(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Lincoln at Gettysburg : an address"

liLINCOLNArs^ 
iGcE3TYSBI]RGi 

CLARK. £. CARR^ 






c!o 



LINCOLN AT GETTTSBUKG 







CtA^ . 



^.^ /^ i^^ Se '^ff, 4. 



By Clark E. Carr 



^^ 



THE ILLINI : A Stort of the 
Prairies. With many portraits. 
Suelh Edition. 8vo, $2.00 net. ' 



S, 



A. C. McCldrg & Co., Publishers 
Chicago 



• s 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

The Institute of IVIuseum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant 



http://www.archive.org/details/lincolnatgettysb01carr 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN 



Lincoln at Gtetttsburg 



BY 

CLARK E. CARR 

AUTHOK OF "the ILLINi" 



ILLUSTRATED 




CHICAGO 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 
1906 



COPYBIGHT, 1906 

By CLARK E. CARR 
Published September 22, 1906 



ri)f Uaferefftt ^rfSB 

DONNELLEY & SONS COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Portrait of Abraham Lincoln Frontispiece 

Portrait of General Eobert E. Lee . 6 
Portrait of Governor Andrew G. 

Curtin 10 

Map of the Soldiers' National Cem- 
etery, Gettysburg . . 16 
Portrait of John Hay . . .26 
The National Monument at Gettys- 
burg Cemetery . . . 34 
Portrait of Edward Everett . . 40 
Portrait of General George G. Meade 46 
Portrait of William H. Seward . 62 
Portrait of John G. Nicolay . . 74 



A Wmxh 

CT^HE essential features of this work 
were brought out hy me in an ad- 
dress delivered January 25, 1906, 
hefore the Illinois State Historical 
Society at Springfield, in the State 
Capitol. The address attracted con- 
siderable attention and I have been 
frequently called upon to repeat it. So 
much interest has been manifested in it 
that I have been constrained to revise 
it and to enlarge its scope beyond the 
limits of an ordinary address, and 
thus publish it in book form. 

The members of the Commission 
who had charge of the Gettysburg 
National Cemetery xohen the consecra- 
tion ceremonies were held, had all, at 
that time, except myself, either entered 



A WORD 

upon or passed middle life, while I 
was hut twenty-seven years old, and I 
now knX)io of no other survivor than 
myself. If, after the lapse of nearly 
half a century , there he another, I shall 
he glad to hear from him, in the hope 
that he may he ahle to add his recollec- 
tions of the interesting event to my 
own. C. E. C. 



GALESBURG, ILL., 
June 30, 1906. 



LINCOLN AT GETTTSBUEG 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBUKG 
^\a KhhxtBB 

THIOUR score and seven years 
-■■ ago our fathers brought 
forth upon this continent a new 
nation, conceived in liberty, and 
dedicated to the proposition 
that all men are created equal. 
Now we are engaged in a 
great civil war, testing whether 
that nation, or any nation, so 
conceived and so dedicated, can 
long endure. We are met on a 
great battlefield of that war. 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

We are met to dedicate a po r- 
tion of it as the final resting 
place of those who here gave 
their lives that that nation 
might live. It is altogether fit- 
ting and proper that we should 
do this. 

But, in a larger sense, we 
cannot dedicate — we cannot 
consecrate — we cannot hallow 
this ground. The brave men, 
living and dead, who struggled 
here, have consecrated it far 
above our power to add or de- 
tract. The world will little 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



note, nor long remember, what 
we say here, but it can never 
forget what they did here. It 
is for us, the living, rather to 
be dedicated here to the unfin- 
ished work that they have thus 
far so nobly carried on. It is 
rather for us to be here dedi- 



cated to the great task remain- 
ing before us, — that from these 
honored dead we take increased 



devotion to the cause for which 



they gave the last full measure 

of devotion, — that we here 

highly resolve that the dead 

[3] ~ 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



shall not have died in vain; 
that the nation shall, under 
God, have a new birth of free- 
dom, and that the government 
of the people, by the people, and 
for the people, shall not perish 
from the earth. 



[4] 



LINCOLN AT GETTTSBUKG 



THE BATTLE 

THE battle of Gettysburg 
was fought on the first, 
second, and third of July, 1863. 
The Confederate army, under 
the command of General Eobert 
E. Lee, elated with success, had 
entered Pennsylvania, menacing 
Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, and Washington. Even 
New York was threatened, for, 
had the advance of Lee not been 
checked, the great metropolis 
would have been at his mercy, 
and there can be little doubt 
but that the Southern rebellion 
would have been successful. 

[5] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

Under these circumstanoes, with 
the invading hordes upon them, 
the consternation and terror of 
the loyal people of Pennsylvania 
can be better imagined than 
described. That this invasion 
of the North was not successful 
is due to the heroism and forti- 
tude of the Union soldiers, who, 
under the command of General 
George G. Meade, met the in- 
vader in mortal combat, and, 
after three days of desperate 
fighting, in which many thou- 
sands were killed and a vast 
number wounded, hurled him 
back across the border, never 
to return. 

ILLINOIS OPENED THE BATTLE 
It is not generally known 

[6] 




GENERAL EGBERT E. LEE 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

that Illinois soldiers were the 
first to meet the onset of the 
enemy and fired the first shot 
in the great battle. . This is the 
fact, brought out clearly by 
Colonel William Gamble, of the 
Eighth Illinois cavalry, in a 
letter to the Honorable William 
L. Church and myself, March 
10, 1864, the truth of which, 
so far as I know, has not been 
questioned. This regiment be- 
longed to Buford's cavalry di- 
vision, and fired the first shot 
in meeting and checking the 
advance of the Confederates 
under General A. P. Hill. This 
shot precipitated and brought 
on the three days' conflict 
which turned the tide of war. 

[7] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 
THE NATIONAL CEMETERY 

Scarcely had the reverber- 
ations of the guns of the battle 
died away when the Hon- 
orable David Wills, a citizen 
of Gettysburg, wrote to the 
Honorable Andrew G. Curtin, 
the great war Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, suggesting that a plat 
of ground in the midst of the 
battlefield be at once purchased 
and set apart as a soldiers' na- 
ional cemetery, and that the re- 
mains of the dead be exhumed 
and placed in this cemetery. 
He suggested that the ground to 
be selected should be on what 
was known as Cemetery Hill, so 
called because adjoining it is the 
local cemetery of Gettysburg. 

[8] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

WHY CEMETEEY HILL WAS 
SELECTED 

As a reason wLy that ground 
should be chosen, Mr. Wills 
said : " It is the place where our 
army had about forty pieces of 
artillery in action all Thursday 
and Friday, and for their pro- 
tection had thrown up a large 
number of earthworks. It is 
the point where the desperate 
attack was made by the Louis- 
iana brigades on Thursday eve- 
ning, when taking possession 
of them, and were finally driven 
back by the infantry, assisted 
by the artillerymen with their 
handspikes and rammers. It 
was the key to the whole line 
of defences, the spot of the 

[9] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

triangular line of battle. It is 
the spot above all others for 
the honorable burial of the 
dead who have fallen on these 
fields." 

