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I U t-" i-J i- ■-' 



The Capital City 





Supervising Editor 



Chicago, Illinois 







P j!u.¥i.z!iK=^iaJiiiU-¥iZ¥.yiituiiiUiiiyaiy!i'iJiii£mm^ityii!yii'iJii!U'i^ 

(B pe luarriors, €> pc poiing men, 
pe Ujorncn, pc people! 
J^tar tlje toortis tfjat 31 am gpeabing! 
3n ttje bapg tfjat pet are coming. 
3n tfje baps of tte tomorrotu, 
J^tve Ijcsiibe ttjc Stream ifjiskttfje be 
^Jjere Sfjall be a migfjtp billage, 
OTfjere Sfjall be a toton of luljite men, 
Jfaircst tolim in all i^cbrasba! 
i^isbitlje sfjall our people tall it, 
J^isbitfje, ^alt4!rotDn, sfjall tfjep tall it; 
5lut tf)c tuf)ite men, tfjep tuill name it 
Jfor tf)c brabcst of tfjeir luarriors, 
jFor tfje noblest of tf)cir tfjieftainS, 

• .;#or tfjc toisest of ttjeir tuise men! 

■■'3 fjabe Spoken, 3 fjabe spobcn. 

: "Pageant of Lincohi," 1915. 



The history of a community is, in many respects, particularly the pioneer 
history, a story founded upon tradition. It is a well known fact that the records 
of the days of long ago have not been properly preserved. In the beginning of 
Nebraska history, as recorded by white men. and also that of Lancaster County, 
settlements were miles apart. This was a country of long distances, without the 
telegraph and telephone to shorten the leagues. The pioneers traveled in the 
saddle, upon wagons or on foot and thought nothing of it. It is after one gains a 
luxury that he thinks it indispensable. The motive of the Easterners in coming to 
this trackless prairie was purely an economic one. The exodus to the Great 
West occurred when living conditions became undesirable or unprofitable in the 

The men who have attempted the task of preparing a history of the city of 
I.iiicoln and I^ancaster County, Nebraska, have endeavored conscientiously to 
perfonu the work and to secure facts which are creditable to the present genera- 
tion and which should be recorded for the benefit of the generations yet to come. 
The biographical volume should be especially interesting in future decades to 
those whose ancestors have made history in the past. The teachings of the fathers 
and pride in their achievements have been mighty factors in the world's advance- 
ment. The pioneers who builded states were not the products of chance, but came 
from strong and vigorous ancestry. 

That, in this history, much has been omitted which should have been preserved 
is probable ; that some statements have not been suf^cientlv extended is likely ; 
and that some generally accepted facts may not accord with individual experience 
and preconceived notions is possible ; but the men who have prepared the work 
have done the best they could with the means of knowledge at hand. 

History is not like mathematics, an exact science. Witnesses in court who 
see the same things rarely see them from the same angle or testify alike as to the 
exact facts. Much of history, as stated before, is tradition, tales passing from 
mouth to mouth, from sire to son, from generation to generation, and the truth 
never gains in the transmission of these tales. We accept as fact a great deal of 
history which doubtless never occurred ; much that in the light of the larger 
experience of our time we know cannot be true, but we take it with allowance 
and glean from it what good we can. The public and written records are reliable 
so far as they go, but are more often defective or incomplete. The recollections 
of actors in past events are of value as history, but their credibility nuist be 
taken with regard to the accuracy of their observation and memory, the soundness 
of their judgment and their reliability to relate the facts unbiased by precon- 
ceived notions or personal interest. 

No one person was delegated by law or nature to be supreme in the collection 
of historical facts. It is a labor of the people and not of an individual; nor is 



any one individual or society qualified to a superior extent to perform such 
a work. The shop-keeper, the merchant, the banker, the lawyer, the physician, the 
capitalist and the layman, all, have their bit to add. Careful procedure and 
intelligent work are the main requisites, notwithstanding the moss-covered ideas 
which have existed in regard to the writing of history. 

From all available sources the historians have sought to gather the facts for 
this work. The development of Lancaster County covers one-half of a century; 
the greater part of it has been accomplished in the last twenty-five years, but in the 
brief space of time which this history covers, the early settlers who have made 
history have nearly all gone. Many of the pioneers moved on to newer scenes 
when population, as they felt, began to crowd them. They were not content to be 
other than pioneers. The most of the first generation of settlers upon the wild 
prairie are dead. They were too busy making a living to leave much record of 
their doings. We hope that the record of this county and city will prove, on 
completion, all that its projectors have promised and that its subscribers will 
appreciate the work which has been accomplished. All our judgment of our 
fellow men and of their work may follow the old adage : "Be to their faults a little 
blind ; be to their virtues very kind." 




















COMPANY — FIRTH — ^O. & R. V. R. R. COMPANY — L. & N. W. R. R. COMPANY — 































MENT 153 




























"chapter XXV 


chapter XXVI 










"chapter XXX 








Lincoln and Lancaster County 



By James L. Burgess and E. L. Worthen 
(U. S. Department of Agriculture) 

Lancaster County is situated in the southeastern part of the State of Nebraska, 
approximately fifty miles west of the Missouri River and about half way between 
the i'latte River and the north boundary line of Kansas. Meridians of longi- 
tude 96° 40' west and latitude 40° 50' north intersect near Lincoln, which is 
located near the center of the county. The county is bounded on the north by 
Saunders County, on the east by Cass and Otoe counties, on the south by Gage, 
and on the wgst by Saline and Seward counties. 

The surface of Lancaster County varies from gently rolling to rough and 
hilly. While the county lies wholly within the boundary of the Kansan drift, the 
glacial material is more pronounced in determining the surface configurations in 
the west half of the area, where glacial action and subser[uent erosion have devel- 
oped a broken topography. It is quite noticeable that the most irregular surface 
is found on the south sides of the streams flowing east. An exception is found 
in the case of the main channel of Salt Creek northeast of Lincoln, where the 
higher hills are on the north. The lowest point in the county is found where Salt 
Creek passes into Cass County, where the elevation is about eleven hundred feet 
above sea level. From this point the surface rises north, west, and south finally 
reaching an altitude of 1,500 feet in the southwestern part of the county along the 
divide between the Salt Creek basin and the valley of the Big Blue River. The 
general elevation of the county is about twelve hundred feet above tide. 

beginning in the southwest part of the county, at a point 1,500 feet high, 
there opens out toward the north and northeast an elliptical basin, with an 
average depth of probably two hundred feet. This basin makes a broad curve near 
Lincoln, turns to the northeast, and leaves the county a few miles east of Waverly. 
It is traversed throughout by Salt Creek and its tributaries, the most important 
of which are Rock Creek, Little Salt Creek, Oak Creek, Middle Creek, Haines 
Branch, Antelope Creek, Stevens Creek, and Dead ]\Ians Run. Near Roca the 
main channel of Salt Creek divides into the south and west forks A part of the 
drainage in the southern part of the county finds its way into Big Blue and 
-Memaha rivers, but the greater part is carried by Salt Creek into the Platte River. 

Vol. 1-1 



The population of the county is practically all white and mostly native born, 
though a large percentage of the people, particularly in the rural communities, is 
of foreign extraction. The early settlers came to this country from Iowa, Illinois, 
Indiana, and from various eastern states. The first settlement was made in 1856 
on Salt Creek, about fifteen miles south of where Lincoln now stands. The 
county was organized in 1859, and the state capital was removed from Omaha to 
Lincoln in 1867. 

The rural population is grouped roughly into settlenients representing various 
nationalities. In the southern part of the county are the Germans, in the south- 
eastern part the Hollanders, in the northeastern part the Swedes, and in the north- 
western part the Irish. Except in the rough country around the headwaters of 
some of the western tributaries of Salt Creek, the rural population is fairly 

Lincoln, the most important city and the best immediate market in the 
county, is situated near the center of Salt Creek basin, and is one of the most 
important railroad centers in the state. There are a number of small towns in 
the county. These are composed generally of farmers who have collected together 
for church and educational advantages. These small places also serve as shipping 
points for the farmers. Crete, a town of three or four thousand inhabitants, is 
located only a short distance across the west boundary line of the county and 
affords a limited market for the farmers in the southwest section of the area. 

The transportation facilities are excellent. The Burlington, the Union Pacific, 
the Rock Island, the Missouri Pacific, and the Northwestern railroad companies 
operate lines through the county and place it in direct connection with Omaha, 
Chicago, Kansas City, Denver, and other large cities. 


Lancaster County is situated wholly within the rain belt of the Mississippi 
Valley and has a moderately humid climate. The normal annual temperature is 
50° Fahrenheit, the normal monthly temperature ranging from 22° in January 
to 76° in July. The average annual rainfall is about twenty-seven inches, most 
of which occurs during the growing season, from March to October. 

While this area possesses a mild climate for about eight months in the year 
and a rainfall well distributed throughout the season of plant growth, still it is 
subject to those occasional extremes of temperature that may be expected to pass 
over the upper Mississippi Valley, especially the western part, once in 
every five or ten years. The winters sometimes become so severe that the 
less hardy perennials are frozen, while, on the other hand, the crops may fail 
now and then from drought, accompanied by hot, dry southwesterly winds. The 
years 1894 and 1901 were noted for continued and destructive droughts. During 
July and August of these years the soil became greatly heated, being more than 
72° at a depth of thirty-six inches below the surface. While these years were 
most destructive of crops, it frequently happens that some part of the growing 
season has insufficient rainfall. The corn crop may be injured during the early 
summer, or the wheat, and especially the oat crop, may be cut short by prolonged 
dry periods during the spring, as in 1906. In any case the damaging effects of 


deficient rainfall in this area may be largely offset by improved cultural methods, 
which will be discussed later in this report. 


The first settlers came to this part of the state in 1856, when the area within 
the present limits of the county was all virgin prairie. They were molested by 
the Indians until 1864, when the Government succeeded in confining the latter to 
their respective reservations. 

The first settlement was small and quite isolated, but in 1859 the overland 
trail from the East to the West was changed from Ashland to a more direct route 
through this territory. The colony was thus brought into more prominence, and 
the population increased rapidly. 

It was not thought at first that spring wheat would be profitable or that winter 
wheat would stand the climate in this latitude, consequently only corn and flax 
were grown prior to 1870. Corn was and has since remained the principal crop in 
the county. Flax was found to be quite a remunerative crop on virgin soil, but 
when the land became older the yields were small, and finally, in the early '80s, 
the land became so infested with noxious weeds that the cultivation of this 
crop in any cjuantity was abandoned. 

In 1870 an agricultural society was organized "for the development of agri- 
culture along all lines suited to this latitude" and for the development of mechanic 
arts. It was about this time that the farmers began to test the possibility of wheat 
production. The first variety tested was known as "tea" wheat, so called from 
having been found in a package of tea imported from China. This was grown 
for several years as a spring wheat, but was finally superseded by another called 
"grass" wheat. This "grass" wheat was grown for a number of years also as a 
spring wheat, but about 1S88 the farmers by accident discovered that this could 
ce grown as winter wheat, and from that date the growing of winter wheat gained 
some importance. The production of winter wheat in this area, however, received 
its greatest impetus when the state experiment station demonstrated the value of 
certain varieties from Russia and Turkey. From 1890 to 1898 hemp was grown 
in the bottom lands along Salt Creek, its discontinuance being due to a change of 
ownership of the lands on which it was grown. 

• The only serious difficulties the farmers of this area have encountered were 
the grassho]iper pest in 1874 and the droughts that occurred in 1894 and 1901. 

The implements used in the early agriculture were those for breaking and 
pulverizing the sod. Then came the check-row corn planter, the gang plow, the 
disk harrow, and other modern implements suited to the agriculture of the area, 
the lister being introduced in the latter '80s. This implement plows the land 
and plants the corn in one operation, and its labor-saving merits at once recom- 
mended it to the farmers, especially to those who were tenants and desired to 
farm very extensively. Not only among the tenants, but also among those 
farmers who own the land, has the use of the lister become quite general. Re- 
cently, however, the more progressive landowners have begun to doubt the 
efficiency of the lister on the soils of this county, recognizing that while it may 
save much labor it frequently causes a shortage in crop yields and is always 
prejudicial to the maintenance of productiveness, thus decreasing the intrinsic 


value of their lands. All the implements used are such as are suited to general 
agriculture. There is little or no intensive farming done and only a very limited 
number of stock raised, the principal products being corn, wheat and oats. 

Corn, oats, emmer (sometimes incorrectly called spelt) and sugar beets are 
planted in April and May, a period during which a relatively large proportion of 
the rainfall is likely to occur. This rainfall coming when the land is without 
vegetation is usually attended with serious washing, especially on rolling fields 
where a series of trenches has been made by the lister tn planting the corn crop. 
Indeed, all the soils in the area except that found in the bottoms are very 
susceptible to erosion, and during the season of planting care should be taken to 
put the soil in a condition to hold the utmost amount of moisture. This is impor- 
tant both for future plant growth anil for protecting the soil. 

The crops are harvested from July to October. Those harvested in July are 
likely to sutler some damage from heavy rains, while those harvested in October 
and November are not generally in danger from too much moisture. 

General grain farming has always absorbed the interest of the farmer in this 
county. Corn is the most important crop and, uiUil recent years, when the experi- 
ment station made an effort to introduce some diversification in the farm prac- 
tice of the state, corn was practically the only money crop grown. Corn and wheat 
are now both put on the market, but oats are not considered in the present economy 
except for home consumption. Nearly all the grain is sold from the farm, only a 
very limited number of hogs and cattle being fed for market. There is a large 
acreage in wild grass, the amount of land devoted to this kind of forage ranking 
next to that seeded to oats. The acreages in alfalfa and clover are about equal. 
The millets are grown to some extent. Sugar beets, macaroni wheat, and emmer 
are comparatively new crops in this area. Sugar beets and emmer are worthy of 
extended cultivation. 

While practically all the staple crops of the area are grown on every farm 
regardless of soil type, the fanners, nevertheless, recognize that the soils in the 
eastern half of the county are richer and better adapted to corn and wheat than 
the soils in the western half, where the glacial drift affects both the topography 
and soil composition. In the western half of the county as a general rule the 
lands are in wild grasses, while little or no land is in virgin sod in the eastern half, 
except in close proximity to some of the streams. The heavy soil in the east 
half of the county is well suited to clover and alfalfa, as well as to the cultivated 

Perhaps the necessity of crop rotation receives the least attention of any 
factor entering into the economy of farm practice in this area. The present sys- 
tem of cropping follows corn with oats, and oats with wheat when any rotation 
at all is practiced, but on many farms corn follows corn for years in succession. 
When a change is made oats are sown in the spring on "stalk" land, and the oat 
stubble is plowed in the fall for the succeeding winter-wheat crop. Clover and 
alfalfa fields are seldom seen in the area, hence no rotation looking to the main- 
tenance of soil fertility is practiced in general. The barnyard manure is frequently 
wasted, notwithstanding the soil is often in serious need of it. 

The soils and the climatic and market conditions in this area suggest certain 
specific methods of farm practice which no farmer in the county can aflFord to 
ignore. The soils have such physical qualities that moisture enters slowdy and 


escapes by evaporation very rapidly during the hot summer months. The farmers 
in general do not plow the land deeply, and hence limit the amount of moisture 
the soil can hold. The surface is generally quite rolling, sometimes hilly, and 
requires deep plowing and in certain places terracing to prevent erosion ; but 
the general lule is to put the corn crop in with the lister, and by so doing reduce the 
surface of these rolling fields to a series of ditches, while the space between the 
rows is rarely broken deeper than the tooth of the cultivator runs. By this method 
of listing the surface soil is rapidly decreasing in depth because of erosion. The 
nature of the soil and the climatic conditions make it imperative that every effort 
should be made to conserve moisture, yet the methods of soil management allow 
great quantities of the annual precipitation to escape by evaporation. By listing 
the land about 25 per cent more surface is exposed to the sun's rays than would 
be exposed should this surface remain level; moreover, the use of the lister pre- 
cludes the possibility of surface mulching, which is of extreme importance in the 
early spring, when the seed is germinating and when a few days of drought may 
greatly reduce the stand. 

Most of the labor is performed by the farmer and his family. Some of the' 
farmers employ one or two hired men, but the price of labor is high, owing to the 
demand for laborers in the city and on the railroads. Farmers say they can 
ali'ord to pay as much as $25 a month the year round for good men, but there 
seems to be no supply at this rate. 

According to the census of 1900, of 555.520 acres of land in this county about 
92 per cent is in farms and about 80 per cent of the entire area is improved. 
According to the same authority not more than 39 per cent of the farms are 
operated by the owners. The tenant system is thus seen to play an important part 
in the agricultural practice of this area. 

By reason of the location near the principal city of the state, the land in the 
county brings a high price. Land is generally worth more in the east than in the 
west half of the area owing to the differences in agricultural value. The prices 
range from $50 to $150 an acre. The prevailing practice of letting the farms 
to tenants, who can have only a temporary interest in the land, is said to be 
rapidly reducing the value of the farms. There is a serious need for a definite 
agreement between the landlord and the tenant by which the tenant could be 
assured of remaining on the farm for a definite number of years and thus be able 
to plan his operations for some years ahead. This agreement should secure to 
the landlord a certain method of farm practice by his tenant, through which the 
productiveness of the soil would be maintained or increased. 

At present leguminous crops are grown only to a very limited extent, while 
the character of the soil throughout the county is such as to make their use 
imperative. The conditions in the area suggest the importance of an increased 
interest in dairying and in the production of live stock. The productivity of the 
soils should be carefully maintained by the use of farm manure, which at present 
is frequently allowed to go to waste. The use of the lister, except where land 
has first been plowed, should be abandoned. Plowing should always be done 
with a view of conserving the rainfall and preventing soil erosion. The present 
rotation on many of the farms should be changed. Wheat should follow corn, and 
oats should follow wheat, in order to get larger yields of each crop. In every sys- 
tem of farming the rotation should include some leguminous crop, and on every 


farm at least a limited number of stock should be kept to make use of the forage 
and to increase the supply of barnyard manure. 


There arc four distinct superficial geological formations in Lancaster County, 
and each gives rise to a distinct type of soil. In the order of their areal extent 
these formations are the loess of the Middle Pleistocene period, the Kansan drift 
belonging to the early Pleistocene period, the most recent alluvium occupying 
the lower levels along the streams, and the Dakota formation, a ferruginous sand- 
stone outcropping around the base of some of the steeper slopes. 

The Kansan drift underlies the surface of the county generally and has a 
marked influence on the soils. This material is being gradually uncovered by 
erosion, and in the west half of the county the soil type derived from it covers 
a large percentage of the area. In the east half this glacial material is deeply 
co\ered and comes to the surface only occasionally, being found in ravines and 
in the vicinity of some of the larger streams. The loessial material appears at one 
time to have covered the surface of the whole county, but the agencies of erosion 
have removed the greater part of it from the surface in the western part of the 
county, where at present it is found capping knolls, skirting the bases of slopes, 
and occupying the crests of stream divides. The great body of the loess is found 
in the east half of the area, where, though eroded badly, the stratum is seldom 
cut through to the glacial material below. The loessial deposit and the Kansan 
drift merge into each other and sometimes make it difficult to define the boundaries 
of the resulting soil types. 

The Dakota formation is found in the deeper ravines and in places where the 
overlying formations have been removed by erosion. Here is exposed almost 
pure gray sand, which is usually cemented on the immediate surface by ferrugi- 
nous material, while below this the sand is in a semi-consolidated condition and is 
easily broken down between the thumb and finger. This material comes to the 
surface over a limited area and affects only a small percentage of the soils. 

The recent alluvium is found along the streams throughout the county and 
gives rise to one of the most important soil types in the area. In areal extent it 
ranks next to the Kansan drift. 

All the soils of the area have a brown to dark brown color, and are generally 
productive, the least valuable being that derived from the Dakota sandstone. The 
upland soils contain a comparatively large amount of humus at present, but this 
element is rapidly decreasing, owing to general grain farming and the limited use 
of farm manures. 

As stated the surface material of this area has been classified into four distinct 
types of soil. In the order of their extent these are: the Marshal silt loam, Mar- 
shall loam, Wabash silt loam and the Lancaster fine sandy loam. The first two 
belong to the Marshall series of soils, so widely developed in this and other middle 
and northwestern states. The Wabash silt loam belongs to the Wabash series of 
soils, which have a large development in the ^lississippi and Missouri bottoms. 

The Marshall soils are derived from transported loessial and drift material ; 
the Lancaster fine sandy loam has been formed in place from the weathering of 


the underlying sandstone, and the Wabash silt loam represents the alluvium which 
is derived from the wash of the surrounding higher lands. 


The Marshall silt loam is the most important soil type in the area. The soil 
is variable in depth, ranging usually from ten to fifteen and fometimes having a 
depth of 20 inches, depending upon the topographic position. The more shallow 
places are found where the land has been under cultivation for several years and 
erosion has removed much of the surface soil to lower levels. Where the surface 
has remained unbroken and covered with vegetation, the soil is quite as deep on 
the slopes as on the more level areas. The color of the soil varies, but is prevail- 
ingly brown to dark brown, the shade depending on the quantity of organic matter 
present. The color gradually becomes lighter the longer the soil is cultivated with- 
out the addition of farm manures. This soil is composed largely of silt, with vary- 
ing amounts of clay and very fine sand. In its original state the particles are so 
arranged, being influenced by the content of humus, lime, and soluble salts, as to 
give the soil, when plowed, a rather open and porous structure. By reason of this 
structure the type is easily cultivated and may be kept in good tilth at compara- 
tively small cost. Only when plowed too wet does this soil puddle. Where this 
takes place it may require the process of weathering for a whole year to regain a 
proper physical condition. 

The subsoil of the Marshall silt loam may be discussed in two divisions. Im- 
mediately beneath the soil is a dark-brown stratum, varying from eight to fifteen 
inches in thickness, which carries a percentage of clay sufficient to give the te.xture 
of a heavy silty clay. Below this heavy material the subsoil becomes relatively 
light in texture and has a yellow color. Throughout the deeper subsoil small 
lime concretions are much in evidence, and sections exposed in excavations reveal 
vertical fissures and numerous small holes through which plant roots have grown. 
The deeper subsoil of this type is thus seen to be quite porofls and comparatively 
dry, and has been affected very little by weathering. The whole geological body 
from which this type is derived is proverbially dry and all wells sunk in it must 
penetrate the light sandy stratum below before water is reached. 

The Marshall silt loam is derived from the weathering of the loess. During 
the process of weathering some of the finer particles, such as the fine silt and 
clay, have been carried in suspension from the surface and deposited at lower 
levels, and thus the surface soil has become gradually lighter. This type carries 
small quantities of soluble salts near the base of slopes and at other points where 
water accumulates and where capillarity and evaporation combine to concentrate 
these salts. 

The greater part of this type is located in the east half of the county, where it 
is the dominant soil. There is quite an important area in the southern and south- 
western parts of the survey, and at various other points there are small patches 
and narrow strips around the base of slopes and along the interstream divides. 

The surface of the type is gently to heavily rolling. In the extreme southern 
part of the county there are several square miles that are nearly level. This is 
along the main divide between the Big Blue River \'alley and the Salt Creek basin. 


There are other level areas at various places in the Salt Creek basin, but with 
these exceptions all the type has sufficient relief for excellent drainage. 

There is a phase of the Marshall silt loam developed in ravines and on some 
of the slopes where the soil is quite shallow, having been eroded away. The heavy 
subsoil comes near the surface and causes trouble in the preparation of the seed 
bed and the subsequent cultivation of the crops. The farmers find that when the 
surrounding soil is in prime condition for plowing these heavy spots are too wet, 
and if plowed at stich times they puddle and remain out of condition all the grow- 
ing season. On the other hand, when these heavy spots are in good condition for 
plowing, the surrounding soil is much too dry. These heavy spots are called 
"gumbo spots" by the farmers. Their low productiveness is thotight to be due to 
the presence of alkali salts, but chemical analysis shows no appreciable excess. 
The lack of humus, therefore, and the poor physical condition appear to be mainly 
■responsible for the poor crop yields obtained. Deep plowing, subsoiling, and heavy 
manuring will eventually ameliorate these conditions. It would be a good practice 
for the farmers to place straw on these heavy spots and allow it to rot down and 
then plow it under deeply. 

The native vegetation peculiar to the Marshall silt loam includes the usual 
grasses of the prairie, together with various herbaceous plants, many of which 
belong to the family Leguminosre. Under cultivation this type is productive for 
corn and wheat. It is the great upland corn soil of the Mississippi Valley. It i.s 
also well adapted to sugar beets and other root crops. In growing these deep- 
rooted annuals subsoiling will be found necessary m the preparation of the seed 
bed, in order to secure the most satisfactory yields. This soil is also well suited 
to the production of alfalfa, clover, and many of the tame grasses, such as timothy, 
orchard, brome, blue, fescue, and other species that thrive on a medium heavy 
soil. Oats and emmer do well when arranged in rotation with corn, wheat, and 

The crops grown at present are corn, wheat, and oats, the most important of 
which is corn. The yield of corn may vary from 15 to 50 bushels, depending on 
the season and methods of farming. A general average would be about 30 
bushels per acre. Wheat yields from 10 to 35 bushels, with a general average of 
about 12 bushels per acre. Oats run about the same as wheat. The relative low 
yield of the latter is due in part to sowing in the spring when there is very likely 
to be a few weeks of drought, which cuts the crop short or sometimes even 
destroys it. Clover and alfalfa make fair yields, and the grasses do well. 

The Marshall silt loam is capable, under proper management, of holding a 
very large supply of water, and the annual precipitation is generally sufficient 
for crop production. Yet it frequently happens that the crops are cut short by 
drought, although the annual rainfall has been ample. An examination of the 
topographic and mechanica-1 features of this soil reveals some of the causes of 
crop failure and indicates why the yields on this type, as at present managed, are 
not as large as would be expected from a study of this soil in other areas. First, 
the surface is rolling to hilly and rain water soon finds its way into the streams. 
Second, the subsoil carries a heavy stratum just beneath the soil which retards 
or prevents the percolation of the rain water to the lower subsoil. Third, the soil 
is of such color that it absorbs heat readily and the moisture is lost very rapidly 
by evaporation. The latter tendency is very much accelerated by the hot, dry 


winds from the southwest that frequently come just after a rain and rapidly 
induce the inadequate supply of moisture retained by the soil. The crops thus 
need rain every few days during the growing season to prevent injury from 
drought. The usual practice is to plow shallow, say a depth of two or three 
inches, or else to put the corn crop in with the lister and not plow the land at all 
but reduce the fields to a series of ridges and ditches, thus exposing more surface 
to evaporation and increasing the tendency to erosion, as well as quickening the 
drainage of the surface water to the lowlands. 

Li view of these conditions it is of more than ordinary importance that special 
care be taken to catch and retain as much of the rainfall as possible in the subsoil 
for use of the crops during the period of dryness. Deeper plowing, in some 
cases subsoiling, during the fall season, followed in the early spring and as often 
during the summer as practicable by surface mulching, will be fotmd to better 
the moisture conditions materially. This surface mulching is very important in 
the ]M-oduction of wheat. The wheat fields should be thoroughly harrowed early 
in the spring, provided the plants have stood out well in the fall, and this should 
be repeated as often as necessary, the condition of the plants permitting, to keep 
a crust from forming. The land intended for oats should be fall plowed and 
disked early in the spring as long as possible before the crop is put in. After 
the crop is planted and before it comes up the land may be mulched again if 
moisture conditions warrant it. 

rcrha])s the best rotation for this type of soil in this area is that suggested 
by Hunt for similar soils in this latitude; namely, corn two years, wheat one year, 
and clover and timothy three years. It is thought that such a rotation wotild 
minimize the losses due to the "cornstalk disease" in cattle grazed in the stalk 

The Marshall silt loam is the highest priced soil in the country and has a 
greater crop value than any of the other upland soils. 


The Marshall loam is second in area of the upland soils. The texture of the 
surface soil is loamy. Material of all grades from clay to gravel and pebbles 
enters into its composition. Lime concretions are usually plentiful and huge 
bowlders are of frequent occurrence. The soil is generally open in structure, but 
like the Marshall silt loam, it has a heavy substratum that must be broken up 
before the best physical conditions can be secured. The color of the soil is usually 
brown to dark brown or with occasionally an area that is dark reddish brown, 
and in general the longer a field is cultivated the lighter the color of the soil be- 
comes. In depth it ranges from ten to fifteen inches, with a general average of 
abotit twelve inches, though in local areas the surface is washed so badly that 
nearly all the soil has been removed. The composition of the subsoil is generally 
quite variable. Sometimes it is a mass of sand and gravel ; again it may be com- 
posed of heavy bowlder clay. The color of the subsoil is generally yellow to 
reddish yellow and gray. This type, on the whole, because of its more open 
structure of subsoil, has a relatively lower water holding capacity than the 
Marshall silt loam. 

On account of the heterogeneous composition, the Marshall silt loam is not 


always easily cultivated. Sometimes the heavy subsoil comes near the surface 
and gives rise to what the farmers term "gumbo." 

Many fields must be cleared of stones before machinery can be used. A large 
percentage of the type, however, is clear of rocks of objectionable size and can 
be farmed with comparative ease. 

The greater part of this type is found in the west half of the county and it 
is typically developed around the headwaters of Salt Creek and its principal 
triliutaries. It generally occupies the high rolling lands south of these streams 
and the areas generally slope to the north. A notable exception to this rule is 
found east and north of Raymond, where the slope is to the south, agreeing 
with the direction of the drainage channels. This soil is nearly always found 
on the lower slopes, and occupies a position between the crests of the divides 
and the bottom lands along the streams. There is a large development of the type 
southwest of Lincoln, in the neighborhood of Sprague, Denton and Berks. There 
is another large area north and east of Raymond. Other but smaller areas are 
scattered here and there over the county, following lines of greatest erosive 

The surface of this type is heavily rolling to rough and hilly, and is so badly 
dissected in places, notably south of Sprague, Denton and near Raymond, as to 
render it worthless except for pasture and meadow. The drainage is very good. 

The Marshall loam is derived from the weathering of glacial material be- 
longing to the Kansan epoch. The surface ten to twelve inches has been changed 
through weathering to a material of lighter composition than the substratum. 
The color has been changed by oxidation and plant growth from a buff to a dark- 
brown color. This drift material is quite old, as shown by the weathered condi- 
tion of the glacial bowlders found in it. These bowlders are fragments of granite, 
gneiss, trap, and Sioux quartzite. All but the last named are in an advanced stage 
of weathering, many of the granite bowlders now falling to pieces. 

The native vegetation of the Marshall loam consists almost entirely of grasses 
and herbaceous plants. There appear to be more leguminous plants on this 
than on any other soil in the area. Among the more important may be mentioned 
the wild licorice (Glycyrrhha lepidata),^ the beggar tick (Mibainia illiiioiensis), 
the partridge pea or wild senna (Cassia chaiiurcrista), the white thimble weed 
(Psoralea argophylla), the wild indigo (Baptisia bractata), and Parascla delea. 
There are more than 30 species of leguminous plants growing wild in this area 
and perhaps two-thirds of them are indigenous to this type of soil. 

The Marshall loam produces good yields of corn, wheat, and oats, but in all 
probability it is better adapted to the production of oats, emmer, and some of 
the durum wheats. The soil is generally too light and droughty for the best yields 
of winter wheat. A large percentage of this type would be more remunerative 
if seeded to alfalfa and clover and stock raising introduced to take place of 
grain farming. A large proportion of it will never be valuable for general 
agricultural purposes. The average yield of corn is about twenty bushels and 
of wheat about ten bushels per acre. The yields frequently run very low, owino- 
partly to climatic and partly to cultural conditions. 

Shallow plowing and listing are generally practiced on this type. These 
methods increase erosion and limit the amount of water in the soil reservoir, and 
1 Identified by Dr. Charles E. Bessey. 


the crop yields are affected accordingly. The lister is especially out of place 
on this soil, since the surface washes hadly even under the best methods of soil 
management. The farmers who own this land are beginning to realize this and 
are using the lister less than formerly. These rolling lands when cultivated at 
all should be plowed deeply, so that the heavy rains, instead of running off the 
surface, may soak down into the subsoil. All the draws should be left to grass 
o\'er and, where the liability to erosion is very great, terracing would be advis- 
able to direct the suri:)lus waters into the grassy draws. Much of this land should 
be left in permanent meadows or plowed up and put in alfalfa. 

This type of soil is of less intrinsic value and brings a lower price in the 
market than the Marshall silt loam. It ranges in price from about twenty-five 
dollars to fifty dollars an acre, depending on location and improvements. 


The texture of the soil of the Wabash silt loam varies considerably. In some 
places where the Marshall loam is the adjacent type it is rather sandy, and again 
where deposition has occurred from comparatively still water the proportion of 
clay is greater. The soil is stratified, and silty, clayey, and sandy layers are 
found to occur alternately. It contains much organic matter, which renders its 
structure open and porous, except where clayey material predominates. It is 
generally dark brown to black in color, with here and there a gray phase, due 
sometimes to the presence of alkali. The surface soil is very deep, ranging from 
fifteen to forty inches, with a general average of about twenty inches. It is 
generally easy to cultivate, the worst trouble being the rapidity with which weeds 
and grasses grow. 

The Wabash silt loam forms the bottoms along the principal streams, occurring 
in areas from a few rods to more than two miles in width. The surface is gen- 
erally level, but some depressed areas are found along Salt Creek. There are 
some small island-like areas of Marshall silt loam rising above the lowlands 
northeast of Lincoln. These mesalike elevations a]ipear to have been caused by 
the shifting of the stream channel and by the general wearing down of Salt Creek 
basin ; areas better protected liy vegetation or position with relation to currents 
have resisted leveling by erosion. 

The whole of this type has a general slope of perhaps ten feet to the mile 
except that found along Rock Creek, where the slope is not so great. This rapid 
fall has caused both Salt Creek and its tributaries to cut their channels several 
feet below the surrounding bottom land, which when the streams are normal 
lies from ten to twenty feet or more above the water level. Nevertheless the 
streams tend to wind in their courses and loops, oxbows, and abandoned chan- 
nels are of frequent occurrence. 

Salt Creek and its tributaries drain not only most of the area of Lancaster 
County, but a vast area outside of the county to the west and northwest. All of 
this drainage, except that carried by Rock Creek, enters the main channel of 
Salt Creek near the City of Lincoln. Here sometimes the water accumulates 
in such floods that all the bottom land is submerged, as, for instance, during 
the year (1906), and boats take the place of vehicles. During these freshets 
much farm and some city property is destroyed. There appears to be no prac- 


ticable way of controlling these flood waters, though in some cases diking might 
be found worth while. With the exception of the floods most of this soil is very 
well drained, and much of it is under cultivation. There are some flat areas near 
Lincoln and, generally, where the larger tributaries enter Salt Creek that require 
tiling and in some cases open ditches. The drainage of these areas is feasible, 
since the stream channels are all deep enough to allow a sufficient fall in the 

The Wabash silt loam is alluvial in origin and is -composed of the wash from 
the surrounding soil types. Little or no weathering is required to make this soil 
productive, since it is not only composed of the most available plant-food ma- 
terials of the upland soils, but it receives a new and fresh supply of these at every 
flood. This type carries a small amount of alkali. The native vegetation consists 
of various lowland grasses, herbaceous plants, and trees. The most important 
trees are the willow, box elder, walnut, ash, and cottonwood. The trees usually 
are found near the streams. 

The Wabash silt loam is the best corn and wheat soil in the county. Its water 
table is generally less than lo feet below the surface, and capillarity works very 
advantageously in bringmg the moisture within the zone of root action. Barring 
the liability to floods, this soil is well adapted to the production of sugar beets, 
clover, alfalfa, and the tame grasses, though alfalfa should not be expected to 
do well where the water table is less than five or six feet from the surface. Corn 
is not so likely to be damaged by floods if planted early, and wheat should be 
seeded early enough in the fall to give it a good start and hasten its maturity in 
the spring. The crops grown are corn and wheat. The former yields from 
thirty to sixty bushels, with a general average of about forty bushels per acre. 
Wheat will generally produce from twenty to forty bushels, with an average of 
about twenty-five bushels per acre. 

There is perhaps less necessity for care in the conservation of moisture in 
the cultivation of this soil than with any other type in the county, but even in 
this rich alluvium moderately deep plowing and surface mulching are necessary 
for the best results. The various weeds and grasses grow with great rapidity, 
and frequent mulching not only conserves moisture, but serves to destroy germi- 
nating weeds and grasses. These troublesome weeds must be dealt with each 
year, since the seeds are brought down by the floods and scattered over the farms, 
and the highest yields of corn and other cultivated crops can be secured only at 
the expense of much labor. Though this soil is subject to annual inundation, its 
crop value is so great in favorable seasons that its market price is always high, 
generally ranging from fifty to one hundred dollars an acre. 


This type is the least extensive found in the county. The soil is quite sandy, 
being composed of medium to fine sand with a slight admixture of silt blown over 
it from the surrounding heavier types. The structure is open and porous. The 
soil is generally of a dark brown cQlor, from ten to fifteen inches deep, with a 
general average of about twelve inches, and is very easily cultivated. The subsoil 
is composed of medium to fine sand or sandy loam of a yellow to gray color. At 
a depth of about twenty-five inches there is sometimes found a stratum of rather 


heavy silt material about live inches in thickness tliat aids in the conservation of 
soil moisture. 

The Lancaster fine sandy loam is found in various parts of the northern half 
of the county. A small area skirts the bluffs along Salt Creek south of Lincoln, 
another larger area occurs two or three miles north of the city, and at several 
other points in the northeastern part of the county are found small patches of 
this sandy material. The surface of this type is rolling and sometimes quite 
precipitous. It is always well drained. 

The Lancaster fine sandy loam is derived for the most part from weathered 
sandstone of the Dakota group. This material outcrops in some of the deeper 
ravines where the overlying formations have been removed from the surface. 
There is one place just north of Lincoln where the sandy material appears to 
have been an outwash from the glacier, but with this doubtful exception there 
can be no mistake concerning the origin of the type. The sandstone, when found 
in the ledge, has a brown to gray color and is only loosely consolidated, breaking- 
down easily between the thumb and finger. After it has been weathered for 
some time the color changes to a reddish-brown and there results a ferruginous 
sandy soil. 

The limited extent of the type in this area and its occurrence in spots and 
patches make it difficult to determine its relative crop value. It is, however, 
much below that of any of the other types for general crops. Where favorably 
located it would be well to grow early vegetables on it, because its sandy, loose 
nature makes it more suitable to truck than to general farm crops. 

The following table gives the results of mechanical analyses of this soil : 

Number Description 

1594S. . . .Soil 

15949. . . .Subsoil. . . . 

t*er cent 

Coarse Metlium 

sand sand 

Per ceot Per cent 



Ter cent 

Very fine 


I'er cent 

I'er cent 

Per cent 


2.6 12.S 






50 17-5 






The farmers of this area frequently find in their fields local spots and patches 
of heavy gray to dark-gray material that gives them much trouble in the culti- 
\ation of their crops. These local areas are called "gumbo," and are caused 
by the subsoil coming to the surface in badly eroded places. The cause of 
these spots is lack of humus and poor physical condition, but there is a popular 
notion that their refractory nature is due to an excess of soluble salts or alkali. 
In order to substantiate or disprove this theory, some of the worst places were 
sampled and chemical analyses made to determine the salt content. 

These analyses did not show enough water soluble salts to justify a comjilete 
chemical analysis, slightly more than one-half of i per cent magnesium oxide, 
the salt which is thought to cause the trouble in these upland soils. .So small a 
quantity is not enough to injure crops or markedly to affect the physical condi- 
tion of the soil. These spots are generally found in the Marshall silt loam and 
the Marshall loam, and in the latter type they may sometimes carry an excess 
of salts, but the probability is that no serious trouble has ever ari.sen from this 


cause. As has been stated elsewhere, these heavy areas may be improved by 
heavy appHcations of coarse manure and deep plowing. 

While little or no alkali is found in the upland soils, there is a considerable 
quantity in the Wabash silt loam, mainly compounds of sodium, magnesium, 
potassium, and calcium. The most prominent alkali areas in this bottom-land 
soil are found near the junction of Little Salt, Oak, Middle, and Haines creeks 
with the main channel of Salt Creek. These areas are at once recognized either 
by the white mcrustations of alkali or the otherwise- barren surface, or by the 
well-known salt grass that thrives in soils saturated with alkaline solutions. 
These areas are generally low and too wet for cultivation. 

As stated, these alkali spots occur wherever the large tributaries enter Salt 
Creek. It is notable that the tributaries mentioned are fed by waters that either 
leach out of or pass over the largest area of the glacial drift in the western and 
northern parts of the county. It is quite probable, therefore, that most of these 
soluble salts have come from the leachings from this ground-up glacial drift. 

A small percentage of the Wabash silt loam is abandoned because of the 
alkali, and these small areas are outlined and designated as "salt flats" on the 
soil map, because the conditions did not justify the preparation of a separate 
alkali map. As elsewhere explained, the conditions of the streams make drain- 
age in these bottom lands quite feasible, and drainage will in all probability 
reclaim these flats from their alkali condition. 


Lancaster County its situated in the southeastern part of the state. The sur- 
face is rolling to rough and hilly, with a general elevation of 1,200 feet above 
sea level. The general slope is to the northeast, and the drainage is efl'ected 
through Salt Creek and its tributaries. 

The area has a moderately humid climate, but is subject occasionally to severe 
droughts. It has excellent railroad facilities, and good markets are within easy 
reach of all parts of the county. 

The agriculture of the area dates from 1856 and has almost always been 
along the line of general grain farming. Stock is raised only in a very limited 
way, and most of the grain is sold from the farm. There is serious need of a 
mi.xed husbandry in which leguminous crops are grown and special attention 
directed to stock raising, especially hogs, and to dairying. 

The principal crops grown are corn, wheat, and oats, and these have been 
the most important since about 1888, prior to which date flax constituted a prin- 
cipal crop. The tenant system is an important factor in the farm practice in 
this area, and this, together with a too general use of the lister, has caused the 
productiveness of farm lands to deteriorate. 

There are four types of soil found in this area. The Marshall silt loam and 
the Marshall loam represent the Marshall series, and the Wabash silt loam the 
Wabash series. The Lancaster fine sandy loam is associated with the Marshall 
series, but is not yet referred to any series. 

The Marshall silt loam is well adapted to corn, wheat, oats, sugar beets, 
alfalfa, clover, and the grasses, while the Marshall loam is a heavier soil and is 
probably better suited to the production of durum wheats, oats, alfalfa, and some 


of the wild grasses. The Wabash silt loam is a very good corn and wheat soil, 
but is subject to annual inundations. The Lancaster fine sandy loam is too limited 
in extent to permit of a very detailed study, but where favorably situated will 
produce early truck better than any other type in the county. In the cultivation 
of the Marshall soils the conservation of moisture is a prime requisite to success- 
ful agriculture. In the Marshall soils there occurs a phase here and there known 
as "gumbo" that gives trouble in cultivating the farms, but by deep plowing and 
applying coarse manures these heavy spots can be made to disappear. 

The adaptation of the Marshall silt loam to the production of sugar beets 
justifies a more extended interest in the beet-sugar industry in this county. More 
alfalfa should be grown, and a definite rotation of crops should supersede the 
present method of planting the same fields to corn for years in succession. 
Finally, the use of the lister should be largely abandoned, and the plowing of 
the land should be insisted upon by every land owner in the area. 



The first permanent white settler in what is now the County of Lancaster was 
John D Prey. Mr. Prey was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on the 4th of December, 
1798- during the first days of his life much of his time was spent in Ireland. 
He was the son of John and Martha (Little) Prey. Before coming to the shores 
of America John D. Prey was wedded to Miss Margaret Gibson, born near 
Belfast, Ireland, of Scottish parents. After 1/2 months upon the Atlantic 
Ocean Mr. and Mrs. Prey first touched the American continent at St. Johns, 
New Brunswick, and from there proceeded to the City of Boston, there living 
for quite a time. Then they located near Syracuse, New York, where they stayed 
for several years. In 1843 the Prey family emigrated to Wisconsin, their last 
stopping point before coming to Nebraska. It was in the spring of 1856 that 
John D. Prey and his son, John W., sta-ted for the Nebraska Territory, to 
investigate the country and incidentally look for claims. They had been attracted 
by the stories told of the new country and were anxious to find a spot where 
they could locate permanently and there rear the family of children. On the 
day of Tune 15, 1856, they reached a site on Salt Creek, approximately three 
miles from the present City of Lincoln; they went up this river until they 
reached a point which is now between the towns of Roca and Sprague and there 
took up claims for themselves, also three other sons. On July 26, 1856, the 
remainder of the Prey family joined them. Their first effort was to construct 
rude log cabins and to settle themselves before the hard winter came upon them; 
this they soon accomplished. A supply of provisions had been hauled from Ne- 
braska City and by the time the first snow came in December they were well 
fixed and had nothing to fear. The spring came in good time and the Preys 
immediately put in their crops: very little corn was raised this year, but by 1838 
they had a large crop planted. ^Mr. and Mrs. Prey lived on their farm until the 
former's death on September 17, 1873; Mrs. Prey followed him in the month of 
January, 1880. Both are buried in the Centreville Cemetery. :Mr. and Mrs. Prey 
were the parents of twelve children, namely: Gilbert G., August i.?, 1822: Jane, 
May 14, 1S24; Thomas R., February 13, 1826; John W., May 11, 1828; William 
L., October 10, 1830; Margaret, February 14, 1833; Mary Elizabeth, January 
^o, 1835; James, June 11. 1838; Julia Ann, March 11, 1840; David Ely, June 5, 
1842 ; Rebecca, November 19, 1845 : and George W., September t8, 1849. 




It has been said, and written, that while en route to the salt basins and across 
the country from Plattsmouth the Preys met three men, named Whitmore, Card- 
well and Thorpe, who were returning from Salt Creek where they had staked 
out claims with which they intended to speculate; they were from Plattsmouth. 
They probably belonged to that notorious class of men which followed the frontier 
for personal gain and which included speculators, claim- jumpers, squatters and 
land-grabbers. Their ilk became numerous in the vicinity of Salt Creek, but in 
time, when the number of honest and purposeful settlers increased, their faces 
disappeared. There had been no surveying accomplished in this part of the 
country at that time, nor was there a land office until 1857, when one was 
established at Nebraska City. Then a portion of Lancaster County was surveyed. 

Shortly after the Prey family had settled ; to be exact, in the next year, other 
settlers began to come to the valley of the Salt Creek and open up claims. The 
names of J. L. Davidson, W. W. Dunham, James Eatherton, Jeremiah B. Gar- 
rett, I. C. Bristol, Solomon Kirke, William Arnold, Ogden Clegg, the Bogue 
brothers. Weeks, Haskins, and Palmer were familiar among these early comers. 
In 1S57, also, settlements were made along the upper Salt, in the vicinity of 
Hickman ana Saltillo ; this was, however, at the time a part of old Clay County, 
which county was not eradicated until 1864. 

John Dee was an early settler on lower Salt Creek, near the present site of 
the town of Waverly. In a history of the county published in 1889 it is claimed 
that Dee disputed the honor of being the first white settler with John D. Prey, 
but this question must be decided in favor of the latter, as Dee did not come 
until 1857. In November, 1857, Dee was joined by Daniel Harrington, James 
Cardwell and Abraham Beals; and in the spring of 1858 James Moran. John P. 
and L. J. Loder and Michael Shea appeared in the locality. 

In the autumn of 1857 A. J. Wallingford and his brother, Richard, located on 
Salt Creek between what are now the sites of Lincoln and Saltillo. Also, in the 
same year, William Shirley, Joseph Brown and Mr. Bottsford located on Stevens 
Creek in the eastern part of the county. They were joined shortly by the follow- 
ing: L D. Main, C. F. Retzlaff, John Lemp, Aaron Wood, and others. In the 
same year Festus Reed, Jeremiah Showalter and Joel Mason settled north of the 
Wallingford claim and John Cadman, John Hilton and several others located near 
Saltillo. In 1859 Robert Farmer, J. J. Forest and Joseph Gilmore located in 
the Camp Creek settlement to the north. Silas Pratt, the Crawford family, Mrs. 
White and her son, C. C. \\'hite, and John Moore located on Oak Creek, twelve 
miles northwest of Lincoln, in the early '60s and were joined soon after by John 
Tullis. Other settlers were : L. N. Haskin, George A. Mayer, W. E. Keys, E. G. 
Keys, J. S. Gregory, John Michael, M. Spay, J. A. Snyder, E. Warnes, W. A. 
Cadman, W. E. Stewart, Oren Snyder, Solomon Kirk and Dr. Wesley Queen. 
Many others who are not mentioned in this connection were early settlers, but 
as their advent has to do directly with the early settlement of Lincoln and the 
other towns, their story is reserved for the chapters treating the same. 

The first white child born in Lancaster County was F. Morton Donovan, the 
son of W. T. Donovan, on March 12, 1859. The child was born at Stevens 
Creek, where the family had gone to escape the threatened Indian troubles. On 


March i8th of the same year a son was born to Michael Shea and wife, and soon 
afterward Wilham Shirley was presented with a son. 

In the late fall of 1861 the" first frame building in the county was begun and 
was finished the following spring. Richard Wallingford was the owner and the 
carpentering was done by W. W. Cox. The doors were constructed of black 

The first postoffice in the county was established in 1863 at Gregory's Basin 
and J. S. Gregory was the postmaster. 


The early settlers in the territory now comprised in Lancaster County had 
the opportunity to become well acquainted with the Nebraska red men, namely 
the Pawnees, Otoes and Omahas. Other tribes, such as the Sioux, were not 
common as far south as this country. The presence of the Indians here caused 
many aj^prehensions upon the part of the settlers, but very seldom did anything 
occur which bordered upon the serious. 

Among the pioneers who came in the spring of 1857 was a man named Davis, 
a bachelor. He resented the sudden appearance of two redskins in his cabin 
one morning and shot one of them dead. The other members of the white com- 
munity, fearing a reprisal, took their few belongings and fled to Weeping Water. 
They soon returned and found that no damage had been done by the Indians 
except the robbery of a few homes. During the same time a hundred men at 
Nebraska City formed an organization to quell the supposed Indian uprising. 
The expedition resulted in the capture of one Pawnee Indian, but he escaped 
that night from his three guards, one of whom was John W. Prey. 

In 1859 several bands of Cheyenne and Arapahoes came to the salt basins. 
A group of them stopped at the home of John W. Prey one day, when no one was 
there except Mrs. Prey and two of the children, sixteen-year-old David and 
thirteen-year-old Rebecca. The Indians announced their intention of taking the 
little girl with them, whereupon she fled to a wheat field nearby to hide. The 
Indians found her, however, and made off. Mrs. Prey had in the meantime 
sent David after some men who were working down the creek and then, unwilling 
that her daughter should be taken by the Indians, accompanied them until the 
men who had been summoned caught up with them. The white men compelled 
the Indians to release the little girl. 

In 1858 while a Government treaty was in progress a large number of Pawnees 
were encamped in the vicinity of the salt basin, close to the Donovan cabin. Cap- 
tain Donovan and his family were always on their guard and had to share their 
food with the Indians. The captain forcibly ejected some Indians from his 
cabin one day and they became angry, threatening to massacre the whole outfit. 
It happened that the second chief in command was a friend of Donovan, having 
been allowed many privileges, and he assured the other Indians that Donovan 
was a Government agent and could call down the soldiers upon them at will, thus 
averting the trouble. Mrs. Donovan, at another time, knocked a redskin sprawl- 
ing with a chair, but the appearance of the men prevented any further disturbance. 
After these scares Donovan decided to move to Stevens Creek, where he stayed 
until 1 86 1, then returned and located at Yankee Hill. 


Early in the year 1859 the Olathe settlement were threatened by the Pawnees. 
Some of them stole a deer from the home of Jeremiah B. Garrett, who, in return, 
organized a band of men and started after the thieves. After traveling about 
three miles Garrett, Solomon Kirk and William Arnold discovered a group of 
Indians in the very act of skinning the deer which they had stolen. The white 
men fired upon them, Arnold wounding his man, but Garrett's bullet found the 
heart of one of the redskins. In return Garrett received an arrow between his 
ril)s, which he extracted himself. The Indians immediately left the neighborhood. 

Shortly afterwards some Pawnees found the cabin owned by James Bogus 
and Mr. Beals empty and broke in, and carried away clothing and food. The 
two men returned and found that they had been robbed, whereupon they sum- 
moned several men, among them a brother of Bogus, Joel Mason, A. J. Walling- 
ford, Ed Hilton, W. W. Dunham, William Arnold. Bob Palmer, Mr. Sophir. 
They waited at the Sophir cabin, which stood on Salt Creek, east of the asylum, 
near Crabb's mill, for the Pawnees who had encamped near the present site of 
the penitentiary. In the morning the redskins came into view and Joel Mason 
advanced towards them for a parley. The Indians treated him with contempt 
and forced him back to the cabin. He gave the signal and his companions opened 
fire, killing three of the Pawnees and wounding five. The dead Indians were 
buried in Yankee Hill Precinct and the skull of one of them was preserved for 
a long time by Judge Cadman. 

During the Indian scare of 1864, when the Sioux were on the war path on 
the Big Blue River, nearly all the Lancaster settlement left. Several of the more 
courageous stayed until they learned something definite about the movements of 
the Sioux. Not hearing anything after a few days they mounted horses and pro- 
ceeded westward to find out for themselves. The party consisted of W. T. 
Donovan, John S. Gregory, E. W. Warnes, Richard Wallingford, James Morgan, 
liohn P. Loder, Aaron Wood and one other. They came in sight of the Blue 
River before they caught even a glimpse of an Indian and then they were intro- 
duced to a few rather suddently. The first intimation of the redskins' presence 
was the appearance of a sole warrior upon a hill in their rear. Immediately the 
Lancaster men began to retreat, but there appeared several hundred more Indians, 
mounted, across their path. Death seemed very near to the little band of white 
men and they resolved to cut their way through at any price. Hardly had they 
arrived at this decision than one of the Indians waved a white flag and rode 
toward them. The Indians were Pawnees, not Sioux, and the white men were 
treated as friends. These Indians were themselves on the hunt for their enemy 
tribesmen, the Sioux. 

Numerous other minor conflicts with the Indians might be told, conflicts largely 
caused by the instinctive thievery of the Indian and his natural inquisitiveness. 
Nothing else of sanguinary nature, however, has been recorded as happening 
within what is now Lancaster County. 


There were two methods only by which a settler could obtain land from the 
Government within the limits of the State of Nebraska. The first way was by 
the pre-emption act of September 4, 1841, and the second was by way of the 
homestead act of May 20, 1862. 



The pre-emption act provided that "Every person being the head of a family, 
or a widow, or single man over the age of twenty-one years, and being a citizen 
of the United States, or having filed a declaration of intention to become such, as 
required by the naturalization laws" was entitled to enter at the land office i6o 
acres of unappropriated government land by complying with all the requirements 
of the act. It was decided that a single unmarried woman, not the head of a 
family, but able to meet the requirements of the pre-emption laws, had the right 
to claim its benefits. 

An individual desiring to obtain land under the provisions of the pre-emption 
act, had first to make settlement in person on the tract by laying the foundations 
of a house or doing some work with a view of making the same his home. Where 
the land was "oiYered" the party had to file with the district land oftice his 
declaratory statement as to the fact of his settlement within thirty days from the 
date of said settlement, and within one year from that date, had to make final 
proof of his actual residence upon, and cultivation of the tract, and secure the 
same by paying cash, or filing warrants duly assigned to the preemptor. 

Where the land had been surveyed but not ofl'ered at public sale, the claimant 
had to file within three months from date of settlement and make proof and pay- 
ment within eighteen months from the time of filing the declaratory statement, 
that is, within twenty-one months from the date of settlement. 

Should the settler in either of the aforesaid cases die before establishing his 
claim within the period limited by law, the title could be perfected by his heirs 
making the requisite proof and paying for the land. The entry in this case had 
to be in the name of the heirs of the deceased settler and the patent was issued 

The right to the land commenced from the date of settlement and the party 
making the first settlement upon a tract of public land was entitled to the right of 
preemjjting the same, provided he subsequently complied with all the requirements 
of the law. 

When a person had filed his declaratory statement for one tract of land, it 
was not lawful for the same person, at any future period, to file a second declara- 
tory statement for another tract, unless the first filing was invalid in consequence 
of the land applied for not being subject to preemption, or by determination of 
the land against him in case of contest, or from any similar cause which would 
have prevented him from consummating a preemption under his declaratory 

The assignment of a preemption claim was null and void and vested no right 
or equities in the assignee. 

A person having filed on a tract of land and afterwards relinquishing the 
same to the government, thereby forfeited his right to file again for another 
tract. A party ow-ning 320 acres of land anywhere in the United States could not 
exercise the right of preemption. 

Each qualified preemptor was entitled to 160 acres of either minimum or 
double minimum lands subject to preemption by paying the government price, 
$1.25 per acre for the former class, and $2.50 per acre for the latter class. 

Final proof and payment could not be made until the party had actually re- 
sided upon the land for a period of at least six months, and made the necessary 


cultivation and improvements to show his good faith as an actual settler. This 
proof could be made Ijy one witness. 

The second method of obtaining title to public lands within the state of 
Nebraska was by the Homestead Act of May 20, 1862. By this act "Any person 
who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, 
and is a citizen of the United States, or who shall have filed a declaration of inten- 
tion to become such, and who has never borne arms against the United States 
Government, or given aid and comfort to its enemies, shall be entitled to enter one 
quarter section, or a less quantity of the unappropriated public lands." 

Within the limits of the LTnion Pacific Railroad Land Grant the price of gov- 
ernment land was $2.50 per acre, and the amount allowed for a homestead was re- 
stricted to eighty acres. Exception, however, was made in the case of a soldier 
who had served at least ninety days in the War of the Rebellion and who had 
been honorably discharged; he was entitled to 160 acres of land at $2.50, but 
in all other respects had to comply with the requirements of the Homestead Act. 

To obtain a homestead, the party was required, in connection with his applica- 
tion, to file an affidavit that "he is the head of a family, or over the age of twenty- 
one years, and a citizen of the United States, or has declared his intention to 
become such : that said entry is made for the purpose of actual settlement and 
cultivation : that said application is made for his own exclusive benefit and not 
directly or indirectly for the benefit or use of any other person or persons whom- 
soever." This affidavit had to be made before the register or receiver of the land 
office or before the clerk of the court of the county in which the party was an 
actual resident. When made before the county clerk it had to receive his 
official seal. 

On filing the application and affidavit and paying the required fee and commis- 
sions ($14.00) the entry was permitted. 

No certificate could be given, or patent issued until the expiration of five 
years from the date of said entry, and if at the expiration of said time, or at 
any time within two years thereafter, the person making such entry, or if he was 
dead, his widow, or in case of her death, his heirs or devisee, or in case of a 
widow making such entry, her heirs or devisee in case of her death, had to 
prove by two creditable witnesses, that he, she or they had resided upon and 
cultivated the same for five years immediately succeeding the date of filing the 
affidavit, and had to make affidavit that no part of the said land had been alienated, 
and tliat he had borne true allegiance to the government of the United States, 
that he or she if at that time a citizen of the United States, should be entitled to 
a patent as in other cases provided by law. In case of the death of both parents 
leaving minor children, the land could be sold for cash for the benefit of such 
heirs and the purchaser received a title from the United States. 

Lands entered under the Homestead Act were exeinpt from taxes and liability 
for debts contracted prior to the issuing of the patent therefor. 

When a homestead settler had failed to commence his residence upon the 
land so as to enable him to make a continuous residence of five years within the 
period (seven years) limited by law, he was permitted, upon filing an affidavit 
showing sufficient reasons for his neglect, to date his residence at the time he 
actually commenced such habitancy, and was required to live on the land five 


years from said date, provided no adverse claim was attached to said land, and his 
affidavit was supported by the testimony of disinterested witnesses. 

Lie the case of a death of a homestead settler, who left a widow and children, 
should the widow again marry and continue her residence and cultivation upon 
the land entered in the name of her first husband, she was permitted to make final 
prooi as the widow of the deceased settler, and the patent was issued in the 
name of his heirs. 

When a widow or single woman had made a homestead entry and thereafter 
married a person who had made a similar entry on another tract, it was ruled 
that the parties might select which tract they would retain for permanent resi- 
dence, and would be permitted to enter and pay for the other tract on making 
proof of residence and cultivation up to the date of marriage. They could con- 
tinue to hold both tracts as homesteads. 

If a homestead settler did not wish to remain five years on his land the law 
permitted him to pay for it with cash or warrants, upon making proof of settle- 
ment and cultivation from the date of entry to the time of payment. Tliis proof 
had to be the affidavit of the party, corroborated by the testimony of two creditable 
witnesses. The sale of a homestead claim by one settler to another before com- 
pletion of title was not recognized by the general land office, and not only vested 
no title or equities in the purchaser but would be prima facie evidence of 
abandonment and give cause for the cancellation of the claim. 

The law allowed but one homestead privilege. A settler relinquishing or 
abandoning his claim could not thereafter make a second homestead entry. A per- 
son having made settlement on a surveyed tract and having filed his preemption 
declaration thereof, might change his filing into a homestead, provided no adverse 
claim was attached to the land. 

There was another class of homesteads designated as adjoining farm home- 
steads. The law permitted the applicant in these cases, owning and residing on ai. 
original farm, to enter other land lying contiguous thereto, which should not with 
such original farm exceed in the aggregate i6o acres. Thus, for example, a party 
owning and residing upon eighty acres might enter eighty acres additional of 
$1.25, or forty acres of $2.50 land, if vacant land could be found contiguous to 
his farm. In such cases the settler had to describe in his affidavit the tract he 
owned and lived upon. Actual residence upon the tract entered as an adjoining 
farm was not required, but bona fide improvement and cultivation of it had 
to be shown for five years. 

The right to a tract entered under the Homestead Law commenced from 
the date of entry in the district land office, and not from date of personal settle- 
ment upon the land as in the case of a preemption claim. When an individual 
had made a mistake in the description of the land he desired to enter as a home- 
stead and wished to amend his application he was allowed to do so upon making 
affidavit, sustained by the testimony of two disinterested witnesses, setting forth 
the facts and proving that he resided and had valuable improvements upon the 
tract he first intended and then desired to enter. 

In making final proof the homestead party had to appear in person at the 
land office and there make the affidavit required of him. When from physical 
disability, distance or other good cause, the witnesses of said party could not 
attend in person at the land office, their testimony in support of the claim could 


be taken where they resided, before an officer authorized to administer oaths. 
This testimony had to be tiled in the land office. At the time of making final 
proof the homestead party had to be a citizen of the United States. A declaration 
to become such was not sufficient. 

A homestead settler had to make the tract entered his actual residence and 
home. A temporary occupancy of a few days during each six months would not 
entitle him to the benefits of the Homestead Act ; and a change of residence or an 
abandonment of his claim for six months at any time before the expiration of the 
five years was sufficient cause for the cancellation of his entry. 

A settler might relinquish his homestead to the United States by surrender- 
ing his duplicate, with his relinciuishment endorsed thereon, or if the duplicate had 
been lost, the fact should be stated in the relinquishment duly signed and 

Where application was made for the cancellation of a homestead on the 
ground of abandonment, the complainant had to file his affidavit with the local 
land ofticers, setting forth the facts on which his allegations were founded, 
describing the tract and giving the name of the settler and the date of his 
entry. The officers would then set apart a day for a hearing, giving all parties 
interested due notice of the time and place of the trial. The testimony of two 
witnesses was required to establish the abandonment of a homestead entry. The 
expenses incident to such contest had to be defrayed by the contestant. 

In case of contest or relinquishment another entry could not be made until the 
cancellation was ordered by the conmiissioner of the general land office, and the 
fact that a party instituted proceedings and paid the expenses incident to a 
contest, gave him no prior right to the tract in question, which was open to entry 
to the first qualified applicant. 

A party who had made final proof, or commuted his homestead, or relinquished 
the same, was not thereby disqualified from exercising the right of preemption, 
nor was a person excluded from the benefits of the Homestead Law because he 
had theretofore availed himself of the right of preemption. The law allowed a 
homestead settler six months from the date of his entry in which to erect his 
house and commence his actual residence upon the land. The fees to be paid at 
the district land office were as follows: final declaratory statement. $2.00; making 
homestead entry, $14.00; final homestead proof, $4.00. In making payment with 
land warrants the following fee had to be paid: forty acre warrant, $1.00; eighty 
acre warrant, $2.00; hundred and twenty acre warrant, $3.00; hundred and 
si.xty acre warrant. $4.00. These warrants could be used in payment of $2.50 
lands by paying in addition to the warrant $1.25 per acre. 


There is no definite information as to who took up the first preemption claim 
in Lancaster County, but the supposition is that John D. Prey and sons were the 
ones ; it is established that they were the first to take claims for permanent settle- 
ment. This was in 1856. 

The first homestead in the county entered under the law of 1862 was by 
Captain Donovan, on January 2, 1863. He took a location just east of the present 
site of the state hospital. 


Mr. John S. Gregory, in a speech delivered at an old settlers' meeting at 
Cushman Park on June 19, 1889, said in part : 

"The early summer of 1862 found me residing in eastern Michigan, possessed 
of a comfortable bank account, with the ambition for adventure usual to adoles- 
cent youth and a government commission as United States mail agent, a position 
which enabled me to pass free over the mail routes of the United States, including 
stage lines. .About this time a relative who had passed by the salt basins on his 
return from California called upon us and advised me to take advantage of my 
opportunities and visit them, which 1 immediately proceeded to do. 

"The only railroad line then in operation west of the Mississippi was the 
Hannibal & St. Joe through northern Missouri and I took that route. The road 
was then in possession of the Missouri 'rebs,' their pickets guarding most of the 
stations, but the United States mails were permitted to pass freely, and although 
I wore the livery of Uncle Sam I was not molested. 

"r>om St. Joseph to Plattsmouth I went by stage. At this point public trans- 
portation was at an end, and I hiretl a horse to ride the rest of the way. From 
Weeping Water to the basin I followed an Indian trail over the 'divide,' then an 
absolutely unsettled waste of rolling prairie — not a settler from Weeping Water 
until at Stevens Creek William Shirley had a ranch, a log cabin of two rooms. 

"The older settlers know what an Indian trail is, but as I think some of the 
later ones do not, I will describe it to you. When the roving bands of Indians 
pass from place to place they pile the coverings of the wigwams and their camp 
utensils upon their ponies' back and they fasten the tent poles to each side of the 
loaded pony, the ends dragging along on the ground behind. They often pile 150 
to 200 pounds on the pony, and sometimes a squaw or papoose on top of that. 
Another scjuaw leads the pony and after forty or fifty have passed along in 
Indian file the sod is worn away so that it looks very much like a good wagon 
road. But ponies can pass where wagons cannot, so many a tenderfoot has found 
out to his sorrow. 

"I reached the present site of Lincoln toward evening of a warm day in 
September. No one lived there or had ever lived there previous to that date. 
Herds of beautiful antelope gamboled over its surface during the day and coyotes 
and wolves held possession during the night. Mr. Donovan resided at the 
town (on paper) of Chester about eight miles south. He did not remove to 
Lincoln until 1867. About a mile west on Middle Creek the smoke was rising 
from a camp of Otoe Indians and down in the neck of Oak Creek, where West 
Lincoln now stands, was a camp of about 100 Pawnee wigwams. I rode over 
and that night slept upon my blanket by the side of one of them, and the next 
morning went over to the salt basin. The tread of civilization had not then 
marred its surface. It was smooth and level as any waxen floor. It was covered 
with an incrustation of salt about a quarter of an inch deep, white as the driven 
snow, while the water of the springs was as salt as brine could be. I had seen the 
basin for the first time, in its most favorable aspect, and was naturally quite enthusi- 
astic over its prospects. A roofless and floorless log cabin stood upon the margin, 
built the year before by J. Sterling Morton, who had gone out from Nebraska 
City and 'preempted' the basin ; but it was deserted and desolate. 

"I immediately retraced my steps to Weeping Water, and there bought ox 
teams and wagons, and hired men, and went to work in earnest for the con- 


struction of salt works, which the following year I had in operation and of the 
capacity of about two tons a day. The salt found ready sale to the freighters 
from Denver and the mountain regions beyond, at two to three cents a pound. 
Until the railroads reached the Missouri River and brought eastern salt into 
competition, it was quite profitable work. My first residence was a dug-out, that 
is, an excavation dug into the l)ank of a hill, or rather the creek bank, with a 
big Cottonwood timber for a ridge pole, covered with poles then topped with hay 
and soil. At the rear was a log fireplace. The front was of sod. Rather crude 
was all this, but yet quite comfortable. 

"The County of Lancaster was organized in the spring of 1863 and I had the 
honor of being chairman of the first board of county commissioners. An attempt 
had been made to organize the year before, but it had fallen through because there 
could not be found available men enough in the county to hold the necessary 
oftices. In the spring of 1864 the Lancaster Colony located at Lincoln, com- 
posed of the families of J. M. Young, Dawson, McKesson, Merrill, Giles, Harris, 
Lavender, Warnes, Humerick, Hudson and one or two others whose names I do 
not just now recall. They staked out the town and called it Lancaster and soon 
afterward had the county seat established there. The first postoffice in the county 
was established in 1863 and was named Gregory's Basin. I was appointed post- 
master with a yearly salary of $3.CX). I was also allowed $12 per year for carry- 
ing the mail weekly from Saltillo, then in Clay County." 


In 1864 the following were the tax payers in the townships and the amount 
of land upon which they were taxed. 

Lancaster Township: Joel Mason, 160 acres; Abraham Beales, 560 acres; 
Robert Bogges, 160 acres; Jnlius Cardwell, 160 acres; Gerusha Fonts, 160 acres; 
Erastus Partridge, 120 acres; Richard Wallingford, 320 acres; Jonathan Ball, 
240 acres ; James Couthard, 160 acres ; Henry Simmons, 160 acres ; Robinson, 400 
acres ; Lew Cochran and Chipman, 1400 acres ; J. M. Young, 280 acres ; Bartlett', 
160 acres ; E. H. Eaton, 480 acres ; J. W. Seymour, 320 acres. 

Stephens Creek Township: Adam Meyer, 160 acres; Benjamin Hemple, 80 
acres ; David Huntington, 160 acres ; M. McDonald, 120 acres ; John Lee, 80 acres ; 
W. L. Prey, 480 acres; James Moran, 320 acres; E. H. Eaton, 160 acres; David 
Dennis, 80 acres ; L. J. Loder, 160 acres ; R. E. Farmer, 160 acres ; Michael Harley, 
80 acres; Solomon Deming, 80 acres; J. P. Loder, 160 acres; James E. Neil, 160 
acres; Charles Guthman, 120 acres; H. H. Pettit, 80 acres; Charles Retzlafi', 120 
acres ; Aaron Wood, 80 acres ; John Lemcke, 320 acres ; John Irvin, 80 acres ; E. L. 
Johnson, 2640 acres. 

Saltillo Township: J. \V. Prey, 160 acres; T. R. Prey, 160 acres; D. R. Mills, 
820 acres ; O. E. Boydston and E. Warner, 280 acres ; James Etherton, 160 acres ; 
William E. Hayes, 320 acres; John Cadman, 160 acres; John Hilton. 120 
acres; Edward Hilton, 160 acres; Julian Metcalf, 440 acres; Joel Mason, 
160 acres; Alexander Noble, 160 acres; Morrison Brock, 160 acres; Joshua Buel, 
280 acres ; Michael Allen, 160 acres ; John Foster, 480 acres ; W. W. Dunham, 160 
acres ; G. H. Hilton, 1.240 acres ; William Roggenkamp, 120 acres ; Harmon Beach, 
160 acres ; James Isler, 160 acres ; J. D. Prey, 240 acres ; Solomon Kirk, 40 acres ; 


Stephen Kent, 120 acres; John Seymour, 160 acres; Nancy Seeley, 160 acres; 
Charles Thorngate, 160 acres; Steve Meecham, 120 acres; W. A. WilHams, 160 
acres ; Charles KruU, 40 acres ; L. N. Raskins, 40 acres ; Harmon Beach, 160 acres ; 
John Brunton, 120 acres; John Burtwell, 80 acres; W. E. Keyes, 160 acres; 
Jefferson Wilson, 80 acres; E. L. Warner, 360 acres; J. D. Brown, 160 acres; A. 

B. Thornton, 200 acres; J. B. Wasson, 160 acres. 

Lancaster Township, 1865: Robert Bogges, 160 acres; Julius Cardwell, 160 
acres; E. S. Reed, 80 acres; Jacob Uawson, 160 acres; W. R. Field, 40 acres; 
Editha Dawson, 160 acres ; Wesley Queen, 120 acres ; these are in addition to those 
mentioned in 1864. 

The new ones listed in Stephens Creek, as it was then spelled, in 1865, were: 
Barnhardt Storms, 160 acres; Sam Twist, 40 acres; Owen Marshall, 40 acres; 
W. Jon£s, 120 acres; L. G. Todd, 160 acres; Dennis Dowd, 80 acres; Joseph 
Humes, 40 acres; Robert McClaskey, 120 acres; John Dee, 80 acres; James 
Moran, 320 acres; Robert E. Farmer, 160 acres; Daniel Harrington, 160 acres. 

The tax payers in the Town of Lancaster in 1866 were: J. M. Young, Jacob 
Dawson, Beasley, J. M. McKesson, Nancy A. McKesson, E. H. Hardenberg, 
J. G. Miller, G. Morrill, Calvin Crawford, Charles Crawford, Milton Langdon, 

C. D. Akins, Charles Bloyd, Thomas Hudson, Cyrus Carter, James Riddell, Luke 
Lavender, W. A. Bridge and Peter Billow. 




The first move for the organization of Lancaster County occurred in the fall 
of 1859, when a public meeting was held under the "Great Elm" which stood on 
the east bank of Salt Creek, near what is now the northwest corner of the Burling- 
ton depot grounds in Lincoln. Festus Reed was elected chairman. Mr. Reed 
made a speech to the people assembled, extolling the future greatness of the 
state and county. A. J. Wallingford, Joseph J. Forest and \V. T. Donovan were 
appointed a commission to select a location for a county seat and they chose the 
jiresent site of Lincoln, which was accordingly laid out, in 1864, and given the 
name of Lancaster. In 1863 a part of Clay County, which county had been 
eliminated, was added to Lancaster, giving the latter the area it now has. 864 
square miles. Lancaster County is thirty-six miles in length and twenty-four in 

This division of Clay County between Lancaster and Gage counties was 
largely the work of Mr. John Cadman, a noted pioneer of this territory. Cadman 
and John S. Gregory were both members of the territorial legislature in the 
winter of 1S64, and it was the former's idea to partition Clay County between 
Lancaster and Gage. Gregory, although at first oppose^ to the scheme, finally 
advocated it. The two, unable to plan exactly how the partition was to be 
effected, sought the counsel of T. M. Marquett who then represented the city in 
the so-called council. His management of the affair was very satisfactory. 
Cadman was working for the location of the county seat of Lancaster at Yankee 
Hill, near the present state hospital, and which he had staked off into a town. 
Elder Young platted the town of Lancaster in the summer of 1864 and he also 
wished to have the county seat for his town. John S. Gregory had persuaded the 
legislature to appropriate $500.00 for a bridge over Salt Creek in Lancaster 
County, with a view of having it located at Lancaster. Tlie commissioners who 
were appointed to view the ground for the purpose of selecting the jM-ojier place 
for the bridge were equally attracted by Cadman's and Young's arguments, so, 
not being able to favor one side above the other, simply divided the money 
between the two. Thus, with the aid of local subscriptions, a bridge was built 
across Salt Creek at each place. Lancaster had the benefit of th> salt basin 
and Yankee Hill was located on the freight road from the Missouri Ri\-er. 

In old Clay County the settlers had established what they thought would be 
a county seat at Olathe and when Cadman managed to have the county al)olished 



they naturally became enemies of his and planned revenge in some way. Their 
opportunity came in the county seat election of the summer of 1864 in the W. W. 
Cox house just south of the great basin ; when the votes were counted Lancaster 
had won and was officially declared the county seat. Mr. Cox, in his article on 
"The Beginning of Lincoln and Lancaster County" upon another page of this 
volume narrates rather humorously the county seat fight as he saw it. 


One of the first elections upon record as having been held in what is now 
Lancaster County was that of October 10, 1850. which election had been ordered 
by the commissioners of Cass County, to which the unorganized county west was 
attached for election and judicial purposes. This election was held at the house 
of William Shirley on Stevens Creek. A. J. ^^'a!lingford, J. J. Forest and 
W. T. Donovan were chosen county commissioners ; Richard A\'allingford was 
elected county treasurer; L. J. Loder, county clerk; and John P. Loder, county 

On October 9, 1S60 a general election occurred, being held at the house of 
W. T. Donovan for Lancaster County. Twenty-three votes were cast. The 
following names were inscribed on the official poll list : Jeremiah Showalter, 
Richard Wallingford, J. D. Main, C. F. Retzlafl:', Jonathan Ball, Hiram Allen, 
Benjamin Eaves, Festus Reed, Daniel Harrington, James Coultard, Benjamin 
Hemple, William Shirley, James Moran, J. J. Forest, E. L. Reed, Michael Shea, 
L. J. Loder, John Dee, A. J. Wallingford, Aaron Wood, Lucius West, J. P. 
Loder and W. T. Donovan. For delegate to Congress J. Sterling Morton 
received 11 votes and Samuel G. Dailey 12. For councilman, equivalent to a 
state senator, T. M. Marquett received 13 votes and W. R. Davis 2. For joint 
or float councilman Samuel H. Ebert received 15 votes and Mr. Cozad i. For 
representative William Gilmore had 16 votes; Louden Mullen, 15; W. R. Davis, 
16; William Reed, 16; E. W. Barnum, 12; and J. N. Wise, 6. For county officers 
the following were chosen: commissioner for one year, J. J. Forest; for two 
years, A. J. Wallingford; for three years, W. T. Donovan; treasurer, Richard 
Wallingford; clerk, J. P. Loder. There was no candidate for sheriff, prosecuting 
attorney or coroner. Festus Reed and Richard Wallingford were elected justices 
of the peace and C. F. Retzlafl' and James Coultard constables. 

On October 8, 1861 the county election was held at the home of James Moran 
and fourteen votes only were cast. Several new names appeared upon the poll 
list, such as E. Galvin, E. L. Barrett. T. G. Maxwell and Michael McDonald. 
J. T. Forest was elected county commissioner; Festus Reed, probate judge; L. J. 
Loder, sheriff' ; J. P. Loder, clerk; C. L. Barrett, assessor; T. G. Maxwell and 
J. Moran, justices of the peace; and Jonathan Ball and C. F. Retzlafl. constables. 

At the election of October 14, 1862 the division of the county into two pre- 
cincts was disregarded. Fourteen votes were cast by the following : Messrs. 
Cox, Mason, Foster. Calkin, Chatterton, Blunt, Wallingford, Ball, Chambers, 
Loder, Maxwell, \'an Benthusen, Donovan and Coultard. T. M. Marquett 
received 12 votes for councilman for the district. George L. Seybolt received 
10 and T- E- Doom 3 votes for joint councilman. Five other Cass County men 
received votes for representative and T. G. Maxwell received 13 for the same 


office, Ijut the other counties in the district not favoring him so much, he was 
not elected. Joel Mason was elected commissioner. 

In 1863 the county election was held on October 13th. Fifty-five votes were 
cast in Lancaster County. J. S. Gregory, William Shirley and P. S. Schamp were 
elected commissioners; Milton Langdon was made clerk; Richard Wallingford, 
treasurer; Joseph Chambers, sheriff; J. J. Forest, surveyor; Dr. John Crim, 
coroner; J. D. Main, probate judge. J. S. Gregory was elected to the state 
legislature for the representative district to which Lancaster belonged and John 
Cadman. who li\ed in the part of the county then belonging to Clay County, was 
elected for Clay, Johnson and Gage counties. He was responsible for the 
obliteration of Clay County and the division of the territory between Lancaster 
and Gage. 

At the territorial election of October 11, 1864, John Cadman was elected 
to the house of representatives for Lancaster County and William Imlay for 
the representative district composed of Lancaster, Seward and Saline counties. 
Richard Wallingford was elected county commissioner; P. S. Schamp, surveyor; 
and Milton Langdon, prosecuting attorney. 

At the general election of October 10, 1865, 125 votes were polled. August 
Kountz for territorial treasurer, John Gillespie for auditor, received 100 votes 
each, while S. G. Goodman and John Seaton, their opponents, received 6 votes 
each. John Cadman was again elected representative for Lancaster County and 
Joel Mason for the district composed of Lancaster, Seward and Saimders 
counties. The county officers elected were: Milton Langdon, clerk; Luke 
Lavender, probate judge; S. S. Snyder, county commissioner; William Guy, 
treasurer; W. Ingram, coroner; J. S. Gregory, prosecuting attorney; P. S. 
Schamp, surveyor. 

On June 2. 1866, an election was held under the state constitution, prepared 
by the territorial legislature of 1865-6, at which 165 votes were cast in Lancaster 
County. Davitl Butler received 112 and J. Sterling Morton received 53 votes 
for the office of governor : there were 95 votes for the constitution and 53 against 
it. John Cadman was elected senator to the state legislature, which was the first, 
and met July 4th. James Queen of Lancaster was elected representative from 
Lancaster, Seward and Saunders counties. His opponent, J. L. Davison, of 
Seward, contested the election of Queen and the contest was pending when the 
legislature adjourned after an eight days" session. Ezra Tullis was elected 
representative from the county. 

At the October election of the same year, pending the admission of Nebraska 
as a state, 199 votes were cast. J. E. Doom of Cass was elected territorial 
councilor and state senator from Cass and Lancaster; E. K. Clark, of Seward, 
representative from Lancaster, Seward and Saunders ; E. H. Hardenberg, rep- 
resentative from Lancaster County, to both state and national legislatures. 
Hardenberg resigned at the close of the session of the territorial legislature in 
March, 1867, and John Cadman was elected to fill the vacancy in the state legis- 
lature which was called shortly afterward. John W. Prey was elected county 

At the county election on October 8, 1S67, there were 235 votes cast. The 
officers elected were: Silas Pratt, commissioner; John Cadman. probate judge; 


S. B. Galey, county clerk; J. H. Hawke, sheriff; M. Langdon, treasurer; Ezra 
Tullis, surveyor; F. A. Bidwell, school commissioner; Emil Lange, coroner. 

At the election of 1868, held October nth, there were 460 votes polled. 
David Butler received 320 and J. R. Porter 123 votes for governor. C. H. Gere 
was elected senator for the district composed of Lancaster, Saline, Gage, Pawnee 
and Jefferson counties. Ezra Tullis was chosen representative from the county; 
W. R. Fields was elected county commissioner. Seth Robinson of Lancaster was 
appointed attorney general by Governor Butler. 

The county election of October 10, i8(xj brought forth 562 votes. S. B. Pound 
was elected probate judge over J. M. Bradford by a vote of 392 to 170. 
Capt. R. A. Bain was elected clerk ; John Cadnian. treasurer; Sam McClay, sheriff ; 
Milton Langdon, surveyor; Robert Faulkner and D. H. Sudduth, commissioners; 
Allen M. Ghost, superintendent of iniblic instruction ; Dr. D. W. Tingley, coroner. 
At the election of October 11, 1870, 1,116 votes were cast. For governor, 
David Butler received 798 votes and John H. Croxton received 318. Col. A. J. 
Cropsey of Lancaster was elected senator for the district, and S. B. Galey 
representative for the county. 

An election was held May 2, 1871, to choose delegates to the constitutional 
convention which met in June. Seth Robinson and J. N. Cassell were elected to 
represent the county ; Col. J. E. Philpott, of Lancaster, from the eleventh sena- 
torial district, of Lancaster and Seward ; and W. H. Curtis, of Pawnee, for the 
fourteenth representative district, composed of Lancaster, Saunders, Johnson, 
Pawnee and Gage. 

At the election on the new constitution, held September 19th of the same year, 
1,415 votes were cast — 1,237 for the new constitution and 178 against it. The con- 
stitution, however, was not adopted. 

There were 1,259 votes cast at the county election of October loth of the 
same year. The following were elected: J. D. Lottridge, county commissioner; 
A. L. Palmer, probate judge; R. O. Phillips, clerk; R. A. Bain, treasurer; A. M. 
Ghost, superintendent of pubHc instruction; J. T. Murphy, surveyor; and Dr. J. G. 
Fuller, coroner. 

There were 1,736 votes polled at the election of October 8, 1872. S. B. Pound, 
of Lancaster, was elected senator for the eleventh district ; S. G. Owen and 
A. K. White, representatives for the county ; and M. H. Sessions, of Lancaster, 
representative for the fourteenth district. Henry Spellman was elected county 
commissioner. ]. J. Gosper, of Lancaster, was chosen secretary of state. 

At the county election of October 14, 1873, there were 1,927 votes polled. 
The officers elected were: J. Z. Briscoe, commissioner; A. L. Palmer, probate 
judge; R. O. Phillips, clerk: Charles C. White, treasurer; Sam McClay, sheriff; 
Dr. L O. Carter, coroner; Tom L Atwood, surveyor; J. W. Cassell, superintend- 
ent public instruction. 

The election of October 13, 1874, was decided by 2,038 voters. For governor, 
Silas Garber received 1,382 votes, Albert Tuxbury 287, J. H. Gardner 170 and 
Tarvis S. Church 139. C. C. Burr was elected senator for the eleventh district; 
Alfred G. Hastings and Louis Helmer, representatives for the county ; and 
Thomas P. Chapman, of Saunders, for the fourteenth representative district. 
Dr. H. D. Gilbert was elected county commissioner and A. G. Scott superintendent 
of public instruction, the latter to fill a vacancy. On the question of a constitu- 


tional convention there were 1,069 ayes to 558 noes. At the election for members 
of the constitutional convention held on April 6, 1875, S. B. Pound and C. H. 
Gere, of Lincoln. C. W. Pierce, of Waverly, and J. L!. Hawley, of Firth, were 
elected to represent the county. 

At the state election under the proposed new constitution, and the county 
election, both occurring October 12, 1875, there were 2,360 votes polled. S. B. 
Pound, of Lancaster, received 1,533 and G. B. Scofield, of Otoe, 727 votes for 
the office of judge of the .second judicial district. The county officers elected 
were: W. E. Keys county commissioner; A. G. Scott, county judge; William A. 
Sharrar, clerk; Charles C. White, treasurer; Sam McClay, sheriff; Dr. A. C. 
Gibson, coroner ; S. G. Lamb, superintendent public instruction ; J. P. Walton, 
surveyor. For the new constitution there were 2,119 votes and against it 109. 

At the state election November, 1876, 2,911 votes were polled. For the office 
of governor Silas Garber received 1,947 votes, Paren England 712, and J. F. 
Gardner 252. The senators elected from the county, which was now entitled 
to two, were Thomas P. Kennard, of Lincoln, and Cyrus N. Baird, of Oak Creek. 
The representatives elected were R. O. Phillips and W. C. Griffith, of Lincoln, 
John Cadman, of Yankee Hill, and Henry Spellman, of Saltillo. J. N. Wilcox 
was elected commissioner. 

At the election of 1877 A. D. Burr was elected clerk ; Louis Helmer, treasurer; 
J. S. Hoagland, sheriff; J. R. Webster, county judge; G. S. Lamb, superintendent 
of public instruction; J. P. Walton, surveyor; E. T. Piper, coroner; H. D. Gilbert, 
commissioner; and C. W. Pierce, state senator, to fill vacancy. 

For the office of governor in the election of 1878, Albinus Nance received 
1,971 votes, W. H. Webster 433, and L. G. Todd 409. There were 2,818 votes 
cast. M. B. Cheney and E. E. Brown were elected to the senate, and S G. Owen, 
W. W. Carder, M. H. Sessions and T. R. Burling were elected to the house. 
John McClay was elected commissioner. 

At the election of November, 1879, W. J. Weller was elected county com- 
missioner; J. E. Philpott, judge; L. E. Cropsey, clerk; Louis Helmer, treasurer; 
Granville Ensign, sherifif; A. D. Burr, clerk of the district court; E. T. Piper, 
coroner; H. S. Bowers, superintendent of public instruction; and J. P. Walton, 
surveyor. S. B. Pound was elected judge of the second judicial district for a 
second term. 

At the state election of 1880 there were 4,778 votes cast. For governor, 
Albinus Nance received 3.397 votes and T. W. Tipton 1,381. The senators 
elected were C. H. Gere and C. W. Pierce. The representatives chosen were 
N. C. Abbott, C. O. Whedon, N. T. McClunn and R. B. Graham. W. E. G. 
Caldwell was elected commissioner. 

At the county election of 1881 the following officers were chosen: R. B. 
Graham, treasurer; John M. McClay, clerk; C. ^L Parker, judge; H. C. Reller, 
commissioner; H. S. Bowers, superintendent of public instruction; Granville 
Ensign, sheriff; J. P. Walton, surveyor; A. J. Shaw, coroner. 

At the state election of 1882 there were 4,841 votes cast. The vote for 
governor was as follows: James W. Dawes, 3,328; J. Sterling Morton, 1,099; 
E. P. IngersoU, 391. The amendment for sutTrage was defeated by 2,697 to 
1,471. For senators to the state for the sixteenth district the vote was: P. H. 
Walker, 2,708; E. E. Brown, 2,651; A. J. Sawyer, 2,190; the former two were 


elected. The representatives chosen were : C. O. Whedon, A. W. Field, H. Wes- 
senberg, J. W. Worl, M. H. Sessions and W. H. Westcott. W. J. Weller was 
elected commissioner. W. W. W. Jones, of Lancaster, was elected state superin- 
tendent of public instruction and C. H. Gere a regent of the university. 

The election of November 6, 1883, resulted as follows: S. B. Pound was 
elected judge of the second judicial district; for treasurer, R. B. Graham received 
3,148 votes, J. W. Crist 1,250; for clerk, J. H. McClay received 3,142 votes, 
A. W. Irvine 1,221 ; for clerk of district court, E. R..Sizer was elected with 3,093 
votes without opposition; for sheritl, S. M. Melick received 2,274 votes, P. H. 
Cooper 2,117; for county judge, C. M. Parker 3,095, John Williams 1,270; for 
coroner, N. J. Beachley 3.023, H. B. Lowrey 1,377, N. S. Scott 20; for surveyor, 
J. P. Walton 3,043, H. S. Bowers 3,006, H. J. Whitmore 1.430; for senator to 
fill vacancy, Levi Snell ; for commissioner, W. E. G. Caldwell 2.544, J. Z. Briscoe 


Election of November 4, 1884 — For governor, James W. Dawes 3.785, 
J. Sterling Morton 2,340, J. G. Miller 230; for commissioners, H. C. Reller 3,931, 
William Roggenkamp 2,179, L. C. Humphrey i, J. Roggenkamp 57; for town- 
ship organization, 2,695, against it, 1,640; representatives, S. W. Burnham, Wil- 
liam B. Brandt, H. J. Liesveldt, A. W. Field, J. B. Wright were elected ; Carlos 
C. Burr and Alva Smith were elected senators. 

Election of November 3, 1885 — For judge of the second judicial district 
James L. Mitchell was chosen. For township organization, 2,339, against it, 1,516. 
For treasurer, Jacob Rocke received 2.588 votes, Austin Humphrey 2,327, Reese 
Larkin 251. For sheriff. S. M. Melick 3,374, R. H. Moffatt 1480, D. B. Howard 
312. For county judge, Charles M. Parker 3,427, M. L. Easterday 1,446, N. S. 
Scott 317. For county clerk, O. C. Bell 3,447. C. W. Heffley 1,429, Job Hiatt 298. 
For register of deeds, John H. McClay 3.332, W. E. Bowers 69. For surveyor, 
J. P. Walton 3.334. J. J. Kouhn 1.442. For coroner, E. T. Roberts 2,997, S. R. 
Blizzard 1,753. J. Hoover 340. For county superintendent, Frank D. McCluskey 
3,311, D. C. Berry 1,498, Mrs. Belle Bigelow 342. For county commissioner, 
Alba Brown 3,185, L. P. Loder 1,644, J- Thompson 280. 

Election of November 2, 1886 — For governor, John M. Thayer 3.985, James 
E. North 1,924, H. W. Hardy 925. For judge of the second judicial district, 
Samuel M. Chapman 3.805, W. W. English i, M. L. Hay ward 80. S. W. Burn- 
ham and R. E. Moore were elected state senators. J. L. Caldwell. John W. Dick- 
inson, George Eggleston, H. J. Liesveldt, I. M. Raymond and Jerome Schamp 
were elected representatives. For county commissioner, H. H. Schaberg received 
3,856 votes, P. W. O'Connor 2,047, ^V. E. Bowers 913. For county attorney. 
R. D. Stearns 4,066, F. W. Lewis 1,675, R- D. Rhea 803, G. A. Bush 145. For 
township organization, 2,301, against it, 1,867. 

Election of May 31, 1887 (Special) — For court house bonds and tax 2.416. 
against 612. Little Salt Precinct voted 21-3 in favor, also Mill Precinct by 77-0. 
but Nemaha, North Bluff, Panama, Rock Creek, South Pass, Stockton, and 
West Oak Precincts voted against the proposition. 

Election of November 8, 1887 — For judge of the second judicial district, 
Allen W. Field 3.158, S. M. Chapman 3,469, A. J. Sawyer 2,375, D. T. Hayden 
1,237, Ada C. Bittenbender 638. For treasurer, Jacob Rocke 3,799. Austin 
Humphrey 116, Louis Helmer 1,004. For clerk of the district court, E. R. Sizer 


3,632, A. V. Johnson 1,330, A. H. Humphrey 690. For county clerk, O. C. Bell 
3,641, J. W. Crist 1,303, S. C. Louden 670, James H. Craddock 31. For sheriff, 
S. M. Melick 3,416, Charles Cook 1,602, N. E. Melick 612. For county judge, 
Willard E. Stewart 3,499, M. L. Easterday 1,467, John A. Rollins 665. For 
register of deeds, John D. Knight 3,585, E. H. Zernecke 1,281, J. J. Sittler 708. 
For commissioner, Thomas J. Dickson 3,564, C. D. Buhrmann 1,349, O. S. Hazle- 
ton 732. For county superintendent, Frank D. McCluskey 3,636, Paul Stockfeldt 
1,307, Belle G. Bigelow 673. For surveyor, J. P. Walton 3,500, E. J. Robinson 
1,385, N. S. Scott 708. For coroner, C. A. Shoemaker 3,504, H. B. Lowrey 1,445, 
L. F. Polk 696. For township organization 1,430, against it 780. 

Election of November 6, 1888 — For governor, John M. Thayer 5,440, John A. 
McShane 3,610, George E. Bigelow 811. The senators elected were L M. Ray- 
mond and S. W. Beardsley. The representatives chosen for the thirtieth dis- 
trict were C. L. Hall, J. L. Caldwell, J. W. Dickinson, F. C. Severin, J. C. McBride. 
For county attorney, R. D. Stearns 5,692, N. D. Baker 3,399, Clayton M. Osborn 
846. For commissioner. Alba Brown 5,373, Ferdinand Schweitzer 3,622, Jacob N. 
Malone 812. The total vote was 10,039. 

Election of November 5, 1889 — For treasurer, S. W. Burnham 3,998, Joseph 
Wittmann 2,044, A. Roberts 433, O. Hull 122. For sheriff, Samuel McClay 3,787, 
P. H. Cooper 2,409, Robert McCartney 368. For county judge, Willard E. 
Stewart 4,152, J. D. Calhoun 1,937, A. C. Ricketts 457. For county clerk, Martin 
Howe 4,197, J. E. Davey 1,904, W. A. Hartley 450. For register of deeds, 
John D. Knight 4,169, W. H. Stubblefield 1,891, Silas L. Will 472. For surveyor, 
Winfield S. Scott 3,865, Adna Dobson 2,273, N. S. Scott 403. For coroner, E. L. 
Holyoke 4,250, T. F. Britt 1,844, A. D. Guile 452. For county superintendent, 
F. D. McCluskey 4,214, J. C. McCargar 1,799, ^^s. Dr. King 423, J. Oliver 113. 
Por commissioner, Henry Schaberg 4,119, J. Z. Briscoe 1,844, F. A. Hovey 569. 
For township organization, 1,854, against it, 2,263. The total vote polled was 

Election of November 4, 1890 — For governor, Lucius D. Richards 4,728, 
James E. Boyd 3,212, John H. Powers 2,976, B. L. Paine 470. For senators of 
twentieth district, J. M. Thompson and James B. Taylor had the majority of 
votes in the county. For representatives of the thirtieth district, R. H. Oakley, 
J. J. Gillilan, A. J. Cornish, F. Charles .Severin, J. C. F. McKesson received the 
majority of votes. For commissioners, W. E. Churchill 5,204, Joseph McGraw 
4,819. T. J. Dickson 5,147, J. W. Crist 2,588, Joseph Wittmann 3,441, John 
Schmidt 2,693, August Anderson 2,834, L. S. Gillick 2,877, D. A. Stocking 2,821, 
Lorenzo Leavitt 630, A. L. Frazier 651, Reese Larkin 621. For senators of the 
seventeenth district, R. E. ]\Ioore and G. W. Eggleston received the majority of 
votes. For county attorney, D. G. Courtney 4,480, N. Z. Snell 6,435, I^- S. 
Mockett 238. For township organization 3360, against it 2,234. 

Election of November 3, 1891 — For district judge. Bittenbender 528, Crom- 
well 2,848, A. W. Field 4,436, C. L. Hall 4,175, William Leese 3,364, C. M. 
Osborn 419, C. M. Parker 2,749, J. A. Rollins 439, A. S. Tibbetts 4,036. For 
county treasurer, S. W. Burnham 4,338, O. Hull 3,302, A. Roberts 534. For 
sheriff. W. F. Elfeldt 2,594. W. F. Hillman 417, M. E. Hubbard 1,724, Samuel 
McClay 3,597. For clerk of the district court, Elias Baker 3.358, Madison 
Bentley 401, C. L. Eaton 1,300, C. E. Waite 3,217. For county clerk, W. S. 


Demarc 2,633, D. X. Johnson 497, J. W. Keenan 1,332, J. D. Woods 3,745. For 
superintendent public instruction, J. S. Baer 3,860, H. S. Bowers 3,696, E. D. 
Harris 449. For commissioner, A. W. Carver 1,388, L. C. Corey 522, Mat Maule 
2,539, J- FI. Westcott 3,672. For county judge, I. W. Lansing 3.282, J. L. Mack 
422, Whitmore 2,080, W. S. Wynn 2,414. For coroner, T. F. Britt 1,438, F. D. 
Crim Z-772' T- E. Hosman 2,402, L. D. Perky 497. For surveyor, Thomas 
Doubt 559, E. J. Robinson 3,390, W. S. Scott 4,139. 

Election of November 8, 1892 — For governor, C.,E. Bentley 575, L. Crounse 
5,276, J. Sterling Morton 1,796, C. H. \"an Wyck 3,186. For senator of the 
twentieth district, C. Cheney 573, J. C. Crooker 1,851, G. W. Eggleston 5,322, S. D. 
Fitchie 542, W. P. Larsh 1,859, I- ^^- Leonard 2,730, J. C. McNerney 2,649, R. E. 
Moore 5,053. For representatives of the thirtieth district, S. M. Benedict 738, 
Joe Bums 5,319, R. T. Chambers 3,145, A. J. Cornish 5,277, J. C. Doubt 557, 
J. D. Frederick 522, S. S. Griffin 2,866, G. E. Hauser 1,936, Mart Howe 2,984, 
D. W. Huff 1,798 S. C. Louden 578, J. C. F. McKesson 5,240, J. M. Meddens 
2,718, F. H. Nagel 1,865, R- H. Oakley 5,315, A. H. Carmenter 519, A. Peterson 
2,818, J. W. Snowden 1.863, E. R. Spencer 5,227. For district judge, G. W. 
Berge 490, William Leese 2,715, J. B. Strode 5,220, S. J. Tuttle 2,142. For 
county attorney, H. F. Rose 4139, Z. A. Wilson 536, W. H. Woodward 5,225. 
For commissioner, Fred Beckman 5.575, H. W. Hardy JTJ, F. Schweitzer 3,687. 

Election of November 7,1893 — For county clerk, W. A. Loder 479, J. E. R. 
Miller 4,105, J. D. Woods 4,837. For register of deeds, Lyman H. Babcock 3,509, 
John Harrop 5,127, George B. Leonard 528. For treasurer, ]\I. M. Cobb 4,541, 
Hiram Polly 607, Fred Schmidt 4,248. For county judge, O. W. Cromwell 3,897, 
I. W. Lansing 4,694, S. A. Quincy 554. For sheriff, Fred A. Miller 4,651, 
Charles M. Ring 1,052, Alba Smith 3,749. For surveyor, Thomas Doubt 628, 
John Rawlins 1.833, W. E. Scott 5 131, P. S. Schamp 1.639. For coroner, J. G. 
Cotter 1,776, F. D. Crim 4,825, L. W. Edwards 2,011, T. J. Merriman 554. For 
county superintendent, J. S. Baer 5,312, A. R. Wightmann 3,406. For com- 
missioner, Eli Bates 501, I. W. Chappell 2936, George Exley 509, Joseph McGraw 
985, J. Charles Miller 4,169. 

Election of November 6, 1894 — For governor, E. A. Gerrard 356, Silas A. 
Holcomb 4.275, Thomas J. Majors 6,997, P- D. Sturdevant 221. For senator 
twentieth district, Robert T. Chambers 3,773, J. C. F. McKesson 6,689, Hiram 
Polly 466, Thomas E. Stevens 3,865, M. L. Trestor 529, John B. Wright 6644. 
For representative thirtieth district, Joseph Burns 6,535, C. S. Burton 1,343, 
Clark Cheney 583, O. N. Dunn 3,920, Frank D. Eager 4,080, Henry Harkson 
6,744, John Hartline 2,504, Arthur Herrick 3,893, Charles S. Jones 3.997, W. A. 
Loder 505, J. L. Love 478, T. C. Munger 6,781, W. D. Robinson 6,444, A. W. 
Smith 632, E. R. Spencer 6,541, J. M. Waugh 488. For county attorney, H. C. 
Bittenbender 452, Frederick Shepherd 4,311, W. H. Woodward 6696. For county 
commissioner, J. E. Davey 1,091, J. H. Westcott 6708, George S. Paswater 3,015, 
S. L. Wright 494. For county judge, George W. Berge 4,746. Lara A. Wilson 
1,663. For trustee of sanitary district, William Robertson. 

Election of November 5, 1895 — For district judge, H. C. Bittenbender 544, 
George F. Collins 867, A. J. Cornish* 5.340, S. L. Geisthardt 1,150, Charles L. Hall 
5,776, Edward P. Holmes 5,706, J. L. Mack 518, James C. McNerney 1,771, 
H. F. Rose 1,931, Addison S. Tibbetts 3,393. For trea.surer, Maxey M. Cobb 


6,157, Hiram Polly 1,873, Joseph Wittman 1,359. For county clerk, M. T. Gil- 
bert 530, Sidney Spence 1,054, A. M. Trimble 5,722, George H. Walters 2,023. 
For commissioner, W. H. Atwood 1,097, Fred Beckman 6,051, R. E. Richardson 
2,067. For clerk of the district court, Elias Baker 4,003, J. G. P. Hilderbrand 
390, Sam E. Low 5,092. For sheriff, C. W. Beecher 331, J. C. Kelly 215, Fred A. 
Miller 4,184, John J. Trompen 4,917. For county judge, John J. Angleton 753, 
George W. Berge 3,211, S. T. Cochran 5,226. For county superintendent, J. S. 
Baer 5,990, Susan K. Daily 444, L. M. F. Easterday 867, F. E. Parish 528, 
John G. Sidell 1,507. For surveyor, Thomas E. Doubt 922, G. PL Ellsworth 
1,945, W. S. Scott 6,101. For coroner, Lee W. Edwards 904, A. D. Guile 650, 
R. A. Holyoke 5,469, H. B. Lowrey 1,858, G. M. Smith 440. 

November 3, 1896 — For governor, Robert S. Bibb loi, Richard A. Hawley y^, 
Silas A. Holcomb 5,741, John H. MacCoU 6,115, Charles Sadilek 20, Joel Warner 
96. For senators twentieth district, O. N. Humphrey 5,165, James Kilburn 237, 
W. A. Loder 220, E. R. Spencer 5,848, A. R. Talbot 5,863, Owsley Wilson 4,720. 
For representatives thirtieth district, E. J. Burkett 6,420, Paul F. Clark 6,294, 
Hans Dierks 5,365, J. M. Doubt 139, T. E. Doubt 209, G. PL Exley 121, James 
Gray 5,224, W. F. Hillman 173, C. Y. Long 5,173, M. H. Mills 6,105, O. P. New- 
branch 5,168, George Shuss 164, F. L. Sumpter 5,202, Charles E. Waite 6,090, 
E. \Miite 208. T. M. Wimberly 6,137, A. N. Wycloff 241. For treasurer, S. W. 
Beardsley 5,241, Pliram Polly 238, A. L. Sullivan 6,198. For attorney, H. C. 
Bittenbender 251, O. P. Davis 5,180, T. C. Munger 5,905. For commissioner, 
M. Caldwell 257, J. Charles Miller 6,138, William Nelson 5,068. There were 
12,661 votes cast at this election. 

Election of November 2, 1897 — For treasurer, A. L. Sullivan 5,202, J. F. 
Bishop 4,615, Hiram Polly 151, J. W. Waugh 29, L. S. Gillick 3. For sheriff, 
John T. Trompen 5,312, Robert Malone 4,504, C. W. Beecher 152, W. F. Hill- 
man 34, R. L. Boulding 4. For clerk, A. M. Trimble 5,291, H. F. Baer 4,472, 
George Shuss 135, S. D. Fitchie 34, P. S. George 8. For county judge, S. T. 
Cochran 5,130, C. S. Rainbolt 4,582, A. G. Wolfenbarger 198, Frank G. Odell 31. 
For register of deeds, George T. Woods 4,526, Paul H. Holm 5,206, James Kil- 
burn 170, W. A. Loder 42, A. Dresback 3. For county superintendent, W. A. 
Hawes 5,130, T. T. Anderson 4,635, Mrs. M. A. S. Monagon 136. For surveyor, 
W. S. Scott 5.249, R. A. Trail 4,475, T. C. Doubt 163. For commissioner, G. W. 
Welton 5,052, A. E. Sutherland 4,647, G. W. Hewitt 137, George H. Exley 35, 
John T. Reid 8. For coroner, R. A. Holyoke 5,037, R. L. Bentley 4,685, 
T. J. Merriman 196. There were 10,155 votes polled. 

Election of November 8, 1898 — For governor, M. L. Hayward 5,692, W. A. 
Poynter 4,497, R. V. Muir 174, H. S. Aley ^2. For senator twentieth district, 
A. R. Talbot 5,531, Jacob Rocke. 5,475, J. H. Harley 4,538, J. J. Stein 4,310, 
James Hill 160, T. M. Hodgeman 177, A. V. Herman 29, I. Martenson 29. For 
representatives thirtieth district, Paul F. Clark 5,504, Arthur W. Lane 5,564, 
Joseph Burns 5,235, George W. Anderson 5,539, Henry Harkson 5.500, Louis N. 
Wente 4.657, C. W. Phipps 4,411, A. E. Sheldon 4,520. J. H. Duryea 4,357, 
C. E. Sisler 4,410, H. H. Hurd 170, Clark Cheney 173, F. G. FrankHn 170, Elisha 
White 178, T. J. Merriman 183. For district judge, Lincoln Frost 5,548, S. J- 
Tuttle 4,501, George H. Buck i. For commissioner, Fred Beckman 5,278, 


William Schroeder 4,679, C. E. Hedges 191. For attorney, T. C. Hunger 5,641, 
John Carr 4,307. There were 10,527 votes cast. 

Election of November 7, 1899— For district judge, E. P. Holmes 5,636, 
Lincoln Frost 5,787, A. J. Cornish 5,448, T. J. Doyle 4,504, G. E. Hibner 4,391, 
Robert Wheeler 4,146. For clerk of district court, W. C. Phillips 5,734, A. E. 
Lindell 4,286, C. E. Hedges 289. For treasurer, A. H. Buckstaff 4,430, William 
McLaughlin 5,445, J. C. De Putron 385. For county clerk, D. A. Frye 5,682, 
William Highberger 4,311, N. M. Somerville 273.. For sheriff, Z. S. Branson 
5,161, P. H. Cooper 4,934, C. W. Beecher 279. For county judge, F. R. Waters 
5^076! Fred Shepherd 4,968, Thomas McCulloch 291. For county commissioner, 
Samuel Tilton 5,510, John J. Meyer 4,655. For county superintendent, William A. 
Hawes 5,796, F. E. Parish 4,084, Mrs. M. A. S. Monagon 303. For surveyor, 
W. S. Scott was elected by 7,297 votes. For coroner, F. A. Graham 5,365, R. L. 
Bentley 4,422, T. J. Merriman 292. The total vote was 10,686. 

