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Full text of "Linguistic studies from the Himalayas; being studies in the grammar of fifteen Himalayan dialects"

n&roHffiKa 



UC-NRLF 



B M D27 0M2 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE 
HIMALAYAS 






Hsiatic Society) flDonograpbs 

VOL. XVIII 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

FROM THE 

HIMALAYAS . 

BEING 

STUDIES IN THE GRAMMAR OF FIFTEEN 
HIMALAYAN DIALECTS 



BY 

THE REV. T. GRAHAME.BAILKY, 

ii 

B.D., r M.A.. M.R.A.S., late fellow of the panjab university 



LONDON 

PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCI1 TV 

74, GROSVENOR STREET, W. 1. 

1920. 









STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, LTD 
PRINTERS, HERTFORD. 






PREFACE 

This work is a continuation and, so far as some districts 
are concerned, a completion of Vol. XII of the Society's 
Monographs, entitled The Languages of the Nortltem 
Himalayas. There will be found in these pages studies 
in about fifteen languages or dialects, making along with 
those in the other volume a total of forty-one. 
The linguistic distribution is as follows : — 

Tibeto-Burman : two languages, Purik and Lower 

Kanauri and the Chitkhuli dialect. 
Lahnda : two dialects, Kagani and the Bahramgala 

dialect. 
Western Pahari : nine dialects in three groups, viz., 
five Koci dialects from Bashahr, spoken in Rohru, 
Rampur, Baghi, Siirkhuli Pargana, and Dodra 
Kuar ; two from Jubba], north and south ; two 
from Suket, Eastern Suketi and Suket Siraji. 
PUnjabl : two dialects spoken in Bilaspur and 
Nalagarh, divided into six sub-dialects. 

There are also notes on the secret vocabularies of the 
Qalandar, who are conjurers and trainers of monkeys and 
bears, the Qasal or butchers, and of Panjabi gamblers. 
The vocabulary of the first-named is fairly complete. The 
others are very brief, but probably the total number of 
secret words is small. 

All are Aryan, except the Tibeto-Burman languages. 

As regards geographical position, we may say that. 
Purik is spoken between Kashmir and Ladakh round 
about Kargil, Lower Kanauri in Bashahr State immediately 
to the north-east of the five Koci dialects ; Kagani is 
spoken in the Hazara district of the North- West Frontier 
Province, Bahramgala in Jammu State south of the Pir 
Panjal Pass. The remainder are all found within easy 

443021 



PREFACE 



reach of Simla in the states of Jubbal, Bllaspur, Nahigarh, 
Suket, Mandi and Bashahr ; the name Koci is applied to 
the Aryan dialects in Bashahr. 

The two volumes taken together give some account of 
all the Aryan dialects in the following regions: (1) the 
Simla States. (2) .Mandi and Suket, (3) Karigra (including 
Kulu), (4) Camba State; and of most of the dialects of 
(5) Jammu State and (6) Murree, the Galis, and Hazara. 
To be added to these are the non- Aryan languages Purik, 
Standard Kanauii (Monograph XIII), Lower Kanauri, 
also Camba Lahuli dialects, Chitkhiili, and the Aryan SasI 
and Gujarl, which have no single geographical location. 

A tabular statement shows how this volume supple- 
ments the other. 



Former Monograph 

Simla States. 

Kin thai I, Baghati and Kot 
Giirul (Sadhoci). 
Mandi and Siiket. 

Mandi Dialects. 

Dialects of Karigra (and 
Kulu,), Camba State, Jdmiwa 
State. 

Kishtawar, Padar, Bhales, 
Bhadrawah,Doda Siraj, 
Ram ban, Pogul, Punch. 
N. W. Frontier Province. 
Pliundl (extending to 
Murree), Tinaull. 
Extra. 

SasI and Gujarl. 



Present Monograph 

Dialects of Bashahr, Jubbal 
Bilasptir and Nalagarh. 

Suket Dialects (notes on one 
Mandi dialect). 



Notes on one more dialect. 



Kaofanl. 



Notes on Qahlndar,QasaIand 
Gamblers. 



The area covered by the two volumes will be seen to be 
the country stretching from Hazara in the N.W. Frontier 



PREFACE Vll 

Province to the Simla States, and including Jfunniu State. 
Purik falls outside the area indicated. It may he asked 
where within this area there are still dialects awaiting 
investigation. I helieve they may he found in two 
districts: (1) hetween the Pir Panjal Pass and the 
Banihal Pass south of the range there must be several 
dialects hitherto untouched ; (2) in the region of 
Kishttlwar there may he one or two sufficients different 
from any already studied to be worth working up. In 
addition to these, which are all Aryan, there are Tibeto- 
Burman dialects in Kulu and Kanaur about which little 
or nothing is known. 

I cannot claim that this work will be found to be free 
from mistakes. The reduction to writing of unstudied 
languages is not an easy task. Many students and much 
study will be necessary before complete accuracy can be 
attained. The material contained in this volume was 
gathered in the years 1006, 1910, 1911, and 1914. 
During these years I personally visited all the _ districts 
where these dialects are spoken and made the studies at 
first hand. Believing as I do in the importance of 
a correct record of sounds, I have devoted much attention 
to the proper sounds of every language or dialect. They 
are hardly less important than the grammar. 

Here I would turn to those whose business or pleasure 
takes them to places where unknown or little-known 
languages are spoken, and appeal to them to make an 
attempt to elicit from the people facts of grammar and 
pronunciation, and to add to the sum of human knowledge 
by giving these facts to the public. 

Literature. — The Linguistic Survey of India has so far 
not reached any of the dialects in this volume, except 
Purik, which is in vol. iii, pt. i. Standard Kanaurl, but 
not Lower Kanaurl, is in the same part of the same 
volume. 

Kanaurl : see Introduction to Lower Kanauri. 



Yin PREFACE 

Panjabi : for phonetics I may be permitted to refer to 
my Panjabi Phonetic Reader (London University 
Press) and for Northern Panjabi generally to 
a Panjabi Manual by Dr. Cummings and myself 
(American Mission Press, Gujramvala, India). 
Transliteration. — Remarks on the transliteration will 
be found in the various introductions. It is sufficient 
to say here that so far as possible the system of the 
Society has been followed. New sounds, however, have 
had to be dealt with which have necessitated new signs. 
There must always be in languages reduced to writing 
for the tirst time some apparent inconsistency in the 
transliteration of words. The pronunciation of a word 
depends partly upon individual speakers, but to a much 
greater extent variety of utterance is due to varying 
degrees of speed and emphasis in the same speaker. How 
natural it is that this should be the case will be seen if 
we think of our own language. Most Englishmen would 
carefully dictate to a foreigner the words " to have " as 
"too" and " hav ", yet there are probably at least half 
a dozen ways of pronouncing the two words, not the least 
common, and much commoner than " too " and " hav ". 
being the one s\ T llable " tuv ", as in the rapid utterance 
of a sentence like "he seems to have gone home". So 
in recording the speech of an illiterate Indian it is 
difficult to know what to write for any given word. If 
one Avrites what he says when speaking with extreme 
deliberation one puts down what he never says in 
ordinary conversation. It will therefore be found in the 
following pages that occasional differences occur in the 
way words are written, more especially in the length 
of vowels. 

Pronunciation 

It will be well to draw attention to some of the special 
features of the pronunciation of the languages dealt with 
in this volume. 



PREFACE ix 

Tones. — The existence of tones in many of the 
languages belonging to the Chinese system is widely 
known. What is not generally recognized is that many 
of the Aryan dialects of the Panjab have three or four 
tones. This applies especially to Panjabi and Lahnda, 
but also in some measure to dialects of Western Pahari. 
In Panjabi and Lahnda there are four tones: (1) the high 
or rising-falling, (2) the level, (3) the deep or low-rising, 
(4) a combination of the first and third tones. The second 
of these is the ordinary unemotional tone with neither 
rise nor fall. It does not require special description. 
The first and third are described in the introduction to 
Kagani. The tone is always on the accented syllable. 
When a syllable has two tones (as in 4), the deep tone 
always precedes the high. It will thus be seen that the 
same combination of letters may appear in four forms. 
Thus, if we use a perpendicular stroke above the vowel for 
the high tone, and a similar stroke below the vowel for the 
deep tone, the syllable pa may appear as pa, pa, pa, pa. 
A few examples from Panjabi, the best know r n of the tone 
languages of North India, will be of interest — 

(ii(, attached (fern.) ; lal, took off (fern.); lai, descent. 

toe, ditches ; toe, he ma} 7 lift ; toe, he may feel. 

tal, two and a half; tal, knocked down (fern.). 

kara, iron vessel ; Jcdra, have engraved (causal) ; Jc&ra, 
have boiled. 

car, dust (verb) ; car, cause to ascend. 

In the above words a is to be read a where not 
marked it 

Examples might be multiplied indefinitely. It is un- 
fortunate that in the customary transliteration of Panjabi 
and Lahnda these tones are disguised by the use of the 
letter h. This results in great confusion as regards 
pronunciation and in the concealment of phonetic laws. 
It conceals the fact, to take one case, that Northern 
Panjabi has no aspirated sonant consonants (see below). 



X PREFACE 

To show how different is the appearance of words with 
the usual spelling the examples given above are transcribed 
first as above and then with the common spelling — 

lai, lai ; lai, Idhi ; lai, Ihdi (or l&hdi) ; toe, toe ; toe, 
dlioe ; toe, take; \ai, dhdi ; tai, dhdhi ; kara, lea rail ; 
kara, gh&ra ; k&ra, k&ra ; car,jhdr ; car, cdrh. 

From the usual spelling one would never realize that 
leahdni, story, and gha/tii, mud, have identically the same 
pronunciation — Jean i. 

These tones are the same in Panjabi and Lahnda, but 
are not found in all dialects. They are the normal 
pronunciation of the North Panjab. In Western Pahari 
the deep tone is practically unknown in most of the 
southern dialects, such as those of the Simla States, and 
is modified in the northern ones such as Cameall. It is 
interesting to note the form in which Hindi words appear 
in different parts. The word for sister, bdhin, often 
called bhain, becomes bain, ben in the Simla States 
(except Bilaspur and part of Nalagarh), but pain in 
Northern Panjabi ; ghord, horse, is goro in the former 
and Icora in the Northern Panjab; so also bhdi, brother, 
becomes bai and pai ; ghar, house, appears as gav/r and 
Icar. In no case is there an aspirated sonant. Sometimes 
one hears a mixed pronunciation: thus in Cameall ghord, 
bhdi, and ghar are pronounced ghora, bhdi, ghar (h being 
here a sonant It followed by the deep tone) ; bahin or 
bhain, sister, is, however, bain. 

Lower Kanauri does not possess the deep tone, but has 
in a few words the high tone, as rail, high ; but rail, horse 
(d short in both words). 

My excuse for dwelling at some length on the subject 
is that though Panjabi, Lahnda, and other languages in 
the Panjab are tone languages, this fact is not generally 
realized, and the matter is one of considerable intrinsic 
importance. 



PREFACE XI 

Absence of Aspirated Sonants. — As has been mentioned 
above, Kagani and the dialects of the Simla States, 
except those of Bilaspiir and part of Nalagarh, avoid 
aspirated sonant consonants. In the Simla States the 
consonants are left sonant and merely lose their aspira- 
tion, and the vowel receives the high tone. In Kagani, 
however, as in many other Lahnda dialects, and also in 
Northern Panjabi, an initial aspirated sonant preceding 
an accented vowel becomes a surd ; one following an 
accented vowel loses its aspiration but remains sonant ; 
the vowel in the former case, when the consonant becomes 
a surd, receives the deep tone, in the latter the high tone. 

In most of the languages or dialects which dislike 
aspirated sonants pure aspiration is practically unknown 
except in the combinations Ich, ph, ch, th, th. A sonant 
h is, however, found standing alone (i.e. without any 
consonant) before an accented vowel, and in this case 
is alwa} T s followed by the deep tone. Thus to take 
Northern Panjabi, there are in the normal pronunciation 
hard]} 7- half a dozen words in which a pure h occurs 
(except in Jdi, ph, etc.), and in the few words in which 
it does occur it is noticeable that many people pronounce 
it kh. In spite of this there may be observed in this 
very connexion one of the most extraordinary freaks of 
pronunciation that one can imagine. The average Panjabi 
appears quite unable to sa}* a pure h (other than in kh, 
etc.), and will always substitute for it either the deep or 
the high tone, yet in daily conversation he frequently 
uses a pure h instead of s after a vowel. Thus, for the 
sentence mai tenfc ddsnd dux paise dltte soisu, I thee-to 
telling-am ten pice given were-by-him, i.e. I will tell 
you he gave ten pice, he will say mal ten® d&hnd ddh 
/in ilir dltte hahti, where all the aspirates are pure and 
non-sonant. 

It should not be forgotten that Panjabi and Lahnda, 
while not aspirating a sonant, can and do pronounce 



Xll TKHFACE 

sonants with the deep tone. This happens chiefly in 
three cases: (1 ) When there is elision of a vowel between 
a sonant and the deep tone. (2) When the sonant and 
deep tone are in any syllable succeeding the first. This 
very often occurs in the derivative form of a word which, 
basing a high tone in its simple form, throws the accent 
forward to another syllable in the derivative form. That 
syllable will then have a deep tone and a sonant will be 
preserved. (3) Always with r, r, I, I, n, n, in. 

Examples : (1) Compare the Panjabi pronunciation of 
the following Urdu words: — 

Ur. bahai, Panj. bal ; Ur. bhal, Panj. pal. 

Ur. jahdz, Panj. j az\ Ur. jJtdr, Panj. car. 
(Panjabis acquainted with Urdu will attempt to approxi- 
mate their pronunciation to the Urdu.) 

(2) kadnd, eject; kdddnd, cause to be ejected. 
waddna, cut ; w&dlnd. be cut. 

parjal, sister-in-law. 
(Usual spelling of these words is kdddhnd, kddhdna, 
inlddhnd, wadhma, bharjai.) 

(3) wdletnd, wrap up. 

Band, often said for Rand (girl's name). 
nemi, giddiness. 
(Usual spelling walhetna, Rhano, nherni or hanemi.) 

The important fact of the non-aspiration of sonants in 
these dialects should be noted in connexion with the 
problem of Romany, but I will not enter upon this 
question here as I hope to deal with it in another work. 

In the above paragraphs, and generally throughout the 
book, "Panjabi" is used to denote the language of the 
Northern Pan jab, and especially that of Sialkot, Gujran- 
wala (Kujraala), Gujrat, and North Lahore. 

Glottal Stop. — The glottal stop, known to students of 
Arabic as hamza, is a feature of three of the dialects 
under review. In Lower Kanaurl it is found at the end 



PREFACE Mil 

of a few words, such as dud', near, beside ; sha', meat, etc. 
(see Lower Kanauri Introduction). It is much more 
commonly found in the dialect of North Jubbal and to 
some extent in that of South Jubbal. In North Jubbal 
it is used in place of h. Words which in Hindi or Urdu 
begin with h + a sonant will be found in North Jubbal 
(if used at all) with the sonant unaspirated and the It 
changed to- a glottal stop and placed after the vowel. 
Thus gliord becomes go'ro, horse ; dhl, daughter, becomes 
dll\ blidl, brother, becomes ba'e. This is a very 
remarkable circumstance, worthy of special study. It 
would be worth while knowing whether any of the dialects 
in the United Provinces show the same peculiarity. 

The glottal stop is common in German and in dialects 
of English. Thus the phrase " what on earth is the 
matter ", pronounced by most Englishmen " whatnearths 
the matter ", is pronounced by many Americans " what 
'on 'earth 'is the matter ". Not a few educated Scotchmen 
change i to a glottal stop if tu or y follows, as " wha' you 
want is no' wha' we want". By uneducated Scotchmen 
any t which is not the first letter of a syllable or last 
letter in a sentence is liable to be so treated, as " le'l bo'l " 
for " little bottle ". k also gives way not infrequently to 
this stop. The glottal stop is common in Cockney. 

Other Special Sounds. — In Purik we find several sounds 
worthy of attention. Further remarks will be found in 
the Purik Introduction. They are (1) the unvoiced 
Welsh I, generally written 11. (2) A g, corresponding in 
place to q, i.e. simply a voiced qdf. (3) A a, pronounced 
in the same place ; it is uttered with little friction, but 
is an unmistakable c/f/ain. (4) n, pronounced further 
back than Urdu or Hindi ii, but not so far back as qdf 
(5) Cerebi-al c and (6) cerebral sh (written s). These two 
letters are very common in the ShinJi language (the *A in 
the word Shina is cerebral), but occur rarely in Purik; 
cf. cho, very ; 8ta, horse. (7) Cerebral r occurring initially. 



xiv PREFACE 

(8) /'• . /'. /< , pronounced without any off-glide ; they have 
a jerked and incomplete sound. Very similar sounds are 
heard in German. In Lower Kanauri cerebral c (chic, 
why; chog, what) and k' are found. 

Grammatical Features 

It may not be out of place to draw attention here to the 
most interesting grammatical features in the languages 
dealt with. 

Purik, which is a non-pronominalized Tibeto-Burman 
language, has a very simple verbal system showing 
practically no sign of change for gender, number or 
person. The pronoun for the 1st pers. plur. lias an 
inclusive form, which includes the person spoken to, and 
an exclusive form excluding him, thus natah, I or we 
along with you ; naca, we but not 3-ou. There is no dual. 
The 2nd pers. pronoun has both polite and ordinary forms. 
There is a passive or stative participle made by adding 
-khan to the past tense. 

Lower Kanauri has in the 1st and 2nd pers. pronouns 
forms for the sing., dual, and plur., the 1st plur. having 
an inclusive form Icashu and an exclusive nisi. All tenses 
have dual forms. This is a complex pronominalized 
language and the tenses are very elaborate. 

An organic passive or stative participle corresponding 
in meaning to Urdu mara hud, beaten, baitlia hud, 
seated, is found in all these dialects except Kaganl. It 
is interesting to study the variety of forms under which 
it appears. 

The dialects of the Simla States, except the Bilaspur 
dialects and Handuii, have the following features in 
common : — 

1. In pronouns of the 3rd person they have a special 
feminine form for the oblique singular. 

2. They have a special form for the negative of the 
pres. verb substantive. This is indeclinable in every 



PREFACE XV 

case except the Koci dialect of the Surkhiili P&rg&na, 
which declines for gender and number but not for person. 

3. They all, except the dialect of Bakhli Khad, have 
different words for "to-morrow" and "the day after to- 
morrow " on the one hand and " yesterday " and " the day 
before yesterday" on the other. Three dialects, all Koci 
(those of Baghi, Surkhiili Pfirg&na and Dodra Kuar), 
have different words for the fourth day forward and 
back. Purik and Lower Kanauri also distinguish all 
these days. 

Kdqani. — The most interesting points are (1) the 
change of ending of the pres. part, (or past conditional) 
according to whether the previous letter is sonant or 
surd, thus dikhtd, looking ; hdlcta, being able ; juldd, 
going; (2) the contraction of certain pairs of vowels, as 
janai, it is a man, for jtima e. 

Blldspilrl. — Here the point most worthy of note is the 
practical identity of the future with that of the criminal 
tribe of the Sasis. Both have the future (1) declinable 
ending in -angrd and (2) indeclinable ending in -dng. 
The latter is found also in Stiket and Mandi dialects. 
For SasI see Languages of the Northern Himalayas,^, iii, 
85 ft". ; iv, 70 ff. 

T. GRAHAME BAILEY. 

Wazirabad, India. 

June S, 1915. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface . 

Table of Contents . 
Errata . . 
Introduction to PCuik 

Purik Grammar 

Purik Vocabulary 
Introduction to Lower KAnauri 

Lower Kanauri Grammar • 

Lower KAnauri Vocabulary 
Introduction to the Chitkhuli Dialect 

Notes on the Chitkhuli Dialect . 
Introduction to KAgAni and BAhrAmgAla Dialecj 

Kagani Grammar ' 

Notes on BAhrAmgAla 

Introduction to Koci Dialects .... 

Grammar of the Rohru Dialect . 

Grammar of the BAghi and KAmpur Dialects 

Grammar of the Surkhuli Dialect 

Grammar of Dodra KuAr Dialect 

Introduction to JubbAl Dialects 

Grammar of the BArAri or North JubbAl Dialeci 

Grammar of the Bishshau or South JubbAl Dialec 
Introduction to Suket and MAndi Dialects 

Eastern Suketi Grammar 

• Suket SiKAji Grammar 

Notes on Dialect of BAkhlI KhAd (MAndi sirAj; 

Notes on Eastern aiAndeAli (MandI SJraj) 
Introduction to Bilaspur and Nalagarh Dialects 

BilAspuri or KAhluri Grammar .... 

Notes on Western BilAspuri .... 

Notes on Northern Bilasi'TtJ .... 

Notes on Southern BilAspuri .... 

Notes on DAmI 

Notes on HAnduri or East NalagArh Dialect . 

The Argot of the QAlAndAr 

The Secret Words of the QAsaI .... 
The Secret Words of the PAnjAbI Gamblers . 



XVII 

xix 

1 

13 

34 

46 

52 

73 

7s 

80 

87 

9-2 

110 

113 

118 

131 

148 

159 

172 

175 

189 

201 

205 

218 

226 

228 

231 

23S 

249 

252 

255 

258 

260 

•it;.-, 

273 
276 



ERRATA 

Page. Line. 

ix 24, some people make these words the same. 

ix 25, for kara read kara. 

x 6, for kara, Ica/ra read k&ra, karha. 

87 7, for Dhundi read Dhundi. 

88 11, for four or five read about two. 

91 16, 17, for identical in read identical with. 

97 12, for dole read dole. 

105 2 from foot, for iitte read iitto. 

197, 199, in heading, for NORTH read SOUTH. 



PURIK 

Introduction 

Purik is a dialect of Tibetan belonging to the Tibeto 

Himalayan branch of the Tibeto-Bunnan languages and 
allied to Ladakhi and Balti. It is spoken in the country 
drained by the Suru and Dras Rivers down to a little 
below the junction of the Suru with the Indus. One 
might put the limit at Kharmah, below which the 
language is Balti. From west to east it extends from 
Dras past Kargil to the pass near Maulba Chamba on the 
way to Leh, a distance of 65 miles, while from north to 
south it extends from Kharmah past Kargil and Suru to 
the Pense La, a distance of about 125 miles. This 
country corresponds to the Tahsil of Kargil, omitting 
Zaskar on the south. It is part of the Ladakh province. 

Ladakhi is well known, thanks to the labours of the 
Rev. A. H. Francke, of the Moravian Mission, but little is 
known about Purik. T\ie facts brought forward in the 
following pages will therefore not be devoid of interest to 
those who study Tibetan and its dialects. Care has been 
taken to write the words as pronounced, no attention 
being paid to their classical forms. For the relation of 
Purik to classical Tibetan Dr. Sten Konow's account in 
vol. iii, pt. i, of Sir George Grierson's Linguistic Surrey 
of India should be consulted. 

The number of speakers is not known. In the census 
returns they are included under Balti ; of the total of 
135,000 one might guess the Purik speakers at about 
45,000. 

Pronunciation 
The vowels are comparatively simple, a, e, i, o, u, with 
no diacritical marks, represent the vowels commonly heard 
in Italian, the e and o having the narrower Italian sounds. 

B 



■2 LINGUISTIC STUDIES PROM THE HIMALAYAS 

In Pdrik ' these five vowels are shorter than the long 
Italian vowels. They are therefore the same as d, e, i, 6, it 
in quality, but are pronounced shorter. a is as u in 
" but ", e the e of " met ", but narrower, % like i in " fin ", 
6 almost the same as in " hot ", it very like u in " pull ". 
In a, e, i, it the lips are more spread than in the case of 
similar English vowels. Long o is sometimes almost the 
English aw in " law ", e.g. ammo or ammau, but in the 
word Id, year, the o is between aw in " law " and the long 
narrow o mentioned above. The occasional change of u 
to ii is probably accidental. The u in -dim in ciibditn, 
seventeen, shtsapditn, twenty-seven, is almost il. it and 
o are sometimes interchanged, thus futures may end in 
-itk' or -ok'. 

The consonants have the values assigned to them in 
the R.A.S. Journal. There are, however, sounds not 
represented in the Society's alphabet. 

1. Unvoiced I, like the 11 in Welsh. This is one of the 
commonest of sounds in Purik. It is heard in llan, bull 
or cow ; lltsapcas, explain ; llyaqmo (llyagmo), good, and 
many more. In the common spelling " Lhasa " it is 
indicated by lit. I have represented it in the Welsh 
manner 11. It is important to note its nature. It is not 
a khl or Ih or hi ; it is simply I unvoiced. 

2. A letter <j pronounced very far back in the throat. 

3. A g pronounced in the same place. 

4. ii pronounced not so far back as the g and g just 
mentioned, but further back than the usual ih of Indian 
languages and of English. There is hardly any need for 
special signs to indicate these letters. The g and g are 
connected with q. q is very common at the end of 
syllables, and a sonant letter following it very frequently 
changes it to the sonant corresponding to q, or to a 
fricative uttered in the same place, i.e. further back than 
Urdu g. No other language that I know of has the 
sonant corresponding to q. The practical working out 



im'kik :> 

of this may be seen in a word like llyaqmo. IT one asks 
a native to say the word very deliberately in two syllables 
he will say llyaq-mo, but if he sa}\s it quickly he will 
say llyaqmo or possibly llyagmo, where the g and g are 
pronounced in the same part of the throat as q. The 
numerals give other examples; thus we have soqnyis or 
8oqnyi& or 8ognyis} thirty-two. This holds for any q 
which is immediately followed by a sonant consonant. 
In fact, we may state generally that any surd (unvoiced) 
letter is liable to be changed to the corresponding sonant 
if a sonant consonant follows, so s may become z, as in 
nyis or nyiz, two, t may become d, and so on. 

5. k at the end of a syllable is very often left half 
finished ; it has little or no off-glide, and therefore 
appears to the ear a little like g. This le' becomes g 
when a vowel or sonant consonant immediately follows, 
though occasionally the original pronunciation persists. 
Thus rdo ' iiau.lv, will strike, interrogative rd/Hiiwilga ; 
cik' ciga, to one one, to only one. Futures end in /.:'. 
A similar state of things is sometimes, though not at all 
so often, observable in the 'case of t and p, which might 
thou be written V, p'. The numerals cubdun, 17 ; 
shts&pd'iin, 27 ; shtsapc/yat, 28 ; sopdun, 37 ; sopgyat, 38, 
and others contain this />'. This k' is much more clearly 
a k than the similar letter in the Kanauri language. 

6. I have noticed cases of cerebral c and s, as cho, 
very ; 8td, horse ; but probably these are more or less 
accidental, depending on the speaker. 

Purik speakers find it easier to say ph than /, and in 
foreign words like sdfd, clean, they are apt to use a bilabial 
/, which is simply the unvoiced sound corresponding to 
the common Indian bilabial y. d and t are the usual 
dentals, but rarely the d is pronounced slightly alveolar, 
that is, more like the English d. This is sometimes 
heard, for example, in di/R, this. 

Cerebral d, /, r are also not infrequent : we hear 



4 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

ditlcds as well as driUcds, go; d&nda, equal to; midtap, 
list; tukcH, .sixty; rdttn, seven; rgy&t, eight; rtsiJcpa, 
wall ; /■:///, tank. It is very remarkable that r occurs 
initially. It is doubtful whether it ever so occurs in 
Urdu, Panjabi, and Standard Hindi. In words like 
d&nda, where n precedes a cerebral letter, it becomes 
cerebral, but I do not think that cerebral n occurs 
independently. 

ts is like the unvoiced Italian z, tsJt is the same 
aspirated. r is the trilled North Indian r. It often 
occurs initially followed by a consonant, h sometimes 
gives place to a nasal vowel, as in yds for yoiis, came ; 
ndntik for nahnuk, inside. In some words containing 
g the g is rapidly pronounced like g, but when the word 
is said deliberately the g becomes clear. 

Nouns 

There is no grammatical gender in Purik. Sex is 
indicated by separate words or sometimes by the ending 
-mo for the feminine, either added to the masculine, or, 
when the masculine ends in '-po or -pho, substituted for 
this ending, yciq, yak ; yaqmo, female yak ; zo or lltor, 
hybrid yak, the female being zomo, lltormo ; biamo, hen ; 
biapho, cock. This ending seems like an article, but in 
ordinary use it does not appear to add anything to the 
meaning. The ending -pa has the idea of person 
connected with or belonging to or owning, as hatipa, 
shopkeeper, from hdtl, shop. General]}' these endings 
have lost their original meaning and we find them used 
indiscriminately, thus llyagmo, good (for both genders) ; 
siiiLnpo, green ; marpo, red ; shmulpo, rupee. 

There are two numbers, singular and plural. 

Declension. — The system of declension is very simple 
and is practically the same for singular and plural. The 
genitive adds -I to the nominative, or sometimes, if the 
nominative ends in -o, adds -e or changes the -o to -e. 



PUHIK 5 

The dative adds -a and the agent -s, or -is if the 
nominative ends in a consonant. The accusative is the 
same as either the nominative or the dative, both forms 
being used for it. In the plural the same endings are 
found except that the dative adds -la, an ending also found 
in the singular, la is really a preposition with a varied 
meaning — to, in, for, etc. The case used with prepositions 
is generally the genitive, but sometimes the nominative 
is used. 

A noun ending in an unvoiced consonant tends to 
change it in declension to the corresponding voiced 
consonant. Thus ydq, yak, changes q to a before vowels, 
the q being pronounced far back in the throat. The 
genitive ending -ei is probably meant to be -i, but the 
natives find that after a far-back a it is easier to say -ei 
than a pure I. 

Pronouns 

Pronouns are not nearly so complicated as in the pro- 
nominalized Tibeto-Burman languages. Thus there is no 
dual except by adding nyiska. This is not a dual, for 
-lea may be added to other numbers, and so forms like 
" the three of us", "the four of you" may be made. The 
1st personal pronoun has two plurals, one inclusive and 
the other exclusive. The former, hat&n, includes the 
person spoken to and the latter, iinca, excludes the person 
spoken to. In the presence of guests a person addressing 
his servant and desiring to say "we shall dine at seven " 
would need to be careful to say fbaca, not riataib, otherwise 
the servant would consider himself invited. The 2nd 
personal pronoun has both polite and ordinary forms, 
khSrdn, singular, and IchintdLn, plural, being the ordinary 
forms and ye rail or yard ii and y&nt&ri the polite. 

Reflexive pronouns are made with the word rail and 
in the 3rd person plural tail rail or idii, rail being used 
in both singular and plural for pronouns of the 1st and 
2nd person. These correspond to the English use of 



6 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

" myself , himself " as nominatives and to the Hindi tipnd 
in the genitive. Thus in " he wrote to his brother " " his" 
is rendered rail J or khiiri, meaning his own brother. If it 
means someone else's brotlier it is khoi. In "I wrote to 
my brother" "my" is nari. It should be noted that 
r&n standing by itself is declined r&ni, rdna, etc., but com- 
pounded with another pronoun, as in nar&n from iid or 
Ichz&rdm, khora/n from kJto, it is declined -rl, agent -rife, but 
dative the full form -rcma. The ending -tail in khont&n 
is similarly treated. 

Relatives. — As in Shina and other languages, there is 
no distinction between relatives and interrogate ves. The 
relative idea is not well developed. To distinguish a 
relative from an interrogative the particle na is often 
used after the verb in a relative sentence, e.g. : 

nam sdq khdrc l tshdrbana, when all was spent. 
nam klioa hosh yoiisena, when sense came to him. 
ci nni yotna, what is mine. 

The na in these sentences shows that nam and cl do not 
mean " when ? " and " what ? " 

The demonstrative pronouns dyu, dl, this, and e, en, 
de, that, are used before nouns when they ai*e not used 
absolutely as pronouns. Further east than the Piirik area 
it is usual to place demonstrative pronouns after nouns. 
The plural of these demonstrative pronouns and of all 
nouns is in -an. In the case of e and de a iv is inserted 
before the tin of the plural The demonstrative pronouns 
are widely used, thus dl, k&na, not merely from this, but 
also hence, from here ; de k&na, from that, also after that 
event. The pronouns dyu, dl, this, e, that, and ga, which, 
are joined to the termination tsulc or sulc, meaning kind 
or manner, to form adverbs or adjectives, thus disok 
(disuk), of such a kind, such, so many ; dydtsnga, in this 
manner, thus ; etsuga, in that manner ; gatsiiga, in what 
manner, hotv (both relative and interrogative). 



PUR IK 



Adjectives 



Article. — There is no definite article. The endings ]><>, 
pho, mo, bo have no longer the force of a definite article. 
In Purik they seem from this point of view to be without 
meaning, rile', one, is used as an indefinite article, as 
llah cik', a bull or cow. Sometimes one hears the ending 
-He' with the same signification, as in phruilc', a boy. 

Comparison. — There are no forms for the comparative 
and superlative. As in most North Indian languages 
these are expressed simply by the positive with a word 
for " than " or " from " : rgyalba in, he is good ; ache 
wasan rgyalba in, he is better than his sister ; tshanma 
wasaii rgyalba in, he is better than all, he is best. 

Numerals. — Counting goes by tens, the numbers one 
to nine being repeated over and over again in different 
forms up to a hundred. Each ten is formed from the 
corresponding unit, but after each exact ten, i.e. twenty, 
thirty, etc., the numbers are added to a different stem, 
a stem which varies for each new set of figures. Thus, 
eleven to nineteen have ctik', twenty-one to twenty-nine 
shts&q, the thirties soq, the forties zhaq, the fifties <ja, the 
sixties raq, the seventies ton, the eighties kydq, and the 
nineties koq. The numerals in Ladakhi are very similar, 
and Mr. Francke has explained the numerical scheme 
for that language as follows: "the connecting syllable 
between tens and units in most cases is composed of 
(i) the first consonant of the stem of each ten, (ii) a vowel, 
(iii) the otherwise silent first consonant of the stem of 
the unit." It will be obvious that Purik follows such 
a scheme. Numerals follow the noun which they qualify, 
but all other adjectives normally precede their nouns. 
This is contrary to the usage of some Tibetan dialects. 
It is to be noted that, while units follow thousands 
according to the rule just given, they precede hundreds. 
zhip'gyci, lour hundred : rgy&trgya, eight hundred ; 



8 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

rdunrgya, seven hundred : but stori 8&m, three thousand; 
stoit tr dk', six tliousand. 

In the Parable of the Prodigal Son cik' is repeated 
without an} 7 definite meaning; perhaps it is emphatic. 
yoqpo cik' ciga you zere, having said "come" to one 
servant. It is not unlike the Panjabi kdmme ikki nU 
kaake, having called one servant. In disok cik', yoqpo 
cigis, cik' is practically meaningless. The phrases mean 
such some (years), so many years ; servants some, servants. 
A common ending of adjectives is -can, which means 
" having " ; thus, ryelcan, hairy, from ryel, hair ; dordecan, 
strong ; banca'n, a runner ; halcan, fat. Adjectives usually 
precede nouns and then do not ordinarily change for 
gender, number, or case ; an adjective following a noun 
takes the case-endings instead of the noun, which remains 
in the nominative. Occasionally the Ladakhi rule of 
putting a preceding adjective in the genitive is followed, 
as yotpl norzanun, existing properties; yonskhanipo, the 
one who has come. 

The Verb 

The conjugation of the verb in Punk is easy. There 
is no change for gender or number if we except the shik' 
of the imperative. The formation of the tenses, too, is 
simple. 

Infinitive. — The infinitive is formed by adding -cas, 
-ca or -sh&s, -sha to the root, ska's is probably contracted 
from seas. If so, verbs in shells are merely verbs whose 
root ends in s, conjugated like verbs in r. 

The gerundive infinitive is formed in the following way : 

(1) Verbs whose root ends in n, n, m add -ma to the root. 

(2) Verbs whose root ends in other consonants add -pa 
to the root if the last letter is unvoiced (surd), and -ha if 
it is voiced (sonant). 

(3) Verbs whose root ends in a use the root itself. 
Thus we have tanc&8, give: ger. inf. tuhma: yohcas, 



PUKIK y 

come; yonma: ISno&s, take ; l$nma\ ny&nc&s, know how 

to; nydnma : d ulceus, sit; dilkpa: Idn/ ulcus, be able; 
Ichyutpa: silcds, read; silba: zercus, say ; zSrba : zucus, 
eat ; za : bacds, do ; 6d. 

Imperative. — The imperative is the same as the root 
except when the root (1) ends in a vowel, in which case 
s is added ; (2) contains the vowel a, in which case a is 
changed to o. -sl[ilc' is added for the plural whether this 
is merely the plural of politeness addressed to a single 
person or indicates actual plurality. 

Present. — The present adds -et to the root, the pres. 
part, adds -en (sometimes -e). The pres. imperf., showing 
that an action is actually going on, is the pres. part, with 
the verb subst. yiit. 

Imperfect. — The imperfect is the present with pin 
added, or the pres. part, with the past verb subst. yotpin. 
pin is contracted from pa in. 

Future. — The future adds -tile' to the root except when 
the root ends in k or a nasal. Roots in k add tub' and 
nasals add nuk'. 

Past. — The past tense is the same as the root when the 
root ends in r or t, otherwise s is added. Verbs whose 
infinitive is in shds have s in the past. The pluperfect 
adds pin to the past, the conj. part, adds e or ei, thus 
Ichurei, having lifted ; rdunsei, having struck. The pres. 
perf. is the conj. part, with the verb subst. in, rduiise in, 
has struck ; the fut. perf. is the conj. part, with the 
auxiliary verb ditkctis, sit, be; rdaiisc ditktUk', will have 
struck. 

Conditional. — The pres. cond. is simply the root with 
the subordinate particle na, and the past cond. is the 
pluperfect with the same particle, rdiinna, rd&napfwna. 

Agent. — The agent is the root with khan, rdUnkhdn, 
striker. 

Verb substantive.- There are two verbs subst., inf. inc&s 
and yoteds, to be: pres. in and yiit, past yotpin. 



10 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Passive. — The passive is expressed (1) by using in- 
transitive verbs instead of transitive ; (2) by making the 
subject of the verb, -which would be passive, the object 
of a transitive verb in the active ; (3) by the use of the 
passive participle in khan. This is formed by adding 
khan to the past tense. When the verb is transitive this 
gives the meaning of having been struck, etc. ; if the verb 
is intransitive it means in the state oT having done the 
action. Thus rdftnslch&n, having been struck; dukskhan, 
in the state of having sat down, seated. It will be seen 
that this corresponds exactly to the Hindi mdrd hud, 
baitlid hud, and to the participles found in many hill 
dialects, thus Dogri -add, mareddd, beaten; baithddd, 
seated ; the Cameall participle corresponding ends in -ord, 
the Shina pass. part, in -lift. See also tsharc&s, below. 

There are few irregularities. We notice §hi, died, as 
well as shis ; zes as well as zer, said ; nyit tscts, awoke, 
for nyit tsdt ; zo, eat, for zos (imperative); zos, ate, for 
zds; sas, slew, for sat ; and a few others. Occasionally 
the past is contracted ; thus we have dais and das, went; 
spars and sjms, spent. 

Notes. — pa is frequently used for pin ; the ger. inf. 
is often found instead of the pres. part. pin may become 
bin after a sonant consonant. In the specimens will be 
noticed storbin, was lost, for storpin; inma pa, was; 
taiima metpa, was not giving, for tanen metpin ; rgosetpa, 
it was advisable, for rgosetpin; storbinmapa for storbin 
(pin changed to bin after r). 

The ger. inf. and the participles in kh&n are declined, 
thus llu tail ml skat', the noise of giving song; yotpi 
norzdnan, properties which are, exist, from yotpa ; yons- 
Jchanipo, having come, that which has come; rgakhanftn, 
lovers, from rgakliuu. 

na is often added to the conj. part. ; rdaiisena, having 
beaten. This na frequently appears to correspond to the 
Hindi to ; the use of na in subordinate sentences is not 



PURIK 1 1 

dissimilar. It resembles the Shina -to. It may, however, 
be the preposition na, in which case rduitse is used as 
a verbal noun, rdunsena may thus mean either " having 
then struck " (" then " being the then of narrative or of 
inference) or " upon having struck ", on his having 
struck. 

Several verbs are used as auxiliaries. tshurcds, finish, 
with the root gives the sense of a passive completed action 
in past time, as ba tsh&r, do finished, was done, son, the 
past of chdcds, go, is used for became, ditkcas, sit, is 
used with the conj. part, to express the fut. perf., as base 
duktille', will have done, also with the pres. part, to express 
continuous action, bein da get, continues doing, goes on 
doing. 

Transitive verbs take their subjects in the agent case, 
while the subject of intransitive verbs is in the nominative : 
nds zeriile', I will eat; na yoiis, I went. lehyutcas, be 
able, nyanc&s, know how to, take the nominative of the 
subject noun. 

Causation. — The idea of causation is sometimes rendered 
by the use of different verbs, following the model of 
Tibetan, which prefixes s to make an intransitive verb 
transitive. This s is not infrequently dropped in Purik, 
the only difference then being that the initial sonant of 
the intransitive becomes a surd. This is found also in 
Kanauri, as byaitmile', to fear, (s)p;/<< it mile', to frighten; 
bonmile', burn (intrans. ), ponmik', burn (trans.). 

In Purik we have along with others — 

duleshds, burn (intrans.). tulcci&S, burn (trans.). 

dridcas, go. trulcils, make go. 

(joneds, put on one's clothes, skoneds, clothe someone else. 

But the ordinary way of expressing causation is to use 
the verb ciikeds, shut, with the root of the required verb. 

zerba cities, he caused to speak, permitted to speak. 
zd ciiget, he gives to eat. 



12 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

In the negative ctikcas follows the ordinary rules: ma 
and mi precede both verbs and Diet, mSbpin follow both. 

Ability. — To be able physically: khyiitcas with the 
gerundive infinitive. 

kharba khyut, he was able to lift. 

Ability in the sense of knowing how to is expressed by 
nyancas with the ger. inf. 

sllba nyanet, he knows how to read. 

Duty, necessity, advisability. — rgoshds with the ger. inf. 

tanma rgoset, it is right to give. 

Necessity may also be expressed by the infinitive in -ca 
with the verb subst. 

baca yotpin, it was necessary to go, he had to go. 
tahca yiit, it is necessary to go. 

Less commonlythe ending in cas is used in this case. 
The infinitive in cas or ca (shas or sha) is used as a verbal 
noun : zbricds or zbrica rgyalba in, it is good to write. 

Commencement. — ryaqsh&s with ger. inf. : za ryaqs 
(ryakhs), he began to eat; er dukpa ryakhs, he began to 
live there. 

Purpose. — phia or plaires with genitive of ger. inf. : 
shorbl phares or jtltia, for the purpose of running away. 

Adverbs 

The adverbs hardly call for comment. The old Tibetan 
endinc r, expressive of motion, is found in dir, here ; er, 
there ; gar, where. Words expressing " here " contain 
the d from di, this, as dir, diltek', and diJca ; those 
expressing " there " contain e from en, that, as er, eltek', 
eka, while those meaning " where " contain g from ga, 
who, gar, gdltek', geihi. The interrogative adverbs are 
used also as relatives and indefinites, thus garah ma, 
nowhere. 



PURIK 13 

Prepositions 

Besides the suffixes used in declension such as -8, la or 
/<x (for the dative), there are a number of others, the 
most important of which are given in the grammar. 
The majority govern the genitive, out a few take the 
nominative. Motion to and motion in are not very clearly 
distinguished. The word la is widely used, not only with 
nouns and pronouns, but with adverbs and prepositions, 
e.g. thaqrinsld, far. 

Conjunctions 

The most important of these is the sign of subordinate 
clauses na. This is used in all conditional clauses, also 
when an interrogative word is used as a relative, and 
generally to indicate subordinate clauses. The three 
sentences given previously illustrate this. 

nam khoa ho.^h yonsena, when sense came to him. 

cl iml yotna, that which is mine. 

nam saq kharc i batsharbana, when all was spent. 

Nouns 

Singular Plural 
phono, brother. 

Nom., Ace. phono. phono fin. 

Gen. phonoc. phonouni. 

Dafc., Ace. phonoa. phonofinla. 

Abl. phonekana. phono fi n i kana. 

Agent 2>h° nos - phono finis. 

The a in phonoa is between the a in "fat" and the 
u in " but ". 

pJirft, bo}\ 

Nom., Ace. phru. phruiin. 

Gen. phrui. phruiin). 

Pat., Ace. phrua. vhrilunhi. 

Abl. phrui kana. phrilum k&na. 

Agent phrils. pJmlfuiis. 



14 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Singular Plural 

b&lcLn, bull. 

Nom., Ace. b&l&n. b&l&niln. 

Gen. b&l&ni. b&l&nilni. 

Pat., Ace. b&l&na. b&l&hUnla. 

Abl. b&l&ni k&na. b&l&nilni k&na. 

Agent b&l&nis. balanunis. 

y&q, yak. 

Nom., Ace. y&q. y&gitn. 

Gen. yagei. yagtini. 

Dat., Ace. yoga. yagilnla. 

Abl. yetgei k&na. yagtini k&na. 

Agent yogis. yagunis. 

The q in this word is the far-back variety. 

arna, mother. 

Nom., Ace. a ma . a ma u n . 

Gen. ami. amatinl. 

Dat., Ace. &ma. amaunla. 

Abl. ami k&na. amauni k&na. 

Agent cimas. am finis. 

In the above plurals the combinations oil, ait, uu are 
not diphthongs. In each case the second letter is quite 
separate. The dat. sing, sometimes has -la or la instead 
of -a. It should be noted that unaccented a, e, i, o, tl are 
hardly to be distinguished from a, e, i, o, u. na nyambo, 
meaning " with ", "along with ", is added to the nom. sing. 
or plur. of nouns and pronouns, shitea, chanla, der, all 
meaning " beside " (Urdu pas, Panjabi hoi), are used with 
the genitive like kcina given above. Nouns ending in 
-o contract the -oe of the genitive to -e before these 
words. 

sciq, all, is declined like the singular of ydq. 



I'L'RIK 



15 



Pronouns 



Personal Pronouns. 
1st Person. 

Singular 
Nom., Ace. rid, I. 

(icn. rinl. 

Dat., Ace. rid. 

Abl. rinl kaiui. 

Agent rids. 



Plural 
hatan nisha (from nyis, 

two), the two of us. 
in (I <)i'i niskoi. 
fid tail niska. 
hatan niskoi kana. 
hatdri niskas. 



Similarly, hatan zbzhilca, the four of us, and so with 
other pronouns, all declined the same way. 



Inclusive Plural (including 
"you") 

Nom., Ace. riatdri, we. 
Gen. riati. 

Dat., Ace. natana. 
Abl. hatl kana. 

Agent riatls. 

2nd Person. 

Nom., Ace. khcrdri, thou. 
Gen. khcrl. 

Dat., Ace. klicrdria. 
Abl. khcrl kana. 

Agent khcrcs. 



Exclusive Plural (excluding 
"you") 

riacd, we. 
riacl. 
riacd. 

riaci kana. 
riaeds. 

khintdh, you. 
k hi id L 
khintdria. 
khintl kana. 
khintcs. 



Polite forms are found for the 2nd pers. sing, yifran, 
declined like khSrcm; plur. yemtan, like khintan, except 
the agent, which is yen Irs. 



3rd Person or Demonstrative. 
Nom., Ace. kho, be, she, that. 
Gen. khoi. 

Dat., Ace. khoa. 
Abl. kJioi kana. 

Agent klios. 

Another plural form is khohtah or khontdh, declined 
like khintfim. 



khiiri, they, those. 

kho in. 

khoria. 

khorii kana. 

khonis. 



16 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAVAS 



I'l.lRAL 

ewitn, those over there. 



Singulab 

Norn., Ace. eu, c, that over 
there, yonder (in sight). 
Gen. ex or e. cwun't. 

Dat., Ace. cica. ew&nla. 

A hi. ei kdna, e kdna. ewtlni kdna. 

Agent ens. cwilnis. 

Also de, that, similarly declined. 



Norn., Ace. dyu, dl, this. 
Gen. dl. 

Dat., Ace. dyua. 
Abl. dl kdna. 

Agent dyus. 

Interrogative. 

Nom., Ace. gau, who. 
Gen. gdi. 

Dat., Ace. gaua. 
Abl. gdi kdna 

Agent gauds. 

Another word for " who ? " 
is regular: Nom., Ace. su. 
Abl. siii kdna. Agent sus. 
something; caii ma, nothing 



dyfaui. 
dyuilnl. 
dy ft unlet. 
dyuilnl kdna. 
dyutlnis. 



gauun. 

(jauunl. 
(jauunla. 
gauun l kdna. 
gauunis. 

is sa, the declension of which 

Gen. siii. Dat., Ace. sua. 

cl, what ?; cithon, anything, 

; manmo, much, many ; tsa/m, 



tsdmtsik, ts&m/pa, how much or man} 7 ? 

To express emphasis by adding the idea of self, selves, 
the following words are used : — 

To nouns in the sing. kJiordii or khiirdh is added, to the 
plur. khontdh : thus, phono khordii, the brother himself ; 
plionoiin khontdh, the brothers themselves. Onl}' the 
second word is declined ; hence the genitive isphono khori, 
of the brother himself, the brother's own ; phono tin khonti, 
of the brothers themselves. 

The 1st and 2nd pers. pronouns add ran, which inflects 
while the pronouns remain in the nominative, kho, he, 
she, that, becomes kJtordh, and Jehon becomes khontdii 
rail (the rail inflecting), dyu and ea add kltordii in the 



I'l'UIK 17 

singular and khont&ri in the plural, the latter words beine 
inflected. It will be noticed that these emphatic words 
are, with the exception of rail, simply the 3rd personal 
pronouns. 

The genitive of a pronoun does not change for the 
number, gender, or case of the word possessed: thus, fini 
hdldii, my bull; ii uJ b<1l<1 iianla, to my bulls ; iinl ami, 
of my mother. 

Nouns ending in -a, -e, -J, when made definite by having 
a demonstrative adjective or possessive noun put before 
them often change a to do and e or % to eu or iu : thus, 
dl khanmao, this house; so e atdo, this father; dl amao, 
•this mother ; dl dcheu, this big sister; from khaiimd, did, 
dma, ache; mi becomes mlu. 

Conjugation of Verbs 

The infinitive ends in either -cds or -shfis, the latter 
probably being contracted from an original -seas. If we 
so regard it, the conjugation, which otherwise would be 
irregular, corresponds to that of ordinary verbs. Verbs 
which have a root containing a retain the a in all parts 
except the imperative, where it changes to u. The 
following outline conjugation of the principal verbs will 
be sufficient to indicate the usual forms. The normal 
conjugation is as follows : (1) imperative is the same as 
the root with occasionally 8 added, a is changed to o ; 
(2) the present adds -et or -eit to the root; (3) past is the 
same as the root, with or without s added ; (4) the future 
adds -uk' to the root, with sometimes a letter inserted 
between the root and -dk\ Roots ending in a nasalized 
vowel must be treated as ending in i>. 

There is no change for person or number except in the 
imperative, which changes for the plural (whether of 
respect or of plurality). 

1. Root in -n or -n : fut. -nate, past -s, imperative same 
as root. 

c 



]H LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



rdiln-c&s, beat. 


pres. 


-ct. 


fu 


t. -nnli . 


past 


-s. 


imp 


. rdfih 


tan-c&s, give. 




-ct. 




-nillc. 




-s. 




toil. 


phan-c&s, throw. 




-ct. 




-link'. 




-s. 




phoh. 


ziin-cds, catch. 




-ct. 




-nuk'. 




-s. 




zun. 


phicas, pliihcds, 


phict. 


phi nn ilk . 


phi its. 




phu't. 


take out, expel. 


















soncds, live. 


sonct. 




son ilk . 


son. 




son. 



This last verb omits the s in the past. 

2. Root in -/.' changes k to g before vowel, past -s, 
fut. -title', imp. same as root. 

diikcas, sit. pres. dugct. fut. dilktuk'. yitist dnks. imp. duk. 
zdokeds, zdoget. zdoktok'. zdoks. zdok. 

conceal. 
zhdkeas, keep. zhok. 

3. Root in -p changes p to 6 before vowel, past -s. 
lltsdpcds, teach, persuade. fut. lltsdbct. past lltsaps. 
llcpcds, arrive. llcbet. llcps. 
thopcas, be obtained, meet. thobct. thops. 

4. Root in -r, fut. -&/>;', past no s, imperative as root. 

Jchtir-cas, lift. pres. -ct. fut. -#&'. past khilr. imp. feMr. 

-#ft\ 2er, zcs. zcr. 

-ilk'. shor. 

-tile. stor. 

Irregular in past: spii/reds, waste, spend; past spitrs 
or spus. 

5. Root in -I, fut. -ilk', past -s, imperative as root. 

skil-cas, hinder, pres. -U. h\i.-iik\ pasts&ite. imp. s&iZ. 

dillcds, go. -e£. -#fe . dills, dils. dill. 

6. Root in Z, fut. -re/*;', past as root or changes £ to s, 
imperative as root. 

(nyit) tsdt-cds, pres. -ct. fut. -#& . past tsds. imp. ZsoZ. 

awake. 
rjet-eds, forget. -ct. -tile. rjet. 

thdtcds, thdeds, be .thdtet. that. 

happy. 
sdteds, sdeds, slay. sa£eZ. sas. soZ. 



zer-eds, say, 


-ft 


speak. 




shor-eds, run 


-ft 


away. 




stor-eds, be lost. 


-ft 



past bus. 


ini|] 


. /'M.S'. 


lltds. 




UtOS. 


zos. 




zo. 


soil. 




son. 



PURIK ]!♦ 

7. Root in -a; a is dropped before the endings, Int. -ok', 
pros, -et, -elf, past -8, imperative generally in -8 with usual 
change of a to o. zacas, eat, has past in o and drops s in 
imperative. cJidcds, checas, go, uses another root in the 
past and imperative. 

bacds, do, make. pres. bcit. fut. bok . 
lit dads, look. llteit. lltok'. 

zacas, eat. zet. zok . 

chdcds, checas, go. chet. chok . 

8. Root in i, l, pres. adds -t to root, past adds -s, 
imp. -s. shicas may drop s in past. 

iricds, ask. pres. ini. past //vs. imp. /ris. 

zbricds, write. z&Wi. zbris. 

silicas, die. sft ?/. s//?, s/^js. 

9. Root in o, 6, or S, pres. adds -et or -tt to root, past -s, 
imp. -s, fut. -&'. 

spo-eds, change. pres. -et. fut. -&'. past -5. imp. -5. 
iul-cds, cry. nu-lt. -k'. -s. 

nyucds,nyocds, buy. nyuet. nyos. 

10. Infinitive ending in -sh&s, probably contracted from 
-8C&8, pres. -sefc, fut. -scU:', past -s, imp. -s. sheshas, under- 
stand, has pres. sheshet. 

bdp-shds, descend, pres. -se/. fut. -silk', past -5. imp. bops. 
she-shds, know, -shet. -s. -s. 

understand. 
lan-sh&s, rise, stand. -se£. -s/<&'. -5. los{lohs). 

lilshds, remain. -set. 

duk-shds, burn (intr.). -set. 
rgo-shds, be advisable, -sdt. 

necessary, proper. 
lltoq-shds, be hungry, -set. -s. 

skom-shds, be thirsty, -set. 

Verb Substantive 
Present tense, i?i, for all persons and numbers. 
Past, yotpin, for all persons and numbers (contracted 
from yotpa in). 



■silk'. 


■s. 


-stik'. 


-s. 


-suk'. 


-s. 


-sok\ 





20 LINGUISTIC STUDIES PROM THE HIMALAYAS 

yotpin is really the past of the verb yoteds, which 
contains the idea of existence, thus :- — 
eii miisili'uhi n in, lie is a Musalman. 
eii dir yiit'he is here, he exists here. 

rdiiiicas, rduiica, beat 

Imp. rdil.ii, plur. rdti/hshik'. 

Fut. rdtinnwh'. 

Pres. rdiiiiet, beats. 

Pres. imperf. rdiiiien yitt, is beating. 

Imperf. rdiiiien yotpin or rditnet pin. 

Past, rditns. 

Pres. cond. rdttnna. 

Past cond. rdiiiispinna. 

Pres. part, rdiinen, rdune, beating. 

Conj. part, rdtlnsei, having beaten. 

Agent, rduiihhdn, beater. 

Pass. part, rdtihsklian, beaten. 

Continuous tenses, rdititen with required tense of 
diikcas, to sit. rdiiiien d&ktfik 1 , he will be beating, he 
will continue beating. 

Pres. perf. rditiise in, rdiiiise yilt, has beaten. 

Plup. rdiiiispin, had beaten. 

Fut. perf. rdiiiise diiktuk'. 

Gerundive infinitive, rdtiiima, 

thiiiicds, drink ; i/oiicds, come, are like rdiiiicas. 
■phaiicds, throw ; taiicas, give, change a to o in 
imperative. 

khwreas, khurea, lift a load 
khiircas is conjugated like rdiiiicas except in the 
following tenses : — - 
Fut. khiiriik', 
Past, hhiir. 
Pres. perf. JcJiiire in or yut. 



PURIK 21 

Fut. perf. kit fife dUktiik'. 
Conj. part, khitrei. 
( }er. inf. khUrbob. 

lencas, take; silcds, read; zercas, say, are conjugated 
like kh/Hrcds. zercas has also a past zes. 

khyiitcds, be able (physically), ny&ncds, know how to, 
he able, are like khiircds except the gerunds, which are 
khyutpa and nydnma respectively. 

zacds, zacd, eat 
Imp. zo zoshik'. 

Fut. zok', will eat; zein diiktttk', he will be eating. 
Pres. zet. 

Pres. imperf. zein ytil. 
Irnperf. zet pin, zein yotpin. 
Past, zos. 

Pres. perf. zose in. 
Plup. zospin. 
Pres. cond. zana. 
Past cond. zospfnna. 
Pres. part. zein. 
Agent, zakhnn, eater. 

Conj. part, zosei, having eaten : zoskhdn, eaten. 
Continuative, zein, ditkcd, to continue eating. 
Ger. inf. za. 

checds, cltecd, or cltdcds, chdcd, go, is like zacds, except 
in imperative and in tenses connected with the past. 
Imp. son, sonshik', go. 
Past, soil ; conj. part, sonsei : plup. suit nit n ; past cond. 

suit lilt It Ittt. 

Pres. perf. sohse in: fut. perf. soil**' d&kt&k'. 

bacds, bacd, do 
Imp. }>6s, bosh ik'. 
Fut, boh\ 
Pres. bHt. 



22 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Pres. imperf. be in yitt 

[mperf. beitpin, belli yotpi u. 

Fast, b&s. 

Pres. perf. b&se in. 

Plup. baspin. 

Fut. perf. base ditktitk'. 

Pros. cond. bana. 

Past cond. baspinna. 

Conj. part, basei. 

Agent, balch&n. 

Contin. bein ditlccd. 

Ger. inf. ba. 

lltac&s, lltaca, see, look 
Imp. lltos, lltoshik'. 
Fut. lltok'. 

