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CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 




GOLNSHIRE 





CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 

General Editor : F. H. H. GUILLEMARD, M.A., M.D. 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FETTER LANE, E.G. 
C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 




TOO, PRINCES STREET 

Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. 

lUtpjifl: F. A. BROCKHAUS 
gorfe: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 



All rights reserved 



Gro v\\ e\Yv^>r A , V v- | 

Cambridge County Geographies 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



by 



E. MANSEL SYMPSON, 

M.A., M.D., F.S.A. 



With Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations 



Cambridge : 
at the University Press , 



"9"3 





TO MY WIFE 



Dfl 

t> 70 






CONTENTS 

PAGE 

1. County and Shire The Word Lincolnshire . i 

2. General Characteristics ... 4 

3. Size. Shape. Boundaries . . . 

4. Surface and General Features. . .10 

5. Rivers and Watersheds ... 14 

6. Geology ...... .26 

7. Natural History ... .34 

8. Peregrination of the Coast . . . . .41 

9. Coastal Gains and Losses 47 

10. Climate . . . . . . . . .51 

11. People Race, Settlement, Dialect . . . -57 

12. Agriculture Cultivations, Stock .... 64 

13. Industries and Manufactures . . . . -73 

14. Mines and Minerals ...... 83 

15. Fisheries and Fishing Stations . . . .87 

1 6. Shipping and Trade ...... 90 

17. History of the County 97 

i 8. Antiquities Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon . . .112 

19. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical . . . .117 

20. Architecture (b] Military . . . . .131 

21. Architecture (c) Domestic . . . . .138 

22. Communications: Past and Present . . . 147 

23. Administration and Divisions . . . . .154 

24. The Roll of Honour 158 

25. The Chief Towns and Villages of Lincolnshire . 169 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Lincoln from the South-east. Phot. S. Smith ... 2 
The Fens in Winter. Phot. S. Jepson . 5 

Iron Works, Lincoln ...... 7 

Junction of the Trent, Ouse, and Humber. Phot. A. E. 

Farrants ......... 9 

A Wold Farm. Phot. E. Nainby 13 

Tetney Lock. Phot. F. C. Cartledge . . . 17 

High Bridge, Lincoln. Phot. S. Smith . . . .21 
The Welland at Spalding. Phot. S. Jepson . . .22 
Torksey Bridge. Phot. S. Smith . . . . .23 
The Eagre running up the Trent at Gainsborough . 25 
Bands of Gypsum in Newton Cliffs . . . -27 

Bittern. Phot. S. Smith 37 

Scawby Gull-Ponds. Phot. R. N. Lister . . . -39 
Moorland, near Woodhall. Phot. Harrison ... 40 

Skegness. Phot. Frith 43 

Sand-hills and Foreshore at Sutton. Phot. A. James . 45 
Skating on the Fens. Phot. S. Jepson . . . -57 
Neolithic Implement . . . . . . -59 

Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn Bull. Phot. ]. W. Ruddock 65 
Lincolnshire Ram. Phot. J. W. Ruddock . . -67 
Lincolnshire Shire Horse . . . . . .68 

The Woad Industry: Balls drying in the Sheds. Phot. 

S. Jepson ....... .70 

A Field of Tulips at Spalding. Phot. S. Jepson . . 71 



ILLUSTRATIONS vii 

PAGE 

Hardwick Hill .72 

Wildfowling in the Fens. Phot. S. Jepson . . . 76 
Cutting Reeds for Thatching. Phot. S. Jepson . . 77 
Iron Works, Lincoln . . . . . . .80 

Iron Works, Gainsborough . . . . . .81 

Frodingham Iron and Steel Works: Scunthorpe. Phot. Frith 84 
Fish-pontoon, Grimsby. Phot. F. C. Cartledge . . 89 
Grimsby Docks. Phot. C. S. Hall . . . . .91 

Immingham Dock, Grimsby . . . . . .92 

The Docks, Boston. Phot. Dennis & Sons . . -95 
Newport Arch, Lincoln. Phot. S. Smith . . . . 98 

Entrenchment at Burnham . . . . . . 101 

Jews' House, Lincoln. Phot. S. Smith . . . .103 

The Angel Choir, Lincoln Minster. Phot. Frith . .105 
Bronze Implements . . . . . . . .113 

British Camp at Honington. Phot. Emary . . . 114 

The Fossdyke. Phot. S. Smith 116 

Lincoln Minster: West front. Phot. S. Smith . . 119 
Parish Church, Grantham. Phot. Emary . . .171 

Boston Church. Phot. Dennis & Sons . . . -123 

Louth Church. Phot. A. James 125 

Crowland Abbey. Phot. Frith . . . . . .127 

Thornton Abbey . . . . . . . .129 

Lincoln: the Castle Gateway. Phot. S. Smith . . 132 

Tattershall Castle. Phot. S. Smith 135 

St Mary's Guild House, Lincoln. Phot. S. Smith . -139 
Grimsthorpe Castle. Phot. W. H. Redstone & Sons . 140 
The Angel Hotel, Grantham. Phot. Emary . . .141 
Old Hall, Gainsborough. Phot. ]. W. Ruddock . .142 
Knaith Manor House. Phot. W. K. Morton & Sons . 144 

Doddington Hall 146 

Ermine Street. Phot. S. Smith 148 

Crowland Abbey Bridge. Phot. Frith . . . .151 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

John Wesley. Phot. Emery Walker . . . -159 

Sir Isaac Newton. Phot. Frith 161 

Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Phot. Emery Walker . -163 
Statue of Sir John Franklin. Phot. W. K. Morton & Sons 165 
Thomas Sutton . . . . . . . .167 

Boston Grammar School. Phot. Hackford . . .170 
Woolsthorpe Manor House . . . . . . .174 

Grantham: the Old Grammar School. Phot Frith. . 175 
Lincoln Minster, from the North-east. Phot. S. Smith . 179 

Horse Fair, Lincoln . 180 

Somersby Old Rectory. Phot. Carlton & Sons. . .185 
St Mary's Church and Hill, Stamford. Phot. R. Nichols 186 
The Church Walk: Woodhall Spa. Phot. Harrison . 190 
Diagrams . . . . . . . . .191 

MAPS 

Lincolnshire, Physical Front Cover 

Geological Back Cover 

England and Wales, showing Annual Rainfall . . 55 

Thanks are due to Messrs Clayton and Shuttleworth for the 
illustration on p. 7 ; to the late Mr F. M. Burton for those on 
pp. 25 and 72; to the Lincoln Museum for those on pp. 27, 59 
and 113; to Mr N. Sutton-Nelthorpe for those on pp. 39 and 68 ; 
to Messrs Ruston Proctor and Co. and Messrs Marshall, Sons and 
Co. for those on pp. 80 and 81 respectively; to the Great Central 
Railway Co. for that on p. 92; to the Rev. A. Hunt for that on 
p. 101 ; to Mr Aymer Vallance for that on p. 129; to the Rev. 
Canon Cole for that on p. 146; to Mr A. H. Tod for that on 
p. 167; to the Rev. G. E. Mahon for that on p. 174 and to 
Dr J. S. Chater for that on p. 180. 



i. County and Shire. The Word 
Lincolnshire. 

The word county is derived from an old French 
word meaning a province governed by a count (French), 
or an earl (Saxon) as he was afterwards termed, and it is 
applied generally to all the provinces in England, parti- 
cularly to those which had been separate kingdoms in 
Anglo-Saxon times, like Kent. 

The last syllable of the word Lincolnshire is of 
Anglo-Saxon origin, and means a portion of a state or 
kingdom a part shorn or cut off by this reminding us 
that Lincolnshire was once one of the provinces of the 
great mid-England kingdom of Mercia. It is interesting 
to note that nearly all the shires into which this kingdom 
was divided have taken their names from their capital 
towns or cities, i.e. Leicestershire. Out of 1 7 shires thus 
formed the only real exception is Rutland, for Cheshire 
is probably corrupted from Chestershire and Shropshire 
from Scrobbesbury or Shrewsbury. 

The sheriff the shire-reeve or steward is the king's 
officer and his representative in the shire. Besides a sheriff 
for the county, Lincoln City has one for itself, having 
been given the dignity of a county in itself by King 

s. L. i 



2 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Henry IV. The first part of the name of the county 
is of course taken from the capital city of Lincolnshire 




Lincoln from the South-east 



Lincoln. This name, like the city to which it belongs, 
has a very ancient origin. By the British the town was 



COUNTY AND SHIRE 3 

called Lindon (Llyn being still the Welsh for a lake, and 
dun or don for a hill-fort), meaning " the hill-fort by the 
water." Ptolemy, writing about the year A.D. 120, says 
that the two chief towns of the Coritani a British tribe 
which inhabited the present counties of Lincolnshire, 
Rutland, Leicestershire, and part of Nottinghamshire, 
Warwickshire, and Derbyshire were Lindum (a Latin- 
ized form of the name) and Ragae (Leicester). After the 
Roman conquest of this part of Britain Lindum became 
a Roman fortress and later a colony, with the title 
Lindum, or Lindl colonla. By the Saxons it was called 
Lindecollinam, or Lindocyllanceaster (ceaster or chester 
generally indicating Roman stone fortifications). By the 
Normans writing in Latin it was named Lincolnia, but in 
Norman-French Nicole (a curious instance of the trans- 
position of letters) as late as the time of King Edward IV, 
and the same applied to the name of the county, called by 
the Normans Nicoleshire, though Domesday Book calls it 
Lincolescire. The division of this country into counties 
or shires probably began before the time of King Alfred, 
and was completed when the kingdom of King Edgar 
brought all divisions of the people under one rule. Lin- 
colnshire would thus be separated off from Mercia, which 
got its name from bordering on the Marches or frontiers 
of Wales. 

Lincolnshire was, possibly from about the same time, 
subdivided into three, called The Parts of Lindsey, 
The Parts of Kesteven, and The Parts of Holland. Of 
these the first, Lindsey (in Domesday Book Lindesie), 
gets its name either from Lincoln, or as being the eye or 

12 



4 LINCOLNSHIRE 

island of the Lindissi who inhabited it. It occupies about 
the northern half of the county, and according to Domes- 
day Book, it again was subdivided into three Redings or 
Ridings (i.e. thirdings) North, South, and West. The 
second division, Kesteven (in Domesday Chetsteven), takes 
the south-western quarter, and its name is believed to be 
derived from Coedstefne, " the wood jutting out into the 
fen." The third, Holland (in Domesday Hoiland), takes 
the remaining south-eastern quarter, and signifies, as does 
its namesake across the North Sea, " the hollow land," as 
being below the level of the sea in many parts. 



2. General Characteristics. 

Lincolnshire situated on the east coast of England 
a little north of its middle point is a maritime county 
with a most important estuary on the north, the Humber, 
wherein is her greatest port, Great Grimsby, possibly the 
largest fishing port in the world, and a lesser and much 
shallower one on the south, the Wash, where is her lesser 
port, Boston. These two ports furnish practically all the 
harbours she has along her 85 miles of coast, or 117 if 
we measure from the junction of the Trent, Ouse, and 
Humber to the beginning of the Norfolk coast. Flat 
and low though that coast may be, guarded by " a sand- 
built ridge of heaped hills that mind the sea," still there 
is a fascination in the great extent of yellow sands exposed 
by her shallow seas, just as there is a recompense for the 
level plain of marsh or fen in the vast expanse of sky 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 5 

where dawn or sunset are seen at their finest. As Charles 
Kingsley says, speaking of these very fens, in Hereward 
the Wake, "They have a beauty of their own, these great 
fens, even now when they are dyked and drained, tilled 
and fenced a beauty as of the sea, of boundless expanse 
and freedom." And after an exquisite appreciation of 




The Fens in Winter: Cowbit Wash, near Spalding 

the fen in Norman times he adds, " Overhead the arch 
of heaven spreads more ample than elsewhere, as over 
the open sea ; and that vastness gave, and still gives, 
such cloudlands, such sunrises, such sunsets, as can be 
seen nowhere else within these isles." And the views 
are indeed marvellous ; from Alkborough over the 
junction of the Trent and Ouse to the Humber, from 



6 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the Wolds above Caistor westwards towards Lincoln, 
from Lincoln eastwards to those same Wolds, or west- 
wards to the hills of Nottinghamshire and the mountains 
of Derbyshire, or looking eastwards from the edge of the 
" high Wold " over the great plain of marsh, 

" That sweeps with all its autumn bowers, 
And crowded farms, and lessening towers 
To mingle with the bounding main." 

Lincolnshire is pre-eminently an agricultural county. 
Camden, writing in 1590, describes the county as of "a 
most mild climate fit for corn and cattle, adorned with 
numerous towns, and watered by several rivers." The 
farms on the Heath, the Cliff, the Wolds, and the Fens 
are examples of first-rate cultivation of the soil in corn 
and roots, while the neighbourhood of Boston is well 
known for its potatoes and growth of mustard for seed, 
and the Isle of Axholme for vegetables. The Marsh fur- 
nishes one of the very best grazing lands in the country. 
The Lincolnshire red shorthorn forms a distinct and 
valuable kind of cattle, the Lincolnshire sheep is of large 
size with a heavy fleece, while the reputation of its horses 
at Horncastle and Lincoln fairs has been excellent for many 
years. 

Lincolnshire is also a great industrial county. The engi- 
neering works at Lincoln, Gainsborough, and Grantham, 
giving employment to many thousands of workmen, are 
famed for all kinds of agricultural machinery, as well as for 
that used in milling and mining. At Scunthorpe are large 
and important iron mines and smelting works. Steam 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 7 

mills for corn surround Brayford Pool in Lincoln, where, 
as at Gainsborough, are large cake mills and wood- 
works, while Sleaford has the largest malt-houses in 
the country. 




Iron Works, Lincoln 



3. Size. Shape. Boundaries. 

Lincolnshire is the second largest county in England, 
its area comprising 1,705,293 acres. It takes position 
between Yorkshire (with the enormous acreage of 
3,889,758 acres) and Devonshire (with an acreage of 
1,671,364), and it has a population of 563,960. 



8 LINCOLNSHIRE 

John Speed, writing in 1627, quaintly remarks: 
"The forme of this County doth somewhat resemble the 
body of a Lute, whose East Coasts lye bowe-like into 
the German Ocean." Fuller, in 1662, compares it to 
" a bended bow, the sea making the back, the rivers 
Welland and Humber the two horns thereof, whilst 
Trent hangeth down like a broken string, as being 
somewhat of the shortest." The shape of Lincolnshire 
might also be likened to a pear, with one-third of its 
western side sliced off, and with the tail turned up to 
join Norfolk and form part of the southern boundary 
of the Wash. 

Measuring from the northernmost projection into 
the Humber to the southernmost part of the boundary 
at Stamford its length is about 75 miles, and its breadth 
from the easternmost point at Ingoldmells on the east 
coast to the Nottinghamshire county border at North 
Scarle on the west is about 47 miles. 

Its boundaries are natural ones for the greater part. 
It is bounded on the north by the river Humber; on 
the east by the North Sea; on the south by various 
drains and the river Welland dividing it from Norfolk, 
Cambridgeshire, and Northamptonshire; and on the west 
by an artificial border-line between it and Rutland, 
Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire. Higher up, the 
river Trent bounds West Lindsey, while the Isle of 
Axholme is separated from Yorkshire chiefly by an 
artificial and exceedingly irregular boundary line. This 
part of the county appears, on the map, as if it must 
have been captured for Lincolnshire from the old royal 



I 

& s 





s: 



10 LINCOLNSHIRE 

forest of Hatfield Chase in Yorkshire, as it is on the 
west side of what, obviously, is the natural boundary. 
On the other hand Nottinghamshire appears to " cut a 
monstrous cantle out" of Lincolnshire on the east side 
of the Trent between Newark and Newton-on-Trent, 
of which the north-easternmost point actually comes 
within five miles of Lincoln. Some authorities have 
believed that Newark and its wapentake were wrenched 
away from Lincolnshire about the time of King Alfred, 
and, in this connection, it is interesting to notice the 
fact that, in the later years of Remigius, first Norman 
Bishop of Lincoln, the Archbishop of York claimed a 
large part of the provinces of Lindsey, with Lincoln, 
Louth, Stow, and Newark, as properly subject to his 
sway. 



4. Surface and General Features. 

The surface of our county is marked by two long 
lines of hills, the Cliff (or Heath) and the Wolds. There 
is also a vast tract of Fen, a word now used to denote 
land which is or has been overflowed by fresh water, and 
a wide belt of Marsh, a term in Lincolnshire applied to 
land which has been or is liable to be overflowed by 
sea-water. 

The Cliff, which is of oolite limestone, reaches from 
Winteringham on the Humber, in a course almost due 
south, to Grantham and the southern limits of Lincoln- 
shire. It has a general elevation of some 2OO feet, and 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 11 

has a fairly sharp escarpment rising 100 feet or more 
above the western plain. For most of the distance this 
western plain is the valley of the Trent, which has but low 
banks, save those of New Red Sandstone at Gainsborough 
and Newton, on the eastern or right bank. 

The Cliff is interrupted by the great gap at Lincoln, 
and again by the lesser one at Ancaster, where its height 
has risen to nearly 400 feet. It is here called "the Heath," 
and its western borders are known as the Vale of Belvoir. 
Broadening out before reaching Grantham it attains, near 
Wyville and Buckminster, its greatest elevation of 500 
feet. The little Witham valley is picturesque and well 
wooded by Easton and North Stoke Rochford Parks. 
This range of the Cliff is really the edge of an inclined 
tableland which slopes gently eastward, in Lindsey to 
meet the rising Wolds, and in Kesteven to the Fens, the 
parts between Grantham, Sleaford, Bourne and Stamford 
being particularly well wooded . and picturesque. 

Another range of Cliff is found on the right bank of 
the Trent at Alkborough ; here it is about 200 feet high, 
with woods sloping steeply down to the river. The 
formation is of the New Red Sandstone. Much of this 
part of the county was a sandy waste, given up to rabbit 
warrens. At Scawby gull-ponds the scenery might pass 
for Scottish, from the sandy undulations round the lake 
and the abundance of pine trees. 

The chalk Wolds stretch from Barton-on-Humber 
and South Ferriby in a south-easterly direction for nearly 
50 miles, with an average width of about eight miles, 
widening as they proceed, to Burgh and Spilsby. The 



12 LINCOLNSHIRE 

highest point is probably just above Normanby, 548 feet, 
though a fair acreage is above the 400 feet level. They 
consist of great rolling downs, intersected with deep 
valleys. Near Brocklesby they are well wooded, as 
Pelham Pillar was erected to record the planting of 
12,552,700 trees between the years 1787 and 1823 by 
the Lord Yarborough of that date. In the neighbour- 
hood of Somersby, Tennyson's birth-place, there is a fair 
amount of wooded country, and one of the most charming 
valleys, Well Vale, is close to Alford. The farms on the 
Wolds are of great size ; possibly the largest is at Withcall, 
which runs to 2750 acres. 

Three miles south-east of Lincoln, at the village of 
Washingborough, begin the Fens, marked by the black 
peaty soil 1 . Hence they stretch southwards and south- 
eastwards to Boston, Spalding, and Cambridge. A little 
piece of true unreclaimed fen remains near Dogdyke, 
but all the rest are drained, almost too well, as they are 
sometimes short of water in the summer. The numerous 
dykes take the place of hedges, which are comparatively 
rare. Wheat, beans, and roots all grow finely on this 
soil, and near Boston potatoes and mustard grown for 
seed. The names along the Witham ending in ey, such 
as Bardn^y and Southing, show the islands which alone 
could have been inhabited amidst the surrounding swamp 
in the pre-drainage days. 

The Marsh is a strip of land between the Wolds and 

1 Occasionally in dry seasons this underlying peat takes fire and is 
difficult to put out, as happened on the edge of a dyke in Branston Fen in 
August, 1911. 



14 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the North Sea. It is alluvial in origin, its width varies 
from six to 10 miles, and it reaches from below Grimsby 
to Skegness. It is protected from the sea only by sand- 
dunes, covered with swordgrass and the spiky sallow-thorn, 
with its grey green leaves, and berries of a warm orange 
colour in autumn. At Marsh Chapel and North Somer- 
cotes, it has been enlarged by the draining and capture 
from the sea of the salt fitties (this being an old Norse 
word for the out-marshes between the sea-bank and the 
sea). This is Tennyson's 

" Waste enormous marsh 
Where from the frequent bridge 
The trenched waters run from sky to sky." 

Much of it is first-rate grazing ground for sheep and 
cattle, and rich crops of wheat, large eared and long 
stemmed, are raised. 

The Isle of Axholme, almost a dead level, has been 
carefully drained, and is enriched by warping (which will 
be further alluded to in a later portion of this book). The 
hills round Epworth contain gypsum and belong to the 
New Red Sandstone formation. 



5. Rivers and Watersheds. 

The rivers of this county, with one exception the 
Trent are small and slow. Macaulay poured righteous 
scorn on the line " Streams meander level with their 
fount " as an impossible feat, but the Witham comes a 
little near the poet's description between Lincoln and 



RIVERS AND WATERSHEDS 15 

Boston, as the level of Brayford is only 16 feet .above 
the sea. In their earlier miles some of the rivers are 
lively streams, and afford good trout fishing; to their 
more sluggish later portions come thousands weekly, 
for coarse fishing, from the large industrial cities of 
Yorkshire. The celebrity of the Witham for pike has 
been hymned by Spenser and Drayton, and there was an 
old and popular saying, 

Wytham eel and Ancum [Ancholme] pike 
In all the world there is none syke. 

We will begin with those rivers which arise within 
the county. There is a watershed on the Cliff, about 
three miles south of the cross-road between Gainsborough 
and Market Rasen, and about a mile eastwards of the 
Ermine Street, the great North Road from Lincoln to 
the Humber. The river Ancholme from the village of 
Spridlington is joined at Bishop's Bridge by the little. river 
Rase, which rises in the heart of the Wolds at Bully 
Hill, and runs west past Tealby and Bayons Manor, the 
handsome modern castle of the Tennyson D'Eyncourts, 
through the three Rasens Market, Middle, and West 
to which it gives its name. From Bishop's Bridge the 
Ancholme proceeds almost due north, through low-lying 
fields called carrs (car fen), to fall into the Humber at 
Ferriby Sluice, Brigg (properly Glanford Brigg) being 
the only place of any importance on its way. It thus 
serves the useful purpose of draining the valley between 
the Cliff on the west and the Wolds on the east. For 
its last 1 6 miles a new straight course has been cut, called 



16 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the New Ancholme river, which for five miles north of 
Brigg is accompanied by another dyke, the Weir Dyke. 
Continual complaints of the damage done to the drainage 
of the Ancholme valley seem to have been made from 
the time of King Edward I onwards, and in the 2ist year 
of Charles I's reign Sir John Monson undertook to 
drain this area. This apparently was well done, but 
spoilt during the great civil war according to the account 
given by Dugdale by the works being neglected, the 
drains filled up, and the sluices damaged. Improvements 
were made in the reign of King George III, and others 
about the year 1826 and afterwards. 

Rising from one source in Hackthorn within a mile or 
two of that of the Ancholme, and from another in Busling- 
thorpe, the Langworth river, about nine miles long, runs 
south past Snarford, through Langworth (having got 
accessory streams from Welton and Dunholme, and from 
Riseholme and Sudbrook lakes, and others from the 
western slopes of the Wolds), past the site of the once 
powerful and important Abbey of Barlings, to join the 
Witham, about seven miles east of Lincoln, close to a 
pumping station called Short Ferry. In the village of 
Ludford, six miles east of Market Rasen, the river 
Bain has its source, and for some 13 or 14 miles runs 
nearly south to Horncastle, part of whose Roman name, 
Banova\\um y came from the stream. It passes en route 
the picturesque villages of Burgh and Donington, and the 
parks of Girsby and Biscathorpe. From Horncastle, for 
the 10 miles to the Witham, an attempt was made at the 
beginning of the last century to render it navigable. Its 



RIVERS AND WATERSHEDS 17 

course is south with a slight curve to the west, passing 
near to Scrivelsby Court (the home of the Champions of 
England, the Dymokes), Kirkby, the woods of Tumby, 
the parish and village of Coningsby, with its fine church 
tower, and Tattershall church and castle. The Bain falls 
into the Witham at Dogdyke (originally Dock Dyke). 
The Horncastle Canal, which leaves it at Tattershall, 
joins the Witham about two miles farther east. The 




Tetney Lock 

other main watersheds of the county are formed by the 
line of the chalk Wolds extending from the Humber at 
Ferriby south-eastwards for 50 miles as far as Spilsby, 
and by the line of oolite limestone Cliff running almost 
due north and south from the Humber at Winteringham 
to below Grantham. 

The streams to the north and east of the Wolds are 
not of much importance. The river Lud (which gives 

s. L. 2 



18 LINCOLNSHIRE 

its name to Louth) rises in Withcall, runs through Louth, 
and by a devious course past the site of Louth Abbey, 
Alvingham, Conisholme, and North Somercotes, finds its 
way into the sea a little north of Donna Hook coastguard 
station, at Grainthorpe Haven. About three miles north 
of this opening is Tetney Haven, where the Louth 
Navigation canal made in 1763 from Louth joins the 
sea, having left the river Lud at Alvingham. Through 
the marsh lying between the Wolds and the sea flow 
various other streams which generally have been dealt 
with as land drains, carefully embanked and their course 
straightened, as they approach the coast. The river 
Steeping, at its source called Lynn, runs south-eastwards 
between two spurs of the Wolds, one ending at Spilsby, 
and the other at Welton-le-Marsh, and reaches the sea at 
Gibraltar Point. 

The same line of east to west watershed holds good, 
as was noticed when speaking of the Ancholme, with 
regard to the streams on the western side of the Cliff 
from the Humber to Lincoln. North of a line from 
Market Rasen to Gainsborough, these, like the river Eau 
and Bottesford Beck, run westwards into the Trent, or, 
like Winterton Beck, northwards into the Humber. Below 
this line, at Corringham, is the origin of the little river 
Till, which proceeding southwards and eastwards joins 
the Fossdyke (the Roman canal between Lincoln and 
the Trent) at a point about four miles west of Lincoln, 
where is a farm with the Scandinavian-sounding name of 
Odde or Hadde. 

The Witham is the largest and most important of the 



RIVERS AND WATERSHEDS 19 

purely Lincolnshire rivers, being about 70 miles in length, 
and draining on its way to Lincoln the flat country 
between the edge of the Cliff and the Trent, and on its 
way to Boston the great expanse of fen, altogether about 
1070 square miles, of which 414,988 acres are highlands, 
and 265,404 fen land. Its course may be compared to the 
shape of a horseshoe, one end of which is at South Witham, 
10 miles south of Grantham, whence it starts, the middle 
of the rounded top at Lincoln, and the other end at 
Boston, where it joins the sea. After leaving South 
Witham, it passes between Woolsthorpe (in whose manor 
house Sir Isaac Newton was born) and Colsterworth, 
between the two fine Elizabethan houses, Easton and 
Stoke Rochford, and past Great Ponton, whose striking 
west tower, built in 1519, must be well known to the 
passengers by the Great Northern line. After leaving 
Grantham it proceeds northwards, skirting the pleasant 
woods of Belton and Syston, till it is confronted with the 
hill on which Hough stands, and whence the little river 
Brant starts. Here it turns westwards to West borough, 
near which it is joined by the Foston Beck, coming 
from Denton reservoir, and at Long Bennington bends 
northwards again to Claypole, where a fourteenth century 
bridge was destroyed by a Rural District Council in 
1905. Just by Hough may be noticed a sudden drop 
in the Cliff of some 200 feet, leaving a gap leading 
through to Ancaster and Sleaford. It is quite likely that 
the original course of the Witham here turned eastwards 
through this gap and so to the sea. Passing from 
Claypole by Barnby, Norton Disney (the home of the 

2 2 



20 LINCOLNSHIRE 

St Vincents) and Aubourn (not " the loveliest village 
of the plain," but still quite sufficiently attractive), it is 
joined by the Brant and goes northwards to Lincoln, 
where it runs into Brayford, the pool below the hill 
(representing a huge lake or morass of earlier times), 
which is joined to the Trent by the Fossdyke, the canal 
made by the Romans and restored by Henry I. From 
Brayford it turns sharply to the right, flows through the 
city of Lincoln, passing beneath the medieval High 
Bridge, with its picturesque half-timbered houses on the 
western side, and, practically canalised, runs for about 
30 miles through the Fen to its outlet in Boston Deeps, 
passing the sites of the once important monasteries of 
Bardney and Kirkstead, the castle of Tattershall, and 
Boston with its splendid church and noble tower. 
It is joined on its way by many streams, of which one, 
the Sleaford river, runs as Kyme Eau to Chapel Hill. 
Possibly another route for the Witham was across from 
Dogdyke to Wainfleet ; but at all events by 1240 it 
must have run to Boston, as there are extant notices as 
to its banks. The tide flowed as far as Lincoln, raising 
the water at Swanpool two feet, till in the year 1500 
Mayhowe Hake, an engineer of Gravelines, was ordered 
to make a sluice at Boston to stop it. Another sluice 
was made in 1543 at Langrick, and there are now others 
at Bardney and Lincoln. 

