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IlIBRARY OF CONGRESS.! 

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|UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, f 

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^?5. 




AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK 





^T 



STEA.M 

IDIHECT TO A.LIj I»A.RTS OF 

GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND, FRANCE & GERMANY. 




THE HMBEG AMERICM PiCKET CO^PINY'S 

HAMMONIA, (2,600 tons) . . . Capt. H. F. SCFTWENSEN, 

SAXONIA, (2,500 tons) . . . Capt. H. EHLERS, 

BORUSSIA, (2,300 tons) . . . Capt. N. TRAUTMAN, 

BAVARIA, (2,300 tons) . . . Capt. H. TAUBE. 

TEUTONIA, (2,300 tons) . . . Capt. F. HENSBN. 

Form a semi-moathly connection between New York, London, Southampton, 
Havre and Hamburg. 

Passage, including railroad fare from Philadelphia to New York, and from 
Southampton to London — 

First Cabin, $100. Second Cabin, $60. Steerage, .$35. 

Passengers forwarded to Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Glasgow, Paris and 
Antwerp, at through rates. 

These Steamers are fitted up with unequalled accommodations for first, second 
and third class passengers. The second cabin accommodations of these ships are 
equal to the first class of most steamers. 

Persons wishing to engage berths ahead, can do so at the Philadelphia office, 
with equal certainty and facility, as if in New York, and by so doing, will save the 
railroad fare to New York, as they will be furnished with a railroad ticket free of 
charge. 

B^^ Persons wishing to bring out their friends from Europe, can obtain certifi- 
cates of passage from London, Southampton, Havre and Hamburg. 

Every information will be given to passengers upon application at the ofiice in 
Philadelphia. 

Freight engaged in Philadelphia, will be promptly attended to by the Agent in 
New York, and shipped free of all commission. 

With every facility and disposition to give satisfaction to importers, the Agent in 
Philadelphia will take pleast).re in giving special attention to the proper transmis- 
sion of their goods, and will be pleased to correct all unnecessary delays in their 
reception. 

English, French and German importers, will find this the promptest and most 
economical line to have their goods shipped by. 

For Freight or Passage, apply exclusively to 

W. A. HAMILL, Agent, 

OFFICE OF THE HAMBURG AMERICAN MAIL STEAMSHIPS, 

S. W. cor. of Fourth and Chestnut Streets. 

I>ia:iLA.I>EIjI>ECIA.. 



'-v,^! 



_•*■ / "f; 







is 1 
I 









THE 



LIGHTNING LINE. 



t ' 



ILLUSTRATED GUIDE BOOK, 

BETWEEN THE 

CITIES OF NEW YOUK AJTD PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA 
AND PITTSETTEG, PITTSBTJEG AND CHICAGO. 

COKTAININO 

DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN, AND BETWEEN 
THESE FOUR CITIES, ON THE LINE 

OF THE 

NEW jiEESSY, iis/Zir' 

PEl^NSYLVANIA CENTRAL, 

AXD 

PITTSBUSG, EOKT WAYNB and CHICAGO EAILROADS. 

WITH ACCURATE 

TIME TABLES, EAILROAD MAPS, VIEWS OF NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, 

PITTSBURG AND CHICAGO, MAPS OF EEW YORK 

AND CHICAGO, ETC. 

BEING AN INVALUABLE COMPANION TO THE TRAVELLER BETWEEN 

THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD, PHILADELPHIA, AND THE GREAT LAKES. 

3^° Orders and Communications intended for the Publisher, muf.t be ad- 
dressed only to A. KNIGHT PEDFJCK, 

* ...publisher " Lightning Line," 

E'vening Journal Office, 
141 SOITTH THIRD STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tbe yoar 1S59, by . ' 

A. Knight Pedrick, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern 
District of Pennsylvania. 






TIME TABLE BETWEEN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO. 



STATIONS. 
Neiv Yorfc, 

Ft. Courtlftnil St. (a).. 

Jersey City(5) 

Xewark, 

Elizabeth City 

Rahway 

Uuiontown 

Metuchin 

New Brunswick((r).... 

Dean's Pond 

Kingston 

Princeton 

Trenton 

Bordentown 

Burlington 

Caniden(d) 



Bristol,. ., 
Cornwell.. 
Tacony.. . 



Walnut St. Wharf(e). 
PUilad«lp'a.(/) 

Leave... 

Downingtown 

Parkesburg 

Leaman Place 

Lancaster 

Dillerville 

Landisville 

Mount Joy 

Elizabethtown 

Middletown 

Harrisburg 

Leave.... 

Cove , 

Duncannon 

Aqueduct 

Baileys 

Newport 

Millerstown 

Thompsontown 

Tuscarora 

Mifflin 

Lewistown 

Andersons 

Me Vey town 

Manayunk 

Newton Hamilton.... 

Mount Union 

Mill Creek 

Huntington 

Petersburg 

Barree 

Spruce Creek 

Birmingham 

Tyrone 

Tipton 

Fostoria 

Altoona(£;) 

Leave... 

Kittanning Point 

Galitzin 

Cresson 

Lillys 

Portage 

Willmore 

Summer Hill 

Mineral Point 

Conemaugh 

Johnstown , 

Nineveh 

New Florence , 

Lockport , 

Bolivar 

Blairsville Bran'h(A) 

Hillside...., , 

Derry , 

Latrobe 



Express. 

A.M. 

7.00 
7.10 
7.35 
7.45 
7..55 



8.10 
8.20 
8.45 
8.55 
9.05 
9.30 
9.45 
10.05 
10.45 



10.50 
FastLine. 
11.50 A.M. 
1.14 P.M. 
1..39 
2.08 
2.34 
2.37 
2.51 
3.00 
3,15 
3., 35 
3 55 
4.00 
4.24 
4..33 
439 
4..50 
5.00 
5.12 
5.22 
5.33 
5.47 
6.10 

6.25 

6..35 

6.45 

6.56 

7.03 

7.17 

7.30 

7.43 

7.50 

7.55 

8.09 

8.16 

8.24 

8.28 

8.45 P.M. 

9.05 

9.15 

9.35 

9.42 

9.4.8 

9.57 
lO.Oi 
10.10 
10.20 
10.,30 
10.36 
10..56 
11.03 
11.14 
11.18 
11.30 
11.40 
11.47 
12.00 



Express. 

P.M. 

6.00 
6.10 
6.36 



7.20 

7.43 
7.55 
8.05 
8.27 
8.42 
9.02 
9.38 



9.50 

Express. 
10.50 p.M 
12.16 A.M. 
12.43 
1.15 
1.41 
1.44 
1.58 
2.09 
2.25 
2.46 
3.10 
3.20 
3.46 
3.55 
4.01 
4.12 
4.26 
4.37 
4.47 
4.57 
5. 10 
5.-36 
5.52 
6.03 
6.12 
6.23 
0.30 

6.44 

6,56 

7.10 

7.17 

7.25 

7.40 

7.48 

7.58 

8.02 

8.20 A.M 

8.40 

8,55 

9,15 

9,21 

9,28 

9,38 

9,45 

9,.51 
10.02 
10.12 
10.20 
10.41 
10,50 
11.00 
11.05 
11.20 
11.30 
11.38 
11.50 



Mail. 

8.00 A.M. 

9,40 
10,09 
10.47 
11,17 
11.21 



12.44 P.M 
1.10 
1..30 
2.00 
2.10 
2.19 
2..33 
2.46 
3.01 
3.14 
3.27 
3.4.3 
4.11 
4.29 
4.43 
4,.35 
5,10 
5.19 
5.35 
5,49 
6.06 
6.14 
6,21 
6.38 
6.47 
6.58 
7,03 
7,25 
7.40 
7..55 
8.15 
8.23 
8.31 
8.41 
8.48 
8,54 
9,05 
9.17 
9.24 
9,46 
9.59 
10.11 
10.16 
10.30 
1042 
10.52 
11.05 



STATIONS. 

Beatty's 

George's 

Grecnsburc 

Raclebauffh's 

Gra|)eville 

Miinor 

Irvin's 

Stuart's 

Brill ton's 

WilUinsbiirg 

Pittsburg.(t).... 

Leave 

Courtney's 

Haysville 

Sewickley 

Economy. 

Rochester 

New Briehton 

Darlington 

Enon 

Palestine 

New Waterford 

Columbiana 

Franklin 

Salem 

Damascus 

Smithfield 

Alliance(j) 

Strasburg 

Louisville 

Canton 

Massillon 

Lawrence 

Orville 

Wooster 

Clinton 

Lakeville 

Loudonville 

Perrysville 

Lucas 

Mansfield 

Richland 

Crestline 

Leave 

Bucyrus 

Nevada 

Upper Sandusky 

Forest 

Johnstown 

Lafayette 

Lima 

Delphos 

Van Wert 

Dixon 

Maples 

Fort Wayne 

Leave 

Areola 

Coesse 

Columbia 

Huntsville 

Pierceton , 

Kosciusko 

Warsaw ; . 

Etna Green 

Bourbon 

Plymouth 

Leave 

Grovertown 

Stark 

Morgan 

Wanatah. 

Valparaiso 

Hobart 

Clarke 

Ainsworth 

Roc'k I. Junction 

Chicago (k) 



12.05 A.M. 

12.15 

12.25 

l2..^o 

12.. 35 
12.42 
12.47 
12,57 

1,10 

1.20 

1.45 
Express. 

1.50 a.m. 

2.12 

2.22 

2.27 

2,42 

3,00 

3,08 

8,38 

3,51 

4,04 

4.18 

4.31 

4.48 

4.38 

5,12 

5.20 

5..33 

6.03 

6,20 

6,33 

6.55 

7.12 

7,32 

8,01 

8,23 

8.38 

8,53 

9,06 

9,25 

9.42 



11.56 

12.05 P.M. 

12.15 

12,20 

12,25 

12.33 

12.42 

12.53 

1,05 

1.16 

1.40 
Express. 

1.45 P.M. 

2,10 

2.21 

2.26 

2.42 

3.00 

3.08 

3,38 

3.51 

4,04 

4,18 

4,31 

4,48 

4.58 

5.12 

5.20 

5,.33 

6.03 

6.20 

6..35 

6.55 

7.16 

7.41 

8.17 

8.37 

8.50 

9.03 

9.14 

9,.30 

9,46 



10.15 A.M 

10,30 

11,04 

11.27 

11.53 

12,27 P.M. 

1.13 

1.37 

2,00 

2. .35 

3.06 

3.38 

4.00 

4.25 

4.40 

4.58 

5.12 

5.25 

5.42 

5.61 

5.56 

6.12 

6,.33 

6.42 

7.10 



11.12 
11.23 
11.35 
11.42 
11.48 
11.67 

12(1.1 A.M. 

i2.l.% 

12.45 
1,15 



an 



•5i5 



7.40 

7,51 

8,27 

8,35 

9.00 

9.27 

9.48 
10.14 
10.25 
10.45 P.M, 



10.15 P.M. 

10,40 

11,10 

11..30 

11.53 

12,25 A.M. 

1.07 

1.28 

1,46 

2,24 

3;oi 

3. .38 

3.58 

4.22 

4.27 

4.45 

4-59 

5.13 

5.29 

5.38 

5.43 

5,59 

6,21 

6.28 

6.53 

8.10 

7..39 

7.49 

8.23 

8.31 

8.56 

9.25 

9.47 
10.13 
10.25 
10.45 A.M. 



Through Time, from New York to Chicago, 1st Express, 39 hrs., 45 min., 2d Express, 40 hrs., 45 min. 

(a) Ferry Boat over Hudson. 

(6) New Jersei/ Railroarl. between Jersey City and New Brunswick. 

(c) Camden and Amboy Railroad, between New Brunswick and Camden. 

(rf) Ferry Boat over Delaware, then take Omnibus. 

(c) Take Omnibus. 

(/) Pennsi/lvania Central Railroad, between Philadelphia and Pittsbiirg. Leave Depot Eleventh and 
Market Streets. Philadelphia time is five minutes slower than New York time. 

(,(?) Take meals at Altooua. Altoona time is ten minutes slower than Philadelphia time. 

(h) Branch Railroad. 

(i) Run into same Depot as the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad. Change cars. Pittsburg 
time is twenty minutes slower than Philadelphia time. 

(i) Pitlshurji, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, between Pittsburg and Chicago. Trains run by Columbus 
time, which is thirty-six minutes slower than New York. 

(j) Meals at Alliance, Crestline, Fort Wayne and Plymouth. 

Ik) Chicago time is forty-nine minutes slower than Philadelphia time. 

(k) Bun into same Depot as Chicago, Alton, and St. Louis Railroad, at Canal and Van Buren Btreeta. 



TIME TABLE-CHICAGO TO PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK. 


STATIONS. 
Chicago, (n) 

Leave. 
Rock Island Junction. 

Aincsworth 

Clarke 


Express. 

I'.M. 

7.12 

7.30 

7.43 

8.10 

8.32 

9.00 

9.22 

9.30 
10.01 
10.11 
10.36 
11.04 
11.11 
11.32 
11.47 
11.52 

12.01 A.M. 
12.19 
12..33 
12.47 

1.05 

1..34 

1.55 

2.24 

2.55 

3.31 

3..52 

4.16 

5.05 

5.38 

5.59 

6.19 

6.50 A.M. 

7.20 

7.59 
8.19 
8.39 
8.53 
9.26 

9.50 
10.19 
10.57 
11.18 
11.33 
11.48 

12.a3 P.M. 
12.18 
12.32 
12.40 
12.53 

1.20 

1.32 

1.44 

1.56 

2.07 

2.32 

2.40 


Express. 

A.M. 

0.12 

6.30 

0.43 

7.09 

7..30 

7..'iS 

8.16 

8.23 

8..'54 

9.04 

9.30 
10.00 
10.07 
10.30 
10.47 
10.52 
11.01 
11.19 
11.33 
11.47 

12.05 P.M. 
12.43 

1.02 

1.30 

1.58 

2.30 

2.49 

.3.12 

s.as 

4.37 
4.50 
5.10 
5.40 
6.20 

7.04 
7.19 
7.30 
7.57 


d 

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Sn 
It 

■"12! 

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15 
< 

Mail. 
6.00 A.M. 
6.25 
6.37 
6.49 
7.02 
7.08 
7.15 
7.21 
7.27 
7.35 
7.44 


STATIONS. 


6.28 
6.40 
6.47 
6.55 
7.06 
7.10 
7.20 

7.30 

7.52 

7.57 

8.06 

8.16 

8.24 

8.30 

8..38 

8.45 

8.,« 

9.10 

9.22 

940 P. 

9.57 
10.02 
10.10 
10.17 
10..33 
10.;58 
10.45 
11.00 
11.11 
11.26 
11.33 
11.45 
11.55 

12.06 A.M. 
12.25 
12.48 

1.02 

l.U 

1.21 

1.31 

1.40' 

1.50 

1..58 

2.07 

2..30 

2.40 

3.01 

3.23 

3..38 

3.48 

4.03 

4.08 

4.35 

5.07 

5.37 

6.50 A.M. 

9.00 A.M. 
10.05 
10.28 
10.43 


4.33 
4.44 
4.52 
5.00 

5.12 

5.16 

5.25 

5.36 

5.50 

6.00 

6.10 

6.20 

6..30 

6.37 

6.47 

6..M 

7.01 

7.24 

7.40 

8.00 A.M. 

8.17 

8.22 

8..30 

8.37 

8.53 

8..58 

9.06 

9.21 

9.32 

9.46 

9..53 
10.05 
10.15 
10.25 
10.43 
11.07 
11.20 
11. .30 
11.40 
11.50 
12.00 

12.10 P.M. 
12.18 
12.26 
12..i0 

1.05 

1.25 

1.45 

2.00 

2.10 

2.25 

2.30 

2.56 

8.23 

3.50 

5.00 P.M. 

6.00 P.M. 
7.00 
7.25 
7.43 


7.50 
8.ft3 
8.12 
8.22 

8..35 

8. .39 

8.49 

9.00 

9.22 

9.27 

9,40 
9..52 
10.00 
10.10 
10.23 
10.32 
10.40 
11.00 
11.15 
11..35 
11..55 
12.00 

12.10 p.m. 
12.19 
12..35 
12.43 
12.,52 

1.10 

1.23 

1.40 

1.48 

2.02 

2.15 

2.28 

2..'iO 

3.18 

3..33 

3.46 

4.00 

4.12 

4.25 

4.39 

4..W 

5.00 

5..30 

5.50 

6.12 

6..3S 

6..50 

7.02 

7.18 

7.25 

7..'i5 

8..30 

9.00 
10.25 P.M. 

•§£: = 
«'."£ = 

^i^ 


Derrv 


Hillside 


Blairsvllle Branch.... 
Bolivar 


Ilobart 

Valparaiso 

■\Vanatah 

Morean 

Stark 


Lockjiort 


New Florence 








Mineral Point 

Slimmer Hill.. 


Plymouth 

Bourbon 


P(jrtaie 

Lilly's 




Kosciusko 

Pierceton ... 

Huntsvillc 




Galitzin 


Kittanning Point 


Columbia 


Cocsse 


Leave 


Fort Wayne (6) 


Tipton 


Dixon 


Birmingham 


Van Wert 


Delphos 

Lima 






Lafavctte 






Mill Creek.. 


Forest 


Mount Union 

Newton Hamilton 


Upper Sandusky 


Bucvrus 




Crestline 




Leave.... 
Richland (c) 




Mifflin 








Thompsontown 

Millerstown 


Perrvsville 


Loudonville 




Clinton 


Bailey's 


Millbrook 




Wooster 

Orville 


8.17 
8.45 
9.26 
9.49 
10.06 
10.22 










Canton 


Leave 


Louisville 


Elirabethtown 

Mount Joy 


Alliance (rf)... 


Leave.... 
Smithfleld... 


10.38 
10.52 
11.00 
11.13 
11.38 
11.50 

12.02 A.M. 
12.15 
12.27 
12.54 
1.02 


Dillerville 






Leaman Place 


Columbiana 

New Waterford 


Downinetown 

Philadel'a.(/).. 

Leave for.... 




Darliniton 


New Brighton 

Rochester 










Economy 

Lcct 


2.57 
3.07 
3.12 
3.17 
3.27 
4.50 

Express. 
4.50 P.M. 
5.13 
5,23 
5.33 
5.43 
5.47 
5.54 
5.59 
6.04 
6.11 
6.20 


1.19 
1.28 
1.33 
1.38 
1.47 
2.10 

Fast. 
3.00 A.M. 
3.21 
3.31 
3.41 
3.50 
3.54 
4.01 
4.06 
4.11 
4.18 
4.26 










Sewicklcy 




Haysville 


Bristol 




Pittsburg, (e).... 

Leave .... 






11.07 


8.07 








^ 


Brintons 


New Brunswick 


11.55 


8.55 

9.20 

9.30 

9.40 
10.05 
10.15 P.M. 


Stewarts 








Manor 




12.20 
12.30 
12.40 

1.05 

1.15 P.M. 




Elizabeth City 


Radcbauch'i 


Grecnsburg 


Jersey City 

Foot Courtland street. 
New York. (A)... 




Bcatty's 








Through Time, from Chicago to Ne 
(«) Depot Canal and Van Burcn streets, 
(a) J'itl.ihurcj. Fnrt U'ai/ne aiul Chiriiqn 1 
(6) Stop — minutes at Fort Wavnc. fi.r n 
(c) Trains run l)y Columbus time, wliich 

(e) Run into Depot of Pennsylvania Cen 

(e) Pennsi/lvania Central HaUniad. fn.i 

(?) Cam<li-ii aii'l Amhrii/ Jiaitroail. to Xe 
(/) Philadulpliia time is fortv-ninc niinu 
(A) New York time U fifty-four minutes 


w York, Ist Express, 39 hrs., 48 m 

?ni7road to Pittsburg. 
leals. 

is thirty-six minutes slower than 

oona. 

ral Railroad— change cars, 
s faster than Chicago time. 
1 Pittsburg to Philadelphia. 
t over Delaware, 
w Brunswick and New York. 
tcs faster than Chicaeo time, 
aster than Chicago time. 


In., 2d Ex 
New Yorl 


prese, 40 hi 
I. 


B.,43inin. 



DIVEHG-ING RAILROADS. 

The following Railroads diverge, at the points named, from the great Ocn- 
trnl Line between New York and Chicago: 

Ke'wark. — Morris and Essex Railroad, for Hackettstown, (53 miles.) 
Elizabeth City. — New Jersey Central Railroad, for Easton (62 miles) and 

Elizaljethport, (2 miles.) 
Trenton.— Belvidere and Delaware Railroad, for Easton, (64 miles.) 

" Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, for Philadelphia, (30 miles.) 

Burlington. — Burlington and Mt. Holly Railroad, for Mt. Holly, (6 miles.) 
Camden. — West Jer^ey Railroad, for VVoodbury, (9 miles.) 

" Camden and Atlantic, for Atlantic City, (61 miles.) 

Pliiladelphia, — Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, for Reading and Pottsville, 
(94 miles.) 
" Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, for Baltimore, (98 miles.) 

" North Pennsylvania Railroad, for Bethlehem (52 miles) and 

Doylestown, (33 miles.) 
" West Chester Railroad, for West Chester, (27 miles.) 

" Philadelphia and Norristown Railroad, for Germantown (7 

miles) and Norristown, (17 miles.) 
" Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, for Trenton, (30 miles.) 

Harrisburg. — Cumberland Valley Railroad, for Carlisle (34 miles) and Cham- 
bersburg, (52 miles.) 
" Northern Central Railroad, for Sunbury (54 miles) and Balti- 

more, (82 miles.) 
" Lebanon Valley Railroad, for Reading, (54 miles.) 

" Schuylkill and Susquehanna Railroad, for Auburn, (59 miles.) 

Huntington. — Huntington and Broad Top Railroad, for Bedford, (31 miles.) 
Altoona. — Penn'a Branch Railroad, for Hollidayshurg, (7 miles.) 
Intersection. — do. do. for Indiana, (19 miles.) 

Pittsburg. — Allegheny Valley Ptailroad, for Kittanning, (44 miles.) 

" Connelsville Railroad, for Connelsville, (60 miles.) 

Rocliester. — Cleveland and Pittsburg Radroad, for Wheeling, (65 miles.) 
Alliance. — do. do. for Wellsville (45 miles) and 

Cleveland, (56 miles.) 
OrrviUe. — Cleveland and Cincinnati Railroad, for Cleveland (64 miles) and 

Millersburg, (23 miles.) 
Mansfield. — Sandusky and Newark Railroad, for Sandusky (54 'miles) and 

Newark, (62 miles.) 
Crestline. — Bellefontuine Line, for Indianapolis, (206 miles.) 

" Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, for Cleveland (75 

miles) and Columbus, (60 miles.) 
Forest. — Sandutdiy, Dayton and Cincinnati Railroad, fur Sandusky (61 miles) 

and Dayton (93 miles.) 
Lima. — Dayton and Michigan Railroad, for Dayton (71) and Toledo, (70 miles.) 
Fort "Wayne. — Toledo, Wabash and Western Railroad, for Toledo (94 miles) 

and Springfield, (269 miles.) 
Roselle. — New Albany and Salem Railroad, for Michigan City (21 miles) and 

New Albany, (267 miles.) 
Rock Island Junction. — Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, for Rock Island 

(182 miles) and Iowa City, (238 miles.) 
Cliicago. — Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, for Milwaukee, (85 miles.) 
" Alton and St. Louis Railroad, for St. Louis, (281 miles.) 

" Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, for Dubuque, (188 miles.) 

" Illinois Central Railroad, for Cairo, (365 miles.) 

" Michigan Central Railroad, for Detroit, (284 miles.) 

** St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad, for Prairie du Chien, (229 miles.) 

" Burlington and Quincy Railroad, for Burlington (210 miles) and 

Quincy, (268 miles.) 
" IMichigan Southern Railroad, for Toledo, (244 miles.) 

" Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, for Oshkosh, (194 miles.) 

" Chicago, Fulton and Iowa Line Railroad, for Fulton, (136 miles.) 



LAWS GOfEMliG RAILROAD TRAVELLERS. 

The traveller may rely upon the following rules. They are severally based 
upon legal decisions : 

Ist. Tickets are good only during the time for which they are issued. 

2d. Railroad Companies can exact extra fare from passengers who do not 
purchase their tickets in the offices. 

3d. Tickets must be shown to the conductor as often as required. 

4th. Tlie right of the Companies to place passengers in such cars of the train 
as they may designate, cannot be questioned. 

5th. Railroad Companies cannot be held responsible for the safety of baggage 
left on the seats of passenger cars. 

6th. Railroad Companies assume the responsibility of taking care of baggage 
only when they give to the owner their check therefor ; and they can limit that 
responsibility to a certain amount. 

7th. Violation of the proper rules of the train (such as standing on the plat- 
form, &c.,) debars the passenger from recovering for any accident which may 
happen to him. 

8th. Damages may be recovered for injuries resulting from the carelessness 
or ignorance of any of the employees of the company, or by the neglect of that 
company to retain its cars, machinery, &c., in proper travelling order. 

9th. Passengers who are permitted to ride on freight trains, and pay the com- 
pany or its agents therefor, can recover fur accidents resulting from the causes 
already mentioned. 

10th. The General Railroad Law of the State of Pennsylvania prohibits com- 
panies from charging more than three fsnts per mile for through, and three and 
a half cents per mile for local, travel. 

11th. Residents, who allow their cattle to encumber the tracks of railroads, 
are liable for any damages which may result to the property of the company. 

Both Court decisions and legislative enactments have, as yet, failed to accu- 
rately define the rights of travellers, and the liability of companies. In different 
parts of the Union, opinions diametrically the opposite of each other have been 
given, on certain points. The above rules are among those which have been 
most clearly defined. 



THE TIME AT THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

As compared with Noon at New Yoi*k. 

NOON AT NEW YORK. 



Augusta, 


11 30 A.M. 


Charleston, 


11 37 A.M. 


Pittsburg, 


11 35 A.M. 


Boston, 


12 12 P.M. 


Detroit, 


11 24 A.M. 


Philadelphia, 


n 55 A.M. 


Buffalo, 


11 42 a.m. 


Halifax, 


1 C6 P.M. 


Portland, 


12 15 P.M. 


Burling'n, NJ 


.1157 a.m. 


Harrisburg, 


1149 A.M. 


Richmond, 


1 1 46 A M 


Baltimorp, 


11 50 a.m. 


Indianapolis, 


11 15 A.M. 


St. Paul, 


10 45 A.M 


Columbus, 


11 25 A.M. 


Lancaster, Pa 


, 11 51 A.M. 


St. Louis, 


10 55 A.M 


Cleveland, 


11 30 A.M. 


Louisville, 


11 14 a.m. 


Toronto, Can., 


11 39 A.M 


OhiL-ago, 


11 06 A.M. 


Milwaukee, 


10 55 A.M. 


Trenton, 


] 1 58 A.M 


Cincinnati, 


11 19 a.m. 


Newark, N. J 


, 11 59 A.M. 


Wheeling, 


11 33 A.M 


Columbus, 0. 


, 11 24 a.m. 


New Orleans, 


10 56 A.M. 










NOON AT 


CHICAGO 






Boston, 


I 06 P.M. 


Detroit, 


12 18 P.M. 


'Philadelphia, 


12 49 p.M 


BuHalo, 


12 36 P.M. 


Halifax, 


2 00 P.M. 


Portland, 


1 09 p.M 


Baltimore, 


12 44 P.M. 


Indianapolis, 


12 09 P.M. 


St. Louis, 


11 49 A.M 



Cleveland, 12 24 p.m. New York, 12 54 p.m.] Toronto, Can., 12 33 p.m. 



j^Xji^ji^isTj^G iFOiR iseo. 











>i' . 












>% 
















^ 






1860. 


>> 

a 

3 


■73 

a 
o 

1^ 


>^ 

S3 
T3 
to 

3 

H 


Wednesda 
Thursday. 


Friday. 
Saturday. 


1860. 
May, 


n3 

□ 


cS 

■a 
c 



0) 

3 


CO 

1> 
a 
'a 

2 


OS 

s> 

3 

-a 
3 


73. 
4 


es 

t- 
3 

5 


1800 
Sep. 


>> 

OS 
'O 

C 

3 
03 


-a 



-a 

3 


; 1 Wednesda 
: 1 Thursday. 


73. 
'Z. 


cS 

u 
3 

1 


Jan. 


1 


2 


3 4' 5 6 7 




.. 1 




8 


9 


10 11 12 13 14 




'h 


7 8 


9 


10 


11 


12 




*2 


'3 


'4 


5 6 


'7 


8 




15 16 17'18 19 20 21 




13 


14 15 


16 


17 


18 


19 




9 


10 


11 


12 13 


14 


15 




22123 24 25 26 27 ;28 




20 


2122 


23 


24 


25 


26 




16 


17 


18 


19 20 


21 


22 




293031 


1 
I 








27 


28 29 


30 


31 








23 
30 


24 


25 


26 27 


28 


29 


Feb. 








1^ 2 


3 


4 


June, 


.. 








1 


2 


Oct. 


1 




.-1 


3' 4 


5 


6 




*5 


"& 


7 


8 9il0 


11 




'3 


*4'*5 


*6 


'7 


8 


9 




"7 


8 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 




12113 


14;15 16|17 


18 




10 


1112 


13 


14 


15 


16 




14 


15 


16 


17 18 


19 


20 




1920 


2122 23 24 


25 




17 


18 19 


20 


21 


22 


23 




21 


22 


23 


24 25 


26 


27 




26127 


28 29, 








24 


25 26 


27 


28 


29 


30 




28 


29 


30 


31 








Mar. 






.. .. 1 


2 


3 


July, 














Nov 








. . 


1 


2 


a 




4 


'5 


6 7 8 


9 


10 




1 


2 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 




*4 


'5 


"6 


7: 8 


9 


10 




11 


12 13 14 15 


16 17 




8 


9 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 




11 


12 


13 


1415 


16 


17 




18!l9j20 2122l23|24 




15 


16 17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




18 


19 


20 


2122 


23 


24 




25:26|27;28 29:30131 




22 


23 24 


25 


26 


27 


28 




25 


26 


27 


28 29 


30 










1 








29 


30 31 










Dec. 


, , 




, , 






^ , 


1 


Apr. 


1 


2 3 


4' 5 


6 


7 


Aug. 


, , 


.... 


1 


2 


3 






2 




4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




8 


9 1011 12'13 


14 




5 


6 7 


8 


9 


10 


11 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 




15;i6;17 18 19 20 21 




12 


1314 


15 


16 


17 


18 




16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 




2223 


24 25 26 27 28 




19 20 21 


22 


23 


24 


25 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


'29'30 


1 • 1 1 




20 27 28 


29 30 


31 






30 


31 













RE-ORGANIZATION. 



Since the issue of this work from press, 
the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago 
Railroad has passed into the hands of the 
following named gentlemen : 

President — J. Edgar Thomson. 

President pro tern. "> ^ m r^ 

andOenSupt. | George W. Cass. 

Receiver — Wm. B. Ogden, Chicago. 
Auditor — G. D. Messier, Pittsburg. 
Treasurer — J. P. Henderson, " 
General Pass. Agent — J. J. Houston. 



RAILllOAD OFF I GEES. 



CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 

E. A. Stevens, President. Now York. W'm. II. Qatzmer, Ascnt. Philadelphia; J. Buss, Accnt, New 
York. R. S. Van Rennselaer, General Superintendent, Bordeutown. S. V. Batard, Sec'y. 

NEW JERSEY RAILROAD. 

J. S. Darct, President, Newark, N. J. J. P. Jackson, Vice-President and Superintendent, and J. W, 
AVooDRUPF, Assistant Superintendent, Jersey City, N. J. 

PENNSYLVANIA CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

President, J. Kdgar Thomson. Vice-President, Wm. B. Foster, Jr. Tre.isurer, Thomas T. Firth. 
Secretary, Edmund Smith. Controller and Auditor, Herman J. Lomiiaert. General Superintend- 
ent, THO.MAS A. Scott. General Ticket Af;ent, Lewis L. IIi)U1>t. General Freight Agent, E. J. 
Sneedee. A.ssistant Surerintcndents. George C. Ffanciscus. A. L. Koumfort, A. Carnaoie. 
Refident Engineer, W. 11. Wilson. Master of Machinery, George \V. Gkier. Foreman of Car 
Shops, Ambrose Ward. Engineer and Superintendent of Canal Department, Thomas X. WiERMAJf. 

PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 

J. Edgar Thomson, Pres't, Philadelphia, Pa. T. Haskins Du Put, Acting Pres't, Pittsl.urg. Pa. John D. 
Anderson, General Superintendent. ChicaL'o. Jos. H. Moore, Sui erintcndent ICastern Division, 
Cre^tllue. J. N. Dubarry, Superintendent Western Division. A. Adams Bean, Master Transport;v- 
tion, Eastern Division. John J. Houston, General Freight and Passenger Agent, Pittsburg, Pa. 

ST. LOUIS, ALTON AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 

President, J. A. Matteson. Gen'l Superintendent, R. E. Goodell, Bloomington, 111. Ass't Superin't, 
N. H. Moore. Gen'l Ticket Agent, S. A. Williams. 

CLEVELAND AND PITTSBURG RAILROAD. 

J. N. McCni.LOUGH, President and Superintendent. C. E. Gorham, Assistant Superintendent. E. 
Rockwell, Secretary. W. W. Chandler, General Freight Agent. F. R. Myers, General Ticket 
Agent, Cleveland, Ohio. 

HUNTINGDON AND BROAD-TOP RAILWAY. 

L. T. Watson, President, Philadelphia. J. J. Lawrence, Superintendent, Huntingdon. 

CUMBERLAND VALLEY RAILWAY. 

Fred. A. Watts, Presideiit, Carlisle, Pa. 0. X. Lull, t^uperintoudent, Chambersburg. 

NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILWAY. 

John S. Gittixgs, President, Baltimore. A. B. Warpord, Superintendent, Harrisburg. John T. 
RiGNEY, Assi^tant Superinteudint. R. S. IIOLLINS, Secretary. J. S. Leib, Treasurer, Baltimoie 
Md. J. H. Warner, Ticket Age-it. 

PHILADELPHIA, WILMINGTON AND BALTIMORE RAILWAY. 

Samuel M. Fki.ton. President and Supfrintendcnt. E. Q. ."^ewall. Jr., (icntral Ticket Agent. II. F. 
Ke.nnet, General Freight Agent. Ch.^Rles Ghaaf, Secretary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PITTSBURG, COLUMBUS AND CINCINNATI RAILWAY. 

Hon. T. L. Jewett, President and General Superintendent. J. D. Layno, Assistant Superintendent. 
J. G. Morris, Secretary and Treasurer. L. Devennv, GcnenJ Freight Agent, Steubenville, Ohio. 
iRA A. Hutchinson, General Ticket Agent, Columbus, Ohio. 

SANDUSKY, DAYTON AND CINCINNATI RAILWAY. 
Oran Follftt, President. John H. Hudson, Superintendent, Sandusky. M. G. Clapp, Ticket Agent. 

OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RAILWAY. 

H. Bacon, President of Eastern Division, .*t, L'uis. S. L. M. Barlow. President Western Division, Xew 
York. Wm. II. Clement, General Superintendent, Cincinriati, Ohio. T. LouoH, General Freight 
Agent, Ciucinnati, Ohio. Capt. George W. Ford, Gtuerul Ticket Agent, St. Louis, Mo. 



8 RAILROAD OFFICERS. 

BELLEFONTAINE RAILROAD LINE, 

Composed of the Bellefontaine and Indiana, and Indianapolis, Pltlshurg and 
Cleveland Railways. 

John Brough, Presiilent and General Superintendent, Cleveland, Ohio. John Canht, Assistant Super- 
intendent, Bellefontaine. L. S. Elliott, General Agent. J. F. Boyd, General Ticket Agent. E. S, 
Spencer, General Freight Agent. Jj. S. Elliott, General Travelling Agent, Indianapolis. 

CLEVELAND, COLUMBUS AND CINCINNATI RAILWAY. 

L. M. HUBBT, President, Cieveland, Ohio. E. S. Flint, Superintendent, Cleveland, Ohio. H. C. 
Marshall, General Ticket Agent, Cleveland, Ohio. 

TERRE HAUTE, ALTON AND ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 

Wm. D. OniswoLD, President and General Superintendent, Terre Haute, Ind. Henry C. Moork. Super- 
intendent Western Division, St. Louis, Mo. John W. Conlogue, Superintendent Eastern Division 
Terre Haute, Ind. R. Tonset, Secretary and Treasurer, Terre Haute, lud. H. Q. S^NOErson 
General Ticket Agent. 

IL INOIS CENTRAL RAILWAY. 

Wm. H. Osborn-e, President, New York city. G. B. McClellan, Vice-President, Chicaj^o, 111. J. C. 
Jacods, Superintendent Northern Division, Amboy, 111. W. R. Arthur. General Superintendent, 
Chicago, 111. Robert Forstth, General Freight Agent. W. P. Johnson, General Passenger Agent, 
Chicago, 111. 

CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAILWAY. 

Jas. S. Jot, President, Chicaso, 111. C. G. Hammond, Superintendent, Chicago, 111. H. Hitchcock, 
Assistant Superintendent, Galesburg, 111. C. W. Mead, Assistant Superintendent, Quincy, 111. 

TOLEDO, WABASH AND WESTERN RAILWAY. 

A. Boony, President, New York City. W. Colbup.n, Vice-President, Geo. II. Borrows, General Super- 
intendent. G. W. Bartlett, General Ticket Agent, Toledo. 

GREAT WESTERN (ILL.) RAILWAY. 

L. TiLTON, President, Springfield, 111. B. Stookwell, Jr., Superintendent, Springfield. C. A. Wilson, 
General Ticket Agent, Springfield, 111. 