Pres. llteit, llteln ydt. 
Imperf. llteitpin, llteln yotpin. 
Past, llthoh, 
Conj. part, lltlioiisei. 
Cond. lltana, llthaspinna. 
Agent, lltakhan. 
Contin. llteln ditkcoi. 
Ger. inf. llta. 

A feature of the pronunciation of this verb is the 
insertion in some tenses of an h after the lit 

dtlhcds, ditkca, sit 
Imp. d itk, ' d itJcshik'. 
Fut. diiktuk'. 
Pres. ddget, diigen yitt. 
Imperfect, etc., regular. 
Past, diiks. 
Pluperfect regular. 
Cond. ditkna, dfihspinua. 
Pres. part, ditgen. 
Agent, duJyhhnn. 



PUR IK 23 

Contin. dugen dtikcd. 
Ger. inf. ditkpa. 
Fut. perf. dtiJcse d Mi til,'. 

For the pres. perf. dulse ydt appears to be the only 
form ; diiksS in, not being found. 

rgy&kcds, run, and citkcds, be allowed to, are like diikc&s. 

ditlcds, dtilca, go, walk (Hindi calna) 
Imp. dill, also cZo?V. 
Pres. dvblet. 

Pres. part, dalen, dule. 
Past, eZ#Zs and (//?*. 
Agent, dUlkhdn, d&lkhanpo. 
Ger. inf. didba. 

zbricds, write 
Pres. zbrit. 
Pres. part, zbrin. 
Past, sfo'i.s. 
Other tenses regular. 

lltoqshas, Utuqsha, be hungry 
Pres. Utoqset. 
Pres. part, lltdqs^n. 
Past, //Wgs. 
Plup. lltoqspi n. 
Ger. inf. lltoqpa. 
Other tenses regular. 

Similarly conjugated is khyitqshas, be cold. 

skomshas, skomsha, be thirsty 

Pres. skomxet. 

Pres. part, skumsen, etc., regular. 

shorc&s, run away 
Pres. shorPt. 
Past, gfeor*. 

Pres. perf. sAo?*e Ml or y#tf. 
Conj. part. s[torei, etc. 



24 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

rgosh&s, be necessary, advisable 
Pres. rgdaet. 
Fut. rgosftk*. 

The Negative 

Negative adverbs are ma and ml: the former is fre- 
quently contracted to m. They are used as follows: — 

in, yut, and yotpin, when negative, become //<//<. me?, 
and -met j> in. 

With ordinary verbs the rule is as follows : — - 

Imp., past, and plup. prefix ma to the verb : ma 
/■thin, do not strike; fads via rditns, I did not strike; 
has ma rdiinspin, I had not struck. 

For future prefix ml to root of verb; it as ml rdtiii, 
I will not strike. 

For pres. and pres. imperf. use met after the ger. inh'n. : 
fids rduhma met, I do not strike or am not striking. 

For imperfect use metpin after the ger. infin. : itas 
rduiima metpin, I was not striking. 

Pres. perf. has ma before ger. inf., which is followed by 
in : eiis ma rdilnma in, he has not struck. 

Thus with zercds, the forms are : — 

ma zer, do not say. 

eiis ma zes, he did not say. 

eiis ma zespin, he had not said. 

m% zer, he will not say. 

eiis zerba met, he does not say or is not sa\ T ing. 

eiis zerba metpin, he was not saying. 

ma zerba in, has not said. 

Interrogation 
A verb is made interrogative b}^ the addition of -a. 
Sometimes there is a slight vowel change, as yilt, yota; 
bas, basa. Forms ending in k' (i.e. the future, for the 
only other, the imperative, cannot be made interrogative) 
change k' to g before -a. 



PUR IK 25 

hole', will do; interrog. boga : frdfa, did; interrog. basa. 

So se^, is eating ; ZOS, ate ; zok', will eat, become cWa, 
sosa, sw/<(. 

In negative sentences (see above) the rule is similar. 

The past adds -a, but for the pies. perf. and pi up. 
speakers are content to use the neg. interrog. past form. 

The future adds -a; the pres. ind. and pres. imperf. add 
-a to met, and the imperfect adds it to -pin. 

The above negative sentences will therefore become 

etis ma zesa, did he not say ? 

eits zerba meta, is he not saying ? 

etis ml rdtina, will he not strike ? 

etis vdtx h metpina, was he not striking ? 

To express sentences of the form " did he come or not ? " 
"will he cosine or not?" the first verb is put in the 
interrogative, and the second in the form of negative 
affirmation. 

eu yonsa ma yons, did he come or not ? 
eu yonnuga nu yon, will he come or not ? 











Numerals 


1. 


cik'. 








14. 


ctizbzh l. 


2. 


Ill/i.<. 








15. 


co;/d. 


3. 


stim. 








10. 


car a J,-', 


4. 


zbzhi. 








17. 


ctibdtin. 


5. 


ga. 








18. 


ctiggy&t 


G. 


trtik'. 








19. 


ctirtigu. 


7. 


rdtin. 








20. 


nyishu, nishu. 


8. 


rgy&t. 








21. 


shtsdqsh ik'. 


9. 


i'i/iI. 








22. 


shtstign is, shtsa-q u is. 


10. 


shcu. 








23. 


shts&qsH m. 


11. 


ctikshik' 








24. 


sh tsdzb zh l . sh ts& qzbzhi. 


12. 


ctignis, 


ctignyis (and so • 


25. 


shtsdgd. 




with a 


11 limn 


bera end- 


26. 


shts&zd/rtik'. 




ing in 


2). 






27. 


shts&pdun. 


13. 


ctikstim 








28. 


shts&pgy&t. 



26 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FKOM THK HIMALAYAS 



29. shtsdrgn. 


65. 


?*<ute7. 


30. s time a. 


66. 


rariik', 


31. soqshik'. 


67. 


rdlxh'i n. 


32. sognis, soqnis. 


68. 


rdbgydt. 


33. soqsdm. 


69. 


rdrgCi. 


34. sozbzhi, soqzbzhl. 


70. 


rdnncd. 


35. sogd. 


71. 


toncik'. 


36. sozdrdk'. 


72. 


tonnis. 


37. sopditn. 


73. 


tuns dm. 


38. sopgydt. 


74. 


tdnzbzhi. 


39. sorgu. 


75. 


tunga. 


40. zhip'cu. 


76. 


tonriik'. 


41. zhaqshik'. 


77. 


tobdun. 


42. zhdgnis, zhdqnis. 


78. 


tonrgydt. 


43. zhaqsum. 


79. 


tonrgu.' 


44. zhdzhbzhi. 


80. 


rgyacu. 


45. zhand. 


81. 


kyaqshik'. 


46. zharuk'. 


82. 


Jcy&qnis, kydgnis. 


47. zhabdun. 


83. 


kydqsdm. 


48. zhdbgydt. 


84. 


hyazbzhl, hyaqzbzhi 


49. zhdrgu. 


85. 


hyagd. 


50. gapcu. 


86. 


kyaruJc'. 


51. gacilc'. 


87. 


kydbdu n. 


52. ganis. 


88. 


kyabgydt. 


53. gasiim. 


89. 


Icydrgu. 


54. gdzhbzhi. 


90. 


rb tike a . 


55. f/aiid. 


91. 


Jcoqshik'. 


56. garitk'. 


92. 


Icognis, koqnis. 


57. gdlxldn. 


93. 


hoqsiim, 


58. gdb'gydt. 


94. 


kvzbzhi, hoqzbzhi. 


59. g&rgu. 


95. 


I'obgd. 


60. *#7ccu. 


96. 


koriik'. 


61. rdqshil,'. 


97. 


liubddn. 


62. rdgnis, rdqnis. 


98. 


Icobgyat. 


03. rdqstim. 


99. 


kdrgu. 


64. rdzhbzh F t. 


100. 


rgyd. 



PUR1K 



27 



103. rgya sum. 

106. rgya triik'. 

154. rgya gdzhbzhi. 

200. nip'gya, nyip'gya. 

300. samgi/a. 

400. zhip'gya. 

500. g&p'gya. 

(500. trtikrgya. 



700. rd&nrgya. 
800. rgy&trgya. 
900. rgitprgya. 
1000. sfoVt. 
1368. stoit-siimgyd- 

rdbgy&t. 
6541. stontHik-gii/pgya- 
zhd q §h lie 1 . 



Half is y >/<.££ or pliendii. plihidii subtracts half from 
a number, thus: plteudu zbzhi, three and a half : pkenitii 
rditn, six and a half. 

Numbers follow the word qualified. 

Adverbs 

Place 

here, dlr, diltek', dilca, dytie, nowhere, g<1mii, with nega- 

dyda. tive. 

there, er, eltek', elect,. inside, nannulc. 

where, gar, gdltek', gel lea. far, thaqrins. 

Time 

now, dare'. on fourth day, zhaq zbzhi. 

then, del w&gzla. yesterday, gondii. 

when, nam. day before yesterday, Jchart- 

never, mdna, with negative. sdn zhaq. 

to-day, dirin. day before that, ditwma 

to-morrow, aslce'. zhaq. 
day after to-morrow, ndns. 



Others 

yes, ana, or repetition of 

verb. 
not, ma, or repetition of verb 

with negative. 



thus, dyiitsuga. 
in that way, et*uga. 
how, gdtsuga. 
much, ma a mo. 
why, r^/. 

In the word gdltek' the (< is as a in but, but prolonged 



28 linguistic studies prom the himalayas 

Prepositions 
(The case governed is shown in brackets ; gen. = 
genitive, nom. = nominative.) 

from, kana (gen.), na. beside, shitea, shXttia, shanla, 

in, -ait (gen.), -utile, -aiiHh chanla, der (all gen.). 

(gen.). with (along with), nanyambo 

before, sna (gen,). or nail ivy a/mho (nom.); 

behind, rgyabna (gen.). (of instrument), nail 

upon, kd (gen.). (nom.). 

under, yoga (gen.). for sake of, because of, pit la, 

phares (gen.). 

Conjunctions 
t/att, and. trdsait, than. 



PURIK 29 



SENTENCES 

1. Khh-J min cJ in ? Thy name what is ? 

2. 1)1 stei naso ts&m/pa in? This horse's age how 
much is ? 

3. 1)1 kana Kkacid ts&mtsik th&qrins in ? Here from 
Kashmir how-much far is ? 

4. KliJrl ati kh&nma phru tsam yitt '? Thy Father's 
house (in) sons how many are ? 

5. Diriii na ma th&qrins na dule yons. To-day 
I very far from walking came. 

6. Niil did tsliiLntsei butshdd khoi ache (nomo) na 
nyambo baqston bus. My father little's (i.e. uncle's) son 
his big-sister (little-sister) with marriage made. 

7. Karpo stei zgdo ndnnulc yitt. White horse's saddle 
inside is. 

8. Stei ka zga ton. Horse upon saddle put (give). 

9. Nas hhoi phrua mahmo rdiths. I his boy much 
beat. 

10. Eus rl (joe ka> nor baVin tslioen yitt. He hill's 
top upon goats bulls grazing is. 

11. En stei ka laqstshuksi yoga diikse yitt. He horse 
upon tree beneath seated (having sat) is. 

12. Khoi phono kltoi achewasan chopo in. His brother 
his big-sister than big is. 

13. 1)1 rinpo shmiil phenan siim in. That's price 
rupees half three (two and a half) is. 

1-1. Nnl &ta e tshitntsH na'npe&n diujet'. My father 
that shall house in sits (lives). 

15. Dl shmtilpo khoa toil. This rupee him give. 

16. Bl shmillan khoi kana lin. These rupees him 
from take. 

17. Khoa inaiano rditn yari thakpa ntf/n ciii. Him 
much beat and rope with tie. 

18. Di chitdonpean na shti phin. This well-in from 
water draw (out of this well). 



30 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIM ALA V AS 

10. Nni sua did (or doii). Me before walk. 

20. Sal phru, khiri rgyabna yoiiet. Whose boy thee 
behind conies ? 

21. Kheres dyft sui kdna finyose khyons (or kliyds). 
Thou this whom from having-bought brought ? 

22. Grohei hx&bvpa cigi kdna khyons (khySs). Village- 
of shopman one from brought. 

Notes. — 2, 7,8,11. Note s (cerebral sh). 6. Ata tshilntse, 
little father, i.e. uncle. 7. Zgdo for zgoi, because the word 
is definite. 10. The r in ri is pronounced almost like rzh 
ov rz. 11. Ditken yitt, would mean in the act of sitting 
down ; dukse yut, is having sat, is seated. 

The Prodigal Son 

mi cigi bu-tsJca nyis yotpin ; tshiintses khitri 
man one-of sons two were ; small his 

ata zes " yons-khani-po naraiia ton," khos khona 
father-to said "having-come-one me-to give," he them-to 
raiil saq norzanpo zgose tans : zhaq hhdciga 

own all property having-divided gave: daj^s few-to 

tshuntse phrfcs saq zdamse thaqriiis yulcean 
small boy all having-gathered far country-a-in 

soil yaib eaniik rani norzdn saq tsoqpo laseaii 
went and it-in own property all evil work-in 

spiirs ; nam saq Jchetrci ba tsharbana de 
wasted ; when all spending make was-finished that 

yidpedii chtipo zdnrkon son, cho shante 

country-in great famine went (became), very straitened 
son, de yurpeandk dukhdn cigi shitea son, 
became, that country-in dweller one near went, 
kkos khtlrl zhliiuneaniik phaq tshwa tails; 

lie his Helds-in swine to-graze gave(sent); 

khoa rgosetpa (or rgosetpin) noriinis zdkhdnjioe 
him-to it-was-necessary goats eating 



PURIK 



:;i 



k&na khitri Ulna warn skdnitk", ydri susdn 
from his belly also he-will-fill, and anyonesoever 

khoa tahma wMpa. nam khoa hosh 

him-to giving nofc-was. when him-to sense 
ydse'na (yonsttna) zerba rydkhs (rydqs) "nni dt\ 

having-come to-say began "my father's 

khdnmd tsamtsik yoqpo cigis lltoa skanse 

house how-many servants one belly having-filled 

fdki zet, na dlanuk Utokse shit, 

l>read eat, I herein having-hungered am-dying, 
na lahse nari d,ti shitea clioh', yah khoa 

I having-risen my father near will-go, and him-to 

zeritJcIt (zertik') nds Khddd na yari ny8spa bds, 

will-say I God and your sin did, 

na snei (sua) tsoqspo ma liis yari biitsha 

I in-future equal not remained your son 

zerdk', yaris na kankol ciga zh$k'." kho 

they-will-say, you me labourer one keep." lie 
lansena khti/ri dti shitea soil, kho thdqrinsla 
having-risen his father near went, lie far 

ydtpin de kdna khoi aids thou yah bah kin vena 

was that from his father saw and having-run 

khordn sklnzhvhs khyons. phrus zes " iids Khiida 

his neck-embrace brought, son said " I God 

na yari nyespa has, na snei tsoqspo ma 
and your sin did, I in-future equal not 

liis yd/ri biitsha zerulr." dtds zes 

remained your son they will-say." father said 

" llydgmoyena llyagmo giincek khyonse khoa 

" good -fro in good garment havinff-brought him-to 

skon ydn khoa kdpshe gdri skon, ydfi 
put-on, and him-to shoes also put-on. and 

IdqpaUla sitrdUps fjhik' ton, hdlcdn lltim phir&ik 

hand-to rine one srive fat bull son 



32 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

khyonse sot, hds zok' yti/n thdxIiLk', 

having-brought kill, we shall-eat and shall-rejoice, 

cl /thrive* hnl di phrv. shlsetpin >/ri it son, 
what for my this boy was-dead and lived 

storbin drive thop." 

was-lost now was-obtained." 

khoi cho phono zhinsctn yotpin Jchanmi 
his big brother field-in was, house 

shitea llewana llu tanml skat 1 cik' 

near having-arrived song giving-of noise one 
tshii/r, yoqpo cik' ciga "yon" cere 

heard, servant one one "come" saying 

khyohse trls cl son khos 

having-brought asked what went (happened) he 

zes " kit n't tshUntse pltono yds yriii khiri 
said " thy little brother came and thy 

citas Jialcrin llri/a phruilc sets, di phia khos 
father fat bull son-a killed, this for he 

Ihthto p/wai/u sris phvtda vgyala brise 

calf son-a killed son-to w r ell having-made 

Mas." kho kha yons yau ndnuk chesni ma 
saw." he anger came and inside wish not 

yds. ritris zgoa sose khoa lltsaba 

came, father outside having-gone him to-explain 
rydkhs, khos zes " lltos iias Id disok cd>-' 
said " see I years such some 

has, yares iid mana vabaq 

made, you me ever she-goat 

ma taiis to, nets narl vgakhaniin 

one-of young-one not gave that I my love-ers 

na nyambo thaten diiktuk' ; khirl dl pltvii 

with being-glad may-sit ; thy this son 

yon mana, dyus khirl yotpl novzciniun 

came when, he (who) thy being properties 



began , 


he 


yarl 


kMdmcLt 


your 


service 


cigi 


vuig 



puhik :j.3 



rdqshky^Liinla (lolimoilnla) tanse spus i/hrs 

harlots- to having-given wasted you 

Jchoi phia h&lcdn Udii ph/Hiik' s&s." at&s 
his for fat bull son-a killed." father 

zes "biltshd kMrdii na malpa (or b&rdb&r) ha 
said "son thou then always me 

ml)) nyambo yiit. ci imJ yotna do khiri in, 
with art. what mine is that thine is, 

<1 m nm ii th&tpau rgyela inmapd, ci phdres khiri 
but rejoicing good was, what for thy 

dl phono shipin dare i/a ii son, storbinmapa 
this brother had-died now also lived, lost- was 
i/Ti ii I hop." 

also was-obtained." 

Notes. — zhaq kh&ciga, in a few days, khacik' follows its 
noun, khaciga is dative, yulcean, ce for ci contracted 
from elk', one ; here indefinite article. yulpeHii from 
yulpo, country, and -oil, in. Note cerebral c in cho, very. 
dtikh&n for dulddian, sitter, dweller, tshna tans, sent to 
graze ; purpose may be expressed by phia or phares, for 
the sake of, with gerundive infinitive. sJcdwitk', future, 
for "that he should till". susdn, -nil indicates -ever. 
yarl balslia zerak', that people should call me your son. 
thaqrinsla, far; note use of la. lly&gmoyena llydgmo, 
good from good, the best, thop, was obtained, Hindi mild, 
skdt', voice, noise, language, rgyala base, good having 
made; base practically means "considering"; cf. Panjabi, 
mo ra k&rke ch&dded, bad having made (i.e. considering or 
believing it bad) he left it. (ha fen dulduk', shall, i.e. may, 
keep on rejoicing. 



34 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABULARY 



a, an, cik' ; -ik' ; see " one ". 
able, be, klujiitcds w. ger. inf. 
about, phla, pharcs, both w. 

gen. ; see " for ". 
account, lit sap' (Urdu hisclb). 
advisable, be, rgoshas w. ger. 

inf. 
affair, matter, tarn, spcra. 
after, prep, rgyaba w. gen., 

adv. rgyapna ; after that, 

then, de kdna. 
again, ydn. 
age, naso. 
agree, nyancas. 
air, llunpo. 
all, sdq, tshanma. 
allow, give leave, rokhsdt 

tancas (Urdu rukhsat) ; allow 

to, ciikcas w. root of verb, 
almond, baddm (Urdu bdddm). 
alone, cik' cik' (one one), 
also, wan. 

always, malpa, bdrdbdr (Urdu), 
ancient, shnyinma. 
and, ydn, na. 
anger, h]ul, khd. 
angry, to be, khd yoncas (anger 

to come), 
ankle, (kan)tshiks. 
annoy, zgrdncds. 
answer, n.,jawdb (Urdu jdivdb); 

v., jaivdb tancas. 
ant, khdrkhfttd. 
anyhow, gdtsuga. 
anyone, su, sit cik' ; anyone 

whosoever, susdn. 



appear, thoncds. 

apple, kushu. 

apricot, cilbi. 

arise, lanshds. 

arm, n., phyaqpa. 

around, khorpo w. gen. 

arrive, llcpcds. 

ascend, zydqcds. 

ask, trlcds ; ask for, shtsotcds. 

ass, boribil (male or female) ; 

male, bonpho ; female, 

bonmo. 
assist, mdddd bacds w. dat. 

(Urdu mddad). 
attempt, v., slitamcds. 
await, dan bacds. 
awaken, trans, and intrans., 

tsdtcds. 
back, n.j shul (the I in this word 

is very liquid or dental), 
bad, tsoqpo. 
bag (cloth), zgiivil; (leather, 

big), kyclba; (do., small), 

kyelbu. 
baggage, cdldq. 

balances, takari (? Pan j . trdkri) . 
bald, phdtd. 

ball (wooden for polo), polo. 
bank (of river, etc.), zilr. 
bark (of tree), skttm brdkhs. 
bark, v., zukcds. 
barley, nds. 
basket, tsepo. 
bat (animal), tshdnbl. 
be, yocds, incas. 
beak, khdmcu. 



PUR IK 



35 



beam of wood (large), m&rdUn : 

(small), phy&ms. 
bear, n., dr&nmau (an, as 

English " awe "). 
beard, smydnrd. 
beat, rduncds. 

beautiful, rdemo ; see " good ". 
become, chdcds, chccds (i.e. go). 

bed, carpet (Urdu carpal). 

bee, tonze. 

before, s)ia, sndnla, w. gen., 

adv., do. 
beg, llts&ncas. 
begin, rydqshds. 
behind, rgyaba w. gen. 
bebold, lltacas. 
belly, lltoa ' . 
below, yoq w. gen. (or yoga), 

adv. yoqtfik. 
beside, shitea, shanla, der. 
big, chopo, cho or cho, rgydlpo. 
bind, ciheds. 
birch, stdqpa ; birch bark, 

kroa. 
bite, ededs. 
bitter, kh&nte. 
black, ndqpo. 
blind, zhdrba. 
blood, khrdq. 
blue, sfu'nipn; sky-blue, nu»i- 

doq. 
body, rgo. 
boil (cook), skolcds. 
bone, ruspa. 
book, shoqhu, shdgbu. 
boot, kdpshd. 
born, be, sky Seas, Iddncds. 
bowl, metal, mur(h) ; wooden, 

earthen, photo. 



boy, phrti, biltshd (latter espe- 
cially son). 

branch, ydlddq. 

bread, foifct, M/c/ (at in £ai&$, 
like a in "man" — Aryan 
word). 

break, edqeds; see ' cut". 

breast, 6ra/j; woman's, pipl(h). 

bridge, zdmbd; rope do., 
llcukzam. 

bridle (rein), strap. 

bring, khyoneds. 

brother, phono. 

buffalo, ww&/ie balah (mahe — 
Aryan word). 

bug, carl. 

build, shtsikeds. 

bull, //<«», &#7ow (baldil is also 
cow). 

bullet, rlndi. 

burn, trans., tukc&s ; intrans., 
diikshds. 

butter, marh ; butter-milk, 
ddrbd. 

buy, nyoeds, nnyoeds, hnyueds. 

calf (animal), llanto. 

calf of leg, zgima. 

call, yora z&rcds, i.e. say 
"come ". 

camel, shutihoii. 

carpenter, shinkhdn. 

carpet, sdtrdnj ( Urdu §hdtrd nj I ) 

cast, v., phaneds. 

cat, 6»7a (male or female — an 
Aryan word). 

catch, zilncds. 

causative, to make verbs causa- 
tive ciikcds is used with the 
root ; see " permit ". 



36 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



cause, v. trans., cilkcds w. root 

of other verb, 
cave, b&ho. 

chain, n., scdqthtir. 

chamber, nail. 

change, spocas. 

cheat, dilkJia taneds (Hindi 

dhokha). 
cheek, rdoh (face), 
chemise (shirt), kilrtdnl (Hindi 

hurt a). 
chenar-tree, shinrgydl. 
chicken, bia phrit. 
child, phru. 
chin, kuksko. 
clean, adj., karpo (i.e. white), 

self a, sdhsdh (Urdu sdf, sdf a) ; 

v. trans., same with bacas, 

make, 
clock, bdzha (Hindi bdje) ; look 

at one's watch, nimd lltacds; 

i.e. see day. 
cloth, ras; see garment", 
clothe oneself, goncas ; clothe 

someone else, skoneds. 
cloud, spirin ; v., cloud over, 

nam khorcas. 
cock, bid, biaplw. 
cold, be, kliyaqshas, kJiyeqsJias ; 

n., granmo. 
collar, gonrtsd. 
collect, zddmeds, jama bacas 

(Urdu jama'). 
come, yoneds. 
command, hiikm tahcas (Urdu 

hilkm). 
compassion, insap (Urdu insaf). 
complain, drzl taneds (Urdu 

l drz%). 



conceal, zdokc&s. 

conclude (finish), tsh&r ctikc&s ; 

be concluded, tshdreds. 
conquer, rgy&lcds. 
content, noro ; see " good ". 
cook, v. (in water), skolcas ; 

bake bread, shcocas. 
corn (wheat), kroh. 
correct, adj., thik (Hindi thlk) ; 

v. trans., thik 1 bacas, thig 

bacas. 
cost, rln. 
cough, n., khokhs ; v., khokh - 

shas. 
country, yul, yulpo ; see 

"village". 
cow, bd. 
cry, v., micas. 
cup, kare. 
cut (cloth), edteds ; (hair), 

brdqeds ; other things, cdq- 

cas ; see " break ". 
damage, n., notpa. 
dance, stseeds. 
dark (light failing), tlulp; 

become dark, thitp cheeds. 
da,Y,ni?nd,zhdq; see "to-day", 

"to-morrow", yesterday", 
deaf, gilt. 
dear (loved), scesjia; (not 

cheap), nintse. 
deceive, diikha taneds (Hindi 

dhokha). 
deep, khilmbu. 
descend, bdpshas. 
descent, thilrbaps. 
desert, leave, philte taneds. 
desire, rgoshds ; see " neces- 
sary ". 



l'URIK 



37 



destroy, shikc&s, ph&na bacas 

(Urdu /and). 
devil, drc(lt). 
dew, zilpa. 
die, shicds. 
dirt, trima. 

dirty, nibqpo, trimacan, stsuqpo. 
dispute, tail ; v., tan taiicds. 
divide, zgocds. 
do, bacas. 

dog, khl; female do., kliimo. 
door, 37/d. 
down, yoq, yoqtHk , tliiir, 

tJiurtik'. 
draw, pull, thencds ; draw- 
water, phincas, phtcds. 
dream, n., nilam ; v., nilam 

lltaeas. 
drink, thUnc&s. 
drop of water, cantiii. 
drug, sman. 
dry, adj., skambo ; become dry, 

skamshds. 
dumb, shjaindik . 
dust, sa slip ; dust in air, 

tshUma. 
duty, use rgoshds, be necessary, 

advisable, or word for "good ". 
ear (part of body), shiiil ; (of 

corn), snima. 
early, mutuk. 
earth, sa; land, zhiii ; sec 

"field", 
east, sh&rsa. 
easy, yahmo. 
eat, zacds. 
egg, (/;///. 
eight, /•{///<>/. 
eighteen, cuggydt. 



eighty, rgijacu ; eighty-one, 
ki/dqshik 1 ; eighty-two, lcy&q- 
nyis, ky&gnyis ; eighty-three, 
kijdqsum; eighty-four, ky&q- 
zbzhl, kijdzbzhl ; eighty-five, 
kyaga ; eighty-six, kyariik' ; 
eighty - seven, kydbdun; 
eighty - eight, kydbgydt ; 
eighty-nine, ky&rgu. 

elbow, krimokhs. 

elephant, lldiiphoce. 

eleven, cukshik'. 

embrace, n., skinzhuks ; v., 
shinzhuks khyoncds. 

equal, ddnda ; equal to, i.e. 
of sufficient merit for, 
tsoqspo. 

error, qdldt (Urdu). 

everyone, sic sdq; see "all"; 
everything, cisaq ; every- 
where, ga mdltsha. 

expel, phicds, phiiicds. 

explain, lltsdpcas. 

extinguished, be (fire), me(h), 
shicds. 

eye, m~k\ vuk(h) ; eyelid, 
milkshp&khs : eyelash, nuk- 
shtiq ; eyebrow, snunma ; 
eyeball, rgy&hno. 

face, n/n//. 

fade, skamshds ; see " dry ". 

fall, v., hyana c heeds, zglrie 
e heeds. 

false, rzon, rzon jan (man). 

family, z&nzos. 

famine, z&nrkon. 

far, th&qrins. 

fast, n., ruzd (Urdu) ; v., rozd 
dtikcds (i.e. sit). 



38 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



fast, adj., khdsdr, also bdiicdn 
(runner). 

fat, hale an. 

father, dta. 

fear, v., zhikshds. 

fever, lutpa, ehdccfi. 

few, khdeik' '. 

field, zhin. 

fifteen, cogd. 

fifty, gaped ; fifty-one, qaciTc ; 
fifty-two, ganyis, ganis ; 
fifty-three, gasum ; fifty- 
four, gdzhbzhl ; fifty-five, 
gand ; fifty-six, garilk ; 
fifty-seven, qdbdun ; fifty- 
eight, gab 1 gydt ; fifty-nine, 
gdrgu. 

fight, n., to/i ; v., tan taneds. 

fill, skaiicds. 

finger, zil(h). 

fire, m~e(h) ; fireplace (Hindi 
ciillid), thdp ; v. (a gun), 
£wag taneds. 

fish, nnyd(h). 

fist, multup. 

five, £/a. 

flea, kishik'. 

flour, bdqphe. 

flow (water), (/»/t , » dukeds, 
ddlcds. 

flower, menduq. 

fly, n., pTshu ', v., phureds. 

foot, kaiuna. 

for, for sake of, because of, 
/;//7a, jriidres, w. gen. 

forehead, sprdlbd. 

forget, rjeteds. 

forgive, mdphi baeds (Urdu 
m/4 a/j). 



forgiveness, mdphi. 

forty, zhip'cu ; forty - one, 
zh&qshik' ; forty-two, zfodjg- 
7us, zhdgnis ; forty-three, 
zhdqsum ; forty-four, gfetf- 
zhbzhi ; forty-five, zjjdnd ; 
forty-six, zh&rilTc ; forty- 
seven, zhdbdun ; forty-eight, 
zhabgyat ; forty - nine, 

zh&rgu. 

four, zbzhj. 

fourteen, ciizbzhi. 

Friday, shukur, juma (Panj. 
shukkdr, VrdujUma). 

friend, rgdkhan (from r^a, 
love). 

frog, zbdlpa. 

from, kdna, na. 

fruit, phdlu. 

full, skahse ; see " fill ". 

garden, &og. 

garment, guncd, guncek'. 

gather, zddmeds, jama baeds 
(Urdu jdnw). 

ghi, sfoU mdr(h). 

gift, m#m (Urdu in dm). 

girl, bomu. 

give, taneds. 

glass, shisha (Urdu) ; see 
mirror ". 

go, chdeds, cheeds ; past, so>) ; 
also diilcds, drfdeds. 

goat, rdskyes,nor ; female do., 
rdbdq. 

God, Khiidd, Alia (when in- 
flected form required Khiidd 
is used, not Alia). 

gold, ser. 

goo&,rg yalba Jlyaqmo ( llyagmo, 



I'UKIK 



39 



llyagmo), now, rgela, rgela, 

rgyala. 
grandfather (either side), apo. 
grandmother (either side), a pi. 
grandson (either side), tshd. 
grape, rgun. 
grass, shtsoa. 
graze, trans, and intrans., 

tshocds. 
great, clio, chopo, eh iipo (c some- 
times cerehral). 
green, shfinpo. 
grind (corn, etc.), thdqeds. 
ground, n., sd, zdmin (Urdu), 
gun, hituj. 
hair, ry&l. 
hairy, ryHcdn. 
half, phSn&n, phSi . 
hand, laqpa. 

harlot, lolimo, roqdlkyel. 
he, kliu. 
health, in good, rgyala ; see 

"good", 
hear, tshurcas, nydncds. 
heart, sfiiii. 

heat, n., Ishdt ; v., stweds. 
heavy, scivte. 
heel, sJbtinma. 
hen, bid, bidmo. 
her (gen.), khoi ; (ace), kho, 

kftoa. 
here, dir, dilt&k , dyne, dyiia, 

dlka. 
hill, /7. 

him, kliu, khoa. 
hinder, skilcds. 
his, khoi. 
hit, rd tineas. 
horse, $td. 



hot, tshdntr. 
house, khydhma. 
how, gdtsuga; how much, 
many, ts&mtsik, tsdmpa, 

Isdm. 

hungry, be, lltokcds. 

hunt, llins baeds ; thing 

hunted, llins. 
huqqa, cilim (Urdu elldm). 
I, nd. 

ibex, etc., skin, sha(h). 
in, prepositional suffix, -ah, -a, 

-niik. 
inhabitant, dtiklidn, diikklidu 

(sitter), 
inside, adv., n&nnos, nannos 

lltik'. 
join, zbrdqeds, thiitcds. 
jump, v., chohshas, chouspah 

ededs. 
keep, zhdkeds. 
kernel, shtsu. 
key, kulik. 
kill, sdteds. 

knee, puksmo ; kneecap, mdloii. 
kneel, pugzgdna diikcds. 
knife, ijrl. 
know how to, nydncds w. ger. 

inf. 
knuckle, tsiks. 
labourer, kdnkdl. 
Ladder, k&ska. 
lamp, sar. 
land, zhiii. 
laugh, v., rgotc&s. 
lazy, dorde m&tkh&n. 
leaf loma(ii). 
leg (between hip and knee), 

shdsna: see ' calf", shin". 



40 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



lift, klulrcas, thyaqc&s. 

light, n., at ; adj. (not dark), 

yanmo. 
lightning, Uoq. 
lip, khdlpdq; upper lip, goiima 

khdlpdq ; lower lip, yoqma 

khdlpdq. 
little, a little, nnintse,rzashik l , 

rzdspds ; see " small ". 
live (dwell), dukcds ; (be alive), 

soncas. 
living, sonte. 
long, adj., rihmo. 
look, UtJidcds, thoncas. 
lose, skelcds ; be lost, storms. 
lota (brass vessel), kdrl. 
louse, shik . 
love, n., rgd ; v., rgaluks 

bacds. 
lower, yoqma, yoqma. 
lukewarm, drunmo. 
mad, drebyer. 
make, bacds. 
man, ml. 
manure, hit. 
many, see "much " ; how many, 

see " how ". 
marriage, bdqston. 
matter, affair, spera, splrik , 

tarn. 
me, nd. 
micturate, llchi taucds, pliista 

taiicds ; see " outside ". 
middle (in the), w. gen. (i.e. 

between), bar, shkil; adj., 

barpa, shkilpa (i.e. middle 

one), 
milk, iirjen. 
mirror, dina (Urdu dina). 



Monday, tsdndrdl (Aryan 
word) . 

monkey, sperl ; female do., 
sp>ermo. 

moon, Izaimo. 

morning, motuk, snamo. 

mother, dma. 

mourn milcds, mdtdm bacds 
(latter especially applied to 
mourning during Muhar- 
ram). 

moustache, sdmddl. 

mouth, khdlpdq (also lip). 

much, manmo ; how much, see 
"how". 

mud, Idoq ; for plastering, 
qdlaq. 

mulberry, ose(h). 

my, nnt. 

nail (of finger or toe), sinmo ; 
(of metal), zer. 

name, n., miu. 

navel, lltia. 

near, nimo. 

necessary, be, rgoshds. 

needle, khdp. 

neigh, boshds (w. shtd, std, as 
nom.). 

never, viana w. neg. 

nine, rgu. 

nineteen, ciirugu. 

ninety, rbiikcu ; ninety-one, 
koqshik' ; ninety-two, koqnis, 
kognis; ninety-three, koq- 
sum; ninety-four, koqzbzhl, 
kozbzhi ; ninety-five, kobga; 
ninety-six, koriik' ; ninety- 
seven, kobdun; ninety-eight, 
kobgydt; ninety-nine, korgu. 



PURIK 



41 



nipple, pipl(li). 

no, not, ma, ml, w. neg. of 

verb; is or are not, met, min. 
noise, skat 1 (voice), 
nose, snamtshtil. 
now, dare. 

nowhere, yd ran w. neg. 
obtained, be, thopcas. 
old, apo, rg&skh&n, chi ml. 
on, pre])., kd. 
one, die. 
ordinary, chon. 
our; thine and ours, hdtl ; ours, 

not thine, iiCicl. 
outside, adv., zgo, phista. 
pain, n., zermo. 
pair, ziln. 

palm of hand, liph&t. 
pause, them bacas, gySr bacas. 
pay, n., lla(ii), tcildb (Urdu), 
pear, ntjoti. 
pen, qdl&m (Urdu). 
pepper (red), nyenna ; (black), 

rilbu. 
permit, cukeds, with root of 

other verb. 
perspiration, shmul, tshdtpa. 
pice, p&ne(h). 

place, n., mdltsha ; v., zh&qc&s. 
plant, v. trans, (of trees), 

tsUkcds. 
plaster (with mud), qdldq 

baeds. 
plough, n. (parts), shut, shut 

da ; v., zhin slnnucds, shmds 

bacas. 
poplar, zbyerpa. 
pray, phydq bacas. 
prayer, phy&q. 



press, v. trans., n&nc&s. 

price, ////, rinpo. 

property, ntirzdn, ndrzdnpo. 

pull, theneds. 

push, phulcds. 

put on (clothes), to oneself, 

gonads ; to someone else, 

skoneds. 
quickly, lagor. 
rain, chdrpa ; v., chdrpa 

ijoucds. 
ram, imulaqs. 
raw, >«" tslioskhdn (not well 

cooked or unripe), 
read, silcds. 
red, mdrpo. 
rejoice, tlidtcds. 
rejoicing, thutpau. 
relate, £/o cukeds. 
remain (metaphorical, be con- 
sidered), l&sh&s. 
rice, &r<?.s\ 
ride, zhuneds ; cause to ride, 

skyoneds, ?hdn cukeds. 
rind, spis. 
ring, n., sHrdiips. 
ripe, tslwskhdn. 
river, rgyamtso. 
rope, thakpa. 
rub, skueds. 
run, ban taneds, ban khireds; 

run away, shored s. 
rupee, shmill, Icirmo, ddbdl. 
saddle, jrgrd. 
salt, /.s7/<7. 
sand, by&ma. 
Saturday, shiiisher (Aryan 

word). 
saj . z&rcds. 



42 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



scratch, v., br&pc&s. 
see, llta'c&s, thoncas. 

seed, son. 

self (myself, himself, etc.), r&n. 

send, ktilcds. 

sense, hosh (Urdu). 

servant, yoqpo, nauk&r (Urdu). 

serve, kJudmdt bacds. 

service, khldmat (Urdu). 

seven, rdtin. 

seventeen, ctihdun. 

seventy, vdtincu ; seventy-one, 
tdncili ; seventy-two, ton- 
nyis; seventy-three,. tdnsHm] 
seventy - four, tonzbzhl, 
tdzbzhi; seventy-five, tonga; 
seventy-six, tonra k; seventy- 
seven, tobdtin ; seventy-eight, 
tonrgytit ; seventy - nine, 
tdnrgu. 

sew, tsemcas. 

she, kho. 

sheep, ltik(h), liiaq(li). 

sheet, tstidtir (Urdu cdddr). 

shin, shkan. 

shop, hatl (Panj. hatt'i) ; shop- 
man, hatl pa. 

show, stanctis. 

shut, ctikctis ; see " permit ". 

silver, shmul. 

sin, nySspa. 

sing, llu tanctis; singing, lift. 

sir (in address), hdsa, *ku. 

sister (older than person 
spoken of), ache ; (younger 
than do.), momd. 

sit, dtikcas. 

six, trtik'. 

sixteen, ctirtik'. 



sixty, tukcu ; sixty-one, r&q- 
shi k' ; sixty-two, r&qnyis, 
r&gnyis; sixty-three, rdqsthn ; 
sixty-four, rdzhbzhi ; sixty- 
five, rand ; sixty-six, rartik ; 
sixty-seven, rdbdtin ; sixty- 
eight, rabgydt ; sixty-nine, 
ran//?. 

sky, nam. 

sleep, v., nyclctis, nyit loqcds. 

slip, khtiti, rgyepcds. 

slowly, kith'. 

small, nnintse, tshtintse. 

smell, n., trih ; v. intrans., trili 
yoncds ; v. trans., snumcas. 

snake, zbriil. 

soap, sab tin (Urdu sdbtin). 

sole of foot, somas. 

some, a little, zdshik' ; several, 
kJiticik' ; a good many, say 
twenty to fifty, bdqcik 1 ; 
something, citlwh ; nothing, 
caw ma. 

son, btitshd, phrti. 

sour, skyurmo, skyurmo. 

sow, n., phaq. 

sow, v., tdpcd's ; see " plant ". 

speak, zercas. 

spring, n., chumi K ' (water-eye). 

stand, lanshds, lashds. 

star, sktirma. 

steal, skucds. 

step, gomba. 

stick, n., berkha. 

stomach, ZZMftf. 

stone, n/6a ; fruit stone (as 
apricot), ytiqpa, pdqspa. 

straitened, in difnculties,s/mwte. 

stream, grokpo. 



PUIUK 



43 



strength, clonic. 

strip off (clothes), gilncd 

phutcds. 
strong, dordeean. 
summit, go. 

sun, nima; sunlight, nima. 
Sunday, adit (Aryan word), 
swallow, v., shmitc&s. 
sweet, n&rmo, hdrmo. 
swine, ph&q. 
tadpole, z&rbu. 
tail, zhUgma. 
take, lincds, ISucds ; take away, 

khdrcds. 
tank, rziii. 
tax (land-tax), bap. 
tea, cd, cek. 
ten, shcft. 
tent, zbra. 
than, ledsdft. 
that, A7(d, e« ; plur., &/&ora, 

khuutdh, ewini. 
then, </<■£ w&gzla ; after that, 

</e kdua. 
there, er, eltek', eka. 
they, kliou, khoiitafi. 
thief, shkioima. 
thing, ndr (property) ; nothing, 

can ma. 
think, .samba bacas. 
thirst, skoms. 
thirsty (be), skomc&s. 
thirteen, cuksum. 
thirty, stimcfi ; thirty - one, 

soqshik 1, ; thirty- two, soqnyis, 

sognyis ; thirty-four, soq- 

zbzhl, sozbzjii; thirty-five, 

sogd; thirty-six, sozdr&k' ; 

thirty-seven, sopdUn ; thirty- 



eight, sopgydt ; thirty-nine, 
sorgil. 

this, fZy» ; plur., dyudn. 

thou, kherafi ; see " you ". 

thousand, stou. 

thread, n., skfitpa. 

three, sum. 

throat, gdndru. 

throw, phaneds. 

thumb, thepo. 

thunder, briik; v., brtik bosh&s. 

Thursday, br8sp&t (Aryan 
word). 

thus, etsuga. 

thy, kherl. 

time (as in four times, etc.), 
t slier. 

to, suffix, -la, or use "near", 
" beside ". 

to-day, diriii. 

toe, the j n>. 

to-morrow, dske ; day after 
to-morrow, nans ; day after 
that, zhdq zbzhl (four days), 
and so on. 

tongue, llee(lt). 

tooth, so(h). 

tremble, ddrc&s. 

trouble, n.,n&rpa } ndqspa, n&qs. 

trousers, derma. 

trunk (of tree), dim. 

truth, m&nt&qs ; speak truth, 
m&nt&qs zSrc&s. 

Tuesday, afigari. 

twelve, ciignis. 

twenty, nishu,nyishrt ; twenty- 
one, sj&ts&qshik ; twenty - 
two, shts&qnyis, shts&gnis ; 
t umtv - three, sJtts&qs&m ; 



44 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



twenty - four, shts&qzbzhl, 

shtsdzbzh'i ; twenty - five, 
shtsdqa; twenty-six, shts&z- 
drulc ; twenty-seven, shtsdp- 
dnn ; twenty-eight, shlsup- 
gyat; twenty-nine, shtsurgn. 

twin, t sun [in. 

twine, n., tho. 

twist, v., llcncas. 

two, vyis. 

ugly, liiqs met. 

uncle, ata (father). 

understand, shesh&s, see 
think " ; cause to under- 
stand, lltsdpcds. 

unripe, ma tshoskhdn. 

upon, lea. 

upper, gohma. 

urinate, llcin taheds, phista 
tancas. 

urine, llcin. 

very, ma, manmo (much). 

village, yul, yulpo, grail 
(Aryan). 

vine, rgiln. 

wait, them baeds, gyer baeds ; 
as imperat., wait ! misto. 

walk, dtdeds, dridcas ; cause 
to walk, striilcas. 

wall, rtsikpa. 

walnut (tree and fruit), starga. 

wash oneself, sh ky Sleds ; wash 
something, khrueds. 

waste, v., spureds. 

water, shil, chit. 

watercourse for fields, yurba. 

way, lam. 

we (including thee), ndtah ; 
(excluding thee), hdca. 



Wednesday, budn (Hindi 
buddh). 

well (of water), chUd&h. 

what, adj., gd ; pron., el. 

when, nam. 

where, gar, gdltek 1 , gSika ; 
wherever, gar ah. 

white, kdrpo. 

whitewash, rtsikdr ; v., rtsikdr 
taheds, rtsikdr rgydpeds. 

who, sil, gad ; whoever, 
susan. 

w T hy, cTa. 

window-, bdrbdn ; glass of win- 
dow, shisha (Urdu shlsha). 

w r ith (along with), na nyambo. 

work, n., Ids; v., Idz baeds. 

worthless, dorde iidnpa. 

wrist, tshiks, laqt sinks. 

write, zbrieds. 

yak, ydq ; fern., ydqmo, ydgmo ; 
hybrid, from yak and cow, 
zo(h) ; fern., zomo(h) ; from 
bull and yak cow, lltor ; 
fern., lltormo. 

year, Id : names of years in 
cycle of twelve : (l) bilo, 

(2) lldhlo, (3) stdqlo, (4) 
yiislo, (o) brilklu, (6) zbrulld, 
(7) shtalo, (8) luklo, (9) 
sprilo, (10) cald, (ll) khilu, 
(12) plidqlo. 

The meanings correspond 
to the Tibetan words below : 
(l) mouse-year, (2) ox-year, 

(3) tiger-year, (4) hare-year, 
(5) dragon-year, (6) snake- 
year, (7) horse-year, (8) 
sheep-year, (9) monkey-year, 



PUR IK 



4.-) 



(10) bird-year, (ll) dog-year, 

(12) pig-year. 

About the Tibetan year- 
cycle, which Purik obviously 
follows, the Rev. Evan 
Mackenzie writes : " Tibe- 
tans reckon time by using 
the names of twelve animals: 
byi, mouse ; glang, ox ; stag, 
tiger ; yos, hare ; abrug, 
dragon ; sbrul, snake ; sta, 
horse ; lug, sheep ; spre, 
monkey ; bya, bird ; kyi, 
dog ; phag, pig. With tbese 
they combine the five ele- 
ments : wood, fire, earth, 



iron, and water. They get 

cycles of sixty years by 

multiplying these together. 

1914 is called the ' wood 

dragon year '." 
yes, dun. 
yesterday, gondc ; day before 

yesterday, kh&rts&n zhaq; 

day before that, dunma zhaq. 
you, khhitafi, polite ; sing., 

y&r&n, y&ran ; plur., ydntiln; 

sec " thou ". 
young, tsh&ntse, (animal) ruig. 
your, klunti ; polite, s., yen, 

y&ri; pi., yantl; sec "thy". 



Note. — In Urdu words s indicates the Arabic letter sad and is 
pronounced s. 



LOWER KANAURI 

Introduction 
Lower Kanauri is so called to distinguish it from the 
main Kanauri language, which may be called Standard 
Kanauri. Kanauri is spoken in the Satlaj Valley and 
sub-valleys for a distance of 100 miles measured along 
the river banks. It begins at a point 2 miles beyond 
Sarahan, which is 18 miles from Rampur and 90 miles 
from Simla, and extends to beyond mile 192 from Simla. 
It includes the whole Satlaj basin for that distance. 
Lower Kanauri is spoken on the north bank of the Satlaj 
for 12 miles, from mile 92 to mile 104. It is closely 
allied to the standard dialect, but differs from it in 
a number of particulars. It is one of the complex 
pronominalized Tibeto-Himalayan languages, and shows 
many signs of a M tin da substratum. The total number 
of Kanauri speakers is about 23,000, but there are no 
available figures for Lower Kanauri. 

Literature 
About Lower Kanauri nothing has been written. I have 
written a Grammar of Standard Kanauri for the Zeitschrift 
den Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. lxiii, pp. 661 ff., 
1909, and a Kanauri— English, English-Kanaurl vocabulary, 
which appeared as a monograph of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. For the relation of Kanauri to other languages 
Dr. Sten Konow's account in the Linguistic Survey of 
India, vol. iii, pt. i, should be consulted. Pandit Tlka 
Ram's Grammar and Vocabulary were published by the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Pronunciation 
The pronunciation is much like that of the standard 
dialect, but is not so difficult for Europeans. The half 



LOWER KANAUHI 47 

uttered /." is much more like au ordinary k, though Like 
all surd letters it is liable to become sonant before a sonant 
consonant. 

Cerebral letters are found, but can hardly be said to be 
very common, d is common owing to its occurring in the 
verb substantive duk, etc. ; t and ?; are much less common. 
I do not recall an example of r. Cerebral c is sometimes 
heard as in rial, why, and chog, what. It is c pronounced 
far back against the hard palate. 

r is always trilled. 

n, I are as in English. 

c like ch in "church", but unrounded and without 
aspiration. 

A tinal surd stop consonant is sometimes aspirated, as 
fudth for tout, bring out, imperat. of tohmu ; dh&mkh, good, 
for damk. This aspiration is much commoner in the 
standard dialect. 

The language likes two sonants and two surds to be 
together, hence sonants are changed to surds and surds 
to sonants. Cf.riiis, sister, gen. riiizu; ri/ib'!, for riii -/>'!, 
in the field ; gutp?, for gudpf, to the hand ; ytilcskiz azh, 
a reared goat, for ySkshis azh. 

Voicels. — a is the long Italian vowel. 

a the same, but short. 

a as u in " butter ". 

f the sound of a in " around ", French e in "je ", German 
e in " gerade ". 

en the same, but longer. 

o the same, but still longer, practically the German 0. 

e the English e in " then ". 

e a vowel between French e and e. 

e the same, but longer. 

i the Italian i. 

i the same, but longer. 

i, the English i in "tin", but narrower. 

o is the long narrow Italian o. 



48 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

o the same, but shorter. 

v practically the English o in " long". 

au nearly the same, but longer. 

all the same, but still longer. 

u is the long English u of " rule ", but narrower. 

u the same, but shorter. 

n the u of " pull ", but narrower, not so narrow as the 
two preceding. 

il is like German ;"',, but very short. 

A vowel sometimes ends with the sharp jerk known as 
the " glottal stop " (see Introduction to Jilbbal Dialects). 
This has been indicated by the sign ' after the letter, 
thus : lea 1 , thou ; clod', near, beside ; shxV, meat. 

Some words are pronounced with a high tone, the voice 
falling slightly after the accent. Examples of words so 
pronounced are: mag, will not go; ran or rtinkh, high 
(as distinguished from rail or rank, horse, mare) ; mdz, 
mtiz, bad, ill-looking. 

In the following pages the same word sometimes appears 
in two or three slightly different forms. This is due to 
the fact that there are varieties of pronunciation which 
are worth preserving. 

Noun 

Number. — There are two numbers, singular and plural ; 
the dual is confined to pronouns and verbs. 

Gender. — There is no grammatical gender. 

Case. — The cases may be reduced to three — the nomi- 
native, genitive and agent. The genitive is almost 
invariably used before prepositions. The termination is 
u for the singular and n for the plural. The agent ends 
in s both singular and plural. It is used with all parts 
of transitive verbs instead of the nominative case. 
Sometimes the nominative case is used for it even with 
transitive verbs. With intransitive verbs ^he nominative 
case is always used. 



LOWER KANAUR1 4!> 

Pronouns 

Number. — -The 1st and 2nd personal pronouns have 
three numbers — singular, dual and plural; the 1st person 
having an inclusive as well as an exclusive dual, the 
former including and the latter excluding the person 
spoken to. Thus, in saying to a servant "we shall lunch 
together to-day ", if kashu were used it would mean that 
master and servant were to lunch together, but if nisi 
were used it would be merely informing the servant 
that a guest was to lunch with the master. 

Relative. — There are no relative pronouns, the inter- 
rogative pronouns being used in place of them. The ending 
-ait indicates the idea of " -ever ", as in whatever, whoever ; 
thus cliogytin, whatever. 

Verb 

Verb Substantive. — There are two bases, each with 
a present and a past. In Standard Kanauri the forms 
are (1st sing.) pres. tog' and dug', in Lower Kanauri t^dk 
and dak; the past forms are Standard Kanauri tokeg' and 
dueg', in Lower Kanauri tbtkyidk and dugik. The d of 
the standard dialect becomes d in Lower Kanauri. 

Dual forms. — All tenses have special forms for the 
exclusive dual, which occurs in the 1st person onl}*, and 
for the 2nd pers. dual. The inclusive dual uses the form 
of the 1st plur. The exclusive dual ends in sin and the 
2nd dual in c, the 1st pers. pi. and 1st inclusive dual end 
in nmiii. These endings are found alike in the future, 
the past, and (for the 2nd pers.) in the imperative. 

The 3rd pers. pi. fut.. which corresponds to the pres 
in the verb substantive, ends in sh, an ending which is 
occasionally used for the 3rd sing, when it is desired 
to show respect. 

There are really three separate tenses — the future, the 
imperative, and the past, and the endings are very similar. 
The following tabic will exhibit the resemblance: — 

i 



50 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Singular 




Dial 




Plural 


1st pers. fut. 


-dk. 


(incl.) 
(excl.) 


-nmih. 
■sin. 


■nmiii. 


past 


■dk. 




-nmin. 

-siii. 


■nmih. 


2nd pers. fut. 


-n. 




-c. 


-1. 


imperat. 


- 




-c. 


-1. 


past 


-n. 




-c. 


-1. 


3rd pers. fut. 


-d. 






-sh. 


past 


- 






■1. 



The 2nd sing, imperat. and the 3rd sing, past have 
no suffix. 

It will be seen that the endings differ only in the 
3rd person. 

The future adds -adk, etc., to the root, and the past 
-gyidk, Icy idle, etc., but the actual endings are as above ; 
it is only the letters inserted between the root and the 
ending that distinguish the future from the past. The 
endings are sometimes contracted ; thus, the dk is con- 
tracted to t or k, as in tH for t a dk, and in the 3rd sing, 
past the final letter is sometimes dropped, giving forms 
like shun for shiliig, died, had for hacig, became. 

For the 3rd person the past has two other forms, one in 
-mig or -mige, which seems to be used with any kind of 
root, and the other in -Ice, as bauke, went. This corresponds 
to the St. Kan. -kyo or -gyo. 

It will be observed that the conjugation of verbs is 
remarkably regular. The chief difficulty is the insertion 
by some verbs of the letter p. See under Conjugation 
of Verbs. 

Imperative.-^-Theve is an imperative in rd, as htii rd, 
beat, which seems to mean that immediate compliance 
is not expected. This is found also in the Standard 
dialect. 

To indicate that an action is to be performed upon 
"you" or "me" the letter c is inserted between the root 



LOWER KANAURI 51 

of a verb and the endings. Thus, tdc, place me ; imperat. 
td ; the infinitive being tacimic, to place ine or you. 

Of the two verbs for "give", heinu and ranmu, the 
former is generally reserved for "give me" or "us" and 
"give you ", and the latter for "give him" or "them": 
this rule is not always strictly observed. 

Negative. — With the imperative tha is used, and with 
other tenses ma, as tlia h a ii, do not beat, tlta zd, do 
not eat. 

In the future the tense frequently undergoes contraction 
when negative, but the changes are not nearly so great as 
in the Camba dialect of Labuli. Examples will be seen 
in the verbal paradigms. Thus we have : — 

tutpatk, I will come; ma tutk, I will not come. 
idumiii, we are ; malmifi, we are not. 

Occasionally the imperative is contracted as tilde, thdic, 
thai, do not become, from hcuc, hacic, had. 

Compound verbs. — For expressing necessity the infinitive, 
and for advisability the verbal noun are employed. See 
after the verbal paradigms. 

Traces of the Tibetan causative made by prefixing s are 
found, as in the Standard dialect. Thus, we have I a inn a. 
drink ; stu rvmu, cause to drink, give to drink. 

Sex is frequently distinguished by separate words. 
In the case of loan-words they sometimes conform to the 
masculine and feminine of the language from which tin- 
words are taken: dog, kiti ', bitch, kukri; cock, kukra : 
hen, kukri ; bull, dama ; cow, h^zh\ he-goat, azh, ajj ; 
she-goat, bdkhar, bdkkar. 

There are a large number of loan-words from Hindi or 
Urdu. Sonic are taken without change, some are more or 
less disguised, bul nil. once they have been given a placi 
in the language, are treated as regular Kanauri words. 
Examples : — 

Verbs: sdmzedmu, explain ; Hindi, 8amjhdnd : bihutdmu, 



52 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



make ; H. banana : vdeanm, make fly ; H. urana : 
tsdleamu, graze ; ? H. cardnd. 

Nouns : yhdd, remembrance ; H. ydd : bdrsfaan, year ; 
H. bards : baits, bhaets, brother, sister ; H. Wia£, 
brother: ndtrudii, name ; H. ■?id??i : piishHn, back; 
Urdu, pitsht : khfrts, expense ; U. khdrch. 

Other words : bardbal, always ; U. bdrdbar, regular : 
zdmi, collection ; \J.jama': balra, outside; U. bdhir: 
neora, near ; Panjabi, nere. 

Examples of those unaltered are; leal, famine; mdl, 
property ; zin, saddle ; midk, country. Many other 
examples of loan-words might be adduced. 

It is noticeable that a cerebral letter in the original 
word is sometimes changed, although Kanauri has cerebrals. 
Cf . dihar, day ; Panjabi, dlhdrd : neora, near; P. mere : 
bddo, very ; H. bard : bodl, much, very, from Simla 
Hills bohri, is not an example, for the r in buhri is not 
cerebral. This change is not always made ; cf. iLdeamu, 
make fly, from urana, P, uddnd : botaii tree, from biitd : 
in pitshtiii, back from pusht, the t of the H. pith has been 
introduced ; cf. Skt. prstha. 



Nouns 



Masculine. 




Singular 


Plural 


Nom. ran, horse. 


ranau. 


Gen. rcihu. 


rahaun. 


Dat. rami z'-n. 


rahauntu. 


Abl. rariu doach. 


rahaun doach 


Agent rails. 


rdiiaus. 


Nom. azh. ajj, goat. 


azhe. 


Gen. azlnt. 


azJien. 


Dat. azhii z"n. 


azhentu. 


Abl. azhu doach. 


azhen doach. 


Agent azhes. 


azhes. 



LOWER KANAURI 



53 



Masculine. 