Election of November 6, 1900 — For governor, Charles H. Dietrich received 
7,027 votes, William A. Poynter 5,654. Lucius O. Jones 421, Taylor Flick 30, 
Theodore Kharas 18. For senators twentieth district, Richard O'Neill 7,173, 
John Trompen 6,884, A. S. Tibbetts 5,514. T. J. Doyle 5,297, J. P. Kettlewell 
291, E. E. White 283, Fred Herman 38. J. C. Kucera 29. For representatives 
thirtieth district, A. W. Lane 7,117, John H. Mockett, Jr., 7,095, C. R. Tefft 
6,968, E. J. Shellhorn 6,944. Charles T. Warner 6,952, M. W. Cochrane 5,551, 
Henry Schaal 5,496, J. E. Miller 5,608, J. C. Muggleton 5,330, William Nelson 
5,422, R. E. Howard 313, H. L. Powers 292, Bert Reynolds 296, Thomas Mc- 
Cullo'ugh 288, A. K. Wright 262, J. Martenson 31, Emil Ittig 24, C. Herman 36, 
A. Caslavsky 23, M. Herman 28. For county attorney, James L. Caldwell 7,187, 
F. L. Sumpter 5,235, H. C. Bittenbender 349. For commissioner, George W. 
Welton 6,614, A. E. Sutherland 5,614, G. W. Selby 294. There were 13,864 votes 
cast at this election. 

Election of November 5, 1901 — For treasurer, B. F. Knight 4,457, William 
McLaughlin 3,733, C. E. Hedges 216. For county clerk, D. A. Frye 5,231, J. T. 
Wiesman 2,812, Ebenezer Brown 270. For sheriff, Z. S. Branson 5,461, A. Wan- 
mer 2,360, J. H. Ayres 260. For county judge, F. R. Waters 5,211, R. H. Hagelin 
2,777, C. Fordyce 352. For register of deeds, J. D. Moore 4,043, J. J. Anderson 
4,006, T. McCullough 223. For commissioner, A. D. Borgelt 1,519, Joseph 
Wittman 7S0, F. Thompson 44. For county superintendent, W. A. Hawes 5,253, 
A. J. Roberts 2,818, E. D. Harris, Sr., 250. For surveyor, W. S. Scott 5,896. 
For coroner, F. A. Graham 5.023, E. A. Carr 2,843, T. J. Merriman 356. The 
total number of votes cast was 8,558. 

Election of November 4, 1902 — For governor, John H. Mickey received 5.537 
votes, W. H. Thompson 3.575, Sam T. Davis 185, George E. Bigelow 68. For 
senator twentieth district, Richard O'Neill 5,582, P. F. Beghtol 5,433, H. E. 
Dawes 3,181, W. M. Maupin 3,158, Charle Fordyce 316, T. M. Hodgman 306, 
C. M. Bailey 68, A. L. A. Schiermeyer 56. For representatives thirtieth dis- 
trict, J. H. Mockett, Jr., 5.616, John H. McClay 5,511, H. C. M. Burgess 5,531, 
C. J. Warner 5,565, J. G. Halliett 5,447, C. Ballenger 3,155. H. J. Becker 3,138, 
S. R. Hall 3,178, A. Meese 3,173, M. Schwind 3,152, S. L. Wright 291, J. R. 
Ayres 279, J. C. De Putron 302, D. A. Latture 254, A. E. Bowers, 265; R. A. 
Hawley 75, J. H. Loper 62, F. Fritsche 54, J. F. Sutler 52. For attorney, J. L. 


Caldwell 5,591, W. B. Price 3. 151, Neal Stewart 318. For commissioner, S. Tilton 
1461, R. L. Newton 1,521, H. H. Hurd 29. There were 9,492 votes cast at this 

Election of November 3, 1903 — The number of votes cast was 8,306. For 
district judges, Lincoln Frost 6,103, E. P. Holmes 6,043, A. J. Cornish 6,027. 
For clerk of the district court, William C. Phillips 5,358, Jacob B. Meyer 2,363, 
Clarence Hedges 375. For county treasurer, Benjamin F. Knight 4,957, William 
Foster 2,812, J. H. Elmore 340. For county clerk, Walter L. Dawson 5,382, 
Leon C. Crandall 2,394, L N. Clark 341. For sheriff, Nicholas Ress 5,522, 
John P. Higgins 2,220, E. Harris, Jr., 365. For county judge, Frank R. Waters 
5,430, Milton Schwind 2443. For county assessor, J. R. Miller 5,254, Joseph 
McGraw 2,460, Stanley Howard 347. For commissioner, Fred Kinyon 5,192, 
George W. Stabler 2,594, Cyrus Cushman 366. For county superintendent, 
O. R. Bowman 5,336, E. F. Monroe 2,336, i\Iary B. Russell 376. For surveyor, 
W, S. Scott 5,538, B. A. Newton 2,324. For coroner, F. A. Graham 5,315, 
James D. Case 2,324, W. N, Ramey 413. 

Election of November 8, 1904, at which 11,832 votes were polled. For 
governor, John H. Mickey received 6,536 votes, George W. Berge 4,601, C. F. 
Swander 351, B. H. Vail 85. For senators, P, F. Beghtol 6,820, J. H. Mockett, Jr. 
6,840, John E. Miller 3,985, T. O. Jones 662, F. W. Emerson 520, Bert Wilson 
470, A. L. A. Schiermeyer 109. For representatives, C. J. Warner 7,225, John H. 
McClay 7,189, H. C. M. Burgess 7,166, Joseph Burns 6,861, J. G. Halliett 7,085, 
W. 'SI. Morning 4,094, Hugh Lomax 694, H. Wittstruck 659, M. Clark 661, 
N. Wilson 659 F. E. Linch 592. For commissioner, D. W. Mosely 7,683, J. H. 
Elmore 1,384. For attorney, J. L. Caldwell 7,653, A. G. Wolfenbarger i,452- 

Election of November 7, 1905 — There were only 6,880 votes cast at this time. 
For treasurer, Dennis C. Berry 4,343, G. H. Ruhaak 1,883, A. L. Johnson 485. 
For clerk, Walter L. Dawson 4,329, Jacob B. Meyer 1,865, C. N. Porter 463. For 
sheriff, N. Ress 4,275, C. M. Branson 1,932, L. M. Russell 466. For county judge, 
Frank R. Waters 3,518, John J. Ledwith 2,739, David M. Sayles 436. For register 
of deeds, Jesse D. Moore 3,728, Sam Hinkle 2,543, M. H. Wittstruck 451. For 
commissioner, Robert Pickel 4,433, B. F. Chambers 996. For county superin- 
tendent, O. R. Bowman 4,395, William Whelan 1,954. For surveyor, W. S. 
Scott 4,605, W. M. Reeves 848. For coroner, F. A. Graham 3,418, R. L. Bentley 
2,785, W. N. Ramey 449. 

Election of November 6, 1906 — Number of votes, 9,685. For governor, 
George L. Sheldon 5,754. A. C. Schallenberger 3,240, H. T. Sutton 479, Elisha 
Taylor 71. For senators, Joseph Burns 4,871, J. C. F. McKesson 4,982, A. S. 
Tibbetts 3,860, A. E. Sutherland 3,625, Charles E. Coffin 610. For representa- 
tives, William J. Blystone 5,440, E. W. Brown 5,401, E. P. Brown 5,381, Frank 
Rejcha 5,301. L. S." Oilman, 5,380, C. Y. Long 3,227, G. F. Quick 3,488, H. W. 
Smith 3490, S. R. Hall 3,202, D. Coggin 3,034, F. E. Linch 625, M. Doubt 568, 
E. Harris 550, William F. Hunt 575. For commissioner, F. C. Kinyon 5,440, 
August Schroer 3,498. For attorney, F. i\L Tyrrell 4.715- Fred Shepherd 4,125. 
For police judge, P. James Cosgrave 3,655, 

Election of November 5, 1907 — Votes polled, 7,759- For district judges, 
Willard E. Stewart 4,335, Lincoln Frost 5,192, A. J. Cornish 5,099, A. J. Sawyer 
3,485. For clerk of district court, J. S. Baer 4,638, Charles M. Branson 2,719. 


For treasurer, Dennis C. Berry 5,550. For county clerk, Walter L. Dawson 5,476. 
For sheriff. Henry V. Hoagland 4.275, Robert Malone 3,128. For county judge, 
P. James Cosgrave 5,648. For assessor, D. R. C. Miller 5,372. For commis- 
sioner, John R. Bennett 5,399. For county superintendent, O. R. Bowman 5,445. 
For surveyor, W. S. Scott 5,510. For coroner, V. A. Matthews 4,848, E. L. 
Troyer 2,395. for police judge, George H. Risser 2,762. 

Election of November 3, 1908 — Votes polled, 16,646. For governor, George 
L. Sheldon 8.682, A. C. Shallenberger 7,340, Roy R.- Teeter 316, C. H. Harbaugh 
79. For senators, Edward P. Brown 8,572, S. W. Burnham 7,287, R. T. Chambers 
6,892, John E. Miller 8,654. For representatives, Cyrus Black 8,488, W. J. 
Blystone 8,462, Elmer W. Brown 8,519, Leonard C. Foss 7,377, William Green 
7,282, C. E. Groves 8,160, Fred B. Humphrey 8,661, Charles T. Knapp 7,596, 
W. C. Norton 7,449, L. A. Simmons 7,395 ; King W. Gillespie 652. For commis- 
sioner, Robert Pickel 7,161, John Flynn 8,585. For attorney, F. M. Tyrrell 9,190. 

Election of November 2, 1909 — Votes cast, 8,765. F'or county clerk, Charles 
A. Kinnamon 3,565, Harry E. Wells 4,710, J. C. McKenzie 105. For treasurer, 
William McLaughlin 4,310. Fred Beckman 4,065, Charles S. Wells, Sr., loi. 
For register of deeds, John T. Wiesman 3,232, W. M. Clinton 5,030, J. A. Town- 
send 109. For county judge, P. James Cosgrave 5,675. For sheriff, Louis P. 
Faulhaber 3,286, Henry V. Hoagland 4,975, L. A. Jenkins 120. For county super- 
intendent. E. C. Kemble 3.598, George F. Burkett 4,560, Florence J. Schuler 137. 
For surveyor, W. S. Scott 5,910. For coroner, J. A. Hodam 3,004, V. A. Mat- 
thews 5,261. For commissioner, William Rooney 3,249, ""arl O. Johnson 4,943, 
C. R. Oyler 100. For police judge, R. H. Hagelin 1,203, George H. Risser 2,579, 
Minor S. Bacon 513. 

Election of November 8, 1910 — There were 13,974 votes polled at this time. 
For governor, Chester H. Aldrich 7,677, James C. Dahlman 5,597, Clyde J. 
Wright 414. For senators Twentieth District, Edward P. Brown 7,207, William 
A. Selleck 6,634, R. Chambers 4,506, Albert Watkins 5,265, J. W. Jonas 542, 
T. C. McKenzie 480. For representatives, Cyrus Black 5,104, A. J. Minor 6,774, 
John H. "Mockett, Jr., 7,153, S. R. McKelvie 6,872, Earl O. Eager 6,187, J. H. 
Allen 3,863, Frank Mills 3,860, Ira H. Hatfield 6,145, John E. Miller 5,977, W. F. 
Dale 3,397, J. C. McElwain 404, E. L. McMullen 406, C. A. Rankin 483, Henry 
Veith 2,567, Abram S. Toops 2,161. For commissioner, J. R. Bennett 7,541, Wil- 
son E. Field 4.566. For attorney, J. B. Strode 6.737, O. W. Meier 5,493. For 
county superintendent (to fill vacancy), O. H. Morris 6,407, E. C. Kemble 5,547. 

Election of November 7, 191 1 — Votes cast, 10,370. For district judges of 
Third Judicial District, W. E. Stewart, 6,327, A. J. Cornish 6,265, P. James Cos- 
grave 5.853, Sterling F. Mutz 2,333, Raymond J. Abbott 2,769, Frederick Shep- 
herd 4,276, S. C. Hale 407, Frank Wright 439. For clerk of District Court, J. S. 
Baer 6,360, Charles G. Adams 3,246. For treasurer, Phillip A. Sommerlad 5,228, 
William McCormick 4,420, W. J. Eyestone 331. For county clerk, Harry E. 
Wells 6,231, E. A. Vanderlip 3,158. H. E. Phillips 481. For sheriff, Gus A. 
Hyers 5,425, L. A. Simmons 4,143, Charles D. Lamme 375, H. B. Parker 2. For 
county judge, George H. Risser 5,921, Henry A. Meier 3,712, Charles S. Wells, 
Sr., 404. For commissioner, Clinton J. Mitchell 4,794, John Flynn 4,481, Paul 
Goss 270, S. T. Hay 413. For county superintendent, W. H. Gardner 6,021, Mary 
E. Larsh 3,090, A. E. Wagner 314, Luella Wright 461. For surveyor, W. S. 


Scott 5,689, D. P. Weeks 3,559, H. C. Swallow 459. For coroner, V. A. Matthews 
5.609, E. L. Trover 3.361, Henry B. Brown 660, Charles Lee 335. For police 
judge, Bruce Fullerton 3,533, Charles H. Adams 1,390, C. R. Oyler 302. 

I'"Iection of November 5, 19 12 — Votes cast, 14,356. For governor, Chester 
H. Aklrich 6,256, John H. Morehead 7,111, Clyde J. Wright 467, Nathan Wilson 
241. For senators Twentieth District. Henry V. Hoagland 7,015. John T. Mar- 
shall 6.951, Otto W. Meier 6.158, Charles S. Roe 5.829. J. R. Burleigh 500. T. J. 
Merriman 326, Rufus M. Pierce 301. For representatives Thirtieth District, A. 
W. Richardson 6,952', G. R. Buckner 6,815, Edwin Jeary 7,026, John H. Mockett, 
Jr., 6,938. Charles C. Quiggle 6.844, H. K. Burkett 6.926, WiUiam Foster 6,268, 
Edgar F. Snavcly 6,061, Charles W. Enyeart 5,878, George F. Quick 5,864, A. P. 
Ferguson 5,947, Frank Mills 5,782, J. H. Loper 403, George A. Spangler 317, 
A. H. Parmenter 312, E. D. Harris. Jr.. 282. George L Wright 304, A. M. White- 
horn 261. For commissioner. Carl O. Johnson 6.894, George C. Curyea 6.209, 
N. P. Jensen 368. For attorney, J. B. Strode 7.206, R. C. Abbott 5.813, H. C. 
Bittenbender 403. For assessor. James A. Sheffield 6.884, E. B. Zimmerman 
5,977, O. S. Stone 362. 

Election of November 3. 1914 — There were 13.145 votes cast at this election. 
For governor. John H. Morehead 6.275, H. E. Sackett 533, R. B. Howell 5,776, 
George C. Porter 256, Nathan Wilson 167. For county poor house 5,797. against 
2,312. For senator of Thirteenth District, Robert Malone 4,643, O. W. Meier 
4.948. N. P. Hansen 1.533, L. E. Gruver 851, Henry V. Hoagland 6,130, John 
T. Marshall 5,195, O. W. Lake 398, E. D. Harris, Jr., 310. For representatives 
Thirtieth District, William Foster 5.543, B. W. Leavitt 5.001. Paul Goss 4.749, 
R. A. Bickford 4.904. J. Frank Mills 4,499, N. O. Reynolds 4.444, Lester C. 
Syford 926. J. L. Walter 694, J. A. Dumbolton 688, J. L. Kennard 995, Dan 
Munn 742, L. B. Fuller 851, Edwin Jeary 6,115, A. H. Hulton 5,605, C. Petrus 
Peterson 5.823. John H. Mockett, Jr., 6,272, R. S. Mosely 5.497, Earl Eager 
5,342, Harry Streeter 445, H. C. Swanson 418. For county clerk. A. E. Suther- 
land 5.800, Logan A. Rogers 655. Harry E. Wells 5,950. For treasurer, E. B. 
Zimmerman 4.91 1. Phillip A. Sommerlad 6.698, Louis Helmer 458. For sheriff, 
T. J. Smith 4.570, D. W. Jacoby 975, Gus A. Hyers 6,765, C. R. Oyler 271. For 
register of deeds, Alanson Chapman 5,585, Thomas E. Wheeler 6,520. For regis- 
ter of deeds (to fill vacancy), C. W. Holmes 8,060. For attorney, Howard J. 
Whitmore 5,128, George A. Adams 1,273, G. E. Hager 5,914. For county 
superintendent, E. C. Kemble 4,896, Minnie P. Knotts 1,534, W. H. Gardner 
5.688. For commissioner. Second District. Harry H. Leavitt 5,272, James A. 
Curtis 711, John R. Bennett 5,931. For commissioner. Third District, John 
Flynn 4.858. Clinton J. Mitchell 6,135. For surveyor, Arthur H. Edgren 10,583, 
W. S. Scott 15. For coroner, E. L. Troyer 5. 131, V. A. Matthews 6,903. For 
police judge, O. W. Miller 2,674, Bruce Fullerton 4,218. For county judge, 
George H. Risser 8,692. 


The old Cottonwood Building at Lancaster known as the courthouse, was 
bought from Dora Hardenberg by S. P. Benadom for $800. He used the building, 
which was thirty-three feet square, two stories, as a residence for a number of 


years. The county offices were, during the lirst years of the county's existence, 
located in various places ; in residences, in office rooms wherever a vacant place 
could be found. In the record of the commissioners" meeting in this chapter, 
under the date of August 3, 1869, the county officers are shown to have been 
assigned rooms in the Sweet & Brock Building. In September, 1871, a large 
number of the citizens of the county petitioned for the issuing of bonds for the 
erection of a courthouse and jail, the bonds to be for the sum of $50,000. A 
special election v.-as ordered for October loth of the. same year, provided that the 
new constitution of Nebraska should be ratified and adopted on September 19, 
1871. and then the election should be held on November jlh. A special election 
was also ordered for November 7th on the question of conveying by deed certain 
blocks in the old Lancaster townsite for the courthouse square in Lincoln. This 
was voted on favorably by the people. In August, 1880, the commissioners 
ordered that at the first election in November a vote should be taken on the 
proposition to bond the county for $25,000 in order to construct a courthouse in 
Lincoln. No further record of this can be found. In October, 1882, the commis- 
sioners ordered an election in November on placing a 5-mill levy, in addition to 
previous levies, on the county for five years in order to make up the sum of 
$125,000 which was to be used for the construction of the courthouse. 

Again, on October 2, 1885, the commissioners ordered that the proposition 
of bonding the county for $125,000 for the courthouse erection be submitted to 
the vote of the people at the general election of November 3, 1885. On April 
23, 1887, almost two years later, the commissioners once more ordered an election 
for May 31st of the same year to decide whether or not to issue bonds for $200,000 
for the courthouse. On June 3d it was reported that 3,028 votes had been cast 
at the above election, of which 2,416 were in favor of the proposition and 612 
were against it. Accordingly, O. C. Bell, the county clerk, notified the architects 
that plans and specifications for the courthouse would be received by him until 
noon on Tuesday, July 5, 1887. The board decided that, in the interests of the 
county, they should make an extended tour through other states, inspecting various 
courthouses and deciding on the best style for the particular needs of Lancaster 
County. They visited the states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa and Ohio. 
On July 27, 1887, the firm of E. E. Myers & Son, of Detroit, Mich., was an- 
nounced as the successful bidder among the architects. On November 15, 1887, 
the bids for the construction of the building were opened and all were flatly 
rejected as they exceeded the amount appropriated for the purpose. On January 
13, 1888, new bids were opened and again all were rejected. Also, the plans made 
by E. E. Myers & Son suffered the same fate, as it seemed none of the con- 
tractors could bring their price down to the appropriated amount and at the same 
time abide by the plans the architects had supplied. The Myers firm threatened 
litigation, but on the 19th notice was given to other firms for presentation of 
plans. On February 21, 1888, the plans which had been submitted were opened 
and on March ist the work of F. M. Ellis, of Omaha, was approved and accepted. 
On May 17, 1S88, bids for construction were received and examined and that 
of W. H. B. Stout, of Lincoln, which named the sum of $167,497.42, was 

The cornerstone of the courthouse was laid on Thursday, November i, 1888. 
A light rain in the morning preceded a day of sunshine, but notwithstanding 


there was a very small attendance. At 2 o'clock a parade was started from the 
Masonic Temple. The marchers consisted of Dalby's K. P. Band, Canton Ford 
No. 2. 1. O. O. F., the Masonic Lodge, and carriages containing prominent Lin- 
coln citizens. The parade followed this route : south on Eleventh to K, then west 
one block to courthouse square. A broad stairway led to the floor which had 
been laid on the northeast corner of the building and here people found seats. 
The exercises were in charge of Grand Master George B. France, of the grand 
lodge of Nebraska Masons. A prayer was offered by Grand Chaplain Hood. The 
placing of the box was in charge of Grand Treasurer Chris Hartman. The fol- 
lowing articles were placed in the box: history of Lancaster County by O. C. 
Bell, history of county bonds by J. H. McClay and O. C. Bell, trial docket, Oc- 
tober term, 1871, and May term, 1888, by E. R. Sizer, course of studies, pros- 
pectus and blanks from Superintendent McCluskey, political manual of platforms, 
catalog of Lincoln Business College, revised list map of Lincoln, English coin of 
17O4, three arrow points presented by Alba Brown, large number of personal 
cards, coin of 1888 presented by H. H. Schaberg, minutes of seventh annual 
meeting of Nebraska State Pharmaceutical Association, copies of State Journal, 
Lincoln Evening News, Freie Presse, Staats-Anzeiger and Daily Call. Advance 
sheets from Lincoln city directory for 1888-89 by Cherrier Publishing Company 
and State Journal Company. The stone was set, the box sealed, placed in cavity, 
covered with cement, then capped by a second stone. This was put in place by 
Architect F. M. Ellis, assisted by the superintendent of the building. The grand 
officer tested the stone, poured out the grain, wine and oil upon it, then H. H. 
Wilson, grand orator, was called upon for an address. Next came a musical 
selection, followed by an address by O. P. Mason. 

The dimensions of the courthouse are 150 feet north and south and 100 feet 
east and west. The building is constructed with a high basement and three full 
stories, fireproof. The rock-faced sandstone outside is from Berea, Ohio. The 
inside walls are built of hard brick, wood being used only in doors, windows and 
furniture. Tile floors are used. The girders are of steel and arched between 
with brick. The roof is of slate, supported by steel rafters, and all the roof orna- 
ments are of iron and copper. 





Although the first board of county commissioners, consisting of A. J. WalHng- 
ford, J. J- Forest and W. T. Donovan, was elected at the first general election in 
Lancaster County on October lo, 1859, no official record of their proceedings is 
available until that given under the date of May I, 1862, the same being an ad- 
journed meeting of the board. The brief and rather imperfect record gives the 
information that on this date the county was divided into two election precincts, 
by a line running east and west through the center of town 10; also a petition 
for a road from the southeast corner of section 31, town 9, range 7, and another 
from the southeast corner of section 36, town 9, range 6, and one from the south- 
east corner of section 16, town 12, range 6, were received. The one who penned 
the record had little knowledge of the proper form of transcribing such a record, 
or else -regartled the matter indifl^erently, for there is not a word stating the direc- 
tion these roads were to nm or to what point they were to be surveyed ; the 
county clerk at that time, J. P. Loder, also thought it unnecessary to affix his 
signature to the document. The board adjourned until July ist, but in all prob- 
ability did not meet again until after the October election. 


The next record is of a meeting of the board of county commissioners on 
November 3, 1862. Then the commissioners ordered a special election to be held 
January 17, 1863, to fill vacancies in the office of county coroner, county surveyor, 
and justices of the peace and constables. The vacancies occurred because the 
candidates elected had not been able to qualify according to law. The next meet- 
ing was held February 5, 1863, and the officers who were elected at the above 
special election were sworn in. The commissioners also instructed the county 
clerk to notify Judge Festus Reed to cease his depredations on the timber in 
the school section in town 9, range 6. What the judge's depredations consisted 
of is not detailed in the minutes. Another meeting was held on September 12th 
of the same year and the county was divided into four precincts, the same to be 
called Lancaster, Salt Basin, Stevens Creek and Salt Creek. The various places 
for holding elections in these precincts were also designated. 

The county commissioners of Lancaster and Gage counties held a meeting at 
the house of H. W. Parker of Clay County, near Olathe, on July 19, 1864, and 



made a final settlement of the affairs of the county. The document setting 
forth the terms of this settlement was signed by Fordice Roper, F. H. Dobbs and 
William Tyler, commissioners of Clay County, and John W. Prey of Lancaster, 
and attested by Oliver Townsend, clerk of Gage County, and duly filed. Copies 
of the official records of Clay County were made for Gage and Lancaster 
counties, but the latter were lost in Salt Creek while being carried by one William 
Mills. The account of this unfortunate happening is given in another paragraph 
of this chapter. 

On November 2, 1864, the commissioners met at the office of the clerk for 
the purpose of examining and approving the bonds of the county ofiicers. There 
were present : William Shirley, P. S. Shamp and John S. Gregory, commissioners ; 
John P. Loder, clerk; M. Langdon, deputy. They approved the bonds of the 
following officers : Milton Langdon, county clerk and register ; Richard Walling- 
ford, treasurer; Job D. Main, probate judge; Josiah Chambers, sheriff; Dr. John 
Crim, coroner; Thomas Mozi, constable; W. W. Cox and William Peterman, 
justices; James R. Dye, assessor of SaU Basin Precinct; P. S. Shamp, assessor of 
Lancaster Precinct. 

At the meeting of January 25, 1864, the report of George Fleischer, a com- 
missioner appointed to survey a road, was received and ordered to be recorded. 
The county clerk was instructed to prepare assessment rolls for the county pre- 
cincts; also ordered that Jacob Dawson be appointed to the office of prosecuting 
attorney of Lancaster County. At the meeting of March 26th, same year, it is 
recorded that "assessment rolls were prepared for the diliferent precincts with 
such lists of lands as could be made with the means at hand, having failed to get 
the list from the land office from want of county credit." 

The following paragraphs will give the most important transactions of the 
board of county commissioners from this time until January, 1916: 

April 4, 1864 — The board received the petition of Jacob Dawson and others 
for the appointment of a commissioner to view and locate a road commencing at 
the mouth of Stevens Creek and running up said creek; John Wettencamp was 
chosen as the commissioner. Jacob Dawson and others also petitioned for a road 
commencing at the terminus of the steam wagon road and running thence west- 
ward ; D. Main was appointed the commissioner to locate this highway. A road 
was ordered commencing at section 26, town 10, range 6, running thence up 
Salt Creek; J. T- Forest v.'as made commissioner for this one. The petition of 
J. D. Main and others for a road commencing on the east side of the county, 
running west by way of the salt basin to the west line of the county was granted 
and Jacob Dawson appointed commissioner. 

May 10, 1864 — The proclamation of the governor was received concerning 
the election of delegates to a constitutional convention. John S. Gregory was 
called to testify relative to acts passed by the last Legislature in regard to rep- 
resentative districts. He said that Lancaster County had one representative and 
that Lancaster, Clay, Seward and Saunders counties had one. The election for 
said delegate was ordered to be held on June 6th. The commissioners at this 
meeting proceeded to divide the county into election precincts as follows: Lan- 
caster Precinct consisted of towns 10, 11 and 12, of ranges 5 and 6; Stevens 
Creek Precinct consisted of towns 10, 11 and 12, of ranges 7 and 8; Salt Creek 


Precinct consisted of town 9, of ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8; Saltillo Precinct consisted 
of towns 7 and 8, of ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8. 

May 28, 1864 — The commissioners pursuant to special call for the purpose of 
considering the law relative to the election of county officers and locating the 
county seat, approved February 13, 1864; ^Iso for the districting of the county 
for the commissioners. There were present : William Shirley, P. S. Shamp and 
John Crim, commissioners. The county was districted as follows: Number One 
consisted 01 towns 9, 10, 11 and 12, of ranges 5 and 6; Number Two consisted of 
towns 9. 10, II and 12, of ranges 7 and 8; Number Three consisted of towns 7 
and 8, of ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8. It was ordered that the election of county officers 
and for the county seat be held on the first Monday of June, 1864. 


July 4, 1S64 — The commissioners proceeded to levy a tax on the county. 
For the general fund $300 was levied ; for territorial tax 2jX mills on the dollar 
was levied; for school tax 13^4 mills on the dollar; for road tax 5 mills on the 
dollar; for the poor tax the sum of $50. It was ordered that each voting pre- 
cinct should constitute a road district. 


August I, 1866 — The account of Josiah Chambers, amounting to $34, for the 
care of John Hunt, was allowed; the bill of Dr. John Crim for professional serv- 
ices in the case of John Hunt, amounting to $15, was also allowed. Proposition 
of I. M. Young in regard to donation of lots and blocks in the Town of Lancaster 
for the county seat was taken up and Jacob Dawson was appointed agent to 
select said land for the county and procure deeds for the same. The precincts 
of the county were reorganized to correspond with the commissioners' districts, 
except the east line at the end. 

August 19, 1866 — Jacob Dawson selected lots according to order of commis- 
sioners, commencing with block No. 2, then No. 6, 10, etc., taking every fourth 
block and selecting block No. 6 for the county buildings. 


January 2, 1865 — The commissioners ordered that the county clerk be author- 
ized to propose to donate one-half of the county interest in the Town of Lan- 
caster to the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Company, provided they ran 
their road through the said town and established a permanent depot therein. 


April 3, 1865 — The board relocated the territorial bridge which was erected 
at the mouth of Oak Creek, but washed off by high water, at the section line 
between sections 23 and 26, town 10 north, range 6 east, where said line crosses 
Salt Creek. Petition of P. S. Shamp and others, twelve in number, for a road to 
commence at or near the northeast corner of town 8, range 8, running thence 


to Saltillo postoffice granted and Henry Simmons appointed commissioner. Peti- 
tion of Thomas B. Prey and thirteen others for an alteration of the territorial 
road from Nebraska City to Fort Kearney granted and L. W. Haskin appointed 

Jidy 3, 1S65 — Resolved that one lot in Lancaster be donated to Joseph Ben- 
nett, provided he builds a business house in Lancaster Townsite and keeps up a 
mercantile establishment. 


April 16, 1S66 — The commissioners ordered that donations of lots in Lan- 
caster be made from the county lots to persons who would build respectable houses 
on the same. No lots in block 6, which was for courthouse, were to be included 
in this arrangement. Oak Creek Precinct was set off from Lancaster Precinct. 

April 15, 1867 — Buffalo Precinct was formed. 


June 18, 1867 — It was ordered that W. T. Donovan be allowed to build on 
lots 3 and 4, in block 22, in Lancaster. It was ordered that all town lots not 
reserved for county purposes be sold for the prices and under the conditions 
following: inside lots for not less than twenty-five dollars each; corner lots for 
not less than fifty dollars ; each or none to be sold unless 25 per cent of purchase 
price was paid immediately and the balance in six months. 

July I, 1867 — Upper Salt Creek Precinct was formed. 


August I, 1867 — The commissioners proceeded to consider the question of 
donating the interest of the county in the Town of Lancaster to the state. Upon 
due consideration it was ordered that the interest of Lancaster County in the 
Town of Lancaster be quit-claimed to the State of Nebraska in consideration of 
the permanent location of the capitol and other state buildings thereat adjoining, 
also that one block of lots in Lincoln, of the new survey, be reserved for the county 
courthouse, also suitable grounds for the county jail. Richard Walh'ngford was 
authorized to execute and acknowledge the deed to said land. 

April 6, 1868 — It was ordered that a license be granted to Phillip Moll for the 
sale of malt, spirituous and vinous liquors and that he pay $100 for the same. 
(This is the first liquor license recorded in the commissioners' records.) 


At this same meeting it was ordered that the Town of I^incoln be declared a 
body corporate and that the powers and privileges be granted as by the statute in 
such case made and provided. The following persons were appointed trustees 
for the said corporation: L. A. Scoggins, B. F. Cozad, Doctor Porter. \\ . W. 
Carder and A. L. Palmer. 


April 21, 1868 — The county commissioners counted thirty-four wolf and 
sixteen wildcat scalps and paid bounty on the same. 

July 6, 1868 — The total assessed valuation of property in Lancaster County 
was declared to be $466,425. 

July 17, 1868 — Antelope Precinct was formed. 

July z-j, 1S68 — It was ordered that Lancaster County be redistricted into com- 
missioners' districts as follows : the first district to include the first two tiers of 
townships in ihe south part of the county running east and west ; the second dis- 
trict to include the second two tiers of townships lying east and west; and the 
third district to include the third two tiers of townships lying east and west in 
the north part of the county. C. H. Gere was appointed attorney for Lancaster 
County. It was ordered that one tier of sections be set off from the north side 
of Antelope Precinct and added to Buffalo Precinct. 


September 14, 1868 — It was ordered that 500 propositions for ballots be 
printed, containing — first, proposition of giving $100,000 to the first railway 
company to come to Lincoln ; second, proposition of using bonds for building 
bridges in the county; and third, the use of bonds for courthouse and jail. The 
propositions as printed were as follows : 

"Shall the county commissioners of Lancaster County issue bonds to the 
amount of $100,000, payable on or before the expiration of twenty years from date 
and bearing interest at the rate of 10 per cent per annum, payable annually, to 
be used in the construction of the first railroad that shall be completed to Lincoln, 
the county seat, prior to the ist day of December, 1869; forming a connection 
by rail with the Missouri River? 


"Shall the county commissioners in case the said railroad shall lie completed 
according to the above conditions, as soon after such completion as may be, 
levy an annual ta.x of $15,000. or so much thereof as may be necessary, to pay 
the interest on the said railroad bonds, and to redeem and cancel one-twentieth 
part of said bonds, provided such tax does not exceed the amount allowed by 
law to be levied in such cases upon the county valuation in one year ; or in the 
case it does e.xceed such amount, so much thereof as may be lawfully levied? 


"Shall the county commissioners issue bond to the amount of $10,000, pay- 
able on or before the expiration of ten years from date, and bearing interest at 
the rate of 10 per cent per annum, payable annually, to be used to build a court- 
house and jail for the county? 

View showing high school, alioiit 1870. Look- 
ing soutlieast from Postoffioe Square 

Looliing southwest from Capitol, showing 
Governor Butler 's residence in distance 

Looking from CaiPitol. about 1S7U 


.*.-<: ■• -^^1 









:^^, TiBSB®- * j^Bujaj, 


View looking southwest fr0!n Capitol, 
about 1870 


[From Clement 's Colleotion of Early Nebraska Photographs. Property of and used by 
permission of Nebraska History Seminar, State UniversityJ 



"Shall the county commissioners levy an annual tax of $2,000, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, to pay the interest on said courthouse and jail bonds, 
and to redeem and cancel one-tenth part thereof. 


"Shall the county commissioners issue bonds to the amount of $10,000, pay- 
able on or before the expiration of ten years from date, and bearing interest at the 
rate of 10 ])cr cent per annum, payable annually, to be used in the construction 
of bridges ujjon the public roads in the county? 


"Shall the county commissioners levy an annual tax of $2,000, or so much 
thefeof as may be necessary, to pay the interest on said bridge bonds and to 
redeem and cancel one-tenth part thereof?" 

October 5, 1868 — The railroad proposition was changed so that the depot 
should come within a mile of the courthouse square. The election was also 
postponed until Novembed 3d. 

November 17, 1868 — The commissioners met to consider submitting to popu- 
lar vote the proposition made by the C)maha & Southwestern Railroad Company 
to build a railroad to Lincoln by the ist of September, 1S70, provided Lancaster 
County would donate $100,000 in county bonds. 

January 4, 1869 — It was ordered that the sheritif of Lancaster County be 
authorized and empowered to secure a suitable place for the confinement of pris- 
oners provided it could be done without extra expense to the county. 

April 6, 1869 — Petition of Alfred Canfield and twenty-two others that town 
9, range 8, and the east half of town 9, range 7 east, be set ofif from Stevens 
Creek Precinct as a voting precinct to be known as Stockton Precinct was granted 
by the commissioners. 

April 7, 1869 — James R. Deland, of Lincoln, came before the board and 
presented the petition of A. J. Cropsey and 182 others, all residents of Lincoln, 
asking that section 26, the west half of section 25, the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 24 and the south half of section 23, all in town 10 north, range 6 east be 
incorporated as a town under the name of Lincoln. The petition was granted 
and H. S. Jennings, S. B. Linderman, H. D. Gilbert, J. L. McConnell and D. W. 
Tingley were appointed trustees. 


A special election was ordered for May 24. 1869, for the purpose of voting 
on the proposition to issue $50,000 in bonds in aid of the Burlington &• Missouri 
River Railroad Company, provided the railroad commenced work on or before 
June 3, 1869. 



A Special election was ordered for July 19, 1869, on the question of issuing 
bonds to the extent of $50,000 to the Midland Pacific Railway Company, pro- 
vided that the railroad commenced work on or before July 25, 1869, between Ne- 
braska City and Lincoln and that the work would be continued until regular trains 
were running over the railroad between Lincoln and the Missouri River. 

Also, for the same special election, the proposition of giving $50,000, for which 
bonds were to be issued, to the Bellevue, Ashland & Lincoln Railroad Company, 
if the railroad should commence work on or before July 25, 1869, and have trains 
running between Lincoln and Bellevue on the Missouri River, was placed on the 

Both of these propositions carried at the election on July 19th. 


August 3, 1869 — It was ordered that the rooms rented by the county com- 
missioners for the use of the county officers of James Sweet & Brock be assigned 
to the following officers in this manner : The east two rooms should be occupied 
by the county clerk and the county attorney; the room formerly occupied by 
Pound & Robinson should be used by the county treasurer; the west two rooms 
should be assigned to the probate judge and the county sheriff. 

The election places in the dii?erent precincts for the year 1869 were as fol- 
lows : Lancaster Precinct, county treasurer's office ; Saltillo Precinct, house of 
John W. Prey; Stevens Creek Precinct, house of Jonathan Ball; Buffalo Pre- 
cinct, Brunton's schoolhouse ; Antelope Precinct, house of James Piatt; Stockton 
Precinct, house of Aaron Woods ; Camp Creek Precinct, the Camp Creek school- 
house ; Oak Creek Precinct, house of Silas Pratt; Upper Salt Creek Precinct, 
house of Robert Falkner. 

Aprif 6, 1870 — The petition of Amos Lippincott and others that town 10, 
range 5, be formed into a new precinct to be known as Middle Creek Precinct 
granted. The same was to be taken from Lancaster Precinct. 

]\Iay 4, 1870 — It was ordered by the county commissioners that a new pre- 
cinct be formed to contain town 9, range 7, and to be known as Pleasant Hill 


August 9, 1870 — A special election was ordered by the commissioners on 
the proposition of issuing county bonds for $150,000 to the Midland Pacific Rail- 
road Company as soon as the railroad should tie and iron ten miles of their road 
in Lancaster County, also part of the fund when trains should run from Nebraska 
City to J Street in Lincoln. To this proposition the railroad filed a remonstrance, 
claiming that the commissioners had changed the original proposition. The com- 
missioners met on August 25th and denied this allegation. 

September 7, 1870 — Town 12, range 8, was set apart and Mill Precinct was 

A special election was again ordered for October 11, 1870, on tlie bonds for 


$150,000 to the Midland Pacific Railroad Company. The proposition carried by 
a vote of 528 to 469. 

The people voted 659 to 315 in favor of giving $100,000 to the Nemaha 
Valley, Lincoln & Loup Fork Railroad. 

Also, by a vote of 535 to 456, $125,000 was given in aid of the Omaha & 
Southwestern Railroad Cornpany, from Lincoln to the south line of the county. 


December 9, 1870 — On motion it was ordered that from this date the several 
congressional townships of the County of Lancaster each should constitute a 
precinct for election and other purposes. The same were divided and set off and 
were known and designated as follows : Town 7, range 5, was set off as Olive 
Branch Precinct; town 7, range 6, as Buda Precinct; town 7, range 7, as South 
Pass Precinct; town 7, range 8, as Panama Precinct; town 8, range 5, as High- 
land Precinct ; town 8, range 6, as Ceiitreville Precinct ; town 8, range 7, as Saltillo 
Precinct ; town 8, range 8, as Nemaha Precinct ; town 9, range 5, as Denton Pre- 
cinct ; town 9. range 6, as Yankee Hill Precinct ; town 9, range 7, as Pleasant 
Hill Precinct ; town 9, range 8, as Stockton Precinct ; town 10, range 5, as Middle 
Creek Precinct; town 10, range 6, as Lincoln Precinct; town 10, range 7, as Lan- 
caster Precinct; town 10, range 8, as Stevens Creek Precinct; town 11, range 5, 
as Elk Precinct; Town 11, range 6, as Oak Precinct; town 11, range 7, as North 
Bluff Precinct; town 11, range 8, as Waverly Precinct; town 12, range 5, as West 
Oak Precinct; town 12, range 6, as Little Salt Precinct; town 12. range 7, as 
Rock Creek Precinct; and town 12, range 8, as Mill Precinct. 

District No. i in each precinct was designated as sections i, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14 and 15. District No. 2 should include sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17 and 18. 
District No. 3 should include sections 19, 20, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and ^^. Dis- 
trict No. 4 should include sections 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 34, 35 and 36. This 
excepted Oak Creek, West Oak and Little Salt Precincts, which came to be 
known as one road district, designated as No. i. 


September 5, 1871 — The lease of the east rooms over the State Bank of Ne- 
braska for the county clerk's office for year ending July 12, 1872, was accepted. 

The petition of a large number of the citizens of the county was presented, 
asking for the issuing of bonds for the erection of a courthouse and jail. It was 
ordered submitted to the people at the next general election, October 10, 1871, 
provided that the new constitution of Nebraska be ratified and adopted on Sep- 
tember 19, 1871, and then election should be held on November 7th. The bonds 
were to be for the sum of $50,000. 


October 4, 1871 — P. T. Abell, president of the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad 
Company, under date of August 29, 1871, accepted the proposition of the $120,- 
000 in county bonds, the railroad to be completed in two years, the depot grounds 

Fol. I— 1 


in Lincoln to be granted to the road, and that the right of way should not cost 
the company over five thousand dollars. It was also stipulated that the county 
board should make order rescinding the former vote made to the Nemaha Valley 
Road. The commissioners ordered a special election to be held on November 7, 
1871, to learn the will of the people on this qrestion. The vote resulted in a 
count of 767 to 367 in favor of the proposition. 

At the same time a vote of 767 to 360 was given in favor of borrowing 
$20,000 for a jail building. 


A special election was ordered for November 7th on the following proposition : 
Shall the county commissioners be authorized to convey by deed blocks No. 2, 
6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 42, 46, 50, 54, 58 and 62 in the old Lancaster 
Townsite to the state in exchange for courthouse square in the City of Lincoln 
and suitable grounds for a jail? The people voted 871 to 249 in favor of this 

October 30 1871 — A special election was ordered held on November 28, 1871, 
on the issuing of bonds for $100,000 in aid of the Midland Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, for the extension and completion of their road from Lincoln to the Union 
Pacific Railroad. 


April 2, 1872 — The following is recorded upon the official record: "Whereas, 
There has been built and completed by the county commissioners for the benefit 
of our said county, a commodious and comfortable building situated upon the 
north half of section 33 in town 11, north of range 6 east, which said house and 
tract of land are to be hereafter devoted to the care and comfort of the paupers 
necessarily falling to the care of our said county and is to be known as the Lan- 
caster County Poor House and Poor Farm. Now, therefore, it is ordered and 
notice is hereby given, in accordance with section 21 of chapter 40, revised stat- 
utes, State of Nebraska, that said house is now ready for the reception of such 
paupers and that the ex-officio authorities and duties of justices of the peace as 
overseers of the poor shall cease from this date." 


June 4, 1872 — A special election was ordered for July 6, 1872, to vote on the 
proposition to bond the county for $15,000, for improvements to the Lancaster 
County Fair Grounds, also for holding the State Fair here commencing on 
September 3, 1872. 

September i, 1873 — The board of commissioners accepted the second bid of 
W. H. B. Stout to build the jail complete according to plans and specifications, 
with six cells, for $17,500. L. W. Foster was the architect. 

September i, 1874 — Lincoln Precinct was divided into three separate pre- 
cincts, namely : Lincoln, Capitol and Midland. 

September 12, 1874 — Election ordered for October 13, 1874, on the question 


of buying the grounds on which were erected buildings and other improvements 
of the Lancaster County Agricultural Society for $9,000. 

September 13, 1875 — Special election ordered for October 16, 1875, to bond 
the county for $20,000 in aid of the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad Company. 

September 16, 1875 — A special election was ordered for October 16, 1875, 
in the precincts of Lincoln, Elk, Midland, Capitol, Little Salt, Oak, North BlufT, 
Rock Creek and West Oak for bonds in aid of the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad 
Company. All these precincts voted in favor of the bonds except West Oak, 
North Bluiif and Elk. 

AID FOR L. B. & R. V. R. R. CO. 

May 9, 1876 — A special election was ordered to be held on June 17, 1876, on 
the question of issuing the county bonds for $100,000 in aid of the Lincoln, 
Beatrice & Republican Valley Railroad Company. However, at a meeting of the 
board of commissioners on May 31, 1876, the above election order was revoked 
for several reasons. 


January 28, 1879 — ^ petition to incorporate the Town of Firth was granted, 
the boundaries to be the northwest quarter of section 35, town 7, range 7. W. H. 
Moore, Owen Evans, George MelHnger, C. M. Bailey, G. G. Beams were ap- 
pointed first trustees. Thirty-five signed the petition and eighteen signed a 
remonstrance against the incorporation. 

0. & R. v. R. R. CO. 

Tuly 10, 1879 — It is recorded that the precincts of Lincoln, Midland and 
Capitol voted bonds in favor of the Omaha & Republican Valley Railroad Com- 
pany by the respective votes of 208 to 154, 299 to 104, 342 to 94. 

Tuly 22, 1879 — The freeholders of Little Salt Precinct petitioned for an 
election for precinct bonds for $3,000 in aid of the Omaha & Republican Valley 
Railroad and their line from Valparaiso, in Saunders County, into Lincoln, the 
road to be completed in 1880. The commissioners called the election for August 
20, 1879, ^"d tli^ result was thirty to fourteen in favor of the bonds. 

L. & N. W. R. R. CO. 

The freeholders of Lincoln Precinct asked for a bond election to give $7,000 
to the Lincoln & Northwestern Railroad Company for their line from Lincoln to 
the north line of the county. The commissioners ordered the election for August 
20, 1879, '"■'d the bonds were voted by 192 to 140. 

At the same time and under the same procedure Midland Precinct voted 
$11,500 in bonds by 296 to 94, Capital Precinct voted $9,500 in bonds by 318 to 
114, Rock Creek Precinct voted $7,000 in bonds by 61 to 2, to the same road; 
but North Bluff Precinct voted against a bond issue by 28 to 19. 

August 30, 1879 — Centreville Precinct petitioned for an election to issue bonds 


for $5,000 to the Omaha & Republican Valley, but at the election on September 
30th voted sixty-nine to twelve against the proposition. 

April 13, 1880 — Capital Precinct was vacated and the territory taken over by 
Midland and Lincoln precincts. 

The assessed valuation for 1880 of the whole county amounted to $4,331,970, 
and that of railroads $597,413. making- a total of $4,929,383. Personal property 
in this sum amounted to $1,170,402, among 28,097 people; real estate, $2,099,808; 
and lots, $1,061,760. 

August 31, 1880 — It was ordered by the commissioners that at the first election 
in November a vote should be taken on the proposition to bond the county for 
$25,000 in order to construct a courthouse on the square reserved for that pur- 
pose in Lincoln. No further record of this order was made. 


August 15, 1881 — The petition of John P. Pratt, et al., for the incorporation 
of Bennett as a village, w-as rejected for the reason that it was not signed by a 
majority of the stockholders. 

October 18, 1881 — Remonstrance to the above order received. 

October 25, 1881 — Bennett was ordered incorporated as a village and T- E- 
Vanderlip, John P. Pratt, F. A. Sidles, J. G. Southwick and Austin Gribling were 
appointed trustees. 


October 6, 1882 — The commissioners on this date ordered an election in No- 
vember on placing a 5-mill levy in addition to previous levies on the county for 
five years in order to make up the sum of $125,000. which was to be used in the 
construction of a courthouse. 


October 3, 1883 — The precincts of Garfield, Lancaster, Government, Midland, 
Antelo])e and Capital were formed. 

July 15, 1884 — The $100,000 in bonds gi\-en to the Midland Pacific Railroad 
Company, bearing the date of January I, 1S73, were declared illegal and 


June 23. 1885 — The petition signed by H. Atkinson and thirty-two others 
asking that Waverly be incorporated as a village was granted. Charles Cook, 
James Schofield, J. N. Case. Harry Wells and Harrison Rose were appointed 


July 8, 1885 — The petition filed by C. Wisner and thirty-four others asking 
for the incorporation of Hickman as a village was granted. 



September 22, 1885— The petition for the incorporation of Roca as a village, 
signed by John Harrup, Fred Schwake and others was granted. A remonstrance 
had been filed by H. C. Demaree, George Cleveland and others August I2th. 


October 2, 1885 — The commissioners ordered that the proposition of bonding 
the county for $125,000 for the erection of a courthouse be submitted to the 
vote of the people at the next general election on November 3, 1885. 

April 23, 1887 — The commissioners ordered an election for May 31, 1887, to 
vote on the proposition to issue bonds to the amount of $200,000 for the construc- 
tion of a county court house. 

June 3, 1887 — It was reported that 3,028 votes had been cast at the above 
election on May 31st — 2,416 in favor of the bond issue and 612 against it. O. C. 
Bell, county clerk, notified the architects that plans and specifications to build 
a courthouse would be received by him until noon on Tuesday, July 5, 1887. 


commissioners' tour 

June 30, 1S87 — The board agreed that they should make a tour through some 
of the eastern states and examine different courthouses, to better enable them to 
receive plans and specifications of the Lancaster County building. 

July 14, 1887 — The board met again, after a tour through the states of Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa and Ohio. They fixed dates for the various archi- 
tects to explain their plans as follows: E. E. Myers & Son, Detroit, July 15, 1887, 
by telegraph to Omaha; G. W. Bunting, Indianapolis, July 15th, in P. M. ; O. E. 
Placey, Lincoln, July i6th ; Schwage & Nichols, Kansas City, July 19th ; F. M. 
Ellis, Omaha, July 20th ; J. Hodgson, Omaha, July 21st. 

July 27, 1887 — E. E. Myers & Son of Detroit were announced as the success- 
ful architects. An agreement was made with them on the 28th. 


A petition to incorporate West Lincoln as a village, signed by T. L. McNeill 
and seventy-two others, granted. J. F. Cadman, T. L. McNeill, W. C. Austin, 
R. Sterrett and Edward Birel were appointed tru.stees. 


November 15, 1887 — At three o'clock the bids for the construction of the 
county courthouse were opened and found to be as follows: Eugene Woerner, 
$269,763.30; Fitzgerald & Brennan, $277,389.80; R. K. Allen, $165,000 (partial) ; 
James H. O'Neill, plumbing, gas, sewerage. $4,560; W. H. B. Stout. $313,389.10; 
O. J. King & Company $329,172. All of these bids were flatly rejected by the 



January 3, 18S8 — The coniniissioncrs met to open bids for the second time. 
The offers were: R. K. Allen, $260,000; O. J. King & Company, $320,411; 
Fitzgerald & Brennan, $296,076.90; W. H. B. Stout, $303,836.78. 

January 13, 1888 — All of the bids were again rejected. Also the plans of 
E. E. Myers & Son, architects, of Detroit, were rejected because none of the 
bids came within the amount appropriated for the Lancaster County courthouse. 

January 17, 1888 — Myers & Son replied that they would not consider the 
"assumption that contract had been forfeited" and that if board recognized the 
binding character of the contract they would make proper changes. They drew 
a sight draft for $4,500 on Lancaster County, pending forfeiture of the contract. 

January 19, 1888 — Alyers & Son asked to modify plans pending advertise- 
ment for new bids and new contract with them. It was ordered that the plans 
and specifications made be placed suliject to the order of Myers & Son. At the 
same time notice was given to architects, indiscriminately, for presentation of 
new plans. 


February 21, 1888 — For the second time the commissioners opened courthouse 
plans submitted by the following: Mendelssohn, Fisher & Lawrie, Omaha; G. W. 
Bunting & Son, Indianapolis; Hodgson & Son, Omaha; Ecker & Mann, St. 
Joseph; Schwage & Nichols, Kansas City; W. G. H. Hawkins, Lincoln; F. M. 
Ellis, Omaha; J. W. Yost, Columbus, Ohio; James Tyler, Lincoln; William Gray, 
Lincoln; O. H. Placey, Lincoln; George F. Hammond, Cleveland; M. E. Beebe, 
Buffalo; Weary & Kramer, Akron, Ohio. 

A. Roberts. M. L. Hiltner and E. Woerner were appointed to assist the county 
board in selecting the best plan from among the number. 

March i, 1888 — The plans and specifications prepared by F. M. Ellis, archi- 
tect, of Omaha, were selected as best suited for the purpose. 


May 17, 1S88 — Bids by Rice & Bassett, Chicago; W. H. B. Stout, Lincoln; 
D. B. Howard, Lincoln ; Eugene Woerner, Lincoln ; Brennan & Lanham, Omaha, 
were opened and examined. The commissioners finally decided to accept the bid 
of W. H. B. Stout, of Lincoln, which named the sum of $167,497.42. 


January 5, 1889 — The petition signed by Charles F. Creighton and forty- 
four others asking that University Place be incorporated was granted. Dr. C. F. 
Creighton, T. F. Barnes, C. M. Ellinwood. A. R. Wightman and W S. Mills were 
appointed trustees. 



March 9, 1892 — A petition signed by forty-three voters asking for the incor- 
poration of Raymond was granted and W. J. Weller, C. B. Reynolds, S. C. Lon- 
don, J. Plank and J. R. Jukster were appointed trustees. 


April 28, 1892 — College View was granted incorporation in response to a 
petition signed by M. W. Newton and seventy-nine others. I. D. ]\Iorton, L. 
Nicola, W. T. Henton, E. A. Jenkins and J. S. Unangst were appointed the first 


January 28, 1895 — An election was ordered to be held on April 2, 1895, for 
the purpose of voting on the proposition to vote $90,000 in bonds for the erection 
of a jail building. This jail proposition was defeated at the polls on April 2d. 

August 24, 1900 — The sum of $1,500 was appropriated for the purpose of 
repairing the courthouse roof, part of which had been carried away by a storm. 


July 19, 1901 — Petition and remonstrance both filed relative to the incoqiora- 
tion of Hallam. The former was granted and G. H. Ruhaak, H. B. Hoyle, John 
J. Meyer, William Rocke and Gerhart Rippen were appointed trustees. 


December 5, 1903 — The petition for the incorporation of Panama was granted. 
T. C. Morgan, R. G. Dickson, A. F. Hitchcock, and M. J. Witham were named 
as trustees. 


July 8, 1908 — The sum of $1,000 was set aside for the relief of the flood 
sufferers in Lancaster County. 


September 25, 191 3 — The petition to incorporate the Town of Sprague was 
granted by the commissioners and the following were appointed trustees: Frank 
Miles, William W. Krull, A. J. McClain, W. E. Lamb and R. \V. Haus. 


November 12, 1913 — Denton incorporation petition was granted by the board. 
Walter Hocking, J. R. C. Miller, C. M. Rowland, Rev. R. Moran and M. H. 
Ouinn were constituted the first trustees. A remonstrance was filed to this 




March 20, 1914 — Davey was ordered incorporated in answer to a petition 
asking for the same. Peter Nelson, J. M. Hanson, C. A. Neff, C. W. Christian- 
sen and H. P. Christiansen were made trustees. 



One of the earliest descriptions of the salt basin near Lincoln is that written 
by John T. Irving, Jr., and published by Carey, Lea & Blanchard, of Philadel- 
phia, in the year 1835, over eighty years ago. The small two-volume work is 
comprised of Indian sketches taken during an expedition to the Pawnee tribes. 

The Pawnees and Otoes laid claim to all the land between the Platte and 
Kansas rivers and in this claim they were fiercely opposed by the Delawares, a 
rival tribe. Constant war existed on this account between the first two on the 
one side and the latter on the other. The Government, growing weary of this 
strife, appointed commissioners to visit the migratory tribes, purchase the Pawnee 
lands and induce this tribe of redskins to move north of the Platte. Accordingly, 
in the summer of 1833 Mr. Ellsworth traveled from Washington, D. C, to Fort 
Leavenworth, which was then a frontier post, there to await his fellow commis- 
sioners, and to begin the expedition northward. John T. Irving, Jr., accompanied 
this band of men and kept a diary of the days' happenings while in the Indian 
country. He writes : "It was intended first to strike up in a northerly direction 
until we reached the village of the Otoe or Missouria Indians, situated upon the 
I'latte River about twenty miles northwest of its junction with the Missouri. 
Thence the Platte was to be our guide until we came upon the Pawnee towns." 

Mr. Irving devotes several paragraphs to the first few days of their journey, 
which were replete with new experiences and strange sights, then continues : 
"We at last reached the Platte River about forty miles distant from the Otoe 
village, then striking off to the west, we followed the course of this povvcrful 
tributary of the Missouri. 

"On the first night our little camp was placed upon a high bank of the Saline 
River, which flows through the prairie until it empties into the Platte. During 
the spring of every year moisture exudes from the soil near its source, covering 
the prairie for the distance of many miles. This is dried up by the heat of sum- 
mer and leaves in its place a thick incrustation of salt. This is in turn dissolved 
by every successive rain and carried off into the Saline River, giving to its water 
the brackish taste, from which it has derived its name. There is a barrenness 
around the stream, contrasting strongly with the other rivers that grace the 
prairie. Around them is always a rich forest of the deepest, rankest green. 
Everything marks the luxuriance of the soil, and the nourishment yielded by the 
streams, to the lofty trees, which hang like guardians over their waters. 

"But the Saline is far different. There are no groves to fringe its banks. 



Here and there the huge, grey forms of a few dead trees may be seen leaning 
with a melancholy grandeur over its surface, or lying prostrate in the river, 
while its waters gurgle with a mournful sound around the branches of these 
fallen giants. There is a cheerless look about it. It winds its way through the 
prairie with a withering influence, blighting every green shrub ; and seems to 
bear an ill will to all the bright beauties of creation. 

"I strayed some distance down the stream, pattering my rifle bullets on the 
water, to the great annoyance of several ducks who were quietly dozing upon 
its surface, and some sprawling old terrapins who were floating down the stream, 
enjoying an evening sail. 

"A loud hail from the camp, and the voice of Mordecai announcing that 
supper was ready, recalled me to the spot. The roasted shoulder and ribs of a 
large buck were impaled upon a stake of dogwood, planted in the ground in front 
of the mess. They had already commenced their meal, with knives of all sizes 
and descriptions, and the mass of meat disappeared like magic before their reiter- 
ated attacks. Though at all times very well qualified to act a conspicuous part in 
a warfare of that description, they were now more than usually fitted for the 
task, owing to their eating only two meals a day — one at sunrise and one at 
sunset — the rest of the time being occupied in journeying over the prairie. By 
the time that \ve had finished the sun had sunk in the West and the stars were 
glimmering in the sky. Our party collected around the large fire of blazing logs 
and our guide, having lighted his Indian pipe, related to us an Indian tale, of 
which the following is the purport : 

" 'About forty miles above the spot where we are now encamped lie the great 
salt plains, which cause the brackish taste of the Saline River. In one part of 
these plains is a large rock of pure salt, of dazzling whiteness, which is highly 
prized by the Indians and to which is attached the following story: 

" 'Many years since, long before the whites had extended their march beyond 
the banks of the Mississippi River, a tribe of Indians resided upon the Platte, 
near its junction with the Saline. Among these was one, the chief warrior of the 
nation, celebrated throughout all the neighboring country for his fierce and un- 
sparing disposition. Not a hostile village within several hundred miles but wailed 
for those who had fallen beneath his arm ; not a brook but had run red with the 
blood of his victims. He was forever engaged in plotting destruction to his 
enemies. He led his warriors from one village to another, carrying death to the 
inhabitants and desolation to their homes. He was a terror to old and young. 

" 'Often alone and unattended, would he steal ofl^, to bathe his hands in blood 
and add new victims to the countless number of those whom he had already 
slain. But fearful as he was to the hostile tribes, he was equally dreaded by his 
own people. They gloried in him as their leader, but shrank from all fellowship 
with him. His lodge was deserted, and even in the midst of his own nation he 
was alone. Yet there was one thing that clung to him, and loved him. in defiance 
of the sternness of his rugged nature. It was the daughter of the chief of the 
village; a beautiful girl, and graceful as one of the fawns of her own prairie. 

" 'Though she had many admirers, yet when the warrior declared his intention 
of asking her of her father, none dared come in competition with so formidable 
a rival. She became his wife and he loved her with all the fierce energy of his 


nature. It was a new feeling to him. It stole like a sunbeam over the dark 
passions of his heart. His feelings gushed forth to meet the warm affection of 
the only being that had ever loved him. Her sway over him was unbounded. He 
was as a tiger tamed. But this did not last long. She djcd ; he buried her; he 
uttered no wail, he shed no tear. He returned to his lonely lodge and forbade all 
entrance. No sound of grief was heard from it — all was silent as the tomb. 
The morning came and with its earliest dawn he left the lodge. Mis body was 
covered with war paint and he was fully armed as if for some expedition. His 
eye was the same ; there was the same sullen fire that had ever shot from its deep 
sunk socket. There was no wavering of a single feature; there was not the 
shrinking of a single muscle. He took no notice of those around him, but walked 
gloomily to the spot where his wife was buried. He paused for a moment over 
the grave, plucked a wild flower from among the grass and cast it upon the 
upturned sod. Then turning upon his heel, strode across the prairie. 

" 'After the lapse of a month he returned to his village, laden with the scalps 
of men, women and children, which he hung in the smoke of his lodge. He 
tarried but a day among the tribe, and again set off, lonely as ever^ A week 
elapsed and he returned bringing with him a large lum]i of white salt. In a few- 
words he told his tale. He had traveled many miles over the prairie. The sun 
had set in the west and the moon was just rising above the verge of the horizon. 
The Indian was weary and threw himself on the grass. He had not slept long 
when he was awakened by the low wailing of a female. He started up and at 
a little distance, by the light of the moon, beheld an old, decrepit hag, brandish- 
ing a tomahawk over the head of a young female, who was kneeling, imploring 

" "The warrior wondered how two females could be at this spot, alone, and at 
that hour of the night, for there was no village within forty miles of the place. 
There could be no hunting party near them or he would have discovered it. He 
approached them, but they seemed unconscious of his presence. The young 
female, finding her prayers unheeded, sprang up and made a desperate attempt to 
get possession of the tomahawk. A furious struggle ensued, but the old woman 
was victorious. Twisting one hand in the long black hair of her victim, she 
raised the weapon in the other and prepared to strike. The face of the young 
female was turned to the light and the warrior beheld with horror the features of 
his deceased wife. In an instant he sprang forward and his tomahawk was buried 
in the skull of the old squaw. But ere he had time to clasp the form of his wife 
the ground opened, both sank from his sight, and on the spot appeared a rock 
of white salt. He had broken a piece from it and brought it to his tribe. 

" 'This tradition is still current among the different tribes of huli.-ms fre- 
quenting that portion of the country. They also imagine that the rock is still 
under custody of the old squaw, and that the only v.-ay to obtain a portion of it is 
to attack her. For this reason, before attempting to collect salt, they beat the 
ground with clubs and tomahawks, and each blow is considered as inflicted upon 
the person of the hag. The ceremony is continued until they imagine .'^he has 
been sufficiently belabored to resign her treasure without opposition. The super- 
stition, though privately ridiculed by the chiefs of the different tribes, is still 
practised by them and most devoutly credited by the rabble.' " 



Li the early '60s the sah springs near the present site of Lincohi attracted 
attention over the entire country and the estimated wealth and productiveness of 
the salt fields were given fabulous descriptions in the papers. This natural mineral 
was placed as the incentive for great cities to appear in the neighborhood; 
immeasurable wealth to be gained by any who cared to take advantage of the 
deposits ; and the growth of the Nebraska salt industry until it reached the 
importance of the other salt manufacturing centers- of the United States. These 
items influenced settlers to come to the territory and, when the commissioners 
appointed for the location of a state capital in 1867 scotired this part of the state 
for a suitable site for the capital city, the salt basin west of Lincoln's present 
site was one of the principal factors in determining their selection. 

The Morton History of Nebraska states : "We find merchants of Nebraska 
City advertising in the News of April 21, i860, that they had for sale 'the best and 
finest article of table salt, gathered from the banks of Salt Creek, forty miles 
directly west of this city. Nature is the only evaporator used in the manufacture 
of this salt.' The News of April 28th relates that a sample of some thirty 
bushels of the very neatest and best of table salt had been brought for its inspec- 
tion, and it had been 'scraped up from the banks of Salt Creek with a shovel. 
The probability is that the salt, as well as gold, silver, and coal mines of Nebraska 
are inexhaustible.' The News of May 25, 1861 notes that a train of three wagons 
passed through Nebraska City to engage in the manufacture of salt at the springs 
fifty miles west. The same paper says that, 'A gentleman the other day brought 
in from Salt Creek 1,800 pounds of as fine salt as we have ever seen. It met with 
ready sale. There is a mine of wealtli out there.' The News of September 14, 
1861, reports that there are 'four salt basins of a thousand acres each — except 
one small one — filled with small springs that during the night ooze out their briny 
waters and cover the plateaus with a thick scum of salt. They ebb and flow like 
the tides of the ocean, during the night time covering the entire surface to the 
extent of thousands of acres and to a depth of several inches. By nine o'clock 
of an ordinarily dry day, with sunshine, the waters have sunk away, or rather 
evaporated, leaving a crust of salt. There are at present ten furnaces.' " 

These various newspaper accounts are presented for the purpose of showing 
the enlarged conception of the salt springs. .So it is in any pioneer country : the 
presence of mineral wealth is a greater incentive than the known existence of 
tillable lands and rich soil, although the mineral advantages generally lure rather 
than satisfy, in very few cases have they proved an actuality, at least, a profitable 
one. People in Nebraska dreamed great dreams of the enormous salt industry 
to be established here, but the coming of years and the railroads and more 
settlers overshadowed the importance of the salt fever and now the greatly prized 
acres are covered with a lake and the salt water used for bathing purposes in 
connection with an amusement park. 


The first settlers of the Salt Creek Valley were the Preys, headed by the father 
John D. Prey. The latter is known as the first permanent white settler in what 
now comprises Lancaster County. He was a native of Scotland, having been 


borti there, in Glasgow, on the 4th of December, 1798. He was the son of Jolin 
and Martha (Little) Prey. Immediately after his marriage in i(S2i to Margaret 
Giljson he sailed for America, to make a new home for his family. Mrs. Prey 
was a native of Ireland and was born in 1802 : her parents, however, were Scottish. 
After forty-five days spent in passage the Preys landed in New Brunswick and 
from there proceeded to the city of Boston, where they resided for some time. 
Their next home was in New York State, where they stayed until 1843. Then 
they moved to the State of Wisconsin and from this place Mr. Prey, in com- 
pany with his son, John W., started upon their journey to Nebraska to search 
for suitable claims. This was in 1856. On June 15, 1856 they stopped on Salt 
Creek, about three miles from the present site of Lincoln, but shortly afterwards 
went farther up this stream. Here they took claims for themselves and three 
other sons. Further information concerning the family history of the Preys 
may be found in the chapter on early settlement. 

The following article by John Stanford Gregory was prepared for the Nebraska 
State Historical Society in 1904 and is reminiscent of the early days in the 
vicinity of the salt basin. Mr. Gregory, the son of John S. and Charlotte (Eaton) 
Gregory, was born at Brattleboro, \''ermont, in 1834. After a high school educa- 
tion he engaged for several years as a mail agent, and then studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in Michigan in i860. In August, 1862, he located in the 
vicinity of the present city of Lincoln and at the salt basin constructed the first 
salt works, at the cost of about $8,000.00. He worked these until the coming of 
the railroad to Lincoln. He next entered the real estate and insurance business 
and in 1874 went into business partnership with Mr. J. H. McMurtry. In 1891 
he removed to the State of Texas and there practiced law. In 1864 Mr. Gregory 
was a representative from Lancaster County in the Territorial Legislature, being 
the first to serve in this capacity. He was chairman of the first board of county 
commissioners of Lancaster County and was also the first postmaster. Mr. Greg- 
ory's narration of the early days at the salt basin is replete with vivid detail and 
is authoritative. 


By John S. Gregory 

I first made my home in what is now Lincoln in the summer of 1862, being 
the first permanent settler of this city's site. Neighbors in the county were few 
and far between, but for music we had nightly serenades from hundreds of 
coyotes and wolves, who also loved chicken better than traveling ministers or down- 
south darkies ; therefore war was declared against the wolves. Every evening in 
the winter months we would mount a horse, fasten a piece of fresh meat to a 
lariat, and draw it over the ground in a circuit of a mile or so, occasionally 
dropping a small pellet of lard encasing a flake of strychnine. The wolves would 
take the trail, and sometimes we would gather a dozen of them in the morning. 
Their pelts paid the cost, and their carcasses were drawn away to the banks of 
Salt Creek, where we expected them to rot in the spring. But a band of 
Pawnee Indians found them, and never broke camp until the last carcass went 
into the soup, which we were informed was "heap good for Injun." 


In 1863 there was quite an influx of temporary citizens from the State of 
Missouri who came, as they stated, to "get out of the draft" (this was war time, 
you know) and settled around Salt Basin. Of this number I remember the 
families of Owens, Harmon, Eveland, Bird, Billows, Tinnell, Thatcher, Pember- 
ton. Church and a few others. It was said that some of these had been bush- 
whackers in Missouri, and had in fact come up to the Salt Basin "for the benefit 
of their health" ; but they were as peaceful as doves while here, and all went 
back to Missouri after the war was over. 

During that year Doctor Crimm and "Jim" Dye, of Brownville, came to the 
Basin, and built a bench of salt boilers and became my friendly rivals in the salt 

At an election late in the fall we elected Alf Eveland justice of the peace, and 
Peter Billows constable, and this was the first attempt to call in the aid of the law, 
in that county. Prior to that date every man was his own law-giver, and a brace 
of revolvers enforced it. "Alf" was a small, freckled-faced, red-haired chap, very 
self-important, and ambitious to be called Squire Eveland. He had opened a 
saloon in his sod dwelling, his stock in trade being a keg of whiskey and a caddy 
of tobacco. His wife, Elizabeth, was of massive proportions, at least four times 
the size of her husband, and strong as she was big — could easily hold her lord at 
arm's length over her head, with her right arm alone. It was said that after 
Eveland's stock in trade had been paid for, he had ten cents left, with which he 
purchased a drink at his bar, while his wife kept the saloon, and then she in turn 
used it for the same purpose while Alf was bartender, and by alternating this 
process quite a trade was established. 

When Alf became justice of the peace he went to Nebraska City and pro- 
vided himself with a justice docket book and a full set of law blanks, and re- 
turned, fully equipped to "dispense with justice," as he put it, to all who should 
require his services, but as it is difficult to make radical changes in forms of law, 
more than six months passed without a single case for Eveland's adjudication. 
The nearest to a case that I remember was from this Peter Billows, who, by the 
way, was originally a Pennsylvania Dutchman. Peter came over to my office 
one morning and said, "Gregory, John Owens' hogs broke into my garden last 
night and destroyed more than fifteen dollars' worth of damage. What can I do 
about it?" I advised him to go and see John, and if he would not fix it, he 
would have a case for Eveland, but as he and John fixed it the justice case was a 

The first law case of this county appears in "Justice Docket No. i — A. Eveland, 
Esq., J. P." and is entitled "Crimm & Dye vs. J. S. Gregory, Action for Replevin," 
and it arose as follows : Both Crimm and myself used a considerable amount of 
salt barrels, which we made at our salt works, and the man, Church, was -a stave 
maker, obtaining his bolts from the headwaters of Salt Creek. On the morning 
Church started back to Missouri, he came to my works, and sold me his stock of 
staves, amounting in value to about $16.00. I went with him to his dug-out, 
counted and marked the staves, and took a bill of sale in writing, and paid for 
them. During the same morning he sold the same staves to Crimm, who also 
marked them, and took a bill of sale in writing. A few days after I went for them 
with my wagons, and when Crimm saw me loading them, he came up and wanted 


to know what I was doing with his staves. Of course it was a short story to 
explain the situation and we agreed to divide the lot and each stand half the loss. 
But just at this point, a brilliant idea struck Crimm. lie said, "Say Gregory, 
what a pretty case this would be for a lawsuit. Here is Squire Eveland, who 
has spent a whole lot of money for books and blanks and has been a justice of 
the peace for more than six months without a single case. What do you say to a 

.So it was arranged with Crimni that he should rush down to the saloon, sue 
out a writ of replevin, and the constable should take the property, and we would 
give the Squire something to judicially decide. In due time the trial was had, 
Crimm introduced his bill of sale, proved payment, and delivery to himself by 
Church, on the day of his departure, and demanded judgment. Whereupon the 
Squire announced that the plaintiiT had a clear case and as his mind was already 
made up upon that point, he did not care to hear any evidence from the defendant. 
Of course defendant insisted that it was not lawful to render a judgment without 
both sides being heard, and demanded the right to produce his evidence. "Oh, go 
ahead," said the Squire, "if you insist upon it, but it will do you no good, for I 
have already formed my opinion of the case." We followed Crimm's presenta- 
tion exactly, and then pleaded that, as we were in possession of the property, in 
addition had as good a right as the plaintiff, the plaintit? could not take it away 
from us without showing some superior right. The Squire, who had been so sure 
of his opinion, was evidently in a quandary and advised us to try and settle the 
case between ourselves, to which we each "angrily" objected, and asked him what 
a justice court was for, if folks could agree without it. Finally, three days were 
taken in which to announce a decision, at which time about all the men of the 
settlement were present to hear the result. Court was called to order and the 
Squire said, "Gentlemen, I have given the case m.y best consideration and the 
more I have studied it the more difficult it seems to arrive at any conclusion as to 
which of you rightfully own these staves. I think you should agree to divide 
them." And announced that this was the only judgment he would enter. To 
this we each protested, but consented to confer each with the other to see if we 
could compromise. After a short time we filed back into court and announced 
that if the Squire would remit his costs and treat the boys who had come to attend 
his court, we would settle the case between ourselves, to all of which he gladly 
consented. I don't know how much whiskey was left in that keg, but doubt there 
being any; for the saloon business closed from that day. 

Will Pemberton was another of the characters of Salt Basin. He was the 
youngest of the colony and had many good traits of character which I admired, 
but he was quick-tempered and impulsive. I don't suppose he was any more 
truthful than the ordinary denizens of the colony, but to be called a liar was to 
him a deadly insult. One day he came over to my place upon his horse, at its 
fastest run. His face was pale and his eyes were green, and he was trembling 
with excitement. He said, "Greg, I want to know if I can depend upon you 
as my friend in trouble?" I answered that he could up to the last hair. He then 
asked me if there was any law in Nebraska against killing birds. I told him there 
was not. He said he was awful glad to know it, for he had just killed Jim Bird 
over at the Basin. Said Jim had called him a liar and he had shot him through 


the head, was awful sorry now that he had done so, but it couldn't be helped, 
said it broke him all up, and that he couldn't think what to do. He wanted me 
to think for him, and advise him ; said he would light out and leave the country, 
or would stay and face the music, or any other thing I might advise. I told him it 
was bad business, and that before I could give him any reliable advice I would 
go over and see if he was not mistaken about Bird being dead. To this he said 
his revolver never failed to plant a bullet where he aimed it and he saw Bird 
fall with his shot. I mounted my horse and rode over and the first man I saw 
was this same Jim Bird, busy cutting wood at the front door of his log cabin. 
His rifle leaned against the door-janib and as he caught sight of me he called; 
said he wanted me to see what that coyote Pemberton had done. A hole was 
through his hat and a red streak on his head where the bullet grazed, and which 
had temporarily prostrated Jim, and had buried itself in the house logs. "Now," 
he said, "if Pemberton don't quit the country there will be a funeral tomorrow, 
for I will shoot him on sight." Well, I got down from my horse and made Bird 
sit down with me and I argued the case with him in all its bearings, told him what 
Pemberton thought of it, and finally Bird agreed that if Pemberton would come 
to him, and pass to him his pistols, as evidence of good faith, and beg his pardon 
for his rashness, and promise to keep the peace. Bird would let the matter drop. 
To all these Pemberton gladly complied, and again peace and good will hovered 
over Salt Basin. 

John Cadman was another leading light in ancient history. He was a politician 
of the foxy kind. He always took a prominent part in every social or political 
move, both for notoriety and as a source of revenue. 

He was ready on all occasions to make an impromptu speech, but always 
wanted about two weeks' time in advance to prepare it, otherwise he was all at 
sea. On one occasion I remember he was called upon, but being unprepared, 
declined. As the audience insisted, a good, strong escort on each arm walked him 
upon the platform "willy nilly," so John started in, "My friends and fellow 
citizens, it affords me great pleasure to — to — to come together again.'' The 
applause that greeted this announcement about closed the remarks of the hon- 
orable gentleman, and John took a seat. Cadman died several years ago in 


On September 12, 1859, Mr. John W. Prey, having military land warrants in 
his possession, located on land which included many of the salt springs. The 
location was in sections 21 and 22, township 10 north, range 6 east. These war- 
rants were given to Mr. Prey by J. Sterling Morton, acting as agent for eastern 
capitalists. There ensued a great amount of litigation and the mix-up was 
finally tried before the Supreme Court of the United States. An interesting 
account of this trouble in regard to the lands was written by Mr. John H. Ames 
and presented to the Nebraska Historical Society in 1905. For many reasons it is 
well to quote this narrative in its entirety. It is intelligible and correct in sub- 



By John H. Ames 

The Saline Springs in Lincoln were, in early days, supposed to be caused by 
large deposits of salt in their vicinity, and because of conditions of manufacture 
and transportation then prevailing here and elsewhere, they were regarded as very 
valuable. It is well known that these considerations were the principal and 
determining factor that induced the location of a seat of government at this place 
in the summer of 1S67, by commissioners appointed by the legislature and vested 
with authority to select a site therefor. 

In the early winter of 1869-70 the writer prepared a series of articles under 
the title of "A History of Lincoln" which were printed in a weekly newspajjcr 
then published at Lincoln and called the Nebraska Statesman. They met with so 
much popular favor that in the following summer the State Journal Company 
reproduced them in a pamphlet edition of several thousand copies. In the latter 
form they were distributed by both public officials and private individuals throuo-h- 
out the United States. But notwithstanding that provocation, public lethargy, 
due, perhaps, to exhaustion consequent upon the then recently ended Civil war, 
was so profound, and the public mind was so preoccupied and perplexed with the 
problems of reconstruction following that conflict, that the country remained at 
peace. Previously thereto Mr. Augustus F. Harvey, then a prominent citizen, 
and formerly editor and proprietor of the Statesman, and who, as a surveyor and 
civil engineer, had made the first survey and plat of the townsite of Lincoln, had 
published a pamphlet entitled "Nebraska As It Is," from which my own publica- 
tion reproduced the following : 

"In Lancaster County, averaging forty-five miles from and west of the 
Missouri River, lies a great salt basin. Within an area of twelve by twenty-five 
miles, through which Salt Creek runs in a northeasterly direction, are found in- 
numerable springs of salt water, containing 28.8 per cent of salt by weight, the 
product itself containing ninety-five to ninety-seven parts of chloride of sodium 
(l)ure salt) and three to five parts of chlorides and sulphates of magnesium, 
calcium, lime, etc. 

"There is no question of the vast wealth which will some day be derived 
from this region. The absence of fuel for the purpose of manufacture is more 
than compensated for by the excessive dryness of the atmosphere and the con- 
sequent rapidity of evaporation. From the first of April to the middle of Novem- 
ber scarcely a day passes without a warm, dry wind. During the months of June, 
July, August and September the winds are almost constant." 

(Mr. Harvey afterwards demonstrated by actual experiment that the average 
evaporation during the months last named is at the rate of ten inches of saturated 
brine in sixty hours, ten inches of fresh water in seventy-two hours.) 

"The salt made by boiling or washing the deposits around the spring crvstallizes 
like the finest table salt. That from solar evaporation, or over slow artificial 
heat, forms large crystals from one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch, and is 
more translucent and snowy than the Syracuse or Kanawha salt. 

"The location of the salt region is an evidence of that wisdom and goodness of 
the Creator which men are slow to acknowledge, but u])on which all human 


welfare must rest. It is a curious fact that, as far as we know, all the principal 
deposits of this one absolute necessity to the preservation of animal life are 
situated about equal distances apart, and with an apparent forethought of the 
commercial relations of the territory between them. This will be apparent when 
one marks upon the map the New York, JMichigan, \'irginia, Missouri, Wisconsin, 
Tennessee, Texas, Nebraska, Dakota, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico and 
Arizona salt regions, and notes the nearly uniform spaces between them." 

As well to corroborate this testimony as to forestall an inference that might 
otherwise be drawn therefrom, that so much heat and drought might prove an 
obstruction to successful agriculture, the "history'' supplemented the quotation 
from Mr. Harvey by the following commentary : 

"Usually during a large portion of the summer but little rain falls in any part 
of the state, such droughts, however, seldom occurring until after the grain 
crops are fully developed and beyond the reach of any injury therefrom, the 
deep and porous soil having a singular power of retaining the moisture received 
by it in the earlier portion of the season. For this reason vegetation is found 
to thrive, unaffected by drought, long after the surface of the ground has become 
so excessively dry that the water on the surfaces of streams or in other exposed 
situations becomes almost the only considerable source from which the atmosphere 
is supplied with the aqueous vapor necessary to prevent nocturnal chills," As 
Mr. Harvey observes in his pamphlet, the atmosphere is so excessively dry that 
"dead animals upon the prairies do not rot ; they dry up." This accounts for 
the previous mentioned rapidity of solar evaporation. 

From these and other equally trustworthy data, including indications obtained 
by lessees of the state by the sinking of a well near the springs to a depth of 
340 feet, it was thought to be sufficiently proved that brine of at least 60°, 
or 20 per cent strength, could be produced in inexhaustible quantities from 
a thousand wells to be sunk within the surrounding basin, comprising some three 
hundred square miles and constituting a much larger and more productive terri- 
tory than could be found elsewhere in the United States. Taking all these matters 
into consideration and dividing the results to which they pointed by four, so as to 
eliminate every supposable error of fact or of calculation, it was ascertained, by 
mathematical demonstration, that the value of the annual output from each of 
the thousand anticipated wells would be approximately a half million dollars, or 
five hundred million in all. And the product, upon the assurance of Mr. Harvey 
was represented to be 97 per cent pure common salt, fit for table use without 

The foregoing shows what can be done by a vivid and vigorous imagination 
with a little rain water and a moderate quantity of chloride of sodium slightly 
adulterated with alkaline salts. Upon a fly-leaf of the pamphlet was printed the 
following certificate: 

"Lincoln, Nebraska, June 22, 1870. 

"We, the undersigned officers and commissioners of public buildings of the 
State of Nebraska, do hereby certify that we have carefully examined the proof 
sheets of the following pamphlet, and that we are thoroughly satisfied that the 
same is a true, correct, and impartial history of the town of Lincoln, and of the 
several public enterprises and matters therein discussed. 

"John Gillespie, Auditor. David llutler. Governor. 

"Thomas P. Kennard, Secretary of State." 


The governor and auditor have gone to their final reward, but the secretary 
of state is still living in Lincoln and has never recanted. The practice of supjjlying 
the delinquencies of judicial tribunals by irregular methods has never been adopted 
in Nebraska. 

I have always regretted that these matters were never brought to the attention 
of Col. Beriah Sellers, as certainly would have been done if the writer had enjoyed 
the personal acquaintance of his celebrated biographer, Mark Twain. The 
evidence already cited is, however, by no means all or the most weighty of which 
the case is susceptible. There is more and better at hand and easily producible, 
to which attention will be invited in the course of the following narrative. 

It has been a policy of the United States ever since the formation of the 
Government, and one which is evidenced by a series of congressional enactments 
beginning with the year 1796, to reserve saline springs and deposits upon the 
public lands from sale or private entry, and to preserve them for the benefit of 
all the people of the several states formed or to be formed out of the territory 
in which they are found. In consonance with this policy, an act of Congress of 
April 19, 1864, authorizing the formation of a state government and providing 
for the admittance of Nebraska into the Union, contained the following section : 

"Sec. II. And be it further enacted. That all salt springs within the said 
state, not exceeding twelve in number, with six sections of land adjoining, 
or as contiguous as may be to each, shall be granted to said state for its use, 
the said land to be selected by the governor thereof, within one year after the 
admission of the state, and when so selected to be used or disposed of on such 
terms, conditions, and regulations as the legislature shall direct; provided, that 
no salt springs or lands, the right whereof is now vested in any individual or 
individuals, or which hereafter shall be confirmed or adjudged to any individual 
or individuals, shall, by this act, be granted to said state." 

Pursuant to this statute the first governor of the state, the Honorable David 
Butler, selected twelve salt springs lying within the great salt basin, the largest 
of them being the one now under discussion. Prior to that time the public lands 
of the Territory of Nebraska had been surveyed and platted under the authority 
of an act of Congress, July 22, 1854, and these springs had been noted upon the 
field books, but the notes had not been transferred to the plats prepared and 
returned for the use of the land department in making sales of the public 
domain. It was thought, also, that there were ambiguities in certain previous 
acts of Congress, the nature of which it is unnecessary and would be tedious to 
explain here, by reason of which the Nebraska springs had unwittingly been 
excepted from the rule, which, as above stated, Congress had, from the first, 
intended to apply to all such properties. 

In 1856 Mr. John Prey had removed to this territory from Wisconsin and 
with his sons, Thomas, William L., and John W., had settled upon public lands 
lying in what is now Lancaster County. Afterward William L. obtained employ- 
ment from the late J. Sterling Morton at the residence of the latter, near 
Nebraska City in Otoe County. The regulations offering the lands for sale at the 
United States land office at the latter-named place made no reservation for the 
protection of settlers. The elder Prey had sold his farm in Wisconsin, but had 
not yet been paid the purchase price, and was therefore without means to secure 
the possessions of himself and his sons. In this emergency he, as well as some 


of his neighbors, similarly situated, applied to Mr. Morton for assistance. 
Morton, as agent for certain eastern parties, had in his possession a consider- 
able number of military bounty land warrants, issued under authority of an act 
of Congress approved September 28, 1850, and which were selling at some dis- 
count and were exchangeable at their face' for public lands at their minimum 
price. His instructions were to sell them either for cash or to permit them to be 
located, relying upon the good faith of the locators to secure their payment upon 
the land as soon as title therefor should be obtained, Morton being responsible 
to his principal for the consummation of the transaction in good faith. The 
Preys, besides asking for warrants for the purpose mentioned, which he seems 
to have furnished without hesitancy, besought him to furnish additional warrants 
to cover what has been called the Great Salt Spring, representing to him that it 
was rich with salt which at a day not far distant would be very valuable. He had 
never seen the land itself, or the surveys or plats in the land office, or talked 
about them with any United States official, and was skeptical about its containing 
salt deposits of any considerable value. On the contrary he believed it to be 
alkaline land untit for agriculture or any other useful purpose and so expressed 
himself. No one, however, seemed to doubt that it was lawfully subject to entry 
and sale, and the subject was not discussed or so much as mentioned. With a 
great deal of reluctance and after much importunity, he finally consented to 
furnish a part of the warrants asked for, provided the locations should be made 
in the name of William L. Prey, in whom he had the uttermost confidence and 
upon whom he mainly relied to carry out the arrangement usual in such cases. 
But for some unknown reason, probably because of the mistake or inadvertence 
of the register of the land office, the location was made in the name of John W. 
Prey. These entries were made on the 12th day of September, 1859. In July, 
1868, John W. Prey executed a deed purporting to convey to Morton an undivided 
one-third of the lands mentioned in the certificate of location, and on the same 
day similar deeds were made to Andrew Hopkins and Charles A. Manners. 
Patents were issued by the land department and transmitted to the local office, 
for delivery to Prey, but the secretary of the interior, upon being informed that 
the land contained valuable saline deposits, arrested them before delivery, and 
after having caused an investigation to be made, directed their return to Wash- 
ington and cancellation, which was done in the year 1862. 

The only question affecting the validity of the location or of the patents was 
whether the springs had been reserved from sale, or "private entry" as it was 
called. That the land was valueless for agriculture was apparent to all, and no 
attempt at their actual occupancy by Prey or his grantees was made until after 
the lapse of more than ten years from their location. The Nebraska Legislature 
met in regular session on the 7th day of January, 1869. and the governor's message 
read on the next day submitted the following matters for their consideration : 

"Although comparatively little has been accomplished in the actual production 
of salt, that little has settled beyond question, if indeed further proof was needed, 
that we have, within sight of this hall, a rich and apparently inexhaustible supply 
of pure and easily manufactured article. It will be directly and indirectly a 
source of wealth to the state, whose great value no one can fully estimate. 

"Prompted by a sense of the importance of the early development of this 
interest, I gave to Mr. A. C. Tichenor a lease, conditioned upon the approval of 


the Legislature, of one section of the salt lands belonging to the state. One-half 
of his interest in the lease was, by Mr. Tichenor, assigned to the Nebraska Salt 
Company of Chicago. This company, from want of means or some unknown 
reason, has failed to fulfill the obligations undertaken in their purchase. So 
far has it failed that the local demand for salt has not been supplied, and it 
has been unable at times to supply even a single bushel for home consumption. 
It is credibly represented that this company has refused to pay the debts which 
it has contracted among our citizens. While such is the state of things with this 
company, experienced men declare their readiness to invest in these works any 
required sums, if the opportunity is presented them. 

"The original lessee, in assuming and meeting the liabilities of the company, 
has a considerable amount invested in buildings and other works adapted to the 
prosecution of successful manufacture. He, as managing agent for the company, 
has been faithful, though he has failed to receive the support which it is the duty 
of the company to render. He could not by any action of the state be made to 
sufifer. But the public interest is at too great an extent involved in the speedy and 
full development of the productive capacity of these salt springs to allow them to 
lie in the hands of those who, from lack of energy or means, shall fail to work 
them to their full extent. Though the government should not take possession of 
the works built by Mr. Tichenor, without making full compensation, the general 
assembly should at least take such action as will soon result in securing the 
manufacture of salt to the greatest possible extent." 

The legislative response to this urgent appeal was an act, approved February 
15, 1869, by which the lease mentioned in the message was declared to be void 
and of "no effect in law," and the governor was "authorized and directed" to 
enter into a new lease for the same lands with Anson C. Tichenor and Jesse T. 
Green, covenanting for the construction of certain manufacturing works, to the 
aggregate cost of one hundred thousand dollars, the commencement of the 
manufacture of salt within ninety days from the date of the instrument, and 
the payment to the state of two cents per bushel upon the gross output, and 
providing for a forfeiture of the lease for failure to make the required improve- 
ments or for failure to prosecute the business for so long a period as six months 
at any one time. The act also authorized the governor to lease any other of the 
saline lands to any other competent persons upon substantially the same terms, 
but requiring a greater or lesser expenditure for improvements, as he should see 
fit. On the same day the session was finally adjourned and on the same day also 
a lease with Tichenor and Green, as contemplated by the act, was formerly 
executed, and the lessees went into possession thereunder and proceeded with 
the erection of vats and pumping apparatus for the purposes of manufacturing 
salt by means of solar evaporation of the surface brine. It is shown by the 
official report of the state treasurer, James Sweet, under the date of January 12, 
1871, that the total revenues derived from royalties for the manufacture of salt 
were, up to that time, $53.93, indicating a total production of 2,696^/ bushels. 
It does not appear that the state ever subsequently received any income from that 

The governor convened the legislature in special session on the 17th day of 
January, 1870. and submitted to them a message reciting the objects to accomplish 
which they had been called together, and contained the following paragraphs : 


"To ratify and confirm a certain contract made by the governor for the 
conveyance of certain lands to Isaac Cahn and John M. Evans, to aid in the 
development of the saline interests of the state. 

"Anxious to secure at an early day as possible the development of our saline 
interests, I entered into a contract with Messrs. Cahn and Evans in August last, 
whereby they obligated themselves to commence at once the sinking of a well 
on land leased to them for that purpose, and to continue the sinking of the 
same to the depth of 800 feet unless brine of 50° in strength should be sooner 
obtained, and to keep a perfect geological record of formations passed through 
in the ])rosecution of the work. 

"To aid them in this, I contracted, subject to your approval, to deed them two 
sections of saline lands belonging to the state. 

"Since that time they have steadily prosecuted the work, meeting, however, 
with very many obstacles. They have already expended $12,000.00 and it will cost 
them several thousands more to complete the work. The geological record pro- 
vided for in this contract will prove invaluable in the sinking of future wells. 
I trust you will see the justice of this measure and cheerfully confirm my action in 
the matter. 

"It is of the highest importance that this interest be developed without delay, 
and 1 see no way whereby it can be done without state aid." 

Without giving the matter mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs of the 
governor's message any consideration, the legislature finally adjourned on the 
4th day of March, 1870, and was by executive proclamation reconvened in a 
second extra session on the same day. Again the governor, by message urged 
upon that body the importance of the subject under consideration, saying: 

"The ratification and confirmation of a certain contract made by the governor 
for the conveyance of certain lands to Isaac Cahn and John M. Evans, to aid 
in the development of the saline interests of the state, or such other aid as the 
legislature may see fit to extend. I again urge this subject upon you for your 
earnest consideration. I cannot but think that the best interests of the state need 
and demand it. The time has come when the people of this state ought to know 
whether the salt springs owned by her are to be a source of wealth, rivaling 
Saginaw and Syracuse, or not. It is hardly to be supposed for a moment that 
individual enterprise can afi^ord to take upon itself the risk of ruin consequent 
upon sinking a well at a vast expense and failing to obtain brine. It may be true 
that these lessees are able to sell out and make themselves whole. But whether 
true or not, true it is beyond doubt that individual speculation in our salt springs 
is not what the state wants. Indeed, I think it hurtful to the reputation of our 
saline resources. We want them developed. We want the problem solved 
once and forever. I would much prefer that it be made a condition of the 
grant or other aid that the present lessees shall not assign their term or any part 
of it, until they have sunk the well to the depth required. This would certainly 
be for the best interests of the state. It would insure hearty and vigorous effort 
on the part of the lessees. I hope, gentlemen, you will consider the subject well, 
because 1 know of my own knowledge that these lessees, after a great expenditure 
made in good faith and at my own earnest solicitation, will be compelled to 
abandon, for want of means, further prosecution of their enterprise. This very 
abandonment will by no means tend to increase the zeal of enterprising adventur- 


ers in making furiiier experiments. I therefore ask at vour hands such leei<- 
lation as will tend to push forward this work to a rapid completion." 

This appeal, like the former, fell upon deaf ears, and, without adverting to 
the subject, the 1-egislature on the same date on which they had been for a second 
time reconvened, adjourned without delay. At the ensuing regular session of 
the Legislature in 187 1, Governor Butler was impeached and removed from office, 
and the lease to Cahn and Evans was never ratified or validated. They proceeded, 
however, to sink a well to the required depth, before reaching which they 
struck a stream of flowing water too slightly saline for the profitable manufacture 
of salt. Their works were then abandoned, but the stream continues to flow in 
inidiminished quantity. 

It was said at the time that the flowing vein was of sweet, fresh water, and that 
its salt and alkaline qualities, when it reached the surface, were due to its mixture 
with other veins encountered on its way upward. And it was said, also, that its 
velocity was such that it would rise in a tube to the height of thirtv feet above the 
ground. I have not attempted to verify or disprove either of these statements. 
If they are true, the stream may perhaps some time be of practical value for 
the generation of electric power. Much the same story was told of a well after- 
wards sunk by the city, on Government, then Market, Square, for the purpose of 
fire protection. 

Not long after the execution of the lease to Tichenor and Green, the former 
disposed of his interest to Horace Smith of Springfield, Massachussetts, a mem- 
ber of the celebrated firm of Smith & Wesson of revolver fame, who by personal 
inspection and with the aid of experts had satisfied himself of the great value of 
the salt controlled by the lessees. But not deeming the business of manu- 
facture at Lincoln so far developed as to recjuire his personal attention, he placed 
his matters there temporarily in charge of his nephew, Mr. James P. Hebbard of 
Nebraska City. 

There is no reason to doubt that Morton and his associates acqtiired their 
supposed title in good faith and felt assured of its validity during all this time, 
but when or how he became convinced that the land was of any considerable 
value is not known. He may possibly have read Mr. Harvey's pamphlet or my 
own. Quite likely he had read the report of an expert inspector on file in the 
land department and hereafter mentioned, and he was doubtless familiar with 
the governor's message and with the legislative act of February 15, 1869 and with 
the covenants of the lease made pursuant to it, and with the purchase by Smith, 
a rej)orted wealthy and capable business man, after a careful personal examina- 
tion with the aid of an expert, and with the expenditures of Cahn and Evans 
and the reassuring indications reported to be obtained by the sinking of their 
well. There was certainly evidence enough to convince any reasonable man and 
Morton was never accused of lacking the faculty of reasoning. But by the fall of 
1870 it had become evident that the title to the tract could never be put beyond 
dispute otherwise than by a judgment of the courts, and, in a litigation concerning 
it, certain technical advantages of considerable value, it was supposed, would 
abide with the party in possession who would enjoy the position of defendant, 
and be better able to parry an attack than to make one. With a view to secur- 
ing these advantages, Morton organized an expedition in December of that year. 
There was then no direct communication between Lincoln and Nebraska City 


by rail and he traveled overland with a wagonload of provisions and supplies 
and one or more assistants. Arriving in Lincoln at evening on the 24th day of 
the month, he looked about him for some trusty local personage to help him out 
with his enterprise, and finally hit upon Ed P. Roggen, then just arriving at 
manhood, afterwards secretary of this state, and with his party thus completed 
repaired to the salt springs jtist at nightfall. 

Among the structures erected by the lessees pursuant to their covenants with 
the state was a small building intended for use as a sort of headquarters and 
barrack room for the proprietors and their employees. The weather had been 
cloudy and threatening for the past week, and the manufacture of salt by solar 
evaporation had been temporarily suspended, and the "works" were deserted. 
The building was unlocked and unguarded and the party went into occupancy 
without opposition. News of the invasion soon came to the ears of Green and 
Hebbard and caused them no little uneasiness. It was feared that unless the 
intruders could be at once expelled, their possession would ripen into such a 
character that it could only be terminated, if at all, at the end of a long and 
tedious litigation, during which the tenants of the state would incur a forfeiture 
of their lease, besides losing the profits of manufacture in the meantime. In 
view of these possibilities they immediately repaired for counsel to Col. James 
E. Philpott. one of the leading legal practitioners in the city, and laid their case 
before him. Cord wood, with the exception of corn, was then almost the sole 
fuel used or obtainable in Lincoln, and was worth from ten to fourteen dollars 
per cord, reference being had to quality. The lessees had a large quantity of it 
piled near the building and the colonel suggested that if the trespassers should 
consume any of it, which on account of the state of the weather they would 
doubtless be compelled to do, they would commit the offense of larceny, for which 
they would become liable to arrest and criminal prosecution. Acting upon this 
suggestion, two persons were dispatched to the salt springs with instructions to 
observe and report events. They were not long in discovering both Morton 
and Roggen helping themselves to the wood and carrying armsful of it into the 
building, and in reporting the fact to their employers. Immediately a complaint 
charging Morton and Roggen with larceny, according to a statutory form then 
in use, was prepared by Philpott, and subscribed and sworn to by Plebbard before 
myself as justice of the peace, which office I then held, and a warrant was 
thereon duly issued and delivered to a constable named Richardson, who was 
then also town marshal. I do not recall his given name, but because of the 
quality of his hair he was commonly called and known as "Curl" Richardson. 
At about half past 10 o'clock on the same night, the constable appeared at my 
office with both the defendants in charge as prisoners and attended by their 
counsel, Mr. Jacob R. Hardenbergh, now deceased. Mr. Hebbard and Colonel 
Philpott, and perhaps others, were also present. There was a good deal of half- 
concealed anger and excitement, but there was no outbreak and no scene. The 
next day was both Christmas and Sunday. Morton entered into his personal 
recognizance and became surety upon the recognizance of Roggen for the appear- 
ance of both of them at a specified hour on the following Monday, to which the 
adjournment was taken. When these proceedings had been concluded all per- 
sons in attendance left the room. There was a conference that night between 
Morton and his counsel on one side, and Seth Robinson, then attorney-general 


of the state, on the other, at the private offiee of the latter. Who else was there 
or what was done or agreed upon, 1 know only from hearsay. 1 was not present 
and did not know of the meeting at the time. This much, however, seems cer- 
tain, namely, that Morton agreed to desist from his attempt to take forcible pos- 
session of the projierty in consideration that the criminal prosecution should be 
dropped. It was said at the time that he also agreed to waive any claim for 
damages on account of his arrest, but this he afterwards disputed. At any rate, 
at the hour to which the case had been adjourned, on Monday, the prosecution 
appeared and withdrew the complaint and the proceeding was dismissed. 

Two weeks later, on the jth of January, 1871, Morton began an action 
against Hebbard and Green, in the District Court of Lancaster County, to recover 
the sum of $20,000 damages for malicious prosecution and false imprisonment. 
His counsel was Jacob R. ILardenbergh, with whom was afterwards associated 
Daniel Gantt of Nebraska City, later a judge of the Supreme Court of the state. 
Hebbard and Green filed separate answers, the former being represented by E. E. 
Brown and Seth Robinson as his attorneys, and the latter by James E. Philpott. 
A jiu'y was waived and the cause came on for trial at a special term of the 
court befor"e the Hon. George B. Lake, district and supreme judge. On the 8th 
day of June, 1871, there were subpoenaed as witnesses a man named Kennedy, 
E. P. Roggen, Maj. A. G. Hastings, and myself. There were findings and a 
judgment for the plaintilT in the sum of $100 damages and costs of suit. On 
the same day the amount was paid into court by Robert E. Knight, a partner of 
Colonel Philpott, and on the same day also, Morton signed with his own hand 
upon the records of the court a receipt for it from Capt. Robert A. Bain, clerk 
of the court. The trial was merely formal, and it was understood at the time 
that what Morton wished to gain from the suit was not large damages but vindi- 
cation from the accusation of larceny. Thus ended an episode about which there 
was much angry discussion for a time, and which was the occasion, temporarily, 
of some "bad blood," but which left matters precisely where they were at the 
beginning, and which had caused no appreciable harm to the jiroperty and none at 
all to the reputation of any one concerned. 

But litigation was by no means at an end. On the same 7th day of January, 
on which the last mentioned suit was begun, Morton, Plopkins and Manners 
began an action in ejectment in the same court to try the title to the lands in 
dispute. Counsel engaged in the case were J. R. Hardenbergh and Daniel Gantt, 
for the plaintiffs, and Seth Robinson, E. E. Brown and James E. Philpott for the 
defense. Subsequently the state was admitted to defend by George H. Roberts, 
who had succeeded Mr. Robinson in the office of attorney-general. A trial before 
Judge George B. Lake and a jury resulted in a verdict and judgment for the 
defendants, to reverse which a petition in error was prosecuted in the Supreme 
Court. The serial or general number of the case in that court was eighty-one. 
In that court Judge E. Wakely, of Chuaha, also appeared for the jjlaintiffs. 

The judgment of the District Court was affirmed in an o])inion by Judge 
Crounse, from which Chief Justice Mason dissented. 2 Nebraska. 441. 

The patents although executed, as before stated, and transmitted *o the local 
land office were never delivered to Prey, but were arrested by the commissioner 
of the general land office, Mr. J. M. Edmunds, as soon as he became informed 
of the character of the land, and were by his order returned to the department 


at Washington and cancelled. The sole ground of the decision was that, by 
reason of these circumstances, the legal title had never passed out of the United 
States to Prey, and that although he might have acquired complete equitable 
OAvnership and conveyed it to the plaintiffs, the court was without jurisdiction to 
adjudge the matter in the common law action of ejectment. The chief justice 
conibatted this decision in an elaborate and characteristically vigorous opinion, in 
which he maintained that saline lands in Nebraska were not reserved from pri- 
vate sale prior to the passage of the enabling act, and that the lands in suit having 
been sold before that time, section eleven of that act, above quoted, not only did 
not assume to grant them to the state, but by implication ratified and confirmed 
their previous sale to the plaintiffs or Prey. He further contended that the action 
of the Department of the Interior in arresting and cancelling the patents was in 
excess of authority and void, and that the plaintiffs, having all except the bare 
legal title, which was a mere shadow, were entitled to maintain their suit, and 
upon reversal of the judgment of the District Court, to have final judgment in 
their favor rendered in the Supreme Court. He treated the defendants, the 
state, and its lessees as in the light of mere trespassers without semblance of 

Dissatisfied with this decision, the plaintiff's sued out a writ of error from 
the Supreme Court of the United States, where counsel for the plaintiffs was 
Montgomery Blair, and for the defendants were Judge William Lawrence, of 
Ohio ; Judge E. Rockwood Hoar, of Massachusetts ; and the Hon. R. H. Brad- 
ford. The case was reached and disposed of by an opinion by Justice David 
Davis, speaking for the whole court, at the October term, 1874. 21 Wallace, 88, 
U. S. 660. That court wholly ignored the opinion of the state Supreme Court, 
both majority and minority, and disposed of the case upon its merits, a somewhat 
unusual proceeding, because a majority of the state court expressly declined to 
consider the merits and rested their decision solely on a question of practice, 
having reference to their own jurisdiction and that of the trial court in this form 
of action, and held that neither had any. The state court was certainly com- 
petent to determine its own powers and jurisdiction, and it is difficult to under- 
stand how the Supreme Court of the United States derived from it a jurisdiction 
which it did not itself possess. But the latter-named court so determined, hold- 
ing, after a view of all the congressional legislation relative to the subject, that 
the springs were reserved from private entry by an act of Congress of July 22, 
1854, establishing the office of surveyor-general for the territories of New Mexico, 
Kansas and Nebraska, and for that reason affirmed the judgment complained of. 
The lands were thus finally released from the custody of the law. No further 
attempt to make use of them for the manufacture of salt has ever been made, 
but there have been some partly successful efforts to convert the big spring into 
a pleasure resort. 

There was produced on the trial in the District Court and included in the bill 
•of exception a certified copy of a report of an expert who, by direction of the 
land department, had been detailed by the United States surveyor-general for 
Kansas and Nebraska to ascertain the true character of the land in question. 
It was shown by this document that by careful observation over a long period 
in the summer of 1862, of the quantity of brine issuing from the large spring, 
then called the "Chester Basin." and from a personally conducted quantitative and 


qualitative analysis of it, that there was annually producilile l>y solar evaporation 
from the surface waters of that spring alone no less than fifty-five hundred tons 
of, for practical [lurposes, chemically pure salt, i,ooo tons of which could be col- 
lected from spontaneous crystallization aroimd the edges of the basin. This 
quantity would have been equal to 220,000 statutory bushels, but at the royalty 
reserved in the Tichenor and tjrecn lease, should have yielded the state an 
annual re\enue of $4,400. Hut it was further shown by this report that the 
quantity of salt obtainable couUl without difficulty be largely increased by the use 
of dams and dykes preventing loss by dilution and seepage. 

The statement of facts prepared by Justice Davis for official publication in 
connection with the decision of the Supreme Court of the LInited States contained 
the following statement, substantially repeated in the body of the opinion: "The 
land in c[uestion was palpably saline, so incrusted with salt as to resemble snow 
covered lakes." It should not be forgotten that there are eleven smaller springs 
situated in the Great Basin and selected by the governor. 


Charles G. Bullock maintained the plant for ten years, beginning in 1874, with 
very slight success. /\n overflow from .Salt Creek damaged his works to the 
amount of $1,000 and dissolved his marketable salt. In 1885 Jesse T. Green 
attempted to revive the works, but again the elements of nature stopped the 
eflort. A heavy fall of rain worked the havoc in this latter case. The State 
Legislature of 1885 passed an act "to provide for the sale and leasing of the 
saline lands and the development of the saline interests of the State of Nebraska'' 
and in December of the same year a contract was made with M. C. Bullock, of 
Chicago, for the sinking of a well 2,000 feet in depth, for which work he was 
to receive the sum of $10,125. This well was started in May, 1886, and the 
work ended in August of the next year. The result of the boring was very dis- 
appointing, as no brine of sufficient quality to be worked was found. The salt 
water tested only 35° at the highest and in other parts of the coun- 
try where salt springs were locaied and salt manufactured 95° was 
considered the minimum for successful manufacture. The coming of the rail- 
road brought cheaper salt, also, so that the manufacture of the commodity in 
Lancaster County, so long dreamed of by the people and advertised to the 
advantage of the new state, was given up as hopeless and has never been renewed. 
As stated before, the basin and principal wells were taken over in connection with 
an amusement resort. Oak Creek's waters were diverted into the old Chester 
Basin and a large lake now covers the ground where the faithful enthusiasts 
worked and where their hopes died. 

Upon the banks of this beautiful lake, once barren and forbidding, has 
been planted a great variety of deciduous and evergreen trees, flowering and 
ornamental shrubs, all of which are growing luxuriantly ; large sums of money 
ha\e been expended in the erection of buildings suitable for a pleasure resort. 

The State Journal of April 13, 1916, announces that the Traction Company 
has leased the lake and grounds to be used as a pleasure resort. 

In all of this we see a striking illustration of how "man proposes, but God 


The Government survey of the the land upon which Lincoln is now located 
was made in the year 1S56 and, of course, the feature of the survey was the 
report made upon the salt springs. The stories of fabulous wealth spread to all 
parts of the Middle West, and for that matter, into the East. Many an adven- 
turer and pioneer trekked to Nebraska Territory, fully expecting to return to his 
eastern home with pockets bulging. In 1856 the Crescent Company was organ- 
ized at Plattsmouth, Neb., and Capt. W. T. Donovan, then commander of the 
steamer Emma, running from Pittsburgh to Plattsmouth, was appointed to 
represent the company at the newly discovered salt basin. Donovan, accompanied 
by his family, came and settled on section 23, on the west bank of Salt Creek, just 
south of the mouth of Oak Creek. During the same summer William Norman 
and Alexander Robinson, representing another company, came and located on 
section 21, near the salt basin, but in the next spring they left, dissatisfied with 
the outlook. As stated before, the attitude of the Pawnee Indians became very 
threatening during 1858 and Captain Donovan himself left the new settlement 
and retired to the Stevens Creek colony for safety. In 1861 he returned and 
settled in the vicinity of the salt basin once more, at a point near the present 
state hospital, then called Yankee Hill. 