CHICAGO AND ROCK ISLAND RAILWAY LIKE, 

Composed of Chicago & Rock Island, Peoria & Bureau Valley, and Mississippi 

& Missouri Raihoays. 

HeNrt Farnoti, President Chicago and Rock Island Railway, Chicago. John A. Dis, President Missis- 
sippi and Missouri Railway, New York. John F. Tracv, General Superintendent, Chicago. W. ii. 
Whitman, Assistant Superintendent, Rock Island. W. L. St. John, General Ticket Agent, Chicago. 
J. L. Elwood, General Freight Agent, Chicago. 

CENTRAL OHIO RAILWAY. 

H. J. Jewett, President and Superintendent, Zanesville, Ohio. J. W. Brown, General Ticket Agent, 
and D. S. Qrat, General Freight Agent, Columbus, Ohio. 

TERF.E HAUTE AND RICHMOND RAILWAY. 
E. J. Peck, President and Superintendent. 0. Wood, Secretary, Terre Haute, Ind. 

GALENA AND CHICAGO UNION RAILWAY. 

W. L. Newberry, President. Wm. H. Brown, Vice-President. E. B. Talcott, General Superintendent. 
H. H. Porter, General Ticket Agent. A. W. Adams, General Freight Agent. W. M. Larraea, 
Secretary. Henry Tucker, Treasurer. Geo. M. Wheeler, Auditor. 

LITTLE MIAMI, AND COLUMBUS AND ZENIA RAILWAY. 

J. Strader, President L. M. R. R.. Cincinnati. W. Dennison, Jr., President C. & Z. R. R., Columbus 
John Kilgour, Secretary L. M. R. R,, Cincinnati. Cyrus Fat, Secretary C. & Z. R. R., Columbus 
John Ddrand, Superintendent, Cincinnati, Ohio. 0. S. Pease, Master Transportation. 

PACIFIC RAILWAY. 

D. B. Garrison, Vice-President. T. McKissock, Superintendent. E. W. Wallace, Gen. Ticket Agent. 

MOBILE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 

Hon. Milton Brown, Pres't. L. J. Fleming, Chief Engineer and Gen. Sup't, Mobile, Ala 



ii. 




a I. Mill 13 Liliii 



BETWEEN NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, PITTSBURG AND CHICAGO. 




I €1^'^'' 



1 Jl « 



]\[YNnEER Hendrick Hudson, when he sailed up the river which now 
bears liis name, in the good old-fashioned days of 1609, never dreamed, 
that upon its banks would rise a city of stupendous magnitude. He saw 
only a nearly level tract of land wearing the appearance of a Peninsula, 
but in fact an Island. But, Hendrick, a portion of whose previous years 
had been spent among the polar bears of the Greenland coast, probably 
thouglit the spot sufficiently attractive, to make a favorable report to his 
employers — the Dutch East India Company. The consequence was, the 
exportation of a lot of genuine Dutchmen, who palavered with the Indians 
in the most incomprehensible manner, and, after the lapse of forty-four 
years, found themselves in possession of one hundred and twenty dwellings 
constituting "New Amsterdam." The Duke of York, in 1664, with a 
remarkable lack of politeness, seized the place, and "presto,''^ it became 
"New York." It once again passed into the hands of the original pro- 
prietors, but they retained it but for a single year. Finally in 1783, the 
Spirit of Liberty determined that the British should yield it up to be a 
great Commercial Metropolis of this fost Country. Forthwith colonizers 
flocked thick and fast, and at the present day the city covers a space 
nearly fourteen miles long and two miles wide. So much for the history 
of New York. 



10 



THE LIGHTNING LINE. — NEW YORK CITY. 



BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF NEW YORK. 

On Broadway, in the centre of the Park, stands the City Hall, to the new 
cupola of which the stranger can ascend. The old cupola was destroyed 
by fire on the celebration of the laying of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable 
in 1859. From here a bird's-eye view can be obtained of the city. To 
the south, the Battery, with Castle Garden, (the emigrant depot,) termi- 
nates the Peninsula, beyond which lies ^ew York Bay — the waters of 
which lave Long Island on the left, and the shores of Hudson County, 
New Jersey, on the right. To the extreme south, is Staten Island with 
its heights. Over the East River is Brooklyn, with its spires, domes, 
merchant's palaces and private buildings, bidding fair to follow in the 
footsteps of its great predecessor. Almost adjoining it, on a prominent 
point of land, is Williamsburg, a city in itself. Turning from these, and 
looking at an exactly opposite point of the compass, over the Hudson 
River find Jersey City, with the immense arched depot of the New Jersey 
Railroad Company in its foreground. Between all these places and the 
forest of masts which mark the outline of the New York wharves, steam- 
boats ply continually. Innumerable vessels bound for ports far over 
distant waters, whiten the Bay with their sails, or darken the atmosphere 
with puffs of smoke from their mighty engine fires. It is these floating 
monarchs, with their many-colored flags, which have made the "Empire 
City" what it is— which have supplied wealth to build up the palaces of 
Broadway — of Wall street, and of the Avenues — which have created stu- 
pendous warehouses, steepled churches, and brilliant theatres. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS, &C., OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



City Hall— Park. Is 216 feet long, by 

105 feet wide. 
Custom House. Wall & Nassau streets. 

Cost .$1,200,000. 
Merchant's Exchange. Wall st. opposite 

Custom House. Cost $1,800,000. 
Post Office. Nassau and Liberty streets. 

Open from 8 A. M. to 6^ P. M. 
U. S. Assay Office. 30 Wall street. Open 

on Wednesdays from 10 A. M. to 

12 M. 
Blind Institution. 9th Avenue near W. 

34th street Open Tuesdays from 9 

A. M. to 6 P. M. 
House of Refuge. Randall's Island. 

Open at all times. 
Penitentiary. Randall's Island. 2d Mon- 
day in April, July, October and 

January. 
Free Academy. Corner E. 23d street 

and Lexington Avenue. 



Young Men's Christian Association, 817 

Broadway. Open daily 8^ A. M. to 

10 P. M. 
Mercantile Library. Astor Place. 
City Library. 12 City Hall. Free to all 

from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. 
Trinity Church. Broadway, cor. Rector 

street. Cost $400,000. 
Grace Church, (white marble.) 800 

Broadway. 
Five Points House of Industry. No. 155 

Worth street. 
Newsboy's Lodging House. 128 Fulton st. 
New York Home Missionary Society. 

Five Points. 
New York University. Washington Sq. 

near Waverly Place, 
Greenwood Cemetery. Gowanus Heights. 

Brooklyn, (Atlantic Ferry.) 
Croton River Reservoir. 44 miles north 

of city. 



NEW YORK CITY. — PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 



11 



Distributing Reservoir, 
and Fortieth street. 



THEATRES, &c. 

Academy of Music, East 14tli and Irving 

Place. 
Winter Garden. 
Niblo's Garden, Broadway. 
Laura Keene's Theatre, Broadway. 
Wallack's Theatre, Broadway. 
Bowery Theatre, Bowery. 
New Bowery Theatre, Bowery. 
Barnum's Museum, opposite City Hall. 
French Theatre, Broadway, opposite 

Metropolitan. 
German Theatre, 37 and 39 Bowery. 

CITY RAILROADS. 

Harlem Railroad. From Park Row to 
Centre, to Grand, to Bowery, to 4th 
avenue, to East 27th street, return- 
ing through Broome to Centre, to 
Park Place. Fare 6 cts. 

Eighth Avenue Railroad. Vesey to 
Church, to Chambers, to West 
Broadway, to Canal, to Hudson, 
to 8th avenue, to West 59th street, 
returning same way. Fare -5 cts. 

Sixth Avenue Railroad. Vesey to Church, 
to Chambers, to West Brosulway, to 
Canal, to Varrick, to Carmine, to 
6th avenue, to West 59th street, 
returning same way. Fare 5 cts. 

Third Avenue Railroad. Ann to Park 
Row. to Chatham, to Bowery, to 
Third avenue, to Yorkville, returning 
same way. Fare 6 cts. 

TELEGRAPH OFFICES. 

To Albany and East 21 AVall street. 

City Telegraph, " " 

New York and Erie " " 

Sandy Hook " «' 

West and North " " 

New England 23 " 

Washington " " 

New Orleans '♦ '* 

LIBRARIES. 

Astor, Lafayette Place. Free. 

Apprentices, 472 Broadway. 

City, City Hall. Free. 

Catholic, 809 Broadway. 

American Institute, Cooper Institute. 

PROMINENT NEWSPAPERS. 

New York Herald, Nassau and Fulton Sts. 
'• Tribune, 154 Nassau street. 

" Times, Spruce and Nassau Sts. 

" Post, Nassau and Liberty Sts. 



Fifth Avenue New York Sun, 91 Nassau, 124 Fulton Sts. 
\ Courier and Inquirer, 162 Pearl and 273 
Broadway. 

Express, I'J Park Row. 

Staats Zeitung (German) 17 Chatham Sts. 

Journal of Commerce, 91 Wall street. 

News, 41 Park Row. 

New York Democrat (German) 77 Chat- 
ham street. 

Dispatch, 22 Beekman street. 

American Railroad Journal, 9 Spruce St. 

Courier Dcs Etats Unis (French) 73 
Franklin street. 

Harper's Weekly, 33] Pearl. 

The Independent, 5 Beekman. 

New York Ledger, 44 Ann Street. 

MAGAZINE OFFICES. 

Harper's Monthly, 331 Pearl street. 
Hunt's Merchants' 142 Fulton street. 
Great Republic, 112 William street. 
Leslie's New Family, 13 Frankfort. 
Edinburg Review, 54 Gold street. 
Blackwood's, 54 Gold street. 
Eclectic, 5 Beekman street. 
Knickerbocker, 16 Jacob street. 
London Art Journal, 26 John street. 
" Quarterly Review, 54 Gold. 
North British " " 

Phrenological Journal, 308 Broadway. 
Westminster Review, 54 Gold street. 

FERRIES. 

To Brooklyn from Catharine slip. 

" " Fulton street. 

" " Roosefelt street. 

" " Wall street. 

" " Whitehall. 

To Jersey City from foot Courtland St. 
•To Hobokeu " Barclay street. 

" " Canal street. 

" " Christopher St. 

To Staten Island " Whitehall. 
To Williamsburg " Grand street. 

" " Houston street. 

" " Peck slip. 

" " James street. 

To Elizabethport from Pier No. 2 North 

River. 
Greenpoint from foot 10th street. 
Hamilton avenue from foot Whitehall. 
Fort Lee, Pier 43 North River. 
To Calvary Cemetery from foot E. 23d St. 

RAILROAD PASSENGER DEPOTS. 

For Philadelphia, (New Jersey Railroad) 

Foot Courtland street. 
For Philadelphia, (Camden and Amboy 

Railroad) Pier No. 1 North River. 
For Easton (New Jersey Central Railroad) 

Pier No. 2 North River. 



12 



NEW YORK CITY. — PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 



For Jamaica, (Long Island Railroad) 
South Ferry, foot "Whitehall. 

For Albany, (Hudson River Railroad) 
Canal and West Streets. 

For Morristown, (Morris and Essex) 
Foot Courtland street. 

For Dunkirk, (New York and Erie Rail- 
road) Foot Duane street. 

For Harlem and Albany (New York and 
Harlem Railroad) 4th avenue and 
East 26th street. 

For New Haven (New York and New 
Haven) 4th Av. and East 27th St. 

For Boston, Pier No. 2 North River. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 

Annunciation, 110 West 14th street. 
All Saints, 286 Henry street. 
All Angels, AV. 81st st. and 11th Avenue. 
Astor Place Mission, Clinton Hall. 
Ascension, 5th Avenue and 10th street. 
Anglo-American, 76 West 26th street. 
Calvary, 4th Avenue and E. 21st street. 
Chapel, foot of Laight, North River. 
Christ Church, 5th Ave. and E. 35th st. 
Church of Advent, 586 Eighth Avenue. 
Church of Saviour, foot of Pike street. 
Church of Communion, 6th Avenue and 

West 20th street. 
Church of Apostles, 9th Avenue and W. 

28th street. 
Church of Innocents, West 87th street, 

near Broadway. 
Church of Redeemer, Yorkville 
Church of Martyrs, 39 Forsyth street. 
Church of Nativity, No. 70 Avenue C. 
Du Saint Esprit, Franklin and Church. 
Emmanuel, House of Rector, 76 W. 26th 

street. 
Epiphany, 130 Stanton street. 
Good Shepherd, E. 54th street near 2d 

Avenue. 
Evangelists', Cliff and Beekman sts. 
Incarnation, E. 28th and Madison Av. 
Intercession, W. 154th and 10th Avenue. 
Madison street Mission, 256 Madison. 
St. Andrew's, Harlem. 
St. Ann's (Deaf and Dumb,) 2d Avenue 

and E. 11th street. 
St. Clement's, 108 Amity. 
St. George's, Rutherford Place and East 

16th street. 
St. James', E. 69th near 3d Avenue. 
St. John's, Lexington Av. and E. 35th st. 
St. John's, 20 Hammond. 
St. Luke's, 583 Hudson. 
St. Mark's, Stuyvesant near 2d Avenue. 
St. Mary's, Manhattanville. 
St Michael's, Bloomingdale. 
St. Paul's (Chapel of Trinity,) Broadway 

near Fulton. 



St. -Peter's 224 West 20th. 
St. Phillip's, (colored,) 305 Mulberry. 
St. Stephen's, Broome and Chrystie. 
St. Thomas, Broadway and Houston. 
St. Timothy's, W. 51st near 8th Avenue 
Transfiguration, East 29th street near 

5th Avenue. 
Zion, Madison Avenue and East 38th st. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES. 

Allen street, 61 Allen. 

Bloomingdale. 

Brick, 5th Avenue and West 37th st. 

Canal street, 7 Green street. 

Central, 408 Broome street. 

Chelsea, 261 West 22d street. 

Eighty-fourth street, near Bloomingdale 

Road. 
Eleventh, 46 Avenue C. 
Fifteenth street, 71 East 15th street. 
Fifth Avenue, corner E. 19th street. 
First, 5th Avenue and AVest 11th street. 
First German, 6th near 2d Avenue. 
Forty-second street, 139 AV, 42d street. 
Fourth Avenue, 280 4th Avenue, 
Fourteenth street, corner 2d Avenue. 
First street, 42 First street. 
French, Grand and Crosby. 
German, 290 Madison. 
German, 91 Rivington. 
Grand street, corner Crosby, 
Harlem, E. 126th street near 3d Avenue. 
Madison Avenue, corner E. 29th street. 
Madison Square, Madison Avenne and E. 

24th street. 
Manhattanville, AV. 126th st. and 9th Av. 
Mercer street, near Waverly Place. 
Mission, 107 Seventh Avenue. 
Mt. Washington, near King's bridge. 
North, 9th Avenue and AVest 31st street. 
Northwest, 170 West 50th street, 
Rutgers, corner Henry. 
Scotch, 49 AVest 14th street. 
Seventh, Broome and Ridge. 
Spring street, 249 Spring. 
Stanton street, 41 Stanton. 
Thirteenth street, 1 15 AVest 13th street. 
Twenty-eighth street, 252 AVest 2Sth st. 
Twenty-third street, 138 W. 23d street. 
University Place, corner 10th. 
AVest, 73 Carmine. 
AVestminister, 115 West 22d. 
Yorkville, E. 86th near 3d Avenue. 

UNITARIAN. 

Church of Messiah, 728 Broadway. 
Church of All Souls, 4th Avenue and E 
20th street. 



NEW YORK CITY. — PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 



13 



METHODIST CHURCHES. 

Allen Street, No. 126. 

Asliburv, 129 Norfolk. 

Bedford Street, 28 Morton. 

Central, 44 7th avenue. 

Duane Street, No 180. 

Eighteenth Street, No. 193 West 18th St. 

Fiftieth Street, No. 125. 

First .Mariners', 3.30 Cherry. 

Forsyth Street, No. 10. 

Forty Third Street. 177 West 43d street. 

German 2-52 Second street. 

" Mission Bloomingdale. 
Greene Street, No. 69. 
Harlem Church. 

Heddi'ng Mission, 170 East 17th street. 
Jane Street, No. 13. 
John Street, No. 44. 
Home Mission, 61 Park. 
St. Paul's, 4th avenue and E. 22d, 9th 

street and avenue B. 
Floating, foot of Carlisle street. 
Rose Hill, 125 East 27 street. 
Second Street, 276 Second street. 
Seventh Street, No. 24. 
Sullivan Street, No. 214. 
Thirtieth Street, No 207 (W.) 
Thirty-seventh street, 129 East 37th St. 
Trinity, 160 West 34 street. 
Welsh, 199 Mulberry street. 
Willet Street, No. 7. 
Yorkviile, East 86th near 4th avenue. 

UNIVERSALIST. 

Second, 97 Orchard street. 
Third, 206 Bleecker street. 
Fourth, 548 Bro.adway. 
Sixth, 116 West 20th street. 

WESLEYAN METHODIST. 

Ebenezer, East 33d near 2d avenue. 
First, Orchard near Delaucey street. 

FRIENDS. 

Hester, corner Elizabeth street. 
Twentieth Street, East 20th near 3d Av. 
Twenty-seventh street near 6th avenue. 

BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

Amity street. No. 33. 
Abyssinian, 166 Waverly Place. 
Bcroan, 35 Downing street. 
Bethcsda, 91 East 22 street. 
Bethlehem, 238 West 4;jd street. 
Bloomingdale, 8th avenue and W. 43d St. 
Calvary, 40 West 23d street. 
Cannon Street, 32 Cannon street. 
Central Park, West 53 near 8th avenue. 
Ebenezer, 104 West 36th street. 



Fifth Avenue, 7 West 18th street. 
First, Broome and Elizabeth street. 
German, 19 avenue A. 
Mariner's, 234 Cherry street. 
Free Will Ministers' House, 184 W. 22 St. 
Gethsemane, 3d avenue and East 39th St. 
Harlem, 5th avenue near 126th street. 
Laight street, near Varick. 
Lexington avenue and East 30th street. 
Mount Olivet, 689 6th avenue. 
Norfolk Street, No. 52. 
North, 126 Christopher. 

" Beriah, 22 Macdougal street. 
Oliver Street, corner Henry street. 
Pilgrim, West 34th and 8th avenue. 
Sixth Street, No. 211. 
Sixteenth Street, 173 West 16th street. 
South, 147 West 25th street. 
Stanton street, No. 36. 
Tabernacle, 162 2d avenue. 
Welsh, 141 Chrystie. 

LUTHERAN. 

German Evangelical, 409 9th avenue. 
Lutheran, 340 9th street. 

*' 6th avenue, corner W. 15th St- 
St. James, 103 East loth street. 
St. John's, 81 Christopher. 
St. Marcus, 52 6th street. 
St Matthew's, Walker and Courtiand Sts- 

METHODIST PROTESTANT. 

First, 87 Attorney street. 

NEW JERUSALEM. 
First, 16 East 35th street. 

GERMAN REFORMED. 

Bloomingdale, Broadway and West 68th 

street. 
Broome street, corner Greene. 
Central, 144 Ninth. 
Collegiate, Lafayette Place corner 4 th 

street. 
Evangelical, Houston and Forsyth sts. 
Reformed Protestant, 21 Forsyth st. 
Greenwich, Bleecker and West 10th st. 
Harlem. 

Livingston, 8th Avenue and W. 33d st. 
Manhattan, Avenue B. and 5th street. 
Market street, corner Henry. 
Mt. Pleasant. 158 East oOth street. 
North-west, 97 West 23d street. 
Seventh Avenue, near 12th street. 
Sixth Avenue, No. 25. 
South, 5th Avenue and West 21st street- 
Third Mission, 147 Duane. 
Twenty-first street, 47 W. 21st. 
'iVashington Heights. 



14 



NEW YORK TO CHICAGO. 



Washington Square, Wooster and Wash- 
ington streets. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC. 
Assumption, 9th Avenue and W, 50th st. 
Immaculate Conception, 245 E. 14th st. 
Holy Redeemer, 149 3d street 
Nativity, 46 2d Avenue. 
Holy Cross, 199 West 42d street. 
Annunciation, Manhattanville. 
St. Alphonsus, 10 Thompson. 
St. Andrew's, Duaneand City Hall Place. 
St. Ann's 149 Eighth street. 
St. Anthony's, 265 Canal street. 
St. Boniface, E 47th st. near 2d Avenue. 
St. Bridget's, Avenue B and 8th street. 
St. Columbus, 211 West 25th street. 
St. Francis, 93 West 31st street. 



St. F. Xavier's, 36 West 16th street. 

St. James', 32 James street. 

St. John Baptist, 125 West 30th street. 

St. John Evangelist, near Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum. 

St. Joseph's, 6th Avenue and West Wash- 
ington place. 

St. Lawrence, E. 84th between 3d and 
4th streets. 

St. Mary's, 438 Grand street. 

St. Michael's, 265 West 31st street. 

St. Nicholas, 125 Second. 

Cathedral, Mott and Prince. 
, St. Paul's, Harlem. 
I St. Peter's, Barclay and Church. 
I St. Stephen's, E. 28th st. near 3d Av. 

St. Vincent, 85 West 23d street. 
I Transfiguration, Mott and Park streets. 



FROM NEW YORK TO CHICAGO. 

From the foot of Courtland street, New York, we cross the Hudson to 
the depot of the New Jersey Railroad Company in Jersey City. The 
river at this point is about three thousand yards wide. 




JERSEY CITY. 
The Depot, into which the traveller passes, was erected in 1859, and is 
a magnificent structure with arched roof. The New York and Erie — 
the Morris and Essex — the Northern Eailroad of New Jersey, and the 
New Jersey Railroad, start their cars from its limits. Jersey City, is on 
a peninsula once known as Paulus Hook, and in the way of manufactures 
is a miniature Birmingham. It is the capital of Hudson County, New 
Jersey, and with its well-built, wide streets, Churches, Banks, and Semi- 
naries, promises to become a powerful emporium of wealth, intellect and 
business. It is supplied with pure water from the Passaic river, about 
eight miles distant, and with gas, by manufactures of its own. If it was 
possible, we apprehend that the New Yorkers would favor the annexa- 
tion of this portion of Jersey to their own territory. The Morris Canal 
runs from Jersey City to Easton, and the Cunard line of European 



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NEW YORK TO NEWARK. 15 

steamers, from their immense wliarf ou this side of the Hudson, start for 

the journey — 

•' O'er the glad waters of the dark blue sea." 

Kumbers of New York merchants reside in the City, as the crowded 
ferry boats in the mornings and eveninj^s well attest. 

Bidding an affectionate farewell to friends and foes, the traveller seats 
himself in the elegantly finished cars of the New Jersey Railroad, and 
starts for the "West. 

Between Jersey City and Newark (eight miles,) the objects of interest 
may be noted as follows : The Ilackensack river, just beyond a station- 
house known as " Patterson Depot," where the wide track of the New 
York and Erie Railroad diverges to the northward. The river is a iine 
mill stream to the northward, but here, it is so influenced by the tide as 
to be useless — the prairie-like lowlands on both sides of the track — 
Newark Bay, which is visible to the south — the Passaic River, the bank 
of which the Railroad follows for nearly a mile, and which it crosses on 
a bridge of six spans just east of Newark. 

NEW YORK, 9. NEWARK. PHTLADELPUIA, so. 

The Railroad curves through the City, and the cars finally stop at a 
Depot of stone, at the corner of Market Street and Railroad Avenue. 
Market Street, is a wide thoroughfare crossed by the track. The busi- 
ness of the place is made evident by numerous four story brick manufac- 
turing establishments, which rear themselves on almost every hand. The 
Passaic River, is seen flowing along the eastern side of Newark, at the 
base of the hill upon which the depot is situated, and curving towards 
the east in its passage into Newark Bay, three miles distant. The plot of 
the City rises gradually from the water, and the well-shaded streets and 
wide avenues, present a tasty and cheerful appearance. No more flourish- 
ing place is in existence in the State, and the support which it derives 
from the manufacture of carriages, machinery, leather goods, &c., &c., 
must be as unfailing as it is valuable. The Yankees, who in 1666 came 
down from New Haven, might now well be proud of the results of their 
settlement. Among the principal thoroughfares, we may name Broad 
and Market Streets, and the attention of ihe traveller who remains in 
Newark, may be directed with profit to the Court House — the Wesleyau 
Institute, the High School, and the various splendid Churches, Library 
Buildings, Banks, Public Squares, &c. Access to New York by Rail- 
road cars and Steamboats is easy. 

In the days of the Revolution, Newark, from its close proximity to 
New York, was subjected to many troublesome incursions from the 
British. A party of five hundred men, on one occasion, burned the 
Academy, and committed other excesses. From some cause, however, to 
the writer unknown, they spared the City, for which we, as one having 



16 FROM NEWARK TO ELIZABETH CITY. 

an interest in 'New Jersey, are duly thankful. The site of Newark was 
originally bought for one hundred and thirty pounds, New England 
currency. 

Between Newark and Elizabeth City (four miles,) the Railroad pur- 
sues an open and low country, marshy in many places, yet often raising 
tolerable hay. The traveller will also notice sundry arched depots, or 
rather Station-Houses, extending entirely over both tracks, after the 
manner of a triumphal arch. These are very neat and elegant, and are 
for local travel. Newark Bay, is in the distance, on the east. 

NEW YORK, 13. ELIZABETH CITY. Philadelphia, 76. 

Side by side are the Depots of the New Jersey, and the New Jersey 
Central Railroads. The latter we cross, and will observe that its track 
consists of three rails. The third rail enables the coal cars of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad to pass from the Lackawanna 
Region to Elizabethport, two miles distant from Elizabeth City, and a 
shipping point on Newark Bay. 

Elizabeth City (formerly Elizabethtown) besides being a pleasant and 
healthy place, has extensive oil cloth, and other factories, some of which 
are visible from the car windows. It is in Union County, and laid out with 
streets crossing each other at right angles, and built up with many cot- 
tage-looking dwellings, appropriately shaded. Elizabeth Creek, flows 
past the place, and empties into the Bay beyond. The City is prominent 
alike for its refined and intelligent society, and for its Schools and Insti- 
tutions. Banks and Insurance Offices meet the eye of the visitor. The 
spot did not escape in the Revolution, having been disturbed on several 
occasions. The site was purchased in 1C64, by a party of men from 
Long Island. 

There are few places in the United States more ancient, interesting 
or respectable than this. It has been distinguished for its high social 
and moral character, as the residence of some of our bravest and best 
men, and as the scene of conflict in the days of the Revolution, Some 
of its oldest inhaliitants could tell you of times when they were crowded 
together in the cellars of houses now occupied, living upon coarse and 
scanty fare, while the rattling glass upon the floors above them, told of 
the bullets of the soldiery. 

As early as August, 1665, Philip Carteret, brother of Sir George, 
arrived here with thirty English settlers, there being then but four houses 
in the place, and gave the name Elizabethtown to the settlement, in honor 
of Lady Elizabeth Carteret, the wife of his brother. 

Within the past four years, the population of this place has nearly 
doubled, so that it now numbers over ten thousand, and new streets and 
fine residences have appeared in every direction. There are extensive 
manufactories of oil cloths, paper, hardware, &c., which give employment 
to a large foreign population. The facility with which New York can 
be reached by railroad and steamboat, (in less than an hour's time, and 
some fifteen or twenty times daily ;) the beauty and healthfulness of the 



ELIZABETH CITY TO NEW BRUNSWICK. 17 

city ; its fine sites for residences ; its most excellent schools ; its good 
society, altogether have contributed to attract many residents, whose busi- 
ness lies in Xew York. Within a short time, water and gas works have 
been erected, and great improvements in the streets and elsewhere carried 
into effect. 

Much taste has been displayed in the erection of many of the residences, 
and some of the country seats are marked by great beauty, and have 
been built at considerable cost. The public buildings, many of them of 
no architectural pretensions, are spacious and comfortable, and well 
subserve the purposes for which they were erected. 

Between Elizabeth City and Rahway (five miles), the Railroad pursues 
an agricultural and slightly undulating country, crossing Elizabeth Creek, 
west of Elizabeth. Just east of Rahway, the River of the same name is 
crossed by a fine bridge. Gen. Winfield Scott owns a fine mansion at 
Elizabeth City. 

NEW YORK, 18. RAHWAY. PimADELPHIA, 71 

The union of several villages, originally formed this place. One af 
these was called Bridgeton, but as there was another town of the same 
name in the southern part of the State, the Legislature bestowed the title of 
the River, upon the consolidated town. The first settlers came from 
liiew England about 1720. It is in Union County. 

At present, Rahway manufactures annually a large amount of goods. 
In one year upwards of five thousand carriages have been turned out, 
and disposed of in a Southern market. This is only one item of the 
many, showing the enterprise and business qualifications of the people. 
The Rahway river is navigable to the City. A brick edifice, the Second 
Methodist Episcopal Church, is noticed on Railroad Avenue to the east. 

Between Rahway and New Brunswick (thirteen miles), the objects of 
interest are — XJniontown, an improving place on the line of the Railroad 
— Metuchin, the main street of which crosses the Railroad, containing 
several fine Churches, and having a number of handsome dwellings in its 
vicinity. It is in the midst of a fertile country, in AA^oodbridge township, 
Middlesex County. Just east of New Brunswick, the Raritan River is 
crossed on a high and admirably constructed Bridge with two tracks. 
j?rom this, a view can be obtained of the River, both north and south. 
At one end of the Bridge are the Engine Houses, Turn tables, &c., of 
the New Jersey Railroad Company. 

NEW YORK 31. NEW BRUNSWICK. PHILADELPHIA 58. 

A swamp, rejoicing in the unpoetical name of " Prigmore's Swamp," 
formed the site of New Brunswick in 1713, the date of settlement. Not 
many symptoms of the aforesaid swamp exist at present, however, but the 
ground, which rises as it recedes from the river, is covered with fine dwell- 
ings, stores and manufactories, upon streets of good dimensions. We 
believe that there are a few houses still standing which attest the works 
of a Dutch colony who emigrated from Albany, and whose ideas of archi- 

2 



18 NEW BRUNSWICK TO DEAN's POND. 

tectural beauty consisted in erecting buildings with gable-ends to the 
street. Blessed with an energetic population, and no small amount of 
wealth, New Brunswick cannot fail to maintain a proud position among 
her sisters of the State. 

On the ascending hill just back of the Depot, the College can be seen. 
It has a beautiful sloping and shady lawn in front. A large new stone 
Catholic Church, is on the line of the Railroad, in the City. The buildings 
of the New Brunswick Rubber Company stand forward prominently at 
one end of the bridge. The City is at the head of river navigation, twelve 
miles above Amboy Bay. The Delaware and Raritan Canal commences 
here. This great work extends to Bordentown, on the Delaware River, 
a distance of forty-two miles, and is seven feet deep, by seventy-five feet 
wide — in fact, is sufficiently large to be navigated by steamers and sloops 
of one hundred, and one hundred and fifty tons burden. New Brunwick 
received its present name about 1130, having before that time been 
known as " The River." 

THE NEW JERSEY RAILROAD. 

The New Jersey Railroad, which connects Jersey City with New 
Brunswick, is thirty-one miles in length, with a double track. It was 
finished on June 30th, 1836, at an estimated cost of nearly seven hundred 
thousand dollars, and is now one of the leading thoroughfares in 
the country. Connecting at New Brunswick with roads leading to Phi- 
ladelphia by two different routes, it obtains travel for places south of 
the "Quaker City." Its course from Jersey City to Newark (eight 
miles), is due west, and from that point to New Brunswick is southwest, 
with scarcely any deviation. The track and road-bed, from the immense 
business which is done, require to be maintained in first rate order, and 
this branch of management is so well attended to that safety is insured to 
travellers. The rates of fare are as low as those of any other well regu- 
lated road in the country. 

CAMD£n AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 

Between New Brunswick and Trenton, extends a branch of the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad, twenty-six miles in length. This branch was not 
opened for public travel until Nov. 30, 1840, nine years after the main 
line from Camden to South Amboy had been in operation. Its cost 
was about five hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. It is a durable 
and substantial road. 

The distance between New Brunswick and Dean's Pond, is eight miles. 

NEW YORK 39. DEAN S POND. PHILADELPniA 50; 

A scattered hamlet, named after the owner or proprietor of adjoining 
property. The country around is well settled. A certain pond, presumed 
to be the one from which the Railroad Station derives its matter-of-fact 
appellation, is seen to the east of the track. Four miles intervene 
between this stopping place, and 



KINGSTON TO TRENTON. 19 

NEW YOr.K 43. KINGSTON. rillLADTXrilTA 46. 

The town cannot boast a population as larc^c as tliat of its namesake 
in Canada, but is nevertheless a flourishing place, situated a short dis- 
tance from the Railroad (on the west), and on ascending ground from the 
Canal. It is nearly on the lino dividing Somerset and Middlesex Coun- 
ties, New Jersey. It might not inappropriately be called the half-way 
station between New York and Philadelphia. 

Just east of Kingston, the Kailroad meets the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal, and between this point and Trenton, the cars run side by side with 
the canal boat. 

Between Kingston and Princeton, the distance is four miles, in which 
the Railroad and Canal both cross a branch of the Raritan River on 
massive stone viaducts. The traveller will also observe numerous bridges 
of a peculiar construction, which are thrown over the canal in such a 
manner that they can be turned to allow the passage of boats. 

NEW YORK 47. PRINCETON. PHILADELPHIA 42. 

Known to every American as the scene of the battle fought on Jan. 3, 
ITTY, between Washington and Col. Mawhood. On the night of that 
day, the two armies lay encamped near Trenton. The forces of the 
Americans were inferior to those of the enemy, and Washington, by a 
circuit, and bold, decided, and unexpected attack, defeated a large force 
of the British, in and around Princeton. The College, which was used as 
a place of refuge by the English, was surrendered, and its inmates made 
prisoners. 

The town is situated northwest of the Piailroad, and about one mile 
distant, on rising ground, which commands an extensive view of the adja- 
cent country. Princeton College or " Nassau Hall," one of the oldest 
and most respectable Colleges in the country, is here located. It was 
founded in 1746, and removed to Princeton in 1757. 

Princeton, with its attractive dwellings and intelligent inhabitants, is 
one of the most desirable towns in the State, boasting not only salubrity, 
but all facilities for business, in the way of newspapers, banks, churches, 
&c. It is also the seat of a Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Near 
the Depot of the Railroad, are extensive saw-mills, on the bank of the 
Canal, also water-tanks, &c., belonging to the Company. 

Between Princeton and Trenton, the distance is ten miles. The Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal is followed for the whole distance. " Port 
AVindsor," a depot for the adjoining fertile country, is passed. Just east of 
Trenton, is the junction of the Belvidere and Delaware Railroad, running 
to Easton and Belvidere. Near here are high trusselwork coal depots, 
on which collect cars from the different coal regions of Pennsylvania. 

NEW YORK 57. TRENTON. PHILADELPHIA 32. 

On entering the City, from the east, the traveller will observe the yel- 



20 TRENTON. 

low buildings and dome of the State Normal School, very properly located 
in the capital of New Jersey. The City is situated at the mouth of the 
"Assinpink," near the "lower falls" of the Delaware River, and was 
incorporated on November 13, 1792. It was named in honor of Col. 
Trent, who was speaker of the House of Representatives, in 1120. The 
Capitol, fronts on State Street, and from it a fine view can be obtained of 
the Delaware. 

As a manufacturing depot, with abundance of water power, coal, &c., 
Trenton claims a first rank. As a centre of refined society and intelli- 
gence, it is equal to any place of the same size in the United States. The 
public buildings — the State Lunatic Asylum, the Town Hall, the Peni- 
tentiary, the County Court House, (in South Trenton,) the Bridge over 
the River, &c., will amply repay a visit. The Bridge, consisting of 
five arches with stone piers, is eleven hundred feet in length. 

South Trenton (the name sufficiently indicates its position) includes 
the former villages of Bloomsbury, South Lamberton and Mill Hill. 
The Railroad Company have a Depot here, as well as in the main City. 
Phineas Pemberton and others, first settled Trenton about the year 1680, 
and certainly displayed much taste in choosing for a site, a spot alike 
healthy, and susceptible of river access, it being the head of river navi- 
gation. The City has every modern' convenience for the most fastidious 
resident ; almost every street of note contains evidence of the taste and 
liberality of citizens — while the stores are equally spacious and costly. 
The public institutions, such as the Lunatic Asylum, the Arsenal, the 
Penitentiary, and County Court House, are unsurpassed by those of any 
other City or State. The "Water and Gas Works, too, of Trenton, are 
admirably constructed and well managed. The Canal Feeder, and 
Water Power, are in a prosperous condition. 

Here, in 1116, Washington, with five thousand five hundred men, after 
crossing the Delaware (to the north,) on a cold winter's night, attacked 
the British under Col, Rahl. A thousand Hessians were made prisoners, 
while only two of the Americans were killed. 

DIVERGING ROUTE. 

The Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad, between Trenton and Tacony, 
(tweuty-two miles), is used by some of the trains between New York and 
Philadelphia. At Tacony, the steamboats of the Camden and Amboy 
Railroad Company meet the trains and convey passengers to Philadel- 
phia, (eight miles.) 