SlNCULAR 


Plural 


Nom. kini, house. 


kime. 


Gen. kim/1. 


kimen. 


Dat. kib&. 


kimentu. 


Abl. kib&zh. 


kimen pdzh. 


Nom. paid, shepherd. 


paid. 


Gen. pal&n. 


pa la n, pdl&ntU 


Dat. pdl&ntU. 


pdldnt/l. 


Abl. pdl&n dd&ch. 


pdl&n dodch. 


Agent pdlas. 


pdlas. 


Feminine. 




Nom. clme", daughter. 


civic. 


Gen. clinch. 


clmetu. 


Dat. cimr p" ii. 


clmetu. 


Abl. cliiu-u dduch. 


clme dodch. 


Agent cIihcsa 


clmes. 



riiis, sister, has gen. rii/zd, abl. rinza dodch, etc. 
Pronouns 



1st Person. 






Nom. g", git, I. 




kishu. 


Gen. ait. 




kishu. 


Dat. ait z a h. 




kishu z'-ii. 


Abl. aii dodch. 




kishu, dodch. 


Agent g a . 


Dual 


kishu. 


Nom. nisi, he and I. 


kashu, thou and I. 


Gen. a /si/i. 




kashiL. 


Dat. nisi p"n. 




kashu .:■'//. 


Abl. nisiv. dd&ch. 




kashu dd&ch. 


Agent nisi. 




ka.sJiu. 


'2nd Person. 






Singular 


Di \i. 


Plus \i. 


Nom. ka\ 


kisi. 


kl. 


Gen. lean. 


kisiu. 


kin. 


Dat. kan .t"ii. 


kisiu ]>'■' 


ii. kin z"n. 


Abl. kan dd&ch. 


kisiu dd&ch. kin dodch 


Agent kd'. 


kisi. 


ki. 



54 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

3rd Person. 

Singular Plttral 

Nom. no u, no, that, he, she. ndgau. 

Gen. ndu. nogaun. 

Dat. no p'-'u. nogauntu. 

Ahl. nou doach. nogaun doctcJi. 

Agent nos. nogaus. 

Nom. zhu., this. zhugau. 

Gen. zhu. zhugaun. 

Dat. zhu ]hu. zhugauntu. 

Abl. zhu doach. zhugaun doach. 

Agent zhus. zhugaus. 

hdt(t), who ? lias gen. hdt(t)u, abl. hdt(t)ii doach, ag. 
lidt(t)is, nom. pi. /ia£-. 

chog is what ? It is pronounced with cerebral ch. 
chl ma, not anything, nothing ; cliogyaii, chogydii, 
chJU-gydn,' whatever. 

There are no relative pronouns in Lower Kanauri. The 
interrogative pronouns are used instead. The interrogative 
pronouns are used also for indefinite pronouns and in 
negative phrases like " no one", "nothing". 
dnu, own, corresponds to the Hindi dpna. 

Adjectives 

Comparison is expressed by means of the word dzk, 
uzh, ojh ; thus, dhdmk, good ; zhu dzh dJidmk, better than 
this ; tsH dzh dhdmk, better than all, best. This is the 
ablative ending ch in its full form. 

The ending -sic indicates manner, as nesh, like this ; 
hdlisk, like what ? te is how many ? tedii, as many ; nia, 
so many ; ts?i, all ; its^b, gdto, few. For dnu, own, 
see above. 

Adverbs 

Time 
hotsel, now. toro, to-day. 

terdbe, terbe, when. nab, to-morrow. 

terabedn, whenever. rami, day after to-morrow. 



LOWER KANAURI 55 

pal, on the fourth day. mde, yesterday. 

el, on the fifth day. ri, day before yesterday. 

eel, on the sixth day. miaiie, on the fourth day 

back. 
Place 
zhiid', zhiid', here. <I"r, far. 

dud, dhud, there. warJco, far. 

zhudcJi, lience. bdira, outside. 

Iidm, where. 

Other Adverbs 
chfi, why ? lidzaa, quickly. 

The ch in chic is cerebral. 

The Conjugation of the Verb 

Infinitive. — The infinitive ends in -mu or -mil. The 
root is found by taking- off this ending. 

Imperative. — The imperative is the root. Some roots 
ending in a vowel or n add or substitute t: ket, give, 
from kemfc; tsilt, tie, from tsiinmu\ tudt, bring out, from 
tOnmu. Some roots in -I add -ft, as niu, remain from 
nimfi ; khiil, look, from Jchimu. 

Future. — The future is formed by adding -ddh to the 
root. Roots ending in -<z add -udk ; as zdodk from cam Ci, 
eat; somzedudk from sumzedmu, cause to understand. 

Some verbs whose roots end in a vowel insert p before 
the future ending ; thus, baumu, go, kemii, give, have 
baupddk, kepddk. 

Some with roots ending in n also insert p, changing 
the n to t or d and sometimes making slight vocalic 
changes, as : tanmii, come ; tutpfdk : I'lnmu, speak ; 
Vtdp&dk : kunrnd, call, kutpadk ; roshinmu, get angry, 
roshitp&dk. 

There is little difference in the pronunciation of t and 
d when followed by a surd letter in the same syllable. 

Roots ending in ci drop the i, as hcic&dk from h&cimu, 
become. 



56 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Iii ranma, give, the n is erratic and generally becomes 
n in the future and other tenses. 

baiima, go, has a contracted future in addition to the 
other, baudk, baun, bank, etc. This may have the sense 
of an immediate future, the uncontracted form referring 
to a time more remote. 

Present Indicative and Imperfect. — The present indica- 
tive is formed by adding a or 6 to the root and conjugating 
with the present of the verb subst. dak. The imperfect 
is similarly formed with the past of the verb subst. dugik. 
Verbs which insert the p in the future insert it also in the 
present indicative and imperfect. They do not take 6 before 
the verb substantive, but keep to a: tiinmu, come, has 
tiltpaduk, etc. Roots ending in ci omit the i. 

Occasionally the other verb substantive is used, as 
lanfcdk, I am doing ; baukt&dk, I am going ; baiikto, 
he is going. 

Past. — The past tense is formed by adding gyidk, gidk, 
kyidk, or kidk to the root. Verbs which insert p in the 
future take kidk as the past tense ending and drop the 
p, and those of them which have t or d before the p retain 
this letter though they drop the p : batlkidk, went, from 
bTtumu; roshitkidk, got angry, from roshinmu; fcdkidk, 
spoke, from l?nmu. The verb subst. tfdk takes kyidk, 
totkyidk, I was. shitinu, slay, is an exception and retains 
the p, shupkidk, I slew. 

Other verbs have gyidk or gidk, n sometimes changing 
to ii before the g. Exception, damn, happen, become ; 
past, ddkidk. 

Some verbs have a contracted past — generally in addition 
to the ordinary past : nimU, remain, nidk and nigidk ; 
kemu, give, kedk and kekidk; ktrmu, bring, leffrg and 
l&rgidk ; demu, go, dedk ; shimu, die, shledk. 

Roots ending in ci retain the i, as dakcigidk, remained 
from dakcimu. gidk and kidk are generally pronounced 
with a slight y sound almost like gyidk, kyidk. 



LOWER KANAUKI 57 

There is another very common form of the past which 
I have noticed only in the 3rd sing, and plur. It ends in 
mig and m ige, thus : ta h mig, he saw ; wenmige, he wasted ; 
tkasmig, he heard ; itdedmig, he wasted ; emig, he asked. 
Sometimes this is used along with one of the verbs 
subst. shenmik t8, lie sent, he lias sent; shenmil: l".sli, 
they sent, they have sent, g being euphonieally changed 
to k before the surd t. The form in mig is that of the 
Central Kanauri infinitive. 

Participles. — Conjunctive participle made by repeating 
the root: d"nd'!n, having fallen; baubau, having gone. 

Verbs whose roots end in n sometimes omit the n, as 
l a l a , having spoken, from l a nrnU; kuku, having called, 
from kunmu; tannin, come, has tuttu. Roots in ci omit 
the i. 

When the root has more than one syllable only the 
second is repeated, as thuriri, from thurinmu, run ; 
roshishi, having got angry, from roshinmu. 

Continual live or Frequentative. — The same with 6 added 
to the root; d a nod"iw, having kept on falling or fallen 
repeatedly ; h&co haco, having kept on becoming or become 
frequently ; cf. Hindi gir gvrke, Jid hoke. 

\>y adding asl to the root we get the idea of while doing 
or upon doing a thing. The root takes the same form as 
for the future, verbs inserting p (tp, dp) for the future do 
so also here; hfibdsl, while beating; baupdsi, while going; 
tutpdsi, while coming. 

Verbs with roots ending in a take osi, sfrmzedosi, while 
causing to understand, from somzedmu. 

dahdmu, remain, has dakcisi, and gydTllig, wish, has 
gyausi. 

The agent is made by adding zed or tsea to the root. 
Verbs which insert p in the future take tsed, as Jcetsed, 
giver, about to give, from kemu; iHsed, from I'himu, 
speak; but dezed, goer, from demu ; sdmze'dzed, causer 
to understand, from sdrnze'drnv. ; khized, seer, from khimii ; 



58 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

seized, eater, from zdm U. ; rinzed, sayer, from riinnu; unzed, 
taker, from unmil ; Itdcimu, become, and dakcimu, remain, 
have laicized and dahcized. lumu, remain, and ddmu, 
happen, become, take tsed-nltsed, ddtsed. 

Verbal Noun. — The verbal noun is the same in form as 
the root. Verbs whose roots end in a vowel add m to the 
root ; thus, from htnmu, beat, lanmu, do, zdnxu, eat, we 
get the verbal nouns htn, Ian, zdm. The verbal noun is 
used with gydmig to express advisability. See under 
compound verbs. 

Passive. — The passive is not much used, but when 
required is formed by inserting shi after the root ; thus, 
y8nmu, nourish ; yonshimu or yokshimu, to be nourished ; 
pMJcedmu, to spit; philcedshimu, to be spit out; tsiimmu, 
hold ; tstimshimu, to be held, to fight. This shows a 
reciprocal sense. 

The passive or stative participle ends in shis. From 
the two verbs just mentioned the passive participles are 
yolcshis, phikedshis. Verbs whose roots end in sji_ or 
c often receive a kind of middle sense and always have 
this participle ; thus, liacis, from lidcimu, become, and 
tdshis, from toshmu, sit, ta*his meaning in the state of 
having sat, i.e. seated, and hacis, in the state of having 
become; cf. ancis, having risen; chukshis, having met 
(intrans. with dative). This participle may be used for 
the past tense. It corresponds to the Hindi mdrd hud, 
baithd hud. 

Verb Substantive 
Present. 

Singular Dual Plural 

1. t'-dk, t'-tk, I am. 1. tonmih, thou and 1. tonmin, we are. 

I are. 

2. ton, thou art. 1. tosiri, he and I 2. tol, you are. 

are. 

3. tau, to, he or she is. 2. toe, you two are. 3. tosh, they are. 



LOWER KANAUR1 59 

Negative of tlie above 

1. malic. 1. iiui'nnin, thou 1. mahnih. 

and I. 

2. main. 1. matsin, he and I. 2. malt. 

3. maik. 2. male, you two. 3. matsh. 

Past. 

1. tot-kyidk, I was. 1. tot-kyinmin. 1. tot-kyinmin. 

2. -kyin. 1. -kyisin. 2. -&yi. 

3. -ft. 2. -kyic. 3. kyish. 

Negative 

1. mMkyidk. 

2. mdlkyin, etc., regular. 

There is another form of the verb .substantive, as 
follows : — 





Present. 










1. 

2. 
3. 


duk. 
dun. 

dn. 

Past. 


1. diinuh. 

1. dilsin. 

2. due. 




1. 
2. 
3. 


dumin> 
d u i . 
dush. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


dugik. 
dug in. 
dug. 

Fa hire. 


1. duginmin. 

1. diigisin. 

2. dugic. 

d'himu, fall 




1. 
2. 
3. 


duginmin. 

dugl. 

dugish. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


d'nadk. 

d'ni'ni. 

it'ilihl . 


1. d"ndnmin. 
and I. 

1. d'-nasni, he 

2. d'-Jiac, you 


thou 

and I. 
two. 


1. 

2. 
3. 


(I'lhuimi)). 

d'nul. 
d?n&sh. 




Imperative 

d'n. 


u J ;;c. 






d'-nni. 



Present indicatir, . 

1. d"nd-duk. 1. d'-nd-dumin. 1. dhid-dtimin. 

2. -dun. 1. -dusiii. 2. -r/«Z. 

3. -aw. 2. -due. 3. -rfii.s//. 



GO 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FKOM THE HIMALAYAS 



1. ma crn-min. 

1. -sin. 

2. -c. 



1. ma d"n-mih. 

2. -I. 

3. -sh. 



Negative. 

1. via d'-ng. 

2. ma d"n. 

3. ?na d?n. 
Imperfect. 

1. d^nadu-gik. 1. -ginmin. 1. -ginmih. 

2. -gm. 1. -glsin. 2. -gi. 

3. -<7. 2. -gic. 3. -gisfr. 

Pa*/. 

1. d-n-gyidk. 1. -gyinmin. 

2. -gyin. 1. -gyisin. 

3. -g. 2. -03/ic. 

Participles. 

(tendon, having fallen ; d n .nocl a .no, having kept on 
falling, or fallen repeatedly ; d a .nasi, while falling. 
Agent dtnzea, faller, about to fall. 

hacimu, become 
Fut. hard die, like dfinadk. 
Neg. met had fj. 

hacic. 

thdic. 



1. -gyinmin. 

2. -flwf. 

3. -ge. 



had. 
thai'. 



Imperat. Mc. 

Neg. ^/iftc. 

Pres. hdcadvJc. 

Imperf. hdcadugih. 

Past hacigyidk. 

Part. har]uie, having become ; Mco /iofcd, having kept 
on becoming ; haeis, while becoming; Jtdcised, becomer, or 
about to become. 

. nima, remain ' 

Fut. filadJc, etc., regular. 

Neg. ma nlk. 

Imperat. niu. nic. n%. 

Pres. ul a dak. 

Imperf. niadugik. 

Past, nlgidk or maVc. 

Part. rum, niasi. 

Agent, nitsea. 



LOWER EANAUR1 61 

toshmu, sit 
Fut. tdsh&dk. 
Neg. dkI toshig. 

Imperat. tosh. toshic. td.shJ. 

Pres. toshaduk. 
Imperf. tosh&dugik. 
Past, toshgidk, toshigidk. 
Part, to.^hia, while remaining. 

teffltt, beat 

Fut. hfn&dk. Imperf. htnodugik. 

Neg. mil h" it. Past, htngidk. 

Imperat. h a h, etc. Part. h'!nh"it, h^iiasi. 

Pres. hfnSduk, Agent, hXiized. 

zdmii, eat 

Fut. zdodk. Past, zdgidk. 

Neg. w,d :''/,'. Part. :aca, zdosl. 

Pres. sdodnl,-. Agent, saseo.. 
Imperf. zdpdugik. 

tunmu, drink 
Fut. tuiiadk. Past, tungidk. 

Pres. tuiwduk. Part, ttinttin, tUndsi. 

Imperf. tiiriddugik. Agent, ttiiized. 

ra/rymu, give 

Fut. r&nadk. Past, r&ngidk, 

Neg. wia r&ng. Part. r~'n,-~<n. r&n&si. 

Pres. r&noduk. Agent. r~i mea. 
Imperf. ranodugik. 

unmu, take 
Fut. m //'a//,-. Past, " ngidk. 

Neg. /j" 7 '"'//;/. Part, iwiwn unas! 

Pres. undduk. Agent, imzed. 



62 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Fut. rinadk. 
Neg. ma ring. 
Pres. rindduk. 

Fut. lanadk. 
Neg. ma lang. 
Pres. lanod Fik. 

Fut. neadk. 
Ne<r. -met nek. 



Fut. 7c«?md/c. 
Neg. m# k^rg. 
Pres. l&rod ak. 



nil inn. s>vy 

Past, ringidk. 
Part. riiiriii, riiidsi. 
Agent, rinsed. 

lanma, do 

Past, langidk. 

Part, lanlan, lanasi. 

Agent, lanzed. 

item a, know 

Pres. nepduk. 
Past, negidk. 

k?rma, bring 

Past, kffrgidk, k?rg. 
Part, klrklr, k^rasi. 
Agent, klrzed. 

kemu, give 

Past, kekidk or /tet/Zt. 
Part, keke, kepdsi. 
A^ent, ketsed. 



Fut. kepddk. 
Neg. mtt Zcei/c, ma kek. 
Pres. keoduk. 
Imperf. keodugik. 

baumu, go 
Fut. baupadk, etc., regular, or as follows : — 

1. bau-dJc. 1. -mm. 1. -mm. 

2. -w. 1. -sin. 2. -i. 

3. -A. 2. -c. 3. -s&. 
Neg. mag or ?)ut bank, Past, baukidk. 

ma baun, ma ban, etc. Part, baubau, baupasl. 
Pres. ind. baupaduk. Agent, bautsea. 

Imperf. baupadugik. 

phyomu, take away 
Fut. phyopadk. Past, phyokidk, 

Neg. met phyog. Part, phyophyo, phyopasi. 

Pres. phyopaduk. Agent, pJtyotsed. 



LOWER K ANA UK I 



63 



gya/mu, wish 
Pres. gydpaduk. Agent, gydtsed. 

Part, giausl, on wishing. 

shiLmu, slaughter, kill 
Fut. sh/itpdidk. Pres. sh/Hpaduk. 

Imperat. sh/itpt, plur. shubi. 
Past, sh/itp-kidk ; 2nd sing, -kin ; 3rd sing, shv/mik or 

shumikto ; 1st plur. xhup - kinmiii ; 2nd plur. -/a; 

3rd plur. shv/mige. 

shiinmu, become alive 
Past, shilngidk. 

llnmu, speak 

Past, tedkidk. 
Part, fcfc, IHpasl. 
Agent, iHsed. 

tdnmu, come 

1. -nmin. 1. -nmih. 



Fut. Itdpadk. 
Neg. ?na /"'//r. 
Pres. Vtdpaduk. 



Fut. 1. tiitp a -tk or 

2. -to. 1. -siV;. 2. -^. 

3. "cZ. 2. -c. 3. -^. 
Neg. ma tilth or £u£&, etc. 

Imperat. zh°r. zltivic zhirl. 

Neg. //"f :A<n\ 

Pres. ind. tiitpaduk. 

Imperf. tiitpadugik or tutpddugik. 

Past 1. tiit-kidk or 1. -k'inmih. 1. -kinmiu. 

tut-kulk. 

2. -fern. 1. -kisin. 2. -&£. 

3. -&. 2. -foe. 3. -£/. 
Part, tutta, having come: tutpasi, while coming. 
Agent, tutsea. 

lev. uin ib, call 
Fut. kutpddk. Part, kuku, kutpasi. 

Pres. kutpuduk. Agent, kutsed. 

Past, kutkidk. 



64 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

roshXnmu, take a huff, bo angry 
Fut. roshitp&dk. Part, roshitp&si. 

Pres. roshitp&duk. Agent, roshitsea. 

Fast,rd8h/ttkidk' } 3rd sing. 

roshidk ; 3rd plur. 

rdsh_ hike. 

demfi, go 
Fut. deddk. Part, depasi. 

Pres. deoduk. Agent, dezed. 

Past , dedk ; 2nd sing, den ; 

3rd sing, deg (the rest 

like t a tk, I was). 

dakcimu, remain 
Fut. dakcadk. Part, dakcisl. 

~P&st,dak-cigidk; 2nd sing. Agent, dakcized. 
cigin; 3rd sing. ci<7, etc. 

emit, ask 
Past, egidk: 3rd sing, emig ; 3rd plur. emigc. 

damn, happen, become 
Fut. ddodk. ' Part, ddda, ddosl. 

Pres. ddoduk. Agent, ddtsed. 

Past, ddkidk ; 3rd sing. 
(7<7 /.■ : 3rd plur. ctel'e. 

somzedmu, explain, cause to understand 
Fut. somzedodk. Part, somzedosl. 

Pres. somzecbpduk. Agent, somzedzea. 

Past, somzeagidk. 

taiimu, see 
Past, tangidk ; 3rd sing, taiimig. 

khimu, see 

Fut. A7/7m// ( -. Past, khtgidk. 

Iinperat. &Mu. Part, khiasi. 

Pres. kl/iuduk. Agent, kldzed. 



LOWER KANAURI 65 

tJiurinmu, run 
Part, thii.riri, having run. 

gri ii mil , be satisfied 
Part, grikgri (for grlgrl). Agent, gristed (for gritsed). 

purenmfi, be obtained 
Past, p&ridgidle ; 3rd sing, ptiridk. 

Compound Verbs 

Necessity is expressed by the infinitive with the verb 
substantive. 

zdmd dugidlc, I had to eat; zdmfi diik, I have to eat. 

hlnmu dug, he had to beat; hlhmu dd, lie has to beat. 

There is also a peculiar form which is used for the 
1st sing, in the past tense. It is the same as the verbal 
agent with adk substituted for ed, thus : zdzadk, I had 
to eat ; bautsadk, I had to go ; lanzadk, I had to do ; 
tutsadJc, I had to come. The ordinary form mentioned 
above is also of course correct for the 1st sing. The sense 
of necessity is sometimes weak, and the expression in both 
forms often means only " it was my. his, etc., intention to 
do so and so ", and sometimes it indicates little more than 
ordinary sequence of events, as g<} ma dlnzadk, I was not 
going to fall, I should not have fallen. See above on 
Conditional Sentences. 

Advisability is rendered by the verbal noun with gydmig, 
from gydmu, wish; gydmig literally means "wished". 
The same form is used in Central Kanaurl, where, however, 
the form is an infinitive. When gydmig governs a verb 
the verb appears ordinarily in its root form. 

tl tiih gydmig, it is advisable to drink water. 

nou h, n ii gya/mig, him to beat is advisable (one should 
beat him). 

Jchae zdm gydmig, one should eat bread. 

ah baup?h rigra gydmig, my Eather-fco servants are 
advisable (my father wants servantsV 



6G 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



roml' unz'iu shum kiili gydmig, the-day-after-to-morrow 
me-to three qulis (coolies) are-advisable (I want 
three coolies the day after to-morrow). 

cori ma Ian gydmig, theft not to-do is-advisable, one 
should not steal. 

Sometimes for gydmig we find gydts, which ordinarily 
means desirous. 

nab tCiii gydts, to-morrow to-come is-advisable (one 
ought to come to morrow). 

Numerals 

33. nizd sorum. 

40. nish niza'. 

49. nish niza zgui. 

50. nish niza sai. 
56. nish niza sordk. 
60. shum niza. . 
64. shum niza pii.. 
70. shum niza sai. 

79. shiim niza sozgiii. 

80. pil niza. 
87. pii niza stish. 
90. pil niza sai. 
98. pil nizd sorai. 

100. rd. 

200. nira. 

300. sjviimra. 

400. pllra'. 

500. iidra. 

600. tugra. 

700. stishra. 

800. raira. 

900. zgiira. 

579. ndrdshiim nizd suzg di. 

It will be seen from the above that the numbers are 
very regular. 



1. 


hid. 


2. 


it ish. 


3. 


sh_umm. 


4. 


p a. 


5. 


na. 


6. 


tugg. 


7. 


stissh. 


8. 


rai. 


9. 


zgui. 


10. 


sdi. 


11. 


sid. 


12. 


s^nish. 


13. 


sortim. 


14. 


so pii. 


15. 


sohd. 


16. 


sordk. 


17. 


sost Ish. 


18. 


sorai. 


19. 


sozgtii. 


20. 


nizd'. 


21. 


nizd idd. 


22. 


niza nish. 


30. 


nizd sai. 



LOWER KANAURI 67 

Prepositions 

(Nearly all govern the genitive.) 
a i n in. n In ms, after, behind den, upon (gen.). 

(gen.). -'p a .ii, -p", -[>, b a , -z" it, to, in, 

nm. 6ms, before, in front of etc. (gen.). 

(gen.). ddd', near, with (gen.). 

n2dra, near (gen.). ddach (compounded of dotV 

stdii, up to. and eh, from), from (gen.). 

zd, up to, as far as. eh'lh, under (gen.). 

taw, for sake of, on account rein, along with (gen.). 

of, because of (gen.). 

Conditional Sentences 
The protasis is the root of the verb with the conditional 
particle md-, the apodosis varies according to the sense. 
For the past conditional apodosis the form of the verb 
expressing necessity is generally used. Examples : — 
ha tauma gil kanzlii paisa hepadlc, thou come-if, 
I thee-to paisa will give (if you come I will give 
you a pice). 
ha zhu Jcaman lanma gil paisa randdk, if you do this 

work I will give (someone else) a pice. 
ha zhu ham&ri chima l&wma gil paisa m& leek, thou this 
work nothing do-if (i.e. if you do not do this work) 
I will not give you a pice, chlma, something-not, 
corresponds to Hindi hticch n&hl. 
ha tunmd gil hanz&ri paisa hetsadh or hemu dugidh, if 
you had come I should have given you a pice. 
The apodosis might be no paisa hemu dug, he 
would have given a paisa. See next paragraph. 



68 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



The Prodigal Son 

idd mill nish chaiie da: zigits chaites ano 
one nian-of two sons are : little son own 

hav/pln l?nmig, " lean mat chogy&n an 

father-to said, " thy property-of whatever my 

hisdu tutp?d anzfn ket." Dos and vial 
part will-come me-to give." He own property 

kanmig. its?b dihdre niinn zike cliaiies tsH 
divided. Few days after little son all 

vp°"h,l zdmi lanmig, d?r warlco bauke : dltud 
one-to together made, far far went : there 

anentit mat mdz kdrnaii lanlun tsH 

own property evil work having-done all 

wenmige: khfrts spyukshis do nnulkau kdl 
wasted : expense wasted that country-in famine 

baukto, gdtd hdcig. do mitlko idd nlzeu 
went, small became. That country-of one dweller 

doa' baukto, dos anil rimen-p? sungra rodivnui 
near went, he own fields-to pigs to-graze 

shenmikto : dos gyap&du sungrdu phikedshlzau 

sent : he wishing-is pigs-of left 

sheto zaz* ghriiimu gydts tHk, hdtisl 

husks having-eaten satisfied-to-be wishful was, anyone 

noplih md rdnoduge : terabedii yhdd deg 

him-to not giving-was : whenever remembrance went 

dop? lonmig "an bdnii doa' te rigra 

him-to said " my father near how-many servants 

t^sh nogos grik stdii khde zaush, gu 

are they being-satisfied up-to bread will -eat. I 



LOWER KANAURI 69 

zhod' onuii shiedk: gu dncis an bad doa' 
here hungry died : I having-risen my father near 

baupadk nop Ifdpadk 'he aii bad, lean 
will-go hiin-to will-say ' O my father, thy 

P&rmesMLril giina lant'ldlc, lean chan nimu 
God-of sin doing-am-I, thy son to remain 

Itiik mod dakcigidh, lea idd anztri rigra tac'." 
worthy not I-became, thou one me-to servant place-me'." 

no wdrkd tW no bans ndpfn taiimig nos 
he far was his father him-to saw, he 

fhariri dno raiip? tsummig. Chanes ano 
having-run own neck-to held. Son own 

baup<!n Itnmig : "he an bad Jean Parmeshii.ru 
father-to said : " O my father, thy God-of 

giind lant'Jdk lean cJiaii nimu, laik ma 
sin doing-am-I thy son to-be worthy not 

daJccigidk" Baus rigrantu llnmig " ts?i ozh 
I-became." Father servants-to said "all than 

i l/i 'hnk gas Jc?ri zhup a n skai, gutp 1 } pratso 
c^ood garment bring him-to put-on, hand-to finger-of 

o to to I to 

kill) nits rani, band shpauno rani, yokshiz dzh 
ring give, foot-in shoe give, fat goat 

© to ' to ' to 

h a ri shubi, :<':" IchUsi hdcimig, chu zhu 

bring kill, having-eaten happy to-be, why this 
J/'/ chaii shishi tH hdtse shin). 

my son having-died was, now became-alive, 
bibi t"t hotse pdridk". nauii teg 

having-gone was now was obtained ". His big 

© © to 

ate rinb? t°t kimii ntord tutp&si 

hig-brother field-in was house near on-coming 

gaz bdzu irdz thasmig : idd rigrap'Hi 

singing playing-of sound lieard : one servant-to 



70 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

kuku emig " cJiog ddda?" nos 

having-called asked, "what having-happened ? " he 

ring Jean bhaets tutk, Jean bavs ydkshiz 

said " thy little-brother came, thy father fat 

azh shumig nauu tale dJtdmJc rdzi JcJiusl 

goat killed that on-account-of good well happy 

cJiilJeshis ". No roshishi Jenhu bo mag : 

met". He having-got-angry house-in go will-not-go: 

nou bauii baira baubau somzeaudd: nos 

his father out having-gone explaining is : he 

anil ban Vfnmig " JeJiiu Jiotse nia borshan 
own father-to said, " Look now so-many years 

Jean pale langyidlc Jed' terbe bdJeJiaru mats ma 
thy service I-did thou ever goat's kid not 

JeeJcin gil an Jeonded ran JeJiiisi lanedJc, Jiotse 

gavest I my friends with happiness will-make, now 

Jean cJtaii tutu nos Jean mala udedmig 

thy son having-come he thy property made-fly 

Jea nauu tale y6Jesh_iz azh shupJcin." 

thou him on-account-of fat goat killedst." 

anil baus l?nmig ' : Jte chari Jed t? bardbal 
Own father said, " O son thou then regularly 

an ran ton, chlgyaib ail to Jean to, JeJiiisi 
me with art, whatever mine is thine is, happiness 

lanmig Jchilsi Jiacimig dJidmJe t a .t (or Ian gyamig 
to-do happy to-become good was (to-do fitting 

and hacis gyamig), cJiu Jean zJiu bdz shishi 

become fitting), why thy this brother having-died 

t a .t Jiotse sh/iing, blhi t°t, Jiotse poridlc." 

was now lived, having gone was now met." 



o & 



For notes see after the following sentences. 



LOWER KANAUKI 71 

♦ 

SENTENCES 

1. Kan ndmdii chdg dun ? Thy name what is ? 

2. Zhu raiia te borshdii bauktd? This horse-of how- 
niany years went ? (How old ?) 

3. Zhddch K a shmir zd te wark totto ? Here-from 
Kashmir to how-much far is ? 

4. Kan bauu (baunu) kime (Ic-ib?) te chaiie da? Thy 
father's house-in how-many sons are ? 

5. G? turo bado wdrkozh within tlrdk. I to-day very 
far-from walking came. 

G. An hauw-tsed chanen dor zhu riiizn zhanl had. 
My uncle-of son with his sister's marriage became. 

7. Ail kib^ chdg raiiu zln to. My house-in white 
horse's saddle is. 

8. Nav, piishtind zln tsid. His back-on saddle tie. 

9. G? nail cliaiiti bado hfngidJe. I his son-to much 
beat. 

10. No doklidiiii den lane ze tsdleaudush. • He hill on 
cows, goats grazing is. 

11. No botdnu chin rand den shokshls. He tree under 
horse on riding is. 

12. NauH bdz anil riiizojJi teg tail. His brother own 
sister than big is. 

13. XuH mtuilu it nish Hlpe&z po paull tau. Its price 
two rupees four two-annas is. 

14. Ail baa zikits kib? nldd. My father little house-in 
remains (lives). 

15. N6p a ii no raped ran. Him-to those rupees give. 
10. No rupea n6u dodch iinn. Those rupees him 

from take. 

17. N6p"ii z n i> h"iiuli" iiu bilshis tsiitsii tad. Him-to to 
having-continued-beating rope-with having-bound keep. 

18. Khtid oj/i tl todtli. Well from water draw (sing.). 

19. Aii 6ms pal. My before walk. 

20. Hdta chaii kan niums tiifpadd? Whose son thy 
behind comes ? 



72 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

21. Ka Jtdtii dudclt mold a ungin ? Thou whom from 
(with) price tookest ? 

22. DeshdnU sdukarii dodch. Village of banker from. 

Notes 

Prodigal Son. — chane dw for dusk. There is not much 
distinction between 3rd sing, and 3rd plur. in the verb. 
ket, give to me (or you), rdnniu means give to a third 
person. IpHvi, from idd ptn, into one (place), baukto, 
contracted from bang, went, and to, is. gdtd hdcig, small 
became, i.e. became hard up. shenmikto from shenmig, 
sent, to, is. phikedshlzau, lit. what is spit out, gen. of 
pass. part, phlkedshis, from phikedmu, spit, hdtisi, lit. 
who ? used for " anyone ". tdc, place me, c is " me ", 
inf. tdcimu, place me. gud-pf for gud-p^ii, to the hand. 
Jidcimig, the form of infinitive found in the Standard 
dialect, yokshiz, pass. part, from yonmu, rear, nourish. 
yokshiz for yokshis, which is for yohshis. riiib? for rvn-pfi, 
to or in the field, dddd, conj. part., having happened, for 
past tense, nos mdl iLdedmig, he made fly thy property, 
" he " used for " who ", demonstrative for relative. 

Sentences. — 1, dim for du. 4, dd for dush. 5, bddo, 
from Hindi bdra, with dental letter for cerebral or from 
Koci bori, boJirl, very, wdrkozh, zh or ch means "from"- 
10, tsdleaitdush, from tsdledmu, perhaps from Hindi 
cdrdnd, graze. 12, rinzbjh, jh for zh or ch, the ablative 
ending " from " to express comparison. The same ending 
appears in khud djh, from the well, in sentence 18. 15, ran, 
give to a third person, contrast with ket (above), give 
to me or you. 18, toath, imperat. of tonmu, bring out. 
19, pdi, imperat. of pamu, walk. 



LOWER KANAUKI 



73 



VOCABULARY 

Many words used in Lower Kanauri are loan-words 
from Koci and Hindi. The commonest are marked f 
below. 



above, den, w. gen. 

advisable, gydmig, w. verbal 

noun ; see " wish ". 
after, nium, nlums, w. gen. 
alive, become, shiinmu. 
all, ts a i. 

along with, ran, w. gen. 
always, bdrdbdl.] 
am, t"dk, t"tk, dftk ; see 

grammar, 
angry, become, rokshinmu, 

roshinmu.\ 
anna (two) bit, paull] ; cf. 

Panjabi paull, four annas, 
anything, chi. 
arise, ancimu ; arise up, den 

unci mil. 
arrive, bonmu. 
ask, emu. 
ass, phots. 

back, n., pushtin, poshtin.] 
bad, maz, maz. 
banker, suilkdr.f 
bear, n., horn. 

be ; see " am ", " become ". 
beat - , li'-'umil. . 
beautiful, dumk(Ji), dhdmk(h); 

see "good ". 
because, tale, w. gen. 
become, hacimu, damn ; see 

" happen ". 



bed, mdzau.\ 

before, dm, 6ms, w. gen. 

behind, nium, nlums, w. gen. 

beside, dod', neora. 

big, teg. 

bind, tsihimu. 

bitch, kukrl.i 

blunt, ma rask. 

body, dedh. 

book, kdtdb.j 

boy, chan. 

bring, k a rmu. 

broad, khde. 

brother, older than person 
spoken of, ate; younger than 
person spoken of, baits, 
bhacts] ; see " sister". 

buffalo, malsh.f 

bull, ddmd ; bullock, rod. 

butter, mar ; buttermilk, but. 

call, kfinmu. 

camel, fit.}' 

cat (male), prus/if ; (female), 
piushl. 

clean, dewdsh. 

clever, h&sMdr.j 

cock, kukra.j 

cold, Usk. 

come, tienmu. 

country, mfilk.f 

cow, h?zh ; collective plur. lane. 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



daughter, elmi-. 

day, daytime, lal ; by day, lai ; 

a <hiy, (lihar'f ; see "to-day", 

" to-morrow ". 
die, shimu. 
distant, icarko, <:/">•. t 
divide, kaiunu. 
do, lanmu. 
dog, kill (pronounced kwee) ; 

see " bitch ". 
drink, ttihmu ; cause to drink, 

stuhmu. 
dwell, nimii, toshmu. 
ear, kanah.} 
eat, zamil ; give to eat, khde 

runmu. 
egg, lie. 

eight, ra?; eight hundred, ra'ira . 
eighteen, sora'i. 
eighty, pit nlzd!. 
eject, tonmii. 
elephant, hathi.f 
eleven, sid. 
explain, somzedmu.] 
eye, vuh. 
face, stall. 
fall, d a nviu. 
famine, kdl.j 
far, warko, d n r\ ; as far as, 

stdn, zd. 
father, bdo.f 
few, gdto, its a b. 
field, rin, rim. 
fifteen, soiid. 
fifty, nish nlzd sal. 
fight, tsiimshimu ; see " hold ". 
finger, prats. 
fish, matshi.j 
five, na ; five hundred, ndra. 



flee, baumu. 

foot, Jaw. 

for, M7c, w. gen. 

forty, nish nlzd'. 

four, ;p# ; four hundred, pil rd. 

fourteen, s6pu. 

fox, shialA 

from, doach. 

(in) front of, o»i, 6ms, w. gen. 

fruit, §/&#, shp. 

garment, gas, gen. ga^Zi. 

ghi, mar. 

give (to me or you), kemu ; (to 
him or them), rdnmic. 

go, demit, baumu. 

goat (he-goat), az/j, djj \ (she- 
goat), bdkkdr, bdkhdrj ; col- 
lective plur., £e; 

good, damk{h), dhamk()i), 
dew ash. 

graze, rodiimu. 

hair, krd. 

happen, ddmii ; see "become". 

happiness, khusi.j 

happy, khilsi.'t 

hand, gud. 

he, no, nau. 

head, 6aLt 

healthy, rdz'i.j 

hear, thdsmu. 

hen, kukri ; see cock ".f 

hence, zhodch. 

her, ndS. 

here, zlioa , zhod'. 

high, rdhkh. 

hill, dokhan.j 

his, ttoii. 

hold, tsiimmu ; see " fight ". 

horse, rdu(h). 



LOWE It KANAURI 



75 



hot, zhog. 

house, kivi. 

huff, take a, rok&hinmu,] 

roshimnu. 
hundred, rd. 
hungry, onon. 
husband, dots. 
husks, slicto. 

I. gu, g"- 

if, -via. 
ignorant, laid. 
iron, ran. 
jungle, dzdiigdl.} 
keep, tdmu. 
kill, shumu. 
kite, ddnshurd. 
know, nciu/1. 
lazy, mdz, maz. 
learn, htisMmu. 
leopard, thdr. 
-little, zigits, dzigits, gatd, zike\ 

a little, dak'- ts,ddmrl, thora.f 
live (dwell), nlvul, toshviu ; 

(be alive), shwfvmu. 
load, bar an.] 
look, khimu, tahmu. 
man, ml, clulduml. 
maize, zudr (Hindi jfidr, 

millet).! 
make, boncdmu,} lanmu. 
mare, rdn{lt). 
meat, sha . 
meet, chtiksMmu. 
milk, khcrdh. 
mother, #d.f 
moon, ydlsdu. 
much, bddll ; see " very ". 
name, ndmdn.'l 
near, ncordA 



necessary, verb subst. with 

ini'm. 
nock, r&n. 
night, §hupd. 
nine, zgul; nine hundred, 

zgfira . 
nineteen, sdzgul. 
ninety, pit n'iza sal. 
no, not, via, w. imp. tha. 
nose, stakilts. 
nothing, chl via. 
now, JidtsSi. 
obtained, be, pdr&mnuj chilk- 

shmiu ; see " meet ". 
oil, teldu.f 
one, idd. 

ought, gydmig, w. verbal noun, 
our (thine and mine), kcidJiu ; 

(his and mine), nisiu ; our, 

plur., ki§hu. 
outside, bdlni.l 
own, dnu. 
part, hi sail.} 
pen, kdlCnu.] 
pice, y><//.sa.t 
pig, .s«»ra.f 
place, v. tr., tdmu. 
plain, snlii.i. 
price, maaldu.i 
proper, gydmig. 
property, mal.\ 
put, tdmu ; put on (clothes), 

skdmil ; put out, t&nmu. 
quickly, hd. za u. 
rain, lagdo. 
read, p6r%sm/u,.\ 

, tr., ''»i/'. 
;nize, sh_i'$mu. 
remain, dakcimu. 



76 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



remembrance, yhad.f 

ride, shdkskimu. 

river, s6rnildr&n\\ see "stream". 

ring, kanmits. 

rise, dncimu; rise up, den 
dncimu. 

run, tliurinnui; run away, 
baumu. 

rupee, ruped.f 

saddle, zin.f 

(for) sake of, tale. 

satisfied, be, griiimu. 

say, Vnmu, riiimu. 

see, taiimu, Jchlmii. 

seed, bldn.j 

seven, stissh ; seven hundred, 
stish ra. 

seventeen, sostish. 

seventy, shiim niza sal. 

sharp, rask. 

servant, rigra. 

service, pale. 

she, no, nan. 

sheep, khds. 

shepherd, pdld.f 

shoe, shpauno. 

shopkeeper, sdukdr.j 

sin, gund.j 

sister, riiis ; older than person 
referred to, dac\ ; younger 
than person referred to, baits, 
bhdetsf ; see " brother ". 

sit, toshmu. 

six, tugg ; six hundred, tugra. 

sixteen, soriik. 

sixty, shiim niza. 

slay, shumu. 

sleep, ydnmu. 

small, dzigits, zigits, zike. 



sound, tcdz.f 

speak, rinmu, I'timu. 

spit, plilkcdmu. 

star, kar. 

stomach, pet&nj 

storm, Idn (different from Ian, 

wind), 
stream, gddfirii ; see "river", 
sun, win ; sunshine, win. 
sweet, thlg. 
take, Unmix ; take away, 

phyomu. 
ten, sal. 

than, dzh, ozh, ojh. 
that, pron., no, nau. 
then, dial', dhiia '. 
they, nogau. 
thief, cora.f 
thirteen, sorum. 
thirty, niza! sal. 
this, zhu. 
thou, ka\ 
three, sjviimm ; three hundred,. 

shitmra'. 
thy, kan. 
tie, tsiinmu. 
to, -p' } n, -p*, -p, -b", z"n w. gen., 

doa w. gen. 
to-day, toro. 
to-morrow, nab ; day after — , 

roml; day after that, pal\ 

fifth day, el ; sixth day, eel. 
tongue, le. 
tooth, gdre. 
town, bazar. f 
tree, botdn.j 
twelve, s"nish, 
twenty, niza! . 
two, nish ; two hundred, nlra.. 



LOWE It KANAUKI 



77 



ugly, Diaz, maz. 

under, chart, w. gen. 

understand, cause to, sum- 
med mu.'\ 

upon, den, w. gen.; up to, 
stein, zd. 

upwards, den. 

very, bddo,] KocI bdrl. 

village, gauny&n,] desh&nj 

walk, pdmu. 

wasted, be, spyukshimu. 

water, tl. 

way, 07)i. 

we (thou and I), kasha ; (he and 
I), nisi ; we, plur., kishu. 

well; see "health", "good". 

what,c/fOf/ ; whatever, chogydii, 
ch"gydii. 

wheat, zod. 



when, tc.rbe, ter&be ; whenever, 

terdbi'uu. 
where, ham. 
white, chdg. 
who, hdtt, hat. 
why, chu. 
wife, tsets'i. 

wind, Ian ; see " storm ". 
wish, gydmu; see "ought", 
with, beside, dod' ; along with, 

raii, both w. gen. 
woman, tsetsml. 
worthy, ldik.\ 
write, cemil. 
year, borshdn.f 
yesterday, moe; day before — , 

rl ; day before that, miaiie. 
you, dual, kisi ; plur., kl. 
your, dual, kisiu ; plur., kin. 



CHITKHULI 

Far up the valle} 7 of the Buspa River, which enters the 
Satlaj as a tributary on its left bank about 150 miles from 
Simla, are two villages called Chitklml and Raksham. 
The inhabitants of these two villages speak a dialect of 
Kanauri which is very different from other Kanauri 
dialects, including Standard Kanauri, — so different that it 
is not understood by people from any other part of 
Kanaur. In 1907 I met a few men from these villages 
and had an opportunit}' of collecting some notes on their 
dialect. As the dialect, which we may conveniently call 
" Chitkhuli ", is, so far as I know, new to philologists, 
no apology is needed for reproducing the notes here. 
Although they are very meagre in extent and give only 
a slight idea of the grammar, they will serve the purpose 
of giving some conception of the speech itself and call 
the attention of philologists to its existence, so that 
students of language travelling in that region may be 
encouraged to obtain and publish a satisfactory account 
of the dialect. It should here be pointed out that another 
dialect, that of Upper Kanaur, called Theb?rskad, still 
awaits investigation. It is a remarkable fa'ct that 
Chitkhuli is confined to these two villages and is not 
spoken outside them. Similarly, another Tibeto-Burman 
language, Kanashi, is spoken in the village of Malana in 
Kulu and nowhere else. 

The pronunciation is practically the same as in Standard 
Kanauri or Lower Kanauri. The final k' is more of a k 
than in Standard Kanauri, and so is alwaj-s here printed 
/.:'. For the same reason Standard Kanauri words which 
are given for purposes of comparison are also made to end 
in k' and not g', in spite of the fact that in what I have 
elsewhere written on Standard Kanauri I have printed g'. 



CH1TKHULI 79 

Tlie following paragraphs comprise brief notes on the 
grammar, forty-seven short sentences, and a small 
vocabulary. 

Chitkhull does not appear to have as many forms for 
declension and conjugation as other Kanauri dialects, but 
doubtless there are many more than I had time to note. 

Nouns make the accusative the same as the nominative. 
The only dative noted added -a to the nominative, rtf/hii, 
to a horse, aa, father, adds -e for the genitive; ml, man, 
does not change for the plural. Contrary to the custom 
of Standard Kanauri and Lower Kanauri there seems to 
be no special agent form, the nominative being used in 
both nouns and pronouns. 

Pronouns follow the usual Kanauri type, but are perhaps 
simpler, as the plural is insufficiently differentiated from 
the singular. Thus, gd, I ; lean, thou ; yd, he or this; su, 
sige, who ? have the same forms in the plural. It is note- 
worthy that sd, who, is found also in Purik, though not 
in Kanauri. I noticed some indications of duals in the 
personal pronouns, and exclusive and inclusive plurals in 
the 1st pers. pronoun, but further light is necessary. 

The verb has a number of indeclinable forms, the present 
of the verb substantive and certain forms in the future 
and past remaining unchanged for all persons and both 
numbers. The past of the verb substantive adds -telr to 
the present form to (shortened to to), and is declined -tele 1 , 
-ten, -te, the plural being probably the same. 

The imperative singular is the root as in so many other 
Indian languages. The future has a declined form in 
-nok' and an indeclinable in -<7 (added to the root) or even 
the simple root itself. I am not sure of the difference in 
meaning, if any, between the two undeclined forms. 
It may have something to do with the negative, for in 
Kanauri generally the forms in use with negatives are 
often contracted. The form in -ndk 1 conjugates thus : 
ndk', -non, -no, the plural being apparently the same. 



80 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

The past tense has an indeclinable form ending in -I, 
and another, which changes for the different persons, 
ending in -k' ; thus we have taiidik', saw (-en, -e), thasik', 
heard (-en, -e), rodek\ went (-en, -e). This last ending 
corresponds to the Standard Kanauri ending -dak 1 , as in 
poredak', was obtained. 

The common Standard Kanauri and Lower Kanauri 
endings for the future and past are — 

Fut. Standard Kanauri, Lower Kanauri, -adk. 

-tot. 

Past, Standard Kanauri, Lower Kanauri, -gyidk, 

-ak' or -shid. -kyidk. 

In the sentences will be noticed taiici, I saw, and thaci, 
I struck. This c may be as in Standard Kanauri, the 
object " you " — I saw you. I struck you. A c also occurs 
in the imperative roc, go, which may have the same 
meaning as in Standard Kanauri, i.e. it may indicate the 
second dual, " go ye two." The s in das, give, may also 
have a special meaning. 

Nouns 

rail, horse ait, father 

Gen. rail. Gen. ai'ie. 

Dat. rauii. Ace. ail. 

Ace. ran. ~ , ~ 

mi, man, plur. mi. 

Pronouns 
1st Person 

ga, I. plur. get, we; (excluding thee?) 7^. 

age, nl, nle, my. dual, niniii, thou and I. nishi, he and I. 

2nd Person 

kan, thou. plur. kan, you. ha, thy. 

3rd Person 

yd, he, this. plur. yd, they, these. yd, his, of this. 



CH1TKHULI 



81 



Verbs 

The verb substantive seems to be indeclinable in the 
present tense. The forms found are hen, td, to, each of 
which means "am, is, are, art", doing duty for all persons 
and both numbers. 



Past, tdtdk', I was. 

tdtSn, thou wast. 
tote, he was. 
Cf. Standard Kanauri tok 



tdtSk', we were. 
tdtS?i, you were. 
tdte, they were. 
I am ; ton, thou art ; to', he 



is, etc. ; tokek', I was ; token, thou wert ; toke', he was, etc. 

Lower Kanauri, present, frldk, ton, to, etc. ; past, totkyidk, 
totkyin, tbtk, etc. 

Otlier verbs. — The chief forms which I noticed will be 
seen in the following table : — 

Future Past 

pits-, p"s-nok', 
piisd, p"sd. 
tiihnok , tuna. tut. 

tannok' , tana. tandik', tani? 
zdndk , zd. zai. 

rd, rdd. rodek', rol. 

tunbk', tau, tod. tfithi. 
thasd. thasik', thai ? 

thd. thatek'. 

da. 

The forms given above for the future and the past seem 
to be indeclinable except those in which the 1st singular 
ends in k'. The conjugation of these is as follows : — 
1. tuhnuk\ I will drink. tufinok , we shall drink. 





I 


MPERATIVE 


sit. 




pfis, p"s. 


drink. 




tun. 


see. 




tan. 


eat. 




zail. 


go. 




rd, roc. 


come. 




dyd. 


hear. 




thas. 


strike, 


beat. 




give. 




das. 



2. tin'indn. 

3. tuhnd. 

1. tandik', I saw. 

2. tanden, thou sawest. 

3. taiidc, he saw. 



2 and 3 probably the same 

as the singular. 
tandik', we saw. 
2 and 3 probably the same 

as the singular. 



Similarly are conjugated words like thasik', heard ; 
thasik', tha8en' those j and thatek', struck ; thatet, tliaten, 
thate. 



82 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



SENTENCES 

1. Gd da man. I will not give. 

2. Gd rda man. I Avill not go. 

3. Gd tilna man. I will not drink. 

4. Gd zd man. I will not eat. 

5. Gd pusd man. I will not sit. 

6. Gd thaci man. I did not strike (you ?). 

7. Gd tanci man. I did not see (you ?). Has ci in 
6 and 7 the force of 2nd plur. obj. as in Standard 
Kanaurl ? 

8. Gd kiln zai. I ate bread. 

9. Gd kiln zai man. I did not eat bread. 

10. Ate kiln zai. (My) brother ate bread. 

11. Ate kiln zai man. (My) brother did not eat bread. 

12. Gd ma tahdik'. I did not see. 

13. Gd ma thasik'. I did not hear. 

14. Gd Khoshyd. I am a Kanet (by caste). 

15. Gd Khoshyd man. I am not a Kanet. 

16. Gd dtuV tutek'. I was there. 

17. Kan died' tuten. Thou wert there. 

18. Yd dila tote. He was there. 

19. Gd nishi ml dila 1 totek'. We-two men were there. 

20. Niniii died' totek'. We (thou and I) were there. 

21. Gd tl till. I drank water. 

22. Gd tl till man. I did not drink water. 

23. NyTicii kiln zdno. Afterwards bread he will eat. 

24. Kan go Itunnd. Thou where livest ? 

25. Kan tse go roi. You all where went ? 

26. Kan hame tod. Thou when wilt-come ? 

27. Gd obi tod (or tfcnok'). I to-morrow will come. 

28. Kan hame tuthl. Thou when earnest ? 

29. Gd nel tuthl. I yesterday came. 

30. Yd nel tuthl. He yesterday came. 

31. Nish ml nel tathl. Two men yesterday came. 



CH1TKHULI 83 

32. Yd nel rul. He went yesterday. 

33. Nifjh ml nel rul. Two men went yesterday. 

34. Yd ml mdskro td. This man bad is. 

35. Yd ml zdl td. This man good is. 

36. Ate rail. (My) elder brother will go. 

37. Ate rude. (My) elder brother went. 

38. Yd taa man. He does not (or will not) come. 

39. Kan sd taiulen. Thou whom sawest ? 

40. Yd sa tahde. He whom saw ? 

41. Yd yd ml slge lien. Many these men who are ? 
(who are all these men ?). 

42. Rd, ma na thd. Go, or I will strike (go, not if, I will 
strike). 

43. Yd nle baya thate. He my younger brother beat. 

44. Yd slge? This who ? 

45. Yd age ate. This is my brother. 

40. Yd aue kyim. This is my father's house. 

47. Obi gd Pane ran. To-morrow I to Paiigi will go. 



84 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABULARY 



English 


Chitkhuli 


Standard 
Kanaupu 


Lower 
Kanauri 


PuRIK 








Nouns 






father 




ail 


apa, bon, ban, 
bdba 


bao 


ata. 


mother 




amd 


amd 


do 


ama. 


brother (elder) 
brother (younger) 


ate 
bdyd 


ate 
bayd 


ate ) 
baits i 


phono 


boy 




del 


dekhrd, shard, 
latu, chan 
( = son) 


chan 


phril, bilts 


girl 




dyucan, 


dekhur, lati. 


tsetsml 


bomo. 






dyuacan 


tshetshdts 






man 




mi 


mi 


mi 


ml. 


woman 




dyucan, 
dyuacan 


tshesml 


tsetsml 


bomo. 


wife 




bore 


bdre 


tsetsl 




dog 




khul 


kill 


km 


khi. 


horse 




ran 


ran • 


ran{h) 


std. 


fire 




me 


me 


me 


me(h). 


water 




tl 


tl 


tl 


chil, shu. 


house 




kyim 


kim 


kim 


khyaiima. 


bread 




kiln, rotte 


roth 


khae 


taki, taikl 


rice 




bat 


bat 




bras. 


face 




mukhdii 


(s)to 
Pronouns 


stoic 


rdoii. 


I 




gd 


g n 


gu, g a 


nd. 


my 




dge,nl,nle 


an, aim 


ail 


nni. 


thou 




kan 


ka 


ka, 1 


kherdii. 


thy 




ka 


kan 


kan 


klierl. 


he, this 




yd 


ju 


zhu, zhu 


dyu. 


of him 




yd 


ju 


zhu, zhu 


di. 


we two (thou and I) 


nlnin 


kash"n 


kashil 




we two (he 


and I) 


nishi 


nishi 


nisi 




we (plural 


I 


gd 


kishfna' 


kishu 


iiatdii. 



CII1TKHULI 



85 



English 

we (excluding 
free ?) 

you 

they, these 

who? 



ChITKUCLI 



111 



Standard 
Kanacki 



kan kind' 

yd jugo 

sil, stgS hat 



Low BR 
Kanaiki 



Pdbik 



hi khintdh. 

zhugau, dyu&n. 
zhugau 

hat, hdtt su. 



many 

all 

good 



bad 



ya 

tsc 
zol 



mashro 



Adjectives 

Jcydl"khd 

tsel 

dam, debash, 

bin"s, b'-nets, 

jikpo 



bod i 
ts a l 

d(]i)amk(h), 
dewash 



mar, mashkdts, maz, maz 
kots'-n 



manmo. 

sdq, tshanma. 

rgyalba, 

rgyala, 

llyaqmo, 

noro. 
tsoqpo. 



old 




budda 


rilza 






apo,rgdskhdn 


young and strong 


moshtdn 


(young) nyilg 






tshiintse. 








(strong) zorsea 






dordecdn. 








Adverbs 








to-day 




than 


toro 


toro 




dirifi. 


to-morrow 




obi 


nasi) in 


nab 




dske. 


day after 


to- 


uJ red 


rbml 


roml 




nans. 


morrow 














yesterday 




in' I 


vie 


mot 




gondc. 


when ? 




hame 


ter'-ii 


tcrbe 




nam. 


where ? 




go 


ham 


ham 




gar, galtdk , 
g&ika. 


here 




zhdd 


j-'»'i, jftdl- 


zhod, 


zhod, 


dyua, dlr, 










zhUa ,zhua 


diltt'k\ d'ika 


there 




dud, din 


d"n 


dud, 


Haul 


er, rltclc\ eka 


afterwards 




nijucil 


n u ii ins, nyusko' 


nutm, 


nitons 


rgyaba. 


not (with i 


rn pera- 


tha 


tha 


tha 




■ma . 


tive) 














not (ordinary) 


man 




ma 




ma. 



86 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



STA N 1 > \ . : 1 1 

Kan.uki 



English Chitkhuli 

if not, otherwise mana man una (lit. not 

became, i.e. if 
not so) 



Lower 
Kanauri 



Porik 

cf. na = Hindi 
to, then (in- 
ferential). 







Verbs 






beat, strike 


tha 


ton, this 


h n h 


rdiih. 


come 


to, tan 


b"n, biln 


tan 


yon. 


drink 


t H h 


t u n 


t ii ii 


t h U ii . 


eat 


za 


za 


za 


za. 


give 


da 


ran 


ra n 


tan. 


go 


ran, ro 


bi, pa, yiin 


de, ban 


cha, che, did, 
drill. 


hear 


than 


th as 


thas 


tshdr, nyan. 


live, dwell 


linn 


bosen, sli'h 


ni, tosh 


diik. 


see 


tan 


tan 


tail 


lit a, thoii. 


sit, remain 


pus, p"s 


toshi 


dahci, tosh 


dak. 



id'. 

nish. 

homo. 

2)0. 

iia. 

6. title'. 

7. tissh. 

8. rai. 



Numerals 

11. sigid'. 

12. sonish. 

13. sdruin(d as English aw). 

14. sapo. 

15. so ha. 

1G. sortiJc' (o as English aiu). 

17. sostish. 

18. sorai. 



9. zgnl (Hi almost English 19. sdzgiil (uA like English 
'■' wee "). " wee "). 

10. sai. 20. niza. 

It will be seen that the above are the same as in 
Standard Kanaurl, except 3, which in Standard Kanaurl 
is shum. In Lower Kanaurl it is shiimm, and in 
Purik sitm. Chitkhuli should also be compared with 
Camba La-hull, see Lang. North. Him., pt. iii. p. 37. 



KAGANI 87 

KAGANI 

Introduction 

Kagani is the speech of the Kagan Valley, which lies 
to the north-east of Abbottabad in the Eazara District. 
The Kagan River flows into the Jihlam below Mtizaffarabad 
and above Kiihala. Kagani is a dialect of Lahnda, very 
like TInaulI and Dlmndi or Kairali (Lang. North Him., 
pt. iv, pp. 12 ff., 15 ff.), and indeed strongly resembling 
the whole chain of dialects which run along the south of 
the hills as far east as Jfimmu, and are generally called 
Cibhali. Kagani is spoken in the whole of the Kagan 
Valley and is known as Hhidko. It is spoken, moreover, 
practically unchanged in Mansehra and Abbottabad. The 
valley runs up past Jared, Kagan, Besal, and Glti Das to 
the boundary of Chilas. In addition to Kagani, which 
is understood hy all, Gujarl is spoken by all the Gfxjars, 
who in considerable numbers inhabit the hill-sides. Near 
Mansehra are colonies of Pathans who speak Pashto. 