Governor Curtin at once ap- 
proved of the recommendation 
of Mr. Wills, and correspond- 
ence was opened with the gov- 
ernors of the loyal States 
whose troops had engaged in 
the battle, asking them to co- 
operate in the movement. The 
grounds proposed by Mr. Wills, 
seventeen acres, which em- 
braced the highest point of 
Cemetery Hill, and overlooked 
the whole battlefield, were at 
once purchased. 

The governors of fifteen of the 

[10] 




GOVERNOR ANDREW G. CURTIN 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

States immediately responded, 
foremost among whom was 
lUinois's great war Governor, 
known and recognized every- 
where as " the soldiers' friend," 
Richard Yates. 

THE CEMETEEY INCOEPOEATED 

The Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania passed an act incorporat- 
ing *'The Soldiers' National 
Cemetery," naming one trustee 
for each State cooperating, 
who was suggested by its Gov- 
ernor. I was named for Illi- 
nois. 

When the first meeting was 
held, supposing that each State 
would have two on the board, 
the Governor appointed the 
Honorable William L. Church, 

[11] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

of Chicago, then clerk of the Cir- 
cuit Court and recorder of Cook 
county, and myself, and to- 
gether we attended the first 
meeting, after which I alone 
represented Illinois on the 
board. When Governor Yates 
retired from the executive 
office, I was reappointed by 
Governor Oglesby. The board 
was organized by the election 
of Mr. David Wills of Gettys- 
burg — who had initiated the 
movement — president, and Mr. 
John K. Bartlett, Secretary of the 
State of Ehode Island, also one 
of our commissioners, secretary. 

FIEST NATIONAL CEMETEEY 

It must be remembered that 
when this board was establish- 

[12] 



LINCQLlSr AT GETTYSBURG 

ed the general Government had 
not entered upon, nor even con- 
sidered, the policy of establish- 
ing soldiers' national cemeter- 
ies. This came afterwards, and 
I think that the suggestion of 
such a policy came from the 
Soldiers' National Cemetery at 
Gettysburg. Our board con- 
tinued in charge there until 
the Government system was in- 
augurated. We then turned the 
cemetery over to the general 
Government, which, having a 
fund for that purpose, has 
since cared for it. As is the 
case with the other national 
cemeteries, an officer of the 
army and a squad of men are 
always kept there in charge. 

[13] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

The appropriations given us 
by the different States amount- 
ed in the aggregate to nearly a 
hundred and forty thousand dol- 
lars, Illinois contributing, not- 
withstanding the small number 
of our dead buried there, — only 
six,— $11,774.84. Illinois had 
but three regiments in the bat- 
tle, the Eighth and Twelfth 
cavalry and the Eighty-second 
infantry. 

The first action necessary, 
after the movement to inaugu- 
rate a national cemetery had 
been determined upon and the 
ground purchased, was to lay 
out a plat for graves, and to 
take up and remove the re- 
mains of the dead, which were 

[14] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

scattered over a radius of many 
miles. The dead had been 
hastily buried in the fields 
where they had fallen, and 
bodies were frequently found 
with scarcely any covering. 

THE CEMETERY LAID OUT 

The cemetery was laid out in 
the form of a half-circle, the 
centre of which was reserved 
for the imposing monument 
which has since been reared, 
from which the half-circles of 
the graves radiate, the inner 
half-circle, of course, being 
very small, and the half-circles 
increasing in length and capac- 
ity as they extended. On this 
inner semicircle — that nearest 

[15] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the monument — I was able to 
have placed the Illinois section, 
which, of course, is very small. 
On one side of our Illinois sec- 
tion is a large one, containing 
the graves of the unknown, 
and on the other that of the 
State of Virginia. It was upon 
the ground in the centre re- 
served for the monument that 
the platform from which the 
addresses were delivered was 
placed. This platform fronted 
away from the cemetery proper, 
giving room for the vast audi- 
ence of people in front of and 
facing it, to be near to, but not 
upon, the graves. 

At the head of every grave 
was placed a headstone of gran- 

[16] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the monument — I was able to 
have placed the Illinois section, 
which, of course, is very small. 
On one side of our Illinois sec- 
tion is a large one, containing 
the graves of the unknown, 
and on the other that of the 
State of Virginia. It was upon 
the ground in the centre re- 
served for the monument that 
the platform from which the 
addresses were delivered was 
placed. This platform fronted 
away from the cemetery proper, 
giving room for the vast audi- 
ence of people in front of and 
facing it, to be near to, but not 
upon, the graves. 

At the head of every grave 
was placed a headstone of gran- 

[16] 



MAP OF 
THE GROUNDS 

and 

DESIGN FOR THE IMPROVEMENT 



THE SOLDIERS' NATIONAL CEMETERY 
GETTYSBURG, PA. 

1863 



WILLIAM SAUNDERS 
Landscape Gaidener. Germantown. Penu. 










FROM THR BOOK ISSUED BY THE COMMISSIONERS OF THK SOLDIERS' NATIONAL CEMETERY, IS74 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

ite, rising nine inches above the 
ground, upon which was sculp- 
tured the name, company, and 
regiment of each soldier, so far 
as could be ascertained, while 
those who could not be identi- 
fied were marked, "unknown." 
Of the known there were 2,585, 
and of the unknown 979, making 
in the aggregate 3,564. Large 
as this number is, it does not 
nearly represent the number of 
fatalities among the Union 
soldiers. Many of the wounded 
died in the hospitals and else- 
where, and the remains of quite 
a large number had been re- 
moved from the field by rela- 
tives and friends and taken to 
their respective homes. 

[17] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

DEDICATOEY EXEECISES 
PEOPOSED 

It was proposed, as the work 
proceeded, that memorial ded- 
icatory exercises be held to 
consecrate this sacred ground, 
which was finally determined 
upon. The day first fixed upon 
for these exercises was the 
twenty-third of October, 1863. 

EDWAED EVEEETT INVITED TO 
DELIVEE THE OEATION 

The Honorable Edward Ever- 
ett, of Massachusetts, was then 
regarded as the greatest living 
American orator, and it was 
decided to invite him to deliver 
the oration; and this was done. 
But he replied that it was wholly 
out of his power to make the 

[18] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

necessary preparation by the 
twenty-third of October. So 
desirous were we all to have 
Mr. Everett, that the dedication 
was postponed to Thursday, the 
nineteenth of November, 1863, 
— nearly a month, — to suit Mr. 
Everett's convenience. The ded- 
ication took place on that day. 

INVITATIONS SENT TO PRESIDENT 
LINCOLN AND OTHERS 

A formal invitation to be 
present was sent to the Presi- 
dent of the United States and 
his cabinet, to Major General 
George G. Meade, who com- 
manded our troops in the battle 
of Gettysburg, and to the of- 
ficers and soldiers who had par- 
ticipated in, and gained, the 

[19] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

memorable victory. Invitations 
were also sent to the venerable 
Lieutenant General Winfield 
Scott and to Admiral Charles 
Stewart, the distinguished and 
time honored representatives of 
the army and navy, to the dip- 
lomatic corps, representing for- 
eign governments, to the mem- 
bers of both Houses of Congress, 
and to other distinguished per- 
sonages. 

