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or TBS navmiB temrnnc ioool of talc umTunrr Asraoa or 

um rannnirr or Tu oiooukmcAi. *oam or nnjktmanA *'Tn mroucAL trMi m a mob,** 

vbujow or TMB loTAL OBoaiAmcAL (ociBTT or unmoM, nc ere. 






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B 195d I 

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Copyright, 1905 


J. B. LippiNCOTT Company 

Copyright, 1011 


J. B. LippiNcoTT Company 

Electrottiped and i'rintea by J. B. Uppinoott Company. PhUaietphia, VJ3.i.. 

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liippiNOOTT's PBONOUiroiNO GAZETTEER in its varioos editioDS has been' before 
the public jnst half a century, the first edition having made its appearance in 1855. 
The present publication, printed from new type from cover to cover, is a new 
work, embodying little more than the frtunework of its predecessor, together with 
its system of pronunciation. It presents a picture of the world in its minutest 
details in the year 1905. 

In or6er to include the 1910 statistios of popidatian in fhe counties, cities, aiad 
towns of the United States, a conspectus of the Thirteenth Gensus has been added. 

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In no department of literary activity does the gradnal ■ptocees of erolntioti aaaert 
itaelf more forcibfy than in that of encydopeBdia-makiiig. Intent npon the oontempla- 
tkui of what others in the aame sphere have -wrooghty the compiler is almost irresistibly 
drawn towards modellii^ his work more or lees closely apon what has gone before. Not 
the least important part of tlie preparation of an encydopeedist for his task is, there- 
fote, to train himself to combat the tendency of residing as indispensable^ desirable, 
iff nsefhl tliat which his predecessors have so regarded, — id habituate himself to sadi 
self-resbwint in the selection o^ tiie material that is to enter into his work as will enable 
him to proceed witiiont being encombered by a weight of dead matter which inertia 
makes it difficult to discard. He can hardly hope to emandp^e iiimsdf altogethw 
from tJie artificial standards whieh appeaa to have been thmst npon him, but the 
extent to which he sacoeeds in doing so will largely determine the excellence of his 

In the pr^Muation of I^FPiKcxirrr's New Oazbttheb the Bditois have labored 
aealondy in the diredi<m of the goal here indicated, — tbe construction of a dictionary 
of oniversal g^ogn^hj replete with useful information. They are aware that their 
pnUication wiU not escajje criticism on the score of proportion. Frequently, how- 
ever, when there appears to be a glaring want of harmony, careftd compuison will 
Bbow that the apparent blemish is in accord with the deliberate plan of the work. 
Take, for example, the. brief paragraphs under tlie caption ''History" with which 
the articles on countries terminate. The information conveyed in these sections is 
inteaided to be largely in the xiatnre of statements referring to territorial duu^^ as 
matter pragmatic to the character of an encydopiedia of geography. For this reason 
a seemingly disproportionate amount of space will be found accorded, for example, 
to sudi a country as Saxony, as compared with more important states. Here the 
tmitorial dianges have been of a nature to call for detailed statement, the name 
Saxony now designating a very diflferent region from that which was the home of the 
Saxon invaders of Britain. In like manner the vidssitades of fordgn domination in 
sonthem Italy and Sicily have demanded extended treatment in the artide on the Two 
Sicilies. The amonnt of space devoted to individual dties will frequently be found to 
be in inverse ratio to their size. The dty of Lodz, the Manchester of Poland, with 
its population exceeding 300,000, can be disposed of in fewer words than quaint little 
BaOtaabaxg, in Franconia, with its 8000 inhabitants. The great mannfactoriag town 

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of Boabaiz, •with its hum and bustle, calls for much briefer treatment than modest 
Ayignon, only one-third as large, liring on the memories of its past 

It is needless to say that for the United States a standard of indnsion has been 
adopted entirely different from that employed in the case of foreign oonntries. Almost 
every duster of hooses tiiat in this country deserves the name of hamlet is supposed 
to figure in the pages of the Gazsiteeb. The Philippine Islands and other posses 
sions of the United States beyond the seas are dealt with under a vast number of 
heads. For Canada the standard of indusion has been made almost the same as that 
for the United States. As r^ards Cuba, Mexico, the South American republics, and 
the South African colonies. Urn work, in its fiill treatment, is intended to fill a gap 
in geographical literature. 

The Editors have made every effort to incorporate into their work the latest results 
of exploration. The extraordinary activity that has marked this fidd of geographical 
inquiry during the iMtst few years has done much to reconstruct the map of the globe^ 
^d the harvest of new facts now makes possible for the first time a neu-ly omnplete 
picture of our planet. The views that for generations were held r^arding many parts 
<tf the earth's snrfoce have given way to entirdy new conceptions, and the gaps that 
have marked terrw mcogmixB have been effaced from the maps. The Tibet of the British 
Exx>edition of 1904 is very different ftom tbe picture of that region which tlie mind had 
constructed from the accounts — accurate though these have proved to be — which were 
famished by French missionaiies a half-century ago ; the Saliara of Foureau and Lamy 
is no longer that which has served as a text for the geologist almost to the present day. 
No period in the annals of Polar exploration has been so prolific in results as the ten 
years which dose witii the year 1906, marking the course of some of the most brilliant 
achievements recorded in the annals of geographical discovery. The work of Nansen 
and the Duke of tiie Abmzzi, which has extended our knowledge of the globe on one 
side to within about two hundred and fifty miles of the Pole ; of Scott, who surmounted 
the seemingly insuperable Antu%tic barrier of Boss, and who has brought observation 
to within five hundred miles of the opposite Pole of the earth ; of Peary, who, in iha 
United States Coctst, has extended the bonndarieB of the known land-masses of the 
globe to lat 83° 39' N. ; of Jadcson, Drygalski, Cerlache, Borchgrevlngk, and others, 
closely preceded by the researches of Larsen and Chrlstensen, — all these conquests 
reflect tiie remarkable revival of research in a fidd which by many had been thought 
to be virtually dosed. This same period of ten years has witnessed some of the most 
interesting and important processes of colonization which hutory records, all of which 
have left a profound impress upon world-geography and tiie shaping of its map. As 
largely subversive of the old-time doctrine that geographical influence is paramount 
in determining man's sphere of activity on the globe, one need merdy point to tiie 
great northerly migroticm of 1897-98 initiated by the discovery of gold in the Klondike 

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vegiaii ; to the fleuBtruuUon of tbe Txanasiberian railway ; to the establishment <»- 
exteiffiion of steamboat navigation on the great la^ of central Africa ; and to the 
Surrey and oonstraotiim in great part of the Oape-to-Gairo railway. 

13ie deebm^ve and eoosferootiTe i»ooeases which nature and man have applied to 
the modificatiim of the earth's sae&ice have wrought more than insignificant changes 
even in the short period of time that has here been considered. The observer notes 
witii interest the disappearance of landmarks that have stood as seemingly ine£boe- 
able characters in the oonntries to which they belonged. Thus, the historic^raphei 
points to the conversion of the Boeotian Lake Gopais (Topolias) into arable land ; 
tiie geographer, to the annihilation throng irrigation channels of the once fisunoas 
Lake Tolare, in California ; to the desiccation, in sonthem Africa, of Lake Ngami, the 
discovery of whieh in 1849 was the opening episode in Livingstone's career as an 
explorer ; to the transformation of the basin of Lake Fnoino (Gelano), in the Apen- 
nines, into wmiling fields of grain. The catastroplxio awakening of Mont Pel^ in the 
early part of the year 1902 has left only past history to a modem city of twenty-five 
tiioasand inhatritants, while contributing m its phenomena one of the most remark- 
able chapters to t^e study of terrestrial physios. The shifttng of desert sands has 
nnoovered sites of former active life in the Central Asiatic wastes of the Kashgar- 
Darya, in the Sahara, and elsewhere, adding to the historic problems which had 
already been fomii^ed by the uncovering of Nippur, in Babylonia, and of Timgad 
and Lamb^ (Lambessa), in Algeria. 

Not the least interesting results of recent geographical research have been gathered 
&om tiie domain of mountain exploration. The pursuit of the glories of the universe 
as seen from a mountain top — ^a joy which Petrarch was seemingly the first to recog- 
nize — has opened up new and broad fields of recreation to the tourist, while adding a 
wealtii of new knowledge regarding those more salient fixtures of the earth's surface 
whi(^ have at all times attracted the attention of man. The mountains of western 
Canada, which were practically unknown except as forbidding buttresses ten years 
ago, have reoMitly risen into prominence as an alpinistic field, and their lofty ice- 
bound summits (Assiniboin, Lefroy, Gtoodsir, Temple) to-day attract the pick and- the 
axe of the alpinist who but a short time ago was satisfied only with a Weisshom 
or a Matterhom. Alaska has during this period seen the development of Mount 
HcKinley — thitherto obscurely designated on Bussian or Americanissed Bussian maps 
by the name of Bolshaya, ''great mountain" — into the culminating point of the North 
Ameriean continent, vieing with the giants of the South American Andes — ^Acon- 
cagua, Tupungato, Illimani, Sorata — which have latterly challenged the daring of 
Znrbnggen, Fitzgerald, Vines, and Conway, or with the Himalayan summits so intrep- 
idly scaled by Mr. and Mrs. Workman. The ge<^;rapher cannot well leave the field 
of mountain exploration without adverting to the steady conquest of points of view by 

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mountain railway, — a field of engineering activity whidi, inangnrated in the United 
States on the slopes of Mount Washington, in the White Mountains, has been spedally 
developed in Switzerland. To attain the sonunit of the Jnngfran by rail was hardly 
more than a dream ten years ago ; to-day the project is largely in process of realization. 

So survey of the field would be adequate without a reference to tlie changes that 
have taken place during recent years in the sources of the mih^nl supply of the world. 
The auriferous fields of 1^ Transvaal Colony have developed into the richest on the 
face of the globe. Colorado has outstripped California in the 3deld of gold and has 
become the foremost sUver-producii^ state in the Union. Montana now boasts of tihe 
richest deposits of copper in the world, and Minnesota outranks Michigan in the out- 
put of iron. The product of the iron-mines of Germany has eclipsed that of the mines 
of Great Britain. Sweden has nsen to a new level among iron-producing countries 
through the exploitation of the prodigious deposits at Gellivare, beyond the Arctic 
Oirde. New Caledonia has found a rival in the district of Sudbury, Ontario, as a 
leading source of the worth's supply of nickeL Immense stores of petroleum have 
been dsoovered in California, Texas, Kansas, and ac^aoent regions, vieing with those 
of the Appalachian fields and the Ohio valley. In the yield of this mineral Baku, on 
the shores of the Caspian Sea, has risen to the fbremost iMsition in the world. Prussia 
almost equals England in the products of its coal-mines. 

No pains have been spared to secure accuracy in every department of the Oazbt- 
TEEB. A long and varied experience in the field of encydopsBdia-making on the part 
of the Editors has taught them the necessity of constantly guarding against pit&lls of 
every kind and the danger of accepting statements too readily even when based upon the 
concurrence of several authorities. Frequently the best efforts of editors and compilers 
in this direction fidl to achieve their end through the &ult of the press. In the case 
of IiippiNooTT'8 New Gazbiteeb the work of a large corps of exi)ert proof-readers 
has guaranteed the appearance of the printed text in the exact form in which the 
manuscript left the hands of the Editors. 

The Editors are conscious that, in spite of all efforts to secure accuracy, errors 
of statement have crept in. They believe, however, that such lapses will not be found 
important, and that they have been reduced to the minimum that could be hoped for 
in the preparation of a work of the scope and magnitude of the New Gazbiteeb. 
It has naturally been found impossible to record aU the territorial changes and dis- 
coveries made during the process of preparing and printing the book, — e.g., the 
introduction since the official publication of the census reports of 1900 of some new 
counties (a number not yet ftUly organized) in a few of the western states and terri- 
tories, as Colorado, New Mexico, North and South Dakota ; the creation in Septem- 
ber,' 1905, of the new lieutenant-governorship of Eastern Bengal and Assam ; or the 
rea4jnstment of the Northwestern Territories of Canada by which two r^ons were 

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eonstitated new pYorinoeB (Alberta and Saakatohewan) of Uie Dominion of Canada, — 
but tiie ooorae of events has, in general, been followed as closely as oonld be to ilie 
moment of poblication. Thus, the reader will find embodied in the work the final 
episode of the struggle betwerai Boasia and Japan in the Asiatic East. 

The system of pronunciation adopted in this work is that prepared for the old 
LiF FiN O OTr'B Pbonottnoiho Oasbiteeb by that eminent scholar, the late Joseph 
Thomas, the anthor of Lippineotfs *' Dictionary of Biography and Mytholc^y." His 
rendering of the pronondation of finreign names has been sal^ected to careftil aomtiny, 
and many emendations have been made in the Bnssian, Hungarian, Bumanian, Italian, 
Spanish, and other departments. In the transliteration of Bnssian names it has been 
deemed preferaUe to use teh to express the sound represented by the English eh^ in 
order to avoid the eaataaioa that might result ftvm the presence in the Polish and 
Chech (Bohemian) languages, which use the Bonum diaracters, of eA with a phonic 
▼aloe very different from that of the English eft. In like manner ttk is employed in 
Tnrkish and other West ABiatio names. 

In consulting encydopeediaa and geographical works of reference the reader is 
fkeqnently mided with regard to the population of the smaller towns of Europe. It 
is customary in stating the number of inhabitants to give the population of the com* 
mune, — that is, of the town together with a small adjacent district, corresponding in 
a general way to a township in the United States. Frequently a small place, little 
more than a village, is thus made to i^pear a considerable town. In Italy the com- 
mune has often several times as many inhabituits as its capital In such cases two 
figures will be found in this Oazktteks. 

A few words need here be said regarding the placing of An^oican towns. These 
have, in nearly all cases, unless 4he fact is otherwise stated, been located by railroad 
distances from other towns. The names of the railroads, as given, ue in most cases 
those of the operating lines, the Editors following in this selection the oiBdal railroad 
guides of the country. In some instances minor localities have been placed on rail- 
roads when, in fiust, they are removed from one to two miles frmn the actual lines ; in 
nearly all snch cases, however, a station bearing the name of the locality in question 
appears in the railway schedule. 

The Editobb, 

Tm,tnn,rBXA, OetotMr, 1905. 

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i M a in fal». 

i M a in far. 

I u a in fall. 

A M a in fan. 

f, obsonrt a, u in vrgam, omL 

*i-(in tlie oonlbination air) M a fn bare. 

• u e In deny or u t in pin. 
' i u e in iii«(. 

« or fit, obsoarft«, u in bertk, nawf. 

« M t in pin. 

I tfiin piue, 

I orl M t in pin. < 

I, obairare v is in firm, evil, * 

b (or aimple o wlion ending a ayllable) a« • in ho. 

6 or S M o in not. 

f , olMonT* 9, u in temon, harbor. . . - 

B (or it, ending a lyllable) a* « in tube. 

& ai «t in tub, fur. 

til aa (A in tkin. 
■ TH (small oapitals) aa ii in tUt. ! 

8 ai in Oerman, a aonnd ^jprozimately repreientad by 
u in bud. 

a like the 'Fmuili u and the Oerman U, This foand has 
no equivalent in English. It may be prodneed by trying to 
^nnmate the long aoond of < («) through • unatl round 
opening of the projected llpa. The French emr ii pro- 
Bonneed .nearly like ^MMry Suine, UkeSwitt. 

B (amall capital), in the pronunciation of Spanish namea, 
rq>r«sent< the aonnd of the Bnl^iah- b rergltag towafdi 
that of w. 

' D (amall 'eapital) indieatee a aomd Vety similar to ftt 
in aw. 

K and s (small oapitals) indicate the sonnd of the German 
«A, or one similar to it. This has no eqairalent in Baglisb. 
It resembles the sound of the English h uttered with a 
strong aspiration. Its phonetio ralue is eofeTeyed approzi* 
mately by the sound of wfc in the ezolama^on laiew / 

a (small capital) indicates a sound similar to the preeed- 
ing, but with a strong gotturalaqtiration. ' 

I (Hiquid) is to Im pronounced like «» in aiMwm (mil'fn) ; 
it 'blends the sounds of ( and y consonant. 

B ispronouneed like nt in fflimoo (miB'f n) ; it blends the 
sonnds of n and g eonsonant. 

n and h (small oapitals) and tr indicate a nasal sonnd in 
French, Portuguese, ind Polish (among Enropean lan- 
guages) which has no eguiralent in English. It u ap- 
proximately heard in pronouncing tang, ting, eong, and 
tung in sneh a way as to sonnd the g but slightly. 

B (amall capital) has the sound of rr in Urror. 

V (smaD capital) or nh indicate* the sonnd «f the French 
e« (Oerman S) ; the phonetic value is apptoximatdy the 
sonnd of « in bud, prolonged. ■ . ■ > 

* indicates a sonnd similar to the En|^ish «. 

aw indicates the sonnd of a in faii. 

<w indioates the sonnd of ^ in noie. 

gh is the symbol used to express the bard sonnd of jr (as 
in^) when that letter preoedes « «r i. 

The terminal small y (as in. m'7) placed after the accent 
in French names ending in il or ille indicates the conso- 
nant souid ef the English y. to gire • better idjsa- of its 
ralne, we may add that acoording to this scheme it'J would 
Ue eqnlTalent to tl (Me), aw'r to oi (as in iWI). ■ 

The 4f employed to iadieatti the sonoAvf .'terminal gg i« 
Hungarian names represents only an approximation to the 
real sound, which is that of d followed by eonsonant y. 

.Sometimes different modes are adopted to: indicate th« 
same sonnd, absolute uniformity not baring been regarded 
as imperatlTe in some eases where there would be adTsntaga 
in departing from it. 

When a name has a secondary aooent in addition to the 
primary one, the syllable bearing it la aariied thitt'(*); 
for example, Pas^samaqnod'dy. 


aae. anciently. 

Arab. Arabic 

eo.;. - county. 

Dan Danish. 

Flea. Flemish. 

Fr French. 

Oer. German. 

Or. Greek. 

Hnn Hnngariaa. 

. I«tin. 

. RaUroad. 


L. ....'... . . , 




8p Spanish. 

sq. m square mitat. 

Sw Swedish. 

Turk Turicish. 

To avoid a repetition of the same name, an ellipos like the following is frequently employed : 
" HoBNOABTU, a town of England, eo. and 18 mila ESK of limaoln;" meaning, " in the oonnty of lin- 
ooln and 18 mOee eaet-eoatheast of the dty of linooln." 

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A-** I (k oontraeUon of the old Oermsn AhAa, and tlio 
one with Aaeh or Aeh, signiMng "flowing water"), an 
aflaent of the Bmi, whieh it jouu at MUnstw. 
As, a rivor <rf Uronia, flowing into the Onlf of Riga. 

Aa, a river ot Ooarlaiid, floinng p«<t Mitan and dii- 
gharging into the Onlf ot Riga. 

Aa, a river of France, department of l^ord, flowing into 
the North Sea near OraTdineB. 

As, a river of Switierland, canton of Aargan, forma the 
hket Baldecg and HallwyL and joini the Aar near Aarao. 

Aa, or Haraer^Aa, UK'ntr-^ a river of Switierland, 
eantm of Unterwalden, traverses Lakes Lungem and Sar- 
Ben and enters Lake Lnoeme near Alpnacfa. 

Aa, a river of the Netherlands, in North Brabant, paaeea 
Helmond and joins the Dommel at 6ois-Ie-Dne. 

Aa, or Graa4e-Aa, giAHd-i'i a river of Belgitun, in 
the province (tf Antwerp, a tribntuy of the Little Hethe. 

Aabeaiaa, the Danish for Apbhcadb. 

Aach, 4e, a town of Baden, U miles NB. of Sehaff- 
haosen, on the river of the same name, whieh {Uls into 
Lake Ckinstanoe. Pop. about 9&0. 

AackeB,i'cfn,the6ermannameof Aix-i^-Chapkllb. 

Aadorf, ('dSsf, a commune of Switiertand, canton of 
Thnigan, S miles firom Franenfeld. Pop. about 1100. 

AaiQord, aw'fe-oad', a fiord, or bay, and town of Nor- 
way, stift at Trondl^em. The town is the seat of flsberies 
and of a large coastwise trade. Pop. about 4000. 

Aakirkeay, aw-kS<*'k^-baS a town of Denmark, 
isUnd of Bomholm, near the S. ooast, with a church of blaok 
marble, quarried In its vicinity. Pop. about 1000. 

A al, awl, a town of Norway, on the Uatedal, 120 miles 
KV. of Beigen. Pop. about S500. 

Aalborg, awlOwBO (i.e., " Bel Castle ;" L. Albur>gmt), 
a city and seaport of Denmark, in Jutland, on the S. shore 
of the Lim-Ilord, near its month in the Cattegat. Lat. 57° 
3" N. ; Ion. r SO' E. It is a bishop's see and Itas a nauti- 
cal aehool and an old royal castle. Its flsheriee and trade 
are important. Pop. in IMl, 31,40S. The stift of Aalborg 
is one of the four ecclesiastical divisions of Jutland. 

Aaibaeh, |l'b<8E, a nonp of mountains of Oermany, 
in the NB. part of the Alb or Swabian Alps, in WUrttem- 
berg. It has no lofty summits, is largely covered with 
beech forests, and has two historic peaks, — the Hohen- 
staofen and the HohenrechlMig, each with its mined castle. 

Aalea, ilfn, a town of WUrttemberg, on the Kocher, 
40 milee E. of Stuttgart. Pop. in 1900, 9033. 

Aalesnad, aw'ldi-soond, or Alesond (" Bel Sound"), 
a seaport town of Norway, in the amt of Ronudal. Lat. 
62° 24' N. ; Ion. 6° i' B. It has extensive trade and fish- 
eries. Pop. in 1898, 10,192. 

Aalia Faakai, i-&-lee'& p&-&-ki'ee, a generic Ha- 
wuian name for a series of salt lakes or marshes. Specifl- 
eally, a lake on Oahu Island, in the crater of an immense 
to& oone, about 4 miles from Honolulu and 1 mile trota 
the ocean. The water in some respects closely resembles 
the water of the Dead Sea. 

Aalsmeer, (Is'maia, a village of the Netherlands, in 
North Holland, 8 miles SW. of Amsterdam. Pop. about 

Aalst, a town of Belgium. See Auwr. 

Aalten, ftl'tfn, a village of the Netherlands, province 
cf Oelderland, on the Aa, 29 miles B. of Amhem. Pop. 

Aamodt, aw'mot, a town of Norway, on the Olommen, 
tt miles NNB. of Cbristiania. Pop. about 3300. 


Aar, |b, or Aare, I'afh (anc. Ohrtn'ga), a river of 
SwitierluK^ rises in the Upper Aar glaoier of the Schreck- 
hom, canton of Bern, forms the remarkable fall of Handeck, 
travenee the lakes of Brians and Tbnn, panes Thun^Bem, 
Soleore, and Aaran, and fklla into the Rhine opposite Walds- 
hut. It is navigable from the Rhine to Tbnn, and ha* been 
oanaliied between Meiringen and the lake of Briens. 

Aar^ the name of several glaciers, known as the Upper-, 
Lower-, Finstor-, and Lauter-Aar pacieia, of the Finster- 
aarhom and Sohreckhom group of mountains, in the canton 
of Bern, Switierland. Xhev have been made classical 
ground in geology through the researches of Agassis and 
others. The Upper^Aar glaoier gives sonree to the river 
Aar, and has a length of 1 miles. 

AaraOlt. a hllf of Arabia. See Akafat. 

Aaraa, %'rSw, a town of Switierland, ca^rital of the 
eanton of Aargan, on the Aar, 41 miles NB. of Bern. Pop. 
in 1900, 7995. It has manufactures of silk, cotton, mathe- 
matical instruments, and railroad material, and noted bell 
and cannon foundries. The cantonal library contains nearly 
100.000 volumes. 

Aarberg, &it'b4BG, a town of Switierland, on an island 
in the Aar, 12^ mile* NW. of Bern. Pop. 1200. 

Aarbarg, or Arborg, (B'bMBS, a town of Switier- 
land, on the Aar, 6 milee by rail SW. of Aarau. Pop. 2000. 

Aardeabarg, |B'dfn-bS5Be\ a town of the Nether- 
lands, province of Zeeland, 4 miles SB. of Sluts. Pop. 2000. 

Aargaa, (R'gSw (Fr. Argovit, aB^goWee'; L. Argo'- 
via), a canton of Switierland, bounded Dy the cantons of 
Zurich, Zng, Luoeme, Bern, Soleure, and Basel, and by 
the Rhine, which separates it ftom Baden. Area, 56 
sq. m. Pop. in 1900, 200,498, more than one-half lieiug 
Protestants. Surfiuse undulating, and traversed by the Aar, 
Reuse, and Limmat. Soil well cultivated. Vineyards ex- 
tensive. Principal manufactures, cottons, silks, straw hats, 
and tobacco. The warm sulphur waters of Baden and Schini- 
nach are in this canton. The name, which is Oerman, 
signifies the " district of the Aar." Capital, Aaran. 

Aarhas, or Aariinas, awn'hoooe, a seaport of Den- 
mark, in Jutland, on the Cattegat, at the mouth of the 
Holle-Aue, 37 milee SB. of Viborg. Lat. 6«° 9" N. ; Ion. 
10° 12' E. It has a cathedral, a library of 200,000 vol- 
nmee, a museum, and various manufactures, and regular 
steam communication with Bngland. Pop. in 1901, 51,909. 
It has been the seat of a bishop since the tenth eentunr. 

Aarlaaderreen, inMln-dfr-vin', a town of the Neth- 
erlands, in the province of South Holland, 17 milee SSE. 
of Haarlem. 

Aarle-Rixtel, 4B'l«h^riz't«l, a village of the Nether- 
lands, North Brabant, 3 milee S. of Helmond. 

Aarmflhle, Is'mU-If h, a village of Switierland, canton 
of Bern, a4joining Interlaken. 

Aaro, aw'rii', a small island of Prussia, Schleswig, in 
the Little Belt, 10 milee E. of Hadersleben. Opposite it, 
on the B. ooast of Schleswig, is the village of Aarfiaund. 

Aaron, S'ryn, a poet-hamlet of Jefferson co., Ga. Pop. 
about SO. 

Aaron, a post-hamlet of Switierland co., Ind., 43 miles 
WBW. of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Aaron I^ake, a lake in Douglas coi, Minn. 

Aaronsbnrg, I'rfns-bfirg, a poet-village of Center co., 
Pa., about 20 miles B. of Bellefonte. Pop. about 400. 

Aarwangen, &B'vlng-en, a town in the canton of 
Bern, Switierland, 31 miles NB. of Bern, on the Aar. Pop. 


Digitized by 



Aar'wood, a post-Tillage of Kalkaika oo., Mich., 14 
miles jrW. of Kalkaska. 

Aai« it, a Tillage of France, Basses- I^^n^ee, 18 miles 
8B. of Oloron. It has mines of iron and lead. Pop. 400. 

A%»j aws, a fortified town of Norway, with a good har- 
bor, a few miles S. of Christiaoia. Pop, 2670. 

Aastad) ah'stld, a post-hamlet of Otter Tail oo., Minn., 
• miles NB. of Wendell. 

AasrAr^ awa'Tair, a gronp of small low islands, on the 
Arctic Circle, 10 or 13 miles from the ooast of Norway. Its 
herring-ilsheriee were formerly very important. 

Aathf a town of Belgium. See Ath. 

Aba, 8h'bdh\ a town of Hnniary, 11 miles S. of Stohl- 
weissenbnrg. It has mineral springs. Fop. 3000. 

Ababd«, 1-blb'dth, or Shekh-Abade, shiK-l-bi'- 
dfh, a Tillage of Middle Bgypt, on the right bank of the 
Nile, 8 miles S. of Beni Hassan. Lat 27° 43' N. ; Ion. 30° 
57' E. Near it are the roins of the ancient Antinoi, or 
AntittoSpolit, a city bnilt by the Emperor Hadrian, and 
named mm his faTorite Antinons, who was drowned in 
the Nile. These remains, which are entirely Roman, are 
supposed to occupy the site of a still more ancient city, 
named Baa, famed for its oracles, and mentioned b^ Abnl- 
feda under the name of ^iMtno, or Atuinth, by which the 
place is sometimes deeignated. 

Abacaxis, t-bi-kt-shees', a rirer of Bradl, passes 
through Lake Quarihas and falls into the Fnro or Miaohe, 
a southem.aiBuent of the Amaion. 

Abaco, i'bl-ko, or Lncaya, loo-kl'yt, one of the 
Bahama Islands, 80 miles in length by about 20 in breadth. 
A natural perforatijon of the rock at its SE. point forms ^ 
landmark well known to seamen as the Bole in tk» WaU. 
Lat. of Ught-houso, 25° 61' 80" N.; km. T7° 10' 44" W.; 
elevation, 160 feet. Pop. about 4000. 

LiTTLi Abaoo, 28 miles long, lies immediately W. of the 
N. extremity of the aboTe,- wUoh is ealled, for distinction, 
"Great Abaoo." 

Aba4«h, ft-bft'd«h, a town of Persia, 110 miles N. of 
Shiras, famed for its gardens of delicioas firnit. 

Abaet^, 4-UUJUtI', a town of Brasil, in the state of 
Part. Pop. stated to be orer 10,000. 

Abai, or Abay. See BAHB-n/-AiBBC. 

Abakan, t-bi-kin', a rirer of the Altai re(rion of Si- 
beria, rising in the Sayan chain of the Altai Mountains 
and joining the Yenisei at the left a little abore Minusinsk. 
Its tributaries are charged with auriferous sand. 

Abakansk, &-bt-klnsk', a town of Siberia, goTem- 
ment of Yenis^k, on the AlMikaD, near its Junction with 
the Yenisei. Lat. 64° N. ; Ion. 91° SO' E. It is remark- 
able for the ancient tombs in its Ticinity, whieh oontain 
earved work of an extraordinary character. It produces 
coal and iron, and trades in furs. Pop. 2000. 

Abalak, JUbi-Uk', a town of Siberia, 8E. of Tobolsk, 
on the Irtish ; a celebrated place ofpilgrimage. Pop. 600. 

Abaliaba, an aneient town of migland. See Appleit. 

Aballo, the ancient name of Ataixor, 

Abana, a rirer of Syria. See Bababa. 

Abaaaka, a post-hamlet of Van Wart oo., Ohio. Pop. 
about 60. 

Abaacay, l-Bin-kl', a town of Pern, euital of the de- 
partment of Aporimae and of the prorince of its own name, 
on the Abaneay, 40 mllea WSW. ot Cuico. Much sugar is 
raised in the Ticinity. Pop. about 3000. 

Abanilla, (-aA-neel'yl, a small town of Spain, 18 miles 
NE. of Mnrcia. 

Abano Bagni, i'bi-no bin'ye^ a town of Italy, 6 
miles SW. of Padua. It is famous for its hot sulphurous 
waters and mud baths, much resorted to in eataaeous dis- 
sases. Pop. of the oommune about 4000. 

Abaato r Ciinrana, i-ain'to ee th94r'Tl-nl, a oom- 
mune of Spain, in the proTince of Viicaya. Pop. 7000. 

Abashiri, 1-bi-shee'ree, a port ot call on the northern 
ooast of the North Island of Japan. 

Abatagonsk, ab-a-tf-goosh', a bay of Lake Mistassini, 
Qnebee, Ouada. On it is a Hndson Bay Company's post. 

Abatd-Toma, Sh'bSh-oo'y' tor'nSh, a V. county of 
Hnniary. Capital, Kasohau. 

Abb, ib, a town of Arabia, In Yemen, 80 miles E. of 

Abbaeh, ib'bic, a town of Bararia, in the district of 
Kelheim, on the Danube. Pop. in 1900, 1187. It has snl- 
phur-mineral springs, mines of coal and lignite, and the 
rains of the castle of Heinrichaburg. 

Abbadia, Ib-bl^lee'l, a town and port of Brazil, 
on the Aregnitiba, near the Atlantic, 26 miles SW. of 

Abbadia San Salvatore, lb-UUee'& s&n sil-T&- 
li'ri, a town of Italy, 17 miles SW. of Chlnsi. Pop. 3000. 
It has sulphurous and other mineral springs. 

Abba- Jaret, or Abba- Jared. See AnA-YAaan. 

t Abbotsford 

Abbasaata, U>-b&-sin'ti, or Aqna Saata, ik'wi 
sin'tl2&townof Sardinia, prorinoeofCagUsri. Pop. 1500. 

Abbas-Tnmaa, a watering-place of Russia, in Trans- 
cancasiik 8 miles NW. of Akhaltsikh. It has an observa- 
torr and hospital. Pop. about 250. 

Abbatis Villa. The Latin name of AbbeTille, a town 
of France. 

Abba-Yared, Abba>Yaret,or Abba- Jaret, lb'- 
bi-yi'rtt, a mountain of Abyssinia. Elevation, 15,000 (?) 

Abbaye, a Tillage of Switierlaad. See L'Aibatk, 

Abbayejab'bK^) Point, upper peninsula of Michigan, 
is between Huron and Keweenaw Bays, on Lake Superior. 

Abbasia, &-bU-s£'l, a town and health-resort ef Istria, 
Austria-Hungary, on the Bay of Fiume, 6 miles by rail 
NW. of Finme. Known as the "Nice of the Adriatic," 
it is famous for its dimate and beautiful situation. Pop. 
about 1200. 

Abbeoknta. See Abeocdta. 

Abbeville, IbVeel' (L. AbbatU Vxlla), a town of 
France, department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 miles 
from the English Channel and 25 miles NW. of Amiens. Its 
most prominent ediilees are the church of St. Wolflram, with 
a splendid Oothio portal, and the town halL with its medi- 
ssTal belfky. In the scTenteenth century Abbeville was one 
of the moat flourishing towns of France.' The manufacture 
of cloth and earpets was introduced under Colbert. The 
manufiwtures at present include velvets, linen, carpets, and 
l>eet sngar. The town has rich collections of prehistoric 
finds and fossil remains. Pop. of the commune in 1901, 
20,388 : of the town, 18,698. 

AbHteviile, a countv in the WKW. part of South Caro- 
lina, has an area of 682 sq. m. It Is Iwnnded on the 
SW. by the Savannah BiTer, which separates it from 
Qeorgia, and on the NE. by the Saluda, and is also 
drained by Little RiTCr. Cotton, maise, and wheat are 
sUple products. Capital, Abbeville. Pop. in 1900. 33,400. 

Abbeville, a banking poet- village, capital of Henry 
00., Ala., about 26 miles SSw. of Eufaula. It is in a cot- 
ton-raising district. Pop. in 1900, 889. 

Abbenlle, a banking poet-town, capital of Wilcox oo., 
Oa., on the Oomulgee River and on the S^board Air Line, 60 
miles E. of Americus and about 130 miles W. of Savannah. It 
has cotton-seed oil and brick-industries. Pop. in 1900, 1 162. 

Abbeville, a banking post-town, capital of Vermilion 
parish. La., is on the Vermilion River, about 40 miles S. 
of Opelonsas. It is the trade-centre of a fanning district. 
Pop. in 1900, 1636. 

Abbeville, a poet-town of Lafayette oo.. Miss., 10 
miles by rail N. of Oxford. Pop. in 1900, 266. 

Abbeville, a banking post-town, capital of Abbeville 
00., 8.C., on the Seaboard Air Line, 107 miles W. by N. of 
Columbia. It has manufactures of oottoo-seed oil and fer- 
tilisers. Pop. in 1900, 3766. 

Abbey Craig, a hill near Sterling, Scotland, crowned 
by a monument to Wallace. 

Abbeyfeale, ab'be-ful', a market-town of Ireland, oo. 
of Limeiiok, on the Fealcu 12 miles SW. of Bathkeale. 
Pop. 993. 

Abbeyleix, ab^be-Uoe', a town and parish of Ireland, 
9 miles SSW. of Maryborough. Pixi. of town, 1000. 

Ab'beyville, apoet-villageof Medinaoo., Ohio, 5 miles 
from Medina and about 120 miles NNE. of Columbus. 

Abbi-Addi, ib'be-td'de, an important town of Abys- 
sinia, in the district of Tigr<, 140 miles S. by W. of Mas- 
sowan, and on the road flrom Adowa to Sokota. 

Abbiategiaiao, U>-be-i'ti-grift-so, a town of Italy, 14 
miles WSW. of Milan. Pop. about 6000 (oommune, 12,000). 

Abbitiblti, or Abitibi, a lake of Canada, in lat. 49° 
N., Ion. 80° W; Length, 60 miles. It is studded with 
islands, and has its onUet in Abbitibbi Blver. Lake Te- 
miseamingue, which lies southward of it, is sometimes con- 
sidered to be one of the Abbitibbi Lakes. 

Abbitibbi, a river of Canada, rises in the high lands 
above Lake Temiscamingue, about lat. 48° 10* N., Ion. 79° 
SO" W., and after a ooutse of 200 miles joins the Moose 

Abbondansa. See Abordakcb. 

AbHtot, a post-Tillage of Piseata^is oo., Me., in Abbot 
township (town), on the Piscataqnis RiTer, 12 miles W. of 
DoTer. Tne town has mannfaotmres of lumber and excel- 
sior. Pop. in 1900, 716. 

Abbot, a township of Potter oo., Pa. Pop. in 1900, 823. 

Abbotabad', a town of India, in the Punjab, 180 miles 
NNW. of Lahore. Pop. about 6000. 

Abbotabnry, ab'bots-bfr-i, a Tillage of England, oo. 
of Dorset, 8 miles WSW. of Dorchester. 

Ab'botlford, the celebrated seat of Sir Waltor Scott, 
in Sootland, oo. of Roxburgh, on the 8. bank of the Tweed, 
near Mehrcse Abbey, 28 mues SE. of Edinburgh. 

Digitized by 





Akbotofoid, a baaUng poat-Tillmn of CUric oo., WU., 
•t B TmilwaT joimUod, 66 oulei K. of Chippnra FkUa. Pep. 
ia 10W, 443. 

Ab'bot's Hall, » puiih of sonsty Fife, Sootland, on 
th* Firth of Forth, D<wr Kirkkldy. Pop. about 700«. It 
has fisheries and manofHtores of oanras and flannel. 

Abtlots-IjaBgleT (lang'Ise), a purish of England, eo. 
of Herts. This is the birthplace of Ilioliolas Brealcspear, 
afterwards Adrian IV., the only Knglishmaa who ever be- 

AfeHiottf a post-village of Pasoo oo., Fla., on the Sea- 
beard Air Line, 10 miles (direct) ttom Dade City, its 
banking point. It has manufaotnres of torpentine. Pop. 

Akbott, a post-hamlet of Hardin oo., Iowa, on the 
Central B. of Iowa, 11 miles N. of Sdora. 

Akbott, a post-hamlet of Trimble oo., Ky. 

Abkott, a poet-Tillage of Clay eo., Hiss. Pop. abont 

Abbott, a banking post-town of Hill oo., Tex., on the 
Kansasand Texas R., 25 miles N. of Waoo. IthaseottoD- 
gins. Pop. in 1900, 360. 

Abbott, a poet-Tillage of Craig oo., Va., 18 miles NW. 
of Salem. 

Abbottmn, a post-Tillage of ProTidenee oo., R.I., on 
the New Tork, New HaTeo and Hartford R., 7 miles S. of 
Pawtoeket. Pop. abont 160. 

Abbotts, a post-hamlet of Cattaraogns oo., N.T. 

Ab'bottsbnrg, a post-village of Bladen oo., N.C., on 
the Seaboard Air Line, 60 miles WNW. of Wilmington. 
Pop. about 160. 

Abbotts Comers, a post-hamlet of Brie eo., N.T., 
abont 13 miles S. by E. of Buffalo. 

Abbott's Creek, Davidson oo., M.C., mns southward 
and enters the Yadkin Rirer. 

Abbotts Creek, a post-hamlet of Davidson oo., N.C., 
sboot 33 miles NE. of Salisbniv. 

Abbottsford, a poet-village of Benson so., N.Dak., 10 
■iles N. of Minnewaukon. 

Ab'bottsford, a post-villago in Ronville oo., Qnebee, 
Cknada, miles KW. of Qraoby. 

Ab'bottstowa, a post-village of Adams oo., Pa. Pop. 
about 400. 

Abbot Tillage, a poet-village of Pisoataqnis oo.. Me., 
in Abbot township (town), on the Piscataquis BiTer and 
the Bangor and Aroostook B., 10 miles W. of DoTer. 
Psp. about 160. 

Abbot Tillage, a name ^n*''*^ ^ ^* lower or north- 
wsstem ezbvnJty of the Tillage of Andorer, Mass. The 
Ebawaheen River affords water-power. Woollen goods and 
ihee-thread are mannfhotnred here. 

Ab'brrille, a banking post-village of Reoo eo., Kan., 
16 miles SB. of Hntohison. Pop. about 300. 

Abbfrille, a post-borongh of Heoklenburg eo., Va., on 
the Staunton Biver, mites above ClarkaviUe. 

Abd-ei-Knri, UxMUkoo'ree', an island in the Indian 
Oesan, a dependenoy of Soeotra. Lat. 11° 66' N. ; Ion. 630 
SO* B. It is inhabited by a few {iuniliee of Arabs. 

Ab4-el-Knri, ibd-4>-koo'ree\ or Palina'ms 
Skoal, a dangerous reef of rock and coral, df the S. coast 
of Arabia, in lat. 14° 64' S., Ion. 60° 46' EL ; discovered by 
Ckptun Haines in 1836. It extends 1860 yards ftom NNB. 
to 8SW., with a breadth of from 300 to 600 yards, and is 
H miles distant from the nearest land, bearing K. by W. 

AMie'ra, a famous Oreek city of ancient Thrace, whose 
raiBs are on the Turkish ooast of the JBgean Sea, NB. of 
the islaad of Thasce. 

Abslera, an ancient town of Spain. See Adba. 

Abdle, ab'dae, a parish of Scotland, eo. of Ufa. Pop. 
IMO. The battle of Blackeamside, between the Scots, under 
Tallaoe, and the English, was fought in this parish. 

AbiUornU, l-ii-aoB-Bll', a town of Colombia, in the 
dspaitmsBt of Antio^uia. Pop. about MOO. 

Abeaakis Bpriags, a resort of Quebec, on the St 
Lawrence Uver, 3 miles from St. Ftanfois dn Lao. 

Abeaberg, &'b«n-biBfl\ a small town of Bavaria, 16 
siiles 88W. of Koremberg. Pop. 1400. 

Abeadberg, &'b«nd-MBa\ a mountain in the Swiss 
esaten of Bern, on the S. shore of Lake Thun, overlooking 
Interbken. Height, 4134 feet. 

Abeasberg, a'bf ns-bino' (anc Abutitut /), a mannfae- 
turing town of Bavaria, on the Abens, 18 miles SW. of 
Ksiii£on. It has a castle and mineral baths. Here Na- 
pdaoo defeated the Anstrians, April 30, 1809. Near by 
great Roman stmctnrce have been ezoavated. Pop. 3203. 

Abeokata, i-lw-o-koo'ti, a large walled town of west- 
era Africa, eq>ital of the praivinee or kingdom of Egba, in 
Tetsha, is sitaated direetly N. of Lagos, with which it is 
eouieeted by railway. It was founded abont 1826, and 
Misti&tad a tnt enifedaraey of tribes who sought refkige 

in its TO^y stronghold from the piracies of the slave trade. 
Pop. 160,000 (?). 

AberaeroB, or Aberayroa, al>-fr-i'rf n, a waterine- 
plaoe of Wales, oo. and on the Bay of Cardigan, at this 
month of the Aeron, 13 miles SW. of Aberystwith. Pop. 
in 1901, 1331. 

AberavOB, ab-fr-1'vfn, a seaport of Wales, oo. of 
Glamorgan, < miles E. of Swansea. It has tin-plate and 
oower-smdting works. Pop. In 1901, 7553. 

Aberayroa, a town of Wales. See Abkbabbor. 

Aberbrothoek, a town of Scotland. See Abbboatb. 

AVercara, a eoal-miiiing town of England, in Mon- 
mouthshire, 11 miles NW. of Newport. Fop. in 1901, 

Ab'ercom, a parish of Linlithgowshire, Scotland, on 
the Firth of Forth, 3 milee W. of BoDth Queeneferry. 

Abercora, a post-village in Brome eo., Quebec, Can- 
ada, on the Missisqnoi River and on the Canada Pacific B., 
72 miles SE. of Montreal. Pop. 200. 

Ab'ercora, a trading-station of British Central Afnoa, 
established in 1889 at the SE. extremity of Lake Tan- 
g^yika, about (00 miles W. by S. of Zaniibar. It has con- 
siderable trade with surroonding tribes. 

Abercrombie, ib'«r-krfim4>e, a harbor in the N. part 
of New Zealand, W. of Great Barrier Island and NE. of 
North Island. The harbor is large, deep, and well shel- 
tered, and conunonicates with the sea by a channel abont 
110 yards wide. 

AbercrOBibie, a post-village of Bibb co., Ala. 

Abererombie, a banking post-village of Richland oo., 
N.Dak., on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul R., 32 
lailes (direct) S. of Fargo. Pop. abont 200. 

Ab'erdare', a town of Wales, oo. of Glamorgan, 4 miles 
SW. of Herth^-Tydfil. Pop. in 1901, 43,366. It has ex- 
tensive colKenea and iron- and tin-works. 

Aberdare MoBBtains, in British East Africa, im- 
mediately S. of the equator and W. of Kenia. Elevation, 
14,000 (7) feet. 

Ab'erdeea', or AberdeeasUre, ab^fr-deen'shir, a 
county of Scotland, Iiaving on the N. and E. the North Sea, 
and on the other sides the counties of Forfar, Perth, Kin- 
cardine, Banff, Elgin, and Inverness. Area, 1956 sq. m. 
Pop. in 1901, 304,^0. In the SW. are some of the highest 
mountains in Sootland, including Ben Maodhui, 4296 feet. 
Chief riven, Dee and Don. More cattle are bred in this than 
in any other Scotch county. Extensive salmon-fisheries 
are on the coast and in the Dee. This oonnty retnms 3 
members to the House of Commons. Capital, Aberdeen. 

Aberdeea ^L. A6«r(fo'ii«a, or Deva'na), a parliamen- 
tary and municipal borough and seaport of Scotland, capi- 
tal of the county of the same name, on the N. bank of the 
river Dee, at its entrance into the North Sea, 111 miles 
by rail NNE. of Edinburgh. Lat. of observatory, 57° 8' 
9" N.j Ion. 2° 5' 7" W. The main town, or New Aberdeen, 
lies N. and W. of the Dee, while Old Aberdeen stretches 
northward to the Don. New Aberdeen ia a handsome city, 
with houses built of granite ( whence it is sometimes called the 
Granite City), and contains numerous fine public buildings. 
Among the monuments is one to Gordon rasha. The Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen was instituted in 1860 by the union of 
King^ College (established in Old Aberdeen in 1494) and 
Mansohal CoOege (founded by Earl Marisohal in New Ab- 
erdeen in 1693). The number of students attending the 
naiversity in 1904 was 1102. Besides the venerable struct- 
ure of King's College, Old Aberdeen possesses an interesting 
monument in its graitite cathedral. The constmetion of a 
granite pier, 3000 feet long, with other improvements, has 
made the harbor of Aberdeen one of the best in this put of 
Sootland. At its entranoe is Girdleness light-house. Aber- 
deen has lourishing manufactures of cotton, linen, and 
woollen goods, rope, leather, paper, soap, combs, chemicals, 
agricultural implements, and sail-cloUi, with extensive 
iron-foundries, breweries, ship-yards, and distilleries. The 
granite-poliabing works are on a large scale Aberdeen 
sends 3 members to the House of Commons, and its uni- 
versity, with that of Glasgow, sends another. Pop, in 1901, 

Aberdeea, a post-villue of Butler co., Ky., abont S 
miles N. of Morgantown. Pop. about 160. 

Aberdeea, a banking post- village of Harford co., Md., 
on the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington and the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rs., 31 miles NE. of Baltimore. It 
has extensive trmU and vegetable-packing industries. Pop. 
in 1900, SOO. 

Aberdeea, a banking city, capital of Monroe cc, Bfiss., 
on the Tombigbce River, abont 28 miles above Columbus 
and 540 miles by water from Mobile Branch railroads 
converging at Aberdeen connect it with the main lines of 
the Mobile and Ohio, the Kansas City, Memphis and Bir- 
mingham and the Illinois Central B. systems. Steamboats 

Digitized by 




mttj uacad the rirar to thlf point, whidi Ji ragarded h 
tlie hMd of n«Tigmtion, thongh lightor onft awMid to the 
vmxr rirer and iU tribntaries for freighting pnrpoeea. 
Aoerdeeo haa fine Federal and ooontj ooarMioaies, an 
opera-hoiue, wreral iloar-milli, iteam-glni and ootton 
waiehoDses, and piannfmtnree of wagonB, briek, ipokei, 
lee, maohinery, Inmber, eta. It ii an important (hipping 
pofait for eotton, eotton-eeed, ootton-eeed oil, hides, and feed- 
itnlb. Pop. in 1900, S4S4. 

Aberdeen, a poBt-rillage of Brown ee., Ohio^ on the 
Ohio River, omoeite Mayinlle, and about SO milee above 
Cittoinnati. It hai manofaetarei of floor, Inmber, and t»- 
baooo. Pop. in 1900, 711. 

Aberdeen, a i>aet-to<m of Hoore eo., V.C., on the 
Aberdeen and Ashboro and the Seaboard Air Line Be., 72 
miles SW. of Raleigh. Pop. in 1900, &i9. 

Aberdeen, a banking city of South Dakota, the eap- 
ital of Brown oo., at the jnncti(» of several railroad^ 83 
miles N. of Huron. It niu flowing artesian wells, whioh 
fiimiah aboadant water-power, andmanniiMtares of well- 
supplies, ohemicals, grain-pitohen, and foondrr products. 
Pro. in 1900, 4087. 

Aberdeen, a banking post-town of Chehalis oo., Wash., 
on the N. shore of Oray'B Harbor, about U miles bv rail 
W. of Hontesano. It has Itrge saw-mills, maehine-shops, 
and a salmon-eannery. Pop. In IINM, 3747. 

Aberdeen, a settlement of British West AfHea, in 
Sierra Leone, W. of Freetown. 

Aberdeen, a town of Cape Colony, AfHoa, and capital 
of the district of Aberdeen, abont 36 miles (direct) 8 W. by 
W. of Oraaf Reinet. Pop. in 1891, 1265 (whit^ 833). 

Aberdeensbire, a county <^ Scotland. See Abbb- 

Aberdonr, ab>r-door', a Tillage of Seotland, oo. of 
Fife, on the Firth of Forth, t miles SW. of Kirkealdy. 

Ab^erdo'vey, a seaport and watering-place of Wales, 
in Merionethshire, on the estnaiy of the Dorey, 10 miles K. 
of Aberystwith. Pop. 1500. 

Aberfeldr> &b<«r-fel'de, a village of Scotland, in Perth- 
BhiTe> near the S. bank of the Tay, and 32) miles by rail 
NW. of Perth. Bnms's "Birks of Aberfeldy^' teems to 
be founded on the " birks of Abergeldie," in W. Aberdeen- 

Aberffraw, ab-er-frSw', a seaport of Anglesea, Wales, 
5 miles WNW. of Newborongh. 

Aberfsil, aVfr-foiL a pMt-hamlet of Bnllock co., Ala., 
4 miles S8B. of Union Springs. 

Ab'erford, a market-town and parish of Bngland, co. 
of Tork, West Riding, 6 miles SW. of Tadcaster. Pop. 000. 

Aberfoyle, ab^r-fbil', a ▼Wbeo «>d defile of the Gram- 
pians, in Scotland, oo. of Perth. This is the scene of mnoh 
of Sir Walter Soott's " Rob Roy." 

Aberfoyle, a post-village of Hnnt eo., Tex. Pop. 
abont 90. 

Aberfoyle, a post-village of Wellington co., Ontario, 
Canada; the bulking point u Ouelph. 

AbergaTenar, abV-S^'°« o' abV-Kf-^'B'nl (L. 
0o6anti>iii), a market-town of England, eo. of Monmouth, 
on the Usk, IS miles W. of Monmonth. Pop. in 1901, 

Abergeldie Castle, a Highland royal residence in 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on the Dee, 3 miles ftvm Bal- 

Abergele, ab^r-gheele, a town of Wales, eo. of Den- 
bigh, 6 miles WNW. of St. Asaph. Pop. (with Pensam) 
in 1901, 2083. 

Ab^erla'dr, a village of Sootland, on the Firth of 
Forth, 00. and 5 miles SW. of Haddington, Pop. 750. 

Abemant, a ooal-mining villaM of Tuscaloosa oo., Ala. 
The bankingpoint is Tuscaloosa. Pop. 300. 

Abemetny, ab'(r-neth-e, a town of Scotland, oo. of 
Perth, at the estuary of the Tay, 6) miles SB. of Perth. 
Pop. 860. It is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient 
metropolis of the Plots : a curious ancient round tower 
stands in the ehurobyard. 

Abersychan, ab'fr-slk'fn, a town of Bngland, in 
Monmouthshire, 10 miles NNW. of Newport. It has iron- 
works and coal-mines. Pop. in 1901, 17,768. 

Abertbam, a town of Bohemia, 10 miles NNW. of 
Karlsbad. It has mines of tin. Pop. 2600. 

Abertillery, a town of Monmouthshire, England, 4 
miles NW, of Pontypool. It is engaged in ooal-mining. 
Pop. in 1901, 21,945. 

Abert (i'bfrt) Lake, Oregon, in lat. about 42° 45' N., 
ion. 120° W., is about 20 miles long and 5 miles wide. It 
has no outlet. 

Ab^erysfwith, a watering-plaoe of Wales, oo. and 33 
miles N. of Cardigan, on the Tstwith, at its mouth in Car- 
digan Bay. It is the seat of the University College of 
Wales. Pop. in 1901, 8014. 

Abe8hr,l'b<«h'r, caUed also Beibe, eapiUI of Wadai, 
abont lat. 14° N., Ion. 31° B. Pm. about 10,000 (?). 

Abiad, a name «f the White NUe. See BAaB-Bl>-ABlAB. 

Abie, a post-villace of Batler co., Neb. Pop. 100. 

AVilene, a banking city, capital of Dickinson oo., 
Kan., OB the Kansas River and on the Union Paoiflo and 
other railroads, 96 miles W. of Topeka. It has floor-mills, 
manu&otnras ot iroa, etc., and is an important shipping 
point for grain and cattle. Pop. in 1900, 3607. 

Abilene, a banking oity of Texas, coital of Taylor 
CO., on the Texas and Paoiflo R., 161 miles W. of Fort 
Worth. It has a Baptist college and large flour- and oom- 
mills, ootton-gins and ooinpresses, etc Pop. in 1900, 8411. 

Ablme8,lies, Weetlndiee. See Lis AbIbbs. 

Ab'ingdon (X. Abindoina), a town of England, in 
Berkshire, on the Oek, where it joins the Thames, 7 miles 
S. of Oxford. Itwasapromineat plaoein theAnrio.fiazoB 
period. Pop. in 1901, MSO. 

Abingdon, a banking city of Knox co., HI., on the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy and the Iowa Central 
Rs,, 9 miles S. of Oaiesburg. It contains Abingdon Col- 
lege (Christian), which was founded in 1866, Heading Col- 
lege (Methodist Episcopal), brick-works, etc Pop. in 1900, 

Abingdon, a post-village of Jefferson oo., Iowa, about 
13 miles NW. of Fairfield. Pop. about 300. 

Abingdon, a post-village of Harford co., Md., 35 miles 
NE. of Baltimore and 4) miles from Edgewood station. 
Pop. about 200. 

Abingdon, a banking post-town, Mpital of Washing- 
ton CO., Va., is pleasantly situated near Walker's Mountain, 
on the Norfolk and Western R., 206 miles WSW. of Lynch- 
burg. It is the seat of various advanced edooational insti- 
tutions, and has manufaeturee of tolMooo and eigars, eto. 
It does a large shipping business in live-stook. Pop. in 
1900, 1308. 

Ab'ington, a village of Lanarkshire, Scotland, 14 miles 
88B. of LanarL 

Abington, a poet-village of Windham oo.. Conn., in 
Pomfiret township J[town), W miles E. by N. of Hartford. 
It is on the New York, New Haven and Hartford R., 17 
miles NE. of WiUimantic 

Abington, a post-village of Wayne CO., Ind., in Abing- 
ton township, on the east fork of Whitewater River, about 
8 miles SW. of Richmond. Pop. about 200. 

Abington, a banking post-township (town) of Ply- 
mouth 00., Mass., 17 miles S. by E. of Boston. It is intw- 
sected by the New York, New Haven and Hartford R., and 
has manufactures of machinery and of boots and shoes. 
Pop. of the town in 1900, 4489. 

Abington, a hamlet of Ool&x oo.. Neb., abont 70 miles 
NNW. of Lincoln. 

Abington, a poet-borough of Lackawanna co., Pa. 


Abington, a post-village of Mont{^mery oo.. Pa., in 
Abington township, on the Philadelphia and Residing R., 
10 miles N. of Philadelphia. Pop. abont 350 ; of the town- 
ship in 1900, 3803. 

Abiqnia, abVku', a post-town of Rio Arriba eo., 
N.Hex., about 60 miles NW. of SanU F« and 36 miles SE. 
of Tierra Amarilla. It is 6891 feet above the sea. Pop. 
abont 100. 

Abianmi, l-be-soo'mse, a port of Jai>an, on the island 
of Kinshiu. It was opened to foreign oommeree in 1889. 

Abita (i-bee'ti) Springs, a piMt-village and summer- 
resort of Saint Tammany parish. La., on the East Lonisiana 
B., 4 miles E. of Covington. 

Abkhasia, &b-Ki'se-l, a region on the soothem Mope 
of the Caucasus, bordering on the Black Sea. The prin- 
cipal place is Snkhum Kale. Area, abont 3000 sq. m. 
Pop. about 40,000, oomposed of Mingrelians and Abkha- 
sians. The prince of Abkbasia is a vassal of Bnasia. The 
Abkhasians, who are supposed to number abont 06,000, now 
live mainly in Turkish territory. They are kindred to the 
Circassians and are Mohammecmns. 

Ableman, a post-village of Sank oo.. Wis., on the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern R., 9 miles W. of Baraboo. Pop. in 
190O, 430. 

Ablois- Saint-Martin, &bJwl'-8iiP-maK'tliK, a 
town in the department of Mame, France, 5 miles SW. of 
Epemay, near the forest of the same name. Pop. 1400. 

Ab'ner, a post-hamlet of Clay co., Ala., 37 miles E. by 
S. of Tallad^^ 

Abner, a post-hamlet of Kaofknan co., Tex. 

Abney, a post-hamlet of Itawamba co.. Miss. Pop. 
about 60. 

Abo, a town of Africa. See Abob. 

Abo, C'Ikw, or Abo, ft'bo, a city and seaport of Russia, 
until 1819 the capital of Finland, now capital of the Un of 
Abo-Bj3meborg, on the Aurtyoki, near its entrance into the 

Digitized by 



Abo Aroti1i>€)l«<ro 

. AbyMdida 

Wf of Botlmlai. LM. tO** »' K. ; Un. B" IS' E. Pop. 
klWl,S>.S38. Itbajiarehbuhap'iia*. Itwufomittly 
tk« ttU of % osiTordty, remorod to Heliingfort ia 1A27. 
U the oM eastle ii a TalnaUe Ustorie nnuMun. Th« rirer 
ii nni|iUaL and it( montli, S milM diiUiiL fonm t, good 
futi. Abo naa maan&atnrw and ihipbnUoing, and mhii« 
tnl* vitit Swadoi and lontharn Europe. 

Ak« ArehipelagOt an eztmuire nonp of low roekjr 
blindi in the Baltie Sea, B|pread along tne S. and 17. eoaati 
of Finland, opposite the cit; of Abo, lendaring the naTi- 
jaiiott diffieoit ud dangerooB. 

Ako-Qjftmeborg, S'boo-b«-SR'nih-boBa, a ISn of 
Fialtod, Ronia, on the Qul£i of Bothnia and Finland. 
Area, 0333 sq. m. Capital, Abo. Pop. in 1001, 4&3,75<. 

Akoh, I'bo, Ib«, or Eboe, ee'bS, a town of Afiioa, 
aa the Niger (Qamna), 80 milea from the ocean and 60 
milM 8B. of Benin. It is at the head of the delta and in 
the eeotre of the palm-oil r^on. 

Abotte, k-boit', a river in Allen oo., Ind., joint Little 

AboUe, a poet-hamlet of Allen eo,, Ind., on the 
Wabaih B., U mUee SV. of Fort Wayne. 

Ab«aieT« ab'o-mi', or Acbomer* a walled town of 
Afriea, eMital until reoentiT of Daltome; (now inper^ 
Mded by Porto Noto). 6S milei N. of Whydah. It eon- 
nata of a eoBeetion cf Tillage*, mrrooBded by a moat and 
an abatia of thoma, and haa a trade In ivoiy, oil, and geld. 
Par. estimated at 15,M«-80kM0. 

AboB<aiie«, &'b&iiMftii8', a town of Ttaaee, tn Hante- 
SaToie, 19 milea B8E. of Tnoaoa. Here the vaekerie* 
eheeee ii made. Pop. liOO. 

Ab**K- AboBg, a moontain in NW. Snmatn. Blera- 
Oon, aboot 11,4M feet. 

Aboay, <h'boB\ a town ot Hungary, 4t milea SE. of 
BiriapesC Vop. in 1900, 13,538. 

Aboakir, a Tillage and a bay of Egypt. See Abckir. 

Abr*) I'bri, a moontainom provinoe of Iionn, Philip- 
^ne laludaL near ite centre. 

Abra, K'ialk, a riTor of Laion, Philippine Islands, riaee 
ii tbe CabaUeroB OordiUera, and emptiee dt many branohea 
m the W. coast. It is naTigable for smul craft for a oon- 
iHaiMe distance. 

A'brahaai, Monat, a moontain of Fiaoklin CO., He., 
aksat M miles N. of Farmington, is 3S87 feet high. 

Abntait a Tillage and parish of Lancashire, Enf^and, 
3) miles from Wigan. Pop. in 1901, «SM. 

AbHUBS, a pMt-Tillace of Oeonto co., Wis., SI miles by 
nil K. <tf Green Bay. Pop. about 400. 

Abmm's Creek, a small stream (^ Colombia co., N.T., 
Wis into the Hudson RiTOr, 4 miles above Hudson. 

Abiaates, L-brin'tts (L. Abran'tium), a town of Por- 
tan], Bstremadara, with a citadel on the Tagns, 80 miles 
KB. of Lisbon. Pm>. about 8000. 

Abraatea, i-brfa'tjs, a town of Braiil, 30 miles NB. 
af BaUa, near the Atlantic. 

Abresweiler, &b'r4s-*rifr (Pr. Abrf«k»ilUr, 
I'brMi^TiriaiB' ), a Tillage of AhsrCe-Lorraine, miles 
88B. of Saarbnrg. It has mannftotnres ofglass and paper. 

Abreaa, Los, Iocs l-bri'oos, a eity of Mnta CSara proT- 
ioee, CDba, 16 miles by road NW. by N. of Cienfuegos. It 
has a horse-ear line and poet- and telegraph-offices. Pop. 
in 1899, 1300. 

Abneota, i'bri'ki', a minor port of Haiti, near the 
SW. extremity of the peninsula. Pop. 6000. 

Abriola, i-br»«'li, a town of Italy, 10 miles 6. of 
Potsnsa. F^i. 3600. 

AbT«lboi, 1-brole'yoee (Port, for "(men your eyoe," 
ue., "breakers ahead"), a group of low rocky iMands off the 
eowtof Brasil. Lat. 17* 58' 8. ; Ion. 38° 43' W. Another 
graup called Abrolhos lies off the W. eoast of Australia, be- 
tween 38° and 30° 8. lat., and is separated fh>m the main- 
land by QedTink Channel. 

Abroaia, MnVne-f, a post-hamlet of Allegan co., 
Vich., on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern R., 3 
miles SB. tt Allegan. 

Abrvd-B&aya, ob'rood-b|n^y91i, a town of Transyl- 
Tsaia, 37 miles NW. of Karbbnrg. Pop. 3000. It is cele- 
brated for its gold-mines. 

Abrad-Falm, ob'rood-fol'TSh', a town of Hungary, 
in TreasyiTsnia, oo. of Alstf-Peh£r (Unter-Weissenburg). 
Pop. about 4500. It is in the region of the belt of gold- 
mines and near the baaaltie mountains of Detonata. 

Abrassi, t-broot'see (plural of Abrntio), a former divi- 
eiim of Italy, forming the prorinces of Chieti, Teramo, and 
Aqnila, reapeetiTely known also as Abruno dteriore, 
AbruxBO Ulteriore I., and Abruzio UHeriore II., between lat. 
41° 49' and 43° 55' IT., on the Adriatic. These prOTinoee, 
with Ckmpobasso, now form the eompartimenio of Abruui 
• Molise. Area, 6380 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 1,442,366. 

AbMUoa, a post-hamlet of Hall CO., €a. Pop. about 60. 

Absarokee, a post-Tillaga of Carbon oo., ItonL Pop. 
about 75. 

Abacota, ab-sko'ta, a hamlet of Oalhona co., Midi., 
about 15 mUes SW. of HarshaU. 

Abse'con, or Abse'oom, a post-town of Atlantic co., 
V.J., near Abseeo n Bay, and on the West Jersey and Sea^ 
shore R., 7 miles NW. of Atlantic City. Pop. in 1900, 530. 

Abaecoa Bay is about 5 miles in droumferenoe, baring 
Abseeon Inlet, immediatelT north of Atlantic City, as its 
prineipal entrance. Near tne month of the inlet, at Atlantie 
City (lat. 39° 21' 65" N., Ion. 74° 34' 32" W.), ia a Ught- 
honse, with a light of the first order, 165 feet above sea-level. 

Ab^Siadt, toe Persian name of the iRDtrs. 

Abtadorf, ipts'dosf, a village of Bohemia, Austria- 
Hungary, 9 miles E8B. of Lritomischl. Pop. in 1900, 2030. 

AbtsrMer H6lie, ibts'r«-d«r h«'h«h, massive basal- 
tie formations topping the BbVn mountains. Altitude, 
8316 feet. They derive their name from the small village 
Abtsrtfde^ where are found important beds of ceramic clay. 
Many medicinal plants are found here. 

Aba, I'boo, a mountain of India, in RiUpntana, (8 
miles W. of Udaipur. It ia 5600 feet in height. It is a 
sanitaiT resort, and is famous for its Jain temple, the Vimla 
Sah, wnioh is called the finest in India. 

Abaam, an important markat-town of Morocco, in 

Aba>Arlak, I'boo-ft'rbh, a town of Teaneo, Arabia, 
34 milea fhmi the Red Sea. Lat. 17° 30' N. 

Aba>Hamaiad, l-boo-bi-mld', a village of Egypt, oa 
the Nile railway, 11 miles SE. of Zagaaig. 

Aba-Hammed', a town of Nubia, on the right bank 
of the Nile at its great bend, in lat. 19° 30' N., the sUrting. 
point of the caravans going northward into the Nubiu 

Abafcir, Vboo-keen'. a village of Egypt, with a citadel, 
on the promontory at tne W. extremity of the bay of the 
same name, 16 miles NE. (tf Alexandria. Near it are the 
ruins of the ancient Cano'ptu or Ocmo'bu*. 

Abukir Bay, N. coast of Egypt, between the promon- 
torjr of Abukir on the W. and the Rosetta month of the 
Nile on the B., celebrated for Nelson's victory over the 
French fleet. Aug. 1-3, 1798. In it are Culloden's Reef 
and the small isluid of Abukir, or Nelson Island. 

Abalonia, l-boo-lo'ne-l, or Aballtoate, 1-boo-le- 
on'ti (anc. ApoUo'nia ad Skgn'damm), a village of Asia 
Minor, on a small island in the lake of Abnloni^ 30 miles 
W. by 8. of Brasa. It haa several remains of antiquity. 

Abaloaia, Lake, in Asia Minor, 18 miles in length by 
13 in breadth, is 30 miles W. of Brusa. It is studded with 
small islands, is travened by the Rhyndaous, and sapplies 
Brusa with fish. 

Abalog, &-boo-loog', a pueblo of Cagaydn province, 
Luon, Philippine Isbads, on the Abulug River, a few 
miles mm the sea, about 60 miles N. by W. of Tnguegarao. 
It is in a rich valley, and produces tobacco, rice, and maise. 
Pop. about 8400. The Abning moontidns form a small 
chain about 6 miles from the N. ooast. 

Abnrr, a parish of England. See Atebtkt. 

Abn-Shenr, a city of Persia. See Bcsbibe. 

Abn-Simbel, i'boo-slm'bfl, or Ipsambnl, ip-tim- 
bool', a looality in Nubia, on the W. bank of the Nile, 48 
miles 8W. of Derr. Here are two rock-cut temples, the 
work of Rameses II., the larger being one of the most im- 
prenive monuments of Egyptian art. In front of both are 
statues of extraordinarT sise. 

Abnty, or Abatish, t-boo-teeih' (anc. Aboti; or 
Abutii), a town of Egypt, on the Nile, 13 miles SE. of 
Siut, noted for its opium. 

Aby'doa ( Or. 'A^vtot, AhadSt), an ancient city of Asia 
Minor, on the Hellespont. Near this place Xerxes and his 
army crossed over to Europe on a bridge of boats. The story 
of Hero and Leander has »ito given an enduring celebrity 
to Abydos. 

Abvdos, in Egypt. See Arabat-cl-Madfcn. 

Ab'yia, in ancient geography a promontory on the N. 
ooast of Hauretania, on the tongue of land where the town 
of Centa stands, opposite Calpe (Oibraltar). Abyla and 
Calpe were the Pillars of Heroulee. 

Abyssinia, ab-is-sin'e-a (Arabic, Habah, h&'bJSah'; 
Fr. A6y»tni<!, I'beee'aee'neff ; Ger. AbeninUn, i-bes-see'- 
ne-^n), a country of eastern Africa, bounded on the N. 
by Eritrea, on the E. by the Danakil oountry and Somali 
(a portion of which liee between it and the Gulf of Aden), 
on the SB. by Somali and the country of the Oallas, on the 
S. and W. by British East Africa, and on the NW. by 
eastern Sudan. Its limits on the SE. are not well defined, 
but it may be said to be mostly included between lat 6° and 
15° N., and between Ion. 35° and 43° E., and is about 600 
miles long and 500 miles wide. It was comprised in the 

Digitized by 


AbynJnia ( 

•ndent Sthiopia, and u now oalltd Itiopia by the Abygsini- 
uu themselTM. ThiB region, rising aomewhat ^ndaally 
and ID terrace form from tlie weat, but descending most 
abmptly on the east to waterless plains which lie between 
It and the Red Se^ is a high table-land, with a wall-Uke 
esoaipment on the E. (the so^jalled "border moontaini"), 
on which groape of monntains rise to great elevations, some 
of them attaining an altitude of over 1S,000 feet above the 
sea-leveU The hlgheet known peaks are those of the Samen 
or Semy en range, near the oonrse of the Takasia, Ras Da- 
shan and Abba-Yared being seemingly each over 15,000 feet 
high. There are a number of other summits of soaraely less 
elevation. The table-lands or plateaus are generally from 
6000 to 9000 feet high, the site of Adowa, formerly a a^>ttal 
of Tigrt, being 6400 feet above the sea. The mountains pre- 
sent ragged and fantastio forms, with sides freqoentW 
abrapt ami precipitous. The dominant physio^phio detail 
of the land is constituted by the vast basaltic outflows of 
the Tertiary period, which have built up plateau masses 
and given evidence of an intensity of volcanic action liardly 
eqouled on the surface of the globe. This eruptive energy 
has now entirely subsided, and its reminiscence is to be 
found solely in the few cones whioh border the Bed Sea and 
in thermal streams of the interior. The snriiace is diversi- 
fied by fertile valleys and remarkable ravines, which are at 
some places nearly 4000 feet deep. Amonjg the physical 
features is Lake Dembea or Tsana, which is near Qondar, 
and is about 60 miles long. The principal riveis-'^iamelT, 
the Bahr-el-Azrek or Blue Nile, the Atbara, and the Tak- 
asse^ with their affluents — are tributaries of the Nile. 
Abyssinia has no navigable streams. Several of its rivers 
are lost in the sands, and never reach the sea. The Hawash 
traverses the SE. part, and enters Lake Ansea. The floods 
that rush down the Kue Nile and the Atbara in the lainy 
season contribute bu'gely to the annual inundation of the 
Lower Nile in Egypt. 

The climate a Abyssinia is generally salubrious and 
agreeable. The rainy season begins about the middle of 
Jnne^ and ends near the 30th of September. The great 
elevation of the surface and the copious summer rains render 
the temperature of Abyssinia lower than that of Nubia and 
Egypt. Three elimatio tonea are frequently recognised : 
1, the Ewolla, the lowlands up to an elevation of about 
8000 feet, and supporting in part a luxuriant tropical vege- 
tation : 3, the Woina-Dega, from 6000 feet to about 8600 
feet, the centre of fhittful cultivation ; and 3, the Dega, 
the highlands above 8500 feet, whioh are in many puts 
grassy or barren, or even steppe-Uke in oliaraeter, with the 
temperature even in daytime frequently descending to the 
freeiing point. The highest monntain-peaiu are covered 
with perpetual snow, and some snow lingers even in the 
deep lower ravines. Among the wild aniuials are the ele- 
phant, rhinoceroe, hippopotamn^ lion, hyena, leopard, 
bulTalo, antelope, and monkey. The domestic animals are 
horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and mules. The cultivated 
cereals are maii& barley, wheat, millet, and teff {Poa 
Abfuinica), a herbaceous plant with grains not larger than 
the head of a pin. CoSee grows wild, and sugar-cane and 
cotton are cultivated in favorable loralities. The indige- 
nous and cultivated fruits are the date, orang^ peach, p<mie- 
granate, grape, banana, and lemon. Salt, which is obtained 
ui the form of rock-salt, is used to some extent as currency. 
Oold, silver, and antimony are also found. 

The Abyssinian realm comprises three main divisions, 
Amhara (with 6<^am) in the centre and west, Shoa in the 
south, and Tigr£ (with Lasta) in the north, besides KaSa 
and Enarea in the extreme S. and Harrar in the BE. In 
addition, Abyssinia claims a large territory to the NE. of 
British East Africa. The chief towns are Addis Abeba, 
in Shoa, Oondar, in Amhara, Adowa and Axnm, in Higti, 
and Ankober, in Shoa. The royal residence is Addis Alam. 
The people are mostly engaged in agriculture and pastoral 
pursuits and have made little progress in manufactures or 
civilisation. The population of Abyssinia is made up of 
Hamitio, Semitic, and Negro elements. The Abyseinians 
are mostly of medium stature and well formed, with regular 
featnree, dark hair, and brown or swarthy complexion. 
They are ignorant and superstitions, barbarous and warlike. 
The ordinary speech of the upper classes and the offlcial 
language is the AmhariOj a Semitic tongue, allied to the 
Gees, or Ethiopio, the ancient language of Abyssinia, which 
still survives in the church and among scholars. Akin to 
the Amhario is the Tigri, Amons the lower classes Agau 
( Agow), the Hamitic language of tne tribe of that name, is 
lanely spoken. The Oallas, a warlike tribe in the S., apeak 
a Hamitio tongue. The prevailing religion of the country 
is a oorrupt form of Christianity, which is professed by the 
reigning princes as well as by a majority of the people. 
The Christian religion was introduced here about a.d. 330, 
in the reign of Constantine. The Abyssinians are mono- 


physites, and reoognixe the Coptie patriarch of Alexandria 
as the head of theu' ohuroh. Tbeir immediate eedesiastioal 
ruler Iwais the title of "Abuna " (onr father), and is con- 
secrated at Alexandria. He resides in Qondar. The Abys- 
sinians praetise ciroumeiaion, and regard the Virgin as the 
queen of heaven and the great interoessor for the sins of 
mankind. Their literature is compoeed almost exclusively 
of legends of saints and controversial works of theolocy. 
One of the Abyssinian tribes, the Falashas, profess Juda- 
ism. A railroad, opened for traffic in December, 1002, oon- 
necta Addis-Harrar with the port of Jibuti. 

In the year 1855 an Amhario chief of superior talents 
obtained the throne of Abyssinia and took the title of 
Theodort III,, emperor (negus) of Itiopia. He gained 
several victories over the Gallas and other enemies, con- 
quered Shoa, and took Ankober, the capital, maintaining 
an army of 100,000 to 150,000 men. In 1864, for some fan- 
cied insult on the part of the British government, he im- 
Sriaoned the British consul and other British subjects. A 
Iritish army, commanded by Sir Robert Napier, Invaded 
Abyssinia in 1868. Theodore shut himself up in Hagdala, 
which the British took by storm in April, 1868, and there 
found the dead body of the emperor, who bad killed him- 
self. He was suooeeded by Prince Kaaaai, of Tigri, who 
was crowned as King Johannes, and after his <MaUi, ia 
1889, Henelek II., King of Shoa, became mier. In the 
same year Abyssinia became practically an Italian pro- 
tocton^ but the victory of Henelek at Adowa, in 169fl, 
put an end to the Italian pretensiona. Bstimated area, 

210,000 sq. m. Pop. 4,009,000. A4j. and inhab. Asrs- 

SMIAM, or, in their own language, Itiopyatar, or Ino- 


Acaboaae (S-kab'-v-nak) Harbor, a body of ahoal 
water, on the NE. shore of the town of Easthampton, 
Suffolk CO., N.T., near the extremity of Long Island, 

Acade'mia, a post-village of Juniata oo., Pa,, 8 milea 
8W. ofHifllintown. 

Acadi'emr> a pcst-hamM of Ontario oo., N.T,, 8 miles 
S. of Canandaigua. Pop. 100. 

Academy, a poet-village of Montgomery eo., Pa.j 6 
miles from Philaddphia and 1 mile W. of Cynwyd Station 
on the Pennsylvania R. Pop. about 350. 

Acsademy, a post-hamlet of Charles Mix oo., S.Dak. 
Pop. 50. 

Academy, a post-village of Poeahratas eo., W.Va,, 33 
miles NNE. of Ronoeverte. Pop. about 126. 

Academy Comers, a post-village of Tioga co., Pa., 
t miles from Elkland, on the Buffalo and Susquehanna S., 
its banking point. Pop. about 900. 

Academy I>aad, a portion of the northern part of 
Greenland, about lat. 81'' 30* and Ion. 30° W., disoovered 
by Peary in 1892. 

Aca'dia, or Acadie, the name of (hat part of New 
France which was oompriMd in the peninsula between the 
river and gulf of St. Idiwrence and the Atlantic Ocean, as 
far W. as the Penobscot. The English named the region 
Nova Seotia, a name subsequently restricted to a portion 
of it. See Nova Scotia. 

Acadia, a parish in the SW. part of Louisiana. Area, 
633 sq, m. It is mainly prairie, whioh is good riceJand, 
lieing irrigated with water from the many bayous by 
whien the parish is intersected. Agriculture is the chief 
industry ; noe, cotton, corn, sugar-cane, oats, and sorghum 
are staple crop. Capital, Crowley, at the junction of two 
railroads, which traverse the parish. Pop. in 1900, 23,483. 

Acadia Miaes, a post-village in Colchester oo.. Nova 
Scotia, on the Cobequid Mountains, 3 miles from London- 
derry. Here are iron- and steel-works.- Pop. abost 1800. 

AciUntla, l-k&-Hoot'l&, a seaport town of Salvador, 
Central America, on the Pacific, 50 miles W. by S. of San 
Salvador. It was once a large town, and its trade is yet 

Ac'amai Promonto'riam, ancient name of Caps 
Saiht Epiphakt. 

Acdmbaro, l-klm'bi-so, a town of Mexico, state , 
and 76 miles SSE. of Guanajuato. Pop. in 1900, 8345. 

Acampo, &-kam'po, a poet-village of Son Joaquin co., 
Cal., on the Southern Pacific B., 15 miles N. of Stockton, 
Pop. 200. 

Acanceh, li-kin'si, a town of Mexico, in Yucatan, 
15 miles ESE, of Mirida. Pop. 3000 ; of district, in 1895, 

Acapnlco, i-k&-poorko, a seaport of Mexico, on the 
Pacific, In the state of Guerrero. Lat. 16° 50' N. ; Ion. 
99° 48' W. It has a noble landlocked harbor, with a depth 
of waUr of 135-380 feet, and is about 200 miles SSW. of the 
city of Mexico, 1637 miles from San Francisco, and 1836 
miles from Puiama. It is the chief port of call for steamers 
plying between San Franoisoo and South American ports. 
The remarkable tunnel or cut known as the Abra de San 

Digitized by 



Niedu fcreas » p»M«g« throagh the roek-moanUiiu and 
admit! a oaoler air into the heated harbor. Aoapoloo thipa 
kides, cedar timber, and frait to San FranaiMO. Pay. in 

Aenrahr,i-kl-r&'ee,aportof thestatoof Bahia, Braiil, 
8, of Talenfa, haring the aafeet and deepest water after 

Acaniif Sierra, a mountain ranee of Soath America, 
fenniog the boundary between Britieh Qoiana and Braiil. 
The BMeqnibo rises on its northern slope. 

Acarigaa, &-kt-rea'a^wi, a town oS Veneiuela, in Za- 
guta, noted for its maaafaotore of straw hats. Pop. 3000. 

AcHiraa'aia, an aneient distriot of Oraeoe, barine N. 
the Ambraeian Golf (0alf of Arta), and W. the Ionian Sea. 
mth JBtolia it forms a name (nomarchy), the capital of 
which is lfiaaol<»igM. 

Acasto, a post-Tillage of Clark oo., Mo., on Fox Biver, 
sboDt 10 miles 8. of Keoeanqoa, Iowa. 

Acatenaago, i-ki-ti-n&nc'go, a town of Ouatemala, 
Central America, on the Onaouato River, SI miles 8W. of 
Guatemala, between the roloanoee A^oa and Faego. Pop. 
3000. — ^Acatenan^ Toloano, which rises to 11,810 feet, has 
no crater, bnt diseharges warm and slightly snlphorons 
rapor throagh a rent in the side. 

AcatlAn, &-kJUlin', a nllage and district (pop. 4&,S26) 
of Mexico, in the state of Pnebla. 

AcaracAa, i-kToo-k&n', AcayaoAm, or Saa Mar« 
tia die AeayaeAai, sin mar-teen' di &-kroo-kim', a 
town of Mexico, lU miles SB. of Vera Cnu. Pop. abont 

Aecadia, ik-ki-dee*!, a town of Italy, prorinoe of 
ATellino, i miles S. of Bovino. Pop. about 4600. 

Aecettnra, itoh-it-too'rl, a town and commane of 
Italy, 19 miles SB. (rf Potonia. Pop. abont 4700. 

Aecho, a town of Syria. See Acsa. 

Ac'cideat, a post-Tillage of Garrett oo., Md., abont 30 
miles W. of Comberland. Pop. abont 100. 

Aeco, a city of Syria. See Acnn. 

Ao*cokeek', a post-Tillage of Prince C^rge oo., Md. 

Ae'comac', a ooonty in the B. part of Virginia, has 
an area of 478 so. m. It is part of a peninsnla, and is 
boanded on the B. by the Atlantic Oeea n , and on the W. 
hj Chesapeake Bay. Capital, Aeoomac. Fop. in 1900, 

Aeeomae* or Dmamoadtowa, a buiking poet- 
riUage^ capital ct Aeoomac eo., Va., is abont 95 miles in 
a dinet line E. by I^. of Riohmimd and 3 miles from 
the ooemi. Pop. about 300. 

Ac*COrd', a post-village of Ulster oo., N.Y., 1< miles 
W8V. of Kinoton. Pop. &00. 

Ac^cotiak', a poet-TlUage of Fairlkx oo., Va., 16 miles 
SW. of Washington. 

Aceova, jlk'koo', a town of France, Basses- Pyr«n«es, IS 
miles S. <tf Oloron. It has a medicinal spring. Pop. 900. 

Accra« Accrah, or Acra, Uc'kr^ or I'VA, a town 
lad settlement of Africa, cwital of the British colony of 
Gold Coast, abont lat &° SC K., Ion. 0° IS' W. Pop. about 
10,000. There is a missionaiy indastrial school in adjoin- 
ing ChristtansboiK. 

Aeeia» a post-namlet of Cumberland co.. Pa. 

Ae'ciiagton, a town of England, in Lancashire, 19 
milee K. of Maaehestor. It has extensive ootton-faotoriea 
and print-works, besides ehenrical works, coal-mines, eto. 
Poo. in 1901, 43,122. 

Accnioli, Ik-koo'mo-lee, a town of Italy, 27 miles 
XNW. of Aquila. Pop. abont <00 foommnne, 2360). 

Ace, a atj of Syria. See Acbb. 

Ace'qaia, a hamlet of Douglas oo., Colo., on the Den- 
ver and Rio Qrande R., 17 miles S. of Denver. 

Acerensa, &-ohi-ren'si (anc Atkeron'tia), a city of 
Italy, on the Bradano, 10 miles NE. of Potenn. Pop. 4000. 

Acenio, i-oh^s'no, a town of Italy, 14 miles EKE. of 
Salerno, on the site of the aneient Pxcen'tia. Pop. 2600. 

Aeena, l-chte' b& ( anc. Aetr'ra), a town of Italy, prov- 
ince of Caserta, on the Agno, 7 miles NB. of Naples. It 
is a bishiHi's see. Here are sulphur and mineral springs. 
Pop. 13,«»!. 

Aclia, i'ehi, a town of the Argentine Republic, capital 
of the territorial dirision of La Pampa. Pop. 2000. It is 
also known as General Aoha. 

Achaeachi, i-ch&-kl'cbee, a town of Boliria, in the 
department of La Pai. 

Achagaaa, Jt-ch&'gwls, a town of Teneineia, 60 miles 
SW. tit San Fernando. 

Aehaia, «-ki'^f (Or. 'Axmia), the name of an ancient 
moaatainous distnet of Greeoe, in the Peloponnesus, ex- 
tending along the Corinthian Gulf. It forms a modern nome 
(aomarehy), the capital of which is Patras. 

Achalm, i'KftIm, a mountain of the Ranhe Alb, in 
Wiirttemberg, near Bentlingen, with the ruins of a Ckmoas 


castle. Here is a royal model farm, where are raised the 
finest merino sheep in Germany. 

Actolsich, or Aehalsig. See Acbaltsikh. 

Ackae, i-ehl'o, a so^ort of the island of Chiiocy Chile. 
Pop. 1455. 

Achate!, a river of Sicily. See Doullo. 

Acheaou, i'shi^dw', a mountain situated in the de- 
partment of Algiers, Algeria ; altitude, 6700 feet. On one 
of its peaks are the ruins of Taia, an Arab fortress where 
Abd-«1-Kader onoe resided. 

Acheea. See Achin. 

AchelonSa See Aspbo-Potaho. 

Acheasee, ik'tn-si\ a lake, considered to be the most 
beantifU of the lakes of N. Tyrol, 6 milee W. of Batten- 
berg. Length, 6} miles. Elevation, 3045 feet. It gives 
origin to the Aohen River, 

Achera, I'Kfm, a town of Baden, on a river of its own 
name, 30 milee SSW. of Karlsruhe. Pop. in 1900, 3963. 

AcheroB, an ancient river of Epiruy, in Thceprotia, the 
modem Hatbo-Potaiio. 

AjCherOB, a lake of Italy. See FtmABO. 

Acherontia, an aaoient name of Acbbbvza. 

AcUgaBt See Saiht Roch ox l'Achiqah. 

Ackill, ak'il, or Eagle lalaad, an island off the W. 
coast of Ireland, co. of Mayo, Its W. point forms AohiU 
Head, 2222 feet in elevation. Immediately S. is the island 
of Acbill Beg. 

AehiUea, a poet-village of Gloucester oo., Va. 

AcUbi, ulm, a village of Prussia, prorinoe of Han. 
over, 10 miles SW. of Verden. Pop. in 1900, 3081, 

AchlB,at.eheen' (properly AUek), a town of Sumatra, 
near its NW. extremity, capital of a Dutch province of the 
same name, on the river Achin, near the sea, and connected 
by railroad with the port at Oleic. Lat. 5° 34' N. ; Ion. 
96° 34' E. It is built on wooden piles, and is said to have 
12,000 inhabitants, exclusive of Europeans. The province 
of Aehin extends from the river Sinkel, Ion. 98° E,, to the 
W, end of the island, with a coast-line as extensive as that 
of Franoe, Achin has waged bloody wars with the Nether- 
lands (which power claims sovereignty over all Sumatra), 
and in 1904 its subjugation was not yet fully completed. 
Area, 20,600 sq. m. Pop. in 1900, about 110,000 (by some 

thought to be very much larger), Ad), and inhab. 

AcaiHSSB, atohMn-ees', 

Ackla Head, the NW, point of Sumatra. 

Achla«k« See ATCBngE, 

Ackiras, i-ehee'ris, a town of the Argentine Repablio, 
prorinoe of CiSrdoba, 800 miles NW, of Buenos Aires. 
Near it are silver- and copper-mines. 

AchiaiBi, a town of Egypt. See Acaani. 

Acko, a citv of Syria. See Acbe. 

AckoBiT, ik'5n-re, a village and parish of Ireland, in 
the county of Sligo, 16 miles SSW. of Sligo. It is the seat 
of a Catholic bishop; but the see-house is at Ballagha- 

AehOT, i'kSr, a post-hamlet of Columbiana oo,, Ohio, 
abont 12 miles B. of New Lisbon. 

Ackoid, a post-Tillage of Dodge oo., Ga., on the Sonth- 
ini R. Pop. about 200. The ba&ing point is MoRae. 

Ackray (ac-rf). Lake, a small lake in Perthshire, 
Scotland, not far ftom Lake Katrine, with which it com- 
mnnicates. This is the lake cited by Scott in bis Ladp of 
tke lake. Depth, 97 feet. 

A^ris (ak'risj Head, a headland on the W. ooast of 
IreUnd. Lat 53"^ 33' N. ; Ion. 10° 10* W. 

Aokterwaaaer, ax'tfr-Ais's^r, a bay on the S. side of 
Usedom Island, Pomerania, Prussia. It nearly divides the 
island into two portions. 

Acktkarapelea, ixt-kaB'spJUlfn ("eight chapels"), 
a commune of the Netherlands, in Friesland. 

Acktar Knll, ix'tur kiiU, an old name of Staten Island 

Acktyrka, a town of Russia. See Aehtibka. 

Acidalia, a poet-hamlet of Sullivan CO., N.Y. 

Acireale, ft'chee-ii-4'li, a town and seaport of Sicily, 
well built On a height at the mouth of the Aci, near the 
foot of Mount Etna, 7 miles NE. of Catania. It is built 
meetly of lava and has many fine edifices. It is celebrated 
for its mineral waters and for the cave of Polyphemus and 
grotto of Galatea in its Tioinity. It has manufactures of 
silks, linens, cottons, cutlery, eto. Pop. in 1901, 26,900 ; of 
the commune, 36,418. 

Aci Saat* Aatoaio, i'ohee s&nt in-to'ne-o, a town of 
Sicily, 7 miles W, of Acireale Pop, 3500 ( commune, 6000 ) . 

Ack'er, a poet-hamlet of Perry eo.. Pa., 6 miles NE. of 

Ackerberg, ik'kf r-bJBe^, mountains in Hanover, Prus- 
sia, constituting a portion of the Hart Mount tins. They 
form a level plateau trending NE. to SW., and have sev- 
tuti sonunits nearly 3000 feet high : the Wolfswarte is 297b 

Digitized by 





f««t ; tb* pMk Atkmhtirg b aomewtut lower. The itrMau 
•r* tribntory to the Weaer. 

Ack'evmMl, » bankinc poft-rilUge of Choetsw eo., 
Min., on the UlUiote Coitna R., »» mUee 8W. of Aberdeen. 
Pop. 7M. 

Ack'eraiaii^Tillet » poet-TtllMe of Nortbaapton eo.. 
Pa., on the Bangor and Portland B., 13 milee N. of Kaiareth. 
It hai elate aaa other mannfaotoriee. Pop. about 109. 

A«k'«nriUe, a poet-Tillage of WUeoz eo., Ala. 

Ackerrillef a poet-rillage of Waehington eo^ WU., on 
the Hilwankee and St Paul R., 30 mUee NW. of Mil- 

Aok1eT« a poet-hamlet of Chootaw oo., Ala. 

Ackley, a banking poet-town of Hardin oo., Iowa, on 
the Iowa Central and the Illinoia Central Bo., 13S miles W. 
of Dnbnqne. Pop. in 1900, 1446. 

AckleT) a poet-rillage ot Warren oo.. Pa., on the Dun- 
kirk, Alleeriieny Valley and Pittaborg B., 44 milee B. <^ 
Dunkirk, H.T. LnmMr, wood, bark, etc, ara eztenelTely 
■hipped here. 

AckOin Islaad, in the Bahamae, le the largeet of the 
Crooked Idand group. It i* 46 milee long, iMm 1 to 5 
milee broad, and la aklrted by dangerous rem. 

Aek'wortht a post-town of ^^mren oo., Iowa, t miles 
E. of Indianola. It has the Aokworth Aoademy, which la 
onder the direetion of the Friends. Pop. in 1900, 134. 

Acme, ak'me, a poet-hamlet of Orand Traverse oo., 
Mich., on the east arm of Grand Trararse Bay, 7 miles NB. 
of Trarerse City. Pop. about 75. 

Acme* a poet-rillage of Lane eo., Oregon, about 79 miles 
8W. of Salem. Pop. about 100. 

Acme, a post-Tillage of Hardeman eo., Tez. Pop. 
about 76. 

Acne; a post-Tillage of Kanawha oo., W.Va., on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio R., 31 miles S8B. of Charleston. It 
has eoal-minea. Pop. about 806. 

Aoema, 1-ko'mi, or Acnma, i-koo'ml, a pueblo, or 
Indian Tillage, of Valoioia oo., N.Mex., 66 miles W. by S. 
of Albuquerque, on a aaodstone roek, or mesa, 369 feet 
Ugh, which le ascended by a winding stairway. It has a 
laKe Cathoile chisel. 

Ac'omllt a parish of Yorkshire, England, on the Ouse 
and on the Grand Northern R., 3 milee W. of Tork. In 
the vicinity is Sererus's Hill, where the body of the 
Bmperor SeTcrus is reputed to hare been cremated. 

Acona> a poet- village of Holmes co., Miss. Pop. about 

Aeoneagaa, L-kon-kft'gwi, ao extinct oraterless vd- 
eano of the Aranmtine Republlo (partly in Chile), South 
America, the loiUeet summit of the Andes, and the oolml- 
natlnc point of the Weetem Hemiaphere, in lat. 83° 38' S., 
Ion. 70* W. Elevation, aeoording to FitsGerald (1607), 
33,080 feet. It was ftrst ascended, in 1897, by Zurbriggeo, 
and subsequently by Vines and Conway. 

Aconcagna, a river riaing on the S. aide of the above, 
flowa SW., and entera the Paelflc 13 milee N. of Valparaiso. 

AconcainiA> a highly mountainous province of Chile, 
extends firom the ocean to the E. frontier, and is bounded N. 
by Coqnimbo and B. by Valparaiso and Santiago. Area, 
about COOO sq. m. Pop. In 1896, 113,106. Capital, San 

AconcaKna, a town of Chile. See Sas Fulipb. 

Aconqnya, i-kon-kee'Ht, a mountain of the Argentine 
Bepublie, 13 mUes W. of Tncumin. Height, 17,740 feet. 
The name is also given to the whole range between the 
provinoes of Tnonmdn and Catamarea. It Is rich in metala. 

A^ies, islands of the Atlantic Ooean. See Azoaia. 

AcOTapa, i-ko-y&'pi, a town of Nicaragua, department 
of Chontales, on the railroad from Bama to Lake Nica- 


.cqa, towns of France. See Ax and Dax. 

Ac^qaack'anoBckS a township of Passaic eo., N.J. 
Pop. in 1900, 6361. 

Aoqoaformoiat tk'kwl-foB-mo'sa, a Tillage of Italy, 
in Cosenta, 11 miles SW. of OastroTillari. Pop. 1700. 

AcqnalagBa, lk'kw&-Un'y&, a Tillage of Italy, on a 
hill, 8 miles B. of Urbino. Pop. 600 (commune, 3800). 

Acqaaaegra, &k'kwlL-n&'sT&, a Tillage of Italy, in the 
proTince of Cremona, 10 miles W. of Mantua. Pop. 3500. 

Acqaapea4eBte, ik'kwi-pin-din'ti (ana. Aucula, or 
Aeula t), a town of Italy, 13 miles NW. of Orrieto. Pop. 
3500. It is a bishop's ace. 

Acqnappesa, U'kw&p-p&'ii, a maritime Tillage of 
Italy, inCoeensiL llmileaNNW. of Paola. Pop. 1300. 

Acqnarica del Capo, Jlk'kwl-ree'ki dil k&'po, a vil- 
lage of Italy, 31 miles S£. of Oallipoli. Pop. 1500. 

Acqnaro, ik-kw&'ro, a village of Italy, province of 
Catamaro, 12 miles SE. of Monteleone. Pop. 1400. 

Acqna Santa, a town of Sardinia. See AsiASAirrA. 

Acqna Sparta, U'kwi spas'ti, a town of Italy, on a 

height, 10 miles SW. of SpoMo. Pop. aboat 1009 (• 
mnne, S600). 

A«qaaviT« Colleeroee, Ik'kwl-vee'Ti kol-Ii-kro'- 
obi, a town of Italy, 32 miles NNB. of Campobano. Pop. 

AcqaaviTa delle Foati, U'kw&.vee'Ti dU'll An'- 
tee, a town of Italy, proTlnoe of Barl, It miles 8SW. of 
Ban. Pop. in 1901, 10,994. 

Aeqaaviva Plataai, U'kwi-ree'Ti pUUa'nee, a vil- 
lage of SIcUt, 26 mUes WNW. of Caltaoissetta. Pop. 3000. 

Aoqoi, tk'kwee (anc Ji'fiut, at A'qua StatUl'ke), a 
town of Italy, province of Alaasandrla, on the left bank of 
the Bormid^ 18 miles S8W. of .Ahssaadria, Is a bishop's 
see. Pop. In 1901, 9309 ; of the oommnne^ 13,780. It Is 
of great antiquity, and has the remains ot a Roman aqua- 
duct. It is much frequented-for its sulphur baths in eases 
of eataaeous eruptions, rheumatism, and gout. Its sprina 
were famous in remote antiquity, a foot duly reeorued vj 
its aaelant as wall as by its modem name. Pliny gives 
it a special mention (xxi. 3) along with PuteoU and Aqos 
Sextiae (Alx). 

Aera, aw'krf, a poet-TiDage of Greene «o., N.T., about 
40 mUes SSW. of Albaav, is at the base of the CatskiU 
Mountains, and 10 miles nom Oatskill. 

Acra, a town of Africa. See Aocba. 

Acre, i-kri, a disputed (1904) territoiy hriag on the 
b«ders (of the extreme N.) of Bolivia and Bianl, along 
the Acre or Aquiry EiT«r. It la an important mbbar 
region, and has as its chief settlement the riw-portof 
Acre or Porto Alonso. 

Acre, &'k«r or i'ker, Akka. U'ki, or Saint Jean 
d'Acre, sftm shAll* dik'r (anc Aet, Aeea, or Ae'eo, Aeeho 
(scriptural) ; later Ptokma^it), a city and seaport of Syria, 
on a promontory at the 'foot of Mount CarmeL Lat. 83° 
66' N. ; Ion. 36° 6' E. Pop. 10,400. Acre was an important 
place In remote antiquity, and is Camous for the sieges which 
it has sustained. It was taken by the Cmsadeis In 1104, 
retaken by the Saraoeos In 1187, and reoovered by Biehard 
Cceur de Lion In 1191 and given to the Knights of St. 
John ( In Frendt, St. J«a») of Jerusalon, whenoe It received 
the name of St. Jean d' Acre. In 1391 it agidn fUl into the 
hands of the Ssraeens. Bmaparte attamjrted to take this 
place in 1799, but retreated after a siege of <1 days. It was 
taken by Ibrahim Pasha in 1833, and bombarded by the com- 
bined ttigUsh and Austrian squadroni in 1840. The Bay 
of Acre U much frequented by Freooh, Italian, and Ana- 
triaa veesela. 

Aeree, a poet-town of Dougherty eo., Ga. The banking 
point Is Albany. Pop. In 1900, 169. 

Aeri, i'kree, a town of Italy, province and 16 miles 
NE. of Oosensa. Pop. about 4000 (commune, 11,000). 

Acritas, a headland of Greece. See Caps Gallo. 

Ac'roceraa'nian (or Ceraa'nian) Moantalns 
(Albanian, Tthika)tre in Albania, on the Adriatic coast. 
Let. 40° 16' N. Highest peaks, Tohika, tSOO feet, and 
Tohikara, 6600 feet. See Capi LmemtTTA. 

Ac'ro-Corin'thns, or Ae'ro«Cor'inth, a predp. 
itous and somewhat conical rook near the d^ of Corinth, 
in Greeee, on which stood the ancient aaopoUs, or dtadel 
of the place, and a temple of Venus. It Is about 3000 feet 
alwve the level of the sea, and la the dte of a modem forti- 
fication, which la conddered one of the atrongast In Greece. 

Acron, a vlBaga of Alabama. See Akron. 

Acs, itoh, a town of Hungary, 6 miles SW. of Komom. 
Pop. 4600, employed in rearing sheep. 

ActinoUte, a poet-village of Hastings co., Ontario, 

Actinm, ak'ahe-nm, or ak'te-um, a promontory and 
town of aadent Greece, ritnated near the entrance of the 
Gulf of Ambrada (Arta), on the N. coast of Aoaraania. 
Celebrated for the victory won by Octavius Cassar (Augus- 
tus) over the combined fleets of Antony and Cleopatra in 
31 1.0. 

ActiTe, a post-village of Bibb eo., Ala. Pop. about 100. 

Activity, a poet-hamlet of Monroe oo., Ala. 

Ac'ton, a suburb of London, co. of Middlesex, 8 milea 
W. of St. Paul's. Pop. In 1801, 37,744* 

Ac'ton, a poet-village in Loe Angeles oo., Cal., on the 
Southern Padflc B., 65 milee N. of Los Angeles. Pop. 150. 

Acton, a post-village of Marion oo., Ind., on the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis R., 13 miles SE. of 
Indianapolis. Pop. about 360. 

Acton, a post-village of Tork oo.. Me., in Acton town- 
ship (town), about 40 miles W. by S. of Portland. Pop. of 
the town in 1900, 778. 

Acton, a banking poet-village of Middlesex Co., Mass., 
in Acton township (town), near Acton Station on the New 
Tork, New Haven and Hartford and the Boston and Maine 
Ra., 13 miles S. by W. of Lowell. It has various manu- 
factures. Pop. of the town in 1900, 3130. 

Digitized by 


Aoion O 

Adam Bay 

Actea* a past-bamlat «t ll«ek«r oo., Miim., aboot 10 
■ W8W. of Litchfield. 

Aet«a» • sUtkn in Salem eo., TSJ., on th* Weat Jersey 
tad Seaahore B., 3 miles B. of Salam. 

ActOB, a post-TiUase of Biehland eo., 8.C., 33 miles by 
laU B. by S. of Qrfombia. 

Aetom, a poet-rillace at Hood oo., Tez., near the Braioe 
Birer, 3i milw 8W. of Fort Worth. 

Aetom« or Aetoa West* a banking post-rillase of 
Halton eo., Ontario, Canada, on the Grand Tnmk K., 36 
mile* W. of Tmonto. It has Tarioos inannfaetnres. Fop. 
in I90I, 14M. 

Ac'tom-Bar'mellf a village of England, in Shrop- 
shire^ Ti miles S. of Shrewsbory . Here are the remains of 
tn aseient eaatle, whet* Bdfrara I., in 1283, held a parlia- 

ActOB Homes, a hamlet of Sonth Africa, In Natal, 2S 
miles from Ladysmith, with whieh it is oonneoted by 
eoaeh. It aequired some importance in the Boer war of 

ActOB Tale, or Saint Aadrt d'Aeton, sixt Aii>^- 
dri' dik-tda^, a poet-rillace in Bagot oo., Qaebeo, Canada, 
en the Sraad Xnuk and the Cane<uan Paaiflo Be., 56 miles 
B, at Montreal. Copper-mines are worked in the vicinity. 
It has a tannery, brick-yards, sash- and door-miUs, etc. 
Pop. in IMl, 1176. 

Actdpaa, ik-to'pin, a town and district of Mexico, 
in the state of Hidalgo, the former 70 miles NNB. of the 
ei^ of Mazieo, The pop. of the district consists chiefly of 
Oliionues Indians, of whom there are between SOOO and 
3000 fitmilies. Pop. of the town in 1900, 2060. 

Aetas, a post-hamlet of Sebastian co.. Ark. Pop. 
■boat 60. 
AeaC, a post-hamlet of Union eo., Tenn. 
Aealco, l-kool'ko, a lake in Chile^ 38 miles SSW. of 
Santiaco ; it is about 9 miles in length and 3 in breadth. 

Aeumiaso, l-kool-seen'go^ or Acalesiaso, t-koo^- 
li-aeen'go^ a large Indian TiUage of Mexieoy state of Vera 
Cnu, S. (^ Oriiaba, near the railroad ftom Vera Cms to 

Aoaahaet, t-kSJish'nit, a post-village of Bristol eo., 
MssB., in Aendinet township (town), near an inlet of the 
sea, 4 milee N. of New Bedford. The town has a population 
(1900) of 1221. 

Aeato, tkoo'to, a village of Italy, 36 miles B. by S. 
«f Borne, and at the foot of Monte Aouto. Pop. 2000. 

Ac'wOTth, a hanking post-village of Cobb CO., Qa., on 
tke Western and AtlanUe B., 36 miles NW. of Atlanta, 
ntere are gold- and silver-mines in the vicinity, and also 
aineial spHngk Cotton is shipped here. Pop. in 1900, 
Aeworth, Warren oo., Iowa. See Aocwobtr. 
Acwortt, a poet-hamlot of Sullivan oo^ K-H-> in Ao- 
werth township (town), about 46 miles W. of ConoonL 
The town has wood-taming and other manofaotures. Here 
tre fonnd huge specimens of beryl. Pop. of the town in 

Acwertli, Cape, In the W. part of Prince of Wales 

Uod, H. of Osborne Bay. Lat. 72<'^35' N. ; Ion. 103° 45' W. 

Aaa, 6d'6h\ a town of Hangary, co. of B&cs-Bodrog, 

M miles 8. of Siegedin, on the Theias. Pop., with sor- 

roondings, about 12,000. 

Ate, &'d& a county in the SW. part of Idaho, borders 
en Oregon. It is bounded on the SW. and W. by the Lewis 
(or Suke) River and drained by the Boig£ and Payette 
rivers. Oold is found in the county. Capital, Bais6. 
Area, 1777 sq. m. Pop. in 1890, 83«8 ; in 1900, 11,659. 

Aaa, a poet-hamlet of Montgomery oo., Ala., 28 miles 
S. of HiiMitgomery. 
Ada, a poet-hamlet of Dooly oo., Oa. Pop. about 60. 
A4a, a banking poet-village of the Chickasaw Nation, 
LT., 36 miles NE. of Wynnewood. It has cotton-seed oil 
Bills. Pop. about 2000. 

Ada, a post-village of Ottawa 00., Kan., 12 miles by 
nil W. of Minneapolis. P(q>. about 160. 

Ada, a poat-village of Kent co., Mich., on the Qrand 
Kivsr, at the mouth of the Thomapple Biver, and on the 
Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee B., 10 miles £. by 
S. of Grand Rapids. Pop. about 360. 

Ada, a banking poet-villace, capital of Norman co., 
Minn., on the Great Northern K., 30 miles N. of Glyndon. 
Pop. in 1900, 1263. 

Ada, a hamlet in the township of Albany, Bay co., Mo., 
atir the village of Oiriok. 

Ada, a banking poet-village of Hardin oo., Ohio, on the 
Rttibarg, Fort Wavne and CUeago B^ 16 miles £. of Lima. 
It k the seat of the Ohio Normal University. Ada has 
eaoniiw- and paekteg-indoatriee and manufactures of staves, 
tilsi,ete. i>iq>. ia 1900, SM«. 
iM, a post-villige of Mercer oo., W.Va. Pop. about 76. 

Ada, a post-hamlet of Shdwygan co., Wis., 7 ndlea 
from Kiel. 

Ada, Africa. See Adda. 

Ada- Bazar, l^dl-bl-ilr', a town of Asia Minor, on 
the Sakaria, near Lake Sabaiya, 23 milee E. of Ismid. 
There is a bridge here, about 800 feet long, oonstmoted by 
the Emperor Justinian. The shores of Lake Sabaqja are 
extremely productive. Pop. eetimated at about 26,000 (by 
som& considerably lower). 

Aaabelle, a poet-village of Bulloch co., Ga. Pop. 
about 90. 

Adafadia, i-dt-foo'de-i, a town in the Fulah country, 
west Africa, NE. of Abomey, in about lat. 10° N. It has 
a lan'e trade in native produce. 

Adai Khokh, i-da'ee kOk', an important mountidn- 
grouj) of the Caucasus, named from its highest peak. It 
consists of about a dosen distinct peaks ranging from 
14,000 to 16,274 feet in altitude. Lat. of Adai Khokh, 42° 
47' N. 5 Ion. 43° 48' B. 

AVIair', a oonnty in the SW. oeotral part of Iowa, has 
an area of 676 sq. m. It is drained by Middle River, an af- 
fluent of the Des Moines, and by the head-stream of the 
Nodaway. Capital, Greenfield. Pop. in 1890, 14,634 ; in 
1900, 10,192. 

Adair, a county in the S. part lA Kentucky, has an area 
of 3S2 sq. m. It is intersected by Green Biver, and also 
drained by Little Barren Biver. Capital, C<dambia. Pop. 
in 1890, 13,721 ; in 1900, 14,888. 

Adair, a county in the NNE. part of Miasoori, has an 
area of 601 sq. m. It is intersected by the Chariton Biver, 
which runs sonthwHd, and by the North Fork of Salt 
Biver. Coal and limestone are found here. Capital, Kirks- 
ville. Pop. in 1890, 17,417; In 1900, 21,728. 

Adair, a village of Laa Animas oo., Colo., on the Denver 
and Southern B., 33 miles SE. of Trinidad. 

Adair, a banking poat-village of MoDonough co., 111., 
10 milea S. of BuahneU. Pop. about 160. 

Adair, a banking post-vUlage of the Cherokee Nation, 
LT., 16 milee by rail SSW. of Vinita. Pop. 270. 

Adair, a post-town of Adair co., Iowa, on the Chicago^ 
Rock Island and Pacific B., 00 miles W. of Des Moines, 
It has banks, a grain devator. etc Pop. in 1900, 879. 

Adair, a 'poet-village of St. Clair co., Mich., 10 miles 
W. of St. Clair. Pop. 75. 

AMairs'ville, a banking post-town of Bartow eo., Qa., 
on the Weetem and Atlantic R., 31 miles 8. of Dalten. It 
has grist- and feed-mills. Beauxite is mined in the neigh- 
borhood. It is the seatofCherokeeCollege (Baptist). Popk 
in 1900, 010. 

A^dair'ville, a banking post-town of Logan co., Ky., 
n the LonisviUe and Nashville R. , 30 miles S W. of 

It haa important tobacco industries. 

Pop. in 1900, 




Adaja, i-o&'ai, a river of Spain, in Old Castile, rising 
near Piedrahita, in the Sierra de Avila, falls into the Douro, 
after a course of between 80 and 90 miles. 

Ada Kaleh, I'di k&'lfh, formerly known as Nen- 
Orsora, an island of Austria^Hnngary, in the Danube, 
between Hungary and Servia, 1^ milee helow Orsova. It 
is inhabited by Turks, who cultivate the vine, tobacco, and 

Adakh, SM&k', one of the Andreanov Islands, Alaska. 
It has an active volcano and many hot springs. 

Adai, &-d&I', Adaiel, or Adajel, £-d!-el', a region of 
eastern Africa, around the Bay of T%jura and Gulf of Aden. 
See Apak. 

Ada (I'd^) Iiake, in Cass oo., Minn., is traversed by 
the Pine Birer, an indirect affluent of the Mississippi. 

Adalia, i^&'leo'&, Alalia, Satalieh, sl-t&'lee^yfb, 
or Attaliyeh, a seaport of Asia Minor, in the vilayet of 
Konieh, on the Gulf of Adalia. Lat 30° 62' 2" N. ; Ion. 
30° 46' E. It is pleasantly situated on the slope of a hill, 
the houses being built circularly around the harbor, so that 
the streets appear to rise behind each other in the manner 
of an amphitheatre. It has a Greek archbishop. The pop. 
(about three-fourths Mohammedans and one-fourth Greeks) 
is estimated at between 26,000 and 30,000. 

Ad'aliae, a post-hamlet of Marshall co., W.Va., 7 miles 
from Bellton Station. 

Adallnai, an ancient town of Spain. See Eld A. 

Adamawa, l-d&-maw'i, or Fnmbi'na, a native 
kingdom of Africa, in northern Nigeria and German 
Kamerun, between lat. 6° and 11° N., is traversed by the 
Benuwe and its tributaries and by the Alantika Mountains. 
It affords fine pasturage, is popnloos, and has a large trade 
in slaves and ivory. The climate is unhealthy. Capital, 
Tola. It was formerly subject to the power of Sokoto, but 
parts of it have obtained independence. 

Adam Bay, on the NW. ooast of Australia, stretchee 
6 miles inland. It is 10 miles in breadth at the entrance. 

Digitized by 





AdamellOt > gronp of the aoatlieni lone of the Middle 
Alpe, in Italy, w^oioing the Val Ctnnoniom, and near the 
Ortler. It* nighest aommit is the AdameUo Monntain, 

AdamSf ad'fmi, a eonnty in the extreme W. part of 
Illin<na, Ixwdering on Bliaaonri, haa an area of 838 aq. m. 
It ia bounded on the W. by the Hiasiaaippi River, and ia 
partly drained by Rear and HoKee'a Creeka. Limeatone of 
good quality eziata, and there are alao workable beda of 
ooal in the E. and in the W. Capital, Qoiney. Pop. in 
1890, 61,888; in IMO, «7,058. 

AdamS) a eonnty in the E, part of Indiana, bordering 
on Ohio, has an area of 335 aq. m. It ia interseoted by Uie 
Wabaah and St. Mary'a Rivera. Capital, Decatur. Pop. 
in 18M, 20,181 ; in IMO, 32,332. 

Adams, a oonnty in the SW. part of low^ haa an area 
of 433 aq. m. It u inteneoted by the Nodaway River, 
and partly drained by the Platte River. Coal ia found hef«. 
Capital, Coming. Pop. in 18M, 12,292 ; in 1900, 13,601. 

Adams, a oonnty in the SW. part of Hiaaiaaippi, 
bordering on Louisiana, haa an area of 428 aq. m. It ia 
bounded on the W. by the Hiaaiaaippi River, and on the 
S. by the Homoohitto River. OanitaL Natebei. Pop. in 
1890, 26,031 ; in 1900, 30,111. 

Adams, a county in the 8. part of Nebraaka, haa an 
area of 674 aq. m. The Platte River tonohea the NW. part 
of it. Capital, Hastinga. Pop. in 1890, 24,303; in 1900, 

Adams, a oonnty in the 8. part of Ohio, bordering on 
Kentucky, haa an area of 524 aq; m. It ia bounded on 
the S. by the Ohio River, and interaeeted by Bmab Creek. 
Capital, West Union. Pop. in 1890, 26,093; in 1900, 

Adams, a oonnty in the S. part of Pennaylvania, bor- 
dering on Maryland, haa an area of 537 aq. m. It ia drained 
by the Conewago, Bermndian, Latimore, Marah, and Rook 
CntikB, the laat two of which are head-atreama of the Mo- 
nocaey River. The South Monntain eztoida along ita NW. 
border. Among ita mineral reeonroea are good limeatone 
and iron- and oopper-oree. Capital, Oettyaburg. Pop. in 
1890, 33,486; in 1900, 34,496. 

Adams, a eonnty in the E. part of Waahington, ia 
drained by the head-waters of the Snake River, an affluent 
of the Columbia, and ia traversed by the Northern Pa<dflc 
R. Wheat, oats, Iiarley, hay, flax, horaea, cattle, and sheep 
are staple products. Area, 1696 aq. m. Capital, Ritxville. 
Pod. in 1890, 3098; in 1900, 4840. 

Adams, a county near the central part of Wisoonain, 
liaa an area of 682 sq. m. It ia bounded on the W. by the 
Wisoonsin River, and drained l>y Croaa Creek. C^>ital, 
Friendship. Pop. in 1890, 6889: in 1900, 9141. 

Adams, a posi-hamlet of Fairfield co., Conn. Pop. 
about 75. 

Adams, a post-hamlet in Lee co., Ga., on the railroad 
from Smithville to Albany, 17 miles S. of Albany. 

Adams, a post-village of Adams co., HI., 13 miles E8E. 
of Qninoy, its banking point. 

Adams, a post-vFlUge of Decatur co., Ind., on the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Lonia R., 41 miles 
SE. of Indianapolia. Pop. lOiont 400. 

Adams, a post-station of Muscatine co., Iowa. 

Adams, a banking post-village and township (town) 
of Berkshire co., Mass., on the Boston and Albany R., 6 
miles 8. of North Adams. It haa machine-shops and manu- 
hrOtnres of cotton, wool, iron, paper, etc. Qreyloek, or 
Saddle Monntain (3535 feet), the highest point of the 
atata, ia in the town. Pop. of the town In 1900, 11,134^ It 
inclndea the villagea of Renfrew, Maplegrove, and Zylonite. 

Adams, a bulking post-village of Mower co., Minn., 
on the ChicM^, Milwaukee and St. Paul R., 15 milea SB. 
of Ansbn. K>p. in 1900, 573. 

Adams, Hinds oo.. Miss. See Adaxb StAnoir. 

Adams, a station in Cheyenne co., Neb., on the Union 
Paeific R., 457 miles W. of Omaha. 

Adams, a banking post- village of Oage eo., Ndli^ on the 
Nemaha Kver, near ita aonroe, 29 milea by rail eSE. of 
liinooln. Pop. in 1900, 417. 

Adams, a banking post-village of Jefferson oo., N.T., 
in Adams township (town), and on the New Tork Central 
and Hudson lUver R., 12 miles S6W. of Watertown. It 
oontaina the Hungerford Collegiate Institute, and is the 
trade-centre <^ an agricultural district. It has manu&o- 
tures of wagons, canned goods, flour, ete. Pop. in 1900, 
1393 : of the town, 3081. 

Adams, a poet-town of Umatilla co., Oregon, 34 miles 
by ndl SW. of Walla Walla. Pop. in 1900, 363. 

Adams, a post-hamlet of Armstrong co.. Pa., about 13 
milee NW. of Kittanning. 

AdauiS, a township of Butler eo., Pa. Pop. in 1900, 

Adams, a township <tf Cambria oo.. Pa. Pop. in 1900, 

Adams, a post-village of Robertson co., Tenn., on the 
Louisville and NaahviUe R., 10 miles NW. of Springfield. 
Pop. abont 350. 

Adams, a poet-village of Orand lale co., Vt., 15 miles 
SW. of St. Albana. Pop. about 100. 

Adams Basia, a post-village of Monroe oo., N.T., on 
the Brie Canal and on the New York Central and Hndaon 
River R., 13 miles W. of Rochester. Pop. about 300. 

Ad'amsboro, a post-villace ot Caaa co., Ind., on the 
Eel River division of the Wabaah R., 6 miles SNE. of 
Loganaport. Pop. 175. 

Adam's Bndge, a chain of shoals, 62 milea long, 
extending aaross the Onlf of Manaar, between Ceylon and 
the peninsula of Hindustan. See Oulf of Mahaab. 

Adamsbars, a post-borough of Westmoreland oo., Pa., 
abont 34 milea BE. of Pittaburg. Pop. in 1900, 184. 

Adamsbarg, a poat-vill4;e of Union eo., S.C. Pop. 
about 70. 

Adams Center, a poet-village of Jefferson co., N.T., 
in Adama township (town), on the New Tork Central 
and Hndaon River R., 9 miles SSW. of Watertown. It has 
various manufiuitnrea. Pop. about 600. 

Adams Center, a post^tation of Adama oo., Wia., 
abont 33 miles NNW. of Portage City. 

Adamsdale, a post-village of Sehnylkill co., Pa., on 
the Pennsylvania R. It haa mannfaotnrfs of shoes and 
wagons. Pop. about 250. 

AdamsfroTe, a post-hamlet of Southampton oo., Va. 

Adams Island, Marquesas Group. See Roapo*. 

Adams HUls, a poet-village of Muakingnm eo., Ohio, 
on the Muakingnm River and on the Pittaburg, Cineinnati, 
Chicago and St. Lonia R., abont 16 miles N. (« Zanesville. 

AAms, Mount, the second highest summit of the 
Preeidential Range of the Wliite Mountaina, in Cooa oo., 
N.H., abont 4 milea N. by W. of Mount Washington. lU 
altitude ia 5805 feet above the level of the aea. 

Adams, Mount, a peak of the Cascade Range, in 
Takima oo., Waah.^2,470 feet high. 

Ad'amson's JSarbor, or Port Es'perance, a 
small arm of the sea, on the S. coast of Taamania. 

Ad'amsouTille, a hamlet of Jasper «o., Iowa, 8 milee 
SE. of Newton. 

Adam's Peak, a monntain in the oentre of Ceylon. 
Lat. 6° 53' N.; Ion. 80° 32' E. BelgfaL 7420 feet. The 
mountain, which is a noted place of pil^mage for Buddh- 
ists and Moslems, was at one time thonght to be the lofti- 
est summit of Ceylon. 

Adams Point or Cape, in Oregon, on the 8. side of 
the mouth of the Columbia River. Lat. 46° 12' N. ; Ion. 
123° 56' W. It has a light-house. 

Adamsmn, a post-village of Colleton oo., S.C., on the 
Atlantic Coast Une, 23 milea W. of Charleaton. Pop. about 

Adams Station, a post-village of Hinds co., Miss., 
on the Taioo and Mississippi Valley R., 28 miles SW. of 
Jaekson. Pop. about 75. 

Adamstbal, &'dims-UU\ a town of Austria, in Moravia, 
9 miles N. of BrUnn. It is much visited on aooount of its 
caves, where nnmerons prehistoric remains have been 
fonnd. Pop. 700. 

Adamstoa, a post-village of Ooean oo., N.J. 

Ad'amstown, a post-vnlage of Frederick oo., Md., on 
the Baltimore and Ohio R., 64 miles W. of Baltimore. 
Pop. 250. 

Adamstown, a post-borough of Lanoaster oo., Pa., 11 
miles SW. of Reading. Pop. in 1900, 597. 

Adamstown, a town of New South Wales, Australia, 
4 miles from Newoaatle. Pop. about 2000. 

Adamsville, a post-village of Jefferson oo., Ala. Pop. 
about 300. The banking point is Birmingham. 

Adamsville, a hamlet of Pinal co.. Aria., 4 miles W. 
of Florenee. 

Adamsville, a poet-hamlet of Bradley oo., Ark., 8 
miles S. of Warren. 

Adamsville, apost-viUage of Franklin oo., Mass., 
about 10 miles NW. of Greenfield. It has good water- 
power and savwal mlUa. 

Adamsville, • post-village of Chaa oo., Mioh., about 
100 miles SW. of Laaaing. Pop. about 200. 

Adamsville, a post-station of Greene co., Miaa. 

Adamsville, Albany oo., N.T. See Dslhak. 

Adamsville, a post-hamlat of Waahington co., N.T., 
about 56 milea N. by E. of Albany. 

Adamsville, a paet-viDage of Muakingnm eo., Ohio, 
abont 12 milea NNB. of Zaneaville, which ia ita neareet 
railroad and banking point. Pop. in 1900, 201. 

Adamsville, a post-viUage of Crawford oo., Pa., on 
the Brie B., 19 miles SW. of MeadviUe. 

Digitized by 





Adanisrille, » past-Tilhuw of Kewport oo., B.L, In 
Uttle CompUm, about 13 mflw S. of tiU Biver. Pop. 

A4amSTille> s poet-Tillftgc of UeStiij oo., Tenn., It 
■ilM B. of BHhal Sprioss station of the Mobile and Ohio 
B. SaTSnnah if the banking town. Pop. aboat 600. 

AteMSTille, a port-hamlat of BMTor oo., Utah, 8 
■ila W. of Bearer Citr. 

AteMSville. a port-rillage in Brome oo., Qnebes, 
Ouiada, 4 milae N. of Brigham. 

A4aHWl, l-nt-mooUi', a town of Spain, in Andaiosia, 
n ailei NB. of Oordora, with about MOO inhabitanta. 

Atoaa, iHU'ni, a eity in the SB. part of Asia Minor, 
capital of a rilayet of it« own name, on the right banlc of 
the Sihan, 30 milw tnm the aea. Imt. 36" S8' N. ; Ion. 
JS" ir B. Pop. eatiraated at about 80.000, among them a 
large number of Chriatiaa*, mainlr Armeniane. It haa 
teroal remain! of antiquity, inelwung a bridge over the 
Sihan, 'said to hare been built by Jiutinian. It exports 
wool, eotton, eom, wood, wine, and fmit. Adana is oon- 
aeeted by rail with the port of Mersina. 

A4aBa« a rilayet of Aaiatie Turkey, lying between the 
haru on the N. and the Mediterranean, wiw the Oolf of 
Uanderun, on the 8. Area, IS,400 sq. m. Cotton and 
grahi are leading products. Pop. 400,000. Capital, Adana. 

Atoaanit a Malay island. See Adbiiibj:. 

Ai&mgwet <^ town of Togoland, west Afiioa, M miles 
NW. of Littie Popo. 

Adare* a market-town of Idmeriek oo., Ireland, on the 
Mais, 10 miles SW. of the town of lameriok. 

Aaare', Cape, in the Antaretio regions, a headland 
tt Tietoria Und, iu lat 71' 18' S. A landing was effeoted 
h<n by Eristensen and Borohgrerink in ISM, and again 
by Borehgrevink, who psssed a winter here, in 18W. The 
mka are roleanio and support serera) speeiee of liohen, 
including the eommon reindeer-moss. A few insects were 
alaofoui^ here. 

Ad^ari'o, a post-hamlet of Biehlaad «o., Ohio, about 14 
miles N. of MansSeld. 

Adasa« a poet-riDace of Oreene oo., Iowa. 

AMa, Id'di (ane. Adfdua), a rirer of Lombaidy, rises 
Mar Bormio in the Taltellina, flows generally S., trarersing 
I«kes Cmuo and LeoooL and, after a course of 80 miles, joins 
the P«^ 7 miles W. of Cremona. 

AifHHf an important town of the Gold Coast, British 
Wast Afriea, near the month of the Volta Hirer. 

A4'dieka, a post-rlllage of Harris oo., Tex., near LeU- 
fia, a station 17 miles by raOW. of Houston. Pop. about tOO. 

Ad'«Ue, a poat-hainlat of Jackson oo., N.C. 

Ad'AieTille, a poat-rillage of Washington oo., IU., on 
the Looisrille and Has hrille B., 4$ miles firom St. Louis. 
Pep. MO. 

iLd'41«weU> a Tillage of Seotland, about 10 miles SW. 
cf Bdinbnrgh. Pop. about 1000. 

AUiae, a post-rOlage ot Jaqwr oo., Miss. The bank- 
ing point is Meridian. 

AadiaKhaM, a post-rlllage of IMaware oo.. Pa. 

AddiagtOB, a pwt-riUage of Chickasaw Nation, I.T. 

AMia Abeha, i'dls Xbi'bi, a town and owital 
(180S-1M1) of Abyssinia, in Bhoa, is litnatad at an elera- 
tiOB at about 0850 feet abore the sea. It has a stationary 
Bopulation estimated at 60,000 and a floating one of per- 
■ape t5,000-M,000. The position of the royal palace (of 
Mendek), as flzed by the Marohand Mission, is »^ 0' 4" N. 
ht. and 38° 4^ 60" E. Ion. A treaty of peaoe between 
Italy and Abyssinia was oonoluded here Oct. SO, 1890. 

Addia Alami the royal residence and seat of gorem- 
ment (sinoe 1901) of Abyssinia, is about 84 miles W. of 
Addis Abeba. 

Ad'diaoat a county in the W. part of Vermont, bor- 
4aring on New York, has an area of 732 so. m. It is 
boonml on the W. by Lake Ohamplain (here 3 or 3 miles 
wide), is intersected by Otter Creek, and also drained by 
the New Haren and White Birers. The surfaee is partly 
■ountainooa, and is direnified with beantiftil scenery. 
Qaarries of white and rariegated marble are worked in this 
county. Alabaster, galena, and manganese are also found 
hen. Cwital, Middlebury. Pop. of the county in 1890, 
13,377 : in 1900, 31,913. 

Adaiaoa, a post-hamlet of Winston co., Ala. 

Addiaan, a poat-hamlet of Hartford oo., Conn. 

Addiaaa, a banking poet-riUage of Dupage oo., DL, 
an the Dlinoia Central R., 18 miles W. by N. of Chicago. 
Han are the Oermao Brangelioal Lutheran Sohooi, organ- 
imd in 1864Land the Qerman Brangelical Lutheran Qrpliaa 
Asrlam of Korthera Illinois. Pan. in 1900, 691. 

AddlaoM, a post-hamlet of Humboldt oo., Iowa, 13 
alias NW. of Port Dodge. 

AddlaoB, a poat-rlllaga of Breekenridge oo., Ky., on a 
nflrasd, 13 miles (diraet) N. of Hardinsbnrg. Pop. 100. 

AddiiOB, or Addison Point, a post-rillsge of Wash- 
ington CO., Me., in Addison township (town), on an inlet 
of the ocean, 18 milea WSW. of Maohias. Pop. of the. 
town in 1900, 1069. 

Addison, a banking poat-rillage of Lenawee co., Mich., 
20 miles NW. of Adrian, on the Cincinnati Northern B. 
Near by is the Deril's Lake summer-resort. Pop. in 1900, 

Addisoa, a bankingpost-rillage in Addison township 
(town), Steuben co., NVY., on the Canisteo Birer and on 
the Brie B., 38 miles W. of Blmira. It has sereral mills 
and mannfactnree of motor-cycles, flour, wood-work, etc 
Pop. in 1900, 2080 ; of the town, 2037. 

Addison, a small poet-rillage of Gallia co., Ohio, on 
the Ohio Hirer, about 8 miles abore Oallipdis. > 

Addison, a paet-riilage of Somerset co., Pa., in Addi- 
son township, < miles from Confluence Station and 90 miles 
88E. of Pittsburg. Pop. a the township in 1900, I29S. 

Addiaaa, a poet-township (town ; and Tillage) of Ad- 
dison CO., Vt., about 10 miles NW. of Middlebury. Pop. 
in 1900, 861 ; of the riUage, about 226. 

Addison, a banking post-town, capital of Webster oo., 
W.Va., 36 miles S. of Bnokhannon. Pop. in 1900, 297. 

Addison, a poet-rillage of Washington oo^ Wis., in 
Addison township (town), about 37 muee NW. of Mil- 
waukee, near Allenton Station. Pop. of the town in 1900, 

AddlsoahUl, a poet-hamlet of Steuben oo., N.Y., 
about 16 miles SW. of Coming. 

Addisoa Jnnction, a pott-hamlet of Enex co., N.T., 
on Lake Champlain, at the Junction of the Addison B. (of 
Vermont) with the Delaware and Hudson B., near Fort 
Tioonderoga, and 24 milea N. of Whitehall. 

Addison Point, a rillage of Maine. See Addisoh. . 

Ad'da, Vdoo', one of the Maldire Islands, 10 miles in 
length and 7 in breadth. 

Addna, ancient name of a rirn- of Italy. See Adda. 

Addr,apoa(-liamletof8terensco^Wash. Pop. abontOO. 

Addys'ton, a poet-rillage of Hamilton co., Ohio, on 
the Bdtimore and Ohio Southwestern snd the Clereland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago snd St. Louis Rs., 13 milea W. of Cin- 
cinnati, its banking point. Pop. in 1000, 1613. 

Adeghem, t'ua-ghto, a commune of Belgium, East 
Flanders, 4 miles WNW. of Eecloo. Pop. about 4000. 

Adqje, i-di'ni, a town of the Canary Islands, in a 
beautiful rallqr in the SB. part of Teneriffe. 

Adel, I'AtV, a banking post-borough of Berrien oo., 
Oa., about 10 miles SW. of NashrillCL on the Oeorgia 
Southern and Florida R. Pop. in 1900, 721. 

Adel,abanking poat-rillage, capital of Dallasoo., Iowa, 
on the Bacooon Birer and on the Milwaukee and St. Paul 
H., 33 miles W. of Das Moinea. It k an agricultural trade- 
oentre. Pop. in 1900, 1213. 

Adelaida, i-dl-li'dl, a poat-hamlet of San Luis Obispo 
CO., Cal., 36 miles W. of Paso Boblee. 

Adelaide, a rirer In the NW. of Australia, fklls into 
Adam Bay, and is narigable 60 miles for reeaels otrawing 12 
feet of water. 

Adelaide, tA'^-liA, a city, the capital of South Aus- 
tralia, on the Torrens Hirer, near its month in Onlf St, 
Vincent Lat. 34° 67' S. ; Ion. 138° 38' B. The town, 
which is spaciously laid out on a lerd tract at the base of 
Mount L<ntns, is dirided by the Torrens into South and 
North Adelaide, separated by a natural park, the former 
being the business portion. It is the seat of the TJnirer- 
sity of Adelaide and contains a fine botanical garden, gor- 
emment buildings, parliament houses, town hall, and the 
South Australian Institute. Its numerous large soburbs 
include Kensington, Norwood, Unley, HIndmarsh, and St. 
Peters. Its port is Port Adelaide, 7 miles to the NW., a 
few miles bom which is the watering-place Glenelg. Ade- 
laide is the seat of an Anglican and a Catholic bishop. 
It was founded in 1838 and named in honor of Queen Ade- 
laide, wife of William IV. Pop. in 1901 (indnsire of 
snbnrba), 183,430. 

Adelaide, a thriring town of Cape Colony, on the 
Eoonap Birer, 34 miles from Cookhouse, with which it is 
connect by cart. Pop. about 1200. 

Adelaide Islands, or Qneen Adelaide lalanda, 
a chain of islands of southern Chile. The westernmost, 
called Adelaide Island, is off the N. entrance to the Strait 
of Magellan. 

Adelkoden, t'd«l-boM«n, a vallar and rillage in the 
canton of Bern, Switserland, 24 miles B. of Thnn. It has 
mineral sprinn and a pretty cascade. Eleration of rillage, 
4460 feet. 

Adele, a post-rlllage of Delaware co.. Pa. Pop. about 

Adelhansen, i'd«l-hSws<en, a riUage of Baden, Ger- 
many, 6 miles SW. of Sohopfbeim. In the ricini^ are 

Digitized by 




A<<iiiiIt»i1 IslAIld. 

found badi of ohalaedony, pctrifiotiaai, and noaiiu of 
aborigiasi impIemenU. 

Adelie, iMiMee', s bwran tnot in the Anturetio Ooean. 
Lat. OS' SV 8. : Ion. 136° to 142° B. DiMwveted by D'Cr- 
TiUo in 1840. It fonni part of what Is froquontlj d«eig- 
Datod Wilkes Land. 

Ad'eline, a poet-rillage of Ogle eo., HL. on the Chi- 
eago, HilwauJtee and St. Paal R., 33 miles (direct) K. of 
Mount Carroll. Pop. in 1IM)0, 210. 

Adeline, a poet-rillage of St. Mary parish, La., 6 miles 
S. of Franklin, its banking point. Pop. about 500. It 
has sugar manufaototes, 

Aden, a post-Tillage of Parker oo., Tex. 

Adelli an-d81', a post-Tillage of Sheboygan- eo., Wis., 
on the Wisoonsin Central K., 43 miles N. of MUwaakee. 
Pop. ISO. 

Adelmannsfelder, i'dft-mlas-ftrdfr, a town of 
Wttrttemberg, 10 miles NNW. of Aalen. Pop. about 1700. 

Adelnaa, i'dfl-nSwS a town of Prussia, in Ponn, on 
the Bartsoh. Pop. in 1900, 3311. 

Adel'pki, a post-Tillage of Polk oo., Iowa, on the Des 
Moines RiTer, about 12 miles SB. of Des Moines. Pop. 100. 

Adelphi, a banking post-rillage of Ross oo., Ohio, 18 
miles KB. of ChiUioothe, It has pork-paoking and other 
industries. Pop. in 1900, Sit. 

Adeisberg, A'dfls-bino^ a town of Cami(da, 33 miles 
by rail NB. of Triest. It is remarkable for the stalactite 
oaTes in the vicinity, the largest hitherto discoTered in 
Burope. The passages, whieh are in part the ehannel of 
the Polk RiTer, are ooUeotiToly S^ miles long, of which 
about 21 are aocessible to tourists. Pop. about 1700. 

Adelsheim, &'d^s-hlme\ a town of Baden, 33 miles 
B. of Heidelberg. Pop. in 1900, 1438. 

Ademnz, l-ni-mooth', a town of Spain, 63 milss KW. 
of Taleooia. Pop. about 3000. 

Aden, I'dln, or k'dkn, a seaport on the S. ooast at 
Arabia, belonging to (}reat Britain. It is situated on the 
B. side of a banen mountainous peninsula of Toloanic 
origin (Cape Aden), the summit of wuioh is 1776 feet abore 
the sea, at a distance of 106 miles fh>m the Strait of Bab-el- 
Mandeb. Lat. 12° 46' U" N. ; Ion. 46° 10' 30" B. It U 
strongly fortified, and may be called the Oibraltar of the 
Bast. Numerous mosques and othur buildings attest its 
former magnificence. It was fortified br the Arks during 
the reign of 6<d^man the Magnificent, out before its oocu- 
pation by the British it had shrunk into insignificance. In 
1839 the town and the peninsula on which it stands were 
taken possession of by the East India Company, to be made 
a depot for coal and a calling-station for the Tcssels between 
India and Sues, and from that time Aden has increased in 
commerolal Importance, especially since the opening of the 
Sues Canal. Aden is the chief trading city on the ooast of 
Arabia and is a free port. Its harbor is rery commodious. 
It has a large trade In coal, and is an important shipping 
plaoe for Arabian coffee. There is an aotlTC transit toade 
in imported cotton yam and drr-goods, as well as in gums, 
skins and hides, petroleum, tooaoco, and grain. In addi- 
tion to the peninsula on which the town is built, the Brit- 
ish possession of Aden comprises a small tnot on the main- 
land and the island of Perim, in the Strait of Bab-el-Man- 
deb. Total area, 80 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 43,974. 

Aden, Golf of, an arm of the Arabian Sea, lying be- 
tween Somali and the S. coast of Arabia. Its length from B. 
to W. is about 480 miles, its breadth from 160 to 300 miles. 

Adena, &-dee'nf, a post-hamlet of Jefferson eo., Ohio, 
8 miles E. of Cadis. 

Adenara, or Adanara, l-da-n&'ri, an Island in the 
Malay Archipelago, belonging to tne Dntoh. Lat. 8° 17' S.; 
Ion. 123° 14' B. It is about 36 miles long and IS broad. 

Adenan, i'df n-Sw\ atown of Rhenish Prussia, 29 miles 
W. of Coblents. Pop. in 1900, 1684. 

Aderar, iMf-rar' (i.e., "mountain"), sometimes writ- 
ton Aderer, iM^-rair', a mountainous region of the west- 
em Sahara (Africa), between Timbuktu and Asben, is 
inhabited by the Awellemid, a powerful Berber tribe, who 
breed many sheep and camels. It is not to be confounded 
with Adbar. 

AderbUan, a region of Persia. See Azebbauaic. 

Adem&, &-diK-ni', a town of Sicily, at the SB. foot of 
Mount Etna, 17 miles NW. of Catania. Pop. in 1901 
(commune), 26,869. It has remains of old walls and of 
the ancient Adra'Hum. 

Adersbach, I'dfrs-bli', a Tillage of Bohemia, con- 
sisting of Upper and Lower Adersbach, 9 miles WKW. 
of Braunan. Pop. about 1600. In the ricinity are remark- 
able ezposoree of Qnader-sandstone. 

Ad'gateTille, a post-hamlet of Jasper oo., Oa., 34 
miles N.' of Macon. 

Ad'ger, a post-Tillage of Jefferson oo., Ala., in a mining 
tcgion> 26 miles by raU SW. by W. of Birmingham, K 

has important ooat-minef. Pep. about 1006. The banking 
point is Bessemer. 