To the north and west of the valley lies independent 
country, Yagistan, where Shina is spoken, there being no 
important difference between the dialect of Shina in this 
part of Yagistan and that in Chilas ; further down the 
Indus than Yagistan the language is Pashto. 

Pronunciation 
The most noticeable feature of the pronunciation is that 
there are four tones resembling in some measure the 
Chinese tones (see Preface, p. ix). These tones are indeed 
a feature of Lahnda generally and of Northern Punjabi, 
but not much attention has yet been given to them. 
Three of them occur only in accented syllables. In all 
cases they are represented by the letter //. This letter has 
hitherto always been used in all words containing these 
tones in Lahnda and Panjabi, and the practical difficulties 



88 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

involved in recasting the method of transliteration would 
have outweighed any advantages to be derived from 
greater accuracy. 

It must be noted that h is never fully pronounced 
except when joined to the surd letters p, k, t, t, c. In 
all other cases the pronunciation is as follows : When 
h precedes the accented vowel it has the deep tone ; when 
it follows it lias the high tone. When h is initial it is 
sonant h with the deep tone. 

The deep tone begins a little above the lowest note that 
the speaker can reach, rises four or five semi-tones, and 
sometimes falls again about a tone. The high tone begins 
slightly more than half an octave higher than the deep 
tone, and generally falls about a tone. Words may contain 
both tones. They can be pronounced in any stressed 
syllable, but as a matter of fact letters accompanied by the 
deep tone are nearly always unvoiced. A few examples 
will illustrate the matter. In the following words a 
perpendicular stroke above the vowel represents the high 
tone, and a similar stroke below the vowel the deep 
tone. The first word in each case is the word as it would 
usually be written, the second as it would need to be 
written to indicate the tones, ghar or kdr, house ; bhrd 
or prd, brother ; dhal or tdl, two and a half ; jhagrd or 
cdgrd, quarrel ; thhena or thend, be found ; bharjai or 
parjdi, sister-in-law ; blianiyd or pdnlyd, brother-in-law ; 
bfdid or bad. door; bdhrd or bard, twelve; ohnd or b'nti, 
them. Words with both tones are bhehn or pen, sister ; 
jhdnli or can, wind. 

The Kagani people are particularly fond of the high 
tone, and use it in many words which do not contain it in 
North Panjabl ; thus one often hears hurl for kilrl, girl ; 
kuthe for katlce, where ; and many more. In these words 
they are not consistent, sometimes inserting and sometimes 
omitting the tone. As the h is fully pronounced when 
immediately following a surd letter, it does not then affect 



KAGANI 89 

the tone, as in Jc&tthd, stream ; chiknd, pull. In tlihend,be 
found, the first h, coming immediately after the t, lias no 
effect on the tone, but the second has, the word being 
pronounced thend. 

The vowel formed by combining final -d with the e of 
the verb substantive is as nearly as possible French e, the 
phonetic symbol for which is epsilon. Cerebral I, so 
common in Northern Panjabi, is not found, c and j? often 
tend towards ts and dz; thus, ricch, bear, is almost rittsh. 

There is a rather difficult long vowel between o and 
English aw. It is found in such words as nd, nine ; 
cohdd, fourteen, and generally in words which have uu 
in Northern Panjabi. 

Owing perhaps to the devotion of the inhabitants to 
their religion, q is quite common, where in most districts 
we should find k; thus, qiitdb, north ; hdqq, right; qibld, 
west (for the qlbla at Makka). 

Nouns 
The nouns do not call for much comment. The preposi- 
tions " of ", " to ", and " from " are dd, Ico, and tin (or kolo) 
respectively. The agent preposition siin, which is not used 
with the fst and 2nd singular pronouns, is interesting. 
Its use is optional, as the simple oblique is sufficient. 
The commonest ending for the obi. sing, is -e or -u ; for 
the plural it is always -a. 

Pronouns 
a iiJ, oblique una, is added to a noun or used with ab 
(Urdu ap) to indicate respect; cf. Panjabi bJtrd JiorJ ae n>. 
my brother has come ; dp hord da hi htikyn e, what is your 
command. (Kfigani, bhrd iinl, db dud dd.) 

Numerals 
The numbers 11 to 19 insert an h, i.e. employ the high 
tone. In Panjabi this is done only when the numbers are 
used in the oblique. 



90 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Adverbs 
bhl, again, is noticeable, as it is (but without the 
nasal) a characteristic word of the criminal Sasis, who 
are sometimes known as the people who say bhi 
hit I re re. 

Verbs 

The present of the verb substantive generally combines 
its vowel with a previous a or e (ea and eo do not 
combine), tie becomes ai (French e). tie becomes e: in aa 
and ee one of the vowels is dropped. 

The infinitive ends in -nti, or (after r, r, I, and generally 
s) -nti. 

The stative participle is formed in -add- or -eadti,a form 
found as far away as Jammu and in the State of Baghat, 
near Simla. 

Passive. — It is to be noted that the participle used in 
the passive along with gacchnti, go, is unchangeable ; thus, 
ktlrhl mtire gel, the girl was killed. 

Perhaps nothing in the verb is more interesting than 
the two endings of the pres. part. : -tti after an unvoiced 
or surd letter, and -da after a sonant ; thus, chiktai, he is 
pulling; khendai, he is eating. 

Continuation, ability, and continuance are expressed in 
a manner similar to Panjabl, but habit is quite unlike 
either Panjabl or Urdu, the pres. part, of the verb being 
used with karnti, do, as dikhtti kctrnti, to be in the habit 
of looking. 

Compound verbs are very common as in Panjabl and 
Urdu, jidnti and gacchnti (go) are both used in compound 
verbs. In the case of " leave " as in Panjabl, cliaddnti, 
chohrnti is used when the meaning is really " leave ", and 
chiirnti as an intensive. 

Causal verbs. — Like Panjabl : karna, do, caus. kartiixti, 
cause to be done ; camti, graze, caus. cartinti,, cause to 
graze. 



KAGANI 91 

Bahramgala 

B3.hrftmg3.la is a village two marches south of the 
Pir Panjal Pass, and the dialect spoken there is a variety 
of Cibhali, the speech alluded to above, as spread from the 
Jammu border as far as Murree. The dialect of Bahramgala 
has more resemblance to that of the Murree Gel] Is than to 
Punch!, although geographically the latter is much nearer. 
We may feel sure that Cibhali (using this term to denote 
the speech of the hills from Jammu to Murree, but 
excluding that of the villages lying just under the 
range) is spoken with little variation over a wide area. 
The speech of Bahramgala is heard with practically no 
change from below Poshiana (south of the Pir Panjal 
Pass) to Thanna, Rajauri (Rampur), and thence nearly 
up to Punch. 

The endings of the future and imperfect are identical 
in Kagani, while there are several points of difference. 
Cerebral I is avoided as in Kagani, and, unlike Kagani 
the dialect dislikes cerebral n. 



92 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Kagani 

Nouns 
Singular Plural 

Nona. rlcch, bear. rlcch. 

Gen. ricch-e del. rlcch-d da. 

Dat. -e ko. -a ko. 

Abl. -e kolo or thi. -a kolo or till. 

Agent -e, -e sun. -a, -a siin. 

See also ptitt&r, son; gen. pittt&re da, etc.; plur. 
p attar, piittard da, etc. It will be sufficient to indicate 
nom., gen., and agent. 

Nom. jan-a, man. -e. 

Gen. -e da. -Sa da. 

Agent -e, -e sun. -Sa, -ea stln. 

The n in j and is less cerebral than in Panjabi, 

Nom. pdn-l, water. -I. 

Gen. -le da. -la da. 

Agent -le. -la. 

Nom. glicir, house. gliar. 

Loc. ghare, in the house, ghara bice. 

gharo, from the ghara thl or kolo. 
house. 

Agent ghare. ghara. 

The suffix -o, corresponding to Panjabi -6, is used only 
with the singular. The plural has to use a preposition, 
thl, kolo, etc. 

pe, father, and blird, brother, are irregular. 



Nom. pe, father. 




bhra 


',-, brother. 


Gen. pift da (accent 


OTQ.I). 




-it da. 


Dat. p'ul ko. 






■ft ko. 


Abl. plit kolo, thl. 






-u kolo, thl, 


Agent plil. 






-il. 


Feminine. 








Nom. trlmt, woman. 




trlmt 


■a. 


Gen. trlmtl da. 






-a da. 


Agent trlmtl, trlmtl 


sfin. 




-a, -a siin. 





KAGANI 




Singular 




Plural 


Nom. kilrh-i, girl. 




•la. 


Gen. -1 da. 




-la da. 


Agent -i, -I sun. 




-id, -la siln 



03 



ma, mother, bhehn or blcen, sister, dhl, daughter, inflect 
in -u. 

ma ; gen. mad da ; agent, mail, man, siln. 
bhehn; gen- bhehn Ft da; agent bhehn d, bhehn a sun. 
din; gen. dhlu da; agent dhiu, dhiu sitn. 
dlckh, eye, has plur. akkhicL. 

Pronouns 



< 


Singular 


Plural 


irst Person. 




Nom. 


vie, I. 


dsi. 


Gen. 


mar a, marhd. 


dsdd. 


Dat., Ace, 


, mil k6, mii ha. 


dsa ko. 


Abl. 


mare kolo, mdrhe 
kolo. 


ash kolo. 


Agent 


me. 


dsa, dsa sun 



Second Person. 



Nom. 


til. 




tils'. 


Gen. 


tiihrd, turd. 




tils da. 


Dat., Ace. 


til ko. 




tilsa ko. 


Abl. 


t fih re kolo, 
kolo. 


tiire 


tilsa kolo. 


Agent 


tlidli. 




tilsa, tilsa siln 



Thij'd Person. 

Nom. e, eh, this, he, 

she, it. 
Gen. Is dd. 

Dat., Ace. 'is ko. 
Abl. Is de kolo. 

Agent is, is siln. 



ehnd dd. 
ehnd ko. 
ehnd kolo. 
ehnd, ehnd sun. 



0-i 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Nom. 6, oh, that, he, 

she, it. 
Gen. lis da. 

Dat., Ace. lis ko. 
Abl. lis de kolo. 

Agent lis, iis siin. 

Nom. kon, who ? 
Gen. kds da. 

Agent kds, kds sun. 

Nom. kill, anyone, someone. 
Gen. kdse da. 
Agent kdse, kdse sun. 



o. 

ohna da. 

6h 11 a ko. 
ohna kolo. 
ohna, ohnct siin. 

jchra, je, who (rel.). 

jis da. 

jehre. 

db-iinl, you (respectful). 

db-iina da. 

db-iina. 



he, what ? kijjh, anything, something ; sab Icijjh, every- 
thing ; je hijjli, whatever. 

Una, so much ; hetna, how much ? jitnci, as much (rel.). 

ilm, oblique tina, is added to nouns to indicate respect. 
It is used in the same way as the Panjabi hori, hora, thus : 

bhrd unl, (my) brother ; sdJib una dl get, the Sahib's cow. 

unl is always used in the plural (of respect). 

The word siin is used with nouns and with pronouns of 
the 3rd person, also with the plural of the 1st and 2nd 
pers. pron. When asked the exact signification of sdn the 
people say it is respectful. That may perhaps have been 
originally its force, but now one hears phrases like kiitte 
sun Jcltai, a dog has done it, where there can be no idea of 
respect. 

bhrdii sdn Jchddhai, in}' brother has eaten it. 

Iciivhi siin akhea, the girl said it. 

tiisd siin meled, you milked (the cow). 

Adjectives 

Adjectives ending in -a in the masc. sing, agree with 
their nouns in number, gender, and case, thus : — 

marled pe, my father ; nidrhl bdhtl, my wife ; marked 
j) Uttdrd da, of my sons ; mdrhid dhul, my daughters. 



KAGANI 



95 



Other adjectives do not change unless when used as 
nouns, in which case they are declined as nouns. 

Comparison is expressed by means of tJti or kolo. 

e cdiiai, this is good ; e es till cdiiai, this is better than 
this; e saved kolo canal or sdredthl cdiiai, this is better 
than all, this is best. 

Numerals 

1. Mkk 

2. do. 

3. tre. 

4. car. 

5. p&nj. 

6. che. 

7. sdtt. 

8. atth. 

9. no. 

10. das. 

1 1 . dedlt. 
U. dhdi. 

sdwd is not used, pa for quarter is common. 
Rs. 3—1-0, trai ritpde Mkk pa. 
R. 1-4-0, pdnj pa. 

once, twice, etc., Mkk ivdrl, do wari, etc. j- both, done. 

Adverbs 

Time 

to-day, dj. 



11. yalird. 

12. bdhrd. 

13. Ultra. 

14. cohdd. 

15. pandhrd. 

16. sohld. 

17. sdtahrd. 

18. dthahra. 

19. dnnhl. 

20. 6F/i. 

3i. sadhe trai. 
4i. sadhe car, etc. 



now, fs uWe, fa&n. 

then, &s ;/•'/''. 

when ? Icadu. 

whenever, ji-kdde. 

when (rel.) )t ;£s u>e£e. 

in the morning, f&zra. 

at night, rail. 

last year, parv. <A( bars. 

the present year, j&lda l><hs. 

up to two hours, as long as 

two hours, dud ghtf/rid 

tdnu. 



to-morrow, sdbah (accent on 

second), 
day after to-morrow, dtru. 
on fourth day, cautlic,cothe. 
yesterday, IcdU. 
yet (as in " not yet "), djd. 
the coming year. enda bdrs. 
yet, up to now. aje tdnu. 



96 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



here, ehthe. 

there, ohtlte. 

where ? kuhthe. 

whither ? ku.r. 

up to there, dJttlie tanu. 

upwards, ittd. 

on this side, urdr. 

again, bhl. 

again, fir. 

outside, hire. 

near, nere. 



Place 

hence, ehtho. 

thence, dlttho. 

whence ? kuhtho. 

up to where ? kiihtJie tdnih. 

up to here, ehthe tdnU. 

downwards, tola. 

on the far side, yar. 

inside, anddr. 

far, ddr. 

always, lidmesha. 



quickly (adj.), baild. 
why ? kid. 
in this way, is tare. 
in that way, its tare. 



Others 



not, no, nlh, na. 

slowly, holed. 

in what way ? kits tare. 

in which way (rel.), jes tare. 



Many adjectives may be used as adverbs. When so 
used they follow the rules for adjectives. 



Prepositions 

Most prepositions govern the genitive. Those governing 
the genitive are marked (g) below. 



kol, near, beside (g). 
kolo, from, from beside, 

than (g). 
nal, along with, with 

(of instrument) (g). 
till, from, than. 
utte, upon (g). 
iirar, on this side of (g). 



tvase, for sake of (g). 

ko, to. 

da, of. 

bice, in, among (g). 

bicco, from among, from 

in (g). 
par, on that side of (g). 



KAQANI 97 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 

Pres. d. &. 

e. 6. 

e. en, lien. 

Past. dsd, fern. dsl. dse, fern. dsle. 

dse, fem. dsle. dseo, fern. dslo. 

dsd, fem. asi. ase, fem. dsld. 
Sometimes the first syllable has the high tone dhsd, 

dhsl, etc. 

dolna, pour out 

Imperat. dol,dole; polite sing. doll. 
Pres. subj. dold. dola. 

dole. dolo. 

dole. dolen. 

Fut. dolsd. dolsd. 

dolsl. dolsd. 

dolsl. dolsdn. 

Past cond. or pres. part, doldd ; fem. doldl; plur. dolde, 
fem. doldld. 

Pres. ind., formed by combining pres. part, and pres. 
verb subst. thus : — 

doldd, fem. doldl d. dolde a, fein. doldld. 

dolde, fem. doldl e. dolde o, fem. doldld. 

doldai, fem. doldl e. dolden, fem. doldlen. 

Imperf. composed of pres. part, and past verb subst. 
doldd dsd, etc. 

Past, doled, fem. doll ; plur. dole, fem. dolld. 
Pres. perf. doleai (doled e), etc. (past and pres. verb 
subst.). 

PI up. doled dsd (past and pres. verb subst.). 
Conj. part, dolke, having poured out. 
Stat. part, doleddd, in the state of having been poured 
out, poured out: fem. dolldl; plur. dolede, fem. dolblld. 
Past part, doled, poured. 



98 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Passive. — The passive is formed by joining the inflected 
sing. masc. of the past with the verb gacchna, go. The 
inflected sing. part, is unchangeable, e.g., o dole gea, it 
(masc.) was poured out ; 6 dole gel, it (f.) was poured out ; 
o dole geld, they (f.) were poured out ; so also dole gaisti, 
will be poured out ; etc. 

The pres. part, or past cond. ends in -da when the root 
of the verb ends in a voiced consonant or vowel (or vowel 
followed by h), and in -td when the root ends in an 
unvoiced consonant. Thus huttd, from hutnd, to get tired ; 
hdktd, from haknd, be able ; juldd, from jidnd, go, etc. 

I heard one exception to this rule: tdknd, call, takes 
tdkdd. Possibly this is accidental, due to ordinary Lahnda 
influence. 

gJnnna, take 

past, ghida, other tenses regular. 

khend, eat 
Imperat. kJtd, Jchdo, polite sing. Jchal. 
Fut. khaisti, khaisl, etc. 
Pres. part. Jchendd. 
Past, khddhd. 

end, come 
Fut. aisd. 
Past, dyd. 
Stat. part, dyddd, fern, dldl ; plur. aide, fem. dldla. 

gacchna, go 
Imperat. gacch. 
Fut. gaisa. 
Past, gea. 
Stat. part, geadd, fem. geldl ; plur. geide, fem. geidid. 

julnd, go 
Imperat. jM. 
Fut. julsa. 
Past, stat. part., etc., as for gacchna. 



KAGANI 99 

djiid, sit 
Lnpei'at. &j (&j gaccli, sit down : cf. Hindi bail/i jd). 
Fut. ajsd. 
Past, aithd. 

Stat. part, aitliddd, fern, nitlildi: plur. ailhede, fem. 
aithid Id. 



etna, lift 



Imperat. cu, cao. 
Fut. caisd. 
Pres. part, cenda. 
Past, cdeia. 



brim 



Fut. a?? set. 

Pres. part, dndd. 

Past, dndd (same form as pres. part.). 

hittnd, be tired 
Pres. part, hitttd. 
Stat. part, hiiteddd (accent on e). 

lend, put on (clothes, etc.) 
Imperat. Id. 
Fut. laisti. 
Pres. part, lendd. 
Past, Ztti/d. 
Stat. part. Idyddd. 

//tend (thhend), be found, be obtained 

Fut. tJuiisi. 

Pres. part, tliendd (e like e in French pere). 

Past, tJidyd. 

Stat. part, thdyddd. 

The deep tone is found sometimes in this verb imme- 
diately after the initial th. It is specially marked in the 
inf. thhend, pronounced (/tend. 



100 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

hona, be, become 

Fufc. hosd. 

Pres. part, hondd. 

Past, hoyd. 

Stat. part, hoyadd. 

Habit. — To express habit the pres. part, is used, agreeing 
in gender and number with its noun along with the 
required tense of Jcdrnd. 

khendid kdro (fern, plur.), make a habit of eating. 

khendl karsd, I (fern.) shall make a habit of eating. 

Continuation. — Keeping on doing a thing. The pres. 
part, agreeing as before is used witj* rehnd, remain. 

nhendd rehd, he continued washing himself. 

nhendid rehld, they (the women) continued washing 
themselves. 

Ability. — Ability is expressed by means of the verb 
hoblcna, be able, with the root of the required verb. 

me ndjill lidktd, I am unable to go. 

me jill nd hakti, I (fem.) am unable to go. 

Necessity, advisability, etc. — The inf. with the verb 
subst. hona, become. 

mil led jiilnai, I have to go, I ought to go. 

tu Jcojillnd host, you will have to go. 

Sometimes the expression means merely intention or 
even futurity : 

Jcddu jiilnai, when are you going, when do you intend 
to go ? 

The almost invariable combination of the vowel of the 
pres. verb subst. with a previous a or e is worthy of note. 
Thus we have : — 

o janai, he is a man, for o jdnd e. 

6 jtddai, he is going, for 6 Jidda e. 

kiir gedden, where have they gone (are in the state of 
having gone), for gedde en. 



KAGANI 



m 



ke dkheal, what did lie say, for dkhed e. 

kdhthe gedde, where did you go, for geddd e. 

me dkhtd, I am saying, for dkhtd a. 

The ai is almost exactly the French e, phonetically often 
written epsilon. 

I saw no sign of the existence of an organic passive 
such as the P&njabi pres. part. pass. gJtdllidd, being sent, 
or of any word corresponding to cdhiye, cdhidd. In place 
of this latter a word meaning good or bad is used. 

gdcchnd c&nai, it is right or proper to go. 

is tare kamd caiid nth, one ought not to do this. 

is tare kamd bttrai, it is bad to do thus. 

The Pkodigal Son 

jane de do pattdr dhse, ohnd bicco 
man of two sons were, them among-from 

ko dkhe " bdji 

to was-said " Father 

male da Jdssd mdku 



li llcke 
one 

nikre 
by-little 

jehra t dsdd 



pdttre dpne jpia 
son own father 



apna 
own 



what you-of property of part me-to 

tti8l band deo" : ohna 

you dividing give " : by-them (him) 

band dittd. thored dihdred 

dividing was-given. Few days 

pattdr sab fc$}jh 

son all something 

de millche ko gdcch 



endai 
coming-is 

mdl 
property 

picclie nikrd 



after 



ittle 



jama 
collected 



due 
another 



of country to going remained : there 

sard mdnded kdmmd bice kh&rab 
evil 



dare 
far 

dpnd mdl 

own property all 

/.'<'/• chared: ji-kdde 

making left (ruined) : whenever 

kharc kti/r re ha its 

spending making remained that 



kdrke 
having-made 

rehd : old he 



ks 


in 


bad 


sard 




nnil 


all 


property 


m 


illche 


bice 


country 


in 



tO'2 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

kaht (or h&fta) pai ged: oh liun bhUkkkd 

famine falling went: he now hungry 

hitndai. us w/Clkhe de hihhe jane ndl 
being-is. That country of one man with, 

gacchlce (JiilJce) rdl ged, us uslco 

having-gone, joining went, by-him him-to 

klidrhe a/pnl barl bice bhede (FtndJte) apne 

having-taken own rield in sheep (pigs) own 

cdrdnne ivdse cholired. jls ivele oh filer e bice 
grazing for was-left. What time he thought in 

dyd dJvhdn laggd " marhe pill de kitne 

came to-say began " my father of how-many 

mdzHr ridtl rajjke Jchenden, me ehthe 

labourers bread having-been-sated eating-are, I here 

bhtilckha mardd, vie apne pla hoi julsd, 
hungry dying-am, I own father beside will-go, 

ohnd ho dUisd ' Khitdd (rdsul) da haqq 
them to will-say ' God (prophet) of right 

niikhsdii kitd turd hi giind Icltd is 

injury was-done thy also sin was-done this 

jitgd nd rehd ttira pidtar a khan, mu 
worthy not remained thy son they-may-say, me 

Ico wXziire de misdl rdkh.' " utthhe 

to servant of likeness place.' " Having-arisen 

apne piu hoi tar ged: oh dja dur dsd 
own father beside going went : he still far was 

us de piiL-san dithd, daurhe ged, 

him of father-by was-seen, having-run went 

kaldive blcc naparhe miled, us ho alched 
embrace in having-seized met, him to was-said 



KA.GANI 



103 



'• Khilda (ra&vZ) da haqq nukhsan Jcita, is 

"God (prophet) of right injury was-done, this 

jugd na rehd lurd puttar dkftun." 

worthy not remained thy son they-may-say." 

naukard ko dkhea " caiid clrd lust dno 
servant to was-said " good garment you bring 

iske liid Id, aiili utte anguthi 

this-to causing-to-be-put-on take, linger on ring 

lad lo, paire ko clilttdr, pdlede 

causing-to-be-put-on take, foot to shoe, fattened 

bacche ko dnke zabd karo, us ko 

calf to having-brought kill make, it to 

khdwd te khushl kdra, eh 'puttdr mard 

we-may-eat and joy may-make, this son my 

tiinr ged dsd, fir jl ged, gum ged 

dying gone was, again living went, lost gone 

dsd, bh/t tha ged." 
was, again found went." 

dd bard 'piittar zimi bice 



us 
Him 



of 



bisr 



asa, 
was. 



j is 
what 



wele 
time 



son 

nere a 

near com in o- 



zimi, 
ground 

ged 
went 



in 

gend 

sincrinir 



bdjena aimed, naukdre ko takkc 

playing was-heard, servant to having-called 

/ 1 u cched ' ' ke hoedda i," its a Med t & ) y ' 

was-asked "what become-is," by-him was-said thy 

• n/Ckrd bhra a ged litre piU \is 
" little brother coming went thy father-by him 

lease pdleddd bdechd zabd kdra 

for fattened calf kill orettin<r-made 



104 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

leai, Is wdse us da puttdr us ko 

has-been-taken, this for him of son him to 

jlndd thd ged." oh khdfd hoed dnddr nth 

living being-found went." He angry became in not 

jiildd, us dd pe blre dyd, us ko mdlen 
goes, him of father out came, him to to-persuade 

Idggd : puttre dkhed " me line bars tdrl 

began : by-son was-said " by-me so-many years thy 

khlzmat kill, tudd kdde bakra bl nth 

service was-done, by-thee ever goat even not 

dlltd me yard hamzoled ndl khushi 

was-given I friends companions with joy 

Jcarti, jls wele eh turd puttdr dai 

may-make, what time this thy son come-is 

jls turd mat kanjrla iltte ttjdrea, 

by- whom thy property harlots upon, was-ruined, 

tu lis ivdse paledda bacchd zdbd kdrde! 
thou him for fattened calf kill makest." 

plu sun us ko dkhed " puttdr d tu 

father by him to was-said " Son thou 

itdmesha mdre kol rehnde {ltdnde) te je-ktjjh 

always my beside remainest (being-art) and whatever 

mdrai turai, khushi kdml te khush hond 

mine-is thine-is, joy to-make and joyful to-be 

cdnai, ke gall e eh turd bhrd mar 
good-is, what thing is this thy brother dying 

gea dsd, fir jl ged, gum ged dsd bhi 
gone was, again living went, lost gone was again 

thd ged." 

beinir-found went." 



KAGANI 105 

Notes. — hilclce, oblique of hikk ; Cliche for dkhed e ; dud, 
second, other ; cleared, left; in composition the usual form 
is churna, otherwise chohrnd, leave ; see a couple of lines 
down. Khtidd rdsfil, God and the Prophet ; the Kagan 
people are sucfi strong Muhammadans that it is difficult 
to get them to speak of God without the addition of 
Muhammad, pifc siin, for sun see after pronouns in 
grammar; lad lo, lud is causative of le, take, put on; 
chittdr, in Panjabi this means only a worn-out shoe ; 
pdlede, obi. of pdleadd ; bhl, again ; bhl is used by the 
criminal tribe of the Sdsis in this sense ; dai, for dyd e, is 
come ; cf. dl'he for dkhed e, above. 

Story 

qutbe dl j/tdiihn da te dike dd jhdgrd hoed 
north of wind of and sun of quarrel became 

" dsd bicco kehrd ddJtdai," us rah te 

" us among-from who strong-is," that way on 

jdnd hiick musdfir titrdd juldai, gdrm pcitta 
man one traveller walking going-is, warm cloak 

titte dhdkeddai, ohna dlched " jehrd pdttu 

over covered-is, by-them was-said " who cloak 

utto ulhdrsl oh ddhda host." 

over-from will -take-off he strong will-be." 

Notes. — iitte, upon himself ; dhdkeddai, stat. part with e ; 
titte, from over, i.e. off; ulhdrnd, take off, corresponds to 
atarnd ; " strong " here means " stronger ". 



106 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



able, be, h&kna. 

again,/?/', bin. 

alive, jinda ; become alive, jl 

gdcchnd. 
all, sdbbh. 
always, hdmeska. 
angry, khdfd. 
apple, cdtd. 
ask, pticchnd. 
ass, khotd. 
bad, manda, hhdrdb. 
be, become, hond. 
bear, rlcch. 
beat, mdrnd. 
because, ke gall e. 
begin, laggnd. 
beside, kol. 
beyond, par. 
big, bard. 
bird, shlldndd. 
bitch, kilttl. 
both, done. 
boy, nindhd. 
bring, dnnd. 
brother, bhrd ; -in-law (sister's 

husband), bhdnid ; (wife's 

brother), said. 
buffalo, vidnjh ; — osli,jli6td : 

(smaller one), kdtd. 
bull, ddnd. 
calf, bacchd. 
call, tdknd. 
cat, MZa. 

cedar, pdluddhar. 
chestnut, bdnnd khdr. 
cloak, pdttu. 



VOCABULARY 

clothes, cire. 

cock, kukftr. 

collect, jdmd kdmd. 

come, end. 

companion, ham -old. 

country, milkh_. 

cover, dhdkknd. 

cow, ga. 

daughter, dhl ; -in-law, nuh. 

day, dihdr. 

deer, etc., mdrkhor, kill, rdi. 

descend, laihnd. 

desire, manna. 

die, mdrnd. 

divide, bdndnd. 

do, kdmd. 

dock-plant, hold. 

dog, kiittd. 

door, buhd. 

down, iaZa. 

drink, pitta. 

dwell, bdsnd. 

east, cdrhdd. 

eat, khend. 

eight, ft^/t. 

eighteen, dthdhra. 

eleven, ydhra. 

embrace, v., kdldive bwc 

ndparnd. 
eye, dkkh. 
famine, haftd, kdht. 
far, dur. 

father, pe ; -in-law, sohrd. 
fatten, pdleddd. 
few, thore. 
field, fearZ, £wii. 



KAGANI 



107 



fifteen, p&ndhrd. 

fight, v., jhdgarnd ; n., jhdgrd. 

find, be found, thend, thhend. 

finger, dull. 

fir (Abies pindrau), kdchil. 

{Picea morinda), rewdr. 
five, pdnj. 
foot, pair. 

four, car; four annas, pd. 
fourteen, cohda. 
from, kolo, till, -o. 
garment, clrd. 
girl, kurhl. 
give, dend. 
go, gdcchnd, jiilnd. 
goat, bdkrd. 
good, m?}«. 
graze, v. tr., cdrdnd. 
ground, zhnl. 

hail, n., krlrl, kordr, bdlodddr. 
half : three and a half, etc., 

sad he trai, etc. ; see " one ", 

" two ". 
hand, h&tth; see "right", 

"left", 
happiness, khiishi. 
happy, khilsh . 
he, oh, eh. 
head, sir, 
hear, sunnd. 
hen, kukri . 
hence, ehtho. 
here, ehthe. 
hill, dliukd. 
horse, ghord (not r). 
hot, g&rm. 
hour, gJidrl. 
house, g/i<!Sr. 
hungry, Ju'iftd, bhUkkha. 



husband, Ijhdsm. 

I, we. 

in, &£cc. 

injure, niikhsan kdrnd. 

inside, dndiir. 

joy, khiishi. 

joyful, khilsh. 

kestrel, hdttlcha(ch almost tsh). 

labourer, mdzur. 

laugh, hdsnd. 

leave, chohrnd: (in composition 

as mere intensive), chtirnd. 
left (not right), klidbbd. 
lift, cend. 

little, nikrd; a little, thdrd. 
live (dwell), bdsnd ; be alive, 

/ma. 
living, jindd. 
look, dikhna ; look for, 

dhundhnd. 
man, ./«;?«. 

maple (three-eared), traikdnnd. 
mare, aAori (not r). 
medlar, bdtdiu ; see 'pear". 
meet, milnd. 
milk, v. tr., meliul. 
moon, cdiui. 
morning, in the, fdzrd. 
mother, md ; -in-law, sdss. 
mountain, dhdkd. 
much, so, Una ; how much ? 

kUnd ; as much (rel.), jitnd. 
mule, kdcrd. 
my, m&rhd, m&rd, 
near, were. 

need (be needful), p&kdr hand. 
nephew (brother's Bon), p&trhid 

{hhutrld) ; (sister's son), 

khilred. 



108 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



night, rat. 

nine, no. 

nineteen, unnhl. 

no, nd, nth. 

north, quttib. 

nose, ndkkh. 

not, nd, nth. 

nothing, kljjh nd, kljjh nth. 

now, hun ; up to now, aje tdnu. 

obtained, be, thhend, thcnd. 

of, da. 

old (man), biidhd. 

on, iltte. 

one, hlkk. 

one and a half, dcdh. 

other, dud. 

outside, hire. 

pear (tree), baton; see 

" medlar", 
persuade, mdlnd. 
pierce, ciibbhnd. 
pig, undha. 

pine (Pinus excelsa), Mar. 
place, v., rdkhnd. 
play, v. (music), bdjend. 
plum (Primus padus), bhdrth. 
pour out, dolnd. 
prayer, ndmdz ; time of early 

afternoon prayer, peshl ; of 

later afternoon prayer, digdr. 
property, mdl. 
prophet, rasul. 
pull, chlkna. 
put on (clothes), lend ; cause 

to be put on, Itidnd. 
quarrel, jhagrd. 
quarter, pa. 
remain, rehnd. 
right (not left), sdjjd. 



ring, dnguthl. 

rise, Utthnd ; see " stand ". 

river ; see " stream ". 

ruin, x. tr., ujdrnd, khdrdb 
kdmd. 

run, daurna. 

sacrifice, v. tr., zdbd kdmd. 

sake, for — of, wdse. 

satisfied, be, rdjjnd. 

say, dkhnd. 

second ; see " two ". 

seek, dhundhna. 

seize, ndparna. 

send, jolnd. 

servant, naukdr. 

service, khizmdt. 

seven, sdtt. 

seventeen, satahra. 

she, oh, eh. 

sheep, bhede. 

shoe, chittar. 

side, on this — of, iirdr; on far — 
of, par. 

similar to, de mistil. 

sin, n., gftna ; v., gtind kdmd. 

sing, gend. 

sister, bhehn ; -in-law (brother's 
wife), bhdhbl, bhdrjdl ; (hus- 
band's sister), ndnan. 

sit, ajnd. 

six, che. 

sixteen, sohld. 

something, kljjh. 

son, piittar. 

south, nlldb. 

speak, dkhnd, bolnd. 

spend, khdrc kdmd. 

spoil, ujdrnd, khdrdb, kdmd. 

spruce ; see "fir ". 



KAGANI 



109 



stand, khdlnd. 

star, tdrd. 

still, yet, aja, dje tana. 

stone, bdttd. 

stream (small), kattlid; (large), 

nddd. 
strong, ddhdd. 
sun, dlli. 
take, lend ; take with one, 

klidrnd ; take off (clothes), 

Hlha/rnd. 
ten, das. 
than, kolo, thl. 
then, iis xoele. 
there, ohthe. 
they, oh, eh. 
thirteen, telira. 
this, eh. 
thou, tu. 
three, tre. 
thy, terd. 
time, ivdkht. 
tired, get, hiitnd ; tired, adj., 

hilteddd. 
to, &o. 
to-day, ##. 
to-morrow, sdbdh ; day after — , 

dtru ; day after that, cothe. 
tongue, jlbh. 
tooth, ddnn. 
traveller, musdflr. 
turban, pallid. 



turn, flrnd. 

twelve, bdhra. 

twenty, bih. 

two, do ; two and a half, dhdl 

second, dud. 
up, utte ; up to, tdnu. 
upon, Utte. 
very, bard. 

walk, turnd; see "go", "come" 
walnut, kit dr. 
was, dsd, dhsd. 
wash oneself, nhend. 
water, pdm. 
we, dsl. 

west, lehndd, qlbld. 
what, &e. 

when ? &<h7h, (rel.) jis zvele. 
where? kiihthc ; see "whither" 

(rel.), jihthe. 
whither? Mr, ktihthe. 
who? kehrd, kiln, (rel.) jehra. 
wife, bohtl. 
willow, bis. 
wind, j lid it It. 
with, ndl (both "along with" 

and instrumental), 
woman, trlmt. 
worthy, jUga. 
yesterday, kdll. 
yet, aja, dje tduli. 
you, titsi. 
your, <rts da. 



110 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



BAHRAMGALA 

It will be seen from the following lines that the dialect 
resembles Bhundi; see Northern Himalayan Dialects., 
pt. iv, p. 15. 

Nouns 
pidtar, son ; oblique, piittra. 





Pronouns 




Nom. mat, I. 






as. 


Gen. mhdrd. 






asdhrd. 


Dat. migl. 






asa hi. 


Agent mat. 






asa. 


Nom. tu. 






tils. 


Gen. tilhdrd 






tusdhrd. 


Dat. tugl. 






tiisa hi. 


Agent tu. 






tUsd. 


Nom. oh. 






eh. 


Gen. its nd. 






iinha nd. 


Dat. lis hi. 






ilnha hi. 


Agent its. 






iinha. 


(not kiln), who 


? jfce, 


what ? 






Numerals 





Very much the same as North Panjabi. 
ikk, do, tinn, car, panj, die, salt, atth, nau, das, ydrti r 
bard, terti, caudd, pandra, sold, sdtard, athdrd, iinni, bill. 
Note sold, not sold ; bih, not wih. Note also : — 

24. caaivi. 60. sdtth, trai bihd. 

29. iindttri (with r). 70. sdttar. 

30. trih (with r). 80. dssi, car bihd. 
40. cdli (not ca^)> also do 90. nabbe. 

bihd. 100. sail, panj bihd. 

50. panjdh, dhdi bihd. 



hahramgala 111 

Adverbs 
upwards, itppitr. yes, Jul. 

downwards, bun. quickly, baile. 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 

Pies. ea. 8&. 

1. to. 

ea. tain. 

Past, ditsd or sea, ditsd, sed. 

dltsal, sal. dltsau, sed. 

ditsi, si. dltsiln, stln. 

mama, beat 

Pres. ind. mama ed : mama I : mama ea : mdmc a : 
mdme o : mame ain. 

mama lias fern. sing, maml ; plur. mdrntd. 

Imperf. mama sd : mama sal : mama si : mame sd : 
mame ^au : mame siin. 

Fut. marsd, marsaga. mdrsd, mdrsdge, 

mdrsl, mdrslga. marse, mdrsdge. 

mdrsl, mdrslga. mdrsun, mdrsunge. 

Fein. : The first form does change for the fern., the 
second has -gi in the sing, and -gld in plur. 

Past, mared, fern, marl; plur. mare, fem. marld. 

Pres. part, mama, fem. maml ; plur. mame, fem. 
mdmid. 

The practical identity here as in many Laihndi (Lahnda) 
dialects of the endings for the fut. and imperf. is striking. 
In the fut. the endings are added to the root, in the 
imperf. to the pres. part. The origin of the s is quite 
different in the two cases. 

The words which have occurred and the following 
nouns show how the dialect avoids cerebral n and I, where 
otherwise they would be expected. The n in Icti/nd is 
accidental, due to the following d. The Punchi dialect 



112 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



also has very few cases of cerebral n and / ; Phiindl, the 
Laihndi dialect of the Murree Hills, has far more. 



mother, dmmd. 
sister, bhain (not n). 
wife, zanani. 
woman, zanani. 
man, j and (not n). 
ear, kann. 
brother, bJird, bhdi. 
back, n., hand. 



God, Khiidd. 

Satan, Shaitdn. 

sun, dlli. 

cowherd, ddiigdr cdrdn- 

ivdla (not n and I). 
eye, dkkhl. 
gold, siinnd. 
silver, candl. 



THE KOCI DIALECTS OF RAMPUR STATE 

Introduction 

The State of Rampur is the most easterly of the Simla 
States. It stretches from a point 3 or 4 miles beyond 
Kot Guru to the border of Tibet. All the eastern part of 
the State speaks dialects of Kanaurl or Tibetan. The 
Kanauri area begins abruptly 2h miles beyond Sarahan, 
which is 90 miles from Simla. In the whole of the State 
up to that line, i.e. the western part of the State, which, 
though comprising only a small part of the territory, 
includes a large majority of the people, Aryan dialects 
are spoken. These Aryan dialects are all known by the 
generic name of Koci. They do not differ very much 
from one another, but we may perhaps distinguish five of 
them, the dialects of Rohru, Rampur, Baghi, Surkhiili 
Pargana, and Dodra Kiiar. 

The Rohru dialect is spoken round about the town of 
Rohru. Its northern boundary is the main ridge which 
runs from Simla east to Kanaur; the southern boundary is 
the boundary of the State itself, where it marches with 
.Ifibbal and Rawigarh ; on the east the Rohru area extends 
7 or 8 miles to where the Pabbar River receives a large 
tributary on its right bank ; on the west the boundary is 
an irregular line from Kot Khai to Khadrala, the Hue 
bending considerably to the east. Rarnpurl is found 
directly north of the Rohru dialect ; it lies north of the 
Simla ridge, and extends from a little to the east of Nirth 
on the Satlaj to mile 921 on the Hindostan-Tibet road. 
Through most of its area the Satlaj River bounds it on 
the north. Baghi is spoken in a small district extending 
for 5 or 6 miles in every direction round Baghi. The 
Siirkhuli dialect is spoken on the upper valleys of 
the Pabbar and of its chief tributary to the north. 

i 



114 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

On the west is the Rohru dialect, to the north Rampuri 
and Kanauri, and to the south Kuari. Kuari should 
really belong to the United Provinces. It is spoken 
in a valley lying to the south and east of the upper 
waters of the Pabbar and in villages in the United 
Provinces. The streams of this valley drain into the 
Tos River, which is ultimately joined by the Pabbar. 
Kuari is called after Dodra Kiiar, the name given to the 
district where it is spoken. Dodra and two other villages 
are known as Kuar or Dodra Kiiar. The villagers 
generally resent being considered inhabitants of Rampur 
State, and sometimes give trouble. They prefer to think 
of themselves as belonging to Garhwal (Gadwhal), and if 
we judge by the position of their valleys and the flow of 
their streams they are right. The whole Koci-speaking 
population may be put down as 45,000. 

Pronunciation 
The transliteration follows the system of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. It should be noticed that vowels with 
a long mark over them are the same as those with no 
mark, the difference being merely one of length, whereas 
vowels with a short mark are generally different vowels. 
Thus, the following pairs are in each case identical vowels : 
a, a ; e, e ; i, % \ o, 6; u, u ; the only difference being one 
of length, so that when a vowel is unaccented it might 
often be written either with or without a long mark. 
Indeed, phonetically it would generally be more correct 
to omit the mark, but it is unusual to omit it in works on 
Oriental languages. As regards the short vowels, a is as 
n in "but", e is practically the same as e, except for length, 
but it is probably a lower vowel in most cases ; 6 is nearly 
o in " hot " ; it is the vowel of "pull" as distinguished from 
that of "root". The lips are usually neither protruded nor 
drawn together in pronouncing it. (The above paragraph 
applies also to Jubbal, Siiket, and Bilaspur.) 



KOCI DIALECTS 1 15 

In the Koci dialects, as in Simla dialects as a whole, 
sonant letters are not aspirated; thus, the combinations 
gh } dh, dh,jh, bh are practically unknown, and when they 
occur they are probably to be put down to Hindi influence. 
Looking at the words as they appear on the printed page, 
one would say that the h is transferred to a position after 
the vowel. The fact, however, is that it is generally 
omitted altogether, and the only trace of its existence is 
found in the raising of the tone of the syllable in which 
one would expect the It. Thus, glidrd, bhdi, bhain, gh&r 
become goliro, bdhl, bauJin, gaultr, in which words the 
h is not sounded, the words being, however, pronounced 
with the high falling tone described under Kagani. This 
whole question of tone is very interesting. In Panjabi, 
north and west of Amritsar, the h is dropped with sonant 
letters, but there the sonant letter is transformed into 
a surd and the h replaced by a low tone (also described 
under Kagani), so that the w r ords just mentioned are 
pronounced Jcord, pal, pain, kar. This point is of some 
importance in connexion with the discussion of the 
original relations of the Romany language. The argument 
has been advanced that Romany must be connected with 
modern Shina, because, like Romany, it avoids aspirated 
sonants. It will here be seen that Northern Panjabi and 
all the Simla dialects, except those spoken in Bilaspfir, 
have the same peculiarity. 



ROHRU 

Nouns 

The plural of nouns in -o ends in -a, reminding us of the 
Gujari dialect, which has nom. plur. -a, obi. -d. Masc. 
nouns ending in a consonant are inflected in -d both sing, 
and plur., while fern, nouns have -I. The gen. prep, is ro, 
the dat. IchM, the abl. khu. 



116 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Pronouns 

3rd pers. pronouns have a special fern, form in the 
obi. sing. 

Verbs 

The pres. ind. and pres. cond. are the same. The fut. 
adds -lo to the pres. ind., which undergoes several changes 
in the final vowel. 

The stat. part, is sometimes a contracted form ending in 
-ondo, -ando, -ahndo, otherwise it ends in -ero. 

Habit is expressed as in Hindi. The conception of an 
action actually taking place is expressed by the inflected 
pres. part., which does not vary, and the verb lagno, thus 
pitde lago, is actually now beating. For ability the verb 
bolno, be able, is used. 

RAMPURI 
Nouns 
There is an organic genitive in -o which is, of course, an 
adjective. 

The dat. prep, is le and the abl. Jed. Masc. nouns ending 
in -o inflect in -e, others in -a. Fem. nouns inflect in -I. 
The singular is nearly the same as the plural. 

Pronouns 
Pronouns of the 3rd pers. have separate forms for the 
fem. obi. 

Verbs 
The future has no separate form, it is the same as the 
pres. ind. and pres. cond. The stat. part, ends in -ondau. 

BAGHI 

The Baghl dialect is almost the same as Rampuri. 

Nouns 
The organic gen. of Ram purl is not found, the prep, ro 
being substituted. The prep, for the dat. is ko and for 
the abl. anda. The inflection is generally as in Rampuri. 



koci dialects 117 

Pronouns 

3rd pers., see note for Rampiiri. 

Verbs 
There is a separate fut. (in -Cdo), but the pres. ind. and 
pres. cond. are the same. The stat. part, ends in -undo or 
-ero, the latter ending being for trans, verbs. 

SURKHULI 

The inhabitants of the Siirkhuli Pargana have to pass 
through Rohru on almost every journey ; their speech, 
therefore, does not differ much from that of Rohru. 

Nouns 
The gen., dat., and abl. have, as their prepositions, ro, le, 
and ku or ku respectively. Masc. nouns in -o inflect in -e, 
others in -a ; fern, nouns inflect in -I ; the sing, and plur. 
are generally alike. 

Pronouns 

As in the other KocI dialects the 3rd pers. pronoun has 
special forms for the obi. sing. fern. 

Verbs 

The pres. ind., pres. cond., and fut. have the same form. 
It is worth noting ; e.g. pita u, pita I, etc. ; the imperf. 
being pita thau, plur. pita the. 

There are two stat. part, forms, ondau and -eroa. 

To express actual action at the moment referred to the 
pres. part, of the verb is used with the stat. part, of lagno, 
as pltdo lagondau, is now beating. 

KUARI 
With Kuari we get under Garhwali influence. 

Nouns 

Nouns inflect in a number of different ways. Most of 
them have nasal vowels in the obi. plur. The prepositions 
for gen., dat.. and abl. are ro, ]& or Ice or Jc& 18, and ku. 



118 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Pronouns 
There is the usual fern. sing. obi. form for the 3rd pers. 
pronoun. keel, how much or many, reminds us of Shina 
kdcdk or kded with the same meaning. 

Verbs 

The accent in the future and past is unusual. In the 
future it is throughout on the last syllable, and in the past 
on the second (which is, except in the plural, the last), the 
past being thus distinguished from the past cond. or pres. 
part., which has the accent on the first. 

Fut. nondido. Past, nondavf. Past cond. non'dau. 
The stat. part, ends in -ero. 

Very noteworthy is the dropping in some tenses of the 
I of bono, speak, and r of konno, do. The I is dropped in 
the inf. bono, and past cond. bodo, and appears in pres. ind. 
bolu and past bolau. The r of konno, do, appears in the 
tenses in which the I of bono does so ; pres. ind. koru ; 
past, korau ; and on the other hand, inf. konno ; past 
cond. koddo. The verb bono, be able, is treated in the 
same way as bono, speak. 

Something similar occurs in the Curahi dialect, spoken in 
Camba State, where bolnu, speak, has past cond. bottd and 
past ind. bolu; and kdhnu, do, has fut. kdhmd; pres. ind. 
kdhtd a, past, ked ; in this case the r not coming in at all. 
In Curahi the word for beat, mdnu, omits the usual r in 
the past cond. nidtd, and in fut. 1st pers. sing, and plur. 
mdhmd, mdhme. See Lang. North. Him., pt. iii, p. 32. 



ROHRU 


DIALECT 




Nouns 




r asculine. 






Singular 




Plural 


Nom. gohr-o, horse 




-a. 


Gen. -e ro. 




-a ro. 


Dat., Ace. -e khe. 




-a khe, 



KOCI DIALECTS 111) 



Singular 


Plural 


Abl. 


-e khu. 


-a khu. 


Agent 


-<ba. 


-Sd. 


Voc. 


•id. 


-So. 


Noni. 


gauh-r, house. 


■r. 


Gen. 


-rd ro. 


-rd ro. 


Agent 


- rd . 


■rd. 


ilind-u, Hin 


du, has gen. -a ro ; agent, -ud, etc. 


Feminine. 






Noni. 


tsh&or-i, girl, daughter. 


-i. 


Gen. 


-1 ro, etc. 


-i ro, etc. 


Agent 


-le. 


-ie. 


Voc. 


-Id. 


-id. 


Nom. 


bauh-n, sister. 


-n. 


Gen. 


-ni ro, etc. 


-ni ro, etc. 


Agent 


-nie. 

Pronouns 


-nie. 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


du, I. 


dmma. 


Gen. 


vicro. 


■mdhro. 


Dat., Ace 


. mil khe. 


dmu khe. 


Abl. 


mu khu. 


dmu khu. 


Agent 


mui. 


dmma. 


Nom. 


tu, thou. 


tumma. 


Gen. 


te.ro. 


tdhro. 


Dat., Ace 


. to khe. 


tamu khe. 


Abl. 


to khu. 


tdrnxi khu. 


Agent 


tat. 


tumma. 


Nom. 


eo, fern, e, this. 


e, fem. the same. 


Gen. 


ehro, fem. laro. 


m ro „ „ 


Dat., Ace 


. es khe, fem. id khe. 


"u khe „ „ 


Abl. 


es khu, fem. id khu. 


lu khu ,, ,, 


Agent 


ini, fem. "u. 


tua ,, „ 


lam, who (inter.), declines hank- 


ro kh& /«•/(?/ : agent, 


ie >i n I. 






dzo, who (rel.), dzau-ro khe khu 


; agent, dzuni] dzp 


kun, whoever. 







120 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

kol, anyone, someone ; Jcauh-ro, etc., like hum. 

led, what (inter.), kearo, etc. 

kicch, something, anything; dzo Icicch, whatever, etc., 
do not decline. 

Adjective pronouns are : ino, of this kind ; tino, of that 
kind ; kino, of what kind ? dzino, of which kind (rel.). 

ettl, so much or many ; tettl, so much or many (cor- 
relatives) ; kettl, how much or many ? dzetll, as much 
or many. 

Adjectives 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns ; other- 
wise, those ending in a consonant are not declined. Those 
ending in -u or -o take -a for the obi. sing, and all the 
masc. plur., -I for the fern, sing., and % for the fem. plur. 
All genitives are used as adjectives and follow the rule 
just given except that in the obi. masc. sing, and plur. 
masc. they take -e instead of -a. 

Comparison. — There are no special forms for the 
comparative and superlative. Comparison is made by 
the preposition khu, from, with the positive. 

soknlro, good ; eu khu soknlro, good from this, better 
than this ; sobbhl khu soknlro, good from all, better than 
all, best. 

Numerals 

1. ek. 13. (era. 

2. dui. 14. tsouda. 

3. cln. 15. pdndra. 

4. tsar. 16. sola. 

5. pdnz. 17. sottra. 

6. tshau. 18. thdra. 

7. sat. 19. nish. 

8. dth. 20. bish. 

9. nau. 40. dm blah. 

10. das. 60. cln blah. 

11. gidra. 80. tsar blah. 

12. bdra. 100. sau. 



koci dialects 121 

Ordinals 

1st. paihlo. 6th. tsouo. 

2nd. dujjo. 7 th. satuo. 

3rd. Cijjo. 8th. dthuo. 

4th. tsoutho. 9th. nauuo. 

5th. panzuo. 10th. dasuo. 

The A, in 6th is much weaker than that in 6: tsuuo tsliau. 
detlrh is one and a half, rfdi/i two and a half. 

Adverbs 
Time 
ebhi, now. /ass, yesterday. 

/<?6/a, then (correl.). phrez, the day before 

kebhi, when ? yesterday. 

dze'bhi, when (rel.). natrez, on the fourth day 

ds, to-day. back. 

kdlld, to-morrow. kebhi, sometimes. 

porshi, the day after kebhi na, never. 

to-morrow. kebhi kebhi, some time or 

tsauthe, on the fourth day. other, sometimes. 

Place 

iyyd, here. hubi, upwards. 

tiyyd, there. tol, downwards. 

kiyya, where ? neri, near. 

dziyyd, where (rel.). ditr, far. 

iyya dzau, up to here. aggu, forward. 

ire, from here. patslte, back. 

bh Jttdr, inside. bdhdr, outside. 

titers 
bohri, very much. hta hhM, why ? 

phetti, quickly. 6, yes. 

sukniro karl, well. bd/ro, much, greatly. 

The adjective pronouns ino, of this kind, etc., and etti, 
so much, etc., are often used as adverbs. 



122 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



de, in. 

Icha, in. 

gahi, upon. 

thdli, thdlll, under. 

dgga, dga, dgu, Jehu dgu, in 
front of ; viu dgu, or mu 
Jehu dgu, in front of me. 

are, with, along with. 

khu, from, with (instru.). 

ro, of. 



Prepositions 

tdia, for sake of (ehri taia, 

for his sake). 
bdtti, about, concerning {tan 

bdtti, about you). 
'par, on far side of. 
dr, on this side of. 
es blyyd, in his direction. 
phera, round {gauhrdplterd, 

round the house). 
kite, to. 



Verbs 
Verb Substantive 

Pres. tense e, eh, eh, or ai, unchanged throughout. 

Past tense — 

Sing. masc. tho. Fern. the. Plur. niasc. the. Fern. thi. 

tho. the. the. thi. 

tho. tlte. the. thi. 



Pres. ind. 



Fut. 





pit no, 


beat 




pitu. 






plti. 


pita. 






pita. 


pita. 






pita. 


pitnlo. 






pitile. 


pitalo. 






pitela. 



Imperat. pit ; plur. pito. 

Imperf. the pres. ind. with the past verb subst. » 

pitn tho, fern. the. piti the, fem. thi. 

pita tho, the. pita the, thi. 

pita tlto, tJie. pita the, thi. 

Past, pito, fem. pite; plur. pite, fem. piti (agreeing 
with object). 

PI up. pito tlto, pite the. pite the, piti thi. 



KOCI DIALECTS 123 

Pres. cond. same as pres. ind. 
Past. cond. and pres. part. — 

pitdo, fern, pltde. plur. pltde , feni. pltdl. 

pitdo, pitde. pltde, pltdl. 

I'itdo, pltde. pltde, pltdl. 

Part. pres. act. pitdo (-e, -e, -I) ; pltdl iveri, while or on 
beating; pass, pltondo; fem. pitendi ; plur. pltdndd; 
fern, p Itend I (contracted from pltoondo, Hindi mora hud). 
Conj. part, plted, having beaten. 
Agent, pltna tilo. 

Habitual, dii plted Jedru, I am in the habit of beating. 
Immediate pres. dH pltde Idgo, I am now beating. 

ohno, be, become 
Imperat. auh ; plur. auh. 

Pres. ind. and pres. cond. oh-u, -d, -d, -I, -d, -d. 
Fut. auhido, auhdlo, auhdlo, auhlle, auhdld, aulidld. 
Fast ,-uJtd. 
Past cond. ohndo. 

dhno, come 
Imperat. ah, alio. 

Pres. ind. and cond. dhti, dhd, dhd, dhl, aha, dhd. 
Fut. dhulo, ahalo, dhdlo, dhlle, dhdla, dhdld. 
Past, dhd. 
Past cond. aJtdndo. 

deuno, go 
Imperat. deo ; plur. deo. 
Pres. ind. deft, etc. (reg.). 
Fut. deulo, dedlo, dedlo, deile, dedld, dedld. 
Past, deo, fern, dei ; plur. ded, fem. del. 
Past cond. deundo. 

rauhno, remain 
Imperat. rank; plur. raith. 
Pres. ind. rauhii, etc. 
Fut. rauhulo, etc. 
Past cond. rauhndo. 



124 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



biishno, sit 
Iinperat. bush, busho. 
Pres. ind. bushu, etc. 
Flit, biishfdo. 
Past cond. bushdo. 

khdno, eat 
Pres. ind. khdu, etc. 
Past, khdo. 

pino, drink 
Pres. ind. piu, etc. 
Past, plo. 

deno, give 
Pres. ind. deu. 
Past, dero (stat. part.). 

lano, take 
Pres. ind. lail. 
Fut. laulo. 
Past, £do. 

bolno, speak, say 
Pres. ind. bolu. 
Past, bold. 

homo, do 
Pres. koru. 
Past, Mo. 



Past, Jrt/io. 
Past, and. 



jdnno, know 

anno, bring 

nlno, take away 



Past, nlo. 

Ability is expressed by means of bolno, be able. The 
other verb adds I to the root ; as ad likhi neih boldo, 
I am not able to write. 

In negative sentences the past cond. is used for the 
pres. ind. 



KOCI DIALECTS 125 



SENTENCES 

1. Tero naU kds ? Thy name what is ? 

2. Es gohre ri ketti oinbdr ai ? This horse of how- 
much age is ? 

3. Ire Kashmir ketti dur ai? From-here Kashmir 
how-much far is ? 

4. Tere bdbbd re gauhra kha ketti tshoru ? Thy father 
of house in how-many sons ? 

5. Az ail bari dura Jehu handi alio. To-day I very 
far from walking came. 

6. Mere JcdJeled ro tshoru ehri baulini are bidhando. 
My uncle of son his sister with married is. 

7. Gauhra kha shukle gohre ri zln ai. House in white 
horse of saddle is. 

8. Ehri pitthi gahi zin kd§h. His back upon saddle 
tighten.. 

9. M til ehro tshoru bohri pito. By-me his son much 
beaten. 

10. Eu pd/rbatta gahi gdui bakri tsar a. That hill 
upon cows got grazing is. 

11. En blklid thalli gohra gahi butthahndo. He tree 
under horse upon seated. 

12. Ehro bdhi apni bauhni khu bdro. His brother own 
sister than big. 

13. Ehro mol ddih rupoyye. Its price two and a half 
rupees. 

14. Mero bab tshota gauhra de rauha. My father little 
house in remains (lives). 

15. Es khe rupoyye de. Him-to rupees give. 

1*5. En rupdyya es khu oru Id. That rupee him from 
hither take. 