All these invitations and all 
arrangements for the dedicatory 
exercises — as was the case with 
everything relating to the cem- 
etery — were considered and de- 
cided upon by our board of 
Commissioners, and were, in so 
far as he was able, under the 

[20] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

direction of the board, carried 
into e£fect by Mr. Wills, our 
president. As we were all rep- 
resenting and speaking for the 
governors of our respective 
States, by whom we were ap- 
pointed, we made all the in- 
vitations in their names. 

ASKING LINCOLN TO SPEAK WAS 
AN AFTEETHOUGHT 

The proposition to ask Mr. 
Lincoln to speak at the Gettys- 
burg ceremonies was an after- 
thought. The President of the 
United States had, like the 
other distinguished personages, 
been invited to be present, but 
Mr. Lincoln was not, at that 
time, invited to speak. In fact, 
it did not seem to occur to any 

[21] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

one tliat he could speak upon 
such an occasion. 

Scarcely any member of the 
board, excepting the member 
representing Illinois, had ever 
heard him speak at all, and no 
other member had ever heard, 
or read from him, anything ex- 
cept political discussion. When 
the suggestion was made that 
he be invited to speak, while 
all expressed high appreciation 
of his great abilities as a polit- 
ical speaker, as shown in his 
debates with Senator Douglas, 
and in his Cooper Institute ad- 
dress, the question was raised 
as to his ability to speak upon 
such a grave and solemn occa- 
sion as that of the memorial 

[22] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

services. Besides, it was said 
that, with his important duties 
and responsibilities, he could 
not possibly have the leisure 
to prepare an address for such 
an occasion. In answer to this 
it was urged that he himself, 
better than any one else, could 
determine as to these questions, 
and that, if he were invited to 
speak, he was sure to do what, 
under the circumstances, would 
be right and proper. 

It must be remembered that 
Mr. Lincoln had not then proved 
to the world his ability to speak 
upon such an occasion. He 
had not yet made a Gettysburg 
address, and he had not then 
made that other great address, 

[23] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

which for sublimity and pathos, 
ranks next to it, his second in- 
augural. 

LINCOLN NOT INVITED TO SPEAK 

UNTIL SIX WEEKS AFTER 

MR EVERETT 

It was finally decided to ask 
President Lincoln ''after the 
oration" (that is to say, after 
Mr. Everett's oration), as chief 
executive of the nation, "to set 
apart formally these grounds to 
their sacred use by a few appro- 
priate remarks." This was done, 
in the name of the governors of 
the States, as was the case with 
others, by Mr. Wills; but the 
invitation was not settled upon 
and sent to Mr. Lincoln until 
the second of November, more 

[24] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



than six weeks after Mr. Ever- 
ett had been invited to speak, 
and but a little more than two 
weeks before the exercises were 
held. 

The President arrived at Get- 
tysburg upon a special train 
about dusk on the evening be- 
fore the exercises, November 
18, accompanied by Secretary 
Seward and other distinguished 
personages, including those two 
Illinois boys who afterwards 
became distinguished — John G. 
Nicolay, his private secretary, 
and his assistant private secre- 
tary, John Hay. He was driven 
at once to the residence of Mr. 
Wills, where he was entertained 
during his stay in the town. 

[25] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

We all, headed by a brass 
band, marched to Mr. Wills' s 
house and serenaded Mr. Lin- 
coln, who appeared upon the 
veranda, but said little more 
than to excuse himself from 
speaking. After this we sere- 
naded Secretary Seward, who 
made quite an extended ad- 
dress, and afterwards we sere- 
naded others, who also spoke. 

WHEN AND WHEEE LINCOLN 
PEEPAEED THE ADDEESS 

As to the time and manner 
of preparation of President 
Lincoln's address, I think that 
the best authority is that of 
Mr. Nicolay, who published an 
article on "Lincoln's Gettys- 
burg Address," which I find in a 

[26] 




JOHN HAY 



LINCOLN A T GETTYSBU RG 

bound volume of "The Century 
Magazine," running from Nov- 
ember, 1893, to April, 1894. 

After saying that there is no 
decisive record of when Mr. 
Lincoln wrote the first sen- 
tences of his proposed address, 
Mr. Nicolay speaks of Mr. Lin- 
coln's usual custom of "using 
great deliberation in arranging 
his thoughts and moulding his 
phrases, mentally, waiting to 
reduce them to writing until 
they had taken satisfactory 
form." 

THE ADDEESS NOT INTENDED 
TO BE LONG 

There was greater necessity 
of precaution in this case, be- 
cause the invitation specified 

[27] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

that the address should only 
be " a few appropriate remarks." 
After saying that "brevity in 
speech and writing was one of 
Lincoln's marked characteris- 
tics," and that "Mr. Everett 
would be quite certain to make 
a long address, "and after speak- 
ing of "the want of opportunity 
for Mr. Lincoln even to think 
leisurely," Mr. Nicolay con- 
cludes the remark by saying: 
"All this strongly confirms the 
correctness of the statement 
made by the Honorable James 
Speed, in an interview published 
in the 'Louisville Commercial,' 
in November, 1870, that the 
President told him that the day 
before he left Washington he 

[28] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

found time to write about half 
of the speech." 

PEEPARATION OF THE ADDEESS 
COMPLETED 

Mr. Mcolay continues as fol- 
lows: "It was after the breakfast 
hour, on the morning of the 
nineteenth (the day the address 
was delivered), that the writer, 
Mr. Lincoln's private secretary, 
went to the upper room in the 
home of Mr. Wills, which 
Mr. Lincoln occupied, to re- 
port for duty, and remained 
with the President while he 
finished writing the Gettysburg 
address, during the short leisure 
he could utilize for this purpose 
before being called to take his 
place in the procession, which 

[29] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

was announced on tlie pro- 
gramme to move at ten o'clock. 
"There is neither record 
evidence nor well founded 
tradition," Mr. Nicolay contin- 
ues, ** that Mr. Lincoln did any- 
writing or made any notes on 
the journey between Washing- 
ton and Gettysburg. The train 
consisted of four passenger 
coaches, and either composition 
or writing would have been ex- 
tremely troublesome amid the 
movement, the noise, the con- 
versation, the greetings and the 
questionings which ordinary 
courtesy required him to under- 
go in these surroundings ; but, 
still worse would have been 
the rockings and joltings of 

[30] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



the train, rendering writing 
virtually impossible. Mr. Lin- 
coln carried in his pocket the 
autograph manuscript of so 
much of his address as he had 
written at Washington the day 
before." 

THEEE YEESIONS OF THE 
ADDEESS 

Mr. Nicolay's article contains 
a facsimile reproduction of the 
address, which, as he declares, 
he then " for the first time made 
public and printed in this 
article, one page of which is 
written in ink in the Presi- 
dent's strong, clear hand, with- 
out blot or erasure, and the 
remaining pages written with 
a pencil. The latter were no 

[31] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



doubt written at Gettysburg." 

