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PRINTED BY BALLANTYNB AND COMPANY
EDINBURGH AKD LONDON
LI NCOLN'S INN
ITS ANCIENT AND MODERN
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
WILLIAM HOLDEN SPILSBURY
Postea verh qu^m TYRANNIO mihi libros disposuit,
mens addita videtur meis aedibus. CiCERO
^je(0tttr (Bhtiton, ioxtJn %UttvAxann anb €otttcttonn
REEVES AND TURNER
loo CHANCERY LANE and 196 STRAND
^ EARLY a quarter of a century has
elapsed since the appearance of the first
edition of this little work, and within
that period many changes have taken place with
regard to the buildings belonging to the Society,
whose local habitation it has been the chief object
of these pages to describe, as well as in its
internal arrangements, not the least important of
these being the plan just adopted for the promotion
of legal study, and the more complete education
of the student in the several branches of law and
Of those Benchers of the Society whose names
were prefixed to the volume on its publication in
1850, about two-thirds have passed away from the
scene of human life, many of whom had graced the
seat of justice by their talents, or enlivened the
social meetings in the Hall by their genial converse ;
but a glance at the present list will show that the
roll has been amplified by many worthy accessions,
and that some of the earlier names yet remain to
adorn the annals of the Society.
In this edition of the account of Lincoln's Inn,
the work has been reduced in bulk, so as to bring it
more within the reach of the inquiring visitor who
may wish to know something of the history of those
Inns of Court whose edifices he admires, wherein
have been trained many of the distinguished men
whose eloquence has channed the forum or the
senate, or whose wisdom and integrity have digni-
fied the administration of justice for many centuries
in this kingdom. With this object such portions
of the work as contained bibliographical details
relating to various classes of books not belonging
to the law have been omitted or greatly curtailed,
while all that relates. to the peculiar features of
Lincoln's Inn, or to the earlier law writers, has been
retained, and at the same time many additions
relative to the more recent changes in the buildings
and in the arrangements of the Society have found
place in its pages.
An index, which has been thought desirable, is
added to this edition.
Lincoln's Inn, June 1873.
Introduction. Antiquity of the Laws of England, i.
Magna Charta, ii. Inns of Court, i6. Legal Educa-
tion, 20. Serjeants-at-Law and Queen's Counsel, 26.
Early History, 34. The Old Buildings, 44. The
Gate-house, 46. Courts and Chambers, 48. The
Old Hall, 52. Visit of King Charles II., 58. Tan-
cred's Students, 60. The Chapel, 62. Mural
Tablets, 79. Preachers, 82. Warburtonian Lectures,
89. New Square, 91. The Stone Building, 94.
The Gardens, 96.
THE NEW HALL AND LIBRARY. Foundation,
100. Exterior, 103. Interior of the Hall, 113.
^ l.:.-=rr. i2i Id-
s. ' ""■ _
o — ■ - -*~
HONOURABLE SOCIETY OF LINCOLN'S INN.
TRINITY TERM, 1873.
The Rt. Hon. Lord St Leonards.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Torin Kindersley.
The Rt. Hon. Sir William Goodenough Hayter,
The Rt. Hon. Sir John Stuart.
The Rt. Hon. Viscount Eversley.
Robert Prioleau Roupell, Esq.
Loft Us Tottenham Wigram, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Ryan.
John Billingsley Parry, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Hatherley.
Montagu Chambers, Esq., M.P.
The Hon. Sir James Bacon, Vice-Chancellor and Chief
Judge in Bankruptcy.
The Rt. Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.P.
Edward John Lloyd, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Selborne, Lord Chancellor.
The Hon. Sir Richard Malins, Vice-Chancellor.
Charles Sprengel Greaves, Esq.
John William WillcocK; Esq.
William Thomas Shave Daniel, Esq,
John Baily, Esq, .
Brent Spencer Follett, Esq.
^ iLLiAM Bulkeley Glasse, Esq., Treasurer.
Kitchen and Cellars, 120. Council-Room an Draw-
ing-Room, 122. Interior of the Library, 128. In-
auguration by Her Majesty, 131.
THE LIBRARY. Original foundation, 139. Dona-
tions, 142. Catalogue, 145. Arrangement, 147.
English Law: Early Treatises and Abridgments,
149. Reports : Year Books, Coke, Plowden, &c., 1 78.
Statutes, 192. Trials, 206. Civil Law, 208. Theo-
dosian Code, 210. Corpus Juris Civilis, 212. Basilica,
217. Canon Law, 223. Feudal Law, 223. Foreign
Law, 226. Theology, 228. English History,
230. Prynne's Records, 235. Topography, 238.
Foreign History, 239. Greek and Latin
Classics, 240. Dictionaries, 241. Bibliography,
HONOURABLE SOCIETY OF LINCOLN'S INN.
TRINITY TERM, 1873.
The Rt. Hon. Lord St Leonards,
The Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Torin Kindersley.
The Rt. Hon. Sir William Goodenough Hayter,
The Rt. Hon. Sir John Stuart.
The Rt. Hon. Viscount Eversley.
Robert Prioleau Roupell, Esq.
LoFTUs Tottenham Wigram, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Ryan.
John Billingsley Parry, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Hatherley.
Montagu Chambers, Esq., M.P.
The Hon. Sir James Bacon, Vice-Chancellor and Chief
Judge in Bankruptcy.
The Rt. Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.P.
Edward John Lloyd, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Selborne, Lord Chancellor.
The Hon. Sir Richard Malins, Vice-Chancellor.
Charles Sprengel Greaves, Esq.
John William WillcocK; Esq.
William Thomas Shave Daniel, Esq.
John Baily, Esq.
Brent Spencer Follett, Esq.
William Bulkeley Glasse, Esq., Treasurer.
X Benchers of Lincoln's Inn.
Richard Davis Craig, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Sir William Milbourne James, Lord
Edmund Beckett Denison, Esq.
William Overend, Esq.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Cairns.
Allan Maclean Skinner, Esq.
Evelyn Bazalgette, Esq.
Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid, Bart., M.P.
Richard Paul Amphlett, Esq., M.P.
John Sh after, Esq.
Sir Travers Twiss, D.C.L.
John Hinde Palmer, Esq., M.P.
William Anthony Collins, Esq.
John Eraser Macqueen, Esq.
JosiAH William Smith, Esq.
Sir Richard Baggallay, M.P.
THOMAS Weatherlky Phipson, Esq.
Arthur Hobhouse, Esq., Legal Member of the
Council in India.
Thomas Webster, Esq.
John Peter De Gex, Esq.
Joshua Williams, Esq.
Sir George Jessel, Solicitor-General.
James Dickinson, Esq.
Richard Garth, Esq.
Harris Prendergast, Esq.
Charles Grevile Prideaux, Esq.
Benjamin Hardy, Esq.
John Pearson, Esq.
Henry Cotton, Esq.
Edward Kent Karslake, Esq.
Edward Ebenezer Kay, Esq.
Henry Matthews, Esq.
Clement Tudway Swanston, Esq.
Benchers of Lincoln's Inn. xi
Sir Robert Stuart, Chief Justice N.W. Provinces,
Charles Parker Butt, Esq.
Arthur Shelly Eddis, Esq.
Douglas Brown, Esq.
George Osborne Morgan, Esq., M.P.
Edward Fry, Esq.
The Hon. Sir John Wickens, Vice-Chancellor.
Thomas Charles Renshaw, Esq.
Leofric Temple, Esq.
Charles William Wood, Esq.
William John Bovill, Esq.
Joseph Napier Higgins, Esq.
Thomas Halhed Fischer, Esq.
Theodore Aston, Esq.
Alexander Edward Miller, Esq.
Charles Arthur Russell, Esq.
Farrer Herschell, Esq.
|EFORE entering upon an inquiry into
the history of Lincoln's Inn, the most
ancient of the Inns of Court, it may not
be improper to advert briefly to the origin and
antiquity of the Laws of England ; since it was for
the accommodation of the students and professors
of those laws that such inns or societies were first
But the source of these laws, according to Sir
Matthew Hale, is as undiscoverable as that of the
Nile ; and — like the traveller who, in tracing the
course of that celebrated river, exulted in the pleas-
ing delusion that he had
"fathom'd wi^h his lance
The first small fountains of that mighty flood " — *
* Above a century has elapsed since the exploration of
the branches of this river by Bruce ; but, notwithstanding
all the researches of more recent travellers, crowned by the
the inquirer may imagine that he has arrived at the
head of the stream, while he has only been exploring
one of its branches. Though the spirit of modern
research has thrown more light upon the history
of the law, there is still much controversy among
eminent historians and jurisconsults respecting the
origin of the legal institutions of this kingdom,
some writers confidently maintaining that the source
of our legislation must be sought in the streams
which flowed from imperial Rome, and were thence
distributed over the world, whilst others believe that
our laws are mainly derived from the Teutonic
nations from which our Anglo-Saxon ancestors
" There is no good reason to doubt," observes
Mr. J. M. Kemble,* " that at the period when the
Teutonic tribes first attracted the attention of the
south, they already possessed, more or less fully
developed, the principles and germs of that system
of polity, which has at length found its completion
in the institutions of this country, in spite of all its
changes still the most true to its Germanic proto-
labours of the indefatigable Livingstone, the discovery of
the true source of the Nile seems to be one of those geo-
graphical problems which have not yet attained their
* Codex Diplomaticus ^vi Anglo-Saxonici, vol. I. Pre-
face, p. iv.
By Lord Bacon it is observed, that " our laws are
as mixed as our language, and as our language is
so much the richer, the laws are the more com-
plete ; " and an examination of the various elements
that enter into the composition of these laws proves,
in the words of a recent writer, that "Roman,
Saxon, Dane, and Norman in turn brought their
learning, their customs, and their wisdom into the
channel in which the law of England was to flow."
There ate still extant several monuments of
ancient legislation in this country, which may be
here briefly enumerated. Passing over the periods
which belong rather to the domain of fable than of
history, wherein are dimly descried through the
mists of obscurity the names of Dunwallo Molmu-
tius (Dyvnwal Moelmud), king of the Britons,* and
of Mercia, queen of the same nation, who are said
to have enacted laws before the Christian era, we
find the earliest specimen of legislation to be the
* The Molmutian laws are contained in the Welsh Triads,
and though the authenticity of these historical documents
may be questioned, they are not to be regarded as entirely
unworthy of attention. Sir J. Mackintosh observes, in his
History of England, that " the credit of the Welsh poems
called ' Triads ' has been unduly abated by some in conse-
quence of injudicious attempts to exaggerate their anti-
quity. . . , They are certainly the work of an early age ;
and parts of them, if we had the means of distinguishing,
would probably be foimd to be of an origin not much less
than has been claimed for the whole. — Vol. I. p.- 85.
code of laws framed by Ethelbert, king of Kent
A.D. 561-616, which is the oldest European
CODE extant in any modern or 'barbarous* lan-
guage. Next occur the laws of Hlothaere and
Eadric, a.d. 673-685, and of Wihtraed, A.D. 690-
725, also kings of Kent.*
To these succeed the laws of Ina, king of the
West Saxons a.d. 688-725, and those of Alfred,
Edward the Elder, Athelstan, Edmund, Edgar,
Ethelred ; and the code of Canute, which embodied
with improvements most of the provisions in the
codes of his predecessors. This monarch has been
celebrated for his justice and equity ; and, when in
the person of Edward the Confessor the crown was
restored to the line of Cerdic, the " Anglo-Saxon
monarch was required by the clergy and nobility of
the nation to engage that the laws of the Danish
king should be inviolably observed. Hence the
older body of laws acquired the name of the Laws
of the Confessor, not because he enacted them, but
because they received a new and efficient sanction
from his authority.^'t
* The laws of the Kentish kings are contained in the
Textus Roffensis, a manuscript preserved in the Library of
the Dean and Chapter of Rochester, and compiled under
the direction of Emulf, bishop of that see from H15 ta
1 1 25. They have been published by Heame,
$ Palgrave's Rise and Progress of the English Common-
wealth, part I. 48,
Of the legislation of William I. the principal por-
tion extant is contained in a statute or capitulary
agreed upon in an assembly of the principal persons
of the realm, held about the year 1070. On this
occasion the English, with one accord, demanded
the restoration of the laws and customs which had
prevailed in the days of the Confessor — ** not re-
ferring, as was afterwards supposed, to any code or
statute which the Confessor had penned or granted,
but demanding the laws which had subsisted
under the last legitimate king of Anglo-Saxon
race."* The statute framed in accordance with
this demand bears the following title : " These are
the laws and customs which King William granted
to the people of England after the conquest of the
country ; being the same which King Edward, his
cousin, held before him." The text of this body of
laws is in the Latin and Romance languages ; and
both versions are given, with a learned commen-
tary, by Sir Francis Palgrave, and also in the
" Ancient Laws and Institutes of England,** 'pub-
lished by the Record Commission. This document
must be considered as the principal source,t
whereby the written Anglo-Saxon Law was first
diffused into the Common Law.J
* Palgrave's Rise and Progress, I. 54, 55.
f Ibid. Proofs and Illustrations, Ixxxviii.
X The Law of England is divided into two kinds, the /ex
Domesday Book, compiled in the reign of Wil-
liam I., though not strictly belonging to legislation,
may be mentioned here, as one of the most ancient
records of England, and the Register from which
judgment was to be given upon the value, tenure,
and services of the lands therein described. It
contains an account of all the lands of England,
except the four northern counties, from a survey
taken by order of the king, and describes particu-
larly the quantity and value of them, with the
names of their possessors. The original manu-
script, in two volumes, is preserved in the Chapter
House at Westminster, and the work has been
made public by order of the House of Lords,
having been printed with types resembling the ori-
ginal in 1783, in two volumes, folio. An Index was
published by the Record Commission in 18 16,
and a supplemental volume in 181 7. A valuable
Introduction, with Indexes of the names of tenants,
and numerous notes and illustrations by Sir Henry
scripta (as contained in the Statutes or Acts of Parliament)
and ih^lex non scripta, or unwritten law, forming the com-
mon or municipal laws of the kingdom. By the Common
I-.aw, which includes not only general, but also particular
laws and customs, the proceedings and determinations in.
the king's ordinary courts of justice are directed and
guided. These laws are not merely traditional, but are
extant in the records of the several coiuts, in the reports of
judicial decisions, treatises, &c. preserved from aBcient
times. See Sir Matthew Hale and Blackstone.
Ellis, was published in 1833, in two volumes
The code of laws ascribed to Henry I., though,
not believed to have been compiled by authority,
"preserves many fragments of Anglo-Saxon law,
of which traces nowhere else are known to exist,
either in original or translation." t With this code
or treatise, a transcript of which is deposited in the
Exchequer, the era of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence
is said to be terminated. Henry I. acquired the
surname of " The Lion of Justice," from his sue-
cessful exertions in abolishing the system of rapine
prevalent among the aristocracy. This was effected
by subjecting the great proprietors of land to the
supreme government of the law, and by enforcing
with vigour "the adjudications of his court of jus-
The laws of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs were
first collected by William Lambard, an eminent
lawyer and antiquary in the time of Queen Eliza-
* During the last few years fac-similes of this ancient
tecord, in separate counties, reproduced by the photo-
zincographic process, have been published under the direc-
tion of Colonel Sir Henry James, at the Ordnance Survey
Office ; and a literal extension, with an English translation,
has been published of several counties.
+ Preface to "Ancient Laws of England,'* by Mr.
Thorpe, p. 3cy. 8vo.
t Sharon Turner's History of England.
beth, and published under the title of Archaionomia
in 1568, 4to. They were afterwards published by
Abraham Whelock, Professor of Arabic in the Uni-
versity of Cambridge, in 1644, folio ; again, with
additions, by Dr. Wilkins, in 1721, folio ; and more
recently by the Record Commission, with a Preface
by the late Mr. Benjamin Thorpe, who was emin-
ently distinguished by his knowledge of the Anglo-
A few fragments of legislation in the troubled
reign of Stephen are preserved by Sir Henry Spel-
man in his " Codex Legum " appended to Dr. Wil-
kins' edition of the Anglo-Saxon Laws.
The reign of Henry II. is distinguished by the
enactment of the " Constitutions of Clarendon '' (so
called from the palace of Clarendon, in Wiltshire,
* This edition was printed in 1840, in folio, and also in
two volumes, 8vo. An edition of these laws was alsa pub-
Ushed at Leipzig in 1832, and again in 1858, 8vo, with a
translation into German and notes by Dr. Reinhold Schmid,
Professor of Law at Jena. The first edition by Lambard
does not contain the laws of the kings of Kent, nor those of
William I. and Henry T. ; that by Professor Whelock con-
tains the laws of William and Henry ; and in the edition of
Dr. Wilkins, the laws of the Kentish kings appear for the
first time, and to these is added Spelman's Codex Legum
Veterum Statutonim Regni Angliae, containing the laws from
William I. to 9 Henry III, The laws of Canute, edited
from the Colbert MS., with observations by the learned
Jan. Laur. Andr. Koldenip-Rosenvinge, were printed at
Copenhagen in 1826. 41 o.
where the council or parliament was held), by which
a check was placed on the pretensions and en-
croachments of the clergy.* Justices itinerant were
also first appointed in this reign, and great improve-
ments made in the municipal laws. It is said of
this monarch, that " his exactness in administering
justice had gained him so great a reputation, that
even foreign and distant princes made him an
arbiter, and submitted their differences to his
The oldest treatise extant on the laws of England
was compiled in this reign, and has been generally
attributed to Ranulph de Glanville, chief justiciary
of England, but there is much controversy respect-
ing the authorship. Another treatise, entitled
** Dialogus de Scaccario," which contributed greatly
to illustrate the state and history of our law, was
also compiled in this reign. It is attributed by Mr.
Madox to Richard Fitz-Nigel, Bishop of London. .
The celebrated code of maritime laws known by
the name of the " Laws of Oleron," and adopted by
most of the nations of Europe, has been often ad-
* The ** Constitutions of Clarendon " are to be found in
Wilkins* Concilia, I. 435 ; Spelmanni Concilia, II. 63 ; and
in Matth. Paris. Hist. 84, edit. 1684. There is also an English
translation in Lyttelton's Life of Henry H., vol. iv, 31. 83.
t Hale's Hist, of the Common Law.— Note by Mr. Ser-
jeant Runnington, 163.
duced as a specimen of the legislative capacity of
Richard I., being supposed to have been compiled
by that prince in the island of Oleron, in the bay
of Aquitaine, on his return from the Holy Land.
This statement, repeated by most legal historians
from Coke and Selden till a recent period, is mani-
festly disproved by the well-known fact of Richard's
shipwreck and captivity, and the evidence of his
return to his own dominions, on his liberation, by
way of Flanders. In the Introduction to the " Black
Book of the Admiralty," the text of which has
lately^been printed among the historical publications
of the Master of the Rolls, a suggestion is made by
the learned editor, Sir Travers Twiss, in his exami-
nation of the arguments relating to the tradition,
that the proper construction of a certain document
or memorandum in the Roll, entitled "Fasciculus de
Superioritate Maris," hitherto relied upon in sup-
port of the tradition, is probably this — viz., that
King Richard I., upon his return to England from
the Holy Land, sanctioned those judgments which
had been previously published at Oleron, as rules
proper to be observed by the admirals of his fleet
for the punishment of delinquencies and the redress
of wrongs committed on the seas.* Other speci-
* The Black Book of the Admiralty, edited by Sir
Travers Twiss, 8vo. 1871. Introd. p. Iviii. In this edition
Introduction. i i
mens of the legislation of this monarch may be
found in the work of Sir H. Spelman before men-
Magna Charta is of itself sufficient to confer
celebrity on the reign of John in the annals of
legislation ; yet it is not to that Great Charter as
originally promulgated, but as confirmed by his
successor, Henry III., and afterwards by Edward
I., that reference is made as the " palladium of
liberty," and the basis of our laws and constitution.
Sir James Mackintosh, in his animated eulogium
on the Great Charter and its authors,* says : — " To
have produced it, to have preserved it, to have
matured it, constitute the immortal claim of Eng-
land on the esteem of mankind. Her Bacons and
Shakespeares,her Miltons and Newtons, with all the
truth which they have revealed, and all the generous
virtue which they have inspired, are of inferior
value when compared with the subjection of men
and their rulers to the principles of justice ; if,
the Laws of Oleron are printed, with the ancient English
translation of these judgments, contained in a very rare
book, called "The Rutter of the Sea," printed at London in
1536. The English version of these laws in Godolphin's
"View of the Admiral Jurisdiction," is translated from **Le
Grant Routier de la Mer," published by Pierre Garcie alias
Ferrande, and contains many more articles than that in the
" Black Book," from which it differs in several respects.
* History of England, 1, 222,
indeed, it be not more true that these mighty
spirits could not have been formed except under
equal laws, nor roused to full activity without the
influence of that spirit which the Great Charter
breathed over their forefathers." The same author's
remarks on the language of the Charter are also
worthy of notice : — " It is observable that the lan-
guage of the Great Charter is simple, brief, general
without being abstract, and expressed in terms
of authority, not of argument, yet commonly so
reasonable as to carry with it the intrinsic evidence
of its own fitness. It was understood by the
simplest of the unlettered age for whom it was
intended. It was remembered by them ; and though
they did not perceive the extensive consequences
which might be derived from it, their feelings were,
however unconsciously, exalted by its generality
and grandeur. **
In the first year of Henry III., A.D. 1216, the
charter of King John was confirmed, renewed in the
succeeding year, with several remarkable additions
and improvements, and again confirmed in the
ninth year of his reign. The Charter of the Forest
was also granted at the commencement of this
reign ; another confirmation of both charters in
the twenty-first, and another in the forty-ninth
The final and complete establishment of the two
charters,* which had undergone many changes, and
had been often endangered, took place in the 29th
year of Edward I., having been established, con-
firmed, and commanded to be put into execution by
thirty-two several acts of parliament.f
In the reign of Henry III. appeared the Treatise
of Bracton on the Laws of England, exhibiting ** a
great advance of the law over that of Glanville.*'
This work is attributed to Henry de Bracton, who
was formerly supposed to have been Chief Justice
of England in this reign ; but it is now believed
that he was a Doctor of Laws, who delivered lec-
tures in the University of Oxford, and sat once as
• A copy of the charter was anciently deposited in every
county or diocese. Two of the original charters of John are
preserved in the British Museum, having been formerly in
the Cottonian Library. The original of the charter of i
Henry III. is in the Cathedral of Durham, with the seals of
Gualo the legate, and William, Earl of Pembroke, the great
seal of King John having been lost in passing the washes of
Lincolnshire, and a new seal not made till two years after.
The original of the first Charter of the Forest is lost ; that of
the second, 9 Henry III., is in the cathedral of Durham.
Originals of several of the charters remain in public libraries ;
and of the last confirmation 29 Edw. I. , an original is in the
Bodleian library, one in the library of Christ Church, Oxford,
and four manuscripts were found by Prjmne in the Tower of
+ Sir E. Coke, 2 Inst. Proem.
X Penny Cyclopaedia, art. Bracton,
In the reign of Edward I., so great and rapid was
the improvement made in legislation, and in the
settlement of the administration of justice, that this
monarch has obtained the distinctive appellation of
the " English Justinian." But the propriety of the
title is in the present day much questioned ; for, as
is observed by Lord Campbell, " the Roman Em-
peror merely caused a compilation to be made of
existing laws,** ♦whereas the attention of Edward
was directed " to correct abuses, to supply defects,
and to remodel the administration of justice."
" But if he is to be denominated the English Jus-
tinian,'' observes the same noble author, " it should
be made known who were the Tribonians employed
by him ; and the English nation owes a debt of grati-
tude to the Chancellors, who must have framed and
revised the statutes which are the foundation of our
judicial system — who must, by explanation and
argument, have obtained for them the sanction of
parliament — and who must have watched over their
construction and operation when they first passed
into law." His lordship attributes much of the
merit of the reforms and improvements made by
Edward in the law to his Chancellor, Robert Burnel,
who had been his chaplain and secretary while
Prince of Wales, and attended him in his expe-
* Lives of the Chancellors, I. 165.
Introduction. . 15
dition to the Holy Land. By Professor Savigny
it is thought probable that King Edward was also
assisted in his reforms by Franciscus Accursii, law
professor and lecturer at Bologna, who came over
to England, and was much employed in state affairs.
No statutes of great importance were passed in
the reign of Edward 1 1., and with this reign closes
the series of what are termed the Ancient Statutes
in the early printed collections commencing with
From the reign of Edward III. the acts of the
legislature have been more carefully preserved than
in former periods, and may be found in the Statute-
book, the compilation of which now assumed a more
correct and regular form, in a continued series
down to the present time ; and here it may be ob-
served, in conclusion, that a firm foundation having
been laid by the authors of Magna Charta, the
fabric of English liberty, gradually cemented by the
labour of successive ages, though exposed to many
assaults and sometimes in much peril, attained its
completion by the framing of the Bill of Rights and
the Act of Succession, as expressed in the words of
the poet ; —
And now, behold ! exalted as the cope
That swells immense o'er many-peopled earth,
And like it free, my fabric stands complete,
The paliace of the laws.*'
With respect to the origin of the Inns of Court,
the researches of legal historians have failed to
ascertain the precise date of their foundation. They
have not been incorporated by charter, but are
** voluntary societies, which for ages have sub-
mitted to government, analogous to that of other
seminaries of learning."* In the thirteenth century,
when the clergy, who were forbidden by episcopal
canons to practise as advocates in the temporal
courts, had withdrawn to the Universities of Ox-
ford and Cambridge, where they could pursue
their study of the canon and civil law, the profes-
sors of the municipal, or common law, to which the
laity adhered, were brought together in one place,
in consequence of a provision of Magna Charta,
which established the Court of Common Pleas.
The supreme court of justice, having been always
held in the aula regis, or hall of the king's palace,
was bound to attend the person of the sovereign
in whatever part of his dominions he might happen
to be resident ; and it was then ordained by an
article of the charter that common pleas should no
longer follow the king's court, but be held in some
certain place. A separate court was thus estab-
lished, and judges appointed, for the determination
* Lord Mansfield's Judgment in the case of The King v.
Gray 5 Inn, Douglas, 354.
of pleas of land and all civil causes between subject
and subject, and this court being fixed, or rendered
stationary, in Westminster Hall, the professors of
the common law formed themselves into societies, '^
and established themselves in convenient places
between Westminster and the City of London ; and
before the end of the reign of Edward III. these
societies appear to have divided themselves intp the
several inns or colleges of Lincoln's Inn, the Inner
Temple, thie Middle Temple, and Gray's Inn, having
obtained tenements either by grant or purchase. In
the Year Book of the 29th Edward III. there is ex-
press mention of the a^iij^sniic^ji (a tprm ^ivpn to prn-
fessors of the law ) in the Inns of Court.* The term
Inn formerly denoted the residence of a nobleman,
and these legal colleges are said by Fortescue to
have been called " Inns of Court," because the stu-
dents therein did not only study the law, but used
such other exercises as might make them more
serviceable to the king's court. But the derivation
seems more probably to have arisen from their
being places of study preparatory to practising in
the courts of law, anciently held in the aula regis,
or hall of the king's palace.
In the earliest times the Inns of Court were filled
with the sons of the aristocracy, who were sent
thither not so much for the purpose of acquiring
* The Inns of Chancery will be spoken of in a future page.
1 8 Introduction.
proficiency in the law as for the sake of mental
discipline ; and the expensive style of living in
these legal seminaries was of itself sufficient tp
confine them exclusively to this class of students.
At a later period also, there was an order made, by
King James I. in the first year of his reign, signed
by Sir E. Coke, Lord Bacon, and other persons,
that ** none be from thenceforth admitted intp the
society of any House of Court that is not a gentle-
man by descent."
In the reign of Henry VI. there were from eighteen
hundred to two thousand students in the Inns of
Court and Chancery — about one hundred in each
of the Inns of Chancery, of which there were ten at
that time, and two hundred in each of the Inns of
Court. At present, the number of mertibers of the
four Inns of Court is upwards of eight thousand,
nearly six thousand of these being barristers, and
the rest students.
There are three ranks or ^^grees among the
members of the Inns of Court : Benchers, Baris-
ters, and Students. The Benchers are the superiors
of each house, to whom the government of its affairs
is committed,* and out of the number one annually
fills the office of Treasurer. There was formerly
♦ Many ordinances relating to dress and other matters
are extant in the registers of Lincoln's Inn, and fines and
other penalties were imposed for transgression.
a distinction between utter and inner barristers,
and there seems to be some perplexity as to the
meaning of the terms, which are variously explained
by different writers. Blount, in his Law Diction-
ary, published in 1679, says: "They are called
Utter Barristers, that is, Pleaders without the Bar,
to distinguish them from Benchers, or those who
have been Readers, who are sometimes admitted
to plead within the bar, as the King, Queen, or
Prince's counsel are.'' This definition has been
adopted in most of the Law Dictionaries, but the
details of proceedings given by Sir W. Dugdale,
who does not allude to the etymology of the word,
lead to the inference that it is derived from local
arrangements in the halls of the Inns of Court. It
seems that the term " Utter Barrister," which
occurs for the first time in the reign of Henry VIII.,
was a title conferred on those who, after five or six
years' study in the house, had been called upon to
argue some disputed case before the Benchers. In
the year 1596 the term of study was extended to
seven years, and the number to be called in each
house was limited to four in a year. The degree,
when obtained, did not of itself give the person
holding it the privilege of pleading at the bar of
the supreme courts of law. Persons under the
degree of utter barrister were called "No Utter
Barrister;" but that designation seems to have
been discontinued before the year 1574, when the
term " Inner Barrister " was used as synonymous
with student It is also stated by Dugdale that
"the Benchers are those Utter-Barristers which,
after they have continued in the house by the space
of fourteen or fifteen years, are by the elders of the
house chosen to read, expound, and declare some
estatute openly unto all the company of the house,
in one of the two principal times of their learning,
which they call the grand vacations in summer ;
and during the time of his reading he hath the
name of a Reader, and after of Bencher/' *
Mootings were questions on doubtful points of
law argued before the Reader between certain of
the Benchers and Barristers in the hall. There
was also another exercise in the Inns of Court
j»r called boltinZt which was a private arguing of
cases by some of the students and barristers.
The word has been supposed to be derived from
the Saxon bolt^ a house, because the exercise was
done privately in the house for instruction, or
rather from bolter^ a sieve — in reference to the
sifting and debating of cases.
The course of legal education at the Inns of
Court consisted principally of readings and moot-
ings, which have been described by Dugdale, Stow,
* Dugdale's Orig. Jurid, 194. 312, Foss's Judges of
England, vol. v. 108, 424,
and other writers. In times when the works of the
learned, existing only in manuscript, and guarded
in libraries with jealous care, were not easily ac-
cessible to the student, the necessity of oral instruc-
tion by such exercises is obvious. The readings,
delivered in the hall with great solemnity by men
experienced in the profession, were expositions of
some important statute or section of a statute.
Many of them have been published, and some of
these contain most profound juridical arguments,
such for instance as Lord Bacon's Reading on the
Statute of Uses, and that of Mr Serjeant Callis
on the Statute of Sewers* These readings being
attended with costly entertainments, their original
object was forgotten in the splendour of the tables,
and it became the duty of the Reader rather to
feast the nobility and gentry than to give instruc-
tion in the principles of the law. From this cause
they were eventually suspended ; but after the
lapse of nearly a century readings were revived in
Gray's Inn, by Danby Pickering, Esq., in 1780;
in Lincoln's Inn, by Michael Nolan, Esq., in 1796 ;
and in 1799 the lectures delivered by Sir James
Mackintosh, on the Law of Nature and Nations,
"filled the hall of Lincoln's Inn with an auditory such
as never before was seen on a similar occasion.'**
♦ " All classes were there represented— lavryers, members
As during the last few years the important sub-
ject of legal education has excited much interest in
the public mind, as well as among the members of
the profession, a brief statement of the steps which
have lately been taken for the promotion of this
object may not be inappropriate in this place. In
the year 1833 lectureships were instituted by the
Society of the Inner Temple; but so thin was the
attendance thereon, that they were given up after
two years. In 1847 the experiment was again
tried, and lectures were established by the Socie-
ties of the Middle Temple and Gray's Inn, which
continued till the year 1851, when the several
Inns of Court came to an agreement ; and, having
appointed a Council of Legal Education, adopted
certain regulations which, with some slight varia-
tions, have been maintained until the promul-
gation of the new scheme, which will be presently
noticed. Under these regulations lectures were
established, at which the attendance of the students
was made compulsory, except in the case of
those who should submit themselves to voluntary
In the year 1854 a Royal Commission was
appointed « to inquire into the arrangements of the
of Parliament, men of letters, and country gentlemen,
crowded to hear him." — Life of Mackintosh^ I. 107.
Inns of Court and Inns of Qiancery for promoting
the study of the law and jurisprudence." Among
many other suggestions made in the Report of these
Conmiissioners, it was recommended that examina-
tions should be required for the call to the bar, and
that, for the purpose of these examinations and of
conferring degrees, the four Inns of Court should
be united in one University, the constituent mem-
bers of which should be "the Chancellor, Bar-
risters-at-Law, and Masters of Law.'* The recom-
mendations of the Commission have not been acted
upon, except that by a resolution of the four Inns
of Court, the principle of compulsory examination
has been adopted.
In Michaelmas Term 1869, " Consolidated Re-
gulations of the four Inns of Court '* were issued by
their authority ; and in December 1 871, the prin-
ciple of compulsory examination, as already men-
tioned, was adopted. In July 1872, a scheme was
promulgated by the Council of Legal Education,
by which it was provided that a permanent Com-
mittee of eight members should be appointed
by the Council, to be called the Committee of
Education and Examination, and that the Com-
mittee, subject to the control of the Council,
should superintend and direct the examination of
students; that the students should be provided
with the means of education in the general
principles of law, and in the law as practically
administered in this country, for which purpose
instruction should be given by means of lectures
and private classes, but that the attendance of
students on such lectures and classes should not be
compulsory ; that there should be a board of six
Examiners, to be appointed by, and to hold office
during the pleasure of the Council ; and that no
person should receive from the Council the certifi-
cate of fitness for call to the bar required by the
Inns of Court, unless he should have passed a
satisfactory examination in the following subjects,
viz. — I, Roman Civil Law ; 2. The Law of Real
and Personal Property ; 3. Common Law and
It is further provided by this scheme that, as an
encouragement for the study of Jurisprudence and
Civil Law, twelve studentships of one hundred
guineas each be established.t
The Benchers of the four Inns of Court have
subsequently passed the following resolution : —
That, in the opinion of this Bench, it is expedient
* In June 1871, an order was made by the ^ciety of the
Inner Temple, that a sum of £2000 a year should be devoted
to the payment of additionsd lecturers and tutors for the
exclusive benefit of students of that Inn.
t For the full details of the scheme, see the printed copies
issued by the Council.
that the Council of Legal Education be authorised,
if they think fit, to admit persons not being mem-
bers of any Inn of Court to attend lectures of the
professors appointed under the new scheme, subject
to such regulations, and to the payment of such
fees as the Council of Legal Education may make
Before quitting this subject, it may be proper to
notice another movement that has been made in
the profession, an association having been formed,
in the year 1870, "for the purpose of obtaining a
better organised system of legal education in this
country.'* This Association comprised some of the
most eminent members of both branches of the
profession, barristers, and attorneys or solicitors,
under the presidency of Sir Roundell Palmer
(now Lord Selborne), and adopted the name of
**the Legal Education Association.'* Several meet-
ings have been held by this body, and they declare
as their principle "the establishment of a central
school of law, open to students for both branches
of the profession and to the public, and governed
by a public and responsible board.*' *
As considerable misapprehension has existed in
some quarters respecting the precedence of the
• During the year 1871, public Law Schools were ^estab-
lished at Manchester and LiverpooL
different members of the Bar, whether in Court
or elsewhere, I was induced to make application
to Mr Greaves, Q.C., knowing that he was
familiar with matters of legal antiquity, for any
information on the subject he might be willing to
give ; and this gentleman, after a careful consider-
ation of the authorities, has drawn up the following
statement, in order to place the matter in a clear
light, and has kindly permitted me to introduce it
into this work, the limits of which precluded any
reference to the early history of the Bar, containing
so much that is curious and interesting,* except
in such points as might throw light on the present
state of things.
The degree of Serjeant-at-Law is the most
ancient, and formerly was the highest in the Law.
The future Serjeant was required by the King's
writ to take the office ; and in former times his
admission to it was attended with much ceremony,
and with very costly entertainments. But these
have passed away ; whilst the ancient custom of
presenting golden rings, with mottoes, to the Sove-
* For such information the reader may consult Dugdale*s
Origines Juridiciales, Manning's Serjeant's Case, Wjmne
on the Antiquity and Degree of Serjeants-at-Law, Foss's
Judges of England, &c.
reign, the Lord Chancellor, the Judges, and others,
still remains.* On his creation, the new Serjeant
quits his Inn of Court, receiving a purse of ten
guineas as a retaining fee on its behalf, and becomes
a member of Serjeants' Inn.
Down to the year 1834, the Serjeants had exclu-
sive audience in the Court of Common Pleas ; but
that Court was then thrown 'open to all the Bar,
and the Serjeants of that day were granted pre-
cedence next after the then last King's Counsel
Formerly, the Serjeants were not admitted within
the bar of the Courts of King's Bench and Ex-
chequer during term time ; but this privilege has
recently been granted to them.
Of the Serjeants, one was formerly created the
King's Premier Serjeant by special patent, and
others were created King's Serjeants ; and the
senior of these was called " The King's Ancient
Serjeant." All the Serjeants formerly ranked be-
fore the Attorney and Solicitor-General ;t but
* With regard to the coif and dress worn by the Serjeants
on occasions of ceremony, some curious and quaint obser-
vations made by Lord Chief Justice Popham on their sig-
nification may be found in his Reports, p. 45.