17. Eoatsho i>lh'tt rdshikhub&nnho. Him well having- 
beaten rOpes with tie. 

18. Kua khu pdni gdro. Well from water bring-out. 

19. Mo khu dga hando. Me from before walk. 

20. Kauhro tshoru tad patshe dhande lagahndo. 



126 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Whose son thee behind coining attached, i.e. is at this 
moment coming. 

21. En idl Jean Jehu mole lew ? That by-thee whom- 
from in-price was-taken ? 

22. Grd re 8JcJci atti-ala Jehu Ido. Village of one shop- 
owner from was-taken. 

Notes. — 1. Kds, what is ; cf. Jed sd in the Surkhiili 
dialect. 6. BidJiando, stat. part, from bidfino, having been 
married. 10. ButthaJnido, stat. part., seated. 20. Aliande 
lagahndo, two stat. part, corresponding to Hindi dyd Jiud 
lagd Juid ; Panjabi has aundd e lagd. 

Ability is rendered by bolno with the inf., which adds 
-l to the root; du lilelclii nelJi boldo, I cannot write. 



KOCI DIALECTS 



127 



VOCABULARY 



able, 1)0, lioluo. 

about, bdtti. 

above ; see " up ", " upon ". 

age, ombdr. 

all, badhc, sobblu. 

anyone, kdi ; anything, kicch. 

arrive, puzhno. 

ass, gddho. 

back, n., pitli. 

backwards, patsho. 

bad, rlo. 

be, become, ohno. 

bear, n., rJkh. 

beat, pJtno ; see " fight ". 

beautiful, bdnthno. 

bed, nidnzo. 

behind, pat she. 

beneath, thdli, thdlli. 

big, bdro. 

bird, tsorku. 

bitch, kukkrc. 

body, j J u. 

book, kdtdb. 

boy, tshoru ; see " son ". 

bread, rdtti. 

bring, anno. 

brother, bdhi. 

buffalo, mdlsh. 

bull, boldd. 

buttermilk, chash. 

buy, mole Idno. 

call, bodno. 

camel, ut. 

cat, brdlo, fern, brdle. 

cock, kukhro. 



cold, shclo. 

come, a/iwo. 

concerning, M/£i. 

conquer, dzltno. 

cow, jyao. 

cowherd, giidlo. 

daughter, null ; see " girl ". 

day, dus ; see " to-day ", " to- 
morrow ". 

defeated, be, harno. 

die, momo. 

direction, biyyd ; in this d., 
es biyyd. 

do, k&rno. 

dog, kukkiir; see "bitch". 

downwards, tol. 

draw (water), gdrno. 

drink, pino ; cause to drink, 
piano. 

ear, kontJul. 

eat, khdno ; cause to eat, 

egg, frinnt. 

eight, dth ; eighth, athiio. 

eighteen, thdra. 

eighty, £sa/- 6ta/i. 

eject, gdrno. 

elephant, hdthi. 

eleven, gidra. 

eye, dkh. 

face, wiw. 

fall, lotno. 

far, c/»r. 

father, bdb. 

field, d-ilkhro. 



128 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



fifteen, pondra. 

fight, pltno ; see 'beat". 

fish, mdchi. 

five, pdnz ; fifth, pdnzuo. 

flow, bauhno. 

foot, bdnnd. 

forty, did blah. 

forward, dgu, aggu, aga, agga. 

four, tsar ; fourth, tsoutho. 

fourteen, tsduda. 

from, khu. 

front, in — -of; see "forward ". 

fruit, j)hol. 

ghi, giuh. 

girl, max ; see " daughter ". 

give, deno. 

go, deuno. 

goat, he-, bdkro ; she-, bdkri. 

good, sokniro, dtslw. 

graze, intrans., tsorno ; trans., 

hair, mandrdl, bd\. 

hand, aM/i. 

he, co. 

head, miind. 

hear, shunno. 

hen, kilkhre. 

hence, Ire. 

here, iyj/a : up to here, lyyd 

dzau. 
high, wsto. 
hill, pdrbdt. 
Hindu, Ihndu. 
horse, gohro. 
hot, nidto. 
house, gauhr. 
hundred, sau. 
husband, rdndo. 
I, du. 



ignorant, bdhlCt. 
in, de, kha. 
inside, bhittar. 
iron, loah. 
jackal, shailto. 
jungle, baun. 

kind, of this — , ino ; of that 
— . tino ; of what — , kino 
' (inter.) ; of which — , dzino 
(rel.). 
kite, gorar. 
know, janno. 
lazy, golondo. 
learn, shlkhno. 
leopard, bardhg. 
lie, siittno; see "sleep", 
little, tshoto ; adv. thoro ; 

a — , thoro. 
load, bag dr. 
look, dekhno. 
maize, belri. 
make, cdnno. 
man, mdniich. 
many ; see " much ". 
mare, gohrl. 
marry, bidhno. 
meat, mds. 
meet, v., mUno. 
milk, dildh. 
moon, dzun. 
mother, dl. 
mountain, pdrbdt. 
much, adv., boro, bohri ; so — 
or many, ettl ; do. (correl.), 
tettl ; how — or many, 
ketti ; as — or many, dzettl. 
my, mcro. 
name, nau. 
near, neri. 



KOCI DIALECTS 



I 'J!) 



never, kebhi na. 

night, rdci. 

nine, nail ; ninth, ndilo. 

nineteen, nlsh. 

no, nSih. 

no one, koi na. 

nose, nak. 

not, nclh. 

nothing, kicch na. 

now, Phlu. 

of, ro, fern, n ; plur. masc. re, 

fern. ri. 
oil, £5/. 
on, gahi. 
one, £&. 
our, mahro. 
out, bah dr. 
pen, kollam. 
pig, sung&r. 

place, v. trans., tshdrno. 
plain, s<3Z/o. 
plough, n., auhl; v., a«M 

jocno. 
quickly, phetti. 
rain, pam. 
read, pdrhno. 
relate, shunauno. 
recognize, pdrdunn. 
remain, rauhno. 
return, oru ahno. 
rise, fizino; rise up, khdro 

uzino. 
river, ?*cw ; see " stream ". 
rope, rdsji'i. 
round, prep., phcrd. 
run, phcth deno. 
saddle, z'ni. 
sake, for — of, tdid. 
Bay, bolno. 



second, dujjo. 

see, dilkhno. 

seed, &$/. 

seven, sai ; seventh, sdfaito. 

seventeen, sdttra. 

sharp, pdinno. 

she, e. 

sheep, behri. 

shepherd, brdlo. 

shop, atti ; shopkeeper, dttialo. 

sick, thaurdnd. 

side, on this — of, ar ; on that 
- of, par. 

sister, older than person re- 
ferred to, ddddi ; younger 
than do., baiJin. 

six, t shall ; sixth, tsdilo. 

sixteen, sola. 

sixty, cln blah. 

sit, bUshno. 

sleep, silttno ; see " lie ". 

someone, feo« ; something, kicch ; 
see "anyone", "anything". 

son, tshoru ; see " hoy ". 

sow, v., bauno. 

speak, bolno. 

star, tdro. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, khuaera. 

stream, gdhd ; see' river". 

strong, tokro. 

sun, sur&j ; sunshine, nir. 

sweet, guluo. 

take, /ano ; take away, nlno. 

ten, (/((.s. 

than, fc/iw. 

then, tebhi. 

there, ttyija. 

they, e : their, ;«/". 



130 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



thief, tsor. 

thirteen, [era. 

this, eo ; foin. c. 

thou, tu. 

throe, tin ; third, cljjo. 

thy, tero. 

tie, kdshno, bdnnlino. 

tighten, kdshno. 

to, khc. 

to-day, dz. 

to-morrow, kalla ; clay after 

— , porshi ; on fourth day, 

tsauthe. 
tongue, dzib. 
tooth, (land. 
town, bazar. 
tree, blkh. 
twelve, bar a. 
twenty, bish. 

two, dul; two and a half, ddih. 
ugly, nikammo. 
uncle, kdkko. 
under, tlidli, thalli. 
up, upwards, hubi. 
upon, gahi. 
very, bohri. 
village, grab, grd. 
walk, hdndno. ' 



was, tJio. 

water, pdni. 

way, bat. 

we, annua. 

well, adv., sokmro kdri, atsho 
kdri. 

well, n., A'«. 

what, /^7, ; whatever, dzo kicch. 

when, kebhi (inter.) ; dzebhi 
(rel.). _ 

wheat, gluJi. 

where, klyyd. 

white, shilklo. 

who, kun ; whoever, dzo kun. 

why, &7a M£. 

wife, tsh86ri; see "woman". 

win, dzJtno. 

wind, bdgdr. 

wise, oklidlo. 

with, along — , are, — (instru- 
mental), ft/m. 

woman, tshSori ; see " wife ". 

write, likkhno. 

yes, o. 

yesterday, hlzz ; day hefore — , 
phrez ; day before that, 
natrez. 

you, tumma ; your, tdhro. 



RAMPUR AND BAGHI DIALECTS 

Nouns 

Masculine. 

gohro, horse 







SlNGi LAB 




Plural 






Ramp 


I'K 


r.Acin 


Rampur 


J Ja<. h i 


Norn. 


goh 


■TO. 


-TO. 


'!''■ 


■re. 


Gen. 




■reo. 


■re ro. 


-reo. 


-re ro. 


Dat., 


Ace. 


■re IS. 


-re kd. 


■re le. 


-re kd. 


Al.l. 




re kd. 


■re dnda. 


-re kd. 


re an/In 


Agent 




-re. 


■red. 


-re. 


-re. 


Voc. 




■red. 


ret]. 


-reo. 


-reo. 



gauhr, house 
Num. gauh-r. -r. 

Gen. -ro. -rd ro. 

A lil. -rd kd. -r dnda. 

Agent -re. -re. 

In the house is (Ram.) gauhre, gauhr Ice or dla\ 
(Bag.) gauhra do or gauhra de. 

The gen. is an adj. and inflects as follows: (Ram.) masc. 
sin<;-. -o ; fein. -i ; plur. masc. -c; fein. -i. (Bag.) ro, ri, 
re, ri. These endings do not change for the case of the 
noun possessed except in the masc. sing. If a masc sing, 
noun possessed is in an oblique case, -o and ro change to 
-e and re respectively. 

lull), father, has in (Rani.), gen. babbo ; abl. babba kd, 
etc. ; and in ( Bag.) babba ro, lnil>l> dnda ; voc. babba. 

An example of a masc. noun in -i may he given. 

hull i. elephant I Bag. ) has gen. hull i ro : agent, hattie. etc 

Feminine, 
tshoti, girl, daughter 



SlNGi LAB 






Plural 


Rampur 


Baqhi 


I: am ii s 


Baghi 


Nom. tshot-l. 


-I, 


-7. 


-I. 


Gen. -lo. 


■t ro. 


lo. 


-i r<>. 


1 )at.j Act. i /( . 


/ kd. 


■ i U. 


, kd. 


A lil. / kd. 


-i dnda. 


i kd. 


-l dnda. 


A -rill 


■le. 


. 


. 


Voc. -le. 




lo. 


■IK. 



\'A2 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 





baihn, sister 


Singular 




Rampur 


Bag m 


Norn, baih-n. 


-n. 


Gen. -nlo. 


-nl ro. 


Dat., Ace. -nl le. 


-nl kd. 


Abl. -nl kd. 


-nl and (i. 


Agent -nie. 


-nie. 




Pronouns 


1st Person. 




Nom. mu, I. 


a. i 



Plural 

Rampur Ba<;hi 

ni, etc., as -nl, etc., as 

sing. sing. 



Gen. mero. mero. 

Dat., Ace. mulS. mukhS. 

Abl. mu khd. mil and a. 

Agent me. moe. 



Cimme, we. amine, 

mahro. mahro. 

ama 15. dmrnu kd. 

avima kd. ammu anda. 

dmme. amine. 



2nd Person. 








Nom. til. 


til. 


tiime. 


t&mme. 


Gen. tero. 


tero. 


thdro. 


tau ro, 
tdmu ro. 


Dat., Ace. tolS. 


tdkhe. 


tuma IS. 


tau kd. 


Abl. tokha. 


ta anda. 


tilma kd. 


tdinmdnda 


Agent tei. 


toe. 


tome. 


tdmme. 


3rd Person 








Nom. se, he, it. 


se. 


se. 


se. 


Gen. teuo. 


tehro. 


tino. 


tin ro. 


Dat., Ace. ten le. 


teh khc. 


Una le. 


tin ko. 


Abl. ten kd. 


tes and a. 


Una kd. 


tin anda. 


Agent tint. 


tene. 


tine. 


tiiie. 



Feminine. 

Nom. se, she. 

Gen. tid. 

Dat., Act. Via le. 
Abl. tid kd. 

Agent tie. 



se. 

tid ro. 
tid ko. 
tla anda. 
tie. 



Fem. same as masc. 



BAMPUB AND HAOHI DIALECTS 133 





Singular 






Plural 


Ram 


pur 


Bachi 




Rampur Baqhi 


Nom. 


jo, this. 


eh, eh dzo. 




jd. c. 


Gen. 


euo. 


eh ro. 




ino. du ro. 


Dat., Ace, 


, eu Id. 


eh khd. 




ind Id. ill khc. 


Abl. 


cu kd. 


cs &nda. 




ind kd. dii anda. 


Agent 


int. 


iinc. 




ine. due. 


Feminine. 








Nom. 


jo. 


eh, eh dzo. 




Fem. same as niasc. 


Gen. 


lb. 


id ro. 






Dat., Ace. 


id Id. 


id khc. 






Abl. 


td kd. 


id anda. 






Agent 


ie. 


ie. 

kun. 


who 




Nom. 


kun. 


kun. 






Gen. 


kail ro. 


kau ro. 






Agent 


kitiii. 


kinie. 










dzo, wl 


10 (re 


1.) 


Nom. 


dzo. 


dzo. 






Gen. 


dzau ro. 


dzau ro. 






Agent 


dzunie. 


dzune. 







Others are: kd (indecl.), what ; ledtsh (indecl.), some- 
thing, anything ; dzo kittsh, whatever ; kun, kuni, someone, 
anyone; dzo lain, whoever ; declined like dzo and kun. 

Pronominal Adjectives 
The first word in each case is from Rampur, the second 
from Baghi. 

Of this kind, eno, eno ; of that kind, teno, teno; of what 
kind, Jceno, keno ; of which kind (rel.), dzeno, dzeno. So 
much or many, eti, etro; so much or many, teti, tetro', 
(correl.)how much or many, keti, ketro ; as much or many, 
dztti, dzetro. 

Adjectives 

Adjectives ending in o, 6, u, or au, including genitives, 
intlect according to the gender and number <>l the doud 



L34 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

with which fchey agree and change the last letter to e for 
the masc. plur. and i for the fem. sing, and plur. In the 
masc. sing, the -<> is changed to -e when the noun agreed 
with is in an oblique case, otherwise there is no inflection 
for case. Other adjectives do not inflect for gender, 
number, or case. All adjectives when used as nouns are 
treated as nouns and inflected accordingly. 

Comparison. — There are no special forms for the 
comparative and superlative. Comparison is expressed 
by the so-called ablative case with the positive, thus — 

(Ram.) hdtshau, good; exi Jed hdtshau, good from that, 
better than that ; sobbi led hdtshau, good from all, better 
than all, best. 

( Bp.g.) atshau, es dnda dtshau, sobbhi dnda atshau. 











Numerals 




1. 


eh 




eh 




13. 


leva. 


tera. 


2. 


dui. 1 




'/c. 




14. 


tsouda. 


tsouda. 


3. 


can a, 




can a. 




15. 


pondra. 


pa ndra. 


4. 


tsar. 




tsdr. 




16. 


sola. 


si tin, (not I) 


5. 


pdndz, 




pdndz. 




17. 


sottra. 


sUtra. 


6. 


tshau. 




t 'si 'l<1, II, 




IS. 


thdra. 


thdra. 


7. 


sdt. 




sat. 




19. 


a ill. 


■n ish . 


8. 


ii/li. 




ath. 




20. 


blh. 


bish. 


9. 


nau. 




nau. 




40. 


dl blyyeh. 




10. 


dash. 




das. 




GO. 


caun blyyeh. 


1 1. 


yiara. 




go. ira. 




■SO. 


tsar blyyei 


k. 


12. 


bdra. 




bdra. 




100. 


shaii. 


shau. 










Fractional 








1 


h deorh 






deorh. 








2| daih. 






daili. 




Th. 


-} rest with 


sadhe, 


thus- 












20 


.', sddhe 


hlh. 




sadhe bish. 



1 a very long. 



KAMIMJK AND BAGH1 DIALECTS 



L35 



I sj . pa, ili/it a . 
2nd. dujjau. 
3rd. cljjau. 
Hli. tsouthau. 



( >RDINALS 

paihldu. Otli. tsowau. tshatau 

dujjaU. Till. s<i( Hii it. s<il n, i ii. 

cljjau. 8th. athuau. athuau. 

tSOWthaU. 9tll. Iininill. iinildil. 



5th. piyiizn'iiiy. pcindzuau. 10th. dashuau. dasuau. 
and so on, adding? -nan to the cardinal. 





Adverbs 






Time 




Rampur 




Baghi 


now. 


rli/i i. 


ebh i. 


( hen, 


tebhl. 


tebh i. 


when ? 


kebhl. 


kebh i. 


when (rel. ), 


dzebh '. 


dzebh I. 


to-day, 


adz. 


ii :. 


to-morrow, 


kalle. 


jni. 


day after to-morrow 


, porsho. 


porshl. 


fourth day, 


tsouthe. 


tsouthe. 


yesterday, 


h id-.. 


i : :. 


day before yesterday 


, phrez. 


/ /// ova '.. 


day before that, 


tsouthe. 

Place 


noraz. 


here 


Idc. 


nli'. le. 


there, 


1 nlr. 


tide, tie. 


where ? 


hide. 


hide, kle. 


where (rel.), 


jlde. 


jlde /". 


up to here, 


idra se/c. 


ide /ni. 


hence, 


nl ni . 


i'/fit . 


inside, 


bite. 


bitre. 


outside, 


1 >,t ih. 


bare. 


upwards. 


tibi. 


nl,, . 


downwards, 


uli ml i. 


////. 


near, 


bidt . 


rn rl. 


far. 


dCtr. 


il a r. 



13G 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAVAS 



RAMPUB 

forwards, in front. age. 

backwards, behind, patsha. 

beyond, par. 



Baghi 
age, agre. 
patsha. 
par. 



on this side, 


war. 
Others 


ar. 


why, 


Idle. 


hai. 


yes, 


0. 


6 (answering 

question). 
ei (answering 

call). 


no, not, 


na, neiJi. 


na, nelli. 


quickly. 


ndndi. 


shaft. 


very much, 


brfro. 
Prepositions 


buri. 


Rampub 




Baghi 


of, 


-0. 


ro. 


from, 


led. 


anda. 


to, 


le. 


led. 


in, 


dia, Ice. 


de, do, Icha. 


above, upon, 


mate. 


gahri. 


in front of, 


age. 


age, agre. 


in front of me, 


mu ha age. 


mu anda agre. 


with, along with. 


sih. 


sdtte. 


with me, 


mu sih. 


mu sdtte. 


with (instrument), 


Jehu, lean. 


giddh. 


for, 


le. 


tal. 


for him, 


teu le. 


tehri tdl. 


under, 


pad. 


thai. 


beyond, 


par. 


par. 


on this side of, 


war. 


dr. 



Verbs 

Verb Substantive 
Pres. (R.) d, indeclinable. 
(B.) eh, indeclinable. 



BAMFUB AND BAGHI DIALECTS 1.'57 

Nog. nlk atl ; (B.) neki athi, both indeclinable. 
Past (R.) mase. sing, tail, fem. ti ; inasc. plur. te, fern. ti. 
(B.) tou, fem. te\ plur. te, fem. te. 

Idpno, fall 

RAMPUR Ba<MM 

Imperat. sing. lot. Imperat. sing. lot. 

plur. Iota. plur. £o£<x. 

Pres. ind. lota. lotl. Pres. ind. £o£u. tot. 

£ote. lotau. lota. lota, 

lota. lota. lota. lota. 

R. Fut., same as pres. ind. B. Fut. lotulo. lotule. 

lotalo. lotale. 

lotalo. lotale. 

B. The fem. is the same as the masc. but with the 
ending e all through. The e of the fem. is almost i. 

Imperf. R. lota, indecl. with the past of the verb 
subst. tan, te, etc. B. Pres. ind. with the past verb subst. 
Thus— 

R. lota tau, fem. ti; lota te, fem. ti. 



B. lota tau, fem. te ; lofii te, fem. te. 

lota tau, , ; lota te, „ 

lota tau, „ lota te, „ 
R. Pres. cond. same as pres. ind. 

Past cond. lot -dan, fem. -di ; plur. -de, fem. -di. 

Conj. part, loteau, having fallen. 

Stat. part, lof-ondati, fem. -endi; plur. -ende, -endi, 
in the state of having fallen. 

Past, lot -au, fem. -i ; plur. -e, fem. -/. 

Agent, lotijeiralo, fuller. 
I!. I'res. cond. same as pres. ind. 

Past cond. lot-da, -de or di, de, de or di. 

Conj. part. l<>((rn, having fallen, indecl. 



138 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Stat. part, lot-ondd, -8nde, -8nde, -ende, in the state 

of having fallen. 
Part, lolt-au, -e or -i; plur. -e, fem. -e or -I. 



R. [mperat. o. 



ond, be, become 

"if. B. Imperat. o 



Knt. OCi. 61. 

oe,(t(i<\ dau,auau. 

da. a it' i. da a ud. 
Past, da it, fem. iti, etc. 



Fut. ullau. idle. 

olio. dlle. 

olio. olle. 
Past, Uau,iem.ue, 

etc. 
Past cond. tindau. 



Pastcond. Undau. 
R. In dau, da, the initial d is very long. 
B. A slight /> is frequently prefixed throughout the verb 
B. In dait, \ha, the it is very long. 

<x«o, come 
R. Imperat. dts, atsait. 

Fut. czu, de, atsd, di, dau, atsd. 

Past cond. dndau. 

Hab. ex£sc& korft, I am in the habit of coining. 
B. Imperat. ash, dska. 

Pres. ind. ad, de, de, ait, de, dc. 

Imperf. du tait, de tait, etc. 

Fut. ddlait, dlait, dlau, dale, ale, die. 

Past, ad, fem. de, etc. 

Past cond. dndatt. 

Conj. part, did, having come. 

iiash_no, go 
R. Pres. ind. nashu, -e, -a, -I, -ait, -a. 
Imperat. ndsh, nasKaU. 
Past, nathau. 
Past cond. n&shdau. 
Conj. part, nasheau, having gone. 
Agent, ndshnetvalo, goer. 



RAMPUli AM) li.\(;ill DIALECTS 139 

tlritiio, gO 

I!. I mperat. dv. dod. 

Pies, ind. du, dud dud, dul, dud, dud. 
[mperf. du tau, duo. tau, etc. 
Fut. deulau, dulon, dn/an, deCdc, d nh\ <l nl< 
Past, duau, due, etc. 

rauhno, remain 
R. Pics. ind. vmi, roe, rdd, etc. 

[mperat. /•<///, raua " . 

Past cond. rondo, u. 
B. Fut. raulau, rodla ", etc. 

Pres. ind. rail, rod, etc. 

Past, /■<"', fern, rau.l; plur. /•<////', etc. 

bishno, sit 
R. Past, bithau, the rest of the. verb regular. 

btithno 
B. Past, butthau. 

tsthno, beat 
This verb is regular in both dialects. In the past, of 
course, the agreement is with the object. 

khdno, eat 
R. Pres. ind. hJidu, vie. 
Past, IchdOM. 

B. Stat. part, khdero. 

pilW, drink 
R. Pres. ind. y//Y/. 

Past, /nau. 
P. Past, /ww// ; fern. /"■ ; plur. ye. 

Stat. part, piero. 

deno, give 
R. Pres. ind. deu. 

Past, <//'// //'///. 
B. Put . ilf- nl a a. 

Past, </''uu. 



140 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FKOM THE HIMALAYAS 

"Take" is leno (regular) io Rampur and ginno in Baghi. 
The latter has : past, glnau ; stat. part, ginero. 

homo, do 

R. Past, kiau. 

B. Past, kurau. 

" Bring" is anno (regular). 

B. Fut. CinCilau; past, anaii; stat. part, ancro. 

" Take away " is nino (regular) in Rampur and neno in 
Baghi. 

neno has : fut. neidan ; past, neau ; stat. part, neero. 

In the Rfunpur dialect verbs whose roots end in a vowel 
make the pres. ind. in -?7 instead of -u, as deu, " I give." 
It will be noticed that in Rampur the pres. ind., fut., and 
pres. cond. are always the same. In Baghi there is a 
separate future, but the pres. ind. and pres. cond. are 
identical. In negative sentences the past cond. is used 
for the pres. ind. 



RAMPUR AND HAGIU DIALECTS I U 



SENTENCES 

1 . R. Tero nd a kd ? 

B. Terau nail kd eh? Thy name what is ? 

2. 11. Eu gohri Icetri a mar d ? 

B. Io yuhre ri he'tre omb&r eh ? This horse of how- 
much age is ? 

3. R. Idrd Kashmiri i silca (up to) ketro dur a 1 

B. Idr&nda Kashmir ketro dur eh ? Hence Kashmir 
(up to) how-much far is ? 

4. R. Thdre bdbbc gauhr Jcetti tshotu a? 

B. Tomu re bdhbd r$ gauhre Jcetre tshotu eh ? Your 
father of house (in) how-many sons are ? 

5. 11. Mu dz bare dura hdnde do. 

B. A dz bare dur-anda dndea do. I to-day very 
far-from having-walked came. 

6. li. Mere tsatseau tshotu eui baihni si bidh Ho. 

B. Mere haled ro tshotu ehri bauhni sill/ran baih Ho. 
My uncle-of .son his sister with marriage became. 

7. R. Gauhr he shulcle gohri :m d. 

B. Gauhrd dau shuhle gohre ri dzln. House in 
white horse of saddle (is). 

8. R. Eui pitthi male zlu kdshau (tighten). 

B. Ehri pUthi gdhri dzin bannhau. His hack upon 
saddle hind. 

9. R. Me ear tshotu le (to) bdromdrau. 

B. Moo ehrau tshotu b&ri plttau. By-ine his son 
(to) much was-beaten. 

10. R. Dohl'd mate yd u7 bdkri tsaurd. 

B. Eh bond (jungle) dau behrd bdkri. tsdrd. (He) 
hill upon (jungle in) cows goats is grazing. 

11. R. Eu butd pad gohre m&te bethdndau (seated). 
B. Eh but/a thai gohre gdhra b&ttho (sat). That 

tree under horse upon seated (sat). 

12. R. Euo baih behni lea b&ro. 



142 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

B. Ehrau bdih tiipni bauhni inula b&ro. Jlis brother 
(own) sister from (than) big, i.e. is bigger. 

13. R. Euo mul daih rupayye. 

B. Ehrau mol daih rupauo. Its price two-and-a- 
half rupees. 

14. R. Mero bab eu hutsle gauhre raud. 

B. Merau bob en matthe gauhrd do raud. My father 
that small house in lives. 

15. 11. Eu le rupayye deau. 

B. Eli kite in rupauedea. Him to these rupees give. 

16. R. Eu led rupayye mdngau. 

B. Is andarupaue monga druh (hither). Him from 
rupees ask (hither). 

17. R. Eulemdrlaurezd Icau bdnnhau. Him to having- 
beaten ropes with bind. 

B. Is atshe pita roshie giddh bannhd. Him to well 
beat ropes with bind. 

18. R. Kue Tea pdni gddau. 

B. Kue dnda cish (or pdni) gdrha. Well from 
water bring-out. 

19. R. Mn led age tsalo. 

B. Mu dnda agre tsala. Me from before go. 

20. R. Kauro tshotu toma p&tsha dol Whose bo} 7 you 
behind came ? 

B. Kauro tshotu d t& patsha ? Whose boj' conies 
thee behind ? 

21. R. Jau kau led mulle lean. This whom from in- 
price was-taken ? 

B. Eh toe Icos dnda molle glnan. This by-thee 
whom from in-price was-taken ? 

22. R. Gau led ekki dlrfiivdle led lean. 

B. Gaua ri elel dukanddr undo ginau. Village of 
one shopkeeper from was-taken. 

Notes. — 8. B. Gahri, upon, cf. 11. B. ; gahrd agrees with 
its noun ; it is a prepositional adj. like wdrga (similar to) 
in Panjabi. 9. Bard and bori (or bohri) are different 



ItAMPUR AND HAGHI DIALECTS 143 

words. 1 1. Bethdndau, stative part, in the state of having 
sat, seated. 

The stative part, of trans, verbs becomes a passive 
part. ; thus khaero means in the state of having been 
eaten. In Baghi there are two such participles, one 
ending in -ondau and one in -era for intrans. and trans. 
verbs respectively. 

Examples. — Ldtundau, fallen ; khaero, eaten ; plero, 
drunk (i.e. of the thing drunk). 

The ending -era is found in various forms, as -eroa in 
Surkhuh, -ero in Kiiari, -era in North and South Jubbal, 
-Ira in Mandeali, East Suketl, and North Bilaspuri : -ura 
in Hauduii, Dami, South Bilaspiirl, and Gadi ; -ura in 
< Yimeali, Ciirahi, and Pangwali ; -oro in Bhadrawahi ; 
-or in Padari. 



144 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABULARY 
The first word or words belong to the Rampur dialect, 
the others, separated by a colon, to the Baghi dialect. 

clean, hdtsha : dtshau. 

cock, kukhld : kukhrau, milrgd; 

wild cock (Baghi), khlair. 
cold, shelau : shelau. 
come, dno : dno. 
conquer; see " win ". 
cow, gdo : gdo. 
cowherd, giidlo : giidlo. 
daughter, tslwti : tshoti. 
day, diis : dus. 
defeated, be, hdrno : hdrno. 
die, mdrno : marno. 
do, k&rno : kcrno. 
dog, kukkar : kukar. 
downwards, uhndi : uti. 
draw out, gddno : gdrhno. 
drink, %nno : plno ; cause to — , 

■pulno : pincno. 
ear, kdnn : kdnn. 
eat, khdno : klidno ; cause to 

— , khidno : khulno. 
egg, pinni : pinni. 
eight, ath : dth ; eighth, 

athuo : dthilau. 
eighteen, tJidro : tharo. 
eighty, tsar biyych. 
eject, gddno : garhno. 
elephant, hdtthi : hath/. 
eleven, gidra : gaira. 
eye, dkkhi : dkkh. 
face, mu : mu. 
fall, lotno : lotno. 
far, dur : dur. 



above; see up", upon". 

all, sobbi : sobbhi. 

anyone, someone, koi : kun. 

arrive, pautsno : pitjjno. 

ass, gaddha : gaddho. 

backwards, patsha : pdtsha. 

back, pitth : pitth. 

bad, nendruo : rlau. 

be, become, dno : dno, liuno. 

bear, rlkh : rlkkh. 

beat, pltno, tslkno : pltno, 

tslkno. 
beautiful, bdnkau : bdtthnau. 
bed, mdndzd : mdndzd. 
behind, patsha : patsha. 
below, adv., uhndi : uti ; prep., 

pad : thai. 
big, bdda : borau. 
bird, tsarki : panchi. 
bitch, kukkri : kukri. 
body, jga : badan. 
book, kdtdb : kdtdb. 
boy, tshotu : tshotu ; see "son", 
bread, rotti : rotti. 
bring, anno : anno. 
brother, dad, bailtu : bath. 
buffalo, mhdi : ma ash. 
bull, bdldd : bdl&d. 
buttermilk, tshah : chash. 
call, bidno : budno. 
camel, ut : tit. 
cat, braild, fern, braili : 

barailau, fern, b&raili. 



HAM PUR AND UAGHI DIALECTS 



I I.'. 



father, bob : huh. 
field, dnkro : lchec. 
fifteen, p&ndra : pdndra. 
fight, Infim : pitno. 
fish, m&tshi : mdtshli. 
five, panda : pdndz ; fifth, 

pdnd : uo ; pdndzuau. 
flow, ha it lino : baahno. 
foot, bdijna, yd (1 1 la : hit. 
forty, '// biyyeh. 
forward, r7r/e ; ogre, age. 
four, i.S(7r : tsar; fourth, 

tsdutho : tsduthau. 
fourteen, tsouda : tsouda. 
from, fed : and a. 
front, age : dgre, age. 
fruit, phal : phal. 
ghi, r/Zw/j ; giuh. 
girl, tshoti : tshoti. 
give, cZc?io ; rfe^o. 
go, nashno : duno. 
goat, hdkr-o, fern, -i : bdkr-o-i. 
good, hdtsha : dtshau, shoblau. 
graze, intrans., tsorno : tsarno ; 

trans., tsdmo : tsarno. 
hair, sjf&rdZ ." shKrdl. 
hand, /m///. : hdttli. 
he, s£ : s/ 7 . 
bead, nuind .■ vaind. 
hear, shilnno : shilnno; see 

" relate ". 
hen, knklili : kukhri, miirgi; 

wild — (Baghi), <7///f/. 
hence, idrd : idVo. 
here, i^e : ie, icfe : up to — , 

7<7m S(Z : u7e /<<?. 
high, iltsfan : Utsthau. 
hill, $<mfe : d&ghdr. 
horse, gohro : gohro. 



hot, nlaitau : netau. 

house, gauhr : gauhr. 

hundred, shau : shau. 

husband, rdndko : randan. 

I, nui : a. 

ignorant, besi : kdndnd. 

in, fee : dd. 

inside, bite : bUre. 

iron, loah : loah. 

jackal, shial : shailto. 

jungle, dzdngal : baun. 

kind, of this — , mo : vnn ; 
of that — , tcno : teno ; of 
what — , kaio : keno ; of 
which — (re\.),dzeno :d :rijn. 

kite, shdrairi : mdrairi. 

know, dzdnno : dzdnno. 

lazy, d/linan : dlliuau. 

learn, shlkno : siilkno. 

leopard, bdrahg : bdrdhg. 

lie, suttno : sutno. 

little, hutslo, choto, kdmti : 
ma I than, kdmti. 

load, bdhra : bdhrau. 

look, shdno : dekhno. 

maize, tshdlli : ktikkri. 

make, canno : canno. 

man, mansh : mdnitc. 

mare, gohri : gohri. 

married, lie, Mdh dno : baih 

0110. 

meat, nals ; mass. 
meet, melno : mtlno. 
milk, d ild It : dilddli. 
moon, dzoth : dzot. 
mother, I : 1. 
mountain, ia&k : ddghdr. 
much, dzddau : dzddau, bdri; 
so — , ctl, ti'tl : ctro, tStro ; 



146 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



how - -, keti : kStro : as 7 

(rel.), dzetl : dzStro. 
my, mero : mero. 
name, nail : nau. 
near, bide : neri. 
night, rdci : rdr. 
nine, nau : nau: ninth, n&uau : 

nduau. 
nineteen, nth : nlsh. 
no, nth, na : mh, na : nothing, 

kutsh na : kiitsh na. 
nose, ndk : nak. 
not, nth, na : nth, na. 
now, chill : ehhl. 
of, -0 ; ro. 
oil, tel : tc.J. 
on, mate : gahra. 
one, ek : ek ; one and a half, 

deorh : deorh. 
our, mahro : nidhro. 
out, baih : bahra. 
pen, kalam : ktdam. 
pig, sungar : siingar. 
place, v., thano : thcirno. 
plain, n., solid : solid. 
plough, a uh I jocno : aid 

dziindno. 
quickly, nandi : shaft. 
rain, pdni : burklia. 
read, porno : p&rno. 
recognize, patshainno : 

rjcirainno. 
relate, shilnauno : shunano. 
remain, rauhno : rauhno. 
return, oru duo : oru dno. 
rise, ildzu khdrno : utthvo. 
river, ddrdo : daryaio. 
rope, rez : roshi. 
run, thilnno : bichno. 



saddle, zln : dzln. 

sake, for sake of, le : tdi. 

say, bolno : bolno. 

see, shdno : dekhno. 

seed, bin : bljj. 

seven, sat : sat ; seventh, 
sdtuo : sdtfiau. 

seventeen, sottra : slttra. 

sharp, painnau : painnau. 

she, se : sc. 

sheep, behri : hclir (note 
different r)- 

shepherd, bdddlo : bdrdlo. 

shop, dhtl : dhti. 

shopkeeper, ahtiwalo : 
diikdnddr. 

side, on this side of, war : ar ; 
on the far side of, par : par. 

sister, elder than person re- 
ferred to, ddi : ddi ; younger 
than do., baihn : bauhn. 

sit, btshno : buthno. 

six, tshau : tshau; sixth, 
tshouau : tshato. 

sixteen, sola : sola. 

sixty, caun blyych. 

sleep, suttno : siitno. 

son, tshotu : tshotu. 

sow, enno : bono. 

speak, bolno : bolno. 

stand, ndzu khdrno: khdrd dno. 

star, tdra : tdra. 

stomach, pet : pet. 

storm, bdffdr : bag fir ; see 
" wind ". 

stream, khdd : nau. 

sun, silrdj : siiraj. 

sunshine, do : dan. 

sweet, gilluau : nilthau. 



RAMPUIt AND UAGHI DIALKCTS 



147 



swift, s&tdz : s&tdz. 

take, leno : ginno ; take away, 

nlno : neno. 
ten, dash : das. 
than, led : dnda. 
then, tebhi : tebhi. 
there, tide : tie, tide. 
they, se : se. 
thief, tsor : tsar. 
thirteen, (era : tera. 
this, jo : eh. 
thou, til : tu. 
three, cauu : caun; third, 

clljo : cljjo. 
thy, tcro : tcro. 
tie, bannhno : bdnnhno. 
tighten, kdshrio : koshno. 
to, Ic : kJie. 
to-day, adz : dz. 
to-morrow, kiille : jla ; day 

after — , porsho : iwrshi; 

on fourth day, ts&itthe : 

tsouthe. 
tongue, dzlbbh : dzibbh. 
tooth, dant : dand . 
town, bazar : badzdr. 
tree, but : but. 
twelve, bar a : bar a. 
twenty, blh : Msh. 
two, diii : do ; two and a half, 

ddili : daili; second, dujjau : 

duj.jau. (The u in diii is 

long and the i short.) 
ugly, nlkdmmau : rlau. 
uncle, tsdtso : kdk. 
under, -pad : tlicd. 
up, upwards, ulindl : utl. 
upon, mute : gdhrd (latter is 

an adjective). 



very, bdro : bdri, bohr/. 

village, grdo : gau. 

walk, hdndno : dndno. 

was, tau : tan. 

water, pclni : cldi, pdni. 

way, paindau : bat. 

we, dvime : amine. 

well, adv., dtsho : titsho. 

well, n., kilo : kilo. 

what, kd : kd ; whatever, dz<> 

kUtsh. 
wheat, gluh : gltili. 
when (inter.), Jcebhl : kebhi ; 

(rel.), dzebhl : dzebhl. 
where (inter.), kide : kle, kidc ; 

(rel.), dzlde : dzlde. 
white, shilklo : shilklo. 
who (inter.), kun : kun ; (rel.), 

dzo : dzo. 
why, kile : kai. 
wife, randki, rand/ : tsheori, 

zdndna. 
win, dzltno : dzltno. 
wind, bdg&r : bdgur. 
wise, sdtdz : dklddr. 
with, along with, sill : sdtte ; 

(instr.), kau : giddh. 
woman, ruudki, randi : tshSori. 
write, llkkhno : likkltno. 
yes, o : (answering question), d; 

(answering call), ci. 
yesterday, hldz : Izz ; day 

hefore — , phrez : ]>!i- 

day hefore that, / sunt he : 

nordz. 
you, tinne, : tdnunr. 
your, thdro : tauro. 



KOCI : SURKHULI DIALECT 

Nouns 
Masculine. 

Singular Plural 

Nom. golir-o, horse. -e. 

Gen. -e ro. -e ro. 

Dat., Ace. -e le. -e le. 

Abl. -e ku. -e kit,. 

Agent -e. -Sue. 

Nom. gauh-r, house. -r. 

-ra ro. 

-rile. 

-I. 

-I ro. 

-i le. 

-I ku. 

-le. 

-ni. 

-ni ro. 

-nie. 

All genitives are themselves adjectives and are declined 
as such. 

Pronouns 
Nom. ah, I. amine, we. 

Gen. mero. amaro. 

Dat., Ace. mule. amle. 

Abl. mu klfiu. dm ku. 

Agent viftie. amue. 

Nom. til, thou. tiime, you. 

Gen. tero. tumaro. 

Dat., Ace. tail le. turn le. 

Agent toe. tiimae. 

Nom. w, this. le. 

Gen. es ro, eh ro. Ill ro. 

Dat., Ace. is le. hi le. 

Abl. Is ku. hi ku. 

Agent hue. hie. 



Gen. 


-ra ro. 


Agent 


-re. 


Feminine. 




Nom. 


tsheor-l, girl. 


Gen. 


-1 ro. 


Dat., Act. 


-1 le. 


Abl. 


-1 ku. 


Agent 


-le. 


Nom. 


bauh-n, sister 


Gen. 


-ni ro. 


Agent 


-nie. 



KOCI : — SURKHUL1 DI.H.ErT 



un 



The fern. sing, is nom. /'' : gen. Id ro, etc. ; agenl Ide. 

Nom. sail, that, he. tie. 

Gen. Vtsro, tehro. tiii ro. 

Agent tinie. tiue. 

Fein, sinsx. nom. saw. £en. tla ro : agent tide. 

£5 O O 

/citw, who ? has, gen. /.'dA ro, ag. kuijie. 

led, is what ? 

who, as a relative, \sjun or diuij. 

Adjective Pronouns 

E/io,of this kind ; tino,oi that kind : /cmio, of what kind 
(inter.) ; ^'i/fo, of what kind (rel.). 

eti, so much or many ; tell, so much or many (correl. I ; 
leetl, how much or many : jeti, as much or many (rel.). 

duhji eel is used for "a little" as dokk zel plthau, 

a little Hour. 

Adjectives 

Adjectives ending in a consonant are not declined 
unless when used as nouns, in which case they take the 
declension of nouns. Those ending in o, u, or a have 
-e in masc. obi. sing, and masc. plur., and -i all through 
the fern. 

Comparison is made by means of the prep. leu. 

eslcu atsho, better from this, better than this. 

bdddeu leu atsho, better from all, better than all, best. 
Numerals 



1. eh 

2. dtii (a, long I. 

3. clii. 

4. tsar. 

5. pdnz. 

6. tsliau. 

7. 8&U. 

8. dtth. 

9. nau. 

10. dds. 

11. giara (first a long). 

lh deurlt. 



1 2. bdra { first a long). 

I 3. tlra (i long). 

14. ts&udd. 

I 5. ptindra. 

16. soula. 

17. srtUiM. 

18. thdra. 

19. iwm (accent on first 

syllable). 

20. fas. 

2.1 cfofti. 



150 



LINGUISTIC SIT DIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



ebbl, now. 
tebbi, then. 
kebbi, when ? 
jebbJ, when (rel.). 
dj, to-day. 
kdlle, to-morrow. 
pdrsh/b, da}' after to- 
morrow. 
tsouthe, on fourth day, 

ettlii, hie, here. 

tie, there. 

hie, where ? 

dzle, where (rel.). 

oril, hither. 

idrd zdu, up to here. 

idro, from here. 

mdthe, mate, upwards. 

war, on this side. 



Adverbs 

Time 

hidz, yesterday. 

/tlidrldz, day before 
yesterda}^. 

nltrez, on fourth day back. 

kebbi, sometimes. 

kebri kebri, sometimes, some- 
time or other. 

kebbi na, never, 

Place 

tale, downwards. 
neri, near. 
dftr, far. 

dgu, dgdri, in front. 
pitshe, pitshu, behind. 
bitre, inside. 
bdire, outside. 
par, on that side. 



Others 

atshe korle, well. 



kalle, why. 
pheti, quickly. 

Most adjectives may be used as adverbs. They follow 
the rules of agreement given for adjectives above. 

Prepositions 
ke, in. 

TO, of. 

le, to. 



ku, ku, from. 

mdthe, mate, del, di upon. 

par, under. 

zdu, up to. 

pitshe, pitshu, behind, aftei 



dgdri, ku dgdri, dgu, before. 

in front of. 
drle, with (along with). 
kanne, with (instru.). 
kdi, beside ; mu kdi, beside 

me. 
par, beyond. 
war, on this side of. 



KOCI : SURKHUL1 DIALECT 1 51 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 

I 'res. tense ft. I. 

I. i. 

a, so,, asa. I, si. 

Neg. sing, niasc. nasto. Cem. nasti; plur. masc. ndste, 
fem. nasti. 

Past niasc. £/iait 3 fem. thi. the, fem, /A/. 

//a(?(, fem. /A<~. Me, fem. /A/. 

than, fem. /A/". Me, fem. /A/. 

pltno, beat 
Imperat. p^ pltau. 

Pres. ind. £n£a &■ / ; ^< & 

This does not change for gender. 
Iniperf. pF/a Ma?t, fem. Ml ^>i/tl Me, fem. Mi. 

pita than, fem. (7/7. pf^a Me, fem. /A C. 

pf/tZ tltau, fem. Mr. /^/ ( ' ^j feni. ^*- 

Fut. and pres. conj. are the same as the pres. ind. 

Past, pita, pltau; fem. pltl; plur. p^ e j fem. pltl 
(all agreeing with object). 

Pert", sing. masc. plto d, plto ft; fem. y/7' " ; plur. 
niasc. plte I ; fem. pltl I. 

Plup. plto than: fem. />f/'~ M/~: plur. pite Me ; fem. 
pltl thi. 

Past cond. 

jnldo, pltdau, fem. pltdi. pltde, fem. pltdi. 

pitrfo. pltdau, fem. i>it<li. intde, fem. pltdi. 

pitdo, pltdau, fem. pUdi. pltde, fem. pl$di. 

Conj. part. plteau, having beaten. 

Stat. part. pltSndau, in the state of having been beaten, 
or simply beaten. 



1 "32 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

In the same way arc conjugated lotno, fall : rfshno, come ; 
deil no, go, except that this last, like all verbs whose root 
ends in a vowel, inserts n before -dau in the past cond., 
dedndau. 

btishno, sit 

Past, bfiflho, butthau. 

Stat. part, bush undo, in the state of being seated, or 
simply sitting. 

Id Kino, eat 

Pres. ind. khdCt P. hi id i, hhdd sd, hhdl J, hhd J, hhdd I. 

Past, Icltdau. 

Stat. part, hhdierod ; so also Idno, take. 

pino, drink 
Past, plo. 
Stat. part, pierdd. 

deno, give 
Pres. ind. ded u. 
Perf. deo d ; plur. dee i. 
Stat. part, deierdd. 

homo, do 
Past, hio. 

anno, bring 
Perf. dno d. 
Stat. part, dnieroa. 

nlno, take away 
Perf. nlo d. 
Stat. part, nierdd. 

In negative sentences the past cond. is used for the 
pres. ind. 



K0C1 : SURKHUL1 DIALECT I 53 



SENTENCES 

1. Tero nan lea so. '. Thy name what is? 

2. Es gohre ri keti borshe i ? This horse of how-many 
years are ? 

3. Idro Kdshmlra dzdu (zdii) keti (ketti) dur a. 
Hence Kashmir up-to how-much far is. 

4. Tere bobba re gohra ke ketti tshorn i. Thy father 
of liouse in how-many sons are ? 

5. .1: dti bd/re dura ku dndiau dsho P. To-day I very 
far from having-walked cam''. 

(!. Mere kdkka ro tshoru esri bauhni drle bidh Ran. 
My uncle's boy his (this-of) sister with married is. 

7. Gohra he shulde <j<>lirc ri katthi d. House in white 
horse of saddle is. 

<s. Tehri pitthi mate katthi bdnnho. His back upon 
saddle tie. 

!). Muie ehre tshorv. atsho pltau. By-me his (this-of) 
boy well was-beaten. 

10. Io ddiide <li (del) behr bakktir tsara od. He hill 
upon sheep goats grazing is. 

11. To is blkha par gohre mdthe bltsh_0iido. He this 
tree under horse upon seated is. 

12. Esro bah I dpnl bauihni lea buro d. His brother 
own sister i han ( from ) big is. 

L3. Ehro n<<>l ddih ritpde. This-of price two-and-a- 
half rupees. 

14. Mero bdbb lolde <j<~>hra I rauhd. My father little 
house iu remains (lives). 

15. Es It lu rix/pde deau. Him to this rupee give. 

16. Iu riipde es ku oru mdngau. This rupee him 
from hither ask. 

17. Es atsho plteaa lohli kdnne bdnnhau. Him well 
having-beaten ropes with bind. 

18. Km l-ii i hi n't gdrau. Well from water draw. 



154 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

19. Mu kit dgdri hand. Me from before walk. 

20. Kdhrotshord tail pitshu dshdau Idgdndau. Whose 
boy thee behind coming attached (is in the act of coming). 

21. Io tdc has hu Idau. This by-thee whom from 
was taken. 

22. G<1 da re banie ku. Village of shopkeeper from. 

Notes. — 6. Uau (Co very long) is the Hindi hud. 
1 0. The o in od seems to be merely euphonic to avoid 
the coming together of the two vowels d. 11. Bushondau, 
stat. part., in the state of having sat, i.e. seated. 19. Hand, 
walk, appears above in 5 as and. 20. Ashdau lagondau 
corresponds to the Panjabi aundd e l&ga is in the act of 
coming. 



KOCI : — SURKHUU DIALECT 



1 55 



VOCABULARY 



above, mdthe : sec " up 

upon ". 
all, b&dde. 
ass, gaddhau. 
backwards, pitshe, pitshu. 
hack, n., pith. 
bad, nlkammau. 
be, become, Cmo. 
bear, n., rikh. 
beat, pitno. 
beautiful, atshau. 
bed, mama. 
behind, pitshe, pitshu. 
below, tdlc. 
big, bdro, bdro. 
bird, tsiru. 
bitch, tshauti. 
body, dzcu. 
book, kdtdb. 
boy, tshoru. 
bread, rottl. 
bring, anno. 
brother, ha In. 
buffalo, maish. 
bull, bdl&d. 
buttermilk, shash. 
call, dtdiino. 
cat, biraltau. 
cock, kukhrd. 
cold, shelau. 
come, &shno. 
conquer, dzltuo. 
cow, rya;L 
cowherd, gudldu. 
daughter, tshdtur. 



', day, dils. 

defeated, be, harno. 

die, morno. 

do, homo. 

dog, kukkilr. 

downwards, <d/c. 

draw out, gdrno. 

drink, plno. 

ear, kdntlifi. 

eat, khano. 

egg, aw/". 

eight, «////. 

eighteen, thara. 

elephant, atthl. 

eleven, giara (first a very long). 

eye, akkhi. 

face, ?>m. 

fall, lotno. 

far, (7rir. 

father, Z>d&. 

field, diikhrau. 

fifteen, pandra. 

fight, iritno. 

fish, mdccld. 

five, pdnz. 

foot, tdnge. 

forward, aflfw, tigari. 

four, /sa>\ 

fourteen, tsuuda. 

from, &M, few. 

front, in front of, agon, dgu. 

fruit, £>/i<3/. 

ghi, y/A. 

girl, tshdtur. 

give, cfano. 



156 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE II I MALAY AS 



goat, ha km ii : female, b&hk&r. 

good, atsho. 

graze, tsarno. 

hair, resh. 

hand, aiJi. 

he, that, saw. 

head, viund. 

hear, shunno. 

hen, kukhri. 

hence, if/ro. 

here, e^/?Z, ?rfe. 

hill, (land a. 

horse, goliro, gohrau. 

hot, nidtau. 

house, gauhr, gohr. 

husband, bdiltau. 

I, <M. 

ignorant, nikamma u. 

in, &e. 

inside, &*£re. 

iron, Zoa/z. 

jackal, shailto. 

jungle, dzdngdl. 

kind, of this, mo ; of that — , 
£wo ; of what — , kino ; of 
which — , jino (rel.). 

kite, gorad . 

lazy, khardb. 

learn, shikhno. 

leopard, bardhg. 

lie, siltno. 

little, ZoWo ; a little, doldi zei ; 
adv. okri. 

load, bugdr. 

look, dekhno. 

maize, oe"/n. 

make, chdnno. 

man, addmi. 

mare, gohri. 



married, be, blah ano. 

meat, mas. 

meet, bhetno. 

milk, dudh. 

moon, dzoth. 

mother, dl. 

mountain, ddndd. 

much, so, eti, etti; so much 
(correl.), tetl, tetti] how 
much ? &e£i, fce^i ; as much 
(rel.), dzeti, dzettl : adv., 
borl, boro. 

my, mero. 

near, «m, 

never, kebbl na. 

night, rdc. 

nine, nau. 

nineteen, iinls (accent on first 
syllable). 

no, na. 

nose, ndk. 

not, na. 

now, cooL 

of, ro. 

oil, £eZ. 

on, see " upon ". 

one, ck. 

our, dmdro. 

outside, bdire. 

pen, kalam. 

pig, suiujur. 

place, tsarno. 

plain, n., sollo. 

plough, aid bano. 

puppy, kulcd. 

quickly, plieU. 

rain, pdnl. 

read, p6rln.no. 

recognize, rfuiuno. 



KOCI : — SURKHULl DIALECT 



157 



remain, ratthno. 

return, oru. tishno. 

river, nan. 

rope, Will. 

saddle, kattlil. 

say, bolno. 

see, dekhno. 

seed, hij. 

seven, suit. 

seventeen, sattra. 

sharp, poinau. 

she, sau. 

sheep, beri. 

shepherd, bokrdblil. 

side, on this — of, war; on 
that — of, par. 

sister (older than person re- 
ferred to), dal\ younger 
than do., baiuhn. 

sit, bilsh.no. 

six, tshau. 

sixteen, soula. 

sleep, siitno. 

son, tshoni. 

sow, bauno. 

speak, bolno. 

star, tdra. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, batjur. 

stream, gahr. 

sun, suraz\ sunshine, rur. 

sweet, mltliau. 

swift, atsho. 

take, lano ; take away, ulijo. 

ten, da's. 

than, ha. 

that, S(K*. 

then, /JM/. 

there, ^r<?. 



they, these, tie. 

thief, 2so/\ 

thirteen, tlra (very long /). 

this, to. 

thou, //?. 

three, ci». 

thy, tero. 

tie, v., haiuilujo. 

to, /<?. 

to-day, a/. 

to-morrow, kalle ; day after — , 

porshi ; on fourth day, 

tsouthe. 
tongue, O^fS. 
tooth, dand. 
town, bazar. 
tree, &Z&/j. 

twelve, &ara (first a very long), 
twenty, bis. 
two, dwi (long u) ; two and a 

half, ddhi. 
ugly, nlkammo. 
uncle, kdkk. 
under, tole. 

up, upwards, mate, mathe. 
upon, mate, mathe, dei, dl. 
very, &<Xro, ioro, io>7. 
village, {/ao. 
walk, duijijo, huiujun. 
was, £/mm, fern. //i7. 
water, panl. 
way, &a£. 
we, amme. 
well, adv., atsho. 
well, n., fewo. 
what, fea. 
wheat, ;//"«/;. 

when ? kebbl, (rel.) jebbl. 
where? few, (rel.) d . e. 



158 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

white, shilklo. woman, tsheori. 

who? kun. write, Ultimo. 

why? kCillc. yesterday, hidz ; day before — , 

wife, tsheori. ph&rzdz ; on fourth day 

win, dzUno. hack, nUriz. 

wind, bagur. you, tame. 

wise, dkliwalo. your, tuindro. 

with (instru.), kannv ; (along 
with), arZe. 



KOCI: KUARI DIALECT 

Nouns 



Mascuh 


Ine. 








Sim; 


ii.ai; 


Plural 


Nom., 


Acc. 


gdh-ro, horse. 


■re. 


Gen. 




•re ro. 


-reu ro. 


Dat. 




-re le. 


-n'u le. 


AW. 




-re ku. 


-reu ku. 


Agent 




•rex. 


-reur. 


Nom., 


Ace. 


het-d, son. 


-a. 


Gen. 




-a ro. 


■du ro. 


Dat. 




-d ke IS. 


-du ki' lr. 


Agent 




-de 


-a tie, due. 


Nom., 


Acc. 


r'tkJi, bear. 


rlkJi. 


Gen. 




rikh-e ro. 


rlkJi-u ro. 


Dat. 




-c le. 


-u le. 


Abl. 




■e ku. ■ 


•u ku. 


Agent 




-el. 


•6. 


Feminine. 






Nom., 


Acc. 


bet-'i, daughter. 


-i. 


Gen. 




-i ro. 


-ni ro. 


Dat. 




-i ke le. 


-Hi ke. 


Abl. 




-i ku. 


■i~c ku. 


Agent 




•le. 


-iue. 


Nom., 


Acc. 


httuih-n, little sister. 


-ni. 


Gen. 




-ni ro. 


-nih ro. 


Dat. 




-ni ke lr. 


-nili lu". 


Abl. 




-ni ku. 


-niu ku. 


Agent 




■me. 

Pronouns 


-niue. 


First. 








Nom. 




a U . 


amine. 


Gen. 




mairo. 


mahro. 


Dat. 




mil ke le. 


din mil kr lr 


Abl. 




mil koi. 


d))unu koi. 


Agent 




tnu'i. 


dnuue. 



1G0 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES PROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Second. 








Norn. 


til. 




tumme. 


Gen. 


tero. 




tfnnaro. 


Dat., Ace. 


tau he. 




turn kc IP. 


Abl. 


tail hoi. 




turn hoi. 


Agent 


tat. 




tumme. 


Third. 








Nona. 


nmi, he, she, 


it, that. 


ne. 


Gen. 


nijas ro, fern. 


iii/d ro. 


n'm ro. 


Agent 


nini, fern. nijCu. 


niua . 


Nom., Ace, 


, jo, this. 




je- 


Gen. 


eh ro, es ro. 




lii ro. 


Dat., Ace. 


eh he, es he. 




lu ke le. 


Agent 


Inl. 




lue. 


Nom. 


hun, who. 






Gen. 


hah ro. 






Agent 


kiln l 







jo is who, relative, and lea, is what ? kiicch, something:, 
anj^thing. 

Adjective Pronouns 

ieno, of this kind ; taano, of that kind ; Jcauno, of what 
kind ? dzauno, of which kind (rel.). 

etl, so much or many ; tetl, so much or many (correl.) ; 
ketl, how much or many ? dzetl, as much or many (rel.). 