Mr. Nicolay says that there 
are three versions of authority 
for Lincoln's Gettysburg ad- 
dress: 

First — The original auto- 
graph manuscript draft, writ- 
ten by Mr. Lincoln, partly at 
Washington and partly at 
Gettysburg. 

This is the version to which 
reference is made above. 

Second — The version made 
by the shorthand reporter on 
the stand at Gettysburg, when 
the President delivered it, which 
was telegraphed and was print- 
ed in the leading newspapers of 
the country on the following 
morning. 

[32] 



LINCOLN J\T GETTYSBURG 

Third — The revised copy 
made by the President a few 
days after his return to Wash- 
ington, upon a careful compari- 
son of his original draft, and 
the printed newspaper version, 
with his own recollections of the 
exact form in which he deliv- 
ered it. 

AUTHENTIC TEXT OF THE 
ADDEESS 

Mr. Mcolay says that ''four 
days after Mr. Lincoln's return 
to Washington," Mr. Wills, 
president of our board of Com- 
missioners, wrote him "on be- 
half of the States interested in 
the National Cemetery here," 
requesting "the original manu- 
script of the dedicatory remarks 

[33] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



delivered by you here last Mon- 
day, — we desire them to be 
placed with the correspondence 
and other papers connected 
with the project"; and that, to 
comply with this request, the 
President, after comparing the 
"Associated Press report as it 
appeared in the newspapers 
with his original draft," made 
a new autograph copy — a care- 
ful and deliberate revision — 
which has become the standard 
and authentic text. It will be 
observed that four days after 
he spoke at Gettysburg Mr. 
Wills designated the produc- 
tion as merely "dedicatory re- 
marks." I have in my pos- 
session a book published by the 

[34] 








THE NATIONAL MONUMENT AT 
GETTYSBURG CEMETERY 



LINCOLN AT GETTYS BURG 

secretary of our board of Com- 
missioners, under the direction 
and at the expense of the board, 
entitled " The Soldiers' National 
Cemetery at Gettysburg," which 
contains the address made from 
that copy. It does not differ 
from those generally published. 

CEOWDS COME TO THE 
DEDICATION 

New York, Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, Washington, Pittsburg, 
and all the towns and country 
round about were represented 
at the dedicatory exercises. 

It was estimated that there 
were a hundred thousand people 
who attended. The crowds be- 
gan to arrive two days before 
the exercises were held. I went 

[35] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



over from Harrisburg on the 
day before and rode from there 
in a box freight car, which was 
seated with rough boards for 
the occasion. I think that most 
of the passengers had similar 
accommodation, as the passen- 
ger coaches could not begin to 
carry the people who attended. 
The town, which then had a 
population of about two thou- 
sand, did not begin to be able 
to take care of the people, many 
of whom sat up all night. 
Fortunately for us, Mr. Wills had 
reserved quarters for the mem- 
bers of our board at the hotel. 

THE PROCESSION 

It was expected that there 
would be a great number in a 

[36] 



LINCO LN AT GETTYSBURG 

procession to follow the Presi- 
dent's party to the grounds, in 
which we were disappointed, as 
most of the people chose to go 
out by themselves over the 
battlefield and through the cem- 
etery. 

At about ten o'clock in the 
morning President Lincoln ap- 
peared at the door of Mr. Wills's 
house. Horses had been pro- 
vided for him and his party, 
and for some other distinguished 
personages, and for the mem- 
bers of the board of Commis- 
sioners. The procession was 
delayed for some time by people 
pressing forward to shake hands 
with the President after he was 
mounted upon his horse, which 

[37] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



continued until stopped by the 
marshals. 

Following those already men- 
tioned came civic and military 
organizations on foot, and final- 
ly the people at large. One of 
the most interesting features 
of the procession was a large 
company of veteran soldiers 
who had been wounded in the 
battle. 

The procession was under 
the direction of Major General 
Couch, marshal of the day. 

THE PEESIDENT AS HE APPEAEED 
ON THE MAECH 

President Lincoln, as we 
moved slowly forward, sat at 
first erect upon his horse, hand- 
ling the reins of the bridle in 

[38] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the white gauntlet gloves he 
wore, in such a stately and dig- 
nified manner as to make him 
appear the Commander-in-chief 
of the army and navy of the 
United States, which he was. 
Before he reached the grounds 
he was bent forward, his arms 
swinging, his body limp, and his 
whole frame swaying from side 
to side. He had become so 
absorbed in thought that he 
took little heed of his surround- 
ings and was riding just as he 
did over the circuit in Illinois, 
during the years of his early 
practice of law, with his saddle 
bags, which contained all of his 
possessions, dangling upon each 
side of his horse. 

[39] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



Seats were reserved on the 
platform for the President, the 
board of Commissioners, and 
the invited guests. 

I have no recollection of 
when Mr. Everett reached Get- 
tysburg nor of how he got out 
to the grounds, but I distinctly 
remember that we waited for 
him a half-hour before the 
exercises commenced, during 
which the bands of music play- 
ed airs that were solemn and 
impressive. 

THE OPENING EXERCISES 

The exercises were opened 
with an invocation by the Rev. 
Dr. Stockton, who was, I think, 
then chaplain of the United 
States Senate. Letters of regret 

[40] 




HON. EDWARD EVERETT 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

were read from General George 
G. Meade, who commanded our 
troops in the great battle and 
who was still in command of 
the army at the front; from 
the venerable General Winfield 
Scott, and others; after which 
Mr. Everett was introduced and 
began his oration. 

ME. EVERETT'S ORATION 

Volumes have been written 
upon Mr. Everett's address, 
many of them in a vein of 
unfriendly criticism, especially 
contrasting his long and studied 
speech with the short and pun- 
gent sentences of Mr. Lincoln. 

Every just and fair person 
who intelligently reads that 
oration must rise from its pe- 

[41] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

rusal with a feeling that few 
efforts of ancient or modern 
times, in splendors of metaphor, 
classical lore, elegance of dic- 
tion, lofty sentiments, and clear 
and logical reasoning, surpass 
it. He drew inspiration from 
the orators of Greece, at the 
fountain of whose eloquence he 
had drank, being able to read 
their productions in the lan- 
guage through whose match- 
less purity and elegance and 
strength they had been given 
to the world. 

DESCKIBES A CEMETERY PRE- 

PAEED EOR GRECLIN 

HEROES 

He took us at the outset to 
the wonderful Ceramicus in a 

[42] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

most beautiful suburb of Ath- 
ens, ''adorned by Cimon the 
son of Miltiades, with walks 
and fountains and columns, 
whose groves were filled with 
altars and shrines and temples, 
whose gardens were kept for- 
ever green by the streams from 
neighboring hills, whose path- 
ways gleamed with the monu- 
ments of the illustrious dead, the 
work of the most consummate 
masters that ever gave life to 
marble." He told of "the votive 
offerings laid upon the coffins 
of the dead, — flowers, weapons, 
precious ornaments, painted 
vases, wonders of art, which 
after two thousand years, 
adorn the museums of Europe ; 

[43] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

and of himself, "after an inter- 
val of twenty-three centuries, a 
youthful pilgrim from the world 
unknown to ancient Greece," 
visiting that holy ground. He 
told of how, when funeral ob- 
sequies were held in this won- 
derful Ceramicus, "beneath the 
over-arching plane trees, upon 
a lofty stage erected for the 
purpose, it was ordained that 
a funeral oration should be pro- 
nounced by some citizen of 
Athens in presence of the as- 
sembled multitude." 