On the route between Trenton and Philadelphia, by way of Tacony, 
the objects of interest are — the Bridge over the Delaware, eleven hundred 
feet long ; the Delaware Division of the Pennsylvania Canal, which 
follows the Railroad from Bristol to Trenton ; Tullytown, a neat frame 
village ; Bristol, a beautiful place, incorporated in 1720, on the west 
bank of the Delaware, and fast improving in wealth and enterprize ; 



CAMDE!T AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 21 

Brid^evvater, on the west side of the Railroad, at the crossing of Xcsham- 
inpc Creek; Poquessink Creek, which is crossed ; Schenk's Station, in the 
midst of a fine agricnltural region ; Pennypack Creek ; Tacony, with its 
Railroad Depots, "Wharves, &c, Bridesburg, which is seen from the 
steamboat, on the west Bank of the Delaware. Port Richmond Coal 
Wharves, just above tlie main body of Philadelphia. Walnut Street 
Wharf, the landing place of the steamboats of the Camden and Amboy 
Railroad Company. 

Between Trenton and Bordentown (six miles), the Railroad (which 
was opened in 1839,) pursues the east Bank of the Delaware River, pass- 
ing Lamberton Station. 

NEW YORK 63. BORDENTOWN, PHILADELPHIA 26. 

At an elevation of over sixty feet above water level, is even so high 
above the Railroad, that no good view of it can be obtained from the 
cars. One branch of the track, diverging to South Amboy, passes 
under Prince Street. The town is in Chesterfield Township, Burlington 
County, and is a considerable lumber depot. It is just at a point where 
the Delaware River makes a curve, and on the shores of this, the iron 
hull of the steamer, "John Stevens," is resting. The steamer, which 
was one of the largest and most magnificent boats owned by the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Company, was burned several years ago, with the 
loss, we believe, of one life. No passengers were on the boat at tlic time. 
Fine steamboats of tlie same Company still ply between Philadelphia and 
this place, and hundreds of the citizens of Philadelphia avail themselves 
of the opportunity to see the noble Delaware. 

Bordentown, was founded by Joseph Borden, and incorporated in 1825. 
Joseph Bonaparte, Ex-King of Spain, bought one thousand five hundred 
acres of land adjoining this place, and converted a wild and poor tract 
into a magnificent park. He resided here for a number of years, but the 
property has since passed into other hands. 

DIVERGING ROUTE, CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 

Between l>ordentown and South Amboy (thirty-six miles), extends 
the iron track of the Camden and Amboy Railroad. Trains run between 
Philadelphia and New York (via Bordentown) on this route, a number 
of times daily. The roadbed is always maintained in good order, and 
the steamboats between South Amboy and Pier No. 1, North River, New- 
York, are substantially and elegantly finished. Those who prefer this 
route to the one over which we have just brought the traveller, (through 
Trenton and Jersey City) will find no cause of comi)laint. In fact, a 
short interval of steamboating, is preferred by many to the close confine- 
ment of the cars. The diiference in the running time of the two routes 
is slight. 

Between Bordentown and Burlington (six miles), the Railroad, which 
runs southwest and northeast, at some places is within view of the 
Delaware, and at others, owing to the curves of the stream, is distant 
from it. Just east of Bordentown, appears to have been established a 



22 BURLINGTON TO CAMDEN. 

sort of an asylum for superannuated cars and locomotives. Numbers of 
them stand exposed to wind and weather, mourning no doubt over their 
fallen greatness. A Station House, for the landing of passengers from 
steamboats, is on the line of the Railroad, a short distance east of Bor- 
dento wn. 

NEW YORK 69. BURLINGTON. PniLADELPIIIA 20. 

Assiskunk Creek, is crossed by the Railroad a short distance east of 
Burlington, and in running through the place itself, the traveller will 
observe from the car-windows, a fine new dark stone Episcopal Church 
with graveyard attached, on the side fronting the river. Also the Hall 
of the Endeavor Fire Company. The "Bank" of the Delaware, or rather 
the street bordering upon the stream, is built up with elegant residences. 
Bishop Doane formerly resided here, 

Burlington, although the seat of considerable business, is a quiet 
healthy spot, with a population rather wealthy, and very intelligent. 
Water is supplied by means of hydraulic machinery, and gas is laid 
through the streets. Burlington College, is here located. 

The place was settled in 1667, under the title of New Beverly, and now 
forms an agreeable summer resort for many citizens of Philadelphia, who 
desire to escape from heated brick walls and pavements. 

Between Burlington and Camden (twenty miles), the attractive points 
may be noted as follows : Delauco, on the east side of Rancocas creek at 
its junction with the Delaware — Rancocas creek itself, which is crossed 
by a drawbridge — Swede's Branch, which is also crossed — Palmyra, a 
rather scattered, but improving town between the Railroad and River — 
Pensaulsen creek, which is crossed — Cooper's creek, over which the train 
runs just east of Camden. 

NEW YORK, 89. CAMDEN. PHILADELPHIA. 

The Railroad passes through " Bridge Avenue" in Camden, crossing 
the streets which are numbered respectively, First, Second, Third, &c., 
commencing at the river. The track of the Camden and Atlantic Rail- 
road, is crossed east of the place, and the basin of the Water Works, is 
seen on the River side of the cars. The fine dark stone Court House 
is on the same side. 

The ground upon which Camden is built, is level, and the streets have 
been laid out with much care and regularity, many of them lined with 
elegant residences. The proximity of the place to Philadelphia, renders 
it desirable for merchants and others doing business in the Quaker City. 

The Railroads diverging from Camden are as follows : 
Camden and Amboy, 89 miles to New York. 
Camden and Atlantic, 61 miles to Atlantic City, 
West Jersey Railroad, 9 miles to Woodbury. 

Steamboats run every few minutes to Philadelphia. 



[the DELAWARE RIVER. 23 

Camden was chartered as a City in 1831, and is divided into Wards, 
under the government of a Mayor and Council. Its progress keeps 
ready pace with that of its larger contemporary over the river. 

Between Camden and Philadelphia, over the Delaware River, the pas- 
senger is transported in boats especially used for the purpose. The 
westward bound traveller will find Omnibuses on Walnut Street wharf, 
(the place of landing in Philadelphia,) ready to convey him at once to 
the depot of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, at Eleventh and Market 
Streets. He can either take these or hire a private conveyance. For a 
single person, the hire of a hackney coach from the wharf to the depot 
must not exceed seventy-five cents. 

THE DELAWARE. 

We presume that there are those whose utilitarian views will allow 
them to see in the noble Delaware, only a stream fit to be devoted to the 
thousand commercial uses of a great city. Such men 

" If placed where Catskill's forehead greets the sky, 
Grieve that such quarries all unhewn should lie, 
Or gazing where Niagara's torrents thrill — 
Exclaim — ' a monstrous stream to turn a mill.' " 

Not denying, however, to the river, its many advantages in a business 
point of view, we yet can see in its wide and placid sweep — in the beau- 
tiful villages and towns upon its banks, much to admire. 

From the Catskill Mountains in New York, flow the rivulets which 
unite and form the Delaware River. In their southern course they soon 
swell to enlarged dimensions, and among the Blue Mountains in the 
northwestern part of New Jersey, wind through rocks and crevices with 
stormy vigor. Sweeping on, they are narrowed by the "Water Gap," 
and overlooked by peaks that would well answer for miniature Alps. In 
this neighborhood, and north of the " Gap" is the timber region, from 
which the raftsmen cull logs, which being sawed into the many useful 
forms descend in rafts to points of sale. At Easton, the Lehigh pours 
its coal-tinged waters into the Delaware, which here is chained by a dam, 
and spanned by enormous railroad and other bridges. Still flowing to 
the south, and forming the boundary line between Pennsylvania and isew 
Jersey, it washes the banks of the rich agricultural county of Bucks, and 
comes into Philadelphia with the slight eminences upon its either side, 
lined by cottage-looking dwellings. At Port Richmond, the upper end 
of the city, it receives on its bosom the anthracite treasures of the " Key- 
stone State," and conveys them to its mouth. Still south of the City, 
Chester, Wilmington, and Salem pay it tribute ; and its waters, by 
means of a canal, unite with those of Chesapeake Bay. Finally, from 
Delaware Bay, it sweeps into the great Atlantic, after a meandering jour- 
ney of nearly three hundred miles. 

Opposite Philadel[)hia, Smith's Island divides the river into two 
channels. The Island has been sundered by a sort of canal, so that ferry 
boats between the opposite sides of the river pass through its centre. 
Just below Philadelphia, at the Neck, the Schuylkill River empties into 
the Delaware. 



■24: THE DELAWARE. 

OYSTERING DOWN THE DELAWARE. 

Down the Delaware, and nearly at the point where the Bay empties 
into the Ocean, is " Manrice Cove," a celebrated oyster ground, and the 
resort of scores of vessels which the traveller will see clustering together 
a short distance below Walnut Street wharf, at the pier of Spruce Street. 
As a writer for the Philadelphia "Evening Journal" says : " It is a 
dingy-looking squadron ; for the weather-beaten men who go 'a oystering' 
take no pride in furnishing a craft or trimming her exterior, beyond what 
is absolutely necessary to carry their shell freight and ride out a gale. The 
vessels are mostly sloops, of considerable size. Sloops have the least 
rigging, and require the fewest hands. The sails are as dark as if they 
had been suffered to lie in the mud, at the bottom of the stream, for a 
week. The decks always show the vocation of the crew — being con- 
stantly covered with shells, or their dirty remains. At times the efliuvia 
that arises from them, and the holds where the shell-fish are stowed, will 
turn up the nose like Trinculo's at the horse pond, ' in great indignation.' 
The cabins are little boxes, where two or three men may just find room 
to turn round, or provide themselves with a place to huddle in to sleep. 
The number of the crew seldom exceeds three or four men. The captain 
is usually part owner, and sometimes the hands aboard have an interest in 
the harvest that is reaped down the bay. Some of the captains own half a 
dozen vessels, and their profits are quite heavy, if the season is favorable. 
The majority of the oystermen, however, are poor, and can merely 
manage to obtain a scant living for a family. Most of them reside in the 
city convenient to the river and the fleet. 

" Having discharged a cargo, and secured a crew, for the hands seldom 
adhere to the same vessel for many trips, unless they have a share in the 
craft or its freight — the oyster sloop starts down the bay. The only 
implements taken are the oyster-tongs and fishing-lines. The latter are 
principally used for catching bass and other specimens of the finny tribe 
for consumption aboard tlie vessel, and this gives a resource which 
greatly diminishes the cost of provisioning the craft. In addition to the 
provender thus obtained, the sloops have the command of the farms in 
the vicinity of the bay-shores where they can readily obtain beef, poultry, 
eggs and milk. 

" The best oysters are found in Maurice River Cove, where most of the 
vessels anchor and carry on their operations. The beds are unrivalled 
in extent, and some of the largest bivalves ever brought to this port have 
been taken in that locality. The number of bushels shipped in a single 
season from this and other points on the bay, reaches a figure that would 
utterly astound those who do not give much attention to this apparently 
insignificant branch of industry. In the height of the oystering season, the 
Cove presents a lively aspect, with the fleet at anchor, the small boats 
out, and the work with the tongs going on. Although, of course, there 
is much rivalry among the various vessels, the social spirit is not forgot- 
ten, and many an evening, when the moon is up, the labors of the day 
are relieved by the song, the dance, and the yarn — several of the crews 
assembling upon the same vessel for that purpose. Upon the arrival of 
a fresh cargo at Philadelphia, the vessel presents a scene of competition 
among the buyers of the noisest description ; while here and there may 
be seen an epicure, who can't trust the restaurants, and has determined 



PHILADELPHIA CITY. 25 

to sate his appetite where he can judge the bivalves as they arc taken 
from the hold. After the cargo is disposed of, some of the profits reach 
home, the grog shops along the wharf do a 'steaming' business, and thus 
floats away the life of a Delaware oysterman." 







A city of magnificent distances : one hundred and twenty square 
miles of territory had the honor, in 1854, to become part and parcel of 
the Quaker City. A grand "Act of Consolidation" was passed, by 
which Philadelphia proper, swallowed up the whole county of the same 
name, and took into her bosom a score of little villages. Now, she 
boasts over four miles of houses fronting on the river Delaware, and 
nearly three miles fronting on the Schuylkill. About six hundred and 
fifty thousand people eat their daily meals within her limits. 

This is Philadelphia, which a French writer, whose satire of other cities 
was terrible, described thus : 

" All the houses have a flaunting coquettish look, which is pleasant 
to see. 

" The streets are broad and clean. 

" The shops arc generally very large, and very rich. There are superb 
goods in them. In fact, the city has a happy physiognomy, which is 
very agreeable." 

The Frenchman was nearly right as far as he went, but his view was 
rather contracted. 

Finer streets than those known as Broad, Chestnut, Arch, Market, 
Walnut and Spruce, cannot be found anywhere. True, that Friend 
William Penn, and his descendants, had a preference for regularity, so 
we have often square after square precisely alike, and neat and clean. 

As a manufacturing centre, Philadelphia yields precedence to no 



26 



THILADELPHIA CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



city in America. Vast anthracite coal fields lie almost at her door— 
and the vahie of the trade equals twenty-eight millions of dollars. Heavy 
outlays of capital have produced piles of stupendous buildings, from 
which issue locomotives for the North, South, East and West — gas- 
fixtures, cotton and woolen goods, carriages, fire-proof safes, and thou- 
sands of other articles of utility and ornament. The imports of the city 
average twenty millions of dollars per annum. The machinery of vast 
steamers bears the impress of Philadelphia makers ; and from ship-yards 
on the Delaware, staunch sailing vessels glide into the water, and are 
wafted on " the wings of the wind" to their respective destinations. 
Smaller, but no less useful and valuable productions are turned out in 
unexampled quantities. 

The streets wdiich run parallel with the Delaware river, are designated 
Front, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, &c. Those which run at right 
angles with the river, have various titles, in many cases the names of 
trees having been adopted, as Chestnut, Walnut, &c. 

It is not within the province of a Guide Book to enter into a long 
history of the settlement of Philadelphia and its progress. There are 
few, who do not know that William Penn purchased from the Indians 
the ground upon which the city stands, giving what, in their eyes, was 
deemed a fair equivalent. The spot at which the treaty was consum- 
mated is marked by a monument, at the corner of Beech and Hanover 
streets. The year 1681 was the epoch. 

Without further touching upon general matters, w-e proceed to a 
recapitulation of such objects as are worthy the attention of the visitor. 



PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, &C., OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 

The State House, Chestnut and Fifth 
streets, was projected in 1729, but was 
not purchased by the city until 1816. 
Congress met here during the Revolution, 
and in 1787, the Convention chosen 
to frame the constitution. Washington 
was president of the last named body. 
At the close of the last century, both 
branches of the Legislature met in the 
building, and in September, 1824, it wel- 
comed Lafayette beneath its roof. The 
Hall contains portraits of nearly all the 
distinguished men of the Revolution. No 
tickets required, but the Janitor at the 
Hall door will issue tickets to the steeple. 

The Mint, is on Chestnut street, above 
Thirteenth, a fine marble edifice. No 
tickets required. 

The Custom House, Chestnut street, 
above Fourth street. 



Girard College, Ridge Avenue and Twen- 
tieth streets. Tickets of admission to be 
obtained at the Mayor's oflSce, Fifth and 
Chestnut sts., up stairs. Eastern Peni- 
tentiary, Coates and Twenty-First streets. 

Tickets as above. 
House of Refuge, Girard Avenue and 

Twenty-Third streets. Tickets as 

above. 
The Navy Yard, Front and Federal St's. 

Free. 
Philadelphia Merchants' Exchange, Third 

and Walnut streets; contains Read- 
ing Room. 
Fairmount Water Works, Callowhill St. 

and Schuylkill River. 
Blockley Almshouse, on west bank of 

Schuylkill River. 
Carpenters' Hall, where First Congress 

met. Chestnut above Third street. 



PHILADELPHIA CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



27 



Laurel Hill Cemetery, Ridge Turnpike, 
above the city. 

Moyamensiiip; Prison, Tenth street and 
Passyuuk Road. Strangers admit- 
ted free. 

Blind Asylum, Twentieth and Race St's. 
Performance every Wednesday after- 
noon: Admission, 10 cents. 

Masonic Hall, Chestnut, above Seventh 
street. 

Academy of Fine Arts, Chestnut, above 
Tenth. Admission, 25 cents. 

House of Industry, Catharine, above 
Seventh street. Free. 

Marine Hospital, near Gray's Ferry. 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum, open on Thurs- 
days, Broad and Pine. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Broad and 
Sansom streets ; open on Tuesdays 
and Fridays. Free. 

Post Office, Jaynes' Building, Third and 
Dock streets. 

High School, Broad and Green streets. 

Normal School, Sergeant, above Kinth 
street. 

Arsenal, Gray's Ferry Road, near Federal 
street. 

Philadelphia Gas Works, Twenty-Second 
and ^Market. 

Franklin Institute, Seventh street, be- 
tween IMarket and Chestnut. 

Spring Garden Hall, Thirteenth & Spring 
Garden. 

Pennsylvania Asylum for Insane, Forty- 
Fourth and Market streets. 

Odd Fellows' Hall, Broad and Spring 
Garden. 

Odd Fellows' Hall, Sixth and Haines. 

Pennsylv'a Hospital, Eighth and Spruce. 

Board of Trade, 5th and Chestnut sts. 

PASSENGER RAILROAD DEPOTS. 

For Pittsburg and the West, (Pennsyl- 
vania Central,) Eleventh and Market 
streets. 

For Baltimore, (Philadelphia and Balti- 
more Railroad,) Broad and Prime 
streets. 

For Reading and Pottsville, (Phila. and 
Reading Railroad,) Broad and Vine 
streets. 

For West Chester, (Pennsylv'a Central,) 
Eleventh and Market streets. 

For West Chester, (Media Railroad,) 
Eigl'.teenth and Market. 

For Trenton, (Phila. and Trenton,) Front 
and Norris, and Walnut St. Whiirf. 

For Bethlehem, (North Pennsylvania 
Railroad,) Front and Willow. 

For Germantown and Norristown, (Phila- 
delphia, Germantown and Norris ; 



town Railroad,) Ninth and Green 
streets. 

PUBLIC SQUARES. 



Independence, 

Washington, 

Franklin, 

Jefferson, 



Ritteuhouse, 
Logan, 
Penn, 
Norris. 



FERRIES. 

To Camden, from Market street Wharf, 
(two ferries) Delaware river. 

To Camden, from Walnut street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 

To Camden, from Vine street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 

To Gloucester, from South street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 

To Camden, from Poplar street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 

To Red Bank, from South street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 

To Manayunk, from Fairmount, Schuyl- 
kill river. 

To Tacony, from "Walnut street Wharf, 
Delaware river. 
Steamers leave several times daily, for 

points up and down the Delaware river. 

PROMINENT NEWSPAPERS. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger, Third and 
Chestnut streets. 

North American, Third and Dock streets. 

Evening Journal, Third and Harmony 
Court. 

Evening Bulletin, Third, below Chestnut. 

Pennsylvania Inquirer, Third and Car- 
ter's Alley. 

Daily News, Third, opposite Dock. 

The Press, Chestnut, above Fourth street. 

The Pennsylvanian, Thii-d, below Chest- 
nut. 

The Argus, Third, opposite Dock. 

Commercial List,. Gold street. 

Sunday Transcript, Third, below Chest- 
nut. 

Sunday Dispatch, Third, near Walnut. 

Sunday Mercury, Third and Dock. 

Democrat, (German) Third, near Noble. 

THEATRES, &c. 

Wheatley & Clarke's, Arch street, near 

Sixth. 
Walnut Street Theatre, Walnut and Ninth 

streets. 
Academy of Music, Broad and Locust. 
Sanford's Opera House, Eleventh, near 

Chestnut. 
City Museum, (German) Callowhill and 

Crown streets. 



28 



PHILADELPHIA CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



National Circus, Walnut, above Eighth st. 
Besides numerous miniature establish- 
ments, at which the prices of admission 
vary from 10 to 15 cents. 

FARE OF HACKNEY COACHES. 

The following are the rates established 
by law : 

One passenger with trunk, valise, 
saddle-bag, carpet-bag, portmanteau, or 
box, for any distance not exceeding one 
mile, fifty cents ; and for every additional 
passenger, tiventi/ five cents. 

One passenger, any distance more than 
a mile, and not exceeding two, seventy- 
five cents ; and for every additional pas- 
senger, twenty-five cents. 

One passenger, any distance over two 
miles, for every additional mile, or part 
of a mile, twenty-five cents, in addition to 
the sum of seventi/fiwe cents for the first 
two miles; and for every additional pas- 
senger, twenty-five cents. 

One or more passengers by the hour, 
■with the privilege of going from place to 
place, and stopping as often as may be 
required, one dollar per hour. 

Hiring a hackney carriage, not speci- 
fied to be by the hour, is deemed to be 
by the mile. But in case the distance is 
more than four miles, the rate for each 
additional mile is twelve and a-half cents 
per passenger. 
Chestnut street south to Prime, one mile. 

" north to Brown, " 

Delaware river to Twelfth street, " 

" to Schuylkill, two miles. 

Camden and Amboy Depot to Trenton 

Depot, two miles. 
Camden and Amboy Depot to Pennsyl- 
vania Depot, one mile. 

LIBRARIES. 
Philadelphia Library, Fifth and Library 

streets. 
Mercantile Library, Fifth and Library 

streets. 
Apprentices' Fifth and Arch. 
Spring Garden Library, Spring Garden 

Institute, Broad and Spring Garden. 
These are also extensive Libraries, con- 
nected with courts, churches, and places 
of worship, belonging to Friends and 
other societies. 

TELEGRAPH OFFICES. 
To New York, the West, &c.. Third St., 

below Chestnut. 
To New York, Washington, Baltimore, 

&c.. Chestnut, above Third street. 
To Points on the Susquehanna River, 

(fee. Chestnut, between Third and 

Fourth streets. 



To Ilarrisburg, Pittsburg, &c., Chestnut 
above Third street. 

To Reading and Pottsville, Merchants' 
Exchange. 

City Telegraph Office, Fifth and Chest- 
nut streets, (up stall's.) 

CITY RAILROADS. 

Chestnut and Walnut Streets Railroad. 

Ridge Avenue, from Second and Arch to 
Girard College, and return. 

Germautown, from Eighth and Dickerson 
to Germantown. 

Manayunk, from Girard College to Mana- 
yunk, and return, on Ridge Avenue. 

Frankford and Southwark, from Frank- 
foi-d to Southwark, on Fifth and 
Sixth streets. 

Second and Third Streets, from South- 
wark to Richmond, Kensington, and 
Bridesburg, on Second and Third 
streets. 

Race and Vine, from Exchange to Fair- 
mount, on Race and Vine streets. 

Arch Street, from Second and Arch to 
Fairmount, on Arch street. 

Spruce and Pine, from Exchange to 
Gray's Ferry, on Spruce and Pine 
streets. 

Green and Coates, from Delaware River 
to Fairmount, on Green and Coates 
streets. 

Green and Coates, from Dickerson and 
Eighth to Fairmount. 

Tenth and Eleventh Streets, from Colum- 
bia Avenue to Reed street and Moya- 
mensing Prison, on Tenth and 
Eleventh streets. 

Richmond and Schuylkill, from Rich- 
mond to Schujlkill, on Girard Av- 
enue. 

Thirteenth and Fifteenth, on Thirteenth, 
and Fifteenth streets. 

West Philadelphia, from Second and Mar- 
ket to West Philadelphia, on Mar- 
ket street. 

Darby Railroad, from West Philadelphia 
to Darby. 

Hestonville, from West Philadelphia, (the 
Wire Bridge,) to Mantua and Hes- 
tonville. 

Seventeenth and Nineteenth Streets Rail- 
road, 

PRINCIPAL PUBLIC HALLS. 

National Building, Race St. below Sixth. 
Musical Fund, Locust St., below Ninth. 
National, Market street, near Twelfth. 
Jaynes', Chestnut, below Seventh. 
Spring Garden, Thirteenth and Spring 

Garden. 
Sansom Street, Sansom, above Sixth. 



PHILADELPHLi CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC 



29 



Handel and Haydn, Spring Garden and 

Eighth streets. 
Concert Hall, Chestnut, above Twelfth 

street. 

CEMETERIES. 

Laurel Hill, Ridge Avenue and Reading 

Railroad. 
IMonunieut, Broad, above Master. 
Woodland, Darby Road, west of the 

Schuylkill. 
American Mechanics', Turner's Lane and 

Ridge Avenue. 
Glenwood, Turner's Lane and Ridge 

Avenue. 
Lafayette, Federal street, near Tenth. 
Odd Fellows', Turner's Lane and Ridge 

Avenue. 
Macphelah, Tenth and Prime. 
Konaldson's, Niuth and Shippen. 
Philadelphia, Passyunk Road, west of 

Broad. 
Union, Sixth and Federal. 
Mount Moriah, on Darby Road. 
Cathedral, Hestonville. 

MEDICAL COLLEGES, &c. 

Jefferson, Tenth street, below San«om. 

Pennsylvania, Ninth street, below Locust. 

Philadelphia, Fifth, below Walnut, 

University of Pennsylvania, Ninth, be- 
tween Market and Chestnut. 

College of Pharmacy, Zane street, above 
Seventh. 

Eclectic Medical College, Haines street, 
west of Sixth. 

Medical Institute, Locust above Eleventh. 

Female Medical College, Arch street. 

Homoeopathic Medical College, Filbert 
street, above Eleventh. 

University of Free Medicine, Arch street. 

BANKS. 

Farmers' and Mechanics', Chestnut, above 

Fourth street, (north side.) 
Philadelphia, Chestnut, above Fourth 

street, (north side.) 
Western, Chestnut, above Fourth, (south 

side) 
Commonwealth, Chestnut, above Fourth, 

(south side.) 
Bank of North America, Chestnut, above 

Third, (north side.) 
Commercial, Chestnut, above Third, 

(south .sile. ) 
Bank of Couimerce, Chestnut, below 

Third, (north side.) 
Mechanics' Bank, Third, below Market, 

(west side.) 
Girard Bank, Third, below Chestnut, 

(west side.) 



Tradesmen's Bank, (S. W.) corner of 

Second and Spruce. 
Southwark, Second, below South, (west 

side.) 
City Bank, Sixth, above Market, (west 

side.) 
Bank of Penn Township, (N. W.) corner 

of Sixth and Vine. 
Kensington Bank, Beech and Maiden. 
Bank of Northern Liberties, Vine, below 

Third, (north side ) 
Consolidation Bank, Third, above Vine, 

(east side ) 
Manufacturers' and Mechanics', (N. W.) 

corner of Third and Vine. 
Union Bank, (N. E.) corner of Third and 

Arch. 
Corn Exchange, (N. E.) corner of Second 

and Chestnut. 
Numerous Saving Funds exist in differ- 
ent parts of the city. 

MARKET HOUSES. 

Western, N. E. corner of Sixteenth and 

Market. 
Franklin, Tenth street, above Chestnut. 
Eastern, Fifth and Merchant. 
City Market, Broad and Race. 
Fairmount, Kater, Gerraantown. 

CHURCHES. 

Episcopal. 

Calvary, Front and Magaretta. 
Christ, Second, above Market. 
Covenant, Concert Hall, Chestnut street. 
St. James', Seventh, above Market. 
St. Peter's, Third and Pine. 
St. Stephen's, Tenth, above Chestnut. 
St. Andrew's, Eighth, above Spruce. 
St. Jude's, Franklin, above Brown. 
St. John's, Brown, below Third. 
St. Luke's, Thirteenth, below Spruce. 
St. Philip's, Vine, below Eighth. 
Epiphany, Fifteenth and Chestnut. 
Grace, Twelfth and Cherry. 
St. Paul's, Third, below Walnut. 
St. Matthew's, Francisville. 
Trinity, Catharine, above Second. 
Gloria Dei, Swanson, near Navy Yard. 
Ascension, Lombard, above Eleventh. 
Evangelist's, Catharine, above Seventh. 
Intercession. 

Emanuel, Marlboro', above Franklin. 
All Saint's, Twelfth, below Fitzwater. 
Nativity, Eleventh, and Mount Vernon. 
Advent, York Avenue, above Tammany. 
Redemption, Twenty-Second and Callow- 
hill. 
St. Mark's, Locust, above Sixteenth. 
St. Mark's, Locust, near William. 
St. James the Less, Falls of Schuylkill. 



80 



PHILADELPHIA CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



Zion, Ei»litb and Columbia Avenue. 

Atonement, Seventeenth and Summer. 

Crucifixion, Eighth, above Shippen. 

Mediator, Nineteenth and Lombard. 

Messiah, Port Richmond. 

St. Bartholomew, Germantown Road, 
near Eighth. 

Resurrection, Nicetown. 

Redeemer, (Seamen's) Spruce St. "wharf. 

Savior, West Philadelphia. 

Trinity, Maylandville. 

St. James', Kingsessing. 

St. Andrew's, jNlantua. 

St. Barnabas, Market, above Twenty- 
First. 

Savior, Reed, near Eighth. 

Holy Apostles, North Broad street. 

St. David's, Manayunk. 

St. Luke's, Germantown Avenue. 

Christ, Germantown. 

Trinity, Oxford. 

All Saint's, Lower Dublin. 

Oak Grove, '• 

Emmanuel, Holmesburg. 

St. Mark's, Frankford and Sellers. 

Chestnut Hill, Chestnut Hill. 

St. Clement's, Nineteenth and Cherry. 

Holy Ti-inity, Rittenhouse Square. 

Wistar Street Mission, Germantown. 

Mission, Reed, above Front. 

Roman Catholic. 

Cathedral, Eighteenth and Summer. 

St. Augustine's, Fourth, near Vine. 

St. Joseph's, Willing's Alley. 

St. Mary's, Fourth, above Spruce. 

St. John's, Thirteenth, below Market. 

Holy Trinity, Sixth and Spruce. 

St. Michael's, Second, near Kensington. 

St. Francis Xavier, Fairmount. 

St. Ann's, Port Richmond. 

St. Philip de Neri, Queen, above Second. 

St. Peter's, Fifth and Franklin Avenue. 

St. Paul's, Christian, below Tenth. 

Assumption, Spr'g Garden, bel. Twelfth. 

St. Theresa's, Broad and Catharine. 

St. James', West Philadelphia. 

St. Alphonsus', Fourth and Reed. 

St. Mary Magdelene, Marriott, below 

Eighth. 
St. Malachy, Eleventh, above INIaster. 
St. Bridget's, Falls of Schuylkill. 
St. Gresory, Cathedral Cemetery. 
St. Joachin, Frankford. 
St. Vincent of Paul, Germantown. 
St. Dominic, Holmesburg. 
St. Stephen's, Nicetown. 
St. John Baptist, Manayunk. 
Immaculate Conception, Manayunk. 
Lady of Conception, Chestnut Hill. 



Preshyterian. 

First, Washington Square. 

Second, Seventh, below Arch. 

Third, Fourth and Pine. 

Fourth, Twelfth and Lombard. 

Arch Street, Arch street, above Tenth. 

Sixth, Spruce street, near Sixth. 

Seventh, Broad, above Chestnut. 

Eastburne, (Mariner's) Water street. 

Scotts, Spruce, above Third. 

Ninth, Sixteenth and Sansom. 

Tenth, Twelfth and AValnut. 

Twelfth, South, above Eleventh. 

Central, Eighth and Cherry. 

Clinton Street, Tenth and Clinton. 

Union, Thirteenth, below Spruce. 

Western, Seventeenth and Filbert. 

First, N. L., Buttonwood, below Sixth. 

Central, Coates, above Third. 

North, Sixth, above Green. 

Spring Garden, Eleventh, above Spring 
Garden. 

Logan Square, Twentieth and Vine. 

First Southwark, German, above Second. 

Southwark, Third and Redwood. 

First Kensington, Franklin above Palmer. 

Cohocksink, Germantown Road, above 
Sixth. 

Green Hill, Girard Avenue, above Six- 
teenth. 

Penn, Tenth, above Poplar. 

Richmond, Richmond. 

Fifteenth, Fifteenth and Lombard. 

First W. P., West Philadelphia. 

Second W. P., " " 

Calvary, Fifteenth and Locust. 

West Spruce Street, Seventeenth and 
Spruce. 

First (Kensington) Frankford Road, 
above Franklin. 

Welsh, Filbert, west of Fifteenth. 

Westminster, Broad and Shippen. ' 

Southwestern, Twentieth and Lombard. 

Olivet, Twentieth and Washington. 

West Arch, Arch and Eighteenth. 

Germantown, Main, above Centre. 

Chestnut Hill, Chestnut Hill. 

Bridesburg, Bridesburg. 

Holmesburg, Holmesburg. 

Frankford, Frankford. 

Manayunk, Manayunk. 

Market House Square, Germantown. 

Belmont, Belmont Avenue. 

Alexander, Nineteenth and Green. 

Princeton, Thirty-Ninth and Powelton 
Avenue. 

Second, Germantown. 

Methodist. 
St. George, Fourth, below Vine. 
Union, Fourth, below Arch. 



rniLADELPIIIA CITY. — PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 



Trinity, Eighth, above Kace. 

Green Street, Green, above Tenth. 

Fifth, Fifth, below Green. 

St. John, Third, above Beaver. 

Kensington, Queen and Marlboro'. 

Sanctuary, Fifth, below Franklin Avenue. 

Front Street, Front street, above Laurel. 

Cohocksink, Germantown Road, below 
Fifth. 

Twelfth Street, cor. Twelfth and Ogden. 

Iledding, Sixteenth and Coates. 

Tabernacle, Eleventh, above Jefferson. 

Hancock street, Hancock street, above 
Franklin Avenue. 

Emory, Callowhill, west of Eighteenth. 

Summerfield, Dauphin and Fraukford 
Road. 

Port Richmond, Port Richmond. 

Rising Sun, Germantown Road, near 
Broad. 

Washington Street, Twenty-Second and 
Washington. 

Nazareth, Thirteenth, below Vine. 

Central, Vine, below Thirteenth. 

Western, Twentieth, below Walnut. 

Pitman Chapel, Twenty-Third and Lom- 
bard. 

Salem, Lombard, below Broad. 

St. Paul's, Catharine, above Sixth. 

Ebenezer, Christian, below Fourth. 

Holmesburg, Holmesburg. 

Germantown, Germantown. 

St. Stephen's, " 

Mount Zion, Manayunk. 

Ebenezer, " 

AVhiirton Street, Wharton, above Third, 

Mariner's Bethel, Shippen and Penn. 

Broad Street, Broad and Shippen. 

Eleventh Street, Eleventh, below Car- 
penter. 



Scott, Eighth, above Franklin. 

Ashbury, West Philadelphia. 

Mantua, Mantuaville. 

Haddington, Haddington. 

Monroeville, Monroeville. 

Y. M. Home Mission, Bedford, above 

Sixth. 
Frankford, Frankford. 

Baptist. 
First, Broad and Arch. 
Second, New Market, above Poplar. 
Third, Second, above Catharine. 
Fourth, Buttonwood and Fifth. 
Fifth, Sansom, above Eighth. 
Spruce Street, Spruce, above Fourth. 
Calvary, Fifth, below Carpenter. 
Tenth, Eighth, above Green. 
Eleventh, Twelfth, above Race. 
Twelfth, Queen, near Shakamaxon. 
Broad, Broad and Brown. 
Passyunk, Broad and Passyunk. 
West Philadelphia, Chestnut, above Park. 
North, Eighth, above Master. 
Tabernacle, Chestnut, near Eighteenth. 
German, Sixth and Poplar. 
Spring Garden, Thirteenth above Wallace. 
Blockley, Thirteenth, above Wallace. 
Schuylkill Falls, Schuylkill Falls. 
Manayunk, Manayunk. 
Germantown, Price street. 
Chestnut Hill, Chestnut HiU. 
Olivet, Christian, below Sixth. 
Roxborough, Roxborough. 
Frankford, Frankford. 
Lower Dublin, Lower Dublin. 
Holmesburg, Holmesburg. 
Union, Milestown. 

Turner's Lane, Turner's Lane and Butler. 
Franklin, Third and Elwood Lane. 



PHILADELPHIA TO PITTSBURG. 



PENNSYLVANIA CENTRAL RAILROAD DEPOT. 

Tlie Depot is at Eleventh and Market Streets, with a front of pressed 
brick, upon the first named thoroughfare, and a sufficient number of tracks 
inside for the accommodation of the passenger business of the road. It 
contains suitable offices for the General Passenger Agent, Thomas 
Moore, Esq., and others, whose duty calls them to this point. The west- 
ward bound traveller can entertain himself with a view of the applicants 
for tickets, for every important place between New Orleans and Iowa. 

Then comes a tap of the bell — a rush of negro porters — a shout by the 
Conductor, and the long line of mules apply themselves to the task, and, 
with a jerk upon their iron chains, start the car on its journey of three 
hundred and fifty-four miles to Pittsburg. Rather slow work this mule 
locomotion, but allowable, as it only has to be borne during ten minutes 
required to haul the train to the outer Depot in West Philadelphia. In 
that ten minutes the progress is through Market Street, the great busi- 



82 MARKET STREET BRIDGE. 

ness thoroughfare of the Quaker City, Two squares above the Passen- 
ger Depot, (at Thirteenth and Market Streets) is the Freight Depot 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The building is immense, with 
arched roof — a half dozen platforms apportioned off for the freight for 
different points on the road, and in the Great West, and ample room for 
cars and vehicles. Cost a " power" of money, that structure, and will 
last forever. Go there, and the Agent will give you a receipt for any- 
thing from a cross-cut saw, to a thousand hogsheads of molasses. 

As you rattle along at a dog-trot, view the car in which you are 
ensconced ; note the solidity and strength of its construction, and think 
of the care which was exercised to perfect the vehicle destined to carry 
passengers thousands of miles in the course of the year. Then, having 
arrived at Eighteenth and Market, place " eyes right," and see a building 
with an arched roof, called the West Chester Railroad Depot. This 
structure was erected by Bingham & Dock, a firm, who before the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company bought the line to Lancaster, leased it from 
the State of Pennsylvania, and run the trains to the west. Their cars 
left this depot. The occupation of Messrs, B. & D., like that of Othello, 
is " gone." 