In the autumn of 1859 a meeting had been held to consider county organiza- 
tion and a committee, composed of A. J. Wallingford, Joseph J. Forest and W. T. 
Donovan, were appointed to select a site for a county seat and there lay out a 
town. In accordance with their instructions the men selected the site of Lincoln, 
and called it Lancaster. It is said that Donovan gave the name. He had previ- 
ously, in 1857, named his first settlement at the basin Lancaster. 

On July 2, 1861, Captain Donovan introduced Mr. W. W. Cox to the basin 
and the latter, in company with Darwin Peckham, began to boil salt on August 
20th in section 21. During the winter, when the business of trading salt was at 
a standstill, Cox quartered with Donovan at Yankee Hill. 

During the year 1862 John S. Gregory arrived at the basin and also opened 
up a salt business on section 21. In the latter part of the month of May Milton 
Langdon and his family arrived and settled on the north side of Oak Creek, near 
its junction with Salt Creek. 

The passage of the Homestead Act in February, 1862, brought many new 
settlers into this county, where they took up their claims, some of them staying 
and others moving on after a few months. 

In the fall of 1861 the first frame building in Lancaster County was begun 
and finished during the following spring. W. W. Cox, by trade a carpenter, did 



the construction work for Richard Wallingford. The doors were of hlack 

During the winter of 1S62-63 the family of Joseph Chambers was presented 
with a son, which child was probably the first born within the limits of the present 
City of Lincoln. The child lived only a short time. 

In the spring of 1863 John S. Gregory constructed a small frame house, in 
the vicinity of the present West Lincoln, and about the same time was made 
postmaster at the basin ; the office was called Gregory's Basin. Mr. Gregory en- 
gaged in the making of salt, along with William Imlay and Milton Langdon. 
Mr. Gregory was elected to the Territorial Legislature for Lancaster County on 
October 13, 1863. 

On July 4, 1863, the little settlement at the salt Ijasin was augmented by 
several newcomers. Tradition has it that Mr. W. W. Cox, while picking goose- 
berries along Salt Creek for the Fourth of July dinner, heard men shouting to 
him. Upon closer inspection he found that the new arrivals, namely, J. M. 
Young, Peter Schamp, Dr. J. McKesson, E. W. Warnes, Luke Lavender and 
Jacob Dawson, were seeking a place to locate and plant a colony. The party 
accepted Mr. Cox's invitation to join in patriotic exercises and during the day 
Elder Young and his associates became impressed with the possibilities of the 
salt basin site. Young returned to the basin on July 10, 1863, and located on 
section 23, a part of which he designated as a town and named it Lancaster. No 
effort was made to encourage settlement in the town until the next year, 1864, and 
this date may properly be said to have been the starting point of the \'illage of 
Lancaster, later to blossom into the state capital of Nebraska. 

Upon the occasion of Elder Young's death on Saturday, February 23, 1884, 
or shortly afterward, the Nebraska State Journal had the following to say of him : 

"It is seldom that the Journal is called upon to chronicle the death of a man 
\vho. living, had so many claims to the love and respect of his fellow men, and 
who, dead, leaves so great a lesson of faith and works behind him, or is so sin- 
cerely mourned, as Elder J. M. Young, who has at last, after seventy-eight years 
of labor in his Master's vineyard, gone to receive the reward of his faithful 

"Up to within a year Elder Young had been quite vigorous and active, not- 
withstanding his burden of years. For the last year he had been suffering from 
Ijronchial aft'ections, and for about two months was confined to his bed. 

"Elder T- -^E Young was born in Genesee Coimty, N. Y., near Batavia. on 
the old Holland purcha^-e, November 25, 1806. In 1829 hs married Alice Watson. 
at that time eighteen years of age, who now survives him at the age of seventy- 
four. The following year he moved to Ohio, and from Ohio he went to Page 
County. Iowa, in 1859. In i860 he came to Nebraska and settled at Nebraska 
City. In 1863, near the end of the year, he came to Salt Creek, and selected as a 
site for a town and what he predicted would lie the capital of Nebraska, the 
present site of Lincoln. The following named persons located her at the same 
time: Thomas Hudson, Edwin Warnes, Doctor McKesson, T. S. Schamp, Uncle 
Jonathan Ball, Luke Lavender, Jacob Dawson and John Giles. It was the orig- 
inal intention to make the .settlement a church colony, but the idea was never 
utilized as projected. 

"(Jn eighty acres owned by him Elder Young laid out the Town of T-ancaster, 


which was made the county seat. He gave the lots in the city away, half to the 
county and school district, and half to the Lancaster Seminary, a school which 
he hoped to see established here for the promulgation of his faith. He built 
from the proceeds of the sale of some of the lots a building, which was called 
the seminary, and which was occupied by the district school and church. It was 
burned in 1867 and was never rebuilt. 

"A church was organized here and Mr. Schamp was the first pastor. Elder 
Young was then president of the Iowa and Nebraska Conference. The next 
year after the capital was located the stone church was built. Elder Young's 
dream was to build up a strong church in the capitafcity. He worked assiduously 
for the object, and put into the work some eight or ten thousand dollars of his 
private means. When the church went down and he saw that his dream, in so 
far, had been in vain — that his dream could never be realized — he was almost 
broken-hearted; and this was the chief cause of his departure from Lincoln, 
which took place in 1882, when he went to London, Nemaha County, the scene of 
his closing days. 

"Elder Young began his labors as minister soon after he moved to Ohio, in 
1829. He was president of the Ohio Annual Conference for several years and 
was president of the Iowa and Nebraska Conference for about twenty years. 
He was a man of rare vigor and fine attainments. 

"Elder Young left four sons: John M., of Lincoln; James O., of London; 
Levi, Lancaster County; and George \\'., of Taos City, New Mexico. He was 
buried in Wyuka Cemetery on February 26, 18S4. Elder Hudson conducted 
the funeral services, by request of the deceased, assisted by Rev. D. Kinney and 
W. T. Horn." 

The southeast quarter and the east half of the southwest quarter of section 
23 were platted by Jacob Dawson, dated August 6, 1864. The streets were named 
North, Nebraska, Saline, Washington, Main, Lincoln, College, High and Locust 
from north to south. From west to east they were numbered from one to 
twelve. The original plat contained sixty-four blocks, of eight lots each. The 
streets were to be sixty-six feet wide; the alleys were to run east and west and 
be twenty feet wide. Upon the plat was a courthouse square and a seminary 

In 1864 the Lancaster colony was increased by the location on or in close 
proximity to the site of a dozen more settlers. Up to that time Dr. J. McKesson, 
Elder Young, Luke Lavender, E. W. Warnes, J. M. Riddle, J. and D. Bennett, 
Philip Humerick, E. T. Hudson, C. Aiken, Roljcrt Monteith and his two sons, 
John and William, William and John Grey, O. F. JJridges, Cyrus Carter, P. Bil- 
lows, W. Porter, Milton Langdon and three or four others were the settlers here. 
In 1864 Silas I'nitt, the Crawfords, Mrs. White and daughter, C. C. White and 
John Moore located on Oak Creek, about twelve miles northeast of this Lancaster 

The Indian scare of 1864 caused many of the Lancaster citizens to hastily 
pack their belongings and start for the Missouri River, but some of them stayed, 
among the latter being Captain Donovan, who had once before fled for a like 
cause, John S. Gregory and E. W. Warnes. The Indians committed no depreda- 
tions in this vicinity. 


The year of 1865 was one of little settlement, due in no small measure to the 
Indian troubles of the previous year. 

The county seat fight of 1864 is related elsewhere in this volume. 

The second hotel was opened by John Cadman on the site of the old seminary 
and schoolhouse which stood on the rear of the lot occupied by the present State 
Journal Huilding. The hostelry was opened to the public late in 1867. Prior 
to this there had been a hotel known as the Pioneer House on the southeast 
corner of Ninth and Q streets. It was managed by L. A. Scoggin. The Pioneer 
was constructed in 1867 and burned down a few years later. 

The afternoon of July 29, 1867, is a notable date in the history of Lancaster 
County. L'i)on this day the little hamlet of Lancaster was selected by the com- 
missioners, Butler, Gillespie and Kennard, as the site of the capital of Nebraska. 
Lancaster then did not contain more than ten small houses, some of logs and 
some of stone. The commissioners met in the home of Captain Donovan, which 
stood near the southwest corner of Ninth and O streets. This was a small stone 
and Cottonwood house. Jacob Dawson's home was on the south side of O Street, 
between Seventh and Eighth, and in the front part of this house S..P>. Pound had 
opened a small grocery store. Dawson was the postmaster at this time also. 
Milton Langdon resided in a small log house near the southwest comer of 
Eighth and Q streets. Dr. John McKesson had his home on the north side, near 
what is now W and Twelfth streets. S. B. Galey, who had come to the town in 
April, 1866, had a small stone building on P Street, near Tenth. Linderman & 
Hardenbergh, who were among the earliest merchants, sold a small stock of mer- 
chandise at a point now on Ninth Street, near P. They sold their shop to Martin 
and Jacob P'flug early in 1867 and it then was operated under the firm name of 
Pflug Brothers. Robert Monteith and his son, John, had a small shoe shop at 
what is now 922 P Street. Elder Young lived on what is now O Street near 
Seventeenth. The stone house erected by the elder is still standing, although it 
is now covered with a cement veneer and a porch added. Luke Lavender's log 
house was located in the vicinity of Fourteenth and O, about on the site of 
the present public library. Lavender's small log home was the first to be erected 
on the plat of Lincoln. Dawson's house was, however, constructed about the 
same time and the first term of court was held by Judge Dundy in his house 
in November, 1864. William Guy, Philip Humerick, E. T. Hudson, E. W. 
\\'arnes and John Giles had homesteads near the plat of Lancaster, all of which 
are now a part of the City of Lincoln. There were about thirty inhabitants 
of the \'illage of Lancaster when the commissioners decided to locate the state 
capital upon this site. 

This ends the history of the little Village of Lancaster, for, when the plat 
of Lincoln was made and the site surveyed, the former plat was disregarded and 
the struggling little community was absorbed by the greater Town of Lincoln. 
Land owners of Lancaster were given equivalent estates in Lincoln, as shown 
by the table upon another page. 



"To the Honorable the Senate and the House of Representatives of the State 
of Nebraska : 

"In pursuance of the requirements of the act of the Legislature entitled, 'An 
act to provide for the location of the seat of government of the State of Nebraska, 
and for the creation of public buildings thereat,' approved Jtnie 14, 1867, the 
commissioners • thereby appointed assembled at Nebraska City upon Thursday, 
June 18, 1867, and prepared for a personal examination of the district, viz.: 'The 
County of Seward, the south half of the counties of Saunders and Butler, and 
that portion of the County of Lancaster lying north of the south line of township 
nine,' within which a selection was to be made for the contemplated seat of the 
state government. 

"Having provided an outfit, and employing Mr. Aug. F. Harvey as surveyor, 
to ascertain the lines of the proposed sites, we left Nebraska City on the after- 
noon of the 18th of July, and arrixed at Lancaster, in Lancaster County, on the 
evening of the 19th. The 20th and 22d were occupied in a full examination of 
the town site of Saline City, or 'Yankee Hill,' as it is more familiarly known, and 
Lancaster, the adjacent lands on both sides of Salt Creek, and the stone quarries 
from two to eight miles south of the village. 

"The 23d was spent in reviewing* the townsite proposed on the highland west 
of and adjacent to the Village of Ashland, in the southeast corner of Saunders 
County. The surface of this site declined gently to the north and east, sufficiently 
for thorough drainage, and is of such evenness that but little expense will ever 
be inxolved for grading. From any part of it a widely extended panorama is 
spread, embracing as it rises, many square miles in the valley of the Platte and 
Salt Creek. Timber is abundant, and inexhaustible quarries of fine rock outcrop 
along the bluffs near the mouth of Salt Creek and along the Platte, within one to 
four and fi\e miles from the town. Salt Creek affords excellent water power for 
manufacturing jnirposes in Ashland. The distance of the site is about thirty- 
live miles from Plattsmouth, near the influx of Salt Creek to the Platte. 

"On the 23th we went northwesterly along the old California Trail through 
Saunders County, covering the Wahoo River near its head, and arrived at night- 
fall at the residence of J. D. Brown, in Butler County. Upon this route we 
observed no situation of commanding advantages. 

"Leaving Mr. Brown's on the 26th. we looked over the flat prairie between 
the heads of Oak Creek and the eastern tributaries of the Blue, in towns 13 and 
14 north, ranges 3 and 4 east, in Butler County. Here is a wide tract of un- 



broken ])iain, upon which we drove for six hours without seeing a depression in 
the surfuL-e at either hand. We struck the Blue in town 14 north, range 2 east, 
passing down that stream. After a drive that day (inckiding some diversions 
from the direct rout to examine points which looked well at a distance), of over 
seventy-five miles, we arrived at Seward Center, in the fork of Plum Creek and 
the nine, and opposite the mouth of Lincoln Creek. All of the proposed si'te 
here could be seen at a glance. It lies on a high table between the streams 
named, is level, is surrounded by fertile valleys, adjacent to timber, stone, and 
first-class water power, and is remarkable for healthiness of situation. 

"The advantages, indeed, are possessed in an equal degree by Milford, six to 
eight miles below Seward, and by Camden, in the fork of the Blue and West 
Blue, except that the last-named site was in a lower elevation. We remained in 
Milford over night, and on the 27th turned eastward, and arrived at Saline City 
in the evening. 

■'On the 2()th we made a more thorough examination of 'Yankee Hill' and 
Lancaster and their surroundings. At the last named point the favorable impres- 
sions received at first sight, on the 19th. were confirmed. We found it gently 
undulating, its principal elevation being near the center of the proposed new site, 
the village already established being in the midst of a thrifty and considerable 
agricultural population, rich timber and water power available within short 
distances, the center of the great saline region within tw-o miles ; and, in addition 
to all other claims, the especial advantage was that the location was at the center 
of a circle of about one hundred and ten miles in diameter, along or near the 
circumference of which are the Kansas state line, directly south, and the impor- 
tant towns of Pawnee City, Nebraska City, Plattsmouth, Omaha, Fremont, and 

"The state lands which we observed in our tour were mainly away from 
considerable bodies of timber or important water courses, and did not possess, to 
all appearances, any particular advantages, nor was the title of them so far vested 
in the state at that time (the report of the selection of lands by the governor under 
the acts of Congress admitting the state to the Union, not having then been certi- 
fied or approved at Washington) as to warrant us in making a selection where 
there was a possibility that the title might fail, or in waiting until, by confirmation 
at Washington, the title had been secured. 

"Under these circumstances we entertained the proposition of the people 
residing in the vicinity of Lancaster, offering to convey to the state in fee simple 
the west half of the west half of section 25, the east half and the southwest 
quarter of section 26, which, with the northwest quarter of section 26 (the last- 
named quarter being saline land), all in town 10, range 6 east, the whole em- 
bracing 800 acres, and upon which it was proposed to erect the new town. In 
addition, the trustees of the Lancaster Seminary Association proposed to convey 
to the state, for an addition to the site named in the foregoing proposition, the 
townsite of Lancaster, reserving certain lots therein, which had been disposed of 
in whole or in part, to the purchasers thereof, and the owners of said lots 
reserved agreeing to a resurvey of the townsite as an addition to Lincoln, and the 
acceptance of lots according to the new survey in lieu of those acquired from 
the seminary company and surrendered by them. 

"Tames Sweet. Esq., was appointed conveyancer to the commissioners, and 


after his report upon the sufficiency of the titles proposed to be made to the 
state, and a careful consideration of all the circumstances of the condition of the 
state lands, the advantages of the situation, its central position, and the value of 
its surroundings over a district of over twelve thousand square miles of rich 
agricultural country, it was determined to accept the proposition made by the 
owners of the land, if upon a ballot the commissioners should decide upon a 
location at this point. • *• 

"In the afternoon of the 29th of July we assembled in the house of W. T. 
Donovan, of Lancaster, and after a comparison of notes and the discussion of 
advantages of the many points examined, proceeded to ballot for a choice. 

"On the first ballot Lancaster received two votes and .Vshland one. On the 
second vote Lancaster received the unanimous vote of the commissioners. 

"The governor then announced the result to the people, many of whom were 
outside awaiting the decision. 

"Having performed the business of the location of the seat of government, 
the commissioners returned to Omaha, leaving Mr. Harvey at Lancaster to do 
the surveying necessary to locate the depressions and elevations on the townsite, 
preliminary to his furnishing a design for laying off the blocks, streets and 
reservations, and making a plat thereof. He completed that labor on the 12th of 
August, when he notified the commissioners, and they again assembled at Lan- 
caster, on the 13th day of August. On the 14th the commissioners formally 
announced the founding of the Town of Lincoln as the seat of government of 
Nebraska, in the following proclamation : 

" 'To Whom It May Concern: Know ye. that on this the 14th day of August, 
A. D. 1867, by virtue of authority in us vested, and in accordance with an act 
to provide for the location of the seat of government of the State of Nebraska, 
and for the erection of public buildings thereat, approved June 14. 1867, we, the 
undersigned commissioners, on this, the 14th day of August. A. D. 1867, have 
by actual view selected the following described lands belonging to the state, viz. : 

" -S. E. 'A of section 23; the W. 'S of the N. W. '4, N. \V. '4 of the W. yi 
of the S. W. ':+, of section 25. the W. '4 of section 2^^. of township No. 10 north, 
of range No. 6 east of the sixth ]irinci])al meridian, and have located the seat of 
government of the State of Nebraska upon said described lands as a town to be 
known as Lincoln. 

" "Further, that we have, upon the day above mentioned, designated within 
said location the reservation for the capitol building, state university and agri- 
cultural college, parks, and other reservations contemplated in the aforesaid act, 
which w'ill be properly designated upon a plat and filed in the office of the secre- 
tary of state. 

" 'Done at Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska, this i.^th day of August, 
A. D. 1867. 

" 'David Butler, 

" 'Thomas P. Kennard, 

" 'John Gillespie, 

" 'Commissioners.' 

"On the following day Messrs. A. F. Harvey and A. B. Smith, engineers, with 
a corps of assistants, who were sworn to perform faithful service, commenced 
the survey of the town. The design is calculated for the making of a beautiful 


town. The streets are loo and 125 feet wide, and calculated to be improved on 
all except O and Ninth streets, and the other business streets around the Market 
Square and the Courthouse Square, with a street park outside of the eurb line; 
as, for instance, on the 100-foot streets, pavements of 12 feet wide and park or 
double row of trees, with grass plots between, 12 feet wide outside the pave- 
ments; and on the 125-foot streets the pavement and park to be each 13 feet wide. 
This will leave a roadway of 52 feet on the streets 100 feet wide, and 60 feet 
wide on the wide streets, while on the business streets a 90-foot roadway will 
be ample room for all demands of trade. 

"Reservations of nearly twelve acres each were made for the state house, state 
university and city park, these being at about equal distances from each other. 

"Reservations of one block each for a courthouse for Lancaster County, for 
a city hall and market space, for a state historical library association, and several 
other squares, in proper location, for public schools. 

"The commissioners have also marked upon the book of record of lots, reser- 
vations of three lots each for the following religious denominations, viz. : 

"Lots 7, 8, 9, block 65, for the Roman Catholic Church. 

"Lots 10, II, 12, in block 67, for the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

"Lots 10. II, 12, in block 87, for the Baptist Church. 

"Lots 10. II, 12, in block 89, for the Congregational Society. 

"Lots I. 2. 3, in l)lock 91, for the German Methodist Episcopal Church. 

"Lots 7, 8, 9, in block 97, for the Lutheran Congregation. 

"Lots 10, II, 12, in block 99, for the Protestant Methodist Church. 

"Lots 16, 17, iS, in block loi, for the Christian Church. 

"Lots 10, II, 12, in block 119, for the Presbyterian Church. 

"Lots 7, 8, 9, in block 121, for the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

"These reservations were made with the understanding with the parties mak- 
ing the selection on behalf of the several denominations, that the Legislature 
would require of them a condition that the property should only be used for 
religious purposes, and that some time would be fixed within which suitable 
houses of worship, costing some reasonable minimum amount, should be erected. 

"The commissioners have also reserved lot 13, in block loi, for the use of the 
Independent Order of Good Templars; lot 14, in block loi, for the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows; and lot 15, in block loi, for the Ancient Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. We respectfully ask the Legislature to confirm our action in 
respect to all the reservations. 

"The surveying of the town was done in a most careful manner, and with 
the utmost patience, and we believe that the lines are so well established that 
future litigation about 'lapping' of lots will be practically impossible. In every 
third street running north and south and every fourth or fifth street running east 
and west, there were set, at the center of intersection with every other street, a 
stone monument, even with the surface, in the top of which a mark was fixed at 
the exact point of crossing the lines. The work occupied Messrs. Ilarvcy and 
Smith, and a double party of assistants, constantly, until the loth day of Sep- 
tember, when having staked off every lot in town, except in a few blocks in the 
northwest part of the northwest quarter ujjon the 'Saline land," the work was 

"In anticipation of the completion of the survey, and to insure parties pur- 


chasing the lots in time to build upon them for winter, and an early provision of 
the means of commencing work upon the state house, the commissioners, upon 
the 17th day of August, issued their advertisement for the first sale of lots, to be 
held on the 17th day of September. 

"This advertisement was authorized to be printed in such newspaper as could 
give it the widest circulation. Upon the day of sale the weather, which had been 
excessively disagreeable for nearly a week, culminated in a cold, drizzly rain, 
in consequence of which not more than one hundred persons were present, .and 
but few of these the bidders we had expected. The aspect of affairs was dis- 
heartening. Persons who had loudly boasted of their great expectations in buy- 
ing lots and building houses ; others who had been lavish in prophecies of the 
unparalleled success of the enterprise ; others who had been free with advice to 
us in regard to appraisements and sales — these, and still others, who were cer- 
tainly expected to be on the ground and foremost in purchasing, had given us 
the cold shoulder, and were not present nor within hearing. Indeed, your com- 
missioners almost felt diat failure was after all to be the result. 

"However, the first lot was put up, and after some delay in getting a bid- 
der, it was sold to L G. Miller, Esq., for an advance of 25 cents on the appraise- 
ment of $40. 

"This small beginning was an index to the proceedings for the day, and when 
the evening closed, the sales footing up to about one-tenth of our expectations, 
our spirits or our hopes were in nowise improved. 

"The second and third days gave a better result, and on the fourth and fifth, 
sunshine having come again, bringing more persons to the sales, and getting 
everyone to feeling well, the bidding became encouraging, and the stmiming up of 
the five days' offering was nearly, if not quite, satisfactory. 

"The sales here at this time amounted to about thirty-four thousand dollars. 

"The offering of lots was continued at Nebraska City from the 23d to the 
27th of September, inclusive, and in Omaha on the 30th of September to the 
4th of October. 

"The sales at Nebraska City and Omaha amounted to about nineteen thou- 
sand dollars, and aggregated, with the amount at Lincoln, about fifty-three thou- 
sand dollars, a sum sufficiently large to dispel all despondency and warrant re- 
newed exertions. 

"We again met an obstacle which for a little while promised a good deal of 

"Under the 'Capitol liill' your commissioners were required to pay over the 
amount received from the sales of lots to the state treasurer, and pay all ex- 
penditures by warrants upon the state treasurer building fund held by that officer. 
We have, in this regard, to plead guilty to a technical violation of law. Except 
the sum of $148, none of the money received by us has ever been paid over. 

"As soon as the town was stirveyed, there began rumors that the enemies of 
the enterprise were determined to defeat it if possible, and that nothing which 
could accomplish that end would be left undone. 

"We were assured in the most reliable quarters that one of these defeating 
means would be the enjoining of the treasurer against the payment of money 
u])on warrants upon the building fund, an eff'ort which, even if the injunction 
had not in the end been sustained, in the ordinary course of the courts, would 


have prevented active operations until it should be too late to secure the erection 
of the state house. 

"In consequence of this rumor, well founded as it seemed to be, hundreds of 
persons who would otherwise have invested largely in Lincoln lots, declined so 
doing; others who had purchased or bid off lots, hesitated about paying the money 
and taking their certificates; while others became so fearful of a bad result, that 
they even applied to the commissioners for a restoration of the amounts paid and 
a cancellation of their certificates. 

"At this juncture some friends of the enterprise, who were sureties upon our 
official bond, called upon the others, and prepared and furnished us with the fol- 
lowing protest : 


" 'Nebraska City, November 23, 1867. 
" 'To the Honorable David Butler, Thomas P. Kennard, and John Gillespie, com- 
missioners : 
" 'Gentlemen: The undersigned having become sureties on your official bonds 
for the faithful performance of your duties as commissioners, respectfully beg 
leave to formally protest against the deposit of any of the funds received by you 
from the sale of state property with the state treasurer, for the following 
reasons : 

" 'ist. Because it has been repeatedly intimated by the enemies of the present 
capital location, that all moneys so deposited will be attached and held, so as to 
defeat the wishes of a majority of the people of the state by preventing the erec- 
tion of the capitol buildings till after the sitting of the next Legislature. 

" '2d. Because we, having in good faith become sureties, not as a personal 
favor to the commissioners, but to secure the success of the proposed location and 
early completion of the capitol buildings, are iniwilling that the enterprise should 
either be defeated or delayed by useless litigation. We therefore, respectfully 
but earnestly, request the commissioners to withhold the funds which may now 
be in their hands, as well as those which may yet be received, and deposit them 
with those bankers who have made themselves sureties, and who may furnish 
the commissioners satisfactory security for the prompt payment of the money 
deposited with them. 

" 'Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

" 'D. J. McCann, 
" 'Frederick Renner, 
" 'George Mohrenstecher, 
" 'Samuel B. Sibley, 
" 'H. Kennedy, 
" 'John Hamlin, 
" 'Thomas B. Stevenson, 
" 'D. Whitenger, 

" 'S. McCONIGA, 

" 'Robert Hawk, 
" 'James Sweet.' 
"Under the circumstances which surrounded us. and being unwilling to 
jeopardize the money held by us as the representatives of the state in trust for 
the persons who had advanced it upon the risk of the success of the Town of 


Lincoln, we felt that we could not do otherwise than accede to the demand and 
protest of our sureties, and ha\ing made satisfactory arrangements for the de- 
posit and withdrawal of the funds with private bankers, we did so, and have 
assumed all the responsibility of the financial affairs of the enterprise. 

"On June 17, 1868, we held a sale of lots at Lincoln, and realized about 
nine thousand dollars. 

"On the 17th of September we again sold at Lincoln, and received about 
thirteen thousand five hundred and eighty dollars. 

"At the sale in September, 1867, and June, 1S68, we had otTered lots only 
in the alternate or even numbered blocks, with ■ those in four odd numbered 
blocks to make up for half of the reserved blocks, all of which, except the 
courthouse square, fell upon odd numbers. At the last sale, in September, 1868, 
we oft'ered the lots in the odd numbered blocks on the old townsite of Lancaster. 
The presumption of the authority to make this sale was upon the consideration 
of our occupancy of the ground. We accepted it from the proprietors as so 
much over the Town of Lincoln proper, and excess beyond the section and a 
quarter which we had located as the capital, as an addition to the town, for the 
purpose of having no rival in the business of selling town lots upon ground 
adjacent to the capitol, and where having a village already established, the 
proprietors could easily have derived large profits, which otherwise would have 
been invested with the state. Besides, the building of the town had so far 
been accomplished in the direction of and upon that quarter that the appreciated 
value of property in second hands made it so probable that we could realize 
more money from a few lots there than from many upon the south side of the 
townsite proper; and standing in need of much more money than we had reason 
to believe these last-named lots would bring, we deemed it advisable to offer all 
that were then unsold. 

"The lots were appraised prior to the first sale, according to the law, due 
consideration being had to their relative situation regarding the public reserva- 
tion, and the probable business center, and their particular condition. 

"This appraisement amounted to a total of $68,000.00 

"The appraisement on the lots sold was 63,475.00 

"The advance on appraisement at all the sales was i3'i45-75 

"Making the total sales at Lincoln, September, 1867. .. .$34,342.25 

"At Nebraska City, September, 1867 18.745.50 

"At Omaha, September, 1867 1,005.00 

"At Lincoln, June, 186S 8,970.00 

"At Lincoln, September, 1868 13,553.00 

"Total ^76.715.75 

"Accompanying this report, appendix marked 'IS' will contain a detailed state- 
ment of the purchasers of lots, of the lots purchased, and their prices. (Note: 
This complicated list of names and figures will not be given in this work, but is 
available in Volume L Nebraska Miscellaneous Documents, at the state house. 
The names of the purchasers and the prices ])aid is given upon a following page, 
omitting the technical descri])tion of the lots. ) 


"On the loth of September the commissioners issued their notice to architects, 
inviting for a period of thirty days plans and specifications for a state house. 
In response Messrs. Taggart & W. R. Craig, of Nebraska City, and John Morris, 
of Chicago, submitted the drawings and specifications of designs. Upon the loth 
of October, after a careful consideration of their merits severally we decided to 
accept that presented by ]\lr. Morris, as being best adapted to the circumstances 
of construction and the wants of the state. On the same day Mr. Morris, having 
been a])i)ointed superintendent of construction, issued a notice to builders, inviting 
proposals for a term of three months, for the erection of the work. At the same 
time Mr. Morris was directed to commence such preliminary work, as excavation 
for foundations, delivery of material for foundation walls, and other arrangements 
as would facilitate the progress of the work after the contract was let. 

"On the loth of November the superintendent caused the ground to be 
broken, in the presence of a number of the citizens of Lancaster. The removal 
of the first earth was awarded, in the absence of any state officer, to Master Frele 
Morton Donovan, the first child born in and the youngest child of the oldest 
settler of Lancaster County. 

"On the iith of January the bid of Mr. Joseph Ward, proposing to furnish 
the material and labor and erect the building, for the sum of $49,000, was ac- 
cepted, and from that time forward the work steadily progressed, with a few 
uncontrollable delays, to the completion of the work contemplated in the contract." 

coxvev.\xcer's report 

'"To His Excellency, 

"David Butler, Hon. Thomas P. Kennard and John Ciillespie, commissioners 
for the location of the seat of government of the State of Nebraska, tmder and 
by virtue of an act of the Legislature of said state, entitled, 'An act to provide 
for the location of the seat of government of the State of Nebraska, and for the 
erection of ])ublic buildings thereat.' Approved June 14, 1867. 

"Gentlemen : In pursuance of your instructions, appointing me the examiner 
of the titles and conveyancer of the lands selected by your commission as the 
capital and seat of government of the State of Nebraska, I have the honor to 
submit the following report of my operations in the capacity of conveyancer on 
behalf of the state, as defined by your appointment. 

"That on the 30th day of July, 1867, I commenced the investigation of the titles 
to all those certain tracts of land situated in the County of Lancaster and State 
of Nebraska known and described as the west half of the northwest, and 
the west half of the southwest, quarters of section No. 25, the east half and 
southwest quarter of section No. 26 in township No. 10 north of range No. 6 
east of the sixth principal meridian, according to the Government sur\-ey of said 
state, containing 640 acres, and proposed to be conveyed by the respective owners 
of the state in fee simple, as a gratuity, in consideration that such lands should 
be selected as the townsite of 'Lincoln,' the 'seat of government of the State of 
Nebraska,' and found that the several owners could make a perfect title in fee 
simple to the state, in the lands above described, whereupon, on the 2d day of 
August, 1867, Jacob Dawson and Editha J., his wife, by deed, containing covenant 
(,r warrantv. conveved to the State of Nebraska all those certain pieces or parcels 


of land situated in the County of Lancaster, and State of Nebraska, known and 
described as the west half of the southwest quarter of section No. 25 and east 
half of section No. 26. in township No. 10 north of range No. 6 east of the sixth 
principal meridian according to the Government survey, containing 400 acres,' 
which tracts of land now comprise part of the townsite of Lincoln ; and which 
deed was duly acknowledged and certified and recorded in the ofilce of the clerk 
of the County of Lancaster, in book 'A' of deeds at page 121. On the same day 
Luke Lavender and Mary, his wife, executed a deed with covenant of warranty, 
conveying in fee simple, to the State of Nebraska, all that certain tract of land 
situated in the County of Lancaster, and State of Nebraska, known and described 
as the west half of the northwest quarter of section No. 25 in township No. 10 
north of range No. 6 east of the sixth principal meridian, according to the Gov- 
ernment survey of said state, containing eighty acres, which tract of land now 
comprises part of the townsite of Lincoln, and which deed was duly acknowl- 
edged and certified and recorded in the office of the clerk of Lancaster County, 
in book "A' of deeds at page 122; and on the same day Joseph Giles, by deed, 
containing covenant of warranty, conveyed to the State of Nebraska all that 
certain tract of land situated in the County of Lancaster and State of Nebraska, 
known and described as the southwest quarter of section No. 26. in township 
No. 10 north of range No. 6, east of the sixth principal meridian, accord- 
ing to the Government survey of said state, containing 160 acres, which deed was 
duly acknowledged and certified and recorded in the ofike of the clerk of Lan- 
caster County, in book 'A' of deeds at page 1 19. and which tract of land is now 
comprised in the said townsite of Lincoln. 

"In compliance with your instructions, on the 7th day of August, 1S67, I 
proceeded to the investigation of the title to that certain tract of land situated in 
the County of Lancaster and State of Nebraska, known as the southeast quarter 
of section No. 2t„ in township No. 10 north of range No. 6 east of the sixth 
principal meridian, according to the Government survey of said state, containing 
160 acres, and more particularly known as the 'old townsite of Lancaster," hav- 
ing in contemplation, in such investigation, as you suggested to me, the acceptance 
thereof as part of the townsite of Lincoln, the seat of government of the State 
of Nebraska, should my researches into the title prove satisfactory to the state 
in regard to the result of such investigation, I beg leave to refer you to my 
communication addressed you on the subject, which was as follows: 

" 'Lancaster, August 10, 1867. 
" 'Messrs. Commissioners of Location of the Seat of Government of the State 
of Nebraska. 

" 'Gentlemen : Having examined into the titles covering the townsite of 
"Lancaster," I find that the land was entered at the United States Land Office by 
Julian Metcalf, Esq., of Nebraska City, to whom it has been patented by the 
general Government. Mr. Metcalf afterwards conveyed to Rev. John M. Young, 
of this place, by whom the townsite of Lancaster was surveyed and platted as a 
townsite. A portion of the lots in the townsite have been conveyed, by Mr. 
Young, to the County of Lancaster, a portion to the Lancaster Seminary Associa- 
tion and other portions to Prof. Jason G. Miller, and other individuals, while 
these grantees of the original townsite proprietor have parceled out the lots to 
various parties, by conveyances that are more or less defective, and in some 


instances so informal and defective as to be absolutely inoperative as convey- 
ances of real property. The owners are so scattered throut^hout many states, and 
their places of residence unknown to residents here, it will be very difficult, if 
not impossible, in the short period to intervene before the location must be se- 
lected, as directed by the statute, to secure such title to the land as the act con- 
templates shall be \esteil in the state. 

" T would therefore respectfully recommend that, in as much as the state 
now holds title to "not less than six hundred and forty acres," the amount of land 
required by the act, that Lancaster be accepted only as an addition, as it were, 
to the townsite of Lincoln, under an arrangement to be made with the several 
owners thereof, that at least seven-eighths of the whole townsite should be 
released by them to the state, and that it shall be surveyed to conform with the 
survey to be made of "Lincoln," this, with the townsite proper of Lincoln to be 
platted as "Lincoln," and the legal and equitable owners of lots in Lancaster, who 
cannot afford to, or will not release to the state, to be assigned lots, in the new 
survey of old Lancaster, as such part of Lincoln, as near as possible the original 
lots they respectively owned in Lancaster, and of the same specified area, upon 
their signing an agreement to submit to a resurvey and releasing their interest 
in I^ancaster townsite on receiving a deed from the state for the lots so assigned 
to them. 

" 'In view of the distrust felt among the people, as to the success of this 
"capitol move," I believe this would enable the commissioners to realize a much 
larger sum on the sale of lots, as the whole number of lots on old Lancaster 
belonging to the state could be sold, without violating in letter or spirit the law 
under which you are acting; and is necessary in order to realize the requisite 
funds to successfully carry forward the object of your commission. 

" 'As to making the northwest quarter of section 26, township 10, north of 
No. 6, east of the sixth principal meridian, known as part of the Saline lands of 
Nebraska, a part of Lincoln, I would respectfully recommend that it be surveyed 
and platted as a part of the townsite, but, it would not be advisable to offer any 
of the lots at the sale unless at the time of the sale the title shall have been 
confirmed by the General Government to the state, for until that shall be done, 
these lands cannot be regarded under the law, as "the property of the state," 
and until such confirmation, the state cannot convey title to the purchaser. 

" T find that Mr. Giles, Mr. Dawson, and Mr. Lavender's titles to the 640 
acres, proposed to be conveyed to the state by them, for the capital is perfect, 
and have therefore taken the necessary deeds to the state and had them recorded. 

" 'If you should conclude to adopt my suggestions in regard to "old Lan- 
caster" townsite, I will proceed to gather in the conveyances and title thereto, 
to the state. 

" T am very respectfully, 

" 'James Sweet.' 

"That upon receiving a reply to such communication, requesting that the 
title to 'old Lancaster' should be investigated and secured to the state, as far as 
possible, I proceeded with the search and found on record, title deeds to E. H. 
Hardenbergh, Charles Crawford, Jacob R. Hardenbergh, Martin Pflug, William 
T. Donovan, Minnie E. Jennings, George B. Hardenbergh, S. B. Galey, Lancaster 


County, Lancaster Seminary Association, M. A. Bridges, Jason G. Miller, James 
Sweet, George H. Hilton, Charles Bloyd, G. W. Merrill, and Nancy AIcKesson, 
under which deeds of conveyances, the whole of the lands, covered by the town- 
site of Lancaster, were held, and also, there were several outstanding certificates 
of purchase for lots in the townsite, execu*:ed by various parties, grantees in the 
deeds above referred to, whose names will fully appear in the schedule hereto 
annexed, marked 'G,' to whom it was agreed lots in the new survey of Lancaster 
as part of Lincoln, should be conveyed as equi\alent for their respective interest 
in Lancaster townsite. 

"I immediately entered, on behalf of the Commissioners, into an agreement 
with the majority of the owners, legal and equitable, of the lots in Lancaster 
townsite, to submit to a resurvey of that townsite as a part, or addition to the 
town of 'Lincoln,' and upon conveying to the state their respective interests in 
Lancaster, to receive deeds from the state, to them respectively, for lots in 
that part of the town of Lincoln covering the townsite of Lancaster, at, or as near 
as practicable, the site of their original lots, which agreement is hereto annexed, 
marked schedule 'F'. 

"I then entered upon the duty of obtaining title deeds from the respective 
lOwners of the lots in Lancaster, for the lots by them owned, to the state, and 
under such arrangement, the following named persons executed deeds to the 
state : 

"Jason G. Miller and Mary P., his wife ; Lancaster County ; Lancaster Sem- 
inary; John M. Young and Alice, his wife; William A. Bridges and Mary A., his 
wife; Nancy A. McKesson and John M., her husband; Milton Langdon and 
Ann M., his wife; James Sweet and Clementine E., his wife; Charles Crawford; 
and William W. Dunham and Mary E., his wife ; which deeds cover the whole 
title to said townsite of Lancaster, except to lots 3. 4, 5 and 6, in block No. 36, 
and lots No. i and 2, in block 48, owned by G. W. Merrill, whose place of resi- 
dence I have not been able to ascertain, and for whom I hold a deed, executed by 
the state, to said Merrill for lots Nos. i and 2 in block No. 15 and lots Nos. 9, 
10, II and 12 in block No. 27, in the townsite of Lincoln, to deliver to him as an 
equivalent for his said lots in Lancaster ; and except to lots No. 3 and 4 in block 
No. 8 in the townsite of Lancaster, owned by Charles Bloyd, from whom I have 
not been able to obtain a deed to the state, but am informed he is ready to execute 
such deed, whenever ] shall be ready to meet him, for whose interest in such lots 
1 hold a deed, executed by the state, to said Bloyd, for lots Nos. 11, 12, 13 and 14 
in block No. 45, in the townsite of Lincoln, as an equivalent for his interest, as 
aforesaid, in old Lancaster; and except to lots No. i and 2 in block No. 23, in said 
Lancaster, to which lots the legal title rests in Mrs. Minnie E. Jennings of Lincoln, 
subject to the lien of a mortgage in process of foreclosure, held and owned by 
Wiiliam A. Brown, of Nebraska City, and on account of the conflicting title to 
and lien on such lots, I have not been able to secure the execution of a deed from 
all the parties interested therein to the state ; therefore, I have procured a deed 
to be executed by the state, to Mrs. Minnie E. Jennings, to lots No. i and 2 in 
block No. 33, in I_.incoln. as an equivahnt for said lots i and 2 in block 23, in 
Lancaster, to be deli\-ered whenever she shall convey or cause to be conveyed to 
the state, a good title to the lots last above described. 

"In niv examination into the title to Lancaster townsite, I discovered that 


Mrs. Julian Metcalf, as the wife of Julian Metcalf, possessed an inchoate right 
of dower in all the lands comprising the said townsite of Lancaster, and therefore 
jirocured to be executed and delivered to the State of Nebraska, by Julian .Metcalf 
and lulia B., his wife, a release of all their right, title and interest in and to the 
lands, covered by such townsite, which deed of release was duly acknowledged, 
certitied and is on record in the office of the clerk of Lancaster County. 

'T have caused all the conveyances so executed to the state, together with the 
patents for the land, and certificates of entry, to be recorded in the office of the 
clerk of Lancaster County, and have de]Msited the same with the other muni- 
ments of title, in the office of the secretary of state. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted, 

"James Sweet." 


On a December morning in the year 1868 six four-horse teams left Lincoln 
for Omaha to procure the state archives and bring them to the new capitol here. 
After a hard day's drive they arrived at Ashland, then a woe-begone hamlet with 
a tenement. After resting here the caravan crossed the Platte River at Forest, 
several miles north of Ashland. The ice proved very troublesome at this crossing, 
also the ferryman, but eventually they reached the eastern side and bivouacked 
for the night around a straw stack in the brush. The next morning the jjarty pro- 
ceeded upon the journey and in the afternoon arrived at the old Douglas House 
in Omaha. 

Omaha at this time was enduring a boom, due in great part to the coming of 
the transcontinental railway. From the river to capital hill the streets were filled 
with men carrying packs, dressed in frontier style; stalking Indians, new business 
men, women of the demi-monde, and in fact all the ditTerent characters one might 
associate with a frontier town such as Omaha. Dancehouses, saloons and gambling 
dens were thick. All Union Pacific trains starting for the West were guarded by 
Pawnee scouts against the Sioux in Western Nebraska. 

The Lincoln party found Auditor Gillespie and then started preparations for 
moving the archives. There were stoves, furniture, records, blanks, books, boxes 
of paper and the state library to pack and most of it was encased in convenient 
shoe boxes. The wagons filled, the procession moved down Farnum Street, where 
U. S. Marshal Yost met them and added a barrel of cider to the load, labeled 
T. P. Kennard. The overland train soon left the city of Omaha behind and. after 
encountering a warm rain and muddy roads, arrived at P.ellevue just at night- 
fall. The next night was spent at Kimball's Ferry, three miles above La Platte. 
The Kimball brothers were grafters of the worst kind and. in order to hold the 
party up for fees, purposely broke the pulley wheel on the ferry. .\t this point 
the Lincoln men were joined by Tom Keeler, a desperado, afterward killed by 
Dan Parmalee at Elkhorn. Keeler volunteered to see that the party was taken 
across the river in the morning. The Kimballs were afraid to bring down the 
wrath of the noted Keeler and loaded the teams and wagons upon the ferry, after 
hxinc the pulley wheel. In midstream a cake of ice struck the boat and they were 
drivcii upon a sand bar, and i)revented from reaching the south bank by 100 feet. 


The teams were driven off the ferry into two feet of water and forced to the 
shore. Shortly afterwards the train met a blinding storm and was delayed. 
After a night spent in a log house on the present site of Greenwood, and breakfast 
there, the six wagons proceeded to Lincoln, where the archives of the state were 
installed in the state capitol. 


"To Flis Excellency, the Governor, and the Honorable, the Commissioners for 
locating- the Capitol and building the new State House — 

"Gentlemen : The plan submitted by me in competition for the new state house 
having received the favor of your approval and adoption, and having also 
received your instructions to make preliminary arrangements for an early and 
energetic progress of the necessary works in the erection of the building accord- 
ing to the plan submitted, I immediately put forth advertisements for bids for 
the construction, in accordance with the statute wherein it is required that three 
months should be allowed to contractors for making their estimates and submitting 
offers. As the time for building so as to be ready for the next general assembly 
would be limited, I, with your approval and directions, committed to Mr. Joseph 
Ward, of Chicago, the charge of taking such measures in anticipation of a con- 
tract as would facilitate the progress of the building, during the three months 
intervening before a contract could be legally entered into, and about the middle 
of the month of November, 1867, excavation for the foundation and the sinking 
for a well was begun and was continued. Such material was delivered about the 
beginning of December, a small quantity of blocks of limestone was delivered, 
which was got from the quarry, donated by Mr. Mills, to the use of the state, to 
supply stone for the state house, and the stone cutters brought from Chicago were 
set at work on the loth of the month. The excavations were mostly done, the 
basement walls were built to the height of four feet eight inches, and the founda- 
tions of a part of the north end were done during the month of December. From 
the 7th of January, 1868, till the 20th of February, stone cutting and quarrying 
and delivery of rubble stone was all that was in progress. In the meantime the 
period for receiving bids for the exectition of the works haxing expired on the 
nth of January, I then received an offer from Mr. Ward to do the work accord- 
ing to the plans and specifications for $49,000.00 and there being no other bid 
the contract was awarded to him. Very shortly after the contract was made the 
supply of limestone for cut work began to fail and the quality of the stone to 
deteriorate to such an extent that the expenses upon the cost of the stone for cut 
work were more than doubled, nor could the supply be furnished sufficiently fast 
to admit of the building being erected within the required time. I should state 
here that the cause of this increase in cost and delay arose from the fact that two 
upper strata of stone which had been calculated on for use. were found to be 
worthless for cut work, and yet had to be removed before good stone could be got. 
There was about ten feet of earth stripping, then two strata of bad stone, then 
fourteen inches of shale, and below this was only one stratum of good stone about 



nine inches thick. A part of this stratum was also unlit for use as cut stone. It had 
been hoped and expected that as the cjuarry was more developed, that the stone 
would improve, and an underlying bed of greater thickness be found, but this 
also turned out to be worthless. About the end of February about three thousand 
cubic feet of stone for cutting had been quarried, about two thousand only being 
fit for use, and this was used in the building. To get this quantitv more than 
two thousand cubic yards of earth, bed rock and shale had to be removed. I have 
estimated the loss to the contractor upon this item to be at least four thousand 
dollars, whilst, in order to adapt one thickness of nine inches only to all purposes 
in the building entailed a further loss by additional cutting to the value of at least 
five hundred dollars more. On the 28th of February I received a letter from the 
contractor of which the following is a copy : 

" 'Lincoln, February 28, 1868. 
" 'John Morris, Esq., 

"'Dear Sir: I have now spent four days in seeking for stone suitable for 
carrying on our works at the state house, and find none suitable for the purpose. 
Mr. Alalcom opened the quarry near to Mr. Paley's lot yesterday. The stone is 
sound, but is so broken up in its bed that large stone cannot be obtained suitable 
for our [Hirpose. I received forty-two feet of stone last evening from the old 
quarry (Mr. Mill's) and this amount has cost me seven men's work of six days 

each, or at about the rate of ? ? dollars per foot. It will be totally 

impossible to procure stone at Mill's quarry to build the state house, and any 
further quantity we get from this source will be at a cost much above the price 
as stated. I think it absolutely necessary that you should see to making such 
arrangements from some other source so that the work may be carried on. 
I expect I will go with you to Beatrice to see the lot of stone quarried, and 
which I am told is for sale, or for such other stone as you may consider suitable 
for the purpose. 

" T am yours respectfully, 

" 'Joseph Ward.' 

"Upon receipt of this letter I came to the conclusion that to continue the use 
of the blue limestone would only end in ruin to the contractor and consequently 
an abandonment of the contract, and would ultimately entail far greater cost in 
the erection of the building than would arise by any additional sum that may 
have to be allowed for a change of material, and also, render it impossible to 
complete it in the required time. I therefore, immediately, with the contractor, 
proceded to Beatrice to examine the nature and supply of the rock exposures 
there, of which I had previously heard. Upon my inspection of the Beatrice rock, 
I was exceedingly pleased to find an unlimited supply of an excellent material, 
which was in every way adapted to the nature of the works proposed to be done 
in the state house. 

"I did not hesitate to direct that this material should be used instead of the 
blue limestone. I was more readily drawn to adopt this course by my knowledge 
that stone of this character was far better than the blue limestone, as being less 
liable to wear or damage from frost or fire or any other action of the elements. 

"I could not but know my course in this matter would justly cause the con- 
tractor to make a claim for some compensation beyond his contract consideration, 


l)iit I was then, and am now convinced this course would be found to be Ijy far 
the most economical in the end, and would insure the erection by the time the 
general assembly would need the building. In my estimate of extras annexed 
iiereunto, I ha\e allowed some six thousand dollars for the increased cost by the 
a<Io[)tion of this excellent building stone, but that amount does not cover the loss 
already llu-n sustained l)y the contractor by using the limestone up to the period 
when the change was necessary. It is my duty therefore to respectfully submit 
for your consideration whether any and what compensation can be allowed to the 
contractor to cover his loss for work done under and included in tlie provisions 
of the contract. After some trouble in arriving at a just value of the e.xtra cost of 
the haulage of stone from Beatrice, the works proceeded in the spring with 
\igor for a t^hort time; aljout April, however, several of the stone cutters, 
brought here at considerable expense, left and returned to Chicago, and their 
l)laces could not then be filled by others, and from those that then remained a 
demand for increased wages was made, and after some negotiation, was perforce 
complied with, or a complete suspension of the work would have resulted. The 
rate of wages demanded was greater than any previously paid in Nebraska, so 
far as 1 could ascertain, and greater than the contractor supposed he would have 
to pay when he made his estimate and contract. It was also found that about 
that time it would be im].)Ossible to procure (sufficiently early) bricks for the 
internal walls, as contemplateil in the design and coritract for the building. I was 
therefore compelled, by the circvmistances, to use- sandstone and in some parts to 
increase the thickness of the walls, as a necessary precaution to insure the 
stability of the fabric. The increased cost 1 have allovved in my annexed account. 
As it was not known how the accommodation provided for the executive officers 
would be appropriated, no safes were provided and located in the original design ; 
two safes and some additional doors with other minor imj)rovements, which, when 
the several rooms were specifically appropriated, suggested themselves during the 
progress of the erection, have been added, mainly according to your directions, 
and the costs thereof set forth in the annexed account. 

"As time was necessarily made an important item in the contract, it has become 
my duty, also, to take into consideration that as the new state house and capitol 
were located at a somewhat remote point from the most settled portion of the state 
and where the facilities for building on a large scale were comparatively few, and 
moreover, the additional time necessary to execute the added works before 
mentioned required an extension of time for the completion, I am obliged to 
recognize a principle (already established in equity, in all places in my knowledge) 
that of extending the time proportionally for the completion of the contract works, 
.and I therefore recommend the extension until the first day of January, 1869. 
I believe it proper also to bring to your notice the effect that weather had upon 
the progress of the work, for a period of about five weeks in the spring and six 
weeks in the fall : the rain was so excessive as to prevent the employes making 
more time than an average of four and a half days each week. During the great 
heat of the summer, also, for a time extending over about seven weeks there was 
a great deal of sickness among the workmen ; an average of seven men were 
absent daily. It was impossible in this new place to supply labor enough to 
compensate for the loss of time occasioned thereby; a combined eiTect of these 
several causes was to drive the completion of the work into short days and 


inclement weather, so much so that for fifty days about thirty men could not 
work more than nine hours each day and the wages could not be proportionately 
decreased, but in some cases had to be increased. I believe from the causes the 
contractor lost about six hundred dollars, the principal causes of loss therefore to 
the contractor arose, first, from use of limestone before the change to Beatrice 
stone, $4,500.00; from excessive wages, $3,300.00; and by short days, S600.00. 
There were some other minor causes which it is diiTicult to estimate, but I cannot 
base the estimate of losses that could not be foreseen at less than $9,000. 
I desire earnestly to submit for your consideration, whether you can, with- 
out damage to the interests of the state, the integrity of the contract and the 
provisions of the constitution, ameliorate his loss. With the exception of the delays 
noticed, the work was pushed with vigor, the utmost progress was made in good 
weather by availing every hour that could be turned to account, and by employ- 
ing all the labor that could be commanded. By the first of June, 1868, the first 
story was up and in August following, a portion of the walls was up to the roof, 
and in Septemljer a part of the roof was on and all finishings in an advanced 

"In conclusion I think it is incumbent on me to remark that on a comparison 
of the bulk and stability of the building with several court houses, school houses 
and churches you will have (after all proper allowances and reliefs to the con- 
tractor are made) the cheapest and most substantial edifice west of the Mississippi 
River, and also, to remark that the contractor by thoroughly identifying himself 
with the work, by the exercise of great energy, and by practicing a strictly watch- 
ful care over the expenditure is entitled to praise, that the works included in his 
contract were brought to completion. 

"In view of the amount of work done and the time occupied and under such 
signal disadvantages, I believe there has been reached a financial result which is 
comparatively favorable to the state. 

"I have the honor to remain, gentlemen, your obedient servant. 

"John Morris, Superintendent. 

"Lincoln, July 30, 1869." 


Increased thickness of foundation and walls $ 902.27 

Providing for sewer 15-74 

For fireproof safes 771.82 

For limestone pillars in halls instead of sandstone 1,853.71 

For chimney shafts 473-37 

Provisions for extension of library 20.00 

For three additional windows 315.00 

For additional doors, internal 290.00 

For two additional closets 59-59 

For ceiling ventilators S3. 20 

For two ventilating windows 42.00 

Extra plastering 739-75 

For flag staff 43-64 

For angle staffs 34-19 

Looking northeast from tlie Capitol, 
about ]870 

Vivw from Capitol showing Episcopal Chnrcl 
Twelfth ami K streets, about 1870 

View showing high school, looking north of 
Capitol, about 1871 

View from Capitol grounds looking south- 
east, showing homes of T. P. Kennard and 
John Gillespie, about 1871. 


[From Clement's Collection of Early Nebraska Photographs. Property of and used by 
permission of Nebraska History Seminar, State University] 


Extra on water closets 753-'J4 

Difference for patent thimbles, etc 127.00 

For change of facing stone 10,822.39 

Safes fittings 62.75 

Library fittings 537-00 

Speakers' platforms and desks 126.85 

Two dressers 39-00 

Supreme court platform, etc 69.40 

Wood boxes and ash well curb 7500 

Gallery benches 57- 10 

Shelves on clerks' desks and letter boxes 23.95 

Two stepladders 1400 

Hat ra-ils and pegs 20.00 

Five days labor jobbing 17-50 

Four washstands for offices 44-5° 

Copying press stands . 8.20 


By Thomas Malloy 

Note : The following paper was prepared for the Nebraska State Historical 
Society by Mr. :\Ialloy in 1899. 

In the month of November, 1867, I was hired in Chicago by contractor Joseph 
Ward, who had the contract of building the first state capitol. There were also 
twelve other stone-cutters who came West to Lincoln, Nebraska, with me. We 
were to receive S4.50 per day as soon as we began work. He paid our way as far 
as Omaha, and then transferred us back to Council Bluff's, from which place we 
went to Nebraska City. Here we rested for a day and a night. There were two 
teams hired to bring our tool chests and trunks from the depot on the Iowa side 
across by ferry to Nebraska City. We had guns and revolvers to protect our- 
selves from the Indians. Before we left Nebraska City we were advised to get 
blankets and moccasins, as it looked as if there was a storm coming. Sure enough 
the storm did come after we left for Lincoln. We had to walk and run all of the 
wav behind the wagons to keep ourselves from freezing the first day. 1 believe 
the moccasins- we bought saved our lives on the road. The first day we came as 
far as a place where there was one shanty on each side of a creek. One was 
occupied by a man by the name of Wallen and the other by a man named Luff". 
old pioneers on the Nemaha near Unadilla. The owners of the houses were scared 
of us until we told them where we were going. Then they divided us between 
the two houses. One house kept seven men and the other five. Lucky enough 
they had some bread, coff"ee and bacon. They did the best they possibly could for 
us, but such sleeping apartments ! A loft in the peak of each shanty, with loose 
boards for a floor, on which we slept. And such a night ! W^e lay on the floor 
with our lucky blankets rolled around us and kept ourselves as warm as we could. 
Next morning we had breakfast of the same variety of food as the night before, 
paid our bill, and thanked the pioneer gentlemen for their kind treatment. Then 
we started for Lincoln and arrived at the Pioneer Hotel at 9 o'clock that night. 

Vol. I— I 


This hotel was owned by Mr. Scroggins and was north of where the State Journal 
building is at present on Ninth Street. The number at the hotel that night after 
we signed our names on the register was sixty-five. The hotel was well filled with 
lodgers, consisting of laborers, mechanics doctors and a few lawyers. The next 
morning we went to see where our job was to be. A few men went with us and 
pointed out the place. To our great surprise there was nothing for us to see but the 
trenches dug for the foundation. There was no material in the way of stone. 
So we were badly discouraged. What could we do, out in the wilderness of 
Nebraska and our families in Chicago ? At this time rhe contractor was on his way 
from Chicago to Lincoln, three days behind us. We patiently waited for him to 
come and when he did come we met him determined to do something desperate. 
In fact we were going to hang him. When he saw the material was not on hand 
for us to go to work, he there and then told us not to be uneasy, that he would see 
that we got our wages, work or play, according to the agreement as the state was 
good for it. So that pacified us. We were idle two weeks before the rock came in. 
He paid us full time. We then built a sod boarding house on the capitol grounds 
and boarded all the men working on the building. A man and team were hired 
to haul all the things required for the table from Nebraska City. That was good 
board at $5.00, so we were all well satisfied up until the first of April, 1868. At 
that time a man by the name of Felix Carr came from Omaha with a letter from 
Governor Butler to the contractor, Mr. Ward. This man made a deal with 
Mr. Ward, who rented the boarding house to Mr. Carr. Then Mr. Carr went back 
to Omaha and brought out his wife and family to run the boarding house. He also 
brought out two big barrels of whiskey. Then we saw what was up. We held a 
meeting and resolved to boycott the whiskey, .as the boys were all saving their 
money at this time. A few days after he invited some of the men to have a drink, 
but they refused, and he was greatly surprised to see such a large number of men 
in a big building like a state capitol all sober. But one wet day came, and some 
of the masons broke the boycott about a month after the whiskey came. This 
continued for a week. I watched an opportunity at night when they were all 
asleep and crept to the barrel and turned the faucet. I then went back to bed. 
The whiskey kept running all night on the floor and down the cracks, imtil the 
barrel was empty. In the morning the smell of whiskey was all over the boarding 
house. The man Carr became tearing mad. He carried a brace of revolvers at 
the breakfast table and threatened the man or men who committed the crime of 
emptying the barrel of its contents. But he did not shoot. A. few days after all 
the stone-cutters left the boarding house and went to Mr. Lane's new boarding 
house on O Street. He was foreman carpenter. 

Mr. Felix Carr left in a few weeks and never paid Mr. Ward a cent of rent; 
took his blankets, dishes, even the stove, spoons, and knives. He was never seen 
in Lincoln again. 

In the spring of 1868 the prairie was covered with camp wagons, consisting of 
bull teams, mule teams and horse teams, all seeking out section stones and taking 
up homesteads and preemptions in Lancaster County. The land office was in 
Nebraska City atjhis time. All available teams were employed hauling lumber 
from Nebraska City and stone from Beatrice for the state capitol. Frame houses 
were springing up in all directions. Carpenters, masons and plasterers were in 
demand. Auction sales were conducted by Thomas Hyde, auctioneer, selling city 


lots at that time to pay the expenses of building the capitoi. The money in circula- 
tion at that time was known as greenbacks, and was easily carried in one's pocket, 
not being so heavy as gold. 

In the fall of the same year, 1868, politics were getting lively. There were two 
liberty poles planted on top of a hill called Market Square at that time, north of 
where the postoffice is now built, between O and P streets. One was a democratic 
pole and the other a rei)ublican, both with the Stars and Stripes flying from the 
top. The republican pole was taller than the other, being spliced. But some 
wicked villain came around one night, threw a rope around the top of it and kept 
pulling at it until it cracked, and broke in two pieces across the top of the hill. 
In the morning when the men were going to work, they only saw one pole with 
the Stars and Stripes flying and that was the democratic pole. When the report 
went around town the people gathered in swarms to see the broken liberty pole. 
There was nothing but weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth among the old 
veterans of the late war. Finally there was a colored barber by the name of 
Johnston who lived west of the hill on Ninth Street reported that he heard the 
crack of the pole when it fell and that he saw a man running toward the livery 
barn of Dunbar and Jones on west O Street. Suspicion fell upon young Jones 
because he was a southern democrat, and he was taken and a guard placed over 
him. The Moore brothers and other veterans of the war went to George Ballen- 
tine's lumber yard, got lumber and built a scaffold on top of the hill where the 
pole lay. The scafifold was built on which to hang Jones and his trial was to be held 
that evening before Judge Cadman. The democrats got very uneasy and sent 
word out toward Salt Creek and other places around Lincoln to be in at the 
hanging. Many of them came in and waited until the trial commenced. Judge 
Cadman called the case and the witness appeared. He said he heard a loud noise 
of something cracking, and he looked out and saw a man running toward the 
barn. "Did you know the man?" "No, sir." "Any more witnesses?" There were 
none. "I discharge the prisoner for want of further prosecution." So there was 
no hanging on the scaffold in 1868. 

In 1868 Robert Silvers got the contract for the building of the state university. 
The first thing he did w^as to start a brick yard. He bought all the wood he could 
find in the country and had to haul it with teams, as there were no railroads here 
at that time. He hauled the foundation stone from Yankee Hill, which was of 
sand rock. This was of little account. There was no other stone around 
Lincoln at that time with which to build foundations. The first bank at the corner 
of Tenth and O streets was built of it. At that time Mr. Silvers did not know how 
to find stone for the steps at the three principal entrances, south, east and west, to 
the university. He told me to search the county, as he hated to put wooden 
steps in a state university. I started out on my pony and the first day I could 
find no stone which would suit. The second day I went east and found stone 
located south of Bennett in a ravine. I returned and told Mr. Silvers that I had 
found- the stones that would make the steps. I got all the stones that had been 
long exposed to the sun and frost, dressed them, and there they are today. The 
three landings cost $1,000.00. , -v 



By Hon. C. H. Gere 

Note: The following paper was read before the Nebraska State Plistorical 
Society by Mr. Gere on January 12, 1886. 

To found a city is a human ambition older than history. The name of the 
engineer that set the metes and bounds of the first block and street in Jerusalem, 
or Athens, or Philadelphia, or Minneapolis, may be obliterated by the tide of time, 
but his work endures to this day, and the man who would tamper with his records 
or shift his landmarks, is a miscreant by the unanimous voice of the nations. 
But there are other ambitions almost as exigent. (Jther than dreams of im- 
mortality nerve many a pioneer to make the fight for his rival site for the seat of 
government of a state, or of a county, or for a railroad station. It is a dream of 
corner lots, of speculation, of bonds and mortgages, and deeds and commissions, 
and sudden wealth. 

The transformation of a rough pebble to a diamond, of a fragment of dirty 
looking carbonate, trodden under foot by a hundred prospectors, to a button of 
shining metal, are realizations of the fairy tales of childhood, no more seductive 
to the bearded son of the child than the transformation of a square mile of 
wilderness, for the present dear enough at the cost of measuring it with compass 
and chain, by the breath of a law or an ordinance into a realm worth a prince's 

Upon the area of a new commonwealth, therefore, are waged incessant con- 
tests. The larger armies fight for capital sites, lesser powers war for county 
seats, and finally small squads here and there struggle over the location of a 
postoffice or a sawmill, and wounds are given and received, and graveyards filled 
with the politically slaughtered on the field or in the skirmish line, with as much 
recklessness as if the fate of administration and the control of empires depended 
upon the issue. 

The first governor of the Territory of Nebraska was clothed with imperial 
powers by the organic act and the appointment of the President in the matter of 
setting up his official residence. Empowered to select the spot for the political 
center of his virgin domain, he wielded for a time, in the minds of his fellow 
citizens, the thunderbolt of Jove, and guided the courses of Appollo. But 
hardly had he arrived in October, 1854, at the old mission house at Bellevue, 
the site of the first white occupation of the territory, before he sickened, and in 
less than a week he was dead. His last hours were troubled by the delegations on 



hand and forcinj^ their way to his bedside, who came to urge the respective claims 
of Omaha, or Florence, or I'lattsmouth, or Nebraska City for the seat of govern- 
ment. Bellevue considered herself safe, and the words of the dying Burt are 
often quoted by old citizens to this day as indicating that she would have won 
the crown, had the governor lived long enough to issue the necessary proclama- 

His secretary of state, who was his successor, Governor Cuming, unem- 
barrassed by the past, pledged to no one, because no one had dreamed of his 
approaching greatness, had an embarrassment of riches in the shape of eligible 
sites offered hitn at once. Bellevue had perhaps the first claim, because she 
had the largest settlement and the greatest prestige. But all along the muddy 
banks of the Missouri, above and below her, were other cities, mostly on paper, 
though some had arrived at the dignity of a few scattering log cabins and dugouts, 
that wrestled for the supremacy. Most of their inhabitants lived over in Iowa, 
but the fact that they intended to elect, and did elect, a goodly portion of the 
coming Territorial Legislature, was a sufficient excuse for their pleading, and 
they made the executive ears warm with their arguments. 

By what pathways the acting governor was led to pitch the imiierial tent upon 
the plateaux of Omaha is not our province to inquire. If the statesmen of 
Kanesville, later Council Bluffs, had a hand in the matter, that city soon had 
reason to mourn that the nest of the new commonwealth was lined with plumage 
from her own breast. From its very cradle, her infant despoiled her of her com- 
mercial prestige, and now scoff's at her maternal ancestor every time she glances 
across the four miles of dreary bottom that separates the waxing from the waning 

For the time being Omaha was the capital, and the first Legislature, with 
ample power to endorse or cancel the governor's location, was the next object of 
the executive attention, and it was his chiefest care to fortify and defend Omaha. 
A pretended enumeration of the inhabitants of the territory was made in Novem- 
ber, 1854, upon which the governor proceeded to base the representation of the 
members of the territorial council and house of representatives. Four counties 
were constructed north of the Platte, named Burt, Douglas, Washington, and 
Dodge. Four were assigned to the south Platte : Cass, Pierce, Forney and Rich- 
ardson. Douglas County extended to the Platte, embracing what is now Sarpy and 
Pierce, and Forney stood for what are now the counties of Otoe and Nemaha. 

To the counties north of the Platte were apportioned seven councilmen and 
fourteen representatives, and to the southern counties were given six councilmen 
and twelve representatives. The enumeration made next year showed that the 
four northern counties contained 2,065 inhabitants, and the four counties south of 
the Platte contained 2,944. Here was the beginning of the trouble, the inequitable 
apportionment of the legislative representation, by which the section of the state 
known thenceforth as the "South Platte" country, was arbitrarily placed in the 
minority in each branch of the legislature, though greatly preponderating in 
population and wealth. 

It is a matter of tradition that there was no definite eastern boundary of the 
territory during the first legislative election. The candidates were often residents 
of Iowa, who had claims on the other side of the great river, whose name as well as 
birth right had been stolen by a lesser affluent of the Mississippi to the eastward. 


and were voted for in Pottawatamie, and Mills, and Fremont, as well as in 
Washington, Douglas and Cass. Sometimes the electors would form a camp for 
polling purposes on Nebraska soil, but where this was inconvenient it is rumored 
that they transacted the necessary business without leaving their Iowa homes, and 
merely dated their papers from the new commonwealth. 

The governor's location was not disputed by that body, or the next. But when 
the third annual session of the Territorial Legislature opened in 1857 the trouble 
began immediately. The council still numbered seven from the north and six 
from the south, while the house had been increased to thirty-one members, sixteen 
from the north, and fifteen from the south. Douglas County absorbed twelve of 
the sixteen north Platte members. But her delegation was divided against itself. 
The memory of the lost chances that had stricken Bellevue with dry rot and had 
blighted the buddmg hopes of the Florentines, rankled in the bosoms of two 
representatives, one of whom hailed from the southern, and the other from the 
northern, extremity of the county. Youthful politicians wear out their hearts 
with the vain imagining that "to get even" is the chiefest end of statesmanship, 
and these united with the chafed warriors of the south in a raid on Omaha. 

A bill was passed early in the session by both houses locating the seat of 
government "in the town of Douglas, in the County of Lancaster." It was a 
curious prophecy of the event ten years later. Stephen A. Douglas was then the 
rising star of the party that had been dominant for thirty-two out of the forty years 
last past. He was the idol of the democracy of the north, and was exhausting the 
resources of an acute and fertile intellect in plans for conciliating his southern 
brethern without losing his hold upon the aflfections of the north. He was certain 
to be a candidate for President, and if the party was united was certain of 
election. Three years later he and his cunningly devised statesmanship were 
swept away, his old townsman and hitherto almost unknown competitor, had 
supplanted him as the great popular leader, and ten years later gave the name to 
the capital of Nebraska. 

Governor Izard, who had in the meantime relieved acting Governor Cuming 
of the burden of executive honors, promptly vetoed the bill. He explained in 
his message that it was a sudden movement of the enemies of Omaha, that the 
question had not been agitated by the people, that the alleged town of Douglas, 
in the County of Lancaster, was a mere figment of the legislative imagination, 
invented for the occasion and that its actual location in the county named was 
problematical, being as yet the football of factions within the faction that had 
passed the removal bill. 

A year later, at a meeting of the fourth legislative assembly, the quarrel broke 
out afresh. Governor Izard had resigned, and Richardson, his successor, had not 
arrived, and Secretary Cuming was again in the chair. Nine days prior to the 
expiration of the session, on the "th of January, a bill was introduced for the 
removal of the capital to Florence. The various tactical obstructions in the 
reach of the minority, engineered by such rising young statesmen as Dr. George L. 
Miller, president of the council, and A. J. Poppleton and J. Sterling Morton in 
the House, made it impossible to accomplish the object without strategy. The 
strategy resorted to was simple, but startling. On the morning of the 8th 
Mr. Donelan of Cass placidly rose in his place and moved "that we do now 
adjourn to meet at Florence tomorrow morning at the usual hour." Speaker ' 


Decker, who was one of the removers, put the question from the chair, as though 
it was the most natural thing in the world to meet at Florence tomorrow morning; 
and the motion presailed, and the speaker and all hut thirteen members of the 
house picked up their hats and left the chamber. The thirteen held the fort, 
elected Morton speaker pro tern, and gallantly eiifected an adjournment to rneet 
again on the morrow at the old stand. 

A similar scene was transpiring in the council. Doctor Miller, in the chair, 
refused to put the motion to adjourn to Florence, and it was put by Reeves of 
Otoe, declared carried, and eight councilmen stalked out into the cold world and 
prepared themselves for an eternal exodus to the village up the river. As to this 
emigration Douglas County was again divided against herself. Bowen and Allen, 
the one representing Florence, and the other standing for that cruel Juno, 
licllevue, whose lofty mind still was revoh-ing some plan of vengeance for the 
judgment of Paris and her injured beauty, were the leaders in the race, and 
behind the twain marched Bradford and Reeves of Otoe, Kirkpatrick of Cass, 
Saft'ord of Dodge, and F"urnas of Nemaha. 

Governor Richardson arrived about this time, to find two capitals and two 
legislatures in full blast, and himself the unwilling arbitrator of the war. He 
promptly refused to recognize the Florence legislature, though it had the 
majority of both houses. The forty days' limit of the session broke up both 
bodies, and they each adjourned, leaving the business of the session undone, and 
the territory without a code of criminal law. and thus ended the first and last 
attempt recorded in history to attach the removal of a seat of government to a 
motion to adjourn until tomorrow morning. 

The consequence was an extra session not long after, in 1859, at which muck 
business was done, and in which Mr. Daily of Nemaha introduced a bill to 
abolish slavery in the territory, but during which the capital agitation slumbered 
and slept. 

Then there was an interregnum. The Civil war quenched sectional bicker- 
ings, and the ambitions of leaders had objects more alluring than the founding of 
cities. But the war came to an end. and when the last Territorial Legislature of 
1867 met, the old question of unfair apportionment came to the front again. The 
population of the south Platte section had increased until it was about double 
that of the counties north of the troublesome stream. But the superior tactics 
of the Douglas County leaders held down its representation to such an extent that 
it had but seven of the thirteen councilmen. and twenty-one of the thirty-seven 
representatives. Two threads of policy had intertwisted to make the resistance to 
a reappointment, based upon actual population, sufficiently strong to overcome 
the justice supposed to be latent in the minds of statesmen. 

The first was the fear entertained by Douglas County of the reopening of 
the capital agitation. The north Platte was now about a unit in favor of Omaha, 
as against a southern competitor. The second was a political consideration. 
A reapportionment meant a cutting down of the representation from Otoe as well 
as Douglas counties, both democratic strongholds. These counties, with the 
assistance of some lesser constituencies in the north of the Platte, which sent 
democratic delegations, were able to hold a very even balance in the Legislature 
against the republicans, though the latter had an unquestionable majority in the 
territory. Now that statehood was imminent, and there were two United States 


senators to be elected by a State Legislature soon to be called, in case President 
Johnson should fail in his plan of defeating our admission under the enabling 
act of 1864, it was of immense importance to stave off a reapportionment. 

Hence for capital reasons the republicans from the north Platte, and the 
democrats from the south Platte, worked in harmony with Douglas County 
members in preserving a basis of representation in its original injustice. The 
usual bill for a new apportionment had been introduced and passed the Senate, 
and came to the House, but the four votes from C)toe County being solid against 
it. it was sleeping the sleep of the just. In the speaker's chair was William F. 
Chapin of Cass, an expert parliamentarian, cool, determined, watchful, and 
untiring. The session was drawing to a close, and it was Saturday ; the term 
expired at 12 o'clock, midnight, on the following IMonday, and as usual the 
results of pretty much all the toil and perspiration of the forty days depended 
upon a ready and rapid dispatch of business during the remaining hours of the 

There was something sinister in the air. It was whispered about that morning 
that the reapportionment bill had at last a majority in case Deweese of Richard- 
son, who was absent on leave, should put in an appearance. A ^•ote or two had 
been brought over from some of the northern districts, remote from Omaha, and 
anxious for republican domination. "Fun" was therefore expected. It came 
very soon after the roll was called in the opening of the session. The credentials 
of D. M. Rolfe of Otoe, who had not been in attendance during the session, but 
who was an anti-reapportionist, w'ere called up, and it was moved that they be 
reported to a special committee. The ayes and nays were demanded. Pending 
roll call, it was moved that a call of the house be ordered. The call was ordered, 
and the doors closed. All the members answered to their names but Deweese of 
Richardson and Dorsey of Washington. Then the other side made a motion that 
further proceedings under the call be dispensed with. The ayes and nays were 
demanded, and there were seventeen ayes and sixteen nays. Speaker Chapin 
announced that he voted "no," and that being a tie, the motion was lost. An 
appeal was taken from the decision of the chair, and the vote resulted in another 
tie, and the appeal was declared lost. The rule is, that an affirmative proposition 
cannot be carried by a tie vote, but that all questions are decided in the negative. 
The usual form of putting the question by the speaker is, "Shall the decision of 
the chair stand as the judgment of the house?" The negative would be that it 
should not so stand. But in that case a decision of the chair is reversed by less 
than a majority of the members voting, which is of course absurd. It was a 
deadlock. The house still refused to suspend proceedings under the call, and 
there was no recourse except by revolution. The result was a curious demon- 
stration of the absurdity of manipulating a proposition by the use of misleading 
formulas so that the negative side of a question may appear to be in the 

The house passed, but "No Thoroughfare" was written on the faces of the 
reapportionists. They said that until they had some assurance that a reapportion- 
ment bill would be passed before the adjournment, they would prevent the trans- 
action of any more business. Secretly they expected Deweese, who was rumored 
to be well enough to attend, and they waited for his appearance. But he did not 
come. The doorkeeper and the sergeant at arms had orders to let no man out. 


and when noontide passed and the shadows lengthened, the niemhers sent for 
refreshments and kniched at their desks. The night came. Some of the refresh- 
ments had heen of a very partisan character, and there was blood on the horizon. 
Many became hilarious, and the lobby was exceedingly noisy. From hilarity to 
pugnacity is a very short step. Arms and munitions of war were smuggled in 
during the evening by the outside friends of both sides, and it was pretty con- 
fidently whispered about that the conclusion was to be tried by force of revolvers. 

A little after lo o'clock, P. M. Augustus F. Harvey of Otoe rose and moved that 
Speaker Chapin be deposed, and that Doctor Abbott of Washington be elected to 
fill the vacancy. He then put the question to a viva voce vote, and declared the 
motion adoi^ted and Doctor Abbott elected speaker of the house. The stalwart 
form of Mr. Parmalee. the fighting man of the faction, immediately lifted itself 
from a desk nearby, and advanced, with Doctor Abbott, toward the chair, backed 
up by Harvey and a procession of his friends. As he placed his foot upon the first 
step of the dais. Speaker Chapin suddenly unlimbered a Colt's navy duly cocked, 
and warned him briefly to the efifect that the Pythagorean proposition that two 
bodies could not occupy the same place at the same time was a rule of the house, 
and would be enforced by the combined armament, at the command of the proper 
presiding officer. Daniel paused upon the brink of fate, and hesitated upon his 
next step. To hesitate was to be lost. The speaker announced that in accord- 
ance with the rules of the house in cases of great disorder, he declared the house 
adjourned until g o'clock Monday morning, and sprang for the door. The 
Omaha lobby had promised faithfully when the crisis came to guard that door, 
and permit no rebel from the south Platte to escape. The first man to reach 
the door was said to be Kelley of Platte, who had joined the forces of the 
reapportionists, and it is a tradition that he leaped over the legislative stove to 
get there on time. The door was burst open, anil before the volunteer guard 
could recover its equilibrium, the seceders had escaped and were out of the 
building, scattering to the four corners of the globe. But they had a rendezx'ous 
agreed upon in a secret place, and in half an hour they were safely entrenched 
and on guard against any sergeant-at-arms and posse that might be dispatched 
to return them to durance vile. 

The Abbott house immediately organized, admitted Rolfe of Otoe to full 
membership, and proceeded to clear the docket of accumulated bills. Members 
of the lobby trooped in and voted the names of the absent, and everything pro- 
ceeded in an unanimous way that must have astonished the walls of the chamber, 
if they had ears and memory. About dawn, however, the situation began to lose 
its roseate hue and an adjournment was had until Monday morning. 

Before that time arrived, the hopelessness of the situation dawned upon both 
factions. They perceived that nothing whatever would come of the deadlock. 
Neither party had a quorum. Deweese of Richardson could not be brought in 
to cast his vote for reapportionment, and by common consent a peace was con- 
cluded, and Monday was spent in an amicable settlement of the arrearages of 
routine business. 

But this episode created a sensation all over the state, and intensified partisan 
and sectional feeling. The adjournment took place on the i8th of February, and 
two days later, on the 20th, the State Legislature chosen at the same time, under 
the enabling act, met at a call of Governor Saunders, to accept or reject the 


"fundamental condition" insisted on by Congress as a condition precedent to the 
admission of the state. The condition was that the word "white" in the con- 
stitution theretofore passed by the Legislature, and ratiiied by the people, should 
not be construed as debarring from the franchise any citizen of Nebraska, on 
account of color or race. 

The State Legislature promptly ratified the "fundamental condition," and 
declared that white meant in their constitution any color whatever. Ten days 
later and the President's proclamation had been issued declaring Nebraska a state 
in the Union. The state officers were sworn in immediately after official notice 
had been given, and Governor Butler began at once to prepare his call for a 
special session of the Legislature to put the machi'nery of state in motion. 

It was insisted upon by the leaders of the republican party in the south and 
west, that a reapportionment of members of the Legislature should be one of the 
objects of legislation enumerated in the call. This was bitterly opposed by many 
republicans in Douglas and other northern counties. It was also asked, this time 
by democrats, as well as republicans from Otoe, as well as from Cass and 
Richardson, and the southwestern counties, that a clause should be inserted 
making the location of the seat of government of the state one of the objects of 
the special session. The governor was averse to commencing his administration 
with a capital wrangle, but thought it would be good policy to make use of the 
suggestion, for the purpose of securing reapportionment, without a repetition of 
the bitter struggle of the winter. He therefore opened negotiations with the 
Douglas County delegation to the coming Legislature, and promised them that 
he would leave out the capital question, provided they would pledge themselves 
to sustain a reapportionment. They flatly refused. They claimed that the 
Legislature could not constitutionally reapportion the representation until after 
the next census, and as for capital removal, they were not brought up in the 
woods to be scared by an owl. The Otoe delegation, however, had changed its 
base. The senators had been elected and seated, and political consideration had 
lost their force with the democrats in that county. They wanted the capital 
removed south of the Platte, and they promised if the governor would "put that 
in" they would march right up and vote for apportionment. 

His excellency had gone too far to retreat, and when his call was issued it 
embraced both capital removal and reapportionment, having consulted a dis- 
tinguished constitution constructor. Judge Jamison of Chicago, on the latter point, 
and obtained an elaborate opinion that it was not only in the power of the 
Legislature, but its bounden duty, under the constitution, to reapportion the 
representation at its first session. 

The Legislature met on the i8th of May, and the lines were quickly drawn 
for the emergency. Reapportionment was a fixed fact, and after a few days spent 
in reconnoitering, a solid majority in both houses seemed likely to agree upon a 
scheme for capital location. Mr. Harvey who had led the assault upon reappor- 
tionment at the late session of the Territorial Legislature, was an active leader 
of his late antagonists for relocation. Party affiliations were ruptured all along 
the line, and the new lines were formed on a sectional basis. The bill was pre- 
pared with deliberation, much caucusing being required before it would satisfy 
the various elements in the movement, and it was introduced into both houses on 
the 4th of June. It was entitled "An act to provide for the location of the seat 

South Teiitii Street lietweeii N ami M 

f]leven1h Street, looking north from O 




- ' 

: ----- - - ' 


North side of Street l)etweeii Niiitli ami TSoutli side of O Street l)etweeii Eleveiitli 

Eleventh and Twelfth 




Ik. Jl 

Ity courtesy of G. R. Wolf of Uncolii 

State Uuiversity County Jail 



of government of the State of Nebraska and for the erection of public buildings 

thereat." It named the governor, David Butler, the secretary of state, Thomas P. 

Kennard, and the auditor, John Gillespie, commissioners, who should select, on 

or Ijefore July 15th, a date changed by a supjilementary bill to September i, 1867, 

from lands belonging to the state lying within the County of Seward, the south 

half of the counties of Saunders and Butler, and that portion of Lancaster County 

lying north of the south line of township nine, a suitable site of not less than 640 

acres lying in one body, for a town, to have the same surveyed, and named 

"Lincoln," and declared the same the permanent seat of government of the state. 

The bill directed the commissioners, after the site had been surveyed, to 

offer the lots in each alternate block for sale to the highest bidder after thirty 

days' advertisement, having appraised the same, but that no lots should be sold 

for less than the appraised value. The first sale should be held for five successive 

days at Lincoln on the site, after which sale should be opened for the same 

duration, first at Nebraska City and next at Omaha. If a sufficient number of 

lots should not by this time be disposed of to defray the expenses of the selection 

and survey and to erect a building as described in the bill, further sales might 

be advertised and held in Plattsmouth and Brownville. All moneys derived from 

these sales, which should be for cash, should be deposited in the state treasury and 

there held by the treasurer as a state building fund. From the proceeds of these 

sales the commissioners should proceed to advertise for plans and contracts and 

cause to be erected a building suitable for executive offices and the accommodation 

of the two houses of the Legislature, that might be a part of a larger building to 

be completed in the future, the cost of which wing or part of a building should not 

exceed fifty thousand dollars. The bill passed the Senate on the loth day of 

June. Those voting for it were Jesse T. Davis of Washington, James E. Doom 

and Lawson Sheldon of Cass, Oscar Holden of Johnson, Thomas J. Majors of 

Nemaha, William A. Presson of Richardson, and Mills S. Reeves and W. W. 

Wardell of Otoe. The noes were Harlan Baird of Dakota, Isaac S. Hascall and 

J. N. H. Patrick of Douglas, E. H. Rogers of Dodge, and Frank K. Freeman of 


The House passed the bill two days later, under suspension of the rules, 
forwarding it to its third reading. As in the Senate, so in the House, the oppo- 
nents of the bill resorted to strategy for stampeding the friends of the measure, 
and offered numerous amendments to locate the capital or the university or the 
agricultural college at Nebraska City, or in the boundaries of Cass or Nemaha 
counties. But all amendments were steadily voted down by a solid phalan.x. The 
gentlemen in the House voting "aye" on its final passage were David M. Ander- 
son, John B. Bennett, William H. Hicklin, Aug. F. Harvey and George W. Sroat 
of Otoe, J. R. Butler of Pawnee, John Cadman of Lancaster, E. L. Clark of 
Seward, W. F. Chapin, D. Cole, A. B. Fuller and Isaac Wiles of Cass, George 
Crowe, W^illiam Dailey, Louis Waldter and C. F. Haywood of Nemaha, J. M. 
Deweese, Gustavus Duerfeldt, T. J. Collins and J. T. Hoile of Richardson, Henry 
Morton of Dixon, Dean C. Slade and John A. Unthank of Washington, Oliver 
Townsend of Gage and George P. Tucker of Johnson — twenty-five. 

The "noes" were O. W. Baltzley of Dakota, Henry Beebe of Dodge, George 
N. Crawford and A. W. Trumble of Sarpy, George W. Frost. Joel T. Griffin, 


Martin Dunham, J. M. Woohvorth and Dan S. Parnialee of Douglas, and John 
A. Wallichs of Platte — ten. 

It will be obsen-ed that several votes were cast for the bill from the northern 
counties. Tied up with the capital removal was a bill engineered by the secretary 
of state, Mr. Kennard, then a resident of Washington County, and Senator 
Davis, appropriating seventy-five sections of state internal improvement lands for 
the building of a railroad, now a part of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
Line running from the river near Blair to Fremont. It was then called the 
"North Nebraska Air Line." Another measure was also attached to these two 
to make the syndicate solid in Namaha, the only county that had sent up a remon- 
strance against the removal of the capital. It was a bill accepting for the state 
the tender of the Methodist Episcopal Seminary at Peru for a state normal 
school, and donating twenty sections of state lands for the endowment of the 
same. The thiee. bills and the reapportionment bill received virtually the same sup- 
port in both houses and all passed about the same time. 

The plans of the capital removers so far had not met with the determined 
resistance that had been anticipated, although the parliamentarians from Douglas 
and other counties had e.xhausted the resources of ordinary tactics at the com- 
mand of the minority. The fact was that for several months Omaha had been 
making such a rapid commercial growth, owing to the extension of the Union 
Pacific Railroad to the frontier and the incoming of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Road from Central Iowa to Council Bluf¥s, that her business men had tlieir hands 
full. Their ambition had expanded. The capital question was dwarfed by the 
prospect of becoming in the near future a great commercial metropolis. Real 
estate was going up like a rocket. Capitalists were crowding in every day, and 
the faces of the newcomers seen on the streets greatly outnumbered the familiar 
physiognomies of the old settlers of '54 and '60. What had Omaha to fear even 
if the Utopian scheme of founding "'a city fifty miles from anywhere," as they 
called it, should succeed? It was too far away from the Union Pacific and the 
Missouri to be of any importance. The lobby was therefore conspicuous for 
its absence. There was more money to be made in a day in trading lots and 
securing railroad contracts than in a month of wrestling with the fads of rural 
legislators. Just at that time, it is due to historical truthfulness to say that Omaha 
cared little for the questions that were taking up the attention of the law- 
makers at the state house. 

The departure of the capital commission to hunt a site for Lincoln was a 
subject of merriment to the newspapers of the old capital. Not until after much 
traveling to and fro, looking at the sites through the length and breadth of the 
territory defined by the act, the commissioners on the 29th of July having issued 
their order locating Lincoln, in Lancaster County, on and about the site of Lan- 
caster, its county seat, and commenced to survey the same into blocks, lots, reser- 
vations, streets and alleys, did the press of Omaha wake to the realities of the 

Then there was music in the air. The act provided that within ten days after 
its passage the commissioners should qualify and give bonds to be approved by 
a judge of the Supreme Court. The bonds were to be filed with the state treas- 
urer. Now it had been ascertained that though the commissioners had sent in 
their bonds to the chief justice, and he had approved them in the stipulated time, 


they had not been filed with the treasurer inside of the ten days. It was an- 
nounced, therefore, that they had no authority to do anything under the law, and 
that if they sold what purported to be lots in the Townsite of Lincoln, the treas- 
urer, Hon. Augustus Kountze of Omaha, would receive the money and hold it for 
future disposition, but he would not pay out any of it as a capitol building fund. 
At any rate injunction would be applied for to prevent him. The announcement 
was calculated to discourage those intending to become purchasers of Lincoln 
lots. It did have a very depressing effect. The commissioners said that to be 
forewarned was to be forearmed, and as they had determined to avoid litigation 
and the possible tying up of the money until the meeting of the next Legislature, 
they should keep it in their own hands and pay it out without the intervention 
of the treasurer. This promise was faithfully kept. The next Legislature form- 
ally legalized this and other departures from the strict letter of the law made by 
them in the pursuit of success, but for the time being it was a very serious em- 

The sale of lots opened on the new site in October. The commissioners were 
on tlie spot with cjuite a number of possible purchasers. The auctioneer was a 
handsome man and had a good voice. There was a band of music in attendance, 
and it played as well as any band ought to play so far away from ci\'!lization. 
But not a bid could be coaxed from a single soul. The commissioners had de- 
cided, upon consideration, that they would not personally invest. It was decided 
proper to observe the proprieties very strictly, and to avoid future scandals they 
would keep out. But this was a matter of suspicion to the crowd present. If 
the commissioners had not enough confidence in the new city to purchase a resi- 
dence or business lot, why should the)' venture any in\'estment? Night came on 
and not a lot had been sold. 

A council of war was summoned in the evening in the Donovan House and 
the connnissioners and certain gentlemen from Nebraska City were in attendance. 
The Nebraska City capitalists said that the commissioners ought to bid on lots, 
and the commissioners said that the Nebraska City men who were so much 
res])onsible for the scheme ought to bid. Finally it was conceded that both 
ought to bid. The Nebraska City men formed a syndicate that agreed to bid the 
appraised value on every lot as it was offered and as much more in case of 
competition as they thought safe, until they had taken $10,000 worth of lots. But 
there was a proviso that in case the sales did not amount in five days to $25,000, 
including the syndicate's $10,000, the whole business should be declared "off," 
the enterprise abandoned, and no money be paid in. The commissioners also 
rescinded their compact against becoming personal bidders, for they saw that 
matters were in a very precarious condition and they had to imbue the people 
]>resent with confidence in Lincoln. The next day business began in earnest. 
When the five days had passed $44,000 had been realized, and the prospects were 
considered certain for the erection of a capitol building. By the time the sales at 
Nebraska City and Omaha had been finished $53,000 had been taken in, and no 
supplementary sales at Plattsmouth and Brownville were held, though compara- 
tively few lots had been disposed of, to realize the necessary amount. 

Lancaster, the site of which had been swallowed up by Lincoln after the 
proprietors had deeded it to the state in consideration of the location of the capital, 
was a hamlet of five dwellings, a part of one being used as a store, and the stone 


walls of a building commenced as a seminary by the Methodist Church, but 
which had partly burned before completion and had been temporarily abandoned. 
The residents on the original plat of Lincoln were Capt. W. T. Donovan, whose 
house stood on the corner of Ninth and O ; Jacob Dawson, w^hose log dwelling 
was on the south side of O, between Seventh and Eighth, and who had com- 
menced the foundations of a residence on the corner of Tenth and O; Milton 
Langdon, who lived in a small stone house east of Dawson's, between O and P; 
Luke Lavender, whose log cabin stood in Fourteenth, just south of O ; and John 
McKesson, who was constructing a frame cottage two or three blocks north of 
the university. ( Note : Lavender's cabin location is now understood to have been 
on Fifteenth and O, and was the first house on the site of Lincoln.) Scattered 
about just outside the city limits as then established, on premises that since then 
have been brought in as additions, were tlie residences of Rev. J. M. Young, Wil- 
liam Guy, Philip Humerick, E. T. Hudson, E. Warnes and John Giles. Between 
the date of the location and the first sale of lots a number of buildings were 
erected on the site, the owners taking their chances at the sales of securing their 
titles by purchase. There were two frame stores, one occupied by Pflug Brothers, 
and another by Rich & Company, a law office by S. B. Galey, a shoe shop by 
Robert and John Monteith, a stone building, afterwards rented to the Common- 
wealth, the predecessor of the State Journal, by Jacob Drum, a hotel called the 
Pioneer House by Colonel Donovan. These buildings were located on or in the 
vicinity of the public square and fixed the business center of Lincoln. 

As soon as the sale was finished the commissioners proceeded to advertise for 
plans for a capitol building. John Morris was the successful architect and Joseph 
Ward secured the contract for its construction on his bid of $49,000. 

The excavation w-as commenced in November and by the ist of December 
of the following year, 1868, was sufficiently completed for occupancy, and the 
governor issued his proclamation transferring the seat of government to Lincoln 
and for the removal of the state offices and archives to the new building. The 
first capitol was constructed of sandstone, quarried at various points within Lan- 
caster County, with a facing of magnesian limestone from a quarry near Beatrice. 
This stone was hauled the forty miles over roads and bridges in part constructed 
by the contractor. 

The considerations that led the commissioners to select Lincoln in preference 
to the sites offered at Ashland. Milford, Camden and other points were, first, the 
fact that in the several preliminary surveys made from various points on the 
Missouri River from Plattsmouth down to Falls City, all had this place as a 
common point ; it was the natural railroad center, to all appearances, for the 
large and irregular parallelogram running west from the Missouri, between the 
Platte on the north, and the Kansas or Kaw on the south, to the plains of Eastern 
Colorado. The eastern portion of this parallelogram was e\en then alleged by 
enthusiastic Nebraskans to be the garden spot of the continent. It has produced 
the largest average of corn to the acre of any equal and continuous area reported 
by our census gatherers. At that time, though its capacity for corn was not fully 
appreciated, it was regarded as a wonderful wheat growing section. It has lost 
its prestige in spring wheat, but it holds its own in corn, oats, grass, and fruit, 
and is all that the fancy of the fathers of '67 painted it. 

The second consideration was the proximity of the great salt basin, in which 

Lavender Cahin, first liouse on tlie site 
ot' Linoolu 

Looking west from old postoffiee, 1881 

Looking east on O from southwest corner Street seene, prohatilv looking east from 

of Eleventh and streets, about 1875 Tenth and O," about 1875 


[From Clement's Collection of Early Nebraska Photographs. Property of and used by 
permission of Nebraska History Seminar, State University] 


all the salt springs of the state that gave promise of future importance were 
located. It was generally believed that the salt manufacture alone would build a 
stirring city. The third reason was that it was about as far from the Missouri 
River as it was advisable to go. To take it twenty miles farther west would be 
to remove it from any immediate expectation of rail communication, and so 
increase the expense of building that it would be impossible to dispose of the lots 
or to erect a capitol with the proceeds within the two years, and hence the enter- 
prise would fail. It was furthermore generally believed that the site selected was- 
about midway between the western limit of arable land, and that it would always 
be the center of population. 

The Legislature met in January, 1869, in the new capitol, approved the acts 
of the commissioners without very much criticism, provided for the erection of 
a state university and agricultural college on the site reserved, and for an insane 
hospital on state lands secured by the commission on Yankee Hill, and ordered 
the sale of the remaining lots and blocks belonging to the state to furnish the 
funds for such buildings in connection with certain lands available for the purjjose. 
They also made appropriations amounting to about sixteen thousand dollars for 
completing the capitol building with a dome, and for defraying the expense of 
"extras" ordered by the commissioners on the state house to make it comlcmable 
and habitable. Several thousand dollars were used in grading the grounds, fencing 
the same, planting them with trees, and erecting outbuildings. The total cost of 
the building, fittings and grounds, is finally stated at $83,000. 

Under the various acts and appropriations of that Legislature the sale of 
lots continued at intervals during '69 and '70. Three hundred and sixteen 
thousand dollars was the sum realized from these sales, making a sum total of 
about three hundred and seventy thousand dollars that the original site of Lincoln 
brought into the state. It was not a bad investment for young Nebraska, but its 
success as a real estate speculation was almost wholly due to the energy and pluck 
of the commissioners, that led them from time to time to overleap technical ob- 
stacles and defects in the law, and take desperate political and financial chances as 
the alternative of the ignominious failure of the schemes. They were applauded 
and honored in "69 and '70, but a reaction set in in '71 and they met a Nemesis- 
that for a time threatened them not only with disgrace but absolute destruction. 

But for three years these men played the star parts on the political stage 
in the infant state, and they have left a monument to the efficiency of their work, 
to their business sagacity, and to their political courage, that bids fair to be as 
enduring as history. 

In its first year Lincoln grew to be a village of about 800 inhabitants. In 
1870 the census revealed a population of 2,400. In 1875 it was the second city 
in the state and numbered 7,300. In 1880 it had 13,000 people and in 1885, 
it had reached and passed 20,000. 

When it was surveyed the nearest railroad connecting with the eastern 
markets was at Omaha and St. Joseph, Mo. In 1880 it had eight diverging lines 
to all points of the compass, and in 1890 it bids fair to have a round dozen 
spokes to its commercial wheel. In this remarkable progress, she is but ait 
exemplar of her state and her people. A century of improvement in twenty 
years is the rule in Nebraska and has been from the day she took her place irk 
the galaxy of the Union. 



Notwithstanding the great honor that had been accorded Lancaster County 
in placing the capital of the State of Nebraska within her borders, the struggle 
to keep the capital here and to create the new City of Lincoln was a contest of 
discouragement, of inward machinations and hopeless outlook. The story of the 
first lot sales and attendant circumstances is related elsewhere. The first half 
year, 1867, brought little improvement beyond a few squatters, but in the next 
year, 1868, the Town of Lincoln acquired new courage and by the end of the 
year had fully five hundred inhabitants. Many of these settlers owned lots in 
the town which they had bought for prices from twenty to fifty dollars, some of 
them now being worth as much as thirty thousand dollars. The settled portion 
of the town was bounded by Eighth, Twelfth, R and N streets. 

When the capital was located here there were just two stores on the site of 
the town, one being owned by the Pflug Brothers and the other by Max Rich & 
Company ; these two places stood on opposite sides of the square. As stated 
before, the very first house to be constructed on the site of Lincoln was the log 
cabin of Luke Lavender, located very near the site of the Lincoln Public Library. 
Jacob Dawson abandoned his log cabin near O and Eighth streets, and erected a 
log and stone house back some distance from the corner of O and Tenth, south- 
west. The first business l)lock erected in Lincoln was the Sweet Block, on the 
northeast corner of Tenth and O streets. This was constructed early in 186S by 
Darwin Peckham and is still standing, although not to be recognized in its present 
form. The structure was in fact three buildings erected together Ijy James 
Sweet, the largest purchaser of the first Lincoln lots, A. C. Rudolph and Pflug 
Brothers. Mr. Sweet and N. C. Brock opened the first bank in Lincoln in the 
southwest corner room, first floor, in June, 1868. This bank continued until 
1871, when it was reorganized as the State Bank of Nebraska by Samuel G. 
Owen, James Sweet and N. C. Brock. Near the same time that the bank opened 
lor business, A. C. Rudolph opened a grocery store in the next room to the north 
and Pflug Brothers a stock of merchandise in the third room from the corner. 
The upper part of the building was used for offices, some of them, for many years, 
being used for county purposes. Mr. Sweet also kept the papers of the state 
treasury there when he held that office in 1869. 

The first clothing house in the town was opened in 1868 by Bain Brothers on 
the southeast corner of Tenth and O streets. Prior to this they had conducted 
a real estate business in a front room on Tenth Street, just south of their clothing 
house. D. B. Cropsey also conducted a real estate office on the southwest corner 
of Tenth and C) in company with his father, A. J. Cropsey. In 1868 Bohanan 



By courtesy of C JI. Wolf of Lincoln 

First block in Lincoln, contiuning Sweet and Brock's Bank 


Brothers opened up a meat market west of the Cropsey office. Squire Blazier 
also opened up a meat market near the present site of the federal building, Gov- 
ernment Square then being called Market Square. Early pictures of the square 
show that the area was a very popular place as a meeting ground for wagons, 
horses, cattle, emigrant trains and such. Quite an amount of business, particu- 
larly land business, was transacted in the open ground of this square. On O 
Street, third door west from Tenth, immediately across from the present city hall, 
then the postoffice, David May opened a small stock of clothing for sale in 1868. 
The statement has been made, and believed, that David May's store was on Tenth 
Street, but the early photographs printed herein will show that it is untrue. 
South of the alley on Tenth R. R. Tingley opened a small drug store and a short 
distance south C. F. Damrow started a tailoring shop. S. B. Pound had a small 
stock of groceries at what is now 915 O Street, where he went into partnership 
with Max Rich during a few months of 1867-68. The next year he sold his 
interest in the establishment to Rich & Oppenheimer. Mr. Pound afterward 
entered the law and became noted for his success in this profession. 

In the block bounded by O, N, Eighth and Ninth streets there was one build- 
ing, Dunbar's livery stable, on the northeast corner. A photograph of this ac- 
companies this chapter. In the block bounded by O, P, Eighth and Ninth there 
were two or three buildings. On the southeast corner Dr. H. D. Gilbert, formerly 
of Nebraska City, had established a mercantile house. His small home stood just 
north of the store. Humphrey Brothers succeeded Doctor Gilbert shortly after- 
wards. Milton Langdon lived in the rear of the southwest corner of Eighth and 
Q streets. Elis milk house, a little to the south, served for a time as the first jail 
in the city and county. In the block bounded by P, O, Eighth and Ninth H. S. 
Jennings built a stone residence near the northeast corner. In the block bounded 
by P, Q, Ninth and Tenth there were several buildings, large and small. On 
the northwest corner was the Pioneer House, the first hotel in Lincoln, managed 
by L. A. Scoggin. John Cadman built up the walls of the burned seminary, opened 
it as a hotel and called it the Cadman House. After running it for a few months 
he sold it to Nathan Atwood. who constructed a brick front to it and named it the 
Atwood House. The building was burned in 1879. In this same block, on the 
northeast corner, was the Methodist Church. The lots for this were donated 
by Governor Butler. On P Street, Seth B. Galey, then county clerk, constructed 
a small stone office. Next to him on the west was a small building occupied by 
S. B. Pound and Seth Robinson, lawyers. At 922 P Street was the Monteith 
shoe shop. In the block enclosed by Q, R, Eleventh and Twelfth, north of the 
southwest corner, was the stone schoolhouse, the first in Lincoln. Between O, 
P, Tenth and Eleventh streets the first saloon in Lincoln was started by Ans and 
George Williams. Their building was the first completed on the east side of 
the square. It stood north of the center of the block and the upper floor was 
used for various offices. In the front room Thomas H. Hyde conducted a land 
office, a popular rendezvous for the politicians of the day. The saloon on the lower 
floor became a notorious resort of early Lincoln. D. A. Sherwood had a real 
estate office near the southeast corner of the block, also a small stock of gro- 
ceries. Behind these shops, to the north and west, was located the first lumber 
yard in the city, owned by the firm of Monell & Larkley. Shortly \'alentine 
Brothers started a lumber yard on Eleventh, between M and N. During 186&-69 


both of these himber concerns employed wagons and teams to transport kmiber 
from the Missouri River, from a point six miles above Nebraska City. A. J- 
Cropsey built a residence near where the south end of the Capital Hotel stands. 

W. W. Carder's newspaper, the Commonwealth, was located near the middle 
of the east side of the block enclosed by N, O, Tenth and Eleventh streets. On 
the southwest corner of the block William Shirley had a boarding house and next 
to it, on the north, was Cox's grocery and boarding house. Near the present 
location of the Harley Drug Store William Rowe owned a harness shop, the first 
in Lincoln. About three lots east on O Street was the real estate office of J. P. 
Lantz. Air. Lantz published a real estate monthly, the Nebraska Intelligencer, 
for seven years. Two lots farther east was the residence of \\'illiam Guy. On 
the southeast corner of Twelfth and O streets, where Rector's drug store is 
located, Charles May conducted a bakery. North of this, in the vicinity of the 
old Burr Block, stood William Allen's residence. Leighton & Brown had a 
small drug store on the southeast corner of O and Eleventh. Seth H. Robinson 
lived on the northwest corner of Twelfth and P streets. 

The United States Land Office was moved from Nebraska City to Lincoln in 
1868 and was in charge of Stewart McConiga. 

On the petition of a majority of the inhabitants of the city the county com- 
missioners ordered on April 7, 1868, that the Town of Lincoln be declared a body 
corporate. L. A. Scoggin, B. F. Cozad, Doctor Potter, W^ W. Carder and A. L. 
Palmer were appointed trustees of the new corporation. An election was held 
May 18, 1868. when H. S. Jennings, S. B. Linderman, H. D. Gilbert, J. J- Van 
Dyke and D. W. Tingley were elected trustees. The town organization of 1868 
was not maintained and a petition for a new organization, signed by 169 citizens, 
was presented to the board of county commissioners. The town was then rein- 
corporated on April 7, 1869, and made to include section 26, the west half of sec- 
tion 25, the southwest quarter of section 24, and the south half of section 2'},, all 
in town 10 north, range 6 east. H. S. Jennings, S. B. Linderman, H. D. Gilbert, 
J. L. McConnell and D. W'. Tingley were selected as trustees and Seth Robinson, 
A. J. Cropsey and T. N. Townley were appointed judges of election. The first 
election under the new organization was held May 3, 1869. The following men 
were elected trustees of Lincoln: H. D. Gilbert, C. H. Gere, William Rowe, 
Philetus Peck and J. L. McConnell. The board organized with H. D. Gilbert, 
chairman: J. R. DeLand, clerk; and N. C. Brock, treasurer. 

In all, the year 1869 was a very good one for the new City of Lincoln. Lots 
had sold well and had commanded good prices, or what were considered good 
prices at that time. The Legislature met that year and ratified the work of the 
commissioners in selecting Lincoln as the state capital. This gave confidence to 
the people and the future of the town, its development and progress were 
assured. Mr. C. H. Gere wrote the following in regard to the first Legislature : 

"The members of the first Legislature brought their cots, blankets and pillows 
with them in their overland journeys in wagons (hired) or the jerkies of the stage 
line, and lodged, some in newly erected store buildings, some in the upper rooms 
of the state house, while the wealthier lawmakers boldly registered at the Atwood 
hostelry, and paid their bills for extras, including 'noise and confusion' during 
the senatorial mill between Tipton, Butler and Marquett ; and how they all agreed, 
after some preliminary hair-pulling, that the new capitol was a success, and or- 

Ity cdiirtfsy of G. R. Wolf f>f LiiR'Olii 

John Dunbar 's livery at left and Judge Pound 's store and postoffiee at right 


dered a dome erected thereon reaching the upper atmosphere, and confirmed the 
deeds, regular and irregular, of the commission, and gave us a cemetery in which 
to bury our dead ; how they passed a bill for the organization of the state uni- 
versity, and ordered a further sale of lots and lands to build the dome and con- 
struct a university building, a wing of an insane hospital, and a workshop for 
the penitentiary and how they were all built in part or in whole of the old red 
sandstone of the vicinity, and came to grief soon after, may not be an interesting 
story today, but it was full of eloquence, fire and significance for those who were 
on the ground at the time. 

"From the adjournment of that Legislature, the body that took in hand the 
building up of the' new commonwealth and the laying of the foundation of its 
great institutions, so ably aided by the executive officers of our first state admin- 
istration to this time, every six working days of every week of the twenty years 
( written in 1889) has seen completed an average of ten buildings on the site of 
the city consecrated to the memory of the great emancipator and war President. 

"No body of men in forty years accomplished more. Every law passed by 
that memorable Legislature of '69 weighed a ton. Its work was original and 
creative, and it did it well. Its moving spirit was the governor, David Butler. 
Some of its members came down to Lincoln from hostile localities, and had it in 
their hearts to destroy him and his works; but before the session was a fort- 
night old, his genial though homely ways, his kindness of heart, his sturdy com- 
mon sense, the originality of his genius, and the boldness of his conceptions, cap- 
tured them, and when the forty days were done, no man in the two houses 
avowed himself the enemy of David Butler." 