+ This precedence made it necessary for a Serjeant to be
discharged of his office before he could be made Solicitor or
Attorney-General See the discharge of Serjeant Fleming,
who was not a Queen's Serjeant, in Nichols' Progresses of
Q. Elizabeth III. 370.
James I., in 1623, granted them rank next after
the two most ancient King's Serjeants ; and this
precedence continued until 1814, when George
III. granted them precedence before all the King's
At one time, it was considered that the King's
Advocate-General had precedence of the Attorney-
General ; but his precedency is now after the At-
The Lord Advocate of Scotland also at one time
claimed precedence of the Attorney-General ; but
his claim was not allowed. It was admitted, how-
ever, that he ranked before the Solicitor-General.
Queen's Counsel rank next after the Queen's
Serjeants, if there are any ; otherwise next after the
Sometimes a patent of precedence is granted to
a Serjeant or Barrister, and the patent specifies
the rank it gives, which is usually next after the
then last Queen's Counsel. t
The Attorney and Solicitor-General, the Queen's
* This promotion was obtained by Sir S. Shepherd, in
order to prevent his discharge from the office of King^s
Serjeant, when he was appointed Solicitor-General Ex
relatione Manning, Q. A S., and see 2 Maule and Selw,
+ In Cro. Car. 376, there is an instance of a King's
Counsel being given precedence of a Solicitor-General.
Serjeants, and Queen's Counsel, are sworn to do
their duty to the Crown, and consequently they
cannot act in any case against the Crown without a
special licence ; which, however, is rarely refused.
Other Serjeants are merely sworn to do their duty
to their clients, and Counsel holding patents of
precedence, are not sworn at all ; and both may act
against the Crown.
When the Sovereign is a King, the Attorney and
Solicitor- General of the Queen rank with the
The Recorder of London ranks after the Ser-
jeants ; and the Advocates of the civil law after
the Recorder, and lastly come Barristers.
. With regard to the precedence of Serjeants out
of court, neither the writ by which they are created,
nor the oath which they take, affords any assistance.
The writ simply requires the counsel to take upon
himself **the state and degree of a Serjeant-at
law;" and the oath is truly to "serve the king's
people AS one of the Serjeants-at-law." Their
rank, however, is certainly considerable. It does
not seem certain whether in former times all Ser-
jeants were summoned to attend the House of
Lords ; but King's Serjeants have always been so
summoned ; and Serjeant Manning, the last Queen's
Serjeant, regularly attended the House accordingly.
In former times Serjeants were ranked after Knights
Bachelors in some royal processions, but at Lord
Nelson's and Mr Pitt's funerals, they were ranked
Queen's Counsel rank before Serjeants both in
court and elsewhere. Sir F. Bacon was the first
Queen's Counsel, and he was created (as Privy
Councillors are) merely by the nomination of Queen
Elizabeth :t but in the beginning of the reign of
James I. he was created King's Counsel by patent,
with precedence " in our courts or elsewhere " [in
curiis nostris vel alibi] ; and the same form of
creation has continued ever since. It is clear,
therefore, that the precedence of Queen's Counsel
Since the preceding paragraph was written, one of
the Queen's Counsel has been appointed a Justice of
the Peace ; and the opinion of the present Lord
Chancellor (Lord Selbome) having been asked by
the officers of the Crown Office as to where the
Queen's Counsel's name ought to be placed in the
Commission of the Peace, his lordship replied that
Queen's Counsel ought to have precedence every-
Ever since the patents have been in English, the
* See 9 Carrington and P. 372.
+ Ratione verbi Regii Elizabethae. Recital in Bacon's
Patent, 2 Jac. I.
words of the appointment of a Queen's Counsel have
been, " one of our Council " [not Counsel] " learned
in the law." Lord Cranworth, when Chancellor,
wished the word Council to be altered in future to
Counsel ; but Lord Lyndhurst was of opinion that
Council was correct, and no alteration was made; and
Lord Lyndhurst was clearly right ; for the words are
a translation of part of Bacon's patent, which runs
— " appunctuamus Franciscum Bacon consiliarium
nostrum ad legem, sive unum de consilio nostro
erudito in lege ;*' where consiliarius means Counsel,
and consilium means a Council — />., a body of
persons appointed to advise the king. So that
Bacon was appointed King's " Counsel at Law," and
also ** one of the Council learned in the law." It
is commonly supposed that the words " learned in
the law" apply to the Counsel appointed by the
patent ; but this is an error ; they refer to the
Council of the king ; for the word erudito agrees
with consilio^ and cannot refer to Franciscum
Bacon in his patent ; and the English word must
have a similar reference.*
Lord Halet tells us that the consilium ordi-
* It is to be remarked that the patents now have no
words that can represent consiliarium ad legem ; but the
Counsel is simply appointed ' ' one of our Council learned
in the law."
t Jurisdiction of the Lords House, or Parliament, p. 6.
narium of the king included, amongst others, " the
Judges of both Benches, Barons of the Exchequer,
Masters in Chancery, the King's 'Serjeant and
Attorney-General ; and from the mixture of those
it was many times called legale Consilium!* Now
legale Consilium^ the legal Council, and Consilium
eruditum in lege^ the Council learned in the law,
are such similar names, that it seems very probable
that the Council mentioned in Bacon's patent was
the Council described by Lord Hale.
Formerly King's Counsel were sometimes sum-
moned to attend the House of Lords.
The names of Queen's Counsel and Serjeants,
who are Justices of the Peace, are placed, in
their proper rank amongst themselves, next after
Knights Bachelors, and before Doctors of Divinity
and other Esquires, in the Commission of the
No dignity or title confers any rank at the Bar.
A Privy Councillor, a Peer's son, a Baronet, a
Speaker of the House of Commons, and a Knight,
merely rank at the Bar according to their legal
Our remarks on these subjects are necessarily
confined to England.
See Croke, Jac I. 2.
The Inns of Court are four in number : viz., the
Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln's . Inn,
and Gray's Inn. There are also several inferior
Inns, called Inns of Chancery, which were formerly
under the control of the Inns of Court with respect
to legal education, and students were required to
pass some time here previous to admission into the
Inns of Court ; and these Inns comprised not only
such students, but also the whole body of attorneys
and solicitors. At present admission to the Inns
of Chancery is of no avail as regards the time and
attendance required by the Inns of Court. They
appear in the time of Fortescue to have been ten
in number, but, are n^w rpHiirPf\_fn gpvpn ; three
of these — viz., Clifford's Inn, Clement's Inn, and
Lyon's Inn— are or have been in connection with
the Inner Temple ; New Inn belongs to the Middle
Temple ; Furnival's Inn to Lincoln's Inn ; and
Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn are or have been in
connection with Gray's Inn. Thavie's Inn, which
formerly belonged to the Society of Lincoln's Inn,
was sold in 1769 to Mr. Middlcton.
Early History. The Old Buildings. The Gate-
house. The Old Hall. The Chapel. New
Square. The Stone Building. The Gardens.
HE contemplation of buildings anJplaces
associated with the memory of departed
worth or genius has been interesting to
the reflecting portion of mankind in all ages and
countries. It is admitted that " whatever withdraws
us from the power of our senses ; whatever makes
the past, the distant, or the future predominate
over the present, advances us in the dignity of
thinking beings." The prevalence of this feeling
is attested by the visits paid to many a spot conse-
crated to fame by genius, both in foreign climes
and in our own land. For the lawyer, it may be
imagined that the buildings of the Inns of Court,
fraught with a thousand reminiscences of the
glory and dignity of his profession, must possess
peculiar interest. As he treads their courts, and
views the memorials of the past around him —
Early History. 35
those old chambers, with their strange angular
projections and winding staircases, where many a
sage has toiled in study through the silent hours of
night, ere he rose to eminence ; those ancient halls,
wherein at one time was heird the grave and
learned argument, and at another was held the
"solemn revel,*' when princes, nobles, and high
officers of state were entertained as guests ; those
sacred edifices, with their storied windows and fine
carved work, where so many generations of his
illustrious predecessors have knelt and prayed ; —
all these, as the shades of Coke, Bacon, Hale, and
Selden, with other distinguished names, rise before
the mental vision of the student, must kindle his
enthusiasm, and excite him to emulation.
Among the antiquities of London the Inns of
Court are pre-eminent. By a glance at the earlier
maps of the metropolis, it may be seen that the
space of ground between Temple Bar and West-
minster was not, as in our own days, crowded with
rows of houses, but presented a few noblemen's ^
mansions, with fields and gardens interspersed ;
and, if the imagination be carried back to
the thirteenth century, in the neighbourhood of
Chancery Lane, at that time named the " New
Street, leading from the Temple to Old -bourne,
may be observed the palace of the Bishops of
Chichester, three of whom have held the Great
36 Lincoln's Inn.
Seal of England ; the mansion of Henry Lacy,
Earl of Lincoln, the friend of K. Edward I, whom,
while Prince of Wales, he probably accompanied
as a crusader to Palestine ; * and the beautiful
Church of the Knights Templars, then in all its
At this early period of English history, the ground
now occupied by the buildings of Lincoln's Inn was
the site of the mansions of persons of the highest
eminence in the state, namely, that of Ralph
Neville, Bishop of Chichester, Lord High Chan-
cellor of England in the reign of Henry III. ; and
Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, Constable of Chester,
&c. From this nobleman, distinguished by his
regard for the professors of the law, and the friend
of a monarch who on account of his improvement
of the law has been named the English Justinian,
the possessions of Lincoln's Inn have derived their
name. It is said also that William de Haverhyll,
Canon of St. Paul's and Treasurer to king Henry
III.i had a house on this site.
The palace built by Ralph Neville on this spot is
described as magnificent, and in this place the
bishop " lived in a degree of splendour, from the
amount of his political and ecclesiastical prefer-
* This is inferred from the cross-legged figure on his
Early History. 37
ments, equal to any of his contemporary prelates." *
It appears from the following entry on the Close
Rolls, that the bishop possessed land on both sides
of Chancery Lane, formerly called New Street :
The king granted to Ralph bishop of Chichester,
Chancellor, that place with the garden which John
Herlirumf forfeited in that street called New
Street, over against the land of the said bishop in
the same street," &c. :J:
This prelate is much eulogised by historians for
his admirable qualities as a judge. As Chancellor
of England, he ** behaved himself in that office to
great commendation, being very remarkable for the
equity and expedition of his decrees. He was a
person of that integrity and fortitude that neither
favour, money, or greatness could make any
impression upon him." § The following summary
of his character is given by Mr. Foss, in his
accurate work on the Judges of England, vol. I.
428 : *' That Ralph de Neville was an ambitious
man none can deny ; that he accumulated vast
riches is equally certain ; but that he misused the
one, or that the other led him into degrading
• Dallaway's Sussex, I. 45.
+ The name sometimes occurs as Herlicum or Herlizun.
X Cart, w Hen, III, cited in Strype's edition of Stow,
175s, II. 68.
§ Collier^s Ecclesiastical Histoiy, I. 433.
38 Lincoln's Inn.
courses there is no evidence. On the contrary, the
highest character is given to him by contemporary
historians, not only for his fidelity to his sovereign
in times of severe trial, but for the able and
irreproachable administration of his office. He
was as accessible to the poor as to the rich, and
dealt equal justice to all."
Lord Campbell, though he does not give quite so
favourable a view of the prelate's character, yet
cites the testimony of Matthew Paris, who " speaks
of him as one who long irreproachably discharged
the duties of his office, and afterwards warmly
praises him for his speedy and impartial adminis-
tration of justice to all ranks, and more especially
to the poor."* To Ralph Neville was also granted
by the king the Chancellorship of Ireland, the only
instance, it is believed, of the Chancellorship of
England and Ireland being held at the same time
by the same individualf
After the death of Neville, his mansion was
occupied by Richard de la Wich, his successor in
the bishopric, who was eminent for his learning,
piety, and charity. He was engaged by Innocent
IV. in the cause of the crusades, and was canonised
some years after his death J by Pope Urban IV.
♦ Lives of the Chancellors, I. 133. + Ibid. I. 131.
X Died 1253. Canonised 1262.
Early History. 39
At the translation of his remains in Chichester
Cathedral 1275, king Edward I., with his court
and many prelates, attended the ceremony. He
was the last English prelate canonised, and his
festival still remains in our calendar. He had also
filled the professor's chair of law at Bologna. The
old chapel of Lincoln's Inn was dedicated in his
honour. There is a fine monument to his memory
in Chichester Cathedral, which has been recently
restored. The shrine of St. Richard was especially
ordered to be destroyed by the commission of
Henry VIII. on account of the superstitious resort
of the people, in consequence of the miracles
attributed to the relics of the saint.
With respect to William de Haverhyll, named
as the owner of a mansion in this place, it is stated
by Sir George Buck,* that a part of Lincoln's Inn
" was of old time the messuage or mansion-house
of a gentleman called William de Haverhyll, Trea-
surer to king Henry III., who was attainted of
treason and his house and lands confiscated to the
king, who then gave his house to Ralph Neville,
Chancellor of England, and Bishop of Chichester,
and he built there a fair house for him and his
successors. Bishops of Chichester," &c. Sir G.
* Discourse or Treatise on the third University of Eng-
land, appended to Stow's Annals, 1615, folio.
40 Lincoln's Inn.
Buck says that he is indebted for his information to
Sir James Ley, Chief Justice of the King's Bench
in Ireland, and one of the Benchers of Lincoln's
Inn, afterwards Earl of Marlborough.
This is the only account that can be found of
William de Haverhyll as the possessor of this
property, and the statement of his attainder is at
variance with all that is related of him by Matthew
Paris and other historians. He had throughout his
life been greatly in favour with king Henry III.,*
from whom he received various preferments, and at
the time of his death, in 1252, he was Canon of St.
Paul's, and ** treasurer to the king, in whose service
he had with great diligence spent many years."
His epitaph is thus given by Matthew Paris : —
Epitaphium Willielmi de Haverhulle.
Hie Willielme jaces, Protothesaurarie Regis,
Hinc Haverhulle gemis, non paritura talem.
Fercula culta dabas, empyrea vina pluebas,
A mode sit Christus cibus at esca tibi.
In Dugdale's History of St. Paul's Cathedral is
the following passage, and it is probable that to the
employment of William de Haverhyll as the king's
almoner allusion is made in the foregoing epitaph : —
" For the celebration of the festival of the con-
* Dugdale's History of St. Paul's. In Newcourt's Re-
pertorium is a list of the successive preferments enjoyed by
William de Haverhyll between 1228 and 1252.
Early History. 41
version of St. Paul, king Henry HI. by his precept
dated at Dover, 1 7th January, in the 28th year of
his reign, and directed to William de Haverhulle,
then lord treasurer, commanded him to feed I5,cxx)
poor people in St. Paul's churchyard upon that
festival, and to provide 1500 tapers, then to be
placed within the church ; the charge whereof to
be allowed out of the profits of the bishoprick of
London, at that time in the king's hands, by the
death of Roger Niger, the late reverend bishop of
In the reign of Edward I. the house and grounds
which had belonged to the ancient monastery of
Black Friars in Holbom, upon the removal of that
community to the quarter which now bears their
name, were granted to Henry Lacy, Earl of Lin-
coln, and in this place the earl built his mansion-
house,* where he generally resided, and where
he died in 13 12. He was interred in St. Paul's
Cathedral, to which he had been a great benefactor,
and over his remains was erected a monument,
bearing his cross-legged figure clad in mail, which
perished in the Great Fire of London, but has been
perpetuated by the hand of Hollar.
" Henry de Lacy, the last and greatest man of
• Dugdale's Baronage, 1. 105. Stow's London, by Strype,
42 Lincoln's Inn.
his line . . . was the confidential servant and
friend of Edward L, whom he seems not a little to
have resembled in courage, activity, prudence, and
every other quality which can adorn a soldier or
a statesman. In 1290, he was appointed- first
commissioner for rectifying the abuses which had
crept into the administration of justice, espe-
cially in the court of common pleas, an office in
which he behaved with exemplary fidelity and
In a communication read by Mr. T. Hudson
Turner at one of the meetings of the Archaeolo-
gical Institute, " On the State of Horticulture
in England in Early Times,'* are the following
curious particulars respecting the Earl of Lincoln's
garden ; —
"There is preserved in the office of the Duchy of
Lancaster an account rendered by the bailiff of Henri de
Laci, Earl of Lincoln, of the profits arising from, and the
expenditure upon, the earl's garden in Holborn, in the
suburbs of London, in the 24th year of Edward I. We
learn from this curious document that apples, pears, large
nuts, and cherries were produced in sufficient quantities,
not only to supply the earl's table, but also to yield a
profit by their sale. The comparatively large sum of nine
pounds two shillings and threepence, in money of that
time, equal to about one hundred and thirty-five pounds
of modern currency, v/^as received in one year from the
* Whitaker's Hist, of Whalley, 1818, p. 179.
Early History. 43
sale of those fruits alone. The vegetables cultivated in
this garden were beans, onions, garlic, leeks, and some
others, which are not specifically named. Hemp was also
grown there, and some description of plant which yielded
verjuice, possibly sorrel. Cuttings of the vines were sold,
from which it may be inferred that the earl's trees were
held in some estimation.
The stock purchased for this garden comprised cuttings
or sets of the following varieties of pear- trees — viz., two of
the St. R^gle, two of the Martin, five of the Caillou, and
three of the Pesse-pucelle. It is stated that these cuttings
were for planting. The only flowers named are roses, of
which a quantity was sold, producing three shillings and
twopence. It appears there was a pond, or vivary, in the
garden, as the bailiff expended eight shillings in the pur-
chase of small fish, frogs, and eels, to feed the pikes in it.
This account further shows that the garden was enclosed
by a paling and fosse ; that it was managed by a head
gardener, who had an annual fee of fifty-two shillings and
twopence, together with a robe or livery : his assistants
seem to have been numerous, they were engaged in
dressing the vines and manuring the ground : their
collective wages for the year amounted to five pounds."*
The Earl of Lincoln is said to have assigned his
residence to the professors of the law; but this
tradition, mentioned by Dugdale, does not seem
to be in accordance with the statement of the
same writer, in his Baronage of England, that
the Earl died in his mansion in 13 12, 5 Edward
II. t It is, however, the opinion of Francis
^mm^^^^^m^^,, m ■ ^^—i»^^i^»^M—i ■— ^w^— ■ i ■ ■!■■■■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ »»
* Archaeological Journal, 1848.
t Dugdale's Baronage, I; 105.
44 Lincoln's Inn.
Thynne/ a learned antiquary in the reig^ of
Elizabeth, that Lincoln's Inn became an Inn of
Court soon after that nobleman's death. The exist-
ing records of the Society begin with the second
year of the reign of Henry VI.
The greater part of the estate of the see of
Chichester on this spot appears to have been leased
about the same time to students of the law, the
bishops reserving only a certain portion for them-
selves as their residence on coming to London.
In the 28 Henry VIII., Richard Sampson, Bishop
of Chichester, passed the inheritance to William
Suliard, one of the benchers of the society, and his
brother Eustace ; and by Edward, the son of the
latter, it was transferred to the community of Lin-
coln's Inn in the 22d year of Elizabeth.
THE OLD BUILDINGS.
The precincts of Lincoln's Inn comprise the
Old Buildings (so called), with the courts in
which are situated the old hall and chapel ; New
* A member of Lincoln's Inn, and Lancaster Herald,
He assisted Speght in his edition of Chaucer, to which he
prefixed some verses on the portrait of the poet.
The Old Buildings. 45
Square, or Serle Court ; The Stone Build-
ing ; The New Hall and Library, with The
The old buildings, erected at various periods be-
tween the reigns of Henry VII. and James I., have
their chief frontage on the east, about 500 feet in
extent in Chancery Lane, formerly called New
Street, and afterwards Chancellor's Lane.
This street existed in the reign of Henry III.,
and in the time of Edward I. was in so miry a
condition that John Briton, Custos of London, set
up a barrier to prevent accidents to passengers,
which barrier was kept up for some years by the
Bishops of Chichester, but was removed, upon com-
plaint being made of the obstruction. The street
was not paved till 1 542.
Since the erection of the magnificent New Hall
and Library, the west front facing the great square
and gardens of Lincoln's Inn Fields must now un-
questionably be regarded as the chief front of the
Inn, the taste and skill displayed in the design of
these structures and the splendour of their position
having contributed in the most remarkable degree
to adorn the metropolis.
New Square, or Serle Court, on the southern
extremity of the Old Buildings, was erected about
1683; and the Stone Building from designs by Sir
Robert Taylor, about 1780, at the north-eastern
46 Lincoln's Inn.
extremity, forming another court, in which are the
entrances to the various apartments, having the
Six Clerks' Offices on the east. A new wing was
added by Mr Hard wick in 1845. The whole ex-
tent of Lincoln's Inn, from north to south, is now
about 1000 feet The last mentioned structures
neither accord with each other in the style of archi-
tecture adopted, nor bear the least resemblance to
the pristine erections.
The Gate-house, forming the principal external
feature of the old buildings in Chancery Lane, has
always b6en admired, and, though its appearance
may be somewhat altered, has sustained little dimi-
nution of its parts by the occasional repairs which
it has undergone. The gate-house formed one of
the principal objects in the arrangement of col-
legiate edifices, and this fine piece of architecture is
now almost the only specimen in London of so
early a date. The magnificent gate-house of Lam-
beth Palace, built by Cardinal Morton, archbishop
of Canterbury, of somewhat earlier date ; one of
the gateways of the ancient priory of the Knights
of St. John in Clerkenwell ; and that of St. James's
Palace, built for king Henry VIII., with this of
The GatE'House. 47
Lincoln's Inn, are now all that remain in the
Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G., one of the Benchers
of this Society, and Treasurer of the Household
to king Henry VII.,t contributed most liberally
towards its erection. The massive towers by which
the entrance is flanked are square and lofty, rising
four stories above the ground floor, giving height
and importance to the general design of the build-
ings on what was then the principal front of the Inn.
They are constructed of brick, the favourite mate-
rial of the Tudor period, and the surface is relieved
by the intersection of dark-coloured or vitrified
bricks. The entrance, under an obtusely pointed
arch, was originally vaulted, but the groined ceiling
is now removed. Over this arch is a rich heraldic
compartment, painted and gilt, a mode of decora-
tion much esteemed at the period, consisting of the
royal arms of king Henry VIII. within the garter
* It is to be lamented that this structure also will probably
ere long disappear, its removal being rendered necessary for
the construction of the suites of chambers now in progress
for the use of the members of the society.
•\' Sir Thomas Lovell was also a great benefactor to the
Nunnery of Haliwell or Holywell, in the parish of St.
Leonard's, Shoreditch, and built a chapel there, on the
windows of which were inscribed these verses : —
All the nunnes of Halywel
Pray for the soul of Sir Thomas LoveL
48 Lincoln's Inn.
and crowned, having on the dexter side the arms of
Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln ; and on the sinister
side, the arms and quarterings of Sir Thomas Lovell,
K.G. ; beneath, on a riband, ?Cnno ©oni 151 8.
Lower down is a tablet denoting an early repair, in-
scribed : " Insignia haec refecta et decorata Johanne
Hawles Armig. Solicitat General. Thesaurario
1695." The mouldings of the recess of the arch are
of stone, and well preserved. The original doors of
oak, which were not put up till 6th Eliz. 1564,
still remain ; a postern, on the northern side of the
entrance, has lately been constructed. All the
gates of entrance to the Inn are closed every night.
There is a tradition that Oliver Cromwell had cham-
bers in or near the gate-house, but his name does
not appear in the registers of the Society. His
son, Richard, was admitted as. a student 23 Car. I,
The gate-house opens upon a court, of about 1 50
feet by 100 feet in dimension, having immediately
in its front, on the western side of the court, the
ancient hall — the oldest structure in the Inn — and
the old kitchen, recently converted into chambers.
Over the archway are the arms, with the initials,
of John Hawles, Treasurer during the repairs men-
tioned above. The north side of the court is occu-
pied by the chapel, and the south side by chambers.
In the centre is a temporary building erected in
1 841, for the courts of the two Vice- Chancellors
The gate-house. 49
Sir James Lewis Knight Bruce, and Sir James
On the northern side of the chapel is a second
court, having an access in the rear of the chapel,
of about the same dimensions as the first court,
and entirely occupied by chambers excepting its
Western side, which is open to the garden. There
are also two smaller courts open towards the garden,
the southernmost bounded on the east by the old
Hall ; and the northern entirely occupied by cham-
bers, which on its eastern side abut upon the western
or principal front of the chapel. Such a conceal-
ment of an important feature of a beautiful edifice
is much to be regretted ; and in this respect the
chapel has shared a similar fate with the more
ancient and celebrated structure of the Temple
Church, which had been shorn of its impressive
dignity by the abutment of chambers on its front ;
but by the rebuilding of these chambers a few years
ago, they have been so constructed that a complete
view of the edifice may now be obtained ; and in
the re-erection of the chambers now in progress at
Lincoln's Inn, the chapel will doubtless be opened
to the view.
The suites of chambers which now occupy the
courts were chiefly erected about the time of king
James I. ; and notwithstanding that square-headed
doorways have superseded the arches, and sashed
50 Lincoln's Inn.
window-frames have taken the place of the original
lattices and muUions, the buildings retain much of
their ancient character — more, indeed, than might
be expected, when it is borne in mind that they
have been for so long a time occupied by persons
living in different periods, and individually of varied
dispositions and habits.* In one of these chambers,
No. 13, which had belonged to John Thurloe,
Secretary of State to Oliver Cromwell, was dis-
covered, in the reign of William III., a collection of
papers concealed in a false ceiling of the apartment.
These form the principal part of the collection
afterwards published by Dr Birch, known by the
name of the Thurloe State Papers.t
In the reign of James I., the four courts just
described were named the North Court, the East
Court, the South Court, an^d the Middle, Court.
* It is intended that these suites of chambers shall be
taken down, and rebuilt in an appropriate style of archi-
tecture. They will be built in divisions, so as to avoid the
displacement of tenants before the new rooms are ready for
occupation ; and the first division is now in the course of
erection on the vacant ground in one of the courts.
+ In one of the rooms in a suite of chambers (now num-
bered as 13 of the New Square, though belonging to. the
old buildings), occupied by the present Treasurer of the
Society, W. Bulkeley Glasse, Esq., by whom it was kindly
brought under my notice, there is an oaken beam, painted
and varnished, traversing the ceiling of the room, on which
are carved the initials T. S. with the motto "Sans Dieu rien, '
and the date 1596. The imtials are doubtless those of the
The Gate-house. 5 1
They have also had other names, but at present
have no other designation than that of Old Build-
ings, or Old Square. It might, perhaps, not be an
inappropriate distinction if the first court were
named Lovell's Court, another Neville's Court, and
so forth, from the several founders or benefactors.
On the fronts of two of the old gables are vertical
sun-dials, an almost exploded embellishment of
ancient houses. A southern dial, restored in 1840,
in the treasurership of William Selwyn, Esq., shows
the hours by its gnomon from six in the morning to
four in the evening. On this dial is the foUowinij
inscription :— Ex hoc momento pendet ^eterni-
TAS. Another, a western dial, restored in 1794, in
the treasurership of the Right Hon. William Pitt,
and again in 1848, in the treasurership of Clement
name of Thomas Sanderson, whose arms are carved on the
fine antique mantel-piece in the same room, and also on that
of another apartment. He was one of the Benchers of the
Society, who had contributed liberally to the fund for the
building of the new chapel, in the west window of which
his arms may be seen, and also on the pedestal under the
figure of Abraham, in the third window on the north side of
the same chapel, united with those of Christopher Brooke,
with an inscription stating that the care of the erection of
the sacred edifice had been intrusted to those Masters of
the Bench. (See page 76 of this work, and pages 235, 237,
and 240 of Dugdale's Origines ; but the arms of Sanderson,
with the motto, which are on the pedestal, as well as the
inscription, are omitted in Dugdale's engraving.)
52 Lincoln's Inn.
Tudvyay Swanston, Esq., from the dififerent situation
of its plane, only shows the hours from noon till
night. This dial bears the inscription : — QUA
REDIT, nescitis horam. It is satisfactory to
mention that the more modern repairs of the
chambers are conducted by simply adhering to the
forms of the Tudor period, involving no sacrifice of
comfort for the sake of a more stately exterior.
THE OLD HALL.
The ancient hall of the Society, situated in the
first court, opposite the gate of entrance from Chan-
cery Lane, is the oldest edifice of the Inn now
remaining,, having been erected in the 22d Henry
VII. A.D. 1506. Respecting the earlier structure,
which had become ruinous, and was pulled down
in 8 Henry VII. to make room for the present
edifice, there is no record as to its dimensions or
character. A louvre for carrying off the smoke
from the fire in the centre of the hall — a common
arrangement at that time — one of the necessary
and characteristic features of ancient halls, was
placed on the ridge of the roof in 6 Edward VI.
1552. This louvre has a large vane on the sum-
mit, and was formerly enriched with the heraldic
The Old Hall. 53
distinctions of the Earl of Lincoln, which were
removed on the occasion of some repairs. In the
year 1818 the louvre was renewed, but not improved
The hall has on each side three large windows
of three lights each, the heads of which are arched
and cusped, besides the two great oriels at the
extremities. The oriels have four lights each, tran-
somed, with arched heads and cusps. The walls
are strengthened by buttresses ; and the parapet is
embattled. The entrance, till the recent alteration,
was under an archway at the southern extremity,
and opposite to this entrance was the old kitchen,
now converted into chambers. .The exterior was
extensively repaired and stuccoed by Bernasconi,
in 1800. An arcade, built in 18 19, affords a con-
necting corridor to the Vice-Chancellor of Eng-
land's Court, erected at the same time, and situated
on the western side of the Hall towards the garden.
On the death of Sir Lancelot Shadwell, on the loth
of August 1850, the title of Vice-Chancellor of
England was discontinued. On account of the
increase of business in the Court of Chancery, two
additional vice-chancellors had been appointed by
statute in the year 1841 ; and ten years afterwards,
to relieve further the Lord Chancellor's labours, two
new judges were appointed, called Lords Justices
of the Court of Appeal, by whom, either sitting
54 LiNCOLN^s Inn.
together, or with the Lord Chancellor, all appeals
from the decisions of the other Equity Courts were
to be decided.
The hall is about 71 feet in length, and 32 feet
in breadth ; the height about equal to the breadth.
Although extremely just in its proportions, and
termed by old writers " a goodly hall," it certainly
is not equal in stateliness to the hall of the Middle
Temple ; but it has of late been curtailed of its
fair proportions, having been ^divided near the
centre by a temporary partition, to form two courts
for the sittings of the Lord Chancellor and the
Lords Justices, the benchers having granted the
use of the hall for these purposes until such time
as suitable accommodation shall be provided by
the country for the sittings of the Courts of Justice.
On the dais at the northern end is the seat of
the Lord Chancellor, who now holds his sittings
here both during term and vacation. Having been
disused as a dining-hall since the erection of the
New Buildings, the apartment is now only used for
the sittings of the Courts of Chancery and Appeal.
On the side of the dais is a corridor of communi-
cation with the old Council-chamber, the windows
of which, before the erection of the Vice-Chancellor
of England's Court, faced the garden.
Above the panelling of the dais is the picture of
Paul before Felix, painted for the Society in 1750
The Old Hall. 55
by Hogarth.* This picture is noticed by Mrs
Jameson as curiously characteristic, not of the
scene or of the chief personage, but of the painter.
St. Paul, loaded with chains, and his accuser Ter-
tullus, stand in front ; and Felix, with his wife
Drusilla, is seated on a raised tribunal in the back-
ground ; near Felix is the high priest Ananias.
The composition is good, the heads are full of
vivid expression — wrath, terror, doubt, attention ;
but the conception of character most ignoble and
At the lower end of the room is a massive screen,
erected in 1565, decorated with the grotesque carv-
ings which at that time had entirely superseded
the purer forms of the earlier work. The heraldic
achievements of King Charles II., with others of
the nobility, formerly emblazoned on this screen ,
have been removed to the New Hall, as have also
the armorial bearings of the most distinguished
members of the Society, formerly on the panels of
* By the will of Lord Wyndham, Baron of Finglass, and
Lord High Chancellor of Ireland, the sum of ;£^2oo was
bequeathed to the Society, to be expended in adorning thd
Chapel, or Hall, as the Benchers should think fit. At the
recommendation of Lord Mansfield, Hogarth was engaged
to paint the picture, which was at first designed for the
i* Sacred and Legendary Art.
56 Lincoln's Inn.
Alterations were made in this hall in the years
1625, 1652, and 1706; and in 1819, increased
accommodation being required, the room was
lengthened about ten feet. The coved ceiling of
plaster was then substituted for the open oak roof,
quite out of character with the original building ;
and other alterations were made not in accordance
with the period of erection.
The windows were enriched with heraldic achieve-
ments,* in stained glass ; but these decorations
have likewise been removed to the New Hall,
where they have been arranged in the eastern oriel,
by Mr. Willement.
At the end of the present northern division of the
hall, opposite the dais, is a statue by Westmacott of
Lord Erskine, who was Lord Chancellor in 1806.
The expression of the countenance in this statue
attests the skill of the sculptor ; it is one of his
In 1843, when still further accommodation was
required, and the erection of a New Hall was
determined upon, the judgment and taste of the
Benchers were evinced in the adoption of the same
picturesque style of architecture which prevailed
in the more ancient part of Lincoln's Inn, and by
* The earlier armorial bearings are all engraved by Hollar
in Dugdale's Origines Juridiciales.
The Old Hall. 57
the skill and masterly arrangements of the architect
- who was selected, the new structures have been
made to surpass the earher edifices as much in
magnificence of design and embellishment as they
exceed their prototypes in extent of plan.
In this ancient hall were held all the revels of
the Society, customary in early times, in which the
Benchers themselves, laying aside their dignity,
also indulged at particular seasons. The exercise
of dancing was especially enjoined for the students,
and was thought to conduce to the making of
gentlemen more fit for their books at other times.*
One of the latest revels, at which king Charles II.
was present, is noticed both by Evelyn and Pepys
in their Diaries.
At these entertainments the hall cupboard was
set with plate, amongst the ancient pieces of which
now belonging to the Society are — a silver basin
and ewer, presented in 1652 by the Right Hon.
Philip Lord Wharton, and Mrs. Elizabeth Wharton,
in memory of Sir Rowland Wandesford, whose
daughter was married to Lord Wharton ; a silver
cup and cover, presented by Edward Rich, Esq.,
in 1665 ; a silver basin and ewer, by Arthur, Earl
of Anglesey, in 1675 ; a large silver cup with two
handles, the gift of Sir Richard Rainsford, in 1677 ;
* Dugdale's Origines, 246.
58 Lincoln's Inn.
a large silver college-pot for festivals, the gift of
John Greene, Esq., Recorder of London, c. 1692 ;
and a large silver punch-bowl with two handles,
presented by William Fellowes, Esq., in 171 8.
On a second visit of Charles XL, in company with
his brother the Duke of York, Prince Rupert, the
Duke of Monmouth, and others of the nobility on
29th February 1 671, the whole company were enter-
tained in this Hall, and those illustrious and dis-
tinguished personages were admitted as Members
of the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn. The cere-
mony of his Majesty's reception and entertainment,
abridged from the Admittance Book of the Society,
in which the signatures of his Majesty and suite
are preserved will be found the best illustration of
the state used on these occasions ; —
The King with his attendants made his entrance
through the garden at the great gate in Chancery
Lane, where the Benchers waited his coming, and
attended his Majesty up to the terrace, next the
Fields, trumpets and kettle-drums sounding all the
while. From the garden his Majesty went to the
Council Chamber, the barristers and students in
their gowns standing on each side. After a little
rest his Majesty viewed the Chapel, returned to the
Council Chamber, and thence was conducted into
the Hall, where he dined under a canopy of state,
the Duke of York sitting at the end of the table
The Old Hall. 59
on his right hand, and Prince Rupert at the other
end. The noblemen of his Majesty's suite dined
at tables on each side of the hall, the barristers and
students waiting upon them. The Reader and some
of the Benchers waited near his Majesty's chair,
and four of the Benchers, with white staves, waited
as Comptrollers of the Hall. The banquet, at the
King's table, was served by the barristers and
students on their knees, violins playing all the time
of dinner in the gallery. Towards the end of dinner,
the King and his suite entered their names in the
Admittance Book of Lincoln's Inn, thus being
pleased to enrol themselves as Members of the
Society. The noblemen, before his Majesty rose
from dinner, borrowing gowns of the students, put
them on, and waited on his Majesty, much to his
delight. After pledging the welfare of the Society,
the King retired to the Council Chamber, and con-
ferred the honour of knighthood on two of the
Benchers, Mr. Nicholas Pedley, and Mr. Richard
Stote ; one of the barristers, Mr. James Butler ;
and one of the students, Mr. Francis Dayrell ; each
degree and order thus receiving testimony of royal
favour. Gn his departure, his Majesty expressed
his satisfaction and returned his thanks to the
Reader ; and two days afterwards four of the
Benchers waited on the King at Whitehall, and
acknowledged the honour vouchsafed to the Society.
6o Lincoln's Inn.
In the hall were also performed plays and
masques. These on particular occasions — as in
1 613, at the celebration of the nuptials of the Pals-
grave and the Princess Elizabeth — were performed
in the presence of the sovereign at Whitehall. In
the year 1633, a masque of magnificent character
was presented there by the four Inns of Court,
as a counter-demonstration of the feelings of the
members, in opposition to the sentiments expressed
by Prynne in his Histrio-mastix. An animated
description of this pageant is given by Whitelock
in his Memorials.
As the annual orations of the Tancred's students
were delivered in this hall before the erection of
the New Buildings, this may be a fitting place to
mention the particulars of Mr. Tancred's bequest
in favour of those who are called
These students are elected to partake of a bequest
made in the year 1754, by Christopher Tancred, of
Whixley, in Yorkshire, Esq., who bequeathed a
considerable property to be vested in trustees for
the education of twelve students, four in divinity,
at Christ's College, Cambridge ; four in physic, at
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge ; and four
Tancred's Students. 6i
in common law at Lincoln's Inn. The trustees
named in Mr Tancred's will are — the Master of
Christ's College, and the Master of Gonville and
Caius College, in Cambridge ; the President of the
College of Physicians ; the Treasurer of the Hon.