MARKET STREET BRIDGE. 

The Bridge over the Schuylkill, which belongs to the City, is the great 
thoroughfare between Philadelphia and West Philadelphia. The ques- 
tion of building another one, has long been in agitation. The wire bridge, 
which is perceptible up the Schuylkill, is too far up town to accommo- 
date the business community. The Market Street structure, is now used 
by Passenger Railway Companies, private citizens, and the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, who have one half of it, and two tracks laid therein. 

WEST PHILADELPHIA — THE ROUTE. 

Atthe west end of the Bridge we leave Market Street, and halt in front of 
the Superintendent's Office of the Philadelphia Division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. The Superintendent, is George C. Franciscus, Esq. 
While we are stopping, men are " sounding" the car-wheels to ascertain 
if they are without break or fracture. This concluded, the locomotive 
gives its deep bass whistle, and starts. West Philadelphia lies on either 
side of us, in some parts, wearing the appearance of an active business 
place, and in others seeming like a summer resort for merchants who have 
money to invest in cottages. The finest portion of it is not visible from 
the Railroad. The tall white iron pipe which looks down upon the place, 
is the "Stand-pipe" of the Water Works which supply the Ward, (for 
West Philadelphia is a Ward) with water. 

THE RAILROAD. 

The Railroad which the traveller pursues between Philadelphia and 
Dillervillc, (near Lancaster) seventy miles, was known formerly as the 
"Columbia Railroad." It was built by the State of Pennsylvania, and 
opened in 1834. It extended beyond Dillerville to Columbia, on the 
Susquehanna River, where it connected with the Eastern Division of the 
State Canals, When first constructed it had two inclined planes, one 
just beyond Philadelphia, and one at Columbia. Both have been avoided. 



PHILADELPHIA TO DOWNINGTOWN. 83 

The Roacl was purchased by the Pennsylvania Central Railroad Com- 
pany in 1857, for seven million five hundred thousand dollars, and "was 
immediately ballasted and put in repair. Two tracks extend from Phi- 
ladelphia to Dillerville. 

Between Philadelphia and Downin,s:town (thirty-three miles), the 
objects of interest are many. Ilestonville, on the south side of the Rail- 
road, is the point to which horse railway cars run at intervals, and is an 
improving part of the City. Crested hills on both sides of the road are 
tipped with country seats of Philadelphians, for whose convenience neat 
and small Station Houses have been erected at short distances. Rocky 
cuts indicate that the Quaker City will never lack for building stone. 
The Lancaster turnpike crosses and recrosses the Railroad. Athensville 
is a scattered village on the turnpike, and in Montgomery County, one 
of the richest agricultural sections of Pennsylvania. The Railroad 
makes a sharp curvature at this point. Haverford College, a Friend's 
Classical School, is on an eminence south of the Railroad, with a beauti- 
ful lawn in front, and surrounded with trees. White Hall, is merely a 
Hotel, noted as a summer resort, and situated at the junction of three 
townships, viz., Lower Merion, Haverford and Radnor. Yilla jSTova, is a 
Roman Catholic College on the crest of a hill, south of the Railroad. The 
building is yellow, and surmounted with a Cross. Morgan's Corner 
thirteen miles from Philadelphia, is in a corner of Delaware County at 
the junction of four roads. Eagle Station, passing which, the westward 
bound traveller enters Chester County, is in an old Welsh township, viz., 
" Tredyflfrin." Here is located one of the oldest inns of the State, noted 
as a halting place for the men, who drove the ancient Conestoga Wagons 
along the turnpike. At the Railroad and turnpike crossing, is the first 
point where the traveller obtains an open view of Chester Valley to the 
south ; westward from this point the valley, which is full of fine farms, 
limestone quarries, &c., gradually opens, the Railroad being laid upon 
the south side of it. Paoli was the seat of another " Conestoga" Hotel, 
and was the home of General Washington during the Revolutionary 
scenes of the locality. General Wayne's birth-place is near here, and 
the house we believe, is still standing. The Paoli Massacre took place 
near here in 117T, and the spot is marked by a Monument erected by the 
Chester County Military Company. Junction, is the point of divergence 
of the West Chester Railroad, which is now leased and worked by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Chester Yalley is twenty miles long 
and two miles wide ; the Chester Yalley Railroad is seen on an embank- 
ment passing through its centre and running between J^orristown and 
Downingtown. Steamboat, is a country Hotel, with a Station House and 
a few adjoining tenements, in the midst, however, of a rich district. Oak- 
land, an agreeable place of summer resort, commanding an admirable view 
of the valley, consists of a hotel, &c. High Bridge, over a branch of the 
Brandywine Creek, is nearly five hundred feet in length, and durably con- 
structed. Limestone quarries give some idea of the resources of tlie valley. 
The Depot of the Chester Yalley Railroad is on the north side of the 
Railroad near Downingtown. The Chester Yalley Railroad, is operated 
by the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, under a five year's 
lease. 

3 



84 DOWNINGTOWN — PARKESBUKG. 

pniLADELpniA, 33. DOWNINGTOWN. pixtsburg, 321. 

This is a lengthy village, dating as far back as 1728, and deriving its 
name from Thomas Downing, who became part owner of the ground in ITSO. 
The original settlers were from Birmingham, England, but they do not ap- 
pear to have attempted to build up a city equal to that which they left, but 
rather to have been contented with a village of neat cottages and " pleasant 
places." It has, however, in the vicinity, a number of mills and factories, 
A branch of the Brandywine Creek furnishes water-power, and passes 
southward to the scene of the battle at Chadd's Ford, in 177 T, between 
General Washington and Lord Cornwallis. A good hotel is at the Depot, 
and the indefatigable Lancaster Turnpike is in sight. This improvement 
was commenced in 1792, and cost over five hundred thousand dollars. 

Eleven miles intervene between Downingtown and Parkesburg. Gal- 
lagherville is passed. It is a place of fair size, but apparently not built 
with much regard for regularity. It is on high ground, to the north of 
the Railroad — Cain, an inconsiderable place in the valley of Chester 
County, is just at a point where the iron-horse glides from the south side 
of the valley to the base of the hills which form its northern enclosure — 
•Coatesville, originally settled by Lindley Coates, in 1725, has rolling and 
paper mills in its vicinity, and is on the w^est branch of the Brandywine, 
■vjjjiicli is crossed by a bridge over seventy feet high, and nine hundred 
feet long. It is a very neat and fine-looking place — population not over 
six hundred and fifty. Chandlers, a station wnth some half dozen tidy 
houses in the foreground, is for the accommodation of the adjoining 
agricultural country, 

iPSILADELPIIIA, 44. PARKESBURG. PITTSBURG, 310. 

The westward bound traveller will find it on the right side of the cars, 
with streets running parallel with the Railroad. The old machine and 
repair shops of the Columbia Railroad are on the left. The town itself 
was commenced about 1831, and is the seat of two educational institu- 
tions. The business accruing from the Railroad Company, who employ 
a large number of men at the shops, tends to the prosperity of the place, 
and as an agricultural depot for the surrounding valley it is entitled to 
some importance. Enterprising men have also erected and operate 
several factories and forges in the vicinity. 

Between Parkesburg and Learaan Place, the distance is thirteen miles — 
Penningtonville is a considerable shipping point for produce for Phila- 
delphia. The houses of the village are mostly of frame, and the population 
is gifted with a good share of enterprise. Christiana, is the first station 
which is reached in Lancaster County. It is a thriving place, and is 
noted as having been the scene of a slave riot, in 1851, in which a Mary- 
lander was killed while attempting to secure a slave. Some of the par- 
ties implicated in resisting the Southerners, were tried for treason, but 
acquitted. Mine Ridge, a range of hills, lie just west of Christiana, and 
are passed through by the Railroad — they shut out from the east a valley, 



LEAMAN PLACE — THE EMIGRANT LINE. 35 

which for beauty and richness would compare favorably with that to 
which 

•'Could Love fulfil its priij'crs — " 

the love-sick hero of the Lady of Lyons, would have taken his Dulcinca. 
But without such poetical description, Lancaster Yalley, or rather the 
Fequea Yalley of Lancaster County, is almost unparalleled. Gap Sta- 
tion, five hundred and sixty feet above tide water, is at the entrance 
into the Mine Kidj^e, and boasts a small cluster of houses. Kintzers is 
a small hamlet-looking place, with limestone quarries in its vicinity. 

PHILADELPinA, 57. LEAMAN PLACE. l-rrTSBURG, 297. 

Here the Railroad Company have erected a fine new brick Depot, 
wood-house, water-tank, &c. From what the place derived its name we 
cannot say. To say the least, however, it is a singular title. The houses 
are mostly frame. 

The Shawanese Indians, were attracted from the South by the beauties 
of this spot, and resided near here for some time. Tiring, however, of the 
Pequea Valley, they emigrated to the westward, leaving the white man 
sole controller of the destinies of the country. 

Mr. John Le Fevre, residing near Leaman Place, has in his possession 
a relic of the olden times, which he prizes very highly. It is a quarto 
size Bible, printed in the French language, in the year 1608, twelve 
years before the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, consequently it is 
now two hundred and fifty years old ; and notwithstanding its great age, 
is still in a good state of preservation, and so legible that a French scholar 
may peruse it with the greatest facility. Its history, or rather its preser- 
vation, has been not a little remarkable, having in its day been buried in 
the earth at times, and concealed in the bottom of an old chair, to avoid 
its discovery by the officers deputed by the powers that then were, to find 
out and destroy all such books. Paradise is one mile from Leaman Place. 

THE EMIGRANT LINE 

■While gliding along, on this double track Railroad, the attention of the traveller 
will perhaps be attracted by the dark green cars of the Emigrant train, bound for 
the far West. A glance within the cars discovers an interesting spectacle. Stout- 
hearted, able-bodied men, sunburnt by the beams that fell upon them in the 
Fatherland, are found there; mothers with their babes, buxom damsels of matrimo- 
nial age and unpoetical temperament ; childhood, and youth, and age, collected 
together, all with their faces turned toward the setting sun, and with their eyes 
fixed upon the teeming prairies, the fertile fields of the land of premise — the new 
Canaan. Behind them, over the distant seas, lies all that the human heart recog- 
nizes in the magic sound of liome ; before them is unfolded avast garden, fertile 
and rich in soil, watered by flowing streams, and governed by laws founded upoa 
justice and the rights of man. AVho would not be tempted by such inducements, 
and who is surprised that the nations of the world should embrace them. 

In one day have been landed in New York, over two thousand emigrants, consist- 
ing of Germans, Irish, Scotch, English and Swedes; and how and where are these 
to be disposed of* Numbers doubtless remain in the large cities of the Union, but 
hundreds, inspired V)y the pioneer spirit, will seek for themselves new homes in our 
far territories. Political disputants question the benefit resulting to us from this 
accession to our population. It may or may not be an evil, but it is sufficient for 
us to assert the facts, without becoming involved in points of political economy. It 



36 LANCASTER. 

is sufficient for us to point to the settlements of foreigners scattered through the 
land, and leave for others to decide whether or not they act as checks or auxiliaries 
to the great spirit of improvement on its steady march towards the shore of the 
Pacific. The hopes and emotions which inspire those two thousand wanderers, who 
can tell? They cannot be comprehended save by one who himself has been "a 
stranger in a strange land." Our manners, customs, and habits are new and pecu. 
liar — our very appearance present to them as much that is singular as does theirs 
to us ; and in face of these difficulties, they boldly throw themselves upon us for 
adoption. Each train that rolls along our highway, with its freight of humanity, 
contains the germ of future villages, cities, and States of our confederacy. 

Between Leaman Place and Lancaster, the distance is eleven miles. 
Just west of Leaman Place, the Pequea Creek is crossed by a single arch 
bridge. It flows southward, and empties into the Susquehanna River. 
Gordonville, a grain depot and hamlet-looking village, is built principally 
upon a single street, which crosses the Railroad. It is sometimes called Con- 
cord, and has a population of about two hundred and fifty. Bird in Hand, 
also built upon one street, is evidently better than any possible number 
of "birds in the bush." It is also known as "Enterprise." It is seven 
miles east of Lancaster, and has a new two story brick Depot. Just 
west of it is Mill Creek, a tributary of the Conestoga. The Creek is 
crossed on a high bridge, to which extensive repairs have recently been 
made. Between this point and Lancaster, the Conestoga Creek is 
spanned by another high bridge. The Conestoga, derives its name from 
the Indians who dwelt in the vicinity, now alas, among " the things that 
were." The castellated-looking County prison is seen on the south side 
of the Railroad, just on the confines of Lancaster, It is of red-stone. 

PHILADELPHIA, 68. LANCASTER. PITTSBURG, 286. 

Lancaster, holding the rank of the fourth city in point of population 
in Pennsylvania, deserves a more extended description than it is possible 
for us to give in these pages. It has been incorporated as a City for 
over forty years, and was laid out as far back as lt30. Its rise previous 
to the construction of the Railroad, was slow and regular, befitting the 
character of the residents, most of whom were of German descent. The 
situation is one of the most healthy and pleasant in the State, the streets 
being laid out at right angles, and retaining, in many instances, names 
which savor of olden times, viz.: Duke, Queen, Prince, Orange, &c. 
It was the seat of the State Government from 1199 to 1812. 

The modern innovations, which for a long time past have been creep- 
ing into Lancaster, tend to vastly improve its appearance, and to extend 
its business facilities. The locomotives which are turned out from its 
shops are of superior quality, and several anthracite furnaces, steam 
cotton factories, agricultural works, &c., furnish employment to mechanics 
and the laboring classes. 

Gas light, has been introduced by a Company with a capital of one 
hundred thousand dollars. A new County Prison has been erected, at 
a cost of one hundred and ten thousand dollars. The new Court House, 
nearly finished, is a magnificent edifice in the Grecian style, costing over 



LANCASTER. 37 

one hundred thousand dollars. Franklin College, of this place, was 
founded in ItST, but subsequently declined. Ptccently a charter was 
obtained for the union of this Institution with Marshall College, on the 
condition that twenty-five thousand dollars should be raised by the citi- 
zens of Lancaster County. Lancaster contains churches belonging to 
the Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic and other 
denominations. Fulton Hall, for concerts, &c., is one hundred and five 
feet long by fifty-seven wide. The City also contains a classical academy, 
two public libraries, and two banks. 

In the days of the Revolution, Lancaster played a prominent part as a 
prison station for British soldiers. It was the birthplace of Robert 
Fulton and George Ross, and now is the residence of Hon. James 
Buchanan, Hon. Ellis Lewis, late Judge of the Supreme Court, and Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens. 

Lancaster is a namesake of its English brother — the city which in 

1455 supported the banner of the " Red Rose of Lancaster," and bore it 

upon the bloody fields of conflict in the wars of the Roses, against the 

forces of the Duke of York, who threatened 

" To grapple with the House of Lancaster ; 
And force perchance to make him yield the crown, 
AVhose bookish rule hath pulled fair England down." 

The city is supplied with water from the Conestogo Creek. From this 
point also, to the Susquehanna River, a distance of eighteen miles, a slack 
water navigation has been established, which can be used by large vessels. 
Just west of Lancaster, on the south side of the Railroad, is Franklin and 
Marshall College. It is on a prominent piece of land and is of brick. 
A correspondent thus describes the Inland City : 

As the shades of evening approach, the fellow-townsmen of Mr. Bu- 
chanan give themselves up to enjoyment. The best hearth rug is 
brought out from the parlor and spread upon the front door steps, and 
the head of the family lounges there in dishabille, surrounded by his 
wife and numerous children. Philoprogeuitiveness is one of the idiosyu- 
cracies of the Lancasterians. Such hordes of small children I never saw 
in any Irish quarter of any city, as are to be seen around the doorsteps of 
the dwellings in this place at twilight Where they all come from is a 
mystery which it would puzzle " Jeemes Buckanon" himself to solve. Then, 
throughout the early evening, the pretty Lancasterian girls promenade 
the streets in pairs, triplets, and troops. They laugh and chat gaily, and 
look with the boldness of innocence upon the tavern loungers in front of 
Michael's and the other hostleries scattered along the main street. They 
are mostly without hats, having ascertained that it is an easy step from 
the latest fashioned bonnet to bareheadedness, and with a noble impar- 
tiality they resolve to expose their phrenological bumps to the evening 
air all alike. It is very ])leasant to sit at the door and watch the pano- 
rama of living beauty moving past. 

Between Lancaster and Dillerville the distance is two miles. 



38 DILLERVILLE TO MOUNT JOT. 

nriLADELPniA, 70. DILLERVILLE, Pittsburg, isi. 

This place consists of not over a dozen houses and was named after 
Gen. Adam Diller, a hate resident of Philadelphia. He was largely inter- 
ested in lands in the interior of the State, but we do not imagine that the 
town fulfilled his expectations. 

This is the point of junction of the " Harrisburg and Lancaster Rail- 
road," which runs from Dillerville to Harrisburg, thirty-six miles. The 
Express, Fast lines, and Mail trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad pass 
over this road without change of cars, under an existing lease. The old 
" Columbia Railroad," after leaving Dillerville, proceeds to the south, to 
the Susquehanna river and Columbia. 

HARRISBURG AND LANCASTER RAILROAD 
Was opened on November 30th, 1846, at a cost of one million, seven 
hundred and two thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight dollars. The 
bonds due in 1883, amount to six hundred and thirty-eight thousand dol- 
lars. Interest on them, is payable in January and July, and the road 
declares dividends averaging ten and twelve per cent, per annum. It is 
maintained in equally as good order as the Pennsylvania Central Railroad. 
Seven miles intervene between Dillerville and Landisville, in which 
numerous branches of the Little Conestoga Creek are crossed. The 
road runs through Lancaster County for the whole distance. 

piiiLADELPniA, 77. LANDISVILLE, pittsctjrg, 277. 

Is a very pleasant, shady, and neat little hamlet on the south side of 
the railroad. It is on perfectly level ground. With its white frame dwell- 
ings in the foreground, it reminds one of 

" Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain." 

Between Landisville and Mount Joy, the distance is four miles. The 
points of interest are — High Bridge about three hundred feet long, over a 
Creek with a monstrous crooked name, viz., " Chiquesalunga," which 
empties into the Susquehanna near Marietta — Cedar Hill Seminary, an 
institute to " turn out" finished young ladies, and which is par exc6llence. 

PHILADELPHIA, 81. MOUNT JOT. PITTSBURG, 273. 

This place, with such a remarkably expressive name, is the seat of con- 
siderable business. Foundries, Machine shops, and a Car Manufactory 
are here located, and the adjoining excellent limestone valley supplies its 
riches. One of the principal streets crosses the railroad diagonally, and 
the traveller will observe that it is wide and well built. 

Mount Joy w^as settled about 1812, by emigrants from a place of the 
same name in the north part of Ireland, It is the seat of Mount Joy 
Academy and other schools, and has a population of nearly two thousand. 

Mount Joy is six miles distant from Elizabethtown — a highly agricul- 
tural region intervenes — the formation is limestone. A tunnel is passed 
just east of Elizabethtown, and Conoy Creek, a tributary of the Susquehanna 



ELIZABETHTOWN TO MIDDLETOWN". 39 

is crossed. From the western end of the Tunnel a good view is obtained 
of 

PHILADELPHIA. 87. ELIZABETHTOTVN", PITTSBURG, 2C7. 

Which, located in the centre of the valley, is in Lancaster Connty. It 
is apparently built upon a series of small eminences about one-eighth of a 
mile from the railroad, and although not so large, is equally as handsome 
a place as its brother on the New Jersey Railroad. Brick and frame 
dwellings are well interspersed, and two church steeples wliich are promi- 
nent, indicate that religion and intelligence go hand-in-hand. The popu- 
lation of Elizabethtown does not reach one thousand. 

Nine miles to Middletown, in which the Conewago Creek, which forms 
the boundary line between Lancaster and Dauphin Counties, is crossed — 
" feather beds" of boulders, covering acres in extent are observed on both 
sides of the railroad. The stones in many places are so close together as 
almost to induce belief in the rumor that the farmers are obliged, when corn 
planting time comes, to shoot the grains in t'.ie crevices of the rocks with 
a musket, and to soften tlie soil by blasting. This is a section where a 
traveller seeing a farmer with a basket of eggs inquired how many he 
had, and the price of them, whereupon the following colloquy took place : 

" I've got 'bout three dozen, mister, what'll you give for them ?" 

" Seven cents a dozen !" 

" What, only seven cents a dozen ?" 

"Yes, that's all." 

" Well then all I've got to say is, it's a shame." 

" What's a shame ?" 

"Why look-a-here Mister, if you was a hen, wouldn't you think it was 
all-fired hard times if you had to lay eggs in this part of the country for 
only seven cents a dozen ?" 

The spot where the railroad crosses the Conewago is a very romantic 
one, the stream flowing through a gorge, shaded by trees, 

PHILADELPHIA, 9G. MIDDLETOT^N. PITTSBURG, 258. 

Ilere the westward-bound traveller obtains the first view of the Sus- 
quehanna River on his left, and between here and Ilarrisburg he will not 

fail to observe 

"All the fairy crowds. 
Of islands, which together lie, 
As quietly as the spots of sky, 
Among the evening clouds." 

Middletown is an extensive lumber depot, and is at the month of Swa- 
tara Creek, a stream which comes from the coal regions of Pennsylvania, in 
the neighborhood of Pottsville. The town derived its name from having 
been the mid-way station on the turnpike running from Lancaster to 
Carlisle. It was settled previous to 1755, and is now a thriving business 
point. 

Between Middletown and Ilarrisburg, (nine miles,) Ilighspire, a town 



40 HAKRISBURG. 

of nearly seven hundred inhabitants is passed. The Northera Central 
Railroad, is observed on the opposite side of the Susquehanna, running at 
the base of the York Hills, and connecting Baltimore and Sunbury — 
General Cameron's residence, is north of the railroad on a bluff — Paxtou 
Creek, is crossed just east of Harrisburg. 

PHILADELPHIA, 106. HARRISBURG. PITTSBURG, 24S. 

As handsome a town as any in Pennsylvania, is this same Harrisburg, 
and well worthy to be the Capital of an affluent Commonwealth. Nature 
made but one spot on the Susquehanna so favorable as the site of a future 
city. The river, wide and transparent, sweeps past the place as placid as 
though it were glad to emerge from the mountains of the north, with their 
narrow chasms and rocky pathways. Front street, looking out upon the 
stream, is built up with fine dwellings and churches, while the universally 
wide streets in the heart of the town, give a cheerful and tasty appearance 
to the whole. The ground is elevated, although level, and the few marshes 
which formerly existed in the neighborhood have been drained, so that 
the general good health of the residents is notorious. Private enterprise 
has recently done much to increase the business of Harrisburg, and the 
next five years, will undoubtedly show an immense accession to her popu- 
lation. Being the only point in the interior of the State of Pennsylvania, 
from which railroads diverge to the four points of the compass, this result 
will not be surprising. 

The State Capitol, stands on an eminence north of the centre of the 
of town, and contains the various offices necessary for the transaction 
of public business. Two additional buildings upon either side, contain 
rooms used for a like purpose. In one of these, the visitor will find 
open for inspection, free of charge, many relics of the olden time — 
deeds of King George, &c., &c. The Senate Chamber, and Hall of Rep- 
resentatives, which were both elegantly refitted in 1858, are well worth 
critical attention. A view from the dome of the main edifice, discloses 
the length and breadth of the fine valley in which the town is situated. 
Among the notable features to be discerned from this point are, the 
Cumberland Yalley Railroad Bridge, which crosses the river at the foot 
of Mulberry street — the Water "Works, on the banks of the stream — the 
Blue Mountain, in the distance to the north — the Harrisburg Cemetery, on 
an eminence back of the town — the Pennsylvania Central, and Lebanon 
Valley Railroad Depots — the State Lunatic Asylum, which lies to the 
north — the Reservoir of the Water Works — the new Presbyterian and 
Baptist Churches — the different railroad lines diverging from the place, 
and the villages on the opposite shores of the Susquehanna. 

John Harris was the original proprietor of Harrisburg, and in his day 
is recorded to have made many profound and remarkable predictions as 



HARRISBURG. 41 

to the future of the town, Certaia it is, that about forty-five years before 
it became the seat of government, he gave for public use the ground upon 
which the capitol stands. An iron railing, enclosing a tree-stump upon the 
river bank, near the end of the Cumberland Valley Railroad Bridge, 
marks the spot, where, tradition says, Harris uuderwent a severe trial, 
having been tied by the Indians, preparatory to being burned alive. The 
consummation devoutly not "to be wished for," was fortunately pre- 
vented, and the incident is perpetuated in a painting which now adorns 
the Senate Chamber. The residents of the place, at the present day, can 
form but a poor idea of the thoughts and motives whicli influenced the 
settlers of 1790, or can but faintly picture the scene of ITUO. The broad 
river of course was flowing, and the sun of evening cast upon its surface 
beams as golden then, as now. But the bark canoe took the place of the 
gliding raft, and the whistling forest wind made sweeter music than the 
locomotive shriek. No red warehouse reared its walls, but the lodge of 
the red-skin usurped its place — no pale maidens walked upon the banks, 
but the Indian girl wrapped her loose garments around her, and gazed 
upon the possessions of her race. The council fires glowed instead of the 
furnace fires, and the swift arrow spent its strength instead of the bullet. 
One hundred and sixty years make marvellous changes ! 

Extensive Car-works, several Anthracite furnaces and Rolling-mills, 
and a mammoth Cotton-mill, exist in Harrisburg. The usual County 
buildings, consisting of a Court-house and Prison, we have omitted to 
mention. The reader, we hope, will have no occasion to use either of 
them. 

The annual sessions of the Legislature in this place, which have been 
held ever since 1812, are marked by bustle and excitement, and the his- 
tory of " a winter at Harrisburg," if it was written by a politician, would 
reveal extraordinary feats of diplomacy, trickery and financiering, perpe- 
trated very often, public report says, within the Legislative halls. 

The Fire Department is not excelled by that of any town in the coun- 
try, and Library Institutions, &c., are abundant. The press, consists of 
two daily papers, of opposite politics, and three weeklies. The Demo- 
cratic sheet, edited by Richard J. Haldeman, Esq., stands high, both as 
a political organ, and as a journal, reflecting the fine literary and other 
educational acquirements of its editor. 

OLD ADVERTISEMENT OF 1784. 

Harrisburg, Jan. n84 — A Xeiv Town. — The subscriber having laid 
out a Town on the banks of the Susquehanna, adjoining the ferry (com- 
monly called Harris' Ferry,) he now offers for sale, or on ground rent, for 
such term of years as may be agreed upon, a number of Lots in said 
Town. This spot of ground seems designed by nature for the seat of a 



42 THE SUSQtJEHANNA. 

town ; its healthy, pleasant, high situation ; its easy communication by 
water witli a great part of the country ; its lying on the main road 
through the continent, and from Philadelphia to Fort Pitt, and all the 
hack country, points it out as one of the most convenient and best spots 
for a town in the interior parts of the State of Pennsylvania. The town 
may be accommodated with a very fine dock, at a small expense, there 
being a natural canal, defended on both sides by limestone banks, at its 
entrance into the Susquehanna, where boats and craft will lay safe at all 
times. There being a great deal of fine clay for making brick and 
earthenware, also a great plenty of wood, which will be furnished on very 
low terms ; encouragement will be given to brick-makers, potters and 
others. For terms apply to John Hakris. 

THE SUSQUEHANNA. 

Between Harrisburg and Duncannon, a distance of about fifteen miles, 
the Railroad pursues its course along the Susquehanna River. It crosses 
the stream about six miles west of Harrisburg on an elegant bridge at 
"Rockville." The bridge is three thousand six hundred and seventy 
feet long, and was commenced in 1841, and finished in December, 1848. 
A tornado once carrried away six spans of it. 

The Susquehanna is a beautiful stream. Its head waters are in New 
York, and it empties into Chesapeake Bay, after traversing the whole 
width of Pennsylvania. Except for rafts it is not navigable, but millions 
of feet of lumber annually, through this means of transportation, find 
their way to market. 

The raftsman's life, can be appreciated only by the red-shirted " mari- 
ners," who glide down the stream at every high tide in the fall. A rough, 
devil-may-care set they are, to be sure, fond of the fiddle, old rye, and a 
good song, and with no positive objections to a fight. But they deal 
with the romantic of nature, and their hearts are " in the right place." 
Past the forest banks, we have often seen them floating, one at each end 
of the unwieldy craft, and a couple in the centre, "telling yarns" to each 
other, and now and then, waking the echoes of the mountains by their 
peals of laughter. 

A jolly sort of life, we should think this would be, to give one what out 
West is called the " agur," but what a certain individual, Jones by name, 
and reporter by profession, calls chills and fever, and describes, as an insti- 
tution that commences with a feeling of " goneness" about the stomach, 
continues with a peculiar and striking sensation down the back bone, and 
terminates with a heat which forcibly illustrates the beauties of the 
regions of Pluto. Yery pleasant, no doubt. 

The traveller of the Susquehanna, will observe extensive walls built 
up several feet in height, and converging to points in the centre of the 
stream, forming as it were, two sides of a stone triangle. These are 
dams erected for the purpose of leading the fish into a " basket," which 
is placed at the apex or point of the triangle. Eels especially, are the 
victims of those designing fishermen. The slippery customers, during the 
season, are caught in immense numbers, and are shipped to Baltimore and 
other markets. Yery often a small house is constructed over the " bas- 
ket." In this, a light is placed at night, which acts as a decoy to the 
foolish water travellers, and enables the sportsman to "skin them" and 



DUNCANNON. 43 

" do them brown." The walls, are sometimes built by individuals, and 
sometimes by companies, and it is impossible to form any accurate idea 
of the real extent and value of the eel fisheries. 

Duck shooting is also ranked amonp; the amusements of the ref^ion. 
Annually, as the cold weather advances, the water fowl, which have been 
spending the summer among the lakes of the north, arc driven south in 
search of warmer latitudes. In their passage, they alight upon the Sus- 
quehanna, and large numbers arc shot before they reach their southern 
home. Black ducks, dippers, whistle-wings, mallard, teal, &c., are 
among the varieties to which gunners pay their best respects. 

Between Harrisburg and Duncannon, the prominent objects, are, the 
State Lunatic Asylum, north of the Railroad, near Harrisburg ; the 
Pennsylvania Central Railroad Bridge, at llockville ; the Northern 
Central Railroad Bridge, three thousand eight hundred and forty-five 
feet long, costing one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, at Dauphin; 
the Blue Mountains, at the bridge which the traveller crosses ; Peter's 
Mountain, opposite Duncannon— and Sherman's Creek, which the Rail- 
road crosses just east of that place. The town of Dauphin, is at the 
extreme end of the Northern Central Railroad Bridge. A peculiar 
curve is found in the mountain on the south side of the Railroad 
near Duncannon, which is designated the " Cove," from its shape. The 
track is in excellent order, and the greatest care is taken, by the erection 
of stone walls, to prevent mountain slides. 

PHILADELPHIA 120. DUNCANNON. PITTSBURG 2S4. 

A town of irregular formation, which neverthelesss is the seat of con- 
siderable business. A magnificent Iron Bridge, spans Sherman's Creek, 
near this place. The town plot is on a nearly Jevel piece of ground, at a 
point where the Susquehanna makes a very decided curve to the east. 
The iron manufactories at this place and immediate vicinity, have given 
it importance. They are calculated for the whole process of smelting, 
rolling, and nail-making. The population of Duncannon, may be set down 
at nearly one thousand, and it was settled about 1784. 

THE WILDERNESS. — DEER HUNTING. 

Over the Susquehanna, and directly east of Duncannon, is a genuine 
wilderness, if gloomy swamps and thickets, and rocky and frowning 
mountain sides can make it such. " Bear Swamp," is notcci as being in the 
centre of this tract, and, as it is miles in extent, aCFords harboring places for 
bears and like animals. A few deer yet linger around the place, but the 
efforts of the huntsmen, have proved but too successful in thinning them 
out. A deer hunt to an amateur, is an excitement not easily forgotten. 
The animals when pursued by dogs, have what are known as regular 
" paths." Through these, they run and generally cross some stream, in 
order that the scent of the hounds may cease at the brink of the water. 
It is at these crossing places, well known to the experienced hunter, that 
a shot is obtained. The animal plunges into the water — prepares for a 
second leap, when a low whistle from the watcher causes him to halt and 
listen for a moment. If the rifle is quick in its duty, that moment is his 
last, and his blood mingles with the pure waters of the stream. 



44 THE JUNIATA — MIFFLIN. 

THE JUNIATA. 

About one mile west of Duncanuon, the Railroad strikes the mouth of 
the Juniata River, which it follows, on the south bank, through three 
counties of the State of Pennsylvania, viz.. Perry, Juniata and Mifflin. 
Opposite the point of junction of the two rivers, is "Duncan's Island," 
deriving its name from its owner. 

Between Puncannon and Newport, the principal features are, " Clark's 
Ferry" Bridge, which is visible up the Susquehanna, above Duncanuon ; 
Duncan's Island, north of the Railroad; "Aqueduct Station," three 
miles west of Duncanuon, where the Susquehanna Canal crosses the 
Juniata on an aqueduct of six arches, and where passengers formerly took 
the canal packet for the northern part of the State ; Baileysburg, au 
inconsiderable village, and the uniformly fine scenery of the Juniata, 

PniLADELPIIIA 1.33. NEWPORT. TITTSBURG 121. 

A finely built place, on level ground, on the north side of the Railroad, 
and between it and the Juniata. It is in Perry County, and dates as far 
back as 1814. The creek which comes in from the south side of the 
Railroad at the town, is the Little Buffalo. It has a population of 
nearly one thousand — has flour and saw-mills — good hotels — large wood 
and water stations — bridge over the Juniata, «&c., &c., and presents a 
very neat appearance from the cars. 

Between Newport and Mifflin, twenty-one miles, the traveller may- 
notice — Yiaduct over Big Buffalo Creek, one mile above Newport ; Dam 
on the Juniata, over which a rope ferry is thrown ; The canal, which 
winds along the opposite shore of the stream ; Millerstovvn, also on the 
opposite side, dating back for at least sixty years, is at present the last 
Railroad Station in Perry County (going west) ; Tuscarora Mountain, 
just west of Millerstowu, is on the south side of the Railroad ; Thompson- 
town, sixty years old, and up a valley on the distant side of the Juniata ; 
Mexico, where some white settlers were shot by the Indians, and near 
which, two tribes are reported to have had a battle, because their children 
quarrelled about grasshoppers. (This place was settled in 1751.) Per- 
rysville, at the mouth of Tuscarora Creek, in a valley of the same name, 
a considerable shipping point, and the centre of the former hunting 
grounds of the Tuscarora Indians. The Railroad, for some distance in 
this section, is laid with " split" rail, unlike that in use on other portions, 
but equally durable. 

PIIILADELPIIIA 155. MIFFLIN. PITTSBURG 199. 

This place presents a City-ish appearance, well becoming the County- 
seat of Juniata County. Its steeples, brick hotels, and fine buildings, are 
plainly seen on the rising ground, on the opposite side of the river. It 
derives its name from Gov. Mifflin, and was laid out in 1191, by John 
Harris. To the Railroad Company, It is an important point, as their 
machine shops are here located. The portion on the same side of the 
stream as the Railroad, is called " Patterson," after an ex-president of 
the Railroad Company. The population is over one thousand. The 



LEWisTOTVx — m'veytown. 45 

beautiful location of Mifflin, with the many advantages which it enjoys of 
pure air and water, and facility of communication, must render it an 
important and improving place. 

Between Mifflin and Lewistown, twelve miles, the traveller will observe 
" Long Narrows," a mountain gorge, through which the Railroad passes. 
It is four miles west of jNIifHin, and through its narrow limits, tlic Canal, 
River, Railroad, and Wagon-road are sometimes forced, close to each 
other. It is caused by a break in the "Blue Ridge." The mountain 
side opposite the Railroad, is sometimes nearly perpendicular. " Blue 
Ridge" divides Mifflin from Juniata County. 

nilLADELPniA 1C7. LEWISTOWN. PITTSBURG 1S7. 

That wonderful savage and orator, " Logan," Chief of the ]Mingoes, 
resided near here, and an Indian town occupied the site of the place pre- 
vious to the establishment of a Fort for the protection of white settlers, 
in no5. The town itself was commenced about 17S9, and modestly 
named after its originator, William Lewis, of Philadelphia. Its white 
stecpled churches, contrast well, with the green of the mountains through 
which we have lately passed. It is near the mouth of Kishicoquillas 
Creek, and in the centre of a valley, between Jack's Mountain and Blue 
Ridge. Lewistown is noted for its iron furnaces and manufactories, and 
boasts numerous factories, stores, &c., besides the usual concomitants of 
a county town, it being the County seat of Mifflin County. The popula- 
tion is nearly three thousand. 

THE JUNIATA REGION 

Is terribly and romantically wild, and made evidently for the accommo- 
dation of the Indians, of which the "Bright Alfarata" was an example. 
The aforesaid Alfarata, who has, in connection with her name, immortal- 
ized the stream, we doubt not, could bring down a deer at fifty yards 
with the "long bow" — fish, on emergency — travel a hundred miles with- 
out difficulty — carry a " pappoose" on her back for three days, and 
drink "red-eye whiskey" to admiration, whenever she could get it. So 
much for the heroine of the section. As to the stream itself, it flows 
through the most mountainous country in Pennsylvania, and is equalled 
in l«>auty, only by some of the waters of the same range in Virginia. Its 
descent from the head waters, to the mouth, at Duncannon, is immense, and 
the various uses to which its giant powers have been put, arc wonderful. 
Between Lewistown and McVeytown, the distance is twelve miles, and 
the windings of the Juniata, force the Railroad to cross it, some half-dozen 
times. The mountain, on the northern side of the Railroad, is "Jack's 
Mountain," and the one on the south side, is the " Blue Ridge." Lime- 
stone is found in this valley. " Anderson's Station" is an accommoda- 
tion station, and to some extent a shipping point. The site of an old 
Indian town, is reported to have been just cast of McYeytown. 

rniLADELPIIIA, 178. MCVEYTOWN. PITTSBURO, 176. 