In a pamphlet written by J. H. Ames, attorney, in 1870, the following is 
stated : 

"Only about 2j,4 years have elapsed since the commissioners, by official 
proclamation, called the Town of Lincoln into existence. The Village of Lan- 
caster, which was included within its site, contained in all less than a half dozen 
buildings' of every description. At the present time that number has been 
increased to over three hundred and fifty, and the number of inhabitants in the 
town will not fall short of twenty-five hundred souls. The appreciation of real 
property, which was so low at the time of the first public sales that the commis- 
sioners nearly despaired of being able to make sufficient sales of lots to defray 
the expenses of building the state house, has risen to such an extent that means 
have been obtained from that source sufficient not only for the building of the 
state house, but also for building the state university and agricultural college and 
the state lunatic asylum, and about six hundred lots belonging to the state yet 
remain to be sold. 

"The cash valuation of the real property of the town belonging to private 
individuals, as ascertained from the assessment rolls, is $456,956. Nine of the 
church societies for which reservations of town lots were made, as has been 
stated, have erected neat and commodious houses of worship and edifices will 
be erected by the remaining societies early in the autumn. There are three 
schools in town in which the ordinary branches of common school education 
are taught by an able corps of teachers. * * * 

"In Lancaster County there are no longer any Government lands subject to 
homestead or pre-emption, although there are hundreds of thousands of acres 


of such lands in the state; many of them as fine as any lands in the state; many 
of them as fine as any lands in the world are situated on the Blue River, only 
about twenty-five miles from the capital. Excellent farm lands, situated within 
a radius of ten or twelve miles of the capital, may be purchased both from rail- 
road corporations and individuals at prices ranging from five dollars an acre 
upwards, according to location and the nature and extent of improvements." 

In 1871 the City of Lincoln entered upon a period of gloom and discourage- 
ment which lasted for several years. The Legislature of that year committed 
many acts of indiscretion which led many people to believe that the future of 
Lincoln was doomed. Perhaps the greatest folly of this body of lawmakers was 
the impeachment of Governor Butler. So great was the depression that the 
value of property in the city fell at an alarming rate. To add to the troubles, 
the grasshoppers fell upon the county in 1873 '" billions and destroyed prop- 
erty everywhere, throwing farmers into financial ruin and causing many to leave 
the county. The coming of the year 1877 heralded a return to the normal order 
of things. The greatest factor in this renewal of hope was the disappearance of 
the grasshoppers. By 1880 the City of Lincoln had a population of 14,000 people. 

Although there have been years when Lincoln apparently was at a stand- 
still, with little or no progress, nor growth, the general development of the city 
has been steady. Lincoln has never been a boom town, but has maintained a 
position of strength and respectability in the Middle West. Financial panics 
and crop failures have at times threatened the prosperity of the community, but 
these attacks have been weathered without exception. 


By W. W. Cox 

In the last days of June, 1861, I chanced to meet Wilham T. Donovan on the 
streets of Nebraska City and upon learning that he lived on Salt Creek and in 
the neighborhood of the wonderful salt basins, I speedily arranged to accompany 
him, that I might see for myself the country and the basins of which we had 
heard so much. If I remember correctly, after passing the old Majors farm four 
miles out. we passed over an unbroken wilderness, save Wilson's Ranch at Wil- 
son's Creek, until we reached McKee's Ranch on the Nemaha, where widow 
McKee and her sons lived. James Her also lived near the same point. , This was 
twenty miles out and near the present Town of Syracuse. The next improve- 
ment was that of John Roberts on the Nemaha, near the present site of Pal- 
myra, and five miles farther to the west lived Mr. Meecham, a weak-kneed 
Alormon who had fallen out by the way. These were all of the people we saw 
on that trip until we reached Salt Creek. After enjoying the hospitalities of 
our friends here for the night a somewhat novel mode of conveyance was impro- 
vised for our trip to the basin. A tongue was fastened to the hind axle of a 
wagon and a pair of springs were made of short ash sticks and a board was 
laid across the ends of the sticks to serve as a seat. This completed our carriage 
and Buck and Bright served for motive power. On the 2d of July, 1861, we 
followed a dim track down to Lincoln — no, to Lancaster — no, but down Salt 
Creek (we hardly ever go up Salt Creek), to the mouth of Oak Creek, where 
we forded the stream. There was at the time a magnificent grove of honey locust 
timber on the west side of Salt Creek, and just south of Oak Creek, and a little 
to the south of the foot of O Street in the large bend of the creek, there were 
perhaps a hundred majestic elms and cottonwoods, with here and there a hack- 
berry and honey locust. Those lovely groves would now. if they could have 
remained in their natural grandeur and beauty as we saw them, be of priceless 
value to the city for a park. Joseph, the elder son of Mr. Donovan, was our 
teamster and guide. The big flies which infested the low bottoms v.xre a great 
help as persuaders to our oxen ; and at times our ride was exciting in the ex- 
treme, as the oxen would dart first to the right, then to the left, to get the benefit 
of a brush to rid themselves of the flies. 

It brings peculiar thoughts to mind as I look around us now and consider 
the changes that have been wrought in twenty-six yeHs (this was written in 
18S8). One dim track only crossed the site of the future city from east to 
west, that had been made by hunters and salt pilgrims, and the one already men- 



tioned, running up and down the creek. As I viewed the land upon which now 
stands this great city I had the exciting pleasure of seeing for the first time a 
large drove of the beautiful antelope cantering across the prairie just above where 
the Government Square is located. We forded Salt Creek just by the junction 
of Oak Creek and what a struggle we had in making our way through the 
tall sunflowers between the ford and basin. There was something enchanting 
about the scene that met my eyes. The fresh breeze sweeping over the salt 
basins reminded me of the morning breezes of the ocean beach. The basin was 
as smooth as glass and resembled a slab of highly polished clouded marble. The 
wrecks of some old salt furnaces and two deserted cabins were the only signs of 
civilization ; all was wild and solitary ; but my soul was filled with rapturous de- 
light. The geese, brant and pelicans had undisputed sway, and the air was filled 
with their shrill notes. 

The nearest human habitation to either the basins or the present city was 
that of Mr. Donovan on the Caldwell place on Salt Creek, about five miles up 
that stream, or south of the ford ; Joel Mason lived a mile farther up. Richard 
Wallingford lived at his present home. A. J. Wallingford also lived just across 
the creek. John Cadman lived just across the county line, as the counties were 
first constituted, in old Clay County, and where the Village of Saltillo now 
stands. Doctor Maxwell lived in that neighborhood, also Festus Reed, and where 
Roca now stands J. L. Davidson and the Prey family had located. William 
Shirley on Stevens Creek was the nearest settler to the eastward. Charles 
Retslef and John Wedencamp, also Judge J. D. Maine, held the fort a little 
farther up the creek, and Aaron Wood was located near the head of Stevens 
Creek. John and Louis Loder lived down Salt Creek near Waverly, also Michael 
Shea and James Moran. To the westward there was nothing but a complete 

In company with Darwin Peckham I commenced making salt on the 20th 
of August, 1 861. We pre-empted one of the log cabins and bached during 
the fall. Salt was very scarce in war times and was high in price ; and as a 
necessity great numbers of people came to scrape salt. They came from the 
whole of the settled portions of the territory, from Kansas, Missouri, and as far 
east as Central Iowa. At the time of the second visit, we found the roads well 
broken by pilgrims in search of salt. Going for salt in those days was like going 
fishing. It was all in luck. I f the weather was perfectly dry, they could get plenty 
of it, for it could be scraped up by the wagon load ; but three minutes of rain 
would end the game. I have seen a drove of men who came a full hundred miles 
and arrived just in time to see a little rain clear all the salt of the basin in a 
moment. We found a goodly number there when we arrived and they were holding 
the empty sack, for it had just rained and the basin was as black as ink. I remem- 
ber Milton Langdon as one of the disconsolate pilgrims. The next morning all 
except our partv pulled out and we "were monarchs of all we surveyed." We 
immediately built a small furnace, made a sheet iron salt pan, and began boiling 
salt : and by the time the next drove of pilgrims came we had salt to trade or 
sell them. Many farmers would bring their sorghum pans to make their own 
salt and when they would get enough, or get tired, we would trade salt for their 
pans and all their spare provisions. When the weather was dry, many would 
scrape up more than they could haul home and we would trade for their scrapings 


at twenty-five cents per hundred. In dry times we would accumulate a mountain 
of scraped salt, and as soon as the first rain came our scrapings would be worth 
from fifty cents to one dollar per hundred. Pilgrims would grab for it. They 
brought up all manner of provisions to trade for it ; meat, flour, chickens, butter, 
fruit, potatoes, eggs, and others were willing to go to the groves, cut and iiaul 
wood with which to trade for the salt. Others would haul up a large pile of wood 
and then rent our furnaces for the night, and thus get a supply. So we had salt 
to sell, scrapings to sell, furnaces to rent, and generally provisions to sell. One 
man, I remember, brought a fine suit of clothes and traded them to us for salt. 
A party brought us two four-horse wagon loads, 5,000 pounds, of flour from 
Winterset, Iowa, and we made him an even exchange of 5,000 pounds of salt. 
It was a lively time, for hundreds were going and coming contiiuially during 
the fall. 

I remember several distinguished visitors of that fall, among whom were the 
Hon. O. P. Mason and the Hon. J. Sterling Morton. We treated them to slap- 
jacks of our own make, which the judge seemed to relish, but our friend Morton 
did not seem to appreciate our cooking. Hon. P. W. Hitchcock, afterwards 
United States senator, and his Excellency Governor Saunders, then our governor, 
also made us a visit. They were not repairing fences, but were quite likely 
examining J. Sterling Morton's fence around the saline land. Many of lesser 
note visited us during the fall. 

Late in the fall I moved my family to Salt Creek and wintered in one apart- 
mept of the log cabin which Mr. Donovan occupied, and as the salt business 
always ceases when winter begins, we put in the time as best we could, chasing 
rabbits, etc. Uncle Dick Wallingford. learning that I had graduated at the 
carpenter's bench, besought me to build him a house. I suppose that I have the 
honor of having built for Uncle Dick the first frame building in Lancaster County, 
in the winter of 186 1-2. I made the doors of black walnut lumber that was 
about as hard as glass. I also remember the struggle I had one night in the 
following summer in making a coffin for Grandmother Wallingford out of that 
hard lumber. 

I took up my abode at the basin with my wife and two children on the ist 
of May, 1S62. That same day a county convention was held at the basin and 
nearly every man in the county was there, but I remember none of the proceed- 
ings, as I was occupied in setting my house in order. Two or three days later 
Milton Langdon arrived with his family and took up their abode just west of the 
B. & M. bridge north of Oak Creek. The season of 1862 was exceedingly pros- 
perous. Great numbers of people came and went every day. Numerous other 
furnaces were started and the salt works presented quite the appearance of 

Here I must beg indulgence while I relate a little story: In the winter of 
1862-3 there was an old fellow by the name of Ben Vanthiesen camping and 
boiling salt, and there was an Indian camp a little distance away. The Indians 
had been bothering Ben until he had become impatient with them. A young, 
stalwart brave thought to play a joke on him and approached him with the usual 
aborigine salutation, "How," and at the same time ofifcred Ben a finely polished 
ramrod, which he reached out to take, when Mr. Indian struck him a violent blow 
across the knuckles. Ben could not stand that and as quick as thought returned 


the compliment with his fist, propelled by his stalwart arm. The blow took effect 
just under the ear of the young, brave and he reeled backward and sat down in 
a pan of boiling salt water. A sharp shriek, and Mr. Injun jumped for life and 
ran wildly into the swamp and mired down, hallowing all sorts of bloody murder 
in the Indian tongue. Other braves went to his relief and carried him to camp. 
He was thoroughly cooked and well salted. The little settlement soon became 
alarmed, fearing that the Indians would be enraged and seek vengeance. 
A hurried consultation was held and the camp was visited to learn, if possible, 
the temper of the redskins. We found the man almost dead and while he was 
writhing in agony the other Indians were making all sorts of fun of him, calling 
•him squaw man, etc., and pointing their fingers at him. Finally Ben Vanthiesen 
appeared on the scene and they began at once to lionize him, as if to further 
tantalize the poor unfortunate. They finally made a litter of a buffalo robe and 
carried him away with them, while in a dying condition. 

On the morning of the 4th of July, my wife suggested that we celebrate by 
gathering a lot of gooseberries, of which there were great quantities. Just as we 
had filled our buckets we heard someone hallowing and as we emerged from the 
bush we saw Elder Young and party, consisting of Rev. Peter Schamp, Doctor 
McKesson, Mr. Warnes, Luke Lavender and Jacob Dawson. They were on the 
search for a suitable location for a colony. They were patriotic and had not 
forgotten the Hag. Dinner was quickly provided and disposed of, the neighbors 
Avere called in. and we had a celebration that was a feast to the soul. As the dear 
old elder talked to us of our blessed flag and how it had been trailed in the dust 
by recreant hands, and of the mighty struggle that was then going on to maintain 
its supremacy, how our hearts swelled with emotion as we realized that our 
country and our all was at the moment trembling in the balance. This was 
probably the first time our national flag ever kissed the breezes of Lancaster 
County, and it was an occasion long to be remembered by all the participants. 
Some, we know not how many, have gone to their long home. Uncle Jacob Dawson 
lived just long enough to see the foundations of Lincoln well laid, and was called 
away. Our dear friend. Elder Young, lived to see the city of his founding 
great and strong and marching forward to greater achievements. 

In the second week in July and after making a thorough examination of the 
surrounding country, the party made a settlement on the land where Lincoln now 
stands, and dedicated a portion of section twenty-two for a townsite and chris- 
tened it Lancaster. Lancaster did not grow as more modern towns do. A few 
settlers began to arrive and settled on the beautiful lands in the vicinity, but not 
many cared to try their hands at building a city just then. Town building was 
a slow process in those days, so far inland. 

It must be remembered that the bill providing for the LInion Pacific Railroad 
had passed but the previous winter and the eastern terminus had not been fixed 
by the President. Our nearest railroad was at St. Joseph, Missouri, and 
Ottumwa, Iowa, and further it was yet very questionable whether our upland 
prairie was of any value for agricultural purposes. The farms were all yet 
confined to the creek bottoms. Prairie fires would sweep the prairies just as soon 
as the grass was dry in the fall and leave the roots exposed to the scorching rays 
of the autumn sun, and then to the frosts of winter. The snow would gather 
into huge drifts, there being nothing to hold it except the ravines. This resulted 


in very short grass crops on the upland and frequently there was scarcely enough 
to hide a garter snake in the summer. People saw the fact, that the prairie 
produced hut little grass, but were slow to discover the causes, and were ready to 
condemn the land as worthless for cultivation. Some are led to believe that 
great changes have taken place in the general character of the soil, as well as the 
climate. We have frequently been asked if the land was not all covered with 
buffalo grass. To this question we answer most emphatically "No." It may have 
been at some remote period, but never since white men have known it. Many are 
of the opinion that it scarcely ever rained in those early days. That is certainly 
a mistake. The summer of i860 produced scarcely any rain ( I well remember that 
year of the Kansas famine — I resided at Nebraska City at the time ) and to help 
matters along there were sixteen days and nights of continuous hot south wind. 
It w^is almost insufferably hot, so stifling it was that people could not bear to sit 
in the wind, even late in the evenings, but would be compelled to seek a wind- 
break. Except that memorable year rains were just as plentiful and as well dis- 
tributed through the growing season in those years as they are now, and vegeta- 
tion where it had a fair show made the same luxuriant growth, but we do not 
wonder that the overland immigrant who passed through this country in the 
early spring, or late in the fall, pronounced this a desert land, for as far as the 
eye could reach in all directions nothing could be seen but the black prairie; most 
dreary indeed was the spectacle. There being nothing to retain the moisture and 
the sun bearing down on the defenseless head, and the dancing vapor playing in 
the distance like specters, it did not seem as if it ever could be a fit abode for 
civilized man. 

It took men and women of strong nerve and great faith to attempt to build a 
home in this wdlderness then, but there were some brave souls that were equal 
to the hour, and such were the men who founded Lancaster. The story of the 
founding of the embryo city and its struggle over the location of the county seat 
is an interesting theme. The settlement at Yankee Hill (where the insane 
hospital now stands) under the leadership of John Cadnian and William Field 
made an interesting and energetic fight for the prize. These men looked with 
jealousy upon the Lancaster colony. Our friend Cadman was wide awake and 
with a fertile brain and was ready for almost any emergency. It will be remem- 
bered that the boundaries of the county were materially changed in the winter of 
1862 and 1863. Friend Cadman secured the election to the Legislature from old 
Clay County. John Gregory was by some trick of legerdemain elected to represent 
Lancaster, and Hon. H. W. Parker was sent from Gage. The trio each had an 
axe to grind. Parker wanted to make the county seat secure for Beatrice and 
Cadman wanted to spoil Elder Young's little game and make a new town, and 
clothe it with the honors of the county seat. So they arranged and carried through 
the scheme to eliminate Clay County from the map of Nebraska and gave to 
Gjige the south twelve miles and the north twelve miles to Lancaster in the inter- 
est of Cadman and his friends. Thus it came that Gage and Lancaster are each 
thirty-six miles long, and that Clay County was buried out of sight to be resur- 
rected at a later day farther to the west. I have never been able to learn just 
what interest our friend Gregory was to have, but suppose he was to be endorsed 
for the postofiice at a salary of one dollar per month at the basin, and also to have 
his name perpetuated by renaming the great basin "Gregor}' Basin," both of 


which he secured, but the honors of the office and the name were very much hke a 
soap bubble, they got away from him in a very short time. Cadman and his 
friends lost no time in fixing upon a point for their new town at Yankee Hill 
and then came the tug of war. About this time what was known as the steam 
wagon road was located from Nebraska City to the west and the crossing of 
Salt Creek fixed at Yankee Hill. An appropriation of $500.00 was secured by the 
Legislature for a bridge on Salt Creek in Lancaster County, to be located by 
territorial commissioners. When these gentlemen came to fix the location of the 
bridge the Lancaster party headed by Elder Young and the Yankee Hill folks 
led by Cadman each made an earnest showing why they should have the bridge, 
and I take it for granted that each succeeded in convincing the commissioners 
that their claim was the best, for they divided the money between the two points 
and thus with the aid of private help two good bridges were secured. Each 
place made slow progress ; a little store and a blacksmith shop were secured by 
each. Lancaster had the help of the salt interest while its rival had the freight 
road. Each had energetic men as leaders and they were equally well situated, 
but Lancaster had the sympathy of the greater number of people in the county. 
Friend Cadman had aroused the ire of all his old neighbors on the heads of Salt 
Creek. They were very sore over having all their pleasant dreams of a county 
seat at Olathe suddenly disappear and their county torn in two and swallowed by 
her greedy sisters. 

When the county seat problem came before the people for settlement the 
Lancaster folks had a walkaway and secured a grand triumph at the polls. 

The county seat election occurred in the summer of 1864 and was held at 
the house of your humble servant just south of the great basin. Notwithstanding 
his defeat in his pet project of founding a county seat Cadman secured a return 
to the Legislature for several terms and had an honorable part in moulding the 
destiny of the county, in helping to secure the capital removal bill, and securing 
the location of the capital within her borders, and while Elder Young may be 
justly honored as the founder of Lincoln, to John Cadman belongs the honor 
of doing splendid work in securing a grand triumph in removing the capital, and 
of securing the pricipal benefit to his county, and while he did not realize the 
full fruition of his hopes in getting it at Yankee Hill I am glad to know that he 
has been duly rewarded, and that in his green old age he is blessed with plenty 
of the world's goods and friends innumerable to brighten his pathway. 

In the early summer of 1862 I had the pleasure of helping to raise a log 
house for Charles Calkins on Middle Creek, on what was afterwards known as 
the Hartman farm and about five miles west of the city. This was the first log 
cabin between the basin and the Grand Island settlement. In the beautiful month 
of June my good wife made a visit to Nebraska City and left me alone "with my 
glory" for a little season. One afternoon a vast throng of Omahas camped at 
the head of the basin, but we thought nothing of it as it was a common thing to 
see great numbers of Indians on their way to their summer hunting grounds on 
the Republican River. John Chambers' family lived a little way from our 
cabin. I went to bed as usual that night with my bright sabre under my pillow 
and a rifle standing within easy reach. Near midnight I heard a (not very) 
"gentle tapping as of someone rapping at my cabin door." "What's the matter," 
I cried. "Matter enough," said poor trembling John, his wife clinging to him 


like grim death, and crazed with fear. "The Indians are upon us and for God's 
sake what shall we do ?" Whether I dressed or not you may guess. I forgot that 
I ever had a sabre or gun. When 1 awoke my ears were greeted with the most 
unearthly sounds, as if a thousand devils were cut loose. We all ran as most 
folks do when badly scared, and we hid as best we could among the hills, and 
waited the coming of events which we expected in about a minute. The pan- 
demonium continued, but came no nearer. We waited patiently for the enemy, 
but they did not come. We were disappointed. The Indians were expecting to 
meet their mortal foes, the Sioux, on their hunting grounds and were having a 
war dance, "only this and nothing more." 

Salt Creek and its principal tributary. Oak Creek, were wonderfully supplied 
with fish. Black suckers and buiifalo were the leading varieties. The settlers 
had plenty of sport and much profit in fishing. We all had plenty of fish; great 
numbers were caught which would weigh ten or fifteen pounds each and I have 
seen them tip the beam at thirty-five pounds. Elk and antelope were plentiful 
and the nimrods of that day had exciting sport in the chase. Some of the 
settlers spent a great portion of their time roaming the prairies in search of game. 
Many of them never came home without a supply of meat. If elk could not 
be found or captured, some luckless freighter's steer had to suflfer the ordeal of 
being converted into elk meat. Many a steer has undergone the change in short 
order, and Mr. Steer's only safety was in staying close to camp. The basins were 
a great place for wild water-fowl to congregate. Geese, brants, swans, ducks 
and pelicans were there by the thousands ; it was the hunter's paradise. Wild 
fruits, such as grapes, plums, gooseberries and elderberries were abundant along 
the streams and were gathered by the bushel. 

As the L'nion armies regained the rebels' strongholds of Missouri, great 
numbers of rebels found it convenient to find other quarters, and many of them 
seemed to have the idea that salt would save their bacon, consequently hordes of 
them would gather at the basins and frequently they would show their rebellious 
spirits in acts and words which were very unpleasant for Union men to endure 
At one time they became so insolent and threatening that the Union men of the 
valley thought it necessary to organize for self-defense. Our Missouri friends 
came to the conclusion that "discretion was the better part of valor," so nothing 
very serious occurred. 

Elder Young preached the first sermon of the locality at our house, on the 
Sabbath following the 4th of July, 1862, to a fair sized congregation. A Sabbath 
School w^as organized very soon afterwards and was of great value to the youth 
of the community. This was probably the first Sabbath School between the 
Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Religious meetings were held fre- 
quently under the leadership of Elder Young. Reverend Doctor McKesson and 
Rev. Peter Schamp, and other ministers who chanced to stray so far into the 

As a general rule the settlers enjoved themselves very well and were reason- 
ably prosperous, but it was not always so. Sometimes winter storms would shut us 
off from communication with the world at large, and provisions would get short, 
and we would be driven to desperate straits. I have known families to live on 
boiled corn or wheat for a week at a time with no seasoning but salt. The winter 
of '63 and '64 was a most desperate one. The cold was extreme. The last day of 


December, 1863, was a memorable day for the intensity of the cold. I had no 
thermometer except my own b^ood, but that signified that it was the most intense 
cold of my life. Snow and salt combined to make my home about the coldest 
spot in North America. I afterwards learned that at Burlington, Iowa, the 
thermometer indicated thirty degrees below zero. That winter was one of much 
suffering. Salt had declined materially in price and the demand had fallen off, 
while the wood for boiling had become scarce and the weather was so severe, and 
it seemed that all things conspired against the people, and for a time the whole 
settlement was on the verge of starvation. The spring of 1864 found the settle- 
ment in rather a dilapidated and impoverished condition, but hope soon revived. 
Immigrants began to arrive in goodly numbers and they began opening up 
farms, and that gave new life and hope to all. Settlements began to extend 
westward and all the people began to have more faith in Nebraska. It may be 
well to relate here a common saying of those days just to show how absurd the 
expressed views of many people were in regard to this country. If an incoming 
immigrant talked of going over to the Blue Valley to look for a location, he was 
told at once that it was of no use to look at that country for it never rained west 
of Salt Creek. That fool notion had become so thoroughly inbedded in the 
minds of many of the early settlers that I expect some of them firmly believe it 
until this day. 

It has been claimed that F. Morton Donovan was the first white child born in 
the locality, but the locality was very large, for the fact is he was born on 
Stevens Creek ten miles distant. The first white child born at the basin or in the 
immediate vicinity of the present city was a son born to Joseph Chambers in the 
summer of 1862. He died in infancy. My son Elmer Elsworth Cox was born 
March 3, 1863, and was the first white child born in the immediate vicinity that 
is now living. 

There were some exciting and almost ludicrous scenes in the courts at the 
basin. Milton Langdon and J. S. Gregory were the two prominent attorneys 
and in all matters of judicial nature they were arrayed against each other. Both 
of them were keen and tricky, ever on the alert to catch the enemy napping and 
they had some high times. Occasionally a case would arise which tried the 
mettle of court attorneys and officers. A rough customer who it was said had 
graduated in the rebel army had put in an appearance and had made some violent 
threats in which he promised to kill some citizens. An information was filed and 
a warrant was issued and placed in the hands of the sheriff. A crowd gathered 
at the court room and it soon became known that the culprit refused to surrender 
to the sheriff. All became excited and while the court was giving some directions 
to the citizens about assisting the sheriff, the fellow came stalking into the court 
room, carrying his rifle in a position for immediate use. The sheriff followed 
at a convenient distance of probably ten yards. The court invited the man to 
take a seat, which was promptly declined, but he took a careful survey of the 
court and all the surroundings and, with the rifle ready cocked and finger on the 
trigger, he began to retreat and all hands seemed to stand out of his way. The 
justice remarked to the sheriff and posse, "you will be justified in taking that 
man if you have to kill him to do it," but they did not take him. He backed oft' 
with drawn weapon and bid defiance, and no one was willing to take the risk of 
his capture. He was bent on vengeance and had no intention of leaving until he 





r.y courlL-sy of C. I:. Wi.lf i.I I..; in 



had wreaked it on somebody. He became angry at the justice for saying "take him 
dead or ahve," and during the next morning while liis Honor was busy at liis 
saU furnace he liappened to observe the sneaking scoimdrel creeping up a httle 
ravine in the rear with a view of getting a sure shot at him, but finchng that his 
victim had observed him he started off at a rapid pace across the 1)asin. His 
Honor quickly halted him. He instantly cocked his rille, but sternly and most 
emphatically his Honor commanded a truce, and marched straight up to the 
fellow, who curled down like a whipped cur, and received a court lalessing in the 
open air and took his tinal (lei)arture for parts unknown. Had it not been for a 
good degree of firmness on that occasion it is quite probable that some other 
speaker would have had the honors of this occasion. 

On the morning of August 20, 1862, there was a heavy frost that killed all 
the corn on the lowlands throughout Neljraska. 

During the spring of 1863 J. S. Gregory built the first frame house in the 
vicinity of the basin and made extensive improvements. Mr. Eaton of Platts- 
mouth, an uncle of our friend Gregory, became quite well acquainted with him 
during these years and their fraternal relations are spread upon the court records, 
for many years, of Lancaster County. Settlements increased rapidly during the 
spring and early summer of 1864 and 1865. 

The first term of district court was held on the 8th day of November, 1864 
(the day Lincoln was elected to the second term), in Jacob Dawson's double log 
cabin and was presided over by Judge Elmer S. Dundy, with the same dignity 
that is manifest in these days in the government courthouse. Members of the bar 
present were T. M. Marquette and Judge Pottenger of Plattsmouth. Uncle Jake's 
cabin stood just where the Commercial Block now stands. Uncle Jake was put 
to straits to properly entertain the judge and the attorneys. I remember that 
he came over and borrowed all the store cofYee at the basin. As if to add to the 
pleasures of the occasion we enjoyed a regular blizzard of whirling, drifting 
snow. The judge appointed Pottenger prosecuting attorney and friend Pott, 
as we called him, drew up an indictment against one Pemberton for shooting into 
a bird's nest. The charge was malicious assault with intent to kill. His Honor 
allowed Pottenger $75.00. Marquette defended Pemberton for $10.00 and 
quashed the indictment, and Pemberton skipped the country before other pro- 
ceedings could be had. The story of the crime is as follows : Old man Bird 
had some difficulty with Pemberton about the chickens and one of the young 
birds (a pullet) sung some unsavory songs for Pemberton's benefit. Pemberton 
met the old bird at the door one morning and demanded satisfaction, and finally 
drew a revolver and shot, the ball missing the old bird, but passing through the 
door and lodging in the wall just above a bed full of young birds. Then he hit 
the old bird a lick on the head with the butt of the revolver. The old bird flew 
to the justice office all covered with blood, just as the judge was seating himself 
at the breakfast table, and of course a little scene occurred which I will not 

In the summer of 1864 the whole West was very easily excited after the 
horrible massacre in Minnesota. Wild rumors were afloat continually, and the 
scattered settlements were harrassed with fears throughout the whole summer 
and fall. The most trifling circumstances were magnified as they were related 
by the panic stricken people into general massacres of wholesale slaughtering of 


some neighboring settlement. The impression prevailed that the rebel govern- 
ment at Richmond was inciting the redskins to a merciless warfare all along the 
frontier. Tomahawks and scalping knives of the red devils were vividly pictured 
in all our dreams. We knew that the dark hours of the war presented a grand 
opportunity for them to clean us out root and branch. We also knew that they 
were in no friendly mood, or, in other words, we were quite sure that they were 
thirsting for our blood, and all that kept them back was their fear of a terrible 
retribution and further the fire we saw was not all fox fire. There were people 
murdered by them in Nebraska and not a few of them. At Plumb Creek on the 
west, on Turkey Creek, on the Little Blue, there .were murders and kidnappings, 
such as make my blood boil to this day as we think of them. We had just cause 
to fear, and it would have been foolhardiness to be otherwise than on the alert. 

In the month of August while I was on a trip to the river with a load of 
salt, a panic occurred, the story of which I shall relate in brief as told by my 
better half who helped to enjoy it in full. During the day word was received 
that all the settlement on the Blue had been murdered, and from every appear- 
ance the Indians would bounce upon the Salt Creek settlement that night. 
It was nearly dark, wife and children were at the mercy of the neighbors, as they 
had no team. Uncle Peter Bellows came to the rescue and with his broad 
German accent he said, "Mrs. Coax you shall go wid us." Blessed be the name 
of Uncle Peter forever, but Uncle Peter had his peculiarities. He was a great 
hand to gather up things, such as old log chains, old plow shares, broken pitch- 
forks, horse shoes (he did not have a horse), ox yokes and all sorts of old irons. 
He was rich in old irons. In packing up to go Uncle Peter had, of course, to 
take the last one of those precious jewels, but in the hurry and excitement he 
forgot to take any provisions for the family. When he came for my wife he said, 
"Airs. Coax, we takes you and the childrens, but we can't take notings else. 
Veil dot ish so, hurry up mine Gott, the Injuns is coming sure." My wife pro- 
tested that she must take something to eat, and some bedding, and finally per- 
suaded him to take a sack of flour ( 50 pounds) and a ham of meat and a bed, pro- 
vided she would walk herself. We then had three children, the oldest, Mrs. Kate 
Ruby of Marquette, Nebraska, then aged five years, the next aged three years, 
now Mrs. Nettie M. Pingree of Colby, Kansas, and then Elmer, aged sixteen 
months. The oldest girl walked and Nettie was perched upon the load of goods ; 
my wife carried the babe upon her right arm and with the left she carried one 
end of a trunk a mile and a half to the ford. The babe she carried the full ten 
miles that dark, stormy night. Wild with fright they went pell mell. Imagine 
if you can the terrors of that awful night, the rolling thunder, the lurid lightning, 
and the mortal dread of the savage foe. Weary and fainting they arrived at 
Shirley's ranch late at night. In the morning it developed that the sack of flour 
and meat ham were all the provisions in camp for a hundred hungry souls, except 
green corn bought of Shirley, but they had plenty of old irons. It further 
developed that there had been no hostile Indians within a full hundred miles. 

When it became certain that the Union would triumph over the Confederate 
States, and there would be ample security here as elsewhere for life and property, 
then great numbers came. Also a further stimulus to settlement was the cer- 
tainty of the building of the Union Pacific Railroad ; its eastern terminus had 
been fixed in the fall of 1864 and the first ground was broken, and it may fairly 


be said that Nebraska had awakened to a new and vigorous Hfe. Dviring the 
spring of 1864, having become convinced that it occasionally rained on Blue 
River, we made u\) our minds to cast our lot with the little settlement in the 
neighborhood where now stands the beautiful little city of Seward, and made 
preparations during the summer and accomplished our object, making the re- 
moval December ist. Thus ends our immediate connection with the struggling 
pioneers of Lancaster County.* 


By Charles Wake 

Note. — The following paper was read before the Nebraska State Historical 
Society on January 14, 1908, and is reprinted from the Collections, \'olume XVL 

When I returned to your city a few weeks ago after an absence of nearly 
forty years, I missed the once familiar faces of Elder Young, Doctor McKesson, 
John Cadman, Peter Schamp, Luke Lavender, and others of the pioneers who 
located the Town of I^ancaster, the county seat of Lancaster County. I have been 
able to find but three of these pioneers as yet. Judge Pound and Edward Warnes, 
who live in the city, and Mr. Hawker, now living at Havelock. 

The question has been asked, "Plow did a few poor homesteaders manage to 
donate 800 acres of land to the State of Nebraska in order to locate the capital 
at this point?" We were all poor enough in money, but rich in land, or, perhaps, 
we were land-poor. The land we held had but little cash value. We had bought 
some of the best of it with "college scrip" at about sixty cents an acre and the 
rest we had taken under the homestead and preemption laws. We made the 
donation in this way : every settler within a few miles of Lancaster subscribed 
forty acres of land; then Dawson, Lavender and John Giles vacated as much of 
their farms as was needed to make the town site, and took other land and more 
of it in lieu of that which they relinquished. 

Lavender gave up the eighty acres of his homestead on which the capitol is 
built and got as a balance an eighty of James Young which joined him on the 
east and a thousand dollars in cash. Plis demand for that thousand dollars came 
near wrecking the whole scheme. He was told that if he did not moderate his 
demands the capital would be located elsewhere, but he declared that rather than 
move away from his home and get nothing for his improvements he would let the 
capital go to the Blue River or elsewhere. After some heated talk about a rope 
necktie, tar and feathers, etc., we surrendered and in some way managed to 
satisfy him. 

How this princely sum of a thousand dollars and some other hundreds needed 
to pay the Government for its claim on these lands was obtained I have no 
knowledge. I remember that Elder Miller was deeply interested in the scheme, 
but did not put in any money of his own. Pie asked me if I woidd not rather give 
$100 in cash than to give some of my land. I was willing but had not the money, 
so the elder took my note and advanced the cash. 

If I remember aright, when I came to this place in the fall of 1866, there was 
but one house that had both a board floor and a shingle roof. Dawson and 

* Editor's Note: I knew most of the pioneers mentioned in the foregoing and so 
far as I know none of them are now living, not even Mr. Cox. 


Lavender lived in log houses with shingle roofs, but earthen floor. Elder 
Young's house had a board floor, but the roof was of earth. Doctor McKesson 
lived in a dugout half a mile north of O Street. Mr. Hardenbergh, who was inter- 
ested in some salt works and kept a small store, had, 1 think, a stone house that 
was fairly comfortable and decently furnished. He was the one aristocrat of the 
town. He managed to sell out very soon after and return to New Jersey. There 
was some timber in the county at that time and one or two saw mills. A man by 
the name of Cozad had one of these mills not far from where the Burlington 
depot now stands. Town lots were so cheap they were offered free to anyone 
who would build a house worth $ioo. A friend of. mine secured a fifty foot lot 
on these terms just east of the present Journal office. He borrowed a wagon 
and two yoke of oxen, and I went with him to a sawmill on Oak Creek, where he 
loaded on cottonwood boards with which we built a shanty about sixteen by 
twenty or twenty-four feet. The snow was deep, we were poor teamsters, and 
had many mishaps by the way, but finally completed our task and moved into 
the new house on the first day of March, 1867 — a month long to be remembered 
by the early settlers of Nebraska, as every night the thermometer fell to zero or 
below. The last day of February was warm, the snow melted and every little 
ravine had a running stream. A poor man living at the salt basin driving an ox 
team could not force them through the' broken ice and melted snow. He labored 
with them until he was soaking wet, then the weather turned intensely cold and 
he got home at last so badly frozen that, after weeks of sufl:'ering, he insisted that 
his feet should be amputated, and Doctor McKesson undertook the operation. 
He had no proper amputation saw, and I wish, right here, to correct a story that 
has often been told that the Doctor used a common handsaw for this surgical 
work. He borrowed the saw from my partner, Mr. Biles, who now lives in Los 
Angeles, California. It was a stiff -back saw with fine teeth, suitable for use in 
cabinet work, which Biles had brought from London, and though larger than a 
surgeon's saw it was very well adapted for such an emergency. One foot was 
taken oft', but the patient was too weak to recover and died soon after. 

There is another item of interest which I do not find recorded in the history, 
an incident which reflects honor on one of the early settlers in the new city. 
Darwin Peckham was a carpenter and contractor, and he built the stone block 
of two stories still standing on the northeast corner of O and Tenth streets, which 
was occupied by the banking house of James Sweet and Brock, the grocery 
house of Rudolph, and the general store of Martin Pilug & Brother. Whilst 
Mr. Peckham was busy earning money for the support of his family and perhaps 
laying the foundation for a modest competence, it was reported one day that in 
one of the hotels a man was sick with smallpox. He was at once taken to a shanty 
on the outskirts of the town, and a volunteer nurse was called for. Mr. Peckham 
undertook this disagreeable and dangerous duty, caught the disease himself and 
barely escaped a horrible death. There are many men today wearing those bronze 
buttons in the lapels of their coats and drawing pensions from a grateful nation 
for heroic services on a hundred battlefields who never performed a nobler deed, 
or suffered more for our common humanity than this unassuming citizen of 
whom I write. 

The other day I stood on O Street and called the attention of a young law 
student to the lot on the corner of O and Eleventh streets, on which stands 



4 J 


1 __ 

Sliowing Doctor Gilbert 's liusiness house, tlie first ilnis store in Liiii-oln 

■ ^ i i U .1 


By courltsy of 0. 11. Wolf of Lincoln 



part of Rudge & Guenzel's store, and told him that I stood by and saw that lot 
sold for $87.50; and he asked me why all of us did not buy lots and grow rich by 
the investment. This is the question that naturally occurs to anyone at this late 
day, and in self-defense it should be answered. 

Nebraska at that time was supposed to be a great desert, not only by eastern 
people, but those who lived in the towns along the Missouri River really thought 
there was no land worth cultivating so far west as Lancaster County. The 
location of the capital was regarded as a doubtful project, and men with money 
to invest stood by and saw these choice lots sold for a mere song. It must be 
remembered there was not a mile of railroad south of the Platte River; that a 
large part of Iowa was still a howling wilderness ; and even on the grand prairie 
in Central Illinois land could then be bought for five dollars an acre. Some of 
those who had faith in the city and made heavy investments came to grief when 
hard times came. One heroic woman told me the other day that she took in 
washings during several of those hard years so as to pay taxes and save the 
family property. 

It is curious how soon some people forget. Mr. Bashley was the first lumber 
merchant in the city and some authorities say that Mr. Larkley was the first. 
Bashley and his son drove two mule teams to east Nebraska City and hauled 
lumber to the salt basin where I built a salt house for Tichenor & Green. Pine 
lumber came in with the advent of the capital. In Lancaster times we used 
Cottonwood and walnut. There was ver\- fine walnut timber at the time on the 
streams west of here. 

In Lancaster times Jacob Dawson was postmaster and Judge Pound was his 
deputy. I am sorry that the judge did not hold that position a year longer ; if he 
had I should be $30.00 richer. The first Lincoln postmaster was a thief and I 
lost that $30.00 in the mail and the postmaster was sent to the penitentiary for 
this and other robberies. Captain Donovan, his father-in-law, induced Governor 
Butler to procure his pardon and he disappeared. S. B. Pound, the young lawyer, 
had so good a reputation for honesty, even in that early day, that a jury of six 
men, of whom I was one, refused to give a verdict against his client on the sole 
ground that three of the men declared it to be their unalterable conviction that 
Mr. Pound would not defend a case that was not absolutely correct and true. 


Whereas, Governor David Butler, J. Gillespie and T. P. Kennard, commis- 
sioners of location of the Town of Lincoln, to be the seat of government for the 
State of Nebraska, in the Cnited States of America, have promised to accept the 
southeast quarter of section 23 in township 10 north of range 6 east of the sixth 
principal meridian, according to the Government survey of the said state, and 
now surveyed and platted as the townsite of Lancaster, in the County of Lan- 
caster and State of Nebraska, have agreed to accept said quarter section of land, 
as part of the townsite of said townsite of Lincoln, provided the owners of lots 
in said townsite of Lancaster will submit to a resurvey of said townsite of Lan- 
caster, to correspond with the plat and survey of the other portions of the Town 
of Lincoln, to be so located, platted and surveyed, and accept lots, falling in said 
plat and survey of Lincoln, upon the lots owned by such individuals in the town- 
site of Lancaster, or nearest thereto, when such lots shall he covered by a street ; 
said lots, in Lincoln, to be so accepted by such owners, in lieu of said Lancaster 
lots, shall be of the same superficial area, and after such survey and plat of 
Lincoln, said owners to quit claim all their title in and to said Lancaster town 
lots to the State of Nebraska, and the State of Nebraska to quit claim to such 
owners, the lots conveyed by said state in lieu of said Lancaster town lots, 

Now therefore, in consideration of the foregoing premises, and of $1.00 
to each of us, the undersigned paid by the State of Nebraska, we, the persons 
whose names are subscribed to this agreement, promise and agree, jointly and 
severally, to and with the said State of Nebraska, in the United States of Amer- 
ica, that we will submit to a resurvey of said townsite of Lancaster by the surveyor 
appointed by said commissioners of location of said townsite of Lincoln, as set 
forth in the foregoing "F'roviso" and accept from the said State of Nebraska lots, 
according to our respective ownership in said townsite of Lancaster, of the same 
superficial area in said Town of Lincoln, upon, or in the immediate location of 
our respective lots, in the manner and as it is set forth in the foregoing proviso, 
we the said owners of such lots in said townsite of Lancaster, hereby promise 
and agree to quit claim all our right, title and interest in, and to said townsite of 
Lancaster, previous to demanding from said state, said conveyance respectively, 
dated Lancaster, August 13, 1867. 



Owners' Names Description of Property 

in Lancaster 
Xo. of Lots No. Block 

Nancy A. McKesson, by J. B. McKesson, atty. 3, 4, 5, 6 52 60 

S. B. Galey S il 

Martin Pflug i 10 

William T. Donovan 5. 6, 7, 8 25 

3 and 4 22 

J. K. Hardenberg, by T. F. Hardenberg, atty.. . 3 '"id 4 39 


G. B. Hardenberg, by T. F. Hardenberg, atty.. . 8 23 

M. Langdon i, 2, 3, 4 25 

1.7,8 9 

I and 2 39 

Jacob Dawson 2, 3, 4 5 

I and 2 8 

2,3.4 9 

I 13 

Charles Bloyd 3 a"d 4 8 

J. M. Young 5. 6. 7, 8 8 

James Sweet 4. 3, 5, 6 12 

Cyrus Carter 5 and 6 29 

James Sweet East Half 20 

East Half 16 

East Half 32 

East Half 36 

East Half 64 


To Whom Lots No. of Lot and 
Assigned Block of Lots 

in Lincoln 

Lots Block 

Nancy A. McKesson . 5 and 6 4 

I and 2 II 
5,6.7,8 II 

II and 12 II 
Charles Crawford. . .9 and 10 11 

G. W. Merrill.., 
G. H. Hilton..., 

. ... I, 2, II. 12 15 

9, 10, II, 12 27 

• ■••1,2,3,4 17 

As Equivalent 

for Lots and 

Blocks in 


Lots Block 

3. 4. 5, 6 60 

3.4,5,6 52 

3 and 4 53 

1,2,7.8 48 
3. 4, 5, 6 36 
1,2,3,4 44 

David Beasley 6 

17 East Half 28 


Deed executed and 

Deed executed and 

Deed ready for 

Deeded to W. W. 

Dunham as assignee 

of G. H. Hilton. 
Deed executed and 




To Whom Lots 

No. of Lot and 

As Equivalent 


Block of Lots 

for Lots 


in Lincoln 







Lots Block 

J. K. Hardenberg. . . 

. 7 and 8 


3 and 4 


Deed executed and 

J. G. Miller 





Deed executed and 


Scliool District No. i 

. 7 and 8 


5 and 6 

• II 

Deed ready to deliver. 

G. B. Hardenberg. . 

. 12 




Deed executed and 

W. T. Donovan .... 

• 1.2.3,4 


5. 6, 7, 8 


Deed executed and 

5 and 6 


3 and 4 


Deed executed and 

M. Langdon 

.9, 10, II. I 

2 31 



Deed executed and 



I and 2 


Deed executed and 





Deed executed and 

Jacob Dawson 

.9, 10, II 




Deed executed and 


[8 45 

I and 2 


Deed executed and 






Deed executed and 

Minnie E. Jennings. 

. I and 2 


I and 2 


Deed ready to deliver. 

S. B. Galey 

.14 and 15 




Deed executed and 


5 and 6 


Deeded to G. as 
assignee of T. 

10, 17, 18 


5 and 6 


Hudson and 
C. D. Aikens 

Myer Reis 

. 2 and 3 




Cash $90.00 as as- 



signee of S. Hilpps. 

J. M. Riddill 

• 4 


5 and 6 


Deeded to J. Sweet as 
assignee of J. M. 

W. J. Abbott 





$45.00 cash received; 
deeded to H. B. 
Beebe as assignee 
to W. J. Abbott. 

R. Monteith 





Deed executed and 


Cyrils Carter 

. I and 2 


5 and 6 


Failed to perform his 

I and 2 


agreement and deed 
not delivered. 



To Whom Lots No. of Lot and 
Assigned Block of Lots 

in Lincoln 

Lots Block 

J. M. Young 4,5,6 37 

4. 5. 6 39 

1,2,3,4 45 

Martin Pflug i and 2 44 

James Sweet 1,2,3,4,5,6 


7, 8, 9, 10 
II, 12 



7,8,9, 10 
II, 12 

7, 8, 9, 10 
II, 12 



14,15,16,17, 42 
10, 11,12 44 

As Equivalent 

for Lots and 

Blocks in 


Lots Block 

3 and 4 13 

5, 6, 7, 8 27 

5, 6, 7, 8 8 


Charles Bloyd 11,12,13,14 45 3 and 4 

West Half 12 

33 East Half 16 

35 East Half 20 

35 East Half 32 

East Half 
East Half 




Deeds executed and 
delivered to him- 
self and others as 
his assignees. 

Deed executed and 

Deed executed and 
ready to be de- 

Deed executed and 
ready to be de- 

Deed executed and 
ready to be de- 

Deeded to J. M. 
Riddle as assignee 
of James Sweet. 

Deeds executed and 

Deeds executed and 

Deeds executed and 


Deeds executed and 

Deeds executed and 



The following list of lots, compiled from the original commissioners' report to 
the Legislature, comprises those not sold before January i, 1869. The amount 
of appraisement is also given for each. 

All of B25 $ 700.00 

Lots 2 and 3, B144 60.00 

Lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in B164 260.00 

Lots all in B168 200.00 

Lots all in B 170 200.00 


Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B174 260.00 

Lot 4, B 1 84 60.00 

Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in B194 I35-0O 

Lots all in B196 200.00 

Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in B198 100.00 

Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B204 275.00 

Lots II and 12 in B218 70.00 

Lots 7, 8. 9, 10, II in B220 155.00 

Lots 1 . 2. 3, 4, 5, 6 in B222 220.00 

Lots 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B224 140.00 

Lots all in B228 200.00 

Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in B230 100.00 

Lots all in B234 315.00 

Lots 4, 5, 6, 10, II, 12 in B238 160.00 

Lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B240 310.00 

Lots 2, 5, 12 in B244 1 35.00 



The following list comprises the names of the men who purchased the first lots 
in the City of Lincoln, Nebraska, the description of the lots they bought and the 
prices they paid for them : 

Ainger, G. W., Bioo, 1-4, 1-5; $140.00. 

Allen, Samuel E., B2, 1-4: B34, i-ii ; B39, 1-12; B40, 1-9; B56, 1-12; B116, 
1-4; B117, i-io: $689.00. 

At wood. Nathaniel, B154, i-g, i-ii, 1-12; $355.00. 

Bowen, Dr. A., B62, 1-2: $60.00. 

Burgert, G. H., Bioo, 1-12; $124.00. 

Beekman, William, B40, 1-15 ; $62.00. 

Beebe, H. B., B35, 1-5; $45.00. 

Bruner, C. E., B21, i-io; $99.00. 

Blakely, N., B154. 1-4; $150.00. 

Benadom, S. P., B242, 1-8; $35.00. 

Beales, S. B., B154, i-i, 1-2; $150.00. 

Bergmann, L, B194, 1-8; $15.00. 

Baird, C. N., B210, i-i ; $80.00. 

Babcock, Mrs. U. D., B146, 9 and 10; $210.00. 

Blum, Jacob, B52, 1-6, 1-7; B62, 1-3; B70, 1-4, 1-5, 1-8, 1-9, i-io, i-ii, 
1-12: B142. south half; $541.00. 

Brown, S. R., B176, i-io, i-ii, 1-12: all of B190; B192, i-i, 2, 3, 10, 
II. 12: all of B206; all of B208; B218, 3 and 4; B220, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12; all of B236 ; 

Brush & Hawks, B20. i-i, 1-2; B28, i-i, 1-2; B40, i-io; B57, 1-6; B86, 1-16, 
1-17, 1-18; Bioo, 1-8; $584.00. 

Brown, W. A., B41, 1-14; B42, 1-9; B144, 1-7, 1-8; B184, 1-8; B210, 1-12; 
B242, 1-9; $485.00. 


JJrock, N. C, B40, i-ii, 1-12, B58, i-ii, 1-12; B64, 1-8, 1-9; B96, i-i, 
1-2; B152, 1-9, i-io, I-II, 1-12; $880.00. 

Bryant, J. PL, B36, south half ; Bioo, 1-7 ; B120, 1-6 ; B122, i-i ; $802.00. 

Butler, David, B22, 1-8, 1-9; B128. 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; B150, south half; 

Burnham, S. \\'., south half of IJ198; south half of ]j2i6; B220, i-i, 1-2; 
south half of B222; north half of B224 ; 53/ of B230 ; south half of B232 ; B238, 
lots I, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9; $990.00. 

Cowden, Miss L, B38, 1-4; $60.00. 

Chapman. Miss S. A., B88, 1-9; $65.00. 

Chapman, John, B34, 1-8, 1-9: $200.00. 

Cuming, A., B57, 1-7; $51.00. 

Cuming. J. W., B244, 1-6; $75.00. 

Cahn, Isaac, B244, i-i, 1-3, 1-4, i-io, lot 11 ; $285.00. 

Cassell, J. N., B13, 1-3, 1-5, 1-6; B15. 1-7, 1-8; $750.00. 

Culver. M. M., B57, 1-4, 1-16, 1-18: B94, i-ii ; $316.00. 

Cropsey. A. J., B22, 1-7, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; B40, 1-18, 1-44; 1-6, 1-7; B56, 1-8, 
I-II ; B68, I-I, 1-2, 1-3; B117, 1-12, 1-15; B120, I-I, 1-2, 1-3; B182, 1-9; B174, 
I-I, 1-6, 1-7, 1-12; B210, 1-6: B212, I-I, 1-6, 1-7, 1-12; B242, 1-3; $2,428.00. 

Drum, Jacob, B55, i-i ; $86.00. 

Davis, j. T., B226, 1-8; $15.00. 

Day, .S" F., B56, i-i ; B86, i-i, 1-2, 1-8; B117, i-i ; $387.00. 

IXmgan, D. R., B12, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9; B16, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; B216, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; 
B242, I-I, 1-2; $586.75. 

Dawson, Jacob, B52, i-i, 1-2; B54, lot i : lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; B154, i-io; 
B184, 1-2. I-II ; B214. I-I, 1-12; $1,325.00. 

Fo.x, John B., B22, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; $151.00. 

Farnsworth, S., B5, 1-2; B9, 1-9, i-io; $214.00. 

Findley, William, B18, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; B162, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; $310.00. 

Guthridge, A. J., B184, 1-5; $80.00. 

Ganter, T. S., B39, 1-14: $185.00. 

Gerard, Joseph H., B52, 1-3; $40.00. 

Gerard, Martin, B52, 1-4; $39.00. 

Gerard, J. H. and M., B162, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; $196.00. 

Gingrich, J. M., B3, 1-6; B5, 1-6; B9, i-i, 1-12; $445.00. 

Gere, C. H. ; B55, lots 6 and 7; B98, i-i ; $308.00. 

Gillespie, John, B38, 1-9; B70, i-i ; all of B172; $315.00. 

Grof¥, L. A., B20, 1-3, 1-4, 1-9, i-io; B54, 1-9, i-ii ; B55, 1-2; B57, i-ii; 
B68, 1-7, 1-8. 1-9: lots 10. II, 12, B194: lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9 of B202; $972.00. 

Hudson. E. T., B19, i-io; $55.00. 

Harvey, H. L., B60, 1-5; $35.00. 

Hamer & Baird, B17, i-io, i-ii ; $238.00. 

Harvey, Mrs. J. A., B9, 1-7 and 8; B13, 1-2; B70, 1-13; $135.00. 

Harvey, C. H., B57, 1-9; B58, i-io: B86, i-io; B92, 1-7, 8, 9; B102, I-2; 
all of B166; all of B200; $793.00. 

Harding, N. S., B57, 1-5, 1-8; B98, 1-3; B184, i-io; $23700. 

Hawke, Bob & Co., B55, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; B56, 1-2, 1-3; $544.00. 

Humphrey, O. N., B70, 1-2: B102, 1-12; $169.00. 


Hochstetler, J. J., B117, 1-4; north half of B152. 

Hubbard, A., B42, 1-6; B56, 1-6; B96, 1-9; Bioo, 1-9; $349-0O. 

Horn, W. S., B98, 1-7; B120, 1-4, 1-9, i-io; B122, 1-4; B213, 1-9; B214, 
1-9, 10; B242, 1-7; $861.00. 

Hyde, Thomas H., B3, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4; B5, 1-5; B9, i-ii; B15, 1-9, i-io; B144, 
1-4; B156, 1-9, i-io; B210, 1-3, 1-8, I-IO, i-ii; B212, 1-4, i-ii; B214, 1-2, 1-7, 
1-8, i-i I ; B216, lots 4 and 5 ; B218, 1-12 ; $1,391.00. 

Haxby, James, B154. 1-5, 1-6; $150.00. 

Hull, C. J., Bi, 1-2, 3, 4, 1-5, 1-6; B3, 1-5, 6, 7, II, 12; B8, I-II, 1-12; B9, 
i-S, 20, 1-6; B21, I-II. 1-12; B70, 1-14, 1-15, I-1.6, 1-17, 1-18; B174, i-i, 1-2, 
i-3;Bi86, 1-5; south half of B186; B188, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; B204, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; B210, 
1-2; B242, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; $2,015.00. 

Huntington, R. B., B212, 1-8; $60.00. 

Isaacs, N. P., B38, i-i, 1-2 ; $135.00. 

Johnson, M. T., B54, 1-12; $156.00. 

Johnson, A., B138, 1-7, 1-8; $44.00. 

Jennings, H. S., Bio, 1-3; B14, 1-8, 1-9; B56, i-io; B58, 1-2, 1-3, 1-5, 1-7; 
B64, 1-7; B130, 1-6: $581.00. 

Klepser, Jacob, B44, 1-6, 1-17; $111.00. 

Kennedy, James, B42, 1-3; $80.00. 

Kuhns, H. W., B176, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; B188, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; $435-00- 

Kinney, John F., B182, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5; $330.00. 

Kennard, Levi, B178, lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, i-io; B216, 1-6; B218, lots i, 2, 5, 6; 
B240, lots I and 6; $560.00. 

Kennard. T. P.. B37, 1-3; B56, 1-4; B58. 1-8; B96, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, i-ii ; 
B226, lots I, 2, 3, 4. 5. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12; $738.00. 

Linderman, S. B., south half of B21 ; $315.00. 

Levi, H. L., B14, 1-7; $45.50. 

Levi, Leopold, B44, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, I-21 ; $225.00. 

Look & Hillemyer, B39, 1-15, 1-16; $571.00. 

Lemmon, S. W., B176, 1-7, 8, 9; $150.00. 

Lund, Mrs. E. R., B188, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; $140.00. 

LaMaster, M. F., B56, 1-9; B58, 1-6; $116.00. 

LaMaster, J. E., B40, 1-7, 1-8; B41, i-io; B96, i-io; B98, 1-5, 1-6; Bioo, 
1-6; B120, 1-5; B126, I-I, 1-2; $859.00. 

Lehmeier, J. H., B242, lots 10 and 11 ; $80.00. 

Miller, W. B., B70, 1-3; $41.00. 

Mitchell, J. L., B120, 1-7; $141.00. 

Myer. August, B40, 1-16; $63.00. 

Monteith, J., B34, 1-12; $136.00. 

Michael, John, B66, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9; $198.00. 

May, C. A., B44, 1-3; B57, i-i, 1-2, 1-12; $398.00. 

Morton, William, B41, 1-13; B56, 1-5, 1-13. 1-14, 1-15; $305.00. 

Montieth, Robert, B178, 1-9; B210, i, 4. 5, 9; $200.00. 

Murphy, J. J., B8, 1-9, I-IO; B144, i-i, 1-9; B146, 1-8; B154, 1-3; B184; 

Millard, J. W., B164, lots 7, 8, 9; B188, lots 7, 8, 9 ; B218, lots 7, 8, 9 ; $375-00. 

Miller, Jason G., B2, i-i, 1-2; B4, i-i, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4; B6, i-i : Bio, i-io, i-ii ; 


Bi2, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, i-io, i-ii, I-I2; B16, i-i ; B18, lot 10, i-ii, 1-12; B26, 
i-i, 1-2, 1-3, i-io, i-u, I-I2; B30, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, i-io; B34, i-i, 1-7, i-io; B44, 
1-4, 1-5; B52, 1-8, 1-9; B57, 1-3; B58, 1-13, 1-14, 1-15; B68, I-IO, I-II, 1-12; 
B84, 1-3, 1-4; B94, i-io; Bioo, i-i; B182, 1-8, i-ii; $2,969.50. 

McCulloch, T., B2— , 1-4; $46.00. 

McEli, H. A. U., B39, 1-3; $203.00. 

McCann, J. D., B117, 1-16, 1-17, 1-18: B130, 1-12; $351.00. 

McCann, D. J., B41, 1-18; B43, 1-7; B44, 1-8; B56, 1-7; B57, i-io; B60, i-i, 
1-2; B96, 1-12; Bir6, i-ii, 1-12; B150, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; B164, I-I, 1-12; $1,273.00. 

Norton O., B20, 1-12: B28, 1-3; $94.00. 

Osborne, S., B9, 1-3, 1-4: $83.00. 

O'Hawes, Patrick, B38, 1-3; B212, lots i, 2, 3, 5 ; B214, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; 

Place, C. A., B62, 1-3; $60.00. 

Potter, L. H., B86, 1-4; $71.00. 

Presson, W. A., B90, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; $210.00. 

Peake, W. P., B58, 1-4; $61.00. 

Parker, J. D., B15, 1-3; B17, 1-12; B39, 1-13; $396.00. 

Presson, R. B., B102. 1-5, 1-6: B150, i-i, 2, 3; $341.00. 

Palmer, A. L., Bi, i-i ; B7, 1-3, 1-4; Bii, 1-3, 1-4; B19, 1-3, 1-4, 1-9, i-ii, 
1-12; B182, i-io; $582.00. 

Peck, Philetas, B2, 1-3, I-5, 1-6; B34, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4; B40, 1-13, I-14; B41, 
1-17: B55, 1-4: B57, 1-13, 1-14, 1-15; B58, 1-9; B64, I-I, 1-2, 1-3; B94, 1-8, 1-9; 

Peck. Miss A., B242, 1-12: B244, lots 7, 8, 9; $210.00. 

Pogne & King, B34, 1-18; $155.00. 

Ross, George R., B5, 1-3 ; $62.00. 

Ross, William R., B5, 1-4; $61.00. 

Ross, Robert S., B5, i-i ; B52, 1-15; $135.00. 

Ross, Reuben, Jr., B192, lots 4, 5, 6, 7 ; $225.00. 

Ross, George, B3, i-i ; B9, 1-2; B15, 1-6; B17, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9; B19, i-i, 1-2; 
B21, 1-9; B33, 1-3; B39, 1-2, i-ii; B146, 1-7; B184, 1-3; $1,537.00. 

Robinson, J. L., B38, 1-7, 1-8; $135.00. 

Reis, Myer, B35, 1-2 and 3; $90.00. 

Rich & Oppenheimer, B54, i-io; $151.00. 

Reed, Amos, B122, 1-5, 1-6, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; $747.00. 

Riddill, J. M., Bio, i-i, 1-2; B41, 1-15; B98, 1-2; $232.00. 

Roberts, John, B41, i-ii, 1-12; B88, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; B126, 1-4, 1-5; B146, 
I-II, 1-12 ; $843.00. 

Shay, John, B65, 1-5; $50.00. 

Stuve, Bernard, B130, i-i ; $105.00. 

Sollenberger, J., B126, 1-7; $101.00. 

Strunk, E. D., B128, i-i ; $100.00. 

Sweet, W. E. C, B58, i-i ; $100.00. 

Shumaker, Ch., B42, 1-5; $121.00. 

Sheldon, P. S., B88, 1-7, 1-8; $i45-00. 

Saunders, Alvin, B192, 1-8, 1-9; $135.00. 

Smyth, F. A. H., B156, 1-7, 1-8; $150.00. 


Strunk & Gere, B130, i-ii ; B144, 1-9; $145.00. 

Siegel, David, B44, 1-9; B117, 1-5; B124, 1-5; $260.00. 

Strickland, S. A., B24, i-i, 1-2; Br54, 1-7, 1-8; B156, i-ii, 1-12 ; $685.00. 

Sibbey, Samuel P., B42, 1-8; B120, 1-8; B122, 1-2; B130, i-io; $393.00. 

Sweet, James, B6, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6: B14, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; B22, 1-5, 1-6; B34, 
116; B35, I-I ; B42, 1-4; B52, 1-5; B54, I-15, I-16, 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21 ; 
B60, 1-3, 1-4, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 1-13, 1-14, 1-15; B62, i-io, I-II, 1-12; B66, north 
half; B84, 1-9, i-io; B88. i-i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6: B138, 1-9, i-io, i-ii, 1-12; B140, 
south half ; all of B158; all of B180; $4,074.00. 

Sweet, James (trustee), lots i, 2, 3, 4, in B8, $145.00. Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in 
Bio, $230.00. Lots I, 2, 3 in B12, $115.00. Lots 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12 in B14, $215.00. 
Lots 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B16, $400.00. Lots i, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 in B18, $230. 
Lots 7, 8, 9 in B26, $174.00. Lots 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 in B28, $396.00. Lots i, 

2, 3. 7. ^.9. II i" B30, $383.00. Lots 3 and 4 in B32, $80.00. Lots i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6 in B36, $390.00. Lots 10, II, 12 in li38, $105.00. Lots i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in B40, 
$383.00. Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5 in B41, $345.00. Lots i and 2 in B42, $151.00. Lots 
16, 17, 18 in B52, $143.00. Lots 13 and 14 in B54, $95.00. Lots 13, 14, 15. 16, 
17 in B55, $353.00. Lots 16, 17, 18 in B56, $175.00. Lots 16, 17, 18 in B58, 
$220.00. Lots 9, 10, II, 12, 16, 17, 18 in B60, $356.00. Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in 
B62, $390.00. Lots 4, 5, 6, 10, II, 12 in B64, $395.00. Lots 10, 11, 12 in B66, 
$201.00. Lots 6 and 7 in B70, $80.00. Lots 11 and 12 in B84, $95.00. Lots 11, 
12, 13 in B86, $120.00. Lots 4, 5, 6 in B90, $210.00. Lots 10, 11, 12 in B90, 
$210.00. Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, II, 12 in B92, $588.00. Lots i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in 
B94, $397.00. Lot 12, B94, $75.00. Lots 10. II, 12 in B98, $329.00. Lots 3, 
10, II in Bioo, $236.00. Lots 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 in B102, $545.00. 
Lots 2, 3, 9, 10 in B116, $243.00. Lots 2, 3, 6, 7, 13, 14 in B117, $450.00. Lots 
7. 8, 9 in B122, $318.00. Lots I, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 in B124, $803.00. Lots 

3, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B126, $500.00. Lots 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 in B128, $520.00. 
Lots 2, 3, 4, 5 in B130, $281.00. Lots i, 2. 3, 4, 5, 6 in B146, $440.00. Lots 4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 12 in B148, $675.00. Lots 7 and 8 in B152, $155.00. Lots 
I. 2, 3, 4. 5. 6 in B156, $440.00. Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 in B160, $615.00. 
Lots 7, 8. 9, 10, II, 12 in B162, $390.00. Lots 10 and 11 in B164, $125.00. Total 
amount was $15,000.00. 

Thayer, J. M., B13, i-i ; $115.00. 

Tipton, T. W., B15, 1-4; $100.00. ^ 

TafYe, John, B15, 1-5; $115.00. 

Truesdell, A. M., B24, 1-4; $120.00. 

Tillinghast, G. F., B90, 1-7; $80.00. 

Thacker, W. S., B84, i-i, 1-2; $125.00. 

Tingley, D. W., B40, 1-17; B98, 1-8; $147.00. 

Tulles, Ezra, B2, i-ii ; B202, lots 10, 11, 12; $85.00. 

Taggard, John M., B6, 1-2, 1-3: B86, 1-8, 1-9, 1-14; B90, 1-8, 1-9; B102, 1-3, 
1-4; B160, I-I, 1-2, 1-3; $660.00. 

Thompson, J. T., B130, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9; $187.00. 

Tucker, George P., Bio, 1-12; B28, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7; B41, 1-16; B55, 1-3; 
B68, 1-4, 1-6; B94, 1-7; B96, 1-7, 1-8; B98, 1-4; Bioo, 1-2; B116, i-i ; B122, 
1-3; B124, 1-6; $1,506.50. 

Vaughan, W. R., B144, i-io; i-ii, 1-12; $230.00. 


Wells, J. C, B44, 1-13, 1-14, 1-15; $189.00. 

Walter, Samuel, B86, 1-5, 1-6; $80.00. 

Wessell, Louis, B86, 1-15; B102, 1-22; $158.00. 

White, A. G., B24, 1-5, 1-6; $256.00. 

Wagoner, A., B26, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6; $171.00. 

Walbaum, C. C, Bro2, i-i ; B148, i-i, 1-2, 1-3; $327.00. 

Wilson, Miss M., B226, 1-5; $15.00. 

Witte, Henry, B117, 1-8, 1-9, i-ii; B120, i-ii, 1-12; B178, i-i, 1-7, 1-8, 
i-ii, 1-12: B182, I-I, 1-6, 1-7, 1-12; B186, I-I, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-6; B210, 1-7; 

Walker, S. H., B34, 1-13; $125.00. 

Zink, Nicholas, B38, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7; $191.00. 

Total. $76,615.75. 


August 21 1867. To Paid. E. R. White $ 7.50 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. D. A. Sherwood 57-50 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. Dunn, McPherson & Fullers 223.00 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. A. B. Smith 172.00 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. James M. Riddle 95-00 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. Jacob Drum 65.00 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. Charles Wake 4--50 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. Robert Monteith 20.00 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. W. S. Horn 242.50 

September 19, 1867. To Paid. J. V. Holleraugh 8.75 

September 21, 1867. To Paid. A. F. Harvey 401.00 

October 3, 1867. To Paid. A. F. Harvey 97-50 

September 25, 1867. To Paid. N. S. Harding 3.00 

September 20, 1867. To Paid. W. T. Donovan 368.00 



June II, 1868. To Paid. H. D. Hathaway $ 69.50 

December 19, 1867. To Paid. Press Office 10.50 

January 7, 1868. To Paid. St. A. D. Balcombe 20.00 

September 20, 1867. To Paid. George W. Hill & Company 36.50 

December 19, 1867. To Paid. Nebraska State Zeitung 8.00 

November i, 1867. To Paid. Miller & Carpenter 40.00 

December 9, 1867. To Paid. Nebraska State Journal 60.75 

December 31. 1867. To Paid. St. A. D. Balcombe 3.60 

October i, 1868. To Paid. Commonwealth 30.40 

September 21, 1868. To Paid. Southern Nebraskian 16.00 

January i, 1868. To Paid. Press Office 4.50 

April I, 1868. To Paid. Commonwealth 5.10 

October 6, 1867. To Paid. Chicago Tribune 231.35 

October i, 1867. To Paid. Omaha Herald 75-00 


June 4, 1868. To Paid. Nebraska Advertiser 17-50 

November 6, 1868. To Paid. H. D. Hathaway 15.00 

October 31, 1868. To Paid. Church & Holhap 3.80 

August 13, 1868. To Paid. Chicago Republican 56.00 

July 25, 1868. To Paid. Redfield & Brothers 44.00 

October I, 1868. To Paid. W. H. H. Waters 12.00 

November II, 1867. To Paid. St. A. D. Balcombe 48.00 

August I, 1868. To Paid. Press Office 75.00 

September I, 1868. To Paid. St. A. D. Balcombe 41.90 

October 27, 1868. To Paid. Thos. Norton & Company 80.00 

July 8, 1868. To Paid. Toledo Blade 30.00 

August 16, 1868. To Paid. Southern Nebraskian :... 21.00 

March 16, 1868. To Paid. Commonwealth 5.85 

October 9, 1867. To Paid. Press Office 22.10 

October 6, 1867. To Paid. Platte Valley Journal 7.00 

February I, 1869. To Paid. Nebraska Statesman 5630 



October 2, 1867. To Paid. J. F. Fox $500.00 

October 4, 1867. To Paid. J. K. Saunders 60.00 

June 18, 1868. To Paid. Lovett & Hyde 100.00 

September 18, 1868. To Paid. D. F. Herrick 60.00 

commissioners' accounts 

David Butler. To Paid. Per diem $1,100.00 

Expenses i.i7i-50 


Thomas P. Kennard. To Paid. Per diem $ 950.00 

Expenses 888.50 


John Gillespie. To Paid. Per diem $ 717-87 

Expenses 468.78 

Total $5,296.65 


In point of years the City of Lincoln may 1)e said to be in her infancy, hut in 
point of experience, growth, municipal improvements and efficient government 
the city compares favorably with the eastern cities settled scores of years before 
the commissioners located the capital here in '67. In the Agents' Bulletin, a Mis- 
souri Pacific Iron Alountain publication, of May, 1915, appears the following: 

"As the capital of a young but fast growing state, Lincoln at once became the 
mecca for hundreds of ambitious young persons, and within a few years founda- 
tions had been laid for an enduring civic structure. Railroads backed by home 
and foreign capital sprang into being as if by a magician's wand, and where one 
already within the state's borders showed signs of hesitating about reaching 
across the prairies to the new metropolis, the people offered large subsidies or 
I)roceeded to build connecting lines themselves. Out of this welter of little and 
poorly built roads there have been evolved five great modern railroads which 
serve the city, forming arteries of trade which bring vast commercial territories 
within the reach of her business men. 

"Early in her life as a city, Lincoln developed into a jobbing center, and as 
the state increased in population, as the railroads were extended and as agricul- 
ture multijilied, this form of commerce, linked with manufacturing in dozens of 
lines, became a dominant factor in her growth. As the capital the city became 
and remains the political center of the state. The University of Nebraska fol- 
lowed shortly after the selection of Lincoln as the ca]iital and its growth has run 
far and fast ahead of that of the state itself, as individual wealth piled up and 
the belief in a strong educational system grew. The dominance of agriculture 
as the great business of the state early led to the founding close to the city of a 
giant agricultural college and school, where hundreds of boys from the farm are 
taught everything there is to know about their business. To insure the stability 
of its educational institutions a large part of the agricultural domain was early 
set aside as school, university and agricultural lands. From sales and rentals a 
fund, invested in bonds and amounting now to $10,000,000, has been collected 
and there yet remain thousands of acres as the inheritance of the educational 
system of the state. 

"The Lincoln of 1870 numbered a thousand or two souls, clustered about a 
combination business and residence district, that was less than a mile square. 
Today the citv proper has an area of eight square miles, and within five miles of 
the postoffice 65,000 people live and labor. The one-story frame .store buildings 
with flaring fronts of pioneer days have been replaced with modern business 
blocks, ranging in height to ten stories, equipped with all modern devices for com- 



fort and dispatch and filled with merchandise of quality and worth. The poorly 
equipped cottage of the pioneer has vanished and in its place are found the 
bungalow, the fine residence and the palatial mansion. There are no rookeries 
where the shiftless and the unlucky seek refuge, no district where vice and crime 
are given quasi-licensc to flourish and to prey. The Lincoln of today enjoys a 
prosperity so well distributed that it is equally as well famed for the absence of 
Knob Hill palaces as it is for the absence of slums." 

Within the area of the City of Lincoln there are approximately seventy 
miles of brick and asphalt paved streets, sixty-five miles of street railways, and 
ninety-five miles of sewerage. The water and light plants are municipally owned 
and commercial lighting has given the light consumer the lowest possible rates 
in a city of this size. The street railway system of the city is well organized and 
no (luarter of the town is more than fifteen minutes from the "hub." 

The City of Lincoln is located on a gently sloping plain, bounded on the west 
by the Valley of Salt Creek and on the east by the Antelope. This land charac- 
teristic is a distinct advantage to the beauty of the city, enabling the building of 
long level stretches of boulevards, handsome lawns and terraces, and giving 
freedom from bridging and tunneling, with which almost every city of size is 
burdened. Leading out from the city in all directions are paved boulevards, end- 
ing in well dragged and graded dirt roads, the pride of the county. These lead 
out to and past many parks, including amusement resorts, state institution grounds 
and municipal recreation places. The city itself maintains two parks, one in the 
west section and one in the east. The latter, Antelope Park, is comparatively 
new, while the former, Epworth Lake Park, is the home of the Nebraska Epworth 
Assembly, where for ten days each summer thousands dwell in tents and enjoy 
a program similar to that of a Chautauqua. West of the city is Capital Beach 
Park, located upon a wide lake now covering the historic salt basin. Electric 
Park is another amusement place, owned by private capital. The city now 
owns 125 acres of public park land. 

The importance of Lincoln as a political center has been another factor in 
the upbuilding of the city. ' Three-fourths of the state political conventions are 
held in Lincoln. Not only political conventions, but numerous meetings, trade 
conventions and similar gatherings are almost constantly in session in the city. 

Manufacturing in Lincoln has kept pace with the development of the wholesale 
and retail trade. There are about one hundred and forty manufacturing plants 
in the city, some of them upon a large scale and long established, and others just 
beginning. In milling and jmcking the city is rapidly rising to a high plane. One 
of the largest creamery plants in the country, the largest paint manufacturing 
plant west of the Mississippi River, the largest corset factory west of Chicago, 
the largest manufactory for copper cable lightning rods in the United States, the 
largest factory for the production of gasoline engines west of the Missouri River, 
are part of the many industries flourishing here. 

One of the most prominent factors in the growth of the city has been the 
activity of the commercial club. This started on June 29, 1894, and was incor- 
porated on July 1 8th by N. S. Harwood, A. E. Hargreaves, Charles Dauback, 
M. J. Waugh and M. A. Warren. For many years the club was known as the 
Union Commercial Club, but on May 28, 1903, the title was changed to the Lincoln 
Commercial Club. At present the club has over fifteen hundred members, occu- 


]iies a new $150,000 building on the corner of Eleventh and P streets, and is one 
of the most active agents in the city. The organization reaches out after new 
enterprises ; promotes dramatic and musical festivities ; raises funds for various 
activities; protects merchants from fake advertisers; and passes upon charity 
endorsements ; boosts lagging institutions ; finances conventions ; and in fact does 
everything to better the municipal condition of the city. Its record is one of 

Eor the twelve months ending December 31, 19 15, the City of Lincoln col- 
lected more than a million dollars in taxes, special assessments and water and 
light receipts. The grand total for the year was $1,672,332. New bonds were 
issued during the year for $351,628. The total bond indebtedness of the city at 
this time was $1,646,799.08. 

Lincoln's building record for 1915 surpassed all previous records. Nearly two 
million dollars worth of new buildings were put up during the year, including 
office buildings, department stores, churches and theaters. The old Burr Block 
on the northeast corner of Twelfth and O streets is now being transformed into 
a modern ten-story office building, to be known as the Security Mutual Build- 
ing. The original Burr Block was constructed in 1887 and was for many years 
the leading office building of the city. Twelve years ago the structure was pur- 
chased by the Security Mutal Life Insurance Company. The First National Bank 
Building was an important addition to Lincoln's sky-line and is described in the his- 
tory ofthat bank. Upon the site of the old Capital Block which was built in 1874, 
at the corner of Tenth and O streets the new ten-story Terminal Building is being 
constructed. The building will be finished in 1916 and will represent an outlay of 
nearly a half million dollars. The new $250,000 department store erected in 1915 
by the firm of Miller & Paine is another distinct improvement to the commercial 
district. The. new Orpheum is just completed at the corner of Twelfth and P 
streets. The Hardy Hardware Store, the Canter Block, and the Bennett Block 
are new structures. The latter block was constructed upon the site of one of the 
real pioneer buildings of Lincoln, a two-story frame structure which was built 
forty-nine years ago by John Cadman. It was constructed almost entirely of 
Cottonwood timber. Part of it was hauled from Nebraska City and part cut from 
the timber along Salt Creek. When the Burlington Railroad entered Lincoln 
in the spring of 1871 J. W. Mitchell was running a hotel there under the name 
of the Midland Pacific. For many years afterward the block was known as the 
Fedewa House. The addition to the Lincoln postoffice may be numbered among 
the latest improvements for the city, fully two hundred and twenty-five thousand 
dollars having been appropriated by Congress for this work. Besides the municipal 
improvements the university has recently constructed several new buildings. 
These are the new dairy farm building, the Bessey Building at Thirteenth and U 

A new feature of the municipal government of Lincoln was established in 
June, 19 1 5, and is called the legal aid department. The ordinance creating the 
department went into effect June 28, 191 5. This imd the munici])al employment 
bureau are two new features of Lincoln's administration and came in through 
the efforts of Mayor C. W. Bryan. The city health department has also undergone 
a thorough process of reorganization. Strong efforts have been made to better the 
sanitary conditions of the city. The old isolation hospital south of the Country 


Club golf links have been renovated. During the year 191 5 there were three 
epidemics. Measles in the spring of the year created havoc in the public schools, 
924 cases having been reported inside of four months. There were in all, during 
the year, 68 cases of diphtheria, 115 of scarlet fever, 105 of smallpox, 11 of 
tuberculosis, 960 of measles and 50 of typhoid fever. With the exception of the 
measles epidemic this is about an average for every year in the city. The total 
number of births in the city for the year reached 1,163. During the same period 
there were 603 deaths. The death rate runs about 11, figuring on a population 
of 50,000. 

As late as 191 1 an effort was made to remove the capital from Lincoln. The 
question came up owing to the fact that the licjuor question was being agitated 
considerably in the state. The republican leaders in the county were strongly 
in favor of county option and this, with the fact that Lincoln had recently voted 
"dry," aroused the ire of the "wet" element in the state and in several. hostile 
camps an agitation was stirred up for the removal of the capital from Lincoln. 
Two bills for this purpose were introduced in the Legislature, but both met the 
same fate — defeat. A bill providing for the removal of the capital was ordered 
engrossed for the third reading in the committee of the whole, but failed on first 
passage in the house by a vote of thirty-eight to fifty-eight. The second bill, 
which was of the same character, was amended in the committee of the whole, 
passed through several legislative formalities and finally was abandoned. 

Lincoln in itself is a clean city, both morally and physically, in comparison 
with many other large communities of the West. The council records of April 
19, 1873, contain the startling fact that N. S. Scott made a motion, seconded 
by L. A. Scoggin, and carried, that the city marshal be instructed to cause the 
hog-pen on Fourteenth between O and P streets to be summarily removed. Again 
on May 31, 1873, S. W. Robinson and sixty-four others petitioned- that the hog- 
pens be removed from the city. This is the last record, official at least, of such 
strenuous sanitary measures having to be exercised. 


The first paving ever done in the City of Lincoln was in 1888, although a con- 
tract had been let the previous year to H. T. Clarke and Hugh Murphy to pave 
the center part of the city, in the business district, from N to S on Seventh, 
Eighth and Ninth, and from N to O on Tenth and Eleventh, and from N to P 
from Eleventh to Fourteenth, the outside streets named being included. This 
area was divided into two paving districts, first and second. Notwithstanding 
the fact the contracts were let and everything prepared to pave these streets quite 
a host of obstacles appeared, such as 'ihe necessity for the laying of water mains, 
gas pipes, sewers and car tracks before the pavement could be placed upon the 
streets. This necessity required so much time and money that the people became 
severe in their criticism of the administration, backed up in good measure by the 
local newspapers. The streets were not graded, ditches formed in every direction 
and water backed up into the business section. Government Square at times 
resembled a swamp and the space in front of the Capitol Hotel presented the 
appearance of a harbor. Persons could not cross the streets without braving 
the mud and water. In t888, however, the work of paving was finished and the 


sidewalk leveled to some degree of conformity. During 1888 and 1889 about 
eight miles of streets were paved, mostly with red cedar blocks, some with vitri- 
fied brick. Stout & Buckstaff of Lincoln manufactured the brick here. 

The City of Lincoln can now boast of more than sixty-five miles of paving. 
There are 23.28 miles of streets paved with brick, 21.36 miles with sheet asphalt, 
14.71 with asphalt concrete, and i mile of cedar block pavement remains although 
there is not much left of the blocks. Five miles of alleys are paved. The task 
of keeping the pavement in repair and to lay the new is an important part of the 
city street department's work. In 1915 the sum of $12,788.13 was spent in repair 
work alone. The brick pavement laid years ago is constantly going to pieces and 
it is only a matter of time until it will be sticceeded by new, probably asphalt. 


Lincoln City now has almost seventy miles of sanitary and storm sewerage. 
The first sewers in the city were laid in the late '70s and by 1889 quite an ex- 
tensive sanitary and storm sewerage system had been installed. Quite a bit of 
progress in this direction was made in 1888, when it was found that in order to 
have paved streets sewers had to be laid first. Each year several miles of sewer- 
age are added, in 191 5 6.78 miles being laid. Additions are constantly being made 
to the property and residence extent of the city, new streets are being laid out, 
and in comparison to this progress in real estate opening the system of sewerage 
has been extended. 


The history of the street car lines in Lincoln is a history replete with be- 
wildering details of litigation, financial contest and rivalry for the support of the 
public. There have been traction companies in Lincoln almost without number, 
seeking to gain the upper hand in the fight for the control of the electric interests 
of the city. 

As early as July 18, 1870, the town board of Lincoln passed an ordinance 
ratifying articles of incorporation filed by the Lincoln Street Railway. The city 
voted this same company the right of way upon the streets of the city in April, 
1881. On August 15, 1883, the city granted a franchise to the Capital City 
Street Railway Company, the articles of incorporation of this company having 
been filed July 31st of the same year. 

The first trial of street cars took place in the city at 3 o'clock on the afternoon 
of Thursday, November i, 1883. Mr. Durfee hooked a pair of small horses to 
car No. 4 and shouted to about a hundred small boys to climb on. This outfit 
started to climb the hill from the depot to the corner of O and Thirteenth streets. 
Two or three more trips were made that afternoon in order to test the track. 
Regular service began the following Monday. The eight or ten broncho ponies 
which supplied the motive power for the cars were kept in Fedewa's barn. The 
first three lines which were constructed in Lincoln were on South Tenth Street 
from O to South Street, on East O Street from Tenth to Twenty-seventh, and 
the South Fourteenth Street line which deviated through the south part of town. 

On May 16, 1887, the South Lincoln Street Railway Company was incorpo- 


rated by J. H. McClay, S. W. Burnhani, J. ]\L Hoffman, H. C. Eddy, J. E. Baum, 
j. W. McDonald, F. J. Foss, S. H. Burnham, C. M. Branson, .C. C. Hawkins and 
C. D. Hyatt. The Lincoln Cable Railway Company was incorporated April 25, 
1887, by Thomas Sewell, John H. Ames, A. D. Kitchen, J. H. McMurtry, W. W. 
Wilson, John Zehrung and John J. Gillilan. The Lincoln Rapid Transit Company 
incorporated May 18, 1887, and built their lines the same year; this company con- 
nected Lincoln with the state hospital by way of Twelfth Street. The North 
Lincoln Street Railway Company was incorporated December 19, 1888, and the 
Standard Street Railway Company on February 20, 1889. The latter road was 
built to connect the Lincoln Company's line on North Twenty-seventh Street with 
Wesleyan University. The Capital Heights Street Railway Company was incor- 
porated on June 20, 1887, by W. H. Harris, J. A. Rollins, A. P. Martin, V. S. 
Botsford, S. Sprague, M. M. Catlin, H. C. Bittenbender, and J. K. Corey. The 
Standard Company mentioned above afterwards consolidated with the Lincoln 
Electric Railway Company which was incorporated November 12, 1890. The 
Bethany Heights Street Railway Company was incorporated June 3, 1889, and 
the papers were signed by J. Z. Briscoe, Charles Hammond, E. T. Gadd, C. T. 
Boggs, A. Eddy, W. W. Holmes, C. C. Munson, John H. Ames, Thomas H. 
Hyde, A. S. Raymond, C. R. Van Duyn, W. S. Mills, Porter Hedge and H. C. 
Eddy. The line was built to connect the Lincoln Company's line at V and Thirty- 
third streets with the Christian LIniversity. At this time there were thirty-one 
miles of street car track in the city, with five companies doing business. 

The North Lincoln Street Railway was incorporated March 6, 1889, and on 
October 14, 1890. opened their line for business. On November 20th the records 
show the incorporation of the Lincoln and West Lincoln Terminal Railway Com- 
pany. On November 24th the Lincoln and Lake Park Railway Company was 
started with George E. r)igelow, J. H. AIcMurtry, K. K. Hayden, M. J. Bush, 
W. B. Comstock, G. A. Bush and D. L. Brace as the incorporators. 

The Lincoln Street Railway Company was organized by J. D. McFarland, 
J. W. Deweese, C. J. Ernst, T. E. Calvert and Henry Lee. The I^incoln Electric 
Railway Company was organized by C. A. Clark, Joseph Sampson, J. D. Mc- 
Farland, J. W. Deweese, C. J. Ernst, John C. French and W. Little. These two 
roads were consolidated June 15, 1891, and the articles of incorporation of the 
consolidated companies filed July 13th. The new organization was known as the 
Lincoln Street Railway Company. Other articles of incorporation record that 
a Lincoln Electric Railway Company was started July 11, 1891, and the incor- 
porators were A. C. Ziemer, A. C. Ricketts, E. H. Andrus, Thomas Ryan, John K. 
Barr, John S. Reed. On February 16, 1892, the Lincoln City Electric Railway 
was ordered sold and on July 12th, same year, it was disposed of at sheriff's sale 
for $51,500. 

In January, 1892, the Lincoln Street Railway Company and the Lincoln 
Rapid Transit Company consolidated. On January 4, 1895, the Lincoln Street 
Railway was placed in the hands of a receiver and on December 17, 1897, was 
auctioned and sold for $60,500. 

On July 31, 1903, Governor Mickey drove the silver spike which marked the 
completion of the new track to the State University Farm. 

On August 12, 1903, the Lincoln Heights Street Railway Company was 
incorporated by I. L. Lyman, R. J. Gaddis, C. M. Bailey, and Laura H. Weld. 


On March 21, 1904, the council granted a franchise to the Omaha. Lincohi and 
Beatrice Raihvay Company. 

With the beginning of the year 1905 tliere started a movement for a new 
street car company, which was to culminate several years later in the present effi- 
cient system of electric street railways in the City of I^incoln. On January 6lh 
of this year a preliminary meeting was held to consider the question and on the 
7th over fifty active business men of Lincoln organized the Citizens' Street Rail- 
way Company, incorporating on February 23, 1905. The articles of incorporation 
were signed by Alex Berger, W. E. Sharp, C. J- Bills, R. E. Aloore, J- ^L Hayes, 
H. O. Barber, L M. Raymond, and L. P. Funkhouser. On February i3lh the 
new company had an ordinance introduced asking for a franchise to the Lincoln 
City streets. A franchise was granted them. In April, 1906, the Lincoln Traction 
Company secured an injunction against the Citizens' Company in the Federal 
Court at Omaha to prevent the new concern from laying tracks in Lincoln. This 
litigation was unsuccessful and by the summer of 1906 the Citizens' Company had 
the Eighteenth Street line completed. During the next year they built a line east 
on N Street to Twenty-ninth and to Wyuka by way of S Street. They also built 
north on Twenty-fifth to Holdrege ; west on Holdrege to the fair grounds, east 
on \'ine to Thirtv-third ; south on Twelfth to South Street: and east to Nine- 
teenth. The next year a line was started to College \'iew and finished, and the 
road to University Place and Havelock begun. 

The officials of the Lincoln Traction Company realized that the new Citizens' 
Company meant business and after endeavoring to discover some loophole through 
which to pierce the enemy entered into negotiations with the intent of consoli- 
dating. This agreement was made a real fact on February 15, 1909, when the 
two companies got together and merged, much to the benefit of the city and the 
people. The articles of agreement were filed the same day with the county clerk. 

This settlement of the traction troubles in the city resulted in an immediate 
prosperity and the resultant improvement of the street car service. Lines to all 
suburban points are now operated, the Highland Line to College Mew having been 
opened on March 5, 1912. The latest type of car is used by the company, which 
is the side-door, pay-as-you-enter style, heavy type. Quick service is given upon 
all of the lines. The new Traction Terminal Building which is being erected on 
the corner of Tenth and O streets is a great improvement to the business section 
of Lincoln and testifies well of the prosperity of this public utility. 


The city waterworks was begun in 1882 and consisted for seven years of a 
single well. This well was located in the park bounded by D and F, Eighth and 
Sixth streets. The supply from this well was about one million gallons per day. 
An attempt was made in 1887 to increase the supply by sinking a pipe in the 
center of the well, but after this had been done the water became salty in taste. 
The same year Joseph Burns was employed to construct a system of driven wells 
in Sixth Street, and connect them with the pumping station. jMost of these pro- 
duced salt water within a very few days. Finally it was decided to establish a 
well near N and the channel of the Antelope. This well was completed in July 
of 1889 and was very satisfactory. Water was sent for the first time through 


the waterworks' pipe on April 28, 1885. This was the beginning of the present 
efficient waterworks system of Lincoln. The water that is now supplied to the 
people is sterilized and has never been the cause of an epidemic. 

On June 3, 1872, the excavation was begun for the Lincoln Gas Works, and 
on December 14th of the same year gas was used for the first time by the people 
of Lincoln. The crude oil method of making the gas was used at that time, but 
in 1877, in February, this method was abandoned and coal used instead of the 
crude oil. On April 14, 1884, the Lincoln Electric Light Company was incor- 
porated. Gas lamps for street lighting were installed in December, 1886. The 
privately owned concerns manufacturing the lights -for the city were not exactly 
to the voters' taste and accordingly the council, on February 15, 1904, passed an 
ordinance to submit the question of municipal lighting to the voters. The election 
was held on April 5, 1904, and the vote was in favor of a municipally owned 
electric light plant. On August 22d the council, by a vote of eight to five, located 
the new municipal lighting plant at the Mockett or A Street well. On November 
12, 1906, the Lincoln council passed a dollar gas ordinance, but on December 
27th the Lincoln Gas and Electric Company secured a restraining order in the 
Federal Court at Omaha to prevent the city from enforcing the dollar gas rate 
ordinance and the 3 per cent gross earnings tax measure. The matter held fire 
until February 10, 1908, when the company made a compromise offer to the city 
in regard to the dollar gas. The terms were not acceptable to the council and 
on March 2d the council decided to contest the franchise of the Lincoln Gas and 
Electric Company. However, Mayor Brown vetoed the ordinance directing the 
suit against the company. The matter switched back and forth for years, nothing 
done to compel the company to grant the needed decrease in rates. Not until 
the summer of 1915 was the contest brought to a close and the city was success- 
ful. The people are now able to get gas and electricity at a price approaching that 
of other well regulated commonwealths. The Lincoln Traction Company also 
supplied electricity to consumers in the city. 

The I^incoln Heat, Light and Power Company was incorporated July i, 1902, 
by John li. Humpe, Paul F. Clark, W. H. Dorgan, Charles S. Allen and C. H. 
Morrill. The Citizens' Gas and Power Company was incorporated June 6, 1908, 
by A. L. Johnson, E. S. Kirtland. W. A. Taylor, G. \V. Isham, Charles G. Ander- 
son and W. A. Taylor. 


On November 22, 1879, the Lincoln Telephone Exchange was organized with 
a capital stock of $10,000. On June 11, 1882, the first successful telephone con- 
nection was made between Lincoln and the City of Omaha. By 1889 615 instru- 
ments were in use in Lincoln and good connection was had with fifty-seven towns 
in Nebraska and sixty-six towns in Iowa. Each year the company grew and more 
people used 'phones, until in 1900 the city apparently was ready to admit a com- 
peting company. The Western Independent Long Distance Telephone Company 
of Plattsmouth made application to enter Lincoln, construct their lines and, in 
fact, do business here, and on May 28th, 1900, the city council passed an ordinance 
to permit them to do so. However, on June 2d Mayor Winnett vetoed the ordi- 
nance as passed by the council. On March 9, the same year, the city granted a 


franchise to the Western Union Independent Telephone Company. On March 
26, 1903, the Lincohi Telephone made connections with the Fairbury and Platts- 
mouth corporations. It was in this year that the Lincoln Telephone Company 
began to install the automatic telephone system in the city. On September 2, 1905, 
the Lincoln company made contracts with the independent companies in Lan- 
caster and Gage covmties, a business agreement to forestall collisions. On January 
2, 1909, the Lincoln Telephone was reorganized and incorporated as the Lincoln 
Telephone and Telegraph Company; the capital stock of the new corporation thus 
formed was $2,000,000. On January 22, 1912, the company was merged with 
the Bell Telephone Company. 


The first line of the B. & M. Telegraph Company was completed to Lincoln 
on Sunday evening, June 5, 1870, and the first message was sent by the Nebraska 
State Journal to Omaha and Plattsmouth newspapers. A man was sent from 
Omaha by stage to take charge of the new office at Lincoln. R. H. Oakley, of 
the firm of Oakley & Owen, was the only resident of Lincoln who understood 
telegraphy and he had the honor of sending the first message. The new man from 
Omaha emerged the morning after his arrival in a drunken condition, conse- 
quently lost his job. Oakley was persuaded to take charge of the office until 
another man could be secured. The telegraph line had been rushed through fifty 
days before the railroad owing to the fact that a public sale of lots was to begin 
on the following Wednesday in the Capital City. The office of the company was 
installed in the old Scoggin row. There was one continuous wire from Platts- 
mouth to Lincoln, the only station between being that of Ashland, Saunders 

As the B. & M. Railroad was extended through the state the telegraph kept 
pace with it and in October, 1871, there were 128 miles of line in operation, from 
Plattsmouth to a point on Blue River near where Sutton is now located, then 
called School Creek. There were ten offices. By the close of 1871 there were 
iqi miles of lines. In the year 1883 the business was merged with that of the 
Western LTnion Telegraph Company, which company now operates in Lincoln, 
giving this city connection with the entire world. 

The Pacific Mutual, later the Postal Telegraph Cable Company, was started 
in Lincoln in 1885 and still remains. 


\\'hen the City of Lincoln was settled and started upon its life the express 
business of this part of the country was under the control of the Wells-Fargo 
Express Company, with headquarters at San Erancisco. The company established 
an office in Lincoln in the early part of 1868, with Austin Humphrey as agent. 
He conducted the business in one corner of the Humphrey Brothers' Hardware 
Store, in the old frame building which stood on the northwest corner of Ninth and 
O streets. A few years later, the business having grown to a large extent, W. H. 
Wallace was sent here to establish a regular office, which he did on Ninth Street, 
between O and P. A wagon was added to the outfit and a clerk, in the person of 


Morris Turner. In the summer of 1875 the Union Pacific Railroad Company 
decided to handle the express business connected with its line. This reason, 
along with others such as the grasshoppers and distance from the main office, 
caused the Wells-Fargo to withdraw from Lincoln on July i, 1875. Immediately 
business was begun by the accredited Union Pacific Express Company on the 
Union Pacific Railroad. The American Express Company, then operating on the 

C. B. & O., took the B. & J\I. ; the United States Express Company, operating 
on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and Kansas City & Council Blufl:"s, took 
the Midland Pacific from Brownville to Seward and the A. & N. from Atchison 
to Lincoln. The American Company took the office and fixtures, with the agent, 
of the Wells-Fargo Company and the United States Company occupied a frame 
building on Tenth Street, back of the First National Bank, with Doctor McKay 
as agent. This was in a frame building which had formerly stood on the corner 
and opened as a grocery by Ihomas Sewell. In November, 1875, J. S. Atwood 
having extended the Union Block on O Street to the alley between Tenth and 
Eleventh, the American Express moved its offices to the room next the alley, the 
agent living in rooms above. In 1880 the L'nited States Company, after a con- 
test with other companies, and the Union Pacific being completed to Lincoln, 
retired from the field west of Omaha. Early in 1S86 the Missouri Pacific came 
to Lincoln with the Pacific Express Company. In the fall of the same year the 
Elkhorn Line came m with the \\'ells-I''argo in connection with the American 


Very shortly after the location of the City of Lincoln the citizens were given 
the protection of a police force, small it is true, but sufficiently able to attend to 
the needs of the comnuniity. The city council records of May 6, 1871, state that 

D. A. Sherwood's room was rented for one quarter at $15 per month for use as 
a jail. C. H. Street and R. E. Moore were police judges, and A. E. Hastings was 
marshal. F. E. Smith was appointed assistant marshal, and M. Donley, W. Wil- 
cox, and Charles Keith, policemen. Keith had charge of the B. & M. Depot. 
On May 20th the marshal was authorized to take supervision of all trains going 
to Nebraska Citv. Lentil the trouble arose between a Lincoln police judge and 
the city council, which resulted in the jailing of the latter and the subsequent hear- 
ing of the case before the United States Supreme Court, many instances of dis- 
honesty had occurred in the force. In many respects, the better class of citizens 
of Lincoln had a great deal to contend with on account of the lawless class of men 
who infested this state, as they do every border or frontier. The character of the 
department was literally ''cleansed with fire" and since has maintained a reputa- 
tion for efficiency and strength. 


The first volunteer fire company was organized in 1875, ^'""i '^^'''■^ named the 
Phoenix Hook and Ladder Company. Prior to this, 1872, the city had felt the 
need of better fire protection and the council, on March 2, 1872, ordered a sale 
of lots in a certain part of Lincoln in order to raise the sum of $1,000. The site 


was to be used for an engine house and the money to purchase a Silsby Steam 
Fire Engine. This engine was bought and named the W. F. Chapin, the latter 
being mayor of the city at that time. Two hose carts and i,ooo feet of rubber 
hose were purchased at the same time and Steam Fire Engine Company No. i 
was organized, S. S. Hull being elected engineer. The company had a roster of 
fifty men. In 1880 the department was again increased and a second Silsby 
steamer was purchased. No changes were made until 1882 when the hose com- 
pany was disbanded, the hook and ladder company having disbanded in 1879. 
Two new hose companies were organized, known as the Merchants Hose Com- 
pany No. I and the Fitzgerald Hose Company No. 2. The Fitzgerald team won 
national reputation, competing with all comers at New Orleans in 1886. On [anu- 
ary 4, 1 880, the department was reorganized and five full-paid men appointed and 
a two-horse, four-wheel hose carriage purchased and put into service. In Janu- 
ary, 1887, the Merchants' and the Fitzgerald Hose companies were disbanded, 
thus ending the life of the volunteer fire department system in Lincoln. In fanu- 
ary, 1887, the department was reorganized again and placed upon a solid financial 

Smce this time, following the gradual growth of the city the fire department 
has been equipped with the latest appliances for their work. Even yet it is the 
general opinion that the department is woefully short on modern machines, espe- 
cially so within the last few years, during the course of which tall buildings and 
greater area has come to the city. The main engine house is located at Tenth 
and O streets, where the motor ladder truck, hose wagon and steam engine is 
kept. Ih-anch stations are now located at the following places: hook and ladder 
company, No. i, Tenth and O; hose company. No. i, Tenth and O: engine com- 
pany. No. 2, 2300 O ; hook and ladder company. No. 2, 2300 O ; hook and ladder 
company, No. 3, 1225 F; hose company No. 3, 1225 F; hose company No. 4, 844 
North Twenty-seventh. 


—1915— —1914— —1913— —1912— 

Lincoln bank clearings $ 119,043,782 $ 109,267,345 $ 99,824,041 $89,301,224 

Lincoln bank deposits $ 12,242,884 $ 10,968,407 $ 11,088,111 $10,187,102 

Bank loans and discounts $ 9,636,697 $ 8,626,577 $ 8,584,438 $8,206,553 

Suburban bank deposits $ 752,116 $ 542,528 

Postoffice gross receipts $ 465.328 $ 451,691 $ 403,390 $ 381,704 

Postoffice stamp sales $ 384,851 $ 383,575 $ 342,382 $ 318.001 

Postal money orders $ 3,834,193 $ 3,485,633 $ 3,472,390 $3,770,663 

Money order transactions : 321,951 314,822 295,676 

Postal bank deposits $ 22,617 $ 23,906 $ 55,000 $ 20,724 

Parcel post packages handled.. 68,627 46,364 24,661 

Postal cancellations 15,296,000 15,141,000 13,957.900 

City taxes collected $ 390.199 $ 390,905 $ 375.403 $ 362,364 

City bonded debt $ 1.646,799 $ 1,502,711 $ 1,370,900 $1,004,500 

Total city construction $ 396,866 $ 387,447 $ 421,207 $ 334.998 

City water pumped (gallons).. 1,129,419,472 1.300,200,000 1,138.570,000 

Water department collections. .$ 155,960 $ 144,690 $ 141.037 $ 108,307 

Miles new water mains 5.52 4.02 S 4.34 

Cost new water mains $ 19.216 $ 17,000 $ 25.152 $ 27,587 

Streets paved ( feet ) 24.201 39.242 39,389 23,760 

Cost of paving $ 200,897 $ 299.566 $ 302.383 $ 208.603 

Feet of sanitary sewers 37,807 6,154 15,322 6,124 




Cost of sanitary sewers $ 22.949 

Storm sewers (feet) 7,524 

Cost of storm sewers $ 53,319 

Miles of sidewalk laid 11.31 

Cost of sidewalks $ 32,859 

School taxes collected $ 459,716 

Lincoln fire loss $ 185,208 

Births in city 1,163 

Deaths in city 603 

Received by county treasurer.. $ 1,344,473 

Balance in county treasury ... .$ 333,970 

Real estate transfers $ 6,569,958 

Mortgages filed $ 4,782,196 

Mortgages released $ 3,421,626 

Cash received by district clerk. .$ 121,807 

Cash paid out by district clerk. .$ 118,833 

Marriage licenses 995 

Divorces 213 

Lincoln building permits issued.. 562 

Lincoln buildings, cost $ 1,700,000 

Suburban buildings $ 278,500 

♦City, public and suburban bldgs.$ 2,484.500 

Commercial club membership.. 1,504 

City Y. M. C. A. members 1.375 

City Y. W. C. A. members 2.060 

State fair attendance 180.713 

State university students 4,625 

High school attendance 1,250 

Grade school attendance 7,644 

Nebraska Wesleyan enrollment. 624 

Union College enrollment 327 

Cotner University enrollment.. 300 



















































$ 1,023,949 











$ 7,707,497 





$ 4,437,782 





$ 3,295,102 


























$ 1,185,135 








































♦Estimated as to public buildings. 


On April 7, 1868, after reading a petition signed by a majority of the citizens 
of Lincoln, the board of county commissioners ordered "that the Town of Lin- 
coln be declared a body corporate and that the powers and privileges be granted 
them, as by the statute in such cases made and provided." The following men 
were appointed trustees of the new corporation: L. A. Scoggins, B. F. Cozad, 
Doctor Potter, W. W. Carder and A. L. Palmer. The first election was held 
May 18, 1868, at which time sixty votes were cast. H. S. Jennings, S. B. Lin- 
derman, H. D. Gilbert, J. J. Van Dyke and D. W. Tingley were elected trustees. 
This first organization of the town was not effective; at least, it was not main- 

In the next year a petition of incorporation was circulated and was signed by 
189 of the qualified voters of the town. This was presented to the commis- 
sioners and the latter body, on April 7, 1869, incorporated Lincoln for the second 
time. The corporate limits were made to include section 26, the west half of 
section 25, the southwest quarter of section 24, and the south half of section 23, 
in town 10 north, range 6 east. H. S. Jennings, S. B. Linderman, H. D. Gil- 
bert, J. L. McConnell and D. W. Tingley were named as trustees and Seth Robin- 
son, A. T. Cropsey and J. N. Townley were appointed judges of election. 

The first election under this latter organization was held May 3, 1869. The 
following were elected trustees: H. D. Gilbert, C. H. Gere, William Rowe, 
Philetus Peck and J. L. McConnell. The board chose H. D. Gilbert, chairman ; 
J. R. DeLand, clerk ; and Nelson C. Brock, treasurer. 

In 1870 the town trustees elected were: C. N. Baird, D. S. Smith, D. A. Sher- 
wood, C. H. Gere and H. J. Walsh. C. H'. Gere was named as chairman of the 
board, R. O. Phillips was chosen clerk, and N. C. Brock retained the office of 


On IMarch 18, 1871, the town was organized as a city of the second class, 
under a charter. The first election occurred on April 3, 1871, and the following 
officers were chosen : W. F. Chapin, mayor ; C. H. Street and R. E. Moore, police 
judges; A. E. Hastings, marshal; T. F. L. Catlin, clerk; G. W. Ballentine, treas- 
urer; L. A. Scoggin, C. C. Burr, D. A. Sherwood, J. M. Creamer, J. J. Gosper, 
J. L. McConnell, councilmen ; and T. T. Murphy, city engineer. 




The result of the elections, that is, the regular city elections, from this time 
until the year 191 5, with the names of the candidates and the vote received by 
each, is given in the following paragraphs : 

Election of April, 1S72. Eor the office of mayor: E. E. Brown received 705 
votes ; scattering, 6. For treasurer : W. A. Coleman received 444 votes, and 
J. N. Eckman, 307. For marshal : John McManigal, 399 votes ; \V. J. Cooper, 345. 
For clerk: T. L. CatUn received 706 votes; scattering, 5. For police judge: R. E. 
Moore, 373; A. J. Dewey, 369. For cemetery tmstee : J. C. Stire, 682; D. A. 
Sherwood, 376. Councilmen, first ward: J. R. Fairbanks, 119; A. M. McCandliss, 
76. Second ward: William ]\IcLaughlin, 142; J. jNI. Creamer, 121. Third ward: 
S. G. Owens, 251. "■•< 

Election of April i, 1873. f^oi" niayor : R. D. Silver, 525; W. T. Chapin, 405. 
For police judge: L. A. GrofT. 533; A. M. McCandHss, 358. For marshal: 
B. Ringer, 511; John :\IcManigal, 423. For clerk: R. P. Beecher, 402; R. N. 
Vedder, 530. For treasurer: W. A. Coleman, 480, W. A. Sharrar, 459. For 
engineer : W. T. Hull, 417 : T. J. Atwood, 475 ; J. M. Bradford, 7. For cemetery 
trustee: L Putnam, 518. For councilmen, first ward: L. A. Scoggin, 159; D. W. 
Scott, 98. Second ward: J. M. Creamer, 166; T. P. Quick, 184. Third ward: 
N. S. Scott, 220; J. Oppenheimer, 82. R. N. \'edder resigned the position of 
clerk in September and E. P. Roggen was appointed to fill the vacancy. G. B. 
Skinner was made street commissioner and fire warden and T. P. Quick chief 
engineer of the fire department. S. \V. Robinson was the city physician. 

Election of April 11, 1874. For mayor: L. W. Little, 496; R. D. Silver, 472. 
For clerk: Edward P. Roggen, 548; Charles A. Hasbrouck, 413. For treasurer: 
William A. Sharrar, 565 ; Max Rich, 405. For marshal : Brad Ringer, 486 ; 
P. H. Cooper, 486: the latter received the office. For police judge: J. N. Fox- 
worthy, 500; C. M. Parker, 448. For engineer: A. Roberts, 509; Thomas 
Atwood, 448. For cemetery trustee: J. J. Turner, 503; S. W. Robinson, 464. 
For councilmen, first ward: John Eaton, 135 ; M. J. Bohanan, 123. Second ward : 
William McLaughlin, 191; D. B. Alexander, 157. Third ward: W. P. Phillips, 
207 : W. T. Donovan, 149. 

