, 

Noah Whitman, son of Ebenezer Whitman, of Bridgewater, Mass. 

756. Thomas Manchester, born September 30, 1749, married, April 6, 1769, 

Mary Potter, of Colonel John Potter, of Scituate, R. I. 

757. Mercy Manchester, born May 28, 1751, married, February 9, 1769, 

Josiah Potter, of Job Potter. 
75S. John Manchester, born July 2"], 1752. 

759. Sarah Manchester, born March 23, 1754. 

760. Gideon Manchester, born September 15, 1755. 

761. Joseph Manchester, born September 15, 1755. 

762. Phebe Manchester, born November 8, 1756, married Benjamin Reming- 

ton, No. 

763. Lydia Manchester, born July 7, 1758, married Benjamin Remington, 


764. Israel Manchester, born February 28, 1760, married, January 5, 1783, 

Nabby Knight, of Nehemiah and Eleanor (Hudson) Knight. 

765. William Manchester, born March 24, 1763, married Hepra Dana. 

766. George Manchester, born April 8, 1764. 

767. Nancy Manchester, born August 16, 1767, married Benjamin Reming- 

ton, No. 

768. Alice Manchester, born October 30, 1769, died July 24, 1790, unmarried. 

769. Isaac Manchester, born February 7, 1772, married . 

262. ISRAEL'' GORTON, JR. ( Israel' OthnieP John' SamT) lived on 
the Ore Bed Four Corners farm, where he died shortly prior to April 
10, 1807. He married Anne Searle, daughter of Thomas and Penelope 
Searle. Captain Israel Gorton was appointed Commander of the six 
additional companies ordered raised by Rhode Island, War of the 
Revolution; was administrator of his father's, Israel, e.state, a member 
of Town Council, and was Deputy (same as present State Senator) 
from Cranston to the Legislature. He had twelve children, a number 
of whose names and records we are unable to obtain. 

770. Israel Gorton, born 1755, married. 

771. Pardon Gorton, born , married Margaret. 

772. Marcy Gorton, born 1765, married Rufas Dyer. 

773. Thomas Gorton, born 1765, married Penelope Knight. 

774. Job Gorton, born , married. His granddaughter, Almy, not eighteen 

when he made his will. 

77$. Othniel Gorton, born . 

3P76. Ezra Gorton, born . 


J7T. Sarah Gorton, born , married, October 12, 1828, David Atwood, 

of Warwick. 

778. Cyrus Gorton, born April, 1778, married Nancy Mcintosh. 

263. SARAH" GORTON (John* Othniel' John= SamT), born Sept. 
20, 1720, married, April 16, 1738, Stuckley" Westcott, Jr. (Stuckley* 
Stuckley' Jeremiah" Stuckley'). Stuckley' Westcott, the founder of 
the family of this name in Rhode Island, was one of the twenty-nine 
who signed the agreement for the civil government of Providence, 
July 27, 1640, and was one of the original members of the First Baptist 
Church. He was Surveyor of Highways, Commissioner and Assistant. 
Should like to hear of any descendants of Stuckley and Sarah. The 
headstone at the latter's grave on the homestead farm, opposite the 
Ore Beds, Cranston, reads : " Sarah, wife of Stuckley Westcott and 
daughter of John and Hannah Gorton." 

264. MARY' GORTON (John* Othniel' John" Samuel') married, June 
5, 1743, at Providence, Abraham Chase, born July i, 1720, at Warwick, 
son of Joseph* (William' William" VVilliam') and Abigail (Tucker) 
Chase. Mr. Chase was first married to Susanna Burlingame, by whom 
he had a daughter, Susanna, born March 23, 1742. He lived at Warwick, 
where all his children v/ere born. 

Children : 

779. Hannah Chase, born February 21, 1745. 

780. Abraham Chase, liorn December 26, 1748. 

781. Mercy Chase, born May 7, 1751, married John Weeden. 

782. Sarah Chase, born March 20, 1755, married Stephen Greene. 

783. Joseph Chase, born September 28, 1757, married, December 16, 1781, 

Lucy Arnold, of Oliver and (ist wife) Mary, of East Greenwich. 

784. LowRY Chase, born November 21, 1759, married Mary Wightman. 

785. Gorton Chase, born October 24, 1761, married . 

786. Charlotte Chase, born August i, 1763, married, November 30, 1800, 

at Warwick, Elisha Baker, of Joseph. 

265. PHEBE' GORTON (John* Othniel' John" Saml') married. Mar. 
18, 1749, William Edmonds, of Warwick. 

Children : 

787. John Edmonds, born May 30, 1751. 

788. Patience Edmonds, born September 4, 1753. 

789. William Edmonds, born March 23, 1756. 

790. Anthony Edmonds, born Augst 20, 1759. 

266. CALEB' PEIRCE (Frances* OthnieP John" Samuel'), born July 
15' 1734. " of Jeremiah, deceased, married, June 3, 1754, Mrs. Margaret 
(Martin) Peirce, widow of Jeremiah'' Peirce, of Giles*," daughter of 
Robert Martin, of Londonderry, N. H. 


791. Elizabeth Peirce, married, December 22, 1775, Giles Peirce. 

271. ZILPHA= GORTON (Othniel* Othnief John" Sam'l'), born Feb- 
ruary II, 1737, married, July i, 1759, Captain Joseph Hopkins, Jr. 

792. Mary Hopkins, born August 15, 1760, married George Arnold. 

272. MARCY' GORTON (Othniel* Othniel' John' SamT) mar. (i), 
May 27, 1762, Philip Wightman, born June 13, 1737, died December 
9, 1788, son of John and Phebe (Havens) Wightman; (2), June 9, 1793, 
General Thomas Holden, of John and Hannah (Fry) Holden ; no 
issue of last marriage. 


Children : 

793. Othniel Gorton Wightman, born 1764, married Sarah Arnold. 

794. Mary Wightman, born , married Jonathan Nickols. 

795. Hannah^ Wightman, born , married William Gorton, No. 219. 

796. Theodora Wightman, born January 20, 1780, married (i) Daniel 

Remington, (2) Jonathan Nickols. 

797. Elizabeth Wightman, born March 4, 1782, married George Taft. 

273. MARY' GORTON (Othniel OthnieP John' Sam'l') mar. Chris- 
topher Spencer, born December 30, 1750, son of Rufas and Ruth 
(Vaughan) Spencer. 
Children : 

798. Rufas Gorton Spencer, born May 6, 1773, married Barbara Wickes. 

275. MARY' REMINGTON (Ann* Samuer John' SamT), born Aug. 
17, 1725, married Holden Rhodes, born at Warwick, May 20, 1731, son 
of Major and Catharine'' (Holden) Rhodes, who died in 1774. Major 
John was son of John and Waite (Waterman) Rhodes; Catharine* was 
daughter of Charles' and Catharine' (Greene) Holden. (Greene Fam- 
ily, p. 78.) 
Children : 

799. Holden Rhodes, Jr., born September 22, 1750, married Susanna Wall. 

277. THOMAS' REMINGTON (Ann* Sam'l' John' SamT), of War- 
wick, married at East Greenwich, August 16, 1759, Freelove Nichols, 
daughter of Joseph Nichols, deceased, of Warwick. The only two 
children we find records of were born in East Greenwich. 
Children : 

800. Annie Remington, born November 3, 1761. 

801. Joseph Nichols Remington, born January 4, 1764. 

278. FREELOVE' GORTON (Edward* Samuel' John' Samuel'), b. at 
Warwick, May 9, 1722, died October 31, 1803, married, April 26, 1744, 
Dr. Dutee Jerauld, born at Medfield, Mass., March 5, 1723, died at 
Warwick, July 13, 1813, son of Dr. James and Martha (Dupree) 
Jerauld. Dr. Dutee Jerauld came from Medfield, Mass., and settled in 
East Greenwich in 1743, where he resided and practiced medicine, much 
of his time administering to the sick and wounded soldiers of the war. 
He was over ninety years of age when he died. His parents were 
Huguenot refugees. His father was a physician. His daughter married 
Samuel Pearce, and her son. Honorable Dutee Jerauld Pearce, was an 
able lawyer, Attorney General of the State, Member of Congress for 
twelve years. (Potter's French Settlement of Rhode Island. Dr. 
Greene's History of East Greenwich. Dr. Parsons' Sketches of Rhode 
Island Physicians. Rider's R. I. Historical Tract, 5.) 

Children : 

802. James Jerauld, born February 2, 1746, married Mary Rice. 

803. Dutee Jerauld, born January 7, 1748, married Almy Niles. 

804. Freelove Jerauld, born January 22, 1750, married Caleb Rice. 

805. Gorton Jerauld, born February 22, 1752, married Elizabeth Stafford, 

(2) Phebe Rice. 

806. Hannah Jerauld, born December 21, 1753, married Sr.muel Pearce, Jr. 

807. Martha Jerauld, born January 31, 1756, married Thomas Pearce. 

808. Sarah Jerauld, bom April 15, 1758, married Samuel Millard. 

809. Ann Jerauld, born June 9, 1760, married James Potter or Porter. 

810. Susanna Jerauld, born November 22, 1762, married Henry Rice. 
8u. Caleb Jerauld, born May 11, 1765, married Robe Arnold. 

279. SARAH' GORTON (Edward* Sam'f John' SamT), born July 4, 
1724, married, May 26, 1748, Stuckley* Stafford, son of Stuckley'' and 


Elizabeth (Waterman) Stafford (Joseph* Thomas'). They lived in 



812. Edward Stafford, married, March 21, 1782, Almy Aldrich. 

813. John Stafford, married Mary Arnold. 

814. Stuckley Stafford, married, March 26, 1789, Freelove Potter, of Zuron 

Potter, of Cranston, R. I. 

815. Elizabeth Stafford, married James Arnold, (2) Christopher Arnold. 

816. Sarah Stafford, married Joseph Arnold. 

817. Ann Stafford. 

281. HANNAH" GORTON (Edward' SamT John= Sr.mT), born Jan- 
uary 16, 1729, married (i), 1750, Elisha Greene, born 1728, died 1796, 
son of Elder Elisha* and Abigail (Fenner) Greene (Jamesi' James' 
John*). Hannah married (2) a Mr. Arnold, of Coventry. Elisha 
Greene owned property at Pawtuxet and at Providence, and with his 
son and the Browns was partner in the iron works on Mashauntatuck 
Children : 

818. Deliverance Greene, born July 22, 1751, married Nathaniel Carpenter. 

819. Sarah Greene, born November 26, 1752, married Benjamin Arnold. 

820. Hannah Greene, born November 16, 1754, married, in Cranston, Feb- 

ruary 21, 1773, Reuben Westcott, of Johnstown, R. I. They lived 
in Pomfret, Conn. 

821. Edward Greene, born February 13, 1757, married (1), 1777, Prudence 

Davis, of Edward, of Gloucester, R. I., (2), 1797, Sally Rhodes. 

822. Dexter Greene, born February 17, 1759; unmarried. 

823. James Greene, born October 10, 1761, married, August 19, 1784, at 

Portsmouth, R. I., Susan Lynch. He lived at Cranston and Gloucester, 
R. I. Died January 21, 1844; left children. 

824. Arthur Greene, born November 10, 1764, married. He died January 

21, 1847; left two daughters, who lived in Pawtuxet in 1873. 

825. Abigail Greene, born March 21, 1767, died unmarried. 

826. Mary Greene, born April 2, 1770, married William Hall. 

232. CALEB' GORTON (Edward' SamT John= SamT), born Novem- 
ber 17, 1731, married, September 20, 1753, Mary Brown, daughter of 
Elisha and Patience (Edmunds) Brown. Caleb died in 1804. His 
will, dated November 5, 1802, recorded March 10, 1804, mentions a 
second wife, Elizabth Baker, but does not mention any children ; yet 
it is believed that he had, by his first wife, a daughter, deceased, who 
had married Thomas Holden, Jr., for in a deed, November 4, 1802 
(Warwick Book 14, p. 257), in which Caleb Gorton conveys the John" 
Gorton farm, Warwick Pond, to John Holden, son of Thomas, Jr., 
Caleb is referred to as grandfather to John Holden. (See also Will 
of Elisha Baker, 1784.) 

283. EDWARD' GORTON (Edward* SamT John= SamT), born May 
24, 1734, married, November 27, 1755, Mary Greene, daughter of Jabez, 
Jr., and Susanna (Arnold) Greene. He was a Major in the Militia. 
He died October 27, 1779, and Mary married (2) Charles Holden. 
Child : 

827. " Hannah Gorton, of Mary (Greene) Gorton, now Holden, by her first 

husband, Edward Gorton, married, October 21, 1792, John Fry, son 
of Richard." 

285. ANN' GORTON (Edward* Samuel' John' Samuel'), born Feb. 
5, 1738, married, November 27, 1760, Job Rice, probably Job born 
February 20, 1737, of Randall and Dianah (Greene) Rice. Randall 
was son of John and Elnathan (Whipple) Rice. 

828. John Rice, born March 2t, 1761. 

829. Noel Rice, born April 13, 1763. 


830. Freelove Rice, born June 19, 1765. 

831. Edward Rice, born September 15, 1769. 

832. Job Rice, born February 8, 1772. 

833. Hannah Rice, born October 31, 1775. 

834. Anna Rice, born May 18, 1778. 

291. DIANA" WHITMAN (Margaret* Samuel' John' Samuel'), born 
January 30, 1736, married Joseph Arnold. Of their children we find 
only the following record : 

835. Joseph Arnold, born January 23, 1712, married Ruth Godfrey. 

294. BENJAMIN' GORTON (SamT Sam'P John^* SamT), born July 
II, 1732, married, September 6, 1757, Sarah Earle, born February 8, 
1731, daughter of Benjamin* and Rebecca (Westgale) Earle (John' 
Ralph' Ralph'). Benjamin and Sarah both died the same year, 1779. 
Children : 

836. Son Gorton, died about 1777, leaving a son, John. 

837. Mary Gorton, married William Potter. 

838. Benjamin Earl Gorton, born 1765, died December 22, 1822. He was 

a mariner. 

839. Elizabeth Gorton, married, December 25, 1794, Benjamin Earl. 

295. JONATHAN' GORTON (Samuel* Samuel' John' Samuel'), born 
November 25, 1737, married, November 23, 1759, by Samuel Gorton, 
Justice, Sarah Arnold, born 1742, died February 18, 1816, daughter of 
Philip* and Susanna* (Greene) Arnold. He was a member of the 
Legislature from Warwick in 1787. He died October 23, 1820. 
Children : 

840. Samuel Gorton, born January 23, 1763, married Anne Watermiin. 

841. RoBY Gorton, born January 30, 1764, married Philip Arnold. 

842. Sarah Gorton, born January 17, 1770, died May 22, 1775. 

843. Mary (Polly) Gorton, born July 10, 1773, died June 14, 1794, unmarried. 

844. Sarah Ann Gorton, born November 16, 1776, married Thomas Arnold 

(2) Thomas Holden. 

297. SARAH' GORTON (SamT Sam'l' John' SamT), born Septem- 
ber 10, 1739, died October 28, 1820, married at Warwick, April 5, 1761, 
Captain Israel Bowen, born August 17, 1733, died April 26, 1819, son 
of Aaron* and Experience (Whitaker) Bowen; Obediah' and Abigail 
(Bullock) Bowen; Obediah' and Mary (Clifton) Bowen; Richard' 

and Anne ( ) Bowen. Richard' and Anne and seven children came 

to New England in 1640 (Israel Bowen's Family Bible, in possession 
of John E. Bowen, of Providence). They lived at Coventry, R. I. 
Ch ildren : 

845. Alma Bowen, born February 16, 1762, married Matthew Clark. 

846. Elizabeth Bowen, born March i, 1764, died February i, 1782, unmarried. 

847. RoBY Bowen, born November 29, 1766, married Rev. John Hill. 

848. John Bowen, born January 3, 1769, married Sarah Clark. 

849. Nathan Bowen. born July 2, 1771, married Elizabeth Gardner. 

299. ELNATHAN' GORTON (SamT Sam'l' John' SamT), born July 
4, 1743, at Warwick, married, May 13, 1762, Aaron' Bowen, Jr., born 
September 2. 1730, died October 7, 1816, brother of Israel, who married 
her sister, Sarah. They lived at Coventry. Elnathan died July 20, 
1824. Her parents' silver, marked S. & M. G., and her own, marked 
A. & E. B., and the Family Bible are in the possession of her great- 
granddaughter, Charlotte M. Bowen. 
Children : 

850. HuLDA Bowen, born May 27, 1764, died July 27, 1764. 

851. Asaph Bowen, born July 22. 1765, married Roby Brown. 

852. Mary Bowen, born February 26, 1767, married Rev. Daniel Ostrander. 


853. Benjamin Bowen, born April 8, 1769, died 1851, married, March 4, 

1798, Sarah Hill, of Coventry, R. I. 

854. Stephen Bowen, born March 30, 1771, married Rebecca Hill. 

855. Mahala Bowen, born February 16, 1773, married Allen Brov/n. 

856. Lydia Bowen, born July 22, 1775, died December 8, 1793. 

857. Richard Bowen, born February 17, 1777, married Mehitable Sheppard- 

son, (2) Eliza Seymour. 

858. Annie Bowen, born January 18, 1779, died August 20, 1820. 

859. Elizabeth Bowen, born May 26, 1781, married William Reynolds. 

860. Cristopher Bowen, born April 14, 1783, died September 10, 1840, in 

N. Y. State. 

861. Oliver Bowen, born August i, 1785, died July 12, 1807, at sea. 

862. George Bowen, born May 17, 1787, married Harriet Seymour. 

301. WILLIAM' GORTON, JR. (William* Sam'l' John' SamT), born 
May 20, 1732, died April 24, 1807, married, November 6, 1752, Submit 
Briggs, born December 9, 1732, died April 13, 1810, daughter of Robert 
and Renewed Briggs. He was a ship carpenter. 

Children : 

863. Sarah Gorton, born January 20, 1753, married, November 28, 1773, 

Isaac Briggs, of John. 

864. William Gorton, born September 7, 1754, died unmarried. 

865. Oliver Gorton, born September 18, 1756, married and had Polly Almy, 

born July 8, 1785, died October i, 1871, married Thomas Rice, of 
Thomas and Sarah. 

866. Mary Gorton, born August 20, 1758, married Earl Mowray, of John, of 

North Kingston, and had John and William G. Mowray. 

867. Edward Gorton, born August 11, 1760, married Amey Whipple. 

868. Mercy Gorton, born August 7, 1762, married Nathaniel Stone. 

869. Roby Gorton, born August 2y, 1764, married Ebenezer Arnold. 

870. Lucy Gorton, born August 30, 1766, married Stephen Hudson. 

871. Nathan Gorton, born August 17, 1768, married Anne Warner. 

872. Hannah Gorton, born September 16, 1770, married Jonathan Hill. 

873. John Gorton, born September 18, 1772, married Hannah Stone. 

874. Phebe Gorton, born August 16, 1774, married Anthony" Gorton, pf 

Dr. Samuel. 

875. Taberthie Gorton, born July 9, 1777, died September 9, 1864, unmarried. 

302. NATHAN" GORTON (William* Sam'l' John' SamT), b. Octo- 
ber II, 1734, died 1809, married, June 29, 1758, Mary Pearce, born 
October 29, 1737, daughter of Elder Benjamin and Mary (Budlow) 
Pearce. Nathan was a Quaker ; a merchant tailor ; was apprenticed to 
Preserved Peirce at the age of 18; lived and died on the old Gorton 
homestead, corner of Apponaug and Buttonwoods road, west side. 
Buried with his wife in the old Budlong burying ground, Buttonwoods 
road; no stones. 


876. Joseph Gorton, born May 29, 1760, married (i) Cynthia Havens, (2) 

Rosanna (Remington) Wood. 

877. HuLDA Gorton, born 1762, married, August 2T, 1780, Stephen Briggs, 

of George. 

878. Mary Gorton. 

879. Benjamin Gorton. 

880. Nathan Gorton. No knowledge of these. 

881. Israel Gorton. 

882. Isabel Gorton. 

303. ELIZABETH" GORTON (William* Sam'l' John' SamT), born 
January 14, 1738, died December 30, 1818, married, July 2, 1775, William 
Wood, Jr., born July 21, 1735, died October 8. 1812, son of William 
Wood. William Wood, Jr., was appointed Ensign of 3d Company 
Kent County Militia, June 14, 1765. A fine piece of needlework with 
" Elizabeth Gorton, 1769," worked by herself on it, is now in possession 
of her great-granddaughter, Mrs. Oliver C. Dorney, of Allentown, Pa. 

Children : 

883. Stuckley Wood, born July 17, '776, married Freelove Jerauld. 



884. Freelove Wood, born December 10. 1778, at Warwick. 

885. Elizabeth Wood, born October 15, 1782, at Warwick. 

305. MERCY" GORTON (Wlliam* Sam'l' Johir SamT), born June 
3, 1744, married (i) Captain Oliver Gardner, son of Isaac or Israel, of 
East Greenwich, married (2) Thankful Palmer. Children all by first 
marriage, born in Warwick. 
Children : 

886. Sarah Gardner, born September 5, 1767, married Benjamin Gardner. 

887. Hannah Gardner, born June 21, 1769, married Benjamin Gorton, (2) 

William Waterman. 

888. Mercy Gardner, born May 27, 1771, married Wanton Rice. 

889. Mary Gardner, born August 16, 1773, died September 28, 1773. 

890. Oliver Gardner, born February 21, 1775, married and had son, John 

A. Gardner. 

891. Margaret Gardner, born December 23, 1777, married, October 2, 1796, 

Gideon Bailey, of William, of East Greenwich. 

892. Isaac Gardner, born December 8, 1779. 

893. Elizabeth Gardner, born March 9, 1781, married Nathan' Bowen ; 12 

children. (See Sarah' Samuel* Samuel' John* Samuel' Gorton.) 

894. Nicholas Gardner, born May 19, 1783. 

895. William Gardner, born June 4, 1787. 

896. John Gardner, born June 26, 1789. 

305. JOHN" GORTON (William* Sam'l' John= Sam'l'), born August 
13, 1753, married, October 7, 1773, Phoeby Stone, born 1753, died June 
7, 1842, in the 90th year of her age, daughter of John and Hannah 
(Olney) Stone, of Cranston. He taught school in Warwick and was 
called Master John Gorton; died March 5, 1790. 
Children : 

897. Sarah Gorton, born 1776, married Deacon John Carder; she died June 

4, 1851. 

898. Mary Gorton, born 1781, died September 16, 1848, unmarried. 

311. PELEG' TALLMAN (Elizabeth' Samuel' John' Samuel'), born 
March 25, 1736, married, June 22, 1760, Sarah Soule, daughter of 
Jonathan Soule, of Tiverton (or Sandwich, Mass.). She was doubtless 
a descendant of George Soule, of the " Mayflower." Peleg was of 
Portsmouth and Tiverton, R. I. His first five children were born in 
Tiverton, where Sarah died. He again married, wife's name unknown, 
and had son, William. 

Children : 

899. Elizabeth Tallman, born November 21, 1760, married Mr. Phillips; 

went to Broad Albin, Fulton County, N. Y. 

900. Merabah Tallman, born August 3, 1762, married John Wilcox. 

901. Peleg Tallman, born July 24, 1764, married Eleanor Clarke. 

902. Holden Tallman, born September 3, 1766, married Drusilla Taber. 

903. Benjamin Tallman. 

904. William Tallman, married (i) , (2) Mary Ryan, of Wolwich, Me, 

312. THOMAS' TALLMAN (Elizabeth* SamT John' SamT), born 
March 28, 1738, died April 19, 1804, at Providence; married, January 
20, 1774, Abigail Nichols, born 1753, died September 20, 181 5, at Middle 
Haddam, Conn., daughter of Walter and Mary Nichols, of Freetown, 

Children : 

905. Eleazor Tallman, born October 12, 1774, married Susan Fuller. 

906. Thomas Tallman, born April 6, 1778, died March 24, 1824, at Middle 

Haddam, Conn., unmarried. 

314. BENJAMIN' TALLMAN (Elizabeth' Sam'l' John' SamT), born 
September 15, 1742, died June 10, 1826, married (i) Rhoda Church, 
born 1744, at Boston, Mass. ; married (2) Lucretia Williams, relict of 


Roger. October 21, 1794, Benjamin Tallman (Colonel) and wife, 
Lucretia, convey land to Sarah Field. Colonel Tallman was in command 
in both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He was the 
builder of two frigates and ninety-three sails of other vessels, one of 
which, the Ann, was 1,000 tons, and another, the Hope, built for the 
Brown-Ives firm, which were the first vessels that sailed from Rhode 
Island to the East Indies. He died June 10, 1836. His gravestone at 
Grace Church cemetery. Providence, reads : " In memory of Colonel 
Benjamin Tallman, shipwright and a Revolutionary officer, a patriot 
and an honest man." (Providence Papers, Notices of his death. Colo- 
nial Records, Act of R. I. General Assembly.) 

907. Edward Tallman, born 1775, married Ruth Thurbur. 

908. Moses Tallman, married Jemima . 

909. Benjamin Tallman, Jr., married Betsey Smith. 

910. Gorton Tallman, married Cynthia Morse. 

911. Elizabeth Tallman, born October 28, 1810, married Oliver Kendall. 
i,:2. Phebe Tallman, married Jonathan Salisbury. 

9 '3. Rhoda Tallman, married Ezekiel King. 

321. HANNAH" COOK (Patience* John' John= Sam'l^, born June 5, 
1722, married, July 22, 1742, William Wall. They lived in East Green- 

Children : 

914. William Wall, born October 10, 1743. 

915. Lydia Wall, born February 10, 1745. 

916. Hanna Wall, born December s, 174^. 

917. Dyer Wall, born January 27, 1751. 

918. Sarah Wall, born July 25, 1753. 

919. Patience Wall, born January 2, 1757, married Stephen" Greene, No. 552, 

920. Samuel Wall, born October 7, 1760. 

921. Job Wall, born April 10, 1762. 

922. Polly Wall, born January 4, 1765. 

322. LYDIA' COOK (Patience' John' John= Samuel'), born Aug. 10, 
1724, married Caleb Sheffield. Their five children here were born in 
East Greenwich. 

Children : 

923. Patience Sheffield, born March 25, 1748, married Joseph Greene, No. 


924. John Sheffield, born February 13, 1750. 

925. Mary Sheffield, born February 10, 1754, married William Greene, No. 


926. Lydia Sheffield, born March 19, 1759, died March 13, 1760. 

927. Lydia Sheffield, born April s, 1761. 

324. PATIENCE" COOK (Patience* John' John' Samuel'), born Jan. 
18, 1728, married (i), April 28, 1747, Captain Samuel Greene, bom 
April 28, 1727, son of Governor William and Katherine (Greene) 
Greene. He was on November 24, 1753, lost at sea. Patience married 
(2) Oliver Hazard, of South Kingstown, who was great -uncle to 
Oliver Hazard Perry (Hazard Family, p. 62). 

Children : 

928. Susannah Greene, born July 21, 1751, married James Jerauld. 

929. Patience Greene, born May 13, 1754, married Welcome Arnold. 

930. Mary Hazard, born March 15, 1762, died unmarried. 

931. Samuel Hazard, born February 15, 1764, died April 4, 1765. 

932. Elizabeth Hazard, born April 12, 1767, died unmarried. 

325. EBENEZER" COOK (Patience* John' John' Sam'l'), born May 5, 
1731, married, March 29, 1756, Welthian Fry, daughter of John and 
Elizabeth (Greene) Fry. 


933- John Cook, born October 12, 1757. 


327. HOPKINS' COOK (Patience* John' John' SamT), born July 17, 
1735, married, July 31, 1760, Annie Arnold, born December 14, 1744, 
daughter of John and Desire (Joice) Arnold, who died January 10, 
1787. He married (2), September 16, 1792, Margaret Pierce (widow), 
born 1731, died August 13, 1803. They lived in East Greenwich. 
Children : 

934. Lydia Cook, born March 5, 1761. 

935. Polly Cook, born December 4, 1763. 

936. Henrietta Cook, born October 12, 1768, died September 4, 1770. 

937. SuKEY Greene Cook, born May 24, 1770, married Dr. John \V. Tibbitts, 

No. 697. 

938. John Cook, born February 22, 1771, died August 15, 1777. 

329. BENJAMIN' GORTON (WilHam* John' John' SamT), born on 
the Massapaug farm, now in Cranston, July 25, 1737, died September 
9, 1825, at Waterford, Conn., married, September 28, 1769, Mehitable 
Douglass, born September 8, 1747, died March 31, 1837, at Waterford, 
daughter of Robert' and Sarah (Edgecomb) Douglass (Thomas' Robert^ 
William* Douglass). William' was the ancestor of the Hon. Stephen A. 
Douglass. Benjamin Gorton, soon after marriage, purchased a farm 
at Black Point, town of New London, set off in 1801 into the tOM n of 
Waterford, and set off in 1839 into the town of East Lynn, the place 
where all his children were born. In 1796-7 he removed to land he 
had purchased, which was part of the Nathaniel Stewart farm, where 
he with his father had lived; now in Waterford township, four miles 
from New London's present bounds. 

"At Waterford, Mr. Benjamin Gorton, aged 88. About 100 attended 
the funeral of this very worthy gentleman, among whom, it is remark- 
able, there were thirteen persons between the ages of 70 and 92 years, 
all of whom walked to the grave" (Connecticut Courant, of Hartford, 
Conn., September 20, 1825). He bequeathed the "home farm" to his 
son, William^ The latter's son, William', is the owner of the place. 
Children : 

939. Thomas Gorton, born July 27 1770, married Lucretia Beckwith. 

940. Sarah Gorton, born March 11, 1773, died March 18, 1845, unmarried. 

941. Benjamin Gorton, born January 29, 1775, married Mary Hempstead. 

942. Robert Gorton, born December 19, 1776, married Esther Gardner. 

943. Richard Gorton, born March 16, 1779, married Temper Hempstead. 

944. William Gorton, born July 22, 1782, married Abiah Douglass. 

945. Mehitable Gorton, born January 27, 1785, married Josiah Darrow. 

946. Fanny Gorton, born February 25, 1789, died October 19, 1819, unmar- 


330. MARY" GORTON (WilHam* John' John' SamT), born Sept. 
30> 1739. married, January 19, 1759, Reuben Beebe. He must have died 
in 1767, for, according to the Hyde Genealogy by Chancellor Walworth, 
she married (2) Dr. Jediah Caulkins. She died February 8, 1768, and 
the Doctor remarried, August 21, 1768, Hannah Manwarring, daughter 
of Oliver and Hannah (Raymond) Manwarring. 

Children : 

947. Amos Beebe, born 1760. 

948. Elizabeth Beebe, born 1762, married Jason Beebe. 

949. Aden Beebe, born 1764, married Taber, daughter of Jeremiah 

Taber, and had three children. 

950. Rebecca Beebe, born 1767, married Silas Crandall, born 1768, of 

Phineas ; had eight children, one of whom, Silas Jr., married CharloUe 
Comstock (Rogers' Genealogy, p. 175). 

331. JOHN" GORTON ( William' John' John' SamT), born June 2, 
1642, married (i), February 2, 1764, Mary Manwarring, born August 
31, 1744, died March 4, 1776, daughter of Oliver* and Mary (Smith) 


Manwarring, of New London, Conn. (Oliver' and Hannah (Hough) 
Manwarring, Oliver' and Hannah (Raymond) Manwarring, Oliver' 
and Mary (Raymond) Manwarring). Mary Raymond was daughter 
of Joseph (of Richard) and wife, Elizabeth Smith (of Judith). John 
married (2), June 9, 1777, Susanna Davis, born September 25, 1754, 
in New London town, now county, daughter of Benjamin Davis. In 
April, 1766, Matthew Stewart assigned to John Gorton a mortgage on 
property in the town of New London. After his marriage to Susanna, 
I he moverd to Richmond, Cheshire County, N. H., and on September 21, 
1786, bought eighty acres of land there. He sold this farm, receiving 
payment in the then current circulating money, which was, before he 
could reinvest, repudiated by a Legislative Act. The Society of Friends, 
of which he was a member, presented him with a sum of money to 
partly make up his loss. He moved to North Adams, Mass., and set 
up in the business of weaving and selling cloths. The town has since 
become famous for this industry. In 1800 he moved to Hancock, same 
county, where his wife's father had settled, bought land and became 
one of the ablest financial men of the town. John and Susanna both 
died on the homestead, he May 14, 1819, she October 31, 1837. The 
burial ground is on the homestead, and is exempted from transfer for 
any other purpose in the deed of the property. 
Children : 

951. Lydia Gorton, born June 5, 1765, married Savery Wing. 

952. Mary Gorton, born April 21, 1767, married Richard Emerson. 

953. David Gorton, born May 23, 1769, married Hannah Emerson. 

954. John Gorton, born September 17, 1771, died July 10, 1774. 

955. Oliver Gorton, born July 31, 1774, married Mary Foster. 

956. Job Gorton, born January 22, 1776, married Sarah Emerson. 

957. Frances Gorton, born March 2, 1778, died April 6, 1794, unmarried. 

958. Nancy Gorton, born September i6, 1779, died January 30, i860, married 
Thomas Acock, who died June 20, 1858; no children. 

959. John Gorton, born April 16, 1781, married Comfort Robinson. 

960. William Gorton, born April 4, 1783, married Lucy Bennett. 

961. Susanna Gorton, born June 20, 1785, married John B. Ely, (i) Rey- 
nolds Greenman. 

962. Abel Davis Gorton, born March 2, 1787, married Lucretia Ely. 

963. Sarah Gorton, born February 23, 1789, died January 23, 1869, married 
Thomas B. Eldredge, died June 25, 1878, son of Thomas and Rachel 
(Hall) Eldredge ; no children. 

964. Elizabeth Gorton, born April 13, 1792, died September 6, 1812, married 
Gersham Turner ; no children. Mr. Turner had children by a former 
wife ; a grandson is Sidney S. Rider, the historian and publisher, of 
Providence, R. I. 

965. Joshua Gorton, born December 18, 1796, married Eunice Hazard, (2) 
Delia A. Spencer. 

333. SARAH" GORTON (William* John' John' Samuel'), born Dec. 
31, 1746, died March 10, 1835, married, January 4, 1770, Charles Benja- 
min Brown, born 1742, probably in Groton, Conn., died December 20, 
1816, son of Benjamin and Deborah (Wheeler) Brown, grandson of 
Nathaniel, Jr., and Mary Brown, great-grandson of Nathaniel and 
Rhoda Brown. Charles was Chaplain in the First Connecticut Regi- 
ment, War of the Revolution. Nathaniel's wife, Rhoda's, family name 
may have been Allen. One of her sons, Allen Brown, married, May 
19, 1796, in Coventry, R. I., Mahala" Brown (Elnathan^ Samuel* Samuel* 
John" Samuel' Gorton). 
Children : 

966. Charles Benjamin Brown, Jr,. born October i, 1770, married Hester 

967. Richard Brown, born June 17, 1772, died in childhood. 

968. Sarah Brown, born March 19, 1774, married Nathaniel Cannedy. 

969. Nathan Brown, born March 2, 1776, died in childhood. 

970. Esther Brown, born July 27, 1778, married Eliphalet B. Simmons. 


971. Silas Brown, born December 23, 1780, married Susanna B. Tinker. 

972. Robert Brown, born December 7, 1782, married Miss Brown, (2) Miss 


973. Lydia Brown, born January 20, 1785, died unmarried. 

974. Henry Brown, born February 20, 1787, married Lucy Prentis, (2) 

Lucretia (Smith) Prentis. 
975- Phebe Brown, born April 20, 1790, married Elias Coit. 

334. WILLIAM' GORTON (Wm.* John' John' Sam'!'), born Sept.em- 
ber 21, 1748, married (i), 1770, Phebe Daniels; married (2), 1805, 
Lois Hall. He was thirteen years old when his father died, and was 
by the will placed in the care of his eldest brother, Benjamin. He, on 
March 9, 1778, leased from the government of Rhode Island a farm 
that was part of the sequestered estate of Samuel Sewal, at Judith Point, 
South Kingstown. Dues to the State were, as at present, payable in 
le^<al tender, which then was coin only ;. and a coin dollar now cost forty 
dollars in current paper money. This made payments, in many in- 
stances, impossible. The people petitioned that they might make pay- 
ments in current notes, but this relief was not granted them. (R. I. 
Records, vii, 379; Arnold's Hist. Rhode Island, ii, 453, 456, 458.) The 
trade carried on by Mr. Gorton and the others at Judith Point, between 
that point and Block Island, was declared to be inimical to the colony 
and was forbidden. Shortly after this a company of British Foragers 
raided the farms and carried off most of his stock. (Livermore's Hist. 
Block Island, p. 99, etc.; Arnold's Hist. R. I., ii, 439, 440; Colony 
Records, viii, 501.) March 25, 1779, he gave up the farm. He then 
removed to " Nine Partners Purchase," Dutchess County, N. Y., and 
bought over 2,000 acres of land where the present towns of Mechanics- 
viile. Mabbetsville, Bangall, Amenia. and others are situated, and upon 
which he lived most of the remaining years of his life. On account 
of his dignified and gentlemanly bearing, he was called General. He 
died about 1834 at Neversink, Sulivan County, and was buried there. 
Children : 

976. William Gorton, born August 19, 1771, married Margaret Tombs. 

977. Joseph Gorton, born March 25, 1773, married Chariot Schriver. 

978. Mary Gorton, married Gilbert Miller ; had Elam, Phebe. Caroline, Eme- 

line, and other children. 