Adjectives 

Adjectives in -o, -a, -an are declined as follows : masc. 
sing, obi., -e ; masc. plur., -e ; fern. sing, and plur. -i. 
Others are not declined except when used as nouns. 
Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. 

Comparison is expressed hy means of the preposition 
hoi, from. 

jo cltho edze clthe hoi Jchub ai, this paper is good from 
this paper, this paper is better than this paper (edzo, this, 
a word used in Jubbal State). 

s'8k hoi Utah, all from good, better than all, best. 



KOCI — KUAHI DIALECT 



161 



Ability is expressed by means of the verb bono, bauno, 
be able, with the root of the required verb. To the root 
is added the syllable -f. Thus: I am not able to read, 
dd porl na baudo ; these (men) can read, jo porl hole. 

In negative sentences the past cond. is used for pres. ind. 

Numerals 



1. eh 

2. ddi. 

3. tin. 

4. tsar. 

5. pane. 

6. tshau. 

7. sat. 

8. tith. 

9. nan. 

10. daush. 

11. igara (accent on first 

syllable). 



Ordinals 



1st. paihlau. 

2nd. dudzau. 

3rd. cyan. 

4th. tsaruau. 



12. bar a. 

13. tera. 

14. tsoada. 

15. pondra. 
] 6. sola. 

1 7. sdttra. 

18. atthara (accent on 

first syllable). 

19. unish. 

20. bish. 



5th. pants dau. 
6th. tshauau. 
7th. sdtuau, etc., 

add in of -uau. 



For two and a half, cljau, apparently contracted from 
cljddha, is used. 

Adverbs 

6 torn, yesterday. 



&&&£, e£ra, now. 

Iii ut ra, then. 

leu utra, when ? 

jautrd, when ( rel.). 

e^'d, to-day. 

dmi ft, to-morrow. 

pdsh/b, day after to-morrow 

a ittdshl, fourth d;iy. 



plioredz, day before yester- 

day. 
kdddl, sometimes. 
Icaddi na, never. 
Jcotra kotrd, some time or 

other, sometimes. 



1G2 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Place 

Cnidi, downwards. 
nerl, near. 
dtir, far. 

age, dggu, in front. 
pltshu, behind. 
mdnzedl, inside. 
hair, outside. 
par, on that side. 

Others 

shoshora, quickly. 



ltd', ettlke, here (ltd has 

accent on second). 
tauke, there. 
Icauke, where ? 
< ha nice, where (rel.). 
ltd zaU, up to here. 
ltd hoi, from here. 
ubi, upwards. 

hole, why ? 
Ichub, well. 

Nearly all adjectives are used as adverbs. When sot 
used they are declined like adjectives. 



ro, of. 

he, le, Jce le, to. 

hoi, hu, from. 

Ice, beside. 

Jce le, for, for sake of. 

age, dggu, in front of 

pltshu, behind. 



Prepositions 

dri, along with. 

mat, upon. 

zilii, under. 

dl, Ice, in. 

Jcoi, with (instru.). 

par, beyond. 



Pres. sing. I. 
I. 



Verbs 
Verb Substantive 

Plur. 



Past 



a%, e. 

to, fern. tl. 
to, fern. tl. 
to, fein. tl. 



I. 

te, fein. ti. 
te, fern. tl. 
te, fein. tl. 



Negative of present nan athl or ndthl, throughout 

ndndno, go 
Imperat. naund, naundau. 



KOCI KUARI DIALECT 163 

Pros. ind. or cond. : 

ndnd-ou, -it. -ini (first i very long). 

-id. -ei. 

-e. -ei. 

Fut. nwid-uld. -ele. 

-eld. -ele. 

-eld. -ele. 

The fut. throughout has the accent on the last syllable 

Past, nondau, feni. nondi. nondei, feni. nondi. 

n&ndau, feni. nondi. nondei, feni. nondi. 

nondau, fern, nondi. nondei, fem. nondi. 

The accent of the past is on the second syllable. 

Past cond. nondau, fem. nondi; plur. nonde, feni. nondi. 

The accent of the past cond. is on ttie first syllable. 
The ending of the past cond. is -do after a sonant letter, 
and -to after a surd. These endings are changed to -do 
and -to after sh or cerebral letters : (also -dau, -dau, etc.) 

Pres. perf. : the past with the pres. of the verb subst. 
added — nondau i, etc. 

PI up. : the past with the past of the verb subst. added 
— nondau to, etc. Note initial n in past and past cond. 

dshno, come 

Imperat. ash, dshau. 

Pres. ind. and cond. ash-iii or -il, -ia, -e, -ini, -edn, -ei. 

Past dsho, fem. d.^i; plur. ash_e, fem. dshi. 

Pres. perf. d.^ho i, tlsho i, dshau e, dshe i, ashe i, dshe i. 

Past cond. dshto, fem. dskti ; plur. dshte, fem. asA/L 

ono, anno, be, become 

Imperat. ad: plur. au ; or adit, plur. auh. 
Pres. ind. aitd or auhu. 
Fut. auulau, auhulau. 

Past /tuo ( ft very long). 
Past cond. ondau. 



1G4 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

bush no, sit 
Imperat. bosh or bush, busho. 
Pres. ind. bushul. 
Fut. bushidau. 
Past cond. bushto. 

khano, eat 

Pres. ind. klid-u or -ut, -id, -e or -d, -wu, -e or -u, -e. 

Imperf. kha-u to, -a to, -a to, -l te, -e te, -a te. 

Fern, substitutes ti for to and te. 

Past, khdo. 

Stat. part, kltdiero, in the state of having been eaten. 

In transitive verbs the past tense agrees with the 
object. The actual conjugation of trans, and intrans. 
verbs is the same. 

pino, drink (% very long) 
Pres. ind. piUL. 
Past, pio. 
Stat. part, plero, in the state of having been drunk. 

deno, give 
Pres. ind. deH. 
Past, denau. 

bono, speak 
Pres. ind. bolu. 

Past cond. bodo (Hindi boltd). 
Past, bolau. 

konno, do 
Pres. ind. koru. 

Past cond. koddo (Hindi kdrtd). 
Past, Icorau. 

anno, bring 
Pres. ind. dnu. 
Past cond. dndo. 
Past, a/no. 



KOCI — KUARI DIALECT 165 

ijhlnno, take 



Pres. ind. gliinu. 

Past, ghlnau. 

Stat. part, ghlniero. 

lot no, fall 
Past cond. lottau. 
Past, lotau. 

bono, bauno, be able 
Pres. ind. bold. 
Past cond. baudo. 



166 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



SENTENCES 

1. Tero naU kd se? Thy name what is ? 

2. Eh goitre ri keti boshe I ? This horse of how -many 
years are ? 

3. ltd koi Kashmiri le keci dur e t Froni-here Kashmir 
to how-much far is ? 

4. Tere bdbd re keti beta ai ? Thy father of how-many 
sons is ? 

5. Au dura koi hdndo etrd. I far from walked to-day. 

6. Mere kdkkd ro beta is ri bauihni ri joneac kori. 
My uncle of son this of sister of marriage was-made. 

7. Gauhre ke shette gohre ri zin ai. House in white 
horse of saddle is. 

8. Eh ri -pitthi di koni zin. His back on tighten 
saddle. 

9. Mui esro beta bhaut mdro. By-me his son much 
was-beaten. 

10. Kdnde di gdi bdkri tsorae. Hill-top in cows goats 
he-is-grazing. 

11. Jo ddmi bikini zilii boshdndau gohre mdi. This 
man tree under seated horse upon. 

12. Nyas ro bald nyas bauihni koi borau ai. Him of 
brother him (of) sister than big is. 

13. Eh ro mol ciji athanni. This of price two and 
a half rupees (see note). 

14. Mero bdb lodde gauhre di thdke. My father small 
house in lives (or sits). 

15. Es ke rupai de. Him to rupees give. 

16. Rupai eh koi (es koi) dno. Rupees him from bring. 

17. Eh Ichub mdro lautiu koi bdnho. Him well beat 
ropes with tie. 

18. Kud koi p>dni gdro. Well from water draw. 

19. Mu koi age hand. Me from in-front walk. 



KOCI — KUARI DIALECT 1G7 

20. Tad pJtshu halt ro beta dshe. Thee behind whom 
of boy comes ? 

21. Tdi has hoi mol ano. By-thee whom from (in) 
price was-brought ? 

22. Naugre dl bania hoi ano. Village in shopkeeper 
from was-brought. 

Notes. — 1. se, is: s is common in the verb subst. in 
dialects of this region. 3. Iced, how much ; this form in 
€ is interesting, it occurs in Shina kacak or kacd and 
in Romany. 13. The expression clji dfhanni puzzles me. 
cvji seems to be a contraction of cljddhi (a half less than 
three ?) which is used in Jubbal State. In this case 
dthanni must be used for rupee instead of eight annas. 
.See the Jubbal dialects. 



168 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABULARY 



above ; see " upon ", " upwards". 

all, sdb, sok. 

ass, gddhau. 

backwards, pitshu. 

back, pith. 

bad, mondau. 

be, become, ono. 

bear, rlkh. 

beat, mdrno. 

beautiful, kJifib. 

bed, mdnzau. 

behind, pitshu. 

below, zllfi. 

beside, ke. 

beyond, par. 

big, bdro. 

bird, tsori. 

bitch, kukri. 

body, norde. 

book, kitdb. 

boy, nonno. 

bread, roti. 

bring, anno. 

brother, bdhl, bhdl. 

buffalo, vwlshi. 

bull, bolid ; young bull, gunda. 

buttermilk, shdsh. 

call, bono (= say). 

cat, blrdthaii, fern, blrdli. 

clotb, jtirko. 

cock, kilkra. 

cold, shelo. 

come, ashno. 

cow, gad. 

cowherd, g?(d£. 

cowhouse, d&ro. 



daughter, Ar//~. 

day, dilsau. 

die, morno. 

do, konno. 

dog, kukur. 

downwards, ?7?z<r7f. 

draw (water), gdrno. 

drink, pmo. 

dwell, thdkno. 

ear, konzaun. 

eat, khdno. 

egg, a#$i. 

eight, di/t ; eighth, dthfiau. 

eighteen, dtthara (accent on 

first), 
elephant, hdthi. 
eleven, tgara (accent on first), 
eye, dkkh. 
face, mu. 
fall, lotno. 
far, a^tr. 

father, bdbd, bob. 
field, diikhrau. 
fifteen, pondra. 
fight, ghumlno. 
fish, mdchi, mdtshi. 
five, pane ; fifth, pdntsuau. 
foot, bdiino. 
for, see " sake ". 
forward, age, dggw. 
four, £sdr ; fourth, tsdrilau. 
fourteen, tsouda. 
from, koi, ku. 

front, in front of, age, dggu. 
garment, jtirko. 
girl, nonni. 



KOCI KUA1U DIALECT 



169 



give, deno. 

go, ndndno. 

goat, bdkhrd, fern, bdkhri. 

good, feM6. 

graze, v. tr., tsbrano. 

ground, on the, dhaunl. 

hair, niundadl/, see "head". 

hand, dth. 

he, that, nan. 

head, mund; see "hair". 

hen, kukri. 

hence, i£a &cn. 

here, ltd, cttike; up to — -, ltd 

zau. 
hill, danduu. 
horse, gohro. 
hot, tdtau. 
house, gauhr. 
husband, boutd. 
I, (7/7. 
ill, be, wion dsh.no (illness to 

— come), 
in, dl, he. 
inside, mdnzedi. 
iron, Ion. 
is, at. 

jackal, shldl. 
jungle, konaun. 
kick, khurerl Idni, khiisJiitcri 

Idni. 
kind, of this — , law ; of that 

— , tau no; of what — ,kauno\ 

of which — (rel.), dzauno. 
lazy, jdndau. 
learn, slkno. 
leopard, bdhg. 
little, loddau ; a little, less, 

kd»i. 
live (dwell), thdkno. 



load, bat tan. 

look, dekhno. 

maize, vidlkaitni. 

make, cdnno. 

man, pilrlsh. 

mare, gdhri. 

married, be, jonSac k&nno. 

meat, mosaic. 

meet, bchtno. 

milk, dtldh. 

mother, dl. 

mountain, ddndau. 

much, so, etl ; so — correl. 

tetl ; how — , ketl ; as - 

(rel.), dzetl. 
my, mero. 
near, ncrl. 
never, kdddi na. 
night, rat. 
nine, nau. 
nineteen, finish. 
no, na. 
nose, ?za/c. 
not, na. 

nothing, kucch na. 
now, etra, ibbl. 
of, ?"0. 
oil, tel. 
on, mat. 
one, <?/w 
our, mdhro. 
outside, bdir. 
paper, ell ho. 
pen, kdlim. 
pig, suhijilr 
place, cdnno. 
plain, kJidtel. 
quickly, shdshdra. 
rain, dz6r. 



wild - — , baurd. 



170 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE II I MALA V AS 



read, pdrno. 

remain, thdkuo. 

rise up, thdddo uz'ino. 

river, nau. 

rope, lautl. 

saddle, zin. 

sake, for — of, ke le. 

say, boiio. 

second, dudzau. 

see, dekln.no. 

seed, blj. 

seven, sat; seventh, satuau. 

seventeen, sdttra. 

she, nau. 

sheep, behr. 

shepherd, bhediidl. 

side, on that — of, par. 

sister, behn, bauihn. 

sit, bushno. 

six, tsln.au ; sixth, tshouau. 

sixteen, sola. 

something, kucch. 

sometimes,' kdddl, kotrd kotra. 

son, beta. 

speak, bono. 

stable, obro. 

stand, thdddo ftzlno. 

star, tdrau. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, butt. 

stream, gdhd. 

sun, bogivdn ; sunshine, rur. 

sweet, mltho. 

take, take away, ghlnno. 

ten, daush. 

than, hoi. 

that, nau. 

then, tautrd. 

there, tauke. 



they, these, ne. 

thief, tsor. 

third, cljau. 

thirteen, {era. 

this, jo. 

thou, til. 

three, tin. 

thy, tero. 

tie, ba.nln.no. 

to, le, ke le. 

to-day, etrd. 

to-morrow, douti ; day after 

— , poHJvi ; on fourth day, 

nittoslu. 
tongue, dzlbh, jibh. 
tooth, ddnd. 
town, noger. 
tree, blkh. 
twelve, bar a. 
twenty, blsJi- 
two, dui. 
uncle, Jcahk. 
under, zllu. 
up, upwards, fibl. 
upon, mat. 
very, borl (different word from 

bdro, big), khfib. 
village, noger. 
walk, hand no. 
was, to. 
water, pdnl. 
way, bat. 
we, amine. 
well, adv., khilb. 
well, n., kild. 
what, ha. 
wheat, guih. 
when, kautrd (interr.) ; jautrd 

(rel.). 



KOCI — KUARI DIALECT 171 

where, kauke (inter.) ; dzanke with, along — , an; (instru- 

(rel.). mental), Jcoi. 

white, shetta. woman, ch&uer. 

who, kiln (inter.) ; jo (rel.). write, liUhrio. 

why, kolc. yesterday, bum ; day before — , 
wife, built i. jjhorcdz. 

wind, bag fir. you, tumme ; your, tUmdro. 



172 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



THE DIALECTS OF JUBBAL STATE 

Introduction 

Jubbal, or as it is called by its inhabitants Jubil, is one 
of the Simla States, and lies on the border of Garhwal 
(locally Gad-hwal) in the United Provinces. Two dialects 
are spoken within its bounds, one in the northern part of 
the State and one in the southern. The former is called 
Barari ; it is spoken in the small portion of Jubbal lying 
north of the narrow neck which divides the State into 
two parts, and south of the Rohru Tahsil of Rampur, also 
in the State of Rawigarh and in the adjoining part of 
Garhwal. It is identical with the dialect called Saracali. 
The latter, called Bishshau, is spoken in the southern 
and larger part of Jubbal and also in the adjoining 
district of Punar, which belongs to Kiuthal, and in Tarhoc. 
Immediately to the east of it is the Jaunsar district of the 
United Provinces, to the west is the State of Sirmaur, 
while to the north are spoken Kiuthali on the west and 
Biirarl on the east. 

Both the dialects show the dislike which Simla dialects 
generally have for aspirated sonants: thus the words ghora, 
horse ; dhi, daughter ; bhain (Panjabi-ized Urdu), sister, 
become in Barari goro, di'i, and bawihn, and in Bishshau 
gohro, dihi, and bauhn. The sound represented by ' is 
very remarkable. It is not unlike a mild 'ain or a strong 
glottal stop. When a word in Hindi contains an aspirated 
sonant, as in the words just given, the sonant loses its 
aspiration, and instead of it there appears after the vowel 
this strange ain-like sound. It is a phenomenon of 
considerable interest. The glottal stop is not very 
common in India, and generally when it occurs it appears 
to be more or less accidental. It corresponds to the 
hamza in Arabic as spoken by those whose vernacular is 
Arabic. It is heard also in German and in Scotch English. 



DIALECTS OF JUBBAL STATE 1 T-'i 

In Bishshau the sound of // is lost altogether in such 
circumstances, and what is written h is merely a high 
rising — falling tone. An account of it has been given in 
the Introduction to Kagani. Neither dialect has any 
objection to aspirating unvoiced or surd letters, as the 
prepositions khi, to, and khu, from (Bararl), and Iche, to 
(Bishshau), testify. In the Bishshau dialect one occasionally 
hears the ' of the northern dialect, but it is not so 
common, and when it is used, it is not so vigorously 
enunciated. 

BARARI 

Nouns 
In declension " of ", " to " and " from " are rendered by 
ru or rd, khi, and khu or da respectively. The plural is 
almost the same as the singular. 

Pronouns 

The 3rd pers. pron. has a special fern. obi. form in the 
sing., being tia for the remote and lau for the near 
pronoun. 

Adverbs 

The adverbs of place Ida, id, ichd, here ; teidd, ted, techd, 
there; keidd, Iced, kecJid, where (interr.), and jeidd, jed, 
jechd, where (rel.), are really adjectives agreeing with the 
nominative of the sentence. 

The words for "to-morrow " and "the day after", kdl, 
porshi, are distinguished from those for "yesterday" and 
" the. day before ", ///;, plirez. 

Verbs 

There is a negative form for the present of the verb 
subst., anthi, which, like all such forms, is indeclinable. 

The pres. ind. and pres. cond. are the same, and the 
future is formed by adding la (li, le, li) to it, while 
the imperf. ind. is formed by adding to it the past of 
the verb subst., fh m . 



174 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

There are two stat. part., one ending in -era for transitive 
verbs and one ending in -undaa for intransitive verbs. 
The former ending is frequently used as a separate word 
preceding the root of the verb. jd>jd, go, is used in 
composition with other verbs, while deuno expresses the 
action of going. 

The infinitive is a verbal noun and may be declined ; 
thus, tsdrne khi, for grazing, for the purpose of grazing. 

Ability is expressed by one of two verbal participles 
apparently passive, in -uo or -ua, and -Ida respectively. 
The subject of the sentence is put in the genitive, while 
the participle agrees with the logical object. 

mere roil na khdindi, I cannot eat bread. 

BISHSHAU 

Nouns . 
The prepositions for the gen., dat. and abl. are ho or ha 
or rd, hhe, and du respectively. 

Pronouns 
The fern. sing, oblique form for o, se. that, is tlo, and 
for edzo, this, is 16. 

Verbs 

There is an indeclinable negative form, dthl, for the 
present of the verb subst. 

The pres. ind. and pres. cond. are the same, but there 
is an alternative form for the pres. ind. The fut. and 
imperf.ind. are almost identical with the pres. cond. ; they 
add la (li, le, li) and the past verb subst., thia, etc. 
respectively. 

The stat. part, ends in -eru for transitive and -ondau 
for intransitive verbs; the ending -eru may be separated 
as in Barari. 

Ability is expressed by the pass. pres. part, in -idu, 
with the logical subject in the genitive, as mere edzo 



NORTH JUBBAL OR BARARI 175 

nlh erldu, I cannot do this, {erulu agr. w. nlzo); 
cf. Bararl above. 

In sentence 17 s is added as a pronominal suffix to 
indicate " him ", reminding us of the similar usage in North 
Panjabi. 

The words for "to-morrow" and "the day after" are 
dotte or jishi and pdrshi respectively, while "yesterday" 
is lujo, and " the day before " phorzu. 

NORTH JUBBAL OR BARARI 

Nouns 



Mascuh 


'itc. 








SlNC 


DLAR 


Plural 


Norn., 


Acc. 


go'r-o 


-e. 


Gen. 




-e ru. 


-e ru. 


Dat. 




-a khi. 


-e kin. 


Abl. 




-e Jehu or du. 


-e khu or du. 


Agent 




-c. 


-e. 


Nom., 


Ace. 


rlkh-, bear. 


rlkh-. 


Gen. 




-d ru. 


-d ru. 


Dat. 




-o khi. 


-d kiii. 


Abl. 




-6 khu or du. 


-d khu or du. 


Agent 




■e. 


■e. 


Feminine. 






Nom., 


Acc. 


ill' -I, daughter. 


-1. 


Gen. 




-id ra. 


■1 ru. 


Dat. 




-id khi. 


-l khi. 


Abl. 




-id khu or du. 


-1 khu or du. 


Agent 




■id. 


■ie. 


Nom., 


Acc. 


bauih-n, sister. 


-nl. 


Gen. 




-nl ru. 


-nl ru. 


Dat. 




-nl khi. 


-nl khi. 


Abl. 




-nl khu or du. 


-nl khu or du 


Agent 




■nl. 


■nu'. 



176 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 







Pronouns 




1st Pen 


son. 








Nom., 


Ace. 


ail, I. 




dmmc . 


Gen. 




meru. 




maru. 


Dat. 




mu, mu kJii. 




amu kJii. 


Abl. 




mu khu. 




aviu khu. 


Agent 




mile. 




amine. 


2nd Pe 


rson 








Nom., 


Act. 


til, thou. 




tile. 


Gen. 




teril. 




taru. 


Dat. 




tail, ta khi. 




tamu, tamu khi 


Abl. 




ta khu. 




tamu khu. 


Agent 




taue. 




tile. 


3rd Person. 








Nom., 


Ace. 


oso, he, she, 


that- 


oso. 


Gen. 




tes ril, te ril. 




tindril. 


Dat. 




te, tekhi, tes. 


, tes khi. 


tlnd khi. 


Abl. 




te khu, tes khu. 


find khu. 


Agent 




tene 




teye. 


For te we may have tell. 







The following cases of the fern. sing, differ from the 
masculine: Gen. tla ru. Dat. tid khi. Abl. tld khu. 
Agent, tid. 

Nom., Ace. cdza, this. edze. 

Gen. eh ril, cs ru. ind ril. 

Dat. e, eh khi, es, es khi. In, In khi. 

Abl. e khu, es khu. In khu. 

Agent ene. eye. 

Fem. sing., Nom.. Ace. edze. Gen. lau ru. Dat. lau Ich i. 
Abl. lau khu. Agent lau. 

Nom., Ace. lean, who. Gen. kauh ru. Plural same as 
singular. 

Nom. dzu, ju, who (relative). je. 

Gen. je ra, jes ra. jlnd ru. 

Dat. je khi, jes khi. jin, jln khi. 

Abl. je khu, jes khu. jin khu. 

Agent jene. jeye. 



NORTH JUBBAL OR BARAR1 



177 



Fern, sing., Gen.^'io ra, etc. 

ha, what. 

kicch, something. 



Pro xom i n a l A n j ect i v es 

ino,oi this kind : tlno, of that kind ; lcvno,oi what kind ' 
jfi/o, of which kind (rel.). 

eti, so much or many ; tetl, so much or many (correl.); 
keti, how much or many ? jetl, as much or many (rel.). 



Adjectives 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. Other- 
wise those ending in -d agree with their nouns, the 
masc. sing, and all the masc. plur. ending in -e, and the 
fern, both sing, and plur. in -i. This i sometimes 
changes to e. The rest are indeclinable. 

Comparison is expressed by means of dn with the 
positive, there being no forms for the comparative and 
superlative. 

e tdto 6, this is hot. 

e es da tdto o, this is hot from this, hotter than this. 

e bdddhe du tdto 6, this is hot from all, hotter than all, 
hottest. 

Adverbs 



Time 



ebre, ebbi, now. 

taubre, tobbe. 

Jcaubre, Icqbbe, when ? 

jaubre, jdbbe, when (rel.). 

adz, to-day. 

Jcdl, to-morrow. 

porshi, day after to-morrow. 

tsouthe, on fourth day. 



hiz, yesterday. 

phrez, yesterday, da\- before. 

tsouthe, on fourth day back. 

Jcdbbe, sometimes. 

Icobe kobe, some time or other, 

sometimes. 
Jcdbbe na, never. 



178 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Place 
*idd, *id, *lcha } here. bdhre, outside. 

Heidd, *ted, *techd, there. dbhd, upwards. 
*keidd, *lced, *ked, *kecha, did, downwards. 

where ? nero, near. 

*jeidd, *jed, *jechd, where dur, far. 

(rel.). goi%, ago, forward, in front. 

ichd tdi, up to here. tshoh, backwards. 

itthau, from here. 'pare, porti, beyond. 

bltre, inside. war, ord, on this side. 

Otliers 
kedi, why ? 6, yes. 

plieti, quickly. khub, accho, well. 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. 

The adverbs marked with an asterisk agree with the 
subject of the sentence. 

pord, thither, and ord, hither, are often used with little 
meaning, as : — 

mdiig ord, ask hither, ask for it. 

de pord, give thither, give it to him. 

de ord, give hither, give it to me. 

Prepositions 
(Normally used after the nouns and pronouns.) 
khi, to. khe, beside. 

Jehu, from. sdthi, sdttJte, along with. 

dd, from. Ichi, khe, for sake of. 

pare, on the other side of. da, de, in. 
war, on this side of. gal, upon. 

patslin, behind. ntthd, below. 

ago, in front of. mandz, in. 

da, with (instru.). 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 

Pres. osso or o. osso or o. 

osse or o. osso or 6. 

osso or 6. ossoe or de. 



NORTH JUBBAL OR RARAR1 179 

Neg. mil anthi, ni anthi, indeclinable. 



Past, thld, fern. 


tli i. 


thie, fem. thJ. 


Ih la, fern. 


il» 1. 


title, fem. tin. 


thhl, fem. 


till. 

porno, fall. 


title, fem. tltl. 


Imperat. pdr 




p>6ro or pfrrau 


Pres. ind. and pres. cond. : 




por-U. 




-u. 


-€. 




-au. 


-au. 




-au. 


The fut. adds -la, 


-li, -le, -li. 




Fut. par- did, fem. 


-lilt. 


-file, fem. -uli. 


-eld, fem. 


-eli. 


-die, fem. -o£i. 


-old, fem. 


-oli. 


-Die, fem. -o££. 



Imperf. same as pres. ind. with past of verb subst. 
added (contracted in masc.) ; 1st sing.^oru. thd, fem. pSrv. 
thi ; 2nd sing, pore thd, pore tltl, etc. 

Past : — masc. sing, pord, fem. pore ; plur. masc. pore, 
fem. p6ri. 

Plup. : — past with past of verb subst. pord thd, fem. pore 
th I, etc. 

Past cond. : — masc. sing, pordd, fem. porde ; plur. masc. 
ptirde, fem. pordi. 

Conj. part, poreau, having fallen. 

ono, be, become 



Imperat. o 


o'au. 


Pres. ind. on. 




Fut. o'ula. 




Past cond. findd. 




Past, u'o. 






dno, come 


Imperat. a. 


ao. 



Neg. iici a. ni aid. 
Past cond. dndd. 
Past, cici or ds/fd. 



180 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



deuno, go 
Imperat. deo. deo. 

Fut. defdd, deulau. deule. 

dewela. deole. 

deola. deole. 

Past cond. deuvda. 
Past, deda. 

jano, go 
(Used in composition with other verbs.) 



Imperat. ja. 
Fut. jduld. 
Past cond. jdndd. 
Past, god. 

Fut. muhida. 



jao. 

vault no, remain 
buthvo, sit 



buttho. 



Imperat. buth. 

Past cond. buthdd. 

Fut. butthuld. 

Past, botthd. 

Stat. part, botlwndd, in the state of having sat, seated. 

pihio, beat 
Conjugation same as for porno. In the past tenses of 
transitive verbs the verb agrees with the subject. 

Imperat. pit. ^.n^x. 

Pres. ind. or cond. pltu. 

Fut. pltula. 

Imperf. pitd thd. 

Past. cond. pitdd. 

Past, pitd. 

Pres. perf. pitd ai. 

Plup. pild thd. 

Jchdno, eat 
Stat. part, khdru, in the state of having been eaten. 



NORTH JUBBAL OR BARAK! J 81 



Stat. part, pleru. 

Fut. deal it. 
Past cond. dlnda. 
Past, dind. 
Stat. part, deeru. 

Fut. lauida. 

Past cond. laundd. 

Stat. part, laueru. 

Past cond. edda. 
Past ero. 

Past cond. kordd. 
Past, Ho. 

Past cond. jdndd. 

Past cond. andd. 
Past, cT»o. 



pvno, drink 
cZe»o, give 



it tt no, take 

erno, do 
k&rno, do 

jdnno, knew 
anno, bring 



n-mOj take away 
Past cond. nindd. 
Past, ?i to. 
Stat. part, nlern. 

In the stat. part, the ending erifc is frequently separated 
from the root of the verb and placed before it; thus we 
have eru pie for pieru, drunk ; eru de for deeru, given ; 
eru laue for laueru, taken. 

In negative sentences the past cond. is used for the 
pres. hid. 

Purpose: take to graze, tsdrne hhi neo, lit. grazing for 
take-away; tsdrde deo, grazing go, take to graze. 

Contraction. — In rapid speech words are much con- 
tracted, thus : Jcauh rd o'ld edza tshotd, whose is this boy ? 
is pronounced kauhra ladza tshotd. 



182 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Ability. — The following sentences show the method of 
expressing ability : — 

mere na deilo, I cannot give. 

esre na jiortio, he cannot read. 

edza kitdb mere na purida or porRa, I cannot read 
this book. 

mere na rati khalndi, I cannot eat bread. 

bat mere khaio, I can eat rice. 

Hence we see an example of an organic passive, though 
the passive construction is confined to the participle. 
It ends in either -ido or -uo (the -lo of khaio is 
exceptional). Verbs whose roots ends in a vowel insert 
n in Ida, as in lehainda. The particle agrees with the 
noun in gender and number ; thus roll is feminine, while 
kitdb and belt are masculine. Cf. Panjabi khaida, and 
also the Panjabi passive verb Ichalna, to be eaten. 

Numerals 
Cardinal 



1. eh 

2. dm. 

3. cin. 

4. tsar. 

5. pane. 

6. tshau. 

7. sat. 

8. ath. 

9. nan. 

10. daush. 

11. gero. 

1st. paihlau. 
2nd. dujjau, dujja. 
3rd. cJJjd. 
4th. tsoutlid. 
5th. panjuau. 

1£ deorh. 



12. baro. 

13. fero. 

14. tsoudau. 

15. pundrau. 

16. solau. 

17. suttrau. 

1 8. tharau. 

19. unish. 

20. &Ss£. 
100. s/iau. 



Ordinals 



6th. tshouau. 

7 th. sdtuau. 

8th. athuau. 

9th. nouau. 

10th. doshuau. 

2 A fZd'e. 



NORTE JUBBAL OR BARARI 183 



SENTENCES 

1. Tero nail ka so or usso? Thy name what is ? 

2. E gore ri ketti ombar ole ? This horse of how-much 
age will be ? 

3. Itthau Kashmir keti dur 61 From-here Kashmir 
how-much far is ? 

4. Tare bappo re ketti lurke ? Your father of how- 
many boys ? 

5. AH adz dfiro du hondeo. I to-day far from walked. 
G. Mere hake ra beta tehri bauhnl sCitlti dzddznd oa. 

My uncle of son his sister with married became. 

7. Gauhro de tslte dzlu gore rl. House in white 
saddle horse of. 

8. Ehri pltihe gal dzvn koshau. His back upon 
saddle tighten. 

9. Mue teh re tshote dl khub lal. By-me him of boy 
on w T ell attached-was (i.e. beat). 

10. Pai'ro ri tiro dl goru be re tsdro. Hill of top 
on cows sheep he-is-grazing. 

11. E bikho nitha gore gal botltonda thla. He tree 
under horse upon seated was. 

12. Ek ra bal dpnl bauhnl da jet ha. This of brother 
own sister than elder. 

13. Eh ra mfil cljje (haunt. This-of price two-and- 
a-half rupees (see note). 

14. Merd bap tshote gau'ro di ratio. My father small 
house in remains (lives). 

15. E rupuye deo. Him-to rupees give. 

1G. Es du dru mdngu rupoye. Him from hither ask 
rupees. 

17. Es khub pl/eait rftshio da baunho. Him well 
having-beaten ropes with tie. 

18. Kite du panl dru gdro. Well from water hither 
draw. 



184 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

19. Mil khu ago ccilo. Me from before walk. 

20. Kauh rd tsliotd tare patshu do ? Whom of boy 
your behind comes ? 

21. Tue Icau Jche laud mulle. By -you whom from 
was-taken in price. 

22. Gaud re dtlkanddro du lauu or glnu. Village of 
shopkeeper from was taken. 

Notes. — 2. o'le, final e and i are often interchanged, this 
might be oli. 7. gauhro, the influence of neighbouring 
dialects is responsible for the introduction of h here, 
gauhro for gau'ro. 9. Idi agreeing with some word for 
blow understood, Hindi lagdl. 10. goru, collective word, 
cattle. 11. bothondd, stat. part., seated. 13. cijje 
thanni, see note on this sentence in the Kuar dialect. 



NORTH JUI'.I'.AL OR HARARI 



185 



VOCA 

above, see "upon", upwards" 
all, bdddhe. 

ass, kJidtsur, gdddltd. 

back, pltth. 

backwards, tshdu, pdtshn. 

bad, kit t hand. 

be, become, ono. 

bear, n., rlkJt, bonsor. 

beat, pitno. 

beautiful, atshd, bdnthnid. 

bed, mdnzd, pdlag. 

before, gou, ago. 

behind, pdtshu. 

below, tit a, nithd. 

beside, lehe. 

beyond, par. 

big, boro. 

bitch, ktlkrS., 

body, jaid. 

book, kttdb, kdtdb. 

boy, tshotd. 

bread, ndz, roll. 

bring, anno. 

brother, bd'e. 

buffalo, mau ish. 

bull, bulod. 

buttermilk, cash. 

call, budno (not -no). 

camel, tttt. 

cat, m.j dhattndhd ; i'., blrdli. 

cloth, juried. 

cock, kukltrd. 

cold, adj., shclo. 

come, dno. 

cow, (jdo (col., cattle, goru). 

cowherd, gal Id. 



KULAK Y 

daughter, dii, tshdnti, chdnti. 

day, dfts. 

die, morno. 

do, erno, kdrno. 

dog, ktlktir. 

downwards, tlUl. 

draw (water), gdrno. 

drink, plno ; cause to drink, 

peono. ' 
ear, lean. 

eat, kltdno ; cause to eat, khedno. 
egg, pmrai. 

eight, (7/// ; eighth, dthuau. 
eighteen, tltdrau. 
elephant, lidtthe. 
eleven, gi.ro. 
eye, dkkhl. 
face, vi alt. 
fall, pdrno. 
far, #fir. 

father, bdbbd, bap. 
field, fcTiec, pdtri. 
fifteen, pdndraa. 
fight, pl(no. 
fish, mucchl. 

live, pane; fifth, panjftati. 
foot, /«/ ; see " leg", 
four, /.<wr; fourth, tsouthd. 
fourteen, tsdiidau. 
from, A7(M, (/». 
front, in — of, «(/o. 
fruit, £>//<//. 
garment, juried. 
ghi, jfi«. 

girl, tshdnti, chdnti, tshoti, 
give, (/<'«o. 



186' 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



go, deiinojdno (in composition), 
goat, bakra ; f., bakrl. 
good, atshd, banijnria. 
graze, v. intr., tsdmo ; s. tr., 

tsdrno. 
hair, mandal. 
hand, /m^/i. 

hasten, phet dini (not dlni). 
he, 6s6. 
lieatl, mund. 
hear, shiinno. 
hen, kukhrg. \ 

hence, itthau. 
here, £c?a, la, iWa< ; up to here, 

7<*/a7 tal. 
high, wc£#. 

hill, pair; hilltop, tJr. 
horse, go'ro. 
hot, /aio, neto. 
house, gaur. 
hundred, shau. 
husband, boiltd. 
I, du. 

ignorant, dzdgor. 
ill, be, thaurno. 
in, mdndz. 
inside, bltre. 
iron, Zdw. 
jackal, shailto. 
jungle, baun. 
kick, n.,2ncJiairlc; \.,pichairJe 

lano. 
kind, of this, Jno ; of that — , 

tlno ; of what — , kino ; of 

which — , (rel.) jlno. 
know, jdnno. 
lazy, daliddar. 
learn, slkhno. 
leg, bdnno. 



leopard, bdJig. 

lie, sutno. 

little, lokro, tslioto; a little, 

load, b&gar. 

look, dckhno. 

maize, 6e/rZ. 

make, cdnno. 

man, mdrdd. 

mare, go ri. 

married, be, dzddznd 6 no. 

meat, dolkl. 

meet, behtno. 

milk, dfidh. 

moon, dzfin. 

mother, ijji. 

mountain, pair. 

much, (a lot) bo'rl (not r); so 

much, etl ; (correl.), tetl ; 

how much ? ketl ; as much 

(rel.), jetl. 
my, merit. 
name, wa#. 
never, kobbe na. 
night, nehro, rat. 
nine, nan; ninth, ndilait. 
nineteen, iinlsh- 
no, na. 
nose, ndk. 
not, 7jft. 

nothing, A:7cc7i na. 
now, Ti&re, t"6iZ. 
of, ru. 
oil, £t~/. 

older (brother, etc.), jethd. 
on, {/at. 
one, ck ; first — , paihlau ; 

one-and-half, dcorh. 
our, wia r77. 



NORTH JUBBAL OR BARAR1 



187 



out, bdhre. 

peach, aril (not aril). 

pen, kdldm. 

pig, sungur. 

place, v., tshdrno. 

plain, nlill 

plough, bdldo jiindno. 

quickly, pheti. 

rain, dzaur. 

read, porhno, pdrno. 

recognize, prainno. 

relate, shiindno. 

remain, ran' no, rauno. 

rent, n. (hire), bdhrd. 

return, ptitshi dno. 

rise, biuzno. 

river, dreo. 

rope, rdshi. 

saddle, dzln. 

sake, for sake of, khi, kite. 

say, bohjo. 

see, dckhno. 

seed, blj. 

seven, sat] seventh, sat nan. 

seventeen, sottrau. 

sharp, polnaii. 

she, 6so. 

sheep, behr. 

shepherd, bdrd'ld. 

shopkeeper, diikdnddr. 

sick, he, thaurno. 

side, on this — of, lodr; on 
that — of, pare. 

sister (older than person re- 
ferred to), ddddi ; younger 
than do., bauihn. 

sit, bilthno. 

six, tsJiau ; sixth, tshduau. 

sixteen, solan. 



sleep, siit no. 

something, klccJt. 

sometimes, kdbbe, kdbe kobe. 

son, tshotd, beta. 

sow, v., bauno. 

speak, bolno. 

stand, khdrd o'no. 

star, tdrd. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, shdrgi. 

stream, nauS. 

strong man, mor. 

sun, pdnesitr; sunshine, rt'iy. 

sweet, gill do. 

take, glnno, launo ; take away, 

■nino. 
ten, daush ; tenth, ddshilau. 
than, du. 
that, Ss5. 

then, taubre, tdbbe. 
there, ted, teidd, techd ; up to 

there, techd tat. 
they, oso. 
thief, co/ - . 
thirteen, icro. 
this, crfM. 
thou, tu. 

three, cm ; third, cljjd. 
thy, /<t//. 
tie, baunhno. 
tighten, kdshno. 
to, /.:///. 
to-day, '/'/:. 
to-morrow, kdl; day after — , 

pdrshi ; on fourth day. 

tsouthe. 
tongue, dzibh, jlbh. 
tooth, ddlld. 
town, graur. 



188 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



tree, bikh. 

twelve, bdro. 
twenty, blsh. 
two, dui ; two and a half, dae ; 

second, dujja, diijjau. 
uncle, kdko. 
under, nitha. 
up, upwards, ilbhd. 
upon, gdi. 
very, borl (not r). 
village, gad. 
walk, hand no. 
was, thla, thd. 
water, pdni. 
way, bat. 
we, dmme. 
well, adv., khilb. 
well, n., kud. 
what, kd. 

wheat, giuh. 



when? kaubre, kobbe ; (rel.), 

jaubre, jdbbe. 
where? ken, ked, keidd; (rel.), 

jed, jeidd, jechd. 
white, tsitd. 

who? kfin; (rel.)i dzU, ju. 
why ? kedi. 
wife, cheori. 
wind, bag fir. 
wise, atshd. 
with, (along with), sathi, sdtthe 

(instru.), da. 
woman, cheori. 
write, llkJtno. 
yes, o. 
yesterday, /u£ ; day hefore — , 

phrez ; on fourth day back, 

tsouthe. 
you, tile; your, id'ni. 



SOUTH JUBBAL OR BISHSHAU 



189 



SOUTH JUBBAL OR BISHSHAU 

Nouns 



Ma sea I 


uc. 










Singular 




Plural 


Nom., 


Ace. 


gohr-o, horse (almost, 
gUhro). 




-c. 


Gen. 




-c ko. 




-c ko. 


Dat. 




-c, -c khc. 




-c, -e klir 


Al.l. 




-c dil. 




-e dil. 


Agent 




-c. 




-e. 


Nom., 


Ace. 


rikh-, bear. 


rikh 




Gen . 




-o ko, kd. 




-o ko, kd. 


Dat. 




-o khe. 




-o khe. 


Abl. 




-0 (111. 




-0 (111. 


Agent 




-e. 




■e. 



Feminine. 

Nom., Ace. dddd-i, big sister. -i. 

Gen. -I rd, -I kd. -I rd, ro. 

Dat. -I, -l khe. -I khc. 

Abl. -I dil. -I dil. 

Agent -le. -le. 

dili-%, daughter, lias: Gen. -o rd, kd. Dat. -%, -I khe. 
Abl. -I du. Agent, -e. Plur. -I. Gen. -i ro, rd. Dat. ->, 
-I khe. Abl. -I du. Agent, -e. 

Nom., Ace. bauhn-, little sister. -I. 

Gen. -e rd, ro, -i rd, ro." 

Dat. -i, -i khc. 

Abl. -I dil. 

Agent -le. 



as sing. 



Pronouns 



Nom., Ace. dfi, I. 
Gen. view. 

Dat. mu. 

Abl. mu kci dil. 

Agent vide. 



dmmS, we. 
drama nl. 

a mil. 
dm ft dil. 
amd. 



190 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FltOM THE HIMALAYAS 



Nom. 


til, thou. 


Gen. 


tero. 


Dat. 


ta. 


Abl. 


ta dil. 


Agent 


taue. 


Nom., Ace 


. 6, sc, he, that 


Gen. 


tcnl. 


Dat. 


tes. 


Abl. 


tes dil. 


Agent 


tennc. 


Fein, has : 


Gen. tlo ko. 



tie; plur. as masc. 

Nom., Ace. edzo, e, this. 
Gen. e ko, es ko. 

Dat. es. 

Abl. es dil. 

Agent enne. 



tue, you. 
tuo ko. 
tub. 
tub dil. 
tile. 

6, sc. 
tend i ko. 
tenni. 
ten dil. 
tennla. 

Dat. tio. Abl. tiddu. A^ent 



edzc. 
endl ko. 
ennl. 
en dil. 
cnnhl. 

Dat. id. Abl. id du. 



Fern., Nom. edze, e. Gen. id ko 
Agent, ie. Plur. Nom. edze. Otherwise as masculine. 
Icun, who? 

Gen. kos kit, etc. 
Agent, Jcone. 
Who (rel.) is dzu ; what (interrog.) is kd. 

Adjective Pronouns 

erfi, of this kind; terii, of that kind; leer a, of what 
kind ? jerU, of which kind (rel.). 

ethtii, so much or many; tetJdu, so much or many 
(correl.) ; kethtii, how much or many ? jethtu,a,s much or 
many (rel.). 

Adjectives 
As regards agreement adjectives follow the same rule 
as in North Jubbal, not being declined except (i) when 
used as nouns, in which case they are treated as nouns 
and declined accordingly, or(ii) when ending in the usual 
masculine ending -a, -o, etc., in which case the masculine 



SOUTH JUBBAL OR BISHSHAU 1 !> 1 

has nom. sing, -a, -o, etc., and all the rest -e, feminine all 
through -i. 

Comparison is expressed b}^ means of du, from, as : 
e atsha 8sau, this is {rood ; e es du atsha osau, this is good 
from this, i.e. better ; bdddJie du atsha, good from all, best. 

Adverbs 
Time 
eb, now. porshi, day after to-morrow. 

tekhuni, then. tsouthe, on fourth day. 

tube, then. hijo, yesterday. 

kube, when ? phorzo, day before yesterday. 

jekhuni, when (rel.). tsouthe, on fourth day back. 

jube, when (rel.). kube kube, some time or other, 

az, to-day. sometimes. 

kubi, sometimes. kube na, never. 

dotte, jishi, to-morrow. 







Place 


Ittha, here. 




ddhc, downwards. 


tetthd, there. 




nire, near. 


kettha, where ? 




dur, far. 


jettltd, where (rel 


•)• 


agu, in front. 


it (lie zii, up to here, 


patshu, behind. 


itth n, from here. 




pa/nde, beyond. 


bitlie, inside. 




dnde, on this side. 


bdinde, outside. 




dnuinda, on the ground. 


ubhe, upwards. 




Otliers 


Jcei, why ? 




6, yes. 


fJlige, quickly. 




Prepositions 


ro, rd, ko, of. 




uithd, below. 


khe, to. 




gashp, upon. 


du, from. 




da, dr, in. 


kav, beside. 




za, up to. 



192 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

sdtthe, along with. dnde, on this side of. 

khe, for, for sake of. dgu, du dgu, in front of. 

pdnde, on that side of. p&tshe, behind. 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 
osn or o, am. osau or o, are. 

ose or e, art. osau or o, are. 

osau or o, is. osau or o, are. 

Neg. ill ti^/u, indeclinable. 

Past, masc. sing, thia ; fern. sing, thi ; plur., masc. sing. 
thie ; fern. ('//y. 

pl(no, beat 
Imperat. /)7/. ^f/o. 

Pres. ind. or cond. pit-ua. -we. 

-e. -au. 

-an. -au. 

pitda, H, etc., also used for pres. ind. 
Fut. pit-ula, -eld, -old, -file, -die, -die. Fern, ends in -i. 
Imperf. pita thia, ptte thia, pitau tJtid, pita thie, pitau 
tide, pitau thie; fern, same with th%\ for imperf. pitda 
thid, etc., is also used. 

Past cond. pitda ; feni. pitdi ; plur. pitde ; fern, pitdi. 

Past, pita, agreeing with obj. (-e ; fem. -i). 

Plup. pita thia, etc. 

Conj. part, piilau, having beaten. 

Stat. part, piteru, having been beaten. 

■pitde means while beating or on beating. 

o'no, be, become 
(The ' is not so marked as in North Jubbal.) 
Past, du. 
Past cond. ondd. 

djno, come 
Imperat. dje djau (accent on second syllable). 
Pres. ind. or cond. djiid. 
Past. cond. dzhdd. 
Past, djd. 



SOUTH JUBBAL OH BISHSHAU 193 

deuno, go 
Pres. ind. dead. 

Fut. de-tlld, -Id, -old, -file, -olc, -ole. 
Past. cond. deoda. 
Past, ded. 

jdno, go (used in composition) 

Past, god. 

bothno, sit 
I in pe rat. both. 
Fut. bothald. 
Past, bdtthd 

klidno, eat 
Pres. ind. khdud or klidndd u. 
Past, Jchdu. 
Stat. part, khderu. 

pino, drink 
Pres. ind. ^<<7d or pindd u. 
Past, p-m. 
Stat. part, pleru. 

Pres. ind. dead. 
Past cond. dendd. 
Past, dlttd. 
Stat. part, deiern. 

Past, froZu. 

Stat. part, boleru. 

Pres. ind. IcSrii. 

Past, &$o. 

Stat. part, kuriera. 

Past cond. duda. 
Stat. part, nleru. 



deno, give 



bolno, speak 
konno, do 

anno, bring 
n£«o, take away 



1 L> 4- LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

The stat. part, in -era is often heard with -era pre- 
ceding the root of the verb, as eru kori, done, for Icorieru; 
era del, given, for deter u. 

Ability is expressed as follows : — 

mere nlh deindu, I cannot give. 

mere roti nlh khdindi, I cannot eat bread. 

m ere ndz kltalnda, I can eat bread. 

mere nlh erldu, I cannot do. 

See corresponding note in North Jubbal. 

To indicate a question -e is added to the verb. 

Numerals 

Cardinal 

1. eh. 12. bdrau. 

2. da. 13. terau. 

3. cln. 14. tsoadau. 

4. tsar. 15. pdndrau. 

5. pdnz. 16. solau. 

6. tsliaa. 17. sattrau. 

7. sdi. 18. thdraa. 

8. d.^/i. 19. onish. 

9. -Hait. 20. fosft. 

10. daush. 100. 4(/(. 

11. giarau. 

Ordinals 
1st. paihlau. 6th. tshouau. 

2nd. dajjau. 7th. sdtuau. 

3rd. cljjau. 8th. dthuau. 

4th. tsouthau. 9th. noiiau. 

5th. pdnzdau. 10th. doshuau. 

lh dajddha. 2h cijddhd. 

These strange expressions seem to mean " a half less 
than", like the English expressions half seven, half eight, 
etc., which some people use for half-past six, half-past 
seven, etc. 



SOUTH JUBBAL OH HISHSHAU 195 



SENTENCES 

1. Tero uda kd o? Thy name what is ? 

2. Es gohre ri or ki kethti ombdr o? This horse of 
how-much age is ? 

3. Itthe du K&shmire zd kethto dur ai? Here from 
Kashmir to how-much far is ? 

4. Tere bdbbd re ketl tshote ? Thy father of how-many 
boys ? 

5. Adz da bare dare da djjd. To-day I very far from 
came. 

6. Mere JcdkJce rd tsliotd es ri bauhni sdtthe bidlid od. 
M}' uncle of boy him of sister with married became. 

7. Gauhre tsitte gohre ri zin o. House-in white horse 
of saddle is. 

8. Es ri pittite gashe zin baunho. Him of back upon 
saddle tie. 

9. Moe es rd tshotd khibb pita. By-me him of boy 
well was-beaten. 

10. Dodlco di gdo bdkritsdrau. Hill-top on cows goats 
he-is-grazing. 

11. Es ddlo nithd gohre gashe bothd. This tree under 
horse upon he-sat. 

1 2. Es rd baih dpni bauhni da bora o. Him of brother 
sister than big is. 

13. Es ru mul Cijje tjthxnui o. This of price two- 
and-a-half rupees (see note). 

14. Mera bah n&nhke gauhrd da rauho. My father 
small house in remains (lives). 

15. Es rapuyye deo. Him-to rupees give. 

16. Es dil tolo korau rupbyye. Him from back make 
rupees (take back ). 

17. Khub pitau-8 ttibbe b&nnho. Well beat-him, then 
I ie I him ). 



19(5 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

18. Km du pani (Jdro. Well from water draw. 

19. Mu dfi age tsdlo. Me from before go. 

20. Kos rd tshotd djjd tail p&tshe? Whom of boy (has) 
come thee behind ? 

21. Tau kos du dno mall By thee whom from was- 
brought (in) price ? 

22. Gad du elcki diihdnddra kaundu dno. Village 
from one shopkeeper from was-brought. 

Notes. — 13. See note in North Jubbal and Kuar. 
17. The s is interesting ; such pronominal suffixes are 
very common in Northern Panjabi and Laihndi. 22. elckl, 
inflected form of ek, one. The same form is found in 
Panjabi. 



NORTH JUBBAL OR BISHSHAU 



19* 



VOCABULARY 



above ; see up , upon . 

all, bdddhe. 

ass, gdddha. 

back, pitth. 

backwards, pdtshu, pdtshe. 

bad, mkdmmd. 

be, become, o'no. 

bear, rikk. 

beat, pltno. 

beautiful, bdnthld. 

bed, mama. 

before, dgu. 

behind, pdtshu, pdtshe. 

below, nlthd, (adv.) udhe. 

beside, kau. 

beyond, pdnde. 

big, bdro, bdro. 

bitch, kilkrh 

body, sarlr. 

hook, kdtdb. 

boy, tshota. 

bread, was, roil. 

bring, anwo. 

brother, bath, (older) ddddd. 

buffalo, mhauish. 

bul\,bdldd. 

buttermilk, skdsh. 

buy, wwZ anno. 

call, bodno (not »). 

cat, birdl-a, fern. -c. 

cock, kllkrd. 

cold, she la. 

come, <7j?iO. 

cow. jjfao. 

cow herd, gtidld. 

daughter, dlhi, tshoti. 



day, rfws. 

die, murno. 

do, erwo, konno. 

dog, kfikur. 

downwards, udhe. 

draw (water), gdrno. 

drink, p$#o ; cause to — , pid?io. 

ear, kdn. 

eat, khdno; cause to — , khxdno. 

eight, dth ; eighth, dthilau. 

eighteen, thdrau. 

elephant, dhthl. 

eleven, gulrau. 

eye, a kit. 

face, wmfe. 

fall, porno. 

far, r//7r. 

father, bdbbd. 

field, khecau. 

fifteen, pondrau. 

fight, lorno. 

first, paihlau. 

fish, mdchi. 

five, jraw2 ; fifth, pdnzuau. 

foot, /»/. 

forwards, agfw. 

four, /!.$«>■; fourth, tsduthau. 

fourteen, tsoudau. 

from, <&£. 

front, in, agrw. 

fruit, ?)/j<5/. 

ghi, (///</;. 

girl, tshoti. 

give, Jcwo. 

go, deuno ; in compos, jano. 

goat, bdkr-d, fern. -*. 



L98 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



good, atsha. 

graze, tr., tsarno ; int., tsdrno. 

ground, on the, domlnda. 

hair, munddlo. 

hand, dhth. 

he, o, sc. 

head, munoZ. 

hear, shunno. 

hen, kukri. 

hence, itthu. 

here, i^/fra ; up to — , Uthd za. 

hill, rtVo. 

hilltop, ddilk. 

horse, gohro. 

hot, nidtu. 

house, tdpra, gau'r, gauhr. 

hundred, sh.au. 

husband, bantd. 

I, a?I 

ignorant, jdgor. 

in, da, «"£. 

inside, blthe. 

iron, Zo/z?7. 

jackal, sail. 

jungle, gdhl. 

kind, of this, eru ; of that — , 
teril ; of what — '? keril ; of 
which — (rel.), jeru. 

lazy, alsi. 

learn, shlkhno. 

leopard, bdhg. 

lie, sutno. 

little, nanhko, nanhko. 

load, bdhrd. 

look, dekhno. 

maize, kukri. 

make, cawwo. 

man, admi. 

mare, gohri. 



married, be, bidhd o'no. 

meat, dnlkl . 

meet, bhetno. 

milk, dudh. 

moon, dziln. 

mother, Ijji. 

mountain, do g. 

much, so, ethtu ; so — (correl.), 

tetJitu ; how — ? kethttl ; as 

— (rel.), jethtfi. 
my, mero. 
name, nail. 
near, wire. 
never, kobe na. 
night, rat. 

nine, nau ; ninth, ncuau. 
nineteen, onlsh. 
no, na. 
nose, ndk. 
not, ?za, ?*?//. 
now, eb. 

of, ro, m, &o, ka. 
oil, ^t 7 /. 
on, gasJic. 
one, ^/c. 

one and a half, dujddha. 
our, amma ru. 
outside, bdlnde. 
pen, kolom. 
pig, sungur. 
place, v., tshdrno. 
plain, n., so. 
plough, aid jundno. 
quickly, shigc. 
rain, n., dzaur. 
read, porno. 
remain, rauhno. 
river, nan. 
saddle, zln. 



NORTH JUKBAL OR B1SHSHAU 



199 



sake, for sake of, khe. 

say, bolrto. 

see, dekhno. 

seed, l>i j. 

seven, sett ; seventh, sdtuau. 

seventeen, sattrau. 

sharp, pdlnau. 

she, 6, se. 

sheep, bair. 

shepherd, behrdla, b&krdla. 

shopkeeper, dUkdnddr. 

side, on this side of, ancle; on 
the far side of, pdtjde. 

sister, older than person re- 
ferred to, ddddi ; younger 
than do., Ixiulin. 

sit, botjino. 

six, t shan; sixth, tshouau. 

sixteen, solan. 

sleep, sutno. 
' sometimes, kobe, kobh 

son, tshotd. 

sow, bono. 

speak, boluo. 

star, tdra. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, ban iila. 

stream, gahd. 

strong, tsheora. 

sun, suruz. 

sunshine, dauh. 

sweet, gUluo. 

take away, nhio. 

ten, daush; tenth, ddshftau. 

than, du. 

then, tekhunl, tdbc. 

there, tetthd. 

they, 6, se. 

thief, tsour. 



thirteen, terau. 

this, edzo. 

thou, ill. 

three, cln ; third, rljjaii. 

thy, tero. 

tie, bannhno. 

to, klie. 

to-day, az. 

to-morrow, dot to, jishi ; day 

after — , p&rshi ; on fourth 

day, tsontlir. 
tongue, dzibh. 
tooth, ddnd. 
town, bo'izdr. 
tree, c]d[. 
twelve, bdrau. 
twenty, blsh. 
two, du ; second, diljjau ; two 

and a half, cljddha. 
uncle, kdkko. 
under, nit ha. 
up, upwards, fibhe. 
up to, zd. 
upon, gashe. 
very, khub. 
village, gaur. 
walk, tsalrio, (leuno. 
was, thid. 
water, pdnl. 
way, bat. 
we, dmme. 
well, adv., khub. 
well, n., &wa. 
what, kd . 
wheat, giuh. 

\\\w\\J;nh(-\ {re\.),jekhuni, i 
where, ketthd ; (rel.)i jetthd. 
white, tsitto. 
who, A:fm ; (rel.)i </-"■ 



200 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

why, kci. yes, o. 

wife, tshcori. yesterday, hijo ; day before — , 

wind, bagilr. phdrzo ; on fourth day back, 

with (along with), sdtthc. tsouthc. 

woman, tsheorl. you, inc. 

write, llkhno. your, tub ho. 