Adkall, a post-hamlet of Milam eo., Tez., 7 mlht W. 
rf Cameron. 

Adige, ad'fr-je (It. pron. &'d»-ji; Oer. Sttek, etoh ; L 
Atk'»$it), a riTer of northern Italy, formed by numberless 
streamlets &om the Tyrolese Alps, which unito at Glnms. 
It entors Lombardy 13 miles S. of RoTcredo, and, flowing 
S. and B^ entors the Qulf of Venioe at Porto-Foasone, 13 
miles NE. of Adris, after a course of 230 miles, of whieh 
170 iienaTigabla. Aflluents on the left, the Passer, Biaaoh, 
Arisio, and Alpone; on the right, the Hoce. The eities of 
Olums, Trent, HoTeredo, and Verona are on its bulks ; its 
naTigation is dUBoult. 

Adigetto, i-de-jit'ti, is a canal or naTigable waterway 
deriTed from tiie Adige, which commences near Badta, Italy, 
pas t es RoTigo, and, by means of the oanals of Naoitioo and 
Biaoeo, connects the Adige with the Po. 

Adimt, t'de-grit, or Adigherat, t'de-ci-tftt, a 
town of Tigri, Abyssinia, capital of the district of Agam(. 
It oonsists of about 60 huts, situated where the ridge propsr 
of the Abyssinian plateau begins its desoeot towaras the 
coast. Altitude, 8686 feet. Aleghia, one of the highest 
peaks of TigT<, is near this plaee. Lat. 14° 16' N. : Ion. 
39° 35' B. 

A'din, a banking post-Tillage of Modoc co., Cal., 66 
miles B. of Sisson. Pop. in 1900, 314. 

Adiron'dack, a post-Tillage of Warren oo., N.T., 60 
miles N. of Saratoga Springs. 

Adirondack, a Tillage of Essex oo., N.T., 90 miles N. 
of Albany, and near Lake Henderson, in the Adirondack 
Mountains. Iron-ore has been mined and smelted here on 
a large scale; but the establishment has been abandoned. 
Itisnowasnmmer-andsportBBaa's-resort. Pop. about 176. 

Adiroadaek Moantains, a group of mountains in 
Clinton, Essex, HamiltoUj and Franklin ocs., M.Y., re- 
markable for grand and picturesque scenery. This group 
culminates in Tahawns, better known as Mount Marey (5346 
feet), which is in Essex oo., and is the highest mountain 
in tne state. Among the other peaksare Mclntrre (6113 
ft). Skylight (4920 ft.). Haystack (4918 ft.), Dlz (4842 
ft.), Whitofaoe (4870 tU), Nippletop (4685 a.), the Ootb- 
ios (4740 it.), and CoWin (4074 ft.). The foundations and 
central masses of the Adirondaoks are composed of granite^ 
hypersthene, and other asoie rocks. They are oOTerad with 
forests of binh, beech, cedar, hemlock, maple, pine, etc In 
this great Adirondack wilderness, which oOTsn an area of 
5000-6000 sq. m., are a number of lakes (Long, Indian, 
Tupper, Upper and Lower Saranac, Baquette, Pmoid, etc) 
which are largely f^nented for their wild and beautiful 
nature Keene Valley is <aie of the most popular objectiTe 
points of the tourist. The mountains crowd so closely on 
the shores of the lakes that only narrow intetrales ar* 
found between the water and the ste^ side of the moun- 
tain. The Hudson and Ausable RiTcrs rise among the 
Adirondaoks, the former, in one of its head-streamg, in the 
magnificent gorge known as the Indian Pass. The climato 
of uiis r^on, which is serere in winter (temperature de- 
scending to — 42°), is thought to be Tery bisneflcial to those 
suffering ttom pulmonic complaints, and scTeral sanitariums 
haTc bmn established. The region contains Tast deposits 
of magnetic iron-ore. 

Adirri, a rirer of Oninea. See Tolta. 

A4fnntas, id-BOon'tAs, a popular mountain resort of 
Porto Rioo, about 15 miles N W. by K. of Ponce ; altitude, 
over 3400 feet. It has poet- and tolegrapb-offices ; it waa 
much damaged by a hurricane in 1899. P(^. about 3000 ; 
(^ the jurisdiction, 18,000. 

Adkin, a post-rillage of Wyoming oo., W.Va. Pop. 
about 100. 

Adiai, a post-riUage of Brooks co., Oa., 38 miles TSTVf 
of Valdosto. Pop. 135. 

Adier, id'l^r, a rirer of Bohemia, a tributary of the 
Elbe, which it Joins at ESniggtiits. Length, 54 miles. 

Adierkosteiets, U'ltr-kas't«l-<U, a town of Be- 
hemiij 14 miles SB. of KSniggrtitx. Pop. in 1900, 4390. 

Adler Paaa, in the Zermatt group of mountains of 
Switserland, between the Strahlhom and the Rimpflsch- 
horn. Altitude, 12,460 feet. 

Adlershof, td'lfrs-hif ', a Tillage near Potsdam, Prus- 
sia. Pop. in 1895, 6591. 

Adliaweil, &d'lIs-*IlS a Tillage and commune of Swit- 
serland, 3 miles 8. of ZUricb. Pop. about 2800. 

Ad'mah, a post-hamlet of Washington co., Neb., about 
10 miles SB. of Hooper. 

Admiral, a post-rillage of Callahan co., Tex. Pop. 
about 100. 

Admiral (or SalUprings) Island, in the Oulf of 

Georgia, British Columbia, is separated iVom Vanoearer 

I Island by Stuart Channel and Sansum Narrows. It is 

Digitized by 


Admiralty Bay 



thtmi M mita loag, has good Itait, good porta, (wl niwniii, 

Ataunaty Say, Alaska. 8m Bn»a Bat. 

Aimtialty Golf, a larg« iniot of Wwtorn Aaotralia, 
iitha KioriMriey divlitaii. 

AdUaindty Islet, in the NW. part of the itate at 
Washington, is a ooaturaatioD of P«(^ Sound. It sapa- 
fatas the eonntiaa of King and 6Doh<Hnish on the K. fWnn 
JafanoB and Kitaap on the W. It is navigable for the 
largest ships, and in some places is nearly 10 miles wide. 
The shores are steep, and in maay places large shi^ can 
ride eloee to the land and load without the interrention of 
a dodk or wharf. See Pdgst Socrd. 

AdniraltT Island, a large island rf Alaska, NB. of 
Baianof Isksd. Lat. 57° StKN.; Ion. 134° IV W. It is 
M miles long, well timbered, and inhabited by Sitka-kwan 
Indians. Nattre copper and coal hare been obtained here. 

AlMiraity lalaads, a closter of islands in the Pacific, 
NB. at P^ma, inchided in the Bismarck Archipelago. 
The largest AdjniraltT Island (called by the natiTaa Manns) 
Is MmSes in length and in bit. 3° S^ Ion. 147° If B. Dis- 
eorared in KIS. Since 188$ under Qerman im>tection. 

AAmualty Raage, in Victoria Land, Antarotiea, in 
aboat lat. 71° S. Average aleration, about 7000 feet. 

A4aiiialty 8«aad, Tlerra del Fnego. It extsods in- 
had 43 miles SB., having a width of 7 miles. 

A4aUre', a post-villace of Lyon co., Kan., on the Mis- 
leuri Pacific R., 15 miles W. of Oeage City. It has a bank. 
Pon. about 250. 

Adaaoat, Id'mont, a market-t«wn in Styria, on the 
Sans. Pop. 1800. It has iron-works uid roUing-milla, 
and a noted Benedictine abbey, founded in 1074, which pos- 
sesses a library containing 80,000 printed volumes (MO 
bang ineonabnla) and 1100 manuscripts. It is a favorite 

A4aet, Id'net, a village of Anstria-Hangarv, H miles 
8B.of Saisbnrg. Pop. 400. It has qnuries of fine marble. 

Adobetowa, i-danM-tSwn, a post-hamlet of Itadison 
CO.. Mont, about 5 miles N. by V. of Tircinia City. 

Adeir, a post-hamlet of Gates co., N.a 

Adolpaaa, a post-village of Allen CO., Ky. Pop. about 

Adoai, i-do'nee, a town of British India, presidency 
of Madras, O milea NB. of Bellary. Pop. about 35,000. 

Adoairaa, a poet-village of OranviQe co., N.C. Pop. 

Adoay, 8d'oR\ a town of Hungary, on the right bank 
of the Dannbe, 28 miles S. of Bud^Mst. Pop. about 4500. 

Adovf, A'donf, a mannfaetnring town of Saxony, on the 
Bster, » miles 8SW. of Zwiokaa. Pop. in 1900, 0319. 

Adorp, I'doBP, a village of the Netherlands, province 
awl 4 miles Nlf W. of Gnmlngen. Pop. about 1400. 

Adoar, idWn' (ano. At'itnw), a river of France, rises 
in the Pyrenees, near Barrages, passes Bagnires-de-Bigorre, 
Tarbea, 8t.-Sever, and Daz, wnere it becomes navigable, 
and, after a cooaa ef 200 miles, falls into the Bay o? Bis- 
cay H. of Bayonne. Affluents, Midooxe, Oabas, Luy, and 
Gave de Pan. 

Adowa, &'do-4HL, oi Adna, the chief town of Tigr6, 
AWssinia, situated at an elevatioa of nearly 6600 feet, 145 
Biia NE. of Oondar. Lat. 14° 12' S. ; Ion. 39° 5' B. 
Pop. about 3MW. It is the chief entrmOt of trade between 
the interior of Tigri and the coast. Here the Italians suf- 
faed a eruahing defeat at the hands of the Abysrinians, 
March 1, 18»«. 

Ad'aar, a town of Wales, on the Teify, 8} miles ^E. 
ef Cardigan. 

Adia, i'drl (anc AbcWra), a town and seaport of 
^ain, in Andalusia, 60 miles SB. of Oranada, on the 
Meditarraneaa. Pop. about 9000, chiefly employed in lead- 

Adraaayti, l^dri-mee'tee, or Edreaiid (anc Adra- 


of a 


Adraaaaa, an ancient town of Sicily. See ADsaaft. 

Adiar, i'drar', or Aderar, 4'd^rar' («.«., "moun- 
tain" in the Berber laagnMe), a large oasis of the Sahara, 
S days' jovmey NW. of T&nbuktn, in about Ut 21° N.; 
IsB. 15° W. It produces salt, datea, grain, and melons. 
Chief towns, Wadan, Weofl, Shingheti, and Atar. Perma- 
MBt pop. 7M0. See also Ambab. 

AAaia, 1-drft'ii, a village of Italy, 14 mUes E. of 
Bwgamo, inth an anoinit caeUe. Pop. 600. 

Adria, i'die-i (ana. Ha'dria, Ha'tria, or A'tria), a 
town of Italy, between the Po and the Adige, 16 miles E. 
of Bovigo^ Pop. in 1901, 11,310; of the oommone, 15,678. 
In saciaat times It waa a aea^)ort of the Adriatic (to which 
it gave its name), Anm which it is now 14 milea distant. It 
is tte see of a bishop. 

ttimm), a s ea p ort of Asia Minor, 4 miles fWu the head 
the Oulf of Adramyti and 83 miles N. of Smyrna. Vttf. 

Ad^riamaataam', a maritime town of British India, 
presidency of Btadraa, district and 34 miias SB. of Taqjore. 

Adriaa, i'dre-fn, a banking post-village of Emanuel 
00^ Oa., OB the Central of Georgia R., 13 miles (direct) 
BW. of Swainsboro. It has manufactures of fertilizws. 
Pop. about 800. 

Adriaa, a post-village of Hancock co., HI., on the Chi- 
cago, Burlington and Quincy B., 24 miles S. of Burlington, 
Iowa. Pop. 150. 

Adrian, a city, the capital of Lenawee co., Mich., is 
near the Raosin River, and on the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern, the Wabash and the Detroit and Lima Rs., 73 miles 
WSW. oi^ Detroit and 211 miles B. of Chicago. Here are 
Adrian College, which was founded in 1858, and the State In- 
dustrial Home for Otrls. Adrian has railroad-shops, foun- 
dries, flonring-mills, planing-mills, and maau&ctnres of 
electrical supplies, wire-fence, mail-boxes, otfua, pianos, 
etc It is an active shipping point for grain, f^t, and 
dairy products. Pop. in 1900, 9654. 

Adriaa, a banking pcst-villa^ of Nobles co., Minn., on 
the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha R., 19 miles 
W. of Worthington. Pop. in 1900, 1268. 

Adriaa, a banking city of Bates co.. Mo., on the Mis- 
souri Pacific R., 29 miles 8. of Kansas City. Oil- and gas- 
wells are located here Pop. in 1900, 629. 

Adrian, a post-village of Steuben co., N.T., on the 
Orie R., 33 miles W. of Coming. . 

Adnaa, a poet- village of Seneca co., Ohio, on the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis B., 46 miles SW. 
of Sandusky and 19 miles from Tiffin. 

Adrian, a poet-vUlaKC of Armstrong co., Pa., at Mont- 
gomeryville, about 7 mileB N. of Kittanning. 

Adriaaople, ad-re-^n-i'p'l (Turk. Edinttk; anc 
AdrioHop'oli* or Sadrianop'olu), a city of Buropean Tur- 
key, coital of the vilayet of Adjrianopfe, on the Maritia, 
where it is joined by the Tuiga and the Arda, 137 miles 
NW. of Constantinople Lat. 41° 41' 36" N. ; Ion. 26° 
35' 41" B. Pop. about 70,000 (formeriy much greater), con- 
sisting of Turks (leastluai half), Bulgarians, Jews (Sptm- 
ish), Armenians, and Oreeks. It is on the railroad m>m 
Belgrade to Constantinople, and is a place of great eom- 
menial importance The mosque of the Sultan Belim is 
a splendid structure, with four lofty minarets and a rich 
interior. It is considered the finest Moslem temple ex- 
tant. The aqueduct which supplies the city is also a 
noble structure Adrianople is the seat of a Greek arch- 
bishop and of a Bulgarian and an Armenian bishop. On 
the right bank of the Tum'a, which is crossed by a fine 
stone bridge, is the Eski-6erai, the old palace of the sul 
tans, now in a state of decay. One of the baiaars is a note 
worUiy structure Adrianople possesses manufactories of 
silks, woollens, and linens, and has dye-works and taiv 
neries. Adrianople was founded by the Emperor Hadriaa 
and was the capital of the Ottoman empire fVom 1361 to 1453. 
Here was signed in 1829 a treaty lietween Russia and Tur- 
key, in which the latter power recognized the indqien- 
denoe of Qreeoe 

Adriaaople, a vilayet or province of European Turkey, 
bordering on the Black and .^ean Seas and the Sea of Mar- 
mora. Area, 15,015 aq. m. Capital, Adrianople. Pop. (ex- 
clnding Constantinople, which has a separate governmental 
organisation) estimated at about 1,000,000. 

Adriatic, ad^re-at'io (anc A'aria and Ma're Adriaf- 
ieum ; It. ifars Adriatico, m4'ri i-dre-&'te-ko), ap arm of 
the Mediterranean, extending f^m hkt. 40° to 45° 46' N., 
between Italy on the W. and Istria, Dalmatia, and Albania 
on the B. Length, 600 milee ; mean breadth, 100 milee It 
is named ttom the town of Adria. The name of Gulf of 
Veniee is given to the NW. part. On the E. are the GuUb 
of Triest (Finme^ or Quamero) and Cattaro, on the coast of 
Austria-Hungary, and of Drin, in Albania. On tife W. is 
the Golf of Manfredonia. The shores are generally low 
on the Venetian side, and are covered with unwholesome 
marshes. On the Dalmatian side the waves dash against 
enormous rocks and islands which environ the coast, af- 
fording to vessels a secure retreat from storms. During 
summer navigation is safe, but in winter the BE. winds 
cause much deetruotion. The Adriatic receives few rivers 
of importance, except the Adige and the Po. Its depth, 
between Dalmatia and the months of the Po, is 22 fathoms ; 
but a large part of the Gulf of Triest, and of the Adriatio 
opposite Venice, is less than 12 fathoms deep. Farther to 
the 8., where it is less affected by the influx of rivers, the 
gulf deepens, and attains a maximum depth of about 5200 
feet (as between Ban and Duraxso). It has little perceptible 
tide, except at Venice, where there is a rise of a foot, and 
exceptionally during storm-winds, of 3-4 feet, and in the 
narrows at its entrance, where the ebb and flow is well 
marked. There can be little doubt that its depth was for- 
merly much greater than it is now, as was also its extent, the 

Digitized by 





former being affected by the depoait*, wUoh are nq>idly mo- 
eomalatiDg at the bottom, and the latter by the allaTial 
ttsets forming along it* bordan. The plains of Venatia 
repreeent an ancient portion or "bight" of the Adriatie, 
wnieh has been filled in b; sediments derived from the 
Alps. On the W. coast a series of lagoons, farmed by long 
lines of sand4>an, are rapidly filling np and being oon- 
TSrtad into meadows by mad brought down by the streams. 
Between the N. point of the Oolf of Triest down to the 8. 
of Ravenna there is an nnintermptad series of aeoeaaiona 
of land more than 100 miles in length, which within the 
last 2000 years have increased £rom S to SO miles in breadth. 
The mean rate of advance of the delta of the Po on the 
Adriatic, between the years 1200 and 1600, was abont 27 
yards a year ; the mean annual gain, fh>m 1800 to 1804, was 
76 yards, uid at present it exoeeds 200 feet. Ravenna, 
which in Stnlw's time was used as a militaiy port, is now 
removed 4 miles from the sea, and Adria, which was like- 
wise a Roman port, is 14 miles inland. The Adriatic oom- 
mnnicates with the arm of the Mediterranean known as the 
Ionian Sea by the Strait of Otranto. 

Adro, 4'dro, a town of Italy, province and IS miles 
yrSW. of Brescia. Pop. abont 1800. 

AdnSi a town of Abyssinia. See Adowa. 

Adnla Monntains, a division of ths Bastam Alps of 
Switxerland, in the cantmi of Orisons, lying off tiie San 
Bernardino road. Highcat summit, the Rheinwaldhom, 
11,160 feet 

Adn'lii^orAdnleti-doo'lfh, an ancient town of Ethio- 
pia, on the Red Sea. Its ruins are to lie seen at the villag* 
of Zola, in Brltrea, near the bead of Annesley Bay, or Bay 
of Adnlis. 

Adnncnm, a town of ancient Italy. Sae Doiroo. 

Advr, i'dOr, a river of England, co. of Sussex, flows S., 
and enters the English Channel at Shoreham. 

Ai^vtMce'f a post-village of Boone co^ Ind., on the 
Chicago and Southeastern B., 10 miles SW. of Lebanon. 
Pop. about 100. 

Advaace, a pcat-hamlet of Oreenup co., Ky. Pop. 
about 50. 

Advance, a post-village of Charlevoix co., Hich., on 
Pine Lake, abont 16 miles 6 W. of Petoskay. Pop. about 200. 

Advaace, a post-town of Stoddard co.. Ho., 26 milea 
by rail SW. of Gape Oirardcau. Pop. in 1900, 221. 

Advance, a poat-town of Davis co., N.C., 14 milea from 
Lexington, on the Southern B. Pop. in 1000, 373. 

Advance, a poat-hamlat of Indiana co.. Pa., 10 milea 
N. of Indiana, 

Advance, a post-village of Orangeburg oo., B.C. Pop. 
about 76. 

Adven'tnre Bay, a laige bav in Brunt Island, off the 
SB, coast of Tasmania. It is well sheltered. 

Adven'tnre Sound and Har'bor. E. of Falkland 
Islands. The former is 20 miles in lensth and {torn 3 to 4 
miles in breadth. The latter is in the S. part of the sound. 

Ad'vocate Har'bor, a seaport in Cumberland oo., 
Nova Scotia, on Minas Channel, 33 miles W. of Parrs- 
borough. The harbor is safe and oommodious. At Cape 
d'Or, near here, there are copper-minea. Pop. a)>ont 1200. 

Adyeville, ad'e-vll, a poat-viUage of Perry oo., Ind., 
16 miles K. of Troy. It is on Anderson B^ver. Pop. 
about 150. 

^gades, ee-gil/dAx, or XgaXea (It. Sgadi), a group 
of islands off the W. ooast of Sicily, fh)m 16 to 85 miles W. 
of Trapani, the prinoipd being Favignana, Levanxo, and 
If aretnmo. Here the Romans achievra a great naval vio- 
toryover the Carthaginians in 241 B.O. 

jEgte, the ancient name of Aias. 

JEgemn (e-jee'an) Sea, or Gre'cian AreUpel'ago, 
that part of the Mediterranean lying between Asia Minor 
on the B., Oreece and part of Turkey on the W., and the 
latter country on the N. Its length, from N. to S., is alwut 
400 miles ; its greatest breadth about 175 milea ; at C^>e 
Doro, at the S. extremity of the island of Enbcra, it nu- 
rowB to iM) miles, but afterwards widens to nearly its former 
width. Its depth is very great, there beinK, in many 

Jilaces, at leas than a mile from the shore, no bottom to be 
6and with a 200-fatbom line. In many places there is a 
depth of 3000-4000 feet, and in the southern basin, N. of 
Cape Sidero, Crete, a depth of 7370 feet has been sounded. It 
oontains numerous islands, many of which are of volcanic 
ori^n ; others are composed entirely of pure whits marble, 
their mountain elevations having an average height of from 
1500^1800 feet. Among the better known of the ,£gean 
Islands are Enbcea, Chios (Scio), Lesbos, Lemnos, Andros, 
Kaxoa, Samos, and Skyros. Rhodes and Carpatnoa (Scar- 
panto) lie at the SE. entrance to the sea. 

Aegeri, a lake of Switzerland, abont 4 milea B. of the 
Lake of Zug. Elevation, 2380 feet. On it are the villagea 
of Unter-Aegari and Ober-Aegeri. 

JSgida, an ancient name of Capo d'Istbuu 

^gilia, the ancient name of CsBioorro. 

,£gina, ee-JI'nf, ao island of Oreeoe, in the Oolf of 
^figina (Saron'icut Si'mu), 16 miles S. by W. <a Athens. 
Lat. of Monnt St. Blias, in the S. part, 37' 41' •" N.; Ion. 
33° 30' B. The island is 8 miles in length and about the 
same in breadth. It was an important stata in antiquity 
(oonqnerad by Athena in 456 B.o.), and was celebrated for 
the spleodor of its buildings, among which was the temple 
of Jupiter, on Mount St. maa. Pop. about 6000. 

,£giBa, a town of Oreeoe, on the island of ^gina. For 
some time it was the residence of the Qreek senate and gov- 
ernor. Pop. abont 5000. 

JSgina, Galf of (ano. iSaron'teiw Si^mu), on the E. 
side of Oreeoe, between Attioa and Peloponneeus, ia about 
50 miles in length and 30 in breadth. It oontains the 
islands of Salamu and iBgina and several islets. 

iEgion, the official name of Vostizza. 

iEginm, the ancient name of VoariiiA. 

Aeglesberg, an aooient name of AixuBrsr. 

iEgoipotami, ee^gos-pot'a-ml ("goat's rivers"), or 
^gospotamos, in ancient geography, a small stream of 
the Thraoian Chersonesns, emptying into the Helleepont, 
with a small town of the same name. At its mootn the 
Spartans, in 406 B.C., emshed the naval power of Athena. 

Mganti, the ancient name of Favisiiana and Lihosa. 

iEcyptas, the ancient nunc of E«tpt. 

iEfopolia, a town of Asia. See Hn. 

Aeltere, |j'tf-rf h, a village of Belgium, on the railway 
firom Ohent to Bruges. Pop. (commune) 7000. 

,£mUia, an Italian compartimento. See Ekilia. 

^miiianvm, the ancient name of Millac. 

,£mona, Ae ancient name of Laibaob, 

iEnaria, an ancient name of Isohia. 

Aeng>wa, an ancient name of Aya. 

iEnipons, the ancient name of IinrguroK. 

^noa, the ancient name of Ehos. 

,£nasge8< See SpALKAnonn Islaitdb. 

^oliae lasalSB. See Lipari IsLAHoa. 

^olia, ee'o-lis, in ancient geogr^hy the northern part 
of the W. coast of Asia Minor, ooloniied by .£olian Oreeks. 
Here were the towns of Cyme, Antandma, OargarL Assns, 
Alexandria Tr<»8, and, on the island of Lesbos, Btytilene. 

^olas, Monnt, Colo., a qnartiita peak in lat. Sf 
37' 24" N., Ion. 107^ 37' 12" W. It has an altitude of 
14,054 feet. 

Aetaen, ais'nfn, a village of Switserland, canton of 
Talais, on the Rhone, 7 milea NB. of Brieg. 

Aertf, i'r<{\ Artt, or Arrtt, an island of Denmark, 
in the Baltic, 10 miles S. of Fiinen, 14 miles in length 
by 6 miles in mean breadth. Pop. 11,000. 

Aerttsldttbing, i'rSs-kyV'bug (i.e., the "mart of 
AerS"), a seaport on the island of AerS, on the NE. side. 
Pop. about 1600. 

Aerschot, or Aarschot, (n'sEot, a town of Belf^nm, 
province of South Brabant, 23 miles NB. of Brussels. 
Pop. in 1809, 6970. 

Aeraeele, fta'si-lfh, a village of Belginm, in West 
Flanders, 16 miles by rail NB. of Courtrai. 

Aertrycke, |R'trI-k«h, a village of Belgium, in West 
Flanders, 8 miles SW. of Bruges. 

Aeraen, aist'sfn, a town of Prussia, in Hanover, 6 
miles SW. of Hameln. 

Aesch, ish, a village of Switxerland, canton of Baad, 6 
miles S. of Basel. Pop. about 1600. 

^seraia, the snppoaed ancient name of IsBBinA. 

JE»l»t the Micient name of Ixsi. 

,£8tnarinm Tavaris. See Mobay Fibtb. 

JBthalia, the ancient name of Elba. 

Ethiopia, the Latin name of Ethiopia. 

^thnsa, an ancient name of FAVisifANA. 

^tna, a volcano of Sicily. See Etha. 

,£tna, a post-village of Lake co., Ind. Pop. about 

^tna, a post-hamlet of Kewaygo oo., Mich., on White 
River, about 45 milea N. by W. of Orand Rapids. Pop. 
about 40. 

^tolia, e-to'le-t, an ancient distriet of Oreece, in 
Hellas, boidering on the Corinthian Onlf, forming with 
Aoamania one of the modem nomea (nomarohiee) of the 
kingdom, the capital of which is Missolonghi. It is mostly 
monntainooB, but alone the Corinthian Oulf barley, rye, 
and olives are raised. — A<^ . and inhab. ^Stoliah, e4o'le-an. 

iGtol'ikon, or Anatol'iko, a town of Oreeoe, 6 milea 
NW. of Hissolonghi, on an island in a lagoon. Pop. 3422. 

Afar, Vtw', or Danakil, di-n&'keel, anomadio people 
of eastern Africa, inhabiting the regions known as Dan- 
kail and Adal. They are of many tribes, and are a finely 
formed, warlike race, with crisped hair and nearly bla<» 
complexion. They are Mohammedans. 

Digitized by 





ASentkal, • Tillage of Bwlm, Sermaoy, in th« diatriot 
rf BadML noted te its rad wine. Pop. in ISOd, 3S«. 

AfligkeHf ikf fle-ghim, a rlUan belonging to the oom- 
muM of H^elgem, proTinoe of BriUbant, Belgium, 13 milM 
NW. of Bnuaris. Here are the mini of an ancient abbey, 
fiMmded in 1088, renowned for the riehneas of its library 
and the learning of iti whdars. 

JJfotteni, if-fol'tfm, a Tillage of Bwiturland, oantoa 
of Bern, 8 milea NW. of Bern. Pop. abont 2600. 

Afioltenif a Tillage of Switierlaad, canton of Zurich, 
4 milM NNW. of ZOrieh. Pop. SMO. . 

AfgkamUUm, &f-gln<is-ttn' ("Afghan-land" or "Af- 
(haB.eoimtr7"), an inland ceontiy of Aaia, lying betweea 
ItLtfaV and 380 36' N., and Ion. 00° M' and 74° M' E., 
baring on the N. the Turkoman territory (belonging to 
Buna) and Bokhara, on the NE. Darwai and wbtit 
Piaii regions, on the B. Cbitial, the British Indian dis- 
trict of Peshawnr and WasirMan, on the S. Balnohistan, 
and on the W. Penia. Afthaniatan comprises tye main 
diriakma : E^abol in the K, KandaJiar in the 6., Herat 
in the W., Aijghaii-Tarkestao in the N., and Badakhahan 
(o^taL Fainbad) in the NB. In Afghan-Turkestan are 
ittcnded Baikh, Knndns, Andkhoi, Maimene, Khnlm, and 
othCT territories. Kafiristan, SB. of the Hindo-Knah, is 
■ow reeogniaed by the British as belonging to Afghan- 
atan. Kabnl and Kandahar eonstitata Afghanistan proper. 
Area estimated at 340,000 aq. m., and the population at 
aboBt ^M0,e00. Most of the sorfaee ia of great eleration, 
ridng in many of its plains to 4000-7000 feet abore the 
«)a. The land declines to the W. and to the ^fW., fall- 
ing in the Talley of the Amn-Darya to 1000 feet or lower, 
nie prineipal moontain-maas or ehain is that of tiie 
Hisdn-Kosh, which enters firom the NE., and towera 
in nnntie sommits to 18,000-80,000 feet eleration. Ti- 
rateh-llir, standing on the frontier of Chitral, ia assumed 
to be 25,400 feet. A branch or Tiutiier of the Hindn- 
Kosh ia the Safid- (or SeSd-) Koh, " White Mountains," 
which in the Sikaram, S. of Jelalabad, rises to 16,800 
feet. Afghanistan is made largely inaocessible by rea- 
a>n at its distance from the sea, its inhospitable Huids, 
and the bold mountain fastnesses that interlook tt. Among 
the most famous of the moontain-pasaea are the Ehaibsr 
(Khyber), conducting to Peefaawur, and in the line of one 
of the main oaraTan routes — frequently apokm of as the 
"key to India"— and the Bolan Faaa, in the S., along the 
line of railroad from Chaman to Qnetta. Although by far 
the greator portion of Afghanistan is a land of deserts and 
iMmntaina, <rf inhospitable character, there are many fertile 
TaDeys, well watered, oOTered with oloTcr, thyme, riolets, 
and odoriferous plants, and remarkable for their piotnre^ne 
beauty. In these spots grain is grown in abundance, and 
fruits of all kinds abound, including oranges, grapes, pome- 
granates, iq>riaot8, apples, quinces, peaonea, pears, plums, 
dmonds, and walnuts. The most eztaosiTS of these Talleys 
or plain* is that <rf Kabul ; but there is also an exceedingly 
nek IcTal traet in the rieinity of Herat. A great part of 
Seistan, in the 8W. parL is a men desert, as la Ukewiae a 
large portion of the acqaeent eountry, extending over a 
ipaee of about 300 milea in length by 100 in breadth. 

The elimste ia rarious, the cold being often serere in the 
higher r^ons, and the heat intense in the lower. The 
nunmita m the mountains are often coTered with snow, 
while the summer heat of the plains is almost intolersMe. 
At Kandahar, the thermometer is frequently aboTO 110° in the 
diade ; whUe in winter the inhabitants suffer from cold, fuel 
being extremely learec. At Kabul, at an eleration of about 
MOO feet, the snow lies for sereral aoooeesire months, during 
which the people remain in their honeas and sleep oloee 
to the stores, the thermometer falling to 6° or 6° below sero. 
A greater extreme degree of cold, — 10° to — 16°, is known at 
ehnxni (7700 feet). The prerailing winds are ihnn the 
west, and are in general oold ; the easterly winds are hot. 
There is little rai^all, and agriculture is largely dependent 
inion the system of underground irrigation known as the 
" karea." The oliidate, on the whole, howerer, is farorable 
to the human conatitntion, and in some parts highly saln- 
brioaa ; diseases are few, the prineipal being ferers, agues, 
amailpox, and ophthalmia. 

The chief rirers are the Helmnnd, Kabul, Heri-Bud, 
and Mnrghab, besides the Amu-Darya, on the northern 
border, etc, but none is of great rolnme. The only lake of 
SDT rise is that of Abiatada, which liea abont 00 miles 
8W. tf Ohnxni, and baa a length of about 17 miles. Its 
brackish waters appear nowhere to hare a depth exceeding 
( feet. The vegetati<m in the lowlands is like that of 
Indis; rice, cotton, the sugar-oane, millet, maize, and tur- 
neric are raised. In the uplands the timber-trees, herbs, 
and fruits of Europe grow, and wheat, barl«y, beans, tar- 
nips, msstanl, and grasses are enltirated. Kabul exeela 
ia the rariety and exoellenee of its fruits. Tobacco is ex- 

tensirely prodnoed. Gold, silrer, meroory, iron, lead, copperj 
antimonr, ooal, sulphur, and naphtha are met with. Arts 
and hnslMuidry are in a reiy low condition ; carpeta are 
saade at Herat, but other mannfaetures are few, meetly ooa- 
flned to cotton, woollen, felL and silkr stuffs for home use, 
with saddlery, hameas, and eattle-tr^>pings. Sheep and - 
goats are abundant, raodueing a fine wool, used in the mano- 
faoture of shawls. The exports consist chiefly of madder, 
aasafcetida, indiso, tobacco, fruits, horses, tan, shawls, wool, 
and carpets. Tne transit trade is eonaiderable, and wholly 
oenduoted by means of oamela and horses, the employment 
of wheeled rehioles, except on the single wagon-road (con- 
structed in 1870-80) leading from Kabul to Peshawur, being 
impracticable. The great mass of the inhabitants of Afghan- 
istan are of the Afghan race and Mohammedans of the Sunni 
seot. The Afghans belong to the Iranian branch of the 
Indo-European raoe, and speak the Pushtu language. The 
dominant tribe of the Afghans is that of the l)u»ni, set- 
tled mainly in the western part of the country. In the E. 
are their kinsmen, the warlike Ohilzais. The population 
of Tatar stock includes the Haiaras and Aimaks, and the 
Uibegs in Turkestan. In addition there are the Ti^ike (of 
Iranian stock), the Kaflrs, and large numbers A Jews, 
Persians, Arabs, and Baluohis. The country is under a 
hereditary ruler, styled "ameer." Perhaps no people in 
the world are mors turbulent or more impatient of restraint 
than the Afghans. The obief cities are Kabul (the capital), 
Kandahar, Herat, JelaUbad, and Ohnxni. The modem state 
of Afghanistan may be said to date from the middle of the 
eighteenth century, when the Dnrani leader, Ahmed Shah, 
mei the country £rom Persian domination. The adrance 
of Russia into Turkestan and of the British towards the 
Indus in the first half of the nineteenth century oaused 
Afghanistan, owing to her geographical position, to become 
an important factor in the riralry between the two powers. 
The efforts of England to obtain diplomatic control orerthe 
country hare led to two Uoody wars, 1839-42 and 1878-80. 

AfioB-Karakissar, i<fe.oon' ki-ri-his-sas' ("Black 
Castle of Opium"), a city of Turkey, in Asia Minor, 50 
milee SSE. of Kutaieb, at the junction of the railroad lines 
leading from Constantinople and Smyrna to Konieh. Po^. 
about 20,000. It is built on a rooky eminence, the summit 
of which ia crowned by the ruina of an old castle. It haa 
numerous mosques, chapels, baths, khans, manufactures of 
felts, carpets, arms, saddlery, stirrups, and a large trade in 
opium, grown near it, whence its name. 

AfliU) Viii', a small hilly Wahabi district of Nqd, in 

Afleas, iriints, a rlUage of Styria, on the Hur. 

Afognak, l-fSg-n&k', an inhabited island off the coast 
of Alaska, N . of Kadiak, and separated from the mainland 
by SheUkof Strait. 

AAragola, i-frft-go'lft, a town of Italy, 6 mUes NNE. 
ofNu>les. Ithasextensire mannfaetures of straw bonnets, 

Africa. aTre-ka (Qr. Lib'ya; Fr. Afriqut, l'ft«ek'; 
Ger. A/rika, t'fre-k4 ; It., Sp., and Port. A/rica (I'fre- 
k&), a rast peninsular continent connected with Asia by 
the Isthmus of Sues. It is bounded on the N. br the Med- 
itemmean, on the E. by the Bed Sea and the Indian 
Ocean, on the S. by the Southern Ocean, and on the W. and 
SW. by the Atlantic Ocean. Its points of furthest ex- 
tension are Cape Blanco in the N. (lat. 37° 20' N.), Cape 
Agnlhaa (34° 61' 8.) in the S., Baa Hafun (not Cape 
OuardaAiij in the S. (Ion. 51° 28' E.), and Cape Verde 
(17° 34' W.) in the W. Ita greatest length is thus abont 
4900 miles (N.-8.), while the breadth is not rery much 
less. The area is estimated at 11,600,000 sq. m. The 
coast-line, wbidi measures about 16,000 milee, is less in- 
dented than that of the other oontinents, and presents 
few good harbors, and no great gulfs or inlets except the 
Oulf of Ouinea, which is only a gradual bend or trending 
of the shore. The ciriliaation of Africa has been retarded 
by this compact oonfignration, which offers few faoilitias for 
penetrating into the interior by narigable waters. Africa 
lies mainly in the torrid sone, and is the warmest of all 
the continents. It population ia estimated to be about 

Face of the Cknmtry. — The African continent may be 
said to consist essentially of a rast plateau or series of 
plateaus, which, with lower derations in the north, grad- 
ually attain to heights of 3000-4000 feet in the equatorial 
regions, and of 6000-8000 feet and more further southward. 
The most depressed regional portion of this system of 
heights is the Sudan, which in plaoes, as at Adamaws, d»- 
soends to within 600 feet of the sea-lerel, and rarely rises to 
2000 feet. The Sahara, the most extensire desert-land of 
the globe, attains an arerage eleration of perhapa 1400- 
1800 feet, with monntain-pmks and ridges rising to three 
and four timea this eleration (in Tibesti, 7800 feet). Yet 
in this region, not br from the southern borders of the 

Digitized by 





Orest AtUi, th«re ars low spot* or dApnniolu whon nir- 
{mm mn aetiully benotth th« lorel «f the aea. Snoh ua 
th« Shotta Melrhir ( — 70 feet) mod Jerid, lying wertward 
of the GHilf of Oabee. (See Sahara.) The interior pU- 
teaoi, more partionlariy in the E. end S., are bordered by 
lofty supporting monntalDS, wbieb fall in rapid terraoee to 
the sea. This oondition is foood in many parte of the 
soathem coast mountains, and also in the long line of 
plateau heights whioh define the depression of the Red B^ 
and prolong northward the lofty table-land of Abyssinia, 
with an altitude of 7000-9000 feet. In its plateau oonstmo- 
tion Africa appears to have the greatest general elevation 
of all the eontments, about 2500 feet. 
• ifoiiii(am-i%((ctiM. — Africa has no mountain-chains that 
are in any way comparable with the Andes, Rooky Moun- 
tains, or Himalayas, and none of the innunit^ excepting 
those of a number of extinct volcanoes, attain the fnfl 
height of the loftiest peaks of the Alps. An almost oon- 
tinnoos series of ancient mountains, of which parts are 
known as the Roggeveld, Nieuweveld, Storm, Kathlamba 
(or Drakenberg), and Lebombo Mountains, and whioh rise 
in numerous p«iks to 7000-8000 feet, contour most of the 
southern half of the oontinent, and define the coast-line. 
The Mont-anx-8oarees and Champagne Castle, in the Ora- 
kenbeig, we npwardof 10,000 and 11,000 feet high. The 
Atla« Mountains of northern Africa, whioh may be con- 
sidered to be a fragmental portion of the system of the 
Alps-Apennines of Europe, and to have their continuation 
in the rook of Oibraltar and the Sierra Bonda, etc, in 
Spain, are probably the most aooentuated of the monntain- 
■ystems of the oontinent. Their highest summit appean to 
be the Jebel Ayaahi, in Moroooo, idwnt 14,000 feet. (See 
Atlas HotniTAiits.) The highest summits of Africa are 
the extinct equatorial cones Kilima-Kjaro and Eenia, 
sometimes without reason called the "Mountains of the 
Moon," the formw b«ng 19,710 feet ( Kaiser- Wilhelm 
Spitie) and the latter about 17,200 feet. The Rnwraxori 
Mountains, which overlook the Semliki Valley, in there^on 
of the head-streams of the Nili^ appear to be in part, at 
least, of Toloanio origin, and possibly reaoh an elevation of 
16,000 feet. Other tofty or well-known summits of Africa 
and the African islands are Ras Dashan, in Abyssinia, 
1&,1S0 feet: Fako, the highest peak of the Kamemns 
(Cameroons), 13,370 feet ; Pico de Teyde, or Teneriffe, 
12,200 feet; Clarence Peak, on the Island of Fernando Po, 
t3&0 feet; and Table Mountain, overlooking Cape Town, 

The only active volcanoes of Africa that are known 
to-day are oomprised in a aeries of giant cones of the east- 
centnl regions, lying north of Lake Kivu, and in a num- 
ber of minor cones that are part of the region of Lakes 
Rudolf and Stefanie. The former, which are often referred 
to as the volcanoes of the Mfambiro group, embrace, among 
other summits, the fiery Eirungu-Cha-Gnngo (Kimnga or 
Mount GStzen, 11,300 feet, with a crater one mile wide) 
and Kimngn-Ndogo (11,000 feet), and the now dormant (?) 
Mount Eyies, 13,MI0 feet. 

There are no gtaeiers of an^ real ma^itade, and snoh as 
exist belong to the Kilima-Njaro — Kenia Mountains, where 
they cling to the upper slopes. The line of perpetual snow 
is leaohra on Killma-Njaro at 1A,400 feet, on the Raa 
Dashan at 14,000 feet, and on the Great Atlas at about 
12,000 feet. Evidences of a past glaciation occur, it is 
olaimed, at an elevation of about 60M)-7000 feet, or lower, 
on the Great Atlas of Moroooo, and also over the lower high- 
lands of South Africa. 

Riven. — The chief water-systems of Africa are oomprised 
in the Nile, Congo, Niger, Zambesi, Orange, and the Lim- 
popo Rivers. The Kile is, after the Hississippi-Miasonri 
system of waters, perhaps .the longest stream in the world, 
although it can hardly exceed the Amaion-Ucayali. It 
drains an area (about 1,000,000 sq. m.) considerably less 
than the Congo, uid leas than half of that whioh ia drained 
by the Amason and its tributaries. The Congo and Niger are 
of about equal length, approximately 2600 miles ; but the 
drainage basin of tiie former, whioh occupies what might 
be called the nuclear part of the oontinent, is much the 
largest of any of the African rivers, covering about 1,400,- 
000 sg. m., about an eighth more than is covered by 
the Miasisaippi-Missonri basin. The souroee of the Nile 
and Congo, the one river directed northward and the other 
westwura, are located within a short distance of each other, 
in the hills and lowlands whioh define the Victoria-Tan- 
ganyika region. For the charaoteriatice of the mqor Af- 
rican streams, see Nilb, Oohoo, Nigkr, Zavbbzi, etc. The 
capabilitiea of the African rivers as avenues of approach to 
the interior are somewhat limited, owing to their being 
either obstructed by sand-bars at the mouths or by rapids 
and cataracts at no great distance f^^mi the coast. In the 
eoone of the Zambesi Rivor are the fiunona Victoria Falls, 

whioh in grandeur and volume of water are f^nantly 
aompfued with the Niagara. (SeeVioroniAFAUj.) About 
one-third of the oontinent, whioh ia oompriaed mainly in 
the Sahara and a portion of the Mediterranean border, has 
no externally directed drainage. 

Xaiu.^AiFriea, after North America, has the most exten- 
sive system of fresh-water lakes of any of the continents. 
With out insignificant exceptions, they are all situated io 
the sone of rains, about 13 degrees on either side of the 
equator, where likewise the main streams have their 
sonreee. Of these lakes the largest is the Victoria Lake or 
Victoria Nyansa, the great feeing basin of the Nile, situ- 
ated directly under the equator, and with an area about equal 
to that of Scotland ; it is, after Lake Superior, the largest 
body of fresh water on the globe, measuring 270 miles in 
length, and covering an area estimated at 27,000 sq. m. 
It lies at an elevation of about 3800 feet above sea- 
level, and has a greateet depth exceeding 600 feet. lAke 
Tanganyika, a periodic feeder, through the Lukuga, of the 
Congo, with an area about equal to that of Lake Baikal in 
Siberia, is the second in size of the African lakes, measuring 
about 400 miles in length from north to south, and having 
a width ranging from 20 to 45 miles. Its surface waters 
stand at an elevation of about 2700 feet, and the depth of 
the trough is said to be in places 2000 feet. Other lakes are 
Nyassa (basin of the Shiri), Bangweolo, Hoero, — all three 
partly in British Central Africa and Rhodesia; Eivn, oon- 
neoted by the Rnsixi with northern Tanganyika; Albert 
Edward Nyansa and Albert Nyansa, connected with one 
another by the Semliki River, and tributary to the Nile ; 
Rudolf and Stefanie, in British Bast Africa, the latter now 
nearly extinguished through desicoation; Leopold H., in 
the western part of the Congo Free State; Chad, in central 
Sudan, a shallow pan of water having no outlet, and lying 
at an elevation of only about 820 feet above the sea ; Tsana 
(Dembea), situated on the Abyssinian plateau at an eleva- 
tion of about 6700 feet, and discharging into the Blue Nile ; 
and N^ami, south of the Zambesi River, which baa praoti- 
eally disappeared, and been converted into a muddy plain 
or desert. For the charaoteriatice of the dilTerent lakes see 
the various separate articles. 

Ortat Rift VaUtft. — Under this name are designated 
what appear to be two long narrow troughs or " sunken 
blocks of the earth's omst, ocanprising the basin of Lake 
Nyaaaa, and extending northward from it in somewhat diver- 
gent lines: one passing almost due northward to (and in- 
doding) Lake Biadolf, and the other through Tanganyika, 
Kivu, Albert Edward Nyania, and Albert Nyansa to per- 
haps the same position, enclosing between their declivities 
the elevated or hanging plateau into which is sunk the rook- 
basin of the Victoria I^e. It appears now almost certain 
that these two largely parallel linee of depression, whose 
features are still snwply incised, mark areas of weakness 
in the African omst, and repreaent successive breakages 
and anbaidenoea of a geographically modem date. Their 
downfoll has determined the position of the linearly dis- 
posed lakes that trend north and south on either side of 
the Victoria Lake. From Lake Rudolf (and Stefanie) the 
breakage is carried into the trough of the Red Sea, and 
from its northeastern horn, the Qnii of Akabah, into the 
Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley. 

Itlandt. — The princiral islands ordinarily considered as 
bekmging to Africa areMadagasoar, the Maaoarenes (Han- 
ritiua, RiSnnion, Rodrigues), Comoros, Amirantes, Sey- 
ehellea, and Soootra, in the Indian Ocean; Madeira, the 
Osoaries, Cape Verde and Guinea Islands (Fernando Po, 
Principe, St. Thom£, Annobon), in the Atlantic; and, more 
remotely, St. Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha. 

OUmaU. — Africa lies mostly in the torrid sone, and is the 
hottest of all the continents ; but the greatest heat is not 
necessarily found under the equator, for hwe the heat is in 
great part tempered by the great elevation of the snrfa«e, 
by the shade of'^ dense forests, and by ct^ions rains, which 
fiUI almost Inoessantly daring six or more months of the 
year. The Sahara and the Sudan concentrate the greatest 
neat, and the former more especially is the soiuee of supply 
of the hot winds that blow elsewhere, and are known as 
the Sirocco in Moroooo and the trans-Mediterranean re- 
ions. Khamsin in Egypt, and Harmattan in other parts. 
' e highest temperature recorded ia probably 135° (shade), 
ftound near Munuk in the Fesian. In the region about 
Timbuktu the mean annual temperature is about 80°. The 
Arabs say of the Sahara that " the soil is like fire and the 
wind like a flame." Whirlwinds extremely hot and dry, 
carrying sand op into the atmosphere, often occur in theee 
deserts. The western coast of Afrioa between the tropics 
is very unhealthy. The miasma of the swunps, marshes, 
and rivers gives its climate a fatal distinction for pestilen- 
tial malaria. The regions of the Senegal and Niger are 
partionlarly unhealthy. The year in Afrioa (ezoqtt the 


Digitized by 





Sikim) i« for tk« greator paurt dirided into two 
tk*««l, wUeh i* th* ooldcat mmod, and th* diy, which i« 
the poriod «f p a nt w t haat. Some regiona, howerar, hm^* 
two wtt MMon* in a, year. In Abyssinia, Boma, and 
godu the rainy season is between April and Oatol>er. 
Near the month of the Zambesi, and in ouer parts of sonth- 
«m Aflrlea, tlie rainy season oommenoes in Ontober or Novem- 
ber and oontinnea till alwot March. The Oninea Coast lias 
its g re a t e r rainy season from Mareh to Jane, and its lesser 
nine oeear in October and November, Th* greatest con- 
etatntion of r^n is found in the well-watered and densely 
farested regions cf the equatorial bdt, bnt the amonnt 
filling nowhera equals that over the valley of the Amason 
V in dilTerent parts of India and Assam. In the region of 
the great lakes Speke noted 238 rainy days in the coarse 
of a year. The average annual rainfall at Zansibar is 
about 100 inches. The Sahara, except in or about the 
nountainous tracts, is largely a rainless area, and the same 
is true in a meoaore of the lesser des«rt region of the Kala- 
hari in the south. Except on the high mountains and 
plateaus no extreme cold is known on the AfHoan oonti- 
aent, bat the temperature not rarely descends to the frees- 
ing point on the lowlands ; and even in the summer-time, 
snd in the main desert, when the noon-time temperature 
may have been 160°-! 10°, an evening cold of 32° and 
less is fireqneatly brought abont as the result of extremely 
rapid radiaticm from the heated rook surfaces. The olimate 
cf the eaetem plateau region is, over large areas, refresh- 
ingly mild and salubrious. The average temperatures of 
the extreme months ot the year at various points in Africa 
are pven in the following table : 

























flfona L«OBe 

Moath of Hicer. . 

Omc Town 



MimtrtU Jtnoureet.—Haaj parts of Africa are rich in 
Buaarals, bnt the developed mineral wealth is prindpally 
in the south, where cosii, gold, and diamonds have been 
largely exploited. The main gold-field of the Transvaal 
(now Tiuisvaal Colony), wliieb is bordered by the rtdse 
known as the Witwatersrand, and is hence known as The 
Band, is the greatest prodncer of the world, and its 
aannal on^mt befare tiie reoent Anglo-Boer War was for 
naay years nearly $60,000,000. The gold oocurs in placers 
and reef^ruarti, oat principally in the conglomwate or 
"baaket.^ The richest diamond-mine of the world is that 
of the Kimberl^ district, in Cape Colony, where the yearly 
•stpot has been for a number of years valued at not less 
than $20,000,000. A fiairly extensive diamond-field is also 
operated at Jagenfontein, in the Orange River Colony 
(mrmerly Orange Free State). 

VtgtiabU Prodtietioiu. — The floral regions of the Afri- 
esa continent may be roughly grouped as follows : 1, the 
legion lying north of or bordering ik» desert, which is a 
transition tract lietween Europe and western Asia ; 2, the 
deficient region of the Sahara, with its scattered tonbinth 
bashes, and oases rich In pahns and onltivatad tr^ta ; 3, 
the great and almost impenetrable primeval forest of the 
cntral and wast equatorial regions ; 4, the lofty savannah 
aad "pork" country ef the east, with its scatterings of 
aeaeia, baobab, aad donm palm ; fi, the grassy pMna or 
homo* of the south, the home of eonntless antelopes ; and 
S, the eastern mountain aones. In the extreme north, 
gievea of orangea and olives, plains covered with barley, 
maiaa, and wheat, foresta of evergreen oaks, pines, and 
aork-treao, intermixad with the fig-tree, cypress, arbutus, 
iandaranh (Oaliilru), and myrtle, form the principal feat- 
urea of the landscape. Among the indigenous and culti- 
vated plants of Egypt are the papyrus, cotton, doum palm, 
aaaaia, onion, lotua, tamarind, wheat, and rice. In the 
arid ra^on whieh lies 8. of the Atlas Mountains and on 
the homn of Sahara, the date palm (Pkcenix daetyli/era) 
is very abundant and forms the eharaeteristie feature. It 
is pewi li ariy adapted to a hot aad dry climate, and fiour- 
iaaes where few other treea eould grow. The natives of 
these regions depend on the date almast entirely for their 
nAsisteaee^ and use the sap of the tree as a twverage. 
Vtbu of diflerent species are found in nearly all ^rts of 
the eoDtinent except the extreme sooth. Ine coffee-tree 
grewi in BeaigiMla, Liberia, and Abyssinia. The last 
■amad; poaaiMy Us aatiTe country, also produces oranges, 
Inrnnnn, osd peaekea. Senegaanbia and other tropical re- 
fions ^t>da«e the baobab or monkey-bread tree (Adantonia 


digUata), the trunk of which attains a diameter of 20 feet. 
The region which liee between lat. 10° N. and 10° S. is 
mostly covered with dense forests of gigantic trees and a 
rank growth of underbrush and creeping plants almast im- 
pervious to the rays of a vertical sun. The great Congo 
forest, in its grandeur, age, and vast solituden, is perhape, 
after that of the Amazon, the most impressive of all the 
forest tracts of the globe. Ancient foresters stand where 
they have not nnlikely been growing for 2000 yean and 
more. Among the vaJoable produotions of the western 
coast and tropical portions an the eotton-tree, coffee, the 
Bhtit Oiii»e«n*it, wnioh affords palm oil and wine, the oab- 
bage palm, butter-tree, banana, gnm copal, yam, papaw, 
pea-nut {Araeki* kmogma), tamarind, and enstard-apple. 
Frankincense, myrrh, cinnamon, and other spices grow in 
northeastern Africa. In the temperate parts of South 
Africa heaths grow in great profusion and are the most 
characteristic votetation. The timber-line on Kilima- 
Njaro, which is followed by an Alpine sone of about 3000 
feet, ooenpiee the singularly low position of 10,500 feet. 

Anmal Life. — ^The African fauna is in the trans-Saharan 
region of a Mediterranean or Eurasiatic type, with many 
species — as the Barbery ape, fallow-deer, wild-boar, wolf, 
fox, aad jackal — common to Europe. The lion (although 
now but sparingly), leopard, and bvena are also found In 
this region, aad seemingly the elephant was ui inhabitant 
of the oorder tract in a late prehistoric (or, perhaps, even 
historic) period. The Saharan region, whieh sepantes the 
Eurasiatic from the true African fauna, is characterised 
more by a deficiency of animal fbrms than by types that 
are peculiar to it. The larger animals of prey, except in 
the regions of cultivation or fairly developed vegetation, 
rarely enter far within its precincts, although a good food- 
supply could be obt^ned from the numerous antelopes 
(gaxelles) which fluent certun parts. The true African 
fauna, the Ethiopiui of aoSgeograpbers, is that of the 
region eomprised between the SncUn and tne Cape, a fauna 
that is pre-eminently distinguished by the very large num- 
ber and variety of its hoofed animals — elephant, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, buffalo, giraffe, lebra, and some 80 species 
or more of antelope, ranging in siie from a rabbit to an ox. 
Some of Uie specMs have here a remarkably broad distri- 
bution, the hippopotamus, for example, being found in the 
streams of the western part of the continent, as well as in 
those of the east. All the more predatory of the African car- 
ni vora an found in the Etiiiopian tract. Africa is pre-emi- 
nently the home of the higher or anthropoid apes, and com- 
prises probably two or more species of both the chimpansee 
and gorilla, whose oentral home is the great equatorial forest. 
The large and ferodous dog-bced baboons penetrate quite 
to the outskirts of eiviliiation in the south, and other 
monkeys or apes are found elsewhere. Madagascar and 
parts of E. Africa are the home of the lemurs or half-apee. 

Many interesting speenlationa have been put forth with 
regard to the origin and composition of the African fauna, 
and it has l>een generally held that a part, or even greai 
part, of it had been otitained throngh migration from 
Enrope, at a time, following upon the advent of the Glacial 
Epoch, when a number of " bridges" still spanned the sep- 
arating expanse of the Mediterranean. The main support 
to this theory is the finding of the remains of numerous 
species of the so-called African fauna in late Tertiary and 
Post-Tertiary deposits of the northern continent, coupled 
with the known condition that until geologically reoent 
times Africa was united at one or mora points with Europa 
Such positions of union are plainly indicated opposite Gib- 
raltar and in the broken mass M the Atlas which trends 
eastward bom Cape Bon, in Tunis, and heads towards 
Sicily and the Apennines. It may, however, be that the 
extinct European fauna of African type was in itself a 
derivative from Africa, or, again, that both faunas had a 
primal Asiatic home, whence westerly migrations set oat 
in two or more lines. A portion of the South African fauna, 
as represented in sueh types as the edentates (aardvark, 
etc.) and ostrich, which have affinities with closely 
related or analogous forms in South America, argues in 
favor of the former anion of the oontinent with an austral 
land with which South America, and not impossibly also 
Australia, were united. Again, it would appear almost 
certain that at a no very remote period east-central and 
southern Africa were united with India across what is now 
Indian Ocean. To the hypothetical land-mass which is 
assumed to have made this connection, and of which Mada. 
gascar. Reunion, and the Seyohellee are thought to be 
parts, the name of " Lemuria" has been given. 

Population and Rate: — Between the Mediterranean Sea 
aad abont lat. 15° or 20° N. the population consists largely 
of tribes or races that are not indigenous, being Arabs, 
Turks, aad Frendimen, who have gained possession by 
conquest. Egypt is in part peopled by Cc^ts, supposed 

Digitized by 



to be dataenduit* of the utoient Egyptiaiu, bat probably a 
mixed raoe. The; profess the Christian religion, and speak 
a peoaliar language oalled Coptie. The Moors, who dwell 
in the cities of Horoooo, represent a miztorff of Tarioos 
raoial elements. They are Mohammedans, and their 
speech is a oormpt Arable. A large majority of the 
African popnlatioa belongs to two fiindamentri races, the 
Berbers (including here uie Kabyles and Tnar«gs) and the 
Negroes or Bthio^c raoe. The Berbws are nomadic tribee 
who oeoupy the monntainoos regions of Barbery and the 
Sahara. The Berber nation, representing one of the Ha- 
mitlo stocks of the Cauoasian raoe, is one of great antiquity, 
and ever since the earliest historioal period nas been spread 
orer northern Africa {Mauretania and NvfHidia), The 
people are athletic, warlike, and addicted to predatory 
modes of gaining a snbsistenoe. They are lealons Moham- 

The Bthiopio raoe oooapies central Africa and nearly all 
the eountriee between Cape Colony and the 15th parallel of 
N. latitude. A line drawn from the month of the Senegal 
to Cmp9 Qnardafoi passes near the northern limit of the 
negrd population. The^ are characterised by thick lips, 
woolly hair, and reoeding foreheads, with a skin which 
varies trom black to brown. Mohammedanism and Fetish- 
ism are the prevuUng reli|;ions of AfVica. Human sacri- 
fices are praetised by some tribes on great occasions. Among 
the principal negro nations are the Mandingos, the Fuldis, 
Tolofs, and Ashantis, and the most assertive native mon- 
archies or kingdoms are, or have l>een until recently, 
Bomu, Baghirmt, Wadai, Ashanti, and Dahomey. The 
true home of these peoples is the Sudan, called by the 
Arabs BeIed-es.Sudan, the " Land of the Blacks." They 
are in a low state of intellectual development, have made 
little progress in civilisation, and can nardly be said to 
have any political institutions. 

Most of the Ethiopian r^on south of the e<^nator, to- 
gether with parts of the valley of the Nile (Nubia), is in- 
habited by an impnre negro stock, to which the nune of 
Negroid is now frequantfy applied. To it belong the 
numerous Bantu peoples, of whom the Kaffirs, Zulus, Be- 
chuanas, and Swahelis are the best known exponents. Little 
is known regarding the origin and relations of the dwarfed 
Boshmen, who have nearly disappeared as a true race, and 
their connections, the impure Hottentots, bat some ethnolo- 
gists are disposed to consider them as possibly the most 
ancient of the African races, and even as the progenitors 
of the true Negro and Negroid types. They are now gen- 
erally associated with the various tribes of pygmies that 
have latterly been discovered in the equatorial wilds of Uie 
otmtinent, the Akkas, Dokos, and Obongoe, some of whose 
members hardly exceed 3) feet in height. 

Suropttm Poftatiotu. — Algeria and Tunis, with vast 
areas of the inner Sahara, belong to or are claimed by 
the French, who have possessions also on the Senegal and 
Oambia, and the western Sudan, and control a district 
along the Atlantic coast N. of the Congo Free State (Rrenoh 
Congo) and on the N. of the Qolf of Ouinea. The British 
exercise sway over much of South Africa, from the Cape 
to Lake Tanganyika, and on the Guinea Coast, and control 
a district on the E. coast N. of ZansilMir (British East 
Africa) and praotieally Egypt, together with a large part 
of the eastern Sudan. The Portuguese have possessions on 
the E. coast in old Hosambiqne (Portuguese East Africa), 
and on the W. coast in Angola and Bengnela, along wiu 
several islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The Canary Islands 
belong to the Spaniards, who also have possessions at Fer- 
nando Po and Annobon, the port of Ifni, N. of Cape Nan, 
and the coast land between Capes Bojador and Blanco. 
Since 1884 Oermany has had control over Togoland on the 
Slave Coast, the Eamerun region (with the Hinterland 
extending to Lake Chad), a coast district of about 900 
miles between Angola on the N. and the Orange River on 
the S. (Oerman Southwest Africa), and a region on the E. 
coast extending from the Rovnma River NW. to Victoria 
Nyanta (Qerman Bast Africa). Italy has control over a 
district bordering on the Red Sea from Massowah to Assab 
Bay. The vast Congo Free State may be regarded as a 
dependency of Belgium. Morocco and Abyssinia are now 
the only two really independent powerful realms of the 

BUtorji of Diteovtty. — ^Northeastern Africa was the home 
of one of the first civilised nations of the world, — the Ean-p- 
tians. The famous and powerful state of Carthage sAer- 
wards occupied northern Africa, which subs^iuently 
became a part of the Roman empire. It is supposed that 
the peninsular form of Africa was known to the ancients, 
and that the PbcenioianB circumnavigated it. The people 
who first explored the interior of northern Africa were the 
Arabs, The Portuguese navigators of the fifteenth century 
were the first to complete the oiroumnavigation of Africa. 

18 Ateulffurh 

They disoovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1487, and Tasea 
da Oama doubled that etpe in 14S8. The Duteh planted m 
colony at the Cape of Oood Hope in U6i. Bmee travelled 
in Abyssinia abmit 1770, following by a few years upon tlia 
labors, in Egypt, of Carsten Niebnhr, who is justly oimsid- 
ered to be the *' founder" at the Sues roate as the avenue of 
oommuoe between Europe and India. In 1788 the Afirioan 
Association was formed in London to promote the explora- 
tion of Africa, and under its anspiee* Mungo Park, Burek- 
hardt, and others made important disooveries. In 1823-3^ 
Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney crossed the deewrt of 
Sahara, and discpvered Lake Chad and Bomu. Caillii, in 
1827-28, starting from Sierra Leone, crossed the Sahara and 
Atlas Mountains to Tangier, in the course of his jonm«y 
entering Timbuktu, which had l>eea reached two yean 
before him by the English traveller Laing. In 18S0, Lan- 
der explored the Joliba or Niger to its mouth. Rebmaon 
and Erapf disoovered Kilima-Njaro in 1848. Between 18tt 
and 1864, Livingstone explored South Africa, and made 
important oontribations to the geography of the country, 
especially of the regions of the Zamboi and Nyaiia. In 
1868, Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Nyansa were disoov- 
ered by Burton and Spoke, the latter in a subsequent jonr- 
ney demonstrating that the Victoria Lake was the main 
feeding basin of the Nile. The Journey in 18<S-A4 of Sir 
Sunnd Baker established the existence of the Albert Ny- 
ansa. In 1807-08, Livinsstone disoovered the Lnapula, the 
eastern headnitream of uie Coiu^ and its two reservoir*. 
Lakes Moero and Bangweolo. In 1874-77, Stanley oroned 
the oontinent via the great lakes and toe Congo River, 
and in snbeeqnent years explored the coarse of the Congo, 
ahd finally established, under the auspices of the King 
of the Belgians and with the co-operation of othn oom- 
meroial nations, the Congo Free State. (See Cohoo Fbbb 
^TATi. ) Other eminent explorers of the African continent, 
whose labors are comprised between the years 18&0 and the 
preeent time, are Barth, Overweg, Vogel, RohlfSj Naohtigal, 
Heuglin, SchweiniWth, Lens, Cameron, Serpa Pinto, Horab, 
Brasia, Emin Pasha, Wissmann, Donajdson Smith, March* 
and, and Fonreau, the last named, in 1897-1900, accom- 
plishing an extraordinary journey from Biskra, via Lake 
Cha(Lto the mouth of the Congo. 

Ainca« a designation applied by the Romans to the 
region about Carthage, corresponding approximately to the 
modem Tunis. Later theygave the name to a much larger 
division, including Tunis, IMpoU, and part of Algeria. 

Afkican Iilaadi, a group of low islets in the Indian 
Ocean, N. of the Amirante Islands. Lat. 4° 66' S. 

Afrikiah, or Afirikiyah. See Mxhdia. 

Afton, a banking poet-borough of the Cherokee Nation, 
I.T., on the St. Louis and San Francisco R., 38 miles W. 
by S. of Neosho, Mo. Pop. in 1900, 360. 

Alton, a banking post-town of Union oo., Iowa, on the 
Chicago, Burlington and Qain<^ R., 9 miles SI. of Creeton. 
It has various factories, and is in a grain and stock region. 
Pop. in 1900, 1178. 

AftoB, a poet-hamlet of Tensas parish, La. 

AftOB, a post-village of Washington oo., Minn., on 
Lake St. Croix, 18 miles ESE. of St. Paul. Pop. of Alton 
township, 1130. 

AftoB, a hamlet of Frontier co., Neb., 10 miles N. of 

AftoB, a poet-village of Morris oo., N. J., 13 miles NNE. 
of Madison. Pop. about 360. 

AftoB, a banking post-village of Chenango co., N.T., 
on the Sosqaehomna River and on the Delaware and Hud- 
son R., 38 miles E. bv N. of Bin^hamton. It has various 
mannfaetnres in wood, etc. Pop. in 1900, 723; of the town 
of the same name, 1920. 

AftoBf a post-hamlet of Clermont oo., Ohio, and a sta- 
tion on the Cincinnati, Portsmouth and Virginia R., 6 miles 
£. of BaUvia. 

AftoB, a post-village of Oreen co., Tenn., on the South- 
em R., 6 miles (direct) £. by N. of Greensville. Pep. 
about 160. 

AftOB, a post-village and watering-plaoe of Nelson oo., 
Va., on the Chesapeake and Ohio R^ where it crosses or 
perforates the Blue Ridge, 10 miles SB. of Staunton. It 
is situated 1406 feet above sea-level. Here is a tunnel 1 
mile long in the Blue Ridge. 

AftoB, a poet-rillage m Rook oo., Wis., on the Chicago 
and Northwestern and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
Rs., 8 miles N. by W. of Beloit. 

AllOB, a post-town of Uinta oo., Wyo., in a timber 
region, 100 mUee N. by B. of Evanston. It has shingle-, 
saw- and planing-mills. Pop. about 360. 

Afsolgnrh, Afisalgarhy or llfBnlgBrh, ttTsai- 
gfir', a town of British India, BUnaor district, near the 
Kumaon Mountains. Lat. 29° 26' N. ; Ion. 78° 40' E. Pop. 
about 8000. 

Digitized by 





Aga» I'gi, a low gntnitio monntelii-ohaiit of AnbU, 
fDnaing pait of the NW. Umit of N^d. 

AKa«M« or A(m4es> &g'%4ih', » eit; of AfHom orbital 
of tlia kiaadom of Aibon (Air), in an oaaia of the Sahara. 
Let. 17° IT ; loa. 8° 10' E. AfadM wu formerly a large 
atj, with a population of bom £0,000 to 00,060, bat its Im- 
portaaee has tbit ma«h deolined. The dominant people of 
the di<tri«t are tae Tnaregs. 

Anadir, 1-gft-deer', or Santa Cms. the most southern 
port of Horoooo, 33 mile* 8K. of 0»ft Ghir. Lat. SO" 20' 
N. ; km. »° 36' W. Pop. 700. It was fonnerljr a eonsider- 
sUe seaport. 

A«aaie»'m(h, a distriot in Tigr«, Abyssinia, in 
the SH. part </that territory. 

AKamea'ticn* Moutaia, in York eo.. Me., aboot 
4 miles from the oeean, important as a landmark for sea- 
men. The sommit is 673 feet abore the sea-leTol. 

Acafta« i-dkn'jk, or Saa Ifnaoio 4e AfaKa, s&n 
eee-aith'»« A i-gin'yi, a fbrtUed dty, oapital of the 
American island of Guam, Ladrone Islands. It has several 
schools and eonreats, goremment house, military hospital, 
banaeks, prison, town-house, etc Pop. about 6000. Its 
port is San Luis de Apra (sin loo-ees' da &'pri) or Caldera 
(kll-di'r&), on the NW. coast, 6 miles distant by bad road. 
It is open to N. and W. winds, and is eommandad by a 
rained fort. 

Agar) a town of India. See AoaeuB. 

Agarpara, in India. See AennpABA. 

Agarxib, a mountain of Egypt. See Aorib. 

Agasaiuoni« a monntain of the Bernese Oberlaad, 
Switieriand, la the Tinsteraarhom group. Height, 12,060 
feet. The Agaasis-Jooh, on the BE. side of the mountain, 
has an altitude of 12,630 feet. 

Agassis (ag'as-see), Ijake, a name ^ven by Ameriean 
geol^^iits to an aaoient (Quaternary) bcMy of water, lying 
partly in the United States and partly in Canada, and ooou- 
pying the basin of tha Red River of the North. Lakes 
Winnipeg, Winnipegosis. the Lake of the Woods, Rainy 
Lake, etc., are relicts of this basin. Estimated area, 120,000 
sq. m. 

Agassis, Moaat, formerly Peaked Hill, a moun- 
tain of Srafton oo., N.H., near Bethlehem, alwut 2400 
feet high, commanding a fine view of the main White 

Agat, ft-gftt', a mublo of Guam, Ladrone Islands, sep- 
arated 1^ a strip of land from the bay of San Luis de Apia. 
It baa a eooveot. parish ehnroh, etc. 

Agate Harbor, in the K. part of the upper penin- 
sula of Hidiinn, on Keweenaw Point. 

Agatha, ue ancient name of Aani. 

AgathapoUs. See Saht' Asata dbi Gon. 

AgathrTBam, an ancient town of Sicily. See Naso. 

Agattoo, or AgattA, i-g&t-too', a small island of the 
Aleutian group. Lat. 62<'43'^N. ; Ion. 173° 37' W. Called 
aba KBO0ei.n (Ebcoli) or Ckooked Islard. 

Agaaaam, an ancient Gallic town. See Saikt-Hac- 

Ag*airam', a poet-rillage of Hampden oo., Mass., is in 
Agawam township (town). Moot 1 mile W. of the Connecti- 
cut Urer and 4 miles S W. of Springfield. The town has 
distilleriee, woollen-mills, etc. Pop. in 1900, 2636. 

Agawam, Plymouth co., Mass. See East WABSlAif. 

Agawam River, a small stream of Plymouth oo., in 
the E. part of Massachusetts, whioh unites its waters with 
Bottermilk Bay. The Westfield River (q.v.), in Hassachn- 
fctia, is also ealled Agawam in the lower part of its course. 

Agayak, A-gi-ylf', island, Alaska. SeeSBVEH Islaitds. 

Agazsaao, i-gtts-ft'no, a village of Italy, province 
SBd 12 miles SW. of Plaeensa. Pop. 600 (commune, 2800). 

Agde, Igd (ane. Ag'atka), a town of France^ depart- 
sseat of H6ranlt, on the Hiraalt and on the Canal du Hidi, 
2 miles flrom the Mediterranean and 30 miles SW. of 
HootpeOier. Pop. in 1901, 8827 ; of the commune. 9533. 
It is pleasantly situated, but, being built of black basalt, 
has a grim appearance, and is popularly ealled "the Blaeli 
tavBL" The most interesting edifice is the cathedral of 
St. Btianne, a medisval fbrtined church. It has an active 
trade with ue Mediterranean ports. The harbor has been 
laig^ filled in by sediment derived from the Rhone and 
eairied by westerly currents. 

Ageueam and Agediaeam. See 8cm. 

A^edaaam, an andeot name of Anim. 

Agee, a post-hamlet of Hamilton co., Tex. 

Agea, l^zh&a^ (anc. Agin'nim), a town of France, oap- 
ital of the department of Lot-et-Garonne, on the Garonne, 
and on a railway, 73 miles 8E. of Bordeaux. Pop. about 
18,600 ; of the commune (1901), 22,482. It is a quaint old 
town, with a medimva] cathedral and several interesting 
bridges. It has mann&ctnres of sail-cloth, serge, cotton 
prints, leather, etc, and dye-works. 

Ag^aais. l<shi'ni', a mediaeval district of Franeci in 
Guienne. The chief town was Agen. 

AgeacT, a poet-town of Wapello eo., Iowa, in Agency 
township, on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy S., 6 
miles B. of Ottumwa. The village is situated on a fine 
prairie, on the site of an old Indian agency. Pop. in 1900, 

Ageacy, a jpost-village of Buchanan oo., Mo^ on the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa T6 R., 11 miles BE. of St. 
Joseph. Pop. in 1900, 380. 

Agea'da, a post-hamlet of Republic oo., Kan., 8 miles 
N. by W. of Clyde. 

Agendicnm, an ancient name of Sbbs. 

Ager, &-HaiB', a town of Spain, in Catalonia, 26 miles 
NNE. of Linda. Pop. 2000. 

Agerl, Lake. See Axgxri. 

Ager Itagdnaeaais, the Latin name of Ltovhais, 

Agertt, l'nr-8^, an island off the W. coast of Norway, 
stilt of Trondl^em. 

Agger, Ig'ghf r, a natural water communication between 
the Lim-Fjord and the North Sea, in Denmark, formed 
daring a storm in 1826. 

Aggershani, i^Khtrs-hooss\ Aggerskas, or Ak- 
ersbas, an amt of Norway, stift of Christiania. Area, 
2066 sq. m. Pop. in 1900, 116,113. Capital, Christiania. 

Aggerstt, tg'gh«rs-Ji\ a small island of Denmark, in 
the Great Belt, 3 mUes SW. of Seeland. 

Aggias, kd^aroooey a village of the island of Sardinia^ 
36 miles NB. of Sassari. Pop. 406 (commune, 2600). 

Aggteiek, Sg'tU'«k<, a village of Hungary, in the 
oonnty of OSmVr, 6 milee flrom Toma^ja. It is noted for 
its laive stalaotite cavern. 

Agnadea, a town of Africa. See Aoadbs. 

Aghrlm, or Aughrim, awg'rim or awn* rim, a parish 
of Ireland, oo. of Galway, 13 miles NE. of Longhrea. It 
is famous for the victoiy obtained here in 1691 by the troops 
of William III. over those of James II. 

Aginconrt, &'shia>*kooB', or Aziacoart, i'tiii*^- 
kooB', a village of France, Pas-de-Calais, 13 miles NW. of 
St. Pol, near which, on Oct. 26, 1416, the English, under 
Heniy V., defeated a vastly superior French force. 

Agiaaam, an ancient name of Aobh. 

Agio Strati, &'jo stri'tee, a Turkish island of the Gre- 
cian Archipelago, 46 miles WNW. of Mitylene. 

Agira, &-jee'ril, formerly Saa Filippo d'Argird, 
sin fe-lip'po daR-jee-ro' (anc Afryrtun), a town of Sicily, 
province of Catania, 9 miles BE. of Nicosia. Pop. in 1901, 
10,836 ; of the commune, 17,738. 

Agiar, a town of Anstria-Unngary. See Aqdileja. 

Agliano, &l-yi'no, a village of Italy, province of Ales- 
sandria, near Montenosso. Pop. about 1000 (commune, 


Aglife, il-y&', a town of Italy, province of Turin, 9 
miles SW. of Ivrea. Pop. about 1600 (commune, 3300). 
It is beautifolly situated upon a hill, and has a splendid 
royal palace, with parks and gardens. 

Agliah, a town of Ireland. Bee Castlbbab. 

Agly, i^glee', or Gly, glee, a river of France, depart- 
ments of Ande and Pyr£n6es-0rientales, fUls into the Medi- 
terranean near Bacaris. 

Agmoadesham, a town of England. See Abxbshah. 

Agaa, in'yi, a town of Italy, province of Padua, 6 
miles SE. of Conselve. Pop. about 3000. 

Agaadello, &n-yi-dtI'lo, a village of Italy, province of 
Cremona, 10 miles E. of Lodi. Here in 1609, Louis XII. 
of France gained a victory over the Venetians ; and here, 
in 1706, Pnnoe Eugene was defeated by the Duke of Ven- 
d6me. Pop. 1100. 

Agaaaa Calabra, &n-y&'ni k&'li-bri, a town of Italy, 
province of Regrio di Calabria, 3 miles N. of Gerace. Pop. 
about 1200. It lias sulphur and mineral springs. 

Agnaao, &n-y&'no, a small lake of Italy, 4^ miles W. of 
Naples, oooupying the crater of an extinct volcano. This 
lake has been drained sinoe 1870. Near it are the Grotta 
del Cane and the sulphur baths of San Germane. 

Agnes, a post-hamlet of Parker co., Tex., 18 miles N. 
of Weatherfora. 

Agnes, Lake, a beautiful Alpine lake of Alberta, Can- 
ada, near Laggan Station, on the Canadian Pacific R. Ele- 
vation, 6820 feet. 

AgnetUen, &g'nit-len (Hun. Stent- Agota), a town 
of Transylvania, 28 miles WNW. of Hermanstadt. Pop. 
2890, mostly Germans. 

Agnew, a post-village of Ottawa oo., Mich., near the 
shore of Lake Michigan, 8 miles by rail S. of Grand Haven. 
Pop. about 80. 

Agnews, a post-village of Santa Clara oo., Cal., on 
the Bouthetn Pacific R., 6 miles from San Job£ and 40 miles 
BE. of Ban Francisco. It is the seat of the state lunatic 
asylum, with 900 inmates. Pop. about 100. 

Digitized by 


AsrneWa Station 


A gnttAiHtt. 

AgBew*! Station, or Agiiew, in Tenaogo m., P>., 
ii on the Emlenton ud Bhipp«nTill« R., 3 milM B. <rf 

AgnOf In'yo, a river of Italy, an affluent of the Adige 
from the left. Length, above 60 milee. See Ano. 

Agno, in'yo, a nllace of Switzerland, oanton of Tidno, 
on Lake Aeno, 3 milee W. of Lneano. Pop. 800. 

Ano Graade, Rio, ree'o Ig'no gr&n'di, a river of 
the Philippine Islands, island of Lason, discharges into the 
Golf of Lingaven, after a oourse of abont 112 milee. 

Agnoae, an-yo'ni, a town of Italy, province and 20 
miles NW. of Campobasso. Pop. in ItOl, 0806 (commune, 
9793). It is celebrated for its copper- works. Here are 
snlphor and mineral sprincs. 

Agoa de PftO, i'gwC di pdwii>, a mountain of the 
island of St. Michael, Aiores, near its centre. 

Agoa de Pfto, a village on the S. shore of the island 
of St. Michael, Asores, 15 milee E. of Fonta Delgada. 

Ago'gebic Ijake, in the W. part of the upper penin- 
sula of Michigan. Its outletjoins Ontonagon River. Length, 
following the bend of the lake, li milee ; breadth, 2 milee. 

Agogna, i-gSn'yi, or Gogna, gBn'y&, a river of Italy, 
risee in Lake Orta, and, flowing B., enters the Po, 16 miles 
NB. of Alessandria. 

AgOB, k^gin^, a seaport of France, department of 
Manehe, opposite Jersey. Pop. (commune) in 1901, 1844. 

Agoo, a-go-«', a town and commune of La Cnitfn prov- 
ince, Loion, Philippine Islands, near Uie mouth of Lin- 
gay<n Onlf, abont 20 miles (direct) S. of San Fernando. It 
produeee rice, niaii& sugar-cane, and cotton. Pop. 10,(60. 

Agordo, i-goR'do, a town of Italy, in a fruitnil plain, 
12 milee NW. of Belluno. It possesses, in the valley of 
Imperina, rich copper-minee. Pop. 900 (commune, 3000). 

Agost, t-gost', a town of Spain, in Valencia, 12 milee 
W. of Alicante. It is of Arab origin, and has an aneient 
castle and a fountain. Pop. about 2000. 

Agosta, i-goe'tA, or Aagnsta, Sw-goos'ti, a city of 
Sicily, province of Syraonse, on a penlnsuhi in the Mediter- 
ranean, 19 miles by rail N. of Syracuse. Pop. in 1901, 
16,817. In 1693 it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake. 

Agosta, a post- village of Marion eo., Onio, on the Cleve- 
land, Cinoinn^, Chicago and St. Louis R., 10 miles (direct) 
W. of Marion, its banking point. Pop. about 000. 

Agon^, &-gwi', or Agwey, a commercial seaport of the 
French colony of Dahomey, on the coast of Quinea, near 
the border of Togo-Land. Pop. 6600. 

Agowmeder, or Agaameder, &<gow-mi'der, a dis- 
trict in Abyssinia, SW. of Lake Ttana. 

AgowR, i'e8wt\_ a people of Abyssinia. See ABTSsiin A. 

Agra, i'gn, a division of the United Provinces of Agra 
and Oudh, British India. Area, 10,139 so. m. Pop. in 1901, 
6,248,100. It borders apon Oudh, Allaiiabad, Riyputana, 
etc. It is a fertile region, generally flat, and destitute of 
wood. In many parts there is a denoieney of water. The 
soil is well adapted to the cultivation of indigo, cotton, 
tobacco, and sugar; wheat and barley, however, form the 
principal crops, and rice is cultivated in the vicinity of the 
rivers. Cotton is the staple product. 

A«ra, i'1^4, or Akbarabad, lk-bar<i-b&d'j a city of 
British India, capital of a division and district in the 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, on the right bank of 
the river Jumna, 116 miles 88E. of Delhi and 740 miles 
WNW. of Calcutta. Lat. 27° 11' N.; Ion. 78° B. A 
part of the city is now in a ruinous stat^ but it still 
maintains much of its original splendor and has prospered 
greatly under English rule. The houses generally are I<rfty, 
consisting of several stories ; the streets are extremely nar- 
row. Asra contains some fine public buildings of recent 
date, and some of its more ancient stmctnree are on a scale 
of great magnificence. Of these the most celebrated is the 
Tag Mahal, a mausoleum built in the seventeenth oentniy 
by the Emperor Shah Jehan, in commemoration of his 
favorite queen. This superb edifice, the finest in India, 
forms a quadrangle, 190 yards square, with a lofty dome 
of 70 feet diameter in the centre, and tall minarets rising 
from the angles. It is built of white marble ; and the great 
central hall is paved with squares of various-colored marble, 
while the walls, tombs, and screens are ornamented with 
exquisite mosaic-work. The whole cost of the building is 
said to have i>een 3,174,802 pounds sterling. It is snr- 
ronnded by a garden adorned with fountains and containing 
a profusion of fine trees and flowering shrubs. The Moti- 
Maqid, or "Pearl Mosque," closely rivals in beauty of 
construction the Taj Mahal. Agra has various manufac- 
tures, and is noted for its magnificent moeaio-work. It is 
the seat of Agra College and of St. John's College. It 
has a trade in cotton, grain, tobacco, salt, indigo, and sugar. 
Pop. in 1901, 188,022. Agra was for a time the capital 
of the Mogul empire in Induk It was taken by the British' 
in 1803. 

Agra, a banking poet-village of Phillips eo., Kan., 60 
milesby railW. of Hankato. Pop. 300. 

Agra, a banking poet-village of Lincoln eo., Okla., on 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas R. 

Agrakhan, &g-r&-K&n', a o»e and bay of Ciscauoaiia. 

Agraai, i'gr&m (Hun. Z&grib, sfgifb ; Croat. ZofTth, 
si'greb; L. Zagrabiaj, capital of Croatia and Slavonia, 
near the Save, 160 miles 8SW. of Vienna. It is an old 
but thoroughly modemited town, with many handsome 
public bailaings, chnrohee, and monuments. The eentro of 
activity is the J^lachich square, on whieli stands the South 
Slavic Academy of Sciencee. Among the other prominent 
institutions are the National Mnseam, the National Theatre 
(1895), and the Francis Joseph University. Among the 
numerous higher academies are several fi>r women. Aeram 
is the oentie of South-Slavic learning and the fooos of Croa- 
tian national life. It is the seat of a CathoKe arohbishop. 
The medisBval cathedral is in process of restoration. On the 
outskirts of the city is the magnificent archiq)iscopal park. 
The manufactures include carpets, silk, porcelain, looomo- 
tivee and oars, brandy, beer, and leather. Pop. in 1901, 
67,689. In 1880, Agram experienced a sueoeesion of very 
destructive earthquake shocks. The county 'of Agram had 
in 1901 a pop. of 476,928. 

Agrate-Briansa, L-gri'ti-bre-ln'ti, a village of 
Italy, province of Milan, 3 miles E. of Monxa. Pop. abont 

Agreda, i-gri'oi, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, 23 
milee NB. of Soria. Pctp. 3000. 

Agri, a river of Italy, in the province of Potenia, Sows 
E. into the Gulf of Taranto. 

Agrib, &-greeb', Agarrib, i'gai^reeb', or Grarib, 
griUreeb', Mount, or Jebel G£arib, or Kharib, a 
mountain of Egypt, about 16 miles inland fVom the Onlf 
of Sues. Lat. 28^ 12' N. ; Ion. 32° 43' B. It is of a coni- 
cal form, 7880 feet high, according to Schweiafttrth, and 
can be seen at a distance of 100 miles. 

Agric'ola, a post-hamlet of Qlasoock co., 6a., on the 
Ogeechee River, 62 miles SW. of Augusta. Pop. 25. 

Agricola, a poet-village of Coffey co., Kan., abont 26 
miles bv rail SW. of Ottawa. 

Agricola, a town of British Ouiana, on the B. bank of 
the Demerara River. Pop. 2080. 

Agricnitural College, Md. See Collxsipark. 

Agricnltmal College, a poat-hamlet of Ingham 
CO., Mich., and a thriving state institution, is situatod 3^ 
miles B. of Lansing. The college had enrolled in 1900, 637 

Agrigentnm, an aneient city of Sicily. See Oirsihti. 

Agrinion, L-grin'e-on, a town of Qreeoe, in the nome 
of Aoamania and iEtolia. Pop. abont 7000. It is a mart 
for tobacco. 

Agris, i^gree', a village of France, dntartmant of Cha- 
lente, 6 miles NB. of La Rochefoucauld. Pop. in 1901, 1130. 

Agropoli, i-grAp'o-lee, a maritime town of Italy, prov- 
ince and 30 miles SB. of Salerno. Pop. abont 1200. 

Agna. or Tolcdn de, vol-k&n' di i'gwl (i.e., " water- 
volcano"), a remarkaUe volcano of Guatemala, 8W. of 
the city of Guatemala. Its height is variously placed be- 
tween 12,300 and 13,500 feet. Old Guatemala (Guatemala 
la Viqa) was in 1641 destroyed, it is said, by the eruption 
of enormous masses of water fVom this volcano, wheaoe its 

Agoa Caliente, t'swi UUle-in'ti (t.«., "warm 
water," or "warm spring"), a poet-hamlet of Maricopa cc, 
Aris., on the Gila River, 80 miles SW. of Phceniz. 

Agna Caliente, a poat-hamlet of Sonoma oo., Oal., on 
the California and Northwestern R., 46 miles N. of San 

Agnacate, i-gwi-k&'ti, a mountain of CMta Rica, in 
Al^uela provinee. It cont^ns workable gold. 

Agnacate, a town of Havana province, Cuba, 19 milee 
W. of Matanias. It has a post-office. Pop. in 1899, 1566. 

Agnachapa, Vgwi-oht'pl, a town of Salvador, 30 
miles firom the Paoifie. on the Guatemala-Sonsonate road. 

Agnada, i-gw&'Dt, a town of Porto Rico, near the bay 
of AguadilU and 6 miles SK bv S. of that town. Pop. 
2600. It is said to have been toe first landinc-place of 
Columbus in 1493. It was much damaged by a nurricase 
in 1899. 

Agnada del Cnra, i-ewl'Di d(l koo'rl, a hamlet of 
Pinar del Rio provinoe, Cuba, 12 milee by rail fhtm Ha- 
vana. Cane and tobacco are grown in the region, whieh is 
fiat and brushy. 

Agnadas, i-gw&'Dis, a town and commune of Colom- 
bia, in the provinoe of Antloqnia. Pop. 13,000. 

AgnadHla, l-gwL-oeel'yl, a town wd seaport of Porto 
Rico, on a magnificent bay, about 66 miles W. of San Juan. 
It is pietureeqae, and exports coffee^ >ngar, and tobaooa. 
Pop. in 1899, 6426. 

Digitized by 


Affua Duloe 



A««aD«lee, i'xwi OxM'ii (i.*., " sweet water"), • 
««A of Naeeas eo., Tex., liowi into LMruna del Msdra. 

Ag«a Fria« I'gwi bitfi, ft rirer in Ariaona, the largert 
northem trUnitai7 of the Qila. It haa at fint a northward 
eeone, bnt tnma, and thenoeforth flowa sonthward; and 
Joins the Oiln aboot lat. HP 2&' N. 

AnArieO) l^gwl'-ree-ko, a river of Eenador, rises near 
the (MomUan fVontier, and flows in an indirect SB. course 
to join the river Napo, trarersini sereral lakes. It is S40 
miles in length, and flows in an uidian oountry. 

Agnas &«««••, I'cwis bwi'nis, a village of Porto 
Biso, 14 milee 8. of San Juan. It is connected with Cacuas 
bv high-road. It is snrroonded bv oofTee- and fmit-garMns. 
Vvfta 1899, 1309. 

AgHasealientea, i'gwis-kl-le4n'tfc, a town of 
Hexioo^ state of Agoasoalientes, on the Mexioan Central 
R., 270 miles NW. of the city of Mexico. It stands in 
a plain opward of 6000 feet above the sea, and is favorably 
sitoated for trade, the road from Zaoateoas to Sonora and 
I>Brann> eranng her* the liighwa; from San Luis Potosi 
to Gnanahqara. It has nnmeroos chorehee, convents, and 
a hospital, and is surrounded bv gardens with olives, vines, 
flsa, pears, ete. In the vicinity are warm sprioAS, firom 
wUeh the town takes its name. Of these Uie Bafio la 
Ontteia, with a temperature of 100°, is the most noted. 
Pop. in 1900, 30,052. 

AcMtscaliente*) a state of Mexico, on the Mexioan 
plataaa, in the SB. oentral part of the oonntry, and adjoin- 
ing the statu of Zaoateoas and Jalisoo. High mountains 
abound in the western part, and extensive plains in the 
east. Among its products are wheat, barley, beans, litho- 

Saphie and onildbig stoney and precious metals. Most of 
e state is under onltiration. Capital, Agnasoalientes. 
Pen. in 1900, 101,910. 

Asaaa Calieates, a town and railway station of Peru, 
S7 milai firom Arequipa. Slevation, 9737 feet. It has 
eopioos warm sulphur springs. 

AgaedSf &-ga'Dt, a river of Spain, affluent of the 
Souro, forming part of the bonndaiy of Portugal. 

Acac^B* l^ga'di, a town of Portugal, district of Aveiro, 
13 miles SB. of Aveiro. Pop. about lOOO. 

Agaigaa, i-she-Hn', or AgnUan, &-ghe-atn', a 
sauU inhabited iuandof the I«drones, N. of Rota. It is 
neky aad densely wooded. 

Agnilar, i-ghe-lan', a banking post-town of Las Ani- 
mas CO., Colo^ on the Colorado and Southern R^ 00 miles S. 
of PneUo. it has a eoal-miniag indnstry. Fop. in 1900, 

Agaikw de Campoo. L-Khe-lan' di kkn-po'o, a vil- 
lage of Spain, S9 miles NNB. of Palencia, on the Pisnerga, 
nrroanded Iqr mined walls. Pop. in 1897, 1575. 

Agailar ae Campos, i-ghe-laR' d& klm'poce, a town 
«f Spain, 34 miles NW. of VJladolid. Pop. alrant 1400. 

A«ailar4ela Froatera, l-ghe-la«' di 1& fron-ti'ri, 
a town of Spain, 23 milee 6SE. of Cordova, on the Cabra. 
It has flne puhlie sqoares and a dismantled Moorish castle. 
Tb* ehnreh of Santa Claraoontains some notable paintings. 
The sarromding eoontiy prodnoes excellent wine. Pop. 
in 1897, 13,329. 

Apailas, I'ghe-lSs, a town of Spain, in Mnroia, on the 
Mediterranean, 37 miles 8W. of Cartagena, with a small 
bat scenre port. It exports grain, and has smelting-works 
for the reduction of silver and lead. Pop. in 1897, 13,881. 

AcUoieS; i-gwee'mfc, a town of Oran Canaria, at the 
fcot of Mount Gtuyadeque. 

Acnlenitza, a-goo-li-nit'si, a town of (Greece, in the 
Morea, nome of Messenia, 20 miles SB. of Gastouai. 

Agalkaa, l-goid'yis (sometimes Improperly written 
Lasaliaa), Cape and Baalu The former is in fait 34° 
51' SO" 8., Ion. 19° 50' 30" B., being the sonthemmost 
point «f Anriea, and is situated about 100 miles BSE. from 
the CSspe of Qood Hope. Its highest part is 465 feet above 
the level of the sea. A light-house on the cape stands on 
an elevation abont 53 feet above high water; the tower 
is 70 feet high, and the light is seen for vpward of 18 

Agaaa, &-goo'nl, a small state in west Africa, oo the 
Oold Coast, under British protection. 

-Agar, a town of India. See Aceatnt. 

Acaraara, or Agaipara, t-gar-p&'ri, a town of Ben- 
gaL 7 miles N. of Caleatta. fm. about 25,000. 

AgasAn, &-)n>o-sin', or BntuAa, boo-too-&n', the 
largest river of Mindanao, Philippine Islandsu rises near 
Davao Onlf, flows 236 miles parallel to the E. coast, be- 
tween two mountain-chains, and empties into Bntnin Bay, 
SB the N. coast. 

Agataya, ft-goo-tl'&, or Alataya, &-loo-tI'i, one of 
the Cnyes or Oalamiaaea Islands, Philippines, is very 
ragged, aad prodooea ooooanuts, oattle, sheep, and fish. 
Agntaya (or Alntaya) is the chief paeblo. Pop. 2046. 

Agwey» in Dahomey. See Aaovi. 

AgyiA, a village of Thessaly, Qreece, 20 miles B. by 
N. of Larissa. Pop. in 1890, 2420. 

Agyrinm, a city of ancient Sicily. See AaiBA, 

Anaggar, Sahara. See Hogoab. 

AJiapop'ka, a large lake of Orange and Sumter eos., 
Fla., one of the sources of the Ocklawuia Biver. 

Anat-Ktti, &'hlt-ka'ee, a village of Anatolia, 6 miles 
from Ushak. It has ruins supposed to be those of the 
anoient Aemonta. 

Ahaas, i'hSwss, a town of Prussia, in Westphalia, on 
the Aa, 27 milee WNW. of Mttnster. Pop. in 1900, 3930. 

Ahii, i.'ee' or Tyee', or Peacock Islantl, a small 
uninhabited island in the Low Archipelago, Paumotu 
group, Pacifio Ocean, surrounded by a coral belt from 200 
to 500 feet in breadth. 

Abiola, &-hee'o-lu, or Anchi'alos (ano. Anehi'ale, 
Aiuki'altu), a seaport of Eastern Rumelia, on the Black 
Sol 48 miles SSW. of Tama. Pop. about 5000. 

Aklea, i'lfn, a town of Prussia, in Westphalia, IB miles 
SB. of Mttnster, on the Worse. Pop. in 1900, 6565. 

AhlfeM, a town of Prussia. See ALfELD. 

Ahme4abad,&<med-&-b&d' (•'.«., "abodeof Ahmed"), a 
city of Gqjerat, British India, capital of a district of its own 
name, on the Sabermutti River, 310 miles N. of the city of 
Bombay. It was founded in 1412, uid was long a splendid 
Hohaiunedan capital, but has greatly declined. It has 
eotton-mills, large silk-works, and mannfoctnres in gold 
brocades, pottery, paper, and tin. It is a centre of Oriental 
art. Its great mosque and its Jain temple are fine struct- 
ures. Here is a famous well, with underground galleries. 
Among the educational institutions is Mt Qnia College. 
Pop. in 1901, 185,889. 

AIlHedabad, a district of Gcgerat, Bombay preei- 
denoy, British India, at the head of the Qnlf of Cambay. 
Capital, Ahmedabad, It is low and hot, but prodnoes much 

Ahmedanggar, t^med-nng'giir, or Ah^madna'- 
gar, a city of British India, capital of a district of the 
same name, 64 miles NE. of Poena. Pop. in 1901, 41,700. 
The oitv, enclosed by a wall, is half a mile from the fort, 
which Is stone-built, 1 mile in circuit, and oocupied by a 
British garrison. It was taken by the British under Gen- 
eral WeUesIey, Aug. 12, 1803. The oity has manufactures 
of carpets, oopper, and brass, Xear it is a flne palace of 
the former native princes. 

Ahmedanggor, a district of Bombay, British India, 
in Gi^erat. Capital, Ahmednuggur. 

Abmedanggnr, a town of British India, United Prov- 
inces of Agra and Oudh, 40 miles SB. of AliEhur, 

AbmeaparaBarra, i-med-poor' bar'rl ^t.e., "the 
great"), a town of British India, in a well-imgated and 
fertile tract, 30 miles SW. of Bahawalpnr. 

Ahmedpur-Chnta, ohoo'tl (i.e., "the little"), a 
town of British India, in Bahawalpur, near the Indus, 

Ahmed-Shahi. See Kahdahak. 

Ah^mad', or Amod, a town of British India, presi- 
dency of Bombay, 12 miles tl. by W. of Baroach. 

Abnapee, or Ahnepeei ah-nf-pee', a post-township 
(town) of Kewaunee co., Wis., on Lake Miohiean, at the 
month of the Ahnapee River, alwut 100 miles M. of Mil- 
waukee. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1196. See Alooha. 

Ahoskie, a post-town of Hertford oo., M.C., on the 
Atlantic Coest Lme, 15 miles (direct) SW. of Gatesville. 
Pop. in 1900, 302. 

Ahr, |r, a river of Prussia, in the Rhine province, 
rising in the Eifiisl Mountains and falling into the Rhine 

Alurenibttck, I'rf ns-b{fk\ a village belonging to Olden- 
burg. 10 milee NE. of LUbeck. Pop. 1640. 

AJtreasbnrg, &'rens-b56RO\ a village of Prussia, in 
Sohleswig-Holstein, 13 miles NE. of Hainburg. 

Ahrweiler, aB'«I'l«r, a town of Rhenish Prussia, 23 
miles NW. of Coblens, on the Ahr. Pop. in 1900, 5110, 

Ahtaaam, a post-hamlet of Yakima eo,, Wash, 

Ahaacatldn, i-wl-k&t-I&n', a town and commune of 
Mexico, in the sUte of Qner«taro. Pop. in 1895, 5929. 

AhuachapAo, 1-wi-chi-pin', a department in the 
SW. part of Salvador, bounded on the S. 1^ the Pacific 
Ocean. The Coast Range traverses it from E. to W., and 
there are several volcanoes. The fertile valleys produce 
sngar-eane, coffee, tobacco, ootton, fruit, and vegetables. It 
exports coffee and sugar, and imports merchandise, meronry, 
oattle, and mules. Capital, Anuachap&n. Pop, in 1901, 

Abaachapdn, a town in the republic of Salvador, Cen- 
tral America, capital of a department of the same name, 50 
miles W. by N. of San Salvador. Pop. about 12,000. 

Abnalulco, &-wl-lool'ko, a town and commune of Mex- 
ico, in the state of Jalisoo, Pop. in 1895, 5302, 

Digitized by 





Aliaa, I'Sa^ or i^hSa^ (me. Ag*d»if»im), • town of 
Fnnoe, deputment of Crraia, II miM 8B. of OiiCret. Pop. 
in 1901, 2S98. In iU vioinity are ooal-mlnes. 

▲hUHtsic, a post-rilla^ of HoobeUga oo., Qa«beo, 
Canada, 6 miles from Montreal. Pop. abont SM. 

Ahariri (Port), 1} mile* ftom Napier, Now Zealand. 

Ahns, o'hoois, a Tillase of Sweden, on the Baltio, IS 
milea SE. of Chrirtiaoataa, of which it is the port, having 
a good liarbor at the mouth of the Helgei. 

Ahwac, a formerly important town of Persia, in Ebn- 
listan, OD the Karon, 40 miles S. by W. of Shoster. Pop. 

Aia X, a river of Russia, provinee of Orenburg, risins in 
the Unu Mountains, flows generally «W., and iStUs uto 
the river Ufa, after a course of 170 miles. 

AI) a town of Franoe. See At. 

Ai, I, a poet-hamlet of Fulton oo., Ohio, 23 miles W, of 

Ai| a paet-village of Putnam eo., Tenn., 8 miles W. of 
Cookeville, its Iwnking point. 

Aia (i'yi), Cape^ on the S. eoast of Russia, extending 
into the Blaok Sea. 

AlaSf I'ls (ano. JE'ga), a town of Asia Minor, on the 
Gulf of Iskandenn, 86 miles SE. of Adana. 

Albling) I'bling, a town of Upper Bavaris. 28 miles 
68E. of Munich. It has mineral baths. Pop. in IMO, 3247. 

AiboaitO) I-bo-nee'to, a town of Porto Rioo, on the 
highway between Ponoe and San Juan, and 26 miles 
ENE. of the former. At an elevation of 3000 feet it is 
oool and flree from malari^ and is used as an aooHmatising 
station. It is surround^ oy coffee plantations. Pop. about 
2200 ; of the Jnrisdiotion, 6000. It was mnch damaged by 
a horricane in 1899. 

Aicha. I'kL or BAmisch Aloha) a village of Bohe- 
mia, 19 miles N. by E. of Buntslan. 

Aichach, I'sic, a town of Bavaria, on the Paar, 11 
miles XE. of Augsburg. Pop. in 1900, 267S. 

Aid I a post- village of Lawrenoe eo., Ohio. Pop. about 

AMen, a village of California. See Adin. 

AldenTillet a village of Califomia. See Annr. 

Aidin, I-de«t', or Gtt>el>His«aT, gil'sil'-hU'saB' 
(anc. Tral'lf), a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Asia Minor, 
near the Menderes, 81 miles SE. of Smyrna. It is 4 miles 
in circuit, and is the residence of a pasha and a plaoe of 
great trade. Baiaais, shaded by trees, line the streets. It 
eontains many mosqnea, ehnrobes, and synagogues. It has 
Biannflietnres of morocoo leather. Pop. about 36,000. 

AldlB, a vilayet or province of Tukey, in Asia Minor, 
known also as the vilayet of Smyrna. Area, abont 20,600 
so. m. Chief towns, Bmyma (the capital), Manisa, and 
Aidin. CUef exports, grain, carpets, ootton, llgi, raisins, 
gills, licorice^ opium, sesame, sponges, vallonia, and wool. 
Pop. l,3<M,iOO. 

Aidliligea, Idling^n, a town of Wttrttemberg, Ger- 
many, 6 miles W. of BSblingen. 

Aldoae, l-do'Di, a town of Sicily, S6 milee 8W. of the 
city of Catania. Pop. about 7000. 

Aigash, I'gash', or Aigas, i-gtss', a beautlftil island 
in Inverness-shire, Scotland, formed bv the river Beanly. 

Aigiaa* an island and a town of Greece. See jBenf A. 

Aigle* a'g'l, a town and resort of Switserland, canton 
of Vaad, 21 miles SE. of Lausanne. It lias a large chateau. 
Blaok marble is quarried in iU vicinity. Pop. in 1900, 3911. 
Elevation, 1376 feet (on the Orande-£au). 

Aigle* a town of France. See Laiolb. 

AJgaaa^ in-yiiK, a village of Frano^ department tt 
Gers, 20 miles NW. of Mirande. Pop. in 1901, 1360. 

AlgrC) aign, a town of Frano^ department of Chatente, 
20 mUes NNW. of Angoul«me. Pop. in 1901, 13M. 

Aigrefenille, aig'r'f^' or aitPr^fo'yfh, a village of 
Franoey department of Cbarente-Inftrieore, 13 milee by 
raU N. of Boohefort. Pop. in 1901, 1480. 

Alg«ebeUe> ^g'b4U', a village of Franoe, in Savoie, on 
the left bank of the Are, 16 miles by rail B. of ChambCry. 
It is oelebrated for the rictory gained by the Frenoh and 
SMoiatds over the Sardinian fotees in 1742. Near it bo- 
gus the road eonstmeted by Napoleon over Mont Cents. 

Aigoefoade, aig^f&iid', a village of France, depart- 
ment of Tarn, 4 mfies W. of Masamet. Pop. in 1901, 

Aigaeperse, alg^pina' (L. A'mta Spar'ia), a town 
of F^o& deputment ot Pny-de-Domey 11 miles by rail 
NNB. of Riom. Poo. in 1901, 2191. It has mineral springs. 

Aifnes-Chanaes. See Bacx Cbaodm. 

Aigaes-Mortes, aig^mont' (L. A'qum Mor'nia), a 
town of Franoe, department of Gara, in a marshy traot, on 
a railway, 3 miles fh>m the Medltemneia and 21 miles 
BW. of Nimes. It still retains its anoient fortileattons, 
which p r sssat a perfect specimen of a fsndal fortress. The 

town is fttUtrfmedissval antiquities. It communicates with 
the sea by the Grande Bobine Cinal, its harbor having b«en 
silted n^ Pop. in 1901, 4233. 

Aigoes-TiTeR, AigVeev' (L. A'mm Vi>va), a village 
of France, in Qard, 16 miles SSW. of Ntmes. 

Aigaille da Dm, i'gweer' dli drii, a mountain of 
France, of the Mont Blanc group. Altitude, 12,320 feet. 

Aigaille da Otoat. Bee Coldu GiAicT. 

Aigaille da Midi, a mountain of the Mont Blanc 
group, France. Elevation, 12,608 feet. 

Aiguille, L', a mountain of France^ in Isdra. 

Aigailles Rouges, i'gweer' roosh, the name of a 
number of adonlar peaks of France, of the Mont Blane 
group, overlooking the valley ot diamonni. 

Aiguille Tene, i'gweer' virt, a mountain of Franoe, 
of the Mont Blano group. Altitude, 13,640 feet 

AignillOB, I'gwee^yiip', a town of France, depart- 
ment of Lot-et-Qwonn& at the confluence of the Lot with 
the Garonne, 16 miles NW. of Agen. It has Roman and 
mediteval remains. Pwp. in 1901, 1660. 

AiguB, l-goon', a Chinese town of Manchuria, on the 
Amur, abont 18 miles fhna the Rossian firontier, is a flonr- 
ishing trading station, and the seat of a governor. It is 
surrounded bv palisades. Pop. 16,000. The tre^ between 
Rnssia and Cnina by which toe former aoqoired the Amur 
country was concluded here in 1868. 

Aigaraade, I'gii^rAKd', a town of France, department 
of Indre, 13 miles BW. of La ChUre. Pop. in 1901, S4S6. 

AUerbaagis, I'yar-b&ne'ghis, a town on the W. coast 
of Sumatra, SO miles SB. of Natal. 

Aikatra, I-kah-wah', a town near the W. coast of Sado 
Island, Japan, abont 45 miles W. by N. of Niigata. In 
the viclni^ are gold-mines, and the town has reduction- 
works. Pop. abont 13,000. 

Alkea, I'kfn, a coun^ of Sooth Carolina, Iwrdering 
on Oeorgii^ has ao area of 1096 sq. m. It is bounded on the 
BW. by the Savannah River, and Is intersected by the Edisto 
Uver. Large beds of poreelain clay are found here. Capi- 
tal, Aiken. Pop. in 1890, 31,822 : in 1900, 39,032. 

Aikea, a town and county of Minnesota. See ArrKBli. 

Aiken, a post-village of McEein oo., Pa., 11 miles by 
rail S. by E. of Bradford. Pop. abont 260. 

Aiken, a banking post-town and health-resort, the 
coital of Aiken oo., S.C., is situated on the Soothem R., 
17 miles ENE. of Augusta, Ga. It has the Aiken Insti- 
tntey the Bohofield Normal and Industrial Sohool, and manu- 
factures of eotton-seed oil, bricks, eto. The town, which is 
a cotton-trade centre, is situated at an elevation of 660 feet 
above sea-level, amidst gardens of Jessamine and orange- 
trees. The air is refreshingly balmy, with a mean temper- 
ature of the winter of 60 , and of autumn, 64°. Pop. in' 

Aikentoa, a post-town of Jasper oo., Ga., on the Cen- 
tral of Georgia R., 8 miles (direct) NE. of Hontioello. Pc^. 
in 1900, 136. 

Ailano, I-ll'no, a town of Italy, provinoe of Caserta, 9 
miles W. of Piedimonto. Pop. 1300. 

AilanthasgroTet a post-village of Gentry co.. Mo., 
on the West Fork of Grand River, 20 miles B. by S. of 

Alleir, a banking poet-village vt Montgomery oo., Ga., 
on the Seaboard Air Liney 3 miles (direct) E. of Mount 
Vernon. Pop. abont 300. 

AilleTiller*, IVee^yis', a town of France, department 
of Hante-SaOne, 20 miles Nw. of Lure. Pop., with Lyau- 
mont, in 1901, 2927. 

Ailmoatn, a town of England. See Alikouth. 

Ailor, a post-liamlet of Union co., Tenn. Pop. about 60. 

Ail«a (ile'sf) Craig, a remarkable island of columnar 
basalt, at the entrance of the Firth of Clyde, in Scotland, 
rising to an elevation of 1114 feet above the ievd of the sea. 
It has a light-hoose at its S. end. 

Ailsa Craig, a town in Middlesex oo., Ontario, Can- 
ada, on the Grand Trunk R., 24 miles W. of London. It 
has a bank, and is a shipping point for flonr, grain, lumbar, 
and livestock. Pop. in 1901, 744. 

Ailn lalaada, raoifle. See Kuvmnnxa luanw. 

one of the Rerrej Islands, in the Paoiflc It is 9 miles 
long, hilly and fertile ; and its encircling eona reef fsnees 
it mm the sea and makes the anchorage good for small 

Aimargaes, (''mang', a town of France, department 
of Gard, 12 mUes BW. ofNimes. Pop. in 1900, ttlS. 

Aime, aim (ano. Atnwta), a small town of France, de. 
partment of Savoie, 9 miles NB. of Montien. It has Ro- 

Ain, in* (ano. JOtmtuf), a river of Fiance, rises in the 
Jnra Monnttins, near Noieroy, and Joins the Rhone on the 
right, 18 miles above Lyons. Length, 118 miles. 

Digitized by 





Ai»f ft depuiment of Franoe, bordering on Switxer- 
had. Ana, 2258 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, S50,416. On the 
E. U M moantainoaa, and in the 6. and W. manhy. 
The highest eammita <rf the Jon HonntainK, the Cr9t-de-la 
Neige.(S<3» feat) and Moat Kesulet (MS? feet), are in 
thit department. The Bbooe boonds it on the B. and 8., 
tad the SaAne on the W. ; the Ain trarenea its centre. C^ 
ttal, Bonrg. There is a rast number of artificial lakes in 
the department, the largest not above 2 miles long. They 
are foond in the marehy ttaet called Dombes, and are main- 
tained for fish-breeding, hot at renlar interrala are drained 
off and their beds afford srops OT grain. There were for- 
merly about 2000, bat a oonsiderable proportion hare been 
permanently drained. Excellent litnographio stone and 
the funODS asphalt of Seyasd ai« a part of the prodnot of 

Aim, a post-station of Orant eo., Ark, 

Ainad, rnld', a small town of Arabia, Hadramant, 
OB the Wady Haggar, 200 miles NB. of Aden. 

AiMtr-le-ClAteaa, i'n&'-lfh-shlHi', a town of 
FranoSk in ABier, 20 miles N. of Ifontlafon. Pop. in 1001, 

Aiacer, a post-Tillage of Baton 00., Mich. Pop. about 75. 

AiM-Madif Ine-m&'deeS a towa of Algwia, boilt on a 
UU, about 40 mUes W. of Idtghonat. 

Aiao, t'no, <» Ain«, I'noo, a raoe of mm inhabiting 
the Knril Isbnds, Teao, Saghalin. and parts of the Sibe- 
rian prorinoe <rf Primonkaya. The Japanese, LDohoans, 
and Koreans are beUered to be largely of Aino deeeent. 
The Alnos are a genUe and inoffensiTe raoe^ have fUl beards, 
and are the "haiiyKarils" of navigators; bat the statement 
that their l>odies are entirely (overed with hair is an ez- 
aneralioD. In Japan they are called Jfo«'a ; in Siberia, 

Aitt>8«lak, Ine^si'lih, or Inaalah, a town of the 
Sahara, in the oasis of Toat, capital of the settlemoit of 

Aia-S«S«Ukf In»«', or simply Seflsifa, a 
TiOace of Algaiia, 151 miles 8SW. of Oran. 

Aui«8emi, In»«if r&, a Tillage of Algeria, 151 miles 
88W. of Oran. It is on the railroad nmning S. from Anew. 

Aiaalie (taa'Iee), I<ake, in iBvemess oonnty. Gape 
Breton, lies in the Talley of Ainalie, aboat 3 miles to the 
westward of Whycocomah Tillage, 8 miles S. of Mabon Har- 
bor. It is 12 miles long and 7 mile* broad at the widest 
part. The oatlet of Margaree Birer forms the northern 
comer of the lake. 

AinatT) ine'steSk a distriet of England, in the West 
Siding <rf Yorkshire. 

Aiaairoith, Ini'wfrth, a banking post-town of Wash- 
iagton eo., Iowa, on the Chicago, Rook Island and Paoific 
B., 32 miles WSW. of Moseatine. Pop. in 1000, 404. 

Aimswoith) a banking post-Tillage, capital of Brown 
CO., Neb., on the Fremont, Elkhom and Miisonri Talley 
&., 184 miles NW. of Neligh. Pop. in 1000, «06. 

Aimsworth, a poet-Tillage of British Colombia, on 
Kooteoay Lake. Pop. about 800. 

▲intab, Ine-tAb', a town of Asiatic Tnrkey, on the S. 
dope of Mount Tmuus, M miles NNB. of AI<i>po. Pop. 
about 45,000. It is a great seat of American missionary 
and educational work. 

Aia-Takasze, Ine-ti-klt'sl (•'.«., the "fountain or 
source of the Takasxe"), • small lake in Abyssinia, in the 
6. part of Tijrr<, whence flows the river Tskaue. 

Ala-TeAis, Ine-tUlis, a Tillage of Algeria, provinee 
af Oran, 12 miles NE. of Hostuaaem. 

Aia-Une, fn-oo'nfh, or Ain-Oaaeh, a haven of 
Airina, on the Red Sea, B. of the entrance to the 8ulf 
«f Akahah. Lat. 28° »' K. ; Ion. 35° 18' E. The interior 
af tiie haven is about 12 miles long, C broad, and fVom 12 to 
13 bthoms in depth ; a secure place of shelter. 

Ai>-Zarbe, Ine-iaB'beh, a town of Asiatic Turkey, 
Tilayet of Adana, on the Jihon, 35 miles NB. of Adana. 

ilaoa (I'fiw^) or Yowl Islaa4s, a oiraular group of 
lev iaiaa in the Malay Arohipalago, about 100 miles N. by 
W. ftam the NW. extremity of Papua or New Oninea. 

Aip«, I'pfh, a town of the republic of Colombia, in 
Toiima, 22 miles N. of Neyva. 

Ainile, I-kee'li, a town of Bolivia, in the department 
«f OooAaharnhk about 30 miles 8. of Hisque. 

Air, or AJtir. See Asnii. 

Airaiaes, i^rine' or iVin', a town of France, depart- 
ment of 8<mun«, 16 miles NW. of Amiens, with Important 
mmabotares. Pop. in IMl, 1834. 

Aitasca, l-rls^i, a town of Italv, 5 ndlea ENB. of 
Pimerolo. Pop. 1000 (commune^ 2000). 

AiT«o«rt« a toiwn of Ireland. See EmwncKT. 

Air4rie» aii'dree^ a town of Scotland, oo. of Lanark, 11 
Biles & by N. of Glasgow. Pop. in 1901, 22.288. The inm 
sad coal of its vieinity ar* very extensively wrought. It 

unites with Lanark, Hamilton, etc., in sending one member 
to the House of Commons. 

Aiida (airdx), Tke, a district of Sootland, oo. of Argyll, 
remarkable for its pioturesqne scenery. 

Aird'a Mosi, a tract of moorland in Scotland, oo, of 
Ayr, between the Ayr and the Lngar. 

Aire, aiR, or Aire-8ar>l*Adoar, aiR-ailB-li^dooB' 
(ano. Vi'etu Ju'litu, afterwards Atu'ret), an episcopal town 
of France, department of Landes, on the left bank of the 
Adour, 20 miles SE. of Mont-d»-Marsan. Pop. 38S(. 

Aire> ^n, or Aire>«ar>Ia-Iir8, ain-siiR-li-Ieece', a 
town of France, department of Pas-de-Calais, on the navi- 
gable river Lys and on three canals, 10 miles by rail SE. 
of St. Omer. The church of St. Pierre is a splendid edifice. 
Pop. in 1901, 7478, 

Aire, air, a river of England, oo. of York, joins the Ouse 
5 miles NW. of Ooole. Chief afilnent, the CUder. 

Airey, a village of Ontario. See ALSBOROcaB, 

Airey, a post-hamlet of Harrison oo., Miss. 

Aireya, air'Is, a post-village of Dorchester oo., Md., fl 
miles B. of Cambridge. 

Airfield, a poet-hamlet of Southunpton CO., Va. 

Airhill, a post-station of Montgomery oo., Ohio, 8 miles 
WNW. of Dayton. 

Airlie, aparish of Scotland, in Forfarshire, on the Isia, 
8 miles WSW. of Forfar. 

Airliae, a poet-hamlet of Hart co., Oa., miles fhmi 

Ainaoaat, a post-hamlet of Yalabasha eo.. Hiss., 12 
miles flrom OotTeeTule. 

Airola, i-ro'li, a town of Italy, proTinee of Benevento, 
33 mUee NB. of Naples. Pop, in 1901, 2656. 

Alrole, I-roli, a village of northwestern Italy, province 
of Porto Maurisio, Pop, 1200, 

Airolo, I-ro'Io (Ger. Alb«nweil, UlMrs-Mr ; Romansh, 
Srielt, i're-els), a village of Switserland, canton of Tlcino, 
at the S. end of the St. Ootthard railway tunnel, 20 miles 
NW. of Bellinsona. Blevation, 3870 feet. A part of the 
town was destroyed by a monntain-slide in Sec., 1898. 
Pop. 1400. It was the scene of a battle between the Rus- 
sians and French, Sept. 13, 1799. 

Ainraalt, witCvV, a town of Fruce, department of 
Denx-S«vres, 23 miles NNE. of Partbenay. Pop. 1080. 

Airville, a post-village of York oo., Pa., about 45 miles 
SB. of Harrlsbnrg. Pop. about 300. 

Airy (i'ree), Cape, the SW. part of Comwallis Land, 
In the Arctic Ocean. Lat. 74° 65' N. ; Ion. 96° 50' W. 

Airydale, a post-village of Huntingdon oo., Pa. 

Aiane, ain (ano. Ax/ona), a river of France^ risee in 
the department of Hense, passes S<^sson8, and is joined by 
the Oise near Compitgne, Length, 175 miles, 

Aisae, a department in the S. of Franee. Area, 2839 
sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 536,583. Sorfhoe flat; soil fertile; 
agriculture good. Chief rivers, Hame in the 8., Oise in 
the N., and Aisne in the oentre, — all navigable. Hanu- 
^«tures very important. C^>ital, Laon. 

Alstersheim, ts't«rs-hImeS a village of Upper Austria, 
about 13 miles W. of Wds. 

Altch, a post-village of Huntingdon eo.. Pa. Pop. 
about 100, 

Aithiopia. See Btbiopia, 

Aithleae, a town of Ireland, See Atbiavb. 

Aitkin, &t'kin, a county in the E. central part of Min- 
neeota, has an area of 1869 sq. m. It is bounded on the 
NW. by the Mississippi River, and on the SW. by Lake 
Mille Lacs. Capital, Aitkin. Pop. in 1890, 2462 ; in 1900, 

Aitkin, a banking post-village, the capital of Aitkin 
CO., Minn., on the Musisaippi River, and on the Northern 
Pacific R., 88 miles W. of Dnluth, It has a larj^ trade in 
manufoctures of wood, and in lumber. In the vicinity are 
numerous picturesque lakes. Pop. in 1900, 1719. 

AitOR, rtoe, a town of Bulgaria, in Eastern Romelia, 
circle of Burgas. Pop. about 5000. 

Aitatakai> an island in the Paeifle. See Ailotaei. 

AiT, a village of England. See Atbbvrt. 

Aivali, I- vC'lee (written also Aiwalik), orKidonia, 
kee.d9'nf-& (uio. Beraele'a), a smport of Asia Minor, on 
the Gulf of Adramyti, 28 miles SW! of Adramyti. It is a 
modem Greek town with a pop. of about 20,000. 

Aix, is or iks (ane. A'mu» Sex'tia), a city of France, 
department of BoueheSMlu-RhOne, 17 miles N. of Mars^Uea. 
Pop. in 1901, 24,861 ; of the oonunnne, 29,418. It is ar 
interesting town, with fine squares and a beautifU promo- 
nade (Oomrs Mirabean), uid handsome public buildings and 
monuments. Among the prominent edulaee are the ancient 
cathedral of St. Sanveur and the old church of St. Jean 
vrith the tombs of the counts of Provence. Aix possesses 
various fine museums, a university (faculties of law and 
philosophy of the UniTersity of Aiz-Marsdlles), and a 

Digitized by 





library of sbont 150,040 Tolomsa. It is the swt of an ueh- 
bishop. The Inhabitants are aatirely engued in the pro- 
daotion and sale of olive oil and the manofaotore of hats, 
besides other indnstriea, and an eztensire trade in fruits. 
The hot saline spring used b^ the Romans exists in a 
snbnrb, where are remains of antiquity. Here Harins 
orerwhelmed the Teatones and Ambronee in 102 B.C. 

AiXf i, a small island off the W. coast of France, in the 
department of Charente Infirieure, between the month 
of the Charente and the island of OlSron. It lias a good 
roadstead, and has been the scene of several naval opera- 
tions. It was here that Napoleon gave himself up to the 
English on the " Bellerophon" in 1816. 

Aix-d'Angillon, iks-dftii*'ihee^7i»^, a town of 
lyanoe, in Cher. 12 miles NE. of Bourges. Pop. 1434. 

Aix«eil>OtIie, iks-6n-St', a town of France, depart- 
ment of Anbe, on the Neele, 15 miles WSW.''of Troyes. 
Pop. in 1901, 2648. 

Aixe-8ar-Vieiuie,iks-ettB-ve^inn', atownofFraaoe, 
department of Haute- Vienne, on the Vienne, 6 miles SV. 
of Limoges. Pop. in 1901, 3581. 

Aiz-fa-Chapelle, iks-U-shi^pell' (L. AquU Gra- 
Hum; Ser. Aaehat, l'K$n, i.e., "waters," or "fonntains," 
equivalent to the Latin Aqua, a name given by the Romans 
to warm springs), a frontier oity of Rhenish Prussia, 
capital of the district of Aiz-la-Ohapelle, 44 miles WSW. 
of Cologne. It is well built and handsome, with a cathedral 
founded in 790 (containing in the HoekmUiuler, or ehqiel 
of the Octagon, the restored throne of Charlemagne), a 
town hall on the site of Charlemagne's palace (containing 
the coronation hall of the German emperors), aevetal fine 
churches, cdebrated mineral waters (largely chalybeate 
and sulphurous), which have a great reputation for the 
cure of rheumatism and diseases of the blood (tempera- 
ture 111°-134° F.), many hospitals, a polytechnic school, 
chamber of commeroe, and elegant theatres. As a chief 
station of the Belgo-Rhenish and Prussian state railways, 
connecting with Antwerp, Ostend, Cologne, etc., Aiz-la- 
Chapelle affords an -extensive maxt to the commerce of 
Prussia. It has important manufactures, especially of 
cloth, needles, gloves, leather, chemicals, linen, paints, 
stoneware^ etc., and numerous foundries and machine-shops. 
There are upward of a hundred cloth-fkotoriee, giving em- 
ployment to nearly 9000 workers. As early as the twelfth 
century its gold- and silversmiths uid oloth-weavers were in 
high repute. Pop. in 1890, 103,491 ; in 1900, 135,221. 

In the market-^laoe is a bronie statue of Charlemagne, 
whose favorite residence was here, and whose snooeesors in 
the Empire were crowned at Aiz-la-Chapelle until the six- 
teenth century. Two celebrated treaties of peaoe were cos- 
tluded here: (1) between France and Spain, by which 
France secured a portion of Flanders, in 1608 ; and (2) in 
1748, which terminated the war of succession in Austria. 
A congress of the great powers was held here in 1818. 

Aix-les-Baias, iks- (or is-) li-b&ii>' (anc. A'qua 
Oratia'na), a very ancient town of France, in the deiwrt- 
ment of Saroie, 8 miles N. of Chambiry, in a fertile and 
delightful valley near the Lake of Bonrget. Pop. in 1901, 
5437. It is much resorted to for its thermal waters (tem- 
perature IIOO-IIS" F.), and has numerous remains of an- 
tiquity. Elevation, 850 feet. 

Aizenay« i^sfh-ni', a town of France, department of 
Vendie, 5 miles NW. of La Rooho-snr-Yon. 

Ai<t* or Aia, i'i (ano. Allia), a small stream, emptying 
into the Tiber about 12 miles atwve Rome. On its banks 
the Oauls, under Brennus, overwhelmed the Ramans about 
390 B.C. 

AjacciOti L-y&t'eho, a seaport of France, the capital of 
Corsica, is situated on the W. coast of the island, on the 
N. side of the gulf of the same name, in lat. 41° bif N,, 
Ion. 8° 44' E. Pop. in 1901, 19,579. It is built in an agree- 
able situation, with a good port defended by a citadel. It 
is the see of a bishop and has a fine cathedral. Ajaocio is 
the birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte; the house is still 
standing and there are monuments to him and his family. 
The town has become a winter-resort for consumptives. 

Ajain« &'ih&i<>', a village of France, department of 
Crense, 8 miles ENE. of Qngret. 

AJame) W. Africa. See Bihscrvillb. 

Ajan, i->hin', a name formerly applied to that portion 
of the E. coast of Africa extending from Cape Quardafai to 

Ajasaink) a village of Asia Minor. See Atasoluk. 

Ajello, A-y<l'h>, a town of Italy, 9 miles SW. of Co- 
senza. Pop. 1000 (commune, 3000). It is supposed to re- 
place the ancient TiUrio. 

Ajello (Ajello del Sabato), a village of Italy, 3 
miles SE. of Avellino. Pop. 900. 

AJeta, JUyi't&, a town of Italy, province of Cosenta, 8 
mile* K. of Soalea. Pop. in 1901, 2340. 

AiiatMi* i-jia-tAn', a town of Persia, provinoe of Irak- 
AJemi, 80 miles BSE. of Kaahan. It is large and ttng- 
glins, is surrounded by gardens, and has a royal palaee. 

Ajmere, AJmeer, or AJairi l^-meer', a eity of 
British India, capital of the province of Ajmere-Merwara, 
320 miles SW. of Delhi. Pop. in 1901, 75,759. It has an 
interesting medinval moaqoe. Here is situated Hayo Col- 
lege for the instruotion of the nobility of Bajputana. The 
town is supplied with water by a subterranean aqueduct. 

Aimere-Merwara> tj-meer' m4r-wi'r&, a province of 
British India, in Rijputaiia. Area, 2711 sq. m. Portions 
are very fertile, but many tracts are barren. C^iital, 
Ajmere. Pop. in 1891, 476,330. 

AjnAcsko, oi'niah^k(i\ a small watering-plaoe of Hun- 
gary, in the county of Gomor, 7 miles from Fttlek. It has 
a ruined castle, 

Ajodhia« a town of India. Bee Oddh. 

AJofirin, i-ao-freen', a town of Spain, in Kew Castile, 
• miles S. of Toledo. 

AJttn'tah (the "strong pass"), a town of British India, 
famous for its rock-hewn temples, 63 miles N, by E. of 

Ajnrooca, i-shoo-roo.o'k&, a town of Biaiil, province 
of Minas-Qeraes, on the Ajumooa River, 107 ndles NB. of 
Rio de Janeiro. The district is rich in tobaooo, millet, maa- 
dioca, sngar-cane, and coffee. Pop. 16,000. 

AJnsco, i-Hoos'ko, or Sierra de Aii>*co> >> tibtin or 
knot of lofty volcanie mountains in south-central Mexico, 
bounding the valley of Anahuao on the S. and oonstitutiM 
a part of the southern wall of the oentral plateau. It 
merges eastward with the range of which Pmooatepetl and 
IxtMoihuatl are the dominant summits. The lava-maas, 
known as the Pedngal, Ipproaohing Coyoacin, is a com- 
paratively recant off-flow from theee mountains, Greatest 
height, 13,028 feet. 

Akabah, &'k&-b&. a fortified village of Arabia, on the 
E. side of the Gulf of Akabah, near its N. extremity. Lat. 
29° 34' 30" N, ; Ion. 35° «' E. Its former names, ^ana 
and Allah, are preserved in the name of the Greek bishoprio 
for the Sinai peninsula. 

Akabaht Gnlf of (wo, Si'atu JBlanit'icut), the east- 
em horn of the Red Sea after its bifnroation in lat, 28° N., 
extending NNE, to lat. 29° 25' N., bounding the peniaiob 
of Sinai on the E, Average breadth, 12 miles, 

Ak^aligOT', a town of the Punjab, betweoi the Chenab 
and the Ravi, 

Akamagaseki, Japan. See Srimohobbki, 

Akaroa, &-kl,-ri'o, a town and harbor in Banks' Penin- 
sula, province of Canterbury, New Zealand ; settled by the 
FTenoh. Pop. of the borough, about 600. 

Akashangk, i-kish-insk', a town of Asiatic Russia, 
government of Irkutsk, on the Onon. 

Akasi) &-klr4ee', a town of Japan, island of Hondo. 

Akassat i^k4s-dl', or Nun, noon, a town or village of 
Morocco, at the mouth of the river Nun. 

Akassa, a main depot of Nigeria, formerly tiie Niger 
Coast Protectorate, British West Africa, at the mouth of 
tiie Nun channel of the Niger River. 

Akassa* a river of Africa, .See NcH, 

Akato, l-k&'to, a town of Japan, idand of Hondo. 

Akbarabad, a city of India. See Agba. 

Ak^berp«reS or Ak^barpor', a town of India, 37 
miles W. of Cawnpore. Pop. about 5000. 

Ak-Deyavin, lk-di-y&-veen', a village of Syria, 40 
miles SE. of Aleppo, with some remarkable ruins. 

Ak6) a ruined city of Yucatan, between Merida and 

Aken, &'k«n, or Ackea, ik'kfn, a town of Prussian 
Saxony, on the Elbe, 26 miles SE. of Magdeburg. Pop. in 
1900, 7366. 

Akerman, Akkerman, l'k«r-m&n', Akierman, 
&k^yfr-m&n' (Slavic, Bielgorod, the "white oity;" anc 
TV'rot), a fortified town of Rnsraa, in Bessarabia, on the 
right bank of the Dniester, near the Black Sea, 28 milea 
SW. of Odessa. Lat. 46° 11' 51" N. ; Ion. 30° 21' 52" B. 
Pop. in 1897, 28,303. It has a port, fisheries, and an ex- 
tensive trade in salt from adjacent lakes. 

AkCTShnR, an amt of Norway. See AeoBRSBUs, 

Akersloot, &'kfr-8l5te\ a village of the Netherlands, 
in North Holland, 5 miles S. of Alkmaar, 

Akersund, i'kfr-aoond\ a town of Sweden, on the N. 
shore of Lake Vetter, 112 miles WSW. of Stockholm, 

Akersville, a post-village of Monroe oo., Ey., 13 miles 
W, of Tompkinsville. Pop, about 100. 

Akersville, a post-village of Fulton oo.. Pa., about 34 
miles W. of Chambersburg. 

Akhalkalaki, &-KM-k&-ll'kee, or AkhalkaUk, 
i-KU-k&-l&k', a town of Transcaucasia, on a tributary of 
the Eur, 30 miles SE, of Akhaltsikh. 

Akbal'Teke. See Askabad. 

Digitized by 


^ IrTiM-MMJ V>| 


Akkaltsikli, l^Kil-talK', • town of TnnMMieuia, is 
Btargte, on aa aiBaeDt of th« Knr, IM milei WSW. of 
BUl Pop. in 1897, U,387. 

Ak-HiBsaV} • town of Tnrkor. See Kbota. 

Ak-BiM«r, ik'hia-WB' (t.c, " white ei«tl«"), or Ek« 
BiMar (mm. Tigatera), a town of Ada Minor, 58 mile* 
m. of Smymk. Pw. abo«t 10,000. 

AUdat, tx'ltf , Ai«isli, »B>deedi', or Khe^lat', a, 
town ef Ariatio Tarkej, on the W. shore of Lake Van, 35 
Bilea ITW. of Tan. It is the aee of an Armenian bishop. 
Pop. 3000. 

AkkaiTiat 4E-meem', lometimea Ekhnijrm (ane. 
CttmfwU and Pamop'olif), a town of Egypt, on the Nile. 
Lat 16° ^f N. ; km. 31° M' E. Akhmym is a steamboat 
sad mQ atation on the Nihu and is a tliriring town of 
30,M0 inhabitants, <rf whom 1000 are Christians. Itraano- 
Ihctan* tke eloth for the blue sliirls of the Fellahin, and 

■ho tiM Aawla for tiie poorer 

Akktirka* ftK-U!«B'k&, a town of Sonqiean fiossia, M 
Biles IfW. of KhaikOT, on a small rirer of the same name. 
Pop. in 1897, SS,3M. 

Akhtaba, the B. braaeh of the Volga ddta. 

A'kia, a post-rillage of Praaklin oo., HI., 16 mUes 8W. 
•f MeLasoslwro. 

Akia, a post-rillage of Montgomery eo., N.T. Pop. 
shoot 150. 

Akias, a post-rillage of the Cherokee Nation, I.T. 
Pop. about 100. 

AkiaaTiUe; a post-rillage of Morgan eo.. Mo. Pop. 
about 160. 

Akita, a town of J^ian, ishmd of Hondo. Lat. SO" 
41' H. Pop. in 1890, 29,477. 

AUta, U'ki, a riliage of the S^iara, on the Ixirden of 
Moneeo. It is a station for the eararans betweea Moroooo 
ud Xlmboktn. 

Akka^ a town of Syria. See Acrb. 

Akka, a pygmy raee of east-eentral Afiriea, lahaUting 
the region Iwtweeo lat. 2° and S° N., along the apper oonrse 
«f the Amwimi, and W. of the Albert Nyania. 

Akkad, in ancient geognq)hy, a region in the northern 
part of Babylonia. 

AklaBSk, ik-1ftnsk', a gairiMned town of Siberia, gor- 
cmaflBt of Takotsk. Lat. «9f N. ; Ion. 167° B. 

Akaeteket. Bee BuinROPOL. 

Ak^oUask'j a goremment of Rossia, in central Aria, 
in the Riighis steppe, bounded K. by Tobolsk, E. by 
ScBipalatinsk, B. by Tnrkeetan, W. by Tnrgai. Capital, 
Akwrfinsk. Area, 230,000 so. m. Pop. in 1897, 678,957. 

Akmeliask, a town of Asiatie Russia, capital of the 
geremmegrt and district of the same name. It is on the 
rirer Ishim. Pop. in 1897, 9557. 

Akola, i-ko'lL a town of British India, in the Akola 
dIsMct, 55 mflee SW. of Elliehpar. Pop. aboat 20,000. 

Akolat a district of West Berar, India. 

Akoia* i-ko'rA, a town of Afghanistan, on the Kabul 
Krrar, 10 ndles NW. of Attook. 

Akoro4ay a European trading station of western AfHoa, 
in the Higer delta. 

Akat, &-k0t', a town of India, district and 31 miles 
HKX. of Akola. It has a great trade in cotton. Pop. 

Akiakeh, lk'ri'b«h, a town of Palestine. Lat. 33° 
irn.; km. 35° 26' B. 

Akreyii) ftk-rl'ree, a town of Iceland, on the EyjaQord. 
lat. 66° 40' N. It has a good harbor, and is, next to Rei- 
kiarik^tbe meet important trading-place in Iceland. Fop. 

Ato it Ui'ree, a Moslem riliage of Palestine^ 15 miles 
WHW. it Jemnlera ; probably the ancient Ekron. 
AklMcet ^ post-rillage of Thomas co., Ga. Pop. about 

Ak'raa, a post-rillage of Hale oo., Ala., on the Black 
▼srrior, 36 miles SW. of Tuseakmea. Pop. abont 250. 

Akioa, a post-hamlet of Independence oo., Ark. 

Akrea, a banking post-town, capital of Washington oo., 
Oolo., on dlie Burlington and Mieeouri Rirer R., 112 miles 
I. brH. of Denrer. Pop. in 1900, 361. 

Akioa, a bankingpoet-rillage ot FnUon oo., Ind., on 
tke Brie B., 28 miles NB. of Lomnsport. It has mannfao- 
tans of cabinet-ware, brick uid tile, ete. Pop. in 1900, 

Akraa, a buiking post-town of Plymouth co., Iowa, on 
the Big Biooz Rirer and on the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
8L PHd R., 33 mnee N. of Bioaz City. It has large 
floviiig-mille and is a shipping point for gnin. Pop. in 
IM, 1029. 

AkToa, a poet-rillage of Cowley oo., Kan., 8 miles by 
nO 9. of Winfleld. 

Aktaa, a banking post-rillage of Tnsoola eo., Mich., 36 
aila if nO SITE, it Saginaw. Pop. abont 500. 

Akroa, a banking post-rillage of Erie co., N.T., on a 
branch of the New York Central and Hodson Rirer R., 
16 miles W. of Bataria. It has manufactures of oonent, 
whiob has a U^ h reputation. Pop. in 1900, 1585. 

Akron, a city, the capital of Summit oo., Ohio, and a 
manufaeturing, mineral, and railroad centre, 39 miles S. 
by B. of Clerelan^ on the Baltimore and Ohio, the Clere- 
land, Akron and Columbus and other railroads. It is on 
the Ohio Canal, and abont 1000 feet abore the lerel of 
Oe sea. It has an active trade in grain and eztenBire 
maanfaetures of agricultural implements, maohinoy, cast- 
ings, ed^tools, rubber, lewer-pipe^ matches, etc., employ- 
ment being giren by orer 300 manufacturing establish- 
ments. Akron is the seat of Buohtel College (Unireraalist), 
founded in 1873. Coal is mined near this city. Pop. in 
1890, 27,601 ; in 1900, 42,728. 

Akron, a post-rillage of Lancaster oo.. Pa., 33 miles by 
rail WSW. of Reading. It has manufactures of eigars. 
Pop. about 650. 

AkroB Juactioa, Ala. See Aerok. 

Aksai, Ik-sl', an affluent of the Terek, in Caocasia. 

Ak> Sai, a mountain of Russian Turkestan, in the Kara- 
Tan range. 

Ak-8erai, Uk-s«-ri' («.e., "white palace"), a town of 
Asiatic Turkey, on the Kinl-Irmak, 80 miles NE. of 
Kenieh. Pop. about 3000. 

Akshekr, or Ak-Sheher, ik-ehihV or Uc-shi'ber 
{i.e., " white city"), a city of Asiatio Turkey, 10 miles S. 
of the salt lake of the same name, 65 miles NW. of Konieh. 
Pop. about 7000. It manufactures carpets. Akshehr is 
the i^kt(oai«/ton of Strabo. 