The Glen is about 3 1 miles long and rises at Somerby, 
near Grantham. Passing southwards it skirts Bourne and 
passes through Deeping Fen, through Pinchbeck, north of 
Spalding and Surfleet, to join the Welland at the Reservoir. 




High Bridge, Lincoln 



22 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



The Welland enters Lincolnshire at Stamford, runs 
through Market Deeping between Peakirk (where St 
Guthlac's sister had a cell) and Deeping St James, and 
thence past Crowland Abbey and Spalding, to fall into 
the Wash at Fossdyke. 

The river Nene only belongs to this county from 




The Welland at Spalding 

Tydd St Mary's to its entry into the Wash, having passed 
under Sutton bridge. The scene of King John's disaster 
with his baggage is between the bridge and the Wash. 

The Trent is, of course, far the most important river 
which is connected with the county and does not rise in 
it. Its source is on the northern border of Staffordshire, 
whence it flows by Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and 



RIVERS AND WATERSHEDS 23 

Nottinghamshire to our western border. Its course is 
almost directly northwards from Newark, and it begins 
to form the western boundary of Lincolnshire just south 
of Dunham Bridge and Newton. The cliffs here, of 
New Red Sandstone, are very picturesque, and much 
picnicking goes on during the summer. Some four or 




Torksey Bridge 

five miles further down the river is Torksey, the ancient 
Tiovulfingcester, where the Fossdyke joins the Trent. 
Further still on the right is Marton, with the Roman 
road, Tillbridge Lane, and Littleborough, the Roman 
Segelocum, on the left. Some picturesque windings lead 
past Knaith, the birthplace of Thomas Sutton, founder of 
the Charterhouse, and Lea, the home of our distinguished 



24 LINCOLNSHIRE 

antiquary, the late Sir Charles Anderson, to Gainsborough 
(the St Ogg's of The Mill on the Floss). Here the right 
bank is high and wooded, and has a Danish encampment 
on it. A little below Stockwith, where the river Idle 
falls into the Trent, the county boundary line leaves the 
Trent in order to include the Isle of Axholme, and goes 
westwards as far as Wroot and then northwards and back 
to the Trent just at its junction with the Ouse to form 
the Humber, so that the rest of the river's course is within 
the county. At Owston (anciently Kinnaird's) Ferry is 
the site of the castle of the powerful Mowbrays, Dukes of 
Norfolk. At Althorpe and Gunness the Trent is crossed by 
the railway line from Grimsby to Doncaster, and another 
the New Idle river runs into it. After passing Am- 
cotts (of which the Amcotts family are still lords of the 
manor), the hills now rise some 200 feet and come closer 
to the river, and from Burton Stather (the latter word, 
of Scandinavian origin meaning a landing stage) to Alk- 
borough the Cliff is steep and well wooded. At Trent 
Falls the river finally joins the Ouse, and the two form 
the Humber. 

There are good reasons for thinking that the course of 
the river just described, from close to Newark to the 
Humber, was not the original course in pre-Glacial times. 
A direct prolongation of its course from Newark would 
point to the great gap in the cliff at Lincoln, through 
which the Witham now flows. Again, along this track 
gravels are found, distinctly of river origin, and derived 
from the pebble beds beyond Newark on the west. Also, 
a more powerful agent than the river Witham is or ever 



26 LINCOLNSHIRE 

has been, must be sought for to make such a gap, and the 
Trent, with its hill source and rush of many tributaries, 
seems the only likely river near and powerful enough to 
have done the work. The Trent is navigable for vessels 
drawing 2O feet of water as far as Gainsborough, and at 
certain seasons there is a tidal wave, called in Lincolnshire 
the Eagre (a Saxon word), which runs up some 14 miles 
past that town. 

6. Geology. 

If we turn to the geological map at the end of this 
volume we find that the various strata occurring in 
Lincolnshire run in a line roughly from north to south. 
This is what in geology is termed their "strike." Their 
" dip " or slope is towards the east, each stratum being 
overlaid in turn by the newer one, so that the oldest rocks 
are on the western side of the county. In Lincolnshire, 
on the surface, there are no traces of any rocks older 
than the Secondary or Mesozoic Group, except in the 
form of erratic blocks or boulders of granite brought by 
glacial action from Scandinavia or the mountains of the 
Lake district. On the west of the county a patch in 
the Isle of Axholme, and a long strip running north and 
south from near the Humber to Newark and Nottingham, 
represents the New Red Sandstone or Keuper marl. This 
layer of rock has been laid down by successive deposits 
in a vast inland sea which gradually became salt, like the 
Dead Sea in the Holy Land. Gypsum or sulphate of 
lime was also deposited in this bed, and it unfortunately 




O 



28 LINCOLNSHIRE 

was found to impregnate the water from a very deep 
boring (2200 feet) at Lincoln so strongly as to render it 
unfit for ordinary use. This boring passed through 23 feet 
of surface beds of soil, peat, sand, and gravel, 641 feet 
of lias, plentiful in fossils, 52 feet of Rhaetic beds also 
fossiliferous, 868 feet of Keuper marl, grey, green, red, and 
purple with bands of gypsum (such as are seen in Newton 
Cliffs in the illustration on p. 27) and 638 feet of the 
New Red Sandstone, into the pebble beds. The deposit 
of salt and brine whence the celebrated Woodhall water 
comes was probably produced in a similar way. This 
Keuper marl has not much in the way of fossils till 
the next layer is met that of the Rhaetic bed (so-called 
from the Rhaetian Alps of Bavaria). This is full of 
fossils, especially remains of fish. Evidently an invasion of 
this inland sea by salt water caused the death of all the 
fish. After this seems to have occurred a sinking of 
the land, whereby groups of islands were formed, round 
which the beds of the Lias and Oolite series of rocks 
(called Jurassic from occurring in the Jura mountains) 
were deposited. The lowest layer, called the Lias, is 
a thick bed of shale, clay, and limestone. There is 
evidence of much life in the fossil remains found in this 
bed. From the clay pits on Lincoln hill have been taken 
bones of huge fish-lizards, 20 to 30 feet long, such as the 
Ichthyosaurus, with eyes 14 inches in diameter and a long 
tail; and the Plesiosaurus, with a very long neck and 
small head and teeth like a crocodile; and flying reptiles 
also. The Lower Lias in this county extends as a narrow 
band from the extreme south, about Sedgebrook, to the 



GEOLOGY 29 

Humber, narrowing and thinning as it passes north along 
the edge of the Cliff, and forming about the eastern 
two-thirds of the valley of the Trent. Along this route 
is a belt of ferruginous limestone containing hydrated 
peroxide of iron, which is extensively mined at Scun- 
thorpe, where the bed is 27 feet thick. A still narrower 
belt on the eastern edge of the foregoing is that of the 
Marlstone, Middle Lias or Rockbed, which at Cay- 
thorpe (where its breadth is at its greatest) is extensively 
worked for iron ore. It forms a slighter escarpment west 
of the Cliff at Harlaxton, Gonerby, Fulbeck, and Well- 
born, which dies down further north. 

The Upper Lias from the valley of the Witham to 
the Humber is a thick bed of stiff dark blue clay, which 
forms the Cliff, and is much used at Lincoln for brick- 
making. Ammonites and belemnites are frequent, as well 
as septaria, which are large nodules or spheroidal masses 
of calcareous marl, with crystalline divisions inside. 

Capping the Cliff, and varying in breadth from 10 miles 
in the south of Lincolnshire to a couple of miles at the 
Humber, is a band of the next layer, the Inferior Oolite 
(a word meaning eggstone, as the rock is composed of 
minute grains resembling the roe of a fish). The 
lowest division of this is termed the Northampton 
Sand, and lies from 10 to 15 feet below the surface of 
the soil. Near Lincoln, on the east side, it is 12 feet 
thick, and is extensively worked for siliceous ironstone, 
which is sent to Scunthorpe to be mixed with the iron- 
stone there and smelted. Above this is the well-known 
building stone the Lincolnshire limestone, which hardens 



NAMES o* 
SYSTEMS 



Recent 
Pleistocene 



Pliocene 
Miocene 
Eocene 

Cretaceous 
Jurassic 

Triassic 

Permian 
Carboniferous 

Devonian 

Silurian 

Ordovician 
Cambrian 
Pre- Cambrian 



SUBDIVISIONS 

Metal Age Deposits 
Neolithic 
Palaeolithic ,, 
Glacial 

Cromer Series 
Weybourne Crag 
Chillesford and Norwich Crags 
Red and Walton Crags 
Coralline Crag 

Absent from Britain 

Fluviomarine Beds of Hampshire 

Bagshot Beds 

London Clay 

Oldhaven Beds, Woolwich and Reading 

Thanet Sands [Groups 

Chalk 

Upper Greensand and Gault 

Lower Greensand 

Weald Clay 

Hastings Sands 

Purbeck Beds 

Portland Beds 

Kimmeridge Clay 

Corallian Beds 

Oxford Clay and Kellaways Rock 

Corn brash 

Forest Marble 

Great Oolite with Stonesfield Slate 

Inferior Oolite 

Lias Upper, Middle, and Lower 

Rhaetic 
Keuper Marls 
Keuper Sandstone 
Upper Bunter Sandstone 
Bunter Pebble Beds 
Lower Bunter Sandstone 

Magnesian Limestone and Sandstone 

Marl Slate 

Lower Permian Sandstone 

Coal Measures 
Millstone Grit 
Mountain Limestone 
Basal Carboniferous Rocks 

!r ) Devonian and Old Red Sand- 
Lower / stone 

i Ludlow Beds 
\ Wenlock Beds 
I Llandovery Beds 

{Caradoc Beds 
Llandeilo Beds 
Arenig Beds 

(Tremadoc Slates 
Lingula Flags 
Menevian Beds 
Harlech Grits and Llanberis Slates 

No definite classification vet made 



CHAKACTERS OF ROCKS 



Superficial Deposits 



Sands chiefly 



Clays and Sands chiefly 



Chalk at top 
Sandstones, Mud and 
Clays below 



Shales, Sandstones and 
Oolitic Limestones 



Red Sandstones and 
Marls, Gypsum and Salt 



! Red Sandstones and 
| Magnesian Limestone 

Sandstones, Shales and 
Coals at top 
Sandstones in middle 
Limestone and Shales below 

Red Sandstones, 
Shales, Slates and Lime- 
stones 

Sandstones, Shales and 
Thin Limestones 

Shales, Slates, 
Sandstones and 
Thin Limestones 



Slates and 
Sandstones 



Sandstones, 
Slates and 
Volcanic Rocks 



GEOLOGY 31 

well on exposure after quarrying. Near Ancaster and 
Wilsford are the chief quarries. 

The Middle Oolite consists of a great thickness of 
clays, of which one kind is much used at Bytham in the 
manufacture of " clinker " bricks. Above this is the 
layer called the Cornbrash (so called from forming rather 
easily broken up soil, good for corn growing), a pasty 
fine-grained limestone, running in a thin line from Brigg 
to Stamford, with very irregular distribution in the south. 
Above this again is the Oxford Clay, varying between 
500 and 300 feet thick, filling up the western valley 
between the Cliff and the Wolds, and between the Heath 
and the river Witham. Overlying this is the Kimmeridge 
Clay, which forms a large patch on the western edge 
of the Wold, from the valley of the Ancholme down 
to Dogdyke and Spilsby, edging round to within some 
10 miles of Skegness, while below Lincoln it forms 
a belt some eight miles broad along the eastern slope 
of the Cliff, narrowing somewhat to its end in the 
valley of the river Glen. 

Of the rocks forming the Cretaceous group, it may 
be stated at once that they were laid down in great 
ocean depths, for we know that the Atlantic is now 
doing exactly the same thing, laying down a layer of 
chalk (mainly composed of Foraminifera microscopic 
animals and plants) on the sea floor. As time went on, 
and the sea added to the deposits of chalk, all Lincolnshire 
was buried under their weight. Later, as the land rose 
again, the chalk was brought to the surface and was 
extensively eroded by atmospheric agencies: it is now 



32 LINCOLNSHIRE 

1300 feet thick, and it had originally another 1000 feet 
above that. 

The Wolds, a range of chalk hills, represent this 
formation in Lincolnshire, and stretch from the Humber, 
near Barton, south-east to West Keal and Burgh. They 
are a continuation of the Yorkshire Wolds interrupted 
by the Humber, and are continued into Norfolk at 
Hunstanton, interrupted by the Wash. A red band of 
chalk very noticeable in the Hunstanton cliffs is also to 
be seen along the line of the Wolds, from Welton-in- 
the-Marsh to South Grimsby, and north of Caistor. 

A band of Lower Greensand, broadening out twice 
into a width of five or six miles, fringes the western side, 
and this is accompanied by a parallel though thinner band 
of Upper Greensand, bordered on the east by chalk some 
three or four times the width. 

At Tealby in the middle of the Wolds are ferruginous 
sands 2O feet thick, devoid of fossils, and near Caistor a 
bed of ironstone ore has been worked since 1868. Below 
these are beds of clay and limestone 50 feet deep, with 
many fossils, especially the fine large fan-shell Pecten 
cinctus, 9 to 12 inches in diameter, the same species as 
that found in the Speeton Clays in Flamborough Head. 
These all belong to the Lower Greensand, which is also 
called the Neocomian, from the Latin name for Neuchatel, 
where there are good examples of this series. 

The remaining portions of the county the belt 
of marsh between the Wolds and the sea, and around 
Boston, the great mass of Holland partly owe their origin 
and condition to glacial action. In the later period of 



GEOLOGY 33 

geological history, the Glacial period or Ice Age, it is 
believed that England lay under a great sheet of ice 
much as Greenland does now, and that glaciers passing 
from the high lands in the north-west of Scotland and the 
mountains of the Lake district travelled south-eastwards 
across Lincolnshire. Also from Scandinavia a great 
glacier proceeded south and joined the Scotch and English 
glaciers on the east coast. Of this glacial action, the 
cliffs of Yorkshire and the coast of Lincolnshire are the 
result; for they are composed of drift or boulder clays 
the debris of the glaciers which, passing over the surface 
of the country, wore it down, and produced a mass of 
mud and pebbles with boulders of Norwegian granite 
and other rocks from the north-east, and of Shap granite 
from the Shap Fells in Westmorland from the north-west. 
For instance, near Barton-on-Humber has been found a 
large boulder of Shap granite, and another one near Ferriby 
in the boulder clay, where there is a small moraine. 
A Norwegian granite boulder was found near Thorpe 
Hall just outside Louth, and the "Bluestone" boulder of 
some four or five tons weight in Mercer Row, Louth, 
had probably a Scotch origin. From our county also 
the stream of glacier action would sometimes proceed, as 
near Melton in Leicestershire is a block of Lincolnshire 
oolite some 300 yards long by 100 yards wide. The 
moraines of the Norwegian glaciers still exist as a line of 
gravel hills from Flamborough Head into Lincolnshire, 
crossing the Humber at Paull. 

Finally come the Fen beds, due to the action of rivers 
in bringing down mud and sand from the interior of the 

s. L. 3 



34 LINCOLNSHIRE 

country, which are deposited along their course, especially 
at their outlets. These beds are composed of mud, silt, 
and peat, and all along the coast from the Humber to the 
Wash are remains of a submerged forest. Practically all 
Holland is typical fen. A boring near Boston pierced 
through 24 feet of silt, 161 feet of boulder clay, and 400 
feet of Oolitic clays. The forest bed is about 2^ feet deep, 
and rests on about a foot of whitish clay and sand. It 
crops up in several places along the coast at low water 
mark, and is composed of stumps and roots of oak, beech, 
elm, birch, holly, yew, hazel, elder, and willows. A 
particularly good example of this is at Trusthorpe, where 
it is noted that the sea made a great breach in 1777 (the 
forest was destroyed centuries before that), and where the 
original church and a great part of its parish are said 
to lie beneath the waves. In the fens where the forest 
has been uncovered, the trunks of the trees all slope to 
the north-east, a clear proof that in their lifetime, as at the 
present day, the most prevalent wind was that from the 
south-west. 

Finally, the "blow-wells" deserve notice; they are 
powerful springs, rising from the chalk through the drift 
and alluvial deposits, and are found between Grimsby 
and Sutton-on-Sea. 

7. Natural History. 

All our existing animals, insects, and plants probably 
only date from after the time when Britain was over- 
spread with a vast and thick sheet of ice. It is very 



NATURAL HISTORY 35 

doubtful if any species can have survived the intense 
cold of that period. Later, when England was still 
joined to the continent at Dover and Calais, and across 
from Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and Yorkshire to Holland 
and Belgium, there must have been a re-colonisation of 
our land by animals and plants, though the latter do not 
depend only on land for their distribution, their seeds 
being often carried by birds to far distant shores. The 
number of kinds of animals in this island is less than that 
found on the continent, and in Ireland still less, showing 
that the channel between Britain and the continent was 
formed before the immigration was complete, and that 
Ireland being further off naturally fared worse. 

Dealing with mammals first, of which there are some 
50 species, there have been found in Lincolnshire antlers 
of the red deer 1 and bones of Bos longifrons, of wild horse, 
wolf, wild boar, and beaver. Other animals have become 
extinct within living memory, such as the wild cat, of 
which the last specimen was shot in Bullington Wood 
near Wragby in 1883. The pine-marten is now very rare, 
but weasels and stoats are common, and the polecat haunts 
the marshes along the east coast. The otter is much in 
evidence, and the badger (or brock) is more abundant in 
Lincolnshire than in any other midland county. Bats of 
three kinds are plentiful, as are hedgehogs, moles, and 
three kinds of shrews; squirrels abound in this county. 
The dormouse is recorded to inhabit the woods of south- 
west Lincolnshire, the harvest mouse is very rare, the field 

1 Antlers were dug up in making the lake at Hartsholme, near Lincoln, 
and in the peat at Barton and New Holland on the Trent. 

32 



36 LINCOLNSHIRE 

mouse very abundant. Rabbits are exceedingly plentiful, 
especially on the sandy moors of the north, and hares are 
still very numerous and of large size on the Wolds, and 
on the Cliff to the south of Lincoln. Fallow deer are 
kept in some half-dozen parks in the county, and the 
herd of red deer in Grimsthorpe Park are believed to be 
the descendants and last remnant of the herds which 
inhabited the great forest of Kesteven. 

Along the coast and on the sandbanks of the Wash 
are multitudes of the common seal, and the grey seal 
has been noticed also. Specimens of some eight kinds 
of whale have been stranded or captured along the coast, 
the porpoise is common, and the bottle-nosed dolphin 
rather less so. 

With the great change in the Fens and altered conditions 
of the waterways, various birds have practically disappeared 
from the county, such as the avocets and ruffs. Grouse 
and blackcock, both of which latter birds used to be shot 
not very many years ago, are also gone. As a large 
arable county, it naturally breeds many partridges, mainly 
English, but with a sprinkling of the French or red-legged 
species; and, as a great sporting county, it rears very large 
numbers of pheasants, of which there are still some wild 
ones, free from imported strain. Snipe and woodcock 
are fairly abundant in winter, with a quantity of golden 
plover in the north of Lincolnshire, and the common 
peewit or lapwing all over it. On the salt marshes, as 
by Saltfleet, are generally to be found hundreds of knot, 
curlew, dunlin, ringed plover, redshanks, etc., with wild 
geese occasionally coming over. 



NATURAL HISTORY 37 

At Scawby and Manton the black-headed gull 
(Larus ridibundus) breeds in thousands, while heronries 
are met with here and there, as at Evedon, and in one or 
two places along the Witham. The bittern has vanished, 
one of the last having been shot on the Holmes Common 




Bittern 

close to Lincoln in 1845. The barn, long-eared, and 
brown owls frequently breed in the county, as did the 
short-eared owl till some 25 years ago. The harriers 
(marsh and hen) ceased to breed in Lincolnshire some 
50 or 60 years ago. About 1885 the buzzard ceased to 



38 LINCOLNSHIRE 

nest here, though formerly common. Sparrow-hawks 
are quite common, and are judiciously kept under by 
the gamekeeper. The last kite's nest known was noted 
in Bullington Wood near Wragby in 1870. The hobby 
is a summer visitor, the merlin a winter one along the 
coast line. The kestrel still is common, and till 1893 
a pair nested on the western towers of Lincoln Minster. 
The nightingale is often heard as far north as Horncastle 
and also, though rarely, round Lincoln. 

Of the reptiles the most interesting specimen is 
probably the natterjack toad (Bufo calamltd] which has 
been found on the sandhills near Mablethorpe. 

The county is full of interest for the entomologist, 
though here again the drainage of the fens and an in- 
creased arable area have driven away many interesting 
kinds. Among the butterflies the chequered skipper, the 
brown hairstreak, the purple emperor, the greasy fritillary, 
and the marbled white are all notable. 

At the time of Domesday Book there were about 
34,000 acres of woodland, now there are some 10,000 
acres more. The great forest of Kesteven was partially 
disafforested on its Boston side by King John in 1204, 
and the rest was thrown open in 1230. The submerged 
forests along the coast, and the remains of forests found 
in the peat of the fens, testify to the former covering 
with wood of large tracts of this county. In the parks, 
such as Grimsthorpe and Haverholme, are oaks, horn- 
beams, and hawthorns of considerable age ; there is much 
ash on the Wolds, and Scotch firs have been planted more 
than 100 years ago at Fillingham and Burton. Those at 



NATURAL HISTORY 



39 



Scawby on the sandy borders of the gull-ponds give a 
distinctly Scotch effect to the scene. The largest willow 
in England is in Haverholme Park and has a girth of 
25 feet at five feet from the ground. There is a large 
oak at Well, and another at Woodthorpe (both near 
Alford) whose trunk is four yards in diameter. The 
common oak of the county is Quercus pedunculata, which 




Scawby Gull-Ponds 

Mr E. W. Peacock has found to be the species occurring 
in the submerged forests and those covered in peat. 

The botany of Lincolnshire, as mentioned by Dr 
F. A. Lees, is remarkable for presenting us with various 
kinds and species of plants which generally live on different 
soil, and at different altitudes, meeting here. This is due 
probably to the geographical position of the county, and 
to the absence of any mountainous features. The list of 



40 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



Lincolnshire plants numbers nearly 2000. The sandhills 
along the coast still retain their covering of swordgrass 
and sea-buckthorn or sallowthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides\ 
the first name due to the gleaming scales beneath its leaves, 
known here since 1670, and remarkable for its glaucous 
leaves, orange berries, and sharp spikes. The salt marsh 
has sea-orach, and below high water level the glasswort 




Moorland, near Woodhall 

(Salicornia\ and that most attractive food for wildfowl, 
the glasswrack (Zostera marina). The land round Wood- 
hall is still gorgeous in autumn with purple heather ; the 
common heath, the cross-leaved kind, and ling being not 
at all rare. Of insectivorous plants can still be found two 
sorts of the sundew and the common butterwort. The 
rarer Alpine clubmoss (Selaginella\ the marsh mountain 



NATURAL HISTORY 41 

ferns, the beautiful grass of Parnassus, the marsh gentian, 
and the bog pimpernel are all noted as inhabitants of 
this county. At Halton Holgate is much of the hoary 
cinquefoil. The woody nightshade, henbane, and dwale 
or deadly nightshade, are all natives of the county. The 
latter is mentioned by Gerarde (16.36) as growing plenti- 
fully in Holland in Lincolnshire, though it is not so 
common now. In May the woods are carpeted with 
bluebells (wild hyacinth), and the lily of the valley 
flourishes greatly in the woods near Lincoln. The 
network of rivers, canals, and land drains has been 
choked in past times by the imported water-weed from 
America, the Anacharh alsinastrum. Lastly it may be 
mentioned that one species of plant, Sellnum curvtfolium, 
is only known to exist in this county and in the Isle 
of Ely. 

8. Peregrination of the Coast. 

As has been already stated, there are only two estuaries 
in or near her coast by which the rivers of Lincolnshire 
enter the sea that of the Humber, which receives the 
Trent ; and that of the Wash, which receives the Witham, 
Welland, and Nene. Moreover, the coast itself is very 
low and flat, the land near the edge of the sea being only 
from 4 to 20 feet above sea-level ; the low-water line is 
distant, and the five-fathom limit generally well out to 
sea. Therefore, between the Humber and the Wash 
there are no harbours or ports, and therefore also there 
are no large sea-side towns. 



42 LINCOLNSHIRE 

We may conveniently begin our peregrination of the 
coast at the extreme north-west corner of the county, 
where the Trent joins with the Yorkshire Ouse to form 
the Humber. This river is about three-quarters of a mile 
wide at the junction, and the range of hills on which 
Alkborough is situated comes very near to the edge of 
the river. This edge, passing Whitton on the way, runs 
east north-east for four miles to Whitton Ness, the most 
northerly point of the county, then makes a curve south- 
eastwards past Winteringham, Read's Island, and the flat 
lands through which the Ancholme runs, to South Ferriby, 
where the north-western extremity of the Wolds termi- 
nates almost on the water's edge. Probably Read's Island 
owes its origin to the alluvial matter brought down by 
the Ancholme. Close to Winteringham Haven was the 
north end of the Roman road, the Ermine Street. North- 
easterly again the coast trends, past the rather important 
town of Barton, which has two fine churches, and is 
connected by a railway with New Holland, whence there 
is a steam ferry to Hull, almost opposite. It is three 
miles from here to Skitter Ness, whence the coast runs 
south-easterly for 12 miles to Grimsby, about half-way 
being the great new dock at Immingham, where the 
five-fathom line approaches very close to the shore, which 
was one reason, no doubt, for the selection of this site for 
the dock. 

Leaving Grimsby, which is dealt with as a fishing and 
general port in other chapters, an almost continuous line of 
houses leads to the popular watering-place of Cleethorpes, 
which has a large tract of sand, a long pier, bracing air, and 



PEREGRINATION OF THE COAST 43 

many other attractions for the Midland excursionist, and 
on Bank Holidays some 100,000 people are often brought 
to it by train. Hence the coast runs still south-eastwards. 
Wider and wider get the sands exposed at low water as 
Tetney Haven and Grainthorpe Haven are reached, while 
at Donna Nook the five-fathom line has gone nearly six 
miles out to sea to the Sand Haile and the Rosse Spit 




A 
% 



.Hi 

f -1!S : ^** UL ,4 




Skegness 

Buoys. Quite possibly this may indicate land which has 
been overwhelmed by the sea at some past epoch, or on 
the other hand it may be due to the alluvial matter 
brought down by the Humber being deposited here. The 
edge of the coast from Grimsby to Skegness is composed 
of sand-hills, sometimes, as near Theddlethorpe, low, but 
a quarter of a mile wide, sometimes, as near Mablethorpe, 



44 LINCOLNSHIRE 

60 or 70 feet high but of narrow width. They are 
covered with sea-buckthorn and grass, and are a great 
nursery for rabbits. On the shore between Donna Nook 
and Theddlethorpe are patches of higher sand, covered 
with glasswort (samphire) and intersected with many 
channels, much frequented by various kinds of sea-birds. 
At the Manor House at Saltfleet, Oliver Cromwell is 
traditionally supposed to have slept on September 26, 
1643, a f ew days before the battle of Winceby. On 
these extensive sands at low tide mirages are frequently 
seen. 