EULOGIZES THE HEEOES OF 
THE CIVIL WAK 

After thus eloquently por- 
traying the beauties of that won- 
derful cemetery, and recalling 

[44] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the exercises held over the dead 
heroes of the Peloponnesian 
war, who met and triumphant- 
ly hurled back the enemy, Mr. 
Everett even more eloquently 
pronounced a eulogium upon 
the dead heroes of the Union 
Army who so heroically met 
and overcame the invader, and 
now slept beneath and about 
us, whose glories we were as- 
sembled to commemorate. 

This led the orator to a nar- 
rative of the events of the cam- 
paign until the clash of arms 
came upon the field about us, 
in the centre of which we were, 
and of the awful struggle and 
carnage of the three days of 
conflict. 

[45] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

ME. EVEEETT'S ACCOUNT OF THE 
BATTLE OF GETTYSBUEG 

It has been said that, were 
every official report and every 
printed word in regard to the 
battle of Gettysburg, except 
Mr. Everett's oration, destroyed, 
in its pages would be preserved 
to posterity such a lucid and 
concise account of the great 
battle as would make every 
important movement of every 
command perfectly clear. 

Mr. Everett had asked for 
and received from General 
Meade and other officers, ac- 
counts of the battle. He had 
read all the official reports that 
were available, and had him- 
self, after he accepted the 

[46] 




GENERAL GEORGE G. MEADE 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

invitation to speak, come to 
Gettysburg and visited every 
portion of the field, remaining 
several days; and so perfectly 
and completely did lie picture 
the onset, the falling back, the 
desperate assault, and resist- 
ance of every corps and divi- 
sion, and almost every brigade 
of both armies, for every hour 
and almost every moment of 
those three days of desperate 
fighting, that, as he spoke, one 
could almost see the move- 
ments. 

SUMMAEY OF THE CASUALTIES 
In concluding his account of 
the battle, Mr. Everett gave a 
summary of the casualties as 
follows : 

[47] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

"On the Union side there 
fell, in the whole campaign, 
of generals killed — Reynolds, 
Weed, and Zook; wounded — 
Barlow, Barnes, Butterfield, 
Doubleday, Gibbon, Graham, 
Hancock, Sickles, and Warren; 
while of officers below the rank 
of general, and men, there were 
2,834 killed, 13,709 wounded 
and 6,643 missing. On the 
Confederate side there were 
killed on the field or mortal- 
ly wounded — Generals Armi- 
stead, Barksdale, Garnett, Pen- 
der, Pettigrew, and Semms; 
wounded, Heth, Hood, Johnson, 
Kemper, Kimball, and Trimble. 
Of officers below the rank of 
general, and men, there were 

[48] 



LINCOLN A T GETTYSBURG 

taken prisoners, including the 
wounded, 13,621 — an amount 
ascertained officially. The 
wounded in a condition to be 
removed, and the killed, and 
the missing (of whom no re- 
turn has been made), are esti- 
mated at 23,000." 

The published oration, which 
appears in the book to which I 
have already referred, is illus- 
trated with a map of the field. 
When Mr. Everett spoke, the 
field itself was before and about 
him, and his audience and he 
needed no other map. There 
is no better guide-book to the 
battle of Gettysburg than Ed- 
ward Everett's oration. 

[49] 



LINCOLNAT GETTYSBURG 
MR. EVEEETT'S SECOND HOUR 

It would be supposed that 
any orator, after giving such an 
account of the battle — which 
was necessarily very extended 
— in such a presence, with the 
ablest and most brilliant men 
of the age about him, with the 
President of the United States 
sitting near, waiting to speak 
— it would be supposed that he 
would have then drawn his 
oration to a close. Not so ! Mr. 
Everett was the orator of the 
day, and he went on for another 
hour, every hearer interested 
and absorbed in the sublime 
sentiments he enunciated, none 
more so than the President. 

[50] 



LINCOLN ATGETTYSBURG 

THE NORTH NOT RESPONSIBLE 
FOR THE WAR 

He called to account the 
''hard-hearted men whose cruel 
lust of power brought this des- 
olating war upon the land." 
He showed who were responsi- 
ble for all this carnage, and 
blood, and sorrow, and despair. 
He showed that it all came from 
envy and ambition, for which 
there was, and could be, no 
justification. 

He pictured the dire conse- 
quences that would have fol- 
lowed had the enemy succeeded 
in that battle; that it would 
have resulted in the overthrow 
of the nation and in blighting 
the last hope of free government. 

[51] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



ATTEMPTS OF THOSE RESPONSI- 
BLE TO JUSTIFY THEMSELVES 

He referred to tLe attempt 
made by those who instigated 
the war to justify themselves 
by citing the rebellions of our 
fathers against George the 
Third, and of Cromwell against 
Charles the First, and asked, 
" What would have been thought 
by an impartial historian of the 
American rebellion against 
George the Third if the colonies 
had been more than equally rep- 
resented in parliament, and 
James Otis, and Patrick Henry, 
and Washington, and Franklin, 
and the Adamses, and men of 
their stamp had for two genera- 
tions enjoyed the confidence of 

[52] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the sovereign, and had admin- 
istered the government of the 
empire? What would have been 
thought of the rebellion against 
Charles the First had Cromwell 
and the men of his school been 
his advisors?" And then he 
showed how these men had, 
when they precipitated the war, 
control of both Houses of Con- 
gress, and that not one assault 
had been made upon them and 
not one right invaded. 

He showed, by citing the Con- 
stitution, the supremacy given 
by its framers to the general 
Government, and how weak 
and silly was the contention 
that the general Government 
was a mere "agency" of sov- 

[53] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



ereign States, and how absurd 
was the claim of the Confeder- 
ates of justification for secession 
when in control of both Houses 
of Congress, and of everything in 
their own States, on the state 
rights theory — rights that had 
never been invaded nor denied. 

ME. EVEEETT'S EKDEAVOES TO 
CONCILIATE THE SOUTH 

Knowing as we did his his- 
tory, how he had always, to his 
own disadvantage, blighting at 
times all hopes of political pre- 
ferment, favored measures to 
conciliate the South, it was al- 
most pathetic to hear Mr. Ever- 
ett exclaim: "A sad foreboding 
of what would ensue if a war 
should break out between the 

[54] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

North and South has haunted 
me through life, and led me, 
perhaps too long, to tread in 
the path of hopeless compro- 
mise, in the fond endeavor to 
conciliate those who were pre- 
determined not to be concil- 
iated." 