This station should be called " Half-way," inasmuch as it is about 
half-way between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. It has already changed 



46 MOUNT UNION" — MAPLE SUGAR ING. 

its name once however, having formerly been designated Waynesburg. 
Some iron works are near the town, which we believe are not now in 
operation. The residents do not number over seven hundred. It, like 
Lewistowu, is in the centre of Lewistown Yalley. 

Between McVeytown and Mount Union, thirteen miles, the points of 
interest, are, — Manayuuk, at the base of the "Blue Ridge;" Newton 
Ilamilton, a shipping depot for the fertile valley ; The High Bridge, 
where the Railroad crosses the Juniata on a bridge, seventy feet above 
the water, and passes from Mifflin County, (on the east) to Huntington 
County (on the west) ; The Canal Aqueduct which also crosses the river 
at the same place. At the " High Bridge," the Railroad leaves the 
Valley of Lewistown, and going westward, enters a gap in Jack's Moun- 
tain, first halting at 

rUILADELPHIA, 191. MOUNT UNION. PITTSBURG, 163. 

This Station, is on the western border of Huntington County. The 
town, or rather village, is not large, but the situation, just at the end of 
"Jack's" Narrows, as the gap is called, is romantic. The mountain and 
gap both derive their name from an individual, after the style of Daniel 
Boone, who was generally known as " Captain Jack." Of course, tradi- 
dition makes a hero of him, and declares him to have undergone almost 
incredible trials, and to have partly turned hermit, out of revenge for the 
loss of his wife and children, who were killed by the Indians. That 
he really did undergo great hardships, we have no doubt, but are inclined 
to think that many of the circumstances of his career are exaggerated. 

Between Mount Union and Mill Creek, six miles, the country is 
mountainous on both sides of the Railroad. The Station of Mapleton, 
is passed. It is the shipping depot, for a long valley back of it, known 
as Hares Yalley, named after a man, who remained true to King George, 
during the Revolutionary War, and who resided in the vicinity. The 
name of this place, " Mapleton," reminds us of one of the features of the 
section, viz. : 

MAPLE SUGAR-ING. 

From the sap of the maple tree, as it rises in the earlier part of the 
spring, sugar is made in considerable quantities. The mode of procuring 
sap, is by boring an augur hole about four inches in the tree, and inserting 
therein a hollow tube, through which the fluid can run into the receptacle 
waiting to receive it. After a sufficient quantity has been collected, and 
a sufficient number of trees have been tapped, it is boiled and left to cool 
in a dark solid mass, which is moulded into shape, by the form of the 
vessel which contains it. The value of the article is about two-thirds of 
that of sugar-cane." The manufacturers of this article, in some sections, 
have their camps in the woods, and at night when their work is suspended, 
gather together around a blazing fire, and rehearse incidents of daring 
and adventure. The business certainly is a "sweet" one. 

PHILADELPHIA, 198. MILL CREEK. PITTSBURG, 156. 

A station at the base of an immense mountain, which rears itself to the 



HUNTINGTOX — BEDFOKD SPRINGS. 47 

south of the Railroad. It is called Terrace Mountain, and around the 
end of it, through the gap, the Kailroad curves. The gap, rejoices in the 
name of Trough Creek Valley. Mill Creek, a small stream from the 
mountains, empties into the Juniata at this point. 

Iktween Mill Creek and Huntington, five miles, a stream is discerned 
emptying into the Juniata, on the opposite side. This is called the 
Kajritowu Branch, and drains a large portion of Huntington County. 

THE VOYAGE OF LIFE. 

From just such scenes as lie between Mill Creek and Huntington, must 
the great artist. Cole, have drawn the inspiration which led him to paint 
the " Voyage of Life." Has the reader ever seen the four engravings, pic- 
turing. Childhood, floating down a quiet stream in a barque guided by 
angels — Youth, gliding on the current, amid lofty trees, towering moun- 
tains, and transparent atmosphere — Manhood, dashing down a wild 
ravine, with the prow of the frail vessel barely escaping the rocks hidden 
))y the foaming waters, and Old Age, directed by the guardian s})irit, 
"with shattered boat, passing down the still agitated current into the 
great ocean of obscurity. 

PKILADELPniA, 203. HUNTINGTOISr. PITTSBURG, 151. 

Xot so called from reference to any hunting-grounds, as one might 
suppose, but from the Countess of Huntington, who was a patron of the 
University of Pennsylvania, with which the founder of the town was con- 
nected. The principal streets of the place run nearly parallel with the 
Railroad, and are handsomely built, although many houses still retain 
the " impress of the olden time." It is three hundred and fifty feet higher 
than Harrisburg, that ascent having been overcome by the Railroad, and 
is the county seat of the county of the same name. It dates back to 17 TO 
as a town, although long before that time the site Avas an Indian post, 
w^hcre traders pursued their operations with the Indians of the section. 
It is at the mouth of " Standing Stone" Creek, which derives its name 
from a peculiar standing stone which was upon its banks, and which was 
said to have been fourteen feet high. 

The population of Huntington, is slightly over two thousand, and the 
business which falls to the place, both as the point of outlet for the 
Broad Top Coal, and from the adjacent country, is increasing. In 1859, 
over six thousand persons were transported to and from the town in the 
cars of the Pennsylvania Central Company. This is also the terminus 
of the Huntington and Broad Top Railroad, which, in connection with 
stages, conveys passengers for nearly fifty miles to 

BEDFORD SPRINGS. 
This fashionable watering-place is owned by a company of gentlemen, 
who have made it one of the most charming retreats in the country. 
There are several commodious hotels, well furnished, and capable of con- 



48 A DREAM OF THE INDIAN — PETERSBURG. 

taining five hundred guests. The principal building is three stories in 
height, of brick, one hundred and sixty-two feet long, and sixty-two feet 
wide, containing a dining-room, ball-room, and bed-chambers. Water is 
conveyed to the premises, by pipes, from a spring half a mile distant. 
Nature appears to have lavished her rarest gifts here. Extensive terrace 
walks have been made for miles through the grounds, with benches in the 
shadiest nooks. The Railroad leading to the place, overcomes some 
stupendous difficulties by tressel-work, &c. 

A DREAM OF THE INDIAN. 

Between Huntington and Petersburg, the distance is six miles — for 
nearly the whole of which, the Railroad traverses a " Cut," or rather Gap, 
through " Warrior Ridge." High sounding titles some of these places 
have, reminding one of 

»' The poor Indian, ■whose untutored mind 
Sees God in the clouds, and hears Him in the wind !" 

Truly it is a sorrowful thing to think of the Indians, who once trod 
these grounds. All gone now ! Do their ghosts rise at midnight from 
the soil with which their dust is incorporated, and hold spiritual inter- 
course ? Do they converse together upon the past— point out to each 
other the spots where years ago the council-fires were lighted, and the 
pipe smoked ? Do they listen for the war-whoop, and give it back in 
wild strange tones to the startled midnight air ? Do they dance around 
the old trees on the river bank, and light the fagots at the feet of the 
victim ? Who can say ? 

PHILADELPHIA, 210. PETERSBURG, PITTSBURG, 144. 

Is the point from which the westward-bound traveller, may truly be 
said to begin the ascent of the Allegheny Mountains. The grades, how- 
ever, as far as Altoona, are light, although ascending. The creek which 
empties into the Juniata at this place, is called by the unpoetical name of 
Shaver's Creek. The town, stands nearly upon the site of an old fort, 
erected about the year 1172. Here may be said to end the Juniata 
River, one branch of which sweeps off to the south of the railroad, and 
furnishes water to the canal which continues along its banks. The other 
branch, follows the same valley as the railroad, between Petersburg and 
Altoona, and must have caused the civil engineers infinite trouble, from the 
number of times it is crossed. It is called the Little Juniata, although 
in times of freshet it gets in a rage almost as violent as that of its big 
brother. 

Between Petersburg and Spruce Creek the distance is six miles. 
"Nefif's Mills" are at a point just west of Petersburg, where the railroad 
crosses the Little Juniata ; " Barree Forge," is near the end of Tussey 
Mountain, the proprietor is Gr. D. Green, Esq. The Tunnel through a 
branch of Tussey's Mountain is one thousand two hundred and sixty-five 
feet in length, and over sixteen feet in height. 



\ 



SPRUCE CREEK STATION, TO TYRONE CITY. 49 

PHILADELPHIA, 216. SPRUCE CREEK STATION PITTSBURG.IS!'. 

Has a remarkably suggestive name, which also belongs to the small 
stream which empties into the Little Juniata at this point. Jnst such 
streams as this, are celebrated throughout the mountain regions as being 
the resort of "Brook Trout," the handsomest fish in the American 
waters. 

TROUT FISHING. 

Did the reader ever indulge in it ? If not, on some fine morning 
ascend one of the tributaries of the Juniata, by following its course through 
the woods, and then prepare yourself and tackle, and fish " down stream." 
A chestnut pole seven feet long — a small line — a few artificial flies, and 
some ordinary ground worms, constitute the necessary equipment. There 
are, to be sure, some people who imagine that the amusement goes better 
with the aid of a jug, but this is a matter of taste. Pass down the bed 
of the stream, stepping from stone to stone, and keeping your line 
in advance, allowing it to float down into little dark crevices and 
pools. Never expect to get a series of nibbles, for the trout is no trifler, 
but be in readiness for one bold decided jerk, upon receiving which, your 
duty is to elevate the fish from his native element, by a move of the pole. 
If you are an artistical angler, operate with " flies," allowing them to 
skim over the water. A more beautiful fish than the trout, cannot be 
found, its skin being variegated with all the colors of the rainbow. 

Between Spruce Creek and Birmingham, the distance is five miles, for 
the whole of which the railroad runs on the line separating Blair County 
(on the west,) from Huntington County, (on the east,) Union Furnace, at 
the mouth of Sinking Valley Run, is passed. Up the valley through which 
this "run" flows, a fort was built in 1778, and held for a long time. 
The valley derives its name from a spring, which gushes from the earth, 
and then sinks into a subterranean apartment. 

PHILADELPHIA, 220. BIRMINGHAM, PITTSBURG, 134. 

Contains not quite as many manufactories as its cousin over the Atlantic, 
but would, we think, surpass it for beauty of location. To the west- 
ward-bound traveller it is the last station in Huntington County. It 
was settled prior to 1820, and in 1859, was the point of arrival and 
departure of nearly two thousand persons. Some indication this, we 
should think, of considerable attraction in the place, either of business 
or pleasure. 

Two miles only intervene between Birmingham and Tyrone City, during 
which Tyrone forges are passed. They are in a rocky gap, in gliding 
through which, the traveller will observe, on the north side of the railroad, 
"Bald Eagle Mountain," and on the south side, "Brush Mountain." 

PHILADELPHIA, 222. TYRONE CITY, PITTSBURG 132. 

Is on the Little Juniata River, at the mouth of what is known as the 
Bald Eagle Creek, and is a place which owes its existence solely to 
the construction of the railroad. It is at the very gates of the wild 

4 



50 SUMMER NIGHT ON THE ALLEGHENIES. 

Allegheny range, into which the traveller here plunges, and by the 
constrnction of a railroad to Lock Haven (in the north) is destined to 
become of future importance. Already, although of such recent origin, 
it has exceeded some of its rivals, and boasts a number of improvements 
of utility, including Mills, Hotels, &c. The grade of the railroad ascends 
from this point to Altoona. This section of country is rich in iron ore ; 
Bituminous coal lies to the westward. 

Tyrone City sprung from a wilderness. Only six years ago it was but 
a wild waste, given up exclusively to silence and solitude ; a perfect 
wilderness, with an occasional wolf and bear in it, a sufficient attraction 
for the hunter. Now what do we behold ? Enterprise and energy have 
waved the wand of enchantment, and with the word. Presto ! a change 
comes within the magic circle, and we find quite a respectable city spring- 
ing up, and land advanced from two dollars to two thousand per acre. 
The whole spot upon which Tyrone is now located, was offered to a car- 
penter six years ago, in part payment for building a house, and it was 
peremptorily refused. Such is the result of the affectionate iron grasp of 
the great Central Railroad, making a city out of a wild waste, as it were, 
in a night. Tyrone contains now a population of some one thousand 
five hundred, active and intelligent people. 

Fifteen miles intervene between Tyrone City, and Altoona. Tipton is 
passed, from which point a plank road leads over the mountains to the 
north, to the Clearfield country. Fostoria also is passed, named after the 
affable and energetic Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, 
Hon, Wm. B. Foster, Jr. But the country generally, partakes of the 
nature of a wilderness. 

SUMMER NIGHT ON THE ALLEGHENIES, 

And through this wilderness, the train rattles along, disturbing the soli- 
tude. Sometimes too, the waters of the mountain streams, are awakened 
to life by the bounds of a startled deer, followed by a hound, whose deep 
baying as he descends the mountain side, echoes from hill to hill. 

Perhaps it is in the night-time that the traveller finds himself in this 
section, and then, the haunts of the huntsmen in "Der Freischutz" do not 
equal the mountain views of the Alleghenies. After a day in summer, 
which in the cities of the east would be considered cool, but which here 
w^ould be thought warm, the sheet lightning begins to play around the 
rocky summits in the distance. Each glare illuminates the outline of 
an overhanging cloud, and like transient suns, or the aurora-borealis of 
the icy north, the dazzling phenomena rise and die away. Soon comes 
the thunder, rolling along at first deep and sonorous, and gradually 
gathering strength as it approaches, borne upon the bosom of a dark 
floating etherial island. Then night grows deeper — the rain drops fall — 
the lightning becomes vivid and concentrates itself into forked messengers 
from the upper space ; 

From peak to peak, the rattling crags among — 
Leaps the live thunder, not one from one lone cloud. 

and the storm reaches its height. Sometimes in the forest, a flame bursts 
forth from a stricken tree, and burns until morning, wreathing itself high 



ALTOONA. 51* 

amonp: the branches. The streams swell and roar alonpj their rocky beds, 
and tlie animal denizens of the woods, croucli terror-stricken in their soli- 
tudes. Tiic morning, brings an invigorating air to be found only on the 
Alleghenies. 

But, reverse this scene, and let the pen of Mr. Ernest C. Wallace, 
one of the editors of the " Philadelphia Bulletin" give us 

WINTER ON" THE ALLEGHENIES. 

As the train twists around the curves, on the ascent of the Alleghenies, 
the cold increases, and the track soon lies over a spectral waste of snow. 
The trees are laden Avith the white shroud, and deep down the yawning 
valleys spreads the same gloomy covering. As the scenes on either hand 
grow wilder and gloomier, the strange and ghostly appearance of nature 
would fright even the ghost of Mrs. Kadclifi'e, though she viewed the 
grandeur and gloom of the Appenines unmoved. Shelley has a poem called 
" Alastor" ; or, "the Spirit of Solitude," but the unfenced desolation of 
these snowy mountain sides, would send the lonely hero of the poem shud- 
dering back to the abodes of men, and he would thank the august stars 
for human countenances and human voices. It is awful to think, after 
the dark spirit-like rush of the locomotive, through these monntain fast- 
nesses, that no sound will break the stillness, save the icy rush of some 
freezing mountain torrent. To be lost in such a solitude would be 
drearier than death. 

Bell's .Mills, where an artesian well has reached a great depth; Eliza- 
beth and Blair Furnaces are east of Altoona. 

PHILADELPniA, 237. ALTOONA, PITTSBUKG, 117.- 

Which owes its existence to the construction of the railroad, is an instance 
of rapid growth. Its natural position, at the foot of the Allegheny 
Mountains, fits it admirably to be the grand depot and storehouse of the- 
giant corporation of the Keystone State, for, although not the half-way 
station on the line, it is at the point where the road encounters the 
greatest difSculties. It is fitting, that at such a position the General 
Superintendent should reside, and by his care direct, not only the running 
of trains east and west, but inspect and regulate the vast workshops from 
which issue cars, engines, and the parapharnalia of a Railroad. The 
fact that " rolling stock" can be constructed much cheaper and better by 
the Company, than by others, has been ascertained to a certainty. 

The fostering care which has been exercised by the Company, over 
Altoona, has proved beneficial in more respects than one. The immense 
number of men engaged at the shops, have learned that sobriety, in*- 
dustry and honesty, meet proper encouragement at the hands of officers 
who themselves regard these qualities, and intelligent mechanics, confident 
of employment as long as they observe the rules of government, carry 
with them into the home circle, a contentment which shows itself even in 
the neat appearance of their dwellings. 

The best description of Altoona which has appeared, was in the columns 



52 ALTOONA. 

of the Philadelphia " North American." The writer devoted especial 
attention to the shops of the Company, and gave the following synopsis 
of their business : 
Ground occupied by buildings, 5J acres 
No. of feet of shafting, main lines, 670 
Galls, of oil used per an. about 45,00") 
Do. fluid do. do. 4,500 

Pounds of tallow do. do. 40,000 
Do. waste do. do. 90,000 

Feet of lumber, board mens' re, 1,300,000 
Cast iron, manufactured, po'ds, 2,605,949 
Brass do. do. 120,014 



Wrought iron u?ed, pounds, 1,100,000 

Water pipe to supply the work 
shops, hotel, &c., including 
mains, about, in feet, - - - 19,000 

Grounds occupied by tracks, 

workshops and yards, - - 27 acres 

Other ground and lots belong- 
ing to Company, about - - 12 " 

Men employed, ----- 561 

The Gar Manufacturing Shop, is seventy feet long, by two hundred 
wide, and turns out excellent work. It contains everything requisite for 
the manufacture of cars. The Machine Shops, (under supervision of 
G. W. Grier, Esq.,) contain twenty lathes of different sizes; the largest 
being able to revolve a wheel eight feet iu diameter, and being from the 
manufacturing establishment of W. Sellers & Co., Philadelphia. The 
Boiler and Bridge Shop, manufactures iron bridges, of spans rang- 
ing from twenty-four to one hundred and fifty feet in length. They are 
not only durable and strong, but neat in design. The Locomotive 
Fitting Shop, is where the " wounded" iron giants are repaired. The 
Brass Foundry, turns out one hundred and twenty thousand pounds of 
casting per annum, worth thirty-thousand dollars. The Engine House, 
contains the engine which drives the vast machinery of the shops, and 
which has a cylinder of fifteen and a half inches. The Blacksmith Shop, 
contains twenty fires, two fans, and a steam trip-hammer. The Store 
House, is one hundred and twenty-six feet, by fifty-two, and contains the 
various "material" used upon the road. The Car House, holds reserve 
cars in readiness for extraordinary business. The Water Works, convey 
water for two miles, in suitable pipes, and furnish such a supply to the 
workshops and hotel, as to render a large fire impossible. The Bound 
House, hag room for twenty-six locomotives, and is one hundred and 
eighty-five feet in diameter. The Half Bound House, is also for the 
accommodation of locomotives. The General Superintendent's Office, 
is at the rear of the hotel, and contains clerks' and minor offices. 

Yarious other buildings are included in the property owned by the 
Company. We have not room for their enumeration, and can only say 
that such is the order and regularity existing in every department, that 
no essential of a well managed Railroad is neglected. 

The following facts will be of interest to the traveller : 

Altoona time is ten minutes slower than Philadelphia. In 1851, a 
log-house alone marked the site of Altoona. Hollidaysburg (reached by 
Branch Road) is seven miles from Altoona. Blair Furnace, with rich 
iron ore banks, is three miles distant. 



GALLITZIN TO WILLMORE. 63 

Between Altoona and Gallitzin the distance is twelve miles, Gallitzin 
is ou the summit of the Alleglienies, nearly 2,500 feet above the ocean, 
and to reach it from the east, the traveller " runs up" a grade sometimes 
ascending at the rate of ninety-five feet per mile. The speed of the loco- 
motive is decreased very slightly. The old Portage Railroad formerly 
overcame this side of the mountain hy five inclined planes. 

A few miles from here, is Loretto, a town noted as the burial-place of 
Count Gallitzin, after whom the Railroad Station was named. The 
Count, a Russian prince, although a German by birth, turned hermit, and 
lived a life of sobriety and honor. Loretto, is a Catholic settlement, and 
contains a large brick cathedral, a convent, and a monastery, where thirty 
or forty monks pursue their studies, and educate about seventy students, 
from points as far distant as Iowa and Missouri. Here, by the road, 
stands in a stone niche, that holy emblem, the cross, and devout believers 
kneel at its base as at the wayside shrines of Europe. 

The railroad between Altoona and Gallitzin, exhibits scenery unequalled 
for wildness and sublimity in the United States. On one hand lie deep 
valleys, on the other rise steep mountain sides. All nature is as untamed 
as at the primeval day. 

nilLADELPHIA, 249. GALLITZIN. PITTSBURG, 105. 

The station is nearly on the line separating Blair county (ou the east), 
from Cambria county (on the west.) The tunnel at this point, is three- 
quarters of a mile in length, and the line dividing Blair and Cambria 
counties, passes on top of it. 

PHILADELPHIA, 252. CRESSON. ^ PITTSBURG, 102. 

The seat of one of the finest hotels in the country, which each season 
is the resort of numbers of the most intelligent citizens of New York, 
Philadelphia and Pittsburg. The buildings, which will be seen on both 
sides of the railroad, are owned by a company of capitalists. Pure and 
invigorating air, and crystal water, are among the chief attractions. 

Cresson was named in honor of Elliot Cresson, Esq., of Philadelphia. 
A turnpike leads from this point to Ebensburg, in Cambria county, and 
to Hollidaysburg, in Blair county. The old Portage Railroad, which 
reached the top of the mountain near this spot, extended from Hollidays- 
burg to Johnstown (about thirty-six miles), and cost $1,500,000. To 
travel over it was a work which appalled many a bold heart. 

Cresson, is in Cambria county. Loretto — previously described — was 
the first settled place in this section. The whole section, previous to IT 97, 
was a complete wilderness. The first settlers were Welsh. 

Between Cresson and Willmore, the distance is ten miles, through a 
bituminous coal region, on the Western slope of the Allegheny moun- 
tains. Lilly's Station is inconsiderable, as is also Portage. Both of 
these were stations on the old Portage Railroad. 

PHILADELPHIA, 262. "WILLMORE. PITTSBURG, 92. 

The town of Jefferson, with a population of over nine hundred, is near 



64 JOHNSTOWN. 

here, and this station is an outlet for that place. It is in the southwestern 
corner of Cambria county. 

Some of the waters of Cambria flow through the Susquehanna, into Chesapeake 
Bay. and others through the Ohio and Mississippi, into the Gulf of Mexico. It is 
consequently a high county, and its climate severe. Its streams, too, are little better 
than torrents, which is the general character of all those which Pennsylvania dis- 
charges towards the east. Still, these defects possess their countervailing advan- 
tage.'S. If the winters of our mountain counties be long, the air, is bracing and 
healthful, and the waters are pure, abundant and sparkling, though the torrents be 
wild. 

Fourteen miles lie between Willmore and Johnstown, all in Cambria 
county. A branch of the Coneraaugh, is several times crossed by the 
railroad. Summer Hill Station, is a station, which is about all that can 
be said of it, Yiaduct, is eighty-six miles from Pittsburg, and is the 
point where the Conemaugh is crossed by a viaduct. The structure is 
admirable. It is of one arch, a perfect semicircle, with a diameter of 
eighty feet, built of cut stone, and its entire height from the foundation 
is seventy-eight feet six inches. When viewed from the bottom of the 
valley, it seems to span the heavens, and one might suppose tliat a rain- 
bow had been turned to stone. Mineral Point, is the scene of bituminous 
coal operations. Conemaugh, is eighty-one miles from Pittsburg. Kepair 
shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company are here located. The 
Little Conemaugh river, accompanies the railroad between Conemaugh 
and 

PHILADELPHIA, 276. JOHNSTOWN, TITTSBURG, 78. 

A great iron manufacturing point. Should the traveller happen to 
pass it in the night, he will see the vivid flames shooting from furnaces 
and mills. Originally it was called Conemaugh, but the present name 
was bestowed upon it in 1834, in honor of Joseph Johns, the founder, 
who commenced the settlement in 1192. 

The Stale Book of Pennsylvania, says, that "Johnstown, the largest town in the 
county, is situated at the confluence of the Little Conemaugh and Stony Creek, on a 
flat closed in by mountains. It contains the large canal basin, with its surrounding 
warehouses and boat-yards, and the State Locomotive Depot, (the State having 
owned the Portage Railroad, of which Johnstown was the western terminus.) It 
occupies the site of an old Indian town called Kickenapawling's town, and was com- 
menced in 1792, by Joseph Johns or Jahns." 

Johnstown is the seat of the works of the Cambria Iron Company, 

and has a population not far short of seven thousand. It is the point 

where canal travellers formerly took the packet boat. 

PACKET BOAT TRAVELLING. 

Here is a very good sketch of packet boat travelling, before the completion of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad : 

A canal packet boat is a microcosm that contains almost as many specimens of 
natural history as the ark of Noah. It is nearly eighty feet long, and eleven wide, 
and has a house built in it that extends to within six or seven feet of stem and 
stern. Thirty-six feet in length of said house, are used as a cabin by day, and dor- 
mitory by night; the forward twelve feet being nocturually partitioned off by a 
curtain, when there are more than four ladies on board, for their accommodation. 

At nine, P. M., the steward and his satellites, begin the work of arranging the 



NINEVEH TO BOLIVAR. 55 

sleeping apparatus. This consists of a wooilen frame, six feet long, and twenty 
inches wide, with canvas nailed over it, a thin mattress, sheets, &c. There arc three 
tiers of these conveniences on each side. The number of berths, however, does not 
limit the number of passenf^ers, for a packet is like Milton's Pandemonium, and 
■when it is brim full of imps, the inhabitants seem to grow smaller, so as to aiford 
room for more poor devils to come and be stewed, and tables and settees are put 
into a sleeping fix in the twinkling of a bed-post. Abaft the cabin, is a small apart- 
ment in which the steward keeps for sale all sorts of drinkables and some sort of 
eatables. Abaft that, is the kitchen, in which there is generally an emancipated or 
escaped slave from Maryland or Virginia, of some sliade of color between white 
and black, who performs the important part of cook with stunning effect. The 
breakfasts, dinners and suppers are good, costing twenty-five, and thirty-seven and 
u half cents. The passengers can recreate by walking about on the roof of the 
cabin, at the risk of being decapitated by the bridges which arc passed under at 
short intervals. The machine, with all it inherits, is dragged through the water at 
the rate of three miles and a half per hour by three horses, driven tandem by a 
devil with a long whip. 

Great men of steam and iron, Thomson, Stockton, Stevens, and countless more, 
what do we not owe you for lifting us out of the miseries of packet boat travelling ! 
What boots it, that the railroad car, to use the language of the "bright and shining 
light" of the Chicago .Journal, does seize up its victims and carry them ofl" — God 
knows where? What boots it that the locomotive, "bisecting the orchard, cutting 
up the garden, ruining the village green, narrowly escaping the grave-yard, shrieks 
in sermon-time, startles the choir in the^idst of Windham, crushes a 'good-bye' 
under its iron wheels, and puffs a sob ^p profound silence ? People dream it 
thunders, when the train is coming; fancy the wind is rising, when the train is 
going ; tiie clocks are all set, not by immemorial noon-marks, but by trains, and 
everybody obeys the sign at the ' crossing,' and ' looks out for the cars when the 
bell rings.' 

" It plunges into the quiet field behind a row of houses, and you go there nest 
week, or the week after, and the houses have wheeled ' ?-ight about,' every one, like 
militia at drill ; and your cornfield bears a crop of machine shops." 

From Johnstown to Nineveh, the distance is nine miles. The road 
passes through a gap in a range linown as " Laurel Ridge." Couemaugh 
Furnace, is an iron smelting point, as its name indicates. 

PniLADELPUIA, 285. NINEVEH PITTSBURG, C9. 

Has a remarkably curious name, originating perhaps from the Bible- 
reading propensities of the people. The name, however, does not hurt 
it, for it is a very pretty town, and a depot of some importance for the 
business of the surrounding country. It is on the Big Couemaugh river. 
Eleven miles, between Nineveh and Bolivar. New Florence is a rail- 
road-made town, fast im])roving. Lockport, sixty miles from Pittsburg, 
is the depot of local trade, and is the point where the canal crosses the 
Big Conemaugh river, on a five-spaa viaduct. 

PiriLADELPniA, 296. BOLIVAR. PITTSUURG. 58. 

This place is in Westmoreland county, on the borders of Ligonier 
Valley. " Westmoreland county was regularly established in 1773, at 
which time it included the whole northwestern corner of the State. It 
had before formed jiart of Bedford, and took the name of Westmoreland 
from its western position, and from the shire of the same name in Eng- 
land. Its county-town was Hauna's town, about three miles northeast 
of the present site of Grecnsburg. Here, it is said, the first courts were 
held west of the mountains. During the Revolutionary war, the settlers 



56 GREENSBUEG. 

were harassed by the savages. In 1782, Hanna's town was burned by 
them, and does not seem to have been rebuilt. After this event, West- 
moreland underwent the usual vicissitudes of the frontier, till Wayne's 
success, and the treaty at Greenville, in 1795, established its security and 
that of other western counties. In 1781, Washington, was separated 
from it, and Fayette in 1783. Allegheny took off a part of its territory 
in 1788, and Indiana in 1803. In 1800, it was reduced to its present 
bounds by the erection of Armstrong." 

Between Bolivar and Greensburg, the distance is twenty-seven miles, 
all in Westmoreland County. Chestnut Ridge Gorge, is passed just west 
of Bolivar. Blairsville Branch Intersection, fifty-three miles from Pitts- 
burg, is the point where trains diverge to Blairsville and Indiana. 
Hillside, is a wood and water station. Millwood, Derry and St. Clair 
are unimportant depots. Latrobe, forty-one miles from Pittsburg, is on 
a branch of the Loyal Hanna River, and is an important point. It has 
a population of about two thousand, and is nearly in the centre of 
Westmoreland County. The Railroad crosses the Loyal Hanna at this 
point by a stone bridge. The town was named in honor of the eminent 
Civil Engineer, B. H. Latrobe, Esq., and is one thousand and four feet 
above tide water. Beattys, is th«|pat of several Catholic educational 
institutions, and derives it name fi^n the owner of the ground. Two 
small tunnels, are excavated between Beattys and 

PHILADELPHIA, 323. GREENSBURG. PITTSBURG, 31. 

So named in honor of Gen. Greene, of the Revolution. It was laid 
out in 1783, and incorporated as a borough, in 1799. It is one thousand 
and ninety-one feet above the ocean, and is destined from its geographical 
position, and the enterprize of its residents, to become one of the most 
important points in Western Pennsylvania. It is the county seat of 
Westmoreland County, and was the residence of one the best jurists in 
the country, Richard C. Coulter, Esq , Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Wm. A. Stokes, Esq., a lawyer of eminent ability, and for a long time 
Solicitor of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, resides near here, and 
owns the finest country seat west of the Allegheny Mountains. 

Greensburg, has a population of nearly three thousand ; is supplied 
with gas, and in fact, possesses nearly all the advantages of a city ; an 
elegant Court House is very conspicuous. Railroads are projected from 
here to different points, among others to Washington, (to the southwest) 
where a connection will be formed with the Hempfield Railroad, already 
completed to Wheeling, Virginia. Gen. Arthur St. Clair is buried in a 
graveyard attached to Greensburg. 

West of Greensburg, the Railroad strikes the head waters of Brush 
Creek. This stream it follows, being crossed and re-crossed, for nearly 
twenty miles. Nine miles intervene between Greensburg, and " Irwins." 
Radabaugh's, is twenty-nine miles from Pittsburg, and, with Grapeville, 
is unimportant. Manor, derives its name from having been the site of a 
large body of lands reserved by the Penn Family for their own use. It 
is twenty-four miles from Pittsburg. 




wm 



Pittsburg, 


20 




17 




13 




12 




10 




8 




6 




6 



PITTSBURG. 57 

PHILADEtPHIA, 332. IRWINS. PITTSBURG, 22. 

Still ia "Westmoreland County, although near its western border, on 
Brush Creek. Bituminous coal is here mined, and sent to Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg, for the manufacture of gas. The Westmoreland Coal 
Company, own a large body of lands. 

Between Irwins and Pittsburg (twenty-two miles), a number of small 
stations are passed, viz : 

Larimers, Philadelphia, 334 

Stewarts, " 337 

Turtle Creek, «' 341 

Brintons, «« 342 

Braddocks, " 344 

Swissvale, " 346 

Wilkinsburg, " 347 

Homewood, *' 348 

Liberty, " 349 

Pittsburg, " 354 

' At Larimers, coal veins have been opened. The place derives its 
nnrae from Gen. Wm. Larimer. Brintons, is the point of junction of the 
Pittsburg and Connelsville Railroad. Braddock's Field, is the scene of 
the defeat of Braddock on July 9th, 1755. We presume all of our 
readers are suflBciently acquainted with American history, to know that 
Gen. Washington was in this conflict, and that its result was most 
disasterous to the English. 

A recent visit of Hon. George Bancroft, and other distinguished gentlemen to the 
scene of Braddock's defeat, has disclosed the fact that the landmarks of that memo- 
rable event have been almost lost, even to those who reside in the immrdiate 
neighborhood. The visit of Mr. Bancroft was timely, inasmuch as it resulted in 
rectifying the errors of locality which have occurred, and have received the sanction 
of some writers. 

Swissvale, Wilkinsburg, Homewood, and East Liberty, afford sites for 
many persons doing business in Pittsburg, to erect country dwellings. 
Many of these are finely adorned, and costly. 

The cars of the "Pennsylvania Central Railroad," of the "Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad," and the " Cleveland and Pitts- 
burg Railroad," run into the same depot at Pittsburg, there is, therefore, 
no necessity for omnibus travel. 



PHILADELPHIA, 354. 



PlffSBUM 



This is Pittsburg! The click of wheels — the thunder of hammers, 
raised by the hands of steam giants — the whistle of steamboats on the 
levee — the busy tread of busy men — the puffing of monster locomotives 
— the rattling of armies of freight wagons — these are some of the sounds 
of the Iron Monster of the west. Through the smoke, which, while it is 
noticed by the stranger, only indicates life and energy, let us look at 
the prominent features of Pittsburg. 



58 PITTSBURG. 

Nearly seven millions of dollars worth of coal, annually, is " digged out 
of tlie bowels of the earth," while its brother, Iron, from the Allegheny, 
Juniata, and Anthracite regions of the Keystone State, is worked up 
into ten hundred thousand forms, and sent abroad over the universe. 
Railroad cars, chains, cannon, agricultural implements, guns, boilers, 
railing, safes, cutlery, wire, and the finer specimens of metallic handiwork 
are included. 

Walk along the levee, and glance at the Western steamboats, (and if 
you are from the east, this will be the fiist opportunity.) Think, when 
you see them, stretching almost as far as the eye can reach, a perfect 
forest of masts, wheel-houses, cabins and railings, that upwards of ninety, 
in busy years, are turned from the yards in the Pittsburg District ! These 
floating palaces ply between New Orleans, the Head Waters of the Missis- 
sippi, the Missouri, and their countless tributaries. For half a century 
have the mechanics, on this triangle between the Allegheny and Monon- 
gahela, been engaged in this business. Their workmanship, however, 
sometimes takes other forms, as in barges, keel boats, and coal flats. 

A little over one hundred years ago, and George Washington stood at 
the confluence of the two streams forming the Ohio, and saw that the 
point was a great key to the West. The French had then possession, 
and held " Fort Du Quesne" as one of a chain of fortresses from the 
Lakes to the Mississippi. In 1T58, the English captured the Fort, and 
on November 25th, when they marched into the place, determined to call 
it Pittsburg, in honor of their Prime Minister, Wm. Pitt. Says Bancroft : 

" On the 25th of November, 1758, the youthful hero, Washington, could point out 
to the army, the junction of the rivers, and entering the fortress, they planted 
the British tiag on its deserted ruins. As the banner of England, floated over tlie 
Ohio, the place was with one voice named Pittsburg." 

In 1765 the town itself was founded, and in 1816 it was chartered as 
a city. In 1845 it was visited by a very destructive conflagration, but, 
Phoenix-like, rose from its ashes to new life and vigor. 

The triangular piece of land upon which the city was first built, be- 
came too small to contain the vast inflowing population, and Birming- 
ham, East Birmingham, Allegheny City, Manchester, Du Quesne, Law- 
renceville, and South and West Pittsburg, sprang up. The parent 
font soon swallowed them and they now exist in the shape of Wards. To 
Allegheny City are three substantial bridges on piers, and one wire sus- 
pension bridge. 

City Passenger Railroads, the modern innovation, were introduced 
into the city in 1859, and are now in successful operation. Through the 
handsomely built streets, (for they are handsomely built,) the cars roll 
with their living freight. 

To obtain a just idea of the Iron City, it is necessary to ascend one of 
the many hills, by which it is surrounded. Its fine natural position, in 
an amphitheatre, will then be at once perceived. These surrounding 
hills, four and five hundred feet in height, are filled with coal, iron and 
limestone. 



PITTSBURG. — OBJECTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



59 



OBJECTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



The Court limine, on the summit of Grant's 
Hill, is a massive stone structure, 
165 feet long and 100 deep. The 
dome is 148 feet from the ground, 
and the building cost nearly $200,000. 