Akatafa, Ik-stl'fl, a town of Transeaneasia, on the 
Batnm-Bakn railway, about half-way between Tiflis and 
Yelisaretpol. The name is also that of a small rirer, an 
affluent of the Kur. 

Akaa, ik^soo', a town of Eastern Tnrkeetan, on a rirer, 
S. of the Tian-Shan Mountains, 250 miles NE. of Yarkand. 
Lat. 41° 7' N. ; Ion. 80° 40' E. It has mwufaoturas of 
cotton stuffs, leather and metallic wares, and janwr, and 
is resorted to by trading-cararans fh>m all parts of central 
Asia. Pop. 16,000-20,000. 

Akan ("white rirer"), the name of sereial Asiatie 
rirers, the principal of which has its conrse in the Pamir, 
becoming one of the chief affluents of the Hurgtiab. 

Aksam, a town of Abyssinia. See Axdm. 

Aktche Skekr, ik'chi shtb'r', a small seaport of Asia 
Minor, on the Black Sea, 15 miles SW. of Bregli. 

Aktinbiaak, Ik-te-oo-binsk', a town of Auatio Russia, 
in the province ot Turgai and district of Aktiubinsk. 
Pop. in 1897, 2840. 

Akna, &^koon', one of the Fox group, Aleutian Islands. 

Akareyri, a town of Iceland. See Akbetri. 

Akuse, a town of the Gk>ld Coast of AiHoa, on the Volta 
Rirer, 86 miles WNW. of Adda. 

Akaaha, i-koo'sh&, a town of Dagheetan, 55 miles 
WNW. of Derbend. Pop. 6000. 

Akatan, ^koo-t&n', one of the Aleutian Islands, be- 
tween Unimak and Unalaska. It has a voloanio mountain 
5888 feet high and many hot springs. 

Akatan Pass, the water-way between Akntan and 
Unalaska Islands serving as a passage for ressels into 
Bering Sea (Dutch Harbor). 

Akyab, ikWib', the chief town of Aiakan, Burma, on 
the B. side of tne island of Akyab. It has a fine harbor 
and a large export trade. Pop. about 40,000. 

Akyab, a district of Arakan, Burma. It has much 
exceedingly fertile soil and extensive forests and Jungles. 
Capital, Akyab. 

Ala, i'li, a town of Austria, Tyrol, on the left bank of 
the Adige, and on a railway, 10 miles 8SW. of Roreredo. 
Pop. 5000, employed in manufactures of silks and relrets. 

Alabama, al-vbah'mt, a rirer of the state of Ala- 
bama, is farmed by the Cooea and Tallapoosa Rivers, which 
unite on the S. l>order of Elmore oo., about 10 miles NNE. 
of Montgomery. Between this capital city and Selma its 
general direction is westward. From 'Belma it runs nearly 
sonthwestward, with a very tortuous course, until it unites 
with the Tombigbee River at the B. extremity of Clarke 
00. and abont 33 miles (in a direct line) N. of Mobile. The 
stream formed by this Junction is the Mobile River. The 
length of the Alabama trmn the month of the Cooea to the 
mouth of the Tombigbee is about 350 miles. Steamboats 
can ascend it to Montgomery, 390 miles above Mobile, at 
all times exeept in seasons of unusual drought. The coun- 
try through which it flows is fertile, and prodnoee large 
crops of eotton. 

Alabama (a Mosoogee or Creek word, signifying a 
" place of rest"), one of the Southern States of the Ameri- 
can Union, is bonnded N. by Tennessee, B. by Oeotgia and 
Florida, S. by Florida and the Oulf of Mexico, and W. by 

Digitized by 




A l«.>»i>.iw«t. 

Uiadnippl. Extrameleogtb, SSSmilas: gmteitbrwdtb, 
320 milM: itk, U,i40 aq. iii.~ Tli« northern boundary lies 
oa 1st. S6^ N. 

Fact of th» OamHty, etc. — ^Xhe AlleghsDT and Cumberhuid 
Monmtaini enter tbe rtate tntn the NB. ; but they sre 
nowhere much more tbui 1500 feet high, and to tbe 8. tbqr 
deoHne, until in the centre of tbe state they beoome mere 
hills. Sontiiward of this picturesque oentral bill-region, and 
constituting the main central sane <rf the state, is the cotton- 
belt, inelu£ng the " oane-brake region,"— one of the most 
fertile tracts of cotton-land in tbe world. Farther south 
the "pine woods" oocupj a large sparsely populated area, 
largely of lowland, and capable of producing vast supplies 
of timber (especially of yellow pine) and naral stores. 
Host parts of the state abound in timber-trees, inelading 
pine, oak, cypress, and red cedar. The ^eater part of the 
state is drained into tbe Onlf of Mexico by the Mobile 
River, formed by tbe junction of the Alabama and Tom- 
bigbee Bivers. Tbe northern section is traversed by the 
Tennessee Hirer, and the Chattahoochee River forms the 
souuiem half of the eastern boundary. 

Otology and Mineral: — In the east-central part of the 
state is an area of more than 4040 sq. m., oonsisting of 
Archssan and ancient highly altered sedimentary rooks, 
and ebaracterited by a diversity of composition, as well as 
by a ^reat variety of topography and sul. To the S. and 
W. he* the Coosa valley, a continuation of the complex 
valley extending 8W. from Pennsylvania, in portions of 
which, and thence N. and W., lie the eoal-measures, the' 
productive area of which covers over iOOO sq. m. The 
principal fields are the Coosa, Cababa, and Warrior, the 
last having an extent about two-thirds that of the ooal- 
flelds of Great Britain, It oeoupiee the upper valley of 
the Biaok Warrior River. Tbe coals are bituminous, and 
the annual outpnt increased between 1870 and 1003 from 
11,000 to 11,(64,400 tons. A considerable part of this outpnt 
is oonsumed in the state itself, being converted into eoke 
to supply the numerous pig-iron fumaoes. The iron-ore is 
abandaat, excellent, and readily aooeasible. With a pro- 
duction of 3,002,443 long tons of ore in 18M, Alabama 
ranked as the third iron-producing state of the Union. The 
nroduet in 1943 was S,484|M4 tons. The All^hanv geld- 
ndd has in Alabama its BW. terminus ; but the product up 
to this time has been insignificant. Silver, lead, ccwper, 
ochre, steatite, fictile clays, kaolin, statuary granite^ Utho- 
gr^hie stoncy fine white and variegated manles, and nu- 
merous other useful minerals, exist in northern and eentral 
Alabama. Considerable deposits of bonxite are fimnd. 

The great ootton-belt of south-central Alabama, which 
occupies parts of 17 counties, lies on the Oretaoeons forma- 

tion and is highly fertile. The pine-re)^on of the 8. is 

principally of uie ~ • . .. _ . 


principally of uie Tertiary and the Pos^ertiwy alluvial 

Soil, Climate, Beallk/ulneee.—Io general this state is 
fertile, and in the less productive regions in the hill-oountry 
there are as compensations abundant t ater-poww, a health- 
ful and agreeable cUmateL and numerous mineral springs. 
The pine-woods region affords, besides forest products, con- 
siderable hone^, wax, and rice, ^ws sweet potatoee abun- 
dantly, and yields fair returns in cotton and raaiie, while 
the dryness of the air and soil and the balsamio aroma of 
the pines are believed to exert a curative effect in pulmo- 
nary diseases. The great river valleys and the central Ore- 
taoeons belt are exceedingly productive. The olimote is 
comparatively equable, the streams seldom freeie over, 
while tbe summer temperature rarely exceeds 9&° F. ; but 
the uniformity of the summer beat renders the climate very 
oppressive to persons of northern birth. The hiU-regiona 
are, however, cooler, and the islands of Mobile Bay have 
deligbtfnl sea-breeses. Tbe annual rainfall is about 42 

Internal eommunieation is much facilitated by tbe navi- 

Sble streams. Steamboats ply upon the Mobile River and 
branches, tbe Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Tombigbee, 
and Black Warrior. There is a regular steamboat service 
on the Chattahooobee River between Columbus, Qa., and 
Chattahoochee, Fla., a distance of 334 miles. The only 
seaport In the state is Mobilk, situated on Mobile Bay, at 
the mouth of the Mobile Riv«r. The shallowness of the 
waters of the bay obliges Iai«e vessels to load and discharge 
their cargoes by means of Ughters ; but smaller steamers 
pl^ upon the bay, going to New Orleans rta Grant's Pass, 
Mississippi Sound^ and Xakea Borgne and Pontehartrain. 
In 1900 tnere wore 4339 miles of rJlroad in operation. 

Indnttrial Intereet; — The wonderAiI development of the 
wal and iron industries in the valleys of the Tennessee and 
of the other streams of northern Alabama has greatly af- 
fected the material prosperity <^ the state. During tbe 
decade between 1880 and 1890, such towns as BirmioAam, 
Anniston, Decatur, Florence, and Roanoke leaped from a 

position of comparative obscurity into one of prominsttse, 
while others, such as Bessemer, had no previous existeooe. 
Birmingham, with a population of nearly 40,004^ is the 
centre of the ooal and iron industry. The manufaeture of 
iron and steel is tbe leading industry of the state> and the 
value of its products was, in 1900, $17,400,044. Cotton 
manufacture has also received much attention, the prodort 
of this industry in 1900 being valued at $8,163,130. In the 
counties at the S., the lumb«r business has developed into 
a profitable industry, and large quantities of lumber are 
shipped to the Korth, to South Amerioa, and to England. 
The value of the lumber and timber products (in 1900, 
$13,807,000) ranks immediately after that of iron and sted. 
With this inoreased activity in mining and manufaetnring 
operations there has been a relative decline in agricnttnru 
pursuits, especially in the fertile "black belt" of eentral Alo- 
Dama. Agriculbue, nevertheless, maintains its positi<»i as 
the leading economic pursuit of the state. Alabama ranks 
as one of the leading cotton-raising states, uid the quaatity 
of cotton ginned in 1900 was 1,041,478 (eommwciol) boles. 
Indian com is raised in all pairts of the state. Tobaooo is 
a staple crop in the N., and in the IT. and NE. wheat of 
exeeUent quality is grown. Rioe is ui important crop 
in the 8. Both marsh and upland rice is grown. Wool, 
dairy and orchard produots, oats, honey, wax, pnlsey and 
sweet potatoes are produced to a considerable extent. The 
leading agricultural erops tat 1900 were: com, 39.366,943 
bushels; wheat, 91«,8S1 bushels; oats, 4,380,764 basheb; 
and hay, 94,041 tons. 

Sdneation, etc, — ^A well-devised school system was eetab- 
lisbed by the constitution of 1848, but the unsettled condi- 
tion of public affairs for some time impaired its eaciencrgr. 
Among the educational institntions may be mentioned the 
state normal schools at Floreooe, Oaylenrille, Jacksonville, 
and Troy, the Alabama Normal College for nrls at Living- 
ston, BlountCollegeatBloontsville, Hunts vilto Academy, the 
Btota Agricultard College at Athens, the normal sehoM for 
colored students at Monwomery, the Polytechnic Instituta 
at Auburn, the Southern Univeisity (Metoodist) at Greens- 
boro, Tuskegee Institute for colored people, Selma Univer- 

sity (also for colored), and the University of Alabama, at 
Tuscaloosa. There are numerous other colleges, academies, 
and high schools, and institutions for tbe blind, deaf and 

dumb. Tbe state penitentiary is at Wetnmpko. There 
wen issued in the state, in 1900, 349 newspapers, of which 
23 were daily, 203 weekly, and 14 monthly. 

CowfHe*. — There are 84 counties, named as follows: 
Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Blount, BuUock, Butler, 
Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Cihilton, Cbootaw, Clarke, 
Clay, Cleburne^ Coffee^ Colbert, Conecuh, Coosa, Coving- 
ton, Crenshaw, Cullman, Dal& Dallas, Dekalb, Elmore^ 
Esoambia, Etowah, Fayette, Franklin, Geneva, Greesie, 
Hale, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Idunar, Lauderdbile, Law- 
rence, Lecw Limestone, Lowndes, Ibcon, Madison, Marengo, 
Marion, Marshall, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Moisan, 
Perry, Pickens, Pike, Randolph, Russell, Shelby, St. Clair, 
Sumter, Talladega, Tallapooaa, Tuscaloosa, Wjfcer, Wash- 
ington, Wilcox, and Winston, 

Vonetitution, etc. — ^The present state constitution was 
adopted in Nov., 1901. The governor is chosen fSsr a 
term of four years. The general assembly consists of a 
house of representatives of 106 memiiers, and a senate of 36 
members, chosen for four years. All judges are elective. 
Voters must have resided in the state two years, and one 
year in the oounty where tbey vote. Alabama sends 9 
represmtotives to the Federal Congress. 

Oitie* and Tomu. — Of these tbe principal are Mobile, tbe 
eonunereial emporium of tbe state (pop. in 1900, 38,469); 
Montgomery, the state capital (pop. 30,34(S) j Birmingham 
(pop, 38,416) ; Anniston (pop, 9696) ; and Bessemer (pop, 
6368). Other important places are Huntsville (pop, 8068), 
Selma (pop. 8713), Florence (pop. 6478), EuSraula (pop. 
4632), Tuscaloosa (pop. 6094), Opelika, Phoenix, New De- 
catur, Troy, and Gadsdm, 

ITMtory.— The French settled near Mobile Bay in 1702, 
and founded Mobile about 1711, In 1763 their lands here 
passed to England, and became a part of West Florida; 
this coast-tract was seised by tbe Spaniards during the 
Revolutionary War, and did not beoome definitely lilted 
States territory until 1819, when Florida was purchased by 
tbe general government. But by far the greater paut of 
Alabama, together with what is now called Mississippi, was 
regarded as a part of Georgia, South Carolina claiming a 
strip 12 miles wide along the 8, boundary of Tennessee. 
In 1798 the Mississippi territory (including part of Ala- 
bama) was set off fk«m Georgia and South Carolina. In 
1804 it was extended northwanl, and in 1813 its limits were 
extended to tbe Gulf of Mexieo, so that tbe whole of the 
preeent state of Alabama was included in it. What Is now 
the state of Alabama was set off <k«m Mississippi in 1817 

Digitized by 





M a tafritory, aad baesme a itate in 1819. Prominent 
•Tcnta of this period w«ro the Mmcainarr Credc war (181^ 
14), tiia military ooeiipation of Mobil* oy tbe Americans, 
■■d ti>« settlament of a eoioaT of Freneli politioal exiles in 
Marengo «o. Under tbe ilaTeholdiBg BysteBi Alabama grew 
lieb, ud became the first itata in the amonnt of ootton 
pro^Bced. In 18(1 an ordinanee of Beoegsion was pawed 
kj a Itate ooorention. In that year the proTisionid goT- 
enuaent ot tbe Confederate States was organised at Mont- 

gaerr. In 1842 tiie N. portion of the itate was oeenpiad 
Federal troops. In 1804 the forts at the outlet of Mobile 
y were redooed and the Confederate fleet destroyed by 
famftti and in April, 1865, Selma, Montgomery, and 
Mobile were taken by the national forces. In the same 
year a prorisionti goremor was appointed by President 
Johnson. In IMS military control was withdrawn, a new 
soimtitntion baring been adopted, and the state was re- 
admitted to repreaeotation in Gongreas. 

The population in 1830 numbered 127,001; in 1830, 
3M,&27; in 1840, 590,760; in 1860, 771,623; in 1860, 
9U,3n ; in 1870, 996,992 ; in 1880, 1,262,606 ; in 1890, 
1,513,017. Thsre wera in 1820, 41,879 slaves and 671 iVee 
•rioted people; in 1830, 117,594 slaves and 1572 Aree coU 
ored ; in 1840, 353,533 slaves, 2039 flree colored ; in 1860, 
343,844 aiaves, 23<6 free colored ; in 1860, 436,080 slaves, 
3(90 free colored ; in 1870, 475,510, in 1880, 600,103, in 1890, 
681,431, and in 1900, 837,307 colored persons. Total pop. 
in 19M was 1,838,697 (about 35 to the sq. m.), of which 
Bsmbes- 916,764 were males and 911,933 females, and 14,592 
foceign-borB. There were 177 Indians in the state, 58 
Chiscee^ and 3 Japanese. 

Alabaaia, or Alabama Center, a post-villaee in 
Alabama township (town), Genesee co,, N.Y^ 8 milee S. 
af M«dina and 30 miles BNE. of Buffalo. The town in- 
dodsa part of the Tonawanda Indian rsservation. Pop. 
of the town in 1900, 1957. 

Alakama, a poet-hamlet ot Polk oo.. Wis., 34 miles N. 
«f Osceola Mills. 

Alabama City, a post-town of Btowah co., Ala., on 
the Queen and Crescent Route and the Louisville and Nash- 
ville K., 3 miles from Gadsden, its nearest Ixuiking point. 
Psp. in 1900, 3376. It has large cotton-industries. 

Alabas'ter, a post-vinage of Iosco ao„ Mich., on Sagi- 
aaw Bay. abont 45 miles NNB. of Bay <aty. Pop. about 
360. It has a qoMry of grpsum. 
Alabaster lalaad, Bahamas. See EurraBii a. 
Alabat, l^U-bit', a small island of the Philippines, In 
I/am<n Bay, N. of Uie Lnson isthmus. With the main- 
land it forms a sheltered harbor. It is sterile, and bat 
iparsely inhabited. 

Alacklia, f-l&ch'n-^ a county in the N. part of 
Florida, bas an ana of 1XS3 sq. m. It is bounded on the N. 
by tbe Santa V6 River and on the W. by the Suwanee. 
(Mtal, eainesviUe. Pop. ia 1890, 22,934 ; in 1900, 32,246. 
Alaebaa, a post-village of Alachna CO., Fla., 15 miles 
NW. of Oainesville, its banking point. Pop. about 200. 

Alaerane (al-^-kxan') Islanda, a group in the Qulf 
of Uexioo, about 70 miles N . of Yucatan, on a reef 16 miles 
ia length N. and 6. by 12 miles in breadth. 
AJaeraaes, Cuba. See Ai.roN80 ZII. 
Alacal'sa Creek, Cherokee co., Oa., is a branch of 
Littis River. 

Ala-Dagk, i'U-dtg' U.t., "beautiful mountain"), a 
aoanlain-ehain of Armenia, extending W. from Mount 
Ararat. From It descends the Mnrad-Su, the eastern head- 
itrtam of the Euphrates. Height, 11,600 feet. 

Ala^Dagb, part ot the Taurus range in Asiatic Tur- 
key, forming the ME. eontinnation of the Bnlgbar-Dagh. 

Aladaa(i-U-din') or Aladiae (a-Urdeen^ Islands, 
a dnster ot small islands in the Bay of Bengal, forming part 
if tbe Mergui Archipelago. 

Alad'din, a mining post-villa^ of Crook oo,, Wyo., 
at the terminus of a rulroad, 18 miles from Bellefonrobe, 
S.Dak. It has ooal-mines. 

Ala4|a«I>ack, i-li'Ji-dXg', a mountain in Transcan- 
eisia, in tbe distriet of Kars, memorable for the victory 
sdieved by the Rossians over the Turks, Oct. 16, 1877. 

Ataxias, i-li-i'Boee, a town of Spain, 30 miles 8W. 
af ValladoUd, near the Trabancos. Pop. (commune) 3600. 
APaA'a (Sp. proD. &-U-fee'&), a poet-village of Hills- 
bero eob, Fla., 33 milee B. of Tampa and 1 mile from tbe 
Alaia River. The surrounding conntiy is covered by pine 
forests, has a fertile soil, and produces fine oranges. 
Alaghes. See Ai.Ae6z. 

Alana, &-l4n'yft, a town of Italy, on the Sesia, 13 
ailti W. of Pavin. Pop. abont 1400. 

Ala^oa, i-lt-go'l, a town on the S. shore of the island 
•f 8t. Miehad, Asrares. 

Ala(o«s, ft-IA-go'iU, a NE. maritime state of Bradl, 
Mring its name from various interoommunieatiog lakes 

for which it is noted. It is bounded N. by the state of 
Pemambuoo and SW. by Sergipe, and comprises an are^ 
of 32,600 sq. m. The land is particularly uapted to the 
growth of coffee, ootton, sugar-cane, tobacco, vanilla, and 
cacao, and bears large forests. Pop. (estimated) about 
600,000. Capital, Maoeid. 

Alagoas, a city of Braiil, in the state of Alagoas, on 
the N. of Lake Maagnaba, 140 miles N£. of Sergipe. Pop. 
about 6000. 

Alagoinhas, a town of Bratil, in the state of Babia, 
and on the railroad connecting with the city of Bahia, 
about 46 miles ME. of Caxoeira. Pop. about 12',000. 

AIag6n, i-li-gSn', a river of Spain, falls into the Tagus 
about 2 milee MET of Alcfintara. It is abont 120 miles in 
length and noted for the sise and flavor of its fish. 

Alagdn, a town of Spain, on the Ebro, 15 miles MW. of 
Saragossa. Pop. (oomranne) 3760. 

Alagftz, &Mi-^Bz', a volcanic mountain in tbe Russian 
government of Enran. It lies on the M. side of the great 
plain of the Araxes. Height, 13,500 feet. 

Alai, a-li', a chain of lofty mountains of central Asia, 
a westerly extension of the Tian-Shan, in abont lat. 40° M. 
and Ion. 70°-73<' 30' E. It forms a part of tbe northern 
boundary of the Pamir. The highest summits are 18,000- 
19,000 feet high. Peak Kauffmann (23,000-25.000 feet) is 
sometimes considered a mountain of the Alai, out it more 
properly belongs to the main Tian-Shan. 

Alais, i^li' (anc. Ale'na), a town of France, depart- 
ment of Oard, on the Oardon, at the foot of the Civennes, 
26 miles MW. of Mtmea. Pop. in 1901, abont 18,500 ; of the 
commune, 24,940. It is in a productive coal-field, and has 
silk-spinning mills, iron-foundries, glass-works, etc. 

Alajnela, &-li-Bwl'l&, a city, capital of Auyuela prov- 
ince, Costa Rica, abont 13 miles by rail W. of San JosS. 
It is well built, with good streets, and has considerable 
trade. Pop. 3828. It is the centre of an important coffee 
district. Pop. of the province in 1897, 69,300. 

Alakaaanda, i-U-fci-nlu'di, Alnknanda, or 
Alnknnnda, t'look-nun'di, a small river, which, issuing 
{torn tbe Himalaya Mountains, unites with the Bhagiratht 
at Devapnyaga and forms a source of the Qangee. 

Ala-K»i, i'li-kij'ee (i.e., "beautilU village")) a vil- 
lage of Asiatic Turkey, on the E. side of Lake van. 

Ala>Kvl, i'U-kooI'. caUed also Knrghi-Nor, koor'- 

{[hee nor, or Alakt-UKiil-Nnr, l^l&kt'^ oo'gool' noor, a 
ake of Russian Central Asia, in the province of Semirie- 
tchensk. Its centre is near Ut. 46° M., Ion. 81° 40' E. It 
is 40 miles long and 17 broad. Elevation, 837 feet. A 
western smaller lake, separated by a marsh, is also known 
as Ala-Kul (or Sassyk-Kul). 

Alalakeiki ((-U-li-ki'ee-kee) Chaanel, which sep- 
arates Maui and Kaboolaw^ Hawaiian Islands, Is 6 miles 

Alamakee, a county of Iowa. See Allakakbi. 

Al'amance, a county in the M. central part of Morth 
Carolina, has an area of 494 sq. m. It is intersected by 
Haw River and partly drained by Alamance Creek. Capi- 
tal, Graham. Pop. in 1890. 18,271 ; in 1900, 25,665. 

Alameda, i-li-mi'i>i (i.e., "a row of poplar-trees"), 
a town of Spain, in Andalusia, 64 miles MW. of Malaga, 
on the road from Seville to Granada. Pop. abont 4000. 

Alameda, i-U-mi'd&, a county in the W. part of Cali- 
fornia, has an area of 764 sq. m. It is bounded on the 
W. by the Bay of San Franciseo, and is drained by Ala- 
meda Creek. The surface is diversified by mountains, 
fertile valleys, and plains ; quarries of granite and lime- 
stone have been opened here. The market of San Fran- 
cisco is partly supplied by the orchards and gardens of 
Alameda. Capital, Oakland. Pop. in 1890, 93,864; in 
1900. 130,197. 

Alameda, a post-village of Clarke oo., Ala. Pop. about 

Alameda, a city of Alameda oo., Cal., on a peninsula 
on the B. side of the Bay of San Francisco and on the 
Southern Pacific R., 9 miles ESE. of San Francisco. It 
adjoins Oakland on the S., and contains many suburban 
reeidenoes. Its industries ranbrace ship-building and petro- 
leum- and borax-refining. Pop. in 1890, 11,165 ; in 1900, 

Alameda, a post-village of Bernalillo oo., M.Mex., on 
the Rio Grande and on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
V6 R., 6 miles above Albuquerque. 

Alameda de la Sagra, i-li-mi'sl di l& tl'gri, a 
town of Spain, in Old Castile, 8 miles from Illeecas. 

Alameda del Valle, ft-li-mi'Dft d6l v&l'yi, a town 
of Spain, in Old Castile, 10 miles from Buitrago. 

Alaminos, i-li-mee'noce, or Sarapsap, sl-rip'slp, 
a pueblo of Zambales province, Luson, Philippine Islands, 
on LingaySn Gulf, and 50 miles (direct) M. of Iba. Pop. 
in 1903, 10,338. 

Digitized by 




Al'mmOf » poat-Tinage of Oontn Oi»to «o., CM., 24 
Bilw B. by N. of Ban Franoiieo. 

AlKMO, a iKWt-town of Montgomery oo., Ga., U miln 
bj rail W. by 6. of Mount Vernon. It hu lomber- and 
(ninele-mills. Pop. about 200. 

Alamo, apoet-rillage of MoDtKomery oo., Ind., about 
W miles WNW. of Indianapolis. Fop. about 2S0. 

Alamo, a poet-Tillsg* of Kalamaioo eo., Miob., on a 
railroad, 8 miles WNW. of Kalamaioo, its banking point. 
Pop. about 150. 

Alamo, a poet-Tillage of Orant oo., Or«gOD. Pop. about 

Alamo, a banking poet-Ttllage, capital of Croekett eo., 
Tenn., about 76 milee NB. of Mcmpbis and miles N. of 
Bells. It was formerly called Oacerille. It bas sereral 
ootton-mills and gins. Pop. about 360. 

Al^amogOT'do, a banking post-village, capital of 
Otero co.^.Mex., on tbe El Paso and Northeastern R., 80 
miles NNE. of El Paso. It is in an agricultural district. 
Pop. about 1500. 

Al'amo Mills, a post-bamlet of Cass oo., Tex., on a 
railroad, 38 miles S. of Jefferson. 

Alamos, a town of Mexico, in the state of Sonon, 183 
milee E8B. of Ooayroas. It is well built and baa a Una 
ehurch. Pop. about 0000. 

Alamo'ta, a banking poet-town of Conejos eo., Colo., on 
the Rio Orande and on the Denver and Bio Oraode R., 
139 miles 8. by W. of Cation City. Elevation, 7545 feet. 
It has railroad maehine-sbopa. Gold- and silver-mines have 
been opened in the vicinity. Pop. in 1900, II41, 

AJamnekee, a post-village of Bnmter eo., Ala. fop. 
about 100. 

Aland (t'land ; Sw. Aland, B'Und) Islands, an archi- 
pelago of 80 inhabited islands, and a vast number of rocks 
and islets, in the Gulf of Bothnia, at its entranoe, forming 

£ art of Finland. Pop. about 24,000, mostly Swedes. Theee 
lands were taken from Sweden by Russia in 1809. The 
principal island, Aland, has a population of about 12,000. 
On it is the town of Muiehamn. 

Alaa'dar, a post-hamlet and summer-resort of Berk- 
shire 00., Mass., 6 miles SB. of Oopake Iron Works Station 
of the New Tork Central and Hudson River R. 

Alaano, &-lin'no, a town of Italy, 11 miles 8. of Penne. 
Pop. abont 1100 (commune, 4000). • 

Alan'soa, a poet-village of Bmmet eo., Mich., on the 
Grand Rapids and Indiana R., 2< milee S. by W. of Macki- 
naw. It has manufactures of lumber, shingles, etc. Pop, 
about 200. 

Alanthns Grove, Gentry co.. Mo. See Ailartbus 

Alaotra, the largest lake of Madagascar, 76 miles ITW. 
of Tamatave. Len^h, 38 milee. 

Alapaha, a river of Georgia. See Allapaba. 

AlapaT«TSk, 1-ll-pl-vi vsk', a town of Russia, in Perm, 
48 mites ITW. of Irbit. It has large iron-foundries. Pop. 
in 1897, 8052. 

Alapar, 1-Il-poor', a small town of tbe Budaoa district, 
British India. 

Alaqna, al'vquaw, a small river of Florida, flowing 
into Choctawhatchee Bay. 

Alaqna, a small Scotch and Irish settlement in Walton 
CO., Fla., on the above riv«r, abont 126 miles W. by N. of 

AI«Arai8h, a town of Morocco. See El-Abaisb. 

Alarcdn, a town of Spain, in Kew Castile, on tbe 
Jdcar, SO milee 8. of Cnenca. It is a piotnresqne little 
plaoe, with its old churches and bridges and relies of 
Moorish times. Pop. about 1000. 

Alaro, 1-11'ro, a town of Mtjotea, 12 milee NNB. of 

Alaseya, t-lt-si'yl, a river in tbe NE. of Siberia, 
rises in lat. 07° N. and falls into the Arctic Ocean. 

Ala-Shchr, l'll-sh«hV (t.«., the "exalted dty:" 
aoc Philadtlpkia), a walled town of Asia Minor, in the 
vilayet of Aidin, at the NE. base of Monnt Tmolns, 83 
miles by rail B. of Smyrna. Pop. abont 20,000. It is the 
seat of a Greek archbishop and has numerous remains of 

Alas'ka (called Alia4ka by the Russians ; a corruption 
of Al-ay-elc-ta, "great country," the name given by the 
native islanders to the mainland), a territory of the United 
State^ forming the extreme northwestern part of the North 
American continent. It is bounded N. by the Arctic Ocean, 
E. by the Tukon district of Canada and British Columbia, 
8. by the Pacific Ocean, and W. by Bering Sea and Strsjt; 
the last, with a shortest width of 54 miles, separating it 
from tbe nearest point of Asia (Siberia). The territory 
includes St. Lawrence Island, the Pribilof and Alentiu 
Islands, Kadiak, and the islands of tbe Alexander Archi- 
fel>ff> (Baranof, Chichagof, Prince of Wales) a<Uoining 

the ooast of British C(dnmbU down to laL 64° 40" N., be- 
sides numerous smaller islands. Tbe 141st meridian of W. 
ktngitade forms the booadary with British territory sonth- 
wara to within 10 marine leagMS of the PaeiAe Ooaaa, the 
podtioB of Monnt St. Blias, wheoee the further boundary, 
adjusted by the decision of the Anglo-American Boondan 
Commission of Oct. 20, 1903, runs southeastward at i^proxi- 
mately the same general distance ftom the sea. The most 
northern point of the territon is Point Barrow, in lat. 71° 
23' ; and the most western, Attu Island, one cf the Alan- 
tiancbain, inkm. 187°S4'W. (172°2e'E.). The area is 
estimated to be approximatalj 570,000 sq. m. 

An«e* of lie CSMMlry.— JVotmlouw.— The interior of 
Alask^ despite the numerous exploring parties that have 
entered during recent years, is sUII laigdy unknown, and 
it is as yet impossible to coirelate the main features of its 
relief. Mudi of the great valley of tbe Tukon, which is in 
the form of a vast plain of but moderate elevation, is un- 

aueetionably of comparatively reooit origin, dating from 
le Totiary (Middle Mioeene?) or Post-Tertiary period— 
a sedimentad sea-bottom whose most salient features, as seen 
firam the river, are the high levelS|the snnunit-plsin, over 
which the river formerly flowed. These rise in plaoas 100- 
200 feet, or more, above the present level of the stream. 
The B. and BE. parts of Alaska are ruggedly moontainons^ 
and in this section are found some of ue loftiest snmmita 
of the continent (CrilloD, Fairweather, Cook, Saaford and 
Tillman, all perhaps between 14,000 and 18,000 feet in 
height ; St. Blias, 18,020 feet). The monntains in whieh 
these summits are found, and which in the main part of 
Alaska are sometimes called tbe Alaska Mountains ( Alaska 
Alps), are apparent^ a continuation of the North Ameri- 
can Ooaat Raage, and not of the interior Rocky Monntains, 
which may or may not have their representation in soma 
of the mountains (Romaaaof, Snow Range) lying M. of 
the Tukon. It is sJmost certain that the baekhone of the 
Alaska Peninsula and the numerous Islands of the Aleu- 
tian chain are the continuation of the southern Alaska 
Mountains, whieh have undergone severance and destme- 
tion. The relations <^ the central pants lying southward 
of the Tanana River and near the faead-watws of the Shn- 
shitna are still unknown, but here is located what is seem- 
inriy the loftiest summit of the entire oontinent. Mount 
MeKinley (the Russian Bolshaya), 20,4«4 feet. 

The mountains of Alaska have a greatly depressed snow- 
line (1600-5000 feet), and from their vast snow-caps 
descend giant glaciers, many of them of Aretic proportions. 
Among the l>eUer known of these are the Muir Qlsioier, dia- 
charging into Glacier Bay, whose length is abont 85 miles, 
and whose surface covers an area computed to be 360 sq. m. ; 
Davidson and Takn Glaciers, and the giant Malaspina Gla- 
cier, fed by the snows of the St. Blias group tt mountains 
— so far as is known the largest of all continental glaciers, 
and covering an area of 500^800 sq. m. The mountains at 
or near the head of Lynn Canal are crossed by a number 
of passes, of which the Chilkoot and White Passes have 
become historically ftunons through the gold movemoit of 
1898-99. The latter is now traversed by a railway, con- 
necting Bkagway with the interior of Canada, 

There are numerous active and extinct voleanoes in 
Alaska, and it becomes manifast (hnn their broad distribu- 
tion (in the far interior, the southern border, the islands of 
the Aleutian chain, and the borden of Norton Bound) that 
volcanic action had much to do with shaping the dertintes 
of the surface. The breakages of the land, which have re- 
sulted in the disintegration of the Aleutian axis and in the 
separation at two or more points of the American continent 
fh>m Siberia, can be associated with volcanic phenomena. 
Of the better known active or recently active cones are 
Wrangell, along the course of the Cmper River (17,600 (?) 
feet high, and lately in eruption) ; Iliamna, on Cook Inlet 
(12,000 feet) ; Bhishaldin, on Unimak Island (9000 feet?) ; 
and Makusbin, on Unalaska. 

Rivtn. — ^The rivers of Alaska are large and numerous, 
taking tortuous oonrsee, and affording oommunication with 
the heart of the interior. Of these, mention may be made 
of the Copper, Bhushitna, and Knskokwim, on the S. ; the 
Tukon and its tributaries (Koyuknk, Tanana, Poronpine), 
in the centre ; the Noatak and Kowak on the W., and the 
Colville on the N. Many of these are navigable ftar light 
craft for long distances ; but the waters are at places inter- 
rupted \tj snoals, shoots, and rapids, which make navi- 
gation difBenIt or discontinuous. Tbe Tukon, one of the 
great rivers of the globe, has a course of 160<K-1800 miles 
through tbe territory, descending in that distance abont 
1400 feet to the sea. It is navigsAle throughout this entire 
distance, and numerous steamers of Hght draught, patterned 
after the Mississippi ^odel, ply regnlariy on it during the 
months of open navigation (June-September) between the 
mouth (or St. Michael) and Dawson. See TcKOic. 

Digitized by 




That* is as yet no eontroUed atMBbofttiiwrigation oA aoy 
«f tlM otker ■treaais, wUoh Iwre hitherto baen nmrigated 
or «xpl«r«d alasost axdoiiTd; ia the interwts of gold- 

CKmale, Agrieuiim-al OaftMlM**, F«9«(aKai».— The «li- 
■ate ia in the soathero parts rary maoh milder than that 
e[ aerrespOBding latitodas on tiw X. ooast of Amerioa. 
That of the Aleutian Islands U mooh Uke that of the Weat- 
ara Idaads of Seotland. In the Talley <rf the Yukon there 
an large fertile plains and aztansiTa manhea, ondariaid bj 
a layar of ioe whioh nerar melts, eren In aommer, when 
Iha smbee is eoverad by a lunuiant regetation. The 
tainmar on the Paeifia ooast, eren in the far N., is gener- 
aO; warm, sanny, and pleaauiL owing to the iniaanoa of 
the warm X^troMieo, the Ghilf Stream of the Paoifio, aided 
br the simlight of the long Arotie day. On the Upper 
Tokon the enmmer heat ia really intaose, the meronry 
freqaantly regiataring W-W (or eren 100°) in the shade. 
The winter in the 8. is by no means very eold. At Sitka, 
soand iee is nerer formed, and the winter temparatore is 
only 3S° (mean annoaltempantara^ 46°). The rain-fall is 
aofMoa, and foggy waatiier is common on the eoasts and 
idands. At Sitka the yacrly rain-fUl is upward of 80 
inefaea. The winters of the interior, on the other hand, are 
•f Siberian aererity, the temperature dropping to — 00° 
and — 70°. Deapite this condition there is a oomparati valy 
aariy regetation, and few of the north-temperate regions 
annaaa aonthem and eantral Alaska in the luxnrianoe and 
btiUianey of their June and July rerdnre and in their floral 
display. Timber is abundant almost arery where ; but many 
of the ialands and ooast regions hare few trees, and obtain 
their timber and fuel IVom tha drift-wood which the rivers 
bring down. The white spruoe affords strong, light, and 
darule spars. Tha noble yellow oedar is of unsurpaaaad 
ezfldleneA. Balaam flr and hemloek abound. The birsh 
alerds good timber. Poplars, willows, and alders are oom- 
Boa, and they are still a part of the foraat growth on tha 
Arctic Cfrele. The aapen and larob continue the foreet in 
plaea* nearly to the TOUi parallel of latitude. Edible berriaa 
areab«ndaat,andof many kinde. Oraas grows luxuriantly 
area in the far N. At Fort Tnkon. N. of tha Arctic (Srde, 
barley, pot^oes, cabbages, and tumlpa haTa been grown, and 
in lower regions of the ntr interior experimental and produce 
gardens of peas, lettuce, rsdiahea, oata, and rye hare proved 
moderately sncceaaful, giving hope for a more extended 
rtaoureeandermore&vorablecondltionaof cultivation. Tha 
tslal &nn-wealth of Alaska was in June, 1900, only %U,tM. 
Cattle have been introduced upon a number of tha islands. 
Fiah are abundant in botil salt and tneh waters. The cod 
(not the tme cod <^ the Atlantic), herrings, and a smelt 
called onlachan, abound; the latter affording a copious 
np^ of oil. Many speciee of aalmoo are caught in 
tha atraams. Whiteftsh, much reaembling thoae of the 
great Mcea, are alao abundant. Wbale-fiahing is carried on 
axtaoaively in Bering Sea and the Arctic Before the dis- 
onrary of paying gold the principal revenue of this territory 
WIS dariTed from the fnr trade. Pur-aeala and sea-ottera 
are taken, subject to regulations prescribed by the United 
Stataa govemmaait to prevent the extinction' of the speciee. 
The akins of tha fox, mink, beaver, lynx, wolverine, bear, 
wo!^ mnakrat, and deer are also procured : but many of 
these animals, whioh at one time contributed largely to the 
far industry, are now becoming rare or even verging on 
extinction. Daapitethelawsgovemlngtha aeal-flsherj, the 
pnaent rata of destruction most soon lead to the extinction 
of the species, although there ia not much opportunity of 
repeating the havoc of a few years past when npward of 
4,M0,0OO fnr-aaals were killed in a period of five years. 

Mmeral /SeooKrcM.— Theee are mainly coal and gold. 
Coal, of an inferior qnaUty and of lignitio character 
(BoMoe and Miocene), ooenra in various parts of the terri- 
tory boa the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula to the 
Alexander Archipelago, the largest and moat serviceable 
iapaait hehw thM of the Kcnai Peninsula, on Cook Inlet. 
Hie caal of &pe Lisbume, on the NW. coast, is apparently 
of Carfaoniforous age. The vein depaeits of gold, ooourring 
ia metamorphio slates, limestones, and granitoid rooks, have 
their aentrte of development in the coast regien (Jnnean, 
Doa^aa Island) adjoining British Columbia, and in Unga 
bland. The famous Trewlwell Mine, on Douglas Island, 
earrying an exceedingly low-grade ore, has yielded a prod- 
aat of many millions of dollara. Placer gold it mined 
hi BUBerous districts of the interior, most of whioh are 
aoBtigHons to the Tnkon (Forty-Mile Creek, Birch Creek, 
Mincok, Tanana) ; bat nowhere has the product nptill now 
given avidenoe of the riches that distingniali the Klondike 
piaaan. Tet it would appear almost certain that the gold- 
oeK of the Tnkon district is carried through the heart 
of Alaska, a view that is seemingly nistaini^ by the dis- 
in ISI^-W, of the rich plaeers and beiich^anda 

gold of the Prince of Wales or Seward Peninsula, at Kome, 
Anvil, Oolovnin Bay, and other looalitiaa. Soma of tha 
claims on Anvil Creak rival in riohea the beat locations of 
the Eldorado-Bonania district of the Klondike, while tha 
aeashore aands have yielded several million dollars' worth 
of gold. The Alaska gold prodoot was in IMS $8,914,700. 

Tne Nativt Saeet are partly of Innnit or Bskimo stocdc 
and partly of tha red Inman race. The Alenta apjpaar to 
be a branch of the Innuit, and there are tribes of mixed 
orinn. The Indians are of two great familiea, each of 
which comprises several tribes or bands. The Thlinket race 
is the one most peculiar to Alaska ; for the great Tinneh 
family extends aonthward and ^paan to include tha 
Apaehea, Comanchea, and other for-distant tribes. 

Bittory. — Vitus Bering, an olBcer in the Russian service, 
in 1728 sailed into tha Arctic Sea ; but he never saw this 
coast until his second voyage of discovery, in 1741, just l>e- 
fore his death. The region became a field for Russian mari- 
time adventure and tradey and the pioneers were guilty of 
many enormities among tne peacaafila islanders. In 1778, 
Captain CoiA, with Vanaonverj Ledyard, Bligh, and other 
distinguished subordinates, visited these shores. The first 
Ruaaiui biihop was appointed in 1798, and the Russian- 
American Company chartered in 1799, shortly after which 
Sitka (New Archangel) was founded by Baranof, who had 
long ruled ia these regions. 

In 1807 the territory oalled Ruasian America was pur- 
chaaedby the United Statea firom Ruaaia for $7,200,000 in 

gold. The capital is Sitka, on Baranof Island. The United 
tates census for 1900 gives a total population for the terri- 
tory of 63,692, of whom 29,(30 were Indians, 3116 Chineseu 
365 Japaneae, and 168 nagro. The territory is unorganised, 
and the governor and his aaaiatanta are appointed by the 
preaident of the United States. 

Alaska^ a poat-village of Owen co., Ind., about 35 milea 
6W. of Indianapolia. Pop. about 200. 

Alastui) a poet-village of Kent co., Mich., on Thorn- 
apple River, 14 milea SB. of Orand Rapids. Pop. alwut 

Alaska, a post-village of Mineral co., W.Va., 10 milea 
S. of Cumberland, Md. Pop. about 100. 

Alaska, a po^village of Kewaunee co.. Wis., on Lake 
Michigan, 110 milea N. by E. of Milwaukee. 

Alaska Mouatains, a chain of mountains in Alaska, 
trending aonthweetward from the region of the Upper Tan- 
ana, and aecmingly standing in relation with the parallel 
mountain backlwne of the Alaska Peninsula. Little ia 
known regarding ita construction or its connection with the 
coast monntains of the SE. 

Alaska Peninsala, the narrow SW. prolongation of 
Alaaka, atretohing from Iliamna Lake to Unimak Island 
(Ion. 163° 30' W.). It was formerly called Aliatka, to dis- 
tinguish it iVom Alaaka proper. Geographically it is a 
unit with the Aleutian Islsnib, and is apparently the SW. 
extension of the rough volcanic mountain-chain W. of Cook 
Inlet; parts of the chain are still active. The iMninaula 
is in huge part tundia. Coal has been found in several 

AlasaiOy i-ll'se-o, a seaport town of Italy, in the 
province of Oenoa, on the Mediterranean, 4 miles SW. of 
Albenga. Pop. (commune) in 1901, 4689. 

Ala«Tagh, a mountain of Turkey. See Ala-Daob. 

Ala'Tan, &'ll-t6w' (i.e., "mottled monntains"), a 
name of Chineae origin, applied to several monntain-rangei 
of central Asia, one of which, the Dsungarian Ala-Tau, is 
about lat. 45° N. and Ion. 80'^ E., forma the boundary be- 
tween Dsnngaria and the Russian government of Semirie- 
tchenak. Its highest summits rise to about 11,500 feet, 
Thia range ia frequently designated the Cis-Ili Ala-Tan to 
dlstingniah it fh>m the Trans-Ili Ala-Tau, whioh in two 
main oranchaa, the northern or Kungei Ala-Tau and the 
aouthera or Tereakei Ala-Tan, akirta the oppoaite banks of 
Lake Iisyk-Kul. Talgamyn, the loftiest summit, attains 
an elevation of 15,350 feet. A weatem projection of theae 
monntaina ia now known aa the Alexander Range. ' The 
name Ala-Tan is also given to an Alpine tract, related to 
the tme Altai system, which follows a part of the bound- 
ary between the Russian governments of Tomsk and Ven- 
iseisk, in Siberia. 

Alatri, M&'tree (anc. Ala'trium), a town of Italy, a 
bishop's see, 6 milea N. of Froainone. Pop. in 1901, 6523 ; 
of the commune, 15,322. It haa mannfaotures of woollen 
goods. The place is of hi^h antiquity, ita walls exhibiting 
remains of oyolopean architecture. 

Alatyr', a town of Russia, 80 milea NW. of Simbirsk, 
at the junction of the Alatyr and Sura Rivers. Pop. 

Alansi, &-18w-see', a town of Ecuador, province of 
Chimiiorazo, on the Alausf, 7980 feet above the sea. There 
are hot springs in the neighborhood. Pop. atmut 5000. 

Digitized by 





AlATa, &'11-tI, a proviaoe of Spain (one of the three 
Basque provinoea), between lat. 43°.S0' and 43° N., oom- 
priaing ao area of 1174 sq. m. Capital, Tttoria. Pop. 
04,622. The sorfaoe is monntainons. 

Alaya, l-ll'y& (anc. Ooraet'tium), a deeayed town of 
Adatio Tarker, on a promontory in the Hediterraoean, 
100 miles 88W. of Konieh. 

Alayor, I-II-tBr', a town of Hinoroa, about 10 miles 
WNW. of Port MahoD. Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 4033. 

Alazan, L-Ii-iin', a rirer of Transoaaoasia, joins the 
Knr 12i nules SB. of Tiflis, after a SB. eourse ot 140 

Albf monntains in Oermany. See Racrb Alb. 

Alba, U'bl (ana. Al'ba Potme'ia), a town of Italy, on 
the Taoaro, S& miles SB. of Turin. Pop. in 1901, 0868 ; of 
the commune, 13,900. 

Alba, now offioially Albe, il'bk, a town of Italy, pror- 
inoe of Aqnila, at the foot of Honte Velino, 4 miles N. of 
Avesiano. It is the Al'ba Fuoen'tia of the BoBaos. 

Al'ba, a post-rillace of Antrim oo., Mioh., on the Gruid 
Rapids and Indiima R., 39 miles N. dT Walton. It has 
mannfaotuns of staves, oarriages, and wagons. Pop. about 

Alba, a posMown of Jasper oo,. Mo., 06 milsi W. of 
Springfield. Pop. in 1900, 224. 

Alba, a post-Tillage of Umatilla oo., Oregon, 30 miles 8. 
of Pmdleton. 

Alba, a post-horongh of Bradford oo.. Pa., on the 
Northern Central B., 4A miles N. by B. of Williamsport. 
Pop. in 1900, 154. 

Alba, a banking poet-rillace of Wood oo., Tex., on the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas R., 10 miles (direct) SB. of 
Bmon. Pop. about 376. 

Alba Angntta, Vn anoient name for Albi. 

Albacete, U-bi-thl'tA, a prorinoe of Spain, in Mnroia 
and New Castile. Area, 6737 sq. m. It is in part moun- 
tainous, with fertile valleys and plains. Capital, Albaoete. 
Pop. 233,000. 

Albacete, a town of Spain, in Mnrcia, o^ital of a 
prorinoe, 138 miles by rail SB. of Madrid. Pop. in 1900, 
21,512. It manufaetnns steel goods. 

Albacntya Lake, a fireah-water lake of Tietoria, Aus- 
tralia 10 miles N. of Lake Hindmarsh. 

Alba de Tonaes, U'bi di tos'mta, a town of Spain, 
14 miles SB. of-Salamanoa, on the Tonnes. Pop. 3000. 

Albaida, U-bt'oL a town of Spain, in Valenoia, 12 
milee SSW. of San Felipe. Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 4036. 

Albalate del Araobiapo, tl-b&-ll'a dil an-tho- 
Boes'po, a town of Spain, in Arigon, 40 miles SB. of Sara- 
gassa, on an affluent of the Ebro. Pop. (eommnne) 4000. 

Al'ban, a post-rillage of Portage eo.. Wis., 10 miles N. 
of Amherst Station. 

Albanohes, U-bln'ohMh, a town of Spain, in Anda- 
Insi^ prorinoe and 28 milee NB. of Almerfa. Pop. 2000. 

Albaaches, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, prorinoe 
and IS miles B. of Jain. Pop. 2000. 

Albaaella, il-Ul-nti'll, a town of Italy, prorinoe of 
Salerno, 4 miles NNE. of Capaooio. Pop. about 2000. 

Albania, al-bl'ne-% (modern Or. pron. ll-bi-nee'&; 
Tnrk. ArnatUlik, an'nl-oot^lik), ealled Skkiperi (shkip'^ 
ree*) by thenatires (from ihkipe, "a rook"), a mountainous 
country of Bnropean Turkey, between lat. 39° and 43° N. 
and Ion. 19° 6' and 21° 28' B. Bxtreme length, about 290 
miles : breadth, from 40 to 100 miles. It borders on the W. 
■nd SW. on the Adriatic and Ionian seas, and extends 
eastward to the Shar-Dagh and other mountains that form 
the western water-shed of Macedonia. It stretehes from 
Montenegro and Nori-Paxar in the N. to Greece on the S. 
It is oomposed of rideee of mountains, nearly all of which 
hare a direction NW. and BE. The principal heights 
ruy from about 2600 to 8500 feet abore the sea. Albania 
ha* no g reat rirers, the longest being the Drin and the 
Voynssa. It parti^es of the peculiar system of snbtena- 
nean streams that oharaoterises Greece. Epims, in the 
extreme S., is especially remarkable for its drcnlar basins, 
its caritiea without water, its ponds and water-courses 
tiiat disupear at certain seasons. There are sereral con- 
siderable lakes, among them Okhrida, Scutari, and Janina. 
The region produces maiie, wheat, rice, tobaoco, and olires, 
and yields ralnable timber. The diief towns in the inte- 
rior are Prisrend and Janina, and the prinoind seaports 
are Scutari, Durasso, Arlona, and Preresa. The exports 
are shipped chiefty at Preresa, Parga, Arlona, Duraiio, 
eto. Albuiia is under the goremment of different Turk- 
ish pasha*. The Albanians speak a language of their own, 
which is not olearly allied to any other known tongue, 
but is regarded as of the Indo-European stoek. In the N. 
is spoken the Ohegh dialect, in the S. the Toek. The 
Albanians are a warlike race, much ciren to robbery and 
brigandage. The g rea t mj^Jmity are Moslems; bat there 

are large numbers bdonging_to the Orf.odoz Greek and 
Roman Catholic chnrchea. The population of Albuita Is 
estimated at from 1,200,000 to 1,6(0,000. Besides the 
Albanians there are large bodies of Turks, Serbs, Bumans, 
and Greeks. In addition to their own country, the Allia- 
nians are found in large numbers in the adjoining parts of 
Turkey, in Greece, Italy, and Sicily. The Albanians offered 
a heroic resistance to the Turks in the fifteenth century 
under the &mous Soanderbeg (Castriota), but soon after 
his death (1468) the sult)ugation of the country was com- 
pleted. Adj. andinhab. Albahiah, al-bi'ne-fn; Turk., 

Abkaut, fca'nA-oot^ ; native, Shkip'xtab'. 

Albania, in ancient geogr^hy, a re^^on of the Can- 
easus, Irardering on the C«spiiin, and baring Armenia on 
the S. It is inoluded in Daehestan and Shirran. 

Alban Monntains. »m Albaho. 

Albano, U-bi'no (ana. Alba'ttum), an episcopal city of 
Italy, on the Via Appia, 12 milee BE. of Rome. Pop. in 
1901, 8461. It is celebrated for beauty of scenery and 
puriW of air, and is a farorite summer-resort of the Roman 
nobility. It comprises the ruins of Oomitian's palaoe and 
of a pnstorian camp, with the modem villas of tne princes 
Barberini, Altieri, etc. It lias a large convent, and a mu- 
seum of antiquities fh>m AUa Longa. 

Albano, a town of Italy, II miles BSE. of Potenia. 
Pop. 2700. 

Albano, a lake and mountain of Italy, IS miles SE. 
of Rome. The highly picturesque lake, 6 miles in circum- 
ference, is the crater of an extinct rolcano, near whieh are 
many el^iant villas, several grottoes, and the village of 
Castel-Gandotfo (q.v.). It is derated 960 feet above the 
sea, and has a depth of about 660 feet. There are many 
historioal monuments in its ricinity; among others^ an 
aqueduct supposed to have lieen eat in the flank of the 
mountain by the Romans during their oontest with the 
Veientes in the year 398 B.C., to <&ain off the waters of the 
lake, as instnu^ed by the oracle of Delphi. — Alba Longa 
stood on its NE. margin. — ^Mortx Albaho or Moim Cato, 
on the E., and 2175 feet above the lake, hss on its summit 
the ruins of the temple of Latian Jupiter {JupiUr Latialit), 
commanding a magnificent prospect. Under the name Al- 
ba» Latttit also included the near-by Lake Nemi. 

AlbanuM, an ancient name of the town of Albaho. 

Albany, U'b%-ne, a district of Sootlaod, nsnally called 

Al'bany, a river of Canada, takee its rise in Lake St. 
Joseph, lat. 61° N., Ion. 90° 20' W., and falls into James 
Bay. Total length, about 400 milee. It is navigable to 
Martin's Fall. It forms part of the boundary between 
Ontario and Keewatin. 

Albany, a division in the BE. part of Cape Colony, 
separated from the sea on the B. by Bathurst division. It 
is bounded N. and E. by the Great Fish River. Area, 1830 

a. m. The snriiMie is undalatinK or hilly. It is favor- 
le for agriculture and has good grasing lands, raising 
much stock. The diimate is temperate. Capita], Grahams- 
town. Pop. about 25,000, of whom more than 9000 are 

Albany, all'ba-ne, a county in the E. mrt of New Tork, 
has an area of 628 sq. m. It is boonded on the E. by the 
Hudson River, and is drained by the Catskill, NormanskiU, 
and Patroon Creeks. The Mohawk River toudies the NE. 
part of the eonnty. The surface is hilly, and is diversified 
by a range of highlands ealled the Helderbergs, which rise 
nearly 1000 feet Short the tide. Albany is the county town 
and the capital of the state. Pop. in 1890, 164,666; in 
1900, 166,571. 

Albany, a county in the SE. part of Wyoming, border- 
ing on Colorado. It is intersected by the North Fork of the 
Platte River and by the Laramie River. The snrfaee is 
finely dirersifled by high mountuns and fertile plains and 
valleys. The most prominoit feature of this county is Lara- 
mie Peak, which rises about 10,000 feet abore the level of 
the sea. Here is a vast lieantiAil open plain or table-Iaad, 
ealled Laramie Plain, which produces good pasture. Among 
its minerals are granite and iron-ore. Area, 4300 sq. m. 
Capital, Laramie. Pop. in 1890, 8866; in 1900, 13,084. 

Albany, a hamlet of Saline oo.. Ark., 7 mile* S. of 

Albany, a banking city, capital of Dougherl? eo,, Ga., 
on Flint Rirer, at the month of Einchafoona Creek, lOT 
mile* SSW. of Macon. It is an important railroad terminal 
and Junction, located on the Albany and Northern, the 
Oentoal of Owrgia and other line*. It ha* a eotton-oom- 
press, guano-fSteMry, and briek-yards. Cotton is shipped in 
steamlwats at this place, which is the head of narlntion. 
Pop, in 1800, 4008; In 1900, 4606. Albany is now a bealth- 

Albany, a banking post-rillage of Whiteside eo.. III., 
on the Miausaippi Hirer, 6 mile* below Clinton, Iowa, and 

Digitized by 






w th« CUeago, HilwMkM ud St. Pul R., 31 mUM NB. 
<r Boek laUod. Pop. in IMO, 638. 

Albwir, « port-Tillage of tha ChooUw Nation, I.T. 

AllMUi7) a DaakiiiK town of Delaware oo., Ind., on tha 
MiaaMnowa Birar, 40 miJea NNW. of Richmond. It it 
m tka Iiake Bria and Weatarn R. It baa mannfactarea of 

ipar, flour, and Inmber. Pop. in 18M, 571; in IMO, 

^baar* a poet-l>amlrt of Daria oo., Iowa, abont 18 
aulaaSW. of Ottninwa. 

AlbWiTi a poat-town, oiqtital of dioton ao., K/., abont 
Its nilea S. ol Frankfort and 4 milea from the it. boond- 
tij of Teananee. It ooataina a oonrt-honae. Pop. in 
19M, 234. 

Alkaayt a landing-piaoa in Oaddo padab, La., on a 
■ariaiUa Uke^ 10 milaa from Shraraport. 

AtMBf, a townahip (town) of Oxford eo., Ha., 83 
■aa* NW. of Lawiaton. Pop. of the town in 1900, 638. 

AlbamTf a hanking poat-TiUaca of Stearai oo., Hinn., 
m the eraM Nortbem B., U ^ea E. by S. of Helnaa. 
too. ia IMO, 617. 

Alkaar* a banking city, eapltal of Oantry oo., Ho., on 
Ofanl Birer, or its weet fork, 60 mUaa NNB. of St. Joaepfa. 
It ia «o Uia Chioago, Barlingtoa and Qoiaajr B., and baa 
mw BaaoCMtnrea. Pop. in 1000, 3026. 

Alhaar* » township (t«wn) of Carroll eo., N.H., 74 
■ilea NS. of Coaoord. Poat^tflloe, Choooraa. Pop. of tha 
Iowa in ISOO, 210. 

Alkaay* a oitj, eH>ital of the itate of New York (ainoe 
ITtT) and of Albany eo., on the W. bank at the Hndaon 
Birer, in lat. 42° SV 3" N., Ion. 73" 46* W., 142 mUea N. of 
Haw York, and at the jnnetion of the New York Central and 
Hodaon Klver, the Boaton and Albany, the Delaware and 
Hodaoa and the Wert Shore Ra. Thia poaition, t<«ethar 
with the Caet that the rirer, wliioh ia eroeaed by 3 rail- 
road and road bridgaa, eonneota here with the great lakea 
W the Bria Oanal, and with Lake Champlun by the 
(MBplain Canal, civea Albany great adrantagaa aa a re- 
eairiag and diatribating point, aapaeially for grain and 
huabar, and aiakea it an important oentre of the waatem 
tiwim. Soraral Hnea of steamera eonaeot Albany with New 
Taafc and with pointa on the Hndaon Rivjer. The oity ia 
weU boilt, with aome raiy Sne atraeta and beaatifallT 
finiahed parka (Waahiagton Park) and bonlerarda. Lead- 
ing indnatriei on a large aoale, beaidea printing and book- 
Baking are the manufaotore of atoraa and other metal 
(soda, wncona, {aiming impIemaDta, elothing of every de- 
aer^tioa, boota and ahoaa, bear and ale, pianoa, eardboard, 
giaMd and colored V^Ptn, papermakera' felt, and aome 
athtra. Prominent Snildinga are the atate capitol, wUoh 
WW began in 1871, and rirtnally eomplated in 1808, at a 
total eaat of apward of (36,000,«>0 ; the atate hall, state 
■onaal eotlege, state arraoiy, natural hiatoiy mnaeum, 
eeaa^ prison, maaonie temple, oity bpildlnga, the federal 
bnUmg, the new boai^tal (1899), and the AU Sainta' 
Crthadral. Among other institntiona may be named the 
Dadlay Obaarratory and the medioal, pharmaoeatioal, 
and law aebools, affiliated, since 1871, with Cnion Col- 
lege, Sahaaiaetad^, under the title of Union UniTendty ; 
aaa Albany Inabtnte. A pnblie reading library of over 
3H,t0O Tolamea ia maintMaed by the state. Albany ia 
tha lent of » Roman Catholio and of a Protestant Bpiseopal 
Wdiep. Bt i Uii o railways ma to erery part of the town 
aad (• Ttvjr, Wart Troy, Wert Albany, Kenwood, Oraen- 
bah, aad other aabnrfaa. The pfawe was fonaarly knowf 
aa Fort Orangai Bevarwrek, and WiUiamstadt. It waa 
•rttlad ia 1540 by FrenoLmea, who began building a oaa- 
ti^ wUeh waa eorapletad by Datohmen in 1814 and called 
Fart Kaaean The oity is the oldart axirtiag Eoropeaa 
satlsrtail la the thirteea original atataa. WaiUoons from 
HaOaad aatCled here in 1634 aad ereoted Fort Orange. 
Tha pbee iraa aarraodered to the Bngliah, Sqit. 24, 16$4, 
sad — T-1 Albany, in honor of the Duke of York Mid 

Attaay. afterwards Jamea II. It waa chartered a oity in 
IM*. Pop. ia 1800, 6289 ; in 1830, 13,630 ; in 1840, 33,731 ; 
in 186*, M,7«3 ; ia 1880, 83,387 ; ia 1870, 89,423 ; U 1880, 
H,7tS; ia 18M, 94,923; in 1900, •4,U1. 

AlhaaF» • poat-rillage of Athena oo., Ohio, abont 44 
■Haa B. «r Ciiillieothe, on the Ohio Caetral linea. Pop. in 

AlkaaiTt a hanking oity and Important railroad oentre, 
tha aapital <tt Lynn co~ Oregon, on the Willamette Hirer 
aadea tha Oorrallia and Baatem aad the Soothem Paeifie 
>a.,79Bil«B8.byW.ofP«rtlaad. Small steamboats ascend 
the rirar to thia plaoa. It ia in an eztanaire Talley, noted 
fa ita beaaty aad fartDi^. It haa naaafoetarea of iroa, 
■aited liqaora, leather, Aunitare, flour, ate. Pop. in 1890, 
Sm; in l«M, SI4». 

Albaay* a townahip of Berka CO., Pa., ia contiguous to 
tha Kittatjaay (or Blae) Uoantaia and is trarersd by the 

Philadelphia and Reading R. Albany village Is 23 milea 
N. of Reading. Pop. abont 160 ; of the townahip in 1900, 

AlbaBTj » townahip of Bradford oo., Pa. Pop. 1363. 

Albany^ a poat-hamlet of 3reene oo., Tenn., 6 milea by 
rail BW. of Paria. 

Albany, a banking poet-Tillage, capital of Shackelford 
CO., Tex., on the Texas Central R., 136 milea W. of Fort 
Worth. It is a shipping point for cotton. Pop. in 1900, 867. 

Albany, a port-townahip (town) of Orleana oo., Vt., 4 
milea SW. of Iraaborg. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1028. 

Albany, a banking post-rillage of Qreen oo., Wia^ on 
Sugar Rivu' and on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
B., 38 milea S. of Hadiaon. Pop. in 1900, 797. 

Albany, a town aad aeaport of Wert Auatralia, on King 
eeorge Sound. Lat. 36° 3' 6. ; Ion. 117° 63' E. Pop. about 

Albany Center, a post-hamlet of Orleana eo., Vt., 10 
milea from Barton. 

Albany Island, off Cum York, Queensland, Australia, 
is in lat. 10° 40' 8., Ion. 142° 36' B. It is 3 milea long and 
1 mile in breadth, and ia fertile aad well wooded. The 
iaiand ahelters the exoellent port of Somerset, 01* Port 

Albaay I<al(e, in Long Lake townahip, Hamilton co., 
N.Y., in ih9 Adirondack wildcmeas, discharges its waters 
through Beaver and Black Rivers into Lake (mtario. 

Albaay Iiaadiag, a hamlet of Cumberland oo., Ky., 
on Cumberland River, 40 miles SB. dT Glasgow. 

Alba Pompeia, the ancient name of Alba (in Pied- 

Albaredo, il-bt-ri'do, a village of Italy, 16 milea SB. 
of Verona, near the Adige. 

Albareto di Bofgotaro, U-bA-ri'to dee boa-go- 
t&'ao, a village of Italy, provinoe of Parma. 

Albarracln, U-ban-Rl-theen', a town of Spain, on the 
Qaadalaviar, 19 milea WNW. of Teruel. Pop. about 2000. 

Al-Batsaa, a town of Turkey. See El-BassA!!. 

AI'batOB, a poat-faamlrt of Uonona co., Iowa, 7 milea 
ftrom Sloan Station. 

Al'batrott Island, a amall iaiaad of Baas Strait, 
Australia. Lat. 40° 23' S. ; Ion. 144* 89" E. 

Aibay, il-bl' (formerly Ibalda, ee-al-lSn'), a broken 
aad volcanic provinoe of Luson, Philippine Islands. Area. 
indndiag dq>endeDt islands, 1783 sq. m. May6n (q.v.) 
or Albay volcano is still artive. Its foreats are dense and 
valuable aad the valleys, watered by the Albay and other 
rivers, produce large crops. The nativee oonstruet vassela 
in dodc-yarda on the coast. The highways are good. Cap- 
it^ Aibay. Pop. in 1908, 340,336. 

Albay, a pueblo and town, capital of Albay provinoe, 
Philippine lalanda^ ia on a bay of the SB. coart of Luson 
and 316 milea SB. of Hanila. The bay is large and secura 
aad ia almort landlocked. Lat. about 13° 9' N. ; ion. 133° 
44' E. Behind it is Haytin volcano. It was the reaidenoe 
of Spaoiah officiaU. Pop. in 1903, 14,049. 

begaa, il-b4n'yl (anc. A<6iRia), a river of Tuscany, 
rises in Uonte Labro, flows SW., and enters the Uediter- 
rancan 6 miles N. of Orbetello. 

Albeaaarle, a town of Franea. See Aomalb. 

Al^beasarle', a county in the central part of Virginia, 
haa an area of 776 aq. m. It ia bounded on the 8. by the 
Jamea River, and is drained by the Bivaaaa and Hard- 
ware Rivera. The Blue Ridge extends along the NW. 
border of this county, which hu a flnely diverauied auifaoa 
aad abounda with pirtnreaqne aoenery. Capital, Charlottea- 
TiUe. Pop. in 1890, 33,379 ; in 1900, 34,932. 

Albemarle, a poet-village of Aasumption parish. La., 
S milea 8. of Napoleonville. It is on the Bayou Lafourche, 
80 miles above New Orleans aad aboat 10 milea NW. of 
Tbibodeanx. Pop. about 160. 

Albemarle, a banking peat-town, capital of Stanly 
CO., N.C., on the Southern R., abont 38 milea E. of Char- 
lotte aad SO milea E. by S. of Concord. It has cotton-fsc- 
toriea, knitting-milla, etc. Pop. in 1900, 1383. 

Albemarle Island, the largert of the Qalipagoa 
lalaada, ia the Padflo Ocean. Lat. 0^ 66' 8. ; Ion. 91° 38' W. 

Albemarle Sonad, in the NE^part of North Caro- 
lina, extends frmn the months of the Cnowaa and Boanoka 
Riven nearly to the Atlantic Ooean, from which it ia aepa- 
rated by a long narrow iaiaad. It ia abont 66 milea hmg 
ftrom E. to W., and varies in width fW>m 4 to 16 milea. Tha 
water is nearly flreah, ia rather ahailow, and is not affected 
by the tide. Veaaela can pass from this sound into Pamlico 
Sound, and thenoe into the ocean. It also oommunicatea 
with Currituck Sound by an inlet. 

Albendorf, U'btn-doRr, a village of Prussian Silesia, 
8 mUea WNW. of Glats. Pop. 1613. Near it is the sanct- 
uary of New Jemsalem, visited annually by upward of 
160,000 pilgrims. 

Digitized by 





Alken^t U-bAn'gi (ui«. Al'bitim Itiatm'Hum), a m»- 
port of Italy, 44 milei SW. of Oenoa. P<n>. 3000 («om- 
mane. 5000). It hu Boman antiquitiea and feudal editoM. 

Albems, U^Uip[, • Tillam of Franoe^ d«partin«it of 
Savole, • milw SKB. of Aix-tw-Baini. 

Alberbnrr, ifbtr-bfr-o, a oariah of Bnglaiid and 
Wal«f, eoa. of Shropahira and Montcanarr. (Hd Parr ia 
aaid to hare been bom in this pariih In 1483. 

Alberche, U-bls'ohi, a rirar <^ Spain, ris«a in Old 
Castile and after a oonrse of IM miles falls into the Tagns. 

Albteet (U-bain') MonBtaiBS, the name of the B. 
portion of the Prrenoea. 

Alberique. il-UUree'ki, a town of Spain, in Valencia, 
11 miles N. of San Felipe. Pop. (eommane) in 1000, 6703. 

Alber'aiykpost-TilUge^ with lante lomber and saw-mill 
establishments, on Banday Sound, W. ooast of Taaoonver 
Island, British Columbia. The Albeni Canal ia a lone and 
narrow fiord or channel extending inward from the a£oTe- 
named sound. 

AlberobellO, U'bi-ro-bil'Io, a town of Italy, province 
of Bari delle Pnriie. Pop. (commune) in 1901, 6960. 

Alberona, U-bi-ro'nl, a town of Italy, in a valley, 22 
miles W. of Foggia. Pop. about 2000. 

Albers, a port-hamlet of Clinton co., III. Pop. about M. 

Albenchweiler, U'bfnh-'Mner, a Tilla«e of Lor- 
raine, QarmaDy, 8 miles SB. of Saarbnrg. It has a sana- 
torium. Pop. in 1900, 1(74. 

Albersdorf, U'bers-donT, a village of Pmasia, in Hd- 
Btein, 19 miles SW. of Randsbnrg. 

Albenweiler, fcl'ben-'MMfr, a village of Bavaria, in 
the Palatinate, 3 miles ENB. of Annweiler. Pop. 2000. 

Al'bettji a division in the N. part of OwottelODv, sep- 
arated N. fW>m the Onwge River Colony oy the Orange 
River, by tributaries of which it is intersected. Area, 2680 
sq. m. A railroad traverses it N. and S. (with branches), 
" ~ ' " ■" Pop. about 

passing through Burghendorp, the capital. 
17,000, of whom' upward of 8000 are whites. 

Albert; irbain', formerly called Aliere« a town of 
France^ department of Somme, 18 miles NB. of Amiens. 
Pop. (eonunnne) in 1901, 7348. 

Al'beit, a county of New Brunswick, on the Bay of 
Fondy. This county contains valuable albertite-mines and 
gypeum-quarries. OMtitaL Hopewell Cuw. Pop. abont 

Albert, a poet-village of Albert co.. New Bmnawicfc, on 
the Salisbnry and Harvey R. Pop. about 300.' The bank- 

ing point is Honcton. 

Ibert, a post-village of Barton co., Kan. 

Albert, a poet-vi]l^;e of Tucker co., W.Va., on the 
West Virginia Central and Pittsburg R., 17 mUee (direct) 
S. by W. of Oakland. 

AJber'ta, a post-village of Wilcox co~ Ala. P<m. about 

Alberta, a poet-station of Meigs co., Ohio, 21 miles 
tnm Hamden. 

Alberta, Canada, is one of the foor provisional districts 
formed firom a portion of the Northwest Territories in 1882. 
It is bounded N. by lat. Si", E. by Assiniboia and Saskatch- 
ewan, S. by lat. 49°, W. by British Columbia, iW>m which 
' it is separated by the main chain of the Rooky Mountains. 
The SW. portions of the district constitute an important 
ranching area of Canada, containing upirard of 160,000 
cattle, 25,000 horses, and numerous sheep. Coal and lig- 
nite are found over a large part of the district, the coal of 
Lethbridge being of particularly good qoaliW. The Na- 
tional Park of Canada is located at Banff. The region ia 
charaoteriied by grand and impressive scenery of an Alpine 
character. Area, about 100,000 aq. m. Pop. abont 60,000. 

Chief town, Calinuy. 

Albert BriilKe, a post-village in Ci 
Nova Scotia, on Mira River^l2 miles E3E. of Sidney. 

in Cape Breton oo.. 

Albert, Cape, in the E. part of EUesraere Land, on 
Smith's Sound. Lat. 79° 20' N. ; Ion. 78° W. 

Albert City, a post-village of Bnena Vista co., Ind. 
Pop. about 125. 

Albert Edward, Monnt, a lofty summit of the Owen 
Stanley Range, British New Guinea. Elevation, about 
12,500 feet. 

Albert Edward Nranaa (naUve nam& as written 
by Stanley, Muta Ntigf), a lake of east-centraJ AfVioa, 110 
miles W. of Victoria Nyania and 100 milea 8. by W. of 
Albert Nyania, with which it ia connected by the Semliki 
River, and with which it lies in the same vast natural 
depression. It is abont 40 miles in both length and 
breadth. Discovered by Stanley in 1376. The position 
of the lake, whose waters are now contracting, ia approxi- 
matelv lat. 0° 5' N. to 0° 87' 8., and Ion. 29° 45'^K. It would 
seem ftrom recent explorations that the waters of Lake Kivu, 
lying to the S., at one time drained into it. ElevaUon, 
according to Stahlmann, 2870 feet (Stanley, 8000 feet). 

Albert Lea, a banking aUj and raUroad centra, capi- 
tal of Freeborn oo., Minn., Is finely sitaated an Albert Laa 
and Fountun Lakes, on the Chicago, Mllwaakae and St. 
PMl and other railroads, 108 miles S. of Minne^olia. Tha 
oi^ has various achods and colleges, one of whieh, the 
Albert Lea College, was fonadad by the Synod of Hinna- 
sota for the higher Christian education of women. It has 
also grain elevators, iron-foundries, woollen- and flonrlnc- 
mills, electric-light plant, etc Pop. in 1900, 4fiM. 

Albert Bfiaea, a minine village in Albert co., New 
Brunswick, 20 miles S. by B. of Moneton, its bulking 
point. It eontains rich and extensive coal- or " albertite' - 
mines. A tramway, H miles long, oonneets the mines with 
Hillsborough, a port of entry. Pop. 300. 

Albert MoaBtaiaa, a moantain-range in BriUA New 
Ouinea, forming part of the bonndaiy with Kaiser Wil- 
helm's Land. 

Albert NTaasa (native name, as written bv Baker, 
ITtntan N'tigt), a great lake of east-centoal AiHaa, on* 
of the soorees of the White Nile, was first visited by Baker 
in 180^ although its existence had been previondy ao- 
nouneed by Speke. It is about 100 miles kms, with a 
breadth of 20 miles. It is in a rocky region ana is deep, 
except in the S. It receives the waters of the Victoria 
Nyansa (which lies 186 miles soatheastward) throogh the 
Kari or Somerset River, which again leaves it at its nerth- 
em extremity as the tme or White Nile. The BenHki 
River, the (Useharge fhnn the Albert Edward Nyanaa, 
enters the lake ia the 8. Although sometimes eoundered 
to be the main feeding-basin of the Nile, this poeition 
properly beloBgs to the Victoria Nyansa. Area, about 1700 
sq.m. Elevation, 2200 feet. 

AlHiertOB, or E'lytrille, a post-villsxe of Howard 
CO., Md., on the Patapsoo Rivo- and on the Baltimore and 
Ohio R., 20 miles W. of Baltimore. It has a cotton-ftctOTy. 
Pop. about 376. 

Alberto*, a seaport town of Prince Edward Island, 
Prince's CO., on the Oaseumpeque River and on the Prince 
Edward Island R., 93 mUes NNW. of Chariottetown. It 
has fishing and packing industries. Pop. abont 700. 

AlbertOB, a post-village in Wentworth co., Ontario, 
Canada, 12 miles from Hanulton. 

Albert Park, an electorate within the city of South 
Mdboume, Australia. Pop. of the district, abont 13,000. 

Albert River, two rivers of Australia : on^ in Queens- 
land, lUls into the Gulf of Carpentaria : the other, ia Vie- 
tori^ flows into the Pacific near Port Albert. 

Ainkertaoayatownof Jonesoo.,HisB. Pop. in 1900, 200. 

AlbertaoB, a post^tatlon of Duplin eo., N.C., 18 mllas 
from Mount Olive Station. 

Albert Victor MonatalBi, a range of mountains in 
British New Guinea, ibrming part of the boundary with 
Kaiser Wtlhelm's Land. 

AlbertTille, irbainVed', a town of France^ capital 
of an arrondissement in the department of Savoie, on the 
river Ariy, 12 miles NE. of ChambSry. It oomprises the 
former towns of Conflans and L'HApital. Pop. about 3600 
(commune, 0000). 

AlbertTille, a settlement of the Congo Free State, on 
the W. ahore of Lake Tanganyika, 13 miles S. of the Ln- 
kuca River. 

AI'bertTille, a banking post-village of Hanhall oo., 
Ala., on the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis B., 10 
miles 8. 1^ W. of Onatersville. Mp. about 1200. 

AlbertVllle, a post-hamlet of Chippewa oo.. Wis. 

Albese, U-bi'ti, a vill(«e of Italy, 4 mUes EBB. of 
Como. Pop. 1500. 

Albettoae, M-b«t-to'nl, a viUage ot Italy, in Venetia, 
16 miles S. of Vicensa. 

AIbi, or Alby, U'bee' (L. Albiga, Afba Amgtufta), a 
city of France, in Languedoc, capital of the department of 
Tarn, on the left baak of the Tarn, 42 milea NE. of Tou- 
louse. It is ill built, the streets being narrow and irregular. 
Albi is the seat of an archbishop. The massive meiUsaval 
cathedral of St. Cecilia is one of the most interesting 
churches in southern France. The town anffered much in 
the ware waged by the ohnnih againat the reforming sect of 
the Albigenses (Fr. Albigeou), who took their name from 
it, in the early part of the thirteenth century. Pop. in 
1901, 14,951 (commune, 22,671). 

Albi, illMW, a town of Italy, in Calabria, 11 mUea NW. 
of Catansaro. Pop. 1600. 

Albia, al'be-%, a banking dty^capital of Monroe co., 
Iowa, is on the Iowa Central, the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quinoy and the Wabash Rs., 25 miles W. ot Ottumwa and 
24 miles BSW. of Oakaloosa. Coal is extensively mined 
in the neighborhood. Pop. in 1900, 2889. 

Albia, a villase of New Tork, a suburb of Troy. 

Albiano, il-be-&'no, a village of Italy, province of 
Maasa e Carrara, 16 miles 8. by E. of Pontremoli. 

Digitized by 


Alblaoo dlvrea 



AlkUao A'lvna, il-b»4'D0 d«»-Tr&'t, » riliaga of 
IW;, DroTinea of Turin. Pop. MOO. 

AI»MOBat iMw-do'iiA, s Tillage of Italy, in OoMnn, 
» milM KK. of Cwtrorillui, otu the Onlf it Tennto. 

Alkiga^ k Latin name of Alii. 

AlbifBaseso,'gD, a villace of Italy, 4 
Biles 8. of Padoa. Pop. 1400 (eommnne, 43fi0). 

Alkiiutf il-bei'nf, formerly a oity of Multnomah oo., 
Ortgon, now a part of Portland. 

Alkiaea, U-be-ni't, a Tillage of Italy, prorinoe of Beg- 
giok in Bmilia, near Seandiano. 

Albiaia, uie ancient name of the Albbsma. 

AlbiaOi il-bee'no, a town of northern Italy, 8 miles 
9K. of Bergamo, on the Serio. Pop. 3700 (eommnne, 5000). 

AlkioB) al'be-on, the ancient name of kritain, said in- 
aorraetly to haTO been giren to it on aoeoont of the lofty 
white (Sib on the S. shores of the island. Alban and Albin 
(Albyn) were ancient names for the Highlands of Scotland. 

AlaioB, U1m-vn or U'be.fn, a poM-Tillage of Mendo- 
sino eo., CaJ., on the Pacific Ocean, at the mouth of Albion 
Rirer, abont 135 miles NNW, of San Francisco. Itismunly 
snpported by the Inmbar business. Albion Rirer affords an 
OMafe anehoiage. Pop. about 250. 

AlMoa« a post-Tillage of Lery oo., Fla., about 19 miles 
SV. of OaineSTille. It is on the Florida Central and Pen- 
bsala R. and has tarpeotine manu&etnres. Pap, abont 

Albioa^ a eity, capital of Cassia eo., Idaho, abont ISO 
Biles SB. of BoM and abont 25 miles S. of the Tlnion Pa- 
sific R. Pop. in 1900, SOO. 

'tal of Edwards CO., 
. Louis R., 60 milci 
plongh- and brick- 
botoriei uid is the seat of the Southern CoUeglate Insti- 
tate. Pop. in 1900, 11R2. 

Albt«B« a banking poet-^own, capital of Noble eo., Ind., 
is sitaatad near Elkhart Rirer, on the Baltimore and Ohio 
R., M miles NW. of Fort Wayne and 128 miles ftom Chi- 
ago. It has manufactures of sash, blinds, wagons, and 
brisk and tile. fop. in 1900, 1824. 

AlbtOBf a post-Tillase of Marshall co., Iowa, on the 
lewa BiTer and on the Iowa Central B., 7 miles NW. of 
Mafshalltowa. Pop. in 1900, 440. 

Albi«a« a post-hamlet of Harper oo., Kan., S3 miles W. 
of Wellington. 

AlbiOB, a poet-hamlet in Albion township (town), Ren- 
■sbes eo.. He., 25 miles KK. of Augusta. Pop. of the town, 

AlbiOB} a banking ^y of Calhonn co., Mich., on the 
Kslamaaoo BiTar and on the Michigan Central and the 
Uke Shore and Michinn Southern Bs., 20 miles W. of 
Jaeksoa and 39 miles SBW. of Lansing. It is the seat of 
Albion Collwe, a Methodist institution founded in 1800. It 
hss aba a paWe library and a conserratory of music. Al- 
UoB has niannfsctnres of iron, harness, agricultural imple- 
BSBts, aaafc, bUnds, and windmills. Pop. in 1900, 4519. 

AlM*B, a banking post-Tillage, capital of Boone oo., 
Feb., ca the Fremont BIkhom and Missouri Valley and 
the UniaB Faeiile Rs., 41 miles NW. of Colnmbns. It has 
dafayisg industries. Pop. in 1900, 1289. 

iUblOB«abankingpast-Tillagein the townships (towns) 
tt AlUan and Oainss, the ca^lal of Orleans eo., N.T., on the 
Biie Canal and on the New York Central and Hodson RiTcr 
L, to ailaa W. of Rochester and 62 miles NB. of Buffalo. 
Ji has mannfaotnres of iron and axtanslTe stone-qnarries, 
eto. The Western Hoose of BeAige for Women is located 
hat*. Pop. in 1900, 4477 ; of the town, &740. 

AlbiOB. • township (town) of Oswego CO., N.T., traT- 
■led by tlM Rome and Watertown R., contains seraral 
aaaaCMtnriag hamlets. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1724. 

AlblOBt a post-Tillage of Ashland oo., Ohio, 26 miles 
KI. of ManafieU. 

AlUaa, a banking post-boroogh of Erie oo.. Pa., on 
the BeaTcr and Erie Canal and on the Pittsburg, Bessemer 
and Lake Erie R., 26 miles 8W. of Erie. Pop. in 1900, 

AlbioBf a post-Tillage of ProTidence co., R.I., on the 
Vow Tork, New HaTon and Hartford R., 11 miles N. by 
W. (ma ProTidenee. Pop. 350. 

Albion, a Tillage of Whitman oo.. Wash. 

AlMoa, a poet-riUage and township (town) of Dane eo., 
Vli., 3 ndles from Bdgeiton. Kosbkonong Lake touches 
the SB. part of the town. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1690. 
Albioa, OT Bol'toB, a banking post-village of Peel 
•a, Ontario^ Canad*, on the HnmMr River and on the 
fJMisdlsB Paetto R., 25 miles bom Toronto. It has floor-, 
pist- aad wooIlcD-mills, an iron-foundry, etc Pop. 800. 
AlbiOB Mimea, Picton co.. Nova Scotia. Sae Stbi>- 


'Albia, a river of Oermany. See Elib. 

Albia, a minor mountain -range of the canton of Zttrioh, 
Switserlaiid, on the W. of Lake Zttrioh. The highest point 
is the BUrglenstntx, 3010 feet. 

AlbiSBOla Marina, &'l& ml-ree'nA, a town of 
Italy, province of Qenoa, 2 milee by rail NB. <k Savona. 
Separated trom it by the Sansobia is the village of Albissola 
Superiore. Pop. 2000. 

Albistan', a towo of Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of 
Aleppo, 38 milee N. of Marash. Pop. 6500. 

Albinm iBgananm, the ancient name of Albihsa. 

Albizzate, &l-blt-8Jl'ti, a town of Italy, province of 
Mihn, 6 miles N. of Oallarate. Pop. 800 (oommuae, 2000). 

Alblasserdam, U-blis^8«r-d&m', a village of the Neth- 
erlands, South Holland, 9 miles 8E. of Rotterdam, on the 
navirable river Merwede. It has ship-yards. 

Alboo&cer, U-bo-k&'thir, a town of Spain, in Valencia. 
32 miles NW. of Castell6n de la Plana. Pop. (commune) 
in 1900, 3603. 

Albolodny, il-bo-lo-noo'e, a town of Spain, in Anda- 
Insia, SO milee NNW. of Almerfa, on the left bank of the 
river Almerfa. Pop. abont 2000. 

AlbOB , irbdn^, a town of France, department of DrOme, 
5 milee NNEl of St.-Vallier, near the Rhone. 

Alboaa, il-bo'ni (Oer. Alben, U'bfu ; Croat. LaNn, 
11-been'), a town of Istria, 42 milee 8S. of Triest. It was 
a flonrishing place under the Romans. Pop. 2500. 

AlbOBdon, &l-bon-dSn', a town of Spain, in Andalusia, 
38 miles B. of Madrid. Pop. (commune) 3000. 

Albonete, &l-bo-ni'ii, a village of Italy, province of 
Pa via, 3 milee NNW. of Mortara. Pop. 1100. 

AlDor&n, &l-bo-rin', a small island in the Mediterra- 
nean, belonging to Spain. Lat. 35° 56' N. ; Ion. 3° 1' W. 

Alborea, tl-bo-ra'4, a town of Spain, in Mnrcia, 22 
miles NNW. of Albaoete. Pop. (commune) 2000. 

AI-Bostan, a town of Asiatic Turkey. See El-Bootas. 

Albox, U-boH', a town of Spain, in Andalusia, 40 milee 
NNE. of Almerfa, on the Rambia de Oria. Pop. (com- 
mune) in 1900, 10,049. 

Albreda, U-bri'dl, • tradinc station of British West 
Africa, at the month of the Oambia River. Principal ex- 
ports, pea-nuts and copra. 

Albright, awl'briL a post-village of Caseade co., Mont. 
Pop. about 100. The t>ankin| point Is Oreat Falls. 

Albright, a post-hamlet of Preston oo., W.Va., on Cheat 
River. 47 milee W. of Keyser. 

AlbrightSTille, awlObrlts-vil, a poU-village of Carbon 
CO., Pa., 15 milee NE. of Manch Chunk. 

Albaera, U-boo-i'riL, a river of Spain, province of 
Bad^oi, flows into the Qnadiana. Length, 50 miles. 

Alboera, or La Albaera, a town of Spain, in Estre- 
madura, 13 milee SE. of Badiyos, on the river of the same 
name. On Hay 16, 1811, the British and allies, under 
General Bereaford, here gained a victoiy over the French, 
commanded by Marshal Sonlt. Pop. 800. 

Albafelra, U-boo-fi'e-ri, a town of Portugal, province 
of Algarve, on the Atlantic, 46 miles S. of Cape St. Vinoent. 
Pop. about 6000. It has a fine harbor and fisheries. 

Albnfera, il-boo-fi'rl, a lake of Spain, on the coast, 7 
milee S. of Valencia, 11 miles in length by 4 in breadth. It 
ooromunioates with the Mediterranean. It is fk-equented by 
large numbers of water-fowl, which attract many sportsmen. 

Albnla, &l'boo-lli, a mountain-pass of Switxerland, 
in the Orisons, leads across Mount Albula from the valley 
of Bergttn to the Upper Engadine and from the basin of the 
Rhine to that of the Inn. Its highest point is 7590 feet. 
The Albnla River rises on the Albula Mountain and falls 
into the Hinter-Rhlne at the Via Mala. 

AlbaSol, ll-boon-ysr, a town of Spain, in Andala^ 
province of Qranada, 35 miles W. by S. of Almerfa, near 
the eoast of the Mediterranean. Pop. (commune) 8500. 

Albnqnerqne, &l-boo-k Jr'kJi, a city, capital of Berna- 
lillo CO., N.Mez., on the Rio Qrande and on the Atchison, 
Topeka and &mta V6 R., at the junction of the Atiantio 
and Pacific R., 56 miles (direct) SW. of Santa Vi. Eleva- 
tion, 4930 feet. It is the seat of a territorial univosity 
(University of New Mexico) and does a brisk trade in wool 
and hides. Oold-, silver-, copper- and iron-mines are in 
the vicinity. Pop. in 1900, 6238. 

Albngnerque (il-boo-kin'ki) Islands, or South- 
West Keys, a group in the Caribbean Sea, 110 miles E. 
of the Mosquito coast. 

Albnrg, al'bfirg, a post-village of Franklin oo., N.T., 
3 miles from Molra Station. Pop. about 100. 

Albnrg, awl'barg, a poet-township (town) of Orand 
Isle CO., Vt., abont 32 milee X. of Bnrlington, Is a penin- 
sula washed by Lake Champlain on all sides except the 
N. It is intarsected bv the Central Vermont R., and con- 
tains a poet- village and a station of its own name, 16 miles 
NNW. of St. Albans. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1474; of 
the village, about 600. 

Digitized by 


Albuiv Center 



Alburf Center, • post-Tillage of Onad Isle oo., Vt., 
on Lkke CIiMnplsin, about 38 miTee N. of Barlington and 
H miles from Alburg Springs. Pop. SOO, 

Albnrg Springs, a poet-rillage of Grand Isle oo., Vt., 
on Lake Cbamplain and the Central Vermont R., 8 miles 
B. of Rouse Point. It has mineral springs. 

Albumett, a post-hamlet of Linn oo., Iowa. 

Albnrqaerqne, 'U-booR-kiK'ki, a town of Spain, in 
Estremadnra, 26 miles N. o^ Badges. Pop. MOO. It has 
an old eastle and an extensive trade in wool. 

Albnrtit, al-bilr'tis, a post-village of Lehigh eoi. Pa., 
on a branoh of the Philadelphia and Reading R., 12 miles 
SW. of Allentown, its banking point. It is the south ter- 
minosof theCatasauqnaandPogelsTilleR. Pop. about &&0. 

Albary, al'b«r-re, a town of Anstralla, in New South 
Wales, at the head of steam navigation on the Horray 
River, 380 miles by rail SW. of Sydney and opposite 
Wodonga, in Victoria. It ha* extensive wine-oellars. Pop. 
of the distriot, about 5600. 

Albary, a poet-village of Prince Edward oo., Ontario, 
Canada, i miles from Belleville. 

Albazzano, il-boot-s&'no, a village of Italy, 4 miles E. 
of Pavia. Pop. about 1000. 

Alby, a town of France. See Albi. 

AMr, or Albi, irbee*, a town of Franee, in Hante- 
Savoie, on the Chiran, 9 miles SE. of Anneoy. Pop. 600. 

Albyn, or Albin, the ancient (Celtic?) name of the 
Highlands of Scotland, from Au or Alp, signifying " high- 
land" or " monntain." 

Alcacer do Sal, al-kis'tr do s&l («'.«., "salt oasUe:" 
ano. Salaeia), a town of Portoga], in Estremadnrsi, on the 
SalSdo, 46 miles BE. of Lisbon. Pop. (commune) about 

AlcalA, il-kl-li', a pueblo on the Rio Oraode de Can- 
in, Cagayin provinoe, Lnion, Philippine Islands, 30 mue* 
(direct) N. by W. of TuguMttrao. Pop. in 1903, 7300. — 

Also a pueblo in Pangasin&n province, Luxon. Pop. in 
1903 9008. 

AjcalAde CMtbert, il-ki4t' di ehls-balnt', a town 
of Spain, in Valencia, 29 miles by rail NE. of OasteIMn da 
la Plana, in a region abounding in wine and oil. Pop. 6000. 

AlcalA de Goadaira, U-kt-li' d& gwi-Dl'ri, a town 
of Spain, 7 miles E. of Seville, with a luorish eastle. It 
furnishes large quantities of bread to Seville. The town is 
on the site of the Punic Ueinipa. Pop. about 8040. 

AlcalA de Henares, &l-kM&' di «n-&'rts, a city of 
Spain, in New Castile, 17 miles ENE. of Madrid, on the 
right bank of the Henares. It is a gloomy old town, with 
ruined walls, built on a treeless plain. Its fiunous nni- 
versity, founded by Cardinal Ximenes, was traasfenad to 
Hadnd in 1836. The town has a large institution for 
female criminals. Aloali is the birthpUoe of Cervantes, 
whcee house is still standing. On the opposite bank of the 
Henares stood the Roman town of Complntnra, whose name 
is eommemorated in the famous Complutensian Polyglot 
Bible published at Aloali under the anspiess of Ximenes. 
Pop. in 1900, 11,206. 

AJcald del J*ear, U-kl-Ii' d« aoo'kaB, a town of 
Spain, in Murda, on the left bank of the Jtfear, 19 miles 
N. by W. of Albaoete. Pop. about SOOO. 

AlcaU de lot Gazniea, U-k&-li' di looegl-thoo'Iie, 
a town of Sjmin, in Andalusia, on the slope of the Ronda 
Mountains, 37 miles E. by S. of Cadis. Fop. (commune) 
in 1900, S777. 

AlcalA del Rio, U-UUIt' d«l ree'o, a (own of SiM^n, 
in Andalusia, 8 miles N. of Seville, on the Qnadalquivir. 
Pop. about 3000. 

Alcald del ¥aUe, il-kl-IV dil vil'yi, a town of 
Spain, in Andalusia, 46 miles B. of Cadis. Pop. 8000. 

Alcald la Real, ttkl-lt' 11 ri-il', a oity of Spain, Jn 
AndalnsiiL 30 miles SW. of Ja<n, on the N. side of the 
Granada Mountains, about 2900 feet atrave the sea. Pop. 
(commune) in 1900, 16,973. 

Alcaao, U'ki-mo, a town of Sicily, 22 miles B. of 
Tnqiani. picturesquely situated on a hill, 4 miles fW>m the 
sea, with towers and edillees of a Baraeen origin. Pop. in 
1901, 48,099 ; of the oommune, 61,809. Near it are the 
ruins of a theatre and remains of the aneient Segt^Ut. 

Alcanadre, il-UUni'dri, a river of Spain, in Aragon, 
Joins the Cinoa after a course of about 00 miles. 

Aloanar, U-ki-nas', a town of Spain, in Catalonia, 19 
miles 6. ofTortosa. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 4998. 

Alcanede, il-ki-ni'di, a town of Portugal, in Estre- 
madnra, 12 miles N. of Santarem. Pop. (commune) 3000. 

AlcaAiz, U-kin-yeeth', a walled town of Spain, in 
Aragon, provinoe of Temel, on the right bank of the Guada- 
lupe, 60 miles SB. of Saragossa, in a fVuitful plain. Pop. 
in 1900, 7806. 

Alcdntara, &l-kan'tl-r& (Arab, "the bridge:" ano. 
Wor'ha Couart'a), a fortified town of Spain, in &trema- 

dura, on the Tagus, near the Portuguese ftontier, 36 miles 
NW. of Ciceres. Pop. about 3000. The magnificent bridge 
over tiie Tagus, built by the Emperor Trajan, is more than 
600 feet long and about 200 feet high. It is composed of 
but six spans, and is surmounted by a triumphal arch. 
Another of the attractions of the place is the ruined monas- 
tery of the Knights of Alcantara. 

Alcantara, il-kln'ti-ri, a former suburb of Lisbon, 
now forming a western quarter of the city. The aqneduot 
leading over the Alcantara valley into Lisbon, constructed 
in the early part of the eighteenth century, witn 127 arches, 
in one of the g.ondest works of the kind. 

Alcantara, il-k&n'ti-Hl, a river of Sicily, falls into the 
Mediterranean S. of Taormina. 

Alcantara, U-k&n'tl-ri, a ses^mrt town of Bcasil, in 
the state of ManohSo, on the W. side of the eetnair of the 
Manahio River, near its Qioutfa. Pop. about 10,000. 

Alcantarilla, U-kio-ti-reel'yi (^'the UtUe bridge"), 
a town of Spain, 6 miles fiom Hnroia. Pop. (commune) 
in 1900, 4973. 

Alcara li Fnai, U-ki'ri lee foo'see, a town of Sicily, 
in Messina, 20 miles SW. of PatU. Pop. 3700. 

Alcaraz, U-kl-rith', a town of Spain, 34 miles WSW. 
of Allweete. It has mines of copper and sine. Pop. (oom- 
mune) in 1900, 4501. 

Alcaaaar Cegner, al-kis'sar thi-gain', a fortified vil- 
lage of Morocco, on the Strait of Gibraltar. 

Aleatraz, or Aloatras, 11-ki-trls', a rooky islet on 
the NW. eoaat of Africa. Lat. 10° 37' N. ; Ion. 15° 21' W. 

Alcatraz, il-kl-tr&x', a post-station of San Francisco 
CO., Cal., is on the island of Aloatras, 4 miles N. of Sao 
Francisco. Here is a strongly fortified military poet and 
prison. The island is 1650 fbet long and rises to a height 
of 130 feet It has a light-house. Lat 37° 49' 27" N. ; Ion. 
122° 24' 19" W. 

Alcatntiet, or Alcatrastet, U-ki-trls'sfa ("peli- 
ean islands"), a group of barren r««ks on the E. coast of 
South America, 20 miles from the mainland. Lat 24° 6' S.; 
Ion. 46° 40* W. 

Alcandete, U-kSw-ni'ti, a town of Spain, Andalusia, 
34 miles SW. of Ja<n. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 9907. 

Aledzar (or AlcAeer) de San Jnan, &I-U'thf r di 
sin Hoo-in' (almost sin awin'), a town of Spain, in New 
Castile, 46 miles NE. of dudad Real. Pop. (oommane) in 
1900, 11,499. It has manufkotures of gunpowder and nitra 
and has calamine- and iron-mine*. 

Alcas'nr Kebir', or Alca'tnr Qoivir', a eity of 
Moroooo. See Easr-il-Kiiir. 

Aloeate, al-s4et', a small island in the Gulf of Pe-chi-li, 
3 miles NW. of the NE. point of Shan-tung. 

Aleetter, awl'stf r, a town of England, eo. of Warwick, 
at the jnnction of the AIne and Arrow, IS miles WSW. of 
Warwick. Pop. about 3500. 

Al'cester, a banking post-town of Union co., S.Dak., 
on the Chicago and Northwestern R., 19 miles B. of Center- 
TiUe. Pop. in 1900, 381. 

Al'ohie, a post-hamlt^ of Halifax eo., Va., 18 milea 
NW. of Boston Station. 

Alcint, il-thee'ri (ano. Satabicula), an aneient town 
of Spain, 36 mile* SW. of Valencia, on an island in tha 
JAcar. Pop. of the oommune, 20,500. It has fine bridges, 
and near it is a remarkable stalaetitie cavern. It was an 
important place under the Moors, 

Alckmaer and Alcmaria* See Alkmaar. 

Alcoba^, il-ko-bi'si, a town of Portugal, provinos 
of Brtremadnra, 20 miles SW. of Leiria. It has an ancient 
Cistercian abb^, in which are the tombe of several kings. 
Pop. 2000. 

Alcober, il-ko-Bain', a town of Spain, in Catalonia, 10 
mile* NW. of Tarragona. Pop. (commune) 2000. 

Aleooer, il-ko-thain', a town of Spain, 29 mile* S£. 
of Guadal^ara. Pop. 1500. 

Aleoentre, il-ko-in'tri, a small town of Portugal, 30 
miles SW. of Santarem. 

Aleolea, il-ko-li'l, a looalitr in the outskirts of Cor- 
dova, noted for the victory of Serrano over the forces of 
IsabeUa II., Sept 28, 1868. 

Alcolea del Rio, il-ko-li'i dil ree'o, a town of 
Spain, 36 miles NE. of Seville, near the Ouadalquirir. 
Pop. 3000. 

Alcoln, a post-village of Clarendon oo., 6.C., on tha 
Atlantic Coast Line, 5 milee (direct) N. by W. of Manning, 
its banking point Pop. about 400. 

Alcona, U-ko'n%, a county in the BNB. part of Hiohl- 
gaa, has an area of 690 sq. m. It is bounded on the E. by 
Lake Huron and is intersected by the Ausable River. 
Capital, Harrisville. Pop. in 1890, 6409 ; in 1900, 6691. 

Alcona, a poet-township and village of Aleona eo., 
Hieh., about 90 miles N. by B.rf Bar (Sty. Ithasmaaa- 
fkoture* of lumber. Pop. 1039; «t the village, about 100. 

Digitized by 





AleoBckeltU-kon-oUI', » town of Spun, in Bitremk- 
tm, K milei KNE. of Bwi^oi. Pop. (eommnne) S600. 

AlcoBeis* it-ko-ni'ri, » town of Spain, in Estrama- 
don. 13 milM 8. of Almendralaio. Pop. 1000. 

Alco'ar« a poet-village of Miami oo., Oliio, 8 milw SE. 

AIeoi»« U-ko^rt, a town of Spain, 45 miles XNE. of 
Tileada. It «xporta fhiit. Pop. (oommnne) in 1900, 45(1. 

AfeoiVt * oonnty of the oE. part of Hi»inippi, has 
■I area ct 4M aq. m. It is drained by the Hatchia Rirer. 
Osrinthktliee^tal. Pop. in 1800, 13,115; in IMO, 14,087. 

AleerB* a post-village of Jaoksoa eo., Ky., 20 miles 
SB. of BiehiMiul. 

Alcovtin, or Alootia, U-ko-teeip', a town of Por- 
tugal, prorinoe of Algarve, on the Qaadiaiia, opposite Ban 
Loear, ii miles NE. of Tavin. Pop. 2500. 

Alcove, a post-village of Albany oo., N.T. Pop. about 

Aleoy, U-ko'e, a town of Spain, 24 miles NITW. of 
Alionte, It has aamerooa paper-foctories aod f^imisbes 
the principal supply of eigarette paper to Spain. There 
are also mannfaetnres of wool, linen, ootton-yam, eto. A 
Uoody riot of the Internationals oeoorred here in 1873. 
Pod. (oommone^ in 1900, 32,053. 

Alc*ath« n'ehootS a eommnne of Hangary, in the «o. 
<f WeiaaenlHug, near the station of Bioske. It has a ohi- 
teaa, model fium, mnseom, and arehdaeal park. 

Ale«<ia, il-koo'De-L a town of Hi^orea, at its N. ez- 
bonity, 31 milee NE. of Palma. It was formerly an im- 
Mrtant eommeroial place and was strongly fortified, and 
Dsa stiU its bastions and towers. Pop. (oommnne) 2700. 

Alcu4ia ie Carlet, U-koo'i>»4 di kait-lit', a town 
of Spain, 23 miles SSW. of Valeneia. Pop. (oommnne) 3000. 

Aleaesear, U-kwts'kaa, a town of Spain, in Estrem»- 
dara, 28 miles 8. of Cioeres. Pop. (oommnne) 3000. 

Al'4a, a post-village of Hall oo., Neb., near the Platte 
Hirer and <m the Union Paeifio R., 182 miles V. of Omaha. 

AMabra, U-di'bri, a group of small ooral islands in 
the IndiMi Ocean. Lat. 9° 26' 8. ; Ion. 46° 35' B. 

Al'Dakaa, U-dla'nt, • wide sandy plain oconpying 
tO the northeastern part of Arabia, bordering on the Tork- 
iih vilayet of Bagdad, aod extending 8. to about lat. 27° N. 

AMaasa, ll-di'mi, a town <tf Hezioo, in the state of 
Tsaaolipaa, about 40 milee NW. of Tampioo. 

AUaa, il-dln', a river of Siberia, rises in the Aldan 
Mooatains and joins the Lena in lat. 63° 12' N., Ion. 129° 
W B., about 100 miles below Takntok. It U navigable for 
abort OMmUes. 

Al'4aa, n post-borough of Delaware eo.. Pa. Pop. in 
IMO, 296. The banking point is Darby. 

A Ma a (U-din') B[oaBtaiBa,a chain of mountains in 
I. Siberia, branching off northward from the Tablonoi 
Menataias, btm lat. 65° to 61° N. Total length, about 
4M mOea. Kapitan, the best-known summit, is about 4300 

AMaya, il-dl'l, a town of Spain, 7 miles W. of Valen- 
sia. Pop. (ooBmnne) 3000. 

AM'koroack, a town of Suffolk, England. 8eeAu>B- 

AUAaioafk, a town and parish of England, eo. of 
Tsrk, ea the Ure, 16 miles WNW. of York, ft is supposed 
to nplaee the andent /mrt'im JBrigamHum. Pop. 500. 

Afikeroagh, New Glasgow, or Alrey, a post- 
tibge in El^ oo., Ontario, Oanada, on Lake Erie, 14 
■iias 8SB. (rf Newbury. 

AMkloadi, ftWhrth, a parish and village of England, 
as. sf Tork, Bast Riding, fop. 800. 

AMe, Ud, a river of England, oo. of Suffolk, rises near 
ftaaKnghain and Joins the North Sea at Orford. 

AMea, Cuba, the port of Batabano. 

AMea DAvila 4e la Ribeia, il-di'l di've-U di li 
i»«i'ft, • town <rf Spain, 43 miles W. of Salaaanoa, on the 
hft Wak of the Dnero (Donro). Pop. (eommnne) 2000. 

AMea del Caao, il-di'i dil kl'no, a town of Spain, 
U atlcs 8. at Ciceres. Pop. (commune) 1500. 

AMea 4el Ker, U-di'i dU rl'e, a town of Spain, 
IewCbstiIe,13milesSSB.of CiudadBeal. Pop. 3000. 

AMea Galega, U-d&'i gl-li'gi, a town of Portugal, 
sa Oe Tagua, 10 miles B. of Lisbon. 

Aldeaa AJtaa, a town in Brasil. See Caxias. 

AMea Telka, ll-di't vil'yi, a seaport town of BrasU, 
ea tbe bay aad 8 miles SB. of Bspirito Santo. 

AMekaiyh, or AMboronsk, ild'bBr-fih, a watering- 
thes sf Suffolk, Englaad, between the sea aad the estuary 
if the Aide, ti aiiles by rail 8. of Danwioh. It is the 
Urthplaee of Crabbe, and is eommeomfated in his poem, 

***»-«» * t» 1|._ t. 10A1 ejAK 

'TheBocoagh." Pop. in 1901, 2405. 
AMeiaGaUega 4o Ribat«|«,U-di'y& 

MeJiMi'ika, a parish at Portagal, 
ksa. Pep. abort 7M«. 

in the 



Al'den, a post-village of MeHenr^ oo., IIIm on the 
Chicago and Northwestern R., 34 miles ENE. of Rookford. 
Pop. of township, 1015. 

Alden, a bsjikiog poet-town of Hardin oo., Iowa, On 
the Iowa River and on the Illinois Central and the Chioago, 
Iowa and Dakota Re., 43 miles E. of Fort Dodge. It Is uie 
trade-oentre of an agrioultural district. Pop. in 1900, 709. 

AJden, a paet-viUage of Rice oo., Kan., 24 miles by rail 
NW. of Hutohinson. Pop. about 200. 

Aldea, a post-town of Antrim oo., Mich., in a lumber, 
grain, and finut region, on the Pere Harquette R., 12 miles 
SSW. of Bellaire. The banking point is Bellaire. Pop. 
about 300. 

Alden« a banking post-Tillage of Freeborn co., Minn., 
10 miles W. of Albert Lea, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul R. Pop. in 1900, 636. 

Aldea, a post-village in Alden township (town). Brie 
00., N.T., on the Erie R., 20 miles E. of Buffalo. Pop. in 

1900. 607 ; of the town, 2396. 

Aldea, a post-hamlet of King George eo., Va., 7 miles 
E. of King Qeorge. 

Alden, a post-hamlet in Alden township (town), Polk 
00., Wis., 40 miles NB. of St. Paul, Minn. Pop. of tbe 
town, 1440. 

AI'denbridge, a post-village of Bossier parish. La., on 
the St. Louis Southwestern R-. 18 milee (direct) N. of 
Shreveport, its banking point. Pop. about 460. 

AMea Ceater, a post-village of Brie oo., N.T., in 
Alden township (town), near the Erie R., 20 miles B. of 

Aldenboven, U'dtn-ho^ven, a town of Rhenish Prus- 
sia, 3) miles SW. of Jillich. pnp- nn(^ Tt sarthe scene 
of battles between the French and AusCHans in 1793 and 

Aldeao, U-dl'n^ a village of Tyrol, circle of Trent. 

Aldea Statlea, a post-village of Luseme co.. Pa., 6 
miles WSW. of Wilkesbarre. 

Al'deBTille, a post-village of Wayne oo., Pa., 9 miles 
NW. of Honeadale. 

At' derbraach, a post-hamlet of Anderson oo., Tex., 
10 miles ftom Elkhart Station. 

Alderbtook, a post-village of Orafton oo., N.H., 4 
miles N. of Littleton. It has manufactures of lumber. 

Alderbrook, a post-village of Franklin oo., N.T., 30 
milee S8B. of Halone. 

Alderbrook, a hamlet of Madison oo., N.T., i mile 
E. of West Eaton. 

Aldercreek, a post-village of Oneida oo., N.T., on the 
ntloa and Blaok River (New Tork Central and Hudson 
River) R., 28 miles N. of Utica. 

Alderler, il'dfr-le, a post-hamlet of Dodxe co., Wis., 
on Ashippna Creek, about 32 miles WNW. of Milwaukee. 

Alderaey, ti'dfr-ni (Fr. Aungnj/, o-reen-ye'; ano. 
Sithum), one of the Channel Islands, off the coast of 
Normandy, belonging to Qnat Britaio, 10 miles W. of Cape 
la Hague. Circumference, about 8 miles. Pop. about 2000. 
It is well cultivated, and noted for its breed of oows. French 
is still spoken by huf of the inhabitants, and the island has 
a lefdslature of its own. It contains a small town, St. Anne. 

AJdemer, Raoi or, a strait between the above island 
and Cape hi Hague, dangerous ttom the strength and rapid- 
ity of its tides. See Caskbts. 

Aldersbot, il'dfr-shfit, a town of England, in Hamp- 
shire, 8 miles NE. of Famham. Here is a grisat perma- 
neot camp, with barracks, established in 1854^. Pop. in 

1901, inclusive of 6000 military, 30,974. 
Aldershot, a post-village of Wentworth eo., Ontario, 

Canada, i mile tnm Watertown. 

Aldersoa, awi'dfr-sfn, a post-village of the Choctaw 
Nation, I.T., on the Ohootaw, Oklahoma and Qulf R., 6 
miles (direct) B. of South MeAlester, its banking point. 
Pop. about 800. 

Aldersoa, a poet-village ot Luseme oo.. Pa. 

Aldersoa, a banking post-town of Monroe eo., W.Va., 
on the Chesapeake and Ohio R., 118 miles SE. of Charles- 
ton. Coal is mined here. Pop. in 1900, 618. 

Alderrille, ll'dfr-vll, an Indian post-village of North- 
umberland CO., Ontario, 19 miles N. of Oobourg. 

Aldkam, a post- village of Chester eo., Pa., on ths 
Pennsvlvania R. 

Aldie, il-dee', a post-village of Loudoun oo., Va., 13 
miles flrom Leesl>nrg and 37 miles W. by N. of the oity of 

Aldiae, a post-hamlet of Salem oo., N.J. Pop. about 50. 

Aldiagen-am-Neckar, &l'dlng^en-lm-nlk'&r, a vil- 
lage of WUrttemberg, Oermany, on the Neskar, 3 miles 8E. 
of Lndwigsburg. 

Aldiagea-la-der-Baar (lD-d4r-b4B), a village of 
Wiirttamben, Oermany, in the Blaek Forest Oirele, 3 miles 
NW. of Spatobingso. 

Digitized by 





AI'dlieh, a past-town of Shelby eo., Ala., in a soal- 
■"tilng racioD, 40 mile* 8. by W. of Binnincham. Coal ii 
mined hen. The banking point ii Binninghsm or Honte- 
Tallo. Pop. 3M. 

A]4ricfct > poet-rillace ot Pomt oo., Ind. Pop. aboat 

A]4rich, a poet-hamlet of Wadena eo., Minn., 11 miles 
by rail W. of Brainerd. 

AKrich, a poat-rillsge of Polk oo., Mo., 18 miles by 
nil N. of AshgroTO. Pop. in IMO, 189. 

AJdrichi a post-hamlet of Park oo., Hont. 

Aldstone, Ud'stfn or M'stfn, or AlftoM«M<K>rf a 
market-town of England, oo. of Cumberland, IB miles BSB. 
of Carlisle. Pop. aboat 3000. 

AM'winkls AU Saints and Ald'wiMlde St. 
Peter, two adjoining parishes in Northamptonshire, Eng- 
land, about 3 miles from Thrapston. Diyden was a native 
«f the former. 

Ale, a post-hamlet of Stokes oo., N.C. Pop. about SO. 

Alean, a post-riUage of Franklin oo.. Vs., 7 miles 
NX. ot Sooky Honnt, its banking poinL Pop. about 100. 

Aledo, C-li'M, a town of SpOn, 17 miles 88W. of 
Mnreia, with aneient Roman walls. Pop. about 1000. 

Aledo, f-IS'do, a banking eity, the eapital of Mereer 
00., m., 14 miles E. of the HUasippi Hirer, on the Chi- 
eago, Burlington and Quinsy B., 37 miles W. of GMra. It 
has some manufactures. Coal abounds here. Pop. in IMO, 

Aledo, a post-town of Parker oo., Tez., on the Texas 
and Pacifio B., 13 miles B. of Weatherford. Pop. about 170. 

Alecranza, one of the Canaries. See AixMinijizA. 

Alegretet l-li-gri'ti, a town of Portugal, in Alemtqo, 
8 miles SE. of Portalegre. Pop. about 1600. 

Alegrete, a town of Braxil, 280 miles W. of Porto 
Alegre^ in the state of Rio Grande do 6ul. 

AleKria, l-U.gree'l, a town and commune of the Phil- 
ippines, islud of Cebd, about 90 miles flrom Cebi. Pop. 
in 1903. 9M0. 

Alei, 1-li', a river of Siberia, an affluent of the Ob, in 
the government of Tomsk. 

Aleislcoi-LokLteTskoi, 1-U'i-skoyMok-tJv'skoy' a 
town of Asiatic Russia, government of Tomsk, 137 miles 
SW. of Biisk, and near neb copper-mines. 

Alelcnagak, i-Mk-dUgik^ a lake of Aladu, whose 
outlet, the Aleknagak River, a copious stream, falls into the 
river Nushagak near its mouth. 

Alekiandrov. See Alixahdrov. 

AleksaadrovRlc. See Alixahorotsc. 

AlekfiB, or Alexin, i-liz'een, a town of Russia, gov- 
ernment of Tula, on the Oka, 36 miles NW. of Tula. Two 
great fairs are held here annually. Pop. about 2000. 

AJella, i-lM'yl, a to*n of Spain, in Catalonia, 6 miles 
flrom Baroelona and near the sea. Pop. 1600. 

Aleman, t-l4-mjln', a railroad station in New Mezioo, 
•n the Atebison, Topeka and Santa F4 R., 160 miles 8. <^ 

Alem'Bie, a post- village of Isabella oo., Mich., 14 miles 
N. of St Louis. 

Alensqner, Uin^kais', a town of Portn^ in Eetre- 
madura, on the river of the same name, 26 miles NNE. of 
Lisbon. Pop. about 6000. 

Alemqner, a town of Braiil, 00 miles WSW. of Monta- 

Alemt^lo, &-Uii^ti'thoo (i.e., "beyond the Tagns"), 
a province or division of Portugal, between lat. 37° £)' and 
39° 40' N.; divided into the distriote of Bttja, Evora, and 
PorUlegre. Area. 9430 'sq. m. Pop. in 1900, 413,631. 
Chief rivers, the Tagns (Tqo) in the N., Onadiana in the 
B., and SaldXo in the S. Principal towns, Evora, Bqa, 
Villa Vif osa, Portalegre, Elvas, and Estremoi. 

AlenfOB, &'l&ii«'siii^, a city of France, capital of the 
department of Ome, on the Sarue, 88 miles SSB. of Caen. 
Pro. in 1901, 14,886 ; of the commune, 17,270. It is well 
buUt, with promenades on the site of its aneient walls. The 
town is noted for the manufacture of the laoe called point 
d'Alen^on, mnch lees important now than formerly. The 
crystals called Alenfon diamonds are found in its vicinity. 

Alenqner. See Alrmqurr. 

Alentetjo, a province of Portugal. See Alimtuo. 

Alenoihaha (i-lin-oo-e-h&'hi) Channel, sMnrates 
the island of Hawaii from Maui and Kahoolawe. It is 28 
miles in breadth. Dnrine the NE. trade, the wind <rften 
blows violently throngh the channel and a strong current 
sets to the westward. 

Aleppi, iri-pee', Ala^polai', Anlapolai, aw-li'- 
po-U', or Alapalli, a town of India, in Travancore, on 
the Malabar coast, 32 miles S. by E. of Cochin. Lat. 9° 
10' N. ; Ion. 78° 25' E. A canal connects it with the Back- 
water, a large coast-lake. The town has a large trade in 
teak, cardamoms, and pepper. Pop. about 10,000. 

Alep'po, called by the natives (Arabs) Haiek, or 
Haleb es-Shahba, h&'l«b fa shib'bi (anc. Cka'lpb** 
and Btra'a), a city of Asiatic Turkey, in notthern Syria, 
capital of a vilayet, long one of the principal enponoms 
of the Ottoman Empire, on the Kuwetk (ane. CiirttM), 70 
miles E. of the Mediterranean. Lat. SC** 11' N.; km. 37" 
10' B. Pop. estimated at 126,000; but prarioos to the 
earthquake of 1822 it is said to have lieen upward of 
200,000. The eity nee to importance on the dsstiuction of 
Palmyra, and benme the great emporium of trade between 
Europe and the East. Its appearance, on ^>pnaohing it, 
is striking and picturesque. Numerous mosques, cupolas, 
and minarets crowd on the eye ; the flat roofs of the houses 
on the hills rise, one behind another, in a sneoession of tec^- 
raoes. But on entering the gates much ot this pleasinc 
illusion is dispelled, the streets, although well paved ana 
cleaned for an Oriental eity, offering litUe attraction to the 
eye. The houses, however, are substantially built of bloeka 
of stone, with spacious apartments, many of which hare 
richly ornamented walls and esilings. In the centre of the 
eity rises a hill 200 feet high, oommonly thought to ha 
ariifleial, the top of which is erowned by a eitadd. An 
abundant supply of water is famished from springs, about 
8 miles distant, by an a'teieot aqueduct. The banks of the 
Kuweik form a Mauti.^ garden, extending for a long dis- 
tance outside of the city. Aleppo is the seat of four Ciitlio- 
lie arahbishops of different rites, as well as of Greek and 
Armenian prelates, the Cliristians comprising about one. 
sixth of the population. The Jewish community, num- 
bering about 6000, is important and prosperous. Silks, 
cottons, gold and silver threadstufis, soap, and leather goods 
are manu&ctured. The extensive tnde of Aleppo is mainly 
in the hands of Greeks and Armenians. La^ caravaDS 
arrive tnm Bagdad, Diarlxikr, Mosul, Kurdistan, and Ar- 

Aleppo, a vilayet (province) of Asiatic Turkey, ex- 
tending trom the Mediteiraaean to l>eyond the Buphratas, 
and comprising northern Syria and part of Mesopotamia. 
Are^ about 30,000 sq. m. Pop. about 996,000, of whieh 
number 180,000 are Christians and 20,000 Jews. CUef 
products are tobacco, grain, wool, oil-seeds, cotton, silk. 

Coal and excellent Umeston^ and handsome sandstone for 
bnilden' use, abound. 

Alerheim, il'fr-hlme, a village of Bavaria, between 
DonauwSrth and Ottingen, noted for the battle fonsht here 
in 1646 between the Bavarians under Mvoy and the anny 
of the Duke of Bngliien. 

Aleria, l-li-re^iL a decayed town of Corsica. It de- 
rives its name from the Roman colony of Aleria. Pop. 600. 

AUert't s post-hamlet of Decatur eo., Ind., 16 miles B. 
by S. of Columbus. 

Alert, a post-station of Butler oo., Ohio, 24 miles NW. 
of Ondnnati. 

Ales, A'lis, an episcopal town in the island of Sardinia, 
30 miles NNW. of Cagliari. It has a small but elegant 
cathedral, and mineral springs. Pop. 1000. 

Aleshki, l-Iesh'kee, a town of Russia, gpvemment of 
Taurida, on the left bank of an arm of the Ihiiqwr, oppo- 
site Kherson. Pop. in 1897, 9119. 

Alesia. See Ai,us-8AiiiTB-RniHB. 

Alesia, a poet-hamlet of Carroll oo., Md. Pop. 60. 

Alessandria, U-fa-e&n'dre-l, a strong fortress and 
au>ital of a province of the same name in Italy, 66 miles 
EbB. of Tnnn, at the junction of the Bormida and Tanaro. 
It was built in 1168, as a drfence against Emperor Frederiok 
Barbaroasa, and named in honor of Pope Alexander III. 
It has a modem cathedral, and among its ohnrohes is one 
which antedates the founding of the cit^. The academy 
of sciences and arts was founded in the sixteenth oeatniy. 
Pop. in 1901j exclusive of suburbs, 36,966. It has maaa- 
facturea of silk, linen and woollen goods, stockings, and 
hats, with a large trade, and two great annual fairs. Two 
miles SE. of Alessandria is the battlefield of Marengo. 

Alessandria, a province of Italy, in Piedmont. Area, 
1960 sq. m. Capital, Alessandria. Pop. in 1901, 812,022. 

Alessandria del Carretto, iuis-sin'dro-i du kar- 
rit-to, a town of Italy, 17 miles NE. of Castrovillari. Pop. 

Alessandria della Rocca, il-te-sin'dre-i d(l'I4 
r6k'k&, a town of Sicily, province of Girgenti, 3 miles 8. of 
Bivona. Pop. in 1901, 6277. 

Alessano, l-lfe-si'no, a town of Italy, 19 miles SW. of 
Otranto. Pop. 2000 (commune, 3000). 

Aiessio, Vlis'se-o (Albanian, Ltilk, lyish ; anc. Lis'- 
nu), a town of Turkey, in Albania, on the left bank and 
near the mouth of the Drin, 17 miles SB. of Soutari. It in 
the seat of a Catholic bishop. Pop. 3000. 

Digitized by 





Ale*«a4. B«« AAjjsvtn. 

Metf or Aletk, V18t', » town of Fnaoe, department 
tf Aode, on the Aade, miles 8E. of Limoox. Pop. 800. 

Aletseh (i'leteh) Glacier, the Isrgeet of the Swim 
riuim, formed meinlj of the Boom of the Jnngfnn and 
ue AletseUunrn, on the aonthem faoe of the Bemeee Alpe, 
ii aho«t 13 mOei in length (inelotiye of the ntvi). It de- 
•aends to • 1«t«1 of about MOO feet. It haa the Sggishoni 

Alets«hkora, after the Finsteraarborn, the loitieet 
nniBit of the Berneee Alps, dtoated S. of the Jungtna. 
AHitadey 13,730 feet. It was first aaeended by Tnokett in 

Aleatia«» or AUatlan (a-la'sb%n) Islands, or 
Catheriaa AreUpelago, a long chain of islands be- 
longing to the United States, In Alaska Territory, extending 
from the poinsola of Alaska westward towards Kamtehat- 
ka, and oiTiding the Sea of Kamtehatka, or Bering Sea, 
tnm the Paoilie Oeean. They lie in both hemispheres, and 
extend from abont Ion. 1S3° to 188° W. (172*' £.), the 
westerannat of the United BtMee islands being Attn ; for 
the Commaoder gronp, .to the westward, is Rnssian, and is 
not g ener a lly re^tfdeii as a part of this chain. The Aleu- 
tians pnqter are ahoat 150 in number, and are dirided into 
the Setxtt, Rat, Andreano^ Fox, and other gronps ; they 
an gosermDy mountainous, and often roloanio. Shishaldin, 
an l^imak, is 8683 feet high, and Maknshin, on Unalaska, 
NWl feet ; both monntains are Toicanoes, which have bem 
ia a^Ti^ in reeent periods. The nratio Bogoelof lies NW. 
ef Uaalaakjk. (See Bo«OBU>r.) The islands are treeless, 
but tapfott a iairly rich growth of grasses and dwarf 
ikrabs. Agriealtore, owing to the inclement, but not se- 
Tcre, tiimatn, haa made little headway. The people^ Aleuts, 
sra an isoSensire race, apparently allied in stock to the 
BAimae, aad are members of the Qreek Cburdi. Pop. 
about SMO. The principal islands are Unalaska and 

Al^exas'der, a county forming the 8. extremity of 
HMnniiL has an area of 230 so. m. It is bo«nded on the 
8. and SW. by the HisaiMippi River, and is situated at the 
■aooth of the Ohio. Capital, Cairo. ' Pop. in 18M, 18,5«3 ; 
ia 1900. 19,384. 

Alexaader, a county of North Carolina, haa an area 
afi9Taa.iiL, Itisdruned by the Sontii Yadkin Rirer. The 
eoanty has the celebrated hiddenito mines. Capitol, Tay- 
tesri&a. Pop. in 1890, 9430 ; in 1900, 10,9«0. 

Alexaader, a post-town of Pulaski co.. Ark., on the 
U. Lona, Iron Mountain and Sonthem R., IS miles SW. 
tt litUe Rook, its banking point. Pop. in 1900, 173. 

Alexaader, a post-hamlet of Burke co., Oa., 38 miles AngwtK. 

Alexaader^ a post-Tillage of Morgan eo., HI., on the 
WabMh B., U mUea B. of JaeksonTiUe. Pop. 160. 

Alex«a4«r» a banking post-town of Franklin eo., 
Iowa, 14 miles by ivl WNw. of Hampton. Pop. about 250. 

Alezaader, a post-hamlet of Bush co., Kan., 40 miles 
ky nil W. of Sreat Bend. 

Alexaaderja peat-township (town) of Washington oo.. 
Ha., 14 aileaSW.rf Calais. Pop. of the town in 1900, .<I33. 

Alexaader, a jpost-Tlllace in Alexander township 
(town), Genesee oo., N.T., on ^Rmawanda Creek and on the 
Kew York Central and Hudson River sod other railroads, 
34 mOss B. of Bnlah>. Pop. in 1900, 230 ; <tf the town, 

Alcxaader, a pest-town of Erath Co., Tex., abont 98 
■ika by rail KW. rf Waco. Pop. abont 400. 

Alezaader, i ' 

Ons£an Paeifie 
point. Pop. about 300. 

Alexaa4er« Cape, on the K. coast of Canada, at the 
CMiaaee of Dease Strait, tat. 08° 65' N.; Ion. lOO" 45' W. 

Alesaader, Gape, on the XW. coast of Oreenhnd, 
ia abont lat. 78^ 20' N. 

AlemaJer City, a banking city of Tallapoosa oo., 
AJa, OB the Georgia Central B., 47 miles KW. of Opelika. 
It is die head-qaaners for the Tallapooeaeo Id-mining section 
sad has large cotton-seed oil interests. Pop. in 1900, 1001. 

Alexaaler Islaad, a sm^ island in tiie South At- 
botie Ooeaa, abont lat. 89° 8., Ion. 75° W., sometimes, under 
(ha aame of Alexander Land, eonsidered to be a part of the 
Aa taieti a Contlneot, so eaUed. It was discovered by Bell- 
inphausm in 1821. 

Alexaader Islaads, in Alaska, extend along the 
eoact from Dixon's Entrance (54° 40' N.) to Cross Sonnd 
(K°»'). The islands number more than 1100. Prince 
•( Wales Island is the largest, and Baranof, or Sitka, the 
■sat ianoitant. The inubiteats are moetly Indians of 
the TSafcet race, and are of various tribes. 

Alcxaa4er Lake, in Morrison co., Mian., lies a few 

" 1 8. of the Northern Padfle R. 

, a post-vinisge of Manitoba, Canada, on the 
le R., 17 miUs fhm Brandon, its banking 

Alexander Monntains, in Turkestan, in abont lat. 
43° N. and Ion. 73° E^ a western extension of the Ala- 
Tau. Highest point, Semenov Mountain, 15,750 feet. 

Alexandersbad, &-Mx-&n'd«rs-blt\ mineral springs 
in Upper Fraoconia, Bavaria, 17 miles NE. of Baireutb. 

Alexander's Point, a poet-village of Gloucester CO., 
New Brunswick, on Sbippegan Island, at the entrance to 
the Bay of Chalenr, 73 miles WNW. of Chatham. 

AlexanderSTille, a village of Montgomery oo., Ohio, 
is on the Miami River and Canal, 6 miles S. of Dayton. 

Alexander Valley, a post-village of Sonoma co., 
Cal. Pop. about 100. 

Alexanderville, a post-village of Eohols oo., 6a., on 
the Atlantic Coast Line, 25 miles (direct) £. of Valdosta. 
Pop. abont 300. 

Alezan'dra, a littoral county in the S. part of Natal, 
bordering E. on the Indian Ocean. Area, 1620 sq. ra. It 
is bouttcbd N. by the Umkomand River and S. by the 
Umsimknlu, and a intersected by other coastal streams. 
The soil is fertile. Capital, Soottsbnrg, on the coast, 36 
miles SW. of Durban. 

Alexandra Land, a name of the sonthem portion 
of the Northern Territory of South Australia. 

Alexandra I<and, a name of part of the western 
portion of Frani-Josef Land, in the Arctic Ocean. 

Alexandra Nile, also called the Kagera River, a 
stream of east-central Africa, rises in the moootains of the 
NE. border of Lake Tanganyika and flows into the Vietoria 
Nyania. The Nyawrongo head-water is properly the source 
of the Nile. The stream is navigable only for small craft. 

Al^xandret'ta (Turk. Iikaudenn, is'kin-de-roon'), 
a seaport of Asiatic Turkey, picturesquely situated on the 
Gulf of Iskanderun, the extreme nortbeastem arm of the 
Mediterranean. It has a large commerce, much of the 
trade of Aleppo and northern Syria passing through it. 
Pop. estimated at about 7000. The town is the ancient 
Auxandria ad Ttntm. 

Alexan'dria (Or. 'Aintayiiuia ; Arab, and Turk. It- 
kanderi'fek ; named {tcnu Alexander the Great), a seaport 
of Egypt, near the westernmost branch of the Nile delta, 
on the Mediterranean, 112 miles NW. of Cairo, with which 
it communicatee by the Hahmndiyeh Canal (joining the 
Roeetta arm) and the Nile and by railway. Another rail- 
way connects it with Rosetta. Lat. of Pharos, 31° 12' 9" 
N. ; Ion. 29° 53' E. The modem city is built on a penin- 
sula (anciently the island of Pharos), and on the irthmns 
conneoting it with the eontinent ; the ancient city, of 
which but few of the constructions can now be identified, 
was on the mainland, where its ruins cover a vast extern. 
Alexandria has a palace of the khedive, a large naval 
usenal, naval and military schools and hospitals, a College 
of Lasuists, tribunal of commerce, eto. ; it is the station of 
the Egyptiui fleet, and the port is cleared and entered an- 
noallyby upward of 2600 steamers, more than one-half of 
which are under the English flag. Alexandria in the new 
streets and squares has more the aspect of a European than 
(^ an African or Asiatic city. Among the notable objects 
are the ancient Pompey's Pillar, the palace of Ras et-Tin 
(built by Mehnnet Ali), and the Museum of Grseco-Ronian 
Antiquities. The great centre of European life is the Place 
Mehemet All. Country-houses line a part of the ancient 
canal leading to the W. arm of the Nile, which was restored 
by Mehemet Ali. The city has an excellent double harbor, 
formed by a breakwater (2 miles in length^ mole, and 
quays. Alexandria is the great emporium of Egypt. The 
prineipal exports are com, cotton, wool, gums, rice, dates, 
sugar, cotton-seed, wheat, senna, and hidee. It has regnlv 
steam communication with the principal European ports, 
and is the seat of several large government and other 
manufactories in whicb steam is the motive power. Alex- 
andria was founded in the year 332 B.C. Under the Ptol- 
emies it rose to great distinction for its learning, com- 
meros, wealth, and literature. Even after its subjection to 
the Roman Empire it was oonsidered second only to Rome. 
Its library, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphns, surpassed all . 
others of antiquity, numbering 700,000 volumes. Undw 
Mohammedan rule the city fell into decay. Its popula- 
tion, once 600,000 souls, is said to have numbered in the 
eighteenth century only 6000; but under Mehemet Ali 
(1805-48) it once more became a flourishing cit^. It was 
partially destroyed during the uprising of Arabi Pasha in 
1882. Pop. in 1872, 212.034 (47,316 foreigners) ; in 1882, 
227,064, of whom 48,672 were foreigners; and in 1902, 
310,587, of which number abont 100,000 were located in 
the Moslem quarter. The catacombs at the Necropolis are 
the most interesting remains of antiquity. 

Alexandria, Piedmont. See Alusandria. 

Alexandria, a town of Scotland, co. of Dumbarton, on 
the Leven, 3 miles N. of Dumbarton. Pop. abont 8000, 
mostly employed in cotton-printing and dyeing. 

Digitized by 





A]exaBdria> a town of Runuuiia, in WsllMhia, about 
60 mil« 8W. of Baohareit. Pop. aboat 14,000. 

Alexandria, or AJexaadiira, a town of aoathern 
BoBsia, in tlio goremm«nt of Kherson, at tfae jonetioa of 
tlie Ingnletx and Berewrka. Pop. in 1897, 14,003. 

Alexandria, a diriaion on tlie SB. ooaat of Gape 
Colony, bordarinc partly on Algoa Bay. Area, 947 ra. m. 
The Great Fish fiver bounds it B. and KB. Capital, Alex- 
andria, in the SB. part, near the ooaat and about 50 miles 
ENB. of Port Bliiabeth. 

Alexandria, a ooonty in the NB. part of Viiiginia, 
has an area of 32 so. m. It is trannded on the B. by the Po- 
tomao Rirer, whion separates it fiom the oity of Washing- 
ton. This ooonty was formerly a part of the Distriot m 
Colombia, and was retrooeded to the State of Virginia July 
9,1844. Capital, Fort Hyer. Pop. in 1890, 18,697; in 1900, 

Alexandria, a poet-Tilla^ of Calhoan oo., Ala., 10 
miles by rail N. by W. of Anniston. 

Alexandria, a oity of Madison oo., Ind» on Pipe 
Creek, and at the j auction of the Clereland, Cinoinnati, 
Chioago and St. Louis and the Lake Erie and Wastam 
Rs., 11 miles N. of Anderson. It has steel-works and 
manufactures of glass and axes. It is in a natural-gaa 
oonntry. Pop. in 1890, 715 ; in 1900, 7211. 

Alexandria, or Bpring^dale', a hamlet of Leaven- 
worth 00., Kan., about 13 milee WSw. of Learenworth. 

Alexandria, a town, oapital of Campbell eo., Ky., 13 
miles (direct) SSE. of Cinoinnati. Pop. in 1900, 369. 

Alexandria, a banking poat-town, oapital of Biqridae 
pariah. La., on the 8. or right l>ank of Bed Biver, alwnt 300 
miles mim its mouth, and 170 milea in a direct line, and 
300 miles by water, NW. of New Orleana. It is on the 
Southern Paoifie, the Texas and PaoiHo and <^er ndlroads. 
The rivw is narigable by steamboats at ail seasons, both 
above and below this place. Cotton, rice, frnita, and sugar 
are the chief artiolea of export. This was the seat of the 
Univeiaity of Louisiana, the ediflee of whioh was destroyed 
by fire in Ootol>ar, 1889. Alexandria has foundries and 
maotiine-shops, ootton-compress, oil-mills, ete. Pop. in 
1900. 5648. 

Ai exandria, a banking post-Tillage, oapital of Donglass 
00., Hinn., on the Great mrthem Il,,46 inileaSB. of Fer- 
gu Falla and 140 mUea WNW. of St. Paul. It ia in close 
proximity to aeveral little lakes of pore water, and ia aitu- 
ated in a fertile oonntry wliioh is like a natural park. It 
liaa braweriee and manufiiotares of flour, lumber, furniture, 
maohinery, etc. Pop. in 1890, 2118 : in 1900, 2081. 

Alexandria, a post-village of Clark eo.. Ho., on the 
Hissiaaippi Biver, near the mouth of the Dea Moines, oppo- 
site Warsaw, 111., and 6 miles bdow Keokuk, Iowa. Pop. 
about 400. The banking point is Warsaw. 

Alexandria, a banking poet-village of Tliayer oo.. 
Neb., 9 miles by rail B. of Belvidere and 187 miles WMW. 
of St. Joseph. Pop. in 1900, 333. 

Alexandria, a post-township (town) of Oration oo., 
N.H., 4 miles from Bristol and about 33 miles NNW. ot 
Concord. Po|;. of the town in 1900, 030. 

Alexandria, a township of Hunterdon eo., N.J. It is 
on the Delaware River. Pop. in 1900, 1046. 

Alexandria, a township (town) of Jefferson co., N.T., 
on the St. Lawrence River, 26 milee N. of Watertown. It 
eompriaea part of the Thouaand lalanda ; also the village of 
Alexandria Bay. Pop. in 1900, 3894. 

Alexandria, a post-village of Licking oo., Ohio, on 
Baocoon Creek and on the Ohio Central lines, 24 miles 
BNB. of Columbus. Pop. in 1900, 420. 

Alexandria, a poet-borough of Huntingdon oo^ Pa., 
on a branch of the Juniata, 100 miles WNW. of Bfarria- 
burg. ' It is S miles from Petersburg Station. Pop. in 
1900. 406. 

Alexandria, a banking oity, capital of Hanson oo., 
S.Dak^ on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul B., 14 
miles ESE. of Mitchell. Pop. in 1900, 880. 

Alexandria, a banking poet-village of Dekalb oo., 
Tenn., 16 milee SB. of Eebanon and 48 miles B. of Nash- 
ville. It has lamber-milla and a grain elevator. Pop. 760. 

Alexandria, a dty and port of entry of Virginia (for- 
merly in Alexandria oo., now independent), on the right 
bank of the Potomac Biver, 6 miles Iwlow WasUngton. 
The river, here 1 mile wide, forma a commodiona harbor 
anfficiently deep for the largeat ships. The oity is pleas- 
antly situated on undulating ground, with a fine view of 
the Capitol at Washington. It ia at the intaraectlon of 
varioua railroada (Pennsylvania, Chee^>eake and Ohio, 
etc). It has ohemioal works and manufactures of shoes, 
[lass, fertilisers, beer, maohinery, and brioks. Pop. in 
860, 13,852 ; in 1890, 14,339 ; in 1900, 14,638. 

Alexandria, a banking post-village in Olengany oo., 
Ontario, on the Canadian and Atlantic B., 31 inuea from 


Riviire Raiain. It contains grist- and saw-mills, ftamiture-, 
eheese- and box-factories, a maehine-ahop, eto. Pop. ia 
1901, 1911. 
Alexandria, or Freneh Tillage, or Cascnm- 

£eqne, Ub-kfim-paik', a post-village in Prince co„ Prince 
dward Island, on a railway and on the Oulf of Bt. I«w- 
renoe, 35 miles from Summeraide, ' It ia one of the prin- 
cipal depots of the gulf fisheries. 