979. James Gorton, born , married Hannah Ferris ; no children as known. 

980. Phebe Gorton, born 1784, married Henry Misner. 

981. Sarah Gorton, born 1792, married James Hill. 

982. Lucy Gorton, born June 19, 1806, married Morenus W. Slater. 

335. COLLINS' GORTON (William* John' John' SamT), born Aug. 
23, 1752, married Naomi Keeny, born December 5, 1752, daughter of 
John and Naomi Keeny, of the town, now county, of New London. 
Collins Gorton was a member of the Society of Friends. Besides farm- 
ing, he was engaged in various enterprises of commerce and trade, and 
had a proprietory interest in the Neiv London Gazette, one of the earliest 
newspaper enterprises of the day. His home was at Black Point, Lyme- 
town, New London County, Conn., where he died March 17, 1834. 
Naomi died in Lymetown September 9, 1847. She was blind for many 
years; both buried in the Benjamin Gorton grounds, at Waterford. 
Children : 

983. Naomi Gorton, born February 15, 1776, married William Keeny. 

984. Fanny Gorton, born June 5, 1781. 

985. Elizabeth Gorton, born January 19, 1783, married William Angus. 

986. Collins Gorton, Jr., born October 23, 1784, married Mary M. Chappel. 

987. Mary Gorton, born June 14, 1786, married Elisha Smith. 

988. Samuel Gorton, born May 30, 1789, married Rebecca Prentis. 

989. Lydia Gorton, born August 2, 1792, married Lodwick Beebe. 

341. JOHN' GORTON, JR. (John* John' John' SamT), b. July, 1763. 


married, May i, 1783, ("both living at South Kingston") "Alice Hull, 
born October 28, 1764, at New Shoreham, Block Island, died September 
5, 1812, in her 48th year" (Block Island tombstone), daughter of Cap- 
tain Edward* and Mary (Weeden) Hull, granddaughter of Robert* 
and Thankful (Bull) Hull, Captain Tiddeman* Hull, John' Hull, who've 
wife was a daughter of Sr. Thomas Tiddeman, an Admiral in the 

British Navy. John married (2) Hepsibah , who died November 

26, 1853, aged 80. John was a member of the Legislature from South 
Kingstown, and while there lived on a farm that afterwards was the 
home of Judge Alfred' Weeden (Mercy° Mary" John* Othniel' John' 
Samuel' Gorton), whose wife, Sally Hull, was John's wife's sister. He 
later vv'as a resident of New Shoreham, Block Island, where he " died 
December 24, 1822, in his 6oth year" (tombstone). Livermore, in his 
History of Block Island, says " that he was, on account of his personal 
bearing and as a mark of respect, called Governor Gorton by his towns- 
men; that the Milkens, the Conleys, the Peckhams, the Spragues, the 
Willises, the Aliens, the Hayses, the Steedmans, the Goes or Coles, the 
Dunns, and the Gortons are old and respectable names worthy of com- 
Children : 

990. Edward Hull Gorton, born February 3, 1785, married Nancy M. Sands. 

991. John Gorton, born February i, 1787, married Mary Tunecliffe. 

992. William Gorton, born December 18, 1788. 

993. Catharine H. Gorton, born June 18, 1790, married William A. Weeden. 

994. Mary Ann Gorton, born May 1, 1792, married Nathar.iel Sheffield. 

342. JOSHUA' GORTON (John* John' John' SamT). born Nov. 
21, 1767, married Eunice Cottrell, daughter of Major John and Louisa 
(Boardman) Cottrell, of Westerly, R. I. Joshua, shortly after his 
marriage, removed to Burlington Township, Otsego County, N. Y., 
then some time prior to 1820 to the adjoining township of New Lisbon 
(now Gilbertsville P. O.), where a number of Gortons, cousins, had 
settled; where he died September 17, 1857. 


995. Tideman Hull Gorton, born June 8, 1791, married Harriet B. Robinson. 

996. Sarah Boardman Gorton, born November 16, 1793, married James R. 


997. Electa M. Gorton, born 1795, married Joseph Williams. 

998. Marosia R. Gorton, born June 27, 1796, married Dr. Tracy Southworth. 

999. John C. Gorton, born January 21, 1800, married Marietta Phillips. 

343. WILLIAM" GORTON (John* John* John' Sam'l'), b. 1772, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Gerry. He followed the sea; was captured by the Alge- 
rians, and died at sea or by the Algerians' hands. 


1000. George W. Gorton, born February 9, 1800, married Mary A. Chapman. 

344. SARAH" GORTON (John* John' John' SamT), b. July 4, 1776, 
died June 3, 1829, at Westerly, R. I., married, September 17, 1809, 
Captain Saxton Berry, born May 8, 1766, died November 30, 1852, at 
Westerly, son of Elijah and Diana (Saunders) Berry, grandson of 
Richard and Susanna Berry. Captain Berry was a widower; his first 
wife, Grace Pendleton, by whom he had two children that died in 
infancy^. He was a sea captain and trader. His brother, Gorton Berrv, 
was also a sea captain, was captured by the English in war of 1812, 
and died of fever at Wilmington, N. C, in November, 1815. All of 
Captain Saxton's children were born on his farm near White Rock 
Village in Westerly. 


Children : 

looi. Clark Berry, born September 4, 1810, died March 22, 1812. 

1002. Gorton Berry, born November 4, 181 1, married Eunice Berry. 

1003. Weeden H. Berry, born October 11, 1812, married Eliza A. Chapman, 

(2) Delia A. Palmer. 

1004. Sarah A. Berry, born September 29, 1813, married Joshua Vose, (2) 

Enoch W. Vose. 

1005. John Berry, born February 3, 1815, died July 10, 1829. 

1006. Palmer Berry, born August 22, 1817, died July 13, 1S28. 

1007. Harriet A. Berry, born September 6, 1818, died July 17 1822. 

1008. Edwin P. Berry, born October 10, 1821, married Mary .A. Babcock. 

345. GRANT GORTON (SamT John' John= SamT), born at Groton, 
New London, Conn., married Mary Lawton, daughter of Joseph Lawton, 
of Rhode Island. He died in about the year 1782, and Mary married 
(2) Aaron Rathbun, of Stonington, who died there in 1807. 

1009. Sarah Gorton, born about 1780, married Pain Potter: no children. 

Sarah lived with her mother's sister. Aunt Elizabeth, wife of Jeddiah 
Robbinson. This Robbinson and Grant Gorton were married at same 
time in Easttown, Saratoga County, N. Y., where Robbinson lived. 

347. JOHN' GORTON (Samuel' John' John"" Samuel'), born in New 
London, Conn., April i, 1766, married November 22, 1787, Sarah Gates, 
of Stonington, Conn., who died December 17, 1853. Captain John was 
in command of a vessel and engaged in the coast trade between New 
London and Stonington and other points prior to and following the 
year 1785. In 1793 he went from New London to the town now Never- 
sink, N. Y., to Liberty, Sullivan County (now Ulster County), N. Y. 
He died here November 25, 1851. The homestead is now owned and 
occupied by his grandson, Edward Champlin. 

Children : 

loio. Phebe Gorton, born June 13, 1789, married Dudley Champlin. 
loii. Betsey Gorton, born November 19, 1791, married William Van Ben- 

1012. Sally Gorton, born March 19, 1794, married James Hubbell. 

1013. John Gorton, born June 4, 1797, married Sarah A Gildersleeve. 

1014. Mercy Gorton, born January 8, 1800, died unmarried. 

1015. Grant Gorton, born August 16, 1803, married Emeline Buckley. 

1016. Almira Gorton, born October 13, 1806, died unmarried. j; 

348. BENJAMIN" GREENE ( William' Mary' Benj.= Samuel'), bora 
August 19, 1724, died January 25, 1811, married, September 21, 1749, 
Marv'' (Fry) Gould, No. 355, widow of Daniel (rould. Jr., of North 
Kingstown, daughter of Thomas and Mary' (Greene) Fry (Mary' Gor- 
ton, Benjamin' Samuel'). Benjamin lived on Warwick Neck, and 
was a wealthy sea captain. « 

1017. Benjamin Greene, born April 13, 1751, died January 4, 1752. 
10x8. Catharine Greene, born December 10, 1756, married William Searle. 

1019. Welthian Greene, born December 28, i7S8, died April 30, 1760. 

1020. Lucretia Greene, bom June 3, 1760, died December 31, 1761. 

1021. William Greene, born April 18, 1763, married Celia Greene, No. 1023. 

349. SAMUEL' GREENE (William' Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
April 28, 1727, married, April 28, 1747, Patience" Cook, daughter of 
Ebenezer and Patience* (Gorton) Cook, No. 324. 

350." WILLIAM' GREENE (William' Mary' Benj.= Samuel'), born 
August 16, 1 73 1, died November 29, 1809, married, September 30, 1758, 
Catharine Ray, daughter of Simon and Deborah (Greene) Ray, of 
New Shoreham, Block Island, R. I. She was a great-granddaughter 
of Roger Williams. In 1757-8 William built a western portion to the 


house erected by Samuel Gorton, Jr., on lot in Coweset purchase, of 
which he had become the owner. It was enlarged in view of his 
approaching marriage, and was destined to gather about it associations 
rich in historic and family interest. It was in this house that General 
Nathaniel Greene became acquainted with Miss Catharine Littlefield, 
and they were married in the west room by Elder John Gorton. Its 
owner was Representative from Warwick. In 1776 was elected Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court, in 1777 to the office of Chief Justice, 
and in the following year to that of Governor, a position he ably filled 
for eight successive years, which covered the greater part of the Revolu- 
tionary War. In the west room of the house the Governor and his 
council, with Generals Sullivan, Nathaniel Greene, Lafayette, Rochem- 
bau, and other notable personages, both civil and military, had fre- 
quent consultations upon important national affairs. Among the notable 
visitors of that and subsequent years was Dr. Benjamin Franklin, who 
was on terms of intimacy with the family. Among interesting relics 
are manuscripts, letters of Franklin, and an original one of Washington, 
and letters of Webster, Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams. In Octo- 
ber, 1792, Governor Greene was an Elector of President of the United 
States, and was, therefore, a member of the first Electorial College 
in which Rhode Island participated. 

1022. Phebe Greene, born March 20, 1760, married .Samuel Ward. 

1023. Celia Greene, born June 15, 1762, married William Greene, No. 1021. 

1024. Ray Greene, born February 2, 1765, married Mary Magdalen Flagg. 

1025. Samuel Ward Greene, born June 24, 1771, married Mary R. Night- 


1026. Ann Greene, born June 17, 1774. 

351. MARGARET' GREENE (William* Mary' Benj.' Samuer), born 
November 2, 1733, married, July 12, 1761, Captain Rufas Spencer, born 
August 21, 1724, son of John^ (John') and Mary (Fry) Spencer. Cap- 
tain Rufas first married Ruth Vaughan, daughter of Christopher and 
Deborah (Nichols) Vaughan, by whom he had four children, only one 
of which, Christopher, born December 30, 1750, lived to adult age; and 
married Mary Gorton, daughter of Judge Othniel Gorton, Jr. Captain 
Rufas' sister, Welthian, married Samuel' Gorton (Samuel^* Benjamin' 
Children : 

1027. Catharine Spencer, born September 2t, 1762, died unmarried. 

1028. Mary Spencer, born July 11, 1767, died November 28, 1838, unmarried. 

1029. William G. Spencer, born June 7, 1770, died unmarried. 

1030. Ruth Spencer, born January 11, 1772, died unmarried. 

1031. Margaret Spencer, born December 21, 1777, married John R. Sher- 

man ; left no children. 

355. MARY' FRY (Mary' Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born July 15. 
1722, died January 31, 1790, married (i), February 7, 1741, Daniel 
Gould, Jr.; no children; married (2), September 21, 1749, Captain 
Benjamin Greene, No. 348, by whom she had five children. 

358. SARAH' FRY (Mary* Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born December 
21, 1726, died April 4, 1775, married, September 28, 1746, Richard 
Greene, born October 4, 1725, died July 17, 1779, son of John* and 
Deborah (Carr) Greene (Thomas' Thomas' John' Greene). Deborah 
was daughter of Caleb and Deborah Carr, granddaughter of Governor 
Caleb Carr and great-granddaughter of Roger Williams. Richard 
Greene lived in Baronial style on the patrimonial estate of 650 acres 
at Portsmouth, R. I. He was called King Richard. 


Children : 

1032. John Gkeene, born March 22, 1747, married Barbara" Kolden. No. 385. 

1033. Nathaniel Greene, born July 31, 1748, married Elizabeth Quincy. 

1034. Welthian Greene, born November 17, 1749, died January 6, 1753. 

1035. Thomas Greene, born January 10, 1751, died March 19, 1756. 

1036. Samuel Greene, born August 8, 1752, died August 10, 1761. 

1037. William Greene, born July 9, 1754, married iJorotha Carlton, died 

1786, s. p. 

1038. Mary Greene, born October 4, 1756, married Samuel Brown. 

1039. Anne Greene, born August 17, 1758, died May 4, 1759. 

1040. Sarah Greene, born May 10. 1760, married Daniel Howland, Jr. 

1041. Elizabeth Greene, born December 23, 1761, married Sylvester G. 


1042. Benjamin Greene, born September 28, 1763, married. 

1043. Job Greene, born November 22, 1765, married Miss Kewson ; he died 

at sea, s. p. 

1044. Caleb Greene, born September 15, 1767, married Miss Robinson, of 

Alexander, Va. ; had several children ; a daughter, Mary, married 
Rev. Mr. Gills, of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He died about 
1832 at Wilmington, Del. 

1045. Samuel Greene, born December 12, 1769, married Henrietta Daniels. 

359. JOHN" FRY (Mary* Mary' Benjamin' SamT), born January 
22, 1728, married, December 2'j, 1750, Mary Tillinghast, daughter of 
Philip Tillinghast, who died 1797. 

Children : 

T046. Almy Fry, born July 15, 1753, married Mr. Bailey, of Tiverton. 

1047. Benjamin Fry, born March 10, 1755. 

1048. Christopher Fry, born November 25, 1756. 

1049. EzEKiEL Fry, born November 13, 1758. 

1050. Mary Fry, born 1762, married Officer Ganot, of Marshal Rochambeau's 


1051. LucRETiA Fry, born July 13, 1767, married George Sears. 

360. SAMUEL" FRY (Mary* Mary' Benj.' SamueD. born at East 
Greenwich, March 22, 1729, died December 5, 1792, married (i) Luce- 
anna Coggershall, who died June 15, 1761, daughter of Daniel Cogger- 
shall; married (2), August 22, 1764, Deborah" Greene, of John* Thomas' 
Thomas' John' and second wife, Almy* Greene, of Richard' John" John'. 
Deborah was a younger half-sister of Richard, who married Sarah Fry. 
Captain Samuel Fry was a mariner. His home in later years was in New 
York City. 

Children : 

1052. William Fry, born October 6, 1754, died September 9, 1777. 

1053. Mary Fry, born September 8, 1758. 

1054. Daniel Fry, born December 19, 1760, died January 30, 1794. 

1055. Lucy Deborah Fry, born July 2y, 1765. 

1056. Eleanor Fry, bom January 31, 1767, died September 30, 1788. s. p. 
J 057. Mercy Fry, bom February 16, 1769. 

1058. Samuel Fry, born May 17, 1770, died July 24, 1778. 

1059. Anne Fry, born May 17, 1770. 

1060. Joseph Fuy, born March 17, 1774. 

J061. Sarah Fry, born October 7, 1776, married Albro Anthony. 

1062. Almy Fry, born December 26, 1779- 

363. RUTH' FRY (Mary* Mary' Benj." Samuel'), born May 20, 
1734, married, March 25, 1755, Pardon Tillinghast, born February 2, 
1736, in East Greenwich, son of Philip and Alice Tillinghast. (Another 
account says son of Pardon.) 
Children : 

1063. Daniel Tillinghast, born June 5, 1756. 

1064. Thomas Tillinghast, born December 8, 1757- 

1065. Philip Tillinghast, born July 25, 1759. 

1066. Samuel Tillinghast, born May 30, 1761. 

1067. Mary Tillinghast, born May 28, 1763. 


364. JOSEPH' FRY (Mary* Mary' Benj/ Samuel'), born March 3, 
1736, married Eleanor" Greene (John* Thomas' Thomas^ John^). Elea- 
nor was a younger half-sister of Richard'' and sister of Deborah. 
Children : 

1068. Almy Fry, born October 30, 1756. 

1069. Hannah Fry. born May 15, 1761. 

1070. William Fry, born May 11, 1763. 

1071. Thomas Fry, born July 6, 1765, married Hannah Spink. 

1072. Ruth Fry, born July 22, 1767. 

1073. Deborah Fry, born August 2.2, 1769, married Bernard Mathewson, of 

Joseph, of Coventry R. I. 

1074. John Fry, born March 2, 1772. 

1075. Mercy Fry, born September 10, 1774. 

1076. Isabel Fry, born March 31, 1777. 

366. ALMY' GREENE ( Samuel' Mary' Beni.= Samuef), born Sep- 
tember 8, 1727, married, March 11, 1762, at East Greenwich, Oliver* 
Arnold (William* Israel' Stephen" William'). Oliver had been married 

to Mary , and had a daughter, Lucy, who married Joseph Chase, 

of Warwick, No. 783. 

Children : 

1077. Mary Arnold, born November 7, 1762. 

1078. Freelove Arnold, born January 23, 1765. 

1079. Sakah Arnold, married Othniel Gorton Wightman, No. 793. 

367. JOSHUA' GREENE (Samuel* Marv' Benj.' Samuel'), born Feb- 
ruary 24, 1730, married, March 11, 1753, Mehitable Manton, daughter of 
John Manton, of Johnstown, R. I. He was a Lieutenant. He died in 

Children : 

1080. Samuel Greene, born February 26, 1758, married Mehitable Thornton. 

1081. Phebe Greene, died unmarried. 

1082. William Greene, born January 11. 1761, died young. 

1083. John Greene, born 1766, married ; had children living in Glouces- 

ter. He died 1838 at Burrellville. 

1084. Mary Greene, born 1773, married (i) George Field, (2) Malthewson 


368. MERCY" GREENE (Samuel* Mary' Benj.' Samuel'^ born 1731, 
married, January 6, 1750, John Walton, who died July 22, 1778, son of 
Dr. John and Meriam (Wood) Walton. John and his son, Samuel, 
served in the army of the Revolution (See Greene Family, p. 178). 
Dr. John Walton was a graduate of Yale, 1720: Presbyterian minister 
at Freehold, N. J. ; later Baptist minister at Providence, R. I., 1730. 
Became a physician and settled at Gloucester, R. I. (H. Ruth Cooke, 
Newport Mercury, March 15, 1902.) 

Children : 

1085. John Walton, born August 23, 1751. 

1086. Welthian Walton, born 1752, married William B. King. 

1087. Meriam Walton, born May 30, 1754, married Caleb Atwood. 

1088. Daughter Walton, married Mr. Remington. 

1089. Samuel Walton, removed to N. Y. State; served in the Revolutionary 


1090. Lydia Walton, married J. Alverson or Culverson ; had son, Benjamin 


369. CALEB' GREENE (Samuel' Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), born April 
23, 1737, died April 23, 1813, married, January 24, 1760, Mary Tibbitts, 
born May 26, 1738, at Pojac Point, North Kingstown, R. I., died Feb- 
ruary 25, 1812, at Apponaug, Warwick, daughter of George and Dorcas 
(Reynolds) Tibbitts, of North Kingstown. George was son of George, 
son of Henry. Caleb Greene was a Captain in the Militia; resided at 


Children : 

1091. Mary Greene, born July 24, 1762, married Richard Burke. 

1092. Susanna Greene, born May 12, 1763, married Caleb Westcott. 

1093. Benjamin Greene, born February 18, 1764, married Penelope Westcott. 

1094. George Greene, born January 30, 1767, died October, 1793, unmarried. 

1095. Dorcas Greene, born March 31, 1769, married Isaac Hall; died 1834, 

s. p. 

1096. Caleb Greene, born February 8, 1771, died March 20, 1771. 

1097. Caleb Greene, born June 17, 1772, married Sarah R. Greene, (2) 

Betsey (Taylor) Burkes. 

1098. Sarah Greene, born March 31, 1774, married William H. Rice, (2) 

Rufas Greene. 

1099. Samuel Greene, born February 9, 1776, married Elizabeth Stafford. 

1 100. Henry Greene, bom November 23, 1778, died August 20, 1809, un- 


370. CHRISTOPHER' GREEXE (Samuel' Mary* Benj.' SaniT). b. 
April 18, 1740, died December 4, 1798, married, August 19, 1770, Abbie 
Davis, daughter of Jeffffrey, of East Greenwich. They lived at Appo- 
naug, Warwick. 


110 1. Augustus Greene, born 1771, died at sea, unmarried. 

1 102. Elizabeth Greene, born 1773, married Nathaniel Millard. 

1103. Almy Greene, born 1775, married Captain William Hamniett, (2) 

William Hall. 

1104. Catharine Greene, born 1778, married Caleb Ladd. 

1105. Jeffrey Greene, born April 24, 1783, married Lucy Westcott. 

1 106. Abby Greene, born February 16, 1786, married Herman C. Fisher. 

1107. Sarah Greene, born 1790, married Herkimer Johnson. 

1108. Samuel Greene, born 1792, married Penelope Gardner. She died 1858, 

aged 64; he died 1865, aged 73; no children. 

1 1 09. Christopher Greene, born 1795, married Julia Ann Searle. 

371. MARY' GREENE (Benjamin* Mary' Benjamin= SamT), born 
January 28, 1732, married Nathan Comstock, son of John* and Mary 
(Lee) Comstock ( Daniel" Gideon" William'). 

Children : 

1110. Nathan Comstock, born 1753, married Mary Rogers. 

11 1 1. Delight Comstock, born September 29, 1767, married Jesse Comstock. 

1 11 2. Asa Comstock, born August 12, 1770, married Mary Avery. 

372. CHRISTOPHER" GREEXE (Benjamin* Mary' Benj.' Samuel'), 
born September 7, 1733. died August 17, 1820, married, March 10, 1760, 
Mercy Stoddard, born March 10, 1740, died February 23, 1830, daughter 
of Robert and Batthsheba (Rogers) Stoddard. The ylived at Quaker 
Hill, Waterford, Conn. (See Hist, of Montville, Conn., by Henry A. 


11 1 3. Welthian Greene, born April 4, 1761, married Robinson Johnson, (2) 

Nathan Newberry. 

1 114. Jonathan Greene, born August 30, 1763. died, aged 18. at sea. 

1115. Lucy Greene, born February 26, 1766, married Eli Widger. 

11 16. Mary Greene, born February 26, 1768, married Henry Dayton. 

1 1 17. Almy Greene, born July 10, 1770, married Jonathan Lester. 

1 118. William Greene, born June 7, 1772, married Abigail . 

1 1 19. Marcy Greene, born November 14, i774. married Russell Harding. 

1 1 20. Christopher Greene, born March 3, 1777. married Sally Palmer, (2) 

Frances (Greene) Culpepper. 

1 121. Junius Greene, born June 10, i779> married Sally Palmer, (2) 

Harding, (3) Perkins. 

1 122. Stephen Greene, born October 10, 1781, died young. 

373. DELIGHT" GREENE (Benjamin* Mary' Benjamin' SamT), b. 
July 30, 1735, died November 2, 181 5, married, January 2, 1755, John* 
Rogers, son of John and Elizabeth (Dodge) Rogers (John* John' James' 


Rogers). They settled in New London, now Waterford, where he died 
February 11, 1799. (Hist. Montville, Conn.) 
Children : 

1 123. Mary Rogers, born January 25, 1756, married Nathan Comstock, cousin, 

1 1 24. Almy Rogers, born September 2, 1757, married Elijah Bolles. 

1 125. Elizabeth Rogers, born September 2, 1759, died 1836, unmarried. 

1126. John Rogers, born October 14, 1761. 

1 127. Delight Rogers, born March 16, 1764. 

1 128. Ann Rogers, born June 13, 1767. 

1129. Benjamin Rogers, bom May 17, 1769; went to Vermont. 

1130. Sarah Rogers, born May 18, 1772, married Jonathan Rogers. 

1131. Alexander Rogers, born March 26, 1775; drowned. 

376. BENJAMIN' GREENE (Benjamin* Mary' Benjamin^ SamT), b. 
April 7, 1752, died August 14, 1839, married, January 11, 1776. Abigail 
Dodge, born August 18, 1759, died September 9, 1834. They lived on 
a farm at Quaker Hill, Waterford, Conn. 


1 1 32. Sarah Greene, born September 2, 1777, married Elkanah Comstock. 
[1 33. Margaret Greene, born July 2t , 1779, married Zebediah Bolles. 

1134. Nancy Greene, born March 5, 1783, married Alexander Rogers. 

1135. Samuel Greene, born December 30, 1784, married Betsey Holmes. 

1 136. Stephen Greene, born February i, 1794. married Sarah Bolles. 

1 1 37. Francs Greene, born September 9, 1796, married Welcome Culpepper, 

(2) Christopher Greene. 

380. SARAH" WICKES (John* Sarah' Benjamin' SamT), married, 
February, 1735 (another record, 1745), James Briggs. We have not 
found their full family records. 

11 38. Mary Briggs, born 1751, married Thomas Rice Greene. 

38[. MARY" WATERMAN (Sarah' Sarah' Benjamin' SamT), born 
May 6, 1726, died January 3, 1765, married Fones" Greene (Fones' 
James' James' John'), who died September 12, 1753; no children. She 
married (2), February 5, 1758, Thomas' Greene, a brother of Fones*. 
Children : 

1 1 39. Sarah Greene, born April 15, 1760, married Caleb Hill. 

1 140. FoNES Greene, born March 14, 1762, died unmarried. 

1 141. Thomas Greene, born April 3, 1768, married Am. (Nanna) Harrison. 

382. JOHN" WATERMAN (Sarah' Sarah' Benjamin' Sam'l'), born 
August 25, 1730, died June 11, 1812, married, June 13, 1754, Sarah 
Potter, born August 11, 1730, died September 25, 1801, daughter of 
Colonel John and Mary (Robinson) Waterman, of South Kingstown. 
He held the commission of Colonel. - ' 
Children : 

1142. Benjamin Waterman, born July 15, i755. died March 23, 1829. 

1143. Marcy Waterman, born November 2, 1756. 

1 144. John Waterman, born September 13, 1758, died March 7, 1759. 

1145. John Waterman, born December 19, i7S9. married Welthian Greene, 

1146. Mary Waterman, born May 22, 1761. 

1 147. William Watermman. born May 5, 1763, married Susanna Low, (2) 

Hannah (Gardner) Gorton. 

1 1 48. Sarah Waterman, born September 30, 1764, married George Greene, 

a soldier of the Revolution ; died at Potter, Yates County, N. Y. 

384. RANDALL' HOLDEN (Rose* Sarah' Benjamin' Samuel'), born 
November 25, 1726, died July 4, 1808, married, January 14, 1749, at 
Providence, Naomi Potter, daughter of John* Potter (John' John' 
Robert') and wife, Phebe' Arnold (Stephen' Stephen' William'), the 
latter the widow of Benjamin' Greene (Benjamin' Thomas' Johni). 


This Randall', the fifth, on line of Samuel' Gorton, is Randall*, the 

fourth, on line of Randall' Holden. 


1149. Anthony Holden, born February 22, 1751, married Sarah Warner. 

1150. Randall Holden, born July 18, 1754, married Elizabeth Warner. 

385. BARBARA' HOLDEN (Rose* Sarah' Benjamin' Samuel'), born 
August 2, 1744, died March 20, 1814, married, September 30, 1770. John' 
Greene, No. 1032, of Richard' John* Thomas' Thomas' John' Greene, 
and of Sarah' Mary* Mary' Benjamin' Samuel' Gorton. 

Children : 

1 151. Richard Greene, born May 16, died May 18, 1771. 

1152. Thomas Greene, born July 20, 1772, died November 9, 1778. 
"53- John M. Greene, born May 3, 1774, married Anne Greene. 

1154. Sarah Greene, born July 4, 1776, died July 6, 1837, unmarried. 

1 1 55. Mary Greene, born May 22, 1779. died February 17, 1882, unmarried, 

aged over 102 years; funeral on February 10, from William H. Owens, 
233 Friendship street, Providence. 

386. SARAH' WICKES (Robert* Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), born April 
21, 1742 (August II, 1742, Greene Family), died November 11, 1828. 
married, January 21, 1768, Captain Thomas' Greene (Richard* Richard' 
Thomas' John'), whose first wife was Mary' Low, daughter of Stephen 
and Alice* (Gorton) Low, by whom he had one child, Welthian, who 
married Deacon John Waterman, No. 1145. Thomas Greene was a 
ship master and farmer; lived opposite " Stone Castle " in Old Warwick. 
He was born 1729, died November 14, 1813 


1 156. Thomas W. Greene, born August 13, 1769, married Barbara Low. 

1 157. Rowland Greene, born November 24, 1770, married Susanna Harris. 

1158. Benjamin Greene, born May 16, 1772, died July 19, 1777. 

1 159. Rufas Greene, born May 10, 1773, married Sarah (Greene) Rice, (2) 

Sally Ann Low. 

1 1 60. Sarah R. Greene, born October 12, 1774, married Caleb Greene. 

1161. Benjamin Greene, born October 13, \m , died December 29, 1796, 


1162. Robert W. Greene, born May 10, 1779, married Mary L. Arnold, (2) 

Sarah Arnold. 

1163. Margaret Greene, born October 22, 1780, married Josiah Arnold, 1353. 

1 164. Mary Greene, born July 18, 1782, married Benedict Arnold, 1354. 

1 165. Lloyd Greene, born 1784, married Freelove Arnold. He was a Quaker 

preacher; died 1842. (Hist. East Greenwich, pp. 96, 97.) 

387. PHEBE' GREENE (Elizabeth* Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
March 25, 1732, died November 20, 1759, married, January i, 1754, 
Anthony Low (1725- 1802), only son of Captain John and Frances 
(Holden) Low, of Warwick. Judge Anthony Low married (2), Janu- 
ary 9, 1766, Sarah Stafford, who died February, 1840. 


1166. Philip Low, born June 27, i755. married Mary (Sharpe) Jones. 

1167. Anthony Low, born December 10, i7S7. died January 18, 1780, un- 


1 168. Christopher Low, born June 28, i7S9. died March 24, 1760. 
Anthony and Sarah had eight children: (i) Phebe, (2) John, (3) Anne, 

(4) Thomas, (5) Sarah; all died young and unmarried; (6) Barbara, married 
John Littlefield; (7) Samuel (Captain), married Elizabeth' Holden, 3137 (Ran- 
dall* Randall" Rose* Sarah' Benjamin^ Samuel' Gorton) ; (8) Anne Frances, 
married Christopher Greene, 11 79 (William' Elijah* Sarah' Benjamin" Samuel' 

390. CHRISTOPHER' GREENE (Elizabeth* Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), 
born Mav 12, 1737, married May 6, 1757, Anna Lippitt, daughter of 
Jeremiah' and Welthian* (Greene) Lippitt. She was his cousin (third), 


of Richard* Thomas^ John* Greene. Colonel Christopher Greene was 
born on the Occupasuetuxet homestead, Warwick, was the cousin 
(third) of General Nathaniel Greene. He received the mill estate 
from his father and conducted the business until he became a military 
officer. He had been from an early age up to this time a member of the 
Colonial Legislature. He was chosen Lieutenant of the Kentish Guards, 
and in May, 1775, appointed Major of the Rhode Island contingent to 
the Revolutionary Army, one brigade of which, sixteen hundred men, 
was under the command of Major-General Nathaniel Greene. He par- 
ticipated in the attack upon Quebec and was taken prisoner. He was in 
1777 selected by Washington to take charge of Fort Mercer at Red 
Bank, N. J., on the Delaware. He was killed at Croton River, West- 
chester County, N. Y., on the 14th of May, 1781. (Memoirs of the War, 
by Henry Lee; History of Warwick, by Fuller, 121-366.) His widow 
married (2) Colonel John' Low, son of Anthony and Alice* (Gorton) 
Children : 

1 169. Welthian Greene, born November 19, 1757, married Captain Thomas 

1 1 70. Job Greene, born November 9, 1759, married Abigail Rhodes. 

1 171. Phebe Greene, born January 6, 1762, died September 22, 1786. 

1 1 72. Ann Frances Greene, born June 2, 1763, married Jeremiah Fenner, Jr. 

1 173. Elizabeth Greene, born December 15, 1766, married Jeremiah Fenner, 


1 174. Jeremiah Greene, born October 17, 1769, married Lydia Arnold. 
■ 1175. Daniel W. Greene, born March 2, 1772, died April 6, i773- 

1176. Christopher Greene, born August 2-], 1774, married Catharine* 
Greene, No. i i8i. 
f 1 177. Mary Greene, born September 20, 1777, married Benjamin Fenner. 

, 393. WILLIAM' GREENE ( Elizabeth' Sarah' Benj.' Samuel'), born 

' October 25, 1746, died January 3, 1809, married January 4, 1774, 

Welthian Lippiitt, daughter of Jeremiah and Welthian (Greene) Lippitt 
and granddaughter of Richard' Greene (Thomas' John'). When his 
father, the Chief Justice, because of advanced age declined in 1784 to 
serve longer, William was elected an Associate Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Kent County. 
, Children : 

1178. Thomas Lippitt Greene, born October 16, 1774. married Anna G.' 

Holden, 3133. 

1 1 79. Christopher Greene, born May 8, 1776, married Ann Frances Low. 

1 180. Harriet Greene, born April 2, 1778, married Benjamin Greene. 

1 181. Catharine Greene, born April 8, 1780, married Christopher Greene. 

No. II 76. son of Colonel Christopher, hero of Red Bank. 

1 182. Philip Greene, born July 25, 1782, died unmarried. 

T183. William Warner Greene, born July 15, 1784, died August 26, 1802. 

1184. Jeremiah Greene, born September 10, 1787, married Phebe Hughes, 

(2) Sarah Littlefield. 

-V MARY' GREENE (Elizabeth* Sarah' Benjamin' Sam'I'), born 
j March 14, 1748, died Stepember 24, 1823, married April 22, 1771, John' 

Greene, son of Richard* and Elizabeth (Godfrey) Greene (Richard' 
Thomas' John"). They lived at Warwick, R. I., and at Marietta and 
Newport, O. 
Children : 

1 185. Phebe Greene, born June 22, 1772, married Jonathan Haskill. 

1186. Daniel Greene, born March 7, i774, married Mary Strout. 

1 187. Eliza Greene, born July 7. i777, married John Greene, (2) Stephen 

Pitcher ; no children. 

1 188. Mary Greene, born September 2, 1778, married Ebenezer Battells. 

1189. John Greene, born December 21, 1779. married Mary Hill. 

1190. Richard Greene, born April 29, 1781, married Rebecca Lawton, (2) 

Harriet Brown. 


1 191. Ruth Greene, born April 4, 1782, married James Whitney. 

1192. Sarah Greene, born November 7, 1785, died unmarried. 

1193. Caleb Greene, born June 24, 1787. married Catharine McMaster. 

1194. Philip Greene, born July 17, 1789, married Martha Brooks. 

395. SARAH' GREENE (Elizabeth* Sarah' Benjamin' Samuer). b. 
May 16, 1752, married February 16, 1769, Griffin' Greene (Jabez* Jabez' 
James' John'). He was a Commissary and paymaster of Rhode Island 
troops; afterward Postmaster and Collector of Customs at Marietta, 0., 
where he died June, 1804. 

Children : 

1195. Richard Greene, married and lived at Pittsfield, 111.; had several c};il- 

dren, among them Robert Rouse, who married Lucy Seymour, and 
Caroline, who married Mr. Hutchinson. 