MR EVERETT'S ADDRESS 
CHARACTERIZED 

It is not necessary to go fur- 
ther into detail of Mr. Everett^s 
address, a glimpse of which it 
has been deemed proper to give, 
in order to place the situation 
clearly before us. Suffice it to 
say that very soon after he be- 
gan to speak he rose to a lofty 
height of eloquence, which, con- 
stantly holding the undivided 

[55] 



LINCOL N AT GETTYSBURG 

and at times almost breathless 
attention of his audience, he 
sustained for two hours. 

I can give no young man 
who seeks to perfect himself 
in literature better advice than 
that he make a study of that 
oration. 

At the close of Mr. Everett's 
address a solemn dirge written 
by Mr. B. B. French, especially 
for the occasion, was sung by 
a hundred voices, after which 
President Lincoln was intro- 
duced to the great multitude. 

ME. LINCOLN SPEAKS 

When the President thus ap- 
peared it was the first oppor- 
tunity the people really had to 
see him. There was the usual 

[56] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

craning of necks, tlie usual ex- 
clamations of "Down in front! " 
the usual crowding to get places 
to see, and much confusion. He 
waited patiently for the audi- 
ence to become quiet, and there 
was absolute silence while he 
spoke. He began in those high, 
clarion tones, which the people 
of Illinois had so often heard, 
to which he held to the close. 
His was a voice that, when he 
made an effort, could reach a 
great multitude, and he always 
tried to make every one hear. 
He held in his left hand two or 
three pages of manuscript, 
toward which he glanced but 
once. He spoke with delibera- 
tion, but cannot have continued 

[57] 



LINC OLN AT GETTYSBURG 

more than three or four, some 
said two, rainiites. 

A moment's reflection will 
convince any one that before 
the great multitude of people, 
nearly all of whom were stand- 
ing, could have prepared them- 
selves to listen intelligently — 
before they had, I may say, 
become poised, before their 
thoughts had become sufficient- 
ly centred upon the speaker to 
take up his line of thought and 
follow him — he had finished 
and returned to his seat. 

PEOPLE DISAPPOINTED IN 
LINCOLN'S ADDEESS 

So short a time was Mr. Lin- 
coln before them that the people 
could scarcely believe their eyes 

[58] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

when lie disappeared from their 
view. They were almost dazed. 
They could not possibly, in so 
short a time, mentally grasp 
the ideas that were conveyed, 
nor even their substance. Time 
and again expressions of disap- 
pointment were made to me. 
Many persons said to me that 
they would have supposed that 
on such a great occasion the 
President would have made a 
speech. Every one thought, as 
expressed by Mr. Wills four 
days later (to which reference 
has been made), that instead 
of Mr. Lincoln's delivering an 
address, he only made a very 
few "dedicatory remarks." 
We on the platform heard 

[59] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

every word. And what did we 
hear? A dozen commonplace 
sentences, scarcely one of which 
contained anything new, any- 
thing that when stated was not 
self-evident. 

I am aware, because I noted 
it at the time, that in the As- 
sociated Press report, which 
appeared in the morning pa- 
pers, there were the punctua- 
tions of "applause," "long con- 
tinued applause," etc., according 
to the invariable custom in those 
days. Except when he con- 
cluded, I did not observe it, and 
at the close the applause was 
not especially marked. The occa- 
sion was too solemn for any kind 
of boisterous demonstrations. 

[60] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

WAED H. LAMON'S EECOLLECTION 

OF HOW THE ADDEESS 

WAS EECEIVED 

In his "Kecollections of Ab- 
raham Lincoln/^ edited by his 
daughter — a very interesting 
book — Ward Hill Lamon, Mar- 
shal of the District of Columbia 
(which position, besides the fact 
of his being a most intimate 
friend, brought him into con- 
stant and close relation with 
the President), says: 

" On the platform from which 
Mr. Lincoln delivered his ad- 
dress, and only a moment after 
it was concluded, Mr. Seward 
turned to Mr. Everett and asked 
him what he thought of the 
President's speech. Mr. Ever- 

[61] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

ett replied: 'It is not what I 
expected from him. I am dis- 
appointed.' Then in his turn 
Mr. Everett asked, 'What do you 
think of it, Mr. Seward?' The 
response was, * He has made a 
failure, and I am sorry for it. 
His speech is not equal to him.' 
Mr. Seward then turned to me 
and asked, *Mr. Marshal, what 
do you think of it?' I answered, 
' I am sorry to say that it does 
not impress me as one of his 
great speeches.'" 

FALSE EEPOETS THAT THE AUDI- 
ENCE WEEE EXCITED 

"In the face of these facts," 
continues Mr. Lamon, "it has 
been repeatedly published that 
this speech was received by the 

[62] 




HON. WILLIAM H. SEWARD 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

audience with loud demonstra- 
tions of approval; that amid 
the tears, sobs, and cheers it 
produced in the excited throng, 
the orator of the day, Mr. Ever- 
ett, turned to Mr. Lincoln, 
grasped his hand, and ex- 
claimed, * I congratulate you on 
your success ! ' adding in a trans- 
port of heated enthusiasm, *Ah, 
Mr. President, how gladly would 
I give my hundred pages to be 
the author of your twenty lines ! ^ 
"As a matter of fact," Mr. 
Lamon goes on to say, "the si- 
lence during the delivery of the 
speech, and the lack of hearty 
demonstrations of approval im- 
mediately after its close, were 
taken by Mr. Lincoln as certain 

[63] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

proof that it was not well re- 
ceived. In that opinion we all 
shared. If any person then 
present saw, or thought he saw, 
the marvellous beauties of that 
wonderful speech, as intelli- 
gent men in all lands now see 
them, his superabundant cau- 
tion closed his lips and stayed 
his pen." 

WHY THE AUDIENCE WAS NOT 
IMPRESSED 

In concluding his comments 
upon Mr. Lincoln's address, Mr. 
Nicolay, in his "Century" ar- 
ticle to which reference has 
been made, says, ''They [the 
hearers] were therefore totally 
unprepared for what they heard, 
and could not immediately re- 

[64] 



LINCOLN AT GETTY SBURG 

alize that his words, and not 
those of the carefully selected 
orator, were to carry the con- 
centrated thought of the occa- 
sion like a trumpet peal to the 
farthest posterity." 

My own recollection, which 
is more clear as to occurrences 
in those troublous times, es- 
specially those upon that occa- 
sion, the responsibilities of 
which devolved in a great de- 
gree upon a board of which I 
was a member, coincides with 
that of Mr. Lamon and Mr. 
Nicolay. It is true, as Mr. 
Nicolay says, the hearers were 
totally unprepared for what 
they heard, and could not im- 
mediately realize how able and 

[65] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

far-reaching was Mr. Lincoln's 
address. My recollection also 
confirms that of Mr. Lamon, 
that no one there present saw 
the marvellous beauties of that 
wonderful speech. I did not 
hear the expressions of Mr. 
Seward and Mr. Everett in re- 
gard to it, as my seat was with 
the members of our Commis- 
sion, but from the expressions 
of opinion I did hear, I have no 
doubt that they were made. 