Society of Lincoln's Inn ; the Master of the Charter
House ; the Governors of Greenwich and Chelsea
The persons elected must not be less than sixteen
years of age ; must be natives of Great Britain ;
of the Church of England ; and not capable of
obtaining the education directed by the settlement
without such assistance. The annual value of each
studentship was originally fifty pounds, but is now
of about double that amount ; and this aid is con-
tinued for three years after the student has taken
the degree of bachelor of arts, bachelor in physic,
or barrister at law ; and to keep in remembrance
the liberality of the donor, a Latin oration on the
subject of his charities is ordered to be annually
delivered by one of the students in each branch, in
the halls of the colleges before mentioned, and of
Lincoln's Inn respectively.
Candidates for the studentship must apply by
petition to the governors and trustees ; and every
person elected one of the Tancred's law students
must, within one month after such election, be
entered as a member of the Society of Lincoln's
62 Lincoln's Inn.
Inn, and keep commons for twelve terms in the
hall, according to the rules of the Society.
This edifice, independently of the sacred pur-
poses to which it is dedicated, possesses features of
peculiar interest to the architect and antiquary.
Erected at a period when architecture of a mixed
character prevailed in most of our ecclesiastical
structures, it has been the subject of much criticism,
and has called forth various opinions both as
regards its merits and its antiquity.
Horace Walpole has remarked that Inigo Jones,
the reputed architect of the building, " was by no
means successful when he attempted Gothic* The
Chapel of Lincoln's Inn has none of the characters
of that architecture. The cloister seems oppressed
by the weight of the building above."
The late Mr. John Carter, an architect of reputa-
tion, who claims an early date for the foundation
of the chapel, states his opinion that in the lines of
the edifice, after its many alterations, an unpreju-
diced mind may discover that the first work was a
* The impropriety of the term Gothic is now generally
admitted, but was little understood when Walpole wrote.
The Chapel. 63
beautiful design of the reign of Edward III. or
Mr. Carter founds his arguments for the antiquity
of the edifice mainly on the affinity of the crypt to
that of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster ; the
form of the buttresses ; the tracery of the windows ;
and the vestiges of groins with elaborate tracery on
the ascent to the chapeL Conceiving that Inigo
Jones, on being applied to for the necessary repairs
of the chapel, introduced, what he regarded as
improvements^ Mr. Carter gives a detailed view of
the alterations which he supposes that eminent
architect to have effected, more particularly in the
An antiquarian friend, who has devoted much
time and attention to an examination of the edifice,
following out the views of Mr. Carter, conjectures
that the chapel owed its foundation to the Bishops
of Chichester as an essential part of their princely
residence in London, and was probably built by
William Rede, who held that see from 1369 to
1385, and was distinguished by his skill in archi-
tecture. This prelate designed the Library of
Merton College, Oxford, and in the eastern window
of the Chapel of that College may be observed the
circular form sometimes termed the Catherine
* Gentleman's Magazine, 18 12.
64 Linxoln's Inn.
wheel, the same as in the great eastern window of
Lincoln's Inn Chapel. This opinion is advanced
in the "Gentleman's Magazine" for December 1849,
and the circumstance of the chapel being built on
a crypt is regarded as strong presumptive proof of
the antiquity of the edifice.
An eminent living architect, however, in support
of the assertion respecting the prevalence of a mixed
architecture in the seventeenth century, the time
when Lincoln's Inn Chapel is stated to have been
built, has kindly furnished me with several examples
of the imitation of mediaeval architecture at this
period. Among the more remarkable are the
following, which are to be found at Oxford ; — The
Chapel of Brasen Nose College, built in 1656, and
the Library of the same College, in 1663, where
may be observed, in the head of the eastern window,
the radiated circle as at Lincoln's Inn ; the Chapel
of Exeter College, 1624 ; the buildings of Oriel
College, all after 1620 ; most of the buildings of
Jesus College, between 161 6 and 1640 ; and the
Chapel of Lincoln College, by Dr. John Williams,
Archbishop of York, which was consecrated in
1 63 1. Examples might be easily multiplied, but
these may be sufficient for the purpose.
" All these," observes this gentleman, " are
genuine original designs — />., not restorations of
any previously existing fabric ; but, as far as their
The Chapel. 65
art goes, imitations of a style used in a previous
century. They all possess the same characteristics
— ihQ forms of the various parts of the building,
such as the windows, doors, buttresses, and roof
being imitations^ not copies of mediaeval art. The
details of the various parts, the profiles of the
mouldings, &c., are in like manner imitations of
older forms, but are not usually so closely or so skil-
fully imitated as the general forms and larger masses.
The Chapel at Lincoln's Inn is a very interesting
instance of this sort of architecture — a ^renais-
sance* not paralleled by any architecture of any
other time or country — unless, indeed, we except the
present practice of the art in England and France.**
Having thus placed in juxtaposition the opinions
of professional* men respecting this interesting
edifice, I may now add further that the existing
records of the Society completely disprove the
opinions advanced on the antiquity of the building,
however extraordinary it may appear that Inigo
Jones should have erected a building in this style,
at the very time when he was directing the national
taste in the adoption of the Italian models.
The records referred to clearly prove that the
chapel was not restored or repaired, as has been
supposed, but that a new edifice was erected in the
reign of James L, and that the old chapel, the
ruinous condition of which had rendered a new one
66 Lincoln's Inn.
necessary, was standing when the new building was
finished and consecrated in 1623.* The instrument
of consecration, preserved among these records,
gives the same evidence, particularly by the occur-
rence of the words : " noviter jam erigi^ edificari
et construir There is also, in the first volume
of a work presented to the Library in 1621 by Dr.
John Donne, an inscription in his own hand-writing,
declaring that Xkit first stone of the edifice was laid
by his hand.
Although it does not appear quite certain from
the records that Inigo Jones was the architect em-
ployed, there can be little doubt that such was the
case. In the year 161 7, the Society having deter-
mined upon the erection of a new chapel, it is
stated that " the consideration of a fit model for the
chapel is commended to Mr. Inditho Jones \_sic\ ;"
and in another entry it is said that the estimate
was upwards of £2000^ but there is no further
mention of the name of Jones. John Clarke was the
mason employed. The first mention of Inigo Jones
* The new Chapel was consecrated on the feast of the
Ascension, in 1623 ; and. there is an entry in the registers of
the Society, on the 19th of June in the same year, stating
that Mr. Noy, one of the Masters of the Bench, was entreated
to attend the archbishop for the purpose of obtaining a
faculty or dispensation for the demolishing of the old chapel,
and in the mean season none to work there, but the door to
be locked up.
The Chapel. 67
as the architect in any printed notice of the edifice
appears in the engraving by Vertue in 175 1 ; and
afterwards in the fourth edition of Ralph's View o f
the Public Buildings of London, printed in 1783.
The name does not occur in the first edition of that
work in 1734. But in one of the Harleian MSS. No.
5900, written about the year 1700, it is stated that
Inigo Jones built the chapel of Lincoln's Inn, " after
the Gothick manner, in imitation of that of St.
Stephen's at Westminster."
With respect to the elevation of the chapel on a
crypt, of which it is said there are very few examples
remaining in this country, it may be observed that
this mode of arrangement, connected with certain
ritual observances, is sometimes found in towns, or
wherever space was to be economised. Whatever
may have been the original object in the case of
Lincoln's Inn Chapel^ whether the design were
copied or not from the earlier edifice, or from that
of St. Stephen's, it is evident that about the period
of erection it was used as an ambulatory, or place
for lawyers "to walk in, to talk and confer their
learning,*? from the allusions to this custom by
Butler and Pepys cited by Mr Cunningham in his
Handbook for London : —
" Retain all sorts of witnesses
That ply i' th' Temples under trees,
Or walk the Round with Knights o' th* Posts
About their cross-legged knights their hosts,
68 Lincoln's Inn.
Or wait for customers between
The pillar-rows in Lincoln's Inn."
• HuDiBRAS, part iiL canto 3.
" To Lincoln's Inn, to see the new garden which they are
making, which will be very pretty, — and so to walk under
M^f^rt/^/ by agreement." — Pepys' Diary,
It may be proper to mention, before leaving this
subject, that in the year 1822, in digging below the
foundations of the chapel, a sculpture was found,
of which an engraving is given in Mr. Lane's
Guide. It apparently represents the Annunciation,
is about one foot square, and, at the time of its
discovery, the colours and gilding with which it
was decorated were well preserved. It probably
formed one of the ornaments of the old chapel.
A perfect view of this religious edifice is, owing
to the contiguity of the surrounding buildings,
somewhat difficult of attainment. That usually
important feature, the western front with its large
window, is in this chapel entirely concealed from
view by chambers erected immediately before it ;
and the entrance is to be sought under an archway
over which is carved the Lion of the Earl of
Lincoln, with the initials of Marmaduke Alington,
Esq., Treasurer of the Society in 1737. A turret
with cupola, surmounted by a weather-vane, rises
at the south-western angle of the chapel, and con-
tains an ancient bell, which is said by tradition to
have been brought from Spain about 1596, forming
The Chapel. 69
part of the spoils acquired by the gallant Earl of
Essex at the capture of Cadiz.* An inspection of
the bell, however, reveals the inscription, "Anthony
Bond made mee, 161 5," with the initials of
Thomas Hitchcock, who was Treasurer of the So-
ciety in that year ; and how far this fact refutes, or
may be made to accord with the tradition, may be
left for the inquiries of the curious.
The open crypt or ambulatory, on which the chapel
is elevated, consists of three obtusely -pointed arches,
in the longest sides, and two massive piers in the
centre. It is now inclosed with iron railings, and
is used as a place of interment for the Benchers.
On each of the sides of the chapel, are three large
windows, the mullions and tracery of which, as
well as the form of the massive buttresses between
them, resemble the style of architecture which pre-
vailed in the time of king Edward III. The but-
tresses are graduated, and are now terminated with
small battlements, an improvement on the mode in
which they were previously terminated by huge
vases with flames issuing from them, as represented
in the print published by Vertue in 175 1. The
large and very fine eastern window is divided by
* In this expedition the Earl was accompanied by Dr.
Donne, formerly one of the students of Lincoln's Inn, who
laid the first stone of the chapel, and preached the sermon
at the consecration.
7o Lincoln's Inn.
mullions into seven lights, with one transom, and
in the beautiful tracery in the arched head is a
circle divided into twelve tre-foiled lights by
mullions radiating from the centre. The ascent to
the chapel is by a flight of steps under the archway
before mentioned, leading to a porch erected by
Mr. Hardwick in 1843.
The appearance of the chapel on entering is
remarkably impressive, — ^an effect produced by the
chastened light transmitted by the stained glass in
the very fine windows, the beautiful colours of which
far surpass the generality of works in this style of
art. The carved oaken seats merit attention for
their design and very superior execution, as spe-
cimens of the taste of the reign of James I.
The altar, which is raised, is inclosed by balus-
trades, and to it belong two large silver flagons
and salvers, presented by Nicholas Franklyn,
Esq., in 1700, and two silver gilt chalices, given
to the chapel by Sir James Allan Park in 1806.
There was a small screen (which has been lately
removed) raised on the end of the last pew
near the altar, — not an uncommon arrangement
in the seventeenth century, and very frequently
found in the churches built by Sir Christopher
Wren in the eighteenth century. This is a
restoration of the ancient division of churches
by the rood-screen into nave and chancel The
The Chapel. 71
length of the chapel is sixty-seven feet, the
breadth forty-one feet, and its height about forty-
four feet. The interior underwent great alterations
in 1794-6 under the direction of Mr. James Wyatt,
when the ceiling of timber was removed, and one
of stucco by Bernasconi substituted, in presumed
accordance with the decorated style of architecture.
The Organ, in a gallery at the western end, was
erected by Messrs. W. Hill and Son, in 1856, taking
the place of one which had been previously built
by Messrs. Flight and Robson in 1820. It has much
sweetness of tone, combined with great power, but
this power is so modulated by the skill of the
organist, Dr. Steggall, that the volume of sound
is not disproportioned to the moderate size of the
building. The choral service, to which much care
and attention is devoted, is very impressive, ex-
emplifying the assertion of Hooker,* that church
music is " the ornament of God's service, and a
help to our own devotion."
The windows on the north and south sides are
filled with a series of figures of Prophets and
Apostles in brilliant stained glass, executed by
Bernard and Abraham Van Linge, Flemish artists,
whose works are among the most celebrated of
* It may be interesting to remember that Hooker was
Master of the Temple Church, where ecclesiastical music
has been so effectively revived.
72 Lincoln's Inn.
their period. The windows in the Chapels of
University and Balliol Colleges at Oxford, by
Abraham, and those at Wadham College, by Ber-
nard, are remarkably fine. In this chapel, the
windows are not all equally rich in their effect, nor
of equal merit in the drawing and composition.
The colours are generally well preserved, and
increased in brilliancy by the strong contrast of
bright lights and opaque shadows — a characteristic
of the work of the Van Linges. Each window has
four lights, and the subjects represented are
arranged as follows, each figure bearing its appro-
South Side. Fust Window. — i. St. Peter, with
a key in his right hand. 2. St. Andrew, with a
book open in his left hand, turning the leaves with
his right ; behind him, his cross. 3. St. James the
Great, habited as a pilgrim, with staff, and holding
a closed book. 4. St. John, the Apostle and Evan-
gelist, bearing in his left hand a cup, from which a
serpent is issuing.
These figures are on pedestals, and under very elaborate
and curiously formed canopies ; the head of each is en-
circled by a nimbus, and beneath is the name in Latin.
Above, in the arched heading of the window, are figures
of angels holding tablets, on which are the crests of the
arms depicted beneath. In the third light of this window,
at the left corner of the pedestal, is the date 1623 ; and
in the fourth light, at the base of the pedestal, on the left
The Chapel. 73
side, is inscribed Jo. Donne, Dec. Paul. F. F. ; and just
above this inscription is a cipher composed of the letters
R. B. This cipher is also in the second light, at the
right comer of the pedestal. The front of the pedestals
is covered by figures of angels, bearing the arms of —
I. Henrici Comitis Southampton. 2. Gulielmi Comitis
Pembrochiae. 3. Johannis Comitis Bridgewater. 4.
Jacobi Comitis Caerlile.
South Side, Second Window, — i. St. Philip,
bearing in his right hand a cross, and in his left a
closed book. 2. St. Thomas, with a carpenter's
square in his right hand, and a closed book in his
left. 3. St. Bartholomew, holding in his right hand
a large knife, the instrument of his martyrdom.
4. St. Matthew, holding a lance.
These figures are on hexagonal pedestals, under rich
canopies, and the head of each is encircled by the nimbus.
In the spaces of the arched heading of the window are
here also figures of angels holding tablets with the crests
of the arms depicted beneath. In the second light, on
the upper comer of the pedestal, are the letters R. B.
In the fourth light, in the same position, is a monogram.
Under the pedestals are the following inscriptions :
— I. Georgius, Baro de Abergaveny et Maria Filia
Edwardi Due. Buckingh. ; with the arms on the pedestal
between the symbolical figures of Faith and Hope. 2.
Fra : Fane, unus Socioru hujus hospitii, Eques Balnei,
Com. Westmorland, Baro de Despencer et Burghersh,
cujus impensis &c. haec quatuor lumina vitrseis adoraantur
depictis, et Mariae filiae et heredis Antho. Mildmay,
Militis. Ano. Diii. 1623. Arms between the figures of
Temperance and Justice. 3. Henric^ Baro d* Aber-
gaveny; et Francisca, fil. Tho. Com. Rutland. Arms
74 Lincoln's Inn.
between the figures of Charity and Prudence. 4. Thos.
Fane, Eques Auratus, et Maria, Uxor ejus, Baronissa Le
Despencer. Arms between the figures of Wisdom and
Fortitude. The date of 1623 is on all these pedestals.
South Side, Third Window, — i. St. James the
Less, holding a fuller's club in the left hand, and
an open book in the right. 2. St. Simon, bearing
a saw in his right hand, and a closed book in the
left. 3. St. Jude, holding in his right hand a closed
book. 4. St. Matthias, bearing in his right hand
an axe, and a closed book in his left hand.
This window differs in some respects from the two just
described. There are no canopies, but a continued land-
scape forms the back-ground, with the representation of
a city in the distance, and near the centre is a building,
bearing much resemblance to Lincoln's Inn Chapel, with
its ambulatory, and the buttresses terminating in pinnacles.
The figures are finely relieved against the sky and clear
water of the landscape, and the attitudes of each are
studiously varied, as is the case indeed with the figures
in the other windows. The pedestals differ from the
others, being square, and the front covered by the arms.
In the tracery above are angels holding the armorial
bearings of the Spencer and Compton families. In this
window the figures of the angels are nude ; in the others,
draped. Beneath the figures are coats of arms thus
inscribed : i. Robert, Lord Spencer of Wormleighton.
a. Sir Henry Compton, Knight. 3. Thomas Spencer,
of Claverdon, Esq. 4. John Spencer, of Offley, Esq.
North Side, First Window. — i. King David,
crowned, playing on the harp ; over his other
drapery, a scarlet robe lined with ermine. 2. The
The Chapel. 75
prophet Daniel, with a golden verge or rod in his
left hand. 3. Elias, with a sword resting on^the
ground. 4. Esaias, holding a book in his right
hand ; with his left, a saw.
These figures are on hexagonal pedestals, and under
rich canopies. Above, in the arch of the window, are
kings in robes, crowned. Beneath the figures, in front of
the pedestals, are coats of arms, with the following inscrip-
tions : — I. Jacobus Ley, Miles et Baronettus, Capitalis
Justiciarius Domini Regis ad Placita coram ipso Rege
tenenda assignatus et quondam Capitalis Justiciarius
Capitalis Banci in Hibernia. 2. Humphridus Winch,
Miles, unus Justiciariorum Domini Regis de Banco, ac
quondam Capitalis Baro Scaccarii in Hibernia, et postea
Capitalis Justiciarius Capitalis Banci in Hibernia.
3. Johannes Denham, Miles,unus Baronum Curiae Scaccarii
in Anglia, et quondam Capitalis Baro Scaccarii in Hiber-
niS, et unus Dominorum Justiciariorum in Hibernia.
4. Willielmus Jones, Miles, unus Justiciariorum Dni Regis
de Banco, ac nuperime Capitalis Justiciarius Capitalis
Banci in Hibernia.
North Side, Second Window, — i. The prophet
Jeremias, with a staff in the right hand, and ewer in
the left. 2. Ezekiel, in the vestments of a priest,
mitred, with the model of a church in his left hand.
3. Amos, clothed as a shepherd, with a crook and
wallet. 4. Zacharias, the prophet.
These figures, also, are on hexagonal pedestals, under
canopies of different form from the first window. In the
tracery above are kings in robes, crowned, in beautiful
colours. On the first and third pedestals is the date
76 Lincoln's Inn.
1624. Beneath the figures, in front of the pedestals, are
coats of arms with the following inscriptions : — I. Ranul-
phus Crew, Miles, Serenissimi Dni Jacobi Regis Senriens
ad Legem. 2. Thomas Harrys, Baronettus, et Serviens ad
Legem. 3. Tho. Richardson, Miles, Serviens ad Legem
et Conventionis Parliamenti inchoat. et tent, tricesimo die
Januarii Ano Dni 1620, et ibm. continuat. usque octavum
diem Februarii Ano Dni 1621, et tunc dissolut. Prolocutor.
4. Johannes Darcie, Serviens ad Legem.
North Side, Third Window. — i. Abraham, with
a sword in his right hand, his left resting on the
head of his son Isaac ; the intended sacrifice above,
in the background. 2. Moses, with his rod, and
the Two Tables of the Decalogue in his hands ;
above, Moses receiving the tables on the Mount
3. St. John the Baptist, habited in a camel's skin,
with a staff in his right hand ; and at his feet a
lamb. In the upper part the baptism of Christ is
shown. 4. St. Paul, holding a sword. Above is the
conversion of Saul.
These figures are on pedestals, on which the names are
thus inscribed: — ST^ Abraham, Pater Fidelium; ST^
MosES, Legislator; S'^.^ Jo; Bapt. PRy^cuRsoR
Domini; ST^ Paulus, Doctor Gentium. In the
tracery above are the figures of Temperance, Prudence,
Charity, Hope, Faith, Justice. Beneath the figures are
coats of arms borne by angels in front of the pedestals,
with these inscriptions: — I. Xpr^. Brooke et Thomas
Saunderson, Magri de Banco, quoru fidei hujus sacrae
Fabricse cura credita fuit fieri fecerunt, 1626. 2. Ro-
landus Wandesford, Ebora. Ar. et unus MagrSm de
The Chapel. 77
Banco sumptu proprio fieri fecit 1626. 3. Gulielmus
Noye de St. Buriens, Com. Comub. Armiger, unus
Magru de Banco fieri fecit 1626. Teg yw heddwch.*
4. Johannes Took, Armiger, hujus hospicii ad Bancum
associatus; et Curiae Regi Curiae suae pupillonim a
rationibus fieri fecit, 1626.
The latter part of some of the inscriptions is not
now visible, the glazing of the windows having been
removed during the repairs of the chapel, and these
parts having been either lost or obscured in
replacing the glass.
The great eastern and western windows, viewed
in comparison with those on the sides, are very
inferior in point of decoration. The large and
beautiful eastern window is chiefly interesting from
its admirable proportions, the disposition of the
mullions and tracery, and the circular form with
radiating divisions which occupies the centre of the
head. It contains a finely executed heraldic
embellishment,t the arms of King William III., the
same as previously used by King James II., with an
escutcheon of pretence bearing the arms of Nassau,
with the supporters borne by the house of Stuart,
and the motto, Je meintiendray. This armorial
* " Ix)vely is peace," — in allusion to the crest of Noy, a
dove bearing an olive branch.
+ It has been thought worthy of selection as a specimen
of the period, by Mr. Willement, who has introduced it in
his "Regal Heraldry."
78 Lincoln's Inn.
bearing occupies the three central lights below the
transom. In the upper part of the central light
above the transom are the arms of the Hon.
Society of Lincoln's Inn. Both these embellish-
ments were put up in 1703. The remainder of the
window is filled with the arms of the Benchers who
have been Treasurers of Lincoln's Inn from the
year 1680, the time of the discontinuance of the
Readers. There are sixteen of these in each light,
excepting the central, making one hundred and
seventy in the whole number, besides eleven
coats of arms in the upper tracery of the window,
ending with those of Kenyon Stevens Parker, Esq.,
Treasurer in 1862. The glazing of the great circle
above is composed of pieces of stained glass, in-
serted without any regard to design or arrangement
of colour. It must be admitted that the glazing of
this window is far from satisfactory, and that it
forms a remarkable contrast to the side lights.
In the great western window the circle is of
uncoloured glass, an^ the other portions contain
the arms of eminent members of the Society who
have been Readers. To these have been lately
added the arms of the Treasurers from 1863 to
In the porch is placed a cenotaph to the memory
of the Rt. Hon. Spencer Perceval, with a mural
tablet of marble, which was originally affixed to the
The Chapel. 79
wall of the chapel, bearing the following inscrip-
tion : —
M. S. viri honoratissimi Spencer- Perceval, socii
nostri desideratissimi, banc tabulam Hospitii Lincolniensis
Thesaurarius at Magistri de Banco P. P. Quis et qualis
fuerit, qua gravitate, fide, constantia, quo acumine, et
facundiae impetu, mitem illam sapientiam, et suavissimam
naturae indolem, ad officia publica strenue obeunda,
erexerit et firmaverit ; quanto denique suorum, et patriae
et bonorum omnium luctu, vitam innocuam, probam, piam,
unius scelus intercluserit, annales publici mandabunt
posteris ; nos id tantum agimus, ut quem privata necessi-
tudine nobis conjunctum habuerimus, privata pietate
On the ascent to the chapel is also a marble
tablet to the memory of Eleanor Louisa, daughter
of the late Lord Brougham, a Bencher of this
Society, with an inscription by the late Marquis
Wellesley, written in his 8ist year : —
Memoriae Sacrum ELEANORiE LouiSiE Brougham,
Henrici Baronis de Brougham et Vaux, summi Anglise
nuper Cancellarii, et Mariae Annse, Uxoris eius, Filiae
unicae et dilectissimae. Decessit pridie Kal. Dec. anno
sacro M DCCC XXXIX ; setatis suse XVIII.
Blanda anima ! e cunis heu ! longo exercita morbo.
Inter matemas heu ! lacrymasque patris,
Quas risu lenire tuo jucunda solebas ;
Et levis, et proprii vix memor ipsa mali :
I, pete coelestes, ubi nulla est cura, recessus !
Et tibi sit nullo mista dolore quies ! " Wellesley.
Near this tablet has recently been erected another
to the memory of the late Sir Henry Wilmot Seton,
8o Lincoln's Inn.
Kt. Judge in the Supreme Court of Bengal, who
died in July, 1848, on his passage from Calcutta to
England, with this inscription : —
In memoriam Henrici Wilmot Seton, Equitis
Aurati, qui Londini natus, Schola Westmonasteriensi
postea Coll. Trin.apud Cantabrigienses bonis Uteris haud
mediocriter imbutus, mox hujusce Societatis edicto in
patronorum ordinem cooptatus, tandem ad Judicis locum
in suprema Bengalensi curia evectus, postquam munere
judiciali fere per decennium summa cum laude ac
reverentia strenue functus esset, cceli intemperie et fori
laboribus confectus, domum sero revertens, medio in
itinere mortem obit a. d. 1848. aetatis suae 64. Viro
solerti, simplici, verecundo, erga Deum pietate, erga
amicos comitate, studio, constantia, erga omnes homines
benignitate insigni, tabulam amoris ac desiderii monu-
mentum, sodales aliquot superstites poni curaverunt.
By the side of this tablet is another in memory
of Sir Francis Simpkinson, who was Treasurer of
the Society at the time of the inauguration of the
New Hall and Library, and died in July 185 1.
The inscription is as follows : —
Memoriae Sacrum Johannis Augusti Francisci
Simpkinson, Equitis Aurati, Jurisconsulti Regii, hujusc.
Societatis e Praefectis Consessoribus qui Thesaurarius
anno M DCCC XLV creatus, Reginam Victoriam -^des
Collegii magnificentius extructas inaugurare dignantem
publico hospitio praeses excepit, annuo, qui apud suos est,
magistratu singulari cum honore functus. Vir legum
peritissimus, plurimis literis omatus, benignus, fidelis,
verax, summa probitate, simulatione virtutum nulla, ita
ad . majora se in Deum officio paratius accessurum
The Chapel. 8i
credebat, si suos pietate, bonos omnes observantia, inopes
misericordia prosequeretur, Genevae natus matre Hel-
vetica prid. Kal. Dec. MDCCLXXX, obiit Londini
octav. Id. Jul. M DCCC LI. anno setat. Ixxi. Subter hoc
sacellum sepultus jacet ; monumentum hoc uxor et filii
Among the remarkable persons buried in the
cloister under the chapel are John Thurloe,
Secretary of State to Oliver Cromwell ; the inde-
fatigable William Prynne, to whom English history
is indebted for the preservation of many of the
public records ; William Melmoth, author of the
" Great Importance of a Religious Life ; " John
Coxe, a great benefactor to the Society ; Sir John
Anstruther, Chief Justice of the Court of Judicature
in Bengal, who was one of the managers in the
impeachment of Warren Hastings ; Francis Har-
grave, the learned author of Notes on Coke's
Commentary upon Littleton and many other valu-
able juridical works.
The time occupied in the erection of the chapel
was five years, and the edifice was consecrated on
the feast of the Ascension, 1623, by Dr. George
Mountaine, Bishop of London. A sermon was de-
livered by Dr. Donne, formerly Preacher to the
Society, but at that time Dean of St. PauPs, from
the text : " And it was at Jerusalem the feast of
the dedication, and it was winter." St. John, cap.
10. v. 22. A contemporary letter states that on
82 Lincoln's Inn.
this occasion " there was great concourse of noble-
men and gentlemen, whereof two or three were
endangered and taken up dead for the time with
the extreme press and thronging/' *
Within the walls of this sacred edifice many of
the most distinguished and eloquent divines of the
Church of England have exercised their ministry
in the office of Preacher to the Society, amongst
whom shine conspicuously the names of Donne,
Usher, Gataker, Tillotson, Hurd, Warburton,
The earliest entries in the Register of Lincoln's
Inn relative to the appointment of a Preacher, for-
merly called a Divinity Reader or Lecturer, occur
in the year 1581, when a letter was written by the
Masters of the Bench to one of the Lords of the
Privy Council, stating that having been long de-
sirous to have a Preacher in their House, " like as
is in other Houses of Court," they had chosen Mr.
Charke for that office. Mr. Charke was a fel-
low of Peter House, Cambridge, and is said by
Strype to have been " a person disaffected to the
habits of the clergy, and to the present govern-
ment of the church by metropolitans, archbishops,
* Letter of J. Chamberlain, Esq. to Sir D. Carleton.
See ** Court and Times of James I." vol. ii. p. 402.
The Chapel.— Preachers. 83
The next appointment was that of Dr. Richard
Field, i6th January 1594.* This eminent divine,
the intimate friend of Hooker and Sir Henry Sa-
ville, was " a powerful preacher, and profound
In 1599 Mr. Pulley was appointed Preacher ;
and was succeeded 22d April 1602, by the learned
Thomas Gataker, " one whom a foreign writer
has placed among the six Protestants most con-
spicuous, in his judgment, for depth of reading."*
In 16 1 2 Mr. Hollo way was appointed Preacher,
and held the office for four years.
Dr. John Donne was elected Preacher 24th Oct.
1616. He had been a student of Lincoln's Inn,
and was for some time chief secretary to Lord Chan-
cellor Ellesmere. Having been Preacher above five
years, he was appointed Dean of St. Paul's, and on
taking leave of the Society presented to them in
token of his affection a copy of the Commentary of
Nicholas de Lyra on the Bible, in six volumes, folio ;
with an inscription alluding to his change of life,
and transition from the study of the law and various
other pursuits to the sacred office of the ministr>%
Dr. John Preston succeeded, 21st May 1622.
He is noticed by Echard as " the head of the Puri-
tan party, an exquisite preacher, a subtle disputant,
* Hallam's Literature of Europe, iv. iii.
84 Lincoln's Inn.
and a deep politician, who once was highly in favour
with the Duke of Buckingham/'
The next Preacher was Dr. Edward Rey-
nolds, afterwards Bishop of Norwich, elected i6th
Oct. 1628. Dr. Reynolds was one of the Assembly
of Divines, which sat at Westminster during the
The Rev. Joseph Caryl was appointed
Preacher 5th June 1632. He was one of the
ministers who went with the Commissioners ap-
pointed by Parliament, to treat of peace with King
Charles I. at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, where
he preached before them on 30th January 1648.
The venerable Archbishop Usher was ap-
pointed Preacher in 1647, being then in the 68th
year of his age. This prelate was the intimate friend
of Sir Matthew Hale.
Dr. Reeves was chosen Preacher, 9th May
1654 ; and was succeeded by
The Rev. Thomas Greenfield, ist Nov.
John Tillotson, D.D., Archbishop of Canter-
bury, was appointed Preacher 26th November
1663. The esteem in which this eminent prelate
was held by the public is well known. He was no
less admired and loved by^the Society.
Edward Maynard, D.D., 13th November
1 69 1. The public are indebted to Dr. Maynard
The Chapel. — Preachers. 85
for the second and enlarged edition of Dugdale's
History of St. Paul's, with the life of the author
Francis Gastrell, Bishop of Chester, 9th
November 1699. The bishop was a man of great
learning, and an excellent preacher ; he was one of
the Boyle Lecturers.
William Lupton, D.D., 17th April 1714.
The Sermons of Dr. Lupton have been published,
in one volume, 8vo. London, 1729.
Thomas Herring, D.D. Archbishop of York
and of Canterbury, 23d January 1726. Archbishop
Herring's Sermons on public occasions were pub-
lished in 1763, and his Letters in 1777.
Rev. Mr. Cranke, 28th Nov. 1733.
Rev. George Watts, 6th June 1735, after-
wards Master of the Temple.
William Warburton, D.D., Bishop of Glou-
cester, i6th April 1746. The author of the Di-
vine Legation of Moses is too well known by his
varied learning, and his sagacity and zeal in contro-
versy, to need further mention here. His character
is well set forth by his friend and biographer.
Thomas Ashton, D.D., 8th April 1761. Dr.
Ashton's Sermons were printed in 1770, in one
volume, 8vo, with a portrait in mezzotinto by J.
Spilsbury, from a painting by Sir J. Reynolds.
86 Lincoln's Inn.
Richard Hurd, D.D., Bishop of Lichfield and
of Worcester, 6th Nov. 1765. Bishop Hurd is well
known by the elegance of his writings, and his inti-
mate friendship with Bishop Warburton. The poet
Langhorne was assistant preacher to Dr. Hurd.
Dr. Woodcock, elected Preacher 28th Novem-
Dr. Cyril Jackson, 17th May 1779. He be-
came afterwards Dean of Christ Church, Oxford,
where, says Mr. Alexander Chalmers, " he presided
with almost unexampled zeal and ability."
Dr. William Jackson, brother of Dr. Cyril
Jackson, 9th July 1783. He became Bishop of
Oxford, after having held the office of Preacher for
nearly twenty-nine years, and discharged its duties
" in a faithful and exemplary manner, and to the en-
tire satisfaction of this house." Archdeacon Nares
was assistant preacher to Dr. Jackson for nearly
William Van Mildert, Bishop of Llandaff,
afterwards translated to the see of Durham, ap-
pointed 1 8th April 181 2.
Charles Lloyd, Bishop of Oxford, 21st June
1 8 19. Bishop Lloyd was the editor of the beautiful
little Greek Testament printed at the Clarendon
Press, which is used in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn.
He was buried in the cloister under the chapel.
Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, 25th
The Chapel. — Preachers. 87
April 1822. On the occasion of Bishop He-
bar's last sermon in Lincoln's Inn Chapel, on the
eve of his departure for India, Sir Thomas Dyke
Acland, in a letter to the bishop's widow, speaks of
the feeling which the sermon of that day diffused
through the audience as a light indication of the
powerful and salutary influence exercised by the
bishop during his whole course in India.*
Edward Maltby, D.D., i8th April 1823,
Bishop of Chichester in 1831, translated to the see
of Durham in 1836.
John Lonsdale, D.D., 13th January 1836,
Bishop of Lichfield in 1843. Bishop Lonsdale
had been admitted as a student of Lincoln's Inn in
181 1, but after a short time, like his predecessor,
Dr. Donne, and many other eminent men, ex-
changed the study of the law for that of divinity,
and was ordained deacon in 181 5. During the
twenty-four years in which he held the see of
Lichfield (i 843-1 867), so untiring was his zeal
in the discharge of the duties of his high office,
united with qualities of mind and heart which
endeared him to the clergy of his large diocese, as
well as to all who were brought within the sphere
of his influence, that it is justly observed by his
biographer, Mr. Denison, that his episcopate " will
* Bishop Heber's Life, by his Widow, ii. 134.
88 Lincoln's Inn.
be memorable while the Church of England
stands."* Besides an "Account of the Life and
Writings of the Rev. Tho. Rennell/' and some Dis-
courses and Sermons, Bishop Lonsdale published
the Four Gospels, with annotations, in conjunction
with the Ven. Archdeacon Hale.
Rev. James S. M. Anderson, elected 12th
January 1844. Mr. Anderson published several
volumes of Sermons and Discourses, and the His-
tory of the Church of England in the Colonies and
Foreign Dependencies of the British Empire, in
three volumes, 8vo.
William Thomson, D.D. i6th April, 1858.
Dr. Thomson was appointed Bishop of Gloucester
and Bristol in December 1861, and in 1862 was
promoted to the archiepiscopal see of York. The
archbishop has published some of his Discourses ;
and his ** Outline of the Necessary Laws of
Thought" is used as a text-book on logic in
the University of Oxford.
Frederick Charles Cook, Canon of Exeter,
the present preacher, was appointed on the 13 th
Feb. 1862. Mr. Cook has published some Sermons
preached at Lincoln's Inn, and is the editor of the
Commentary on the Bible, with a revision of the
* See "The Life of John Lonsdale, Bishop of Lichfield;
with some of his Writings. Edited by his son-in-law,
Edmund Beckett Denison, LL.D., Q.C." 8vo, 1868.
The Chapel.— Preachers. 89
authorised version by bishops and other clergy of
the Anglican Church, now in the course of publi-
It should be mentioned here that, for the
exercise of the sacred ministry in the Society,
besides the Preacher, there is an Assistant
Preacher, and a Chaplain, the latter of whom, in
addition to his duties in the chapel on Sundays
and certain other days, attends in the hall during
term time, a seat being allotted to him at the first
bar table. The office of Chaplain is the oldest
ecclesiastical office in the Society, having certainly
existed in the time of Henry VI., and probably
from the time when the first chapel was dedicated
in honour of St. Richard, Bishop of Chichester,
whereas the first Preacher appears to have been
appointed in 1581.
In the chapel of Lincoln's Inn are also delivered
the Warburtonian Lectures, founded by Bishop
Warburton in 1768, for the purpose of proring
" the truth of Revealed Religion in general, and of
the Christian in particular, from the completion of
the Prophecies in the Old and New Testament
which relate to the Christian Church, especially to
the Apostasy of Papal Rome.''
These Lectures have been delivered annually,
pursuant to the will of the founder, on the first
Sunday after Michaelmas Term, and on the Sunday
go Lincoln's Inn.
immediately before and after Hilary Term, but
latterly on the Sundays after Michaelmas and
Hilary Terms, and the first Sunday in March, sub-
ject to occasional exceptions. An erroneous belief
seems to have prevailed for some years that the ap-
pointment of the Lecturer belonged to the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, but a recent investigation
proved this belief to have been a mistake. The
appointment is, in fact, vested in three trustees, and
in the choice of the Lecturer preference is to be
given to the Preacher of Lincoln's Inn.* The Lec-
turer holds the office for four years, and is required
by the endowment deed to publish his lectures.