1196. Philip Greene, postmaster at Marietta, Ohio, died 1806; no children. 

1197. Griffin Greene, also postmaster at Marietta, Ohio, died leaving no 


1198. Susan Greene, died young. 

396. SARAH= WICKES (Richard* Sarah' Benjamin' Samuel'), bnrn 
March 4, 1736, married October 26, 1755, at Warwick, Colonel John' 
Low, son of Stephen and Alice* (Gorton) Low (Samuel' Benjamin^ 
Samuel' Gorton). She died November 27, 1803, and he married Anna 
(Lippitt) Greene, the widow of Colonel Christopher Greene. John 
and Sarah were the ancestors of two Rhode Island Governors. 
Children : 

1199. Penelope Low, born February 5, 1758, married Charles Lippitt. ; See 


1200. Polly Low, born 1761, married William Greene; no children; after 

her death he married Rosanna' (Low) Wells, of Stephen* Alice* 
(Gorton) Low. See that line. 

1201. Charles Low, born February 28, 1768, married Catharine Holden, (2) 

Mahalia Wright. 

1202. Barbara Low, born March 30, 1770, married Thomas Wickes Greene. 

399. SARAH" GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benj.' Samuel'), born at 
Norwich, May 5, 1739, married April 10, 1766, Jabez' Rogers, born in 
Montville, Conn., March 31, 1742, of Samuel* Samuel' Samuel' Jarnes' 
Rogers. They settled in Colchester, Conn. A letter of brother Benja- 
min's mentions spending the winter of 1772 with them on the farm 
there. Jabez and Sarah Rogers, of Colchester, in 1773 convey land 
in Norwich, part of that which belonged to their " honored father, 
Joseph Gorton" (Montville Records). They moved to Middleburg, 
Vt., and built in 1793 the first house erected there. They both died 
there, he in 1816, she February 17, 1836. 

Children : 

1203. Jabez Rogers, Jr., born 1767, married Sarah Chipman. 

1204. Lebbeus Rogers, went to New York City about 1800, married and had 

John, Charles, W. A., who was a prominent merchant in New York 
City, William and James. 
J 205. Russell Rogers, born February 16, 1774, married Mary Ripley, (2; 
Ruth B. Keeler. 

1206. Sarah Rogers, born July 12, 1776, married Lebbens Harris, (2) Beno- 

jah Douglass. 

1207. Nathaniel Rogers, died young. 
J 208. Joseph Rogers. 

400. HANNAH' GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
December 3, 1742, married January 28, 1702, Elias Lathrop, born in 
Norwich, Conn., October 28, 1732, son of Captain Elisha' and Margaret 
(Shuraan) Lathrop (Samuel* Israel' Samuel' Rev. John'). They settled 
in Canaan, N. H., where she died December 9, 1788. He went to 


Vershire, Vt., with on of his sons and died there August 8, 1802. The 
records here given are from his Bible, as written with his hand. 
Children : 

1209. Elias Gorton Lathrop, born February 18, 1763, at Canaan, N. H., 

died March 5, 1851, at Vershire, Vt. ; married Dorcas Bohonon, a 
cousin of Daniel Webster. He had charge of teams and transportation 
in the Revolutionary War, and was present at the surrender of Bur- 

1210. RuFAS Lathrop, born February 12, 1765, died September 16, 1842, 

married, March 8, 1790, Margaret Huntington, of Thropolis and Lois 
Gilford Huntington. He held a number of township offices. 

1211. Elizabeth Lathrop, born April 9, 1768, married Mr. Storrs, of Royal- 

ton, Vt. ; died soon after marriage ; had a son. 

1212. Gorton Lathrop, born November 11, 1770, married and settled in Swan- 

ton, Vt. ; died there during the war, 1812-14. 

1213. Joseph Lathrop, born February 10, 1773, married Lydia Brigham, 

daughter of Lieutenant-Governor Paul Brigham, of Norwich, Vt. He 
died in Worcester, Vt., 1835. 
J214. Lois Lathrop, born September 10, 1776, married Oliver Stearns. 

121 5. Eunice Lathrop, born September 10, 1776, married Francis Balcam. 

1216. Hannah Lathrop, born October 26, 1779, married John Hall. 

1217. Benjamin Lathrop, born June 5, 1782, lost at sea 1805, unmarried. 

1218. Anna Lathrop, born October 17, 1784, married Elias Woodward. 

1219. Dyce Lathrop, born August 6, 1788, married Elijah Gleason. 

401. ANN' GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benj.' Samuel'), born in 
Connecticut 1781, married Thaddeus Lathrop, son of Captain Elisha' 
and Margaret (Shuman) Lathrop. They settled in Canaan, N. H., 
where she died April 21, 1781. He died in Chelsea, Vt. 

Children : 

1220. Elisha Lathrop, married Elizabeth Griswold. 

1221. Harris Gorton Lathrop, bornr April 30, 1784, married Susan Stevens. 

1222. Thomas Lathrop, married and had children. 

1223. Thaddeus Lathrop, married Betsey Eastman. 

1224. Caroline Lathrop, married Mr. Hilliard and went west. 

1225. Anna Lathrop, married Mr. Baker, of Barre, Vt. 

1226. Pamelia Lathkop, married Mr. Head, son of John C, of Quaker Vil- 

lage, or Hartford, Vt. 

402. AMIE' GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benj.= Samuel'), married 
December 26, 1776, Jared Huntington, son of James" and Elizabeth 
(Darby) Huntington (James* Simon' Simon^ Simon'). They lived 
in that part of Norwich called the Great Plains, where he was a farmer; 
moved to Mansfield, Conn., in 1801, where he resided on a farm until 
he died April 16, 1819. She died November 3, 1829. 

Children : 

J227. Lura Huntington, born July 24, 1777, married Enoch Freeman. 
J228. Amey Huntington, born April 9, 1779, married, 1805, John Clark, of 
Ashford, Windham County, Conn. 

1229. Welthia Huntington, born February 22, 1781, married Zephaniah 


1230. Jared Huntington, born January 31, 1783, married Cadance Clark. 

1231. Joseph Huntington, born June 3, 1785, married Ruth Royce, (2) Sarah 


1232. Benjamin Huntington, born May 14, 1787, married Harriet Post. 

1233. James Huntington, born April 19, 1789, married Sarah Storrs. 

1234. Charlotte Huntington, born November 16, 1791, married Solomon 

Landsphere, of Ashford, Conn. 

404. JOSEPH" GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
August 22, 1755, married Susanna Hibbard, born February 8, 1757. He 
settled in Norwich, Conn., where he was living after 1834. 

1235. Joseph Gorton, born April 14, 1780, married Cynthia (Pride) WiU-ams. 

1236. Benjamin Gorton, born July 2, 1782. He was with uncle in Troy, N. Y. 

1237. Sarah Gorton, born September 21, 1785; no knowledge of her. 


1238. Jedediah Gorton, born January 15, 1788, married Esther Sprague. 

1239. John Gorton, born February 14, 1790, married. 

1240. Samuel Gorton, born February 3, 1792, drowned in Connecticut riyer 

while attending ferry. 

1 241. Mary Hibbard Gorton, born January 9, 1795. 

1242. Susannah Gorton, born January 11, 1798. 

405. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Joseph* Benjamin' Benjamin' SamT), 
married (i), March 16, 1794, Polly Foster, born 1773 at Conway, Mass., 
died August 30, 1809, at Troy, N. Y., married (2), June 21, 1810, Nancy 
Martin, who died 1822 at Troy. Benjamin Gorton, in a manuscript of 
his, writes: " I was born May 28, 1758, at Norwich, Conn., the youngest 
of six daughters and two sons. My father's name was Joseph, a descend- 
ant of Samuel Gorton and brother of Stephen Gorton, of New London, 
a Baptist minister. My father came from Greenwich, R. I., to what 
was called Norwich Great Plains (upon a great pond about two miles 
from Norwich, Conn.). He married Hannah Leffingwell, daughter of 
Daniel Lefifingwell, the proprietor of a considerable part of the plains. 
There he settled on a farm, upon which he passed the greater part of 
his life. When I was about eighteen months old, the French War hav- 
ing broken out. my father joined the British Army as Sergeant, and after 
two years' service died of small-pox at Canaan, Conn., on his way home. 
When about five years old, my mother married Daniel Rogers, of Col- 
chester, and took my sister Welthea and myself with her. When about 
twelve years old, visited my brother Joseph, who lived with my sister 
on the old farm. When fourteen years of age, obtained a place as 
apprentice to Daniel Caven, a saddler at Norwich. My brother had 
gone to Norwich previously. In the summer of 1776, at eighteen years 
of age, joined a regiment of militia as fife major, Colonel Rogers, of 
Norwich, commander; marched to the Sawpits, State of New York. 
The only adventure we had was when a party of British with two field 
pieces came out to the Sawpits. We were drawn back from our bar- 
racks about half a mile upon a rising ground. After firing a few times 
with their field pieces, thought we were about to ambush them and fled 
back with great precipitation. After about three months, returned to 

" In 1777 joined Major Paintor's regiment of Artificers for three 
years, at fourteen dollars per month. Remained through the winter at 
Bethel, a little east of Danbury, Conn., which had just been burned by 
the British. In the spring of 1778 were ordered on to Fishkill. There 
the government broke up the regiment and turned us over to the Quar- 
termaster's department, under Colonel Udny Hay, Deputy Quarter- 
master-General at that place. We continued to work at our several 
branches of business for the United States until August, 1779, when I 
was discharged as an artificer by intercession of Colonel Nathaniel 
Stephens, Issuing Commissary at that place, and retained by him as 
clerk in his office. In December, 1779, John Buddock, Deputy Com- 
missary of Military Stores, obtained by consent to receive .in appointt- 
ment as Conductor or Commissary of Military Stores, and my pay was 
increased from twenty-five to forty dollars per month (the pay rank 
of a Lieutenant Colonel), and in addition provided with a horse and 
servant. I now had important trusts to perform. In January of the 
hard winter of 1780 I was charged with conducting a quantity of 
ammunition from Fishkill to the North Redoubt, near West Point, 
about ten miles. It was late before we got up to the fort. The teams 
were unloaded and sent back, i)ut I, being detained, did not start back 
until about sunset. Before I had gone half the distance it began to 
snow, coming very fine and fast; it was like a fog and so very cold I 


had difficulty to keep from freezing. Before arriving at Fishkill I had 
to get off my horse several times on the leeward side and rub my eyes 
open, as the snow falHng on my eyelids would freeze them shut. There 
was no safety in stopping, as the few inhabitants on the road were 
Tories. Having to go through a piece of woods three miles from Fish- 
kill, where there was no underbrush nor fence to guide me, I let the 
bridle lay on the horse's neck; if he could not take me home I must 
freeze. His greater sagacity brought me safely to my own door. About 
this time received information of the death of my mother. A few days 
previous to her death she had been carried to my sister's at the old 
homestead, receiving better care there than at her own home. 

" The order was given to return all the military stores at Fishkill to 
the headquarters of the main army near Morristown, N. J. This, con- 
sidering the depth of snow, was a great undertaking. There were 
others in the office older and more experienced than myself, yet they 
were glad that the duty should alight upon me. I went by the way of 
Peekskill and King's Ferry. The snow in the path had become packed, 
but in turning for a sleigh the horse slumped down to his back; endeav- 
oring to gain the path, broke his girth and threw off the saddle; so I 
had to sit without a girth as well as I could. The road was lined with 
Tories after leaving King's Ferry. Night coming on, I was obliged 
to put up at a tavern where several had been taken and carried to New 
York. The most of this day it had rained and frozen as it fell, making 
my clothing, especially my hat, very heavy, so that when I came to the 
tavern it was with difficulty that I got into the house. However, I was 
not molested and delivered my returns, and set out for home another 
route through New Windsor, Newburgh, etc. As is generally known, 
the army in New Jersey suffered for provisions this hard winter, in so 
much that many ate dogs to keep from starving; but they had at last 
gotten a drove of cattle on to the army, which had gone this road. 
Cattle, when travelling in snow, carefully step in each other's tracks 
and make no path but holes. This made my journey very tedious, for 
many miles I having to walk my horse. By this time not being able to 
get any pay or clothing, and my own clothes becoming indecent and no 
way to obtain others, I went to Norwich and disposed of what landed 
interest I had, a part of my father's estate. I found great difficulty. 
The land in good times was worth thirty dollars per acre, yet as times 
were then could get no more than ten dolars an acre offered, which I 
was obliged to take. And then the cost of clothing was great, for I 
was obliged to pay ten dollars a yard for broadcloth, which in good 
times could be bought for four. Thus having gotten all my inheritance 
upon my back, hurried back to my duty to wear them out in the service 
of my country as faithfully as was in my power. 

"The 28th of May, 1780, there was a remarkable darkness at Fishkill, 
also in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The night following, the moon 
when it arose was as red as blood. In 1780 we received orders from 
General Arnold to have all the military stores put on board sloop at 
Fishkill Landing, in order to send them up the river out of the way of 
the British if they should trap West Point. I was selected by the head 
of the department to take charge of them, and stay on board the fleet 
day and night; where we continued several months until Arnold's plot 
was discovered. Had he succeeded, I should have been taken with all 
the stores, without any orders to escape. 

" In the winter of 1781 was sent from Fishkill to Hartford, Conn., 
a distance of eighty-six miles, with instructions which I was obliged 
to deliver the next day by ten o'clock; which I accomplished, riding 
my own horse sixteen hours and resting six ; but suffered in my health 


again. In 1781 I frequently assisted in the Commissary Store in order 
to obtain something to clothe myself with. I could not obtain anything 
at the Ordnance Department. The store was a magazine to receive 
from all the purchasing Commissaries and forward to the army at 
Peekskill, as well as issue rations to all about Fishkill. The officers in 
the vicinity all sent to us for their beef. When General Washington's 
family sent his steward for beef their orders would include the poorer 
as well as the better cuts ; which consideration for others was not often 
shown by other officers. Receiving an order from General Lord Ster- 
ling signed by his Aid, Major North, and brought by a servant for a 
number of good pieces, I directed the salesman to cut what he sent 
for and also a piece of neck, which he did and put it with the rest. The 
servant asked, 'What are you going to do with that ?' I said. 'Send it to 
the General's family.' He said. ' You need not send it, he will not receive 
it.' I said, ' Take it along with the rest and I would see to the business.' 
In about three hours thereafter Major North came down with his 
servant and the piece of beef, and, throwing it down, said : ' What did 
you send me that piece of beef for?" 'Sir, you wrote for several good 
pieces, did you have them to your liking?' 'Yes. they were all very good, 
but that, that he did not send for.' ' I knew that you did not, and am 
glad it brought you here that I can explain it to you. When General 
Washington sends to us for beef he always particularizes every piece; 
has some of the best and also a shin or neck piece, in order to make it 
more nearly equal. The idea is this: A general's family is entitled to 
three, four, five and six rations; a soldier has but one. General Wash- 
ington reasons that as the soldier has but one ration that it should not 
be all bone. I have now given you my reasons for what I did, and the 
example is before you.' Major North made no reply, but told the ser- 
vant to take the piece of beef home. 

" In 1782 was sent to the eastern shore of East river for some money 
(about eight half joes), having to cross the route of the English Light 
Horse. However, I saw none of them. After receiving the money, I 
stopped for entertainment at Nichols' in Poquamok. I directed my 
saddlebags to be hung up near the stairway, apparently very careless. 
My money was rolled up in a piece of cloth tightly that it might make 
no noise. Watching an opportunity I took the roll of gold from my 
saddlebags and carried it to bed with me, fastening my door, for I did 
not like their looks. Looking behind my horse after getting on my 
way next morning, saw pimento scattered on the snow behind the 
horse. On examining my saddlebags, found them cut underneath. I 
had purchased a pound of pimento for some person, which had made 
the discovery. Had they succeeded in getting the money would undoubt- 
edly have killed me to secrete the robbery. Some time after was sent 
to the same place for nine hundred guineas. Returning with the money 
to Fishkill Landing, I had to cross to the Newburgh side. I found a 
pilot that would lead my horse cross the ice. Taking the saddlebags 
on my own shoulders, I followed after the horse about a rod. The ice 
being very weak, I thought if the horse broke in I could return. We 
made safe on the other shore, but after rising up the bank saw the ice 
all broken up in cakes and floating different ways. 

"The officers of the army had built a large building about two miles 
west of New Windsor, to meet to do business in on all occasions ; in the 
east end of which was a part taken off for a store, where the contractors, 
Melancthon Smith & Co., put the goods which they sold to the army. 
I was called upon to act as a clerk, and an arduous task it was. The 
soldiers received the paymaster's order, which was exchanged for goods ; 
the sentry letting in a certain number at a time. Taking an exact ac- 



count one day, found I had paid a little more than fifteen hundred dollars 
in g-oods that way. My situation was lonely and dangerous. Sleeping 
alone in the building, had been awakened at night and put in defense 
with club and fork at the window. On one accasion the marauders 
were discovered and punished. The sentry also for not giving imme- 
diate information. An anonymous letter was circulated about this time 
advising the army not to disband until they were paid. The officers 
generally had nearly determined to adhere to it ; in consequence of 
which General Washington called a general meeting of the officers at 
the great building for the purpose of pacifying them. I was in the 
building when he came in. After a few moments he took one of those 
letters in order to read it, when, lifting it up toward his eyes, laid it 
down again, and, looking round upon the officers, said: 'My eyes have 
grown dim in the service of my country.' Then, taking out spectacles, 
went on to read the letter; after which he made some observation 
respecting the danger of undoing by this rigid opposition to disbanding 
all they had done in a six years' struggle for independence: and that 
the government was then unable to pay them, and that he pledged his 
word that he would do all in his power that they should have justice 
done them as soon as the country should be able : after which they 
returned to their regiments and disbanded peacefully, many of them 
compelled to beg their bread on their way home, and having to live on 
their friends when they got there. 

"All that I had been able to obtain by means of the contractors' busi- 
ness and other ways was sixty dollars to begin the world with. Think- 
ing to go into the mercantile business in some place up the Hudson 
river, went on board a schooner from Rhode Island, having on board 
a number of the proprietors of the purchase of Hudson, then on their 
way to see the place. Considering this fortunate, I determined to settle 
there; hired a room in Peter Van Hazen's house and went to New 
York for goods. Meeting Comfort Sands, of the firm of Sands, Living- 
ston & Co., with whom I had done business while in the commissary 
store, found my credit good with him. By autumn my sixty dollars 
had grown to three or four hundred. Found custom was lost while 
away to buy goods (the company had opened another store), so in the 
spring, 1784, wrote to Thomas Frothingham, who lived near Boston, 
and had been in the ordinance department with me, to join me in busi- 
ness. We built a store on Main street and a small vessel, and increased 
our business considerably. (" Major Thomas Frothingham was stationed 
at West Point during the war. In 1784 entered into a part-ownership 
with Benjamin Gorton and opened a store on the Hudson." Kulp's 
Wyoming Valley Families.) 

"In December, 1786, sailed for China. Eli Hayden, a friend, had 
fitted out a brig and wished me to go as companion and assistant. 
After we were several days out, encountered a violent storm which 
lasted six or seven days. This was a severe introduction to me. never 
having been out of sight of land before. Arrived at Cape Town Feb- 
ruary 23, 1787; was agreeably surprised to find a ship from Baltimore, 
Captain Skinner, and a brig from Salem, Captain Lambert. Reached 
Canton August 5. Mr. Shaw, the American Council, had come from 
Maccao with us, found lodging for us. Arrived home June, 1788, hav- 
ing been eighteen months from New York. In the spring of 1789, 
having considerable bohea tea on hand, carried it with other articles 
to northern Vermont. Hearing that a person by the name of Paintor 
resided at Middlebury, went there and to my surprise found it was 
Gamaliel Paintor, who had been my Captain in the regiment of Artifi- 
cers. He was glad to assist me, and appropriated a corner of his house 


to my use. Business in the Middlebury store increasing, I sent to Col- 
chester, Conn., for a nephew, Jabez Rogers, to take charge of it, and 
built a store near the bridge. By this time I found that the business of 
all the northern country must ultimately center to the head of navi- 
gation on the Hudson river; and accordingly in 1791 began business at 
Troy. Bought a store on the southwest corner of Congress and River 
streets and established two small vessels to run to New York. After 
two or three years, dissolved partnership with Mr. Frothingham at 
Hudson and moved to Troy; and in 1795 dissolved partnership with 
my nephew at Middlebury, Vt., leaving the property principally with 

From letters and various records it is shown that an active interest 
was taken by Mr. Gorton in the welfare of the town, and that he enjoyed 
the love and confidence of the people wherever he lived. In 1791 he 
with his nephew, Jabez Rogers, and John Willard were made Trustees 
by Deed from the Honorable Gamaliel Paintor of a tract of land in 
the town of Middlebury as a commons for the use of the people of the 
town forever. Upon coming to Troy, he entered heartily into the social, 
religious and civil happenings of the then village. Was village Trustee 
and President, one of the first members of Apollo Lodge, Free Masons, 
December 11, 1796; helped to form a Presbyterian society at Troy, was 
trustee and treasurer, but not a member; in 1804 one of those starting 
an Episcopal society. In 1802-4 Mr. Gorton published these books: 
" The Millennium," " Plain Dealings with Calvinism," and " Primitive 
Christianity Reviewed." His grave is at Ida Hill cemetery, Troy, N. Y. 
His known descendants number 156, of whom 95 are at present living. 
Children : 

1243. Henry Gorton, born April 13, 1796, married Nancy Mains. 

1244. George Gorton, born March 17. 1798, married, 1830, Maria L. Lawer, 

at Alexander, La. He died Stepember 6, 1836. 

1245. Lewis Gorton, born March 9, 1800, married . 

1246. Eluszai Gorton, bom April 27, 1802, married Alvah Carlton. 

1247. Benjamin Gorton, born September 25, 1804, died January, 1829. 

1248. Cephas Gorton, born August 18, 1806, married Caroline . 

1249. Drusilla Gorton, born .August 20, 1808, married Thornas Potter. 

1250. Elisha Gorton, born March 24, 181 1, married Cornelia Nolan. 

1251. Joseph Gorton, born August 10. 1813, married Olive F. Wilmorth. 

1252. Mary Gorton, born May 29, 1815, married Eben Miller. 

1253. EsDRAS Gorton, born October 25, 1821, died 1845, at Waterproof, La. 

408. ROSWELL' LEFFINGWELL (Mercy* Renj.' Benj.' SamT), 
born at Norwich, Conn., April 4, 1745, married his first cousin, Arena 
Leffingwell. He was living in 1794 at Norwich Landing. 
Children : 

1254. Caleb Leffingwell. 

1255. Joshua Leffingwell. 

1256. Andrew Leffingwell. 

1257. Fibura Leffingwell. 

414. ELIZABETH" LOW (Alice' Samuel' Benj.= Samuel'), born June 
14, 1726, died probably before 1787, married (i), November 6, 1744, 
John Parker. He probably died at Warwick, September 7, 1747. She 
married (2), October 21, 1751, Owen Arnold. She married (3), prior 
to 1772, Mr. Hopkins. She .died prior to year 1787. 

Children : 

1258. Francis Parker. 

1259. John Parker. 

1260. Rebecca Arnold, born 1753, married Joshua Battey. She died 1784. 

415. JOHN' LOW (Alice' Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born June 19, 
1731, married, October 26, 1755, Sarah' Wickes, daughter of Richardd* 


and Barbara (Holden) Wickes. He was Colonel of a R. I. Regiment. 
Sarah died November 27, 1803. He married (2) Anna (Lippitt) 
Greene, widow of Colonel Christopher Greene. He died April 22, 1817. 
John and Sarah, each descendants of Samuel Gorton, were the ances- 
tors of two of Rhode Island's Governors. They had at least four chil- 
dren, which have been recorded. 

416. REBECCA" LOW (Alice* Samuef Benj.' SamueV), born Octo- 
ber 30, 1733, died February 20, 1785; married, January 6, 1757, by 
Elder John Gorton, Captain James" Warner, son of John* and Abigail 
(Brown) Warner (John* Ann' Samuel' Gorton). They lived in War- 

Children : 

1262. Elizabeth Warner, born September 2, 1757, married Randall Holden. 

1263. John Warner, born July 16, 1759. 

1264. Amos Warner, born September 4, 1760. 

1265. Alcy Warner, born January 21, 1763, married Nathan Dexter. 

1266. James Warner, born April 12, 1764. 

417. MARY' LOW (Alice* Samuel' Benj.= Samuel'), born April 9, 
1735, died August 30, 1765, married, January 28, 1762, Captain Thomas 
Greene, son of Richard and Elizabeth (Godfrey) Greene. He married 
(2) Sarah" Wickes, 386. His ten children by her are there recorded. 

1267. Welthian Greene, born December 12, 1762, married Deacon John 

Waterman, 1145. 

420. ANNIE" LOW (Alice* Samuel' Benj.^ Samuel'), born January 
5, 1741, married, September 30, 1764, Benjamin Greene, son of Richard 
and Elizabeth (Godfrey) Greene. She died September i, 1831, aged 
88. He was drowned July 21, 1776, at Surinam, South America. 
Children : 

1268. Benjamin Greene, born August s, 1765, married Lydia Fisher. 

1269. Thomas Greene, born May 27, 1767, married Rebecca Lippitt, 1356. ' 

1270. Catharine Greene, born October 20, 1769, married Philip Dexter. 

1271. Nancy Greene, born September 25, 1771, died September i, 1831, un- 


421. STEPHEN" LOW (Alice* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 1748. 
Deacon Stephen died November 14, 1814, in his 66th year. He married 
(i), August 6, 1769, Susannah Hadaway, born 1744, died January 14, 
1797, in her 54th year. He married (2) Elsie Angell, born August 31, 
1762, died August 13, 1852, aged 90, daughter of Abraham and Mary 
(Hawkins) Angell, of Cumberland. 

Children : 

1272. Sarah Low, born 1770, died November 29, 1810, in 41st year. (Gr. st.) 

1273. Elsie Low, born 1771, married Benjamin Gorton. See No. 223. 

1274. Rosannah Low, born November 21, 1773, married Charles Wells, (2) 

William Greene. 

1275. Stephen Low, Jr., born 1775, married Ruth (Holden) Greene. 

1276. John Low, lived on homestead farm, Warwick. 

1277. Elizabeth Low, married between January, 1805, and January, 181 1, 

Mr. Pendleton. 

1278. Amey Low, born about 1800, of second marriage. 

1279. Mariah Low, living January, 1805, probably died before January, 181 1, 

date of father's last will. 

423. SAMUEL" GORTON (Samuel* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
July 5, 1743, in East Greenwich, died November 25, 1820, in Providence, 
married (i), January i, 1769, Elizabeth Brown, of Swansey. She was 
born November 22, 1748, died November 15, 1788. He married (2), 


September 5, 1791, Frances Carder, of Providence, daughter of James 
and Sarah (Davis) Carder. Sarah and Mary Davis were sisters, 
daughters of Urian Davis. Mary was the wafe of Peter Rito, of Provi- 
dence. Frances gave her interest in the homestead with the house now 
standing and known as the old Gorton house, near Round Top Church, 
to his children. 
Children : 

1280. Mary Gorton, born November 5, 1769. 

1281. Hannah Gorton, born September 12, 1771, died February 2.2, 1791. 

1282. Daniel Gorton, born March 6, 1776, died October, 1799; lost at sea. 

1283. Elizabeth Gorton, born November 22, 1779, married John Hawkins, 

a tobacconist, of Providence ; both afterwards at Boston. 

1284. Welthian Gorton, born June 30, 1783, died June 27, 1784. 

1285. Welthian Gorton, born July 13, 1786, died January 16, 1787. 

1286. Anna Gorton, born Auijust 8, 1787, married Benjamin G- Grafton. 

1287. Samuel Gorton, born February 14, 1793, died January 11, 1794. 

425. THOMAS" GORTON (Benjamin' Samuef Benj.' Samuel'), born 
about 1 741, married, May 27, 1764, Susanna Pearce, daughter of Cap- 
tain John and Elizabeth. Thomas Gorton was Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, Representative in Assembly, and Colonel of the Second 
Regiment of Kent County troops. War of the Revolution. (R. 1. 
Records, Vols, vii, viii, ix. R. I. Hist. See. Collections, vi.) 


1288. Benjamin Gorton, born October 7, 1768, married Tabatha Burton. 

426. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), 
born at East Greenwich about 1743, married, February 19, 1762, 
Deborah (Vaughan) Weaver. Benjamin Gorton was Captain of the 
Second West Greenwich Company Kent County Militia. (R. I. Records, 
ix, 9, 26.) 

Children : 

1289. Benjamin Gorton, Jr., married, September 29, 1805, Mary Sprague. 

1290. Sarah Gorton, married, January 17, 1790, Benjamin Gorton, 1,2) Jared 


1 29 1. Dutee Gorton, married Mercy Gorton. 

1292. Mary Gorton, married Samuel Tanner, of Henry and Dorcas (Gardner) 


1293. William Gorton, married Hannah Gardner. 

427. SAMUEL" GORTON (Benjamin* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
at West Greenwich 1745, married, February 10, 1765, Eunice Austin, 
daughter of Stephen Austin, of Exeter, R. I., born 1744, died December 
26, 1818. He died in Brookfield, N. Y., March 20, 1834. Samuel Gorton 
was Captain of the Second Exeter Company, Kent County Infantry 
and Commissary in the War of the Revolution. (R. I. Records, ix, 
291, 498.) He moved to what is now North Brookfield, Madison 
County, N. Y., in about 1795. On the way he stopped with a Mr. 
Briggs, who offered him his land for $2.50 per acre, which he refused; 
it was upon the spot where the city of Utica now stands. He bought 
1,000 acres of Governor John Taylor for $2.50 per acre and paid for it 
in potash made from clearing it of timber. He soon moved into the 
town of Whitesboro, now Brookfield, and built a log house on the hill 
where the old homestead stands. In 1805 he and his wife visited Rhode 
Island on horseback. She was a woman of strong vocal power; her 
call was heard a distance of two miles by her son, Samuel, who was 
lost in the woods. 

Children : 

1294. John Gorton, born December, 176s, married Opha Boone. 

1295. Steph:;n M. Gorton, born January 21, 1767, married Trask, (2) 

Mercy Palmer, (3) Betsey (Worden) Davis. 


1296. Benjamin Gorton, born 1770, married Sarah Gorton, 1290. 

1297. Wanton Gorton, born December 24, 1772, married Mary Pentz. 

1298. Mercv Gorton, born 1775, married Dutee Gorton, 1291. 

1299. Varnum Gorton, born March 8, i777. married Hannah Rogers. 

1300. Samuel Gorton, born May 2, 1779, married Louisa Miner. 

1301. Mary Gorton, born April 5, 1780, married Absalom Miner. 

1302. Kesiah Gorton, born 1782, married Samuel Marsh. 

1303. Thurstsn Gorton, born 1783, married Anna Mason; no children who 

lived to maturity. 

1304. Simon Gorton, married, September 29, 1805, Sarah Lewis, of David, of 

West Greenwich. He died 1806. 

1305. Sarah Gorton, died 1806 time her brother died, both of typhoid fever. 

428. GEORGE' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
September, 1748, in West Greenwich, R. I., died April 30, 1829, at Hen- 
rietta, Monroe County, N. Y., married at West Greenwich, March 5, 
1769, Lydia Aylesworth, born at West Greenwich January 12, 1750, died 
September 19, 1833, at Henrietta, N. Y., daughter of Judiah and Ruth 
(Draper) Aylesworth. Ruth Draper was daughter of Thomas and 
Jane and was born March 4, 1727. Most of the descendants from the 
Aylesworths now spell their name Ellsworth. 

George and Lydia in 1803, moved from Coventry (which town was 
in 1741 set ofif from the western portion of Warwick, R. I.) to Otsego, 
central New York State, to where some of their children had preceded 
them, and from there, with them, in May, 1804, to the Genesee Valley, 
Livingston County, western New York. They lived in Henrietta, 
Monroe County, the county adjoining Livingston County. George, 
while living at Coventry, R. I., took the oath of allegiance to the govern- 
ment established in independence of Great Britain. (R. I. Records, 
ix, 408.) Find no further official record of him, but in a letter of the 
Colony to the American Congress it is stated that Rhode Island — con- 
sisting of islands and scarcely any territory but sea coast — is unusually 
exposed to the incisions of the enemy, and, having sent many of her 
soldiers to Boston and to the defense of the Canadian border, it desired 
aid in repelling the landing and continuous depredations upon them by 
the enemy (R. I. Records, ), and every man in the Colony was 

armed and equipped in its defense (R. I. Records, vii, 358). 

Children : 

1306. Daniel Gorton, born June 24, 1770, married Sarah Northrup. 

1307. Ruth Gorton, born 1771, married Benjamin Rouse, Jr. 

1308. Jared Gorton, married Sarah (Gorton) Gorton, (2) Widow Sheldon. 

1309. Thomas Gorton, born August zt, 1777, married Hannah Straight. 

1310. Lancaster Gorton, born October 19, 1786, married Mary Gardner, (2) 

Lovina A. Tickney. 

1311. Sarah Foster Gorton. Unable to obtain information regarding her. 

1 312. Mercy Gorton, married John Straight, (2) Mr. Barker. 

1 31 3. Susan Gorton, married Samuel Gardner. 

429. WILLIAM' GORTON (Benjamin* Sam'l' Benj..' Samuel'), born 
at West Greenwich, R. I., July 28, 1750, died at Voluntown, Conn., 
November 8, 1826, married Welthian' Tillinghast, born at West Green- 
wich July 14, 1751, died at Vountown September 14, 1820, of Benjamin* 
John' Pardon' Elder Pardon' Tillinghast. William Gorton served in 
the Revolutionary Array. 

Children : 

1314. James Gorton, born July 26, 1771. married Charity Rathbun. 

1315. Sarah Gorton, born April 24, 1773. married Elder Joseph Tillinghast. 

1 316. Phebe Gorton, born October 18, 1776, married Charles Campbell. 

1317. William Gorton, born December 21, 1782, died November 10, 1805. 

1318. Elizabeth Gorton, born March i, 1785, married Edson Baker. 

1319. Tillinghast Gorton, born September, 1787, married Charity Rathbun. 

433. JOHN' GORTON, JR. (John* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born at 


Warwick February 25, 1749, died November 20, 1828, married (i), 
August 26, 1770, Deborah Sprink; married (2), February 28, 1773, 
Mary Clark, daughter of William Clark. 
Children : 

1320. Barbara Gorton, born July 2, 1771. 

1321. Deborah Gorton, born August 26, 1774, married John Warner. 

1322. William Gorton, born June 13, 1776. 

1323. Mary Gorton, born June i, 1778, married Nathaniel Arnold. 
J324. Clark Gorton, born September 14, 1779, married Lydia Briggs. 

1325. Rhoda Gorton, born March 28, 1782, died February 7, 1786. 

1326. John Gorton, born December, 1785, died February 15, 1786. 

434. PHEBE' GORTON (John* Samuel' Benj.= Samuel'), born at 
Warwick May 13, 1751, married, February 5, 1769, Pelig Olin, son of 
Henry Olin, of West Greenwich. 

Children : 

1327. David Olin, born August 3, 1770, married, October 28, 1793, Hannah 


1328. Sarah Olin, born May 6, 1772. 

1329. Polly Olin, born March 5, 1774, married, August 23, 1798, Captain 

John Boutwell. 

1330. Rebecca Olin, born February 21, 1777, married, January 25, 1798, 

Martin Millard, 2319. 

1331. Peleg Olin, born June 7, 1779. 

1332. Phebe Olin, born September 19, 1781. 

1333- John Gorton Olin, born December 31, 1783. 

1334. Henry Olin, born April 13, 1786, married, May 13, 1810, Sarah Ayles- 
worth. He died September 4, 1849. 

435. ELIZABETH" GORTON (John* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 
at East Greenwich February 3, 1753, married Captain Charles Briggs. 
He was a sea captain. Elizabeth died in East Greenwich March 10, 


1335- Jeremiah Briggs, bron June 5, 1772, married Julia Langford, (2) Lois 

1336. William Briggs, married, December 3, 1797, Meriam Potter, of Robert. 

He died at East Greenwich, and the family went to South Carolina. 
I337' Charles Briggs, married, August 21, 1796, Elizabeth Rice, of William, 

(2) Bowen Arnold ; resided at Warwick. 

436. MARY° GORTON (John* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born Decem- 
ber 4, 1754, died March 9, 1822, married, May 2, 1773, Jeremiah' Pearce, 
Jr., of East Greenwich, born June 20, 1751, died December 25, 1799, at 
sea, son of Jeremiah'' and Margaret (Martin) Pearce (Giles* Jeremiah' 
Giles' Richard'). Margaret's second husband was Caleb Peirce, of 
Jeremiah* and Frances (Gorton) Peirce, No. 266. 

Children : 

1338. John Gorton Pearce, born August 13, 1776, died November 10, 1777. 

1339. Martin Pearce, born April 12, 1784. 

1340. Mary Pearce, born October 23, 1786, married, March 8, 1807, John 

Morey, of Earl. 