Mablethorpe is a rising watering-place ; Trusthorpe, 
a mile or two south, is very much smaller, but not 
less popular, and Sutton perhaps outrivals Mablethorpe 
in size and popularity. Tennyson spent much time at 
Mablethorpe in the earlier years of his life. "At high tide 
the sea comes right up to the bank with splendid menacing 
waves, which furnished him, five and thirty years after he 
had left Lincolnshire for ever, with the famous simile in 
The Last Tournament : 

...as the crest of some slow-arching wave, 
Heard in dead night along that table shore, 
Drops flat, and after the great waters break 
Whitening for half a league, and thin themselves, 
Far over sands marbled with moon and cloud, 
From less and less to nothing. 

This accurately describes the flat Lincolnshire coast with 
its interminable rollers, breaking on the endless sands, 
than which waves the poet always said that he had never 
anywhere seen grander, and the clap of the wave as it fell 



46 LINCOLNSHIRE 

on the hard sand could be heard across that flat country 
for miles 1 ." 

At Sutton was the destined termination of the 
Lancashire, Derbyshire, and East Coast Railway, which 
never got farther east than Lincoln, and which has now 
been absorbed by the Great Central Railway. Huttoft 
is picturesquely situated on a piece of rising ground, 
and between it and the shore is the site of a proposed 
" Garden City," Woldsea. Chapel St Leonards is a 
favourite place for families to stay at, and at present it 
is far from the usual haunts of trippers. Ingoldmells 
Point is the most easterly part of the county and the five- 
fathom line is some five miles out to sea. At Winthorpe 
the Roman Bank is close to the edge of the shore. 
From Ingoldmells the coast-line runs south, with a 
slight inclination westwards, past Skegness to Gibraltar 
Point. 

Probably a Roman fort was situated close to Skegness 
(part of this land was called Chesterland or Castelland in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries) which with Bran- 
caster on the Norfolk coast opposite would defend the 
Wash. Skegness owes much of its development to the 
Earls of Scarbrough ; it is an excellent sea-side resort (out 
of the tripper's season), with as fine air as can possibly 
be found, and first-rate golf links at Seacroft. It is the 
resort of excursionists, very many thousands of whom are 
taken there annually. Just below Gibraltar Point the 
Wainfleet Haven or Steeping River runs into the sea, 

1 Mr Willingham Rawnsley, in Tennyson and his Friends, Macmillan & 
Co., 1911. 



PEREGRINATION OF THE COAST 47 

Wainfleet itself being a pleasant little town about two 
miles from the edge of the marsh. William of Wayn- 
flete's School reminding one of Tattershall Castle still 
exists. Here begin the great Wainfleet Sands which a,t 
low-water stretch seawards for nearly four miles, and are 
separated from a patch of sand called the Long Sands in 
the middle of the Wash by less shallow water called 
Boston Deeps. From Gibraltar Point, interrupted only 
by the outlet of Boston Haven, the coast-line runs south- 
westwards to the bridge over the junction of the river 
Welland with the Wash at Fossdyke. A large semi- 
circular bend, with the convexity northwards, extends 
thence to the outfall by Sutton Bridge of the River 
Nene. This land, and that on the east of the Nene 
called Wingland, has all been reclaimed from the sea. 
At Sutton Bridge is an unfortunately ruined dock, 
constructed by the Great Northern Railway. 

9. Coastal Gains and Losses. 

In past times a considerable loss of land has occurred 
on the Lincolnshire coast. Grimsby old harbour, it is 
true, has been filled up with silt, but a few miles further 
south part of the parish of Clee has disappeared. Itterby 
has vanished, and the signal-house south of Cleethorpes 
has been three times set back out of reach of the sea. 
Saltfleet and Mablethorpe St Peter's have lost their 
churches and some portion of their land. There has 
been encroachment also at Ingoldmells. Leland says of 
fc Skegnesse, a four or five miles of Wilegripe " a pert 



48 LINCOLNSHIRE 

which has disappeared " sumtym a great haven towne, 
the old towne clean consumed and eten by the sea." All 
along the coast from the Humber to the Wash can be 
seen at low tide the remains of a submerged forest ; this 
is especially well seen at Trusthorpe, where the trees are 
of birch, fir, and oak. Along this coast the normal 
direction of travel of beach material is from north to 
south. The gains are chiefly due to the material brought 
to the sea by the rivers. Thus at Trent Falls in the upper 
Humber there were 260 grains of "warp" (i.e. silt) in the 
gallon, while near Grimsby there were only 30 grains 
per gallon at low water. In the Wash warp begins to 
be deposited at 5-5 feet above ordnance datum, samphire 
or glasswort (Salicornia) in another two feet, grass in a 
further two feet. New marsh is formed at icr68 feet, 
and old high marsh at 13*15 feet, about the level of 
ordinary spring tide. Another valuable plant for helping 
the reclamation of salt marshes is the so-called " rice 
grass " (Spartina strlcta\ which grows below high- water 
mark. 

Accretion is predominant in the Wash. Erosion 
in recent years (between 1883 and 1905) has caused a 
loss to Lincolnshire of 400 acres, but there has been a 
gain in the same time of no less than 9106 acres, partly 
no doubt from the material oft the Yorkshire coast, but 
mainly from that discharged into estuaries by the rivers. 
In South Holland about 25,000 acres were reclaimed 
north of the Roman Banks by the year 1632 in the 
parishes reaching from Moulton to Tydd St Mary's. 
And in the middle of last century some 600 acres of 



COASTAL GAINS AND LOSSES 49 

salt " fitties " (an old Norse word for the outmarsh lying 
between the sea-bank and the sea) were reclaimed in the 
parishes of Grainthorpe and Marsh Chapel. It has been 
calculated that since the Norman Conquest some 330,000 
acres in Lincolnshire have been reclaimed from the sea 
or from the waters of the fen. On the banks of the 
Trent, particularly in the Isle of Axholme, a special 
method of fertilising the land is in vogue called warping. 
Silt-laden tidal water is let in through sluices and drains, 
and allowed to stand on the land chosen for the purpose, 
the water being gradually drawn off with the fall of the 
tide. This is continued for some three or four years, and 
a thick layer of rich alluvial deposit is secured, making 
what was previously poor soil into almost the richest in 
England. 

The protection of the coast of Lincolnshire is accom- 
plished in various ways. Along the south shore of the 
Humber a substantial bank stretches between Barton and 
Grimsby. At Cleethorpes a sea wall and embankment 
more than a mile long have been erected. A low range 
of sand-hills with a clay foundation forms the coast pro- 
tection as far as Skegness. This range has been artificially 
heightened and broadened with clay and faggoting, and 
fronted with thorn bushes in some places to accumulate 
the sand, as at Trusthorpe, while exposed parts are faced 
with a massive timber defence. Wooden groynes also 
have been of much service in protecting the coast 
between Mablethorpe and Sutton. 

The coast, with its very shallow sea, is naturally a 
dangerous one, and the banks well out are carefully 

s. L. 4 



50 LINCOLNSHIRE 

buoyed and lighted, as is the entrance to Boston Deeps 
from the sea, for the Wash is difficult to navigate, owing 
to the many sandbanks and their frequent alteration in 
form and size. The New Cut to Boston has fixed lights.^ 
and there are 22 lights up to the Dock entrance. Skegness 
Pier head has two fixed white lights. There are also 
light-vessels off the Dudgeon, Inner and Outer Dowsing 
shoals, with revolving light and foghorn, and on the 
last-named a submarine bell. 

Off Spurnhead is a light-vessel with a revolving light, 
visible for u miles. At Spurnhead, a point of special 
importance to navigation, there are two lights in the light- 
house, the upper one visible 17 miles, flashing white for 
i-| seconds, and being obscured for 181 seconds. The 
lower light is fixed, and visible for 13 miles, showing 
white over the Skegness Shoal, and to the east red over 
the Sand Haile Buoy. This expanse of sand will be 
noted on the map as taking the five-fathom limit more 
than five miles out to sea to the Rosse Spit Buoy, east 
and south of the entrance to the Humber. The Humber 
is of course well buoyed, with a lightship on the Bull 
Sand (almost in the middle of the Channel), revolving 
white and red every 10 seconds alternately, visible 
1 1 miles. There are also many other lights of lesser 
importance along our coast. 

There are lifeboats stationed at Grimsby, Donna 
Nook, Mablethorpe, Sutton, and Skegness. 



CLIMATE 51 



10. Climate. 

The climate of a country or district is, briefly, the 
average weather of that country or district, and it depends 
upon the latitude, the temperature, the direction and 
strength of the winds, the rainfall, the character of the 
soil, the height above sea-level, and the nearness of 
the district to the sea. 

The differences in the climates of the world depend 
mainly upon latitude, but a scarcely less important 
factor is nearness to the sea. Along any great climatic 
belt there will be found variations in proportion to this 
nearness, the extremes being " continental " climates 
in the centres of continents far from the oceans, and 
"insular" climates in small tracts surrounded by sea. 
Continental climates show great differences in seasonal 
temperatures, the winters tending to be unusually cold 
and the summers unusually warm, while the climate of 
insular tracts is characterised by equableness and also by 
greater dampness. Great Britain possesses, by reason of 
its position, a temperate insular climate, but its average 
annual temperature is much higher than could be expected 
from its latitude. The prevalent south-westerly winds 
cause a drift of the surface-waters of the Atlantic towards 
our shores, and this warm water current, which we know 
as the Gulf Stream, is the chief cause of the mildness of 
our winters. 

Most of our weather comes to us from the Atlantic. 
It would be impossible here within the limits of a short 

42 



52 LINCOLNSHIRE 

chapter to discuss fully the causes which affect or control 
weather changes. It must suffice to say that the conditions 
are in the main either cyclonic or anticyclonic, which 
terms may be best explained, perhaps, by comparing the 
air currents to a stream of water. In a stream a chain 
of eddies may often be seen fringing the more steadily- 
moving central water. Regarding the general north- 
easterly moving air from the Atlantic as such a stream, 
a chain of eddies may be developed in a belt parallel with 
its general direction. This belt of eddies or cyclones, as 
they are termed, tends to shift its position, sometimes 
passing over our islands, sometimes to the north or south 
of them, and it is to this shifting that most of our weather 
changes are due. Cyclonic conditions are associated with 
a greater or less amount of atmospheric disturbance ; 
anticyclonic with calms. 

The prevalent Atlantic winds largely affect our island 
in another way, namely in its rainfall. The air, heavily 
laden with moisture from its passage over the ocean, 
meets with elevated land-tracts directly it reaches our 
shores the moorland of Devon and Cornwall, the Welsh 
mountains, or the fells of Cumberland and Westmorland 
and, blowing up the rising land-surface, gets cooled and 
parts with this moisture as rain. To how great an extent 
this occurs is best seen by reference to the accompanying 
map of the annual rainfall of England, where it will at 
once be noticed that the heaviest fall is in the west, and 
that it decreases with remarkable regularity until the least 
fall is reached on our eastern shores. 

The above causes, then, are those mainly concerned 



CLIMATE 53 

in influencing the weather, but there are other and more 
local factors which often affect greatly the climate of a 
place, such, for example, as configuration, position, and 
soil. The shelter of a range of hills, a southern aspect, 
a sandy soil, will thus produce conditions which may 
differ greatly from those of a place perhaps at no great 
distance situated on a wind-swept northern slope with 
a cold clay soil. 

The character of the climate of a country or district 
influences, as everyone knows, both the cultivation of the 
soil and the products which it yields, and thus indirectly 
as well as directly exercises a profound effect upon Man. 
The banana-nourished dweller in a tropical island who 
" has but to tickle the earth with a hoe for it to laugh a 
harvest " is of different fibre morally and physically from 
the inhabitant of northern climes who wins a scanty 
subsistence from the land at the expense of unremitting 
toil. These are extremes ; but even within the limits of 
a county, perhaps, similar if smaller differences may be 
noted, and the man of the plain or the valley is often 
distinct in type from his fellow of the hills. 

Very minute records of the climate of our island are 
kept at numerous stations throughout the country, relating 
to the temperature, rainfall, force and direction of the 
wind, hours of sunshine, cloud conditions, and so forth, 
and are duly collected, tabulated, and averaged by the 
Meteorological Society. From these we are able to 
compare and contrast the climatic differences in various 
parts. 

Speed (1627) says of this county, "The Ayre upon 



54 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the East and South part is both thicke and foggy, by 
reason of the Fennes and unsolute grounds, but there- 
withall very moderate and pleasing. Her graduation 
being removed from the Equator to the degree of 53, 
and the Windes that are sent of her still working Seas, 
doe disperse those vapours from all power of hurt." 

The average number of hours of bright sunshine in 
the year for the North Eastern Division of England from 
1871-1905 was between noo and 1400. In 1911, a 
very bright year, the number of hours of bright sunshine 
at Skegness was no less than 1832 (the value for the 
district being 1597), and Rauceby had 1701. On the 
map recording sunshine in this year a small patch on the 
south bank of the Humber is marked as having 1400 hours, 
a third of the county 1700, and the rest up to 2000 hours. 

In the annexed map, which shows the average annual 
rainfall, almost the whole of Lincolnshire is in the area 
marked " under 25 " (meaning less than 25 inches fall of rain 
in the course of the year). The exception is a patch along 
the summit of the Wolds running north-west to south-east, 
which comes into the higher rainfall division of "25 30." 
At Teal by on the Wolds the average annual rainfall, for 
example, was 27-35 inches, while at Lincoln only 23-34 
inches of rain fell on 150 days, the average annual rainfall 
for Lincoln for the past 10 years being 23-27 inches. At 
Fulbeck on the under edge of the Cliff on 178 days there 
were 23*67 inches, and at Rauceby a little eastward of 
the last station, there were 25^66 inches. These should 
be compared with the average annual rainfall for Great 
Britain, which is 32 inches. 



ENGLAND & WALES 

ANNUAL RAINFALL 

Statute Miles 




GEORGE PHIUP& SON L T . 



(The figures give the approximate annual rainfall in inches?) 



56 LINCOLNSHIRE 

The number of wet days in each month varies from 
ii to 17, and the wettest months are undoubtedly those 
of July (2-37 to 2'6o inches), September (2-01 to 2'68 
inches), August (2-57 to 3-22 inches), and October (2-47 
to 3-30 inches). 

The mean annual temperature for the county varies 
from 47 F. at Tealby (251 feet above sea-level) to 48 F. 
at Lincoln (station 58 feet above sea-level), thus being very 
much the same as the average temperature for England, 
i.e. 48. The most prevalent winds are south-west, and 
it is very interesting to note that the trees in the Fens 
now lean towards the north-east, just as their predecessors 
did hundreds of years ago before they were invaded and 
swamped by peat. Owing to the fact of these winds 
having swept across the Devon and Somerset moors and 
the Welsh mountains and a great expanse of land before 
reaching this county, they do not bring much rain ; and 
the same applies to snow, which rarely falls very heavily, 
except on the Wolds in a specially severe winter. The 
hardest and longest frosts occur with these winds. 

In the early months of the year there is a great 
prevalence of easterly winds, and these, coming straight 
from the North Sea, bring a large amount of moisture 
with them, giving rise to grey skies, and when the wind 
is south-easterly, to heavy and persistent rain. Frequently, 
in the evening, a long line of cloud may be seen, lying 
a little above the summits of the Wolds, showing that 
some condensation is taking place from the air saturated 
with moisture. And, frequently, 30 or 40 miles inland, 
when an east wind is blowing, it carries a strong smell 



CLIMATE 



57 



of sea-water with it. Sea-mists are not uncommon ; 
particularly on or after very bright hot days. And, 
by contrast, never is the sky more blue, or the 
distances more distinct, than on a day of clear bright east 
wind. Very few sea-side resorts of the British Isles 
can surpass those of the Lincolnshire coast in the 
splendidly bracing quality of the air. 







Skating on the Fens 



ii. People Race, Settlements, Dialect. 

We have no written record of the history of our land 
carrying us beyond the Roman invasion in B.C. 55, but 
we know that Man inhabited it for ages before this date. 
The art of writing being then unknown, the people of 






58 LINCOLNSHIRE 

those days could leave us no account of their lives and 
occupations, and hence we term these times the Prehistoric 
period. But other things besides books can tell a story, 
and there has survived from their time a vast quantity of 
objects (which are daily being revealed by the plough of 
the farmer or the spade of the antiquary), such as the 
weapons and domestic implements they used, the huts 
and tombs and monuments they built, and the bones of 
the animals they lived on, which enable us to get a fairly 
accurate idea of the life of those days. 

So infinitely remote are the times in which the earliest 
forerunners of our race flourished, that scientists have not 
ventured to date either their advent or how long each 
division in which they have arranged them lasted. It 
must therefore be understood that these divisions or 
Ages of which we are now going to speak have been 
adopted for convenience sake rather than with any aim 
at accuracy. 

The periods have been named from the material of 
which the weapons and implements were at that time 
fashioned the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age ; the 
Neolithic or Later Stone Age ; the Bronze Age ; and 
the Iron Age. But just as we find stone axes in use at 
the present day among savage tribes in remote islands, so 
it must be remembered the weapons of one material were 
often in use in the next Age, or possibly even in a later 
one, that the Ages, in short, overlapped. 

Let us now examine these periods more closely. 
First, the Palaeolithic or Old Stone Age. Man was now 
in his most primitive condition. He probably did not 



PEOPLE RACE, SETTLEMENTS, DIALECT 59 

till the land or cultivate any kind of plant or keep any 
domestic animals. He lived on wild plants and roots and 
such wild animals as he could kill, the reindeer being then 
abundant in this country. He was largely a cave-dweller 
and probably used skins exclusively for clothing. He 
erected no monuments to his dead and built no huts. He 
could, however, shape flint implements with very great 
dexterity, though he had as yet not learnt either to grind 
or polish them. There is still some difference of opinion 
among authorities, but most agree that, though this may 




-li i .. 

Neolithic Implement 

not have been the case in other countries, there was in 
our own land a vast gap of time between the people of 
this and the succeeding period. Palaeolithic man, who 
inhabited either scantily or not at all the parts north of 
England and made his chief home in the more southern 
districts, disappeared altogether from the country, which 
was later re-peopled by Neolithic man. 

Neolithic man was in every way in a much more 
advanced state of civilisation than his precursor. He 
tilled the land, bred stock, wore garments, built huts, 



60 LINCOLNSHIRE 

made rude pottery, and erected remarkable monuments. 
He had, nevertheless, not yet discovered the use of the 
metals, and his implements and weapons were still made 
of stone or bone, though the former were often beautifully 
shaped and polished. 

Between the Later Stone Age and the Bronze Age 
there was no gap, the one merging imperceptibly into the 
other. The discovery of the method of smelting the ores 
of copper and tin, and of mixing them, was doubtless a 
slow affair, and the bronze weapons must have been ages 
in supplanting those of stone, for lack of intercommuni- 
cation at that time presented enormous difficulties to the 
spread of knowledge. Bronze Age man, in addition to 
fashioning beautiful weapons and implements, made good 
pottery, and buried his dead in circular barrows. 

In due course of time man learnt how to smelt the 
ores of iron, and the Age of Bronze passed slowly into 
the Iron Age, which brings us into the period of written 
history, for the Romans found the inhabitants of Britain 
using implements of iron. 

We may now pause for a moment to consider who 
these people were who inhabited our land in these far-off 
ages. Of Palaeolithic man we can say nothing. His 
successors, the people of the Later Stone Age, are believed 
to have been largely of Iberian stock people, that is, from 
south-western Europe who brought with them their 
knowledge of such primitive arts and crafts as were then 
discovered. How long they remained in undisturbed 
possession of our land we do not know, but they were 
later conquered or driven westward by a very different 



PEOPLE RACE, SETTLEMENTS, DIALECT 61 

race of Celtic origin the Goidels or Gaels, a tall, light- 
haired people, workers in bronze, whose descendants 
and language are to be found to-day in many parts of 
Scotland, Ireland, and the Isle of Man. Another Celtic 
people poured into the country about the fourth century 
B.C. the Brythons or Britons, who in turn dispossessed 
the Gael, at all events so far as England and Wales are 
concerned. The Brythons were the first users of iron in 
our country. 

The Romans, who first reached our shores in B.C. 55, 
held the land till about A.D. 410 ; but in spite of the 
length of their domination they do not seem to have 
left much mark on the people. After their departure, 
treading close on their heels, came the Saxons, Jutes, 
and Angles. But with these, and with the incursions of 
the Danes and Irish, we have left the uncertain region of 
the Prehistoric Age for the surer ground of History. 

Of the Celtic population of this county at the time 
of the Roman invasion but few traces are left, thus 
contrasting greatly with what has happened in counties 
such as Somerset, Cornwall and the wilder parts of 
Wales, and the Lake district, where the Brythons (hence 
the name Britain) fled before the Roman advance and 
later from the Saxons. These Celts, belonging to the 
tribe of Coritani, have left little impression on the 
names of places (Lincoln itself being an exception), and 
probably none on the actual people of Lincolnshire. 
On the other hand the Saxon invasion and settlement 
must have been complete early in the sixth century. 
With respect to the Danish invasions in the ninth and 



62 LINCOLNSHIRE 

tenth centuries the case was otherwise, and the lion and 
the lamb would lie down at length peaceably, as after 
all they were essentially of the same racial stock. This 
can be seen by frequent intermingling of names. The 
Danish settlements and their advance in Lincolnshire 
may be traced in four special directions on the map by 
means of the Scandinavian names of towns or villages. 
No less than 195 of these names end in by (originally = 
a single dwelling-house), while 76 end in thorpe, which 
represented a collection of houses, or village. One 
advance was certainly made from near Grimsby west- 
wards and southwards, and another from the Trent 
eastwards, and the two streams would meet somewhere 
about Caistor. Again, on the coast from Saltfleetby to 
Skegness the names of Scandinavian origin are thickly 
spread, and so on to the Wolds around Spilsby and Alford 
and Horncastle. Moreover, the stream of invaders and 
settlers must have come up the Fossdyke from Gains- 
borough to Lincoln. 

There is no great distinction nowadays to be found 
between the two races of Saxons and Danes in Lincoln- 
shire. In a list of citizens at Lincoln in the fourteenth 
century, Old Norse and Saxon names are fairly equally 
represented. The country folk are generally speaking 
fair-haired, and, like David, ruddy of countenance. The 
ordinary language in the county is much the same as 
on the east coast and the south of Scotland, and is Saxon, 
added to and modified, but not supplanted, by Norse or 
Danish. There is a distinct difference between the dialects 
of the parts of the county divided by the Witham, 



PEOPLE RACE, SETTLEMENTS, DIALECT 63 

between north Lincolnshire, which was the home of 
the Lindiswaras, and south Lincolnshire, where the 
Gyrwas dwelt. Of the northern dialect (which approxi- 
mates fairly closely to that of its neighbour Yorkshire) 
Tennyson's Northern Farmer and other poems in dialect 
will serve as excellent examples. Probably many of the 
local pronunciations of words are original and right, in 
reality. For instance, road (where the vowels do not 
make a diphthong) is pronounced as a dissyllable, ro-ad, 
instead of as in our modern parlance " rode," leaving out 
the a altogether. One exception possibly from what 
has been said above as to the disappearance of all Celtic 
traces in the county, may be found in the way in which 
the shepherds, or at all events some of them, number 
their flock. This notation, pethera, pimp, dik, bumpit, yan 
a bumpit (4, 5, 10, 15, 16), is strikingly like that in the 
Celtic system, and that in use in modern Welsh, the 
Welsh equivalents being pedwar, pump, deg, pymtheg, 
unarbymtheg. Both systems start again at 15, and do 
not go further than 20, when a " score " was cut on the 
tally, and the counting commenced over again 1 . 

There are still some enduring traces of Huguenots in 
the county. From both France and Flanders there was 
a stream of immigration into England after the massacre 
on St Bartholomew's day, 1572, and more especially after 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. The 
Flemish, being trained to drainage working, helped 
Vermuyden in draining the Fens. In 1626, for the 

1 An almost identical notation occurs in parts of Cumberland and 
Westmorland Ed. 



64 LINCOLNSHIRE 

use of those foreigners working on Hatfield Chase, a 
chapel was built at Sandtoft near Belton, in the Isle 
of Axholme, wherein services were held alternately in 
French and Dutch. Thence, in the troublous times of 
the Great Civil War, many of these settlers were driven 
away, and made for Thorney. One family has been 
traced from Hatfield Chase to Thorney, whence it 
spread to Fleet, Crowland, Brothertoft, Swineshead, and 
Sutterton, and probably many others are in the same 
category. 

12. Agriculture Cultivations, Stock. 

Lincolnshire is pre-eminently an agricultural county, 
and a great proportion of its large area is devoted to the 
production of various crops. In 1911 out of its total 
of 1,705,293 acres, arable land accounted for no less 
than 1,003,743 acres, while permanent pasture occupied 
517,925 acres. The county possesses a larger acreage of 
barley than any other in the kingdom, and produces rather 
more than two bushels per acre above the average. Her 
wheat acreage also is the largest in England, yielding nearly 
six bushels per acre above the average. For acreage of 
oats she ranks between Yorkshire and Devon, with eight 
bushels per acre over the average. Her acreage of peas 
is the largest in England, that of beans between Suffolk 
and Essex, with over seven bushels to the acre over the 
average. The Lincolnshire potato-growing area is 
2O,ooo acres larger than that of Yorkshire, the next on 
the list ; and she ranks third among the counties for 




S. L. 



66 LINCOLNSHIRE 

turnips and swedes. It is interesting to note that in the 
ten years 1895-1904 the Lincoln corn-market was first in 
the list for oats three times, and for barley once, Norwich 
being generally the first corn-market in the kingdom, 
with London and Peterborough coming next. In 1910 
Lincoln ranked sixth on the list for wheat, second for 
barley (about 100,000 quarters behind Norwich, and 
about the same in front of Berwick), and sixth for oats, 
Stamford being third. About three thousand acres are 
allotted to orchards, and about two thousand acres to 
small fruit, especially strawberries, currants, and goose- 
berries. There are nearly five thousand small holdings 
from one to five acres each, and about ten thousand 
between five and fifty acres. Along the roads leading 
from Lincoln to Branston, Navenby, and Low Brace- 
bridge, can still be seen small one-storied houses which 
have each had about a rood of ground attached to them. 
These were early precursors of " Three acres and a 
cow," and were built by Fergus O'Connor, the Chartist. 
Lincolnshire has a great reputation for breeding and 
raising stock, and takes third place (after Yorkshire and 
Devon) among the counties of England in the number of 
cattle she possesses. A special breed (constituting about 
90 per cent, of the cattle bred in the county) the Lin- 
colnshire Red Shorthorn is becoming well-known; it is 
of a well-defined type, with much wealth and evenness 
of flesh, and with great milking qualities. As regards 
sheep her position is the same, ranking after Yorkshire 
and Northumberland. The typical Lincolnshire sheep 
is the largest and heaviest of its kind in the kingdom, has 



AGRICULTURE 



67 



a good growth of bright fleece, is of great hardiness of 
constitution, and is much used for crossing with other 
varieties, such as the Leicester. It is also in great 
request for exportation to Argentina, Australia, and 




Lincolnshire Ram 

New Zealand, where it is crossed with the Merino. 
Consequently immense prices have been paid as much 
as 1000 guineas for Lincolnshire rams. There are 
large sheep-fairs held annually at Lincoln and Corby, 

52 



68 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



but the numbers are very much smaller than in years 
gone by. At Sleaford wool-fair in 1911, no less than 
15,000 fleeces were for sale. For pigs the county 
takes fourth place, the majority being of the Large 




Lincolnshire Shire Horse 



White breed, which attain a very great size, 50 stone 
being a not infrequent weight; but a native kind, the 
Lincolnshire curly-coated, is rapidly advancing into 
favour. 