The first Lecturer was Bishop Kurd; and the
following are the names of the succeeding Lec-
turers who have published their Discourses : — Dr.
Samuel Halifax, Bishop of Exeter ; Dr. Lewis
Bagot, Bishop of St. Asaph ; Dr. East Apthorpe ;
Archdeacon Nares (who was assistant preacher of
Lincoln's Inn) ; Dr. Edward Pearson ; Rev. Philip
All wood ; Rev. John Davison ; Archdeacon Lyall ;
Dr. Frederick Nolan ; Dr. Alexander M'Caul ;
Archdeacon Harrison; Rev. Frederick Denison
Maurice ; Rev. E. B. Elliott, author of the " Horae
Apocalypticae ;" Rev. William Goode, D.D., Dean
* See pages 153-4 of Mr. Denison's Life of Bishop Lons-
dale, before mentioned.
New Square. 91
of Ripon ; Rev. Benjamin Morgan Cowie, now
Dean of Manchester. The following are the Lec-
turers who have not published their Discourses :
— Dr. Nicholson ; Dr. Layard ; Rev. Thomas Ren-
nell ; Rev. M. Raymond ; Rev. Henry Venn Elliott ;
Rev. Frederick Charles Cook. The present Lec-
turer is the Rev. Hamilton Edward Gifford, D.D.
It has been stated in some of the topographical
accounts of London that the houses forming New
Square, or Serle Court, were built upon an open
space of ground southward of the ancient buildings
of Lincoln's Inn known as Little Lincoln's Inn
Fields, or Fickett's Fields (properly Fickett's Crofi),
thus distinguished from the larger area of Lincoln's
Inn Fields; and this ground is so named in the
articles of agreement entered into between Mr.
Serle and the Society of Lincoln's Inn in the year
1682. But by an inspection of the plan laid down
in the map published by Mr. Parton in his Account
of the Parish of St. Giles in the Fields, and in that
of the Ordnance Survey of the Metropolis now in
progress, on the scale of five feet to the mile, it
appears that the ground originally formed part of
the Coneygarth or Cotterell Garden. Fickett's
92 Lincoln's Inn.
Croft in these maps lies to the west of this spot,
southward of Fickett's or Lincoln's Inn Fields, and
comprises what is now the site of Portugal Street,
King's College Hospital, &c.* The vacant space
of ground in question, or a part of it, having been
claimed by Henry Serle, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn,
certain agreements were entered into between this
gentleman and the Society, under the terms of
which Mr. Serle erected eleven houses of brick,
each appropriated to suites of chambers, forming
three sides of the area now named New Square,
but originally Serle Court, the northern side being
left open to the garden. The size of the area is
about three hundred feet on its longer side, and
about two hundred on the shorter.
This square at the time of its erection was greatly
* From these maps it appears that the site of the Old
House of Blackfriars, afterwards the mansion of the Earl of
Lincoln, was from the south end of the Stone Building (to
the north of this was open ground) to the south end of Old
Square, extending eastward to Chancery Lane ; while that
of the Bishops of Chichester, including John Herlirum's
Garden, extended from the end of Old Square to the south-
east as far as the ground which is now named Chichester
It may perhaps be not without interest to remember that
an episcopal palace was built in this vicinity by Robert de
Chesney, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1147, adjoining the site of
the Old Temple in Holbom. This afterwards belonged to
the Earls of Southampton, and was called Southampton
New Square. 93
admired. The houses are large and substantial,
but there seems to have been little pretension to
decoration in the architecture. At the south-
eastern angle of the square, is an elliptical arched
way opening upon Carey Street, enriched with an
architrave and broken pediment. Above this are
two shields, bearing the lion of the Earl of Lin-
coln, and the arms of Henry Serle, Esq., with the
date of 1697, and the initials of WiUiam Dobyns,
Esq. Lower down are the initials of Nathaniel
Gooding Clarke, Esq., 181 8, Treasurer when some
repairs were executed, and over the arch those of
C. T. Swanston, Esq., 1848, Treasurer when the
recent alterations and improvements were made.
In the centre of New Square was formerly a
Corinthian column on which was raised a vertical
sun-dial; and at the base of the shaft, ionxjets (Teau
arose from infant Tritons holding shells.
The open space was inclosed by railings in the
year 1845, and planted in compartments with trees
and shrubs, having in the middle a basin for. an
* It may be well to preserve here the following in-
scriptions on the walls of houses in the New Square. The
first is on a stone tablet in the east wall of No. 11 : — Solum
super quod hose structura erigitur, ab australi parte hujus
saxi 54 pedes cum poUice septentrionem versus continens,
pertinet ad Societatem hanc. Ac etiam tota terras portio
ab hoc saxo orientem versus usque ad limitem veteris
94 Lincoln's Inn.
THE STONE BUILDING.
The Stone Building, so called from the material
of which it is constructed, is at the north-eastern
extremity of Lincoln* s Inn, and presents an im-
posing appearance from the garden. This is only
part of a vast design, in 1780, for rebuilding the
whole Inn, which fortunately was not persisted in.
The drawings, still in the possession of the Society,
are said to have been executed by Sir John Leach,
Master of the Rolls, who was originally a pupil of
Sir Robert Taylor, whose design here appears to
the greatest advantage, had previously acquired
reputation by his additions to the Bank of England,
with the same intention of rebuilding the whole
edifice, but both his designs were finally abandoned.
structurse horto culinari proximum. Above the inscription
are the initials of the Treasurer, Henry Long, Esq., with
the date of 1691, and the lion of the arms of Lincoln's Inn
in the left hand comer. On the north wall of the same
house is the inscription : — ** This Terrace Walk was
finished and compleated in the year of our Lord 1694. Ed-
ward Byde, Esq., Treasurer." The third inscription is on a
stone tablet in the north wall of No. i, and is as follows :
"This wall is built upon the ground of Lincoln's Inn. No
windows are to be broken out without leave." Above are
tlae initials of John Greene, Esq., Treasurer, with the lion in
the left hand corner, and beneath is the date of 1692.
The Stone Building. 95
By keeping out of view all consideration of the
impropriety of placing Corinthian architecture, in
stone, in such immediate connection with the early
picturesque gables of the adjacent houses, which
were only of brick, this building has been highly
praised for its elegance and simplicity. Much of
this commendation is owing to its extent of fagade
and to the Portland stone used in its erection,
combined with the advantage of a beautiful situation
unequalled at that time in London.
Having been left for above sixty years in an
unfinished state, it was completed in 1845 by Mr.
Hardwick, who in the southern wing followed the
original design ; and the two wings, the only attempt
at relief to the length of facade, conform with each
other. They are enriched with a Corinthian hexa-
style, with pilasters of the same order at the angles,
which preserve the unity of the composition better
perhaps than the Greek antae now more generally
used. In these, and in the entablature, here sur-
mounted by a pediment, the details are executed
with much correctness. The entrances to the
apartments are all on the eastern front, and the
windows are plain openings, without a finishing
ornament. A rustic arcade on the ground floor,
and a parapet with balustrade hardly compensate
lor the want of some efficient breaks in its length ;
and the whole front, even now, materially as it has
96 Lincoln's Inn.
been improved by completion, is still somewhat
tame in character.
The Library of the Society was in the northern-
most wing, occupying several rooms on the ground
floor, previously to its removal in 1845.
As an improvement of this part of Lincoln's Inn,
the Society, in the year 1848, caused the erection
of stone piers and handsome iron gates, with a
porter's lodge, forming the northern entrance from
Chancery Lane. Over the gates are the arms of
the Society, and on the lodge the initials of
Clement Tudway Swanston, Esq., Treasurer.
The Gardens of Lincoln's Inn were famous of
old time, but have been greatly curtailed by the .
erection of the New Hall and Library, before which
the venerable trees have fallen, and "the walks
under the elms " celebrated by Ben Jonson, to
which Isaac Bickerstaff delighted to resort, and
indulge in quiet meditation, have disappeared.
Enough, however, even now remains to give a very
cheerful aspect to the surrounding buildings ; and
some compensation has been made by the planting
of the area of New Square with trees and shrubs.
In I and 2 Philip and Mary, the walk under the
The Gardens. 97
trees in the Coneygarth * or Cottrell Garden was
made, and in 15 Car. II. a.d. 1663 the garden was
enlarged, a terrace-walk made on the west side,
and the wall raised higher towards Lincoln's Inn
Fields. In the passage before cited (p. 68) from
Mr. Pepys' Diary, 27th June 1663, mention is made
of this enlargement of the Garden.
In the erection of the garden-wall, probably on
that part which separated the garden from Chancery
Lane, which has since been displaced by other
buildings, it is said Ben Jonson was employed in
the early part of his life, assisting his father-in-law
in his business, and working, as Fuller imagines,
with a trowel in his hand, and a book in his pocket.
The play of " Every Man out of his Humour" is
dedicated by Ben Jonson to " the noblest nurseries
of humanity and liberty, the Inns of Court."
At the south end of the gardens, memorial gates
were erected in 1872 by subscription of the Inns
of Court Rifle Volunteers, in honour of the late
Colonel Brewster (son of the ex- Lord Chancellor of
* The name of Coneygarth was derived from the quantity
of rabbits found here, and by various ordinances of the
Society in the reigns of Edw. IV. Hen. VII. and Hen.
VIII. penalties were imposed on the students hunting them
with bows and arrows or darts. It is said that this garden
had been given to the knights of St. John of Jerusalem in
the year 1186 by William Cotterell. See Parton's Account
of St. Giles in the Fields, p. 181. 4to, 1822.
98 Lincoln's Inn.
Ireland), who had been the commander of that
corps. They were designed in Belgium, and consist
of a large central gate and two similar side ones ;
the fabric is light and elegant, and the screen-work
represents memorial flowers. On the top of the
central gate are the colonel's arms, with his name
and the date of 1863 ; and on each of the other gates
is the monogram of the Inns of Court Volunteers.
In the view of the remaining buildings, the visitor
will scarcely have occasion to regret the failure of
Sir Robert Taylor's grand project for the recon-
struction of the whole Inn. Here the decided
advantage of recurring to ancient models has not
been overlooked, and the effect of good taste is
abundantly apparent in the result. The four Inns
of Court were once pleasantly characterised in the
following distich : — ,
Gray's Inn for walks, Lincoln*s Inn for wall,
The Inner Temple for a garden, and the Middle for a halL
But it will now doubtless be admitted that the
architecture of Lincoln's Inn is deserving of notice
for something beyond its wall ; and in the splendour
of its noble hall is enabled not merely to vie with,
but to surpass the Middle Temple. The New Hall,
Library, and Council Rooms must now be regarded
as the principal front of the Inn, and have obtained
perhaps the most felicitous site for architectural
effect which London affords.
The New Hall and Library.
T the commencement of the year 1843,
the Benchers of Lincoln's Inn having
determined upon the erection of a new
Hall and Library on a scale commensurate with
the requirements of the age, adopted the masterly
designs submitted to them by Mr. Hardwick, an
architect who had given evidence of talents of a
superior order in the erection of the noble Doric
propylaeum at the Railway Terminus in Euston
Square,* Goldsmiths' Hall, and other edifices. By
the skill of this gentleman, combined with the
munificence of the Benchers, a magnificent struc-
ture has arisen within the precincts of Lincoln's
* Since that time at the same terminus has been erected,
from Mr. Hardwick's designs, the magnificent hall, or
vestibule, one hundred and thirty feet in length, sixty-two
feet in width, and sixty-four in height, with decorations of
loo Lincoln's Inn.
Inn, which forms one of the chief ornaments of the
metropolis, and the style of which is in accordance
with the venerable associations belonging to the
early history of the Society, and the character of the
more ancient buildings of the Inn.
The foundation stone of the new building was
laid on the 20th of April 1843, by the Right Hon.
Sir J. L. Knight Bruce, Vice- Chancellor, then Trea-
surer of the Society. On this occasion the Benchers,
with the dignitaries who attended as visitors to
witness the ceremony, formed a procession, which
consisted of the Lord Chancellor (Lord Lyndhurst);
Sir J. L. Knight Bruce, Vice-Chancellor ; the Bishop
of Durham (Dr. Maltby, formerly Preacher to the
Society) Archdeacon Lonsdale (afterwards Bishop
of Lichfield, at that time Preacher) ; the Vice-
Chancellor of England (Sir Lancelot Shadwell) ;
Vice-Chancellor Sir James Wigram; some of the
Judges ; a large body of Benchers ; the Rev.
Charles Browne Dalton, the chaplain ; Mr. Hard-
wick, the architect ; Mr. Baker, the contractor for
the works, &c.
At the soutnern extremity of the garden, where
a great number of barristers and students had
assembled, the Treasurer took his position at the
head of the stone prepared for the foundation, and
briefly addressed the visitors, observing that the
Benchers, finding that further acconimodation was
• . »
• ^ . * •
The New Hall and Library. ioi
necessary, in consequence of the increasing number
of their members and the continued additions made
to their collection of books, and with a view to
supply these wants, and at the same time to have
due regard to the associations connected with the
older structures, determined to preserve these
buildings and to erect a new Hall and Library.
After this address, the chaplain offered a prefa-
tory prayer. A glass box was then deposited in
the stone, containing specimens of the current
coins of the realm, over which was laid a brass
plate with the following inscription in old English
characters : —
Stet lapis arboribus nudo defixus in horto
Fundamen pulchrae tempus in omne domus
Aula vetus lites et legum senigmata servet
Ipsa nova exorior nobilitanda coquo.
xii Cal. Mali. MDCCCXLIIL
Mr. Hardwick then presented to the Treasurer a
silver trowel, on which the following words were
inscribed : —
Hac trulla usus vir amplissimus
J. L. Knight Bruce, Hospitii Lincolniensis
Thesaurarius Novae Aulae fundamentum jecit
xii Cal. Maii. MDCCCXLIIL*
Having laid the stone, the Treasurer congratu-
* The inscriptions were written by the Vice-Chancellor
102 Lincoln's Inn.
lated the Benchers and the Society on the presence
of the eminent persons who had honoured this
interesting ceremonial, and expressed his earnest
hope that the same good feeling and good fellow-
ship which had characterised the old hall would
reign in the new. In conclusion, he requested
Archdeacon Lonsdale to implore on their labours
a blessing from above, without which no human
efforts can ever hope to prosper. The archdeacon
having offered an impressive prayer, the ceremony
was concluded by a benediction, delivered by the
Bishop of Durham.
The new building, which claims attention not
less for its architectural beauty than for its magni-
tude, was completed within the short space of two
years and a half from the foundation* Standing
on an elevated terrace which affords a spacious
promenade of nearly fifty feet in width, the edifice
is so happily situated as to form one of the most
conspicuously placed architectural objects in the
metropolis, — one that shows itself advantageously
* Mr. George Baker, of Lambeth, was the contractor for
the work, and of the effective and conscientious manner
in which this work was carried out, evidence has lately been
given by the labour undergone by the workmen in the dis-
jointment of the masonry and brickwork necessary for the
extension of the eastern end of the Library, when a solidity
of construction was manifested that might be worthily com-
pared with that of the best ancient edifices.
The New Hall. 103
from every point of view. The accessories of foliage
and vegetation by which it is surrounded, harmonise
and contrast admirably with the building, — pre-
senting an agreeable scene of very picturesque
In the pages next ensuing the reader is invited
to begin his survey of the exterior of the edifice
from the entrance gate on the south-west from
Lincoln's Inn Fields, proceeding eastward, and
then turning round along the eastern front by the
north to the western front of the building; and
afterwards to begin the view of the interior by the
principal entrance to the Hall in the southern
Southward of the line of building is an entrance
gate, with a porter's lodge adjoining. The arch,
within a square arrangement of mouldings and
projecting dripstone, has its spandrels enriched,
and is flanked by turrets square at the base, but
terminated octagonally, with crocketted cupolas.
These turrets are so constructed as to allow
the massive oaken gates to recede within them.
Over the arch, and between the turrets is an
embattled parapet, having in the centre a panel
containing a shield charged with the arms now
used by the Society of Lincoln's Inn ; * and on the
* These arms are : Azure, fifteen fers-de-moline, or ; on
I04 Lincoln's Inn.
eastern side of the arch are the arms of Sir Francis
Simpkinson. The Lodge is on the right of the
entrance, and on each side is a postern. Over the
northern postern, on the west side, is sculptured a
lion holding a shield charged with the milrine ;
and on the west side an eagle, the crest of Sir
Francis Simpkinson. Over the gable are the arms
of Philip Hardwick, Esq., the architect.
This entrance, like the whole range of building,
is of brick, with stone dressings. All the stone
used in the exterior enrichments, which are
numerous, was quarried at Anston, in Yorkshire ;
but for the interior work, Caen stone was pre-
ferred. The gate from Lincoln's Inn Fields
opens upon the south front of the hall, towards
New Square, which exhibits the lofty gable of its
roof rising between two very fine large square
towers of three stories in height, with embattled
parapet. Beneath this parapet is an enriched
panelled course, containing small shields in the
compartments, charged with lions and milrines
alternately, the badges or ensigns of the Society,
derived from the figures in their armorial bearings.
Between the massive towers is the great window
of the Hall, the design of which is very beautiful
a canton of the second, a lion rampant, purpure ; as
blazoned by Guillim.
The New Hall. 105
and. original. The taste and ability displayed in
its construction have made this large feature of the
front perfectly equal, if not superior to any of the
grand windows of the sixteenth century. The
seven lights of which it consists are divided by,
transoms ; and the space above, in the arched
heading, is filled with elegantly arranged mullions,
in the tracery of which small quatrefoils are
employed with unusual advantage. Above the
apex of the great gable of the Hall is a large
highly ornamented niche, containing a statue of
her Majesty, Queen Victoria, the work of Mr. John
Thomas, celebrated for his numerous productions
in the decorative parts of the new Houses of
In this, the southern elevation of the Hall, the
chimney shafts, all of moulded bricks of various
ornamental patterns, give the most pleasing variety
of outline to the fabric, and, rising above the battle-
ments of the towers, produce a very fine effect.
The brickwork is not without its decoration, the
red bricks here, as throughout the building, being
intersected by dark-coloured bricks, forming a
chequered pattern.* The base of the building is
* In the gable formed of these dark-coloured bricks, are
the letters P. H.— the initials of the architect— with the date
of the foundation, 1843,
io6 Lincoln's Inn.
entirely of stone, as well as the wall of the espla-
nade extending along the eastern front.
This noble and spacious Hall consists of six
bays, or divisions formed by buttresses, beyond
the towers, including the oriel On the south-east
the tower affords an entrance to the building,
having an ascent to the porch on this side by a
double flight of granite steps, well planned for
convenience, and very picturesque in their arrange-
ment. The arch of entrance, designed in the style
which pervades the whole edifice, is four-centred,
with square moulded heading, the spandrels being
ornamented with quatrefoils ; and in the jambs
are small shafts. Over the porch are the arms of
the Society in a panel, above which is a clock,
novel in its design, under a canopy of delicate
workmanship. Five of the bays of the Hall con-
tain the large windows, and beneath these are the
smaller windows of the offices. The sixth and
last bay is filled by the stately projecting oriel,
a peculiar feature of the ancient dining-halls.
The windows of the Hall are of four lights each,
transomed and square-headed, each light arched,
without cusps. Immediately above the windows is
a string-course, enriched by grotesque and foliated
ornaments, and above this is an embattled parapet.
The stone coping, on the top of the merlons of the
battlement, being carried over the embrasures.
The New Hall and Library. 107
gives it an air of embellishment, aided by the
buttresses, which, rising above the parapet, termi-
nate in small octagonal pinnacles. The large oriel
in the last bay or division of the hall, is square in
its projection, with buttresses at the angles. Its
window is of five lights on the front, with two
transoms, and one light on the return.
The lofty roof of the Hall, of high pitch, was
originally covered with lead, but slate has since
been substituted, in consequence of the decay of
the lead from chemical causes, and from the centre
of the ridge rises an octagonal louvre, formed of
wood, of two stages in height ; the windows are
square-headed, mullioned, and transomed ; and at
every angle are pinnacles bearing small banners.
The cupola by which it is surmounted is ribbed
with crocketted mouldings, ornamented with gur-
goyles, and terminated by a large weather-vane.
At the termination of the Hall, on the northernmost
gable of the roof, is a clustered group of ornamental
chimney-shafts, one of the principal characteristics
of the architecture of the sixteenth century, and
here employed with the happiest effect.
Between the Hall and the Library, which are the
most prominent features of the pile, the line of
building is lower, but is elevated in the centre by a
large octagonal embattled lantern, the windows of
which give light to the noble corridor communi-
io8 Lincoln's Inn.
eating with the grand apartments, and opening upon
the council-room on the east, and the drawing-room
on the west. On either side of this intermediate
building is a large projecting oriel window, of six
lights, transomed, with buttresses at the angles ;
these are the windows of the council-room and
The Library, in consequence of the want of
space for the accommodation of books, owing to the
rapid increase since the erection of the building in
1845, ^3.3 just received an addition of fifty-one feet
to its length. The general design of the enlarge-
ment and alterations having been made by E. B.
Denison, Esq., one of the Benchers, the execution
of the work was entrusted to Sir Gilbert Scott,*
by whom the extension has been carried out in the
same style of architecture as the original building,
with the exception that windows are placed on the
southern side of this extension ; and as there had
been heretofore a deficiency of light in the apart-
ment, plain cathedral glass has been substituted on
the northern side for the beryl glazing originally
adopted, which has now been transposed to the
* The building was begun in August 1871, by the con-
tractors, Messrs. Jackson and Shaw ; but, owing to several
unforeseen causes, the completion has been delayed until
The New Hall and Library. 109
^ Beneath this extended portion of the Library
new offices have been built, and a spacious lecture
and class-room has been provided for the students ;
and an open passage, affording a short commu-
nication through the building, to avoid a circuit
round the extended library.
On the eastern front of the Hall, close against
the Library, is a large porch twenty-four feet long
internally, reached by a double flight of granite
steps, which forms the entrance to the Benchers'
council-rooms, and was until lately the only
approach to the Library. Over the archway of
the porch is a panel containing the arms of
William Fuller Boteler, Esq., Master of the Library
at the time of its erection. The gable over
the doorway also bears the lion of the Earl of
Lincoln holding a banner. The pleasing view of
the terrace originally presented to the eye on
ascending the flight of steps, is now interrupted
towards the north by the extension of the build-
ing eastward, at the extremity of which is the
oriel of the Library, of elaborate design, and pro-
ducing a very beautiful effect. Its projection
is semi-octagonal, with a stone roof rising high,
and seen above its parapet. The principal
division of the window is of four lights, tran-
somed, with arched heads, cusped, and spandrels
enriched ; the splayed sides have only one light
no Lincoln's Inn.
each.* In the ornamental parapet above the win-
dow the buttresses at the angles enter into the
composition, and terminate in octagonal pinnacles
with crocketted caps. At the apex of the great
gable of the roof of the Library is a circular shaft,
surmounted by an heraldic animal supporting a
staff and banner.
At the south-eastern angle a turret has been built,
containing a spiral staircase leading from the gar-
den up to the Library, and affording an approach
to the new lecture-room beneath it, thus relieving
the main building from much of the traffic inci-
dental to the use of the Library. This structure
is octagonal in form, three stories in height, and
in the first and second stories windows are placed
in alternate faces of the octagon to give light to the
staircase within. The embellished string-course
which runs above the windows of the Library is
continued round the second story, with gurgoyles
at the angles. The third story has windows with
richly moulded tracery, divided by long narrow
transoms, forming a kind of lantern story. Im-
mediately above the heads of these windows is a
handsome carved cornice, with moulded tracery
and corbels, surmounted by a richly traced parapet,
* During the progress of the extension, the whole of this
fine window was taken down with great care, stone by stone,
and re-erected without alteration fifty feet onward.
The New Hall. hi
canopied and embattled, finished with much ex-
quisite detail. The turret is roofed in by a spire,
covered with lead, panelled by rolls into chequered
work, surmounted by a gilt vane.
The northern front of the Library, not less
deserving of notice than the Hall, being perhaps
richer in external embellishment, and forming an
equally conspicuous feature in the magnificent group
of buildings, is divided by buttresses into eight large
bays. These buttresses are terminated by pillars,
surmounted by heraldic animals. The ample
windows have the lights in two stages separated by
stone compartments, each boldly sculptured with
richly designed heraldic achievements of King
Charles II. ; James, Duke of York, K.G. ; Queen
Victoria ; Prince Albert, K.G. — all of whom have
honoured the Society as visitors ; Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales ; the Earl of Mansfield ; Lord
Lyndhurst ; and the Earl of Hardwicke. On the
southern side of the building, in a corresponding
position between the lights of the windows, are
the achievements of the Chancellors, Earl Cowper,
Earl Camden, and Lord Brougham. At the north-
western angle of this front is an octagonal turret,
four stories in height, having small openings to give
light to a staircase within ; and abutting on the
Library is a projecting building, containing some
of the steward's apartments. To the south of the
112 LiNCOLN*s Inn.
oriel is a smaller turret, also containing a staircase
from the floor of the Library to the upper gallery.
The western front of the range of building,
towards Lincoln's Inn Fields, differs but little in
architectural arrangement from the opposite side
towards the garden, the main difference being the
absence of the porches and doors. The fine oriel of
the library on this front is more enriched, chiefly by
variations in the battlements and in the panelling
of the parapet over it. Here, however, the grouping
of the architecture and the clustered chimneys have
the best effect, and the advantage of their introduc-
tion as prominent objects is decidedly apparent.
On this side the building is separated from Lincoln's
Inn Fields by a low brick wall, with stone coping ;
and over a small entrance gate near the north front
of the Library are the arms of Clement Tudway
Swanston, Esq., Master of the Walks at the time of
The porch of the principal entrance to the Hall
on the eastern side of the southern tower, opens
upon a wide corridor, separated from the stately
Hall by an open- worked and glazed screen, in
the centre of which is the doorway. This corridor
is arranged precisely on the ancient plan, continued
in the college halls of the Universities, a disposition
combining grandeur with [convenience, and well
adapted to the purposes of a large society. At the
The New Hall.
opposite extremity of the corridor is the buttery-
hatch, and a flight of stairs communicating with
the kitchen and other offices.
The magnificent dimensions of the Hall are of
themselves sufficient to excite admiration, while in
architectural beauty the room will bear comparison
with the most admired examples.* The screen
* A comparison of the dimensions of
some of the largest
existing halls may here perhaps be not without interest.
Gray*s Inn .
Christ's Hospital .
Lambeth Palace .
Freemasons' Hall .
Euston Square Terminus
Hampton Court .
Christ Church, Oxford .
Trinity Hall, Cambridge
New Hall, Boreham, Essex ,
Hatfield Hall, Durham
St. George's Hall, Liverpool ,
Town Hall, Birmingham
Hall in the Baths of Diocleti
now the Church of S. Ma
degli Angeli, Rome
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
Palazzo della Ragione, Padua
Palazzo della Ragione, Vicenzj
Palazzo del Podesta, Bologna
114 Lincoln's Inn.
of this hall, a design of extreme richness, and one
of its most beautiful features, is of carved oak, in five
divisions, comprising a central doorway, and two
compartments on each side, formed of arches and
tracery, with the interstices glazed. The upper
part of the screen, above the line of the height of the
corridor, is an open arcade — the front of a gallery ;
the buttresses rising from the base of the screen
between the arches of the gallery, terminate in
pedestals, supporting six figures of the size of life in
dignified attitudes, representing eminent members
of the Society. These figures, in high canopied
niches, are of graceful proportion and elegant in
detail, and were designed and executed by Mr.
John Thomas, who has shown much taste and
perception of propriety in the management of the
various costumes. The persons thus represented
are : Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of the
Court of King's Bench, to whom the Library is
indebted for a most valuable collection of legal
manuscripts ; John Tillotson, D.D., Archbishop of
Canterbury, one of the Preachers of Lincoln's Inn ;
William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, Lord Chief
Justice of the Court of King's Bench ; Philip Yorke,
Earl of Hardwicke, Lord High Chancellor of
England ; William Warburton, D.D., Bishop of
Gloucester, one of the Preachers, and founder of
the Warburtonian Lectures on Prophecy, delivered
The New Hall. 115
in Lincoln's Inn Chapel ; Sir William Grant,
Master of the Rolls. The whole of this screen, with
its ornaments, is finished with scrupulous attention.
The sides of the hall are panelled with oak, in
small compartments, to the height of about twelve
feet from the floor ; the panelling is surmounted by
a cornice, enriched with gilding and colours. Five
large stained glass windows on either side contain
in the upper lights above the transoms, the arms,
crests, and mottoes of distinguished members of the
Society, chronologically arranged, from the year
1450 to 1843 f ^^^ the lower divisions of each
window are diapered with the letters L. I., the latter
formed by the milrine,part of the armorial bearings of
the Inn. Above the windows, on the summit of the
walls, is a cornice, in which colour and gilding are
employed with success on the mouldings and carved
In the south window are now placed the royal
arms designed by Mr. Willement, which have been
removed from the Library ; and the other divisions
of the window are diapered with the letter L and
The splendid roof of the hall is designed with
so much artistic feeling that it may vie with any of
the examples of ancient open timber roofs now
remaining. The form is simple, and the pitch of
considerable height. Its length is divided into
ii6 Lncoln's Inn.
seven bays, or severeys. Each bay is divided by a
vast arch, springing from stone corbels on the walls,
having within it another arch, supported by two
spandrels or segments of arches, exhibiting the
principle of the construction of the fine roof in
Westminster Hall, but admitting in its design
various combinations in regard to the divisions and
tracery by which the main timbers are relieved.
The various effects of this beautiful timber-framed
roof can only be appreciated by viewing it from
different points in the room. The pendants are
enriched with gilding and colour. The intricate and
skilful disposition of the numerous timbers of this
pendant roof, in which lightness, strength, and
ornament are combined, is perhaps best appre-
ciated from the dais or upper end of the hall, where
the whole length of the roof, showing the octagonal
lantern, is presented in one view ; and the great
southern window, with its beautiful and intricate
tracery, is seen over the screen and gallery.
On the northern wall, above the panelling of the
dais, is a noble fresco painting by Mr, George
Frederick Watts, executed in 1859. '^^^ work
represents an imaginary assemblage of the great
early lawgivers of various nations, from Moses
down to Edward I., and has been entitled " The
School of Legislation," as bearing some analogy to
RaphaePs fresco of the ** School of Athens ** in the
The New Hall. 117
Vatican. The dimensions are 45 feet in width, and
40 feet in height in the centre.*
Along the dais, on either side of the folding doors,
are the busts, in marble, of Lord Brougham, Lord
Denman, and Lord Lyndhurst ; the two first sup-
ported on finely carved bracketsof wood, the latter on
a temporary pedestal The bust of Lord Brougham,
executed by Behnes, was presented by his lord-
ship's brother and successor in the peerage ; that
of Denman, by Jones, was presented by the Hon.
G. Denman ; and that of Lyndhurst, by Morton
Edwards, was executed at the expense of the Society.
* ** Not only by its dimensions, but by its aim and the
treatment of its subject, this fresco by Mr. G. F. Watts, the
designer of the Caractacus, crowned at the first Westminster
Hall competition, fairly merits the designation of a great
work. . . . This fresco is conspicuously distinguished from
all the mural decorations hitherto executed in this country by
its architectural character. . . . Mr. Watts's fresco seems
to fit into and form part of the hall it adorns. . . . But the
great and most gratifying characteristic of Mr. Watts's work
is its intellectual elevation. In the election and disposition
of his personages, the painter has manifested a comprehen-
sive conception of a noble subject, just as much as he has
given evidence of the finest qualities as a designer in his
execution of the figures.
We are confident that we are only pronouncing a judg-
ment which will be endorsed by all competent and unpreju-
diced judges, when we congratulate the Benchers of Lincoln's
Inn on the possession of a work which is worthy the historic
renown of their body, and the noblest purposes of the
building which contains it."
From "The Times" of Dec. 28th, 1859.
ii8 Lincoln's Inn.
On the panelling of the dais are the full heraldic
achievements, removed from the old hall, of King
Charles II., James, Duke of York, Prince Rupert,
the Earl of Manchester, the Earl of Bath, Lord
Henry Howard, and Lord Newport, with the date
of February 29th, 1671. Beneath these are the
armorial bearings of legal dignitaries who have
been members of the Society, and these are con-
tinued, together with the arms of bishops who have
held the office of Preacher, along the panels on
either side of the hall, ranged in chronological
series from 1750 to the present time.
On either side of the dais is a large and splendid
oriel, about 18 feet in width, having a stone seat
round it, and containing side-boards for the use of
the upper table. The other tables ranged in grada-
tion, two cross- wise, and five along the hall, are for
the barristers and students, who dine here every day
during Term. The average number who dine on
one day is two hundred, and of those who dine on
one day or the other during the Term, " keeping
commons," is about five hundred. The western
oriel window contains, in the upper lights, the
armorial bearings of Ralph Neville, Bishop of Chi-
chester, Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, William de
Haverhyll, treasurer to King Henry III., Edward
Sulyard, Esq., by whom the inheritance of the
premises of Lincoln's Inn was transferred to the
The New Hall. 119
Society in 1580 ; and those of Lincoln's Inn, beneath
which is the motto : " Longa Possessio est Pacis
Jus."* In the middle of the window are the arms
of King Charles II., within the garter, and sur-
mounted by the crown, with the supporters and
motto ; also the arms of James, Duke of York, and
of Prince Rupert. On either side the quarrels of
the whole window are diapered, like the other
windows of the hall, with the milrine and the letter
L. The oriel window on the eastern side contains
all the stained glass removed from the old hall,
consisting of the armorial insignia of noblemen,
legal dignitaries, &c. All the heraldic decorations,
with the exception of the eastern oriel, are the work
of Mr. Willement, by whom the windows of the
Temple Church, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and
the Hall at Hampton Court, were likewise designed.
From Hilary Term 1853 to the present time,
lectures have been delivered in this hall during each
educational Term to the students of the four Inns
of Court ; and the annual oration of the Tancred's
Students t is also delivered here in Hilary Term.
* The introduction of the arms of the early occupiers of the
ground on which Lincoln's Inn is built, and the adoption of
the motto, were suggested by R. W. E. Forster, Esq., to
whom the Society is indebted for the list of names from which
the selection was made of the members whose armorial
bearings are emblazoned in the other windows of the hall.
t See page 60, ante.
120 Lincoln's Inn.
The apartment is warmed, as is also the Library,
by pipes containing hot water, carried beneath iron
gratings along the floor.
Another apartment, forming an essential appen-
dage to all collegiate establishments, and without
which even the splendid hall would be only suited
for the imaginary feast of the Barmecide, is the
Kitchen. This spacious and lofty room is forty-five
feet square, and twenty feet high ; the ceiling is
vaulted, and supported on massive pillars and bold
arches. Besides the vast fire-place, one of the
largest in England, the kitchen is well furnished
with stoves, and all necessary appliances for the
exercise of the culinary art.
There is also a vast range of apartments in the
basement story, connected with the kitchen and
other offices, and cellars capable of holding upwards
of a hundred pipes of wine. Above these again are
butlers' pantries, &c., and a spacious apartment
originally designed as a reading-room.
From the dais of the Hall, large folding-doors
of oak open into the spacious vestibule communi-
cating with the Library and other apartments.
The effect of this vestibule is more particularly
striking if entered by way of the north-eastern
porch, in which case — the approach being made
through another corridor — it discloses itself unex-
pectedly to the view of the visitor. The dimensions
The New Hall. 121
are fifty-eight feet in length by twenty-two in width.
In the centre it takes an octagonal form, and the
arches are supported by clustered pillars, from
which spring the ribs of the vaulting that forms the
groined roof of the lantern, enriched with bosses at
the intersections of the ribs. At the south-west
angle is an open recess or bay, lighted by a lofty
window, of three lights, transomed, with arched
heads and cusps, and forming the upper part of a
staircase leading to the offices in the basement.
The newel forms a pedestal to the parapet of the
staircase, which is solid ; the hand-rail is cut out
of the wall. Here are emblazoned, in stained glass,
the arms of the Rt. Hon. Sir James Lewis Knight
Bruce, William Fuller Boteler, Esq., and Sir John
Augustus Francis Simpkinson, the Treasurers of
1843, 1 844? a-iid 1845, during the time of the
building of the hall. Over the door of the libra-
rian's room is a fine bust of Cicero,* bequeathed,
* On a small marble pedestal beneath the bust is the
• following inscription : —
Sed vigilat consul, vexillaque vestra coercet.
Municipalis Eques galeatum ponit ubique
Prsesidium attonitis, et in omni gente laborat.
Tantum igitur, mures intra, toga contulit illi
Nominis et tituli, quantum non Leucade, quantum
Thessaliae campis, Octavius abstulit udo
Csedibus assiduis gladio : sed Roma parentem,
Roma patrem patriae Ciceronem libera dixit.
Juvenal, Sat. VI IL
122 Lincoln's Inn.
together with a large collection of books, several
pictures, &c., in 1785, by John Coxe, Esq., one of
the Benchers of the Society.
On the eastern side of the vestibule is the Council
Chamber, and opposite to it on the western side,
the Drawing-room. These rooms, though without
much decoration, are admired for their noble pro-
portions. The dimensions of each room are thirty-
two feet by twenty-four, and twenty-one feet in
height. A large square-headed oriel window is the
principal feature in each, and the lower parts of the
spacious lights are filled with plate glass, an
agreeable variation from the ancient mode of
glazing with small quarrels of glass, generally
adopted throughout the .building. The chimney-
pieces, of Caen stone, are large, and of handsome
design ; that in the Drawing-room projects into the
apartment, having panels sunk, with prominent
shields, and small octagonal pillars at the angles,
supporting upright heraldic animals, executed in a
very spirited manner. The rooms are panelled in
small compartments, to the height of about ten feet.
The ceilings are flat, ribbed, and panelled, with
bosses at the intersections ; they are formed of deal,
stained and varnished. The large oriel of the
Drawing-room affords a pleasingviewof the gardens
of Lincoln's Inn Fields, laid out with much taste,
where flourishing plantations, with a profusion of
Drawing-room and Council Chamber. 123
gay flowering shrubs, give to the room an aspect
cheerful beyond expectation in the heart of a
On the walls of the Drawing-room are the
following portraits of legal dignitaries and eminent
members of the Society : —
John Glanville, Justice of the Court of
Common Pleas, 1598. A three-quarter.