Alexandria Bay, a banking post-village and resort of 
Jefferson oo., N.T., on the river St. Lawrence, opposite the 
Thouaand lalanda, and 7 miles NW. of Bedwood. It haa 
fine hotela and a number of beautiflil villas. Steamlraats 
ply between this place and Clayton. Pop. in 1900, 1511. 

Alexandria Troas, an ancient Oreek oity on the 
ooast of Asia Minor, 4 miles SB. of the island of Tenedoe. 
Its remains are near the little Turkish seaport of Eski- 

Alexandrina Iiake, in South Australia, the expanded 
portion of the Mniray Biver, near its mouth ; it is fresh 

Alexandro'pol, formerly Gam'ri, a fortress and 
town of BuBsian Annenia, govonment of Erivan, on tha 
Arpa-Tohai, 86 mUet SW. ofTifiis. Pop. in 1897, 32,018. 

AlexandroT, or AleksandroT, Mix-in'drov, a 
town of Russia, government and 56 milee WNW. of Vla- 
dimir, on an affluent of the Klyasma. It haa a famous 
nunnery. There ia a aplendid imperial stud here. The 
town is noted for its manufsotarea of steel and cotton. Pop. 
in 1897, 6848. 

Alexandrovak, l-liz-ln'drovsk, a town of Russia, 
near the Dnieper, below its cataraets, government and ai>out 
50 miles S. of T^aterinoslaT. Pop. in 1897, 16,398. 

AlexandroTtlc, a town of Russia, in the pivemment 
of Archangelak, and with an ice-free harbor, ia on the 
AreUe Ocean, in lat. 890 N. It was established in 1896. 

Alexandrovtk, a port of eastern Siberia, on the Bay 
of Kastries, opposite the island of Saghalin. 

AlexandroTskaya Stanitsa,lL-Mz-&n-drov'skL-yft^ 
sti-nlt'si, atown of Russia, in (Saoaucasia, in the govern- 
ment of Stavrtmol, on an affluent of tfae Kuma. Pop. in 
1897, 8708. 

Alexandrovsk GmtkeTsky, 1-lex-Li'diovsk 000- 
shev'skee, a town of Russia, in tlie province of the Don 
Cossacks, 16 miles NNB. of Novo-Toherkask. Pop. in 
1897. 16,250. 

AiesandroTtkr, Miz-ln-diov'skee, or Aleksan- 
drovskaya, i-Mz-lin-drov'ski-yl^ a maoo&otnring place 
of Russia, government and 6 miles SB, of St. Petanbnrg, 
on the Neva. 

Alexandrow, a town of Russian Poland, on the Prus- 
sian frontier, 105 miles WNW. of Warsaw. Pop. about 8000. 

Alexeyevka, l-Mx-i-y2v'k&, a large villwe of Russia, 
in the government of Voroneih, about 75 miles BSW. of 
Voroneui. Large quantities of sunflowers are raised here, 
from whose seeds oil is expressed. 

Alexin, Russia. See Alxesis. 

AlexinatS) i-Mx'e-nitx, a town of Servia, on the Mo- 
rava, 102 miles SB. of Belgrade. The Turks here defeated 
the Servians in 1876. Pop. in 1896, 6431. 

Alex'ia, a poet-village of Cherokee eo., Ala., near the 
Coosa River, 16 milea W. by S. of Rome, Oa. Pop. 100. 

Alexia, formerly Alexandria, a banking poat-village 
of Warren and Meroer ooa., lU., on the Chicago, Burlinc- 
ton and Quincy R., 13 milea N. by E. of Monmouth. It 
haa horae-breeding interests, brick-works, manufactures of 
agricultural implements, etc. Pop. in 1900, 016. 

Alexia, a post-town of Gaston eo., N.O. Pop. in 1900, 
93. The banking point is Oastonia. 

Alexis, a port-station of Monroe co., Ohio, on the De- 
troit, Toledo and Milwaukee and other railroads, 10 miles 
N. of Toledo. 

Alexisbad, &-lix'is-blt\ a reaort for mineral waters, ia 
Anhalt, near Harxgeiode. 

A]exi8liafen,l-Uka'ia-hl'ffn, a port of Garmaa New 
Guinea, on Astrolabe Bay, in lat. 5° 6' S., Ion. 145" 46' E. 

Aley, a post-village of Henderson 00., Tex. Pop. abont 

Aleybeh, i-U'b^h, a populous village of western AiHoa, 
near the left bank of the Senegal. Cat 16" 50' N. : Ion. 
14° 4' W. 

Alfaln, Sl'fSh'looS or Gyersy^-Alfaln, dyja'dyo'- 
8l'f5hMoo\ a town of Hungary, in Transylvania, 45 miles 
BNB. of Harod-Vfisirhely. It haa mineral aprings. Pop. 
abont 6000. 

Alftmdega da Fe, ll-ftn-di'ci di fi, a town of Por. 
tugal, in Traa-os-Montea, near the Serra de Bomes. 

Alfaqnea rU-f&'k«e), Puerto de loa (t.«., "the bay 
of the aandbanks"), a harbor in the Mediterranean, on the 
ooaat of Catalonia at the mouth of the BIwoy 14 miles SB. of 
Tortosa. It has extensive salt-works. 

Digitized by 





Alfiinita» a port-Tillaga of Mifflin oo., Pft. 

AUkra, il.f4>ro, • town of Spun, in Old Cutila, nwr 
the Ebio, 37 mila 8S. of LoeroSo. Pop. of the eommime, 
■bout MM. 

Alfikyates, il-fl-i't&, ■ town of Portogal, prorinoe of 
Bein, Si miles ESE. of Onuda. Pop. (oommnne) 1000. 

AlRdena, il-O-di'ni (uie. AtMt'ita), a town of 
ItalT, provinoe of Aqniia, 33 milei S. by B. of Solmona, on 
tbeSaaKro. Pop. aboat 2000. 

AlfeM, ll'fUt, a town of Prnnia, <m tlie Leine, 37 miles 
S. at Hanorer . ¥m. in IMW, 6412. 

Alfiaaello, U-n-i-nSl'lo, a Tillage of Italy, prorinoe 
of Braoia, 7 milei 8SE. of Terola Nnora. Pop. 17M. 

AlfiMd, «i'f Sid' ("lowland"), tbe Hungarian name of 
the peat plain of Hnngair. 

Alfoa*i«e, U-fon-Me^nl, a town of Italy, near Ra- 
renna; the birthplaoa of Tinoenxo Monti. Pop. 3000. 

AUoaso, a poet-bamlet of Lapwto oo., Ind. Pop. 

Alfoaso ZII., il-fon'M do'il. a Jadioial dirtriot, town- 
iliip, aad town of Matannm proTtnoe, Cuba, 33 miles 8. of 
Metentai, with whieh it is eonneeted by railroad. It has 
a panidiui ohnrah, Sne buildings, poet- and tdegiaph- 
offiee^ aad an important eommeroe. Pop. of the dutiMt, 
11,131. It was fonnerly Alaeranes. 

AlfOBte, 41^nt', a hamlet of Madison eo., Ind., on 
the laiboad from Indianapolis to Anderson, 34 miles KNE. 
of the former. 

AlfoWlt tl'ff rd, a town of Sngland, eo. of Linooln, 34 
miles by raU NNE. of Boston. P<m. in ISOl, S478. 

Alf«rd, a Tillage ot Aberdeens h ire, Beottend. abont 30 
miles KW. of Aberdeen, noted for the Tiotory of Montrose 
«r<r the Ooreaanters in Jaly, 1646. 

Al'foWl, a township (town) and hamlet of Berkshire 
eo., Mass., 10 miles BSW. of leooz and about 2 miles 
fhns the New York state Una. Fop. of the town in 1900, 

Attoti, a post-Tillage of Susquehanna eo., Pa., on the 
Delaware, Laekawanna and Western B. 

Al'fetAarilie.a post-Tillage of DaTiass oo., Ind., about 
33 miles BSB. of vinosnnes. Pop. about 200. 

AlfeldsTiile, a «)st-Tillage of Bobeson eo., N.O., 8 
miles bom Bed Bank Station. 

Alfo^a, il-foB'Hi, a town of Spain, in Catalonia, 16 
miles W. by N. of Tarragona. Pop. about 3000. 

AlfortnUe, U^nWeel', a eommane of Franet^ de- 
liartment of Seine^ S miles SB. of Paris, at the jnnotion of 
tb« Seine and Mame. Pop. in 18S6, 11,834. It adjoins 
Uaisons-Alfort. Hen is titaated the fiunons Teterinaiy 
sekooiof Alfort. 

Alfted) a littoral oonnty in the extreme 8. of NataL 
bordoinc E. on the Indian Oeeao, 6. on Pondoland, and 
W. on Oriqnaland East. Area, 1644 sq. m. The soil is 
icrtile. Oapiti^ Harding, 76 miles (direct) SW. by 8. of 

Alfredt • post-hamlet of Oonglaa eo., Kan., 10 miles 
W. of Baldwin. 

Alfred) a post-Tillage, oapital of York oo., Me., on the 
Boston and Maine B., 32 miles SW. <tf Portland. Pop. 
at Alfred township (town) in 1900, 937. 

Alfresl, a Innlung post-Tillage in Alfred township 
(town), AUenny oo., N.Y., on the Brie B., 02 miles W. of 
Efanira. It nas manufoetores of rooAng-tiles and is the 
seat of Alft^ UniTersity (Serenth-Qay Baptist). Pop. in 
1900, 754 ; of the town. 1016. Alvrid CnirrBB obserTatory 
is in lat. 43° 15' 19" N. and Ion. 77"" 48' 48" W. 

Alfred, a poet-hamlet of Meigs oo., Ohio, about 30 miles 
SW. of Marietta. 

Alfred, a post-town of Preseott co., Ontario, Oanada, on 
the Osaadian Paoiiie B. Pop. about 800. 

Alfred, Cape, the BE. eziremitj^ of Yietoria Iiand 
(Ameriean Aretio Arohipelago), on Vietoria Strait. Lat. 
69° 40* N. ; Ion. 101° 20' W. 

Alfredo Chaves, U-fri'doo shi'Tts, a town in the 
southern nart of the stato of Espirito Santo, Brasil. 

Alfred StatiOB, a post-TiUageof AUwany eo., N.Y., 
en the Erie B., abont 3 miles S. by E. of Alfred. Pop. 

AJftetoa, tl'fire-tvn, a maiket-town aad parish of Eng. 
land, county aad 13 miles NNE. of Darby. -It is suiq>oeed 
to doire its name tram Alfred the Oreat. The town is ir- 
regularly built and many of the houses ar* Teiy old. It 
hu important eoIUeriea, potteries, and iron-works. Pop. in 
WL 17,M6. 

Atftma, il-fK/ria, Alftera, ll-foo'roo, Harafora, 

U-rt-IVri, or Arafani, &-r&-foo'riL, a name of probable 

fbrt^oeee otMn, sesming "foreigners," and Tagualy ap- 

plisd to tba mSe and darkorblaekraoesof men inhabiting 

tts remoter parts of oertain of the Malay islands. They 

sre not tra* Malaya, bat their languages appear to hare 

some elements in oommon with the Malay. From them the 
Arafnra Sea takes its name. 

Alga, a post-hamlet of Cumberland oo.. Pa. 

Algaba, La, li il-gl'sl, a town «f Spain, in Andalu- 
sia, 3 miles from SsTille. Pop. (oommnne) 4000. 

Algaida, U-ghl'dl, a town of the island of Majorca, 8 
miles SB. of Palma. Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 4084. 

Algalola, il-gi-yo'la, a small seaport of Corsica, < 
miles as. ot CalTi. 

Algaa'aee, a post-township of Branch eo., Mioh., abont 
40 miles SW. of Jaokson. Pop. in 1900, 1286. 

Algarbia, a prorinoe of Portugal. See Aloabti. 

Algaria^o, U-gL-re-ni'eo, a town of Spain, 48 miles 
W. of Oranada. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 6331, moetly 

Alganobo, it-gan-BO'BO, a town of Spain, in Anda- 
lusia 18 miles ENE. of Halaita. Pop. (commune) 3000. 

Alganre, U-gau'Tl, or AJgar'bia, the southernmost 
prorinee of Portugal, formerly a kingdom of the same 
name, conquered by Alfonso III. in 1251. Area, 1873 sq. m. 
Pop. in 1900, 364,851. It borders on the 8. and W. on the 
Atlantio. On its N. frontier is the Serra de Monchique, 
ramifleations of which ootct most of its surface. In the S. 
are plains yidding tropical and subtropioal products. Some 
wine is grown, alu oom and forage. The exports are dried 
fruits, oranges, salt, and fish. Chief town^ TaTirs, tiro, 
and Lagos. The inhabitants of Algarre haTe long bem 
noted as seamen. The proTinoe now constitutes the &triot 
of Faro. 

Algatoeia^il-gL-to-theen', a town of Spain, in Anda- 
Insi^ 48 miles W. by 8. of Malan. Pop. (commune) 1600. 

AJgta, AUgftn, il'gOy, or Algan, U'gow, a term tp- 

SUed sonewhat Tagnely to a region including rnurt of Upper 
wabia, lying near the lake of OonstanccL in Wttrttemoerg 
aad Bararia, and also a small part of the Vorarlbarg, in 
Austria. Here lie the AlgSutr-Alpm (Alps of Alg&n), a 
northern prolongation of the Bhsttian Alps. They hare 
the rirer Leoh on the E., the Rhine on the W ., and decline 
northward into the Swahian plateau. The highest peaks 
are in Austrian territory. 

Algeciras, al-jea-ee'rM (8p. pron. il-Hi-thee'rls), a 
seaport of Spain, in Andalusia, proTince of Cadis, on the 
W. side of tha Bay of Qibrmltar, opposite to aad 6 miles W. 
of GHbraltar. Pop. of the commune in 1900, 13,303. It is 
well built and has a weU-&«quent«d harbor, guarded by 
batteries. The town is supplied with water by an aqueduct, 
a fine relic of Moorish engineering. Chief trade, export of 
charcoal, grain, spirits, stone, eork, and leather. ■ Algeoiras 
wasthenrst conquest of the Saraoens in Spain. It was the 
scene of eagagements between the En^ish and the united 
French and Spanish teeU in 1801. 

Algemeai, U-ni-ml-see', a town of Spain, proTlnee of 
Valenoia, near the JAear, 21 miles 8SW. of Valenoia. 
Pop. (commune) in 1900, 8127. 

Alger, the French name of Alomrs. 

Alger, a county in the N. part of Michigan. Area, 
924 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Lake Superior, and is in- 
tersected in the 8W. and 8. by tributaries of Lake Michi- 
gan; it contains serwal lakes aad the famous Pictured 
Books. Capital, Antrain. Pop. In 1890, 1238 ; in 1900, 5868. 

Alger, a post-Tillage of Arenac oo., Mich., on the 
Mich&an Central R., 11 miles (direct) 8. by E. of West 
Branch. Pop. abont 175. 

Alger, a hanking post-Tillage of Hardin oo., Ohio, on 
the (%ieago and Ene R., 13 miles (direct) W. by N. of 
Kenton. Pop. in 1900, 463. 

Algeria, ll-iee're-f (Fr. Algtrit, ll^shi'ree'), a French 
colonial possession on the N. coast of Africa, haTing the 
Mediterranean on the K., Tunis on the B., and Morocco 
on the W. ; its southern boundaries, extending far into the 
Sahara, are as yet und^ned. Estimated area, as oom- 
prised in the three departments of Algiers, Orastantine, 
aad Oran, and therefore exclnsire of the region of the 
Sahara, 176.500 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 4,774,042. The 
Algerian SaUara may add a further M,000 to the popula- 
tion. The coast, which has an extent of oTer 660 miles, 
is deficient in good natural harbors. The surface of the 
country presents a Taried aspect of fertile mountain tracts 
aad Talleys, high and partially barren plateaus, rugged 
moontadns, and unwatared desert sands. The chief monn- 
teins are those of the Little Atlas and Juijura, following 
in a line not Tery far from the coast and onlminating in 
the Lalla-Khadi^ja (or Khedri^Ja), abont 7650 feet high ; 
and the Oreat Atlas, which forms the great bulwark on the 
confines of the Sahara, aad in the Anris section, in Mount 
Chellia, attains an elcTation of 7700 feet. (See Atlas 
MouBTAlKS.) The wildly monntainons region known as 
the Kabylla is mainly comprised in the spurs of the Jur- 
Jnra. Tha natural diTisions of the eonntry are: 1, the 
Tell, a strip of nndnlating and largely onltiTated land, in- 

Digitized by 





dading the foreRt-eorerad ootw or LiUle AUu, aad aztend- 
ing to a diatmnoe of 60-150 miles &»■> the ooast ; 3, the vast 
plateaa tract following interior to thii, staading at an eleva- 
tion of 3000-4000 feet above the aaa, and ooltivable only in 
limited areas of irrigation (although supporting extensive 
growths of esparto or haUa grass, and giving good pasturage 
to vast numbers of sheep and goats) ; and 3, the Sahara, 
with its northern bonflne of grand mountains, the Great 
Atlas. A remarluble feature of the desert, sliared also bj 
the eoast-plains and by parts of the great plateau, is the 
presence of Skotu or Sebkha, saline marshes or Imokiah 
lakes, some of which are charged with salt quite to satura- 
tion, and give to the eye the appearance of snow- or ioe- 
sbeets. The Shott Hdrhir (Helghir), which lies in the 
Sahara SB. of the oasis of Biskn. and receives as affluents 
the Jedi in the N. and the Ighanrhar on the S., is depressed 
70 feet or more below the level of the Mediterranean, with 
which it ^^peais formerly to have bad a connection at the 
Oolf of Gabes. (See Sabaka.) In the desert there are 
many fertile oases, especially near the mountains, producing 
dates and other fruit, grain, pasturage, and some cotton. 
The best known among thsse is Biskra, a military post and 
health-resort, with a growth of palms (date) numbering 
not less than 200,000 trees. Others are the advanced mili- 
tary post Wargla, or Ouarsla, and the Arab town Tnggnrt, 
near which are some of the largest dunes of the Sahara, 
measuring 1000 feet or more in height. 

The riven are small^ and sarvieeable chiefly for irrim- 
Uon, those of the S. being dry in summer ; and none of uie 
Saharian streams reach the sea. Towards the ooast are 
many lakes and marshes, some of which have been drained 
of late, to the great improvement of the pnblio health. The 
climate is variable. The summers are in part intensely hot, 
the temperature, even outside of the rq^ion of the Sahara, 
ranging in the coarse of the simoom to 116° (sliade). In 
the city of Algiers, which has an average annual tsmpera- 
tore of 00°, the range of the thermometer is from abont 36° 
(lowest in winter) to 106°. There is little or no rain during 
the summer season, bat ezeepUonally rain-stohns ocour 
with great fury in the months of August and September. 
Algeria has perhaps the most delightial winter climate on 
the Mediterranean, and it is rapidly becoming a winter 
health- and tourist-resort. Snow covers the faigner monn- 
tsins until May or JancL but there is no perpetual snow- or 
ioe-c^p. The glaoiets of the Juijnra tliat have firom time 
to time been rqwrted do not exist. 

The flora of Algeria contains a nomber of tropical ele- 
ments, but is essentially of the Mediterranean type, and, 
like much of the fauna, of a distinotiy south European 
rdaUondiip. Amons some of its more prevalent or dis- 
tinctive forms may M mentioned the myrties, cork-oak, 
oleander and cedar (Juijura), the aloe, and date-palm. 

The mineral produotiona inelode iron-ore of excellent 
quality, argentiferous' lead-oi«y eopper, antimony, sine, 
meroury, vwions marbles, and phcephatss. Connderable 
capital isinvested in mining. Thermal and mineral springs 
abound. Fish, fine sponges, and red coral are extensivcTy 
procured on the coast. Amons the wild animals are the 
lion, leopard, hyena, fox, jaokal, ape, gaselle, sheep (aoo- 
dad), and numerous smaller mammals. Tenomoos serpents 
abound. Many sheep, horses, and camels are bred, and the 
ostrich is reared to some extent for its plumes. Haifa, 
cork, timber, datai, palmetto-fibre, and henna are among 
the important native products. Wheat, barley, wool, oil- 
seeds, Jqjubes, oil, opium, sugar, cotton, flax, silk, hides, 
and tobacco are produced, and some of them are largely 
exported. The eultnre of fruits (figs, oranges, lemons, 
•lives, and dates) is rapidly gaining in importance; the 
Algerian (Oran) grape is of ezodlent quality. 

The native races of Algeria Inelode the Kabyles (Ber- 
bers), who speak their own language, are mostly agricul- 
turists and non-nomadic, and are sometimes regarded as 
descendants of the ancient Numidians; and the Arabs, 
somewhat more numerous than the Kabyles, and speaking 
the Arabic with more or less purity. There are also con- 
siderable numbers of Moors, Jews, and negroes. All the 
natives, except the Jews, are of the Modem fUth. 

Algeria is divided into three departments, — Algiers (Al- 
ger), Orao, and Constantino, — farmed on the model of the 
departments of France and governed by a civil governor- 
general, each department (represented in the French Na- 
tional Assembly by 1 senator and 3 deputies) being divided 
into eivil districts with French justices, and military ter- 
ritories with indigenous Arab justices appointed by the 
French military government. By a decree of Dee. 34, 1M2, 
the " Territories of the South" were constituted under a 
separate administration. The original European colonists 
ware mcstiy French, and in 1001, of the total population of 
4,774,043, there were 304,267 of French origin or naturali- 
■ation, 210.687 other Europeans, and upward of 60,000 

natnraliBed Jews. Notwithstanding the turbulent diar- 
aster of the native people and the severe nature of the 
French administration, it may be doubted whether tiM 
country was ever before so proepeions as at present, except 
while under the Roman antoority. At that tima it was one 
of the graouies of the world. 

The region now called Algeria was in antiquity inoloded 
in Numidia and eastern Maoretania, which passed under 
Roman rule in the first centmy B.O. and the following esn- 
tory. After the iUI of Rome, the country was suecassiTelT 
subject to Vandal, Bysantine, Saracen, Kabyle, and Hooriaa 
sway. The expulsion of the Moors bom Spain was the 
cause of the grmt extension of Alserine piracy. In the six- 
teenth century Algiers acknowledged the supremacy of the 
Turkish saltan. At the doee of the century the oSoe of 
Dey (to share the authority with the Turkish pasha) waa 
orostad, and at the end of btUe more than a hundred year* 
the Dey shook off the aathority of the sultan, the country 
thus becoming completely independent. Piracy and Chria- 
tian slavery were important sonross of publio and private 
revenue, and the home government was a cmd despotism. 
In 1816 the United States navy chastised the Algerines and 
compdled them to deolare the American fiac inviolable. In 
1810 the British bombarded AUriers, and put an end to 
Christian slavery. In 1836 the French undertook the con- 
quest of the country. This, however, was only aooom- 
l^hed after many years of bloody war. In 1647 Abd-d- 
Kader, who for 16 years had been the prindpal native 
leader, was made a prisoner. The Eabyles, and eepedallj 
the Arabs, firequenuy revolted, and tbdr native valor waa 
muoh stimulated by natred for an alien raoe and by rdigioua 
prqjudiees. The last revolt took place in 1881. Immigra- 
tion is slow, and the eneases to France are much greater 

thwi the revenues. i^j. and inhab. AxanRim, 41'J«r- 

een' (Fr. AiAisnr, U'shi'rtip'). 

Algete^ U-H&'U, a town of Spain, province of Madrid, 
near the river Jarama. Pop. (commune) 1300. 

AlfSBiraSt a town of Spain. See AxaiciBas. 

AI>Gezireh. See MzsororAKiA. 

Algkero* il-gi'ro, a seaport of Sardinia, on the W. 
coast, 14 miles 8 W. of Bassan. Pop. (commune) in IMl, 
11,SS7. It experts wine^ grain, wool, skins, aachovlea, 
coral, etc. Not &r from the town, on the coast, are th« 
wonderAil Neptune grottoes. 

Algiers, one of the three departments into which tha 
Frendi possession of Algeria is divided, is bounded S. bj 
the Mediterranean, E. by the department of Oonstantine^ 
and W. by the department of Oran. The oasis of OuarrliL 
in tha deswt of Sahara is sometimes taken to mark Ita 
southern limit. It has a ooast-Iine on the Mediterranean 
of about 330 miles, with but few good harbors. CapitaJ, 
Algiers. Area, 04,639 sq. m. Pop. in IWl, I,04O,»86. 

Algien, U-jeers' (Arab. AUaair, U-Ji-sain': Fr. 
Alger, U^shain'), capital of the French colony of Algeria 
and of the department of Algiers, on the W. side of a bay 
ofiUowiiname,ontheMeditaiTanean. Lat. 30° 47' 3" N. : 
Ion. 3° 4' 6" E. It is bnilt on the north dope of Mount 
Bousarea, which rises in its highest point about 1300 feet 
above the bay, and is surmoanted at about 400 feet liy the 
eitaddle or laubak. The houses are ananged amphitheatre- 
wise. The external aspect of the dty is exceedingly im- 
podng. Since the French occupation it has been trana- 
form^ from an Oriental town to a place of even mora 
modem aspect than many European cities exhibit, having 
wide streets and boalevai^ {Boulmard dt la BfpuUique), 
fine open squares (Plaoe d» la. Jlipitblimu) and gardens, 
and splendid public baildings, among which are the palaeea 
of the government and of the archbishop, the public librarj 
(with 33,000 vdumes) and masenm of antiqnines, the grand 
mosque (Bl-Kebir), and the g reat military and ddesidva 
works. The dty is connected by rdlway with Oran, Con- 
stantino, Biskra, and Tunis; has an academy (univeni^), 
medical and militarr colleges, observatory, meteorologioa] 
institution, natural history museum, aaelimation garden, 
23 mosques, etc. A consideiable quarter, known as the old 
town, still retaioB many Oriental ohanisteristics. It has 
numeroos fountains, supplying an abundance of water fhiB 
the aqueducts and reservoirs UMve the town. Algiers is the 
reddence of the governor-general and all the leading ofllcera 
of the Algerine colony. The harbor is a work of immense ' 
labor, first formed by Barbarcesa about 1630, having a mole 
680 feet in length by 140 in width, extending from the main- 
land to an Idet, on which are a strong eastie, with battariea, 
and a light-house. Three long jetties have been added by 
the French, and there are grand quays and docks for ship- 
ping. The commerce of Algiers has risen to great imp<H-- 
tance, and its exports of vegetables, firuits, grain, oil, leather, 
leaf tobacco, wina, sheep, and wool are duactad to Franee^ 
England, Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Belgium. Owing t« 
its mild winter dimate (January mean tampentut^ M°), 

Digitized by 





tht iiW has baeooa s popnUr mott with both teoriati and 
bTslUi. Th« h«isht8 of Huitapha Brnpirima u««cowned 
villi bmatifal gudoM Mid tUIm. Pop. in IMl, M,MS. 

Al(ient » port-TiDmge of Pike oo., Ind., about 8 milm 
I. of PttarriMtg. Pop. about IM. 

Alfien* • rillaga of Orleans pariah. La., on the Hi>- 
riaiiipi Rirer, onpamte New Orieana, of whidt it forms a 
Bonieip^ inbnib. It is on the Soathen PaoUo, the Taxai 
■ad PaeiBc and the New Orleans, Fort Jaebon and Grande 
Irie Ba. ttnj-boata ply between Algien and New Orleani. 
Hen are extagnve iron- and oonatmotion-worki, eereral 
•Up-yarda, diy-doeka, lloating-doeka, railroad maehine- 
•hcna, boiler-shopa, etc. Pop. in 18M, 10,811: in 1900, 

Alffoa (al-go'a) Bay, an eztensire hay on the SB. 
«OMt of AJHea, C^m Colony, between Cm>e8 Beaife and 
Padron, 43i Bilea B. of the 0^>e of Oood Hope. It ia open 
te asoth winda, bat haa good anebocage. Tm Sunday and 
Baaahw Biren flow into the bay, and at the mouth of the 
lattar ia Port EHnbath. Lat. of Ondx Uaad, in the bay, 
<r> «' S. : loo. S»o «' 7" B. 

AJfoada PoiMt, ooaat of Halabar. See AvevAOJi. 

AlcodOBales, il-go-Do-allb, a town' of Spain, in 
Aadalnaia, at the Cwt of the Sierra de L^ar, i» mUea NB. 
efCbdia. P)^. (eommnne) in 1940, &333. 

Alcodoaea,'nls, a poiit-Tillace of Bemalilla 
ea- HlMez., on the left bank of the Bio Graode, S8 mllea 
8w. of Santa ¥6. Pop. abont 100. 

AlM'Mkt • peat-town of HeDoweU oo., W.Ta., 3 milea 
fkwa Bkhon Station. It haa eoat-minea. Pop. abont tOO. 

Algoata, a lanking eity <tf Kewannee «o., Wis., on 
I«ke Miehinn and on the Ahnapee and Wtetem B., 20 
ailea S. by W. of Staigeon Bay. It has rariona mannfao- 
taraa. This oity waa tomarly Known as AhnqMe. Pop. in 
UM. IT38. 

AI««>BMi, a townahip (town) of 'Vnnnebaco eo., Wis. 
Pep. in 1900, 840. 

Alcoma, adiatzM at the W. aztreaiiity of Ontario, on 
Lakaa Hnon and Snperior. It is lat^y forested, eontains 
ad aifTer-minas, and is watered by many 
' Area. 43,131 sq.m. Pi^. abont 43,040. 

Alc*aaa Mill*, • pest-rillage of AI«oma diatriot, 
Ontario, oo the Oanadian Paeite R., SO mUes flrom Thes- 
■loa, ita banking point. It haa a trade in timber. Pop. 

Alfo'mtt n banking oity, the e^tal of Kossuth eo., 
Iowa, CB tha Baat Fork of the Dea Moinea River and on the 
Iowa Csatral and other raUroada, it miles W. of Maaon 
(Sty. Algoaia has mannfaotnrea ^ flour, wagons and oar- 
itecea, ereamery-bnttar, butter-tuba, and brieka. Pop. in 
19M, S9U. 

Ai^go» « c% a banking poat-Tillaee of St. OUr eo., 
XidL, oa the St. Clair Biver and on tie Detroit and Rivar 
8C Clair IL, U ndlea KB. of Detroit. Pop. in 1900, 1310. 

Alcra'^BlSt or AIsonliiB, a nation of Indiana, who, 
on tha flrat aettlement of the Buiopeans, poeaeaaed an ez- 
taariva dnanain along the N. bank of ue St. Lawrenee. 
Ita fragmeata at pteeent hardly number 1404, aeattered 
ia serenl riUagea in Ontario and Qnebeio. In a larger 
aaaae, and aoeoraing to the more eonmon oae, the name 
Mfomfin is applied to the great Cunily or atoek of Indian 
Mms wliieh ooMipied all the eoontry mm the Miasiasippi 
tsthe Atlantie north of the Ohio and southeastward to Cape 
Fear, bst exelnding the Iroquois, Winnebagoes, and a few 
atbara. To tUa atoek belong many Canadian tribea, also 
the Blaokfeet and Cheyennea of the for West. 

Alc«a4«ia, a btmking poat-Tillaga of HcHenry oo., 
wi on the Fox Rirer and on the Chicago and North- 
waalara R. It haa Iratter-, eheaae- and oondenaed-milk 
foetorias. Pop. in 1944, 660. 

AlC«a«atat a resort in the Adirondaek Honntaina, 
B.T- SB lAke Sanaae. 

Aigmmv^^ • poat-hamM of Canoll oo., Ohio, 6 miles 
a. if Oaitollton. 

Alc«Ni««iM, or Wrisht* • Comen, a pest-yillage in 
flsaaTiUa eo., Ontario, 6 miles fhim Maitland. 

AJgoed, a post-riliage of Putnam oo., Tenn., 3 miles B. 

AlgriBC«B, il'grin-nn, a mining town of Lorraine, 
Samaoy, 4 miles tnm I)iedenhofen._ Pop.Jn 1904, 6234. 

Th^ f miks KB. of Siegedin. 
A](yAC7, gWyihry', a town of Hungary, in Transyl- 
■ia, 31 i^Iss Sw. of Karfabnrg. 

AI«H«4kr, U-hidV (ane. Bt/tra), a ruined oity of 
lauHa Tnrfcer. in Mesopotamia, <0 miles SSW. of Hoaol. 
'- •;«.»'■* (^the hath"), a t< 

**^'— fi. X mUea SV. of Granada. 

town of Spain, in 
Pop. (oommune) in 

1909, 7479. It has mina of Mooriah walla, and near it an 
warm baths, whence its Arabic name. 

Albania, a town of Spain, 13 milea SW. of Mnroia, 
with a ruined castle and warm baths. Pop, (commune) ia 
1900. 8461. 

Alkambra, the Moorish palaoe. See Grahada. 

Alhambra, ll-im'brA, a town of Spain, in New Oaa- 
tU^ 48 milea BSB.. of Ciudsd Real. Pop. (commune) 2000. 

Alhanibra, a loealitr in Spain, 03 miles SW. of Sara- 
gassa, on the Jaltfn, with oelebrated mineral springs and 
bathlL the A'qym BtlbiliU^nm of the Romans. 

Alkamkra, a post-Tillage of Marioopa eo.. Aria. Pop. 
about 100. 

Alhambra, a banking post-borough and resort of Los 
Angeles oo., Cal., on the Southern Pacific R., in a fine flruit- 
^wing region, 7 miles NE. of Los Angeles. It has estea- 
sire wineries. Pop. about 990. 

Alhambra. a post-village of Madison co., III., 14 miles 
1^ raU NB. of BdwaidsviUe. Pop. in 1900, 308. 

Alhambra, a post-village of Jeffenon oo., Mont., on 
the Northern Pacific R., 17 miles S. by B. of Helena. Pop. 
abont 100. 

Alhaadra, il-&n'dri, a town of Portugal, on the right 
bank of the Tagus, 18 miles by rail NB. of Lisbon, haa 
larce fisheries, salt-works, eto. Fop. (commune) about 1600. 

Alhanria de la Torre, il-aw-reen' dl 11 toR'ni, a 
town of Spain, Granada, 16 miles SW. of Malaga. Pop. 
(commune) in 1900, 3913. 

AlhanriB el Graade, il-dw-reen' el grin'dl, a town 
of Spain, in Andalusia, 30 milea W. of Malaga. It has 
eeveni sqnarea, numeroua fountains, and remaina of an 
Arab fortafieation and of a Roman aqueduct. Pop. (eom- 
mnne) in 1940, 8441. 

Alheadia, il-<n-de«a% a town of Spain, in Andalnaia. 
on the Dilar, 4 milea SW. of Granada. Pop. (commune) 

Alhncemai, U-oo-th&'mls, a small island fortress and 
priami aettlemaat belongiBg to Spain, in the Mediterranean, 
on the coast of Moroeoo, 6 miles SB. <tt Cwe Morro. Lat. 
36° 15' N. ; Ion. 3<> 64' W. 

All, i'lee, a commune of Sioily, 16 miles by r^ SSW. 
ofMesaina. It has sulphur baths. Pop. 4000. Itoomprises 
the little towns of Ali Superiore and All Marina. 

Alia, i-le'i, a town of Spain, in New Cutile, 18 miles 
SW. of Logras<n. Pop. (commune) 3400. 

Alia, a town of Sieilv, proTines and 34 miles SB. of 
Palermo. Pop. in 1901, 0030. 

Ali-Abad, a town of Persia, in Masandaraa, on the 
Caspian Sea. 

Aliaga, L-le4'g&, a town and pueblo of Nneva Eeya 
province^ Lnaon, Philippine Islands, in a mountainous and 
wdl-wooded re(rion, 13 miles N. of San Isidro. Rice and 
com are grown In the valleyg. Pop. in 1903, 11,960. 

Aliaga, a town of Spain, in Aragon, on the Guadalupe, 
33 miles NB. of Teruel. Pop. (commune) 1100. 

Aliaaq, l-le-&'no, a town of Italy, province of Potensa, 
43 miles SW. of Matera. Pop. abont 1400. 

Aliaska, i-le-is'kl, sometimes written Aliashka, a 
peninsula of Alaska. See Alaska Pbh iic8(n.A. 

Ali-Bogkaa. i'lee-bo^g&n', a tow:n of Afghanistan, 14 
miles B. of JelalabaiL at an elevation of 1900 feet. 

Alibaa&r, Sl'le-boo-nlrY a town of Hungary, in the 
00. (rf Torontil, 15 miles NNE. of Pancsova, on the bordera 
of a great sandy plain and naar manhea partly drained. 
Pop. bi 1900, 4628. 

Alicante, l-le-kin'ti or al-e-kant' (ane. £«e«»'ltMi), a 
city at Spain, the chief se^iort of Talenoia, capital of the 
province of the same name, at the head of an extensive bay, 
having Cape las Hnertas at its NB. aztremity and Cape 
SanU PoU on the 8., 12 miles apart. It lies in lat. 38° 
30' N., Ion. 0° 36' W., parUy at the base and partly on the 
slopes of a rockv eminence 404 feet high, surmounted by a 
strong castle, wnich ovsrlooka it and oommands the bay. 
The lower, or newer, portion is well built ; has clean, well- 
paved streets, spacious squares, promenades, and lofty and 
substantial stone houses, provided with terraces and veran- 
das. It haa a very extensive trade, the ehief exports being 
wine, fmiu, olive oil, lead, esparto, lieoriee, and eanary- 
seed. The government has here a oigar-fsotory, which 
employs abont 6000 women. There are also manofaotures 
of ootton and linen oloth. Pop. in 1897, 49,463. 

Alicaate, a province of Spain, formed of the S. part of 
the aaeient ktngdom of Talenoia and a small part of Mor- 
cia. Arsa, 3186 sq. m. The soil is fertile, producing the 
fiumous Alioante wine, sugar, rice, oranges, citrons, figs, and 
other frnits. Pi^. in 1897, 461,174. 

Alicata, a seaport of Sioilv. See Lioata. 

AIlee,apast-villageof JaeK8oaco.,N.C. Pop. about 100. 

Alice, a banking post-village of Nneoea co., lex., on the 
San Antonio and Aransas Pass and the Mexican National 

Digitized by 


▲lloe OacrteDo 



Ra., 4S milea W. of Corpiu Chrirti. It is » ibippiag point 
for oottoB and lumbar. Pop. about 860. 

AUee Caatello, l-Wohl kh-tAI'lo, a town of JUlj, 
provinos of Novan. Pop. about 2500. 

AlicedalCt an important railwar Junction in Cape 
Colony, on tbe line cooaeoting Port Blixabeth with Gra- 
hamstown, about M miles NNB. of Port Elisabeth. 

Aliee SpriBg*) or Staait« a post- and telenapli- 
station of the Northern Tarritorr of Sooth AnstraUa, in 
lat. 3SO 40' 8. and Ion. 1SS° 50' B. Pop. about 80. 

Alice Saperioret L-lee'chi so<Mpi-re»«'ri, k village 
of Italy, proTlnoe of Turin, 7 miles W. of Ivrea. 

Alicetoa, al'is-tfn, a post-hamlet of Boyle oo., Ky., on 
the KnozvUle btaneh of the Louisville and KashviUe B. 

Alieia^ %-lish'e-a, a poet-viUa|^ of Lawrenoe oOj, Ark., 
en the St. Loais, Iron Mountain and Sontheni B^ 107 
miles NE. of Little Bock and 3 miles ftam Black River. 
Pop. about 125. 

Alicndi/i-le-koo'dee (ane. Srieu'ta), the wsstammost 
of the Lipari Islands. It is oonioal In form, miles in oir- 
enmferenoe, and rises abruptly trom the sea. It exports 
sulphur, fhiits, and palms. Pop. 400. 

Ali'aa) a pcst-hamlet of Lsporte oo., Ind., on the Bal- 
timore and Ohio B., where it erosses the Chioigo, Indian- 
apolis and Louisville B., 50 miles 8E. of Chica^ and 14 
miles S. of Michigan City. It is a shipping p<^t for grain . 

Alida« a post4tation of Qeary oo., Kan., on the Bepul>- 
liean Biver, 8 miles NW. of Jnnotion City. 

Alife, i-lee'fi (ano. AUi'/m or AUi'pha), a town of 
Italy, in Caserta, 18 miles NKB. of Capua. Pop. (com- 
mune) 4000. 

Allghnr, U^e-gilr' (nativcL Aligark), a distriot of India, 
in the Cnited Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Meemt divi- 
sion. It lies between the Oanges and the Jumna. Capi- 
tal, Coel. 

Alighnr, a city of India, in the district of Alighur, and 
on the Calcutta-Delhi railway, 82 miles fh>m Delhi. It eon- 
tains the historic Fort Alighur and bad a population in liWl 
^th the native city of Keil) of 70,127. It U the seat of 
the Mohammedan Anclo-Oriental College. 

Alignage, or Anlgnnge, irie-gliqj' (native Ali- 
ooV), a town of India, distriot of Bt^, 21 miles Nw. of 

Alignaset or Se'waa', or Alignnge-Sewaa, writ- 
ten also AllKaid'SewaB, a town of the Barun district, 
province of Behar, India, on the navigable river Daha, 40 
miles NB. of Chupra. It mannfaoturee excellent pottery 
and bronse. Pop. about 20,000. 

Aiyd, 1-lee-sho', a town of Portugal, 15 miles B. of Tilla 
Beat Pop. (eommune) about 2000. 

AUios (l-Iee'B«s) Rocks, in the PatriAe, about 200 
mUes W. of Lower CaUfbmia. They are 112 feet high. 

Alima, a river of French Congo, is a tributary of the 
Congo, which it enters in lat. l" 32' 8. It is navigable for 
some distance. 

Alimena, i-le-mi'ni, a town in the island of Sioily, 52 
miles SE. of Palermo. Pop. in 1901, 5230. 

AlimodiAa, 1-le-mo-de-ln', a pueblo of Panay, Philip- 
pine Islands, provinoe and 12 miles firom Doilo. Pop. 
in 1003, 7274. 

Alinda, a post- village of Perry co., Pa. Pop. about 200. 

Aiiae, t-leen', a banking poe^villBge of Woods oo., 
Okla., on the Chicago, Bock blud and Pacific B. 

Allae liOeh, C-leen' los, a small arm of the sea, in 
Argyllshire, 8cotiand, 3} miles long and half a mile broad. 

AliBgo> the ancient name of Lakooii. 

AIiBgs4s, i'ling-sis', a town of Sweden, 32 miles 8W. 
of Tenersborg. Pop. in 18«9, 3210. 

Alipht a poet-hamlet of Tatnall oo., Oa. Pop. about 50. 

Alipi, a town of India. See Auippi. 

AJUpnr'. a southern suburb <^ Calcutta, British India, 
on the Hugli. It contains Belvedere House, the residence 
of the lieutenant-governor, barracks, and a great peniten- 

AJiqnippa, a post-borough of Beaver eo., Pa., on tbe 
Pennsylvania and Lake Erie B., 4 miles (direct) BB. of 
Beaver. It has iron and steel industries. Pop. in 1900, 620. 

Alise-8alBte>Reiae, i'lees'-eiiit-rine', a village of 
Franoe, department of CAte<l'Or, 8 miles NB. of Semur, 
with iron-mines and mineral waters in its vicinity. It is 
supposed to repieeent the ancient AW no, the last strong- 
hold of the Ghittis in their struggle aminst Caeear. A oolcasal 
statue of Vercingetorix was erected here by Napoleon III. 

Alitak (U'e-tik') Bay, Alaska, enters Kadiak Island 
from the 8W., between Capes Alitak and Trinity. 

Alintiaa Itlaadt, Alaska. SeeAurriAa Islakm. 

AliinU, il-e-wU', a viUage in the Puqjab, near the 
Sutlei, irw. of Ludhiana. Here, on Jan. 28, 1840, aeoeral 
Sir H. Smith, with about 12,000 troops, totally defeated a 
Sikh army of double that number. 

AUwal (U-e-wU') Horth, a division in the NB. part 
of Oq>e Colony, separated by tbe Orange Biver from the 
Orange Biver Colony. Area, 1305 sq. m. Capital, Aliwal 
North, on the Orange Biver, and about 170 miles (direct) 
NNW. of East London, with which it has rail eonneation. 
The Oruige River is hen spanned by the Frere bridge, 880 
feet in length. Near here^ also, are the edebrated AUwal 
sulphur springs, with a temperature of 95°. Aliwal North 
figured prominently during the Boer war of 1899-1902, 
Pop. in 1891, a>t7 (white, 949); of the division, 9963 
(white, 4881). 

Aliwal SoBth, Cane Colony. See Moasn. Bat. 

Alixaa, i'Ux'&H^ (t. Attxia'num), a vUlageof France, 
in Drftme, 7 miles NE. of Valence. 

Al- Jeairek, or Al- Jezira. See HnaoporAaiA. 

AUexar* U^hi-shoor', a town of Portugal, in Algarve, 
23 miles NNB. of Cape St. Vinoent. Pop. about 2500. 

AUnbarrota, tUshoo-baB-Ro'tl, a town of Portugal, in 
Sstremadnra, 15 miles SW. of Leiria, on the summit of a 
mountain. In the neighborhood, John the Great of Portu- 
gal obtained a signal victory over the Castiliuis, Aug. 14, 
1385. Pop. (commune) about 3500. 

AliBStrel. U-shoo-stril', » town of Portugal, provinoe 
of Alemtcjo, 77 miles SB. of Lisbon and 22 miles SW. of 
B<ja, in an oasis of the barren Campo de B^a. Pop. (com- 
mune) about 3500. 

Al-Kaisarlyek, or AI-Kais«eria, U-kl-aer-ee'yi, 
a town in the NW. part of Moroooo, not fiir from Kasr-el- 

Alkali Lake, a small lake, with no outlet, in Iron co., 
Utah, about lat. 87° 40' N. 

Al-Katif, a town of Arabia. See Sl-Eativ. 

Alkta, U'H?"' * village of Belgium, provinoe of Lim- 
bounr, 4 miles S. of Hasselt. 

Alkmaar, alk-m|B' (L. Alewui'ria), a town of the 
Netherlands, in North Holland, 20 miles NNW. at Aastw- 
dam and 5 miles firom the sea. It ships immense quantities 
of cheese and maanfutures saiLoloth and s ea sal t. The 
town has a museum of antiquities. Its successfol defence 
aninst the Spaniards in 1573 gave rise to the saying, 
'Mrictoiy bwins at Alkmastf." Pop. in 1900, 18,275. 

Al^kOtkS a smaU town of Asiatic Tnrk^, in Kurdistan, 
about 20 miles N. of Mosul. It is the rdigious centre of 
the so-ealled New Chaldeaas. 

Al'labea, a poet-town at Ulster eo., N.T., 27 miles t>y 
raUNW. of Kingston. 

Allada, U-lPdi, a town at Dahomey, in west Africa, 35 
milesN. of Whydah, between two lakes. P<9. about 10,009. 

Allagask, a plantation of Aroostook eo.. Me. Pop. in 
1900,190. - 

AJIagash Lakes, a series of lakes in Piaoatanuis and 
Aroostook oos.. Me., whieh drain into the Allagash Biver, a 
tributary of the river St. John. 

Allahabad, il-li-hi-bid' (t'.e., the "oity of God"), a 
city of British India, capital of the United Provinces of 
Agra and Oudh (formerly North- West Provinees) and of 
the division and district at Allahabad, situated at the Junc- 
tion of the Ganges and Jumna, 450 miles N. by W. <^ Cal- 
cutta, at the junction of sevwal railways, Lat, 25° 26' N. ; 
Ion. 81° 51' B. The town, whieh coven a very large area, 
is poorly built, but contains some remarkable structures, 
the most striking being the Jumma Mn^id, or principal 
mosque, the serai of Khosru, the son of Jehsogir (a grand 
caravanserai), and the gr eat oitadel of Afcbar. The dtadel 
forms the nndens of the fort of Allahabad, one of the main 
strongholds of British India. There is a beantiftit Euro- 
pean quarter, with villas and bungalows embowered in 
foliage. The University of Allahabad is the examining 
university for the UniM Provinees of Agra and Oudh. 
Among the institutions oonnected with it is the Mnir Cen- 
tral College, located at Allahabad. The city is the chief 
emporium of trade in central Hindustan and the great 
mart for the cotton raised there. The iUrs of AlhUubad 
are famous, and as a sacred city of the Hindus it attracts 
vast hOTdcs of pilgrims. Pop. in 1901, 175,750, three-fcnrths 
being Hindus and most of the remainder Mohammedans. 
There are about 6000 Christians, 

Allakabad, a division of the United Provinces of Agra 
and Oudh, British India, Area, 17,284 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 

AJHaia, West Baton Bonge parish. La. See Pon Au.nif . 

AllalB, UMin', a village of Franoe, dq>artment of 
Meurtbe-et-Moeelle, about 10 miles SB. of Nancy, 

Allaire, &riaiB', a village of France, department of 
Uorbihan, 28 miles B. of Tannes. 

Allaire, al'lair', a post-viHage of Monmouth co., N.J., 
5 mUes by raU NW. of Seagirt. P(m. about 126. 

AllallBkom, a mountain of the Valalsiui Alps of 
Switaariand, near Saas-Fae. Elevation, 13,235 feet. The 
AllaUn Pass (to Zermatt) has an alUtade of 11,713 feet. 

Digitized by 




Altoflrluuiy Mountains 

Antk Alt iq. 
bj the HiiMiaiippi Rivar, is In- 

taaakj of Iowa, faorden on Minnesota. 
Itii booiMlad on th« E ' 

tsMetod by tk< Upper Iowa BWer, aad'ilio drained by 
TiDow BiTef and Paint Creek. The mirftoe preaenti pi«t- 
■itiqae neoery, direiaUied with prairies, blalTs, and for- 
mtt. TIm roeks wliioh imderUe most of the county are fine 
Bawstoaea, fonaing in part good building-stone. Capital, 
WankoB. Pop. in 1690, 17,m; in 1«0«, 18,711. 

Allaaaoore, or Allamore, a post-hamlet of El Paso 
so., Tex., on the Texas and Paeiflc K., IW miles BSB. of 

Al*laBi«'ekr, or AlUaaia'ehee, a post-TillMS of 
Warren eo„ N.J., about 35 miles W. of Patenon. ft has 
imt-minea in the riainity. top. about 760. The banking 
point to Haekettstown. 

Anaa> al'lan, a river of Seotland, co. of Perth, Joins the 
Vteth t mile* abore Stirling. Lencth, 18 milee. 

AIlaa« iriAs^, a tUIi^^ of Franoe, department of 
DrAme, 6 oiles SB. of Mont<Umar. 

AUaaf BrMfe of. See Bsidsb or Allah. 

AllaBbaiv, a post-rillage of Wdland eo., Ontario, on 
the WeOaodCuial, 6 miles S. of St. Catharines. Pop. about 


AOaaelief iTIAinh', a town of France, department of 
OuttI, 8 miles NB. of Mnrat. P<n>. (commune) about 2000. 

AUaad, U'lint, a Tillage of Lower Austria, 8 miles 
WKW. of Baden. 

Al*Iaa4ale'> a post-town of Bimcoe eo., Ontario, Can- 
ada, oa the Oraad Trunk R., 63 miles 'SKW, of Toronto 
sad 1 mile fiom Barrie, its iMnking point. 

AUa^aka, or Alapaka, al-Iap'a-haw, a rirer of 
Oeonia, rii«s in the soutn-eentral part of the state. It runs 
acarn aootbward through a lerel sandy traet, passes into 
norida, and enters the Snwanee River. Length, 180 miles. 

AUaraha, or Alapaka, a post-Tillage of Berrien co.. 
Sai, on the Brunswick and Albanr R.. US miles W. of 
Branswiok. It has mannfaetores of ohalni, luml>er, blinds, 
as. The banking point is Tiiton. Pop. 450. 

AUayaUy, or Allapatti, irU-ptlf te^ an island at 
the oKtrema N. of Ceylon and near the isle of Jaiftaa. It is 
terarad with palms and is inhabited by Malabar tshermen. 

AUaris, U-rt-reeth', a walled town of Spain, in Qali- 
eia. IS miles SB. of Oranse. 

AUaraaatt U'lan'mfta^a Tillage of Franoe^ depart- 
of ▼o'Ca^ IS miles NNB. of St. Dii. 

I (O-lias') Strait is between the islands of Lom- 
kok and Stunbawa, in the Malay Archipelago. Length, 
•boot M miles ; breadth, at the narrowest part, 9 miles. 

Allassae, U^Us^stk', a town of France, department of 
OatTtee, 15 miles W. of Tnlla. Pop. about 1700 (commune, 

Ali^atoo'aa* a post-Tillage of Bartow co., 6a., on the 
Western and Atlantic R., « miles NNW. of AUanta. 
fn. about ISO. It is near the Allatoona Pass, where Oen- 
erM J. E. Johnston made a stand in May, 1804, when pnr- 
suad by General Sherman, and is surrounded by picturesque 
seeaery. A battle was fought here Oot. 6, 1864, between the 
Union foreaa under Qenaru Ootae and the Oonfederates un- 
der Sanwal FrsDeh. 

AOaach, ITUsh', a town of France, department of 
Bonehaa.<in-RhOn^ 6 miles NB. of Marseilles. Pop. about 
UM (cMsmoncL »M). 

AUa-Tar-ka>Taato, or Alli>Tar«ka>Ta«4a, 
IU(-yar-fci-tin'di, a town of Sindh, 20 miles E. of Hyder- 

Alle, tllfh, a riTer of East Prussia. <Uls into the Pregel 
tr idles abore KSnigsberg. Its length is about 125 miles. 

Allte Blanche, irw blftiish (i.e., the " white pas- 
nge"), a lofty tsJIct of Italy, bounded on the N. by the 
Ifant Blaae chain. It owee its name to the deep snow with 
*UA it is always eovered, even in summer. 

Aflefaa, a oonaty in the 8W. part of Michigan, has 
an ana of 839 sq. m. It is bounded on the W. by Lake 
Mirhi»n, and interaected by Kalamaioo RiTcr. Capital, 
ADeoa. Pop. in 1890, 38,961 ; in 1900, 38,812. 

▲Uesan, a hamlet of Rice co., Kan., in a fturming 
, 9 miles KW. of Lyons and 6 milee w. of Pollani. 

ABecaaf a »»^»V|ng post-Tillage, the capital of Allegan 
sbl, ItiA., ia on the Kalamaioo lUTcr, at the head of navi- 

rsB, and on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
199 miles W. of Detroit. Large quantities of lumber 
sawn in Allagan eo. are shipped at this place, which has 
taailiifl . pluing- and paper-mills, and manufhetures of 
wacsna, AimitnrCL eta. It has eztansiTe water-power. Pop. 
falHO, M67. 

Anecaar, a county in the W. part of Maryland. It 
is bsundwl on the 8. by the Potomao River and its North 
Ifcssuh. The main Alleghany Mountains traTcrse this 
iwslj, the iarfaea of wUeh is alio divenilled by other 

high ridges. Here occur broad fertile Talleya called glade; 
which are adapted to pasturage and supply superior butter 
and mutton. Among the mineral resonroes are bituminous 
coal, iron-ore, limestone, and sandstone. Area, 442 sq. m. 
Capital, Cumberland. Pop. in 1890, 41,571 ; in 1900, 63,694. 

Allegaay, a oonnty in the SW. part of New York, 
bordering on PannsylTania, has an area of 1018 sq. m. 
It is intereaoted by the Genesee River, which runs north- 
ward, and is also drained by the CaiJsteo River and An- 
goliea and Oanaseraga Creeks. There are good sandstones, 
some of which are used for building-stones and grindstones. 
Capital, Belmont. Pop. in 1890, ^340 ; in 1900, 41,501. 

AUegaar, a banking post-village of Cattarangns eo., 
N.T., on the Erie and the Western New Tork and Penn- 
sylvania Rs., 60 miles BSE. of Dunkirk. It has canning-, 
butter- and cheese-factories. Pop. of the township (town) 
in 19M, 3693. 

Alleghaay,* al-la-gi'nee, a river of the United States, 
a branch of the Ohio, rises in Potter co.. Pa., and, turning 
northward, makes an eztensiTc detour in Cattaraugus oo., 
N.Y. Having ro^rossed the northern boundary of Peim- 
svlvania, it runs sonthwestward through the oil region to 
Franklin, Venango co. From this point it flows southeast- 
ward to die mouth of Mahoning Creek, below which it pur- 
sues a southwest oourse througn Armstrong and Allegheny 
oos. until it unites with the Monongahela at Pittsburg. 
The stream formed by this confluence is the Ohio River. 
The length of tlie Alleghany is perhaps 350 miles. Small 
steamboats can ascend it 200 miles or more ftom Pittsburg. 
This riTor traverses a hilly country, in which bituminous 
coal, petroleum, and pine timber are abundant. 

Alleghaar, a oounty in the NW. part of North Caro- 
lina, has an area of 233 sq. m. It is drained by the New 
River. The snrftoe is mountainous. The Blue Ridge 
extends along the SB. border of the county. Gold and 
copper are mined. Capital, Sparta. Pop. in 1890, 6523 ; 
in 1900, 7769. 

Alleghany, a county of Virginia, has an area of 452 
sq. m. It is intenected by Jaeuon's Rirer, a branch of 
the James Blrer. On the B. l>order of the conntr the Cow- 
pasture and Jackson's Riven unite to form the James. 
The surfaee is diversified by mountains and fertile valleys, 
and the main ridge of the Alleghany Mountains extends 
along the NW. border. The Red Sweet Springs are in this 
oonnty. Various deposits ot iron-ore are found here. 
Capital, Covington. Pop. in 1890, 9283 ; in 1909, 16,330. 

Alleghany, a post-village and mining-camp of Sierra 
00^ Cal., on Kanaka Creek, about 60 miles ENE. of Marys- 
ville. Pop. 160. 

Alleghany Monntains, a term of various applica- 
tion, sometimes used as synonymous with the Appalaahian 
System (see Appalachiar MorarAias), but oy soma 
writers applied to that portion of the srstem which is com- 
prised in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina, and which forms the water-shed 
between the Atlaatio and the Mississippi River. In a more 
reetrioted sense the AUeghanies include the mountain-ridges 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, except the Kitta* 
tinny and South Mountains in Pennsylvania and the Blue 
Ridge in Virginia. These ridges, with an elevation gener- 
ally of 2000-3000 feet, and perhaps nowhere exceeding 3600 
fert, are remarkable for their parallelism, regularity, reo- 
tilineal direction, and evenness of outline, there being few 
dearly marked out or dominating peaks. Their general 
direction is nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast. They 
are composed in the miUn of stratified rooks of the Silurian, 
Davoniui, and Carboniferous ages, disposed in regularly 
following anticlinal and synclinal folds. A number of the 
larger streams tributary to the Atlantic traverse the moun- 
tains in deeply-ineised tiansveise gaps. The monntains are 
rich in coal and iron deposits, and limeetone is an abundant 
oonstitnent of both the ridges and the valley-floors. Among 
the valuable forest trees which abound on tham are the 
beech, ash, white oak, chestnut, hickory, white pine, and 
wild cherry. 

• It Is much to iM defied that a uniform orthography of this 
name diouM be adopted. In New Tort: it is commonly written 
AtttfaKt, In PeonnlTuia, Alleghatf, and in Virginia and the 
gouthem States, ilB«;*a«f, though nearly all of the works oa 
general etognfkj, even those pubUdied in New York and Penn- 
sylvania, epeU the name AiiConAiiT. The Impnnriety, not to asy 
absurdity, of this discrepancy In the ipelUngof thin name wlU be 
seen by referring to a repreeentatlon of New York and Fenasvl- 
Taala on Oie suae map. We dull ttiere find at times one and the 
mme river named .4a<|r*mr near Us source, wUle lower down, for 
tbe dietance of some 40 or SO miles, H le JUtftmt, and then again 
iUbr*My for the rest of its course. In this work the river and 
mountains will be referred to as iiaMk<m|f, while the countiee and 
towns wDl be found under their oflclal state derfgnatlons (Alle- 
gany In New York and Haryland, Allegheny In FentuylTsnla, and 
lUeghsny In Virginia and N«tb OaroDaa). 

Digitized by 


AUeffhany Plateau 



Alleshanir Plateaa, a term niad by physio|pr»phera 
to dwlnsto the more weaterlv part* of the Attontio nicfa- 
luMb m the United States, or tnat portion of " Appalaohia" 
in whioh the oonstraeting atrata oeeupy a nearly borisontal 
poaitioD. Hnoh of the r^on ii deneely forested and drains 
totiteOhioBirer. It abooads in bitominoiu ooal, in petro- 
lenm, and natural gai. The region extendi from the heart 
of N«ir York (S. of the Mohawk) to northern Alabama, 
and westward into Ohio and Kentnoky. Among its best- 
known parts are the CatsUU Mountains (4200 feet) of New 
York, the Pooono Mountain of PennBylrania, and the Ciun- 
berland Plateau, or Table-land, of Bast Tennessee. 

AUeghaay Spring, a post-station and resort of Mont- 
gomery 00., Va., 80 miles W. by S. of Lynobbanz and 8 
miles from All^bany Station, wbieh is on the Norfolk asd 
Western R., 77 miles W. of Lynohborg. The sprinn afford 
a highly osefol saline water, and are much Tisited in anm- 
mar. The scenery here is rery fine. 

Alleghanr StatioB, a post-rillage of Alleghany oo., 
Va., 6 milts B. of White Salvor Sprinn. Pop. 76. 

Allegke) U-li'ri, a Tillage of ItiUy, in the prorinee 
of Bellnno, 9 miles S. of AgoMo. Pop. about 1000. 

AIleghea'T, a ooonty in the W. part of 

has an area of 758 aq. m. 


The Alleghany and Monon- 
gahela RItots unite near the middle of the eounty asd 
form the Ohio, whiOh traTones the NW. part. It is also 
drained by the Yonghiogbeny River and Chartien and 
Turtle Creeks. There are eztensiTe deposits of ooal, petro- 
leom, and natural gas, whieh give oheap fuel and illumi- 
nating power, and add materially to the manufaoture of 
iron and sted. , Cqiital, PitUbarg. Pop. in 1890, 661,9(9 ; 
in 1900, 776,058. 

Allegheay, a oity of All^heny eo., Pa., on the Alle- 
ghany River, opposite Pittsburg, with whieh it is oon- 
neoted by aeverai handsome bridges. It is on the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Baltimore and Ohio and other railroads. It has 
many fine residenoes, numerous and extensive iron- and 
steel-works, including roUinK-milla, locomotive- and ma- 
chine^hops, and foundries, uso ootton- and woollen-mills, 
and manufactories of leather, paints, oigars, flour, beer, salt, 
eto. All^heny is the seat of the Western Theologioal 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, established in 1837 ,- 
the Theological Seminary of the United Presbyterians, 
established in 18S6, and the Allegheny Theokcleal Seoii- 
nary (Reformed Presbyterian), omnised in 1840. There is 
also the Western University of Pennsylvania, first estab- 
lished in Pittsborg in 1819, but removed to its flue edifice 
in this oity about 1888 ; and here is the AU^heny Astro- 
nomical Ooeervatory, famed for Its original work and dis- 
coveries in solar physics. Other institutions of note are the 
Carnegie Free Library (containing, in 1901, 42,000 volumes), 
with its music hall and art gallery, the " Riverside Peni- 
tentiary" (late the Western), located on the bank of the 
Ohio, a house of industry, widow's home, eto. Alleghoiy 
has a central park containing 100 acres. Pop. in 1800, 
S8,70S; in 1890, 106,287; in 1900, 129,890. 

AUeskeBT, a township of Blair oo.. Pa. Pop. 1841. 

Allefhear, a township of Butler oo.. Fa. Pop. 1004. 
It has important coal-mines. 

AIlegheBr, a township of Cambria oo., Pa. Pop. 1342. 

Allegheay, a township of Potter eo., Pa. Pop. 928. 

Allegheny, a township of Somerset co.. Pa. Pop. 970. 

Allegheny, a township of Venango oo.. Pa. Pop. 406. 

Allegheny, a township of Westmoreland oo.. Pa. 
Pop. 8176. 

Allegran'sa (Sp. Alegrama, l-Ii-gr&n'thl), the most 
northern of the Canary Islands, 10 miles N. of Laasarote. 
Lat. 29° 26' N.t Ion. 18° 31' W. It is an extinct volcano. 

Alligre, Iriaig'r', a town of France, department of 
Haute-Loire, 12 mUes NW. of Le Pay. Pi^. 1100. 

AU^jpre, a village of Fnmae, department of Oard, 7 
miles SB. of St. Ambroix. It has mines of bitomm. 

Allegaash, a large river of Maine, rises on the border 
of Somerset and PisMOaqois cos., flows SB. and then N. 
and NNE., traversing many lakes, one of which is called 
by its own name, and lUls into the Walloostook or main St. 
John, near the N. border of the state. Its valley is ohiefly 
in Aroostook oo., and has very few permanent inhabitants. 
Length, over 200 miles. 

Allemance, al-leh-manoe% a poet-station of Ghiilford 
00., N.C., about 70 miles WNW. of Raleigh. 

Allemance Connty. See Alahahoc. 

AIMemands', or De« Allemands, dls ari«h'- 
minds', a post-hamlet of St. Charles pariah. La., on Bayou 
Des Allemands, 32 miles W. of New Orleans. 

Al'lemaas, a post-village of Clearfield co., Pa., 20 
miles N. of Altoona. Coal is found here. 

AIIemond>en«Oysan8, IVmbn^-tbs-yik^tbw', a vil- 
lage of France, department of Isire, in a beautiful valley, 
about 18 miles SB. of Grenoble. 

Allen, a connty in the BNB. part of Indiaaa, bor- 
dering on Ohio, baa an area of SM sq. m. It is drained 
by the Manmee River and its branches, the St. Joseph 
and the St. Mary, which unite at Fort Wayne ; also hj the 
Aboite and Crookod Creeks and Bel River. Oapital, Fort 
Wme. Pop. in 1890, ««,689 ; U 1900, 77,270. 

Allen, a eounty in the SB. part of Kansas, has an artm 
of 604 sq. m. It is intersected by the Neoeho River and 
drained by Deer and Blm Creeks. Deposits of ooal and 
natural gas are found here. Capital, lola. Pep. in IStO, 
13,609; b 1900, 19,607. 

Allen, a county in the S. nut of Kentaeky, bordering 
on Twinessse, has an area of m aq. m. It is boomled on 
the NB. by Big Barren River. CnitaL SoottsviUa. tap. 
in 1890, 13,892; in 1900, 14,067. 

Allen, a county in the WNW. part of Ohio, has an 
area of 406 sq. m. It is intarsaoted by the Angmiia and 
Ottawa Rivers. There are extensive depositi of oil and 
natural gas. Capital, Lima. Pop. in 1890, 40,«44i in 1900, 

Allen, a hamlet of Onnnison oo., Colo., about SO ndle* 
SW. of Gunnison and near Gate City Station. 

Allen, a post-township of Laaalle eo.. III., about 18 
miles S8B. of Ottawa. Pop. in 1900, 922. 

Allen, a banking post-village of the Chootaw Nation, 
I.T., 12 miles SW. of Calvin, a station on the Chootaw, 
Oklahoma and Onlf R. Pop. about 360. 

Allen, a banking post-village of Lyon eo., Kan., «a 
the Missonri Pacific R., 19 miles W. of Osage aty and 19 
miles B. of Conneil Orove. Pop. about 300. 

Allen, a post-village of Wicomico oo., Md., 8 miles 
SW. of Salisbury. It has a vegetable- and fmit-eanaery, 
orat»-&atory, etc. Pt^. about 160. 

Allen, a banking post-village of Hillsdale oo., Mioh., 
10 miles WNW. of Hillsdale and 1 mile from Alien Station, 
on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern R. Pep. dbont 

Allen, a post-hamlet of St. Lonis eo., Minn. Pop. 
about 60. 

Allen, a banking post-village of Dixon oo., Stb., 32 
miles by rail W. by S. of Sioux City, Iowa. Pop. in 1900, 

Allen, a township (town) of Allegany oo., N.Y., SO 
miles SB. of Buffalo. P<». in 1900, 066. 

Allen, a post-town of Ounberiand oo.. Pa., 18 miles 
SSW. of Harrisburg. It was formerly known as Chureb- 
town. It has manuiaotnres of flour, knitted goods, wagons, 
ete. Pop. about 1000. 

Allen, a township of Northampton eo.. Pa. Pop. 6641. 

Allen, a township of Washington eo.. Pa. Pop. 1677. 

Allen, a post-village of Collin co., Tex., on the Houston 
and Texas Central R., 24 miles N. of Dallas. Pon. about 170. 

Allen, Bog of, the general name applied to a series 
of bogs in Ireland stretching across the centre of the coun- 
try from Wicklow Head to Oalwaj on the S., and fhan 
Howth Head to Sligo on the N. But the name is eqwoially 
given to the great morasses of Kildare and King's counties, 
in which the peat is fl^umtly 26 feet in depth. 

Allenbarg, il'lea-bdOseS a town of Bast Prussia, on 
the Alio, 30 miles SB. of KSnigsbeig. Pop. 1760. 

Allen Creek, a post-station of Ooeaoa oo., Mich., 21 
miles B. of Pentwater. 

Allendale', a town and parish of England, oo. of 
Northumberland, 33 mile* B. of Oarllsle. Pop. of parish, 

Al'lendale, a hamlet of Solano eo., Oal., on the Vaca 
VallOT B., 6 miles N. of VaoaviUe. 

Allendale, a post-village of Wabash oo.. III., on the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis R., 15 mile* 
SW. of Vinoennes. Pop. about 400. 

Allendale, a post-hamlet of Green oo., Ky., about 79 
miles S. of Louisville. 

Allendale, a poet-village of Ottawa co., Mioh., SO 
miles E. of Grand Havsn and about 75 miles WNW. of 
Lansing. Pop. about 160. 

Allendale, a post-village of Worth oo.. Mo., about 60 
miles NNE. of St. Joseph. Pop. about 360. 

Allendale, a post-borough of Bergen oo., N.J., on tba 
Brie R., 25 miles N. of Jersey City. Pop. in 1900, 094. 
The banking point is Bidgewood. 

Allendue, a village of Providence eo., B.I., in North 
Proridenoe township (town), on the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford R., 6 mile* NW. of Providence. 

Allendale, a post-town of Barnwell eo., 8.C., 68 miles 
by rail SB. of Augusta, Ga. It has cotton-seed oil and other 
mills. The banking point is Barnwell. Pop. in 1900, 1030. 

Allendale, Ontario. See Au.aiidai.c. 

Allendale, a town of Talbot oo., Viotoria (Australia), 
about 70 miles WNW. of Melbourne. Pop. about 1600. 

Allende, Mexico. See Sah Miaimi. Aixninw.' 

Digitized by 





All«*4eTf, infa-doKT, a town of PrnnU, en th« 
Wvn, 14 bOm B. of Kaael. Pm. 2800. 

Alteadoff, • post-rillaca of Oseeols eo,, Iowa. Po|>. 

Al^«mfonl', a pott-TiUag* of Brnee eo., Ontario, Oan- 
ala, 13) milea Crom Owen Sound. 

AUemcrove. a poct-Tillage of Walworth eo., WU., 14 
■0<* kj tail VfSW. of Xlkhon. 

Alleaharatf a pa«t4M>rongh and roort of Honmonth 
«., N J., n|iajated from Oeean towndiip linoe 1890. The 
Imking point b Mbarj Park. Pop. in IMO, 106. 

AUe>lutk'at> or Aletaa, a river of northern Alaska, 
tribatarj to the Kojokok, which it enters immediately N. 
tf the Ajretio eirde. 

AlleBf I<o«ght a lake of Ireland, on the borden of 
Uitrim and Boeeonunoa, 20 miles SK. of SUgo. 

AUe0port, a poat-TiUage of Washington oo., Pa., in 
AOan township, on the If onoagahela Kirw, about 30 miles 
8. sf Pittsbarg. Coal is mined here. 

AlleaSt a hamlet of Riehaond oo., Qa., on the An- 
CMta biaiieh of the Central Oeorgi»S., abont 16 miles S. 
lijr B. of Aognsta. 

A11«Bal»«rs> > post-Tillage of Lee oo., Hiss., abont 5 
Bilss from Kettleton, a railroad station. Fop. about 800. 

An«**S Creek, N.T., rises in Wyoming eo., runs 
■oithaaatward through Oenesee eo., and enters the Genesee 
Birer in Honrae oo. Length, abont SO miles. 

Alleasereeky a poet-station of Monroe eo., Ind. 

Alleasereek, a poet-hamlet of Amhent oo., Va., on 
the Jamea Rirer, 10 milee firom Amhent. 

▲lleBsgrOTe, a post-village of Soott eo., Iowa, about 
M Biles NNW. of Davenport. Pop. abont 160. 

ADeasgrvre, a village of Walworth oo., Wis^ on the 
CU«ac«>, Mihrankee and St. Paul R., 16 miles SNE. of 
BeMt. Pop. about SOO. 

Alleas Hill, a post-village of Ontario eo., N.T., about 
U mile* 8. by B. of Roeheeter. 

ADCB'a tale, am island at the head of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, in AustraUa. Lat. 17° b' 8. ; Ion. 139° 35' B. 

AHeaa ■ilia, a post-village of Franklin eo.. He. Pop. 

AJleaa ■ills, a poet-village of Jefferson eo., Pa., on 
ICn Cre^ abont 11 miles ENE. of Brookville. 

Allea BwfwingB, a post-hamlet of Lake oo., Cal., 16 
■rilss KB. M Lakeport. 

Allea Svitegs, a poet-village of Allen oo., Ky., 15 
■iks SB. of BowHng Green. Pop. abont 100. 

AIleiM Spriag, a post-hamlet of Pope eo., HI., 10 
■iks W. of Ooleonda. 

Alleaateia, U'len-<tlne\ a town of East Prussia, on the 
ABe, e» miles 8. of Kdnigsbo^. Pop. in 1900, 24,307. It 
has ■aofcine-shops, breweries, and a maich-betoiy. 

Alleastowv, a post-township (town) and station of 
Merriaaek oo., N.H., on the Boston and Hailie R., 8 miles 
SB. af Concord. The town is bounded on the W. by the 
Msrriaae Biver. Pc^. in 1900, 1496. 

Alteacville, a post-hamlet of Switserland oo., Ind. 
12 sUles N. of Vevey. 

AUemsrille, a banking post-town of Todd oo., Ky., on 
the Louisville and Nashville R., 43 miles 8W. of Bowling 
Snta. Pop. ia 1900, 430. 

AUeaaville, a poet-hamlet of Person eo., N.C., 6 miles 
8» of Boxbofo. 

AUeasville, a poet-village of Vinton oo., Ohio, 22 miles 

Alleaarille, a post-village of Miflin eo.. Pa., 10 miles 
frsa ion Creek. Pep. about 400. 

AKIeMoa. a post-villaga at Wihwz eo., Ala., abont 00 
■ihs 8W. of Montgomery and 36 miles 8. of Selma, on the 
LoaisTille and SaahviUe R. Pop. about 200. 

ADeataa, a poet-village of St. Louis eo., Mo., on the 
Kssoni and PaeiBo R., 33 miles W8W. of St. Louis. 

ABw if a, a post-hamlet of Bobeson eo., N.C., 62 miles 
WirW. of Wilmington. 

AB«at«a, a post-village of Washington eo., R.I., 22 
wakt 8. of Proridenee. Pop. about 500. 

Alleataa, a post-village of Washington eo., Wis., on 
Os Wlseeosin Central R., 40 ailee NW. of Milwaukee, 
ha. about 160. 

AMeatvwa, a post-village of Wilkinson eo., Qa., 33 
■lias by nU SB. by B. of Maoon. Pop. about 350. 

Alleatowa, a post-hamlet of Tasewell eo., HI. Pop. 
stent 60. 

AlleaUtwa, a poet-village of Bossier parish, La., about 
i ailss fiuB Hoogbton, a railroad station. Pop. about 

AUeatowa, a baoking post-borough of Monmouth eo., 
IJ., 2| ailss from Newtown Station ot the Pennsylva&ia 
^ sad about Ut Biles ESB. of Trenton. Pop. in 1900, 696. 

AUeatOWB, a poet-village of Allegany eo., K.Y.,inthe 
midst of a productive oil-fleld, 10 miles by rail 8W. of 
Wellsville, its banking point. Pop. abont 400. 

Alleatowa, a post-village of Allen eo., Ohio, <m Ottawa 
Blver, about 88 miles NW. of Columbus. 

Alleatowa, a village of Fayette eo., Ohio. Pop. in 
1900, 123. The poet-offioe is Oota. 

Alleatowa, a city, euital of Lehigh oo., Pa., on the 
right bank of the Lehigh River and on the Lehigh Valley 
and other railroads, about 60 miles N. by W. of Philadel- 
phia, 90 miles ENE. of Harrisbnrr, and 16 miles 8W. of 
Easton. It is built on high ground surronnded by a beau- 
tiful and fertile oonntry. It Is the seat of Mnblenoerg Col- 
lege, whioh is under the direction of the Lutherans. The 
AUentown College for Women is also loeated here. The 
prosperity of the city is largely derived from the mannfao- 
ture of pig-iron and forged and rolled iron. Here are ex- 
tensive furnaces, rolling-mills, forges, iron-foundries, and 
manufactures of ftamiture, shoes, cigars, silk, hardware, 
fire-brick, barb-wire, linen-thread, eto. Pop. in 1860, 8026 ; 
in 1890, 26,228 ; in 1900, 36,416. 

Alleatowa, a banking post- village of Carter oo., Tean., 
about 4 miles by rail S. by E. of EH^bethton. Pop. about 

AlleaTille, a poet-hamlet of Moultrie oo., 111. Pop. 60. 

AlIeaTille, a post-hamlet of Maokinae co., Mich. 

AlleaTille, a post-village of Cape Oiimrdeau oo., Mo., 
on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern R., 148 
miles B. by E. of St. Louis. Pop. in 1900, 148. 

AI1eawo<»4, a post-hamlet of Monmouth eo., N.J., 
and a station on the Farmingdale branch of the Pennsylva- 
nia R., 5 miles ih>m Farmingdale. 

Alleawood, a post-vill^ of Union eo., Pa., 22 miles 
by rail SB. of Williamsport. Pop. abont 250. 

Aller, U'ljr, a navigable river of Germany, rises near 
Magdeburg, Prussia, flows NW., and joins the Weser on 
the ritrht. Length, about 100 miles. 

Aller, a parish and village of England, co. of Somer- 
set, Hi miles W. by N. of Somerton. Pop. 500. 

Allerheiligea, &14«r-hl' le-nn, a town of Baden, Ger- 
many, one of the most frequented spots in the Black Forest, 
abont 6 milea B. of Oberkueh. It has the ruins of a Prse- 
monstratensian monastery, dating from 1196. Elevation, 
2036 feet. 

AllertoB, a banking post-village of Vermilion eo., HI., 
on the Chicago and East Illinois K., 29 miles SW. of Dan- 
ville. Pop. about 300. 

Allertoa, a banking post-town of Wayne oo., Iowa, on 
the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific R., 29 miles W. of 
Centerrille. It is the trade-centre of a farming and stock- 
raising district. Pop. in 1900, 960. 

Allevard, U'van', a town of France, department of 
Isdre, 23 miles NB. of Grenoble, on the BrMa. It has im- 
portant iron-mines. Near it are the ruins of the chilteau 
Bayard, where was bom the " chevalier sans penr et sans 
reproche." Pop. (eommune) abont 2600. 

Alley, a port-village of Boyd eo., Ky. Pop. about 100. 
The banking point is Ashland. 

AlIeytOB, a poet-village of Colorado oo., Tex., on the 
Colorado River, 2) miles E. of Columbus. 

Allia, a stream in Italy. See AjA.. 

Alliaaee, a banking oity of Boxbutte eo.. Neb., on the 
Burlington and Missouri River R., 360 miles W. by N. 
of Lincoln. It is in a stook-raising region. Fop. in 1900, 

Alliaaee, a post-village of Salem co., N.J., 22 miles 
(direct) B. by S. of Salem. The place is of recent ori^n, 
having been settled by Jewish agricultural colonists, i«i^- 
gees from Russia. Pop. about 3M. 

Alliaaee, a city and railroad eentre of Stark eo., Ohio, 
on the Mahoning River, 67 milee 8SB. of Cleveland,, on 
the Lake Erie, Alliance and Wheeling and the Pennsylvania 
Co.'s Rs. Alliance has rolling-mills, white-lead and boiler- 
works, and manufactures of steel-castings, machinery, gnn- 
oarriages, etc. It is the seat of Mount Union College. Fop. 
in 1890, 7607 ; in 1900, 8974. 

Alliaaee, a post-village of Berks eo.. Pa. Pop. about 

Alliaaee, a post-village of Hunt eo., Tex. Pop. 
abont 90. 

Allie, a poet-hamlet of Jackson eo., Fla. Pm>. about 50. 

AUier, UMe-i' (ano. Sla'ver), a river of Franoe, rises 
in the forest of Mereoire, and, flowing NNW., falls into 
the hcin about 4 miles W. of Nevers. Length, 260 milee. 

Allier, a department in the central part of France^ in 
the old province of Bourbonnais, bordering on the Loire, and 
iaterserted by the river Allier. The snrikoe is undulating 
aad the soil generally fertile. In the SB. are considerable 
mountains. Timber, wheat, wine, and cattle are exported 
largely. Mines of iron, eoal, and antimony, marble- aad 

Digitized by 




«Bait«-^naiTi(8, and poreri»iD-oIu' pit! are worked. Among 
tne minenl spring! are thoae of Viohy. Oqtital, Hoalins. 
AreiS %48 sq. m. Pop. in IMt, ^034. 

Allifie, an amoiant name of Aufb. 

Alligator) a rirer of North Carolina, i* an ialet whieh 
extendi ttom Albemarle Sound aoathwatd into Tj^rrel eo. 
and into the Alligator Swamp. 

Alligator, a poet-bamlet of Bolirar oo., Mias. 

Alligator Ijake> a lake of North Carolina, in the Oreat 
Swamp, or poooaon, of ^de eo. 

Alligator Reef, off the 8. ooart of Horida, about 80 
milea SB. of C^ie Sable. It haa a Ucht-hooM. 

Alligator'^ RiTers (Soutb and EAar), two riren of 
North AnsttaUa, whieh flow into Van Diemen'i Onlf at a 
diatanoe from each other of about 30 milee. 

Alligator Swamp, an extensive manhy traot in North 
Carolina, ooonpying a great part of the peninsula between 
Pamlioo and Albemarle Sounds. 

AIligny-CoiBe, UHeenVee'-k6ne, a oonmone of 
fianoe, in Niivre, 12 miles NB. of Cbttean-Chinon. 

Alliage, U'ling-ghf h, a town of Denmark, with a small 
haveo, on the NB. ooaat of Bomholm. Pop. abont 1000. 

AUiBgtoa, a parish of England, in KenL 1 mile firom 
Maidstone. It is the birthplaoe of the poet Thomas Wyatt. 

Allipha, an anoient name of ALiri. 

AIIIaoB, or Cen'terville, a poet-hamlet of Lawrenoe 
00., HI., t miles from Vinoennes, Ind. 

Allison, a banking post-town, oapital of Butler eo., 
Iowa, on the Chioago and Oreat Western R., 2S miles W. 
of Waverly. Pop. In IKOO, 483. 

AlliaoB, a post-village of Deeator eo., Kan., abont 65 
miles W. of PhiUipabnrg. 

AllitOB, a post-hamlet of Orant eo., N.Hex. 

AlUiao'nia, a post-rillage of Williamson oo., Tenn. 
Pop. about 7i. 

AUiaonia, a poet-rillage of Pulaski oo., Va., on the 
Norfolk and Western R., 28 miles (direot) SW. of Chris- 
tiansbnig. Pop. abont SOO. 

AllisoB Ranch, a Tillage of Nevada oo.. Cat., 3 miles 
fIrom Orass Valley. Quarts gold-mines have been worked 

AI'lisoBTille, a post-village of Prinoe Bdward oo., 
Ontario, 13 mUes W. of Pioton. 

Alliatar, a town of Halaooa. See Allkstar. 

Alllate, U-leea'tA, a village of Italy, provinee of 
Otraoto, 11 mUee 8SB. of OaUipoli. 

AlllBtoB, a banking post-village of Simooe eo., On- 
tario, on the Orand Trunk R., 17 miles SSW. of Gilford. 
It has flour-, saw- and woollen-mills, manufaotoriee of 
flum-implementi, eto., and is a shipping point for grain 
and Uve-stook. Pop. in 1901, 12M. 

AlI'mantowB, a village of Jamaica, near Kingston, 
the capital. 

Alloa, al'lo-^ a seaport, market-town, and parish of 
Scotland, co. of Clackmannan, on the Forth, at the head 
of its flrth, 6 miles B. of Stirling. Pop. in IMl, 11,417. 
Its harbor admits large ships. There are glass-works, dis- 
tilleries, breweries, manufactures of wool, etc. Alloa is 
supposed to be on the site of the Alan'na of Ptolemy. 

Allo'a, a poet-hamlet of Columbia oo., Wis., 8 miles 
from Portage and 30 miles N. by W. of Madison. 

AllOBby, U'lf n-be, a chapelry of England, co. of Cum- 
berland, on Solway Firth, S miles NNWT of Cookermonth. 

AllOBBe, &lMSn', a village of France, department of 
Denx-Sivres, 20 miles N. by E. of Niort. 

AUOBBe, a village of France, department of Oise^ 3 
miles SB. of Beanvais. 

Allonnes, U^ISn', a village of France, department of 
Maine-et-Loire, 7 milee BNE. of Sanmur. 

Alios, U'los', a village of Fruice, department of Bassee- 
Alpes, 10 miles 8. of Baroelonnette. 

AllOBagBe, arioo'tS', a village of Fraooa, in Pas-de- 
Calaia, t miles W. of Boulogne. 

AllOBe, U^loo', a village of Fraaee, department of 
Charente, M miles ftx>m AngoulOme. 

Allonez, al'loo-i, a post-township of Keweenaw eo., 
Mich., on the Hancook and CUnmet R., 4 miles from Calu- 
met. It has rich mines of oopper. Pop. in 1900, 1810. 

Allonez, a post-village of Douglas oo.. Wis., on the 
Chioago, St. Paul, Minne^mlis and Omaha and other rail- 
roads. The banking town is Superior. Pop. about MO. 

Allo«Tille-BeIlefo8se,iriooWeel' bH'fits', a village 
of France, in Seine- Inf«rieura, 4 miles WSW. of Tvelot. 

Alloway, formerly Allowarstown, a poet-village 
ef Salem eo., N. J., on AUoway's Creek, at the head of navi- 
gation, 8 miles E. by S. of Salem. Pop. about 700. 

Allowar, a village of Wayne oo., N.T., H mUes S. of 

Alloway (or Alloway's) Creek, of Salem oo., N.J., 
flows into the Delaware River 8 miles S. of Salem. ' 

Alloway Kirk, Ram or, the scene of Bnms's poem 
of Tarn CShanter, near the cottage, now a Bums Museum, 
in which the poet was bom, 2{ miles S. of Ayr. On the 
banks of the Doon, abont one-fourth of a mue frvm the 
min, is an degaat monument in honor of Bams. 

Allport, a post-village of dsarteld oo., Pa., 7 miles 
N. of Philipsborg, its banking point. Pop. 300. 

Allrif ki, a poit-hamM of Olark oo., 111. Pop. abont 60. 

AU'rM^t Islaad, one of the Magdalen Islands, in the 
Onlf of St. Lawrenee. Area, about 8800 aorea. 

All-Saints Bay, or Bakia de Todos os Baa- 
tos, bi-ee'i di to'dooe ooe sin'toce, a bay on the ooast 
of BratU, state of Bahia. Lat. 13° 10' 8. ; Ion. 38'' 60' W. 
It has two entranees, surrounding the island of Itiq)arioa. 
The bay is from 90 to 100 miles in circuit, and in it the 
largest fleet may ride in safety. Bahia, the ei^ital of the 
state, is situated on it. 

AUsckwyl, il'shWu, or AllsohweUer, il'sh«i-l«r, a 
village of Switierland, half-oanton of Basel-Land, on uie 
frontier of Alsaoe. Pop. 1300. 

AI I st&dt, lll'stitt, a town of Qermany, in Saxe- Weimar, 
36 miles WSW. of Halle. Pop. in 1900, 3312. 

AIl'stOB, Suffolk CO., Mass., is in the eity of Boston, on 
the Boeton and Albany R. It is on the S. or right bank 
of Charles River. 

Allamette (il'ln-met') Island, or Adams, or Cha- 

gean, a post-village of Pontine CO., Quebec, on an island 
I the Ottawa Riv«r, 8 miles fir>m Pembroke. The island 
(Ilb DBS Ai.LirMBTTBs) is about 16 miles loBg, and has on 
Its W. side a great expansion of the river, oaUed Allamette 
Lake. Area of the island, 70 sq. m. 

Allnmiere, U-loo-mA-i'ri, a town of Italy, provinee 
of Rome, miles NE. U Civita Veoehia. Pop. about 3600. 

Allny, UUwee\ a village of France, dq>artmeat of 
Niivre, 18 milts WBW. of Chttean-Chiaon. 

All'wood, a poet-hamlet of Amherst co., Va., 16 miles 
fr^m Amherst. 

Ally, UUee', a village of Fraoosy departmegft of Oastal, 
8 milts NE. of Pltaux. It has a mineral •prinr, 

Allyn, a post-village of Mason eo.. Wash. Pop. abont 
100. The buking pomt is Taooma. 

Allyn's (lU'Uns) Point, in New London CO., Conn., 
on the New Tin-k, New Haven and Hartford R. It is on 
the E. bank of the Thames River, 7 milie S. of Norwich, 
and is a landing-plaee for steamen. 

Alma, il'ml, a river of the Crimea, flows W., and fills 
into the Black Sea abont 30 miles N. of Sevastopol. It is 
eelebrated for a victory of the allied Frenoh, English, and 
Turkish troops over the Russians, Sept. 30, 1864. 

AI'ma, a banking poet-town of Crawford oo.. Ark., on 
the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern R., near the 
foot of the Osark Mountains, 14 miles NE. of Fort Smith. 
Pop. in 1900, 440. 

Alma, a post-village of Santa Clara co^ Cal., on the 
Southern Paclfio R., about 16 miles SW. of gan Jcsi. 

Alma, a banking post-town of Park oo., Colo., on the 
Platte River, in the South Park, and on the Colorado and 
Southern R., about 90 miles SW. of Denver. Oold, silvw, 
and oopper have been mined here. Elevation, 10,240 feet. 
Pop. 297. 

Alma, a post-village of Appling CO., Oa., on the Offer- 
man and Western R. Pop. abont 100. 

Alma, a post-village of Marion co., DI., on the Illinois 
Central R., 234 milee SSW. of Chicago. Pop. in 1900, 

Alma, a village of St. Clair co.. 111., on the Ohio and 
Mississippi R., 16 miles E. of St. Louis. It has coal-mines. 

Alma, a banking city, capital of Wabaunsee oo., Kan., 
is on Mill Creek and on the Atchison, Tt^ieka and Santn 
F« and other railroads, 38 milee W. by 8. of Topeka. It 
has flonrlng-mUls and oement-works. P(m. in 19W, 908. 

Alma, a banking poet-village of Oratiot co., Mich., on 
Pine River and on uie Pere Marquette and the Ann Arbor 
Bs., 37 miles W. of Saginaw. It has flouring- and wooUeo- 
milu, foundries, and a sugar-faotory. Pop. in 1900, 2047. 

Alma, or Black Creek, a hamlet of Muskegon eo., 
Mioh., 6 miles from Norton Station. 

Alma, Minn. See Alma Citt. 

Alma, a post-village of Laiayette co., Mo., 10 miles by 
rail E. of Higginsville. Pop. in 1900, 248. 

Alma, a Iwnklng city, capital of Harlan oo.. Neb., on 
the Burlington and Missouri River R., 48 miles W. of Red 
Cloud. Pop. in 1900, 923. 

Alma, a poet-village of Socorro oo., N.Mex., abont 60 
miles N. by W. of Silver City. 

Alma, a post-village of Allegany co., N.Y., in Alma 
township (town), 14 mUes S. of Belmont. Pop. of the town 
in 1900 1182 

Alma, a jxwt-vUlage of Bobeson oo., N.C., 3 miles SB. 
of Mazton. 

Digitized by 




Alnntr M. 

Alautt • hutlat or 0»TBU«r eo., N.Dftk., about U bUm 
SB. of LangdoB. 

Alaia, a poot-Tillago of Ro« so., Ohio. 

Alma, a poat-rillage of liaonni oo., B.C. 

AlMM* a port-rillHse of Bnii eo., Tex., 40 mUaa NB. 
•THUbboro. Pop. about 1«0. 

A]»a, a poot-Tillage of Page ao., Ta., 15 milta from 

Alma, a poct-Tillag* of IVler oo., W.Ta., 6 milw 8K. of 
MiddlobounM. Pop. about lU. 

Alma, a banking titj, eq>ital of BolEUo oo., Wis., ii on 
the Wniinppi Riror at the mouth of the BnSUo Birer, 
•boat&OmiteeW.of laCroaw aad 9 miles bdow Wabasha. 
It is OB the Burlington Bonte. It lias a brewery and rari- 
oos other nanufsotures and industries. Pop. in 1890, 1428 ; 
in 1900, 1301. 

Alaia, a poet-rillage of Piotou eo., Nora Seotia, 6 miles 
tnm Stellarton. 

Alma, a post-Tillage of Wellington eo., Ontario, S3 milts 
by rail from Onelph. 

Alma, a post-rillage and ontport of Albert oo., New 
Brunswick. P<w. about 600. The banking point is Monoton. 

Alma Ceater, apost-Tillage of Jackson eo., Wis., on 
the Oreen Bay and Western S., 4 miles W. of Herrillan 
sod 03 miles KB. of Winona. Pop. about 260. 

Alma«kar, U-mft-ehaB', a town of Spain, in Qranada, 
IS inlsa N. In' W. of Malaga. Pop. (oemmnne) 2000. 

Alma Glty, a post-Tillage of Waseoa eo., Minn., on the 
Lesoour Birer, 20 miles SB. of Mankato. 

Almada, U-ml'di, a town of Portugal, in Bstnnadura, 
OB the Tagua, opposite Idsbon. It has a oastle ob a rook 
sod large depots for wine. Pen. in 1900, 7913. 

Alma>Daf h, U'mi.dla', or Akma«Dagh, ik'mi- 
dls' (ane. Ama'mu), a range of mountains in Asiatis Tur- 
k<y, is a branch of the Taurus system, forming the NW. 
beundaiT of Syria. It extends northeastward from the 
eoast, startiiM near Iskanderun (Alexandretta), for about 
IM miles. Tnstangeiseiaisedby oneoftheoaraTanrontes 
leading to Aleppo. 

Alma«a, U-ml-i>in', or Almadte del As«gae, 
U-mi.D«n' d<l i-Uu/gi (».«., " the mines of qnioksUTer"), 
-a town of Spain, in La Maneha (New Castile), in the Sierra 
Moreoa, 66 mU«s SW. of Ciudad Beal. Pop. in 1900, about 
7400. The qnieksilrer-mines of Almad£n are exeeedingly 
rich and are the meet ancient in the world. The annual 
ou^nt is about 10,000 tons of ore, of which 10 per oent. is 
purs metal. About 4000 men are employed in and about 
the mines, whioh are the property of^the stats, although 
pledged in part to the Botbsohuds at London. I^e ancient 
name of Abaadin was Sisapon. 

Almad^B de la Plata, U-mi-i>«D' dl 14 pU'tt (<.«., 
"the mines of silrer"), a town of Spain, in Andalusia, SO 
miles NNB. of SeriUe. Silrer-mines were formwiy worked 
ia its rieinity. Pop. (oommnne) 2600. 

Almadea^OS, il'mi-Di-n&'H3s, a town of Spain, in 
ia Mannha, 6 miles from Almadin. It has qnioksUTor- 
mines. Pop. reonunune) 1000. 

Almadia (ll-m&-dee'l) Islets, a ledge of black rocks 
running out from the extreme point of (m» Verde. Lat. 
14'44'N.; Ion. 17° 35' W. 

Almagro, U-mA'gro, a city of Spain, in La Hanoha 
(New Castile), 13 miles by rail BSB. ofCiodad Beal. It 
is wdl built ajnd situated in a fhiitfnl wine region, in whioh 
mineral springs oeeur. Almasro is noted for its mauufao- 
tnrts of laoe. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 7974. 

Alnutgro, a poet-Tillage of Pitts^Irania oo<, Va., 1 mile 
8. by E. of Danrille, its Innking point. 

AJmagner, U-mL-gaia', a town of Colombia, depart- 
ment of Caooa, 40 miles 8SW. of Popayin, on a table-land 
7440 feet in eleration. It has an extensive trade in Peru- 
Tian bark. Pop. 0600. 

Almakera, a native name of the island of Oilolo. 

Alma (or Graade) Islaad, an island of Quebec, Can- 
ada, between the two outlets of Lake St. John, at the head 
tf Bsgnenay Bivw. 

Almali, a town of Asia Minor. See Elvalu. 

Almaasa, JU-mln'sA, a city of Spain, in Murcia, 37 
miles B. of Albaoete, on an elevated plateau. Near this 
ylsee the French, under the Duke of Berwick, gained a vio- 
tsry OTcr the British and Spanish troops, April 26, 1707. 
Pod. of the eommane in 1897, 10,112. 

Almaazora, U-min-tho'rl, a river of Spain, in Anda- 
hui^ falls into the Mediterranean. Length, 60 miles. 

Almaraz, U-m&-rith', a town of Spain, in Estre- 
■adnia, 48 miles KB. of Ctceres. The Tagus is here 
tnmed by a bridge, built in 1662. Pop. (oonunune) about 

Almar'tlia, a poet-station of dark oo.. Mo., 65 miles 
S8X. of Marshiield. 
AImd«, ea'miah* (Bi«s-AImis), a town of Hungary, 

eo. of Bics-Bodrog, 16 miles yt. of Ssabadka (Thsnsien- 
stadt). Pop. in 1900, 9291. 

Almai, ll'mls, a village of Brasil, state of Ooyas, 60 
miles E. of Natirldade. 

AlmavUle, a post-hamlet of BntherfDrd oo.. Tens. 

Almamda, U-ml-thin', a town of Spaia, Ib Old Castile, 
on the Douro, 18 miles S. by W. of Soria. Pop. 3000. 

Almasanda, a town of Spain. See Mi.iABB6if. 

Almaxora, il-mi-tho'rL a town of Spain, in Valencia, 
3 miles 8. of Castellon de la Plana. Pop. (oommnne) 7000. 

Alme'da, a village of Newton oo.. Mo., about 60 miles 
WSW. of Springfield, near the Use of the AtlaaUo and 
Pacific B. 

Almeda, a post-village of Hampton co., S.C, on the 
Charleston and Western Carolina B., 40 miles NNW. of 
Port Boyal. 

Alme'dia, a post-town of Columbia oo.. Pa., on the 
Susquehanna Birer, and 1 mile from Espy. Pop. about 200. 

Almeida, U-mi'e^li, a fortified town of Portugal, in 
Beira, near the Coa and the Spanish border, 96 miles NE. 
of Coimttra. Pop. 2300. Almeida was formerly one of the 
most important strongholds in the kingdom. 

Almeida, U-mi'e-di, a town of Srasil, in the state of 
Espirito Santo, at the month of the Beis-Magoe, about 20 
miles N. of Victoria. It was founded bpr the Jesuits in 1580. 

Almeida Bay, on the coast of Moxambiqoe, is in lat. 
about 13° 30' S., Ion. 40° SO' E. 

Almeirim, U-mi-reen>', a town of Portugal, in Estre- 
madura, 65 miles SE. of Santarem. Pop. in 1900, 0086. 
It has a trade in wine and melons. 

Almelo, U-mi-lS', a town of the Netherlands, in Orer- 
yssel, on the Almelo Aa, 26 miles E8E. of ZwoUe. Pop. 
in 1900, 9957. It has mann&otures of linens. 

Alme'aa, a banking post-city of Norton oo., Kan., on 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quinoy and the Chicago, Ilook 
Island and Pacific Bs., 23 miles NW. of PhiUipsbarg, Pop. 
in 1900, 491. 

Almeaa, a post-hamlet of Van Buren co., Mich., ia 
Almena township, 6 miles NE. of Paw Paw, It has flour-, 
saw- and papsr-mills. Pop. of the township in 1900, 1016. 

Almeaa, a post-rillags ot Barron eo., Wis., 8 miles by 
rail W. of Barron. 

Almeaar, il-mi-nan' (Arab, for "watch-tower"), a 
town of Spain, in Catalonia, 11 miles N. of L<rida. Pop. 
(commune) 2000. 

Almendares, U-min-d&'rie, or Chorrera, ohoa- 
R4'ri, a rirer of Harana prorinoe, Cuba, empties into the 
Gulf of Mexico at Chorrera, lees than 4 miles W. of Ha- 
vana harbor. It is the chief water-supply for Havana city. 

Almeadral, U-mtn-dRU', a town of Spidn, in Estre- 
mad'nra, province and 20 miles ESS. of Badsjos. Pop. 
(oommnne) in 1900, 3367. 

Almeadral, a southeastern suburb of Valparaiso, Chile, 
on a plain called the Almendral. 

Almendral4do, U-min-dri-l&'Bo, a town of Spain, in 
Estremadura, 28 miles SE. of Badigos. Pop. of the oom- 
mnne ia 1897, 12,007. 

Almenno 8aa Bartolomeo, il-mln'no sin bar-to- 
lo-mi'o, a commune of Italy, a4jaoent to Almenno San Sal- 
vatore. Pop. about 2500. It oontains the village of Almenno. 

Almeaao Saa Salvatore, U-mln'no sin sU-vl-to'- 
rii, a commune of Italy, province of Bergamo, 6 miles 
NW. of Bergamo. Pop. 2000. It contains the villages of 
Almenno Alto and Almenno Basso. 

Almeria, il-ml-ree'l (ane. Mur'gi§), a city and port 
of Spain, in Andalusia, on the Mediterranean (Gulf of 
Almeria), capital of a province of its own name, 104 miles 
E. of Malaga. It stands 8. of the Sierra de Enix, in an ex- 
tensive and fertile plain. The harbor, whioh is one of the 
iMst in Spain, has deep water and an extant of 178 aores. 
It is defended by forts. The streets are narrow aad tortu- 
ous, with houses erected around sntall court-yards, many 
of them having flat roo&, which gives the place a somewhat 
Cviental appearance. The town has a cathedral and an 
aqueduct. The climate is delightful, and rivals that of 
Nice and Algiers. The date, banana, aad enstard-^pple 
flourish. It exports grapes and other fhiits, iron-ore, lead, 
esparto, etc. Pop. in 1900, 47,320. Almeria was an opu- 
lent emporium of trade under the Moon. 

Almeria, a fertile province of Andalusia, Spain, 
bounded E. and S. by the Mediterranean. Capital, Al- 
meria. It is mountainous, with much mineral wealth. 
Area, 3300 sq. m. Pop. in 1897, 344,681. 

Almerode, a town of Prussia. See Orossauibrodx. 

Almese, U-ml'si, a villace of Italy, province of Turin, 
on the railway from Turin to Mont Oenis. 

Almeyda, a town of Portugal. See Ai.kkida. 

Almira, a post-township of Bensie oo., Mich., 14 miles 
W. of Traverse City. It has forssts of pine and sugar- 
maple. Pop. in 1900, 790. 

Digitized by 





▲Imira, » poet-Tillage of Linooln oo., Waib., on tha 
Hortheni PmUo R., 103 milM W. of Spokuo. 

AlMira, » poit-Tillag* of YoA «o., Ontorio, 12 miles 
from Aaron. 

Almliaate Islaads. See AaiRAim InaxBs. 

Alaiissa, U-mia'sk (SUvie, Omitk), a uapoH of Dslma- 
tia, 16 milM SB. of SpiJato, on th* Adriatio, at the mouth 
of the Cetina, whieh has beantifiil eataraets. Oood wine is 

f traduced in the neighborhood. Almissa and the ■nrronnd- 
ng diatriot were formerly ineluded in the tiny republic of 
Poglina, bfbutary to Venice. Pop. about 1000; of the 
commune in 1900, 16,108. 

Almkerk, ilm^ktsk', a village of the Netherlands, in 
North Brabtmt, on the Aim. 

Al'mOt a peat-town of Cassia eo., Idaho, 21 miles 8. by 
W. of Albion. Pop. about 400. 

Almo4ovar, U-mo-do'raK, a town of Portnnl, in 
Alemt^o, 73 miles 8SW. of Krora. Pop. in 1900, S196. 

Almoadvar 4el Campo, U-mo-do'TaB dJI klm'po, 
a town of Spain, New Caaole, in a treeless plain of La 
Manelia,l«mUesSW.ofCindadB«al. Pop. in 1900, 12,636. 

Alnod^Tar del Rio, U-mo-do'TaK dtl ree'o, a town 
of Spain, province of Cordova. Hare is the medissval castle 
•f the dukes of Almoddvar. Pop. in 1900. 4034. 

Almogia, U-mo-Bee'l, a town of Sp^n, 10 miles NW. 
of Halan. Pop. in 1900, 6611. 

Almoharia, U-mo-i-reen', a town of Spain, in Esb«- 
madnra, 33 miles 66E. of Cioeres. Pop. (oommune) about 

Almonacid de Toledo, U-mo-ni-theen' dA to-Ii'no, 
a village of Spain, 12 miles SB. of Toledo. Near it the 
French defeated the Spaniards, Aug. II, 1809. 

Almonacid de Zorita, U-mo-ni-thecD' di tbo-ree'ti, 
a town of Spain, 19 miles SB. of Ghiadali^aia. Pop. (com- 
mune) about 1300. 

Almonaater la Real, U-mo-nts-taiR' tt ri-&l', a 
town of Spain, 43 miles NW. of Seville. Pop. (oonunnne) 

Almond, I'm^nd, a small river of Scotland, co. of 
Bdinbnrgh, foiling into the Firth of Forth at Cramond. 

Almond, a small river of Scotland, eo. of Perth, floiring 
B. to ioin the Tay near Perth* 

Almond, a post-Tillage of Kaodelph co., Ala. Pop. 
about 160. 

Almond, a post-village of Allegany oo., N.T., in Al- 
mond township (town), and on the Brie R., 6 miles W, 
of HomeUsTille. Pop. about 700 : of the town In 1900, 

Almond, a post-village in Almond township (town). 
Portage oo., Wis., about 66 milse N. of Portage. Pop. of 
the town in 1900, 1080. 

Almondbnry, I'mfnd-bfr-e (shortened into im'bre), a 
village and parish in England, co. of York, West Riding, is 
36 miles SW. of York, and a^facent to and included in the 
parliamentary borough of Huddersfield. The inh^tants 
are chiefly employed in cotton-, woollen- and silk-mills. 

Almones'son, a post-village of Oloncester co., N.J., S 
miles fVom Woodbury. 

AI'mont, a post-village of Clinton oo., Iowa, on tha 
Chicago and Northweetom R., 10 miles N. of Clinton. Pop. 
about 126. 

Almont, a banking post-village of Lapeer co., Hioh., 
OB the fen Haninette R., 34 miles SW. of Port Huron. 
It has manufactures of foundry products, lumber, flour, 
sash, blinds, etc. Pop. in 1900, 718. 

Almonte, U-mon'ti, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, in 
a fertile district, 21 miles B. of Huelva. Pop. (commune) 

Almonte, a river of Spain, in Bstremadnra, falls into 
the Tagus. Entire length, about 76 miles. 

Al'monte, or Ram'aay, a banking post-village and 
ontport of Luark co., Ontario, on the Canadian Paoifle 
K., 36 miles SW. of Ottawa. It has iron-works, extensive 
woolIen-fiMtoriea, and great water-power. Pop. in 1901, 

Almora, U-mo'ri, a town of British India, capital of 
Knmaon, 86 miles N. of Barellly. It is situated at an<ele- 
vation of more than 6000 feet. fop. about 8000. 

Aimoradi, U-mo-rfc-nee', a town of Spain, in Valencia, 
on the Segura, 28 miles S8W. of Alicante. Pop. 6000. 

Almoral, al-mo-ral', a post-village of Delaware co., 
Iowa, 34 miles W. of Dubuque. 

Almosd, |l'moehd\ a village of Hungary, co. of Bihar, 
6 miles from Debrecsin. Pop. 2000. 

Almnd^bar, il-moo-d&'Ban, a town of Spain, in Ara- 
gon, 12 miles SW. of Hueaca. Pop. (commnne) 3000. 

Almnft^car, U-moon-yl'kan (ane. Sex'x), a seaport 
of Spain, in Andalnata, on the Mediterranean, 33 miles S. 
of Oranada. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 8023. It is a quaint 
town, with ralios of Moorish times. 

Almnnia de Dofta Godina, U-moo'ne-i di din'vl 
go-Dce'nl, a town of Spain, on the right bank of the Qrlo^ 
26 miles SW. of Saragossa. Pop. (commnne) 4000. 

Almwyoh, a town of Wales. See Ai(i.wca. 

Almy, a port-village of Scott oo., Teon., 4 milsa S. of 
Hnntsville. Pop. 100. 

Almy, a poet-village of Uintah co., Wyo., is in the 
Bear River Valley and on the Union Paeiflc R., 31 milea 
from Evanston. It has valuaUe coal-mines. 

Almyra, a post-villageof Arkansasco., Ark. Thebaak- 
ing point is Stuttgart. Pop. about 176. 

AJna, all'n^ a post-township (town) of Linooln oo^ 
Me., on the Sheepscott Uver, at the head of the tide, 3V 
miles SSE. of Augusta. Pop. of the town in 1900, 444. 

AIne, or AIn, a small nver of Northumberland, Bng- 
land, whieh enters the North 8«a at Alnmonth. 

Alney, ll'nee, an islaiid in the river Severn, England, 
half a mile from Qlouoester. 

Alnmonth, a seaport and wataring-plaoa of North- 
umberland, England, at the month of ue AIne, 4 miles 
EBB. of Alnwick. Pop. about 600. 

Aln«, U'nS, an island in the Ghilf of Bothni^ bekmgliig 
to Sweden, 9 miles long by 4 milea broad. It haa uon- 
mines. Lat. 62° 26' N. ; Ion. 17° 20' E. 

Alnwick, or AInewick, an'nik, e^>ital of the eo. of 
Northumberland, England, 32 miles N. by W. of Newcastle, 
on the river AIne. R is well built and has a flne town-halL 
Pop. in 1901, 6716. 

Alnwick Caatle, the magnifloent seat of the Duke of 
Northnmberland, adjoins the town of Alnwick on the N. 
It covars Ave aena, and has belonged to the Pttej fiunily 
sinoe the reign of Edward II. It was restored in the 
second half of the nineteenth century. 

AI*Obeid, a town of Africa. See Etr^nn. 

Alofl, A-lo'ltse, a small island of the Paeiflo, in the New 
Hebrides gronp, forming with Fntnna a Frenoh pro- 

Aloisdorf , il'o-ees-donf \ a village of Moravia, 30 miles 
NNW. of OlmUts, with large iron-works. 

Aloni, A-lo'nee, or Iiiman Pasha, le-min' fl'AV 
(ane. Halo^n*), a small island of Asiatic Turkey, in the 
Sea of Marmon. It has a town of the same name. 

Alonso R«tJa8, i-lon'so ro'Hts, a village of Pinardel 
Rio province, Cuba, 26 miles SB. by E. of Pinar del Rio. 
It consists of scattered settlements. Pop. in 1899, 2132. 

Alon'saville, a post-oflloe of Shenandoah co., Va. 

Alora, I'lo-ri, a city of Spain, in Andalusia, 24 milea 
NW. of Malaga. It is situated in a fruitfU region. It 
has mineral springs, and is a &vorite resort with the inhabi- 
tants of Malaga. Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 10,326. 

Alore, i-lSH, a village of British India, presidency of 
Madras, 17 miles NW. of Nellore. 

Alosno, i-los'no, a town of Spain, 19 miles NW. of 
Huelva. Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 8187. 

Alost, I'loet, or Aal8t,Jlst2a town of Belgium, In Beat 
FUndera, 16 miles by rail WNW. of Brussels. It is trav- 
ersed by the Dender, which has been converted into a canal, 
tram Alost to the Scheldt at Dendermonde, 8 miles below. 
The handsomest building is the Churoh of St. Blartin, one 
of the finest in Belgium. The town haa a royal cadet 
school, a Jesuit college, and a model textile manufketory. 
Com, oil, and particularly hope are extensively grown In 
the neighborhood. Lace, leather, linen, and cotton are 
manufactured, and there are bleaohing-works. Pop. in 
1900, 30,100. 

Alosaina, t-lo-thl'nl, a town of Spain, in Oranada, 
NB. of Coin. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 3172. 

Alp, mountains of Oermany. See RArn Alb. 

AlpalhdOjU-pU-ySwH^, a village of Portugal, in Alam- 
t<|Jo, 9 miles NW. of Portalegre. 

AlpAr, «I'p|b\ a village of Hungary, 6 miles ESB. of 

Alpdr, a village of Hungary, on the Theiss, 11 miles 
NW. of Osongrid. 

Alpbaeh, Up'b&K, a village «f Tyrol, Austria, 4 milea 
BSE. of Rattenberg. 

Alpedrinha, ll-pi-dreen'yL a town of Portugal, 
province of Beira, 10 miles S. of Fundlo. Pop. 1700. 

Alpena, al-pe'na, a county in the NB. pert of Miehi- 
gan, has an area of 684 sq. m. It is bounded on the B. 
by Lake Huron and Thunder Bay, and intersected by the 
Nenelaw and Thunder Bay Rivers. Capital, Alpena. Pop. 
in 1800, 16,681 ; in 1900, 18,264. 

Alpena, a city, the capital of Alpena eo., Mich., on 
Thunder Bay, at the mouth of Thunder Bay River, and on 
the Detroit and Mackinac R., about 126 miles N. by E. 
of Saginaw. It has foundries, saw-, planing-, shingle-, 
woollen- and flonring-mills, Portland-cement works, eic 
It has extensive fisheries and is a summer-resort. Much 
lumber is shipped at this port. Pop. in 1900, 11,802. 

Digitized by 



48 Alps 

AlyeMa, » buikiag part-TUIan of JenuUd M., S.Dak., 
ta the Chkico, MUwaakee utd ^. PmI R., 38 mila N. of 
M it A«ll. It is • diiwing point for gnin, wool, tai Uve- 
(lodc Figp. in ISM, f&S. 

AIp«ta, U-pi'ri, • town of Spain, in Mania, 30 milw 
HB. of Albaoata. Pop. (aommano) 3000. 

Atjf^tf Basses. See BARns-ALPB8. 

AI^s, Hastes. See Hautss-Auss. 

Alpes-Maiitiaies, ilp^mt'ree'team', the sontheost- 
anoMMt depaitmant of Fnmoa. Area, U4S aq. m. On the 
N. and & lanxcs of the Alp* divide it from Italy; ontheS. 
it ii bomided by the MeditaraneaB. It i< one of the moet 
pietonaqne regknu in ftanoe, and lias a mild and agree- 
able oUinat«. Among the weli-hnown health-resorta of the 
department, whioh snrTonnds landward the prineipality of 
Honaeo, are Kiee (the eautal), Cannes, Antibes, and Hen- 
tone. The olire, orange^ lemon, mulberry, eitron, and Tine 
looriih hare, and the ooltiTation of flower* for perfomen' 
oae is a loading iadaitiy. Chain, timber, tobaooo, nlk, 
h<mey, wax, and oil are prodnoed. Copper, Unite, man- 
ganese^ and lead are mined. Pop. in 1901, 239,313. 

Al'pka* a post-hamlet .of TsU oo.. Ark., 10 mUes N. of 

Alpka. a banking post-riUage of Henry eo., HI., on the 
Cfaieago, Borlington and Qainey R., 28 miles NNE. of 
HonmoBth. Pop. in 1900, 35a. 

.UBha, a poet-hamlet of Soott eo., Ind., abont 30 miles 
WNW. of MaOison. 

Al^a« a poet-Tillage of Payette eo., Iowa. 

Anka, a poet-Tillage of Natehitoehes parish, La,, abont 
18 mUee K. of ITatchitoohes, its banking point. 

Alpha, a poet-Tillage of Howard oo., Hd., 8 miles 
(dirwit) KW. by W. of BDieott City. Pop. about MO. 

Alpka, a poat-Tillage of Jaokson eo., Minn., on the 
Chieago, Milwaukee and St. Paul R. Pop. in 1900, 309. 

Alpka, a poet-town of Smndy eo.. Mo., 10 miles NNB. 
of Chillieothe. Po(. in 1900, 46. 

Alpka, a poat-village of Greene oo., Ohio, on the Pitts- 
borr, (Sneinnati, Chicago and St. Louis R., 10 miles SSB. 
of Dayton. P(qi. abont 3t«. 

Alyiw, a post-Tillage of Dallas eo., Tex. 

AlpkaretHa, a put-town, ewital of Milton oo., Ga., 
about 37 miles N. of Atlanta and 37 miles NE. of Roswell. 
Pep. in 1900, 310. 

Alphea, U'fen, a town of the Netherhuds, in South 
HoUand, on the Rhine, 7 miles -B. of Leydeo. Pop. (oom- 
■ane) about MOO. 

Alpkea-ea-Riel, iFffn-in-reel, a Tillue of the Neth- 
eriand^ in North Brabant, 11 milee SB. of Breda. 

Alpkeas, a riTor of Chreeoe. See Rupbia. 

AlpkiagtOB, a saborb of Mdboume, Australia. Pop. 
about 1100. 

Alphonse (aTfons') Islaads, two small islands, sur- 
raanoed by extensiTe reeft, situated in the Indian Ocean. 
The N. pomt is in fait. «° 69' 8., Ion. 63° 41' B. 

Atpkoretta, a post-village of Floyd oo., Ky. Pop. 

Alpkabel, Up'hoo-b'l, aaoontMn of Switserland, of the 
Miaenabel groop, between the MatterTisp and tiieSaaservisp. 
HsJcht, 13,803 feet. The Alphnbel-JocK between the AI- 
phnbel uid the MeUiohenhom, has as deration of 13,475 iSset. 

Alpigaaao, U-peen-y&'no, a town of Italy, proTinee 
of Turin. Pop. about 2000. 

Alpika, a pest-TiliKe of De Soto eo., IQss., on the 
TsMO and Miai&sippi Vdlm R., 13 mUes (direct) 8. by Vr. 
of Memphis. Pop. about 160. 

-Upiae, al'pean or afidn, a eonnty of California, bor- 
dering on Nevada, has an area of 710 sq. m. It is drained 
by the Stanislaas and Mofcdomne Rivers, whieh rise within 
its limits. This eoontyoompriseesereral peaks of the Sierra 
HeTsda, one of whieh, ealled SilTer Mountain, rises nearly 
11,006 feet abore the sea-lerel. SilTer-minee baTe been 
opened in this oooaty, whieh contains abundance of granite 
and qnarts. Owitaf, Marideeville. Pop. in 1890, M7 ; in 
UOO, 6«9. 

Al'piae, a post-village of Talladega oo., Ala., 99 miles 
by rail NNB. of Selma. 

AIpiae» a poet-hamlet of Apaehe eo.. Arts. P<q>. M. 

Amiae, a post-village of Clark eo., Ark., 80 miles 
▼S W. of Little Rock. 

Al^ie, a post-village of San Diegeeo., CU., about 29 
Biles NB. at San Diego. Pop. about 300. 

Alpiae, a post-Tiffiige of Chaffee co., Colo., on a branch 
of the Union PaeUe R., 62 milee NE. of Ounnison. It is 
Dtsatad at an deration of 9246 feet. A few miles from 
kere is the Alpine Tunnel, 690 yards in length, and one 
sf the MHest pieoes of railroad engineering in the world. 
StiAtf 11,«M feet. 

Jupiuet a hamlet of Chattooga oo., Ga., 44 milee 8. by 
W. of OuUtaiiooga. 

Alpiae, a post-hamlet of Cook oo., HI. Pop. abont M. 

Alpiae, a poet-village of Fayetteeo., Ind., on the White- 
water River, 19 miles 1^ rail S. of Cambridge City. 

Alpine, a post- village of Kent eo., Mich., 8 miles by 
raU NNW. of Grand B^ds. Pop. of the township in 1900, 

Alpine, a post-village of Bergen eo., N.J., is near the 
Palisades of the Hudson, 30 mUes N. of New York. 

Alpine, a post-village of Schuyler co., N.T., on Cayuga 
Creek, 6 miles B. of Havana and 18 miles NNB. of Elmira. 
Pop. about 300. 

Alpine, a post-village of York eo., Pa., 14 milee 8. of 

Alpine, a poet-village, the capital of Brewster co., Tex., 
on the Southern Paeiflc R., 03 mdes 8E. of Valentine. Its 
banking point is at Bl Paso. Pop. in 1900, 380. 

Alpine, a dty of Utah co., Utah, in a Une farming and 
fhiit-growing looality, 7 miles NE. of Lehi City. Pop. in 
1900, 630. 

Alpine Pass, one of the loftiest passes of the Rocky 
Mountains, in Colorado. Altitude, 13,660 feet. See Alpikx. 

Alpirsback, ll'pSSns-b&E', a town of WUrttemberg, in 
the Black Forest circle, on the Kinsig. Pop. in 1900, 1386. 

Alpnaeh, ilp'nlx, or Alpnackt, ilp'nixt, a Tillage 
of Switserland, canton of Unterwalden, on the S W. arm of 
the Lake of Lnoeme, 8 miles S8W. of Lnoeme. Elera- 
tioB above the sea, 1638 feet. Pop. in 1900, 1786. The 
Slid4 of Alpnaek was a remarkable wooden chute, by 
whieh timber from the Pilatus was formerly conveyed to 
the lake. The village of Alpxach-Stad liee at the foot 
of the monntsin, 1) miles to the northwwrd. It is the 
starting-point for the ascent of PilatnlL and a station on 
the Laeeme-Brttnig-Briens railway. The name Alpnaeh 
Lake (Alpncuk-See) has beoi applied to the 8W, arm of 
Lake Lnoeme. 

Al'port, a river port in Victoria co., Ontario, on Lake 
Mnskoka, 4 miles flrom Bracebridge. 

AJpowa, alWwf, a post-village of Oarfleld oo.. Wash., 
16 mile* W. of Lewiston, Idaho. 

Alps, JUps, an extensive mountain-system of Europe, 
situated half-way between the equator and the pole. They 
form a crescent-shaped chain, extending from near SaTona, 
in Italy, to the outskirts of Vienna, Austria (the Baxaipe 
and Sehneeberg, the latter in the Alpengipfel attaining 
0810 feet), and in one or more seconds^ luies into Bosnia 
and Ddmatia. They thus cotct parts of Italy, France, 
Switserland, Germany (Bararia), and Austria. In their 
fknther connections they may be said to form the central 
portion of the g rea t monntain-system which, in a manner 
more or less oonnested, extends firom 0^>e Finisterre, on 
the Atlantic to the Black Sea. The length of the main 
chain may be put at abont 600 milee, while the area of 
the surlhee covered by the mountains generally has been 
roughly computed to be abont 80,000 sq. m^ or not mnoh 
less than the mainland of Great Britain. While the word 
'' alp" strictly signifies a lofty pastnre-meadow, the region 
of the Alps is pre-eminently that of towering and closely 
q>preBsed mountains, with sharp and salient peaks, abrupt 
predpiees, and confined valleys ; and in this relation toe 
word "alpine" has been introduced to designate regions 
having these characteristics. From the slopes of the Alps 
fiow, urectly or by affluents, several of the great rivers of 
Europe, the Danube, Rhine, Rhone, and Po. 

The Alps have been variously subdividedj and havereoeived 
numerous names to designate certain sections as determined 
l>7 geographieal position or geological constnotion. They 
are fV^uently designated as the ll^Mteni Alpt, comprising 
the north-and-sonth section extending from the Mediter- 
ranean to about the position of Mont Blanc, and includ- 
ing the series known as the Lignrian, Maritime, Cottian, 
and Graian Alps; the Central Alp», the great mass of 
mountains lying between the Gnat St. Bernard Pass, or 
Mont Blanc, and the Brenner Pass ; and the £attem Alpt, 
the entire division lying to the eastward of the latter boun- 
dary. The eentral group is again divisible into a northern 
and southern series, the first of which embraces the mag- 
nificent Bernese group, and the latter the Pennine, Lepon- 
tine, San Bemaraino, and Rhsetian {pvups. Otlier sub- 
divisions are the Albula, Julian, Dinarie, Camic, and 
Noric Alps, the last extending well eastward into the valley 
of the Drave. The Dinarie Alps, NE. of the Adriatic, 
link this system to that of Albania and Greece. In thdr 
geotechnic construction the Alps may be said to have their 
continuation in the mountains of the Carpathian (and pos- 
sibly Balkan) ^stem, and also in the Apennines, with their 
prolongation, the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa. 

Among the loftiest and best-known summits of the Alps 
are Mont Blanc, situated on the confines of France and 
Italy (16,783 feet), the culminating point of all Bnrope if 
the Caneasns are considered to be more properly a part of 

Digitized by 





Ana; Monte Kosa, 16,316 ft. ; WeiBahorn, 14,804 ft. ; Breit- 
horn, 13,686 ft. ; Matterhorn, 14,780 ft. — them four in the 
Pennine croup ; Finsteraarhom, 14,025 ft. ; Jnngtnn, 13,- 
(70 ft. ; MSnoh, 13,4«6 ft. : Eiger, 13,040 ft. ; Bobreokhorn, 
13,385 ft. ; Wetterhorn, 12,150 ft.— in the Berneee group ; 
Ortler-SpitEe, 12,800 ft.; and Oronglookner, 12,460 ft. 
Among the more fiamoas of the Alpine panee trarersed by 
roadway are the Hont Cenis (0860 ft.), which, sinee 1870, 
has been superseded by the railway tunnel of the same 
name; the Great St. Bernard, 8110 ft. ; Bimplon, 6590 ft. 
(shortly to be superseded by the Simplon Honntaio tunnel) ; 
St. Ootthaid, 6936 ft., now, like the Mont Cenis, also siqwr- 
seded by a railway tunnel (opened in 1880) ; BplUgen, 6946 
ft. ; and Brenner, 4490 ft., which has been used as a oarriage- 
roM since 1772, and has had a railway operating over it 
since 1867. These various passes have biougfat Fnnoe and 
Switierland into direct connection with Itely. The Arl- 
berg tunnel railway was opened for tiaffio in 1884. The 
moet elevated of the Alpine roadways is that of the 8tiU^ 
eijooh or Stelvio Pass, on the western confines of TyroL 
9056 ft. In Switierland the Furka poet- and miUtaty-ioM 
attains an elevation of 7990 ft 

The higjher Alpe are covered with perpetnal mow, aad 
present, with their magnificent glaciers, innumerable oas- 
oades, and the forests and meadows which cover their flanks, 
the most imposing and picturesque soeneiy in Europe, 
The snow- and ice-fields of Switieriand alone have been 
oomputed to cover an area of over 800 sq. m. ; but, vast 
though tliis extent is, the individual fields -are inferior to 
those of the Scandinavian mountuns. The line of per- 
petual snow lies between about 8600 and 10,000 feet, but 
glaciers descend to a level of 4000 feet or lower. Perhaps 
le beet known or moet famous of the Alpine glaciers is the 
Mer-de-Olaoe, descending firom the Hont Blanc mountains : 
bnt the largest and longest is the Aletsch, with a length of 
some 13 mUes. In the eastern Alps the most beaatiral ioe- 
sheet is the Pastene Olaoier, fed Dy the snows and ice of 
the Orossglookner, of the Hoh»-Tauem. All in all, there 
are about 600 glaciers in the Swiss Alps alone. Host of 
these have been reoeding for many years, and the evidences 
of past extensive glaciauon are everywhere apparent. 

The Alps are noted for their magnificent scenery, to which 
the almost indescribably eharming lakes contribnte not a 
little. Of these may be mentioned Lucerne, Oeneva, 
Brtens, Than, Zttrich, and Constance, and the Qotd-Uke 
lakes which on the south side connect the mountains with 
the lowland pbins of Italy — Bli^giore, Lugano, Oomo, 
GardL and Iseo. The KSnig See of southern Bavaria and 
the lakes of Saltburg, Austria, are hardly inferior in scenic 
aspect to the lakes of Switierlaad and Italy. 

Among the remukable phenomena connected with the 
Alps are the whirlwinds, nlled tourmentet by the French, 
and Ouxen by the Oermans, and the still more formidable 
"avalanches," as enormous masses of snow, which, de- 
tached by various causes from their original position, roll 
with tremendous noise and force over rock and precipice 
to the plains below. From the frequent occurrence of 
avaUnehes, some parts of the Alps are entirely nninbalK 
ited ; and in others large patches of the tallest and strongest 
trees are left standing, in order to arrest their progress. 

The higher ridges of the Alps consist of granite, gneiss, 
and other primitive rooks, flanked by a wide extent of 
limestone, sandstone, and slate. The summits ascend con- 
siderably above the line of perpetual snow, and traverse 
completely the sone of vegetable growth, except possibly 
that of mosses and lichens. The Alpine nee and a large 
number of other flowering plants reac h the lower snow-line, 
and several species pass even completely beyond it, flour- 
ishing on exposed rook surfaces. Wheat is in many places 
cultivated at an elevation of 3600 feet, oats at 4900 ft, 
and barley at 6100 ft. The coniferous trees are still of 
good stature at 6600 it, and a few of the forms aecend in 
scattering individnala to 8000 ft. Among the mwe dis- 
tinctive types of the alpine fauna are the chamois (now 
rare and protected by the state), ibex, northern hare, mar- 
mot, and lilmmargefer or bearded-vulture. The wolf and 
bear linger in a few unfrequented sections of the region. 

The Alps are pre-eminently the type of the greauy com- 
pressed and folded mountain, and present wonderfnl exam- 
Sles of thrust movements, with innumerable overturns and 
islooations. The folds thrown to the northwestward are 
particularly impressive. The final upheaval of the moun- 
tains appears to have been accomplished towards or a little 
in advance of the Middle Tertiary period^ the previous 
periods permitting of a vast accomulation of Jurassic, Cre- 
taceous, and Eocene deposits. Of the last-named the de- 
posits of the NnmmuUtic series are especially interesting. 

No region in the world is so largely visited for its scenic 
resoorces ae the Alps, and nowhere has man been so actively 
hel^fU in making points of scenic interest accessible as in 

the region of these monnt^ns. The eharming ▼aiteyi of 
Cluunonni, Intarlaken, Lauterbnmnen, Orinddwmld, Zw- 
matt and of the Engadine, are i^ke attraetive for the 
grandeur of the scenery which surrounds them and for the 
peaceful comfort which thev hold oat to the traveller. 
Among the most inspiring high points of view are the 
Oomer Orat (10,290 feet), with its ineompaiable view over 
the Monte Bosa-Matterhom group of mount^ns ; the Pit 

Pilatus, 6995 ft., both of them eommanding most exten- 
sive panoramas of the greater Alpine chain; Fians-Joaefii- 
HShe, 7933 ft, overkwking the giants of the SkMskner 
group ; the Bochers-de-Naye, 6710 ft., l)aok of Montreux, 
on Lake Geneva ; and the Monte Oeneroso, 6590 ft, near 
Lake Lugano, with a view comparable to that Iron the 
lUgi. AU these points are now reached by railway of one 
kind or another. Am<mg the finest distant views of the 
Alps is that ftmn the summit of the Milan cathedral. 

Among the more noted first ascents of the Alpine som- 
mits are those of the Mont Blanc, by Balmat, in 1786; 
Oroesglockner, by Prinoe Salm-IleUrerscbeid, in 18M; 
Ortler, by Pichler, in 1804; Jongften, by the brothers 
Meyer, in 1811 ; Flnsteraarhom, by the bnwiers M^yer, in 
1812; Wetterhorn, by Desor and Dollfni^ in 1844; Monte 
Bosa, by Smyth and Hudson, in 1865 ; MKnoh, by Potges, 
in 1867: Biger, by Barrington, in 1858 ; Sehraekhom, by 
Leslie St^hen, In 1861 ; Weisahom, by Tyndall, in 1861 ; 
and Matterhorn, by Whymper, Hudson, and others, in UMM. 

AIpS) a peet-viUaga of Bensselaer eo., N.T., 10 milee 
SB. of Troy. 

Alpi, liower, in France. See BAnBS-Ai.PBS. 

AlpB« MaritiBie, mountains of Frnnee. See Muti- 
Tm Alps. 

Alp«t Maritime^ a department of France. See Ai,pas- 

Alps, SwabiaB, mountains. See Raobi Aia. 

Alps. Upper, in Franee. See HAnm-Ai.PBS. 

AIps'Tille, a village of Allegheny co., Pa., on the 
Tougniogheny Biver and on the Pittsburg and Connellsville 
(Baltimore and Ohio) B., 21 miles SSE. of Pittsburg. It 
has coal-mines, 

Alpneate, il-poo-in't& or ll-pwin'ti, a town of Spain, 
48 miles NW. of Valencia. It was a Soman statioo, and 
has manv ancient remains. Pop, (oommnne) 3000. 

Alpuiarras, or AJpnxarraa, U-poo-aan'nls, a moun- 
tainous r^on of Spain, in Andalosia, extending timn the 
Mediterranean to the Sierra Nevada, divided b&ween tlia 
provinces of Oranada and Almerfa. 

Alqoi'aa, a poet-village of Fayette CO., Ind., about M 
milee SSW. of Richmond. 

Alqnizar, U-ke-san', a town of Havana province^ 
Caba, 33 miles by rail SW. of Havana. It has paved 
streets and is fairiy well built of stone, brick, and staooo, 
with post- and telmraph.olBoes. The region is low and 
flat, with brush and trees, bnt is rich and cultivated in 
■agar and tobacco. Poti. in 1899, 3714. 

Al'resfordja small town of England, in Hampshire, 
7 milee NE. of Winchester. Old Alrispobd a4}<rins it 

Alrtt, U'rS, an island of Denmark, at the month of the 
HorsensQoid. Lat. 66° 50' K. ; ton. 10° 6' E. It eon- 
tains a village called Alr8-By. 

Alsace, U'slss' (L. AUatia, al^i'she-a; Q«r. JOmmm, 
il'siss), a western border-land of the old Oerman Empire 
previous to the middle of the seventeenth century, hartng 
the Rhine on the E. and the Vos^ Mountains on the W. 
France acquired a large part of it from Austria in 1648. 
She seised Strassburg in 1681 and annexed tiie remainder 
at the time of the Revolution. It formed the French de- 
partments of Haut-Rhin and Baa-Rhin until 1871, when it 
was nearly all restored to Germany and beoame a part of 
the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. It now fDrms the dis- 
tricts of Ober-Elsass (Upper Alsace), area 1363 aq. m., pop. 
in 1900, 494,952, and Nieder-Elsass (Lower Alsaea), area 
1844 sq. m., pop. 668,383. A large minority of the people 
speak Oerman. Inhab. Alsatiah, 

Alsace, al'sKss, a post-township of Berks oo.. Pa., about 
3 miles E. of Reading. It lias woollen- and grist-mills. 
Pop. in 1900, 826. 

Alsace«LortaiBe, U^slss'-loR'nin' (6er. EUat-Lotk- 
ringen, U'slss-l9t'ring-fn), a territonr of Germany, under 
direct imperial government It was formed ttixa uie terri- 
tories acquired frxnn the French by the treaty of May 10, 
1871. It is divided into the districts of Ober- and Niader- 
Elsaas (see Alsaob) and Lothringen (the northeni part of 
old Lorraine, where the Oerman tongue has continued to 
prevail). Area, 6603 sq. m. It is a fertile and weil-tin- 
bered i^on, with great mineral wealth and with active 
aad vi^ed manafactures. Capital, Strassbnig. Chief 

Digitized by 




fawaa, Btnaabarg, HiUlwaMn, MeU, and Colour. Pop. in 
1890, 1,(MS,«87 ; in 1900, 1,717,461. 

AI>«s«a, U-s4'aso4, » Tillag* U Spain, proTinoe of 
KaTuny on the N ortiMm railway, at the Junstion of the 
Puaplona-Bareeloaa line. Pop. 1800. 

Aiaatia, al-ei'ahe-f, a landing-plaee of Baet OarroU 
nriah, Ia., on the Miiaiaeippi Biver, 4i mile* above Yieka- 

iUMtUa. the Latin name of Alsacb. 
Al»4»rt, ilt'dokf, a Tillage of Bhmish Prania, 8 miles 
NNB. of Aiz-la43>H>eUe. 

Al*4oift a poit-Tillage of EUit oo., Tex. 

Alsea« uWa, or Alse'ya, a poet-Tillage or neni 
Oman, on the Aleeya BiTer, 36 mile* SW. of Alban 

Alsek, aPeik, or BeriBg'a (ber'ings) BiTer, a 
of Alaska, reaehea the tea NV. of C^ie Fairweather. 

Alaen, U'ifn, an isbud in the Little Belt, farming part 
of the Prnnian iHOTinee of SeUeewig-Hoktaia. Area, IM 
•f . m. -The ehannel leparating it Irom the mainland of 
S^eawig i« in its narrowest part only 800 yards wide. 
The island is fertile and has fine orehaids. On it is the 
town of Sonderborg. 

Alsem« all'sfn, s Tillage of Union eo., S.Dak., in a fine 
agriealtani region, 30 miles E. of Yankton and aboat 10 
milfiB B. of Beresibrd. 

AlB«>bora, il'i«n4xiBn', a Tillage of BaTaria, in the 
Patetinate, 8 miles BNE. of Kaiserslantem. 

AlMBO, U^i'no, a town of Italy, proTinee and 18 miles 
UB. of Piaeensa. Pop. &00 (oommone, about 5000). 

AlseMX, il'srats, a Tillage of Bararia, in the Palati- 
natoi 20 miles N. of Kaiserslantem. 

A]«er> all'se, a post-Tillage of Seott oo., HI., on the 
Boriingtcm Rontie, 50 miles N. of Alton. Pop. 175. It has 
grain interests. 

Alse'ya, a small riTer of Benton oo., Oregon, runs 
nearly northwestward and enters the Paoine OoMn. It is 
about 60 miles long. 

AlsfeM, Us'ftU, a town of Bene, on the Sohwalm, 20 
Bika BNB. of Giessen. Pop. in 1900, 4305. 

Alskelaa, Us'hime, a Tillage of Hesse, 18 miles NNW. 
ef Wonns. 

Alslebea, i]s'li'b«n, a town of Proasian Saxony, in the 
distriet of Meiaebnrg, 29 miles S. of Uacdebnrg. Pop. in 
1900 4003. - = » 

AlsA-Apaa, Sl'ahS'-JIp'shSh' (<'.e., "Lower Apsa;" 
8er. Oiiterop *a), a town of Hongary, oo. of Hiramaios, 7 
Biles SHW. of Sdget. 

AIa6>Csein*tom, ai'shs'-ohtr'nl'tan', a Tillage of 
Hongaiy^TransylTania, eo. of HiromsiCk. 

Alsd-Dids, the Hoagarian name of Ndssdobv. 

Alad-Feh«r, Sl'shS^ff hir' (Oer. Untermi-tnhurg, 
Mn^tfr-^^is'stn-bdeBe^), a ooonty of TraasylTamia, Hon- 
gan. ChjHtal, Kagy-BnTed. 

AI*d>K«kiMt Sl'shS^-koo'beenY a town of Hungary, 
eapital of the oo. of ArTa, 82 miles NNB. of Neosohl. 

AIs6-IjipBieza, jn'shS'-Up'neet'sdh', a Slovak Tillag* 
of Hongaiy, oo. of Arra. 

Als«>Metzeiu6r, SI'shS'-mit'xin'i&f (Ger. ITaMr- 
•MtuaMr^ea, 8<SnHfr-met'gfn.eI'ffD), a German Tillage of 
Rorth Hungary, eo. of Abaqj-Toma, 17 miles W. of Kaa- 
diao. It has iron- and eopper-mines and fomaees. 

Al*6-N4aiedi, Sl'sh9^-ni'mi'dee\ a town of Hongary, 
ee>. «t Pest-rais.86lt-Kis-Kan. Pop. about 3000. 

AIs^-Torra, iSl'sho^-tor'y5b\ a Tillage of Transylra- 
nia, Anstria-Hungary, 38 miles N. of Hiromssik ; has 
mhthnr-mines, aeid saline springs, and is near an extinot 

AISO'TMra, 8l'sh9'-Tee'dr8h% a Tillage of Hungary, 
in TraosylTania, eo. of Torda-Aranyos ; remarkable for its 
petrifMtlons. Pop. aboat 2600. 

AI«6-Tissd, SI'skS'-Tish'shiS' a viUage of Hungary, 
eo. of Marmaros, 20 miles SB. of Ssiget. Fop. about 3000. 