AGRICULTURE 69 

As becomes a county wherein two famous horse-fairs, 
Lincoln and Horncastle, are held, Lincolnshire has a 
great repute for breeding horses for riding, driving, and 
for heavy work; she ranks second to Yorkshire for the 
number of her horses. The shire horse has been a 
Lincolnshire production for generations past. It is in- 
teresting to note as showing how customs change that 
in 1566 it was observed that in Lincolnshire there were 
"few draught horses; the carriage of that county standeth 
most by oxen." Hence comes one of Shakespeare's two 
allusions to the county in Mr Justice Shallow's enquiry 
" How a good yoke of bullocks at Stamford Fair ?"* 

Of special cultivations, there is now nothing very 
particular to chronicle. As we shall see in the next 
chapter, in old days, before the drainage of the fens, 
very many geese of excellent quality were bred there. 
On the Heath were very large warrens of silver- 
grey rabbits (some still exist near Santon, close to 
Frodingham) whose skins were very marketable. Some 
300 or 400 acres of fen were also devoted to the produce 
of cranberries. Mustard is extensively grown for seed 
about Holbeach and Spalding, and the Isle of Axholme 
is well known for its vegetables, such as celery. Fields 
may also be seen of white poppies for " poppy-heads " 
and for the production of opium. Flax also is cultivated 
round Epworth and Crowle. A favourite Lincolnshire 
vegetable, Good King Henry or mercury, is extensively 

1 The other being "as melancholy as the drone of a Lincolnshire 

bagpipe," both from the play of Henry IV. Pepys was entertained in 1667 
to drink and the bagpipes by Sir Freshville Holies, a Lincolnshire M.P. 



70 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



grown and used as a rather coarse spinach, and the 
glasswort of the coasts (Saltcornia) is used for pickling. 
Around Boston some woad (hath tinctorid] is to be seen, 
and there were two woad-growers registered in the 
Lincolnshire Directory for 1909. The blue dye is obtained 
from the root-leaves, which are crushed in a mill by 
rude conical crushers dragged round by horses, and the 




The Woad Industry : Balls drying in the Sheds 

pulp thus made is worked up into balls and laid out for 
some weeks to dry. These are then thrown in a heap 
in the dark, mixed with water, and fermented, being left 
for a considerable time before being packed into casks for 
sale. This dye is now always used with indigo. 

Near Boston also, in the last few years, flower farms, 
producing narcissus and tulips, have come into vogue. 



AGRICULTURE 



71 



In the Isle of Axholme, round Haxey in particular, 
and on the higher levels, the land is cut up into parallel 
strips called selions, about a rod wide and half an acre in 
extent. As these belong frequently to different owners 
(one man for instance owned 40 acres in too different 
plots in one village), they are diversified in crops. 




A Field of Tulips at Spalding 

On the Heath or Cliff, which extends nearly from the 
Humber to south of Grantham, the soil is thin and near 
the oolite rock. The fields are large, often walled in, and 
the older farm buildings generally of stone. The rotation 
of crops is carried out with marrowfat peas, wheat, roots 
and barley, which is of the best quality. Carrots are 
much grown, especially where the soil is sandy. 



AGRICULTURE 73 

On the Wolds also the soil is very thin, hardly more 
than a foot deep above the chalk. The farms are large, 
running from 300 to 1500 acres, the largest of all being 
at Withcall. A four-course rotation of crops is strictly 
carried out, wheat (or oats rather commonly of late years), 
turnips, barley (with seeds sown in it), and wheat, or oats 
again. 

Much of the north Marsh is under permanent grass, 
and is some of the most valuable grazing ground in the 
kingdom. Further south a good deal of the land is 
now tilled, and produces mustard, potatoes, and corn. 
The growth of straw and yield of grain are very large 
indeed. 

The Fens are now so well drained that they are 
rather short of water in a dry summer. Most of the 
land is under arable culture, the corn crops being mainly 
wheat or oats, occasionally barley, or beans or peas. 
Turnips, mangolds, potatoes, and carrots are the chief 
root crops. 



13. Industries and Manufactures. 

In the centuries immediately succeeding the Norman 
Conquest the chief industry of Lincolnshire was the 
preparation of wool, as far as regards the dwellers on 
the Cliff, Heath, and Wold. It was no doubt due to the 
export of wool that the port of Lincoln ranked fourth 
among the ports of the kingdom in the sixth year of 
King John (1204), while Boston ranked second, Grimsby 



74 LINCOLNSHIRE 

tenth, Barton eleventh, and Immingham twelfth. In 
1291 Lincoln was made a "staple" town, wherein the 
wool was sold, weighed, and certified, and then sent down 
the river Witham to Boston. In 1361, however, the 
latter port had the "staple" transferred to it, to its great 
advantage, and to the great discontent of Lincoln, whose 
inhabitants vainly petitioned to have it restored. Nearly 
a hundred years before, Boston had stood at the head of 
the Customs returns for several years (1278-1290). In 
spite of the complaints of Lincoln's decaying trade, it 
must have been fairly prosperous, since it is estimated to 
have had a population of 5000 in 1377, when it was the 
sixth largest town in the kingdom, and in 1503 it was by 
assessment actually fourth in the list. It had had a guild 
of weavers for centuries, and in the middle of the thirteenth 
century Lincoln was celebrated for its manufacture of 
scarlet cloth. Later, the colour always associated with 
Lincoln was green, as is mentioned in Spenser's Faery 
Queene, Drayton's Polyolbion, and the ballads of Robin 
Hood, but few clothiers seem to have been in the city in 
the earlier years of the sixteenth century. The weaving 
trade probably went abroad during the stormy times 
of King John and Henry III, and never came back to 
Lincolnshire again, though the actual wool export trade 
must have lasted on well into the times of Queen 
Elizabeth, as the fine manor house at Bassingthorpe 
testifies, being built by a merchant of the staple, Thomas 
Coney, who had 1000 sheep in 1569. 

Later efforts to stimulate the working-up of the wool 
in the county do not seem to have met with much success. 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 75 

Several attempts were made at Lincoln both to establish 
knitting and spinning schools, and also clothworking in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but they all 
came to nothing. In 1561 Thomas Trollope proposed to 
Cecil, Queen Elizabeth's powerful minister, to set up 
mills at Stamford for the beating of hemp and the 
manufacture of linen and canvas cloth, but they met 
the same fate as those dealing with wool. At Belton 
House there is still some excellent tapestry made at 
Stamford in the eighteenth century. In 1787 an Annual 
County Ball was established for the encouragement of 
native woollen manufactures, for the first two years being 
held at Alford, but ever since at Lincoln. From its 
origin it is still often called the "Stuff Ball." The ladies 
used to wear stuff gowns and the gentlemen stuff coats, 
waistcoats, and breeches, according to the late Sir Charles 
Anderson, who adds that stuff was little worn after 1820. 
From the custom of the Lady Patroness choosing the 
colour or colours of the ball, it is also sometimes called 
the "Lincoln Colour Ball." 

In the Fens, before they were drained, one great 
source of income was from the very abundant supply of 
wild fowl. For these decoys were used, of which there is 
still one left at Ashby near Burringham on the Trent. 
In 35 seasons at this decoy the total catch was nearly 
100,000 wild fowl, of which nearly half was contributed 
by mallard and teal 1 . A great number of wild fowl 
are still taken in nets along the sand-flats on the Wash. 

1 Victoria County History of Lincolnshire, vol. 11, article Wildfowling, from 
which all that follows on this subject is taken. 



76 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



Both Fuller and Camden wrote enthusiastically of the 
wealth of wild fowl in Lincolnshire, and Pennant in 1768 
refers to this county as " the great magazine of wild fowl 
in this kingdom." Another source of profit to the "Fen 
Slodgers," as the men were called, was from the reeds and 
rushes, which were gathered for thatching before tiles 




Wildfowling in the Fens 

and slates came into ordinary use. Camden says that 
a well-harvested stack of reeds was worth from 200 to 
.300. Dr Johnson was told that a roof thatched with 
Lincolnshire reeds would last 70 years. It is easy to 
understand why the fenmen were so keenly and so 
tenaciously determined to resist the drainage of the 
Fens. 




Cutting Reeds for Thatching 



78 LINCOLNSHIRE 

It is interesting to note that, in 1585, an order was 
made for " xij or xvj Stiltmen in the countie of Lincolne 
furnished with either of them two paire of the highest of 
Stiltes and the longest poles that are or maie be used with 
the said stiltes to be sent over into the Low Contryes to 
the Erie of Leicester." 

Geese, as already stated, were in past years kept in 
enormous numbers in the Fens, both for their feathers, 
which provided the penman's quill before Birmingham had 
popularised the substitute of steel, and for stuffing beds, 
as well as for food. There are still many kept in the 
districts around Spalding. 

As would be expected in an agricultural county, there 
are large crushing-mills for linseed and for other kinds 
of cake for feeding stock. These are at Lincoln and 
Gainsborough, and there are manure works at Lincoln 
and Saxilby. Flour-mills driven by steam are fairly 
common in most of the large towns, and have superseded 
windmills, which are disappearing fast, and are not 
replaced. Forty years ago there was a row of seven or 
eight along the cliff between Lincoln and Burton, now 
two only are left. In a barley-producing county malting 
is naturally a very prominent industry, and the enormous 
new malt-kilns and houses at Sleaford are probably far 
the largest in the country. 

In Saxon times, certainly after the days of King 
Edwy, there w r as a mint in Lincoln which struck coins 
there of all the succeeding kings up to the Norman 
Conquest. When Domesday Book was compiled the 
Lincoln mint paid ^75 to the king, a larger sum than 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 79 

was paid by any other mint in the country. After the 
Conquest, coins struck at Lincoln are known of all the 
kings (Kings Richard I and John being excepted) down 
to King Edward I. 

This city also was one of the provincial assay towns, 
as was ordained by a statute of the year 1423 (the second 
year of King Henry VI) that each of the towns mentioned 
should have divers " touches," i.e. marks, and further that 
no goldsmith should work silver of worse alloy than the 
sterling, and should put his mark upon it before he " set 
to sell," under the same penalties as those obtaining in 
London. No mark is known peculiar to Lincoln. But 
there is a mark a capital I on a capital M in a florid type 
of shield, almost invariably alone which has been found 
on fifty communion cups which, except in one instance, are 
all in this county. It is almost certainly a Lincoln maker's 
private mark. These cups have paten covers, and on the 
paten foot is frequently inscribed the date, i.e. 1569 in 
19 instances, 1570 in two, and 1571 in one case. Other 
cups unmarked, but of the same date and style, may 
safely be attributed to the same maker, whose name, 
unfortunately, is not known. 

Towards the end of the first half of the nineteenth 
century agricultural-implement works were started in 
Lincoln. From small beginnings these works have grown 
and prospered exceedingly, their buildings and shops 
covering many acres and giving employment to some 
thousands of workmen. They produce portable and 
fixed engines, boilers, traction engines, road rollers, pumps, 
threshing-machines, hay and straw elevators, maize- 



80 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



shellers and chaff-cutters, oil engines, gas engines, steam 
navvies, engines for mining and electrical purposes, and 
steam wagons. In some of these works all the machinery 
is electrically driven, and in all the best and latest develop- 
ments in tools, workshops, etc., are found. Plough-works, 
malleable-iron works, and wire-works also produce a large 







Iron Works, Lincoln 

output, and employ many men. At Grantham also are 
large iron-works making much the same class of machinery, 
with a particular leaning to oil and gas engines. At 
Gainsborough are large foundries and iron-works, with 
like products in agricultural and other machinery. The 
smelting industry, which has attained such large dimen- 
sions at Scunthorpe, will be noticed in the next chapter. 




S. L. 



82 LINCOLNSHIRE 

At Brant Broughton much excellent work has been done 
recently in wrought iron, artistically handled. 

At both Gainsborough and Lincoln are large wood 
works, and, as will be seen later, wood holds an important 
position in the import trade of the Lincolnshire ports. 
A comparatively new industry which employs many 
hands, chiefly women and girls, in Boston, Lincoln, and 
other towns of this county, is pea-picking, in which the 
peas are sorted out in sizes and qualities and packed for 
sale in boxes. Another large industry is that of the 
feather factories, wherein the feathers supplied by farmers 
and poultry dealers are sorted by machinery and then 
purified by steam, the residue going to form a valuable 
manure. 

Of places in the county that have given name to any 
product there are only four Lincoln, as mentioned above, 
Grantham (for gingerbreads), Boston, and Torksey. Boston 
seems to have been known in Elizabethan times for its 
drinking-vessels, as Bishop Hall in his Satires refers to the 
" palish oat frothing in Boston clay 1 ." 

At Torksey 2 a china manufactory was established in 
1803 by William Billingsley, with his son-in-law, George 
Walker. Billingsley had previously been many years at 
Derby working for Duesbury, the proprietor of the old 
Derby works. The business at Torksey only lasted five 
years. Billingsley was an admirable flower and landscape 
painter on china. 

1 Victoria County History of Lincolnshire, vol. n, article Industries, p. 388. 

2 Associated Architect. Societies' Report, vol. xxm, pp. 153 15^> Dr 
O'Neill. 



INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES 83 

In the early days of lawn tennis, a considerable industry 
was established in Horncastle for the manufacture of the 
racquets used in the game. But this has died out in the 
last 20 years. 



14. Mines and Minerals. 

The first place among Lincolnshire mines must be 
given to Scunthorpe and Frodingham in the north of the 
county. The fact that the ironstone there was sufficiently 
rich to make it worth smelting was only realised about 
the year 1855, when the late Lord St Oswald (then Mr 
Rowland Winn) first opened quarries. The ore was at 
that time taken to the river Trent, and shipped to 
iron-works in Yorkshire. The first blast furnace in the 
district was erected about 1864, and others followed 
shortly afterwards. There are now five firms who smelt 
iron on the spot, and in addition to the ore used by them, 
a very large quantity is sent to iron-works in Yorkshire 
and Derbyshire. The area in which ironstone is being 
dug extends from Ashby on the south to Thealby on the 
north, a distance of about seven miles its widest part 
measuring about a mile and a half and it includes 
portions of the parishes of Ashby, Brumby, Frodingham, 
Scunthorpe, Flixborough, Normanby, and Burton. The 
ore is a fossil-bearing limestone in the Lower Lias and 
contains the iron in the form of hydrated peroxide. The 
bed, where it attains its full thickness, is about 30 feet 
deep ; it has a slight north-easterly dip, and the quarries 

63 



84 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



are all situated on its outcrop, so that the available thick- 
ness diminishes from east to west, according to the degree 
of denudation to which it has been subject. Towards 
the east the bed dips under the scarp of the hill ; but it 
was reached in shafts and borings near Appleby station at 
a depth of 300 feet, still being nearly 30 feet thick. The 
stone is all got in open quarries. It is covered with blown 




Frodingham Iron and Steel Works : Scunthorpe 

sand varying in depth from a few inches to about 30 feet, 
containing in places beds of peat. This is removed by 
digging and burrowing, or in some cases by mechanical 
means. The ironstone is got by drilling and blasting. 
The percentage of metallic iron varies in the different 
bands that make up the full thickness of the bed ; 
some of the richest yield upwards of 30 per cent, and 



MINES AND MINERALS 85 

some are too poor to treat. It has been calculated that 
on an average two tons of coal produce one ton of metal. 
The stone contains in itself sufficient lime to act as a flux, 
and a siliceous component is furnished by the ironstone 
of the Northampton Sands, quarried at Greetwell by 
Lincoln. 

The ore is smelted in large blast furnaces, and the 
result is mostly disposed of in the form of pig iron. But, 
a few years ago, one firm at Frodingham built steel works 
and rolling mills, using the Siemens-Martin method. The 
Lincolnshire steel is of very high quality, suitable for 
rolling into thin sheets or drawing into wire. Some 
extensive new works wherein both iron and steel will be 
made are nearing completion at Flixborough. 

At Caythorpe are considerable open workings of the 
Middle Lias (Marlstone) ironstone. 

At Greetwell and Monks Abbey, just east of Lincoln, 
as already mentioned, is quarried the siliceous ironstone 
found in the lowest layer of the Lower Oolite, known as 
the Northampton Sands. The ironstone is worked partly 
in the open when there is little soil above, but chiefly 
by galleries driven into the Cliff, with narrow-gauge rails 
and trucks, on which horse-traction is being superseded 
by small locomotives. The ore is reddish brown at the 
outcrop and gets bluer in colour the deeper the tunnel 
goes in. The yield of metal is from 28 to 40 per cent. 
The soil is replaced in the open workings, and has 
been covered with allotments, etc. ; in the other workings 
the galleries have fallen in and produced a very irregular 
surface. 



86 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Near Claxby and Nettleton the Middle Neocomian 
layer of ironstone, about six feet six inches thick, has 
been worked by galleries driven into the side of the hill. 
The workings began in 1868. The ore is almost entirely 
made up of small and beautifully polished oolitic grains 
of hydrated peroxide of iron. It is a calcareous ore, 
yielding from 28 to 33 per cent, of metallic iron, and 
is useful for mixing with the clayey ores of the coal- 
measures. From the presence of slag with charcoal and 
bits of pottery it is evident that this bed of ore was known 
to and worked by the Romans during their possession of 
this country. 

The county is not rich in other minerals, coal not yet 
having been tapped to any practical result. The chief 
building stone is the Lincolnshire Limestone, an oolitic 
rock worked near Ancaster and Wilsford, at Haydor, and 
near Grantham, of which many churches and houses in 
Kesteven are built, including Lincoln Minster. It hardens 
on exposure and forms a most excellent building stone. 
Many churches on the Wolds and in the Marsh are built 
of the beautiful local grey-green sandstone (of the Lower 
Neocomian series), which unfortunately is rather perish- 
able. In some instances the white chalk is used for 
building, as at Legbourne Church, where the smooth 
white surface suggests at a distance unglazed white tiles. 
The clay on Lincoln hill and below the Cliff is extensively 
used for brick-making, and at Little Bytham are works 
for making so-called "clinker" bricks, which are specially 
hard and used as fire-bricks. 



FISHERIES AND FISHING STATIONS 87 
15. Fisheries and Fishing Stations. 

There are several different methods adopted for 
catching sea-fish. Among the most important is that 
of trawling, in which a triangular net with a bag is 
towed along the sea-bottom. This, therefore, can only 
be done when the sea-floor is fairly smooth and sandy 
and without rocks. By this method the bottom-feeding 
fish are caught. Steam trawlers are gradually superseding 
the sailing vessels. In winter the east coast trawlers 
with which we are chiefly concerned fish the Dogger 
Bank, which lies in the North Sea about midway between 
the coast of Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland, and 
that of Denmark, and each vessel takes its own catch into 
port, having a well on board wherein the fish can be kept 
alive, while in harbour special boxes are placed in the 
water for the same purpose. In the months of February 
and March cod are very plentiful along the coast north 
of the Humber, and from 150 to 200 boxes of haddock 
are often landed at Grimsby by a steam trawler after a 
week's fishing on the Dogger Bank. In summer they 
fish along the Danish, German, and Dutch coasts in 
fleets, wherefrom a steamer takes the catch to port. 
The fish caught are chiefly flat-fish, halibut, turbot, brill, 
soles, and plaice, and those possessing the quaint names of 
witches and megrims, with some cod, haddock, whiting, 
hake, gurnard, and red mullet. Of late years, trawlers 
have gone farther a-sea for their quarry ; to Iceland, 
where are large plaice and haddock, and south to Vigo 
Bay, in the Bay of Biscay, where hake are plentiful. 



88 LINCOLNSHIRE 

The second kind of sea-fishing is by lines and hooks, 
and is carried on over much the same area as the former, 
especially over the Dogger Bank and Cromer Knoll, but fish 
are caught by this method at any depth, so that the state of 
the sea-floor, whether rocky or sandy, is of no consequence. 
Mussels and whelks are extensively used for bait, the lines 
are some eight miles long with 4580 hooks on each, and 
are shot across the tide. Cod and haddock are the main 
catch. The Faroe, Shetland, and Iceland fishing-grounds 
are worked by large steamers from Grimsby, which bring 
back enormous numbers of halibut,- with ling, cod, coal- 
fish, and skate. Fishing by head-lines, with generally two 
hooks, is familiar to every visitor to our coast, and is 
practised near the shore. 

The third kind of fishing is by drift-nets, which are 
hung suspended vertically across the tide, and through the 
meshes of which the fish (herrings on the north-eastern 
coasts, pilchards round Cornwall) get their heads, but 
cannot get them back, owing to the gills. 

Grimsby, from a small town with 9000 inhabitants 
in 1860, has sprung into the foremost position in Europe 
and probably the world, as a fishing port. She had in the 
1911 census a population of 74,663, a magnificent fleet 
of 564 steam fishing vessels (with tonnage 41,648), which 
is more than one-third of the entire number of vessels in 
the United Kingdom. The fish-market is two miles long, 
and in 1910 there were landed at Grimsby no less than 
3,491,000 cwts. of wet fish, valued at ^2,528,000, as 
well as 6000 worth of crabs, oysters, and other shellfish. 
In the preservation of all this fish much ice is necessary, 



FISHERIES AND FISHING STATIONS 89 

and hence there is a very large ice factory in the town. 
An effort is being made (1911) to make this port also 
one of the most important in the kingdom for curing and 
pickling herrings, as is done at Yarmouth and elsewhere. 
One of the earliest notices of Boston as a fishing port 
occurs in the year 1325, when orders were sent to buy 
and provide for the King's use in the markets of St Botolph, 




Fish-pontoon, Grimsby 



ten thousands of stockfish and styfish. In 1907 there were 
at Boston 95 fishing vessels, which employed 433 men 
and boys, and in 1910, 88,075 cwts. of wet fish, valued 
at 66,242, and 7835 worth of shellfish were landed 
at this port. 

Oysters used to be very abundant near Saltfleet, and 
they are still numerous near Cleethorpes, where they 
grow to a large size. Under Boston jurisdiction in the 



90 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Wash are some six to eight square miles of mussel "scalps." 
A good deal of shrimping is done along the Lincolnshire 
coast, and smelts were caught in large numbers, as 
also were grey mullet, near Wainfleet Haven, but the 
fishermen complain that these have decreased in late years, 
and the fishing is now chiefly for flounders and dabs. 
One enemy of fish, the seal, has recognised this part of 
the coast as an excellent feeding place, and although several 
have been killed and captured, the fishermen have had 
to leave this locality to the seals. In 1912 there was a 
colony of 500 seals in the Wash, doing great damage to 
the fisheries and the Eastern Sea Fisheries Association 
offered 55. for each seal killed. These, of course, are of 
little commercial value either for skin or oil. In the north 
of the county the gate-posts at the entrance to a farm 
are occasionally formed by huge whale jaws, testifying to 
the prevalence of whale-fishing years ago, before the 
whales were nearly exterminated. 



16. Shipping and Trade. 

The principal port in Lincolnshire, as has been in- 
dicated in the preceding chapter, is that of Great Grimsby. 
Situated on the south bank of the Humber, not far from 
its entrance into the North Sea, Grimsby is exceedingly 
well placed for the promotion of river, coast, and foreign 
trade. Its jurisdiction extends from Skitter Ness in 
Goxhill parish, on the north-west almost opposite Hull, 
to Trusthorpe drain on the south, where that of Boston 



SHIPPING AND TRADE 



91 



begins. The port has undergone several vicissitudes. 
In the reign of King Edward III, it supplied n ships 
and 170 seamen for the siege of Calais. With the 
gradual silting-up of the harbour its shipping trade 
declined (in 1588, probably there was not a ship above 
100 tons at Grimsby), until the latter end of the eighteenth 
century, when steps were taken to improve the harbour. 




Grimsby Docks 

A dock of about 14 acres was finished in 1800, when 
the population (in the following year) was only 1524 in 
number. With the advent of the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway now the Great Central Rail- 
way on the scene in 1848, the new era of commercial 
prosperity opened for Grimsby. The Royal Dock, of 
25 acres, had its first stone laid by the Prince Consort 
in 1849, and received its name when Queen Victoria 



92 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



visited the town in 1854. There is also the Alexandra 
Dock (48 acres, partly including the old dock), a uniting 
dock between them, an old fish dock of 13^ acres, and 
a new one of 9^ acres. The dock gates and locks are 
moved by hydraulic power, derived from a stately tower 
335 feet high. A new dock at Immingham, six miles 
higher up the river, where the five-fathom line comes 




Immingham Dock, Grimsby 

(Showing Coal Hoists) 

very near to the shore, is rapidly approaching completion, 
and will be one of the largest, if not the largest, on the 
east coast. It is a deep-water dock, in a land-locked 
harbour, with a deep-water channel, and consists of a 
square basin 1100 feet square, with two arms 1250 feet 
long and 375 feet wide, making a total water area of 
55! acres. 



SHIPPING AND TRADE 93 

Grimsby has also ship-building and engineering works 
and a very large trade altogether apart from fish and their 
belongings. In 1910, she exported 1,611,220 tons of 
coal, her steam fishing fleet shipped 833,420 toris, and 
other vessels 270,025 tons, making a grand total of coal 
passed through the port of 2,714,665 tons. In the same 
year she imported 305,478 loads of timber and wood 
goods valued at 776,857, butter to the value of 
3,124,154, corn, grain, etc. 120,114, eggs 311,878, 
and bacon 422,597. In the same year the total value of 
her imports (12,615,959) and her exports (18,958,924) 
was no less than 31,574,883. 

Boston attained to a much greater position in medieval 
times than Grimsby, owing doubtless to its being the port 
at the entrance of the Witham into the Wash, whereby a 
very large trade in wool was carried on. In 1204, of the 
tax on the fifteenth part of land and goods of the merchants 
at this port, Boston paid 780, coming second in the 
kingdom to London with 836. In 1279 the Hanseatic 
merchants were trading here, and merchants from Ypres, 
Cologne, Caen, and Ostend had houses in the town. 
The reputation of its great fair was widespread. The 
canons of Bridlington Priory, for example, regularly 
attended this fair to buy their wine, groceries, clothes, 
etc., as did those of Fountains Abbey. In 1336, a grant 
of protection was given to a number of German mer- 
chants and 14 ships to attend the fair. When King John 
of France was confined in Somerton Castle, he procured 
spices from Boston, and rented a cellar of wine from 
William Spaign (the name still exists in Spain Lane) in 



94 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the town. In 1359, to King Edward Ill's fleet of 710 
ships, with 14,151 men, Boston contributed 17 ships and 
361 mariners. In 1361 the staple of wool was removed 
to Boston, and no doubt contributed very largely to the 
commercial growth and prosperity of the port. In 1575, 
the authorities received praise for having captured some 
pirates, who were handed over to be dealt with by Lord 
Clinton, vice-admiral of the court. The port seems 
nearly to have been brought to ruin in Elizabethan days, 
probably by the silting up of the Witham and the shifting 
sands of the Wash. The dissolution of the monasteries 
also, and some quarrels between the Esterlings and the 
townsfolk, helped in the decay of commerce. In 1751, 
owing possibly to the diversion of some fen drains from 
the Witham, a small sloop of 40 to 50 tons and drawing 
six feet of water, could only sail to and from the town at 
spring tides. 

Early in the nineteenth century things were better, 
coals came by the Witham, grain was sent to London, 
and there was some trade with the Baltic. In 1812, 
Boston had 177 vessels, one of 412 tons, and in that 
year and the preceding one, one-third of the oats received 
in London was shipped from Boston. A new dock, 
825 feet long by 450 feet wide, was made in 1882, a 
new channel was cut from Lynn Well to Boston Deeps, 
the bed of the Witham was deepened in 1896, and a new 
channel made to deep water. In dealing with a sluggish 
river like the Witham, there is always a difficulty with 
regard to locks and the proper scouring of the outfall. 
Without locks it is almost impossible to keep sufficient 







PQ 



96 LINCOLNSHIRE 

water in the river for the necessary traffic, while the 
presence of a lock at the outfall means a considerable 
silting up of the channel on the seaward side of the 
lock, and an inefficient scouring of the channel. The 
jurisdiction of the Port of Boston extends from Trus- 
thorpe drain on the north to Fleet Haven outfall or 
Sutton Corner in the south-east. Her trade consists of 
imports of timber from the Baltic, and of grain, cotton, 
and linseed from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and 
America. There is a regular line of steamers to Hamburg 
twice a week. 