Sir John Glanville, Speaker of the House of
Commons, 1640. A three-quarter.
Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice of the
Court of King's Bench, 1671. A three-quarter,
by M. Wright. Acquired by the Society at the
same time with his collection of manuscripts.
Sir Richard Rainsford, Lord Chief Justice,
K.B. 1676. i^tat. 74. A three-quarter, painted by
Gerard Soest. Bequeathed to the Society by
Richard Buckley, Esq., one of the Masters of the
Bench, in 171 8.
The Rt. Hon. Earl Bathurst, Lord High
Chancellor of England, 1771. A full-length, by Sir
N. Dance. Presented by the late body of Sworn
Clerks in Chancery, 1848.
Sir John Skynner, Lord Chief Baron, 1777.
A three-quarter, by Gainsborough.
The Rt. Hon. Henry Addington, Speaker of
the House of Commons. Presented by John Hodg-
son, Esq., one of the Masters of the Bench, 1848.
124 Lincoln's Inn.
Sir William Grant, Master of the Rolls. A
three-quarter, by Harlow. Presented by Francis
Vesey, and Edward V. Utterson, Esqrs.
Francis Hargrave, one of the Masters of the
Bench, Treasurer in 1813. A half-length, by Sir
Sir Alexander Thomson, Baron of the Ex-
chequer 1787, Lord Chief Baron 18 14. A three-
quarter, by Opie.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Lancelot Shadwell, Vice-
Chancellor of England, 1 827-1 850. A three-quarter,
painted by Phillips, R.A.. 1844. Presented by his
family in 1854.
The Rt. Hon. W. Pitt. A three-quarter, by
Gainsborough. Presented in 1868 by Lady Turner,
in accordance with the wish and intention expressed
by Lord Justice Sir George James Turner.
Here are likewise two half-length portraits, in
oval frames, attributed to Sir Godfrey Kneller ; one
of them resembling Lord Somers, the other a lady
There is also in this room a large drawing in
water-colours by Joseph Nash, of the Interior of the
Hall, as at the ceremony of inauguration.
To the adornments of this room there has
been lately added a large picture of MiLO OF
Crotona, by Giorgione, presented by Robert P.
Roupell, Esq., one of the Benchers of the Society,
Drawing-room and Council Chamber. 125
in 187a The dimensions are about six feet in
height, by seven in breadth.*
The moment chosen by the painter for his subject
is that when the athlete, with his hands imprisoned
by the rebound of the trunk of the tree which his
strength had riven asunder, is attacked by the
" He, who of old would rend the oak,
Dream'd not of the rebound ;
Chain'd by the trunk he vainly broke —
Alone— how look'd he round?
* • • • •
He fell, the forest-prowlers^ prey." Byron.
In the Council-room are the following por-
traits : —
Sir John Franklin, with this inscription : —
Sir John Franklin, of Mavoum, in the county of
Bedford, Kjiight, one of the Masters in ordinary of the
* This picture was formerly in the Orleans Gallery, the
principal part of which collection came to this country after
the first French revolution, and was sold by Mr. Christie by
public auction early in the present century, when the picture
was bought by Lord Damley. Lord Damley sold it by
auction at Christie's a few years ago, and it was bought at
that sale by Mr. Roupell, by whom it was presented to the
Society of Lincoln's Inn. Mr. Roupell states that he had
it carefully cleaned, and that it is now in finer condition than
during the period of its possession by the Duke of Orleans.
— Extract from Mr, RoupelVs Letter, July 7th, 1870.
The rare engraving by Nicollet accompanied the picture ;
the engraving is attributed traditionally to the hand of
126 Lincoln's Inn.
High Court of Chancery for the space of thirty- three
years, obiit August the 7th, 1 707, and lies interred in the
parish church of Bonehurst, in the county of Bedford.
The Rt. Hon. Philip Yorke, Earl of Hard-
WICKE, Lord High Chancellor of England, 1737.
A three-quarter. Copy from a portrait by Ramsay.
Presented by the Earl of Hardwicke in 1847.
John Coxe, one of the Masters of the Bench,
Treasurer in 1775. A three-quarter.
Edward Russell, Admiral, 1690. Bequeathed
by F. A. Carrington, Esq., i860. A three-quarter.
The Rt: Hon. Sir Dudley Ryder, Knt, Bencher
of Lincoln's Inn, Chief Justice of the King's Bench,
1 754-1757. Presented by his descendant, Dudley,
second Earl of Harrowby. A full-length.
There are also several copies from the old masters,
as Raphael's Madonna della Seggiola ; Christ
breaking bread with the disciples at Emmaus, after
Titian ; &c. Besides these, there is a portrait of a
lady with a guitar, by William Etty, R.A, pre-
sented by the late Charles Purton Cooper, Esq.,
one of the Masters of the Bench.
In the Drawing-room has been placed, in testi-
mony of the regard and esteem in which he was held
by his brethren of the Bench, a marble bust of the
late Clement Tudway Swanston, Esq., executed by
Evan Thomas, supported on a pedestal of polished
granite, with the following inscription : —
The Library. 127
Amiconim opera positum est marmor, faventibus
Thesaurario caeterisque collegis suis, quos in hoc sodalitio
Lincolniensi omnibus bonis officiis sibi devinxerat ; ut
superesset ad posteros, cum memoria candidissimi animi
et multiplicis doctrinae, forma etiam et vultus tam cari viri
Clementis Tudway Swanston. A.D. MDCCCLVI.
The walls both of the Council-room and Drawing-
room are adorned with a very extensive and valu-
able collection of engravings from portraits of legal
dignitaries, eminent prelates, &c., from an early
period, a great number of whom have been
connected with the Society.
At the north-eastern angle of the vestibule is the
corridor of approach to the Library from the terrace
in the garden. This is groined and arched in stone,
and divided into an inner and outer porch by folding-
The folding-doors of the Library are of oak,
resembling those of the Hall, to which they are
directly opposite. On entering, immediately in
front of the doors, was seen till lately the rich
stained glass window, containing the arms of Queen
Victoria, which has been removed to the south
* It should have been mentioned in the description of the
exterior of the building that the approach to this entrance
is through iron gates opening on a carriage-way into the
garden. On the north side of these gates a porter's lodge
was built in 1852, having the arms of Christopher Temple,
Esq. , Treasurer, over the doorway, and the arms of Lin-
coln's Inn on the sides.
128 Lincoln's Inn.
window of the Hall. This is one of the most beau-
tiful heraldic compositions ever executed ; the
brilliant colours, and the broad treatment of the
design, make it one of the finest examples of this
splendid mode of embellishment. This window, as
well as the other armorial insigniia now transposed
to the windows on the south side of the room, was
designed by Mr. Willement.
This noble apartment,, containing the valuable
collection of Books belonging to the Society, is now
one hundred and thirty-one feet in length from east
to west, exclusive of fhe depth of the great oriels at
the extremities, which are each about six feet more,
and fonn three sides of an octagon ; their width is
about seventeen feet The breadth of the Library
is forty feet, and its height forty-four feet The
roof, of open oak, differs in composition from that
of the Hall, but is equally remarkable for skill and
elegance in its design, which exhibits much
originality. It is in eight divisions, formed by
trusses with very large pendants, with a series of
arches against the side walls, supported on stone
corbels. The timbers are relieved by deep
mouldings, and there is some carving both on the
corbels and pendants ; the ceiling above the frame-
work is in long panels, the ribs of which are
moulded — enrichments which show a judicious
attention to the most ancient models.
The New Hall and Library. 129
The admiration excited by the lofty propor-
tions of this room is heightened by the excellence
of the plan of its arrangement, the whole of its
internal decoration, and the size and bold projec-
tion of the magnificent oriel windows with their
enriched soffits, mouldings, and clustered pillar-
shafts. In fact, it would be difficult to name a
library that would not lose by comparison with this
admirable specimen of architecture, though it is ex-
ceeded by some collegiate libraries in dimensions.*
The recesses of the oriel windows are elevated above
the level of the floor, and reach in height above
thirty feet ; the ceilings are groined, having pendants
on a small scale, and roses carved at the intersection
of the ribs of the vaulting. These beautiful features
of ancient architecture are enriched with heraldic
insignia, each window displaying arms of the present
Benchers of Lincoln's Inn. On the northern side
the Library is lighted by eight large square-headed
windows of three lights, arched, divided by a
The three windows on the southern side of the
extension have also three lights, and contain three
• The Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, is 200 feet
in length, 42 feet in width, and 37 feet in height ; that of All
Souls, Oxford, is 198 feet in length, 32 feet in width (51 in
the central recess), and 40 feet in height. The length of
the New Library at Guildhall is 100 feet, the width 65 feet,
and the height 50 feet.
130 Lincoln's Inn.
heraldic achievements in each light — arms of some
of the present Benchers.* The glass of these win-
dows is worthy of notice, consisting of small circular
panes termed beryl glazing, by the peculiar manu-
facture of which a sparkling brilliancy is produced
^\ hen the rays of the sun fall upon them.t
The book-cases, of handsome design,in projecting
piers brought out at right angles to the walls on
each side, form separate recesses about ten feet
square. To the upper shelves convenient access
is afforded by light iron galleries, and above
the book-cases is another gallery against each wall
extending through the whole length of the room.
Access to the upper galleries is afforded by stone
staircases at the west end of the room ; and to the
lower galleries by four iron spiral staircases of
light and elegant construction, one at each corner.
To the eastern end of the south upper gallery access
is also afforded by the staircase in the new turret ;
and to the eastern end of the north upper gallery,
by the construction of a staircase through one of
the book-cases. At one end of the room is a lectern
of oak, of appropriate design, on which is placed a
copy of the printed Catalogue of the Books, mounted
• The same arrangement of arms has been adopted in the
hall of Trinity College, Cambridge.
t Perhaps the best view of this fine room is obtained from
either of the extremities of the upper gallery, where the line
of view is quite unbroken.
The New Hall and Library. 131
on writing paper of folio size, with blank columns
opposite to each printed page, so that all additions
may be inserted in their proper order. The valu-
able collections of manuscripts belonging to the
Society, a considerable portion of which was
bequeathed by Sir Matthew Hale, are deposited in
two rooms opening from the upper gallery on the
south side of the Library.
On the completion of the buildings, in 1845, the
ceremony of inauguration took place on the 30th of
October in that year, being honoured by the pre-
sence of her Majesty, Queen Victoria. A brief nar-
rative of the ceremonial observed on this occasion,
compared with the description of the entertainment
given to K. Charles IL, may serve to illustrate the
difference of manners in the nineteenth century.
On the appbinted day, the Benchers and Barris-
ters having assembled in the hall, the Queen, with
H.R.H. Prince Albert, attended by her ladies in
waiting, and the high officers of her household,
arrived at the Inn about half-past one o'clock, with
a military escort, and were received at the south-
eastern entrance by the Treasurer, Benchers, and
Cabinet Ministers. Her Majesty, amidst loud and
hearty acclamations, proceeded up the central
avenue of the hall to the Council-room, and thence
to the Library, where she held a brief levee, the
Benchers, four senior Barristers, four of the
132 Lincoln's Inn.
Students, and Mr. Hardwick, the architect, being
severally presented to her, after which the following
address was read by the Treasurer on his knee : —
" To THE Queen's most excellent Majesty.
" The humble Address of the Treasurer and
Masters of the Bench, and the Barristers atid
Fellows of the Society of Lincohis Inn,
" Most Gracious Sovereign,
"We, your Majesty's faithful subjects, the
Treasurer and Masters of the Bench, and the
Barristers and Fellows of the Society of Lincoln's
Inn, entreat your Majesty's permission humbly to
testify the joy and gratitude inspired by your august
" The edifice, in which under such happy aus-
pices we are for the first time assembled, is adorned
with memorials of many servants of the Crown
eminent for their talents, their learning, and their
integrity. To the services, as recorded in history,
of these our distinguished predecessors, we appeal
in all humility for our justification in aspiring to
receive your Majesty beneath this roof.
" Two centuries have nearly passed away since
the Inns of Court were honoured by the presence of
the reigning Prince. We cannot, therefore, but feel
deeply grateful for a mark so conspicuous of your
The New Hall and Library. 133
Majesty's condescension, and of your gracious
regard for the profession of the law.
" It is our earnest desire to deserve this proof of
your Majesty's favour by a zealous execution of the
trust reposed in us — to guard and maintain the
dignity of the Bar of England.
" In our endeavours to this end we shall but
follow in the course which it has been your Majesty's
royal pleasure to pursue. Signally has your Ma-
jesty fostered the independence of the Bar and the
purity of the Bench, by distributing the honours
which you have graciously bestowed on the profes-
sion among the members of all parties in the state.
"Permit us, also, most gracious Sovereign, to
offer to your Majesty our sincere congratulations on
the great amendments of the law which have been
effected since your Majesty's accession to the throne
throughout many portions of your vast empire.
" The pure glory of these labours will be dear to
your Majesty's royal heart, for it arises from the
welfare of your subjects.
" That your Majesty may long reign over a loyal,
prosperous, and contented people is our devout and
fervent prayer to Almighty God."
To this address her Majesty was graciously
pleased to return the following answer : —
" I receive with cordial satisfaction this dutiful
134 Lincoln's Inn.
" My beloved Consort and I have accepted with
pleasure your invitation, for I recognise the
services rendered to the Crown at various periods
of our history by distinguished members of this
Society ; and I gladly testify my respect for the
profession of the law, by which I am aided in
administering justice, and in maintaining the prero-
gatives of the Crown and the rights of my people.
" I congratulate you on the completion of this
noble edifice ; it is worthy of the memory of your
predecessors, and of the station which you occupy
in connection with the Bar of England.
" I sincerely hope that learning may long flourish,
and that virtue and talent may rise to eminence
within these walls."
The address and the answer having been read,
the honour of knighthood was conferred upon the
Treasurer, and his Royal Highness, Prince Albert,
was invited to become a member of the Society, to
which he at once assented. Her Majesty was then
pleased to write her name in the Admittance Book
recording the names of the royal and illustrious
visitors in the reign of Charles II. The Prince
entered his name after that of her Majesty ; and to
the royal autographs were added those of the Lord
Chancellor, the Duke of Wellington, the Marquis
of Exeter, the Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Liverpool,
the Earl De La Warr, the Earl of Jersey, the Earl
The New Hall and Library. 135
of Hardvvicke, the^Earl of Lincoln, Lord George
Lennox, Sir James Graham, the Hon. Col. Grey,
the Hon. Captain Alexander N. Hood, Col.
Bouverie, and Captain Francis Seymour.
The ceremony in the Library being concluded,
the Queen, with Prince Albert, the other illustrious
guests, and the Benchers, proceeded to the Hall,
where, occupying a chair of state on the dais, her
Majesty, having granted permission to the assembly
to be seated, partook of the banquet prepared for
the occasion. On the right of the Queen sat Prince
Albert ; next to his Royal Highness, the Lord
Chancellor, supported by the Duke of Wellington
and the Earl of Aberdeen. On the left of her
Majesty sat the Treasurer ; then one of the ladies
in waiting ; and next, the Earl of Hardwicke, and
others of the court. Opposite to his Royal High-
ness Prince Albert was seated William Selwyn,
Esq., one of the senior Benchers of the Society,
under whose direction the Prince had studied the
principles of English law.
At the close of the banquet, the Treasurer, having
received permission, proposed successively the
health of " Her Majesty, the Queen," and that of
" His Royal Highness, Prince Albert, who had that
day become a member of the Society." His Royal
Highness, after returning thanks, said that he had
received her Majesty's commands to propose as a
136 Lincoln's Inn.
toast, " Prosperity to the Honourable Society of
Lincoln's Inn/* The Queen departed about three
o'clock, having been pleased to declare herself highly
gratified, and proceeded down the centre of the
hall, attended by the Ministers and Benchers in the
same order as on her Majesty's arrival, Prince
Albert wearing a student's gown over his field-
The gallery in the hall was occupied by ladies ;
and beneath the gallery was stationed the band of
the Coldstream Guards, who played during the
repast. About four hundred members of the Society
sat at the tables, which were ranged along the hall
transversely to the upper table.
This royal visit must be regarded as a memorable
event in the annals of Lincoln's Inn, and "this
festival," it has been observed, " was not one merely
of pageantry. It was not a repetition of that which
took place after the restoration of Charles II. The
days have gone by when such might have been its
exclusive character. It was one in which the
Monarch honoured by her presence an event in-
teresting to the people, and, in graciously accepting
and acknowledging their cordially expressed loyalty,
heard and responded to sentiments which at once
dignify and confirm it."
Foundation, Progress and Arrangement.
T the time of laying the foundation of
the noble pile of building described in
the preceding pages, an inscription was
deposited with the stone, intimating that a structure
was about to arise which would be ennobled by
the banquetings and festive meetings to be held
within its walls. If the magnificent apartment
which now forms the dining-hall of the Society be
honoured by such uses, how much more highly
dignified is that portion of the building appropriated
to their Library, where the taste and skill of the
architect have been exerted to provide a suitable
repository for their valuable collection of books ;
where stores of intellectual wealth from every clime
and age are accumulated ; where the mind of the
student may be enlightened by the writings of the
learned of his own profession, animated and guided
138 Lincoln's Inn.
in the onward path of duty by the lessons of the
divine, and encouraged by the bright examples
recorded in the pages of the historian.
The long prevalent opinion, which had been
regarded in the profession almost as an axiom not
to be questioned, that law must be divorced from
literature, has given way to juster views of the
character of legal science. " From Lord Bacon,
whose legal acquirements formed a massive frame-
work for those visions of future wisdom in which
he half anticipated the discoveries of ages, down to
the present time, the annals of the bar are rich in
histories of men who have loved literature not only
well, but wisely. The old lawyers exulted in
blending their classical recollections with their
professional learning." *
The great importance of literature and science
to the practical lawyer is ably demonstrated in an
essay on Legal Education in the Law Review.
The writer maintains that a foundation should by
all means be laid broad and deep of general
learning; that the classics ought chiefly to be
studied, as the most efficient means of refining the
taste and attaining proficiency in the oratorical
art ; and that the moral and physical sciences are
also very essential, the former being eminently
useful to those who have to reason upon evidence
* Law Magazine.
The Library. 139
and probabilities, to discuss points of duty, and to
discriminate between shades of guilt ; and the
physical sciences demanding attention, because
cases continually occur in the courts of justice
which turn upon principles of natural philosophy
and niceties in the mechanical and chemical arts.*
The same writer adds that no man can be an
accomplished lawyer without a knowledge of
history, especially that of his own country, and
some acquaintance with the legal systems of other
countries ; and that they who have studied the
ablest arguments in our courts must be aware
what sources both of reasoning and illustration the
comparative view of other systems has afforded.
The original foundation of the Library of
Lincoln's Inn is of earlier date than that of any
now existing in the metropolis. In the 13th year of
the reign of Henry VII. A.D. 1497, **John Nether-
sale, late one of this Society, bequeathed forty
marks, partly towards the building of a Library
here for the benefit of the students of the laws of
England, and partly that every priest of this house,
* The importance of a knowledge of chemistry was exem-
plified in a case which occurred some years ago at Caermar-
then on a charge of uttering two counterfeit sovereigns, when
the solicitor employed for the defence proved the coins to
be genuine by immersing them in nitric acid, by the action
of which the coating of mercury, with which the gold had
become accidentally amalgamated, was removed.
140 Lincoln's Inn.
in the celebration of divine service every Friday,
should sing a mass of requiem, &c. for the soul of
the said John." This building, the site of which is
not now known, was finished in the 24th Henry
VII. Previously to their removal to the edifice in
which they are now commodiously arranged, the
books occupied a suite of rooms in the Stone
Building, to which they had been transferred in
the year 1787 from the Old Square. There are
various entries in the records of the Society relating
to the Library in the reign of Elizabeth. It seems,
however, that little progress was made in the
accumulation of books ; for, at a Council held in
6th James I. A.D. 1608, "because the Library was
not well furnished with books, it was ordered that
for the more speedy doing thereof, every one that
should thenceforth be called to the Bench in this
Society should give twenty shillings towards the
buying of books for the same Library ; and every
one thenceforth called to the Bar, thirteen shillings
and fourpence, all which sums to be paid to Mr.
Matthew Hadde, who, for the better ordering of
the said Library was then made Master thereof."
Three years afterwards it was ordered that Mr.
Hadde, thus constituted the first Master of the
Library, an office now held in annual rotation by
each Bencher, "should buy and provide for the
Library *Fleta' and such other old books and
The Library. 141
manuscripts of the Law, and to cause those that
be ill bound to be new bound." At a subsequent
meeting it was ordered " that ten pounds should
be paid by Mr. Hadde out of the money received
from Sir William Sedley for copies of 'Corpus
Juris Civilis/ in six volumes, and 'Corpus Juris
Canonici,' in three volumes, and that he should
cause them to be bound with bosses without
chains,* and pay the charges of binding out of that
The Library has been enriched at various periods
by donations from men^bers of the Society. One
of the earliest of these benefactors was Ranulph
* It was formerly the custom in public libraries to fasten
books with chains to the shelves or book-cases ; and many
of the volumes in Lincoln's Inn Library still retain, attached
to their covers, the iron rings by which they were secured.
In these cases an iron rod was passed through the rings of
the books as they were ranged on the shelves, and fastened
by a padlock at the end ; — an usage practised till the last
century in most collegiate and public Ubraries. A curious
instance of what certainly has some appearance of laxity in
the custody of libraries in former times is thus naively
related by Dugdale, in his account of the Middle Temple :
' ' They now have no Library, so that they cannot attaine to
the knowledge of divers learnings, but to their great charges,
by the buying of such bookes as they lust to study. They
had a simple Library, in which were not many bookes
besides the Law; and that Library, by meanes that it stood
allwayes open, and that the learners had not each of them
a key unto it, it was at the last robbed and spoiled of all
the bookes in it." — Origines JuridiciaUs, p. 197. ed. 1680.
142 Lincoln's Inn.
Cholmeley,* Serjeant at Law, and Recorder of the
City of London, and three times Reader at Lincoln's
Inn, in the reigns of Edw. VI., Philip and Mary,
and Elizabeth. To him the Library is indebted for
several rare volumes of the early Year Books,t
four of which had belonged to William Rastell,
nephew of Sir Thomas More, and one of the
Judges of Common Pleas, and contain his auto-
graph ; a very beautiful copy of the first edition of
Fitzherbert's Abridgement, with Rastell's Tables
to the same ; a MS. of Bracton, of the 14th century,
on vellum ; three volumes of early Statutes, MSS.
on vellum -^ and two volumes of MS. Reports of
various years in the reigns of Edw. III. Ric. II.
and Hen. IV.
Besides copies of his own multifarious writings,
including his invaluable " Records,'' the celebrated
* Ranulph Cholmeley died in 1563. In the inscription
on his monument in St. Dunstan's Church is the following
Non deerant artes generoso pectore dignae,
Doctus et Anglorum jure peritus erat.
+ The Year- Books, as well as the other volumes presented
by Ranulph Cholmeley, chiefly in the original oak binding,
have a small paper label, containing the title of the work
with the name of the donor curiously fastened on the side
of the covers under a piece of transparent horn. These
volumes, on account of the decay of the oak covers, have
been lately re-bound.
J These are respectively, i Edw. III.— 3 Hen. V. ; i
Hen. IV.— 20 Hen. VI. ; i Edw. IIL— 19 Hen. VII.
The Library. 143
William Prynne presented to the Library a copy of
the works of St. Augustine, in eight vols, folio^ and
two volumes of Acts, Declarations, &c. of 12 Car.
II. Many of the volumes given by Prynne contain
inscriptions in his own handwriting.
In the year T676 the Society acquired by the
bequest of Sir Matthew Hale the large collection
of Manuscripts made by that eminent person. This
collection, besides a great number of valuable legal
and historical documents, including various tran-
scripts of Public Records, contains some writings
of Archbishop Usher, and many papers in the
handwriting of Selden, the legal MSS. of that great
scholar not having been sent to the Bodleian
Library with the rest of his books. There is only
one volume of Sir Matthew Hale's own writings.
This is a large folio, closely written, in the manner
of a law common-place book, and is called by him
" The Black Book of the New Law.'' *
A collection of Pamphlets, chiefly theological and
political, some of them very curious, forming
* The following manuscripts in the handwriting of Sir
Matthew Hale have been recently acquired by the Society :
A Treatise De Praerogativa Regis, folio. Incepta de Juribus
Coronae, folio. A Treatise on the Judicature of the King*s
Council and Parliament, 4to, The Jurisdiction of the
Lords' House or Parliament considered according to Ancient
Records, 4to. A Tract on the Leading Principles of the
Law of Nature, 4to.
144 Lincoln's Inn.
thirty-nine volumes in 4to. and folio, was given to
the Library in 1706 by John Brydall, Esq., author
of many legal works.
The Library of John Coxe, Esq., a Bencher of
Lincoln's Inn, consisting of many manuscripts in
his own handwriting, together with about 5cxx)
volumes of printed books in legal, historical, and
various other branches of literature, became the
property of the Society in 1785, by his bequest
William Melmoth, Esq., bequeathed to the
Society in 1799 six volumes of MS. Reports, and a
seventh containing a Table of Matters, compiled by
his father, William Melmoth, consisting of Chancery
Cases from lyoo to 1742.
A munificent donation was made to the Library
in 1843, by Charles Purton Cooper, Esq., who pre-
sented a collection of books on the civil law and on
the laws of foreign nations, consisting of nearly 2000
volumes, in various languages, many of them of great
rarity and in very fine condition. Mr. Cooper had
also previously given a valuable collection of Ameri-
can Law Reports, consisting of about 150 volumes.
Several MSS. of Lord Colchester, Speaker of
the House of Commons, consisting of thirty-one
volumes, chiefly containing Reports of Cases in
Law and Equity in his lordship's handwriting, were
presented in 1848, by his son's widow, the Hon.
Frances Cecil Abbot. One or two of the volumes
The Library. 145
appear to consist of original Reports, by the Hon.
Philip Abbot, the second son of Lord Colchester.
Many other donations have been made by the
liberality of individuals, by the directors and
curators of libraries and institutions, and by public
authorities, but want of space prevents the enumera-
tion here of the names of the various donors.
In 1808, the collection of legal MSS. of Mr.
Serjeant Hill, consisting chiefly of Notes of Cases
by himself or his learned contemporaries, was
purchased of his executors. In 181 8, the legal MSS.
of John Maynard, Esq., King's Serjeant in the
reign of Charles II., and one of the Commissioners
of the Great Seal in the reign of William and Mary,
which had passed through various hands, were
purchased by the Society. At the time of the
removal, the books (including the manuscripts)
were about 18,000 in number, but have since
been increased to the number of nearly 40,000;
and, in addition to a collection of law books, ad-
mitted to be the most complete in this country, here
are to be found many works of great importance
and interest to persons whose pursuits are directed
to the study of the history and antiquities of the
A Catalogue of the Books, containing a very
small portion of the present collection, was printed
in the year 1835 ; and a Catalogue of the Manu-
146 Lincoln's Inn.
scripts, by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, in 1838. In-
1859 another Catalogue of the Books was printed ;
it is alphabeti^cally arranged, with an index of
subjects. Three Supplements have since been
printed, the last in 1872.
A few observations on the much agitated question
of the arrangement of Catalogues may not be
entirely out of place here. " As indexes have been
called the soul of books, so catalogues may be
styled the soul of libraries. Without them the
largest collection would be comparatively useless.
It is desirable that every catalogue should contain
a succinct, and, at the same time, full abstract of
the title-pages of the different books, with the
number of the editions, the names of the authors and
editors or annotators at length, the place and date
of publication, the size of the volume, and the name
of its printer, if it be an ancient copy. It may not
unfrequently happen, in the course of our studies,
that it will be desirable to consult a particular
edition of a book — perhaps to verify the text of the
edition we possess ourselves, or to observe the
comments of the editor. A good catalogue should
enable us at once to determine whether the library
contains the edition in question, and should exhibit
a complete bibliographical view of all the works
therein. The alphabetical arrangement has always
seemed much preferable to any arrangement made
The Library. 147
with reference either to the subjects or to the sizes
of the volumes. The main object of a catalogue is
to facilitate the use of the library ; of course, such
arrangement should be adopted as will best sub-
serve this end ; and this appears to be the alpha-
betical arrangement. The inquirer can turn, as
readily as in a dictionary, to the name of the author
he wishes to find."*
The books are arranged on the shelves in classes,
and on taking a survey of the Library from the
entrance near the east oriel window, the eye of the
visitor may range over a vast collection of Treatises
on every branch of English jurisprudence from the
earliest period to the present day; then over the
Reports of Cases argued in all the Courts of Law ;
and then over the voluminous collections of the
Journals of the Houses of Parliament, and the Cases
heard on Appeal before the House of Lords and
the Privy Council, passing on to the volumes con-
taining the Statutes of the Realm, Public, Local,
and Private. On the opposite side of the room the
observer may notice a goodly assemblage of the
woirks of English and foreign divines, with editions
of the Bible in various languages ; the poets,
historians, philosophers, and orators of Greece and
Rome ; dictionaries of various languages, and other
* American Jurist, xiii. 383-4,
148 Lincoln's Inn.
philological works ; the principal writers, ancient
and modem, on English History and Topography ;
Foreign History; and a selection of works on Civil
and Foreign Law. In the Upper Gallery is ranged
a collection of books on Civil and Foreign Law,
occupying nearly the whole of one side of the room ;
and on the opposite side of the gallery may be
observed the more voluminous historical works,
such as Graevius and Gronovius, Muratori, &c.,
with the Mdmoires de TAcaddmie, and that monu-
ment of the wondrous extension of the Papal power
and dominion, the BuUarium Romanum.
In hi^ notice of the various classes of books, in
the former edition of this work, the librarian had
thought fit to begin the description with the class
of Theology, as forming the basis of laws and
social institutions ; but as this library is designed
expressly for the prosecution of legal studies, he
now deems it more appropriate to begin the survey
with the books on jurisprudence, giving bibliogra-
phical details of the earlier writers on English Law,
with some notice of those on Civil and Foreign
Law, and, owing to the narrow space imposed by the
limits of this work, touching but slightly on the class
of Theology, and passing very briefly over the other
classes of Literature.
The Library, 149
I. TREATISES. 2. REPORTS. 3. STATUTES.
So well Stored are the shelves of the Library
with books on every branch of English jurispru-
dence, that some hesitation may be for a moment
felt in making a selection for primary notice. How
vast has been the increase of books on the study
and practice of the law since the days of Lord
Coke, the following extract from the Preface to the
third part of his lordship's Reports may be suf-
ficient to show ; " Right profitable are the ancient
books of the common law yet extant, as Glanville,
Bracton, Britton, Fleta, Ingham (Hengham), and
Novae Narrationes ; and those also of later times,
as the Old Tenures, Old Natura Brevium, Little-
ton, Doctor and Student, Perkins, Fitzherbert's
Natura Brevium and Staunford." After mention-
ing with commendation the Abridgments of Fitz-
herbert and Sir Robert Brooke, as also that of
Statham, the Book of Assises, and the "great
Book of Entries," and the " exquisite and elaborate
Commentaries of Master Plowden, the summary
and fruitful observations of Sir James Dyer, and
his own simple labours," the Lord Chief Justice
continues : " then have you ffteen books or trea-
150 Lincoln's Inn.
tises, and as many volumes of the Reports, besides
the Abridgments of the Common Law ; for I speak
not of the Statutes and Acts of Parliament, where-
of there be divers great volumes.'*
In addition to the fifteen treatises mentioned by
Lord Coke, the Library contains about 1200
volumes of Treatises on the Law ; about as many
volumes of Reports ; of Abridgments of the Law
about fifty volumes ; and the Statute Law is
extended to forty-seven volumes in quarto, con-
tinued since the year 1869 in octavo.
Law books were among the earliest works that
issued from the press in England on the invention
of the art of printing. It does not appear, however,
that any of these were given to the public by the
Father of the English press, with the exception of
the Statutes of Henry VII. printed by William
Caxton shortly before his decease. By Lettou
and Machlinia were printed Littleton's Tenures,
about the year 1481, the " Vieux Abridgement des
Statuts *' and some of the Year Books. By Wynkyn
de Worde were printed Lyndewode's Provinciale,
Carta Feodi Simplicis, and a few other law books ;
by Pynson, Littleton's Tenures, Liber Assisarum,
Liber Intrationum, some of the Year Books, &c.
Statham's Abridgment was printed either by or
for Pynson. By John Rastell were printed Little-
ton's Tenures, Tables to Fitzherbert's Abridgment.
The Library. 151
Abridgment of the Statutes, &c. ; by Redman, the
first edition of Britton, and many other treatises ;
by Berthelet, some of the Year Books, Littleton,
Natura Brevium, the Statutes, &c. Richard
Tottel, who enjoyed a special licence for the print-
ing of law books, printed the first edition of Bracton,
and most of those which had appeared previously
were by him again given to the public. The
first edition of Fitzherbert's Abridgment has been
attributed both to Wynkyn de Worde, and to
The earliest of the ancient writers mentioned by
Lord Coke in the passage just cited is Glanville,
and [it may be convenient to notice these works
nearly in the order in which they are there enu-
merated ; with the addition of Home's Mirror of
Justices, Fortescue, and Lambard.
Glanville. Tractatus de Legibus et Consue-
tudinibus Regni Angliae, tempore regis Henrici
secundi compositus, Justiciae gubernacula tenente
illustri viro Ranulpho de Clan villa, Juris Regni
et antiquarum Consuetudinum eo tempore peritis-
It is supposed that this summary or digest' of
the laws of England was drawn up by the command
of king Henry IL, in order to perpetuate the im-
provements he had made in the Norman laws, and
to render the practice of the law more uniform
152 Lincoln's Inn.
throughout the kingdom ; but notwithstanding its
general title, the treatise is confined to such mat-
ters as were the objects of jurisdiction in the king's
court. The study of this writer is necessary to
those who would obtain a critical knowledge of the
state of the English constitution in the first century
after the conquest, before the modifications conse-
quent upon the charter of King John.*
There has been much controversy concerning
the authorship of this work. It has been generally
attributed to Ranulph de Glanville, who was Chief
Justice in the reign of Henry II. This eminent
person was also distinguished in a military capacity,
having been the commander who took the King of
Scots prisoner at the battle of Alnwick. After the
death of King Henry, he fought under the banner
of the Cross in the Holy Land, and died at the
siege of Acre in 1190. By some writers the work
has been ascribed to a justice itinerant in the same
reign ; and by others it has been thought that the
name of Glanville was only prefixed to it because
he presided over the law at this period. A full
account of Glanville and of the controversy may be
read in the Preface to Mr. Beames's translation,
published in 18 12, 8vo. The work was not printed
* Reeves's History of the English Law; and Penny Cy-
The Library. 153
till 1554, when it was given to the public at the
suggestion of Sir William Staunford. It was
printed again in 1557, 1604, 1673, i78o> in i2mo.
There is a MS. copy of the 14th century, on
vellum, with illuminated capitals, in Lincoln's Inn
Library, presented by William Selwyn, Esq., in
Bracton. Henrici de Bracton de Legibus et
Consuetudinibus Angliae Libri quinque, in varies
tractatus distincti. Of Bracton's treatise, termed
by Mr. Reeves the great ornament of the reign of
Henry III., it is said that while Glanville's work is
little more than a sketch, confined to the proceed-
ings in the king's court, Bracton's is a finished and
systematic performance, giving a complete view of
the law, in all its titles, as it stood at the time it
was written. The style is infinitely superior to that
of Glanville, and much beyond the generality of
writers of that age. " For comprehensiveness, for
lucid arrangement, for logical precision," observes
Lord Campbell,* " this author was unrivalled
during many ages ; and it is curious that in the
most disturbed period of this turbulent reign, there
was written and given to the world the best treatise
upon law of which England could boast till the
publication of Blackstone's Commentaries, in the
* Lives of the Chancellors.
154 Lincoln's Inn.
middle of the eighteenth century." In the opinion
of many eminent modern jurists the treatises of
Glanville and Bracton, as well as those of Britton,
Fleta, and the Mirror of Justices, have borrowed
largely from the Roman law.
The author is stated to have been a Judge of the
Court of Common Pleas, and Chief Justice of Eng-
land, but the authorship, like that of Glanville, has
been much questioned. It is thought probable that
the treatise was composed by Henry de Bracton,
Doctor of Civil Law, who delivered lectures in the
University of Oxford, and sat as justice itinerant
in the reign of Henry III. The author has gone
by the names of Brycton, Britton, Briton, Breton,
and Brets ; and it has been doubted whether all
these names are not imaginary. The estimation in
which the work was held is manifested by the nu-
merous copies made before the invention of print-
ing. Only two editions, however, have been
printed ; one in 1569, folio, and the other in 1640,
4to. There are three MS. copies on vellum in the
Library of Lincoln's Inn, one of the time of Edward
I.,* one of the latter part of the fourteenth century,
given byRanulph Cholmeley, and another presented
by Arthur Hobhouse, Esq., Q.C., in 1866. This is
also of the fourteenth century, and had belonged to
* This manuscript belonged, in the reign of Edward I.
The Library. 155
Mr. Le Neve, according to an inscription on the
vellum fly-leaf, and subsequently to Mr. P. C. Webb,
having been sold by auction with his books in 177 1.
It is stated in Latin on the last leaf, that the manu-
script differs in certain passages from the edition
of Bracton printed in 1569.