The Reservoir, which occupies an cmi- 
nence north-east of the Court House, 
is three hundred and sixty-eight feet 
above the Ohio river. Water is sup- 
plied from the Alleghany. 

The New Custuni House, is at the corner of 
Smithfield and Fifth street?, and is a 
large building of freestoao. lu it 
also, is the Post Office. 

The Mercy Ilos/'ilal, Locust street. 

The Catholic Cathedral, Graut and Fifth 
streets. 

St. Peters' Church, opposite the Court 
House. 

First Presbr/terian Church, on Wood street. 

Western Penitenlianj, in Allegheny city, 
ou Ohio street, below Beaver. This 
building was erected in 1827, and 
cost §183,000. 

United Suit'-s Arsenal, at Lawrenceville, 
about two miles above Pittsburg, on 
the east bank of the Allegheny river. 

The Monongahela House, fronting on the 
Monongahela river, Smithfield and 
Water street. 

Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Ninth 
Ward, near Pennsylvania Rail Road 
Depot. 

Western Tlieological Seminary, in Alle- 
gheny city, was established in 1828, 
and is situated on a commanding 
position. 

The " Old Redoubt," a brick house con- 
taiuingthe inscription "A. D., 1764, 
Col. Boquet," is situated a few feet 
back from Brewery Alley, north of 
Penn street, and about forty-five feet 
west of Point street. 

The Through Freight Depot, of the Penn- 
sylvania Rail Road Company, is on 
Marbury street, and has a depth of 
nearly seven hundred feet to the Mo- 
nongahela river. 

House of Refuge, Jack's Run, below Man- 
chester. 

Catholic Orphan Asylum, Webster and 
Chatham streets. 

Protestant Orphan Asylum, West Com- 
mon street, Allegheny city. 

Marine Flospital, Manchester. 

Post Oirice, Fifth and Smithfield streets. 

Water Works, O'Hara and Etna. 

Allegheny City do., Herr's Island. 

Pittsburg Gas Works, Second above Ross. 

.iUIegheny " " West Common. 



Mercantile Library, 64 Fourth street. 
Board of Trade, Fourth near Wood st. 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

68 Fifth street. 
Anderson Library, Diamond near Gay. 

RAILROAD PASSENGER DEPOTS. 

For Philadelphia and the East, (Penn- 
sylvania Central,) Liberty, Grant 
and Eighth streets. 

For Chicago, Crestline, Fort Wayne, &c , 
(P., Ft. W. and C. R. R.,) Liberty, 
Grant and Eighth streets. 

For Chicago, Crestline, Fort Wayne, &c., 
(P., Ft. W. and C. R.,) Federal and 
South Common, Allegheny city. 

F.or Kittanning, &c.. (Allegheny Valley,) 
Wayne and Penn streets. 

For Connelsville, Brinton's, &c., (Pitts- 
burg and Connelsville,) Liberty, 
Grant and Eighth streets. 

For Steubenville, Cleveland, AVheeling, 
&c., (Pittsburg and Cleveland) Lib- 
erty, Graut and Eighth streets. 

For Chartier's Valley, (not open.) 

FERRIES. 

Boats ply continually from points on 
the levee, to points on the opposite shore 
of the Monongahela river, and for a short 
distance down the Ohio. 

PROMINENT NEWSPAPERS. 

Pittsburg Dispatch, 73 Third street. 

Evening Chronicle, 70 Fifth street. 

Gazette, Fifth above Smithfield. 

Post, Fifth, between Wood and Market. 

Pittsburg Free Press. 

Evening Reporter, 6.3 Fifth street. 

Courier, (German,) 84 Fifth street. 

Presbyterian Banner, Gazette Building. 

THEATRES. 

The Pittsburg Theatre. 
Apollo Theatre. 

HALLS. 

AtheniBum, will seat 1400 persons, Liber- 
ty near Hand. 

City Hall, will seat 2000 persons. Dia- 
mond Market. 

Excelsior, Lcacock and Federal, Alle- 
gheny city. 

Herrar's, Federal street, Allegheny city. 

Lafayette, Fourth and Wood streets. 

Masonic, Fifth near Wood. 

Neville, Fourth and Liberty. 

Washington, Wood near Fifth, 



60 



PITTSBURG. — OBJECTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



BANKS. 

Allegheny Savings Bank, Federal near 

Water. 
Bank of Pittsburg, Fourth near Wood. 
Citizens' Bank, Wood and Virgin alley. 
Dollar Savings Bank, G5 Fourth street. 
Exchange Bank, Fifth between Wood and 

Market. 
Farmers' Deposit, 66 Fourth street. 
Mechanics' Bank of Pittsburg, Fourth 

near Wood. 
Merchants' and Manufacturers', Fourth 

near Market. 
Mechanics' Savings Bank, Federal above 

South Common, Allegheny city. 
Merchants' and Farmers', Diamond near 

Federal, Allegheny city. 
Pittsburg Trust Company, Wood near 

Fifth street. 
Manchester Saving Fund, Manchester. 

CEMETERIES. 

Allegheny, Lawrenceville. 

St. Ahiry's do. 

Union, Ross Turnpike near Manchester. 

CHURCHES. 

Episcopal. 

Trinity, Sixth near Wood. 
St. Peter's, Grant and Diamond. 
St. Andrew's, Hand near Penn. 
St. James', Penn and Mechanic. 
Epiphany, Fourth and Ross. 
Christ's Church, East Common. A. 
Laceyville, Seventh Ward. 
Grace, Mount Washington. 
Calvary, East Liberty. 

Methodist. 
Christ's, Penn and Hancock. 
Asbury Chapel, Townsend near Clarke. 
Liberty street, and Hay. 
Smithfield street, and Seventh. 
Wesley Chapel, Liberty and Harrison. 
Trinity, Baldwin and Smallman. 
First Protestant, Fifth above Smithfield. 
Second " Penn Av. and Marion. 

German, Strawberry and Cherry Av. 
Welsh, Second and Cherry Avenue. 
First Westley, Wylie near Tunnel. 
African, AVylie and Elm. 
South-Common, near Sandusky Aven. A. 
Beaver street and Strawberry alley. A. 
German, Ohio, near East Common. A. 
First Westley, North Common. A. 
African, East Common. A. 
Episcopal, Centre, south side Washing- 
ton. B. 
Protestant, Meadow. B.' 
Episcopal, Carson. S. P. 



Episcopal. W. P. 

" Temperanceville. 
" Burrows. T. 
" Perry near Walnut. 
" East Liberty. 
" Minersville. 

" Diamond street and Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue. 

JJaptist. 

First, Grant and Third. 

Union, Grant near Sixth. 

Welsh, Chatham near Wylie. 

Sandusky. A. 

First Disciples, River Bank. A. 

Second " Head of Beaver. A. 

Preslyterian. 

First, Wood near Sixth. 

Second, Penn and Irwin. 

Third, Third and Ferry. 

Fourth, Penn near Adams. 

Fifth, Franklin and Townsend. 

Central, Smithfield near Sixth. 

First, Sansom and Market. 

" Associate Reformed, Chartiers 
near franklin. 

Church, Warden and Plank Road. 

New School, below Carson. B. 

First Reformed, Liberty and Plum. 

Second, " Harrison and Penn. 

First Cumberland, Sixth near Wood. 

First Associate, Sixth near Smithfield. 

Second " Diamond near Grant. 

Fourth, " Pike and Factory. 

" Seventh and Cherry alley. 

First, Beaver near Water. 

Central, Federal and Leacock. 

First Reformed, Sandusky and Gay Av. 

Reformed, Leacock near Sandusky. 

Associate, Sandusliy and S. Common. A. 

First Associate Reformed, Diamond. A. 

Second " " Ridge. A. 

First Cumberland, Third and East Com- 
mon. A. 

First William. B. 

First Associate Reformed, Bingham and 
Wilkins. B 

First, Allen street. L. 

Catholic. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, Fifth and Grant. 

St. Patrick's, Liberty and Factory. 

St. Philomena, do. 

St. Bridget's, Seventh Ward. 

Holy Trinity. 

Our Lady of Metcy. 

Mercy Hospital. 

St. Mary s. A. 

St. Peter's. A. 

St. Joseph's. A. 



THE OHIO — "la belle RIVIERE." 61 



St. Michael's. B. 

St. Peter's. B. 

St. Paul of the Cross. 



St. Mary's, Lawrenceville. 
St. James, Temperanceville. 
Braddock's Field. 



THE OHIO " LA BELLE RIVIERE." 

The French had a just appreciation of the Ohio, when they termed it 
" La Belle Rivit-re, " the Beautiful River." For over one thousand miles 
it glides with a uniform, smooth, and placid current, from Pittsburg to 
its entrance into the Mississippi, one hundred and seventy-two miles below 
St. Louis. One hundred considerable islands, enliven the scenery be- 
tween these two points, and seventy-five tributary rivers and creeks, 
empty into its bosom. 

_ The Banks of the Ohio, are generally precipitous, rising into bluffs and 
hills, sometimes four hundred feet in height. Between the base of these 
cliffs, and the stream, there is often a level strip of land called " Bottom," 
susceptible of cultivation. 

It is a fact, perhaps not generally known, that the waters which form 
the Ohio, rise within seven miles of Lake Erie, and from their shores, the 
eye can discern the white sails of the vessels which are entering the 
harbor of Buffalo. It may be regarded, then, as the connecting link 
between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi. At all seasons of the 
year it is navigable for steamers of the largest class, except during very 
dry summer months, and severe winters. 

In the two hundred and fifty-thousand square miles of territory, drained 
by La Belle Riviere, it is fair to presume that there are many valuable 
productions. Rich iron and coal, underlie its bed. Building stone of 
inexhaustible quality, is upon or near its banks, and heavy timber, in 
many places, covers its shores. It is about six hundred yards wide at 
Pittsburg, and has an average width of half a mile. The range between 
high and low water marks, as with most western rivers, is very great, 
being in this case, fifty feet. On the Malt House wall, at Pittsburg, is a 
record of the highest water known, being that of February 10th, 1832. 
The next highest was that of April 20th, 1852. The bed of the Ohio is 
continually changing, and experienced pilots are required to navigate the 
stream. The principal points between Pittsburg and Cairo, (at the mouth) 
are AVheeling, Marietta, Parkersburg, Cincinnati, Louisville and Port- 
land. The current, is estimated to flow between two and three miles an 
hour. Its elevation above the sea, at Pittsburg, is estimated at six hundred 
and eighty feet, and at its mouth, three hundred and twenty-four feet. It 
is formed, as we presume every intelligent reader knows, by the junctiou 
of the Allegheny and Mouongahela Rivers at Pittsburg. 

The advantages of river navigation, have often been debated, and it has been said 
that the numerous Railroads constructed, will do away with western steureboating. 
Pittsburg herself is a case in point, to demonstrate the falsity of such an idea. .As 
advantageously situated as any City can be in regard to Railroads, and with the 
Great Central Pennsylvania debouching her streets, she yet looses to the tune of 
one million five hundred thousand dollars, by four month's failure of river naviga- 
tion, and her citizens are of all others the most desirous of an improvement of the 
Ohio River. The same state of things exists and prevails at Wheeling, at Cincin- 
nati, at every town in the valley. No difference how many Railroad connections 
they may have, business lags while the river is down, and rushes ahead when the 
banks are full again. 



62 PITTSBURG TO CHICAGO. 

pittsb;urg; to Chicago. 

The cars of the Pittsburg, Fort "Wayne, and Chicago Railroad, leave 
the Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at Pittsburg, and 
describing a curve, cross the Allegheny River, on a neat and substantial 
bridge. They then pass through Allegheny City. 

Between Pittsburg and Rochester (twenty-six miles), the Railroad fol- 
lows the west bank of the Ohio River, at some points running close to the 
water, and at others diverging for a short distance. A large Island will 
be observed in the centre of the stream, this is Montour's Island, — Court- 
ney Station is at the mouth of Lowrie's Run, which is crossed, " Kill- 
buck" is at the mouth of a creek of the same name, — Haysville, eleven 
miles west of Pittsburg. Sewickley, will^be observed by the westward- 
bound traveller on the left-hand side of the Railroad, between the track 
and the river. Population about one thousand. It is a thriving place, and 
contains seminaries for boys and girls. The buildings are prominent in 
the foreground. — Little Sewickley Creek, just west of Sewickley. " Leet," 
is near the line dividing Allegheny from Beaver County. Economy, is 
the first Station which the westward-bound traveller finds in Beaver 
County. It is rather peculiar from the fact that it was settled by Ger- 
man emigrants of the " Harmony Society." They purchased three thou- 
sand five hundred acres of land, and established themselves here in 1825. 
Their property was held in common. The leader, George Rapp, died in 
1847, but the place has prospered, and now contains manufactories, 
churches, &c. • 

A remarkable illustration of faith in prayer, is presented in the case of George 
Rapp, the founder of the Communists in Beaver County in this State. 

lie came to Pittsburg about the first year of the settlement of the community at 
Old Harmony, to obtain some necessaries. The crop was in the ground, and pro- 
mised well, but the means of the community were exhausted, some debts already 
incurred, and these things must be had on credit. This was bluntly refused, the 
scheme was thought chimerical, and merchants would risk no more. The Founder 
was in distress, as the community must have the articles or suffer want. His sole 
resource was prayer, and four times during that night he rose from his bed to pray. 
In the morning, as is said, without further solicitation, the merchants came and 
offered the goods on the terms asked. That was the last great strait of the Society, 

Freedom, on the right hand of the Railroad, is orr a sloping hillside ; 
the principal streets running parallel with the river. Steamboat build- 
ing has been carried on here. 

Boat building is pursued at many of these different points along the 
river. Commodore Abraham Whipple, was the first man who conducted 
to the Atlantic, a square rigged vessel, built upon the shores of the Ohio. 
This was many years ago, and his success was commemorated in a song, 
in which " King Triton" w^as represented as awaiting the approach of 
the mariner to the Ocean, singing meanwhile, something very like the fol- 
lowing : 

SONG OF TRITON, THE OCEAN GOD. 

Whipple, comes "from the western woods, 
Descending slow with gentle floods, 
The Pioneer of a mighty train, 
Which Commerce brings to my domain. 

Up, Sons of the wave! 

Greet the noble and brave — 



ROCHESTER TO NEW BRIGHTON". 63 

Present your arms unto him ! 
His Gray hair shows 
Life near its close, 
Let's pay the Honors due him. 
Sea nymphs attend with lute and lyre, 

And bring your conchs, my Triton Sons, 
In chorus blow to the aged sire, 
A welcome to my domains ! 

PITTSBURG 26. ROCHESTER. CniCAGO 441. 

This is the point of divergence of the River Branch of the Cleveland 
and Pittsburg Railroad, which follows the Ohio river down to Belair. 
It is at the mouth of the Beaver River, and as the traveller will perceive by 
the steam saw mills, lumber-yards, warehouses, &c., is the centre of con- 
siderable business. The main body of the town, lies between the Rail- 
road, and the river. 

Beaver County, Pennsylvania, in which Rochester is situated, has a 
highly productive soil, especially on the river bottoms. Its streams fur- 
nish motive power for numerous flour, grist, paper, and saw mills, and 
extensive beds of bituminous coal and limestone, underlie nearly every 
part of the county. The staple productions are wheat, corn, wool, oats, 
pork, &c. Jt borders on Ohio. 

Between Rochester and New Brighton (three miles), the objects of 
interest are — Beaver River Bridge, at the crossing of the stream ; the 
bridge is of four spans. Bridgewater, a village, is seen on the peninsula 
between the Ohio and Beaver Rivers, and is accessible from Rochester by 
a good bridge ; west of Rochester is a short piece of heavy grade. 

PITTSBURG 29. NEW BRIGHTON, Chicago 43s. 

jSamcd, we presume, after its brother, on the English coast. It is on 
the east bank of the Beaver River, on a level piece of ground, and by its 
])usiness, supports not only the " through," but several local trains on 
the Railroad. The Beaver and Erie Canal, runs from this point to Erie, 
on the lake. 

On the opposite side of the Beaver River is Fallston, with which New 
Brighton is connected by a bridge. The stream furnishes excellent 
water power, as is attested l)y the numerous mills and factories which 
have made the place extensively known as a manufacturing point. 
Churches, a University on a hill to the right of the Railroad, and a brick 
Union School House, are among the prominent objects which the pass- 
ing traveller will notice. A large car manufactory has been erected by 
a company at this place. 

New Brighton was settled about fifty years ago, and now contains a 
population of about two thousand. It is regularly laid out, and has seven 
churches. The railroad passes through " Second" street. 

Beaver River, is crossed just above New Brighton, and the westward- 
bound traveller continues up its left bank, through a country not remark- 
ably well cultivated. At the thirty-second mile post is a " High Bridge," 
constructed over a gorge through which flows a branch of tlie river. 



64 DARLINGTON TO NEW WATERFORD. 

The bridge is peculiar, being upon a curvature. The grade here is 
ascending to the west, and the river, is seen to the right in the valley 
beneath. The distance between New Brighton and Darlington, is eleven 
miles. The valley of the river is only partly cultivated, the little 
rounded elevations in its midst being generally covered with timber. 
Homewood is a small local station, at which the Railroad diverges 
from the Beaver River, and strikes off to the west, still pursuing an 
ascending grade to Darlington; Summit Cut is, as its name implies, at 
the summit. It is a rock and earth cutting, nearly a quarter of a mile 
long, and at some points sixty feet high. The strata is level at this 
excavation, and the workmen have in one or two places developed small 
coal veins. Great difficulty was experienced in the construction of this 
section, the line through the cut being a curve. The summit having 
been attained, the grade is descending. 

PITTSBURG 40. DARLINGTON, Chicago 427. 

Is in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, in an uneven valley, among the 
hills of the Little Beaver. Coal veins are worked in the vicinity, the 
coal being of good quality. It is manufactured into oil, and exported. 
The veins vary from five to eleven feet, and are found among the hills 
on both sides of the valley. The qualities are cannel and bituminous. 
Darlington was settled about the close of the last century, and contains 
a population of five hundred. 

PITTSBURG 45. ENON. CHICAGO 422. 

Not constructed with much regard for regularity, and with a popula- 
tion not exceeding one thousand, at the highest estimate. Its situation 
is similar to that of Darlington. Wheat and cattle are shipped here. 
The country, in the immediate vicinity, is cultivated to only a moderate 
extent, exhibits an agreeable diversity of hill and dale, stump land and 
farm land. 

The dividing line between Pennsylvania and Ohio is crossed about 
half way between Enon and Palestine (five miles). 

PITTSBURG 50. PALESTINE, CHICAGO 417. 

Is a scattered frame village, on the south side of the Railroad, with 
church, store, &c. ; a cattle shipping point. As for the " Ruins of 
Palestine," so often talked of, and written about, the traveller will look 
for them in vain. This place, has never been ruined, whatever may have 
happened to the ancient city of the same name. It is in Columbiana 
County, Ohio, and has a population of nearly two hundred. It was set- 
tled about 1832, and is in the midst of a country rich in mineral products. 

PITTSBURG 55. NEW WATERFORD. Chicago 412. 

Also in Columbiana County, Ohio. It is a village of neat white 
frames, with brick dwellings, two churches, several mills, schools, stores, 
&c. It is in the valley, and with surroundings very similar to those of 
Enon and Palestine. The traveller can obtain but a faint idea from the two 
last described places, of the real agricultural wealth of the State of Ohio. 
New Waterford has a population of one hundred and fifty. 

Five miles intervene between New Waterford and Columbiana, in 



COLUMBIA TO SALEM. 65 

which several small branches of the Little Beaver Creek are crossed. 
Larger burns, and more comfortable houses, indicate a better country. 

PITTSBURG 60. COLUMBIANA. CHICAGO 407, 

On a beautiful plain, to the north of the Railroad, stands the town of 
Columbiana, Salem County, Ohio. " Main Street," which the traveller 
will observe, runs diagonally from the track, and is built upon both sides 
with places of business, &c. The town, has been on the maps for over 
thirty years, although like the rest of the inland settlements of Ohio and 
Indiana, it attained but little celebrity until the construction of the Rail- 
road. Now, it has a population of nine hundred, with an increasing trade. 
Large quantities of milk, are shipped daily from here to Pittsburg. It 
also boasts three carriage manufactories, famous for turning out " rolling 
stock" of almost every description, more particularly " buggies" and 
carriages. 

A resident of the place sends us the following facts : He says that, 
" in the matter of receiving and forwarding grain, stock and produce, 
Columbiana, has few superiors on the line of the road." As a synopsis 
of its business establishments, he gives a list of " two commission houses, 
one flouring mill, one machine shop, two saddle shops, six dry goods 
stores, one hardware, one drug, and one leather store, with numbers of 
shops of almost every kind." 

Salt has been manufactured in considerable quantities, from water 
obtained from near Yellow Creek. 

From Columbiana to Salem, is ten miles, the whole distance being in 
Columbiana County. The country is well cultivated. New Lisbon 
Railroad, a projected thoroughfare, to extend to New Lisbon, (about 
twelve miles to the south) is seen in an incomplete state. Franklin, a vil- 
lage of one hundred and fifty inhabitants, to the left hand of the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne and Chicago Raih'oad, and about a quarter of a mile dis- 
tant, does a freight business which amounts to seven hundred dollars per 
annum. It acts at present as the outlet for the residents of New Lisbon, 
the capital of the county, and on their behalf, receives and forwards goods 
paying to the Company, at least ten thousand dollars per annum as 
freight. Franklin, derived its name, we believe, from the " oldest inha- 
bitant." Being in the centre of a rich farming country, it has a local 
trade, which as yet however, is not very large. Its peculiar position on 
an eminence in the valley, will be noticed. 

PITTSBURG 70. SALEM. CHICAGO 397. 

This town, the principal portion of which lies to the north of the Rail- 
road, claims rank as one of the most important places between Pittsburg 
and Chicago. It is on an elevated plain, in the north range of townships 
of Columbiana County, Ohio, and contains a population of three thou- 
sand, five hundred. The surrounding country, is usurpassed for farming 
and grazing, although at many points well wooded. The agricultural 
land in the section, is valued at from fifty dollars, to one hundred and 

5 



66 DAMASCUS. 

fifty dollars per acre, and it is worthy of remark, to use the language of 
a resident of the place, that " real estate has never decreased in value, 
but has slowly though steadily advanced in price, during all the fluctua- 
tions of trade and the money panics." This would seem to indicate pros- 
perity on a substantial basis. 

Salem was started, or rather laid out in ISOT, by Zadok Street and 
John Straughn, although, even as far back as 1802, a settlement was 
made by Elisha Schooly and Elias Tuters. Several families from New 
Jersey and Virginia, were among the pioneers. The inland town, grew 
steadily until 1852, when the iron giants of the (Old) Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, broke the seclusion. Since then it has progressed rapidly, 
and now ships thousands of head of cattle, and large quantities of pork, 
butter and eggs. The last named articles are packed for markets even 
as far distant as California. The consumption in the east is also large. 
A striking instance of the general intelligence and morality of the inha- 
bitants maybe found in the fact, that in 1858, they voted by a large 
majority, for the purchase of a lot and buildings for the Union School, 
at an expense of fifteen thousand dollars. This school, which was organ- 
ized in 1853, embraces six grades, and employs nine teachers. Out of 
about seven hundred and seventeen persons, between six and twenty-one 
years of age, all but one hundred, attend school. ' The enforcement of the 
old law of Germany, which absolutely requires all youth to attend a 
place of instruction, would seem to be unnecessary in this region. In- 
struction is given in all the common branches, and in Philosophy, His- 
tory, Botany, Latin, &c. The cost of the Union School, during the past 
year, was about three thousand five hundred dollars. 

An enumeration of some of the principal business establishments, 
will enable the traveller to judge of the importance of Salem. It 
contains four foundries, five machine shops, three grist mills, two printing 
offices, two banks, twelve grocery, and two book stores, five clothing, two 
hat, and three stove, two drug, three hardwai'e, and six dry goods stores. 
Seven places of public worship, some of which are quite conspicuous from 
the car windows, are constructed. The Methodists and Presbyterians 
have erected new and elegant churches. 

Between Salem and I)amascus, the distance is five miles, through 
Columbiana County. 

PITTSBURG 75. DAMASCUS, CHICAGO S92. 

Is on the line between Mahoning County, on the north, and Columbi- 
ana County, on the south. Columbus, the capital of the State, is one 
hundred and sixty miles distant. 

Mahoning County, through which the Railroad runs, from Damascus 
to Alliance, derives its name, from the river of the same name. It has an 
area of over four hundred square miles, and contains extensive beds of 
stone coal and iron ore. It was organized in 1846, and formed from 
two adjoining counties. 



SMITHFIELD TO LOUISVILLE. 67 

PITTSBURG 78, SMITHFIELD. CHICAGO 389. 

" My Lord, there's an army gathered together in Smithfield." 

So says Sbakspcare, and his admirers may, if they think proper, look 
for indications of the aforesaid army The Ohio Smithfield, is one of 
eighteen places of the same name in the United States. It has the ele- 
ments of prosperity within itself. 
Between Smithfield and Alliance is five miles. 

PITTSBURG 83. ALLIANCE, CniCAGO 384. 

Is nearly on the boundary line, between Starke and Mahoning Coun- 
ties, and is a little over nine years old, having been laid out in 1850. 
Main Street, will be observed on the left, and crossing the Railroad. It, 
as well as the rest of the town, is neatly built. 

Alliance, is the point of crossing of the Cleveland and Pittsburg Rail- 
road. This fact will tend somewhat to its prosperity. The assertion is 
sustained by signs of progress, that within five years, Alliance will be an 
important post. Its growth has already been astonishing, its population 
is eighteen hundred. It is the seat of extensive agricultural works. 

Six miles, lie between Alliance and Strasburg, all in Starke County. 
This county has a rolling surface — a sandy soil, and produces wheat, 
Indian corn, hay, wool, butter, &c., &c. A limestone formation under- 
lies part of the surface. 

PITTSBURG 89. STRASBURG. CniCAGO 378. 

Still in Starke County, and distant about one hundred and thirty-five 
miles from Columbus, the capital of the State. 

PITTSBURG 95. LOUISVILLE. CniCAGO 372. 

A Freuch name, and settled originally by natives of " La Belle France. " 
That the race has not yet died out, is evident from some of the sign boards 
of the town. 

The principal portion of the place, is on a gently undulating plain to 
the South of the Railroad. Pleasant groves are in the vicinity. 

The church and graveyard, meet the eye of the stranger ; the latter free 

from those glowing tombstone eulogies, which disgust the sensitive, and 

shock the fastidious. Here only 

" Their names, their years, spelt by the unletter'd muse, 
The place of fame and elegy supply; 
And many a holy text around she strews, 
To teach the rustic moralist to dio." 

Six miles to Canton. 

PITTSBURG 101. CANTON. CHICAGO CC6. 

The capital of Starke County, Ohio. Unlike the original Canton, it 
has no "Mandarins" to keep the " Celestials" in order, or to cut off the 
pigtails of the populace, in case they get refractory. 



68 THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 

It is on a beautiful plain, almost like a prairie, and in the centre of a 
country rich in agricultural and mineral resources. As a manufacturing 
centre, it possesses many advantages ; the Nemiskillen Creek, which flows 
past the City, furnishing excellent water power, and stone coal and lime- 
stone, being easily obtained. Two agricultural machine establishments 
turn out work in immense quantities, and of superior finish. The resi- 
dents of the adjacent country, patronize them largely, the farmers having 
thoroughly learned the value of labor-saving machinery. 

The improvements of the City are many — comprising churches for 
all the principal denominations, woolen factories, iron foundries, gun- 
barrel works, &c. The completion of the Railroad to this point in 1852, 
was the means of encouraging trade, although previous to that time the 
Ohio Canal (traversing nearly the whole State, north and south) did an 
extensive business. 

Joseph D. Wright, Esq., Resident Engineer of the Eastern Division of 
the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad, is stationed at this place. 

Tlie " Canton Gas Works," with their large Gasometer, are near the 
the Railroad depot in the foreground. 

The " Ohio Repository," a newspaper, was published in Canton, as far 
back as 1819, by John Saxton. The first house was erected in the sum- 
mer of 1806, and the settlement was made by enterprizing emigrants 
from Connecticut, and other States. 

From Canton to Massillon, eight miles, the country is open and well 
cultivated. 

THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 

A great country is that of the northwest, watered as it is by the 
streams, brooks and springs, which flow into the Mississippi and Ohio 
Rivers and the lakes, A soil, unequalled for fertility, produced in 1858: 

Corn in the following quantities : Ohio, 80,000,000 bushels ; Indiana, 60,000,000 
Illinois, 70,000,000 bushels ; and in the way of commerce, who can exaggerate the 
present and future importance, of these three great States of the northwest. Erie 
and Michigan are on the north — the first with a length of two hundred and forty 
miles, and a depth of ninety feet ; and the second, with a length of three hundred and 
fifty miles, and a depth of one thousand feet. Chicago, in this (to her) new branch 
of trade, built seven ships in 1858, and Cleveland, sent twenty-nine from her yards. 
From these two ports in the same year, the clearances were — from Cleveland, four 
hundred and- twenty-three ; from Chicago, one hundred and sixty-nine: and these 
clearances, it has been proven, are doubled every three years. 

Look at the Railroad system of the three great States ! There are constructed 
in Ohio, 2,800 miles; Indiana, 1,850 miles; Illinois, 2,750 miles. 

Inexhaustible beds of coal underlie much of the soil of the three giants, and mil- 
lions of future citizens of the republic, will derive sustenance, and find every mate- 
rial necessary to the development of art and industry in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. 

The word Ohio, in the Indian tongue, is said to signify bloody. The State, in 
1810, contained 230,760 inhabitants, there being actually 10,000 more males than 
females. The equilibrium, it may well be supposed, has since been better established. 

WESTERN RESERVE, 

As it is commonly called, is everywhere known as a particular section 
of Ohio, almost amounting to a separate State. It is also called New 



MASSILLON. G9 

Connecticut, from the fact that it was originally owned, and chiefly set- 
tled by men from Connecticut. The Reserve, contains twelve counties : 
viz., Ashtabuhi, Trumbull, Mahoning, Lake, Geauga, Portage, Cuya- 
hoga, Summit, Medina, Lorain, Erie and Huron. 

I'lTTSliURO 109. MASSILLON. CIIICAOO 358. 

This City, is one of the greatest contributors to the Railroad, between 
Pittsburg and Chicago. It can be seen from the car windows, about 
one-eighth of a mile from the track, in the midst of gently undulating 
and romantic grounds, often highly cultivated, and extending into wide- 
spread level plains. 

Nature has done much for Massillon, having furnished the adjoining 
country with hard timber, bituminous coal, of a superior quality, (which 
is used for making gas, smelting pig-iron, and for all ordinary purposes,) 
and with iron ore, limestone, and reliable water power. For the trans- 
portation of products from these sources, the Ohio Canal, competes with 
the Pittsl)urg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad. The canal is crossed 
by the traveller just west of the Station House. 

To the eyes which heretofore have been accustomed to the rugged 
eminences of central Pennsylvania, and the blufiFs of the Ohio River, this 
part of the State, is exceedingly beautiful. Pleasant groves are scattered 
here and there, and the general aspect is so attractive, that one can easily 
realize the strong ties which must have bound the aboriginies to this 
" Garden of the Earth!" 

The Ohio Canal, runs northward to Lake Erie, which it joins at Cleve- 
land, and the Tuscarawas River, ou which the City is also situated, flows 
southward, and, uniting with other streaois empties into the Ohio River 
near Parkersburg, Yirginia. 

The City of Massillon, has shipped in one year, over fivo millions of 
bushels of wheat. Of course, this vast export trade demands suitable 
accommodation, which is found in very substantial Ijrick and stone ware- 
houses. The farmers of the section require proper implements for tillage, 
and this gives rise to an important business, viz. : the manufacture of 
reaping, threshing and mowing machines. Tins is extensively carried on. 
Railroad cars, are also made, and from the specimens which we have seen, 
the workmanship is fully as neat and durable as that of the eastern esta- 
blishments. Two immense iron furnaces, with their flaming jets, have a 
capacity sufficient to produce two hundred and fifty tons per week of pig 
iron, while foundries and machine shops, stove and furniture works, flour 
and steam mills, &c., add to the activity which pervades this inland city. 

The attention which the American people pay to the adornment of 
their cemeteries, is a beautiful trait, particularly well illustrated by the 
" City of the Dead," in the vicinity of Massillon. It is a lovely and 
romantic spot, just such a one as the " weary pilgrim," would desire, 
when realizing that 

" Not to this -world — a world of grief and care — 
Not to this world doth happiness belong ; 



70 ORVILLE TO WOOSTER. 

Vicissitudes pervade both earth and air, 

And shadows flit the hills and dales among." 

Massillon, has a population of about five thousand, and contains a 
Union School, six churches, and two banks, two first class hotels, whole- 
sale grocery stores, &c., &c. It was laid out in 1826. A free stone 
quarry, is near at hand, which supplies excellent stone for building, upon 
wide and well-shaded streets. 

Starke County, in which Massillon is located, has an area of five hun- 
dred and seventy square miles, and is rich in minerals and in agricultural 
resources. 

Fifteen miles, lie between Massillon and Orville, in which the boundary 
line between Starke and Wayne Counties is crossed. 

PITTSEURG 121. ORVILLE CHICAGO 313. 

A settlement, which originated in 1853, and which now contains a 
population of four hundred and fifty. It is on the north side of the Rail- 
road, on elevated but level ground, and with scattered dwellings. Its 
chief business is in stock and produce, and merchandizing generally. 
Six stores are in the town, and two mills in the vicinity, also an excel- 
lent Hotel. 

This is the crossing point of the Cleveland, Cincinnati and Zanesville 
Hailroad, which, howevei', is only completed for about thirty-five miles 
south of Orville. In time, it will unquestionably be extended to Cincinnati, 
the great Porkopolis. 

From Orville to Wooster, is fifteeen miles. Wooster Summit, is passed, 
being, as its name implies, at the head of a grade, and boasting only a 
small collection of houses. The traveller, during this distance, runs 
through the centre of Wayne County, which is noted for its production 
of wool and butter, and has in its southern part, large mines of coalstone 
opened. 

PITTSBURG 135. WOOSTER CHICAGO 332. 

On the north side of the Railroad on a level plain. It is the capital of 
Wayne County, and is nearly in its centre. A creek with a name that 
smacks strongly of hunting, viz., " Killbuck," flows past the place. It 
is very certain, however, that but few bucks will be killed on its banks in 
future. The progress of civilization makes sad inroads on the fleet-footed 
denizens of the woods. Wooster was the site of the Land Office for 
what was known as " Canton District." 

Any one who ascended and took a bird's eye view of this place from a bal- 
loon, would see beneath him a well-built assortment of "local habitations," 
surrounded by a country valuable in any way in which it was considered ; 
the surface for agricultural purposes — the interior (in the form of coal) 
for burning. He would see a portion of the land which contributes to 
give Ohio the enviable reputation of owning one-twelfth of all the culti- 
vated acres in the United States, and which in twenty years, helped to 



WOOSTER TO LONDONVILLE. 71 

increase her valuation from eighty-nine thousand to eight hundred rail- 
lions of dollars. 

Wooster is the centre of considerable trade, and excels in manufac- 
tures ; carriage-making is one brancli to which attention is given ; and 
churches, newspaper offices, Szc, indicate thrift and intelligence. The 
" Ohio Spectator," was published in Wooster, in 1819, by S. Baldwin, jr. 
Even at that distant day the press was an essential. 

We are indebted to a friend for the following additional particulars : 
Wooster is compactly built and handsomely situated, being located on 
a beautiful nndulating tract of land, at the junction of Apple Creek and 
Killbuck streams. The country adjacent is elevated above the town site. 
The section is very healthy. Wooster, containing four dry goods stores, 
five clothing, two hardware, three drug, two book, and four boot and 
shoe stores ; two newspapers printed (Democrat and Republican,) ten 
churches, two female seminaries, four public graded schools, two Ijanks, 
three foundries, two engine shops, two planing mills, one machine manu- 
factory (Thresher <fc Co.,) three carriage establishments, one rope-walk — 
is rapidly increasing in size, population and importance. There is being 
consumed this year in building and under contract, one million five hun- 
dred thousand brick. There was shipped from Wooster Station by rail, 
from September, 1858 to February, 1859, inclusive, (six months) six 
hundred thousand bushels of wheat, and butter, eggs, corn, stock, &c., 
in proportion. Present population, five thousaud. County well settled 
— raise good stock — farms well improved — county vote, Democratic. 

PITTSBURG 141. MILLBROOK. CUICAGO 326 

This is a post village in the southwestern portion of Wayne County. 
An improving place. To the south of it the indefatigable Killbuck 
Creek pursues its devious way. 

PITTSBURG lU. CLINTON, CHICAGO 323. 

Never saw daylight until 1853, and between that time and the present 
has collected two hundred and fifty inhabitants. It may be easily ima- 
gined that very few of them tread their " native soil ;" and those who 
enjoy that felicity have not yet dispensed with the ball and hoop of 
childhood. But it has a go-ahead set of residents, who support produce 
stores, two grist mills, two saw mills, three groceries, &c. In the way of 
luxuries, they have two splendid churches (with prospects of a third) and 
a tavern. In fact, this is a desirable location, and bids fair to be a busi- 
ness town. 

Between Clinton and Loudonville (twelve miles), the Railroad passes 
through a corner of Holmes County. There is no regular station in this 
county, however. 

PITTSBURG 156. LOUDONVILLE CUIC.iGOSll. 