I heard every word and every 
articulation of Mr. Lincoln, and 
had no realization that he did 
anything more than make "a 
few dedicatory remarks." His 
expressions were so plain and 
homely, without any attempt at 

[661 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

rhetorical periods, and his state- 
ments were so axiomatic, and, 
I may say, matter of fact, and 
so simple, that I had no idea 
that as an address it was any- 
thing more than ordinary. 

ME. LINCOLN'S MANNEK AKD 
BEARING 

I was very much struck, 
many times as I had heard him, 
by the appearance of Mr. Lin- 
coln when he arose and stood 
before the audience. It seemed 
to me that I had never seen any 
other human being who was so 
stately, and, I may say, majes- 
tic, and yet benignant. His 
features had a sad, mournful, 
almost haggard, and still hope- 
ful expression. Every one was 

[67] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

impressed with his sincerity 
and earnestness. 

ANALYSIS OF LINCOLN'S ADDEESS 

Short as is Mr. Lincoln's 
Gettysburg address, it contains 
all the elements of an elaborate 
and finished oration, — exor- 
dium, argument, climax, and 
peroration. While each of 
these divisions is far more ex- 
tended in Mr. Everett's ora- 
tion, they are not more marked 
than in Mr. Lincoln's. 

In his exordium, consisting 
of five simple sentences, each 
one of which recalls a fact ap- 
parent to every hearer, he lays 
foundations for the superstruc- 
ture upon which he builds, 
broad and deep. 

[68] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

"Four score and seven years 
ago our fathers brought forth 
upon this continent a new na- 
tion, conceived in liberty, and 
dedicated to the proposition 
that all men are created equal. 

"Now we are engaged in a 
great civil war, testing whether 
that nation, or any nation, so 
conceived and so dedicated, can 
long endure. We are met on a 
great battlefield of that war. 
We are met to dedicate a por- 
tion of it as the final resting 
place for those who here gave 
their lives that that nation 
might live. It is altogether 
fitting and proper that we 
should do this." 

After thus laying the founda- 

[69] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

tion, he states tlie argument: 
"But, in a larger sense, we 
cannot dedicate — we cannot 
consecrate — we cannot hallow 
this ground. The brave men, 
living and dead, who struggled 
here have consecrated it far 
above our power to add or de- 
tract. The world will little 
note, nor long remember, what 
we say here, but it can never 
forget what they did here. It 
is for us, the living, rather to 
be dedicated here to the unfin- 
ished work that they have thus 
far so nobly carried on.^^ 

And, to make the argument 
stronger, to clinch it, as we would 
say, he repeats, "It is rather 
for us to be dedicated here to 

[70] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the great task remaining before 
us, — that from these honored 
dead we take increased devotion 
to the cause for which they 
gave the last full measure of 
devotion." 

And then follows the climax: 
*'That we here highly resolve 
that the dead shall not have 
died in vain." 

And then the peroration: 
"That the nation shall, under 
God, have a new birth of free- 
dom ; and that the government 
of the people, by the people, and 
for the people, shall not perish 
from the earth." 

I want to say in passing that 
there was one sentence that 
did deeply affect me — the 

[71] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

only one in which the Presi- 
dent manifested emotion. With 
the close of that sentence his 
lips quivered, and there was a 
tremor in his voice which I 
can never forget. I recall it 
whenever I consider the ad- 
dress. The sentence was, "The 
world will little note, nor long 
remember, what we say here, 
but it can never forget what 
they did here." 

LINCOLN'S CHOICE OF WOKDS 

A careful analysis shows 
that Lincoln's Gettysburg ad- 
dress contains thirty-two words 
of Latin origin which with 
repetitions of the same word, 
or other forms of the same 
word, make forty-six Latin de- 

[72] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

rivatives, all told. There are 
two hundred and sixty-seven 
words in the address, leaving 
the balance, two hundred and 
twenty-one, Anglo-Saxon. 

That is, one-fifth or twenty 
per cent are Latin words, while 
four-fifths or eighty per cent 
are Anglo-Saxon. 

"OF THE PEOPLE, BY THE PEOPLE, 
AND FOE THE PEOPLE" 

The phrase *' of the people, by 
the people, and for the people" 
was not original with Mr. Lin- 
coln. There was considerable 
comment at the time upon his 
using it, which went so far that 
it was insinuated that he was 
guilty of wilful plagiarism — 
that he took it from Webster's 

[73] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

reply to Hayne. The matter 
was thoroughly investigated by 
Lamon, Nicolay, and others, 
and it was found that the 
phrase had been so often used 
as to have become common 
property. It appears substan- 
tially as Mr. Lincoln used it in 
Webster's reply to Hayne, 
1830, in a work by James 
Douglas, in 1825, and in the 
Ehetorical Eeader by James 
Porter in 1830. The phrase 
was used by Theodore Parker 
in an anti-slavery convention 
at Boston, May, 1850, and sub- 
stantially the same phrase was 
used by Joel Parker in the 
Massachusetts Constitutional 
Convention in 1853. Long be- 

[74] 




JOHN G. NICOLA Y 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

fore Mr. Lincoln used the 
phrase, it was used in other 
languages. The first appear- 
ance of it, so far as it has been 
possible to ascertain, was in 
the preface to the old Wickliffe 
Bible, translated before 1384, 
the year in which that bright 
"morning star of the Eeforma- 
tion" died. It is there de- 
clared that, "this Bible is for 
the government of the people, 
by the people, and for the peo- 
ple." 

WHEN AKD HOW LINCOLN'S 

ADDEESS BEGAN TO BE 

APPKECIATED 

On the next day after it was 
delivered, November 20, the 
address appeared in full, as 

[75] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

has been said, in every leading 
newspaper of the United States. 
Even then, those who in a high 
degree appreciated it were com- 
paratively few. Some of us 
who had heard it formed, as 
we deliberately read it, a very 
different idea of it from that 
we had when it was delivered. 

We had supposed and ex- 
pected that the President 
would, in what he said, simply 
dedicate that ground to the 
sacred purpose for which it 
had been set apart. 

We found that the portals of 
the heart of the great President 
were opened to such a degree 
that all the people could see 
and feel its pulsations and ap- 

[76] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

predate the intensity of his 
emotions, and the depths of his 
feeling, and gain a conception 
of the weight of the awful re- 
sponsibilities that were upon 
him, which he realized as did 
no other human being. 

As we read, it gradually 
dawned upon us that the chief 
executive of the great nation 
had solemnly dedicated those 
who heard him, and not merely 
those who heard him, but all 
his people, to the cause for 
which the martyr heroes about 
him died, and that this was the 
underlying thought and object 
of his address. Besides this, 
we saw that the attention of 
the country had been drawn in 

[77] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

the most striking manner to the 
foundation of the nation, and 
how and when and why it was 
established, and to the sublime 
purpose of our fathers in bring- 
ing it forth upon this continent. 
The country was made to see 
that the great Civil War, still 
going on, was waged for the 
purpose of testing whether not 
only that nation, but "whether 
any nation so conceived and so 
dedicated, could long endure," 
and that it was for us to be 
dedicated to the work remain- 
ing to be done. This central 
thought was in a few terse 
sentences so engraved upon the 
hearts of all that it could not be 
effaced; and, after all this, the 

[78] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

splendors, tind glories, and 
worth to tlie people at large, 
and the peril, of that nation and 
of all free government were held 
up and depicted before us by the 
closing sentence, "that the gov- 
ernment of the people, by the 
people, and for the people, shall 
not perish from the earth." 