DIALECTS OF SUKET AND MANDI 

Introduction 

The states of Mandi and Suket lie due nortli and north- 
west of Simla; they are bounded by Kulu on the east and 
Karigra on the west, while to the north of Mandi lies the 
district of Chota Barighal. The main dialect is Mandeali, 
spoken in the west of Suket and over the whole of Mandi 
except the extreme north and east. To the north are 
found the very similar subdialects of North M&ndeali, and, 
across the border in British territory, Chota Bfinghali. 
To the east we may distinguish two subdialects of Mandi 
Siraji, one spoken on the east of the State for some miles 
in nth and south of the village of Manglaur in Kulu just 
on the Mandi border, and another adjoining this on the 
west in the Bakhli valley south of the Bias River. We 
might call the two jointly Mandi Siraji, and separately 
Eastern Mandeali and Bakhli after the Bakhli Khad, on 
the banks of which it is spoken. The word slraji from 
sn-aj. hill, means the same as pahdri, belonging to the 
hills, sirdj or sardz is commonly used in Mandi and 
Suket. 

Turning to Suket we find as above that in the west of 
the State the dialect is pure Mandeali ; in the east there 
are two dialects. Eastern Suketi, adjoining the MS.ndea.li 
of the west of the State, and Suket Slraji on the extreme 
east, extending also north over the Mandi border. This 
dialect lies directly south of Eastern Mandeali and Bakhli. 
To the south of these Suketi dialects is found Kiuth&li, 
the chief dialect spoken round Simla. To the east of Suket 
Siraji on the south is the dialect of Koi Guru and to the 
north Outer Siraji. To the east of Eastern Mandeali are 
(from south to north) Inner Siraji, Sai'nji. and Kului. To 
the west of Suket are the Jilasptir dialects and to the 



202 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

west of Mandi is Karigrl. All the dialects lying round 
those now to he dealt with are treated of in the Monograph 
on Northern Himalayan Languages. 

1 looked into the dialects of Jlmrigl in Mandi andGihre 
(Giri or Ghiri on the maps) in Suket and found that the 
former was almost indistinguishable from Eastern Suketi 
and that the latter was the same as Mandeali. A few 
remarks on the dialect of Jhurigi will be found under 
Eastern Suketi. Immediately to the south is the State 
of Bhajji, the dialect of which I examined and found to be 
ordinary Kiuthali. 

For Mandeali, North Mandeali, and Chota Barigha.ll see 
Lang. North. Him. 

EASTERN SUKETI 

Nouns 

The prepositions for the gen., dat., and abl. are ra, le, 

and Jed respectively. The plural is the same as the sing. 

except in the voc. case. Exception: nouns whose nom. 

sing, ends in -a change it to -e for the plur. 

Pronouns 
The 3rd pers. pronouns have different forms for the 
masc. and fern, oblique sing. 

Numerals 

For 3 the form in c which is lost further north is 
still used. 

Verbs 

The pres. ind. and pres. cond. have the same form. The 
fut. has an interesting indeclinable form in -ting, a form 
also found in the Sasi dialect. There is another form for 
the 1st pers., -ma, pi. -me. 

The stat. part, ends in -Ira. 

There is, as is the case with all dialects near Simla, 
a special negative form for the pres. of the verb subst. : — 
affirmative dsi : neg. (ni) a, hi. 



MANDI AND SUKET 203 

Habit is expressed after the Urdu and Hindi model : — 
achd kern, is in the habit of coming, corresponds to 
dyd hart a hai. 

The idea of actually doing a thing at the moment 
is expressed by means of the stative part of laggna 

Especially noteworthy is the participle by means of 
which the conception of ability is rendered. This 
partic. ends in -id or -da according to whether the 
verbal root ends in a surd or sonant letter. Thus we 
have coJctd from cdknd, lift, and Itlchta from likhna, write, 
but porhda from pdrhnd, read. 

The infin. is used as in Panjabi in a finite sense with 
the nom. in the agent case. The 1st and 2nd prons. sing. 
have a different agent when used with the infin. 

Forms of the verb requiring the agent case are some- 
times strangely used in the fern, where we should expect 
the masc. Examples are given at the end of the 
paradigms of verbs. 

SUKET SIRAJI 

Nouns 

The singular and plural are alike as in Eastern Suketi. 
The gen. does not need a special preposition. It ends 
in -o or -d. A gen. with the prep, rd is also found. 

Pronouns 

The 3rd pers. sing, has special obi. forms for the fern. 

Verb 

The conjugation of the verb is very much the same as in 
Eastern Suketi. The stat. part, ends in -<"/<'. 

The use of the fern, where one would expect the masc. 
is found as in Eastern Suketi. All the pronouns have 
special forms for the agent when used with the finite 
infin. 



204 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

To express ability an organic passive pres. part, is 
employed, as khdiindd, from JcJidnd, eat; jddndd, from 
jdnd, go. 

BAKHLI 
Nouns 
The prepositions for the gen., dat., and abl. are rd, be, 
and gd. be is found over the border in Inner Siraji and 
Kul lii and shortened to -b in Sainji. 

Pronouns 

The usual special form for the oblique sing. fern, in the 
3rd pers. is found. 

Verbs 

There are no less than three forms of the fut., one 
being indeclinable. They end in -iig, -ghd, and -Id. 

The pres. part, ends in -a as in Mandeali, the stat. part, 
in -Ida. 

Ability is expressed by means of an organic pass. part. 
in -da as jdhndd, from jdnd, go; khdhndd or khdhdndd 
from Ichdnd, eat. 

EASTERN MANDEALI 

Nouns 
The prepositions for the gen., dat., and abl. are rd, be 
and lede. be has been noticed above, lede corresponds to 
the leva of Inner Siraji. 

Pronouns 
The 3rd pers. prons. have special forms for the fem. 
obi. sing. 

Verbs 

As in Bakhli there are three forms for the future. One 
is the same as the pres. ind. or pres. cond., -a, another ends 
in -glid, and the third in -lo. 

The stat. part, ends in -Ira. 

For Kului, Sainji, Inner and Outer Siraji see Lang. 
North. Him. 



MANDI AM) SUKET — EASTERN SUKETJ -JO.", 

EASTERN SUKETI 

Nouns 
Singular Plural 

Masculine, 
Nom., Ace. ghor-d -e. 

Gen. -e ra. 

Dat. -e le. as 

Abl. -e kd sing. 

Agent -e. 

Voc. -Sd. -So. 

Nom., Ace. ghor-, house. 

Gen. -d ra. as 

etc. sing. 

Agent -e. 

bob, father. Gen. bdbba ra. Agent,bdbbe. Yoc.bdbba. 
hatthi, elephant. Agent, hattlu. 

Feminine. 



JNom., 


Ace. sJiohr-e, girl. 




-1. 


Gen. 


-1 ra. 




as 




etc. 




sing. 


Agent 


•1. 






Nom., 


Ace. bcbb-S, sister. 




-/. 


Gen. 


■1 ra. 




as 




etc. 




sing. 


Agent 


•i. 








Pronouns 




Nom., 


Ace. lid, I. 




hdmmS. 


Gen. 


merd. 




mhard. 


Dat. 


mails. 




hdmmd IS. 


Abl. 


ma kd. 




lulnuud kd. 


Agent 


mo, w. infin. 


vid. 


hdmmS. 


Nom., 


Ace. ///. 




tUmmS. 


Gen. 


terd. 




thdra. 


Dat. 


talis. 




t inn nit i IS. 


Abl. 


t<i kd. 




tUmma kd. 


Agent 


tail, w. infm. 


Id. 


tUmmS. 



20G LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



Nom., 


Ace. 


so, he, 


that. 


, it. 




teu. 




Gen. 




teh rd. 








tinna rd. 




Dat. 




tcs le. 








tinna Is. 




A hi. 




tcs kd. 








tinna kd. 




Agent 




t'iniii. 








thine. 




Fein. sing. : 


Gen. 


tea 


ra. 


Dat 


. tea le. 


Abl. tea ha. 


Agent, tea. 
















Nom., 


Ace. 


eh, this 








cu. 




Gen. 




es rd. 








inna rd. 




Dat. 




cs le. 








inna le. 




Abl. 




es kd. 








inna kd. 




Agent 




innl. 








inne. 




Fein. sing. 


: Gen. 


ed 


rd. 


Dat. ea le. 


Abl. ea kd. 



Agent, ea. 

In Jhurigl, which lies to the extreme south of Mandi 
State, the dialect is the same. Thus in the nouns and 
pronouns the only difference is that je is used for le, to, 
and Jchd for led, from ; and that the word for " to me " 
inserts an n : — mdnjo. 

lean, who ? dzwn, who (rel.). 

Gen. Icos rd, etc. dzes ra, etc. 

Agent, kuni. dzunl. 

kol, someone, anyone; klech, something, anything; 
dzehrd klchh, whatever ; sabb, all ; kije, what ? 

Pronominal Adjectives 

ehrd, of this kind ; tehrd, of that kind ; kehra, of what 
kind ? dzehrd, of which kind (rel.). 

etra, so much or many ; tetrd, so much or many (correl.) ; 
Jcetrd, how much or many ? dzetrd, as much or many (rel.). 

Adjectives 
Comparison. — There are no special forms ; kd, from, is 
used (in Jbungi khd). 

khord, good ; es kd khurd, better than this. 
sdbljJ led Ichord, better than all, best. 



mandi and suket — eastern suketi 207 

Numerals 

Cardinals 

1 . c!:. 1 1 . ga ira. 

2. due 12. bora. 

3. trai, con. 13. terah. 

4. tear. 14. caudah. 

5. pdnj. 15. pdndrah. 
G. te/te. 1G. so! ah. 

7. sd£. 17. satdrah. 

8. <'////. 18. thdrah. 

9. ncm. 19. anni. 
10. (Zas.s. 20. 6i/t. 

In Jhurigl the numerals are the same except the 
following : — 

5. panj. 1 1. tsaudah. 

6. tshau. 16. saula. 

7. stiM. 19. dww (accent on -<). 
10. cfttes 

Ordinals 
1st. paihld. 3rd. ciutd (Jh. ciutkd, 

2nd. dujjd (Jh. dtijjd). ciyya). 

Adverbs 
Ti?ne 
e6<?, now. porshi, day after to-morrow. 

//<>, then. tsauthe, on fourth day. 

Icobhe, when ? /ucis, yesterday. 

efet&j when (rel.). phardz, day before yester- 

dj[/, to-day. day. 

/.<'/, to-morrow. tsauthe, on fourth day back. 

dinar, every day. 

For Jhtlngi the following arc different:— 
ebbe, now. <W:.. to-day. 

kobbe, when ? p&rshi, day after to-morrow. 



208 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Place 
Inde, here. duv, far. 

tinde, there. ago, aggo, in front. 

Icinde, where ? pitshau, behind. 

dzinde, where (rel.). mitre, inside. 

abeh, upwards. bdgge, outside. 

iindeh, downwards. par, on the further side. 

ner, near. war, on the nearer side. 

inda led, from here. tndd tllck, hither, up to here. 

In Jhiirigl the same except : 
etthi, here. Jcetthl, where? 

tettlil, there. dzetthi, where (rel.). 

Others 
lei le, why ? sidle, well. 

alt, yes. dzhdt, quickly. 

na, ill, no, not. 

Prepositions 
tol, under. tilde, up to. 

dzhotte, under. gash, upon. 

rd, of. mdnjhe, in. 

le, to. ago, aggo, in front of. 

sduge, along ; md sduge, pitshau, behind. 

with me. leotthe, for sake of ; es re 

led, from, than. kotthe, for his sake. 

Jhiirigl^'o, to; lehd, from, than. 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 
Pres. dsi, indeclinable. 
Neg. ni athi, indeclinable. 
Past sing. masc. thia, fern, tin; plur. thie, fern. thl. 

porna, pdrnd, fall 
Imperat. par. pord. 

Fut. pormd or porahg. porme or porahg. 

pordiig. pordiig. 

pordiig. pordiig. 



MAND1 AND SUKET EASTERN Sl'KETI 209 

The form in -ma, -me is confined to the 1st, person. 
Pres. cond. or 



(pora. pofH. 

pdre. poro. 

pdro, pora. pdro. 



. . {pore, poro 

pres. mil. | ■ 
[poro, 



Past. pora. 

Past cond. pdrda. 

< !onj. part, pdrilce, liaving fallen. 

Stat. part, porlrd, in the state of having fallen. 

Agfiit . pdrneala, fallen. 

Pres. contin. p5rda Idglra, I am (just now) falling. 

Slight differences in JhungI: — 

Pres. cond. and ind. por-u, -an, -au, -u, -au, -an. 
Fut. pdrdnghd, fern, pordnghl.] plur. pSrdnghe, fern. 
pordnghl : also pdrdng, indeclinable. 

ichna, come 
Imp. lech lechd: also dcch accha. 

Fut. Ichmd or ichdng. 
Pres. ind. £t7u7. 
Past cond. Ichdd. 
Past., aya. 
Conj. part, dcchlke. 
Stat. part. aSra. 

Pres. contin. Icchdd Idglra, 1 am coming. 
JhungI, only dcch-, form. 

Fut. dchdnghd or dchdng. 

hmiii, be, become 
Fut. h.timma or hM/hg. 
Past, /<<h?. 
Past cond. hitndd. 

jama, go 
Fut. jam ma , jdng. 
Past cond. jdndd. 
Past, (/(xl. 



210 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Jlmrigl, jana and noshiwL. The fern, of jama, shows 
epenthesis. It is jainl instead oijani. 

run nd, remain 
Pres. ind. rauu. 
Fut. ran ma . ran fig. 
Past, valid. 

beshnd, sit 
Past, baitthd. 
Stat. part. baitthJrd. 

dzlknd, beat 
Fut. <hik a ng, dzikmd. 

I,- 1 1 and, eat 
Past, khdddd. 



Past, piyya. 

Fut. dehg, demma. 
Past cond. dendd. 
Past, diyyd. 

Past, My yd, kit (a. 
Past, (7/?d. 



puja, drink 
(Ze/Ri, give 

kdrnd, do 

dnnd. bring 

fttna, take away 



Past, nn/ya. 

Habit and Continuance. — dhair dchd koro, he conies 
every day {dchd is indeclinable). 

khdndd lagird, he is eating (at this moment). 

klidnde laylr't. she is eating. 

Ichdnde lagire, they are eating. 

khdndl lagvrl, the} - (fern.) are eating. 

Ability. — Ability is expressed by means of a participle 
which ends in -/tt when the last letter of the verbal root is 



MAXIM AND SUKET EASTERN SUKETI 211 

an unvoiced consonant, and -da when it is a voiced 

consonant or vowel. 

mere nl cuktd etrd bhdr (Jli. cdkthd), I cannot lift so 
great a load (coknd, lift). 

mere n\ eh ledtdb porhdS, I cannot read this book 
(Jh. do.). 

thdre n\ likhtd (Jh. Wchthd), you cannot write. 

So also muktd (Jh. do.) is the particle from niiiknd, be 
finished. 

In the past tense of transitive verbs and the infinitive 
(when used as a finite verb) there is a strange use of the 
feminine in negative clauses where we should expect the 
masculine. 

ma nl jdni, I will not go. Jhuhgi md vl jaini or 
noshni', cf. Panjabi mai nehljdnd. 

mo nl kitti, I did not do (Jh. do.). 

tiimme ehrd kdmm )i\ kitti, you did not do such a work 
(Jh. do.); but md kittd, I did it (Jh. do.). 

It is noteworth}^ that the forms for the agent case of 
lid, I, and / fi , thou, normally md and tad, become ma and 
ta with the infinitive, as Id nl /term, thou art "hot l«> 
look' ; cf. md nl jdni, above. 

The nominative is used for the logical object even with 
pronouns. 

md eh mdrd, I beat him. 

'nun hd. mdrd, they beat me. 

To express advisability, necessity, the word Inn in is 
used unchanged as 

hdmma launi brail, we want a cat. 

hamme launi <hn bande, we want two bears. 
man launi tsdJcar, 1 want a servant. 



•J L2 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



SENTENCES 

1. TerCi nau leije ? Thy name what? 

2. Kttrl bdrshd rd eh ghord ? How-many years of this 
horse ? 

3. Inchl Jed Kashmird tilde leetrd dtirl Here from 
Kashmir up-to how-much far ? 

■i. Thdre bdbbd re ghdrc Jeetre shohru dsl ? Your father 
of house-in how-many boys ? 

5. H& bard diirCi Jed hande dyd. I very far from 
walking came. 

6. Mere JcdJcJcd rd shoJird es rl baihni sduge belrd. My 
uncle of boy this of sister with married. 

7. Ghore shette gJtore re Jcdtthe dsl. House-in white 
horse of saddle is. 

8. Es rl ptttJie gdsh Jcdtthe thoJcJco. Him of back upon 
saddle tie. 

9. Mb es rd shohro bard mdrd. By me him of boy 
much was beaten. 

10.* So baune gdue bdJcre tsdro. He jungle-in cows 
goats grazes. 

11. Dale dzJidtte ghore gash baittJilrd. Tree under 
horse upon seated. 

12. Es rd bJide bailini Jed boddd dsl. Him of brother 
sister than big is. 

13. Es rd mfd d/tde rupdyye. This of price two-and- 
a half rupees. 

14. Merd bah rauo mdttJie ghore. My father remains 
(lives) small house-in. 

15. /£* le elt riip&yye de de. Him to these rupees 
giving give. 

16. Es rdpayye es Jed ore lau. Him from these 
rupees hither take. 

17. Es le ain dzlJc rdshi led bdnnJt. Him to well beat 
ropes with tie. 



MAXIM AND SUKET -EASTERN SUKETI 213 

18. Khue Jed pani kaddh. Well from water draw 
(bring out). 

19. Mere ago ts&lo. Me before go. 

20. Kns ra shohra ttimma pitshti ao(or decho). Whom 
of boy you behind conies. 

21. Eh mfd Jeos Jed laud. This price-in whom from 
was-taken ? 

22. Eh grand re hattiwdle led laud. This village of 
shopkeeper from was-taken. 

Notes. — 5. h&nde, the e is added for euphony to the 
root hand ; h&nde aund, walking come. 7. re JcatfJtS or 
ri ledttki, short i and c being often interchangeable. 
17. ain, an Arabic word, here meaning "exactly" 
or " well ". 



2U 



LlX<;riSTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABULARY 
Words within brackets belong to the Jhungi dialect 



able, be, see Grammar. 
all, stibb. 

arrive, pujjnd. 

ass, klwtru, 

back, pi (th, pitth. 

backwards, pltshu. 

bad, buret. 

be, become, hond. 

bear, b&naeh. 

beat, dz'ikna, mama. 

beautiful, bdftkd. 

bed, manza. 

before, ago, aggo. 

behind, pltshu, pltshau. 

below, tol; adv., undeh. 

beyond, par. 

big, boddd. 

bitcb, kuttc. 

body, sdrir. 

book, kdtdb. 

boy, shohrii, bdldk, tshokrd. 

bread, rottl. 

bring, anna. 

brother, elder, dad ; younger, 

bhdo. 
buffalo, mhajslia ; f., mhaish. 
bull, bold. 
buttermilk, tshd. 
call, bolnd. 
camel, fit. 
carpenter, duchdn. 
cat, brail. 
clothes, jhikrd. 
cock, kukhrd. 
cold, shela, thandd. 



come, ichnd. 

cow, goo. 

cowberd, g fid Id. 

daughter, shohri, mftnni. 

day, dhaira. 

desire, launi, see Grammar, 

die, mama. 

do, kdrnd. 

dog, kuttd. 

downwards, undeh. 

draw (water), kaddhnd. 

drink, plnd. 

ear, kdn. 

ea,t,khdud. 

egg, bdtti. 

eight, dtth. 

eighteen, thdrah. 

elepbant, hdttlil. 

eleven, gaira. 

eye, dkli. 

face, vmh. 

fall, pbrnd, pdrnd. 

far, c/«r. 

father, 6a6. 

field, klicc. 

fifteen, pandrah. 

fight, dzhagarnd. 

finished, be, mithul. 

first, pail da. 

fish, mdclili. 

five, parcy (pan,;). 

flow, baulind. 

foot, M»r. 

forwards, ago, aggo. 

four, isar. 



MAM) I AND SUKET — EASTERN SUKET1 



fourteen, caudalt {tsaudah). 

from, kd (khd). 

front, in, ago, dggo. 

fruit, phdl. 

ghi, ghiau. 

girl, shohre, k&nn&d, inuuni. 

give, dend. 

go, jdnd (nosJind). 

goat, bdkra ; f., bdkrS. 

good, rdmrd, khdrd, dechd. 

graze, tr., tsarna, tsdraurid ; 

intr., tsarna. 
hair, shrdl. 
hand, /m/7/. 
he, so. 
head, mund. 
hear, xhunnd. 
hen, kuklire. 
hence, nu/d &«. 
here, £?u/e (etthi). 
high, iichtd. 
hill, sdrdj. 

hither, r>r<?, mda ££&&. 
horse, ghoro. 
hot, ia^d. 
house, (//ior, (7/jar. 
husband, bauhto. 
I, /w. 

ignorant, ./dZ/c. 
in, man j lie. 
inside, mitre. 
iron, loali (d long), 
jackal, shailtd. 
jungle, &CMtf[&, dzdkkh&r. 
kick, v. tr., ta^c hdhne (lit., 

strike a leg), 
kind, of this, ehrd ; of that — , 

tehrd; of what — , kehrdl 

of which — , (rel.) dzehrd. 



know, iluinjiiit. 
learn, shlkluiu, 
leopard, brdhg. 
lie, suttnd. 
lift, coknd. 
little, maltha. 
load, bhdrd. 
look, hernd. 
maize, ch&lli. 

man, mdnch, paidd', mftysh. 
mare, ghorS. 
marry, 6e#a. 
meat, shikhd. 
meet, mirnd. 
milk, duddh. 
moon, dzotth. 
mother, /./. 
mountain, 'sdrdj. 
move aside, hdtnd. 
much, etrd ; so - - (correl.), 
/J/m ; how - , Av/rr? ; as 
- (rel.), dzetrd : adv., //en/, 
my, merd. 
name, nan. 
near, iter. 
night, raic. 
nine, ?!</». 

nineteen, Unnl {am). 
no, «a, nl. 
nose, ?*<</v. 
not, raa, nl. 
nothing, klce.li na. 
now, ebe (cbbe). 
of, ra. 
oil, tel. 
nil, (7#sjt. 
one, c£. 
outside, bdgge. 
pen, kulldm. 



216 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



pig, sungar. 
place, v., dahnd. 
plain, ddrh. 
plough, hale jdnd. 

price, vu'd. 

quickly, dzhat. 

rain, pdife. 

read, porJind. 

recogn i z e , pac h a i n nd. 

remain, raund. 

rise, uheh utlnid. 

river, dareo. 

rope, rdshl. 

run, daurna; run away, daurl 

jdnd. 
saddle, kdtthe. 
sake, for sake of, re kdtthe. 
say, bolnd. 
seed, bedzd. 
seven, sat (sdth). 
seventeen, satdrah. 
sharp, pennd. 
she, so. 

sheep, gdbbo ; f., gdbbe. 
shepherd, phitdl. 
shopkeeper, hdttiwdla. 
side, on this — of, war ; on 

that — of, par. 
sister (older than person spoken 

of), dde ; younger than do., 

bebbc. 
sit, beshnd. 
six, tshe (tshau). 
sixteen, sold (sauld). 
sleep, suttnd. 
someone, hoi. 
something, kiccli. 
son, tshokrd, shohra, putt dr. 
sow, v., bound. 



speak, bolnd. 

star, tdra. 

stomach, pet. 

storm, bdijre. 

stream, Tchad. 

sun, pdrmesiir. 

sunshine, dhuppd. 

sweet, giidld. 

take, lawna : take away, ulna. 

ten, ddss (doss). 

than, /.v7 (klid). 

that, so. 

then, £m. 

there, tlnde, (tetthl). 

they, few, ew. 

thief, £sor. 

third, cmftz {clyyd, ciuthd). 

thirteen, terah. 

this, eft. 

thou, til. 

three, /?•«/. 

thy, terd. 

tie, bdnnhnd. 

to, Ze (/d). 

to-day, a;./ (<fcfe). 

to-morrow, kdl; day after — , 

porshl, (parshi) ; on fourth 

day, tsauthe. 
tongue, dzibbh, 
tooth, ddiid. 
town, bad.: dr. 
tree, ddl. 
twelve, bora. 
twenty, blh. 

two, due ; two and a half, dhde ; 
ugly, jau. 
uncle, kdkk. 
under, tol, dzhotte. 
upon, gash ; up to, tlkk. 



MAND1 AND SI'KET — EASTERN SUKETJ 



217 



upwards, iib&h. 
very, b&rd. 
village, grau. 

walk, lii'iijijnd. 

was, llihl. 

water, jxlnd. 

way, /xiiijilu. 

wc, hamvic. 

well, adv., .s/7//r. 

well, n., fefewa. 

what, /w/Y'. 

wheat, kdty&kh, gioh. 

when? &<5&7ie, (&<5&&g) ; (rel.), 

where? kinde, (Lrttlii) : (rel.), 
dzlnde, (dzetthi). 



white, shetta. 

who ? /.-//// ; (rel.), '/'-"(>• 

why ? hi 18. 

wife, cheori {tsheo$i, Id] i ). 

wind, /iiii/rr. 

wise, khdra (good). 

with, along with, .s<n/f/r ; 

instru., &a. 
woman, j&nana (tshcodi). 
write, likhnd. 
yes, <?//. 
yesterday, /iwfe ; day before — , 

phdrdz ; on fourth day back, 

tsauthe. 
you, I iliume; your, thdra. 



218 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



SUKET SIRAJI 
Nouns 



Nom., Ace. edec-d, uncle. 
Gen. -cd, -co. 

Dat. -e -le. 

Abl. -e khd. 

Agent -e. 



as 
sing. 



bob, father, has : Gen. bdbbo or bdbbd. Dat. bdbbd le. 
Abl. babba kd. Agent, bdbbe. 

ghor, house. Gen. ghord or gJiord, etc., the same as bdb, 
but without the doubling of the final letter. 



Nom., 


Ace. 


baihn-, sister. 


-1. 


Gen. 




-id, -id. 


■id. 


Dat. 




-i le. 


-i le. 


Abl. 




-i kd. 


-i kd. 


Agent 




-ic. 

Pronouns 


-ic. 


Nom., 


Ace. 


ha. 


lidmme. 


Gen. 




mcro. 


mhdrd. 


Dat. 




mil Ic. 


hdmma Ic. 


Abl. 




miiklui. 


hdmma kd, 


Agent 




mail. 


hclmmc. 


Nom. 




til, thou. 


tummc. 


Gen. 




tcro. 


tharo. 


Dat. 




tdlle. 


tumma le. 


Abl. 




td khd. 


turn/ma kd. 


Agent 




tail. 


tummc. 


Nom., 


Ace. 


sail, he, she, it, that. 


ted. 


Gen. 




tend. 


tlnna. 


Dat. 




tcs Ic. 


tinna le. 


Abl. 




tcs kd. 


tlnna kd. 


Agent 




tci. 


tinne 



MAXIM AND SUKET — SUKET SIRAJ] 210 

Fem. sing. : (Jen. tessd. Dat. tfesa IS. A b 1 . tfesa ha. 
Agent, tessc; also tiss-, throughout. 

Nom., Ace. eh, this. cd. 

Gen. end. i una. 

Dat. t's le. Inna l&. 

Agent el. % inne. 

Fem. sing. : (ien. essd. Dat. essja le. Agent esse. 
Jcun, who '. Gen. kosio or /,'o.s ra. 
what? />''7' r : something, anythingj Icicch. 

Pronom i x a i. Adjectives 

eo, of this kind ; tea, of that kind : keo, of what kind ? 
jeo, dzeo, of which kind (rel.). 

etro,so much or many : tetro, so much or many (correl.) ; 
hetro, how much or many '. dzetro, as much or many (rel.). 

Adjectives 

Adjectives ending in -o, -a in masc. sing, agree with 
their nouns in gender and case (masc. sing. obi. -e, 
masc. plur. -e, fem. sing, -i or -e, plur. -e). Otlicrs do not 
change unless used as nouns when they are declined as 
nouns. 

Comparison. — No special forms. 

rdmrd, good; es lea rdmrd, better than this. 
sobbi Jed rn mrd, better than all. best. 

Numerals 
The numerals are the same as in Eastern Sukrti except 
t he following : — 

2. dul. 15. ptindra, p&ndra. 

3. run. Hi. sola. 

6. tshau. 17. s&tdra. 

13. tera. L8. thara. 

14. (sauda. L9. nih. 



220 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Adverbs 
Time 

rhhr, now (emphatic ebbi). pdrahi, day after to-morrow. 

ti&, tlien. tsaute, on fourth day. 

kebbe, when ? hidz, yesterday. 

dzia, when (rel.). phardz, day before 

adz, to-da}*. yesterday. 

kdlld, to-morrow. tsaute, on fourth day back. 

Place 
inde, tinde, hinde, dzlnde, here, there, where ? where, 
are as in Eastern Sitketi, for " where " kidhi, kei, ke are 
also found ; indd ka, hence. 

fijhe, upwards. Cindhe, downwards. 

Others 
kl, kl le, why ? tsike, quickly. 

Prepositions 
jhotte, under. ago, in front of. 

sduge, along with : mu le, to. 

sduge, with me. g&$h, upon. 

ka, than, from. de, in, upon. 

ke, with (instru.). 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 
Pres. asi or a. 
Past, thla ; fern, thl ; plur. masc. thie ; fern. thi. 

or tan; fern, te) plur. te; fern. f.f. 

Neg. -ne dthi or «Y/tF nf. 

pornd, fall 
(Infinitives end in -a or -o.) 

Imperat. por. ^om 

Pres. cond. and ind. por-u, -e, -o or -a, -it, -o, -o or -<». 

Pres. ind. with thla (thie, till), or tan (te, ti). 



MANDI AND SUKET — SUKET SIHAJI J J i 

Fut. porme or purdiuj. pdrmS or pSr&ng. 

pftrdng. pdrang. 

ptir&ng. pdrang. 

pdrmd, makes fern. sing, porme; fein. plur. pdrml. 
As in Eastern Suketi the form in -inn is used only for 
the 1st person. 

Past, purd. 

Past cond. pdrdd, 

Plup. pdra thia or tail. 

Stat. part, pdrada, fallen. 

dcltno, come 
Past, do, fern. ae\ plur. de, fern. dl. 
PI up. do tan, fern, de te , plur. de te, fern, dl ti. 
Past cond. pres. stat. part, dchdd. 

dewno, go 
I in pe rat. deo. deud. 

Pres. ind. ded ; plur. dee. 
Past, deud. 

jdno, go 
Fut. jdw/mA, 

baishno, sit 
Past, baitha. 
Stat. part, baitkddd. 

dzilcno, beat 
Past, dz'ika. 

Ichdno, eat 
Past, khaya. 
Stat. part, khaadd. 

jhupno, drink' 
Stat. part. j/< utddd. 

deno, give 
Fut. demmd. ov deity. 



- - - LINGUISTIC STUDIES KltoM THE HIMALAYAS 

korno, do 
Past, kia il. 

unto 
Past, niau. 

In negative sentences the past cond. is used for the 
pres. ind., as ltd nl dendd, achda, korda, I will not give, 
come, do (lit. not giving, coining, doing). 

Pres. contin., to express that a person is actually at 
the moment doing a tiling ; the pres. part, of the verb is 
used with the stat. part, of laggnd. 

eh achda laggada, he is coming. 

eh a • elide laggede, she is coming. 

ha khandd laggada, I am eating. 

hamme khdndi Idggidl, we (fern.) are eating. 

ted Ichdnde laggede, they arc eating. 

The strange use of the fem. in neg. sentences with the 
past of trans, verbs, or the infin. (used as finite), which was 
noted in Eastern Sxiketi, is found also in this dialect. 

mu nljdnl, I will not go. 

into blult (masc.) nl khani, I will not eat rice. 

When pronouns are used as in these sentences with the 
infinitive, they have a slightly different form of the agent, 
as follows : — 

Ordinary With Infix itivk 

by me, mail. mu. 

hy thee, tail. id. 

by him, el, tei. es, tes. 

by her, esse, tesse, tisse. essd, tessd, tissd. 

by us, Jidmma. hamme. 

by 3 T ou, tiimma. tumme. 

by them, Inne, ttnne. inna, tinna. 

Ability. — Ability is expressed by means of an interesting 
organic pass. part, in -undd. 

thdre bulle bhdt n% khdiLndd, you cannot eat rice. 
tlidre bulle rati ( fem. ) n ? kha a ndi, you cannot eat bread. 
mere bolle nl jdiindd, I cannot go. 



MANDI AND XUKET — SUKKT SIRAJ1 223 



SENTENCES 
The translations are very similar to those given under 
Eastern Siiketl, but for the sake of minor points it is as 
well to print them. 

1. Tero nau. klje asi ? Thy name what is ( 

2. Es glidre% amhil r leetri asi ? This horse-of age how- 
much is ? 

3. Tnda Jed Kashmir Jcetrd dur asil Here from 
Kashmir how-much far is ? 

4. Tere bdbbe ghore Jeetre shohru asi '( Thy father's 
house-in how-many boys are ? 

5. Haft dura Jed Jidndi a yd. I far from walking came. 

6. Mere caccea shohru tisrd baih esri bauhni soiuge 
hod. My uncle's boy him-of marriage him-of sister with 
became. 

7. Ghore shette ghorel zin asi. House-in white horse-of 
saddle is. 

8. Es ri pHthe gash zin bannho. Him of back upon 
saddle tie. 

9. MaH ene shohru bora dzikd. By-me his boy much 
was- beaten. 

10. DheJce mitndd de ddge caine care. Hill-of top on 
cows sheep he-grazes. 

11. Es dale jhotte baitthd, ghore gash. This tree under 
sat horse on. 

12. Tesra (or eud) baih apni baihni lea bora ast. J lis 
brother own sister than bigger is. 

13. Esrd (or eud) mul dliae rv/pdyye asi. Its price 
two and a half rupees is. 

•14. Mero bob mdtthe ghdre rauho. My father small 
house-in lives. 

15. Esle rupdyye de. Him to rupees give. 

16. Es Jed riipSyye l<tai lau. Him from rupees 
taking take. 



224 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

17. Ks khub dzlk r&sshi he bannh. Him well beat 
ropes with tie. 

18. Dibra kd pdni k&ddho. Well from water draw. 

19. Mere dggu Vb tsdl. My in-front to walk. 

20. Kftsiv. shqhrv. ta pitshu do ? Whose boy thee 
behind came ? 

21. Eh mid kos kd laud • This price-in whom from 
was-taken ? 

22. Gratie hattiwale kd laucLeh. Village-of shopkeeper 
from was-taken this. 

Note. — It will be noticed that the gen. has tw r o forms 
-iu or -a or -to or -ad, and -I'd, both inflected as adjj. 



MAN 1)1 AND SUKET — SUKET SIKAJI 



225 



VOCABULARY 

The vocabulary is nearly the same as that of Eastern 
Siiketi. The following slight differences may be noted : — 

load, buzlca. 

meet, ntihju. 



arrive, pujjna. 

ass, gdddhau. 

bad, jau. 

bed, vidnzau. 

book, kdgdd. 

call, shddijtl. 

cat, brailau, f., braili. 

cock, kukhlau. 

cows (collective), ddge. 

egg, ami. 

eye, dkkhi. 

fish, vidcdii. 

ghi, gr/mi. 

graze, cdrnd, tsdrnd. 

band, luitth. 

hear, shun nd. 

hen, kftkJili. 

hill, dhekd, sdrdz. 

hilltop, niftnd. 

in, c?e. 

jungle, dzuhgdl, dzdng&l 



moon, tsdnd. 

pen, knlaiu. 

pig, s/7?\ 

plain, sufifmii. 

plough, frof / joind- 

quickly, ^si&e. 

rise, »W;r khdlnd. 

run, tjiurnd. 

see, look, bhdlnd. 

sharp, painnd. 

sheep (collective), caiue. 

sister, c£ (as well as other words) 

sow, v., hundnd. 

stream, gahd. 

sun, Pdnnesiir (cerebral r). 

tongue, jibbh. 

water, pdni. 

way, bat (not to). 



226 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES PROW THE HIMALAYAS 



MANDI SIRAJI 
(1) Bakhli Khad (Bakhli Khad) 

Nouns 

blulT, brother. Dat. blidl be. Abl. blidyya gd. 



Pronouns 

Nom., Ace. haii, I. 

Gen. vi era. 

Dat. Ace. miimbe, mabe. 

Abl. magcl. 

Agent mas. 

Nom., Ace. til. 

Gen. terd. 

Dat. Ace. tfiddhu be. 

Abl. tuddhka, tuddha gd. 

Agent toe. 

Nom., Ace. eh, this. 
Gen. eici, es ra. 

Dat. Ace. ei be. 
Abl. ei gd. 

Agent ei. 

Fein., Gen. essa ra, tessa ra, etc. 
kun, who. Gen. Ices ra, etc. 
kiji, what ? 

Numerals 

The numerals are the same as Eastern Mandeall (see 
below), except the following: — 

1. ekk. 8. dtth. 

2. dui (very long u). 13. terha. 

3. trde. 14. cauda. 
5. pdnj. 19. iinnih. 



asse. 
dssa ra. 
dssa bl. 
dssa gd. 
dsse. 

tusse. 
tussa ra. 
tussa be. 
tussa gd. 
tusse. 

se, that, he. 
tela, tes ra. 

tei be. 
tei gd. 
tei. 

Agent, esse, tesse. 



mandi and suket — mandi sira.ii 227 

Adverbs 

Time 
ebbe, now. leal, to-morrow, yesterday. 

tebbe, then. ptf/rsM, day after to-morrow 

kebbe, k&ddhi, when ? or day before yesterday. 

jebbe, when (rel.). canthe, on fourth day for- 

dz, to-day. ward or back. 

Others 
etthie, here. MM, where ? 

kibe, why ? pore, thither, be} T ond. 

ore, hither. 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 

Pres. masc. sing, ha, fern, hi; plur. masc. he, fern. hi. 
Past, thid or thl, fern, thl; plur. title or £M, fern. tin. 
Fut. has three forms, thus : — 
bolna, speak ; (l)bdl-ghti, fern, -ghi; pi. -^e, fern. -<//<<". 

(2) bolting, indeclinable. 

(3) holla, fern. 6dWt ; plur. bolle, fem. 6oWt. 
Irlinini. eat ; khanghd, khdng, khdlld. 

tichnd, come ; tichghd, dchang, achla. 

Ic&rna, do; ka/rgha, ic&rfimg, k&rld. 

Pres. part, ends in -d unchangeable, as Mr<X, doing ; 
khdd, eating; pi&, drinking; dhu&, washing (long -it). 

Past ends in -d or -u, dhissM or dhissu, beaten ; khdd 
or khddhd, eaten; dhdleti, fallen; god, gone (irreg.) ; 
ditta, given (irreg.). 

Pres. ind. is the same as the pres. part. 

Imperf. the same with ////<' thl, etc. 

Stat. part, in -Ida, ha itlhi<la, seated. 

When the inlinit. is used as a finite verb the agent 
form of the 1st and 2nd pers. pronouns is different from 
the usual form, being md, tftddh, dssa, tussa instead of 
mac, tde, dsse, tusse, thus : — 



$28 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FHOM THE HIMALAYAS 

m<$ Jcarna, ttiddh uelu kdriul, I am to do it, thou art 
not to do it. 

Ability. — mere nehl jdlrnda, I cannot go. 

mere neM roti khah&ndi, I cannot eat bread. 

Need,to be required. — mdbe dui Icitll lori lie, I need two 
coolies. 

Use of laggna, he attached. 

mdbe bard dhnppci laggd, to me great sunshine was- 
attached, I felt the heat very much. 

mdbe bdri bJtfic l&ggl, to me groat hunger attached, 
I feel very hungry. 

fn the second sentence the sense is practically that of 
a present tense. 

(2) Eastern Mandeali 

(The dialect spoken near Mariglaur.) 

Nouns 

Nom., Ace. bah, father. 

Gen. bdbb-d rd. 

Dat. Ace. -a be. 

Abl. -d tide (from), monjha (in). 

Agent -e. 

Pronouns 

Nom., Ace. Jidft, I. dssS (also hdvimS). 

Gen. /nerd. 

Dat. Ace. mail be. 
Abl. man 1&4&. 

Agent made. 

Nom., Ace. til, thou. 
Gen. tera. 

Dat. Ace. td be. 
Abl. td lede. 

Agent taue. 



dssa rd. 




dssa be. 




dssa ledS. 




dssS. 




tftsse (also 


tommk) 


tussa rd. 




tussa be. 




tilssa ledS. 




tilssS. 





MANDI AND 


SUKET MANDI SI It W 1 22! 


Xniii., Ace. eh, this. 








rh. 


( leu. lu ra. 








iiihn ra. 


Dat. Ace. eu be. 








nihil In'. 


A I.I. M Ude; 








in ha lode. 


Agent ei'i. 








nihe. 


Ke in. sing. : (Jen. f'ssn 


ra. 


Dat., 


Alii., etc. Agent, esse. 


Nom., Ace. se, that, 


he 






se. 


Gen. tea ra. 








tm ha ra. 


Agent teil. 








tlllhi . 


Fein. sing. : Gen. t8ssa 


ra 


etc. 




leun, who. Gen. has 


ra. 


Agent, 


lain I. 


ke, what ? 












X 


UMERALS 




J. e/c. 








1 1 . gaira. 


2. due. 








1 2. bara. 


3. cin. 








13. t< m. 


4. /.st//'. 








14. tsouda. 


5. pa a '.. 








1 5. pandra. 


(J. / s/n in. 








1 6. sola. 


7. .stj/. 








17. satara. 


<S. f///. 








1 S. thara. 


!). iinn. 








19. >H/*, 7? fc/l. 


10. </^. 








20. &iA. 



Adverbs 
Time 

ebre, ebb? j , now. pdrsi, day after fco-morrow. 

£e&re, tebbe, then. cauthe, on fourth day. 

kebre, Icebbe, when ? ///</;. yesterday. 

jebre,jebbe, when ? (rel.). p/icw*cte,daybeforeyesterday 

s/tiu, to-morrow. cauthe, on fourth day back. 

okkhe, here. /,v/?o\ where? 

tohlche, there. jdldche', where (rel.). 

g////. r, let (lil, ketthi, jetthi are also used. 

/,7/>t?, why ? 



230 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 
Pres. he, all through ; the plur. has also ha (inasc. and 
feni. alike). 

Past, tl, all through. 

ndltnd, go 
Fut. ndhu, ndhu be. nahume, ndhu be. 

ndhu, ndhu be. nahl, nahl be. 

ndhu, ndhu be. nahl, nahl be. 

Also ndhlo, fern, ndhli; plur. ndhle. feni. ndhli. 
ndhu is used also for pres. cond. 

There is another fut. in -ghd, as auiiglid, I shall come ; 
khdnghd, I shall eat (fern, -i; plur. -e, feni. -I). 

Pres. ind. ndhu ; also ndhndd, fern, ndhndi ; plur. 
ndhncle, fern, ndhndi. 

Imperf. ndhndd tl, fem. ndhndi tl; plur. ndhnde tl, 
fern, ndhndi tl. 

Pres. part, ndhndd. 

The second n in the form ndhndd is inserted only in 
verbs whose root ends in a vowel or vowel followed by h ; 
cf. hhdndd, eating ; kordd, doing. 

Continuative. — pres. part, with stat. part, of lagnd. 
had roil laglrd hhdndd, I am eating bread. 
haii rotl laglri Ichdndi, I (fem.) am eating bread. 
The position of this portion of Mandl Siraj (between 
Kiilu and Mandl proper) accounts for the varieties of forms 
found. The future exemplifies this. 



THE BILASPUR AND NALAGARH DIALECTS 

Introduction 

There are in all six dialects spoken in Bilaspiir, or 
Kahlur as the State is sometimes called. In the centre 
of the State extending to a distance of six or seven miles 
in every direction from the capital is the standard dialect 
of Bilaspuri or Kahluri. Immediately to the west of this, 
in that portion of the State which juts out westwards 
and is bounded on the north by the district of Karigra, 
we rind a dialect which we may call Western Bilaspuri. 
To the north of the standard dialect are found two minor 
dialects ; that on the west near the Karigra border, to which 
we may give the name Northern Bilaspuri, is very like 
Western Bilaspiirl, while that on the east near the Mandl 
border is the same as Mandeali, which lias been treated of 
in Languages of the Northern Himalayas and need not be 
further referred to here. Immediately south of the area 
of the standard dialect the people speak a slightly different 
dialect which I have called Southern Bilaspiirl: its 
area is a narrow strip of country on the Nalagarh 
border, and to the east of this in South-east Bilaspiir is 
found a dialect locally known as Daini. It hardly differs 
from Southern Bilaspuri. It extends over the border 
into Arid State and beyond it commences the Kiuthali 
dialect which is spoken all over the central Simla States. 

In Nalagarh two dialects are spoken. In the western 
portion of the State where the hills give place to the 
plains the dialect is practically the ordinary Panjabi of 
the eastern Panjab. 1]\ the eastern part of the State the 
dialect spoken is called Han duri, from llandur, a name 
often given to the whole State. In Ban duri a trifling 
difference is found between the speakers of the eastern 
and western halves of the Handuri area, the range of 



232 LINGUISTIC .STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

hills being approximately the dividing line. As might be 
expected Handuri closely resembles Kifirhali. 

The Bilaspur dialects are so closely allied that one 
might call them one dialect, Bilaspuri or Kahluri. I have 
preferred the former name as the State is much better 
known to the outside world as Bilaspur, the name 
Kahlur hardly being known to any who have not visited 
the State. 

Special attention should be paid to the fut. and stat. 
part. Notes will be found under each dialect. In 
Bilaspuri, W. Bilaspuri, and N. Bilaspuri the stat. part, 
is formed from the past tense. In S. Bilaspuri, Damn 
and Handiirl, it is formed from the root of the infinitive. 

BILASPURI 

The standard dialect differs little from Eastern Panjabi. 
The prepositions used in declension are the same. 

Nouns 
Masculine nouns in -a are declined as in Panjabi, others 
generally inflect in -e in the singular, and have an 
ag. plur. in -I. Feminine nouns, as a rule, inflect in 
-a in the singular and -<% in the plural. 

Numerals 
The free use of cerebral n and I will remarked, as 
hitnattar, 69 ; iintdli, 39. 

Verbs 

The verb substantive is ha for the present and thd for 
the past. 

The future of the ordinary verb is specially noteworthy 
because of its remarkable resemblance to the future of the 
Sasi dialect. A full vocabulary of this criminal tribe was 
given in Languages of the Northern Himalayas. 

In both dialects two forms of the future are found, one 
declined and one indeclinable. The indeclinable form is 



THE HILASPUR AND NALAGAEH DIALECTS 



233 



identical, the other differs only in the fact that the 

S.lsi dialect drops the n in the 2nd and 3rd persons- 
Thus, for the verb k&rna, do, the futures would he as 
follows : — 



id 


ined — 












Hi!, ATI B 






Sasi 




1. 


Jedr&ngr-a, 


feni. 


-i. 


karangr-a", leva. 


-i. 


2. 


k&ra'ngr-a, 


,, 


-i. 


Jcaragr-a, ,, 


-i. 


3. 


Jc&r&ngr-a, 


>. 


-i. 


kar&gr-a, 


-i. 


1. 


Jcarangr-e, 


, 


- 1 a. 


karaiigr-e, „ 


-id. 


2. 


k&r&ngr-e, 


,, 


-id. 


karagr-e, „ 


-id. 


3. 


hdrdhgr-e, 


,, 


-id. 


Jcdrdgr-e, 


-id. 



The indeclinable form is karang for both dialects. 

The stat. part, ends in -uda. With the exception of 
the fut. and stat. part, the verb is conjugated very much 
like the Panjabi verb. The stat. part, ending is added to 
the past tense root. 

Ability is expressed in a manner not unlike that 
employed in Panjabi. In Bilaspurl the infinitive root 
with -I added is used, and in Panjabi the inflect, infin- 
Thus, I cannot eat rice is rendered as follows: — 

Bilaspurl, mere nsh caul khdl liiinde. 

Panjabi, mere hold caul nehl khan hitnde (or khaide). 

WESTERN BILASPURI 
Nouns 
The prepositions for of, to, and from are da, no, and t<\ 
Masc. nouns generally have -e for the obi. ending in the 
sing, and -<? in the plur. (agent, -g except for nouns ending 
in -a). Fein, have -a in the sing, (agent -e) and -d in 
the plur. 

Verbs 

The conjugation of verbs, including the fut. and stat. 
part., is almost the same as in the standard dialect. The 
differences are trifling. The stat. part, is formed from the 



234 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

past tense. In the fut. verbs whose roots end in a vowel 
insert h before the ending -rd. The use of cdhindd, 
advisable, etc., is noticeable. 

NORTHERN BILASPURI 

. Nouns 
The words for of, to, and from are rd, jo, and te. 
Nouns in -a inflect as in Panjabi. Others generally have 
obi. -a (agent -e) for both masc. and fem., sing, and plur. 
The similarity of sing, and plur., so common in Mandi, 
Kiilu, and the Simla States, is worthy of note. The 
dialect closely resembles Mandeali as might be guessed 
from its geographical position. 

Verbs 
As in Mandeali the fut. ends in -iigha or -ng and the 
stat. part, in -Ira, this ending being added to the root of 
the past tense. There is an indecl. pres. part, in -a. The 
verb generally is the same as in Mandeali, but retains 
the n in ngJid, even with verbs whose root ends in 
a consonant. 

SOUTHERN BILASPURI 
Nouns 
The preps, for gen. dat. and abl. are rd, jo, and te. The 
Panjabi influence is apparent in the fact that the plur. is 
different from the sing-, for all nouns. In the sing. masc. 
nouns inflect, in -e and fem. in -d ; in the plur. both have 
-a, but the agent plur. of masc. nouns ends in -I. 

Verbs 

The fut. ends in -gd which is added directly to the root, 
the letter ii being inserted in the case of roots ending in 
a vowel. 

The stat. part, ends in -urd, which is added to the root 
of the verb and not to the past tense root. 



THE BILASPUE AND NALAGARH DIALECTS 235 

DA Ml 

The Dami dialect is almost the same as Southern Bilaspuri 
which is spoken to the west of it. 

The ordinary pres. part, of the verb is found used as an 
organic pass. part, in expressions indicating ability. 

HANDURI 

Nouns 

With the exception of masc. nouns in -a, which inflect 

in -e, the inflection of nouns is in -a, the plur. being the 

same. The agent, however, generally ends in -e. The 

word baihn, sister, has -a in the agent. 

The preps, for the gen., dat, and abl. are ra,jo, and te. 

Verbs 

The fut. adds -gd, the 1st sing, and plur. inserting ->>• 
and the other persons adding the ending directly to the 
root. Roots ending in a vowel insert n in the 2nd and 
3rd person. 

The stat. part, in -ura is added to the root as in Dami 
and Southern Bilaspurl. 

The past cond. form in -da (which is also that of the 
pres. part, in negative sentences) is used as an organic 
pass. part, to express ability. 

BILASPURI (KAHLURI) 

No UN'S 

Singular Plukal 
Masculine. 

Nom., Ace. ghor-ci, horse. -e. 

Gen. -e da. -&a da. 

Dat., Ace. -e nit. -Sd nu. 

Abl. -e tc. -ea te. 

Voc. -8d. -Ho. 

Agent -e, -£a. 



Feminine, 






Nom.,Acc. 


mtliui 


-i, girl. 


Gen. 




-id da. 


Dat., Ace. 




-id nu. 


Abl. 




-Id te. 


Voc. 




-ie. 


Agent 




-id. 



236 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Nom., Ace. ghdr-, house. ghdr- 

Gen. -e da. -a da. 

etc. etc. 

Voc. -a. -6. 

Agent -I. -e. 

Nom., Ace hdth-i, elephant. -i. 

Gen. -le da. -id dd. 

Voc. -id. -id. 

Agent -ie. -ie. 



-ici. 
-ia dd. 
-ia nu. 

-id te. 

-id. 

-id. 

Nom., Ace. baih-n, sister. -na. 

Gen. -nd dd. -na dd. 

etc. etc. 

Voc. -nc. -no. 

Agent -na. -na. 

Pkonouns 

Nom., Ace. hah, I. dse. 

Gen. vierd. mhdrd, dsd dd. 

Dat., Ace. mannu. dsd nu. 

Abl. mette. dsd te. 

Agent mat. dse. 

Nom., Ace. tu, thou. tus'e. 

Gen. terd. tilsa dd. 

Dat., Ace. tainu. tUsd nu. 

Abl. tcttc. tusd te. 

Agent tal. tilse. 

Nom., Ace. se, he, she, it, that. se. 

Gen. tih da, tls dd. tihna dd. 

Dat., Ace. till nu, tis nu. tihna nu. 

Abl. tih te, tis te. tihna te. 

Agent tihni." tihne. 



BILASPUR AND NALAGARH BlLASPURl 237 

Nom., Ace. eh, this. eh. 

Gen. Ih da, is da. IhnS, da. 

I 'at., Ace. ih nu, is mi. ihna nu. 

Agenl ihni. ihne. 

Nom., Ace. kiln, who ? kitty. 

Gen. kill da, lets da. klhnd da. 

etc. etc. 

Agent kihul. kllnie. 

Nom., Ace. jo, who (rel.). jo. 

Gen. jlh da, jls da. ■ jihnd da. 

Agent jllnil. jlhne. 

/,//(', what ? lias Gen. kali da, no plur. 
Icibcch, something, anything, is indecl. 

Pronominal Adjectives 

Una, so much or many ; tttna, so much or many (correl.) • 
kltna, how much or many ( jitna, as much or many (rel.). 

erhd, of this kind ; terha, of that kind.; kerha, of what 
kind ? terha je, of which kind (rel.). 

eddd, so big ; tedda, so big (correl.) ; Icedda, how big? 
jeddd, as big (rel.). 

Adjectives 

Adjectives ending in -a are declined like nouns in -d, 
the fern, being like nouns in -1. Thus we have such 
phrases as — 

dpnid h<iiln)d te, from own sister. 

apnea bhdyyd. nil, to own brothers. 

Adjectives with other endings are not declined unless 
used as nouns, in which case they arc declined as nouns. 

Comparison. —There are no special forms for comparison. 
It is expressed by means of te, from— 

khara, good ; Is te Jchara, good Erom this, better than this. 

scbbbhna te kh&rd, good from all, better than all, best. 



238 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



1. ikk. 

2. do. 

3. tinn. 

4. car. 

5. panj. 

6. die. 

7. S(XW. 

8. at tit. 

9. 7i au. 

10. das. 

11. 2/dra. 

12. bard. 

13. ^era. 

14. cauda. 

15. pdndrd. 

16. so/^. 

17. sattra. 

18. thara. 

1 9. iinni. 

20. feffc. 
27. satdl. 

29. undtti. 

30. ^A. 
37. satatti. 

1st. paihla. 

2nd. diijjd. 



htin, now. 
£d/m, then. 
Jcdltii, when ? 
tahnje, when (rel.). 
«i7> to-day. 



Numerals 
Cardinal 

39. lintali. 

40. c<z£i. 
47. saltdli. 

49. tininja. 

50. panj ah. 
57. satunja. 

59. tuidht. 

60. s«^/t, 
67. sataht. 

69. hundttar. 

70. sdttar. 
77. sdthattdr. 

79. undsl. 

80. assl. 
87. sdtdsl. 

89. naue. 

90. nabbe. 
97. sdtdnue. 
99. nerinue. 

100. s«w. 
300. £?/)m salt. 
500. ^aiy saw. 
1000. Aoydr. 
100,000. £am. 
Ordinal 

3rd. tf£?y<x. 
4th. cautlia. 
Adverbs 

Aw/, to-morrow, yesterday. 
par sii, day after to-morrow, 

day before j^esterday. 
cauth, fourth day forwards 

or backwards. 



HILASPUH AND NALAGARH — BILASPUR] 



239 



Uthe, here. 
tittlil, there. 
kiti, where ? 
jttthi, where (rel.). 
nihle nfi, downwards, to 
the plains. 

chord, quickly. 
kh&ra, well. 



Place 

uppre, upwards. 
nere, near, 
(hlr, far. 
agge, before. 
ficche, backwards. 



Others 



kai, why ? 



da, of. 
nil, to. 

te, from. 

wlcc, in. 

agge, in front of. 

picche, after, behind. 



Prepositions 

ge, beside ; miijh ge, beside 

me. 
Jcane, along with; mere 

kane, along with me. 
par, upon. 
heth, under. 



Verbs 
Verb Substantive 



ha, am, fern. hi. 
Jut, art, ,, hi. 
ha, is, ,, hi. 



he, are, fern, h id. 
lie, are, „ Aid. 
he, are, ,, hid. 

Past sing., tha, was, fern. th%\ plur. tlie, were, fern. 



th 





run 


•hna, 


Call 




Imperat. rn rh 








riirlto. 


Pres. cond. riirh-fi. 








-lye. 


-e. 








-0. 


-e. 








-e. 



Fufc. : Sing. masc. rifrrhangrd, fern, vilrJid/hgrl ; plur. 
ritrhdngre, fem, rUrhdngrid. 

There is another fut. rurhdng, indecl. 

Pres. ind. or past cond. : Sing. masc. rti/rhdd, fern. 
ftirlidl; plur. m. r&rhde, fern. ritrhd/tfL. 



240 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Imperf. riirhdd tha (HVrhdi thl. rUrhde the, rtirltdid 

tJl n'l ). 

Past, HtrhMd, fern, riirhl; plur. in. riirlie, fern, ruvhla. 

Habitual pres. rti/rJia kardd, 1 am in the habit of falling. 

Habitual past, riirhd Ica/rda tha, I was in the habit of 
falling. 

In these two tenses rurhCt is indeclinable, while kardd 
and kardd tha are declined like riirhda in pres. ind. or 
imperf. 

Conj. part, ritrhike, having fallen. 

Stat. part. rilrhudd, in the state of having fallen, fallen. 

Pres. perf. rurhed lid (declined as above). 

Plup. rurJied tha (declined as above). 

Jiond, be, become 
Imperat. ho. hoo. 

Fut. hdngrd or hong. 
Pres. ind. or past cond. hundd. 
Past, hoed. 
Stat. part, ho add. 

aund, come 
Imperat. d. do. 

Fut. aungrd or aung. 
Past, dyd. 
Stat. part, diidd. 

jdnd, go 
Fut. jaiigrd or jdiig. 
Pres. ind. or past cond. jdndd. 
Past, ged (fern, gel, fem. plur. geld). 

rail ind, remain 
is regular except 
Past, rehd. 

baithnd, sit 
Past, baithd. 
Stat. part, baithudd. 



IMI.ANlMi; AND X AtAGARH- -BILASPUK1 241 

mil rim . beat 
Regular. In the past tenses the verb agrees with the 
object. 

Pass, ma red jana, beaten to-go, be beaten. In this 
jana, go, is conjugated like the ordinary verb j and above, 
nhirni has feni. sing, marl, niase. plnr. mare, fnt. plur. 
mdrul. 

khana, eat 
Fut. lehangra, khang. 
Past, Ichddha. 

pind, drink 
Past, ipittd. 

(lend, give 
Fut. dengra, deng. 
Past, dittd. 

laina, take 
Fut. laingrd, laing. 
Past, led. 

galdnd, speak 
Past, gdldyd. 