AlBtAMe, U'>tid.d«b, a Tillage of Westphalia, Prussia, 
(BilesNW. of Ahaos. P<q^.l500. 

Alstadea, U'st4M«n, a TiUage of Bhenish Prussia, 
eireie of MOlhoim, oo the Buhr. Pop. in 1900, 0008. 

Alsta4ka«c, &ls'tid-howg\ a Tillage (^ Norway, amt 
af NwdJaad, the most northern biahoprie in Europe^ m the 
8. shore of the island of Alsten. 

A]st«a4« al'atM, a township (town) of Cheshire oo., 
M.H., abont 15 miles N. of Keoie, oontains the Tillages of 
Alstead and Alatead Center. Pop. in 1900, 799. 

AIM«a4« a post-Tillage of Cheshire eo., N.H., in Alstead 
township (town), 6 miles SNE. of BeUows Falls, Tt. 

Alatead Center, a post-hamlet of Cheshire oo., N.H., 
in Alstead township (town), 14 miles N. by W. of Keene 
•ad 6 miles firom Cdid BiTer Station. 

Alstea* Al'stfo, an island of Norway, amt of Nordland. 
Lat. W N. ; km. 18° B. It is mounUdnona ; one of the 
Seren Siatara baa an eleratloB of 4ST9 feet. 

Alater, il'at«r, a naTigable river of Prussia, riaei in 
Holatein and flows into the Blbe at Hamburg. Length, 32 

AUterdorf, ll'attr-donr, a Tillage near Hamburg, en 
the Alater. It haa institutions for the training of defeotlre 
and idiotie ohildren. 

Alston, a town of Bngland. See Aldstoxx. 

Alston, aU'stfn, a pwt.Tillage of Barboar oo„ Ala., 9 
miles (diieet) S. of Clajrton, the eounty-seat and a railroad 
station. Pop. about 200. 

Alston, a post-Tillage of Fairfield eo.^.C, on Broad 
Biver and on tne Southern B., 25 miles N W. of Columbia. 

Alta, ll'ta, a poet-Tillage of Placer oo., Cal., on the 
Southern Paeifle B., 68 miles NNE. of Saoramento. It is 
2 miles from the great Amerioan CaBon. 

Al'ta, a post-hamlet of Peoria oo., HI., on the Book 
Island and Peoria B., 12 miles N. of Peoria. 

Alta, a banking post-town of Buena Vista co., Iowa, on 
the Ulinoia Central R., 59 miles W. of Fort I>odge. It has 
eleTators for grain. Pop. in 1900, 861. 

Alta, a post-station of Richland oo., Ohio, 4 miles SW. 
of Mansfield. 

Alta, a mining oamp of Salt Lake oo., Utah, is at the 
head of Little C<rttonwood Ca&on, 7 miles from Wasatoh 
Station. SoTeral ailTer-minea have been worked here. 

AltafllUa, U-t&-fool'yi, a town of Spain, 6 milce E. of 
Tarragona. Pop. 800. 

AlUt Gracia, U'ti gri'se-i, a town of the republic of 
Colombia, 40 milea S. of Bogoti. 

Alta Gracia, a town of the Argentine Republic, 26 
miles SW. of Cfirdoba. 

Alta Gracia, a town in Teneanela, at the month of 
the Maracaibo Strait. 

Altai, il-tl', more correctly Alta Yin Via (i.e., 
"golden mountain"), the name given to a Tast system of 
higlUaods and lofty mountains of sonthem SiWia and 
Mongolia, and forming largely the boundary or border tract 
of the two countries between Ion. 85° and 105° E. With 
the limits here assigned, the Altai l>egin to the northeast- 
waid of Lake Zaisan and extend eastward (to the S. of 
Lake Baikal) to the crossing of the Selenga River ; they 
thus include the Sayan rang& which by many geographen 
is considered to be a distinct chain. In the older i 

cal systems the Altai included nearly the whole ofthe entire 
northern mountain'^ystem of Asil^ extending through the 
TabUmoi and Stanovoi ranges to the NE. extremity of the 
continent. No eonrrete mountain-chain or range is to-day 
designated the Altai, the system being composed of inter- 
conunnnicating and vireating ridges, spun, and included 
or deflected plateaus, with no clearly marked-out construo- 
tional relationship uniting them, although moat of the 
parts are referable to nearly uniform periods of geological 
time (Arohasui, Palseoioia) and to aimUar litholofpcal diar- 
acters (granites, porphyries, schists, and largely metamor- 
phosed sediments, oontaining mnon miner^ wealth). A 
remarkable oBshoot of the boundary Altai is that which is 
now commonly deaignated the Great Altai( Ekiag-Altai), 
which traverses western Mongolia in a NW, and BE. di- 
rection, and definea on one side the deep depreasion of the 
upper Irtiah and the Umngu, a part of the great basin of 
Dhiangaria. This Great (in reality lesser) Altai is perhaps 
part of the irregular mass or knot which in Siberia ia known 
as the Bielukha, and culminates in Biolukha ("White") 
Mountain, now thought to be 1^800 feet high. Northwest 
of Bielukha lie the Katunia or Katunsk Mountains (Pillars 
of the Katnnia), which are thought by some geographers 
to be the loftiest summits of the entire Altai system. The 
physiognomy of the Altai Mountains in their W. and 8. 
divisiona is generally grand and interesting. The rivera, 
which are very numerous, flow r^>idly with full streams ; 
and the forms of the stratified and metamorphio rooks, 
with the snowy mountains in the distance, lend to the scene 
the charm of perpetual novelty. The banks of the Katunia, 
in the heart of tne mountains, present a landscape of moat 
impressive ohaiscter : an immense wall of rook extending 
iirom W. to E. supports fields of perpetual snow and glaciers, 
from the midst of which rise numerous rooky points ; while 
in the distance are seen the two towering peaks, the Pillars 
of the Katunia, whose most elevated point ia, aooording to 
Tohihatcheff, 12,790 feet. The lofty plateaus and mosslanda 
that are held up between the various ridges are the feeding- 
ground of numerous reindeer, elk, and stags, while the 
rugged mountain slopea aSbrd a safe retreat to the Polian 
aheep. Poplara, willowa, and birchea clothe the deeper 
vallera, and are suooeeded on the higher IotcIs bv the coni- 
fers (firs, cedats, pines, and larches). The birch is found 
to an elevation of nearly 5000 feet. The area covered by 
perpetual snow in the Altai is very considerable, the height 
of the anow-line bring found in a general way at about 7010 
feet. The glaciers occupy a large extent. The Alt^ 

Digitized by 






If oantains owe thoir importanet chiefly to their mineral 
treaanrce, gold, silver, copper, and iron. The richeit min- 
ing district which ia in part the domain of the imperial 
ftmily, lies between Semipalatinsk and Kumetsk, and in- 
elnde* a portion of the northern Ala-Tan. A variety of 
jasper, which takes a fine polish, may beenomerated among 
the valoable minerals of the Altai. 

Altair, a post-rillage of Colorado oo., Tex. 

Altaloma, a poet-villue of CMveaton co., Tex., on the 
Oulf, Colorado and Santa F« K., 20 miles NW. of GalTce- 
ton. It has a fmit-oannery and other industries. Pop. 
abont 600. 

Altamaha, all'tf-m^-haw', ariverof Oeorgia, is formed 

r the union of the Ocmnlgee and Oconee, which nnite at 

la 8. extremity of Montgomery co. It rans southeastward 
and enters the Atlantic Ocean 12 milee below Darien. It is 
nearly ISO miles long, and is navigable, with its branches, 
to Hiuedgeville and Macon. 

Altamaha, a post-village of Tatnall CO., Oa., 15 miles 
S. of Reidsville. 

Altamira, U-UUmee'ri, a town of Mexico, state of 
Tamanlipas, 10 miles SW. of Tampico. 

Altamont, al'tA-mSnt, a poet-namlet of Alameda co., 
Cal., M miles S. of San Fiancisoo. 

AJtamoBt, a banking post-town of Effingham oo., UK, 
on the Baltimore and Ohio Sonthwestem and other rail- 
roads, 7S miles SE. of Springfield. It has mannfitotaree 
of wagons, tiles, furniture, eto. Pop. in 1900, 1335. 

Aluimoat, a banking city of Labette oo., Kan., on the 
St. lionis and San Francisco R., 37 milee W. of Columbus. 
Pop. in 1900, 546. 

Altamont, a post-village of Laurel co., Ky., on the 
Louisville and NasnvUIe R., 9 miles (direct) N. of London. 
Coal is mined here. The banking point is London. Pop. 
about 500. 

Altamont, a post-hamlet of Garrett eo., Hd., on the 
Baltimore and Ohio R., 3 miles IfB. of Deer Park. 

AltamOBt, a banking post-village of Daviess co.,.Mo., 
in a rnin and stock re^on, on the Chicago, Rock Island 
and Pacific R., 7 miles W. by S. of eaUatin. Pop. in 
1900, 288. 

Altamont, a post-village of Albany co., N.T., at the 
foot of the Helderbent Mountains, on the Delaware and 
Hndaon R., 17 milee w . of Albany. It is a summer-resort. 
Pop. in 1900, 089. 

Altamont, a post-village of Deuel so., 8.Dak„ on the 
Chicago and Northwestern R., 26 mites (direct) E. by S. 
of Watertown. 

Altamont, a poet-village^ capital of Qrundy co., Tenn., 
about 76 miles SE. of Nashville. It is on the Cumberland 
Mountain and is surrounded by interesting scenery. 

Altamonte Springs, a poet-village of Orange oo., 
Fla., on the Wekiva River and on the Atlantic Coast Line, 
13 miles S. of Sanford. 

Altamnra, U-t&-moor'r&, a town of Italy, in the prov- 
ince of Bari, at the foot of the Apennines, 28 milee SW. 
of Bari. It has a cathedral. The town is built on the 
ruins of the ancient Lupatia, Pop. in 1901, 22,729. 

Altar, irtaR', a village of Mexico, in Sonora, about 125 
milts NXW. of Ouaymas. Pop. 1800. 

Altar, an extinct volcano of Ecuador, 102 miles ENE. 
of Onayaquil. Elevation, 17,710 feet. Its native name is 
Capao-um, " King of the Mountains." 

Altare, U-t&'ri, a village of Italy, provinee of Oenoa, 
10 miles W. of Savona, in toe Ligurian Alps. Pop, 1000. 

Altata, il-ti'ti, a port of Blexioo, in Sinaloa, on the 
Oulf of California, at the mouth of the river Culiaoin. 

Alta Tela, il't& vi'll, a guano island lying S. of the 
middle southern point of the island of Haiti and SW. of 
the island of Beata, Arom which it is separated by Alta 

Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala. See Vsra Paz. 

AltaTilia Irpina, &l-t&-vll'l& Ir-pee'nl, a town of 
Italy, 6 miles N. of Avellino. It has mineral springs. 
Pop. abont 6000. 

AltaTilia Milicia, me-lee'chL a town and commune 
of Sicily, 11 milee NW. of Termini Imerese. Pop. about 

AltariUa Monferrato. mAn-fts-R&'to, a village of 
Italy, province of Alessandria. Pop. about 1000. 

Altavilla Silentina, see-l£n-tce'ni, a town of Italy, 
province of Salerno, 10 miles S. of CamjMgna. Pop. 3000. 

Altaville, a pcet-hamlet of Calaveras oo., Cal. 

Altavilta, a poet-town of Chickasaw oo., Iowa, on the 
Chicago and Great Western R., 16 miles NW. of New 
Hampton, its banking site. Pop. in 1900, 179. 

AltaVista, a poet-village of Wabaunsee co., Kan., on 
the Chicago, Rook Island and Pacific R., 62 miles W. of 
Topeka and 16 miles 6W. of Alma, which is its banking 
town. Pop. 260. 

AltaTista, a post-hamlet of Daviess eo.. Mo., 6 miles 
from Winston Station. 

Altar, al'U', a post-village of Sdinyler «o., N.Y., 27 
miles NNW. of Elmira. 

Altbemn, a town of Prussia. See Bmun. 

Altbreisach, a town of Ctormany. See Bbbisaoh. 

Altbnnlaa, Ut'b<S8nts<lSw (Bohem. Stard Bolabtv), 
a town of Bohemia, on the Elbe, opposite Brandeis, 14 
miles ENE. of Prague. It jias a collegiate chundi, with a 
monument to St. Wenoeslans, resorted to by pilgrims. Pop. 
in 1900, 4001. See JuKeBTOXLAO. 

Altbttron, Ut-b&'ron, a village of Switzerland, canton 
of Lucerne, 7 miles NW. of Williian. Pop. about 1100. 

Altdamm, Ut'dlmm, a town of Prussia, in Pomerania, 
6 miles BSE. of Stettin, where the river Plone flows into 
the lake of Damm. Pop. in 1900, <8<S. 

Altdorf, Ut'doRf, or Altorf; U'toBr a town of Bavaria, 
on the Schwanach, 13 miles ESB. of Nuremberg. It was 
formerhr the seat of a university. Pop. in 1900, 2864. 

AltoorC a village of Baden, in the cirde of Freiburg. 

Altdorf, a village of Prussian Silesia, 3 miles NW. of 
Pleese. Pop. about 2000. 

Altdorf, or Altorf, a town of Switzerland, capital 
of the canton of Uri, near the S. extremity of the lake of 
Lucerne and 9^ miles S. of Schwytz. It has a statue of 
William Tell, said to mark the place where Tell shot the 
apple off his son's head. Pop. in 1900, 3147. Biirglen, 
the reputed birthplace of Tell, is in the immediate vicini^. 

Altea, ll-ti'ij a seaport town of Spain, on a bay of the 
same name, provinoe and 37 miles NB. of Alicante, on th« 
Mediterranean. Pop. (commone) in 1900, 6977. 

Alteiban. SeeBisAV. 

Alt'ela, a peak of the Bernese Alps, at the Qemml Pass. 
Elevation, 11,920 feet. A stupendous glacier-slide took 
place here in 1895. 

Alt«a, U'tfu, a river of Norway, amt of Finmark, Alls 
into the Altenfjord after a course of about 69 miles. Al- 
though on the parallel of 70°, the district about the Alten- 
fjord, owing to its peculiarly sheltered position, is capable 
of producing barley. Strawberries are uundant. 

Altena, U't«-nl, a town of Prussia, in Westphalia, IS 
miles SW. of Amsberg, on the Leone. Pop. in 1900, 12,769. 
It has manufhetures of needles, iron, steel, eto. 

Altenahr, U'tfn-&r^, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on 
the Ahr, 16 miles by rail WSW. of Remagen. Near by ar« 
the ruins of the ancient eastle of Altenahr, dating prol>ably 
from the tenth century. Pop. abont 600. 

Altenan, U'tfn-Ow\ a mining town of Prussia, in Han- 
over, in the Hars Mountains, S. of Claosthal. Pop. in 
1900, 2163. 

Altenbecken, Irten-bSk'fn, a village of Prussia, in 
Westphalia, 9 miles BNB. of Paderbom. Pop. 1600. 

Altenberg, il'ttn-bJBo' ("old hill"), the name of nu- 
merous towns, villages, and districts throughout Germany, 
of which the only one worthy of being named is a mining 
town of Saxony, 20 miles S. of Dresden. Pop. 1700. 

Altenbmch, il'ttn-brSax', a parish of 7 villages in 
Prussia, Hanover, 4 milee SE. of Cuxhaven. 

Altenbarg, duohy. See Saxb-Altbsbubs. 

Altenbvrg, il'tfn-b«SBs' ("old castle"), aeity of Ger- 
many, capitel of the dnehy of Saxe-AItenbnrg, 36 miles 8. 
of Leipsio. Lat 60° 69' N. ; Ion. 12° 26' E. It is built upon 
several hills, and has some fine streets and promenades. 
The most noteworthy edifice is the magnificsnt ducal castle, 
built upon an eminenee, at the foot of which are the monu- 
ment of Victory (1880) and a monument to Bmperor Wil- 
liam I. The town-hall dates flrom the sixteenth century. 
Among the modem structures are the new museum, contain- 
ing a fine picture-gallery, the court theatre, the so-called 
Teehnikum, and the observatory (1898). The manufac- 
tures include worsted yams, linen, Ud gloves, hats, sewing- 
nachinee, optieal instroments, and uayingHsaids. Pop. 
in 1900, 37,106. 

Alteabnrf , UirsARiscH (Hun. Magfar-Ovtr), a mar- 
ket-town of Hungary, capital of the oo. of Wieselbnrg- 
(Hoson), 47 miles SB. of Vienna. Pop. 3000. It has a 
royal agronomic institute and an ancient castle. 

Altenbnrg, all'tf n-b<irg, a post-town of Perry oo., Mo., 
about 90 miles 6SE. of St. Louis. Pop. in 1900, 222. 

Alteadorf, U'ten-doRT. the name of two villages of 
Moravia (Austria-Hungary), one in the cirole of Preran 
(pep. 1200), another in the circle of Olmfite (pop. 2000). 

Altendorf, a village of Prussia, in Hanover, 9 milee B. 
of Neuhans. Pop. 16M. 

Altendorf, a village of Pmsrian Saxony, 11 milee 
WSW. of Sangerhausen. Pop. 1500. 

Altendorf, a village of Prnasia, in Silesia, nearly oon- 
tignous to the town of Hatibor. Pop. 4000. 

Altendorf, a village of Prusna, in Westphalia, U 
miles 8SW. of Boehum. It has eoal-mines. Pop. S600. 

Digitized by 





Alteadorf, <^ fonatr Tillage of tb« Ungdom of Sasony, 
4 mite W. of (3i«aiuts, of whieh it now forma a part. 

AlteBdorf, a Tillage of Switurland, caoton of Sohwyti, 
OB the 8. shore of I<ake Ztrioh. Pop. 1300. 

Alteadorf) a anlNirbao distriot of Eaam, Rhaniih Proa- 
6ia, ooataining the worUngmeo'i ooloniea of Kronanberg 
(pop. 8015), Sohederhof (4187), and Al&edihof (1514), and 
the Tillagas of Boehelt and VogelhaiB. Pop. in 1900, 


Altoessen, ll'tfn4e'sfn, a rabarb of Bnen, Rhenish 
Praaia, t miles N. of that titj. Hneh coal is here mined, 
partly for oae in the Bsaen worlu and partly for ahipment. 
Pon., with nuToondings, in 1900, 33,444. 

Aitemti»ri, Norway. See Altbk. 

AlteBgaant, JU'tfn-gond^ a seaport of Norway, in 
Pinmark, on the Alton, at the head M a fiord, 53 miles S. 
ofHammerfast. Lat. 89° 55' N. ; km. S3'' 6' E. 

AJteagottem, U'ttn-gof tfni, a Tillage of Pmssian 
Saxony, 24 mllea NW. of Brftut. 

Alteakein, U'tfn-hlme\ a Tillage of Baden, 7 milM 
W. of OSenbnrg. 

AlteakireCem, U't«n-U8BK'fB («.«., "old ohnrofaee"), 
a town of Praisia, M miles N. of Ooblens, on the Wied. 
Pop. in 1900, M44. 

AlteBmarkt, il't«n-mankt' {i.e., "old market"), a Til- 
lage of BaTwia, nearly adiaoent to the town of Vilshofen 
and 2 miles 8. of tiie Muanbe. Pop. 1400. 

AI«e»>l«*OW, iltyn-pli'toT, a Tillage of Pnusiaa 
Saxony, f miles Nw. of Oeothin. 

Alteaatadt, ll't«n.stUt\ a Tillage ef aermany. Lower 
Alsace, 1 mile 8K. of Weiasenbug. 

Atteaatadt, a town in Heaae^ 5 miles 8S. of Friedberg. 
Pop. in 1900, 1165. 

AlteBaUldt, a Tillage of Warttemberc, 1 mile NW. of 
6eisliBg«n, on tiie riTer Fils. Pop. about SSOO. 

Alteaateig, ll't«n-atts\ a Tillage of Wilrttemberg, in 
the Blaek IVinct diele, on a steep raoontain-side, 10 miles 
NW. of NagoU. Pop. in 1900, 873. 

AIt«BWaM, a poet-hamlet of Franklia oo., Pa. 

AlteBW«4ttUlgen, U'ten-Md'ding-fn, a Tillage of 
Prasrias Saxony, miles 88B. of Wanileben. It has lig- 
aite^niaes, lime-kilns, ete. Pop. abont 3500. 

Alter-io-Chfio, il-taiB'.do4hSwi(*, a town of Por- 
tugal, i»oTinoe of Alerat^o, 14 miles Sw. of Portalegre. 
Pm. about 3500 (oommnne, 5000). 

AKer«do-CM«) a town of Brasil, on the Tapi^os, 
•ear its joaetion with the Amaion, SW. of Santarem. 

AKenweilea, U't«is-*i<len, a Tillage of Switaerland, 
eaaton of Thorgan, 3 miles S8B. of ConstaBoe. Pop. 1300. 

Alterswyit U'ttrs-*eel\ or Jadisehiot, ySSk'shrot, 
a Tillage of Switsarland, 7 mUes E. of Fribonrg. Pop. 1300. 

Attewalde,il'tt-*UM«h, a TUIageof Pmsian Silesia, 

7 miles S8B. of Ndsse. It has lignite-mines. 
Altgebirg,Ut'gl>^be«BS' (Hun. dkegr, iHiid''' bar- 
ing the same meaning as the Qer. AUgebirg, "Old Moun- 
tain"), a town of Hungary, 180 miles N. of Bndapest and 

8 miles from Nensohl. It has mines of argentiferous cop- 
per. Pop. 2000. 

Altha, a banking post-Tillage of Jaekson eo., Minn. 
Pop. about 300. 

AltkaldenslebeB, Ut'hU'dfns-li'bfn, a Tillage of 
Pmssian Saxony, IS miles NW. of Magdeburg. Pop. 000. 

Altheiaier, a post-Tillage of Jefferson oo.. Ark., on the 
St. Lonis Sonthwestem R., 11 miles (direot) NB. of Pine 
Bluff. Pop. about 200. 

Althorp (all'thfiT) MaBor, in the oo. of Northamp- 
ton, England, abont 8 miles NW. of Northampton. It has 
been possessed by the Spenoer fkmily for upward of three 
centuries, and is famous for its splendid library. 

Altkonse, a post-hamlet of Josephine oo., Oregon, 
about 30 miles S. of Qrant's Pass. 

AltMOBB) U-te-do'nl, a Tillage of Italy, proTinoe of 
Aseoli-Pioeno, 6 miles SB. of Fermo and near the Adriatic. 

Altier, UH yi', a Tillage of France, department of 
Loiir^ 7 miles NW. of Villefort. Pop. 1000. 

AltlUae, irteeV&k', a Tillage of France, department 
ef Oorrtee, 9 miles SW. of Mercoear. 

AltiB, or AltTB, U-tin', or Teletskoi, tA-Mt'Aoi, a 
lake of Siberia, 370 miles 8SE. of Tomsk. It is <rf irregnlar 
sh^e, 75 miles in length fVom N. to 8. by 20 miles in arer- 
age breadth, and is trareraed by a head-atream of the Ob. 

AltiB*, U-tee'no, a Tillage of Italy, proTinoe of Cbieti, 
M miles SW. of Lanoiano. Pop. 500 (commune, 1800). 

AltiB- or AItTB-Tagh,lI-tin'-tlg', a mountain-chain 
of central Asia, lying immediately S. of the Tarim basin, 
sod orastitnting the northern bulwark of the Kuen-Inn 
tpiem. Its course is ^>proximately in lat. 38°-39° N. and 
ktween Ion. 86° and 95° E. It merges eastward in the 
HuBbeldt Monntaina. Highest anmmits, nearly 14,000 feet. 
Tka wild oamel is fbniid in this range. 

Altiaaimo, U-tia'se-mo, a Tillage of Italy, proTinee 
of Viceoaa, 4 miles NW. of Andgnano. 

AltiTOle, ll-tee'To-li, a Tillage of Italy, proTitace of 
TreTiso, 3 miles SE. of Aaolo. Pop. 360 (commune, 3500). 

AltkemBitz, llt'kim'nita ("Old Kemnits"), a town 
of Pmsrian Silesia, S3 miles SW. of Liccnits. Pop. 1250. 

Altkirch, Ut'kiinc, a Tillage of Germany, in Upper 
AlsaocL 17 miles W. of Basel. Pop. in 1900, 3301. 

Altlaadsberg, UtH&nts'bAng', a town of Prussia, in 
Brandenburg, district of Potsdam. Pop. abont 2300. 

AitBtBB, a post-town of Teller eo., Colo., about 18 miles 
SW. of Colorado Springs. In the Tioinity are gold-mines. 
Pop. in 1901, 859. 

Altmaa, a poet-hamlet of Erath oo., Tex. 

AltmaBBsdorf, ilt'mlns-doRf , a rill^e of Austria, 3 
miles 8. of Vienna. 

Alt'mar, a post-rillage of Oawwo oo., N.T., on the New 
York Central and Hudson Rirer R., 34 miles E. by N. of 
Oswego. Pop. in 1900, 416. 

Altmark, Ufmank, a district of the old margrariate of 
Brandenburg, to the left of the rirer Elbe, now a part of 
the district of Magdeburg, in the Prussian prorinoe of 

Altmark, a Tillage of Prussia, prorinoe of West Prus- 
sia, 6 miles B. of Stdim. Pop. 1000. 

Altmttki, Ut'mttI, a rirer of Bararia, rises 7 miles NE. 
of Rothenbni^, passes Lenterahansen, CKinsanhansen, and 
Biefastlidt, and joins the Danube at Kelheim. The Lud- 
wigtkantU, 108 miles long, betwem Bamberg on the Reg- 
nits, an affluent of the Main, and Dietfurt on the Altmitlu, 
connects the Rhine and the Danube. 

Alto, a post-town of Banks and Habersham oos., Oa., 
OB the Sonthem R., 12 miles NE. of Bellton. 

Alto, a post-rillage of Howard oo., Ind., 5 miles SSW. 
of Kokomo. Pop. iSovA 50. 

Alto, a post-Tillage of Richland parish. La., 10 miles 
S. of RayriUe. Pop. 260. 

Alto, a post-TiUue of Kent eo., Mich., on the Pwe Mar- 
quette B., 20 miles WS. of Grand Rapids. It has a grain 
elerator, etc. Pop. about 200. 

Alto, a banking post-rillage (rf Cherokee eo., Tex., 12 
miles by rail 88B. of Rusk. Pop. abont 500. 

Alto, a post-Tillage of Fond do Lac eo., Wis. 

Alto, U'to, a town of the Argentine Rqjublie, prorince 
of Catamaroa, 36 milee NE. of Catamarea. The district of 
Alto oomprises what is called the Sierra de Alto, a moun- 
tainous tract belonging to the Andes system. 

Alto del Fraue, ll'to del fri'li, a mountain of Veoes- 
nela, in the Sierra Nerada de M«rida. Height, 13,434 feet. 

Alt-OettiBg. See ALTOrrraa. , 

Alt-Ofea, Ut i'ffn (i.e., "Old Ofen ;" Hun. O-Bvda, 
" Old Bnda"), a northern quarter of Buda, Hungary. 

Altofts, a Tillage and parish of Yorkshire^ England, 3) 
miles from Wakefield. Pop. in 1901, 4024. 

Altoga, a post-riUage of Dubois oo., Ind., abont 14 
miles SE. of Jasper. It is on the Louisrille, EraasTille 
and St. Lonis R. Pop. abont 200. 

Altoga, a post-Tillage of Collin oo., Tex. 

AltomOBte, &rto-mon'ti, a town of Italy, prorince of 
Cosenaa, 13 miles SW. of Cassano. Pop. about 3000. 

AltOmttBSter, ll'to-mUn'st«r, a Tillage of Upper Bara- 
ria, near Aichach. It has a rery ancient oonrent. 

AltOB, airton, a town of Hampshire, England, on the 
W«y, 18 miles ENE. of Winoheeter. Fop. in 1901, 5479. 

AltOB, a post-rillage of Humboldt oo., Oal., 20 miles 
(direot) S. of Eureka. Pop. abont 400. 

Alton, a city of Madison oo.. 111., on the Mississippi 
Rirer, 3 miles abore the mouth of the Missouri, 26 miles 
abore St. Louis, and 257 milee SSW. of Chicago. It is 
the southwest terminus of the Chicago and Alton R., and 
is on the Chicago, Burlington and Qninoy, the Clere- 
land, Cineinnati, Chicago and St. Lonis and other railroads. 
It is situated on a high limestone bluff, which rises about 
200 feet above the rirer, and is built on hilly or uneren 
ground. It has a public library, the Hock Spring Park, 
and sereral collegiate institutions. Alton is the seat of a 
Catholic bishop. It has flonrin^-mills, glaas-footories, and 
manufiustnres of machinery, carnages, farming-implements, 
lime, cement, tobacco, etc. Here are raluable quarries of 
limestone. The suburb called Upper Alton (2 miles firom 
the city-hall) is the seat of Shurtleff College, which is open 
to both sexes. Alton is the market and shipping point of 
sereral oounties from which lime, coal, building-atone, and 
fruits are exported. Fop. in 1860, 8832; in 1890, 10,294; 
in 1900, 14,210. 

AltOB, a post-town of Crawford oo., Ind., on the Ohio 
Rirer, about 28 miles NB. of Oannelton. Pop. in 1900, 238. 

AltOB, a banking post-town of Sioux oo., Iowa, at a 
railway junction, 18 miles N. by B. of Lemars. It has 
sereral grain eleraton. Pop. in 1900, 1009. 

Digitized by 





AltOM. » banUac mty of Oabome oo., Kan., on tbe 
IfisMui PMtflo R., U mUM W. of Dowas. Top. in IMO, 

Alton, a poBt-Tillago of Andanon oo., Kj., 9 milw 6. 
of Frenkfort. Pop. 2&0. 

AltOB, a po8t-bunlet of PenobMOt oo., He., in Alton 
township (town), on tlie Bangor and Arooatook B., 2S miloa 
N. of Bangor, top. of the town in 1900, S14. 

AltOB, a hamlet of Kent oo., Hioh., 1< milee B. of 
Grand Bapidi. 

AltOB« a banking poat-viUage, eapital of Oregon oo.. 
Mo., U milaa NNE. of Thayer. Pro. m 1000, 4«8. 

Alton, a township (town) of Belknap oo., M.H., is 
bounded on the N. bv Winnepesaukee Lake, and intar- 
seoted by a branch of the Boston and Maine B. It eontains 
Tillages named Alton and Alton Bay, and has manufaotores 
of lomber, shoes, etc. Pop. of the town in IMO, 1600. 

Alton, or Alton Comer, a post-rillage of Belknap 
00., N.H., in Alton township (town), on the Boston and 
Maine R., 27 miles N.W. of Dover. 

Alton, a post-Tillage of Wayne oo., N.T., on the Kew 
York Central and Hndson RiTcr B., 30 mUes WSW. ot Os- 
wego. Pop. about 300. 

Alton, a post-hamlet of Union oo., N.C. 

Alton, a post-village of Franklin oo., Ohio, on the Na- 
tional Road, 9 miles W. of Columbus. Pop. 100. 

Alton, McEean oo.. Pa. See Monar AliTOa. 

.41ton, a poet-Tillage of Peel oo., Ontario, on the riTer 
Credit, 40 miles NW. of Toronto. It has good water-power 
and contains nnmerons faotories. Pop. about 700. 

Altona, U't9-n&, a city of Prussia, in Sohleswig- 
Holsteln, on the right bank of the Blbe, below and aiUirin- 
ing Hamburg. It is accessible to sea-going Tsssels, and 
hAs a large tnde by rail and river. Commotiially it may 
be sud to form part of Hamlrarg, simultaneously with 
which it Joined the Zollverein in 1^, and of which it has 
beoome in a great measure a suburb. The town has broad 
streets and handaome squares, numerous splendid public 
monuments of recent date, and is traversed by a lane num- 
ber of electric railways. Among the modem ediSces are 
the new town-hall, the so-called City Theatre, the museum 
(1900), and a fine eonoert-hall. There is an interesting old 
Jewish cemetery. The industries of Altona are very varied, 
the manufacture of tobacco and cigars being eroeoially 
prominent. Pop. in 1880, 90,749; in 1890, 143,349; in 
1900, 101,870. 1^ of obeerratory, bSf 33' K. ; Ion. 9° 66' B. 

Altona, al-to'nf, a banking poet-town of Knox oo.. Ill,, 
en the Chicago, Burlington an3-Quin<7 R., 10 miles SS, of 
Qalesborg. Pop. in 1900, 833. 

Altona, a post-Tillage of Dekalb oo., Ind.,4 miles KTW. 
of Aubom. 

Altona, a poet-Tillage of Mecoeta «o., Mieh., 10} miles 
book Morley Station. 

Attona, a poet-Tillage of Batee oo.. Mo., about 64 milee 
S8E. of Kansas City. Pop. in 1900, 24. 

.Altona, a post-Tillage of Altona townriiip (town), Clin- 
ton 00., N.Y., on the Oglensbnrg and Lake Champlain R., 
30 miles E. of Malone and IS miTee N. by W. of Plattsbnrg. 
Pop. of the town in 1900, 2466. 

Altona, a post-Tillage in Ontario oo., Ontario, 4| milee 
from StonifTille. 

Alton Bay, a post-village of Belkn^ oo., N.H., in 
Alton townshm (town), on lAke Winnepesaukee and on a 
branch of the Boston and Maine R., 28 miles NW. of DoTor. 

Alton Comer, a village of New Hampshire. See 

Altonhill, a post-station of Macon oo., Tenn., 26 miles 
ENB. of Gallatin. 

Altonia, a poet-hamlet of San Augustin eo., Tex. 

Alton Janction, or EmeraM, a port-hamlet of 
Madison oo.. 111., 21 miles N. by E. of St. Louis. 

Altoona,apast-villageof Etowah CO., Ala. It has coal- 
ing-industries. The banking point is Gtodsden. Pop. 1000. 

Altoona, a post-village of Lake oo., Pfat., about 13 
miles by rail N. by E. of Tavares. Pop. about 300. The 
banking point is Enstis, 

Altoona, a banking pest-town of Polk oo., Iowa, on 
the Chicago, Book Island and Paoillo R., U miles NB. of 
Des Moines. Pop. in 1900, 328. 

Altoona, a banking city of Wilson oo., Kan., on the 
Verdigris River and on the Missouri Paeifie R., 21 miles 
N. <rf Indqwndence. Pop. in 1900, 299. 

Altoona, a city of Blair co.. Pa., on the Pmnsvlvania 
R., at the eastern base of the Alleghany Mountains, 117 
milee B. of Pittsburg, 237 miles WNW. of Philadelphia, 
and ISS miles W. bT N. of Harrisborg. Here the railroad 
begins to ascend the mount^n by a grade of 90 feet to 
the mile, and in 6 miles' distanee is carried oTer the famous 
Horseehoe Cutto. Altoona is situated at an elevation of 
1180 feet above the sea. LooomotiTes and railroad-oars are 

manuiiMstared here in extensiTO madiine^hops belonging 
to the PennsylTaaia Railroad Company, which coTor an 
ana of nearly 160 aores and give employment to 0000- 
7000 bands. Over 300 looomotires, besides seTeral hun- 
dred passenger ooaehes and 6000 <Mght cars, haTC been 
turned out here in the course of a single year. Pop. in 1800, 
3691 ; in 1890, 30,337 ; in 1900, 38^973. The oity is situ- 
ated in a bituminous coal ranlon. 

Altoona, a city of Eaa Claire oo.. Wis., 3 miles E. of 
Ban Claire oity. Pop. in 1900, 721. 

Alto P«H, a banking poet-village of Union oo.. III., 
on the Mobile and Ohio R., 48 miles N. of Cairo. Pop. in 
1900. 618. 

Altor^atownof Switiorland. SeeALTBonr. 

Alto Sengo, U'to song'go, a town of Santiago de Cuba 
»rovino& Cuba, 16 milee N. by E. of Santiago de Cuba. 
The region is naturally rich, and there are extensive de- 
posits <^ manganese. Pop. in 1899, 3168. 

Alttttting, Urst'ting, a town of Bavaria, 41 mUee SW. 
of Passan. Pop. in 1900, 4344. It has an anmant ohapel 
oontaining an image of the Virgin, reputed to hare Iwen 
brought from the Bast befbre ute eighth century, which 
attracts hundreds of thousands of pilgrims annually. In 
another of 'the interesting religious edISoes is the tomb of 

Altran«t&dt, Ut'r&n-stet, a Tillage of Prussian Saxonr, 

wr Mersebnnr, noted for the peace concluded there u 
1700 between Charles XII. of Swedoi and Augustus the 
Strong of Saxony and Poland. 

AlfrindiaBi, a town of England, oo. of Chester, 8 miles 
by rail SW. of Hancheeter. It has large linotype-works. 
P<». in 1901, 16,831. 

Altrappin, llt'roop'peen', a town of Prussia, 2 miles 
NB. of Nenmppin. Pop. 2000. 

Alt-Sankt«Jokann, Ut«inkt-yo'hin, a TilUce of 
Switierlaod, in St Gall, 9 mUes W. of WUdhans. SloTa- 
tton, 2060 feet above the sea. Pc^. 1600. 

Altshansen, Uts'hSw^sen, a town of Germany, in 
Wiirttemberg, 6 mUes SB. of Sanlgan. Pop. in 1900, 2192. 

.AltfloU, Ut'sSl' (Hun. Zdtaowt; L. ZoUtm), a town 
of Hungary, eo. t^ Ztflyom (Sohl), 72 miles N. of Budapest, 
on the Gran. It has mineral springs and an eld eutle. 
Pop. in 1900, 7164. 

AJtStasIt, Ut'stitfv a TUIage of Bohemia, 8 miles BSE. 
of Neu-Bistrits. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 3760. 

Altstadt, a town of Moravia, 3 miles flwm Mithrisch- 
Trttban. Near it is a rich mine of graphite. Vop. 2000. 

Altstadt, a town of Moravia, on the Mareh, opposite 
Hradisoh. rap. (commune) 4000. 

Altstfttten, or Altstetten, Ut'st&'tfn, a town of 
Switsorland, oajiton of St. Gall, 16 miles S. of Rorsohach. 
It has mineral springs. Pop. in 1900, 8743. 

Altstetten, a viUace of Switserland, 3 miles NNW. of 
Zurich. Pop. 1700. 

Altnra, U-too'rL a town of Spain, in Valencia, on the 
right bank of the Palanoia, 26 milee WSW. of Castelldn de 
la Plana. Pop. (commune) 2760. 

Altnra, a poet-village of Winona eo., Minn., on the 
Chicago and Northweetem R., 16 miles (direct) W. of Wi- 
non^ its banking point. Pop. ainut 130. 

Aitaras, a banldng post-village, capital of Modoc co., 
Cal., 1 mile from Goose Lake and about 110 miles N. of 
Reno. It is in a fine fruit-growing region. Pop. about 400. 

Al'tns, a post-town of FranUin co.. Ark., on the St 
Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern R., 120 miles W. of 
Little Rock. It is in a fine fruit-growing region. Pop. in 
1900, 600. 

AltuB, a post-village of Greer oo., Okla., in an agricul- 
tural and stock-raising region, about 60 miles SB. of Man- 
gum, its banking point Pop. in 1900, 260. 

Altai, a post-hamlet of Bradford oo.. Pa., about 6 miles 
N. bv W. of Troy. 

Altvater, Ut'fl'tfr, a mountain in the extreme N. of 
Moravia- the higheet peak of the Altvateigebiive (Gesenke), 
part of the Sudetio Mountains. Elevation, 4W7 feet 

Altwaaaer, ilt'*ls-Sfr, a maaufaotnring village of 
Prussia, in Silesia, 36 mUee SW. of Breslan. Pop. in 1900, 

Altweier, ilt'iH-fr, a Tillage and resort of Alsace, Ger- 
many^ situated at an eloTation of 3626 feet It is 6 miles 
W. ot Ri^poltsweiler and is the loftiest Tillage in Alsaoe. 

Altyn, a lake of Siberia. See Altih. 

Altyn, a poet-Tillage of Teton co., Mont 

Altyn-Tagh, a monntrin-eh^n of central Asia. See 

Alnm-Back, a fort of India, about 4 miles from 
Lnoknow, famous during the mutiny of 1867-68 fbr its long 
drfenoe by Sir James Outram. 

AlnvDanlc, or PleaaantTille. a poet-borough of 
Bedford eo., P-., about 16 miles TX. of Be<U»d. Pop. 218. 

Digitized by 


▲lum Bay 


Amador Oiby 

Alwm B«T» on the W. MMt of Ui« Isle of Wight, &g- 
ksd, with Tuiegated elilb. 

Alam Cave, a poet-rillage of Sallirao eo., Ind^ about 
9 miles NK of BaUiran, iti banking point. Pop. about 23i. 

Alaa Creek, a hamlet of Baetrop oo., Tex., M milee 
SB. of AostiB. 

Alam Hill, a hamlet of Tnoker eo., W.Va., about 6 
Biles SB. of St. Qewge. 

Alamiae, a post-bamlet of Franklin eo., Ya. Pap. 

Alaauilge, a postJiaalet of Floyd eo., Ta., 10 miles 
W. of Floyd. 

Aiwa Koek, a past-hamM of Clarion eo., Fa., 20 miles 
fiSB. of Franklin. 

I and watering-plaee of 

' I miles 


aoB. oz rranuin. 

Alam Spriaga, a post-rillage and watering-plae 
Boyle eo., Kj., «d the LouisTille and Nashville £,4^1 
ikom ItamTifle. Here are ehslybea t e , aalphur, and i 
netie smrimcs. 

SFriag*, Va. Bee Bockbridsi Autm Spbixos 
and JosDAX ALim Spnitres. 

AlaMWell, a post-hamlet of Hawkins oo., Tenn., 8 
miks HW. of Itogetsrille. Here are mineral wrings. 

Alaa-weUs, a pest^tation and watering-plMe of Wash- 
ington eo., Va. 

ilapka, i-loop'UL, a Tillage and health-resort on the S. 
eoaat of the Crimea, about 6 muss SW. of Liradia. Here is 
a splendid eastle of Prinoe Torontsoff. 

Alata* &-hio'ti (Hon. Olt), an affluent of the Danube, 
riaas in tile Carpathians, in TransylTsnia, breaks through 
the GarBathiaa range in the long and narrow defile known 
as the Red Tower Au, crosses Vfallaehia from S. to S., and 
anpties opposite Nikopoli, after a course of about 300 miles. 

AIata« a paet-rillj^ of Northampton eo.. Pa. 

Atta, a mannfaetnring Tillage at Beotland, oo.of Claok- 
■annaii) 7 miles by rail NB. of Stirling. Near by is the 
pietanaqne Alra Glen. 

Alva, a post-Tillage of Montgomery oo,. Miss. Pop. 
about 7fi. 

AlTa, a hanking eity, eapital of Woods eo., Okla., on the 
Atchison, lopeka and Santa F< B., 9i milse (direct) NW. 
of Guthrie. It has a territorial normal school. Pop. in 
1M«, 1^9. 

Alva'da, or Alve'da, a post-village of Seneca oo., Ohio, 
en the Hooking VaUey R., 7 miles N. of Carey. 

Alvaiaxere, U-vI-i-i&'ri, a town of Portugal, in Bs- 
tramadaia, 31 miles S. of Coimbra. Pop. about2000. 

AIvaaea-Bad, il'vL-nol-b^', a village, with sulphur 
yrings, of Switaerland, canton ol the Orisons, 13 miles 
DonTbasis. Blevation, 3116 feet. 

Alvara4o, U-v&-ri'i>o, a town and port of Mexico, state 
aad 38 miles BE. of the eity of Vera Crus, with whioh it is 
eonnei^ed by rail. Pop. about 4000. The port is arable 
sf admitting Tessels of 13 and 13 feet draught. 

AlTaraao, a river of Mexico, formed by several streams 
rising in the mountains of Oaxaea, iUls into the Oulf of Mex- 
ieo through the harbor of Alvarado, alter flowing a direot 
distance of 130 miles. 

AlranUlo, aI-v%^iUi'do, a post-village of Alameda oo., 
OfeL, on Alameda Crack and on the Southern PaciAo R., 34 
miles SB. of Ban Franoiseo. Pop. about 800. 

AlvaradO) a poet-village of Steuben oo., Ind., 40 miles 
NNB. of Fort Wayne. Pop. 300. 

Alraiado, a ranking eity of Johnson oo., Tex., on the 
Kansas and Texas and the Oulf, Colorado and Santa ¥6 
Bs., M adlea S. of Fort Worth and 165 miles N. by B. of 
Aostia. It has cotton-industries. Pop. in liWO, 1342. 

Airares* il'vi-ria, a town of Portugal, in Beirs, 9 
miles 8. of ArganiL Pop. (commune) about 3000. 

Ahrastoa aad Bonltoa, a village of Derbyshire, 
Bi^taiid. Pop. in IMt, 4536. 

Al'ratoa, a post-village of Warroi co., Ky., about 10 
miles from Bawling Oreen. Pop. 300. 

Alveica, U-vfai'kl, a town of Portugal, in Bstremadura, 
an the Twns, 10 miles NB. of lasbon. Pop. 1700. 

Alrerutcaem, U'fer-ing'fm, a village of Belgium, in 
Wast Flaoden, S miles 88B. of Fumes. 

Atreraia* iUvte'ne-l, a village of Italy, on a mountain 
of ill own Bam& 3 miles N. of Chiusi. Its monastery, 
founded in 1318 by St. Franeis of Assisi, was the cradle of 
the Franeisoan order. 

Atrerao, a post-hamlet of Manitowoc oo., Wis. 

Ahrertaa, a post-village of Westmoreland oo.. Pa., on 
the Panm^lvania B., tm&» (direct) N. of Connellsville. 
Pep. about lOOO. 

AlrigaaaOy il-veen-yi'no, a omamune of Italy, prov- 
iaee of Oaasrta, neau- C^jaasq,. Pop. about 3600. 

Al'ria, a banking post-Tillage of Vermilion co., HL, 13 
■iles by rail N. of DuiviUe. Pop. in 1900, 3«8. 

Alrui, a hamlat of Hamilton oo., Neb., 13 miles from 

Alvia, a hanking post-town of Brasoria co., Tex^ on 
the Oulf, Colorado and Santa F« R., 39 miles WNW. of 
Qalveston and 34 miles 8. by E. of Houston. P(H>. in 

AlTiaeZt Cl'vints', a town of Transylvania, on the right 
bank of the Maros, 9 miles SW. of Karlsburg. Pop. 4000. 

AI'viaStOB, a banking post-village of Lambton oo., 
Ontario, on Big Bear Creek and on the Orand Trunk and 
the Michigan Central Bs., 36 miles W. of St. Thomas. It 
has woollen- and flour-mills, stave-works, etc. Pop. in 
1901, 898. 

AlTi'ra^ a post-village of Union co., Pa., about 10 miles 
8. of Williamsport. 

AlviSOi al-ve'so, a post-village of Santa Clara co., Cal., 
on Coyote Creek, 1 mile iVom the southeast end of San 
Fianoisoo Bay and 8 milee NW. of San Josi. Orun and 
hay are shipped here in sohoouers. Pop. about 600. 

Alvitq* U-vee'to, a town of Italy, provinoe of Caserta, 
7 miles SB. of Bora. Pop. 2000 (commune, 4000). 

AlTito, U-vee'to, a viUage of Portugal, 19 miles NNW. 
of Bqa. Pop. 1800. 

AIto, a post-village of Csas oo., Neb., on the Chicago, 
Beck Island aad Paolflo R., 31 miles (direct) NW. of Ian- 
coin. Pop. about 176. 

AI'tob, a nmt-hamlet of Greenbrier oo., W.Va., It 
miles ih>m the White Sulphur Springs. 

Al'TOidt a banking post-town of Lyon co., Iowa, on the 
Sioux Falls and Wilmar and the Oreat Northern Bs., 13 
adlss SW. of Rook R«Dida. Pop. in 1900, 249. 

AlTord, a poet-viUage of Hamilton co., N.T. Pop. 
about IM. 

AlTOld, a banking post-village of Wise CO., Tex^ on 
the Fort Worth and Denver City R., 61 miles N. by W. of 
Fort Worth. It has cotton-gins and lumber industriss. 
Pop. in 1900, 660. 

Al'vordtOB, a post-village of Williams co., Ohio, on the 
Wabash and the Cinoinnati Bs., 38 miles N. of Deflanoe. 
It has lumber-, hoop- and tile-works. Its banking point is 
West Unity. Pop. in 1900, 483. 

Alvy, a post-village of Tyler co., W.Va., 16 miles B. by 
8. of Middlebonme. Pop. 400. The banking point is West 

AI'war% or A]'war% a town of India, capital of the 
state of the same name, 86 miles 8SW. of Delhi. Lat. 
37° SO' N. ; Ion. 77° E. It is situated at the foot of a steep 
height, crowned by a fortress. The palace of the mahara- 
jah is a notable edifioe. The town has an artificial water- 
supply. Pop. in 1901, 60,740. 

Alwar, or Alwar, a native state of British India, in 
Ra^putana, enclosed by the statee of Bhurtpur and Jaipur, 
the distriot of Gurgaon, etc Area, 3024 sq. m. It is gov- 
erned by a mahangah under British direction. Capital, 
Alwar. Pop. about 760,000. 

Alyth, I'lith, a town of Scotland, cos. of Perth and For- 
fisr, 13 miles W. of Forfar. Pop. about 3000. 

Alzaao Mag giore, U-s&'no mid-jo'ri, a village of 
Italy, 3 miles NB. of Bergamo. Pop. about 3000. 

Alzey, Ut'ef, a town of Hesse, on the Sels, 19 miles 
SSW. of Mains. Pop. in 1900, 8893. It was one of the 
imperial cities of old Germany. 

Ama, a poet-hamlet of St. Charles parish. La. Pop. 
about 170. 

Amacam, a river of South America. See Ahakubc. 

Amacnsa, an island of Japan. See Ahakusa. 

Amade'ns, Iiake^in central Australia, about lat. 24° 
30' S. and Ion. 130° E. It is a shallow brine sheet, prob- 
ablv 200 miles in length. It was discovered by Giles in 1872. 

Amadiah, ft-mCdee'yf, or Amadieh, a town of Asi- 
atic Turkey, in Kurdistwi, on a tributary of the Tigris, 66 
miles NNW. of Mosul. It is the seat of a Chaldean Dishop. 

Amador, &-mi-d0r' or am'^or, a county near the cen- 
tral part of California, has an area of 632 sq. m. It is 
bounded on the N. by the Cosumnes River, and is also 
drained by the Mokelumne, whioh forms part of the south- 
em boundary. The eastern part of the oounty is moun- 
tainous. Granite, marble, gold, and copper are found here. 
CMital, Jackson. Pop. in 1890, 10,320 ; in 1900, 11,116. 

Amador, am'^or, a post-hamlet of Wapello co., Iowa, 
10 miles SW. of Ottumwa. 

Amador, a post-hamlet of Butler oo., Kan., 14 miles S. 
by W. of Florence. 

Amador, a poet-village of Sanilac co., Mich., on the 
Pare Bfwquette R., 20 miles (direct) S. of Sanilac Center. 
Pop. about 160. 

Amador, a hamlet of Amador township, Chisago co., 
Minn., on the St Croix River, about 48 miles NNE. of St. 
PauL Pop. of township in 1900, 696. 

Amador City, a post-village of Amador oo., Cal., about 
43 miles BSE. of Sacramento. Gold is mined here. Pop. 
about lOOO. The banking point is Sutter Creek, 

Digitized by 





Ani'adore*) • p««t-h»ml«t of SuHIm oo., Midi., on th« 
Pere Ihrqnetta R-, 20 mika N. by W. of Port Horoa aod 

4 miles iVom Lake Haron. 

Am^agas'sett, a post-Tillage and Biimmer-raaort of 
Suffolk eo., N.T., i« in tbe B. part of Long bland, on the 
Iiong Island R., nearly 1 mile from the ocean and 10 miles 
SB. of Sag HaTV>r< It has a good shore for bathing. 

Amagat, fan'1-gat, a small island of Alaska, near the 
ooast of Alaska Peninsala. It has hot springs. 

Amager, a'mi-gber (by the Germans often ealled 
Amak), an island of Denmark, separated from the island 
of Sedud by the harbor of Copoilugen. Area, about 2S 
sq, m. At the northern eztremitv of the island is tbe 

Soarter of Copenhagen known as CniisUanshaTn. On the 
L shore is the little town of Dragiir, whose inhabitants are 
noted as seaman. 

Amak (i'mak) Island, off the ooast of Alaska, lat. 
6V Si' N., Ion. lOS" W., has a Toloanio peak MOO feet 

Amakata, an island of the Men-tanoibarg gronp of 
the Bismarek Arohipelago. 

Ajnakoaa, a nation of Kaffirs. 

Amaknm, i-ml-koo'roo, a river of South Amerioa, 
forms part of the boundary between British Guiana and 
Teneraela, flows genenlly NW. through the B. part of 
the latter, and empties on the S. ooast of the month of 
tbe Orinooo. Falu block narigation at some distance 
from the month. 

Amaknsa, i-mi-koo'si, an island in the Japanese 
Bmpire, off the W. eoast of the island of Kioshiu. 

Am&l, o'mol, a town of Sweden, in the Kn of BUkboig, 
on tbe W. shore of Lake Vener. Pop. SOOO. 

Amalfi, i-mU'fee (L. AmaPpkii), a decayed city and 
seaport of Italy, on the Oulf of Salerno, in the province 
of Salerno, 23 miles SB. of Naples. Lat. 40° 38' N. ; Ion. 
14° 37' B. The position of die city, with its luxuriant 
growths of vine, orange, oliv& and acacia, is extremely 
pictureeqne, extending over the summits of lofty rocks 
crowned with emlnttled walls and mined towers. Its trade 
has now almost disappeared, and with it the greater pro- 
portion of the population, which once exceeded iO,000. 
Amalfl rose into importance early in the Middle Ages, 
having attained the height of its prosperity during the 
eleventh century, at whion time it was the great mart of 
all kinds of Eastern menhandise. It bemme an inde- 
pendent republic, and continued to retain its nnk as a 
commercial city for several centuries, when it fell into 
decay. It is an arohbishop's see; has important manu- 
factures of paper, soap, and macaroni; has a fine old 
cathedral (Cattisdrale Bant 'Andrea), a naval school, Ca- 
puehin monastery (now a hotel), and many antiquities. A 
magnificent roadway, partly cairied over lofty viaducts and 
elsewhere hewn into the solid rock, connects Amalfi with 
Salerno, and other roads unite it with Sorrento and Oas- 
tellammare. A landslide in Jan., 1900, precipitated a por- 
tion 9t the promontory into the sea. Pop. of the commune 
in 1901, 73^. 

Aaialil, A-mil'fee, a town of Colombia, department of 
Antioqnfa, 66 miles NB. of Hedellfn, in a region rich in 
gold. Umber, and cattle. Pop. 8000. 

Amalla, a town of Greece, in the nome of Elis. Pop. 
about SOOO. 

AjaaPlapBram', or Ammalapnr', a town of Mad- 
ras, British India, on one of the outlets of the Oodarety, 

05 miles GNE. of Masnlipatam. 
AmalpUs, tbe Latin of Amalfi. 

Amalthea, a-mal'tbe-a, or more oorreotlv t-mal-tbe'^ 
a village of Franklin co., Ohio, on Gahanna Creek, IS miles 
NNB. of Columbus. The name of the post-office is Central 

Amambakl, 1-mim-bl'ee', or Amambay, &-mftm- 
bi', a mountain-range and river of Brasil : the former, about 
200 miles long, forms the water-shed between the Parani 
and Paraguay Rivers and part of the boundary with Par- 
aguay; and from its eastern slope fiowa the river to the 
Paranf, which it joins after a course of about 100 miles. 

Amaai, i-ma-nl', a river of Venexuela, state of Ber- 
mude% rises near Urioa and falls into the Gulf of Paria. 
Length, 140 miles. 

Aman&» i-m&-n&', a lake in Braxil, formed by a bifur- 
cation of the T^juaca. It lies in lat. 2° 35' S., Ion. 04° 18' 
W., and is about 20 miles long by 10 miles broad. About 
8 miles M. of the lake is a village of the same name. 

Am'ana, a post-village of Iowa oo., Iowa, in Amana 
township, on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. PanI R., 29 
miles NB. of Cedar Rapids, is the principal abode of tbe 
"Community of True Inspiration, a society of German 
Protestant Cliriatians, followers to some extent of BShme 
and Schwenkenfeld. They removed hither in 1855 firom 
Ebeneter, N.T. Pop. about 800 ; township, in 1900, 1748. 

Afliaada, a village of Butter oo., Ohio» on th* IQaml 
Canal, 10 miles NB. of Hamilton. Pop. about 309. 

Amanda, a banking post-villace of Fairfield co., Ohio, 
on the Cincinnati and Husklugnm Valley R., 7 miles 8W. 
of Lancaster. Pop. in 1900, 469. 

Aman'daTille, a hamlet of Hart oo., Gsk, 10 miles 8. 
of HartwelL 

Amaadaville, a post-village of Cumberland eo., Ey., 
on Crooos Creek, 56 miles B. of Glasgow. It has several 

Amandoia, i-mln'do-ll, a town of Italy, IS miles NW. 
of Asooli. top. 1700 (commune, 5000). 

Amaaian Gates, a pass in Syria. See BsiLjjr. 

Amanlis, i'mfti(*Mee', a village of France, department 
of Ille-et-Vilaine. 

Amantea, i-min-ti'l, a eonmnne of Italy, 15 miles 
SW. of Ooeenm, on the Mediterranean. Pop. 6000. 

Amanns, a mountain-range of Asiatic Turkey. See 


Amapala, i-ml-pU'l, a f^ee port of Honduras, on the 
Pacific Coast, lat. 13^ 17' N^ Ion. 87° 34* W., is oa Ama- 
pala Island, in the Gulf of Fonseca. It is 799 miles from 
Panama by steamer and 2674 miles from San Fraaoisao. It 
exports silver, coffee, rubber, and hides. Pop. about SOOO. 

Amara, i-mA'HL, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Irak- 
Arabi, on the Tigris. Pop. about 10,000 (?). 

Amarakan'iaka, Amarkan'tak, or Omerkan'- 
tak, a grea t plateau of central India, where the Sone, the 
Nerbud&, and other streams rise. It has a mean aUitnds 
of 3000-4000 feet, and is covered mainly by forests sad jan- 
gles, the abode of the Goods, -Koles, and other wild tribes. 

Amarante, i-mi-HLn'ti, a town of PortngaL provine* 
of Minho, on tbe Tamega, a tributary of tbe Dooio, 38 
miles NB. of Oporto. Pop. 1500. 

Amaiapara, lm-i-rM>oo'r(, or Vm^merami'ia, 
the former capital of the Burmese dominions, on tos Ira- 
wadi, 6 miles NB. of Ava. In 1800 the population was 
estimated at 176,000, but subsequently it suffered much by 
fire and earthquake, and the removal of the seat of govern- 
ment to Mandalay caused it to sink to the level of an in- 
significant plaoe. Most of its houses are of bamboo. 

Amarg o'sa, a river of Nevada and southeastern Cali- 
fornia, twiee oroesed by the parallel of 36° N. lat., fiowa 
into the Death Valley, a desolate region droressed below 
the sea-leveL This valley is also called tiie Amargosa 
Desert, and the mountains NB. of the river's upper course 
are sometimes called the Amargosa Mountains. 

Amargara, t-man-goc'ri, an island and volaano in the 
South Pacific Ocean, one of the Friendly Islands. Lat. 17" 
58' 8. ; km. 174° 16' W. 

Amaribo, i-mi^re-bo', or Mana, mi^nl', a river in 
French Guiana, falls into the Atlantic. Length, 160 miles. 

Amarillas, Rio, ree'o ^mi-reel'yls, a river of Cuba, 
forms the boundary between Matansas and Santa Ctera 
provinces and empties into Lake Tesora. 

AmarUlo, a banktog post-town, tbe capital of Potter 
CO., Tex., on the Fo rt W orth and Denver City and other 
railroads, 333 miles NW. of Fort Worth, tip. in 1890, 
422; in 1900, 1442. 

Amasa, a post-village of Iron oo., Mich. P<^ aboat 
150. The banking point is Crystal FsUs. 

Amasia, i-ml'see'f, a oity of Asia Minor, in the 
vilayet of Sivss, on the Yeshil-lrmak (ano. Jrit), 96 miles 
NW. of Sivas and 63 miles S. by W. of Samsun. Pop. 
estimated at about 30,000. It stands on both banks w 
the river, between almost perpendicular rocks. It is sur- 
rounded with gardens, orohards, and mulberry plantations. 
About 1000 feet above tbe river towers an ancient oastle. 
Amasia is in many ways a progressive plaoe. It has well- 
supplied basaais and a considerable trade in silk, firuits, 
wine, etc There are steam Bour-mills. The town was an 
important plaoe in the old kingdom of Pontns and was 
prominent under the Bysantines and Seljuks. There are 
fine nlios of Se\jukian arofaiteoture. Outside of the oity 
are tbe excavated "tombs of tbe kings," described by 
Strabo, who was bom here. 

Amasra, i-mis'ri, Amas'erak, or Amasrek, 
&-mls'rfb (ano. Amat'trit), a small se^wrt of Asia Minoi^ 
on a rooky peninsula in tbe Black Sm, 60 miles NB. of 

Amastra, an ancient name of MisTBBTTi.. 

Amathoate, lUm&-thon'ti (anc. Am'aiku*), a village 
of the island of Cyprus, near its S. ooast^ apparently the 
same plaee as Old Umasol. See Lw asol. 

Amatignak (S-mit'ig-nik) Island, the sontbera- 
most land of Alaska. Lat. 61° 19' N. ; Ion. 179° 8' W. 

Amatiqne Bay or Gnlf, the head of the Qnlf of 

Amatitldn, i-ml-tee-tlln', a department in the S. part 
of Guatemala. Area, 463 sq. m. It oontaias Lake Ajna- 

Digitized by 





la traranad by the Ctatni K. The ohief in- 
' is the DrodoatioB of sookincaL AmatitUn is the 
ewHal. Pop. in 1893, 36,387. Lake AmatiUin is about 7 
lafliii in length, and anrravaded by mgged monntains, one 
of whidi, the Paeaya (83S6 feet), was m eroption in 1870. 
Its eBUeL the Rio Uiehatoyat, has a superb water&ll at the 
TiUaga of San Pedro Maityr. 

Aauttitl&>, a town of Qnatemala, capital of a dmart- 
msBt of ita name, on Lake AmatitUn, 16 miles S. of the 
ei^ of Gnatemala, with whioh (and with San Josi, on the 
eoaat) it is ecaneoted by rsUroad. Itislrragnlarly built, and 
the houses are prineipally oonstmcted of mnd. The wells 
in the town are all oraokish ; and most of those in the 
Tieinity are hot, bat elear and free from imparities. The 
inhabitants, nearly all malattoes and samboes, are indus- 
trioaa, and largely engaged in the piodaetion of ooehineal. 
~ abont 10,00«. 

Pop. ftboui 

Ma, a rilla^ of Hexioo, in the state of Vera 
Oral, with Astee remains. 

AaaatAB'galand, or Ton'galasd, a northern dis- 
triet of Knlnland (Natal), on the Indian Oeean, extending 
bom Zolafausd proper along the oocwt about 100 miles, and 
from Swaaiiana, on the W., to the oeean. It was incor- 
porated with Natal in Dee., 1897. 

Aaiatriee* i-mi-tree'cfal, a town of Italy, province 
and 2S miles N. of Aqoila. Pop. aboat UOO (oommane, 
AMatnli Islaad, Alaska. See Babrbh Islauds. 
Aaiatas* a post-Tillage of Adams oo.. Pa. 
AMAWalk, a post-Tillage of Westohester eo., N.T., 
about 8 adles K. of PeekakilL Pop. about 100. 

Aaiaxiehi, &-nilz-ee'kee, or Lev'kas, a seaport of 
O reee o, the chief town of the island of Santa Maura er 
Laiuadia, on its E. coast, and scMrated fh>m the castle of 
Santa Maora by a lagoon abont 1 mile aeross. Pop. abont 
MM. Anuudoni is uie residenee of a &nek archbishop. 
Rear it are remains of eyelopean walls, probably those of 
the anoient Lm^ca*. 

Ajnar> l^mi', a town of Belgium, 14^ miles SW. of 
Liige, Vap. (eommune) about JMNW. 

JLm»%oc, t-mlnoV, a town of Mexico, state of Pnebla, 
U miles 88& of Piuhim. 

Aaaazoa, nm'f-*fn (Sp. pron. im-1-thOn'), or Ama- 
x«a*, somethnes called Harafton, ml-rin-y Sn', formerly 
also Orellaaat o-rtl-y t'ni, a South American riTer, which 
rteeedii in T«dame eTSty other riTsr en the globe. It rises 
in the Perarian Andes oy two main branches, the MaraSon 
(or Tangniagns) and the Ucayali or Apnrimac. The 
Marsiton, or western braneh, whieh some geographers con- 
ridar the b«ad4lr«am, rises in Lake Laaricaeha, near the 
rilTar-nines of Cerro de Pasco, in lat. 10° 80' S. and Ion. 
TC° IV W., at an altitude exceeding 14,006 feet. It flows 
aaariy northward for about MM miles, in a eontinaons series 
•f cataracts and rapids, in a deep Talley between the paral- 
lel eordillems of Pern. Approadiing the boundary of 
Eenndor abont htt. i° S., it turns eastmrd through the d»- 
hatsble tarritory of Benador and Peru and joins the Uoa- 
yaU, or main Amaion, at Naota, abont 370 feet above sea- 
lercu, after baTingtraTersed the bmons narrows or pongo 
of Maoserieiw. The Ucayali, or eastern branch, which 
secBB nnqnestlonably to be the larger of the two head- 
waters, bMng its^ nsTigable for seTsnl hundred miles, 
rises in abont lat. 15° 8., in the highland or ridge whioh 
daCnes <« its northern boundary uie lacnstrine basin of 
Tltiaaes. It flows northward in a tortuous course, Uugely 
BBralleling that of the MaraSon, but in the main east of the 
Gsidillans ; it derelops into a sluggish stream in its lower 
readMS, and in its Daok-waters and orerflows partakes 
largdyof the character of the Amason proper. The united 
Auaon, which, between Tabatinga, on the Brmdlisn-Pcru- 
Tian frontier, and the mouth of the Rio Negro, is known 
to the nstiTCS as the Solimoens, now takes a predom- 
inantly eastward coarse to the sea, which it enters through 
a Tsst open estuary, devoid of modem delta formation, and 
estiaatod roughly to be 150 miles wide. The Amaxon is 
the only stream of first magnitude whose main course is 
dSreetad latitodinallT ; its immediate TaUey, therefore, 
is largdy free of raaned dimatie changes. The month of 
the stream lies directly on the equator, and for eonsider- 
skly 0T«r MOO miles the course of the waters is oonflned 
wtthin a diTetgenee of Atc degrees of latitude. The total 
length of the Amason is Tarionsly estimated at from 3300 
to 40M miles, but probably it does not exceed, including 
Us Bain windings and with the Ucayali as its head stream, 
MM milss. Its course in BraiiUan territory alone is 3200- 
MM miles, otct all of whioh it is narigable for vessels of 
large draa^t. At Tabatinga, where the rirer enters 
BnsQ ttam PeruTian territory, the width of the channel is 
li moss, at the sntraaoe of the Madeira nearly or ftilly 3 
^Ska, and below Santarem, whieh is still several hundred 

miles fh>m the month, 10 miles. About 75 miles above 
ftuitarem, at Uie narrows of Obidos, the mighty stream con- 
tracts to about 2000 yards, its depth at this place l>eing 
250-330 feet. The average depth of the stream below the 
influx of the Rio Negro, which is not much less than 1000 
miles from the sea, is nearly 30 fathoms. Soundings have 
been reported of 500 and 600 feet, but their accuracy Is some- 
what in question. The STcrage velocity of its current is 3 
miles an Iionr. The area drained by this river and its tribu- 
taries is estimated at 2,000,000 sq. m., or not much less than 
two-thirds the area of the whole of Europe. The volume 
and impetus of the river are so great that it carries its 
fresh water unmixed into the sea a distance of about 
200 miles. At the narrows of Obidos the discharge of water 
is about 180,000 cubic metres per second. " Its vast ex- 
panse," says Orton, " presenting below Teffe magnifloent 
reaches, with blank horixons, luid forming a barrier be- 
tween different species of animals ; its system of back- 
channels joining the tributaries and linking a series of 
lagunes too many ever to be named : its network of naviga- 
ble waters, stretohing over one-thinl of the continent ; its 
oocanio fauna — ^porpoises and manatees, gulls and frigate- 
birds — remind the traveller of a great inland sea. The side- 
channels through the forest, called by the Indians igarapd 
or canoe-paths, are one of the characteristic features of the 
Amason. They often run to a great distance parallel to the 
great river and intersecting the tributaries, so that one oan 
go from Santarem 1000 miles up the Amason without once 
entering it. These natural highways will be of immense 
advantage for intercommunication." No cataract or water- 
fall interrupts navigation on the main stream for 2400 
miles, and, as a trade-wind blows almost constantly west- 
ward against the curren^ the navigation up or down has 
always something in its favor. Including the tributaries, 
it offers not less than 10,000 or 15,000 mfies of water suit- 
aUe for steamboat navigation. A decree of the Brazilian 
govsniment in 1867 (^ened this navigation to the flags of 
all European nations. But as yet no busy towns are found 
along its banks, exo^t Pari, near its mouth, and on that 
constricted branch of the estuary whioh is sometimes 
known as the Pari lUver. Hanios, with a population of 
abont 22,000, is situated on the Rio Negro a few miles above 
its junction with the Amason. Direct steamboat naviga- 
tion now extends to Turimagnas, a station of Peru, on uie 
Huallaga arm of the rirer. This river flows through a forest 
unparalleled in extent, an evergreen forest so dense and 
impenetrable as to defy access except by navication, and 
tenanted by innumerable animals, among wbicn the mon- 
key tribe holds a oonspiouons place. The human popula- 
tion of this region is very sparse. In the most densely 
peopled portions it has been estimated that there is only 1 
man to every 4 sq. m. Daring the rainy season the river 
overflows its banks, submerging the country for hundreds 
of miles. The waters abound in fish, and it is stated that 
upward of 2000 n>eciee are known flrom them and their 
tributaries. Turtles are a most important product of the 
river. A remarkable feature in the Amasonian fauna is the 
abundance of cetaceans, porpoises, and manatees through 
nearly the whole extent of the river. 

The Amason has upward of 200 tribntariee, 15 of whioh 
have lengths varying flrom 800 to 1500 or 2000 miles. The 
largeet of these is the Madeira, whose length has been vari- 
ously estimated at trom 1600 to 2000 miles, or even consider- 
ably more. The principal tributariss that enter fV«m the 
N. are the Napo, Putnmayo, Japura, and Rio Negro. 
Those that are received tnm the S. are the Jabari or 
Tavari, Jutay, Jurui, Teffe, Pnrus, Madeira, Tapijos, 
Xingi, and Tocantins. The Rio Negro is connected with 
the Orinoco by the Caasiqniare, whioh is a natural and 
navigable canal traversing a plain whioh, at periods of high 
water, is too low and level to form a water-shed between 
the two rivers. The descent of the Amaion is only 3 
inches to the mile below the mouth of the Napo, whioh 
is 1800 miles in a direct line from the ocean. The At- 
lantic tide is perceptible at Obidos. At the mouth of the 
river is a remarkable tidal phenomenon, called the ior« 
or pirorota, whioh occurs about the time of ftill moon. 
The water <^ the ocean runs into the river in waves about 
16 feet high, moving with a violence and momentum which 
are dangerous to small craft. The difference between high 
water and low water is about 50-60 feet. The period of 
high water in the northern affluents is in summer and 
autumn, but the Amason reoeives its lugest accession from 
the southern affluents when the sun is on the south side 
of the equator, in November, December, and January. 
The mouth of the Amason was disoovered in 1500 by a 
Spaniard, Vioente Yaiiex Pinion, but the first European 
who navigated or explored it was Orellana, who in 1641 
descended the stream firom the month of the Supo to the 

Digitized by 





AmasoMlB, ir-nk-to'ais, the weatsmmaet and ,lsrgeat 
state of BraxiL bonnded by Britiih Chria]i% VenemeU, Cb- 
lombU, Boaador, Pern, and BoUtIl and E. by the states 
of Matto GrosBO and Pari. Area, about 760,000 sq. m. It 
is bisected by the Amazon and traTonM by many of its 
narigable trfbotaries, and is maiDty ooTered by dense 
foreste, rich in natural products, especially rubber. Steam- 
boat navigation has been established on the Rio Negro, 
Madeira, and Pnrus, besides the Amaion. Capital, Manios. 
Pop. in 1890, 147,91&. 

Amasonas, JUmi-so'nis, a department of Pern, 
bounded N. by Kenador, E. by the department of Loreto, S. 
by Libertad, and W. by Ojamaroa. Area, about 14,000 
sq. m. The Harafion forms its western boundarr. It is 
mainly oovervd by Tirgin forests. Capital, Chaohapoyas. 
Pop. in IBM, T0,«7«. 

Amazonas* a territory forming the sonthemmost part 
of Venesnela. Capital, Maroa. 

AmasonaSy a South American name for the AmaAh. 

Amaso'llia« a post-rillage of Andrew eo., Mo., on the 
Missouri Rirer and on the Burlington Bonte, 9 miles N. of 
St. Joseph. Pop. in 1800, 482. 

AmbabOf &m-l>&'bo, a town of Abyssinia, 5 miles firom 

Ambaca* im-b&'ki, a town of Angola, Portugueea 
West Africa, in lat. 9" S., Ion. 16° SV B., 140 miles S. by 
S. of Loanda, with which it is connected by railway. It is 
the capital of the fertile prorinoe of Ambua, 

AmDaciai the ancient name of Amboisb. 

Ambagamawa, &m-bt-g&-moo'wi, a town of Ceylon, 
in the Kandy district. 

Ambahy, tm-bA'he, a town of Mada^asear, on the B. 
coast, in about lat. 33° 60' 8., Ion. 48° B. 

Ambalai a town of India. See nnBAi.i.A. 

Ambalema, im-bi-l&'ml, a town of Colombia, depart- 
ment of Tolima, on the MagdUena, 60 miles WNW. of Bo- 
goti. It ships excellent tMacco. Pop. about 8000. 

AMballa, a town of India. See Umballa. 

AMbartcet-LagraTe, AK'bJl'ri'-ii-U'griv', a tU- 
lage of France, department of Gironde, 8 miles NB. of Bor- 
deaux. Pop. about 1000 (commnna, 3300). 

Aaibas (im'bia) Bay, a fine harbor in the Oerman 
Kamerun Territory of western Africa, in the Bight of 
Biafhk Lat. 3° 68' N. ; Ion. 0° 15' E. Here the lofty 
Kamerun (Cameroons) Mountains reach the sea; and the 
English mission town and sanitarium of Victoria stands 
near it. The Ambas Islands, small aad elevated, lie off the 
inner port. 

Ambatikit im-bl-tee'kee, an island in the Paoifie, one 
of the FUi group, of a dome shape, and rising to the height 
of 760 feet Lat. 17° 47' S. j Ion. 179° 10' W. 

Ajnbato, im-bl'to, a town of Ecuador, coital of the 
province of Tnngnragtia, 80 miles 8. by W. of Qnito, and at 
an elevation of about 8500 feet above the level of the sea. 
It was destroyed in 1S98 by an eruption of Cotopaxi, but 
afterwards became more flourishing than before. It lias 
extensive shoe-manufactories, and an active trade in grain, 
sugar, and cochineal. Pop. about 8000. 

Ambasac« 6K'bl'iik', a village of Fraaoe, department 
of Haute- Vienne, 10 miles XNW. of Limoges. 

Ambelakia, Im-bi-ll^kee'i, or Ainp«lakiat a town 
of Greece, in Thessaly, on the south slope of Mount Ossa, 
above the viJe of Tempo, 15 miles NE. of Larissa. It was 
at one time famous for its cotton- uid yam-spinning and 
dyein|^ Pop. about 1600. 

Amber, a post-village of Jones co., Iowa. Pop. about 80. 

Amber, a post-hamlet of Mason co., Mich., in Amber 
township, on the Pere Marquette R., miles B. of Luding- 
ton. The township is intersected by the Marquette River. 
Pop. in 1900, 1329. 

Amber, a poet-village of OnondMa co., K.T., on Otisco 
Lake, 14 miles SSW. of Syracuse. Pop. 300. 

Amber, Ambre, or Ambro, Cape, the X. ex- 
tremity of Madagascar. Lat 11° 67' S. ; Ion. 49° 19' B. 

Amberg, im'bino, a town of Bavaria, in the Upper 
Palatinate, on both sides of the Vila, 36 miles B. of Nu- 
remberg. It possesses interesting chnrehes and a fine old 
town hall, and has a royal manufactory of arms, and also 
manufactures of tin-ware, cotton, and faience. A large 
penitentiary is located here. Pop. in 1900, 32,030. 

Am'berg, a post-village of Marinette eo.. Wis., 40 miles 
by rail NW. of Marinette. It has lumber- and shingle- 
mills and granite quarries. Pop. about 460. 

Am'bergris Key, an island off the NB. shore of Brit- 
ish Honduras. Length, 20 miles from NB. to SW. 

Amb^riea, 6if 'M^re-vh', a town of France, department 
•f Aln, 18 miles SSK of Bonrg. Pop. about 1700 (com- 
mune, 4000). 

Am'beriey, a post-village of Huron oo., Ontario, on 
Lake Huron, 33 miles iVom w>derich. 

Amber'BO, a birly eonsiderable stream of Onteh Hew 
Guinea, dischuges on the N. coast at Oape Amhemo, in 
Ion. 138° B. 

AM'bersoa* Talley, a post-village of Franklin oo.. 
Pa., It miles NW. of Shippensburg. 

Ambert, Aii^baiit', a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Puy-de-DAme, on the Dore, 36 miles SB. of Cler- 
mont It has extensive paper-works aad manuiaetnree of 
ribbons. Fine cheese is largely produced. Pop. of the com- 
mune in 1901, 7048. 

Ambia, am'be-i, a banking post-town of Beaton co., 
Ind., on the Lake Erie aad Weston R., 36 miles W. by N. 
of Lafi»ette. Pop. in 1900, 438. 

Ajabia,apoat-villageof Lamar CO., Tex. Pint. abootOO. 

Ambialet,6ii'be'lMi', a village of France, dqiartment 
of Tarn, 10 ifaUes ENB. of Albi. 

Ambiaai, an ancient name of Amibics. 

Ambil, Im-beel', or Amnl, i-mool', a lofty islet SW. 
of Luson, Philippines. It shelters Lnk harbor, Luhaag. 

AmDl&n, &m-blin', a town on the SB. coMt of Negroe 
Island, Philippines, at the mouth of the Rio de AmbUn, 19 
miles fh>m Dumaguete. It produces cacao. Pop. 6600. 

Amblan, or Amblanw, imb'ldw', an island of the 
Malay Archipelago, 18 miles SB. of Bum. Lat 3° 63' S. ; 
Ion. 137° 10' E. It is dqiendant on the Dutch govenment 
of Amboyna. 

Amble, a village and parish of Northnmlwrland eo., 
England. Pop. in 1901, 4488. 

Ambler, a post-village of Belmont eo.,X>hio. 

Ambler, a Mnking post-b<aongh of Moatganary oo.. 
Pa., on the Bethlehem branch of the PhilaiMlphia aad 
Reading R., 17 miles N. of Philaddphia. It has ohemieal- 
works, etc. Pop. in 190O, 1884. 

Am'blersbnrg, a pcet-hamlet of Preston co., W.Va., 
15 miles SW. of Oakland. 

Am'bleside, a market-village of Westmoreland co., 
England, a mile {torn the head of Li^e Winderm«r& and 5 
miles fh>m Windermere town, and the seat, at Rydal Mount, 
of the poet Wordsworth. It is a tourist-centre for visitors 
to the Cumbrian Mountains, aad in its immediate neigh- 
borhood ue the Stoek-Gill-Force Falls. Coarse woollen 
cloths are manufactured here. Pop. in 1901, 8636. 

Ambleteaae, AiiVl-ttrs', a decayed seuort of France, 
department of Pas-de-Calais, on the Bngllsh Channel. 6 
miles N. of Boulogne. Near it is the graalt* column which 
Napoleon ereoted to the grand army in 1806. Pop. 360. 

Amblive, dic'bliv', a river <^ Prussia aad Belgium, 
flows W., and fislls into the Ourthe 10 miles N. of Dnrhay. 

Amboina, Moluccas. See Ahbotha. 

Amboise, Aicb'wla' (aac Amba'eiaX, a manufacturing 
town of Franoe, department of Indre-et-Loir«v on the Lmre^ 
14 miles E. of Tours. Pop. in 1901, 4638. It has aa exten- 
sive trade and manufactures of cloth, leather, ateal, etc Its 
ancient castle is memorable in history as the residence of 
many French kings. Amboise is celebrated for the " ee«- 
Juration d'Amboue," formed against the Guises in 1660. 

Ambo'lo, or Amboale, lm-l>aol', a town of SE. Mada- 
gascar, lat. 34° 16' S., Ion. 47° E., in a rich aad beantiAa 
valley, on a stream of the same name. 

Ambol6n, lm-bo-15n', one of the Philippine Islandi^ 
SW. of Mindoro. Lat 13° 13' N. 

Ambon, An^bAip', a village of France, department of 
Morbihaa, with a small port on the Penerf. 

Ambonde, a country of Africa. See Asoola. 

Am^boy', a banking city of Lee cow, lU., on Green 
River and on the Illinois Central and the Chicago, Bur- 
lington aad Quincy Rs., 117 miles SE. of Dubuque. It has 
large machine-shops, bridge- and iron-works, etc Pop. 
in 1900. 1836. 

Amboy, a banking post-town of Miami co., Ind., on 
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago aad St Louis K, 36 
milsa BSE. of Logansport Pop. in 1900, 402. 

Amboy, a post-hamlet of Hillsdale co., Mick., in Am- 
boy township, 14 miles 8. of Hillsdale. Pop. of the town- 
ship in 1900, 1137. 

Amboy, a bankiag post-towa of Blue Barth co., Miaa., 
on the Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha R., 29 
miles S. of Mankato. It has grain elevators, etc Pop. 
in 1900, 432. 

Amboy, N.J. See South Akbot and Pxrth Ambot. 

Amboy, a township (town) of Oswego co., N.T. Pop. 
of the town in 1900, 8». It contains Amboy Center, Gar- 
tenville, and West Amboy. 

Amboy, a post-village of Ashtabula CO.. Ohio, on Coa- 
neaut River aad oa the Cake Shore and Hiohigan Southern 
R., 67 miles ENB. of Clevelaad. Pop. about 300. 

Amboy Center, a post-village of Oswego co., N.T., la 
Amlioy township (town), 37 miles NNB. of Syracuse 

Amboyna, or Amboina, im-hoi'nf, or Apon 
(Blalay, .daitim, "dew"), an island in the Malay Archi- 

Digitized by 





o, th« BHMt imDortaat of th« Molaoeu, iTiof K, of 
. hU. (AlUry Point) S° 46' S.; Ion. 137° 69' B. 
The Maud m »boBt 30 milos long by about 10 milea in 
bnodtk at ita broadot part. Ana, 363 >q. m. It ii inb- 
j«et to earthqoakea, altlioogh no hmfer baring actire toI- 
tanoee. Tbo rarfase i* moolktainoaa, a nombor of th« 
nunmits riling to 3000-4000 feet, and supports a luxuriant 
Tegetation of tropical plants (eoooa- and sago-palms, nntmeg- 
Ine, ete.). The elimate is vaiyingty aealthy and nn- 
hsaltkj, and lias been for many raoeewiTe yeaia onbearabl* 
U> Bonneans. The aronge annual temperature is about 
7t°, with a rariation of bat 3°-*" for the hottest and cold- 
«t months (Febmary and July). The yearly rainfall is in 
some parts nearly ISO inohee. CioTes, sago, oassia, coffee, 
■aiie, yams, and fVuits are the staple prodoota. The reel- 
deney ra Amboyna includes Burn, Ambfao, Coram, Hanipa, 
the Banda Islea, and several smaller islands. Pop. in 1895, 
3S,M3: rf the reaidaner, 391,703. 

Aabopia, or Amooina, capital of the above island 
and of the Dutch residency of AmiMyna, on the Bay of 
Amhoyna. (Lat. of Fort Vietoria, 3° 41' 7" S. ; ion. 138° 
If B. j It is olean, neat, and regularly built, with straight 
sod wide streets. The town contains a public garden, at- 
traetire esplanade, hall of justice^ hospital, orphans' insti- 
tatiog, ete. It was almost totally destroyed by the earth- 
toake of Jan., 1898. Pop. about 9000. The Bay of Am- 
Myaa is about 30 miles bmg and fhun 3 to 7 broad, the 
raads secure and commodious, and the anchorage good, with 
a depth of fima 30 to 45 fathoms. 

AJabraeia and Ambracian Gnlf. See Arta. 

AMbraSj Am'hriB, a village of Tyrol, 3 milea from 
Innsbruck. Here is a fine imperial castle. 

AabriireS) AM'br».aiB', a town of France, department 
sad t miles N. of Hayenne, on the Varenne. Pop. 1300. 

Ambrim* or AmDrynii Im-breem', an island in the 
Pseii^ New Hebrides. Lat. 16° V 8. ; Ion. 167° 60' E. It 
is M miles in oireumferenoe, fertile, and cultiTated. 

AmbtlSt 4m-bre«', a seaport town of wast Africa, the 
euital of a district of the same name in the Portogaese 
eMony ef Angola, on the Atlantic Ocean, 70 miles S. of 
Loanda. It has an extensive trade in coffee, copal, india- 
rabbcr. atehil, etc. Pop. 3600. 

AMbiix. Cape, on the coast oi Angola, weat Africa. 
ULtfrB.} Ion. 13° 10' E. 

AMbrixettef Im-bre-Ut'ti, a Portuguese town in the 
cdsa y off A ngola, weat AfHca, on the Atlantic Ocean, 40 
■flsi mrw. of Ambris. 

AMbromayy Av'bro'ni', a town of France, department 
of Ain, U miles SB. of Bourg. Pop. SOO (commune, 1300). 

Aai'br«*e« a post-haadet of Hanoock co., HI. Pop. 
shout 60. 

Ambrose, a pcst-riUage of Iowa co., Iowa, 30 miles 
ew. a Uimga, Pop. about 100. 

Ajabrose, a post-Ttllage of Jessamine co., Ey., 4 milea 
8. cf mobdavriUe. 

Ajabaim, lm^boo.«em', or Ombe, fim'bfh, a region 
ia Bengaala, west Africa, bounded roughly by the merid- 
ians of 14° and 16° E. Ion. and the parallels of 10° 40' and 
11° 30* S. lat. It is governed by native independent ohieft, 
sad is tr»Tarsed by ue rivers Longa, Cnvo, and Sumbe ; it 
has a rioh soil, and axpOTts ivory, coffee, wax, copal, and 

Ambakol, tm'boo'kol', a village of Nubia, on the Nile. 
Lat. 18° 4' N. ; Ion. 31° 34' B. 

Aaibar, a town of Madras, British India, 108 miles 
V6W. of Madras. Its fort on the Ambur Drug commands 
sa important pass into the Oamatio. Pop. almut 10,000. 

AHChit'fca, one of the Aleutian Islands, of the Bat 
Iskods group. Lat. 61° 36' N. ; ion. 180° 46' W. (179° 16' 
E.). It is Ivge, low, and fla^ with one peak 1873 feet 
hid). It ooDtuns lignite and kaolin. 

Aadea, a village of Switserland, in the canton of St. 
OaU, 8 mUes WSW. of WalenstadU 

Aatealeo, l-mi-U'ko. a village of Mexico, state of 
Qaeritaro, 42 miles BE. of Quer<taro. 

Aaeea, &-n>l'kJl, a village of Mexico, state of Jalisco, 
TOmilesSW. of OuadaiiOara. Pop. 8000 (?). 

Aaeeameea, i-mi-kl-m&'ki, a hamlet of Mexioo, on 
the lateroeeanie B., about 30 miles SB. of the city of 
Mexioo. It is sitoatad at the western foot of Popocatepetl 
aad Ixtaedhnatl, commanding magnificent views, ana is 
thaitaiting'point for the ascent of uaee monntains. 

A»e<ee,apcst-hamletof Lassen co., Cal. Pop.aboot60. 

Ameftia, 1-mtl'yt, a village of Italy, province of 
Oeoea, 4 milea SB. of Lerioi. Pop. 800 (commune, 1600). 

AMel«at4, l'me-llnt\ an island of the Netherlands, in 
th* North Sea, 4 miles N. of the coast of Friesland. litis 
U alias ia laogth by 3 miles in width. 

Aaelia, iiii'la^, a town of Italy, province of Pem- 
gia, 32 milas SW. of ^okto. It is the seat of a bishop. 

It waa the ancient Asie'rwi, me of the oldest cities of 
Dmbria. Pop. in 1001, 3801 (commnne, 0348). 
Ame'lia, a oonntv of Virginia, has an area of 366 

a.m. It is bounded by the Appomattox Biver on nearly 
sides except the S., aad is also drained by Namazine and 
other ereeks. Cuital, Amelia. Pop. in 1890, 9068 ; in 
1900, 0037. 

Aaielia,'a post-village of SL Mary parish. La. Pop. 
about 100. 

Aaielia, a post-village of Hall co.. Neb. Pop. about 80. 

Amelia, a post-village of Clermont co., Ohio, 26 milea 
by rail B. by S. of CfiicinnatL Pop. about 400. The 
banking point is Batavia. 

Amelia, a post-village, capital of Amelia co., Va., on 
the Southern R., 34 miles 8w. of Bichmond, its banking 
point. Pop. 260. 

Amelia lalanA is situated on the coast of Nsssan oo., 
in the NE. part of Florida. It is 14 miles in length and 4 
in breadth, and is separated ftrom the mainland by a chan- 
nel from 3 to 4 milee wide. It has Ught-honses. The soil 
is generally fertile. See FaaHAHDWA. 

Ame'liasbBTK, or Rob'lia's Blills, a poet-village 
ia Prince Edward oo., Ontario, at the outlet of Boblio Lake 
in the Bay of Quinte, 8 miles S. of Belleville. It is a port 
at which steamers caU. 

Amtlie«les>Bains, i'mi'lee'li-b&ii*, or Aries* 
les>Baias, anl'li-bAii*, a village, tourist- and health- 
resort of France, department of Pyrlntea-Orientalea, 3 
miles W. of Ciret. It is noted for its thermal and sulphur . 
baths and waters, and contains the largest thermal-militaiy 
hospital of Fraaoe, with accommodations for 600 invalids. 
The warm sulphur waters, with temperatures of from 70° 
to 146°, ue particularly beneficial in eases of chronic bron- 
chitis. Pop. about 1400. Elevation, 790 feet 

Amelith, a post-village of Bay co., Mich. The banking 
point is West Bay City. 

Amea«loiara, l-mta-do-U'ri, a viUage of Italy, on the 
Qulf of Taranto, 36 mUes NE. of CastroviUari. Pop. 1300. 

Ameai, or Ameny, l'mi'nee\ one of the Laccadive 

Ame'aia, or Ama'aiaville, a banking past-village 
in Amania township(town), Dutchess co., N. Y., on the New 
York and Harlem (New York Central aad Hudson River) 
B., 84 milea N. by X. of New York. The town has mines 
of iron. Pop. of the village in 1990, 300 ; of the town, 3374. 

Ameaia, a poet-vilUwe of Cass co., N.Dak., on the 
Oreat Northern B., 7 miles N. of Casseltoa. 

Ameaia ITaioa, a post-village of Dutchess co., N.Y., 
in Ameaia township (town), about 60 miles BSE. of Al- 
bany. Pop. 200. 

Ameao, i-mi'no, a village of Italy, ia Piedmont, 1 
mile E. of Orta. Pop. about 1000 (coaimnae, SOOO). 

America, a-mir'e-k( (Fr. Amfrimtt, i^mrradc'; Oer. 
AwuTxka, i-ini're-ki : It., Sp., and Fort., America, 1-mi'- 
re-ki), sometimes called the New World, the oontineotal 
land-mass of the Western Hemisphere, named ia honor of 
Amerigo Veepnoci, a Florentine, who visited South America 
ia 1499. It is the longest continuous bodv of land on tha 
globew aad extends in its non-insular part from Point Bar- 
row, in the northwest, laL 71° 24' N., to Cape Froward, in 
Patagonia, lat 63° 64' S. The outlying lands aad islaads 
project the boundaries of America properly to Cape Morris 
Jesup, in the "United States Coast," 63° 39' N., aad C^o 
Horn, 66° 69' S. Its latitudinal extent is, therefore, up- 
ward of 9600 miles, while the area covered is in round 
figures 16,300,000 sq. m. America consists essentially of 
the two main continental areas of North and South America, 
both of which are broadly expanded on their northern faces 
and ts^r rapidly towards tne south j in the Isthmus of 
Panama the width of the land-mass u constricted to leas 
than 30 miles. Whether or not Oreenland should be con- 
sidered as being properly a part of America is a question 
that has not yet been deeided by geographers. 

The physinU features of America are on the most gigantic 
scale. Here are many of the greatest rivers aad bkes in 
the world, the highest mountains, except those of Asia, 
the most extensive areas of unbroken plain, and the most 
magaificeatforests. Itpossessesfewextensivetraetsthatare 
not aoosssible through its magnificent natural water-courses. 
The population of America is estimated at 146,000,000. 

NOBTB Akbbica (Fr. Amerimie du Nord, I'mi^reek' dtt 
noB ; Oar. Iford Ameriha, nort l-mi're-kft ; Span. Awi4riea 
SM*»trional, i-mi're-kl M-tin-tr»4>-nlI'), the northern coa- 
Uneatal part of America, is bonaded oa the N. by the Aro- 
tie Ocean, on the B. b^ tne Atlaati& and on the W. by the 
Pacific ; the Onlf of Mexico forms a large part of the aonth- 
ara boundary. It is very irregular ia form, and deeply 
iadeated by bays, guUk, and inlets, principally on the side 
of the AUantic. Its area, inclusive of outtytng lands or 
islands, is estimated at about 8,300,000 sq. m., and the 

Digitized by 





population, inolaaiTe of that of Cmtnl Ameriea, at abont 
105,000,000. The politieal divisions of th« mainland are 
Cuiada, the United States, the repnblie of Hexioo, British 
Honduras, and the sereral states of the former republic of 
Central Ameriea, — ris,, Costa Riea, Guatemala, Honduras, 
NioarsKoa and Salrador (see Cshtbai. Ambrica), and the 
newly oonstitnted republic of Panama. 

Itlandt, Bayt, and Ovl/». — ^Between the Atlantic Ocean 
and the uu-ibbean Sea is an extensive archipelago, eaUed 
the West Indies, which extends eastward firom the Unlf of 
Mexico nearly to the 00th meridian of W. longitude. The 
largest of these islands are Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Porto 
Bioo, which are known as the Greater Antilles, connected 
with which to the northeastward are the Bahamas, and to 
the southward the Lesser Antilles (Leeward and Windward 
Islands), the whole forming a system which extends fh>m 
near the southern point of Florida to the coast of Venesnela 
in South America. The other principal islands (not reckon- 
ing Greenland or the islands of the Arctic archipelago N. 
of Canada) are Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and Long 
Island, in the Atlantic ; and Vancouver, Qneen Charlotte's, 
Prince of Wales, Sitka, Eadiak, and the Aleutian Islands, 
in the Pacific Ocean. The northern and eastern sides of 
this continent are indented by large bodies of water, such 
as Hudson Bay (a great, but oomparatively shallow, in- 
terior sea), the Gulf of St. Lawr«ioe, which gives entrance 
to the great lakes, the Bay of Fundy, Delaware Bay, 
Chesape^e Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Bay of Hon- 
dnras. The Inlets of the Pacific coast are not eo manv or 
so large. The most important of these are the Gnlf of Uali- 
fomia, the Bay of San Francisco, Pnget and Queen Chw^ 
lotte Sounds, Cook's Inlet, Bristol Bay, and Norton and 
Kotiebne Sounds, the last fonr indenting the coast of 

Uountaint, Tablt-lantU, etc. — ^The dominant feature* of 
the North American continent may be said to be the great 
monntain-ohains that lie off ftx>m or define the western 
contour, the leaser Appalachian system of elevations on the 
east, the intervening central depression, plain, or basin 
(largely the basin of the Mississippi River), the Atlantic 
coastal plains, and the plateaus or highlands of Mexico, 
Labrador (and Greenland). The mountain-ranges of North 
America form two widely distant highland regions, sepa- 
rated fW>m each other by the vast interior plain to which 
reference has just been made, and which contains the great 
(kwh-water lakes and is drained to the S. by the Misais- 
sippi River and its tributaries, to the NE. by the St. Law- 
rence, which is the outlet of the great lakes, and to the N. 
by the Saskatchewan, the Athabasca, the Maokensie, and 
numerous smaller streams. This plain extends ftom the 
Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean, about 2800 miles, and 
between it and the Pacific Ocean the highest ranges are 
found, extending nearly N. and S., or NW. and SE., largely 
parallel with the coast of that ocean. An inner system- or 
ch^n, commonly regarded as the botwark of the continent, 
and for a long time, but erroneously, considered to be a 
direct continuation of the South American Andes, is known 
as the Rocky Mountains. The northern limits of this vast 
monntain-eystem have not yet been determined, nor has the 
direct continuity extending Cnto Alaska been ascertained. 
Southward, the continuous ridges terminate abruptly a 
little to the south of Santa F£, NiMex., but broken lines or 
elevations may be considered to unite them with similar 
elevations of the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. The 
Rocky Mountains constitute the " oontinantal divide" of 
the United States, but in Cuiada they are traversed by one 
or more streams. A large number of peaks of the Rocky 
Mountains, both in the United States and Canada, attain 
elevations of 13,000-14,000 feet and over. Among these may 
be mentioned Blanca Peak, in Colorado, 14,4M feet,— the 
culminating point of the chain in the United States proper, 
—Pike's Peak, 14,147 feet, also in Colorado, and the re- 
cently discovered Mounts Columbia, Bryee, Forbes, and 
Lyell, in Canada, to which elevations of ftvm 12,000 to 
14,000 feet are ascribed. Whether or not the seemingly 
more or less isolated Mount MoKinley, in eentral Alaska, 
is a part of the true Rocky Mountain system, remains to 
be determined. Recent measurements seem to give it an 
elevation of 20,484 feet, which would place it as the culmi- 
nating point of the North American continent. See Rockt 


Between the |laeky Mountains and the Paeifle Ocean is a 
long and lofty range, which is nearly puallel witii the coast 
(in plaoee not more than l&O miles m>m it), and is called in 
California the Sierra Nevada. Its northern continuation in 
Oregon and Washington is the Cascade Range. The highest 
peiJi of this range is Mount Whitney, in California, 14,898 
feet. The Sierra Nevada merges in southern California 
into the Coast Range of mountains, but is otherwise distinct. 
It would seem that to the latter belong many of the giants 

of Alaska and the adjacent region, — Mount St. Ellas, 18,028 
feet; Mount Logan (Canada), 18,600-19,000 ft. ; CriUon, 
16,960 (?) ft. ; and Fairweather, 14,608 (7) ft. (See Sibbba 
Nbtada and Ooait Rakob.) The Atlantic border of the 
North American continent is outlined by a line of minor 
elevations, the mountains of the Appalachian system, 
whose general trend is NE. uid BW. Their various aeo- 
tions are known as the White Mountains, Green Moun- 
tains, Adlrondaeks, CatskiUs, Allaghaniea, Bine Ridge, ete. 
The system culminates in Blaek iMme, or Mount Mitdidl, 
of the Black Mountains, N.C„ 8714 ft. See Appalacbia* 
MoDHTAiirg and AjLLaeHAKT MoimTAiira. 

Th» Cheat Batin and SotUluB**tem Plateau. — Between 
the Sierra Nevada and the Wasatoh Mountains (a range 
which crosses Utah about midway between the Rocky Moan- 
tains and the Sierra Nevada) is a vast arid plateau called 
the Great Basin, or Fremont's Basin, which is alibnt 660 
miles in extent and has an elevation of over 4666 feet. 
Here are salt lakes wfaicfa have no outlet, and rivers which 
send no tribute to the sea. Southeastward and eastward of 
the Great Basin lie the vast elevated tracts that constitnte 
the great plateau of the southwestern United States, whose 
broadest development is found in ncnlhem Ariaona and 
the oontiguons parts of Ut^. The surface of the Umd ii 
here elevated between 8606 and 9606 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is in this region that are found the moat remark- 
able riveiMsourses of Uie globe, the deeply incised caSona of 
the Colorado and some of its tributaries presenting eioqnent 
testimony to the wearing action of running water. (See 
Gbahd CaSoit or thb Cdloraoo.) Much of the greater part 
of Mexico is constituted by the centra plateau, which m a 
measnre is the oontinuation of the plateau system of the 
United States, and attains an elevation along its southern 
limits of abont 8600 feet Onitaresituatedsomeof the^nost 
gigantic volcanoes of the globe, the greatn- number of 
which are extinct or somnolent. The most famous of these 
are Oriaaba, 18,25ft feet; Popocatepetl, 17,623 ft.: Ixtae- 
cihuatl, 10,980 ft. ; and the Mevado de Toluca, 14,966 ft. 
Colima, an active cone aituated off the plateau, has an ele- 
vation of 12,990 ft. Numerous active and extinct cones 
are fDund throughout the length of Central Amerioa, rising, 
as in the case of the volcanoes of Agna and Fnego, in 
Guatemala, to elevations vt over 12,000 and 13,066 ft. 
The most deetmoti ve eruption recorded is that <^ Coeegaina, 
Nicaragua, in 1836. 

Voleanie Begiant of the United State: — N<me of the vol- 
canoes of the United States, exoepting those of Alaska, an 
in activity to-day, although St. Helen's, in Oregon, and 
Baker, in Wasbington, appear both to have been in eruption 
sinoe 1840, the former in 1843 and the latter in 1864, 1866, 
and 1870. Of the resting or extinct cones are Mount 
Hood, in Oregon, 11,225 ft. ; Shasta, in California, 14,442 ft. ; 
and Rainier (Tacoma), in Washington, 14,528 ft., the last 
named one of Uie meet beantlfal and symmetrically fbrmMl 
cones of the globe. Hliamna, a giant cone situated on 
Cook's Inlet, in southern Alaska, is aotive, as is also the 
still more gigantic Mount Wrangell, estimated to be between 
17,666 and 19,600 ft., in the interior. In association with 
the volcanic phenomena of the North American continent 
should be mentioned the vast lava-platean of the Colombia- 
Snake River region and the wonderful geyser district of the 
Yellowstone River. See Yellowbton B Natiohal Pabe. 

Bivtrt and Laket. — No oontinent ia more amply supplied 
with large navigable rivers, opening the interior to the com- 
merce of the world. All the gr^ development of the 
hydraulic system is on the east side of the Paeifie mountain- 
chain. From the great interior plain the Mackeniie River 
runs northward to the Arctic Ocean, the St. Lawrence 
into the Atlantic, and the Mississippi and Rio Grande 
southward to tiie Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi with its 
tributaries affords a greater extent of inland navigation 
than all the rivers of Europe, although very much less than 
the Amason. Its principal affluents are the Missouri, Ohio 
(whose largest tributary is the Tennessee), Arkansas, and 
Red rivers. Steamboats ascend the liississippi to St. Paul, 
upward of 2600 miles ftx>m its mouth, and they ascend the 
Missouri to Fort Benton, which is about 1660 miles above 
the Junction of the Missouri with the Mississippi. The 
length of the Missonri-Mississippi is about 4000 miles. The 
length of the Yukon is not nr fWim 2000 miles. Other 
great rivers are the Saakatohewan-Nelson, Columbia, and 
Colorado. The St. Lawrence is the outlet of five great 
lakes, — namely, Superior, which has an area of about 31,000 
sq. m., Hnron (22,000 sq. mj, Michigan (about 22,500 
sq.m.), Erie, and Ontario. These conMtute the largest 
collection of fresh water on the globe, are connected by 
straits and short rivers, and are imannels of a very exten- 
sive commerce, in which hundreds of steamboata are em- 
ployed. All ike water which iasuee from four of these 
lakes planges over a precipice at Niagara Falls, the moat 

Digitized by 





magnifioent catarmet in ttie world. (Sm Niaoaba Falls.) 
Til* otlicr prineipal lakw are Athabuoa, Winnipeg, Oreat 
Slav* Lake, and Oreat Bear Lake, in British Ameriea; 
Champlain aod Qreat Salt Lake (reliot of a former raatly 
Bore eztensiTe sheet of water, designated by eeologists 
Lake BonneriUe), in the United States; and Lake Mioa- 
ngoa, in the repnbHe of Nioaragna. The states of Maine, 
New York, Miehigan, Minnesota, Florida, and Oregon oon- 
tein maltitadee ra beaatifol lakes from 1 to 46 miles in 

Srtat Ptaint, Prairie; and Bad Land*. — ^These eonsti- 
tate a part of the rast interior basin of the United States, 
aod are in the form largely of sarannas or treeless tracts, 
in some parts, as in Wyoming and the Dakctas, being sonlp- 
tored into an irrecnhur and CsntasUe relief. The Great 
Plains rise jgradoidly in their oonne westward from the 
Mississippi Kiver, and at the base of the Rooky Mountains 
attain an elerratioo of MM taet. 

Climau. — ^The dimato li rariable and generally healthy, 
bat is sobject to great extremes of heat and eold. The tem- 
perature of the Atlantie eoast is both in winter and for the 
whole year from 10° to S0° lower than that of places of the 
same tatitade in western Bnrope ; bat the climate of the 
Paeilo slope in California and Oregon is milder than that 
of the Atlantie states. In British Ameriea and the north- 
en United States the winters are long and serere. The 
nertli and northwest winds, coming from the northern 
and cmtially refrigerated regions, are not obetructed by 
any chain of moantains, and often reduce the temperature 
errea of the Middle States to 10° or 16° below lero. 

The difTerence between the mean summer temperature 
and that of winter amounts to 44° at Philadelphia and 64° 
at Fwt SnslUng, Minn. The entire range of the thermome- 
ter at Ban Diego, Gal., is about 60° F., but in the At- 
lantie states it is 110° or more. The table-lands of Mexico, 
thoogh in the torrid tone, hare a dcHghtfal and temperate 
*""'r1*. except for liability to long droughts. The extremes 
of heat and cold in the Mississippi Valley ue as great as 
OB the Atlantic coast. In no continental area are far- 
s a e uyi ng atmcepherie disturbances so numerous as in the 
heart of the United States, and the iSuniliar manifestations 
of hnnisane winds, blissaids, and cyclones are alike re- 
markable for the extent of territory which they travene or 
compass as for the destruction which they carry in their 
Baths. The higfaeet temperature recorded m the continent, 
in the desert contact region of California and Arisona, is 
nrofaaUy 118°-123° (shade). Temperatures of 100°-105° 
nave beoi noted in nearly all the non-monntainous tracts 
of the United States. A minimnm temperature of — 60° to 
— 63° has been recorded at Fort Sanders, Wyo., and Fort 
BUis, Mont. In Alaska the winter temperature appears 
sometime* to drop to — M° er still lower. 

The dirtribntion of rainfall orer the greater part of the 
continent east of the 100th meridian is fijrly uniform, rang- 
ing botu about 26 to 40 inches per year. On the Ouff 
boraer the msipitation frequently reaches 60-66 inches, 
and in the Paget Sound tract 80 inches or more. On the 
other hand, in many parts of Nevada and Wyoming the 
amoaat not inflraqnently does not exceed 8-10 inches. Rain- 
lem (praetieally) areas are restricted to the desert r^ons 
of Arisona, Kerada, and southern California. 

Oeotogf and Mineral Betonna. — ^The geological con- 
struction of the North American continent dates Inck to the 
eartiest geological epoch known, and is in the main marked 
by a progreesire erolution <it the land-form as it is now 
represented. Both in the east and in the west rocks of 
iMueotian or Arohaan ages IiaTe been assumed to mark 
oat the fiitare contours of the continent. The grei^ central 
basin is made up largely of Palsesoic deposit^ ranging to 
aod ineloding the Carboniferous, but the vast oappins of 
<Vetaeeoas strata, which extend in practically unbroken 
line tirom the Onlf of Mexico to the Arctic Sea, show that 
daring this period the continent was dirided into an eastern 
and a western halt The Atlantic border, from Long Island 
to Texas, is in the midn made up of Tertiary stra^ sloping 
grsdnally towards the sea, and giving eridenoe of slow 
smergenee f^om, or a steady recession of, the oceanic waters. 
The main mass of the Bo«y Monntaias was also npheaved 
daring the Tertiary period, and they therefore constitute 
a series of " new" mountains as compared with the ancient 
(late Pabeoioie or early Mesosoic) Alleghanies. Eridenoes 
<f exteosire glaoiation during the period of the Oreat Ice 
Age are almost ererywhere puiinly manifost from Labrador 
aad northern New Jersey to the Missouri, and from Hudson 
Bay and the northwest of British Oolnmbia to the 42d and 
SOth parallels of north latitude. 

The mineral resources of the continent are very great, 
aad hare giTcn fields to mining operations of the largest 
oM is * 

QoGl is fMnd (and largely mined, whether as reef- 
goU or in the form of plsoers) orer the greater part of the 

continuous mountain-tract extending from Central America 
to Alaska ; the recent discorcriee in the Klondike, Yukon, 
and Oape Nome regions would seem to indicate that the 
auriferous tract unites with that of Kamtohatka and south- 
central Siberia. ^ 

There an rich silrer-mines in Mexico, Nerada, New 
Mexico, Montana, Utah, and Colorado. Copper abounds in 
the upper peninsula of Michigan (on the shores of Lake 
Superior), In Arisona, etc. Iron, Imd, and eoal abound 
in many of the United States. Antimony, cobalt, nickel, 
platinnin, titanium, quioksilrcr, tin, sine, etc, are also 
round. Large quantities of petroleum are procured in 
Pennsylvania, West ViKinia, Ohio, Kentucky, etc. Natu- 
ral ns oocun orer a wide area in the north-central part of 
the United States and in other regions. The greatest known 
deposits of coal in the world, with the poesibTe exception of 
those of Chins, are those of the United States. 

Fs^etai^ Produetiom. — The flora of the eastern part of 
North America, from the 36th parallel to the Arctic regions, 
is physiognomically that of the north temperate regions 

Smerally, although' it diiTers somewhat markedly from the 
aropean flora in the paucity of nmbeUlferous and cru- 
ciferous plants, in the aMence of heaths, and in the abun- 
dance of attert and tolidago*. The forests of this region 
produce many speciee of oak, maple, ash, beech, birch, 
cedar, hickory, fir, gum, pine, poplar, wild cherry, willow, 
ohestnut, elm, locust, linden, oTprees ( Taxodium), tnlip-tree, 
walnut, etc In the region of the former Northwest Territory 
of Canada and in Alaska the black and white spruce and 
larch pass to and beyond the SSth parallel of latitude. 
Flowering herbaceous plants are a part of the flora of Oreen- 
land as &r north as lat. 82°. Among the forest-trees of the 
southern United States are the Magnolia grandiflora and 
other magnolias, the lire-oak, deciduous cypress, long- 
Icared pine, and palmetto. The flora of western NorUi 
America constitutes a distinct region, — that of California, 
Oregon, etc. It is remarkable for Uie beauty and brilliuit 
color of its flowers and for the magnitude of its coniferous 
trees, many of which are peculiar to that region. Among 
these are the Sequoia gigantaa, which grows 300 feet high, 
with a diameter of 30 feet, the redwcMd (Stquoia umpo'- 
rtrow), the Pin%u ponderota, Pinut Zambertiana, Abies 
Donglatii, and other species of fir. The principal cnlti- 
rated plants aod fruits of the continent are com, wheat, 
barley, oats, cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar-cane, flax, potatoee, 
dOTcr, beans and peas, apples, pears, peaches, grapes, and 
oranges. The flora of Mexico and Central America is, in 
the lowlands, of an essentially tropical character, with a 
rast derdoiHnent of leguminous, onbidaceoas, ncaceons, 
and melastomaoeous plants. The rubber, or wild-flg, and 
the bombax, or silk-cotton tree, are marked constituents of 
this flora. Both on the lowlands and on the highlands a 
rast rariety of cactuses is a marked feature of the regeta- 
tion. The mahogany, logwood, and lignum-rita are also 
parts of the Central Amwican flora. The most important 
cultivated plants are com, sugar-cane, sweet potatoes, in- 
digo, tobacco, coBee, cacao, rubber, and ranilla. 

Zoology. — ^The North Amerioaa fauna, frequently re- 
ferred to as the Nearctio, is pre-eminently — at least in its 
broader featnres — that of the north temperate and Arctic 
regions generally, and hence is, by perhaps most natural- 
ists, united to-day with the faunas of Europe and north- 
central Asia into the one loSgeographieal division known 
as the Holarctio. Many of its commoner mammalian forms, 
such as the wolf, fox (in two or more species), lynx. Polar 
bear, marten, glutton, bearer, elk, reindeer, etc., are iden- 
tical specifically with their representative forms of Enrasia. 
A similar identity unites many of the bird forms, snch as 
the felconines, owl, grouse, raven, etc. Of the more dis- 
tinctive North American animal types may be mentioned 
the griisly bear, bison (very closely related to the bison or 
auroolis of Europe), which is now neariy extinct, stag, 
cougar or panther (pnma or American lion), big-horn or 
Rocky Monntain sheep, the pronghom, and Rocky Moun- 
tain goat, a lanigerous anteMpe. To these may be added 
the raccoon, opoaeum, Canadian poraupine, and the vast 
series of rodents which are known as gophen, pocket-mioe, 
and prairie-dogs. The jaguar enters the United States 
ttmn the south, as do likewise several species of armadillo. 
Monkeys are found in Central America and Mexico. 

Of the distinctively North American birds mention 
should be made of the wild turkey, mocking-bird, robin, 
oat-bird, and sage-grouse ; and partioulariy in the tropical 
and subtropical tracts, of numerous species of parrot, hum- 
ming-bird, tanager, and trogon. 

Among the reptiles are the various horned-toads of the 
arid regions of the southwestern United States, the highly 
venomouB rattlesnakes and moccasins, and, in the south, the 
iguanian lisards, the alligator, and crocodile (penetrating as 
far north as Biscayne Bay, in Florida). 

Digitized by 




B€te4t of Mm. — ^Th« origin of th« indigenoiu population, 
tbe Indiwii, is unluiown. It appears that in not remotely 
prehistoric aces North Ameriea was inhabited by partially 
dTilised ana agrionltural people (mooud-bailders), who 
were perhaps not very, if at all, different firom the sarage 
and nomadic Indians of modem times. Among the mona- 
ments and eridenoes of their ezlstenoe are nnmeroos forti- 
fications, moonds, walls of regalar masonry, pottery, im- 
plements of oopper, etc. The northern part of this conti- 
nent is inhabited oy the Eskimos, who call themselves 
Imani, a raoe of low stature, about 41 or & feet high, sub- 
sisting chiefly on fish, blubber, and the flesh of seals. They 
are ignorant and unoiTiliied, ooming but little id oontaot 
with cirilisation, but with naturally good characteristic*. 
They hare a partially Mongolian aspect, but ue ordinarily 
considered to oe an olbhoot of the North American Indian, 
The so-called "red" men are generally tall, robust, and 
well-proportioned, with prominent cheek-bones, long, coarse, 
blaok hair, and thin beard. The complexion of some tribes 
is copper-red or brown, presenting a eonsiderable diversity 
of shade. Outside of the Spanish-speaking oountries they 
are to a great extent nomadic and predatory in habits, sub- 
sisting mainly by hunting and flshing, but some tribes cul- 
tivate the soil. They are distingnishad for their power of 
endurance and their stoical fortitude and apathy. Thery are 
warlike : many of the trilMs manifest implsioable hostility to 
other tribes. They are in a low state of intelleatnal develop- 
ment, are averse to the restn^nts of education and regular 
industry, and cannot easily be induced to substitute civil- 
ised habits and institutions for thdr wild and primitive 
mode of life. Several tribes in the TTnitid States, however; 
have settled down to a sedentary and progressive mode of 
existence, and the Mexican Indians are lor the most part 
peaceful and industrious. The number of languages spAen 
D^ the aboriginss, including those of South Ameriea, is 
estimated at several hundred. The population of Mexico 
and Central Ameriea consists of Creoles, whitea, mestisoes, 
and Indians. The mestisoes are the ofitoring of white and 
Indian parents. Vast ruins, as those of luUa and Palenque, 
in miyor Mexieo ; of Uxmal and CUchenitsiL in Tnoatan ; 
of Gopan, in Qnatemala, dating back to a period of perhi^ 
1000 years or more, attest a somewhat higher grade of 
civilisation than is now found among the native raees, but 
their origin is still oheonre. They are seemingly the con- 
struction of one or more people* whose nearest of kin are 
the modem Mayas and the Astecs of the period of the 
Spanish conquest. Among the inhabitants of the United 
States are about 10,000,OW) persons of the Afrioan race. 
The Bhiropeaa or white population of this continent con- 
sists mostiy of descendant* or Anglo-Saxons, Germans, Irish, 
Scandinavians, and Spaniards. 

Hittori/.—CiAvaAiat discovered the Bahamas, Cuba, and 
Haiti in 1402, and is generally accorded the distinction of 
being the disooverer oiAmerica, although in all probability 
the Norsemen had landed on the American shores about 
the year 1000. John Cabot disoovered the eoast of North 
America, probably in the neighborhood of Cape Breton, 
inl40T. About 1500, CortereaK a Portuguese, visited the 
eoast of Labrador. Ponce de Leon discovered Florida in 
161S. Oortis and Alvarado conquered Mexico and Central 
America in U19-33. In 152£ Qiovanni Verrasano, a 
Florentine navigator, patronised by Francis I. of France, 
explored the eastern eoast of North America. Jacques 
Oartier aaoended the St. Lawrence in 1635, The Spaniards 
founded St. Augustine in IMi. French ookmis* were planted 
in Canada and English oolonice on the Atlantic coast, but 
in ITSIMH) the former passed under the government of the 
British, and the latter declared themselves independent in 
177S and established the rmublie of the United States, 
whose dominion was extended to the Rocky Mountains by 
the Louisiana purchase in 1803, over a great part of Spanish 
North America through the Mexican war of 184((-t8, and 
over Alaska by purchase in 1807. In 1810-21, Mexico 
threw off the Spanish yoke, and has since remained inde- 
pendent. In 1823 the Ave states of Central America, — 
Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador, 
— having emancipated themselvee ttom the Spanish rale, 
united to form a federal republic The union was dissolved 
in 1830, sinoe which this region has been largdy a seene 
of revolution and anarchy. 

Sooth Ambhica (Fr. Amtriipu! du Sud, Tmi^reek' dB 
sUd; Ger. SUdamtriht, s«d'l.mi're-kl ; Span. Atiriea 
Mtridioual, i-ml're-ki mi-re-de.o-nil'), a vast southwardly 
tapering peninsular continent, connected on the NW. with 
North America by the Isthmus of Panama, is bounded on 
the N. by the Okribbean Se^ on the NE. and E. by the 
Atlantic Ooaaa, and on the W. by the Pacific It extwids 
fttm Puto Galliiias, Colombia, lat. 13° 24' N., to C^ 
Froward, Patagonia, lat. 63° M' S.,— or, with its proloiiga- 
tton in Fuegia, to 63° M' S. (Gape Horn),— a distanje of 

about 4000 mile*. It approaches the south pole almost ez- 
aoUy 1000 miles nearw than Australia, u>d IwO miles nearer 
than Africa ; and it can easily be shown, on the evidence* 
of the line of shallows south oi Patagonia, the disjointed 
Unds (New Shetiands, New Georgia, Graham Land (islaad), 
ets.) lying still ftirther to the south, and the recant discov- 
ery of fossil arauoariuis (South American pins*) on Gra- 
ham Land, that the former i^proach to the pole was still 
greater, pointing perhaps even to a union with an Aataretie 
continent. The greatest breadth of the continent, whieh 
is measured on the latitude of ^tprozimatdy 5° S., is about 
3200 miles. The estimated area is somewhat more than 
0,800,000 sq. m., about three-fourths of whidi lie in the 
torrid sonc There are few deep gulfs or bays, and the 
lane islands immediately adjoining the coast are restricted 
to Trinidad, Joannes or Many 6 (at the month of the Ama- 
son), Tierra del Fuego, Wellington, and OhHoe. The Falk- 
land Islands, lying eastward of the extremitv of Patagonia, 
are sometimes considered to be a part of South America. 
Pop. estimated at between 36,000,000 and 40,000,000. 

Politieal Dtririoiw.— Theee are Braiil, British Guiana, 
Dutch Guiana, French Guiana, Veneniela, Ecuador, Colom- 
bia, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentine lU^Bblic, Uruguay, 
and Paraguay. 

Plain* and Savanna: — The dominant feature* of the 
South American oontinent are constituted by the massive 
mountain-system, Andes or Cordilleras, which define* the 
western or Paoifle eoast, — the most extensive, although not 
the most elevated, mountain^ystem of the globe; — and the 
vast plains and bottom-lands which outline or lie in the 
courses of the principal rivers or mark positions <tf the re- 
ceding floor of the sea. Such are the Gran Chaoo of the 
Parani, the llanos of the Orinoco, the pampas itf Argentina 
and Patagonia, and the wonderAil forest tract of the valley 
of the AmaaiHi, which is the largest continuous forest region 
of the world. It is in this tract that the wonder* and 
manifold variety of a tropical vegetation are beet exhibited, 
and where animal life has been most screened trom the in- 
roads of civilisation. Comparatively few settiements, except 
of rude savages, are fonoa within its area, and the avenues 
of travel remain almost ezelnsively the water-eourses. Oon- 
trasting with this exuberant forest region are the open 
plains that have already been referred to, which are in the 
main treeless, in some places of a distinctly steppe-Uke 
diaraoter, like the llanos of Orinoco, and elsewhere sup- 
porting a luxurious growth of tall grasses. Of this latter 
type are the savannas of the Gran Chaeo, which may be 
taken to be the counterpart of the North American prwies, 
although they bear evidence* of having been at one time 
covered with forest. The campos of Bnail are largely of 
the same charaoter. 

Mountain: — ^As in the case of North America, so in 
South Amerioa mountain-chains define parts of the Iwrders 
of both great oceans, that of the Paeiflo coast oomplately so. 
The Sern de Mantiqueira and the more eastwardly lying 
Serra do Mar are a part of the Highlands of Brsisil, the 
former extending fkom SIo Paulo to near the mouth of the 
Sio Francisco River. It consists of ancient, highly eroded 
rocks, and attains in Itatiaiceafl (Itatiaya) an devatton of 
8900 feet. Leas lofty are the beanttAU and fhntasticaUy 
formed Organ Mountains of the Serra do Mar, or coast 
range, which appear nowhere to attain 7000 feet. They 
are a prominent feature of the scenery of the Bay of Rio de 
Janeiro. More or less lofty mountain elevations, trading 
in a generally N. and 8. direction, occur in the interior of 
Bra^ and Mhers, with, in the main, an cnposed or E. and 
W. course, in Tenesuela and the Gnianas (Aoarai, Parima, 
Pacaraima). The Chuobs table-top mountain, Roraima, one 
of an extensive series of precipitous bluffs giving evidanoe 
of vast erosion, lies on or near the British- Venesucdan iMund- 
aryand reaches an elevation of 7384 feet. 

The main moont^n-syitesn of South Amwiea is, however, 
eonstitnted by the And**, which, removed not genaraliy 
further than about 100 miles ftt>m the coast, follow eloaely 
the contours of the oontinoit, and unquestionably stand in 
direct relation with its trend. The mountains extend in an 
uniBtemmtad line ftom the extremity of Patagonia to the 
most northerly point of Colombia, or over a latttadinal dis- 
tance of mora than 4600 mile*. Throughout meet of this vast 
extent it is unbroken i^ a single water-course cutting its 
passage aoross it. In Colombia toe Andes are deflected into 
three main branches, one of whieh pa**** eastward through 
Tenesuda and show* its bndtea oonUnnation in the islanas 
of the Lesser Antilles, while another frams part of the axis 
of the Isthmus of Pamsma. Among the loftiest or most re- 
markable summits of tile Andean range, many of which are 

dor; lUampB or Sorata (about 22,000 ft.) and IlliBiaiil 

Digitized by 





(tboot S2,000 ft.), non-vokMUiio monnUins in the «Mtern 
diTiaira, or Cordillen Baal, of Bolivia ; Aooneagiia (23,080 
ft., maaiagXj the oulminating point of the WesUm Hemi- 
•pbace), in the Arxsntioe Bcpoblic, and Tupongsto (33,000 
ft.), in CUIe, boA of theea long-eztinet roleanoM. e«e 

BvMTt caul Lata. — South America pMienee the largest 
rirer of the world, the Amaion, whieh has a length rari- 
ooriy eetimated at Arom 3300 to 3600 miles, and is, therefore, 
oonsideraUy shorter than the combined Hissouri-Missis- 
•ippi. Its drainagtt baain has been estimated to cover an 
ana afaoat three.aiiarters of that of the whole of Eorope ; 
aad it ia stated tbat its diseharge is eonnderably greaiter 
than that of all the streams of the United States taken ool- 
Isotivetj. It is navigable in one or more of its head 
bnnehea for 3000 miles from its mouth, and opens an easy 
eommunieation from the Atlantio almost to the base of the 
Andes. It is oonneoted with the Orinoco (through the Rio 
Negro) by a natural and navigable canal called the Casai- 
qoian, the smr&ee here being too low and level to form a 
water-shed between the two basins. The principal tribu- 
taries at the Amaion are the Rio N^ro, Putumayo, Ma- 
deira, Japura, Pnrlis, Tapsjos, and Xingli, each of which 
measures newly, or much over, a thousand miles in length, 
and eonstitntes a navigable stream of great importance. 
(See AjfAiOH.) The Puani, which is the second longest 
ItrMun of South Ameriea, has a course (estimated) of 2100- 
1800 miles, and drains an area about equal to that of the 
Congo or the Missouri-Mississippi. It receives a great 
affluent, the Paraguay, and, together with the Uruguay, 
pours its waters into the Atlantic through a broad estuary, 
the Rio de la Plata. The extreme northern part of South 
Ameriea is drained by the Orinoco, Magdalena, Bssequibo, 
Oaraotyn, and othw rivers. Other ^reat rivers are the 
Xoeantins and the SZo Francisco. &)uth America, like 
Aastralia, is almost entirely wanting in lakes of any mag- 
■itade^ the largest being Titicaca, on the Peruvian-Bolivian 
plateau, whoee snr&oe covers an area about fifteen times 
that of Lake Ctoneva, in Switierlan^ but only about half 
that of Lake Ladoga, in Roaeia, or of Ontario. It is about 
130 miles in lengUi, has a neatest depth of 700 feet or 
more, and holds a position 12,300 feet above sea-level. It 
seeupies part of a vast and ancient lacustrine basin, and 
rives evidenee c^ having stood formerly at a mneh higher 
wvei than it does to-day. It has no seaward discharge. 
Sea TiricacA. 

CUmau,—In the portions of South America which lie in 
die torrid lone the climate is modified by trade-winds, high 
■MMmtaiBS, and ether loeal causes. In the basin of the 
Amason it is not very hot nor very unhealthy, the heat 
Mag tampered by immense forests and the east wind which 
nowally blows up the river. This great plain is remark- 
ule for the small seasonal variation of heat, and enjoys 
pspetual summer. Here the year is divided into two sea- 
sons, the wet and the dry, the former comprising the months 
ftom Marali or April to October or November. Ezoassive 
iiiBs, however, oecnr even outside of this period, and their 
qaaatity and fireqnency are largely iniueaeed by the ab- 
ssDoe or presoioe of forest. Along many parts of the 
Atlaotie eoast the annual rainfall is very moderate, bat it 
is belieTed that over some parts of the great Amasonian 
valley the preeipitation must be fully MO-600 inches or 
BOrcL A narrow, rainless tract, partly in Peru and partly 
in Chile, and measuring nearly 1000 miles in length, is found 
•■ Uie west coast, between the Andes and the sea. Although 
lying mainly in the torrid sons. South America nowhere 
praaanta the extremes of heat (^ either Africa or Asia; 
udead, ita sommsr temperature is less aoeentuated than 
that of the southern United States. The hottest part of 
Sooth Aaaeriea is on the steppes of Caricas, where the high- 
est tamperatura is about 98^00° in the shade. Brasil ex- 
hibits a eoBsidsrabie variety of climate. Pari, near the 
■oath of the Amaaon, has ao equable and delightAil climate, 
with a mean annual temperature of 80°, a maximum of 06°, 
sad a miirimnm of 68^ or 70° F. The mean annual temper- 
store at the eity of Buenos Aires is abont 05°. The highest 
m.TtMnim tempwature is probably found over the plains 
•f the Argentina Republic, where the mercury has been 
known to mark 111°-113° in the shade. The climate of 
the Boothen Patagonian region is almoat subaretio in its 
•CTority, and boisterous and biting winds are very tn- 
•asat. Alonf the soothsm ooast of Chile, which receives 
UM attaok of the northwardly trending Antarctic or austral 
aarrant, low tamperatores prevaiL 

fUra. — This continent is remarkable for the magnitude 
•f its forests, which are estimated to cover two-thirds of its 
MDfMe. TIm basia of the Amaaon and the upper part of 
thstof the Pttuki are rieh beyond description in forest 
vage tatl ua. Palms and melastoases are among its most 
ehiraslsristio forma. The magaiflcent evergreen trees are 

covered, festooned, and draped with parasitical creepers, 
air-plants, and .twining plants (orchideie, tillandsias, lianas, 
etc.), and many of Uiem are adoined to their summits 
with most brilliant flowers. And yet it is probably true, 
as Wallace has carefully pointed- ont, tBat the dis- 
play of flowers, even in this r^on of most exuberant 
vegetation, is leas accentuated than in many parts of the 
north temperate nine. There is nothing to replaee the 
lowland floral vegetation of the daisy, clover, dandelion, or 
poppy field. Among the valuable trees are the cinchona, or 
quinine, which grows in dense associations along the more 
etevated eastern slopes of the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and 
Ecuador ; the rubber or fig, constituting acme of the more 
distinctive types of vegetation of the primeval forest of 
Amasonia ; the braxil-wood, rosewood, cow-tree, braiil-nut, 
Braiilian mahogany, and black-heart. The arauoariana, 
or South American pines, are a part of the vegetation of 
the Andes, extending almost to the limits of forest growth 
in the south. The timber-line even of the equatorial Andes 
is remarkably low, and but few trees, in an arboreal form, 
reach an altitude exceeding 10,000 feet. At least one epe- 
oiesofpalm, the wax-palm {Ceroxylon Andicola), extends 
its home quite to the auow-line. 

Among the cultivated products are eoffee, su^, eacao, 
indigo, maiie, the century-plant {Agace Aaiericaaa), ba- 
nana, orange, pine-apple, oocoanut, gr^ie, mango, ohiri- 
moya, Kuava, tapioca, vanilla, and the matt, or Paraguay 
tea. The potato ia indigenous to this region, and it stiU 
nows wild in parts of Peru. The natives of Bolivia and 
Pern use large quantities of the narcotic and stimulant coca, 
the leaf of the ^ythroxylon Coca, a shrub which grows in the 
tropioal v^eys near the Andes. Among the mountains and 
table-lands of Pern and Ecuador the fruits and plants of 
the temperate lone flourish under the equator. Orain is 
cultivated at elevations of 10,000-12,000 feet. 

Fauna. — ^The fauna of South America, the Neotropical of 
soiigeogn^hers, is richer and more varied than that of any 
other oontinental division of the earth's surface. The 
wealth of types represented by the birds and insects, to 
whieh the luxuriant forest affords a never-failing food sup- 
ply, is especially remarkable. The two most distinctive 
groups of mammals are the quadrumanes (monkeys) and 
edentates, or toothless, animals — the ant-eaten, u-madillos, 
and sloths, whose nearest allies are found in the faunas of 
South Africa and AnstnUia. The monkeys are of the type 
of Uie prehensile-tailed, and, with the exception of the 
small manncaets, or squirrel monkeys, have 36 teeth, as dis- 
tingnishsd from the ape of the Old World, with 32 teeth. 
Their range extends northward into Mexico, to abont the 
19th parauel of latitude. The jaguar and puma, or cougar, 
are the largest of the carnivores, the laUer being found 
throughout nearly the whole of the oontinent. Bears are 
entirely wanting, except in the north Andean tract. The 
wolf is also absent, but its place ia taken by a number of wild 
fox-like doga, which roam over the sonUiem pampean plains 
and savannas. Of the hoofed animals the most prominent 
representatives are the small deer that range through the 
open country from Voiraaela to Patagonia; the tapir and 
peccary, mostly of the lowland forest r^on ; and the llama, 
alpaca, guanaco, and viculla, inhabiting the high moun- 
tain regions of the Cordilleras, and which represent tiie 
camels of the Old World. There are no antelopes and no 
indigenous horses, c^e, sheep, or goats. 

The birds are largely of brilliant plumage, and oomiirise 
among other forms an immense variety of parrots, humming- 
birds, toucans, tanagera (wbich replace the fHngilline birds 
of the north), sugar-birds, troupials, manikins (with the 
lieautifnl cock-of-the-rock), and chatterors (eotinga, bell- 
bird). The almost cosmopolitan crow and raven are all but 
entirely absent, being replaced by the type of the f^uit-crows. 
Of the birds of prey may be mentioned the condor of the 
Andes, the largest of all the rwtorial birds, and distin- 
guished for its wonderful power of flight, and the Braiilian 
harpy-eagle. Two or three species of struthious birds, 
representing the oetrieh of Africa and western Asia, inhabit 
the plains of the southern half of the oontinent. Reptiles 
are very numerous, and they comprise among other forms 
the alligator, crocodile, iguana, boa, anaconda, rattlesnake 
and jararaea, the last, one of the most venomous of all 
serpents. Upward of 2000 species or varieties of fishes ara 
known fitim the Amaion alone, many of which are of a 
marine type. The largest of all fresh-water fishes is the 
giant piragua. 

OtiAogy and UineraU.—Tht most distinctive geological 
elements of the oontinent are the eomparativdy recent 
Andean mountains, whose final elevation in the middle or 
late Tertiary period appears to have been almost coeval 
with Uie main upheaval of Uie Alps ; the ancient, battered, 
and profoundly eroded Highlands of eastern Braiil, whose 
azistenoe evidently dates back, in part at least, to the 

Digitized by 





1 pMn; 

oently ezpoMd ootuiio or laoiutriiie floor ; and the Amaao- 
nian bottom-land, the suooeaaor to a rast Atlantto gulf, 
which has progreuWely been filled in by the detritna oar- 
ried into it by the Amaion and its tribatariee, and whioh 
largely rnireeenta matariali of deatmotion derived from the 
Andes, to the Pampean Formation, of Plioeene or Poet- 
Pliooene age, hare been fonnd many remains of giant 
edentate animals, megatherium, mylodon, megalonyz, 
glyptodon, whioh may perhape Justly oe considered to rep- 
resent ancestral types of some of the edentate animals in- 
habiting the region to-day. Nor is it unlikely that man 
himself already existed in aasooiation with some of these 
animals, as well as with the mastodon and mammoth, which 
an also a part of the extinot South Ameriean fauna. 

Rioh mines of precious metals are fonnd in various parts 
of South America, especially in Bolivia, Chile, Pern, and 
Brazil. The silrer-mlnea of Potosf (Bolivia) and Copiapd 
(Chile) have long been celebrated, and the latter country 
has also been largely productive of copper. Qold is found 
in many parts, and has been actively nuned from the west 
ooast of Colombia to Venetuela and Qaiana. Extensive 
coal and iron deposits are a part of the mineral resources 
of Brasil, which has also for many years been an extensive 
producer of diamonds. Emeralds of purest quality are fonnd 
in Colombia and Venexnela. 

PMnUation and Jtaef. — ^The ruling classes in all the 
South American oouhtriee are descendants of Spaniards, 
except in the case of Brazil, whose rulers are of Portu- 

Siese descent, and in that of British, French, and Dntoh 
niana. A large portion of the population is a mixed race 
of Spanish (or Portuguese) and Indian parentage. The 
aboriginid inhabitant^ as in North America, are Indians, 
of which there are numerous tribes or stocks, speaking 
largely disdmiJar but related langn>«es. They are, as a 
rule, of a less warlike habit than their northern conge- 
ners, but some of the tribes of the Amaion and Orinooo 
basins, as well as the southern Aranoanians, laek little in 
this regard. The differentiation of language would seem 
to indicate long periods of time since the first settlement, 
but little positive is known regarding the primal home of 
these people, or even of the aveanee of their inooming. 
The pampas are inhabited by a mda and turbulent people 
called the Oanohos, who are mestisoes, or half-breeds. Ne- 
groes and mulattoee. descended firom slaves imported fivm 
Afric^ oonstitate a large element in the population of Bra- 
sil. A remarkable anient, or at least prehistoric, dviliia- 
tion is indicated in the oolonal mios of the Andean plateans 
of Pern, Bolivia, and Bonador, which have been described 
as being " unrivalled for siie and exquisite finish, except in 
Egyt^ and Baalbeo." They are associated mainly with 
the Bolivian Aymaris and the Quichnas, of Pern, whose 
dominant tribe was that of the Incas. 

Hutorf. — South America was discovered by Christopher 
Columbus on his third voyage, in 1408. He landed near the 
mouth of the Orinooo Uver. Alonio de Qjeda, a Spaniard, 
accompanied by Amerigo Vespucci, explored the northern 
coasts in 1499. Tespnoci published a narrative of this 
voyage. Vicente Yallei Pinsoo, a Spaniard, and Cabral, 
a Portuguese navigator, discovered Brasil independently in 
1500. Jji 151 3, Vasoo Nu&es de Balboa crossed the Isthmus 
of Darien and discovered the Pacific Ocean. In 1620, Ma- 

esllan (Hagalhaens) sailed through the straits now bearing 
is name. The Spaniards conquered nearly all parts of 
South Amerioa except Braiil, which was subject to the 
King of Portugal until 1822, when an independent empire 
was established. The Spanish colonies revolted in 1810, and 
waged a long war of independence against the royalist Span- 
ish armies, which were finally driven firom the field in 1826. 

America, in Xioaragna, near the month of the San 
Juan River, lying W. of Greytown. 

America, a post-village of Walker eo., Ala. Pop. 
about 150. 

America, a poet-hamlet of Sonoma co., Cal., 30 miles 
N. of Santa Rosa. 

America, a post-hamlet of Pulaski oo.. 111., 12 miles 
N. by B. of Cairo. 

America, a village of Lee Co., Ky., 10 miles B. of 

America City, a post-village of Nemaha oo., Kan., 46 
miles NNW. of Topeka. 

American Comera, a post-hamlet of Caroline co., 
Hd., 6 miles N. of Federalsburg. 

American Creek, of Alaska, is a tributary of Mis- 
sion Creek, in the Eagle mining district. 

American Falls, a post-village of Oneida co.,Idaho, 
on Snake River and on the Oregon Short Line, 82 miles K. 
of Shoshone. Elevation, 4300 feet. The Snake River is 
crossed at this plaee by a bridge 800 feet long, whioh affords 
a fine view of tne Shoshone Alls. Pop. about 100. 

Ameriean Flat, of Storey oo., Nov., is «n the Vir- 
ginia and Tmekee R., about S miles firom Vlrnnia. It is 
a portion cf €h>ld HilL Silver has bean mined here. 

American Fork, a banking city (tf Utah oo., Utah, at 
the Junction of the Oregon Short Line sad the Rio Otanda 
Western R., 34 miles 8. of Salt Lake City. Pop. in 1900, S7SS. 

American RiTer, of Califomia, is formed by three 
branches, called the North, Middle, and South Forks, the first 
and last of whioh unite about 3 miles above Folsom, Sacra- 
mento CO. It runs southwestward about SO miles, and 
enters the Sacramento River at the tAtf of Sacramento. 
The Forks rise in the Sierra Nevada and ran in narrow 
caBons or ravines, which in some plaees are aboat 3000 feat 
deep, Rioh gold-mines occur on uie banks of these forks. 

Amer'icas, a banking post-town, capital of Sumter oo., 
6a., on the Cratral of Cteorgia and the Qeor^ and Ala- 
bama Rs., 04 miles SB. of Columbus and 71 miles S. by W. 
ofHaoon. It has chemloal-worfcs, iron-foundry, and maaa- 
faetures of oarriages, etc It is an important shipping 
point of cotton, and is in a sngar-oaoe and fruit rwrion. 
P<». in 1890, 6398; in 1900, 7074. 