1341. Jeremiah Pearce, born June 2, 1791. 
J342. Peggy Ann Pearce, born October 20, 1795. 

439. ANNA" GORTON (John* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born Feb- 
ruary 9, 1762, married, August 2, 1787, Silas Andrews, son of Benonia 
Andrews. He died January 21, 1801. Probably were others than the 
following — 


1343. Rhoda Andrews, born September 6, 1792, married, November 24, 1819, 
William Boyd, East Greenwich. 

440. BENJAMIN" GORTON (John* Samuel' Benj.' Samuel'), born 


August II, 1764, married, October 30, 1789, Hannah Gardner, born 
June 21, 1769, daughter of Captain Oliver and Mercy (Gorton) Gard- 
ner. Benjamin died October 30, 1790, at East Greenwich, and Hannah 
married (2) Captain William Waterman, 1147, of Colonel John, 382. 
William's first wife was Susanna Low, and his children of first and 
second marriages are recorded on his line from Samuel Gorton. Cap- 
tain William's brother, Deacon John, married Welthian Greene. 

1344. Mercy Gorton, born February 6, 1791, married Col. Augustus' Greene. 

444. GEORGE' THOMAS (Samuel* Alice' Benj.' Samuel'), bom June 
7, 1738, married (i), September 25, 1763, Phebe Lockwood, daughter 
of Captain Amos Lockwood; married (2), August 19, 1787, Martha 
Aylesworth, of Philip, deceased, of East Greenwich. 
Children : 

1345. Ruth Thomas, born July i, 1764. 

1346. George Thomas, born July 23, 1766, married, November 15, 1787, Phebe 

Davis, of Benjamin ; 16 children in North Kingstown Records. 

1347. Gould Thomas, born August 17, 1769. 

1348. Daniel Thomas, born November 2.7, 1771, married Davis, of 

Benjamin and Phebe. See North Kingstown Records. 

1349. Sarah Thomas, born March 17, i774, died February 5, i77S- 

1350. Amos Thomas, born October 23, 1777. 

1351. Sarah A. Thomas, born October 23, 1777, died 1778. 

1352. Benjamin Thomas, born 1779, married Elizabeth Thomas, of George 

and Hannah (Arnold) Thomas; 6 children (N. Kingstown Records). 

455. DAVID' ARNOLD (Maplet* Maplet' Benj.' Samuel'), born 1746, 
married, August 29, 1765, Waite Lippitt. born April 10, 1743, daughter 
of Moses and Wait (Rhodes) Lippitt, of Moses' and Ann Phillis 
(Whipple) Lippitt, Moses' and Mary (Knowles) Lippitt, John' Lippitt, 
the founder of the family of this name in the colony, who was one of 
the early proprietors of Providence, 1638. 

Children : 

1 353- Josiah Arnold, married, 1807, Margaret Greene, 11 63. 

1354. Benedict Arnold, born September 15, i777. married Mary Greene. 1164. 

1355- Maria Arnold, born 1787, married Caleb Carr Greene. 

456. SARAH' ARNOLD (Maplet* Maplet' Benj.' Samuel'), born May 
24, 1748, married, August 8, 1770, Abraham' Lippitt, born October 26, 
1747, son of Moses* and Waite (Rhodes) Lippitt. He was an Elder in 
the Baptist Church at Warwick; moved in 1793 to Hartwick, Otsego 
County, N. Y. (See Fuller's Hist. Warwick, p. 112, etc.) 


1356. Rebecca Lippitt, born March 4, 1775, married Thomas Greene. 1269. 

457. BENEDICT' ARNOLD (Maplet* Maplet* Benj.' Samuel'), born 
November 20, 1752, married, March 21, 1782, Sarah Potter, daughter 
of Joseph Potter, deceased. It appears from his birth date that he was 
not the Governor or his grandson, the General of the name, both of 
whom violated their allegiance to their government. The later one 
left no descendants. Benedict, the husband of Sarah, was of Josiah, 
William, Israel, Stephen, William Arnold. 

Children : 

1357. Mary Low Arnold, born December 28, 1782, married Robert W. 

Greene, 11 62. 

1358. Sarah Arnold, born May 19, 1787, married Robert W. Greene, 11 62. 

461. SARAH' REMINGTON (Thomas* Maplet' Benjamin' Sainuel' 
born January 29, 1751, died January 19, 1828, married, November 3, 
1771, Charle's Holden, son of John and (2d wife) Hannah (Fry) 


Holden, of Providence. He was a Paymaster in the Revolutionary 


Children : 

1359- Penelope Holden. 

1360. John Holden. 

1361. Abigail Holden. 

1362. Charles Holden. 

1363. Randall Holden. 

1364. Thomas R. Holden, married Henrietta Smith. 

1365. James Holden. 

1366. Henry Holden. 

1367. Ulysses Holden. 

1368. Sarah Holden. 

462. BENJAMIN" REMINGTON (Thomas* Maplet' Benj.= Samuer), 
born September 2, 1752. He married (i) Phebe Manchester (1756, 
November 11-1786, February 11), (2) Lydia Manchester (1758, July 7- 
1791, May 5), (3) Nancy Manchester (1767, August 16-1798, December 
8), daughters of Captain Matthew and Freelove (Gorton) Manchester, 
No. 261. On day next following the birth of Benjamin the new calendar 
went into effect, and the 3d of September was recorded the 14th, making 
him appear 14 days old. He owned the Crompton Mills, lived on the 
family estate, a mile distant on Coweset road; was member of Town 
Council and of the Legislature. His first, second and third wives, 
sisters, died early of consumption. He again married (4) Elizabeth, 
of another family, and died himself in 1837. (Hist. Warwick, pp. 
Children : 

1369. Jonathan Remington. 

1370. Thomas Remington, married and had Benjamin F. Gravestones at 

Providence read: "Thomas Remington, died November 25, 1835, 
aged 45," and " Patience, his wife." 

495. JEREMIAH' AUSTIN (Hannah* Priscilla' Ann' Samuel'), born 
March 24, 1730, married, August 8, 1748, Margaret Congdon, daughter 
of James and Margaret (Eldred) Congdon. He was a member of the 
Friends Society and an Elder at South Kingstown, R. I. A slave, which 
he inherited, he set free, believing it unjust to keep slaves. He lived 
in Charlestown, R. I., and Rochester, Mass. Died in Little Crompton, 
R. I., December 20, 1815. 
Children : 

I37I- Joseph Austin, born 1749, married Patience Grinnell ; no children. 

1372. Hannah Austin, born December 25, 1752, married Amos Cross. 

^373- Joshua Austin, married Esther Grinnell. 

1374. Jeremiah Austin, born 1758, marriede Patience Fish. 

1375. Margaret Austin, married Moses Bowerman. 

1376. Dorcas Austin, married Jonathan Westgate. 
^377- Phebe Austin, married Paul Bowerman. 
1378- James Austin, married Ruth Fish. 

1379. Elizabeth Austin, married Preserved Fish, of David and Jeminah 

(Tallman) Fish ; no children. 

497. WILLIAM' STONE (Eleanor* Mary' Ann= Samuel'), born 1733, 
married Lydia Westcott, September 18, 1821, daughter Benjamin West- 
cott, of Cranston. He was Town Clerk of Coventry for sixteen years. 
Died September 18, 1821. 
Children : 

1380. William Stone, born 1758, married Lucy Scott. (See No. .) 

1 38 1. Westcott Stone, born 1761, married Abbie Knight. 

1382. Lydia Stone, born 1764, married Asa Knight. 

1383. Ruth Stone, born 1768, married Daniel Bennett. 

1384. Arthur Stone, bom 1772, died i797- 

1383. Asa Stone, born 1777, married Phebe Greene. 



498. FREELOVE" STONE (Eleanor* Mary' Ann= SamT), born 1736, 
married Ephraim Westcott. 

Children : 

1386. Ephraim Westcott, born 1760, married Freelove Stone. 

1387. Silas Westcott, born 1765. 

1388. Jeremiah Westcott, born 1772, married Eunice Potter, (2) O. Bur- 


1389. Samuel Westcott, born 1776. 

1390. Lucy Westcott, born 1781, married Nicholas Whitford. 

_ 499. JABEZ° STONE (Eleanor* Mary' Ann= SamT), born 1740, mar- 
ried (i) Sarah Taylor, married (2), about year 1800, W. Greene. 
Children : 

1 39 1. Eleanor Stone, born 1759, married Joseph Wight. 

1392. Joseph Stone, born 1761, married Mary Bowen. 

1393- Jabez Stone, born 1764, married Freelove" Manchester. 

1394. Ambrose Stone, born 1767. 

1395. Sarah Stone, born 1770, married Matthew" Manchester. 

1396. Daniel Stone, born 1773, married Mary Gorton, 586. 

1397. Isabel Stone, born 1778, married J. Hammet. (2) D. C. Goff. 

1398. Stephen Stone, born 1801, married Phebe Comstock. 

5C0. JEREMIAH' STONE (Eleanor* Mary' Ann' SamT). born 1745, 
married, February 12, 1761, Dianah Knight, of Jeremiah' (Richard') 
and Penelope (Westcott) Knight, of Cranston, R." I. 
Children : 

1399. Freelove Stone, born 1761, married Ephraim Westcott. 

1400. Charles Stone, born 1764, married Rachel Knight. 

1401. Hannah Stone, born 1766, married Darius Knight. 

1402. Henry Stone, born 1770, married Lydia Blackman. 

1403. Abigail Stone, born 1773, married John Whipple. 

1404. Mercy Stone, born 1775, married George Knight. 

1405. Diana Stone, born 1778, married Silas Weaver. 

1406. Jeremiah Stone, born 1781, died in infancy. 

1407. Knight Stone, born 1784, died in infancy. 

501. JAMES' STONE (Eleanor* Mary' Ann= Samuel'), born 1753, 
married Rebecca Sheldon. 
Children : 

1408. Robert Stone, born 1776, married Sybil Davis, (2) Almira Greene. 

1409. John Stone, born 1777, married Rhoda Barney. 

1410. Mary Stone, born 1779, married Stephen Parker. 

1411. Lemuel Stone, born 1781, married Anne Colvin, (2) S. Miles. 

1412. Samuel Stone, born 1784, married S. Hall, (2) P. Colvin. 

1413. Celina Stone, born 1785, married Sampson Wright. 

1414. James Stone, born 1789, married Pollonia Greene, (2) C. Ackley. 

141 5. Rebecca Stone, born 1795, married Samuel Clark. 

1416. Asenath Stone, born 1798, died 1813. 

504. JABEZ' CHADSEY (Susanna* Mary' .Susanna' SamT), b. April 
1720, died January, 1820, married (i), 1751, Honor Huling, who died 
1772. He married (2), 1774, Mary (Goddard-Greene) Corey. 
Children : 

1417. John Chadsey, born December 16, 1751, married Alice Pearce. 

1418. Jabez Chadsey, Jr., born January 31, 1754, married Hannah Greene. 

1419. Tabitha Chadsey, born 1756, married George Tennant ; had eleven chil- 

dren, of whim Eliza married Nathaniel Sweet, of Newport ; Anna 
married Boone Spink, and Honor married James Shaw. 

1420. Joseph Chadsey, born August 20, 1758, married Continued . 

1421. Elizabeth Chadsey, born 1761, married Jonathan Slocum, (2) William 


1422. Honor Chadsey, born 1763, married Benjamin Jenkins; no children. 

1423. Rowland Chadsey, born 1766, married Mary Pearce, (2) Mary Tourgee ; 

had by first marriage Christiana, who married Naaman Gardner. 

1424. Sirket Chadsey, born August 23, 1768, married Rachel Aylesworth. 


514. JAMES' GREENE (James' Mary' Susanna' SamT), born 1727, 
married, 1757, Susannah Fry. He was a physician in East Greenwich. 
Children : 

1425. James Greene, bom 1759, married and had daughter Hannah, who died 


1426. Elizabeth Greene, born 1761, married Nicholas D. Greene. 

1427. Nathaniel Greene, married Alice Low. 

1428. John Greene. 

516. PAUL" GREENE (James* Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. 1736. died 
1817, married (i), 1758, Sarah Hall, who died 1773. He married (2) 
Anna Wing, of Sandwich, Mass. 

Children : 

1429. Timothy Greene, born June 12, 1760, married Lucy Wilkinson. 

1430. Hannah Greene, born March 16, 1762, married John Greene. 

1431. Isabel Greene, born June 18, 1764, married Benjamin Arnold. 

1432. Daniel Greene, born June 8, 1766, died 1794 unmarried. 

1433. Patience Greene, born June 12, 1772, died 1845 unmarried. 

1434. Ruth Greene, born June 12, 1772, died 1S45 unmarried. 
1435- James Greene, born 1781, died 1804 unmarried. 

1436. Sarah Greene, born 1783, died 1823 unmarried. 

1437. Edw. W. Greene, born 1786, died 1823 unmarried. 

1438. Ann Greene, born 1790, died 1790. 

517. JABEZ' GREENE (James" Mary' Susanna' Samuel'), born 1738, 
married Mary Greene. 

Children : 

1439. David Greene. 

1440. James Greene. 

1441. Hannah Greene. 

518. ABRAHAM' GREENE (James* Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. 1740, 
married (i), 1767, Patience Arnold, married (2), 1774, Mary Reynolds. 
Children : 

1442. Benjamin Greene, married and had daughter, who married Willet 

Haines, of North Kingstown, and had Colonel Lyman and four other 

1443. William Greene, born February 13, 1769, married Sarah Low, (2) 

Mary Wilcox. 

1444. Patience Greene, unmarried. 

1445. Hannah Greene, married James Hendricks and had seven children. 

1446. Ruth Greene, unmarried. 

1447. JABE.S Greene, a sailor, was probably lost at sea. 

1448. Nathaniel Greene, born August 9,^1787, married Martha F. Northrup. 

1449. Paul Greene, died very young. 

519. HANNAH" GREENE (James* Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. Octo- 
ber 5, 1743, married her cousin, Nathan' Greene, of East and West 
Greenwich, son of Caleb' and Mary (Greene) Greene. Caleb' was son 
of John', of East and West Greenwich; not the John Greene of War- 
wick, but an adherent of Coddington's and Massachusetts' opposition 
to the chartered government. 

Children : 

1450. Caleb Greene, bom November 9, 1764, married Parmelia Bentley. 

1451. Elizabeth Greene, born August 14, 1767, died i773' 

1452. Mary Greene, born October 23, 1769, died 1801. 

J453. Elizabeth Greene, bom March 2, i775, married John Smith, of Prov- 
1454. Nathan Greene, born August 5, 1783, died August 30, 1809. 

521. SARAH" GREENE (Benjamin* Mary' Susanna' SamT), born at 
Warwick September 14, 1736, married Nicholas Bragg, Jr., son of 
Nicholas and Bertha (Howland) Bragg, of Bristol, R. L Bertha was 
great-granddaughter of John Howland, of the " Mayflower." 



1455. Temperance Bragg, born 1771, married Ethan Foster. 

527. JEREMIAH" GREENE (Jabez* Mary' Susanna^ SamT), b. June 
13, 1731, married, May 8, 1750, Mary Gooclard, of Ebenezer of North 
Kingstown. His widow married (2) John Corey and (3) Jabez Chad- 
sey. No. 504. 

1456. Hannah Greene, born December, 1760, married Jabez' Chadsey, Jr. 

535. JACOB' GREENE (Nathaniel* Mary' Susanna^ Samuel'), born 
March 7, 1770, married, March 26, 1761, Margaret Greene, cousin, No. 
530. He was aniron manufacturer. Died 1809. 
Children : 

1457. Polly M. Greene, born 1762, married Beenjamin Z. Summer; had 

Nathaniel G. Summer and probably other children. 

1458. Thomas Greene, born May 2t, 1767, married Jane Dean. 

1459. Jabes Greene, born 1770, died February 7, 1808. 

1460. Margaret Greene, born 1772, died 1786. 

1461. Jacob Varnum Greene, born 1773, married Patience Cox. 

1462. Julia Greene, born 1775, married Theodore A. Foster. 

537. NATHANIEL' GREENE (Gen.) (Nath.* Mary^ Susanna'-" Sam- 
uel'), born at Warwick July 27, 1742, married, July 20, 1774, by Elder 
John Gorton, Katharine Littlefield, daughter of John and Phebe (Ray) 
Littlefield, of New Shoreham, Block Island. The ceremony took place 
at the residence of his third cousin, William Greene (afterwards Gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island, see No. 350). He was reared in business in 
the iron mill, of which he and his brothers became entire owners ; was 
elected to the General Assembly from Coventry and served almost con- 
tinually until he was made a Major-General in the Continental Army. 
For his services in the war General Greene was presented with two 
pieces of captured ordnance and a gold medal. The Assembly of South 
Carolina voted him 10,000 guineas, the Legislature of North Carolina 
5,000 guineas and 25,000 acres of land, the Legislature of the State of 
Georgia 5,000 guineas and 2,400 acres of land. At the close of the war 
General Greene removed his residence from Rhode Island to Georgia, 
where, at Mulberry Grove, a plantation included in the gift to him from 
the State, he died July 19, 1786, in the 44th year of his age. Monuments 
to his memory were erected by the United States government, the State 
of Georgia, and a statue placed in the Capitol at Washington by the 
State of Rhode Island. (See the Greene Family. The Life of General 
Greene, by his grandson. Honorable George Washington Greene. Cor- 
respondence of Nathaniel Greene, by William Johnson, 2 Vols., 1882. 
U. S. and R. I. Histories.) 
Children : 

1463. George Washington Greene, born about 1775; drowned March 28, 1793. 

1464. Martha W. Greene, born March 14, 1777, married John C. Nightin- 

gale, (2) Dr. Henry E. Turner. 

1465. Cornelia Mott Greene, born September 23, 1779, married Peyton 

Skipwith, (2) Edward B, Littlefield. 

1466. Nathaniel Ray Greene, born January 27, 1780, married Anna M. Clark. 

1467. Louisa C. Greene, married Mr. Shaw ; no children. 

539. ELIHU" GREENE (Nathaniel* Mary' Susanna^ SamT), born 
December 10, 1746, married, December 5, 1775, Jane, daughter of Wil- 
liam and Sarah Flagg, of Boston, and granddaughter of Edward and 
Jane (Franklin) Macon, sister of Benjamin Franklin. He with his 
brothers were proprietors and operators of the Iron Forge. He lived 
at Potowomut, where he died August i, 1827, and was buried there upon 
the parental estate. (See Greene Family.) 



1468. Celia Greene, born January 27, died March 26, 1777. 

1469. Sarah Greene, born March 16, 1778, died October 10, 1795. 

1470. Franklin Greene, born September 3, 1780, married Emily Greene, 1476. 

1471. Jane Greene, bom December 24, 1781, died April 27, 1783. 

540. CHRISTOPHER' GREENE (Nathan/ Mary' Susanna' SamT), 
born July 3, 1748, married (i) Catharine Ward, daughter of Honorable 
Samuel and Hannah (Ray) Ward, who died in 1781. He married (2) 
Deborah Ward, sister of his first wife. He was engaged with his broth- 
ers in the manufacture of iron; was Commander of the Kentish Guards 
of Rhode Island, War of the Revolution ; also served under his brother, 
General Nathaniel Greene; was a member of the State Convention which 
ratified the Constitution of the United States. 

Children : 

1472. Annie Greene, born April i, 1776, married William P. Maxwell Esq. 

She died November 14, 1857. No children. 

1473. Catharine Greene, born October 3, 1780, died 1840 unmarried. 

1474. Christopher Greene, born December 8, 1783, died in 1814. 

1475. Celia Greene, born January 10, 1786, married Ray Clarke. 

1476. Emily Greene, born October 12, 1787, married Franklin Greene, 1470. 

1477. Nathaniel Greene, born October 9, 1789, married Abbie Sophia Casey. 

1478. Richard Ward Greene, born January 21, 1792, married Catharine Celia 

(Greene) Earned. 
1479- Samuel Ward Greene, born January 28, 1794, died April 21, 1872. 

1480. John Ward Greene, born December 8, 1795, married Margaret Clark. 

He died 1820. No children. 

1481. Elihu Greene, born October 12, 1802, married Matilda Summer. 

541. PEREY M.° GREENE (Nathaniel* Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. 
November 9, 1749, married, about 1783, Elizabeth Belcher, daughter 
of Colonel Joseph and Hannah (Gladding) Belcher, of Newport, R. I. 
(R. I. Rec, Vols. V, vii, viii. Newport Hist. Magazine v. Greene 
Family, p. 212). He was master of the merchants' marine, associated 
with his brothers in the Iron Forge, served in 1771-2 in the Sixth Regi- 
ment, Albany County, N. Y. 

Children : 

1482. William Perry Greene, born 1784, married Mary Olney, (2) Susan 

E. Mumford. 

1483. Albert Collins Greene (Major-General), born April 15, 1791, married 

Catharine Celia' Greene. 

542. GIDEON' GREENE (John* Mary' Susanna' SamT), born about 
1745, married, February 23, 1769, Mercy Howland, daughter of Daniel 
and Philadelphia (Brownell) Howland. He was associated with his 
cousins in the Forge at Potowomut and also in the iron works at Cov- 
entry. He died March 10, 1832. 

Children : 

1484. Hannah Greene, born April 25, 1770, married Aaron Knight. 

1485. Howland Greene, born November 20, 1771, married Nnacy Pearce. 
i486. Judith Greene, born July 24, 1773, married Percy Winslow, (2) Allen 


1487. Lloyd Greene, born May 2, 1775, married Phebe Shumaker, (2) Eliza- 

beth Collins. 

1488. John Greene, born February 15, died April 26, i777- 

1489. Philadelphia Greene, born March 17, 1778, married Russell' Chase. 

1490. Lucy Ann Greene, born April 17, 1780, married Henry Whitman. 

1491. John Greene, born January 27, 1782, married Abigail Susan Greene, 

(2) Mary Arnold. 

1492. Gideon Greene, born February 24, 1784, married Celia Baker, (2) 

Sarah Atwood. 

1493. Daniel Greene, born September 19, 1788, married Pamelia Gould, (2) 

Elizabeth E. Aylesworth. 

543. ABRAHAM' GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' SamT), born at 


East Greenwich October 2, 1736, married (i), February 13, 1763, 
Eleanor, daughter of John and Barbara (Rice) Langford, of East 
Greenwich; married (2), January 9, 1774, Mary, daughter of James 
Reynolds, of South Kingstown. 
Children : 

1494. Sylvanus Greene, born October 25, 1763; no family. 

1495. Russell Greene, bom October 29, 1767, died 1809 in U. S. service at 

Fort Henry. 

1496. Casey Greene, born December 28, 1770, died young. 

1497. Mary (Polly) Greene, married William Burke, Jr., of Warwick. 

544. RUSSELL" GREENE (Rufas' Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. at East 
Greenwich March 9, 1739, married, November 3, 1763, Barbara, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Casey, who died July 26, 1785. He died February 24, 


1498. Casey Russell Greene, born March 31, 1765, died December 4, 1768. 

545. PHEBE' GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' SamT), b. at East 
Greenwich December 20, 1740, married, December 3, 1761, Sylvester 
Greene, of Pawtuxet, born November 3, 1737, son of Thomas and 
grandson of John Greene, of West Greenwich, one of the Newport 
Greenes, not a descendant of John, surgeon, of Warwick. 

1499. Nicholas Davis Greene, born September 28, 1762, married Elizabeth* 


1500. Mary Greene, born December 28, 1764, married William James. 

546. MARY" GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' SamT), born March 
20, 1743, married, June i, 1766, John Reynolds, of South Kingstown, 
son of James. John probably was brother of Mary Reynolds, wife of 
her brother, Abraham. Settled in Hancock, N. Y. 


1 501. John Reynolds, died unmarried. 

1502. Ann Reynolds, married a Mr. Harris. 

547. JOSEPH" GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' SamT). born at E. 
Greenwich, March 20, 1745, married. September 9, 1770, Patience Shef- 
field, daughter of Caleb and Lydia (Cook) Sheffield, No. 322. who died 
April 20, 1839, in her 93d year. He died in East Greenwich March 25, 
1825, in his 8ist year. He was a rope manufacturer; was Sergeant of 
Colonel Fry's Regiment, Kentish Guards, Revolutionary War. (New- 
port Mercury, July 28, 1899. Greene Family, p. 216.) 

Children : 

1503. Barnabas Greene, born November 2, 1771, married Mrs. Mary Weeden. 

1504. Samuel Greene, born May 23, 1774. 

1505. Lydia Greene, born February 27, 1776, married James Sweet. 

1506. Susanna Greene, born July 4, 1778, died May 17, 1858, unmarried. 

1507. Mary Greene, born June 8, 1780. 

1508. Joseph Greene, born December 19, 1781, married Mary Floyd. 

1509. Catharine Greene, born May 28, 1783, married Augustus Mumford 


1 510. Sarah Greene, born October 31, 1785. 

1511. Eliza Greene, married, February 8, 1809, James Millard, of Samuel. 

548. RUFAS" GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' SamT), born at E. 
Greenwich March 17, 1747, married Margaret. It is thought that he 
settled in New York State. His only child we have record of lived 



1512. Nancy Greene, born March 12, 1771. 

550. CALEB^ GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna* SamT), born Aug. 
31, 1751, married (i) Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Russell, of Dart- 
mouth, Mass. Resided at New Bedford, Mass. He married (2), May 
6, 1797, Amy, daughter of David and Martha Harris, at Friends' Meet- 
ing-house, Providence. 

Children : 

1514. RuFAs Greene, born November 26, 1775, married Eliza Sherwood. 

1515. Judith Greene, born August 12, 1779, died 1795. 

1516. Gilbert Greene, born August 12, 1779, died November i, 1788. 
1517- Joseph Greene, born May 31, 1781, died April 16, 1784. 

1 5 18. Abraham Greene, born April 7, 1783, died April 6, 1784. 

1519. Elizabeth Greene, bom 1785, married John Thornton; no children. 

1520. Mary Greene, born February 22, 1787, married Daniel Otis. 

1521. Joseph Greene, died in infancy. 

551. CHARLES' GREENE (Rufas' Mary' Susanna= SamT), b. Julv 
28, 1753, died September 15, 1816, married (i), December 6, 1778, by 
Elder John Gorton, Phebe, daughter of Benjamin Sheffield, of James- 
town, R. L., who died May i, 1796, aged 41. He married (2), Decem- 
ber 25, 1796, at Philadelphia, Eliza, daughter of Robert and Rebecca 
Wallace, who died January i, 1830. He, with his family and wife's 
mother, moved in 1788. to Marietta, Ohio, where they owned shares in 
the Ohio Company. He was a merchant there and a vessel owner. He 
later resided in Cincinnati. 

Children : 

1522. Nabbv Sophia Greene, born August 25, 1779, married Geo. W. Burnett. 

1523. Maria Antoinette Greene, born December 6, 1781, married Alexander 


1524. Susan Harvey Greene, born August 19. 1784, died young, unmarried. 

1525. Charles Russell Greene, born December 21, 1785, married Acshah 


1526. William Wallace Greene, born August 15, 1798, married Sarah Ann 


1527. Robert Chambers Greene, born October 24, 1800, married Maria F. 


1528. Lewis Greene, born November 27, 1802, died 1842. 

1529. Caleb Greene, born Dec. 14, 1804, married twice; died Oakland, Cal. 

1530. Edelisa Greene, born June 16, 1807, married John F. Hunt, St. Louis. 

1531. Rebecca Burnett Greene, born Feb. 22, 1813, married Timothy Mitchell. 

552. STEPHEN' GREENE (Rufas' Mary' Susanna^ SamT), b. Jan- 
uary 16, 1756, married, April 21, 1779, Patience Wall, daughter of 
William and Hannah (Cook) Wall, No. 919. 

Children : 

1532. Fanny Florence Greene, married, Apr. 8, 1802, John Wing, of Ebenezer. 

1533. Eleazer Greene, married; lived at St. Bartholomew, W. L; c. there. 

1534- William Greene, married Miss Westcott, of Warwick, R. L 

1535- Augustus Greene, born 1784, married Mary Andrews, 1344. 

1536. Stephen Greene, born 1788, married Sarah Parish, daughter of Dr. 

1537- Samuel Greene, married Miss Brown, (2) Daisy N. Dorsey, of Phila. 
1538. David Greene, born 1796, married; had a son William. 
1539- Job Wall Greene, born 1798, married Jeannet Hunting; had William 

and Janette. 

1540. Sally Greene, married Thomas Westcott, of Samuel, of Prov., R. L 

1541. Hannah Greene, born 1803, married a Mr. Shuman. 

555. DAVID' GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna' Sam'l'), born April 
16, 1760, married, October 30, 1783, by Elder John Gorton, Eunice 
Hopkins, daughter of Jonathan Hopkins, of Middletown, R. I. He was 
a mariner; died October, 1792, in New York. She died November 20, 
1836, at Lawrence, Otsego County, N. Y. 



1542. Martha Greene, born August 8, 1784, married William Gilbert 

1543. Mercy Greene, born August 8, 1784, died February, 1785. 

1544. Edwin Robinson Greene, born Jan. 12, 1785, married Mary Hopkins. 

1545. Mercy Greene, born June 13, 1789, married David Carr. 

1546. Phebe Greene, born May 30, 1791, married Jonathan Weeden. 

556. MARTHA" GREENE (Rufas* Mary' Susanna^ SamT), b. at E. 
Greenwich, January 23, 1763, married George Harris, of Smithfield, 
R. I. They moved to Stamford, N. Y. 

1547. Russell Harris. 


£57. PELEG" WILBUR (Mary= SamT Sam'l' Sam'l= SamT), born 
||i February 22, 1765, died December 31, 1831, married Marcy Gooding, 
daughter of Matthew, Jr., of Dighton, Mass., and Marcy Crane, of 
Buckley, Mass. In the first quarter of the nineteenth century Peleg 
Wilbur, son of Thomas, with his sons Peleg and Oliver Cromwell and 
,1 others, formed the Washington Manufacturing Company, built a mill 
'f and commenced manufacturing cotton shirtings at the village of Bray- 
tone Mills (saw and grist mills), but afterwards named Washington, 
in the town of Coventry, R. I. They later bought out the other partners 
, and built a new mill of stone, and adopted the name of the Washington 
I Manufacturing Company. 
Children : 

1548. Peleg Wilbur, born Feb. 21, 1788, died Aug. 2, 1873, married Lydia 

M. Hyde ; no children. 

1549. Marcy Gooding Wilbur, born Oct. 20, 1789, married Major Christo- 

pher Lippitt. 

1550. Matthew Gooding Wilbur, born Nov. 8, 1792, married Abby Coit, (2) 

Belinda Nichols, (3) Elizabeth Nichols. 

1551. Oliver Cromwell Wilbur, born Oct. 4, 1794, married Lucy Ann Greene. 

1552. Thomas Bradford Wilbur, born Nov., 1796, died about 1880; married 
I Abbie Davis ; no children. 

558. JAMES" WILBUR (Mary=* Sam'l* SamT Sam'l' SamT), born 
September 2, 1766, married (i) Susanna" Gorton (Benjamin* and Avis 
(Hulett) Gorton, SamueF Samuel" Samuel') ; (2) Patience Chase, born 
1780, probably in Fairhaven, Mass., died September 24, 1862. 
Children : 

1553. Benjamin Gorton Wilbur, born August 10, 1795. 

1554. Avis Wilbur, born February 16, 1798. 
1555- Samuel Wilbur, born February 7, 1799. 
1556. Susanna Wilbur, born August 21, 1800. 
1 557- John Wilbur, born February 2T, 1805. 

1558. David Wightman Wilbur, born Feb. 8, 1806, married Welthian Hall. 
\ IS59- Phebe Wilbur, born Aug. 15, 1807, married Jeremiah Chase. 

r 1560. Ruth Slade Wilbur, born June 10, 1809. 

1561. Roxclana Wilbur, born Nov. 9, 181 1, married Granville Leane. 

1262. Angelina Wilbur, born June 2, 1813, married Calvin Dunhom. 

1563. James Wilbur, born April i, 1815. 

1564. Mary Wilbur, born April 29, 1816. 

1565. James Bowen Wilbur, born Jan. 6, 1821, married Julia A Gardner, 
(2) Almira P. Jones. 


562. RUTH" WILBUR (Mary' SamT Sam'l' SamT Sam'l'). born 
1775, died August 2, 1862, married, October 6, 1799, Cranston Evans. 
Children : 

1566. Eli Evans, born May 29, 1800. 

1567. Phebe Evans, born February 2, 1803, lived about one year. 

1568. John Cranston Evans, born November 5, 1805. 

1569. Wilbur Gorton Evans, born August 23, 1809. 

1570. Peleg Wilbur Evans, born February 17, 1811, died September 5, 1813. 

1571. Elizabeth Evans, born , died September 11, 1811. 

1572. Cranston Evans, bom June 19, 1814, died March i, 1835. 

563. PATIENCE' WILBUR (Mary° SamT Sam'l' Sam'l= SamT), 
bom March 6, 1777, died October 14, 1843, married, December 24, 1816, 
Jonathan Purinton. 

Children : 

J573- Charles G. Purinton, born March 23, 1818, married Elizabeth Grover. 

1574. Samuel Gorton Purinton. born September 22, 1820, married Eliza- 

beth R. Slade, (2) Elizabeth Gardner. 

1575. Nancy W. Purinton, born September 24, 1822, died November 21, 1837. 

564. CHLOE' WILBUR (Mary* Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), born 
July II, 1780, died March 6, 1846, married, January 7, 1808, John' 
Gardner (Edward" and Elizabeth (Brown). Peleg* and Hannah 
(Sweet), Samuel' and Hannah (Smith), Samuel' and Elizabeth (Carr), 
Robert' Gardner). Elizabeth (Brown) was the daughter of William 
and Lettice (Kingsley) Brown. Hannah (Smith) was the daughter of 

Philip' and Mary ( ) Smith (Edward' of Rehobeth and Newport). 

Elizabeth (Carr) was the daughter of Robert Carr and widow of James 
Brown. Samuel' Gardner's will is in Warren, Mass. He mentions 
his honored father Robert' and brother Robert' Gardner. The latter 
was one of the founders of Trinity Church, Newport, R. I. 
Children : 

1577. Mary Wilbur Gardner, born April 30, 1811, married Hiram Gardner. 

1578. Eliza Ann Gardner, born August 14, 181 5, married George A. Howard. 

565. DAVID" WILBUR (Mary' SamT Sam'l' SamT SamT), bom 
at Somerset, Mass., March 16, 1783, died September 29, 1836, at Paw- 
tucket, R. I., married, January 6, 1809, in Warren, R. I., Sarah Brown 
Gardner, daughter of Edward' and Elizabeth (Brown) Gardner (Peleg* 
Samuel^ Samuel' Robert' Gardner). 

Children : 

1579. Sarah Gardner Wilbur, born October 31, 1800, married Capt. Charles 

F. Brown. 

1580. Harriet Gorton Wilbur, born August 29, 181 1, died October 30, 1876, 


1581. David Gooding Wilbur, born May 19, 1813, married Julina Young. 

1582. Hiram Nelson Wilbur, born June 25, 1815, died March 28, 1817. 
J583. Thomas Bradford Wilbur, born September i, 181 7, married Phebe W. 

Wilbur, (2) Emily L. Webster. 

1584. Peleg Nelson Wilbur, born November 27, 1819, died 1844, unmarried. 

1585. Eliza Ann Wilbur, born March 28, 1822, died May 6, 1833. 

1586. Phebe Havens Wilbur, born July 17, 1824, died October 22, 1826. 

1587. Caroline Aborn Wilbur, born February i, 1826, married William Ray 


1588. Maria Frances Wilbur, born July 10, 1828, married Marcus A. Brown. 

566. THOMAS* WILBUR (Mary' Samuel* SamT Sam'l' SamT), 
bom October 4, 1785, died September 8, 1844, married, January 3, 1808, 
Mary Ann Rice, of Samuel and Eleanor Rice, of East Greenwich, R. L 

Children : 

1589. Thomas Henry Wilbur, born September 21, 1809, died July 16, 181 2. 

1590. Infant Wilbur, unnamed, bom October 27, 181 1. 

1591. Lydia Ann Wilbur, born June 11, 1813, married Moses Budlong. 


1592. Mary A. Wilbur, born September 24, 1815, died July 16, 1816. 

1593. Henry James Wilbur, born May 19, 1817, married Elizabeth H. Gorton. 

1594. Phebe Whitman Wilbur, born March 20, 1819, married Thomas B. 

Wilbur, 1583. 

1595. Mary Eleanor Wilbur, born April 12, 1821, died 1854. 

1596. William Ray Wilbur, born August 23, 1823, married Caroline A. 

Wilbur, 1587. 

1597. Clarissa Danforth Wilbur, born August 10, 1825, married William 

H. Sterratt. 

1598. Infant Wilbur, unnamed, born November 15, 1826. 

1599. George Warren Wilbur, born January 31, 1821, died October zy , 189?, 

married Caroline Beal, (2) Freelove Randall, (3) Jane Duckworth. 
He was a veteran of the Civil War. No children. 