MR EVEEETT'S TESTIMONY 

As was the case with others, 
Mr. Everett, when he read the 
address, began to realize (not 
so fully as afterwards) some- 
thing of its merits. On the 
following day, in a note to the 
President, mostly about other 
matters, he said: 

"Permit me also to express 
my great admiration of the 

[79] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

thought expressed by you with 
such eloquent simplicity and 
appropriateness at the conse- 
cration of the cemetery. I should 
be glad if I could flatter myself 
that I came so near the central 
idea of the occasion in two 
hours as you did in two min- 
utes." 

TESTIMONY OF TEANSATLANTIC 
WEITEES 

But even then, while our 
people began to appreciate 
in some degree the high char- 
acter of the address, we did not 
realize how sublime it really 
was. Not until it had been 
read and commented upon on 
the other side of the Atlantic 
did we place it in our own 

[80] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

minds among the masterpieces. 
I recollect distinctly how I was 
impressed upon seeing a quota- 
tion from the "Edinburgh Re- 
view/' stating that no other 
address, except that of Pericles 
made in eulogy of the heroes of 
the Peloponnesian war, could 
begin to compare with it. The 
London "Spectator," the "Sat- 
urday Review' ' and several oth- 
er English periodicals spoke of 
it in the highest terms of com- 
mendation. 

These commendations, in some 
degree, opened our eyes to its 
merits. 

In recalling these eulogies of 
the address, and the expressions 
of appreciation of its author 

[81] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



which appeared in foreign 
prints, I am reminded of the 
lines, — 

A man in whom his neighbors see 

One hke themselves of common 

mould, 

May, to the thoughtful stranger, be 

Among the great and wise enrolled. 

In Vishna, clowns a shepherd saw — 

Gods viewed the Lord of All with 

awe. 

CONCLUSION 

In human achievement that 
which is greatest in proportions 
is not always the most sublime. 
A traveller who had visited the 
mighty structures along the 
Nile — the pyramids, the tem- 
ples, the palaces, the tombs, 
which surpass in grandeur any 

[82] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

others that have, so far as we 
know, in all the ages been rear- 
ed, at last found himself in a 
little city of southern Europe, 
standing upon an eminence be- 
fore a structure so limited in 
extent and amplitude as not to 
compare in these regards with 
the mighty edifices whose 
grandeur had so filled his mind 
with wonder and awakened in 
his bosom emotions that over- 
whelmed him. He was stand- 
ing upon the Acropolis at Ath- 
ens and contemplating the 
Parthenon. In his travels and 
study he had gained sufficient 
knowledge of architecture to be 
a connoisseur. As he made a 
more careful examination and 

[83] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

study of the wonderful temple, 
its splendors and sublimity 
gradually dawned upon him. 
He found that in every element 
of its construction, in form, in 
grace, in beauty and strength 
and character, and in the no- 
bility and grandeur of all its 
appointments, it far surpassed 
everything he had hitherto 
seen, every other architectural 
achievement upon the face of the 
earth. In this conclusion he was 
and is confirmed by the general 
concensus of opinion of the 
world. 

Philosophers and sages, men 
of literary culture, who have 
explored the labyrinths, stood 
upon the heights and basked in 

[84] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

tlie glories of the sublime crea- 
tions of Demosthenes and Per- 
icles and Cicero, of Burke and 
Pitt and Brougham, of Webster 
and Sumner and Everett, and in 
the elaborate and finished tri- 
umphs in oratory of all the 
ages, are moved with similar 
emotions to those of this trav- 
eller in contemplating Lincoln's 
Gettysburg Address. By uni- 
versal consent it has become 
the Parthenon of oratorical cre- 
ation. 

In the region round about 
Athens, marble and cement 
and clay and everything neces- 
sary to the construction of an edi- 
fice are as abundant and cheap 
as the sods upon the prairie. 

[85] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

To those commonplace materials 
the inspired architect gave form 
and beauty and strength and 
life. Out of a few simple, plain, 
commonplace sentences familiar 
to all, President Lincoln con- 
structed an oration that will be 
the wonder and admiration of 
the world for all time — ^the 
crowning triumph of literary 
achievement. 



[86] 



FIFTY TEAES AFTER 

/^^ N a bright November . 
^-^ afternoon of long ago, 
when the autumn leaves were 
tinged with a th ousand hues of 
beauty, upon an eminence in 
the midst of a great plain 
bounded by lofty mountains, 
I saw a vast concourse of men 
and women. I saw among 
them illustrious warriors, gifted 
poets, and profound statesmen. 

I saw ambassadors of mighty 

[87] ~ 



LINCOLN AT GETT YSBURG 

empires, governors of great com- 
monwealths, ministers of cabi- 
nets, men of high position and 
power. I saw above their 
heads, upo n every hand, a 
starry banner, drooping under 
the weight of somb re drapery. 
I saw men and women standing 
among new-made graves, over- 
whelmed with grief which they 
vainly endeavored to conceal. 
I knew that I was in the midst 
of a people bowing under 
great affliction, of a land 
stricken with sorrow. I knew 
"^ " [88] 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

that the tide of destruction and 
death had not ceased to ebb 



and flow, but that at that 
moment the fate of my country 
was trembling in the balance, 
her only hope in the fortitude 
and valor of her sons, who were 
baring their breasts to storms 
of shot and shell only a few 
miles away. 

I saw standing in the midst 
of that mighty assembly a man 
of majestic yet benignant mien, 
of features worn and haggard, 

but beaming with purity, with 

^9f " 



LINCOLN AT^ GETTYSBURG 

patriotism, and with hope. 
Every eye was directed towards 
him, and, as men looked into 
his calm, sad, earnest face, they 
recognized the great President, 
the foremost man of the world, 
not only in position and power 
but in all the noblest attributes 
of humanity. When he essayed 
to speak, such solemn silence 
reigned as when, within conse- 
crated walls, men and women 
feel themselves in the pres- 
ence of Deity. Each sen- 
tence, slowly and earnestly 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 



pronounced, as its full import 
was apprehended, sank into 
every patriotic heart, gave a 
strange lustre to every face, and 
nerved every arm. In those ut- 
terances, the abstract, the con- 
densation, the summing up of 
American patriotism, were con- 
tained the hopes, the aspirations, 
the stern resolves, the consecra- 
tion upon the altar of humanity, 
of a great people. 

From the hour of that solemn 



dedication the final triumph of 
the loyal hosts was assured. 

_ 



LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG 

As the Christian day by day 
voices the sacred prayer 
given him by his Savior, 
so the American Patriot will con- 
tinue to cherish those sublime 
sentiments and inspired words. 
While the Republic lives he will 
continue to repeat them, and 
while, realizing all their solemn 
significance, he continues to re- 
peat them, the Republic will live. 



[92]