Americna, a post-village of Tippecanoe co., Ind., on the 
Wabash River and Wabash and Brie Canal, 10 miles NB. of 
Lafayette. Pop. 126. 

Americas, a banking post-village of Lyon co., Kao., 
on the Neosho River ana on the Kansas and Texas R., 9 
miles NW. of Emporia. Pop. in 1900, 332. 

Americas, a post-hamlet of Jackson eo.. Miss., 39 
mUes W. by N. of Mobile, Ala. 

Americas, a post-village of Montgomery eo., Mo., 80 
miles W. by N. of St. Louis. 

Ameriseoggin, former name of the AnDBoaoooem. 

Amerkote, im*«r-k9t', or Om^erkote', a town of 
British India, in Sindh, 90 milee B. of Hvderabad. It is 
noted as the birthplace of the Bmperor. Akbar. 

Amerongen, i'mer-oag^, a villaga of the Netlier- 
lands, 21 milee SB. of Utrecht. 

Amersfoort, i,'mtn-tBM\ a town of the Netherlands, 
province of Utrecht, with a port on the Bem, 12} milee NK. 
of Utrecht. Pop. in 1900, about 10,060; of the commnne, 
about 19,600. It has manuihctares of ootton and woollen 
stuffs, glass, silk, and beer, and an aotire trade in dried 
herrings, tobacco, and corn. 

Amersham, am'er^hfm, or AgmonAeskam, • 
market-town and parish of England, in BaeUnghaashire, 
27 miles SE. of Buckingham. The poet Waller was born 
in CoIeshiU, in this parish. Pop. of parish, about 2600. 

A'mery, a banking post-villue ot Polk oo., Wis., on 
the MinneaAwlis, St. Paul and Snit Ste. Marie R., U 
miles NE. of Minneapolis. Pop. in 1900, 905. 

Ames, tmi, a pMt-hamlet of Monroe oo.. 111. P^ 
about 60. 

Ames, a banking ei^ of Stotr oo^Iowa, on the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern R., 105 miles W. of Cedar Rapids. 
It has numufkctures of ploughs, wagons, etc. Ames is the 
seat of the Iowa State Agricultural (Allege, founded in 1869. 
Pop. in 1890, 1276 i in 1900, 2422. 

Ames, a post-Tillage of Dodge oo.. Neb., on the Union 
Pacific R., 64 miles W. of Omaha. Pop. alMut 400. The 
banking point is Fremont. 

Ames, a post-village of Montgomery co., N.T., 48 miles 
W. by N. of Albany. Pop. about 200. 

Ames, a banking post-town of Woods co., Okla., on the 
Frisco System. Pop. 260. 

Ame8feBrr,tmt'b4r-«, shanking post-town of Essex CO., 
Mass., on the M«rrimae River and on the Boston and Maine 
R., 36 miles N. by E. of Boston. It has extmMve manu- 
fhotures of oarriages, ootton and woollen goods, eto. Pop. 
in 1890, 9798; in 1900, 9473. Ameebury was for many 
years the residence of the poet Whittier, whose house is 
retained as a memorial site. 

Amestratns, an ancient name of Mistbstta. 

Amesrille, imi'vll, a post-village of Athens oo., Ohio, 
on Federal Creek, about 30 miles W. of Marietta. P<^ 
about 200. 

Amethyst, a post-village of Mineral oo., Oolo., on the 
Denver and Rio Grande R., 60 miles NW. of Del Norte. 
Gold is mined here. The bulking point is Creede. 

Amfila, Im-fee'li, Amphila, or Hamfila, a bay and 
port on the Red Sea, in Eritrea. Lat. 14" 42' N. ; Ion. 46° 
22' B. Off the port lie the Amfila Islands, 13 in number, 
small, flat, sandy, and uninhabited. 

Amfterille^ ftn^fi^h-veel', a village of France, depart- 
ment of Selne-Inf^rieure, 4 miles f^«m Roaen. 

Amga, &m-gi', a river of Siberia, government of Ta- 
kutsk. It rises in the Aldan MoBntain^ about lat. 68° N., 
Ion. 126° 30' E., flows NE., and fUls into the Aldan River 
in Ion. 135° B. Length, 460 miles. 

Amginsk, fan-gheensk', a village of Siberia, on the 
Amga, which is here about 8000 feet wide. It U a posting- 

Digitized by 





•teMoB and hnj on the my batwcen T«kaUk ud Okhotsk. 
Ut-HfTS.; h>n.l3S°B. 

ABhmiSt im-hi'ri, » dlTliion of AbyanDim. It oom- 
prina Abyvtni* proper 8W. of the Taka^, and inoladei 
the dietriet of Oigam, extending 8. to about the parallel of 
10° N. Amhan wai formerly one of the moit powerfU 
itstei of Abyaiaia. The ohief oity la Gondar. See Abts- 

Aaiherat) am'frat, a aea^rt of Tenaaeerlm, Banna, on 
Amhant pesinanla, 30 milea 8W. of Haolmain. Lat. 16° 
4' N. ; km. 97° 46' S. Pop. about 3000. It was founded 
to 182C. The harbor is apaeiona and aeeure. 

Aiikerstt the northemmoet diatriot of Tenaaaerim, 
Borma, boonded B. by Siam and W. by the Bay of Bengal. 
It ia mouatainoua in the K. and allarial in the W. Capi- 
tal, Manlmain. 

Anherat, a eoon^ in the aonth^oentral part of Tir- 
' giaia, hai an area of M4 aq. m. It ia bounded on the 8B. 
sad 8W. bythe Jamea lUver. The Blue Ridge extends 
akog the MW. border of the oounty, and the anrfaoe pre- 
taots beautifnl aeenery. Capital, Amherat. Pop. in 1800, 
17,561: in 1900, 17,804. 

Amherst* a post-townahip (town| of Hansoek oo., Me., 
S miles B. of Bangor, is inteiseoted oy Union RiTor. Pop. 
in 1900, 384. 

AmlieTSt, a banking poat-rillace of Amherst township 
(town), Hampshire oo., Mass., on the Central Vermont and 
the Boston and Maine Bs., 9 miles NB. of Northampton 
sad 4 milea E. of the Connectiont Rirer. It is the seat of 
Amherat College, founded in 1821. This eollege, one of the 
leading inatitutiona of lewning in New Bnglsnd, ia situated 
SB an oninsnoe whioh commands an extenalre and beautiful 
riew. It has an annual attencfauee of about 400 students, 
a library of orer 70,000 rolnmes, important Assyrian ool- 
IsetioBS, geologieal oabineis, eto. Associated with the ani- 
reni^is the Lawrence Obserratory, in lat. 43° IT 17" N., 
Ion. 73° 31' 10" W. Amherat has mannfaetures of palm- 
laaf, leather, etc Here ia the Maaaaehoaetts State Agri- 
esHural Oollwe, founded in 1847. Amherat was the home 
of Emily Diekinson. 

Amkent, a township (town) of Hampshire oo., Mass., 
is noted for its beaotiftil soenery and edaoationri institn- 
tiaas. It contains Tillages named Amherat (which is the 
scat of Amherst College), North Amhent, and South Am- 
herst. Pop. in 1900, 6038. 

Aaihent, a poat-township of Fillmore co» Minn., about 
33 miles 88W. (rf Winona and 7 mils* E. ot Preston. Pop. 
in 1900, 787. 

Aauflrat, a post-rillage of Buffalo co., Neb,, on a branch 
sf the Union Paeifle R., about 16 miles NW. of Kearney. 
Pool in 1900, 183. 

Aaihent, a post-rUlaga of Hill*boi<o oo., N.H., is in 
Amherst township (town), about 38 miles 8. 1^ W. of Oon- 
eeid and 63 miles NW. of Boston. Pop. of the town in 
INO, 1331. 

AaUierst, a township (town) of Brie eo., N.T., contains 
WiUiamsTille and other Tillages, has a line sulphur spring, 
sad prodneea hydraulic cement. Pop. in 1960, 4333. 

Aakerstt a post-Tillage of Lorain eo., Ohio, on the 
Uke Shore and Michigan Southern R., 30 miles W. by 8. 
of QeTeland and 4 miles 8. of Lake Brie. Here are quar- 
ries of aandstone and manuiaotories of grindstonss. 

Aaherst« a banking post-Tillage, aiq>ital of Amherst 
so., Va., on the Southern R., 14 mllee N. by B. of Lynch- 

ben. Pop. in 1900, 690. 

AjBkerst, a banking poet-Tilla«eofPortageoo., 
Amherst townahip (town), on the Waupaca RiTer and on the 

>.,Wi8., in 

Wiaeonsin Central R., 48 miles WNW. of Menasha. It has 
TBrions manufactures. Pop. in 1900, 668 ; of the town, 1436. 

Anherst, a mining-borooKh in Talbot co., Victoria, 
Aaatralla, near the town of Talbot, on the Ballarat-Donald 
R., in lat. 37° 8' 8., loa. 143° 46' B. 

Amherst, formerly Fort Lawrence, aport of entry 
af NoTa Sootla, the capital of Cumberland co., on an arm 
af Cnmberlaod Bay and on the Intercolonial R., 9 miles 
from Baekrille, N.B., and 138 miles W. by N. of Halifax. 
It has shoe- and other ihetories, tanneries, iron-fDundries, 
ate., umI is the centre of a large trade, especially in lumber 
sad ship-bnildin^. Pop. in 1901, 4963. 

Amherat, a station on Amherst Island, in the Gulf of 
St. lAwrence. 

AmOierstbiirg, a banking pott of entn- of Essex oo., 
Ontario, on the Detroit RiTer, near Lake Brie^ and on the 
lG<Aigan Central B., 18 mile* 8. of Detroit. It has Tarioua 
■sa aft e tnr as. Pop. in 1901, 3333- 

Amherst Coart«Honse, Amherst co., Va. See Am- 


Aiaherst Island, an island near the entranoe to the 
Bay of Quintey W. of Kingston, Ontario. Its French name 

Amherst IsIsbA, one of the Blagdalen group, in the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 149 miles SB. of Perol. On its S. 
point b a light-hoose. Lat. 47° 13' N. ; Ion. 61° 68' W. 

Amherst IsIanAs, a group lying W. of the SW. ex- 
tremity of Korea. 

. Amherst Isles, off the coast of Arakan, between Che- 
dnba and the mainland. Lat. 18° 46' N. ; Ion. 94° E. 

Amherst Junction, a post-hamlet of Portage eo.. 
Wis., in Amherst township (town), 1} miles NW. of Am- 
herst Tillage, on the Wisconsin Central R., 70 miles W. of 
Oreen Bay. Pop. of Amherst Tillage in 1900, 668 ; Vif the 
town, 1436. 

Aminta, Monte, a Toloanic mountain of Italy, in the 
Tuscan Snbapennines. Height, 6689 feet. 

AmicalO'la, a post-station of Dawson co., Ga. 

Amicn, i-me-koo', or Amnen, i-moo-koo', a described 
lake of Sonth America, near the common frontier of BradI 
and Britiah Guiana, between the rivera Bnpanony and 
Takutn. The country of this lake was the El Dorado of 
the daya of Queen Elisabeth. It was known as "the great 
lake with golden banks ;" and within a few miles of it was 
supposed to stand the far-famed, imperial, and golden city 
of Manoa, the objeot of the unfortunate expedition of Sir 
Walter Raleigh. 

AmMa, I'ml-d&, an aadeat oity, on the site of wiiich 


Amiens, am'e-ens (Fr. pron. I'me-is^ ; anc. Samara- 
bri^va, afterwards Ambia'n^, a town of France, ouital of 
the department of Somme (Pioardy), 84 milea N. of Paris, 
on the Somme, whose numerous canals within the town 
afford great &oilities for manuAtoturing. It was once a 
plaoe of strength, but its ramparts hsTC been replaced by 
DonlcTards, whioh enoirole the town. Amiens is dirided 
into the upper and the lower town. The former ha* wide 
and regular atreeta, with honaea built on a uniform' plan. 
The latter ha* narrow streets, and is thnraghont so inter- 
sected by the ramifications of the Somme and the numer- 
ous bridges orer th«n, as to hare made Louis XI. giTO it 
the name of " little Venice." The most oonspicuons ediBce 
of Amiens is its cathedral, one of the meet magnificent in 
Europe, founded in 1330. It ia 470 feet in length, with a 
trannpt 313 feet across. Other buildings of not* are the 
Hfttel d* Villa, Palais de Justice, the H&tel-Dieu, or general 
hospital, the museum of art and antiquities (Husie de Picar- 
die), and the Bibliothique Commnnalc, a hudsome edifice, 
with a peristyle of Done columns, and a library of nearly 
100,000 Tolnme*. Amiens has Tarious learned aooietiee and 
is a litstary oentre of eonsiderable importance. There is a 
prmaratory sohool of medicine and pharmacy. It is a 
bishop's see. Amiens has extensire manufactures of cotton 
TclTrt, kerseymere, serges, plush, drugget, cambric, tapes- 
try, cotton and linen fabrics, merinos, silks, msohinery, 
chemicals, beet-sugar, paper, milliners' goods, confections, 
etc. The spinning of flax and worsted ta also one of Uie 
great staples of Amiens. The Peaoe ot Amiena between 
Bngland, cm one aide, and France, on the other, was con- 
cluded March 27, 1802. Pop. in 1901, 86,397 ; of the com- 
mune, 00,768. 

Amiens, a poat-Tillag* in Middlesex eo,, Ontario, 6 
milee NW. of Strathroy. 

Amikirrima, fc'me-kMr-ree'mt, or Kerama, kk- 
ri'mi (Chinese, Xmni-than, koo'me-shln' ; Jxp. Kumiga- 
SHi, koo^me-yi'm&), a group of small fwtile and populoos 
islets, 36 miles SW, of Great Liu-kin Island, 

Amiraate (am Vrant') Islands (Port, Ithat do Abni- 
rante, eel'yls do tl-me-rtn'tl, — i.e., "Admiral's Islands"), 
an arohipelago in the Indian Ocean, SW. of the Seychelles. 
Lat. about 6^ 30' 8. ; Ion. 63° 10' E. They consist of two 
groups of small islands, united by banks of sand and coral, 
and are claimed by Great Britain sa a dependency of the 
oolooy of Mauritius, They hare a populauon of about 100 
(mixed negroes and whites), and are mainly Tisited for 
their turtle fisheries. 

Amis, a. post-Tillage of Hawkins co,, Tean,, 4 miles B. 
of RogersTille, its banking point. Pop. abont 260, 

A'mish, a post-rillage of Johnson oo,, Iowa, 16 miles 
SW. of Iowa City. 

Amisia and Amisins, ancient namee of Ehs. 

AmissTlIle, t'mis-Til, a post-Tillage of RappiAannook 
CO., Va., 13 miles W, of Warrenton and about 100 milea N. 
by W. of Richmond. 

Amisns, an ancient city of Pontua. See Sahsitn. 

Amite, am-eet', a river which rises in the SW. part of 
Mississippi and passes into Louisiana. Its general direc- 
tion is southward, but after forming the boundary between 
Bast Baton Rouge and Liringstone parishes it runs eastward 
until it enters Lake Maurepas. Length, about 100 miles. 
It is navigable for small steamboats for 60 mile*. 

Amite, a county in the SW. part of Mississippi, bor- 
dering on LouisiaBa, has an area of 708 sq. m. It is in- 

Digitized by 





tenwted by the Amite Birer, and bounded ota the NW. 
by the Homoohitto. Cspitftl, Liberty. Pop. in 1890, 18, 198; 
in 1900, 20,708. 

Amite» s banking poet-town, the capital of Tannp^oa 
parish. La., on the TanKipahoa River and on the Illinois 
Central R., 68 miles NNW. of New Orleans. It has numa- 
facturea of ootton-gins. Pop. in 1900, 1M7. 

Amiter'namt an ancient town in Italy, 3 miles MB. 
of Aquila. It was the birthplace of Sallust. 

Amity, a poet-village of Clarke oo., Ark., on the Foarohe 
Caddo, 28 miles NW. of Arkadelphiik wbieh is its railroad 
and banking town. It has saw-mtlls and a cotton-gin. 
Pop. of the township in 1900, 1400. 

Amity, a post-Tillage of Prowers co., Colo., on the Atchi- 
son. Toj)eka and Santa Fi R. Pop. aboat 300. 

Amity, a post-village of Johnson eo., Ind., on Sugar 
Creek and on the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. 
Louis R., 25 miles S. by E. of Indianaoolis. 

Amity, a post-iiamlet of Soott oo., Iowa, about 13 miles 
NW. of Davenport. Pop. 80. 

Amity, a post^ownsnip (town) of Aroostook oo.. Me., 
16 miles S. of Houlton. Pop. in 1900, 401. 

Amity, a banking post-village of Dekalb oo.. Mo., on the 
Chicago, Bock Island and Pacific R., 6 miles W. of Mays- 
ville and 26 miles E. by M. of St. Joseph. Pop. 100. 

Amityt, a township (town) of Allegany oo., N.Y., in- 
cludes Belmont. Pop. in 1900. 2216. 

Amity, a post-village of Orange co., N.T., near IHne 
Island Station, and 30 miles SW. of Newbnrg. Tourma- 
line, epidote, corundum, spinel, and other minerals are 
found here. Pop. about 100. 

Amity, a post^tation of Iredell co., N.C., 6 miles &om 
Trontman's Station. 

Amity, a village of Knox oo., Ohio, 6 miles from How- 
ard Station. 

Amity, Madison co., Ohio. See West CiUiAAic. 

Amity, a post-town of Yamhill co., Oregon, about 40 
miles SW. of Portland. Pern, in 1900, 292. 

Amity, a township of Berks co., Pa. Pop. in 1900, 
1872. It contains OouglassviUe and Amityville. 

Amity, a township of Erie oo., Pa. Pop. in 1900, 936. 

Amity, a post-village of Washington Co., Pa., 40 miles 
8. by W. of int^bnrg. 

Amityrille, a banking post-village of Suffolk oo., 
N.T., on the Long Island R., 31 miles E. of Brooklyn and 
i mile trma the 8. shore of Long Island. Pop. in 1990, 

Amiia, &m'If-f, sometimes written Am'la or Amiai, 
one of the Alentiaa Islands, Andreanof group. Lon. of B. 
point, 172° 60' W. 

Amlwoh, am'look, a seaport town and urban district of 
Anglesey, Wales, on its N. coast, 15 miles NW. of Beau- 
maris. Pop. of district in 1901, 2994. Near here are the 
Parys and Mona copper-mines. It has smelting-works. 

Amma, a post-hamlet of Roane co., W.Va. 

Am'maa (ane. Babbah, or St^bcuh Amiwm, the capi- 
tal of the Ammonites, rebuilt and called Philadelphia by 
the Oreeks), a ruined city of Palestine E. of the Jordan, near 
the head of the valley <a the Jabbok, 66 miles BNB. of 

Ammeberg, im'meh-bjng, a town of Sweden, on Lake 
Vetter, 24 miles from Motala. It has lino-mines. 

Ammeloe, a town of Prussia, in Wes^halia, 36 miles 
tnm MUnster. Pop. in 1900, 3T13. 

Am'mendale, a post^tation of Prince George co., Hd., 
en the Washington branch of tho Baltimore and Ohio R., 

13 miles NB. of Washington. 

Ammer, lm'm«r, a river of WUrttemberg, a tributary 
ef the Neokar, whioh it joins near TttUngen. 

Ammer, or Amper, &m'pfr, a river of Bavaria, rises 
in Tyrol, and joins the Isar 2 miles N. of Hoosburg. 

Ammer, a lake of Bavaria, traversed by the Ammer 
River, is 10 miles long from N. to 6., by 4 mues wide. 

Ammergan, im'mer-gaw^ Obbb, o'bfr. Mid UimB, 
BSn'tfr, two adjacent villages of Bavaria, on the Ammer, 
miles from its souroe. See Obib AviiBReAV. 

Ammersciiweier, Im'mfrsh-AI'fr, a quunt old town 
of Alsaoe, 3 mile* NW. of Colmar. Pop. about 1600. 

Ammer«tol,lm'mfr8-tol', a village of the Netherlands, 

14 miles E. of Rotterdiun, on the Lek. 

Ammie, a post-village of Clay co., Ey., aboat 10 miles 
NB. of Manchester. Pop. about 100. 

Am'mitok% an island off the NB. coast of Labrador, 
between 70 and 80 mites SB. of the entrance into Hudson 

AmmoB, im'mon, or Amden, im'dfn, a viUaoa of 
Switierland, in the canton of St. Oall, 8 mile* WNW. of 

AjN'moB, a post-station of Bladen co., N.C. 

AmmOB, or AmmoBinm. See BtwAM, 

Abuboboo'sbc, or laower AmmoBoeaac, a rivet 

of New Hampshire, rises in Coos co., on the W. slopes of the 
Presidential Range, flows westward and then southwest- 
ward through Orafton oo., and mters the Connectiont at 
Wells River. It is nearly 100 miles long, and receives the 
Wild Ammonoosuc at Bath. The upper portion of the 
river is noted for its picturesque scenery. See Uppbb 
AHHONOOsno and Wild AmiiomoOsdc. 

AmmOBOOsac StatiOB, now known as Manhfield, 
in the White Mountain region of New Hampshire, is the 
lower or iMaal station of the Mount Washington R. Its 
elevation is 2670 feet above sea-level, and from this point 
the railroad ascends 3626 feet in 3 miles." 

Amo, i'mo or I'mo, a poet-village of Hendricks oo., 
Ind., on the Terre Haute and Indianapolis B., 26 miles W. 
by S. of Indianapolis. Pop. about 300. 

Aflioa, &-m6'&, a port on the K coast of the island of 
Savaii, Ssmoaa Islands. 

Amol, &^mol', a city of Persia, in Maxanderan, on the 
Herai, 12 miles above its entrance into the Caspian and 20 
miles W. by S. of Balfmsh. Pop. about 10,000. 

AmttBeDorg, l-mb'nf h-b65Ra\ a town of Prussia, in 
the district of Cassel, 7 miles BSK of Marburg. Pop. 800. 
It was the seat of a famous Benedictine convent in the 
Middle Ages. 

Amoo, a river of Asia. Bee Ahd-Dabta. 

Amoochta, an Aleutian island. See Ahckta. 

AiBOO'Darya. See Akc-Dabta. 

Amoor. See Ahdk. 

Amor, a post-hamlet of Ottertail oo., Hinn. Pop. 
about 60. 

Amorback, &'mor-b&K% a town of Lower Ftanponia, 
Bavaria, on the Mudau, 41 miles SSE. of Frankfort-(»i-the- 
Mun. Pop. 2200. 

Am'oret, a post-town of Bates oo.. Mo., on the Kansas 
City, Pittsburg and Quif R., 70 mile* S. of Kansas City. 
Pop. in 1900, 216. 

Amorgopalo, i-moB'go-poo'Io, a small island in the 
Grecian Arehipelago, S. of Amorgos. 

Amor'gos, or Amorgo, ft-moB'go, an island in the 
Oieclan Andiipelago, one of the Spondee, but indadod in 
the nom* of Uie Cydades, 18 miles SE. of Naxos. Lat. of 
capital, S«° 62' N. ; lon. 26° 64' E. Pop. about 3600. It 
contains the town of Amorgos, or Choia. 

Amorita, a banking town of Woods oo., Okla. 

A'mory, a Iwnking poet-town of Monroe eO., Miss., 
on the Kansas City, Memphis and Birmingham R., 83 miles 
WSW. of Holly Springs. It has hardware manufactures, 
etc. Pop. in 1900, 1211. 

A'mos, a banking post-villMe of Marian co., W.Va., 
about 10 miles from Fairmont. Pop. about 400. 

Amoslceag, am'6s-keg', a former post^village of Hills- 
boro CO., N.H,, on the Merrimac River, 16} miles by rail 
S. of Concord and forming part of tile city of Manchester. 
Here are extensive manufactures of cotton goods. The 
Amcskeag Falls afford abundant water-power. 

Amon, l^moo', a town of France, department of Landes, 
on the Luy, 13 miles SW. of St. Sever. Pop. about 700. 

Amonr Foiat, a headland on the SB. side of Foiteau 
Ba^, Labrador. Lat 61° 27' N. ; ton. 6«° 60' W. On it U 
a liKht-honse, 

Amoy, i-moi', a seaport town of China, on an island 
of the same name, province of Fo-kien, lat. 34° ^ N., 
lon. 118° 8' E., nearly opposite the centre of the island 
of Formosa. The name is a corruption of the Chinese word 
Hiamun. It is situated at the S. end of the island, at the 
mouth of two united rivers, one of whioh oommunioate* 
with the populous city of Chang-chu-fu, and its harbor is 
one of the best on the Pacific. The streets are narrow and 
dirty, but many of the buildings are of great sise. The 
foreign imports comprise cotton, cotton gowls, ootton yarn, 
opium, metals, clocks, betel-nut, indigo, pepper, rattans, 
rice, grain, etc The native exports are tea, camphor, opiun, 
sugar, sngar-oandy, gold-leaf, earthenware, paper umbrella*, 
paper, joss-paper, grass-cloth, etc. The place has loot its 
prominence a* a centre of the tea trade. Amoy was oqitttred ' 
by the British in 1841, and by the treaty of Nanking, 1842, 
this port, witb others, was opened to their trade. A supple- 
mentary treaty, in 1843, established a tarilf and admitted 
oUier foreigners to the same privileges as British snl^eota. 
The population — mostly employed in the coasting trade — 
was In 1897, 96,370 ; of the island, about 400,000. 

Amoaoc, iUmo-sok', a town of Mexico, on the Mexican 
Southern R., the highest point of the line (7600 feet), !>•- 
tween Puebia and Oaxaoa, 11 miles from Pnebla. 

Ampaaam, Im-pl'nlm, a town of the Malay Archi- 
pelago, on the W. coast of the island of Lombok. It ha* a 
poor roadstead, but oonsiderabl* trade. 

Ampeiakia, a town of Greece. See Ahbblakia. 

Ampert a river of Bavaria. See Ahkbb. 

Digitized by 


Amperaaiid Mountain 



Am'pennmi Hoiilit«ui,N.T.,» p«akof the AtUron- 
iaata, u in Fraokliii oo., between Mount Seward and the 
Lower 6«ranao Lake. Altitadts 3432 feet. lu summit oom- 
■aods a beautiful riew of the Saranae Lake region. At it« 
8. base a a unall lake called Ampersand Pond, of which the 
deration is 2078 feet. 

AKpezzo, im-i^'so, or Cortiaa d'Ampesso, a 
viflage of Anatiia-Hangaiy, in Tyrol, 25 miles SE. of 
Btizen. It ia situated at an elevation of 3905 feet, in the 
beautiful Ampenothal, one of the favorite tourist-oentiee 
amooK the Dolomitee— -a valley surrounded by some of the 
most Impeaing stunmits of the Eastern Alps (Monte Cris- 
laUo, 10,490 feet; SorspU, 10,8iO ft.; Monte Civetta, 
10,M0 ft.; Monte Anteleo, etc.). 

Ampexxot lm-p4t'so, a village of Northern Italy, 11 
miles W. of Tolmexxo. 

AaipCaC) imp'finz, a village of Bavaria, 6 miles by 
nil W. of Mtthldwf. Here Morean commenced his bmoos 
retreat in 1800. Pop. 1165. 

AnipUla) a_ bay and port on the Red Sea. See Ahfila. 

AaipUp'oliSt in ancient geogr<4>hy, a city of Mace- 
donia, on the Strymon, a short distance above its mouth, in 
the JBgem. Originally a Thracian town, it was colonised 
by the Athenians, from whose rule it pasMd under that of 

Ampliissa) a town of Oreece. See Saloha. 

Anphitrite (am-fe-tri'tee) l8lanA«, a part of the 
group of the Paracels, in the China Sea, lying to the SE. 
of Hainan. 

Aai^ias') a port of Formosa, on its W. coast, is small, 
and important only as the port for Tai-wan, which is 4 
Biles distant. 

AmplepviSt iM^plfh-pwee', a town <rf' Franoa, in 
RhOne, 19 miles by rul V. of ViUefranche. Pop. in 1901, 
M80 (oommiine2 6944). 

Ampoato, tm-pos'ti, a town of Spain, in Catalonia, on 
the Bbro, IS miles bom its month and 8 miles below 
Tortoaa. Pop. (commune) 4000. 

AMtpt'hUI, a market-town of England, oo. and 8 miles 
8. by W. of Bedford. Pop. in 1901, nTT. 

Ampntlia, im-poo'ce-i, a town of Spain, 18 miles 8W. 
of Paloieia. Pop. (commune) 1500. 

AaipaiSt Aii'pwee', a vUImo of France, department of 
BbAne, oo the Rhone, 3 miles from Condrien. 

Ampardtet ftm-poon-din', a district of Spain, provinoe 
of Crtalnnia, between the river Ter and the town of Rosas. 
It is the moat fertile district in the province. 

Aaipavias* Im-poo're-fts, a poor hamlet of Spain, in 
Catatonia, on the site of a flourishing city (the anc Enpo- 
rue), with a small hKrbor on the Oolf of Roeas. It is adja- 
ecDt to, and now a small suburb of, the town of La Esoala. 

Aataai, a poat- village of Rimooski co., Quebec, Canada, 
OB the Intereolonial R, 

AMran, im^rln', a walled town of Arabia, Yemen, 25 
Biles imw. of Sana. 

Amraotlj&m-rf-o'tee, or Amrawatti, im-ra-wlit'tee, 
a eity of British India, o^)ital of the district of its own 
name, on the Bombay-Kagpur R., 28 miles SE. of Elliohpur, 
It is a large eotton-mart and an important seat of the tex- 
tile indnstnr. Pop. about 35,000. 

AMimoti, or Amrawatti, a district of East Berar, 
Britiah India. Capital, Amraoti. 

Am'ri^, a viUage of Sindh, on the right bank of the In- 
daa, 18 miles SSW. of Sehwaa. It was formerly a town 
of importance. 

Aairill, ftm-ree'le, or Umrili, iim-ree'le, a walled town 
of tke Oaikwar's dominions^British India, on the Kathi- 
wsr peninsula, 130 miles SW. of Ahmedabad. Bstimated 
pon. about 15.000. 

Aai'ciswil, a town of Switierland, in the canton of 
Thorgan, 10 miles from Constance. Pop. in 1900, 3469. 

Amritaar, fim-rit'sv, or Amrit^air, written also 
Vmrftslr, tm^t'sir, a eity of Britiah Indl% capital of 
a £atriet of the Pnigab, in the Bari Doab, 3S miles E. 
af Lahore and 830 mila by rail NW. of Delhi. LaL 31" 
WW'S.; Ion. 74° 5«' B. The 8h<v< and basaars exhibit, 
in great abandanea, the richest prodncts of India. Amrit- 
sarnaa long been eelebrated as a holy place of the Sikhs, pos- 
sweliig a saored temple sitoated on an island in the centre 
•f a raaerroir or tank abont ISO paces square, constructed 
in U81 hj Bam Das, the fourth q>iritnal leader of the Sikhs, 
who g»Te to the work the name of "Amrita Saras," or 
"tMrnt of immortality." But the meet remarkable oit)eat 
ia th« (own i« the lar« fortress built by Rnqjeet Singh, 
safToaaded by a deep ditch of abont 2 miles' circnit. A 
caaal was eonstmetad by the same ruler fkom Amritiar to 
ths Bavi, a distaaee of aboot 80 miles. The staple maon- 
CMtans are AawU (imitations of Kashmir shawla), sillu, 
aad woollea and ootton elotlis. Amritsar If the landing 
tzadtaf-plaea in the Punjab. Vof. in 1901, 102,548. 

Aairaa, am-roo'l, Aairoha, or Umrohah, ikm-ro'L 
a town of Rohilonnd, British India (United Provinoea of 
Agra and Oadh), diiitrict and 20 miles NNW. of Morada- 
biul. Pop. about 35,000. 

Aairum, im'rfiSm, or. Amrom, a ere8oent.shaped 
island of Prussia, in the North Sea, about 17 mllee from 
the mainland of Scbleswig. Pop. abont 900. It has many 
remains of ancient atone and earthen monument*. In 
recent years it has become a bathing-resort. 

Amabry, a post-village of Cambria oo.. Pa., on the 
Pennsylvania R. 

Amsckelberg, Im'shtl-bene^ a village of Bohemia, 28 
miles S. by B. of Prague. 

Ama'aiea, a post-village of Montcalm oo., Mich., 44 
miles MW. of Lansing. 

Ajaadea, a post-village of Seneca co., Ohio, on the 
Lake Erie and Western R., 11 miles NW. of Tiffin. 
I Aaiadea, a post-hamlet of Windsor co., Vt., 6 miles 
NE. of Cavendish. 

Amateg, a village of Switzerland, in the canton of Uri, 
1\ miles S. by E. of Altdorf, on the St. Gotthard railway. 
Elevation, 1712 feet. 

Aaiatel, im'stfl, a small river of the Netherlands, 
North Holland, formed by the union of the Drecht and the 
Mydrecht, traverses the city of Amsterdam, and enters its 
harbor alVer a northward course of about 10 miles. 

Amstelveea, &m'stel-vain' ("turf or turf-lands of the 
Amstel"), a village of North Holland, near the Amatel, 5 
miles SSW. of Amsterdam. 

Am'aterdam (Dutch pron. Im'stfr-d&m'), formerly 
Amatelredamme, or Amateldamme (the " dike or 
dam of the Amstel ;" L. AiM(e<o<2a'mHm), the commercial 
capital of the kingdom of the Netherlands, in North Hol- 
land, at the former confluence of the Amstel with the Y, a 
lake-like arm of the Zuider Zee, which has been converted 
into an excellent harbor, aad whose waten have been di- 
rected into a central canal, traversing the peninsula of 
North Holland and giving to the city a port on the North Sea. 
This great North Sea ship-oanal is 15 miles long, 65 to 110 
yards in width, and 30 feat in depth. Its level lies 20 
mehes below the general level of the Amsterdam waters. 
The cost of construction, inclusive of the protecting dikes, 
was about 40,000,000 florins. Smaller vessels reach Am- 
sterdam by the canal from the Helder, or may pass the 
looks in the great dam of the Y, enterinlg from the Zuider 
Zee. The city is the terminus of important railways and 
canals. Lat. 62° 22' 5" N. ; Ion. 4° 53' 2" E. It is the 
IJirgest and most important town in Holland, constitution- 
ally its capital, although the residence of the sovereign is at 
the Hague. Amsterdam stands on soft, wet ground, under 
which, at the iefVk of from 20 to 50 feet, is a bed of sand. 
All of the buildings are reared on piles driven into this sand. 
In the centre of most of the streets, many of which display 
shops of great elegance and are the focus of a bns;^ life, is a 
canal, either side of which is lined with broad, brick-paved 
onays, with rows of trees. The Kalver Straat is one of the 
otiief thoroughfares, and exhibits the aotivity of the city in 
a most marked and picturesque d^ree. The city is cut up 
into 90 islands by the canals (Orachtn), over which there 
are about 300 bridges, generally with a draw in the centre. 
The Singet-Oraekt, upward of six miles in length, sepa- 
ratee the old, semicircular town from the new quarters 
which have developed during the last 30 years. Toe ves- 
sels to i>e seen in all parts of the city, loading and unload- 
ing and passing along the canals, the lifting and lowering 
of drawbridges, the transit of merchandise on sledges, and 
the gmeral stir of business give the streets of Amsterdam 
an au of most striking animation. 

Among the most remarkable buildings is the Royal Palace 
{Bet Ptutit), formerly the town-hall, and completed in 1655. 
It is a stone edifice, in the form of a patsUelogram, 262 feet 
long, 206 feet broad, and 108 feet high, resting on 13,659 
piles driven 70 feet into the gronnd. It contains a great 
hall, 117 feet long, 57 feet wide, and 100 feet high, lined 
with white Italian marble. The new StadtAuit, the Bourse, 
the Bijk4 Muteum (constructed in 1877-85, and covering 
nearly 3 acres of gronnd, with magnificent collections of 
art and manufacture and the finest picture-galleries in 
Holland after those of the Hague), Municipal Museum 
(1892-95), Fodor Museum, and Six Museum are noteworthy 
stmetures. The numerons docks and badns are an inter- 
esting feature of the city . The New Chnroh ( Ifieuw* K*rk), 
founded in 1408, is 350 feet tong by 210 feet wide across 
the transepts. It eontains the tomu of Admiral De Bny- 
ter, of the poet Vondel, aad of other notables. The Old 
Chnreh {Oud* Ktrk), founded about 1300, contains the 
tombs of several Dutch admirals and an organ said to be 
second only to that of Haarlem. Amsterdam is remarkable 
for the number and excellence of its beoevolent aad chari- 
table institutions. 

Digitized by 





It pomiM* muy ezoeII«nt cdoeational inatitntioiiB, both 
of ajrananlkndaipeawlkind. Among them may boDsmed 
the UniTenity, with aboat 80 profeeaon aod dooanti and a 
library of 100,000 printed Tolnmea, the Boyal Aoademy of 
Soienoes, Royal Aoademy of Fine Arte, sehooi of navigation, 
aqoariam, botanioal garden, and loolcwioal garden. The 
lait-named oorers 28 aores, and ie one or the rioheet loologi- 
oal gatdeni of Enrope. 

The indostriee of Amaterdam include the maoabotore of 
linen, silk, relreti, thread, poroeljdn, print-goods, ehemi- 
oals (oobalt-blae), tobaooo, ouidles, ohooolate, soap, oil, 
oaovas, oordage, steam-en^nes and maohiaery, the renning 
of salt, sugar, oamphor, and other sabstanoee, glass-blowing, 
brewing and distilling, and ship-building. Its lapida^ 
work IS (specially famous. About 10,000 workmen are 
employed in the trade of diamond polishing, to which 70 
mills are deroted. Amsterdam ranks much higher as a 
trading than as a manufacturing town. Its commerce is 
immense, and its exchange is one of the chief commercial 
centres of the world. It is a great emporium for butter, 
cheese, prorisions, tobacco, sugar, rice, spices, gin, fish, and 
manufactured goods of every class. Although over 1600 
ships, mainly steamers, enter and e\mi the port annually, 
Amsterdam is fiur behind Rotterdam in its transit-trade. 
The city is, howerer, the chief money-mariiet of Holland, 
and the Bank of the NetherUutds is one of the foremost 
financial institutions of Europe. 

Early in the thirteenth century Amsterdam was a mere 
fishing-village, with a small castle, the residence of the lords 
of AmsteL Towaids the middle of that century it was con- 
stituted a town. The decline of Antwerp after the sieze of 
1584r.8S, and the shutting of the navigation of the Scheldt 
in 1948, were the means of raising Anuterdam to the rank, 
which it long retained, of the first commercial city in 
Burope. Pop. in 18tW, 417,630 ; in 1900, 610,860, of whieh 
number 80,000 were Roman Catholics and 35,000 Jews. 

Amaterdam> a village of Decatur co., Oa., with large 
tobacoo interests. The banking point is Bainbridge. 

Amsterdam! a banking post-town of Bates co.. Ho., 
OS miles S. of Kansas City. Pop. in 1900, 14t. 

Amsterdam, a city of Hontgomery co., V.Y., on the 
Mohawk River aod on the New York Central and Hudson 
River and the West Shore Rs., S3 miles NW. of Albany. 
It has manufactures of carpets, knit ^[oods, woollens, silm, 
brooms, springs, and various other articles. The St Mary's 
Catholic InetUute is located here. Pop. in 1890, 17,336 ; 
in 1000, S0,939. 

Amsterdain, a poet-village of Jefferson co., Ohio, alMut 
36 miles SB. of Cfanttm. 

AiNSteidamt a post-village of Botetourt co., Va. 

Amsterdam (or new Amstelrdam) Island, in the 
Indian Oceui, about 60 miles N. of the island of St. Paul. 
It is ^ milee in length, 2^ miles in breadth, 2760 feet in 
elevation, and evidently the crater of an exunet volcano, 
having numerous hot springs. 

Amstetten, tm'stlt'ten, a village of Upper Austria, 
near the Ips (Tbbe), 28 miles by rail BSE. of Lini. Pop. 
in 1900, 5668. 

Amtchitka. See Akohitca. 

Amt-Gehren, a town of Germany. See Sihrbh. 

AjNtzell, &mt'sSll'. a village and castle of Wttrttemberg, 
circle of the Danube, 4 miles WNW. of Wangen. 

Ama'Darya, I'moo' dar'yl ( Persian, Jihu», sometimes 
written Oihon,- ano. Omu, remotely allied to Wakru, a 
native name for this stream), agreat river of central Asia, in 
Turkestan, rises on the Pamir plateau in two head-streams, 
the Ab-i-Paoj (with its upper part known as the Pamir 
River) and the Murghab or Ak-«n, the former originating 
In Victoria Lake (Gas-kul, elevation 13,980 feet) and the 
latter in the Chak-mak-kul (also known as Oai-kul, 13,860 
ft.). The two branohes encloee a large part of the Pamir 
plateaa,'and unite at Wamar (elevation about 6660 ft.). For 
some distance beyond Wamar the river forms the boundary 
between Bokhara and Afghanistan, and then takes a gener- 
ally NW. course to the Sea of Aral, into which it discharges 
though two main channels. The Amu-Darya is a brmd 
and rapid stream, but is navigable for a large part of its 
course, there being but few obstructions, save the winter ice. 
Its width in the middle course varies from 350 to 570 metres, 
and it has a depth of water of fkvm 2 to 8 metres. The watera 
begin to rise in April, and overspread vast extents of ter- 
ritory. Numerous irrigating channels are given off from 
the main stream in the region of Khiva. Steamboat navi- 
gation has been established on some portions of the lower 
course. At Tchaijui the river is crossed by the Central 
Asiatic or Transeaspian railway. For a long time geog- 
raphers had assumed that the ancient course of the Amu 
was directed to the Caspian Sea instead of to the Aral, fol- 
lowing the Aralo-Caspian depression known as the Uzboi — a 
•ondition that was affirmed by the Arabian and Persian 

geographers as late as the fifteenth century. The very re- 
cent reeearohea of Olukhovski and others, however, disprove 
this supposition. Length of the river, about 1600 miles. 

Ama-Darya, a district of Russian Turkestan, ix>unded 
8W. by the Amu-Darya. Area, about 42,860 sq. m. Pop. 
in 1897, 103,568. In 1873 this region was ceded to Russia 
by the Khan of Khiva. 

Amnkta, Amnchta, or Amongkta, i-mooi'ti, one 
of the Aleutian Islands, Fox group, with volcanic peaks. 
Lat. of the centre, 62° 33' N. j Ion. 170° 45' W. 

Amnl,, Philippine Islands. Bee Akbil. 

Amnlgawetn, i-mfil-g^win', a town of Arabia, at the 
entrance of the Peraao 6i^. 

Ajmnr, or Amoor, I'moor' (Manohu, Sakhalin-Ula), 
a river of eastern Asia, formed in lat. 53° 20' N., Ion. 
121° 28' E., by the union of the Argun and Shilka, west- 
ward of the Khingan Mountains. It follows a generally 
eastward course as the boundary between the Amur prov- 
ince and Manchuria, and then turns northward, discharg- 
ing into the gnlf or channel of Saghalin Iwlow the fortress 
of Nikolayevak, in lat. 52° 57' N. and Ion. 141° B. 
Its course is largely through desolate plains and prairie, 
elsewhere across neavily forested tracts, spreading out into 
an island-studded sea, of which the opposing Banks are 
hardly visible. In the passage of the Bureya Mountains 
the stream has a contracted channel of only WOO feet. The 
Amur is navigable throughout its entire coniae, upward of 
1600 miles, and the Shilka, for steam-craft of Uriit draught, 
for a ftirtber distance of about 300 miles, to Mitrofanova 
(above Stretensk, the terminus of the B^kal-Amur branoh 
of the Transsilwrian railway). The chief tribotariea of the 
Amur are fW>m the N. the Zeya and Bureya, and from the 
8. the Snngari and Cssuri. Tlie more important towns 
situated on its l>anks are Blagovieshtchensk, Ainin (io 
Manchuria), Khabarovsk, and Mariinsk. The total length 
of the river, inidnsive of the Argon branch, is approximately 
3680 miles. It is thns one of ute great rivers of the globe. 

Amor, a province of Asiatic Russia, in Siberia, Irannded 
NW. and N. oy the province of Yakutsk, E. by the Coast 
Province (Primorsk), aod S. by Manchuria, iVom which it 
is separated by the Amur River ; it touches the province of 
Transbaikalia in the extreme W, It is traversed by branches 
of theYablonoi and Khingan Mountains, and is watered by 
the Amur and its tributaries. It has fertile valleys, aod 
produces excellent timber and Airs of fine quality. Sold 
and other metals abound, and the former is very extensively 
mined, employing over 6000 people in the waahings. Capi- 
tal, Blagovieehtehensk. Area, 172,800 sq. m. Pop. in 1897, 
118,570, of 'Whom 23,000 were Cossacks, 40,000 Russiao set- 
tlers or peasants, and 25,000 urban residents. The region 
was oeded by China to Russia in 1858. 

Amur, Tenitorr or General* GoTemmeat of, 
in Asiatic Russia, consisting of the three provinees of Amor, 
Tranabaikalia, and the Coast Province (ramorak), inolasive 
of the island of Saghalin. Area, abont 1,160,000 sq. m. 
Pop. in 1897, 1,031,364. Capital, Khabarovsk. 

AmnranK, &-moo-r&ng', a bayand village of the isUnd 
of Celebes. The bay is on the NW. ooast, and is abont 14 
miles long inland and 6 miles broad. The village liee at 
the head of the bay, 26 milee SW. of Menado. 

Amnsco, i.moos'ko, a town of Spain, 11 miles N. of 
Valencia. Pop. (commune) 1600. 

Am < was', a village of Palestine^ 10 miles W. by N. of 
Jerusalem. It oocupies the site of the fm'maiM of the Old 
Testament, mentioned in Haocabeee, later named Sieop'- 

Am'well, a township of Washington co., Pa. Pop. 
in 1900, 1848. 

A'my (railroad station. Auburn), a post-village of Oak. 
land CO., Mich., 3 miles by rail fh>m Pontiao. Pop. 160. 

Amy, a post-hamlet of Jones co.. Miss., near BUiaville 

Amynn, im-yoon', a town of Syria, 10 milee SSB. of 

Anaa, i'n&', a group of small coral islands in the Low 
Archipelago, Pacific Ocean. Of these. Chain Island ta the 
most important. 

Ananara, i-n&^bi-r&', a river of Siberia, rises abont 
lat 69° N., ion. 106° E., and falls into the Arctic Ocean in 
lat 72° 46' N., Ion. 116° B. Length, about 300 miles. 

Anabon,.an African island. See Aitkoboii, 

Anacapa (&-n&-k&'p&) Island, the easternmost of the 
Santa Barbara group, off the coast of Ventura CO., OaL 

Anacaprl, &-na-ki'pree, a town of Italy, island of 
Oapri, at its NW. extremity. Elevation, 880 feet It is a 
favorite spot with artists. Pop. 2000. 

Anaohaana, &-n&-choo-&'n&, a village and bay, K. 
coast of the Isthmus of Panama. 

Anacon'da, a post-town and gold-mining camp of 
Teller oo., Colo., in the Cripple Creek gold-mining district. 

Digitized by 





M ■}]« bj nil V. by S. of Oolormdo Sprine).. Pop. in 
IIM, 1050. Tbe bankUig point ii Cripple OntL 

Aaaeoatet a oity, eanital of Dawlodgo oo., Mont., on 
the Botta, Anaoonda and PwdUo B., M milei WNV. of 
Butte. It liaa mann&otnm of brisks, oigan, and beer. The 
eoppar.<meltmg and refining worka are among the largest 
in the world. The Cunons Anaeonda oopper- and silver- 
mine is at Butte, fop. in 1900, 9Ui. 

Aaaoor'tes, a banking poet-town of Skagit oo.. Wash., 
OB tidal water and on the Seattle and Northern K., 90 
miles N. of Seattle. It has important fishing indnstries 
and saw- and shingle-mills. It also mines ooal. Pop. in 
1900, 1476. 

Akaeos'tia^ post-station of Washington, D.C. 

Anacostia RiTer, a tributary of the Potomao Biver, 
from the left, generally known as the East Branoh, which 
satan immediately S. of the oity of Washington; D.C. 

Anadar'lio, a banking post-Tillage and Indian agensy 
of Ckddo 00., Okie., on the Washita River and on tbe Chi- 
sago, Book Island and Pacific R., 36 miles (direct) 8W. of 
Bbreso. It has cotton-, cotton-seed oil, brewing- and iam- 
ber^indnstriee. Pop. about 3500. 

Aaadla, &-ni-dee'i, a small town of Braail, state of 
Alsgoas, 45 miles E. of a city of that name. 

A>aalr« a river of Siberia, See AnAnra. 

Anadyr, or AaaAir, i-ni-deer', a river of Siberia, 
tnvcning Uie centre of the Tcfanktohi country, N. of Kam- 
tebatka. It rises in Lake Ivatehno, about lat. M° 80' N., 
kn. 17t° E., flows first W., then E., and &lls into an inlet 
of the Gulf of Anadyr (North Pacific), Ion. 170" 30' E. 
Coarse, about 450 miles. The trading-post of Anadyrsk is 
sitoated on this river. 

Anagni, &-nln'yee, a town of Italy, 30 miles ESE. of 
Berne. Pop. (commune) in 1901, 10,059. It is the seat of 
sn ancient bishopric and possesses an interesting cathedral. 

Aaak, i'oL a town of Asiatic Turkey, on the Eu- 
phrates, 220 miles NW. of Hillah. It is picturesquely 
eneloeed by roeks and date-groves. 

Anaheim, I'ni-hlme, a banking post-town of Orange 
CO., CaL, on the Santa Anna River, about 8 miles from the 
■ea, and on branches of the Southern Pacific and the Atchi- 
son, Tqpeka and Santa F6 Rs., 25 miles SB. of Los AMeles. 
It is in a beantifol valley and has a genial climate. Large 
qoaotities of gr^MS, lonons, oranges, walnuts, and other 
fruits are produced here. Anaheim has the St. Catharine's 
Academy, and manufactures of dried and canned ftults, 
wines, exude oil, sugar, farm-implements, wine-casks, etc. 
Ibe lands in the vii£iibr are irrigated by means of ditehes. 
Settied by Germans in 1857. Pop. in 1890, 1273 ; in 1900, 
1450. — ^AKABiiit LiUtsnie, on the Pacific coast, is 18 miles 
W8W. of Anaheim. 

Anahnac, 1-nl-wlk', the name given by the aborijginal 
Vesieans to tiiat portion of the Mexican plateau which is 
Isigdy coincident with the modem valley of the city of 
Mexico, extending eastward to Popooatcnpetl and Ixtacoi- 
huatl, ud indading the lakes ; or, with a nirther extension, 
iniduding the plains of Tlaxeala. Tbe word signifies " on 
tbe water." Some philologists sssume the term to deeignate 
the low bordsr-Iand off the plateau which adjoins the oceanic 

Anabnac, a post-hamlet of Chambers oo., Tex., 35 miles 
NE. of Galveston. 

Anajax, i-nl-shii', a river of Braiil, island of Joannee 
or Mang4, falls into the estuary of the Amaaon after a W. 
ooorse ot about 80 miles, 

Anakapalle, a town of British India, in Madras, 18 
miles 8W. of Visasapatam, 

Anaklia, i-ni'kle-i, a seaport of Russia, in Mingrelia, 
on die E. shore of the Black Sea, at tbe mouth of the Ingur, 
M miles WNW. of Kutais. 

Analominlc, a post-village of Monroe co., Pa. Pop. 
about 100. See SPRAecnviLLK. 

Anam, ajringdom of Asia, Bee Awn am. 

Anamaboe, i'ni-ma-bs', or Anamabn, a British 
fort of Africa, on the Gold Coast, 11 milee ENE, of Cape 
Coast CasUe. Lat. 5° 10' N. ; km. 1° 6' W, 

Ana Karia (&'d& mi-ree'&) Island, or Palm Key, 
SD island off the coast of Manatee co., Fla. 

Anambas, i-nim'bis, a group of small, wooded, and 
reeky islands in the China Sot, between Borneo and Ma- 
lacca, in about lat. 3° N. 

Anamirapocn, l-ni-me-r&-poo-koo', a river of Braiil, 
state ot Pari, &lls into the estuuy of the Amaton. 

Anamoose, a post-village of McHenry -co., N.Dak. 
Pop. about 76. 

Anamo'sa, a banking oity, capital of Jones co., Iowa, 
<D the Wiqisipinicon River, at tbe month of Buffalo Creek, 
sad on tbe Chioaco and Northwestern and the Chicago, Mil- 
waakee and St. ^al Rs., 54 miles 8W. of Dubuque and 25 
miles ENE. of Cedar Rapids. It has grain-elevators, roller- 

process floor-mills, and extensive stone-quarries. A state 
peoitentiaiy is located here. Pop. in 1890, 2078 ; in 1900, 

Anamnllay , Annamnllay (t-n^m^I-U'), Animal* 
l« (Inue-mil-li'), or Animalaya ('y») HlUa, 
a group of mountains in the peninsula of India, about U 
MUes 8. ef the NUgiri HUls. The loftiest peak is Anei- 
modi, 8850 feet, thebigbest point of southern India. They 
abound in wild beasts and produce teak timber. 

Anamnllay, a town of British India, presidency of 
Madras, disMct of Coimbatore, 23 miles SE. of Palghat. 

Anana, &-n&'ni, a town of Spain, province of A.ia,y%, 
17 mfles W8W. of Titoria. 

An'andale, a post-village of Butler eo., Pa., 28 miles 
ESE. of Meroer, 

An^andpnr', a town of Indi%^ Punjab (Jnllindo' dis- 
trict), on the Sntlq, 160 miles ESE, of Lahore, 

Ananiev, i-uin'^ev, a town of Russia, covemment of 
Kherson, on tbe Tihgul, 95 miles N, of OMssa. Pop. in 

Anantapnr', or An^antpnr', a town of British India, 
district and 68 miles 8E. of Bellaiy, 

Anannr, i-ni-noor', a town of Transcaucasia, on an 
alBaent of tke Kmr, 32 miles N, of Tiflis. 

Anapa, l-nl'p&, a seaport of Russia, in the Kuban 
district, on the Bbwk Sea, at the W. extroni^ of tbe Cau- 
casus range. Lat. 44° 64' N. ; Ion. 37^ 18' B. Pop. in 
1897, 6676. 

Anaphi, l-nl'fee, or Nanphio, a Ghvek island of the 
iEgean, one of the Spondee: but included in the nome of the 
Cyebtdes. Lat. 36° 26' N. ; Ion. 25° 47' E. It is 7 mUes long 
and 2 miles broad, is high and rooky, and has no port. 
Pop. 600. 

Anapli, a town of Greece. See Navpua. 

Anaqna, i-ni'kwl, a post-hamlet of Victoria eo., Tax., 
near the San Antonio, about 20 miles 8. of Victoria. 
' Anas, the ancient name of the Gvadiaha. 

Aftascoj &n-yls'ko, a town of Porto Rico, 6 miles by 
rail N. of Mwragnes. Pop. 2600. 

Aftasco River, Porto Rico, rises in the Tetas de 
Cerro Gordo and flows generally W. to the sea. 

Anastasia, an-as-ta'sh^ an island on the B. coast of 
Florida, 18 miles long and 1) broad, immediately SS. of 
St. Augustine. 

Anata, i'nl^tl, a village of Palestine, 4 miles NE. of 
Jerusalem, supposed to be on the sito of the ancient Ana- 
thoth, the reputed birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah. It 
lias remKbis of ancimt walls and columns. 

Anatolia, an-vto'le-f (Turk. Anado'li, from the 
Greek 'Anrv^i, Anatoli,— i.e., the "rising," "Orient," or 
" Bast"), a name given to the peninsula forming the W. 
extremity of Asia, and in its usual application Identical 
with Asia Minor. Anatolia (with the neighboring islands) 
comprises tbe Turkish vilayets of Brusa (Khodavendikyar), 
Aidin (Smyrna), Konieb, Adana, Angora, Kastamnnl, Si. 
vas, Trebiiond, and tlie Archipdago, and the districts of 
Ismid and Biga. Anatolia proper Is included lietween the 
36th and 42d parallels of N. lat. and between the 26tb and 
42d meridians of E. Ion. It is bounded N. by the Black 
Sea, the Sea of Harmon, and the Dardanelles ; W. by 
the Gredan Archipelago; and 8. by the Meditorranean 
Sea; its eastern boundary, which is rather arbitrary, is 
usually defined by a line connecting the Alma-Dagh, near 
the Bay of Iskanderun (Alexandretta), with the Euphrates, 
and tbence extonding up to its source, whence it runs 
down the Tchoruk'to tbe Slack Sea. Estimated area, about 
200,300 sq. m. The N. coast, fadng the Blaok Sea, is bold 
and steep, but gradually falls as it approaches the Bospo- 
rus. Tbe W. coast has high and precipitous cliffs, and in- 
clndee the Qulft of Adramyti, Fugea, Smyrna, Soala Novi^ 
Mandelia, and Cos, while the S. coast presents as its chief 
bays or indentations the Quifs of Makri, Phineka, Adalia, 
and Iskanderun. 

Tbe surfaoe may be termed an elevated plateau dotted 
with salt lakes, and enclosed by two ranges or offshoots of 
the Armenian and Kurdistan mountain-systisns, the Taurus 
running B. and W. not far from the shores of the Meditorra- 
nean and a range skirting the shores of the Black Sea. 
The southern range, or Taurus, commences close to the Eu- 
phrates, where it reaches an elevation of about 10,000 feet, 
and, running W, with a very irregular course, terminates 
in the islands of the Grecian Archipelago, It has numerous 
offsets, which are known by special names, as Alah-Dagh, 
Bulghar-Dagb, Anti-Taurus, ete. The northern coast range 
stretohee from tbe Tchoruk W., and terminates at the Bos- 
porus. Among the beet known of its summits are the 
Keshish-Dagh, SE. of Brusa; the ancient (Asiatic) Mount 
Olympus (8200 feet), and the Kas-Dagh, Mount Ida (5800 
fU), in the extreme W., overlooking the plain of Troy. Be- 
tween the two main ranges there are many smaller ones, 

Digitized by 





iome of whieh ftttain a great elevation ; and, indeed, every- 
where lofty mountaiD-msMea, more or leu oonneoted, are 
to be met with. Mount Arneos, or Aijiah-Dagh, an ex- 
tiast TOloaoo, near Eaiaariyeh, is 13,300 feet, and is leem- 
inghr the lotUeat sommit of Anatolia. The centre of the 
penuirala is an extensive plateau, averaging 3000-4000 feet 
in height, partly drained by the rivers flowing into the Blaeli 
Sea, but oovei«d also with salt lakes, marsnea, and rivers 
having no visible outlets. The largest rivers of Anatolia 
flow into the Black Sea. Of such are the Kiiil-Irmak 
(ane. Ha'ly), the Teshil-IrmiA (ano. Prit), and the Saka- 
ria (anc. Saitga'rium). The only important rivers flowing 
towards the Oreoian Archipelago are the Sarabat (anc. 
Htr'nnu) and the Hendere (anc. Maan'tUr). The largest 
of the lakes is the Tus-GHSI, or "Salt Lake," a braokish 
water situated nearly in the centre of the plateau, at an 
elevation of 3080 feet ; it measures about 60 milee in length. 
, Much of the eoast mountains is of very ancient date, 
constructed of Palieosoia strata, with newer formations to- 
wards the interior, bat the central plateau itself is largely 
of volcanic formation, with vast sheet deposits of trap and 
trachyte and great numbers of modem or recent eonee. 
Bartliquakea are still fitirly abundant Anatolia ooatains 
, numerous thermal and snlphnrous springs. Marble exists 
in great abundance, aa advantage which the sculptors and 
builders aniong the early Greek colonists turned largely to 
account. Coal has been discovered along the coast of the 
Black Sea ; copper, galena, and mamgaoese occur in various 
parts. Rook-salt ana petrolenm are also found : meerschaum 
IS extensively quarried, especially on the southern slopes of 

The climate admits of no goieral description, owing to 
the diversity in the elevation of the surteoe. The W. shores 
have been celebrated in all ages for ttieir genial warmth. 
The coast facing the Black Sea is almost equally Ctvored as 
to temperature, and enjoys the additional advantage of tn- 
quent rains. The elevated plains of the interior are ex- 
tremely oold in winter. Tchlbatcheff has likened the win- 
ter climate of Kaisariyeb to that of Amsterdam, and its 
summer climate to that of Tonionse. The most favored 
areas of precipitation iweeive only 33 inches of annual 

The N. slope of the central plateau abounds with forests 
of w^ut, box, oak, beech, plane, ash, and other timber. 
Sugar-cane, the vine, olives, ootton, silk, tobacco, poppy, 
rhubarb, and flgs are abundantly raised in the valleys of 
the S., and there is an extensive cultivation of the com- 
moner grains. The flora of western and southern Ana- 
tolia is extremely beautiftil, and will bear comparison with 
that of Sicily and the S. of Spain. Shrubs and evergreens 
are abundant, — the latter including the myrtle, which here 
attains an immense sise, h«y, daphne, laurel, and a variety 
of holly. Some of the vast and mgid plains of the interior 
produce only stunted shrubs, saline plants, wormwood, sage, 
and other members of the steppe flora. The higher moun- 
tain summits are covered with flr and cedar. 

Wheat, boxwood, salt flsh, various fruits, barley, mHlet, 
sesame, rags, oil, cattle, mohair, wool, opium, seammony, 
hides, galls, oil-seeds, tragaoanth, wax, tobacco, and soap 
are leading articles of export. Garden vegetables an ax- 
tensively grown. 

Of the more prominent forms of the indigenons fiuina of 
Anatolia may be mentioned the striped hyena, jackal, 
eorsae, leopard, lion, caracal, hmx, lorilla, vuions gaselles, 
and steppe-rodents. Zodgeographically the region is one 
uniting Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

The Ottoman Turks form the great balk of the population. 
The remainder is made up munly of Greeks, Armenians, 
Kurds, Jews, and Gypsies. The total population is esti- 
mated to be between 9,000,000 and 10,000,000. Agricalture 
is in the most rude and primitive state. Roads, as ander- 
stood in Europe, were until recently unknown, but relays 
of horse* were maintained at distant intervals and stationed 
at the large towns on the leading routes. At tiie present 
time there are numerous good rowls, and the railroad ser- 
vice is being extended along several lines into the interior. 
The principal cities of Anatolia are Smyrna, Brusa, Adaoa, 
Trebisond, Alexandretta or lekandemn, Mereina, Adramyti, 
Angora, Sivas, Sinope, Samsun, Konieh, Kaisariyeb, and 

AnatoUkon, ft-ni-tol'e-kon, an island of Greece, 6 
miles NW. of Missolonghi, in the Gulf of Patras. 

An'atone, a post-town of Asotin co.. Wash., (0 miles 
B. of Walla WaUa. 

Anava, i-n&-vl', or Gnanahan, gw&-n&-hSw', a river 
of Braiil, a tributary of the Rio Braneo or Parima. Its 
langth is about 200 miles. 

Anavelhanat t-n&-vtl-yt'ni, a river of Brasil, an af- 
fluent of the Rio Negro. It flows nearly due S. and falls 
into that river near Taroma. Length, about ISO miles. 

Aabar, tn-bar', a town of Russian Turkestan, )0 miles 
NB. of Khiva. 

AncachSt In^kiehs', a department of Pern, bounded 
N. by the department of Libertod, S. by that of Lima, and 
extending f^om the Paciflo eastwvd to the head-waten of 
the Amason. Area, 16,560 sq. m. It is ridi in minerals. 
Capital, Haaias. Pop. in 1896, 428,703. 

Ancarano, fcn-ki-ri'no, a village of Italy, province of 
Teramo, IS miles NNB. of Teramo. 

Ancaster, ang'kfs-tfr, a post-village of Wentworth 
eo., Ontario, Can^a, 7 miles WSW. of Hamilton. Pop. 
about 500. 

Ancede, in-si'dil, a town of Portugal, on the Doaro, 
28 miles E. of Oporto. Pop. (commune) about 4000. 

Anceals, Aip'sfh-nee' (L. Angeni'n«m), a town of 
France, capital of an arrondlssement in the department of 
Loir»-InfMeure, on the Loire, 21 miles NE. of Nantes. 
Pop. in 1901, 3378l(ooiAmune, 5199). 

Ancerville, Ai<*'sSs^ veel', a town of Prance, department 
of Meusck 11 milee SW. of Bar-le-Duo. Pop. aboot 1700. 

Anehiale and Anckialna, ancient names of Abiolu. 

Anchiete> In-ahe-i'ti, formerly BeBeTeBte« a sea- 
port of Braill, in the state of Fspinto Santo, 47 miles 8W. 
of Victoria. It has a good ha.-bor. 

Ancholme, an'cholm, a river of England, co. of Lin- 
coln, flows at first W. past Harket-Rasen, and then north- 
ward to Join the Hamber. 

Anchor) a banking post-village of McLean oo., HI., on 
the Illinois Central R., 25 miles (direct) E. by N. of Bloom- 
ington. Pop. about 300. 

Anchor^ a post-village of Pointo Conpit parish. La. 
Pop. about 100. 

Anchorage, a post-town of Jefferson co., Ky., on the 
Louisville and Nashville R., 12 miles E. of Looisville. 
Pop. in 1900, 431. 

> Anchor Island, a small island of New Zealand, on the 
N. aide of the entrance into Dusky Bay, 

Anchor Islands, two islands off the E. coast of Biasil, 
state of Rio de Janeiro, 3 miles E. of Cape Frio. 

Anchorites, angk'^r-Ites, a group of small islands in 
the South Pacific Ocean, about 280 miles N. of Papua. 

Anohorville, a poet-town of St. Clair eo., Mich., 10 
miles SE. of Lenox, Pop. about 400. 

Anchovy, or AachoTy Bay, a village of the island 
of Jamaica, in the oo. of Cornwall, 5 miles S. by W. of 
Montego Bay. 

Anciaens, lii«-se-&'iKsh, a town of Portugal, province 
of Tras-os-Montes, near the Donro, 70 miles BNE. of Oporto, 
with thermal springs. Pop. about 1000. 

AnciSo, tn-se-E'6ii*, or almoet ln-s<twip', a village of 
Estranadura, Portugal, 9 miles E. of Pombal. 

Ancienne Lorette, 4ii>'s».en' lo-ritt', a post-village 
of Quebec oo., Quebec, 9 milee NW. of Quebec. It has a 
large lumber trade. 

Anclam, a town of Prussia, See Asklav. 

An'clote River forms a part of the boundary between 
Hernando and Hillsboro cos., Fls., and <Uls into, the Gulf 
of Mexico. Off its mouth are the Anclote Keys. 

Anco, in'ko, a town of southern Pern, department of 
Ayacacho, on an affluent of the Apurimao, 40 miles E. of 

Anco'her, a river of Africa. See AMCosnA, 

Ancober, a town of Abyssinia, See Arkobbr, 

Ancohnma, one of the summits of the Nevado de 
Sorata, See Sobata. 

Ancolan (&n'ko-l&n') Islands,Bgronpof small islands 
in the North Paciflo Ocean, off the N W. coast of the S. end 
of Luson. 

Ancdn, or Port Ancdn, a seaport of Peru, in the de- 
partment of Lima, on a railway, and 30 miles NW, of Lima. 
Pop, 3000, 

Ancona, in-ko'n& (anc, Aneo'na; Or, 'Ayxiir, AneSn, 
— !,«., "elbow," "bend," or "angle," in allusion to its posi- 
tion in an angle of the coast), a seaport of central Itidy, on 
the Adriatic, 185 miles NE, of Rome, Lat. 43° 37' N. ; ton. 
13° 30' E, It is built on the slope of a hill, in an amphi- 
theatre between two hills, on one of which stands the citadel 
and on the other the cathedral. It is divided into two parts, 
the Citti Veochia (or the old city) and the Citt& Nnova 
(the new city) : the former occupies the higher ground, 
and is inhabited by the poorer classes ; the latter is situated 
along the shores of the sea. The two most remarkable 
structures are the medis9val cathedral and the triumphal 
Corinthian arch of Tr^an, built of Parian marble, on tiie 
mole, Anoona is, after Venice, the principal Italian port on 
the Adriatic. It is supposed to have been founded by a 
Doric colony or by a band of Syracosan patriots who fled 
fhtm the tyranny of Dionysius about 380 B.C. It was a 
flourishing place under the Romans, Pop, in 1901, 34^159; 
of the commune, 56,835, 

Digitized by 





AacOMA) • ptoTino* of Italy, in the Marches. Area, 
1U sq. B. O^ital, Anoona. Pop. ia 1901, SM,4M. 

Tk* IIabci o* Axooha (IL Marea {fAiusoim, mlB'ki 
<llo-ko'nl) was formerly a division of oeotcal Italy. It 
formed part of the Fapal States, and was annexed by Vletor 
Emmanuel in 1840. See MiiROHBS. 

Aaco'sa^ a post-village of Livingston oo., 111., on the 
AtehisoD, Topeka and Santa F« B., 10 milea SW. of 
Streator. There are prodnotire eoal-miaes in the vieini^. 
Top. 260. 

Aaco'ra, a poat-vUIage of Camden oo., N.J., en the 
West Jersey and Seashore R., 16 miles SB. of Camden. 

JkM'cmBkt a post-village of Coltupbia oo., N.T., in An- 
eiam township (town), on the Central New England R., 17 
miles SB. of Hndsoa. Pop. of the town in IDM, 1238. 

ABcrain Ijeadminei, or Hot Ground, a post- 
village, of Colombia oo., N.Y., in Anoram townriup(town), 
on the Poughkeepsie and Bastwn Ifc, 30 miles NB. of 
Pooghkeapsie. Oalena, blende, and eopper pyrites are 
fooM here. Pop. about 100. 

Ascre, the former name of Albbbt, Franoe. 

Aa'croft, a village of England, in Northnmborlaod, 6 
miles S. of Berwiek. 

Aa'cnun, a parish and village of Scotland, oo. of Rox- 
burgh, 3 miles finm Jedburgh. In this parish waa fought 
the battle of Anerum Moor, in 1644, between the Sooteh 
and English. 

Ajicnd, &n-kooD', or Sm» Carlos de Aacad, sin 
karOSs di In-kooD', a port of Chile, en the N. ooast of 
Chiloe, eapital of the province of Chiloe, has a safe and 
^adoos harbor. Lat. 41° 62' S. ; Ion. 73° 66' W. It is 
noch visited by whalemen and exports hams and wood. 
It is a bishop's see. Pop. 3000. 

ABcr^le-Franc, Aii>'see'l«hfM]i>, a town of Franoe. 
department of Yonne, on the Armanfon, 10 miles SB. of 
Tmnerre. Pop. abont 1000. 

ABcyra, a oitv of Asia Minor. See AKOosiL. 

AadacoUo, &n-di-kol'yo, a village of Chile, 28 miles 
SSB. of Coqoimbo, in a rich mining district. It has an 
image of the Virgin which brings hitler nomeroos pilgrims 
yea^y. Pop. in 1896, 1893. 

ABdahnarlas, u-dA-wl'Us, a town of southern Peru, 
department of Aporimae, on the Andahnaylas, 60 miles SB. 
of Hoamanga. 

Aa'dale, a post-village of Sedgwick oo., Kan., on the 
Mlssoori Paeific R., 20 miles NW. of Wiehita. Pop. 200. 

Aadalgala, in-dU-g&'li, a town of the Argentine Re- 
pobUe, province and 76 miles N. of Catamarca. 

Aaaala*ia« an-df-lu'sh».f or an-d(-loo'se-f (8p. An- 
dmUeia, in-dft-loo-thee'l ; Fr. Andaiune, i!i>'d&Mli*see' ; 
Q«r. Andalmneit, in-di-Ioo's»^n),-an ancient division of 
Mothem Spain, bounded SB. and S. by the Mediterranean 
and the Struts of Gibraltar, SW. by the Atlantic, and W. by 
Portugal. It is now divided into the following provinces, 
which are named 6om their chief towns : Almeiia, Qranada, 
Ja£n, Malaga, Cadis, Cordova, Huelva, and Seville. Anda- 
lusia is hollered on the N. by the Sierra Morena and is 
traversed by the lofty Sierra Nevada. The climate on the 
coasts, especially al«ig the Mediterranean, is extremely 
warm, and the soil in places is remarkably fertile. Anda- 
lasia, with its snow-capped mountains, its beautiful val- 
leys, and many remains of its Mohaoimedan past, is the 
most pietnreeqne portion of Spain. The Vandals were 
established in this country in the fifth oentory, whence it 
was called FaackitiMta, afterwards corrupted into Andalusia. 
After the dissolntion of the Ommiyade Caliphate of Cor- 
tova in 1031, the region formed the kingdoms of Cordova, 
Seville, Jain, Almwia, Malaga, and Granada, all succes- 
sively conquered by the rulers of Castile. Area, 22,677 

tq. m. Pop. in 1897, 3,450,209. Ai^. and inhab. Ahda- 

LDSIA^ an-da-lu'she-«a (Sp. Akdalvz, in-d&-looth'). 

Aadalnala, a hanking post-town, capital of Covington 
CO., Ala., on the CbDeoah, aoout 80 miles S. of Montgomery. 
POB. in 1900, 661. 

Aadalasia,a pcet-village of Rock Island co., III., on 
the Missisaippi River, 12 miles below Davenport, Iowa. 
Pop. in 1900, S2«. 

Aadala«ia, a post-village of Bucks oo.. Pa., near the 
Delaware River and on the Pennsylvania R., 12 miles NB. 
of Philadelphia. 

Aadaaiaa (an-da-man') Islands, a group of islands 
in the Bay of Btagai, between lat. 10° and 13° 40' N^and 
■eatly nn<|er the 93d moidlan of B. Ion., 130 miles SW. of 
Cspe Nagnis. The Great and Little Andaman Islands are 
separated by Dnnean Passage. The soil is luxuriantly 
twtile, and supports in large part a magnificent tropical 
iortsL The lughest point is Saddle Peak, 2400 feet The 
islaads are markedly unhealthy, owing to their damp and hot 
dimate, the thermometer ranging fhnn about 70° to 96°, 
with a raiaiiall of Crom 116 to 160 inohea. Area, about 2600 

sq^ m. The native popalation is scanty, uid belongs to a 
race of blaoks called Mincopiee, whose ethnic relationship 
haa not yet been determined. They are kind and cheerful 
in temperament. The islands now form a British convict 
settlement for East Indian criminals. Chief settlement. Port 
Blair, on South Island. Port Comwallis, on North Island, 
is another good port. Pep. abont 15,000. 

Aadamarca, &n-d&-maR'k&, a village of Bolivia, 76 
miles 8. of Oruro. Pag. 1600. 

Ajidance, 6n>MAns8', a village of France, department 
of Ardiche, on the Rhone^ 6 miles S. of Serridres. 

Aadar, a town of AfVioa. Sec Saikt-Lovis. 

Andaye, a seaport of France. Sec HiicoArB. 

Aadecavi and Andegavi, ancient names of AirosRS. 

Andeer, in'daiR', a village of Switicrland, canton of 
the Grisons, on the Rhine, 14 miles S8W. of Chur. 

AndelfingeB, in.'del-fing>n, a town of Switierland, 
17 miles NB. of Zurich, on the Thnr. It consists of 
two places. Gross- and Klein-Andelfingen. Combined pop. 

Andelle, 6R>MMr, a river of France, fhlls into the 
Seine above Pont-de-1'Arche. Length, 24 miles. 

Andelot, 4M*'dfh-lo', a town of France, in Haute- 
Mame, 12 miles NE. of Chaumont. Pop. 900. 

Aadelys, lies, a town of France. See Les Akdelts. 

Andemataanm, the ancient name of Lakores. 

AadeaAs, in^df-nis', a village of the Lofbtcn Islands, 
Norway, on the Isle of AndS. It has large fisheries and a 
trade in down and feathers. 

Andeaae, 6R«M4nn'. a town of Belgium, province of 
Namnr, on the Mense, 11 miles by rail B, of Namnr. Pop. 
in 1900, 7711. It has manufactures of porcelain and mines 
of lead and iron. 

Aadetab, InMf r-&b', or Inderab, In-dfr-tb', a town 
of Badakhshan, about 86 miles N. of Kabul. 

Anderlecht, tn'df r-leKt\ a SW. manufacturing suburb 
of Brussels, with dyeing- and textile-works. Pop. in 1900, 

Anderlaes, 6ii*'d«rMtt', a commune of Hunaut, Bel- 
gium. Pop. in 1900, 9086. 

Andermatt, in'dfr-m&tt% or Vrscrea, oon'sf-rfn 
(It. Or'wra), a village of Switserland, in the valley of 
tJrsercn, 18 miles 8. of Altdorf. It lies in a treeless neigh- 
borhood, at an elevation of 4738 feet above the sea, and is 
much visited by tourists who traverse the road to gain the 
Fnrka Pass. Near it is the Devil's Bridge, crossing the 
Ranss, and forming part of the rente across the St. Gott- 
hard into luly. Pop. about 800. 

Aademaeh, &n'dfr-n&K (anc. Antmamm or Antonio- 
eum), a town of Prussia, on the Rhine, 10 milea NW. of 
Cobleni. It retains its old walls and crooked streets, and 
has interesting churches uid structures dating firom the 
Middle Ages, when it was a flourishing town. 'The vicinity 
abounds in Roman remains. Pop. in 1900, 7889. 

An'derson, a county in the E. part of Kansas, has an 
area of 576 sq. m. It is drained by Pottawatomie Creek. 
Gamctt is the county seat. Coal is found here. Pop. in 
1890, 14,203 ; in 1900, 13,938. 

Anderson, a county in the north-central part of Ken- 
tucky, has an area of 224 sq. m. It is bounded on the E. 
by the navigable Kentucky River and is intersected by 
Salt River. Capital, Lawrenoeburg. Pop. in 1890, 10,610 : 
in 1900, 10,061. 

Anderson, a county in the NW. part of South Caro- 
lina, has an area of 766 sq. m. It is bounded on the NB. 
by the Saluda River and on the SW. by the Savannah 
River. It is also intersected by the Kiowee River. Capital, 
Anderson. Pop. in 1890, 43,696 ; in 1900, 65,728. 

Anderson, a county of Tennessee, has an area of 350 
sq. m. It is intersected by Clinch River and also drained 
by Powell's River. The surface is partly oocnpied by the 
Cumberland Mountains. Coal and salt-springs are found 
here. County seat, Clinton. Pop. in 1890, 15,128; in 1900, 

Anderson, a county in the east-central part of Texas, 
has an area of 1060 sq. m. It is bounded on the E. by the 
Nechca River and on the W. by the Trinity River, which 
is navigable by steamboats. Palestine is the county seat. 
Pop. in 1890, 20,923 ; in 1900, 28,015. 

Anderson, a post-town of Shasta co., Cal., on the South- 
em Pacific R., 11 miles SE. of Redding, its banking point. 
It is situated in a fine fruit-growing region, and gold and 
silver are mined in the vicinity. Pop. in 1900, 508. 

Anderson, a poet-hamlet of Washington co., Fla. 

Anderson, a city and railroad centre, the capital of 
Madison oo., Ind., is on the west fork of the White River, 
at the convergence of several railroads, 35 miles NE. of 
Indianapolis. It has manufactories of iron, steel, brass, 
wire, pwer, glass, machinery, lumber, etc. Pop. in 1890, 
10,741 ; In 1900, 20,178. 

Digitized by 




Aa4erao«. a pott-Tllla^ of Fremont oo., Iowa, 3 miln 
K. of 8idn«r, its banUiiK poist. Pop. about 300. 

Aad«r80«, a pof(-TiUage of Lirinnitoii oo., Hioh., on 
the G^taod Trunk B., 3 mila (diraet) W. of Piaoknoy, iti 
baokinc poiqt. Pop. about 200. 

An^rsoiii a poet-Tillain of McDonald eo., Ho., 7 milas 
8. of Wade and 31 mil« 6. of Meoeho, Iti banking point. 
Pop. about 200. 

AnderaoB, a poit-villa^ of Warren oo., N.J., 1 mile 
ftom Port Hurra; Staticm. Pop. about 150. 

Aadenon, a post-village of Roea oo., OhiOjOn the Bal- 
timore and Ohio Southwestern R., 9 mile* NW. of ChiUi- 

AndersOB* a banking oity, capital of Anderson oo., 
R^&tOn the Blue Bidge and the Southern Be., 120 miles 
WHw. of Ccdnmbia. It has cotton-, eotton-eeed oil, and 
feitiliier-induitrieaL and the Patrick Hilitan Inititnte and 
Anderson Female College. Pop. in 1900, M98. 
. ABderaon, a poet-village of Franklin oo., Tenn., on the 
Kashville and Chattanooga R., 49 miles W. of Chattanooga. 
Pop. 80. 

Anderaon, a post-village, capital of Grimes oo., Tex., 
10 miles NE. of Navasota, its banking town, and 88 miles 
MMW. of Hooiton. Pop. 600. 

Aa'dersonbnrg, a post-village of Perr^ eo., Pa., about 
30 miles NW. of Carlisle. 

AndenoB, Cape, the E. point of the island of St. 
Ijawrence, at the entranoe of Bering Strait. Lat. 63° N. : 
Ion. 168" 30' W. 

AjideraoB Coart'Hoaae. See Aimiitos, S.C. 

AjidersoB Island, Ahtska. See SAnrr Lawbbkcb. 

AnderaoB River, in Britiih Columbia, enters the 
Fraser, from the E., 20 miles above Yale. 

AnderaoB's Creek, of Indiana, rises in Crawford 
eo., and forms the bonndaiv between Spenoer and Perry 
001. notil it &lls into the Ohio near Troy. 

AndersoB's Creek, of Clearfleld eo., Pa., enters the 
W. branch of Susquehanna Biver. 

AaderaOB's Ferrr, a station in Hamilton oo., Ohio, 
on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Loni* R. 
and on the Ohio River, 6 miles below Cincinnati. 

AndersoB'a Inlet, or Tenna Bay, in Viotoria, 
Australia, N. of Bass Strait, betwera Capes Liptrap and 
Patterson, reoeivea Tarwin Uver. 

AndersOBS Mills, a post-station of Pickens oo^ S.C. 

Anderson's Spriags, a resort of Lake oo., vti., 10 
milea ilrom the Geysera and about 80 miles N. of San Fran- 
oiaoo. Elevation, 1960 feet above the sea. 

An'dersontown, a post-hamlet of Caroline oo., Hd., 
46 miles E. by S. of Annapolis. 

Andersontown, a poet-village of Tork oo., Pa. 

An'dersonTiile, a poet-village of Sumter co., Ga^ on 
the Central B. of Georgia, 60 miles SW. of Macon. Here 
many Union prisoners were confined in the civil war. The 
pristni-gronnas are now a park. Pop. 245. 

AnderaonTille, a post- village of Franklin eo., Ind., M 
miles ESE. of Indianapolis. Pop. about 400. 

Andersonville, N.J. See Ahdbrsoh. 

Andersonville, a post-village of Ross 00., Ohio, on 
the Ohio and Erie Canal, 6 miles N. of Chilllcothe. 

Andersonville, a hamlet of Anderson eo., S.C., near 
the Savannah River, 14 miles WSW. of Anderson Conrt- 

Andersonville, a post-village of Anderson co., Tenn., 
10 miles MK of Clinton. Pop. ^ut 120. 

Andes, an'dis, a banking post-village of Delaware co., 
N.T., in Andes township (town), 12 milee SE. of Delhi 
and 63 miles 8W. of Albany. Pop. in 1900, 365 ; of the 
town, 1927. It is traversed by the B. branch of the Dela- 
ware Biver. 

Aades, an'dis (Sp. Cordillera dt lot Andm, koR-deel- 
yk'rk di looe in'dis), a range of mountains of luoh vast 
extent and altitude as to render it one of the most remark- 
able physical features of the globe. Commencing at Cape 
Horn, it extends nearly parallel to tiie Pacific coast through- 
out the whole length of South America to the Isthmus of 
Panama, a distance of about 4600 miles. It was formerly 
assumed that the Andes were oontinued through the Isthmus 
to form part of the main mountain-system of North America, 
but the evidenoe indicating ttiis eondiUon it wanting, al- 
though it is by no means certain that the dissoeiation of the 
two systems has not been brought about by successive break- 
ages and subsidences. The continental divide in the bth- 
mns, which is in part occupied by muine strata of Oligocene 
(Nummulitie) age, is lowered to 330 feet, but in Nioaragua, 
westward of the lake of the same name, it is still further 
reduced to 153 feet, which is the loweet mountain-crossing 
in the entire tract included within 113 degrees of latitude. 
From its S. extremity the main chain runs along the W. 
shore of Tierra del Puego, and consists of rocky summits. 

rising in many plaees to 3000 or 3000 fest, the eulnriwating 
points of this portion being Mounts Sarmiento and Darwin, 
respectively 6910 and 6800 feet above the level of tiie sea. 
The Patagonian-Chilean Andee, flanked by rooky and moun- 
tainous islands in the Pacific, — disrupted parts of the main 
mountain-mass, — continue in an almost direct B. and N. 
course to abost lat. 33° S., when they undergo an inregnUr 
bifbroation, an eastern series of outUen trandiag north- 
northeastward to Join the Eastern Cordillera, or (Mrdilhm 
Real, of Bolivia. The great volcanic (extinct) peak of 
Aoaneasua, the culminating point of the entire Western 
Hemispbere, 33,080 feet, is located nesu' this biftereation. 
Beoent determinatiq^ place its summit in Argentina. 
Not very distant neighbors of AooneagniL both m them 
situated on the bonn&ry-line of Chile and Argentina, are 
the Mercedario and Tupungato, with elsvatioDS in botb 
oases seemingly exceeding 32,000 feet. Between the Chilean 
Andes and the Pacific— a distance varying from 80 to 150 
miles — are extensive plains elevated from 1000 to 1500 feet 
above the sea. In the S. these are mostiy clothed with a 
rich vegetation ; but the more elevated mountain-regions 
are nearly destitute of plants. The Bolivian Andes, lorm- 
ing the central division of the system, are included roughly 
between the Tnmio of Capricorn and lat. 13° S., and cover 
a greatest width — including the high tabla-laads (despo- 
blMos, punos, of Potoei, Oruro, etc.), whioh are held up 
between the western or coast Cordillera and the so-oalled 
Andes proper, or eastern CordUlera, the OordilUra Beetl— 

of near^ 450 miles. The plateau of Titioaoa, wbieb has 
an altitude exoeeding 12,000 feet, is comparable in its posi- 
tion with the lofty plateaus of oentral Asia l^ing noitii of 

the Himalaya range. It is flanked on either side by the vast 
buttressee of the two main Andean ohains, to whieh belong 
some of the loftiest summits of the eontiiieat, sneh as 8a- 
jama, or Bahama (voloaaie), in the western ehain, 31,000 
feet ; and Illampn, or Sorata, and Dlimani (non-voleaaie) in 
the eastern, with elevations of approximately 31,500 feet 
(or, aooording to other determinations^ upward of 33,000 
feet). These parallel eordilleraa are united at various p<Hnts 
by enormous transvose groups or by single ranges orossing 
them like dikes. The descent to the Pacific is ordinarily 
markedly abrupt; the dip is also very sudden to the B., 
whence offshoots diverge to the lower plains. 

The Peruvian Andes, separated from the Paoifla by a 
desert whioh is in places 100 miles broad, wmtinue the main 
chain or ohains of the Andes with littie diminution in alti- 
tude to about lat 5° 8., where the mountains enter Eenador, 
and detach two eastern ofibets, one of whioh runs NW. 
between the Marafion and Hualltga Biveia, and the other* 
between the Huallaga and the Uoayali. This divenenoe 
takes place ihim the knot of the famous Cerro do nsoo, 
overlooking the loftyplateau of Paaoo or Hninnoo. The 
main range runs NNW. in a direction parallel to and about 
70-100 miles distant fivm the Pacific. It presents an un- 
broken wall to the sea, with rugged and steep declines and a 
m^estio array of snow-dad summits. In its southern part 
are found the gigantic cones of Misti (volcano of Areqoipa) 
and Chachani, both with elevations of 19,000-20,000 feet. 

The Andes of Bonador are commonly assumed to be oom- 

fosed of two pualleUjr trending ohains (as in parts of 
em, Bolivia, and Chile), and to enclose between them 
the vast upland stretehing the greater distanee between the 
knot of Loja, in the south, and that of Paste, in Colombia, in 
the north, and having an elevation of upward of 9000 feet. 
Recent researches have thrown doubt upon this construction, 
as the following statement by Whymper indicates : " The 
two parallel oordilleras, which, according to geographers, 
are toe great features of the country, do not exist. The axis 
of the Andes of Ecuador, part of Uie baokbone of Sooti) 
America, runs nearly north and south; and towards the 
western edge of the main chain there m a certain seqnenoe 
of peaks more or less in a line with each other. On the east 
of these summits there is a succession of basins of different 
dimensions and of various elevations, and the nearest moun- 
tains on the eastern side occur at irregular distanoes. There 
is no such thing as one great valley in the interior of Ecua- 
dor." In whatever way disposed, the summits overlooking 
the plateau of Quito preeent a picture of volcanic activity un- 
rivalled for grandeur and magnificence in the world. Here 
are located the giants Sangu and Cotopaxi.(19,613 feet), 
both violently utive, eruptive, and of almost unceasing 
activity, Antisana (19,335 ftet), Cayambe, Tnnruragna, 
Piohinoha, and Cbimboraio, the last-named (20,498 leet) 
overlooking the plain of Riobamba, and for a long time oon- 
sidered to be not only the loftiest summit of the Western 
Hemisphere, but of the entire globe. All the higher eleva- 
tions of this group, with Uie exception of Sara-urou (15,749 
feet), are of igneous oonstmotion. Vast fields of lava, 
pnmioe, and sooriss are scattered over the region, in some 
plaees embedding the remains of numerous animals of the 

Digitized by 





Pott-TwtUrj period, and on kll sid« tb« evidtnoM ofi th« 
inttnal aetiritT of tne aarth are giaodlj •zhibitod. 

The Andea of Colombia hare not the fall height of tboaa 
of Bonador, Pern, Boliria, or Chile, bat thdr oulmlnating 
Miinta— Toltma, west of Bogotfi (18,400 feet), Nevada de 
Heryeo (18,340 feet), Holla, and Roll— are etil] peaks of 
the ilret order. The aystem throaghoat the greater part of 
the state eonsists eesentiany of three main hnee, the west- 
ern of wliloh Is deflected towards the Isthmus of Panama, 
and the eastern, sometimes Itnown as the Sierra of Suma 
Pa^ northeastward to form the Andes de Hirida, in Vme- 
io«a, and the broken ooast-ohain, which sees a farther oon- 
tiaaation in the moontains of Trinidad and of gome of the 
islands of the Leaser Antilles. This is the main projeetidn 
tt the Andean system, whose mass has fallen by breakages 
into the trough of the Atlantio-Caribiwan basin. A fork 
of this chain is oontinaed northward from near Pamplona 
to fbrm the baekhone of the Go^jira Peninsula, and has 
Wing to the westward of its northern extremity the &mons 
nerra Nevada de Santa Muta, an isolated mountain-mass, 
whose elevation has been variously put between 17,000 and 
10,000 or even 20,000 feet. Among tne best-known summits 
of the Tenenielan Andes are the Conotia, southeast of 
H«rida, 15,420 feet, and the Silla de Carioas, 8760 feet 

Perh^w the most distinctive feature of the entire Andean 
system is its unbroken oontinuity. Throughout its entire 
extent no stream lias soooeeded In finding a passage across 
it from the Atluitio side to the Faoiflo, so that rirtually 
nearly the entire river-discharge of the South American 
eontineDt is to the Atlantic basin. Most of the higher 
nmmits are volcanic cones, either still active, like the 
beantifally formed Cotopaxi, or dismantled, like Antisana 
and the mnoh newer Chimboraao : and for long distanoes 
these lofty pinnacles are found onnr in the western or coast 
CordiUeias, where they are mostly implanted directly upon 
the mountain-ridge or crest. The more ancient volcanoes, 
like Aeonoagna, have had their voloanio outlines almost 

pletelj tS%oti. The great Altar, 17,730 feet, or Capae-nru, 
u said to have overtopped Chimboraao still in the days of 
the Spanish Conquest. 

This gigantic mount^n-chain is traversed in different 
parts i>y passes or roads at heights almost equal to those 
of the extreme summits of the European ranges. Host of 
these are narrow, steep, and dangerous. Tie pass from 
Areqoipa to Puno is l^UO feet high ; and the one leading 
from Uma to Tarma and Pasoo is 15,780 feet, being the 
highest known pass of the Andes. The former of these 
is now traTarsed by the railroad uniting Hollendo with 
Puno, on Lake Titicaoa, and the latter by the famous 
Oroya road, the most remarkable pieoe of railroad oonstruc- 
tioo in the world. There are numerous other passes across 
the Andes, many of which exoeed 15,000 feet in height. 
At best, these are as a rule practicable only for mules and 
Hamas, and in man^ eases the traveller is carried over 
upon tAe books of natives. A great Oommercial road runs 
longitadiiially along the Andes from Trqjillo to Fopayfin, 
not mnoh less than 1000 biles. The much-flreqaented 
Uspallata Pass, which is on the line of the nearly com- 
pleted railnad that is to eonnect Mendoaa, in the Argm- 
tine BqinbUe, with San Felipe and Valparriso, in Chile, 
and crosses the Andes in the immediate neighborhood of 
Aeonoagna, has an elevation of 12,795 feet. 

Snow-Line. — The line of perpetual snow in the Andes 
varies veiy greatly, aooording to the latitude, descending to 
about 4000 feet at the southern extremity of Patagonia, and 
rising to about 17,000-18,500 feet on the Western Cordil- 
Isra, at about lat. 15° S. On the line of the equator the 
posHion is about 15,500 feet. Except in the southern tracts 
there are few glaoiers of any magnitude, and for a long 
time it was believed that the equatorial summits were en- 
tirely fiee of glaoiation. Cayambe, Cotopaxi, and Chim- 
boraao are, however, all provided with glaciers, the ice- 
mass OB the last named having considerable development. 

Vegetation. — Conformable to the extreme range of cli- 
matic conditions which prevail in the Andean region, there 
is a wealth and diversity in the flora which are presented 
elsewhere only in the Himalaya Mountains. Arctic or 
rabarotie types of plants abound in the vegetation of the 
ioath, mMntaining themselves, however, far northward 
aloBK the upper or Alpine crests of the ranges. Along 
much of the middle western slopes, where rain is largely 
or wholly wanting, the vegetation is natorally sparse and 
desolate, wonderfully contrasting with the exuberant floral 
development which is found on the eastern rain-fed slopea 
sf Pun, Bolivia, and Colombia, It is in this tract, de- 
tcending deep into the lowlands, that the tropical forest 
Bofolds Itself in all its wealth and manifold variety. The 
einehona, or quinine, forms part of the mountain woodland 
•f this region. The high puna and paramo tracts, the up- 
load fampas of the mountains, are for most of the hot or 

dry seasons cheerless in their dearth of green vegetation, 
but with the return of the rains they rapidly recover the 
rigor of growth, and give to the eye a beautiful and re- 
freshing display of grass and wild flowers. One of the 
most distinctive types of v^etation of the Andes is the 
aranoaiia, the Chilean or southern pine. The woodland 
nowhere attains that high level which one should ctxpect to 
find in a region situateain great part directly in the equa- 
torial tropics. On the platBau of Quito few trees are found 
at an altitude of 10,000 feet, and the highest, a Polf- 
lepie, does not appear to pass beyond 12,000 feet. TUs 
condition is in marked contrast to what is found on the , 
gigantic volcanoes of Mexico, where the forest trees are 
Btfil fairly massive at 13,000 or even 13,500 feet. The 
potato is cultivated in the Andes at an elevation of ttom 
10,000 to 13,000 feet, wheat grows at a height of 10,000 
feet or more, and oats ripen on the plateau of LaJie Titi- 
caoa at an elevation of nearly 13,000 feet. Perhaps the 
loftiest permanent habitation of man in the world is at 
Chaehani, Pern, 10,500 feet. 

IVnlna. — ^The animal life of the Andes is naturally varied, 
and partakes of the charactoriatios that belong to the faunas 
of tropical, temperate, and Alpine regions. No mention 
eon here be made of even the commoner forms of life, be- 
yond the more distinctively Andean llama, alpaoa, vicuBa, 
guanaoo (all in the condiUon of domestication), vizcacha, 
and monntain tapir ; and among birds, the condor and the 
numerous forms of humming-bird, many of which are looal- 
iaad in their distribution to individnal volcanic peaks. 
The North American panther, or oounr (puma), finds 
its way along the whole ohain ih>m Colombia to the ex- 
tremity of Patagonia, No mountain-ohain in the world 
r resents such a magnificent avenue for the distant distri- 
ution of animal forme as the Andes, and there is none that 
is so completdy a barrier to a transmigration as this one. 

Otology. — Tne geology of the Andes is as yet very im- 
perfectly known, but the main constmotion appears to be 
that of a central or nuclear orystalline mass (granites, 
gneisses, schists) of very ancient, probably Archiran, age, 
and of superimposed sedimentary deposits, wliioh oorer 
nearly all the geologioal periods fVom the oldest to the 
Cretaceous (incfusive). It is made manifest, therefore, 
that the upheaval of the chain ia Post-Cretaoeons (in part, 
probably, Uto Cretaceous), with a culmination not unlikely 
in the period, at or near Uie middle Tertiary, which marked 
the final great elevation of the Alps and Himalayas, 
Where the Andes divide into two or more parallel branches 
the inner of these appears in most oases to be the oldest. 
The close oorreepondence between the trend of the western 
mountain-systom apd the oonfiguistion of the coast-line 
makes indisputable the relation existing between the two ; it 
may be taken for certain that the making of the mountains 
was the making of the western border of the Sooth American 
oontinent. It may also be aooepted as bein^ nearly proved 
that thi making or upheaval of the mountains was in great 
measure, if not almost entirely, a oonseqnenoe of the sub- 
sidence of the Pacific floor. The Andes both in the north 
and in the south have undeigone marked destruction, to 
which the islands of the Caribbean basin and of coastal 
Chile and Patagonia l>ear imposing testimony, but the full 
amount of this deatruotion or disintegration has not yet 
been ascertained. It would appear that southward the 
mountain-system was at one time projected quite to the 
position of Qraham Land (Island), and not impossibly it 
united with an Antarctic continent. The Andes are cele- 
brated for their mineral riches, prodnoine gold, silver, and 
copper in large quantities, together wito platinum, mer- 
cury, lead, and iron. The deposits of saltpetre, found 
principally in the rwion inoluded between the 18th and 
26th parallels of soutnem latitude, hare become oomms'- 
oially very valuable. 

Among the most notable ascents of the Andean moun- 
tains are those of Chimboraso by Humboldt and Bonpland 
(partially suooessful), in 1802 ; by Boussingault and Hall 
(partialOn 1831 ; by Reiss and StUbcl (partial), in 1872 ; 
and by Whymper and the Carrels, in 1880 ; of the Pic de 
Paris, of the Eiorata, by Wiener, in 1877 ; of Cotopaxi, by 
Thielmann, in 1878, and by Whymper, in 1880 ; of Acon- 
cagua, by Zurbriggen, in 1897 ; of Tupungato, by Vines 
and Zurbriggen, m 1897 ; of the Sorata (nearly to the 
summit), by Conway, in 1898 ; and of Illimani, by Con- 
way, in 1898. 

Andes, Los Andes, or Santa Rosa de los An- 
des, sin'tl ri'si di looe In'dJs, a town of Chile, province 
of Aconcagua, 18 miles by rail E. by S. of San Felipe. 
Pop. 5504. 

Andevnron'to, or Andevnrante, in-d^roo-rin't^ 
a large village on the B. coast of Madagascar, near the 
mouth of a river of the same name, 60 miles SSW. of 

Digitized by 





AlldU*l>> in-daA-Jln' or in-dee-ihla', a tovn of Aiiatio 
Rani*, jn Ferghana, noar the Syr-Darja, 73 miles BNE. of 
Khokan, The town ii large and U •nrronnded with gar- 
deiu and a moated fort. Pop. in 1897, 40,080. In Dee., 
1902, the town was vixited by a deetmctiTe eartbqnake, 
whieb oort the lives of 1021 of the inhabitants (3342 in the 

Anding, a post-village of Yaioo oo., Hiss., on the Illi- 
nois Central R., 10 miles (direct) S. of Taioo atj. Pop. 

Andkliai, Ind-coo'ee, or Ankoi, in-k6'ee, a town of 
Afghan Tnrlieetan, capital of the province or oasis of 
Andkbai, on the N. slope of the Haiara Mountains, about 
100 miles W. b; N. of Balkb. It is on one of the great 
eommeroial routes between Bokhara and Afghanistan. 
Pop., composed of Suni Holiammedans, about 1S,000. 

Andlaa, Ind'lSw, a village of Oermaoy, Lower Alsaotk 
on the Andlau, an affluent of the 111, 9 miles NNW. of 
Sohlettstsdt Pop. in 1900, 1731. 

Andtt, lnd'8 (*.<., " Duck Island"), one of the Lofoten 
Islands, olT the W. coast of Norway, ») miles long and 10 
miles broad . 

AadoaiU) In-do-Ine', a town of Spain, in Biscay, on a 
railway, t miles from San Sebasti&n. Pop. (oommone) 

Andolsheim, tn'dols-hIme% a village of Upper Alsaee, 
3} miles SE. Of Colmar. 

Andora, in-do'iA, a commune of Italy, on the W. coast 
of the Qulf of Qenoa, 3 miles by rail SSW. of Alassio. Pop. 
about 2000. 

Andorao Caccioma, in-don'oo k&t-ohos'nl, a oom- 
mone of Italy, 13 miles SE. of Ivrea, on the Cervo. Pop. 
about 3000. 

Andorra) In-don'Bl (Fr. Andorrt, ftii>MoBK')> *> n^a- 
tral oountry with the name of a repnblie, situated on the 8. 
slope of the Pyrenees, between the French department of 
Ariige and the Spanish province of Lirida, extending fh>m 
lat £!<■ 22' to 42^36' N. and from Ion. 1° 26' to 1" &' E., 
surrounded by Iiigh mountains, on which the snow lies for 
six months in the year. Area, 176 sq. m. Its climate is 
oold, but healthy ; the soil is unproductive in grain, but there 
are rich mines of iron and valuable forests. Oats and 
barley are the only crops. The government, a demooracy, 
is vested in a council of 24 members, elected by the whole 
population. The executive head is a syndic, elected by the 
council for life. Andorra is nominally subject to the suse- 
rainty of France and of the bishop of Urgel. The inh^ 
itants, mostly shepherds, speak the Catalan language. Pop. 
about 0000. The independence of this little state is rented 
to date fVom the time of Charlemagne, about 790. Capital, 
Andorra. A(y. and inhab. Ahdorrese, an-dos-Bees'. 

Andomti an ancient village, capital of the republic of 
Andorra, at the foot of the Monto Anclar, at an elevation 
of 3610 feet, and 12 miles N. of Urgel. Pop. about 1000. 

AndoniII6, 6M*Moo*ee'yi', a town of France, in Hay- 
enne, miles SB. of Chailland. Pop. about 800 (commune, 

An'dover, a 1>orongh and market-town of Hampshire, 
England, 12 miles NW. of Winchester. Pop. in 1901, 0609. 

Au'dover, a post-town of Tollaod oo., Conn., on the 
New Tork, New Haven and Hartford R., 23 miles B. of 
Hartford. Pop. about 460. 

Andover, a post-town of Henry oo., HI., about 26 miles 
N. by E. of Oalesburg. Pop. in 1900, 238. 

Andover, a post-hamlet of Clinton oo., Iowa, on a 
division of the Chisago and Northwestern R,, 12 miles N. 
by W. of Clinton. Pop. 80. 

Andover, a post^village of Butler co., Kan., 11 miles E. 
of Wichita. Pop. about 125. v 

Andover, a post-township (town) of Oxford oo., Me., 
about 46 miles NW. of Lewiston. Pop. in 1900, 727. 

Andover, a banking post-viUace of Essex oo., Mass., 
in Andover township (town), on tne Boston and Maine 
R., 23 miles N. of Boston and 10 miles E. of Lowell. It is 
the seat of the Abbott Female Academy, Punchard High 
School, Phillips Academy (founded in 1778), and the An- 
dover Theological Seminary, which was founded in 1807 
and is the lesSing educational institution of the American 
Congregationalists. This seminary has » large endowment 
and a library of over 60,000 volumes. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, who resided here after the publication of "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," is buried in the private cemetery of the 
trustees of Phillips Academy. Andover township (town) 
is bounded on the NW. by the Merrimac River. It has 
woollen-faotories, flax-mills, and maonfaetnres of linen and 
rubber. Pop. (rf'tha town in 1890, 0142 ; in 1900, 0813. 

Andover, a poet-hamlet of Harrison oo., Mo., 18 miles 
from Leon, Iowa. 

AndOTer, » post-township (town) of Herrimao oo., N.H., 
about M miles NW. of Concord. Pop. in 1900, 1179. 

Andover Station is on the Boston and Maine R., 29 mile* 
from Conoord. 

Andover, a post-village of Sussex co., N. J., in Andover 
township, on the Lackawanna and the lichif h and Hudson 
River Rs., 6 miles S. of Newton, its banking point. There 
are Umeetone-qoarries and iron-mines in the township. 
P<». of the township in 1900, 987. 

Andover, a banking post-village of AUecany co.. N.T., 
in Andover township (town), on the Erie K., 70 miles W. 
of Elmira and 12 miles E8B. of Belmont. Pop. in 1900, 
964 ; of the town, 1809. 

Andover, a bankingpost-vilUce of Ashtabula oo., Ohio, 
on the Lake Shore and Michinn Southern R., 38 miles N. 
of Toungstown. It has maoiuaotares of flour, lumber, iron 
fence, etc. Pop. in 1900, 816. 

Andover, a banking ^ost-villace of Day co., S.Dak., 
in a fine agricultural section, on the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul R., 29 miles E. of Aberdeen. . Pop. in 1900, 

Andover, a post-township (town) of Windsor co., Yt., 
about 28 miles S. bv B. of Rutland. Pop. in 1900, 378. 

Andover, or "robiqae, a post-village of Victoria oo.. 
New Brunswick, on the river St. John, opposite the month 
of the Tobique River, 60 miles N. of Woodstock. Steamer* 
ply between Andover and Woodstock. Pop. 360. 

Andraitx, in-dri'itn, a town on the SW. ooast of Ma- 
jorca, 8 miles WSW. of Palma. Pop. of the oommone^ 
about 0500. 

Andrarum, in'dri-rSSm, a town of Sweden, 20 miles 
S. by W. of Ghristianstad. Pop. about 1600. 

Andrava (in-dri'vl) Bar, Madagascar, E. ooast, about 
00 miles SB. of Cape Amber. Lat (Berry Head) 12° 60' 
8. ; Ion. 40° 58' E. 

Andreafski, in-dri-Afskee, a settlement of Alaska, on 
the right bank of the lower Yukon River, about lat. 82° 5' 
N., Ion. 163° 12' W. 

Andreanof (In-dri-ln'oQ or Andreno'viaa 
I§land8, a group of about thirty islands in the North 
Pacific, belonging to the United States, and forming the 
central division of the Aleutian Islands. Lat. 52° N. 

Andreasberc (In-dr&'&s-biRQ'), Sankt, a town of 
Hanover, in the Hars Mountains, 13 miles SW. of Elbin- 
gerode, on the deolivity of the Andreasberg, at the 8. foot 
of the Bracken, 1826 feet above the sea. It has recently 
come into favor as a health-resort. It owA its origin to the 
mines of iron, silver, lead, copper, cobalt, and arsenic in its 
immediate neighborhood. Pop. in 1900, 3846. 

Andree, a poet-hamlet of Isanti co., Minn. P<9. 
about 50. 

Andr<||ew, in-dri'ySv. a town of Russian Poland, gov- 
ernment of Kieloe. Pop. in 1897, 6010. 

Andretta, in^drjt'ti, a town of Italy, in the Apen- 
nines, province and 33 miles E. of Avellino. Pop. aSont 

An'drew, a oonnty in the NW. part of Missouri, has 
am area of 420 sq. m. It is Iwunded on the W. by the Nod- 
away River and on the SW. by the Missouri, and is also 
dri^ned by the Platto River. The surface is undulating ; 
the soil is productive. Capital, Savannah. Pop. in 1890, 
16,000: in 1900, 17,332. 

Andrew, a post-town of Jackson oo., Iowa, 27 miles S. 
of Dubuque. Pop. in 1900, 373. 

Andrew Chapel, a post-hamlet of Madison oo., Tenn., 
about 16 miles W. of Jackson. 

An'drews, a county of Texas, bounded W. by the SB. 
extremity of New Mexico. Area, 1691 sq. m. It is a part 
of the Liana Estacado. Its surface is dotted with salt and 
alkaline lakes. Pop. in 1900, 87. 

Andrews, a banking post-town of Huntington co., 
Ind., on the Wabash River and on a division of the Wabaab 
R., 7 miles SW. of Huntington. Pop. in 1900, 746. 

Andrews, a post-village of Sierra oo., N.Mex. Pop. 
about 80. 

Andrews, a post-villue of Cherokee co., N.C., on the 
Atlanta, Knoxville and Northern R., 10 miles (direct) N. 
of Hayesville. Pop. about 200. 

Andrews, a post-village of Morrow oo., Ohio, 48 milea 
N. by E. of Columbus. 

Andrews, a post-hamlet of Spottsylvania oo., Va., 10 
miles SW. of Spottsvlvania. 

Andrews Settlement, a post-hamlet of Potter co., 
Pa., 10 miles N. of Coudersport. 

Andrews, St., Scotland. See Saiht Ahdrbws. 

An'drewsville. a mining locality in Carbon co.. Pa., 
9 miles W. of Maneh Chunk. 

Andre wsvllle, a post-village of Lanark co., Ontario, 
S) miles from Merriekville. 

Andrewville, a hamlet of Kent oo., Del. Pop. about 60. 

Andresiu 6ii>'dr«h'si', a village of Fraooe, department 
of Maine.«t-Loire, 9 miles NNW. of CholeL 

Digitized by 




A « j A mnp.Ti'nlM.Tu T 

AmitUtf la'dre-t, aa epUeoptI towa of Italy. 30 mllw 
W}{W. of BmL It hu a fine old oatbedral. Tlie chief 
tnde ii in almondi. Pop. (oommune) in IJIOl, 49,M9. 

AM4rieka«, » town of Aiutria-Hangary. See Ahobt- 


Amdritzeaat in-diit-al'nl, a town of Greece, in M et- 
Mnia, SO milea NB. of Kypariwia. Pop. about 2000. 

AMloSf in'droe, aa island of tiie Oreek Arohipelaco, 
tlM northemmoct of the Cyoladea, ii 25 miles lone and S 
mllea broad, monntainoiu and fertile. Chief town, Androa ; 
but the beat port ia Ganrion, on the W. ooaat. Pop. in 1886, 

AmAtotf in the Bahamaa. See Androb Island. 

Aadros, a town of Greece, on the island of Andros, on 
the K. eoaat. It ii the see of a Greeli and a CathoUo bishop, 
baa a spaeioos port for small orait, and manufactures silks 
and earaet<. Pop. (oommune) in 1890, 8603. 

AnvrescOf'gill, a river of New England, is formed 
bT the jonotion of the Magalloway Rirer and the outlet of 
Umbas^ Lake. It runs southward through part of Coos 
CO., N.H., eroaaea the western boundary of Maine, and 
nraa nearly eastward throngh Oxford oo. It afterwards 
lows southward throngh Androecoggin oo., and enters the 
Kennebec RiTOr about 18 miles m>m its mouth and S 
miles above Bath. Its length is about 160 miles ; total fall 
of the Androscoggin proper, 1256 feet. 

Androscoggin, a county in the SW. put of Hidne, 
has an area of 480 sq. m. It is intersected by the Andros- 
eoggin Rirer, wUch affords extensire water-power, and it 
etmtains several small lakes. Capital, Auburn. Pop. in 
1890, 48,968; in 1900, 54L243. 

Androscoggin Lakes, in Maine. See Rahoilbt 

Andros Island, one of the Bahamas, is 90 miles long 
aad from 10 to 40 miles broad. It is generally low and 
nrampy, and is subject to some ezt<ot to overflow from the 
sea, hot is well timbered and exports wool and sponges. It 
is often spoken of as a group <h islands, since the lagoons 
and marshes divide it into three principal and many minor 
parts. Pop. about 1400, mostly living at Bed Bay, in 
the S. 

Andros Island, a fertile island in the delta of the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, Sacramento oo., CaL The 
island has been diked against floods. 

Andmasa, Andrusa, in^lroo'sl. or Andoros'sa, 
a town of Oreeoe, in Hessenia, 7 miles NW. of Kalamata. 

Andras'sOT, or Andms'sovo, avillage in the Rua- 
■iui government of Smolensk. It is memorable for the 
tnaty eoneluded here in 1667 between Poland and Russia, 
in whieh the former relinquished the Ukraine E. of the 
Dnieper, together with Kiev, etc. 

Andryckow, In-dree'Knv (Oct. Amdriekau, in'dre- 
K<w'), a town of Austria-Hiinnuy, in Qalleia, b miles W. 
ef Wadowlee, on the Wiepn. Pop. 1000. It has manufoo- 
tarei of Un«n. 

And^ar, in-doo'aar (anc IHitur'gU), a town of 
(ontbani Spain, 20 miles Nw. of Jain, at the foot of the 
Bierra Morena, on the Guadalquivir. It is noted for the 
oianafaeture of porons jars for cooling watw, called alcar- 
rmia». Pop. (oommune) in 1900, 16,303. 

Andnse, 6ii>'dtis', a town of France, department of 
Oaid, 5 miles SW. of Alais. Pop. in 1901, 2846. 

An'dy, a post-hamlet of Wetsel oo., W.Va., 6 miles NE. 
ef Hew Martinsville. 

Andfrille, a post-hamlet of Meade co., Ky. 

Anegada, L-nJUg&'dl (Sp. for " drowned'' island), the 
■ordiemmoet of the Virgin Islands, British West Indies. 
It is low and flat, 10 miles long and very narrow. Much 
«f its (ufaoe is liable to be washed by heavy seas. It 
is snmmnded by dangerous reeft. Salt is produced here. 
lot. 18* 45' N. ; Ion. 64° 20' W. 

An^kalln', or An'ikal', a town of India, in My- 
isre, 10 miles SSE. of Bangalore. Pop. 6000. 

Anesns, the ancient name of the nver Eiriig. 

Anet, I'ni', a town of Prance, department of Ear*. 
<t-L<^, 9 milee NE. of Drenx. Pop. about 1300. 

Anet, I'ni' (Ger. Int), a village of Switierland, 22 miles 
WNW. of Bern. Pop. 1500. 

Aneta, a banking post- village of Nelson oo., N.Dak., 
•a the Great Northern R., 50 mues (direct) SW. of Grand 
Forks. Pop. about 200. 

Anfan, an island in the Persian Gulf. See AsGACK. 

Angancneo, In-gln-gwi'o, a town of Mexico, in the 
state rf Mieboaoiin. Pop. in 1805, 9115. 

Angara, tng-gi-ri', a large river of Siberia, iasnee from 
Lake Baikal, at abont lat. 51° 40' N., Ion. 105° E., and, 

rriag the town of Irkutsk, pnranes a N. and W. course 
abvat IlOe miles and blls into the Yenisei. The An- 
lara, aHhoogh considered to be a tributary of the Yenisei, 
b rirtnaUy Uie mun stream, ftr ezoeeding in die and vol. 

nme the rivCT that is assumed to take it ap. It is navigable 
for its entire course below Irkutsk, and for steamers as far 
as the junction of the Ilim. Below this point the stream 
is also udrn as the Upper Tunguska. A stream entering 
Lake Baikal at the NE. extremity is the Upper Angara. 

Angaraes, In-gft-r&'is, a town of Peru,- capital of a 
provinoe of its own name, department of Huanoavelioa. 

Angat, in-glt', a town of Bulacin province, Lnxon, 
Philippine Isluds, on the Quingua River, and 19 miles 
Avm Bulao&n. In a mountainous and wooded region, it 
yields the products of the province. Pop. 7000.— Angat 
Mountain (3237 feet altitude) is to the noruieast. 

Anganm, In-gawm', or Angam, in-gim', cailed also 
Angar and Hengam,an inhabited island at the entrance 
of the Persian Gulf. It is from 5 to 8 miles l0L,g. 

Angazira, In-gi-iee'^i, or Great Comoro, the 
largest of the Comoro Islands. See Cohoej. 

Angdaforang, one of the chief towiu of Bhutan, is 
the eastern Himalayas! 

Angeconrt, ftssb^kooB', a town of France, department 
of Ardennes, 5 miles SW. of Sedan. Pop. 500. 

Ange Gardien, ftmh girMt-4i<', a post^villMe and 
parish of Montmorency oo., Quebec, Canada, on the IT shore 
of the St. Lawrence, lo milee below Quebec, with which it 
is connected by rail. 

Ange Gardien, Rouville oo., Quebec. See Car- 

Angcja, ln-ihl'ih&, a towj of Portugal, Beira, 6 miles 
NE. of Aveiro. Fop. (commane) about 2000. 

Angel de la Gnarda, dn'oel dl Ii gwlr'di, an island 
of Mexico, in the Gulf of CUifomia, in about lat. 39° 15' N. 

Angeles, Los. See Itat Aksblbs. 

Angelica, an-jel'i-k% a banking poet-village (formerly 
a capital) of Allegany oo., N.Y., is in Angelica township 
(town), on a creek of the same name and on the Pittsburg, 
Shawmut and Northern R., about 60 milee SB. of Bnlbu) 
and 20 miles W. of Homellsville. It has dairying and 
lumbering interests, etc Pop. in 1900, 978 ; of the town, 
1639. The Genesee River runs through the town. 

Angelica, a post-hamlet of Berks oo.. Pa., about 5 
miles 8. of Reading. 

Angelica, a post-township (town) and village of Sha- 
wano 00., Wis., about 30 miles NW. of the city of Green 
Bay. Pop. of the town in 1900, 1260 ; of the vilLtge, abont 

Angelina, an'Jel-e'nf, a river in the E. part of Texas, 
rises in Smith oo., flows in a SSE. direouon, forms the 
boundary between Angelina and Nacogdoches oos^ and en- 
ters the Neohes River about 13 milee NE. of WoodviUe. 
Length, estimated at 150 miles. 

Angelina, a county in the E. part of Texas, has an 
area of 880 sq. m. It is bounded on the NE. by the Angel- 
ina River and on the SW. by the Neches. The surface Is 
undulating and the soil is fertile. Capital, Lufkin. Pop. 
in 1890, 6306 ; in 1900, 13,481. 

Angelina, a post-village of Angelina oo., Tex., on the 
Houston, East and West Texas R., 9 milee (direct) N. of 
Lufkin. Pop. about 160. 

Angel Island, a post-station of Marin oo., Oal., on a 
small island in the haroor of San Francisco, 3 miles tnm 
Saucelito Station. 

Angein, Ing'eln, a fertile district of Prnssia, in Sohles- 
wig, b^ween the Sley and the Flmsbnrg I}onl, is supposed 
to take its name from the Angles, a Low-German people 
who settled in large numbers in England in the sixth oen- 
tnrr and gave it its name. The inhabitants speak Daniab 
and are a hardy and industrious race. 

An'gelo, a post-township (town) of Monroe oo.. Wis. 
Pop. in 1900, 710. 

Angels Camp, a banking post-village of Calaveras eo., 
Gal., in a fine friiit-growing region, about 15 miles NW. of 
Sonora. It has rich mines of gold-bearing quart*. Pop. 
about 3000 (?). 

Angera, an-ji'rL a town of Italy, on the E. shore of 
Lago Maggiore, 38 miles NW. of Milan, with ruins of a fine 
castle. Pop. about 2000. 

Aagerapp, In'gf-r&p', a river of East Prussia, one of 
the hntd-streams of the Pregel. 

Angerbarg, Ing'^r-bMRO^ a town of Bast Prussia, 30 
miles SW. of Gumbinnen, near the Manersee. Pop. 5000. 

Angerlo, ing'Ber-lo\ a village of the Netherlands, • 
miles B. of Arahem. 

Angermann, ong'fr-min, a most beautiAil river of 
Sweden, rises near the border of Norway, and, flowing SB., 
enters the Gulf of Bothnia N. of Hemosand. Lengtn, ISO 
miles, of which rimnt 65 are navigable for small craft. 

Angermannland, ong'fr-min-llnd, or Angerma* 
nia, an old province of Sweden, now part of the ISn of 
Westemorrlaad (HemVsand). 

Digitized by 





ABgemAnde, ing'tr-mOiiMfli. a town of Pmnta, 42 
mild HE. of Berlin, on L»k« Httnde. Pop. In 1900, 7460. 

Angenit lng'«rn, • Tillage of Pmuian Saxtniy, 17 milea 
NNK. of Haatdebnrc. 

Ance Robert, Canada. See Caitbobbrt. 

Ail%ero'na, a po«t-bamIet of Jaokion so., W.Va^ 36 
miles S. by W. of Parkenborg and 5 miles fh>m the Ohio 

AMgerS, itp'shi' (ano. Juliom'agtu, also AntUeavi, An- 
Jegavum), a city of France, capital of the department of 
Haine-et-I>aire, on the Maine, jiut below the junction of the 
Sartbe and the Mayenne, and 4 miles N. of its Junction with 
the Loire, on the railway from Tours to Nantes, 190 miles 
SW. of Paris. Lat. of cathedral, 47" 28' 17" N. j Ion. 0' 
33' 10" W. Its most remarkable stmctures are the massive 
sastle, once the stronghold of the dukes of Asjon, now a 

ewder-magasine, the splendid medistval oathedral of St. 
anrioe^ the Hospice SL Jean, founded by Henry II. of Eng- 
land, and the tower of 8L Austin. The Maine diridea An- 
gers into an upper and a lower town, and its old walls are 
converted into boulevards planted with trees and lined with 
handsome houses. There are fine modem quays and bridges. 
Angers has several rich mnseoms, a library of 00,000 
volumes, a school of arts and trades, a school of painting, 
a conservatory of music, and many professional and other 
schools, and is the seat of the nniversit< Cathollqne de 
rOuest. It is a bishop's see and is the seat of several 
leaned societies of high repat& It has manufactories of 
linen and woollen stuffs, cotton and silk twist, hosiery, 
sail-eloth, metallic wares, etc. In the vicinity are immense 
slate-qoarries. The population was in 1670 about 60,000. 
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes it gradually de- 
clined, and in 1789, before the revolution, was 27,696. Since 
1816 the prosperity of the city has revived. Pop. in 1891, 
72,669; in 1901, 74,421. 

Angers, bm^Ak', a post-rtllage of Ottawa eo., Quebee, 
on the Ottawa River, 14 miles from Ottawa. 

AitgerviUe, ftiw^ihtr'veel', a town of Fraooe, depart- 
mcDt of Sein»'«t-Oise, on the ndlway fh>m Paris to Orleans, 
11 miles SW. of Etampes. Pop. 1600. 

Anfferville, a village of France, department of Seine- 
Inftrienre, near Havre. 

Anf erville, a village of France, department of Seine- 
Inftrienre, near Yvetot, 

Anghiari, ln-gh»-l're, a town of Italy, 10 miles KB. 
of Areiio. Pop. 1600 (commune, 8000). 

Angiari, lnJ|'ree, a village of Italy, on the Adige, 2 
miles NNW. of Legnago. Pop. 600 (commune, 2000). 

Asgier, a poet-town of Harnett oo., N.C. Pop. about 120. 

Aag'kor', a ruined town on the borders of Cambodia and 
Siam, not far from the NW. extremity of Lake Bien-Hoa 
(Tonle-Sap). Near it are the famous mine of Angkor- or 

AngUs, 6ii«\gl4s', a town of France, department of 
Tarn, 16 miles SE. of Caatras. Pop. 400 (oommnne, 20O0). 

Anglesea, kng'g'l-sf, a poet-borough and seaside re- 
sort of Cape Hay oo., N.J., on Five Mile Beach (Atlantle 
coast), 10 miles BE. of Cape May Conrt-House. Pop. in 
1900, 161. 

Anglesey, or Anglesea, ang'g'1-see, an island and 
CO. of Wales, in the Irish Sea, connected with the co. 
of Oamarvon by bridges across Menai Strait. It is 20 
miles long and 17 miles broad. Area, 276 so. m. Highest 
point, Holyhead HUl, 703 feet. Fop. in 1901, 60,606. The 
chief towns are Beaumaris (the capital), Amlwch, and 
Holyhead. The soil is mostly fertile and tolerably well 
cultivated. The Parys and Mona minee have yielded large 
quantities of oopper. Menai Strait is crossed by a magnifi- 
cent suspension-bridge, 100 feet above low-water mark, and 
by the great Britannia tubular bridge, for the conveyaoce 
of railway trains. Anglesea is the ifo'na of Tacitus, who 
represents it as the chirf seat of the Druids in Britain, and 
it nas numerous prehistoric remains. 

Anglet, in^'gW, a small town of Franoe, department 
of Ba8ses-Pyr£nlee, 3 miles NW. of Bayonne. 

Angleton, ang'g'l-t9n, a banking post-village, eapital 
of Brasoria co^ Tez^ on the Velasco Terminal R., about 60 
miles (direct) S. of Houston. Pop. abont 700. 

Anglenr, Airi'glcr', a village of Belgium, 3 miles SE. of 
Liige, between the Heuse and Ourthe. Pop. in 1896, esti- 
mated at 7668. 

Anglnm, a post-vlUage of St Louis oo.. Mo. Pop. 
•bout 100. 

Angmagsalik, the principal settlement, with a mission 
station, on the E. coast of Greenland, in hit. 66° 30' N. 

Angoisse, &ii«^Ewts', a village of Jranoe, department 
of DordoEne, 24 miles SB. of Nontron. 

Angol, in-gol', a town of Chile, capital of the province 
of Malleoo. on a rrilroad, and 70 miles SE. of Conoepoi6n. 
Pop. in 1896, 7066. 

Angftla, an-go'Ia, formerly Don'go or Ambonde, 

im-bon'di, a name of the Portuguese possessions in western 
AfHca, extending iVom about lat. 6 8., near the mouth 
of the Congo River, to the river Cunene, in lat. 17° 20" 8. 
It Is bounded on the N. by the Congo Free State, on 
the E. by the Congo Free State and British Zambesia, on 
the S. by German Southwest AfHca, and W. by the Atlantle 
Ocean. It also includes the detached tract of Cabenda 
(Kabinda), which lies on the ooast across lat. 6° S., between 
the French Congo and the Congo Free State. The country 
is flat and sterile along the ooast, but mountainous in the 
interior, rising into plateau-snrfaoes, and elsewhere into 
wild and rugged peaks, some of which attain an eleva- 
tion of 7000-7600 feet (Lovili, Elonga, Humbil. It is 
watered by various rivers, with their numerous tributarlea. 
Among the streams are the Coansa (Kwansa), the Bengo, 
and the Danda. The climate varies from the tropieal low- 
lands to the plateau altitudes, where the mild temperature of 
Europe may be eigoyed. Luxuriant forest covers a large 
part of the Interior. Angola long possessed an In&mons 
notoriety for the extent of its slave-trade. Palm oil, rubber, 
coffee (the ohief export of Ambrit), and cotton (district of 
Mossamedes) are the most valuable products. The ooast of 
Angola was discovered in 1486 by the Portuguese, who soon 
after began to form settlements on the Congo and at various 
points 8, of that river. They have a number of forts and 
commercial establishments at different places, in some in- 
stuices several hundreds of miles in the interior, where the 
Portuguese colonists and natives meet for the purpose of 
trading. Since 1887, when the colony was enlargM by a 
treaty with the Congo Free State, Angola oonsisis of 4 ols- 
triots, — Congo, Loanda, Benguela and Mossamedes. The 
kingdom of Lunda is in the NE. Area, about 600,000 
sq. m. Pop. 4,000,000. Capital and chief port, BXo Paolo 
de Loanda. 

Angola, a poet-hamlet of Sussex oo., Del., 44 miles S. 
by B. of Dover. 

Angola, a banking post-town, capital of Steuben oo., 
Ind., on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern R., 42 
miles N. by E. of Fort Wayne. It is the seat of the Tri- 
State Normal College. Pop. in 1900, 2140. 

Angola, a post-village of Labette CO., Kan. Pop. about 

Angola, a post-village of Wast Feliciana parish. La., on 
the MTssisslppf River, shout 60 miles below Natohes, Miss. 

Angola, a post-village of Erie co., N.Y., on several 
railroads, 21 miles SSW. of Buffalo and abont 2 miles IVom 
Lake Erie. It has msnnfoctnresof bicycles and terra-ootta. 
The banking point is Buffalo. Pop. in 1900, 712. 

Angola, a post-hamlet of Onslow co., B.C., IS miles 
SW. of Jacksonville. 

Angolala, In-go-il'il, or Angolalla, a town of 

Abyssinia, in Shoe, 17 miles W. of Ankober. 

Angoniland, a district of east-central Africa, inhabit 
by the Angoni tribe, lying W. of Lake Nyassa. 

Angora, an-go'r^ (Turk. Engiiri, Sn-gfin'ee; ana. 
Aney'ra), a town of Asiatic Turkey, capital of the vilayet 
of the same n^me, 216 miles BSE. of Constantinople, with 
which It Is connected by rail. It is celebrated for the long- 
haired goats bred in its vicinity, the wool of whioh is largeur 
exportM. The town has an extensive trade. Angora U 
the seat of a Greek and a Catholic Armenian bishop. Her* 
Sultan B^ aset was overwhelmed and captured by Tamerlane 
in 1402. Pop. abont 30,000, of whom more than one-third 
are Armenians. 

Angora, a mountainous vilajyet or province of Turkey, 
in Asia Minor. It has many fertile valleys, and exports 
mohair (sheared ttom the famous Angora goats), wool, 
tragacanth, opium, and yellow-berries. Area, 32,000 sq. m. 
Capital, Angora. Pop. estimated at about 900,000. 

Ango'ra, a station on the I>hilade1phia, Wilmington 
and Baltimore R., 3 miles fW>m West Philadelphia, Pa. 

Angomu, In-gor-noo', a town of Bomu, central Aflrioa, 
16 miles SE. of Kuka, near the W. bank of Lake Chad. 

Angosta, (n-gos'ti, Angozha, Angoxa, in-go'- 
shL or Angoche, 4n-go'sh&, a small country of eaM 
Aflrlca, claimed by Portugal, has a coast-line of 90 miles, 
and Use chiefly in the valley of a river of the same name, 
which is navigable 180 miles. It produces ooooa and ses- 
ame oils, coir, peanuts, ivory, copal, and archil. Coital, 
Angosta, on the river Angosta, 12 miles from the sea. Lat. 
16° 30' 8. ; Ion. 40° B. The people are mostly Arabs. Off 
the coast are the Angoxa coral Islands, small, low, and well 

Angostura, In-goa-too'ri, a town of Veneiuela. See 

AngonlAme, iii^^goo'lalm' (anc. heulWma or /«••• 
ItVffla), a dty In the W. of France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Charente (In the old Angonmols), on the Charenta^ 
66 mllee NE. of Bordeaux. Pop. (commune) in 1901, S7,6S0 ; 

Digitized by 





tt th« dty, 83,479. It U (itiwtcd on an iaolatod hiU, 200 
IM aboTe tha river, and, being bnilt of white itone, pre- 
MBts an mttraotive appearance, enhanoed by the fine ^rom- 
•oadM and terraeea laid oat on the lite of iti former 
fortiileaticHu. It has a flue ««thedral of the twelfth oen- 
taiy and a handsome hfttel-de-riUe. There are a nombor 
of pejMr-niilla and Tarions other manoiiMtoriee. 

ABCOamoiit 6ii>*goo'mwi', an old prorince of France, 
of which the capital wa< Angonltme, now forming the de- 
partment of Chareote and put of Dordogne. 

Aagoia. or Anrosha. See Akoosta. 

Aagra, ing'gri, a seaport on the 8. side of the island 
of Tcieeira, onital of the Asoree Islands. Lat. 38° 38' N. ; 
hm. ST" 13' W. It is well built and regular and its situa- 
tioD heantiftil. Its harbor is the onl; good one in the 
Island, and is fortiiled. The town has a military college 
and arsenal. Its ehief exports are wine, honey, and fruits. 
Pod. about 11.000. 

ABgntbt u-grib', a river of Abyssinia, taking its rise 
in Dembe* and fiUing into the Takatie. 

Aagra dos Reis (or Reyes), 4ng'grft doce ri'iah, 
a sn a por t tof Branl, on a bay of the same name, 70 miles W. 
of Rio de Janeiro. 

Aagra Peqaeft* (or Peqvenlia), lng'gr& pi-kin'yi 
(>.<.. "little bay"), or Santa Cms. sin'ti croooe, a bay 
on the coast of German Southwest Aflnca. The bwinnings 
of German colonisation in Africa were made herein 1884. 
Ut 36° 38' S. ; Ion. 1S° B. 

Aagraxabad, a town of Bengal. See Ehousb 

Aagri, in'gree. a town of Italy, 11 miles NW. of Sa- 
Isnio. Pop. in IMI, 6&57 (commune, 11,219). 

Aagaiua (ang-^hil'lf ; Sp. Anguila, In-ghee'li) or 
Saake IslaAd, one of the British West India islands, 
Leewmni group, 8 miles N. <>f St. Martin. It has cattle 
and salt industries. Area,3£sq. m. Pop. aliout 3800. Olf 
its NB. ooast is the little Uland of AngniUetta. 

ABfBil'la, a post-towB of Sharkey co.. Miss., 33 miles 
S. of Elizabeth. 

Angailla (an-gwillf) Cape, on the coast of New- 
frandland. Iiat. 47° iV N. ; Ion. 60° 17' W. 

Aagilinara, In-gwil-ll'ri, a village of Italy, 23 miles 
8. of Padua, on the Adige. Pop. alraut 2000 (commune, 

Anrnillara, a village of Italy, province and 19 miles 
KW. of Rome, on Lake Braoeiano. Pop. about 1600. 

Anpil, or Vnrul, nn-gool', a native state of Orissa, 
India, under British control, bounded SW. by the Haha- 
nnddy. Capital, Angnl. 

Aagna, ang'gns^ the old name of Forfarshire, Scotland. 
Its titular earMom oelongs to the Duke of Hamilton. 

Angas, a coal-mining town of Boone co., Iowa, on the 
Chicago, Rook Island and Pacific R., 49 miles S. of Fort 
Dodge. Pop. in 1900, 333. 

AAfas, a post-village of Nnokolls co., Neb. Pop. about 

Aagns, a poet-village of Simcoe co., Ontario, &3 miles 
NW. of Toronto. Pop. 300. 

Aahalt, in'h&lt, a duchy of Germany, surrounded by 
Prussian territoiy (province of Saxony), chiefly between 
lat. il° and 62° K. and Ion. 11° and 13*' E. Ana, 886 so. 
m. It consists of two principal and four smaller parts, all 
detached trom one another. The reigning family is one of 
the oldest in Europe. Thetitleof Pnnce of AnhaH was first 
eooferred in 1213, and in 1686 four ducal lines were estab- 
lished. The line of Anhalt-Zerbst became extinct in 1793 ; 
that of AnhaH-CSthen in 1847; the male line of Anhalt- 
Bemburg in 1863 ; since which time the former line of An- 
halt-Deaean lias ruled the reunited state. The country Is 
scrienltnral, but the mountainous parts of tjie W. afford 
tosber and metals. The people are mostly Protestants. 
Chief towns, Dessau (the capital), Bomborg, and CStheo. 
Pod. in 1900, 316,027. 

Aahemby, or Anhembi. See Tiiti. 

Anholt, ftn'hilt, an island of Denmark, N. of Jutland, 
in the Cattegat. Lat. of the light-house at iU NB. ex- 
tremity, 66° 44' N. ; Ion. 11° 39' S. It is 7 mUes in length 
by 4 in breadth. Pop. about 200. 

Aakolt, a town of Prussia, in Westphalia, on an affluent 
of the Tssd. 13 miles NE. of Clevea. Pop. 1760. It is the 
resideooe of^the Princes of Salm-Salm. 

Aahai) a province of China. See NoAS-HWd. 

Aaij i'nee, a mined city of Russian Armenia, 28 miles 
S. by 8. of Ears, on the Arpa-Tohai. In the Middle Ages 
it was the capital of the Bagratide line of Armenian kinga. 
It was pillaged by the 8e\jaks abont 1063, and soon after 
sbsndoned. There are extensive and interesting ruins. 

Aaiakchak (i'ne-ak-ohak) Bay, Alaska, enters the 
MBinsuIa of Alaska ttvm the SB. Lat. 66° 46' N. ; Ion. 
147° W. 

A]iiane» I'na-ln', a town of France, department of 
HirauU, on the Corbiires, 16 miles WNW. of Montpellier. 
Its old abbey is now a prison. It has manniisoturee of 
leather, cottons, soape, essences, and chemicals. Pop. 2600. 

Aniche, l^neesn', a village of Fiance, department of 
Kord, 8 miles BSE. of Doual, with.extensive coal-mines, 
glass-works, and chemical works. Pop. (commune) 7600. 

Anieh, a town of Arabia. See AnizxH. 

Aaiene, a river of Italy. See Txvxbone. 

Animallyt or Animalaya, India. See Ahamcllat. 

An'lmaa, a town of La Plata oo., Colo., on the Animas 
River, abont 36 miles 8. of Silverton. Coal is found near it. 
P<m. in 1900, 164. 

Animaa Forka, a post-village of San Juan co., Colo., 
abont 20 miles NNE. of Silverton. It is surrounded by 
high mountains and rich silver-mines, and is chiefly sup- 
ported by mining silver. 

Animas River, or Rio de las Animas, Colo., rises 
near the San Juan Mountains, runs southward through La 
Plata CO., and enters the Rio de San Juan in Taos oo., 
N.Mex. It is about 160 miles long, and is a clear, rapid 
mountain-stream. The Denver and Rio Grande R. traverses 
the caiion of this river along one of the most remarkable con- 
struction beds known in railway engineering. Coal is found 
in the valley of, this stream. 

Anlll6n, &-neen-y5n', a village of Spain, in Aragon, 46 
miles trom Baragossa, Pop. 1800. 

Anio, a river of central Italy. See Tiveb(hic. 

Aaio, 4'ne-o, or Agno, In'yo, a river of Italy, prov- 
ince of Caserta, falls into the Gulf of Gaeta. 

Anisas, the ancient name of the river Erhs. 

Anita, an-ee'tf, a banking poet-town of Cass co., Iowa, 
on the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific R., 68 miles W. by 
S. of Dee Moines. Pop. in 1900, 968. 

Anita, a post-village of Jefferson co.. Pa., on the Penn- 
sylvania and Northwestern R., 10 miles (direct) 8E. by 8. 
of Biookville. 

Aniny, in-yoo'i. Greater and Lesser, two rivers of 
Siberia, country of the Tohuktchis, affluents of the Kolyma. 

Aniva (Vne-v&') Cape, on the 8. coast of Sashalin, 
E. of the Bay of Aniva. Lat. 46° 10' N. j Ion. 144*^20' E. 

Ani'wa, a post-village of Shawano co.. Wis., on the 
Chicago and Northwestern R., 34 miles NW. of Shawano. 
Pop of the township (town), 934 ; of the village, about 600. 

Aniseh, i'nee'ijh, or Hanifah, hi-neeTa, a town of 
Arabia, in N^d, lat. 26° 34' N., Ion. 43° 26'^E., on the 
Wady-er-Rumma, and at the junction of several caravan 
routes, is a place of considerable commercial importance. 
It is the birthplace of Abd-ul-Wahab, fonnder of the sect of 
Wahabis. Ahiibb, or AiiBzitt, is also the name of b great 
Bedouin tribe of northern and central Arabia and of Syria. 

Al^ar, In'Jar', an nninhabited island of the Persian 
Gulf, SW. ofKishm. 

An^Jar', a town of British India, in Cntch, 10 miles trom 
the Gulf of Cutch. Pop. 13,000. 

A^Je•Dira, in'jfhdee'vf, or Aqjadi'pa, an island 
on the Malabar eoast, in lat. 14° 46' N., Ion. 74° 16' E. It 
is 1 mile long and belongs to Portugal. 

Aldenga, In-jeng'n, or Aldoienga, in-joo-teng'ata, 
a seaport of India, in Travancore, about 70 miles N. by W. 
of Cape Comorin, in lat. 8° 39' N., Ion. 76° 46' E. 

Aiyer, in'yfr, written also Airier, a seaport on the 
W. ooast of Java, in the Strait of Sunda, was totally de- 
stroyed in 1883 by floods, which followed the great volcanic 
eruption on the neighboring island of Knikatao. 