567. PELEG" GORTON (Peleg° Samuel' SamT Sam'f SamT), born 
October, 1769, in Providence, R. I., died June 24, 1851, in Corning, 
N. Y., married, January i, 1791, in Stephentown, N. Y., Lydia Wilkey, 
born 1770, died October 10, 1826. When twelve years old, Peleg left 
Providence and went to Stephentown, N. Y., with his father. Later 
his father settled at Lebanon Springs, Columbia County, N. Y. In the 
March following his marriage he went to Cherry Valley, Otsego County, 
N. Y., but eventually settled with hisf brothers in the Chemung Valley 
at Painted Post in the township of which his father was one of the 

Children : 

1600. Polly Gorton, born December, 1792, married Hugh Miller; went to 

Vincennes, Ind., in about 1822. It is thought she had sons. 

1601. Nancy Gorton, born February, 1796, died January, 1827, unmarried. 

1602. Dorcas Gorton, born February, 1798, married Jonathan Baker. 

1603. Abigail Gorton, born December, 1802, died May, 1828, married Galen 

W. Matteson, and had one child who died in infancy. 

1604. William Thomas Gorton, born November, 1805, married Catharine 


1605. Jared Morgan Gorton, born June 13, 1809, married Susan Woodward. 

568. DORCAS* GORTON (Peleg" Samuel' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), 
born 1771, died 1802, married (i) Ichabod Patterson. Four of their 
children perished in the burning of their house. The shock crazed Mr. 
Patterson and soon caused his death. Dorcas married (2), 1880, 
Thomas Wall. 

Children : 

1606. Paterson, perished in the burning of their house. 

1607. Paterson, perished in the burning of their house. 

1608. Paterson, perished in the burning of their house. 

1609. Paterson, perished in the burning of their house. 

1610. Ichabod Paterson, Jr., the only child, then a babe, saved. 

161 1. Nancy Wall, born May 5, 1801, married Ransom Gorton. 

569. BENJAMIN* GORTON (Peleg" Samuel' Sam'l" Sam'l' SamT), 
born 1772, died August 12, 1814, at Corning, N. Y., married, 1794, 
Rachel Walcott, probably of Justus. Benjamin Gorton was one of the 
purchasers and first settlers of the tract of land called Painted Post, 
after an Indian Chief of that name, and afterward changed to Corning. 
Benjamin and Rachel were the first couple to marry in Corning (see 
History of Corning). Four of the brothers, Peleg, Rufus, Moses and 
Stephen, or John, settled on the west side of the Chemung river, and the 
other four brothers, Dr. Samuel, Benjamin, Russell and Silas, settled 
on the east side. 

Children : 

1612. Sarah Gorton, born June 2, 1796, married Amzi English. 

1613. Hannah Gorton, born 1798, died young. 

1614. Stephen Gorton, born December, 1800, died November, 1884, unmarried. 

1615. Hannah Gorton, born 1802, married Chester Coe. 

l6i6. Delana Gorton, born January 22, 1804, married Hiram Morris. 


1617. Ansell McCall Gorton, born September 22, 1805, married Phebe Jane 

Root, (2) Mary Delilah Williams. 

1618. Caroline Gorton, born February 24, 1811, married Michael J. Pace. 

1619. Elijah King Gorton, born April 6, 1813, married Pamelia S. Crosby. 

570. MOSES" GORTON (Peleg' Samuel* SamT Sam'l= SamT), born 
September 27, 1773, at Providence, R. I., died June 29, 1856, at Amity, 
Allegany County, N. Y. He married in 1794 Eunice Towner, who was 
born of Gersham and Tamar (Knapp) Towner, October 12, 1775, in 
New Lebanon, N. Y., and died April 26, 1855, in Amity, N. Y. Moses 
sold his property in Corning and moved to Genesee County, N. Y., 
about 1836. Children were all born in Painted Post or Corning. 
Children : 

1620. Moses Gorton, born June 6, 1796, married Polly Gorton. 

1 621. John Gorton, born September 2, 1797, married Charlotte H. Case. 

1622. Ransom Gorton, born June 17, 1799, married Nancy' Wall, 161 1. 

1623. Peleg Gorton, born October 9, 1800, married Ruth Taylor. 

1624. Betsy Gorton, born August 10, 1802, married Joseph M.' Cole. 

1625. Thomas Jefferson Gorton, born January 27, 1804, died January 13, 

183s, unmarried. 

1626. Othneil Gorton, born August 25, 1806, married Sally Wolcott. 

1627. Angeline Gorton, born Sept. 26, 1809, married Free>ev€ G. Olmstead. 

1628. Daughter Gorton, died in infancy. ' ' 

1629. G. Harmon Gorton, born August 22, 1815, married Hulda Simons. 

1630. Sally Gorton, born December 19, 1807, died July 2j, 1839, unmarried. 

1631. Perry Gorton, born February 10, 18 19, died October, 1824. 

1632. Polly L. Gorton, born July 9, 1823, married J. A. Thatcher Hyde. 

571. RUFUS" GORTON (Peleg' SamT SamT SamT SamT), born 
October 3, 1774, died April 8, 1857, at Williamstown, Mich., married 
(i), 1796, Elizabeth Towner, (2), about 1830, Mrs. Louisa (Wood- 
ward) Chadwick, widow of Elijah Chadwick. He lived at Albany and 
Corning, N. Y., and in 1832 moved to Dexter, Mich., then later to 
Williamstown, Mich. He was engaged in many branches of business 
and owned a flour mill, saw mill, woolen mill, and tannery. 
Children : 

1633. RuFus Gorton, born April 8, 1797, married Betra Lovell. 

1634. Silas W. Gorton, born October 22, 1798, married Ann Eliza Shoemaicer. 

1635. Daniel Gorton, born August 26, 1800, married Pattie M. Lovell. 

1636. Samuel Gorton, born April 23, 1802, married Sarah Ann Daily. 

1637. Hiram Gorton, born September 28, 1804, married Jane Gardner. 

1638. James Gorton, born June 28, 1806, married Harriet Towner. 

1639. George Washington Gorton, born May 7, 1810, married . 

1640. Aaron Towner Gorton, born December 3, 181 1, married Marietta 

Gardner, (2) Mary Ann Paddock. 

1641. Sophia Gorton, born , married George McColloch, (2) Hon. John 


1642. Louisa Gorton, died at age of four years. 

1643. Mary Miller Gorton, born January 7, 1820, married John G. Harkins, 

(2) Austin H. Seward. 

1644. G. Lafayette Gorton, born December 4, 1833, married Nancy A. Tobias. 

572. SARAH* GORTON (Peleg' SamT SamT SamT SamT), born 
March 20, 1776, in Rhode Island, died March 25, 1857, married Jacob 
Cole, Jr., who was born at Chatham, N. Y., January, 1775 or '"jy, and 
died August 8, 1849. Jacob Cole, Sr., came from Rhode Island to New 
York with the Gortons and settled near Lebanon Springs, Columbia 
County. He joined the American Army and was with General Wolfe 
at the capture of Quebec. He died at his home in Chatham, Columbia 
County, in 1846 or 1847, at the age of no or 116 years. His children 
were Jacob, Joseph, Benjamin, and Esther. He had a brother Peter. 

A King of Holland had two sons born to him by the Queen; they 
were twins; one was named Peleg and one Frederick Baron Trink. 
Peleg commanded a fleet and won a number of battles. Frederick com- 


manded a land force. The King died without naming his successor. 
The contentions favoring Frederick, Peleg took his ships and marines 
to France and rendered service to Charles Fifth. For this service the 
King made a grant of land in Canada to Peleg's children, and Peleg 
took the name of Kohl. This came to be written in English Cole or 
Coal. Some of Peleg's descendants settled in New York City, some in 
Canada and others elsewhere. The eldest son was for seven successive 
generations named Jacob. 
Children : 

1645. Jacob Cole, born July 24, 179S, married Arvilla Nichols. 

1646. Peleg Gorton Cole, born February 21, 1797, married Mary Tracy. 

1647. Stephen Cole, born March 10, 1799, married Mary Strait. He was 

school teacher at Detroit, Mich. ; had Harmon and others. 

1648. Samuel Cole, born February 21, 1801, married Cynthia Powers. 

1649. Sarah Cole, born February 6, 1803, married William B. Chase. 

1650. Dorcas Cole, born December 17, 1805, married Alex. McDowell. 

165 1. Frederick Baron Trink Cole, born 1807, married Maria Vermilyea. 

1652. CoRAMANDO H. CoLE, bom July, 1808, married Esther P. Selix. 

1653. William H. Cole, born July 11, 1810, married Nancy Holden. 

1654. Betsy Cole, born March 3, 1812, married Anthony Twedee. 

1655. John Cole, born July 30, 1814, died in infancy. 

1656. Amander G. Cole, born July 21, 1816, married Sarah A. Twedee. 

573. RUTH' GORTON (Peleg" SamT Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), born 
1778, married Joseph Cole, son of Jacob' Cole. Ruth did not go to 
Corning to live, but her sons did and they taught school there. 
Children : 

1657. Joseph M. Cole, born , married Betsey Gorton, 1624. 

1658. William B. Cole, married, had daughter, Mrs. H. C. Royce. 

1659. Charles Cole, lived at Lebanon Springs in 1840-1850. 

1660. Celina Cole, lived at Lebanon Springs in 1840-1850. 

1 66 1. Harvey Cole. 

1662. Esther Cole, married Mr. Loomis, nephew of aunt, Mrs. Russell Gorton. 

574. STEPHEN* GORTON (Peleg' Samuel* Samuel' Sam'P SamT), 
born 1779, married, 1803, Cleopatra Young. 

Children : 

1663. Polly Gorton, born 1804, married Moses Gorton. See his record. 

1664. Cleopatra Gorton, born 1805, died October 22, 1889, unmarried. 

1665. Peleg Gorton, married Mary Towner, niece of wife of Moses Gorton. 

Died 1875. 

575. RUSSELL* GORTON (Peleg* Samuel* Samuel' Sam'l' SamT), 
born 1 781, died January 26, 1832, married Rachel Loomis. 

Children : 

1666. Orlando Gorton, married; wife's name not obtained. 

1667. Benjamin Gorton, married Margaret Smith. 

1668. Philander Gorton, married Desire Rouse. 

1669. Mahalia Gorton, married Jefferson Johnson. 

1670. Marcia Gorton, married Ambrose Kent. 

1671. Barlow Gorton, born 1809, married Elzina Ross. 

575. SILAS' GORTON (Peleg' SamT Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), born 
March 25, 1782, died July i, 1859, married, 1805, Elizabeth Spring, who 
was born October 4, 1788, and died September 24, 1872. She was a 
daughter of Nathaniel and Jane (Knox) Spring. Silas Gorton and 
his wife lived at Stephentown, Rensselaer County, N. Y. They moved 
from there to Painted Post or Corning, settling about three miles east 
of the present city of Corning, where they both died. 
Children : 

1672. Horatio Gorton, born July 3, 1806, married Polly Bucher. 

1673. Betsey Gorton, born November 3, 1810, married Frederick Wormly. 

1674. Jane Gorton, born October 4, 1812, married Charles Page. 

1675. Stephen D. Gorton, born Dec. 10, 1814, married Eleanor Lamphear. 


1676. Almira Gorton, born January 17, 1816, died young. 

1677. Hiram Gorton, bom February 23, 181 8, married Caroline Davidson. 

1678. Milton Gorton, born May 22, 1820, married Harriet Markle. They 

lived near Litchfield, Minn., where both were murdered (supposedly), 
robbed and burned in their house in December, 1901. They had no 

1679. William Gorton, born October 4, 1822, married Helen Tompson. 

1680. MiLO Gorton, born February 12, 1824, married Lucy Davidson. 

577. SAMUEL" GORTON (Peleg' Samuel* Samuel' Sam'I^ Sam'l)' 
born 1783, at Lebanon Springs, N. Y., died July i, 1829, and buried at 
Coming, N. Y., married, 1808, Sophia Case, born near Willimantic, 
Conn., in 1793, and died September, 1867, daughter of Levi Case. Dr. 
Samuel Gorton lived at Big Flats and Corning, N. Y., and was a physi- 
cian of large practice. After his death Mrs. Gorton, with three of her 
sons, Darwin, George and Jackson, went to Illinois — probably in 1833. 
She married there a Mr. Gray, and lived with him until her death in 
Children : 

1681. Levi Case Gorton, born October 20, 1809, married Jane Townsend. 

1682. Darwin Gorton, bom September 18, 1811, married Mabel Watrons, 

(2) Lydia A. Shaw. 

1683. George W. Gorton, married ; continued. 

1684. Jackson Gotron, married; continued. 

1685. Amanda Gorton, died in young womanhood. 

583. HEZEKIAH" GORTON (Hezekiah' SaniT Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), born about 1780, married, about j3c'\, Mary (Watson) Griffin, 
widow of Benjamin Griffin. Mary Watson married Benjamin Griffin 
when she was but 15 years old. He died leaving her with two children. 

Children : 

1686. Charity Gorton, born 1800, married Ephraim Spencer. 

1687. Hezekiah Gorton, born 1802, married Eunice Whitford. 

1688. Joseph Gorton, born 1812, married Ruth (Stanhope) Bates, widow of 

Philip Bates and daughter of William and Sarah (Ryder) Stanhope, 
of Newport, R. L s. p. 

1689. Mary Gorton, born June 17, 1818, married William W. Perkins. 

1690. Daniel Gorton, died unmarried about age of 18. 

584. SAMUEL' GORTON (Hezekiah' SamT Sam'l' SamT Sam'l)| 
born near 1785, married Hannah' Gorton (Slade* Samuel* Samuel' 
Samuel' Samuel'). Samuel died before their daughter Roby married. 
Hannah married (2) David Shippee and had a daughter Mary. (See 
Hannah's line.) 

Children : 

1691. Charles Gorton, born about 1819, married Theodosia Spencer, of 

Rufas Gorton Spencer, 798. 

1692. RoBY Gorton, married (iyrus Arnold, son of Cyrus and Abby (\Varner) 

Arnold. They had a daughter who married a Mr. Cole and lived at 
Pawtuxet, R. L 

585. WILLIAM' GORTON (Hezekiah' Samuel* Samuel' SamT Sam- 
vitV), bom 1790, married and had 

Child : 

1693. Daniel Gorton, who died at Volutown, Conn. 

586. MARY' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel* Sam'l' SamT Sam'l'), 
bom August I, 1780, died May 31, 1834, married (i), in 1797, Daniel' 
Stone (Jabez* and Sarah (Taylor), William' John' Hugh'). Hugh. 
Stone was a settler of Warwick, R. I., in 1665. Daniel' Stone was born 
in 1773, and was killed by a fall from a building June 10, 1820. William* 
Stone's wife was Eleanor* Westcott (Jeremiah and Mary' (Warner), 


John and Ann' (Gorton), Samuel' Gorton). Mary* Gorton married 
(2) Spencer Shippee. 
Children : 

1694. Sarah Stone, married Shuman Baldwin. 

1695. Jabe2 Stone, born June 19, 1803, married Jelpha Adonis. 

1696. Aedilla Stone, born August 10, 1804, married Jacob De Mott, (2) 

Henry Taylor. 

1697. Benjamin Stone, born July 14, 1806, married Manila White. 

1698. Mary Stone, died in her fourth year. 

1699. James W. Stone, married Elizabeth Brown; had Mary, living Cedar 

Rapids, la. 

1700. Caroline Stone, married William Bunyea. 

1 70 1. Ambrose Stone, present address unknown. 

1702. Thankful Ann Stone, born April 8, 181 7, married William Budlong. 

1703. Daniel J. Stone, married Harriet E. Chase. 

587. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Benjamin' SamT Sam'l' SamT Sam- 
uel'), born June 17, 1782, died 1841, married, September 29, 1805, Mary 
Sprague, daughter of Caleb Sprague. 

Children : 

1704. Phebe Gorton, married, had a family. A Phebe Gorton married, at 

Warwick, Thomas Rhodes, March 2, 1828. This may have been 
Phebe" of Anthony' of Samuel* and wife, Phebe' Gorton of William.' 

1705. Hannah Gorton, living in Warwick 1883; had a family. 

1706. Lydia Gorton, married Mr. Davis; left a son Augustus, who was reared 

by a Mr. Matthews and bears his surname. 

588. CHARLES SLADE" GORTON (Benjamin' SamT Sam'l' SamT 
Samuel'), born January 24, 1784, died in Wisconsin in 1863. He mar- 
ried, February 13, 1805, Mary A. Taft, of East Greenwich, R. I., who 
died in December, 1838, at Talletown, Luzerne County, Pa. Charle.? 
Slade Gorton lived at Abington, then Luzerne, now Lackawanna County, 
Pa. He enlisted and served in War of 1812. Married (2) Mrs. 
Hawley, and went west with his wife and her daughter by a former 

Children : 

1707. LucRETiA Gorton, born May 3, 1809, married John Bailey. 

1708. Elizbeth H. Gorton, born May 19, 1812, married Henry James Wilbur. 

1709. RoxY Celia Gorton, born September i, 1813, married Charles C. Potter. 

1710. Mercy Ann Gorton, born May 2j, 1817, married Samuel Ruland. 

1711. James A. Gorton, born January 29, 1819, married Polly M. Whitney. 

1712. Gardner H. Gorton, married Mary Thompson, (2) Margaret Hunt. 

1713. Edward Gorton, married; had Mary, who married Mr. Morris and went 

to Oklahoma. 

1 714. Thankful Gorton, died at age of 25, unmarried. 

1715. Sophia Gorton, born 1826, married David Searles Davison. 

1716. Benjamin Gorton, born March 6, 1828, married Phebe Jane Leteer. 

1717. Celestia Gorton, married Stephen B. Hunt. 

1718. Charles Slade Gorton, Jr., married Nancy M. Sprague. 

1 719. Hannah Gorton, died in infancy. 

590. HANNAH' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel' Sam'l* Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), born April 15, 1787, married, April 26, 1810, Elisha Arnold, son 
of Nathan Arnold. They had seven children; we learn the names of 
but six. 

Children : 

1720. Nathan Arnold, born January 12, 1811. 

1721. Mercy Ann Arnold, born May 27, 1812. 

1722. Gorton Arnold, born November 12, 181 3. 

1723. Eliiza Arnold, born June 18, 1818, married a Mr. Arnold. 

1724. Charles Arnold, married Frances Trundell ; died s. p. 

1725. Mercy Ann Arnold, born November 16, 1828, married James R. Tanner, 

(2) Burroughs Gorton. 

591. SOPHIA' GORTON (Benj.' Samuer Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), 


born November 5, 1788, married (i) Palmer Tanner and had no chil- 
dren; (2) January 4, 1810, Pardon Sprague. They lived in Ohio. 
Children : 

1726. Pardon Sprague, lived to adult age; address unknown. 

1727- Sophia Sprague, lived to adult age; address unknown. 

1728. Celinda Sprague, married Jesse Wing, of Judah and Rebeckah. 

594. BARBARA FENNER' GORTON (Benj." Sam'l* Sam'l' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born April 13, 1794, died October 3, 1838, married, February 
2, 1823, Freeman Wing, son of Judah and Rebekah (Wing) Wing. 
Freeman was born in Sandwich, Mass., February 10, 1798, and died 
May 15, 1857. He married (2) Abbie Vaughan in 1846. 

Children : 

1729. Sophia Gorton Wing, born May 17, 1825, married Christopher R. 

Tanner, (2) Lowell Brown ; no children. 

1730. Barbara Freeman Wing, born December 28, 1833, died young. 

1 731. Benj. Freeman Wing, born April 30, 1838, married Mary M. French. 

595. SILAS CASEY" GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel* Samuel' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born April 7, 1796, died in Delaware, Ohio, June, 1841, mar- 
ried, April 21, 1825, Sophie Moore, who died in February, 1836, at her 
father's home near Brattleboro, Vt., and was buried on his farm. 

1732. Ira Moore Gorton, born May 29, 1826, married Clara G. Riddle. He 

died March 26, 1871, Columbus, O. ; no children. His widow married 
Judge West ; resided at Belfontain, O. 

1733. Eunice Sophia Gorton, born July 19, 1828, married Elliott B. Arm- 

strong; had Richard Gorton, who died in infancy. 

596. SAMUEL' GORTON (Benj.° SamT Sam'l' Sam'l= SamT), 
born January 22, 1798, married, June 3, 1821, Elizabeth Holmes Whit- 
marsh, of Walker and Charlotte (Pierce) Whitmarsh. They lived in 
Ohio after 1840. 


1734. Mercy Ann Gorton, born February 27, 1822, married Cornelius Talbot 

1735- Elizabeth Sophia Gorton, born January 27, 1824, married Alex Young. 

1736. George William Gorton, born February 4, 1826, married Almeda Ann 


1737. Hannah Maria Gorton, born November 4, 1827, married George Adams 


1738. Harriet Frances Gorton, born October 12, 1829, died August 23, 1842. 

1739. Ray Greene Gorton, born February 10, 1832, at Warwick, R. I. He 

served three years in Company F, First R. I. Cavalry ; re-enlisted and 
went to Alaska. 

1740. Clarinda R. Gorton, born December 10, 1833, died January 11, 1836. 

1741. Clarinda Robinson Gorton, born February i, 1836, died June 7, 1837. 

1742. Cynthia B. Gorton, born October 28, 1838, married John Bruce; res. 

100 Gallup street. Providence, R. I. 

1743. Samuel Harrison Gorton, born August 2, 1840. Served in Union 

Army, Civil War ; res. Soldiers' Home, Togus, Me. Unmarried. 

1744. Helen M. Gorton, born June 26, 1842, married Harry C. Littlefield, 

(2) Eliphalet Day. 319 Ohio avenue. Providence. 

597. BARTON WHITFORD* GORTON (Benj.' Samuel* Sam'l' Sam- 
uel' Samuel'), born May 21, 1799, died 1835, married, December 3, 1818, 
Mercy R. Stafford, daughter of John Stafford. She had a sister Barbara 
who married a Mr. Whitman and lived at Washington, R. I. 
Children : 

1745. Martha Gorton, born 1820, died unmarried. 

1746. Mary Gorton, born 1823, married Lyman Watson. They lived at Geof- 

giaville, R. L; had three children, one a girl died in 1863. 
1747' John Stafford Gorton, born August, 1829, married Roxanna Brand, 
(2) Almira (Piper) Tyler. Served in Union Army. 



598. PELEG' GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel' Sam'l' SamT SamT), 
born May 31, 1801, died June 27, 1878, married Margaret (Pegg}') 

Children : 

1748. William Gorton, married, lived Susquehanna Co., Pa. 

1749. George Gorton, died young. 

599. THOMAS' WICKES GORTON (Benj.' Samuel* Samuel' SamT 
Samuel'), born April 9, 1803, at Warwick, R. I., died December 15, 
1871, married, June 13, 1824, at Coventry, R. I., Elizabeth Carr, daugh- 
ter of James and Waity (Spink) Carr. She was born April 18, 1805, 
and died December 8, 1871. All of their children were born in Warwick. 
Children : 

1750. Son Gorton, born and died 1825. 

1751. James Wilbur Gorton, born March 4, 1826, died February 15, 1835. 

1752. Marcena Clark Gorton, born April 30, 1828, married Peleg Spencer. 

1753. Thomas Weeks Gorton, born January 24, 1831, married Mindwell M. 

Baker, (2) Everlina Kent. 

1754. James Wilbur Gorton, born April 22, 1835, married and had child 

who died. 

1755. Cranford Carr Gorton, born April 24, 1838. died January 2, 1845. 

1756. Martin VanBuren Gorton, born July 23, 1840, married Frances S. Wing. 

1757. Elizabeth C. Gorton, born December 10, 1842, married Aurelius J. 


1758. Edwin Alphonso Gorton, born March 14, 1845, died 1884. unmarried. 

600. RICHARD' GORTON (Benj.' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel' Sam- 
uel'), born June 29, 1805, married, December 29, 1825, Abbie Ann 
Arnold, daughter of Cyrus Arnold. 


1759. Charles Henry Gorton, born August 29, 1826. 

1760. Eliza Zerviah Gorton, born June 18, 1846, married William Freeman. 

601. ISAAC GORTON (Benj.' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), 
born May 20, 1807, died January 31, 1841, married Mary' Shippee, 
daughter of David and Hannah' (Gorton) Shippee (Slade' Samuel* 
Samuel' Samuef Samuel'). 

Children : 

1761. Thankful Gorton, died early. 

1762. George Anthony Gorton, married Julia Anthony. Res. 61 Waverly 

street. Providence. 

1763. Hannah Gorton, married Caleb West. Both deceased. 

602. EVERLINE' GORTON (Benjamin" Samuel* Sam'l' Sam'I' Sam- 
uel'), born March 25, 1809, died February 19, 1877, married George 
Hutchins, who died September 23, 1876, in his 76th year. 

Children : 

1764. Susan Ann Hutchins, married Mr. Walker. 

1765. Thankful G. Hutchins, married Mr. Swift or Sweet. 

1766. Tasin C. Hutchins. 

1767. Maria Hutchins, born 1833, married Burroughs' Gorton. 

1768. Thomas B. Hutchins. 

1769. Frederick A. Hutchins. 

1770. George S. Hutchins. 

605. JOB' GORTON (Slade° Samuel* Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), b. 

December, 1791, died , married Antha Matteson, daughter of Job 

and Lucy (Johnson) Matteson. 

Children : 

1771. George Gorton, born January 17, 1828, married Aurilla Sanborn. 

1772. Margaret Gorton, married Isaac Clarke, son of Dr. Clarke. Res. Prov. 
1773- Slade Gorton, born April 12, 1832, married Margaret Jordan, (2) 

Maria Jordan. 
1774. Mary Whitford Gorton, born November 21, 1833, married Caleb Sweet. 


1775- William Bowles Gorton, born January 30, 1836, married Belinda 

Potter. Res. Columbus, Ga. 
1776. Caroline Frances Gorton, married Josiah Andrews. Summit, R. I. 

606. ISRAEL' GORTON (Slade' Sam'l* Sairi'l' SamT SamT), born 
1799 in Coventry, R. I., and died there November 20, 1872. He married 
Mary Ann (Nancy) Whitford, who was a daughter of Weaver and 
Eliza Whitford, and who died November 29, 1871. 

Children : 

1777- Susan Maria Gorton, born September 20, 1828, married Abram Kenyon. 
1778. Casey Whitford Gorton, born October 11, 1829, married Mary Hall. 
1779- BuRRiLL Gorton, born April 5, 1832, died July 3, 1897, unmarried. 

1780. Luther Gorton, born November 9, 1836, married Caroline L. Andrews. 

1781. Silas Gorton, born 1850, married Melissa Brown. 

607. HANNAH' GORTON (Slade' Samuel* Samuel' Samuel' SamT), 
born 1801, died 1862, married (i) Samuel' Gorton, 584, son of Hezekiah* 
Gorton. Samuel died before the marriage of his daughter Roby. 
Hannah married (2) David Shippe. 

Children : 

1782. Charles Gorton, married Theodosia Spencer, great-granddaughter of 

Judge Othniel Gorton, 1691, 798. 

1783. RoBY Gorton, married Cyrus Arnold. See record 1692. 

1784. Mary Shippe, married Isaac* Gorton. Record 601. 

610. CATHARINE' GORTON (William" Samuel* Sam'l' Sam'P Sam- 
uel'), born September 16, 1786, married Moses Barlow, of Newport, 
R. I., (2) John Place. Issue by first marriage. Grandchildren are 
living at Newport. 

Children : 

1785. Charles Moses Barlow, married Eliza Moulton. 

1786. Con well Barlow, married Lucy Guilford. 

1787. Jamson Nickerson Barlow, married Dr. Theodore H. Sylvester. 

1788. Lewis Barlow, married Adelia Southwick. He is a boat builder at 

Newport, R. I. 

1789. Frederick Nickerson Barlow, married Mary E. Gardner. 

1790. Everlin Barlow, married George Kuhm ; had seven children. 

611. SARAH' GORTON (William' Samuel* Samuel' Sam'l' SamT), 
born March 27, 1788, married, March 6, 1806, Elijah Arnold, son of 
James and Freelove (Burlingame) Arnold. Warwick Records give 
his name as Elisha and the children as of Elisha and Sarah, but in the 
family records it is written Elijah. He was born March 7, 1769, and 
was a cousin to Elisha Arnold, who married Deacon Benjamin" Gorton's 
daughter, Hannah.* 

Children : 

1791. Freelove Burlingame Arnold, born January 15, 1807, at Warwick. 

1792. Welcome Arnold, born February 19, 1809, at Warwick. 

1793. Elijah Arnold, born February 21, 181 1, at Warwick. 

1794. Olives C. Gorton Arnold, born September 3, 1813, married Elizabeth 

M. (Greene) Inman, 3972. 

612. OLIVER' CROMWELL GORTON (Wm.' SamT Sam'l' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born April 18, 1790, died March 26, 1886, married Deborah 
Sweet, daughter of Samuel Sweet. She died November 26, 1882. (The 
Providence Daily Journal says : " Cinderella, wife of Oliver Gorton, 
died in Warwick, March 24, 1823." Was she his first wife? Children, 
Harriet and Oliver.) 

Children : 

1795. Eliza Gorton, born May 7, 1815, married William C. Greene. 

1796. Lewis Clark Gorton, born 181 7, married Adelaide M. Chappell ; have 

Addie M. and Lewis C. Res. Woonsocket, Greenwich. 


1797' Julia Ann Gorton, married James Sanderson, (2) Wheeler M. Bland- 
ing ; daughter Julia M. died in infancy. 

1798. William Whitford Gorton, born April 16, 1822, married Susanna 


1799. Sarah Rhoda Gorton, born January 23, 1824, married William O. 


1800. Hannah Amanda Gorton, married Rev. Robert Wilcox. 

1801. James Henry Gorton, married Mary Kingsley Vail. 

1802. Russell Wickes Gorton, died in infancy. 

622. OTHNIEL" GORTON (William' Benj.' Samuel' Samuel= Sam- 
uel'), born July 5, 1795, at Warwick, R. I., died March 19, 1872, at 
Gloversville, N. Y., married August i, 1819, Hannah Hartshorn, daugh- 
ter of Jacob and Lucy (Larcher) Hartshorn. Hannah was born May 
12, 1797, at Johnstown, N. Y., and died January 27, 1878, at Glovers- 
ville, N. Y. Her father, Jacob, served in the Revolution with Paul 
Jones. Othneil' Gorton served in the War of 1812, and assisted in 
preventing the British from landing at Stonington, Conn. 

Children : 

1803. Mary Hartshorn Gorton, born September 15, 1820, married Samuel 

1804. Albert Whitman Gorton, born September 23, 1825, married Mary 

Lyle Bates. 

1805. Charles Hartshorn Gorton, born February 14, 1831, married Julius 

M. Washburn. 

623. THEODOSIA' GORTON (William' Benj.' Samuel' SamT Sam- 
uel'), born July 5, 1795. at Warwick, R. I., died September 5, 1866. at 
Marthasville, Warren County, Mo., married Nathan Perkins, who died 
July, 1852, at Amherst, Mass. After her husband's death, about 1854, 
Thedosia left Amherst and took sons Benjamin and William with her 
to Warren County, Mo. 

Children : 

1806. Benjamin Perkins, born July 26, 1828, married Marie L. Striedelmever. 

1807. Nathan Perkins, married; died 1863 in U. S. Hospital. 

1808. William Perkins, died August 1, 1S56. unmarried. 

627. THOMAS' GORTON (William' Benjamin* Samuel' SamT Sam- 
uel') was a farmer in Vermont, 1856. He was married, but cannot learn 
his wife's name. 
Children : 

1809. Louise Gorton. 

1810. Mercy Ann Gorton. 

1811. Frances Gorton. 

1812. John Thomas Gorton. 

630. GEORGE BROWN' GORTON (John' Benj.' SamT Sam'r Sam- 
uel') , born April 20, 1788, died September 8, 1838, married, August 27, 
1809, Phebe Dexter, daughter of Nathan and Nancy (Warner) Dexter. 
She was born May 24, 1785, and died June 17, 1859. George Brown* 
Gorton enlisted in the War of 1812 from Middletboro, Vt. 

Children : 

1813. Edwin Gorton, born June 29, 1810, married Amey Ann Cook. 

1814. Hope B. Gorton, born January 10, 1812. died April 12, 1845, unmarried. 

1815. Phebe Gorton, born September 11, 1813, married Stephen Borden. 

1816. George Gorton, born February 11, 1817, married Jane Helen Ballou. 

1817. John Anthony Gorton, born July 25, 1819, married Emeline C. Toune. 

1818. James Gorton, born January 4. 1821. married Mary S- Jenckes. 

1819. Ch.\rles a. Gorton, born April 8, 1822, married Arethusa Aldrich. 

1820. Independence W. Gorton, born March 13, 1824, married Jane Helen 

(Ballou) Gorton. . , - ,-.,-• 

1821. Dexter Gorton, born September 18, 1827, married Susan Sheldon 

Arnold, (2) Mary Ann Gorton. „, t ,- 

1822. Mary Elizabeth Gorton, bom April 14, 1829, married James W. Joslin, 

(2) James C. Sloan. 


631. DANIEL' GORTON (John* Benjamin* Samuel' Sam'l' Sam'l'), 
born April 4, 1790, died January 24, 1875, in Lowell, Mass., married 
Lydia Pierce, daughter of Deacon Aaron (a cousin of President Frank- 
lin Pierce) and Hannah (Greenwood) Pierce, of Milbury, Mass. Dan- 
iel" Gorton served in the War of 1812, enlisting from Middlebury, Vt. 
He had a paper mill there about thirteen years and then went to Malone, 
Franklin County, N. Y., where he built a paper mill and ran it for ten 

Children : 

1823. Leander Gorton, born July 8, 1814, married Sarah Ann Dunn, (2) 

Sarah A. Wheeler. 

1824. Frederick Gorton, born March 15, 1816, married Emeline H. Holman, 

(2) Cynthia M. Roberts. 

1825. Francis Gorton, born December 13, 1817, married Martha A. Crosby. 

1826. Daniel Gorton, born May 26, 1819, died June 16, 1820. 

1827. Emeline Gorton, born September 18, 1820, married Fred W. Sergeant. 

1828. Lydia Pierce Gorton, born January 28, 1822, married Alphonso Brunei. 

1829. Julia Gorton, born April 8, 1824, died July, 1825. 

1830. Julia Gorton, born 1826 at Malone, N. Y., died March 2, 1844. 

1831. Hannah Greenwood Gorton, born January 22, 1828, married Frank 


1832. John Gorton, born 1830, died February 13, 1830. 

632. HOPE ANN' GORTON (John" Benj.* Samuel' Samuel' SamT), 

born January 20, 1792, died at Poland, Herkimer County, N. Y., 

married James Dexter, son of Nathan and Nancy (Warner) Dexter. 
He married (2) Avis Melissa" Gorton, sister of Hope Ann (Gorton) 
and widow of James Riley. 

Children : 

1833. Harriet Dexter, died young. 

1834. Edward Dexter, died at Poland, N. Y., unmarried. 

1835. William Dexter, married. Continued. 

1836. Avis Dexter, born July 5, 1825, married Oliver Gorton, 1845. 

633. JOHN ANTHONY' GORTON (John" Benjamin* Samuel' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born May 20, 1794, at Charlton, Mass., died May i, 1863, at 
Poland, N. Y., married in Lenox, Mass., Thankful Ingram, daughter 
of Gersham and Martha (Belden) Ingram, of Amherst, Mass. John 
Anthony' Gorton was an ax and scythe manufacturer. 

Children : 

1837. Harriet Gorton, married Isaac B. Allen 

1838. Martha Gorton, married Isaac B. Allen. Res. Forceston, 111. 

1839. Mary H. Gorton, died February 17, 1879, married William R. Williams. 

s. p. 

1840. George Clinton Gorton, born April 30, 1834, married Matilda Moon. 

1841. Elvisa Gorton, born January 31, 1832, married John H. Countryman. 

1842. Lucia M. Gorton, born December 16, 1837, married David P. Jarvis. 

Res. Poland, N. Y. s. p. 

634. SANFORD' GORTON (John" Benj." Samuel* Samuel= Samuel'), 
born April 15, 1796, in Charlton, Mass., died August i, 1833, in Charl- 
ton, Mass., married (i), in 1829, Roxana Wheelock, married- ^2) 
Martha Bracket, of Dudley, Mass. 


1843. Emily Gorton, married George Merriam, two children; (2) William 

Rice, four children. 

1844. Anderson Gorton, born 1819, married Eliza Scott, four daughters; (2) 

, New York. 

1845. Oliver Gorton, born October 25, 1821, married Avis Dexter, 1836. 

1846. Burroughs Gorton, born May 9, 1823, married Maria Hutchins, (2) 

Mercy Ann (Arnold) Tanner. 