In 1909, 369 steam and sailing vessels of 177,630 
tons entered the port, 383 vessels of 176,062 tons cleared, 
and 53 sail and steam vessels belonged to the port with a 
tonnage of 3684. The Deep Sea Trawling and Steam 
Trawling Companies do a large trade in fish. Boston's 
exports of coal, coke, and other fuel were 180,415 tons. 
Her imports amounted to the value of 891,126, con- 
sisting of barley 88,343, maize 93,655, refined sugar 
360,627, and timber 98,175. 

Little need be said of the former ports of this county. 
Lincoln was among the most considerable ports in the 
time of King John, and its decline was no doubt due 
chiefly to the removal of the staple therefrom to Boston, 
and to the state of the river Witham. Huttoft appa- 
rently had some trade once, now there is practically no 
estuary 1 . A list of Lincolnshire ports in 1342 gives 
Lincoln, Boston, Saltney, Saltfleetby, Wainfleet, Barton- 

1 Leland says " at Huttoft marsch cum shippes yn from divers places 
and discharge." 



SHIPPING AND TRADE 97 

on-Humber (whence there used to be a ferry to Hull, 
before New Holland was made the ferry station by 
the M. S. & L. railway), Grimsby, Burton-on-Stather, 
Whitton, South Ferriby, Stroyten, North Coates, 
Swynhumber, Tetney, Wrangle, Surfleet, Spalding, 
Torksey, Gainsborough, and Kinnard's Ferry. Of these 
Torksey, situated at the junction of the Fossdyke with 
the Trent, has been of considerable importance both as 
a stronghold and a port in Roman and medieval times. 
Gainsborough still does a considerable trade by water. 
Spalding is included in the Boston trade. Skegness, 
according to Leland, in the time of King Henry VIII, 
had been "at sumtyme a great haven towne...a Haven 
and a Towne waulled, having also a Castelle." 



17. History of the County. 

The first notice of this part of our country is that of 
Claudius Ptolemaeus about the year 120 A.D., in which 
he mentions the British tribe of Coritavi or Coritani. 
This tribe inhabited the site of the existing counties of 
Lincoln, Rutland, Leicester, part of Nottingham, War- 
wick, and Derby, and had as its chief towns, Lindum 
(Lincoln), and Ratae (Leicester). Under the Roman 
domination Lincoln was first a fortress, and then a colony. 
Several tombstones have been found there to soldiers of 
the Ninth or Spanish Legion, and Lincoln can still show 
a Roman City gate (Newport Arch), part of her Roman 
walls and the ditch surrounding them, and other remains. 

s. L. 7 



98 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



The Roman roads and canals are mentioned in other 
chapters, and the Roman villas, discovered at positions 
far from any military protection, give an idea of the peace 
which must have prevailed under the Roman rule. The 
Roman banks which protected the land from the sea are 
still to be seen. These banks and the necessary dykes 




Newport Arch, Lincoln 

were neglected when the last legion departed in 426, and 
once more large tracts of Fen were left to be covered by 
floods. 

To resist the invading Picts and Scots, King Vortigern 
is said to have invoked the aid of Saxons, Jutes, and Angles 
(the last-named settled in Mercia, of which Lincolnshire 
was a part). Meeting the northern invaders at Stamford 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 99 

he defeated them with much slaughter, being assisted by 
the Saxon forces under the command of Hengist and 
Horsa. At Caistor, King Vortigern is supposed to have 
met Hengist's daughter, Rowena, who afterwards married 
him. She is related to have poisoned her stepson 
Vortimer, who died in 475 and was buried at Lincoln. 
In this year Hengist ravaged the country, and captured 
London, Lincoln, and Winchester, which were regained 
by the British under Ambrosius in 487. 

With the Saxon invasion Paganism replaced Christ- 
ianity. Two hundred years later, the Venerable Bede 
recounts the re-introduction of Christianity. In the 
year 628 he says " Paulinus also preached the Word to 
the Province of Lindsey...and he first converted the 
Governor of the City of Lincoln, whose name was 
Blecca, with his whole family." In 678, Egfrid, King 
of Northumbria, captured Lindsey from Wulfhere, King 
of Mercia, and had Eadhed ordained the first Bishop of 
Lindsey. In Doomsday Book are named over 200 
churches as in existence in Lincolnshire at the time of 
the Norman Conquest, which testifies to the widespread 
establishment of Christianity in these parts. 

But another Pagan invasion, that of the Danes, was 
to sweep over the country towards the end of the eighth 
century, and Lincolnshire was particularly exposed to 
their attack, from the facility with which they could land 
on the coast, or sail up the Humber to Gainsborough and 
Torksey, and thence along the Fossdyke to Lincoln. 
Direct evidence of these incursions and settlements is 
furnished by the names of places such as Mablethorpe, 

72 



100 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Trusthorpe, and Saltfleet^y along the coast, and Saxi%, 
Kettletborpe and Skellingtborpe along the Fossdyke. 
Lincoln also was one of the five towns which were under 
the Danelagh (Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, and Stam- 
ford were the others, to which Chester and York were 
added later). This grouping of towns replaced the 
kingdom of Mercia, and Lincoln seems to have represented 
the Lindiswaras (dwellers in Lindsey on the higher land) 
as Stamford did the Gyrwas (who lived in the Fens). 
Each town was ruled by its own Earl with his separate 
host, twelve lawmen administered Danish law, and a 
Common Court of Justice existed for the whole con- 
federacy. 

In 869 the army of the Pagans (i.e. of the Danes) 
under Hubba and Hingvar having made some stay at 
York, at the close of the winter passed over by ship into 
Lindsey, and landing at Humberstone (possibly Hubba 
stone) ravaged the whole country. Ingulph, whose 
authority is of no great weight, describes a battle fought 
on St Maurice's day (Sept. 22) 870, at Stow Green near 
Threekingham, in which the Danes were beaten with 
great slaughter. At Threekingham, near the church, 
there is still a large mound in which some of the slain 
were buried, and a piece of land in the parish is called 
Danes Field or Danes Hill to this day. In 873, when 
the Danish forces wintered at Torksey, peace was made 
with them. In 911 Mercia was infested with Danes, 
and in 937 occurred the battle of Brunanburgh, one 
of the greatest in the long struggle between Saxons and 
Danes. Possibly Burnham near Thornton Curtis in 






HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 



101 



North Lincolnshire was the site of this battle, wherein 
King Athelstan with his brother Edmund Atheling gained 
a very decisive victory over Constantine King of the Scots, 
with whom were many Danes under Anlaf. The Danish 
King Sweyn died at Gainsborough in 1014. 







Entrenchment at Burnham 



In 1068 William the Conqueror visited Lincoln and 
ordered the erection of the castle. He distributed lord- 
ships freely among his followers, this county being divided 
up between twenty-three Normans, of whom Gilbert de 



102 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Gant, Odo Bishop of Bayeux, and Alan Earl of Richmond, 
took the lion's share. In the next year Earls Edwin 
and Morcar, with two hundred and forty ships, landed on 
behalf of Edgar Atheling on the Lincolnshire side of the 
Humber and were almost all captured by a strong force 
of the king's friends from Lincoln. The Empress Maud, 
coming to England in 1140 and asserting her claim to 
the Crown against King Stephen, took up her residence 
at Lincoln, which was well provisioned and fortified. 
The city (and probably the castle) was soon besieged and 
taken by King Stephen, but the Empress had managed 
to escape previously. Next year Ranulf Earl of Chester 
and his half-brother William de Roumare, whom King 
Stephen had created Earl of Lincoln, captured the castle 
by an ingenious trick, and were besieged by Stephen, who 
regained the city. Earl Ranulf, escaping, brought back 
Robert Earl of Gloucester and a large army to raise the 
siege. A battle ensued on the north-western slopes of 
the city, and partly through treachery ended in the 
complete defeat of Stephen, who had fought most 
gallantly. From the comparative ease with which this 
battle was won, it got the name of " The Joust of 
Lincoln." Stephen, having been exchanged for the Earl 
of Gloucester, again besieged the castle, of which he 
obtained possession in 1146. Later, it was once more 
attacked unsuccessfully by Earl Ranulf. The Empress 
Maud's son, King Henry, was crowned again in 1158, 
in Lincoln, but in a suburb without the walls. Here, 
too, in November 1200, King John met William, 
King of Scotland, who swore fealty and did homage to 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 



103 



him. On November 23, the body of St Hugh, Bishop 
of Lincoln, was received at Lincoln by King John and 
three archbishops and thirteen bishops, and buried in the 
Cathedral on November 26. In 1216 came the closing 




Jews' House, Lincoln 

scene of John's restless and evil life, when he left Kings 
Lynn with a powerful army and lost all his baggage in 
crossing the river Nene, a part of the Wash 1 , he himself 

1 This was close to Sutton Bridge, a large tract of land having been 
reclaimed from the sea since that date. 



104 LINCOLNSHIRE 

with the army only just escaping. October 13 he was at 
Swineshead Abbey, the next day he proceeded to Sleaford 
Castle, and thence to Newark Castle, where he died on 
October 18. A long siege of Lincoln Castle had been 
carried on by the Barons who were on the side of the 
French Prince Louis. This was relieved on May 19, 
1217, by an army under the command of William, Earl 
Marshal (attended by the Papal Legate), who threw Fulk 
de Breaute" with crossbowmen into the castle, and forced 
open the west gate of the city. After much hand-to- 
hand fighting, the party of the Barons and the French 
was decisively beaten, their leader the Comte de Perche 
slain, and the city and close given up to plunder. Owing 
to the great amount of booty gained the battle was 
nick-named " Lincoln Fair." 

In 1255 tne Jews of Lincoln were accused of 
having crucified a Christian boy called Hugh, and King 
Henry III and his Queen were at Lincoln to investigate 
the case. In 1265 the first writs of general summons to 
Parliament were issued, and Lincoln, London, and York 
were the only cities expressly named to send up two 
burgesses. On October 6, 1280, the beautiful Angel Choir 
of the Minster received the body of St Hugh, translated 
there with much state ceremony. On December 2, 
1290, King Edward I was in Lincoln for the burial 
of the viscera of his dearly loved Queen Eleanor, who 
had died at Harby. The first of the Eleanor Crosses 
stood just outside the city south gate. An important 
Parliament was held in Lincoln in 1301, which dealt 
with the pretensions of the Pope to dispose of the 




The Angel Choir, Lincoln Minster 



106 LINCOLNSHIRE 

kingdom of Scotland. Parliaments were also held at 
Lincoln in 1304, two in 1316, and one in 1327, and it 
has been thought that the oak seat of state now in the 
Chapter House at Lincoln was made for the king's use at 
one of these Parliaments. A Parliament was summoned 
to meet at Stamford in 1309, where also Councils were 
held in 1326, 1337, and 1392. 

Education was not neglected in medieval Lincoln- 
shire, for it appears that there were at least eleven schools 
in the county existing in the first half of the fourteenth 
century, besides the grammar schools at Lincoln, which 
date from 1090. And several of Lincolnshire's sons, 
whether by birth or adoption, had great influence in, or 
were great benefactors to, both our ancient universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge. Robert Grosseteste (Bishop of 
Lincoln 1235-1253), was one of the foremost teachers 
of his time, a great scholastic and ecclesiastical reformer, 
and Chancellor of Oxford ; Richard Fleming (Bishop of 
Lincoln 14201431), founded Lincoln College, Oxford, 
in 1427, which was refounded by Archbishop Rotherham 
(Bishop of Lincoln 1471-1480), who was also Chancellor 
of Cambridge, and a great benefactor to the library of 
that University and to King's and St Catharine's colleges; 
William Alnwick (Bishop of Lincoln 1436-1449), was 
another great benefactor to King's College. In 1457 
William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, founded 
Magdalen College, Oxford ; he also built and endowed 
a school at his birthplace, Wainfleet. In 1512, William 
Smith (Bishop of Lincoln 1496-1514), rebuilt and practi- 
cally refounded Brasenose College, Oxford ; and in 1516, 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 107 

Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, who was born at 
Ropsley near Grantham, founded Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. At one time it was not beyond the bounds of 
possibility that Lincolnshire might have rejoiced in a 
University of its own, as in 1333 there was a large 
secession of masters and students from Oxford to 
Stamford, and this attempt was not ended till two years 
later, after the aid of the Queen and the Bishop of 
Lincoln had been obtained, and after three royal monitions 
and the seizure of the seceders' goods. 

With the Wars of the Roses Lincolnshire was not, 
fortunately, much concerned. In 1470, however, a 
Lincolnshire man, Sir Robert Wells, eldest son of Richard 
Lord Wells and Willoughby, was persuaded by the King- 
maker, the Earl of Warwick, to raise a large force of men 
for the Lancastrian cause. Apparently he drove Lord 
Burgh out of his house at Gainsborough and burnt it, 
and with some 30,000 men proclaimed King Henry. 
But King Edward IV managed to get Lord Wells and 
his son-in-law Sir Thomas Dymoke into his power, and 
set out for Stamford with them and a strong force. He 
also made Lord Wells order his son to desist from his 
undertaking, but as this order was set at nought, he pro- 
ceeded to behead Lord Wells and Sir Thomas Dymoke, 
and marched against the Lancastrian army. So savage 
were the commanders of this latter force (Sir Robert Wells 
and Sir Thomas de la Launde) with King Edward's action 
that they would not wait for the arrival of the Earl of 
Warwick, but commenced the battle at Hornefield near 
Empingham on March 12. Over 10,000 men were slain, 



108 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the Lancastrians were defeated and both their leaders were 
taken prisoners. 

In 1536 occurred the Lincolnshire portion of the 
rebellion against King Henry VIII, called the Pilgrimage 
of Grace. There were several causes for this outbreak, 
the suppression of the smaller monastic houses being 
among the most powerful. On October i, Nicholas 
Melton, shoemaker (known consequently as Captain 
Cobbler), and others, took possession of Louth Church, so 
as to stop the jewels of the church (as they said) being 
given up to the king. In the course of a few days risings 
of the same description took place at Horncastle, Caistor, 
and elsewhere in Lindsey. By October 6 some 25,000 
men were encamped round or in Lincoln, and a letter 
was sent to the king. His answer was read to some 300 
of the troops in the Chapter House where the gentlemen 
were collected and where they were nearly massacred, 
only managing to escape out of the south door of the 
Chapter House. After some discussion, and a diplomatic 
address from a Herald, the forces dispersed. About 
twenty persons suffered for this rising, Moigne (Recorder 
of Lincoln), the Abbot of Kirkstead, the Abbot of 
Barlings, and eleven more, were tried by a commission 
in March 1537, and hanged or gibbeted in various 
towns of the county, Lord Hussey being executed at 
Lincoln. 

In the great Civil War between King Charles I and 
his Parliament, Lincolnshire held an important position 
midway between the Royalists of Yorkshire and Notting- 
hamshire, and the Puritans of East Anglia, and on her 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 109 

heath or wold Cromwell found a training-ground for 
his Ironsides. One of the first overt acts was that of 
Lord Willoughby of Parham (one of a younger branch 
of the Willoughby d'Eresby family), in calling out the 
militia in June, 1642. This was followed by a brisk 
correspondence with the king, who spent two nights in 
Lincoln and was received with much loyalty. It was 
perhaps on this occasion that he presented the third sword 
to the city. He once more passed through Lincoln on 
August 20 on his way to Nottingham, where he raised 
his standard two days later. In 1643 Lord Willoughby 
was made by Parliament Sergeant-Major-General for the 
county. In April of that year Crowland stood a siege 
of about a fortnight, Oliver Cromwell being one of the 
capturing commanders. Next year, having been recaptured 
in the interval, it stood a siege by the Parliamentarians of 
two months' duration. 

One of the greatest thorns in the side of the Parliament 
in this district was Newark, which was successfully held 
for the king till he surrendered to the Scottish army. 
He spent his last day as a free man at Barn Hill 
House, Stamford, before going on to Southwell, May 3, 
1644. In February 1643, a combined force from 
Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Lincolnshire, attacked 
Newark, but were repulsed, owing, it was said, to the 
half-hearted conduct of the Lincolnshire commander. 
As a retort, Colonel Cavendish, a young and brilliant 
cavalry leader, captured Grantham on March 22, and 
took Stamford, defeating Cromwell. Again Cavendish 
was victorious at the battle of Ancaster, and in a third 



110 LINCOLNSHIRE 

skirmish the Royalists also won, but in a fourth, on the 
road from Grantham to Newark, Cromwell defeated 
Cavendish. As a result of this, Grantham and Lincoln 
must have become Parliamentarian, as the latter place had 
its castle and walls put into a state of defence by order 
of Parliament. An abortive attempt to seize Lincoln 
for the king, promoted by the Hothams of Hull, took 
place on Sunday, July 2. Gainsborough, with its com- 
mander the Earl of Kingston, was surprised on July 20 
by Lord Willoughby, and the Earl, being sent as a 
prisoner down the Trent to Hull, was killed by a cannon 
ball fired at the pinnace by the Royalists on the banks. 
On July 28 Cromwell, fresh from the capture of Stamford 
and Burghley House, met Cavendish at Lea, near Gains- 
borough, where the latter was defeated and killed. Then 
Cromwell had to retire before the advance of the whole 
army of the Earl of Newcastle, and Lord Willoughby 
surrendered Gainsborough, left Lincoln (as he considered 
the fortifications were too slight to be any protection) 
and retired to Boston. But by the commencement of 
October, Fairfax's cavalry had been transported from 
Hull into Lincolnshire, and were joined by troops under 
Lord Willoughby, Cromwell, and the Earl of Manchester. 
On October n, at Winceby, five miles south-east of 
Horncastle, these forces met the Royalist troops, who 
intended to raise the siege of Bolingbroke Castle close by, 
and decisively routed them. " Slash Lane," between 
Winceby and the high road, still commemorates the 
slaughter which took place. On October 24 Lord 
Manchester captured Lincoln, but next year Prince 



HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 111 

Rupert's brilliantly successful attack, March 22, 1644, 
on the forces besieging Newark, led to the evacuation of 
Lincoln and Sleaford, and to the dismantling of the de- 
fences of Gainsborough. 

But the whirligig of time soon brought its revenge, 
and on May 3, 1644, the Parliamentary forces under 
Lord Manchester attacked the lower part of the City of 
Lincoln and carried it, and after waiting a day, as there 
was a great rainfall which made the slopes very slippery, 
captured the castle and upper town by storm on May 5 
with surprisingly little loss. 

In 1648, orders were sent to put Tattershall Castle and 
Belvoir Castle into defensible condition, as these were the 
only two places capable of defence in or near this county. 
This was done to protect them against raids from Ponte- 
fract Castle, which was in the hands of the Royalists. 
In Lincoln the only stronghold was the Bishop's Palace, 
which on June 30 was attacked, captured, and burnt by 
the Royalists, under Sir Philip Monckton. This force 
left Lincoln and a few days later was followed by Colonel 
Rossiter with a powerful detachment, who gained a com- 
plete victory over them at Willoughby, near Nottingham. 

Since the Civil War there has been little in the way 
of history to record in connection with our county. 



112 LINCOLNSHIRE 

18. Antiquities Prehistoric, Roman, 
Saxon. 

In Lincolnshire there have been found, as yet, no 
traces of the earliest races of mankind on this island, 
and the stone axes, knives, spear-heads, arrow-heads, and 
the like that we do find all belong to the Neolithic, or 
New Stone Age. The people of this date are known 
as dolicho-cephalic (i.e. long-headed) and were buried in 
long mounds or barrows, of which there are examples 
at Swinhope and elsewhere in the county. Five boats, 
in each case made out of a single tree-trunk, have been 
dug up, two at Lincoln, one at Scotter, and two at 
Castlethorpe near Brigg. Two very early boats or canoes 
were discovered in Nocton parish in 181 1, but it is difficult 
to assign a date to these objects. Around Scunthorpe, 
on the peat moors, have been found quantities of small, 
beautifully-made flint implements. 

Of Bronze Age man there are many relics, such as 
swords, celts, spear-heads, daggers, shields, and pottery of 
good design. The people of this age were brachy-cephalic 
(i.e. round-headed) and were interred, generally after being 
burnt, in barrows of a round shape, of which examples in 
Lincolnshire are numerous. 

Many of the more important earthworks in the 
county probably belong to this age. Such is the camp 
above Honington, which has a triple rampart and two 
ditches; the circular encampment at Ingoldsby; the huge 
earthworks called the Moats at Irby-on-Humber; the 
camp at Kyme, with a double rampart; the circular 




Bronze Implements 

(Found at Caythorpe in 1884) 



S. L. 



114 LINCOLNSHIRE 

mound at Kingerby (wherein three British skeletons 
were found) enclosed by a ditch with a square embank- 
ment outside it; the Castle Hills, Gainsborough, afterwards 
used by the Danes if not due entirely to them ; the great 
earthworks at Withern ; and the great mound at Hoe Hill, 
near Fulletby. At Tetford Lock are some hut-circles. 




British Camp at Honington 

Of the Iron Age, traces are found in the pre-Roman 
smelting works at Manton, and in many swords, spear- 
heads, and shields, found in the Witham. A beautiful 
Romano-British shield also found in that river should be 
mentioned. 

Of the Roman occupation of Lincolnshire there 
are many remains. Lincoln, once a Roman colony, as 



ANTIQUITIES 115 

already stated, retains portions of its Roman ditch, 
rampart, and wall, the only existing Roman city gate, 
Newport Arch, and the lower part of a long colonnade 
in Bailgate. Here also a Roman milestone of the date 
of Victorinus was found, and hypocausts or heating 
apparatus, altars, tombstones (chiefly to soldiers of the 
Ninth, the Spanish Legion), tesselated pavements, etc. 
Other Roman stations in the county were at Horncastle 
(Banovallum on the river Bane), where the Roman ditch 
and part of the wall are evident, also at Caistor and 
Ancaster, with the ditch well shown, where an altar for 
incense, a milestone, a group of Deae Matres, and 
Romano-British graves have been found. South Ormsby 
was a watch or outpost camp, between Burgh and 
Caistor; Yarborough camp was near Melton Ross, and 
Alkborough overlooked the junction of the Trent, Ouse, 
and Humber. Many tesselated pavements have been dis- 
covered, as at Roxby, Scawby, Winterton, and Horkstow, 
in the north of the county, Scampton (a few miles north 
of Lincoln), and Little Ponton, near Grantham. These, 
belonging to private houses, show the state of security of 
the country during the Romano-British period. 

The chief Roman roads, which are mainly in use 
now, are the Ermine Street, which beginning at Pevensey 
enters Lincolnshire at Stamford, skirts Grantham, and 
passes through Ancaster to Lincoln, where it joins the 
Fosseway. From Lincoln the Ermine Street runs almost 
due north to the Humber, and is in full use for the first 
17 miles. Four miles north of Lincoln a branch road, 
called Till Bridge Lane, leaves it on the west and runs 

82 



116 LINCOLNSHIRE 

to the ford at Littleborough on Trent (Agelocum or 
Segelocum). The Fosseway extends from the south of 
Devon to Newark, and enters our county just beyond 
Brough. It forms the county boundary here for about 
a mile. Another Roman road enters the county at West 
Deeping and runs fairly straight to Sleaford, while another 
connects Lincoln with Horncastle. 




The Fossdyke 

Evidence of Roman engineering also remains in the 
Fossdyke, a canal joining the Trent at Torksey with 
the River Witham at Lincoln ; and the Cardyke, which 
beginning near Peterborough, runs northwards, skirting 
the junction of the higher ground and the fen, to 
Washingborough, three miles from Lincoln, where it 
joins the Witham. The Roman banks, placed so as to 



ANTIQUITIES 117 

resist the encroachments of the sea in the south-east of 
the county, have already been mentioned. 

Of both Saxon and Danish antiquities there is not 
much to record, save in the way of churches, parts of 
which, especially in towns, mark the work of the former 
people. Both races have left their mark more on the 
speech of the people and the names of places. The 
fortifications called the Mainwarings, with a double fosse, 
near Swineshead, have been attributed to the Danes, and 
no doubt they occupied several of the earthworks, such as 
the Castle Hills, Gainsborough, already mentioned. The 
existence of coins minted in Lincoln in the reigns of 
King Alfred and (missing out the reigns of Edward the 
Elder, Athelstan, Edmund, Edred, and Edwy) all the 
succeeding monarchs to the Norman Conquest, is a proof 
of the importance of the city in Saxon and Danish times. 

19. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical. 

The material used for building churches in Lincoln- 
shire was almost invariably stone. Near Lincoln and 
southwards on the Cliff this was the local oolite lime- 
stone, of which the most famous quarries were at 
Ancaster and Wilsford ; further south and south-west 
much of the stone came from Barnack in Northampton- 
shire ; on the Wolds and in the Marsh, a green sandstone 
was in use, not very durable, but weathering delightfully 
from an artistic point of view. In some cases, as at 
Legbourne, the white chalk itself is used, giving, as already 
mentioned, a curious effect as of unglazed white tiles. 



118 LINCOLNSHIRE 

The first churches of which we have any remains in 
this county are of Saxon building. Their builders had 
but an imperfect knowledge of construction in stone, 
and imitated rudely the Roman buildings which existed 
in England. A very early plan of a Saxon church had 
a central tower, with a chancel on the east and possibly 
a baptistery on the west side, as at Barton (St Peter's), 
Broughton, and Hough on the Hill. Later, the usual 
plan was a square and tall western tower, with a midwall 
shaft in the belfry windows (of these there are over 
30 instances in this county) and a tiny chancel, opening 
by a very narrow arch into the nave. The walls were 
rather thin and roughly built, the corners of the nave had 
" long and short work " (i.e. large stones set alternately 
vertically and horizontally as in the nave of St Mary 
le Wigford in Lincoln, and those of the parish churches 
of Bracebridge, Cranwell, and Ropsley), there were no 
buttresses, but occasionally the wall or tower was orna- 
mented with strip panelling, as in the lower part of the 
tower at St Peter's, Barton, and in the western tower arch 
of Stow. 

With the Norman Conquest came in a new style 
from the continent, the Romanesque or " Norman." 
It was a massive style, with very thick walls, round- 
headed arches for doorways, windows, and arcades > sturdy 
pillars, with large capitals, semi-circular vaulting, fiat 
roofs, and square towers with low pyramidal tops. 

The middle portion of the west front of the Minster 
at Lincoln is a good example of Norman work, while 
the beautiful doorways, highly ornamented, and the lower 







Lincoln Minster: West front 



120 LINCOLNSHIRE 

half of the two western towers, are good specimens of 
later work of this period. The nave and chancel (later) 
of Stow are Norman, Clee church has an early Norman 
arcade on the north side of the nave, and a later one on 
the south side ; at Whaplode the chancel arch and eastern 
bays of the nave are good Norman work, the three western 
ones being Transitional (between Norman and the next 
period). 

For about 70 years, from 1180 to 1250, a further 
development of architecture took place. It was charac- 
terised by much thinner walls, high-pitched roofs, pointed 
arches and vaulting, which instead of having the weight 
supported by thick walls, has it spread scientifically over 
large buttresses on the aisle walls, and flying buttresses to 
the clerestory walls. This is the first period of "Gothic" 
called First Pointed or Early English. Other features 
are piers of grouped slender pillars, often of marble (at 
Lincoln Minster much Purbeck marble was used), con- 
ventional foliage round the capitals, long narrow lancet- 
headed windows, and rich deep mouldings round doors 
and windows. Of this period St Hugh's Choir and the 
great transepts in Lincoln Minster are early examples, 
built before 1200, when St Hugh died. The nave is 
also a superb work of about 30 years later, and in light- 
ness of design and elegance of proportion it is very hard 
to equal. Kirkstead Chapel, Bottesford (near Brigg), 
Grimsby parish church, and St Mary's Weston are almost 
entirely Early English, as is the beautiful west front of 
Crowland Abbey, which resembles the west front of 
Wells Cathedral. In this period the towers were first 




Parish Church, Grantham 



122 LINCOLNSHIRE 

made to carry spires, as at Frampton, Rauceby, and 
Sleaford, and the tower and spire (of timber, lead-covered) 
of Long Sutton is an admirable specimen. 