Britton. This is a French treatise on the
law supposed to have been compiled under the
direction of king Edward L Its singular form
seems to countenance such a supposition ; for the
contents of the whole book are put into the king^s
mouth, and the law so delivered has the appearance
of being promulgated by the immediate voice of
the sovereign.* This treatise, which set the
example, followed for nearly four centuries, of
writing law-books in French, engages the curiosity
of the modem reader in a particular manner. In
the writings of Bracton and Fleta, says Mr. Reeves,
to Sir Alan de Thornton, of whose transactions there are
some curious memoranda on the fly-leaves, and especially
in relation to swans. He appears to have resided in Lin-
colnshire, and was probably a relation of Gilbert de Thorn-
ton, who was Chief Justice of the King's Bench in the
reign of Edward I. The motto on the first page, irept,
xaPTOS T7JV ^FjXevdepiaVf seems to mark it as having once
belonged to Selden. Hunter's Catalogue of MSS. in
Lincoln's Inn Library, The Greek motto, signifying
" Liberty above all things," was usually inscribed in
* Reeves's History of the English Law.
156 Lincoln's Inn.
everything is seen as it were through a cloud,
disguised in the terms and phraseology of the
Latin tongue ; whereas Britton addresses you in
the technical, proper style of the law. The work is
attributed, among other authors, to John Le Breton,
Bishop of Hereford, who died in 3 Edward L ; but
this opinion cannot be correct, as the statutes of
the thirteenth year of that reign are quoted in the
treatise. By some writers it is supposed that the
treatise received the title of Britton as being one of
the names assigned to Bracton himself.
There are numerous MSS. of this work, as well
as of Bracton. The first edition was printed by
Robert Redman, in 1540, and the next by Edmund
Wingate, in 1640, 8vo. It was in contemplation by
the late Record Commission to prepare an edition
from a collation of the existing MSS., and a speci-
men *of the intended work may be seen in Mr. C. P.
Cooper's work on the Public Records. In 1762, a
translation as far as the 25 th chapter was published
by Mr. Robert Kelham, but the work did not
receive sufficient encouragement. Mr. Kelham
translated the remaining portion, and the MS.
remained in his hands till 1807, when being at that
time senior member of Lincoln's Inn, and eighty-
nine years of age, he presented it to the Library.
A copy of Wingate's edition, full of his manuscript
notes, with some account of the MS. copies of
The library. 157
Britton in the British Museum, was also presented
by Mr. Kelham.* In 1865, the French text, with an
English translation, introduction, and notes, by
Mr.F. M. Nichols, was printed at Oxford, in two
Fleta ; seu Commentarius Juris Anglican!, sub
Edwardo I. ab anonymo conscriptus : editus, cum
dissertatione historica ad eundem, per Jo. Selde-
num. This is a commentary in Latin on the entire
body of the English law, as it stood at the time
when the author wrote, which is supposed to have
been about 13 Edward L The author is unknown,
and gives as a reason for the title of his book that
it was written during his confinement in the Fleet
Prison. His design seems to have been to give
a concise account of the law, with such alterations
as had been made since the time of Bract on, to
whose treatise his work thus serves as an appendix
and often as a commentary. The President
Renault refers to Fleta as an historical authority.
The work was first published by Selden in 1647,
4to., from a MS. in the Cottonian Library, together
with a treatise in French entitled from its initial
words " Fet assavoir " (a collection of notes concern-
* Mr. Kelham also published a translation of Selden's
Dissertation on Fleta, 1771, 8vo. ; a Dictionary of the
Norman or old French language, 1779, 8vo ; and Domes-
day Book illustrated, 1788, 8vo.
158 Lincoln's Inn.
ing proceedings in actions), and a learned disserta-
tion by Selden himself. Another edition was
published in 1685, 4to., but no others have been
printed in England. There is a MS. copy of the
17th century, in Lincoln's Inn Library, supposed
to be a transcript of a MS. of the reign of Edward
11. This was the gift of John Glover, Esq.
The treatises of Glanville, Britton, Fleta, and the
Mirror, as well as the Anglo-Saxon Laws, Spelman's
Codex LeguYn, and Sir John Skene's collection of
the Laws of Scotland, with a preliminary Disserta-
tion and Notes, were published at Rouen, in 1776,
four vols. 4to., by M. Houard, ^'Avocat** in the
parliament of Normandy.
Of the four authors just described the compara-
tive merit appears very different in the eyes of a
modem reader. The learning and copiousness of
Bracton place him very high above the rest ; but
while due praise is given to the father of legal
learning, what Bracton as well as posterity owe to
others must not be forgotten. Britton delivered
some of this writer's matter in the proper language
of the law, and Fleta illustrated some of his obscu-
rities ; while Glanville, who led the way, is still
entitled to the veneration due to those who first
open the paths to science.*
The Library. 159
Hengham. Radulphi de Hengham, Edwardi
regis Primi Capitalis olim Justitiarii, Summae,
Magna Hengham et Parva vulgo nuncupatae. This
is a collection of notes treating of the ancient forms
of pleading in essoigns and defaults. Sir Ralph de
Hengham was Chief Justice in the reign of Edward
I. The work had been translated into English, but
this being in the language of the time of Edward II.
or Edward III., it was thought advisable to print it
in the original Latin, which was done by Selden,
who published it with the treatise of Fortescue
on the Laws in 161 6, adding some few notes of his
own in English. There are in Lincoln's Inn
Library several MSS. of Hengham of the 14th
Horne's Mirror of Justices. This book,
which treats of all branches of the law, whether
civil or criminal, when read with certain reserva-
tions, is a curious, interesting, and in some degree
authentic tract upon our old law.* There is much
contrariety of opinion as to its antiquity and
authorship. From internal evidence it appears
that it was written after Fleta and Britton, and it is
accordingly ascribed to the reign of Edward II.
" The most extraordinary of our ancient law books
is the Mirror of Justices, hitherto most inaccurately
i6o Lincoln's Inn.
published. Only one ancient manuscript of this
work is known to exist, which is in the Library of
C. C. C Cambridge." * There are two transcripts
in the Library of Lincoln's Inn, one of the reign of
James I. The work was first printed in 1642,
i2mo., in French, and an English translation by
W. Hughes, in 1646 and 1649, i2mo., and in
1768, 8vo. Andrew Home, the reputed author, a
native of Gloucester, and Chamberlain of the City
of London in the reign of Edward II. compiled a
book, still preserved in Guildhall, which has not
been printed. It is entitled "Liber Horn," and
contains charters, customs and statutes relating to
the city.t Mr. Daines Barrington, in his Observa-
tions on the Statutes, has pointed out the remark-
able coincidence of several European states in
adopting the title of " Mirror '' in their early law
Thornton. A summary or abridgment of
Bract on was written by Gilbert de Thornton, Chief
Justice of the King's Bench in the reign of Edward
I. The work is cited by Selden in his Dissertation
* Cooper on the Public Records.
t Liber Horn appears on the title-page of the second
volume of the '* Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis," pub-
lished by the Master of the Rolls in i860, but it does not
appear that any further steps have been taken for its
The Library. i6i
on Fleta, from a MS. in his possession, but has not
NoViE Narrationes. This work, written in
the reign of Edward III., contains the forms of
counts, declarations, pleas, &c. It was first printed
in French by Pynson, in folio, without date, and
afterwards by Rastdl, Redman, and Tottell. The
first edition, given by Ranulph Cholmeley, is in
the Library, and that of Tottell, 1561, i2mo., with
**Articuli ad Novas Narrationes," and the "Diver-
site des Courtes."
Old Tenures. This work, so called by way of
distinction from Littleton's Tenures, was wjitten
in the reign of Edward III., and gives an account
of the various tenures of land, the nature of estates,
and some other incidents to landed property. It is
a very brief treatise, but has the merit of having led
the way to Littleton. It was first printed in French
by Pynson, in folio, without date, and again by him,
in 1625, i6mo. Both these editions are in the
Library. Several other editions have been printed.
Old Natura Brevium. This work, called
old, likfe the former, as a distinction from Fitzher-
bert's Natura Brevium, was written about the same
period as the preceding ; and contains the writs
most in use at that time, annexing to each a short
comment respecting their nature, application, &c.
It became a model to Fitzherbert, in writing his
i62 Lincoln's Inn.
valuable treatise on the same subject. It was first
printed in French by Pynson, in folio, without date,
and again by him, in 1525, i6mo. Both these are
in the Library. Upwards of twenty editions, either
in French or English, have been printed. The last
was in 1584, i2mo., in French.
Littleton's Tenures. This work combines
the qualities of clearness, plainness, and brevity, in
a degree that is not only extraordinary for the rude
age in which its author wrote, but renders him
superior, as to purity of style, to any writer on Eng-
lish law who has succeeded him. Notwithstanding
the alterations of the law since his time, from the
absolute necessity of a knowledge of what was the
state of the law with respect to property in land, in
order to. understand thoroughly what it now is,
Littleton is still indispensable to the student of
English law.* The author, Thomas Littleton,
was a Judge of Common Pleas, in the reign of
The first edition of Littleton's Tenures is sup-
posed to be that which was printed by Lettou and
Machlinia, in folio, without date, but probably
about 148 1. Another edition was printed by
Machlinia alone, also without date. Neither of
these editions are in Lincoln's Inn Library; that of
Pynson, with the portrait of Henry VII. on his
♦ Penny Cyclopaedia.
The Library. 163
throne, in folio, without date, is there, and also
that of 1525, by Pynson, i6mo. The folio edition,
as well as that of the Old Tenures and Natura
Brevium, was given by Ranulph Cholmeley ; the
latter, by Joshua Williams, Esq. There is also a
MS. of the 15th century. There is scarcely any
law-writer whose work has gone through so many
editions, upwards of thirty having been printed in
French, and nearly as many in the English lan-
guage. The last was by T. E. Tomlins, Esq., in
1 841, 8vo., from the text of the earliest edition by
Lettou and Machlinia, and the translation from
that used by Sir Edward Coke. The text of Little-
ton, with a French translation or paraphrase, notes,
glossary, and ' Pieces Justificatives,' was published
at Rouen in 1776, two vols. 4to., by. M. Houard.
The learned and laborious Commentary of Lord
Coke upon Littleton will be admired, says Fuller,
" by judicious posterity, while Fame has a trumpet
left her and any breath to blow therein." The
chief merit of this inestimable book is the light
which it throws upon the system of our ancient
law. The grounds and reasons of that system are
there expounded with the most profound learning
and ingenuity, so that the student may resort to it
as to an inexhaustible spring of legal knowledge.
With all its want of method, and its occasional ob-
scurity, it stands alone in his library, the only Insti-
i64 Lincoln's Inn.
tute or general Text-book of the old law.* " There
is not," says Mr Butler, "in the whole of the
golden book, a single line which the student will
not in his professional life find, on more than one
occasion, eminently useful."
This commentary was first printed in 1628, in
folio ; again in 1629, and very frequently since.
Nineteen editions have been published ; the most
valuable are those containing the notes of Mr Har-
grave and Mr Butler, including those of Sir Mat-
thew Hale and Lord Chancellor Nottingham, first
printed in 1794, three vols. 8vo. The nineteenth
edition, printed in 1832, two vols. 8vo., is furnished
with an elaborate Index, by Mr T. Canning, to the
notes of Hargrave and Butler, but is without -the
Norman-French text of Littleton.t
FORTESCUE de Laudibus Legum Anglian. This
work — the compilation of a lawyer distinguished
both by his professional learning and classical
attainments — is said to have been written while
* Notes on North's Study of the Laws.
+ Coke's Commentary upon Littleton is also entitled,
the First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England ;
the Second Part contains the Exposition of many ancient
and other Statutes ; the Third treats of High Treason and
other Pleas of the Crown ; and the Fourth Part treats of the
Jurisdiction of Courts. They have been several times
printed between 1642 and 1797, the second, third, and fourth
parts having been printed in four vols. 8vo., to range with
Hargrave and Butler's edition of the first Institute.
The Library. 165
the author, who had been Chief Justice of the King's
Bench in the reign of Henry VI., was in exile with
the Prince of Wales, and others of the Lancastrian
party in France. Sir John was then made Chancel-
lor, and in that character supposes himself holding
a conversation with the young prince on the nature
and excellence of the laws of England compared
with the civil law and the laws of other countries.
The treatise was first printed in Latin by Edward
Whitchurch, early in the reign of Henry VI H.,
without date, in i6mo. ; it was again printed, with
an English translation by Robert Mulcaster, in 1567,
and several times reprinted ; in 1616 it was printed
with Selden's notes, and the addition of the treatise
of Hengham; in 1737, 1741, and in 1775 it was
printed with an English translation, and an his-
torical preface by F. Gregor, Esq. ; and in 1825,
8vo., with notes by A. Amos, Esq.*
Marrow's Justice of the Peace. This author,
quoted with commendation by later writers, as Fitz-
herbert and Lambard, was a lawyer in the reign of
Henry VII. His work has not been printed.
Doctor and Student ; or Dialogues between
* In 1869, a very beautiful edition of the first complete collec-
tion of the works of Sir J, Fortescue was printed for private
distribution by his descendant Thomas (Fortescue), Lord
Clermont, with a history of the family of Fortescue, in two
vols. 4to. A copy of this work was presented by his lordship
to the library of Lincoln's Inn.
1 66 Lincoln's Inn.
a Doctor of Divinity and a Student in the Laws of
England, concerning the Grounds of those Laws.
Christopher Saint Germain, the author of this
work, a native of Warwickshire, was a member of
the Inner Temple, and died in 1539, in the 80th
year of his age. Of this author Fuller says : "Reader,
wipe thine eyes, and let mine smart if thou readest
not what richly deserves thine observation ; seeing
he was a person remarkable for his gentility, piety,
chastity, charity, ability, industry, and vivacity."
The work was cited as authority by the Judges
in the trial of Hampden. It was first printed in
Latin by John Rastell, in 1523, and has gone
through above twenty editions ; the last was by
W. Muchall, in English, printed in 181 5.
Perkins. A profitable booke of Master John
Perkins, Fellow of the Inner Temple, treating of
the Lawes of England. This book, which treats of
the various branches of conveyancing, is, perhaps,
says Mr. Reeves, "as valuable a performance as any
of this reign" (Hen. VIII.). It was first printed
in 1528 in French, and has been frequently re-
printed both in French and English. The last
edition was by R. J. Greening, in 1827, i2mo,
FiTZHERBERT. The new .Natura Brevium, by
Sir Anthony Fitzherbert. This work, on the na-
ture of writs, is of the greatest authority. It was
first printed in French, in 1534, 8vo., and has
The Library. 167
been frequently reprinted. The last edition was in
1794, two vols. 8vo., in English. The author was a
Judge of Common Pleas in the reign of Henry VIII.
Staunford. The Pleas of the Crown, by Sir
William Staunford, 4to. This is the first work
which treats the subject of criminal law professedly
and in detail. It was first printed in 1583, in
French, and there have been several editions
of it. The author was a Judge of Common Pleas
in the reign of Queen Mary. " In Master Staunford
there is force and weight, and no common kind of
style : in matter none hath gone beyond him, in
method none hath overtaken him." *
Statham'S Abridgment of the Law, folio. In
French, without title or date. This work, the first
of the Abridgments of the Law, is a kind of digest,
containing most of the titles of the Law, arranged
in alphabetical order, and comprising under each
head adjudged cases, abridged from the Year-Books
in a concise manner ; it has served as a model to
others in later times, but was superseded by the
Abridgment of Fitzherbert, which came out about
the same period. The author, Nicholas Statham,
was Baron of the Exchequer in the reign of Ed-
ward IV. There is only one edition, which is
in folio, without date, and is supposed to have been
* Fulbecke on the Study of the Law.
i68 Lincoln's Inn.
printed by W. Tailleur, at Rouen, for Pynson ; at
the end of the table are the words : " per me, R.
Pynson," and at the end of the volume is Tailleur's
This Abridgment is comprised in 380 pages : the
Abridgment of Mr Charles Viner, published about
the middle of the last century, is in twenty-four
volumes, folio, of which a second edition was pub-
lished in twenty-four vols. 8vo., 179 1-4, and a sup-
plement in six vols. 8vo., 1799- 1806.
Fitzherbert's Grand Abridgment of the Law.
This is one of our most ancient and authentic
legal records, containing a great number of original
authorities, quoted by different authors, which are
not extant in the Year-Books, or elsewhere to be
met with in print. It has also the advantage of being
a very copious and useful commonplace-book or
index to the Year-Books. The Library possesses
a beautiful copy of the first edition of this work,
printed in 15 16, presented by Ranulph Cholmeley,
and as there seems to be some uncertainty respect-
ing the date of the first edition, some bibliographers
having stated that it was printed in 15 14, it may be
worth while to give a description of this copy.
This edition is in three parts, each having a
frontispiece. Prefixed to the first part is a wood-
cut of the king on his throne, crowned, holding the
sceptre and mound, and over this cut are the words :
The Library. 169
Prima pars hujus libri. To the second part is pre-
fixed a wood-cut of the royal arms, crowned, sup-
ported by a dragon and greyhound, with a portcullis
on each side of the arms ; above, two angels, bear-
ing scrolls with an inscription encircling a rose ;
and over this cut are the words : Sequitur secunda
pars. The third part has the same frontispiece as
the second, and over it the words : —
Ultima pars hujus libri.
IT The price of the whole boke (xlj.) which boke con-
teyneth iii. grete volumes.
At the end is the following colophon :
Finis tocius istius operis finit xxi die Decembr.
A°. dni Millecimo quingentesimo sextodecimo.
Beneath the colophon is a cut of the royal arms,
but of smaller size than the former, and with some
From the evidence of the wood-cuts, the same
having been used in the " Fructus Temporum "
printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 15 15, Mr Her-
bert concludes that the work was either executed
by that printer, or printed for him in France. It is
worthy of notice, however, that the same type is
used by John Rastell in the Tables to this Abridg-
ment printed by him in the following year, 15 17,
the smaller letter being used in the Prologue, and
the larger chiefly in the Tables. A copy of this
I70 Lincoln's Inn.
work was also presented to the Library by R. Cholme-
ley. In a notice of an edition of the Abridgment
supposed to have been printed by Pynson in 15 14,
Mr. Herbert says there is a copy in Lincoln's Inn
Library. This is erroneous ; for it is the edition
of 1 5 16, as just described, which is in that Library ;
nor can an edition of 15 14 be traced in either of
the Libraries of the Inns of Court, the Bodleian
Library, or the British Museum. There is a copy
at Holkham of the edition of 15 16.
The copy in Lincoln's Inn is bound in three
volumes, in a modern binding. On the inside of
the covers of the first and second parts is pasted a
paper label with the inscription of the donor : Ex
dono Ranulphi de Cholmeley, &c. ; and on one of
the fly-leaves of the second part is the following
quaint inscription : " Of your charity pray for the
soul of Robert Crawley, sometime donor of this
book, which is now worm's meat, as another day
shall you be that now art full lustye, that remember,
good christian brother. Farewell in the Lord.
1534." At the end of the third part, also on one of
the fly-leaves, is a Latin inscription in the same
handwriting, nearly to the same effect.
The Abridgment was again printed by R. Tottell
in 1565, two vols, folio ; and with additional gene-
ral Table by J. Rastell, in 1577, 4to.
Brooke's Grand Abridgment of the Law. In
The Library. 171
this work, which is disposed under more titles than
that of Fitzherbert, many readings are abridged
which are not now extant, except in a work entitled
Brooke^s New Cases. Of this author, in comparison
with Fitzherbert, Fulbecke says, *'In the facilitie
and compendious forme of abridging cases hee
carrieth away the garland." Sir Robert Brooke
was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in the
reign of Philip and Mary. The first edition was
printed in 1568, 4to. ; it was reprinted in 1570, and
in 1576 ; in 1573 it was printed in two vols, folio,
by R. Tottell, and again in 1586.
Rollers Abridgment of Cases and Resolutions
in the Law. Mr, Hargrave speaks of this work as
excellent in its kind, and in point of method,
succinctness, legal precision, and many other
respects, fit to be proposed as an example for other
abridgments of the law. There is a Preface addressed
to young students in the law of England, by Sir
Matthew Hale. Henry Rolle was Chief Justice of
the Upper Bench from 1648 to 1655. The work was
printed in 1668, in two volumes folio, in French.
Book of Assises. Le Liver des Assises et
Plees del Corone, moves et dependauntz devaunt
les Justices, en temps le Roy Edwarde le tierce.
This book, containing proceedings upon writs of
assize of novel disseisin in the reign of Henry HI.,
is often quoted and referred to by ancient writers,
172 Lincoln's Inn.
and examples are cited from it by Littleton. It
contains a Prologue by John Rastell in praise of
the laws. It was fitst printed in 1 580, by R. Tottell ;
and forms the fifth volume of the edition of the
Year-Books published in 1679.
Book of Entries. The earliest work under
this title is the Liber Intrationum printed by Pynson
in 15 10, and again by Henry Smythe in 1546, folio.
The latter edition is in the Library. In 1566 a
Collection of Entries, Declarations, Bars, Replica-
tions, Rejoinders, &c., by William Rastell, in Latin,
was printed by Tottell, and again in 1574, folio.
The edition printed by J. Yetsweirt, 1596, is in the
Library. Afterwards was published in 161 4, folio,
a Book of Entries, by Sir Edward Coke. This is
in the Library. In the preface Sir E. Coke says,
that the former Book of Entries being published at
that time when the author was beyond the seas,
could not so exactly and perfectly be done as if he
had been at the fountain's head itself; and that
none of the precedents herein have been by any
Registrum Omnium Brevium, tam Origina-
lium quam Judicialium. This work, containing
writs adapted to the purpose [of redress in every
possible case of injury to the person or property, is
said by Sir Edward Coke to be the most ancient
book in the English Law, an assertion for the truth
The Library. 173
of which there seems to be some probability, on a
comparison with the writs contained in Glanville
and the earliest law-writers. " It is not more cer-
tain than extraordinary, that the forms of writs
were very early settled, in their substance and lan-
guage, nearly in the manner in which they were
drawn ever after." * The book was first printed by
William Rastell in 1531, folio ; it was reprinted in
i553> 1595) i634> ^md the last edition in 1687,
Lambard. This author, whose Archaionomia
has been already mentioned, f is also commended by
Sir E. Coke. His Eirenarcha, or Office of Justices
of the Peace, first printed in 15 81, and reprinted
eleven times, the last in 161 9, is recommended to
students by Sir W. Blackstone. His Duty of
Constables, printed in 1 582, was also reprinted six
times. He was likewise author of Archeion ; or a
Discourse upon the High Courts of Justice in Eng-
land, twice printed in the same year, 1635, 8vo.
" Mr. Lambarde's paines, learning, and law ap-
peare by his bookes, which are conducted by so
curious methode, and beautified by such flowers of
learning, that he may wel be sorted amongst those
to whom the law is most beholden." J
The preceding works which, with some volumes
* Reeves. f Page 8, ante. t Fulbecke.
174 Lincoln's Inn.
of Law Reports to be presently noticed, constituted
the library of the English lawyer in the days of Sir
Edward Coke, still form the study of those who
wish to become acquainted with the history of
English law. Speaking of the changes undergone
by the law between the reigns of Henry VIL and
Charles IL, Mr. C. Butler remarks : " There is no
doubt but during the above period, a material
alteration was effected in the jurisprudence of this
country, but this alteration has been effected not so
much by superseding, as by giving a new direction
to the principles of the old law, and applying them
to new subjects. Hence a knowledge of ancient
legal learning is absolutely necessary to a modern
In the same division of the Library with these
ancient ' authors are ranged numerous volumes
containing the labours of successive generations
of lawyers from the reign of James I. to the pre-
sent day, an enumeration of whom, with even the
slightest indication of their various merits, would
require a volume of much more ample dimensions
than the present.
This brief notice of some of the principal legal
writers may be concluded with the mention of the
Commentaries of Sir William Blackstone, the value
* Preface to 13th edition of Coke upon Littleton.
The Library. 175
of which is also indicated by the numerous editions
that have been given to the public. The first
edition was published at Oxford in 1765-9, four
vols. 4to., and the twenty-first, the last edition which
contains the text of Blackstone unaltered, in 1844,
four vols. 8vo., by Mr. J. F. Hargrave, Mr. G.
Sweet, Mr. R. Couch, and Mr. W. N. Welsby. The
twenty-third edition, * incorporating the alterations
down to the present time,' by James Stewart, was
printed in 1854 ; and three editions, adapted to the
present state of the law, have been published by
Robert Malcolm Kerr, LL.D. ; the first in 1857, the
last in 1 861. Besides these, there are six editions of
Mr. Serjeant Stephen's Commentaries partly founded
on Blackstone, four vols. 8vo., the first printed in
1842-5, the sixth in 1868.
Notwithstanding its high reputation and the
repeated eulogiums bestowed upon it by eminent
jurists, the changes that of late years have taken
place in the law have diminished the value of this
celebrated work. " The cannonade which has for
the last twenty years been playing on the Com-
mentaries, exposing as they do so wide a front, has
rendered them, as they were left by their author, a
mere wreck. Edition after edition has been called
for, and given by editors more or less eminent.
But in spite of all the alterations, much still re-
mains, not only unaltered, but unequalled for cor-
176 Lincoln's Inn.
rectness and beautiful statement.'' * " Blackstone's
Commentaries," says Sir William Jones, " are the
most correct and beautiful outline that ever was
exhibited of any human science, but they alone will
no more form a lawyer than a general map of the
world will make a geographer." To Sir W. Black-
stone belongs the merit of having been the first to
array in attractive garb the harsher features of legal
science, and in criticising its merits, it must be
borne in mind that "its principal object is to
present an orderly and systematic view of a
science, the outlines of which are not to be found
as briefly, yet completely delineated, in any other
In Colonel Fremont's account of his disastrous
exploring expedition across the Rocky Mountains,
there is an interesting note relative to his perusal
of these volumes. He states that while encamped
on the side of the wintry mountain — on a spot
never before traversed by man — 12,000 feet above
the level of the sea — with the thermometer at
zero, and the country buried in snow — the vo-
lumes .of Blackstone's Commentaries, which he
had taken from the library of his wife's father,
formed his Christmas amusements. He read them
* Law Review.
t Hoffman's Course of Legal Study.
The Library. 177
to pass the time and kill the consciousness of his
situation. You^ may well suppose, adds the
Colonel, that my first law lessons will be well
The Library contains a collection of the princi-
pal writers on the Law of Scotland, including the
works of Sir George Mackenzie, Lord Stair, Mac-
douall (Lord Bankton), Erskine, &c. ; with the
Decisions of the Court of Session from the earliest
period, M orison's Dictionary, and all the modem
Reports. There are also many works relating to
the practice of the law in Ireland, besides the col-
lection of Irish Statutes, and the Reports of the
Courts of Law in that kingdom.
The works of some of the most eminent of the
American jurists are likewise to be found in the
Library, including those of the late Judge Story,
some of them presented by himself ; the Treatise on
Evidence of Professor Greenleaf, presented by the
author ; the Commentaries of Mr. Chancellor Kent ;
the treatises of Angell on Tide Waters, &c., those of
Bishop on Marriage and Divorce, those of Milliard
on the Law of Contracts and of Torts, those of
Parsons on Shipping, of Redfield on the Law of
Wills, of Duer on Marine Insurance, an<J of Wash-
burn on the American Law of Real Property, &c.
178 Lincoln's Inn.
Besides these, there is a large collection of the
The next division of the Library is that wherein
are contained the volumes of the Reports of Argu-
ments and Decisions in Courts of Justice. " The
practice of collecting judicial decisions," says M.
Dupin, " is of great antiquity. Craterus, the fa-
vourite of Alexander the Great, vkras the author of
a work, the loss of which is much regretted by the
learned; it was a collection of Athenian laws,
amongst which were the decisions of the Areopagus,
and the Council of Amphictyons. The Roman
lawyers often quote the judgments of the Praetors,
and the ordinances of other magistrates." That
this practice prevailed at an early period in Eng-
land is shown by a passage in Chaucer :
" In termes hadde he cas and domes alle
That from the time of King Will, weren falle."
" English Jurisprudence has not any other sure
foundation, nor consequently, the lives and proper-
ties of the subject any sure hold, but in the maxims,
rules, principles, and juridical traditionary line of
decisions, contained in the notes taken from time
The Library. 179
to time, and published mostly under the sanction
of the Judges, called Reports."* These reports
are histories of cases with a short summary of the
proceedings, which are preserved at large in the
records of the courts of justice, the arguments on
both sides, and the reasons the court gave for its
judgment, noted down by persons present at the
determination. The reports are extant in a regular
series from the reign of Edward II. inclusive ; and
from his time to that of Henry VI 1 1, they were
taken by the prothonotaries or chief scribes of the
court, at the expense of the crown, and published
annually, whence they are known under the deno-
mination of the Year-Books.t As the Library of
Lincoln's Inn contains copies of all the Reports
that have been published, besides a large collection
of Manuscript Cases, including some of the earliest
Year-Books, a summary notice of them may be
The Year-Books were first printed, and for the
most part in separate Years and Terms, by Mach-
linia, Pynson, &c. The whole series, with the ex-
ception of the reign of Edward II., Was reprinted
about 1600 ; and this edition was so much in re-
quest that copies were sold for a very high price
until the publication of another in 1679, including
* Burke. + Blackstone.
i8o Lincoln's Inn.
the reign of Edward 11. by Serjeant Maynard, in
eleven volumes, folio. There are in the Library
twenty-five volumes of the original editions of the
Year-Books printed by Pynson, Redman, Berthelet,
Tottell, &c. ; but it will be proper to notice first a
Manuscript on vellum acquired some years ago by
the Society, containing Reports of the reign of
Edward I.* On the inside of the cover is the fol-
lowing autograph note of Mr. Samuel Heywood, the
former possessor of the volume : —
This book, according to the certificate on the first leaf,
contains Reports of Cases in all the years of Edward I.,
and it appears from the Report of the Committee for
examining Records appointed by the House of Commons
in 1800, that there is no copy of these Reports extant in
any of the Public Libraries. At the end is a very ancient
copy of part of Britton, signed also by Wm. Fleetwood,
who was Recorder of the City of London in the reign of
Elizabeth, to whom this volume in its present state pro-
bably belonged formerly, as well as my MS. copy of Re-
ports in the reign of Edward III. S. H.
The following is the certificate referred to in the
foregoing note : — Hie liber Francisci Tate de Medio
Templo continet in se omnes annossive Repertorium
Regis Edwardi Primi. Teste W. Fletewoode. At
the end of the volume also is the signature : Wil-
♦ There are also in the Library some other volumes in MS.
containing Reports of the 30, 31, 32, and 33 years of
Edward I. ; as well as some others containing Reports of the
reign of Edward II.
The Library. i8i
liam Fletewoode. The Manuscript, a small folio,
contains 288 pages, exclusive of the portion of
Britton bound with it.*
Of the early printed volumes twelve, in the ori-
ginal oak binding, were presented by Ranulph
(or Randall) Cholmeley, and some of these had
belonged to William Rastell, as appears by the fol-
lowing inscription on the inside of one of the
covers : —
Sayd that I Wm Rastell the xvi day of March in the
XXX yere of Kyng Henry the viii have sold to Randall
Cholmeley my fyve + gret boke of yeres whereof this is
* The statement that this volume contains Reports of Cases
in all the years of Edward I. has been found to be erro-
neous, by the careful examination the Manuscript has under-
gone at the hands of Mr. J. Horwood, by whom, some
Reports of this period have been edited for the series of his-
torical publications of the Master of the Rolls. It appears
that the cases are chiefly of the 31st and 32d years of Edward
I., with a few reports of some other years. Mr. Horwood
states that the handwriting is of the reign of Edward II.,
and is of a beauty far surpassing that" of any Manuscript
Year-Book which has fallen under his notice. The Reports
from the Year-Books which Mr. Horwood has edited con-
sist of three volumes ; those of the 30 and 31 Edward I.,
printed in 1863 from three MSS., two in the Library of Lin-
coln's Inn, the third in the British Museum ; those of 32 and
33 Edward I., printed in 1864 from the MSS. in Lincoln's
Inn Library ; and those of 20 and 21 Edward I., in 1866,
from a MS. in Cambridge University Library.
t There are only four volumes with Rastell's name, which
is written several times on the leaves, and sometimes in very
neat Greek characters.
1 82 Lincoln's Inn.
one for the some of xxxiiiis viii<^ whych the same day he
hath payd me.
To one of the volumes are prefixed copies of
Olde Teners, Natura Brevium, Lyttelton, and
Novae Narrationes, printed by Pynson, without
date. In another volume at the end of 17 Edward
III., without printer's name : "The price of thys
boke is xvi d. unbownde ; " and at the end of 1 8
Edward III., also without printer's name : " The
price of thys boke is xii d. unbound." In another
of the volumes, at the end of 14 Henry VII., printed
by T. Berth elet in 1529, the following curious evi-
dence of the zealous desire of the printer to obtain
the approbation of the public occurs in the colo-
phon : " Si non adhuc nihilominus spero me olim
satisfacturum delicatissimo palato. Scio per Jovem
non omnino displiciturum hunc libellum." At the
end of the following year, the printer puts forth the
following laconic charge to the reader : "Hunc
eme et lege, et disperiam si non placebit." It ap-
pears that his meritorious efforts were not unre-
warded; for two years afterwards, in 1532, the
colophon bears evidence that he had been appointed
printer to the king. It is believed that he was the
first who enjoyed that office by patent. The press
of Berthelet was distinguished by the value as well
as the number of the works which issued from it.
^ Three of the volumes of Year-Books were given
The Library. ' 183
to the Society in 1604 by Thomas Antrobus, and
have his arms emblazoned on the fly-leaves. Three
of them belonged to Lord Bacon, and haVe his
initials on the title-page of the first volume, and
numerous marginal notes in his hand-writing.*
They contain part of the reign of Edward III. and
the whole of that of Edward IV. At the end of
10 Edward IV., apparently printed by Rastell or
Pynson, consisting of forty pages, are the words :
The price of thys boke is iiii^- unbounde. This
year, as well as the two years before mentioned
with prices, appears to be printed with the same
types as the Fitzherbert's Abridgment of 15 16, and
the circumstance of the price being printed also on
that work confirms the opinion that it may have
issued from the^ame press.
* These volumes were purchased in 1845 ^t the sale of
the Library of the late Benjamin Heywood Bright, Esq., a
member of Lincoln's Inn. This gentleman's rich and ex-
tensive library abounded in works of the highest historical
and literary interest, and in bibliographical curiosities ;
and in this collection was a copy of Selden's Titles of
Honour, presented by the learned author to William Cam-
den, "the nourice of antiquitie," and a copy of his Treatise
De Diis Syris, presented to Ben Jonson, which was ren-
dered still more interesting by the manuscript notes of the
dramatist. "There is nothing which brings us more im-
mediately into the presence of the honoured dead than the
possession of a book which once belonged to them, and
which exhibits proof that it had been perused, if not
studied, by them."
1 84 Lincoln's Inn.
With respect to the compilation of the Year-
Books, it has been said, " that almost everything
relating to them is involved in so much obscurity
that it is believed even the names of the reporters
are unknown." * This does not appear to be strictly
the case, for Selden, in his Dissertation annexed to
Fleta, speaks of the Law Annals of King Edward
IL as transcribed from the manuscript of Richard
de Winchedon, who lived at that time. Again, in
the Year-Books, at the end of one of the Terms
(M. T. 21 Edward IIL p. 50), is the following
passage : Icy se finissent les Reportes du Mons'
Horewode. It is probable also that some manu-
script reports extant in the time of Sir James Dyer,
Chief Justice of Common Pleas in the reign of
Elizabeth, and cited under the names of Tanfield,
Warberton, &c., were by the Annalists, or com-
pilers of the Year-Books. t Mr. Plowden, in the
Preface to his Commentaries, written in the same
reign, supposes the number of these official
reporters to have been four, and that they received
an annual stipend from the crown.
When the ten volumes of the Year-Books were
printed by subscription in 1679, ^^^7 were recom-
mended by the Judges to all students and professors
* Douglas' Reports, Preface.
t Vaillant's Preface to Dyer's Reports.
The Library. 185
of the law, as an essential part of their study.
These books undoubtedly, says Bp. Nicolson, "give
us the best history of our judges of both benches ;
setting forth their opinions, in cases of intricacy,
and, by consequence, good probable grounds for
guessing at the learning and accomplishments of
the men."* Lord Mansfield said that when he
was young, few persons would confess that they had
not read at least a considerable part of the Year-
Books ; and, though of late years less attention has
been paid to them, their importance is acknowledged
by eminent jurists, and Sir Frederick Pollock has
adverted to the extent of information derivable from
those early authorities — the fountain-heads of the
law — the Year- Books and old Reports. In a letter
written in 1843 to Matthew Davenport Hill, Esq.,
by the late enlightened and lamented American
Judge, the Hon. Joseph Story, occurs the following
passage : " Looking to the gradual but certain
decline of a knowledge of the old Norman Law
French, I cannot but hope that Parliament may be
induced to order a translation and publication of
all the Year-Books (the unpublished as well as the
pubHshed), as well as all the records of the early
* Serjeant Maynard is said by Roger North to have had
such a relish of the old Year-Books, that he carried one in
his coach to divert his time in travel, and chose it before
1 86 Lincoln's Inn.
cases decided in Chancery ; they would contain
invaluable materials for an exact history of Com-
mon Law and of Equity which, I fear, in a few
years will be wholly inaccessible to the bulk of our
Bellewe's Cases Temp. Ric. II. supply the
chasm in the Year-Books between the fifth part of
these books (Edward III.) and the reign of Henry
IV. The volume is termed by Dugdale,t " The
Year-Book of King Richard the Second's time
containing Cases adjudged." The Cases were
selected from the abridgments of Statham, Fitz-
herbert, and Brooke, by Richard Bellewe, of
Lincoln's Inn, and printed in 1585, 8vo. Having
become very rare, the book was admirably reprinted
in 1869, and published by Messrs Stevens and
Haynes, who have also reprinted some other
volumes of the early reports.
The labours of the official reporters employed in
the compilation of the Year-Books were discon-
tinued after the 27th Henry VIII., or probably
earlier, for the cases printed of that reign are said
to be collected with very little judgment. After
that time a considerable period elapsed before the
appearance of any new Reports. The first were
* The correspondence between Mr. Hill and Mr. Justice
Story will be found in the Law Review,
•f* Origines Jurid, p. 58.