1847. Abigail King Gorton, born July 20, 1826, married Winslow E. Beaman. 

1848. James Sanford Gorton, born November 16, 1831, married Laura Ann 


1849. John Henry Gorton, born April 23, 1833, died January 17, 1901, unm. 


63s. BENJ. BURROUGHS' GORTON (John= Benj/ Sam'l' Sam- 
uel' Samuel'), born March 10, 1798, died November 23, 1863, at Chagrin 
Falls, O., married Eluthera White, daughter of Elisha and Honor 
(Sumner) White, March 5, 1820. She was born July 29, 1799, at Wey- 
bridge, Vt., and died July 28, 1879, at Orange City, Fla. Their home 
was at Charlton, Mass., until in 1822 they moved to Ohio. 
Children : 

1850. William Benjamin Gorton, died in infancy. 

1 85 1. Helen Maria Gorton, died in infancy. 

1852. William Benjamin Gorton, born April i, 1825, married Frances L. 


1853. Helen Maria Gorton, born June 23, 1827, married Dennis Freeman. 

1854. Roderick White Gorton, born August 23, 1829, died 1883, married 

Josephine Aramenia (Earl) Phelps. Res. Orange City, Fla. 

1855. Jane Elizabeth Gorton, born June 9, 1831, married James M. Hathaway. 

1856. Ann a. Gorton, born July 19, 1833', married Cyprian Downer, d. s. p. 

1857. Laura Amanda Gorton, born August 21, 1835, married Albert L. Jenks. 

1858. Avis Melissa Gorton, born 1842, died 1867, married Hugh M. Gillespie, 

a famous artist. Res. Warren, O. Avis M., only child, died unmarried. 

Samuel' Samuel'), born June 10, 1801, at Charlton, Mass., died Decem- 
ber 22, 1873, at Providence, R. I., married at Roxbury, Mass., Maria 
Haynes, daughter of John Haynes. Mr. Gorton was for many ears 
proprietor of the Chestnut Street House, then one of the leading hotels 
of Philadelphia. 

Children : 

1859. John Haynes Gorton, born February 28, 1827, unmarried. Res. San 

Francisco, Cal. 
i860. George Gorton, born 1828, unmarried. Res. Newton Center, Mass. 

638. AVIS MELISSA* GORTON (John" Benj.' Sam'l' Sam'l"' Sam- 
uel'), born about January 20, 1803, died February 9, 1844, at Poland, 
N. Y., married (i), July 10, 1823, James Riley, who was born about 
1790 and died November 6, 1829, at Roxbury, Mass., (2) James Dexter, 
son of Nathan and Nancy (Warner) Dexter and widower of her sister 

Children : 

1861. Avis M. Riley, born 1824, married last to Mr. Smith. She died, left 


1862. James Whipple Riley, born 1826, died 1831, Roxbury. 

1863. Edwin Henry Riley, born November 21, 1828, married Harriet M. 


1864. Addison Ware Riley, born 1829, died November 13, 1831. 

1865. Agnes Riley, married Mr. Marshall. Son Frank, Palermo, N. Y. 

639. MASON" GORTON (Joseph' Benj." Samuef Samuel' Samuel'), 
born June 6, 1800, died July 16, 1879, married Sarah Nichols Whitford, 
daughter of Ezekiel and Sarah (Nichols) Whitford. She was born 
August 2, 1804, and died August 15, 1846. 

Children : 

1866. Cordelia M. Gorton, born August 23, 1826, married Job Harrington. 

1867. Harriet E. Gorton, born July 21, 1828, died November, 1849, unmarried. 

1868. Mary B. Gorton, born March 19, 1840, married Charles M. Matteson. 

1869. Henry Gorton, born March 17, 1842; unmarried. R. I. Vols. Civil War. 

1870. Sarah M. Gorton, born November 10, 1843, married Oliver S. Matteson. 

1871. Erastus Gorton, born 1845, in Union Army went south. 

641. MARY" GORTON (Joseph' Benj." Samuel' Samuel' Samuel'), 
bom November 18, 1803, at Rehobeth, Mass., died June, 1888, married 
Ezekiel Johnson Whitford, of Ezekiel and Sarah (Nichols) Whitford. 
In 1882 Mary was in Washington Village, Coventry, R. I. 


Children : 

1872. Wilbur G. Whitford, born January 24, 1829, died December i, 1849. 

1873. Susan E. Whitford, born April 4, 1836, married George L. Card. 

642. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Joseph' Benj.* Samuer Samuel' Sam- 
uel'), born June 30, 1803, at Coventry, R. I., died May 12, 1865, at 
Coventry, married Hannah* Reynolds, daughter of Simon and Elizabeth 
(Pearce) Reynolds. She was born May 24, 1806. 
Children : 

1874. Albert Gorton, born November 10, 1829, married Mary Mitchell. 

1875. Samuel Potter Gorton, born June 8, 1831, married Mary E. Johnson. 

1876. Elihu Gorton, born March, 1833, married Susan Corpe, (2) Ellen 


1877. Phebe Gorton, born June 5, 1835, married Ezra Greene; p. 

1878. Reynolds Gorton, born June 13, 1842, married Almira Stone. 

648. AMOS HALE' GORTON (Amos' Benj.* Samuel' Samuel' Sam- 
uel'), born February 6, 1803, at Providence, R. I., died September 9, 
1889, at Essex, Vt., married Mahala Remington, daughter of Jeremiah 
and Mary. They lived in Huntington, Vt., until 1858 and then in Essex. 
Mahala's grandfather, Joshua, served in the Revolutionary War. She 
died March 23, 1891, at Essex. 

Children : 

1879. Andrew Gorton, born July 24, 1831, died September 29, 1847. 

1880. Hosea M. Gorton, born August zj,, 1835, died in U. S. Army. 

1 88 1. Ezra B. Gorton, born January 2^, 1833, married Inez Atkins. 

1882. Philemon Gorton, born August 25, 1837, died January, 1841. 

1883. Mary M. Gorton, born October 19, 1843, married Capt. Lyman Williams. 

1884. Martha M. Gokton, born November 11. 1845. Estherville, Iowa. 

1885. Henry Hale Gorton, born January 19, 1848, resided Wallace, Mo.; 

graduate of the University of Vermont. 

649. NANCY' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin^ SamT Sam'l' Sam'l\), 
born March 4, 1805, at Providence, R. I., married Caleb Eddy, cousin 
to Ozro, who married her sister, Susan. They lived in Starksboro, Vt. 
Children : 

1886. Amos Eddy, married and living in Vermont. 

1887. Sylva Eddy, died . 

1888. Avis Eddy, died 

1889. Nancy Eddy, died . 

1890. William Eddy, married and living at Hanksville, Vt. 

1891. Celose Eddy, married and living in Vermont. 

1892. JoRVAL Eddy, married and living in Vermont. 

1893. Mahala Eddy, died . 

1894. Marilla Eddy, married and living in Vermont. 

1895. Lousina Eddy, married and living in Vermont. 

651. ASA* GORTON (Amos' Benjamin' Sam'l' SamT SamT), born 
October 17, 1808, died 1890, married Electa Gilmore, who was born 
1813 and died October 3, 1872. Asa went to Danby, Vt., when a small 

Children : 

1896. Daniel Gorton, married Pherona Granger. 

1897. Margaret Gorton, died May 10, 1843, aged 4 years. 

1898. Royal E. Gorton ; son Walter A., at Huntington Centre, Vt. 

1899. Ada Gorton, born 1856, died March 20, 1863. 

652. OLIVER' GORTON (Amos" Benjamin* Sam'l' Sam'P Sam'l'), 
born September 20, 1810, at Danby, Vt., died November 12, 1886, 
married, December 26, 1841, Mary Granger, who was born at Bush, Pa. 
They lived at Huntington, Vt., where all their children were born. 
Children : 

1900. Amos Oliver Gorton, born August 18, 1844, married Hortense Derby. 


1901. Whipple William Gorton, born August 9, 1847, unmarried; resided 

Pataloma, Cal. 

1902. Guy S. Gopton, born April 17, 1849, married Clara E. Dearborn. 
J903. Nicholas B. Gorton, born November 22, 1851, died 1893, unmarried. 

1904. Marion Theodora Gorton, born October 13, 1853, died January, 1863. 

1905. Alice Louisa Gorton, born 1854, unmarried. Dover St., Boston. 

1906. Eva Estella Gorton, born 1857. 166 Huntington ave., Boston. 

653. HOSEA" GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Samuef Saml" SamT), 
born October i, 1812, at South Wallingford, Vt., died at Monkton, Vt., 
at the age of 75, married Marilla Dewey. 

Children : 

1907. Prilla Gorton, living in Wiconsin. 

1908. Mary Ette Gorton, living in Kansas. 
J 909. Harriet Gorton, living in Vermont. 

1 910. Henry Gorton, now deceased. 

654. ESTHER WARNER' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born December 19, 1814, at South Wallingford, Vt., died 
November 8, 1890, married Willard Baker, son of Peter and Hannah 
(Millard) Baker. 

Children : 

1911. Oliver Gorton Baker, born August 18, 1837, married Eugenia S. 


1912. Sidney Baker, died in infancy. 

1913. George Sidney Baker, born 1843, killed Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 

1914. Sylvia Baker, died in infancy. 

1915. Ellen Baker, born September 8, 1852, died December 6, 1862. 

655. HARRIET PRISCILLA* GORTON (Amos' Bcnj.* Sam'l' SamT 
Samuel'), born January 18, 1816, at South Wallingford, Vt., died August 
2, 1842, married, October, 17, 1841, Ira Phillips, son of Charles and 
Sally (Weller) Phillips, of Tinmouth, Vt. He was born May 12, 1802, 
and died January 9, 1879. This was Ira's second marriage. He was 
married a third time to Mary Hulett and had a daughter, Ina, who 
married Frederick M.' Gorton (Benjamin* Amos' Benjamin* Samuel* 
Samuel' Samuel'). 

Child : 

1916. Harriet Phillips, born August 9, 1842, married John Ames. 

656. JOHN WHIPPLE" GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l' Sam'P 
Samuel'), born January 4, 1818, at South Wallingford, Vt., died Octo- 
ber 30, 1851, married, December 24, 1846, Rosanna Andrews, who was 
born December 2^, 1823. She was a daughter of Bradford and Hannah 
(Eugrem) Andrews and a sister of his brother Benjamin's wife. 
Children : 

191 7. Deliner Elisha Gorton, born September 20, 1849, married Fannie. 


657. AVIS ALMA' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l' SamT Sam- 
uel'), born December 17, 1820, at South Wallingford, Vt., died July 
18, 1841, married, 1839, Leonard Aldrich. 

Children : 

1918. George M. Gorton, born 1841. Avis Alma was living with her parents 

at the time George was born, and, as his father failed to claim him 
until he was large enough to care for himself, he refused to take the 
name of Aldrich or go with his father. He enlisted in the Union 
Army in the Civil War and was wounded at Gettysburg. 

658. RHODA JANE* GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l* Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), born January 29, 1823, at South Wallingford, Vt., married Allen 
Conger, who died May 8, 1898, at Oxford, Wis. He was the son of 


Noah and Hannah (Griffith) Conger. Rhoda and Allen went to Wis- 
consin in 1856. 
Children : 

19 19. Henry A. Conger, married Mary Allen. 

1920. Rhoda Jane Conger, married Eli McNutt. 

1 92 1. David N. Conger, died October 4, 1890, unmarried. 

1922. Elnor Conger, born 1863, died September 7, 1864. 

1923. Lincoln Conger, married Eade Cord. 

659. SUSAN MARILLA' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born at South Wallingford, Vt., January 2y, 1826, died 
December 25, 1864, married, December, 1840, Ozro Eddy, son of Alden 
and Hannah (Kelly) Eddy and cousin to Caleb, who married Susan's 
sister, Nancy. He was born January 18, 1821. 


1924. Rhodolphus Eddy, born August 9, 1843, married Hannah White. 

1925. Mary A. Eddy, born July 26, 1850, married Barney Ferry. 

1926. Ann Jenette Eddy, born June 26, 1854, married Charles A. Spafford. 

1927. Arthur Carroll Eddy, born November 17, 1859, married Viola L. 


660. SARAH CLARINDA' GORTON (Amos' Benj.* Sam'l' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born August 6, 1828, at South Wallingford, Vt., married (i), 
January 31, 1843, William S. Warner, son of Saxton and Elizabeth 
(Graves) Warner. He was born May 13, 1822, at Wallingford, Vt., 
and died May 4, 1891, at Middlebury, Vt. ; (2) January 17, 1893, James 
Metcalf, born February, 1817, at Keene, N. H., died November 29, 
1896, at Pottersville, N. Y., where Sarah C. is now living. 

1928. Sarah Warner, born April 15, 1844, died March, 1846. 

1929. Elizabeth Warner, born June 22, 1846, died 1896, married Ralph 

Hawkins, (2) Horace Hoyt. 

1930. Harriet Warner, born October 4, 1848, married John P. Willey. 

1931. William S. Warner, born August 22, 1850, married Martha Nichols. 

Johnson, Vt. 

1932. Sarah Clarinda Warner, born November 24, 1851, married William 
Shufelt. Richmond, Vt. 

1933. Dwight Warner, born November 24, 1853, married Lucy May. Ches- 

tertown, N. Y. 

1934. Frank Warner, born September 22, 1855, married Salonie . Rich- 

ford, Vt. 

1935. George L. Warner, born December 2, 1859, married Esther Whipple. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

1936. Mercy A. Warner, born September i, 1861, married Edwin Chilson. 

Wallingford, Vt. 
1937- Julia Warner, born March 22, 1863, married Edw. Pike. Derry, N. H. 

1938. Ella Warner, born at Horicon, N. Y., res. Adirondack, N. Y. 

661. ALICE' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin' Samuel' Sam'l' Samuel'), 
born July 15, 1830, at South Wallingford, Vt., died May 22, 1880, at 
Sunbury, Vt., married, December 31, 1848, Leland Brockway, son of 
Brooks and Bulah (Piatt) Brockway. This Brooks was an artillery- 
man in the War of 1812. Leland was born August 28, 1823, and died 
November 8, 1900, at Hubbardston, Vt. 


1939. Alice M. Brockw.^y, born August 25, 1851, married Edward B. Wells. 

662. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Amos' Benjamin* Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), bom January 27, 1833, at South Wallingford, Vt., married, Jan- 
uary I, 1856, Cynthia Andrews, sister of Rosana and daughter of 
Bradford and Hannah (Engrem) Andrews. Cynthia was born July 
7, 1835, and died July i, 1886. 



Children : 

1940. Frank Mortimer Gorton, born June 27, 1857, married Ina Phillips. 

1941. Fred Bradford Gorton, born October 14, 1859, died November 14, 

1875, unmarried. 

1942. Fitch Amos Gorton, bom February 23, 1863, married Etta E. Baker. 

1943. Minnie Cynthia Gorton, born February 25, 1865 ; graduate Normal. 

No. Clarendon. 

1944. Fannie Maria Gorton, born October 20, 1868, married Charles Abbott. 

Both graduates of Normal ; res. Walpole, N. H. 

1945. Bertha May Gorton, born October 23, 1873; graduate of Normal. 

1946. Hannah Rhoda Gorton, born May 30, 1877, died October, 1877. 

1947. Anna Rhoda Gorton, born June 26, 1880, at South WalHngford, Vt. 

663. HANNAH MARIA' GORTON (Hail' Benjamin* Sam'f Sam'l' 
Samuel'), born March 22, 1812, died July 26, 1893, married Nathaniel 
Millard, son of Charles and Hannah Millard. He was born December 
17, 1812, and died September 22, 1878. 
Child : 

1948. Edwin Millard, born December, 1842, married Mary S. Sherman. 

654. HOPE B.' GORTON (Hail' Benjamin' Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam'l^), 
born July 19, 181 5, at Warwick, R. I., on the old Samuel Gorton place, 
married, 1829, Albert G. Franklin, who was born October 11, 181 1, and 
died 1851. She is living at Warwick Neck, R. I. 
Children : 

1949. Hope Ann Franklin, born October 3, 1834, married Raymond Knight. 

1950. Caroline Amelia Franklin, born 1837, married William Cody. 

1951. Albert G. Franklin, born September 18, 1840, unmarried 1888. 

1952. Ellen M. Franklin, born September 29, 1842, married James Crumly. 
1953- George Washington Franklin, born 1844, married Mary J. Dudley. 

1954. Benjamin Franklin, born November 4, 1846, married Ellen Horton. 

1955. Thomas Jefferson Franklin, born December 10, 1848, married Mary E. 


1956. Gorton A. Franklin, born Sept. 20, 1851, married; no children 1898. 

665. HAIL" GORTON (Hail' Benjamin* Samuel' Samuel^ Samuel'), 
born 1818, died July 7, 1848, married, March 20, 1841, Ann Frances 

Phillips, daughter of and Lucy Phillips. 

Children : 

1957. Isabel M. Gorton, born 1842, married Charles Peckham ; Springfield, 

Mass. ; 6 children. 

1958. LucRETiA Gorton, born 1843, married William Westgate. 

1959. William H. Gorton, born 1846, married Mary H. Wayles. 

667. SALLY' GORTON (Hezekiah' Joseph* SamT Sam'P Samuel'), 
born November 4, 1782, married Isaac Morse. 

Children : 

i960. Jedediah Morse, probably died unmarried. 

1961. Mary Morse, probably died unmarried. 

668. POLLY" GORTON (Hezekiah' Joseph* Samuel' Samuel' Sam'l*), 
born September 7, 1784, died 1858, married Willard Joslin, son of 

Benjamin and (Hoard) Joslin and grandson of Gideon. He was 

born 1780, in Broadalbin and died in 1868. They lived near Rome, 
N. Y. 

Children : 

1962. Willard Joslin, born August 15, 1812, married Susanna Williams. 

1963. Elizabeth Ann Joslin, born November 6. 1814, married Plina Abbott. 

1964. Sarah Joslin, born July 13, 1817, married Charles S. Humeston. 

1965. Susan Joslin, born 1819, married George Joslin. 

1966. Charles Brockway Joslin, born 1822, married Susan Stephens. 

1967. Hezekiah Joslin, born March 4, 1824, married Mary Paddock; res. 

Detroit, Mich. 

1968. Philanthropsy Gorton Joslin, born July 31, 1826, married Mary G. 



669. JOSEPH" GORTON (Hezekiah* Joseph* Sam'l' SamT SamT), 
born June 20, 1786, at Broadalbin, N. Y., died September 11, 1820, at 
Franklinton or Dublin, near Columbus, O., married Rachel Guitches, 
who was born February 2, 1785, and died March 19, 1877. They settled 
in Franklin County, Ohio, near Columbus. In 1810 they went to 
Children : 

1969. Catharine Gorton, born August 22, 1810, married George Davis. 

1970. Harriet A. Gorton, born February 20, 1820, married Anson Davis. 

1971. Elizabeth Gorton, burned to death in childhood. 

1972. Nancy Gorton, married Fletcher Sells. 

672. HEZEKIAH' GORTON (Hezekiah" Joseph* Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), born December 2, 1793, at Broadalbin, N. Y., died June 2, 1882, 
at Loveland, Colo., married, June 4, 18 16, Alpha Capron, daughter of 
Laban and Joanna (Adams) Capron. Alpha was born April 19, 1795, 
in Luzerne County, Pa., and died at Marion, Ohio. In 1818 Colonel 
Hezekiah Gorton located in Columbus, O. In 1821 he moved to Marion, 
O., and the next year was elected First Auditor of the county. In 
1836 he was elected to the State Senate, where he served two years 
with ability and credit. In 1874 he went to Colorado to live with his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. J. J. Boyd, and died there. 

Children : 

1973. Philander Capron Gorton, born April 13, 1817, married Catbraine 


1974. Olive Marietta Gorton, born May 11, 1819, married Dr. John Cole 

1975- Joseph Wheaton Gorton, born January 17, 1822, married Elizabeth 

1976. Adaline Nancy Gorton, born September 19, 1824, married John Ault. 

1977. Susan Elizabeth Gorton, born January 24, 1827, married Dr. John 

Cole Norton. 

1978. Barton Hezekiah Gorton, born July 17, 1829, married Mary E. Frary. 

1979. Mary Catharine Gorton, born January i, 1833, married Hiram Ault. 

1980. John Wallis Gorton, born April 28, 1835, married Annetta McWherter. 

1981. Evelina Gill Gorton, born February 22, 1838, married Joseph J. Boyd. 

673. PHILANTHROPHUS ROOT' GORTON (Hezekiah' Jos.' Sam.' 
Samuel' Samuel'), born at Broadalbin, N. Y., April 25, 1796, married 
Betsey Moore, daughter of James and Judith Moore, of Lisbon, Conn. 
He was a graduate of Hamilton College, a lawyer. Lived, before going 
to Ohio, in Casenovia, N. Y. Died March i, 1864, at Granville, O. 
His property, amounting to about seventeen thousand dollars, he left 
to the Baptist College at Granville. No children. 

674. LYDIA' GORTON (Hezekiah' Joseph* Samuel' Sam'l' SamT), 
born July 23, 1798, married Peleg Havens. They lived on a farm near 
Wales, near Buffalo, N. Y. 


1982. Edwin Gorton Havens, married Miner\'a Ticnor. 

1983. Susan A. Havens, married Henry Webster. 

1984. Sarah Jelane Havens, married Adolphus Appelius. 

1985. Ada Ann Havens, married Cyrus Rogers ; had Morris, Willie, Nettie, 


1986. Gaylord B. Havens, married Sarah E. Edmonds. 

675. NANCY' GORTON (Hezekiah' Joseph* Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), 
born December 30, 1803, married, May 5, 1832, Peter Moray. He lived 
at Adrian, Mich., and was a lawyer. At one time he was State Prose- 
cuting Attorney. Nancy spent the last years of her life, after the death 
of her husband, at the home of her brother-in-law, Charles Brockway, 
somewhere in the west. 




1987. Altheen E. Moray, born May 31, 1833, married Charles C. Brockway. 

1988. EuDORA Leoline Moray, died young. 

1989. Clarence Linden Moray, died young. 

1990. Eldora Celesta Moray, married George Kingsley, (2) Ebenezer B. 


1991. Julian Linden Moray, born January 2, 1842, died in Civil War. 

1992. Clarence Gorton Moray, born Dec. 2"], 1847, married Alice Warfield. 

676. ASA" GORTON (Hezekiah= Joseph* Samuef SamueF Samuef), 
born 1804, died 1851, at Marion, O., married, November 27, 1824, Har- 
riet Sherman, daughter of Peleg and Hannah (Willett) Sherman. She 
was born January 29, 1806, and died September 12, 1868, at Mt. 
Vernon, Mo. 

Children : 

1993. Aryanette Gorton, born 1826, died in infancy. 

1994. Susan E. Gorton, born 1828, married Americas W. Page. 

1995. P. Sherman Gorton, born May 14, 1830, married Margaret McWhorter. 

1996. Hezekiah B. Gorton, born October 10, 1832, died January 14, 1888. 

1997. Elizabeth W. Gorton, born June 6, 1836, married Lindley M. Andrews. 

677. MARY' GORTON (David' Joseph' Sam'l' Sam'f SamT), born 
1790, at Warwick, R. I., died September 10, 1843, ^t Orangeville, N. Y., 
married Philip White, son of Peter and Jemima White. They in 1812 
moved on a farm in Seneca County, N. Y. 

Children : 

1998. Peter White, born 181 1, married Aurilla Bedle. 

1999. Elsie Ann White, born December 29, 1813, married Ancil Rogers. 

2000. David Gorton White, married Maria Covell. 

2001. Tunis White, born January 29, 1817, married Lydia L. Johnson. 

2002. Betsey White, died unmarried. 

2003. Jemima White, born February 11, 1821, married Seth B. Covell. 

2004. John White, married Mary Standih. 

2005. Clark Reynolds White, born July 6, 1827, married Sabra B. Tome. 

2006. Philip White, born 1830, married Mary R. Thornton. 

2007. Fernando Floyd White, born June 10, 1832, married Mary Jane Covell. 

678. JOSEPH' GORTON (David= Joseph' SamT SamT SamT), bom 
November 7, 1792, at Warwick, R. I., died December, 1872, at Friend- 
ship, N. Y., married, January 5, 1814, at Fondasbush, N. Y., Phebe 
Baxter, daughter of John and Dorcas (Whitlock) Baxter. Phebe was 
born October 5, 1795, at North Salem, Westchester County, N. Y., and 
died March 19, 1869, at Friendship, N. Y. They lived in Friendship, 
Fulton County, N. Y. Joseph's grandfather, Joseph, gave him for his 
name 100 acres of land in Vermont, on or near the spot where Benning- 
ton now stands, which he sold for a few hundred dollars. Joseph was 
in the War of 1812 under Colonel Brockway, and was a cooper by 
trade. John Baxter, Phebe's father, was born September 24, 1760, died 
November 28, 1841, married, January 4, 1787, Dorcas Whetlock, who 
was born June 4, 1766, and died April 25, 1837. John was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary War. 

Children : 

2008. Alpha Ann Gorton, born November 16, 1814, died August 8, 1815. 

2009. Sarah H. Gorton, born March 16, 1816, died April 4, 1816. 

2010. Harriet Ann Gorton, born September 17, 181 7, married Levi Horner. 

201 1. Sheridan Gorton, born December 21, 1819, married Abigail Norton. 

2012. Joseph Gorton, born October 12, 1821, died February 16, 1822. 

2013. Fanny Gorton, born January 12, 1824, married Abel T. Reynolds. 

2014. Orpha E. Gorton, born April 25, 1826, married Samuel E. Latta. 

2015. Phebe F. Gorton, born May 30, 1828, married John C. Colwell. 

2016. Susan M. Gorton, born July 9, 1830, married Robert E. Middaugh. 

2017. Henry Barton Gorton, born December 2^, 1832, married Flora Horner. 

2018. JosEPHUS Gorton, born February 21, 1835, married Ellen L. Church. 

2019. Erastus Gorton, born February 4, 1837, died March 3, 1837. 

2020. Thaddeus Hezekiah Gorton, born March 5, 1839, died January, 1848. 


679. HANNAH W." GORTON (David' Joseph* Sam'I' Sam'l' SamT), 
born July 7, 1795, at Warwick, R. I., died March 11, 1849, at Broad- 
albin, N. Y., married, 1814, William Hoswell, son of Nathaniel and 
Ruth (Peckham) Hoswell. William was born January 15, 1787, in 
Rhode Island and died Rugust 11, 1863, at Broadalbin, N. Y. 

2021. Almira Hoswei.l, born May 5, 181 7, married Abram Fonda. 

2022. Malinda Hoswell, born September, 18 1 8, married Willis Wright. 

2023. Susan A. Hoswell, born November i, 1821, died June 13, 1857. 

2024. Elsie May Hoswell, born May 14, 1823, married Peter Demorast. 

2025. Hannah W. Hoswell, born March 20, 1826, married Godfrey Shultz. 

2026. Sarah Hoswell, born 1829, married John Standing. 

2027. Nathaniel John Hoswell, born August 4, 1831, married Lydia Barton. 

2028. William Hoswell, born 1837, died in Union Army. 

680. GEORGE W." GORTON (David' Joseph' Sam'l' Sam'l' SamT), 
born at Mayfield, N. Y., died at the age of 37 at Rome, N. Y., married 
Betsey Burr, and lived at Rome, N. Y. 


2029. Fannie Mariah Gorton, married William H. Nettleton. 

681. SUSANNA BARTON* GORTON (David" Joseph* SamT Sam'P 
Samuel'), born May 12, 1799, at Mayfield, N. Y.. married (i), June 20, 
181 5, Henry W.* Baxter, son of John' and Dorcas (Whitlock) Baxter 
(Pettit' John'). He was born October 13, 1793, at Broadalbin, N. Y., 
and died at Patriot, Ind. Married (2), 1823, Ransom Jason Greene, 
son of Honorable John Greene, of James of John Robert Greene, of 
Coventry, R. I.; (3) Bradford B. West. No children by last marriage. 
She died at Pawtucket, R. I., January 13, 1865. 


2030. Jonathan W. Baxter, born November 12, 181 6, married Eliza Huston. 
:203i. George Wilbur Greene, born January 16, 1824, married Louisa Arnold. 
2032. Frances Maria Greene, born January 24, 1825, married John Newell. 
^033. Amanda Malvina Greene, born May 14, 1827, married John Houston. 
^034. Amansoe Jason Greene, born October 5, 1828, married Maria A. 

2035. Cyrus O. S. Greene, born April 19. 1833. died December 24, 1878. 
^036. Julia Ann Emeline Greene, born January 2, 1835, married Henry 


682. JOHN" GORTON (David' Joseph' Sam'l' SamT SamT), born 
April 19, 1801, at Mayfield, N. Y., died March i, 1892, at Flushing, 
Mich., married (i), January 24, 1826, at Rome, N. Y., Johanna Sheldon, 
daughter of John and Nancy (Hyser) Sheldon. She was born February 
29, 1804, at Rome, N. Y., and died September 4, 1847, in Mayfield, N. Y. 
Married (2), October 12, 1848, Abigail (Easterly) Rumsey, who died 
1849; (3) January 16, 1851, Lydia (Hammond) Robinson, daughter 
of Ira and Willampy (Vanners) Hammond and widow of William 
Robinson. John Gorton moved to Flushing, Mich., in 1866. Lydia is 
living there. 

Children : • tt c • u 

2037. Emmalissa Gorton, born November 6, 1826, married John H. Smith. 

2038. Susan Gorton, born July 10, 1828, married Joshua W. Ripley. 

2039. Mary Catharine Gorton, born October 5, 1829, married John Van 

Vranken. . 

2040. Nancy Jane Gorton, born March 19, 1831, died m infancy. 

2041. David Allyn Gorton, born November zj, 1832, married Maria Graham. 

2042. Charlotte C. Gorton, born April 20. 1834, married Isaac A. Rosa. 

2043. George Washington Gorton, born April 20, 1836, died in infancy. 

2044. Henry Sheldon Gorton, born May 4, 1837, married Frances Richmond. 

2045. George Ansel Gorton, born 1841, died in infancy. 

2046. Frances Rosanna Gorton, born March 25, 1845, married Eleazer B. 



2047. Charles Brockway Gorton, born August zy, 1847, died in Civil War. 

2048. Abigail Gorton, born June 26, 1849, died June 26, 1849. 

2049. Eugene A. Gorton, born June 26, 1849 ; a photographer in Dakota. 

2050. Meloin Gorton, born 1852, died in infancy. 

2051. Ladora Gorton, born October 31, 1854, married William Pittinger. 

2052. Almira Gorton, born January 23, 1857, married E. B. Braman. 

2053. John M. Gorton, born June 20, 1859, married Lizzie Baldwin. 

2054. Ira H. Gorton, born October 21, 1861, married Jennie McGuyre. 

2055. Dillon M. Gorton, born April 24, 1864, married Susan McCartney. 

2056. Minnie L. Gorton, born April 13, 1869, died April 18, 1870. 

683. SILAS CASEY' GORTON (David' Jos.' SamT SamT SamT), 
bom 1803 at Mayfield, N. Y., died May, 1837, married (i) Diadamie 
Meade, of Mayfield, N. Y. ; (2) March 17, 1832, Lucy Steel, daughter 
of Reuben and Sallie Steel, who died July i, 1847. 

Children : 

2057. Philip Gorton, born October 25, 1828, married Sarah Stoddard. 

2058. Silas Casey Gorton, born 1830, married Eliza J. Satterlee. 

2059. Abigail E. Gorton, born 1831, married Harvard Hubbard. 

2060. Maria Gorton, born July 17, 1833, died 1833. 

2061. Sarah Elizabeth Gorton, born March 15, 1835, married Edw. Satterlee. 

684. RACHEL' GORTON (David" Joseph* Samuel' Samuel^ SamT), 
born December 14, 1805. at Mayfield, N. Y., died November 10, 1893, 
at Bloomfield, Conn., married, 1845, Wilson A. Gillett, of Bloomfield, 


2062. Elmira Gillett, died at age of 20 years. 

2063. Willie Bloomer Gillett, died at age of 15. 

685. PHEBE SALFEAR' GORTON (David' Jos.* Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam- 
uel'), born July i, 181 1, at Mayfield, N. Y., died September 19, 1856, at 
Mt. Pleasant, Mich., married John Robinson, son of Dr. Edward and 
Martha (Capron) Robinson. He married (2) Mary Innman, had five 
children, and died May 22, i86q, leaving- his widow at Mt. Pleasant, 
Mich., where she was still residing in 1903. 

Children : 

2064. Santha a. Robinson, born August 18, 1831, died September 15, 1831. 

2065. Peter Robinson, born July 21, 1832, died September i, 1837. 

2066. Edward J. Robinson, born September 13, 1834, married Mary Franks. 

2067. Elizabeth E. Robinson, born October 4, 1836, married Henry Smith. 

2068. Martha R. Robinson, born March 28, 1838, married Carl Spitz. 

2069. Daniel W. Robinson, born February 18, 1840, married Mary J. Pouch. 

2070. David Gorton Robinson, born December 13, 1842, married Margarette 


2071. Elsey Ann Robinson, born October 25, 1844, married Jacob Oberlin. 

2072. Rachel A. Robinson, born February 1845, died February 6, 1847. 

2073. Eleab W. E. Robinson, born January 7, 1847, died June 5, 1847. 

2074. Permelia Robinson, born October 18, 1849, married Dean Newcomb. 

685. HEZEKIAH' GORTON (David' Joseph* Sam'l' Sam'l' Sam'l'), 
born 1814, at Mayfield, N. Y., died February 11, 1851, married, October 
31, 1838, Sally Ann Edmonds, who died August 19, 1899, at Tonawanda, 

N. Y. 

Children : 

2075. Elizabeth Elsey Gorton, born July 25, 1840, married Ezra H. Horton. 

2076. Oscar Hezekiah Gorton, born May 30, 1842, married Laura Hollister. 

2077. WiLLARD Addison Gorton, born March 23, 1844, married Mary E. Hale. 

2078. Cynthia Adelia Gorton, born January 6, 1847, married Joseph Thorpe. 

2079. James A. Gorton, born September 21, 1850, died September 28, 1851. 

588. BETSEY EMELINE' GORTON (David' Jos.* Saml' Saml' Sam- 
uel'), born January 21, 1818, in Mayfield, N. Y., married (i), May 21, 
1841, at Broadalbin, N. Y., James Brovm, son of Moses and Eliza 


(Frisbie) Brown, of Bloomfield, Conn. He was born 1801 and died 
October 17, 1865. Married (2), August 29, 1892, William Henry, of 
Burlington, Hartford County, Conn. She is living at Hartford. 
Children : 

2080. Susan Elmira Brown, born March 3, 1842, married Samuel Smith. 

Res. Burlington, Conn. 

2081. James M. Brown, born May 20, 1843, married Carrie B. Hayden. 

2082. Levi Brown, born January 2, 1845,, Bloomfield, Conn. 

2083. H. Francena Brown, born 1847, died March 28, 1853. 

2084. Sylvester K. Brown, born December 29, 1848, married Sarah Osborn, 

of Hartford, Conn. 

2085. Ellen Rosella Brown, born September 2, 1851, died October 21, 1884. 

2086. Alice E. Brown, born June 25, 1853, married John Peck. W. Simsbury. 

2087. George Eugene Brown, born October 19, 1855; living Burlington, Conn. 

2088. Minnie F. Brown, born June 28, i860, married Charles A Bunnell. 

Plainfield, Conn. 

689. JOHN* WATERMAN (Wm.' Marcy' Susanna' Sam'P SamT), 
born 1769, died May 26, 1857, married Phebe Weaver, who died Octo- 
ber 20, 1849. aged 78. 

2089. Sarah Waterman, born 1790, died December 8. 1862, unmarried. 

2090. Emma Waterman, born 1792, married Roy Allen. 

2091. Mary Waterman, born November 12, 1801, married Gov. Wm. Sprague. 

2092. Phebe Waterman, born 1804, died March 27, 1876, unmarried. 

694. MARCr WATERMAN (William' Marcy' Susanna' Sam.= Sam- 
uer), born at Warwick, October 13. 1780, married Captain James 
Greene, son of James and Desire (Slocum) Greene, of East Greenwich. 
James was first married to Rebecca Pittman, daughter of Saunders and 
Mary (Kinnecut) Pittman, born March 11, 1763, died July 7, 1806, the 
grandmother of Honorable Henr\' Bowen Anthony, United States Sen- 
ator. Captain James died October 14, 1825; Marcy died February 28, 
185 1. (See John" Gideon° John* Mary' Susanna' Samuel'.) 
Children : 

2093. Rebecca Greene. 

2094. Susan Greene, born 181 5, died aged 17 years. 

697. JOHN WATERMAN' TIBBITTS (Marcy' Marcy* Sus.' Sam'l' 
Samuel'), married, July 26, 1790, Sukey Greene' Cook, born May 24, 
1770, daughter of Hopkins" and Anne (Arnold) Cook, of East Green- 
wich (932. Patience' John' John' Samuel' Gorton). He was a physi- 
Children : 

2095. Charles Norris Tibbitts, born August 28, 1792, married Sarah Wil- 


2096. John Cook Tibbitts, born August 6, 1794, married Catharine Wilson. 

2097. Anna Tibbitts, born August i, 1796, died November 2, 1879. unmarried. 

2098. Henry Tibbitts, born October 4, 1801, married Harriet King. 

2099. Mary Hopkins Tibbitts, born Sept. 29, 1805, married Josiah Westcott. 

2100. Daniel Tibbitts, born November, 1807, died December, 1807. 

700. BENJAMIN* TIBBITTS (Marcy' Marcy* Sus.' SamT SamT), 
born 1780, married Almy Arnold, daughter of Captain William Arnold, 
of Warwick. He died May 8, 1864. 