Very modestly hides itself away in a southern corner of Ashland 
County, Ohio, where it has stood ever since 1818. Modesty is a sign of 
merit, however, and we venture to say, that the one thousaud residents 



72 PERRYSYILLE TO MANSFIELD. 

of Loudonville believe that the place is as healthy, pleasant and active, 
as any one of the same size between Cape Cod and sundown. "We won't 
dispute the fact, particularly when the obliging Superintendent of the Rail- 
road says, on reference to his books, that the freights for stock, grain, &c., 
from this station, " foot up" very well. 

Loudonville is on the black fork of Mohiccon River (a branch of the 
Walhonding) and is seventy miles northeast of Columbus, the capital of 
Ohio. " The business of the place is as follows : four dry goods, two 
drug, two clothing, and four shoe stores ; also three hotels, two iron 
foundries, three blacksmith shops, two wagon shops, two tin and copper 
shops, tanneries, produce, ware. Haskell's Academy is located here, a 
flourishing institution, A. B. Kidder, Principal. The churches are owned 
by Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran and Presbyterian congregations. One 
feature of the place is especially noticed by a correspondent, who says, 
" we have a strong temperance society and community here." 

The Railroad Company have a fine Depot at this place. 

From Loudonville to Perrysville (five miles), run through Ashland 
County. 

JPITTSBURG 161. PERRYSVILLE. Chicago 306. 

The principal business of this place is milling, to use a technical ex- 
pression, there being " twenty-four run of burrs" in the vicinity. Perrys- 
ville is not insignificant, however, as a grain and stock shipping point. 
It has a population of two hundred and " rising." 

It was settled in 1812, and is near the Indian village of Greentown, 
where an event known in the history of Ohio, as the Copas and Seymour 
massacre took place, 

PITTSBURG 168. LUCAS, CHICAGO 299. 

Is near the county line between Richland and Ashland Counties, and 
is on both sides of the Railroad. It was named after Governor Lucas, 
and with a high and healthy situation, has a population of about four 
hundred. 

The principal business of the place is merchandizing. In the vicinity 
of the town are three flour and five saw mills ; also two woolen factories. 

Several adjacent stone-quarries furnish excellent building stone, and 
the grain depots by the side of the Railroad, indicate that shipments are 
moderately large. 

PITTSBURG 175. MANSFIELD. CUIOAGO 292 

The ( ity of Mansfield is situated almost in the centre of Richland 
County, Ohio, and is the point of crossing of the Sandusky, Mansfield 
and Newark Railroad. For municipal purposes it is divided into four 
wards, and governed by a Mayor, and a City Council which meets 
monthly. It is the seat of a heavy trade ; the depot of the surrounding 



RICHLAND TO CRESTLINE. 73 

country, and a valuable auxiliary to the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and 
Chicago Railroad. In 1819 it contained thirty houses and three stores. 
It would almost require a separate volume to enumerate the various 
objects of interest in and around Mansfield, or to give even a faint idea 
of its industrial resources. Confining ourselves to the more prominent 
points, we may say that the streets are wide and well built ; the City 
lighted with gas, and the mercantile and educational institutions ample. 
A Central High School, and eleven secondary and primary Ijranches are 
established under control of a "Board of Education." The Richland 
County Mutual Insurance Company competes with no less than sixteen 
different agencies of eastern insurance firms. A Gas Light Company 
was organized in 1857, as. was also a Library Association. The Far- 
mer's Branch, State Bank of Ohio, is here located, as is also Sturge's 
Bank. Three military companies protect the "lives, fortunes and sacred 
honor" of the residents, and two newspapers shed refulgent light upon 
the doings of the community. The last named " institutions" are the 
" Mansfield Herald," and the " Richland County Shield and Banner." 

The public buildings consist of a City Hall, Court House on the Public 
Square, Masonic Hall, Infirmary, Odd Fellows Hall, &c. Tlie Fire 
Department, consisting of four or five companies, is well sustained. The 
Churches are ten in number, and classified as belonging to Baptist, Epis- 
copal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Congregational, Lu- 
theran, United Presbyterian, and other congregations. The Mansfield 
Lodge of Masons was organized as far back as 1818. 

The City is plentifully supplied with public halls, and boasts numerous 
fine blocks of buildings, together with admirably conducted hotels. It 
was laid out in 1808, a period, when for miles around, there was nothing 
but unbroken forest. Whether, as was the case with Bucyrns, the first 
settler lived on venison and wild honey, we cannot say. Richland County, 
of which Mansfield is the capital, contains upwards of four hundred and 
fifty square miles of territory, and is a heavy producer of wheat, Indian 
corn, oats, hay, butter, wool, cattle and swine. It is watered by the 
Walhonding River, (a branch of which flows past Mansfield,) and inter- 
sected by several Railroads. The stream is sometimes known as " Mo- 
hiccon," and "White Woman River." Mansfield has six hotels, two 
foundries, machine shops, «&c. It was named after General Jared Mans- 
field, Surveyor of the Northwestern Territory, from 1803 to 1812. 

Nine miles between Mansfield and Richland. 

PITTSBURG 184. RICHLAND, CHICAGO 2S3. 

Named after the County in which it is situated, and which certainly has 
rich-land. This County has the same agricultural characteristics of the 
others through which the Railroad passes in the eastern part of Ohio, 
producing wheat, Indian corn, butter, cattle, wool. 
Four miles between Richland and Crestline. 



7-4 CRESTLINE TO BUCYRUS. 

PITTSBURG 188. CRESTLINE. CHICAGO 279. 

Emphaticallya Railroad town. It was laid out in 1850, andis animpor- 
tant point on the line between Chicago and Pittsburg. Here are located 
the engine houses, repair shops, &c., of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and 
Chicago Railroad, which give constant employment to one hundred men. 
The cost of maintaining the " rolling stock" of a road over four hundred 
miles in length cannot be imagined by one not versed in such matters, 
The Superintendent of the Eastern Division of the Road, Jos. H. Moore, 
Esq., resides here. 

The town is incorporated and governed by a. Mayor and Council, 
elected annually. The residents appear to pay great attention to educa- 
tional matters, having adopted the Union School plan, and secured able 
instructors for youth. Methodist and Lutheran Church buildings have 
been erected, and four other Protestant denominations are organized. 

A glance at the main street, which crosses the Railroad track, will 
convey some idea of the business of the place. Six dry goods stores, five 
hotels, four grocery stores, three drug stores, one hardware store, one 
lumber yard, two livery stables, three shoe stores, one grain warehouse, 
a grist mill, and saw mills, are among the establishments. It is antici- 
pated, and we think very justly, that the number of cattle shipped from 
this point, already great, will be increased. In readiness for this, the 
Railroad Company have recently erected large and commodious stock 
yards, containing thirteen pens, with running water and facilities for feed- 
ing one thousand head of cattle. Two large barns in the vicinity con- 
tain a plentiful supply of grain and hay for the use of drovers. 

The Depot buildings, which the traveller cannot fail to notice, are 
admirably constructed with offices, waiting-rooms, baggage apartments, 
&c. The trains of the Bellefontaine line leave here for Indianapolis, and 
the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati cars pass and repass. A first 
class hotel is at the depot. The business facilities of the place are thus 
made evident, and the population, already numbering two thousand, can- 
not fail to increase. The adjoining country is rich and fertile. 

In the neighborhood of the town, are a number of sulphur springs, 
prized by many for their medicinal qualities. One of these springs 
affords an outlet for gas, which being condensed, is found to burn well. 

Between Crestline and Bucyrus (twelve miles), the objects of interest 
are as follows : the crossing of a small stream, one of the head waters of 
the Sandusky River — country very slightly undulating, and tolerably 
well cultivated. At some points the land is so level as to wear the 
appearance of Prairie. Timber is abundant. 

PITTSBURG 200. BUCYRUS. CHICAGO 267. 

An enthusiastic correspondent, who once wrote to us from this place, 
said that residents of Bucyrus " had no occasion to wish to exchange 
their earthly abiding place for Paradise." This is claiming for Bucyrus 
rather more attractiveness than we are willing to grant. Nevertheless, 



UPPER SAXDUSKT. 75 

it IS a very handsome county town, originally laid out in 1821, by several 
citizens of Columbus. The completion of the Railroad lent a new im- 
pulse to its progress, and now it is decidedly city-ish. Brick and other 
churches meet the eye of the traveller, and produce buildings, indicate 
considerable business in that line. The adjacent country (Crawford 
County) is level and fertile.. 

A partial enumeration of the establishments of the place, shows the 
existence of two planing-mills and sash factories, a steam woolen mill, 
giving emi)]oyment to a large number of hands — a steam grist mill, a 
large saw mill, &:c. De Kalb Female Seminary is here located, and the 
"Union School," consisting of the highest Grammar School, and six 
primary dei)artments, is one of the best in the State. The " Bucyrus 
Journal" is one of the fixed "institutions." 

The increase in the population since 1853, has been very great. 
Even at that time it was estimated at three thousand. Increase in trade 
has been proportionate, A beautiful cemetery, near the limits of the 
place has been laid out, and designated "Oak Grove." It is nearly 
forty acres in area. 

Near here, in 1838, an excellent specimen of the mastadon was found in 
" Hanu's Race." It was exhibited for some time and sold, we are 
informed, for two thousand dollars. The diameter of its skull was three 
feet three inches — the weight of the head two hundred and thirty-seven 
pounds, and length of molar tooth, seven and a half inches. 

The distance between Bucyrus and Upper Sandusky, is seventeen miles. 

Several small branches of the Sandusky River are crossed, one of 
which is on the dividing line between Crawford and Wyandot Counties. 
The road passes through considerable woodland. Nevada, an entirely 
new settlement, is just west of Bucyrus. With the aid of a saw mill and 
church, however, which are erected, it is a " place of promise." Stumps 
are abundant in its neighborhood, and black walnut trees are plenty — a 
trusslework nearly an eighth of a mile in length, carries the Railroad over 
the Sandusky River just east of it. 

PITTSBURG 21T. UPPER SANDUSKY. CHICAGO 250. 

This town plot was formerly the site of an Indian village. Here the 
Wyaudots lighted their council-fires, discussed their projects, and enjoyed 
what little domestic felicity is to be found in an Indian life. Quite a 
different scene meets the eye now, from that of 1780. The red face has 
"stepped out," and the pale face has "stepped in." The episode reminds 
one strongly of Shakspeare's efl'usion — 

" All the world's a stage, 
And all the men and Tvomen merely players; 
They have their exits and their entrances." 

The recollection of a bloody battle ground, about three miles north of 
the place, dispels the romance lingering about the Indians. Here a 
conflict took place between the aboriginees and Col. Crawford, in 1783, 



76 FOEEST TO JOHNSTOWN. 

in which Crawford was defeated. The troublesome customers, however, 
ceded their lands to the government, in 1843, for a consideration. 

Upper Sandusky, the capital of Wyandot County, boasts churches, 
and brick and frame tenements, erected upon wide and level streets. It 
appears to be gifted with an energetic population, and can be classed as 
decidedly "progressive." The Sandusky River, upon whose bank the 
town is situated, flows northward through* three counties, and empties 
into Sandusky Bay. It is often bordered with level plains, iu some parts 
covered with oak copses, and in others without timber, and with high 
.grass. These plains were formerly the cattle feeding grounds of the 
Wyandot tribe of Indians. 

Twelve miles intervene between Upper Sandusky and Forest. Derby- 
town, a small settlement in the woods, is passed ; Tyemochee River, of 
inconsiderable size, is crossed. Then comes 

PITTSBURG 229. FOREST CHICAGO 238. 

A town in the woods. The country is nearly level, and heavily tim- 
bered with beech, maple, oak and walnut. The Sandusky, Dayton and 
Cincinnati Railroad crosses here. In the town, the few houses that are 
erected, are large and creditable. The " Senate House" holds out an 
inviting sign, and runs opposition to one other hotel Two stores, about 
a score of dwellings, and a blacksmith shop, form the place. 

Forest, might'appropriately be called the half-way station between Pitts- 
burg and Chicago, and owes its existence entirely to the Railroad. A 
steam saw mill is in operation. Population not over two hundred. It 
dates back only about five years, being a Railroad town, started on the 
first opening of the old " Ohio and Indiana" Railroad to the point. It 
has no business, except what the iron pathways bring it. In despite of 
the wild appearance of the adjacent section, it contains many cultivated 
pieces of land. 

Between Forest and Johnstown sixteen miles intervene. On either 
side of the Railroad are fine woods of Beech and Sugar Maple. Here 
and there small settlements have arisen. Dunkirk, is one of these, built 
upon a single street which crosses the track. It is on gently undulating 
ground, with a steam saw-mill and population of not over four hundred. 
Blanchard's Fork, a small stream is crossed. North Washington is in 
Hardin County, through which the traveller is now passing. " Hog 
Creek Swamp" is a level swamp covered with grass and extending for 
several miles on both sides of the track. It will convey to the westward- 
bound traveller a very good idea of a genuine prairie. The Railroad 
passes through it on embankments thrown up from the surrounding 
loose soil. 

PITTSBURG, 245. JOHNSTOWN CHICAGO, 222. 

Is not an iron manufacturing point, like its Pennsylvania brother of the 
same name, and in fact is not particularly noted for business of any descrip- 
tion. As the surrounding country becomes cleared and settled, we pre- 



LAFAYETTE TO LIMA. 77 

sume the sliipment of cattle will form a decided feature. "Warehouses are 
erected, and the Railroad Company have a good depot. In these days 
of rapid progress, it is almost impossible to foretell the fate of a town, 
and we should not be surprised to see Johnstown, in a few years, exceed 
some of its cotemporaries in population and activity. It has the elements 
of success. 

Eight miles lie between Johnstown and Lafayette. The Railroad 
pursues an air-line, as it has done with but little variation since leaving 
Crestline. Tlirough the wilderness again we glide, with the view relieved 
by only occasional clearings. A curious life this of the forest settlers. Up 
iu the morning, out into the woods, driving the axe into vast towering 
monarchs, rooting up stumps, cracking the rifle at game, breathing the 
fresh pure air of Heaveo, and on the bed of toil dreaming perchance of 

"The native hills that rise in happier climes, 
The grot that heard the song of other times, 
The cottage-home, the bark of slender sail, 
The glassy lake and broomwood blossomed vale." 

In the neighborhood of Lafayette, the character of the land improves 
vastly. 

PITTSBURG, 253. LAFAYETTE, CHICAGO, 214. 

Near the line separating Allen, from Hardin County. A growing 
place, with many neat cottage-looking dwellings. It is principally on the 
north side of the Railroad. The population does not exceed one 
thousand. Several warehouses for the shipment of breadstuffs are erected 
at this point, from which the inference would be very just that the soil 
of the adjacent sections, when properly cultivated, amply repays the 
farmer. The Ottawa River, a tributary of the Maumee River, is a short 
distance north of this place, and, after having received several accessions, 
is crossed by the Railroad just east of Lima. The stream is not large. 
The distance between Lafayette and Lima, is seven miles, and the country 
is iu a fair state of cultivation. 

PITTSBURG, 260. LIMA CHICAGO, 207. 

Is in the centre of Allen County, Ohio, and after an existence of over 
twenty-seven years, (having been settled in 1831,) is an enterprising and 
healthy town. It is the capital of the county. We have been unable to 
ascertain why it was so named, but " Lima" has a pleasant sound, remind- 
ing one of fair damsels and other productions of the tropical and original 
city. 

This place is the point of junction of the Dayton and Michigan Rail- 
road, which runs southward for seventy-two miles to Dayton. From this 
place to Chicago, the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad 
pursues a course uniformly to the northwest. 

The county seat was located at Lima in 1831, and it now has a popu- 
lation of nearly two thousand two hundred. It contains twenty-four dry 



78- DELPHOS TO VAN" VERT. 

goods and grocery stores, and is the site of the machine shops of the 
Dayton and Michigan Railroad. The principal business establishments 
consist of two sash factories, two steam grist and saw mills, one carding 
and fulling mill, and one foundry. Lima has ten lawyers. 

Its natural position is such as to render future improvement rapid, and 
"manifest destiny" will doubtless fan the flame of enterprise until the 
Ohio Lima, obtains a page in history and a corner in the niche of fame. 

Elida, a village built upon one street, lies to the north of the Railroad, 
in the fourteen miles between Lima and Delphos. The Big Anglaize 
River, and Ottawa Creek, are also crossed. 

riTTSBURG, 274. DELPHOS, CHICAGO, 193. 

Very regular and neat in construction, with streets crossing the Rail- 
road at right angles. An extensive forwarding station, as will be noticed 
from the number of warehouses in the vicinity. 

The traveller who arrives at Delphos will be very near the junction of 
three counties, viz. : Putnam on the north, and Yan Wert and Allen on 
the south. Old Fort Jennings is a few miles distant. It was one of the 
out-posts of the Ohio settlers. Delphos was called "Section Ten." 

The Miami Extension Canal, runs northward from this point to the 
Maumee River, which it follows to Toledo. Columbus is one hundred 
and sixteen miles to the southeast. Delphos, was laid out about the 
year 1844, and has improved wonderfully. A branch of the Big Anglaize 
River flows past the place, and the canal furnishes ample water power for 
sundry mills, factories, machine shops, &c. Industry, enterprise, and 
economy are the peculiar characteristics of the residents. 

The Miami Extension Canal is crossed by the Railroad nearly in the 
centre of Delphos. To the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Rail- 
road this is an important point. 

Thirteen miles between Delphos and Van Wert, all in Van Wert 
County. For the whole distance, the course of the Railroad is due east 
and west — Middle Point is passed. It is a small scattered settlement, on 
a level tract of land surrounded by forests. Population not over two 
hundred. 

PITTSBURG, 287. ^^^ WERT. CHICAGO, ISO. 

The reverence which the people of Ohio entertain for the heroes of 
American history, is well exemplified by the number of their names which 
have been perpetuated. Putnam, Allen, Adams, Carroll, Greene, Wash- 
ington, and others, have had counties called after them, and even one of 
the three men, who, on September 22d, 1780, arrested Major Andre, at 
Tarrytown, receives the same honor. " Van Wert" was one of the cap- 
tors of Andre, and Van Wert, the capital of the county of the same 
name, will tell his story to the American people for years to come. 
The place was laid out in 1837, although the county was settled seven 
years before that time. Under the power of the iron band which con- 
nects it with civilization, the city (it ought to be one if it is not) is 



Dixox. 79 

improving. It is one hundred and thirty-six miles northwest of Columbus, 
and is the last station which the westward-bound traveller will find in Ohio. 
It is on a branch of the Auglaize creek, and will be the crossing 
point of the Cincinnati and Mackinaw Railroad, when that thoroughfare 
is finished. It has a population of twenty-three hundred, and contains 
one steam grist mill, and three steam saw mills, seven dry goods stores, 
seven grocery and two drug stores, one hardware, four blacksmith and 
four wagon establishments, three churches, (Presbyterian, Baptist and 
Methodist,) two large union school houses, &c. It is on a high sandy 
ridge, and the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, running east 
and west, passes directly through the town. 

THE PIONEERS OF OHIO. 

A word as to the State of Ohio : only eighty-five years ago, and the 
first band of pioneers strode forward towards the setting sun, from the 
slopes of the Alleghenies. "What manner of men and women, must they 
have been, who undertook to explore these wilds, then filled with savage 
beasts and no less savage men ? They were of iron mould, strong arras 
and honest hearts — who were willing to spend the last drop of blood to 
dispute the red man's exclusive title to a wilderness that now blooms and 
blossoms like the rose. Their beds in tents or under trees — their lights, 
the fat of the bear upon the hickory knot." Their songs like this : 

" The liunt, the sliot, the glorious chase, 
The captured elk or deer ; 
The camp, the bright big fire, and thea 
The rich and wholesome cheer. 
The sweet sound sleep at dead of night 
By our camp-fire blazing high, 
Unbroken by the wolf's long howl, 
And the panther springing by. 
Oh, merrily passed the time despite 
Our wily Indian foe, 

In the days when we were pioneers, 
Fifty years ago." 

Thirteen miles between "Van Wert and Dixon, all in Van Wert County, 
and principally through the woods. 

PITTSBURG, 300. DIXON. CHICAGO, 167. 

A settlement in the clearing, and on the line between the States of 
Ohio and Indiana. On the left hand side of the Railroad, the traveller 
will see a tall white post, marked with the letters " State Line." The 
population is not over two hundred and fifty. The adjacent country is 
nearly level. 

]Vine miles of Indiana woods, with occasional clearings, intervene 
between Dixon and Maples. The road lies through Allen County, 
which derives it name from Colonel William Allen, of Kentucky, 



80 MAPLES TO COLUMBIA CITY. 

PITTSBURG, 309. MAPLES. CHICAGO, 158. 

If there is any doubt of the ability of Indiana to turn out excellent 
timber, the doubt will be dispelled by a view of the woods around Maples. 
The town or village, is in a forest clearing on the left hand side of the 
Railroad, and has a population of not over two hundred and fifty. It 
is ten miles south-east of 

PITTSBURG, 319. FORT WAYNE. CHICAGO, 148. 

This was the terminus of the old Ohio and Indiana Railroad, before 
the line was opened to Chicago. It is built upon an eminence, and is 
the capital of Allen County, Indiana. 

The westward-bound traveller, just before entering Fort Wayne will 
notice the crossing of the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railroad, also the 
extensive Locomotive and other houses of the Railroad ; also, the 
splendid new Catholic Church Building, and two large brick Public 
Schools. 

The Miami Indians, previous to IT 94 had their principal village upon 
the site of Fort Wayne. They probably chose the spot because it was 
at the junction of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers, which uniting, 
form the Maumee, or as it has been called " The Miami of the Lakes," 
"or St. Maurice." The location was a beautiful and commanding 
one, and in the year already named, was selected by General Wayne for 
the erection of a Fort, which was called after its originator. Apropos, 
we may mention that a curious relic of the march of General Wayne to 
the Northwest Territory, in 1794, was recently discovered at New Phil- 
adelphia. It was a leaden slug, weighing three and one-half pounds, 
which was found embedded in a tree, where it had lain for more than half 
a century. 

The city is an important one, substantially and handsomely built, and 
with a large and necessarily increasing trade. It lacks no essential of 
becoming one of the largest and most wealthy points in the State of In- 
diana. The Wabash and Erie Canal, affords a business outlet. Plank 
roads also lead to various parts over an adjacent country, the soil of 
which is highly productive. The population, even in 1853, numbered six 
thousand five hundred, and is now not very far from being doubled. In 
August, 1812, the garrison made a brave defence at Fort Wayne against 
a large body of British and Indians. 

Twenty miles from Fort Wayne to Columbia City. Just west of Fort 
Wayne, St. Mary's River, a beautiful stream fringed with trees, is crossed 
— also, the Wabash and Erie Canal. Areola and Coesse, small settle- 
ments, are passed. The latter is on an elevation above the Railroad, 
about the only prominent object which is visible from the cars being a 
windmill. Near this place the line separating Allen County (on the east) 
from Whitley County (on the west) is crossed. The country has no 
especial interest. 

PITTSBURG, 339. COLUMBIA CITY. CHICAGO, 128. 

Columbia City, is seen about a quarter of a mile distant from the Rail- 



WARSAW. 81 

road, on the right. As the capital of Whitley County, Indiana, it is of 
importance. Blue River flows past the place, and is crossed by the tra- 
veller a short distance to the west of the Railroad Station. 

The situation of Columbia, is on gently undulating ground, and the 
population is about fifteen hundred. It was settled in 1845, and derives 
its principal support from milling and merchandizing. 

Twenty miles between Columbia and "Warsaw. For some distance west 
of the former town the land is very like prairie. Huntsville, is six miles 
v/est of Columbia. This is one of nineteen places of the same name in 
the United States, and is near the line separating Whitley County (on 
the east) from Kosciusko County (on the west.) Pierceton is a thriving 
town in Kosciusko County — to the west of it one of the numerous small 
streams which intersect this country is crossed (with its valley) by a high 
bridge, one-eighth of a mile in length. Kosciusko, very unimportant, is 
seven miles east of Warsaw. 

The traveller notes the historical names of the section. In Warsaw, 
he finds the capital of Kosciusko County, and recollects perhaps the 
lines of Campbell. 

" Warsaw's last champion from her height surveyed 
Wide o'er the fields a waste of ruin laid — 
Oh, Heaven ! he cried, my bleeding country save! 
Is there no hand on high to shield the brave ? 
Yet though destruction sweep these lovely plains, 
Rise! fellow-men, our country yet remains: 
By that dread name, we waive the sword on high, 
And swear for her to live! — with her to die!" 

But that bravery and justice are not always successful, is told alike by 
the historian and the poet, for 

" Hope for a season bade the world farewell ; 
And Freedom shrieked — as Kosciusko fell." 

PITTSBURG 359. WARSAW. CHICAGO 108 

It is on the bank of Centre Lake, and on Tippecanoe River. On the 
shores of this stream, a hundred miles to the South, the Shawnee tribe 
of Indians in 1811, were routed by General Harrison. The Shawnese 
were led by the " Prophet" of their nation, and slaughtered two hundred 
of the American troops before they were conquered. 

Thus it is, that in this new land of ours, we crowd into the circuit of a 
hundred miles, names recalling incidents of renown throughout the Avorld, 
Palestine, " Land of Judea," is not far distant from Warsaw. Alount 
Etna, with the memory of its burning fires, is in an adjoining county, as 
is also Sparta, with its brave band. Albion, \dt\\ its white cliffs, is near, 
and Cherubusco, with its bloody battle ground, lies to the nortliwest. 
Paris, with its allurements, is scarce a day's journey to the north, and 
Autioch is to the south. Ilolland, Peru, Galveston, Sante Fee, Nevada 
and liuena Vista, are within the described limits. 

Warsaw, is almost in the centre of the county of which it is the seat, a 
county peculiar on account of the number of small lakes within its bor- 
ders. The largest of these, are lakes Tippecanoe and Turkey, about twelve 

6 



82 PLYMOUTH TO GROVEETOWN. 

miles distant. The adjoining county being nearly level, they are proba- 
bly caused by the drainage 

Warsaw, has a population of one thousand five hundred, and is one of 
the most enteprising points between Fort "Wayne and Chicago. It 
shipped the last year one hundred and fifty thousand bushels of wheat ; 
and now contains seven dry goods stores, two clothing stores, three drug 
stores, four provision stores, one printing press, one graded school, and 
one banking ofiice. The cash received through the Express Office at this 
place, for September, 1859, was forty -thousand dollars. The towi^ was 
located in 1838. 

Twenty-five miles, between "Warsaw and Plymouth. Tippecanoe River 
is crossed west of Warsaw, with several of its smaller branches. Etna 
Green is a scattered village, which, if it was Gretna Green, would be just 
the place " where neither Pa nor Ma could find us." Bourbon, which 
brings to mind Bourbon whiskey, (no disrespect to the residents) is a 
pleasant looking village on a level tract of land, north of the Railroad. 
Its main street crosses the track. Good poplar timber is abundant in 
this section. Yellow River is crossed just east of 

PITTSBURG SS4. PLYMOUTH. CHICAGO 83. 

Is where the pilgrims did not land, inasmuch as the first settlement was 
made in 1834. The population numbers about fifteen hundred, and the 
place is a large wheat shipping point. Plymouth, with its churches, 
bank, business establishments, &c., is the thriving capital of Marshall 
County. Much good farm land, well cultivated, is in the vicinity. 
Indianapolis lies one hundred and twelve miles to the south. A plank 
road connects this point with Michigan City, and a Railroad diverges to 
La Porte, on the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad. 
The Pittsburg, Eort Wayne and Chicago Railroad have a large Freight 
and Passenger Depot at Plymouth. The Railroad was opened to this 
point in November, 1856. 

PITTSBURG 395. GROVERTOWN. CHICAGO 72. 

An inconsiderable village, of not over one hundred and fifty inhabitants, 
on a tract of land under partial cultivation. It is on the north side of 
the Railroad. It is in Stark County. This county, deriving its name 
from General Stark, of Revolutionary memory, has about equal parts of 
timber and prairie land. It has an area of two hundred and ninety 
square miles. A town of the same name, viz., Stark, is passed between 
Grovertown and Wanatah, (twenty miles.) 

THE PRAIRIES OF THE WEST. 

The prairies of the west, from this point, spread themselves to the eye 
of the traveller. Yast level plains, with clumps of timber scattered here 
and there, like oases in the desert, or islands in the ocean. Sometimes 
for miles, the gaze will wander over a sea of billowy green, unrelieved 



HANNA STATION TO VALPARAISO 83 

by anything to indicate the presence of mankind, except the ditches by 
the side of the iron Raih'oad track. All nature seems 
*' Glowing with life, by breezes fann'd 
Luxuriant, lovely, as she came 
Fresh in her youth from God's own hand." 

No wonder, that Cooper in his tales of wild adventure, when the woods- 
man's axe had echoed in every vale of the eastern mountains, drove his 
hero forth to the haunts of nature in the prairies of the west, to gaze 
upon the setting sun, passing away, not behind towering granite piles or 
gloomy forests, but gradually sinking into the bosom of a quiet, level 
grassy bed. Titania, the Fairy Queen, might have had her fairy realms 
in the midst of these solitudes ; and Puck, when he " put his girdle rouud 
the earth," would have stopped to pluck a wild flower from the blooming 
gardens running to waste. 

Here, where the Indian, at a time within the memory of living men 
chased his game, the thrifty settlers, in their onward march, are building 
sites for future cities. To the southwest, through Indiana and Illinois, 
the rich soil with a grateful hand, yields to the tiller fine crops. 
Gradually the settlements are increasing ; the standard of education and 
morality is rising — the facilities for improvement are daily becoming 
greater, and ere long, before our children attain old age, will be seen 
upon this western land, the view so well described by the poet — 

" Broad on each hand 
The golden wheat fields glimmered in the sun, 
And the tall maize its yellow tassels spun ; 
Smooth highways set with hedgerows living green, 
With steepled towns, thro' shaded vista seen, 
The school house murmuring with its hive-like swarm, 
The brook bank whitening in the grist mill's storm ; 
The painted farm house shining through the leaves, 
Of fruited orchards bending at the eaves. 
Where live again around the western hearth, 
The homely old time virtues of the north. 

PITTSBURG 410. HANNA STATION. Chicago 57 

A settlement, not as yet very large, but destined to improve. Ten 
and twelve thousand bushels of grain have been shipped in one month 
from this place. The country around is level and very fertile. 

From Hanna Station to Wanatah, the Railroad runs over Hog Prairie. 
Morgan is passed. 

PITTSBDRG 415. WANATAH. CHICAGO 52, 

Wanatah, with its remarkable Indian sounding name, is a prairie village 
on Hog Prairie. It is the point of junction of the New Albany and Salem 
Railroad, which runs northward to Michigan City, and southward to 
New Albany. Roselle is about one mile south of Wanatah on the 
N. A. & S. Railroad. 

Still running on prairies, reach, after a travel of nine miles, 

PITTSBURG 424. VALPARAISO. ^°^^^°*^ '^ 

The town lies about one-eighth of a mile north of the Railroad, and is 



43 


miles. 


33 


« 


24 


(( 


13 


<( 



84 CHICAGO. 

concealed from view by a wooded eminence, on the slope of which several 
handsome residences, and a steam saw and grist mill are located. 
It is the capital of Porter County, Indiana, and is on Salt Creek, a tri- 
butary of Deep River. The population is about two thousand. It con- 
tains five churches, (two are small, but have room to grow) two editorial 
establishments (Democrat and Republican,) eight dry goods stores, six 
groceries, two drug stores, four shoe shops, two saddlers, one book store, 
three hardware, two foundries, five smiths and carriage shops, three 
hotels, one brewery, one steam flouring and saw mill in town, two mills 
within sight, one college (just opened,) four school houses, two more 
under construction, and one high school. 

Prairie land nearly the whole distance between Valparaiso and Chicago, 
(forty-three miles.) 

The minor stations may be enumerated as follows : 

Valparaiso, Pittsburg, 424 miles. Chicago, 

Hobart, " 434 " " 

Clarke, " 443 " " 

Ainesworth, " 454 " " 

Rock Island Junction, " 459 V " 8 " 

Chicago, " 46t " 

Hobart, is nearly on the line separating Porter County (on the east,) 
from Lake County, (on the west.) It, in common with other towns 
along the road in this section, is a grain shipping point. Deep River, 
which flows northward into the Calumet River, is crossed just west of it. 

The first view which the westward bound traveller obtains of Lake 
Michigan, is about fifteen miles east of Chicago, near a small Station, 
called Robertsdale. This is also the crossing point of the line separating 
Illinois from Indiana. 

Ainesworth, is thirteen miles from Chicago, near the lake shore. Rock 
Island Junction, is in Lake Township, Cook County, somelittle distance 
from the lake. Between this place and Chicago, the Railroad runs nearly 
north and south. The Illinois Central Railroad is seen between the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago track, and the shore of the " Great 
Inland Sea." 



PITTSBURG 467. 

A City, which could have been produced in no place but America. Less 
than thirty years ago, the Pottawatomie Indians stood at the mouth of 
Chicago River, and claimed the prairie lands upon its banks and upon 
the lake shore, as their own. The peculiar situation of the " Garden 
City" of the west, favored it from the onset, and the influx of emigration 



CHICAGO. 85 

from the east, besides attracting many substantial citizens, brought a 
class of men, whose aims were no higher than those of mere speculators. 
After a season of wild excitement and inflation, sober sense, assisted by 
a few pecuniary rebuffs, ascertained that the " ultimate destiny" of 
Chicago, was to be the grand centre depot of the States of the northwest, 
and that the struggle to attain wealth and position in a moment, was vain 
and futile. From this era, dates the permanent prosperity of the place. 
Greater attention was paid to local improvements, and mercantile and 
commercial establishments, regulating their affairs, were founded upon a 
surer basis. 

Chicago, is at the southwestern extremity of Lake Michigan, at the 
mouth of Chicago River. The river flows through the City, and is navi- 
gable for two or three miles from the lake, for vessels of ordinary size. 
Upon the map, which accompanies this work, its course is perceptible. 

The want of stone for paving, has been a drawback to the appearance 
of Chicago. For building purposes, fine material has been brought from 
Joliet and other places, and brick from Milwaakie. " Blocks" of iron 
and stone are almost as common as in the eastern cities, but the expense 
of their construction is heavy. The finer buildings will be found enu- 
merated in the table which we shall give. In reference to this matter, a 
recent writer says : 

I never saw a City built up with so little regard to expense as Chicago, 
now styled the " Gem of the Lakes." Its extravagance is almost beyond 
computation. The private establishments on the lake are specimens not 
only of great architectural ability, but the manner in which the plans of 
the projectors are carried out, would swamp the staunchest craft that ever 
floated on the sea of speculation. The xMichigau Central Railroad, runs 
from the Chicago depot some distance from, and parallel with the lake 
shore for several miles, thus making a splendid race course for a pleasure 
sail, and the wind being almost invariably off the lake, insures a good 
" laying" breeze either way, while the piling outside the railroad keeps 
off the immense waves and swell, from the shore and the sailing ground. 

" It is useless to speculate on the future of this wonderful entrepot of 
commerce of the great West. When Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Kansas have been more thoroughly settled, and their agricultural produc- 
tions passing up the Mississippi and across the short railroad communica- 
tions to the Lake navigation at Chicago, shall contribute still further to 
swell its exports, it would seem as if new channels must be opened for 
their disposal ; and almost that the lakes themselves could hardly suffice 
for the commerce of this port.'' 



86 



CHICAGO. — BUILDINGS. ETC., OF SPECIAL INTEKEST. 



BUILDINGS &C., OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



Custom House, 13 La Salle street. 

New Custom House and Post Office, Dear- 
born and Madison streets. Four 
story building of Joliet stone. 

Board of Trade Building, La Salle and 
South Water streets. 

Second Presbyterian Church, Wabash 
avenue and Washington streets. A 
building of variegated stone. 

Birch's Iron Front Block, on Lake st. 

Bryant's INIarble Block, Dearborn and 
Washington streets. 

Marine Hospital, near Richmond House, 
on River street. 

Iron Front Square, Lake street, between 
Michigan avenue and State street. 

North Side Reservoir, Chicago avenue 
and Sedgwick street 

Chicago Water Works, Chicago avenue 
and Sand street. 

Catholic Cathedral (Gothic, stone,) Cass 
and Superior streets 

Bishop's Palace, Michigan avenue and 
Madison street. 

Marble Rows, on Michigan avenue. 

Larman Block, AVashington and Clark sts. 

Merchant's Exchange. 

Post Office, Clark, between Lake and 
West Randolph streets. 

Court House. 

Medical College. 

South Side Reservoir, Adams street, be- 
tween Wells and Clark streets. 

Chicago University, at Cottage Grove. 

Reform School, Cottage Grove, (near.) 

Gas Works, Monroe, between Market and 
Wells streets. 

Armory, Adams street, between Market 
and Wells streets. 

Lloyd's Brick Block, on Market and Ran- 
dolph streets. 

Linn's Iron Front Block, Randolph and 
Wells streets. 

Link's Building (Iron Front,) Lake and 
La Salle streets. 

Marine Bank (Joliet stone,) Lake and 
La Salle streets. 

Chicago High School (Joliet stone,) Mon- 
roe street. 

West Division Reservoir, Monroe street. 

Nunnerj', near Twelfth street and Blue 
Island avenue. 

RAILROAD PASSENGER DEPOTS. 

Chicago and Milwaukee, N. Branch, N. 

W. corner of Kinzie street. 
Rock Island and Peoria, Sherman and 

Van Buren streets. 



St. Paul and Fond Du Lac, Kinzie and 
West Water streets. 

Burlington and Quincy, Union Depot, 
foot of Lake street. 