Icarnd, do 
Past, kittd. 
Stat. part. Jcittudd, having been done. 

jdnnd, know. 
Past, jdned. 

leauna, bring 
Past, lidyd. 

lei jana, take away 
Like jana above. 

Ability. — The following sentences will illustrate the 
method of expressing ability. There are two methods : 
(i) with hona, (ii) with s&kna. 

(i) mette nih f<>//t khai hitndi, Erom-me not bread 
eating becomes, I cannot eat bread. 
mette nih caul khai h&nde, I cannot eat rice. 

• R 



242 LINGUISTIC SITDIKS FROM TIIK HIMALAYAS 

mette neh eh pothl pa/rhi hand!, I cannot read 

this book. 
incite neh eh kamm harl htindd, I cannot do this 
work. 

(ii) haU neh parhi salcda, I cannot read. 

In both methods the root of the verb with -% added is 
used. In the first the word expressing the logical object 
is the nominative to the verb which agrees with it 
in gender and number, the root with -i remaining 
unchanged. In the second, sal en a , to be able, agrees with 
the logical subject, while the root, as before, suffers no 
change. 

Use of thord, little. There is a strange tautological use 
of thord in negative sentences, thus — 

else M&salman thore nehl he, lit. we Musalmans little 
not are ; the meaning is, ' : we are not Musalmans/' 

bahna, strike, is used with some word for blow, 
understood. 

mat tlh nfi bcihi, I struck him (sc. a blow). 

mai cajpertx did. bahia, I struck slaps (blows of slaps). 

The stat. part of paind, fall, lie, paudd, is used for 
"ill" (lit. lying or fallen). 



BILASPUR AND NALAGARH — JilLASPllM 243 



SENTENCES 

1. Terd nan kyd ha ? Thy name what is ? 

2. Els ghore dl keddi kit Umr hi ? This horse of how- 
great about age is ? 

3. JTii/ie te K&shmir Icitne dur hi ? Here from Kashmir 
how-much far is ? 

4. Tere bitdhe de kltne led mitndu he? Thy father of 
how-many about boys are ? 

5. Had bare dare te patdhnd dyd. I very far from on- 
foot came. 

0. Mere edece da p&tt is did haihnd Jcane blah klttddd. 
My uncle of son this of sister with marriage having-been- 
done (is). 

7. Gliare siifed ghore dl Jeatthi hi. House-in white 
horse of saddle is. 

8. Us did pi I (hi j>d r Luf/hl bannhi de. Him of back 
upon saddle tying give (i.e. tie). 

9. Tls de patte nu vial bauht indrea. Him of son to 
by-me much was-beaten. 

10. Ohje Is parb&te par gaud balcrla card Icardd. 
He this hill upon cows goats grazing making is (is in the 
habit of grazing). 

11. Ohje lis dale Iteth ghore pdjr baithudd. He that 
tree under horse upon seated. 

12. Us da bhdl dpnld bailind te baddd. Him of brother 
own sister than big. 

13. Tls da mill dhdi r&payye hd. This of price two- 
and-a-half rupees is. 

14. Merd biidha chote gh&re raihndd. My father little 
house-in remains (lives). 

15. Tls nu eh r&p&yye del deo. Him to these rupees 
giving give (give over, idea of completion). 

16. Thnd rtipayya Is te lei lau. These rupees him 
from taking take. 



244 LINGUISTIC STUDIES I'lioM THE II I MAI. WAS 

17. Tih rift, khd/re mdrike r&sse kane b&nnhi deo. Him 
to well having-beaten rope with tying give (tie up). 

18. Khuete pcbni Jc&ddho. Well from water draw-out. 
li). Mere agge dgge c&l. My before before walk. 

20. Kis da larkd Jul tiisd de picche cdlCuld. Whom of 
boy is you of behind having- walked. 

21. Eh ciz tilse kis te mdlle lei. This thing by-you 
whom from price-in was-taken ? 

22. GaUe de ekk ditkdnddre te lei. Village of one 
shopkeeper from was-taken. 

Notes.— 2, 4. ha, ko, after number or word expressing 
amount, size, etc., means "approximately". 6. kittiidd, 
done, used for past, is-having-been-done, i.e. has been done. 
8. bannhi de\ here, and in 15, 1G, and 18, we have 
examples of the compound verbs which are so common 
a feature of Panjabi, Hindi, and Urdu. 



B1LASPUR AND NALAGARH B1LASPURI 



245 



VOCABULARY 



about, approximately, /.'//, Ic6. 

able, I"', s&l ;;<< ; see Grammar. 

all, s&bbh. 

arrive, pujjna. 

ass, khotrd. 

back, n., pltth. 

backwards, ptcche. 

bad, /<//r./. 

be, become, hona. 

bear, ne< 7;. 

beat, mama, bdhnd. 

beautiful, bdnkd. 

bed, mania. 

before, tigge. 

behind, plcche. 

below, In'dh. 

beside, ge. 

big,baddd; so -,eddd; so — 
(correl.)j tedda ; how — , 
i;cdda ; as — (rel.), jedda . 

bitch, hMtl. 

body, (J bar. 

book, put In. 

boy, minitjii. 

bread, >'<)//;. 

bring, Icainal. 

brother, bhal. 

buffalo, mhais. 

bull, bald. 

buttermilk, chdh. 

call, hoi ijii. 

camel, lit. 

cat, /'///-', Eem. bXlll. 

cock, kfikkar. 

cold, th&ndd, 



come, ainni. 
cow, (/'>/', grae. 
cowherd, ijinilii. 

daughter, 7///, fc#rt. 

day, din. 

die, mama. 

do, hdmd. 

dog, Intlii. 

downwards, /;c£/i. 

draw (water), kdddhnd. 

drink", pwpa ; give to — , pi I an a . 

car, ki'niii. 

e&tfkhdna ; cause to — ,khilldnd. 

egg, /«////". 

eight, w////. 

eighteen, (hard. 

eighty, //.ssi. 

elephant, huthi. 

cle\ en, ijin rii . 

eye, liakkhl. 

face, »//W/. 

fall, rurhiid, paind. 
far, 7/7r. 
father, hiii/ha. 
held. 7nr/. 

fifteen, pandrd. 
fight, larnd. 
first, /unhid. 
fish, mdechl. 
five, /'(.(»./. 

foot, pair. 

forty, c///. 

forwards, ■';/;/''• 

four, or : Fourth, cauthd. 

fourteen. Cauda. 



246 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



from, tc. 

front, in, &gge. 

fruit, ph&l. 

ghi, ghi. 

girl, unhurt. 

give, dend. 

go, 3 and. 

goat, bdkrd, fern. bukri. 

good, khdrd. 

graze, ti\, cdrnd, cugdnd; int., 

cugnd. 
hair, fees, 
hand, Jidtth. 
he, sc. 
head, sn\ 
hear, sunnd. 
hen, kukkrl. 
hence, jtfifee £e. 
here, 2^/je. 
high, uccd. 
hill, parbat. 
horse, ghord. 
hot, garm, tdttd. 
house, </Mr. 
hundred, sa?t. 
husband, gharewdya. 
I, feaw. 

ignorant, ahmdk. 
in, wlicc. 
inside, mcc. 
iron, Zo/ut. 
jackal, giddrj. 
jungle, &a«. 
kind, of this, erhd ; of that — , 

terhd ; of what — ? kcrJid ; 

of which — (rel.), terhd je. 
kite, ll. 
know, jdnnd. 
lazy, ghair. 



learn, sikhnd. 
leopard, bdhg, rwlrg. 

lie, sauna, paina. 

little, chotd; a — , thord. 

load, bujhkd. 

look, dekhna. 

maize, chdlll. 

make, banana. 

man, indhnu. 

mare, ghdrl. 

marry, blah kdrnd. 

meat, mdsh. 

meet, viillnd. 

milk, duddh. 

moon, cawcZ. 

mother, ammd. 

mountain, parbat. 

much, so, Una ; so — ■ (correl.), 

titnd ; how — ? kitnd ; as 

— (rel.), jitnd. 
Muhammadan, musdhndn. 
my, merd. 
name, nau. 
near, nere. 
night, rat. 
nine, «aw. 
nineteen, ftnni. 
ninety, nabbe. 
no, neh, nclu. 
nose, »«&&. 
not, neh, n&hi. 
nothing, k&cch neh. 
now, hiin. 
of, «YZ. 
oil, tcl. 
on, par. 
one, tfefe. 

our, dsa da, mhdrd. 
own, adj., apnd. 



BILASPUR AND NALAGARH — BILASPURI 



■ir, 



pen, kdldm. 
pig, swr. 

place, v., rahhJnia. 

plain, pdddhdr. 

plough, //<// jornd. 

quickly, chord. 

rain, Ai/r,, 

read, pdrhnd. 

recognize, pachainnd. 

remain, raihnd. 

river, ddryd. 

run, daurnd; — away, ;/<>//// 

jdna . 
saddle, kdtthi. 
say, bolnd, g aland. 
see, dekhnd. 
seed, &w. 
seven, s<7//. 
seventeen, sdttrd. 
seventy, sat la r. 
sharp, paind. 
she, st\ 
sheep, /)//(«/. 
ghepherd, bilkrdl. 
shopkeeper, dilkdnddr. 
sister, older than person spoken 

of, b&bbe ; younger than do., 

ha ill n. 
baithnd. 
six, che. 
sixteen, sold. 
sixty, sdtth. 
sleep, s,iiinii. 
something, kucch. 
son, ;;////, />//«». 
sow, band. 

speak, [iiltinu, bolnd. 
stand, khi 
star, /((/•<<. 



stomach, p< If, 

storm, a mi hi, dnlirrJ. 
stream, khddd. 

sun, sun) j ; sunshine, dhupp. 
SW'eet, lllillha. 

swift, caldk. 

take, laind; take away, A 

ten, </</*. 

than, iV. 

then, tali u. 

there, uttli'i. 

they, sc. 

thief, cor. 

thirst. ////. 

thirteen, terd. 

this, r//. 

thou, £w. 

three, $»n ; third, //./i^- 

thy, terd. 

tie, ban nil nd. 

to, K.M. 

to-day, r///. 

to-morrow, A,d// ; day after — , 

p&rsu ; fourth day, cauth. 
tongue, jibbh. 
tooth, dand. 
town, n&ggar. 
tree, rial. 
twelve, hard. 
twenty, hlh. 
two, do ; two-and-a-half , <Z.%<xi ; 

second, dUjjd. 
ugly, 6#ra. 
uncle, edecd. 
under, //r7/;. 
upon, /'■'/-. 
upwards, Uppre. 
very, bauht. 
village, </<k/7. 



2 is 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



walk, p&tahna ii/iua or jdnd, 

fnhjit. 
was, Ilia. 
water, pdfyi. 
way, bat. 
wo, use. 

well, adv., klmru. 
well, n., kh ilt't. 
what, /i//<<. 
wheat, kuntlk. 
when, Jcdhn ; (rel.)j tdlin je. 
where? kitl ; (rel.), jltthi. 
white, siifcd. 
who? /t«» ; (rel.), /o. 



why ? £a». 

wife, j&dn&s. 

wind, paiojL 

wise, Mtlawala. 

with (along with,), kdne \ 

instru., /<V/;;f\ 
wolf, bliagedr. 
woman, jtidnds. 
write, llkkhnd. . 
yesterday, AY?// ; day before — 

p&rsu ; fourth day back, 

cautli. 
you, tilse ; your, /#sa da. 



BILASPUK AND NALAGAUU -WESTERN BILASPUK1 249 



WESTERN BILASPURI 

Nouns 

Noni. Ace. ghor-d. -c. 

( it>n. -e da. ea da. 

Dat., Ace. -e no. -&a nd. 

Abl. -e tS. -ea te. 

Agent -e. ea. 

Nom., Ace. ghdr-, house. ghdr-. 

Gen. -e da. -a da. 

Agent -e, -e ne. -e. 

Nom., Ace. hdth-i, elephant. -%. 

Gen. -ie da. -id da. 

Agent -ie, -ie ne. -ie, -la ne. 

Nom., Ace. niftnni, girl. -ia. 

Gen., etc. -ia da, no, etc. -id da, no. etc. 

Agent -ie or Ic ne. -id ne. 

Nom., Ace. bhain-, sister. 
Gen., etc. -a del, nd. 

Agent -a ne. 

Pronouns 

Nom., Ace. hau, vial, I. 
Gen. nierd. 

Dat., Ace. nuiin//. 
Abl. mette. 

Agent mat. 

Nom., Ace. tu, thou. tUsi. 

Gen. terd. thiidrd, tUhdrd. 

Dat., Ace. tain mi. thUdnu. 

Abl. tUttc. thualtr. 

Agent tal. tusi. 

Nom., Ace. eh, this. eh. 

Gen. ih da, is da. ihna dd. 

Dat., Ace. ih no. ihna 

Agent Ihn, ihnl, 



bhain-a. 

-a da, nd. 
-a ne. 



as i. 
sdhrd. 
asa nu. 
sdtte. 
as i. 



250 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

kaun, who ? 

Gen. I: ih da. 

Agent. Jcih n . 

Jeyd, what? Gen. Icah da. 

Icilcch, something, anything. 

Pronominal Adject: ves 

eha, of this kind ; teha, of that kind ; heha, of what 
kind ? jehcl, of which kind (rel.). 

Unci, so much or many ; ittnd, so much or many 
(correl.) ; kltna, how much or many ? jttna, as much ov 
many (rel.). 

Adjectives 
The rules for agreement are the same as for the main 
Bilaspur dialect. 

Comparison, as in Bilaspur :— 

canga, good ; es te caiiga, better than this. 
sabb te caiiga (or abbal), better than all (first from 
all), best. 

Adverbs 
Time 
lu'nii, now. lead, when ? 

tad, then. jad, when (rel.). 

Place 
ittJte, here. Icitthe, where ? 

littlie, there. jitthe, where (rel.). 

Others 
kiisno, kdh no, why ? clcor, quickly. 

Prepositions 

da, of. te, from, than. 

no, nft, to. 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 
Pres. hai all through, unchanged. 
Past sing. masc. tlul, fern, thl ; plur. masc. tlie, fern. thid. 



BILASPUB AND NALAGARH- WESTERN BILASPUR1 251 

diggnd, fall 

Imperat. digg diggo. 

Fnt. digg&ngr-d, Eem. -i; plur. masc. -e, fern, -fd; also 
dojf/o hi i, unchanged. 

Pres. ind. and past cond. diggdd. 

[mperf. diggdd thd, etc., fern, diggdi (hi; plur. masc. 
diggde the, fern, diggdid thid. 

Stat. part, diggudd, fallen. 

Past, digged, fern, diggi; plur. masc. digge, fern, diggid, 

hond, be, become 
Fut. hunghrd. 
Past, /toed. 
Pres. ind. and past cond. hiindd. 

an no , come 
Fut. aunghrd. 
Past, ai/a. 
Stat. part, diidd, in the state of having come. 

jdnd, go 
Fut. jdnghrd. 
Past, (/ed. 
Stat. part, gdudd, gone. 

baithnd, sit 
Past, bo it (ltd. 
Stat. part, baitthudd. 

Jcitttnd, beat 



Past, I: of fro. 
Past, khddhd. 

Fut. denghrd. 

Past, f/^/c. 

Fut. lainghrd. 
Past, £ea, 



Lint in i, cat 
(7e/?d, give 

laind, take 



•2:>-2 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

It will be noticed that verbs whose roots end in a vowel 
take // in the future, thus aunghra, I shall come ; janghra, 
I shall go; denghra, I shall give, etc. 

Ability is expressed in the same way as in Bilaspiir. 
The sentences given for Bilaspfui are used also in Western 
Bilaspiir. The tautological use of thora, mentioned in 
connexion with the Standard dialect, is found also in this 
dialect. 

To express necessity, advisability, duty, cdhlndd (fern. 
cdhlndl, plur. masc. cdhinde, fern, cdhindld) is used like 
the Panjabi cdhidd. It corresponds to the Hindi cahiye. 

Numerals 
The numerals are as in Bilaspiir except 

13 tehrd. 20 bih. 

VOCABULARY 

The words are practically as in the Standard dialect. 
The following with slight differences may be noted: — 

advisable, necessary, it is, dwell, basya. 

cdhlndd. herder of buffaloes, mdhl. 

boy, chohru. look for, be obtained, lajjhna. 

buffalo, mhais. shepherd, gildl. 

cow, ga. woman, wife, tlmi. 



NORTHERN BILASPURI 

Nouns 
Nom., Ace. ghor-d. -e. 

-e rd. 
-e jo. 
-e te. 
-c. 

-I. 
-Id rd. 

etc. 
-le. 



Gen. 


-e rd,. 


Dat., Ace. 


-e jo. 


Abl. 


-e te. 


Agent 


-e. 


Nom., Ace. 


ddm-i, man 


Gen. 


-id rd. 




etc. 


Agent 


-U. 



l',II.ASl"i:i: AND NALAUARII — NORTHERN lil I. ANN 1: 1 253 

Norn., Ace. gh&r, house. gh&r. 

( ren. //hard rd. gh&ra id. 

Fen) i n i nr. 

Nom., Ace. munn-1, girl. -1. 

(u>n. -la rd. -id rd. 

Agent -h~. -II. 

It will be noticed that as in s<> many Simla States 
dialects the singular is practically the same as the plural. 





Pronouns 






Num., Ace. hau, I. 






Use. 


Gen. mera. 






mJidrd. 


Dat., Ace. minjo. 






dsd jd. 


Abl. matte. 






dsd te. 


Agent wa5. 






as a. 


Nom., Ace. //7. 






tiise. 


Gen. tferd. 






tilsa rd, 


Dat., Ace. tijjn. 






tusd jo. 


Abl. ^rt^e. 






tusd te. 


Agent tal. 






tusd. 


eh, this, has CJen. is 


ra. Agent, 


ihn 


1. 


ley a is what ? 


Adverbs 






Nearly the same as 


Western Bil; 


I'lspun. 


dotta, is to-morrow. 









Verbs 

Verb Substantive 
Pres. masc. lid, Eem. hi; plur. Ar. Eem. A<. 
Past masc. tha, fem. /A 7: plur. masc. /Ar. Eem. /A i. 

kd/rnci, do 

Fut. Icd/raiighd, fem. k&rcmghi; plur. k&r&nghe, Eem. 
karemghi; also kd/r&ng (indeclinable). 

Pres. ind. fcctrd A", Eem. ifoXrdl A/": plur. Mr d Af- Eem 
fcardl /a. 



254 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

Iniperf. k&rd thd, fem. Ic&rd. tJu\ plur. k&rd the, fern. 
Ic&rd. I In. 

Past, kittd, fem. kMti : plur. &£We, fem. kttti (agreeing 
with object). 

Stat. part, luttlra, fern, klttlrl ; plur. ktttvre, fem. hittlrl. 

Pres. perf. /.'y7^7 Ad. 

Plup. kitta thd. 

dend, give 

Fur. denghd or cZeA//. 

jdnd, go 
Fut. jdnghd or jdng, 
Pres. ind. ;'r7a, /ia. 
Past, </ed. 
Stat. part, geird. 
Pres. perf. (7m Ad. 
Plup. </ed /Ad. 

Jiond, be, become 
Past, Add, Audi Ad, Add £Ad. 

aund, come 
Stat. part. dM. 

baithnd, sit 
Stat. part, baithird. 

Other verbs are dekhnd, see ; past, dekhed. 

bdhnd, strike ; past, bdhed. This is used always with 
some feminine word for blow understood, as us jo bdJti, 
struck him (sc. a blow). 

lei jdna, take away ; like jdna, go. 

ll aund, bring ; like aund, come. 

Numerals 
The numerals are the same as in the Western Bilaspur 
dialect. 

VOCABULAEY 
The vocabulary does not appreciably differ from that 
of other dialects in Brlasptir. 



I'.ILASl'CK AM) MALAGARH —SOUTHERN BILASPUR] 255 



SOUTHERN 


BILASPURI 






Nou 


NS 








Nom., Ace. ghor-d. 








-r. 




Gen. -e rd 








-rn rd. 




Dat., Ace. -c jo. 








-rd jo. 




Abl. -e te. 








-&a te. 




Agent -P. 








-e. 




Nom., Ace. ghdr- 






ghdr- 




Gen. -o ra 








-a rd. 




etc. 








etc. 




Agent -eor 


■e ne. 






-e. 




Nom., Ace. hdth-t, el 


ephant. 






-J. 




(leu. -/> r<7. 






-la rd. 




Agent -te, - 


te ne. 






■te. 




em i n hie. 












Nom., Ace. muim-l, 


daughter, has 


Gen. 


-Id rd. Agent 


-Id. 


Nom., Ace. bhain- 






bhain-d. 




Gen. -d \ 


m. 






-~d rd. 




Agent -a. 








-a. 






Pronouns 








Nom. j Ace. hau. 








dse. 




Gen. merd. 








dsa rd. 




Dat., Ace. mhijo. 








dsa jo. 




Abl. mette. 








dsa te. 




Agent wa«. 








dse. 




Nom., Ace. <», thou. 








tiise. 




Gen. iera. 








tiisa rd. 




Dat., »Acc. ////o. 








tilsa jo. 




Abl. mte. 








tUsa te. 




Agent tai. 








tilsa. 




Nom., Ace. eh, this. 








eh. 




Gen. /s rd. 








lima rd. 




Dat., Ace. ?s jo. 








ihna jo. 




Abl. Is te. 








thud /«'. 




Agent ihnl. 








Ih ne. 





256 UXcriSTIC STUfclfcS FIIOM T11K HIMALAYAS 

Nom., Ace. kihj, who. 

Gen. kis ra. 

Agent hihni. 

hya is what ? 
kiicch, anything, something. 

Pronominal Adjectives 
erha, of this kind: and so terha, leer ha, jer hoi. 
Una, so much or many ; titna, so much or many 
(correl.) ; kitna, how much or many ? jitnd, as much or 
many (rel.). Not cerebral n as in Standard dialect. 

Adjectives 
The rules are as in the Standard dialect. 
Comparison. — accha, good ; is te acchcL, better than this ; 
sdbbhi te dcclid, best of all. 

Adverbs 
Time 
huii, now. leal, to-morrow or yesterday. 

ta, then. parsu, day after to-morrow 

kadi, when ? or day before yesterday. 

ttije, when (rel.). cauth, on fourth day for- 

ajj, to-day. wards or backwards. 

Others 
IcaU, why? chor, quickly. 

Prepositions 
ra, of. ge, beside , mere ge,heside me. 

jo, to. rial, along with ; mere nal, 

te, from. with me. 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 
As in Standard dialect, ha, hi, lie, hid. 

„ ,, tha, tin, the, thia. 

dig gnd, fall 
Almost as in Standard dialect. 
Imperat. digg diggo. 



BILASIM K AM) NALAqARH SOUTHERN I'.I I.ASl'L' Rl l J"»7 

Fut. diggg d, -a -a, -e -e -e\ leva. -J -J -J. id id i<$. 

This triple g in the future results from the adding of 
the ending -gel to the root digg-. This tense differs from 
the Standard dialect. 

Pres. cond. diggu, etc. 

Pres. ind. diggix ha, etc. 

[mperf. diggfi tha. 

Past cond. diggdd. 

Past, digged : pros. perf. digged ltd: plup. digged tha. 

Stat. part, diggurd. 

hona, be, become 
Fut. hwhgd. 
Past, /iua. 

dtind, come (cf. West Panjabi dwand). 
Fut. dahgd. 
Past cond. dtindd. 
Past, a yd. 



Fut. / a ////c. 
Past, greiz. 



jo.ija, go 



/><( tfh ijd, sit 
Past, baithed. 
Stat. part, baithurd. 

lend, take 
Fut. lengd. 
Past, ted. 

h&rnd, do 
Past, /ciWd (not /-r/Zd) 

hhand, eat; ptna, drink; </om. give; galdnd, speak; 
bdlnd, speak ; £eaurw&, bring ; 2e$ jdnd, take away ; raihnd, 
remain; nidrnd, beat, are like the Standard dialect with 
the necessary changes in fut. and stat. part. 

It should be noticed that when the root of a verb ends 
in a vowel the fut. and past cond. insert an h and n 
respectively before the ending. 

s 



258 linguistic studies from the himalayas 

Numerals 

The numerals are the same as in the Standard dialect 
except 9, nail. 

Ability is expressed as in the Standard dialect. See 
the sentences there. 

VOCABULARY 
The vocabulary calls for little remark. The following 
words showing a slight difference may be noted : — 

boy, chokru. shepherd, bUkrildl. 

buffalo, mhais. sister, bobbo. 

goat, baklcrci. 

The word bukrudl for the more ordinary bakral, etc., 
reminds us that in Bilaspur and the South of Suket, the 
introduction of u or iv before a is common. Thus we 
have gidiidb for guldb, rose ; utdrwdl for utarai, descent ; 
ca/rhwai for cdrhdl, ascent; itthwdyd for Uthdyd, lifted. 



DAMI 

The dialect of North-East Bilaspur is practically 
identical with the Standard dialect of Mandi and Suket. 
In the declension almost the only difference is that te is 
used for ge, from. ■ 

Dami is spoken in South-East Bilaspur and is almost 
the same as the dialect of South Bilaspiir. The resem- 
blances and differences are indicated below. 

Nouns 
The same as Southern Bilaspiui. 

Pronouns 
1st pers. sing, same except abl. matte. 
Plur. same except — 

Nom., Ace. use. 

Gen. mhara. 

Dat. and Abl. cisd jo and te. 



I'.ILASI'L'K AND NALAGARfi — DAMI 259 

2nd pers. same except — 

Norn., Ace. lil. Plur. tuse. 
(icii. tusa id. 

Dat., Ace. tusa 36. 

AM. tutt&. tusa te. 

Agent tusse. 

3rd pers. [iron, the same ; inter, and rel. pron. the same. 

Pronominal Adjectives 

Kind : — erha, of this kind, etc., the same. 

Amount: — cerebral 11 ; Una, so much or many ; titna, so 
much or many (correl.) ; klhnl , how much or many ? jttnd, 
as much or many (rel.). 

Jcicch, something, anything. 

Adverbs 

Time 
ebbfi , now. Icadu, when ? 

t<i, then. td. je, when (rel.). 

Place 
The same. 

Verbs 
Verb Substantive 
Pres. k&, fem. hi; plur. M, fern. hid. 

rtirh n a, fall 

Fut. Htrh-ga, fem. -,'//"; plur. masc, -ge, fern. -</></. 

Pres. iml. rnr/in ho, fem. rurhn hi] plur. masc. Hirhv. 
he, fem. /•/>/•// u /ad. 

Imperf. ritr/i S //'". 

Stat. part. n5 ,-A Sra. 

For the [ires. ind. and ijnperf. the following is often 
used with no real difference of meaning, it ought properly 
to express habit. 

r&rha havu h&, fem. Htrha Ic&rv. hi, etc. 

So also khdya Ic&rv. h&, 1 eat. 



200 MNcrisTjr stldiks from the Himalayas 

hdnd, be, become (the same) 
aund, come 
Fut. dungd or auiighd. 
Stat. part. dura. 

JO, ltd, go 

Fut. jdnghd. 

Stat. part, jdurd. 

Past cond. ^'a/i # /"/". 

The verbs h&ttnd, beat; kftdnd, eat; p*w», drink : eterca, 
give; gdldiwi, speak: bolnd, speak; karnd, do, are con- 
jugated as in Southern Bilaspiiri. 

Numerals 

The numerals are the same except 9, ?«nt. 

Ability. — Ability may be expressed as in the Standard 
dialect, but the following method of expressing it is also 
found : — 

mere bolle eh Icamm nfh hundd, I cannot do this work. 

mere bolle rnh Wchi hundd, I cannot write. 

mere nVi jdhundd, I cannot go. 

The last example is notable in that the participle is 
used like the organic pass. part, and yet is the ordinaiy 
active participle. It differs from the examples given 
under the Standard dialect where the logical object is the 
nominative of the sentence. 

VOCABULARY 
The vocabulary is the same. Occasional!} 7 a trifling 
difference may be detected as in put, son ; dhlu, daughter. 

HANDURI (EAST NALAGARH) 

Nouns 

Sing., Nom., Ace. ghor-d, horse. 
Gen. -e rd. 

Dat., Ace. -e jo. 

Abl. -e te. 

Agent -e. 

Plur. the same. 



I'.ILASPUH AxNI) NALAGABH IIANDUKI 



261 



Sing., Nom., Aco. b&ld, ox. 
Gen. b&lda ra. 

I )at., Ace. b&lda jo. 
W>\. bdlda te. 

Agent balde. 

1*1 u f. the same. 



SlNGULAK 

Noni., Ace. iiiiiini-J, girl. 
Gen. -la ra, etc. 

Agent -Se. 

Nom., Ace. bailni-, sister. 
Gen. -a ra. 

Agent -a. 



I 1,1 i: \i. 

Nom., Ace. milnn-ld. 
Gen. -/</ >'". 

Agent -le. 

Nom., Ace. baiJin-d. 
(icn. -a ra. 

Agent -a. 









Pronouns 




Nom., 


Ace. 


hau, I. 




dsse. 


Gen. 




merd. 




mhard. 


Dat, 




1IIH1I JO. 




dssd jo. 


Abl. 




mettc. 




dssd te. 


Agent 




nun. 




dsse. 


Noni., 


Ace. 


tu. 




tfissc. 


Gen. 




terd. 




tflSSlI r<l 


Dat. 




till JO. 




1 ii sua jo. 


Abl. 




tu te. 




tiissd te. 


Agent 




tax. 




tUsse. 



In that part of East Nalagarh which lies to the east of 
the mountain range the following difference is found in 
the above I wo pronouns : — 



ma Jche, to me. 
ta khe, to thee. 



ma te, from me. 
to. te, from thee. 



Nom., Ace. eh, this. eh. 

Gen. cs ra. Ihn 

etc. etc. 

Agent Ini. ihne. 

Fem. sing. : Gen. fesd ra, etc. Agent, 



262 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FltOM THE HIMALAYAS 

se, that. Gen. tes rd, etc. Fein, tessa rd, etc., like 
eh, this. 

kya, what .' 

kitcch, something, anything. 

PftONOM I N A L A I ).I ECT I V ES 

ehra, of this kind ; tehrd, of that kind ; lcehrd, of what 
kind ? jeh rd,, of which kind (rel.). 

Una, so much or many; titnd, so much or man} 7 

(correl.); Htoa, how much or many ? jitnd, as much or 

many (rel.). 

Adjectives 

, Comparison. — accltd, good ; et te accha, better than this ; 
sab te accltd, better than all, best. 

Adverbs 
Time 
ebbil, now. leal, to-morrow, 3 T esterday. 

tebbe, then. parsu, day after to-morrow, 

kadi, when ? day before yesterday. 

jebbe, when (rel.). cauthe, fourth day forward 

djj, to-day. or backward. 

Place 
ettlii, here. jetthi, where (rel.). 

tettltl, there. undhe, downwards. 

ketti, where ? ubhe, upwards, 

also chor, quickly. 

Prepositions 

ge, beside ; munj ge, beside jo, to. 

me ; (beyond the Range sdtthe, along with ; mere 
mCL kde is used). sdtthe, with me. 

rd, of. te, from. 

Verbs 

Verb Substantive 
Pres. he, he, he, he, he, he {hal and liai are also found). 
Past, thd, fern, tlti ; plur. the, fern. thi. 



BILASPUE AND NALAOARH EIANDUBI 263 







karna, 


do 




I mperai . 


Mr. 






Icdro. 


Fufc. 


kdrugd. 

kdrgd. 

Mrgd. 






Icdruge. 

Icdrge. 

Jcdrge. 


Pres. cond 


. Mru. 
hard. 
Icdro. 






k<1 rn . 
Icdro. 
Icdro.' 



Pies. ind. fcara he, Icdro hai, Icdro he, Mru he, Jcdro lie, 
Icdro he. 

[mperf. Icdrn thd (fem. th\ ), Icdro thd, Icdro thd, Mru tlte 
(fem. th%), Icdro the, Icdro the. 

Past, Httd. 

Conj. part. Icdrilce, having done 

ledrnd shows the future for a verb with root ending in 
a consonant. If it ends in a vowel (see jdijd) n is inserted 
in 2 and 3 sing, and plur. 

jdijd, go 
Fut. ja "</'i. j'i ii'j'i . jaiiga . ja age, jdiige, jdage (fem. -gi). 
Past, gd, fem. gl ; plur. ge, fem. gi. 
Stat. part, jdurd, in the state of having gone. 
I !onj. part, ja lice. 

aund, come 
Stat, pari . a Rrd. 
Conj. part, a ike. 

hand, he, become 
Fnt. h u/hgd. 
Past. hud. 

Ichdnd, eat 
Past, khddhd. 
Stat. part. /.-//'» Eira. 

ptij'i. drink 
Pasl . ptttd. 
Stat. part, piurd' 



264 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

lianiKi, bring; leijdna, take away, are like auna and 
jdna respectively. 
Ability : — 

met te {mette) nehl* p&rhdi eh Mtab, I cannot read 

this book. 
m& te (mette) nPh'i p&rhda, I cannot read. 
pa/rhda is used as an organic pass. part. 

Numerals 

The numerals are as in the Standard dialect. 

VOCABULARY 
As in Darn I. 



THE \!!<;oT OF THE QALANDAR 265 



THE ARGOT OF THE QALANDAR 

The Qalandar are a tribe of aomads who make their 
living by conjuring and showing performing bears, 
monkeys, and goats. As a rule they live exclusively in 
tents ami wander about, from place to place, but one 
section of them, known to me, have buill a small village 
in which some of them have houses. With the exception 
of the headman and his family, they use t he village merely 
as their headquarters, and live their nomadic life as 
before. They have the wild, bold, interesting appearance 
characteristic of nomads, and their women are of a gipsy 
type. They have many horses and are fearless riders 
generally riding bareback. They keep savage dogs to 
guard their property, and one has always to stand at 
a distance and ask for an escort to protect one from these 
animals. The larger monkeys are very tierce, but they are 
always kept tied up. The Qalandar have a peculiar walk 
by which they may easily be recognized. They walk very 
straight and rise on their toes as they move silently over 
the ground. In spite of their appearance of poverty they 
frequently possess large sums of money both in cash and 
in women's ornaments. On one occasion the wife of one 
of the men in the village above-mentioned absconded. 
taking with her ornaments or money to the valued no 
less than lis. 1.200 (£120). She and the money were 
secured some months afterwards. Last winter | L915 hi) 
the headman celebrated the decease of his father who had 
died two years previously. He gave an entertainment 
lasting a week. Two brilliant acetylene lamps lit up the 
scene, crowds of people came and went all day. The 
total cost was estimated at Ks. 2.000 t £200). 

{Note. — Since the above was written the owner of the 
land has resumed possession, and t he \ illage is now ;i ruin. ) 

Owing to their free open air life cases of epidemic 
disease are rare. They live in a district in which 



266 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

bubonic plague bas been very bad for years, yet I have 
not beard of a single case among them. Though 
generally happy tempered they are apt to be violent when 
roused, and the} 7 have fits of uncontrolled wrath towards 
their wives or daughters, who on such occasions are in 
danger of physical injury. They are very much averse 
to invoking the aid of the law in their quarrels. In order 
to settle disputes they have truly remarkable councils in 
which all the men have a say. They sit round in a circle 
on the ground and debate the matter under dispute. To 
one accustomed to the pandemonium which results from 
any attempt on the part of ordinary Panjabis to settle 
a quarrel, when all speak and shout and gesticulate at the 
same time, the quietness and orderliness of a Qalandar 
council is astonishing. Each man is allowed to speak 
uninterrupted. He may speak for twenty minutes or 
more at a time, but he is listened to in perfect silence. 
A speaker generally emphasizes his points by throwing 
little stones or bits of grass on to the ground, each stone 
or bit of grass marking a paragraph in his speech. 

They claim to be Jatts by caste and give the following 
account of their ortgin : — -On one occasion a famous 
Say y id, called Phattti Shah, was passing their ancestral 
home, the village of Sainthal in the Gujrat district. 
His bullock cart stuck in the mud outside the village. 
He sent a message to the villagers requesting help in 
extricating the cart. The villagers, i.e. the ancestors of 
the Qalandar, were engaged in an entertainment watching 
a nautch and listening to songs along with their ow r n 
private Sayyid, and the}" slighted the request of the 
strange Sayyid. He accordingly cursed them in these 
words : — 

wajjan waje dhain damvaze gae Sainthal sane Kliawaze 
(let the instruments play, let the doors fall : gone is 
Sainthal along with its Sayyid. Khawaza or Kbawaja 
is sometimes used of Sayyids who come from Arabia). 



THE ARGOT OF THE QALANDAK 



267 



Since thai time, they s;iy. they have been condemned to 
live a nomadic life. Their village fell down and they 
have never again been able to engage in agriculture. 

The Qalandar (in Panjabi Kalandar) have no dialect of 
their own. They employ ordinary Panjabi with a peculiar 
accent. Thus they never use a cerebral I. To disguise 
their meaning from outsiders they | 1 i employ .secret words, 
(2) make changes in Panjabi words. These disguises are 
in daily use and are familiar to the smallesl children. 
The words will be seen in the accompanying vocabulary. 
By far the commonest of the changes in words are 
produced by the introduction of the syllable -ip. 
Occasionally -esri and -dllil are also used. 

-ip is employed almost exclusively with monosyllabic 
or, still more commonly, with disyllabic words, which 
have the accent on the first syllable. -ip always 
carries the accent. The following examples will show 
how Panjabi words are treated : — 



Panjabi 
raihna, remain. 
khiccna, pull. 
ui-t't, hither. 
majjh, buffalo. 
jhalla, mad. 
tije, yet. 

marid, weak (women). 
buha, door. 



Qalandak 
rah ipnd. 
khicipna 
itripd. 
majhip. 
jh&lipa. 
ajipe. 
aid i'i /iii'i . 

1 1 U h if a i . 



sarid. Kal&nda'mid khiccangid, all the Qalandar women 
will pull, becomes s&ripid. FuJcria khicipangid. 

In the word salpa m lor saldm, salutation. /> is substituted 
for -'/<. 

In a few words -rsri is used, thus gdnesri, sugarcane, 
from ganna ; pagesri, turban, from p&gg\ wdlesri, hair, 
from wdl; agesri, fire, from agg. 

-Cilia is added in some of the numerals, as p&njd 



268 LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 

li\r ; sdtdllu, seven ; dtlmllil, eight; nudllv. or ndwdllu, 
nine ; ddsdllU, ten. 

It will be noticed that a considerable number of their 
words are Persian or Persian slightly altered: thus we 
have pijdr, father; mdjdr, mother; bildddr, brother; 
shdgd, dog; khdrki, ass ; shir, milk; qdddm, corn ; arda, 
flour; ydk, one; khdnd, house, tent; shdb, evening; 
gitshdn, hungry; aishd, he, she, the} 7 , these ; oshd, he, she, 
they, those ; bdshdr, very, much ; khitrd, eat ; /fs, drink; 
<//r, take ; /cM-tt., do; eZfcZ, see, look. 

ftikrd, poor man, Qalandar, and shaman, oil, are Arabic, 
probably borrowed through Persian. 

When a word has been incorporated it is treated as 
a native word ; thus from bildddr, brother, we make 
bildddrni, sister ; from the Arabic plural fulcra (Ar. 
fuqdrd), used as a singular, is made the feminine fukri. 

hitnd, sit, with a pres. part, means to be doing at the 
moment; clshda lilted e, he is at the moment drinking. 

The pronouns mdsha, I; tdsha, thou, you; aishd, he, 
she, they ; oshd, he, she, they (remote) ; ledshd, who ; 
kdsh, what; kasha, anything, something, are indeclinable. 
The ordinary Panjabi prepositions are added to them, as 
mdsha nn, to me ; tdsha kola (for kolo), from you. 

The following passage given in (1) the Qalandar dialect, 
(2) Panjabi, and (3) English, will illustrate their way of 
talking when desirous of disguising their meaning: — 

Icdlip rnashd Fiikred dl derhi rdmea sd, oshd de 
kdll mat Kdldnddrd de pind gea sd,ohndde 

yesterday I K. -of village went was. them of 

Idstdr, shdqe, dddde dide sdn. Othine Xkip wddipd 
bandar, kutte, ghdre dltthe sdn. Otthe lick ivdddd, 
monkeys, dogs, horses seen were. There one big 

lastdr si, oshd dl sissi rihdn hue rami si. Mdsha 
bandar si, oh da sir khdrdb ltd gea si. Mai 
monkey was, him of head bad become gone was. By-me 



THE ARGOT OF THE QALANDAB 269 

1 i fi ch J/ >ea "a ish d. n a ledsh (X n U kh i i i #a " ? 0§h& 
jiucrhni " es n-a Zeis morni " ? Ohnd 

was-asked "this to by-whom was -beaten " ( By-them 

alchip8a "ledshd na uidjuirea, eshd. uii tdmashd 
alchea " klse neM marea, es nu tdmdsha 

was-said " by-anyone not was-beaten, this to fun for- 

didaune glr rdme s&, Help shdge wddhipea 

mikhan lai gae sd, tlckl Ic&tte waddhea 

causing-to-see taking gone were, one dog-by was-bitten 

hitlce." Ilclp Ftilcre mdshd nal hikait 

baihke (paike)." Held Kaldnddr mere nal gall 
having-attacked." One K.-by me with matter 

hitni: — " Mdshd di FiiJcri rihan htic 

Idti: — " meri Kdldnddml moi-hoi ho 

was-made : — "Me of wife dead becoming 

rami e.'' Dtijipe dkhipea "hor Ftilcri 

get e." Dujje alchea "hor Kaldnddrn\ 

gone is." Second-by was-said "another wife 

l&bhipega." Ciimit pdnjdllv. Fillcre mantel 

labbhega." Car panj Kdldnddr rotl 

he-will-find." Four five K. loaves 

khilrdde san, te arbd cishde san, pvjar, majdr, 
Ichande san, te paiii pinde san, peu, md, 
eating were, &i water drinking were, father, mother, 

dumii tetke, tritmii tengnid, sd/rlpe gaddtrx 
do pilttar, trai dhld, 

two sons, three daughters, 

gac Ichtirddc hite 
mil hhandi baithe(pae) 
food eating seated were (i.e. were at the momenl eating). 



scire 


handle 


d\ 


all 


wheat 


of 


san. 






san. 







270 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



VOCABTJ 
People 

pijdr, father; Persian, pld&r. 

ma jar, mother ; Pers. mdddr. 

biladar, brother, Pers. btrddar. 

bilddarnl, sister. 

bdc, son; Hindi, bacca. 

tetka, son. 

tengnd, son. 

kdckl, daughter. 

tetkl, daughter. 

tchynl, daughter. 

chobrd, boy; Hin. cholera; 

Laihndi, chohrd. 
chobrl, girl. 
thokhrd, old man. 
huddd, f. huddl; Jat, farmer. 
sittd, ordinary word for non- 

Qalandar, but not used of 

low-caste man. 
sitti, f. of above, often used for 

wife in speaking to or of 

non-Qalandar. 
lakdndar, Qalandar ; f. the 

same. 
fulcra, poor man, Qalandar; 

Urdu, faqlr (Arabic, plur. 

filqara) ; f. fiikrl. 
rirha, Cuhra. 
badlpJd, serpent charmer ; Sa- 

si bad Id. 
ijiiim, thief. 

Animals 
gdbbd, bull, etc. 
gdbbi, cow. 
faisdl-d, f. -I, buffalo. 



LAUY 

pddd-d, f. -I, buffalo (used in 

Jaipur). 
m&jhip, female buffalo (from 

Panj. mdjjh). 
dddd-d, f. -J, horse. 
shag-d, f . -i, dog ; Pers. sag. 
gfthlr-d, f. -J, puppy. 
kh&rkl, ass; Pers. khar. 
Idstdr, L lastri, monkey. 
khrlcch, bear; from Panj. 

ricch. 
bujn-d, f. -7, goat. 
lamkann-d, f. -7, hare, rabbit 

(Panj. lammd, long ; kdnn, 

ear). 

Food 

lahm, m., meat. 

arbd, m., water ; Pers. db. 

mdnt, f., bread, a loaf; plur. 

mdntd. 
gdc, m., food. 
hantl, I., bread, a loaf. 
shir, m., milk ; Pers. shir. 
hand, m., sugar, gily. 
Idsdi, f., buttermilk ; Panj . Idssl. 
shaman, m., ghi ; Arab. 

shaman, oil. 
kufl, m., rice, barley. 
gad am, f., corn ; Pers. g and dm. 
drdd, m., flour; Pers. drdd. 
nlmak, m., salt; Ur. umiak. 
tail, m., wine, spirits ; Panj. 

Idl, red. 
ganesrl, f., sugarcane; Panj. 

gdnnd. 
gulurd. m., sugarcane. 



THE ARGOT OF THE <,>ALANI)AR 



271 



Money, Numerals 

yak, one ; Pers. ydk. 

//.//', one ; from Panj. tkk. 

diimii, two. 

Ir/mu, three. 

ciimil, four. 

pdnj&llu, five. 

cli) mil, six. 

chtllu, six. 

sdtdllu, seven. 

dthdllu, eight. 

nildllu, nawdllu, nine. 

ddsdlhl, ten. 

/>7.s7<<, twenty. 

wdhd, (., rupee. 

b&std, in., rupee. 

?/////, f., rupee (gamhlers' word). 

thlppl, f., pice. 

cfcppS, f., pice. 

m/ll, money to he recovered. 

Household Articles 

nun, {., shoe. 

p&gesri, f., turban : Panj. pdgg. 

(in, f., cloth. 

shUrtd, m., shirt ; Panj. kfirtd. 

tigesri, f., lire; Panj. dgg. 

tdndd, m., fire (used in Sindh). 

dhufd, in., huqqa. 

sdrndi, L, huqqa. 

//".'//. m., tohacco. 

kdthkl, f., stick ; Panj. kdth, 

wood. 
/."t;//, f., stick. 
<ldii<]d i/dfiiid, ni., stick; Panj. 

ddndd. 
k&thipl, f., saddle ; from Panj. 



Other Common Noi 
haib&r, f., thing. 

ilrrhl, [., village. 

kdthipd, m., house; Panj. 

/co//;/. 
/■■Iiii nd, m., house, tent; Pers. 

khdna. 
jtigtilld, m., land. 
kdcipdr, in., mud ; Ur. /i-Zcar. 
/,//<'/,(, in., well ; Ur. hmi. 
s'issi, f., head ; Sinas£$tf Hindi 

sis. [foot. 

pdbbd, in., foot; Panj., part of 
wdlesri, f., hair; Panj. wdl. 
kdo, m., grass; Panj. kdhi. 

reedgrass. 
shal>, f., evening; Pers. shfib. 
nurd, m., name ; Panj. na. 
hikait, i., matter, word, thing; 

Ur. Mkdydt, story. 
ydl, {., zdl, f., abuse, gall, 
sdlpdm, m., salutation ; from 

sdldm. 
chok,m., accusation inlawcourt. 
pdrdkkt, f., appeal. 

Abstract Nouns 

rds, f., justice ; perhaps from 
hdqq r&si, doing justice. 

berdsi, f., injustice; be, priva- 
tive and above. 

gilshdn, hunger, thirst ; I\ ps. 
gurisna, hungry. 

bhdrki, t'.. thirst. 

tjaim'i, {., theft. 

I'l;.. mi .^ 
mash a, I. 
Idsjj_a, thou, you. 

5g&a> he, thai, she, it, they, 
those; Pers. i iha, ;1 



272 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES FROM THE HIMALAYAS 



aisha, he, she, this, it, fchey, 
these; Pers. esha, these. 

k&sha, who ? anyone 

k&sh, what ? 

hamu, we. 

kasha, something, anything, 
gen. with neg. 

Adjectives 

kald (indecl.), good. 
kdldtdr (indecl.), good. 
stgga, good. 
.7 a u Id, good, rich, etc. 
nikma, little; Panj. nikkd. 
rihan, had, dead (indecl.). 

Adverbs 
ethtne, here; Panj. etthe. 
dthine, there; Panj. ottlie. 
kathine, where? Panj. kttthe. 
badiikke loele, to-morrow ; 

Panj. toddde wale. 
bashar, very, many ; Pers. 

bisyar. 
are, yes. 
kasha na, not at all. 

Verbs 
khiirdna, eat; Pers. khfirdav. 
cishtnd, drink ; Kiuthall cish, 

water. 
/Isinl, drink ; Pers. tlshna, 

thirsty. 
r&mna, go. 
dciul, come. 



girna, take; Pers. girlftdn, 

root <fir. 
glr (lend, bring {le and), 
(fir rdniyd, lake away(Ze jdnd). 
kunnd, do ; Pers. root kiin, do. 
dharna, give. 
lutiul, sit, attack (of dog). 
didna, see, look; Pers. did. 
tdggdrnd, seize; Panj. 

ph&ggarna. 
jdddnd, ydddnd, heat. 
nuhharnd, heat. 
nilkkhdrnd, die. 
huend, hecome. 
rlJidn huend, die. 
rama huend, go away; see 

ravin a. 
kliikkhna, laugh. 
raun kunnd, take away. 
khrucend, stand. 
dJnijjnd, fear. 
rihlnljnd, get wet; Panj. 

hln j i nd. 
billpdnd, call ; from bill and. 
birknd, rebuke, get angry with. 
cauhnd, ask ; Panj. cdhnd, 

desire. 
labhijmd, get, obtain ; from 

Panj. Idbbhnd. 
chok ludnd, bring case against. 
hikait kunnl, tell, relate, speak. 

Interjection 
dhrol, dhdrpol, to show 

astonishment. 



TIIK SECRET U'oiMis oh I ill; QASA1 ikasaii 273 



The Secret Words of the Qasai (Kasai) 

The following vocabulary contains words used by th« 
Panjabi Qasai who do not kill cows. It is possible thai 
Hindostani Qasai use a different set of words, and an 
interesting question arises as to how far cow-killing Qasai 
differ in this respect from (hose who kill only sheep 
and goats. These Qasai call themselves mekn sikkha 
(from meJcni, goat) as opposed to bhakkar-sikkhn (from 
bhcikkdr, bull, buffalo). One would like to know whether 
the use of secret words is increasing or decreasing. There 
is no doubt that some Qasai are far better acquainted with 
them than others. It is useful to compare the secret 
vocabularies of different communities such as Qasais, 
Gamblers, Q&landars, Sasis, and Cuhras, but the emu 
parison yields fewer points of resemblance than one would 
anticipate. 

The Arabic and Persian words are worthy of attention. 
It is remarkable that these words are found in the 
vocabulary of an ignorant people, when, at the same time, 
they are not employed in ordinary Panjabi. The Persian 
words given above in the Qalandar vocabulary should be 
compared. I have ventured to suggest some derivations. 
The etymology of all secret words is worthy ol 
invesl igation. 

VOCABULARY 

H' man Beings sikkhu, Qasai ; cf. their word 

Kdndhu, Hindu (Hindu with for knife, slkkh&n. Cs there 

k before it). any connexion with Sikkhs? 

hill, Jat, fanner. hhakkar-sikkluh COW-killing 

hfitn'i, f., of do. Qasai. 

lulkd, Cuhra (from Lai Beg, meky-slkkhil, shei p or 

the saint of the Cuhras). killing Qasai. 

T 



274 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES KK<>.M THE HIMALAYAS 



gaimb, gaimbd, thief; see 
gaimbi. 

len, woman. 

lenkrd, dissolute man (from 
len, woman ; cf. Panjabi 
rani, dissolute, from rami, 
woman). 

bil&k, literate man. 
Numerals 

akel, one; cf. Kashmiri dkh, 
Urdu ek, dkeld, alone. 

jaur, two; cf. Urdu jord, pair. 

tdld, three; Arabic sdlds, pro- 
nounced tdldta, tied, etc. 

rubd, drbd, four; Ar. drbd . 

khammas, five ; Ar. khdms. 

haft, seven ; Persian. 
Money 

ghlld, m., rupee. 

nimmi, f., eight annas (half a 

rupee ; Pers. nlm, half). 
bodi, twenty rupees, eight 

annas. 
riiddid, m., pice (? Urdu rdddi, 

rejected, worthless). 
nishld, m., pice (. ? na, not, 

shai, thing). 

Food 
pohl, meat. 

khadeli, khdneli, f., bread, loaf. 
slrkd, m., milk ; ? Pers. shir, 

Urdu sirka, vinegar. 
clt kdld, m., milk ; Panj. clttd, 

white. 
nand, water. 

sirkl, f., buttermilk; see sirka. 
mithkd, coarse sugar ; Cubra 

mitkd; Panj. mittha, sweet. 



phokld, Hour. 
kuualnui, m., rice. 
dhtiwdkhd, m., tobacco; Urdu 

dhua, smoke; Qalandar 

dluifa, huqqa. 
clt, ghi ; Panj. cittd, white; 

cf. cit kdld, above. 

Verbs 

shudnd, shurnd, eat. 

dprnd, come: Cuhra dbrnd; 

SasI, asrnd ; Panj. dppdrnd, 

arrive. 
tibnd, look. 

dkhwdrnd, say ; Panj. dkhnd. 
bhernd, give. 
sohdnd, give. 

wdkkdrnd, loaccarnd, take. 
sfinwdrnd, hear ; Panj. sihnnd ; 

for the form cf. akhtiidrnd, 

above. 
sJiudaund, tell, relate. 
ttkdsnd, run away. 
ghdrnd, beat, strike. 
thaing raihnd, keep quiet; cf. 

SasI thaunknd, sit. 
gdggl kdrni, report about, 

" tell on." 
Idpnd, slaughter an animal for 

food. 

Animals 

bhdkkar, bh&kkrd, bull, buffalo ; 

f. bhdkkar. 
bhdkkdrd, ram; f. bhdkkdri ; 

cf. Panj. bdkrd, goat. 
meknd, maiknd, goat ; f. vickni, 

viaikni (onomatopoetic). 



THE SECRET WORDS OF THE QASA1 (KASAI) 



Parts of Bod\ 
rdsl, f., head ; Ar. rds. 
g&ddwd, lower half of leg. 
Uprl, skin ; Cuhra llprd. 
khdlenddri, f., liver. 
ttlppl, (., fat from stomach. 

Otiikk Nouns, Adjectives 
ntikdt, worthless, bad; see 

n&hdti. 
jedld,jiddld, good, line. Used 

also of important persons 

and hence of any person 

under observation (? Ar. 

jldddn). 
gaimbi, f., theft; Cuhr&gaimi; 

Sasi do. ; Qalandar gaimi. 
n&hdti, f., abuse, lying, worth- 

lessness ; see ndkdt above. 



g&p, f., matter ; cf. colloquial 
use of gdp with same mean- 
ing in Eastern Persian, i.e. 
1 frdu bat, and contrast Panj. 
use (mere story, untrue 
statement). 

tjauud, used in phrase gaiune 
rial, cheaply. 

hfirkijd, m., huqqa; Cuhra 
and Sasi biirknfi ; gamblers, 
bdrka. 

Irfipnl, I'., shoe. 

pdmbd, m., cloth ; Pers.ptfm&a, 
cotton. 

ghiisril, m., thin mattress. 

stkkhdn, knife. 

res, m., 2 lb. (.s<3> - inverted). 

pham, wood, stick, bone. 



276 



LINGUISTIC STUDIES IKoM THE HIMALAYAS 



The Secret Words of Panjabi Gamblers 

The words here given form part of the vocabulary 
commonly called jUdriG dl boll, the gamblers' language, 
though the}-' are used by evildoers in general. Probably 
in the Panjab thieves are always gamblers. It would be 

worth while ascertaining how widespread the use of these 
words is. They correspond in a measure to thieves' slang 
in Britain, and just as in Britain, perfectly respectable 
people, especially schoolboys, are sometimes acquainted 
with the commonest of the thieves' terms, so amongst 
schoolboys and others in India a similar knowledge 
prevails, confined, of course, to a very few of the 
commonest words. As a rule, if a man knows more 
than three or four of the terms one may put him down 
as a doubtful character. 



VOCABULARY 



I! iM ax Beings 
sit, woman, girl. 
ohawd, hoy; cf. gipsy cavo, 

hoy ; Sasi cawal, rascal. 
(jfiiula, thief, gambler. 
nausriya, great gambler. 
karu, great winner at cards, 

one who takes a victim. 
dhur (always used in the f.), 

victim, male or female, pro- 
spective or actual. 
thulld, police inspector; Karigri 

th&lld ; Nepali thulo, big (a 

gipsy word). 
ganda, policeman ('? Panj. 

ganda, filthy). 



Money 
blilmtd, m.j rupee ; cf. Cuhra 

bhimta, do. 
gadda, m., rupee. 
kaudda, m., rupee ; Panj. 

kauddi; Ur. kauri, shell. 
damri, f., rupee. 
thikri, f., rupee; cf. Panj. 

thikri, bit of earthenware. 
cMllar, m., rupee ; Panj. ch ttldr, 

rind, husk ; chill, f., rupee. 
tdhll, f., eight anna bit. 
masa, m., four anna bit; Panj. 

mclsd, small weight. 
ratti, f., two anna bit; Panj. 

rdttl, still smaller weight. 



THE SECRET WORDS OF PANJAB1 GAMBLERS 



277 



idj i, f., one anna. 
dddhl, f., two pice bit. 
philtti, f., pice. 
dddhl sari, f., two rupees. 

Verbs 
camnd, look ; Ciihra camnd, do. 
;•(///; ./<<h<7, run away : Qalandar 

r&mna, go. 
dak ho jdnd, run away (from 

speed of dak). 
pliutt. juna, run away; Ur. 

phutnd, burst out. 
ramdnd, steal ; causal of r&mna, 

see >v/n ./</>(« above. 
saint Idind, steal (? Panj. saint, 

sign, signal). 
//;■ k&rnd, steal ('? Ur. £Ir, 

arrow). 
khdddl laund, break into house. 
phdnk ho jdnd, be cleared out, 

lose one's all in gambling. 
dak k&rnd, throw cards quickly 

as in three card trick ; cf. 

dak ho jdnd above. 

Aiuki rivi. 

khar, angry at being defeated ; 
cf. Panj. khUdr, in straits. 



Common Noons 

barkd, m., huqqa (onomato 
poetic) ; cf. bUrl rid, do., 
used by Sasls, Cuhras, and 
Qasais. 

thok&r, f., shoe ; cf. Dr. thok&r, 
stumbling block. 

b&ngld, m., turban. 

b&rud, cloth. 

thlk&r, vessel ; cf. Panj. thikil, 
bit of earthenware. 

nauhnd&r, property. 

Vivid, purse; Panj. find, earthen- 
ware vessel on Persian wheel. 

s&ndhewd, m., housebreaking 
jimmy ". 

khrot, lock. 

slrd, m., head ; Panj. sir, 
head, and sird, top end. 

p&tri, f., card ; Panj. p&tt&r. 
leaf ; Gipsy patrin, do. 

pliiil, m., die, dice. 

gaund, m., hollow in throat 
formed by long practice 
where thieves conceal money. 
They can conceal up to four 
or five rupees. 



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