Children : 

2101. Mary Tibbits, born December 5, 1807, died January 7, 1809. 

2102. Ruth Burket Tibbits, born August 11, 1808, married Thomas Marble. 

2103. Almira Tibbits, born February 26, 181 1, died October 22,, 1885. 

2104. Susan Almy Tibbitts, born April 10. 1818, died February 2z, 1897- 

2105. Daniel Tibbitts, born January 15, 1821, married Mary A. Kelley. 

2106. Benjamin W. Tibbitts, born July 12, 1827. Apponang, Warwick. 


706. SILAS' CLAPP (Ann= Mercy* Susanna' Sam'l' Sam'l"), born 
August 29, 1776, married Sylvania Andrews. He died October 8, 1858. 
Children : 

2107. Ray Clapp, married Anne E. Cleveland; had George, Thomas, Elizabeth, 

Elma, Anna, Sarah ; res. Providence. 

2108. Greene Clapp, married Juliet Fletcher; had Matilda, William, Eleanor, 

Mary, Sarah ; res. Providence. 

2109. Ira Clapp, married Margaret Brown, of Fall River, Mass. 

21 10. Phebe Clapp, married George Jenks ; had Louis and Mary E. ; res. 


21 1 1. Elizabeth Clapp, died at age of i6. 

21 12. Mary Clapp, married William H. Dyer, of Providence. 

708. JOHN GORTON' CLAPP (Ann* Mercy* Sus.' Samuel' Samuel'), 
born August 8, 1780, married Catharine Godfrey. He died November 

21, 1862. They lived in Abington, Conn. 
Children : 

21 13. Mary A. Clapp, married John Lyon, widower of Almira. 

21 14. Almira Clapp, married John Lyon; sons Godfrey and Hawthorne. 

21 15. Sarah Clapp, unmarried. 

21 16. Andry Clapp, unmarried. 

2117. Godfrey Clapp, unmarried. 

21 18. Nehemiah R. Clapp, married Eliza Aldrich. 

2119. John W. Clapp, married Olive Holt. 

709. THOMAS' CLAPP (Ann° Mercy' Susanna' SamT Samuel'), born 
March 26, 1782, died October 7, 1828, married Hannah Smith, who died 
August 15, 1857. 

Children : 

2120. James H. Clapp, married Ruth A. Coggershall, of Warwick. 

2121. Susan A. Clapp, married William M. Brown, of Crompton, R. L; had 

William, Emma, Edwin. 

712. WATERMAN' CLAPP (Ann' Mercy* Susanna' Samuel' Sam'l'), 
born April 18, 1788, married Eliza Woodward, born 1794, died March 

22, 1826, in Providence. He died August 6, 1884, on the homestead 
farm where he had lived, near the village of Crompton, in Warwick. 
His two unmarried daughters make this their home. They have in 
their possession a quilted petticoat that belonged to their great-great- 
grandmother, Susanna Gorton Stafford, with her initials on it ; another 
that belonged to their grandmother, Anne Waterman, with her initials 
and date 1770 thereon, and a silver Tankard marked John and Mercy 

Children : 

2122. John Clapp, born 1819, died September 4, 1870, unmarried.^ 

2123. Mercy Stafford Waterman Clapp, born July 12, 1821. Crompton. 

2124. Anne Audry Waterman Clapp, born July 24, 1823, married Stephen 

Tiffany, of Jewett City, Conn. 

2125. Mary Magdaline Greene Clapp, born June 5, 1825. Crompton. 

728. BENJAMIN' MERRITT (Nehemiah' Dinah* Sarah' Maher' Sam- 
uel'), born June 21, 1779, died July 4, 1854, married, October 3, 1800, 
at Kingsbury, Washington County, N. Y., Thankful Scott, daughter 
of Matthew and Mercy (Ashley) Scott. He was a merchant at Troy, 
White Creek and New York City, N. Y. Died at Cleveland, O.; buried 
at Oakland cemetery, Troy. He had eleven children; we can obtam 
the names of but four of them. 

Children : 

2126. Cornelia Merritt. 

2127. Mary Merritt. 

2128. Julia Merritt. 

2129. George Merritt, born August 4, 1807, married Julia Douglass. 


746. ZILPAH' KNIGHT (Mercy' Israel* Othniel' John' Sam.'), born 
ried Nicholas Sheldon, son of Nicholas and Penelope (Congdon) Shel- 
don. He was born 1732 in Cranston, R. I., and died there in 1828. 
Children : 

2130. Nicholas Sheldon, married Phebe Potter. 

2131. Robert Sheldon, married Mary Harris. 

2132. Mary Sheldon, born 1780, died 1801, married Gorton^ Arnold. 

747. ROBERT' KNIGHT (Mercy' Israel* Othniel' John' Samuer). b. 
June 12, 1750, died July 31, 1823, married, November "12, 1768 Elizabeth 
Hammond, daughter of Amos — a Captain in the French and lidian War. 
1755-1756— son of William Hammond and Mary^ Whipple (Jonathan' 
John' of Providence). Elizabeth Hammond was born May 6, 1750, 
and died August 24, 1845. Robert Knight served in Captain Gent's 
Cavaliers at the battle of Rhode Island 1778. 

Children : 

2133. Rebecca Knight, born November 4, 1769, married Cyrus Potter. 

2134. Lavina Knight, born December 8, 1770, married John Greene. 

2135. Nehemiah Knight, born April 13, 1774, married Lornhamah Burton. 

2136. Elizabeth Knight, born September 15, 1778, died April 19, 1795, unm. 

2137. Stephen Knight, born May 13, 1780, married Esther Burton. 

2138. Robert Knight, born May 22, 1782, married Sophia Sheldon. 

2139. Amelia Knight, born January i, 1784, married Stephen Burlingame. 

2140. Celia Knight, born May 27, 1786, married Rev. Moses Fifield. 

2141. Amos Knight, born July 24, 1788, died April 12, 1806, unmarried. 

2142. Annah Knight, born March i, 1790, married Samuel Burlingame. 

2143. Thomas Knight, born April 13, 1792, married Betsey Fenner. 

748. MARY' KNIGHT (Mercy" Israel* Othniel' John' SamT), married 
William* Greene (Job° Fones* James" James' John'). William had a 
brother Stephen who married Sarah Chase (Mary' Gorton, John* 
Othniel* John' Samuel'), and brother John who married Lovina' Knight 
(Robert* Mercy' Israel* Othniel' John' Samuel'). 

Children : 

2144. Daniel Greene, died young. 

2145. Sallie Greene, married James Matterson. 

2146. Catharine Greene, married James Matterson. 

2147. Joseph Greene, married ; had Sabin, who had Mary, Norwalk, O. 

2148. Polly Greene, died young. 

2149. Will Greene, married; daughters Mrs. Wilbur, Mrs. Ed. Anthony. 

2150. Mary Greene, married, 1814, Silas Mattison. 

749. FREELOVE* KNIGHT (Mercy' Israel* Othniel' John' Sam.'), b. 
1765, married, July 21, 1783, in Cranston, R. I., William Potter. A 
William Potter son of Caleb, of Cranston, married, March 26, 1778, 
Mary' Gorton (Benjamin" Samuel* SamueP John' Samuel'). The fol- 
lowing are Potter 

Children : 

21 51. Amey Potter, born 1793, married Olney King. 

2152. Elizabeth Potter, born 1794, married Corey Matteson. 

2153. Phebe Potter, born 1794, married Thomas B. Bowen. 

2154. William F. Potter, born 1795. married Phebe Whitford. 

2155. Sarah Ann Potter, born 1803, married January 2, 1823. 

2156. Nathan A. Potter. 

2157. Mary Potter, born 1803, married, December 25, 1823, Abel Lindell. 

2158. ZiLPHA Potter, born 1806, married, May 14, 1826, James M. Wood. 

750. ANNIE* KNIGHT (Mercy' Israel* Othniel' John' SamT), born 
1760, died 1833, married, December 27, 1781, Joseph* Potter (Thomas* 
and Esther (Sheldon), John* John' John' Robert'). Joseph was bom 
August 12, 1757, at Cranston, R. I., and died November 23, 1824. Annie 
Knight belonged also to the sixth generation of Robert' Poter on her 
grandmother Knight's side. 


Children : 

2159. Philadelphia Potter, born November 27, 1782, married John Dorlon. 

2160. Paraclete Potter, born October 3, 1784, married Clarissa Badger. 

2161. Joseph Potter, born March 17, 1787, married Mary Wilkinson. 

2162. Robert Knight Potter, born April 11, 1791, married Sarah Pine. 

2163. Sheldon Potter, born April 19, 1784, married Sarah Raymond. 

2164. Beekman Potter, born May 11, 1794, died April i, 1812. 

2165. Egbert Benson Potter, born May 21, 1797, died September 26, 1801. 

2166. Alonzo Potter, born July 10, 1800, married Sarah M. Not. 

2167. Horatio Potter, born February 9, 1802, married Mary J. Tomlinson. 

751. JOB' MANCHESTER (Freelove' Israel' Othnief John' SamT), 

born July 3, 1742, at Cranston, R. I., married, November 3, 1763, Hannah 

Potter, born December 9, 1744, daughter of John Potter, Jr., of Scituate. 

I i Children : 
' 2168. Freelove Manchester, married Jabez Stone. 

2169. Matthew Manchester, married Sarah Stone. 

2170. Job Manchester. 

765. WILLIAM" MANCHESTER (Freelove= Israel' 0th.' Jno.' Sam- 

, i uel'), born March 24, 1763, died September 24, 1813, married, September 

' I5> 1785, Hepza Dana, daughter of Alexander Sampson Dana. The 

bodies of Captain Matthew and Freelove were removed from Cranston 

\'[ and those of William and Hepza from Roxbury to the Fenner lot in 

' Swan Point cemetery, Providence, by Joseph F. Fenner in 1821. 

Children : 

2171. Harriet Dana Manchester, married Joseph F. Fenner; children. 

2172. Godfrey Manchester, married Elizabeth Simmons. 

770. ISRAEL" GORTON (Israel' Israel' Othniel' John' Samuel'). He 
1 was married, but we cannot learn of his wife and but one child. 

'f Child: 

2173. Othniel Gorton, born 1786, married Abigail Mcintosh. 

771. PARDON" GORTON (Israel" Israel' Othnief John' Sam.'), mar. 
Margaret . 

Children : 

2175. Waitie Gorton, married David Nicholas. 

2176. Phebe Gorton, born 1775, married Darius Potter. 

2177. Obadiah Gorton, married Nancy , (2) Lucinda Johnson. 

2178. Jeremiah Gorton, has son, Albert S., living in San Francisco, Cal. 

i 772. MARCY" GORTON (Israel' Israel' Othniel' Jno.' SamT), born 
i 1765, died June 28, 1813, married Rufus Dyer, son of John and Roby 

(Randall) Dyer. He was born 1764. died June 11, 1815. Lived in 


Children : 

2179. Sarah Dyer, born May 7. 1791. died 1868, married Thomas Smith. 

2180. George Dyer, died December 22, 1826. 

2181. Andrew Dyer, born February 27, i793. died November 11, 1808. 

2182. RoBY Ann Dyer, born February 16, 1806, died September 27, 1810. 

773. THOMAS' GORTON (Israel' Israel' Othnief John' SamT), b. 
1765, died 1814, at Cranston, R. I., married Penelope Knight, daughter 
of Nehemiah' and Eleanor (Hudson) Knight. Nehemiah was the son 

of Jeremiah' and Penelope ( ) Knght. A son, Nehemiah Rice 

Knight, was Governor and United States Senator (Austin's Ancestral 
Dictionary). Penelope Knight was born September 12, 1768, and died 
October 31, 1836. Thomas* Gorton is not mentioned in his father's will, 
but is in a partition deed, dated April 10, 1807. 


Children : 

2183. Caroline Gorton, born July 8, 1795, married Nathan Pearce. 

2184. Jeremiah Knight Gorton, born January, 1800, married Mary Arnold. 

2185. Eliza Gorton, born July 14, 1805, Cranston, died unmarried. 

778. CYRUS' GORTON (Israel' Israel* Othniel' John' Samuel'), born 
April, 1778, at Cranston, R. I., died 1835 at Millbury, Mass., married 
Nancy Mcintosh, daughter of Colonel William and Mary (Lockwood) 
Mcintosh. Cyrus, the youngest of twelve children, when he left home 
was given three thousand dollars by his father, with which he purchased 
a farm at Pomfret, Conn. His wife was from Millbury, Mass. She 
died in Pomfret, but may have been taken to Millbury for burial, for 
after her death Cyrus went to Millbury to live with his son. Job, who 
moved there at about that time. 
Children : 

2186. Job Gorton, bom October 17, 1803, married Lucinda Johnson. 

2187. Esther Gorton, died unmarried. 

2188. Cyrenus Gorton, died 1866, married. 

2189. Lorenzo Dow Gorton, born March 13, 1810, married Mary A. Nichols. 

2190. Cyrus Gorton, born at Pomfret, Conn., married Charlotte Tyler. 

781. MERCY" CHASE (Mary° John' OthnieP John' Sam.'), born May 
7, 1751, died January 26, 1843, married, January 7, 1776, John Weeden, 
of Jamestown, R. I. He was born August 12, 1735, and died December 
2, 1795. Mercy was the third wife of John Weeden. 
Children : 

2191. George Weeden, born November 19, 1776, in Warwick. 

2192. John Weeden, born August 29, 1779, in Warwick. 

2193. Sarah Weeden, born September 17, 1781, died May 7, 1782. 

2194. Wagner Weeden, born June 5, 1783, married Sally Hull. 

2195. Peleg Weeden, born August 2, 1786, married Elizabeth Congdon. 

2196. Arnold Weeden, born probably in Jamestown. 

2197. Lucy Ann Weeden, born July 8, 1790. 

2198. William A. Weeden, born December 25, 1793, married Catherine H.* 

Gorton, 993. 

782. SARAH'' CHASE (Mary' Jolm* Othniel' John= Samuel'), born 
March 20, 1755, died November 27, 1828, at Centreville, R. I., married, 
May 5, 1 781, Stephen Greene, son of Job and Marcy° (Greene) Greene 
(William* Peter' John' John' Greene). Stephen was a brother of Wil- 
liam", who married Mary Knight (Mercy' Israel' Othniel' John" Sam- 
uel'). He was bom January 9, 1757, at Coventry, and died September 
5, 1829, at Plainfield, Conn. He was a farmer in Coventry, but sold 
his farm and moved to Centreville. He is said to have been a soldier 
in the Revolutionary War. He died at the home of his son near Plain- 
field. Sarah is buried in the James Greene burying ground in Centre- 
ville. Their children were all born in Coventry. 

Children : 

2199. Seneca Greene, born November 14, 1782, married Nancy Peake. 

2200. Hannah Greene, born August 29, 1784, died March 5, 1807. 

2201. Jeremiah Greene, born November 28, 1785, married Ann Smith. 

2202. Lucia Greene, born April 8, 1787, died June 8, 1854. 

2203. Gorton Greene, born October 14, 1788, died January 19, 1815, unm. 

2204. Pauline Greene, born January 29, 1790, died February 17, 1807. 

2205. Freelove Greene, born November 7, 1791, died March 26, 1839. 

2206. Mary Greene, born April 28, 1793, married Wm. McFarland ; died s.p. 

2207. Abraham Greene, born February 10, 1795, died May 7, 1803. 

2208. Amey Greene, born November 14, 1796, died November 2z, 1839, unra. 

2209. Sally Ann Greene, born March 25, 1800, died February 23, 1879, unm. 

784. LOWRY' CHASE (Mary' John* Othniel' John= Samuel'), born 
November 23, 1759, married, April 2, 1780, Mary Wightman, daughter 


of Elisha and Sybil (Salisbury) Wightman. All children were born 
in Warwick. 
Children : 

2210. Cynthia Chase, born February 13, 1781, married Thomas Snell. 

221 1. Phebe Chase, bom July 11, 1783. 

2212. Russell Chase, born June 12, 1786, married Philadelphia Greene. 

2213. Gorton Chase, born May 23, 1789, married Freelove Potter. 

2214. Wanton Chase, born April 3, 1791. 

2215. Maria Chase, born March i, 1794- 

2216. Charlotte Chase, born May 21, 1798. 

791. ELIZABETH' PEIRCE (Caleb' Frances' Othnief John' Sam'l*), 
married at Warwick, December 22, 1775, Giles Peirce, son of Thomas, 
of East Greenwich. Name also spelled Pearce. 

Children : 

2217. Eliza Peirce, born April 14, 1776, married Wm. Casey, Easton, N. Y. 

2218. Susan Peirce, bom May 10, 1778, married Powers Wickes. 

2219. Margaret Peirce, born November 19, 1783, in East Greenwich. 

2220. Hannah Peirce, born December 13, 1786, in East Greenwich. 

2221. Caleb Gorton Peirce, born May 18, 1789, in East Greenwich. 

2222. Mary Peirce, born April 14, 1794, in East Greenwich. 

792. MARV HOPKINS (Zilpha' Othniel* OthnieP John= Sam.'), born 
August 15, 1760, died April 15, 1803, married, September 7, 1781, George 
Arnold, son of James Arnold, Sr. George was born October 12, 1754, 
at Warwick, R. I., and died March 22, 1829, at Stephentown, N. Y. 
He served as Aid-de-camp to George Washington ; lived in Greenwich, 
R. I., and had charge of the County House there for years. 

Children : 

2223. Gorton Arnold, born January 25, 1783, married Mary' Sheldon. 

2224. Benjamin Arnold, born November 10, 1784. married Sallie Tabor. 

2225. Zilpha Arnold, born February 25, 1786, married David Taylor. 

2226. Simon Arnold, born October 4. 1787. married Polly Whitman. 

2227. Joseph H. Arnold, born February 17, 1789, married Susannah Gardner. 

2228. Wate Arnold, born September 12, 1790, married Burton Briggs. 

2229. Freelove Arnold, born April 16, 1792, married Peleg R. Thomas. 

2230. Mary Arnold, born May 13, i793. married Daniel Whitman. 

2231. Phebe Arnold, born April 2, i795, married Claudius Moffit. 

2232. George A. Arnold, born November 19, 1796, married De Ball. 

2233. Aylsey Arnold, born October, 1799, married Job Reynolds, Mesopo- 

tomia, O. 

2234. Elizabeth Arnold, born October, 1799, married Ford, Mesopo- 

tomia, O. r- • n* t^ .. i 

2235. Elijah Arnold, born March s, 1801, married Eunice M. Babcock. 

2236. Minerva Arnold, born April 12, 1803, married Deacon Smith. 

793. OTHNIEL GORTON* WIGHTMAN (Marcy' Oth.* Oth' John' 
Samuel'), born 1764, died November 18, 1806, married, November 4, 
1790, Sarah Arnold, daughter of Oliver and Mary Almy' (Greene)^ 
Arnold (Samuel* and Sarah (Coggershall) Greene, Samuel' and Mary 
(Gorton) Greene). In the burial ground on the Russell Vaughan farm 
the gravestone reads: "Captain Othniel Gorton Wightman, died No- 
vember 18, 1806, in the 43rd year of his age." Many of his descendants 
spell their name Whitman. 

Children : ■ , c-. 1 , ^iv t 

2237. Almy M. Wightman, born October 30, 1793. married Stuckley WiCKes. 

2238. Othneil Gorton Wightman, born December 17, i797. married. 

2239. Philip Wightman, born October 19- i799- 

2240. Oliver Arnold Wightman, born June 13, 1801. 

2241. Benjamin Arnold Wightman. „ , .. . t 00 

2242. Ann Catharine Page Wightman, born 1806, died January 24, 1885. 

794. MARY' WIGHTMAN (Marcy' Othniel* Othnicf John' Samuel'), 
married, June 27, 1790, Jonathan Nichols, son of Benjamin and Phebe 


(Weaver) Nichols. Jonathan lived in Wickford, R. I., and married 
(2) Mary's widowed sister, Theodosia. 
Children : 

2243. John Nickols. 

2244. Benjamin Nickols. He was a doctor. 

2245. Gorton Nickols. 

2246. " Can'tkemember " Nickols. 

2247. Mercy Nickols. married. 

2248. Phebe Nickols, married. 

2249. Marie Nickols, married ; last that lived on farm. 

795. THEODOSIA' WIGHTMAN (Marcy' OthnieK Oth.' Johir Sam- 
uel'), born January 20, 1780, died October 28, 1845, married (i), 1798, 
Daniel Remington, born November 19, 1779, died June 30, 1815, in 
Coventry, R. I., (2) Jonathan Nickol, son of Benjamin and Phebe 
(Weaver) Nickol and widower of her sister, Mary. No children by 
the second marriage. 
Children ; 

2250. Henry R. Remington, born Feb. 25, 1799, married Amy Culver. 

2251. Mercy Ann Remington, born April 27, 1801, married Andrew Arnold. 

2252. Gilbert Remington, born October 4, 1804, died young. 

2253. Gilbert Remington, born November 30, 1806, died Dec. 28, 1845 

2254. Mary Gorton Remington, born Dec. 20, 1808, married Rev. Thos Tew. 

2255. Thomas E. Remington, born October 17, 1811, married Mary Streight. 

2256. John Remington, born May 20, 1814, married Lydia Arnold. 

797. ELIZABETH' WIGHTMAX (Marcy° Othniel' Oth.= John= Sam- 
uel'), born March 4, 1782, died May 16, 1842, married George Taft, 
who died July 10, 1849, at age of 59 years, 4 months and 22 days. 
Children : 

2257. Thomas Holden Taft, born April 17, 1812, died December 29, 1855. 

2258. George J. Taft, married. 

793. RUFUS GORTON" SPEXXER (Mary' Othniel' 0th.' John' Sam- 
uel'), born May 6, 1773, died February 19, 1834, married, January 24, 
1799, Barbara' Wickes, daughter of Stuckley" and Welthian (Allen) 
Wickes (Benjamin* Ann' Maher^ Samuel'). Barbara's brother, Stuck- 
ley', married Almy M.' Wightman (Othniel' Mary" Othniel* Othniel* 
John^ Samuel'). Barbara was born 1775, died November 18, 1831. 
The gravestones on the Russell Vaughan farm read : " In memory of 
Barbary, wife of Rufus G. Spencer, who died November 8, 1831, aged 
56 ; ' Dearest mother, thou hast left us.' " " In memory of Rufus G. 
Spencer, who died February 19, 1834, aged 62; 'My children dear 
assemble here a fathers grave to see, etc' " 
Children : 

2259. Christopher Spencer, born 1801, married Elizabeth Rowland. 

2260. Gorton Spencer, born 1804, married Sarah Ann Tanner. 

2261. Elizabeth H. Spencer, married Mr. Brown. 

2262. Theodora Spencer, b. Sept. zy, 1808, m. May 29, 1843, Charles Gorton 

1691, 1782. 

2263. Amanda Spencer, died young. 

2264. Polly Spencer, married Clark Cornell who died 1831. 

2265. Barbara Spencer, married Mr. Shipper. 

799. HOLDEN" RHODES. JR. (Mary' Ann* Sam'f John' Sam'l'). b. 
at Warwick, September 22, 1750, died February i, 1809, married, March 
12, 1769, Susanna Wall, born 1750, died March 16, 1806, daughter of 
John and Patience (Pierce) Wall. They lived at Warwick. 

Children : 

2266. Mary Rhodes, born March 21, 1769, diced Sept. 10, 1845, unmarried. 

2267. Holden Rhodes, born June 10 1771 married February 4, 1808, Sarah 


2268. Annie Rhodes, born March 8, 1774, married Samuel Briggs. 


2269. IssAc Rhodes, born May 22, 1771, died May 1800. 

2270. Daniel R. Rhodes, born June 4, 1782, married Polly Bailey. 

2271. Zachariah Rhodes, born May 20, 1784, lost at sea 1815. 

2272. Wanton Rhodes, born May 22, 1786, died September 30 1800. 

22T2,- Samuel Rhodes, born September 28, 1788, married Betsey Bailey, 
he died 1822. 

2274. Perry Rhodes, born March 25, 1792, lost at sea 1815. 

802. TAMES" JERAULD (Freelove^ Edward* Samuel' John' Sam'l'), 
born February 2, 1746, died April 21, 1827, married (i), January i, 
1769, Mary Rice, daughter of Henry Rice, who died January 6, 1798, 
(2) Mrs. Crandall. He was for many years Town Clerk of Warwick 
and County Treasurer and Auditor. (History East Greenwich, by 
D. H. Greene, M. D., 1877.) Dr. James Jerauld, a cousin of the above 
James, married Susannah* Greene (Samuel' William* Mary' Benjamin' 
Samuel* Gorton). 

Children : 

2275. Henrietta Jerauld, born March 20, 1770, married John Arnold. 

2276. Elizabeth Jerauld, born October 2, 1771, married Wm. Havens, Jr., 

Apponaug, R. I, 

2277. Dutee Jerauld, born September 29, 1773, died June 1796, 

2278. Martha Jerauld, born August 18, 1775, 

2279. James Jerauld, born September 21, 1778, married Eleanor Andrews. 

2280. Freelove Jerauld, born October 6, 1780, married Stuckley • Wood. 

2281. Henry R. Jerauld, born March 24, 1783, married Mary Buck. 

2282. Stephen Jerauld, born June 4, 1785, married Elizabeth Arnold. 

2283. Thomas Jerauld, born November 27, 1787, died September 26, 1790. 

2284. Mary Jerauld, born December i, 1790. 

2285. Susanna Jerauld, born November 24, 1792. 

803. DUTEE" JERAULD, JR. (Freelove" Edward' Sam.' Johir Sam- 
uel'), born January 7, 1748, married, 1772, Almy Niles, who died 1808. 
Dutee was ist Lieutenant in Captain Dyer's Company, February, 1776; 
was 2d Lieutenant in Captain Tew's Company. Colonel Hutchinson's 
Regiment, October, 1776; enlisted January i, 1777, in Captain William 
Potter's Company, 2d Rhode Island Battalion, Colonel Israel Angell, 
was promoted to Lieutenant and Captain; served through the Revolu- 
tionary War. (State Archives, Vols. 2, 3, 4. Colonial Records, Vols. 
8, 9. R. I. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, Vol. 3. Smith's Civil and Military 
Lists of Rhode Island.) He was lost on a voyage to the West Indies. 
His family moved to Shaftsbury and then to Bennington, Vt., about 

Children : 

2286. Dutee Jerauld, died young. 

2287. Niles Jerauld, born June 22, 1774. married Nancy Thayer. 

2288. Austin Jerauld, born December 9, 1780, died 1840, unmarried. 

2289. Martha D. Jerauld, born November 27, 1783, married Christopher 


2290. Tabitha Jerauld, born July. 1785, married Sardons Denslow. 

804. FREELOVE" T.ERAULD (Freelove' Edwd.* Sam.' John' Sam.'), 
born January 22, 1750, died October 4, 1823, married, January 9, 1772, 
Caleb Rice, son of Major Henry, who died May 13, 1821. He was a 
farmer in West Greenwich. 

Children : 

2291. Diana Rice, born January 13. i774. married Randall Carder. 

2292. Susan S. Rice, born May 6, 1776, died May 6, 1780. 

2293. Martha Rice, born January i, 1778, died January 5, 1862, unmarried. 

2294. Dutee Rice, born December 22, i779- 

2295. Ann Rice, born December 20, 1780, died January 14, 1836. unmarried. 

2296. Mahala Rice, born May 16, 1784. died May 15, 1858, unmarried. 

2297. John Rice, born March 13, 1788, died 1871, in Va. 

2298. Betsy Rice, born 1790, died March 7, 1837. unmarried. 

2299. Thomas Rice, born 1793, had son James M. 


805. GORTON' JERAULD (Freelove^ Edwd.* SamueP John' SamT), 
born February 22, 1752, died July 5, 1822, in Princeton, "ind., married 
(i), December 18, 1774, Elizabeth Stafford, daughter of Captain John 
Stafford, who was born June i, 1753, and died February i, 1775; (2) 
February 22, 1778, Phebe Rice, daughter of Henry Rice, who was bom 
October 14, 1757. Gorton was a physician (History of East Greenwich, 
by D. H. Greene, 1877), and served as a surgeon in the Revolutionary 
War in the First Battalion of the Rliode Island Militia. 

Children : 

2300. Henry Jerauld, born March 18, 1779, married Lucy Arnold. 

2301. John Jerauld, Jborn July z-], 1780, married Nancy Wescott. 

2302. Edward Gorton Jerauld, born March 11, 1782, married Sophia Baker. 

2303. Sylvester Jerauld, born November, 15, 1783, died April 1803. 

2304. Elizabeth Jerauld, born September 21, 1786, married Weeden Under- 

^305- Candace Jerauld, born April 26, 1790, married Gordon Bingham. 

2306. William Jerauld, born July 4, 1793, married Adah Bucklin. 

2307. Phebe Ann Jerauld, born October 29, 1797, married Charles Harrington. 

2308. Duty Jekaild, born October 9, 1799, married Ruth Ann Waters. 

2309. Sylvester Tiffany Jerauld, born January 29, 1804, married Irena 


806. HANNAH" JERAULD (Freelove" Edward' Sani'f John' SamT), 
born December 21, 1753, died November, 1801, married. December 22, 
1776, Samuel E. Pearce, Jr., son of Samuel* and Esther (Wiley) Pearce 
(John* Daniel* John' Pearce). He was born 1752 and died December 
7, 1827. He was a farmer on Prudence Island. 

Children : 

2310. Sarah Pearce, born August 2, 1778, died in Tolland Co. Conn. 

2311. Samuel Pearce, born 1779, died young. 

2312. John Wiley Pearce, born 1781, lost at set 1823. 

2313. William Pearce, born 1782, married Amy Maxwell. Tolland, Conn. 

2314. Jerauld Pearce, born 1784, died on coast of Africa 1837. 

2315. Ann p. Pearce, born November 2, 1786, married Solomon Townsend. 

2316. Dutee Pearce, born April 2, 1789, married Abigail Coggershall Perry. 

807. MARTHA" JERAULD (Freelove° Edward* Sam'l' John' SamT), 
born January 31, 1756, married, October 10, 1779, Thomas Pearce, son 
of Samuel Pearce, of Tolland, Conn. 

Children : 

2317. Caleb Pearce. 

2318. William Pearce. 

808. SARAH" JERAULD (Freelove' Edward* SamT John' SamT), 
born April 15, 1758, died September 20, 1797, married, January 29, 
1775, Samuel Millard, son of Nathaniel Millard. He married (2) 
Susanna (Jerauld) Rice, widow of Henry Rice and daughter of Dr. 
Dutee ejrauld. 

Children : 

2319. Martin Millard, born January 29, 1776, married Rebecca Olin 1330. 

2320. Hannah Millard, born October 10, 1777, died August 18, 1797- 

2321. Elizabeth, Millard, born February 14, 1780, married Christopher Burke, 

of William. 

2322. Benjamin Millard, born August 26, 1782. 

2323. James Millard, born January 22, 1785. 

2324. Samuel Millard, born September 18, 1787. 

2325. Russell Mill.«ihd, born October 10, 1791. 

2326. Sarah Jerauld, Millard, born July 12, 1794. 

2327. Gulielmus B. Millard, born April 28, 1797, married Eliza A. Tillinghast. 

809. ANN' JERAULD (Freelove' Edward* Samuel' John' Samuel'), 
born June 9, 1760, married James Potter (Porter?). 

Children : 

2328. Dyer Potter or Porter. 


2329. DuTEE Potter or Porter. 

2330. Stephen Potter or Porter. 

2331. Russell Potter or Porter. 

2332. Asahel Potter or Porter. 

2333. Jerauld Potter or Porter, settled in Whitehall, N. Y. 

2334- Sally Potter or Porter, married Brown ; Whitehall, N. Y. 

2335- Charlotte Potter or Porter, married Brown ; Whitehall, N. Y. 

810. SUSANNA' JERAULD (Freelove' Edwd.^ Sam'l' John' SamT), 
born November 22, 1762, married (i), September 22, 1782, Henry 
Rice, 2d, son of Major Henry Rice, who died September 28, 1797, (2) 
November 25, 1798, Samuel Millard, son of Nathan Millard and widower 
of her sister, Sarah. 

Children : 

2336. Mary A. Rice, born January 15, 1783, married Russell Arnold. 

2337. Phebe Rice, born November 15, 1785, married Mr. Taylor. 

2338. Mercy Rice, born May 28, 1791, married Mr. Pearce. 

2339. Deborah Rice, born April 17 1795, married Stephen Sweet. 

811. CALEB" JERAULD (Freelove' Edward' Samuel' John= SamT), 
born May 11, 1765, died August 11, 1832, married, January 19. 1790, 
Robe Arnold, daughter of Caleb Arnold. Caleb Arnold was for a term 

'I of years Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas for Kent County, R. I. 

Many of this branch of the family have changed the spelling of their 
' name to Gerald, but in the Providence and Rhode Island official records 
I it is spelled Jerauld. 

Children : 

2340. Samuel Jerauld, born March 30, 1791, married Clorinda Knight. 

2341. Maria Jerauld, born March 19, 1796, married Joseph A. Burrows. 

2342. Daniel D. Jerauld, born February 25, 1798, married Harriet Casey 

2343. Julian Jerauld, born April 14, 1800. 

' 813. JOHN' STAFFORD (Sarah" Edwd.' SamT John= SamT), mar- 
ried, February 11, 1773, Mary Arnold, daughter of Caleb Arnold. 

2344. RoBY Stafford, born July 7, 1800, married Merritt Andrew. 

816. SARAH* STAFFORD (Sarah' Edward* Samuef John" Samuel'), 
married, September 6, 1778, Joseph Arnold, son of Caleb Arnold. 
Children : 

2345. Augustus Arnold, born December 21, 1779. 

2346. Samuel Arnold, born August 30, 1782. 

818. DELIVERANCE' GREENE (Hannah' Ed.' SamT' John' Sam- 
uel'), born July 2.2., 1751, died 1821, married, March 26, 1772, at Crans- 
ton, R. I., Nathaniel Carpenter, son of Benjamin and Prudence Car- 

Children : 

2347. Daniel Carpenter, born 1773, died 1775- 

2348. James Carpenter, born 1775, married Zerviah Carver. 
2349- Job Carpenter, born 1778, married Mary' Westcott. 

2350. George Carpenter, born 1770, died 1822. 

2351. Abby Carpenter, born 1782, married Sylvester Westcott. 

2352. Deliverance Carpenter, born 1785, died 1809, married Sylvester West- 


2353. Nathaniel Carpenter, born 1785, died 1810. 

2354. Sarah Carpenter, born 1787, married Thomas Briggs. 

2355. Earl Carpenter, born 1794, married Sarah A. Harris. 

819. SARAH' GREENE (Hannah" Edward' Samuel' John" Samuel'), 
bom November 2(^\ 1752, married Benjamin Arnold, son of Benjamin* 
and Barbary (Rice) Arnold (Susanna* Benjamin' Thomas' John' 
Greene). Benjamin" Arnold (Philip* Stephen' Stephen' William' Ar- 


nold), born 1749, died 1831, about the age of 82. Philip and Thomas 
Arnold, brothers of Benjamin, married daughters of Jonathan" Gorton 
(Samuel* and Mary (Rice), Samuef and Elizabeth (Collins). Duty- 
Arnold, another brother, married Naomi Rice, who was born 1764 
and died 1834. 
Children : 

2356. LowERY Arnold, born 1774 

2357. Elisha Arnold, born 1775. 

2358. Thomas Arnold, born 1776. 
2359- Owen Arnold, born 1776. 

2360. Mary Arnold, born 1777. 

2361. Welcome Arnold, born 1778. 

2362. Christopher Arnold, born 1784. 

2363. Benjamin Arnold, born 1789. 

2364. Sarah Arnold, born 1794. 

825. MARV GREENE (Hannah' Edward* Sam'l' John= SamT), bom 
April 2, 1770, married William Hall, and lived in Pennsylvania. 