After the middle of the thirteenth century the 
Decorated Period began and windows became broader, 
divided up by bars of stone called mullions, with their 
heads ornamented by patterns of tracery. The gradual 
introduction of this can be well seen in the grouping of 
two window openings under one arch, when the space 
between all three arches is perforated, as in the triforium 
of St Hugh's Choir at Lincoln. The most perfect and 
sumptuous example of this Early Decorated or Geometrical 
Gothic is the Angel Choir of Lincoln Minster (see p. 105). 
The north aisle of Grantham Church is also of this period, 
and probably owes much to the Angel Choir at Lincoln. 
By 1300 was finished one of the great architectural 
glories of the county, the tower and spire of Grantham, 
281 feet high. Not many years afterwards, the Broad 
and Rood Tower of Lincoln Minster, with its timber 
and lead spire (rising altogether to a height of 525 feet 
excepting Old St Paul's, quite the loftiest spire in Europe 
at that time) was completed. 

Several of the finest churches in the county, especially 
round Sleaford, belong to the later Decorated Period, and 
of these perhaps Heckington is the typical queen. The 
window tracery is more elaborate, a favourite pattern 
very prevalent in this county being reticulated or like 
network ; the mouldings are rich, the vaultings more 
intricate, and pinnacles and spires are adorned with 
crockets and finials of well-wrought foliage. The foliage, 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 123 

of internal work, often closely resembles natural leaves, 
such as vine, oak, and sometimes holly, as can be seen in 
the South Choir aisle of Lincoln Minster, and on the 
shrine of Little St Hugh. The grand parish church 




Boston Church 

of Boston is chiefly of this date, while Ewerby (with 
a fine broach spire), Helpringham, Silk Willoughby, 
Croft, Welbourn, and Winthorpe may serve as admirable 
and diversified examples. 

In 1349 came the widespread destruction of life by 



124 LINCOLNSHIRE 

the plague called the Black Death, and church and all 
other building was stopped for half a century or more. 

The next period of Architecture, the Perpendicular, is 
entirely English and is not found abroad. It is characterised 
by much flattened arches, elaborate vaulting (the so-called 
fan-vaulting is not infrequent in flat roofs), and the 
prevalence of vertical lines in the tracery of windows 
and panelled ornament, which has given the period its 
name. Several grand churches in the Marsh were built 
at this time, as Grimoldby, Marsh Chapel, Theddlethorpe 
All Saints, Tattershall Collegiate Church, and Sedgebrook. 
Towers without spires now became frequent, the superb 
"Stump" (as it is locally named, from being spireless) of 
Boston, 293 feet high, Great Ponton, of a kind more 
frequent in Somerset, and several in marsh-land being 
instances. Claypole, Donington, Leadenham, and Stam- 
ford All Saints have good Perpendicular spires, while 
Louth has a tower and spire 300 feet high, only second 
to that of Grantham. This spire cost 305. Js. bd. 
It was begun in 1501 and finished 14 years later, the 
weather-cock being made out of a copper basin taken 
two years previously from the Scottish king by the men 
of Lincoln at Flodden Field. 

Not much church-building took place for many years 
after the Reformation, but of the so-called " Classical " 
architecture there is the admirable Minster library and 
colonnade in the north side of the cloisters, built by 
Sir Christopher Wren in 1674. The parish church at 
Gainsborough (except the tower) was rebuilt in 1745; 
St Peter-at-Arches, Lincoln, a typical " City " church, 



Louth Church 



126 LINCOLNSHIRE 

in 1724, by Abraham Hay ward ; and the diminutive 
church at Cherry Willingham about 1770. 

Towards the middle of the last century began the 
Gothic revival ; very many of the churches of the county 
have been restored, and a considerable number rebuilt, 
and among the finest of the new ones may be mentioned 
those of Nocton and Fulney, St Swithin's Lincoln, 
Morton, and Revesby. 

There is evidence of the former existence of no less 
than 1 24 Religious Houses, Monasteries, Priories, Friaries, 
and Hospitals in Lincolnshire. At the time of the re- 
introduction of Christianity into this county in the Saxon 
era, monasteries were established as outposts to assist the 
missionary work. Only two of these, out of several 
in this county, were re-established after the Danish 
invasion and the Norman conquest. The Benedictine 
Abbey of Bardney, 10 miles from Lincoln, founded by 
King Ethelred and Queen Osthryd of Mercia in 697, 
was rebuilt in Norman times, and its ground plan, with 
bases of pillars of excellent Norman and Early English 
work, and many beautiful memorial slabs, has recently 
been laid bare. Crowland Abbey, also Benedictine, was 
founded in honour of St Guthlac about the year 714, by 
Ethelbald, King of Mercia 1 . The splendid west front, 
dating from 1171, the north aisle of the nave (used as 
the parish church), a Perpendicular tower, with part 
of the nave, a grand Norman arch over the western 

1 After its destruction by the Danes it is interesting to note a gift to 
the Abbey from King Canute of 1 2 polar bear skins for the altars, to keep 
the priests' feet warm. 




Crowland Abbey 



128 LINCOLNSHIRE 

crossing, and a stone screen underneath it, remain. It 
was far the wealthiest house in the county, being worth 
1093. 155. io%d. a year at the time of its suppression 
by King Henry VIII. In 1114 was founded another 
Benedictine Priory at Frieston. Many of these houses 
were founded by the great noblemen or landowners, and 
endowed with the tithes and presentations of rectories in 
the county and elsewhere. When the religious houses 
were dissolved by King Henry VIII and their income, 
lands, and buildings were given to his favourite courtiers, a 
small part only being devoted to education, the parish often 
retained the part of the monastic church wherein it had 
been wont to worship, as in the case of the north aisle at 
Crowland and the nave at Frieston. 

At Stamford there still remain the west front and 
five arches of good Norman work of the nave of the 
church of St Leonard's Priory. After Crowland the 
most remarkable remains of monastic buildings are the 
ruins of the fine Perpendicular gatehouse of Thornton 
Abbey, which belonged to the Austin canons and was 
founded in 1139. Both Crowland and Thornton were 
presided over by mitred abbots, who consequently had 
seats in the House of Lords. For a brief space after the 
dissolution of the Abbey a college existed at Thornton, 
founded by King Henry VIII. The parish church at 
South Kyme preserves the south aisle of another house 
of Austin canons, while the parish church of Bourne is 
the nave of the church of Bourne Abbey, which belonged 
to a reformed branch of the Austin canons. 

The parish church of Sempringham is the north 




Thornton Abbey 



S. L. 



130 LINCOLNSHIRE 

aisle and part of the nave of the Abbey founded by St Gilbert 
of Sempringham in 1139. This order, the Gilbertine, 
was the only order founded in England and consisted of 
Augustinian monks and Cistercian nuns, with lay brothers 
and sisters, kept strictly apart though living under the 
same roof. In their churches a wall ran from east to 
west completely dividing the monks and lay brothers 
from the nuns and lay sisters. There were 10 houses of 
this order in the county. The Knight Templars had 
five preceptories in Lincolnshire. Of these a fine tower 
at Temple Bruer is alone left. After their downfall their 
property passed to the Knights Hospitallers, or Knights 
of St John, who had three other houses as well. 

The church of the Grey Friars at Lincoln, built in the 
thirteenth century, still exists, with a later vaulted under- 
croft inserted, and after having been used as a grammar 
school for some centuries, has now been taken over by 
the Corporation as a museum. A small portion of the 
hospital of St Giles at Lincoln is also existing. The 
picturesque building of Cantilupe College, founded in 
1367 for the warden and seven chaplains to commemorate 
the souls of the founder and his wife in Lincoln Minster, 
is just south of the great south door. Of Tattershall 
College, founded by Ralph Lord Cromwell, only the 
splendid Perpendicular church is left. 

The beautiful fifteenth century churchyard cross at 
Somersby ought to be mentioned, and the fine series of 
sepulchral monuments to the St Paul family at Snarford, 
the Willoughbys at Spilsby and Edenham, the Monsons 
at South Carlton, and the Heneages at Hainton. At the 



ARCHITECTURE ECCLESIASTICAL 131 

east end of the Minster there are interesting monuments 
to the Burghersh and Wymbush families, and a repro- 
duction of Queen Eleanor's original altar tomb and 
effigy. 



20. Architecture (6) Military. 

In various parts of the county there are remains of 
entrenched camps, which may date from British, from 
Roman, from Saxon, or even from prehistoric times. 
But the building of castles began practically with the 
reign of William the Conqueror, who ordered the erection 
of a great number throughout the land and began that at 
Lincoln after his visit in 1068. It may therefore be taken 
as a fair example of the plan and arrangements of a castle 
in the late eleventh and early part of the twelfth centuries. 
It occupies most of the area of the south-west quarter of 
the first Roman city, on the top of the hill, where most 
probably the original British city of Lindum stood, and is 
roughly quadrangular, the south and west walls being on 
the lines of the Roman walls. It is guarded by a broad 
and deep dry ditch (for it is situated really on the lime- 
stone rock), and by a massive bank of earth, 50 to 
80 yards broad and from 20 to 30 feet high, sloping 
steeply externally. On the middle line of these mounds 
are strong walls, 8 to 10 feet thick and from 30 to 
40 feet high, which date probably from before the time 
of King Stephen. Originally, no doubt, the mounds 
were topped by a palisade. The main entrance to the 

92 




Lincoln: the Castle Gateway 



ARCHITECTURE MILITARY 133 

castle is by the eastern gate, which is Norman, but has 
had a later (Edwardian) arch and towers affixed to it, 
and had a little outwork or barbican, now destroyed. 
On the north-east angle is a low tower, vaulted in two 
stories, called Cobb Hall, from being the place for 
floggings. It possibly was built by John of Gaunt, who 
was custodian of this castle. A second Norman tower- 
gateway, with its barbican partly existing, breaks the long 
line of the western wall at its northern end. There are 
two great artificial mounds on the south side of the castle 
(as a rule there was only one), one possibly being British. 
The larger one is about 50 feet high and 100 feet in 
diameter at its summit. The keep of Norman masonry 
which stands on it is only a shell, many-sided, the wall 
about 8 feet thick and 20 feet high. The other mound, 
of the same height but half the diameter, supports the 
Observatory Tower, so called from the modern round 
turret surmounting it which was built as an observatory. 
This tower must have been of importance, as it commands 
the main street coming up the Steep Hill into Bailgate. 
In spite of the long stretch of wall and the few towers 
thereon, the castle proved in the course of its history to 
be a hard nut to crack, having only twice been fairly 
captured in the course of many sieges and attacks. 

Eight miles south of Lincoln is Somerton Castle, 
which was built in 1281 by Anthony Bek, Bishop of 
Durham. It comprised within its walls a quadrangular 
area 330 feet long from north to south by 181 feet from 
east to west. At each angle was a large circular tower. 
The south,-eastern tower, 45 feet high, still exists in a 



134 LINCOLNSHIRE 

fairly good condition, and an Elizabethan manor house joins 
on to it. The castle was further defended by two moats. 
The most interesting piece of history in connection with 
the castle is the fact that from July 1359 to March 1360 
it was the residence of King John (le Bon) of France and 
his son, Prince Philip, that monarch having been defeated 
and captured by the Black Prince at Poitiers in 1356. 

About 20 miles south-east of Lincoln, close to the 
river Witham, is Tattershall Castle. It exemplifies well 
the change that was gradually coming over the country 
with the introduction of gunpowder, that the nobleman's 
castle was more and more becoming the nobleman's 
palace, for in this case the windows of the exposed side 
of the keep are just as large, as decorated, and as beautiful 
as on the less exposed sides. The original castle was 
built after the year 1230. Nothing except the large 
outer moat and the earthworks inside it remain. The 
existing portion of the castle represents the keep of earlier 
days and is a large quadrangular tower 112 feet in height 
built of small red bricks, with patterns externally in 
blue-black brick, probably all of local manufacture. The 
windows, battlements, and fireplaces are of stone, almost 
certainly from the Ancaster quarries. The fireplaces, which 
after having been torn out and sold are now replaced, are 
very beautiful and heraldically interesting. The builder 
of this splendid specimen of brickwork was Ralph, third 
Baron Cromwell, who was King Henry VI's Lord 
Treasurer from 1433 to 1443, Master of the Royal 
Mews, and Royal Falconer. There is, however, but 
little history connected with the castle. It sustained 




Tattershall Castle 



136 LINCOLNSHIRE 

some damage in the great Civil War, after the battle 
of Winceby most likely, when the Royalists were badly 
beaten. It was the only fortified place in the county 
which was garrisoned by the Parliament in 1648, when 
Lincolnshire was attacked by Royalists from Pontefract, 
all other defensible places having had their walls, towers, 
and ramparts "slighted." Its last inhabitant was in the 
early years of the last century a pensioner who lived 
in the gallery in the eastern wall to be ready to light 
a beacon in the south-east tower in case of invasion. 

Kyme Tower, between Sleaford and the Witham, 
is all that remains of an important castle built by the 
Umfravilles, Earls of Angus. It consists of three stories 
with a turret stair, and is groined at the top with fan 
tracery, springing from a central pillar. It probably was 
only used as a place of safe retreat, not for living in, as 
there are no traces of fireplace or floors or chimneys 
throughout the building. 

Of other castles, strong and famous in their day, only 
the mounds and ditches remain. Such is the case with 
Sleaford, built by Bishop Alexander of Lincoln about the 
year 1130. Here King John spent the night of the I4th 
October, 1216, on his last journey from Kings Lynn 
across the Wash, when his baggage was lost. Next day 
he rode through Hough to Newark, and died there on 
the i8th of that month. Bishop Fleming died here in 
1431. Probably the great Civil War would be responsible 
for its having been "slighted," as it was termed, i.e. made 
almost impossible of defence. 

Folkingham, once the property of Gilbert de Gaunt, 



ARCHITECTURE MILITARY 137 

who rebuilt Bardney Abbey, and later of the powerful 
Beaumont family, shows only a mound (on which a 
gaol, now closed, stands) and a fairly well marked inner 
moat. In Leland's time the castle was ruinous, so the 
Cromwellian cannon and the orders of Parliament may 
not have had much to do with its downfall. 

Just where the Lincolnshire wolds sink into the great 
plain of marsh and fen, close to Spilsby, a few mounds 
alone represent the site of Bolingbroke Castle, the 
birthplace of the son of John of Gaunt and the Duchess 
Blanche of Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV, on 
April 3, 1366. It was built by William de Roumare, 
first Norman Earl of Lincoln, about the middle of the 
twelfth century. It is described by Gervase Holies, 
before the great Civil War, as built of soft wold 
sandstone in a square, with four strong forts (at the 
corners probably), containing many rooms, and occupying 
about an acre and a half of ground. Queen Elizabeth 
also added some rooms. The castle stood a siege of a 
few days by the Earl of Manchester and the Parliamentary 
army in October, 1643, but after their complete victory 
at Winceby fight it was deserted. The perishable nature 
of the sandstone, and possibly some " slighting " after its 
capture, have left now not one stone upon another, the 
gate having fallen down in May, 1815. 

At Castle Carlton are three great artificial mounds 
covered with trees, near the church, which with their 
moats occupy a space of nearly five acres. On the south 
and east of the village is a rampart, 12 feet wide and 
5 feet high, and about a mile in length. These moated 



138 LINCOLNSHIRE 

mounds are all that is left of the once very strong and 
important castle which was built by Sir Hugh Bardolph 
in 1295-1302. 

The same fate has overtaken the once strong castle 
of Bourne (connected with the Wake family), and Castle 
Bytham, the fortress of the Earls of Albemarle. 



21. Architecture (c] Domestic. 

Of buildings of Norman date other than churches and 
castles but few have lasted to these latter days ; but there 
are four of these in Lincolnshire which demand attention. 
The manor house at Boothby Pagnell is of late Norman 
date, has a vaulted undercroft, an external staircase, and 
a very early fireplace. The two Jews' Houses at Lincoln 
(see p. 1 03) of about the same date are probably the oldest 
inhabited houses in England ; both are two-storied, have 
chimney-shafts corbelled out over a round-arched door, 
and have round-headed windows. St Mary's Guild House, 
also in Lincoln, has a fine semicircular-headed entrance 
arch, and a rich cornice of foliage runs along the street 
front. Within the court is a good Transition Norman 
house, with two-light windows and a plain Norman 
fireplace. The houses of the Priest Vicars of Lincoln 
Minster were built between 1280 and 1398 in collegiate 
fashion round a court. Several of the houses have 
disappeared, as has the common dining-hall ; in the 
south house are some beautiful decorated windows. 
The Chancery, Lincoln, was built about 1316, and 
the picturesque red-brick front and stone oriel window 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 



139 



were added in the time of Bishop Russell (1480-94). 
The finest country house in Lincolnshire undoubtedly is 
Grimsthorpe Castle, belonging to the Earl of Ancaster. 
At the south-east corner remains one of the original 
towers of late twelfth century date; the east, south, and 
west fronts were built by Charles Brandon, Duke of 




St Mary's Guild House, Lincoln 

Suffolk, to receive his brother-in-law King Henry VIII 
in 1541 ; while Sir John Vanbrugh erected the stately 
but rather heavy north front in 1722. The Angel 
Hotel in Grantham is one of the very few medieval 
hostelries in existence, the entrance gateway dating from 
the fourteenth century the corbel ends of the weather 



140 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



moulding being the heads of King Edward III and Queen 
Philippa. The rest of the front of the house is about a 
century later. King Richard III signed the death-warrant 
for the execution of Buckingham here in 1483. 

The Rectory of Market Deeping still contains part of 
the refectory of a Priory which belonged to Crowland 
Abbey : it has a fine timbered roof and a beautiful 




Grimsthorpe Castle 

window of fourteenth century date. Wainfleet School, 
a good example of brickwork, was built by the Bishop of 
Winchester (William of Waynflete) in 1484, and greatly 
resembles the much earlier brickwork of Tattershall Castle 
already described. The Old Hall at Gainsborough was 
probably built in the reign of King Edward IV, as the 
Banqueting Hall with the other timber work is of that 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 143 

date, as well as its butteries and kitchen, though the oriel 
window, tower, .and gallery were added in the reign of 
King Henry VII. Some remains of mural paintings 
perhaps owe their existence to King Henry VIIFs visit in 
1541, when he stayed here with Thomas, Lord Burgh. 
Ayscoughfee Hall, Spalding (the residence of Maurice 
Johnson, now the Museum) is supposed to have been 
built about 1420, but it has been greatly altered. 

The Stone Bow, Lincoln, is a good example of a 
fifteenth century city gate. The Guildhall is the couple 
of rooms above the arches, with a fine open-timbered roof. 
Browne's Hospital, Stamford, the finest of several Hospitals 
or Calltses^ as they are called, from having been built by 
Calais merchants of the Staple, was founded about 1480. 
The half-timbered manor house of Knaith, where Thomas 
Sutton was born, was built by the Willoughby family of 
Parham in the early sixteenth century, and the stone 
manor house at Great Ponton and the fine house at 
Irnham were erected about the same date. 

Scrivelsby Court, the home of the Dymokes, the 
King's Champions, now much modernised in Tudor 
Gothic, was probably a good medieval house before the 
fire in 1761 and has an ancient entrance gateway. 
Thorpe Hall, built in 1584 by Sir John Bolle, is an 
interesting Elizabethan house. The ruined manor house 
of the Jermyns at Torksey, those at Bassingthorpe and 
North Carlton, the Red Hall of the Digbys at Bourne 
(now the station-master's house), and the splendid house at 
Doddington (p. 146), built in 1600, with its spacious win- 
dows, flat cornice, and turreted gazebos (much resembling 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 145 

Hatfield House), all date from the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
Of later houses Harrington Hall, originally Tudor, was 
rebuilt in 1678 ; Belton House, built by Wren in 
1659, was added to by Wyatt in 1775; Uffington House 
was erected in 1688; Summer Castle by Sir Cecil Wray 
in 1760; Norton Place by Carr, an architect of York, 
who also enlarged Panton Hall, which was built in 1724 
from designs of Hawksmoor, the architect of Queen's 
College, Oxford. Haverholme Priory is a stately house 
chiefly of Tudor Gothic, erected in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries on the site of the Gilbertine 
monastery, of which some slight remains still exist. 

Brocklesby Park is the most important house in the 
county next to Grimsthorpe Castle. It dates from the 
eighteenth century, with large additions at the beginning 
and end of the last century. Langton Hall by Spilsby, 
where lived Bennet Langton, Dr Johnson's friend, built 
in 1866 in Elizabethan style, is the fifth in the same 
park. 

In the villages on or near the Cliff, where stone was 
easy to be obtained, there occur smaller stone houses, 
with high gables and mullioned windows, either dating 
from the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries or, as 
in the Cotswolds, perpetuating almost to our own time 
the ancient, excellent fashion of building. Such houses 
can be found in Navenby, Leadenham, Caythorpe, and 
Brant Broughton. Many of the villages are mainly 
composed of stone cottages, originally perhaps of timber 
and plaster, of which a few remain here and there with 
their picturesque thatched roofs, though in some cases 

s. L. 10 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC 1 47 

these roofs are being replaced by that modern abomination, 
galvanised iron. But the greater number of cottages in 
the county are of brick, chiefly red; the yellowish white, 
so common in Cambridge, being fortunately not much 
made in Lincolnshire. 



22. Communications: Past and Present. 

The Roman roads have been already considered in the 
chapter on Antiquities, so it may suffice to say that they 
generally run in this county at a distance from, and 
apparently independent of, the villages along their track. 
This may be due either to these villages having been built 
in the wooded districts purposely away from the roads for 
security (if they date from later than Roman times) or to 
the directness of the Roman roads, which merely joined 
the various stations together for military purposes. In 
Robert Morden's map of the county, published in Thomas 
Cox's History of Lincolnshire in the years 1720 to 1731, 
three roads are marked which enter the county from the 
south: (i) the present Great North Road from London 
and Stamford passing by South Witham to Grantham 
(this is part of the Ermine Street) and thence to Newark; 
(2) another road from London entering the county at 
Market Deeping, thence by Bourne and Folkingham to 
Sleaford (also a Roman road thus far) and from Sleaford 
by Leasingham past Dunston Pillar to Lincoln ; lastly (3) 
a road from Stilton entering the county at Crowland, and 
running through Cowbit, Spalding, Gosberton, and Kirton 

10 2 




Ermine Street 

( The Roman Road leading north from Lincoln) 



COMMUNICATIONS 149 

to Boston. The Fosseway from Newark to Lincoln 
is also well marked. From Lincoln the Ermine Street 
goes as far as Hibaldstow and then becomes the existing 
road to Brigg and Barton-on-Humber, whence the map 
quaintly directs " to Flamborough " ! Another Roman 
road leads eastwards through Welton,Snarford,and Market 
Rasen to Grimsby. 

In the earlier maps of the county such as that by 
J. Hondius in 1610, and that by Blaeu in 1645-50, no 
roads, unfortunately, are marked. The hill at Lincoln 
in coaching days must have been always difficult and 
dangerous. In a map dated 1819 and corrected to 1848, 
the steep ascent from Hungate through Michaelgate to 
the South Roman gate is marked " old coach road," and 
was probably preferable to that going straight up the 
Steep Hill. A hundred years ago there was one mail 
coach from London which arrived in Lincoln every after- 
noon between four and five o'clock and set off for Barton 
about three-quarters of an hour after its arrival. There 
was also a light coach which passed through Lincoln 
morning and evening from and to London and Barton. 
A coach also started every morning at nine o'clock for 
Newark and Nottingham, and another left Nottingham 
every morning and arrived at Lincoln about half-past five 
the same day. Waggons for the conveyance of goods 
from Lincoln to London started every Monday and Friday 
and arrived there in four days, a distance of 134 miles, 
and returned in the course of a few days, " so that," in 
the proud words of a contemporary guide book, "there 
is a regular communication between this place and the 



150 LINCOLNSHIRE 

capital." Two waggons seem to have carried goods to 
Brigg and Barton, but how frequently does not appear, 
and the Sheffield carriers arrived at the Old Crown every 
Thursday evening and set off again on Friday forenoon. 
A waggon from Louth also arrived at the Crown on 
Thursday evening and left again next forenoon. 

This stands out in wonderful contrast to the present 
conditions, when there are 34 trains to London from 
Lincoln, and 26 trains from London to Lincoln in the 
day. 

Owing probably to its geographical situation, Lincoln- 
shire is not much affected by the main lines of the 
principal railway systems of this country. That of the 
Great Northern Railway enters it at Tallington, crosses 
a little tongue of Rutland at Essendine (whence is a 
branch line to Stamford) and running north-west to 
Grantham attains its highest elevation (370 feet) on the 
east coast route between London and Berwick as it passes 
through Stoke Rochford. The 105^ miles from London 
to Grantham, often a non-stop run, is timed to take under 
two hours. From Grantham the line runs to Barkston, 
and leaves the county between Claypole and Balderton, just 
before reaching Newark. Communication with Lincoln 
is secured by a branch line from Barkston, linking up the 
villages just on or west of the Cliff; and from Honington 
another branch line passes through the gap in the Cliff at 
Ancaster to Sleaford and Boston. At an early date in the 
construction of railways it seemed possible that Stamford 
might be the site of the Great Northern Railway's chief 
repairing and building works, combining the junctions 



152 LINCOLNSHIRE 

of Peterborough and Doncaster. Fortunately for the 
antiquarian and picturesque interest of the town, this did 
not take place. An important cross-country line owned 
jointly by the Great Northern and Midland runs from 
Melton Mowbray to Bourne, Spalding, Holbeach, and 
Kings Lynn. The Great Eastern may be said to have 
one main line through Lincoln, as it comes north from 
London through Cambridge, Ely, March, Spalding, and 
Sleaford, and runs from Lincoln to Gainsborough, Don- 
caster, and York. Boat trains from the north and the 
west also pass on this route to Harwich for the continent. 

The Great Central Railway (in its earlier days the 
Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire) connects Don- 
caster with Crowle, Scunthorpe, Barton-on-Humber, 
New Holland (for the ferry to Hull), and Grimsby, and 
has lines from Lincoln and Gainsborough to the same 
places. It has also taken over the line of the incorrectly 
named Lancashire, Derbyshire, and East Coast Railway, 
which runs from Chesterfield through important collieries 
and the "Dukeries" to Lincoln. It does not exist in 
Lancashire and never got to the east coast, where at 
Sutton it was proposed to construct a dock. 

From Grimsby and Cleethorpes the Great Northern 
Railway runs to Peterborough through Louth, Alford, 
Boston, and Spalding. There is also a branch line to 
the coast by Theddlethorpe, Mablethorpe, Sutton, and 
Willoughby; a short line to Spilsby, and another to 
Skegness; while Boston is connected with Lincoln by a 
line following the course of the Witham. 

The record of the canal system of Lincolnshire is 



COMMUNICATIONS 153 

rather a melancholy one. From the junction of the 
Witham with the once great Mere at Lincoln, now 
shrunk to small proportions and called Brayford (Broad 
ford ?), the Romans constructed a canal the Fossdyke 
westwards to the Trent at Torksey. King Henry I is 
recorded by Hovenden to have made a long canal from 
Torksey to Lincoln by digging (though it is almost certain 
that he merely cleared out a pre-existing dyke, as the 
presence along its course of so many villages with 
Scandinavian names testifies). By turning into it the 
water from the river Trent he made a passage for shipping. 
This canal was presented by King James I to the City 
of Lincoln, who granted it on a long lease in 1740 to 
Mr Richard Ellison. It is now under the control of the 
Great Northern Railway, and a fair amount of traffic is 
carried on by barges between Gainsborough and Lincoln, 
and on the Witham to Boston. 