The Library. 187
those of Edmund Plowden, Serjeant-at-Law,
" the most accurate of all reporters." They con-
tain cases in the reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and
Elizabeth, and were first published in French under
the name of Commentaries in 1684, folio ; four
times reprinted in French, and an English translation
published in 1761, folio. The next were those of
Sir James Dyer, containing select cases from
4 Henry VIII. to 24 Elizabeth, published by his
nephews in 1585, folio, in French. Their ** grandeur
and dignity," in the opinion of Sir Harbottle Grim-
stone, " are an ample recompense for any failure in
the number of persons reporting." They were five
times reprinted, and an English translation was
first published by Mr. John Vaillant, in three
volumes, 8vo. 1794, with a life of the author from a
MS. in the Library of the Inner Temple. In the
year 1602, followed the Reports of Mr. Robert
Keilwey, edited by John Croke,* Serjeant-at-
Law, and Recorder of the City of London, brother
of the Reporter of that name, containing Cases in
the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. not
reported in the Year- Books.
To the Reports of Sir Edward Coke has
been given as an especial distinction the title of
The Reports ; and particular importance is at-
* Speaker of the House of Commons, afterwards created a
Knight, and Judge of the King's Bench.
i88 LiNCOLN^s Inn.
tached to them as comprising the decisions of our
courts of justice at a time when the law was, as it
may be said, in a state of transition. Had it not
been for these Reports, it is said by Lord Bacon
that " the law by this time had been almost a ship
without ballast.** * They are in thirteen parts,
eleven only of which appeared during the author's
life-time, between the years 1601 and 161 6, in
French ; the twelfth part appeared in 1658, and the
thirteenth in 1677, folio. They were printed in
English in 1658 and in 1680 ; and in 1697 reprinted
in French. In 1727 these Reports were printed in
seven volumes 8vo. with the pleadings in Latin ;
in 1738, with the pleadings in English, in seven
vols, 8vo. ; in 1776, with notes by Mr. Serjeant
Wilson, in seven vols., 8vo. The last edition was
in 1826, with Notes by J. H. Thomas, and J. F.
Fraser, in six vols., 8vo.
The rapid increase of Reports during the Com-
monwealth is thus alluded to by BULSTRODE,t
whose Reports were published in 1657 : " Of late we
have found so many wandering and masterless
reports like the soldiers of Cadmus, daily rising
up and jostling each other, that our learned Judges
have been forced to provide against their multiplicity
* Proposal for amending the Laws of England,
t Dedicatory Epistle to his second volume.
The Library. 189
by disallowing of some posthumous Reports ; well
considering that as laws are the anchors of the
republic, so the Reports are as the anchors of
laws, and therefore ought to be well weighed before
The Reports of Sir George Croke, containing
cases in the reigns of Elizabeth, James, and Charles
I., and regarded as of high authority, were published
by Sir Harbottle Grimstone in 1657-61, in three
volumes, folio. Having been published while the
Ordinance of Parliament was in force, commanding
the publication of law books in English, the editor
was compelled reluctantly to translate them into
English, but still enjoyed the satisfaction of print-
ing them in black letter^ which he considered the
proper letter of the law. The last edition, the
fourth, was by Thomas Leach, Esq., in 1790-92,
four vols., 8vo.
Upon the Restoration, a check was given to the
indiscriminate printing of Reports by the Statute
which prohibited the publication of law-books with-
out the licence of certain of the Judges. In the
reign of Charles II., Reports were published by
Henry Rolle, William Leonard, Sir Thomas
Jones, and Sir John Vaughan. In the reign
of James II. appeared the Reports of Sir Edmund
Saunders, who was termed by Lord Mansfield
the Terence of Reporters. The value of this work
I90 Lincoln's Inn.
has been so much augmented by the annotations
of Mr. Vaughan Williams, that the Terence has
been aptly said to have met with a Bentley for his
The regular periodical publication of Reports did
not take place till the latter part of the last century,
Mr. Durnford and Mr. Hyde East having led
the way by publishing in conjunction the ^Cases
adjudged in the Court of King's Bench within a
short time after each Term, under the name of Tenn
Reports. This example was followed by many
other barristers, and the number of reporters mul-
tiplied so rapidly that before the end of the reign of
George III. they amounted to upwards of sixty in
the different courts.
In the year 1866 a new system of reporting
was established, under the direction of a body
named the Council of Law Reporting, consisting
of the Law Officers of the Crown, who are ex-
officio members, and of representatives appointed
by Serjeant's Inn, the four Inns of Court, and the
Incorporated Law Society. This Council owes its
existence to a scheme for the amendment of the sys-
tem of reporting judicial decisions adopted by the
Bar at a meeting held on the 28th November 1864,
under the presidency of Sir Roundell Palmer, then
Attorney General, and now Lord Chancellor (Lord
Selborne). The object of this scheme was "the
The Library. 191
preparation under professional control through
the medium of the Council, by barristers of known
ability, skill, and experience, acting under the super-
vision of editors, of one complete set of Reports, to
be published with promptitude, regularity, and at
moderate cost, in the expectation that such a set of
Reports would be generally accepted by the pro-
fession as sufficient evidence of case law ; so that
the judge in decision, the advocate in argument, and
the general practitioner in the advice he gives to his
client, may resort to one and the same standard of
authority." This scheme has received the support
of the profession ; and the number of volumes pub-
lished annually, comprising Reports of Cases in all
the Courts, is about ten.*
The Library possesses also a large collection of
the Cases heard on Appeal before the House of
Lords, as the supreme court of judicature in the
kingdom, from the year 1664 to the present time,
forming about 160 volumes in folio and 1 1 1 volumes
in 4to. Besides these, there is a collection of Cases
heard before the Judicial Committee of the Privy
Council, from 1847 to the present time, forming 128
volumes in folio.
*The independent periodical publication of the Law
Journal, the Law Times, the Solicitors' Journal, and the
Weekly Reporter is still continued.
192 Lincoln's Inn.
The next division of English Law to be noticed
is the Collection of the Statutes or Acts of Parlia-
ment, the great importance of which in the study
of history, as well as in the attainment of a scientific
knowledge of the law, is very evident. ** Our Acts
of Parliament,'* says Bishop Nicolson, " give often
such fair hints of the humours most prevailing at
the time of their being enacted, that many parts of
our history may be recovered from them, especially
if compared with the writers, either in divinity or
morality, about the same date.'* Mr. Daines Har-
rington observes, that our old acts of parliament
are the very best materials for English history, and
that they are strongly descriptive of the manners
of the times. Mr. Raithby * says : " When it is
considered that the Statute Book of England con-
tains the best and surest history of the constitution
of this country, it must be regretted that it is sel-
dom perused but from the necessity of reference,
or regarded in any higher light than a naked for-
mulary of municipal regulations ; and it is much to
be desired that the study of it should be regularly
* Preface to the Statutes at Large.
The Library. 193
incorporated into the system of ^ British educa-
Statutes, or Acts of Parliament, compose that
part of the law of England known by the denomi-
nation of written laws in contradistinction to the
common law, which is unwritten, and depends on
immemorial custom. The general name for all
laws anterior to the date of the earliest statutes
now extant was either Assisae or Constitutiones.
Statutes were originally founded upon petitions
of the Commons, referred to certain tryers, being
Lords of Parliament, and afterwards maturely con-
sidered and replied to by the king, with the assist-
ance of his responsible advisers. The statute
itself was drawn up with the aid of the judges and
other grave and learned persons, and was entered
on a roll called the Statute Roll. The tenor of it
was afterwards transcribed on parchment, and sent
to the sheriffs of every county for proclamation.
In 2 Henry V. the Commons, in consequence of a
corrupt practice of making alterations at the time
of entering the bill on the Statute Roll, contended
that, since they were assertors as well as petitioners,
* In China, all persons holding official situations are
required to be perfect in the knowledge of the laws, and
their deficiency at the annual examination by their superiors
subjects them to the loss of a month's salary, and the
inferior officers are punished with forty blows. — Barrett's
194 Lincoln's Inn.
statutes should be made according to the tenor
of the writing of their petitions, and not altered.
This petition, memorable on many accounts be-
sides its intrinsic importance, is deserving of notice
as the earliest instance in which the House of
Commons adopted the English language. They
had noble sentiments to utter, and they must have
presently discovered that they were able to embody
them in suitable expressions ; that there was no
want of copiousness or of energy in the vernacular
The Statutes were originally either in Latin or
French ; and a memorandum of the time and place
of meeting of the Parliament was usually prefixed.
The acts passed during one session formed one
statute. The division into chapters, with titles,
was an arbitrary invention of subsequent editors ;
and the practice commenced in the 5th year of
Henry VIIL In the reigns of Henry VI. and
Edward IV. the language of the Statutes was
sometimes English, but more commonly French ;
the Statutes of Henry VII. were the first that were
all drawn in English.
The printed promulgation of the Statutes in the
form of sessional publications began in the reign of
Richard III. ; at which period it has been errone-
ously supposed that the distinction between public
* Dwarris on Statutes,
The Library. 195
and private acts originated. Numerous instances
of the passing of acts of a private nature, are to be
found in Riley's Placita Parliamentaria, and in the
six volumes of the Rolls of Parliament, printed in
I '](i^ ; but from the period mentioned, the division
has been adopted in the Tables to the collections
of the Statutes at Large.
The first division of the Statutes is into Ancient
and Modern j those from Magna Charta to the end
of the reign of Edward H. being called Vetera
Statuta, those from the beginning of Edward IIL
Nova Statuta. The Vetera Statuta include some
which are termed incerti temporis^ because it is
not known whether they should be assigned to
the reign of Henry IIL, Edward I. or Edward II.
From some accidental circumstance of collection
or publication they are divided into two parts.
Modern Acts of Parliament are divided into the
classes of Public General, Local and Personal,
Private Acts printed by the King's Printer, and
Private Acts not so printed; but as some variations
have from time to time taken place in the mode of
division, the following statement derived from the
Sessional Tables prefixed to the volumes of Statutes
printed by authority, may be found useful.
I. From the reign of Richard III. to 25 George
II. the division is simply into Public and
196 Lincoln's Inn.
2. From 26 George II. to 37 George III. after the
list of Public Acts is a list of Acts termed
Public Acts not printed in this collection ;
and then follows the list of Private Acts.
3. From 38 George III. to 42 George III. the
division is into three classes, termed Public
General Acts ; Public Local and Personal
Acts ; and Private Acts.
4. From 43 George III. to 54 George III. the
classes are termed Public General Acts;
Local and Personal Acts to be judicially
noticed; and Local and Personal Acts not
5. From 55 George III. to the present time, the
division is fourfold, under the following
terms : — Public General Acts ; Local and
Personal Acts declared Public, &c. ; Private
Acts printed by the King's Printer ; and
Private Acts not printed. From 31 and 32
Vict, to the present time, the Public Acts of
a local character have been printed with the
Local and Personal Acts, the letter P. being
placed in the margin of the list of those Acts
to distinguish them ; although Public Acts,
* The term "not printed" means that the Acts are not
printed by the king's or queen's printer; these Acts, which
relate principally to Inclosures, estates, &c., are printed at
the expense of the parties concerned.
The Library. 197
they do not appear in the list nor in the in-
dex of the Public Acts, but only in the list
and index of the Local and Personal Acts.
The principal editions of the Statutes may now
be noticed in chronological order, most of these,
with the exception of the rarest and earliest of them,
being in the Library of Lincoln's Inn.
In the earliest Collections and Abridgments, all
the Statutes previous to the reign of Henry VII.
were printed in Latin or French, the languages in >
which they were respectively passed. > The first of
these, entitled Vieu Abregement des Statuts, in
folio, contains the Statutes in Latin and French, in
alphabetical order, to 33 Henry VI. a.d. 1455, and
is supposed to have been printed by Lettou and
Machlinia before 148 1.
Nova Statuta, i Edward III. to 22 Edward IV.
in Latin and French, supposed to have been
printed by Machlinia after the preceding, about
Statuta apud Westmonasterium edita anno primo
regis Ricardi III. ; printed in French, by Caxton or
Machlinia, in 1483, folio, immediately on being
passed. This is the first instance of sessional pub-
lication by the king's printer, a practice continued
to the present time.
Statutes of Henry VII. A complete series of
the Statutes, from i to 7 Henry VII., the period of
198 Lincoln's Inn.
Caxton's decease, was published by that printer, in
folio, without date. It consists of eighty-two pages,
and is described in the Bibliotheca Spenceriana
by Dr. Dibdin, who says, it may be questioned
whether there are three perfect copies in existence.
Several portions of the Statutes of Henry VII.
were printed by Wynkyn de Worde.
Between 1497 and 1504, the Statutes from
I Edward III. to 12 Henry VII. inclusive, were
printed by R. Pynson, in folio, in Latin and French
respectively, those of Henry VII. only being in
In 1508, Pynson printed in i2mo. the Statutes
previous to i Edward III. which are usually called
Antiqua Statuta or Vetera Statuta, those passed
subsequently to that period being termed Nova
Statuta. These were several times reprinted, and
are the earliest printed copies known of these
In 1 53 1, Berthelet printed in i6mo. an edition of
Antiqua Statuta, similar to Pynson's, with addi-
tions ; and in 1532 he printed a small collection of
other Statutes previous to Edward III. which he
entitled, Sccunda Pars Veterum Statutorum. Of
these two collections, several editions were after-
wards pubHshed; the principal are those of
Tottell, 1556, 1576 and 1587, and that of Marshe,
The Library. 199
In the Alphabetical Abridgment of the Statutes
by William Owen, of the Middle Temple, printed
by Pynson in 15 21 and 1528, i2mo., not only the
Acts previous to, and in the reign of Richard III.
are in Latin or French, but the Abridgment of
those of Henry VI I. and Henry VIII. is in French,
although they were passed and printed in English.
Rastell's Abridgment. The first English Abridg-
ment of the Statutes was translated and printed by
John Rastell, in 15 19, folio, with a Preface on the
propriety of the laws being published in English.
This preface indicates the period when the Acts
were first " endited and written " in English, ascrib-
ing that measure to Henry VII.
Ferrers' Translation. The earliest printed trans-
lation, not abridged, of the Charters, and of several
Statutes previous to i Edward III. was made by
George Ferrers, member of parliament. It was
first printed in 1534, in 8vo. by Redman, and re-
published in 1540 and 1542, with some amendments
and additions. This translation was generally
adopted in subsequent editions of the Statutes.
In 1543, a volume of Statutes, in English, from
Magna Charta to 19 Henry VII. was printed by
Thomas Berthelet, the king's printer, in folio, and a
second volume soon afterwards, containing those
of Henry VIII. This is the first complete chrono-
logical series, either in the English, or the original
200 Lincoln's Inn.
languages, and the first translation of the Statutes
from I Edward III. to i Henry VII. The first
volume was reprinted in 1564, and the second in
1544, 1551, 1563, and 1575.
Between 1 541 and 1548 "The Great Boke of
Statutes ''in English, from i Edward III. to 34
Henry VIII. was printed as far as 24 Henry VII.
by R. Myddylton, and thence by Berthelet, in
Rastell's Collection of Statutes. In 1557, a
Collection of Acts from Magna Charta to that
period, in alphabetical order, was published by
William Rastell, Sergeant-at-Law, afterwards Chief
Justice of K. B. The Statutes to the end of
the reign of Richard III. are given either in Latin
or French, as first published, and all subsequent in
English. This collection was reprinted in 1579,
and frequently afterwards, with the Acts prior to
Henry VII. translated into English.
In the edition of Statutes in English, printed by
C. Barker, in* 1587, folio, the Title affords the
earliest instance of the term. Statutes at Large.
In the " Collection of Sundry Statutes frequent in
use," ending with 7 James I. published by Ferdi-
nando Pulton in 161 8, folio, the editor first intro-
duced a regular series of titles at the head of every
chapter, apparently of his own invention.
In 161 8, the Statutes at Large, in English, were
The Library. 201
published by the king's printers, Norton and Bill,
in folio. This Collection, professing to contain all
the Acts at any time extant in print until 6 James
I. is usually called RasteU's Statutes, although
Rastell had been long deceased.
An authentic Collection of the Acts and Ordi-
nances passed from 1640 to 1656, by Henry
Scobell, Clerk of the Parliament, was printed in
1658, folio. Partial collections of these were printed
by Husband in 1646, by Field in 165 1, &c. After
the Restoration, the Statutes of the reign of
Charles I. and Charles II. by Thomas Manby
were printed in 1667, folio.
Respecting the various editions of the Statutes
at Large, by Joseph Keble in 1676 ; by Mr. Ser-
jeant Hawkins, in 1735, six vols, folio ; by John
Cay in 1758, six vols, folio ; by Owen Ruff head, in
1 762-1 800, eighteen vols. 4to. ; by Danby Picker-
ing, in 1762, twenty-three vols. 8vo. continued
annually ; as well as those above noticed, full
information is contained in the- Introduction to the
Statutes of the Realm published by the Record
Commission. This valuable publication, containing
all the Charters, with engraved fac-similes, and the
Statutes from that of Merton, 20 Henry III. to the
end of the reign of Anne, in their original languages,
with translations, under the editorial care of Sir T. E»
Tomlins, J. Raithby, &c. was printed in 1 810-1828 in
202 Lincoln's Inn.
eleven volumes folio, with Alphabetical and Chrono-
logical Indexes. In the Introduction it is stated,
that no complete Collection has been printed con-
taining all the matters which at different times,
and by different editors, have been published as
Statutes ; and that no one complete printed trans-
lation of all the Acts previous to the reign of
Henry VII. exists.
The quarto edition of the Statutes by Ruffhead
was continued by Tomlins, Raithby, Simons, and
Rickards successively, from 1801 to 1869, when the
publication in that form was discontinued, and the
place is supplied from 1870 to the present time by
the octavo edition published by the Council of Law
The folio edition of the Statutes, published ses-
sionally by authority, printed in black letter till ^^
George III. and continued in the Roman character,
is in the Library, commencing with 21 Jac. I. ;
and also the Local and Personal Acts from 38
George III., and the Private Acts from i George
II. 1727 to the present time.
In the year 1870, in compliance with the letter of
the Lord Chancellor (Cairns) to Sir John G. Shaw
Lefevre, Clerk of the Parliaments, dated 9th July
1868, appeared the first volume of a revised edition
of the Statutes, containing only such Acts as are in
force. They are under the editorship of Mr. Arthur
The Library. 203
John Wood, Mr. G. K. Rickards, Mr. P. Vernon
Smith, and Mr. W. L. Selfe, and are printed in
royal octavo ; three volumes have now been pub-
lished,* and it is expected that the Acts will be
comprised in about eighteen volumes. With this
edition has also been published by authority a
Chronological Table and Index to the Statutes, the
second edition of which reaches to the end of the
Session of 1872 ; the Table being framed by Mr.
A. J. Wood, the Index by Mr. Henry Jenkyns with
the assistance of Mr. Chaloner W. Chute.
By the kind courtesy of the public authorities, a
considerable collection of the Statutes of the various
colonies of Great Britain, comprising those of
Canada, Jamaica, Australia, Barbados, Mauritius,
New Zealand, &c., &c., now have a place in the
The Library of Lincoln's Inn possesses several
volumes of the Statutes in manuscript, the gifts of
various benefactors. Most of them are written on
vellum, in fine preservation, and some illuminated ;
they are chiefly of the fourteenth century.
Statutes of Scotland. The first general
collection of these Statutes, published by authority,
was edited by Dr. Edward Henryson, and printed
* Vol I. Henry Ill.-James II., 1235-36-1685. Vol II.
William and Mary-io George HI., 1688-1770. Vol. Ill, 11
George III.-41 George III., 1770-1800.
204 Lincoln's Inn.
at Edinburgh in 1556, by Robert Lekpreuik, in
folio. From the character in which they are
printed, these are usually termed the " Black Acts."
But this collection contains only the Acts from
the return of James I. to Scotland in 1424 to the
last parliament of Queen Mary in 1564. Another
edition, containing the Acts from the same period to
December 1597, was published in that year by Sir
John Skene, Clerk of Register. In 1609, a col-
lection of the Laws of Scotland from the reign of
Malcolm 11. a.d. 1004 to that of Robert III. a.d.
1400, was published by Sir John Skene, in the
original Latin, and a Scottish translation was
printed at the same time, both in folio, with the
treatises of " Regiam Majestatem " and " Quoniam
Attachiamenta," ♦ so called from their initial words.
This translation was reprinted in 1613, and again
in 1774, 4to. In the year 1681, the Acts from
19 James I. 1424 to 33 Charles II. 168 1, were
published in folio, by Sir Thomas Murray of Glen-
dook. Clerk of the Council. There is also an
edition, commonly called "the Scotch Acts," in
three vols. i2mo., containing the Acts from 1424
An edition has likewise been published by the
Record Commission in eleven volumes, folio, con-
* This consists chiefly of rules of proceedings in Court.
The Library. 205
taining all the Acts of Parliament from the reign of
David I. A.D. 1 1 24 to 1707, the year of the Union
of the kingdoms of .England and Scotland. This
edition was published under the superintendence of
Mr. Thomas Thomson, Deputy Clerk Register of
Scotland,* the first volume, which was not printed
till 1844, being brought to completion by Mr. C.
Innes. The date of the other volumes is 1814-
1824. In the first volume is a collation of the
Regiam Majestatem with the treatise of Glanville,
by which it is shown to contain the same matter
almost in the same words. The Regiam Majes-
tatem professes to be compiled by a private
individual, by the command of King David ; f but
the period of its compilation is now ascertained to
be about two centuries later. Except in the manu-
script collections which contain the treatise itself,
there is no mention of the work earlier than in
the ordinance of the Parliament of James I. in
1425. I The earliest copies now extant were written
about the end of the 14th century.
* Under the same superintendence were published in
1839, the Acts of the Lords Auditors of Causes and Com-
plaints, from 1466 to 1494, and the Acts of the Lords of
Council in Civil Causes, from 1478 to 1495.
+ The early collectors of the laws of Scotland have con-
curred in ascribing a large body of ordinances to King
David 1. as the Justinian of that kingdom.
2o6 Lincoln's Inn.
The first general collection of the Statutes of
Ireland was made under the authority of Sir
Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of that kingdom in the
reign of Elizabeth, and contains the Acts from lo
Henry VI. to 14 Elizabeth. It was printed at London
by R. Tottell in 1572, folio. In 1621, a Collection
of Acts frdm 3 Edward II. to 13 James I. made
by Sir Richard Bolton, Recorder of Dublin, was
printed in that city, in folio. This was reprinted
by the king's printer in 1678, and again in 1723.
In 1765, the Statutes from 3 Edward II. were
printed by authority in Dublin, in seven vols, folio,
with an eighth volume of Tables. A republication
of these took place in 1786, and was continued to
40 George III. 1800, forming, with two volumes of
Indexes by William Ball, twenty-one volumes,
The Library possesses, besides several editions
of the State Trials, an extensive collection of cri-
minal and other trials. Such collections are valu-
able not only to the lawyer, but afford rich materials
for the study of history, indicating in some degree
the character of the times in which they occur, the
manners and habits of the people, as well as their
The Library. 207
moral and intellectual condition. The trials of
former times give life and reality, and what may be
termed dramatic effect, to history ; and exhibit a
great variety of character under circumstances of
difficulty and danger.
The State Trials were first collected and printed
in 1 719, with a Preface by Mr. Salmon, in four
volumes, folio. The second edition was in 1730,
with a Preface by Mr. Emlyn, in six volumes,
folio ; reprinted in 1742. Two supplemental
volumes were printed in 1735, ^"^ ^^^ additional
volumes in 1766. A fourth edition was given to
the public by Mr. Hargrave, in eleven volumes,
folio, 1766-81 ; and a new edition by W. Cobbett,
T. B. Howell, and J. B. Howell, with an Index by
David Jardine, in thirty-four vols. 8vo., 1809-28.
This last collection commences with the proceed-
ings against Archbishop Becket, 9 Henry HI.
A.D. 1 163.
In the ^Library is a Collection of Papers, printed
and manuscript, relating to the memorable trial of
Warren Hastings. This trial, remarkable on many
accounts, is distinguished by the display of talent in
the managers and advocates engaged in the cause,
and called forth some of the most brilliant speeches
of Burke, Fox, and Sheridan. The Collection con-
tains all the Reports of Committees, the Minutes
of Evidence, and various other documents, with the
2o8 Lincoln's Inn.
whole of the Proceedings at the Trial, which lasted
130 days, continued at intervals from 1788 to
1794. These Papers, with Indexes, are bound in
fifty-eight volumes, folio ; of these, thirty-eight
containing the Report of the Trial, are in manu-
script, copied from the short-hand notes of Mr.
Gurney ; and amongst them is an unpublished
speech of Sheridan. The collection was purchased
of Mr. Adolphus, by whom it had been used in his
interesting narrative of the Trial in his History of
the Reign of George the Third. I
Here is also a Collection of the Trials at the
Sessions of the Old Bailey, now the Central Cri-
minal Court, from the year 1730 to the present
time, in 122 vols. 4to. and 76 vols., 8vo. A part
of this set was formerly in the magnificent library
of John, Duke of Roxburghe. In the Library of
Lincoln's Inn there is likewise a Collection of all
the publications relating to the celebrated Douglas
Cause, including all the Speeches and Arguments
in the case, and the various pamphlets written on
ROMAN OR CIVIL LAW.
The next department of the Library to be no-
ticed is that devoted to Civil and Foreign Law, and
in this division the number of works is scarcely
inferior to that of the writers on the Law of Eng-
The Library. 209
land. The importance of the study of the Civil or
Roman Law, and the great influence which that law
has exercised over the judicial institutions of Eng-
land, as well as of other European nations, are now
By Sir Matthew Hale it is observed "that the
true grounds and reasons of law were so well deli-
vered in the Digest, that a man could never un-
derstand law as a science so well as by seeking it
there." By Sir John Holt,* Lord Chief Justice
of K. B. in the reign of William III. it was con-
fessed that the principles of our law are borrowed
from the Civil Law, and therefore grounded upon the
All that is now extant of Roman legislation
consists of some fragments of the Laws of the
Twelve Tables ; the Theodosian Code ; the Corpus
Juris Civilis ; the Institutions of Gaius ; the re-
mains of legislation before the. time of Justinian,
which are preserved in the Quatuor Fontes Juris
Civilis by Godefroy, Jurisprudentia Vetus Ante-
Justinianea, by Schulting, Jus Civile Ante-Jus-
tinianeum, by Hugo, and Juris Romani Ante-Jus-
tinianei Fragmenta Vaticana, by Angelo Mai ; to
which may be added the Leges Regiae collected by
* The name of Holt can never be pronounced without
veneration, so long as wisdom and integrity are revered
among men.— Sir James Mackintosh.
210 Lincoln's Inn.
Lipsius and others, and laws attributed to Romulus,
published by Balduinus.
With respect to the Laws of the Twelve Tables,
though there is much controversy regarding their
origin, there is none about their existence. At the
beginning of the fourth century after the founda-
tion of the city of Rome, the old laws were reduced
to writing by a supreme council appointed for the
purpose, with additions chiefly from the Greek laws
and customs. Ten tables thus formed, afterwards
increased to twelve, were the foundation of the
Roman Law. The praetors, moreover, upon their
entrance into office, promulgated an edict, or body
of the rules which they intended to follow in
deciding causes. Commentaries were afterwards
written upon these edicts by the lawyers; and in
the course of time the number of law-books in-
creased to an enormous extent, in consequence of
which the great work of reducing them to the form
of a digest was undertaken by the Emperor Justinian
in the sixth century of the Christian era.
In A.D. 438, the emperor Theodosius the Second
caused a body of laws to be compiled, which from
him is named the Theodosian Code. It contains
the edicts and rescripts of sixteen emperors, from
the year 312, the era of the first Christian emperor,
to 438, and was promulgated both in the eastern and
western empire. The emperor had been preceded in
The Library. 211
the compilation of a body of laws by two lawyers
Gregorianus and Hermogenianus, some fragments
of which have been preserved. After the establish-
ment of the kingdom of the Visigoths, a digest of
Roman law was framed by the authority of Alaric II.
in the year 506, for the use of the Roman inhabit-
ants of that kingdom. This compilation, named the
Breviary,* comprises extracts from the Theodosian
Code, from the Novels of Theodosius and other
emperors, from the works of the jurists Gains and
Paulus, and from the Gregorian and Hermogenian
codes, with an interpretation which accommodated
these dispositions of the Roman Law to the existing
state of society. This interpretation is of the
highest historical value, giving a faithful picture
of the political condition of the Romans.t
The Theodosian Code was first printed at Basle
in 1528, folio, under the care of John Sichard ;
the second edition was by Jean du Tillet, Paris,
1558, 8vo. This edition is more complete than
the former, but omits the ancient commentary. It
was followed by that of Cujacius, printed at Lyons,
in 1566, folio; again at Paris, in 1586, folio, and
*■ This name was given to the work in the i6th century,
when it was called the Breviary of Anianus, by whose
signature the copies dispatched to the different districts
+ Quarterly Jurist.
212 Lincoln's Inn.
at Geneva in 1586, 410. Various other editions
were printed, but all were eclipsed by that of James
Godefroy, who was engaged for the space of thirty
years in the work, and died in 1652, before its
completion. The edition was committed to the
press by Anthony Marville, professor of law in
the university of Valence, who had purchased the
library of Godefroy, including his manuscripts.
** Immortale opus est, quod Gothofredus perficit,*'
is the testimony of Hugo, the eminent German
civilian, to the merit of the work. Gibbon also
speaks in the highest terms of its usefulness as a
work of history as well as of jurisprudence. The
Code was republished at Leipsic, in 1736-45, in
six volumes, folio, by John Daniel Ritter, professor
of philosophy, eminently qualified for the task. By
subsequent additions* from recently discovered
manuscripts, the first five books of the Theodosian
Code, which had long appeared defective, are
The Roman Law contained in the CORPUS Juris
CiviLis consists of the Code, Digest, and Insti-
tutes of Justinian, with the Novellae or Novel Con-
* Some additions, from a MS. in the Vatican, were
published some years after Hitter's edition, by Zirardini
and Amaduzzi ; and some fragments have been more recently
discovered in other libraries by the professors Peyron and
Clossius. These new materials have received additional
illustration from Dr. Wenck, professor of civil law in the
university of Leipsic.
The Library. 213
stitutions and thirteen edicts of that emperor, to
which have been subsequently added the Novellas
of Leo and other emperors, and the Feudorum
Consuetu dines. In A.D, 528, a commission was
appointed by Justinian, at the head of which was
placed his minister Tribonian, for the purpose of
compiling a new Code. The collection made by
this commission, containing the edicts and rescripts
of emperors from Hadrian to Justinian, was com-
pleted and sanctioned in the year 529 ; but some
new decisions having been found necessary, the
code was revised, the first edition suppressed, and
a new one, with these laws inserted, sanctioned in
534. In the year 530, Tribonian was appointed,
with sixteen associates, to prepare a digest of legal
science, from writings of the highest reputation ;
and the work thus compiled was published A.D.
533 under the title of Digests or Pandects. Tri-
bonian was also employed, in conjunction with
Theophilus, professor of law at Constantinople,
and Dorotheus, professor at Berytus,* to prepare
* The city of Berytus, beautifully situated on the coast
of Syria, was celebrated for its school of jurisprudence,
founded during the third century. It was destroyed by an
earthquake in the year 554, and near the ancient site another
town named Beirout was founded by the Druses, and
possessed by the Emirs as their capital till their expulsion
by Djezzar, Pasha of Acre. The name has become again
famous from its connection with the memorable destruction
214 Lincoln's Inn.
an introduction to the study of the law. This was
sanctioned in 533, and published under the title of
Institutes. "This little work," says Dr. Bever,
"is so truly admirable, both for its method and
conciseness, as well as for the elegance of its
composition, that it has been imitated by almost
every nation in Europe that has ever made any
pretence to reduce its own laws to a regular and
scientific form." It is formed on the model of the
Institutions of Caius or Gains, a jurist who lived
about the time of Antoninus, the recent discovery
of which is regarded, from the illustrations it affords
of the Roman Law, as forming a new era in the
history of jurisprudence.*
The Institutions of Gains, a work of which only
some fragments had been previously known, was
discovered by Niebuhr in the Cathedral Library
of Verona. An extract from the manuscript was
communicated to Professor Savigny, of Berlin,
who easily ascertained that it formed a portion of
the work of Gains. Professors Goschen and Bek-
of Acre, under Sir Charles Napier, in 1840. Since that
period a British consul has been resident there.
* In a volume just pubhshed (Oxford, 1873), entitled :
''The Institutes of Justinian, edited as a recension of the
Institutes of Gaius," by Mr. T. E. Holland, of Lincoln's
Inn, the editor has shown, by the use of a distinctive type in
printing, what proportion of text is common to both works,
and thus hopes that by the comparison " some light may be
thrown upon the historical development of Roman law."
The Library. 215
ker, members of the university of Berlin, were
dispatched by the Royal Academy of that city to
Verona, to execute a transcript of the MS.,* a
task in which they were aided by Dr. Bethmann
Hollweg, professor of law at Bonn. The work
was published by Goschen at Berlin in 1820, and
reprinted in 1824, in 8vo., and edited subsequently
by Booking, Gneist, Huschke, &c. ; and by its
restoration much light has been thrown upon the
Roman law, many doubts have been elucidated, and
difficulties, before regarded as hopeless, cleared up.f
There are also some English translations of the
The Institutes of Justinian were first printed at
Mentz, by Schoeffer, in 1468, folio ; the Code, in
1475, by t^^ same printer ; and the whole of the
Pandects in 1489, at Venice. Portions of the
Pandects were printed in 1475. ^^ the Library
of Lincoln's Inn is a fine copy of the Digestum
Novum, X printed by Jen son at Venice in 1477 ; of
* This ancient manuscript, supposed to have been written
before the compilation of Justinian, is a codex rescriptus^
and to a considerable extent bis rescriptus, and could not
be deciphered without the aid of a chemical process.
t Dr. Irving's Introduction to the Study of the Civil
Law; and Smith's Greek and Roman Biography.
X In the 15th century the Digest was divided into three
parts, the Digestum Vetus, Infortiatum, and Digestum
Novum. Various conjectures have been given respecting
the etymology of the word Infortiatum. The division so
2i6 Lincoln's Inn.
the Digestum Vetus, printed by Baptist de Tortis
at Venice in 1494 ; the Code by the same printer
in 1493, and by Nicolas de Benedictis at Lyons,
in 1506. All these are in folio, in the original oak
binding. There is also a copy of the edition of
the Pandects, by Laelius and Francis Taurelli,
beautifully printed by Torrentino at Florence in
1553, folio, from the celebrated manuscript pre-
served in the Medicean Library, The story, long
prevalent, respecting the discovery of this manu-
script at the capture of the city of Amalfi, and its
subsequent removal to Florence, has been shown
to be unfounded, and is now universally discredited.
It is, however, regarded as the most authentic
manuscript, and volumes of controversy have
been written on the subject. Among the editions of
the Corpus Juris Civilis in the Library, is that with
the gloss, or interpretation of Accursius, printed
at Lyons in 1627, in six volumes, folio ; and that
with the notes of Denis Godefroy, printed by
Elzevir at Amsterdam in 1663, two volumes folio,
edited by Simon Van Leeuwen.
A Greek paraphrase of the Institutes was written
by Theophilus, one of the compilers of the original
named begins with the third title of the twenty-fourth book,
** Soluto Matrimonio," and ends with the thirty-eighth book.
The word Pandects, derived from the Greek, denotes the
comprehensive nature of the work.
The Library. 217
work. Of this paraphrase several editions have
been printed ; the most complete is by William
Otto Reitz, printed at the Hague in 1 751, in two
volumes, 4to. In the opinion of Haubold, professor
of law at Leipsic, this is unequalled by any similar
publication, except Ritter's edition of the Theodo-
sian Code. The Pandects and Code were likewise
translated into Greek.
The Basilica is a body of law chiefly compiled
from that of Justinian for the government of the
eastern empire. Its name is derived, either from
the emperor Basilius, or from its containing
imperial constitutions (BaaiKiKai Staralcis). The
work was undertaken by Basilius, but the death of
that emperor occurring in 886, before its completion,
the task was effected by his son Leo, surnamed the
philosopher ; and the work received a final revision
under Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son of
Leo. A portion of this work was first published in
1557 at Paris, by Gentian Hervet ; other portions
appeared at various times ; but the most complete
edition, till the recent publication of Heimbach,
was that by Charles Annibal Fabrot, professor of
law in the university of Aix, printed at Paris in
1647, in six volumes, folio. A supplement to
this edition, by W. O. Reitz, containing Books
XLIX.-Lil., was printed in Meerman's Thesaurus,
and reprinted, with additions, by David Ruhn-
2i8 LiNXOLX*s Inn.
kenius at Leyden in 1 765. A new edition, in six
volumes, 410., has lately been completed by Charles
William Ernest Heimbach. The first volume was
printed at Leipsic in 1833, and the last in 187a
The most distinguished of the French, Italian,
Spanish, and Portuguese, as well as the German and
Dutch writers on the Roman Law, have their place
in the Library.
In England the Civil Law was publicly taught at
a very early period. The first professor was Vaca-
rius, a native of Lombardy, who had studied under
Irnerius at Bologna, and who read lectures in the
university of Oxford in the reign of Stephen A.D.
1 150, and composed for the use of his pupils a
compendious treatise, extracted from the Code
and Pandects. His history has been illustrated
by Dr. Wenck, professor in the university of
Leipsic, who has inserted the Prologue and copious
extracts from the work in the volume he has pub-
lished on the subject, in which he has corrected
the errors of previous writers respecting Vacarius.
Several manuscripts of the epitome of Vacarius are
in existence. The works of Aldric, an English
lawyer who taught at Oxford in the reign of Henry
II., are cited by Accursius in his Gloss.