2365. Gorton Hall. 

835. JOSEPH" ARNOLD (Diana' Margaret' Samuel' John' Samuel'), 
bom January 23, 1762, died July 4, 1835, married, February 22, 1784, 
Ruth Godfrey, daughter of Joshua and Mary (Brown) Godfrey, of East 
Greenwich. Ruth was born June 17 1763, and died March 6, 1844. 
Children : 

2366. Godfrey Arnold, bom November 7, 1785, married Sally Essex. 

2367. Gorton W. Arnold, born October 20, 1790, married Nancy Brown. 

2368. Alfred J. Arnold, married Betsy D. Nickels. 

837. MARY" GORTON (Benjamin' Samuel' Samuel' John' Samuel'), 
born 1760, married, March 26, 1778, William Potter, son of Caleb Potter, 
of Cranston, R. L 
Children : 

2369. John Potter, born May 3, 1779. 

2370. Gorton Potter, born 1780. 

840. SAMUEL" GORTON (Jonathan' Sam'l* Sam'l' John' Samuel'), 
born January 23, 1763, died May 5, 1793, married Annie Waterman, 
daughter of James' and Amey (Westcott) (Zuriel* Richard' Nathaniel' 
Colonel Richard' Waterman). 

Children : 

2371. James W. Gorton, born May 25, 1786, married Hannah Holden. 

2T,12. Lydia W. Gorton, born March 29, 1791, married Philip N. Tillinghast. 

841. ROBY" GORTON (Jonathan' Sam'l* Sam'f John' Sam'l'), born 
January 30, 1766, died November 15, 1796, married, February 3, 1780, 
by Elder John Gorton, Philip Arnold, son of Benjamin and Barbary 
(Rice) Arnold. 

Children : 

2373. Gorton Arnold, born January 20, 1781, married Waitie L. . 

2374. Stephen Arnold, born October 29, 1784, died March 24, 1802. 

2375. Samuel Gorton Arnold, born May 8, 1795. 

844. SARAH ANN' GORTON (Jonathan' Samuel* Sam'f John' Sam- 
uel'), born November 16, 1776, died February 8, 1858, married, May i, 
1796, Thomas Arnold, born 1759, died October 8, 1820, son of Benjamin 
and Barbary (Rice) Arnold. Sarah married (2) Thomas Holden, of 
Warwick. Her gravestone reads : " Sarah Holden, widow of Thomas, 
formerly wife of Thomas Arnold, died February 18, 1858, in her 82d 


Children : 

2376. Thomas Gorton Arnold, born July 8, 1797, died February 1803. 
2Z7T. Mary Gorton Arnold, born September 21, 1799, married Benj.' R. 

2378. John Rice Arnold, died age twenty. 

2379. Betsy Gorton Arnold, born September 24, 1803, married Christopher 

A. Whitman. 

2380. Lydia Waterman Arnold, married Dr. Charles H Morse. 

845. ALMA" (Amey?) BOWEN (Sarah' Samuel* Sam'P John' Sam- 
uel'), born February 16, 1762, married Matthew Clark, of Norwich, 

2381. John B. Clark, married Abby H. Thurston son John Norwich, Conn. 
23S2. Daughter Clark, who died unmarried. 

2z'^Z- Betsey Clark, married Asa Witter ; children in Norwich. 

847. ROBY° BOWEN (Sarah' Samuel* Samuel' John' SamT), bom 
November 29, 1766, died September 20, 1861, married, September 30, 
179s, Rev. John Hill, of Seekonk, Mass. 

Child : 

2384. Maria Hill, married Arthur Aldrich. 

848. JOHN' BOWEN (Sarah' Samuel* Samuef John' Sam'l'), born 
January 3, 1769, died February 24, 1837, married (i), March 15, 1792, 
Sally Clark, of Plainfield, Conn., who was born 1764 and died June 24, 
1797, (2) March 28, 1799, Sally Greene, daughter of Captain James 
Greene, who died January 14, 1832. John Bowen was a Colonel in the 


2385. Henry Bowen, born February 20, 1793, married Sophia Charlotte Rice. 

2386. Samuel Gorton Bowen, born June 8, 1794, married Mary Gardner. 
2387- John C. Bowen, born May 18, 1796, married Nancy Miner. 

2388. Nathaniel Bowen, born June 14, 1797, died August 27, 1816. 

2389. James Bowen, born March 32, 1800, married Susan Waterman. 

2390. Elisha Fish Bowen, born Febrtiary 3, 1802, died unmarried. 

2391. Sally Clark Bowen, born September 25, 1803,, died November 1832. 

2392. Sabra p. Bowen, born July 13, 1806, married George Saunders. 

2393. Susan P. Bowen, born March 3, 1808, married Edward Robinson. 

2394. Israel M. Bowen, born January 2-], 181 2, married Ruth M. Waterman 

849. NATHAN' BOWEN (Sarah' Samuel* Sam'f John' SamT), born 
July 2, 1771, died January 31, 1855, married (i), June 10, 1798, Betsey* 
Gardner, daughter of Captain Oliver and Mercy" (Gorton) Gardner 
(William* Samuef John' Samuel'). She was born March 7, 1781, and 
died February 26, 1817. Nathan married (2), May 14, 1818, Annie 
Dorrance, born March 27, 1781, died April 29, 1867, daughter of Samuel 

Children : 

■2395. William G. Bowen, born August 14, 1799, married Susan C, Packard. 

2396. Sarah A. Bowen, born October 5, 1801, married James A. Fenner. 

2397. Polly C Bowen, born September 20, 1803, died August 23, 1805. 

2398. Isaac G. Bowen, born February 19, 1805, married Almira Gibbs. 

2399. Polly Clark Bowen, born August 22, 1870, married Mason W. Hale. 

2400. Tully D. Bowen, born January 7, 1808, married Louisa Holmes. 

2401. Edwin E. Bowen, born May 2, 1809, married Sarah Williams. 

2402. Mercy R. Bowen, born April 14, 181 3, married Mason W. Hale. 

2403. Ruby H. Bowen, married John S. Brown. 

2404. Samuel D. Bowen, born April 12, 1819, married Carolina Dawley. 

2405. Nathan M. Bowen, born September 5, 1823, died August 31, 1845. 

2406. Ann E. Bowen, born June 30, 1827, married Albert Barton. 

851. ASAPH' BOWEN (Elnathan' Samuel* Samuef John' SamT), 
bom July 22, 1765, died October 8, 1853, married, January 22, 1787, 


Roby Brown, bom February 5, 1797, near Bowen's Hill, Coventry, R. I., 

died August 8, 1894, at Harris, R. I. 


2407. Eleanor Bowen, born October 19, 1789, married Thomas Arnold. 

2408. Thomas B. Bowen, born May 8, 1791, married Phebe Potter. 

2409. Lydia Bowen, born February 5, 1797, died , unmarried 

2410. Amey G. Bowen, born February 5, 1797, married William Waterman. 

241 1. Daniel Gorton Bowen, born January 12, 1800. 

2412. Levi Bowen, born May 14, 1812. 

2413 Ruby Brown Bowen, born July 3, 1807, married Morris Hopkins. 

852. MARV BOWEN (Elnathan' Samuel' Sam'f John' SainT). born 
February 26, 1767, died January 13, 1844, married Rev. Daniel Os- 
trander. A cane, presented to the Rev. Daniel by Bishop Asbury, is in 
the possession of Mrs. Daniel Ostrander. 
Children : 

2414. Almira Ostrander, born 1800, died aged seventy years. 

2415. Bowen Ostrander, born 1802, a clergyman, died 1887. 

2416. Mary H. Ostrander, born 1803, married Rev. Ira Ferris. 

854. STEPHEN' BOWEN (Elnathan' Samuel* Samuef John' SamT), 
born March 30, 1771, died August 17, 1837, married, December 22, 1799, 
Rebecca Hill, daughter of Caleb and Mary' (Stafford) Hill (Elizabeth* 
John' Resolved" Richard^ Waterman). Rebecca was born November 
19, 1772, and died September 27, 1841. Stephen, with his family, moved 
from Rhode Island to Connecticut in 1822. 

Children : 

2417. Benjamin E. Bowen, born January 15, 1801, married Julia Haskin. 

2418. Jabez Bowen, born January 7, 1803, married Mary A. Mosley. 

2419. Caleb Hill Bowen, born October 10, 1804, died February 21, 1826. 

2420. Anna Bowen, born July 27, 1806, married Stephen F. Burnham. 

2421. Oliver Bowen, born October 7, 1808, married Betsy B. Horton. 

2422. Harriet Bowen, born June 21, 1810, died June 24, 1838, 

2423. Stephen Allen Bowen, born February 12, 1812, died February 14, 1837. 

2424. George A. Bowen, born September 25, 181 7, married Frances E. Brent. 

855. M AH ALA' BOWEN (Elnathan' Samuel* Samuel' John' SamT), 
born February 16, 1773, married, May 19, 1796, Allen Brown, son of 
Nathaniel and Rhoda Brown, of Foster, R. I. She died February 14, 
1851; he died January 8, i860; both in New York City. 

Children : 

2425. Richard B. Brown, born April 13, 1797, married Charlotte A. Bissell. 

2426. Oliver Hall Brown, born March 4, 1804, died April 11, 1826. 

857. RICHARD' BOWEN (Elnathan' Samuel* Samuel' John' Sam'l'), 
born February 17, 1777, died May, 1859, married (i), December 17, 
1797, Mehitable Sheppardson, who died January 29, 1818; (2) Novem- 
ber 25, 1818, Eliza Seymour, daughter of Horace and Hope (Jones) 
Seymour. This Horace was a Colonel in the Revolutionary V/ar. 
Richard Bowen went away to sea when he was about 14 years old, and 
by the time he was 19 he commanded a ship. He was in the China 
trade and also sailed to European ports. At one time during the Napo- 
leonic wars the crown jewels of Portugal were placed in his charge to 
be taken to a place of safety, for the successful performance of which 
he was invited to dinner by the King. He commanded a privateer dur- 
ing the War of 1812, but one voyage satisfied him, as he termed it legal- 
ized robbery. He left the sea soon after and went to Pittsburg about 
1814, where he entered the commission business with his brother, 
George, but was unsuccessful. Then he leased a rolling mill and was 
the first man to make good iron and nails in Pittsburg, and was also 
the first iron master to pay his employees wholly in cash instead of 


giving them the greater portion of their wages in store orders. In this 
he was very successful and became a prominent man. When General 
Jackson was President of the United States and had occasion to pass 
through Pittsburg, he sent a messenger to ask Richard Bowen to call. 
Now, Richard did not admire General Jackson — being opposed to the 
theory that, " To the victors belong the spoils " — so he replied that if 
the General wished to see him he could be found at the mill, and the 
General called. Afterwards Richard sold the mill, moved to Cincin- 
nati, where he was in business until 1833, and at the death of his wife 
returned to Pittsburg, where he remained until his death in May, 1859. 


2427. William H. Bowen, born September zt, 1798, died March 1818. 

2428. Eliza Bowen, born February zt, 1801, died in childhood. 

2429. Richard R. Bowen, born May i, 1803, killed Seminole War. 

2430. Mary Eliza Bowen, born November 8, 1804, died in childhood. 

2431. George O. Bowen, born April 25, 1807, married Harriet E. Bashaw. 

2432. Aaron S. Bowen, born July 29, 1809, married Marietta A. Barrett. 

2433. Theodora Bowen, born April 29, 181 1, died February 7, 1814. 

2434. Weston Bowen, born September 19, 1819, unmarried. 

2435. Blanche Bowen, born January 19, 1821, married John Little. 

2436. Seymour Bowen, born June 28, 1822, died April i, 1887. 

2437. Charles Yazzam Bowen, born June 17, 1824, died November 8, 1830. 

2438. Caroline W. Bowen, born January 29, 1826, died November 1830. 

2439. Eugenia Bowen, born January 29, 1826, a Sister of Mercy. 

2440. Sidney Bowen, born March 24, 1830, died April 1889. 

2441. Frederick F. Bowen, born August i, 1833, Matilda Dougherty, Al- 

legheny. Pa. 

859. ELIZABETH" BOWEN (Elnathan° Sam'l* Sam'l' John' SamT), 
born at Coventry, R. I., May 26, 1781, married, January 17, 1802, 
William" Reynolds, of North Kingstown, born April 20, 1779 (Jabez* 
Jabez' Francis" James'). Elizabeth was a bright light in the Quaker 
meetin,gs at East Greenwich. She died January 14, 1832. William 
married (2), March 25, 1837, Phebe Clapp, of Pomfret, Conn. He was 
one of the earliest cotton manufacturers in Rhode Island. He died 
May 26, i860. 

2442. Jabez Reynolds, born January 31, 1803, married Mercy P. Oatly. 

2443. James Reynolds, born November 27, 1804, married Sarah K. Anthony. 

2444. Lydia B. Reynols, born October 9, 1807, married James P. Pickham. 

2445. William K. Reynolds, born September 9, 1812, married Mary A. 

.-3446. Bowen Reynolds, born November 11, 1814, married Isabella D. Watson. 

2447. Thomas A. Reynolds, born November i, 1817, married Susan Clarke, 

East Greenwich. 

2448. Richard Reynolds, born June 25, 1820, married Catharine Allen. 

2449. Obadiah Brown Reynolds, born February 13, 1823, married Cynthia 


862. GEORGE" BOWEN (Elnathan" Samuel' Sam'f John' SamT), 
born May 17, 1787, died 1848, married, 1812, Harriet Seymour, daughter 
of Colonel Horace and Hope (Jones) Seymour, a sister of his brother 
Richard's wife. They lived in Middlebury, Vt., and Albion Place, New 
York City. 
Children : 

2450. Margaret Bowen, born — 1814, died young. 

2451. George Bowen, born — 1816, died February 5, 1888. A graduate of Yale 

College and Union Theological Seminary. In 1847 Missionary to 
India. In 1856 editor of " Bombay Guardian," and until his death. 
Among his many writing : " Daily Meditations," " The Araens of 
Church" and " Love Revealed " are in constant demand. He was 
one of the most remarkable missionaries of the country. (Bombay 
Pioneer. A consecrated Life, Am. Tract Soc.) 

2452. Harriet Bowen, died March 1896, unmarried. 


2453. Frank Bowen, travler and sea captain died 1895. 

2454. Kate Bowen, died — 1894, in New York City. 

868. MERCY" GORTON (William, Jr.= William* Sam'l' John' SamT), 
born August 7, 1762, married, March 23, 1783, Nathaniel Stone, born at 
Warwick, died at Foster, R. I. Nathaniel was Colonel of the Rhode 
Island Militia, and for a number of years represented his town in the 
General Assembly; was President of the Mount Vernon Bank of his 
town. (See Stone Genealogy, by Richard C. Stone, Providence, 1866, 
for lives of Nathaniel and Mercy and their children.) Mercy was 
nearly eighty when she died, beloved and respected by all who knew her. 
Children : 

2455. Mercy Stone, born 1783, married George Phillips. 

2456. William Stone, born 1785, died in infancy. 

2457. Samuel Stone, born 1787, married Lydia Angell. 

2458. Nathaniel Stone, born 1789, married Lucy Round. 

2459. Sarah Stone, born 1791, married Nathaniel Phillips. 

2460. William Stone, 1793, married Elcy Hopkins. 

2461. Lydia Stone, born 1795, married Samuel H. Hopkins. 

2462. Charles Stone, born 1797, died when young. 

2463. Polly Stone, born 1799, married Alphens Bowen. 

2464. CiiAKLiis Stone, born 1800, married Jernsha Hill. 

2465. Daniel Stone, born 1803, married Eleanor Eddy. 

2466. Eliza Stone, born 1808, married Barton Randall. 

869. ROBY' GORTON (William, Jr.,'' William* SamT Johir Sam'l'), 
born August 27, 1764, married, September 12, 1784, Ebenezer Arnold, 
son of Simon Arnold. They had six children ; we learn names of only 
the following : 

Children : 

2467. Joanna Arnold, born 1806, married Ethan' Giles (Giles Family by 


2468. William Gorton Arnold. 

2469. Ebenezer Arnold. 

2470. Earl Arnold, born April 1801. 

870. LUCY' GORTON (William, Jr.,' William* Sam'l' John' SamT), 
born August 30, 1766, died March 27, 1851, married, December 1, 1791, 
Stephen Hudson, born March 6, 1767, died October 17, 1837, ^t Pontiac, 
R. I. He ran a flour mill. 

Children : 

2471. Mercy Hudson, born May 25, 1793, married Wm Ryan. 

2472. Edward Hudson, born October 4, 1795, married Betsy A. Briggs. 

2473. Phebe Hudson, born June 29, 1797, married Samuel Knowles ; ch. 

Sara & Sml. g-ch. Wm. & Ed. Knowles. 

2474. Stephen Hudson, born July, i 1799, married Frances Pierce. 

2475. Gorton Hudson, born April 13, 1803, married Nancy McCarty. 

2476. William R. Hudson, born February 6, 1808, married Sarah McCarty, 

Col. of Artillery, Boston. Children : Wm., Elsadie, Sarah, Nantic, Mass. 

871. NATHAN" GORTON (William, Jr.,= William* SamT John' Sam- 
uel*), born August 17, 1768, married, December 14, 1807, Annie Warner, 
daughter of Captain Thomas" and Phebe° (Greene) Warner. Phebe'' 
was of William* Peter^ John' John* Greene. Thomas* was of John* 
John^ Ann' Samuel* Gorton. Nathan was called junior to distinguish 
him from his uncle, Nathan. He was a ship carpenter. He died Decem- 
ber 14, 1807. 

Children : 

2477. Mary Warner Gorton, born October 28, 1794, died September 25, 1822. 

2478. Eliza Gorton, born November 6, 1796, married Capt. John C. Evans. 

2479. Thomas W. Gorton, born October 28, 1799, married Almira Manchester. 

872. HANNAH* GORTON (W^illiam, Jr.,' William* Sam'l' John' Sam- 



uel'), born September 16, 1770, died November 25, 1863, married, 1791, 
Captain Jonathan Hill, of Foster, R. I., who died May 5, 1853, aged 
79 years, 9 months and 6 days. Jonathan was commissioned Captain 
and Major. 
Children : 

2480. Rhoba Hill, born August lo, 1792, married George Walker. 

2481. Rhodes Hill, born February 10, 1794, married Amey . 

2482. Gorton Hill, born March 5, 1796, died January 4, 1877, 

2483. Susannah Hill, born January 5, 1798, married Jer. Bennett, ch. 


2484. Sherdon Hill, born March 28, 1800, married Mercy W. Randall. 

2485. Tallman Hill, born May 8, 1802, married Nancy P. King. 

2486. Allen Hill, born July 26, 1804, married Clarissa Williams. 

2487. Rebecca Rhodes Hill, born December 15, 1806, married Daniel Thurber. 

2488. Hannah Hill, born January 25, 1810, married Charles Phillips. 

2489. Johnathan Hill, born February 2^, 1812, married Orry Tyler. 

2490. Tabatha Hill, born July 2, 1816, married Sampson Battey. 

873. JOHN" GORTON (William, Jr.,= William' Sam'f John' SamT), 
born Septmeber 18, 1772, died January 18, 1830, married, November 
23, 1797, Hannah Stone, born July 11, 1776, died February 19, 1821. 
Children : 

2491. LowERY Tallman Gorton, born January 30, 1799, married Elizabeth 

2492. Julia A. Gorton, born July zj, 1802, married Jeremiah Webb. 

2493. William Gorton, born May 18, 1804, married Mary Briggs. 

2494. Louisa Gorton, born February 9, 1806, married William Gardner. 

2495. LucELiA Gorton, born July 4, 1808, married Edwin Hart. 

2496. John M. Gorton, born Feb. 23, 1811, married Hannah C. Gardner. 

2497. Adaline C. Gorton, born May 25, 1813, married William A. Hathaway. 

2498. Edward W. Gorton, born January 21, 1817, married Emily J. Johnson. 

876. JOSEPH" GORTON (Nathan" William' Samuel' John= Samuel), 
born May 29, 1760, married (i), September 15, 1781, Cynthia Havens, 
born October 5, 1760, died about 1799, daughter of William and Deliv- 
erance (Stafford) Havens, sister of Rebecca, the wife of Charles Bray- 
ton; (2) Rosannah (Remington) Wood, born January 13, 1769, died 
February 3, 1858, widow of Captain Olney Wood, daughter of Ruel 
and Roby (Rice) Remington. Joseph served in the War of the Revolu- 
tion as a private in Lieutenant James Arnold's Company. Colonel 
Holden's Regiment at East Greenwich, R. I., 1778, in Army of Obser- 
vation. He lived at Warwick, and died December 7, 1814. 

Children : 

2499. Zachary Gorton, born November 18, 1782, died May 9, 1783. 

2500. Nathan Gorton, born August 9, 1784. 

2501. William Gorton, born March 16, 1786, died January 8, 1789. 

2502. Mercy M. Gorton, born January 22, 1788, married Capt. Wm. Wood. 

2503. John H. Gorton, born March 15, 1789, wounded, war 1812, married, 

died in Delaware. 

2504. Caleb Gorton, born March 15, 1789, died at an early age. 

2505. Joseph Gorton, born September 11, i79o,married Sarah Andrews. 

2506. Sarah Gorton, born November 17, 1791. 

2507. Julia Gorton, born December 7, 1792, married James Budlong. 

2508. Oliver Gorton, born April 2.1, 1794, married Charlotte Jencks. 

2509. Gardner Gorton, born April 23, 1794, married Zuriel Coville. 

2510. Caleb Gorton, born February 17, 1796, married Sarah Hall. 

2511. Sarah A. Gorton, born July 5, 1797, married Alney Wood. 

2512. Nathan Gorton, born November 15, 1805, married Rhoda Jackson. 

2513. Cynthia H. Gorton, born July 28, 1807, married Robinson Place. 

883. STUK::LEY" wood (Elizabeth' William' Sam'l' John= Sam'l'), 
born July 17, 1776, died October 27, 1857, married, January 13, 1803, 
Freelove Jerauld, of James* and Mary (Rice) Jerauld (Freelove' Ed- 
ward' Samuel' John^ Samuel* Gorton). He was a shoemaker, and a 
member of the Baptist Church in Warwick. 


Children : 

2514. BuRRELL Wood, born March 16, 1803, died November 3, 1822. 

2515. George W. Wood, born July zj, 1804, died August 9, 1804. 

2516. Mary Gorton Wood, born March 21, 1806,, died October 28, 1827. 

2517. Eliza Wood, born April 20, 1808, died November 9, 1850. 

2518. Alanson Wood, born September 15, 1810, married Elizabeth W. Bailey. 

2519. Ann Wood, born December 26, 1812, died September 19, 1831. 

2520. William H. Wood, born September 18, 181 5, married Angeline Warner. 

2521. Phares Wood, born November 11, 1817, married Phebe A. Cole. 

2522. Caroline Wood, born December 2, 1820, died September 15, 1821. 

2523. John G. Wood, born March 6, 1822, married Caroline Tourgee. 

885. SARAH" GARDNER (Mercy' William' Sam'f John' Sam'l'), 
born September 5, 1767, married, October 10, 1791, Benjamin Gardner, 
son of Caleb, of Greenwich, R. I. 
Children : 

2524. Mary Gardner, born May 3, 1792. 

2525. Ardeliza Gardner, born June i, 1798, married Benj. D. Lovatt. Grafton 


887. HANNAH" GARDNER (Mercy" William' Samuef John= Sam- 
uel'), born June 21, 1769, married (i), October 30, 1790, Benjamin* 
Gorton, born April 8, 1764, died October 30, 1790, son of Elder John' 
and Rhoda (Bowen) Gorton; married (2), June 9, 1793, Captain Wil- 
liam' Waterman, born May 5, 1763, died November 8, 1848, of John' 
and Sarah (Potter) Waterman, Benoni and Sarah' (Wickes) Water- 
man, John and Sarah' (Gorton) Wickes, Benjamin' and Sarah (Carder) 
Gorton, Samuel' Gorton. Captain Waterman had four children by his 
former wife, Susanna' Low (Stephen" Alice' Samuel' Benjamin' Samuel' 
Gorton), For his full records of ten children, see his line from Samuel 
Gorton. He lived at Coventry, R. L 

Children : 

2526. Mercy Gorton, born February 6, 1791, married Coin. Augustus Green. 

2527. ^/VILLIAM Waterman, born June i, 1794, married Amey Gorton Bowen. 

2528. Susan Waterman, born May 2j„ 1796, died in Coventry. 

2529. Oliver G. Waterman, born July 9, 1797, married Harriet Weeks. 

2530. Almira Waterman, born April 23, 1800, married William Weeden. 

2531. Mary Waterman, born August 11, 1804. 

2532. Horatis Nelson Waterman, born February 23, 1806, died 1881. 

888. MERCY' GARDNER (Mercy" William' Sam'P John' SamT), 
born May 27, 1771, married, October 2, 1791, Wanton Rice, son of 
Henry Rice. 

Children : 

2533. Oliver Gardner Rice, born October 9, 1792. 

2534. William Warren Rice, born October 2j, 1795. 

2535. Mercy Ann Rice, born November 15, 1798. 

2536. Benjamin Gorton Rice, born January 2, 1800. 

900. MERIBAH' TILLMAN (Peleg" Elizabeth' Sam'l' John' Sam- 
uel'), born August 3, 1762, married, December 20, 1778, John Wilcox. 
John and Meribah moved to Woolwich, Me., and then to Monmouth, 
Me. Their first two children were born in Rhode Island; the others 
in Monmouth, Me. 
Children : 

2537. Ephraim Wilcox, born in R. I., married Miss Curtis. He was a ship 

2538. Sarah Wilcox, born in Rhode Island. 

2539. Clark Wilcox, born and lived in Monmouth, Me., had children. 

2540. Eliza Wilcox, married Bela Pierce of Monmouth, Me. 

2541. Eleanor Wilcox, married Mr. Blake, died soon after. 

2542. Anstrus Wilcox, married a Blossum of Monmouth, Me. 

2543. Deliverance Wilcox, married Miss Pierce. 

2544. Washington Wilcox, married Harriet Folsom. 


901. PELEG" TALLMAN (Peleg= Elizabeth* SamT John' Sam'l'), 
born July 24, 1764, married, June 14, 1790, Eleanor Clarke, born 1774 
at Boston, Mass., died 1857 at Bath, Me., daughter of John and Maria 
Theresa (Larck) Clarke. Pelig Tallman during the Revolutionary 
War served on the firigate " Trumball," Captain James Nicholson, in 
an action with the British letter of Marque "Watt," Captain Courtland; 
was wounded by a ball, necessitating the amputation of his left arm. 
He was then sixteen years old and had command of one of the after 
guns of the " Trumball." He was taken prisoner, sent to Fortune 
Prison, England, and kept in confinement until peace was declared. 
Then he, without money, was turned adrift in France. He secured 
passage on a ship to Philadelphia, and thence made his way to Boston. 
He was granted a pension by the U. S Government. In 1799 he was 
commissioned a Lieutenant in the United States Navy and ordered to 
report on board the firigate " Constitution," but for business reasons 
returned the commission. He lived at different times in Bath, Wool- 
wich and Vasslboro, Me., where he was engaged in ship building, etc., 
and amassed an ample fortune. He served in the Massachusetts and 
Maine Legislatures, and in 1812-13 was Member of Congress from the 
Lincoln District. He was also President of the Bank at Bath, at which 
place he died March 8, 1841. 

Children : 

2545. James Clark Tallman, born June 12, 1791, died June 13, 1804. 

2546. Scott J. Tallman, born April 13, 1795, married Salome Waterman. 

2547. Henry Tallman, born February 19, 1797, died September 14, 1801. 

2548. Maria T. Tallman, born March 24, 1799, married Thomas Tileston. 

2549. Benjamin F. Tallman, born April 30, 1800, married Alice McKown. 

2550. Eliza S. Tallman, born January 26, 1802, married Horatis Smith. 

2551. Caroline Ann Tallman, born January 25, 1802, died October 19, 1810. 

2552. James C. Tallman, born July 28, 1804, married Jane R. Green. 

2553. Henry Tallman, born August 2, 1806, married Sarah Fitz. 

2554. Caroline A. Tallman, born September 9, 1809, married George H. 


902. HOLDEN" TALLMAN (Pelig" Elizabeth' Samuel' John' Sam- 

uer), born September 3, 1766, married, October 28, 1787, Drusilla 

Taber, born 1767, died 1852, at Perkins, Me., daughter of Jacob and 

Susanna (Dennis) Taber, of Tiverton, R. I. He was a ship captain; 

lived a while at Tiverton, then went to Galway, Saratoga County, N. Y., 

where he lived several years, then removed to Swan Island, Kenebec 

river. Me. (Maine was set off from Massachusetts in 1820. Swan 

Island was until June 24, 1847, a part of the town of Dresden, but was 

at that time set off and incorporated as the town of Perkins). He was 

drowned in the Kenebec river at this place March 19, 1830. 

Children : 

255s- Jonathan S. Tallman, born June 30, 1789, married Zeriuah Oliver. 

2556. Sarah Tallman, born July 17, 1790, died October 28, 1840. 

2557. Alice Tallman, born April 9, i794. died young. 

2558. Lucy D. Tallman, born August 27, 1798, died November 5, 1870. 

2559. Redford D. Tallman, born October 17, 1800, married Jane Bowers. 

2560. Jacob T. Tallman, born May 2, 1802, died 1829 at sea. 

2561. Meribah W. Tallman, born August 30, 1804, married Isaac Otis. 

2562. Holden Tallman, born December 25, 1808, married Cynthia J. Trask. 

905. ELEAZOR' TALLMAN (Thomas" Elizabeth' Samuef John' 
Samuel'), born October 12, 1747, at Providence, R. I., married, 1805, 
Susan Fuller, born 1784 at Colchester, Conn., died 1853 at Middle 
Haddan, daughter of Moses and Susanna Fuller, of Marlborough, Conn. 
Eleazor was a ship builder at Middle Haddan, where he died March 
17, 1852. 


Children: . , ^ ^ .,, 

2s6i. Walter Tallman, born July ii, 1807, died September 30, ;866. 

2564. Thomas Tallman, born June 12, 1815, married Frances M, Hazelton. 

907. EDWARD' TALLMAN (Benjamin" Elizabeth* Samuel' John' 
Samuel'), born 1775, died April 22, 1850, married, October 11, 1795, 
Ruth Thurber, born 1778, died April 23, 1845. 

Children: u -o t, in 

2565. William Tallman, born May 13, 1797, married Hannah H. KandaU. 

2566. Edward Tallman, Jr., born — 1803, died October 15, 1842. 

908. MOSES' TALLMAN (Benjamin" Elizabeth' Samuel' John' Sam- j 

ueP). He married Jemima , and died prior to 1836; buried at Swan 

Point cemetery. 

Children: . . ,, , xt r, ,. 

2567. Francis Tallman, born March 14, 1809, married Martha N. Renches. 

2568. Samuel Tallman. 

2569. Sarah Tallman. 

2570. Kendall Tallman. 

2571. Adaline Tallman. 

2572. Thomas Tallman, (Captain). 

909. BENJAMIN' TALLMAN, JR.. (Benjamin' Elizabeth' Samuel* 
John' Samuel'). He married, October 26, 1797, Betsey Smith, He 
was a carver of figure heads for vessels. 

Child : 

2573. Henry Church Tallman, and other children. 

910. GORTON' TALLMAN (Benjamin' Elizabeth' Samuel' John' 
Samuel'), married, November 30, 1806, Cynthia Morse. 

Children : 

2574. Benjamin Gorton Tallman. 

2575. Charles Tallman. 

2576. Agusta Tallman. 

2577. Horace Tallman. 

928. SUSANNA' GREENE (Patience' Patience' John' John= Sam- 
uel'), born July 21, 1751, died June 23, 1792, married Dr. James Jerauld, 
who died March 29, 1802, son of James Jerauld and grandson of Dr. 
James and Martha (Dupree) Jerauld. He was a nephew of Dr. Dutee 
Jerauld, who married Freelove' Gorton, and studied medicine with his 
grandfather at Medford, Mass.; lived also at Providence, R. I. 

Children : 

2578. Patience Jerauld, born July 28, i777, died July 7, 1864. 

2579. Horace Jerauld, went to Chili, South America. 

2580. Martha Jerauld, born 1784, died July 17, 1804. 

929. PATIENCE' GREENE (Patience' Patience' John' John' Sam- 
uel'), born May 13, 1754, died November 2, 1809, married, February 
II, 1 773, Welcome Arnold, son of Jonathan and Abigail (Smith) Arnold. 
Welcome and Patience lived in Providence at the corner of Main and 
Planet streets, in the house formerly owned by James Sabin, made 
historic by being the house in which the plot was laid for the destruc- 
tion of the " Gaspee." It was purchased and occcupied by him until 
his death in 1798 of yellow fever, then raging in Newport and Provi- 
dence. (Memors by Tiverton Burgess, 1850.) Abigail' Smith was of 
Benjamin' John' John' Smith, the last named one of the Presidents of 
the Providence Plantations. 

Children : 

2581. Mary A. Arnold, born April 19, i774, married Hon. Tristam Burges. 

2582. Eliza Arnold. 


2583. Samuel G. Arnold, born April 24, 1776, died September 5, 1778. 

2584. Samuel Arnold, born January 20, 1778, married Frances Rogers. 

2585. Welcome Arnold, born 1780, died 1785. 

2586. Thomas Arnold, born 1782, died 1783. 

2587. Harriet Arnold, born 1784, died 1792. 

2588. Cornelia Arnold, born 1785, died 1801. 

2589. Welcome Arnold. 

2590. George Arnold, born 1790, died 1790. 

2591. Eliza H. Arnol, born October 5, 1796, married Hon. Zachariah Allen. 

2592. Richard J. Arnold, born October s, 1796, married Louisa C Gindrat. 

939. THOMAS" GORTON (Benjamin' William* John' John' Sam- 
uel'), born July 27, 1770, married, 1790, Lucretia Beckwith, daughter 
of Captain Elisha. They lived at Black Point, where their children 
were born. He died December 31, 1807, and Lucretia married (2) at 
Waterford, December 26, 1810, Joseph D. Wales. (Connecticut Gazette.) 
Children : 

2593. John Gorton, born March 27, 1793, married Mary Boormeister. 

2594. Ezra Gorton, born October 22, 1799, married Anne Kinne. 

2595. Thomas Gorton, born 1802, married Clarissa West. 

2596. Elisha B. Gorton, born August 10, 1803, married Sarah T. Isham. 

2597. Lucretia Gorton, who married Joseph Babcock. 

941. BENJAMIN' GORTON (Benjamin"* William* John' John' Sam- 
uel'), born January 29, 1775, married, March 3, 1802, Mary Hempstead, 
daughter of John and Mary (Bill) Hempstead, died 1836. He settled 
in North Norwich, N. Y., in about 1800, where he died April 30, 1855. 
He owned and operated a farm and a sawmill. 

Children : 

2598. Maria P. Gorton, born July 29, 1803, married Aaron G. Atkyns. 

2599. Sarah Gorton, born July 12, 1805, died February 7, 1883. 

2600. Benjamin H. Gorton, born March 9, 1808, married Marian F. Kenney. 

2601. Mary F. Gorton, born April 29, 1820, married Thomas M. Seward. 

942. ROBERT'GORTON (Benjamin" William* John' John' Samuel'), 
born December 19, 1776, married, March 29, 1806, Esther Ann Gardner, 

born 1781, daughter of Benojah and (Tuttle) Gardner, died March 

3, 1 83 1. Robert in 1806 rented a farm in the section that is now Water- 
ford. In about 1808 he moved to Black Point; some years after went 
to Fisher's Island, where he remained nine years, then returned to 
Black Point to a farm he had purchased in 1817, situated next below 
and adjoining the one he rented when there before. This lower farm 
was never owned but by the Indians, Christopher Manwarring and Gor- 
tons until the year 1874. He died November 5, 1855. 

Children : 

2602. William G. Gorton, born February 18, 1809, married Elizabeth Warren. 

2603. LoxY A. Gorton, born November 12, 181 1, married Simon R Payne. 

2604. Laura M. Gorton, born June 17, 1814, married Alanson Hedden. 

2605. John Gorton, born March 31, 1818, died June 24, 1818. 

943. RICHARD' GORTON (Benjamin" William* John' John' Sam- 
uel'), born March 16, 1779, died April 3, 1867, at North Norwich, N. Y., 
married, October 23, 1806, Tempe Hempstead, born 1779, died 1866, 
daughter of John and Mary (Bill) Hempstead. He was a farmer and 
kept a store house at Chenango Canal. John Hempstead was a Captain 
in the Revolutionary Army at New London, Conn. 


2606. Mary A. Gorton, born January