The Cardyke (car = fen) has been already mentioned 
when dealing with the drainage of the county. It 
reached for 57 miles from the river Nene to the river 
Witham, though not navigable, and is still useful as a 
land-drain in several portions of its course. The Louth 
Canal, the New Cut for the Ancholme river, and the 
Horncastle Canal have been already noticed. Owing to 
the railways obtaining the command of most of these 
canals, so as to be able to extinguish all competition, 
the traffic on them has become quite insignificant, and 
some of them are now not navigable. It might have 
been possible, it seems, to have made them of great use 
for the carriage of heavy goods, such as coal, etc., and 



154 LINCOLNSHIRE 

so saved the railways loss of time and overcrowding of 
their lines. It is possible, however, that with the advent 
of motor power the canals may again come into use. 



23. Administration and Divisions. 

The general business of our country is watched over 
and administered by the Houses of Parliament. In the 
Upper House a county such as Lincolnshire is represented 
by the Peers who have estates in the county, and the 
Lord Bishop of the Diocese, if it has come to his turn to 
take his seat in that House, while to the Lower House 
she sends 1 1 representatives, being one each for the City 
of Lincoln, the towns of Boston, Grantham, and Grimsby, 
and the county divisions of Brigg, Gainsborough, Horn- 
castle, Louth, Sleaford, Spalding, and Stamford. The 
domestic affairs of the county are administered by three 
great local bodies, called County Councils, of which 
there is one for each Part of Lincolnshire, which also 
possesses its own treasurer, magistrates, Quarter Sessions 
and Clerk of the Peace (who is also Clerk of the County 
Council). The Lindsey County Council consists of a 
chairman, vice-chairman, 1 6 aldermen and 48 members, 
and meets at Lincoln. The Kesteven County Council 
consists of a chairman, vice-chairman, 16 aldermen and 
48 members, and meets at Grantham and Sleaford 
alternately. The Holland County Council consists of a 
chairman, vice-chairman, 16 aldermen and 42 members, 
and meets alternately at Boston and Spalding. The 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 155 

Councils manage the administrative business of the 
county by a Standing Joint Committee, which among 
other duties has the appointment of Clerk of the 
Peace and the control of the police. There are about 
300 county policemen, under the charge of a Chief 
Constable. Before this system was established each of 
the smaller divisions of the county had its own High 
Constable, who was responsible for the policing of his 
own area 1 . 

There is a large prison at Lincoln, mainly for the 
county of Lincolnshire, which is managed entirely by the 
Prison Commission of the Home Office, under the Home 
Secretary, but a Visiting Committee from the county and 
from Lincoln attends once a month to investigate com- 
plaints and to deal with any specially refractory prisoner. 

There are also Urban and Rural District Councils, 
and Parish Councils. All this is not unlike the form of 
government in Saxon times, when there was a king and a 
sort of Parliament, the Witenagemot, and lesser councils 
for the counties and various divisions down to the villages. 
The name applied to the larger divisions is in Lincolnshire 
(as in Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire) wapentake (i.e. "a 
weapon touching," in acknowledgment of fealty, and hence 
the district affected by the ceremony) and many of them 
bear evidence of their Scandinavian parentage. Lindsey has 
13 wapentakes, 2 hundreds (the Saxon and more common 

1 Probably a vestige of this is found in the existence of this office at 
Lincoln, where the Sheriff, after his term of office has expired becomes the 
High Constable for the following year, but his only duty is to determine 
the date of the Statutes or Hiring Fair. 



156 LINCOLNSHIRE 

equivalent, meaning the area containing 100 families), 
and 2 sokes (literally " a seeking into," hence the precinct 
within which the right of hearing suits existed). Kesteven 
has 9 wapentakes and I soke, while Holland has 3 wapen- 
takes. 

At the official head of the county comes the Lord- 
Lieutenant, who is usually a nobleman or great landowner 
appointed by the Crown, and who was, in past times, 
responsible for the troops of Militia, etc., within his sphere 
of action. Under him are several Deputy-Lieutenants 
who will probably take much more active interest in the 
Territorial forces than has been the case for many years 
past. The representative of the King and his officer in 
the county is the High Sheriff, whose name is pricked by 
the King every November out of a list furnished by 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Assizes are held 
three times a year at Lincoln for the City and County, 
and Lincoln, Grantham, and Grimsby have each a special 
judicial officer, the Recorder, a barrister of eminence, who 
holds Sessions to try prisoners sent to him by the magis- 
trates four times a year. There are also Quarter Sessions 
for the three Parts of the county, and Petty Sessions are 
held frequently in various places for the County and 
City Justices of the Peace to try all offenders against 
the law. 

Lincoln City must have long experienced a kind of 
domestic Home Rule, for when she was a Roman colony 
there was much of local rule, and still more when, as a 
member of the Danelagh (with Stamford), she had her 
own Earl with his separate " host," while twelve lawmen 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 157 

administered Danish law and a common Justice Court 
existed for the whole confederacy. From King Richard I 
came the right to elect the City's Provost (there were two 
allowed in 1227) and a Mayor was evidently elected the 
Provosts becoming Bailiffs early in the thirteenth century. 
The first date relating to a Mayor of the City is 1210. 
King Henry IV gave the city the privilege of electing 
twd Sheriffs in the place of the Bailiffs, as he had granted 
Lincoln the privilege of being styled " The County of 
the City of Lincoln." It is now governed by a mayor, 
6 aldermen and 18 councillors, and has its own sheriff 
and coroner, the latter a very ancient officer whose duty 
it is to investigate into the cause of all doubtful or 
suspicious deaths. 

Boston was incorporated by King Henry VIII, 
Grantham by King Edward IV, Grimsby by King John, 
Louth by King Edward VI, and Stamford by King 
Edward IV. Louth and Grimsby also possess the addi- 
tional office of High Stewards. 

There are 18 Poor Law Unions, under Boards of 
Guardians, to manage the workhouses and relieve the 
poor by specially appointed officers. The Registration 
County of Lincolnshire does not coincide with the 
Geographical County, as it includes several parishes from 
neighbouring counties, and has several of its own parishes 
allotted to other counties. 

The ecclesiastical government of Lincolnshire is in 
the hands of the Lord Bishop of the Diocese, who is 
assisted by two Archdeacons, of Lincoln and of Stow, 
who each supervise 21 associations of parishes over which 



158 LINCOLNSHIRE 

a Rural Dean presides. In many cases the names of these 
Rural Deaneries and their areas are almost identical with 
the secular divisions (wapentakes and hundreds) already 
mentioned, but the ecclesiastical names have frequently 
kept nearer to the original forms. There are 582 parishes 
in the diocese, but in a number of instances two or more 
are joined together, either from the loss of one church, as 
at Mablethorpe, Claxby-Pluckacre, and Fordington, or on 
account of the smallness of the stipends attached. 

24. The Roll of Honour. 

"This Shire triumpheth," remarks John Speed, "in 
the birth of King Henry the fourth, at Bullingbrooke 
borne." He was son of John of Gaunt, "Time-honoured 
Lancaster," who lived in Lincoln, where a small part of 
his palace still exists, and whose third wife and daughter, 
Katherine Swynford and Joan Countess of Westmorland, 
are buried in the Minster. He goes on to say with less 
accuracy, " but may as justly lament for the death of 
King John, herein poysoned by a monk of Swynsted 
Abbey " (as noted above King John died at Newark 
Castle) ; " and of Queene Eleanor, wife to King Edward 
the first, the mirrour of wedlocke and loue to the 
Commons, who at Harby 1 ended her life." 

Of early Saints Lincolnshire can claim two as belong- 
ing to her perhaps by birth, certainly by life St Botolph, 
who died about 680, and whose memory survives in 
Boston Botolph's town, and St Guthlac, who died in 

1 Just outside the Lincolnshire border, in Nottinghamshire. 




John Wesley 



160 LINCOLNSHIRE 

713, and in whose honour Crowland Abbey was founded. 
In later times St Gilbert of Sempringham (1083-1 189 ?), 
Lincolnshire born and bred, founded the only monastic 
order that of the Gilbertines which originated in this 
country. Mention has already been made of the many 
founders of Colleges, so that out of the great roll of 
Bishops of Lincoln room can be found here only for St 
Hugh (1186-1200); Sanderson, whose life was delight- 
fully written by his friend, Izaak Walton; and in these 
later years Christopher Wordsworth, scholar and divine, 
and the greatly beloved and saintly Edward King. 
Archbishop Whitgift (1530-1604) was born in this 
county, at Grimsby, and Daniel Waterland, theologian 
(1683-1740), at Walesby, of which place Robert Burton, 
author of The Anatomy of Melancholy was once rector. 
William Paley, author of the famous View of the Evidences 
of Christianity, probably wrote his Natural Theology when 
Sub-Dean of Lincoln. 

John Cotton, nonconformist divine, was Vicar of 
Boston for several years before leaving for Trimountain, 
Massachusetts, afterwards called Boston. And the Lin- 
colnshire Boston was the native place of John Foxe 
(1516-1587) the martyrologist. In 1703 there was born 
in Epworth Rectory one who made a vast change in the 
religious world, especially of that portion, unlike himself, 
outside the Church of England. This was John Wesley. 
His brother Charles, the divine and hymn-writer, was 
born there in 1707. One of Lincolnshire's proudest 
boasts should be that the great genius, Sir Isaac Newton, 
was born at Woolsthorpe (in 1642) and educated at the 



ROLL OF HONOUR 



161 



neighbouring grammar school of Grantham, where there 
is a statue of him by Theed. Another mathematician, 




Sir Isaac Newton 
(From the statue by Ronbiliac in the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge] 

George Boole, author of The Laws of Thought (i 8 1 5-1 864), 
was born in Lincoln. 



s. L. 



1 1 



162 LINCOLNSHIRE 

On August 6, 1809, tne P oet > Alfred Tennyson, was 
born in Somersby Rectory. He was educated at Louth 
grammar school. His earlier work reveals much of the 
influence on his receptive mind of the varying moods of 
river and marsh and fen. His statue by G. F. Watts is 
on the north-east side of the Minster Green at Lincoln. 
His elder brothers, Frederick (author of Days and Hours) 
and Charles, who took the additional name of Turner, 
were also poets. Boston was unusually favoured in the 
early years of the nineteenth century, as James Westland 
Marston, poet, dramatist, and critic, and father of the 
blind poet, Philip Bourke Marston, was born there in 
1819; Jean Ingelow, the poetess, in 1820; John 
Conington, the famous classical scholar in 1825; and 
Herbert Ingram, the founder of the Illustrated London 
News in 1811. Thomas Cooper, the chartist (author of 
The Purgatory of Suicides], lived for the later part of his 
life at Lincoln, where he died in 1892. Mrs Centlivre, 
actress and dramatist (1667-1723), was born at Holbeach, 
while Thomas Hey wood, dramatist and poet (died 1650 ?), 
avers himself a Lincolnshire man in his commendatory 
verses to James Yorke's Union of Honour, a book of 
heraldic use, by a Lincoln blacksmith. Robert Mannyng, 
or Robert de Brunne (1288-1338 ?), poet, was born at 
Bourne; Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, the historian 
(1084-1 155), was buried at Lincoln; and to turn to lighter 
literature, John Sheffield, ist Duke of Buckinghamshire, 
the friend of Dryden and Pope, had his seat at Normanby, 
the home of Sir Berkeley Sheffield. Bulwer Lytton, who 
was M.P. for Lincoln, is reported to have written A Strange 




Alfred, Lord Tennyson 



II 2 



164 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Story in the grounds of the old Palace, and the scene of 
the story is laid in Lincoln. 

Among antiquaries respect will always be paid to 
the names of Maurice Johnson (1688-1755), founder of 
the Gentlemen's Society (the oldest antiquarian society 
in England) at Spalding, his birth-place; of William 
Stukeley (1687-1765), author of Itlnerarium Cur'wsum\ 
of Sir Charles Anderson of Lea (1804-1891), author of 
the charming Lincoln Pocket Guide ; of Edward Trollope 
(1817-1893), Bishop of Nottingham; and of Edmund 
Venables (1819-1895), Precentor of Lincoln. To both 
these latter Lincoln and Lincolnshire archaeology owes 
very much. 

Of explorers this county has produced many of 
marked distinction, beginning with a typical "scout," 
Captain John Smith of Willoughby (1580-1631) one 
of the Virginian colonists, who was rescued from the 
Indians by their Princess Pocahontas; the traveller, Fynes 
Moryson (1566-1617), of Cadeby (?) ; Sir Joseph Banks 
(1743-1820), one of the most distinguished of naturalists 
and President of the Royal Society, who lived at Revesby 
and was companion of Cook in his voyage in the 
Endeavour round the world ; Matthew Flinders of 
Donington (1774-1814), explorer of Australasia; and, 
best known of all, Sir John Franklin (1786-1847), 
" heroic sailor soul," the Arctic explorer, whose statue 
is in Spilsby market place. 

Among famous soldiers 1 may be mentioned Sir John 

1 The history of Hereward the Wake and his connection with this 
county is, unfortunately, almost entirely legendary. 




Statue of Sir John Franklin 
(/// Spilsby market-place] 



166 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Bolle of Haugh (where he is buried) and Thorpe Hall, 
the hero of the Spanish Lady's ballad j Bartholomew, 
Lord Burghersh (died 1369), who fought at Crecy, and 
whose praise as a brave and gallant knight is enshrined 
in Froissart ; Peregrine Bertie, nth Lord Willoughby 
de Eresby (1555-1601), the hero of the ballad, The 
bravest man in battel was brave Lord Willoughby ; and 
Francis Willoughby, 5th Lord Willoughby of Parham 
(1613-1666), a great Parliamentary general who after- 
wards returned to his allegiance to his King. 

At the manor house at Knaith near Gainsborough 
was born in 1532 Thomas Sutton, a member of a 
prominent Lincolnshire family, who after service in the 
army as Surveyor of Ordnance, amassed great wealth and 
founded the Charterhouse Hospital and School in 1611, 
in which year he died. A portrait of him hangs in the 
Guildhall at Lincoln. The greatest name among Lincoln- 
shire statesmen is that of William Cecil, Lord Burghley 
(1520-1598), born at Bourne, Queen Elizabeth's chief 
minister. Sir John Cust (1718-1770) and Sir Robert 
Sheffield (in 1510 and 1512) were Speakers of the House 
of Commons. 

In the world of commerce it is interesting to 
note that our county supplied no less than nine 
Lord Mayors of London between the years 1470 and 
1632. 

For many centuries Scrivelsby has been associated with 
the family of Dymoke. Sir John Dymoke by his marriage 
with the heiress of the Marmions succeeded to the manor 
and was made King's Champion at the coronation of 




Thomas Button 



168 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Richard II., an office ever after retained by the family, 
though no longer exercised. 

Of artists the county certainly has had few : William 
Hilton (1786-1839), Royal Academician and historical 
painter, was born in the gatehouse of the Vicar's Court 
at Lincoln, the son of a portrait painter of that city. 
His sister married Peter de Wint, who has shown his love 
for the city and county in many beautiful water-colours. 
A monument to the two painters is in Lincoln Cathedral. 
The splendid illustrations of Roman tesselated pavements 
produced by William Fowler (1761-1832) must not be 
left without mention. 

In the medical world Francis Willis (1718-1807) 
attended King George III in his attacks of mental 
derangement, and John Conolly (1794-1866), born at 
Market Rasen, and Edward Parker Charlesworth (1783- 
1853) were a ^ so distinguished for their treatment of 
insanity, the method of non-restraint being introduced 
by the latter, whose statue stands just south of The 
Lawn a private asylum at Lincoln. 

One of the most distinguished musicians of the six- 
teenth century was William Byrd, organist of Lincoln 
Minster from 1563-1572 ; and John Reading, the com- 
poser of Adeste fideles (O come, all ye faithful), was 
Master of the choristers there in 1702. 



25. THE CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 
OF LINCOLNSHIRE. 

(The figures in brackets after each name give the population in 
1911, and those at the end of each section refer to the 
pages in the text.) 

Alford (2394), a market town at the junction of the Wold 
with the Marsh, with a fine church of Decorated date and 
handsome chancel screen, (pp. 12, 39, 62, 75, 152.) 

Algarkirk (485), 6| miles south-south-west of Boston, 
has a very fine cruciform church chiefly of Early English and 
Decorated date. Woad is grown in this parish. 

Ancaster (536), 8 miles north-east of Grantham, was a 
Roman station on the Ermine Street (probably Causennae), the 
fosse or ditch is clearly traceable. Quarries for Ancaster stone are 
worked in this parish and in the neighbouring one of Wilsford, 
where is a picturesque manor house built by Sir Charles Cotterell, 
a scholarly courtier of Charles II. (pp. n, 19, 31, 86, 109, 115, 



Bardney (1302), a thriving town 9 miles east of Lincoln, 
originated with the famous abbey dedicated to St Oswald, of 
which the ground plan has been worked out. Aethelred resigning 
his crown became abbot here, and a mound still called King's 
Hill may be his burial place. There is a junction here connecting 
the Lincoln and Boston line with Louth. (pp. 12, 137.) 

Barrow-on-Humber (2734), includes New Holland, 

whence there is a steam ferry to Hull. A Saxon monastery was 

founded here by St Chad, and there is a large series of earthworks, 

The Castles." At the neighbouring hamlet of Burnham to the 

south was possibly the site of the Battle of Brunanburgh in 937. 



170 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



Barton- on -H umber (6673), 6 miles south-west of Hull, 
a prosperous market town and small port, which had a market 
and ferry at the time of Domesday survey, with a Saxon church 
(St Peter) having a very early tower and handsome Decorated 
nave and chancel, and a second fine Early English church 
(St Mary's), almost entirely in that style. The chief trades of 
the town are malting, and brick, tile, and cement making, (pp. 
II J 3 2 , 33, 35, 42, 49, 74, 9^, n8, 149, 150, 152.) 

Baumber (354), a little village 4 miles north-west ot 
Horncastle, chiefly notable for its training stables; Galopin, 
winner of the Derby in 1875, was bred here. 




Boston Grammar School 

Billingborough (964), a large village 3 miles east ot 
Folkingham, with fine church mainly Decorated, a Tudor Hall, 
and abundant springs. 

Billinghay (1288), a large village 83 miles north-east of 
Sleatbrd, includes Dogdyke eastwards on the Witham, where is 
a piece of genuine untouched ^Fen, and Walcot, westwards, with 
the well-known Catley Abbey springs of natural seltzer-water. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 171 

Boston (16,673) ( St Botolph's town), has a very ancient 
history; its importance as a port and fishing-centre has already 
been described. Many of the "Pilgrim Fathers" hailed from this 
place, and re-christened the town of Trimountain after it. The 
church (St Botolph's) is a little less in area than St Nicholas, 
Yarmouth, and is a splendid specimen of a first rank parish 
church. It is almost entirely of Decorated date, except the grand 
Perpendicular lantern tower, 272 feet high, known locally as 
Boston Stump. There is a picturesque half-timbered house, 
Shodfriar's Hall, a fifteenth century red brick Guildhall, and 
a sixteenth century Grammar School, also in red brick. The 
neighbouring church of Skirbeck has a grand Early English 
nave. (pp. 4, 6, 12, 15, 19, 20, 32, 34, 38, 47, 50, 70, 73, 74, 
82, 89, 90, 93, 94-97, no, 123, 124, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157, 
158, 160, 162.) 

Bourne (4343) is a nice market town 95 miles west or 
Spalding, with a powerful spring, from which it gets its name. 
The parish church is the nave of the monastic one, with late 
Norman arcades. Bourne was the seat of the Wake family, 
though the connection with Hereward is very obscure. The 
castle and station-master's house have been previously mentioned, 
(pp. n, 20, 128, 138, 143, 147, 152.) 

Brant Broughton (531), a village 3 miles west of 
Leadenham, has one of the most perfect parish churches in the 
county, both outside and inside. It is chiefly of the Decorated 
period, though the nave, aisle, arcade, and chancel arch are Early 
English. The interior decoration, stained glass, screen-work, font 
and cover, and iron-work, is all of a very high order of merit. 
Here Bishop Warburton was rector and wrote his Divine Legation 
of Moses, (pp. 82, 145.) 

Brigg or Glanford Brigg (3343), a thriving market town 
23 miles north of Lincoln on the Ancholme, over which is the 



172 LINCOLNSHIRE 

bridge which gives the place its most used name. On the site 
of the -gasworks was discovered a prehistoric boat, 48 feet long, 
cut out of the trunk of an oak. (pp. 15, 16, 31, 112, 120, 149, 
'50, 154-) 

Burgh (937), a small market town 6 miles east of Spilsby, 
on an outlying hill in the Marsh, was a Roman station; has a fine 
Perpendicular church, and a Missionary College founded thirty 
years ago. (pp. u, 16, 32, 115.) 

Caistor (1544), a small market town 7^ miles east-south- 
east of Brigg, was a Roman station, and possesses part of its 
walls and ditch. It is situated on a western spur of the Wolds. 
The church tower is probably Norman, the nave Early English. 
A gadwhip is kept here, to which a purse was attached containing 
30 silver pennies and four pieces of wych elm, and on Palm Sunday 
was cracked by a man from Broughton during the reading of the 
first lesson. He knelt before the officiating minister when he 
began to read the second lesson, waved it three times over the 
minister's head, and held it over him till the lesson was finished, 
and then deposited it in the seat of the Lord of the Manor of 
Hundon. Lands in Broughton (near Caistor) were held by this 
ceremony, which has been discontinued for 70 years, (pp. 6, 32, 
62, 99, 108, 115.) 

Cleethorpes (21,417). This favourite watering-place is 
situated about 3 miles south-east of Grimsby (with which it is 
practically continuous), on the south shore of the Humber and 
facing the North Sea. It is frequented by many thousands of 
visitors, for day trips or longer, during the summer. About 
a mile inland is the church of Old Clee, which has a Saxon 
tower, Norman nave, and Transitional Norman north transept. 
A tablet records the dedication of the church (perhaps the chancel 
and transepts) by St Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1 192. (pp. 42, 
47,49, 89, 152.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 173 

Crowle (2853), a small market town in the Isle of Axholme 
on the Yorkshire border with a station on the light railway from 
Haxey to Goole. The church, dedicated to St Oswald, has the 
stem of a Saxon cross with runic inscription in the arch of the 
tower, which is Norman with Perpendicular top. It has also a 
fine Norman doorway, (pp. 69, 152.) 

Epworth (1836) is a market town in the Isle of Axholme 
about 6 miles south of Crowle, and has a good church with 
a fine Perpendicular tower. In the old Rectory (which was 
burnt by the parishioners in 1709) John Wesley was born in 
1703 and Charles Wesley in 1708. Samuel Wesley, their father, 
was rector of Epworth for 39 years, and is buried in a tomb in 
the churchyard on the south side, from which his son John used 
to preach, (pp. 14, 69, 160.) 

Frieston (1024) is a large village 3 miles east of Boston. 
The parish church is the nave of the Priory Church, of 
Transition Norman ; with fine tower, clerestory, and aisle of 
Perpendicular date. The beautiful font cover is of the same 
date. (p. 128.) 

Friskney (1373) is a large village on the coast, 14 miles 
north-east of Boston, with a fine (mainly Perpendicular) church, 
which is especially remarkable for its wall paintings of early 
fifteenth century date. 

Fulbeck (611), 9 miles north of Grantham, is situated on 
a well-wooded lower rise of ground between the Cliff and the 
plain and is perhaps the most delightful village in the county. 
The Hall has been a seat of the Fane family for nearly 300 years. 
(PP- 29, 54.) 

Gainsborough (20,587) is a large market town on the banks 
of the Trent, 15^ miles north-west of Lincoln. Here, in 868, 
King Alfred is recorded to have married Ealswitha, daughter of 
Ethelred, chief of the Gaini (whence the town gets its name). 



174 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



The earthworks occupied by the Danes, the interesting Old 
Hall, the history of the place during the great Civil War, the 
malting, seed crushing, and agricultural implement works, have 
all been alluded to earlier in this book. George Eliot describes 
the town under the name of St Ogg's in the Mill on the Floss, 
and the Bazaar took place in the Old Hall. The " eagre " or 
bore on the river reaches a little above Gainsborough, as do the 
ordinary tides in the Trent, the Spring tides reach about 10 miles 
further up the river, to Newton, where the picturesque red cliffs 




Woolsthorpe Manor House 

(the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton] 

are much visited by picnic parties in the summer, (pp. 6, 7, 11, 
15, 18, 24, 26, 62, 78, 80, 82, 97, 99, 101, 107, no, iii, 114, 
117, 124, 140, 152, 153, 154, 166.) 

Great Gonerby (1296), two and a half miles north-north- 
west of Grantham, was well-known as affording the steepest hill 
on the Great North Road, and as such is mentioned in Scott's 
Heart of Midlothian (chap. 29). (p. 29.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 175 

Grantham (20,070), a large and increasing market town, and 
a parliamentary and municipal borough, is situated 24 miles 




Grantham: the Old Grammar School 

south of Lincoln and 105^ from London. It is notable for 
its splendid church with the finest spire in the county, and the 



176 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Angel Hotel, one of the three remaining medieval hostelries in 
the country, which with the large agricultural implement and 
other engineering works, have been already mentioned. Sir Isaac 
Newton was born at the neighbouring manor house of Woolsthorpe 
and educated at the Grantham Grammar School, (pp. 6, 10, n, 
T 7, J 9 7 1 , 80, 82, 86, 109, no, 115, 121, 122, 124, 139, 147, 
MO, i54, 156, 157, 161.) 

Great Grimsby (76,659) has been already dealt with as 
far as its gigantic fishing interests and the port generally are 
concerned. The name is traditionally derived from that of a 
fisherman "Grim," who (according to the poem of Havelock the 
Dane) rescued a Danish chief's son Havelock from drowning 
and was rewarded by a gift of this Danish port. It is a Borough 
by prescription. King Richard I held a parliament here, and 
King John visited the town twice, and gave its first charter. One 
only is left of two fine churches (St Mary's fell into ruins in the 
sixteenth century), St James, the parish church, which belonged 
to Wellow Abbey. Of early thirteenth century date are nave, 
south door, porch, transept and part of the chancel the tower was 
rebuilt in 1365. The Town Hall, opened in 1863, is of white 
brick and stone in Italian style; the Corn Exchange in red brick 
dates from 1854. A fine bronze statue of the Prince Consort 
stands opposite the Royal Hotel. Archbishop Whitgift and 
Gervase Holies, author of valuable notes on Lincolnshire 
churches in the seventeenth century, were natives of Grimsby. 
(pp. 4, 14, 24, 34, 42, 43, 47-50, 62, 73, 87, 88, 90-93, 97, 120, 
!49 M 2 , M4, 156, 157, 160.) 

Haxey (2035), a small town 3 miles south of Epworth, 
7 miles north-west of Gainsborough, on the G.N. line from 
Lincoln to Doncaster, and on the light railway to Goole. It was 
the capital town of the Isle of Axholme. The church is hand- 
some externally, of Perpendicular date with a good tower, " which 
has a ring of six bells with chimes of exceptional sweetness" 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 177 

(Jeans). Here on January 6th occurs a kind of football match, 
called "throwing the Haxey hood," a piece of sacking closely 
tied up serving for the hood, while 12 "Boggins" and a Fool" 
(who proclaims the amount of refreshment offered by the various 
public-houses of the town to the man who conveys the hood 
thither) try and keep the hood from leaving a field, the rest of 
the players striving to capture it. (p. 71.) 

Heckington (1666), a large village 5 miles south-east 
of Sleaford with a magnificent Decorated church which has a 
beautiful Easter sepulchre and sedilia, in the chancel made by the 
same workmen as the Easter sepulchres at Navenby, Hawton 
near Newark, and the Minster chancel screen, (p. 122.) 