The Canon Law (from Kavuv, a rule), a term
used to denote the ecclesiastical law sanctioned by
the church of Rome, is contained in the Corpus
The Library. 219
Juris Canonici. The laws of the ancient Greek
church are contained in the Bibliotheca Juris Ca-
nonici Veteris edited by William Voel and Henry
Justel, printed at Paris in 1661, in two volumes,
folio ; and in the publication of Bishop Beveridge
entitled, Pandectae Canonum SS. Apostolorum, et
Conciliorum ab Ecclesia Graeca receptorum &c.,
two vols, folio, Oxford, 1672.
The contents of the Corpus Juris Canonici are :
I. Gratiani Decretum, originally entitled Concor-
dia discordantium Canonum. Gratian was a na-
tive of Clusium, or Chiusi, near Florence, and a
Benedictine monk of S. Felice at Bologna. The
work was completed in 115 1. The principal sources
from which it is derived are the Scriptures, the
Apostolical Canons, the decisions of councils, the
decretal epistles of pontiffs, the works of the Greek
and Latin Fathers, the Theodosian Code, Cor-
pus Juris Civilis, &c. 2. Decretalium D. Gre-
gorii Papae IX. Compilatio.* This was framed un-
der the direction of Gregory IX. who filled the
papal chair from 1227 to 1241. In the execution
* This compilation had been preceded by those of Diony-
sius Exiguus, an abbot in the sixth century, and Fulgentius
Ferrandus, who flourished soon afterwards ; Isidorus His-
palensis, Bishop of Seville from 595 to 636 ; Cresconius,
about 690 ; Isidorus Mercator, otherwise called Peccator,
about 830, and described as impostor nequissimus; and
Ivo, Bishop of Chartresfrom 109a to 1115.
220 Lincoln's Inn.
of the work he employed Raymundo de Penafort, a
learned Spaniard, afterwards canonised. These de-
cretals are rescripts of the popes, in answer to pre-
lates and other persons by whom they have been
consulted. 3. Liber Sextus Decretalium D. Bo-
nifacii Papae VIII. This is supplementary to the
former collection, and was compiled under the au-
thority of Boniface, pontiflf from 1294 to 1303. 4.
dementis Papa? V. Constitutiones in Concilio Vie-
nensi editae. Clement, whose residence was at
Avignon, presided in the council of Vienne in the
year 1312 ; and in addition to the constitutions
there enacted, his collection comprises some other
constitutions and decretals divulged by himself.
These Clementinas were promulgated in 13 17 by
his successor, John XXII. 5. Extravagantes D.
Joannis Papae XXII. This collection consists of
twenty constitutions of John XXII., and was so
named because they wandered beyond the limits of
the collection which contained the works already
enumerated as belonging to the body of the canon
law. 6. Extravagantes Communes. This collec-
tion comprehends the constitutions of various popes
from Urban VI. to Sixtus IV.
Many editions of the Corpus Juris Canonici have
been published ; that by the brothers P. and F.
Pithou, printed at Paris in 1687, 2 vols, folio, is
much esteemed, but the edition printed at Lyons in
The Library. 221
1 671, 3 vols, folio, is regarded as the best ; another
i3 also worthy of notice, as being edited by a Pro-
testant professor of law, J, H. Boehmer,* printed at
Halle in 1747, 2 vols. 4to. The last edition was by
My L. Richter, professor of law in the academy of
Marburg, printed at Leipsic in 1839, 4^0. This
contains likewise the Canons and Decrees of the
council of Trent.
The Institutions of Jo. Paulus Lancelottus, in-
serted in some of the editions of the Corpus Juris
Canonici, do not form an essential part of the au-
thorised collection, never having received the papal
sanction, though undertaken with the approbation
of Paul IV. They are the production of a lawyer,
are closely modelled upon the Institutes of Justinian,
and were first published in 1563, shortly before the
dissolution of the council of Trent
Besides the general body of canon law, every
nation in Christendom has its own national canon
law, composed of Legatine, Provincial, and other
The Legatine Constitutions of England are the
ecclesiastical laws enacted in national synods, held
under the cardinals Otho and Othobon, legates
* Such was the reputation enjoyed by this professor, that,
according to the Baron de Bielfeld, difficult and intricate
processes were frequently transmitted from Italy, to be
decided by the law faculty of the Protestant university of
Halle, during the period when Boehmer was dean.
222 Lincoln's Inn.
from the Popes Gregory IX. and Clement IV. in
the reign of Henry III. The provincial Constitu-
tions are principally the decrees of provincial sy-
nods, held under divers archbishops of Canterbury,
from Stephen Langton, in the reign of Henry III.,
to Henry Chichele, in the reign of Henry V. These
constitutions were adopted by the province of York
in the reign of Henry VI.
Commentaries have been written upon the Pro-
vincial Constitutions of England by several canon-
ists, the chief of whom is William Lyndwood,
divinity professor at Oxford, official of Canterbury,
and bishop of St. David's in 1434. His Provin-
CIALE was first printed by Wynkyn de Worde in
1496, and has been several times reprinted. The
Library possesses the Paris edition of 1505, that of
Antwerp, 1525, and that of Oxford, 1679, folio.
"The learned canonist has digested under heads
the substance of almost every constitution made in
the synods of the province of Canterbury from the
time of Stephen Langton to Archbishop Chichele.
The method he has taken is that of the decretals
of Pope Gregory IX., justly esteemed the most valu-
able and systematic part of the canon law. To
this digest he has added a comment, replete with
illustration from the writings of foreign canonists,
and long experience in our own ecclesiastical courts.
The merit of its execution has placed Lyndwood
The Library. 223
much above his predecessor John de Athona, who
had led the way in this walk of study by his gloss on
the legatine constitutions of Otho and Othobon." *
Among the writers on Feudal Law the works of
Du Moulin, Schilter, Corvinus, Struve, Herv^, &c.
are in the Library. The digest of consuetudinary
law, known under the name of Feudorum Consue-
tudines, and commonly subjoined to the Corpus
Juris Civilis, is said to have been compiled in the
reign of Frederick Barbarossa, a.d. 115 2-1 190,
by Gerardus Niger, likewise called Capagistus, and
by Obertus de Orto or Horto, both lawyers, and
consuls of Milan.
Here may be mentioned also the Codex Legum
Antiquarum of Frederick Lindenbrog, a lawyer of
Hamburg, containing the Codes of the Visigoths,
Lombards, Franks, Burgundians, and other *' bar-
barous" nations. It was published at Frankfort in
1613, folio. A similar collection was published by
P. Georgisch at Halle, entitled Corpus Juris Ger-
manici Antiqui, 1738, 4to. ; and another by Paul
Canciani, " Barbarorum Leges Antiquae," printed
at Venice in 1781, five vols, folio.
With respect to these laws, it is a curious fact
that law should be " attached not to place but to
persons — a sort of movable chattel, or piece of
* Reeves's Hist, of the English Law.
224 Lincoln's Inn.
household furniture, which each individual shall be
at liberty to transport with himself from place to
place in every capricious change of his abode.
Such, however, was the law of the dark ages. The
Lombard, the Goth, the Frank, the Burgundian, the
Saxon, the Roman, residing in the same district,
all enjoyed their separate laws."* It constantly
happens, says Agobard, Archbishop of Lyons, in a
letter to Louis le Debonaire, that of five persons
who are walking or sitting together, not one is
subject to the same law as the other.t
In these collections are printed the Formularies
of Marculf, a French monk who lived in the seventh
century, exhibiting the forms of forensic proceedings
and of legal instruments. " So naturally is law con-
nected with precision and form ; and thus soon, even
before the year 660, was it found necessary to re-
duce the institutions and legal proceedings of bar-
barians into that sort of precision which is fully
exhibited in our modern practice, and which is
found so necessary." J
Another curious relique of early jurisprudence is
the " Assises de Jerusalem," a body of laws framed
for the government of his new subjects by Godfrey
of Bouillon, elected king of Jerusalem after its
* Quarterly Jurist.
+ Bouquet Recueil des Historiens.
J Professor Smyth's Lectures on Modem History.
The Library. 225
conquest by the crusaders, a.d. 1099. They are
based chiefly on the customary laws of France, and
were called Assises from their having been con-
firmed in a sitting or assembly of the chief persons
of the state. They were afterwards modified and
enlarged by Godfrey and his successors ; and about
the year 1230 were arranged by Jean d'Ibelin,
Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, Lord of Beirout and
Rama. These laws were introduced into the island
of Cyprus by Guy de Lusignan, and, after that
island had fallen under the dominion of the Vene-
tians in 1489, were translated into the Italian lai\-
gjuage, and printed at Venice in 1535, folio. The
first French edition of Assises was by Gaspard
Thaumas de la Thaumassiere, printed at Bourges
in 1690, folio, with the " Coutumes de Beauvoisis,'
by Beaumanoir. They were printed in Latin by
Canciani in his Barbarorum Leges Antiquae. A
beautiful edition by Count Beugnot was printed at
Paris in 1841, in two vols, folio, forming part of
the " Recueil des Historiens des Croisades," pub-
lished by order of the French government. M.
Victor Foucher also commenced an edition, of which
two volumes have been published, 1839-41, 8vo.
The first volume of another edition, by E. H.
Kausler, of Stuttgart, intended to form three vols*
4to. was printed in 1839.
226 Lincoln's Inn.
The department of Foreign Law in the Library
received an important accession from the liberal
donation already mentioned of Mr. Purton Cooper,
and from this source the divisions of Spanish
German, Danish, and Northern Law have been
especially enriched. Many books in these classes,
beautifully printed, in admirable preservation, and
of great intrinsic value, were also obtained by pur-
chase from the collection of the late Mr. John Miller,
one of the Benchers of Lincoln's Inn, eminently
distinguished by his knowledge of languages, whose
library was peculiarly rich in books on foreign law
in the finest condition.
Among numerous works on the Law of France
may be noticed the collection entitled Ordonnances
des Rois de France de la Troisidme Race, in
twenty-three vols, folio ; the " Recueil General
des Anciennes Lois Frangaises depuis Tan 420,
jusqu'k la Revolution de 1789," by MM. Jour-
dan, Decrusy, Isambert, Taillandier, in twenty-
nine vols. 8vo. Paris, 1821-30; and the Capitu-
laria Regum Francorum, edited by Stephen Ba-
luze. This work, containing laws enacted by the
kings of the first and second dynasties, was printed
THE Library, 227
at Paris in 1677, in two vols, folio ; and again in
1780, edited by P. de Chiniac. The Capitularies,
so named because the Laws are divided into chap-
ters, begin a.d. 554, and end in 921. The For-
mularies of Marculf and others are added.
Of the customary laws of France one of the most
interesting collections is the Coustumes de Beau-
voisis, by Philippes de Beaumanoir, printed at
Bourges in 1690, folio. A new edition by Count
Beugnot, in two vols. 8vo. Paris, 1842, has been
published by the Historical Society of France.
This treatise of Beaumanoir, who was bailiff to
Robert, Count of Clermont, son of Louis IX.,
giving an account of the customary laws of Beau-
voisis as they prevailed in the year 1283, " is so
systematic and complete, and throws so much
light upon our ancient common law, that it cannot
be too much recommended to the perusal of the
English antiquary, historian, or lawyer."*
On the Laws of Spain there is an admirable
collection of works in the Library ; and on those of
Italy, Germany, Denmark, and other nations,
there are also numerous works of much value.
* Barrington's Observations on the Statutes.
228 Lincoln's Inn.
Among the volumes most deserving of notice in
this class are the two Polyglott Bibles, known by
the name of the Antwerp, and the London
Polyglott; the Hebrew Bible, with various
readings, edited by Dr. Kennicott ; the Greek
Septuagint version of the Old Testament, edited
by Dr. Grabe ; and the more recent and splendid
edition of that version, by Dr. Holmes and the
Rev. J. Parsons.
In the same compartment are found the edi-
tion of the Greek Testament, by Robert Ste-
phens, that of Dr. James Mill, and that of Dr.
J. J. Wetstein, who received the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy at sixteen years of age, printed at
Amsterdam, 1751, two vols, folio.
Among the Latin versions of the sacred text,
besides those of Castalio, Tremellius and Junius,
may be noticed a fine copy of the Bible, with tlie
Gloss of Walafrid Strabo, and the Commentary
of Nicholas de Lyra or Lyranus, printed at
Douay in 1617, six volumes folio, presented to
the Society by Dr. Donne, with the following inte-
resting inscription on the fly-leaf of the first
The Library. 229
In Bibliotheca Hospitii Lincoln : London :
Celeberrimi in Urbe, in Orbe,
Juris Municipalis Professorum CoUegii,
Reponi voluit (petit potius)
Hsec sex in universas Scripturas volumina,
Sacrae Theologise Professor
Qui hue, in prima juventute, ad perdiscendas leges, missus,
Ad alia, tam studia, quam negotia, et peregrinationes de-
Inter quae tamen nunquam studia Theologica intermiserat.
Post multos annos, agente Spiritu s*°, suadente Rege,
Ad Ordines Sacros evectus,
Munere suo frequenter et strenue hoc loco concionandi
Per quinque annos functus,
Novi Sacelli primis saxis sua manu positis
Et ultimis fere paratis,
Ad Decanatum Ecclesise Cathedr : S. Pauli, London :
A Rege (cui benedicat Dominus)
Migrare jussus est
A® L® iEtat : suae, et sui Jesu
cio Id cxxl
There is a fine frontispiece to this work designed
by Rubens, and engraved by John CoUaert.
Among the English versions of the Bible is that
published by Ogilby, printed at Cambridge by John
Field, in 1660, folio, with the following inscriptio
printed after the dedication to King Charles IL :
" To the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn, this Book,
the Holy Bible, of the fairest edition, last and best
230 Lincoln's Inn.
translation, adorned with chorographical sculpture,
presents their most obedient and humble servant,
John Ogilby."* This volume has a fine frontis-
piece engraved by Lombard, and is ruled with red
The works of most of the Greek and Latin
Fathers of the Church are to be found in the
Library, as well as a large collection of the works
of the most eminent Divines of the Church of
England, the principal writers on Ecclesiastical
History, and many of the Collections and Histories
The Library is furnished with the works of the
most valuable English historians from Gildas and
* John Ogilby, descended from an ancient family, was
remarkable for the variety of his employments. He was
tutor to the children of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Straf-
ford ; master of the revels in Ireland ; printer and cosmo-
grapher to King Charles II. ; and translated the Iliad of Ho-
mer and the works of Virgil. He conducted the poetical
part of the ceremony of the coronation of Charles II., in
the composition of the speeches, mottoes, inscriptions, &c.
Several splendid works were published by him, with plates
by Hollar and others, some of which were dedicated to the
Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn, and copies of them presented
to the Society.
The Library. 231
Nennius to those of our own era, as Hume, Sharon
Turner, Lingard, Mackintosh, Macaulay, Froude,
&c. ; and here may be observed the Chronicles of
Froissart, whose delightful pages are illustrative
both of French and English history ; and the reprints
of the Chronicles of Monstrelet, Holinshed, Hall,
Grafton, Fabian, Arnold, and Rastell. The origi-
nal editions of Holinshed are also in the Library ;
that of 1577, in two folio volumes, with spirited
woodcuts, and that of 1586-7, in three vols, folio.
One of the authors who assisted in the continua-
tion of this work was Francis Thynne, the learned
The works printed by the English Historical
Society are also to be found here ; as well as the
valuable series of historical publications now in
progress under the direction of the Master of the
Rolls, the Chronicles and Memorials of Great
Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages, forming
upwards of 100 vols. 8vo., and the Calendars of
State Papers in about 70 vols. Svo,
Among the collections of State Papers and
public documents, the pillars that strengthen the
edifice of history, are Rymer's collection of Trea-
ties, Conventions, &c., between the Kings of Eng-
land and foreign powers from the Norman conquest
to 1654 ; the Historical Collections of Rushworth ;
the State Papers and Letters of Burghley, Sydney,
232 Lincoln's Inn.
Forbes, Winwood, Clarendon, Thurloe, Hardwicke,
As related to this class also must be mentioned
the Rolls of Parliament from the time of
Edward I. to the 19th of Henry VII., printed by
order of Parliament about the end of the last
century, in six vols, folio. The editors were Mr.
Richard Blyke, the Rev. Philip Morant, and Mr.
John Topham, of Lincoln's Inn. A copious In-
dex by the Rev. John Strachey, LL.D., the Rev.
John Pridden, and Mr. Edward Upham, was
printed in 1832, folio. This work, containing all
the existing records of parliamentary proceedings
from 1278 to 1503, Petitions, Pleas, &c., affords
valuable evidence in matters of descent, tenure, and
genealogy, and various subjects of judicial inquiry.
Notices of many facts and circumstances essential
to a clear understanding of the History of Eng-
land are found exclusively in these volumes, which
exhibit a striking illustration of the times to which
they belong, and a faithful portraiture of the civil
and moral state of the kingdom.
Of an analogous nature are the Journals of
THE House of Lords, from the year 1509 to the
present time, forming about 100 volumes folio ;
and the Journals of the House of Commons
from 1548, forming upwards of 120 volumes folio.
General Indexes to the former —extending to the
The Library. 233
end of the reign of George III., a portion of
which was compiled by Mr. Thomas Brodie, have
been printed in five vols, folio, 181 7-1855 ; and
to the latter — extending to the end of 1820, in
seven volumes folio, 1 778-1 825, by Mr Timothy
Cunningham, Rev. Dr. Flexman, Rev. Nathaniel
Forster, Mr. Edward Moore, Mr. Samuel Dunn,
and Mr. Martin Charles Burney; a volume in
continuation, from 1820 to 1837, prepared by Mr.
Thomas Vardon, was printed in 1839 ; and another,
also by Mr. Vardon, from 1837-38 to 1852, was
printed in 1857.
The publications of the Record Commission
were all presented by authority to the Library, and
form a very important series illustrative of English
History, and of great value to the practical lawyer.
An elaborate account of their contents, with much
curious historical information, was published by
Mr. Purton Cooper in 1832, in two vols. 8vo. In
the second volume of Mr. Foss's Judges of Eng-
land, a work in which will also be found many
curious details interesting to the legal profession, is
a notice of the various charter and other rolls which
commence in the reign of King John.
A series of the highly important Sessional
Papers of the House of Commons, many of them
now familiarly known as " Blue Books," from the
year 1801 to the present day, forming upwards of
234 Lincoln's Inn.
3000 volumes, in folio, is in the Library. These,
besides the Bills brought into Parliament, and a
vast collection of Accounts and Papers of various
kinds, comprise the Reports of Committees on
Agriculture, Trade, Navigation, Manufactures,
Mining, on the Administration of Justice, Educa-
tion, the State of Prisons, and on subjects in every
department of the administration of affairs of the
kingdom ; in which the Minutes of Evidence present
a varied fund of information of the greatest value.
Some idea may be formed of the increase of
public business during the last fifty years by ob-
serving the gradual extension of these parliamentary
documents. In the year 18 19, the number of vo-
lumes printed was eighteen ; in 1829, twenty-five ;
in 1839, fifty ; in 1849, fifty-nine ; in 1859, sixty-two ;
in 1869, sixty-five ; in 1871 the number of volumes
was seventy- two. General Indexes to these Papers,
from 1 80 1 to 1852, and from 1853 to 1869, have
been printed by order of Parliament ; these are of a
very copious nature, and by their mode of arrange-
ment every paper in the multitudinous mass is
rendered easy of access. A series of the Sessional
Papers of the House of Lords, from 1841 to the pre-
sent time, is also in the Library ; the Papers of each
Session which are not duplicates of those printed
for the House of Commons having been arranged
and bound in volumes.
The Library. 235
A recent accession of great value and interest in
the class of English History must be here noticed
— that of a volume the very existence of which was
unknown to bibliographers until a recent period.
This volume, forming the INTRODUCTION to
Prynne's Records, three volumes of which had
been presented by the celebrated author to the
Library of Lincoln's Inn, was acquired by the
Hon. Society at the sale of the Stowe Library in
1849, ^0^ the sum of ;^335.*
The remarkable work known as Prynne's Re-
cords consists of three folio volumes, exclusive of
this Introduction, and was compiled partly from the
ancient records in the Tower of London, of which
Prynne had been appointed Keeper. The title-
page of the first volume is as follows : — " The first
Tome of an exact Chronological Vindication and
Historical Demonstration of our British, Roman,
Saxon, Danish, Norman, English Kings Supreme
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in and over all Spiritual
Affairs, Causes, Persons, as well as Temporal,
within their Realms of England, Scotland, Ireland,
and other Dominions ; from the original planting,
embracing of Christian Religion therein, and Reign
of Lucius, our first Christian King, till the death
* A detailed notice of Prynne's Records was given by the
author of this work in the Law Review for August 1849.
236 Lincoln's Inn.
of King Richard I. a.d. i 199.*' The second volume,
bearing a title similar to the first, and extending
from the reign of John to the death of king Henry
III., was printed in 1665, and published before the
first volume for reasons assigned by the author in
his preface. Of the third volume, some copies
exist with a title-page corresponding with the pre-
ceding volumes, with the. date 1668, but the gene-
rality of copies are entitled : The History of King
John, King Henry III.,- and the most illustrious
King Edward I. &c. The death of the author
having occurred shortly after the publication of
this volume, it is supposed that the substitution
of the title was made by his executors, or persons
concerned therein. Some copies of the same volume
have the title-page in Latin ; Antiquae Constitu-
tiones Regni Anglise sub Regibus Joanne, Henrico
Tertio, et Edoardo Primo, circa Jurisdictionem et
Potestatem Ecclesiasticam. This is dated 1672,
and the title-page is followed by a brief address,
probably of the publisher, to the reader, in Latin,
lamenting the interruption of the work by the death
of the author. The dedication of the third volume,
dated from the author's study in Lincoln's Inn,
July 25 th, 1668, is addressed to Arthur Earl of
Anglesey, Sir Harbottle Grimston, Bart., Sir
Matthew Hale, "and the rest of the worshipful
Readers of the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn, his
The Library. 237
ever-honoured kind Friends and Fellow- Readers of
The first volume of the work commences with
Book the Second. The recently-acquired volume '
is called Book the First, and consists of the Intro-
duction described by Prynne in the first volume
" as not yet completed, swelling to an entire tome,"
and designed, as stated by the author in the Epistle
to the Readers prefixed to the second volume, to
embrace the period extending " from Adam till
Christ's ascension into heaven ; and from thence,
in relation to the Roman, Greek, and German em-
perors, and other Christian kings, in foreign parts,
till our modern age/' The first four chapters, com-
prising eighty pages, are occupied with arguments
maintaining that the supreme ecclesiastical power
and jurisdiction over all persons and causes resides,
by divine ordinance, in the civil magistrate, the
ministerial or priestly office only belonging to the
clergy. The fifth chapter contains a history of the
gradual encroachments of the prelacy, from the
origin of the papal power till about the middle of
the twelfth century, where the volume terminates
unfinished, at page 400, with the words : coepis-
copi tui et coma — . It is without title-page,
but has the same head-line over the pages as
the other volumes, viz., "An Exact History of
Popes intoUerable Usurpations upon the Liberties
238 Lincoln's Inn.
of the Kings and Subjects of England and Ire-
It is supposed that not more than twenty-five
sets of the three volumes exist, most of the copies
of the first volume, and a great number of the
second, together with the Introduction, having
perished at the house of the printer in the Great
Fire of London ; and it is worthy of remark that
this loss occurred to the author whilst he himself
was occupied in endeavouring to rescue the public
records of the kingdom from destruction. It is
probable that the copy of the introductory volume
now in the possession of the Society of Lincoln's
Inn had been reserved in the author's hands for his
own use during the progress of the work through
the press ; and that, if any other copies were rescued
from the flames, not having been issued to the
pubhc, they have since perished, from the circum-
stance of their being unfinished and without title-
page, and having consequently been disregarded by
persons into whose hands they may have fallen.
Topography is another branch of English His-
tory, the importance of which to the legal profession
is sufficiently obvious, as affording illustrations of
the history and antiquities of the country, its man-
The Library. 239
ners and customs, and exhibiting the pedigrees of
families, with the descent of property, &c.; and in
this department the Library is especially rich, pos-
sessing descriptions of every county in England
which can boast of its historian, besides numerous
histories of particular towns and parishes, from the
Perambulation of Kent by William Lambarde in
1570, the first separate county history that was
published, to the recent History of Buckingham-
shire by Dr. George Lipscomb.
Among the more splendid topographical works
of the present century, all in this Library, are the
History of Hertfordshire, by Robert Clutterbuck ;
that of Cheshire, by George Ormerod; that of
Dorsetshire, by John Hutchins ; Leicestershire, by
John Nichols ; Surrey, by the Rev. Owen Manning
and William Bray ; Sussex, by the Rev. James
Dallaway and Edmund Cartwright ; Richmondshire,
by Thomas Dunham Whitaker ; Durham, by
Richard Surtees of Mainsforth ; and the History of
Wiltshire, by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart.
Amongst the numerous works on Foreign
History in the Library, besides the early Greek
and Roman historians,' are the great collections of
Graevius and Gronovius ; that of Muratori ; the
240 Lincoln's Inn.
** Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la
France," begun by Dom Martin Bouquet ; and the
" Monumenta Germaniae Historica," edited by G.
De Thou's admirable History of his own Time,
the Monumens dela Monarchie Frangoise of Mont-
faucon, and the various " Collections des M^moires"
published in France, find their place here. It may
be superfluous to mention that the French histories
of Daniel, Renault, Sismondi, Froissart, and Mon-
strelet, and the Italian historians, Guicciardini,
Giannone, Daru, as well as the more modem works
of Gibbon, Niebuhr, Grote, Motley, Prescott, are
all also to be found.
In the class of general Biography are the
Biographical and Historical Dictionaries of Hoff-
man,* Mor^ri, Bayle, Collier, Aikin, Chalmers,
Rose ; and the Biographie Universelle.
GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS.
The works of all the Greek and Roman authors,
to whom as poets, philosophers, orators, or his-
torians, the name of the Classics has been given
* I heard a man of great learning declare that, when-
ever he could not recollect his knowledge, he opened Hoff-
man's Lexicon, where he was sure to find what he had lost.
The Library. 241
by the common consent of the world of letters, are
to be found, with few exceptions, in the Library,
though the editions are not those remarkable for
their rarity or typographical splendour, such as the
Jensons and Vindelin de Spiras, but those which
are furnished with useful critical commentaries, as
Ernesti's Homer, Schweighaeuser's Herodotus and
Polybius, Wesseling's Diodorus Siculus, &c.
How infinitely the world is indebted to the erudi-
tion and patient industry of the authors of diction-
aries . and grammars must be evident upon a few
moments' reflection. By the aid of these silent
guides the boundless fields of literature and science
are opened to the view of the student ; and with the
best works of this class in the various languages of
Europe the Library of Lincoln's Inn is well fur-
nished. It may suffice here to mention for the
Greek language, the names of Stephens, Suidas,*
Liddell, and Scott ; for the Latin, the Glossary of
Spelman, that of Du Cange, the invaluable work of
* C'est un tresor d'^rudition, sans le secours duquel
I'histoire litteraire des Grecs et des Remains auroit ofFert
d'immenses lacunes qu'il n'eut jamais 6x6 possible de rem-
plir.— BlOGRAPHIE Universrlle.
242 Lincoln's Inn.
Forcellini, and the excellent Lexicon of Scheller ; or
the French, the work of Manage, the Dictionnaire
de Tr^voux,* that of Littr^, and that of the French
Academy, with the M^moires sur la Langue Cel-
tique, by Bullet, in three vols, folio, 1754, in which
is a Glossary giving the etymology of many of the
names of towns, rivers, &c. of Great Britain.
The Italian, Spanish, German, Anglo-Saxon,
English, and other languages, are illustrated by the
best dictionaries for each.
In the class of Bibliography and the History of
Literature, will be found in the Library the Manuel
du Libraire et de FAmateur de Livres, by Brunet ;
the Bibliotheca Britannica of Watt ; the works of
Tiraboschi, Le Long, Ginguen^, Antonio, and
* The Dictionnaire de Tr^voux derives its name from a
small town in France, where the Due du Maine, early in
the last century, as prince sovereign of Dombes, having
transferred his parliament and other public institutions,
established a magnificent printing-house. The first edition
of the work from that press, was in 1704, in three volumes,
gradually increased by the contributions of the most emi-
nent men of letters in France, to eight volumes, folio. The
last edition was printed in 1771. A peculiar feature of
this dictionary is its being furnished with quotations from
the French classical writers. — D' Israeli.
The Library. 243
Among the Catalogues of Public Libraries • will
be found most of those which have been printed of
the British Museum ; the Catalogue of the Bodleian
Library ; that of the Advocates' Library at Edin-
burgh ; and those of the principal libraries in the
Many eminent members of the legal profession
have been distinguished as collectors of books.
One of the first of these was Arthur Annesley, Earl
of Anglesey,t whose name appears at the head of
the Readers of Lincoln's Inn, to whom Prynne dedi-
cated the .third volume of his Records, and who
was author of the Privileges of the Houses of Lords
and Commons, and many other works. He was one
of the first noblemen in England who collected an
extensive library, which consisted of "the choicest
volumes in all faculties, arts and languages,** and
was kept at his seat at BJechington, near Oxford,
but was sold by public auction after his lordship's
♦ In all great Libraries there should not only be a col-
lection of all the catalogues of libraries existing in the
country, but so far as possible, a collection of those of all
the libraries in the world. A great library should in fact
contain within it a library of catalogues. — Report of
THE House of Commons on Public Libraries.
+ He had studied the laws with such diligence, as to be
styled and esteemed a lawyer, even by the most conceited
lawyers of his time. — Biographia Britannica.
244 Lincoln's Inn.
Another eminent collector was Philip Carteret
Webb, of Lincoln's Inn, solicitor to the Treasury
in 1756-65, the sale of whose library, in 1771, includ-
ing his MSS. upon vellum, occupied seventeen days.
Matthew Duane, of Lincoln's Inn, also a collector
of books and coins, was a curator of the British
Museum, and is reputed to have been " universally
esteemed for his profound knowledge, great abilities,
and unsullied reputation in the profession of the
Among the lawyers of the present century who
have been known as collectors of books are Mr,
Serjeant Heywood ; Mr. Baron Bolland ; Mr. Justice
Littledale ; Mr. John Miller ; Mr. Benjamin Hey-
wood Bright ; Mr. Sutton Sharpe, and the late Mr.
Louis Hayes Petit, whose library was particularly
rich in philological works ; Mr. Charles Purton
Cooper ; and Mr. Clement Tudway Swanston.
Having thus taken a cursory survey of some of
the most important classes of books in the Library
of Lincoln's Inn, the author must bring his pleasant
task to a conclusion, not tarrying among the works
of Bacon, Boyle, Locke, Newton, and others, in the
department of mental and natural philosophy ; nor
venturing to linger, tempted by such names as
Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, and Ben Jonson,
The Library. 24$
among the poets and dramatists ; nor must he
venture to survey those fields of literature, wherein
the names of De Foe, Swift, Fielding, Johnson,
and other celebrated authors, might deserve a far
more extended notice.
In relation to natural philosophy, there are not
as yet in the Library many of the volumes which
record the wondrous discoveries of modern science ;
neither can works on the Fine Arts boast of much
display upon its shelves.
My task is done — a task that may recall
And touch with life the shadows of the past :—
The courts— the chambers — and that ancient hall,
Where names revered around their lustre cast —
The sacred fane, where preachers, holding fast
The pure, calm faith, its champions aye have been —
All rise to view ; then,- shining forth the last,
Far o'er the rest, in tow'ring grandeur seen.
Rises the late-rear'd pile, majestic and serene.
Nor has it been less pleasing, sooth to say,
Within their oaken shrines, in goodly rows,
Those varied stores of learning to survey,
Whence voices seem to burst from their repose —
To tell how laws, how creeds, how faith arose ;
While vision'd forms of sages meet our eyes.
Who to the toiling student's ear disclose
Such words of wisdom as his heart may prize,
To chasten, train, and guide the hopes that in him rise.
HE following curious inscription, lately-
become legible by the cleaning of the
stone, may be thought worthy of preser-
vation here. It is on a small marble tablet, in two
pieces, inserted in the brick-work of an external
chimney at the back of No. 13 of the Old Square, just
beyond the crypt of the chapel on the north-west
The person commemorated in this inscription is
Mark Hildsley, who was admitted as a member of
the Society in 1649, and called to the bar in 1655.
There is no record to show whether the tablet was
originally inserted in this place, or has been copied
from a gravestone which has been removed : —
Optimus et Dominus mihi maximus
Ore : (ut fulvu aunim Virtus
in igne micat).
His mercys are to all y' heare Him
His goodness unto y™ y* feare Him.
Feb. XVo MDCXCII.
Exuvise Marci Hilslij Do
Lincolniensis Hospitii Armig.
Hoc in loco inhumatur
Mlilslij corp* vitae satur
Cul Marc' (Alderman) pater
Et Dorothea fuit mater
Et Stephanus (mercator) frater
P. Cantab. Oxon. hue meatur
Qu^ Line's in plus ultra datur
Conjugibus bis decoratur
At licet filiat' quater
Duobus tantii is beatur
Nat. 15 Apr: 1630. Denat MDCXCIII.
Est mihi mors lucrum felix : postfunera vivam.
In the description of the western oriel window in
the New Hall, it should have been mentioned that
the arms of Prince Albert, quartered with the Royal
Arms of England, have been placed in tlie lower
division of the window.
* This unintelligible line is printed as engraven on the stone.
Accursii, Franciscus, 15.
Acts of Parliament, see Statutes.
Alaric II. Breviary, 211.
American Law Books, 177.
Anglesey, Earl of, 245.
Anianus, Breviary of, 211.
Anglo-Saxon Laws, 4, 8.
Appeal Cases, 191.'
Armorial Bearings —
Chapel Windows, 73.
Front of Library, iii.
New Hall, 115, ii8.
Assises, Book of, 171.
Assises de Jerusalem, 224.
Basilica, 217. *
Beaumanoir — Coutumes de
Bellewe's Cases, 186.
Bolting, 20. . ^
Bonifacii Decretalia, 22a
Books with chains, 141.
Bracton, 13, 153.
Brooke's Abridgment, 170.
Brydall, Collection of Pam-
Burnel, Robert, 14
Lynd hurst, 117.
Caius, see Gaius.
Canon Law, 218.
Canute, Code of, 4.
Capitularia Regum Franc, 326»
Carter, Opinions on Chapel, 634
Charles II., Visit of, 58.
Consecration, 66, 81.
Bell, 69. Organ, 71.
Mural Tablets, 79^
Crypt, 67, 69, 81.
Cholmeley, R., 142, 168, 154.
Cicero, Bust of, 121.
Civil or Roman Law, 208.
Clarendon, Constitutions of, 8.
Clajtsics, Greek and Latin, 240.
dementis Constitutiones, 220.
Notice of Law Writers, 149.
Commentary upon Littleton,
Cooper, C. P. C, Donation, 144.
Colchester MSS., 144.
Corpus Juris Canonic!, 218.
Corpus Juris Civilis, 2x2.
Courts and Chambers, 48-5i«
Coxe's MSS. , 144.
Cromwell, Oliver, 48.
Crypt of Chapel, 67, 69, 8t.
Dialogus de Scaccario, 9.
Denison, £. B., Life of Bishop
Doctor and Student, 165.
Domesday Book, 6. ( .
Donations of Plate — \
Anglesey, Earl of, 57.
Duane, M., 244.
Fe Howes, W., 58.
Franklyn, N., 70.
Greene, J., 58.
Park, Sir J. A., 70.
: Rainsford, Sir R., 57.
Rich, E. , 57.
Wharton , Lord, 57.
Donations of Books —
Cholmeley, R., 142.
Brydall, J. , 143.
Coxe, J., 144.
Colchester, Lord, 144.
Cooper. C. P., 144.
Hale, Sir M., 143.
Melmoth, W., 144.
Donne, Dr John, 66, 81, 229.
Edward the Confessor, Laws of, 4.
Edward L, Legislation, 14.
English Law —
Reports, 1 78-191.
Entries, Book of, 172.
Erskine, Lord, Statue of, 56.
Escutcheons, see Armorial bear-
Ethelbert, Code of, 4.
Extra vagantes, 220.
Ferrers' Translation of Statutes,
Feudorum Consuetudines, 225.
Fitzherbert, Abridgment, 168.
Natura Brevium, 166.
Foreign Law, 226.
Fresco in Hall, 117.
Gardens, The, 96.
Glanville, 9, 151.
Gratiani Decretum, 219.
Gregorii Decretalia, 219.
Hadde, W., 140.
Hale, Sir Matthew, MSS., 143.
Hall. The Old, 52.
Hall, The New, and Library —
Halls, dimensions of several, 113.
Hastings, Warren, Trial, 207.
Haverhyil, William de, 39.
Henry L, Laws of, 7.
Herlirum, John, 37.
Hill, Serjeant, MSS., 145.
History, English, 230.
— Foreign, 239.
Hoffman's Lexicon, 240.
Hogarth, painting by, 55.
Holinshed, Chronicles, 231.
Home's Mirror of Justices,
" Liber Horn," 160.
Horwood, J. , Year-Books
Edward I., 181.
Inns of Court, x6.
Inscriptions in New Square, 93.
Interments in Crypt, 81.
Ireland, Statutes of, ao6.
Jones, Inigo, 66.
Jonson, Ben, 97.
Journals of House of Lords, 332.
J ustinian —
Digest or Pandects, 213.
Kentish Kings, Laws of, 4.
King's or Queen's Counsel, 28.
Kitchen, The Old, 53.
The New, 120.
Lacy, Henry, Earl of Lincoln,
Lambard; 8, 173.
Law Reporting, New System of,
Legal Education, 2to.
Legatine Constitutions, 321.
Lex Scripta, 6.
Original Foundation, X39.
Lindenbrog, Codex Legum, 333.
Littleton's Tenures, 162.
Lords Justices, 53.
Lovell, Sir Thomas, 47.
Lyndwood, Provinciale, 222.
Lyra, Nicholas de, 228.
Mackintosh, Sir J., Lectures,
Magna Charta, xi,
Marculf, Formularies of, 224.
Marrow's Justice of the Peace,
Maynard, Serjeant, MSS., X45.
Melmoth MSS., 144.
Milo of Crotona, X24.