Election of April 6, 1875. For mayor: Amasa Cobb, 600; N. C. Brock, 392. 
For clerk: Robert W. Charters, 529; Charles T. Boggs, 446. For treasurer: 
B. F. Fisher, 659; J. C. Ford, 344. For marshal: P. H. Cooper, 543 ; C. E. Cox, 
451. For police judge: R. W. Taylor. 510; L. C. Burr, 472. For engineer: 
Artemas Roberts, 520 ; Thomas Atwood, 466. For cemetery trustee : P. Peck, 
507: W. T. Donovan, 491. For members of the city council, first ward: J. C. 
Scdwith, 155: J. R. Fairbanks, 154: M. C. Smith, 121, S. P. Lindley, 102. Second 
ward: T^rcd \\'. Krone, 22S ; P. J. Grant, 85. Third ward: O. Kingman, 200; 
H. O. Griggs, 156. 

Flection of April 4, 1876. For mayor: R. D. Silver, 571 ; J. \\'. Hartley. 464. 
For clerk: R. W. Charters, 450; George V. Kent, 560: J. H. Hebard, 11 ; R. N. 
\'edder, i. For marshal : P. TI. Cooper, 341 ; Charles E. Cox, 497. For treasurer: 
George W. Pallentine, 443: James McConnell, 595. For police judge: R. W. 
Taylor, 4S2 : John McLean, 559. For engineer: James P. Walton, 1,033. ''"or 
cemetery trustee: .Austin Humphrey, 459: Israel Putnam, 582. For cnuncilmcn. 


first ward: J. K. Fairbank, loi ; John Alontcith, 193. Second ward, L. W. IJill- 
ingsley, 250; C. B. Beach, 107. Third ward: C. AL Leighton. 260: E. A. Morgan, 
231 ; R. J. WilHams, 117; J. D. Monell, 138. 

Election of April 3, 1877. For mayor: J. .\I. Burks, 519; 11. W. Hardy. (>17; 
George V. Forbes, i. F"or clerk: H. P. F'inigan, 384; R. C. Manley, 710; Abner 
Rush, 38, --George \'. Kent, 3. For treasurer: A. H. Waitt, 4S2 ; James Mc- 
Connell, 635; J. X. T. Jones, 8; Paren England, i. For marshal: Samuel Mc- 
Cord, 493; Thomas Carr. 566; T. N. Shepherd, 63; M. Graham, i ; L. J. Byer, 2. 
For police judge: R. W. 'J'aylor, 455; J. S. Dales, 628; J. L. Brown, 41. For 
engineer: E. J. Cartlege, 485: J. P. Walton, 649. For cemetery trustee: W. T. 
Donovan, 429; J. J. Turner, 675; D. Kinney, 28. For councilmen, first ward: 
James Ledwith. 179; D. A. Gilbert, 159; L. A. Scoggin, 6. Second ward: Rufus 
Yard, 191; William McLaughlin, 189. Third ward: J. K. Honeywell, 205; R. J. 
\\'illiams. 131 ; E. A. Morgan, i. 

Election of April 2, 1878. For mayor: H. W. Hardy, 442; John H. Ames, 
408; Rufus Yard, 383. For police judge: J. Stuart Dales. 599; J. H. Foxworthy, 
319; L. C. Pace, 309. I'or treasurer, James McConnell, 543, Fred Smith, 297; 
S. C. Elliott, 389. l'"or clerk: W. F. Jacobs, 622; J. Dan Lauer, 323; C. H. 
Tanner, 273; J. L. McConnell, i. For marshal: Thomas Carr, 548; P. H. Cooper, 
2iS; G. B. Skinner, 456. For cemetery trustee: A. M. Davis, 568; W'. T. 
Donovan, 294; J. J. Turner, 363. For engineer: J. P. Walton, 572; J. J. Butler, 
289; X. S. Scott, 359. For councilmen, first ward: S. S. Ronce, 99; J. PL Dailey, 
172: J. M. Burks, III. Second ward: H. P. Lau. 187; R. P. R. Millar. 203. 
Third ward: Jerry Ford, 187; Austin Humphrey, 189; D. Baum, 60. 

Election of April i, 1879. For mayor: S. B. Galey, 886: Rufus Yard, 478. 
For clerk: Myron Nelson, 806; R. W. Jacobs, 551. For treasurer: D. B. Cropsey, 
871 : A. M. Davis, 490. For marshal: L Lyman, 764; G. B. Skinner, 596. For 
engineer: E. J. Cartlege, 841; J. P. Walton, 517. For cemetery trustee: Israel 
Putnam, 887 ; L. M. Rhodes, 468. For councilmen, first ward : Ed .\. Church, 
165 ; D. A. Gilbert, 84 ; James Ledwith, 173. Second ward : John B. Wright, 302 ; 
J. E. Farmer, 118. Third ward: J. K. Honeywell, 286; L. W. Little, 217; 
W. H. B. Stout, I. 

Election of April 6, 1880. For mayor: John B. Wright. 798; L. W. Little, 
317: R. D. Silver. I. For police judge: J. S. Dales, 801 : J. H. I-'oxworthy, 308. 
F'or treasurer: D. B. Cropsey. 1,115. For clerk: R. C. Alanley, 836: J. B. Daw- 
son, 279. For cemetery trustee: J. J. Turner, 844; Joe Hodges, i. For engineer: 
J. P. Walton, 1,103: X. S. Scott, 2. For councilmen. first ward: Joseph Hunter, 
260: R. Grimes, 270; James Ledwith, 70; C. C. Munson, 67. Second ward: 
F. W. Krone, 275 : J. L. Caldwell, 274 : \'. E. Farmer, 87 ; P. J. Mosier, 83. Third 
ward: H. J. ^^^^lsh. 293: John Doolittle, 304; O. N. Humphrey, 105: F. E. 
Newton, 108. 

Election of April 5, 1881. For mayor: John B. Wright, 834: O. P. Mason, 
543. For clerk: R. C. Alanley, 1,397. For treasurer: A. C. Cass, 946; C. J. 
Ernst, 446; W. W. English, i. For engineer: N. S. Scott, 1,400. For cemetery 
trustee: L. J. Byer, 1.389: A. M. Davis (vacancy), 1,399; E. Lawson, i : Fuller, 
I. l"or councilmen. first ward: C. C. Alunson, 362; L. Bumwood, 46; James 
Ledwith. X. C. Brock and S. B. Linderman, each one vote. Second ward: S. B. 
Linderman, 459; Jacob North, i. Third ward: J. H. Harley, 498; D. A. Gil- 


bert, 4. The question of voting the Lincohi City Street Railway Company the 
right of way over north and south streets from Seventh to Seventeenth and on 
east and west streets from A to R was carried by 841 votes to 405. 

Election of April 4, 1882. For mayor: John Doolittle, 1,030; J. W. Winger, 
875. For clerk: R. C. Manley, 1,899; Charles Hovey, i. For treasurer: A. C. 
Cass, 1,896; Ed Keifer, i; W. W. English, i. For police judge: B. F. Cobb, 
985; M. Montgomery, 911; C. H. Hohman, i ; J. C. Johnston, i ; J. S. Dales i. 
For engineer: J. P. Walton, 1,067 • ^'- S- Scott, 835. For cemetery trustee: A. M. 
Davis, 1,888; H. F. Downs, 8; James Aldred, i. For councilmen, first ward: 
H. Shaberg, 317; R. Grimes, 311. Second ward: Fred Krone, 350; M. L. Easter- 
day, 196. Third ward: C. L. Baum, 371 ; W. J. Cooper, 324. 

Election of April 3, 1883. For mayor: R. E. Moore, 986; A. J. Sawyer, 718; 
John B. Wright, i. For clerk: R. C. ]\L-inley, i,t8i ; E. A. Cooley, 518. For 
treasurer: John T. Jones, 1,104; E'i Cagney, 598. For cemetery trustee: Lewis 
Gregory, 1,167; H. M. Harris, 519. For councilmen, first ward: W. C. Lane, 
305 ; George F. Bowers, 234. Second ward : S. B. Linderman, 290 ; J. D. Calhoun, 
124. Third ward: Charles West, 258; M. R. Davey, 190. Fourth w^ard: W. J. 
Cooper, 205; J. H. Harley, 181 ; P. H. Cooper, 119; H. S. Gordon, 44. 

Election of April i, 1884. For police judge : B. F. Cobb, 751 ; M. Montgomery, 
799. For cemetery trustee: H. J. Walsh, 876. For councilmen, first ward: N. C. 
Brock, 249; O P. Dinges, 67. Second ward: H. P. Lau, 258; J. Helmkamp, 97. 
Third ward: J. W. Winger, 269; L. J. Byer, 259. Fourth ward: J. R. Webster, 
183; H. W. Hardy, 143; J. A. Tomson, 45. 

Election of April 7, 1885. For mayor: C. C. Burr, 1,115; John Fitzgerald, 
1,085; H. W. Hardy, 247. For clerk: R. C. Manley, 1,333: C."j. Heffley, 870; 
H. C. Bittenbender, 192; C. W. Heftley, 3. For treasurer: John T. Jones, 1,402; 
H. S. Gordon, 860; H. C. Bittenbender, t^S:: J. N. Dowden, i. For cemetery 
trustee: A. AL Davis, 1,563; J. M. Burks, 878. For councilmen, first ward: James 
Dailey, 359; H. P. Naill, 218; O. P. Dinges, 37. Second ward: L. W. Billingsley, 
305; J. D. Calhoun, 193; V. E. Farmer, 50; Jacob North, i. Third ward: A. E. 
Hargreaves (long term), 395; H. H. Dean (short term), 348; J. J. Butler (long 
term), iSi ; James Ledwith (short term), 193; D. B. Howard (long term), 120; 
C. G. Bullock (short term), 107; C. West (long term), i. Fourth ward: W. J. 
Cooper, 322 ; C. C. !Munson, 204. Upon the question of granting right of way to 
Lincoln Street Railway Company and permission to "construct, maintain and 
operate a street railway with suitable turnouts, connections and turntables in 
the City of Lincoln over and across, in and along" the streets north and south 
from First to Twenty-seventh and east and west from A to W, also Washington, 
Wood, Pine, Rose, Peach, Plum and South streets, Grand Avenue and Uni- 
versity Place, the vote was in favor of the franchise by 2,217 to 19. 

This election of 1885 had an unpleasant aftermath. The votes were counted 
on the 9th of April and on the evening of the loth the council met to consider a 
notice of protest by John Fitzgerald who had received 1,085 votes for the oflice 
of mayor to C. C. Burr's 1,115 ^"^ H. W. Hardy's 247. The attorneys for 
Fitzgerald were ^^"hedon, Sawyer & Snell and they objected to the jurisdiction 
of the council to hear and determine the contest. On motion of Billingsley and 
Webster the objection was sustained and the mayor and clerk were ordered to 
issue certificates to candidates having a majority on the face of the returns. 


Attorney Wliedon gave notice that he would apply to the supreme court for a 
perpetual injunction to restrain those officers from issuing the certificate, but the 
matter was dropped and nothing more done. 

Election of April 6, 1886. For councilmen, first ward: N. C. Brock, 349; 
J. H. Miller, 161. Second ward: John Fraas, 422; J. IL Naden, 223. Third 
ward: H. H. Dean, 453; C. G. Bullock, 196; E. M. Wheeler, 193. Fourth ward: 
R. B. Graham, 308; C. C. Munson, 234; A. Humphrey, 119. For police judge: 

A. L. Parsons, 1,160; M. Montgomery, 789; H. E. George, 631; L. Eaton, 87; 
C. G. Bullock, I. For cemetery trustee: Lewis Gregory, 1,724; W. L. Wilcox, 381. 

Election of April 5, 1887. For mayor: E. P. Roggen, 1,478; A. J. Sawyer, 
2,013; A- J- Cropsey, 428. For clerk: R. C. Manley, 2,690; C. H. Hohman, 696; 
J. A. Rollins, 508. For treasurer: J. T. Jones, 1,619; L. B. Truman, 1,067; 
J. L. Hopkins, 683; E. M. Lewis, 502; J. J. Imhoff, 2 ; J. J. Butler, 8. For 
cemetery trustee, L. J. Byer, 1,470; E. P. Child, 682; W. O. Fletcher. 1,239; 
W. E. Johnson, 594. For councilmen, first ward: B. Dolan, ij"] ; J. H. Dailey, 
382; O. P. Dinges, 126. Second ward: L. W. Billingsley, 285; A. H. Dorris, 230; 
F. G. Bohanan, 31; J. C. Saulsbrun. i. Third ward: A. E. Hargreaves, 247; 
J. M. Burks, 412; James Ledwith, 192. Fourth ward: W. J. Cooper, 475; 
W. FL Prescott, 183 ; J. J. Butler, 108. Fifth ward : Granville Ensign (long term ) , 
190; Ed Bignall (short term), 217; J. Z. Briscoe (short term), 268: S. D. Hyde 
(long term), 144; J. A. Buckstai¥ (short term), 186; Eugene Woerner (long 
term), 168; Robert Ryan (long term), 145. Sixth ward: F. A. Hovey, 113; 

B. Ringer, 40; IX. L. Trester, 81 ; Charles Poison, 3 ; D. L. Brace, i ; L. C. Pace, 
3 ; E. P. Holmes, i ; one year. L. C. Pace, 109 ; D. L. Brace, 58 ; E. P. Holmes, 
76 ; L. F. ^L Easterday, 2 ; F. A. Hovey, i ; two years. The proposition to give 
the right of way to the Rapid Transit Railway Company was carried by a vote of 
2,571 to 43. The board of education was authorized by a vote of 2,708 to 11 
to expend $5,000.00 in the erection of school buildings in the year. 

Election of April 3, 1888. For police judge: W. J. Houston, 2,249; H. J. 
Whitmore, 1,814. For cemetery trustee: A. M. Davis, 2,530; C. G. Bullock, 1,057. 
For councilmen, first ward: A. Halter, 450; Thomas Helan, 324; Woolsey 
Weyant, 119; Thomas Manley, 2. Second ward: John Fraas, 262; J. B. John- 
son, 116. Third ward: H. H. Dean, 446; E. Kearne, 347. Fourth ward: R. B. 
Graham, 436; A. C. Ricketts, 227; John McManigal, 134. Fifth ward: Louie 
Meyer, 422: S. D. Hyde, 323. Sixth ward: H. AL Rice, 249; Edmund Erb, 150. 
The mayor and council were authorized by a vote of 2,424 to 55 to use an 
amount not exceeding $100,000.00 in paving, repairing and macadamizing inter- 
sections of streets and spaces opposite alleys and to levy a tax to pay the interest 
and principal of the bonds. By a vote of 2,186 to 57 bonds for $10,000.00 were 
authorized for constructing extensions to the water works. 

Election of April 2, 1889. For mayor: R. B. Graham, 2,996; George B. 
Skinner, 932; George A. Fox, 739. For treasurer: Elmer B. Stephenson, 2,537; 
Elias Baker, 1,236; C. D. Hagerman, 952. For clerk: D. C. Van Duyn, 2.785;' 
S. J. Kent, 1,210; Flarry Schaeffer, 724. For members excise board: C. T. 
Daubach, 366; John Doolittle, 350; A. C. Ricketts, 100; C. C. Munson, no; 
H. S. Gordon. 59; J. Z. Briscoe. 75. For cemetery trustee: A. G. Hastings. 359; 
J. H. Strawbridge, 100; M. G. Bohanan, 53. For councilmen, first ward: P. Hay- 
den. 363; Thomas Heelan, 305; W. R. Williams, 242; R. A. Hawley, 43. Second 


ward: John L. Doty. 206: J. C. Salsbury, 295 ; J. K. Robinson. 61 ; J. H. Nichols, 
35. Third ward: Joseph Burns, 310: WiUiam McLaughlin, 337: R. W. Max- 
well, 279. Fourth ward : F. A. Boehmer, 437 ; M. D. Welch, 234 ; George Fores- 
man, 105; long term. W. J. Cooper, 478; ^L R. Davey, loi ; S. H. King, 173; 
short term. Fifth ward: H. ]\I. Bushnell, 453; R. P. R. Millar, 263; L N. Baker, 
118. Sixth ward: L. C. Pace, 283; M. L. Easterday, 267; J. H. Craddock, 33. 

Election of April i, 1890. For paving bonds, 2,023; against paving bonds, 
843. The proposition of granting a charter to the Lincoln Electric Railway Com- 
pany was carried by 3,029 to 158. For police judge: W. J. Houston, 2,846; H. J. 
Whitmore, 1,177. For cemetery trustee: L. J. Byers, 3,084; E. H. Andrus, 918. 
For sewer bonds, 1,569; against sewer bonds, 966. For market house, 1,821; 
against market house, 866. For school proposition, 1531 ; against school propo- 
sition, 209. For councilmen, first ward: A. Halter, 290; R. A. Hawley, 49; 
Kearns, 4. Second ward: H. \'ieth, 307: J. North, 103; Levi Snell, 9; McNair, 
51. Third ward: Thomas Carr, 319; Joseph Burns, 380; T. B. Davis, 71. Fourth 
ward: T. B. Archibald, 301; George Bosselman, 267; A. C. Ricketts, 74. Fifth 
ward : Louie Ivleyer, 447 : S. S. Royce, 457. Sixth ward : H. M. Rice, 391 ; J. K. 
Corey, 231. Seventh ward: G. .A.. Bush, 243: H. W. Orr, 251; Joseph Teeter, 
150; O. M. Easterday, 139. 

Election of April 7, 1891. For mayor: Austin H. Weir, 2,380; John FL Ames, 
680; S. J. .^.lexander, 2,073. For treasurer: E. B. Steplienson, 2,660; T. H. Pratt, 
925; J. C. De Putron, 317; E. A. Cooley, 1.003. For clerk: W. H. Love, 1,663; 
D. C. \'an Duyn, 2,585; A. N. Wycofif. 505. For cemetery trustee: A. M. Davis, 
2,725; L. S. Gillick, 786; John McManigal, 1,098. For excise board: E. H. 
Andrus, 1,191; C. J. Daubach, 449; John Doolittle, 2,237: Gran Ensign, 1,278; 
James Kelly, 1,583; James Kilburn, 352; J. IL Kramer, 524; Silas Schenck, 274; 
C. L. Smith, 336; H. J. Whitmore, 778. For councilmen, first ward: N. C. Brock, 
243: W. Mickelwait, no; J. A. O'Shee, 261. Second ward: C. B. Beach, 208; 
P. H. Gammel, 48; Joseph Wittman, 263. Third ward: G. B. Chapman, 479; 
T. L. Hall, 326. Fourth ward: F. A. Boehmer, 420; H. J. Geisler, 85; A. H. 
Humphrey, 373. Fifth ward: H. M. Bushnell, 430; R. P. R. Alillar, 529. Sixth 
ward: G. K. Brown, 243; W. W. Raub, 237; R. W. Whited, y^. Seventh ward: 
S. Males, 64; F. C. Smith, 298; D. D. Sullivan, 37; J. H. Whitmore, 114. The 
school board was authorized by the vote of the people to spend $5,000.00 or more 
in 1891 in the purchase of school property and erection of school buildings. 

Election of April 5, 1892. For police judge: Allen, 1,686; liams, 182; F. R. 
Waters, 2,643. For attorney: N. C. Abbott, 2,568; Mack, 219; Rose, 1,637. 
For water commissioner: C. G. Bullock, 1,924; J. W. Percival, 2,484. For 
engineer: Adna Dodson, 2,741; Rawlins, 1,733. For cemetery trustee: A. G. 
Hastings, 2,834; Morrison, 1,544. For councilmen. first ward: A. Halter, 255; 
J. H. Dailey, 279; Herdman, 46; Hawley, 18. Second ward: Henry Vieth, 239; 
R. P. R. Millar, 210; Betz, 15. Third ward: Frank A. Graham, 495 ; Hall, 310; 
James Kilburn, 44. Fourth ward : O. W. Webster, 428 ; Cooper, 272 ; Phelps 
Paine, 51. Fifth ward: D. W. Moseley, 475; Calhoun, 329; Smith. 28. Sixth 
ward : E. L. Holyoke, 292 ; Bigelow, 248. Seventh ward : H. H. Myers, 285 ; 
Bigelow, 200. 

Election of April 4, 1893. For mayor: R. B. Graham, 2,634; A. H. Weir, 
2,776 ; R. A. Hawley, 247. For treasurer : E. P. Stephenson, 2,923 ; Leavitt, 2,281 ; 


A. N. \\'ycoff, 299. For clerk : J. W. Bowen, 3.3-O; Jordan, 1,997 ; Hamilton, 240. 
For cemetery trustee: Guile, 2,121; Carter, 392; L. J. Byer, 2,900. For excise 
board: S. M. Benedict, 567; J. C. DePutron, 303; A. D. Burr, 2,418; W. B. Mc- 
Roberts, 2,112; F. W. Brown, 2,714; A. E. Hargreaves, 2,394. For councilmen, 
first ward: Carr, 192 Carter, 18; McCargar. 179; O'Shee, 281. Second ward: 
Parker, 340; Wittman, 168. Third ward: R. H. Mockett, 93; Shaberg, 399; 
R. S. Young, 502. Fourth ward : Baird, 143 : Harris, 338 ; Roman, 549 ; Stanton, 
35. Fifth ward: Rippe, 86; Royce, 300: L. P. Young, 455; States, 167. Si.xth 
ward: Woods, 390; Seybolt, 320. Seventh ward: Gable, 194; J. H. Mockett, Jr., 
22 ; Smita, 335. 

Election of .April 3, 1894. For attorney: N. C. .Abbott, 3,844; A. G. Wolfen- 
barger, 866. For police judge: W. H. Hunter, 636; Frank R. Waters, 2,796; 
H. J. ^Vhitmore, 1,574. For water commissioner: William Crombia, 621; J. W. 
Percival, 2,222; .S. S. Royce, 1,797. For engineer: Adna Dobson, 4,270. For 
cemetery trustee: S. AL Benedict, 621 ; J. H. Fawell, 2,888; Wheatley Alickelwait, 
507; AL D. Tiffany, 787. For councilmen, first ward: John Currie, 15; James H. 
Dailey, 329; George W. Denham, 200. Second ward: AVilliam Lawlor, 419; 
James J. Walters, 133. Third ward: John E. Aliller, ^^^■, Frank A. Graham, 630. 
Fomih ward: Joseph LI. Bigger, 171 ; L. H. Eldridge, 129; S. H. King, 36; O. W. 
Webster, 521. Fifth w.ird: John Filer, ^2: Paul H. liolm, 115; Barr Parker, 720. 
Sixth ward: Herbert B. Sawyer, 444; Louis F. Zeiger, 170. Seventh ward: 
H. H. Aleyers, 306: Adam E. Spurck, 236; AL L. Trester, 38. 

Election of April 2. 1895. For mayor: Broady, 2,436; F. A. Grahain, 3,707; 
Jones, 168. For clerk: J. W. liowen, 4,891; Chamberlain, 1,124; Hedges, 245. 
For treasurer: AL I. Aitken, 4,485; J. C. De Putron. 232; Pomerene, 1,486. For 
excise board: Cochrane, 2,453; R- S. Grimes, 3,440; A. E. Hargreaves, 2,415; 
AL L. Trester, 403 ; H. B. A'aill, 3,317 ; Wilson, 227. For cemetery trustees : Guile, 
643; John AIcAIanigal, 1,264; R- H. Oakley, 4,107. For councilmen, first ward: 
Thomas \Y. Draper, 377; James O'Shee, 270. Second ward: Hans Dierks, 268; 
Phillip Gammel, 20 ; James D. Parker, 362. Third ward : John H. Alockett, Sr., 
loi ; Harry AL Shaefi'er, 383; Richard S. A'oung, 710. Fourth ward; Harry 
Fletcher, 172; E. S. Hawley, 269; Alex H. Hutton, 788. Fifth ward: John 
Geisler, 473 ; Stephen B. Hyde, 420 ; William A. Klock, 309. Sixth ward : Charles 
S. Jones, 251 : Edwin R. Guthrie, 381. Seventh ward: H. D. Evan, ^22 ; William 
T. Aloore, 306; R. W. Maxwell, 21. 

Election of .April 7, 1896. For attorney: N. C. Abbott, 3,017. For police 
judge: William F. Schwind, 1,767; Frank R. Waters, 2,068. For water com- 
missioner: S. J. Byer, 2,313; William H. Hargreaves, 1,501. For engineer: 
Ferdinand Bonstedt, 3,392. For cemetery trustee: Charles B. Gregory, 2,880; 
John AIcAIanigal, 838. For councilmen, first ward: R. E. Finley, 243; James AL 
McKinney. 204. Second ward: W'illiam Lawlor, 309; H. Wittman, 121. Third 
ward: Charles Spears, 596. Fourth ward: O. W. Webster, 631. Fifth ward: 
Hans P. Lau. 307; Barr Parker, 453. Sixth ward: W. A. Woodward, 410. 
Seventh ward: W. B. Comstock, 331; H. H. Aleyer, loi. 

Election of April 6, 1897. For mayor: Erastus E. Brown, 2,212; Frank A. 
Graham, 2,864. For treasurer: Alartin I. Aitken, 2,877; H. W. Hardy, 2,330. 
For clerk: John W. Bowen, 3,135; George A. Hagensick, 2,058. For cemetery 
trustee: John A. Fawell, 3.107; Thomas Maloy, 1,978. For councilmen, first 


ward: Thomas Heelan, Jr., 2,091 ; Alex W. Stewart, 2,967. Second ward: H. H. 
Barth, 2,962; William Schroeder, 2,096. Third ward: A. E. Hargreaves, 2,184; 
Hudson J. Winnett, 2,926. Fourth ward : Edwin A. Barnes, 2,883 ; F. B. Kimball, 
2,201. Fifth ward: L. C. Chapin, 2.347; John Giesler, 2,793. Sixth ward: E. R. 
Guthrie, 2,996; James Welton, 2,085. Seventh ward : John H. Mockett, Jr., 3,036; 
Charles T. Paj'ne, 2,029. 

Election of April 5, 1898. For attorney: Joseph R. Webster, 2,592; Samuel J. 
Tuttle, 1,983. For police judge: W. B. Comstock, 2,567; C. S. Rainbolt, 2,055; 
Fred Herman, 2^. For water commissioner: James Tyler, 2,548; S. S. Royce, 
2,032. For engineer: Ferdinand I'onstedt, 2,704 ; .Milton W. Ensign, 1,839. For 
cemetery trustee: R. H. Oakley, 2,570: Edmund Erb, 1,931. For excise board: 
Henry W. Brown. 2,481 ; J. C. Harpham, 2,459; Walter C. Finery, 1,887; Robert 
W'heeler, 1,665; H. S. Alley, 20; J. C. De Putron, 208; Jacob J. Folts, 209; 
A. \'. Herman, 119. For councilmen, first ward: Robert E. Finley, 198; Robert 
Malone, 248. Second ward: Charles E. Wilkinson, 212; Otto T. Erlenborn, 234. 
Third ward: Charles W. Spears, 404; A. E. Hargreaves, 327. Fourth ward: 
O. W. Webster, 493: H. H. Harvey. 329. Fifth ward: Adna Dobson, 499: John 
E. Aliller, 393. Sixth ward: William A. Woodward, 321 ; Wilson E. Field, 242. 
Seventh ward: H. H. Aleyer, igi ; Charles J\L Bailey, 312; L L. Lyman, 4. 

Election of April 4, 1899. For mayor: Hudson J. Winnett, 2,828; Austin H. 
\\eir, 1,833; t^'iri C. Endberg, 84. For treasurer: Martin L Aitken, 2,557; 
Charles H. Imhoff, 2,067. For clerk: Thomas H. Pratt, 2,756; Arthur H. Glea- 
son, 1,837. For cemetery trustee: Charles B. Gregory, 2,688; John M. Burks, 
1,875. For excise board: H. H. Barth, 2,168; George M. Bartlett, 2,659; F. W. 
Brown, 2,189; Samuel S. Whiting, 1,809; Edmund Erb, 167; Clarence E. 
Hedges, 167. For councilmen, first ward: Alex W. Stewart, 224; George Den- 
ham. 179. Second ward: W'illiam Lawlor, 214; William Schroeder, 291. Third 
ward: Richard S. Young, 415 ; Harry S. Stuff, 363. Fourth ward: A. H. Hutton, 
502; E. A. Rogers, 321. Fifth ward: DeForest E. Green, 554; S. S. Royce, 335. 
Sixth ward: Callen Thompson, 337; William McLaughlin, 270. Seventh ward: 
J. H. Mockett, Jr., 296. 

Election of April 3, 1900. For attorney: Edmund C. Strode, 3,045. For 
police judge: W. B. Comstock, 2,926; Hugh B. Dailey, 1,135. For engineer: 
Adna Dobson, 2,838; John T. Ledwith, 1,219. For water commissioner: James 
Tyler, 2,841 ; S. S. Royce, 1,243. For exciseman, Henry W. Brown, 2,544; C. E. 
Loomis, 1,555. For cemetery trustee: John PL Fawell, 2.644; W. E. Field, 1,334. 
For councilmen, first ward : Melvin D. Clary, 200 ; Robert Malone, 209. Second 
ward: James Stevenson, 177; O. P. Erlenborn, 201. Third ward: Charles W. 
Spears, 406; Harry Stufi^, 345. Fourth ward; N. A. Bacon, 477; H. W. Hardy, 
210. Fifth ward: W. C. Frampton, 577; Willard Cooper, 281. Sixth ward: 
William L Fryer, 369; 1. E. O. Place, 220. Seventh ward; L L. Lyman, 246; 
C. E. Sisler, 219. 

Election of April 2, 1901. For mayor: Hudson J. Winnett, 2,756; Louis N. 
Wente, 1,361; C. E. Hedges, 180. For treasurer: Beman C. Fox, 2,686; Floyd 
Seybolt, 1,393; James Kilburn, 165. For clerk: Thomas H. Pratt, 2,819; Richard 
A. Hawley, 1,168; O. J. Wilcox, 214. For excisemen: E. B. Finney, 2,772; 
Frank H. Woods, 2,757; William Ungles, 1,210; T. J. Merryman, 482; F. B. 
Francis, 375. For cemetery trustee : R. H. Oakley, 2,735 ■ Lee W. Edwards, 


1,130 : Charles A. Taylor, 227. For councilmen, first ward: Alex W. Stewart, 
236; Joseph J. Rogers, 172. Second ward: William Lawlor, 296; William 
Schroeder, 242. Tiiird ward; \'. G. Powell, 425; Addison JMeese, 290. I<'onrth 
ward: A. 11. Hutton, ^^/ : John M. Thompson, 220. Fifth ward: William 
Alhers, ()ii : I larry \V. Smith, 194: A. D. (iuile. to. Sixth ward: Callen Thomp- 
son, 335: Fdward A. Snyder, 195; M. L. Andrews, 28. Seventh ward: J. C. 
I'eutzer, 2J2: George E. Webb, 133: J. R. Ayres, 28. The mayor and council 
were authorized by a vote of 2,477 '^o 913 to issue bonds for an amount not to 
exceed $55,000.00 for the construction of a lighting plant for the city of Lincoln 
at the Rice pumping station, to 0])erate 300 lights in the streets, thoroughfares, 
parks and city buildings. 

Election of April i, 1902. For attorney: Edmund C. Strode, 3,793; James R. 
Burleigh, 439. For police judge: P. James Cosgrave, 3,448; Daniel Harrigan, 
1,367; J. A. Drummond, Sy. For engineer: George L. Campen, 3,883. For 
water commissioner: James Tyler, 3,787; James T. Riordan, 502. For cemetery 
trustee: George W. ISonnell, 3,825. For councilmen, first ward: M. D. Clary, 
225: Robert Malone, 234. Second ward: C. E. Wilkenson, 327; Jacob North, 
252. Third ward: George H. Moore, 486: H. F. Bishop, 521. Fourth ward: John 
S. Bishop, 619; W. W. Keefe, 220. Fifth ward: William C. Frampton, 636; 
John J. Cassidy, 416. Sixth ward: Lee J. Dunn, 470: C. O. DeFrance, 145. 
Seventh w;ird : I. L. Lyman, 257: John AL Day, 143. The proposition to pass 
an ordinance prohibiting the sale of malt, spirituous, vinous and intoxicating 
liquors in the City of Lincoln was defeated by a vote of 2,369 to 2,304. 

]'"lection of April 13, 1903. For mayor: George A. Adams, 2,781 ; George E. 
Hiljner, 1,298; C. E. Bentley, 214: George E. Bigelow, 29. For treasurer: 
Beman C. Fox, 3,488. For city clerk: Thomas H. Pratt, 3,180; Edwin T. Peters, 
940; W. Wrege, 54. For tax commissioner: James A. Sheffield, 3,334; I'Vank 
Fritsche, 245. For excise board: Thomas H. Hoskins, 2,500: Joseph \V. Wolfe, 
2,468; Thomas J. Hensley, 1,432; John T. Wiesman, 1.388: T. J. Merryman, 293; 
J. R. Ayres, 263; C. AI. Bailey, 27; George Fleishour, 25. For councilmen: first 
ward : Alex W. Stewart, 278 ; Andrew Stonestrom, yy. Second ward : William 
Lawlor, 292; Jacob North, 117. Third ward: J. H. Hensel, 373; Ernst Hoppe, 
413. Fourth ward: A. H. Hutton, 553; Gus Tobin, 209. Fifth ward: E. H. 
Marshall, 721. Sixth ward: Callen Thompson, 328; Henry Gund, 260. Seventh 
ward : J. C. Pentzer, 259 ; C. Y. Long, 132. The proposition of bonds for $65,- 
000.00 for lighting pitrposes was passed by a vote of 2,539 to 1,426. The pro- 
position of bonds for $34,500.00 for sewer extension was passed, 1,991 to 1,941. 

Election of April 5, 1904. For city attorney: Edmund C. Strode, 2,695; J- M- 
Day, 866. For water commissioner : James I\L DefTenbaugh, 2,386 ; Spencer 
Lintner, 1,283. For engineer: George L. Campen, 2922. For police judge: 
P. James Cosgrave, 2,951. For cemetery trustee: James Tyler, 2,769. For 
councilmen, first ward : Thomas Draper, 202 ; Robert Malone, 259. Second ward : 
C. E. Wilkenson. 219; Michael Bauer, 285. Third ward: George H. Moore, 
352; Horace F. Bishop, 480. Fourth ward: John S. Bishop, 418; W. B. Price, 
115. Fifth ward: \\ . C. Frampton, 548; George \\'. Losey, 161. Sixth ward: 
L. J. Dunn, 339. Seventh ward: B. A. George, 208; Josiah S. Gabel, j/. The 
vote on bonds for $65,000.00 for electric light was carried favorably by 2,678 to 
771. The city park j^roposition was also voted on favorably, 1,333 to 'KM- 

Viil. I —1 1 


Election of April 4, 1905. For mayor: Alex H. Hutton, 2,493; F- W. Brown, 
3,105; Frank E. Lynch, 245. For clerk: Thomas H. Pratt, 3,497; Charles A. 
Simmons, 2,027. For treasurer: Beman C. Fox, 3,790. For tax commissioner: 
James A. Sheffield, 3.583. For excise board: J. C. Harpham, 2,906; U. G. 
Powell, 2,766 ; E. A. Pegler, 2,575 ! N. W. Thompson, 2,581 ; \V. F. Hunt, 249 ; 
E. F. Reddish, 248. Cemetery trustee : George W. Bonnell, 3,426. 

On April 10, 1905, Alex Stewart, William Lawlor, Ernst Hoppe, A. H. 
Hutton, E. H. ^Marshall, Callen Thompson, J. C. Pentzer, the out-going council. 
were appointed aldermen until the special election in June. 

Election of May 7, 1907. For mayor: Francjs W. Brown, 2,632; Alex H. 
Hutton, 2,590. For treasurer: Beman C. Fox, 3,658. For clerk: Thomas H. 
Pratt. 2,787; Henry M. Leavitt, 2,375. ^or attorney: John M. Stewart, 3,685. 
F"or engineer: William Grant, 3,602. For water commissioner: James Tyler, 
3,588. For tax commissioner: James A. Sheffield, 3,527. For excisemen: Julius 
C. Harpham, 3,240 ; U. G. Powell, 2,773 '• Merritt L. Blackburb, 2,426. For 
cemetery trustee: Erwin H. Barbour. For alderman (vacancy) : Ray O. Castle. 
For councilmen, first ward: Oscar D. Herrick, 182; Henry M. Hauschild, 197. 
Second ward: George Schrandt, 143; Mike Bauer, 234. Third ward: Jesse 
C'happell, 360; Horace S. Bishop, 525. Fourth ward: John S. Leonhardt, 668. 
Fifth ward: Charles C. Quiggle, 916. Sixth ward: E. B. Sawyer, 682. Seventh 
ward : Burton A. George, 377. 

Election of May 4, 1909. For mayor: Don L. Love, 3,662; Robert Malone, 
3,616. For treasurer: George Dayton, 4,438; Joseph W. Bryan, 2.ot)6. For 
clerk: Roscoe C. Ozman, 3,343; J- R- Day, 2,433; Barr Parker, 991. For 
attorney: John M. Stewart, 4,082; John R. Berry, 1.126; Ray J. Abbott, 1,297. 
For engineer: Adna Dobson, 5,630. For water and light commissioner: James 
Tyler, 3.592; Thomas P. Harrison, 2,219; James S. Devore, 712. For ta.x com- 
missioner: James A. Sheffield, 5,452. For cemetery trustee: Horace S. Wiggins, 
4,867. For excise board : R. D. Spelts, 2,574 ; J. C. Harpham, 4,454 ; U. G. Powell. 
3,073; H. G. Gildersleeve, 1,245; L. W. Eldridge, 876. For aldermen: Thomas 
H. Pratt, 3,863; Howard J. Whitmore, 3,884; A. L. Candy, 3,299; William E. 
Hardy, 4,175; Callen Thompson, 2,723; Ray G. Fletcher, 2,227; J. C. Pentzer, 
2,820; William Schroeder, 3,474; Ray O. Castle, 3,161; E. B. Sawyer, 3,037; 
W.illiam T. Pinney, 1,676; Ernst Hoppe, 3,456; Chalmers Bellenger, 1,567. For 
councilmen, first ward: Oscar D. Herrick, 310; J. S. Bowers, 218; L L. Lyman. 
Second ward: J. P. Drieth, 290; W. J. Bassler, 238; Michael Bauer, 327. 
Third ward: Julius Deitrich, 503; Sam Orlofsky, 219; S. J. Mason, 121. Fourth 
ward : Dr. J. S. Leonhardt. Fifth ward : John Geisler, 242 ; Edward H. Schroeder, 
488; L. C. Chapin, 481. Sixth ward: S. R. McKelvie, 361 ; Otto W. Meier, 384; 
Fred H. F. Kind, 277. Seventh ward: Burton A. George, 528; H. R. Williams, 
332. Under the capton "Excise Rule," there were 3,631 votes cast for a "dry" 
Lincoln, 3,285 for a 6:30 o'clock closing hour for saloons, and 346 votes cast 
against both the above. 

Election of May 2, 191 1. For mayor, Alvin H. Armstrong. 5,136; Robert 
Malone, 3,421 ; C. R. Oyler, 303. For treasurer: George Dayton, 6,344; J. H. 
Gleason, 2.045. For city clerk : Roscoe C. Ozman, 5,321 ; Henry Bingaman, 3,220. 
For city attorney: Fred C. Foster, 5,636; Thomas J. Doyle, 2,844. For city 
enf^ineer : Adna Dobson, 6,827. For water and light commissioner : James Tvler 


5,174; J. E. Murray, 3,373. For tax commissioner: James Sheffield, 5,449; D. D. 
Davis, 2,483. For excise board: Harry Porter, 5,168; W. E. Enland, 4,<jo5 ; E. B. 
Zimmerman, 3,372; A. S. Tibbetls, 3,388; Frank R. Rider, 213; Clyde J. Wright, 
210. For cemetery trustee: George W. Bonnell, 6,149. C'nder Excise Rule, there 
were 4,659 "wet" votes cast and 3,994 "dry" votes. The proposition to create 
the office of city electrician was lost by a vote of 4,705 to 2,433. The proposition 
to issue $50,000.00 in park bonds was voted on favorably, 3,970 to 3,670; but the 
majority was not large enough to carry. For councilmen, first ward: Oscar D. 
Herrick, 498; G. T. Wenninger, 175. Second ward: Adolph Lebsack, Jr., 631; 
Michael Bauer, 437. Third ward: Julius Dietrich, 650; William Walworth, 416. 
I'ourth ward : J. S. Leonhardt, 757. Fifth ward : I. Yungblut, 1,205. Sixth ward : 
Otto W. Meier, 849; Elliott Lowe, 514. Seventh ward: J. C. Pentzer, 685; 
Thomas Sinclair, 475. 


With the year 1912 the government of Lincoln was changed from the old 
form to the commission form of rule. The plan was made possible by the 
Banning law which had been passed by the previous Legislature, the substance 
of which may be summarized as follows: The new legislation provided an 
optional form of government for all cities of the State of Nebraska of more than 
5,000 population. The cities were divided into three classes, respecting the num- 
ber of councilmen. There were to be seven in Omaha, five in Lincoln and South 
Omaha, and three in all other cities. The councilmen were to be the only elective 
officials. The names of the candidates for councilmen were to go on the primary 
ballot without party designation and twice as many candidates should be nom- 
inated as there were places to fill. At the general election the one-half of those 
nominated were to be elected, also without party designation upon the ballot. The 
salaries were to be fixed according to the class of city. For Omaha the sum was 
to be $4,500.00; for Lincoln, $2,000.00; South Omaha, $1,000.00; cities from 
7,000 to 25,000 population, $1,000; and cities from 5,000 to 7,000 population, 
$300.00. The mayor was to receive extra pay. The office of mayor was to be 
filled by selection by the elected councilmen from among their number. All city 
officials and boards except constitutional offices were to be succeeded by the 
commission and all departments of the city government were to be organized and 
directed by the council, which should make appropriation for their maintenance 
and appoint officers and employes. The educational boards were to be continued, 
also police magistrates. 

On Friday, April 19, 1912, the people of Lincoln voted on the following 
proposition : "Shall the City of Lincoln adopt provisions of sections 8722 to 8745, 
inclusive, Cobbey's Annotated Statutes of Nebraska for 191 1 ; sections 16 to 39, 
inclusive; chapter 14-A, article 3, compiled statutes of 191 1, called 'Commission 
Plan of City Government?'" There were cast for the proposition 1,982 votes 
and against it 1,911. The fact that the plan carried by only a majority of 71 
votes does not faithfully represent the spirit of the people nor the true majority 
of them who wished the change. The vote was light in the first place, but the 
efforts put forth by the adherents of the commission government overshadowed 
the work of those opposed. 


The first general election under this form of government was on May 6, 
11J13. The vote on councilmen was: Robert Malone, 2.878; William Shroeder, 
4,485: Thomas J. Henslcy, 4,379: Don L. Love, 3,147; Elliott Lowe, 2,955: 
O. J. King, 4.055: Frank C. Zehrung, 4,142: George Dayton, 5,236: Otto W. 
Meier, 3,033; John H. Mockett, Jr., 3,908. For excisemen: Harry Porter. 4.540; 
Will H. Love. 4,485: Charles Strader, 3,487: George G. Waite, 3,521 ; Nicholas 
Ress, 4,335 : H. T. Folsom, 3,599. For members of charter convention : Allen W. 
Field, Fred D. Cornell, Ernst Hoppe, J. C. Harpham, A. S. Tibbetts, W. A. 
Selleck. John E. Miller, Frank M. Hall, Edwin Jeary, Morris W. Folsom. L H. 
Hatfield, Wilton Xan Sickle, M. I. Aitken, C. C.-Qiiiggle, C. W. Webster. For 
cemetery trustee: \"erne Hedge. Under Excise Rule there were 3,569 "dry" votes 
and 4,393 "wet." The result of this election showed that Schroeder, Hensley, 
King, Zehrung and Dayton were the men to first take the seats of councilmen 
under the new law. With the exception of King, the councilmen met accordingly 
and ai)pointed F. C. Zehrung as mayor of the city. Dayton was named superin- 
tendent of the department of accounts and finances: King, superintendent of the 
department of public safety; Hensley, superintendent of the department of 
streets and public improvements; Schroeder. superintendent of the department 
of parks and public property. The following resolution was adopted : 
"Be it resolved by the council of the City of Lincoln, that 

"i. It shall be the duty of the mayor and superintendent of the department 
of public affairs to preside over meetings of the council and he shall have charge 
of the legal department of the city, and all matters pertaining to unliquidated 
claims, rules, privileges and elections. 

"2. That the superintendent of the department of accounts and finances shall 
be the vice president of the council and preside over its meetings in the absence 
of the mayor. He shall be ex-officio city treasurer without pay and he shall have 
charge of the accounts and finances of city on all matters pertaining to print- 
ing, taxation, and licenses and shall have charge of the office of tax commissioner, 
city clerk, auditor and city treasurer. 

"3. That the superintendent of the department of public safety shall have 
charge of the police, fire and health departments and all matters pertaining thereto, 
including city scales, sealer of weights and measures. 

"4. That the superintendent of the department of streets and public improve- 
ments shall have charge of all street work and all public improvements, additions 
to the city, and viaducts, and he shall have charge of the office of city engineer. 

"5. That the superintendent of the department of parks and public property 
shall have charge of all parks, the city hall, the water office and the water and 
light plant." 

This resolution was partially adopted in substance, I:>ut much enlarged and of 
greater scope, and made into a city ordinance. After the 191 5 election, however, 
the ordinance was considerably changed and amended, making practically a new 
ordinance in thought. 

T. H. Berg was appointed by the council to the office of city clerk. Adna 
Dobson was made engineer and Fred C. Foster city attorney. Dr. J. F. Spealman 
was named city health officer and H. Clement fire chief. 

Election of May 4. 1915. For councilmen: George Dayton. 4.059: Charles W. 
Bryan, 3.796 ; \\'ilHam i^chroder, 3,789 : Thomas J. Hensley, 3,630 ; S. M. Melick, 


2,662; Charles E. Comstock, 2,845: F. C. Zehrung, 2,378; John Wright. 3.443; 
Edward H. Marshall. 2.559; Joseph Burns. 1.818. Thus the council was chosen 
as follows : Dayton, Bryan, Schroeder, Hensley and Wright. For excisemen : 
Harry Porter, 4,205; Will H. Love, 3,812; Nicholas Ress, 3,651; John Bauer, 
2,321 ; Henry J. Mohr, 1.600; P. F. Zimmer. 1,818. For cemetery trustee: George 
M. Porter, 2,422; Horace S. Wiggins, 2.318. For bonds for extension of Ante- 
lope Park, 3,641; against the bonds, 2,486. For a refuse disposal plant, 3,732; 
against the plant, 2288. On the proposition to amend section i of chapter CXV 
of General Revised and Consolidated Ordinances of the City of Lincoln for 
year igo8, entitled "Sunday," there were 2,690 votes cast for amendment and 
3.536 against it. 

The elected members of tlie council met and named Charles W. Bryan mayor 
of Lincoln. Dayton was appointed superintendent of the department of accounts 
and finances: Wright, superintendent of the department of public safety; 
Hensley, superintendent of department of streets and public improvements ; and 
Schroeder, superintendent of the department of parks and public property. 
C. Petrus Peterson was selected as city attorney. T. H. Berg was named as city 
clerk for the second time. Adna Dobson was given the office of city engineer. 
W. T. Overton was appointed street commissioner. H. H. Antles was named 
chief of detectives and H. Clement fire chief. 

The success of the commission form of city government is yet a matter of 
question, due to its infancy. The new plan has, outside of the advantage of the 
short ballot, many features, such as the centralization of responsibility, which 
obviate many things hitherto considered impediments in the progress of the city. 
The people of the city unquestionably stand a better chance of gaining much 
needed improvements, and more e.xpeditiously, than they did before, and for this 
reason, if no other, the new government is commendable. 


The city has made a marvelous growth in financial strength and prestige since 
the late '70s. Her present position of prominence is all the more honorable in 
consideration of the financial depression through which the banks of Lincoln 
passed in the '90s. 

The first bank in the city was established in June, 1868, by James Sweet and 
N. C. Brock. Mention has been made of this before. It was organized in the 
southwest corner room of the Sweet Block, the first block built on the plat of 
Lincoln, and continued until 1871, when it was reorganized as the State Bank 
of Nebraska, by Samuel G. Owen, James Sweet and Nelson C. Brock. The 
State National Bank was authorized to do business November 16, 1871, with a 
capital stock of $100,000.00. S. G. Owen was president and N. C. Brock cashier. 

The First National Bank of Lincoln received its first charter to do business 
on February 24, 187 1. The bank was the successor of a private bank which had 
been founded by Judge Amasa Cobb and J. F. Sudduth, the former president and 
the latter cashier. Among the early stockholders of the bank were : R. D. Silver, 
E. E. Brown, A. L. Palmer, John Cadman, J. N. Eckman, W. R. Field, Chester 
Schoolcraft, J. G. Miller, G. \V. Cobb and W. P. Phillips. The first statement of 
the bank shows that the capital stock on April 22. 1 871, was $35,000.00. At that 
time the deposits were $71,330.00 and the circulation of bank notes amounted to 
$22,soo.oo Three years after its founding John Fitzgerald and John R. Clark 
bought an interest in the bank. Mr. Fitzgerald became the president of the 
institution and Mr. Clark the cashier. J. F. Sudduth died in 1880. but no other 
change was made until 1889, when John R. Clark became president; D. D. Muir, 
cashier and C. S. Lippincott, assistant cashier. Mr. Clark was the leading spirit 
in the bank until his death in 1890. J. D. MacFarland assumed the presidency at 
that time. In 1891 the bank increased its capital stock from $200,000.00 to $300,- 
000.00 and a vear later it consolidated with the Lincoln National Bank. N. S. Har- 
wood became president ; C. A. Hanna, vice president ; and F. M. Cook, cashier. 
The first two mentioned had been officers of the Lincoln National. In 1896, after 
four vears of hard times, with much strain for bank officials, Mr. Cook resigned 
as cashier and D. D. Muir returned to the place he had formerly held. J. L. Car- 
son became president, but he died shortly and Muir stepped into the presidency in 
January, 1897, with H. S. Freeman cashier. In 1899 a consolidation was eflfected 
with the American Exchange National Bank, which brought S. H. Burnham to 
the presidency of the First National. The latter bank was at this time almost 
entirely owned by President Perkins of the Burlington Railroad and it was practi- 
cally sold outright to the American Exchange Bank. In 1907 the bank formed a 


Early Episcopal Chuivli, Twelfth and K 
streets, about 1880 

Sod liousc in Lancaster County, about 1875 

View showing Raymond Brothers' Grocery View of Lincobi sliowing; First Natioual 

anil State National Bank, about 1870 " Bank, about 1870 


[From Clement's Collpction of Early Nebraska Photot;raiilis. I'roperty of and used by 
jjermission of Nebraska History Seminar, State University] 


combination with the Columbia National, whereby the latter merged with the 
former. In 1907 the First Trust Company and in 191 1 the First Savings Bank 
were organized by the stockholders of the First National. The present officers of 
the bank are: S. H. Burnham, president; A. J. Sawyer and H. S. Freeman, vice 
presidents; P. R. Easterday, cashier; W. B. Ryons and Leo. j. Schmittel, as- 
sistant cashiers. The statement of the bank at the close of business March 7, 
1916, places the capital stock at $500,000.00; the surplus, $300,000.00; the un- 
divided i)rofits, $49,518.83; the circulation, $200,000.00; and the deposits at 
?3'8i 5.593-00. The capital of the First Savings Bank, at the same date, was 
$100,000.00; surplus, $20,000.00; and deposits, $1,150,570.91. The capital stock 
of the First Trust Company is $50,000.00 and the surplus $20,000.00. The total 
liabiHties of the three amounts to $5,069,591.18. The directors of the three in- 
stitutions are : S. H. Burnham, E. J. Hainer, George VV. Holmes, H. S. Freeman, 
A. J. Sawyer, Charles Stuart, J. E. Miller, F. M. Hall, C. B. Towle, E. B. Sawyer, 
E. J. Burkett, C. J. Bills, J. C." Seacrest, W. E. Sharp and F. H. Woods. 

The present First National Bank Building was the pioneer of the modern 
twentieth-century office buildings in Lincoln. The bank has always occupied this 
corner. The building replaced by the new eight-story structure was erected in 
1873 and was three stories in height. Work upon the new building was begun 
September 20, 1910 by the Selden-Breck Construction Company of St. Louis. 
Hyland & Green of Chicago were the architects. The building w-as completed 
and formally opened to the public on June 10, 191 1. 

The First National Bank has weathered all the storms and vicissitudes which 
have come upon the business world in the last forty-five years. The great panic 
of 1873, which wrecked scores of banks throughout the country, left the First 
National unscathed. Then came the panic of 1893, the crop failures of 1894 and 
1895, the panic of 1907 and the near panic, or business depression of 1914, caused 
Ijy the European war, but from each ordeal the bank emerged in safety. In 1892 
the City of Lincoln boasted a total of thirteen banks and of that number the only 
one in existence today is the First National. All the others have since failed, or 
consolidated, or liquidated. The First National has itself absorbed four of the 
banks which were competitors in the '90s, the State National, the Lincoln National, 
the American Exchange National and lastly the Columbia National. 

The State National Bank was founded in 1872 by the Richards Brothers and 
was purchased by E. E. Brown, K. K. Hayden and others in 1885 and reorganized. 
It was afterwards consolidated with the American Exchange Bank in 1892, which 
in turn consolidated with the First National in 1899. The American Exchange 
was incorporated on December i, 1888, and began business at the southeast 
corner of N and Eleventh streets, with a capital stock of $100,000.00. I. M. Ray- 
mond was president; Lewis Gregory, vice president; S. H. Burnham, cashier; and 
D. E. Wing, assistant cashier. 

The Lincoln National Bank, which was located in the Richards Block at the 
corner of Eleventh and O streets, was organized in August, 1882, and ten years 
later went in with the First National. 

C. \y. Mosher was president and R. C. Outcalt, cashier, of the financial estab- 
lishment of Marsh Brothers & Mosher, a house which later incorporated as the 
Capital National Bank, whose failure in 1893 created a profound sensation in 
banking circles and practically ruined many depositors, and landed President 


Mosher in the Sioux City federal prison for a term of five years, and was a leading 
factor in the defalcation of State Treasurer Joseph Hartley, for which he was 
sentenced to the state penitentiary. This bank was located in the old journal 
Building at the southwest corner of Ninth and O, later moving to Eleventh and O 

The Lancaster County Bank was incorporated in June, 1877, by Walter |. 
Lamb, Thomas Lowell, John Fawell, George C. Newman, J. C. McBride and 
Joseph W. Hartley, with a capital stock of $50,000.00. The bank did business on 
the west side of Tenth Street, adjoining the alley between O and N. This bank 
afterwards liquidated. 

The L'nion Savings Bank, which operated at 1 1 1 South Tenth Street, was in- 
corporated April 26, 1886, prominent among the men who started it being John 
Fitzgerald, C. E. Yates, R. E. Moore, E. E. Brown, T. E. Calvert, J. J. Imhoff, 
John R. Clark, K. K. Hayden and J. McConnif. This bank afterwards went out 
of business in 1895. paying depositors in full. 

The Nebraska Savings Bank, at the southeast corner of O and Thirteenth, was 
organized on July 20, 1886, among the organizers being C. C. White, J. G. South- 
wick, James Kilburn, J. L. Miles, George E. Bigelow, D. L. Brace, L. G. M. Bald- 
win, C. T. Brown and L. C. Humphrey. This bank went out of business about 
1893. Other institutions of the city were on the ragged edge at this time, but no 
more failed until 1895, when the Merchants went under. This latter bank had 
been incorporated July 11, 1891, by C. E. Shaw, P. A. Wells, Charles White, J. A. 
Wells, G. R. Brown,'j. Z. Briscoe, W. H. Walker, L. C. Burr, A. L. Shrader, 
Henry H. Dean, S. B. Pound, D. L. Brace, A. D. Kitchen, A. Reuber and R. .S. 
Young, with a capital of $100,000.00. The German National soon followed suit. 
This bank, located in the old Burr Block at the corner of Twelfth and O 
streets, was established December 10, 1886. Some men prominent in the affairs 
of this bank were : Herman H. Schaberg, C. C. Alunson, Joseph Boehmer, C. E. 
Montgomery, Alex Halter, F. A. Boehmer, B. J. Brotherton, Walter J. Harris 
and J. A. Hudelson. 

The Industrial Savings Bank was incorporated December 23, 1891, by William 
StuU, Louis Stull, George A. ]\Iohrenstecher, D. E. Thompson and A. H. Weir. 
Fearing that the fate of the Union Savings would be theirs the Industrial went out 
of business in 1896. The Lincoln Savings and Safe Deposit Company, which had 
been established January i, 1889, not long afterwards became insolvent. The 
Lancaster County Bank, mentioned above, brought up the rear very soon. 

The City National Bank was organized in 1899 with Thomas Auld as presi- 
dent and J. H. Auld as cashier, and with a capital of $100,000.00. L. J. Dunn 
became cashier in 1903, after the death of J. H. Auld. In September, 1907, just 
before the panic the bank increased its capital stock to $250,000.00. In January, 
1912, Thomas Auld sold his interest to L. B. Howey of Beatrice, who became 
president. The vice president now is L. J. Dunn, the cashier, E. H. Mullowney, 
and the assistant cashier, W. Van Riper. The capital remains at $250,000.00 ; the 
surplus, $90,000.00 ; and the deposits amount to $2,000,000.00. 

The National Bank of Commerce was established in Lincoln in 1902. M. Weil 
is the president, S. A. Foster the vice president, and James A. Cline, cashier. The 
capital stock of this growing institution is $200,000.00; the surplus, $120,000.00; 
and the deposits, $1,500,000.00. The American Savings Bank was organized in 











1900. Following are the officers: J. C. Seacrest, president; C. B. Gregory, vice 
president: Charles li. Gregory, cashier: H. A. Easterday, assistant cashier. The 
capital stock is $30,000.00; the surplus," $6,000.00; and the deposits over $400,- 
000.00. The German-American State ISank, which was organized in Lincoln in 
1909, has a capital stock of $50,000.00, a surplus of $16,000.00, and deposits 
averaging .$460,000,000. H. E. Sidles is the president, C. Klose the vice presi- 
dent, and William Seelenfreund cashier. The Central National Bank was organ- 
ized in 1907. P. L. Hall is the president of this institution ; Samuel Patterson, 
cashier; and Henry Mathieson, assistant cashier. F. E. Johnson is vice president. 
The Nebraska State Bank was organized in 191 1, with $50,000.00 capital. The 
capital stock has been increased to $100,000.00, with a surplus of $5,000.00 and 
deposits amounting to $1,000,000.00. The Lincoln State Bank was organized in 
1913. Frank Parks is the president, D. L. Love is vice president, John Forrest is 
cashier, and J. E. Whitney is assistant cashier. The capital stock is $100,000.00: 
the surplus, $14,000.00; and the deposits have increased to $400,000.00. 

A meeting was held at the Columbia National Bank in Lincoln on March i, 
1906, for the purpose of organizing the Lincoln Clearing House ; the representa- 
tives from the dififerent banks being present. A constitution was presented and 
adopted. Dr. P. L. Hall was elected president; L. J. Dunn, vice president; and 
L. E. Wettling, secretary. All the banks represented at the meeting were duly 
elected members of the clearing hotise. 

Bank clearings for the year 191 5 show an increase of nearly $10,000,000.00 
over 1914 — to be precise, $9,776,437.00. This year the total was $119,043,782.00, 
a year ago it was $109,267,345.00. This is considered a remarkable increase in 
view of the war and general trade conditions over the country and one indication 
of the general prosperous condition prevailing in the country adjacent to Lincoln. 
Bank clearings are taken to indicate the amount of money that is spent each year 
in the conduct of business in sections of the country and with that in view Lincoln's 
place among the cities may be advanced a notch or two. 


LTpon the day after the commissioners selected the site of the new capital 
of Nebraska the Nebraska City Press contained an announcement, signed by C. H. 
Gere, that the publication of a new paper at Lincoln, to be called the Cominon- 
wealth, would be started soon. On September 7. 1867, the first copy of the Com- 
monwealth was run off the Press at Nebraska City, no printing facilities having 
been installed yet in Lincoln. The second issue of the paper did not appear 
until November 2d. This was printed in Lincoln, in the office of S. B. Galey, a 
stone building on the north side of the square; W. W. Carder, publisher; and 
C. H. Gere, editor. It was a seven-column sheet, of shabby appearance, the type 
being some cast-ofif primer and nonpareil which had been discarded by the Press. 
It was printed upon the first Washington press brought across the Missouri River 
into Nebraska Territory. The third number came out two weeks later, having 
been printed from its own office, a small stone ])uilding which stood on the 
Academy of Music Block. The appearance of the Commonwealth every week 
from this time was very regular until the spring of 1869, when the name of the 
paper was changed to the Nebraska State Journal. The history of the paper 
since this time may be found upon a later page. 

The first morning paper to represent democratic principles was the Nebraska 
Statesman, founded in 1867 by Augustus Harvey. Later it was sold to Capt. W. 
T. Donovan, and a year afterwards he disposed of it to Randall & Smails. In 
1874 the Statesman was sold to Nat W. Smails & Company and two years later 
died, the material going to the office of the Fremont Tribune. 

The Daily Democrat was launched on January 9, 1879, by Gen. \'ictor 
\'ifquain. Albert Watkins afterwards became interested in the publica- 
tion, also A. J. Sawyer and A. B. Coiifroth. On August i, 1886, the paper 
passed into the hands of J. D. Calhoun, a writer on the State Journal, who ran 
the sheet for two years. At this time he sold out to Al Fairbrother, Sam D. 
Cox and H. M. Bushnell, whereupon the paper changed politics from democratic 
to repulilican. Fairbrother remained with the firm about a year and then sold 
out to them. The paper was rechristened the Call after Calhoun disposed of 
his interest to the above mentioned firm. Co.x and Bushnell gave the city a lively 
paper for a number of years. In 1894, when the hard times were in full swing, 
the Call was sold to W. Morton Smith and L. L. H. Austin. Smith retired six 
months later. Austin continued the publication of the Call until July i, 1898, 
when it was sold under mortgage foreclosure, later being purchased by the owners 
of the News. During the time that Austin controlled the paper its existence 
was full of trouble; he was of a very pugnacious temperament. 



The first evening paper of which Ihere is any record was the Leader. It was 
first published in 1873 ^"d survived two years. It was operated by a stoci< 
company and C. C. RawHngs was the managing editor. 

The Daily Globe appeared in 1874. It was published by Willis Sweet. In 
1876 it was sold to F. T. Hedges, who ran it until May, 1879. The paper was 
then disposed of to Wilson & Higginson. In 1S80 Webster Eaton, a former 
assistant postmaster of Lincoln, became its editor. Soon after this Mr. Calkins 
of Kearney assumed control of the publication. A few months afterwards the 
paper expired under peaceful conditions. I. L. Lyman was city editor of the 
sheet for some time. 

The Blade, which made its bow to the public in 1875, was run by Major 
Cofifray of Brownville. Its life was short. In six months it was dead and 
decently interred. 

The Western World was the comprehensive title of a paper started January 
I, 1879. by Col. L. C. Pace, once a councilman of the city. Strange to relate, 
when the publication of this paper ceased within a year's time, the colonel said 
the venture had been a paying one. He said that he had quit because he was 
tired of doing tW'O men's work in order to make money. 

In 1889 J. C. Seacrest and Walter L. Hunter began the publication of the 
Evening Globe. They ran the paper from C)ctober ist to December .31st and 
then quit. 

The Evening Sun was the first populist evening paper. It was issued Janu- 
ary 16, 1892. H. S. Bowers and B. S. Littlefield were its editors. It was run by 
a stock company consisting of A. P. S. Stuart, G. B. Chapman, D. N. Johnson, 
H. S. Bowers, E. Kearns, C. W. Hoxie, and O. E. Goodell. It survived less than 
a year, but it made political matters hum while it lived. 

It was not until 1S96, four years later, that F. S. Eager and W. F. Schwind 
liegan the publication of another populist paper called the Post. Two years later, 
in 1898, it was sold to H. F. Rockey, of Freeoort, 111. In 1903 Mr. Rockey, 
through financial ditificulties, was compelled to suspend publication. Some time 
later W. B. Price revived the Post in the form of a weekly paper, tjut continued 
just a short time, when the publication died a natural and merciful death. 

The old Commonwealth continued under that name until the spring of 1869. 
Then it became the Nebraska State Journal. On July 20. 1870, the first issue 
of the Daily State Journal was published. Prior to this, in November, 1869, 
J. Q. Brownlee had succeeded Carder in the firm. On the same day that the 
first daily issue was placed before the public the first train on the Burlington & 
Missouri River Railroad steamed into Lincoln. A daily edition had prior to 
this been worked off on tlie hand press, during the session of the Legislature in 
the winter of 1869-70, but it contained little more than a summary of the legis- 
lative proceedings. In the spring of 1871 the Journal returned to the State Block, 
took possession of the rooms over Rudolph's grocery, where more space was 
available for the increased work of the paper. 

Shortly after this Brownlee disposed of his interests to H. D. Hathaway, of 
the Plattsmouth Herald, taking an interest in the latter paper as part payment, 
and the firm became Gere & Hathaway. In 1872 the job business of the publica- 
tion was separated from it and A. H. Mendenhall and George W. Roberts, of 
Peoria, 111., joined the forces. They took charge of the job printing department 


and built up a creditable trade. The name of the new corporation was the State 
Journal Company. 

In the early part of the year 1882 the working cjuarters of the company 
again became too cramped and the present building was constructed on the corner 
of Ninth and P streets, northeast. Ground was broken for the construction in 
June, 1S80, and the building was ready for occupancy in December, 1881. The 
Journal is published from this same building at the present time. 

In 1887 Mr. Roberts sold out his interest to John R. Clark, then cashier of 
the First National Bank. Air. Gere became president; Mr. Mendenhall, vice 
president; Mr. Clark, secretary; and Mr. Hathaway, treasurer, of the corpora- 
tion. The corporation has existed until now, various changes of stock having 
occurred at different times. The Gere estate continues to hold a large share of 
the stock. 

In August, 1897, the Journal Company bought the News plant, quite an im- 
portant addition to the former. 

Col. Thomas H. Hyde, the founder of the News, wrote the following of the 
paper: "In 1881 there were four daily newspapers, the Journal, Globe, Democrat 
and News. The supply of weekly and monthly publications was large, represent- 
ing manifold interests, all of which effectually drained the finances of sympathetic 
merchants, manufacturers, breeders of pet stock, and others interested in the 
production and sale of miscellaneous goods and wares they advertised. The 
News made its first appearance September 26th, the funeral occasion of the 
lamented President James A. Garfield. Four hundred and eighty copies, four 
columns each, were printed and five young lads, all bloated with noise, started 
the sale and delivery, with instructions to place all advertisers on the free list. 
Within less than three hours the entire edition was exhausted and nearly sufficient 
returns in the cash box to pay for paper and composition of reading matter. 

"Eastern Nebraska was recovering from the disastrous effects of the grass- 
hopper plague, and although crops had been excellent for several years, prejudice 
had not been entirely removed. Settlers were becoming numerous and so were 
the excursionists. A grand revival was evident. The city directory showed a 
large increase of business and citizens. The big railroads were headed this way, 
real estate, city lots especially, were advancing in price. Eastern capital flooded 
the banks and safes of money loaners. Opelt's line of Herdice was in operation at 
5 cents a jog, and Harry Durfee whh a street railroad was on his way from 

The first start of the News was as a morning paper by Hyde & Fleming. It 
was then printed in a small office' in the basement of the southeast corner of 
Eleventh and O streets. Fleming remained but a few months. It was then moved 
upstairs over 1136 O Street, and issued from the job office of E. B. Hyde. It was 
four-column folio, but finally reached a maximum of four pages, eight column. 

In 1885 Walter Hoge of Streator, 111., purchased a third interest, the paper 
then being issued from the third story of the block at the southwest corner of 
Tenth and O streets. Later it was moved to North Tenth Street, and then to 125 
North Ninth Street, where it remained until purchased by the Journal. Air. 
Hoge withdrew in 1888. and the paper passed into the hands of the Lincoln 
News Company, with T. H. Hyde, E. B. Hyde and J. W. Jordan as the principal 
stockholders. In December, 1891. the newspaper was purchased by a stock com- 


pany composed of H. T. Wesleniiann. Fritz W'estcrmann, Max Westermanii, 
Sam E. Low and H. T. Dobbins. W. Morton Smith became its managing editor. 
Later he was succeeded by Sam E. Low and when he resigned, because of il! 
health, he was succeeded in 1893 by H. T. Dobbins, who has remained as editor 
ever since. 

In ]\Iarch, iSi;", the News passed into the hands of H. H. Tyndalc, of New 
York, an uncle of the W'estermanns. Two years previously the company installed 
the first linotypes in the City of Lincoln, and the heavy expense, followed closely 
by the hard times, compelled the mortgaging of the plant. Mr. Tyndalc purchased 
it in foreclosure proceedings. He ran it for six months through his brother, 
T. IT. Tyndale. In August, 1897, J- C. Seacrest purchased the newspaper and a 
few weeks later disposed of it to the State Journal Company, which operates it 
as a newspaper independent of other jjublications, with a distinct stafT and news 

The Journal and the News are both independent re[)ublican in jiolitics and 
maintain a large influence throughout the eastern part of Nebraska. Will Owen 
Jones, who has been connected with the paper since 1892, is managing editor 
of the Nebraska State Journal. H. T. Dobl.iins, editor of the News, has been 
with the paper for twenty-eight years. Under the guidance of these two news- 
paper veterans the Journal and the News have maintained a strict policy, edi- 
torially, and iiave wen popularity through honesty and fairness in giving the 
latest news to the pulilic in the shortest time. 

In May, 1902, there started in the City of Lincoln a dailv newspaper, inde- 
pendent democratic in politics, which was destined to gain an enviable position 
in the newspaper field of Nebraska. This was the Lincoln Daily Star. The 
Star Publishing Company, which issues the publication, was incorporated on 
May 22, 1902, by D. E. Thompson, H. F. Rose, W. B. Comstock. The company 
was reincorporated on September 26th of the same year, with D. E. Thompson, 
president, and C. D. Mullen, secretary. A handsome building was constructed 
on the southeast corner of Eleventh and M streets in 1902. On September 13, 
igio, a change of ownership occurred, D. E. Thompson, the principal stockholder, 
disposing of his interests, although he still owns the building occupied by the 
paper. Herbert E. Gooch now owns the principal stock of the company. J. \V. 
Outright is the editor of the Lincoln Star at the present time. Mr. Outright 
started in newspaper work in Lincoln as early as 1892, having been a member 
of the News staff at that time. 

The first German newspaper published in the city was the Staats-Zeitung, 
which was ov^-ned and edited by Dr. F. Renner. This paper was afterwards 
removed to Nebraska City. 

The Germans residing in the city in 1880 contributed certain sums of money 
and the Nebraska Staats-Anzeiger was first published in May of that year by 
Peter Karberg, who had come here from Dubuque. Iowa. The paper became very 
influential in the state. Mr. Karberg died on July 2, 1884, and it became neces- 
sary to dispose of the paper, the plant finally going to Henry Briigmann. In 
October, 1887, however, financial difficulties compelled the foreclosure and .'ale 
of this publication. 

The Lincoln Freie Presse was first published on September i, 1884, by G. Z. 
Bluedhorn, who afterwards sold it to J. D. Kluetsch. The Freie Presse is still 


published in Lincoln and is very prominent in the State of Nebraska as well as 
in surrounding states. The circulation is large among the German people in this 
territo'ry. and, both mechanically and editorially, the Presse is of high standard. 

The Nebraska Farmer was the first agricultural paper to be published in 
Lincoln, having been established in 1872 by Gen. J. C. McBride and J. C. Clark- 
son. At the time this publication was established the farming and live stock in- 
terests of Nebraska amounted to very little in comparison to their present status, 
but the main reason for establishment of the Nebraska Farmer was to promote, 
by its influence, the success of certain land deals in the state in connection with 
a railway project. It was not many years until the farming interests of the state 
began to gain appreciably and the paper became more successful. It is now being 
published in Lincoln and is one of the most successful farm and livestock papers 
in the Middle West. 

The Commoner is a monthly paper which has gained national reputation, 
owing to the prominence of its owner, William Jennings Bryan. Mr. Bryan 
established the Commoner in January, 1901, and it has been published regularly 
since that time. The first office of this paper was in the building on the east 
side of Twelfth, between L and M, but it is now housed in the Press Building at 
Thirteenth and N. Mr. Charles W. Bryan is the editor of the paper, which has 
an extensive circulation over the whole country. Bryan democracy in all its 
phases, even to ultra-pacifism, 1916, is the editorial tone of the sheet. 

Numerous other publications are now issued from Lincoln, including the 
various university and college papers, and many more have been established in 
the past and died for want of support. The ones mentioned, however, are the 
leaders in a field of much varied journalism. 


r.y .■ourit-sy vt <;. K. WmU ot LiiH-.i 



Mr. C. N. Baird, the third postmaster of the City of Lincohi, wrote the fol- 
lowing in regard to his postal experiences here : 

"I arrived in Lincoln March 22, 1S68, when the postoffice was in a small 
building made of brown sandstone, located on the corner of Tenth and O streets. 
Jacob Dawson was then serving his term as first postmaster of Lincoln, but re- 
signed in the summer of that same year. W. J. Abbott was appointed the second 
postmaster and was removed a short time afterwards for rifling the mail. About 
November, 1868, the office was removed to a small frame building, 14 by 16 
feet in size, north of the Humphrey Hardware Store. My first appointment was 
January 8, 1869, signed by A. C. Randall, postmaster-general, on recommendation 
of John ^L Thayer. 

"On coming into office I found a great amount of mail that had been forwarded 
from both houses of the Legislature which was to be stamped and mailed. There 
was not a stamp or an envelope in the office, so I marked the bunch of mail paid 
and shipped it out. I did not know what would be done with me for doing this, 
but I was not going to be caught with all of that mail upon my hands. I wrote 
to the officials at Washington explaining the situation and kept an account of 
the mail sent until I could receive a supply of stamps from Omaha. At that 
time all of the office supplies were brought from Omaha on the stage, mail being 
delivered three times a week. 

"One morning as I was cleaning out a box of old papers I found a long 
envelope addressed to officials at Washington, D. C. It was quite evident that 
the postage stamp had been pulled oiT and the letter thrown away, so I opened it 
to see what it might be. It was an application for the postmastership whicli had 
been mailed at the time of Dawson's administration. Abbott, who was appointed 
his successor, was working in the office at that time and had thrown away this 
application without mailing it, after taking off the revenue stamp, which at that 
time was worth one dollar, and placing it on his own application. As no one else 
had applied for the office this young fellow thought it would only be a matter 
of hearing from Washington until he would be postmaster. Meanwhile he built 
a nice set of cases for the letters and rented a room for the office. As time rolled 
by no word was received from W'ashington until Abbott was appointed post- 
master. The boy had told me his story and when I found his application thrown 
among the rubbish in the office, it explained all. I had recommended the boy and 
was very sorry he did not get the office as he was a good, honest fellow. The 
postmaster's salary was then $300.00. 

"In 1870 I removed the office to a room on Eleventh Street, south of the 



Harley Drug Store. The next move was to the west side of Eleventh Street, 
into a frame building owned by Walsh & Putnam, which stood next to the alley. 
Afterwards I moved to the north side of the square just east of the Atwood 
Motel, which was located on the present site of the State Journal Building. The 
last move I made was to the Hallo Opera House, at Twelfth and O streets. All 
the moves made were for more room and better facilities for handling the mails. 
Mr. Hallo tendered the free use of the corner room and as others had made the 
same offer I asked the postoffice department to send a special agent to make the 
selection. They ordered Maj. John B. Furay of Omaha to come, he being at 
that time a special agent. He came down and visited the various places that had 
been oft'ered me and gave a hearing to all interested parties, after which he asked 
nie conhdentially where I wanted to go. 1 told him and in a few days I received 
a lease from ihe department and I was instructed to pay $ii a month as stated 
in the lease. 

'T was succeeded by Gen. Otto Funke. \Miile he was there the building 
burned down, but the mail was saved. When I took charge of the office we had 
no railroad. Our mail was carried by stage coaches, spring wagons, buckboards 
and upon horseback. I received the first mail brought into Lincoln by railroad."' 

At the time of the laying of the cornerstone of the present magnificent post- 
office building, Mr. E. R. Sizer, then postmaster, read a paper in which was an 
account of the building of the first postoffice building, now the city hall of Lincoln. 
This excerpt follows : 

"Governor Robert \\". I'.urns conveyed the market space to the City of Lincoln 
on March 31. 1873, and Acting Alayor John J. Gosper, with City Clerk Cantlon. 
attesting, on the ist day of April, 1873, conveyed the present Government Square 
to the United States of America, in accordance with an ordinance of the city 
council, dated March 31. 1873. 

"Senator P. W. Hitchcock, of Omaha, was mainly influential in securing the 
original appropriation for the old Government building. He had succeeded Gen. 
John M. Thayer as senator in 1871 and (ieneral Thayer was also influential in 
urging u[)on the Government the actual instituting of the work of excavation and 
erection of the building, and in getting other necessary preliminaries arranged 
and thereby preventing the appropriation from lapsing. As the remaining time 
was very short during which the appro]:)riation would be available, and as Sen- 
ator Hitchcock was at that time in h'urope. General Thayer made a trip to Wash- 
ington and saw Hon. A. B. ?ilullett, the supervising architect of the treasury, who 
was a personal friend of the general and who took immediate steps toward the 
adjustment of the title of the site and the erection of the building. W. H. B. 
Stout is also said to have been influential locally in urging the original appropri- 
ation for the Government building. 

''Senator Hitchcock had Col. O. H. Wilson appointed a superintendent of 
the Government building. Mr. Wilson served in that capacity for about one year 
and was succeeded by a Mr. Heals, who served a shorter period. Mr. Reals was 
in turn succeeded by Mr. Tyler, who continued as superintendent of construction 
until tlie building was finished. 

"The survey for the excavation of the old building was made May 25. 1874. 
and ground was broken on Tuesday, May 26, 1874. One of the newspapers of 
that date mentioned that it was very difficult to plow the ground, due to its being 



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\1K\V Ul i'OSTOFFICE IN ls7.:, 
Old Capitol Building in the distance 

By c-oUitesy uf (J. U. Woit of Liti.ulu 

Now City Hall 

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])acked by reason of its being a market. Tbe State Jonrnal of May 28, 1874, 
notes that Colonel Wilson had given the preference to married men over single 
men in employment on the postoffice building. On June 30, 1874, the announce- 
ment was made in the local press that the excavation was completed. The contract 
for stone work on the Government building was let three different times, the last 
being to W. H. B. Stout. The Beatrice Cement Company was awarded the 
contract for furnishing cement. C. H. Gould and a Mr. Sawyer furnished the 
sand and brick. The building was finally built of gray limestone, said to have 
been taken from the Gwyer Quarries on the Platte River. No exercises appear 
to have been had in connection with the laying of the cornerstone of the old build- 
ing and it was completed in 1879." 

Immediately after the abandonment of the old postoffice building in 1906, the 
new one being completed, the city took steps to utilize the building as a city hall. 
Pirns were made and the interior rearranged and refinished for the accommoda- 
tion of the city offices and council rooms. The building now serves the purpose 
of a city hall. 

The new $350,000 postoffice building was erected just north of the old struc- 
ture, upon Government Square, and was secured largely through the efforts of 
Congressman E. J. Burkett. On September 2, 1904, the cornerstone was laid 
and in the fall of 1906 the building was formally opened to the public. The corner- 
stone was laid in the forenoon by the Masonic Grand Lodge of Nebraska, with 
Grand Master Charles E. Burnham, of Norfolk, in charge of the ceremonies. 
An escort of Knights Templar in uniform and Blue Lodges Nos. 19 and 54, 
gave the ceremonies a picturesque appearance. The program included a prayer 
by Rev. J. Lewis Marsh, chaplain of the Grand Lodge; addresses by Governor 
I. II. ^Mickey, Mayor George A. Adams, Congressman Burkett and Postmaster 
E. R. Sizer. The brass band of the Bittner Stock Company, which was then fill- 
ing an engagement in Lincoln, furnished the inusic, the Hagenow Band being 
obliged to play at the State Fair then in progress. 

In 1915 an appropriation of $100,000 was secured for an addition to the post- 
office building, in order to give more rooin for the work of the office. This 
appropriation has since been raised to $225,000. Work upon the addition to the 
west is now in progress, during which time the postoffice occupies temporary quar- 
ters in the improvised building at the corner of Tenth and N streets, southeast. 

The postmasters v/ho have served in the City of Lincoln have been: Jacob 
Dawson, appointed when the capital was located here and served until the fall of 
1868, when he resigned: W. J. Abbott, served a few months only: C. N. Baird, 
January, 1869-April. 1875 : Otto Funke, April, 1875-June, 1881 ; J. C. McBride, 
Tune, ■1881-November, 1885: Albert Watkins, November, 1885-January, 1890; 
"C. H. Gere, January, 1890-March, 1894; J. H. Harley, March, 1894-February, 
1898; H. M. Bushnell, March, 1898-February, 1902: E. R. Sizer, March, 1902- 
November, 1914; F. W. Brown, November, 1914-died July 7, 1915; J. G. Lud- 
lan, July 8th-September 18; A. S. Tibbetts, September i8th-died September 25th; 
Frederick Shepherd. September 27th-November 15th: Samuel G. Hudson, No- 
vember 15th-. Ludlan, Tibbetts and Shepherd were acting postmasters only. 
Mr. Hudson is the first regular postmaster since F. W. Brown. 

To give one some idea of the amount of business done in the Lincoln postoffice 
the figures for 191 5 are used. The total postal receipts for the year amounted 


to $465,328.75; stamp sales amounted to $384,851.54; there were 20,929 parcel 
post packages delivered ; there were 24,891 insured parcels dispatched ; there 
were 2,866 insured parcels delivered ; there were 19,941 C. O. D. parcels dis- 
patched ; the outgoing mail of the first class by machine count totaled 15,296,000 
parcels ; the money order department handled the sum of $3,485,633.23 ; in the 
postal savings department there was on deposit $22,617.00. The postal business 
of Lincoln has been increasing every year. There are 169 employes of the Lin- 
coln office. 


For the early history of the public library in the City of Lincoln the account 
written by Mrs. S. B. Pound and read before the Nebraska State Historical 
Society on January lo, 1893, is quoted. It is as follows : 

"The Lincoln Public Library and Reading Room Association, the embryo of 
the city library, was organized toward the close of the darkest period in the his- 
tory of Lincoln, the year 1875. No just conception can be had of its early 
struggles and privations without a review of that period. 

"As is well known to those who lived in Nebraska at that time, the summers 
of 1873 ^"d 1874 had been dry, the crops were poor, and what the drouth and 
hail had spared was taken by the grasshoppers. The winter of 1874-75 was se- 
verely cold, the thermometer during the months of January and February stand- 
ing for many days at a time below zero. It was a time most painful to remember. 
There was the long and constant appeal for help from the poor and sufifering 
tluring the winter, and the gloomier prospects of the coming spring. Who can 
picture to himself today the Lincoln of 1875? L'pon the square was a pile of 
stones and an excavation, the beginning of the United States Courthouse and 
Postoffice (now the Lincoln City Hall). On each side of the square were a few 
business houses — perhaps a dozen in all. Three or four of these were of brick 
or brown sandstone, the rest hastily erected frame buildings, which seemed illy 
adapted to withstand the strong winds that would blow with increasing fury 
from the south, and then with a sudden veer, would come with a redoubled energy 
from the north. 

"At the southeast corner of O and Tenth streets, the eye, wearied with the 
unpleasant repetition of sc|uare front, white frame grocery stores, found rest; for 
there, in all its fresh, new beauty, stood the First National Bank Building, called 
the State Block. O Street, between Tenth and Eleventh, had begun to assume 
something like symmetrical proportions. It contained five or six brick blocks, 
the finest of which was the Academy of Music. Business ended at Twelfth 
Street where stood Hallo's Opera House ; and the croakers — of whom there were 
many — wondered why he had located it so far east, and said that business 
could never stretch beyond that distant point. A few of the more sanguine said 
it might possibly reach Fourteenth Street. The high school building recently 
finished was thought bv some to be too large, who advised turning it into a Meth- 
odist Seminary and building two smaller ones. There were five hotels, some of 
them very good for the times; the Atwood. the Metropolitan, the Clifton, the 
Commercial and the Tichenor. The churches were all frame structures and occu- 
pied their present sites with the exception of the Presbyterian, Baptist and Chris- 



tian. Residences were scattered promiscuously over the prairie, apparently by 
accident. The most thickly settled part of the town lay between F and R streets 
and Eighth and Seventeenth. A very few were sufficiently aristocratic to own 
brick houses, but the majority were either square cottages or the regulation 
four-room, story and a half structures. The title to the disputed eighty had not 
yet been settled and on this barren looking spot stood one lonely house, the un- 
finished brick built by George Smith, the jeweler. There were few well defined 
streets. The roads ran as best suited the convenience of the public and that 
might be directly across one's front or liack yard. This was Lincoln -of Janu- 
ary I, 1875, looking ahead with gloom and foreboding at the approaching session 
of the Legislature, yet brave enough to celebrate New Year's Day by keeping 
'open house.' 

"The new year opened badly. There was first the mutiny at the penitentiary, 
which Ijrought that institution into unpleasant prominence at an unfortunate 
time. Next stalked forth the grim spectre of Capital Removal, which stayed con- 
stantly by and never vanished until the adjournment of the Legislature. Once 
during that dreary time, the local editor of the State Journal had the courage to 
record the following 'magnificent improvements' that were to come with the 
approaching spring : the l)uilding of the Holmes Block on Eleventh Street between 
O and N, the Lamborn and W'iltman blocks on the cast side of the square, and 
then he breaks forth iiUo the following pleasant refrain : 'All these things speak 
well for the future of our beautiful new city, and we advise those who wish to 
make good investments to come early and secure good seats.' 

"The spring was cold, backward and rainy, but not cold enough to destroy 
the yoinig grasshoppers or retard their growth. Yet one reads with pleasure 
in the old files of the State Journal that through the energy of Mr. H. J. W^alsh 
a subscription was raised and the citizens celebrated Arbor Day, May 3d, by 
planting trees on the capitol grounds. One also finds about the same time a 
published statement of the expenditure of $59.25 raised by the same gentleman 
to plant trees on the university campus. Beside the rain and the grasshoppers 
fresh troubles were in store for the citizens of Lincoln. These came May 9th 
with the meeting of the constitutional convention. First and foremost was 
always the question of capital removal and now in addition to this was the agita- 
tion suddenly sprung by the Omaha RejHiblican, which advised the closing of the 
state university for five years, in order to give the high schools of the state a bet- 
ter chance and to save expenses. This, perhaps, might be called the turning point 
in the liistory of I^incoln, for it was at this crisis, through the untiring energy 
of the Lancaster delegation, that by the submission to the people, of what is 
known as the capital coupon, the question of capital removal was finally laid to 

"The summer of 1875 was probably the rainiest ever known in the annals of 
Nebraska. The rain gauge at the college farm registered for June alone 5.88 
inches. Salt Creek was out of its bounds the most of the summer, and once 
during the month of June the high water reached nearly to the Metropolitan 

"By July 1st the last hopper had flown, the continuous wet weather hurried 
along vegetation, and where a few weeks before starvation seemed to stare one 
in the face now crops promised abundance. The fall was probably warm and 






dry, lor in the State Journal of September 20th the echtor warns the people 
against the danger of prairie fires, and A'ery soon after the fire company burned 
a cordon around the town. The greatest calamity of the year was the burning 
of Hallo's Opera House on the evening of October 5th. With characteristic 
energy the people immediately subscribed $10,000 and on October 12th Mr. Hallo 
began tearing away the old walls preparatory to rebuilding. 

"It was about this time that the people began to agitate in earnest the subject 
of a public library and reading room, and to urge the consolidation of the Young 
.Men's Library and Lecture Association and the Ladies' Library and Reading 
Room Association. These two associations, organized at nearly the same time, 
were working in different directions to accomplish the same end. The first had, 
during the winters previous, given the people the jjenefit of many excellent lec- 
tures. The second, organized immediately after the temperance crusade, had 
maintained for a time a reading room on Eleventh Street, just south of Harley's 
Drug Store. This, on account of hard times, was discontinued in April of 1875. 
The ladies, however, did not relincjuish the project, but held a meeting on Alay 
8th in the interest of their association. The earliest mention that one finds of the 
plan of consolidation is in the State Journal of July 27th. The editor says, 'We 
hope those who have been agitating the city lijjrary question will not give up the 
undertaking, but will see that the library becomes an assured fact the coming 
fall. By a union of the Ladies' Reading Room Association and the Lincoln 
Lecture Association, the matter can be accomplished without extraordinary 

"About November 15th things took a definite shape and a meeting was called 
at the White Schoolhouse on Eleventh and O streets for the purpose of 'establish- 
ing and maintaining a public library and reading room.' The following persons 
were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws: E. J. Cartlege, 
J. C. Ellis, H. W. Hardy, T. H. Leavitt, O. A. Mullon and L. J. Bumstead. Their 
report can be found in the State Journal of December 9, 1875. In this report they 
state that they 'have held eight lengthy sessions," that they 'had extended an 
invitation to the officers of the Lincoln Lecture Association to meet with them,' 
that 'the invitation had been cordially accepted,' and that at one of the meetings 
X. S. Harwood had presided. They further state thai 'impressed with the pro- 
found sense of the importance of the interests under consideration, not only for 
the present, but for the future citizens of this city and vicinity' they 'had applied 
themselves to the matter accordingly, and with the purpose to suggest and pro- 
vide for such a plan of association and operation as should serve for a good 
foundation on which to build safely and surely, and with reasonable prospects 
of steady growth and permanent endurance.' They called attention to the diffi- 
culties which beset the enterprise, on account of the newness of the town, the 
complex character of its inhabitants, and the difficulty of providing ways and 
means, especially at a time when it would seem most difficult in view of the 
disasters of the two previous seasons. In submitting a constitution they strongly 
recommended to the citizens that no hasty action should be taken, and above all 
that no division of interest should be allowed. They commended the work of 
both associations and suggested a way by which they could be united. 

"This report was read and approved at a meeting held December 12th at the 
Academy of Music. This meeting was called to order by E. J. Cartlege and 


Chancellor Benton presided. Speeches were made by J. R. Webster, Judge O. P. 
Mason, N. S. Harwood, and others. As an incentive to prompt action on the part 
of the citizens, Mr. Webster alluded to the record the town had already made, 
especially in the matter of railroad building. Donations of books and money 
were called for ; promises of assistance previously made were renewed. The 
best gift at this meeting was a set of Appleton's American Encyclopedia donated 
by Prosper Smith. A committee was appointed to canvass the town and the 
meeting adjourned until December iSth. 

"At this meeting N. S. Harwood presided and O. A. IMullon acted as secre- 
tary. The chairman of the canvassing committee reported that they had secured 
twelve life members and 130 annual members, amounting to $984. The Commit- 
tee on Permanent Organization reported the following names for officers: N. S. 
Harwood, president ; Mrs. Sarah F. Harris, vice president ; Mrs. Ada Van Pelt, 
secretary : H. W. Hardy, treasurer : Joel L. Franklin, Otto Funke, O. A. Mullon, 
trustees; C. H. Gere, f. H. Leavitt, J. R. Webster, S. S. Brock, May Bostater, 
Miss N. Cole, directors. 

"The first meeting of the board of directors was held December 20th at the 
office of Tuttle and Harwood. At this meeting various committees were ap- 
pointed. The next meeting of the board, held December 30th at the same place, 
voted to rent the entire second floor of the Briggs Block at $240 per year. The 
lease was afterwards drawn by J. R. Webster. When the bells rang in the 
centennial vear the Lincoln Public Library and Reading Room Association was 
practically established. There being no provision in the statutes of Nebraska for 
the founding and maintaining of public libraries, it was of necessity a subscrip- 
tion association. The two old associations had combined. The ladies turned 
over their property, consisting of some articles of furniture, fixtures, and $21 in 
cash, and the young men of the lecture association gave the proceeds of their 
lectures amounting to about three hundred dollars to the book fund, making their 
own selection of books. 

"On January 28, '1876, the library was ready for the public and Mrs. Van Pelt, 
the librarian, commenced to give out books. The floor was covered with a bright 
red ingrain carpet ; there was a table covered with green cloth at each end of the 
room, and the walls were hung with pictures donated by members of the associa- 
tion. On the shelves were 367 books. The library was kept open on Sunday, 
the directors serving in alphabetical order in place of the librarian. This custom 
they continued until the summer of 1882, when the finances were sufficient to 
allow the directors to pay extra for Sunday service. On March 7, 1876, the 
librarian made her first report. There were then in the library over one thousand 
volumes. During the time that the library had been open 212 books had been 
drawn out for home use and 665 used in the room. 

"The first half of the year 1877 found the new and struggling library con- 
stantly in arrears. In February a committee consisting of Messrs. Harwood, 
Franklin and McBride presented to the city council a petition signed by the prin- 
cipal taxpayers of the city and asked for an appropriation. This appropriation 
was passed March loth and vetoed March 28th by the mayor, R. D. Silver. 
popularly known as the watch dog of the city treasury. Of the many reasons 
given for this veto, three are here given. First, because it would lead to other 
foolish appropriations and tend to extravagance ; second, because of its unconsti- 


tutionality, there being no provision in the city charter for such action ; and histlv, 
because he 'did not think the citizens cared to be taxed to furnish a resort for 
boys and young men incHned to be wild.' 

"In April, the treasury of the library association being empty, the rent was 
paid by Messrs. Harvvood and McBride. Soon after the association was author- 
ized to borrow $ioo, the note being signed by Otto Funke. trustee, and endorsed 
and guaranteed by J. R. Webster, N. S. Harwood, C. D. Hyatt and C. H. Gere, 
jointly and severally. 

"It was most fortunate for the city library at this crisis that the newly elected 
mayor, H. W. Hardy, was friendly to its interests. He had been one of the 
committee on constitution and by-laws at the time of its organization, and had 
been its lirst treasurer. He urged an appropriation of $ioo, which was promptly 
passed, only two members of the city council opposing. This appropriation kept 
the library association alive until, under the act passed by the Legislature Febru- 
ary I", 1877, 'for the establishment and maintaining of free public libraries,' an 
ordinance could be passed and a levy made for its support. This ordinance was 
passed by the city council and approved by Mayor Hardy June 15th. On July 
25, 1877, the property of the Lincoln Public Library and Reading Room Asso- 
ciation was conveyed by deed to the City of Lincoln, and the Lincoln Public 
Library established. 

"One mill upon each dollar of assessed valuation was the amount allowed for 
the library fund. When this levy was made, the library had already incurred an 
indebtedness of several hundred dollars. The tax not being collected for a year 
the board issued warrants and sold them at a discount. The levy being subse- 
quently reduced to three-fourths of a mill, it took until 1888 to pay off the indebt- 
edness and bring the warrants to their par value. In the meantime, in order to 
raise a book fund, the board was obliged to charge $1 a year for membership 
tickets. This method, which often subjected the directors to severe criticism, 
but which fortunately was never stopped by legal proceedings, was discontinued 
September i, 1888, when the library being free from debt, the books were 
loaned on guaranty cards. 

"On January i, 1881, the library was moved from the Briggs Block to the 
second floor of the building long known as The Little Store, next to the Alex- 
ander Block at the corner of O and Twelfth streets. Here the library remained 
for nine years, and notwithstanding its poverty, gradually expanded until there 
was no more room for alcoves and the reading room would not longer hold 
the crowd that came daily to the library. On January I, 1889, the library was 
removed to the Harris Block on N Street, between Eleventh and Twelfth." 

This concludes the history as written by Mrs. Pound, 

The library remained for five years at the Harris Block location, and at the 
end of this time, after a canvass, the Masonic Temple was selected and a five 
years' lease secured. The library was installed in rooms on the second floor. 

On September 16, 1899, the city library, at the above location, was totally 
destroyed by fire. Immediate steps were taken, however, for its restoration. 
Books were collected and catalogued as rapidly as possible and the following 
winter the library was again open to the public. For 2^ years it was located 
on the third floor of the Oliver Theater Building, and on May 27, 1902, moved 
into its permanent home. 


Soon after the fire the needs of the library were brought to the attention of 
Andrew Carnegie and on Christmas of the year 1899 he otTered to the city the 
sum of $75,000 for the erection of a building. Steps were taken immediately 
to secure a site and though several were ottered as a gift none were wholly suit- 
able for the purpose. The library board, therefore, appealed to the citizens of 
the city for voluntary donations with which to purchase a site, with the result that 
about $10,000 was subscribed for the purpose by the residents, numbering 5,500, 
in amounts ranging from 5 cents to $1,000. Later Mr. Carnegie gave $2,000 more 
to finish the structure. Fisher & Lawrie, of Omaha, were the architects of the 
building. Ground was broken December i, 1900. 

Preliminary plans were adopted by the board after a careful investigation of 
modern libraries and the particular needs to be met in this case. The prime 
feature in determining the essential details of the plan was the possibility of 
economical administration. It was recognized that no library is so rich in funds 
that its usefulness cannot be enhanced by economy in administrative expenses. 
With this in view it was necessary to bring all the essential departments of the 
library together on a single floor, with the rooms so arranged as to allow com- 
plete supervision from a single point. The main portion of the building is a 
rectangle, 68 by 104 feet. In the rear is an extension for the main stack room, 
20 by 43, and a small extension for the librarian's and cataloguing rooms, 19 by 27 
feet. The building consists of a main floor and a high basement, the floor of the 
latter being but 3^ feet below the building grade, which itself is about three feet 
above the level of the street. The entrance is directly to the main floor. The base- 
ment to the top of the water table, a distance of about ten feet, is faced with first 
quality blue Bedford stone, accurately squared and rubbed. Above this, the build- 
ing is constructed of the best quality of gray pressed brick, with trimmings of gray 
terra cotta several shades lighter. The roof is covered with a dull red tile and the 
whole is surmounted by a low dome, faced with gray brick and roofed with 

The entrance, which is approached by a flight of easy stairs, is surmounted 
by a pediment in which are ornamental designs of terra cotta in high relief. The 
pediment is supported by two fluted Ionic columns, one on each side of the en- 
trance. The entrance through the outer door is into a broad light vestibule, 
wainscoted with dark Tennessee marble. The upper portion is finished in Keen's 
cement, the sides being moulded in the form of pilasters. A short flight of stairs 
of easy steps brings the visitor to the level of the main floor, and from the 
vestibule he passes into the spacious and well lighted delivery room. To the 
right of the delivery room in front is the reading room for newspapers and 
periodicals. To the left is the staircase, leading to the basement. To the left 
and next to the staircase is the reference room, in which the arrangement of the 
books is such as to permit the doubling of the initial shelf capacity, without rear- 
rangement in any essential particular. 

Opposite the entrance in the delivery room is the main delivery counter, 
semi-circular in form, where books are received and issued. To the right of the 
delivery room is the children's room, in which are kept all books and periodicals 
for the special use of juvenile readers. 

The first board of directors elected by the city council consisted of the fol- 
lowing: C. H. Gere, T. H. Leavitt, C. D. Hyatt, S. W. Chapman, John M. Burks, 


Mrs. Paren England, Airs. M. E. Roberts, Airs. John L. McConncU. The fol- 
lowing have held the position of librarian : Mrs. Ada Van Pelt, Miss Laura 
Cinnamond, Miss Alice Morton, Miss Nellie Ormsbee, Miss Rachel Manley, Miss 
Sarah K. Daly, Miss Hattie Curtiss, Miss Carrie Dennis, Miss Jane H. Abbott, 
Miss Margaret Palmer, Aliss E. J. Hagey, Miss Lulu Home. 

To Mr. S. L. Geisthardt, for many years a member of the city library board, 
much credit is due for the watchful and unrelenting care given by him in the 
superintending of the construction of the building, which is one of the best for 
the money in the West, and the pride of Lincoln. There are now about thirty- 
seven thousand five hundred books in this library. 


In February, 1907, arrangements were made for a small space in a corner 
grocery store at Twenty-seventh and Holdrege streets. A small collection of 
books was sent out and on Saturday afternoons and evenings an assistant went 
out and lent books. This was the beginning of the northeast branch which was 
located at Twenty-seventh and Orchard. The citizens subscribed sufficient money 
for a site and Andrew Carnegie gave $10,000 for the construction of the build- 
ing. This was completed and opened to the public on July 29, 1909. 


Some of the early residents of Lincoln regard the imputation that there was 
only one swallow-tail in Lincoln in pioneer days as a slur upon the city. "This 
was always a well-dressed town," said one of these gentlemen, "The men were 
up-to-date young fellows from the East and wore just what they had been 
accustomed to wear in their eastern college or home towns. A dress coat of 
finest texture and finish worn in Lincoln in 1870-71 by J. W. Eckman, a banker 
and real estate man of those days, who died a few years ago, is preserved by 
his sister-in-law, Mrs. C. C. Waldo, known before her marriage as Libbie 
Gumaer.'' Further testimony as to T. P. Kennard's famous dress coat was 
received from John B. Wright, who settled in Lincoln in 1875. Mr. Wright 
recalled seeing Air. Kcnnard at political conventions in the early days clad in 
a dress suit. 

When N. C. Brock brought his bride to Lincoln in 1870 he had a Prince Al- 
bert coat, used at his marriage, and a silk hat. Another pioneer said that when 
Dr. and Mrs. S. G. Fuller, the latter Miss M. Frank Townley, were married at 
the Townley House in 1870, Doctor Fuller wore a dress suit. 

In this connection there is a clipping now preserved which gives an account 
of the coming of the Townley family to Lincoln, and the building of the Townley 
House. It follows : 

"In 1868 to call Lincoln a village was a misnomer. The magic city of the 
great American desert was altogether in the imagination of the real estate agent. 
In the early summer of that year my father came to Lincoln (written by Mrs. 
Fuller), purchased lots and let the contract for a ten-room house, to be built 
where the Lindell Hotel now stands, and to be completed the ist of October. 
The only building south of this location was on the corner of Thirteenth and K 
streets. Reverend Little of the Congregational Church lived in a i^-story 
house with a bay window, where R. H. Oakley's house now stands, on M Street 
between Sixteenth and Seventeenth. Elder Davis of the Methodist Church lived 
on L Street between Thirteenth and Fourteenth. On August 20th we left Cin- 
cinnati accompanied by our household and the inevitable dog, a thoroughbred 
pointer. My father met us at Nebraska City with two wagons to convey us and 
our effects to our new home. On the morning of September 20th we reached 
Lincoln. I will try to picture the city at that time. It had not more than seventy- 
five houses, built anywhere, regardless of the points of the compass, with nothing 
to show which was the front and which the back door or to define the street line ; 
no school or church, a few small stores about the postofifice square, the office 



itself in a dwelling honse and the postiiiaster himself very eurious over the few 

"On Tenth Street between I' and Q there was a small building in which 
sehool was kept. On Sunday morning the Methodists held a service there and 
HI the afternoon the Congregationalists. The first Episcopal service was held 
in Leighton's and Brown's unfinished store at the corner of Eleventh and O 
streets. We cleared a space in front, put a white cloth on one end of the car- 
penter's bench and made seats by placing a board on two nail kegs. I think there 
were twelve people there, of whom eight were familiar with the service, and of 
these eight seven have joined the majority. From that nucleus Holy Trinity 
Church came. In 1869 we had a mission priest who held service in many of the 
new buildings and after a while had the use of the Senate chamber. 

"There are a number of people in Lincoln today who remember many pleasant 
evenings spent in the old Townley House with music, games and conversation, 
when we did what we could to help each other through that first winter." 

The Lincoln Courier of 1890, in connection with an article on the Pleasant 
Hour Club, which had its beginning about 1874, has the following on the subject 
of dress : 

"Good form in the early days did not demand full dress at the Pleasant Hour 
assemblies, and the parties were marked by the entire absence of formality that 
inevitably follows the introduction of the claw-hammer, carriages and flowers. 
For a long time the town boasted of only one 'hack' and everybody walked. Cut- 
aways and Prince Alberts and the usual indoor feminine apparel constituted the 
full dress. A new era dawned ten or twelve years ago wdien G. W. Farwell broke 
the ice and appeared in a spick and span swallow-tail. His example was fol- 
lowed by a few of the bravest among the men, but it took some time before 
the wearing of these suits overcame the feeling of sheepishness. The custom 
demanded carriages and the Pleasant Hour parties gradually became more and 
more elaborate until the present condition of affairs was reached." This was 
printed in 1890, when the Pleasant Hour Club seemed too important in Lincoln's 
social life ever to be disbanded. 

An interesting collection of New Year's calling cards has been preserved by 
an early resident of Lincoln, and shows that the custom of extending greeting 
in person on the first day of the new year used to be quite general in this city. 
The earliest of the cards has the dates "1869-1870," and the name "Jesse M. 
Holden," with "A Happy New Year" at the top. Many of the cards have but 
one name, but more have several, showing that the men usually called in groups. 
A card of 1871 bears the names of N. C. Brock, R. H. Oakley, J. D. Thompson 
and R. C. Outcalt. Another dated 1871 shows that C. 'M. Parker, W. J. Turner, 
J. N. Eckman and I. Putnam went calling together on New Year's Day of that 
year. "Governor D. Butler," written in nicely shaded penmanship on a card, is 
a record that the governor of that period called alone. So did O. N. Humphrey, 
Steve Brock, and others. 

In 1875 the popularity of the New Year's call must have been at its height, 
judging from the number of cards preserved. That year J. J. Deck, A. C. Cass, 
O. W. Webster and C. S. Montgomery made the rounds together. Frank Shel- 
don, Charlie Hamlin and Rome Hurlburt were another group. A. J. Cropsey. 
J. H. McMurtry, W. H. Moore and D. W. Scott were another party whose 


names appear together. Among other groups of four or five men who had cards, 
some plain and some appropriately decorated for the season, were the following: 
John M. Thayer, C. H. Gould, Silas Garber, C. H. Willard and \\'. P. Farwell ; 
Charlie C. Caldwell, Ortha C. Bell, John A. Dodds and James M. Irwin ; T. C. 
Kern, J. H. Harley, Doc Yeazel and L. W. Coates. 

In 1890 a writer for the Lincoln Courier thus described the society of 1870: 

"Twenty years ago card playing was not general. Progressive euchre was as 
yet an unrevealed fad of the future, and high five and razzle-dazzle, so dear to 
the heart of the modern card enthusiast, had not been dreamed of. The facilities 
for dancing of the young, and at that time (comparatively) wild western town, 
were very meagre; consequently there was very little social activity. There were, 
however, a few mansions in the pioneer days whose owners were wont to entertain 
on occasion small gatherings of friends, which without those incidental amuse- 
ments so common today, were perhaps none the less agreeable. In those days the 
latest arrival was hail fellow well met with the oldest settler and what was lacking 
in ceremony was made up in perfect good will and universal friendliness. 

"Many of those now in the swim can recall the old time assemblies in the 
ancient Tichenor House at Thirteenth and K, which was at that time a leading 
hotel and the greatest political rendezvous in the state. Early in the '70s there 
were some memorable gatherings in the Townley House, later removed from M 
Street near Thirteenth and the Atwood mansion which stood on the site of the 
present Journal Building. At the former, about 1873, there was a notable enter- 
tainment at which A. C. Ziemer and Charley Smails, then B. & M. ticket agent, 
furnished the amusement. These gentlemen operated a telegraph line from one 
room to another for the benefit of fond maidens and devoted youths, who kept 
the wire burdened with tender messages all evening. 

"Nebraska City and Lincoln were united by a close bond of friendship in those 
days and the young people of the two towns saw a great deal of each other. Some 
of the trips to Nebraska City will be long remembered. 

"Lincoln has boasted an 'opera house' so long that the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant runneth not to the contrary. Dramatic performances were given in 
the Academy of Music at Eleventh and O streets ; but Hallo's Opera House was 
the most popular resort until it was rebuilt as the Centennial. Even as far back 
as fifteen years ago (written in 1890) strong attractions were common and 
society always turned out en masse when there was a 'show' in town. John 
McCullough, jMary Anderson, the Florences, Janauschek and Emma Abbot were 
among the eminent stars who were seen here over a decade ago. Richard Golden, 
Pauline Hall and Jessie Bartlett Davis were seen with Carleton before their repu- 
tations were made, and Marie Jansen and Francis Wilson also appeared here in 
the years agone. 'Chow Chow' as given by Adah Richmond in the Academy of 
Music, was a strong favorite with Lincoln playgoers and William Gill's 'Our 
Goblins,' of fifteen years ago was a great event. Kate Claxton, who assisted at 
the burning of so many theaters, was playing in the 'Two Orphans' at Hallo's 
fifteen seasons ago, when the theater was partially destroyed by fire. 

"The early governors were little given to entertainments ; but a number 
of receptions were given in the old capitol, and the chancellor's receptions were 
also leading events but a few years ago. 

"Society proper has, for the last sixteen years, been largely represented by 


tilt Pleasant Hour Club, probably the oldest social organization in the state. For 
an association dependent for perpetuation upon an annual reorganization 
to remain intact for more than a decade and a half is something very unusual. 
The Pleasant Hour Club has enjoyed a peculiar prosperity. Starting in a modest 
way, it has widened and broadened with time until it is now one of the most 
solidly established institutions of its kind to be found anywhere in the West. 
It stands for the active leading element in society, and its membership includes 
not only the younger class but a fair representation of those whose social position, 
long since determined, entitled them to lead in the affairs of the gay world. 