Holbeach (5052), a small town 8 miles east of Spalding, 
with an enormous parish, containing 21,000 acres of land, and 
14,000 of water. Henry Rands, Bishop of Lincoln (1547-1551), 
who alienated most of the episcopal manors to the king, and 
Stukeley the antiquary, were natives of this place. The church is 
large and dignified, of the latest Decorated date, with a spire 
1 80 feet high; the north porch has curious circular battlemented 
turrets, like those at the east end of the Lady Chapel at Grantham 
Church, (pp. 69, 152, 162.) 

Horncastle (3900) is a market town at the foot of the 
Wolds, 21 miles east of Lincoln, on an angle of land between 
the rivers Waring and Bain (the latter giving rise to the Roman 
name, Banovallum), hence the more modern name. Portions of 
the Roman walls still exist. There is a good trade carried on 
in corn, coal, malting and brewing, and the largest horse fair in 
the kingdom. The manor was possessed for some centuries by 
the Bishops of Carlisle, as a safe retreat from the incursions of 
the Scots. The church is fine, with some Early English portions, 
but the nave and aisles are of Decorated date, and the chancel 
Perpendicular. A monument to Sir Lionel Dymoke, King's 
S. L. I2 



178 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Champion in 1519, another to Sir Ingram Hopton, who nearly 
captured Cromwell at Winceby fight, in 1643, an d a number 
of scythe heads, most probably used in the Lincolnshire rising 
in 1536, deserve notice, (pp. 6, 16, 17, 38, 62, 69, 83, 108, 
115, 116, 153, 154.) 

Kirton- in -Holland (2444) a large village 4 miles south- 
south-west of Boston, has a fine church which was barbarously 
treated in 1804, when its central tower and a fine transept were 
pulled down, and the chancel shortened. The present west tower 
was then built. The nave is Early English, with clerestory of 
good Perpendicular work, and a fine roof. 

Kirton-in-Lindsey (1602), a market town and large 
parish, 1 8 miles north of Lincoln, has a large church with Early 
English tower, and north arcade of the nave. This place was 
given by King William the Conqueror to Bishop Remigius 
towards endowing his new Cathedral at Lincoln, and remained 
attached to the sub-dean's office for many years as a "Peculiar." 
(p. 147.) 

Langton-by-Spilsby (168) is chiefly remarkable for the 
fact that the manor and advowson and the estate have been in 
the possession of the same family (Langton) since the thirteenth 
century. The Hall has been rebuilt about four times. Bennet 
Langton was visited here by Dr Johnson, (p. 145.) 

Lincoln (57,285), a city and county by itself, returning one 
member to Parliament, occupies the brow of a cliff 210 feet high, 
and extends downwards across the river Witham for two miles. 
It is the episcopal see of the diocese of Lincoln, and is governed 
(as it has been since 1210) by a mayor and corporation. Its 
early history, its extensive Roman remains, and its later history 
have been already dealt with, as have been also its trade, the 
Jews' Houses, St Mary's Guild, and the Castle. The Cathedral 
or Minster, as it is usually called, was first built by the first 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 179 

Norman Bishop Remigius, and completed in 1092. The west 
front of this church and one bay of its nave alone remain. 
The three splendid Norman doorways and the lower part of the 
western towers and the gables are later additions. The saintly 
Bishop St Hugh of Lincoln (1186-1200) began rebuilding in 
Gothic style, and much of the present ritual choir and western 
transepts was completed before his death. The rest of the 




Lincoln Minster, from the North-east 

transepts with part of the central towers, the nave (a superb work 
of great lightness and elegance) and the Chapter House were 
built in the time of Bishops William of Blois and Hugh of 
Wells. The great west screen, with the central (Broad or Rood) 
tower is due to Bishop Grosseteste, the greatest of Lincoln's 
Bishops. The extreme popularity and sanctity of St Hugh's 
shrine led to the pulling down of the apsidal end of his choir, 

12 2 



180 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



and to the replacing it by a most sumptuous and splendid work 
of Early Decorated date which was consecrated in 1280, when 
St Hugh's remains were translated to a new shrine. This was 
called, from the artistic sculpture in the spandrels, the Angel 
Choir. The south porch is almost unique in the country, with 
lavish figure sculptures. The cloisters were built by Bishop Oliver 
Sutton (1280-1300), and are elegant specimens of Decorated date. 




Horse Fair, Lincoln 



The great central tower was completed in 1311, when with its 
spire it was about the highest in Europe, reaching a height of 
525 feet. The beautiful chancel screen, with its exquisite side 
doors (like the king's door at Trondhjem Cathedral), was made 
about the same time. About 1380 the tabernacled stalls of the 
choir, according to Pugin " by far the finest in England," were 
put in. The upper part of the western towers (Perpendicular 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 181 

in style, but blending wonderfully well with the Norman under- 
structure) dates from 1390. After the Restoration, Sir Christopher 
Wren completed the north side of the cloisters with an arcade 
and built a library over it. 

A fine statue of Tennyson by G. F. Watts stands on the north- 
east Minster green. St Mary-le-Wigford, St Peter-at-Gowts, 
and St Benedict have all pre-Norman or early Norman towers; 
St Swithin's is the finest new church in the city. There are plenty 
of recreation grounds around the city, the Arboretum above 
Monks Road, a well-kept People's Park, Monks Abbey, and the 
South Park on the slope of Canwick and Crosscliflf Hills. Horse- 
racing is mentioned in the Corporation records in 1597. King 
James attended races here in 1617. The Lincolnshire Handicap, 
the first great flat race of the year, was first run in 1849. (PP- 
1-3, 6, 7, 10, ii, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18-21, 24, 29, 31, 35-38, 41, 
46, 54, 56, 61, 62, 66, 67, 69, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 82, 85, 86, 
9 6 > 97, 99-in, 112-126, 130-139, 143, 147-158, 1 60, 162, 
168.) 

Louth (9880), a municipal borough and market town, 
deriving its name from the river Ludd, is situated in a valley 
on the east side of the Wolds, about 15 miles south of Grimsby. 
It is a handsome, well built, and prosperous town, and a great 
agricultural centre. The main feature of the town is the large 
and splendid church of Perpendicular date, with its grand tower 
and spire, rising to a height of 300 feet. Close to Louth on the 
Lincoln road is Thorpe Hall, built in 1584 by Sir John Bolle, 
the hero of the Spanish Lady's ballad, who is buried at Haugh. 
The grammar school had the distinction of educating all the 
Tennyson brothers, Hobart Pasha, and Governor Eyre of 
Jamaica. Louth Park Abbey ruins are about i^ miles away; 
it was a large Cistercian foundation, originating in a colony of 
monks who left Haverholme Priory, (pp. 10, 18, 33, 124, 150, 



182 LINCOLNSHIRE 

Mablethorpe (1232) is a pleasantly situated watering-place 
on the coast 8 miles north-east from Alford, with many resident 
visitors, and crowds of trippers in the season. The sands are 
excellent and very extensive at low tides. Mirages are not 
uncommon. Tennyson, who frequently visited the place in his 
early years, used to say that nowhere, except on the west coast of 
Ireland, had he seen such length of wave, and many allusions to 
this coast and the neighbourhood will be found in his poems, 
(pp. 38, 43, 44, 49, 50, 99, 152, 158.) 

Marsh- Chapel (551) is a large parish si miles south- 
east of Grimsby, with a spacious Perpendicular church, perhaps 
the finest in the Marshes, with a good tower and a fine rood 
screen, (pp. 14, 49, 124.) 

Moulton (2226), a large parish 4 miles east of Spalding, 
has one of the grand series of churches on the road between 
Spalding and Sutton Bridge which belonged to Spalding Priory. 
It was built about 1180, the nave showing very Early English 
work of six bays, the clerestories are Transitional Norman, and 
there is a Perpendicular chancel, and a fine early Perpendicular 
tower and spire about 1 6.0 feet high. Half a mile north-east is 
the Elloe stone, which marks the place of assembly for the 
wapentake. 

Pinchbeck (2836), a large village of over 13,000 acres, 
2 miles north of Spalding, with a large and fine church with 
Early English arcade of five bays in the nave, Perpendicular 
clerestory roof and west tower, and late Decorated chancel. The 
name Pinchbeck for an alloy of copper and zinc came from 
Christopher Pinchbeck, its discoverer, but whether he had any 
connection with the village does not appear, (p. 20.) 

Market Rasen (2296), is a market town 14 miles north- 
east from Lincoln. Two other villages of the same name are 
close by, Middle Rasen and West Rasen, both with interesting 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 183 

churches. The name comes from the little river Rase. (pp. 15, 
16, 18, 149, 168.) 

Ruskington (1214), a large village about three and a half 
miles north of Sleaford, has large building works, and a good 
Early English church. 

Sedgebrook (168), a small village 4 miles north-west 
from Grantham, has a rather remarkable late Perpendicular 
church, with the rood loft carried across the aisles. The chapel 
on the south of the chancel was built by Sir John Markham, a 
Justice of King's Bench, called "the upright Judge" because he 
was dismissed from office by King Edward IV after displaying 
conspicuous fairness in dealing with the trial of Sir Thomas 
Coke, Lord Mayor of London, (pp. 28, 124.) 

Skegness (3775) is a rapidly developing watering-place 
on the coast, 4 miles east of Burgh, and 5 miles north-east 
of Wainfleet. It has very good accommodation for visitors, who 
are very numerous in the summer months. The sands and 
bathing are good, there are a fine pier and cricket ground, and 
there are first class golf links at Seacroft, on the sand-hills south 
of the town. The air is wonderfully pure and bracing. The 
railway communication is through the Great Northern branch 
from Firsby, either from Boston or Louth, but a connecting line 
is being made with the Great Northern Railway line from Lincoln, 
(pp. 14, 31, 43, 46, 47, 49, 50, 54, 62, 97, 152.) 

Sleaford (3808) is a thriving and improving market town, 
of much importance as an agricultural centre, situated about 
half way between Spalding and Lincoln on the little river Slea. 
The railway communications are excellent. The church is one 
of the first class, has a very early spire, a handsome Perpendicular 
nave (externally Decorated) and a Perpendicular chancel with the 
finest oak rood screen in the county. The Castle only remains in 
the shape of mounds. The large makings have been already 



184 LINCOLNSHIRE 

mentioned, (pp. 7, n, 19, 20, 68, 104, in, 116, 122, 136, 147, 
150, 152, 154.) 

Somersby (47), 6 miles north-east of Horncastle, was the 
birthplace of Alfred Tennyson in 1 809. The old Rectory is much 
the same internally and externally as in the days of the Tennysons, 
with the quaint Gothic dining-room built by Dr Tennyson, who 
himself carved the mantelpiece. His grave is in the churchyard. 
The church is a simple little one of the local sandstone, which has 
been put in good repair, and a bust (by Woolner) of the poet 
placed in the chancel in memory of his centenary in 1909. There 
is a beautiful fifteenth century churchyard cross, (pp. 12, 130, 
162.) 

Spalding (10,308) is a large market town and port, 
14 miles south-south-west of Boston, on the river Welland, which 
is navigable for vessels of 120 tons, carrying on a trade of coal, 
oil-cake, and timber. It is also a valuable agricultural centre, 
and for distributing fruit and vegetables. Scarcely any remains 
exist of the important Priory which was the richest in the 
county, after Crowland, at the dissolution. The church is 
mainly Early Decorated, but has had additional aisles added to 
the nave, and a south-east chapel. The rood screen is fine and 
very lofty. Ayscoughfee Hall, now town property, was originally 
of fifteenth century date ; it has been much modernised, but has 
fine Tudor gardens. Maurice Johnson lived here, the founder 
in 1710 of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society, which still exists 
and has established itself in a new house, (pp. 12, 20, 22, 69, 
97, 143, 147, 152, 154, 164.) 

Spilsby (1464) is a pleasant market town 10 miles east-south- 
east of Horncastle at the southern extremity of the Wolds, on a 
branch of the Great Northern Railway from Firsby. The 
church is chiefly interesting for the series of monuments of the 
Willoughby de Eresby family, who took their title from Willoughby 




0) 5: 

I 

GO 



125 



186 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



near Alford, and Eresby, where was a Hall, about three-quarters 
of a mile south of Spilsby. A bronze statue of the Arctic explorer, 
Sir John Franklin, who was born here, is in the market place, 
(pp. n, 17, 18, 31, 62, 130, 137, 152, 164, 165.) 




St Mary's Church and Hill, Stamford 

Stamford (9647), a most charming municipal borough, 
situated on the extreme southern border of the county on the 
Welland, and with one parish, St Martin's, in Northamptonshire 
(as is Burghley House, the magnificent seat of the Marquis of 
Exeter, built by Lord High Treasurer Burghley). It has an 
ancient history, and was one of the Danelagh towns, representing 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 187 

the Gyrwas or dwellers in the Fens. It has several fine and 
interesting churches, among them St Mary's with an Early English 
tower and spire and All Saints with a Perpendicular spire and 
excellent brasses. Browne's Hospital has been already noticed, and 
the gate of Brasenose College (the nose has gone to its namesake 
at Oxford) still remains as a reminder of the University that might 
have been at Stamford, (pp. 8, 11, 22, 31, 66, 69, 75, 98, 100, 
107, 109, 115, 124, 128, 143, 147, 150, 154, 156, 157.) 

StOW (309), six miles south-east of Gainsborough, is notable 
for its large cruciform church, and is supposed to owe its name to 
St Etheldreda having made a stay (or stow) here, where her staff 
budded in the night. Parts of the piers of the central tower are 
probably earlier than 1020, when the church was rebuilt by 
Bishop Eadnoth; the nave and upper part of the transepts were 
due to Remigius, and the chancel and fine western doorway to 
Bishop Alexander. Here was a manor house of the Bishops of 
Lincoln, and here St Hugh's favourite swan lived, (pp. 10, 118, 
120, 157.) 

Sutton-on-Sea (835) is another of the pleasant sea-side 
resorts of this county about 3 miles south of Mablethorpe, and 
with much the same attractions, (pp. 34, 44-46, 49, 50, 152.) 

Swineshead (i 899), a large village about 6 miles south-west 
of Boston, has a grand church, with Decorated and Perpendicular 
tower, Decorated nave and clerestory and south aisle. A mile 
away is the site of Swineshead Abbey, occupied by a farmhouse, 
where King John lay the night after the disastrous crossing of the 
Wash, and where lie was possibly poisoned by the monks, (pp. 
64, 104, 117.) 

Tattershall (415), on the river Bain 11 miles north-west 
of Boston, has the splendid castle already described and a spacious 
Perpendicular cruciform church with western tower, built of stone 
by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, left unfinished at his death in 1455, 



188 LINCOLNSHIRE 

and finished by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. 
The stone pulpitum or screen dividing the chancel from the 
transepts has had two altars on its western face, and has two 
stone book-rests on the projection over the door into the chancel, 
for the books of the Gospel and Epistle, which used to be read 
therefrom. There are very fine brasses commemorating the 
founder and others in the north transept. The market was 
gained for the town at the price of a well-trained goshawk in the 
reign of King John, and the market cross bears the shields of 
Tattershall, Cromwell, and Deincourt, and was erected about the 
same time as the castle. No market is now held, but there is a 
cattle and sheep fair in September, (pp. 17, 20,47, Iri > I2 4> 
130, 134-) 

Torksey (183), 7 miles south of Gainsborough, was once an 
important port at the junction of the Fossdyke and the Trent, 
and the probable scene of the baptism by Paulinus. The so-called 
"castle," built in the late sixteenth century, was the Hall of the 
Jermyn family, and being occupied by the Parliamentarians was 
captured and burnt by the Royalists from Newark. Torksey has 
given its name to china and pottery made here. (pp. 82, 97, 99, 
100, 116, 143, 153.) 

Wainfleet- All- Saints (1258), a market town and port 
15 miles north-east of Boston, on the Steeping river and Wainfleet 
Haven, which reaches the sea at Gibraltar Point, 5 miles away. 
It is chiefly notable as the birthplace of William Patten (or 
Barbour), best known as William of Waynflete, who was Provost 
of Eton, Bishop of Winchester, and Founder of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, in whose chapel is the tomb of his father, which used to 
be here. The Bishop also built the existing school at Wainfleet 
of red brick, much resembling Tattershall Castle in appearance, 
but about forty years later in date. (pp. 47, 96, 106, 140.) 

Wliaplode (2270) is a large village on the Holbeach to 
Spalding road, on which some of the finest churches of the county 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 189 

are situated, that of Whaplode being among the first rank. There 
are seven bays in the nave, the four eastern ones and the chancel 
arch well-developed Norman, the three western Transitional, the 
tower (on the site of the south transept), lowest stage Transitional, 
second and third Early English, fourth Early Decorated, (p. i 20.) 

Wlnteringham (606), once a market and corporate town, 
seven and a half miles west of Barton-on-Humber, is close to the 
north ending of the Ermine Street, at Flashmire (Ad A bum). 
Kirke White, the poet, was for a time a pupil here at the old 
Rectory. Here St Etheldreda is supposed to have landed, when 
she was fleeing from her second husband, en route for Ely, and 
at West Halton close by, where she stopped some time, she is 
said to have founded a church which is dedicated to her. The 
church has Transitional Norman piers in the nave, with semi- 
circular arches on the south and pointed ones on the north, an 
Early English chancel, and a Perpendicular tower, (pp. 10, 17, 
40 

Winterton (1426), a small market town on the Ermine 
Street two and a half miles south of Winteringham. Both towns 
derived their names from the tribe of Winterings. An eagle 
of a Roman Legion was found here, and close by several Roman 
pavements, which were figured by William Fowler, who lived here. 
There is a fine cruciform church, with a pre-Norman tower, its 
upper portion Early English, an Early English nave, and a 
Decorated chancel. The altar-piece is by Raphael Mengs. 
(P- H5-) 

Woodhall Spa (1484) is an inland watering-place 3 miles 
south-west of Horncastle, of considerable and fast rising importance 
in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, and scrofula, due to the 
exceeding richness of the natural mineral water in salts of Iodine 
and Bromine. The spring was accidentally discovered about 
100 years ago in the course of an unsuccessful boring 1000 feet 



190 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



deep for coal. The water flows through a soft spongy rock at 
a depth of 540 feet, and yields from 16,000 to 20,000 gallons 
a day. There is a spacious pump room and bath establishment 
of the most modern character. Woodhall is situated on a sandy 




The Church Walk: Woodhall Spa 

and gravelly soil, and is in the midst of extensive woods. It is 
sheltered on the north and east by the Wolds, and within easy 
reach are Tattershall Castle, Scrivelsby, Somersby, Revesby 
Abbey, and Kirkstead. (pp. 28, 40.) 



DIAGRAMS 



191 



England & Wales 
37,337,630 acres 

Lincolnshire 



Fig. i. Area of Lincolnshire (1,705,293 acres) compared 
with that of England^and Wales 



England & Wales 
36,075,269 



Lincolnshire 



r 



Fig. 2. Population of Lincolnshire (563,960) compared 
with that of England and Wales in 1911 



England and Wales 618 Lincolnshire 212 Lancashire 2550 

Fig. 3. Comparative Density of Population to the 
square mile in 1911 

(Each dot represents 10 persons) 



192 



LINCOLNSHIRE 



Corn Crops 
560,835 acres 




Fig. 4. Proportionate area under Corn Crops compared with 
that of other Cultivated Land in Lincolnshire in 191 1 




Fig. 5 Proportionate area of chief Corn Crops in 
Lincolnshire in 1911 



DIAGRAMS 



193 




podlands|*M|5 



Fig. 6. Proportionate area of land in Lincolnshire 
in IQII 




Fig. 7. Proportionate numbers of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, 
and Pigs in Lincolnshire in 1911 



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the book, a particularly useful set of questions and exercises. The author's 
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ment of the races is not neglected." The A.M. A. 

Senior : By G. F. BOSWORTH, F.R.G.S. [In preparation 



CAMBRIDGE COUNTY GEOGRAPHIES 

General Editor: F. H. H. GUILLEMARD, M.D. 
Crown 8vo. Price is. 6d. each. 



Each volume gives an account of the history, antiquities, architecture, 
natural history, industries, and physical, geological, and general characteristics 
of the county. Each book contains two coloured maps and a large number 
of illustrations. 



Berkshire. By H. W. MONCKTON, 

F.IfcS., F.G.S. 

Breconshire. By C. J. EVANS 
Buckinghamshire. By A. MORLEY 

DAVIES, D.Sc., F.G.S. 
Cambridgeshire. By T. MCKENNY 

HUGHES, M.A., F.R.S., and 

MARY CAROLINE HUGHES 
The volume on Cambridgeshire is 
also published in limp lambskin, gilt 
top, is. 6d. net 
Carnarvonshire. By J. E. LLOYD, 

M.A. 

Cheshire. By T. A. COWARD 
Cornwall. By S. BARING-GOULD 
Cumberland. ByJ. E. MARR, Sc.D., 

F.R.S. 
Derbyshire. By H. H. ARNOLD 

BEMROSE, Sc.D., F.G.S. 
Devonshire. By F. A. KNIGHT 
Dorset. By A. L. SALMON 
Essex. By G. F. BOSWORTH, F.R.G.S. 
Gloucestershire. By H. A. EVANS, 

M.A. 

Herefordshire. By A. G. BRADLEY 
Hertfordshire. By R. LYDEKKER 
Huntingdonshire. By the Rev. W. M. 

NOBLE 



Isle of Man. By the Rev. J . QUINE, 

M.A. 

Kent. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
Lancashire, North. By J. E. MARR 
London, East. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
London, West. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
Middlesex. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
Monmouthshire. By A. EVANS, 

M.A. 

Norfolk. By W. A. DUTT 
Northamptonshire. By M. W. 

BROWN, M.A. 
Nottinghamshire. By H. H. SWIN- 

NERTON, D.Sc., F.Z.S., F.G.S. 
Oxfordshire. By P. H. DITCHFIELD, 

M.A., F.S.A. 

Radnorshire. By LEWIS DAVIES 
Rutland. By G. PHILLIPS 
Somersetshire. By F. A. KNIGHT 
Suffolk. By W. A. DUTT 
Surrey. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
Sussex. By G. F. BOSWORTH 
Westmorland. By J. E. MARR 
Wiltshire. By A. G. BRADLEY 
Worcestershire. By L. J. WILLS, 

M.A., F.G.S. 



Scotland : General Editor, W. MURISON, M.A. 



Aberdeenshire. By A. MACKIE, M.A. 
Ayrshire. By JOHN FOSTER, M.A. 
Dumfriesshire.* By the Rev. J. K. 

HEWISON, D.D. 
Fifeshire. By E. S. VALENTINE, 

M.A. 

Forfarshire. By E. S. VALENTINE 
Lanarkshire. By F. MORT, M.A. 

B.Sc., F.G.S. 



Linlithgowshire. By T. S. MUIR, 

F.R.S.G.S. 
Midlothian. By A. MCCALLUM, 

M.A., LL.B. 
Perthshire. By PETER MACNAIR, 

F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Renfrewshire. By F. MORT. 



Volumes on the remaining counties of England, Scotland and Wales, are 
in an active state of preparation. Arrangements have also been made for a 
series of Irish Geographies. 



lementary Commercial Geography. By H. R. MILL, 
D.Sc., LL.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 

Extract from Preface (1906) 

The book has been revised throughout by the aid of the latest official 
publications and largely re-written after visiting most of the countries of Europe, 
North America, and South and East Africa. The statistics are designed to 
show the changes now in progress in the staple trade of countries as well as the 
actual volume of trade. 



An Atlas of Commercial Geography. Illustrating the 

General Facts of Physical, Political, Economic, and Statistical Geography, 
on which International Commerce depends. By John G. BARTHOLOMEW, 
F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., etc. With introductory notes by H. R. MILL, D.Sc. 
LL.D. . 



Physical Geography for South African Schools. By 

ALEX. L. Du TOIT, B.A., F.G.S. Crown 8vo. With 66 illustrations 
and a Physical Map of South Africa (folding). 4$. 6d. net. 

"This volume covers the amount of physical geography required from 
pupils in secondary schools, but its outstanding feature is the selection of types 
and examples from the region of South Africa. Illustrations, Diagrams, and 
general arrangement are excellent." Athenaeum 

"This book is an interesting attempt, and a successful one, to discuss 
physical geography generally on the basis of a particular region, so far as 
that region supplies illustrations. The book is written in a particularly clear 
and interesting style, and ought to be attractive to advanced students not only 
in South Africa." Geographical Journal 

Map Projections. By ARTHUR R. HINKS, M.A., Chief 

Assistant, Cambridge Observatory. With frontispiece and 19 text figures. 
Demy 8vo. $s, net. 

"There are many people who, without being profound mathematicians, 
have to make maps. There are more still who have to use them, and it is the 
needs of these two classes that Mr Arthur R. Hinks has chiefly considered.... 
As a thoroughly practical manual of its subject, the book should be of great 
service to all who are concerned with the making and use of maps. It is clear, 
compact, and well ordered." Scotsman 

Maps and Survey. By the same author. [In the Press 

Lessons on Soil. By E. J. RUSSELL, D.Sc. (Lend.). Crown 
8vo. With 58 illustrations and text figures, is. 6d. Cambridge Nature 
Study Series. 

"In method and in form nothing has been published that is so well 
calculated to promote an intelligent interest in a child's mind concerning 
natural processes and phenomena." Pall Mall Gazette. 



CAMBRIDGE GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES 

General Editor : F. H. H. GUILLEMARD, M.D. 
The Geography of Disease. By FRANK G. CLEMOW, M.D. 

Edin., D.P.H. Camb. With 12 maps and charts. Crown 8vo. 15^. 
"The book is well written, and contains a great deal of very interesting 
matter ; it thoroughly deserves the attention of the medical profession and of 
those interested in public-health administration." Athenaeum 

A History of Geographical Discovery in the Seven- 
teenth and Eighteenth Centuries. By E. HEAWOOD, M.A., Librarian 
to the Royal Geographical Society. Crown 8vo. With 59 illustrations. 
its. 6d. net. 
"Mr Heawood writes brilliantly and with authority. Seldom can the 

misused word ' fascinating ' be applied to a book with equal justice. 

Invaluable as history, with a wealth of excellent maps and plans, it will prove 

for the imaginative reader the equal of the greatest romances of literature." 

Westminster Gazette 

Ethnology, By A. H. KEANE, F.R.G.S. With numerous 

illustrations. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. los. 6d. 

Man, Past and Present. By A. H. KEANE, F.R.G.S. 

Crown 8vo. With 15 illustrations, iis. 

" It is a thoroughly good book, clear, compact, up to date, and packed 
with facts." Saturday Review 

The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Mesopotamia, 
Persia and Central Asia, from the Moslem conquest to the time of 
Timur. By GUY LE STRANGE. Crown 8vo. With 10 maps. 15^. 
"This very serviceable, sound, and thorough piece of work." English 

Historical Review 

A Geographical History of Mammals. By R. LYDEKKER, 

B.A., F.R.S. Crown 8vo. With Illustrations and a Map. los. 6d. 
" Mr Lydekker's volume forms a valuable contribution to the ' Cambridge 
Geographical Series,' and the general editor has done wisely in securing such 
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of view.... Altogether, it contains a large mass of information reduced into a 
small compass, and will meet, we are sure, with generous appreciation from all 
students of distribution." Nature 

Outlines of Military Geography. By T. MILLER MAGUIRE, 

LL.D. Crown 8vo. With 27 maps and illustrations. IQS. 6J. 
"We can strongly recommend Dr Maguire's excellent treatise to our readers 
of all callings sailor, soldier, or civilian." Pall Mall Gazette 

A History of Ancient Geography. By the Rev. H. F. 

TOZER, M.A. Crown 8vo. With 10 Maps. IQS. 6d. 
" The latest volume of the Cambridge Geographical Series goes far to fill a 
serious gap in geographical literature. The need for a concise and interesting 
history of Geography in English has often been expressed, and now so far as 
the period covered by his work is concerned, Mr Tozer has earned the thanks 
of all concerned in geographical education." Geographical Journal 

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