Aiy OS, &n'ihoce, a villMc of Brasil, state of Rio Grande 
do Sul, on ^ branch of the .nuiuhy. 

Aiuon, an'Joo or an-joo' (Fr. pron. &a>^ihoo'), an old 
province of France, intersected by tne Loire, and now form- 
ing the department of Maine-et-Loire and parts of Sarthe, 
Mayenne, and Indre-et-Loire. Its capital was Angers. 
Aqjon (oonnty, later duchy) was one of the great mediseval 
fleu of France. It was united with England in 1164, and 
was wrested iVom King John by Philip Augustus in 1204. 
It was for a time unitM with Provence, ana in the dosing 
period of the Middle Ages the kingdom of Naples was under 
an Angevine dynasty. Aqjon was finally reunited with 
the French crown in 1480. 

A^ioaan, ftii«'zhoo'iii>', or Ai\{aan, an island of the 
Comoro group. See Johahha. 

AlUn, a village of Korea, 18 miles NE. of the NE. ex- 
tremity of the Gmf of Korea. It acquired some importance 
in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904. 

Aa^kapil'iy, a town of British India, province of 
Madras, 24 miles W. of Vizagapatam. 

Ankara, In-kl'rl, a district in the N. end of the island 
of Madagascar, extending on the E. side of the island iVom 
Cape Amber to lat. 14° 25' S., and on the W. side to the 
river Samberanu. Agriculture and cattle-raising are the 
ehief occupations of the inhabitants. 

Digitized by 




A TiTift pnHn 

Ankavaa'dra, » mlllUiy post of wcrt-eantnl H»d»- 
gaaoar 86 miles NE. of To«ra. 

Ankenir, ang'ke-na, » poat-rillMO and itotlon of Polk 
00,, Iowa, on the Chioago and Kortnweetern R., 11 mllei 
N. of Dm Moines. 

AnkenytoWBi ang'kf-ne-UIwn\ a poit-rillage of Knox 
00., Ohio, 11 miles N. of Mt. Vernon. Pop. about 100. 

Anklam, in'kl&m, a town of Pmssia, Pomerania, 47 
miles by rail NW. of Stettin, on the Peene, 7 miles from its 
month io the Stettiner HafT. It has interesting medinval 
ohorohes. There are iron-foundries, wooUen-miUs, eto. 
Pop. in 1900, 14,602. 

Ankleswar, fin'kli-swiir', a town of Britisli India, 
5 miles b; rail 8. qf Baroaoh. Pop. about 10,000. 

Anfcober, Ancober, or Ankobar, In-ko'bfr. a town 
of Abyssinia, in Shoa, on a mountain, near lat. 9° 34' N. 
and Ion. 39" 53' B., at an elevation of 8700 feet. It was 
formerly important as the capital of Shoa. 

Ankobra, a small rirer of the Gold Coast of AMoa, 
entering the sea W. of Axim. 

An'kogel) a mountain of Austria-Hungary, in the 
Hohe Tauem, on the frontiers of Salsbnrg and Carinthia. 
BlevatioD^ 10,705 (11,000?) feet. 

Ankoi, a town of Afghan Turkestan. See Aitdehdi. 

AnkolC) a r^on of British East AlKca, lying immedi- 
ately B. of the equator and SW. of Uganda. It borders on 
Lake Albert Edward. 

AnkoTa, in-ko'vl, or Imerina, e-mi-ree'ni, a dis- 
trict of Hadagasear, oocupying the centre of the island. 

AnloOt in-19', a town of the Netherlands, province of 
Drenthe, 7 miles NE. of Assen. Pop. (commune) about 

Anna, a town of Spain, 41 miles SW. of Valencia. Pop. 

Anna, a post-hamlet of Orawibrd co.. Ark., ii miles 
If. of Fort Smith. 

Anna, a poet-rillage of Milton co., Oa., 7 miles E. of 
Roswell. Pop. about 100. 

Anna, a oanking city of Union co., 111., on the Illinois 
Central R., 36 miles N. of Cairo. It has a pottery, ice plant, 
and fruit-drying establishments. A state lunatic asylum 
is located here. Pop. in 1890, 2295 ; in 1900, 2618. 

Anna, a post-village of Shelby co., Ohio, on the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton and Dayton R., 49 miles N. of Dayton. 
Pop. in 1900, 451. 

Anna, a post-village of Logan co.,OkIa. Pop. about 100. 

Anna, a hanking post-village of Collin Co., Tex., on the 
Houston and Texas B., 20 miles S. by Vf. of Sherman. 
Pop. about 400. 

Annabella, a post-village of Sevier co., Utah, 14 miles 
SW. of Richfield, its banking point. Pop. about 200. 

Annaberg, &n'ni-biR0\ a town of the kingdom of 
Saxony, in the Brsgebirge, 18 miles S. of Chemniti. Pop. 
in 1900, 15,967. It has mines of tin, oobalt, etc., and 
manufactories of fine laoe and peuiementerie trimmings, im- 
mense quantities of the latter oeing exported to the United 

Annabnrg, ln'ni-b85Ra\ a market-town of Prussian 
Saxony, 12 miles N. of Torgau. Pop. in 1900, 3225. Here 
is a large castle, in which is a royal military school. 

An'nadale, Richmond co., rf.Y,, on the Staten Island 
R., 7 miles SW. of Edfnwater. It is now a part of Rich- 
mond borough, New York city. 

Anna de Chaves, in'ni dl shi'vjs, a part of the 
island of SSo Tbomi, in the Qnlf of Quinea. 

Annadel, a post-hamlet of Morgan co., Tenn. 

Annagnnce, an'na-gans', a poet-village of Kings oo.. 
New Bmniwick, 60 miles by rail N. of St. John. 

Annagh, ln-n&', two islands of Ireland, oo. of Mayo ; 
one between AchiU and the mainland and the other in liooh 

Annam', or Anam, sometimes oalled Co'cbin* 
Chi'na, a kingdom of southeastern Asia, since 1884 a 
French protectorate, and virtually a division of French 
Indo-China, is situated on the China Sea, and extends fVom 
Tongking on the N. to French Cochin-China on the S., and 
from Siun and Cambodia on the W. to the sea on the E. 
It has a narrow strip of coast-land, 20-40 miles wide, which 
is bounded on the W. by a rsngeof l>arren mountains. The 
ooantry for 10 miles inland is generally sterilCL but contains 
many fertile spots. The coast is indented with numerous 
bays, backed by mountains which rise to a height of sev- 
eral thousand feet and are broken into innumerable valleys 
and ravines. There are a number of rivers, but none of 
much importance. The chief productions, iMsides the 
cereals and fruits common to south Asia, are cinnamon- 
bark, cotton, sugar, silk, tea, coffee, the areca-nut, the betel- 
nut, and tobacco. The eagle-wood attains great perfection. 
The area of the protectorate is about 52,000 sq. m. Pop. 
in 1901, 6,124,000, of whom 4000 were Chinese and 250 

Boropeans. The inhabitants are Annameee in the towns 
and along the coast, but in the hill-tracts back from the 
seas are various tribes of Mols of ijidigenons desoent un- 
mixed with Chinese blood. In religion the natives are chiefly 
Buddhists, but there are said to be several hundred thousand 
Roman Catholics. The mass of the people are subject to 
the most abject superstition. Veneration for the departed 
dead is general ; and the temples containing their tablets 
are the most sacred spots of warship. The language of the 
country consists chiefly of monosyllabic words, by no means 
mellifluous, which are pronounced in high tones and with 
peat rapidity by the natives. It is permeated with 
Chinese elements. In writing, the Annamese use a modiS- 
oation of the Chinese characters. 

By a treaty made in 1884 and ratified in 1886 French 
protection was established over the kingdom of Annam. The 
ports of Tursne, Qui-nhon, and Xuan-dai have been opened 
to European commerce, the first named having been con- 
ceded to France. French troops occupy part of the citadel 
of Huj, the capital. Annamese ftinctionaries administer 
all the internal affairs of the kingdom. 

The territory comprised in the old kingdom of Annam 
embraced the present kingdom of that name, Tongking, 
French Cochin-China, and part of Cambodia. The nenon 
established their dominion in lower Coohin-China in 1859- 
67 and in Tongking in 1882-85. 

Annamaboe, in Africa. See Akavabok. 

An^namn'ko, called also Namu'ka, or Rotter- 
dam island, one of the Friendly Islands. The people 
are Protestant Christians and number 2000. 

An'nan, a seaMrt, parliamentary and royal burgh of 
Scotland, 15 miles ESB. of Dumfries, on a river of the same 
name, 1} miles from Solway Firth. It has ootton-milb, 
ship-yards, and a coasting trade. It unites with Dumfries 
to return one member to parliament. Pop. in 1901, 6804. 

An'nandale, a banking poet-village and summer- 
resort of Wright CO., Minn., on the Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Sanlt Ste. Marie R., 51 miM NW. of Minneapolis. It 
is a shipping point for grain, wool, and live-stoek. Pop. in 
1900, m. 

Annandale, a post-village of Hunterdon co., N. J» on 
the Central R. of New Jersey, SO miles N. of Trenton. Pop. 
about 500. ' 

Annandale, or Anandale, a post-villMe of Dutchess 
CO., N.T., is on the Hudson River, 95 miles NT of New York 
and 2 miles fh>m Barrytown station. Here is Bt. BWphen's 
College (Episcopal). Pop. about 300. 

Annandale, a village of Pennsylvania. See Axahdalb. 

Annandale, a post-village of Oeorgetown co., S.C. 
Pop. about 75. 

Annandale, a post-hamlet of Fairfax co., Va., 8 miles 
fW>m Springfield Station. 

Annandale, or Grand River Wharf, a post-vil- 
lage of Kings CO., Prince Edward Island, on Orand River, 
10 miles fh>m Georgetown. 

Annandale, a suburb of Sydney, Australia, in the 
electorate of Annandale. Pop. about 8200. 

Annap'olis, a river of Nova Scotia, expands at its 
mouth into a wide estuary and falls into the Bay of Fundy 
after a course of about 70 miles. It abounds in salmon. 

Annapolis, a post-village of Crawford oo.. 111., 14 miles 
N. by W. of Robinson, its bankingpoint. Pop. about 300. 

Annapolis, a post-village of Parke co., Ind., S3 miles 
NNE. of Terre Haute. The banking point is Rockrille. 
Pon. about 450. 

Annapolis, a city, port of enti^, and the capital of 
Maryland and of Anne Arundel oo., is on the SW. bank of 
the Severn River, 2 miles ttom its entrance into Chesapeake 
Bay and 26 miles S. by K. of Baltimore. It is on the An- 
napolis, Washington and Baltimore and the Baltimore and 
AuTOpoUs Short-Line Rs. Lat. 38° 58' 50" N. ; ion. 76" 
30' w. It contains the governor's house, state-house, the 
United States Naval Academy, St. John's College (which 
was founded in 1789), etc. The naval academy was estab- 
lished here in 1845, was removed during the Civil War, and 
was re-established in 1865. AnuMiolis has many oyster- 
packing establishments, this being Its chief industry. The 
town was founded about 1049, and was first called Provi- 
dence. In 1708 it was chartered as a city and received 
the name of Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne. It is a 
quaint and quiet place, with more of the air of a European 
than of an American city. Pop. in 1900, 8402. 

Annapolis, a post-towa of Iron co.. Ho., on Big Creek 
and on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern R., lOS 
miles 8. of St. Louis. It has a mineral spring. Pojp. in 
1900, 195. 

Annapolis, a poet-boroogh of Crawford co., Ohio, <8 
miles N. of Columbus. 

Annapolis, a post-village of Jefferson oo., Ohio, about 
128 miles ENE. of Columbus. 

Digitized by 


A Tin»^j ir»Hn 



Aaaai^list or AaaapoUs Rojral, formerly Port 
Koyal* a port of entry of Nora Sootia, at the month of 
Um liTcr Annumlia, a fine inlet of the Bay of Fundy, 129 
nOei by rmil W. of HaHfiiz. It ia the most ancient Euro- 
peaB aetttoment in this part of North America, baring been 
faoaded in 1604 by De Honts, a Frenchman. In the time 
of Queen Anne it was oeonpied by the British, whence the 
sane of Annapolis, or City of Anne. It was the seat of gor- 
erament antU 1740. It is on the Dominion Atlantic R., 
and has daily steam communication with St. John, New 
Bnmewiek. It is a farorite summer-resort. Pop. in 1901, 

AHBapolis, a county of Nora Sootia, baring the Bay 
of Fnndy for its N. boundary. The land is of rery supe- 
rior qoaoty, consisting of diked salt marsh, interrale, and 
upland. The Ann^x>lls orchards are renowned for their 

Anaavolis Joactioa, a poet-rillage of Howard co., 
Md., <» the Washington braneb of the Kiltlmore and Ohio 
R., at its junction with the Annapolis, Washington and 
Baltimore B., 30 miles SW. of Baltimore and 20 miles fh>m 

AanapoUs R*TaI» Nora Sootia. See Akkapolis. 

Aaaappes, In'nip', a riUage of France, department 
of Noid, 4 miles SW. of Lannoy, on the Lille-Tonmay R. 

Aaa ArbOTt a city of Michigan, and the capital of 
Washtenaw oo., is pleasantly situated on the Huron Rirer 
and on the Hiehigan Central and the Ann Arbor Rs., 38 
miles W. of Detroit and 246 miles E. by N. of Chicago. It 
has important manufactures of agricultural implements, 
carriages, furniture, paper, woollen goods, sash, blinds, 
boots and shoes, engines and iMilers, pianos, organs, and 
naehinery. It is the seat of the Unirersity of niehigan, 
wUdi was founded in 1837, and is liberally endowed by the 
state, it Iming a state institution. It has an eztensire 
Swulty, and wss attended in 1902-03 by 3900 students. It 
comprises, besides the literary department, oolleges or de- 
partments of medicine, law, dental surgery, pliannacy, 
engineering, etc. It has an astronomical oinerratory (lat. 
42" 18' 48'*^ N., Ion. 83° 43' 48" W.), a general library of 
Inward of 120,000 rolumes, law and medical libraries, and 
ezteorire eabinets of natural history. Pop. in 1890, 9431 ; 
in 1000, 14,509. 

AnHwtom', an island in the Paeiflo Ocean, New Heb- 

Aa'aatOB, a hamlet of Grant co.. Wis., on Platte Rirer, 
about 05 miles WSW. of Madison. 

Aa'aawaa, a post-rillage of Henry co., ni.^n the Chi- 
cago, Bock Island and Pacific R., 140 miles W. by S. of 
Chicago. Goal ia mined here. Pop. in 1900, 428. 

Abb> Cape* the E. extremity of Essex co., Mass., SI 
nilea NB. br E. of Boston. Thatober'a laland, about 2 
milas B. of the aonthem point, forms the northern limit of 
Maeaadrasetts Bay. Ut. of light, 42» 38' 18" N. ; Ion. 
TOO 34' 43" W. On this promontory are Gloueester and 

Aaae Anili4el« ann %-rfin'del, a county in the central 
part of Maryland, has an area of 425 sq. m. It is bounded 
on the N. % the Patapeco Rirer, which separates it fW>m 
Baltimore, on the E. by Chesapeake Bay, and on the W. by 
the Patttzent Rirer. It is partly drained by the Serem 
Rirer. The surface is hilly or undulating ; the soil is 
Boetly fertile. Among the minerals are red sandstone, ser- 
pentine, and tapper- and iron-ores. Capital, Annapolis. 
Pep. in 1890, 34,004; in 1900, 40,018. 

Aane, Cape, tite NW. extremity of North Somerset, 
of tlie American Arctic Archipelago, at the entrance of 
Peel Sound. Lat. 74° 5' N. ; ion. 95» W. 

Aaaecy, Inn'see', a town of France, capital of Hante- 
Saroie^, at th e NW. extremity of a lake of toe same name, 
S3 miles KS. of Cbamb«ry. Pop. in 1901, 10,898 ; of the 
eommnne, 13,0 1 1. It has a cathedral, bishop's palace, an old 
eutle, a fine library, college, museum, and many ftustoriea. 

ABBCcy, a lake of France, 22 miles S. of Oenera, ia 9 
milea in length from NW. to SE., from 1 to 2 miles in 
breadth, and 1470 feet aiwre the sea ; it has a depth of 260 
feet. It has an outlet at its NW. extremity, the Fieian, an 
aflluait of the Rhone. 

Aaaecy le Tieaz, inn'see' I^h re-nh', a Tillage of 
France, 2^ miles NE. of Annecy. 

Aaaemanie, a post-hamlet of Wiloox oo., Ala. 

Amneaiasse, inn'mias', a town of France, in Haate- 
Sartrfe^ on the Arre, 6 miles E. of Oarouge. Fop. 2500. 

Aanen- Wnllen, In'n; n-rool'f n, a manufacturing rll- 
lage of Westplialia, Prussia, in the circle of Hiirde. Pop. 
u 1900, 10,958. 

Aaae«Ier (Inx'Iee) Bar,or Bayof Adulia, an inlet 
af the Red Sea, on the coast of Eritrea, near Maasowah. 

Aa'aetj-one of the Seilly Islands, on the SW. coast of 
England, off Land's End. 

Anne'ta, a post-hamlet of Parker co., Tex., 21 miles 
W. of Fort Worth. 

Annette' laland, in the SE. portion of Alaska, is in 
lat. 55° N., Ion. 131° 30' W. The island is reserred for 
Christisniied Chim-rr-an nstirea, who lire in New Met- 
lakahtla, a Tillage (W. coast) with a church, school, store, 
saw-mill, salmon-cannery, and other indastriee. 

AnneTlIIe, a post-rillage of Wise co., Tex. 

Anneyron, in'ni'r6R*', a town of Franoe, department 
of DrOme, 19 miles NNB. of Valence. Pop. about 1000. 
' Annfield Plain, an url>an district of the county of 
Durham, England, near Gateshead. It has ooal-mlnee. 
Pop. in 1901, 12,481. 

Anni, a ruined city of Armenia. See Axi. 

Annicco, &n-nik'ko, a Tillage of Italy, 8 miles NW. of 
Cremona. Pop. about 2000. 

An'nieTille, a poet-hamlet of Clay co., Iowa, milee S. 
of Spencer. 

An'nin, a township of McKean co., Pa. Pop. 914. 

Annincreek, a poet-station of McKean co.. Pa., about 
30 miles N. of Emporium. 

An^nisqnam', a post-rinage and summer-resort of 
Essex CO., Mass., is on the sea-coast at the mouth of Squam 
Rirer, about 30 miles NE. of Boston. It has a fine l>each. 

An'niston, a manu&cturing city and oapital of Cal- 
houn CO., Ala., on the Louisrille and NashriUe and the 
Southern Rs., 104 milee W. of Atlanta, Ga. It has iron- 
mines and extensire manufactures of iron products, ootton 
goods, car-wheels, fire-brick, fi-eight-cars, locomotires, boil- 
ers, etc. Anniston is a trade-centre for cotton. It has 
the Anniston Female College, Noble Institute for Girls, and 
Barber Memorial Seminary. Pop. in 1890, 9998 ; in 1900, 

Anniston, a rlllage of Mississippi oo.. Mo., on the St. 
Louis and Southwestern R. Pop. in 1900, 155. 

Annobon, In'no-bSn' (Port. Anno Bom, in'no-b6ii<>'), 
a Tolcanio island on the W. coast of Africa belonging to 
Spain. Lat. 1° 24' S. It is 4 miles long and 2 wide, and 
rues fh)m an immense depth to the height of 3000 feet. Fop. 
about 2000. On it is the Uttle town of San Antonio de Praia. 

Annanlin, In^nch^ltn*', a town of France, department 
of Nord, 11 miles SB. of LUle. Pop. in 1901, 3908. 

Anno'na, a banking post-rillage of Red Rirer oo., 
Tex., on the Texas and Pacific R., 53 milee W. of Texar- 
kana. Pop. aboM 450. . 

Annonay, in'no'ni' (L. Atmoneum or ^nnonta«i<m), a 
town of Franoe, department of Arddche, at the junction of 
the Canoe and the D£6me, 37 milee S. of Lyons. Pop. in 
1901, 16,822. It has thrirlng manuiisctures of glore- 
leatber, and is noted for its paper, glores, cordage, thread, 
eto. It has a college, a library, and good publicl>uilding8. 

Annot, in^no', a Tillage of France, department of 
Baaees-Alpee, 24 miles SE. of Oigne. 

Annsborongh, a Tillage of Ireland, co. of Down, 9 
miles iVom Downpatrick. 

Aanaville, ani'ril, a township (town) of Oneida co., 
N.T., contains Taberg, and has important agricultural and 
manufacturing interests. Pop. in 1900, 1744. 

Annsrille, a hamlet of Westchester co., N.T., 2} miles 
(W>m Peekskill. 

Annville, a post-rillage of Jackson co., Ky. Pop. 
about 75. 

Ann'Tllle, a banking post-town of Lebanon oo.. Pa., 
on the Lebanon Valley branch of the Philadelphia and 
Reading R., 5 miles W. of Lebanon. It is the seat of rari- 
ous industries. There are extensire quarries of limestone 
in the rieinity. Here is Lebanon Valley College, founded 
by the United Brethren in 1866. Pop. about 2000. 

Annweiler, lnn'#rif r, a town of Bararia, in the Palat- 
inate, on the Queioh, 7 miles W. of Landau. Pop. 3665. 
Near it are the ruins of the castle of Trifels. The ralley of 
Annweiler is filmed for its beauty. 

Ano'ka, a county of Minnesota, has an area of 447 
aq. m. It is bounded on the SW. by the Mississippi Rirer 
and is intersected by Rum Rirer. Capital, Anoka. Pop. 
in 1890, 9884^ in 1900, 11,313. 

Anoka, a post-rillage of Caas oo., Ind., 5 miles by rail 
SB. of Logansport. 

Anoka, a banking city, the capital of Anoka oo., Minn., 
on the Mississippi Rirer, at the mouth of Rum Rirer, and 
on the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific Rs., 27 
miles NW. of St. Paul. It is the trade-centre of an exten- 
sire farming region and has lumber*^ interests. Fop. in 
1890, 4252 ; in 1900, 3769. 

Anor, i'noR', a town of Fianoe, droartment of Nord, 10 
miles SB. of Aresnes. Pop. about 2000 (commune, 4500). 
It has iron-works, 

Anost, i'nost', a town of Franoe, department of Sa6ne- 
et-Loire, 15 miles NW. of Autun. Pop. about 400 (com- 
mune, 3000). 

Digitized by 


Axiotto Bay 



oout of 

Anot'to Bay. • port of oDtiT on the If. 
Junaioa, Lat. 1^ IV TS. ; Ion. 7«'45' W. 

Aikover ie T^Jo, in-To-vniB' dl ti'ao, » town of 
Spain, In Sew Caitile, 18 mile* NS. of Toledo. Pop. sbont 

Anping, » harbor or port on the BW. of the itland of 

Anrathf In'r^t, a Tillage of Rhenish Pnuiia, 6 mile* 
SW. ofCrefeld. Pop. aboal SMO. 

Anrttchte, in'rdK'teh, a viljage of Pniada, in Weet^ 
pbalia, 16 milea I^B. of Ariuberg. Fop. about 1700. 

AnS) Ini, a rillace of Belgium, a aabnrb of Liige. 
Pop. in 1900, SS28. ft has ooaf mlnea and iron-worlu. 

Ansbach, &iu'b&K, or Anapacli, a tomi of Bavaria, 
in Middle Franoonia, on the Bexat, 26 milee SW. of Nnrem- 
berg. Pop. in 1900, 17,5S&. It i« an interesting old town, 
with notable ehnrohes and monuments and a ine.eastle, 
built early in the eighteenth centorj and now used as a 
goremment building. Its maonfMturing industries we 
very diversified. Anabaoh, together with Baireoth, was for 
oenturies ruled by margravea representing the Franoonian 
branch of the Hohensollera line of Brandenburg. Napoleon 
gave it to Bavaria in 1806. 

Anae, 6icb, a village of France, dmartment of RhAne, 
near the SaAncjlS milea by rail N. of Lyons. Pop. 1300. 

Aa«e aux iSrUTons, Quebec See Griffis's Cotb. 

AnscBertrand) ftKs-biR'tr&B*', a oommune of the 
isluid of Guadeloupe, on the coast, S. of Qrande-Terre. 
Pop. 4600. 

An«e d'Arlet, Axs-daR^li', or Lea Anses d'Arlet, 
lis-ANS-daaMi', a town on the SW. coast of Hartiniqne, 8 
milee from Fort.dB-Franoe. Pop. of the commune, 3000. 

Anse d'Hainaalt, Aim di'ni', a small cargo port of 
the island of Haiti, at the extremity of the SW. peninsula. 

Aaseghem, Axs'gftii*', a town of Belgium, in Weet 
Flanders. 12 miles B. of CourtraL Pop. (oommune) 3600. 

Ansel| a post-hamlet of Pulaski oo., Ky. 

AnseI'ma, a poet-village of Chester CO., Pa., 8 miles S. 
of Phcenizville. Pop. about 300. 

AnseI'mo, a post-village of Custer co., Neb., 20 miles 
by nU NW. of Broken Bow. Pop. in 1900, 146. 

Ansenna Naeva, In-sSs'ml noo-i'v&, a village of 
Colombia, 7 miles NNW. of Oartago. 

Aas'ler^ a postr village of Pike co., Ala. Pop. about 160. 

Ansley, a poet-village of Worth co., 6a. P<^. about 

AasleiTt a banking poet-village of Custer co., Neb., on 
the Burlington and Hissouri RTver R., 16 miles SB. of 
Broken Bow. Fop. in 1900, 468. 

Ani'Iey Bay. See Arhkslbt Bat. . 

ABa6)i JLn'so', a town of Spain, province of Hueeca, 21 
miles NW. of Jaca. Pop. 1200. it exports excellent wool. 

Ansoea, or Ansae, a trading-post of Dutch New 
Oldnea, on the island of Jobi, in Geelvink Bay. 

An'sOB, a county in the S. part of North Carolina, has 
an area of 661 sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by Rocky 
River, and on the E. by the Tadkin or Fedee. Oold is found 
in the county. Capital, Wadesboro. Fop. in 1890, 20,027 ; 
in 1900, 21,870. 

Anson, a post-township (town) of Somerset oo., Me^ 20 
milee by rail N. of Oakland, bounded on the B. 1^ the Ken- 
nebec River. Fop. in 1900, 1830. 

Anson, a poet-hamlet of Clark co., Mo., 41 miles from 
Croton, Iowa. 

Anson, a banking post-village, capital of Jones oo» 
Tex., 160 miles W. of Fort Worth and about 20 miles N. 
of Abilene station of the Texas and Pacific R. Pop. in 
1900, 496. 

Aason Bar, on the NW. coast of Australia. It re- 
ceives the riTer Daly. 

Anao'nia, a city of New HaTCo co.. Conn., on the E. 
bank of the Naugatuok River, nearly 2 miles fVom its mouth, 
and on the New Tork, New Haven and Hartford R., 12 
miles NW. of New Haven. It has manufactures of clocks, 
brass and copper goods, wooUeu goods, pM>er machinery, 
etc Pop. in 1890. 10,342; in 1900, 12,681. 

Aasonia, or Dal'las, a banking pcst-viUage of Darke 
CO., Ohio, on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. 
Louis and the Cineinnati and Northern Rs., 49 miles W. by 
8. of Bellefontaine. Pop. in 1900, 676. 

Ansonia,apoet- village of Tioga co.. Pa., on Pine Creek, 
about 8 miles W. of Wellsboro. 

Anson's Island, or Lord Anson's Island, an 
island in the South Pacific Ocean, called by the natives 
Buka. Ut. 6" 0' S. ; Ion. 164° 34' B. 

An'sonville, a post-village of Anson co., N.C., 10 miles 
flrom Wadeeboro. 

AnsoaTllle, a post-village of Clearfield co., Pa., about 
38 miles N. by W. of Altoona. 

Anspach. Bee Ahsbach. 

Aa'sted, a town of Fi^etto eo., W.Va., 8 miles N. of 
Fayetteville and 2) milw ftom Hawk's Nest Station. It 
has ooal-minee. Pop. in 1900, 1090. 

An'stmtker, sometimes pronounced an'stfr, a sa^ort 
and royal burgh of Scotland, co. of Fife, composed of 
Baster and Wester Anstruther, and forming, with Kil- 
renny, a continuous narrow town along the Firth of Forth, 
131 miles SB. of Cupar. Fop. in 1901, 1663. Anstruther 
Easter was the birthplaee of Dr. Chalmers. With other 
St. Andrews burghs Anstruther returns 1 member to par- 

Anta, in'ti, a town of Pern, 26 miles NW. of Cnxoo. 
Lat. IS"* 26' 8. ; Ion. 72° 16' W. 

Aatakiyeh, the Turkish name oT Ahtiocb. 

Aatalfalva, Sn'tai-fSrvSb, a village of Hungary, eo. 
of Torontil, 18 miles trom Panosova. 

Antalo, &n-ti'lo, a town of Abyssinia, in tlgri, 160 
miles ENE. of Oondar. 

AntananarlTO, Madagascar. See Tahasabito. 

Antarctica, or the Antarctic Regions, that por- 
tion of the earth's surface, land and water, that lies within 
the Antarctic Circle, with which in a general way are fre- 
quently included parts of the contiguous region which pre- 
sent Antarctic or Polar conditions. Less is known of this 
region than of any other large portion of the elotw. Its 
land-masses are comprised almost entirely in Gkuam Land 
and the a4jaoent islands of the Dirk-Oerrits Archipelago, 
lyingsouth of the extremity of South America, in Victoria 
and Wilkes Lands, south of Australia, and in Kaiser- Wil- 
helm IL, Kemp, and Enderby Islands, situated between the 
90th and &Oth meridians of east longitude By some geog- 
raphers mnch the greater part of the region included be- 
tween these lands or islands is assumed to be a vast united 
continent, — the Antarctic Continent, — with an area perliaps 
covering not lees than 3,000,000-4,000,000 sq. m., but there 
is as yet very little positively known to support this conclu- 
sion — a oonolttsion oased mainly upon the study of a few 
rock specimens (granite^ gneiss, mica-echist, sandstone, and 
limestone) obtained at or off some points ( Adilie Land, 
Kiderby IsUnd, Seymour Island, Mount Oanas, Victoria 
Land) of the ice-vuled region, and the supposition that the 
sea shallowed so n^idly towards the coast as to give indica- 
tions of a true subcontinental platean. This latter inference 
is not supported by the recant explorations of the " Tal- 
divia," which obtained soundings of 2600 and 3000 fathoms 
dose off Enderby Island. It is more probable, as has been 
contended by Supan, that Victoria and Wilkes Lands (with 
the parts specillcaUy known as AdSlie, Claria, Sabrina, 
Bndd, and Knox Lands), with their extension westward to 
Enderby Island, alone constitute a continental area, and that 
the western section of thecirde is eompoeed mainly of water. 

Much the greater part of Antarctica that has thus far been 
observed by Investigators is deeply buried under a mantle 
of snow and ice, which descends quite to the sea, and there 
in many places unites with the surface ioe of the ocean. It 
is, indeed, still an open question whether some of the parts 
designated as land are not in reality only sea-floes or icebergs 
so arranged as to give the appearance of a terrestrial surface. 
The lar^st unitM piece of naquestionable land is Victoria 
Land, lying almost due sonth of New Zealand, and which 
was first Tinted by Sir Jamee Clark Roes in 1841-42, and by 
him explored to beyond the 78th parallel of south latitade. 
In this land, which contains the tattj Admiralty, Victoria, 
Prince Albert, and Parry MountidniL with extreme eleva- 
tions (Mount Longstaff, in lat. 83° 8.) possiblv exeeedii^ 
16,000 feet, is located the South Magnetic Pole, the poei- 
tlon of which, as determined bj Annitaga in 1903, is Kp- 
proximately lat. 73° 20' S., Ion. 166° E. Victoria Land 
discharges immense glaciers, but much of the shore-line, 
including the Duke of York, DoubtfU, Possession, and 
Coulman Islands, Cape Adare, Cape Crosier, and Newnes 
Land, are remarkably free of ice and support a vegetation 
of lichens and a few mceses. On an islajid in the extreme 
south of Ross Sea are Erebus and Terror, the former an ao- 
tive volcano, 13,366 feet in elevation (Terror, 10,844 feet). 
It was in eruption at the time of Roes's visit, and smoking 
when observed by Borohgrevink in Feb., 1900, and by Soott 
in 1902 and 1903. The main-land W. of this point riaes 
npidly to the interior, and is heavily cloaked In ice and 
glacier. An elevation of 9000 feet was reached by Armi- 
tage in Jan., 1903. Southward, the mountain-masses of Vio- 
toria Land appear to have a direct meridional extension for 
several hun<£red miles, as no termination was virible fW>m 
the farthest point reached by Scott in Dec, 1902, in lat. 82** 
17' 6., Ion. 163° E., — the extreme eoatbing thus &r mada. 

Eastward of thepodtion of these mountsdns, and trend- 
ing in an E. and W. line somewhat above the 78th parallel 
at latitude, is the long wail-like mass of ice, 30-280 fee* in 
general height (rising in the E. to 800-900 feet), and ] 

Digitized by 


Antarotio Ooean 



Im^ aoraring m extant tha battar part of 500 milas, wUoh 
m» dasignated by Roaa tha " Grest loe Barrier." It hae 
ritto been regarded a> the aea-wall or terminal part of a 
huge eolitinental glaeier deaoending northward, from tha in- 
hsd ioe (or Parry Moontaini), and by Borch^rink and 
Beraaeehi it wai thought to be the baaal portion [tur-dt- 
glaet) of a giant glader traTelUng eastward, with a width 
perhuM not ezewding 60 milee. Tbii view i< not ina- 
tidned by the more recent ezploratioal of the " DiseOTeiy" 
party, wno, howerer, hare not determined ita nature. It 
waa aMscaded in Feb., 1900, in lat. 78° 34' 8., Ion. 164° 
32' W., and found to hare a golid nirfaee, oflennc; no ob- 
itnetion to iledging. More recently (Feb., 1902) it waa 
ueended to lat. 78° SO' S. The east wall of this Wrier, 
ekae outside of which sonndingi of 100 fathoms hare been 
made, abnta upon King Edward VII. Land, whioh rises to 
2000-3000 feat or more. 

(Simale. — The climate of Antarctica is rigidly severe, 
characterised by cold sommers and autumns and a rig- 
orous winter. The average temperature for the year on 
lat 70° 8. is about 13°. The lowest record of the "Bel- 
Doa" expedition, taken on laU 70° 30' 8.. was — K)°, or some 
3° has than the extreme gold recorded by Borehgrevink at 
Gape Adare (Victoria Land). The maximum temperature 
noted by the two expeditions at about the positions named 
waa 37.S° and 48° reapeotively. The land-partiee of the 
"Oiaeovadry" exploration found temperaturea of ^48° to 
— 60°, and at Cape Armitage a reading of — 67° waa ntab- 
Udied, and it would now seem that the full or average Ant- 
aretie winter is as severe as that of the north. 

Yef^ble and Anivial Li/e, — Beyond the lowest of vege- 
table forma, the lichens and some mosses, there is pra^- 
•ally no veget^on on the lands of Antarctica, a condition 
widely contrasting with what exists in the Polar regions 
of the north. The low summer temperature and marked 
detden^y of ansUght, due to fluent foga and low-lying 
vapors, are mainly responsible for this aoodition. In this 
aonneetion it is interesting to note that Larsen obtained on 
Seymour Island, off Graham Land (south of Patagonia), 
pieces of foaail wood which have been identified as being 
emifers (probably aranoarians) closely similar to forms of 
the modem South American sylw This disoovery has 
proved a strong argument in favor of the view which holds 
to a farmer oonnection between parts of the Antatctic tract 
and the Bonth American continent. Later explorations 
(0. KordenskjSld) have also brought to light a Cretaceous 
and Tertiaiy moUnscan fauna in this portion of the Ant- 
arctic tract, and of a still later bone-bed, largely composed 
<f bird-ftagmanta. Poasila have also heea obtajned in Vio- 

The animal Ufa of Antarctica is virtoally that of the sea, ' 
and until the voyage of the "Bel|^ca" no animals except 
birds were anoonntered on any put of tha lands. A few 
iaseeta are now known ftom Hugnea Bay. Of the birds the 
moat diatinetiva are the panguuis, which abound in some 
^aeea in ooontlaas nnmMrs. The penguin rookeries of 
Cape Adare are among the moat wonder^l exhibitions of 
ammal lifeon the globe. Other birds are gulls, terns, skuas, 
and albatrosses. The southern skua (St»rcorari>u Ant- 
arcHau) does not appear to differ specifically from a form of 
the Arotie ragiona. Of the mammalia of the Antarotic seas 
may be meDtloned varioos forms of whale, several of which, 
inundlng the right whale {Baloena mylieetut), are identical 
with species of northern wators, numerous seals, and the 
sea-lion. The elephant seal (ifaeroritniM k&ninut) is by 
manv soiSIogists considered to be identical with the species 
inhaibitin^ the California ooaat. 

No Testiges of human habitation have been found in any 
portion of the Antaretie traeL 

The record of Antaretie explorations is comprised mainly 
in the voyages of discovery of Cook (1772, who penetrated 
to lat. n* 10' 8.), WeddeU (1823, to lat. 74° 18', southward 
of Sooth Georgia, in wliat haa since been called the Wed- 
danSaa), Roaa (1831M3. 78° 10', in Victoria Land), Dnmont 
d'Orvide (1830-40), Wilkes (1830-10), Larsen (1893-04), 
Borehgrevink (ISOO-IOOO), Gerlache (1397-98,— the " Bel- 
giea" expeditkm, the first to winter in the true Antarctic 
tract, in 71° 30'), 0. NordenslKjaid (the " Antarctic," 1901-02, 
who demonatratad the oontinuity of Louis Philippe Land 
with King Oscar II. Land through Graham Land), Dry- 
galaki (the "Ganaa"), Scott (the "Discovery," 1901-03, 
whoae farthest southing has already been referred to), and 
Binee (the "Seotia," 1903, who attained the lat. of 70° 21' 
B. in the WeddeU Sea, and found there a depth of water of 
2MS ftthoms,— eatabliabing in this quarter an abysmal 
Antarotio deotb similar to that which Nansen had deter- 
mined for the oentral Arctic Oeean). For the character- 
istics of the waters of Antarctica, see Arr arctic Oceah. 

Astairctie Oeeaa^ the name given to the expanse of 
water around the Sooth Pole within the Hmit of the Ant- 

aretie Circle, hut flreqnently used in a more extensive i 

to designate the cold oceanic regions in high southern lati- 
tudes, without aaiy very positive regard to the limits of the 
Antarctic •Circle. The Antarotio Ocean is essentially an 
ioe-studded sea, its icebergs being seemingly more nnmerona 
and travelling Airtber towards the equator than those of the 
Arctic watera. Tha large flat-topped bergs, whioh are tn- 

goently deaeribed as being characteristic of the south, find, 
owevar, their counterpart in the giant table bergs of Mel- 
ville Bay. Our knowledge of the depth of the sea is still 
largely deficient. SonntUnga of fh>m 1600 to 3000 bthoms, 
ranging even to 4000 fathoms (Boss, in 1843, in lat. 68° 34' 
6., Ion. 12° 49' W.), have been olttained in many parts, and 
the evidence seems to sustain the assumption of a general 
shoaling towards the south, particularly i^ng the tract 
whioh has been designated the Antarctic Continent, where 
the bottom has been reached at 100-600 fiitboms off Vietoila 
Land, at 600-800 fathoms off Adilie Land, atl6O-600 fathoma 
E, of Joinville Island, and at 200 fathoms in the pack off 
Palmer Island (exploration of the " Belelca"). On tne other 
hand, the recent survey of the " Valdivia" has unexpectedly 
revealed the great depth of 2600 and 3000 fathoma eloaa off 

Enderfoy lalaod ; and equally g reat d^ths have been re- 
vealed by the exptorationa of 19^-03. 
tore of the Antarctic wateia south of about the 63d pafalld 

'The surfaoe tempera- 

of south latitude is confined betw^n about 27° and 33° or 
36° ; the great maae of tha deeper water haa a temperature 
of 33°-36 , correapondinc cloaely with the general deep-aea 
(bottom) temperaturea elsewhere (temperate and tropical 
regions). The life of the Antarctic wateia is very proliflo, 
extending Itom the surface (aign, diatoms, pelagio mollosks, 
erustaoeans, etc) to the bottom ; indeed, it wouMseem, from 
the researehea of the " Challenger" and the " Valdivia, that 
the deep-aea &ana ia rioher in specific types than the oca^ 
responding ikinia of other oceanic resions. For furtJier 
charaeteristica of the oeean and the re^on oeonpied by it, ' 
aee Astabctica and Atlaxtic Ocbav. 

Antas, in'tia, a town of Spain, in Andalntia, 40 miles 
N£. of Ahnerfa. Pop. (commune) about 3000. 

Ante, a poat-hamlet of Bmnawiok oo., Va. Pop. about 60. 

An'telope, a county in the NE. part of Nebraska, has 
an area of 874 sq. m. It la interseoted by the KIkhom 
River. The surface is undulating; the soil Is fertile. Capi- 
tal, NeUgh. Pop. in 1890, 10,399 ; in 1900, 11,344. 

Antelope, a poet-hamlet of Marion co., Ku., IS milea 
N. of Florenoe. 

Antelope, a poet- village of Waaco co., Oregon, 90 miles 
B. of Salem. Pop. 249. 

Antelope, a poat-villaga of Jaok oo., Tex., about 76 
milee WNW. of Port Worth. 

Antelope (or Cknrch) Islnnd, the largest Island in 
the Great Salt Lake, Utah, is 16 miles long, and affords 
sheep pasturage. 

Antelope Creek, of Tehama oo., Cat, runs south- 
westward, and enters the Saeramento at or near Red Bluff. 

Antelope Spring*, a post-station and watering-plaoe 
of Mineral eo., Colo., on the Denver and Rio Grande R., 
106 milea W. by N. of Fort Garland. It haa a hot sulphur 

Anteqnem, &n-ti-kl'ti (aac Antigua'ria), a city of 
Spain, in Andalusia, 28 miles NNW. of Malaga. Pop. 
in 1900, 31,609. In the old town are remains of a Moorish 
castle, built on Roman foundations. The city is well aop- 
plied with good water. It haa mann&ctures of woollens 
and silks and many tanneriee. A large portion of the in- 
habitants are engaged in eoltivating the fertile vega in 
which the town is situated. There are remarkable rook 
formatiODs in the vicinity. 

Anterrlenz, &ii«^tiR-Re-i>h' (ane. Anderittim), a village 
of France, department of Cental. 

Antea, an'tes, a township of Blair oo.. Pa. See Anns. 

Antes Fort, a post-village of Lycoming oo.. Pa., on 
the Pennsylvania R., 12 milee W. of Williamsport. Pop. 

An'tkon, a banking poet-town of Woodbnry oo., Iowa, 
on the Illinois Central R., 36 milea SE. of Sioux City. 
Pop. in 1900, 437. 

Anthonie's (an't^-nit) Mill, a poat-hamlet of Craw- 
ford CO., Mo., 88 milea SW. of St. Louis. 

Au'tnony, a post-village of Marion CO., Fla., 9 milea 
by rail N. of Ocala. Pop. in 1900, 198. 

Anthony, a banking city, coital of Harper oo., Kan., 
on the Missouri Pacific and other r^lroads, 66 miles SW. 
of Wichita. It has manufactures of lumber and flour. 
Pop. in 1900, 1179. 

Anthony, a post-village of Hunterdon CO., N.J., about 
40 miles N. of Trenton. 

Anthony, a post^village of Dona Anna oo„ N.Mex., 
on the Mexican Central K., 76 miles (direct) E. by S. of 
Doming. Pop. about 300. 

Digitized by 





Anthony) « poat-rillage of Kent «o., R.t^ on the New 
Tork; New Haren and Hartford R., 14 milei 8SW. of Prori- 
denee. It has ootton-milla. Pop. aboDt lOM. The banking 
point it Centerrille. 

Anthony* • poat-rillage of Fannin oo., Tex. 

Anthony Honsei a po«t-hamlet of Nevada eo., Cal. 

Anthony's No8e« in Montgomery eo., N.T., the ex- 
tremity of a hill or monntain oalM the KHm (•'.«., "rook" 
er " oliff"), on the N. bank of the Mohavk, resembling a 

Anthony's Nose, in Putnam oo., N.T., a bold prom- 
ontory on the E. side of the Hudson, at the 8. entrance 
to the Highlands, 47 miles from New Tork. Bleration, 800 

Anthracite, a post-riUage of Alberta, Canada, on the 
Canadian Paoiflo R., ISO miles Arom Calgary, its banking 

Antibes, 6ii*^teeb' (ano. Antip'oUt), a stronriy fortified 
seaport town of Franoe, department of Alpes-Maritimes, 
16 miles SW. of Nice. Pop. in 1901, 8«3&. Its port is de- 
fended at its entrance by Fort Canri, on a rooky islet. On 
every side the town is environed by olive, orange, fig, and 
vine plantations, and by flower-gardens, whose products are 
used in the manufacture of perfumery. Antibes was founded 
by a Greek colony ttom Marseilles about 3M B.C. There are 
interesting Roman remains. 

Antioosti, ui-te-kos'ta, a large island of Canada, prov- 
ince of Qnebee, in the estnaiy of (be St. Lawrence, between 
lat. *»" and SO" N. and Ion. «2° and 05° W. Area, 3146 
sq. m. The north ooast is high and without harbors, the 
south shore low and very dangerous. There are several 
light-houses on the island, the one on the 8W. point, 100 
feet high, being in l|it. 49'^ 23' 68" N. and Ion. 03° 38' 47" 
W. Antioosti Island is a valuable resort for seal- and bear- 
hunting, and for salmon-, trout-, cod- and herring-flsbing. 
There is much exoellent soil. On the lowlands on the §. 
ooast there are extensive peat-bogs, of 2 to 3 feet thickness 
and of exoellent quality. Marl, plumbago, and other valu- 
able minerals are reported. The island was purohased by 
H. Menier, of Franoe, in 1896, and its colonisation begun 
in 189«. 

Antietam, a post-village of Washington co., Md., 10 
miles 8. of Hagerstown. 

Antietam (an-tee'tf m) Creek rises in Franklin co., 
Pa., crosses the southern boundary of that state, runs sonth- 
ward through Washington co., Mxi., and entera the Potomac 
River about 7 miles a. of Harper's Ferry. A great battle 
, was fought on the banks of this oreek, near Sharpsburg, 
between the Union forces commanded by General HoClellan 
and the Confederates commanded by Qeneral Lee, on Sept. 
lft-17, 1843. The Union army remained masters of the field. 

Antignana, &n-teen-yl'ni,atown of Austria, in Istria, 
32 miles NW. of Fiume. Pop. in 1900, 3706. 

Anti'go, a banking city, the capital of Langlade oo., 
Wis., on the Chicago and Northwestern R., 90 miles NNW. 
of Oshkcsh. It has railroad-shops, breweries, foundries, 
manofaotures of wood and iron, etc. Pop. in 1900, 6146. 

Antigonish, an'agVneesb', a county in the NE. of 
Nova 8ootia, bounded N. by St. George's Bay. It has good 
grasing land and supports large herds of cattle. Coal, 
gypsum, gold, copper, and marble are found in the county. 
Capital, Aotigonlsn. 

Antif onish, formerly Syd'ney, or SiA'ney, abank- 
iog town and port of entry of Nova Scotia, in the co. of 
Antigonisb, on the Intercctlonial R., 40 miles E. of New 
Glasgow. It is the oonnty town, and the seat of the Catho- 
He bishop of Arichat. It has a lam college (St. Francis 
Xavier), a cathedral (St. Ninian), a Catholic seminary, etc., 
and is the distributing centre of a large area of agricultural 
produce. The inhabitants are chiefly of Scotch descent. 
St. George's Bay, a flue inlet of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
is situated 8 miles fh>m the town. Its harbor is navigable 
for vessels of small tonnage. Pop. in 1001, 16tS. 

Antigonish Harbor, a settlement at the head of 
St. George's Bay, Antigonish oo., Nova Scotia, 43 miles 
from New Glasgow, commands a fine view of the bay. Cape 
Breton, and surrounding country. 

Aati^a, ln-tee'gw&, one of the British West Indies, 
balooging to the Leeward group. It is in lat. 17° 2'-17'> 
IS' N. ; ton. 61' 44'-«l'' 58' W. Area, 108 sq. m. It is 20 
miles long and somewhat circular in outline, has a broken 
and elevated surface, and its soil is fertile, resting upon 
calcareous and trap rooks. The climate is dry and pleas- 
ant; but in summer hurricanes sometimes occur. The 
presidency of Antigua (including Barbuda and Redonda) 
is the most important member of the colony of the Leeward 
Islands, and has a governor and legislature and an Anglican 
and a Moravian bishop. Chief exports are sugar, molnssea, 
mm, and pineapples. The towns are St. John (the capital), 
Falmouth, Parham, and English Hnrlwr. Pop. in 1901, 

34,971, of which 28,040 were negroes. Antigaa was dia- 
oovered in 1493 by Columbus, and settled by the British in 

Antigaa, a town of the Island of Faerteventnra, ia 
the Canaries. Pop. (commune) about 3500. 

Antigitedad, in-tee-gwi-olD', a town of Spain, 16 
miles NB. of Palenda. Pop. (commune) 1804. 

An'ti'Itib'anns, or Anti-liebanoa, a mountain- 
range of Syria, running parallel to and E. of the LebaooB 
ohain, the two enclosing the valley of Ccele-Syria. It rises 
in the snow-capped Mount Hermon, SW. of Uamascos, on 
the border of Palestine, to a height of 9064 feet. 

Antilles, In-til'lix or In'teel' (Lat. ^iUiT{« / Fr. IU» 
AntiUet, eel-i6ii>Heel'; Sp. Antiltiu, &n-teel'yfts), a term 
^plied to the bulk of the West India Islands, oomprising 
two groups, called the Oreater AntilUi and Later Antiltet, 
which latter are also named Caribbean Islands. The Greater 
Antilles comprise Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico, and 
several small inlands near their coasts. The Lesser Antilles 
are numerous small islands, mostly arranged in a long row, 
which is ourved like a oreaoent, between tne Caribbean Sea 
and the Atlantic Ocean. The principal islands of tliii 
group are Trinidad, Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vin- 
cent, St. Lucia, Martinique, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Anti- 
gua, and Barbuda. The island of St. Thomas is at about 
the dividing line between the two groups. The greater 
number of these are British, and 2, Onadeloupe and Mar- 
tinique, belong to France; others belong to the Nether- 
lands, Denmark, etc. The name Annua is sometimes 
applied to the whole of the West Indies. See names of the 
principal islands, also West Ixdies, Leeward Islanm, 


Anti-Milo, Jln-te-mee'lo, or Anti'Melos, an-te- 
mee'los, an islsmd of the Greek Archipelago, 6 miles KW. 
of Milo. 

Antioch, an'te-ok (L. Antiothia; Gr.'Am<x<ui; Tnrk. 
Antakitek, an-ti'kee'i), a city and the ancient capital of 
Syria, in its N. part, 57 miles W. of Aleppo, on the left 
iMtnk of the Orontes, about 20 miles above its mouth. Lat. 
36° 11' N. ; Ion. SO" 9' E. Pop. about 28,000, of which 4000 
are Christians. Its ancient walls, varying tnm 20 to 70 
feet in height, enclose an area of uneven ground seveiml 
miles in circumference. The houses are mostly mean and 
of slight materials ; they differ tnm those of Eastern towns 
in general in having sloping roofs. Antioch has many 
mosques, one or two churches, and several Christian 
schools. Baths and bazaars are nnmerons. The city walls, 
a ruined aqueduct, 2 bridges, and a portion of pavement 
are almost all the remaining vestiges of ancient magnifi- 
cence. Antioch was founded about 300 >.c. by Seleuons 
Nicator, and named in honor of his father Antioehos. 
Under the Seleuoid kings of Syria it rose to great splendor 
and became a focus of Greek culture. It mainta&ed its 
importance under the Romans and Bysantines, its situation 
rendering it a great emporium of commerce between the 
Bast and West. It snflered severely by successive earth- 
quakes in the early centuries of the Christian era, and in 
640 it was destroyed by the Persians. It was soon rebuilt, 
but it was taken by the Saracens in 638. Antioch was one of 
the chief centres of early Christianity, and its bishops were 
recognised as patriarchs of the Church. Its ancient popu- 
lation has been estimated at 400,000. Chrysostom (about 
A.D. 400) computes the population at 200,000, more than 
one-half of them Christiana. It was the capital of a Chris- 
tian principality from 1099 to 1268, since which time it has 
declined. It was visited by a terrible earthquake in 1873, 
Some ruins, about 5 miles southwestward, on the 8. bank of 
the Orontes, mark the site of the grove of Daphne and tem- 
ple of Apollo. A Greek, a Jacobite, and 4 Catholic prel- 
ates, of different rites, bear the title of patriarch of An- 
tioch ; but all are non-resident. 

Antioch, an't^-Sk, a banking post-town of Contra Costa 
00., Cal., at the E. end of Suisun Bay, near the mouths of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, and on the South- 
em Pacific R., about 68 miles by water ENE. of San Fran- 
cisco. It has paper-mills, etc. Pop. in 1900, 674. 

Antioch, a post-village of Troup oo., Oa., about 7S 
miles SW. of Atlanta and about 16 miles NW. of L« 

Antioch, a banking post- village of Lakeoo., 111., on the 
Wisconsin Central R., 62 miles NNW. of Chicago. Poj. 
in 1900, 523. 

Antioch, a hamlet of Jay oo., Ind., 5 miles 8E. of 

Antioch, a hamlet of Washington co., Ky., 26 miles B. 
of Bardstown. 

Antioch, a post-hamlet of Claiborne parish. La., 9 miles 
NE. of Homer. 

Antioch, a post-hamlet of Prentiss oo., Miss., 10 miles 
W. of Rienii and about 4 miles N. of Booneville. 

Digitized by 





Antioch, » poat-hamlet of Bolwson eo., N.C., abont 20 
miles SW. of Fftyetterille. 

Antiock, a post-riUage of Monroe CO., Ohio, 9 miles 
ftom the Ohio Biver and 30 miles NS. of Marietta. Pop. 
in 1900, 313. 

Aatioch) a villarn of York oo., B.C., 6 miles from 
King's Mountain Station. 

AiKtioch, a post-riUage of DaTidson co., Tenn., on the 
Nasbrille, Chattanooga and St. Loois R., 10 miles SE. of 
Nashville. Pop. about 100. 

Antioch, a post-hamlet of Fluvanna oo., Va., 16 miles 
SE. of Charbttesville. 

Antioch, a poet-hamlet of Mineral oo., W.Va. 

Antioch Bair> a bay of the Mediterranean, indenting 
the coast of Sjrria, between lat. 36° 50' and SO" 20' N., and 
in km. about 30° E., overlooked on the N. and S. by moun- 
tains upward of 5000 feet in height. The Orontea enters it 
near its eentre. On the N. side are some ruins described 
as those of Seleucia Pieria, the ancient port of Antioch. 

Alitioch Mills, a post-hamlet of Harrison oo., Kj., 
about 60 miles S. of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Antioco, in-tee'o-ko, an island in the Mediterranean, 
off the SW. eoast of Sardinia. More properly Saht' Ax- 
Tiooo (which see). 

ABtloqvla, ln-te-o-kee'(, or Santa T6 tie Aatio- 
qvfa, sin'tt fa di ln-te-o-kee'&, a town of the republic 
of Colombia, state of Antioqnfa, on the river Cauca, 190 
miles NW. of Bogoti. Pop. about 9000. It is the chief 
commercial town in the state, having an active trade in 
maixe and sngar. Elevation, 1875 feet. 

Aatioqaia, a department in the republic of Colombia, 
shut in by Bolivar, «uitander, Cundinamaroa, Tolima, and 
CancA. Area, 22,870 sq. m. It has rich ores of the pre- 
cions metals and abounds in forests. Capital, Medelun. 
Pop. about 600,000. 

Antip'aros, or Oliaros, o-lee'&-ros, an island of the 
Qreeiao Arohipelago, nome of C^olades, close to Pares. 
Lat. of summit, 37° N. ; Ion. 25° 3' E. It is 10 miles long 
and 2 mile* broad. Pop. 700. It is eelebrated for a stalactite 

Aati-Pazo, an-te-pax'o, a small Oreek island in the 
Ionian Sea, 1) miles SE. of Pazo. 

Aatiphilo, &n-tee'fe-lo, or Andiphilo, &n-dee'fe-lo 
(ane. Antiphel'liu), a small seaport of Asiatic Turkey, on 
the Mediterranean, 39 miles SE. of Makri. 

Antipodes, an-tip'o-dix, a group of small uninhabited 
islands in the South Paoiflo Ocean, SE. of New Zealand, so 
called from being the land most nearly opposite to Oreat 
Britain. Lat. 49^ 42' 8. ; Ion. 178° 43' E. 

Antipolis, the ancient name of Aktibis. 

Antiqaana, the ancient name of AimqoiRA. 

Antique, in-tee'ki, a mountainous province on the W. 
coast of Panay, Philippine Islands. Area, 839 sq. m. It 
has deposits of metals, bard ooal, and marble in tne moun- 
tains. Stock-raising and the weaving of piSa and other 
fabrics are the chief industries. Capital, San Jos£ de Buena- 
vista. The town of Antique was once the capital. It is 
abont 4 miles (direct) S. by E. of San Joai de Buenavista, 
and is noted for its production of piSa fabric. 

Aatiqnitr, a poet- village of Meigs oo., Ohio, on the 
Ohio River, about 12 miles aMve Pomeroy. Pop. abont 200. 

An'tis, or An'tes, a township of Blair eo.. Pa., 7 miles 
1TB. of Altoona, on the Pennsylvania IL It has mines of 
coal and iron, and various manufactures. Pop. in 1900, 2368. 

Antisana, in-te-sl'nl, a volcano of the Andes, in Ecua- 
dor, 40 miles SE. of (Juito, 19,335 feet in elevation, accord- 
ing to Whyraper (who asoendwl the mountain in 188Q), and 
18,880, according to Wolff. It was in active eruption in 
1767. The &moua hamlet, or Tambo de Antisana, is situ- 
ated on the mountain at an elevation of 13,415 feet. 

Aati-Taarns, an'te-taw'ms, a mountain-chain or 
series of chains of Asiatic Turkey extending in the same 
direction with the Taurus chain, whence its name. It 
commences not far from Mount Argssus, and prooeeds north- 
eastward into Armenia, where its ranges intermix with the 
Armenian Mountains and separate the basin of the EiVphra- 
tes on the S. from the region watered by the Kizil-Irmak 
and other rivers Sowing if. into the Black Sea. The name 
Anti-Taurus is also sometimes applied to the Pontine 
ranges of the northern border of Asia Minor running 
parallel with the Black Sea. 

Antinm, the ancient name of Porto d'Abczio. 

AntiTari, in-tee' vl-ree, the sole seaport of Montenegro, 
sear the Adriatic, 14 miles NW. of Scutari. Before the 
Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 it belonged to Albania. It 
is the seat of a Roman Catholic arohbisnop. Its old castle 
is a reHe of Venetian rule. Pop. about 1200. 

AntiTillf, a luunlet of Jay oo., Ind. Pop. abont 50. 

Antlers, a banking post-nllage of the Clhoctaw Kation, 
I.T., 127 mUes by rail SSW. of Fort Smith, Ark. 

Antofhcasta, in-to-fl-gis'tl, a province in the IT. 
part of (Thile. Area by latest estimates, 60,968 sq. m. A 
great part is included in the desert of Atacama, a rooky 
waste. Ores of the precious metals are abundant ; the land 
is not suited for agriculture. Ca^tal, Antofagasta. Pop. 
in 1895, 44,085.— It was ceded to Chile by Bolivia as a eon- 
sequence of the war of 1879-43. Bolivia has the right to 
transport goods fireely across the state to her own custom- 

Antofagasta, a seaport of Chile, on the Bay of Morena, 
85 miles 8. of Cobija. Lat. 23° 38' 39" 8. ; Ion. 70° 24' 
39" W. It is connected by railway with the rich mines of 
Garaooles and with Salar. It has a branch bank, silver- 
smelting works, and ships much bullion, ore, and nitrate of 
soda. Pop. in 1900, 19,482. 

Antofalla, ln-to-fllry&, a volcano of Chile, in the prov- 
ince of Antofagasta. Altitude, abont 20,900 feet. 

An^toine', a post-town of Pike oo.. Ark., on Antoine 
Creek, about 50 miles NW. of Camden. Pop. in 1900, 197. 

Antoine Creek, Ark., runs southeastward, forms the 
boundan between CHark and Pike cos., and enters the 
Little Missouri River. 

Antoing, &ii«Hw&ii^, a town of Belgium, in Hainaut, 
on the Scheldt, 3 milee S8E. of Toumai. Pop. abont 2500. 

An'ton, a river of England, in Halnpshu-e, rises near 
Overton, flows southward, and enters the head of South- 
ampton Water 4 miles W. of Southampton. 

Anton Chico,in-tOn' ehee'ko, a^rost-vtUageof Oauda- 
loupe 00., N.Mez., 166 miles S. by W. of El Moro, Colo. 
Pop. 125. 

Anto'nla, a past-villap^e of Jefferson eo.. Ho. 

Antoniacnm, an ancient name of Ahderhach. 

Antonienhtttte, In-to'ne-en-hilt'te, a mining town of 
Prussian Silesia, 7 miles SSW. of Benthen. Pop. in 1900, 

Antonina, ln-to-nee'n4, a seaport of Braxil, province 
of SSo Paulo, on the \y,j and 18 miles NW. of Paranagua. 

Antoni'nns, Wall of, a rampart constructed by the 
Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, about the middle of the 
seoond eentnry a.d., between the Firth of Forth and the 
Firth of Clyde, as a proteotion against the l>arbarians of 

Antonito, In-to-nee'to, a post-village of Con^os oo., 
Colo., on the Denver and Rio Grande R., 1 mile S. of Cone- 
jos. The bankine point is Alamosa. Pop. in 1900, 347. 

Antraiglies, &!<*Hrig', a village of France, department 
of Ardiehe, on a volcanic height, 11^ miles W. of Privas. 
In the Ttoinityis the singular causeway called the Gkaunte 
det Otanit (i.e., "giant's causeway' ), formed by colon- 
nades of basalt 700 yards in length. 

Antrain, &i(«Hr«ii*', a town of France, department of 
Ille-et-Vilalne, 25 miles MNE. of Rennes. Pop. 1100. 

Antreville, an'tfr-vil, a post-hamlet of Abbeville co., 

Antrim, an'trim, the northeastemmost county of Ire- 
land, in Ulster, having the Atlantic on the N., the North 
Channel on the E., the oounties of Dqwn and Londonderry 
on the S. and W., and Lough Neagh on the SW. Area, 
1191 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 461,250. A part of the surface 
near the coast is mountainous. In the SW. mnch of it is 
boggy. The mineral products Include coal, iron, and salt. 
Chief rivers, the Bann, forming the W., and the Lagan, 
the S. boundary. The famous Qiant's Causeway is on the 
N. coast of this county. The county, as such, sends 4 
members to parliament, in addition to 4 fh>m Belfast. 
Capital, Belfast. 

Antrim, a town of Ireland, in the co. of Antrim, on Six 
Mile Water, near its mouth in Lough Neagh, 13 miles 
NW. of Belfast. 

Antrim, a county in the N. part of Michigan, has an 
area of 491 sq. m. It is bounded on the W by Qrand 
Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan and contains several lakes. 
Capital, Belhiire. Pop. in 1890, 10,413 ; in 1900, 16,568. 

Antrim, a post-village of Bossier parish, La., about 
9 miles by rail NE. of Benton. Pop. about 500. 

Antrim, a post-tewnship (town) of Hillsboro oo., N.H., 
on the Cbntoocook River, about 37 miles WSW. of Concord. 
Pop. in 1900, 1366. 

Antrim, a post-village of Qnemsey co., Ohio, abont 40 
miles ENB. of Zanesville. 

Antrim, a township of Franklin co.. Pa. Pop. in 1900, 

Antrimja post-vilfaige of IHoga oo.. Pa., 52 miles by 
rail S. by W. of Coming, N.V. Bituminous coal is ex- 
tensively mined near this place. The banking point is 

Antrim, a post-village of Carleton oo., Ontario, 4 miles 
firom Pakenham. 

Antrim, a post-village of Halifax co.. Nova Scotia, 7 
miles flrom Milrord. 

Digitized by 


Antrim Oity 


Apaobe TndlanB 

Antrim City* an iron-mwiafaetaring village of Antrim 
00., Mich„ Tirto^ly • part of Hanoelona, 30 muw NKTB. of 
Travene City. 

Antrodoco, &n-tro-do'ko, a toirn of Italy, prorinoe of 
Aqoila, 7} miles E. of Cittadnoale. Pop. about 4000. 

Antsiraka, a ooaat settlement of eastern Madagascar, 
in the district of Hananata. 

Antsirane) Int'se'r&n', a maritime town and ttee port 
in the N. part of Madagascar, N. coast of Diigo-Snares 
Bay ; it is the capital of Diigo-Suaret colony. Founded 
in 1885, it is entirely modem. It is of great military im- 

Sortance, and is the ohief French naval station in the In- 
ian Ocean. Pop. OOOO. 

Aotnco, In-too'ko, a volcano and town of the Chilean 
Andes, 120 miles SE. of Conoepoidn. Lat. 26° &0' S. ; Ion. 
70° 40' W. The volcano U abont 9000 feet high. 

Aatnmey Island. See Akhatoh. 

Antanacum« an ancient name of Ahdebkach. 

An'tUBK'i a town of Manchuria, on the Talu River, 
abont 7 miles alwve its month in the bay of Korea. It 
attained prominence during the Bnssian-Japaneee war of 

Antwerp^ ant'Wfrp (Flem. and 6er. Antwerptn, Int- 
♦fap'^n ; L. Antuer'pia ; Fr. A»ven, 6ii»VidR' ; Sp. Am- 
btre*, im-bl'rts), a city of Belgium and one of the 
strongest fortresses of Europe, capital of a province of its 
own name, on the right bank of the Scheldt, 28 miles N. 
of Bmssels and 32 miles ENS. of Ghent. Lat. of the cathe- 
dral, SI" 13' 2" N. ; Ion. 4° 24' 2" E. The appearance of the 
city, which is the principal arsenal of Belgium, is exceed- 
ingly piotnreequey — an effect prodncad by its numerous 
churches, convents, magnificent public buildings, its monu- 
ments of Rubens, Van B^ok, Teniers, and othen, its 
elaborate and extensive fortifications, and the profusion of 
beaatifhl trees. All the main streets and the new avenues 
(De Ktyttr Lei, Promenoiri, etc.) are lined with elegant 
bnildinga, and many stately antique-looking houses give a 
oharacteristio featore to Antwerp. The famous cathedral, 
l>egun in 1362 and not oompleted until 1592, is one of the 
most beautiful specimens of Oothio architecture in general. 
It has a length of 384 feet, and covers an area of 70, 000 sq. ft., 
or somewhat more than tlie cathedra] of Cologne : the north 
tower, the only one oompleted, is 402 feet in heisht. The 
cathedral contains Rubens's masterpiece, the "'Descent 
from the Cross." Other churches of note are St. James's, 
St. Andrew's, and St. Paul's. Among the other edifices 
are the Exchange (built in 1583, burned in 1858, and 
rebuilt in the old style in 1869-72), the H6tel de Ville, the 
Palais de Justice, and the royal palace. Its institutions 
comprise academies of painting, of the fine arts and of the 
sciences, a royal oonservatory of music, the Mus£e-Plantin, 
the Royal Husenm (containing the finest works of the first 
masters of the Flemish school), and botanical and zoological 
gardens. Of the vast docks, dock-yards, and twsins con- 
structed by Bonwarte, the last only remain. The former 
are now converted into oommeroial docks, lined with capa- 
cious warehouses. The new wharves, constructed in 1877 
and enlarged in 1899-1901, have a length of over 3 miles, and 
permit steamships drawing over 20 feet to lie alongside. The 
great northern docks cover an area of over 250 acres. The 
harbor is one of the finest in the world. In 1890 it was entered 
by 5420 vessels, of which 4937 were steamers. The value 
of the imports in the year 1899 was 1,750,000,000 fVancs, 
and that of the exports about 850,000,000 francs. Numer- 
ous regular steamer lines start from Antwerp to all parts of 
the world. Antwerp is joined by great canals with Hol- 
land and the river Haas. The city Is one of the great emi- 
gration ports of Europe. In 1874 the differences existing 
between Antwerp and the government of Belgium ware 
a4justed, and the funons citadel of Antwerp, which had 
existed 300 years, was blown up in the presence of King 
Leopold II. The principal manufactures of the city are 
black silks and velvets, laces, soap, leather, cigars, spirits, 
camlets, serges, and fiannels. Cotton, linen, carpets, hats, 
and cutlery are also manufactured to a considerable extent. 
There are sugar-refineries and extensive ship-building. 
Oiamond-cntting is an important industry. For hides, 
petroleum, wool, grain, coffee, cotton, coal, oils, Umber, 
iron, and guano, Antwerp is one of the largest importing 
places on the continent. In the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries it was the great centre of European commerce, 
an avenge of 500 vessels daily entering its port. Its siege 
and capture by the Spaniards in 1584-85 were a great blow to 
its prosperity. Pop. in 1875, 148,814; in 1882, 175,636; in 
1891, 227,225; in 1900, 285,600. 

Antwerp, a province ot Belgium, bounded N. by the 
Ketherlands, E. by Limbourg, S. by Brabant, and W. by 
East Flanders. Area, 1093 sq. m. Pop. in 1898, 796,759. 
Surface mostly level ; princiMl rivers, the Scheldt and its 
aSnents, the Nithe and the Dyle. In the N. are extensive 

reclaimed heaths; most of the soil is fertile. Piodueta 
comprise grain, potatoes, flax, vegetables, etc. Cq)ltal, 

Antwerp, a banking poet-village of Jefferaon oo.. If .Y,, 
in Antwerp township (town), on Indian River and on ths 
Rome, Watertown and Ogdensbnn (New York Central and 
, Had^n River) R., 23 miles NE. of WatertowK. It has 
manufacture* of lumber and iron. Pop. in 1900, 929. The 
town has mines of iron-ore. Pop. 3008. 

Antwerp, a banking post- village of Paulding oo., Ohio, 
on the Haumee River, tlie Wabash and Erie Canal, and the 
Wabash R^lroad, 22 miles ENE. of Fort Wayne. It has 
flour-mills, grain-elevators, etc. Pop. in 1900, 1206. 

An^nBgHiorS an island of China, in the Canton River, 
opposite I^cocktow Island, bounds, with Chuen-pi Island, 
the entrance of the Boca Tigris, on the E. 

An^apshahr', a town of British India, in the United 
Provinces of Agra and Ondh, 65 miles E8E. of Delhi, on 
the Ganges. Pop. about 10,000. 

Annrfvjahpara, i-noo-rl-ji-poo'ri, pt Anara4ia» 
pnra, the ancient coital of uie island of Ceylon, now % 
mass of ruins. It lies 48 miles N. of Dambul. 

Anntt, a post-village of Dent oo., Ho. Pop. abont 100. 

Anvera, the French name of Ahtwerp. 

Anvik, In-vik', a village of Alaska, on Anvik River, 
just above its confluence with the Yukon, about 80 miles 
BE. (direct) tnm St. Hichael. It is a sheltering point for 
the Yukon steamers. 

Anvik River, in Alaska, rise* in the Anvik Monntaina 
and flows into the Yukon from the NW., at Anvik. 

Anvil City, in the Prince of Wales, or Seward, Penin- 
sula, Alaska. (See Noke.) It obtained its name &om an 
anvil-like rook-mass projecting above a hill-top about 5 
miles N. of the location. The rich gold-diggings of Anvil 
Creek lie at the base of this mount. 

Anxnr, an ancient city of Italy. See Tsbbaciha. 

Anza, In'si, a river of Italy, rises on the E. side of 
Monte Rosa and fclls into the Toce, 

Anzano degli Irpini, &n-xl'no dil'yee ecR-pee'nee, a 
village of Italy, in Avellino, 2 miles W. of Aocadia. 

Anza8ca,Val d>, Italy. Sea Val d'Akzasca. 

Anzat-le-I<llgaet, AH»'z&'lfh-lU'gi', a village of 
Franoei, in Puv-de-Dfime, 9 milee SW. of Ardes. It has 
mines of arsenlo and antimony, also mineral springs. 

Anzerma, or Ancenna, &n-sAB'm&, a town of Co- 
lombia, 170 miles NNE. of Popayin, near the river Canot. 

Anzi, in'zee, a (own of Italy, on a mountain, 11 mile* 
SSB. of Potensa. Pop. about 2000. 

Anzin, Air^s&ip', a town of France, department of Nord, 
1 mile NW. of Valenciennes. Pop. in 1901, 14,444. It U 
the centre of the greatest coal-basin in France, and has 
iron-foundries ana machine-shops, brass-works, sugar- 
refineries, gin-distilleries, and glass-works. 

Anzio, and'se-o, or Porto d'Anzio (anc. Arttima), 
a seaport, fishing-town, and bathing-resort of Italy, 30 millB 
S. by E. of Rome. Pop. about 2500 (commune, 3500). 

Aoba (1-A'bi) or I.eper Island, one of the New 
Hebrides. It is well cultivated and has a population of 
about 12,000. 

Aoiz, &-o'ith, a town of Spain, in Navarre, 16 miles 
ESE. of Pamplona. Pop. 1100. 

Aomo'ri, a seaport of J^>an, with a fine Iiarbor, in the 
SW. part of a bay on the N. shore of the main island. Pop. 
about 16,000. 

Aon'la, a town of India, United Provinces of Agra 
and Oudh, district and 28 miles SW. of Bareilly. Pop. 
about 14,000. 

Aor, i'or, Anr, dwr, Awar, I'war, or Pn'lo>Anr» 
an Island, 47 miles E. of the Ualay peninsula. Lat 2° 2^ 
N.j Ion. 104° 34' E. 

AoStF , &-os't& (anc. Angtuta Prato'ria), a town of 
Italy, on the Dora Baltea, 49 mile* \>j ndl NNW. of Turin. 
Pop. in 1901, 6370. Among its buildings is a medissval 
Gothic cathedral ; and it has rich remains of Roman an- 
tiquities, including the pretorian gate and a fine triumphal 
arch. It is a bishop's see. The valley of the upper Dora 
Baltea, the charming Val d'Aosta, u celebrated for ita 
forests of pine, its mines, and its mineral sprinn. 

AODSte, i'oost' (anc. Augut'ta), a town of France, de- 
partment of DrAme, on the river Drftme, 17 miles 6w. of 
Die. Pop. (commune) 1200. 

Apaclie, ft-pl'ohl, a county of northeastern Ariiona. 
Area, 10,736 sq. m. Capital, St. Johns. Pop. in 1900, 8297. 

Apaclie, a banking post-village of Caddo co., Okla., on 
the Chicago, Bock Island and Pacific R., 15 miles (direct) 
6W. of Anadarko. 

Apache (&-pl'chi) Indians, a tribe of Indiana of 
Mexico, New Mexico, and Arizona. They are of many bands 
or subdivisions. Those in the United States have been 
snbdued by force, after many years of hostility, and pisoad 

Digitized by 





■pon reaerrmtioni (now obtofly at Fort SiU, Okla., wlere 
th«7 nnmber about 6000). Tbese people belong to the stock 
«r etbnologioal divuion vbioh includee the Shoihonea, 
KaT^os, and the Tinneb. of Alaska. 

Ap&csa«6*>Pnazt«, dh'p|t'a8h^i<h-poo8s't5h\ a 
TiUa^ of flnngar;, oo. of Csanid, 20 milee NW. of 

Jkati ta ApahefTt Sh'p{Sb' kb Sp'p5h*hed'T, a Tillage 
«r Hangar;, oo. of Ssatmir. 14 milea W. of Erdtid. 

^i-Francia, &-p&'frftn'Be-&. a colony In the NW. 
of Faragnay, on Uie Paraguay RiTer, in about lat. 22° 

Apalachee, ap-^lab'obee, a rirer of Georgia, rise* 
1b Gwinnett oo. A nuu nearly southeastward and enters 
the OoooM where the Georgia R. crosses that rirer. Length, 
about 80 miles. 

Apalachee Bay, a large open bay on the S. coast of 
Florida. Lat. about 30° K.; Ion. 84° 15' W. Breadth, 
about M miles. 

Apalachee Rirer, Fla., an arm of Apalachee Bay. 
See Saint Habk's. 

Apalachia, a post-hamlet of Cherokee oo., N.C. 

Ap^ala^chico'la, a rirer of Florida, is formed by the 
confluence of the Chattahooobee and Flint Rirers, which 
unite at the SW. comer of Georgia. It flows nearly south- 
ward, forms the boundary between Calhoun and Liberty 
COS. tn Florida, and enters the Gulf of Hezioo through 
Apalaohicola Bay. It ia about 00 miles long, and is navi- 
gable by steamboats through its whole extent. 

ApaJachicoIa, a port of entry, banking town, and^ 
capital of Franklin oo., Fla., ia on the Gulf of Mezioo at 
the month of Apalaohicola Rirer. Naral stores are abipped 
at this port. It has manoikotarei of Inmber. Pop. in 1890, 
»S7; bilWW, S077. 

Apalachicola Bar, Fla., lies between St. George's 
Island and the mainland. The entrance is indicated by 
a flzed light at the NW. point of St. George's Island. 

Apalach'ia, a post-village of Tioga oo., N.T., on the 
Susquehanna River, about 8 miles above Owego. Pop. 200. 

Apam, i'p&m', a distriot (and town) of Afrloa, Gold 
Ooaat, eeded by the Dutch to England in 1873. 

ApAm, i-pim', a town of Mexico, tn the state of Hi- 
dalgo, 57 miles by rail NE. of the city of Hezioo. It is one 
of the chief centres of the Hezican pulque trade. 

Apaaama, i-p&-mi'm&, ah island in the Pacific Ooean, 
one of the Gilbert group. 

Apaaie'a, an ancient town of Syria, on the Orontes, 
the site of whose citadel is occupied by the modem Qa'alat 

Apamea, an ancient town of Phrygia, the ruins of 
which are at Dineir. 

Aparri, l-pi-ree', a sort and pueblo of Cagayin prar- 
ince, Luzon, Pnilippine Islands, at the month of the Apnrri 
River and 54 miles N. of Tugii«;arao. It ia the only prao- 
tioable port on the K. coast. Lat. 18° 23' N. It has fre- 
quent earthquakes. Pop. in 1903, 18,252. 

ApAtfclva, Sh'p&t^fsrvSh' a town of Hungary, oo. of 
Cnnid, OB the Maros, 8 miles SE. of Mak(S. Fop. 5000. 

Ap<lti, 5h'p$<teeS a Wallaeh town of Hungary, 35 miles 
irXB. of Arad. Pop. about 3000. 

Apatin, fih'pSVteen', a town of Hungary, co. of Bics- 
Bodrog, on the left bank of the Danube, SO miles S. of 
B^a. Pop. in 1901, 13,940. 

ApcheroB, a peninsula of Russia. See Apshiboh. 

Apeldoom, a'pel-dOnn^ a manufoctnring village pf 
the Netherlands, in Gelderland, on the Grift, an affluent of 
the Tssel, 17 miles NE. of Ambem. It has numerous 
naper-mills. In the vicinity la the r^al castle Hot Loo. 
Pm. (commnne) in 1900, 25,781. 

Apenaiaes, ap'f n-nlm^ (It..i>ipenn{no, Ip-pl-nee'BO ; 
ane. Apenni'mut Mom), a mountain-ohain which detaches 
itself from the Maritime, or Lignrian, Alps at the pass of 
Gadibqna, or theCollo dell'Altare, about km. 8° 30' B., hav- 
ing at Srft a general direction firom W. to E., nearly parallel 
with the Pennine and Lepontlne Alps, iW>m which it is 
separated by the valley of the Po. In about Ion. 11° E. 
the chain tuma towards the S. and traverses the Italian 
peninsula throughout its entire length, passing out ftvm 
the extremity of Calabria (the "toe" of the peninsula) to 

reappear in Sicily and again in the Atlaa Mountaina of 
Tunis and the NW. of Africa. While in theee aeparated 
parts the monntaina differ somewhat firom the type-chain of 
Italy, there ia no question that they belong technically to the 
auae system, which ia linked in the NW. with the Alps and 
again in th* SW. (crossing the Strait of Gibraltar) with the 
Sum Ronda of Spain. The Apennines, which are perhaps 
the youngest of the European mountains, dating their final 
tmlift from the late Tertiary or Post-Tertiary periods, are 
M the folded type of constmction, and are fractured oS 
iato the depression which is a part of the Tyrrhenian basin. 

They are flanked on either side by an extended foreland, 
which is in part a moderately elevated plateau, such as is 
oonatttuted by the highlands of Tuscany, an npheaved sea- 
bed (the plains of Rome and Calabria), or an unstable low- 
land, dominated by volcanic cones of greater or less activity 
(Pblegregan Fields, Vesuvius, etc.). The mountains are 
constructed principally of schist and slate, with associations 
of massive limestone. The length of the chain is approzi- 
mately 800 miles. Nowhere do the summits attain the 
raagnifioent proportions of the peaks of the Alps, and no- 
where do they rise strictly to the level of perpetual snow. 
Mount Etna, which may justly be regarded as forming part 
of the Apennine system, ia 10,742 feet in elevation, and 
uBually oarriea aome anow on its anmmit ; the Gran Sasso 
d'ltalla, with its loftiest peak, Honte Come, In the central 
division of the chain (In the Abruui),'is the culminating 
point of the ayatem in Italy proper, 9583 ft. The Apen- 
nines may be conveniently divided into the three divisions 
of the northern (LigurianaodBtrascan) Apennines (Monte 
Cimone, 7110 ft.), the central (Umbrian, Roman, and 
Abrusiian) Apennines (Monte Como ; Monte Amaro, 9170 
ft.), and the southern (Neapolitan and Calabrian) Apen- 
nines (Honte PoUino, 7375 ft. ; Aspromonte, 0420 ft.). In 
this latter division belong Vesuvius, the only active vol- 
cano of the continent, 4200 ft., and Vulture, near Melfl, , 
4305 ft. The ancient Via Flaminla crossed the Bomaa 
Apennines near the site of Foligno, while the Via Appia 
traversed the Neapolitan Apennines on the line connecting 
Naples with Benevento. The chief mlnetal wealth of the 
Apennines is fbund in the celebrated marbles of Carrara, 
Seravena, and Siena. Below 3200 feet in elevation the 
flanks of the principal chain are covered with a varied 
vegetation, of which the orange, citron, olive, and palm 
form the lower zone ; but forests are rare in the Apennines. 
Above 3200 feet the mountains are generally devoid of 

Apenrade, ip'f n-riMf h, a seaport of Prussia, in Schles- 
wig, on a fiord of the same name in the Little Belt, 35 
miles N. of the town of Schleswig. Pop. in 1900, 5952. 
It has an interesting town-hall anaa school of navigation. 

A'pez, a post-village and mining camp of Gilpin oo., 
Colo., 7 miles NW. of Central City, its banking town. Pop. 
in 19O0, 237. 

Apes, a post-bamlet of .Delaware oo., N.T. 

Apex, a post-village of Wake oo., N.C., on the Raleigh 
and Augusta (Seaboard Air Line) R., 14 miles WSW. of 
Raleigh. Pop. about 350. 

Api, islands of the Malay Archipelago. See Guiroiio- Api. 

Api, an island of the New Hebrides. Area, about 200 
sq. m. Pop. 10,000. 

Apia, &'pe-&, a seaport on the N. coast of TTpoln, S». 
moan Islands, capital of the German part of the group. 
Lat. 13° 49' S. : Ion. 171° 48' W. The European {fcpula- 
tion numbers about 250, mainly British and Germans. In 
March, 1889, a hurricane swept over the harbor, linking 
several German and American men-of-war. The place was 
bombarded by the British and Americana in 1899. 

Apice, &'pee-chl, a commune of Italy, province and 10 
miles by rail E. of Benevento. Pop. about 5000. 

Apipe, i-pee'pi, a large island of the Araentine Re- 
public, in the river Parani, and divided fVom Paraguay by 
a channel. Here are the final rapids of the river. 

Apiro, i-pee'ro, a commune of Italy, province of Hace- 
rata, near the Musone. Pop. about 3000. 

Apish'apa, or Api§h'pa, a river of Colorado, rises 
near the Spanish Peaks, runs northeastward through Las 
Animaa co,, and enters the Arkansas River in Otero oo., 
near Apisbapa Station. Length, about 150 miles. ' 

Apishapa, a post-hamlet of Las Animas co.. Cole, 73 
miles S. of Pueblo, on a river of the same name, near the 
Spanish Peaks. 

Apison, a post-Tillage of James oo., Tenn. Pop. about 

Apixaco, l-p^ft'ko, or Barrdn-Escanddn, a town 
of Hezioo, in the atate of TIazcala, 86 miles by rail flrom 
the city of Mexico, at the junction of the Vera Cms line 
with the line to Puebla. 

Aplerbecfc, l'pler-bik\ a village in Westphalia, Pras- 
sia, 6 miles E8E. of Dortmund. Pop. in 1900, 8775. 

Aplin, a post-village of Perry oo.. Ark. The banking 
point Is Little Rock. Pop. about 200. 

Ap'lington, a banking post-town of Butler oo., Iowa, 
on the Illinois Central R., 123 miles W. of Dubuque. Pop. 
in 1900, 427. 

Apo, I'po, a gronp of small islands in the Sea of Min- 
doro, Philippines. 

Apo, a small island off' the S. extremity of Negros 
Island, Philippines. 

Apo, i'pO, or D&vao, d&'ri-o, a volcano of Mindanao, 
the centre of the chain of high mountains which stretches 

Digitized by 


Apo East Pass 



bdiind Ihe W. ooafet of Oivao Gulf. Though MtWe, it has 
not been in eruption for Bomq time. The erater ii olothed 
with stunted vegetation inside and out; interior diameter, 
about 16&0 feet. Altitude, about 10,300 feet. 

Apo East Pass and A^o west Pass, the two 
passes into whieh Hindoro Strait is divided by Apo Reef. 

Apoha'qoii or Hoath of lllill-Streain, a post- 
village of Kings CO., New Brunswick, 36 miles by rail 
NNE. of St. John. Pop. about 250. 

Apol'acOB, a township of Susquehanna oo., Pa. Pop. 
in 1900, Z96. 

Apolda, &-pol'di, a town of Saze- Weimar, 9 miles NE. 
of Weimar. Pop. in 1900, 20,352. It is a great centre of 
the woollen manufacture. 

Apolimat i-po-lee'mJL, one of the smallest of the Ger- 
man group of Samoan Islands. 

Apollinarisberg, i-pol-e-n&'ris-biBO^ a former place 
of pUgrimage in Germany, at Remagen on the Rhine. 

ApoUiaopolis Magna. SeeEnptr. 

ApoUinopoIis Paira, an ancient town of Upper 
Egypt, the site of which is about 17 miles S. of Keneh. 

ApoUo« a post-station of Alaska, on Unga Island. 

Apol'lo, a banking post-borough of Armstrong oo^ Pa., 
on the Kiskiminetas River and on the Pennsylvania R,, 40 
miles EKE. of Pittsburg. A bridge here crosses the river, 
Apollo ha« bottling-, wemioal- and butterine-works, etc. 
Pop. in 1900, 2924. 

Apollo Bar> an inlet of Boss Strait, on the S. coast of 
Australia, Victoria, 60 miles SW. of Port Phillip Bav. 

Apollo'niai an ancient city of Illyria, situated near 
the month of the Aous (now Vioea). It was oolonized by 
emigrants ih)m Corinth and Coroyra. 

Apollonia, an ancient Greek city of Thrao^ on the 
Euzine, later called SoxopoUs. The little town of SLseboli 
is on its site. 

Apollonia, the port of the ancient city of Cyrene. Its 
later name was Sosuma, whence the present name of the 
site, Harsa Susa. 

ApoUonia, or Amanakea, i-m&-n&-l>i'&, a cape 
and trading-post in the extreme W. of the Gold Coast of 
Africa. Lat. 5° N. 

Apolloiiia« a post-village of Chippewa oo.. Wis., 27 
miles by rail E. of Barron. Pop. about 150. 

Apolobamba, i^po-lo-bim'bjl, or Apolabamba, a 
town of Bolivia, in the department of Beni, 165 miles N. 
of La Pai. 

Apolona, a post-hamlet of Perry co., Md. Pop. 69. 

Apop'kaf a post-town of Orange oo., Fla., on three 
railroads, near Apopka Lake, 11 miles NW. of Orlando, 
its booking point, and about 80 miles B, of Palatka. It 
has iron- and wood-works. Pop. in 1890, 490 ; in 1900, 

Apostles Islands, in the Strait of Magellan, where 
it joins the PaoUlo Ocean. 

Apostles Islands, or The Twelve Apostles, a 
group of 27 islands in Lake Superior, belong to Ashland 
CO., Wis. Among them are Hadelin^ Preeqne, Alabama, 
Austrian, Chapman, Higgins, Outer, Ou, Baaswtwd, Brown- 
stone, Hermitrs, Michigan, Shoal, Rice's, Hemlock, Tatee', 
Bear, Devil's, Willey's, Steamboat, Vaughn's, Sand, York, 
and Raspberry Islands. Thn' have about 304 sq. m. in 
land area. Brown sandstone (Potsdam) is extensively quar- 
ried on Basswood Island by steam machinery. Lapoute, 
on Madeline Island, is the only town of importance. Here 
is also the Lapolnte Indian Reservation. 

Appalachee, ap-p^lah'chee, a river of Georgia. See 

Appalachee Bay, Fla. ^ee Apalachee Bay. 

Appalachee River, Fla. See Saint Mask's. 

Appala'chian Mountains, a system of mountains in 
the eastern part of the United States. The term oomprises 
all the moantain-ridges between the Atlantic Ooean and the 
Mississippi River. The system extends fh>m the province 
of Qnebec to the northern part of AlabamC, nearly 1300 
miles, and consists of nomerousparallel ridges, the direction 
of which is nearly NE. and SW. Amoiw the local names 

S'ven to these mountains are White Moantains in Xew 
ampshire. Green Mountains in Vermont, Catskills, High- 
lands, Shawangunks, and Adirondaeks in New York, Alle- 
ghantes (Blue and Eittatinny Mountains) in Pennsylvania, 
Bine Ridge in Virginia and North Carolina, Cumberland 
Mountains in Tennessee, and Black Mountains in North 
Carolina. The dissociated Osark Mountains are frequently 
included with the system. In Pennsylvania, which u 
near Uie middle, the mountains, with intervening valleys, 
ooonpy a tract about 100 miles wide. Towards the ex- 
tremities ther diminish in width but increase in altitude. 
Mount Washington, In New Hampshire, is 6293 feet in 
Height; Monnt Katahdin, in Maine, 5200 ft. ; Mount Many, 
in New York, 5346 ft. ; and Mount Mansfield, in Vermont, 

4364 ft. above the level of the sea. The highest peaks of 
the whole system are in the Black Mountains of North Caro- 
lina, where numerous points attain an elevation exceeding 
6000 ft. The loftiest of 'these, and the highest point of 
land of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, is 
Black Dome, or Mount Mitchell, 6710 ft. In Pennsylvania 
the mountains present no high peaks, but nearly straight, 
parallel rid^, remarkable for their regularity and even- 
ness of ottthne. 

The Appalachians are mostly oomposed of stratified rocks, 
sandstones, shales, and limestones of theSilnrian, Devonian, 
and Carboniferous ages. Granitic or metamorpbic rocks 
of ancient date (Archsean or Asoio) form the nuclei of the 
White and Adirondack Mountains, and they are also the 
eonstmcting mass of the Highlands of the Hudson and of 
moob of the more southerly Blue Ridge. No rocks of later 
date than the Upper Carboniferous or Permian enter into 
the formation of this mountain-system. Among the remark- 
able features of the Appalachians are the gaps or chasms 
through which the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, and 
Potomac Rivers find a passage. The Appalachians are 
mostly covered with forests of good timber, including the 
ash, beech, hickory, chestnut, white oak and other oalis, 
sugar-mapl& white pine, and wild cherty. They contain 
inexhaustible deposits of magnetic iron-ore, hematite, an- 
thracite and bituminous coal, with some other valuable 
minerals. The great Appalachian coal-field, with its asso- 
ciated oil deposits and wells of natural gas, occupies a large 
part of the region covered by the mountains. See Allk- 
OBAirr MoDHTAiKS, Alleohahv Plateau, Adibohoacks, 
Gbben Mochtains, etc. 

Ap^pala^chico'la, a river of Florida. See Apala- 


Appalachicola, a port of entry, Fla. See Apala- 


Appalachicola Bay, Fla. See Apalacbioola Bav. 

Appanoose, ap'p%-noos' or ap'p%-nocs, a oounty in the 
8. part of Iowa, bordering on Missouri, has an area of 500 
sq. m. It is intersected by the Chariton River, which en- 
ters it in the extreme NW. and continues its course through 
the county in a southeasterly direction. It is also drained 
by Soap and Walnut Creeks. Beds of coal are found here. 
Centerville is the capiUl. Pop. in 1890, 18,961 ; in 1900, 

Appanoose, a post-township of Hanoock oo., HI., on 
the Mississippi River, 9 miles below Dallas City, Pop. in 
1900, 837. 

Appanoose, a post-hamlet of Douglas co., Kan., 16 
miles NW. of Ottawa. 

Appennino, the Italian name for the ApEKiriiTES. 

Appenweier, Ip'ptn-AI'fr, a viUageof Baden, S milee 
E. ofKehL 

Appensell, ip'pSnt-s^ll, acaaton in the NE. of Swit- 
terluid, wholly surrounded by the canton of St. Gall. Area, 
166 sq.m. Pop. in 1900, 68,780. It is subdivided into two 
half-cantons, Appeniell Outer Rhodes and Appentell Inner 
Rhodes, the former having 55,281 inhabitants, Bearly all 
Protestants, and the latter 13,449, nearly all Roman Cath- 
olics. Surface mountainous, espeeially in the 6., where 
the Sentis has an elevation of 8232 feet. Chief river, the 
Sitter, which runs through its centre. The inhabitants of 
Inner Rhodes are mostly agriculturists ; in Outer Rhodes, 
cotton- weaving and embroidering are the principal branches 
of industry, ^ipital of Inner Rhodes, Appenxell ; of Outer 
Rhodes, Trogen. 

Appenzell, capital of Am>entell Inner Rhodes, on the 
left bank of the Sitter, 6 miles S. of St. Gall, and at an 
elevation of 2560 feet. Pop. in 1900, 4553, mostly Roman 
Catholics. It is a noted cure resort and a tourist-centre. 

Appenzell, a post-village of Monroe co.. Pa. 

Appiano, ip-pe-1'no, a town of Italy, province of 
Como, 20 miles NNW. of Milan. Pop. (commune) 2000. 

Ap'pian Way, a great road, begun by Appius Claudius, 
the Roman censor, in 312 B.C., from Rome to Capua, 125 
miles, but later extended to Beneventum and Brundisium. 
It was built in a very thorough manner, paved with blocks 
of hewn stone laid on cement, its breadth averaging about 
SO feet. Parts have been excavated and found to be still in 
excellent preservation. Among the more historic monu- 
ments bordering it near Rome are the constructions mark- 
ing the tombs of the Scipios and of Cecilia Metella. 

Appijniano, ip-peen-yl'no, a town of central Italy, 10 
miles NW. of Maoerata. Pop. 800 (commune, 2700). 

Appignano del Tronto, Ip-peen-^&'no del tron'to. a 
town of central Italy, province of Asoob Pioeno. Pop, 700 
(commune, 2300). 

Ap'pin, a wild district of the Scottish Highlands, Ar- 
gyllsnire, on Loch Linnbe, 26 miles NW, of Inverary. 

Appin, a post- village of Middlesex co,, Ontario, on a 
railway, 22 miles WSW. of London, Pop. 200, 

Digitized by 





AyplBgedaiB. ip'pinc-hm-dim'. » town of the Nether- 
hnaa, 14 miln NK of Oroningen. Pop. in 1900, 4448. 

Ap'plabacha^lle, a port-rlllnge of Boolu oo.. Pa., 
43 miln N. of Philadolphia. Pop. about 240. 

Appleby^ ap'p'I-be (probably the ano. Aballaba), a 
town of England, o^tltal of the oonnty of Weetmoreland, 
OB th« Bden, 13 miles SE. of Penrith. Pop. 1750. Chief 
edifices, the mediaTal castle, the ohorch of St, Lawrence, 
the town and shire hallg, a grammar-school, founded in 
li74, and St. Anne's Hospital K>r Widows, founded in 1654, 
by Lady Pembroke. 

Apfileby , a post- village of Naoogdoohes eo., Tez. Pop. 
about uO. The banking point is Nacogdoches. 

Appleby, a post-Tillage of Halton CO., Ontario, on a 
railway, 11 miles from Hamilton. 

Apple Creek, III., runs southwestward and westward 
through Qraene oo., and enters the Illinois River. 

Apple Creek, a small stream of Henry oo.. Mo., falls 
into Qraod Kirer. an affluent of the Osage River. 

Apple Creek, Mo., rises in Perrv oo., runs nearly east- 
ward, and antara tue Mississippi in Cfape Girardeau oo. 

Appiecreek, a jmst-village of Wayne oo., Ohio, on the 
Clevdaiul, Akron and Columbus R., 98 milee NB. of^Colom- 
bna. Pop. in 1900, 387. 

Ap^pledore', a small seaport of England, oo. of Devon, 
•B toe Torridge, at its mouth in Bamstu>le Bay, 2} miles 
N. ofBideford. 

Appledore Island, Me., one of the chief islanvki, •nd 
r-resort, of the Isles of Shoals. 


Aa'plegate, a post-hamlet of Placer co., Cal., on the 
Sonthem Pacifio R., 4S miles KE. of Sacramento. 

Applegate, a post-village of Sanilac oo., Mioh., on the 
Pare Manqnetto R., 32 miles N. of Port Huron. Pop. about 

Applegate, a post-village of Jackson Co., Oregon, on 
Appfegate Creek, about 9 miles SW. of Jacksonville. 

Applegate Creek. Oregon, rises in the S. part of 
Jaofaon 00., runs northwestwan), and enters the Rogue 
River in Jos^hine oo. 

Apf legrere, a post-station of Ashe oo., N.C., 36 miles 
ftom Marion, Va. 

Applegrove, a poet-hamlet of Meigs oo., Ohio, on the 
Ohio River, 18 miles above Pomeroy. 

Apple^rove, a post-village of Lonisa oo., Va., (« the 
Sooth Anna River, H miles from Pendleton Station. 

ApplejKTOve, a post-station of Mason oo., W.Va., on 
the Ohio River, 12 miles below OalUpoUs, Ohio. 

Apple HUll, a post-village of Glengary oo., Ontario, 
Canada. Pop. about 250. 

Apple River, lU., flows southwestward through Jo 
Daviess oo., and enters the Mississippi about 7 miles above 
Savanna, in Carroll co. 

tple River, Wis., rises in Polk co., mns sonthwest- 
, and enters ue St. Croix River, in St. Croix eo., about 
12 allies N. of Hudson. Leogth, 70 milee. 

Apple River, in Cumberland oo., Nova Scotia, falls 
into ue Bay of Vundy. At its mouth it forms a good 

Apple River, a bankingpost- village of Jo Daviess oo., 
HL, on the Illinois Central K., 21 miles ENE. of Galena. 
Pop. in 1900. 387. 

Apple River, an ontport of Nova Scotia, nnder 

Ap'pletoa»»post-vilhigeof Polkoo., Ark., 16 miles N. 
efAtkini. Pop. 126. 

Appletoa, a poet-vilUute of Montgomery oo., Ga., 13 
adles(direet) E. of Mount Vernon. Pop. about 90. 

Appletoa, a pott-viUage of Knox co.. 111. Pop. about 

Appletoa, a post-village of Knox oo., He., in Appleton 
tewBship (town), on George^s River, 28 mUes B. of Augusta. 
Pop. of the town in 1900, 975. 

Appletoa, a banking post-village of Swift oo., Minn., 
on the Pomme de Terre River and on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul and the Great Northern Rs., 25 miles 
SW. of Benson. Pop. in 1900, 1184. 

AppletOB, a poet-villaee of Cape Qirardeaa eo., Mo., 
aboot 90 miles S8B. of St. Louis and It miles N. of Jaek- 
soo. Pop. 99. 

AppletOB, a post-viUage of Niagara oo., N.T. Pop. 
shoot 110. 

AppletOB, a post-village of Licking co., Ohio, SO miles 
HK. of Oolomtas. 

AppletOB, a post-villace of Barnwell oo., S.C, on the 
Pert Boyal R., 49 miles ESB. of Augusta, Ga. Pop.aboot 

AppletOB, a post-hamlet of Lawrence oo., Tenn., 18 
MilasSW. of Pubaki. 

AraletOB, a eity. the o^ital of Outagamie oo.. Wis,, on 
Fes Biver and on the CUeago and Northwestern and the 

Chicago, Milwankee and St. Paul Bs., 90 miles N. by B. of 
Oshkoeh, 29 milee SW. of Green Bay, and 186 miles ftom 
Chicago. It is conneoted by steamboat with Green Bay 
and Cake Winnebago. It is pleasantly situated on a pla- 
teau about 70 feet above the river and near the rapids called 
Orand Chute, which afford abundant water-power. It is 
the seat of Lawrence University and the Appleton Colle- 
giate Institute. It has flour-, paper-, saw- and woollen- 
mills, and manufactures of cigars, chairs, hubs, spokes, 
staves, car-movers and farm-implements. It has also large 
breweries and foundries. Fop. in 1880, 8005 ; in 1890, 
11,958; in 1900, 15,085. 

Appleton, a post-village of Lanark oo., Ontario, on the 
Mississippi River, 26 miles SW. of Ottawa. It has water- 
power and several mills and wooUen-faotories. 

Appleton City, a banking post-viliageof St. Clair oo., 
Mo^ on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas R., 58 miles SW. 
of Sedalia and 31 miles NNE. of Nevada. It is the ship- 
ping point and trade-centre of am extensive agricultural, 
fruit, and stock region. Pop. in 1900, 1133. 

Apple Valley, a post-vUb^ of Jaokson eo., Ga., about 
6 miles N. of Jefferso^. 

Applewood, a borough of Armstrong eo.. Pa., organ- 
ised from a portion of East Franklin township. Pop. in 
1900, 122. 

Ap'pliBg, a oonnty in the SE. part of Georgia, has an 
area of 775 sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by the Alta- 
maha River, and is partly drained b^ Hurrioane Creek and 
other head-streams of the Satilla River. Capital, Baxley. 
Pop. in 1890, 6676 ; in 1900, I2,33<. 

Appling, a post-village, capital of Columbia CO., Oa., 
ahout^ miles WNW. of Augusta. Pop. 120. 

Appoloaia, Africa. Bee Apolumiia. 

Ap'pomat'tox, a river «f Virginia, rises in Appomat- 
tox eo. Its general direction is eastward. In the lower 
part of its course it forms the boundary between Amelia 
and Dinwiddle ooe. on the left and Powhatan and Chester- 
field COS. on the right, and enters the James River at City 
Point. Length, about 150 miles. It is navigable for sloops 
or small steiunboats to Petersburg, about 16 miles from its 
month, and by freight-boats to FarmviUe, 100 miles higher. 

Appomattox, a county in the south-oentral part of Vir- 
ginia, nas an area of 342 sq. m. It is bounded on the NW. 
by the Jamas River, and is drained by the head-streams of 
the Appomattox River. The James River Canal passee 
along the border of the county. Capital, West Appomat- 
tox. Pop. in 1890, 9689 ; in 1900, 9662. 

Appomattox, or Appomattox Coart-Honse, a 
poet-village (once capital) of Appomattox co., Va., about 
24 milee S. of Lynchburg. It is 3 milee N. of Appomattox 
Station, on the Norfolk and Western R. Here General Lee 
snrrendered his army to General Grant, April 9, 1865. 

Apjponang', a post-village of Kent oo., R.L, on War- 
wick Bay and on the New Tou, New Haven and Hartford 
B., 10 miles S. of Providence. 

Ap^pong', or Padang, an island off the coast of 
Sumatra, in the Straits of Malacca, about 90 miles W. by 
S. of Singqmre. 

Appoqnin'imink, a small creek of Newcastle co., 
Del., flows eastward into Delaware Bay. 

Apricena, i-pre-ohi'ni, a town of Italy, 23 miles 
NNW. of Foggia. Fop. (commune) in 1901, 7643. 

Aprigliano, &-preel-yi'no, a commune of Italy, 6 miles 
SE. of Cosenia. Pop. about 4000. 

Apg, ips (ano. Al'ba Angtu'ta), a village of France, 
department of Ardiohe, 12 miles S. of Privas. 

Apsheron, ip-«hi,-ron', a peninsular promontory of the 
Russian dominions, extending for 40 miles into the Caspian 
Sea, and terminating in Cape Apsheron. Lat. 40° 32' N. ; 
Ion. 50° 20' E. It forms the £. extremity of the Caucasian 
chain, and is remarkable for the volcanic energy which is 
stored up in the region, and which finds expression in 
burning gases, mnd-volcanoes, salsee, etc. The soil is im- 
pregnated with sulphur and inflauunable gas. Vast quan- 
tities of black and white naphtha and petroleum are ob- 
tained annually in this peninsula. On its S. ooast is the 
port of Baku, northeastward and westward of which are 
the "great" and " little eternal fires." 

Apsley, a post^village of Peterborough oo., Ontario, 
Canada. Pop. 300. 

Apaley Strait is between Melville and Bathurst 
Lilands, off the N. ooast of Australia. Length, 46 miles ; 
breadtl^ from 1} to 4 miles. Shores bordered by mangroves. 

Apt, ipt (ano. Ap'ta Ju'lia), a town of France, capital 
of an arrondissement in the dqiartment of Vaueluse, on the 
Calavcm, 29 milee ESB. of Avignon. Pop. in 1901, 4571 
(commune, 5948). It is enclosed by old walls and has a 
ourtous cathedral and many Roman antiquities. 

Aptakissic, a poet-village of Lake oo., lU. Pop. 
I about 70. 

Digitized by 





Ap'to« s post'Tillage of Simooe oo., Ontario, 11 milei 
from Barrio. 

Aptos, ap'tSs, a poat-village of Santa Cnii oo., Cal., on 
tbe Saota Crni B., 10 miles B. of Santa Crai. Pop. abont 

Apuan AIp*« a branoh of tbe Etnuoan Apennines, 
witb an exoeedingiT steep fUi to tbe sea, and noted fbr 
tbeir line marbles (Carrara, Massa, eto.]. They onlminate 
in Monte Pisanino, 6382 feet. 

Apn'lia, an ancient division of sontbeastem Italy, bor- 
dering on tbe Adriatio. It gires its name (It, Puglia, 
pool'yl) to a modem eompartimenio of Italy, oomprfsing 
the provinces of Ban, Foggia, and Leoee. Area, abont 8000 
sq. m. Pop. in 1001, 1,^,608. 

Apniia, a po8t-vilIs«e of Onondaga eo., N.T. Pop. 76. 

Apiire« i-poo'rl, a river of Venetnela, and one of tbe 
cbief tribatanes of tbe Orinooo, rises in the Cordillera de 
IMrida, in the repnblio of Colombia, near lat. V N. and 
Ion. Jr W., Hows generally eastward, and Joins the Orinooo 
in lat. r* 40' N. and Ion. M^W W. Its afflnents, Inolud- 
ing tbe Portagnesa and Ooarieo, are mostly fh>m the N. 
On it are the towns of Nntrias and San Fernando. It is 
navigable for over 600 miles, and is ascended by tbe steam- 
ers of the Orinoco navigation companies. 

Apnrimac, iUpoo-re-mtk', a river of South America, 
rises in Lake Vilaftv (Hoanana), in the Peruvian Andes, 
department of Areqnipa, in abont lat. 1&° IV B. and Ion. 
72° 10' W., flows in a generally N. direotion, and unites witb 
the Qnlllabamba or Urtibamba to form tbe Ucayali. It is 
f^eqnently oonsidered to be the bead-water of tbe Amaion. 
It is a turbulent stream, interrupted by r^>ids and practi- 
cally uAfit for navigation. 

Apnrimac^ a southwestern department of Pern, is 
watered by some of tbe tributariss of tbe Apnrimac. It is 
essentially a highland, with fine grasing lands and forests, 
and produces sugar, rice, coffee, cacao, and rubber. <^pi- 
tal, Abancay. Area, 81,866 sq. m. Pop. in 1896, 177,987. 

Aqna« a post-village of Franklin oo.. Pa., oo tbe Penn- 
sylvania R. Pop. abont 250. 

Aqna, a post-bamlet of Rockbridge oo., Ta., at Deoatnr 
Station, about 10 miles N. by B. of Lexington. 

Aqnaekanock, N.J. Bee AcquiuncAHoircK. 

Aqnadelobo, i'kwt-di-Io'bo, a post-station of Taos 
CO., N.Hex. 

Aqnse, the aneient name of AoQin. 

Aqn» AunitSt tbe anoient name of Dax. 

Aqna BubiUtanc, the ancient name of Alraiibsa. 

AqiiB BoiTonia. See Bourboiciib-le8-Baih8. 

Aqnas Calidn* the Latin name of CALDAS-Dn-MovBiir. 

AqnK CalidKi the ancient name of HAMaAif-Lir. 

AqnsB CalMSt tbe ancient name of Vicht. 

Aquae CalMae CUiomm. See Orxhsb. 

Aqns CouTenamm. See BAOiiiRia-DB-LccaoR. 

Aqns FlavlBt tbe anoient name of Cbaves. 

Aqnae GratianSt the aneient name of Aix, Savoy. 

Aqns Moitote, the Latin name of Aioubs-Hortbs. 

AqUB FerenneB, the Latin name of JIpbbbat. 

Aqnie SextlsBf an ancient name of Aix, Provenoe. 

Aqas SoliB> the ancient name of Batb. 

Aqna 8tatiells« the ancient name of AoQni. 

Aqnse TacapitansB. See Bl Hakiiar de Cabbb. 

Aqnn Tann> See Bagbi dblla Porrbtta. 

Aqns Tibilitante. See HAMMAM-Bi^BBRDAAa. 

Aqw Tivffii the Latin name of Aianes-ViTES. 

Aqnafort, a fishing settlement and harbor of New- 
foundland, 48 miles 8. of St. John's. 

Aqnara, i'kwl'ri, a Tillage of Italy, province of Sa- 
lerno, 16 miles SSB. of Oampagna. Pop. about 2500. 

Aqaas'co, or Wood'Tille, a port-village of Prinoe 
Oeorge oo., Hd., 28 miles SSE. of Washington, D.C. Pop. 
abont 100. 

Aqoashicola, vl^wasb'f-ko-lf or akVa-shiokVI*. b 
post-village of Carbon oo., Pa. Pop. abont 450. 

Aqnatowa« a native settlement of tbe Oerman Kame- 
run region, west equatorial AiVioa. 

Aqnebogne, ak'kwe-bSg, a post-village of Suffolk oo., 
N.T., west of Riverhead. 

AqoetOBf « ik'we-tSng, a post- village of Bucks oo.. Pa., 
3 miles from Lambertville, N.J. 

Aqnetnck, a post-village of Albany oo., N.T. Pop. 
about 150. 

Aqal'a Creek, a deep tidal channel, 10 miles long, in 
Stafford eo., Va., enters the Potomac abont 18 miles N. of 
Fredericksburg. The river-port of the same name was, 
before tbe Civil War, of considerable commercial impor- 
tance, but is now much decayed. It contains an Episcopal 
oburob, built before 1750. 

AqnMabAa, &-kee-i>l-BAn', a river of Paraguay, rises 
in tbe Amambay Mountains, and flows into the Paraguay 
about 15 miles N. of Concepeidn. On its banks the diotator 

Francisco Solano Lopes was killed by the Brasilians in 

Aqaila, I'kwe-ll, offloially Aqalla deg H Abmscl, 
dtl'yee i-broofsee, a town of Italy, mpital of tbe province 
of AqniULon the Atemo, 58 miles NB. of Rome. Pop. in 
IMl, 18,477. This is one of the best-built and most oom- 
mercial dties in tbe Abruni. It Is a bishop's seeu and has 
manufactures of paver and linen. Aqnila was built by the 
Bmperor Frederick II. flrom tbe ruins of the anoient 
AmiUr'nnm, some vestiges of wbiob eiW are still ttsoeable. 

Aqnila, or Aqnua degll Abmni, formerly 
Abmzzo Utteriore (t-broot'so ool-ti-re-o'ri) II., a 
provinoe of Italy, between tbe Apennines and the provinoe 
of Rome. Area, about 2500 sq. m. Capital, Aqnila. Pop. 
in 1901, 307,645. 

Aq«lla, tbe Latin name of Laislb. 

Aqnileia, i-kwe-ll'yi, tbe medisval Af Har', a town 
of Austria-Hungary, at tbe bead of the Adriatie, 21 miles 
NNW. of Triest. Pop. 1000. It was one of tbe obief oom- 
meroial emporiums of the Roman world and a great station 
for the Roman fleet. Tbe Emperor Augustus often resided 
here, and the city was sometimes styled tbe "second 
Rome." It was taken and destroyed by Attila in a.d. 452. 
The Patriarchs of Aqnileia figured among the great digni- 
taries of the mediasral Church. Many remains of antiqui^ 
are found in its vicinity, and the town possessed a valuabM 
arohseologioal museum. 

Aqalfla, a pest-village of HiU oo., Tex.) 166 miles by 
rail SB. of Albany. 

Aqnln, i'kts^, a town of Haiti, on the 8. ihor^ 51 
miles W. of Jaemel. Pop. of oommune, 20,000. 

Aqnino, &-kwee'no (ana. Aqtn'num), a town and bish- 
op's see of Italy, province of Caserta, on the railway firom 
Rome to Naples, 5 miles NE. of Ponteoorvo. Pop. 1200. 
It was tbe Mrthplaoe of JuvenaL Thomas Aquinas was 
bom in tbe vicinity. 

Aqnls Grannm. See Aix-la-Crapbllb. 

Aqnitalne, akVe-tine' (Fr. pron. i'kee'tfo'), a medl- 
SBval duchy. See Aquitabia and OinBKHB. 

Aqnita'nia, in Csiaar's time the designation of the 
southwestern division of Oaul, extending flrom the Pyrenees 
to tbe Oaron ne. As one of the four divisions of Qt,al under 
the Roman Empire, Aquitania embraced a much largw 
region, reaobing fSsr into tbe basin of the Loire. Aquitani» 
was a kingdom under the early Oarlovingians. The duchy 
of Aqnitaine was one of the great medisval flefk of Fnuioa. 
It was united with England in 1154, and was finally con- 
quered by the French in 1451. In the Middle Ages th« 
name Quienne supplanted that of Aqnitaine. The later 
provinoe or goverament of Quienne, witb narrower limits 
than the dnony of Aquitalne, was embraced in tbe region 
of the Garonne and the Dordogne. 

Aqnitanicns Sinnt. Sm Bat or Biscat. 

Aqnokee, a river of Oeoreia. See ToooA. 

Aqno'ne, a post-villace of Macon oo., N.C. 

Arab, a post-hamlet of Marshall CO., Ala. Voi. 50. 

Arabah, I'ri-bl (Arab, for "desert"), El (The Ant- 
bah), called also El Gkor, a TaU«y in AraUa leading 
fVom the southern extremity of the Dead Sea to the tt«ith- 
em end of the Oulf of Akabab. It is 112 miles long, and 
has the steep and lofty range of Mount Selr on the esist, tbe 
western escarpment being less elevated. It is considered 
by geologists to be a continuation of tbe Jordan sut>- 
sidenee trough. Tbe same name is given to tbe great' 
desert between Babylon and Jerusalem. 

Arabat, ar'i-blt', a small place in the Crimea, on th« 
Sea of Aiov, 70 miles ENS. of Simferopol. 

Arabat, a narrow tongue of land, 70 miles long, sepa- 
rating the Sea of Aut tram the Putrid Sea. See Sir ash. 

Arabat-eUMad^Ain', oalled also Madftaneh, a ril. 
lage of Egypt, 6 miles fh>m the W. bank of the Nile, 10* 
miles below Thebes, is on the site of the ancient Abydoa. 
Here is a mined Hemnontum (temple of Set! I.), dedi- 
cated to Osiris. 

Arabi, ar'a-bee, a poet-village of Dooly co^ Ga., 76 
miles S. of Maoon, on the Oeorgla Soutbem and Florida R. 
Pop. in 1900, 505. 

Arabl, a post-villace of St. Bernard parish. La., near 
tbe Gulf R., 5 miles E. of New Orleans, its banking sit*. 
Pop. in 1900, 1200. 

Arabia, vri'be-t, sailed in poetical langns«e Araby, 
tr'f-be (Arab. Jeteret el-Arab, je-seer'ft fl-C'rlb, — •'.«., 
" tbe Isle or Peninsula of the Arabs ;" Turk, and Persian, 
Arabitlan, i-r&b-»«ttn', — i.e., "Arab country"), the great 
southwestern peninsula of Asia, separated from Africa by 
tbe Red Sea, and having E. the Persian Oulf and 8. th« 
Indian Ocean (Oulf of Aden). Its most southerly point — 
Rss Arab (Cape St. Antbonv)— is in lat. 12° 35' N., Ion. 
43° 56' B. Thirty miles to the W. of it are tbe Straits of 
Bab-el-Mandeb. The most eastern point is Ras at-Had, In 

Digitized by 





kt.33<>S3'K.,loii.fi9°&»'B. A Une dnwn from the hMd 
■f the Ooir of 8u« to that of th« Peniui Onlf mark* 
eiOMl7 tha Hmita of the Anbiui veninrala on Ui« N., bat 
Iw^oimI or N. of tbii lino ext«na> • raat daaert, whioh, 
bainc eoennied ohiefly br Anb tribw, ii alM oallcd Arabia. 
It it boanded on the B. by tha vallay of the Enphratas, on 
the W. by tha denretsad traot in whiob lie the Joidao and 
tha Dead 8aa, while towanii tha N. it gradually oontracta, 
tin it tetminatas in abont lat. M" : ao that Arabia, in a 
vidar aenaa^ extends in length from N. to S, through mora 
than a dagraaa of latitoda, or naarlr 1600 milaa. It in- 
alodea abo Uie peninaala of Binai, oetwaen tha Onlf of 
Bom aad that of Akahah. The area doae not fall ihort of 
1,300,000 aq. m., ef whioh 050,000 (or mora) balong to inda- 
paadent Aisbia, or Arabia not nndar TnrUih jnrtadietion. 

Frababir one-half of tha ooontrf atill remaina nnex- 
ptored. Taken ooUaetlTely, Arabia ia an arid, annbomt 
wildemaaa, in whieh may be traced, hare and there, aoma 
graen apots whieh reeeire the benefit of raina ; and tha 
wwfapa (HT Talleyi, deaeending Aram the rain-oolleoting 
heint^ Sgan aa ao many n«en linea, mora or laaa atrongly 
maKad. But it iaaeldom that the tract* of eoltivated land, 
aren in the plaina, attain a width of 20 miles. 

Arabia ia eommonly dirided into three parta : Arabia 
fmhix, or kmppff Pxrn^A, or tomgi and Dbuibta, or dtt- 
tru Theae namea are unknown to the Arabiana, to whom, 
in a general way, Arabia Daaarts ia Neid, Arabia Patiaa 
is H«ai, and AraUa Felix it Taman, Hadramant, Oman, 
aad the Haaa traet. 

Tha great eentral raaia of Arabia, wUah it eompritad 
largely in tha region of HTqjd, ia a rait table-laod (or aeriaa 
of plateaus), irregularly out ^tiaTaningmenntain-ridgea, 
whieh abuts against and aarriae with it a part of the Syrian 
Deaert on thaN., and on the W. and SW. is bnttreaaad np by 
lofty elerationa, lometimeB known as the Red Baa Moan- 
taint (Jabel el-Hqat, Jabel Eora, Jebel d-Teman), which, 
as in the Asir distriet south of Heooa, rise in many sum- 
mits to 8000 feet and oTcr. The Taman npUnds, in faot, 
tower to 10,000 feet, and it would appear that aoma of the 
peaka OTariooking Sana may, iBdaed, reach 13,000 feet. 
The Nnd is larnly bordered by the deaerta ot ahifling 
aaads, the Nafuos, and on the toath it auanaa into the 
gnat irimapitable tracts known as Dakbna or Bahna. The 
Booatalns of the Bini^tie Paninsula are alao krfty, and in 
many of their aammits ( Jebal-Eatharine, JriMl-OiDah) ex- 
eaed 8000 feet. The moat ftmoot of these is the Jcbel-Mosa, 
" Monntain of Hoaes," which for a long time was identifled 
wiUi the Mount Binai of SOTijpture. 

'Rie cnltiTated tracts of Arabia are generally in the tI- 
einity of the aountains, the torrents from whioh, in the 
lainy saaaon, ooUaet aoil and endow it with fertility. There 
are alao aoma oasaa or produotira apota, surrounded by 
deaarta, which seem to indioate that the waters of streams 
lost in the sands tiigher np are here brought to the surface. 

The sterility of Arabia is suiBaiently indicated when it 
is stated that that vast country has no considerable and 
aearaely any permanent rirara. A few small streama in 
Oman, aa tha Massora and Bit), flow throughout the year, but 
ia moat eaaas tha water^onnea are tha wadys, — dry chan- 
Bcis, or ehaanala with intermittent flows. The laigest of 
sudi are the Wady Dawaair and Wady er-Rnmma, both 
rising in tha weaton highlands and trending northeastward 
into the interior, the former with, perhapa, a oontlnuoas 
aomsa of 800 milaa direeted to the Shat el-Arab (united 
T^Ria and Bnphrates). 

To the eztrame dryness of the atmosphere and its ftreedom 
frnn cloud or rapor may be ascribed the remarkable degree 
of cold oceaaionally felt in Arabia, Whioh has givoi rise 
to vary erronaons conjectures respecting the eleTation of 
that country. At Tayf; not above 3200 feet in abaolnta 
deration, and in lat. 21° IS" N., snow is sidd to £kU onee in 
eraty fimr years ; aad the monntaina in the neighborhood, 
fiom MOO to 6000 feet high, are annually corared with enow. 
Farther 8., ice and snow are of freqaent occurrence on 
mountains from 6000 to 8000 feet in height ; while on the 
appoaita aide of the B^sd S«a they are hardly known at the 
haight of 12,000 feet. On the other hand, Museat, oo the 
aoaat of Oman, is newly the hotteat inhabited place on the 
giobay— • diatinotion. which it owae in a meaanre to its situa- 
tion iMneath bare clitb, whioh reverberate the heat. At 
this piaee the thermometer in the ahade in June genually 
rises above 100° Fahr. in the afternoon, and ocoaamnally it 
amrks I15°-II7°. The heat of Mocha, alao, and the ad- 
jacent tehama, is to Europeana insupportable in aammar. 
The violent duuiget of tasaparatura whioh occur are prqu- 
«eial to health, ^he humid S. wind, the cold and drv N. 
wind, and the storms from the E., attended with cloads of 
fine sand, all bring with them the seeds of disease. The 
aoaat of Hqjas is to many particulariy anhaalthy, and the 
piiyae, from which Arabia for a long time boaated exemp- 

tion, has been added to the list of endemic diseases. The 
climate of Yemen, on the other hand, where tha tempera- 
tore even in July rarely reaohea 00°, is a particularly favor- 
able one ; and Bal^rave daaeribas that of the N<gd as one 
of the most salabnons in the world. Along a large part of 
tha border tracts the rainfall ia fUrly or even largely abun- 
dant, being mostly ooncentrated in wet seasons of about 
three monks' duration ; and even in the interior considera- 
ble rain fiills, b|it north of the 20th parallel of latitude the 
annual discharge is reduced to about 8 inches. 

The flora of Arabia partakaa of the character of the 
florae of northeastern Afinca, India, and Armenia, with the 
Saharan type well emphaaiied. The date-palm is a physiog- 
nomic pluit, and thrives even where the groand is covered 
with incrustations of salt. On the S. coast, towards Oman, 
the mango and coeoanut are occasionally met with. Farther 
inland grow the flg-tree, the tamarind, tha almond, and, in 
Oman, the arange, lemon, and citron. With these grow 
lavender, wormwood, jasmine, and other scented plants. 
As the mountains are ascended^ the vegetation aasumca a 
more Bun^wan character. Apncots, plums, pomegranataa, 
and gr^ies are found at the height of from 3000 to 4000 
feet; and above theae the mountains are covered with 
foraats of juniper. The cotton-plant and the sugar-cane 
grow in the tanama or ooaat-lands ; the gum arable, aloe, 
and eaaaia prefer the hills ; and the tree which yields frank- 
incense abounds in the mountains of fihehr. 

The Arabs cultivate wheat, rice, barley, and darrcJk or 
koletu tmlgar*, beeides bananas, watermelons, and other 
garden-produce : but their chief dependence is on their date 
plaotations. These occupy everywhere the irriguous or 
watered land. The cultivation of cofiee was introduced 
into Arabia fiom southern Abyssinia ; and the best coffee 
exported tmm Mocha, even at the present day, is the pro- 
dooe of Abyaainia. The most fertile region of Arabia is 

The trade in ooflee, almonds, balsam, senna, and gums 
enriches a few proprietors, but the chief mafcantile wealth 
of Arabia always has been derived fh>m the carrying trade. 
The Arab is the active factor who distributes the cotton cloth 
of India throoghout htdf-ciTillted Africa, and carries back 
ivory, gums, and dyewoods. The pearl-banks in the Per- 
sian Oulf extend f^m Bahrein E. above 200 miles, and give 
employment to many thousand men, yielding an annual 
produst valued at about $lj600,000. There are also sponge-, 
coral- and pearl-fisheries in the Red Bea, on the coasts of 
Hdat, and on tha B. coasts the fishermen ooUaot much 
anibergris and tortoise-shell. 

Little is known of the mineral resources of Arabia, but 
it is certain that many forms of precious stones (emerald, 
eamelian) are found, and that the more valuable metals 
(iron, copper, lead) are not wanting. An attempt at gold- 
mining has been made in the Hadramant. 

Arabia is faunally an intermediate ground between the 
Sahara, India, and the Caspian steppe-region. Among its 
more conspicuous animal forms are the panther, lynx, 
hyena, jackal, various gaselles, tiger (in Oman), and 
ostrich. The donkey, sheep, goat, and various forms of 
oattle are reared, together with the dromedary and horse, 
the breed of Arabian horses being famous the world over. 

It seems certain that the most ancient trade-routes of the 
Arabs nearly coincided with those followed in the days of 
the mliphs, when the caravans started fh>m Bahrein for 
Bagdad, and thence crossed the Syrian deserts to Aleppo, 
Damaacus, or Egypt. The establishment of the Moham- 
medan religion nad the effect of reviving this branch of 
indnstry, fSw the pilgrimage to Mecca, which was ei^olned 
on tbU true believers, drew crowds from all parts of the Mo- 
hammedan world. There are authentic accounts of caravans 
to Meoca which nambered 120,000 camels. The ordinary 
commercial caravans rarely exceed 1000 loaded camels. 

Population and BUtory. — The Arabs and the Jews con- 
stitute the two main branches of the Semitic race of to-day. 
According to a distinction based on tradition the tribes of 
Arabia are divided into Kahtanites or Joktanites, who 
claim deecent from Kahtan (Joktan), and Ishmaelites, sup- 
posed to be descended from Ishmael. The former dwell in 
the S. and E. ; the latter constitute the northern tribes. 
The inhabitants of the S. do not r^;ard their northern 
neighbors as pure Arabs. Already m remote antiquity 
ArMia was the seat of advanced ciUture. In the S. were 
the flourishing realms of the Sabseans and Mins^ns. The 
Himyaritic (Ssbssan) insoriptians reach book to the period 
which witnessed the birth of the Hebrew monarchy. Early 
in the seventh century of the Christian era, through the 
agency of a new national religion, — that of Islam, — Arabia 
was transformed from a country divided among warring 
tribes into a great conquering state. The old superstitions 
gave way to ue monoueistie faith proclaimed by Moham- 
med. 'Mecca, with the pilgrimage place of the Eaaba, 

Digitized by 





which had In ■. meunra bmn a national bond between the 
elans, was adopted into the new religion. Arabic, the lan- 
guage of the Koran, became the speeeh of the whole pe- 
ninsula. The Arabs embraced with fanatical seal the task 
of spreading Islam. Syria, PalestiDe, Penia, Egypt, all of 
northern A^oa to the Atlantic, and the Spaniso peninsula 
were overrun by the invading Arab or Baracen hosts of 
the caliphs within less than IM yean afterthe Heiira (the 
flight of Mohammed ft-om Mecca to Medina in 622, which 
event marks the beginning of the Hohammedan era). The 
great Arab realm did not long remain united. In the 
middle of the eighth century Spain broke loose. About the 
same time Bagdad supplanted Damaaous as the seat of the 
caliphs. Arabia itself soon ceased to play an important 
rfile in the great Mohammedan world and relapsed into 
obscurity ana confusion. In the flourishing days of the 
caliphs the Arabs led the world in literature, art, and 
science, and they diffused their culture in remote lands. In 
the sixteenth century part of Arabia was snljeoted to Turk- 
ish rule. The eighteenth century witnessed the rise of 
the Wahabi state (see Xkjd). In 1839 the British obuined 
possession of Aden. The population of Arabia is estimated 
at about 3,000,000, of which about 1,000,000 fall to the dis- 
tricts of Hqas and Yemen, which belong to the Ottoman 
Empire. El-Ehsa is also included in the Turkish domin- 
ions. Oman Is governed by the sultan or imam of Muscat. 

Arabiai a post-village of Lawrence oo., Ohio, about 14 
miles NE. of Ironton. 

Arabmn Golf, a name applied to the Rkd Sea. 

Arabian 8ea« a large sea, properly a part of the In- 
dian Ocean, on the SW. coast or Asia, lying between the 
peninsula of Hindustan on the E. and Arabia on the W. 
The distance Trom the Arabian to the Indian coast may be, 
at the broadest part, alwnt 1500 miles. The Red Sea and 
the shallow Persian Oulf are properly arms of the Arabian 
Sea. Soundings of 4000-5000 metres have been made in 
many parts. . 

Arabicns Sinna, a Latin name of the Rid Sia. 

Arabittan'. an Oriental name of Arabia and of the 
other reglonf where the Arabs dwell. 

AralMStan, a province of Persia. See Kbitxistar. 

Ar'abjr, apost-etation of Frederick oo., Hd., on the Bal- 
timore and Ohio R., 57 miles W. of Baltimore. 

Araby* the poetical name of Arabia. 

Arac^jA, &-ri-k&-thoo', a seaport of Brasil, capita! of 
the state of Sergipe, on the river Cotindiba, 6 miles from 
the sea and 15 miles below Maroim. It has a good an- 
ohoisge, although the bar does not admit ships of more 
than 12 feet draught. Steamboats ply to Harolm, Chief 
exports are cotton, sugar, and hides. Pop. 10,000. 

Aracan* See Arakan. 

Aracatf , or Aracaty, i-rft-kl-tee', a river-port of the 
state of Ceari, Brasil, about 70 miles SB. of Ceari (Forta- 
lexa), on the Rio Jaguaribe("riverof Jaguars"), 10 miles 
from the sea. Lat. 1° 31' S. ; Ion. 37° 48' W. It exports 
cotton, sugar, and hides. Pop. about 12,000. 

Aracena, i-rl-thi'nJL a town of Spain, in Andalusia, 
province of Hnelva, 33 miles NW. of Seville. Pop. (com- 
mune) in 1900, 6281. 

AracllOTa, &-rl'ko-vl, a village of Greece, on the S. 
deoKvitr of Mount Parnassus, IS miles WNW. of Livadia. 
Pop. in 1896, 3224. 

Anico'ma, a town of Logan co., W.Va. (formerly given 
as Logan). Pop. in 1900, 444. 

Aractnns, the ancient name of Art A. 

Aracnahl, &-r&-sw&-hee', a river of Braill, state of 
Minas-Geraes, rises in the Serra Esmeralda, flows NE., and 
falls into the Jeqnitinhonha. 

Arad, 5r'j)d\ a town of Hungary, capital of the co. 
of Arad, on the right bank of the Maros, 145 miles SB. of 
Budapest. Pop. in 1901, 56,260, among them many Rn- 
mans and Germans. It is a royal tne city and an old 
fortress. On the opposite bank of the Maros is the small 
town of New Arad (Hun. VJ-Arad). Arad is at the 
Junction of a number of railway lines and is the great 
emporium of trade in SE. Hungary. Its principal educes 
are of modem oonstruotion. On the Liberty miuare is a 
monument to the patriots of 1B4S-49. The town possesses 
one of the largest distilleries in the world, on whose reftee 
thousands of cattle are fattened. The flour of Arad is 
highly prised. On Oct. 6, 1849, a number of Hungarian 
generals were executed here by order of the Austrian com- 
mander Haynan. 

Arad, a county of Hangary, bordering on Transylva- 
nia. Area, 2487 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 329,840. 

Aradeo, i-r&-da'o, a town of Italy, provinoe of Leooe, 
10 miles ENE. of Gallipoli. Pop. 3500. 

Aradns, the ancient name or Rdad. 

Arafali, i-r&-fl'le, a town of northeast AfHoa, in 
Britraa,onabayoftheRedSe«. Lat. about 1S° »' N. 

Arafat, |>ii-f|t', or Jebel er-Raha, JM/U «r riUi'ia 
{i.e., " the mountain of meroy"), a gimaite hill of Arabia, 
IS miles B. of Heooa. It is abont 1 or H miles in oiranit, 
and its summit is neariy 200 feet aliove the level of the 

Slain.' It is one of the principal objaets of pilgrimage to 
[ohammedans, who aflirm that it was the plaoe where 
Adam flrst reoeived his wife Eve, after they had iwen ex- 
pelled from Paradise and separated from each other 12* 

AraAira (l-riUfoo'ri) Sea, that part of the Pa«iAe 
whleh lies N. of Austnlia and is partly aDeloaed by Pa- 
pua, the Am Islands, Timor Lant, 'Timor, ete. 

Aragh (or Fentecott) Islaad, one of the group of 
the New Hebrides, in abont lat. 15° 8. Pop. 500. 

Ar'ago, a. post-villwe of Richardson co.. Neb., on the 
Missouri River, 5 miles from Craig, Ho., and about 85 miles 
below Nebraaka City. Pop. about 100. 

Araco, Cape, formerly Cape Gregorr, Oregon, ii 
en the Paoifle, in Coot oo., lat. ^<> 21' N. and Ion. lSi° 20' 
W. Cape Arago light is on an island joined to the cape by 
a bridge. 

Aragon, tr'rf-goB (8p. pron. as-Ri-gSn' ; L. Arago'- 
nia), a captaincy-general of^ Spain, repreaenting the an- 
cient kingdom of Aragon, Imunded N. by Franoe, E. by 
Catalonia, S. by Valenoia and New Castile, and W. by the 
Castiles and Navarre. Area, abont 18,000 sq, m. It is 
divided into the provinces of Hueeca, Saragossa, and Te- 
ruel. The capital is Saragossa, Ara«on is encompassed 
by the Pyrenees and the sierras of Morella, Albarraoin, 
Molina, and Soria, while oSseti of these chains traverse the 
interior in all directions. Several of Uie iiighedt summits 
of the Pyrenees are in this r^on, their tope covered wi& 
perpetual snow. Their sides are clothed with forests, while 
lower down are rich and extensive pastures, with many 
beantiftal and fertila valleys. The largeet level tract is 
formed by the valley of the Ebro, which, entering on the 
W,, flows SE., dividing the rwion into two nearly equal 
parts. The Quadalaviar, the Jf&car, and the Tagus hare 
their sources in the extreme S., and the Aragon in the N W. 
A large part of Aragon is a treeless, almost desert, waste, 
having the diaracteristics of the table-land of Castile. It 
is the nindament of an ancient saline sea, which occupied 
the basin of the (modem) Ebro, an outlet to which was 
subsequently established by a cut aerose the mountain-bar- 
rier at Torteea. On the mountains, and especially »"«"ng 
the Pyrenees, the eUmate is cold, but beoomes much warmer 
in the valley-plains, which are often parched by a with- 
ering heat. High and piercing winds from tlie NW, and 
SE. prevail. The flora of Aragon is varied and extensive. 
Its minerals are marbles, jaspers, ooal, eonner, Iron, lead, 
quicksilver, cobalt, sulphur, and alum. &taisive tracts 
are stony and barren, while others, though callable of culti- 
vation, are neglected. Still, excellent crops are obtained 
of grain, olives, grapes and other ft^t, saffron, Sax, and 
hemp. The wooflen industry is important and silk-worms 
are reared in considerable numbers. Pep. in 1900, 913,711. 
The kingdom of Aragon was founded in 1035. Catalaoi» 
was united with it in 1151. Later, Aragon became mistrea* 
successively of Sicily, Sardinia, and thekingdom of Naples. 
By the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon with IsalieUa of 
Castile in 1474, the two kingdoms were united in 1479, In . 
1512 the greater part of Navarre was annexed to Aragon, 
A^. and inhab. Abasohbsx, 4r'f-go-neei'. 

Aragon, a river of Spain, rises in the Pyreneea, in 
Aragon, and, flowlngthrough Navarre, Joins the Ebro oppo- 
site Alfaro, after a SW. coarse of 80 miles. Chief afllnent, 
the Arga. 

Aragon, a post-vUlage of Polk co., 6a., on the Eaat 
and West and the Southern Rs. Pop. about 225. The 
banking point is Cedartown. 

Aragona, i-r&-go'ni, a town of Sicily, 7} miles NNE. 
of Girgenti. Pop. in 1901, 11,985. It has a castle with 

Sjntings and antiquities. Near it is the mud voloano of 

Aragna, JUri'gwi, a state of Tenesuela, having Bli- 
randa on the E. and Ouabobo and Zamora on the W. Capi- 
tal, Victoria. It contains part of the fertile coSee-produo- 
inc Aragua valley in the N. 

Aragna, a town of Venecuela, in the state of Bermudea, 
176 miles E8E. of Ckrieas, on the river Unare. 

Aragnai J a river of South America. See Pii/OoaAT«. 

Aragnan, 1-ti-gwi-ree', a river of Braail, in the state 
of Pari, rises in the Serra da Tumcaraque and falls into 
the Atlantic in lat. 1° 50' N, 

Aragnay, &-r&-gwi', or Aragnaya, l-rl-gwi'l. a lam 
river of Brasil, rises la the mountains near lat. 18° 10' S., 
Ion. 62° 40' W. It flows northward between the states of 
Goyai and Hatto-Groeso and joins the Tooaatin* at Slo 
Jolo, after a oourse of 1300 miles, abont the middle af 
which it sqiarates Into two arms, enclosing the island of 

Digitized by 


ArahiU, Bl 



Buwiial (" BMians OroTc"), 200 milea in length, ftnd eor- 
«ring an are* of 8000 sq. m. Thia riTcr flowa throngh 
aboat 18 degraea of latitude, and ia narigabia 7M mllea or 
more. The lower courra of the stream, whioh ia the main 
water of the Tocantins, is badly obatmetad by rapidi. 

Arahal, El, il i-r44ill', a town of Spain, in Andalnaia, 
IS miles ESB. of Seville. Pop. (oommnne) in 1MN>, 7*81. 
Araish, a town of Hotoeeo. See Bl-Aiaub. 
Am JOTis, the aneient name of AsAantBi. 
Arakan, or Aracaa, Ir'rt-kan' or i-ri-k&n' (eallad by 
tbe natiTes Rakkaing, ri-Klng'), the northern part of 
Lower Burma, extending along the B. side of the Bay of 
Bengal to the N. of the frrawaddy delta. It wa* formerly 
one of the political divisions of British Burma, and was 
acquired by the British at the oloee of the first Bnrmese 
War, in 1828. The chief town is Akyab. 

.AntlUIll, an ancient city of Arakan, on the river Ara- 
kan, iO miles tmm the sea. Lat. 20° 36' N. ; Ion. 93° 4' 
S. Before the British conquest it ia said to have liad a 
population of nearly 100,000, but it has dwindled to an in- 
sigDiflcsuit little place. 

Arakas River rises in Burma, and, after a generally 
soathwajd ooone of 200 miles, enters the Bay of Bengal in 
Arakan, 15 milee NB. of Akyab. 

Arakaa-Roaia, a mountain or portion of a moontain- 
diain on the borders of Aiakao and Bengal. Blue Moun- 
tain is alMnit 7000 feet in elevation. 