Galena and Chicago Union, N. Wells, cor- 
ner North Water, and Union Depot, 
foot of Lake street. 

Illinois Central Railroad, foot of South 
Water street. 

Michigan Southern, Van Buren and Sher- 
man streets. 

Michigan Central, Union Depot, foot of 
Lake street. 

Chicago, Alton and St. Louis, Canal and 
Van Buren streets. 

Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago, Ca- 
nal and Van Buren streets. 

TELEGRAPH COMPANIES. 

Illinois and Mississippi, 11 South La 

Salle street. 
Western Union Co., 11 South La Salle St. 

THEATRES. 

McVicar's Theatre, Madison between 

State and Dearborn. 
North's Amphitheatre, Monroe between 
I Clark and Wells. 

German Theatre, North Wells and Indiana 

streets. 

CEMETERIES. 

City Cemetei-y, on Green Bay Road, be- 
tween Asylum Place and North av. 

Rose Hill Cemetery, Green Bay Road, six 
and a half miles from City. 

Catholic Cemetery, Wolcott street, be- 
tween Church and North avenue. 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

German Hall, Indiana and North Wells 

streets. 
Light Guard Hall, State and Randolph 

streets. 
Kinzie's street Hall, Kinzie street, near 

north Clark. 
Masonic Temple Hall, Dearborn near 

Washington street. 
Mechanic's Institute Hall, Washington 

and Clark streets. 
Metropolitan Hall, Randolph and La 

Salle streets. 
Odd Fellows' Hall, 116 and 118 Randolph 

street. 
Sons' Hall, West Randolph and Clinton 

streets. 
Turners' Hall, 14 Griswold street. 



CHICAGO. — BUILDINGS, ETC., OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 87 



West Market Hall, Raudolph street, near 

Des Plaiiies. 
Warner's Hall, 122 and 12-1 llaudolphst. 

PROMINKNT DAILY NEWSPAPERS. 

Cbicngo Press and Tribune, 51 South 
Clark street. 

Daily Cliicago Times, 110 South Dear- 
born street. 

Daily Democrat, 45 South La Salle st. 

Evening Journnl, 50 South Dearborn st. 

Daily Herald, South Clark and Wasliing- 
ton streets. 

Morning Bulletin, Lj Lnrman Clock. 

National Democrat, (German) 2-10 Ran- 
dolph street. 

Staats Zeitung, (German) 12 South Wells 
street. 

Chicago Express, 98 Lake street. 

LIBRARIES. 
Free Library, open daily. New. Jerusalem 

Cliurcli, North Ueubeu street, near 

West Chicago avenue. 
Law Institute Library. 
Library of Historical Society, Kinzie and 

North Wells street. 
Library of Mechanic's Institute, Wabash 

and Clark streets. 
New Cliurcli Library, (free) 01 Adams 

street. 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

South Dearborn street, and Wash 

ington. 

CHURCHES. 

Episcopal. 

Christ's Church, Carville. 

Church of Ascension, Oak and Wells st. 

Church of Atonement, W. Washington 

and Peoria. 
St Augarius, (Swedish) Indiana and 

Franklin. 
Holy Communion, Wabash Avenue and 

Randolph street. 
Grace Church, Wabash avenue and 

Peck's Court. 
St. .Tames, Cass .and Huron streets. 
St. John's West Lake, Union Park. 
Trinity, Madison ne.ar Clark. 

Lutheran. 

First English Evangelical Lutheran, 

Monroe street near Clark. 
Immanuel's Church, Twelfth street near 

Blue Island avenue. 
Norwegian Evangelical, N. Franklin 

and Erie. 
St. Paul's German Evangelical, Indiana 

near Now Wells. 



St. Paul's (German,) Ohio and Ln Salle. 
Swedish Evangelical, Superior near 

La Salle. 

Methodist Episcopal. 
Clark street, Washington and Clark. 
German Methodist, Clybourne avenue 

near Eastman. 
First German Methodist, Clybourne a\e- 

nue near Divison, 
German Society of M. E. Church, W. 

Harrison and Aberdeen. 
Indiana street near North. 
JeiFerson street between Washington and 

Madison. 
Methodist, Indiana near Ringold avenue. 

" N. Peoria and Fultou. 
Owen street near Sangamon. 
Sedgwick street, on 8th street near 

North avenue. 
South Chicago, (German,) Vau Burea 

near Clark. 
South Des Plaines, 241 and 2-13 South 

Des Plaines street. 
Swedish M. E., Illinois street near N. 

Market. 
Wabash avenue, corner of Harrisou. 
Wesley Chapel. 
Welsh Calvin, Methodist. N. Des Plaines 

near Lake street. 

Presbyterian. 
Old School, Washington and Jefferson. 
First Church, Wabash avenue near 

Congiers. 
North Church, (Old School,) Illinois and 

Wolcott 
Olivet Presbytei-ian, Wabash axenue and 

12th street. 
Second Church, Wabash avenue and 

Washington. 
South Church (Old School,) Edina place 

and Jackson street. 
Third Presbyterian, West Washington and 

Carpenter. 
Westminster, Dearborn st., and Ontario. 
Reformed Scotch, Fulton near Clinton. 

Roman Catholic. 

Church of Holy Trinity, llth street be- 
tween Austin and May. 

Church of Holy Name, Wolcott streei. and 
Chicago avenue. 

St, Frances, (German,) Clinton and 
Mather. 

St. Joseph's (German,) Chicago avenue 
and Cass street. 

St. Louis, Polk and Sherman. 

St. Mary's, Wabash avenue and JMadisoa. 

St. Michael's, (German,) North avenue. 

St. Patrick's, Dos Plaines and Adams. 

Sc Peter's, (German,) South Clark and 
Polk. 



88 



CHICAGO.— BUILDINGS, ETC., OF SPECIAL INTEREST. 



Unitarian. 

St. Paul's, Wabash avenue and Van 
Buren street. 

Baptist. 

Bercau, De Eoven street near South Des 

Plaines. 
Edina Place, Edina Place and Harrison. 
First Baptist Church, Wabash, corner 

S. La Salle street. 
North Baptist Church, Dearborn and 

Ohio streets. 
Tabernacle Baptist Church, Des Plaines 

near Madison street. 
Union Park, Baptist Church, Lake street 

near Union Park. 
Zoar Baptist Church, Buffalo and Taylor 

streets. 



Congregational, 
Chapel, Des Plaines 



and 



Edward's 

Harrison streets. 
First, S. Green and West Washington st 
New England, Indiana and Wolcott sts. 
Plymouth, Edina Place and Van Euien 

streets. 
Salem, Cleaverville. 
South, Ptio Grande street, and Calumet 

avenue. 

Reformed Dutch. 

First Church, Foster street near Polk. 
Second Church, Monroe and Sangamon 
streets. 

CHICAGO HACK ORDINANCE. 

For conveying a passenger, not exceeding 

a mile, fifty cents. 
For every additional passenger of the 

same family or party, twenty-five 

cents. 
For conveying a passenger any distance 

over a mile, and less than two miles, 

one dollar. For each additional 

passenger of the same family or 

party, twenty-five cents. 
For conveying a passenger any distance 

in said city exceeding two miles, one 



dollar and fifty cents. For each 
additional passenger of the same 
family or party, when the same dis- 
tance is over two miles, fifty cents. 

For conveying children between five and 
fourteen years of age, half of the 
above prices may be charged, for 
like distances ; but for children 
under five years of age, no charge 
shall be made; Provided, That the 
distance from any railroad depot, 
steamboat landing or hotel shall in 
all cases be estimated as not ex- 
ceeding one mile. 

For the use by the day of any hackney 
coach, or other vehicle drawn by two 
horses or other animals, with one or 
more passengers, six dollars. 

For the use of any such carriage op 
vehicle by the hour, with one op 
more passengers, with the privilege 
of goiug from place to place, and 
stopping as often as may be required, 
as follows: For the first hour, one 
dollar and fifty cents ; for the second 
hour, seventy-five cents ; for each 
succeeding hour, fifty cents. 

For the use of any cab or vehicle by the 
hour, drawn by one horse or other 
animal, with the privilege of going 
from place to place, with one or 
more passengers, and stopping when 
required : For the first hour, one 
dollar ; for the second hour, fifty 
cents ; for the third hour, thirty 
cents. For the use of any such 
carriage by the day, four dollars. 

Every passenger shall be allowed to have 
conveyed upon such vehicle, without 
charge, his ordinary travelling bag- 
gage, not exceeding, in any case, 
one trunk and twenty-five pounds of 
other baggage. For every addi- 
tional package, where the whole 
weight or baggage is over one hun- 
dred pounds, if conveyed to any 
place within the city limits, the 
owner or driver shall be permitted 
to charge fifteen cents. 



NOTICE. — For valuable assistance in the compilation of this work, 
the publisher desires to return thanks to many friends, particularly to the 
leading officers of the three Railroads of the Great Central Line, and 
to a number of their agents. 

To the public, the work is given in the hope and belief that it will 
answer every designed purpose. In the preparation of a book containing 
descriptions of nearly two hundred cities and towns, on an iron chain 
nine hundred miles in length, it is not improbable that some unimportant 
error or omissions may have occurred. Suffice it to say, that no stone 
has been left unturned to obtain correct and reliable information. 




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CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 89 



CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD. 

E. A. Stevens, President, New York. W. H. Gatzmer, General 
Agent, Philadelphia. Ira Bliss, Agent, New York. R. S. Van 
Rennsalaer, Superintendent. S. Y. Bayard, Secretary. 

The Camden and Amboy Railroad Company, first organized in the 
year 1830, now controls one of the most important iron links in the 
United States. The main line of the Road, extending from Camden to 
South Amboy (sixty miles, sixty-seven chains) was opened for public 
travel on July 6, 1831, at an estimated cost of $4,327,498. In 1839, a 
branch, six and a half miles in length, connecting Bordentown (on the 
main line) with Trenton, was completed, and, on November 30, 1840, 
tliis was stiU further extended, so as to include the entire distance 
between Trenton and New Brunswick, (twenty-six miles.) The last 
mentioned improvement cost nearly $600,000. The first President of the 
Company was Robert L. Stevens, and the leading spirits of the enter- 
prise were R. L. Stevens, E. A. Stevens, and John Stevens. 

It would be absurd, at this late day, to demonstrate the advantages 
which the Camden and Amboy Railroad, from its location, must ever 
possess over competing lines, whether projected or constructed. The 
immense passenger and freight business between the two largest cities of 
the Atlantic seaboard, will prove a source of profit as long as those cities 
exist. An additional revenue is about to be derived from the transpor- 
tation of Anthracite Coal, arrangements having been made for the estab- 
lishment of coal depots at South Amboy. Cars, freighted with the " black 
diamonds," will leave Easton and the Lehigh regions, descend the Belvi- 
dere Delaware Railroad, cross New Jersey on the Camden and Amboy, 
and pour their contents into vessels, at the wharves on New York Bay. 
The grades from the coal region are in favor of the trade, and the ship- 
ping facilities at the Bay cannot be surpassed. 

The present management of the Camden and Amboy Railroad' is as 
strict as it is fearless and impartial. Satisfied that the welfare of a 
corporation is to be promoted only by thorough discipline among subor- 
dinates, and that the safety of travellers is insured by the employment of 
competent assistants, the Directors have built up an organization which, 
in this era, may stand as a model. That censure and vituperation have 
been sometimes encountered, is not surprising. No association of capi- 
talists was ever yet formed, which was not decried as a "monopoly" by 
those whose conflicting interests led them to adopt such a course. The 
State of New Jersey, and the Camden and Aml)oy Company, have received 
abuse without stint, by those who charge them with combining to extort 



90 PENNSYLVANIA CENTRAL EAILEOAD. 

a "tax" from travellers passing through the Commonwealth between 
New York and Philadelphia. The allegation displays the ignorance of 
its originators. No tax is levied upon travellers ; but by an agreement 
between the State and the Company, the latter pays a certain sum 
annually. This sum is in lieu of the half per cent, which it is customary 
for the Commonwealth to charge on the capital stock of corporations 
whose dividends reach seven per cent. The whole matter is one between 
the two contracting parties ; and the rates of passenger fare are no more 
influenced by the payment, than they are by the payment of bills for cord- 
wood used upon the road, or the amounts disbursed for salaries. 

In connection with their Railroad trains, the Camden and Amboy 
Company own and run first class steamboats on the Delaware River, 
(between Philadelphia and Bordentown,) and on the Bay of New York, 
between South Amboy and the "Empire City." The cars of the "through" 
trains, making direct connections between New York, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burg and the Great West and Southwest, run by way of Camden, Bor- 
dentown, Trenton, New Brunswick and Jersey City, using the track of 
the " New Jersey Railroad," between New Brunswick and Jersey City. 
Other trains between New York and Philadelphia go by way of Camden, 
Bordentown, and South Amboy, the passengers taking steamboat between 
the last-named place and New York. 



PENNSYLVANIA CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

J. Edgar Thomson, President. Wm. B. Foster, Jr., Vice-President. 

T. A. Scott, Esq., General Superintendent, Altoona. Edmund 

Smith, Secretary. L. L. Houpt, General Ticket Agent. G. C. 

Franciscus, Superintendent of Philadelphia Division. A. L. 

RouMFORD, Esq., Superintendent of Eastern Division. A. Cae- 

NAGIE, Superintendent of Western Division 

This immense work, first projected in 1838, and commenced in 1846, 
originally extended between Harrisburg and Pittsburg, a distance of 
two hundi-ed and forty-eight miles. In 185T, the corporation purchased 
from the State, the double-track Railroad extending from Philadelphia to 
Dillerville and Columbia, for the sum of seven million, five hundred 
thousand dollars. The intermediate portion between Dillerville and 
Harrisburg (thirty-six miles) is still owned by the Harrisburg, Mount 
Joy and Lancaster Railroad Company, but is leased by the Pennsylvania 
Central, on favorable terms. 

" The Pennsylvania Railroad is a very important link in the chain which 
binds, by a direct connection, the eastern or Atlantic cities with those 
situated on the Ohio and Mississippi. Taking Boston and New York as 



PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 91 

points of departure for the West, say for Cincinnati, as a central point, 
the traveller saves in distance, in time, and in expense, one day's journey 
by this road. If he wish to approach any city in the West by a direct 
line from these points, he must go through the territory of Pennsylvania. 
He can travel, it is true, by the New York and Erie, and by the Central, 
but these are circuitous routes to the West. Tlieir direction is to the 
Lakes, and they lie on a circumference line, while the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road is oil a diameter line." 

The policy of the President and Managers of the Pennsylvania Central 
Railroad has been a liberal one. Their efforts have been directed not 
only to the immediate prosperity of the corporation, but to its future 
success. Considering their work as the great artery of the Railroad 
System of the West, they have extended a helping hand to such of 
their connections as seemed likely to become contributing channels of 
trade. The interests of the City of Philadelphia, a large stockholder, 
have never been neglected. 

The efficient working of every department of the Road is o\nng to one 
fact, viz. : that the executive officers are practical men, having a direct 
interest, by their capital, in the success of the enterprise. Years ago, 
the President, J. Edgar Thomson, energetically aided the project, 
and surveyed the line, assisted in the undertaking by the Vice-President, 
Wm. B. Foster, Jr. The ascent of the Allegheny Mountains is an undying 
record of engineering abilities. Having thus become thoroughly familiar 
with the sources of local trade, the requirements of different sections, the 
prospects of the corporation, and the details of its pecuniary condition — 
they now guide and direct the vast machinery with a regularity and system 
which no theoretical financier, acting as the agent of remote English 
capitalists, could hope to attain. With these facts in view, the success of 
the Great Pennsylvania Central Railroad is no mystery. 



PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE, AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 

J. Edgar Thomson, President, Philadelphia. T. Haskins Du Puy, 
Acting-President, Pittsburg. Jno. B. Anderson, General Super- 
intendent, Chicago. Joseph H. Moore, Superintendent of East- 
ern Division, Crestline. J. N. Dubarry, Superintendent of 
Western Division. A. AdaiMS Bean, Master of Transportation. 
Jno. J. Houston, General Freight and Passenger Agent, Pittsburg. 
The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad was formed by the 

consolidation of three Companies, viz. : 

Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, extending from Pittsburg to Crestline, Ohio. 
Ohio and Indiana «' " «« Crestline to Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Fort Wayne and Chicago " " " Fort Wayne to Chicago, Illinois. 



92 A SENSATION EIDE ON A LOCOMOTIVE. 

The consolidation was effected by agreement of the Directors of the 

three Companies on May 6th, 1856, although the organization of the new 

corporation was not perfected until the 1st day of August, 1856. 

The Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad was opened to Crestline on April 11th, 1853. 
The Ohio and Indiana <• " Fort Wayne on Nov. 1, 1854. 

The Fort Wayne and Chicago " " Chicago in December, 1858. 

A glance at the map will show the observer that the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne, and Chicago Railroad in on the direct line between Chicago and 
the principal cities of the Atlantic seaboard. The country tributary to 
it has an area of over twelve thousand square miles, and, exclusive of the 
through traffic, the local business between the cities and towns on the 
route through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, is immense. The connections 
at different points lead by the shortest roads to St. Louis, Cleveland, In- 
dianapolis, and prominent points in the great West, Northwest and South- 
east. 

The government of the Road is organized upon the same basis as the 
Pennsylvania Central Railroad, the most stringent rules being in force for 
the security of travellers, and the guidance of employees. 

The Acting President, T. Haskins Du Puy, resides at Pittsburg, and 
overlooks the operations of the entire line. The office of the General 
Superintendent, J. B. Anderson, is at Chicago. An efficient supervision 
of the road is thus maintained. 



A "SENSATION" RIDE ON A LOCOMOTIVE. 

By Ernest C. Wallace. 

For sixty miles I lived a life as sublime as JEschylus ; my sensations were 
as grand as Keats's must have been when he wrote Hyperion, which Byron 
spoke of as " grand as the antique gods." The power of the locomotive 
is communicated to the rider, and he feels as if it was his will that drove 
that monster of iron and brass and fire and breath-like steam along on 
its terrible course. The air rushes back cloven and riven in twain : the 
jar of the wheels runs through you like the tremendous harmony of a 
Northman's Battle-Saga ; the track stretches ahead in the evening sun- 
light in two lines of molten silver, and you feel as if you were own brother 
to the infolding mountains along whose feet and over whose shouldei's you 
rush. The Juniata rolls its waves back from you ; the very clouds of 
gold seem left behind ; the immeasurable Imes of sunlight lying softly 
on the green mountain sides, cross and intertwist as you dash around the 
curves. When the whistle blows, you bite your cigar in twain ; the sound 
thrills through teeth and throat, and breast and heart, till your very finger- 
tips and toes tingle. The universe stands aside to let you tremble past. 
Yes! every thing, brute and human, except the pigs! We would hurtle 



A SENSATION RIDE ON A LOCOMOTIVE. 93 

past stations and cars and men and horses ; but, lo ! when a pig saw us 
coming, it would just quietly walk across the track as if it saw an ear of 
corn on the other side, and though not very hungry, was willing to try 
and eat it. Here was a tremendous, crushing Death hurtling towards 
the hogs, at the rate of sixty feet in every momentous second of time, yet 
so utterly devoid of sentient being were the pigs, that we never startled 
them ! O ! what picture of us mortals, grubbing away in stupid mun- 
dane affairs, while 

"O'er the stormy main, 
God's chartered judgments walk for evermore." 

— Thunder does not startle us and lightning fails to lift our eyes. 

Crossing a bridge was like plunging, wide-eyed, into the gulf between 
Time and Eternity, and when clear across, you feel safe as if in the streets 
of Paradise, with the pearly gates clanging shut to keep out the hosts of 
Satan. 

Away ahead you saw the flagman, a blue flag denoting the proximity 
of a bridge, a white one showing the clearness of the track. No two flag- 
men held the signal alike ; one bore it aloft like a banner ; another 
drooped it on the ground ; a third shouldered it, while a fourth waved it 
around his head like an oriflararae. 

When Loughridge's brake was put on, it drew the train up like a bit in a 
horse's mouth. The way it works is this : — A lever, moved as easily as a 
pen in the hand of a ready writer, being pressed throws a small wheel against 
the driving wheel of the locomotive. That wheel's axle has a chaia 
attached, which when the wheel turns, winds up, as quick as thought. 
The chain being attached to every break on the cars, the train is instantly 
under control. The faster the driving wheel is going, the faster the chain 
winds up. As the lever is right at the engineer's hand, of course he can 
stop the train almost instantaneously. We believe that this splendid 
brake is in use on all the trains on the Pennsylvania Central, 

And it will be easy for the reader to believe that while blazing along 
this way, we were grateful for a track without a flaw, for a succession of 
bridges as solid as the rock-ribbed hills, for flagmen at every curve of any 
deflection, no matter how slight. With the intensely microscopic eye 
which the occasion instantly furnished me, I v/atched the track, and never 
saw a speck, a flaw, or a defect for sixty miles, and in the wild fancies 
which titanically whirled through my brain, I saw Mr. Thomas A. Scott, 
the Superintendent of the Road, as some almost omniscient Genius, whose 
thoughts were gliding along every rail which rose up ahead of the engine. 
I fancied that if the quiet stars looked down upon half an inch of broken 
flange on the most desolate mile on top of the AUegheuies, his thoughts 
would be there to fix it, ahead of the next train ! 

But let me dismount from Pegasus, (as from the engine,) to say that 
from Co lestoga bridge to where we left the Conemaugh, the closest 
inspection but convinced me still more firmly, that no human foresight 
could make a raflroad more safe and sure than the Pennsylvania Central 
is to-day. Celerity, order, common sense, care, were apparent every- 
where ; the eye of the Superintendent and his Assistants seemed to be 
npon every thing. ^ 



RAILROAD DISTANCES. 



Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Railioad. 

Cincinnati. 

Storrs, 2 

CuUotns, 5 

Delhi, 10 

North Bend, 14 
I.&C.Il.R.Jun.21 

Lawrenceb'g, 21 

Aurora, 25 

Cochran, 27 

Dillsborough, 33 

Moore's Hill, 40 

Milan, 42 

Pierceville, 45 

Delaware, 47 

Osgood, 52 

Poston, 56 

Hoi ton, 58 

Nebraska, 62 

Butlerville, 66 

N. Vernon, 73 

Hardenbergh, 79 

Seymour, 87 

BrowDStown, 98 

Velonia, 101 

Medora, 106 

Fort Ritner, 114 

Scottville, 121 

Mitchell, 127 

Georgia, 132 
Willow Valley, 142 

Shoals, 150 

Loogootee, 158 

Washington, 173 



Caseyville, 
E. St. Louis, 



331 
340 



Columbus and In- 
dianapolis Rail- 
road. 

Columbus. 

Hilliard's, 10 

Pleasant Valley, 17 

Unionville, 22 

Robinsoa's, 

Milford, 

Woodstock, 

Cable, 

Urbana, 

Westville, 

St. Paris, 

Lena, 

Con over, 

Fletcher, 

Piqua, 

Covington, 

Gettysburg, 

New Harrison, 

Stelvideo, 

Hunter's, 

Woodington, 

Union City, 

Indianapolis. 



Shirley, 150;Peru, 150 

Blooming^on, 157 New Waverly, 158 
I.e. R. R. Jun. 159jLogansport, 166 



27 
32 

38 
46 
50 
57 

62 

65 
72 
78 
85 
87 
89 
93 
96 
102 



Towanda, 

Lexington, 

Peoria June, 

Pontiac, 

Odell, 

D wight, 

Gardner, 

Wilmington, 

Elwood, 

Joliet, 

LocKport, 

Athens, 

Bridgeport, 

Chicago, 



leOlClymere, 170 

174 Rockfield, 180 

181 Delphi, 187 

192 Buck Creek, 195 

203 Lafayette, 203 

211 Wea, W. S., 210 

219 West Point, 212 

230 Nebraska, 217 

237 Independence, 219 

245 Attica, 224 

249 Williamsport, 227 
257 West Lebanon, 232 

278 Marshfield, 236 

281 State Line, 243 



St. Louis, Alton 
& Chicago Rail- 
road. 

E. St. Louis, 
Alton, 



Sandusky, Mans- 
field & Newark 
Railroad. 

Sandusky. 

Monroeville, 
Havana, 
Centreville, 
Plymouth, 



Jun. E & C R E. 191 Monticello, 



Vincennes, 192 
Lawrenceville, 201 



« 



Bridgeport, 

Sumner, 

Hadley, 

Claremont, 

Olney, 

Noble, 

Clay City, 

Flora, 

Xenia, 

Middleton, 

Salem, 

Odin, 

Sandoval, 

Carlyle, 

Breese, 

Trenton, 

Summerfield, 

Lebanon, 

O'Fallon, 



206 



Brighton, 
Providence, 
Shipman, 
211iPlainview, 
213|Carlinville, 
217|Nilwood, 
223Girard, 
231 Virden, 



238 
245 
253 
260 



Auburn, 
Chatham, 
Wood Side, 



G. W.R.R.Jun.95 



269 Springfield, 

275 i Sangamon 
279 Williarasville, 
293 Elkhart, 
301 Broadwell, 
3 10 [Lincoln, 
31 3 'Lawn Dale, 
316lAtlanta, 
322 'McLean, 



15 

23 

27 

34 

Shelby Junction, 42 

54 

63 

68 

74 

84 

91 

102 

116 



Mansfield, 

Lexington, 
Belleville, 
Independence, 
Frederick, 

Mt. Vernon, 

Utica, 
Newark, 



Cleveland, Colum- 
bus and Cincin- 
nati Railroad. 

Cleveland. 
Mahoning Bridge. 



97 
102 
109 
115 
120 
126 
132 
136 
141 



Toledo, Wabash, 
and Western 
Railroad. 

Toledo. 

Maumee City, 

Whitehouse, 

Washington, 

Napoleon, 

Adams, 

Defiance, 

Emerald, 

Antwerp, 

State Line, 

New Havan, 

Fort Wayne, 

Roanoke, 

Mahon, 

Huntington, 

Antioch, 

Lagro, 

Wabash, 



Berea, 

Olmstead, 

Columbia, 

Grafton, 

La Grange, 

Wellington, 

Rochester, 

Nevr London, 

Greenwich, 

Salem, 

Shelby, 

Crestline, 

Gallon, 

Iberia, 

Gilead, 

Cardington, 

Ashley, 

Eden, 

Delaware, 

Berlin, 

Lewis Centre, 

Orange, 

Worthington, 

Columbus, 

Cincinnati, 



94 
110 
111 
118 
124 
131 
136 



13 
15 
19 

25 

29 

36 

42 

47 

55 

61 

67 

75 

80 

85 

93 

97 

104 

108 

114 

115 

119 

121 

126 

135 

255 



Little Miami and 
Columbus and 
Xenia Railroad. 

Cincinnati. 

Engine House, 

Plainville, 

Milford, 

Miamiville, 



3 

9 

14 

17 



RAILEOAD DISTANCES. 



95 



63 Plttsbiirg, Colum- 
66 1 bus, and Cincln- 
73 1 nati Railroad. 

^^|Pittsburg_ 



85 



Steubenville. 



Coal Dale, 

Sonora, 

Norwich, 

Concord, 

Cassells, 

41 Cambridge 

45 Campbells, 

51 Gibson's, 

54 Salesville, 

58 'Mill wood, 

65 1 Spencer's, 

65'Barnesville, 

Yelluw Springs, 75!Burr'8 Mill, 

Springfield, 84 Belmont, 

L've Xenia, Arr. ] Lewis' Mill, 

Cedaiville, 73 Glencoe, 

Selma, 79 Bellaire, 

So. Charleston, 84 Wheeling, 

Florence, 90' TT^i„v,c,;iii« 

London 95 Chacinnatl Hamil- Urichsville, 

— "' --- ton and Dayton: ^'6" f<"^' 



Branch Hill. 

Loveland, 

Foster's, 

DeerKeld, 

Morrow, 

Fort Ancient, 

Freeport, 

Corwin, 

Claysville, 

Sprino; Valley, 

Arr. Xenia, 

Xenia, 



q., >Steubenv'e June, ?> 

QP Gould's, 5 

jQQ Sniithfi'dStat'n, 11 

1 no Skel ley's, IG 

^"■^'Bloomfield, 18 



103 in • 

1 , „ Unionport, 

I^I; Miller's, 

Ciidiz Junction, 



119 
122 



Fairview, 



25 
29 
|p^ New Market, 34 
1^^ Mastersville, 37 
|j(|Bower8ville, 40 
■^"^^jPhiiadelp'aR'd, 45 
~ 50 



Glade Run, 101 
West Jefferson, 106 
Alton. 
Columbus, 



Chicago and Mil 
■waukee R. R. 

Chicago. 
Chitienden, ' 

Evanston, 1' 

Wynetka, 1( 

Glencoe, 



Highland Park, 23 
Rockland, 

Waukegan, 
State Line, 
Kenosha, 
Racine, 
County Line, 
Oak Creek, 
Milwaukee, 



Railroad. 

114 Cincinnati. 

120 [Mill Creek, 
! Ernst's 
Cumminaville. 
Spring Grove, 
Carthage, 
Lockland, 
Glendale, 
Jone's, 
Schenck's 
Hamilton, 
Overpeck's, 
Busenbarck's, 
Trenton, 
Middletown, 
Post Town, 
Carlisle, 
Miamisburg, 
Carrolton, 
Dayton. 



PortWasbing'n, GO 
New Comerst'n, 6 



! Oxford, 
[La Fayette, 
iCoshocton, 

.Coalport, 
iConcsville, 



Central Ohio Rail- 
road. 

Columbus. 

Taylor's, 8 

Black Lick, 10 

Columbia, 16 

Pataskala, 17 

Kirkersville, 22 

Union, 27 

Newark, 33 

Clay Lick, 39 

Black Hand, 44 

Claypool's, 47 
Pleasant Valley, 50 

Dillon's Falls, 55 

A. Zanesville, 59 



70 

74 

81 

86 

87 

91 

94 

100 

103 

108 



Dayton and 
chlgan 
road. 

Dayton. 

Johnson's, 

National Road. 

Tippecanoe, 

Troy, 

Peterson's 

Piqua, 

Sidney, 

Careysville, 

Botkins, 

Wapakoneta, 

Criderville, 

Lima, 



1 
2 

5 

7 

J^i Adams' Mills, 
^g Dresden, 
,q'Frazeesburg, 
nejNashp't Road, 
p. Hanover, 
oq' Montgomery's 112 
oi Newark, 117 

oo Columbus, 150 
_| 

.1 Springfield Mount 
. , Vernon & Pitts- 
.q burg Railroad. 

52 Springfield, 
go Wilson's, 8 

Catawba, 12 

Mi- Perrin's, 14 

Rail- Mechanicsburg, 18 

I Irwin, 23 

iMilford Centre, 28 

ylMarysville, 33 

10 Dover, 37 

14 Ostrander, 41 

20 Sulph'r Springs, 44 

24 Delaware, 50 

28 

40 Plttsb'g & Cleve- 

47 land Railroad. 

53 Cleveland. 
60 New burg, 8 
6G Bedford, 14 
72 JIacedonia, 19 



Hudson, 26 

Karlville, 32 

Ravenna, 38 

Rootstown, 42 

Atwater, 48 

Lima, 51 

Alliance, 56 

Winchester, 63 

Moultrie. 66 

Bayard, 69 

East Rochester, 71 
Hanover, 75 

Suinmitville, 81 
Salineville, 86 

New Salisbury, 92 
Hammondsville, 95 
Yellow Creek, 98 
Wellsville, 101 
Liverpool, 106 

Smith's Ferry, 111 
Industrv, 116 

Rochester, 124 
Pittsburg, 150 

! Cincinnati, Wll- 
j m i n g t o n and 
i Zanesville R. R. 

Cincinnati. 

Morrow, 36 

Clarkesville, 44 

Wilmington, 55 

; Wilson's 60 

Sabina, 66 

Jasper's Mills. 72 

"Washington, 77 

New Holland, 87 

Williamsport, 92 

i Yellow Bird. 97 

Circleville, 103 

Stout's, 110 

Amanda, 115 

Lancaster, 125 

Bremen, 134 

Wolf's, 141 
New Lexingt'n, 152 

McLuney, 152 

Roseville, 157 

Zanesville, 108 
Bellaire. 

Cleveland. Zanes- 
ville and Cincin- 
nati Railroad. 

Cleveland. 
Hudson, 26 

Cuyahoga Falls, 34 
Akron, 40 

New Portage, 46 



EAILEOAD DISTANCES. 



Clinton, 53 

Marshallville, 59 

Orville, 64 

Apple Creek, 72 
Fredericksburg, 78 

Holmesville, 82 

MiUburg, 87 

Indiana Central, 
and Dayton and 
Western Rail- 
road. 

Dayton. 

Higgins, 7 

Brookville, 14 

Dodson, 16 

Sonora, 22 

Manchester, 26 

Eldorado, 29 

Brindley's 33 

New Paris, 37 

Riclinionc!, 42 

Centreville, 48 

Germantown, 54 

Cambridge, 56 

Dublin, 58 

Lewisville, 66 

Coffin, 70 

Ogden, 72 

Raysville, 74 

Knightstown, 75 
Charlottesville, 80 

Cleveland, 82 

Greenfield, 89 

Philadelphia, 93 

Cumberland, 99 

Indianapolis, 110 

Terra Haute, Al- 
ton 8c St. Louis 
Railroad. 

E. St._ Louis. 

Illinoistown, 1 

Junction, 20 

Alton, 24 

Bunker Hill, 35 

Gillesnie, 45 

Clyde; 50 

Litchfield, 55 

Butler, 62 

Hillsboro' 66 

Irving, 72 

Nakomis 81 

Rosamund, 90 

Pana, 94 

Tower Hill, 100 

Shelbyville, 109 



Thornton, 111! 

Windsor, 121! 

Summit, 127 

Mattoon, 133 

Charleston, 143 

Ashmore, 152 

Kansas, 156 

Dudley, 161 

Paris, 170 

Terre Haute, 189 

Terre Haute and 
Richmond R. R. 

Terre Haute. I 

Wood's Mill, 8 

Cloverland, 10 

Staunton, 12 

Brazil, 16 

Eaglefield's, 22 

Reel's, 25 

Hamrick's, 29 

Putnamville, 31 

Greencastle, 34 

Nicholsonville, 40 

Coatesville, 44 

Cincinnatus, 46 

Amo, 48 

Pecksburg, 50 

Clayton, 52 

Belleville, 54 

Cartersburg, 56 

Piainfield, 59 

Bridgeport, 64 

Indianapolis, 73 

PhUadelphla, Wil- 
mington & Bal- 
timore Railroad. 

Philadelphia. 

Chester, 15 

Marcus Hook, 18 

Bellview, 18 

Wilmington, 28 

Newport, 32 

Staunton, 34 

Newark, 40 

Elkton, 46 

Northeast, 52 

Charlestown, 55 

Principio, 59 

Perry ville, 61 
Hav. de Grace, 62 

Aberdeen, 67 

Perryman's 71 

Harewood, 84 

Canton, 95 

Baltimore, 98 



Bellefontalne Line\ 



Cleveland. 




Crestline, 


75 


Gallon, 


4 


Caledonia, 


15 


Marion, 


24 


Laiue, 


38 


Mt. Victory, 


46 


Ridgeway, 


49 


Big Spring, 


52 


Rushsylvania, 


55 


Harper, 


58 



Bellefontalne, 64 

De Graff, 74 

Quincy, 77 

Pemberton, 80 

Sidney, 87 

Hardin, 92 

Loramie, 96 

Houston, 97 

Versailles, 105 

Dallas, 113 

Union, 122 

Harrisville, 126 

Winchester, 132 

Farmland, 139 

Morristown, 142 

Sraithfield, 146 

Muneie, 152 

Yorktown, 158 

Chesterfield, 164 

Anderson, 170 

Pendleton, 178 

Alfont, 183 

Fortville, 184 

Woodbury, 1 

Oakland, 192 

Laneville, 197 

Peru Crossing, 204 

Indianapolis, 206 

Sandusky, Day- 
ton, and Cincin- 
nati Railroad, 

Sandusky. 

Castalia, 6 

Clyde, 17 

Green Springs, 22 

Watson's, 27 

Tiffin, 33 

Berwick, 42 

Oregon, 44 

Carey, 49 
Whartonsburgh, 56 

Forest, 61 

Patterson, 63 



Kenton, 73 

Hudsonville, 79 

Yelvertou, 81 

Belle Centre, 85 

Richland, 87 

Huntsville, 91 
Bellefontaine, 97 

West Liberty, 105 

Urbana, 115 

Lawrence, 121 

Tremont, 124 

Springfield, 130 

Cross, 136 

Enon, 138 

Osborn, 144 

Kneisley's, 147 

Harshman's, 150 

Draw Bridge, 153 

Dayton, 154 

Cincinnati. 214 

Pittsburg and 
Cleveland R. R. 

Pittsburg. 

Eochestar, 26 

Industry, 34 

Smith's Ferry, 40 

Liverpool, 44 

V/ellsvill3, 48 

Yellow Creek, 51 

McCoy's, 57 

Jeddo, 61 

Steubenville, 69 

Mingo June, 72 

Lagrange, 75 

Rush Run, 79 

Portland, 82 

Martinsville, 88 

Bridgeporr, ) q^ 

Wheeling, | ^" 

BeUe Air, 95 
Cumberland Val- 
ley Railroad. 

Chambersburg. 

Scotland, 5 

Shippensburg, 11 

Oakville, 18 

Newville, 22 

Alterton, 27 
Good Hope. 

Carlisle, 34 
Middlesex, 

Kingston, 41 
Mechanicsburg, 44 
Shiremanstown, 47 

Bridgeport, 51 

Earrisburg, 52 



ii 



Jft2, 22 \%V 



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