"To R. H. Oakley probably belongs the honor of giving the clulj its name. 
He was present at its first meeting and at his suggestion it was dubbed "Pleasant 
Hour." There is some dispute as to the exact date of the club's origin, the official 
records extending only back to 18S3, but as near as can be ascertained, it was 
organized in C)ctober, 1874, at a meeting held in H. J. Walsh's office. ]. O. West, 
later of Grand Island, was elected president, and R. H. Oakley, vice president. 
The next year West was succeeded by Oakley, and then W. P. Farwell was made 
the executive. The latter died during his tenure of oftice, the unexpired term 
being completed by O. W. Webster. After Webster the following gentlemen 
were honored by election to the presidency of the club : J- D. Macfarland, Thomas 
Ewing, Charles AI. Carter, Gordon H. Frinke and I. W'. Irwin. This brings the 
record down to 1883, when for technical reasons the original constitution was 
readopted with some modifications, and the following officers elected: President, 
C. M. Carter ; vice president, Frank C. Zehrung ; secretary, D. C. \^an Duyn ; 
treasurer, R. C. Outcalt ; executive committee, C. E. Magoon, R. H. Townley and 
C. S. Lippincott ; master of ceremonies, W. H. Green. During the season of 
1S84-5, W. A. Green was president and was succeeded in 1885-6 by Frank C. 
Zehrung, in 1886-7 by A. G. Beesoii, in 1887-8 by H. P. Foster, in 1888-9 by C. S. 
Lippincott, in 1889-90 by W. E. Hardy, who was followed by C. E. Magoon. 

"The oldest consecutive member of the club was Frank C. Zehrung, who joined 
fifteen years ago. Among the most notable assemblies under the auspices of the 
club may be mentioned the ball opening the east wing of the state capitol, which 
was an event of peculiar importance at the time. The custom of giving a reception 
to newly married members has been observed almost from the foundation of the 

"A junior branch of the Pleasant Hour existed for a few years but was merged 
into the regular club at the beginning of the season in 1890." 

The Pleasant Hour Club was dissolved about 1900. Many of the original 
members were no longer in the city and others had become too engrossed with 
serious matters to take the interest in planning gay affairs that they had felt when 


One of the social events of the year in Lincoln is the annual charity ball. 
The following account of the first reception of this kind held in Lincoln is taken 
from the columns of the State Journal and will suppl_\' unusual interest to those 
now living who were present at that time : 

"The first charity ball ever given in Lincoln took place Tuesday, January 14, 


1890, at the capitol and was described in the Capital City Courier on January i8th 
as 'The largest and, as a whole, the finest dancing party ever held in the capital 
city.' The account which appeared in the paper began with a Biblical quotation 
and a dissertation on the effects of the 'cry of distress' which were such as 'to 
even reach fashion, usually heartless to all that does not minister to its own pleas- 
ure,' and to cause pleasure and pity to clasp hands in friendly accord, and 'chase 
the shining hours with flying feet' on the floor of this same 'fashion.' 

"Tucked away in an obscure corner headed, 'Echoes of the Ball' was the 
information that 1,900 invitations were issued and that the profits would be over 
five hundred dollars, perhaps nearer six hundred- dollars. Miss Latta sold the 
greatest number of tickets and turned over $155 to the committee. Miss Ziemer 
came second with $145 and Miss Naomi Weaver was a good third with $45. 

"It was stated that A. C. Ziemer first suggested the ball and he was given 
credit for making the plans and seeing to the execution of them. A column was 
devoted to the description of Representative Hall where the dancing took place, 
and the corridors and nooks which has been arranged about the rotunda. Several 
columns were given to descriptions of the toilets of the ladies and an effort was 
made to secure a list of the names of all of the people who were present. 

"The following tells of the appearance of Representative Hall on the great 
occasion : 

"The gentlemen in charge were exceedingly fortunate in securing the use 
of the statehouse, which afforded magnificent accommodations and gave an 
added dignity and charm. The hall of the House of Representatives was used 
for dancing. The room had been in the hands of an experienced man for several 
days and was handsomely decorated. * * * Conspicuous among the decora- 
tions were the national colons. The upper window back of the speaker's desk 
was hidden by a flag draped vertically. On either side was a huge flag spread 
out horizontally with the stars next the window. Each of the four corners was 
broken with another big flag draped vertically. Next to attract notice were two 
ropes of fir festooned in parallel lines, about five feet apart, around the walls of 
the hall. The upper rope was caught by loops thrown over the ornamental key- 
stones in the window c;;ps on three sides of the room. Across the gallery the 
posts served as points of attachment. An evergreen rope and two evergreen 
rings hanging from the loops mentioned supported the second parallel rope. In 
each of the angles made by the festoons hung a pendant rope with a tassel of fir 
at the end. The posts in the gallery were also twined with evergreen. The 
speaker's desk was draped with a flag, and an evergreen rope bridged the space 
between the two upright lamps. Wreaths of evergreen crowned the lamps on the 
chief clerk's desk, and similar garlands of holly ornamented the bracket gas jets 
in the three walls. Tufts of fir and holly relieved the panels between the upper 
and the lower tier of windows. The walls were hung with oil paintings loaned 
for the occasion and a cluster of evergreen branches reared their heads from the 
recess back of each picture. The windows were draped with lace and chenille 
curtains (also loaned), giving with the pictures, a homelike air to the big hall. 
The grand central chandelier was studded thickly with pendant festoons of ever- 
green and a bell of fir swaing from the center by a rope just high enough to escape 
the heads of the dancers. The front of the gallery was hung with interlacing 
fir ropes. Midway of the two sides was the date, 'January 14,' in large letters of 


ruby and gold on a dark background, the whole being bound in evergreen. But 
the gem of the decorations remains to be described. Across the east wall, over 
the speaker's desk, was a long, narrow panel outlined by a trimming of fir. Within 
the lines the panel was filled with snow white cotton. Peeping out of this soft 
pure bed were scores of glass bulbs, incandescent electric lamps, arrangerl to spell 
the word "charity' in great luminous letters. 

"The company began assembling at 8.30 o'clock and just an hour later a cornet 
call announced the grand march. Governor Thayer had consented to lead the 
march. He selected Mrs. A. C. Ziemer to assist him in that pleasing duty, and 
they made a very striking couple. The governor is a fine looking gentleman, of 
dignified bearing and an erect military carriage. Mrs. Ziemer looked queenly in 
a regal robe of black velvet, en traine, low neck and short sleeves, black mous- 
(|uetaire gloves, diamonds, hand and corsage bouquets. As the governor and his 
lady stepped out upon the dancing floor the other participants formed in column 
after them. \'iolin and cornet and 'cello broke forth in a joyous fanfare, the 
word 'charity' flashed out upon the wall and flooded the already brilliant room 
with a white electric glow, the company burst into spontaneous applause at the 
beautiful sight — and Lincoln's first charity ball had begun. 

"Some of the ladies attending and the brief descriptions of the gowns worn 
by them are given as follows: 

"Miss Minnie Latta (Mrs. C. F. Ladd), pink faille and tulle, pearl trimmings, 
pink gloves, gold necklace : Miss Bertie Burr (Mrs. Beeman Dawes), yellow cash- 
mere, trimmed with black velvet, black velvet girdle, diamonds; Miss Maud 
Burr (Mrs. Ross P. Curtice), black lace, low neck and short sleeves, tan gloves, 
diamonds and rubies; Mrs. Hickey, light pink silk and light green ribbon trim- 
mings, fan; Martha Funke (Mrs. F. C. Howe), light blue china silk, accordeon 
skirt, narrow ribbon triiumings, red roses, tan gloves, diamonds ; Jeanette Wilson 
(Mrs. John T. Dorgan), white embroidered cashmere, white moire sash, tan 
gloves; Miss Hathaway (Mrs. J. S. Meadows), white mull with scarlet trim- 
mings, scarlet sash and mitts, diamonds; Cora Hardy (Mrs. T. E. Calvert), scarlet 
cashmere, accordeon skirt, ribbon trimmings, bonnet; Miss Carmody (Mrs. M. I. 
Aitkin), black henrietta, velvet trimmings, bonnet, diamonds; Maggie Mullon 
(Mrs. J. M. Thayer, Jr.). white skirt, pink and white striped overdress, pink 
roses; Gertie Laws (Mrs. W. E. Hardy), white silk accordeon skirt and flufty 
sleeves; Mrs. A. D. Burr, black silk, lace and diamonds; Maude Oakley (Mrs. 
L'ppham of San Francisco), red cashmere, princess style, black velvet trimmings; 
Mrs. A. S. Raymond, white cashmere trimmed in brown velvet ribbons ; Miss 
White (Mrs. Lew Marshall), gray cashmere embroidered in black; Miss Lau 
(Mrs. R. E. Gififen), gray cashmere, dark gray velvet trimmings, elbow sleeves, 
pink roses, tan gloves; Mrs. A. W. Jansen, pink faille, brocaded skirt, dainty 
ribbon trimmings, elbow sleeves, long tan gloves, diamonds, large feather fan; 
^liss AL-irquette (Mrs. James McAfee), yellow velvet and striped tulle, diamonds ; 
Olive Latta (]\Irs. Olive Watson), white cashmere, Persian trimmings, diamonds, 
pink rosebuds; Maude IMullon (Mrs. J. G. White)." 


Dress suits and the various habiliments relative to twentieth century society 
are quite ordinary in Lincoln, but it is well within the memory of many citizens 


when a swallow-taii was unknown and the appearance of a gentleman clad in this 
garb would have created unusual excitement and gossip. 

Many authorities upon this rather unusual subject have honored George W. 
Farwell with the distinction of having worn the first dress suit in Lincoln, but 
this has been largely discredited. Thomas P. Kennard antedates Mr. Farwell 
in this respect. In the memory of one citizen Mr. Kennard was seen walking 
on the main street in a dress coat as early as 1874. Mr. Kennard's daughter, 
Mrs. C. F. Chapman, remembers her father as wearing a frock coat, black velvet 
vest and a silk hat. Mr. Kennard himself claims to have worn a dress coat indis- 
criminately, the same as any other article of apparel. Due to the character of the 
country here at that time, when men were building for future homes, and the 
City of Lincoln consisted of practically nothing, the people did not cater to 
particular styles, nor did they view any eccentricity of dress with undue alarm, 
as they are wont to do now. 

However, Mr. Farwell still has the honor of having brought the first strictly 
dress suit to Lincoln, that is, a suit used solely for functions. This was in 1878, 
when he came to the city to live. 

Social life was growing rapidly in Lincoln by that date. The Pleasant Hour 
Club, the dancing club to which the "blue bloods'' belonged, met at regular inter- 
vals in the city hall, then located where the Fred Schmidt Building now stands. 
The ladies followed the styles of the East in simple evening dresses, while the 
men confined their dress to cutaways and Prince Alberts. The cost of a dress 
suit for a time was prohibitive, the price being anywhere from $175 to $225. 

As Nebraska was settled with eastern people, they naturally brought with them 
the prevailing fashions in clothes. There was never anything provincial about 
the people of Lincoln. The women who remained in the state kept their clothes 
up-to-date by buying patterns and noting new ideas brought by the latest arrivals 
from the eastern cities. The Hohmann family, which settled in Lincoln in 1869, 
two years after the location of the capital here, put m a stock of Demorest 
patterns in their dry goods store and kept them for sale for about twenty years. 

For many years the city churches performed the duties of social halls. Mrs. 
S. B. Hohmann, who came in 1876 to accept a position as leading singer for the 
First Presbyterian Church, said that she was always invited to sing at the other 
churches if anything special was given. Mrs. Hohmann was then Miss Helen 
Candee. Mrs. A. S. Raymond, then Miss Mollie Baird, was in charge of the 
music at the First Congregational Church. Miss Mattie Gerens and Miss Kate 
Gillette both sang at the Methodist Church. 

Mrs. Hohmann recalled driving out in the country with Miss Madge Hitch- 
cock, daughter of Professor Hitchcock of the university, the first summer in the 
state and on the day the grasshoppers came. The two girls heard the grasshop- 
pers in the corn, but thought it must be the sound of the corn growing, of which 
phenomenon they had read. Upon reaching their destination Mrs. Hohmann left 
a wool shawl on a bed and the grasshoppers devoured it before she returned to 

get it. 

In 1876 the women of Nebraska were wearing princess gowns with trains. 
For evening wear summer silk was used. The trained dresses were worn through 
the streets of Lincoln. 

All of the earlv dances and all the traveling shows were held at Representa- 


tive Hall in the capitol building. In 1873-74 the Pleasant Hour Club was holding 
dances at the Academy of Music, where the Rudge & Guenzel Building now 
stands, with such men as N. C. Brock, J. D. Macfarland, Charlie Carter, R. C. 
Outcalt and D. D. Muir in its membership. The club next met at the City Hall, 
then at the Masonic Temple at Eleventh and M streets, and then at the Lincoln 
Hotel. The club was disbanded about seventeen years ago, the membership 
having grown very small. 

From an old program it is learned that the Matinee Musicale was preceded 
by an earlier music club. The program announces the fourth musicale of the 
Ladies' Musical and Social Club, entertained by Miss Tote McMurtry, Friday 
evening, March 11, 1887. Those taking part included: Miss Clara Funke (Mrs. 
Mansfield), Miss Tote McMurtry, Mrs. I. J. Manatt, Miss Minnie D. Cochran, 
Miss Minnie Latta (Mrs. C. F. Ladd), Miss Nannie Lillibridge, Mrs. C. S. 
Lippincott, Mrs. Carrie B. Raymond. The latter was the accompanist. 


To the Independent Order of Odd Fellows belongs the honor of having estab- 
lished the first fraternal society within the City of Lincoln. Two of the members 
of the state commission to locate the capital were Odd Fellows in good standing; 
these were Governor David Butler and Secretary T. P. Kennard. The lodge first 
organized was Capital Lodge No. 11, and its charter was given to W. H. Stubble- 
field, Max Rich. Samuel McClay, L. A. Onyett and Samuel Leland. The lodge 
was instituted by George H. Burgert of Nebraska City, who was at that time 
grand master. Three members were received at that time — Luke Lavender, 
S. B. Pound and Seth Robinson. The lodge was instituted in the small second 
story of a frame building standing on the ground now known as 123 South Tenth 
Street. On October 18, 1870, at the meeting of the grand lodge in Lincoln, 
Charity Lodge No. 2, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized. On October 19th 
a reception was given the grand lodge and No. 2 by Governor Butler and his wife, 
an occasion attended by many gentlemen' and ladies from Lincoln's society. 
Saline Encampment No. 4 was organized on April 7, 187 1. By 1873 the need 
was felt for another lodge, and accordingly on June 5, 1873, Lancaster Lodge 
No. 39 was instituted with fifteen members. J. H. Harley was the first to be 
initiated. The next lodge, Germania No. 67, was instituted for those of the 
order who could speak German better than English. The lodge was instituted 
with ten charter members on December 11, 1877, by H. W. Parker of Beatrice, 
grand master. On March 29, 1881, a charter was granted for the degree lodge, 
and it was known as Magic Degree Lodge No. 2, but existed only a short time. 
On February 14, 1885, the Ford Uniformed Degree Camp No. 2 was instituted. 
In March, 1887, it was merged into the organization known as the Patriarchs 
Militant, I. O. O. F. During these years Lincoln was taking on size and more 
men desired to become members of the lodge, so, in order to accommodate those 
desirous of joining, a new lodge, known as Lincoln Lodge No. 138, was instituted 
on January 22, 1886. The first efforts to get ample quarters for the order in 
Lincoln were taken on May 3, 1881, when the Odd Fellows' Hall Association of 
Lincoln, Neb., was incorporated. Land was secured on the northeast corner 


of L and Eleventh streets, and by the summer of 1882 a 4-story brick edifice was 

In 1868 the Knights of Pythias first invaded Lincoln. On August 28, 1871, 
Lincoln Lodge No. 8, K. of P., was instituted here. The lodge for a time 
flourished, but in 1873 financial reverses compelled the surrender of the charter. 
However, in December, a few of the former members petitioned for a new charter 
and this was granted December 3, 1873. The first meeting for initiation was 
held in the attic of the old opera house. The new lodge was known as Lincoln 
Lodge No. 16. In 1884, August iSth, Apollo Lodge No. 36 came into existence, 
composed in greater part of younger men than the other. A. D. Marshall Lodge 
No. 41 was organized June 18, 1885, with twenty-three members. Capital City 
Lodge No. 68 was instituted February 9, 1887. The Uniform Rank of the 
Knights of Pythias started in Lincoln in 1879 from the members of No. 16. 
There were thirty-two members at the start. A. D. Marshall Division No. 10 
was organized September 28, 1886, with twenty-nine members, Apollo Division 
No. II was instituted October 11. 1886, with thirty members. The Knights of 
Pythias are represented now in Lincoln by the Grand Lodge of Nebraska, Lin- 
coln Lodge No. 16, Lincoln Lodge No. i, Uniform Rank, and North Star Temple 
No. 10, Pythian Sisters. 

The Masons are well represented in Lincoln, there being seventeen distinct 
organizations. The Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, its Territories and Depend- 
encies, Lincoln Consistory No. 54, Chapter of Rose Croix, Council of Princes 
of Jerusalem, and a Lodge of Perfection were organized April 23, 1889, with 
fifty members, by Joseph McGrath of New Jersey, grand inspector general of 
the rite as organizer, A. D. 1807 Lincoln Lodge No. 19, York Rite, A. F. & A, M., 
was organized in 1868. Lancaster Lodge No. 54 was organized in 1874. Lin- 
coln Chapter No. 6, R. A. M., was organized April 28, 1868. Mount Moriah 
Commandery No. 40, Knights Xemplar, was organized in 1871, The Ancient 
Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, Sesostris Temple, was organized in 
1880, There are now in Lincoln, in addition to these. East Lincoln Lodge 
No, 210, A. F. & A, M, ; George Washington Lodge No, 250, A, F, & A, M, ; North 
Star Lodge, No. 227, A, F, & A. M. ; Lincoln Council No. 4, R. & S, M. ; Electa 
Chapter No, 8, O, E, S, ; Lincoln Chapter No. 148; Martha Washington Lodge 
No. 153, O. E, S, ; Lincoln Council No. 2; Knights of Kadosh, A. A. S. R. 
Among the colored people of the city there are the Lebanon Lodge No, 126, 
A, F. & A. M. ; Hiram Chapter No 59, R. A. M, ; Amaranth Qiapter No. 54, 
O. E. S. ; Ricketts Commandery No. 14, K. T, ; Magnolia Court No. 10, H, O. J, 

On April 27, 1886, a lodge of the Modern Woodmen of America was organ- 
ized in Lincoln, known as Capital City Camp No, 190, The lodge known as 
Antelope Camp No. 916 was instituted on April 4, 1889, with 100 names on the 
petition. F, D. Roose Camp No. 969, now inactive, was organized May 2, i88g. 
The head camp of the Modern Woodmen is located in Lincoln, as are also the 
Banner City Camp No, 1332, Belmont Camp No. 5293, Lincoln Camp No. 969, 
State of Nebraska Camp No. 2266. 

There are two well-supported Grand Army of the Republic posts in Lincoln. 
The first is the Farragut Post, which was organized September 8, 1879. There 
were thirty- four charter members, namely: S. J, Alexander, L. W, Billingsley, 
R, C, Hazlett, Lyman Wood, A, D, Burr, W, S. Latta, Henry Masterman, W. A. 




Daggett, D. B. Howard, G. K. Amory, C. H. Gere, A. P. Tarbox, J. E. Philpot, 
R. O. Phillips, Silas Sprague, W. R. Kelly, W. H. Beach, Sam McCIay, P. A. 
Smith, W. J. Cooper, N. Carpenter, James Bolshaw, S. P. Richey, T. B. Dawson, 
Levi Gable, D. C. Reynolds, E. G. Clements, C. C. Harris, A. Masterman, J. 
Curry, M. L. Hiltner, J. W. Owens, Thomas Sewall and R. N. Wright. The first 
officers were : S. J. Alexander, commander ; L. W. Billingsley, S. V. C. ; C. PL 
Gould, J- V. C. ; H. Masterman, chaplain ; George K. Amory, adjutant ; A. D. 
Burr, Q. AL ; R. C. Hazlett, O. D. ; Al. AListerman, O. G. At one time this post 
had over five hundred members in good standing. 

The second post, Appomattox Post No. 214, was organized January 28, 1886, 
at which time the following officers were elected: Edgar S. Dudley, C. ; H. A, 
Babcock, S. V. C. ; W. W. W. Jones, J. V. C. ; Brad P. Cook, adjutant; D. R. 
Lillibridge, Q. M. ; L. E. Hicks, chaplain ; J. O. Carter, surgeon ; S. J. Alexander, 
O. D. : George B. Lane. O. G. ; C. 11. Gere, sergeant major; N. G. Franklin, 
Q. M. Serg. 

Connected with the posts are Farragut Corps No. 10, W. R. C, and Appo- 
mattox Corps No. 128. 

Other lodges represented in Lincoln are : The Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks. Fraternal Order of Eagles, Fraternal Aid Association, Fraternal Cnion 
of .America, House of David of the World, Improved Order of Redmen, Knights 
and Ladies of Security, Knights of Columbus, Knights of the Maccabees, Loyal 
Mystic Legion of America, Order of Railway Conductors, Royal Highlanders, 
Royal Neighbors, Tribe of Ben Hur, Woodmen of the World, and Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. 

The following trade unions are located in the city: Barbers' Union No. 16, 
Bookbinders' L'nion No. 120, Bricklayers' Union No. 2, Carpenters' Union No. 
1,055, Central Labor Union, Cigarmakers' Union, Federal Union, International 
Brotherhood of Electric Workers, Machinists' Union No. 698, Painters' Union 
No. 18, Plasterers' Union No. 22, Plumbers' Union No. 88, Pressmen's Union 
No. 16, Sheet .Metal Workers' Union, Stereotypers' Union No. 62, Tailors' 
Union No. 2"^},, Theatrical Employes' Union No. 151, and Typographical Union 
No. 209. 


The Young Men's Christian Association of Lincoln was organized in Janu- 
ary, 1880, with thirteen members. The following officers were elected: A. O. 
Geisinger. president; Richard George, vice president; W. W. Peet, secretary; 
and M. L. Easterday, treasurer. James A. Dummett was the first general secre- 
tary, beginning his services on August 6, 1884. .\fter a short time the associa- 
tion occupied rooms in the McConnell Block, 141 South Tenth Street, but when 
the membership approached the 500 mark, these quarters became too small, and 
on July 24, 1889. a contract was let for a new building at the corner of N and 
Thirteenth streets. The cornerstone was laid October 28, 1889. This building 
was sufficient until the year 1909, when the membership became so large that 
a new home was imperative. A campaign was started to raise sufficient funds 
for the promotion of the work, and by September, 1909. fully $100,000.00 had 


been raised for the new building. This was planned and constructed, and dedi- 
cated on June 4, 191 1. 

The Young Women's Christian Association was organized on November 7, 
1886, in Lincoln, with just a few members. This sister association of the Young 
Men's Christian Association has had a steady growth, and in 1905 dedicated 
their new building in the city. The work of this association and that of the 
Young Men's Christian Association is a principal factor in the Christian work 
of Lincoln, and a very active one. Recreation, education, physical training, and 
social life are furnished men and women in large numbers, many of whom other- 
wise would not have the opportunity. 


The military history of Lancaster County may be said to have begun with 
the opening of the Spanish-American war, in April, 1898, although one man, Dr. 
Wesley Queen, went from Lancaster County in 1862 to join the Second Nebraska 
Cavalry at Nebraska City. Doctor Queen was not only the sole representative 
of the county in the Civil war, but was the first postmaster, having been appointed 
in 1862; the first physician; the founder of the first Sunday school and the 
founder of the first sanitarium. Doctor Queen was one of the first settlers of 
the county and participated in the first Fourth of July celebration here in 1861. 
Doctor Queen and his brother-in-law, John Wimple, walked through Omaha in 
i860, when there were less than twenty houses in that town. They reached 
the Salt Creek basin in May of that year and the next spring the doctor opened 
the first sanitarium. He and other settlers constructed a bridge across Salt 
Creek for the steam wagon road from Nebraska City to Denver. As stated 
before Doctor Queen was appointed postmaster March 4, 1862, but in October 
of the same year he resigned the office to enlist in the Union army. Late the 
next year he returned and organized the first Sunday school between the Mis- 
souri River and Denver. Doctor Queen's death occurred late in the year 1915, 
at the age of seventy-nine. 

In the Spanish-American war the State of Nebraska supplied three full 
regiments and a troop of cavalry to the United States volunteer forces. Of these 
four units the First Regiment experienced the most hazardous service and really 
were engaged with the enemy. The muster of the First Regiment, Nebraska 
Volunteer Infantry, was complete in the City of Lincoln on May 9, 1898, and 
immediately the regiment was ordered to entrain for San Francisco, Cal. 
The order was issued on May i6th and four days later the Nebraska boys 
arrived in the western city. The regiment encamped at Bay District, San Fran- 
cisco, until June 15, 1898, when they embarked on the United States transport 
Senator for Manila, P. I. After a voyage of many hardships the transport 
reached Manila Bay on July 17th, whereupon the troops disembarked and 
encamped at Camp Dewey, just south of the City of Manila, on the 21st. After 
several days on outpost duty before the Spanish Fort Malate, the regiment 
engaged with other regiments in the general attack on Manila, August 13, 1898. 
From this time until December 4th of the same year, the regiment was compara- 
tively inactive, being assigned to patrol duty in the Tondo District, which was 
near the noted custom house. On the 5th of December they went into camp 
at Santa Mesa, in the vicinity of Manila, and remained there until February 
4, 1899, when they got their first taste of real battle. Heavy engagements 



followed in quick order, which took a heavier toll from the First Nebraska 
than any other regiment in the Philippines with the exception of one regiment 
of regular United States troops. The following are the conflicts in which the 
First participated : Camp defense, February 4, 1899 ; capture of block houses, 
February 6th and 7th ; powder magazine and Deposito, February 5th ; capture 
of pumping station near Manila, February 6th ; expelled rebels from Mari- 
quina, February 17th; engagements on the Alariquina road, February 22(1, 24th, 
27th, March 5th and 6th ; drove insurgents across Pasig River, March 7th ; in 
advance on JNLilolos, March 25th-3ist; in advance on Calumpit and San Fer- 
nando. The regiment was returned to Manila on -May i8th and six companies 
were detached to the south line of San Pedro, Macati, and three companies 
to Pateros, the three remaining companies being relieved from duty. The 
First embarked on the United States transport A. T. Hancock, on June 22d, 
sailing witii the Utah Battery for San Francisco, via Nagasaki and Yoko- 
hama, Japan, and arrived at their destination July 29th. The soldiers went into 
camp at the Presido the next day and were there mustered out of the United 
States service on August 23d. The casualties of the First Nebraska were as 
follows: Killed in battle, 21; died of wounds, 13: died of disease. 30; total 
loss, 64 men. 

The citizens of Nebraska began a movement to return the soldiers to their 
homes and to this end solicited subscriptions. The sum of $40,342.75 was raised 
within a short time, David E. Thompson, of Lincoln, giving $20,000 and William 
J. Bryan, $1,250. The regiment left Frisco on August 25th and on September 
14th were accorded to patriotic reception by the citizens of Lincoln. The day 
was spent in honor to those who had returned and in respect to those who gave 
their lives for their country. The Legislature of 1901 made an appropriation of 
$36,315.45, the amount expended to return the soldiers from San Francisco, and 
ordered that the same be given back to the men who had so willingly subscribed 

The Second Regiment, Nebraska \'olunteer Infantry, entered the service of 
the United States on .-Xpril 27, 1898. After the muster in was completed the 
regiment was ordered to Chickamauga Park, Georgia. They left Lincoln on 
Thursday, May 19th, and arrived at Camp Thomas May 22d. Here they remained 
until August 31st, then left for Omaha, arriving on September 3d. The men 
were mustered out on the 24th of October, 1898. The regiment suffered twenty- 
six deaths from disease and one by accident. 

The Third Regiment, Nebraska \'olunteer Infantry, was organized at Omaha 
and mustered in July 3, 1898. On July i8th the regiment was transported to 
Jacksonville, Florida, and four days later arrived and encamped at Panama Park, 
Camp Cuba Libre. The regiment became part of the first brigade, third division, 
seventh army corps. On September 9th the regiment was removed to Pablo 
Beach, Florida. On October 2d they were forced out of camp by the ocean 
flooding the camp during a severe windstorm and two days afterward returned 
fo Tacksonville and became part of the first brigade, first division, seventh army 
corps. On October 24th they moved to Camp Onward, Savannah, Georgia, and 
then to Havana, Cuba, on the transport Obdam, also transport Michigan. The 
troops left on the 30th and 31st of December and arrived on the 1st and 2d of 
January. They were quartered with the seventh army corps at Camp Colum- 


bia, IL-ivana, until April jth, then embarked on the United States transport 
Logan; were in quarantine at Daufuskie, South Carolina, and on the i8th 
embarked for Savannah. On the igth they left for Augusta, Georgia, and were 
there mustered out at Camp Mackenzie. Thirty-two men of the regiment died 
of disease during their term of service. 

Troop K, Third Regiment, United States \'olunteer Cavalry, located at 
Milford, Nebraska, was enrolled in the United States service on May 7, 1898, 
and were mustered in at Lincoln, Nebraska, on May 14th. On May 20th the 
troop left for Chickamauga Park, Georgia, and remained there until mustered 
out, September 8, 1898. Two men died of disease. 

As the roster following will show, the First Regiment was the only one from 
Nebraska suiTering any casualties from battle. Their loss was unusually heavy. 
Li all the regiments disease was too prevalent and the opinion prevailed that 
had better sanitary conditions been observed and the men better cared for, such 
would not have been the case. Many and often were the protests by the enlisted 
men, not only against their physical condition, but against the treatment accorded 
them by certain officers. The case of Col. John M. Stotsenburg is a notable 
one. He was criticized very freely by his men, and by Nebraskans in general, 
for his methods of handling troops, his treatment of the men under him. The 
protest grew to such proportions that it was officially presented at Washington 
and investigated. Many things were chalked up against his record, things which 
are useless to record here, but whatever may have been his faults and mistakes 
he paid the highest price at Quingua within his power, when on April 2t„ 1899 
he was killed by an enemy's bullet. Colonel Stotsenburg's body was brought to 
this country and for a time lay in state in the state capitol of Nebraska at 
Lincoln and was then interred in the national cemetery at Arlington. Colonel 
Stotsenburg had been a military instructor at the University of Nebraska prior 
to the war. 

Following is the roster of soldiers who enlisted in 1898 from Lancaster 

Roster of Lancaster County Soldiers in the Sp-\nish-Americ.\n War 


Field, Staff and Band 

Stotsenburg, John M., colonel. Age, 39. Lincoln. Mustered in as major, 
May 10, 1898. Killed at Quingua, P. L, on April 23, 1899. 

Eager, Frank D., adjutant. Age, 25. Lincoln. Promoted captain Company 
H, May 10, 1898. 

Wilson, Lincoln, quartermaster. Age, 37. Lincoln. Promoted captain Com- 
pany M, June 16, 1898. 

Snyder, Frank D., surgeon. Age, 41. Lincoln. 

Mailley, James, chaplain. Age, 38. University Place. 

Whedon, Bert D., sergeant-major. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private 
Company H. Promoted second lieutenant Company C, June 16, 1898. 

White, Sherman A., sergeant-major. Age, 21. Lincoln. Appointed quarter- 


master-sergeant May 12, 1898. Promoted second lieutenant Company E, Novem- 
ber 10, 1898. 

Ryan, Lewis S., quartermaster-sergeant. Age, 22. Lincoln. Promoted from 
rank of corporal. Mustered as private. 

Pederson, Martin, trumpeter. Age, 24. Bennett. 

Company A 


Goodrich, George E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Owings, John A. Age, 25. Bethany. 
Reddick, Harvey C. Age, 23. Bethany. 

Company B 

Oury, William H., captain. Age, 27. Lincoln. Assigned by secretary of 
war to Twenty-third United States Infantry. 

Robbins, Charles B., first sergeant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Pillsbury, Edward A., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Jewett, Perry W., corporal. Age, 21. Waverly. 


Andrews, Charles J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Beck. George L. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Burk, John M. Age, 22. University Place. 

Buckles, Everett E. Age, 25. University Place. 

Broady, Bracton. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Comstock, Walter M. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Durham. Charles R. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

England, William H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Edlund, Gustave E. Age, 26. University Place. Killed February 5, 1899. 

Ewing, Vern D. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Hisey, Albert S. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Jewett, Dexter T. Age, 24. Waverly. 

Jewett, Perry W. Age, 21. Waverly. 

Kellogg, Ira A. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Playford, William E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Rose, Forest. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Rose, Jesse, Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Rymer, William T. Age, 21. Normal. 

Rebmann, Jerry. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Shurtz, William W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Smith, Aaron J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Snider, George W. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Waite, John W. Age, 25. Lincoln. 


Company C 

Chevront, Byron E. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Chevront, James W. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Franklin, C. M. Age, 31. Lincoln. 
Smock, Harry O. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Company D 

Herpolsheimer, .Martin, captain. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Cosgrave, P. James. Age, 26. Lincoln. Enrolled and mustered into Com- 
pany F, Second Regiment, as sergeant, on May 10, 1898. 

Russell, Phil., second lieutenant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private 
in Company K, Second Regiment. 

Wolf, Frank, first sergeant. Age. 31. Lincoln. 

Tate, Sanford H., sergeant. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

DeVriendt, Jerome H., sergeant. Age, 22. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

.Shafer, William A., sergeant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as corporal. 

Hessler, Earle, sergeant. Age, 18. Lincoln. Mustered as corporal. 

Clapp, Hugh E., corporal. Age, 19. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Barrow, Frank J., corporal. Age, 18. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Pascal, Frank A., corporal. Age. 18. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Dungan, William D., corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Coberly, Frederic F., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Knapp. Charles T., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Linderman, Eugene D., musician. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

O'Shea, Edward J., musician. Age, 23. Lincoln. 


Abbott, Richard L. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Alley, John S. Age, 28. Lincoln. Died of wounds received at the water- 
works, Manila, P. L, February 22, 1899. 

Ames, Charles P. Age, 18. Lincoln. Discharged June 6, 1898. 

Auterson, George. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Bates, George W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Beman, Selby R. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Bivins, Burton W. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Blake, Harold K. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Blake, Harry. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Berger, Harry A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Bloom, John J. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Blanchard, George L. Age, 21. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps, 
U. S. A., June 13, 1898. 

Caldwell, Alfred D. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Clapp, Hugh E. Age, 19. Lincoln. Appointed corporal, May 20, 1898. 


Coberly, Fred F. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Colwell, Arthur B. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Cook, Ernest B. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Curtin, Eugene W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Carlyle, John J. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Day, Ernest W. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Delong, George D. . Age, 2},. Lincoln. 

DeVriendt, Jerome H. Age, 22. Lincoln. Appointed sergeant. May 20, 1898. 

Dungan, William D. Age, 23. Lincoln. Appointed corporal, May 20, 1898. 

Enslow, John T. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Fassett, Fred L. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Fields. Ralph C. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Fitchie, Harry E. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Fitchie, Samuel B. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Francis, Albert E. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Fisk, Harry C. Age, 19. Lincoln. Died at Honolulu, H. L, about June 27, 

Franklin, Edward, Jr. Age, 21. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps, 
U. S. A., June 13, 1898. 

Gallagher, Henry. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Gillmore. Thomas E. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Glaze, Albert A. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Grayson, William W. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Gretzer, John. Jr. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Gullion, Charles A. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Hawes, Fred M. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Hawksworth, Thomas W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

James, Richard C. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Kemmerrer, Albert L. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Kasharek, John. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Kock, Julius. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Lundholm, Martin O. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Lampert, David. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Mason, Cyrus P. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Mcllnay, Arthur. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Martin, William H. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Meyer, Edward. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Muff, Benjamin J. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Noack, Theodore B. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Neufeldt, Eric. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Payne, Robert B. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Pierce, Eugene H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Peterson, Edwin O. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Robertson, Thomas R. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Scholes, Frank P. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Shoaf, James W. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Shoaf, Randall S. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Sizer, Edward R., Jr. Age, 23. Lincoln. 


Stoner, Lee H. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Scott, Jay C. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Shellhorn, E. G. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Smith, George W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Stern, Herman. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Svvartz, Charles M. Age, 24. Lincoln. Died of wounds, April 24, 1899. 

Traver, Frank L. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

White, Bert E. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Wood, B. J. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Woodard, Maynard. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Westover, John. Age, ig. Lincoln. 


Brown, John H. Age, 26. Havelock. 
Evans, Henry. Age, 32. Firth. 
Tucker, W'illiam L. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Wagner, Fred R. Age, 27. Firth. 
Weaver, James A. Age, 2^. Lincoln. 

Company E 
Tellesen, Charles C, corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. 


Barkley, Alexander. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Cook, William G. S. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Friel, Walter M. Age, 25. Lincoln. 
Tobias, John G. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Company F 
Gallagher, Joseph P., sergeant. Age, 26. Lincoln. Mustered as corporal. 


Itrown, Carl R. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Corey, Charles H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Cowardin, P. L. Age, 36. Lincoln. 
Gilbert, Alvin W. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Gunter, Harry A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Hall, Daniel C. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Keeney, John D. Age, 31. Lincoln. 
Robertson, William J. N. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Whitney, Charles L. Age, 35. Lincoln. 

Company G 
Harvey, Oscar L., private. Age, 22. Lincoln. 


Company H 

Eager, Frank D., captain. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as first lieutenant. 
Hull, A. J\I., corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Ryan, L. S., corporal. Age, 22. Lincoln. Mustered as private. Promoted 
R. Q. AL September 16, 1898. 


Urisbin, L. H. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Erret, Charles. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Meier, Otto W. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Ondrak, John J. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Ryan, Lewis S. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Thompson, George E. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Towl, G. E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Winagel, A. J. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Company I 

Hansen, Christian, first lieutenant. Age, 36. Bennett. 

Smith, Andrew C, second lieutenant. Age, 45. Bennett. 

Ell, John C, first sergeant. Age, 45. Bennett. 

Anderson, Frank, quartermaster-sergeant. Age, 23. Bennett. 

May, Arthur L., sergeant. Age, 24. Bennett. 

Buckley, Walter, sergeant. Age, 32. Bennett. 

Rudge, Edward C, corporal. Age, 28. Bennett. 

Sobotka, Frank, corporal. Age, 29. Bennett. 

Hensley, Hugh A., corporal. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Vosburgh, Clyde, corporal. Age, 25. Bennett. 

Hatsell, Leon V., musician. Age, 29. Bennett. 

Knox, Daniel, musician. Age, 25. Bennett. 


Akin, Malcolm. Age, 23. Bennett. 
Bensel, Herman. Age, 18. Bennett. 
Berndtson, John E. Age, 22. Bennett. 
Bonebright, Henry. Age, 22. Bennett. 
Bordwell, Frank J. Age, 22. Bennett. 
Brady, John D. Age, 23. Bennett. 
Brant, Roy B. Age, 21. Bennett. 
Carrell, James A. Age, 27. Bennett. 
Carsey, John H. Age, 28. Bennett. 
Clark, Edward. Age, 28. Bennett. 
Currier, A. B. Age, 21. Bennett. 
Dukes, Perry B. Age, 21. Bennett. 
Dunn. Lucian A. Age, 30. Bennett. 


Erisman, Alfred J. Age, 27. Bennett. Died at Ijrigade hospital, Manila, 
P. L, on October 23, 1898. 

Fifer, George. Age, 23. Bennett. 

Finke, William J. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Fisher, Anton B. Age, 24. Bennett. 

Fisher, Joseph. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Foss, Leonard C. Age, 26. Bennett. 

Frazier, Clark W. Age, 18. Bennett. 

Fricke, Albert W. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Gregg, Edwin F. Age, 28. Bennett. 

Hall, Sannicl R. Age, 27. Bennett. Transferred to hospital corps, U. S. A., 
June 13, 1S98. 

Ham, William G. Age, 23. Bennett. 

Hawkins, Frank O. Age, 19. Bennett. 

Henderson, Dallas. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Hoge, Jesse L. Age, 19. Bennett. 

Hoge, Herbert. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Honnor, William M. Age, 23. Bennett. 

Holbrook, Asa. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Hammond, Creed C. Age, 24. Normal. 

Jean, John M. Age, 26. Bennett. 

Jewell, John E. Age. 23. Bennett. 

Johnson, Erick A. Age, 29. Bennett. 

Jones, Oliver J. Age, 27. Bennett. 

Keenan, James T. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Kennedy, Alvin. Age, 27. Bennett. 

Kinnison, A. J. Age, 31. Bennett. 

Knudson, Charles. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Laird, Lewis M. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Lightner, Lewis C. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Madson, Peter. Age, 26. Bennett. 

McCart, Henry O. Age, 25. Bennett. Killed April 23, 1899. 

McFry, David. Age, 30. Bennett. 

McFry, Albert. Age, 28. Bennett. 

Mead, Benjamin S. Age, 22. Bennett. 

Merritt, Daniel H. Age, 36. Bennett. 

Miller, William D. Age, 30. Bennett. 

Mills, Robert. Age, 28. Bennett. 

Maddox, William. Age, 26. Bennett. 

McCarthy, Cornelius. Age, 23. Normal. 

Oakes, Mars. Age, 19. Bennett. 

O'Connor, Frank. Age, 21. Bennett. 

Passmore, Lewis D. Age, 23. Bennett. Died October 4, 1898, at sea on 
board United States Transport Rio Janeiro. Buried at sea October 8th. 

Rodstrom, Lambert. Age, 24. Bennett. 

Roberts, E. R. Age, 2^. Bennett. 

Russell, John. Age, 25. Bennett. 

Shaffer, Charles E. Age, iS. Bennett. 


Sherman, Oscar. Age, 21. Bennett. 
Slaughter, Guy T. Age, 21. Bennett. 
Taylor, Albert C. Age, 18. Bennett. 
Trimble, John. Age, 19. Bennett. 
Varney, Ralph. Age, 22. Bennett. 
Wood, Frank. Age, 28. Bennett. 
Wright, Elmer J. Age, 26. Bennett. 


Andrew, Howard L. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Dowd, Charles P. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Farling, Jesse L Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Gregg, Alva V. Age, 28. Pleasant Hill. 
Gregg, John L. Age, 27. Pleasant Hill. 
Harvey, George E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Lamb, Scott O. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Lewis, Charles A. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
McFry, Charles P. Age, 40. Bennett. 
Poska, Albert. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Panghorn, L. W. Age, 36. Lincoln. 
Powell, George W. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Company K 
Lawless, Ed J. Age, 31. Lincoln. 

Company M 

Wilson, Lincoln, captain. Age, T^y. Lincoln. Mustered as R. Q. M. 


Burk, Henry N. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Peters, F. W. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Unassigned Recruits 

Abbott, L. J., Jr. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Chapman, A. R. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Coleman, E. D. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Dean, F. E. Age, 27. Lincoln. 
Kelby, L. F. Age, 40. Lincoln. 
Miller, H. C. Lincoln. 
Mumford, E. H. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Ryan, F. G. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Yomans, A. H. Age. 25. Lincoln. 



Company A 
Paine, Lewis A., corporal. Age, 2^. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 


Barnell, Claude. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Boynton, Edgar G. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Cole, Fred A. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Forman, David A. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Frederick, Jacob. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Harrold, Harry R. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Hitchcock, Andrew. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Joyce, Harry E. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Kierstead, Henry J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Miller, Ned K. Age, 27. Lincoln. 
Packwood, Arthur T. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Paine, Lewis A. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Roseboom, Jesse J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
White, William A. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Walker, Ollie. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Company B 


Boyd, William. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Erwin, Jason R. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Green, Ernest G. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Keith, L E. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Company D 

Churchill, Kenneth A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Fenn, Clarence L. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Gregg, John K. Age, 21. Lincoln. Died at his home September 25, 1898, 
of typhoid fever. 

Grimm, Arthur. Age, 21. Lincoln. Transferred to Company E, Third 
Regiment, N. V. L 

Kelsey, James. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

O'Connor, John P. Age, 23. Havelock. Transferred to Hospital Corps June 
12, 1898. Transferred to Second Regiment August 31, 1898. 

Semmelroth, Emil H. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Sawyer, Nelson A. Age, 19. Lincoln. Died of fever July 3, 1898, at 
Chickamauga Park, Georgia. 

Wilson, Hugh. Age. 21. Normal. Promoted sergeant. 

White, Henry G. Age, 18. Lincoln. 



Alloway, G. M. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Bilger, Robert. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Leidigh, O. G. Age, 19. Lincoln. ' 

Nelson, A. L. Age, 24. Davey. 

Reed, W. D. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Sweeney, James. Age, 34. Lincoln. 

Tippey, Walter. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Company F 

Campbell, Arthur E., captain. Age, 31. Lincoln. 

Wilson, Lincoln, first lieutenant. Age, 37. Lincoln. Promoted R. Q. M. 
First Regiment, N. V. I., by governor. 

Gascoigne, George E., first lieutenant. Age, 34. Lincoln. Mustered as sec- 
ond lieutenant. 

Clark, William B., second lieutenant. Age, 27. Lincoln. Mustered as first 

Streight, Edward ]., first sergeant. Age, 27. Lincoln. Mustered as sergeant. 

Anderson, John E., quartermaster-sergeant. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Cosgrave, P. James, sergeant. Age, 26. Lincoln. Promoted first lieutenant 
Company D, First Regiment, N. \'. L 

Bolshaw, Fi'ederick J., sergeant. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Nelson, George H., sergeant. Age, 331 Lincoln. 

Ringer, Frank L, sergeant. Age, 2^. Lincoln. Mustered as corporal. 

Weeks, Charles W., sergeant. Age, 22. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Camp, L. H., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Howland, William H., corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Brooks, William L, corporal. Age, 30. Lincoln. 
• Avery, C. P., corporal. Age, 27. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Barber, James C, corporal. Age, 19. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Bowman, Lee W., corporal. Age, 26. Lincoln. Alustered as private. 

Brown, A. L., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Clark, Charles C, corporal. Age, 28. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Deemer, Robert E., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Gordon, Anthony E., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Hamilton, E. C, corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Ludwig, F. W., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Cochrane, A. W., artificer. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Waldron, Dan J., musician. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

\\'alt, Edward J., musician. Age, 21. Lincoln. 


Baand, Alfred C. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

r.eachly. John \'. Age, 25. Lincoln. Promoted hospital steward. 

Boggs, Thomas W. Age, ^^. Lincoln. 


Byer, Warren J. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Beachly, H. H. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Clewell, F. H. C. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Clondon, C. C. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Cooper, H. L. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Crofton, George. Age, 24. Lincoln. Transferred to Piospital Corps and 
later to Second Regiment. 

Clifton, William H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Dean, Charles H. Age, 28. Lincoln. Discharged September 11, 1898. 

Daily, Rude. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Edson, Melvin E. Age, 23. 

Goodwill, Louis M. Age, 21. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps, 
Third Corps. 

Genau, Henry H. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Griffiths, M. F. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Hall, James H. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Halstead, William L. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Hamilton, A. L Age, 28. Lincoln. Discharged August 18, i8g8. 

Hewett, Harlow. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Hoyt, Charles S. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Hurd, Fred E. Age, 24. Lincoln. Discharged August 18, 1898. 

Hyde, Fred C. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Hedges, H. W. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Hall, W. H. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Hill, H. S. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Jackson, Guy M. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Jenks, R. G. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Johnson, Charles. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Jones, S. S. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Jackson, E. O. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Kerlin, Charles W. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Lafferty, L. M. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Leonard, Sherman. Age, 19. Lincoln. Transferred, Company M, Third 
Regiment, N. V. L 

Linder, William T. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Ludwig, Walter E. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Langworthy, S. C, Jr. Age, 28. Lincoln. 

Long, William T. Age, 39. Lincoln. 

McClay, William L. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Miller, Charles A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Merryman, William A. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Milmine, E. K. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Mitchell, H. D. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

North, Jacob H. Age, 32. Lincoln. 

North, Samuel W. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Newton, Harry F. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Pace, Ike E. O. Age, 24. Lincoln. Transferred to Company A, Third 
Regiment, N. V. I. 

Vnl. 3—1 4 


Palmer, George ]\L Age, 27. Lincoln. 
Ryons, A. B. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Smith, Charles A. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Steele, Walter E. Age, 25. Lincoln. 
Sullivan, Joseph L. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Schlegel, A. H. Age, 27. Lincoln. 
Vance, Frederic C. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Wardner, George H. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Westermann, Fritz. Age, 33. Lincoln. 
Weyant, F. A. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Wilson, N. P. Age, 28. Lincoln. 


Bostater, George, Jr. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Burk, C. E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Byers, F. H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Conkling, A. C. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Garfield, C. A. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Griswold, E. H. Age, 40. Waverly. 
Gump, B. F. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Gump, C. E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Hahn, R. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Harper, I. L. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Iliff, R. K. Age, 18. University Place. 
Kier, S. L. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Lyman. H. C. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Lueke, F. R. Age, 31. Lincoln. 
McKenna, T. M. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Parks, E. S. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Polsky, Samuel. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Sawyer, R. R. Age, 25. Davey. 
Tucker, F. H. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Warren, H. P. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Wilson, H. E. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Winters, C. W. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Zediker, Z. D. Age, — . Lincoln. Transferred from Company I, First 
Florida Infantry. 

Company H 

Westermann. Louis A., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Watson, Charles D., corporal. Age, 32. Lincoln. Mustered as private and 
serked as cook. 


Clancy, William E. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Davis, C. S. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Foster, E. W. Age, 22. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps. 


Gardiner, Earl. Age, 2r. Lincoln. 
Hershey, Will L. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Johnston, George H. Age, 26. Lincoln. 
Johnston, S. R. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
King, William B. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Perry, H. N. Age, 29. Lincoln. 
Smith, Thomas E. Age, 33. Lincoln. 
Sharp, Robert F. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Company I 

Giblin, John S., corporal. Age, 31. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 


Dean, Charles R. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Dillon, Robert E. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Gay, Asa L. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
McDonald, John A. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Manchester, M. A. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Penland, John W. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Pierce, William A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Schooler, John H. Age, 21. Firth. 
Shumaker, Ernest. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Way, Reuben, D. Age, 44. Lincoln. 

Coinpanx K 

Haggard, Ralph W., sergeant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Russell, Philhp W., sergeant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Discharged and ap- 
pointed second lieutenant. Company D, First Regiment, N. \\ L 

Hill. Jolin T., corporal. Age, 28. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Jones, Leroy, corporal. Age, 22. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Lunn, Thomas D., corporal. Age, 22. Lincoln. Discharged September 13, 

Schroeder, F. W., corporal. Age, 28. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Smatlan, Joseph E., corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 

Morris, Ora E., wagoner. Age, 22. Lincoln. ]\Iustercd as private. 


Burt, Oliver W. Age. 22. Lincoln. Died at Clay Center, Neb.. October 8, 
1898, of typhoid fever. 

Curtis, Michael A. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Erickson, F. T. Age, 23. Lincoln. Transferred, First Division, Third Corps, 
at Camp Thomas. 

Fairmen, R. L. Age, 24. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps and made 
acting hospital steward. Also transferred to Second Regiment, N. \\ L 


Gardner, George. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Graham, W. F. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Higgins, Charles N. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Hurd, D. J. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Jansa, Frank. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Jira, Frank. Age, 30. Lincoln. 

Johnson, A. S. Age, 23. Lincoln. Discharged September 13, iSijS. 

Jones, Samuel R. Age, ^S- Lincoln. 

Jones, Archie B. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Koert, E. H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Langer, J. F. Age, 19. Lincoln. 

Longnecker, R. H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

McNay, James F. Age, 31. Lincoln. 

McCormick, William. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Nemecek, Thomas H. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Olsen, Ore E. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Piquett, James M. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Seelig, Fred. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Selzer, George. Age, 30. Lincoln. 

Simodynes, F. J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Stewart, G. O. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Severin, Henry A. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Templeton, Daniel. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Templeton, Perry J. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

\'aughan, John. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Watson, James. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Wolf, Joseph. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Wilson, M. G. Age, 26. Lincoln. 


Engler, H. W. Age, 31. Lincoln. 
Shoaf, John R. Age, t8. University Place. 
Skinner, K. L Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Skinner, E. N. B. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Company L 
McKin, Loomis L., quartermaster-sergeant. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Company M 

Hitchman, J. C, first sergeant. Age, 24. Lincoln. Discharged September 
19, 1898. 

Chapin, Edward T., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Christie, B. W., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Pearse, A. S., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Peck, Harry J., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Wiggins, Frank E., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 



Bogert, Edward L. Age, t,-/. Lincoln. 

Burr, F. S. Age, 28. Lincoln. Discharged August 29, 1898. 

Calder, R. G. Age, 23. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Cottle, Louis E. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Fall, P. C. Age, 26. Lincoln. 

Ferguson, C. H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Flick, Odis. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Gordon, John L. Age, 21. Lincoln. Transferred to Hospital Corps. 

Lambert, James M. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Lane, William H. Age, 40. Lincoln. 

Moore, Fred E. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

O'Shea, Vincent H. Age. 20. Lincoln. 

Richardson, Nete. Age, 21. Lincoln. Discharged, disability. 

Sprague, Richard. Age, 27. Lincoln. Died August 8, 1898, at Camp 
Thomas, Chiekamauga, of typhoid fever. 

Steele, Duncan C. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Thorp, Harry G. Age, 30. Lincoln. 

Whitmore, John E. Age, 26. Lincoln. Transferred to United States Volun- 
teer Signal Corps. 

Wolf, Fred. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Ycatman, G. E. Age, 27. Lincoln. 


Field and Staff 

Bryan, William Jennings, colonel. Age, 38. Lincoln. Resigned December 
12, 1898. 

Mfquain, X'ictor, colonel. Age, 55. Lincoln. Mustered as lieutenant-colonel. 

McClay, John II.. lieutenant-colonel. Age, 54. Lincoln. Mustered as major. 

Beck, Charles F., adjutant. Age, 38. Lincoln. 

Schwind, William F., quartermaster. Age, 2ii- Lincoln. 

Pulis, Charles C, sergeant-major. Age, 24. Lincoln. Promoted second lieu- 
tenant, Company i. Third Regiment, N. V. L 

Hortquest, Otis F., steward. Age, 27. Lincoln. 

Abel, Richard C, musician. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Browne, R. S., musician. Age, 43. Lincoln. 

Company A 

Schwarz, Charles F., captain. Age, 25. Lincoln. 
Ralston, George S., first lieutenant. .Age, 43. Lincoln. 
Alorrison, E. R., second lieutenant. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Gildersleeve, H. J., quartermaster-sergeant. Age, t,-. Lincoln. 
Johnson, V. O., sergeant. Age, 26. Lincoln. 


Stein, H. L., sergeant. Age, 20. Lincoln. Appointed first sergeant. 

West, R. B., sergeant. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Pinkham, James P., corporal. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Steinbach, George, corporal. Age, 27. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Felber, C. D., corporal. Age. 21. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Robertson, John H., corporal. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Dority, James M., corporal. Age, 25. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Hanson, C. F., corporal. Age, 24. Lincoln. 

Barr, John M., corporal. Age, 20. Lincoln. Reduced to ranks. 

Marscey, William E., wagoner. Age, 29. Lincoln. 

Lenker, C. F., musician. Age, 21. College View. 

Ball, William A., artificer. Age, 2-]. Lincoln. Deserted July 10, 1898. 


Barth, William. Age, 35. Lincoln. 
Bowman, C. W. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Clark, William H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Dogny. P. A. Age, 20. Lincoln. Appointed wagoner. 
Dunkle, George W. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Fritz, C. W. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Gaussoin, C. H. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Harris, \'an Teil C. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Heggblade, Emil. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Johnson, J. O. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Kennedy, W. P. Age, 28. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Kucera, Frank. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Linard, F. C. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Lyons, H. H. Age, 23. Lincoln. 
Leidigh, O. G. Age, 19. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Maher, Thomas F. Age, 26. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Mendenhall, J. M. Age, 19. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Myers, William. Age, 28. Lincoln. 
Michael, William. Age, 26. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Miller, William A. Age, 36. Lincoln. Discharged. 
Orlofsky, Samuel. Age, 21. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Pace, Ike E. O. Age, 2\. Lincoln. Transferred from Company F, Second 
Regiment, N. V. I. 

Polsky, Bert. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Prieskorn, Edward. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Ray, A. L. Age, 21. College View. 

Schlegel, Paul. Age, 19. Lincoln Discharged. 

Spelman, A. J. Age, 18. Lincoln. Discharged. 

Spencer, A. N. Age, 20. Lincoln. 

Stephens, J. E. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Trombly, Warden F. A. Age, 22, Lincoln. Discharged. 

\'on Busch, William. Age, 22. Lincoln. 

Walker, George A. Age, 19. Lincoln. 


Company E 

Knutson, Anton H., corporal. Age, 22. Lincoln. 


Connor, Charles J. Age, 31. VVaverly. 
Grimm, Arthur. Age, 21. Lincoln. 

Company H 

Hall, George E., second lieutenant. Age, 24. Lincoln. Promoted from first 

Lytel, James L., sergeant. Age, 25. Lincoln. 

Company I 

Pulis, Charles C, second lieutenant. Age, 24. Lincoln. Promoted from 


Watkins, Albert, Jr. Age, 19. Lincoln. Discharged October 20, 1898. 

Company K 

Shuff, Carl L., first lieutenant. Age, 21. Lincoln. Resigned November 29, 

Brown, Guy ]\L, corporal. Age, 18. Lincoln. 

Company M 

Leonard, Sherman. Age, 19. Lincoln. Transferred from Company L Sec- 
ond Regiment, N. V. L 


Cameron, Simon, quartermaster-sergeant. Age, 38. Lincoln. Mustered as 

Raymond, S. E., corporal. Age, 18. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 
Sidner, S. S., corporal. Age, 23. Lincoln, Mustered as private. 
Fisher, C. D., farrier. Lincoln. 
Mason, S. W., saddler. Age, 28. Lincoln. Mustered as private. 


Auterson, John. Age, 23. Lincoln. 

Berkley, John O. Age, 31. Lincoln. Transferred to Signal Corps. 

Chizek, R. C. Age, 18. Lincoln. 


Cowden, Tom R. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Gearhart, R. H. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Murphy, John K. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Murphey, C. W. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Noyes, Alex. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
• Nye, C. L. Age, 24. Lincoln. 
Oliver, J. .'\. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Page, Edward. Age. 21. Lincoln. 
Perdue, Curtis. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Porter, Robert. Age, 30. Lincoln. 

Powell, Willis M. Age, 19. Lincoln. Died August 6, 1898, of typhoid fever. 
Rhine, ALidison. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Robinson, Fred. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Rumsey, John W. Age, 22. Lincoln. 
Schultz, Henry C. Age, 19. Lincoln. 
Schultz, Gottjole. Age, 21. Lincoln. 
Virgin, David T. Age, 18. Lincoln. 
Wallace, James P. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Wehrs, Henry. Age, 20. Lincoln. 
Woods, Lewis A. Age, 23. Lincoln. 



Lincoln may well be called the educational center of the Middle West. Her 
student body each year approaches the mark of 8,000, a very large percentage 
in comparison with the population of the city. First in the field of educational 
work in the county, of course, is the University of Nebraska, comprising seven 
colleges. In the suburbs of Lincoln are three strong denominational shcools : 
the Nebraska Wesleyan University at University Place which is the central 
college of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the West, with over 800 students ; 
Cotner University, founded and maintained by the Christian Church, at Bethany, 
with over 250 students : and the Seventh Day Adventist School, Union College, 
at College \ iew, with over 300 students. Besides those mentioned Lincoln has 
a military academy, two large business colleges, three conservatories of music, 
many private studios, and a finishing school for boys and girls. The secondary 
schools of the city consist of twenty-eigiit jjublic schools, with an enrollment of 
14,000 pupils. 


The first district school in Lancaster County was organized at the Colony, 
afterwards called Lancaster, in the latter part of the year 1864. The district was 
six miles square. The first board of directors consisted of Jacob Dawson. John 
AI. Young and Milton Langdon. Simon P. Benadom, one of the surviving 
pioneers of early Lincoln, states that the first school in the county was U/l miles 
north of the Town of Roca, a log house upon a sand hill and, in fact, called the 
"Old Sand Plill" School. Phoebe Elliott was the first teacher here. The follow- 
ing year, 1865, District No. 2 was organized at Yankee Hill, with John Cadman, 
W. R. Field and W. T. Donovan as directors. In this district, in the dugout 
owned by John Cadman and occupied by him as a residence, one of the first 
schools in the county was taught by Robert F. Thurston, with about fifteen 
scholars. This school was opened prior to the one in District No. i as the latter 
had not yet been completed. The Cadman dugout class was taught the three R's 
in the winter of 1865-66. Judge A. W. Field and his sister, Mrs. J. E. Philpot, 
four of Cadman 's children and three of Donovan's, were pupils in this school. 
In the fall of 1865 there was a school taught by Miss Alice Carter in a house built 
by W. T. Donovan on his farm at Yankee Hill. It is thought that about this 
time there was a school taught in the vicinity of Saltillo. 

In 1866 the stone seminary in Lancaster was completed to such an extent that 
a school was opened in one room of the building which stood on the site of the 



present State Journal Building. The interior finish was then vei7 rough and 
there was no floor. This was the first school in Lancaster and was conducted 
by H. W. Merrill in the latter part of the year. He had about thirty in his class. 
Early in 1867 IMrs. H. W. ^lerrill taught a term of school in this same seminary. 
It is said that ^Irs. Merrill divided her time between her class and a year-old 
baby. She lived in one end of the building and John Alonteith had a shoe shop 
in another part of the structure. The classes here were a little broken up by 
the Indian troubles which threatened the settlers; many of the pioneers left with 
their children, but most of them returned later. In the spring of 1867 Elder 
Young's fond dream, the seminary, burned and- so ended the school therein. 
John Cadman opened the Cadman House upon the site after rebuilding the walls. 
This left the Village of Lancaster without a school and so it remained until after 
the location of the state capital and the founding of the Town of Lincoln. 

In the fall of 1867, soon after the first sale of lots on the new plat of Lincoln, 
the school directors erected a small stone house for school purposes on the north- 
east corner of O and Eleventh streets. In this building George W. Peck taught 
the first school in Lincoln in the fall of 1867, with thirty-five pupils. During the 
winter of 1868-69 school was continued here with Professor James as the teacher. 
The number of scholars increased to about sixty-five and in order to better accom- 
modate them the ]\Iethodist Church was purchased, on the southwest corner of Q 
and Tenth streets, and in this building another class was organized, instruction 
beginning May 5, 1869, with T. L. Catlin as teacher. The stone schoolhouse 
became a town jail in 1873 and the old Methodist Church continued as a school- 
house until the summer of 1889, being known first as the South Schoolhouse and 
later as the J Street School. 

During the spring of 1869 Miss Griswold, later Mrs. S. B. Galey, taught a 
select school. By 1870 there were three schools and the question of bonding the 
district for $50,000 for the construction of a high school began to be discussed. 
On June 17, 1871, an election was held at the White Schoolhouse and the bond 
question was given a favorable vote of 151 to 60. C. M. Parker, W. A. Colman 
and B. W. Ballard were judges of this election. On August 19th an election 
was held to determine the location of the proposed $50,000 high school building, 
three sites being considered. One was block 63, between Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth, M and N; another was block 155, bounded by F, G, Fifteenth and Six- 
teenth: and the third was block 120, bounded by J, K, Eleventh and Twelfth. 
There were 235 votes cast, as follows: 185 for block 63, 32 for block 155, and 
18 for block 120. The board this year was composed of Philetus Peck, S. J. 
Tuttle, A. L. Palmer, John Lamb, A. L. Pound and W. T. Donovan. On De- 
cember 23, 1871, the board adopted the plans and specifications for the new 
schoolhouse offered by Roberts & Pioulangcr. On February 15, 1872, the board 
decided to advertise for bids on the construction of the high school building, to 
be completed by September i, 1872. On March nth the bid of Moore & Krone 
for the brick, iron, stone and masonry work was accepted. The firm of Parcell 
& Dehart got the contract for carpentering. By the ist of January, 1873, the 
building was ready for use. 

During the summer of 1881 a school building was erected just west of the 
State University, at a cost of over ten thousand dollars. It was known as the 
First \\'ard School. Bv 1882 there were ten school liuilding= in Lincoln and 


thirty-one teachers. By 1S89 the number of l)uildings had grown to sixteen and 
the enrolhnent to 4,750. Jn this year there were eighty teachers employed. 


The bill providing for the charter of the University of Nebraska, known as 
S. F.. No. 86, was introduced into the Senate of the First Territorial Legislature 
on Fel)ruary 11, 1869, by Cunningham of Richardson County. On the same day 
it was referred to the Committee on Education, of which C. H. Gere was chair- 
man. This committee reported it back the next day with amendments. It was 
passed and sent to the House on the 13th. Under the suspension of rules it was 
read a first and second time the same day and was referred to the Committee on 
Schools. On the 15th the bill was read the third time, passed, and forwarded to 
the governor, who signed it. It became a law on the last day of the legislative 

The building was provided for by S. F., No. 32, which was a bill to provide 
for the sale of unsold lots and blocks on the townsite of Lincoln, and for the 
erection of an insane hos])ital, a state university, and agricultural college. The 
original charter of the university provided for twelve regents, nine of them to be 
chosen by the Legislature in joint session, three from each judicial district. In 
addition to these nine the chancellor, superintendent of public instruction and 
the governor were members ex-ofificio. This arrangement has been changed 

The charter of 18(19 provided for six colleges: the college of literature, the 
sciences and arts; of law; of medicine; of agriculture; of the practical sciences, 
purveying and mechanics; and of fine arts. The amendment of February 19, 
1877, reduced the colleges to five by the union Df the agricultural college with 
that of the practical sciences. 

After the establishment of the university the criticism which came from other 
parts of the state, localities which resented the establishment of the capital at 
Lincoln, was very bitter. The Morton History states that "the main fault was 
that the university was opened too early : and its scant patronage and an inferen- 
tially high per capita cost of students was industriously ridiculed and denounced. 
\\ bile the coni])laint was very plausible, its foundation was as flimsy as that of 
tne first Ijuilding." 

Prof. H. W. Caldwell, in a paper read before the Historical Society in 1889, 
had the following to say in regard to the construction of the first building: 

"On June 5, 1869, the sale of lots began and the first day 105 lots were sold 
for about thirty thousand dollars. The next day the Commonwealth remarks 
that 'now the completion of the State Universitv and Agricultural College is 
assured.' Eleven days later the paper announced the arrival of Mr. R. D. Silver, 
who will immediately put in a large plant for manufacturing brick for the uni- 
versity — the capacity of the plant was to be 12.000 brick per day. The plans ot 
Mr. J. M. Bird, of Logansport. Ind.. were accepted on June 2d and on August 
14th the Commonwealth contains an editorial description of the plans for the 
new building, classing the style of architecture as Franco-Italian. The same 
issue of the paper announces that the excavation for the basement of the tun- 
versity was completed. 


"On August i8, 1869, the contract for the erection of the building was let to 
Silver & Son, for $128,480; soon afterwards the troubles which followed the uni- 
versity for so many years began. Even the Brownville Advertiser, a good friend 
of the university, thought the policy of letting a contract for $28,480 more than 
the appropriation, unwise. The State Journal came to the defense of the regents, 
arguing that it was better policy to begin the erection of a building of sufficient 
size and well suited to its uses, even if it were necessary to have an additional 
appropriation, than to spend $100,000 upon a building that would soon have to 
be torn down because unsuited to the needs of the future. The cornerstone was 
laid on September 23, 1869 ; two days later a glowing account appeared in the 
columns of the State Journal. The exercises were in the hands of the Masons 
with ]\Iaj. D. H. Wheeler as master of ceremonies. A brass band from Omaha, 
imported for the occasion, headed the procession. Li the evening a grand banquet 
was given. Governor Butler made a few remarks and Mr. Wheeler a short 
speech. Then Atty.-Gen. Seth Robinson gave an address on 'Popular Educa- 
tion,' but as most of it concerned Greece and Rome, and very little of it related to 
Nebraska, any further reference to it may be omitted here. The banquet — thanks 
to the good ladies of Lincoln — was enjoyed by fully a thousand people, dancing 
being indulged in from 10 until 4 o'clock. This was the beginning, but the end 
was not yet, as Lincoln people well knew. The regents visited the building and, 
after inspection, approved the plans and construction on January 6, 1871, but 
before a student had ever entered its doors, the cry was raised that it was insecure. 
On June 13, 1871, three professional architects were employed to examine the 
building thoroughly. Their report was made June 23d and pronounced the build- 
ing safe for the present, and probably for years to come. This probability they 
thought could be made a certainty by a few repairs that would not be very 
expensive. These repairs were made and September 6th the university was 
opened with an enrollment of about ninety students the first week. However, 
the rumor of the insecurity of the building would not down, so March 18, 1873, 
a special meeting of the regents was called to consider further repairs. After a 
report from another set of architects a new foundation was ordered to be put 
under the chapel. The foundation walls, as they were torn out were to be exam- 
ined by an architect under the direction of the attorney-general. Gen. J. R. 
Webster, who reported that the foundation had not been built in accordance 
with the contract. The chancellor in his report of June 26, 1877, again called 
the attention of the board to the condition of the building. Four architects were 
now employed, one from Omaha, one from Nebraska City, and two from Lin- 
coin. On the strength of their report, the regents resolved, July 6, 1877, to tear 
down the building and to erect a new one at a cost of $60,000, $40,000 of this 
amount to be raised in Lincoln. Work was to commence immediately on securing 
the above amount. The citizens of Lincoln were not satisfied, so they sent to 
Chicago and Dubuque for architects who examined the building and pronounced 
it easily repaired. A committee of Lincoln's citizens met the regents on August 
15th. From the new light thus secured, the resolution to tear down was recon- 
sidered. A new foundation with some other repairs was ordered, and the bill of 
$6,012 was paid by Lincoln. \'arious attempts to secure an appropriation to 
reimburse the city have been made, but all have ended in failure. .At the same 


time the roof was repaired at an expense of $1,625, '"-it the water still found its 
way through, till finally, in 1883 a slate roof was put on and the 'leak' stopped." 

The first ooard of regents of the imiversity comprised the following men : 
First Judicial District — John C. Elliott, Robert W. Furnas, David R. Dungan ; 
Second Judicial District — Rev. John B. Maxfield, Abel B. Fuller, Champion S. 
Chase; Third Judicial District — William B. Dale, William G. Olinger, F. H. 
Longley. The ex-ofificio members of the board of regents were: Governor Butler, 
Samuel D. Beals, superintendent of public instruction, and A. R. Benton, 

The tirst faculty consisted of: Allen R. Benton, A. M., LL. D., chancellor and 
professor of intellectual and moral science: S. H. Manley, A. M., professor of 
ancient languages and literature; Henry E. Hitchcock, A. M., professor of mathe- 
matics ; O. C. Dake, professor of rhetoric and English literature ; Samuel Aughey, 
A. M., professor of chemistry and natural sciences; George E. Church, A. M., 
principal of Latin school; S. R. Thompson, professor in agricultural department. 

The university started with the single college of literature, science and arts. 
The courses included were the classical, Latin, sciences and Greek 

The first students were : freshmen — Fraud Hurd, Tecumseh : Uruah M. 
Melick, Camden; H. Kanaga Metcalf, Rock Creek; W. H. Sheldon, Percival, 
Iowa; Mary W. Sessions, Lincoln; sophomores — Wallace M. Stephens, Nebraska 
City; William H. Snell, Lincoln; juniors — J. Stuart Dales, East Rochester, Ohio. 
Mr. Dales received the first degree in course the ne.xt year, 1873. I" addition to 
the students mentioned above there were twelve irregular students and 1 10 in the 
preparatory or Latin school. 

At a meeting held June 25, 1872, at the close of the first year of school the 
agricultural college was established and $1,000 appropriated for necessary 
improvements. In 1885 the State Legislature appropriated $25,000 for the chem- 
ical building and two or three years later provision was made for the industrial 
college building, now known as Nebraska Hall ; also provision was made for 
Grant Memorial Hall. In 1891 the sum of $37,000 was appropriated for the 
library building. 

The medical college was established first in 1884, but was not successful, 
and was discontinued two years later. The school was revived in 1902 by an 
agreement with the Omaha Medical College. Thus began the College of Medicine 
of the University of Nebraska. The State Legislature of 1909 appropriated 
funds with which to purchase a site for the medical campus in Omaha and the 
Legislature of 191 1 voted another appropriation for the laboratory building. In 
the summer of 1913 the entire stafif and e(|uipment of the college was moved to 
Omaha. The college of law was established at a meeting of the regents in 
August, 1891. and W. H. Smith was the first dean. A handsome building for 
the accommodation of this school has recently been erected upon the campus at 

Prof. H. \V. Caldwell, in his paper mentioned before, said in regard to the 
teaching of military tactics: "The act of Congress of July 2, 1862, donating 
90,000 acres of land to the agricultural college requires that provision shall be 
made for the teaching of military tactics. This condition has been faithfully 
fulfilled. The department was not put into operation without 'some friction ; 
but in later years the relation between the military professor and the cadets 


has been peculiarly pleasant. The regents asked as early as 1872 for the detail 
of Col. James J- Brisbin as instructor in military tactics. This request was 
refused on the ground that an officer of that rank was never detailed for such a 
purpose. Finally a commandant was secured, and in the fall of 1876 Lieut. E. S. 
Dudley entered upon his work. The first year no suits were required and service 
was voluntary. But m December, 1876, the regents passed a resolution requiring 
suits, after the word 'advising' had been stricken from the report. The following 
June drill was made compulsory on certain classes for one hour each day. In 
the fall of 1877 trouble began. The students felt that their rights and liberties 
had been invaded and they proposed to have a "redress of grievances, at least 
to have their say. The old Tichenor House, at the corner of Thirteenth and K 
streets, was then rented by the university and used as a dormitory for boys. Far 
up under the eaves on the third floor two or three indignation meetings were 
held and resistance was resolved upon. A petition was, however, first to be tried, 
at the suggestion of some of the more conservative. This was really supposed 
to be a sharp move, for the leaders expected of course that the request would be 
refused, then they conceived a just cause of rebellion, and of war, would exist. 
This petition was duly signed by nineteen brave young men asking to be excused 
from drill on the ground that they had come wdth all the clothing necessary for 
the year, and their pocket-books would not stand the additional drain for the mili- 
tary suits that were required. The answer was awaited in trembling expectancy 
for the brave nineteen had resolved to go to some other school rather than submit 
to such tyranny. The answer came. It said ( i ) tliat for the coming year smce 
no announcement of the requirement had been made, suits need not be purchased ; 
(2) that two companies would be formed, one for those with military suits, and 
one for those who had none. The noble nineteen met and consulted. They agreed 
that the faculty had out-generaled them ; eighteen of them fell into line and 
drilled, known in the squibs of the times as the 'ragamuffin squad.' The nineteenth 
got excused on the ground of manual labor and set type on the Hesperian Student 
to prove it. He has not been unknown in political circles since." 

The Graduate College of the L'niversity was organized in 1886. On February 
14, igo8, the regents changed the Department of Education into the Teachers' 
College, which action was confirmed by the Legislature of 1909. The College of 
Engineering was organized by the Legislature of 1909 and at the same time the 
Industrial College was abolished. The School of Pharmacy was organized in 

1908. The School of Fine Arts was reorganized in July, 1912 as a part of the 
College of Arts and Sciences. The School of Commerce was created by the 
regents in May, 1913. This school comprises courses intended to give the 
student a tliorough business education. 

The College of Agriculture was established by an act of the Legislature of 

1909. A farm of 320 acres three miles east of Lincoln was secured for experi- 
mental purposes and to illustrate the correct methods of farm practice. Horti- 
culture, animal husbandry, entomology, agricultural botany and experimental 
agronomy are among the branches taught here. Commodious buildings are 
erected on this farm for the use of the different departments. The farm is 
connected with the city of Lincoln by electric railway. 

The first chancellor of the University of Nebraska was A. R. Benton. He 
was selected by the regents on January 6, 1870. He was succeeded by Edmund B. 



Fairfield. In 1883 Irving J. Alanatt was appointed chancellor and served until 
January i, 1889, when he retired. Prof. Charles E. Bessey was acting chancellor 
until August, 1891, when James H. Canfield assumed the office, and held it until 
September i, 1895. George E. MacLean then was appointed and he remained 
until September i, 1899. Again Professor Bessey acted as chancellor until 
E. Benjamin .Andrews took the office September i, 1900. On January i, 1909, 
Samuel Avery became acting chancellor and on May 20, 1909, was elected to that 


Educational work among the Seventh Day Adventists in the Mississippi 
\'alley began with the Minnesota Conference School at Minneapolis in the fall 
of 1888. This school was held three years in the basement of the Seventh 
Day Adventist Church at the corner of Fourth Avenue and Lake Street. It 
enrolled each year over one hundred young men and women as students. From 
the first, the accommodations were too small and were otherwise unsuitable, 
hence a council was held at Owatonna, Minn., May 20-21, 1889, to plan for 
better facilities. This meeting was attended by Prof. W. W. Prescott, president 
of Battle Creek College and educational secretary of the denomination ; Elder 
A. J. Breed, president of the Wisconsin Conference; Elders W. B. White and 
N. P. Nelson, from Dakota : Elders H. Grant, Allen Moon, and F. L. Mead, 
representing the Minnesota Conference: and Prof. C. C. Lewis, principal of 
the Minneapolis school. At this council it was resommended that the several 
conferences of the northwest unite in establishing and maintaining a well- 
equipped and centrally-located school, and that a committee be appointed, con- 
sisting of two members from each conference, with power to act in the matter 
of building and opening such a school. The committee was called to meet again 
at Owatonna in July, 1889. , 

The meeting thus appointed was not held. Before the time arrived, the idea 
had entirely outgrown its original form. At a meeting held at Lincoln, Neb., 
a few weeks later, a larger council recommended the establishment of an educa- 
tional institution of college grade which would serve all the conferences of the 
Mississippi Valley. 


At the annual session of the General Conference held at Battle Creek, Mich., 
in October, 1889, it was decided to establish a college, under the auspices of 
the denomination, at some point between the Mississippi River and the Rocky 
Mountains. A committee was appointed to select a suitable location. Invita- 
tions, accompanied by promises of a substantial bonus, were received from 
various cities in Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. The committee spent 
some time in investigating these places, and considering the ad\-antages ofifered. 
While the question of a central location with reference to the territory from 
which patronage was expected was regarded as an important one. there were 
other considerations also that were deemed to be weighty. The general atmos- 
phere of the community and its attitude toward education in general are impor- 


tant features in deciding a question of this character. It was found that while 
Lincoln was comparatively a new city, it was at the front in its efforts to advance 
the well-being of its citizens. Its substantial school buildings, its many and well- 
built churches, and the fact that it was already the seat of three universities, 
with a prospect that this number would soon be increased, testified to the inter- 
est of its citizens in education and religion. These considerations, together with 
the hearty interest shown in the project by leading citizens, and the offer of 
very substantial aid, led the committee, at a meeting held at Knoxville, Iowa, 
June 28, 1890, to determine upon the City of Lincoln as the location of the new 
institution, which was afterwards named Union College. The citizens of 
Lincoln and vicinity donated 300 acres of land, 3;J4 miles southeast of the state 
capitol, and the General Conference Association of Seventh-day Adventists gave 
a bond of $100,000 to erect, by July i, 1891, buildings to cost not less than 
seventy thousand dollars. The raising of funds and erection of buildings were 
under the direction of A. R. Henry, agent and attorney-in-fact for the General 
Conference. W. C. Sisley, architect and superintendent of the work ; Elder J. 
P. Gardiner, once president of the Nebraska Conference, with others, labored 
strenuously for the success of the enterprise. 


On April 10. 1890, the ground was broken for the main college building, and 
on the 3rd of May the first stone was laid. There were many difficulties in the 
way, but all were overcome, and the buildings were ready for dedication Septem- 
ber 14, 1891. On that occasion the chapel, with a seating capacity of 500, was 
filled to overflowing with citizens from Lincoln, College View, and the surround- 
ing countrj'. Elder O. A. Olsen, president of the Seventh-day Adventist Gen- 
eral Conference, presided, and opened the exercises with prayer. Prof. William 
P. Aylesworth, of Cotner University, conducted the scripture reading. W. C. 
Sisley presented to the trustees the keys of the college buildings, accompanying 
the presentation with a history of the work of building. A. R. Henry, on the 
part of the trustees, received the keys and responded in an appropriate address. 
The chief address of the occasion was delivered by Prof. W. W. Prescott, the 
first president of Union College. In this address he emphasized the three 
leading features of Christian education as consisting of the study of God's word 
in the revelation of the Bible, the study of His works in nature, and the study of 
His dealings with men and nations as revealed in history. Chancellor James H. 
Canfield of the University of Nebraska followed with an appropriate speech of 
welcome, delivered in his happiest manner. The dedicatory prayer was offered 
by Elder Uriah Smith, editor of Review and Herald, Battle Creek, Michigan, 
and the benediction was pronounced by Elder W. B. White, president of the 
Nebraska Conference. 

The presidents of Union College have been: William W. Prescott, i8gi-2; 
James W. Loughhead, 1893-5; Eli B. Miller, 1896; N. W. Kauble, 1897; W. T. 
Bland, 1898-1900; Lewis A. Hoopes, 1901-3; Charles C. Lewis, 1904-9; Fred- 
erick Griggs, 1910-13: Harvey A. Morrison, 1914-. 

The enrollment in 1914-15 was 323. including students from eighteen states, 
Jamaica, Korea, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Turkey. 




At the annual state convention of tlie Christian Church in 1887 a resolu- 
tion was passed authorizing a committee composed of J. Z. Briscoe, E. T. Gadd, 
Porter Hedge, W. P. Aylsworth, G. E. Bigelow, J. P.. Johnson, and W. W. West 
to consider the question of incorporating a Christian university. After investi- 
gation the committee accepted donations of land amounting to 321 acres north- 
east of Lincoln, at the point now Bethany, and on February 14, 1888, articles 
of incorporation of the Nebraska Christian Educational Board were filed. 

The next step was the erection of a building. Arrangements were made for 
the building of this structure and on April 30, 1888, the cornerstone was laid, 
and was completed in April, 1890. The building was constructed of Milwaukee 
brick aiul trimmed with Michigan red sandstone. 

The action of the committee in starting the university was confirmed by the 
state convention held in Lincoln from August 28th to 30th, 1888. A board of 
trustees was elected, known as the Nebraska Christian Educational Board, and 
consisted of J. Z. Briscoe, president; Alvin Saunders, vice president; C. R. Van 
Duyn, treasurer; Porter Hedge, secretary; and W. P. Aylsworth, W. T. New- 
comb, Ira Titus, C. J. Hale, Thomas Wiles, J. T. Smith, C. C. Munson, and 
E. T. Gadd. 

School was opened in the fall of 1889 '" ^ private house, with W. P. Ayls- 
worth acting as president. He was succeeded by D. R. Dungan in 1890, who 
served for six consecutive years. 

At this time the young university was compelled to undergo the financial 
depression which was general throughout the country. The assets of the insti- 
tution decreased in value and notes which were given on sold lots for the con- 
struction of the buildings were defaulted. In addition to this the price of the 
lots had gone down until hardly 10 per cent could be realized upon their purchase 
price. The management of the university, in order to meet the demands forced 
upon them, gave a mortgage upon the building. Business conditions became 
so bad that the mortgage was foreclosed and the property passed into the hands 
of a trustee, acting for the creditors. During all of this time the school was 
continuing with its educational work, unhampered, or unembarrassed, by the 
troublesome period through which it was passing. In 1896 D. R. Dungan 
resigned and W. P. Aylsworth was chosen as chancellor. In 1898 John W. 
Hilton, an alumnus, was chosen financial agent to raise a fund for the redemption 
of the school property. After two years of effort upon his part and others 
interested in the renovation of the university, the debt was paid and the building, 
the campus and dormitory were deeded back to the Nebraska Christian Uni- 
versity. This new corporation was formed Februai-y 11, 1901, and represented 
the Disciples of Christ in Nebraska. The property of the university is valued 
at about one hundred and forty thousand dollars. The university has two colleges, 
liberal arts and medicine, an academy, normal school, business school, school of 
eloquence, school of music and school of art. The medical college is located in 
Lincoln and is known as the Lincoln Medical College. This school was opened 
September 15, 1890, in the university building with Dr. \V. S. Latta as dean. 



In 1886 there were Methodist schools at York and Central City, and both 
of them were financially in need of assistance.' There was also a tendency to 
scatter several more educational institutions over the state, all under the domina- 
tion of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Realizing that this would mean the 
demise of most of the embryonic schools the bishop asked for an appointment 
of a commission, composed of five members from each conference, and three 
from each school, and that the educational work of the church in Nebraska be 
centrally located in one large school. All of the conferences agreed with this 
thought. Accordingly the commission, in company with Bishops Bowman and 
Warren, met at the St. Paul Methodist Episcopal Church in Lincoln on Decem- 
ber 15, 1886, and immediately began their appointed task of unifying the educa- 
tional work of the church. They decided that there should be only one 
institution of college grade in the state, the location of it to be decided later, 
and that all other schools of the denomination should be subordinate to this 
one central college, with the privilege of carrying their course of studies as 
far as the sophomore year. The commission then voted to place the main 
university at Lincoln, Nebraska. 

The site was located about three miles from Lincoln and a $70,000 building 
erected. A town was laid out around the school and named University Place, 
which community has since grown to over 2,000 inhabitants. It has a municipal 
government of its own, but is closely connected with the City of Lincoln by 
electric car lines. 

The first chancellor of Wesleyan University was C. F. Creighton : he stayed 
for six years, and was succeeded by Isaac Crooks. In three years he resigned 
and the place was filled by an acting chancellor until March, 1898, when D. W. 
C. Huntington was elected to the office. He held the place until 191 1, when 
Mr. Clark A. Fulmer was appointed chancellor. 

In 1905 the charter of the school was amended so as to have two trustees 
from the Alumni Association of the College of Liberal Arts. In 1911 the 
charter was again amended in order that two additional trustees could be elected 
from the Alumni Association. In 1913 the report of the conference com- 
missioners on the Nebraska Wesleyan University was adopted, providing for 
the election of six members by the Northwest Nebraska Conference, from 
within its boundaries; eighteen members by the Consolidated Nebraska Annual 
Conference from within its boundaries ; and four members from and by the 
Alumni Association of the College of Liberal Arts ; and nine members at large 
by the board of trustees. One-third of the members were to be chosen annually 
and to hold office for three years. 

In addition to the original building of the university there is now the C. C. 
White Memorial Building, a magnificent brick and stone structure, used for the 
College of Liberal Arts. This was built in 1905. The building cost over 

The Wesleyan University has just become affiliated with the Nebraska 
School of Medicine at Omaha, Nebraska, in an arrangement by means of which 
the university will offer the two years of work preparatory to the study of 




medicine and at the end of two years more spent in tlie Omaha school Wesleyan 
will be enabled to award the degree of Bachelor of Science. 


The attendance of the Lincoln pnlilic schools showed an increase of 470 
pupils in the year 1915, as compared with the previous year. In the year just 
ended 8,894 children enrolled in the grade and high schools controlled by the 
Lincoln school district. Out of this number 1,250 were high school pupils, an 
increase of 145 over the year 1914. On the first of December, 191 5, eighteen 
grade schools furnished accommodations to 7,644 children. The enrollment 
varied from jt, in the W'illard or West A Street School to "/j^i '" the McKinley 
School at Fifteenth and M streets. The following table will illustrate the growth, 
also decrease, in the various grade schools : 

School 1915 1914 

Bancroft 663 352 

Belmont 162 151 

Bryant 438 512 

Capitol 45S 529 

Clinton 625 623 

EHiott 652 730 

Everett 443 473 

Hawthorne 129 103 

Hayward 480 528 

Lakeview 39 32 

Longfellow 152 147 

AIcKinley J'/T, 388 

Park 606 665 

Prescott 538 549 

Randolph 199 168 

Saratoga 515 551 

Whittier 699 748 

Willard 7t, 70 

High 1,250 1,105 

8,894 8,424 

The advance of education in the past few years has made many changes in the 
conduct of the schools and the school systems. No field of activity, perhaps, has 
had such a rapid development in the past few years as that of education. Schools 
are undergoing a constant revision and reorganization, wdiereas not so many years 
ago they were content to adhere to one system for year after year, never appreciat- 
ing the necessity of change. The newest thing in education is the trend towards 
vocational training. The cry of the business man for years has been that the 
schools paid too much attention to the classics and too little attention to the funda- 
mental principles and practical methods. The first lines to be cut were the required 
courses in the dead languages, namely, Latin and Greek. German was substituted 
for these. Manual training schools and domestic science kitchens were inaugu- 
rated, also printing and sewing. 


Some of the things which have been accoinijlished in the public schools during 
the last few years are: (i) A department of hygiene under the direction of a 
regular physician hired for full time, and a nurse. (2) A junior civic and indus- 
trial league with a branch in each junior high school. The league now numbers 
over fifteen hundred members. (3) An efficiency list organized under the junior 
civic league organization. (4) A system of school and home gardens. (5) A 
night school system with 25 teachers and an enrollment of 1,000. (6) Social and 
neighborhood centers in three schools, Hayward, Park and McKinley. (7) A 
newly established system of junior high schools giving language options, with 
promotion by subject instead of by grade. (8) Three prevocational schools 
offering industrial work as a large part of the course. (9) Departments for 
vocational guidance. (10) A preparatory school in which apt scholars do three 
years' work in two. (11) A housekeeping home in the high school. (12) A 
$200,000.00 plant for the junior high school and a $750,000.00 plant for the 
high school. Corresponding changes have been made in the management and 
government of the schools, the curricula of the schools and the business methods. 

Not only has a strong increase been made toward better things in the schools 
of Lincoln, but in the other districts of Lancaster County there have been like 
changes. There are, all together, 142 school districts in the county, with 165 
school houses — 143 of them frame, 21 brick and i of stucco. In these schools 
are employed 47 male teachers and 481 female, a total of 528. The county as a 
whole presents an enrollment of 13,791 students of all ages, and the average daily 
attendance is 12,483. Almost without exception the school houses in the county 
are listed either good or fair. Sanitary conditions are observed thoroughly and the 
welfare of the pupil is constantly guarded. Following in the footsteps of the 
railroads, industries and other activities, the motto of "Safety First" is acted 
upon more and more in educational lines. 


This state is generally known throughout the country as one which is of the 
highest agricultural value. Its cattle are found upon the thousand hills, and its 
waving fields of grain are seen on every hand, but perhaps it is not generally 
known that intellectually and educationally speaking, Nebraska stands in the 
front rank. 

Only a year or two ago statistics showed that there was a smaller percentage 
of illiteracy here than in any other state in the Union. It is the second state per 
capita in owners of automobiles, and is the first state in the Union in wealth per 
capita. In musical matters we find she is taking rank with many of the states 
which are much older, where the art of music had been pursued with great 
diligence before Nebraska became a state. 


Recognizing the value of the art, the public schools in Lincoln were the third 
in the United States to ofifer a course in music in connection w^ith literary studies 
which would lead to graduation. The University of Nebraska has recognized its 
cultural value by giving credit for the theoretical and applied music for more 
than ten years past. 


Perhaps one of the greatest agencies in the development of music in the state 
has been the University School of Music, which was for many years affiliated 
with the state university, but is now an independent institution. This was 
established some twenty-two years ago when the regents invited Mr. Willard 
Kimball to come to this state and operate a school of music. 

It is well remembered by those who are still on the ground that the taste 
for music in this city was very primitive, save for the fact that a comparatively 
small number of citizens were interested in a higher musical education. The 
large majority cared nothing for it or regarded it as having no educational value. 


How different it is today, when we have largely attended gatherings at 
recital? of celebrated artists ; when the ]\Iay festival annually brings one of the 
largest orchestras in the country ; and the annual pageant, now fully established, 
consists very largely of high class music which is enjoyed by all. 

The University School of Music has grown since 1894 to an institution having 
an annual attendance of more than seven hundred students, and a faculty of 
thirty-hve men and women who have received the most liberal education at 
home and abroad, and who are sought for as concert artists in this and other 
states. The school has sent out hundreds of graduates who are building up the 
musical appreciation of the people in many different communities and laying 
the foundation for increased appreciation of music by the girls and boys who 
are being educated in our public schools. 

More than fifty supervisors of music in the public schools of the state have 
been furnished from this school, and it undertakes to give free instruction to 
100 children from the public schools annually, beside ofifering 100 free and 
partial scholarships to older students who are not able to pay. It naturally 
follows that this institution is worthy of the patronage and enthusiastic support 
of all those who believe that musical education is of value to the individual, and 
to all such the institution extends a cordial invitation to become better acquainted. 

Lincoln's new high school building 

With the completion of the new $730,000 high school building Lincoln's public 
schools take rank with the schools of Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City and other 
large and progressive school centers of the country. Few, if any, of the high 
school buildings in the country surpass that of Lincoln from the point of view of 
grandeur and equipment. The new building was first occupied in September, 
191 5. It has a capacity of 1,200 pupils. It has thirty-six class rooms, two gym- 
nasiums, a swimming pool, a large auditorium, music and art rooms, lecture 
rooms, laboratories, inanual training and domestic science rooms. The building 
is complete in every detail and its arrangement and completeness represents the 
latest and most scientific ideas in education. The building is three stories high, 
with a fourth story in the middle. It is 300 by 200 feet in size. The material is 
cream colored pressed brick on the outside. The rooms are lighted with hundreds 
of windows from the outside and from court lights. All of the class rooms have 
natural light in abundance. There are six corridors in the building, one of them 


244 feet long and 16 feet wide. The floors are terraza and the walls of marble. 
Some of the stairs are 16 feet wide and made of fine white marble. On the first 
floor is the manual training room, 21 by 40 feet in size. There are also printing 
rooms, typewriter rooms, two banking and business rooms, sewing rooms for 
girls, and a modern kitchen room for domestic science. The two gymnasiums are 
12 by 90 feet each, equipped in addition with shower baths and lockers. On the 
second floor is the auditorium which will seat more than 1,300 people. The stage 
at one end is 42 by 22 feet. The auditorium is 80 feet square and has a gallery. 
On this floor are also the administration offices. The suite occupies a space 30 
by 50 feet. The south front of the second floor is devoted to laboratories and a 
large study room. The third floor contains class and study rooms, laboratories 
and library. The library is large enough to accommodate more than 500 students 
at one time. The fourth floor is devoted to music and art. In addition there is 
a recital hall with stage. 

The building is heated by a large plant just east of the main building, with 
a smokestack 140 feet high. The heating and ventilating systems represent the 
most modern thought along this line. Only air that has been washed is allowed 
to enter the rooms. The artificial lighting is done by the indirect system. A 
large cafeteria is operated in the building where pupils and teachers may obtain 
luncheon at the minimum of expense. 


In the Nebraska State Journal of January 2, 1916, there appears the follow- 
ing article by C. B. Cornell in regard to the vocational work in the public schools 
of the Capital City: 

"In a recent article on the subject of vocational training in the schools Pro- 
fessor Leavitt, of Chicago University, makes the following statements : 'Edu- 
cators are being warned not to train boys away from the farm and the shop. This 
the schools have undoubtedly done to some extent. Our revised ideal will require 
that we educate the boy for work on the farm and in the shop, but that we so 
educate him that he will make a better farmer and will develop a richer farm 
life, or will demand a better shop and conditions more favorable to progress and 
to a reasonable enjoyment of his work and his leisure. The problem is to provide 
such an education as will make clear to the great majority the meaning and the 
joy of work and of study. The time devoted to education in the elementary 
schools is too short to impart all necessary knowledge, but it may not be too short 
to develop the desire for knowledge and skill, and the habits of study and of 

"This may properly be taken as the principle which underlies the present move- 
ment in \ocational education. And may it be stated in the beginning that this 
movement is not one which happens to be riding on the crest of a wave of popu- 
larity, but one which is the outcome of a logical development in educational ideals, 
and which, as such, is destined to play an active part in the management of the 
public schools of the future. 

"\'ocational work has received its greatest impetus from two sources: (i) 
the desire of educators to retain children in school, and (2) the demand of the 
community for a more practical system of instruction. These two forces are 


working in unison toward the accomplishment of a common end — that of so 
educating the boy that he may become a more useful member of society, which 
means that his lot will be a happier one while he contributes in a broader way 
to the common good. 

department's first year 

"The department of boys' vocational work was established in Lincoln by 
action of the board of education during the latter part of the last school year. 
It embraces all of the industrial and vocational activities in all the schools, from 
the fifth grade through the high school. There are three general groups of schools 
in the Lincoln system: the junior high, prevocational, and senior high, each with 
a particular course of study in the manual arts. The course in the junior high 
schools, namely, Clinton, Elliott, Whittier, Bryant, Capitol, Prescott, Saratoga, 
Everett, and Park, consists, at present, of bench work in wood, with a preliminary 
course in mechanical drawing in the seventh and eighth grades. Each boy is in 
the shop one ninety-minute period per week. While this is not sufficient time for 
the production of a great quantity of work per pupil nevertheless it is maximum 
amount of time which is feasible with the present equipment and teaching force. 

"In these shops the boys are taught the use of various tools common to the 
carpenter and cabinet maker's trades, also the making and interpreting of the boy 
along practical lines. Each project is planned with the idea of its utility con- 
stantly in mind. No problem is begun until the boy has a clear understanding 
of its construction and of the use for which it is intended. As far as possible, 
the boys are permitted to work out their own ideas, and, in the upper grades, may 
select their projects. Accuracy of technique and close attention to detail are 
insisted upon. During the present year many projects have been, or are being 
made, for use in the school rooms, in addition to a considerable amount of fur- 
niture repair work. The success in this field is attained when the boy has a 
genuine interest in his work. The result is at once reflected in his other school 
work and in his general deportment. In the words of President Elliott, 'To do 
a mechanical or artistic piece of work thoroughly is much more than the material 
operation. It is a moral achievement.' 


"In the high school proper three lines of work are open to students : ( i ) Bench 
work in wood, ten periods per week; (2) mechanical drawing, ten periods per 
week; (3) printing. The wood working course was offered this year for the 
first time in the Lincoln High School. The equipment consists of twenty benches, 
with hand tools, and two turning lathes. This equipment will be increased to 
meet the demands of additional registration. It has been proposed to erect a 
manual arts building to house the activities of this department. In order to keep 
pace with present educational standards. Lincoln will need such a building in 
the very near future, a manual arts school which can be operated in conjunction 
with the regular high school. The mechanical drawing course follows the con- 
ventional lines of geometric projection, machine and architectural drawing. The 
print shop is fully equipped to turn out all kinds of job work. In September the 


students in the printing classes undertook the pubhcation of the Advocate, a 
weekly high school paper. The shop has three presses, motor, paper cutter, type 
and cases for ten students. The instruction is given by a high class, practical 
printer who has been especially trained for this line of work. 

"The main activity in the department this year is the working out of policies 
and courses for the newly-created prevocational schools, Hayward, Bancroft 
and McKinley. In the report of the committee on course of study for these 
schools we find the following paragraph: 'The purpose of the schools is to 
instruct the boys in all the fundamental principles of the trades represented. It 
is not the intention to make skilled workmen, but "to enable the boy to learn the 
use of his hands and his head in practical construction in several different lines 
of work and thus enable him to choose that particular kind of work for which he 
feels himself best adapted. It is the further purpose of the school to offer to the 
hand-minded and practical minded boy opportunity to exercise his powers in mat- 
ters that appeal to his mental constitution and seems to him worth while.' 

"The chief function of the prevocational schools, as suggested above, is to 
retain the interest of the boys who would otherwise leave school to enter indus- 
trial work, giving them a practical insight into the various trades, with especial 
training in lines of work for which they seem best adapted. 


"The amount of time allotted to industrial work in these schools is as follows : 
Ninth grade, twelve forty-minute periods per week; eighth grade, twelve periods, 
with an additional six periods optional ; seventh grade, eight periods with six 
optional in addition ; fourth, fifth and sixth grades, from four to six hours per 
week. In the upper grade this means that a boy may so arrange his wo-k that 
he may spend virtually one-half of his time in the shop. The course is very 
elastic, hence the work may be made to fit the boy, rather than the boy to fit the 
work. For example, boys of the third grade, if overgrown or retarded, may be 
placed ill the grade in which he is mentally and physically capable of doing the 
line with this idea seventy-five backward boys were transferred from the ward 
schools to these special schools, at the beginning of the year. As a result, in 
many instances, they are finding themselves and are getting a mental grasp on 
themselves through the medium of the hand work. Incidentally, the boy is 
placed in the grade in which he is mentally and physically caapble of doing the 
best work, regardless of his previous training. Special promotions are frequent 
and it is seldom that a pupil falls down on the responsibility which he assumes 
when he 'skips a grade.' 

"It was anticipated by some that the increase of time spent in the shop with 
a corresponding decrease in time allotted to the academic branches would work 
to the disadvantage of the latter. It has been found, however, that the opposite 
is true. The boys who spend the most time in vocational work, and particularly 
the boys who do the best hand work, are the leaders in mathematics, English and 
the other subjects. The industrial work seems to create an atmosphere — an 
esprit de corps — which permeates the entire school. 



"The work, as far as possible, is of a practical nature. Preliminary theory is 
dispensed with and the boy begins with the actual construction of a real, useful 
object. In no other phase of education is the timeworn tenet of pedagogy so 
applicable, 'We learn to do by doing.' To be proficient in any industry certain 
habits must be established. These must be correct in formation and accurate 
and efficient in their functioning. The boys are taught the most efficient processes 
of the various trades with a thorough understanding of the principles which 
demand their use. No particular attempt is made to turn out a finished artisan 
in any one line of work. Rather, the plan is to give the boy a comprehensive 
insight into the most important trades. A foreman of a large shop in this city 
said recently: 'Our trade is suffering through the lack of apprentices. Can't you 
fellows do something to help the situation ?' 

"Wherever possible practical problems are undertaken for the school or the 
home. For example, during the present semester, the boys of the Hayward shop 
built a cement walk in front of the school property, 4 by 135 feet, and are com- 
pleting furniture for the library and school bank. At the McKinley School a 
complete call bell system has been installed connecting certain rooms in each of 
the three buildings with the principal's office. The Bancroft shop is turning out 
kindergarten tables, book cases, hall racks, etc., for use in the school. In each 
of the shops benches have been made for sheet metal work in addition to drawing 
boards and other articles. 

■'The course as otitlined and which will be followed during the remainder 
of the year is as follows : Sixth grade, wood work, three eighty-minute periods, 
and electric wiring one period per week; seventh grade, wood work four, trade 
drawing one, and concrete one eighty-minute period per week ; eighth grade, trade 
drawing one, sheet metal one, and wood work four eighty-minute periods per 
week; ninth grade, same as the eighth. In addition, printing is offered as an 
optional subject in two of the schools, and shoe repairing in one school. 

THE BO.ARD's policy 

"The policy of the board is to equip the shops in these schools in every detail 
necessary for the successful teaching of each subject. This year three highest 
grade circular saws, a lathe and a joined have been installed. Also all necessary 
tools for instruction in elementary sheet metal work, including snips, forms, 
stakes, soldering furnace, etc. Each boy is furnished with a complete set of draw- 
ing instruments, triangle, drawing paper and ink. 

''The course in wood working consists of the processes in joinery, cabinet 
making, wood finishing and house construction. In sheet metal work it is planned 
to have each boy make several useful articles of tinware and galvanized iron in 
addition to repairing articles brought from the home. The course in concrete 
during the second semester will include mixing and pouring concrete, and making 
forms for sidewalks, steps, pedestals, etc. Trade drawing covers a wide scope 
during the two years in which it is taught and will equip the boy to fill satis- 
factorily a position in the draughting room of any manufacturing establishment. 
The course in electric wiring is practical in every detail. Large forms or booths 


have been erected in which the problems of wiring are actually worked out by 
practical installation of bell circuits, telephones and electric lights. 

"With a teaching force of nine men the department is run with an annual 
expenditure of approximately twelve thousand dollars. While at times the hoped 
for results seem slow of realization nevertheless it is felt that the work is well 
worth the effort and expense and will sooner or later be recognized as an impor- 
tant factor in the production of a more eliicient citizenship." 


The Lincoln Normal University was started in 1891 on a site four miles south- 
east of Lincoln and a three-story brick building erected to accommodate an 
expected one thousand students. The building cost $100,000. However, the 
success of the institution never reached the pinnacle anticipated and the years of 
financial depression brought many hardships to the school. On December i, 
1898, the building was destroyed by fire and the school never resumed. At the 
time of the conflagration the finances were in very poor shape. 

The Nebraska Alilitary Academy was started in the fall of 1909 and now 
occupies a large, fireproof building in Hawthorne, two miles from Lincoln. 
Very shortly after the school had started in the old Western Normal School 
Building a fire completely destroyed the plant, but the school continued until a 
new building was erected despite the inconveniences suffered. Col. B. D. Hay- 
ward is the superintendent of the institution and maintains strict military disci- 
pline over the boys enrolled. The school has the same standing with the university 
as all accredited schools, the graduates being admitted without examination to 
the freshman class of the university. 

The Lincoln Business College was founded in 1884 by Prof. F. F. Roose. In 
1884, the first year of its existence, the school occupied rooms in the office 
building at the corner of Eleventh and O streets. After a few years these quar- 
ters were outgrown and a place was secured in the Oliver Building at Thirteenth 
and P streets. Here the entire fourth floor and a half of the third floor were 
utilized by the school. For sixteen years this remained the home of the school. 
On January i, 1914, the school moved into its present home on the corner of 
Fourteenth and P streets. This is a modern building, designed and erected for 
the purposes of this school. ' 


In the Lincoln Sunday Star, is.sue of August i, 1915, Dr. Samuel Avery, 
chancellor of the University of Nebraska, contributed a very comprehensive 
article upon the subject noted above and the plans which are to be followed in 
the future by the university. As this article contains much which will be of 
interest to the readers of this volume, it is quoted verbatim following : 

"I have been asked by the management of The Star to write a short historical 
account of the plans under way for campus extension and the development of 
the university plant in Lincoln. Inasmuch as the period of my administration 
will doubtless figure in the future history of the university as the period of 
campus agitation, extension and development, I am glad to have the opportunity 
to write a brief synopsis of what has been accomplished up to date. 


"When I took nj) the work of this office on January i, 1909, the university was 
confronted with the task of securing funds from the Legislature, the majority of 
whose members had been elected on a strict economy pledge. The time did not 
seem ripe for proposing any elaborate program of extension or development. 
Nevertheless funds were secured with which to purchase the athletic field north 
of the old campus. Our entire campus up to this time had been four city blocks 
with the vacated cross streets, or approximately thirteen acres. 

''With the actual purchase of ground outside of the original plat the time 
seemed ripe for a definite building program. L'ntil the building of Leland Stan- 
ford University in the early '90s symmetry of architecture had hardly been thought 
of in America. The Stanford buildings, attractive but not very practical for uni- 
versity purposes, caused the sharpening of the pencils of many university plan- 
ners. The stately Gothic buildings of the University of Chicago stimulated 
planning still further. Having occasion to be in Boston in the fall of '09, I called 
on Mr. Rutan of a well known architects' firm of that city and asked him to visit 
us with a thought of making a layout sufficiently comprehensive to cover our pos- 
sible growth for many years. 


"When we were agitating for a harmonious extension the friends of the insti- 
tution were of many minds. This ditYerence of opinion stood out clearly at a 
rather brilliant dinner held at the Lincoln Hotel at which Mr. Rutan spoke. 
Members of the board of regents, distinguished citizens, among whom was Hon. 
W. J. Bryan, representatives of the daily papers of the state, and others, were 
present. The ferment for campus extension and the harmonious development of 
the university was working, but there was no evidence of any tendency towards 
unanimity of opinion as to procedure. 

"Mr. Rutan was inclined to think that under the condition then existing we 
would most likely succeed in endeavoring to persuade the Legislature to give us 
sufficient money to extend the old campus north of the railroad tracks. It was 
argued that it would be the best policy to secure land where the houses were of 
the least value, and accordingly he drew a sketch of the plan which he presented to 
the university for development along this line. This sketch did not meet the 
approval of the regents. It called for the finest and best buildings on ground 
lower than the present campus and nearer the railroad tracks. It was pointed 
out that the athletic field would be pushed so far towards the tracks that the 
viaduct would offer free standing room, where the game could be easily viewed, 
and finally it was shown that while the houses were very poor they were very 
numerous and consequently the price could not be as reasonable as anticipated. 
Nevertheless Mr. Rutan's sketch gave something definite for discussion and 
eventually clarified the situation to this extent: If going north further than U 
Street was excluded, about the only possibility that remained was to go east on 
R Street. 


"The agitation for removal to the farm came about unexpectedly. While 
there had been some discussion of the proposition for thirty years, the immediate 


occasion for the agitation arose in this way : A prominent citizen of Lincohi 
(whose name I will suppress as he is now deceased), felt that the university 
campus should be turned over to the City of Lincoln for high school purposes, 
park space, an art gallery and the Historical Society. He felt very strongly that 
the high school could be developed on a departmental plan, not as a single unit ; 
that it would bring tuition pupils from all over the state and be a great asset to 
the city ; and that the university proper should be removed to the farm and con- 
solidated with the agricultural plant. Though not taking the matter very seri- 
ously, I invited this gentleman to meet with the board of regents and explain his 
ideas. At this meeting of the regents he professed-himself thoroughly converted 
to the plan, so thoroughly that he never gave it up even after the Lincoln gentle- 
man, who made the suggestion to him had long abandoned any thought of the 
possibility of utilizing the old campus for other Lincoln activities. The history 
of the removal agitation and its final settlement by a gratifying majority is doubt- 
less in the minds of all your readers and need not be reviewed in this connection. 
"I pass then to the plans that have been maturing since the troublesome ques- 
tion has been eventually settled. In order to avoid loss of time, the well known 
architects, Shepley, Rutan & Collidge of Boston and Chicago, had been working 
on three layouts for the institution — the city campus extension, the farm campus 
plan and the consolidated plant at the farm. During his time I felt justified in 
telling the architects that the probabilities of the state's ever using the third plan 
were so remote that they need do no work on it other than what was necessary in 
the interest of fair play before the question was settled. When the question was 
settled we had a fairly good looking plan for extension. The citizens' bond guar- 
anteeing that the tract from Tenth to Fourteenth and from R to U could be 
rounded out for $300,000 fixed the space limits of extension. The problem, then, 
became one of harmonious grouping and of architecture. 


"Great progress had been made since our first struggles in '09. As soon as 
the verdict of the people had been announced I secured permission of the board 
to make a trip with the regents-elect and Mr. Hodgdon, of the firm of Coolidge 
& Hodgdon, successors to the firm that we had previously employed, to inspect 
the plants of half a dozen universities of the ^liddle West. The university senate 
was invited to name a representative and the choice fell on Professor Barbour. 
After this study had been made the matter was thoroughly discussed by a uni- 
versity committee consisting of Professors Stout, Caldwell and Barbour and 
finally by the university senate itself. The regents desired that at the cost of a 
little time all interests should be heard. The result of the discussion is shown in 
a plan for campus extension that hangs in my ofiice and which has been published 
in the daily press. 


"This plan represents all the building that will probably be done in the life- 
time of anyone now actively interested in the university. It provides for no 
destruction of buildings except old Nebraska Hall, which has already been con- 
demned as dangerous. Twelfth Street will be left open for an automobile drive 


and for foot passengers, but the other streets will, on the carrying out of the 
tentative promise of the city commissioners, be closed. 

"The lirst building to be erected will be Bessey Hall. Doctor Bessey himself 
began drawing the plans for this building and it is in accordance with his wish 
that it will be placed on the north side of the new campus. He used to say to me, 
'A botanist wants a north broadside. He does not care for an attractive street 
view. The north light for the use of our microscopes is what we need.' While 
he was working on the plans for this building I noticed with profound regret a 
falling off in the vitality of Doctor Bessey, and I asked him if there was not 
someone of the younger force who could relieve him of the drudgery of working 
out the technical requirements of classroom and laboratory. He at once thanked 
me for the suggestion and named Professor Pool. Professor Pool was given 
permission to visit various laboratories and after consultations with Doctor Bessey, 
Doctor W'olcot and others, he handed to the architect his first sketches. It was 
still hoped, however, that we could have a celebration on his birthday which would 
represent the breaking of the ground even though the plans were not complete. 
No one hoped for the completion of the plans, let alone laying the cornerstone, 
but the citizens' committee that was securing the ground for us found it imprac- 
ticable to have the space vacated at that time. In the meantime Doctor Bessey's 
death followed and it 'seemed best to postpone the exercises planned until the 
actual laying of the cornerstone. The first pencil sketch of the building showed 
a more expensive building than it seemed wise to build, especially since the 
Legislature expects that most of the departments of the university will be fairly 
well housed with this appropriation. Personally the regents would have been 
glad to spend any sum given them as a memorial to Doctor Bessey, but they could 
not go beyond a certain limit in justice to other departments and to the taxpayers. 

"However, the cutting down of tentative sketches has not resulted in a delay 
of more than four weeks. The main delay is in giving the professors an oppor- 
tunity to work out their thoughts and to plan to provide for their various needs. 
An arbitrary and unsympathetic administration could hustle matters along and 
satisfy certain misdirected popular clamor, but the results in the end would not 
be as happy. However, it is expected that the complete plans and specifications 
will be ready for the bidders in about two weeks. 


"The plans for the chemistry building are nearly as far along. While this 
building will house more students than the biological building, it is adapted for a 
single department only. Hence it has been planned with less discussion and 
adjustments. The head of the chemical department has shown himself espe- 
cially reasonable in his requirements and appreciative of the needs of other 
departments. The plans of this building will be complete and bids called for 
presumably before September ist. 

"While the regents have not formally authorized any further construction at 
the present time, yet studies are being made for a building to house political and 
social science, history and possibly psychology. Just now conferences are under 
way looking towards extending this building into a home for those departments 
of the arts college commonly known as the humanities. Whether the larger 


arts college building or the smaller social science building will become an actuality 
can probably not be definitely decided until after the professors return from their 
vacations. In working with the professors the regents and the chancellor have 
constantly sought to guide but not to dictate. The administration has endeavored 
to avoid mistakes and to secure a harmonious, symmetrical development of the 
institution, but does not in any way wish to suppress an expression of the tech- 
nical skill, insight and comprehension of departmental needs that must come 
from the professors who are to use the buildings. Hence, a little delay is pref- 
erable to arbitrary acceleration. 

"If the building just referred to should take the form of a special home for 
the arts college, it will probably be approximately as large and expensive as 
the Bessey Building and the chemistry building combined. 

"Tentative plans have also been made for an education building to house our 
educational departments and the Temple High School. The development of these 
plans will depend somewhat on the form that the third building assumes. The 
various men connected with the teachers' college have not sufficiently threshed 
out the matter to reach unanimity of opinion as to what departments should be 
housed in the education building. 

"The buildings that I have outlined will somewhat more than exceed the 
appropriation now available, but there will be the two final years of the levy, 
which will doubtless be made available by the next Legislature. 

"In the grouping of buildings care has been taken to have allied departments 
situated in close proximity. The engineering college will ultimately be extended 
along the athletic field, starting from the present mechanical engineering labora- 
tories. The chemistry building will in a sense link engineering with the biological 
sciences. The new library, which may not be built during the present generation, 
will occupy a central position. The museum, auditorium, art galleries, etc., which 
probably cannot be built out of the present levy, will occupy a commanding posi- 
tion closing the vista of Thirteenth .Street. The building for political and social 
science, which as before stated may be extended into an arts college building, 
appears on the layout as occupying the space on the new campus just across from 
the old chemical laboratory. The sketch shows an L-shaped building longest on 
Twelfth Street, but extending a considerable distance east in a line projected from 
Memorial Hall. 


"Probably the style of architecture of the new buildings has been discussed 
as much as any other subject. About this much has been definitely determined: 
The buildings will be of classical style, Gothic being too expensive and not in 
harmony with the buildings already erected, some of which as the temple, the law 
building, the mechanical engineering laboratories, are very worthy structures. 
The building material will be of red brick. A modest amount of cut Bedford 
stone will be used in the trimmings. The buildings will be of the steel structure 
wall bearing type. In other words, the interior frames will be of steel but the 
walls will carry their own load and support in part the steel inner structure. They 
will, of course, be entirely fireproof. Dignity, harmony and a reasonable, though 
not deadly, uniformity will dominate the grounds. The architects will depend 


more on proportion, symmetry and landscape gardening for effects than on ornate 

"While the buildings will be as permanent as it is possible to build them, the 
cost will not be excessive. The buildings at the University of Chicago will run 
about 35 cents per cubic foot. At Princeton the expense is as high as 45 cents. 
On the other hand, some very plain reinforced concrete buildings have been built 
at state universities for as low as 13 cents per cubic foot and it has been well 
remarked, 'They look it.' Probably the new buildings will run from 15 cents 
to 20 cents per cubic foot owing to the character of the buildings. It is needless 
to say that the cost will vary in accordance with the number and size of rooms 
per building, the amount of laboratory fixtures required and other varying feat- 
ures. Little will be spent for marble and other decorative effects, but on the other 
hand special attention will be paid to heating, ventilation, sanitation, convenience 
and general utility. 

"It should be remembered that the total sum is not large in comparison with 
the amounts expended at Minnesota, Illinois and Wisconsin. If it were the 
regents would confine themselves to two-story buildings. As it is, it seems neces- 
sary to build three stories and also to utilize some basement space in addition to 
this for storage and locker rooms. However, especial attention is being paid to 
locating those departments and rooms most used by women on the first and second 
floors. Basements and attics will be used, if at all, principally by the young men. 

.APPRECIATE committee's WORK 

"The public may be further interested to know that the university authorities 
appreciate highly the work of the very efficient citizens' committee in securing the 
ground. The problem of extending the campus from seventeen to forty acres 
at an expense of only $300,000 to the state has been an exceedingly difficult one 
and the State of Nebraska owes much to the citizens' committee for the way in 
which it is being handled. 

"In conclusion I wish to explain why the university has not followed the sug- 
gestions sometimes made that we develop something new, unique and character- 
istic of Nebraska in the form of architecture. Our architectural advisors make 
this answer: 'Architecture is a growth. We can no more create a fiat style than 
we can a fiat language. W'e can no more have Nebraska architecture than we can 
have Nebraska music. If we should vary violently from established lines, we 
would simply develop some freak buildings which presumably in the end would 
please no one.' " 


By J. Z. Briscoe 

The Nebraska Christian University was the outgrowth of a desire upon the 
part of many members of the Church of Christ to enlarge the work in Nebraska. 
During the year 1887 the Baptists held a meeting in the City of Lincoln, with a 
view to locating a seat of learning in that vicinity. During that meeting a propo- 
sition was made to them offering to donate 250 acres of land, if they would locate 
on the present site of Cotner University. The conference failed to agree on the 


advisability of starting a new institution in this state and upon their failure to 
accept the offer submitted to them the donors approached the members of the 
Christian Church with a proposition increasing the donation to about three hun- 
dred acres. In July, 1887, the state mission appointed a committee of which 
■ C. C. Munson was chairman to "receive propositions to donate lands, etc., for the 
location of a Nebraska State Christian University and to report results to the 
convention to be held at Fairfield in August." This was done and a committee 
of seven appointed by the convention "to receive and accept propositions, incor- 
porate, hold property for, and locate such schools and colleges, and take such other 
steps as the best interests of the brotherhood of this state, in their judgment may 
demand." The committee consisted of the following persons: J. Z. Briscoe, chair- 
man ; Porter Hedge, secretary ; W. P. Aylsworth, G. E. Bigelow, J. B. Johnson, 
W. W. West and E. T. Gadd. 

The first meeting of this committee was held at the store room of Webster & 
Briscoe, where organization was made and adjourimient had to the Windsor 
Hotel in the afternoon, where the committee was met by Prof. Neill Johnson, 
Sam McClay, W. Rulifson and Theodore F. Barnes, who at once conducted the 
committee to view the present site of Cotner University, then a dense corn field 
and known as the Hawley Farm. At this time no definite proposition was made. 
Negotiations were continued from this time until May 31, 1888, when the fol- 
lowing report was submitted by Messrs. Bonell and Cropsey on the part of the 
donors : 

"To the committee on location of Christian University : Gentlemen — We 
herewith hand you contracts for deeds of land donated to Christian University 
as follows: B. L. Paine, 23 acres; Bond and Colby, 10 acres; W. H. Goodrich, 20 
acres; W. Young, 10 acres; A. J. Cropsey, 85 acres; F. M. Hosford, 5 acres; 
L. G. Leavitt, 5 acres ; Stevens and Glade, 10 acres ; Melick and McClay, 20 
acres; Lucy Morgan, 15 acres; J. Z. Briscoe, 10 acres; C. F. Goodman, 10 acres; 
W. Rulifson, 12 J4 acres; W. Lennard, 10 acres; W. W. Webster, 10 acres; W. S. 
Mills, 10 acres." In addition to this A. G. Thompson, F. L. Sheldon, J. E. Houtz, 
and J. D. MacFarland donated one lot each and T. M. Marquett 12 lots. 

The proposition was accepted and the location of the proposed university was 
declared to be upon the northeast quarter of section 16, township 10 north, range 
7 east of the 6th principal meridian. The only competing site was the location 
of the later Western Normal (now Nebraska Military Academy site), at which 
point the committee was ofifered 500 acres for the location. 

On the 14th day of February, 1888, the following named met with the com- 
mittee at the Capitol Hotel in Lincoln : Ex-Governor Saunders, George S. 
Smith and W. H. Gadd, of Omaha ; C. W. Henry, C. R. Van Duyn and C. C. 
Munson, of Lincoln. After visiting the proposed site adjournment was had until 
evening, when the above named again met with the committee for the purpose of 
adopting articles of incorporation, which had been carefully prepared by Porter 
Hedge. After discussion of the different articles, on motion of George S. Smith 
they were unanimously adopted, signed and acknowledged. The following are 
the names of the incorporators : Alvin Saunders, J. Z. Briscoe, E. T. Gadd, 
W. P. Aylsworth, George S. Smith, Charles R. Van Duyn, C. C. Munson. These 
men, with S. D. Mercer, Thomas Wiles and J. B. Strode constituted the first 
board of trustees until the next meeting of the Nebraska Christian Convention. 










At the second meeting of the board on Marcli 4, 1888, it was ordered that 
the executive committee proceed at once to plat and sell the lands belonging to 
the university. It was found on application that Mr. Cropsey was unable to make 
a title to the eighty-five acres which he had subscribed, it being largely encum- 
Ijered and he only had possession of an option upon the land. In this extremity 
a syndicate was formed, consisting of C. C. Munson, C. R. \'an Duyn, Porter 
Hedge and J. Z. Briscoe, which undertook to purchase the quarter section out 
of which the donation was made and release the cam[)us of twenty acres and 
alternate blocks which were to be deeded to the university free from all incum- 
brance. This was accomplished, but was no easy task. The title having been 
cleared, the land was platted by J. P. Walton, county surveyor, at a cost of 
$232.09 and named after the denomination's oldest college, "Bethany" Heights. 
The main street of the village was called Saunders Avenue in honor of the oldest 
member of the board.. 

The donors having turned over deeds to the property donated, the board gave 
a bond for $150,000 for the faithful performance of their part of the obligation, 
which was to erect a building worth at least fifty thousand dollars, within a certain 
limit of time. The committee on plans reported favorably on O. H. Placy, and 
accordingly his plans were adopted and a contract entered into, in which he was 
to serve both as architect and superintendent at a compensation of $1,000. 

In answer to advertisements for bids on foundation there were five presented, 
prices ranging from $9,965 to $12,500 The bid of Thomas Price and Company 
was accepted, it being $11,572, and contract signed July 21, 1888. The honor of 
holding the plow which threw the first dirt from the foundation was conferred 
upon Col. E. T. Gadd, who had been employed agent for the sale of the property 
of the school. The Nebraska Christian Missionary Society held its annual con- 
vention during this year with the First Church at Lincoln in St. Paul's M. E. 
Church. The first price lists of lots was presented by the committee appointed 
for that purpose on July 6th and adopted, fixing prices at an average of about 
$200 each. An auction sale of lots was held during the above named convention 
and that body invited to attend. The cornerstone was laid during the afternoon 
and about $8,000 worth of lots were sold at from $150 to $300 each. 

By request of the convention in session in Lincoln, August 30, 188S, a long 
and tedious attempt was made to unite Fairfield College and the university. To 
this end they had placed two brethren from Fairfield on the board. A report on 
the liabilities and assets of Fairfield College was made by W. T. Newcomb, as fol- 
lows : total assets, $7,102.25; liabilities, $16,933, with $400 outlying lots unsold. 

On September 26th a building committee was appointed, consisting of J. Z. 
Briscoe, chairman, C. C. Munson and E. T. Gadd, who at once proceeded to 
carry out the work of construction of the building. The contract was let to 
Chester and Barris for $47,000 on March 4, 1889. The building was to be fin- 
ished by the middle of the next January. 

The faculty for the first year was as follows : W. P. Aylsworth, vice presi- 
dent, professor of biblical literature and occupant of the Briscoe Bible chair; 
.A.. M. Chamberlain, professor of ancient languages ; P. B. Burnett, professor of 
modern languages; E. D. Harris, preparatory department; Mrs. W. P. Stems, 
instrumental music; A. Webber, vocal; Almeda Parker, elocution; Dr. .A. T. Noe 
of Nemaha City, anatomy and physiology ; Lulu Murphy, drawing. 

Vol. I— Ifi 



First in the list of churches of this denomination in Lancaster County may 
be mentioned the St. Paul Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln. This is one 
of the pioneer churches of the county and today is one of the largest. The first 
Methodist meetings in the county were held in the old Town of Lancaster, before 
the founding of Lincobi. The first class was in charge of Robert Hawks, an 
itinerant preacher, who had been appointed in 1867. At the close of the first 
conference year the Lancaster class had a total of sixteen members. When the 
state capital was established at the new Town of Lincoln the class was moved 
there. In the spring of 1868 the class was made a station and named the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln. Rev. H. T. Davis was appointed the 
first pastor, residing in Lincoln. Prior to his coming services had been carried 
on in a small frame church building at the corner of Tenth and P streets. Among 
the more prominent of the si.xteen members then composing the class were Cap- 
tain Baird and wife, John Cadman and wife, William Cadman, A. K. White and 
wife, J. Kimball and wife, Mrs. J. Schoolcraft; J. Kimball was the class leader. 
At the end of the first year the number of members had increased and to accom- 
modate them a $2,000 church building was erected on the spot where the St. Paul 
Church now stands on the corner of Twelfth and M streets ; the old church build- 
ing was cleared of a $400 mortgage and sold for school purposes. Reverend 
Davis remained with this church for three years, having a membership of 202 
at the close of his pastorate. The pastors who have sened the St. Paul Church 
since this time until the present are as follows: Revs. J. J. Roberts, G. S. Alex- 
ander, W. B. Slaughter, H. S. Henderson, A. C. Williams. R. N. McKaig, C. F. 
Creighton, J. S. Bitler, F. S. Stein, C. C. Lasby, W. R. Halstead, Fletcher L. 
Wharton, J. W. Jones, I. F. Roach, T. W. Jeffrey. Reverend Jeffrey began his 
service on March i, 1913. 

During the pastorate of Reverend Roberts the first church parsonage was 
constructed. While Reverend McKaig was pastor of the church there grew up 
a sentiment for a new building for worship. On April 23, 1883, an official meet- 
ing of the church was held and the decision was reached to begin the erection of 
a new building at once. Committees were appointed to superintend the various 
departments of the work. On June nth the plans of Mr. Wilcox of Minneapo- 
lis were accepted, the cost of the building placed at $25,000. Ground was broken 
for the new church on July ist and the cornerstone laid by Reverend Marine in 
the spring of 1884. The church was dedicated by Bishop Bowman on Sunday, 



August 22, 1885. Instead of costing the original amount of $25,000 as planned 
fully $45,000 was expended before the structure was completed. In the fall of 
1883 the name of the church was changed from the First Methodist Episcopal to 
the St. Paul Methodist Episcopal. 

The church structure was used by the society until September 16, 1899, when 
flames destroyed the building. ' Plans were at once made for the erection of a 
new church and during the progress of the building the St. Paul congregation held 
services in the Oliver Theater and in other churches. The new building was 
opened to the society in November, 1901. 

The Grace Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1885. On March 
19th of that year the St. Paul Church decided to build another church east of the 
Antelope. This decision was the result of the enormous growth in the church 
membership to 1,200 people, due in great part to the Bitler revival which had 
taken place just previously. A site was selected and a temporary tabernacle 
constructed for use until a new building could be erected. The new church was 
begun on the corner of R and Twenty-seventh streets and within four months 
was ready for occupancy. At the annual conference held in the following Sep- 
tember Rev. J. T. Minehart was appointed pastor of the new church. The society 
was officially named the Grace M. E. Church and the church, which had cost 
$11,000, was dedicated on September 19, 1889, by Bishop Warren. In 1894 the 
church building was rebuilt and the cornerstone reset, the latter event taking 
place on July nth of that year. This building served the needs of the congrega- 
tion until the present $60,000 structure was erected. The cornerstone of the 
new church was laid August 4, 1912, and the finished building was dedicated 
June I, 1913. The total church property, including the parsonage, is worth 
about eighty thousand dollars. The following men have served as pastors of the 
Grace Methodist Episcopal Church: Revs. J. S. W. Dean, George W. Isham, 
Charles M. Shepherd, Lewis T. Guild, Richard N. Orrill, P. P. Carroll, D. L. 
Thomas, J. W. Jones, H. B. Collins and J. F. Boeye. The church has a member- 
ship of about eleven hundred people. 

The German Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln had its beginning as 
early as the year 1869. The first Nebraska Legislature in this year donated three 
city lots for the German Methodist Church at the corner of Fifteenth and M 
streets. There was no German society here at that time and no German who was 
a member of the Methodist Church except Mr. Adam Bax, who was connected 
with the First Methodist. Governor Butler called upon Mr. Bax and insisted 
that he should build the church, that it had to be done before July ist in order 
to retain the lots. The governor oflfered to contribute $125 as a start to a build- 
ing fund; Colonel Cropsey volunteered a donation of $120; Thomas P. Kennard, 
then secretary of state, gave $75 ; John Gillespie, auditor of state, presented $50. 
Mr. Bax canvassed the east side of the public square in Lincoln and secured 
promises of money to the amount of $840 for the new building. The presiding 
elder of the Methodist Church was appealed to for a German preacher. A small 
chapel was constructed with the money received, located on the southwest comer 
of Fifteenth and M. The organization of the German Methodist Episcopal 
Church was accomplished in the fall of the year 1869 by F. H. Menger, who had 
a large circuit of congregations. From 1869 until 1872 Revs. H. M. Menger, 
F. Miller and G. Schultz served intermittently as jiastors of the church. From 


1872 until 1875 the congregation had no regular pastor. Pastors of other 
churches in this part of the state frequently came here and preached. In 1875 
Rev. H. R. Rienier was sent as regular pastor and he constructed the first parson- 
age two years later. The following pastors have succeeded Reverend Riemer: 
Revs. Charles Harms. September, 1878-79; T. J. Kost, 1879-82; F. Unland, 
1882-83; Charles Harms, 1883-86; Christian Bruegger, 1886-90; J. J. Hammell, 
1890-93; F. Reichard, 1893-94; F. H. Schultz, 1894-96; John Demand, 1896- 
1902; Charles Harms, 1902-07; William Fricke, 1907-10; H. C. Elfeldt, 1910- 
13; Matthew Herrmann, 1913-. The old chapel which was built in 1869 was 
replaced with a beautiful brick structure in 1902. The present membership of the 
society is 124. Mr. Adam Bax remained a staunch member of the church until 
his death in Lincoln on December 17, 1915, aged eighty-seven years. The only 
living charter member of the church is John Giesler. In April, 1914, Reverend 
Herrmann began the publication of Der Kleine Bote, a weekly parish paper. 

That which is now the Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln was 
at first a part of the Lincoln Circuit, which embraced several appointments. In 
the fall of 1878 Rev. A. L. Folden was appointed to the circuit. At the first 
quarterly conference of the First Church, now St. Paul M. E. Church, a vote was 
passed requesting Reverend Folden to take an appointment in South Lincoln and 
a committee of two, J. C. Johnson and Mr. Lawson, were named to assist him 
in this enterprise. A small building was at first used on Wood Street, between 
Ninth and Tenth ; and after this services were held for a time in the old Uni- 
versalist Church on Twelfth Street near H. Reverend Folden remained three 
years in the work here. During the conference year of 1880-81 an effort was 
made to build a Methodist Church in South Lincoln, but it was bitterly opposed 
by Rev. A. C. Williams of the First Church. However, a small frame building 
was erected on A Street, near Twelfth, for $1,200, and the congregation used 
this until the fall of 1887. ^'Y this time the pastorate had grown from fifty-three 
members to eighty-four. In the fall of 1887, as mentioned above, the little church 
building on Twelfth and A streets was presented to a new organization called the 
Bethel Church, located one mile west, near A Street. The South Lincoln Church 
erected a new tabernacle on Sixteenth and A streets and within a very few months 
the membership had grown to 258. Then the church was reorganized and named 
Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church. During the year 1892 the society erected 
the chapel part of the present church for $15,000 on the rear of the lot at Six- 
teenth and A. No more building was done until the new building was constructed 
in 1910. costing The plans for this handsome structure were drawn by 
Reverend Huntington, once pastor of the Trinity Church. The church is one of 
the most complete in the Capital City, including besides the regular church 
features, a fully equipped gymnasium. The parsonage was erected in 1896 at 
a cost of $8,000. The membership of the church is now approximately one thou- 
sand. Following are the names of the pastors who have filled the pulpit at 
Trinity: Revs. S. P. Vandoozer. A. L. Folden, P. S. Mather, J. Marsh, C. H. 
Gilmore, H. T. Davis, S. D. Roberts, D. W. C. Huntington, R. T. Chipperfield, 
N. A. Martin, W. M. Balch, A. J. Northrup, E. D. Hull, E. N. Tompkins. 

Occupying a foremost position among the Methodist churches of the city 
and county is the First Methodist Episcopal Church of University Place. On 
November 18, 1888, nine men and nine women met in an unfinished room in the 


main building of the Nebraska Wesleyan University and there organized this 
church. They met that day in the old library room, now used by the school of 
commerce, and there in the light of kerosene lamps held their first services. 
Chancellor Creighton was the preacher in charge. Doctor Creighton served as 
pastor by appointment as supply for the first eight months, with Rev. Isaac L. 
Lowe as assistant. Their work in the university became heavier and they were 
relieved from pastoral duties. Rev. D. L. Thomas was pastor from July, 1889, 
until September, 1890. Rev. Asa Sleeth was then appointed to the charge and 
served for one year, when he became presiding elder of the Lincoln District, and 
Rev. W. B. Alexander was sent here as pastor. Rev. G. \V. Abbott came in 1892 
and remained until 1897, when he was succeeded by Rev. James Mailley, who, 
after serving but a few months, went to the Philippine Islands as chajilain of the 
Second Regiment, Nebraska Volunteer Infantry. Rev. Hiram Burch supplied 
by appointment until the following annual conference, when Rev. W. B. Marsh 
became pastor for two years. He was followed by Rev. L. C. Lemon in Sep- 
tember, igoo, and was reappointed each year until 1904. Rev. P. P. Carroll then 
came from Grace M. E. Church of Lincoln to this charge and after two years 
was succeeded by Rev. W. P. Ferguson. The latter stayed but six months and 
then came Chancellor-Emeritus D. W. C. Huntington who served out the con- 
ference year as supply. In 1907 Rev. L. M. Grigsby came and remained until 
1910, when Rev. I. B. Schreckengast assumed charge of the pastorate. In 
April, 1913, Dr. E. S. Brightman took the place of Reverend Schreckengast 
when the latter became vice-chancellor of the university. In September of the 
same year Rev. J. R. Gettys became the pastor and served until the present 
minister. Rev. Charles W. McCaskill, came in 191 5. The membership of the 
church is about twelve hundred. 

After the beginning of this church the place of meeting was soon moved to the 
old chapel, which was the church home until 1902, when the society moved into 
the basement of a proposed church building on the site of the present edifice and 
which was known as the "hole in the ground" church. After five years spent here 
the auditorium of the C. C. White Memorial Building was utilized until the con- 
struction of the present church building, which is one of the handsomest and 
most impressive of any similar building in the county. The new building was 
dedicated witli appropriate ceremonies on December 12, 1909. 

Following is the list of charter members of the First M. E. Church of Uni- 
versity Place: Mrs. C. F. Creighton, Emma T. Cline, G. E. Giwits, H. E. 
Hanthorne, Myrtle Learned, O. P. Sheldon, Mrs. O. P. Sheldon, Mable Sheldon, 
T. W. Sprowles. Phillip H. Smith, W. H. Turrell, Mrs. Hannah R. Warfield, 
Hattie Warfield, Laura A. Weed, A. R. Wightman, Anna J. Wightman, Rev. C. 
F. Creighton, Rev. I. L. Lowe. 

The Emmanuel Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln was founded August 
15, 188S, Rev. W. W. Mallory being the first pastor. Services were first held in 
a building on T Street, between Twelfth and Thirteenth, known as the Red Rib- 
bon Hall. Soon after this J. M. Burks organized a Sunday school. The name 
Emmanuel was given by the presiding elder, W. G. Miller. In 1890 the congrega- 
tion moved from their hall to a church building at the corner of Thirteenth and 
U streets, which they used until the present building was completed. The corner- 
stone of this new structure was laid July 7, 1912, and the dedication occurred 


November 17, 1912; the total cost of the building was $12,500. Following are 
the names of the pastors who have served this church : Revs. W. W. Mallory, 
L. T. Guild, W. J. Calfee, T. W. Sprowles, O. W. Fifer, L. C. Lemon, F. A. 
Stuff, J. \V. Embree, L. F. Smith, G. M. Gates, Peter Van Kleet, A. A. Randall. 
E. L. Barch, C. E. Carroll, S. B. Williams. The Emmanuel Church is located at 
643 North Fifteenth Street. 

The First Swedish Methodist Episcopal Church of Lincoln was organized 
July 8, 1889, in the home of August Kallstedt, 1919 O Street, by the district 
superintendent, Rev. Olin Swenson. Rev. J. B. Anderson was the first pastor and 
the successive pastors have been : Revs. A. F. Winell, A. R. Mellen, Peter Mun- 
son, C. A. Anderson, J. Gabrielson, O. G. Sandberg, Gustav Erickson and K. G. 
Norberg. The charter members of the society were: Gust Reynolds and wife, 
Leonard Tidstrand, Airs. Sophia Hill, O. J. Linder, Carl John Malm, Miss Caro- 
line Larson, Miss Mary Dahlgren, Miss Mary Nelson, Miss Mary Erickson, 
August Kallstedt and wife, and Axel Segerholm. There are at present about 
one hundred members in the society. In 1891 the first church was built at 
Eighteenth and R streets. In the spring of 1892, when the Rock Island Railroad 
was built through Lincoln, the property was sold to them, a lot bought at Eight- 
eenth and J streets for $2,400. The old church was moved on to this lot and 
used for twelve years. In 1903 the present church was built, costing the sum 
of $8,000. 

The Elm Park Methodist Episcopal Church was first organized as a Sunday 
School in May, 1906. in a store room at Twenty-seventh and Randolph streets, 
by Rev. W. W. McGuire and was known as the Randolph Mission. There were 
less than a dozen enrolled, mostly children. It was in the summer of 1907 that 
the church was really organized and a building started on the corner of Twenty- 
ninth and Randolph streets. This building was dedicated March 9, 1908, by 
Bishop McDowell. The following have serv^ed as pastors here: Revs. J. H. 
Bounds, H. W. Cope, B. L. Story, Whitney, J. D. Hollister and L. L. Hanthorne. 
A modern parsonage was built in 1914. The present membership of the church 
is 200. 

The Lincoln Heights Methodist Episcopal Church was started about the year 
1891. The first trustees were elected on March 19, 1891, and were: Ephraim Rife, 
H. J. Rickard, H. J. Phillips, W. C. Hook, George Camp. John Ferrier; Rev. G. W. 
Miller was chairman of the meeting. The church was built in 1892, located at 
Seventh and Superior streets, and dedicated in February, 1893, by D. W. C. 
Huntington, D. D., with thirty-three members. For several years the church 
was quite prosperous and its membership increased until numbering eighty-five. 
After this the membership dwindled until in 1903 there were only eight left. 
During the pastorate of E. E. Bowen, a university student, the dilapidated church 
was moved to the present location at the corner of Eleventh and Nelson streets. 
The building was repaired and reopened on January 10, 1904. Since then the 
society had been growing steadily and the membership is now about one hundred 
and forty. The first pastor of the church was AI. -A. Wimberley. and since then 
the following have served: R. N. Orrill, R. J. McKenzie, C. L. Myers, J. A. 
Nichols, A. D. Hull, R. C. Howard. J. W. Warfield. C. E. Rush, L. L. Gaither, 
J. Fowler, H. B. Seymour, A. S. Woodard, E. E. Bowen, C. E. Austin, J. McVay, 
W. S. Ryle, C. G. Cole, O. L. Kendall, E. V. Price. 


The Free Methodist Church of Lincohi was started at Fifteenth and Vine 
streets in the spring of 1889 by Rev. W. W. Harris. The charter members were: 
Mrs. A. C. Bakzell, J. \'. Parks, Mr. Marshall and ^[rs. Fggar. In 1S94 the 
first church was constructed at Tliirtieth and Y streets. In 1<P5 the location 
mentioned above was sold to the Iiiterurban Street Car Company and another 
location was secured on Twenty-seventh and Orchard streets. The first con- 
ference minister was Reverend Stephens, who was followed by Reverends Taylor, 
Josephine Ackerman, Deaxter, Hatfield, Steward, Barnes, p-inch, Amspoker. 
Eggers, Bruce, Mary E. Stafford, McElfresh, J. L. Riley, C. L. Manning and C. 
L. Fike. The present membership is sixty-one. 

Warren Methodist Episcopal Church at University Place was organized by 
Dr. G. W. Isham. He' was appointed pastor for three successive years. This 
church was started in 1908. The present membership is 140. 

The St. James Methodist Episcopal Church of University Place was organized 
in 1910 and now has a membership of thirty-five. 

Normal Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1901 and now has a 
membership of 120. The church is located at the corner of South and Fifty-fifth 

The Epworth Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1890. The 
church building is located at 2900 Dudley. The membership is 170. 

The Havelock Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1885 and has 
a membership of 280. 

The City of Lincoln has two colored Methodist churches, the First African 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the Neumann Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The former was organized in the year 1873 ^^"d now has a membership of 130. 
The church is located at 1845 C Street. The Neumann Church was organized 
in 1895, has fifty members, and is situated at 733 J Street. 

The statement has been truthfully made that the City of Lincoln has more 
Methodists "per capita" than any other city in the United States. 


The First Presbyterian Church of Lincoln was organized on April 4, 1869, 
by Rev. J. C. Elliott, at that time a pastor in Nebraska City. There were eight 
charter members, namely : Howard Kennedy, Mrs. Maggie A. Kennedy, Paren 
England, Malinda W. England, John H. Baird, Mrs. Serena Baird, .\. M. Mc- 
Candless and Mrs. E. A. Guy. Howard Kennedy was elected ruling elder and 
the church was declared duly organized. At first it was impossible to hold 
regular services as there was no regular pastor and no meeting place. But after 
a few months a frame building on O Street, near the present site of the First 
National Bank, was rented and the real work of the church begun. The first 
members were received in this building, the first adult baptized and the first com- 
munion service held. The first child baptized was Howard Kennedy. The first 
persons to unite with the church by certificate were : W. J. Turner. John N. T. 
Jones. Mrs. E. L. Jones, Cyrus H. Street, Charles Mc.Manon. Samuel .\lexander, 
John Morrison, James Eckerman, Dr. L. H. Robbins, Mrs. M. A. Robbins, W. A. 
Kellogg. The first person received on profession of faith was B. M. Brake and 


the first death among the membership was that of A. M. IMcCandless, one of the 
charter members. 

The pastors who have served since the first one, Rev. H. P. Peck, 1870-74, 
liave been: J. W. ElHs, 1875-76; S. W. Weller, 1876-78; James Kemlo, 1879; 
J. O. Gordon, 1880-82; E. H. Curtis, 1883-95; W. M. Hindman, 1896-1902; 
H. C. Swearingen, 1902-07; W. W. Lawrence, 1908-13; L. D. Young, 1915-. 
Reverend Stein supphed the church in 1914. 

The first church edifice was erected at the corner of Eleventh and J streets, 
on lots donated by the state, and wasS dedicated on October 9, 1870, by Rev. T. H. 
Cleland, then of Council Bluffs, Iowa. This first .church cost the Presbyterians 
$5,000 and, with several improvements, continued to hold the society until De- 
cember, 1884. In April. 1884, ground was broken for the erection of the 
present church building at the southwest corner of Thirteenth and M streets. 
The vestry room was completed in September, 1885, and was occupied as a 
place of worship until January, 1886, when the main auditorium was finished. 
This church building, which had cost $40,000, was dedicated on July 18, 1886, 
by Rev. A. V. V. Raymond. 

In October. 1888, a number of persons interested in the work met in a 
vacant store building near the corner of O and Twenty-seventh streets and or- 
ganized a Sabbath School. This was the beginning of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Lincoln. At the meeting there were sixty-four persons enrolled as 
members of the school and Thomas ^Marsland was chosen superintendent, George 
G. Waite, secretary, and Almon Tower, treasurer. A full corps of teachers was 
organized and classes grouped. Preaching services were held every Sunday in 
this store room until February 14, 1889, when the school moved into the base- 
ment of a church being erected on the corner of Twenty-sixth and P streets, on 
lots donated in part by William M. Clark. On the evening of March 13, 1889, 
a meeting was held and a church formally organized, to be known as the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Lincoln, Nebraska. There were forty-six charter mem- 
bers. The first elders elected were: Alyron Tower, Thomas Marsland, W. C. 
Cunningham and William M. Clark. On April i, 1889, Rev. Charles E. Bradt 
took charge of the work. 

On May 16, 1890 at Warn's Chapel on Wood Street the Third Presbyterian 
Church was organized. J. W. McMillan and C. S. Clason were elected elders and 
Rev. C. G. A. Hullhorst was chosen as the first pastor. A chapel was constructed 
and work begun on the corner of Eleventh and Plum streets. In 1894 this chapel 
was enlarged. The Third Church is not now in existence, having disbanded sev- 
eral years ago. The building became the Knox Presbyterian Church, then, and 
now, the St. John's Lutheran house of worship. 

The Westminster Presbyterian Church of Lincoln was organized at West- 
minster Chapel, Twenty-fourth and A streets, on February 12, 1905. Rev. Thomas 
L. Sexton, D. D., synodical superintendent of home missions, presided. E. R. 
Mockett was elected clerk. The sermon was preached by Rev. R. M. Stevenson. 
There were forty-one charter members of this church, namely: E. R. Mockett, 
Mrs. Ada C. Mockett, E. E. Mockett, Mrs. N. N. Mockett, M'rs. N. S. Nichols, 
Mrs. L. Schwind. Miss N. Schwind, Miss Faith Schwind, Mrs. M. Schlueter, 
Mrs. H. Needham, Mrs. L. Needham, A. E. Patch, Mrs. Bessie Patch, Miss Hazel 
Patch, Theodore Randolph. Mrs Alice Randolph. Mrs. M. L. Strother, Mary C. 


Young, Florence Ward, Nellie Ward, Lillian Ward, Dora Merritt, Frank Miller, 
Kate Dunkle, H. A. Carr, L. J. Dunn, Clinton Hosick, Mrs. Anna Hosick, Mrs. 
Ellen Rowcliffe, Mrs. Mary E. Hutchinson, Miss L. Young, Miss Minnie Hutch- 
inson, Mrs. S. A. Betzer, Mrs. S. L. Lyman, Mrs. Mary L. Gabriel, John G. 
Bovvers, Mrs. D. Bowers, Mrs. Susie E. Jones and Mrs. D. B. Abbott. The church 
building for the society was constructed in the year 1906. There are now 257 
members. Following are the pastors who have served this congregation : Revs. 
R. M. Stevenson, Ralph H. Houseman, H. V. Comir and Rudolph Caughey. 

The Memorial United Presbyterian Church of Lincoln was organized Decem- 
ber 22, 1890, at the corner of Sixteenth and R streets by Rev. J. A. DuiT of 
Minden and Elder W. L Brooks of Pawnee City. Albert Small and G. E. Sloss 
were chosen ruling elders. The charter members of this church were: Mrs. Mary 
Anderson, W. H. Boyd, Mrs. l\L J. Campbell, Miss Alice L. Campbell, Miss Ella J. 
Campbell, Miss Emma O. Campbell, W. R. Carter, Mrs. Anna Carter, William 
Ellis, Miss Marion M. Embleton, Samuel R. Edmondson, Dr. F. A. Graham, 
Miss Jennie Graham, Alexander Hutton, Mrs. Mary E. Hutton, Thomas Hutton, 
Mrs. Sarah A. Hutton. Elmer S. Hutton, Miss Isabella J. Hutton, James Hum- 
phrey, Mrs. Nancy Humphrey, Mrs. S. V. Hubbard, Miss Eva M. Irwin, 
Mrs. O. S. Morrow, Miss Jennie Morrison, Mrs. EHzabeth McEwen, James 
McNerney, Miss Libbie McNerney, Mrs. Anna R. Stewart, Albert Small, ^Irs. 
M. J. Small, G. E. Sloss, Mrs. Mollie Sloss, Mrs. E. J. Said, W. L. Said, 
Mrs. Underwood. Rev. O. S. Morrow was the first pastor of the church and was 
followed by Revs. E. E. Fife, D. E. Smith, W. M. Lorimer, J. A. Thompson. C. B. 
Gilmore, Albert Gordon and S. W. Woodburn. In 1890 a small frame building 
was constructed for church purposes. In 1893 t^^ present church was completed 
and the parsonage in 1906. There are at present seventy-five members of this 
church society. 

The Westminster Presbyterian Church of University Place had its start in 
1907. In January of that year Reverend Thompson, pastor of the United Presby- 
terian Church of Lincoln came to University Place and preached a sermon in 
Beebe's Hall. After preaching for several Sundays and awakening spirit among 
the Presbyterians here the question of organizing a church was brought up. but 
was not favored owing to the fact that there were not enough people of the 
Presbyterian faith to justify it. Then Rev. M. Long of Lincoln came to Uni- 
versity Place and held services in the afternoons at Beebe's Hall for several 
months. On April 21st an organization was perfected with thirty-six charter 
members. On December i, 1907, J. E. Weir was secured as the first regular 
pastor. Rev. I. Keener came next and is in charge at present. In 1910 the society 
erected a $10,000.00 church building. The cornerstone was laid May 15th and the 
dedication occurred September nth. The membership is about two hundred. 


The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Lincoln was organized October 10, 
1902, and took the place of the First and Second churches that had already 
existed. About one hundred and twenty-five persons first met in the Farmers and 
Merchants Building and there proceeded to the organization. The membership 
book was opened for those who desired to enroll themselves as charter members 


and at the close of a thirty-day period 133 persons had written their names. The 
readers chosen to conduct the services for the first term of three years were 
Horace \\'. Hebbard and Mrs. Emma Hagenow. The hall in the fraternity build- 
ing was leased for the services of the society. The congregations for the first 
few months averaged between 300 and 400. The attendance steadily increased 
and it became evident before long that larger quarters would soon be necessary. 
Accordingly the question of building a church was agitated. About seven hun- 
dred dollars had been paid into the treasurey as a nucleus to a building fund at 
the time of the organization of the church. At the annual meeting on October 9, 
1903, a building committee of five members was elected, namely: William M. 
Leonard, Arthur C. Ziemer, Royal D. Stearns, Elon W. Nelson and Horace W. 
Hebbard. The first work of the committee was the selection of a site for a church 
edifice. Several locations were discussed, but the committee finally decided on 
the two lots, corner of Twelfth and L streets, belonging to Dr. B. L. Paine. This 
was on March 14, 1904. There was at that time about two thousand two hun- 
dred dollars in the building fund and the price of the lots was $7,000.00. The 
committee agreed to pay $3,500.00 in twenty days from the time of purchase. At 
the close of the time, owing to the liberal response, $5,000.00 was paid on the 
lots. Work was then started upon a fund to build the church, but shortly after- 
ward the building of the extension of the mother church in Boston was under- 
taken and the work of raising a fund for the Lincoln Church was suspended in 
order that aid might be more freely given to the mother church. In June, 1906, 
the Lincoln work was opened again. Plans for a church building submitted by 
S. S. Beman of Chicago to cost between $65,000.00 and $75,000.00 had been 
adopted, but as the church was not yet ready to undertake so extensive a work, 
the plan was presented of building a part of the structure, that part which 
would eventually be used as a Sunday School room, to be used for holding services 
until the main part of the building could be erected. On February 21, 1907, a con- 
tract was signed for the erection of this portion of the building and on Thanks- 
giving Day of the same year the first services were held therein. About the first 
of July, 1908, the stone foundation for the balance of the structure was com- 
pleted. At the semi-annual meeting on July 6, 191 1, a contract was let to F. P. 
Gould & Son of Omaha for the completion of the church, for the sum of $54,- 
400.00. The cornerstone of the new building was laid on October 6, 191 1. The 
Christian Scientist Church in Lincoln is one of the handsomest buildings in the 
city, both in architectural beauty and finish. The church society is in a very 
prosperous condition and has a strong membership. 


The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lincoln was formally organized 
on December 20, 1870, by Rev. S. G. Larson of Saunders County. There were 
fifteen charter members, namely: A. Cbppom, L. P. Lundgrenand and wife, John 
Nelson, A. G. Quick, John Lyon, Carl Lundquist, P. Bengtson, Alfred Anderson, 
Gustaf Bengtson, Miss Augusta Lusch, Miss Lotta Widen, Miss Thilda Bengtson, 
Miss Bengta Didrick and Miss Nilla Didrick. Rev. S. G. Larson was the first 
pastor of the congregation, although he never located permanently in Lincoln. 
He resided at Mead, Saunders County, Nebraska. The first resident pastor was 



Rev. L. P. Alilquist, who came in 1874 and remained one year, .\fter hi.s de- 
parture the church was vacant, being served by neighboring pastors and the- 
ological students until 1886, when Rev. G. Peters from Rockford, Illinois, took up 
the work. Rev. F. N. Swanberg was here in 1888 and in the summer of 1SS9 
Rev. John Eckstrom came, remaining three years. Rev. G. Peters then returncfl 
and stayed for a year and a half. In the summer of 1896 Rev. Carl Christenson 
came here and remained about three years, and was succeeded in 1900 by 
Rev. E. G. Chinlund. The latter left in September, 1907. The present pastor, 
E. G. Knock, entered upon his duties July 26, 1908. The first church Iniilding was 
erected in the spring of 1871, costing $1,041.00. In the year 1886 a new church 
was constructed, the main building of frame and with a stone basement. The 
contract was let for $3,487.00. During the summer of 19 10 the basement of the 
church was enlarged; a pipe organ was installed in 191 J. In the year 1905 this 
frame building was covered with a brick veneer and a wing added. The first 
parsonage, a cottage, was built in 1888 and in 1898 a second story was added. 
A new brick structure will be built in the spring of 1916. The total membership 
of the Swedish Lutheran Church is 274 ; the church property is valued at 

The Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lincoln was organized 
November 24 or 27, 1881, with five members. Rev. F. Koenig presiding. Rev. H. 
Frincke. the first regular pastor, was called during the following spring, and 
served a long period, until July, 1895. In February, 1896, Rev. George Allen- 
bach assumed charge of the pastorate, coming from Independence, Kansas, and 
has remained continuously ever since. During the first year of the church's 
existence services were held in a small church on the corner of N and Thirteenth 
streets. The following three years the congregation assembled in the Universalist 
Church on Twelfth between H and J streets. In the spring of 1886 a new church 
was constructed, located on H, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets. In 
the rear of the church a school room accommodating ninety pupils was built. 
In the year 1904 a new Gothic structure was erected and dedicated November 6, 
1904. It is located at 1302 H Street. The membership of this church is 500. 

The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lincoln was organized in 1883 by 
Rev. Peter Jensen, who also served as the first pastor. Following him the pastors 
who have served are: Revs. P. L. C. Hansen, C. H. Jensen, J. Markenssen, E. Pro- 
vensen, O. R. Olsen, A. C. Weismann, J. P. Christiansen and Christian Anker. The 
church building was erected in the year 1883. There are at present ninety-five 
members and the society is in good financial condition. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Church in Lincoln was started in 1009. 
Upon the request of twenty-three Lutheran families who had emigrated from 
the Wolga Colonies, Russia, the Home Mission Board of the German Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio and other states, Nebraska District, decided to 
begin mission work among the German Russians in Lincoln and called Rev. W. F. 
Baeder of Arapahoe, Nebraska. He was installed as missionary July 4. 1909. '» 
Trinity Lutheran Church by Rev. C. H. Becker. As these people wished their 
children educated not only in all the branches of human wisdom, but especially in 
the Christian truths, a property was bought at Eighth and D streets for $4,200.00 
and a chapel or school building was erected for $1,300.00. Beginning with Sep- 
tember Reverend Baeder opened a Christian day school and conducted it until 


January, 1910. On October 31, 1909, the Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel con- 
gregation, Unaltered Augsburg Confession, was organized, the following being 
the charter members: Andreas Wambold, Georg Batt, Sr., August Bovk, Georg 
Ring, Jacob Ring, Heinrich Spomer, Alexander Kraft, Heinrich Klein, Heinrich 
Roemer, Balthasar Spomer, Georg Strauch, Georg Batt, Jr., David Schmidt, 
Wilhelm Friedrich, Victor Beader, and their families. In January, 1900. J. J. 
Troester took charge of the school which had an attendance of seventy-two pupils. 
In June, 1910, the first school building was moved and a new two-story brick 
building erected at Eighth and D, costing $14,000.00, and dedicated November 31, 
1910. For the old school which had been moved W. J. Braun was called and 
opened the class with seventy-three pupils : J. J. Troester conducted the school at 
Eighth and D. On April 2'>„ 191 1, J. H. Brase of Cleveland, Ohio, was installed 
as principal of both schools. In February, 1913, he resigned and W. J. Braun 
was called to the principalship of the school at Eighth and D and Prof. E. C. 
Mueller, of Juniata, Nebraska, was called to the other school. During the winter 
of 1913-14 there were 325 children in attendance at the schools. Miss Helen Hase 
and Clara Baeder assisted the teachers. The attendance at present is 215. The 
present membership of the church is 250. 

The Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in the old conservatory 
of music, Thirteenth and L streets, on June 9, 1890, under the leadership of 
Rev. Luther P. Ludden. There were thirty charter members. A Sunday School 
had previously been organized on Christmas, 1889. Reverend Luther acted as 
the first pastor of the church. Following him have served Revs. Jesse W. Ball, 
C. Rollin Sherck, Charles H. B. Lewis, Fuller, Bergstesser and R. M. Badger. 
After worshiping in rented quarters for some years, on September 24, 1893, the 
congregation occupied a small chapel erected at a cost of $800.00 on the corner of 
Fourteenth and F streets. On June 9, 1901, the present structure was dedicated, 
costing about ten thousand dollars. There are at present 250 confirmed members 
in the church. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran Friedens Church in Lincoln was organized 
February 15, 1907, at Sixth and D streets, by Revs. E. Pfeifi'er and L. Ludden. 
Prominent among the early members were : Adolph Lebsack, Jr., Conrad Stras- 
heim, John Hoff, Georg Stroh, Georg Sitzmann, Jacob Bauer, Jacob Rohrig, 
Jacob Lebsack, Peter Scheids. The pastors have been : Revs. J. F. Krueger, 
M. Koolen and R. Kuehne. The church building was dedicated December i, 1907, 
and cost about seventeen thousand dollars. The church also owns a $5,000.00 

The Evangelical Lutheran Christ Church in Lincoln was organized on Decem- 
ber 15, 1910, by Rev. W. Baeder, with twenty-six charter members. Shortly 
before that time, however, a parochial school had been organized with Prof. W. 
Ott as instructor. Mr. Blau is the present teacher. The enrollment last year 
was sixty-seven. The first pastor of the church. Rev. F. Broclonann, served but 
a short time. He was succeeded by Reverend Niermann who resigned in October, 
1914. In December of the same year Rev. J. G. Jeske took charge of the church. 
The first church was constructed in 191 1 and cost, inclusive of the lot. $3,850.00. 
In 1913 a parsonage was erected. There are now 100 communicant members of 
the church. 

The St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in January, 1912, 


by Rev. E. Pfeiffer, who was the first j)a5tor, followed by Revs. J. Schrader and 
Erederick Rabe. The churcli and parsonage were purchased from a Presbyterian 
congregation for $4,500.00. There are about one hundred members active in this 
church now. 


The Salem Evangelical Church of Lincoln was organized in the fall of 1894 
by Rev. S. W. McKesson with the following charter members : S. W. AlcKesson 
and wife. B. Mowan and wife, A. W. Pettit, Rev. Jesse Lehman, Mrs. Ann 
Lehman, Lydia Lehman, Elizabeth Reinhard, Mr. and Mrs. Hewitt, Thomas 
W'itherspoon, ]Mrs. Hammond, Mr. Richie. The first pastor was Reverend Mc- 
Kesson and he has been followed by Revs. Jesse Lehman, J. P. Ash, E. H. Kring, 
J. A. Adams, J. W. Carter, G. B. Bancroft and A. E. Bashford. The first church 
was constructed on a leased lot at Twenty-ninth and Clinton streets in 1895. This 
was a small structure built of lumber covered with tar paper and was called hy 
many the "tar paper shanty". In 1896 it was raised two feet, plastered and 
shingled. In 1898 the church was moved to Twenty-ninth and Holdrege streets. 
where two lots had been purchased. The next year it was cut into two parts and 
these used as wings for the additional part built. In 1914 the old church was sold 
and moved away and a new structure put up. The Salem Church has a mem- 
bership of no. 

The German Evangelical St. John Church of Lincoln was organized April 7, 
1907, by Rev. George Neumann with sixty-seven charter members. The first 
pastor was Rev. J. Heinrich and he was followed by the present incumbent. 
Rev. David Maul. The church building in use at present was completed May 12, 
1907. There are about four hunflred and seven members in the society. 

The Burnham Evangelical Church, located at Burnham, was organized in the 
year 190S. and now has a memljership of thirty. Rev. William P. Bancroft is 
the pastor of the church. 

The Calvary Church of the Evangelical Association, 1601 South Tenth Street, 
was organized in 1889. The church now has a membership of something over 
fifty. Rev. T. A. Marks is the pastor. 

The Emmanuel United Evangelical at Forty-second and N streets was or- 
ganized in 1910. 

The L'nited Evangelical Church at 837 North Thirty-third was organized July 
25, 1915. There is a membersip of forty, and Rev. M. T. Maze is the pastor. 

St. Paul's German Evangelical Church in Lincoln, Synod of North America, 
was organized in 1873. The membership at present is 370 and the pastor is 
Re\'. Adolph Alatzner. 


The First Baptist Church of Lincoln was organized August 22, 1869, with 
fourteen members. The first officers were : R. R. Tingley, deacon ; L. H. Potter, 
clerk ; R. R. Tingley, S. W. Bent and J. P. Lantz, trustees. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. O. T. Conger. June, 1870- January, 
1875. Following him have been these pastors: Rev. S. M. Cramblet, October, 


1875-October, 1877; Rev. W. Sanford Gee, Alay, 1878-September, 1882; Rev. 
C. T. Chaffee, January, 1882-October. 1883: Rev. C. C. Pierce, May, 1884-Sep- 
tember, 1886; Rev. O. A. Williams, November, 1886-September, 1894; 
Rev. H. O. Rowlands, November, 1894-June, 1903; Rev. S. Z. Batten, October, 
1903-June 15, iQio; Rev. Howard R. Chapman, September, 1910-. 

\'ery shortly after the organization of the church subscriptions were taken 
for the construction of a meeting house. This was completed and dedicated Janu- 
ary 22, 1871. The first parsonage was built in 1875. About 1885 a movement 
was begun to raise a larger subscription with which to build an adequate church 
for the needs of the growing membership. This "movement was successful and 
the present building was constructed and dedicated June 17, 1888. The old 
church property had been sold the year previous. The first building was on the 
corner of Eleventh and L streets, but for the accommodation of the new building 
three lots on the corner of Fourteenth and K streets were purchased. The pres- 
ent parsonage was erected in the same year. There are about six hundred mem- 
bers active now in the First Baptist Church. 

The East Lincoln Baptist Church began as a mission Sunday School, under 
the care of the First Church. On January 31, 1890, the mission was organized 
into a church society and the first house of worship constructed at Twenty-sixth 
and Vine streets. This building is now used as a dwelling. The new church was 
constructed in 1907. At the beginning there were ninety members, but of these 
charter members only the following are now active in the church : Mr. and Mrs. 
W. D. Crawford, Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Cushman, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Cushman, 
Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Mickel, C. B. Auman. Mrs. Lena C. Buchtel and Mrs. Robert 
Beck.. On January i, 19 16, a portion of this congregation left the church and 
formed a new organization to be known as the Calvary Baptist Church. 

The Rush Memorial Baptist Church was started as a mission Sunday School 
several years ago by Reverend Denton and other members of the East Lincoln 
Baptist Church. The church is not yet formally organized, but will be in a few 
months. The name is given in honor of Frank Rush, a former Lincoln man, 
lost in the Philippines during the Spanish-American war, and who left a sum 
of money to be used in church work. The church building was moved in from 
Emerald three years ago. Rev. R. N. Cloud, a former assistant pastor at the 
East Lincoln Church, supplied the field for about six months. Rev. E. M. Owings 
came the first of February, 191 5. There are about sixty patrons of this society. 
The Sunday School has a membership of 125. 

Mount Zion Baptist Church, colored, at 1203 F Street, was organized in 1900 
and has a membership of 124. Rev. Bluford Hillman is the pastor. 


The first church of the Brethren organized in Lancaster County had its 
beginning about 1883; the church was first organized in the City of Lincoln in 
1S93. The first trustees of the society were: J. S. Gable, W. A. Kirschner and 
John Brumbaugh. The name of the first pastor of the church is not obtainable 
with certainty, but among the very first was G. Courer. followed by Owen Peters, 
J. L. Suavely, Jesse Y. Heckler, Samuel Forney, A. D. Sollenberger, George 
Lauver, S. C. Miller, L. D. Bosserman, S. E. Thompson and J. Edwin Jarboe. 


The first house of worship was constructed in 1901 at the corner of Twenty- 
second and Q streets; this was demohshed and replaced with a brick structure 
in 1909. There are now sixty members of the church active. 


The Calflvvell Memorial United Brethren Church was organized in 1885 at 
Wood Street between Ninth and Tenth by F. W. Scott. Among the charter 
members of the society were the following: Levi Wilcox and wife, John Shoe- 
maker and parents, Roy Brown and wife, James Massey and wife, William Mc- 
Clain and wife, William Alahan and wife, and James Estes. The first pastor of 
the church was F. W. Scott. It is not known who his immediate successor was, 
but after him served Revs. J. M. Duffield, Louis Piper. H. E. Meyers, W. R. 
Hodges, F. W. Jones, W. M. Buswell, J. T. Merrill, W. O. Jones and H. H. 
Heberly. The first church building was constructed at Eleventh and B streets in 
1886: the next building was erected at Twenty-eighth and_E streets in iSc^); in 
1900 a location was secured at Eighteenth and M streets and a chapel erected the 
same year. The main auditorium was built in 1904. The present membership 
of this church is 275. The church was named in memory of W. P. Caldwell, 
a pioneer minister in the United Brethren Church and who worked over the 
southeastern part of Nebraska. The Caldwell family donated $500.00 toward the 
erection of the last building. 


The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, with head- 
quarters at Lamoni, Iowa, is represented by a small congregation in Lincoln. 
The church here was organized in 1910 and has a membership of seventy-five. 
It is located at 645 South Twenty-sixth Street. Rev. J. A. Dowker is the pres- 
ent pastor. 


The first settler of the Hebrew faith arrived in Lincoln about 1879 and others 
followed very soon afterwards, but no attempt was made to form a synagogue 
until 1885. Services were held in private houses prior to this. Louis Poska was 
president of the first congregation and Robert Arenson, secretary. The name 
Tifereth Israel which was given means "Glory of Israel." The temple occupied 
quarters in a hall until October 18, 1903, when the unfinished church of St. 
Luke's congregation at Thirteenth and T streets was purchased. In 1903 another 
congregation under the name of Talmud Torah was formed, and was independent 
for seven years, then, in 1910 joined the Tifereth Israel. After the consolidation, 
a lot was purchased and the cornerstone of the new Temple laid November 3, 
1912. The finished building was dedicated May 25, 1913. It is located at 344 
South Eighteenth Street. Just prior to the erection of the Temple the con- 
gregation had been meeting at 1235 T Street. 

The Congregation B'nai Jeshurun was incorporated October 5, 1884, at Lin- 
coln by Moses Oppenheimer, Aaron Katzenstein, Isaac Friend and Leopold Barr. 


Formerly the rabbis of Omaha officiated, consisting of Leo AI. Frankhn, Abe 
Simon and Frederick Cohn. The first resident rabbi was Israel Mattuck, fol- 
lowed by Frederick Braun, G. Lowenstein and Jacob Singer. The first building 
was erected in 1S93 at a cost of between $7,000.00 and $8,000.00. An addition 
was provided in 1907. The membership now comprises about seventy-five heads 
of families. 


Rev. E. E. Erb, Mrs. Erb, Miss Jennie Erb, j£)hn Erb, Sarah Karcher, John 
Endres, Phoebe Martin and J. Sonnedeker met at the Young Men's Christian 
Association on January 20, 18S9, and formed an organization, Faith Reformed 
Church. At the request of this body the board of home missions sent the Rev. 
T. P". Stauffer, who held the first services on January 12, i8go, at the Young 
Men's Christian Association Hall. Reverend Stauft'er served until April, 1898, 
and was succeeded by Rev. F. H. Fisher who remained until November, 1902, the 
Rev. P. M. Orr took charge and has continued until this time. The first build- 
ing was erected at Twenty-third and \'ine streets in August, 1891. The present 
building was purchased from the St. Mark's Lutheran Church in April, 1898. 
With the purchase of this building came the change of name from Faith to St. 
Mark's Reformed Church. The present membership is 275. 

The name Reformed i$, in general, misunderstood by the people of Lincoln. 
It is the original reformation church of Switzerland, Germany and Holland. 
Ulrich Zwingli, the founder, began preaching the doctrines of the Reformation 
just one year before Martin Luther nailed his famous thesis on the door of the 
Wittenberg Church. The Reformed Church is Presbyterial in form of govern- 
ment and is Calvinistic in theology, and is the mother of all the Presbyterian 
bodies of the present day. 

The German Reformed Emanuel Church in Lincoln was organized October 23, 
1891, at the house of John Urbach. There were thirteen families in the first 
congregation. The society was formed by Reverends Erb and Arnold. There have 
been three regular pastors, namely: August Kanne, Edward Stiibi and John 
Arnold. The old church building was bought from the Presbyterians and the 
new structure was put up in 1906. The present membership is 460. 


The First Pentacostal Church of the Nazarene in Lincoln, located at 1018 E 
Street, was organized July 21, 1913, at the Grand Army of the Republic Hall by 
Rev. A. S. Cochran, district superintendent. Rev. L. R. Hoi? was the first 
pastor and was succeeded by Rev. Quillis A. Deck. The church building was 
bought from the United Evangelical Church. The present membership of this 
church is sixty-six. 


The Lincoln Seventh Day Adventist Church was organized in 18S5, by 
Rev. A. J. Cudney. Reverend Cudney was lost at sea in 1888 while en route as 



missionary to Filcairn Island in the Pacific. Following Reverend Cudney, the 
following hnve served as pastors of this church: O. W. Bent, Elmer Adams, 
R. \y. I'armalee, C. A. Kite, F. R. Andrews, U. E. Hoffman, H. E. Lysinger and 
O. O. Llernstein. The church building was erected in 1900. 

The seat of the Seventh Day Adventist faith in Lancaster County is at College 
View. The first record in the church book states that a meeting was called in 
Nicola's Hall in College \'iew on May 27, 1891, for the purpose of considering 
the question of organizing a Seventh Day Adventist Church there. The meeting 
was presided over by Elder W. B. White, president of the Nebraska Conference. 
G. W. Boughton was appointed secretary. A. R. Henry, J. P. Gardner, Noah 
Hodges and D. R. Quinn were appointed a committee to care for memberships 
and to manage preliminary business. Mrs. F. H. Sisley and Ella Diamond were 
added to the committee later. Among the first members of this church may be 
mentioned: Noah Hodges, A. B. Hodges, Charles Hodges, C. T. Lewis, Martha 
Lewis, Leetoy Lewis, P. M. Buchanan, E. J. Buchanan, G. Boughton, Ruth 
Boughton, B. O. Carr, Mary A. Carr, W. C. Sisley, F. H. Sisley, Isaac Wiley, 
Jeanett Wiley, J. W. Rogers, Lou A. Rogers. David Quinn, Mary Quinn, Mary 
Nicola, W. B. White, Nettie White, D. Nettleton, Mrs. Nettleton, M. W. Earl, 
Kate Earl, A. E. Marvin, P. A. Marvin, Linnie Chapman, Hannah Thayer, 
J. A. Wells, Sallie Wells, Lucy P. Wells, J. W. and Clara Boynton, Bertha Bar- 
tholomew, Z. Nicola, Thadeus Smith, Carrie Smith, Jennie Soucey, Charles 
Means, Fred Wiley, Nora Titus, W. F. Hamilton, Alice Sisley, Louella Wilson, 
G. Wells, C. C. Lewis, M. J. Pierce, E. J. Randall. Moses and Sarah Herrick, 
James W. Laughhead, J. B. Stillwell, William Klindt, Francis and Martha 
Soucey, Josie O'Neil, Peter Lenker, Henry W. Keck, A. M. Allee, Charles E. 
Woodljury, James S. Houseman. Upon an old leaf in the record book there is 
recorded the fact that the first meeting was held in a barn on the spot of the 
present Enos barn. The present large frame church building was dedicated 
September 23, 1894. 

The German Seventh Day Adventist Church at College View w^s organized 
in 1907 and has a membership of seventy-two. The Swedish Seventh Day 
Adventist Church, also at College View, was organized in 1913 and has a mem- 
bership of forty. Both of these societies worship in the main church building. 


The Union Church at College View was organized for the purpose of pro- 
viding religious accommodations for the residents not members of the Seventh 
Day Adventist Church. The church was organized May 4, 191 1, by Frank Mills. 
A few months previous he had started a Sunday School mission of Methodist 
denomination and immediately several other churches wished to be represented 
in the ticld. The Methodist people then disbanded and a few months later Mills 
drew up a copy of a brief religious doctrine. The $7,000.00 brick church building 
for the use of this society was completed in April, 1912, and was dedicated May 

5. 191^- 


The first services of the Episcopal Church were held in Lincoln in May, 
1868, by Rev. R. W. Oliver, D. D. On the 17th of November of the same year 

Vol. 1—17 


Rev. George C. Betts of Omaha held the second service, and of those who were 
present only one was a member of the church. Subsequently Rt. Rev. R. H. 
Clarkson, D. D., bishop of the diocese, visited the city and preached. About this 
time Rev. William C. Bolmar was appointed missionary in charge. In January, 
1869, a movement was started toward the organization of a parish. A meeting 
was held, at which were present: Michael Rudolph, A. F. Harvey, John Morris, 
J. J. Jones, H. S. Jennings, E. Godsall, A. C. Rudolph, John G. Morris, R. P. 
Cady, J. C. Hire. William C. Heddleson, S. L. Culver and J. S. Moots, who 
signed a petition which was sent to the bishop, asking for permission to organize 
a parish under the title of The Church of the Hol_y Trinity. The bishop gave his 
consent and on May loth of the same year the parish organization was effected. 
A vestry was elected, composed of: Michael Rudolph, A. F. Harvey, warders; 
J.J.Jones, A. C. Rudolph, H. J. Walsh, Dr. L. H. Robbins and J. M. Bradford. 
The parish was admitted into the union with the council of the diocese in Septem- 
ber of the same year. The congregation held its meetings at various places in 
Lincoln until 1870. Upon the coming of Rev. Samuel Goodale in May of that 
year steps were taken for the erection of a house of worship. Accordingly a 
$4,000.00 building was put at the corner of J and Twelfth streets, on lots be- 
longing to the parish. It was consecrated March 5, 1781. In 1884 the need was 
felt for a larger church house and Mr. Guy A. Brown issued a small parish 
paper to awaken interest in the same. Plans were made for the new church and 
on June 14, 1888, the cornerstone of the $40,000.00 church was laid with proper 
ceremonies. In the spring of 1888 the old church was moved to a lot on Twelfth 
Street, between U and V, and another congregation was organized under the 
ministry of Rev. R. L. Stevens and called the Church of the Holy Comforter. 
In 1889 the Holy Trinity Chapter of St. Andrew's Brotherhood came into pos- 
session of the house of worship which had been used by the Baptists and moved 
it to a lot on the corner of Eighth and Washington streets. Regular services were 
for a time held here. These two latter organizations are not active at the present 
time. The Trinity church has a membership of 650. 

St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Lincoln was started as a parochial mission 
about fifteen years ago by Rev. Percy Silver. The first regular pastor for this 
society was Rev. Robert Turner and he was followed by Revs. F. T- Smith, 
Giebert, George Miller, Benjamin J. Fitz, Ottman, F. A. Saylor, S. H. Brook and 
Charles R. Tyner. The first services were held in a store building on North 
Tenth Street near R; then the congregation moved to Twelfth and T, then to 
Thirteenth and R streets. There are at present about ninety members. 

After the abandonment of Nebraska College, in 1889, an effort was made to 
provide facilities for a boys' school of the Episcopal Church. A site was secured 
and a building erected thereon. At first the purpose was to place the authority of 
the school in the government of the diocese, but this was found to be impracticable. 
Accordingly the management of the school was placed in the hands of a board of 
trustees with the bishop as visitor. Under the name of the Worthington Military 
Academy the school was opened on September 15, 1892, with an attendance of 
thirty-eight. The school buildings were destroyed by fire on June i, 1898 and the 
school abandoned. The military academy stood on the heights of Grand View, 
three miles north of Lincoln. The building was owned by the Grand View 


Building Association. The school was under the patronage of the Episcopal 
Church, but had no official connection with that church denomination. 


The All Souls Church of Lincoln was organized ^Lay 27, 1898, and was 
affiliated with the American Unitarian Association. The membership was com- 
posed mostly of the former members of the Lincoln Universalist Church and 
the property of the latter society was taken over by the Unitarians in December of 
the year of organization. There were ninety-eight charter members of the All Souls 
Church, the following of whom are still active : H. W. Brown, F. M. Fling, L. Mar- 
garet Pryse, Inez C. Philbrick, W. J. Cooper, Annette E. Brackett, Malah B. Phil- 
brick, I. H. Hatfield, Maude R. Hatfield, Emma J. Bond, Laurence Fossler, Julia 
Boehme, Sophie Mitchell, A. R. Mitchell, T. B. Harris, Mrs. T. B. Harris, Annie 
\V. Aitken, Mrs. M. W. Ensign, Eliza A. Cooper, N. E. Philbrick, Lillian Hall, 
Nannie Davey, R. B. Davey, W. H. Hunt, Libbie Hunt, O. E. Goodell, M. W. 
Ensign, F. A. Korsmeyer, Laura Korsmeyer, Grace Aitken, Gertrude Aitken, 
F. W. Hellwig, Jean A. Hellwig, Ada B. Baird, Mr. and Mrs. Henry E. Lewis, 
Stephen S. England, Flora Bullock, Lina F. Sawyer. W. E. Hardy, Gertrude L. 
Hardy, Samuel J. Tuttle, May Gund, Mrs. Henry Gund, Sarah Rands, Lulu M. 
Summers, Helen Erisman, Anna B. Grisinger, Lillian E. Ferris, Bertie Ferris, 
Mrs. P. M. \'aughan, Mrs. Lottie M. Faxon, Mrs. M. E. Cramphin and 
Mrs. M. M. Stull. The first officers of the Unitarian Church were: Fred Morrow 
Fling, president; I. H. Hatfield, secretary; H. W. Brown, treasurer; W. J. Cooper, 
Mrs. F. D. McClusky and S. L. Geisthardt, trustees. The present membership is 
about one hiuidred and sixty-five. The first pastor of the L'nitarian Church was 
Rev. T. L. Marsh, who served until 1908, then removing to Massachusetts, where 
he died in March. 1916. On September i, 1908, Rev. Arthur L. Weatherly of 
Worcester, Massachusetts took charge of the church and has served continually 
until this time. Reverend Weatherly was a member of the peace party con- 
ducted by Henry Ford of Detroit, in the 191 5 pilgrimage to Europe for the pur- 
pose of working for peace among the warring nations. 


The first Catholic services in the City of Lincoln were held in 1867 at the 
home of John Daly, a blacksmith, on the present site of the Missouri Pacific 
Depot. Rev. Emmanuel Hartig held the services. Governor Butler donated to 
the church the three lots at the corner of Thirteenth and M streets and upon this 
land a frame church building was constructed, in which Father Hartig held 
services until August, 1868. He attended here once every month. He was then 
succeeded by Father Pirmine Koumley, O. S. B., who also came once every month 
until February, 1869, and was followed by Rev. Michael Hofmayr. O. S. B. In 
September, 1869, the latter became the first resident pastor of Lincoln. In 1871 
Rev. William Kelly took charge of the Lincoln parish and in May, 1874, came 
Rev. John Curtis. In 1879 Rev. C. J. Quinn was rector in this city and during his 
pastorate the St. Theresa's Catholic Church was erected. He was succeeded in 
1S80 by Rev. M. A. Kennedy. Following Reverend Kennedy the rectors of the 


cathedral have been Reverends Dunphy, Walsh, Loughran, Fitzgerald, Nugent, 
Roche, Nugent, Bradley, Reade, Shine and Bradley. 

The part of the State of Nebraska lying south of the Platte River, in area 
about 23,844 square miles, was made into the Lincoln Diocese on August 2, 1887. 
This was made necessary by the growth of the Catholic Church in the South 
Platte territory. Rt. Rev. Thomas Bonacum, D. D. was the first bishop appointed 
to this diocese, taking possession of his see December 21, 1887. He remained 
bishop until his death on February 4, igii. He was succeeded by the Rt. Rev. 
John H. Tihen, who is now the bishop of the Lincoln Diocese. 

In 188S Bishop Bonacum constructed an addifion to the pro-cathedral, organ- 
ized a German Catholic congregation and erected the St. Francis De Sales 
Church at 530 South Eighteenth Street for them, and erected St. Theresa's High 
School. The Franciscan Sisters secured the lUickstafif residence and transformed 
it into a hospital. In 1893 the bishop's residence upon the outskirts of Lincoln 
was constructed and an orphanage built in close proximity. In 1893 ^^^ Francis- 
can fathers took charge of the St. Francis De Sales Church. They also opened a 
parochial school. In 1893 also a church was started for the use of the Catholics 
of Bohemian nationality and called St. John Nepomuc's Church. A building was 
erected at Seventh and F streets and was attended from Plattsmouth. It is now 
attended by Father P. S. McShane of St. Elizabeth's Hospital. 

In March, 1904, the Church of Christ property at the corner of Fourteenth 
and K streets was purchased by the Catholics for $14,000.00. This edifice had 
originally been used by the Disciples Church. The cornerstone of the building 
was laid July 3, 1888, but was not finished and dedicated until August 25, 1899. 
The congregation later met with reverses and it reverted to the mortgage holders. 
After the Catholics purchased the building plans were drawn for the remodeling 
of the structure so as to fit the needs of a cathedral. The work was hardly under 
way when, on August 28, 1906, it was destroyed by fire. The rebuilding was 
immediately begun, however, and on December 8, 191 1, the church was dedi- 
cated. It is known as the St. Mary's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. 

The Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus, from Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania, came to 
Lincoln in June, 1883, and established an academy for young ladies. They dis- 
continued their work in Lincoln several years ago and left. At one time the 
Ursuline Sisters from Peoria, Illinois, also conducted a school here twenty years 
ago, but are not active now. In 1889 the Franciscan Sisters from Lafayette, 
Indiana, took charge of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lincoln and now have charge 
of the orphanage. In 1890 the Sisters of Charity from Dubuque, Iowa, took 
charge of St. Theresa's School and have remained. Recently the Catholics of 
Lincoln have purchased fifteen lots west of the new Lincoln high school building, 
one block on J Street, and intend to erect a school of magnificent proportions. 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church of Havelock was started as a mission of the 
Franciscan Order of Lincoln. A handsome church building was constructed in 
1908 and, including a frame parsonage, is valued at $30,000.00. Rev. D. B. 
O'Connor is the pastor of this church which includes about four hundred and 
fifty members. The mission was established in 1893. 



On January 24, 1869, D. R. Dungan, chaplain of the Legislature, held services 
in Lincoln in the interests of the Christian denomination. He found here about 
twenty-seven persons who had formerly been members of the Christian Church 
and on the 24th of January of that year they were legally organized. Michael 
Combs and Joseph Robinson were the first elders of the society and G. W. Aitken 
and J. H. Hawkins were the first deacons. Lots were donated by the state on 
condition that a house of worship be erected thereon. J. M. Yearnshaw settled in 
Lincoln in Alay and many of the early meetings were held in his home. On Sep- 
tember 5, i860, the meetings were removed from his residence to the old capitol 
building and later to the sc'hool house where they continued to worship until 
July 3, 1870, when they dedicated a church building on the northeast corner of 
Tenth and K streets. This building cost them $2,300.00 and was the home of the 
society for nineteen years. 

On September 13, 1870, the state missionary convention was held in Lincoln 
for the first time and there were present fifty delegates and twenty-five pastors. 
On October 23, 1870, J. M. Yearnshaw was elected the first regular pastor of the 
First Church in Lincoln. On April 23, 1871, the first Sunday School was organ- 
ized with J. Z. Briscoe as superintendent. By the year 1887 the membership had 
increased to such an extent that a new building was thought advisable. The 
result was the purchase of three lots on the corner of Fourteenth and K streets 
and the construction of a church building which was dedicated upon the last 
Lord's Day in August. 1889. In May, 1897, the society was compelled to give up 
this building for financial reasons, and it was later bought by the Catholics and 
converted into the cathedral. For several years after this the Christian Church 
was without a building, but continued to meet downtown. In the spring of 1901 
the church bought lots on the corner of Fourteenth and M streets for $4,000.00 
and during the following autumn erected on the back of these lots a little chapel 
in which they worshiped until November, 1907. Then they moved into the Lyric 
Theater and still later to the Auditorium. They held services in this way until 
the dedication of their new church building on May 16, 1909. Ground had 
been broken for this building on June 11, 1908. and the cornerstone laid Septem- 
ber 16, 1908. The cost of the church was $30,472.00. On :\Larch 23. 1916 a 
modern pipe organ, $4,000.00, was added to the equipment of the society. Follow- 
ing is a list of the pastors who have served the Church of Christ in Lincoln : 
Revs. J. M. Yearnshaw, D. R. Dungan, J. B. Johnson, I. M. ^^'illiams, B. F. Bush, 
Robert E. Schwartz, C. L. Crowthers, R. H. Ingram, C. B. Newnan, J. J. Morgan, 
H. J. Kirschstein, T. J. Thompson, X. S. Haynes and H. H. Harmon. Julia 
Marsh, the first person baptized (in Salt Creek) is still living in the city of 

The East Lincoln Christian Church of Lincoln was founded in 1S90 with a 
membership of forty. It was in the month of April of that year that the forty 
members of the First Church asked for letters of dismissal that they might enter 
a field almost barren in religious activities. Prior to this a Sunday School had 
been established in the east section by the people of the Christian Church, but this 
was abandoned owing to the impossibility of finding suitable quarters. In i8go 
a lot was purchased, cornering on Twenty-seventh and Y streets, and a small 


chapel was erected. This chapel was dedicated in 1890 with R. W. Abberly as 
pastor. He remained in charge until 1895, when he was relieved by Rev. J. W. 
Hilton, the present pastor. In Alay. 1913, ground was broken for the new build- 
ing and the cornerstone laid on June 29, 1913. The cost was $30,000.00. The 
membership of the East Lincoln Church is 325. 

There were fifty-four charter members of the Tabernacle Christian Church 
of Lincoln, most of whom left the First Church in full sympathy with the mem- 
bers of the latter society. The First Churcli had entertained the idea of a con- 
gregation in that part of Lincoln since October 7, 1903, at which time a committee 
was appointed, it being the annual meeting, to look into the matter. In 1905 the 
location at Se\-enteenth and South streets was thought most desirable. But, owing 
to the fact that the next few years were years of building at Bethany, Haverlock 
and Lincoln, action on the con.struction of a church was deferred. In May, 191 2, 
the city missions committee of the joint board, after several conferences with South 
Lincoln residents, arranged for a meeting of members in South Lincoln at the 
home of E. J. Sias, when a committee was appointed. Reverend Sias volun- 
teered a year's service as pastor of the church. A building was raised on 
June 26th and dedicated four days later. The membership is 260 and the pastor 
at present is Rev. C. W. McCord. 

The First Christian Church of Havelock was organized in 1906 and the 
church building constructed shortly afterward. The society now has a mem- 
bership of 275, and is in charge of Rev. W. E. Wessley. 


The following paragraphs in regard to the early history of the First Congre- 
gational Church of Lincoln is re-quoted from the Morton History of Nebraska; 
it is condensed from a historical account given at the fortieth anniversary by 
Rev. Lewis Gregory. 

"The early days of this church have special interest because its organization 
antedates both the city and the state. Its history carries us back to pioneer times. 
The first white settler of the county is said to have settled on the banks of Salt 
Creek on what is now Centerville, in June, 1856. At this time the country had 
not been surveyed. During the next five years a few families moved in here and 
there on inviting spots near Waverly and Yankee Hill. They led a precarious 
existence, disputing with the Indians the right of possession. 

"In 1862 the homestead law was passed. Among the first settlers under it 
was John S. Gregory, Sr., the first deacon of this church. His first stop was at a 
roofless and floorless log cabin on the margin of the salt basin. The cabin had 
been erected by J. Sterling Morton as a preemption claim, but was desolate and 
deserted. Mr. Gregory built a dugout in which he lived. He furnished salt to 
the Rocky Mountain freighters at two or three cents a pound. The next year 
Lancaster County was organized. Mr. Gregory was made chairman of the board 
of county commissioners. He also succeeded in having a postoftlce established 
named Gregory Basin, of which he was appointed postmaster at a yearly salary 
of $3, with an extra S12 for bringing the mail from Saltillo, then in Clay County. 

"In 1864 J. M. Young, with ten or a dozen others, staked out a town of eighty 
acres where Lincoln now stands. They called it Lancaster. The settlement was 


planned as a churcli colony of the Protestant Methodist Church. I'Vom the ])ro- 
ceeds of a sale of lots a building was erected, known as Lancaster Seminary, and 
also as a place for Sunday meetings, until a stone church was afterwards erected 
on the corner of K and Twelfth streets. To this building Mr. Gregory personally 
contributed $8,000.00. In spite of the heroism and sacrifice of the members, this 
church did not flourish and it passed away with its first families twenty years 

"From the beginning Mr. Gregory and a few neighbors who were Congrega- 
tionally inclined held services among themselves, ministered to occasionally by 
the pastor at Greenwood. Finally, on August 19, 1866, a little church of six 
members was organized, when, as the first page of the church record states, 
there were but seven buildings in the town, viz., the seminary, the store, the 
l)lacksniith shop and four dwellings. The church agreed to raise $100.00 a year 
for its minister, a pledge which the record at the close of the year proudly states 
was more than fulfilled. During this year, in March, 1867, Nebraska was pro- 
claimed a state. In July the capital was located on paper and the bare prairie. 
In November of this same year Rev. Charles Little, having been chosen pastor 
of the Congregational Church, set about securing for it a building. There were 
then, he says, not over three hundred people in the city. 

The first church building was erected in 1868 and finished and furnished in 
i86g — simple but substantial and capable of seating 125 people. It cost $2,778.86. 
This was the first permanent building dedicated to the worship of God in our 
city. F^oUowing the completion of the building in 1869 the church was only 
able to pledge $201 for the pastor's salary, of which only $132 had been raised 
at the close of the year. The remaining meager support was contributed by 
the Congregational Home Alissionary Society. Such a condition of things makes 
short pastorates. The minister, having exhausted his own resources and those 
of his friends, must leave. Mr. Little resigned in 1870, the church then having 
thirty-four members. 

"Rev. L. B. Fifield, a man of scholarly tastes and well educated, took up the 
work and helped to bear its burdens for two years more, adding twenty-three to 
its membership, but owing to deaths and removals he left it in numbers the 
same as he found it. 

"His successor. Rev. S. R. Dimmock, was a man of unusual oratorical gifts. 
The church building was enlarged and fifty were added to the membership 
during Mr. Dimmock's pastorate. Yet there was the constant going and coming 
characteristic of a western town ; so when, after two years and a half of service, 
the minister was compelled to resign on account of ill health, there were but 
fifty-four names on the roll, of whom only forty were resident, while on the 
other side was a debt of $2,000.00." 

The author of the above paragraphs became pastor of the church in October, 
1875, and was pastor for twenty-two years, the membership at the close of his 
services being 472. During his pastorate a new church building was constructed, 
being dedicated January 9, 1887. 

The first members of the society were: F. A. Bidwell, John S. Gregory, 
]\Irs. Welthy P. Gregory, Mary E. Gregory, Philester Jessup and Mrs. Ann M. 
Langdon. Rev. E. C. Taylor was the first pastor of the church, from its 
organization until October, 1867 and he was followed by Revs. Charles Little, 


L. B. Fifield, S. R. Dimmock, Lewis Gregory, W. H. Manss, John E. Tuttle and 
R. A. Waite. The church property is vakied at about $60,000.00. The mem- 
bership is 600. 

The present Plymouth Congregational Church had its inception in 1887. 
The idea of a branch church more conveniently located for the people of the 
south of Lincoln was originated by Rev. Lewis Gregory of the First Church. 
In the fall of the year 1887 thirty-six active members of the First Church with- 
drew and with eight others became the tirst congregation of the church 
at Seventeenth and A streets. A rough building, or tabernacle as it was 
called, was erected for $180.00, with eaves only five feet from the ground and a 
lean-to vestibule. There was no ceiling ; a round drum-stove supplied heat ; and 
behind the pulpit was the motto "Welcome." The original members were: 
Rev. E. S. Ralston, J- A. Lippincott, Mrs. J. A. Lippincott, Mr. and Mrs. D. C. 
Mosher, Mrs. B. P. Cook, Miss Carol Churchill, T. C. Wright, Mrs. T. C. 
Wright, Mrs. J. L. Thompson, Miss Phoebe Mosher, James Rivett, Mrs. James 
Rivett, Mrs. Lucy Pierce, Mrs. W. T. Abbott, Mrs. T. E. Hardenbergh, Mrs. L. M. 
Fowler, Miss Alice Martin, Mrs. H. M. Chapin, Leonard Chapin, Mr. and 
Mrs. W. A. Harris, ?ilr. and Mrs. Newton King, Mrs. Z. Townsend, Mrs. H. L. 
Abbott, Miss Gertrude Abbott, Edwin Sharp, Mrs. Edwin Sharp, James Mar- 
shall, Mr. and Mrs. J. A. W'allingford, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hackney, Mrs. L. H. 
Davis, Air. and Mrs. A. W. Lane, W. A. Selleck, Mrs. Nellie Horton Selleck, 
John B. Horton, Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Crooks and Miss Jessie Love. 

The church was originally known as the Second Congregational Church, but 
at the first business meeting of 1888 the name was changed to Plymouth. The 
church has had only five pastors during the whole time of its existence. Rev. Ed- 
ward S. Ralston was the first pastor, serving from May, 1888, until compelled 
to give up the work on account of ill health. Rev. Norman Plass succeeded him, 
then Rev. John Doane. In 1901 Rev. H. C. Hamlin occupied the pulpit and in 
1903 Rev. C. H. Rogers came and is still here. At a meeting held in the old 
tabernacle on September 14, 1887, plans were made for the erection of the second 
church building and in the following year the new building was completed, but 
placed the society under a heavy indebtedness which took years to settle. This 
property was valued at $15,000.00. The new Plymouth house of worship was 
first talked of in January, 1914. At that time the congregation voted to begin 
the erection of a new building as soon as 80 per cent of the money necessary 
for its completion was raised. A canvass for subscriptions resulted in securing 
over twenty-seven thousand dollars and a building committee was instructed to 
proceed with the building at an approximate cost of thirty-four thousand dollars. 
The contract was let January 8, 191 5. the cornerstone laid May 9, 191 5, and the 
dedication December 12, 191 5. The church and furnishings complete cost 
$36,000.00. The present membership is 425. 

The Vine Congregational Church at Twenty-fifth and S streets was organized 
June 8, 1890, by Rev. Harmon Bross, D. D. and Rev. Lewis Gregory, the latter 
pastor of the First Church. Rev. Henry S. Wannamaker was the first pastor, 
from 1890 to 1893, and was succeeded by Rev. A. F. Newell, 1893-99. Since 
September, 1899, Rev. M. A. Bullock has been the pastor of the Vine Church. 
The first church building was constructed in the year of organization and was 
remodeled under Newell's pastorate. The present new church was erected in 


1906-7. The membership is 375. During the year 1915 a pipe organ was in- 
stalled in the church. 

The First German Congregational Church was organized January 12, 1889, 
by Rev. Adam Traut, a student of the Chicago Theological Seminary. There 
were sixteen members at this time, six of whom live in the city now and one of 
whom is active in the church. The pastors who have filled the pulpit of the 
German Church are: Revs. John Lich, 1889-98; E. E. Osthoff, 1898-1900; G. L. 
Henkelmann, 1900-2; John Lich, 1902-6; B. R. Bauman, 1907-10; G. L. Henkel- 
mann, 1910-. The church building was erected in 1888 at a cost of $2,000.00. 
The membership is 130. 

The German Salem Congregational Church was organized in 1902 by Reverend 
Schwab and the first regular pastor was Rev. Andrew Suffa. Following him 
have been Revs. D. G. Schurr, F. Von Brauchitsch and R. E. Herholz. The first 
house of worship was built in 1902. The membership of the Salem congregation 
is now 250. 

The German Congregational Eben-Ezer Church at 1018 E Street was organ- 
ized in 1915 and has a membership of 100. The pastor is Rev. J. F. Grove. 

The German Congregational Zion Church, an outgrowth of the First German 
Congregational Church, was organized in 1900 and now has a membership of 
400. Rev. C. H. Graf is the pastor. 

The Swedish Emanuel Congregational Church at 201 1 G Street was organ- 
ized in 1895, has a membership of eighty-five, and is in the charge of Rev. Samuel 
Hogander. This was the first Swedish Congregational Church in the state. 

The First Congregational Church of Havelock was organized in 1892 and 
a frame building constructed the same year. This house of worship was 
remodeled in 1914. Rev. H. AL Skeels has been the pastor for six years and is 
to be succeeded by Rev. David Tudor this year. The membership is loi and 
the property is valued at $6,000.00. 


The First Universalist Society of Lincoln, which has been succeeded by the 
All Souls Church, Unitarian, was organized at the residence of J. D. Monell on 
September i, 1870, with W. W. Holmes, S. J. Tuttle, J. N. Parker, Mrs. Sarah 
Parker, Airs. Julia Brown, Mrs. Laura B. Pound and Mrs. Alary Alonell as 
charter members. Property on the corner of Twelfth and H streets was granted 
to them by the Legislature. Pending the erection of a building services were held 
occasionally in the senate chamber in the old capitol. Rev. James Gerton was 
the first regular pastor of the church in 1871. The cornerstone of the chapel 
was laid in October, 1871, and on June 23, 1872, the structure was dedicated. 


Rev. M. F. Piatt was an early missionary in Iowa and Nebraska, working 
under the direction of the American Home Alissionary Society. In a letter 
written by him in 1886 he had the following to say about the first religious services 
and organization of the first Sabbath school in Lancaster County: 

"Doctor Hanly and myself went from where Ashland now is towards the 


present site of Lincoln, but night overtook us and we camped on the banks 
of Stevens Creek, seven miles northeast of that place. This was Saturday night. 
We arose early Sunday morning and went up to our friend Langdon's. Desir- 
ing to hold Sabbath services, and having sent no appointment in advance, it was 
necessary to reach there soon enough to circulate the word. We took breakfast 
with Air. Langdon's family. Mr. Langdon sent his oldest son across Oak Creek 
to notify the neighbors. It did not take long, as there were but two other families 
on the salt basin. Mr. Cox was the tony one, for he lived in a log house; of the 
others, one lived in a dugout and the other abode in a tent. We went over to 
Mr. Cox's at lo o'clock A. M., held religious services. Doctor Hanly and myself 
both speaking, after which we organized a Sabbath school. This, so far as I 
know, was the first religious meeting held in what is now Lancaster County. 
At that and various other times I saw the wolves, deer and antelope, as well 
as the jack-rabbit, bounding over the prairie where Lincoln now is built." 

Mrs. S. M. Melick, now living in Lincoln, is a daughter of the Langdon 
referred to in the above. 



Note: On June 14, 1872, the Lancaster County Bar was organized. Prior 
to this time there had been several attorneys practicing in the county, but no 
effort had been made to organize a bar association. The lawyers of the period 
of 1868 were: S. B. Galey, Seth Robinson, S. B. Pound, Ezra Tullis, Major 
Strunk and J. E. Philpot. The first man admitted to the bar in the county was 
John S. Gregory, under Judge Dundy in 1866. He and Milton Langdon had 
practiced here as far back as 1864. By 1876 the Lancaster County Bar had 
increased in membership, the following then belonging: John H. Ames, George K. 
Amory. Newton C. Abbott, L. W. Billingsley, Carlos C. Burr, Erastus E. Brown, 
Lionel C. Burr, Guy A. Brown, Amasa Cobb, Paren England. Smith B. Galey, 
D. G. Hull, N. S. Harwood, Robert Knight, Walter J. Lamb, G. M. Lambertson, 
M. Montgomery, Robert E. Moore, T. M. Marquett, James E. Philpot, RoUo O. 
Phillips, A. C. Ricketts, Adolphus G. Scott, M. H. Sessions, Samuel J. Tuttle, 
Charles O. Whedon, Joseph R. Webster, Jeff D. Weston, Joseph Hunter and 
A. J. Sawyer. 

The first term of the Territorial Court was held in the home of Jacob Dawson 
in November, 1864. Dawson's house was a double log cabin, located on W'est O 
Street, between Seventh and Eighth, on the south side. This was Dawson's first 
house; after the location of the capital he built a stone and wood house farther 
up town. The officiating judge at this first term of court was Elmer S. Dundy. 
Mr. Dawson acted as clerk and Judge Pottenger, of Plattsmouth, was appointed 
prosecuting attorney for the territory. T. M. Marquett, then of Plattsmouth, 
was present as an attorney. Milton Langdon and John S. Gregory were the local 
attorneys. The principal case of the term was that of Bird vs. Pemberton. the 
latter being indicted on the charge of "malicious assault with intent to kill." 
T. M. Marquett, for a fee of $10, defended the man and managed to persuade 
Judge Dundy to quash the indictment. There was a term of court in Lancaster 
County in 1865 and probably one in 1866. The case of John S. Gregory and his 
Uncle Eaton of Plattsmouth was the most noted one of those days and at times 
grew very warm. 


By Samuel J. Tuttle 

On my arrival in Lincoln on March 29, 1869, I found tlie legal profession 
both in number and quality well represented, composed in the greater part of 
young men, well educated, ambitious, capable, and drawn hither by the promise 
of professional opportunity, incident to the location of the capital of the state. 



The city was then a hamlet of a few hundred inhabitants. In the journey 
hither the white-covered wagon was seen on every hill top and in every valley, 
slowly wending its way towards the West. It had come from Iowa, Illinois, In- 
diana and possibly from Ohio. It was usually drawn by a span of strong horses, 
with a chicken coop fastened on the rear, and the family cow hitched thereto. 
Within was usually the young husband and wife with their small children and 
all the household belongings. At night it found a camping place beside some 
small stream, fringed with trees. C)ne such scene typifies all : it was evening ; 
the sun had set and its departing rays crimsoned the clouds resting upon the 
western horizon. The camping place was beside a small stream. The horses and 
the family cow were tethered near the white-covered wagon. The fair-haired 
wife and mother, over a fire kindled by dry sun-flower stalks, was cooking the 
evening meal. The husband, wearing the faded blue overcoat of the common 
soldier of the republic, was gathering other sun-flower stalks for the next morn- 
ing. Two little children, well bundled up, were sitting upon a blanket spread 
upon the ground, and near them the faithful dog, with hind legs drawn up under 
his body, with fore legs outstretched and head resting between them, in the very 
attitude of extreme weariness and exhaustion. Aside from these and a solitary 
onlooker, not a living being, human or animal. The gently sloping hills stretched 
away into the distance, unmarked by dugout or sod house or other human habi- 
tation. Solitude dominated the scene. 

At that time Col. James E. Philpot, the sole survivor, save only the writer, in 
point of active practice, stood easily at the head, vigilant, active, ambitious, and 
even yet, in his eightieth year, still active in the profession at his new home in 
Minatare. He is resourceful, with unflagging energy and oblivious of fear. 
He accompanied the commission that located the capital in 1867, spent the follow- 
ing autumn and winter in Iowa, and returned the following spring, permanently 
locating as a lawyer. 

He was preceded by Stephen B. Pound, who had located here even before the 
establishment of the state capital, a graduate of Union College, New York, a 
student, a quiet, refined gentleman and an excellent lawyer. He practiced a few 
years and was elected probate judge, was a member of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1S75, chosen judge of the District Court, re-elected twice, resigning 
shortly before the expiration of his third term to enter the practice, to the great 
loss of the administration of the law, and to himself as well. The judicial office 
was most suitable to his nature and learning. On an occasion after leaving 
the bench he told the writer that throughout his official career, no one — layman or 
lawyer — had ever even suggested to him anything savoring of judicial mis- 

Another pioneer lawyer was Joseph H. Knox, a lawyer of much experience 
and ability. He had an infirmity — an addiction to strong drink. The writer, 
known as a very sober youth, was deputed to go with him to a Fourth of July 
celebration at Milford in i86g, to care for him, that when he should appear be- 
fore the audience he would be presentable. That duty was performed success- 
fully. In a grove on the bank of Blue River, to an audience that had come from 
the dugouts and sod houses, in common farm wagons, on horseback and on foot, 
he delivered an excellent speech, with force and ability, to the great satisfaction 
of his audience. His duties performed the writer, on call, added his mite to the 








vocal entertainment, anti thereafter introduced to sundry maidens, lost conception 
of the Hight of time — regained consciousness later, with it the fact that the 
orator was nowhere to be seen. Search was instituted with success. lie was 
found, his legs so feeble that he could not stand, his tongue so swollen that he 
could not talk, his brilliant mind nearly a blank. The words of Shakespeare, as 
uttered by Cassio, came with emphasis : "O that men should i)ut an enemy into 
their mouths to steal away their brains.'' With much coaxing, lifting, copious 
libations of strong coffee, he was at a late hour gotten into a carriage, and some- 
time during the small hours of the morning, safely as could be done under the 
circumstances, delivered to his room in the Village of Lincoln. He lived and 
practiced his jjrofession for a few years, suddenly dying from an affliction of 
the heart. 

Another of the pioneers was Seth Robinson, the first attorney-general of the 
state, a classical scholar, the ablest lawyer this bar has seen. He was not an orator, 
but a deep thinker, a severe logician, with powers of analysis of the highest 
order, with great industry and energy. With his long auburn hair, blonde com- 
plexion, eyes very large and very blue, his pantaloon legs tucked into boots, he 
presented an unique and attractive appearance as he slouched through Lincoln's 
muddy streets. Afflicted here with a disease known as quinzy, from which he 
had on several occasions barely escaped with his life, he removed to the more 
equable climate of San Francisco. In that metropolis he reached a high standing 
with a lucrative practice. But from the disease with which afflicted here, in a 
few years he died, not more than thirty-tive. A most brilliant career was thus cut 
short. In the winter evenings of 1869 and 1870 he and the writer were wont to 
meet in a shabby room somewhere on the south side of O Street, between Tenth 
and Eleventh, and by the dim light of a kerosene lamp, renew our student life 
by reading some of the Greek classics, in which the former was very proficient. 

Another of the pioneer lawyers was Walter J. Lamb. He possessed great 
energv, modesty, and charming personality, and with it all a pronounced opti- 
mism. At the time of the writer's arrival he was a justice of the peace. His office 
was located in a small one-story building on Tenth Street, opposite the south end 
of the First National Bank Building. The writer, having occasion shortly after 
his arrival to visit him, he was found in conversation with Doctor Fuller, rubbing 
his hands together as was his wont, and with a countenance beaming with satis- 
faction and contentment he was saying to the doctor, "I am doing exceedingly 
well. I am now making in my office here on an average of $25 a month." He 
afterwards became the head of the firm of Lamb, Billingsley & Lambertson, a 
firm that stood decisively high and reaped an abundant harvest from the pro- 
fessional field. At that time McCandless & Boyd were a firm of lawyers, but 
the latter moved away in a few years and the former died as early as 1875. 

Henry Jennings, who had been for some years a lawyer in one of the south- 
eastern counties, removed to the new capital and resided here for a few years, 
practicing his profession. He then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and subsequently 
to some town in Maryland, where he died. 

Another lawyer at that time was Paren England, then engaged in the real 
estate business, subsequently in the mercantile, and later as a member of the law 
firm of Brown & England. He moved to Colorado later, and died in Kansas City. 


Smith B. Galey, an early county clerk, practiced the profession very actively, 
but moved away from the county in about 1879. 

The writer also remembers a lawyer by the name of Atkinson — not extremely 
prominent. He moved away at an early date. So far as recalled these men- 
tioned include all the lawyers at the time of the writer's arrival in Lincoln, with 
the possible exception of John S. Gregory, who certainly had been before and 
was subsequently a lawyer. 

Between 1869 and the adoption of the present constitution in November, 1875, 
the bar was increased by a number of new men, already prominent and who 
became prominent. In the summer of 1869 John H. Ames arrived from Western 
New York. In later years he reached a high place in the profession, possessing 
a legal mind of rare caliber, a wide reader and with conversational powers hardly 
excelled. His contributions to the press, on account of their worth, always re- 
ceived attention. At an early date he filled the office of justice of the peace. 

Some time in the summer of 1870 Amasa Cobb joined the local bar. In the 
same summer the bar was increased in membership by Charles O. Whedon, who 
became and remained for forty years one of its strongest members. In the same 
summer came also A. C. Ricketts and C. M. Parker, who are still with us. In 
February. 1871, Nathan S. Harwood joined the bar. In this same year came also 
T. M. Marquett, for many years a settler at Plattsmouth. He appeared, in his 
early manhood, with flashing eye, hair and beard black as a raven's wing, active 
physically, alert mentally, resourceful, always ready to aid others, devoid of 
envy, brave and patriotic, one of the first to offer himself as a soldier in defense 
of his country, rejected because of a physical disability. Let an instance of his 
resourcefulness be cited. A man charged with murder of another in a room down 
near the Burlington station. A witness saw the accused immediately after the 
murder run from the building wherein this room was located. The identity of 
the accused with the man thus seen running was, of course, very material. Alar- 
quett found a man, bearing a close resemblance to the accused — in size, facial 
appearance, weight, and at the trial had him seated near himself. The witness 
swore to the identity of the accused with the man seen running from the place 
of the murder. On cross examination Marquett caused the man by his side to 
stand, and put this question, "Does the accused resemble the man whom you saw 
running from the room in question more closely than this man standing by my 
side?" The witness hesitated and finally answered that he could not be certain, 
without proof of identity. Of course, there could be no conviction, under the cor- 
rect instruction of the court. The prisoner was acquitted. Counsel had done his 
duty — no more, no less. L. C. Burr, who is still with us, joined the bar about 
the same time as Marquett. 


In this enlightened age of medical science one regards the early doctor as one 
who had little knowledge of the profession, one who applied the home remedies 
of calomel, castor oil and blue pill for every ill and who wielded the lancet with 
indiscrimination. However one may regard the early physician, there must be 
taken into consideration the times in which he worked, in other words, the knowl- 
edge of medicine and surgery which then existed in the world. Secondly, there 
were the physical conditions which he endured; thirdly, the diseases among the 
settlers were distinctive ; and, lastly, the remedies and antidotes at the command 
of the doctor were scarce and, many times, not proper for the illness for which 
they were administered. 

In the matter of medical knowledge in those early days, little or nothing 
was known compared with the present status of the science. In fact, medical 
knowledge has made more rapid strides in the last two decades than in the century 
before. In the early days of N'ebraska and Lancaster County the doctors had 
strong faith in the use of the lancet, believing that by letting a copious amount 
of blood from the patient, the object of which was to destroy the tenement of 
the disease, a cure could be effected. Then there was the Spanish fly blister 
which was applied for all sorts of ills ; there were blue pills and calomel which 
were the chief internal remedies. During the patient's convalescent period, if 
such a period were ever reached, gamboge, castor oil and senna were admin- 
istered in generous portions in order to work out of the system the effects of the 
initial course of treatment. 

It would be difficult to describe in limited space just how far the step has 
been taken from those early theories to those of the present day. A glance at 
the daily newspapers and magazines will prove by numerous instances the won- 
derful cures being accomplished, both in medicine and in surgery. Operations 
upon the heart, upon the brain, and upon the other delicate and vital organs of 
the body are becoming of daily occurrence, whereas a quarter century ago these 
practices would have been ridiculed. Nor does the modern doctor need the splen- 
didly equipped operating room for this work. Weekly the news filters through 
the censors of some remarkable operation performed in the war zone of Europe ; 
of how some daring work upon the part of an army surgeon has saved a soldier's 
life ; perhaps, with the bare ground as the operating table and with a few simple 
instruments — and no anaesthetic. 

The day of serums and antitoxins has arrived and the disease in many cases 
is throttled iij its inception. The present day doctor recognizes the transcendency 
of nature, the greatest doctor of all, and he prefers to assist this great power 
rather than work independent of it. 



The physical conditions the early doctor endured present another argument 
in his favor, if indeed, he needs to be justified. There were no roads, bridges, 
and, in many places, not even a marked path of travel. His trips were made on 
horseback or on foot, through intense blizzards, soaking rains, bitter cold, and in 
the face of the winds which swept across the prairie. Sleep was a luxury he 
obtained at odd times. In reward for his services he received a very meagre 
fee and in the majority of cases nothing, for the settlers as a class were poor. 
Then again he would receive his fee in grain or vegetables or whatever com- 
modity the pioneer could most conveniently give him. 

The diseases common to the first settlers were distinctive. The rough life and 
simple fare did not permit entrance to the numerous pains and ills attendant 
upon civilization and urban communities. Fevers and ague, with an occasional 
stomach ache, constituted the prominent ailments. Accidents required the use of 
wooden splints and bandages and, of course, the early physician required a cer- 
tain knowledge of obstetrics, though the pioneer mother often endured the birth 
of her child without medical assistance. When sickness broke out in the family 
the doctor was called if within distance, but if not, the stock of home remedies 
was put to use. If it were nothing more than a cold, hot lard or pork fat and 
the internal use of quinine or onion juice completed the treatment. The use of a 
few herbs was also common. Sweet powders were stock antidotes. 

Perhaps the first doctor to settle in Lancaster County was Dr. J. McKesson, a 
member of the Lancaster colony composed of Young, Dawson, Merrill, Giles, 
Harris, Lavender, Warnes, Humerick, Hudson, and a few others. He came in 

In addition to Doctor McKesson there came in 1868 and i86g Drs. H. D. Gil- 
bert, George W. French and J. W. Strickland. The latter, an Ohioan. continued 
his practice until 1874, when he entered the flour and feed business at Raymond. 

The organization of the Lancaster County Medical Society was perfected at 
Lincoln on the 24th day of May, 1869, the following named residents of the pro- 
fession being present: D. W. Tingley, F. G. Fuller, J. M. Evans, H. D. Gilbert, 
L. H. Robbins, George W. French. Within the next year and a half the following 
became members: J. W. Strickland, John W. Northrup, George A. Goodrich, 
C. C. Radmore. The first death in the society was that of George A. Goodrich 
on July 16, 1870. At the time of the organization the official constitution and 
bylaws were adopted. 

Doctor Robbins, among the above, became prominent in the county and state. 
He came to Lincoln April 21, 1869, from Illinois. Radmore served through the 
Civil war as an army surgeon and came to Lincoln in 1870. He was also a vet- 
eran of the Mexican war. James O. Carter was an early surgeon of Lincoln, 
coming in 1871, and for a number of years serving as penitentiary physician. He 
also served through the war as military surgeon. Dr. F. G. Fuller served in the 
hospital department of the Seventy-seventh Illinois Infantry during the war and 
came to Lincoln in 1868. He became quite prominent in medical circles and by 
the year 1882 was the oldest resident physician of Lincoln. He was a native of 
Illinois. William S. Latta, a former army surgeon, came to Lincoln in 1873 ^"d 
was for several years president of the State Medical Association. He was a 
Pennsylvanian. A. R. Mitchell is another doctor who has gained prominence in 
medicine and surgery ; he locted in Lincoln in 1879. Doctor Mitchell was born 


in Henry County, 111. Dr. B. L. Paine came one year sooner and took up the 
practice; Doctor Paine is a member of the firm of Miller & Paine, department 

The above mentioned physicians practically comprise the early doctors of 
Lincoln and Lancaster County. True, there were possibly others who lived 
here, but certainly none for a great length of time nor any who gained much 
prominence while here. When the growth of Lincoln was assured the field was 
considered an inviting one and many young doctors just out of college settled 
here, also quite a number of doctors who had practiced in other places. The 
medical profession has grown in Lancaster County and has maintained an equal 
record of merit with any other community in the country. Here in Lincoln are 
to be found specialists in every department of the science; here are to be found 
advantages of treatment, and excellently equipped hospitals, public and private, 
as good as may be obtained any place. 


By A. J. Sawyer 

The first election under the new city charter creating cities of the first class, 
having a population of less than sixty thousand and more than twenty-five thou- 
sand inhabitants, and which was approved March 25, 1887, occurred on the first 
Tuesday of April of that year. 

Lincoln had within the last few years rapidly increased in population, wealth, 
and territory. 

The time had arrived when Lincoln was rapidly becoming one of the prin- 
cipal cities of the West, but she was without paved streets, sanitary or surface 
sewerage, and without an adequate supply of water. She was about to enter 
upon an era of public improvements commensurate with her growth and popu- 
lation. The good name which the city had formerly possessed for law and order 
had materially suffered within the last year or two, and license and misrule were 
in the ascendant to such an extent that the leading citizens organized a Law 
and Order League for the purpose of aiding the authorities in restoring good 
government and a decent respect for the ordinances already enacted. Law and 
order and municipal reform became the watchwords of the good citizens of 
Lincoln, while the others were in favor of the then established order of things. 

Among the elective officers to be chosen under the new charter were the 
mayor and six councilmen." 

These considerations all contributed to make the election one of the most 
spirited ever witnessed in Lincoln. 

There were three candidates for the mayoralty : Edward P. Roggen, ex- 
secretary of state, by the regular republican convention ; Andrew J. Cropsey, by 
the prohibitionists; and Andrew J. Sawyer, by the citizens' reform movement, 
which was largely made up of reptiblicans. 

The result was the election of the citizens' candidate by a majority of 537. 

The city council after the election consisted of Lorenzo W. Billingsley, 
Lewis C. Pace, Granville Ensign, William J. Cooper, Joseph Z. Briscoe, James 
Dailey, John Fraas, Robert B. Graham, Henry H. Dean, Fred A. Hovey, John 
M. Burks and Nelson C. Brock. 

The newly elected officers were in due time inducted into office, took the pre- 
scribed oath, pledged themselves to duly and faithfully administer the affairs of 
the city, see that the laws thereof were carefully executed, and settled down to 
the performance of their duties as best they knew. Having adjusted themselves 
to the conditions imposed by the new charter, they selected an entirely new 



^^-y-^ i^ 


a &i 


police force, under civil ser\ice rules and regulations, and instructed them to 
see that all the existing ordinances were strictly and rigidly enforced. They then 
turned their attention to the work of public improvements, the paving of the 
streets, construction of sewers, waterworks, and the like, and the general routine 
of municipal affairs; and so spring passed into summer and summer into fall 
with little occurring to disturb the serenity of the council or jar the machinery 
of the new government ; ^ut the sear and yellow leaf brought sore trials and 
tribulations to the reform administration. 

So far as we can judge, the new administration would have had compara- 
tively easy sailing had it not been for the police judge. He had been elected 
the spring before for a term of two years, and consequently was a hold-over 
official with yet a year to serve. 

There had been rumors afloat for some time that "even handed justice" was 
not always dispensed from his bench ; that the eyes of the presiding goddess 
were not infrequently unveiled, and that the scales of justice were scarcely, if 
ever, accurately adjusted, and that the ermine had even been known to cover 
the wool-sack at ])laces remote from where the seat of the city court had been 
permanently established. 

Whenever the fountains of justice are corrupted, whether in inferior, lim- 
ited, general, or su]K'rior jurisdictions, the people within those jurisdictions 
experience a most unfortunate condition of things, and one of the most intol- 
erable and crying evils of our times is the inefficient and often absolutely corrupt 
and dissolute personages selected to administer justice in the lower courts and 
particularly in the police courts of our larger cities. 

The citizens cannot be too circumspect in the selection of these officials, for 
no permanent and effectual municipal reforms can be had imtil these primary 
courts are thoroughly purged from the corrupt ward strikers and political 
heelers who, having secured these places for party services by "ways that are 
dark and tricks that are \ain," in the name of justice perpetrate injustice, fraud, 
and oppression. 

What had been rumor at length took definite form. Three citizens and tax- 
payers, who had cognizance of the delinquencies of the judge, filed with the city 
clerk a petition or comjilaint in which they set forth that the police judge of 
the City of Lincoln had collected large sums of money, in his capacity of police 
judge, as fines from certain people who were conducting certain out-lawed occu- 
pations, and that he had failed to make any report of the same on his dockets or 
to account to the city therefor. That he had also collected fines for the viola- 
tion of the statutes of Nebraska to the amount of $329, as shown by his dockets, 
which amount he had neglected and refused to turn over to the county treasurer 
as required by law, and assuring the council that they had ample evidence to 
substantiate the charges, requested that a thorough investigation be made. Un- 
der the city ordinance it became the duty of the city council, when charges were 
preferred against any of the elective officers of the city, to institute an inquiry, 
and, if the person accused should be found guilty, to declare his office vacant. 
Accordingly, a committee consisting of Councilmen Billingsley, Briscoe and 
Pace was appointed to investigate the complaint. A time and place were fixed 
for the taking of testimony, and due notice was served upon the defendant. The 
defendant filed his answer, in which he first made a general denial and then 


admitted that he had failed to turn over to the county treasurer certain funds 
he had collected, but claimed that his failure was due to his ignorance or misun- 
derstanding of the law. At the time appointed for the taking of testimony de- 
fendant appeared with his counsel, Messrs. L. C. Burr, O. P. Mason and C. E. 
Magoon ; the complainants with their counsel, D. G. Courtnay, J. B. Strode and 
J. E. Philpot. The taking of testimony occupied some five or six weeks. When 
the committee came to make their report to the council they stated that in their 
opinion they had no authority, as a committee, to make findings of fact, or in 
any sense to try said police judge upon the charges. That as the ordinance 
stood he should be tried by the council sitting as a body and not by a committee. 
The council in the meantime had discovered the defect in the ordinance and 
amended the same so as to authorize a committee to act in lieu of the whole num- 
ber. The same committee was then reappointed to proceed under the amended 
ordinance to take testimony and make their report. As much time had already 
been consumed, it was stipulated that the testimony already taken might be used 
with the right of either party to offer such additional evidence as he might desire. 
When the testimony was all in, the second committee, after a most stormy siege 
and constant bombardment of lawyers on either side, made their report. Among 
other things, the report showed that in the spring of 1886 the police judge had 
made arrangements with Gus Saunders, the proprietor of some gambling rooms, 
that he should pay a monthly fine of $10 and costs for himself, and $5 for each 
of his employees engaged in gambling. That the police judge collected monthly 
such fines, in some instances going to the gambling rooms to make collections. 
That in consideration of the payment of the fines Saunders and his employees 
had immunity from arrests and trials. The committee also found that no com- 
plaints had been filed or warrants issued or arrests made or trials had in such 
cases. That the same mode of procedure was had concerning the fines for pros- 
titution. That he had collected a large amount of money for fines under the 
statutes of Nebraska and appropriated the same to his own use, when he should 
have turned it over to the treasurer of the county. The committee accordingly 
recommended that the city council declare the office of police judge of the City 
of Lincoln vacant, and the mayor be requested to fill the office with some suit- 
able person by appointment. 

The committee made their report to the council on the 12th of September. 
Complainants and respondent were present with their attorneys. Both the 
respondent and his attorneys importuned the council in speeches both eloquent 
and lengthy not to rely upon the report of the committee but to listen as a body 
to the reading of the testimony and the further argument of the case. They de- 
clared that the committee was without authority to hear the evidence and that 
both the committee and city council were without jurisdiction to try the respond- 
ent on the charges preferred, because, as they said, the ordinance of August 15, 
1887, was an ex post facto law; yet if the whole council would listen to the 
evidence and argument of the attorneys they would be satisfied with the decision 
reached. The council concluded to accede to the wish of the accused and, at 
his request, the case was adjourned to a day certain, when the council, as a 
body, was to sit in judgment in the case. This arrangement seemed to be per- 
fectly satisfactory to the accused. The real purpose, however, in securing the 
adjournment was not that the council might be aflforded an opportunity to 


further hear the case, but rather that they might be relieved from having any- 
thing further to do with the proceedings ; for, in the meantime, Attorney L. A. 
Burr, for resixmdent, went to St. Louis and exhibited to the Hon. David J. 
Brewer, then circuit judge of this circuit, a bill in equity in which he claimed 
that his client was being tried by the city council of Lincoln, in violation of 
the Constitution of the United States, and was being deprived of his liberty with- 
out due process of 'law, and prayed that a w-rit of injunction might issue to 
restrain the mayor and city council from further proceedings in the case. Upon 
hearing the bill, the circuit judge, on the 24th of September, 1887, made an 
order that the defendants show cause on Monday, the 24th day of October next, 
at the courthouse in Omaha, why a preliminary injunction should not issue as 
prayed for, and in the meantime restrained the council from any further pro- 

The feelings that possessed them when they were served by a deputy marshal 
with notice that they had been enjoined from proceeding further in the investi- 
gation may be better imagined than described. The evidence had disclosed 
beyond all possible doubt that the police judge w-as guilty of the charges pre- 
ferred against him. That he had entered into a compact with gamblers and 
other lawdess members of society to receive at stated times certain fines agreed 
upon for the conducting of certain occupations which had no right to exist, 
without the formality of law or proceedings in court. This wanton disregard 
of duty, this shameless violation of law. this private barter and sale of justice 
to the gamblers, pimps, and prostitutes of Lincoln were enough to arouse the 
righteous indignation of every citizen possessing the slightest regard for law, 
order or decency. 

At the time set for the further hearing of the case the council convened. 
They were certainly in an unhappy frame of mind. They were confronted by 
a condition and not a theory. The condition was the unseemly spectacle of a 
police magistrate on the bench in the capital of the state who had shamelessly 
trailed the ermine of the judge in the filth and mire of the brothels and gambling 
dens of the city which had honored him with his election. 

The theory was the chimerical conception of the police judge and his attor- 
neys that local self-government, which had become an established fact, and en- 
deared to the hearts of the American people ever since the landing of the 
Pilgrim Fathers, and which in fact constituted the very cornerstone of the 
republic, was, after all, a myth, a delusion, and a snare; that a city, county or state 
was powerless to purge itself, in the manner pointed out by law, of the corrupt 
and reckless officials that might fasten themselves upon the bodies politic. 

On the night in question the council chamber was thronged with citizens 
anxiously awaiting the action of the council. 

The condition and the theory stood like grim specters in the presence of the 
city fathers, unwelcome, as they were forbidding, to the presence of all assembled. 

To adopt the theory and await the final decision of the Federal Court as to 
whether they might be permitted to do a little housecleaning on their own 
account in their own bailiwick, would necessitate the continuance of the condi- 
tion. And very likely defendant would complete his term of office long before 
a final decision could be reached, and the end sought to be accomplished by the 
investigation completely defeated. 


On the other hand, not to accept the theory was to go counter to the man- 
date of the court and incur the risk of fine and possibly imprisonment for 
contempt of court. 

While the mayor and council had the greatest respect for the learning and 
ability of the eminent jurist (since one of the justices of the Supreme Court) 
they could not but feel that the injunction had been allowed under false repre- 
sentations, and that, when the true state of affairs was made known to him, he 
would not be disposed to look with such contemptuous disfavor upon their acts 
as upon those who procured the writ to issue. Besides, after a careful investi- 
gation, they became satisfied that a Federal CoClrt of equity was without any 
jurisdiction to restrain the action of the council in performance of an act en- 
joined upon them by the law of the state. Therefore, after a careful, candid, 
and earnest consideration of the subject, it was unanimously decided to proceed 
with the investigation, notwithstanding the restraining order of the court. 

The council, on the 2yth of September, 1887, confirmed the findings of the 
committee, declared the office of police judge vacant, and instructed the clerk 
to notify him of their action. 

Upon the receipt of the notice the judge declared his intention to continue 
to hold possession and dispense justice (?) until removed by force. 

The following proceedings were then had and done : 

"Lincoln, Neb., September 30, 1887. 
"Marshal P. H. Cooper: 

"You are hereby notified that H. J. W'hitmore has duly qualified and given 
his bond, and has been duly commissioned police judge to fill the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the action of the city council last evening, and you will please see that 
he is duly installed in his office. 

"A. J. Sawyer, 


The order was promptly carried out. The police judge was bodily removed, 
and thenceforth it was Judge H. J. Whitmore, police judge of the City of Lin- 
coln. It is needless to say that justice was enthroned, the office honored, and 
the ermine kept unspotted as long as Judge Whitmore presided. 

We had crossed the Rubicon, and were waiting for developments. The 
ex-police judge, no longer permitted to mete out justice, and deprived of the 
emoluments of office, was in anything but an amiable frame of mind, and his 
attorneys, thwarted in their plans, were most belligerent. 

Dire vengeance was threatened upon every one who had participated in the 
investigation or who had aided and abetted therein. The consequence was that 
the developments were not tardy in maturing. 

On the 8th day of October following, the ex- judge filed his affidavit in the 
Circuit Court of the United States, setting forth all that was said and done at 
the September 29th meeting of the council, from which I make the following 
excerpts : 

"Notwithstanding all this the said mayor and all of said council, except 
N. C. Brock, proceeded knowingly, wittingly, wilfully, boastingly, and con- 


teni])tuously to disregard the order of this honorable court in the matter of this 

"Affiant further alleges that on the 30th day of September, 1S87, a certain 
notice was served upon him of the action of said council in declaring his office 
vacant. A copy of w'hich notice is hereto attached, marked exhibit A. 

"Said notice was served upon said affiant by P. H. Cooper, city marshal of 
said city, and affiant told said city marshal that he would not recognize the 
action of the said city council, and would not surrender said office until law- 
fully removed or forcibly ejected. The said city marshal then produced the 
order from said A. J. Sawyer, mayor, directing him to see that the said H. J. 
Whitmore is duly installed in said office. 

"In pursuance of said order said marshal seized this affiant by the shoulders 
and forcibly ejected him from said office, and wrongfully and unlawfully in- 
stalled said Whitmore therein. 

Upon the filing of the foregoing, the following notice was served upon the 
mayor and each of the councilmen : 

"Whereas, It is suggested of record to us that you and each of you know- 
ingly violated the injunction heretofore issued in this action, 

"WMierefore it is ordered that you and each of you show cause on Tuesday, 
November 15, 1S87, at the hour of 10 o'clock in the forenoon at the United 
States Court room in the City of Omaha, Neb., or as soon thereafter as counsel 
can be heard, why you shall not be attached for contempt, if said suggestions 
are true. 

"Elmer S. Dundy, 


To the rule to show cause, respondents made return setting forth all the 
facts in connection with the investigation, the want of jurisdiction of the court 
to entertain the case, first, because the amount in controversy did not exceed 
the sum of two thousand dollars, exclusive of interest and cost ; second, because 
a court of equity had no jurisdiction of the subject matter of the action, and 
gave the reasons which impelled them to violate the injunctional order, and asked 
that they might be heard by counsel, and that upon a full hearing they might be 
discharged from further proceedings. 

On the 17th of November, 1887, as appears from Journal M of the United 
States Circuit Court, the cause came on to be heard upon the order to show 
cause, and upon the return thereto of the defendants, upon consideration whereof 
it is ordered by the court that an attachment be and hereby is granted for the 
arrest of the defendants Andrew J. Sawyer, mayor of the City of Lincoln, 
Neb., and Joseph Z. Briscoe, John M. Burks, William J. Cooper, L. C. Pace, 
H. H. Dean, Lorenzo W. Billingsley, Robert B. Graham, Fred A. Hovey, 
Granville Ensign, John Fraas, and J. H. Dailey, councilmen of said City of 
Lincoln, returnable at 10 o'clock, A. M., on Tuesday, November 22, 1887. 

Warrants were forthwith issued for the arrest of the offenders and placed 
in the hands of Deputy Marshal Hastings, who lost no time in making the 
arrests. The ex-judge was now having his innings, and he and his attorneys 
were in ecstacies over the rapid progress they were making towards the time 


when condign punishment would be visited upon the culprits who had despoiled 
him of office and robbed him of the emoluments thereof. They could see no 
reason why the kind hearted deputy marshal should allow the prisoners suffi- 
cient liberty to return to their homes and bid farewell to their wives and families 
or close up important matters then pending before the council; but the deputy 
marshal, who was a resident of Lincoln, and who had had long personal ac- 
quaintance with his prisoners, felt no fear but what they would be forthcoming, 
and allowed them their liberty on promise that they would report in court on 
the day named. 

The journal in the city clerk's office on November 21, 1887, records the 
regular meeting of the council in the evening of that date, the transaction of a 
large amount of business, and resolution that "when the council adjourned it 
was to meet at the B. and M. depot next morning at 8 o'clock sharp." 

It was about the hour of sunset on Monday, the day before the time ap- 
pointed for the hearing, when 'Tap" Hastings, the deputy marshal, hurled him- 
self into the presence of the contemptuous councilmen, with those ominous writs 
which he parceled out to each defendant by name. 

After a careful inspection of the documents, Councilman Billingsley, who, 
with great fortitude, had moved that the office of police judge be declared vacant, 
was observed to raise his optics from the parchment and gaze with a faraway 
look'to where the sun was descending behind the western hill tops, but Council- 
man Dean, whose optimistic nature would not permit him to contemplate any 
ill omens, and whose unclouded nature was ever as serene as a summer's sky, 
essayed to dispel the gloom that was settling down upon the disturbed defend- 
ants by imitating the action of Richmond when he summoned his trusty generals 
about him on the eve of the meeting with Richard on the field of Bosworth. 

Addressing the disconsolate around him, and pointing toward the departing 
orb, he said, 

"Look ye. the weary sun hath made a golden set. 
And by the bright light of his fiery car 
Gives token of a goodly day tomorrow." 

He paused; for the moment solemn stillness reigned. For the time bleak 
melancholy seemed to mark each pensive prisoner for her own. Meanwhile 
Dean's eyes swept the heavens as with telescopic vision. Again he broke the 
silence, "See yonder constellations in the darkening skies, Ursa Minor, Ursa 
Major, Orion and the far away Pleiades. I tell ye for a truth they are, at this 
very moment, each and all in complete juxtaposition. From boyhood up I have 
read the starry heavens as an open book. I have learned to cast the horoscope 
with the same unerring certainty that the whaler casts the harpoon, and I declare 
to ye, the heavenly signs are all propitious." 

Just at this moment, when he was beginning to wax eloquent over objects 
too remote for the contemplation or comprehension of ordinary mortals, he 
was interrupted by Councilman Fraas, who, thinking it unbecoming for one 
culprit to occupy so much precious time, gave vent to his Teutonic feelings in 
the laconic words which have since become historic : "Es macht mir miide." 

J. M. Burks said this is "the winter of my discontent." Pace was heard to 


mutter that "The paths of glory lead but to the grave," while all the rest joined 
in the chorus, 

"Our honor and our freedom's at the stake 

Which to defend we must away and answer to the suinmons of the court." 

Scarcely had the refrain died away when the demoniac voice of the ex-judge, 
who had been a silent, unobserved spectator, rang out, 

"And my fame on brighter pages 

Penned by poets and by sages 

Shall go thundering down the ages." 

The morrow came; but not the good one predicted by Dean. The sky was 
o'ercast with clouds. The earth was covered with a mantle of white. The snow 
was still falling, and the wind was chill and piercing. 

At 8 o'clock the city fathers answered roll call at the depot and were soon 
speeding as fast as steam would carry them into the presence of the court whose 
majesty they had ofifended. Many of Lincoln's prominent citizens were on 
board, anxious to learn the fate of their city council. It was here the writer 
first met the inimitable Walt Mason, dispatched by the Journal to chronicle all 
that might befall the reform administration. 

No one in the state could wield a more ready, graceful, or graphic pen than 
he, and the daily pen pictures of the trials, tribulations, temptations and vicissi- 
tudes of the city fathers furnished by Walt to the press will keep his memory 
ever green in the recollection of all who had the pleasure of reading them. Nor 
did he, when the bolts of the prison doors grated harshly upon the ears of the 
condemned, for once desert them, but boldly entered in, snuiifed the same tainted 
atmosphere, drank from the same canteen, sat at the same festal board, slept in 
the same bunks, and gave the world a true and faithful history of prison life 
as experienced in the Omaha bastile. 

But we digress. An hour and a half's ride and the voice of the conductor 
cried out, "Omaha !" Alighting from the coach and accompanied by the deputy 
marshal they were soon on their way to the courthouse, the observed of all 

Reaching the door of the courtroom, they found the spacious hall of justice 
packed with legal luminaries and eager spectators. A bailiff in commanding 
tones said, "Make way for the prisoners !" The way was cleared, and they 
were ushered across the room and furnished seats in the jury box, at the right 
of the Honorable Judges Brewer and Dundy, who had already taken their seats 
and were awaiting the arrival. 

When all were seated, such a deathlike stillness pervaded the room that the 
thumping of the hearts in the breasts of the prisoners could be heard, "like 
muffled drums beating funeral marches to the grave." 

At length the silence was broken by Judge Brewer, who inquired if the attor- 
neys were ready to proceed in the matter of the contempt of the Lincoln City 
Council. Mr. G. M. Lambertson, their attorney, arose and informed the court 
that they were ready to proceed, and asked that Councilman Billingsley be per- 


mitted to show cause why the defendants should not be punished for contempt. 
Mr. Billingsley had prepared an ehiborate review of the investigation from be- 
ginning to end, which, to the minds of the councilmen, presented excellent rea- 
sons why they should not be punished for their action. He assured the court 
that not one ill word or harsh term had escaped the lips of any of the councilmen 
at the time they took the action that had called forth the writ of attachment, 
but, on the contrary, they had expressed the deepest regret that a judge of so 
high character, unquestioned integrity, and great legal attainments should feel 
it his duty to bar their action in an investigation which to them seemed neces- 
sary to secure better municipal government; that the mayor and the city council 
had endca\ored to act with decorum and propriety becoming their official posi- 
tion ; that they relied upon justice at the hands of the court by presenting the 
justness of their cause. He called the attention of the court to the accession of 
the city council to the request of the ex-police judge and his attorney, that the 
case might be heard by the council as a body, and the postponement of the hear- 
ing for their accommodation; how he had taken advantage of the postponement 
to thwart their action; how his attorney had, by misrepresentations in the bill, 
imposed upon the court; and that without such misrepresentations he felt sure 
that the court would not have allowed the injunction ; that, while there was a 
bare possibility that the court might look upon their action in declaring vacant 
the office of police judge with disfavor, on the other hand a sense of shame, dis- 
grace, and humiliation would follow from a failure to carry out what they con- 
sidered to be their sworn duty in the premises, a disregard of which would bring 
upon them the criticism, gibes, and contempt of all good citizens, and would 
continue in office as police judge for two or three months, or probably until the 
end of his term of office, one whom they deemed utterly unfit for the position 
and one who had brought disgrace and shame not only upon the office he held, 
but upon the City of Lincoln ; that the council had endeavored to inform them- 
selves upon the legal aspect of the case and were thoroughly satisfied that the 
court was without jurisdiction to entertain the case, and that the ex-police judge, 
if he had any cause of action, had adequate remedy at law. That the bill of 
complaint did not show a sum amounting to $2,000 in controversy, exclusive of 
interest and costs; that these reasons were offered to show the court that the 
violation of the order was not done insolently or recklessly or without respect 
to the honor and dignity of the court, and prayed that their honors might 
consider these reasons in mitigation of the offending. 

At the close of Mr. Billingsley's statement Mr. Lambertson asked permission 
to introduce some oral testimony, which was granted. The mayor was then 
sworn and examined by Mr. Lambertson as to the character and standing of 
several members of the city council. Allegations contained in the bill upon 
which the injunction was secured reflected seriously upon the character and 
standing of the councilmen, and would naturally lead the judge who granted the 
order to think that the Lincoln City Council was made up of gamblers, or those 
in sympathy with the gambling fraternity, and the purpose of the examination 
was to disabuse the mind of the court of any preconceived erroneous impressions 
he might have formed. The testimony developed that all of the councilmen were 
gentlemen engaged in lawful occupations. That they were men of excellent 


business standing, honest, honorable, and of liigh character, and that they had 
no sym])athy or afhUation with the lawless elements of the city. 

The ex-judge was then called to the stand by his attorney, Mr. Burr, and 
detailed minutely the circumstances and transactions of the council at the meet- 
ing immediately preceding that at which the final vote was taken and the one 
at which the question of adopting the report of the committee without reading 
the testimony was discussed and voted upon. 

These were the only two witnesses examined. The examination took up 
the forenoon. Court convened in the afternoon and listened to the argument 
of counsel. Judge Brewer then stated that he would decide the matter in ques- 
tion at lo o'clock A. M. the next day, and the council filed out, as one of the 
newspapers stated, "with considerable time left in which to contemplate the un- 
certainties of this life and vicissitudes of aldermanic existence." 

Promptly at lo o'clock the next morning the judges were on the bench and 
the prisoners in the box. It is needless to remark that they also were on the 
tiptoe of expectation. During the adjournment they had canvassed the prob- 
abilities of a favorable or unfavorable decision of the court and had heard the 
subject very generally discussed. Most of the members of the bar and public 
sentiment generally believed that the decision would be favorable, and the 
buoyant expression of hope beamed from the countenance of the members as 
they sat awaiting judgment. Councilman Ensign was so sure of a favorable 
outcome that he was heard to whisper to the members of the council that they 
needn't worry ; that he would pay all fines that might be assessed against them. 

Judge Brewer then began to deliver his opinion, the courtroom being again 
thronged with spectators. The judge reviewed the case at length and proceeded 
in an elaborate opinion to show that the court had jurisdiction of the subject 
matter, and that, while the bill was defective in not stating any amount in con- 
troversy, yet that was a matter which could be amended. A court of equity had 
the right to enjoin the proceedings of a state tribunal in a case of the nature 
presented by the bill. After sweeping away the various objections urged by 
attorneys for the council as to jurisdiction, he then came to the reasons urged 
in mitigation of the offense and said that another matter should be taken into 
consideration ; that is, what circumstances of expiation, wrong, or trickery, 
fancied or real, provoked the action which was done. 

"It is," said he, "human nature t^o resent an act, a wrong accomplished by a 
trick, and we must always recognize that as a part of our common human 
nature. If parties, mistaken or otherwise, fancy they have been tricked into a 
position where their proceedings are likely to be baffled, it is not to be wondered 
at that they felt keenly, and the court cannot blind its eyes to such a matter as 

Then he reviewed what the defendants had said in regard to the postpone- 
ment of the hearing of the investigation and the acceding to the wish of the 
ex-judge and the alleged deception practiced upon him by the council. 

"These things," said he, "all come in mitigation. These things all have in- 
duced me to feel that I would not be justified in imposing (here every coun- 
tenance brightened up in anticipation that he was about to say 'fine') impris- 
onment." A bolt from a clear sky could not have produced a greater surprise 
than when the judge said "imprisonment." They were counting on complete 


exoneration. "On the other hand," said he, "they are gentlemen of character 
and position. They represent the second city in the state, as I am advised, in 
wealth, in population, and in business. (Here a gleam of hope seemed to 
animate the tired council.) They are the council of the capital city of the state. 
If the court should say that men occupying so high a position can disregard the 
process of the courts (here all hope departed) what may we expect from men 
having no such backing of position, respectability and influence? Can we ask 
the poor, friendless man to obey the process of the court if men occupying 
positions, such as these men do, do not? Am I not compelled by the very fact 
of the respectability of the gentlemen, of the position that they hold, to impose 
such a fine as shall be a lesson, not merely a punishment to them, but a lesson 
to all? (At this point the stalwart councilmen showed signs of great depres- 
sion.) I have tried to look at this case in all of its phases, and, while I am 
very glad that I was able to- come to a conclusion that no imprisonment was 
proper, and it will be unnecessary and therefore an improper exercise of power 
to send any one of them to jail, I have, on the other hand, felt that I could not 
pass it by lightly, and that I ought to impress a heavy fine. I believe that in so 
doing I shall benefit these defendants and every good citizen of this state if the 
size of the fine be such that every citizen, high or low, shall understand that 
this is a Government of the law. and that the processes of the courts are to be 
obeyed, and that every wrong may be righted in the orderly administration of 
affairs, and that no such proceedings of taking the law into one's own hands as 
was initiated in Chicago can be tolerated anywhere. Three of these gentlemen 
voted against taking up these matters: Mr. Briscoe, Mr. Burks and Mr. Cooper. 
The fine imposed upon them will be $50 each. The mayor had no vote, but was 
enjoined from appointing an officer; he had nothing to do with the removing of 
the petitioner. After that removal was accomplished, although the mandate 
forbade him to make an appointment, I can well see how one might say 'here is 
a vacancy of office, not by my action ; I cannot leave the City of Lincoln without 
a police judge,' and so acted. The same fine will be imposed upon him. LTpon 
the other eight the fine will be $600 upon each one. The order will be that they 
pay this fine and the costs of the proceedings and stand committed to the custody 
of the marshal until it is paid." 

Judge Dundy followed, and in a terse and decisive way concurred in the 
opinion of Judge Brewer. 

The generous councilman who had promised to take care of the fines was im- 
mediately seen by his fellows, but his pocketbook was as emaciated as himself, 
for it contained only $10.13. It was suggested by some that even that amount 
might be served to liquidate the fines, had not the witness on their behalf attrib- 
uted such intelligence and characters as to remove them from the category of 
ordinary councilmen. As it was, the fat was in the fire, and the only thing left 
was to be committed until the fine was paid, or their release secured from a 
higher tribunal. 

A hasty consultation was had. In anticipation of the worst that might befall 
them, a complete record had been made up, as ilCr as it had gone, preparatory 
for making an application to the Supreme Court for a writ of habeas corpus. 
The record was completed and Mr. Lambertson took the first train for Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Marshal Bierbower took the prisoners to the jail at Omaha, 


Neb. On the way to jail Councilman Dean grew weary. As they were passing 
a drug store he told the marshal that he was subject to fits and faintings, and, 
as he felt his malady coming on, it was necessary for him to get some fit medi- 
cine. At the command of the marshal the procession halted. Dean left the 
ranks, satchel in hand, and entered the pharmacy. In a few moments he re- 
turned, apparently rejuvenated, but it was observed that his satchel possessed 
a much greater specific gravity than when he left. \\'hen asked if he expected 
to have fits enough to consume all that medicine he replied he did not, but 
thought his companions might before they got through. 

They straightway awarded him a vote of thanks, and gave him the ajjpclla- 
tion of Doctor Dean, a name by which he was ever afterwards recognized. 

Doctor Dean now fotmd no difficulty in keeping step, and they all marched 
with military precision, led by the marshal, up the rugged way to the castle on 
the hill. 

The presence of so many fine looking gentlemen carrying knapsacks, march- 
ing in perfect order and martial array in that directtion, excited no little curi- 
osity. They were stared at by crowds of men and women, and great numbers 
of small boys followed the procession, while the dogs did bark as they passed by. 

At the command to halt, the weary pilgrims stood in the shadow of the bastile, 
over whose portal was the inscription : 

"all hope ab.andon ve who enter here" 

Each glanced at the writing and then at the other. The sentiment was not 
reassuring, but it was too late to recant, even had they enterained such a thought. 
The ponderous iron bolts were heard to turn ; the heavy doors swung open, the 
darksome dungeon yawned to receive them, and they entered in, the door closed, 
and Lincoln's reform administration was literally barred from the world without. 
"It was a time for memory and for tears." 

Marshal Bierbower delivered the mittimus and prisoners to Sherifl: Coburn, 
who in return gave him a receipt for each and graciously received the new 
addition to his already large and variegated family. 

After the marshal had taken his departure, Sherift' Coburn said, "I under- 
stand you are from Lincoln." All nodded assent. A moment's pause and 
Dean added, "via Federal Court." The sheriff then conducted his new arrivals 
to a desk, upon which lay the register of the Hotel De Bastile. Shortly it was 
illuminated with the autographs of a dozen men, who but yesterday governed a 
great city, but "now none so poor to do them reverence." 

After remarking upon the exceptional page of signatures, he turned to the 
aldermen and said, "Gentlemen, make yourselves at home. You see I am some- 
what crowded. Winter is our busy time. However, you must be content and I 
will do the best I can for you." He then departed, leaving his guests in a large 

"Take a chair," said Councilman Dailey, as he sat himself down upon the 
cold stone floor of the apartment. Some obeyed, others stood up, leaning against 
the walls for support. In this attitude they took in the situation. A combination 
and mixture of unearthly odors and stenches so rank as to smell to heaven 
assaulted their olfactories. "Why," said Councilman Pace, "all the perfumes of 


Arabia could not sweeten these apartments.'" Nor was the prospect to the eye 
more pleasing. Some thirty or forty wretched prisoners, ragged and dirty, some 
with bloodshot and leering eyes, were loose in the corridor, some standing, some 
walking, and others lying on the floor sleeping off their last night's 'debauch. 
A still larger number of the more dangerous and desperate class huddled into the 
several tiers of iron cells that partly surrounded the open court. 

The faithful chronicler of whom we have spoken, writing at the time says, 
"Their hearts were somewhat troubled when they gazed about the corridors into 
which they had been ushered and where they were obliged to wait nearly an 
hour before the apartments intended for them were made ready. It afforded a 
view of several tiers of cells, packed with the vilest looking crowd of hoodlums 
ever assembled behind iron bars. And the corridor was also occupied by about 
thirty or forty of the same brand. A shining light in this apartment was the 
one-armed light of society, named Pasco (I think), who was recently arrested 
at Lincoln for swindling in land.'' 

Thirty minutes in this revolting scene and breathing the fetid atmosphere 
caused a number of the city fathers to experience a feeling of nausea. This was 
observed by the quick eye of Doctor Dean. He rushed to his satchel, opened 
it, and took therefrom two huge quart bottles of "fit medicine." Holding them 
in either hand, he first took a dose himself and then passed the medicine bottles 
to his companions, assuring them that he had used the medicine for thirty years, 
and that it never failed to produce good results. The doctor's medicine came 
like a ray of sunshine into the midst of his companions. When the medicine 
bottle came to Burks he hesitated. He looked at the bottle, then at the surround- 
ings, and then, addressing his fellow-councilmen, said: "Boys, there is no use 
in talking; all the fit medicine in Christendom would not suffice to relieve me. 
I have been indisposed for more than a month. I see the portals of the grave 
opening to receive me if I am not speedily admitted to the sunlight arid fresh 
atmosphere. Here (taking from his pocket a certificate from his physician, 
which he had taken the precaution to procure before leaving home) is what my 
physician says. \Miile I would willingly stay by you, yet I am admonished by 
this certificate and my failing pulse that self-preservation is the first law of 
nature. I have just $50 in my purse. If they will take it I shall willingly give 
it for my liberty." Doctor Dean made a diagnosis of the sufferer and decided 
that his medicine was not powerful enough to effect a cure, and that Burks should 
pay his fine and be discharged. This was accordingly done and Councilman 
Burks boarded the first train for Lincoln. 

An hour passed on. A number had seated themselves upon the cold floor, 
and were beginning to adjust themselves to their hard conditions, when Sheriff 
Coburn appeared in their presence. He commanded them to arise and follow 
him. Again we quote from the same faithful chronicler: 

"About 5 o'clock the prisoners were shown to their apartments, which 
comprise two large rooms and a small room in the southeast corner of the sec- 
ond floor. They are scarcely dungeons in a literal sense of the word. The 
absence of chairs, racks and thumbscrews is apparent to the most casual observer. 
A highly polished coal stove keeps out the cold air of November in the highest 
style of the art, while the floors are handsomely carpeted, and lounges and easy 
chairs are scattered around in a way that would have made John Bunyan write 


ten more chapters of his Pilgrim's Progress had he been confined here. Fra- 
grant flowers are in the windows, while the walls are adorned with valuable 
pictures, among which is a chromo, presumably by Raphael, representing Judas 
Iscariot iianging himself. The distinguished prisoners contend, however, that 
the moral value of the picture is impaired, as the only member of the body who 
could derive a valuable lesson from it is absent. Lace curtains adorn the win- 
dows, and handsome chandeliers furnish all the illumination desired. In short, 
the apartments now occupied by the city fathers in Lincoln are as comfortable 
as the homes of many aristocrats. It is not at all likely that groans, shrieks, or 
appeals for mercy will be heard by those without, unless it be as a result of some 
of Dean's jok^, which are constantly on draught and gurgle around like flowing 
streams in deserts weary. Their confinement will lack many of the elements of 
martyrdom. The lack of that esteemed boon known to orators as liberty will 
be the chief aflliction. A lynx-eyed Ethiopian, who has been so well trained 
that he already refers to Fred Hovey as 'colonel' and Jim Dailey as 'judge' has 
been detailed to wait upon them and obey their slightest mandates. A special 
cook has also been delegated to the task of preparing savory viands for them, 
which they will eati in a comfortable and spacious dining hall on the first floor, 
where no other prisoners will be allowed. Parties who have served a term in 
the Siberian mines freely admit that the punishment inflicted upon the heroes 
of whom this essay treats is much preferable and not nearly so galling to the 

"The councilmen themselves, while not being superlatively happy, are re- 
moved from absolute misery by several degrees. The air of calm resignation 
that lies upon the face of J. Z. Briscoe is refreshing to the intellectual observer, 
while his companions are also overflowing with a spirit of 'peace on earth and 
good will toward men.' At 7 o'clock the gentlemen are thus occupied (the de- 
tails may be trivial, but they will be interesting to their anguished relatives) : 

"L. W. Billingsley, W. J. Cooper, Gran Ensign and H. H. Dean are sitting 
by the blazing hearth lost in the fascinating excitement attending a game known 
to science as poker. They seem to control their grief quite manfully, and no 
sobs have yet been heard. 

"A. J. Sawyer is diligently reading a law book, while a look of inefl:'able 
calm makes his face a study. 

"J. Z. Briscoe is walking the floor like a caged lion, or like a man who has a 
large concentrated toothache concealed about his person. He disclaims all re- 
morse or anxiety, however, and will endeavor to hold her nozzel agin the 
bank till the last galoot's ashore. 

"Fred Hovey acts like one who is convinced that whatever is, is right. His 
appetite is unimpaired, and his friends in Lincoln have thus far no necessity to 
pine or wither away through anxiety about him. 

"L. C. Pace is contemplating the game of poker alluded to above with the 
air of one who has been in the neighborhood himself. 

"The balance of them are scattered around on lounges and cushioned chairs, 
looking as if their agony had not reached an insupportable point, and most of 
them will doubtless survive the ordeal. The apartments they occupy were 
formerly used as the sheriflf's residence, and command an excellent view, of the 
city. They are clean and pleasant and are furnished with everything necessary 


for a pious and circumspect life, from a large Polyglot Bible to a copy of 
Lambertson's petition to a higher court, with the previous translations diligently 
compared and revised. 

"The martyrs will sleep on new cots specially prosided for them, with 
comfortable clothing. These will be brought in during the evening when the 
curfew tolls the knell of parting day, and removed during the daytime, to make 
more room for the doomed men when they want e.xercise. Since they antici- 
pated hard bunks, it is a matter of great encouragement to them that they can 
'wrap the drapery of their couch about them and lie down to pleasant dreams' 
as if they were at home. 

"In such a manner has the first day of their imprisonment passed. The 
ruddy glow of health is still on each cheek, and melancholy has so far marked 
none of them for her own. Had they been required to enter the dismal cells 
occupied by the lower criminals, they would have done so without flinching. 
That they are as comfortable as they are should be a matter of congratulation to 
Lincoln, for whose sweet sake they are looking out at streets they may not 

"Religious literature, sponge cakes, chewing tobacco and other physical and 
spiritual refreshments should be sent to Mr. Billingsley, who has been appointed 
as chairman of the committee on supplies. Communications for the mayor or 
members of the council should be addressed 'in care of Sheriff Coburn" ". 

The apartments were those occupied by Deputy Sheriff Major Houck, who 
kindly turned them over to the councilmen, to whose kind attention and many 
acts of courtesy they will ever feel themselves deeply indebted. 

The good citizens of Omaha contributed much to soften the asperities of 
prison life. Chief among these was Hon. H. T. Clarke. To facilitate communi- 
cation with the outside world the Western Union Telgraph Company, through its 
gentlemanly superintendent, J. J. Dickey, supplied the councilmen and their wives 
with telegraphic franks, as did also the express companies. 

Their apartments became daily veritable reception rooms. Many of the 
notables of the state paid their respects by their calls and hearty expressions of 
sympathy and good cheer, among whom was Governor Thayer, who showed a 
deep interest and assurred the council that if the decision was adverse he would 
go himself to the President and make an appeal in their behalf ; Hon. J. Sterling 
Morton, who brought with him for their consolation and edification a copy of the 
Connecticut Blue Laws; Hon. George L. Miller, Hon. Edward Rosewater, Hon. 
James E. Boyd, who furnished them with carte blanche to his Opera House; 
Mayor Broatch and the councilmen of Omaha, who tendered them a banquet, and 
the ministers of the city who extended a cordial invitation to the pews of their 

Many resolutions of sympathy, numerously signed, from dift'erent parts of 
the state and from city councils, were received. 

Flowers, fruits, cigars, and many other good things came pouring in by 
express till it became necessary to organize a commissary department with James 
Dailey at the head. 

The council availed themselves of the entree to Boyd's Opera House and 
witnessed among other plays, "Alone in London," "A Great Wrong," and "All 
is Well that Ends Well." 


In the meantime Mr. Lambertson was putting forth his best energies in 
Washington to interest the Supreme Court in their behalf. 

On the fourth day of their incarceration he dispatched the council that he 
would have "a hearing before the Supreme Court the first thing tomorrow, Friday 
morning, and that the decision would probably he handed down on Monday." 

Notwithstanding they were being daily besieged with kind friends, good 
cheer, and stalwart resolutions, they were becoming exceedingly anxious to learn 
what the Supreme Court would say of them. ''Eagerly they watched the mor- 
row" for some tiding from the court. They were not disappointed. A telegram 
from Attorney Lambertson stated that the court had "granted a rule to show 
cause returnable December 12," and that a "writ of habeas corpus would issue 
later if necessary." 

The fact that the court had granted a rule to show cause lent encouragement 
10 the hope that the court was favorably disposed, otherwise the rule would have 
been denied. 

The council on receipt of this dispatch wired Mr. Lambertson to make some 
arrangements whereby they might be admitted to bail, until the final decision, and 
at the same time be relieved from the expense of going to Washington. 
The next day, Saturday, the following dispatch was received : 

"Washington, D. C, December 3, 1887. 
■"A. J. Sawyer, Omaha: 

"See telegram to the marshal. Judge Miller doubts the power of Judge 
Dundy to take bail. He thinks Bierbower ought to allow you to go on parole of 
honor. If not, writ will issue Monday. Don't give bail, for then the marshal 
could return that you were not in his custody. G. M. Lambertson." 

Pursuant to the above, Marshal Bierbower was seen, but he did not feel that 
he could take any action in the matter, as he derived his authority from Judge 
Brewer, whose mandate he must obey until he received orders from a higher 

"Between the alternative of jail and asking Judge Brewer," says the chron- 
icler, "the council determined to choose the jail." 

Later, however, the following dispatch was received : 

"Washington, D. C, December 3d. 
"Senator Paddock and Congressman McShane went with Mr. Lambertson 
to see Attorney-General Garland about admitting the mayor and city council to 
bail, or letting them out on parole of honor. The attorney-general expressed 
great surprise that they should be imprisoned, and said that he would direct the 
marshal at Omaha to place the prisoners nominally in the custody of the deputy 
marshal at their homes in Lincoln until the case is finally decided by the court." 
Acting upon the order wired him by the attorney-general. Marshal Bierbower 
placed the council in charge of Deputy United States Marshal Allen, who allowed 
them to return home on parole of honor to report to him should the decision of 
the Supreme Court be adverse. This brought great joy to the council, and they 
began to feel that genuine progress was now being made in their behalf. 

They had now been in durance vile six days. Meanwhile the City of Lincoln 

had been without any government. We again quote from the faithful chronicler : 

"About the time the city fathers were breaking camp preparatory to taking 

their departure for home, they were made glad by a call from his excellency, 


Governor Thayer. The register in which were recorded the names of the many 
guests who had paid their respects during the days of the council's confinement 
had been packed away with many other trophies to be carried to Lincohi. The 
register was exhumed, and the governor's name closed the list of distinguished 

"After a pleasant chat his Excellency said that he had just come from Lincoln, 
where a petition to President Cleveland for an unconditional pardon for the 
mayor and councilmen had been signed by himself, the supreme and district 
judges, state and county otificials, members of the bar, and business men generally, 
which petition he would take pleasure in presenting to the President in the event 
the Supreme Court denied the writ on final hearing. He further said that he 
desired every member present to distinctly understand that he cordially endorsed 
the action of the council in the police judge case from the beginning of the in- 
vestigation to the present time, and that he was particularly gratified that the 
councilmen were willing to go to prison in order to test the question of Federal 
judicial interference with municipal government. He believed they were right 
and that they would be sustained by the Supreme Court. A question of such vital 
importance should be speedily settled. Judicial tyranny, said he, was the worst 
form of tyranny, and he hoped it would never obtain in this country. Mayor 
Sawyer, on behalf of the councilmen, thanked the governor for his visit and the 
kindly expressions he had just uttered. 

"Firm in the belief that the Federal Court had no jurisdiction to restrain them 
from proceeding in an orderly way to investigate charges of corruption against a 
city official, they listened to the evidence and declared the office vacant, and it 
was for this that they are in jail. 'Every great principle of government,' said he,, 
'has triumphed, if at all, at the cost of individual sacrifices, and if the good old 
democratic principle of home rule for which we stand shall, by this imprison- 
ment, become triumphant then shall our incarceration not have been in vain.' 

"Councilman Billingsley thanked the governor for his stand in this matter, 
and for the many expressions of approval given by the state officers, judges of 
the Supreme and District Court, and many other citizens of the state. 'We be- 
lieve,' said he, 'we are right, and, standing for a great principle of home rule, 
the endorsement of our action by all good citizens of the state gives us great cheer 
and is a source of great satisfaction. We shall confidently await the decision of 
the Supreme Court of the United States to say that we are right.' 

"No sooner had word that they were coming reached Lincoln than steps were 
taken to give them a fitting reception. The time was short, but the success of 
the event and large number who turned out demonstrated most clearly the 
position taken by the people of this city in this contest against the federal usurpa- 
tion of local authority. The city officers, the police and fir* departments were 
out in force, together with a crowd of citizens, the whole headed by the Knight.s 
of Pythias band, and about half past 9 o'clock they proceeded in a body to the 
B. & M. depot. 

"When the train rolled in cheer after cheer rang out upon the night air. As 
many as could immediately mounted the car, and the meeting of old friends 
after years of separation could not have been more enthusiastic. The mayor 
and council were in charge of Deputy United States Marshal Allen, who, in 
pursuance of the order previously mentioned, immediately turned them over tO' 



the care of his deputy, Major Hastings. When the couneihiien were finally per- 
mitted to make their way out of the car they were hardly allowed to touch the 
ground before they were grasped by as many enthusiastic citizens as could get 
hold of them. As Mayor Sawyer appeared he was grasped by several strong 
arms, lifted above the heads of the crowd, and carried to the head of the pro- 
cession. When the vigor of the first meeting had slightly subsided the company 
moved toward the council chamber led by the band playing Boulanger's March. ' 
Arriving at this place the police and fire departments formed in lines on each 
side of the entrance way, and as each councilman passed their ranks he was 
greeted with hearty cheers." 

Many of Lincoln's prominent citizens delivered enthusiastic addresses of 
welcome and encouraged the council in the belief that the day of their liberty 
was near at hand. 

General Webster, being then called upon, made a few remarks welcoming the 
council to their accustomed places. The occasion, he said, was one of the best 
of evidences that the American people are capable of self-government. It is one 
of the fundamental principles of the Government under which we live that every 
municipality shall have the sole and uninterrupted administration of its own 
internal affairs, while to the General Government shall be relegated authority in 
affairs in which the whole country is involved, and between our own and other 
nations. The Federal Court, he believed, had no more power to interfere in the 
local affairs of this city than had a justice of the peace in the State of Iowa. The 
fine, whether large or small, was a matter of comparative insignificance; but the 
principle of self-government could not be overlooked. The speaker referred 
briefly to the manner in which the whole proceeding of the last few weeks in 
respect to the council of the city had been conducted. No force had been used 
and everything had been done in the most quiet and deliberate manner. It was 
not necessary, as has before been done in the history of the world, to tear down 
the Bastile, for in this land we depend upon constitutional rights. It might have 
been possible to secure the desired writ from the Supreme Court of this state, but 
for fear of a clash between state and Federal authority it was thought best to 
appeal to the highest judicial body in the land. He had, he said, no doubt what- 
ever that the council would be discharged, and when they were the loyal citizens 
of this city would be out to celebrate the event with their biggest gun. At present 
the councilmen are still nominally prisoners. If the Supreme Court should de- 
termine that Judge Brewer had acted within his jurisdiction, it must be seen to 
that the representatives of this state in Congress promulgate an amendment to the 
laws. Such a condition of affairs must not be allowed to exist in a free country. 
In closing he extended to the members of the council each and every one the 
heartiest welcome, and assured them that if their fines were not remitted it would 
be seen to that not a cent thereof should come out of their pockets, and that in 
this matter of vindicating their rights they have the sympathy of every good 

Responses were made by the mayor and different members of the council, and 
they repaired to their homes happy in the thought that they were for the time 
released from imprisonment. 


The case had created great interest not only in Nebraska, but throughout the 
United States. It had been widely commented upon by the press throughout the 
country, and, with the exception of the Omaha Republican, all the newspapers, 
so far as we know, were a unit in defense of the position taken by the council. 
On the I2th of December, 1887, the case was most ably argued before the 
Supreme Court by attorneys G. M. Lambertson and L. C. Burr, who had filed 
elaborate briefs therein. 

It was expected that on the second Monday thereafter the court would hand 
down its opinion, and it was thought advisable that the defendants should have 
a representative present, that, in the event the opinion should affirm the decision 
of the lower court, an appeal might at once be had to the President. 

The mayor was accordingly chosen for this purpose, and, armed with a 
petition for the pardon of the mayor and council, headed by His Excellency 
Governor Thayer, and signed by the state supreme judges, many district judges 
and state officers, and other prominent citizens, he proceeded to Washington, 
and was present on the coming in of the court on the day the decision was looked 
for. Case after case was handed down, but not the one in which he was particu- 
larly concerned. 

As opinions are not given out by that tribunal, except on Mondays, and as 
there was no certainty that the case would be reached in a week from that time, 
he felt that he must return home with nothing accomplished. Before returning, 
however, it was his good fortune to meet Senators Manderson and Paddock, of 
Nebraska, who manifested great interest in the cause and suggested that they 
go with him to the President, that he might become acquainted with all the facts 
and circumstances. 

The invitation was gladly accepted. He was introduced to President Cleve- 
land by Senator Manderson. as the mayor of Lincoln, who was supposed to be 
in jail. At the same time both senators spoke a good work both for the mayor 
and his cause. 

The President accorded them a hearty welcome, then turning to the mayor he 
said, "My attention has already been called to the case through the press, and I 
would be pleased to learn more of its nature and the particulars." The mayor 
then gave a brief history of the case in which the President seemed much inter- 
ested, and inquired of the mayor when he expected a decision. He told him that 
it was expected that a decision would be handed down today, but that he had 
just come from the court room and none had been reached. He then ventured 
to tell the President his purpose in being in the city, that in case of an emergency 
he might make an appeal for executive clemency. 

The Executive smiled and inquired as to the political complexion of the 
council. The mayor replied, nominally they are all republicans but two; practi- 
cally they are all democratic, particularly upon the main question — the right of 
local self government. 

"Well, for a fact," said he, "they do seem to be standing for a sound 
democratic principle — the doctrine of home rule. It is a principle that ought to 
be triumphant, and I have no doubt that it will." 

This he said with a degree of earnestness that gave assurance that in an 
emergency an appeal might not be in vain. 

The mayor returned home. All waited impatiently and most anxiously for 


four successive Mondays to learn their fate. At length, on the loth of January, 
1888, the wires from Washington flashed the news that the council had won. 
The lower court had acted without jurisdiction, and all its acts were void. 

Those desiring further knowledge of the subject are referred to the case 
entitled In re Sawyer et al., 124 U. S. R., 402, which has become one of the 
causes celebres. 



At a public temperance meeting held at the Methodist Church, formerly the 
Methodist Protestant Church, in Lincoln, Nebraska, February 14, 1874, a meet- 
ing was called for the purpose of organizing a Ladies' Temperance Society 
(which resulted in the crusade) to be held at the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
at the corner of M and Fourteenth streets. Rev. G. S. Alexander, pastor. At the 
hour of 2 P. M. a large audience assembled, comprised of the best citizens of 
Lincoln. Miss Garrison, a temperance lecturer, who chanced to visit the city 
at this time, was chosen chairman of the meeting. The meeting was opened with 
singing and prayer was offered by Reverend Davis, presiding elder of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It was moved and carried that "we enter into a 
permanent organization, to promote the moral influence in our city and to further 
the cause of temperance so far as may be in our power." The following officers 
were elected : Mrs. C. B. Parker, president, Methodist ; Mrs. Captain Scott, vice 
president, Presbyterian ; Mate E. Hardy, recording secretary, Methodist ; 
Mrs. J. A. Fairbanks, corresponding secretary, L^niversalist ; Mrs. David Butler, 
treasurer. Christian. The following pledge was then unanimously adopted: "We 
mutually pledge ourselves to secrecy as to our plans of work and will stand by 
each other to the end." The meeting then adjourned to meet again on the follow- 
ing day at 9 A. M. 

The first visit made by these loyal women was a notable occasion, notable 
because the treatment accorded them reflected the spirit in which their future 
campaign would be received by the liquor and vice elements of the city. The 
party, composed of Mrs. Elder Young, Mrs. G. S. Alexander, Mrs. David Butler, 
Mrs. Guthridge, Mrs. Doctor Burr, Mrs. G. W. C. T. Fairbanks, Mrs. M. Cedar- 
holm, Mrs. J. W. Hartley, Mrs. J. Torry, Miss Elsie King, Mrs. Elder Davis, 
Mrs. Captain Scott, Mrs. Bent, Mrs. Colonel Crabb, Mrs. A. C. Ricketts, 
Mrs. E. M. Roberts, Mrs. D. Buckner, Mrs. H. W. Hardy, Miss M. A. Garrison, 
Miss Etta Lewis and Mrs. C. B Parker, first visited the saloon owned by the 
firm of Bailey & Andrews, located on the north side of the public square. The 
saloon keepers had previously been informed that the women intended to hold 
a meeting in their place of business and had advertised the fact in the local 
papers, inviting all the lawless citizens of Lincoln, namely, the drunkards, bar- 
room loafers, gamblers, toughs and dissipated youths, to congregate upon this 
pccasion and welcome the ladies. They were there in full force and were served 
with free drinks and cheap cigars, so that when the crusaders arrived they were 
confronted with a solid wall of stifling tobacco smoke and derisive faces. The 




women were undaunted and forced their way amidst taunts and rough laughter 
to the center of the room, to a small space between two l)illiard tables. Here they 
held their meeting with prayer and song. A few hearts among the uncouth 
throng were probably touched by the scene, but the majority, encouraged by cheap 
whiskey, treated the efforts of the noble women as a joke. 

The saloon of Councilman T. P. Quick was next visited, but the bartender, a 
gentleman named Whipple, refused them admittance. Accordingly the women 
held a meeting upon the sidewalk outside the front door. Ledwith & Men- 
love's saloon was then visited and here the band of women was again refused 
entrance. The meeting here was also held upon the outside walk. This ended 
the work of the first day and the women returned to their homes, discouraged 
over the treatment accorded them, but firmly resolved to work the harder in the 
face of the obstacles. There were nineteen saloons in Lincoln at that time. 

The next day the women returned to Councilman Quick's saloon, where a 
large crowd awaited them. Quick himself accosted the women and grew very 
abusive. Also Mayor Silvers appeared and remonstrated with the women, asking 
them to refrain from further efforts in the direction of prohibition. 

Prayer meetings were held daily in the various churches. The first public 
sentiment seemed to be against the crusaders, but when their tenacity of spirit 
became established newcomers to the ranks were plentiful, some two hundred 
joining within the first few days. 

The women were received kindly at the saloon of Jerry Ford and the pro- 
prietor promised to quit the business later, which he finally did.' At Graham 
& Fisher's saloon a good feeling was evident. The Detwiler place under the 
opera house welcomed the ladies, but asked them to make their visit as brief as 
possible. Schwaebold's place was in good order and the management acted in 
a gentlemanly way. The saloon of Tommy Noonan was visited and also that 
of R. N. Hodskins. One of the women was assaulted by a man in front of the 
latter place and he was promptly arrested. 

The crusaders soon realized that one of the necessities for the young men of 
Lincoln was a public place where they could loaf and enjoy the same social 
feeling which they found in the saloons. At one of the regular meetings in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, at 2 P. M., February 23, 1874. an organization was 
^formed to be known as The Temperance Ladies' Reading Room Association of 
Lincoln. Rooms were procured and furnished within a very short time. 

As the work progressed the time grew near when all the liquor licenses in the 
City of Lincoln would expire. Realizing that this was one chance to prevent 
their reissue, the women drew up petitions which were signed by the better part 
of the community and presented them to the council. The cause was hopeless, 
however, as the council was largely under the domination of the liquor interests. 
The petitions were not granted. Wide publicity was given to the work of the 
crusaders of Lincoln and appeals were made by both sides through the press in 
the eft'ort to gain the preponderance of sentiment. Samuel Aughey, professor of 
chemistry and natural sciences, made an analysis of the most popular brands, of 
whiskey sold over the bar in Lincoln and found them to be very far from real, 
or good, liquor. The principal ingredients, as he found upon test, were strych- 
nine, strontia, benzine, potash, Brazil wood, sugar of lead, logwood and cayenne 
pepper. The percentage of alcohol was very small. Four saloons were soon 


compelled to close up business, but the others continued despite the adverse press 
notices given them and the growth of the temperance movement. Calls came 
into Lincoln from other parts of the state, asking that the crusaders extend their 
efforts to other communities and in some cases these appeals were heeded. 

On April i, 1874, a mass meeting was held at the opera house to discuss 
questions in favor of prohibition and to nominate men for the various political 
offices, which were to be decided very shortly at a general election. Election day 
came and passed very quietly, only one arrest being made. The women crusaders 
were present at the polls and did very effective work. The result of the vote 
showed that a majority of the temperance candidates had been successful, in- 
cluding the nominee for mayor. A jubilee meeting was held at the opera house 
the next evening, where speeches, songs and prayers formed the program. 

However, the members of the council elected were all whiskey advocates ; also 
the vote on the marshal had been a tie. The council called a special election and 
elected Mr. Cooper, one of the saloon supporters, to the office. This gave the 
anti-prohibition people a majority in public office and then, in turn, they held a 
jubilee meeting, not of the character of that held by the temperance people, 
though. A parade was held in the downtown streets ; liquor was dispensed with 
a free hand ; and the celebration rapidly assumed the character of an orgy. 

Shortly after this the council made an ordinance designed to prohibit the 
women from holding their meetings. The substance of the ordinance was that 
no person nor persons could sing or pray on the sidewalks of the city. Mayor 
S. W. Little, a temperance man, vetoed this bill, but the council passed it by vote 
notwithstanding and thus it became a law. This restriction placed upon the 
crusaders worked a hardship, for, if they were refused admittance to the saloons, 
they had no place to hold their meetings, as the public thoroughfare was closed 
to them. 

At a meeting of the temperance committee, attended by many of the citizens 
of Lincoln, C. B. Parker was ordered to prosecute Councilman Quick for riotous, 
disorderly and indecent conduct before the crusade ladies. The case vras 
brought before Judge Foxworthy, who gave Quick a jury of twelve men. 
A. C. Ricketts and E. G. Adams were attorneys for the prosecution and E. E. 
Brown acted for the defendant. Although the evidence was clear and unmis- 
takable the jury disagreed. Clearly this was a "hung" jury. They were dis- 
charged and a new trial ordered for June ist. 

In the meantime, on May 22, 1874, an ordinance was passed by the council 
requiring bonds in certain cases brought before the police judge. The mayor 
vetoed it, but it became a law nevertheless. 

At the second trial Judge Foxworthy gave Quick a jury of six men. Again 
the evidence was introduced and Quick pronounced not guilty. The jury, on the 
judge's instructions, also found that there was no cause for action on the part 
of the plaintiff. Foxworthy ordered then that the costs, amounting to $57.50, 
be paid by Parker himself. The latter refused to comply with this order. In an 
effort to straighten the difficulty and to come to some understanding Attorney 
Ricketts held a conference with Judge Foxworthy, but the latter, with much 
profanity and declarations that he wanted his "costs or blood," would not rescind 
the order. He even went so far as to issue a mittimus on July 9, 1874, for the 
arrest of C. B. Parker. Parker permitted himself to be led to jail, where many 


comforts and small favors were showered upon him Ijy the ladies and other 
supporters of his cause. At 1 1 P. M. he was released on a writ of habeas 
corpus issued by Chief Justice Lake of the Supreme Court and ordered to appear 
the next morning at 9 o'clock for trial. 

At that hour attorneys Sessions and Ricketts, for the plaintiff, stated the 
facts of the case and read the mittimus. E. E. Brown, for the defendant, argued 
at some length immediately afterward. At the close of the argument the judge 
stated that it was not necessary to consume further time, that the whole pro- 
cedure had been illegal. In his opinion Associate Justice Maxwell concurred. 
Accordingly the prisoner was discharged, and Judge Foxworthy failed to get his 

The crusade and the different movements resulting from it were absolutely 
necessary in Lincoln at this time. The city was not morally clean for many 
years in this period ; corrupt city officials were common and with them came 
professions and trades which were undesirable to the better class of people. 
Stringent methods had to be adopted before the city succeeded in purging 
itself of these elements, a striking instance being the fight waged by the mayor 
and council in the late '80s and their subsequent arrest for their effort to oust 
a corrupt police judge. Lincoln has become a city noted for its moral excellence, 
perhaps better known in this respect than any city of size in the country. The 
victory has been the result of a hard fight on the part of the better people, who 
desired better things for the community and the ostracism of the undersirable 
class of people. 


When one contemplates the many Hnes of steel railroad which cross Lancaster 
County in every direction, the fact that fifty years ago there was not a rail 
laid within the present boundaries of the county causes one to marvel at the 
progress of which man is capable. Lincoln at the present time is equally well 
equipped with railroads as any city in the Middle West. The citizens of the 
county have always aided the railroad corporations to construct the roads through 
this territory because they realized the economic benefit which would result from 
close railroad connection with other points in the country. The amount of 
shipping, both in and out of the city, depends in great measure upon the railroad 
facilities and, as Lincoln has quick access to trade in every direction, the ad- 
vantage has brought about a corresponding increase in every line of business. 

The Legislature of 1869 started by appropriating 2,000 acres of land to each 
mile of railroad constructed within the state in two years. Four roads were 
begun accordingly. The first was the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad 
which started from Plattsmouth; the second was the Atchison and Nebraska 
from Atchison, Kansas; the third, the Midland Pacific from Nebraska City; 
and the fourth the Omaha and Southwestern, from Omaha. Later all of these 
roads were consolidated under one system. The Burlington and Missouri River 
road was given bonds to the extent of $50,000.00 on the condition that they 
would build their road through the county. Then the Atchison and Topeka was 
voted county bonds to the amount of $120,000.00 and the Midland Pacific was 
given a bonus of $150,000.00. The latter road, on the strength of the large 
amount voted them, agreed to locate their car shops in Lincoln, but never ful- 
filled it. The road was built, though, as far as York and the county was greatly 

In 1879 the citizens of the city and county gave the Lincoln and Northwestern 
Railroad Company $25,000.00 in bonds for the start of the line to Columbus. No 
sooner had this line been started than the Union Pacific Railroad Company ex- 
tended a road from Valparaiso in a southerly direction until Beatrice was 
reached. Between 1876 and 1878 the Burlington and Missouri River Company 
began a policy of extension which rapidly made it the greatest system in the 
state. The Nebraska railway was leased and serveral branches promoted. 
Among the first of these was the line to Hastings, now a part of the Denver 
route. The Lincoln and Northwestern Railroad was constructed from Lincoln 
to Columbus in 1879 and in the following year was taken over by the Burling- 
ton and Missouri River. The Missouri Pacific constructed a line from Weeping 
Water to Lincoln in 1886, after receiving from the latter city the sum of 




$70,000.00. A few months later the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley 
Railroad was completed from Lincoln to Fremont, receiving a sum amounting to 
$50,000.00 from Lincoln. 

In brief the roads which run into Lincoln are as follows, with the date of 
their completion and the miles from their starting point to this city. The Ne- 
braska Railway was completed June i, 1871 from Nebraska City to Lincoln, 
a distance of 58 miles. The Atchison and Nebraska Railroad was completed Sep- 
tember I, 1872, from Atchison, Kansas, to Lincoln, 143 miles. The Lincoln and 
Northwestern constructed their line from Lincoln to Columbus completely by 
May 18, 1880, covering 73 miles. The Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri \'alley 
Railroad commenced at Fremont on October 25, 1886, and finished through to 
Lincoln, taking in Wahoo, Saunders County. The Missouri Pacific was com- 
pleted from Lincoln Junction, a point near Weeping Water, to Lincoln on August 
25, 1886. The Midland Pacific was finished to Lincoln in April, 1871, and was 
afterwards sold to the Burlington road. The Union Pacific from Valley to 
Lincoln, 58 miles, was finished in 1877, and from Lincoln to Beatrice, 38 miles, 
in 1884. On July 13, 1892, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway was 
extended from the Missouri River to Lincoln, a distance of 57 miles, and during 
the same year or next was completed from Lincoln to Belleville, Kansas, there 
connecting with the main line running to Denver, Colorado. On May 7, 1893, 
the Rock Island depot in Lincoln was opened. The Burlington and Missouri 
River depot at Lincoln was completed August 6, 1881, at a cost of $125,000.00. 
The building is still used by the Burlington Road and has only been remodeled 
on the interior. 

The Morton History of Nebraska states that in the Commonwealth of No- 
vember 2T,, 1867, notice is given that a railroad meeting in Lincoln "the first 
symptoms of Burlington dominance appeared." Also that Elder Miller thought 
"the only show for the people of this county is to connect their interests with 
the Burlington and Missouri Road." Resolutions were passed that the county 
issue $100,000.00 bonds for stock to that amount in the first road that is com- 
pleted to Lincoln. 

From the same source the statement is given that in the Nebraska State 
Journal of May 24, 1869, there is an account of the election in which Lancaster 
County voted to issue $50,000.00 in twenty year bonds, ten per cent, to the 
Burlington and Missouri River Road, the same company to have trains running 
from the Missouri River to Lincoln by September 30, 1870. Also voted on the 
question of rescinding proposition of November 3, 1868, for $100,000.00 to the 
first railroad to be completed to Lincoln. 

In June, 1869, the citizens assisted in breaking ground for the Burlington and 
Missouri River Road at the "fill" in Salt Creek bottoms. A procession was 
formed on Market Square in Lincoln early in the afternoon, headed by David 
Butler, Thomas P. Kennard and John Gillespie, also Mr. Thielson, chief engineer 
of the Burlington and Missouri River. At the spot of breaking ground a jjrayer 
was offered by H. T. Davis. Then Governor Butler turned the first spadeful of 
earth, followed by Kennard and Thielson. 

The State Journal in January, 1870, advertised 200,000 acres of Burlington 
and Missouri River lands in Saunders, Cass and Lancaster counties. Terms 
were offered as follows : ten years time, interest at six per cent in advance for 


two years, the principal in nine annual installments. On two years' time the 
land might be obtained at twenty per cent less than the ten year price. 

In April, 1870, the Burlington and Missouri River Road closed a contract 
for the location of a depot. The citizens of Lincoln pledged $5,000.03 to obtain 
the right of way through the west part of town and the railroad company agreed 
to locate their depot on grounds sold them by the state commissioners for that 
purpose in the bottom between O and Q streets, west of Eighth. 

By this time, 1870, the people of Lincoln began to appreciate the luxury of 
railroad travel. Hitherto stage journeys were a necessity to the nearest point 
of railroad connection. However, the coming of "railroads did not abolish the 
existence of stages, for as late as August, 1870, the Kansas and Nebraska Stage 
Company operated stages from Lincoln. A stage left Lincoln every morning for 
Nebraska City ; three time a week for Beatrice, Tecumseh, Pawnee City, Albany 
and Marysville, Kansas ; every Monday for Camden and McFadden's ; and every 
Friday for Seward and Ulysses. 

The five trunk line railways now entering Lincoln have eighteen diverging 
lines, which bring the city into communication with a vast trade territory and give 
distributing facilities which enable the citizens to maintan the highest selling 
power. Lincoln is nearer to 774 of the 914 railroad stations in Nebraska than 
any other commercial center. Fully eighty passenger trains leave Lincoln each 
day. Havelock is the center of the locomotive industry of the Burlington sys- 
tem and at Lakeview the same road has erected one of the largest and costliest 
gravity freight yards and roundhouses on its lines. 





Located about four miles from the heart of the City of Lincohi is the Town 
of Havelock, the home of the Burhngton Railroad shops and the center of a 
husthng industrial community. In the late "Sos G. G. Smith, W. J. Johnson, 
O. Master and Dr. J. A. Scott came to the site of Havelock and each erected a 
building, built of frame and very small. One account has it that the first frame 
house in the village was built by Charles A. Holderness in 1891, but this seems 
to be a little late. The marriage of Nellie Holderness and Lester Gleason was 
the first in the town and the birth of their child was the first also. By 1892 the 
follow ing buildings had been erected on the site : the Lancaster Block, the Walton 
Block, the Holliett House, the DuUenty House. "The Ark," the Headley Build- 
ing and Arnett's Building in which the owner had a barber shop. 

On May 6, 1893, ^'i^ Town of Havelock was incorporated with the following 
first officers: Dr. C. F. Ballard, chairman, J. E. Hutchinson, Charles S. Saber- 
hagen, George Anderson, H. B. Kepner, board of trustees ; Sam Hinkle, clerk ; 
O. C. Smith, treasurer; C. M. Copp, attorney; and F. C. Perkins, marshal. The 
land on which the Town of Havelock is situated was given by the Lancaster 
Land Company to the Burlington Railroad for the location of the shops at this 
place. The town was named after Gen. John Havelock, of English army fame. 
Elder Miller formerly owned the land which was donated to the railroad. A. E. 
Loughlin was the head of the Burlington at the time of the land transfer, which 
deal comprised 200 acres. 

In the '80s the little railroad station of the Burlington and Missouri River 
Railroad was moved from Denton, a mile east, to the spot where it now stands. 
Later it was decided to locate the repair and manufacturing shops of the west- 
ern division of the railroad at this point, plans were drafted and a plat of the 
shops made, together with that of the proposed village. The first dirt was 
turned for the machine shop in June, 1890, an appropriation of $275,000.00 
having been voted by the road directors for that purpose. The shop, which was 
400 by 130 feet, was completed in one year. On June 13, 1892, work was 
begun on a new shop. Later a blacksmith shop was constructed east of the 
former and in 1893 a boiler shop was put up. This was about all of the build- 
ing at the shops until 1910 when the sum of $2,000,000.00 was spent in new 
buildings. From forty workmen at the start the force has now grown to about 
eight hundred. The presence of the shops in the town has been the incentive 
to growth, until now it is the second largest town in the county. Most every 



line of business is represented in Havelock to care for the needs of the army of 
workmen employed there. Half hour electric car service to the City of Lincoln 
is given. 

The Farmers and Merchants Bank of Havelock was organized in 1900 by 
W. R. Johnson, president; G. G. Smith, vice president; H. K. Frantz, cashier; 
and A. W. Butler and Emil Berlet. These men became the first board of 
directors. In April, 1907, new owners took charge of the institution and the 
officers elected were : Fred Whittemore, president ; J. A. Espegren, vice presi- 
dent; V. F. Hoffman, cashier; and F. R. Beebe, assistant cashier. The officers 
are the same at present, with the exception of E. -Anderson, vice president, and 
M. Alalone, assistant cashier. The capital stock is $i5,cxx).oo; the surplus 

The First National Bank of Havelock was organized as the Citizens State 
Bank on May 18, 1909, with a capital of $20,000.00, and occupying a small brick 
building on the south side of Main Street. Emil Berlet was the president; A. F. 
Ackerman, vice president; and F. R. Beebe, cashier. On May 9, 1910. the name 
was changed to the First National Bank, with a capital of $25,000.00, with the 
same officers as before. The present officers are: J. H. Patterson, president; 
J. W. Hitchcock, vice president; E. E. Andrews, cashier; J. L. Biddlecom, as- 
sistant cashier. W. F. Ackerman, Charles Hall and E. I. Andrews complete the 
board of directors. 

The Havelock Electric Light Company was incorporated May 6, 1907, by 
F. H. Wheeler, J. A. Aspegren, C. F. Ballard, Cornelius Moran, H. M. Eaton 
and C. O. Johnson. The Havelock Gas Company was incorporated February 11, 
1902, by V. F. Hoffman, Archie Adams, E. E. Schuler, C. L. Hempel, E. E. 
Anderson, F. B. Young, F. L. Sumpter, John Reenan and Fred Krochler. 

The Havelock Post, an independent weekly, was established in 1913 and is 
published by Will C. Israel, with a circulation of 1,440. The Havelock Times, 
published by Dan Campbell, Jr., was established in 1890. The paper is independ- 
ent democratic and has a circulation of 1,400. 

A new feature of the Town of Havelock, which will be erected shortly, is the 
new $35,000.00 high school building. The election held for the erection of this 
building carried in favor of the proposition by 348 to 82. 


The start of the Town of University Place was practically synonymous with 
the establishment of the Wesleyan Methodist University, an account of which 
is given elsewhere. The town was originally located upon university land. 
A partial list of the first settlers of the town is as follows: Mr. and Mrs. A. P. 
Simpson, 1889; Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Butler, 1890; Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Thomp- 
son, 1890; Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Wells, Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Clifton, 1890; 
Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
McCartney, 1890; Mr. and Mrs. L. S. Hullinger, Mrs. Lulu Home, Henry Lee, 
J. W. Wharton, 1890; Mrs. Nelson Taylor, 1890; Mayme Taylor Hursh, 1890; 
Rev. and Mrs. H. L. Powers, 1893; M. V. B. Turner, 1888; Rev. and Mrs. James 
Leonard, 1897; Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Hursey, 1891 ; S. D. Fitchie, 1889; H. Augusta 
Harris, 1874; H. M. Wineland, 1890; W. T. Good, 1892; E. E. Clifton, 1890; 

' 1 


-u •'^B^H^HH 





.■-. ^-*'*^ -"Lsii"-' 




C. D. Rose, 1S91 ; Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Mosely, 1890; R. O. Castle, 1890; Mr. and 
Mrs. W. H. Gardner, 1894; Rev. J- R- Gettys, 1892; Loyd V,. Gettys, 1893; 
Frances Gettys, 1896; A. Handsaker, 1889; Helen Handsaker, i88(;; Dora B. 
Home, 1892; Prof, and Mrs. F. A. Alabaster, 1893; C. L. Mitchell, 1892; 
Mrs. Anna Riggs, 1892; Mrs. G. A. Smith, 1890; Mary Alene Smith, 1890; Rude 
Daily, Jr., 1892; Alva Campbell, 1888. An old settlers' association was formed 
in University Place on April 2j, 19 16. 

The First National Bank of University Place was organized May 12, 1905, 
with a capital of $25,000.00. Charles G. Anderson was the first president ; 
Dr. D. W. C. Huntington, vice president; E. S. Kirtland. cashier; M. E. Burke, 
assistant cashier. The present officers are: B. H. Schaberg, president; E. D. 
Currier, vice president ; G. E. Currier, cashier ; Ralph Currier, assistant cashier. 
E. J. Hainer, C. H. Roper and M. Weil complete the board of directors. The 
capital is $40,000.00, the surplus $10,000.00, and deposits over $120,000.00. 

The Citizens State Bank of University Place is an institution established in 
1908, three years after the First National Bank. The officers of this bank are: 
E. E. Butler, president; J. S. Hole, vice president; C. E. Staley, cashier; and 
R. R. Ward, assistant cashier. The capital stock now is $30,000.00; the surplus^ 
$2,300.00; and the deposits average over $100,000.00. Both of the banks in 
University Place hold a well merited reputation with the people as being solid 
and strong financial institutions. 

One of the largest business enterprises in University Place is the Clafliii 
Printing Company, which was started by J. L. Claflin in 1904. In 1909 a stock 
company was formed and continued to the present day. Besides a regular job 
printing business, the company publishes a weekly paper called the News, the 
Union Worker which is the state paper for the Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, the university publications, and The Teacher. A singular feature of the 
Claflin Printing Company is that all of the stock is owned by the employes and 
owners of the plant. 

The University Place Telephone Company was incorporated July 8, 1907. 

The Windom Bank, now out of existence, was started on April 4, 1891, with 
$25,000.00 capital stock. LeGrand M. Baldwin, George H. Clark and John C. 
Allen were the head of the enterprise. 


The history of the Town of Bethany is coincident with the history of Cotner 
University, which place and university were started together and developed 
together. The history of this university, with sidelights upon the subject by 
Hon. J. Z. Briscoe, one who has given a greater part of his life for the interests of 
the school, is written in another part of this volume. 

The First State Bank of Bethany was organized in 1905. The officers of the 
institution are : L. J. Dunn, president ; C. W. Fuller, vice president ; and T. Mile 
Keith, cashier. The bank carries a capital stock of $10,000.00, a surplus of 
$3,100.00; and the deposits average about $60,000.00. 



The opening of Union College near Lincoln provided the means and oppor- 
tunity for the establishment of the Town of College View. Since the time of the 
founding of the school College View has had a fairly large growth. Most of 
the population is composed of members of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, 
although in recent years numbers of people have moved in here belonging to 
other churches and societies have been formed by them. 

Besides being the home of Union College, College View has the Nebraska 
Sanitarium, which has been there for twenty years. • All kinds of curable diseases 
are treated at the sanitarium, which employs a staff of sixty, including forty-five 
nurses. Many of the methods used at the Battle Creek sanitarium are in use 
here. At the head of the staff is Dr. J. D. Shively. 

The Bank of College View was organized in the year 1906. James Schee is 
the president; J. H. Morrison, vice president; and S. J. Ouantock, cashier. The 
capital stock is $25,000.00; the surplus $1,000.00; and the deposits amount to 
$85,000.00. P. B. Quantock is the assistant cashier. 

The public library at College \'iew was provided for in 1914-15 by a gift 
of $7,500.00 by Andrew Carnegie. 



The foreign work done by this publishing house was formerly done by the 
Review and Herald in Battle Creek, Michigan, but when their main office was 
burned in December, 1902, it was decided to move the German, Danish-Nor- 
wegian and Swedish papers to College View, in order to co-operate with the 
strong departments in these languages in Union College. 

For a time the small college printing office endeavored to do the work, but as 
their facilities were inadequate, the International Publishing Association was 
organized in the fall of 1903. The General Conference issued a call for funds to 
establish this foreign printing plant, a collection being taken in all of the churches 
the first Sabbath in February, 1904. About three thousand dollars was thus 
secured, which was sufficient to purchase and set up a small building for that 
purpose, with a lot 78 by 150 feet in size. This original building had formerly 
been used as a store and formed the two-story part of the building now occupied. 
During the summer of 1904 a new cylinder press and other facilities were added, 
so that at the first annual meeting in September, 1904, the total value of the 
property and furnishings was about ten thousand dollars, nearly all being paid 

The same year the institution purchased from the Review and Herald their 
entire stock of foreign books, tracts and pamphlets, for $12,000.00, giving notes 
in payment for the same. As the burden of paying these notes and keeping up a 
stock of subscription books was heavier than the institution could well carry, the 
Pacific Press offered to take over the foreign subscription books for $8,000.00. 
This was done and they assumed the payment of notes to the Review and Herald 
amounting to $8,000.00. This step connected the Pacific Press in a definite and 
substantial way with the foreign publishing work, which had developed remark- 

\ ■■'• •■•'^;s^,--^-i^ii?-r^^js'i!^^itl!^:Or^yi,:^'- 







ably since that time. This was a great rchef to the International Publishing 
Association, and left with them the responsibility of publishing only tlie foreign 
papers, trade books, pamphlets and tracts. 

The College View plant was considerably enlarged in the fall of i(}Oj by 
building a large addition to the first floor, making the entire building sixty-six 
by ninety-six feet in size. More room was thus provided for the type room, and 
the size of the press room was increased to give room for a new Miehle press 
which was purchased at this time. A large room was added for the bindery, which 
had been operated for a year in rented rooms. A steam heating plant was installed 
to take the place of the hot air furnace previously used. These imjjrovements, 
and the linotype machine purchased in the spring of 1910. put the office in excel- 
lent shajje for doing the work that was required. 

In iqio the publication of attractive quarterly magazines in German. Danish- 
Norwegian and Swedish was begun. A similar magazine in Russian is now 
being published, and they will be issued in other languages as the demand arises. 

The bindery was provided with limited facilities for binding even the large 
subscription books in the various bindings, and the Pacific Press turned over the 
printing and binding of several good jobs of this kind, among which may be 
mentioned "Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation" in Danish and Swedish, and 
"Practical Guide to Health" in German. 

In August. 1914, the International Board came to the conclusion that stronger 
and better work could be done by the institution if it should be taken over by 
one of the large English publishing houses, with a preference for the Pacific 
Press. A memorial was sent to the president of the North American Division 
Conference, requesting that the matter be given consideration at the council to 
convene in October. The council requested that the Pacific Press Publishing 
Association give favorable consideration to this transfer of the institution on the 
basis of an appraisement to be made by J. J. Ireland, the general conference 
auditor. The deal was satisfactorily arranged and the College View plant is now 
known as the International Branch of the Pacific Press Publishing Association. 


On section ten. Nemaha Precinct, about seventeen miles east of Lincoln, is 
located the Town of Bennett, a thriving little community, representative of the 
better communities in the eastern part of Nebraska. The town site was formerly 
owned by William Roggenkamp and was laid out by him, in company with Joel N. 
Converse, and the plat filed for record July 29, 1871. The town was laid out at 
the time the Midland Pacific Railroad was brought through, and the new com- 
munity took its name from one of the officials of the road, John Bennett. In the 
early days the Town of Bennett won considerable reputation on account of the 
quarries adjacent to the village. The stone strata proved in later years, however, 
to be of insufficient extent to promote a growing business. Nemaha Branch, 
a creek a few miles below town, was at one time exploited on account of water 
power derived therefrom and the strip of timber which bordered its edge 
supplied plenty of box elder, ash, red and white elm, oak and walnut for build- 
ing purposes, quite an advantage to the early settlers of the community. Bennett 
early became noted as an agricultural station, in 1881 about three hundred cars 

Vol. t— 20 


of grain having been shipped from the station here. The first elevator was the 
Nebraska City Elevator Company's plant, built in 1875, and having a capacity 
of about twenty thousand bushels. George Eggleston also operated a small 
elevator at an early day. The flouring mill of D. H. Harris was erected by 
A. L. Strang & Company in 1875-6 and bought by Harris in 1881 ; it had a capac- 
ity of 200 bushels of wheat and 250 bushels of corn per day, and had three 
runs of stone, two for wheat and one for corn. The plant was known as the 
Altamaha Mills. The first lumber yard in Bennett was operated by J. E. Vander- 
lip. Mr. A. Gribling was the first harness and saddlery man in Bennett, moving 
to the town in 1872, having settled four years previously about four miles north 
of the town. He was a native of New York. 

Dr. Stephen A. Mecham, a native of New York State, was one of the first 
settlers in the vicinity of Bennett, locating on the Nemaha Branch in 1858, ac- 
companied by his family in a wagon. He was obliged to do his milling at 
Coonville on Plum Creek, the round trip requiring about two weeks' time. He 
had to build bridges going and frequently had to rebuild them upon his return 
trip. He also made some little money by gathering salt along Salt Creek, hauling 
it to Iowa with cattle, and there selling it. His claim consisted of 360 acres. 
He hired fifty acres of this broken, at a cost of $5 per acre. His medical 
knowledge was soon called into use, and he was probably the first practitioner in 
what was known as Lincoln district. He also secured the first school in that 
vicinity. Another of the first settlers of the precinct was James N. Miner, who 
came in 1869, a native of Ohio, and a veteran of the war. Dr. E. T. Piper was 
another pioneer physician of the county, settling in Stockton Precinct in 1868 
and opened a farm. At the time he was the only physician between Lincoln and 
Nebraska City and his services were constantly in demand. 

William Roggenkamp was bom in Prussia in 1832 and crossed to the States 
when he was in his nineteenth year. After living in New Jersey, Indiana, and 
Illinois, he came to Nebraska, arriving at Nebraska City by steamboat. This 
was in the spring of i860. He left his family there and walked out to where 
Bennett is now located. His first body of land consisted of 120 acres, which he 
afterwards increased greatly. His first residence was a very small log house, the 
material for which he hauled from Nebraska City. Afterwards he erected a 
large log house and it was destroyed by fire in 1871 ; then he built a new home, 
far better than the former ones. 

James G. Southwick erected, at that time, the most imposing business house 
in Bennett, in 1878. Samuel Tilton and J. A. Whitlock were other prominent 
men in the precinct who came at an early day. 

Thomas Elrod erected the first house in the town in 1871. It was used both 
as a dwelling and a store. During the next year H. R. Kemper built a hotel, 
which was first run by Thomas Price. During the year 1872, also, Walter Scott 
started a store. 

Bennett was incorporated as a town on December i, 1881. The first town 
board consisted of James G. Southwick, F. A. Sidles, J. E. Vanderlip, A. Grib- 
ling and J. P. Bratt. W. K. Purvis was the town clerk. 

The Citizens Bank of Bennett was organized in 1886, being incorporated on 
April 3d of that year by J. E. Vanderlip, G. W. Eggleston, C. W. Pierce, J. H. 
McClay, W. F. Torbitt, W. M. Seely, M. B. Deck and T. J. Pierson, with a 



First clnuc-li built in Bennet. Erorteil in 18S0; ilemoHsheil in 1914 to make way 

for present eliureh 


capital stock of $50,000.00. The bank is still in existence and is officered by the 
following at the present day: G. W. Eggleston, president; John I'. Bratt, vice 
[^resident; H. H. Bratt, cashier; Charles P. Bratt, assistant cashier. The capital 
stock is $25,000.00; the surplus, $13,000.00; and the deposits amount to $213,- 

The Farmers Bank was organized in 1906 and has had a steady growth since 
that date. Elmer W. Jones is the president of this institution ; O. R. Springer is 
the vice president ; and Harry Honnor is the cashier. The Farmers Bank carries 
a capital stock of $12,000.00, a surplus of $3,000.00 and deposits amounting to 

The Bank of Bennett was an institution which was started in June, 189 1, with 
a capital stock of $50,000.00, but which later passed out of existence. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Bennett was organized in the spring of 
1879. The first church building was erected the next year, costing $1,500.00. 
The church now has a strong membership, a commodious house of worship, and 
is one of the leading churches in the township. The Danish Lutheran Church 
was organized in the late "70s. The Norwegian Lutheran Church was organized 
in December, 1874, with the following members : T. Hanson, W. Nelson, J. C. 
Johnson, Ole Nelson, Henry Bolt, L. Rasperson, O. Anderson, H. Peterson, 
C. Olson, S. Monk, J. Michilson, and others. The first services were held in a 
school house in 1878, Rev. C. Jansen of Minneapolis, Minnesota, in charge. 
After a few years the Danish membership withdrew and formed a church of 
their own, mentioned above, whereupon the Norwegian church was reorganized. 
The Church of Christ of Bennett was first incorporated in July, 1883, by R. N. 
Stall, C. B. Camp, John and Henry Diehl. It was reincorporated in Jvuie, 1884, 
by J. Z. Briscoe, Charles B. Camp, Branson J. Smith, R. N. Stall, T. L. Turner, 
Julia Stall, Elizabeth Harper, Mary M. Barnes, John, William S.. Henry G., 
Elizabeth and Charles Diehl. 

The Bennett Gas Company was incorporated October 28, 1910 by A. W. 
Dorland, J. B. Varney and Joseph Lingle. 

The Bennett Sun, a weekly local publication, was established in 191 1. J. H. 
Bratt is the editor. The circulation is about two hundred and fifty. 


The Town of Waverly is located on section 16, Waverly Precinct, and is 
about twelve miles northeast of Lincoln. The early settlement of this town 
dates back to a few years before the completion of the B. & M. Railroad through 
the precinct in 1871. John S. Green, the first permanent settler, located here 
in 1869. In 1874 he constructed a store and John Berg started a blacksmith shop 
soon afterwards. Mr. Berg was the second settler in Waverly, and James 
Schofield came next, the latter becoming one of the most prominent citizens. 
Walker and Schofield opened the first general store in the town. A. Cook and 
son were also' early comers to the community in the spring of 1874 ; they 
established a lumber yard. The postoffice of Waverly was started in 1871, 
with John S. Green the first postmaster. 

There were three grist mills near the town in the early '80s. One of them 
was located i V^ miles north of town and was built by John Hellman, and derived 


its water power from Salt Creek. On Rock Creek, northeast of W'averly, Samuel 
Atkinson had a mill, also D. L. Bundy. The Cook elevator had a capacity of 
12,000 bushels. The Town of Waverly was laid out by D. N. and Sophia Smith 
and the survey made by M. W'illsie. The plat was filed for record on October 
8, 1870. 

The Bank of W'averly was started in 1885 and incorporated in iSijo by N. H. 
Meeker and J. T. Beale. The bank has survived the several storms which have 
wrecked other banks of the state in the past years and is still in existence, doing 
a strong business and enjoying a great popularity. _ R. M. Beale is the president 
of the institution and H. S. Beale is the cashier. The capital stock is $10,000; the 
surplus, $2,500; and the deposits, $75,000. The Lancaster County Bank at 
W'averly is a comparatively new institution, but has been singularly successful. 
The officers are: G. R. Buckner, president; George H. Danforth, vice president; 
and R. L. Tiger, cashier. The capital is $10,000; the surplus, $2,500; and the 
deposits, $130,000. The bank was started in 1907. 

The Congregational Church of W'averly was first incorporated December 9, 
1878, by A. McMurray, David Hedges, S. Rogers, Charles M. Headrick, Jacob 
B. Linninger. The church was reincorporated February 10, 1S81, by Rev. E. 
Cressman and wife, E. O. W'art, mother and wife, Marion McMurray, William 
McMurray, Albert McMurray and wife, David Hedges, John Reitz, Jennie 
Irwin, Ella Rogers, Eva Rogers, William Mocroft, Herbert Mocroft, E. P. Fruit, 
Mary Mocroft, Edwin Post and wife, Charles Post, Ida P., Delia P., J. G. E., 
Henry E., and Mrs. James Walker. The Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church 
was formed by Prof. Samuel Aughey of Lincoln and Reverend Kuhlmann, the 
latter a missionary preacher. The former held religious services in Waverly 
for a number of years, but it was not until Jtily, 1880, that a regular pastor was 
engaged in the person of Rev. M. L. Melick. The first church building was 
completed in 18S1. Jonathan, Samuel, and David Reitz, Jeremiah Heilman and 
Franklin Fisher were among the original members. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church was incorporated December 4, 1882. It was organized August 29, 1882, 
at a quarterly conference of the Waverly charge. William Hotaling was elected 
secretary and Harry Wells, W. H. Worley, M. B. Bainbridge, Phipps Opp and 
Henry Stidduth, trustees. The Church of Christ, Scientist, was organized Sep- 
tember 9, 1902, at the residence of T. J. Beale. 

There is one newspaper, published at Lincoln by the Interstate Company, 
called the Watchman, which devotes a small space to the Waverly interests. 

The first hotel in the town was constructed in 1874 at a cost of $1,600. 


The Town of Firth is located on section 35, South Pass Precinct, near the 
headwaters of the Nemaha River. The town was laid out by the railroad and the 
plat filed for record July 28, 1873. The name was given in honor of Superin- 
tendent Firth of the A. & N. Railroad. In the early '80s Firth was the third 
largest grain market on the railroad, between Atchison, Kan., and Lincoln, 
Neb., shipping about seven hundred cars of grain and stock in 1881. 

Firth was organized as a village in 1879. The first chairman of the board of 
trustees was G. G. Beams, the clerk at the same time being W. H. Moore. Others 


on the board were : C. Bailey, F. S. Fielding, Dr. G. A. Fogue, and Robert Hay. 

C. F. Fleckinger was the treasurer of the village. These men were among the 
most prominent of the citizens at that time. 

Early in her existence Firth had a number of successful stores, two elevators, 
a steam grist mill and two hotels. One elevator was operated by Worl & Beams 
and Schmidt Brothers, the grist mill by Kilbourne & Cooper. The Firth Mills 
were completed in September, 1881, by the Kilbourne Brothers. The brand of 
flour made by the mill was known as Golden Crown. 

The Kent Flouse, the first hotel in Firth, was erected by H. W. Gable in 
1873-74. Another hotel was constructed in 1879 and was owned by Mrs. Kate 

The Firth Bank was organized in August, 1891, with $40,000 capital stock. 
The principal men in the organization were : E. R. Spencer, Charles F. Collins, 
J. J. Harms, G. O. Adams, E. Harms, William Kramer, S. H. Heckman, H. 
Southblin and H. J. Pebmuke. The present officers are : H. H. Kramer, presi- 
dent; H. Sachtleben, vice president ; and C. E. Groves, cashier. The present capi- 
tal stock of the bank is $15,000; the surplus, $5,000; and the deposits amount to 

The Presbyterian Church of Firth was organized in 18S1 by Rev. E. AL Lewis 
of Lincoln, who later became its pastor. The first church building of this society 
was erected in 1881, costing the sum of $2,000. The First Reformed Church was 
organized in July, 1890, prominent among the early members being: PL J. Leselle, 

D. Shutte, G. J. TeKolste, J. W. Tempulzen, D. DeBoer, D. Wessink, G. W. 
Tempulzen and J. Wessink. At a meeting held ALirch 16, 1899, the Church of 
Christ was organized. Among the early members of this society were: James 
M. Murphy, W. F. Deitz, Edward Rogers, Jacob Groves, Edward D. Champion. 

The first newspaper in Firth was the Times, the first number appearing De- 
cember 3, 1880; it was founded and published by H. Snyder. This paper has 
passed away and in 1915 the pttblication of the Advocate was begun by J. H. 
Curry. The sheet is independent in politics and is issued weekly. 


The name Roca implies "founded upon a rock." In the matter of stability 
and growth, the little town has merited well its name. The town was laid out 
by W. E. and E. G. Keys, John H. and Eliza Meyer, in 1876. The site of the 
town was chosen in 1872, located on the farms of the above named people. It 
was organized as a village in 1876. 

Roca was early known as the home of good limestone quarries, in the year 
1881 over sixteen hundred carloads of stone being shipped from the town. Also 
as a grain and live stock shipping point the town owes its early popularity. 

The Bank of Roca was organized and opened for business in the year 1907. 
H. F. Warner is the president; W. H. Meyer, vice president; and Charles Dam- 
row, cashier. The capital stock is $5,000, and the surplus $1,500. Although 
small, the institution is in the center of a prosperous community and the prob- 
abilities are that it will become one of the leading banks among those of the 
smaller towns of Lancaster County. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Roca was organized in 1876 and incor- 


porated in May, 1S78, by Rev. A. G. White, Joseph Southwick, Benjamin Allen, 
Henry Spellman, Moses Mitten, B. Harnley, D. W. Ellis, G. O. Adams and 
Stephen Feather. There is also a Lutheran Church in the Town of Roca. 


On section 33, Saltillo Precinct, is the Town of Hickman. Hickman was 
laid out by C. H. Heckman and the plat filed for record on September 20, 1872. 
At first the Town of Hickman progressed very slowly, but in recent years it 
has been developing rapidly and now ranks with the larger towns of the county. 

The Bank of Hickman was started in 1891, among the men back of it being 
J. H. Catron, Sr., M. E. Catron, E. K. Bradley, L. Enyeart and George W. 
Hawke. The first capital stock was $20,000. The present officers are: J. H. 
Catron, president; F. M. Stapleton, vice president and cashier; John Slote, assist- 
ant cashier. The capital stock is $20,000 ; the surplus, $6,000 ; and the deposits 
average $100,000. The First State Bank of Hickman was organized in 1913. 
S. H. Heckman is the president; Henry Diesel, vice president; and C. H. Heck- 
man, cashier. The capital is $15,000; $2,000 surplus; and $80,000 in deposits. 
The fact that the Bank of Hickman has had a rapid growth and steady life 
through the financial difficulties of past years, and that recently a new bank was 
organized, testifies well as to the stability and virility of the Town of Hickman. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Hickman was organized in 1883 and the 
German Presbyterian Church in 1902. 

The Hickman Telephone Company was incorporated in July, 1905, by Adam 
Bruedle, J. F. Judah, C. L. Morrison, Henry Diesel, A. E. Van Burg, H. B. 
Sinker, R. H. Sawyer, Charles H. Heufel and Aug. Schmutte. 

The newspaper of the town, the Enterprise, was started in 1886 by a Mr. 
Blizzard, and remarkable as it may seem, is still being published as an inde- 
pendent weekly by Cyrus Black, with a circulation of 700. 


The small Village of Cheney is located on section 26, in Grant Precinct, 
located on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. The townsite was plat- 
ted by Joel Converse in the year 1874 and the plat filed for record at the county 
seat on July 13th of the same year. The Town of Cheney has grown to be a 
good agricultural business community and is popular with the farmers of the 
vicinity. The Bank of Cheney is an institution started in the latter part of 1909 
with a capital stock of $10,000. Charles Marshall, J. L. Marshall, J. A. Harlan, 
W. G. Bullock, John T. Marshall and R. W. Marshall were interested in the 
inception of this bank. The present officers are: Charles Marshall, president; 
John T. Marshall, vice president; W. G. Bullock, cashier. The capital remains 
at $10,000; the surplus is $2,300; and the deposits are $40,000. The Cheney 
Telephone Company was incorporated in February, 1912, by J. W. Rooney, 
John O'Brien, H. D. Gove, Roy Vanderslice, and C. E. Cummings. Baptist, 
Catholic and United Brethren churches are located in Cheney and are all in a 
prosperous condition with good memberships. 

The Town of Davey is located on section 30, Rock Creek Precinct. The 


town was started and platted by the Western Town & Lot Company and the 
plat filed for record October 14, 1886. The Farmers State Bank of Davey was 
organized in 1903. H. Johnson is the president of the institution; L. Hanson is 
the vice president; J. M. Hanson is the cashier; and Peter Nelson, assistant 
cashier. The capital stock of the bank is $8,000; the surplus, $6,000; and the 
deposits, $95,000. One newspaper, the Mirror, which is published by the Inter- 
state Company of Lincoln, contains items of local interest. There are two 
churches in the town, the Catholic and Danish Lutheran. In 1893 ^1 Swedish 
M. E. Church was started. 

Denton is a small community situated on section 22, Denton Precinct. 
Denton was laid out by D. N. and Sophia Smith and surveyed by M. Willsie. 
The plat was filed for record on August i, 1871. The town is located upon the 
Burlington Railroad. The Denton State Bank was organized in 1906. The 
bank is officered by W. M. Rowland, president; Mary Rowland, vice president; 
and C. M. Rowland, cashier. The capital stock carried by the bank is $10,000; 
the surplus, $3,000; and the deposits average about $60,000. The Denton Rec- 
ord, a weekly newspaper, is published by the Interstate Company of Lincoln. 
Catholic and Methodist Episcopal churches care for the religious needs of the 
people of Denton. 

The thriving little Town of Hallam is located on sections 30 and 31 of 
Buda Precinct. The town plat was laid out by the Kansas Town and Land 
Company and the plat recorded December 29, 1892. The town is a station upon 
the Burlington System and is quite a shipping point for the neighboring precincts. 
The Hallam Bank was organized in 1898 by a company of local men. Gerhard 
Rippen is the president of the bank at the present time ; F. T. Carsten is the vice 
president; and C. F. Burk is the cashier. The capital stock is $10,000; the sur- 
plus, $2,000; and the deposits average nearly $100,000. On April 24, 1893, in 
the Llallam Schoolhouse there was organized the German Evangelical Congrega- 
tional Church. It was incorporated by Albert Gerdes, Peter Gansemer and 
P. Van Hove. The Farmers & Hallam Telephone Exchange was started in 
April, 191 1, by C. F. Burk, Andrew Walker, Chris Keller and G. H. Nannen. 
Another telephone company had previously been organized in 1906, known as 
the Star Telephone Company. 

Holland is a typical Dutch town located on section 3, South Pass Precinct, 
located on the Burlington Road. The Reformed Church of Holland was first 
incorporated in September, 1886, by the following: Gert Van Engen, Hendrick 
Van Beek, Lubbert Lokhorst, Hendrik de \'ries, Quirinus Huyser, Gerrit van 
der Beek, Hendrik Jan Lubbers, Jan Willem Lecferdink. Hendrik Jan \\'ubhels, 
and Lubbert Bocve. The church was reincorporated in February, 1890, by Peter 
Poort, H. J. Te Brinke, A. Kommers, E. Nota, A. Bykert, John Kallemeyr, 
Martin Klein, Jacob Kallemeyr. Bartain Kallemeyr. John Van Enger, Dick 
Kallemeyr, Martin Kallemeyr and Jacob Der Hollander. This is the only 
church in the town ; there are no banks or newspapers. 

Kramer is located on section 9, Olive Branch Precinct, and was laid out by 
L. H. Wilcox and the plat filed for record Alarch 3, 18S8. It is located on the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad. Two churches, the German Lutheran and the Meth- 
odist, are located here. 

Malcolm is situated on section 21, Elk Precinct, on the Burlington. It was 


laid out by M. A. and Emma Showers and the plat filed for record on October 
13, 1877. The Malcolm State Bank was organized in 1906 and is now managed 
by the following officers: A. Otterman, president; \V. E. Behring, vice presi- 
dent; L. E. Cozad, cashier; W. R. Ehlers, assistant cashier. The Malcolm bank 
has a capital stock of $7,500; a surplus of $3,700; and deposits of $75,000 on the 
average. The Malcolm Methodist Episcopal Church was incorporated and 
started in August. 1884, by Rev. A. M. Ogborn, J. C. Mahan, J. W. Miller, 
J. W. Smith, William W'eyant, John Carpenter, and Chris Roahrer. The jMal- 
colm Messenger, a local paper, is publishetl by the Interstate Company of 

The Town of Emerald is located on section 2^, Middle Creek Precinct, located 
upon the Burlington Railroad. The Emerald State Bank was started in 191 5, 
incorporated May 14th, by J. \V. Daily, E. R. Lippe, C. H. Becker, C. F. Hopp- 
man, H. C. W. Jarms, O. Kloeckner, A. C. Heydon and C. E. Shafer. The 
First Baptist Church was started in August, 1892, by Rev. Chapiuan, F. Mayes, 
E. S. Davison and G. i\L Yales. The Methodist Church was organized about 
the same time. Both of these societies are flourishing and are well attended by 
people from the town and the surrounding country. 

Martel is a hustling little village in Middle Creek Precinct. The Martel 
State Bank was started in 1905. R. E. Moore is the president ; John H. Moore, 
vice president; W. H. ]\Ioore, cashier; and J. Carl Sittler, assistant cashier. 
The capital stock is $10,000; the surplus, $2,000; and the deposits, $70,000. 
One church, the Union Church, was started in 1894 and a house of worship 
erected then. The Martel Leader, a weekly sheet, is published by the Interstate 
Company of Lincoln. 

The Town of Panama is located on section 3, Panama Precinct, and was 
located in the late '70s. The Bank of Panama was organized in July, 1S91, by 
Louis Hobel, Othniel Howe, Charles Marshall, John T. Marshall, Samuel Tilton, 
John Forrest, Ruben Coun, John Robertson, Thomas J. Dickson, James Dickson 
and Robert G. Dickson. Charles Marshall is the president of the bank; Samuel 
Tilton, vice president; and John T. ^larshall, cashier. The capital stock of the 
bank is $10,000; the surplus, $3,700; and the deposits, $135,000. Three churches, 
Christian, Presbyterian and United Brethren. The Panama Record is published 
by the Atlas Company of Lincoln. 

Prairie Home on section 12, Stevens Creek Precinct, was laid out by Charles 
and Betsey Harman and Phoebe Fox. The plat was filed for record February 
21, 1891. The Farmers Bank of Prairie Home was established in 1905. J. D. 
Dasenbrock is the president; Ellen Westland is the vice president; and J. B. 
Dasenbrock, cashier. The bank has a capital stock of $7,000; a surplus of $500; 
and deposits of $25,000. The Methodist Episcopal is the only church society in 
the village. 

Princeton was laid out by James and Harriett Kilburn, John and Mary 
Biron and Sevilla Peter, upon farms owned by them. The survey was made by 
W. S. King and the plat filed for record July 8, 1886. The community is located 
upon the Union Pacific Railroad. The Christian Reformed Church was started 
in 1896 by a number of residents; besides this society there now exists a Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

In Oak Precinct, section 6, is the Town of Raymond, on the Union Pacific 


Railroad. The town was laid out by T. P. and Lioina K. Kennard and surveyed 
by J. P. Walton. The plat was filed at the county seat on April 19, 1880. The 
Bank of Raymond was started in 1901 and is now ofificered by the following: 
W. J. Weller, president; H. H. Forke, vice president; J. C. Denser, Jr., cashier; 
B. B. Jennings, assistant cashier. The capital stock is $12,000; the surplus, 
$3,200 ; and the deposits, $80,000. The Presbyterian Church was organized and 
incorporated in February, 1881, by John D. Mulvane, Willard Kinyon and L. L. 
Larimer. The Methodist Episcopal Church had its beginning in 1911, the incor- 
poration being made by W. J. Weller, H. H. Forke, H. S. Weaver, J. M. Nord, 
T. W. Van Tuyl, J. C. Denser, Jr., S. Yonker, J. W. Bennett and D. F. White. 
A Methodist society existed here years before, but the above date is the first 
record of incorporation. The Raymond Review, weekly, is published by the 
Interstate Company of Lincoln. 

Saltillo is a station on the Burlington, located on section 36, Yankee Hill 
Precinct, and section 31, Grant Precinct. The town was laid out in September, 

The Town of Sprague is located upon sections 27 and 28, Middle Creek 
Precinct, and was laid out by L. H. Wilcox, the plat being filed for record May 
3, 1888. The Bank of Sprague was started in 1910. Following are the present 
officers: Albert Egger, president; M. Miles, vice president; Frank F. Miles, 
cashier; William Krull, assistant cashier. The capital is $10,000; the surplus, 
$2,000; and the deposits, $35,000. The Sprague Booster, a weekly paper, is 
issued from the Atlas Company of Lincoln. The Presbyterian Church of Sprague 
was incorporated and organized July 23, 1893, by John W. Taylor, James Andrei, 
Henry F. Mitchell, William H. Finley, Allen P. Ferguson. M. O. and Chauncey 
F. Diehl, and Thomas L. Sexton. 

Walton is a hamlet located on section 31, Stevens Creek Precinct. The 
Farmers and Merchants Bank of this place was organized in 1909. T. C. Wilson 
is president ; FI. W. Mayer, vice president ; and L. A. Berge, cashier. The capital 
stock is $10,000; the surplus, $2,500; and the deposits about $70,000. Walton 
is located upon the Missouri Pacific Railroad. 

Agnew, on section 12, West Oak Precinct, was laid out by Eliza States and 
the plat filed May 2, 1889. 

Jamaica, on section 36, Yankee Hill Precinct, was platted in 1885. 

Woodlawn, on section 31, Oak Precinct, was laid out by N. B. Kendall and 
Charles D. Smith and the plat filed March 29, 1878. In 1902 the town sprang 
into momentary notoriety by the robbery of the Burlington train near here, $35,- 
000 being taken by the bandits. 

Other stations in the county, which have no postoffice, nor any community 
of size, are : Arbor, Berks, Burnham, Cobb, Hawthorne, Pella and Rokeby. 



The act providing for the construction of the state penitentiary south of 
Lincohi, on land donated by W. T. Donovan and G. H. Hilton, was passed by 
the Legislature on March 4, 1870. W. W. Abbey, W. W. Wilson and F. Temp- 
lin were appointed prison inspectors, to manage the disposal of 34,000 acres of 
land granted by the Government for prison purposes and to superintend the 
building. The sum of $5,000 was appropriated for the construction of a tempo- 
rary prison, to be completed by the 28th of April. Perkins & Hallowell were 
the contractors. The inspectors named above advertised for plans and specifi- 
cations for the penitentiary, fixing the following June as the time of opening. 
William H. Foster of Des Moines, Iowa, was successful and upon these plans 
proposals were advertised for, which resulted in the acceptance of those of W. 
H. B. Stout and J. M. Jamison. The contract price was $312,000 and the con- 
tractors completed the building, to the extent of the state contract, in the fall 
of 1876. The quarries of Saltillo, twelve miles south of Lincoln, supplied the 
hard magnesia limestone for the walls. Additional cells and more building space 
has subsequently been added to the penitentiary grounds. The first warden of 
the institution was Henry Campbell. 


The first mutiny at the state prison broke out about 4 o'clock on the after- 
noon of January 11, 1875. The instigator of the trouble was Convict Mc Waters, 
accompanied by Convicts Bohanan, Worrell, McKenna, C. W. Thompson, Gerry 
and Elder. Their first step was to surprise and overpower the guard in the 
workshop. Deputy Warden Nobes was also seized, robbed of his keys, stripped 
of his clothes, McWatters putting the latter on. Nobes was left in care of three 
,of the mutineers, while the others armed with crow-bars, started for the main 
building. Blacking the sides of his face to represent the warden's whiskers, 
McWaters marched the four up to the main door in prison style, so that the 
door guard thought it to be the warden with a file of men, and opened the door. 
The prisoners sprang upon this guard and then rushed up stairs, broke into the 
armory and captured guns and ammunition. The deputy succeeded in loosen- 
ing his bonds without being noticed by his captors, suddenly seized a hoe which 
was near by, and with a few blows compelled the convicts to flee. They joined 
their companions in the main building. Their plan was to get into citizens' 












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