A'ral, a post-hamlet of Butler oo., Kan., 20 miles 8W. 
of Eldorado. 

Antlf a poet-hamlet of Carroll co,, Va., on a branch of 
Reed Creek, 8 miles N. of Hillsville. 

Aral (Val; Russ. pron. i-ril') extensive lake 
in Asiatle Buseia, between about lat. 43° 42' and 47° 0* N. 
and Ion. 58° 18' and 01° 4«' B. Excepting the Caspian, 
Ihwn whioh it Kes UO-200 miles E., and tmm which it is 
separated by the plateau of Dst-Urt, and the Victoria 
Nyann^ of east-oentrat Africa, it is the largest inland sea 
of the Bastem Hemisphere. Total area, 28,100 sq. m. Its 
length is 235 miles. It had for many yean been diminish- 
ing in area, bat the Roasiao explorations of 1899-1993 have 
shown that the waters Iiare risen since 1891, the rise at the 
present time being altoat 20 centimMree annually. The 
depth of water in the eoitre is 70-80 feet, but inoreasss to 
a maximum of 205 feet oppoeite tiie steep west coast. The 
lake, which is slightly saline bat strikingly transparent, 
aboonds in Ash, aspeoially sturgeon, carp, koA herring. 
Seals are also met with. 'The W. shore of the Aral Sea is 
formed by the Ust-Urt plateau, whioh rises to 800 feet 
above the level of the lake, but shelves gradually down to 
the water. No rivers enter the sea on its W. sirare ; those 
that enter &on the B. and S. are the Bii^Darya or J«x- 
artea and the Amu-Darya or Oxns. The waters flreeie in 
winter in the north, and partly also in the south. The 
Aral Sea lies between the Kirghis steppes and Khiva, in 
the great depression of western Asia. Its elevation is ISO 
fast above the levd of the sea and 243 feet above that of 
the Caspian, with whioh it was still in Ha Poet-Pliocene 
period united. The shores of the sea are almost entirely 
uninhabited. There is no outlet. 

This lake is called by the Kirghis Aral-Dxrshis, — ■'.«., 
"island sea" {artU signifying "island"), ttom the multi- 
tude of islands wliich it contains ; the largest of these is 

Araneeiaa, i-riUmi^'nl, a town and mining dis- 
trict of Hondnias, in Cholnteca. 

Aranua'go, formerly a district of Philadelphia co.. 
Pa., bat now included within the limits of the city of 
Philadelphia, about 4i miles N. by B. of the state-house. 

Aramoa, l^rt'mftn^, a town of France, department of 
Qard, on the Rhone, 16 miles BNB. of NSmee. It has a 
trade in wine, olives, and oil. Pop. about 2600. 

ArAa, i-iin', a valley of Spain, province of Lirida,8ur- 
roondedbythe elevated summits of the Pyrenees and ex- 
posed to dangerous avalsnehes. 

Araada lie Dnero, i-rin'di di dwi'ro, a town of 
Spain, in Old Castile, 48 milee S. of Burgos, on the Douro. 
It retains part of its ancient walls and towers. Pop. (com- 
mune) in 1900, 5738. 

Araa'4aSf a village of Mexico, in the state of Jalisco. 
Pop. in 1895, 5387. 

Araa \t\«», or South Iilaada of Aran, a group 
of small islands on the ooast of Galway, Ifeland. Xitt. of 
Kdit on Inishmore, the largest and most northerly, 63° 
r 38" N. ; Ion. 9° 42' 22" W. Pop. 8800. The Nobth 
IsLama or Abah comprise the group called the Rosses, 
off the NW. ooast of Ireland, co. of Donegal. 

Araj^aeSf l-rin-Bwtth' (ano. A'raJvnU), a town and 
royal reaidenee of Stoain, on the left bsuik of the Tagns, in 
New ChstUe, 28 miles SSB. of Madrid. Pop. of the oom- 
■one in 1990, 12,870. The royal palace stands in the 

midst of one of the most munificent parks in the world. 
The town contains hot^, cafls, and numerous public gar- 
dens, spacious streets and elegant squares, theatres and 

Araafa*, ar-an'sfs, > small river of Texas, rises in Bee 
00., and, flowing soatheastward, forms the boundary be- 
tween San Patricio oo. on one side and Refugio oo. on the 
other, until it empties itself into Aransas Bay. 

Araaaai, a county of Texas, bounded SB. by the Ouif 
of Mexico, and comprising most of tbe lands a^iaoent to 
Aransas Bay. Area, 296 sq. m. Stock-raising is the chief 
industry. Capital, Rockport. Pop. in 18tW, 1824: in 
1900, 1718. 

Aransas Bay, on the ooast of Texas, immediately N. 
of Corpus Christi Bay. Length, about 18 milee ; greatest 
breadth, 8 miles. Its NW. rart is also called Copano Bay. 

Aransas Pass, a poet-town of San Patrioio co., Tex., 
on an inlef of theQnlf of Mexico, about 120 milee SB. of 
San Antonio and 8 milee W. of Aransas Pass (see below). 
Pop. about 126. 

Araasaa. Pass, the ooeanic entrance to Corpus Christi 
Bay, Tex. 

Ajranyoa, 8h'r8n^yesh\ a river of Transylvania, joins 
the Haros on the left. 

Aranyos'llfardt, Sh'rSn'yosh^ m8h'r0t\ a town of 
Hungary, capital of the co. of Bars, 87 miles NW. of 
Budapest. Pop. in 1901, 2788. 

Aranro8«](ledgrea, Sh'rSnWcsh^ m«d'ySsh\ a town 
of HongaiT, Mmiles E. by N. of Ssatm&r. Pop. 2600. 

Arapakoe, v'^P'v'"*) ^ county in the E. part of Colo- 
rado, is drained by the South Fork of the Platte, the Re- 
publican Fork of the Kansas River, and by Beaver Creek. 
Area, 4723 sq. m. The surface of the western part is moon- 
tainons. The eastern portion is an extensive arid plain, in 
which timber and water are scarce. Oold and other min- 
erals are found. Denver is the county town and the eapital 
of the state. Pop. in 1890, 132,135 ; in 1900, 153,017. 

Arapakoe, a banking poet-village of Furnas oo.. Neb., 
on the Burlington and Missouri River R., 89 miles W. of 
Red Clond. Pop. in 1900, 701. 

Arapakoe, a post- village of Pamlieo co., N.C., 86 miles 
E. of Ooidsboro. 

Arapakoe, a banking post-town, capital of Caster oo., 
Okla., near the Wariiite River, about 90 milee W. by S. of 
Quthrie. Pop. in 1900, 258 (largely increased since census). 

Arapakoe Indiana, a tribe formerly dwelling be- 
tween the South Fork of Platte River and the head-waters 
of the Arkansas, but now located in reservations in Mon- 
tana, Wyomiqgi and Oklahoma. 

Arapakoe reak, Colo., a mountain in lat. 40° V 13" 
N. ; Ion. 105° 38' 39" W. It has an altitade of 13,520 feet 
above the sea-level. 

ArapUes, i-rl-pee'lSs, a village of Spain, 4 milee S.E. 
of. Salamanca. This was the soene of a battle (commonly 
known as the battle of Salamanoa) in which Wellington 
defeated the French, July 22, 1812. 

Arar, a river of tiaul. See Sa6hb. 

Ararat, tt'^nlO, a craterless volcano of western Asia, 
in Amenia, forming the point of contact of Russia with 
Turkey and Persia, to each of whi<rfi it partly belongs. It 
lies in the 8. portion of the extensive plain of the Aras, and 
consists of two mountains, the Qreat Ararat (Aghri-Dmgh) 
on the NW. and the Little Ararat (Kutchuk-Aghri-Dagh) 
on the SB., their summits being about 7 miles apart. The 
summit of the Great Ararat liee in lat. 39° 42' N., Ion. 44° 
32' E., and is 17,090 feet (or 18,910 feet, according to 
another determination) above the sea-level and about 
14,200 feet above the plain of the Aras. The NE. slope of 
tbe mountain is about 14 miles in length, and the SW. slope 
about 20 miles. On the farmer, visible even from Erivan, 
32 miles distant, is a deep, crater-like chasm. The moun- 
tain is covered with perpetual snow for al>out 4500 feet of 
its upper height, but it would seem to carry no glaeien, 
although these had at one time been reported. There are 
no large forest trees on Ararat, but the lighter vegetation 
continues to alwnt 11,000 feet, beyond which I>egin8 the 
pasture tract (to about 13,000 feet), followed by the strietly 
Alpine flora. LiUle Ararat rises 13,100 (or 12,840?) feet 
above the sea-level, and is tna from snow in September and 
October. Its declivities are greater and steeper than those 
of the Oreat Ararat, and its almost conical form is marked 
with furrows, that radiate downward ftom its summit. 
Ararat is one of the Asiatic mountains that are associated 
with the tradition of Noah's ark. The top of Oreat Ararat 
was flrst reached in 1829 by Parrot. 

Ararat, a small river of North Carolina, which enters 
Tadkin River firom the NW., a few miles E. of Rookford. 
Ararat, N.C. See Pilot Modntaiii. 

Ararat, a post-village of Choctaw co., Ala. Pop. about 

Digitized by 






Aramt (Ioo»l pron. t-r%-nt'), » poKt-hamlat of Arsnt 
tcwDship, 8a«que&anna oo., Pa., on the Brio R., 18 miles 
N. of Carbondale. Pop. of the townahip in 1900, t&O. 

Ararat, a poet-station of Patriok eo., Va., 40 miles 
BSK. of Max Meadows. 

Ararat, a mining town of Ripon oo., Victoria, Aus- 
tralia, on the rirer Hopkins. Pop. in 1000, 4084. 

Arary, &-ri'ree, a riTer-port of Braxil, in tlia etate of 
Ifaranhio, and on the Rio Qr^Jahu, aboat 30 uUm 8W. of 

Aras, Vr&s' (ano. Araxtt, a-rax'ix), a riter of Armenia, 
rises in the Turkish vilayet of Bnerum, near lat. 30° SO' 
N. and Ion. 41° 30' B., flows eastward through Rnssiaa 
Armenia, then forms the boundary l>etw«en TransoMuiMia 
and Persia, and, after passing the 48th meridian, divides 
into two arms, one emptying direet into the Casptan Bea 
(Kisilagatoh Bay), the other joining the Kiir. Until re- 
cently the Aras disoharged all its waters into the Knr. 
Total course, upward of 500 miles ; very rapid, but often 
fordable. Chief affluents, the Arpa-Tehai and Karsr^n. 

Aratch, &-ritoh', a town of Asia Minor, in the vilayet 
of K^stamnni. Pop. about 13,000 (?). 

Aratioa, l-ri-tee'kjl, one of the Society Island*, in the 
Paoifio Ocean. It is 8 miles in length by 5 miles aeroa*. 

Aranca, i-rSw'ki, a town of the United States of 
Colombia, in the Intendtnoia of Casaoare, and on the Rio 
Arauoa, a tributary of the Orinooo, on the border of Vene- 
inela. It has a large trade. Pop. about 4000. 

Arancaaia, i-raw-kt'ne-f, or Arancana (8p. pron. 
i-r8w-k&'nl), the name of a former recion of Chile, B. of the 
river BioMo, and now mainly oompiued in the provinces 
of Araaoo and Valdivia (lying between the Andes and the 
Pacific Ooean). The distinctive inhabitants of this region, 
the Arauoanians, are war-like, but humane towards the 
vanquished, besides beiiw courteous and hospitable. Th^y 
are enthusiastic lovers or lilMrty and midntaiAed the iade- 
pendenoe of their country for centuries by their indomitable 
oonra|;e and singular apdtode for war, but tliey have mostly 
submitted to the Chilean authority, and their numbers are 
much reducM (about 60,000). They are good agrieultnrists 
and devote much attention to stock-breeding. Polygamy 
obtains among them. They acknowledge a Supreme Being, 
whom they believe to l>e attended by some inferior deities. 
They believe also in the immortality of the soul, A French 
adventurer by the name of Tonnene proclaimed himself 
king of Araucania and Patagonia in 1801, under the title 
of Orilie Antoine I., and sought to maintain himself by 
arms against die Chileans. He died in Franoe in 1878. 

Araoco, JUrSw'ko, a provinoe of Chile, comprising 
much of the region that was formerly known as Araacania. 
Area, 4248 sq. m. Pop. in 1895, 59,237. Capital, Aranco. 

Aranco, a town of Chile, capital of the almve province, 
on the Bay of Arauco, 230 miles S. by W. of Valparaiso. 
Pop. 3008. 

Aranles, IVOl', a village of France, in Haute-Iioire, 7 
miles S. of Yssingeauz. 

Aranre, i-r5w'r&, a city of Venesnela, in the state of 
Zamora, on an affluent of the Portngnesa, 70 miles ENB. of 
Tngillo. It contains a handsome square and church, and 
is in a well-watered, fertile district, which yields cotton 
and coffee and pastures numerous herds of cattle. Pop. 
about 4000. 

Aranrls, an ancient name of the river HinACLT. 

Aransio, the ancient name of OnAiraB, France. 

AraTQlli (arVvnl'lee) IKonntains, a low range of 
mountains which traverse the territory of Ajmere from 
6SW. to NNE. 

Arawaa, EI«Arawan,M i-ri-wln', or Al-Aman, 
U &-roo-w&ii% a town of Sahara, 125 miles N. of Timbuktu. 
Lat. 18° 56' N. ; Ion. 3° W. It is an important trading mart. 

Araxas, l-r&'shls, a town of Brasil, state of Hinas- 
Qeraes, on the Rio das Velhas. It lies W. of the Matto 
Sordo mountains. 

Arazes, a river of Armenia. See Abas. 

Araxes, a river of Persia. See BuKDBMtit. 

Araya, JUril/yi, a peninsula of the N. shore of Vene- 
snela, state of Bermudet, lying N. of the Gulf of Cariaco. 
It has extensive deposits of sut. The western extremity 
Is known as Punta Araya. 

Ararat, l-ri'it, spneblo of Pampanga province, Luton, 
Philippines, on the Pampanga River, 14 miles NB. by N. 
of Baoolor. Pop. 12,900.— Mount Arayat is to the N. 

Arba, an^bi , or L'Arba, lan'bi', a village of Algeria, 
12 miles SSE. of Algiers. 

ArMia, a post-vUlage of Randolph eo., Ind., 13 miles 
N. of Richmond. 

Arbe, aR'bi, or Rab, ril>, an island in the Adriatic, 
6alf of Qaamero, forming part of Dalmatia, 11^ miles in 
length. The little town of Arbe, on the SW. side of the 
island, picturesquely situated on an eminence, was a floui^ 

ishing plaoe nnder the Venetians in the Middle Ages, and 
its cathedral and the mine of a basilica attest its framer 
importsBce. The Idand contains abont 4600 Blavie inhab- 

Arbeca, ar-bl'k&, a village of Spain, in Catalonia, U 
miles SSE. of Lirida. Pop. (oommnne) 3000. 

Arbe4o, ir-bi'do, a village of the canton of Tioino, 
Swltaerland, dhiee to Bdliniona. 

Arbela, the ahcient name of Akbil. 

Arbe'la, or Arabe'Ia, a poat-village of Tuscola oo., 
Mich., about 20 miles SB. of Bast Saginaw. Pop. in lOOO, 

Arbela, a post-town of Sootlaad eo.. Mo., on the Keo- 
kuk and Western R., 8 miles SE. of Memphis. Pop. in 
1900, 160. 

Arb«la of Galilee, in Palestine, identilled by Robin- 
son with Irbid (Arab. Irbil), is on the W. side of the Lak« 
of IHberias, H miles VW. of Tiberias. 

Ar'ber, a mountain of Lower Bavaria, the cnlminaUoK 
point of tne BShmerwald (Bohemian Forest). Height, 
4780 feet. The Little Arber, 1} mUee distant, has a height 
of 4530 feet. 

Arbil, ar-beel', or Erbil, er-beel' (ano. ArUfIa), » 
walled town of Asiatic Turkey, 40 miles B. by 8. <rf Mosal. 
Pop. abont 4000. It has some large mosques, baths, and 
basaars. Here Alexander the Oreat obtained his final vic- 
tory over Darius, 331 >.c. 

Arboga, iB-Wgi, a town of Sweden, 80 miles SW. of 
Vesteris. It has an active trade with Stockholm by the 
Arboga River and MSIar Lake. Arboga rasa to great im- 
portance in the Middle Ages. One of its churehes contains 
an altar-pieoe by Rembrandt Pop. in 1901, 6260. 

Arbo!«, an^bwi', atown of France, department of Jora, 
on the Cnisance, 8 miles NB. of Poligny. It is noted finr 
the wine prodnoed in its vicinity. Pop. (commune) 4000. 

ArlM>leas„an-bo-li'ta, a town of Spain, 41 mile* NNB. 
of Almerfa. Pop, (oommnne) 2600. 

Arboletei, an-bo-li't^ a seaport town of Colombia, on 
the Oulf of Darien. 

Arbon, an'bAn^ (L. Ar'bor /VUz), a town of Switser- 
land, canton of Thnrgan, 16 miles SB. of Coastanee, on 
Lake Constance. Pop. of the oommnne, abont 3000. 

Arbor, a poet-hamlet of Cape GKrardean oo.. Mo., 19 
mUes by rail SW. of Cape Girardeau. 

Arbor, a post-hamlet of York oo.. Pa. 

Arbonlill, a poet-hamlet of Ad^r oo., Iowa, on 
Middle River, about 46 miles W8W. of Des Moines. 

Alborhili, a post-hamlet of Augusta oo., Va,, &i milea 
from Staunton. 

ArbOTTille, a post-village of York oo., Neb., on the 
North Blue River, 14 miles S. of Clarksville Station. Pop. 

ArborritB, a post-viUage of Vila* eo., Wi*., 7 mile* by 
r^ NB. of Minoeqna, it* banking point. It ha* lumbering 

Arb6«, an-boee', a town of Spain, 22 miles NB. of Ter- 
ragona. Pop. (oommnne) 2000. 

Arbroatli, ar-brSth', formerly Ab'erbrotb^ock, » 
seaport, royal burgh, and manufacturing town of Soot- 
land, eo. of Forfar, at the mouth of the Brothoek, whence 
the name of the town, — the prefix Aber (Gaelic) desig- 
nating the month of a river, or its point of Junction with 
the sea. Lat. 56° 33' 7" N. ; Ion. 2'' 35' W. It is 16 miles 
NB. of Dundee. The houses are generally well built, and 
the whole town has a prosperous appearanoe. The mann- 
faotnree comprise yam spun ft-om ilax and hemp, canvas, 
brown and meaohed linen, boots, etc. An important mo- 
nastic institution was planted here in 1178 by William tho 
Lion, ruins of which still remain. With M(mtrose, etc., 
Arbroath returns 1 member to parliament. Pop. (with 
suburbs) in ISOl, 22,372. 

/ ■ ■ 


Arbncias, ar-boo'the-fts, a commune of Spain, in Cata.- 
lonia, 9 miles SW. of Santa Coloma de nmes. Pop. 3600. 

Ar'backle, a banking paet-villwre of Oolnsa oo., Oal., 
on the Southern Pacific R,, 37 miles N, of DavisviUe. Pop. 
in 1900, 375. 

Arbackle, a poet-village of Erie oo., Pa. Pop. 80. 

Arbackle, a post-hamlet of Mason co., W.Va., on the 
Kanawha River, 14 miles BSB. of Point Pleasant. 

Arbna, an'booce, a village in the island of Sardinia, 30 
miles NW. of Cagliari. Pop. about 4600 (commune, 6600), 
employed in a4)acent silver- and lead-mines. 

Arc, ank, a river of France, in Savoy, joins the Isira 
after a NW. course of 90 miles. 

Arc, a river of France, in Boaehee-du-RhAne, enters the 
Etang de Berre after a W. course of about 30 miles. 

Arcacbon, aR^kl^shin*', a town of France, department 
of Gironde, S6 miles by rail SW. of Bordeaux, on the Bassin 

Arbroth, a poet-village of West Baton Rouge parish, 
I., 16 milas N. of Port Allen. Pop. about 150l 

Digitized by 





4'An>di0D. It is Ml •zseedinclypopaiMriaiiunar bathing 
pliM, baing firequented uunaUy »t orer 100,000 riiiton, 
M well ■■ » Tintar-rwort for iDralidi. It has ahumfaig 
rilka. Aranum iriater tampantun, 48°. Argsohon haa 
• ktga ftaun uhing-Seet, export* nsval itoraa, »ai U re- 
■owMd for its aztouiTe oyiter-beds. Pop. in 1901. TUO. 
Areade, a banking post-Tillage of WTomingoo:, N.T., 
OB Oattarancns Creek, in Areade township (town), on the 
PoasylTanU and tlie BnltakL Attlea and Aroade Bs., 39 
lailas SB. of BnflSOo. Pop. in 1000, 887; of the toiwn, 


Areade, the fonner name of Abkdalb, Adams oo., Wis. 

Ateadia, ar-k&'de.« (modem Or. ArktuUa, as-ki- 
dee*!), a oonntry of aneiant Oreeee, in the eantre of tlie 
Peloponnesos, forming a nome of the modem Qreek king- 
dom, dlrided into the enarehies of Hantinea, Cynnria, 
Mejpdimolis, and Oortjmia. TIm district is monntalnons 
and aSords axeeilent pastnrace. Area, 3038 sq. m. Pop. 
in 180S, IS7,0«3. Oniltal, Ti&oUtsa. 

Aiea'diat a post-rillage of Los Angeles oo., Cat Pop. 
■boat 100., 

Arcadia, a banking post-town, eapital of De Soto oo., 
Ha., on the Vlorida ^thera B., 38 milea N. of Pnnta 
Qorda. The making of orange-wine and eztansiTO phoa- 
phate-mining are earried on here. Pop. in 1900, 799. 

Arcadia, a post-village of Liberty oo., Oa. Pop. 

Arcadia, a pott-hamlet of Morgan oo., HL, aboat 33 
■ilas W. of Springfield. 

Arcadia, a banking post-Tillage of Hamilton oo., Ind., 
OB the Lake Srie and Western R., 31 miles N. hj B. of In- 
dianapolis. It has a eanning-faotoiT, briok-works, gfata 
maaidutares, etc. Pop. in 1890, «70 ; in 1900, 1413. 

Arcadia, a banking post-town of Otrrell ao., Iowa, on 
the Caiieago and Northwestern R., 43 milss W. of Orand 
Jnnetion. Haoh grain is shipped here. Pop. in 1900, 406. 

Arcadia, a iMmking city a Crawford oo., Kaa., on the 
itansas City, Fort Seott and Memphis R.,' 17 miles S. by 
B. tt Fort Soott. Ptm. in 1900, &S8. 

Arcadia, a banking post-town, eapital of BienTille 
pariah. La., in an agrioutnral and eotton-growiag seetion, 
47 miles W. of Monroe. It is on the (laean and Cresoent 
K. P^. in 1900, 934. 

Arcadia, a post-Tillage of Manistee oo., Mioh. Pop. 

Arcadia, a post-TiUage and snmmer-resort of Iron oo.. 
Mo., on the St. Loois, Iron Monntain and Southem R., 89 
miles 8. br W. of St. Louis. Pop. in 1900, 305. 

Arcadia, a banking post-TiBage of Valley oo., Neb., 
on the Barlington and Missouri Hirer R., IS miles NW. of 
Loop. Pop. In 1900, 374. 

AreadBt, a post-Tillage of Wayna eo., N.T., oa the 
Brie Canal, about 30 miles WS. of Soehestw. The town- 
diip (town) is intarseoted by the New York Central and 
Hudson RiTor R. Pop. of the town in 1900, 704S. 

Arcadia, a poet-station of Daridsni eo., N.C. 

Arcadia, a_pos».Tillage of Haaoook oo., Ohio, on the 
Lake Erie and Westorn R., 10 miles NB. of Findlay. Il> 
banking point is Fostoria. Pop. in 1900, 4S». 

Arcadia, a banking past-TUlage of OUahoma eo., Okla. 

Arcadia, a post-Tillage of Washington oo., B.I., about 
37 miles 8SW. of Pioridanoa and 3 miles from Hope Valloy. 

Arcadia, a ^ost-hamlet of Oalreston so., Tez. 

Arcadia, a post-village of Mason oo., Wash., on an 
ana or inM of Puget Sound, 10 milss N. of Olympia. It 
has some ship-building. 

Arca di a, a banking post-village of Areadia township 
(town), Tranpealean oo., Wis., on the Trempealaau Rirer 
and on the Green Bay and Western B., 36 miles NW. of 
I« Ooasa. It has flouring-miUs, breweries, eto. Pop. in 
1900, 1373 ; of the town, 3M1. 

Arcadia, a Tillage of Tarmonth eo., Nora Scotia, on 
the sea s hores 3 miles Arom Tarmonth, its banking point. 
It eontidas saTerai mills aad faotoriet. 

Areadia, Gulf of, oa the W. ooast of the Moraa, 
flreee^ It is shallow, aad has Cape Kataeolo on the N. 
tad Cape Konallo on the 6., distant ftom eaoh other 36 

Arcadiaa, a poat-Tlllage of Houghton oo., Mioh. Pop. 
about 100. 

Arcaliaie, in Haiti. See AacHABAn. 

Arcaaa, ar-ki'a^, a pott-hamlet of Orant oo., Ind., 
tboot 46 milsi SSW. of Fort Wayne. 

Arca'nnai, a banking poet-rillage of Darke eo., Ohio, 
«n the CleTolaad, (Snrinnati, Chiea^ and St. Louis and 
the Dayton and Union Bs., 26 miles NW. of Da^n. It 
hat mannfartoritt of sash and doors, wagons, furniture, etc. 
Pw. in 1900, U36. 

Area*, aa'kts, an island of Seaegarabia, at the month 
ef the Bio Orande. 

Areata, ar-kt'ta, a banking post-Tillage of Humboldt 
eo., CaL, oa Uie N. end of HumMdt Bay, about 330 milet 
fhnn San Fraaoisoo and 8 miles NB. of Eareka, on the 
Bureka and Klamath RlTor and the Areata and Btad RiTor 
Rs. It has luml>er-mills. ^dwood timber aixinnds here. 
Steamboats ply between Aroata and San Frmnoisoo. Pop. 
in 1900, 963. 

Aree, aa'dii, a town of Italy, proTinoe of Oaserta, 10) 
miles SSW. of Bora. Pop. 3000 (oommune, 7500). 

Arc-ea-Barroi(, aak-AHMMta'awl', a village of 
Franoe, in Haute-Mame, 13 milet SW. of Chaumont. 

Aroene, aa-ohl'nl, a Tillage of ItalyJ prorinoe of Ber- 
gamo, in a fertile dlstrlot. Pva. 1500. 

Arc-et-Senana, aRk-i-t«h<n6a>', a Tillage of Franoe, 
department of Donb^ 9 miles from Quingey. It has im- 
portant salt-works. 

AreCTia, ar-«hi'Te-i, a town of Italy, 40 milet W. of 
Anoona. Pop. about 1500 (ooAimnn<L 10,000). 

Archahaie, an inferior port and eommnne of Haiti, 
about 18 miles NW. of Port»«n-Prinoe. Pop. about 16,000. 

Archaig, Ii*cll, Iok ar-kaig", abeantiAil lake of Seot- 
laad, 00. of InTemest, 1 mile W. of Looh Loohy. Length, 
about 17 miles. 

Arekangel, ark-4n'J«l (Bass. pron. laK-tng'ghSl), or 
ArkhaagheUk, iaK-lng'ghtlsk, a goTemment of Bos- 
tia ia Bnrope, extending from the UnJ Monataiat oa the 
B. to nalaad on the W., a distanoe of about 900 miles, and 
tnta Vologda and Olonets on the 6. to the Arotio Ooean, 
about 400 miles. Area, about 331,600 sq. m. Pop. in 1897, 
347,609. It inolades part of Karelia and of Bnssian Lap- 
land, alto the itlandt of NoTa Zambia. The White Sea oo- 
eupies a large space ia its oentre. The principal rirert, 
ttom W. to bT, are the Onega, DTina, Maten, and Petchora. 
The prorince is, for the most part, one contianons flat, and 
nearly an uuTaried scene of desolation and sterility la the 
northern parts, whsre the ground remains troten for nine 
months in the year. Nor are the southern portions erery- 
where much more inTiUng. Here meagre pastures, marshes, 
swamps, and extensiTO forettt ooonpy nearly all the surface, 
leaTing but little for enltiTation. Almost the only eropt 
raised are hemp, flax, potatoes, and some rye, neither the 
olimate nor the soil admitting of the enltiTation of oats or 
wheat. The olimate Is exoessively eold in winter and hot 
in summer, with sadden transitions between tbe two ex- 
tremes. Fithiiig and the hunting of tar-bearing aninmis, 
of whieh a great variety abound on land and sea, are the 
chief occupations of the inhabitants. Tbe timber contti- 
tutes a great sonroe of prospective wealth. The great mass 
of the population is Russun. The remainder is mainly 
eomposed of Samoyeds (in the E.), Laps, and Karelians (in 
the W.). Capital, Arehangel. 

Archangel, a town of Russia in Bnrope, capital of the 
government of the same name, on the Dvina,' about 36 
miles trota its emboaohnre in tlia Bay of Arohaagel and 670 
mUes NB. of St. Petersburg. Lat. ii' ZV N. ; loa. 40° 43' 
B. It ia the only iarce seaport on the N. ooast of the whole 
Russian Bmpire ana is the most northerly point in the 
railway systwn of Bnrope. The houses ara n.oMy of wood 
aad two stories in height. The town has nnmeroas chnrehes, 
among them two Anglican ehnrobes, an interesting bataar 
or mart, a sehool of naTication, ship-yards, and extensive 
rope-walks. The harbor Is nsnally nree from ice only from 
July to September. The exports consist principally of lin- 
seed, flax, tow, tallow, train oil, bass matting, prOTisions, 
feathers, oil-cake, grain, deals, battens aad aids, pitch and 
tar. Ardiangel Was founded in 1684, and was long the 
oalT port in Russia. Pop. in 1897, 20,933. 

Archangel Bay, in Russia, opens to the White Sea, 
havinr Cape Keretskoi on tbe NB. and Cape Onega on the 
SW., distant from each other 86 miles. It penetrates in- 
land about 65 miles. 

Arehangelsk, Russia. See ABCBAHoai.. 

Archbaid, aroh'bUd, a post-borough of Lackawanna 
CO., Pa., in the Lackawanna Valley, and on the Delaware 
and Hudson R., 10 miles NE. of Scranton. It has exten- 
sItc ooal-breakers. Tbe banking point is Jermyn. Near 
here are rich mines of anthracite. Pop. in 1900, 6396. 

Arohbold, aroh'bSld, a bankinv poet-village of Fulton 
CO., Ohio, on the Lake Shore and Miohigan Anthem R., 
40 miles W. by S. of Toledo. Pop. in 1900, 958. 

Arch'dale, a post-town of Randolph ao., N.C, near 
Trinity College Stetion. Pop. in 1900, 183. 

Archena, aii-ohi'n&, a town of Spain, 14 miles NW. of 
Muroia, with extensive warm baths. Pop. in 1900, 4690. 

Ar'cher, a county in tbe N. part of Texas, drained by 
the Little Wichita and its branches. Tbe surface is largely 
prairie and well adapted to grazing. Cotton and wheat 
are grown extensively. Copper-ore u found in some parts, 
dapital. Archer City. Area, 960 sq. m. Pop. in 1890, 
2101 ; in 1900, 2508. 

Digitized by 





Archer, a, post-rillaga of Alacho* oo., Fla., on the nil- 
rowi which oonneots Femandiiu with Cedar Keys, 15 milea 
SW. of Ofunerrille. Pop. about 460. 

Archer, a poat-Tillaf^ of O'Brien CO., I«wa. Pop. about 

Archer, a poet-rillage of Merriok oo,, Keb. Pop. about 

Archer, a post'TiUage of Harrison co., Ohio, 8 miles 
NW. of Oadif. 

Archer, a poet-station of Laramie oo,, Vyo., on the 
Union Paeiflo B., 8 miles E. by N. of Cheyenne. 

Archer Citr« a post-town, capital of Archer eo., T«z., 
near the Little Wiohita Hirer, about 25 miles SW. of 
Wiebita Falli, its banking point. Pop. in 1800, 450. 

Archers Fork, a poet-hamlet of Washington oo., Ohio, 
20 miles B. by N. of Ibrietta. 

Arches, assh, a rillMe of France, in Vosgee, on the 
Uoeelle, 10 miles by rail SB. of Spinay. 

Archi, aR'kee, a commune of Italy, proriaoe of Ohieti, 
24 miles W. of Vasto. Pop. 3000. 

ArchMona, an-chenlo'nl, a town of Bpain, in Anda- 
lusia, 34 miles N. of Malaga, on a nigged and lirfty moun- 
tain. P<ro. (commune) in 1900, 8880. 

Archiaona, aR-ch».do'nl, a town of Ecuador, 120 milee 
ESB. of Quito. Pop. 2000. 

Ar'chie, a banking post-town of Casa co., Ifo., oft the 
Missouri Paoifie R., 34 miles S. of Kansas CSty. Pop. in 

Archigmy, an'sheen^ee', a village of France, depart- 
ment of Vienne, 12 miles SB. of Chfctelleranlt. Pop. 1900. 
It is the centre of a community descended from Acadian 
(Nora Sootian) refugees, and was founded in 1703. 

Archipelago, ar-ke-pel'^n>, a name deeignating a sea 
interspened with numerous islands ; applied more espe- 
cially to the JRam^K Sea (which see). 

Arch Spring, a post-rillage of Blair co., Pa., 2 miles 
from Cnion Furnace Station. 

Archndj, or Arlcndi, an-koo'doe, one of the smallest 
of the Ionian Islands, 4 miles STNE. of Ithaca. 

Ar^chnle'ta, a oountv in the SW. part of C<dorado. 
Area, 1209 sq. m. It is bounded on the E. by the Conti- 
nental Divide, and is drained by the San Juan, Piedra, 
Blanco, Nany£, and other rivers. The mineral resources 
include cosJ, silver, galena, and oil. It has extensive hot 
springs. Capital, Pagoea Springs. Pop. in 1900, 2117. 

Arcidosso, aB-ehe-dos'so, a town of Italy, province of 
Oresseto, 8 miles W. by N. of Badioofani. Pop. 2000 
(commune, about 8000). 

Arcisate, an-che-sa'ti, a village of Italy, in Como, 3 
miles NNE. of Varese, near Lake Lugano. 

Arcis*8ar>ABbe, aa'see'sUB-Sl^ a town of France, 
department of Anbe, on the Aube, IS miles N. by E. of 
Troyes. It is noted for an engaeonent between Napoleon 
and the Allies, March 30-21, 1814. Pop. about 2750. 

Arco, as'ko, a town of Austria-Hungary, Tyrol, 8 miles 
W. of Boveredo, on the Sana. Pop. about 4000. Its com- 
paratively mild winter climate^ due to its sheltered loca- 
tion, attracts invalids. 

Areola, aii'ko-l&, an ancient town of Italy, provinoe of 
Genoa, noted for its wines. Pop. 2000 (commune, 9000). 

Areola, ar-ko'lf, a post-village of Bullock co., Ga., 
abont 13 miles (direct) SB. of Statesboro. Pop. about 820. 

Areola, a banking city of Douglas co.. III., on the Illi- 
nois Central R., 35 miles BSB. of Decatur. It has mannfae- 
tures of brooms, eigars, oanriages, etc Pop. in 1900,1996. 

Areola, a pDst-vlllage of AUen eo., Ind., on the Pitta- 
burg, Fort Wayne and Chicago B., 8 miles NW. of Fort 
Watyne. Pop. about 260. 

Areola, a post-village of Tangipahoa parish. La., 4 
miles N. of Amito. Pop. 250. 

Areola, a post-village of Washington co., Miss., in a 
fertile farming region, on the Taioo and Mississippi Valley 
B., 71 miles N. of Vioksburg. Pop. about 176. 

Areola, a poet-village of Dade co., Mo., 35 miles SB. 
«f Nevada. 

Areola, a post-hamlet of Warren co., N.C., about 60 
miles NE. of Raleigh. 

Areola, a post-station of Montgomery co.. Pa., on the 
Perkiomen B., 3 miles N. of Perkiomen Junction. 

Areola, a post-station of Fort Bend co., Tex., 21 miles 
8. of Houston. 

Areola, a post-station of Loudoun oo., Va., abont 30 
milee W. of Washington, D.C. 

Areola, a post-namlet of Laramie eo., Wyo., 20 miles 
B. of Cheyenne. 

Areole, an'ko-li, a village of Italy, 16 miles BSB. of 
Verona, on an affluent of the Adige. Pop. abont 1264 
(commune, 3000). Areole is oelebrated for the Tiotoi7 
gained there by Napoleon over the Anstrians, Nov. 16-17, 

Arcona, ar-ko'n^ a hamlet of Jewell oo., Kan., 46 
miles 8. by W. of Edgar, Neb. 

Arconate, as-ko-ni'ti, a village of Italy, province of 
Milan, 11 miles NNW. of Abbiate^asso. Pop. about 1700. 

Arconsat, aB^k6ii«^sl', a village of France, in Pny-de- 
DOme, 9 miles £. of St. Remy. 

Arcore, an'ko-ri, a village of Italy, province of Mibn, 
4 miles NE. of Monsa. Pop. abont 1600. 

Areos de la Frontera, aaOioee d4 U fron-ti'ri, a 
town of Spain, in Andalusia, 30 milee NB. of Oadii, on sa 
elevated rock near the Onadalete. The addition de la 
Frontera ("of the frontier or limit") was derived ftrom its 
position on the old Moorish frontier. It was formerly 
strongly fortified. There are many old convents, and the 
principal church is a fine Oothic edifice. Near the town 
is the partially ruined castle of the dukes of Aroos. Chief 
manu&otures, leather (which is in high repute), caps, hstJi, 
esparto grass work, thread, and ropes. Arooe is ue Colo- 
nia Aroensium of the Romans. Pop. of the commune in 
1000, 13,926. 

Arcos de Valle dp Tez, aR'kooe d& vU'li do vex, a 
village of Portugal, 15 miles N. of Braga. 

Arcot, ar'oot' (North and South), two oontlgnoos mari- 
time districts of British India, presidency of Madras, com- 
prising the whole country trom Coleroon River on the S. to 
the frontier of the Nellore district on the N., and B. of 
Cuddapah, Mysore, and Salem, with the exception of the 
Chingleput district, lying round Madras. Pop. abont 
4,600,000. Surface, low near the sea; inland, hilly, with 
extensive jungles. Chief rivers, the Coleroon and Palar ; 
on the KB. ooast is the Pnlicat lake. Chief towns are 
Arcot, Vellore, and Cuddalore, Arcot was ceded in 1801 
to the Bast India Company. 

Arcot, or Ameati, l-roo-k&'tee, a city, ibrmerly the 
Mohammedan capital of the Camatio, on the Palar, 06 
miles W8W. of Madras. Lat. 12° 64' N. ; Ion. 79° S2' E. 
It figured in the struggle between the French and English 
in India, and was ceded to the East India Compaay in 
1801. The town is inhabited chiefly by Mohammedans. 
Pop, abont 11,000. 

Ares, lies, a village of France. See Les Arcs. 

Arctic, or Arctic City, a mining camp of Alaska, 
on the Koyukuk Bivar, and near the Arctic Circle and Ion. 
153° W. 

Arctic, a manufacturing village of Kent co., R,!,, on 
the New York, New Haven and Hartfbrd R., It miles SW. 
of Providenoe. It has a large ootton-factory. Pop. about 

Arctica, or the Arctic Regions, a name now fre- 
^ently iqiplied by geographers to all that portion of the 
earth's surface, land and water, that lies north of the 
Arctic Circle, and by a vague extension to partsVf the snb- 
arotic regions which in their conditions of climate and 
physiography partake of the character of the region lying 
to the north. Its land-masses comprise parts in Norway, 
Sweden, Russia, SilMria, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland, 
and the various diqointed lands and islands which form 
the Arotio Archipeluo of America, besides SpitxbeiKen, 
Nova Zembia, and Franx-Josef Land. The most north- 
erly pieoe at land in this tract so far known lies north of 
Oreenland, its position having been determined by Peary 
(1900) to be lat. 83° 30' N. (Cape Morris Jesnp). Whether 
or not other lands will be discovered to lie still nearer to 
the Pole is an inquiry which direct exploration alone can 
solve. There are, however, strong grounds for eonoluding, 
firom the evidence brought by Uie drift of the " Fram*' 
(the vessel of the Nansen expedition), the southwardly 
bearing current that was encountered by Parry and others 
north Iff Spitsbergen, and the unstable and shifting pack 
of the Lincoln Sea, that Ae m^or portion of the North 
Polar Sea is open, in the sense, at least, that the water 
movements are not extensively hindered by obstructing 
land-masses. An open Polar sea in the manner that it was 
conceived by Hayee — i.c, a sea almost wholly tn» of ice — 
does certainly not exist ; but recent rSsearcnes show that 
the sea is not so solidly or immovably froien as it ha4 JRU- 
aralW been thought to be. In its remarkable journey from 
the New Siberian Islands to Spitsbergen the " Fram" was 
carried to the extreme latitude of 85°^67', or to within 280 
miles of the Pole. This is much the highest point ever 
reached by vessel in the Arctic Sea. 

The disjointed land-masses of Aretiea are strictly conti- 
nental, since they are in the main merely disrupted parts 
of what was formerly, and even in a comparatively recent 
(Middle Tertiary) geological period, a united whole. The 
extinct floras and Dasaltic outflows of Greenland, Spits- 
bergen, Frani-Josef Land, etc., pMnly show this former 
eonneoUon. It would seem that at this period the Arc^e 
basin was completely closed off from the Atlantie, Just as 
at a probably much later period it was still closed on from 

Digitized by 





the Pidlie by the anion with Siberi* by what is to-d»y 
known as tha Prince of Wales or Seward Peninsula. The 
•rociaphio relations of the Arotio tract are still very imper- 
feedy known. The highest point of land appears to be 
some portion of the Greenland ioe-oap (0000-10,000 feet), 
as Petermann Peak, in the east of Greenland, fomerly 
thooght to exceed 10,000 feet, appears from the more recent 
measorements of Natborst to be not over 9000 feet, 

Mach of the r^ion of Arotioa is buried beneath a per- 
manent snow- or ice-cap, which attains its greatest devdop- 
ment in Greenland, there constituting the plateau, 7000- 
tOOfl feet in elevation, of the great " mland ice." This is 
much the largeet piece of continuous snow or ice on the 
globe outside of the Antarctic tracts, and levels, by its vast 
aoeomnlation, all the basal orographic features of the coon- 
tty. The valleys have been Bllea up to the summits of 
their boonding walls, and over these the depoait is still in 
most or many places sevo^l thousand feet deep. (See 
Grbcxlahd. ) From this vast ice-cap radiate off thousands 
of glaciers, a very \»xge number of which reach the sea, 
and there detach the fragments that float off as free-swim- 
odn^ ieebergs. The bergs of the North Atlantic are prac- 
tioaUy ail derived from this source. Many of the glaciers 
debonehe into the sea with a width of from 10 to 30 miles, 
notably those entering Melville Bay ; and one, the Hum- 
boldt Glacier, entering Kane Basin from the northwest of 
Greenland, has been said, although probably inoorrectly, to 
have a width of CO miles. Some of these travel with a 
vekmty of from 30 to 70 feet a day, a marked contrast to 
the sluggish movement of the Alpine glaciers. Icebergs 
are afanoet incredibly numerous off the foast of Greenland, 
and they not rarely attain a length of two or more miles, 
with a height above water of 200-SoO feet. They have been 
known to lie "stranded" on the bottom in water of 200 
£Uhom8 and more. The Arctic pack, or pack-ice, consists 
of vast fleMs, frequently many miles across, which are at 
times stable and united, at other times moving in the course 
of drift- and wind-currents. It is this great pack, with a 
thieknea* of from 10 to 2& feet — and where heaped up into 
honuaooks, of still greater development — which has hitherto 
been the chief banier set to Polar exploration. An effort 
made to force it, in ItOl, by means of the Bussian ice-breaker, 
the " Termak, '' under the direction of its designer, Admiral 
Makaroff, proved unsueeessful. 

The climate of Arctioa is marked by the extreme of 
winter cold, but the summer sun gives out a |jenial warmth, 
which permits of a rapid and even luxuriant vegetable 
growth in favored regions. During the months of July 
and Angttst, even aa far north as the 80th parallel, a shade 
temperature of 50°-M° is not infrequent, and in the low«r 
latitudes the mersury not rarely marks 80° and more. The 
Bassian traveller Ton Toll noted a July temperature of 93° 
on the borders of theAreticSea, in Siberia, in lat.73°N.; and 
it is claimed that an official thermometer marked 100°-103° 
on the Yukon River, in Alaska, at its crossing of the Arctic 
Ciide, near Fort Yukon. The extreme of winter cold over 
the oceanic tract is about — 72^, which was recorded by the 
expeditions of Kane and Harkham. The lowest tempera- 
tnrereeorded by Naoaen daring his k>ng traverse was — 68°. 
In the valler of the middle Yuon, both in Alaska and the 
Northwest Territoty of Canada, a tenperatnre of —76° has 
been noted; but this is still oonsiderably higher than the 
lowest rMistry at Verkhoyansk, in Siberia, just within the 
Aietie <^l«, of —94°, which is the lowest natural tem- 
pstBtore that has ever been recorded. At Yakutsk, also in 
the region of greatest cold of Siberia, but lying somewhat 
aMside of the Arctic Circle, a minimum ef —76° to —88° 
is afanoat annually reported. 

VtfttmiU Uf*. — ^No part of the AreUo regions, except 
where covered by perpetual snow or ice or in locally unfa- 
vorable position^ i* entirely destitute of vegetation. A 
lUrfy Inzuriaat lloia, with a beautiful display of flowers, is 
the eaverinK of the lowlands nearly to the furthest point 
that haa been attained by man. A carpet of poray, saxi- 
frage, erowfbot, mountain-innk, scurvy-grass, drabs, etc., 
b Ae ddight of the eye even on the line of the 82d parallel 
«f ktitnde, and with these in many places are to De seen 
eiaue of the dwarf birch and Arctic willow, treelets of 
hardfy lS-18 iaohas height. This flora is largely circnm- 
foUr, preaenting itself under nearly the same form in 
almost all the positions of high latitude. Forest trees 
extend in aoany psuts to the eSth and 70th parallels of 
latitade, and in Siberia (pines, laiehes) they follow the 
bottomland of the rivers, as along the Khatanga, to 72°, or 
dsse to 73°, the highest point north that is attained by 
trees. In the whole of Greenland there are no trees that 
exeeed SO feet in height, and this development is found 
eoh in a few isolated spots in the for south. In central 
snd aoithara Greenland the dwarf birch, willow, and alder 
take tike plaaa «f tbn foresL At Patut, Atanekerdlnk, 

eta., of the west coast, as also in various parts of the 
Arctic Archipelago, in Spitibergen, etc., remains of a vast 
extinct flora, representing pans of the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary periods, give evidence of a floral and climatic 
condition wholly different from what prevails to-day. 
There flourished here, under 70°, forests, or at least large 
copses, of poplar, sycamore, beech, alder, willow, laurel, 
ginko, oedar, and redwood (Sequoia), all indicating the 
former existence of a moderately high-growing m^etation 
in locations where hardly more than a minimum is found 
to-day. It is, however, not safe to conclusively argue from 
this a radical climatic change, since certain deciduous trees, 
even of good stature, extend in some parts to nearly lat. 
69°. MoConnell found the aspen forming part of the wood- 
land in the resion of the Northwest Territory of Canada, 
300 miles north of Dawson (or beyond lat. 68°). Hneh 
more conclusive evidence of climatic change is, however, 
famished by the fossil floral-beds (Tertiary) of Lady Frank- 
lin Bay, opposite Greenland, in lat. 81° 4A' — the meet north- 
erly coal deposits of the globe. 

Animal Lift, — There is every reason to believe that there 
is no part of the Arctic regions, except in such desolate 
snow-covered tracts as the interior of Greenland, where 
animal life in one form or another is not to be found. The 
waters almost everywhere teem with life, but the higher 
types exhibit a marked deficiency in specific and vanstal 
forms and an equally marked numerical decrease aa 
the higher latitudes are a{)proached. A small codfish 
( OoAut polaris) is perhaps the most distinctively Arotie 
type of fish. Birds are limited in species, but as indi- 
viduals they are exceedingly abundant in the rookeries or 
bird-rocks of Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Frana-Joarf 
Land, where the little-auks, dovekies, guillemots, fulmars, 
and kittiwakes congregate in tens of thousands. Sverdmp 
met with the skua as far north as lat. 86° and the snow- 
bunting in 84°, and Nansen expresses the belief that in sum- 
mer stragglingbirds may be found everywhere inside the 
P<dar basin. This observer met with fresh fox-tracks on 
the iee of the Polar Sea in lat. 86° and bear-tracks at about 
lat. 83°. Sevenl species of seal are very abundant in the 
Arctic waters, and at least one, the ringed seal {Pkoea it'*- 
pida), penetrates quite to the 66th parulel of latitude, shar- 
ing company there with the narwhal, or sea-unioom, among 
cetaceans. Whales have been met with beyond the SSd 
parallel of latitude. One of the most distinctive of the 
Arctic quadrupeds is the walrus, which in some parts, as in 
Kane Basin and the waters generally of northwest Green- 
land, is still abundant along the edge of the ice. The rein- 
dew, which in the same species occupies the north of both 
hemispheres, is both an Arctic and subarctic animal, dif- 
fering in this respect ttota the musk-ox, whose habitat is 
distinctly the far north. The disoovery of this animal by 
Peary in the land of northern Greenland lying beyond the 
ioe-cap, subsisting on the scant vegetation which comes 
to the surface only in the summer-tune, and of tracks of 
the same animal near Cape Morris Jesup, beyond 83° 30', 
adds a most interesting page to the subject of soiigeog- 

Arctic Ptople. — The lower parts of the Arctic tract are 
inhabited l>y various peoples, such as the Lapps of Norway, 
the Samoyeds, Yakuts, Tchuktchis, and Tunguses of Russia 
and Sibena, and various tril>es of Indians in Alaska. The 
Eskimos, whose range extends, althongh discontinuously, 
fhnn Alaska to Greenland, witn some outlying colonies in 
the NB. of Siberia, are pre-eminently the true Polar people, 
being found inhabiting Greenland to and beyond the 78tn 
parallel of latitude (Sonntag Bay). Remains of earlier 
habitation of these people have been found by explorers 
in the land opposite Greenland (Grinnell Land) almost as 
far north as lat. 82°. 

The following is a brief record of the progress of Arctic 
discovery : 

Voyage of discovery by Bareotx, Ut6-t7. 

Henry BudMin, 1607, attalning80° W. 

Score*;, I80«, east of OreenUnd, 81° 30'. 

Parry, 1827, nonh of Bpltsbergen, 82° 4^. 

John Boa, 1829-93, locatloa of the North Hsgnetie Pole, TQO f, 

determlnad by Jamas Olark Boas (1831). 
FiankUn, 184S-i7, In quest of the Northwest Faange. 
HcClure and HcCUntcck, 18(0-64, making of the Northwest 

Kane, 1862-66, search after Sir John rianklin. 
HavM, 1860, exploration of the north Oteenland watera 
Hall, 1870-73, expedition of the "Polaris," «Hf> W. 
Weyprscht and Payer, 1874-74, dlscoveiy of Fmns-JoseriMid. 
Narei, 1876-78, expedltioo of the "Alert" and "DIsooveiJ," 

83° 20' (pcdtton reached by Commander Harkham). 
NoideuddSId, 1878-79, making of the Northeast PaasHie. 
De Long, 1879-81, expedition of flie " Jeannette." 
Oredy, 1881-84, exploiaUon of Gilnnell Land and tha north 

of Oieenhmd, 83° 2f (podtlon attained by Lcekwood and 


Digitized by 


Arotlo Hlgh1ftTi<!w 



PM17, IWI-M, DOrthen anenlud, 81<>37' ; IRM-M, iMra«n 
Onraluid, n<>3T'; IStS-ltOO, laodf twjond the noitfa at 
OnoiUiid, 830 (ty ; 1101-01, «xpiocatioD of the Antic 8w 
H. of Otmnt Lud, »«<> IT'. 

MuuaD, 1893-M,ezp«lltlOBortlM "rnm," 189S, 8e°4'. 

Jukson, l8Si-S7, exploikUon of I'miz-Joaef Lknd. 

Iiooli, P1I11C6 of 8BT07 Slid Duke of the Abnuxl, 18M>-igOO, 
notth «r Tnnz-Jonf I«nd, 86° lOf (poiitioii attained br Cap- 
tain Gagni, the "tkrtheet north" up to the preeent time). 

BTerdrns, 1898-1901, ezplomtion of the region weet of KHeemar* 
I«Dd. ^ 

For the ohanoterlstioi of th« Aretlo vat«n, ne Abotio 

Arctic Highland*) a region situated on the NB. 
aide of Baffin Bay, on the W. ooact of Oreenluid (at the 
weetem termination of HelriUe Bay), diaoovered in 1818 
by Captun Rom, who gave It the name it now bears. The 
coast trends SE. and NW., is ioe-boond, and it is only 
about the base* of the roolu, chiefly granite and gneiss, 
close by the sea, that a stunted and scanty vegetation is to 
be seen. It is inhabited, especially atwut Cape Torli, by 
the.Aretie Highlanders, about 00-100 pnre Eskimos (Green- 

Arctic Ocean (named from Or. ilre'tos, 'Apxrot, the 
"Bear," the oonstellation of which is prindpally inelnded 
within the oelestial Arctic Circle), the expanse of water 
that surrounds the North Pole and is inolnded within the 
Arctic CSrole. It is a oontinoation of the Atlantie Ooean, 
with the main body of which it is connected by a wide sea 
between dreenlandsnd Norway. It oommunioates with the 
Paeiflo Ooean throiwh Bering Strait, and wasbea the north- 
em shores of Aaia, Europe, and North America. The Aro- 
tio Ooean, like the Antarctic, is essentially an ice-strewn 
sea, vast noes of ice. Innumerable icebergs (the prodiwt of 
huge glaciers descending into the sea), and united " paek- 
ioe ' oovering or occupying a very large part of its extent. 
Many of the l>ergs, espMially those of Melville Bay, off 
the NW. coast of Qreenland,. are of gigantic sise, meaa- 
nring S~S miles in length and rising 260-300 feet out of the 
water. Some of these appear to m grounded in water of 
SIIO-300 Mhoms. All the bergs of the North Atlantic are 
products of the glaciers of GrMnland. Perm&nMit or drift 
currents, whose p h as e s have not yet been ftally determined, 
tend to driftages of the ice, which in vast mosses, as north of 
Spitsbergen and at the northern entrance of Robeson Olian- 
nel, takes southerly course* and imping upon the land 
' in bummoeky swells and ridges. The drift of the " Fram," 
the vessel of Nansen's exploration, in 1804-96, would seem 
to establish (bat not pontively prove) the existence of a 
NW. current trending fh>m the New Siberian Islands to 
the region of the Pole. The paok-ioe, where massive, has 
a thickness ordinarily of 8-I0 feet. There appears to be 
no evidence supporting the theory of an "Open Polar 
Sea," but it is certain that the inconstant movements or 
driftages of the ice bring about open orees of water. The 
open water is fluently found extending as far north as 
lat. 79^ or 83° (north of SpiUbergen). Everywhere on its 
southern continental borders the Arctic Ooean is shallow, 
being occupied by the drowned continental plateaus which 
extend northward into it. The diagointed land-masses, 
snoh as the New Siberian Islands, Frani-Josef Land, 
Spitihergen, the islands of the American Arctie Archi- 
pelago, etc., are grounded on these subcontinental sfaal- 
lowL which have a depth of water generally of from 60 
to 200 fathoms. Northward the plateaus drop naidly into 
the Arctic deep, of 200O fathoms and more. Northeast- 
ward of Frani-Josef Land, in lat. 84° 30' N., there is a 
depth of 3020 iktlioma ; westward of Spitihergen, in what 
is known as the "Swedish Deep" (78° N.), a depth of 
3660 Csthoms (15,1)00 feet) has been obtained. Thetempera- 
ture of mnoh of the surface Arctic waters is between 29° 
and 33° ; over a large part of the Polar basin lying north 
of Eurasia, whieh receives much of the Gulf Stream drift, 
a temperature of 32°-34° is found at deptha of 100-400 
fitthoms. Animal life is very prolific in the Arctic waters, 
the lower forms being abundant as well in the deepest as in 
the surface lonee. Of the flahes the most typicaUy Arctic 
forms are the cod, species of ball-head, and the Polar 
shark. The mammalian life ia more largely developed 
than in any other part of the oeeanle waters, and inelndea 
whales, the narwhal, seala, apd walma. Most of these have 
been found as far north as the 86th parallel of latitude, 
and doubtless they exist still very much farther north. For 
farther characteristics of the Arctic waters see Abctica 
and Atlantic Ockah. 

Arcneil, as^kn'T, a village of France, department of 
Seine, 3 miles S. of Paris, in tae arrondissement of Soeanx, 
on the Biivre. It ia on the aite of the Areas Jalianua of 
the Romana, named after the Emperor Julian, who oon- 
struoted a large aqueduct over the valley of the Biivre. A 
splendid aqueduct to supply the gardens of the Luxem- 

bonrg WM bnilt here in the refgn of Looia XIII., and npoa 
this atmoture a new aqueduot was reared in 18ISB-73. 

ArcT-snr-Cnre, an^see'sliB kttn, a vUlue of Fronee, 
in Yonne, 14 miles SB. of Anxerre. It has funoiu stalato- 
titie eavenu. 

Ard, Loch, a imall lake of Perthshire^ Seotbod, on* 
of the sources of the river Forth. 

Arda« ir'di, a river of Tnrkev, discharging into the 
Maritia at Adrianople. Length, about 100 mllee. 

Ardabil, or Aldebil, an-de-beal', a fortified town of 
Persia, in Aierbayao, on the Kara-Su, 90 miles E. by 
N. of Tabrii. It was formerly one of the most flourishing 
towns in the kingdom. Pop. abont 10,000. 

Aldagh« asMiH, a village and pariah of Ireland, * 
miles SE. of Longford. It is a Catholic bishop's see. 

Ardahan, an-dl-Hlu', a fortified town of Roasiaa Ar- 
menia, on . the Eur, 46 miles NNW. of Kara. It was 
stormed by the Ruasians on May 17, 1877, and oeded to 
them by turkey in 1878. Pop. about 800. 

Ardales, an-di'lAa, a town of Spain, 30 miles NW. of 
Malaga. Pop. (commune) about SOOO. 

AMath, a post-village ofCoUin CO., Tex. Pop. about 70. 

AldatOT, oB-d&'tov, a town of Russia, govemmant of 
Simbirsk, on the Alotyr, 14 miles W. of the town of Alatjr. 
Pop. in 1897, 4838. 

ArdatOT, a town of Roaaia, government and 8 milos 
8V. of Niihni-Novgorod. Pop. In 1897, 8638. 

ArdchattaB* ard-Kat't%n, a diatrict of ArgvIlaUra, 
Sootlond, oonaisting of the united pariahes of Ardohattan 
and Huckaim. 

Ar'dea, an ancient town of Italy, 34 miles S. of Rome, 
and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It figures in Roman 
history as the traditional capital of the Rutuli. A small 
place of the some name stands on its site. 

ArdebU, a town <^ Penia. See Arbabil. 

Arddche, an'dalsh' or anMish', a river of France, tho 
largest stream in the department to whieh it gives its noma. 
Its sonroe ia among the Civennee ; and, after a coarse of 
about 60 miles, amid magnificent natural acenery, it fUla 
into the Rhone about a mile fh>m Pont-Saint-Esprit. In the 
lower part ia the fall of Ray-Pic, over 100 feet higli, and 
below hi the Bridge of Arc, a remarkable natural curiosity. 

AlddchCt a department in the SE. of France, between 
the departmenta of Loire, Isdre, DrOme, Vanoluse, Gard, 
Loiire, and Haute-Loire. Area, 2140 sq. m. The wholo 
department is of a mountainous, and largely of a volcanic, 
oharaoter. Several oratera still exhale mepltitto TOpon, 
and warm apringa ifaue ttom their aides. The streams era 
the Ardftche, the Erieux, and the Doux, belonging to the 
basin of the Rhone. The mineral products include iron, 
lead, and marble. The chestnut covers extensive tracts. In 
the S. both the fig and the olive thrite ; and the department 
abounds with mulberry-trees, which supply food for silk- 
worms. A large quantity of wine is produced. Cattle, 
sheep, goats, aaees, and mulee are lorge^ bred. Previoni 
to 1790 this territory formed a portion of Vivarais. Capi- 
Ul, Privas. Pop. in 1891, 371,209 ; in 1901, 3&3,6«4. 

ArVee' (Athtrdtt, "town on the Dee"), a town and 
parish of Ireland, co. of Louth, on the Dee, 12 miles NW. 
of Droghedo. Pop. of town, 2000. It has two old castles 
(one now the town-hall) and a ehuroh of the thirteentit 

Ardeican', a town of Persia, about 136 miles E. of 
Ispahan, in the province of Tesd. Pop. about 8000 (f ). 

Ardelan* ar-df-l&n', a district of Persia, in Kurdistan, 
forming a {Mut of the province of Irak-Ajemi. Chief 
towns. Sinna and Kermanshab. 

Ar'den, an ancient forest of England, beUered to Irnve 
covered at one time a large part of the midland and eastern 
counties. No vestiges of it remain, except in certain names. 

ArdcBi a post-village of Orange co., N.Y. Pop. 90. 

Arden, a post-town of Banoombe co., N.C., 11 milea 
by roil 8. of AsheviUe. Pop. in 1800, 137. 

A(deil« a post-village of Frontenao 00., Ontario, 40 
miles ftom Napanee. Pop. 200. 

Aldenat a post-village of Monmouth co., N.J. Pop. 
about 200. The banking point is Freehold. 

Ardennes (aRMin'), Forest of (anc. .<lr(fti«ii'iwi 
Sfil'va), a name formerly applied to a great system of 
heights and forests, embracing a part of Mlginm, parts of 
the Rhineland of Germany, and districts in Luxemburg 
and in France, and extending W. to the souroes of the 
Somme, the Oiae, the Scheldt, and the Sambre, and B. to 
the Moselle. The Ardennes of Caesar's time extendedto the 
Rhine and consisted of tea immense forest. At present the 
name is oonflned to the partially wooded heights which, 
extending NW. to SE. on each side of the Mense, descend 
between Sainte-Menehonid and Luxemburg, and are finally 
lost in the plaina of the ancient Champagne. The highest 
elevations are about 2200 feet. Shakeepeare's Forest of 

Digitized by 


Aiiar innn 



Ardtn (see Akdu, KnglHid) haa been heM by some to ba 
the Foreet of Ardoines. 

AldeMtes, » deputment in the NK. of Fnuioe, formed 
gf the N. part of the oM proTiaee of Cfa«np«gne aod a 
■Ball part <tf the provinoes of Pioardy and Franeh Flanden, 
bavinc on the N. and NE. Belgian Lnxerabotg and on 
the W., 8. and K the departmeata of Aime, Marn& and 
Meaae. Area, 2020 sq. m. It ii watered by the Menae, 
Aisaey Bar, and Aire. The snrfikoe rises to eonsiderable 
derations in the "forests" of Ardennes and Argonne. 
The olimato is generally oold and homid. The department 
eontuns iron-mines, slate- and marble-qoarriee, potter's 
elay, and sand. Abandaaoe of oom is raised in toe rioh 
Tallays. Capital, Hetiirea. Pop. in IMl, S15,68S. 

ArdesBO, an-din'no, a rillaga of Italy, in the ValteU 
Una, 12 miles W. of Sondrio. K>p. 700 (oommnne, 2000). 

Ardeates, as^diirt', a ▼ill*gs of Franoe, department 
of Indre, on the Indre, fl miles BE. of Chtteanronx. 

Ardeola, a post-Tillage of Stoddud eo., Mo. Pop. 
abont 100.' 

Ardes, asd, a Tillage of Fnnee, department of Pny-d»- 
]Mm& on the Coase, 10 miles 8W. of lasoire. 

AnteaiOf an-di'ze-o, an ancient Tillage of Italy, prov- 
iaee vi Bergamo. Pop. 800. It has marbl».c[namas. 

Ardestan, asMf-stis', or Atdlstaa, a town of Per- 
sia, 86 miles KB. of Ispahan. Pop. estimated at 10,000. 

Ardets, a Tillage of the Orisons. SwltiarUmd, 4 miles 
fiom Tarasp. Near it is the rain of Steinberg. Blevstion, 
48U feet. Pop. aboat 750. 

Aid Yert', a Tillace and parish of Ireland, in Monster, 
eo. of Kerry, 4 milee NW. of Tralee. Pop. about 260. 

AldAM'naa, a TiUare of Ireland, eo. of Tipperary, on 
the Soir, i\ miles SW. <^ Ckmmel. Pop. 600. 

Aldglass', a se^wrt town of Ireland, oo. of Down, on 
the Irish Sea, fl miles SB. of Dowopatriek. Pop. of town, 
aboot 7S*, chiefly engaged in fisheries. It once nad a cod- 
sidsrable eommerae. 

Aldistan. a town of Persia. See Axdmtah. 

Aldaiore', a Tillage and watering-place of WaterfMd, 
Irelaa^ S miles from Tonghal. 

Ald'more, a banking post-town of the Chickasaw Na- 
tbn, LT., on the Onlf, (^lorado and Santa F« B., 08 miles 
S. b^ B. of Fort Worth, Tex. It has ootton-oompresses, 
and in the Tieinity are eztensire coal-mines and asphalt 
dmsita. It is the seat of Hargrore College. Pop. in 1(00, 

Ardaiorct • post-Tillage of Maoon eo., Mo., on the 
HisBOori, Kansas and Texas R., 7 miles (direct) SW. of 
Maao^ its banking point. Pop. abont SOO. 

Ardasore, a banking residential poet-town of Mont- 
gomery eo.. Pa., on the PennsylTania R., 8 miles fh>m its 
ianniniis in Philadelphia. It has many fine rillas. Pop. 
U 1900, 2206. 

Aldaiore, a post-hamlet of Fall Kirer oo., S.Dak. 

Aid^aaglass' Bay, an inlet on the W. coast of Ire- 
kad, in Connasgfat, eo. of Sligo. It extends inland for 6 
milas and reeeiTes the Owealwg Birer, and at its head is 
the town of BallTsadare. 

Ardaamarchaa (ard-na-mfir'K%n) Point, a cape in 
Seotiaod, the westernmost point of the mainland of Britain. 
Ithasalicht-honse. Lat. 60° 43' 45" N. 

Aldocn, an'doK, a Tillage of Scotland, oo. of Perth, 4 
miles 8SW. of MntUU. It is noted for the remains of a 
Bnnaa camp. 

Ardoek, ■r'dok, a baoking peet-town of Walsh oo., 
H.Dsk., on the ereat Korthera B., 26 miles NNW. wT 
Stand Forks. Pop. in 1900, 288. 

Aidore, as-do'rl, a town of Italy, prerinee of R^gio 
di CaUiria, SW. of Oeraoe. Pop. 2000 (oommnne, 60W). 

Asdore, asNlwl', a market-town of Bdgium, prorinee 
of West Flandars, 18 miles SW. of Bruges. Pop. 0000. 

Al<dre*» aad'r, a town of France, department of Pas- 
- d»Calais, 10 miles by rail SB. of Calais. Pop. about 1260 
(eoaunnM, 3SM). Near this was held in 1520 the eele- 
hatad intarriew of the " Fidd of the Cloth of Odd," be- 
tween Henry VIII. and Francis I. 

ArdrialiaiK', a Tillage and port of Scotland, tn Arrjrll- 
ahire, on I«eh Qilp and the Crinan Canal, 19 miles ^W. 
<f Inrerary. Pop. abont 1600. 

ArdrossaB, ar-dros'san, a seaport and summer-resort 
of Scotland, oo. and IC miles NW. of Ayr, on the Firth of 
Oyde, a|qM«it« the Isle of Arraa. It is a fashionable 
batbing-plaee. Pop. of the police bundi in 1901, 6933. 

Aidaaey , an nriwo district of the West RidiiMof Tork- 
iUie, Sn^and, on the Deame, 2} miles fVom Bamsley. 
It has coal-mines. Pop. itt 1901, 6220. — Aim, an urban 
district of the West Biding of Torkshire, constituted by the 
rillagm Auin.Er Sast and Ardslit Wbst, 3 milee fVom 
Waktfeid. It has eo»I, iron, and woollen Indastries. Pop. 
ia Ml, 7477. 

Arda'ley, a poet-rillage and fashionable suborbaa re- 
sort of Westchester ce., N.T., on the New York Central and 
Hndson Hirer R., 1 mile from Dobbs Ferry. Pop. 400. 

Ald'atraWf'a parish of Ireland, in Ulster, oo. of Ty- 
rone, comprising the town of Newtown-Stewart and the 
Tillages of Ardstraw add Douglas Bridge. 

Anlaenna Sylra, the ancient name of Anounnn. 

Ard'wick, a former suburb of Manchester, England. 

Areas, i-ri'lsh, or Sfto Miguel das Areas, sSwip 
me-ghil' dish i-ri'ish, a town of Brasil, in the state of 
Sio Paulo, 110 miles NW. of Rio de Janeiro. 

AreciDo, i-ri-gee'ao, a seaport of Porto Rioo, in a dis- ' 
trict of the same name, and capital of the d^artment of 
Arecibo. It is on the Arecibo River near the sea, 40 miles 
by rut W. of San Joan. The roadstead ia expoeed to N, 
and NE. winds, and only small ressels can load hwe. It 
has a fine ohnroh and public buildings, plaia, regular 
streets, theatrcL jail, etc. Pop. in 1899, 8D08. It was much 
damaged by a hurricane in 1899. Arecibo department has 
a population of 160,000 ; area, 621 sq. m., of which 158 are 
onder caltiration. 

Areeibo River, or Rio Grande de Arecibo, 
a rirer of Porto Rico, rises in the central mountain-chain 
near Acynntas, flows N., receiring the Tanami Rirer from 
the left, and empties into the Atuutic N. of Arecibo. It 
is a narrow and shallow stream. 

Areoife, i-ri^ee'fl («.<., the " reef"), a seaport town 
of the Canaries, on the SB. coast of Laniarote. 

Ared, i'rfd, or Arid, sometimes designates a moun- 
tain-group or highland in the eastern part of Najd, Atsbia, 
but more &ec|uentl^ it is naed to designate a province in 
Nqd, containing Riad, the capital of that conntry. It has 
much fertile soil. 

Aredale, a post-hamlet of Bntler eo., Iowa. 

Areias, Arelate, or Arelatnm. See Ablm. 

Arena, l-r&'ni, a town of Italy, province of Paria, 18 
miles by rail NE. of Voghera. Pop. 1600 (commune, 3600). 

Arena, a post-riU^e of Delaware oo., N.Y., 3 miles 
SW. of Margaretrille, its banking point. Pop. 160. 

Arena, a post-riUage of Paulding oo., Ohio. Pop. 
abont 100. 

Arena, a banking post-rillage of Iowa co.. Wis., in 
Arena township (town), 1 mile 8. of the Wisoonsin Rirer, 
and on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul R., 29 miles 
W. of Madison. Pop. about 276 ; of the town in 1900, 1363. 

Ar^enac', a county in the E. part of Michigan, border- 
ing on Lake Huron and Saginaw Ba^. Area, 3U sq. m. It 
is drained by the Rifle Hirer. Capital, Standish. Pop. In 
1890, 6683 ; in 1900, 9821. 

Arenac, a post-rillage of Arenac oo,, Mich., on Sag- 
inaw Bay, 28 miles N. of Bay City. 

Arenal, l-ri-nll', a lake-port of Venetaela, in the state 
of Miranda. 

Arenas de San Pedro, i-ri'nis di sAn pl'dro, a 
Tillage of Spain^n Old Castile, 36 miles SW. of Avila. 

Arenberg-Bleppen, i'ren-biBO^ mip'pen, a former 
duchy, situated between Oldenburg and the Netherlands, 
now a part of the Prussian province of Hanover. 

Ar'endaU, a post-hamlet of Fillmore oo., Minn., abont 
22 miles SW. of Winona. 

Arendal, I'rf n-dU', a seaport town of Norway, 86 miles 
NB. of Christiansand, on the Skagerrak, at the month of 
the Nid-Elr. It is built on islands and rocks projecting 
into the commodioos haren formed within the ulaads of 
TromS and Hiserii. It is a busy trading and ship-building 
port. Near it are iron-mines. Pop. in 1900, 11,130. 

Arendonck, I'rfu-donk', a town of Bdgium, 29 mile* 
NB, of Antwerp. Pop. (commune) about 4000. 

Arendsee, &'rfnt-sA', a town of Prussian Saxony, 63 
miles N. of Magdebiirg, on a lake. Pop. 2000. 

ArendtSTille, tr'fnts-ril, a poet-borough (tf Adams eo., 
Pa^ 1\ miles NB. (rf Oettysbatv. Pop. in 1900, 393. 

Arenig, a mountain of Merionethshire, Wales, 6) 
miles W. of BaU. Altitude, 2809 feet. 

Arensbnrg, &'rfna-b6Slie\ a town of Russia, in Xiro- 
nia, on the 8. coast of the island of Osel, in the Gulf of 
Riga. It has an actire commerce and is a noted seaside 
resort. Pop. in 1897, 4621. 

Arenys de Mar, i-ri-nees' di mas, a seaport town of 
Spain, on the Mediterranean, in Catalonia, 25 miles NB. 
of Barcelona. Pop. of the commune, 4600. 

Arenys de Bfiint, i-ri-neee' di moont, a Tillage of 
Spain, a little N. of Arenys de Mar. It has warm spnnss. 

Arenzano, &-rin-ai'no, a Tillage of Italy, 15 miles by 
rail W. of Oenoa. Pop. about 2000 (commune, 4000). 

Ar'enzTille, a banking post-rillage of Cass oo.. 111., oB • 
the Chicago, Burlington and Qninoy R., 80 miles N. of 
Alton. Pop. in 1900, 462. 

Areqnina, l-ri-kee'p&, a department of Peru, extend- 
ing along the Pacific between about lat. 14° 30' and 18° 30' 

Digitized by 




Ararantine Bepabllo 

S. aad Ion. 71° and Tfi" W., having on the B. the do- 
partmont of Puno, and on the S. Hoquegna. Area, 27,744 
iq. m. Pop. in 18tM, 229.000. 

Areqnipa, a city of Pern, oa'pitol of the department of 
the same name, 420 miles SB. of Lima, and about 50 miles 
from the shores of the Paoifio. Lat. 16° 24' S. Bailwa^rs 
oonneot it with Hollendo, its port, and Puno, on Lake Titi- 
caoa. The oitj is a bishop's see. It is finely situated, 7640 
feet above the sea-level, on the plain of Qnifca, on the river 
Chile, whioh is here oroesed bv a handsome stone bridge. 
The volcano of Histf, on which was until recently posted 
the loftiest meteorological observatory in the world, rises 
.immediately above it. Areqoipa enjoys a delightful cli- 
mate, and is one of the besUbuilt towns of South America. 
Jt has an ornamented square, a cathedral, university, medi- 
oal school, nunneries, convents, etc. The houses and public 
edifices are all of stone, with thick walls and vaulted roofs, 
to resist the shocks of earthquakes, which are so destructive 
as to have laid the city in ruins on difierent occasions. The 
earthquake of Aug. 13-lS, 1868, was particularly destruc- 
tive. There are manufactures of woollen and cotton stuffs 
and gold and silver tissue, with an active and flourishing 
trade. In the vicinity are gold- and silver-mines, and the 
land around the town is fertile and well cultivated. Are- 
quipa was founde^ by Piiarro as the Villa Hermota. The 
Arequipa-Pdno railway is one of the most remarkable road 
contractions in the world, reaching a summit-level of 
14,460 feet. Pop. in 1901, about 35,000. 

Areqaipa« a moontain of Peru. See MisH. 

AreS) I'rb, a seaport of Spain, 9 miles NB. of Corunna, 
with ruins of extensive fortifioaUons. Pop. (commune) 

Ar^ethn'sa, a celebrated fountain of Sloily, in the city 
of Syracuse. It is close to the shore of the sea, a short dis- 
tance to the S. of the oathedral square. The water, de- 
scribed by the ancient writers as pure and sweet, is now 
salt from the sea having found access to it. 

Arettet I'r^tt', a village of France, department of Ba<- 
see-Pyr$n<es, II miles from Oloron. 

Ar^valo, i-rl'vi-lo, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, 28 
miles N. of Avila. Pop. (oommune) 3500. 

Areszo, i-rit'eo (ano. ilrrc'tttnn), a. city of Italy, in 
Tuscany, oapital of the province of Aresso, on the Chiana, 
an aiBuent of the Amo, 55 miles SB. of Florence. Pop., 
'nelnsive of the suburbs in 1901, 16,886. It abounds In 
arohiteetoral remains of the Middle Ages. The ehief 
edifices are the cathedral and several other ehnrchee rich 
in works of art, and the famous loggit of Vasari, in the 
principal square. The town possesses a museum of pre- 
historic, Btrusoan, and Roman antiquities. Its princnpal 
mannfacturee are silks and woollen stnSs. Arretium was 
one of the ancient Btruscan cities, and was famous for its 
manufactures of terra-ootta and fine red pottery. In the 
Middle Ages Areiso was one of the most lloarishing of the 
Italian city states. Among the eminent men who were 
bom here are Onido Aretino, Petrarch, Vasari, and Pietro 

ArezzO) a province of Italy, in Tuscany. It is trav- 
ersed by the Apennines. Area, 1276 sq. m. Pop. in 1901, 
275,588. (^ital, Areiso. 

Arfak Mountains, in Dutoh New Guinea, in the 
region of Oedvink Bay. They are tbonght to rise to 
10,000 feet. 

Arga, an'gl, a rivw of Spain, in Navarre, rising in the 
Pyreneee, falls into the Aragon after a course of 60 miles. 

Argaens, ar-jee'ns (Turk. Aijitk-Dagk, ar-jeeeh' dia, 
or Brfitk-Dagh, er-jeesh' die), the loftiest mountain and an 
extinct volcano of Aeia Minor, 12 miles 8. of Kaisariyeh. 
Height, 13,300 feet. It is isolated, except on the SB. side, 
where it is eonneeted with a branch of the Taurus, and its 
flanks are studded with volcanic cones. It has twe summit 
eratem. The snow-line is 10,700 feet high. 

Argamasilla de Alba, an-gi-mi^eel'yt d& il'bft, a 
town of Spain, in New Caatile, 84 miles by rail 68B. of 
Madrid, on the Guadiana. Pop. of commnne, aboat 3500. 

ArKamasilla de Calatrara, aa-gi-ml-seel'^l di 
kl-li-tri'vi, a town of Spain, in La Maneha, 13 miles 8. 
of Cindad Real. Pop. of commane, about 3000. 

Argana-lWadem. See AneHAHA-MAnni. 

Arganda, an-giu'djl, a town of Spain, 16 miles SB. of 
Madrid. Pop. of oommune, about 4000. 

Arganil, aa-gl-neer, a town of Portugal, in BMra, 
28 miles BNB. of Coimbra. Pop. aboot 2500. 

Argtto, as-gl'o, a pueblo on the B. ooast of Cebfi, 
Philippine Islands, 30 miles (direct) 8W. by 8. of Cebd, in 
a mooh-broken country. Pop. in I90S, 36,448. At Argao 
Point is an anchorage. 

Ar'ganm', a village of Central India, 38 miles WSW. 
ofEllichpur. Here WeUedey defeated the Mahrattas, Nov. 

ArgegBO, KTJk'njo, a village of N. Italy, on Lake 
Como, 6 miles SW. of Belluio. 

Argel^s-Gazost, ansh^ll' gl'so', a town of tmm, 
oapital of an arrondissement in Hantee-Pyrinies, 17 miles 
SSW. of Tarbes. Pep. about 2000. 

ArKel6B-snr«lIeT, anihMi' sita maiB, a town of 
France, in Pyr£n£ee-Orientales, 12 miles 8. of Perpignan, 
and near the sea. Pop. about 3000. 

Argens, aa'shAn^, a river of France, department of 
Var, falls into the Mediterranean about 2} miles SW. of 
Fr^jus. Coarse, about 60 miles. 

Argenta, an-jto'ti, a town of Italy, on the Po, 18 
miles SB. of Ferrara. Pop. 2500 (oommune, 20,000). 

Argen'ta, a banking post-village of Pulaski co.. Ark., 
on the Choctaw, Oklahoma and Qulf and other railroads, 
and on the N. Imnk of the Arkansas River, almost opposite 
Little Rock. It has stock-yards, ootton-eompreesea, cotton- 
seed oil mill, etc. Pop. about 6000. 

Ajrgenta, a banking post-town of Macon oo., Dl., on 
the Champaign and Havana (Illinois Central) R., 12 miles 
NE. of Deoatnr. Pop. in 1900, 525. 

Argenta, a post-village of Beaverhead oo., Mont., 
about 14 miles NE. of Bannook. Gold and silver have 
been found near this place. 

Argentan, aa'shW^tiii*' (L. Argttuta and Argatto- 
Rtam C<utrum), a town of France, department of Ome, 22 
miles NNW. of Alenfon. Pop. in 1901, 5653. It has fine 
promenades and maBufaoturea of embroideries and laoe, 
and glove-works. 

Argentaria. See ARaMrriiRA. 

Argentaro, aB-jtn-ti'ro, a moontain promontory of 
Itdk, projecting into the MeditananeNi at the S. extremity 
of Tuscany, immediately W. of Orbetello. Its culminating 
point, la Oima delle tre Oroei, is 2082 feet high. 

Argentatf an^ihiip'tA', a town of France, department 
of Corrite, on the Dordogne, 20 miles SB. of 'Tnlle. It 
has coal-mines. Pop. abont 1750 (commune, 3000). 

Argentean, an^shAip'tS', a village of Belgium, on the 
Mease, 6 miles KB. of Lidce. 

Argemtera, Rocca d', rok'ki daR-jin-ti'rL a moun- 
tain of Italy, in the province of Cuneo, is the highest sum- 
mit of the Maritime Alps. Height, about 10,600 (10,826 i) 

Argentenil, aK'sh6ii«^to'7 (L. Argtntv'liwm), a town 
of France, depsotment of Sune-et-Oise, on the Stine, II 
miles NE. of VeraaiUee. A Benedictine convent was estab- 
lished here early in the Middle Ages. This waa transferred 
into a nunnery, where Htlolse took the veil. Later the 
Benedictine monks came agi^n into poseeesion. The con- 
vent chnrch exists in a restored form. Pop. (commane) in 
1901, 17,376. 

Argentenil, a county of Qnebeo, CanadL bounded on 
the 8. by the Ottawa River. It is watered by the Room 
and North Rivers. Wheat and cereals are the staple prod- 
ucts. Chief town, Lachute. 

Argentiera, aa-jin-teHi'ri, Argeataria, as-Jto-tA- 
ree'i, or CUmoli, Kee'mo-lee (ane. Cim</li* or OSmo'hu, 
and Sekiiw'ta, or "isle of vipers"), an island in the Gre- 
cian Archipelago, one of the Cydades. Lat. 36° ^ N. ; 
Ion. 24° 33' E. It is 18 miles in ciroumfo-ence and of vol- 
canic formation, and was once famed for its detergent Cimo- 
lian eskrth. 

AlgeBtlire, a village of Hante-Savoie, France, 6 miles 
flrom Chamouni, situated at an elevation of 3963 feet, atth« 
point where the huge Argentiire glacier descends into th« 
valley. The AigniJIe d'Argentiire (12,820 feet), a tuBons 
peak of the Mont Blanc system, towers over the glacier. 

Argentiire, L', laR^ihiip'te-aiR', a eommone and 
haanlet of Franeeu in Haates-Alpee, 9 miles BB. of Briao- 
(on, on the right bank of the Doraaoe. 

Argentiire, Col d'. See Ool n'AnsBirniBx. 

Aneatiaa, a repnblio of Soath America. See AB«n- 


Argentina, aa-ntn-tee'nt, now called Bahia BIaa« 
ca, a port of the Argentine Repnblie, at the head of Blanoo 
Bav, 390 miles by rail SSW. of Boenos Aires. 

Argentine, ar'jsn-tlne, a banking city of Wyandotte 
CO., Kan., on the Atahison, Topeka and Santa Fi R., 4 
miles W. of Kansas City, Mo. It has manofaotares of iron 
prodnets, railroad repskir-ehope, and extent&ve goM and 
silver smelting-works. Pop. in 1900, 5878. 

Argentilie,a post-village of Genesee eo., Mich., 18 miles 
SW. of Flint. Pop. aboot 75. 

Argentine Pass, Odo., a depression of the mun or 
Front Range of the Roeky Mountains. Lat. SO" 37' N. ; 
ion. 105° 46' W. Blevation, 13,286 feet. 

Argentine (ar'jen-tlne) Repnblie (Sp. Sqtibliea 
Argentina, ri-poob'le-kl aa-HJn-tee'ni), the largest and 
most populous of the Spanish-American states at Sootb 
America. It is bounded on the N. by Bolivia, on the B. 

Digitized by 


AxgeacMjoe Bepublio 


Argentine B^ublio 

\>j Piraciuy, Bruil, Uragnsyi uid the Atluitio, on th« 8. 
ij Um AtUotio and Chile, and on the W. by Chile, fh>m 
wUsli it ia gaparated by Uia Aadea. The preoiie boandary 
with Chile is itiU in a fewpomtioni a matter of dispute 
between the two eonntrie*. The Uruguay Sirer forms most 
of the beandanr with Biasil and Urogoay. The repnblic 
extends from sibout lat. 12° to &&" 8., a distanoe of 3300 
miles, and is mostly inoluded between 63° and 70° W. Ion. 
The area is approximately 1,200,000 sq. m. (offieially, in 
1898, 1,113,860), aboat aqnal to one-third of the whole of 
~ Nearly all the Atlanlio Tenant of Patagonia be- 

kmn to this eonntry, together with Btaten Land^nd a pwt 
of Foagia. The Argentine R^ablio is almost wholly in 
the temperate lone. 

Setie/o/ tk« Land. — ^The dominant featores of the Ar- 
gentine Bepnblio are tiie Western Cordillwas, whose linear 
extent is aboot 2300 miles ; the central and soathem high- 
lands — the npland pompo* — rising to 3000 feet or more; 
the lower pluns or pampas, whieh foil off to sea-lerel ; and 
the plains and plateaus of Patagonia. (See Patasohia.) 
The Pampean r^on represents m greater part a recently 
derated aear-bottom, and at a still bSer penod an area of 
nst lacustrine waters, whose fine sediments, together with 
those of the receding oeeaaie waters (Pampean Sea), now 
eorer the greater part of the eonntry, giring to it its great 
iiirtility and insnring that vast pastnimge which has made 
hom- and cattle-breeding so extensive an industry. In the 
■niform materials of this soU a stone is sometimes not to be 
found for hundreds -of miles, a oondition similar to that 
of tLe nUtj at the Amason and of the great central plain 
ef Hungary. The pampas, in their wealth of flowers and 
billowy grasses and nsoally treeless character, hare been 
propeny oompared with the prairies of North America, and, 
Uhe them, convey to the mind the feeling of lonely but 
sd>iime grandeur. The term " Argentine McMpotamia" 
has been applied to a fertile tract of lowland whien lies be- 
tween the Farani and Uruguay Rivers. Northward the 
pampas merge into the vast grass and forest plain known 
as tiM Qraa Cliaooy which also occupies part of Bolivia and 

Hie main mountains of the Argentine Bepublic are the 
Andee, or Oordilleias, already referred to. On or about the 
Cbileas boandary are some ot the giants of the eontinent : 
Aeooeagna (23,080 feet), the monarch of all America; 
Tnpnngato, 22,000 ft ; Ineagnassi, 21,400 fL ; Veladeres, 
Sl,WMlt. The fomons Cumbre Pass, or Pass of Uspallata, 
over whieh a railroad is now bwng eoastructed, crosses the 
Andes immediately 3. of Aconcagua, (See Annas. ) The 
relief of the nerthwestem part of the republic is compli- 
cated Itj nameioua lofty spars or offshoots of the Andes, 
bearing elevations but little inferior to those of the main 
(ten. Bosh are the Famantina and Aconquija ranees, with 
the superb Nevadode Famantina (20,700 ft.) and the Aeon- 
qnija peak (17,740 ft.). The Sierra de Ctfrdoba (7700 ft.) 
eeeapies a nearly central ^ition in the republic, break- 
ing up the relief of what is commonly assumed to l>e the 
vast aind monotonous oential plain. 

Sivert and Lata. — ^The principal northern rivers are 
the Parmai, Paraguay, Uruguay, Pilcomayo, and Vermqo, 
all «f whieh discharge their waters into the Atlantic 
throng a common onUet called the Bio da la Plata, which 
is a wide estuary rather than a river. At its mouth, 
between O^w San Antonio and Cape Santa Maria, it ia 170 
miles wide. Above Montevideo the navigable channel is 
coattBcted between sand-banks, and the water on its 
sonthem shore is so shallow tliat extensive liarbor-improve- 
Bcats Itave been reijttited in order to enable lane ships to 
appraaeh Buenoe Aires. The main branches of the Plata 
ace the Parani and the Uruguay. The former runs nearly 
soathwani after it enters this repnblic from Braiil. Its 
total Imgth is upward of 2000 miles, a large part of which, 
iadurive of the Paraguay, is navigable for ateamboats of 
&iriy large sise. The largest affluents of the Parani are 
the Paraguay and Salado. The lower Pilcomayo River 
ibiBs part <n the boandary between Paraguay and the 
Argcntuie Republic by a treaty ooneinded in Feb., 1870. 
The great plains or pampas are not traversed by any per- 
■aaeat riven exeept the Bio Oiriorado, which runs south- 
eastward and enters the Atlantio after a course of some MO 
■iles. Marshes, lagoons, and temporary lakes are numerous 
ia the central and soathem plains. Many of these disap- 
pear in tha dry season, leaving the ground covered with 
mline dtmosits. The more important soothem rivers are 
the Rio Stgra, Cholrat, Ohieo^ Santa Crui, and eallegoa. 

OimaU, — ^The elimate ia generally healthy. The de- 
nted plains of If endosa fo^^ an agreeable and temperate 
diaats^ and the wide ragltm between Mendoxa and Buenos 
iita has one at the llnest dimates in the world. The 
Msa sonaal temperature at Buenos Aires is about 04°, with 
s rsTJmnm of 100°. Bxtremes of heat are encountered in 

the north«rn and north-central parts, as at Catamarca, 
Santiago, Tuoumin, and CfSrdoba, where the mercury fre- 
quently rises to 105°-113°. The central and southern 
plains are subject to long droughts, but in the more favored 
regions the rainiall is from SM) to 40 inches or more. In 
soma parts of Fuegia it is said to be nearly or quite 120 
inches. The pampero, a violent wind blowing from the 
SW. in the dry season, raises clouds of dost that darken the 
air. Patagonia has in general a cool and healthy climate. 
Even in Fuegia the climate, though hanh and disagree- 
able, is never very odd. The mean annual temperature at 
Ushwiya, in lat. 54° 63' S., is 42°. 

Uuural Bfoureet. — Gold, silver, copper, iron, and tin 
are found in many parts, partiealarly in the mountains 
of the NW. and in the Aoonqoija Range, in the regions of 
Tuenm&n, Catamarca, Jiyay, and C<irdoba. The richest or 
moot developed mines are those of Ia Rioja. Rich deposits 
!if gold also occur in the southern territories, especially in 
Fuegia. Among the other minerals are oo«d, alum, sulpnur, 
and salt. 

Planl» and AnimaU. — ^The flora of the pampas is not 
reinaricable for variety. Indeed, over large areas it is dis- 
tinguished by a uniform sameness, and it has been described 
as being the poorest in spedee of any fertile district of the 

flobe. One of its ornaments is the "pampas grass" 
Gi/nerium argenttitm). Characteristic plants of the Onta 
Chaco are thomv mimosas, the algarroba (Protoptu), and 
the wax-palm (CopvmMa e«r(/cra), which, with other 
palms and tropieal plants, make magnificent forests, as 
laxnriant in some parts as almost any forest of South 
America. In the region of the salt plains of the Upper 
Colorado there are extensive growths of the giant candeta- 
bra cactus, which for sise is rivalled only by those of the 
mountains of Mexico. The provinces of Cdrdoba, Santiago, 
and Tacnm£n are covered with forests of magnificent trees 
of excellent timber. The sonthem territoriee are wdl 
wooded, and immense forests of beech cover the mountains 
of Fuegia, eapeeially along the borders of the Strait of 
Magellan. The mat£, or Paraguay tea, is indigenous 

The prindpal indigenous animals are the jaguar, puma 
or cougar, fox, deer, t«pir, eapybara, guanaco, chinchilla, 
biscaoha, ant-eater, aod armadillo ; and amonE birds the 
rhea, or South Araerioan 08trich,'and condor. The immense 
herds of cattle and horsee that roam over the pampas are 
of Enropeui breeds. 

JigricaltuTt, Commtrce, etc, — A leading source of wealth 
oonsists in the rearing of cattle, horses, and sheep. There 
were in the country in 1806, 21,701,526 cattle, 4,440,859 
horses, 483,309 mules, 74,379,662 sheep, and 662,766 hop. 
Agriculture has made excellent progress. Large and m- 
ereasing quantities of cotton, sngar-eane, tobaoeo, wheat, 
bariey, oats, maiie, and rice are raised, drapes, apples, 
and peaches are onltivatad. There are manufactures of 
flour, spirits and malted liquors, phosphorus, blankets, 
eloths, woollens (mantles, ponekot), embroideries and laces, 
leather, etc, and large establishments for the handling of 
various cattle-products and the packing of meat. The chief 
articles of export ars hides, tidlow, wool, feathers, horns, 
beef, bones, live-eteek, grain, and various metals and me- 
tallic ores. The value of the exports of animals and ani- 
mal products in 1902 was $104,639,139; of agricultural 
products, 168,171,332; forest products, $3,649,208; and 
minerals, $327,006. 

Popuiation and Oovtmment. — ^The bulk of the Argen- 
tines represent a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and negro 
blood. Their langoage ia Spanish. The pure Spanish de- 
ment in the population is overshadowed by the non-Spanish 
Koropean dement introdaoed in recent times. The Indian 
popnUtion is no longer numeroos. An interesting olaas 
IS that of the Oauehos, who live on horseback and are 
employed in taming wild horses and in catching and 
slaughtering cattle. The Orui Chaco and Patagonia are 
infested by several tribes of Indians of wandering habits. 
Nnmben of French, Italian, and other European immi- 
grants have settled in this republic, and latterly it has 
reodved large accessions from the Jewish papulation of 
Russia, following upon the anti-Semitic enactments of that 
empire. The Cwiolic religion predominates here, but other 
rd^ons are tolerated. A portion of the aborigines have 
been Christianised. 

The government is a federal republic administered by a 
president, who is elected for a term of 6 years. There are 
two legislative bodies, the senate and the chamber of depu- 
ties, or house of representatives. The senate is composed 
of 30 memben, 2 Rom each of the provinces and 2 ft-om 
the capital city. Senators are elected for 9 years, and the 
membwB of the lower house for 4 years. Buenoe Aire* 
is the capital of the republic, which is divided into 14 
provinces, — namdy, Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cfirdoba, 


Digitized by V^jOOQ IC 




Corriantee, Entre Rioa, JiqnT, La Biojs, Mandon, Salts, 
San Juan, San Lois, Saota ¥(, Santiago, and Tnonmin ; 
bwides wbi«h th«re are th« national territories of Pampa, 
Meoqute, Rio Negro, Chnbnt, Santa Cms, Fuegia (and 
Loi Andes), Miasiones, Formosa, and Chaoo. The prorinoes 
eorreapond to the states of the North Amerioan Union, and 
the constitution of the repnblio is formed on the model of 
Uiat of the United States. The prinsipal towns are Buenos 
Aires (with a population, in 1900, of 804,613), Rosario 
(9»,000), Cdrdoba (47,609), La Plata, Tuoumin, Hendoia, 
Santa F£, Parani, and Corrientes. Chobot is an interesting 
Welsh oolony in Patagonia. The population of the republic 
in Dec., 1900, was 4,794,149, of which number upward of 
1,000,000 were of foreign birth. The goremment givee 
great attention to popular education, and public schools of 
rarious grades are maintained in great numbers. There 
are universities at Buenos Aires, La Plata, Cfirdoba, Santa 
F<, and Parani, and at Oirdoba and La Plata there are 
waU-eqnipped astronomical observatories. There are fine 
museums of natural history at Buenos Aires and La Plata. 
The length of railways in operation in 1901 was 10,300 

Hittory. — The Portuguese and Spanish navigators reached 
the mouth of the Plata as early as the second decade of the 
sixteenth century. In 1&27-28, Sebastian Cabot, in the ser- 
vice of the King of Spain, entered the estuary and ascended 
the Parani. Don Pedro de Hendoia bnilt a fort on the site 
of Buenos Aires in 1635 and explored the interior. Soon 
after this date the Spaniards founded several towns and 
began the conquest of the country. For two centuries these 
Spanish colonies were governed by the vioeroy of Peru. 
In 1776 the vieeroyalty of Bnence Aires was oreated, in- 
olnding a vast area outside of the present Argentine Re- 
public Revolutionary movements commenced here, as in 
other American colonies of Spain, in 1810. The people 
were involved in civil wars, some lighting for the king and 
others for independence. The deputies of several provinces 
met in 1816 at Tuoumin, renounced their ailegianoe to the 
king of Spain, and founded a republic under the name of 
the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. After that 
the country was for some time disturbed by revolutions 
and civil wars. Two parties. Federalists and Unitarioe, 
contended for mastery. General Rosas was for a time the 
leader of the Federalists, who opposed a strong central 

Kvemment and desired a federation of states which should 
nearly independent. Rosas exercised a tyrannical dic- 
tatorship fh>m 18S5 to 1852, whrai he was overthrown by 
Urquiia and his Braiilian allies. The fall of Rosas was 
followed by the secession of the province of Buenos Aires 
and another civil war. A permanent reunion was not 
effected until 1862. Between 1865 and 1870 the allied 
powers of the Argentine Republic, Brasll, and Uruguay 
waged war against Paraguay. The dispute with Chile re- 
garaing the Patagonian territories was settled in 1881. 

ArgentinOf an-JSn-tee'no, a lake of the Argentine Re- 
public, is the source of the Santa Cms River. L^ 50° 14' S. 

Argentoii) aR^shAii«'t6ii''(ano. Argentom'agvt), a town 
of France, department of Indre, on the Crease, 20 miles by 
rail 8W. of ChUteauroux. Pop. (oommune) in 1901, 6281. 
It has manufactures of woollen yam, ek>th, etc. 

ArgeBtonitniiit the ancient name of Stbassioro. 

Argemtr^, an'shAita'tri', a village of France, depart- 
ment of nie-et-Vilaine, 6 miles SSE. of Vitr6. 

Arfemtr£-8oa8-IiaTal, aR<shiir>'tri' soo WtW, a 
village of France, in Hayenne, 6 miles B. of Laval. 

Argentnm, a post- village of Qreenupco., Ky., 18 miles 
NV. of Ashland, its banking point. Pop. 150. 

AlgennKj the Latin name of AnoEirvAir. 

AlghanaaMaden, aR<Ei-n&' ml'din, atown of Asiatic 
Turkey, 33 miles NW. of Diarbekr, on the Tigris, near its 
touToe. _ Pop. about 3000. Near by are copper-mines. 

Ar'gillite, a post-village of Greenup co., Ky., on the 
Eastern Kentucky R., 16 miles NE. of Grayson. Pop. 
about 200. 

Arginn'SB, the ancient name of three islets off the W. 
coast of Asia Minor, near Lesbos, famous for the naval 
victory obtained there by the Athenians over the Lacedss- 
monians in 406 b.c. 

Argiro^Castro, Albania. See Arqtro-Castro. 

Argish, a town of Armenia. See Abjish. 

At'eo, an island of Nubia, in the Nile, between about 
lat. 19M0' and 19° 32' N. Length, ttom N. to S., 25 miles ; 
breadth, 5 miles. 

Argo, a post-hamlet of Jefferson co., Ala., on the Queen 
and Crescent Line, 21 miles NE. of Birmingham. 

Argo, a post-town and railway junction of Arapahoe 
00., Colo., 2 miles NW. of Denver, its banking point. Pop. 
In 1900, 443. 

Argo, a post-village of Carroll co., HI., about 8 miles 
SW. of Mount Carroll. 

ArfO) a pcet-hamlet of Crawford oo.. Ho., aboat 15 
miles N. of SteelviUe. 

Argoliens SianSt ancient name of OcLr or Naitplia. 

Ar'golia, in ancient geogr^hy originally a small dii- 
triet about Argos, on the B. coast of the Peloponneaoa, 
watered by the Inaohus ; later, under the Romans, most at 
the NB. peninsula of the Peloponnesus. The modem nome 
of Argolu has for its capital Nauplia. 

Argo'lila« a banking oity of Sumner co., Kan., at a rail- 
way junction, 20 miles w. of Wellington. Pop. in 1900, 309. 

Argoaae, aR'gonn', or Forest of Argonne, a re- 
gion of France, departments of Uense and Ardennes. It 
lorms a small plateau, partly covered with wood, extending 
from Toul to Hisiires, and separating the Uisins of the 
Aisne and the Uense. 

Argos, ar'gps, a town of Greece, nome of ArgoUs, 6 
miles NNW. of NanpUa, near the head of the Oulf of 
Nauplia, 20 miles SSW. of Corinth. Pop. in 1896, 9960. 
It is reputed to be the most ancient city of Greeoe. Until 
about 750 B.C., Argos was the leading power in the Pelopm- 
nesus. Among the arohitectnial remains of ancient Ajgoe 
are those of a theatre and the Heraion, or temple t^ Hent 
(Juno), recently ezeavated. See Argolu. 

Argos, a banking post-town of Harshall eo^Ind., on 
the lAke Erie and Western R., 8 miles SE. of Plymouth. 
It has manufactures of lumber and flour. Pop. in 1900, 

Argostoli, an-gos'to-le, a seaport town of Greece, esip- 
ital of the island of Cephalonia, on its SW. side, with an 
excellent port in the Gulf of Argostoli. Lat. 38° 10' N. ; 
Ion. 19° 59' E. Here are milh driven by remarkable 
streams flowing fh)m the sea into crevices or caverns of the 
island. It is the residence of a Greek bishop. Pop. in 
1896, 9241. 

Argaeaon, »B^gheh-n6R^, a river of Fraaee, depart- 
ment of cotes du mrdtJhlls into the Bnglish Channel at 
Le Guildo, 10 miles WSW. of St. Halo. 

Argnia, an-goo-een' or aR-gween', an island off the W. 
coast of Africa, 25 miles SE. of Cape Blanco and about 8 
miles fh>m the shore. Lat. 20° 27' N. 

Argun, ar-goon', a river of Asia, rises in western Man- 
churia, and, flowing gmerally ih>m S. to N., sq>arates the 
Russian and Chinese dominions and Joins the Bhilka to 
form the Amur. — Akgohsk is a station of Transbaikalia, on 
the left bank of the Argun, in lat. 51° 51' N., Ion. 120'' B. 

Argnn, a river of Caucasia, an affluent of the Terek. 

Argnri, an-goo'ree, a vUImc c^ Russian Armenia, 186 
miles S. of Tiflis, on the NE. uope of Honnt Ararat, aboat 
5400 feet above the sea. This was fbrmerly one of the most 
beautiful villages in Armenia. In the snmmw of 1840 a 
great earthquake, or more probably a landslide, destroyed 
the village monastny and ehapel with some 1500 of the 
inhabitants. -Only 114 people escaped. 

Argarokastroa. See Abstro-Castbo. 

Ar'gas, a hamlet of Crenshaw co., Ala., 36 miles 8. of 

Argns, a poet-hamlet of Bucks co.. Pa. 

ArgasTille, a poet-village of Schoharie co., N.T., 9 
miles N. of Cobleekfll and about 50 miles W. of Albany. 

Argvsrille, a post-village of Cass co., N.Dak., 14 miles 
by rail N. of Fargo. 

Argyle, a county of Scotland. See Arstix. 

Argrle, ar-ghlle', a post-village of Walton co., Fla., on 
the Louisville and Nashville R., 74 miles NS. of Pensaoola. 
Pop. about 300. 

Argyle, a poet-village of Clinch oo., Ga., on the At- 
lantic and Oulf R., 15 miles NE. of Dupont. Pop. 180. 

ArgTio« a post-village of Wlnnebs^ co., Ill,, on the 
Chicago and Northwestern R., 10 miles NE. of Rookfocd. 
The village was settled by Scottish immigrants. 

Argyle, a post-hamlet of Lee oo., Iowa. 

Argrle, a township (town) of Penobscot oo., Me., on 
the W. bank of the Penobscot River, 20 miles N. of Bangor. 
It has manufactures of shingles and lumber. Pop. in 
1900, 320. 

Argyle, a poet-hamlet of Sanilac co., Midi., about 45 
miles E. of Bay City. 

Argrle, a banking post-village of Marshall co,, Hinn., 
on the Northern R., 39 miles N. of Crookston. It has 
lolling-mills, grain-elevators, etc. Pop. in 1900, 829. 

Argrle, a post- village, capital of WashingtOB oo., N.T., 
in Argyle township (town), 45 miles N. by £. of Albany. 
Pop. in 1900, 100 ; of the town. 1995. 

Argyle, a post-hamlet of Cumberland oo., N.C., ahont 
16 miles W. of Fayetteville. 

Argrle, a post-village of Denton co., Tex.,' 10 mUcLSB. 
of Denton. Pop. about 190. 

Argrle, a banking post-village of Lafayette co., 'Ws., 
on the Peo&tonioa River and on the Illinois Central R., '38 
milee SE. of Dodgeville. Pop. in 1900, 525'. 

Digitized by 





Argyle, » poit-Tillage of Tamonth eo., Nora Beotia, 
an the ac»«eut, 19 miles SB. of Tannoath. 

Argyle, a pwt-nllage of Viotoria eo., Ontario, (7 milei 
by nil NNB. of Toronto. 

ArgyUj ■r-ghlle', or ArgjriC (Arnllahire), a eonnty 
of BeotJaod, on ita W. side, creatly indented by arma of 
. tke aaai, aad having on the S, InTemaai, on the B. Pnth 
aad Dnmbarton, and on the W. and 8. the Atlantic aad 
North Channel. It indndea the ialaoda of Moll, Islay, 
Jva, Tine, Coil, lona or leolmkill, Staffa, ete. Area, 3213 
aq. n., of whieh nearly a half belongs to the ialaoda. Pop. 
in 1901, 73,740. 8nt&ee moatly mgged and moantaiaona. 
Laeh Awe la in thia eaonfy. ureat nambera of eattle are 
iMieJ here for export to aeothem marketa. Chief towna 
•re Inveaary (the eapttal), Oaaipbeltown, and Oban. The 
eaan(7, aa aoah, retuma 1- member to the House of Com- 
mons. Aii^n girea the title of duke to the head of the 
CaaqiMl fiunily. 

Alg7TO«Castro, as'ghe-ro kis'tro (mod. Or. Arguro- 
iattnm ,- Tork. &m Kcutrx), a town <k .Albania, Tuayet 
of Jaaina, on a tribatanr of the Vioea, 47 milea N V. of 
JaainsL Pt^. about M,M« (?). It is pietnreaqnaly sitoated 
and has many mos^ies. It is oelebiated for its snnlT. 

AlkeilgCB) a Tillage of Hease, 6<rmany, in the eirole 
of Darmstadt. Pop. in 1900, 4408. 

Al'if a post-atatmn of Allot oo., Ind. 

Arte, the anooit name of a region now inelnded in 
NW. Af^anistan and the Persian Brorinoe of Khorassaa. 

Ariaao di Puglias, L-re-i'no dee pool'yi, a town of 
Italy, proTinee of Avdlino, on a Toekj eminenoe of the 
ApennuMs, 17 miles by rail K. of Benerento. Pop. in 1901, 
8360 J €t the eommone, 17,«M. It has a eathedral. 

Ana PataSt the aneieot name of H amok. 

Ariea* i.rce'ki, a maritime town of Chile, in the pror- 
iaee of Taeaa, abont 35 miles 8. of Taena, with which it is 
eonneoted by rail. Lat. 18° S8' a ; Ion. 70° 20' W. It 
was formerly a much more important plaoe than now. It 
has mann&etnres of glass bead^ exports eopper-ore and 
silver, aad is the principal port throogfa whieh the foreign 
Mmmeree is earned on with Bolivia. The region about 
Ariea was visited by a severe earthquake in 1808. Pop. 
af the town, onee estimated at 30,000, is abont 3000. 

Arieeia, 1-rieh'l, a town of Italy, in the province of 
Bome^ 1) miles tnm Albano. It has a stately park. Pop. 
of Ota oommane in 1901, 3946. 

Ariehat, i-re-ahU', a seaport of Kova Scotia, on Ari- 
ehat Uaod or lale Madame (Cape Breton). Lat. 45° 28' 
H. ; Ion. 01° 3' W. It has in^rtant ttbtrj estabUsh- 
msBts and is the chief town of the co. of Bidunond. It 
is the see of a CathoUo bishop. It has a good harbor. A 
laad-miBO has been worked at the head of the harbor. 
Pen. abont 2000. 

Ariige, i're.aish', a river of France, risea in the east- 
ern P^raneea, timvereee the departments of Ariige and 
HB«te-Qaronn& and joins the Churonnc Length, 90 miles. 

Ari^e, a departaient in the 8. of Franoe^ having 8. 
Catalonia aad Andorra; W., Hante-Oaranne ; NE., Ande; 
aad SB., Pyr£n«e».Orientalea. Area, 1890 aq. m. The 
^roieee riae like a great wall <m the Spaniah border, and 
tteir obboots cover a large portion of the department. 
The ptineipal sammits are tie Pic d'Bstax, 10,303 feet, and 
Mentealm, 10,102 feet, both rirfac into popetnal snow. 
The various branches, stretching mm B. to W., separate 
tke department into two valleys, the one watered by the 
Aiitee aad the other by the Salat. In the N. the climate 
is mud and temperate ; bat in the 8. the heat is oppressive 
in sasuner aad the cold extreme in winter. The higher 
hade ia the 8. famish wood and pastarace ; the lower are 
laaaikslite for their fHtility. The vine is oaltivated ap to 
tte laiddl* of the higher mountains. Large nambera of 
cattl^ shecf), aad pMa are raared. 'Hierc are rich minea 
tt inm, the working of whieh metal is an important in- 
dastiy. Martrie. gypenm, slates, and coal are worked. 
Onlt^ Foix. Pop. in 1891, 227,491 ; in 1901, 210,627. 

Arielf S'r»-fl, apost-village of Lafourche parish. La,, 
40 miles (direet) 8W. of New Orleans. Pop. about 126. 

Ariel, a poet- village of Wayne eo., Pa., 15 miles W. of 
Hawley. Pop. about 300. 

Arielii, l-re-4l1ee, a town of Italy, province and 9 
■OssSB. of Chieti. Pop. abont 1000. 

ArieasOy i-re-fa'so, a town of Italy, province of Ca- 
Mrta, 18 miles NB. of Nicies. Pop. 3000. 

Aziet'taf a post-township (town) of Hamilton co., 
V.T., in the northam wilderness. It contains Lake Piseoo, 
a nsort for anglers aod tourists. Pop. in 1900, 247. 

Arigalt I'rMtil, a mountain of Ireland, in Ulster, oo. 
tf DoMcal, 7i miles B. of Ouldore Bay. Height, 2402 

Arigaaaako, ft-re-gwi-n&'Bo, a lake of Havana prov- 
lae^ Cabay 30 miles SW. of Havana city, in the central 

aq. m. in ares, aad is 

chain of high I 

drained by Uie San Antonio River. 

AriMa« a fashionable resort of J^^an, near Kobe. 

Arimao, Rio, ree'o &-Ke-ml'o, or Saa Jaaa, a 

river of Oalw, risea in Santa Clara province and emptiea on 
the 8. coast 3 miles E. of CienfViegos Bay. 

Alimiaaait the ancient name of Bimiki. 

Ariaoa, &-ree'noah, a name given to the upper waters 
of the river Tapijoa, Braail, 8. of hit. 10° 8. The atream 
riaea in the Sierra HanarSo of Matto Orosso. 

Ariatbod, &^r&]F>'to', a town of France, department of 
Jura, 19 miles 8. of Lons-le-8aalnier. Pop. 700. 

Alio, <Hr Ario de Rosales, a town of Hexioo, ia 
the state of Michoacin, about 48 miles SW. of Horelia. 

Ai'iaa, a post-town of Crawford eo., lows, on the DIU 
nois Central &., 3 miles NB. of Dow City. Pop. in 1900, 

AriOB, a post-hamlet of Seioto co., Ohio, 13 milea N. 
of PortsmoDtn. 

Arios'to, a post-hamlet of Dale co., Ala., 6 miles N. 
of Osark. 

Aripo, l-ree'po, or Arip'po, a village of Ceylon, on 
its W. coast, 36 miles NNE. of Calpentyn. It is noted for 
its paarl-flaheries. 

Arisalg, Ir-i-gjk', a post-village of Antigonish eo.. 
Nova Scotia, on 'the Onlf of St Lawrence, 32) miles NB. 
of New QlsMtow. 

Ariih, El, a village of Egypt. See Bi^Abisb. 

Arispe, i-ria'i^ a town of ifexioo, state of Sonera, on 
the Sonera River, in the Sierra Hadre, and aboat 100 nules 
N. by E. of Hermceillo. Pop. about 3000. There are ex- 
tensive ruins NW. of the town, and numerous mines in its 

Aris'p«, a post-village of Union eo., Iowa, about 00 
miles by rail S. of Des Moines. Pop. 126. 

Aris'pie, a post-station of Pottawatomie eo., Eaa. 

Aristea, a post-village of Columbia oo.. Pa. Pop. abont 
600. The banking point is Ashland. 

ArisUsatlle Islaad, British Columbia, lies in Qnsen 
Chariotte Sonnd, is 27 miles long, and is separated by 
Laredo Channd fh>m Princess Royal Island. 

Aritso, a village of Sardinia, 40 miles N. of Cagliari. 

Arivaca, a poet-village of Pima oo., Aria. Pop. abont 

Ariza, i-ree'tht, a town of Spain, 70 miles SW. of 
Saragossa. Pop. (commune) 1700. 

Anze, i^rees', or Larise, li'rees', a river of France, 
after a coarse of abont 26 miles falls into the Oaroone op- 
posite Oarbonne. It traveraea Roohc.da-Has, a remarkable 
cavern of the Pyrenees. 

AriSO'aa, a territory of the United States, bordering 
on Mexico, is bounded N. by Utah and Nevada, E. by New 
Mexico, 8. by Mexico, and W. by California and Nevada. 
The 37th degree of N. lat. is its northern, and the 109th 
degree of W. Ion. its eastern limit, and nearly all the W. 
border is washed by the navigable Colorado River. Area, 
113,920 sq. m. 

Arisona is essentially a vast table-land or series of 
plateaus (si«*<w), whose general elevation rises to 5000- 
8004 feet, aad probably more than one-half of the urea 
oeeupies a posinon 5000 feet above sea-level. The step- 
like suceession of the different platean surfaces has differ- 
entiated distinct plateau areas, to which local, and more 
recently geologtcal, names have been given. Of snoh ar« 
the Uinbuet, Sheavwits,Kanab, and Kaibab plateaus. The 
territory is entirely within the Iwsin of the Colorado, two 
of whose principal tributaries, the Qila and the Little Col- 
orado, traverse it fVom B. to W. Many of the streams 
of the territory flow to a greater or less extent in dentlifu 
eroded chasms or eafSons, the mo«t remarkable of whloby 
constituting one of the most stupendous features of the 
earth's sur&ee, ia the Grand CaSon of the Colorado, whose 
walls for more than 300 miles rise precipitously ihim 3000 
to 5000 feet above the water's edge. The passage of even 
the amalleet boata along this gloomy course can be effected 
only with extreme peril, owing to the frequency of rocks 
and rapids. (See Qrahd CaSon or the Colorado.) The 
rainfiOl of Arisona is small, ordinarily fh>m 14 to 31 
inches, and occurs chiefly during July, August, and Sep- 
tember. The streams are mainly uBefal as sources of sup- 
ply for irrigation and mining. Where irrigation can bo 
effected, the soil usually proves richly productive, even on 
alkaline plains which were apparently worthless desert: 
while vast tracts of waste and mountain land have proved 
to be admirably adapted to wool-growing and cattle-raiaing, 
notwithstanding the fact that vegetation ia for the most 
part scanty. Most of the mountain-chains may be regarded 
as spurs stretching irregularly across high and broken 
plateaus which slope W. and B. fl-om the Rocky Mountains ; 
but there are many isolated aad detached mountain-groups, 

Digitized by 





u th« Mogollon (8000 feet) and Pinal MonntaiM, etc. The 
San Franoisoo Honntains, a group of voleanio Bummita 
Wing to the NW. of Flagataff, are the loftieet elevations of 
the territory, 12,704 feet. In the mountains of the NE. 
there are forests of aoniferous trees, covering an area of 
perhaps 3000 sq. m. Elsewhere the mesqaite, oottonvood, 
various species of oaotus (iDoladin|; the giant candelabra 
eaotos, one of the most physiognomic types of vegetation), 
grease-wood, creasote-bnsh or stinkweed, agave, yuooa, and 
the so-called sage-bash are eharacteristio plants. Among 
the remarkable shrubs and trees are the Fottquiera «p<e»- 
detu, the palo de hierro. New Mexican loenst, green-bark, 
or palo verde, Jenualem thorn, a peonliar species of plane- 
tree, and nnmeroHs others quite unknown on the Atlantio 
(lope. There are extensive remains of forest occurring in 
the form of prostrate silioifled tree-trunks, some of which 
measure as much as 60-80 feet in length. The "Chalce- 
dony or Petrified Forest of Ariiona," sitaated in the east- 
em part of the territory, and visited from Adamana or 
Holbrook, is a national ouriosity. 

Otology and Mintrah. — The cations of Arisona afford 
unsurpassed faeilitiea for the stndy of a vast thieknen of 
the earth's crust, and reveal a Aill section extending down- 
ward from the Carboniferous series to the granitio looks of 
Archnan age. Immense lava-beds, with numerous large 
and small cones, and having in part the appearance of the 
Phlegrssan Fields of Southern Italy, exist particularly in 
the N., but at present there are no active veloanoes. The 
great wealth of the territory eonsists in its minoral treas- 
ures. Oold, silver, lead, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, cia- 
nabar, salt, borax, and other valuable mineral snbstanoes 
abound. The mining and working of gold- and silver-orss 
are thus far the leading industrial pufsnits. The mines 
were wrought for many years by Hexican and Spanish 
proprietors; but the scanty water-supply and the diffi- 
culties of transportation, both in those days and more 
reoantly, very greatly interfered with the productiveness 
of many of the mines. The httely increased railroad fa«ili- 
tiea have, however, given a new impetus to the develop- 
ment of the wt mineral resources, and the crushing, 
milling, and the amalgamation of ores flcure now as one 
ef the leading industries. The value of the gold product 
in 1903 was «S,739,824; and of silvw, fl,13«,S«l. The 
copper product in 18iW was 133,054,800 pounds, and in IMS 
147,648,271 pounds, being in quantity immediatdy after 
that mined in the Lake Superior region and in Montana. 
Coal is found in several parts of the territory, and petro- 
leum has been reported from near Phoenix, Preacot^ muA 
Jerome. The more important ore-oonnties are Yavapsd, 
Tuma, Mohave, Cochise, Qraham, Pinal, and Qila. Almost 
the entire manufacturing of the territory, excepting the 
smdting and refining of ores, which constitute about 80 
per cent, of the total product, is limited to neighborhood 

Ctimatt and Agrieultnre,— On aeooant of the scanty rain- 
&11, there is a gmeral absence of those catarrhal diseases 
which result (W>m an overplus of moisture in air and soil. 
The mountain-regions have a delightflilly cool climate. 
Snow is nowhere perpetual, and is rare except upon moun- 
tain-peaks in winter. In the SW. the summer neat is ex- 
cessive, and malarial fevers are not unknown upon the 
bottom-lands of the Lower Colorado. These lowlands, with 
similar tracts along the Qila and Salt Riven, ooostitnta per- 
hara the best af^cnltural sections of the teritory. 

The country is by nature better adapted to pastoral than 
to agricultural pursuits, and the raising of cattle and 
sheep has been stimulated by the extension of agrioultar* 
in California. Muoh attention has been devoted lately to 
irrigation, and exeellent crops of alfal&, wheat, barley, 
corn, ftnits, and garden vegetables are raised. The Pueblo 
Indians and other half-civiliied tribes have boMi for an 
unknown period successfully engaged in agriculture ; and 
the remains of many ancient aqueducts, now dry, show that 
at a former period irrigation was extensively praetised. 
The number of acres capable of inofitable irrigation is esti- 
mated at from 6,000,000 to 10,000,000. 

Oountif and Towm. — There are IS eonnties : Apache^ 
Cochise, Coconino, Gila, Oraham, Bfaricopa, Mohave, 
Nan^o, Pima, Pinal, Santa Cmi, Tavapai, and Yuma. 
The chief towns are Tucson (pop. in IMO, 7631), Yuma 
(opposite Fort Tuiaa, Cal., on the Colorado River), Pres- 
eott (pop. 3659), Phoenix, the capital (pop. 6S44), Tomb- 
stone, Florence, and Bisbae. 

Bdueation,ttt. — ^There are territorial normal schools at 
Tempo and Flagstaff and a school of mines at Tucson. The 
University of Ariiona at Tucson was opened in 1891. In 
oonneation with the agricultural department of this institu- 
tion there are experimental stations at the university, at 
Phoenix, it Tempe, and near Yuma. The Lowell Ofaaerra- 
toiyis at Flagstaff. The oommaroial faeilitiea of Ariiona 

have been greatly inereaaad by the oonstructien of the 
Southern Paoifio aad the Atlantic and Paeifio Ba. In 1899 
the length of operating roads was 1465 miles. 

Population. — Exclusive of untaxed Indians, the popula- 
tion of this region was in 1860, 6482; in 1870, 9668; in 
1880, 40,440 ; and in 1890, 69,620. In 1900 the populatitm 
was 122,931, of whom 24,233 were foreignen. The number 
ineludee 1848 n^roee, 1419 Chinese, 281 Japanese, and 1836 
taxed Indians. The untaxed Indians were 24,644. Of the 
wild tribes, the Apaehee were for a long time the terror of 
this whole region, but since the surrender of Seronirao in 
1886 they have given little trouble. Arisona sends one 
territorial delegate to the national congress. 

Uittort. — Spanish missions were established in this re- 
gion probably about 1580, and long before the advent of 
the whites there were, as at present, Indian ooaunnnitiee 
which had attained a teepectable degree of eiviliiation. 
Very remarkable ruins of this prehistoric period exist in 
the territory. These ancient houses, like the eoea* grandet 
of some of the present half-civilised tribes of Ariioaa and 
New Mexico, were simply great tenement-houses of several 
stories, each containing in some instances hundreds and even 
thousaods of inhabitants. These great structur e s were 
built of stone or sun-dried brick, and served for defence 
against hostile tribes as well as for habitations. Seme de- 
gree of communism was probably observed. The tUf- 
dwellings and cave-dwellings in and about the Walnut 
CaSon and near Phoenix are easily aooessible points to the 
tourist. In 1848 all this region N. of the Oila, then in- 
eluded in New Mexioo, was ceded to the United States. In 
1863 the Oadsden Purchase, covering a considerable terri- 
tory S. of the Qila, was made fVom Mexioo. Of this the 
greater part now belongs to Arisona. The region was 
king desolated by the ravages of Indians, and was oie abode 
of many outlawed whites, chiefly Mexican. In 1863 it was 
organised as a territory. 

Arizona City, Aris., the former name of Ydka. 

Arizo'iii«« or Arizona, a poet-viUage of Claibonie 
parish. La., about 60 miles ENE. of Shreveport. 

AKjeplong, an'yf-pl&g', a small town ef Sweden, in 
Norrbotten, on the Hom-Afvaa, 175 miles NW. of Umet. 

Aljish, aa'jeeah', a river of Rumania, rises in the Car- 
pathian Mountains and Joins the Danube 42 milee 88B. of 
Bucharest. Leogth, 150 miles. 

AiCiish (Ruman, Omtea de Arget), a town of Rumaaia, 
on the Aijish, 90 miles NW. of Bnohareet. Pop. 40M. It 
is the ancient Ardisous. The place figures in the early his- 
tory of Wallachia as the princely residence. One of the 
churches is a notable edifice. 

AKfish, a small town of Turkish Armenia, on the N. 
shore of Lake Van. 

A^ish, or A4ish«Dask. See AaaiBim. 

Aijona, aa-Ko'ni, a town of Spain, Andalusia, U aiiles 
NW. of Jtiin. It has manufactures of pottery. Pop. (oom- 
mune) in 1900, 7041. 

Aqonilla, aa-ao-neel'yl, a market-town of Spain, 5 
miles NW. of Aijona. Pop. (commune) in 1900, 4350. 

Ark'abat'la, a post-town of Tate oo.. Miss., U milea 
W. of Cold,water. Pop. in 1900, 265. 

Arkadel'phia, a post-village of Blount oo., Ala., 10 
miles W. of Blount Sprinn. Pop. about 150. 

Arkadelphia, a banking city, capital of Clark oo.. 
Ark., on the Ouachita River and on the fit. Leais, Iron 
Mountain and Southern R., 65 miles SW. of Little Book. 
It has cotton- and saw-mills, foundries and machine-shops, 
eto. The Ouachita Baptist College and the Arkadelp&ia 
Methodist College are located here. Pop. in 1900, 2739. 

Arka4ia, Greece. See Arcadia ; abo Ktparimia. 

Ark'alOB, a poet-hamlet of Seward co., Kan., on the 
Cimarron River and on the Chicago, Bock Island and 
Paeifio R., 164 miles SW. of Hntehinson. 

Ariiaa'sas (officially pronounced ar'k^n-saw' ), a large 
river of the United States, is an affluent of the Mississippi. 
It rises near Mount Arkansas, in Colorado, about lat. 39° 
20' N. and Ion. 106° 15' W. It runs at first southward and 
southeastward and passes through a deep caflon, the eastern 
portion of which, about 9 miles in length, is known as the 
Royal Gorge, to the E. side of the Front Range. After 
reaching Pueblo its general direction is eastward for about 
300 miles. It descends 2400 feet in a distance of 200 milea, 
from the month of the Apishpa River to the Pawnee. It 
traverses the great treeless plains of Colorado and western 
Kansas, and near the middle of the latter state changes its 
course to the southeast. Having crossed the southern 
boundary of Kansas it runs southeastward through Okla- 
homa and the Indian Territory, receiving large afihienta 
named Little Arkaaaaa, Cimarron, and Caaadian rivers fh>m 
the right, and the Neosho River from the left. Pursuing a 
southeast coane it intersects the state of Arkansas, which 
it divides into nearly equal parts, and enters the Mississippi 

Digitized by 



Arkansas, Mount 

Hirer >t Nuoleon, in Saalu ao. It <■ not obatnutad by 
bU> or ramds aitar it dcaeendi into the plsins of weetem 
Kuou. The length of thia river it about 3000 mile*, and 
the arek of tiie basin it draina is 18&,000 miles. Small 
rtt a mho a ts oan aseead it to Wichita, about 600 miles from 
ita month, except daring low water. 

Arkaasas, a sooth-oentral state of the Ameriean Union, 
bounded N. by Hisaonri, B. by the MisBiasippi Rirer, 
whiefa separates it from Tennessee and Uiasissippi, 8. by 
Louisiana and Texas, and W. by Texas and the Indian 
Tarritoiy. Its southern limit is 33° S. lat., a«d its north- 
em is the parallel of 36° SV. Area of the land surfseey 
53,045 sq. m. ; of the oontained waters, 606 sq. m. 

Tke Fan of tie Comtrj is quits raried. The Osark 
Monntains, a broken range of hills, thought by some geolo- 
gists to be an isolated or detaehed swell oS the Appalachian 
■ystem of mountains, and with some peaks of eonsiderable 
heiriit, extend in a SW. direction from Hiasonri as far 
ss the Arkansas Hirer. Outlying memlwrs of this hill- 
irstem are the Blaok Hills of the N., the Ouaohita Hills of 
the S., and the Cane Hills of the NW. The highest eleva- 
tions in the state ^pear to be Fouroheand Magarine Moun- 
tains, both about ^0 feet ; there are a number of other 
heights of 2000-1600 feet. The state is bisected by the 
Arkansas lUver. Other streams of greater or less magni- 
tode, all tributary to the Hiasissiwi system, are the St. 
fiaiieia in the NB., with a ralley that is m^nly a swamp, 
the White, Saline, Ouaehita (WashiU), Little Missouri, 
and Bed. The great Bayou Bartholomew in the 8E. puts a 
large area of the country under the dominatira of the Hiasis- 
iippi River. The Miaeissippirirer-bottoma are very exten- 
sire and nsnally level, with many marshes and bayona, over- 
flow being prerented by an extenaive and costly system of 
levees and dikes. Westward from this the land rises gently 
till the hill-oottntry is reached. In the S, are numerous 
prairie-tnets, while other regions are beautifully diversified 
with hills and valleys. Large parts of the state are finely 
timbered. There are dense pine forests ; also an abundanoe 
of oak, hiekory, pecan, walnut, chioot, iMis d'aro, cypress, 
esdar, and many other useful trees. The lumber trade is 
r«y extensive. Abundant and ~rery remarkable remains 
ef a prehistoric period exist in the N£., where dikes, roads, 
aoanda, and relies of old fortifications hare been tneed. 

Min»raU. — The mineral wealCh of Arkansas is great. Ooal 
is exteaaively developed in counties lying on both sides of 
the Arhanaaa River. The eoala are both semi-anthracite 
aad bitaminous, the former of marked exoellenoe. The 
qaaotity mined in ISW waa valued at $3,300,831. Lignite 
of &irly good quality exists in the SB. Tertiary region. 
Besides coal there is abimdanoe of rich argentiferona ga- 
lena ; and excellent ores of sine, copper, manganese, and 
iron are known to exist at various points. Hie valuable 
novacnlite, or honenitone, is largely ootaiaed. Orindstones, 
marble, burr millstone, slate, graolte, and kaolin are among 
the ploitifnl mineral treasures of Arkansas. The valuable 
minml bauxite exists in beds of great latoral extent, and 
in 1903 the product amounted to 26,713 tons, or to more 
than five times the quantity that waa mined in 1890. The 
&moas Hot Springs, with a temperature ranging to 168°, 
renowned for their effieaoy in a wide range of disenMs, are 
in Garland oo., and there are other mineral and thermal 

ClimaU. — ^The climate at the marshy and flat alluvial 
distriets is hot, and people not acclimated are exposed to 
severe febrile attacks. But the remainder of the state, and 
eipeeially the hill-region, has a very pleasant and aaiubrions 
dimata. Neitherthesevere N. winds of Texas nor the long 
droughts of Kaaaas ai« experienced here. The Osark 
regim has a high reputation as a sanitary retreat for 
persons suffering nom pulmonary disease. At Wadiington, 
in the NW. part of the state, the mean annual temperature 
is about Ol' The rainfall, corresponding to that Of the 
0alf region generally, is comparatively high, ranging firom 
shoot 40 to 65 inohes. 

Induttriai Pkrtmt*. — ^Agriculture has always been the 
leading industrial interest, for much of the soil is of unsur- 
peaeed fertility. Cotton and com, produced mainly in the 
Hutheastem half of the state, are the most important pred- 
■ets, the valley of the Arkansas being one of the best 
cotton-growing regions of the United States. The ootton- 
nrodoet for the year 1900 was 838,200 oommeroial bales. 
The prineipal agrionltnral crope were in 1900: com, 
46,33i,»47bashe]a; wheat,3,«89,418bDShela; oats, 7,038,666 
boheb ; potatoes, 2,137,816 bushels ; and hay, 228,680 tons. 
Fruit culture has developed into an important indoMry, es- 
feeiaily in the SW. section of the state, where the apple, 
peach, and strawbetry are grown in great quantity. The 
ninn^ of live-stook is also an important pursuit. Mann- 
faetnrug is hardly as yet eonda<ied on a large scale, bat 
there are manafiuitiirea of ootton and wooUm gMds, leather. 

lumber, ete.; and for enterprises ef this class the state 
affords excellent facilities. The leading industry is the 
manofacture of timber- and lumber-products, the valuation 
of which in 1900 was $23,969,983. The manufooture of 
cotton-seed oil and cake ranked third. The commerce of 
the state is much facilitated by the navigable rivers. These 
are, besides the Misaiasippi, the Arkansas, navig^le aeroas 
the entire state ; the Ouachita, navigable two-tnirda of tin 
year to Arkadelphia; the Red River, which oroeaes the 
SW. angle of the state ; the St. Franeis, navinble for some 
160 miles in high stageeof the water; the White River, 
navigable to Batesrille, 300 miles ; acd the Black River, 
navigable for 100 miles ; besides other rivers and bayous 
adapted to flat-boat navigation. 

AiwcattoM.— BdnoatiOn has dnrine recent year* received 
considerable attention, and daring the year 1899 the enroll- 
ment was 296,786 (exclusive of private and denominational 
schools), of whom 76,049 were colored. There la a State 
University, at Fayettevllle, with a normal department and 
a training-school. Among other educational Institations 
are the Arkansas Baptist College- and Philander Smith 
College (for colored) at Little Rock, tiie Ouachita aad the 
Arkaidelphia Methodist Collegee at Arkadelphia, and Ar- 
kansas College at Batesrille. 

OaUmiet and Totnu. — Arkansas has 76 oonnties: Ar- 
kansas, Ashley, Baxter, Benton, Boone, Bradley, Calhoun, 
Oarroll, Chicot, Clark, Clay, Cleburne, Cleveland, Columbia, 
Conway, Craighead, Crawford, Crittenden, Cross, Dallas, 
Desha, Drew, Faulkner, Franklin, FuHon, Garland, Grant, 
Gh«ene, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Independence, 
IsartL Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Lafkyette, Lawrence, 
Lee, Linsoln, Little River, Logan, Lonoke, Madison, Marion, 
Miller, Missinippi, Monro^ Montgomery, Nevada, Newton, 
Ouachita, Pernr, Phillipe, Pike, Poinsett, Polk, Pope, Prai- 
rie, Pulaski, Randolph, St. Francis, Saline, Scott, Searcy, 
SefaastisA, Sevier, Sham, Stone, Union, Van Buren, Wash- 
iuKton, White, Woodruff, Tell. 

The principal towns are Little Rook, the capital (pop. in 
1900, 38,307), Fort Smith (pop. 11,587), Pine Bluff (pop. 
11,496), Hot Springs (pop. 9973), and Helena (pop. 6650).- ' 
Other places of consequence are Texarkana, Fayetteville, 
Eureka Springs, Camcton, and Arkadelphia. 

Ooctmmail.—A governor, secntary of state, treasurer, 
auditor, and attom^-general are elected for a term of 2 
years. The present constitution was adopted in 1874. Ar- 
kansas sends 7 representatives to the Federal Congress. 

Population. — In 1810 this region, then a part of Loulal- 
ana, had 1062 inhabitants, exclasire of Indiana. In 1620 
the population waa 14,266; in 1830, 30,388; in 1640, 97,674 
(withtia the preaent limits) ; in 1860, 309,897 ; in 1860, 
436,460; in 1870, 484,471; in 1880, 802,626; in 1890, 
1,128,179. The population in 1900 was 1,311,664, of whom 
14,289 were of foreign birth. There were in the state 
366,866 negroes, 62 Chinese, and 66 Indians. 

Hittory. — Arkansas was a part of French Louisiana, which 
was purchased in 1803 b;^ the United States. It beetune a 
portion of Missouri Territory in 1812, and was set off and 
organised as Arkansas Territory ih 1819. The state was 
admitted to the Union in 1836 ; it was but slowly developed 
until 1850, but in the decade following its population was 
doubled. A atate convention in 1861 passed an ordinance 
of seceeeion, and soon Arkansas became the scene of active 
military operationa. In 1864, the state being held under 
Federal military sway, an amended constitution was 
adopted, but it was rqected by Congress. The military 
rale was not relaxed antil 1868, when a new constitution 
was adopted, and ArkMiaaa was re-admitted to oongreesional 
representation. The great extension of railroads (mileage 
in 1900, 3167) in Aruinsas has been followed by a large 

Arkansas^ a oonnty in the SB. part of Arkansas, has 
an area of 1013 sq. m. It is bounded on the E. by White 
River and on the SW. by the Arkansas River, which is 
navigable by steamboats, and is intersected by Metoe Bayou. 
Capital, Dewitt. Pop. in 1890, 11,432 ; in 1900, 12,973. 

Arkansas City, a banking poet-village, capital of 
Deeha co.. Ark., on the Mississippi River and on the St. 
Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern R., 71 miles SB. of 
Pine Bluff. It is a shipping point for cotton. Pop. in 1900, 

Arkansas Citr« a banking city of Cowley co., Kan., 
on the Arkansas River, at the junction of the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Mi and other railroads, 14 miles S. of 
Winfidd. It is a distributing point for the military poets, 
cattle-ranches, and agenoies, and has rarions manufartnree. 
Pop. in 1880, 1013: In 1890, 8347; in 1900. 6140. A na- 
tional Indian sehool is located here. 

Arkansas^ Moant« Colo., is near the sonioe of the 
Arkansas Rirer, in hit 39° 32' N., Ion. 106° 16' W. It has 
an altitude of about 13,800 feet abore aea-IersL 

Digitized by 


Arkansas Poet 



ArkaBcas Post, a pott-rillage of AAuin* eo., Ark., 
on tbe Arkaimc Rivor, about 80 milce SB. of Little Book. 

Ar'kaBasw^, a post-villa^ of Popin oo., Wis., 3 milea 
W. of Dorand. Pop. abont 250. 

Ark'dale, a post-village of Adams eo., Wis., 34 miles 
NS. of New Lisbon. 

Ar'kell, a post-village of Wellington eo., Ontario, 6 
miles from Ouelph. 

Arkell, Iiaxe, in the Yukon District of Canada, giving 
sonree to one of the head-waters of the Yukon River. Lat. 
about 80° W ; Ion. 130° W. 

Arkeski, a port of eall of Ji^wo, in the NE. part of 

ArkkangeUk. See Abchavsbl. 

Aikiko, ar-kee'ko, a sei^XHrt oT Eritrea, on a bav of 
tbe Bed Sea, opposite the island of Hassowah. Pop. about 

Arklow, ark'lS, a maritime town and parish of Ireland, 
eo. of Wiaklow, on the Avooa, 89 miles SSS. of Dublin. 
Pop. about 4200. 

Ar'koe, formerly Brldgewater, a post-hamlet of 
Kodawa; eo., Ho., on tbe railroad between St. Joseph and 
HaiyviUe, 37 miles N. of St. Joseph. 

Arko'na, a post-village of Lambton eo., Ontario, 7 miles 
S. of Widder. Pop. in 1901, 468. 

Arkonaf an-ko'ni, a promontory on the N. ooast of the 
island of RUgen, in the Baltio. On its snmmit is a light- 
house, whose light is visible abont 36 miles. On the W. 
side an the ruins of a stone waU, which formed part of a 
famous medisBval stronghold, containing a temple of the 
Wend deity Swantawit. 

Arkport, a post-village of Steuben co., N.Y., on the 
Erie R., 6 miles NNW. of HomellsviUe, its banking point. 
Pop. abont 500. 

Arkadi, an island of Oreeoe. See AnoBrm. 

Arkvilie, or Deaa'8 Comera, a poet-hamlat and 
summer-resort of Delaware CO., N.Y., in the Oatskill Moun- 
tain^ on the Ulster and Delaware R., 48 miles WNW. of 

Arkwright, ark'rtte, a poet-township (town) of Chaa- 
taaqna oo., N.Y. It has oheese-foctories. P(m. in 1900, 918. 

Arkwright, a village of Providence and Kent cos., R. I., 
on the Pawtnzet River and on the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford R., t miles 8. of Providence. It has manufiw- 
tnres of cotton goods. 

Arkwright, a post-village of Spartanburg co., S.C. 
Pop. abont 75. 

Arkwright, a pott-village of Brace co., Ontario, 22 
miles from Owen Sound. 

Arlanc, or Arlaat, anUftji^, a small town of France, 
in Pny-de-DAme, 40 milea SB. of Clermont-Ferrand. 

Anand, a post-village of Jiekam oo,, Mioh., on the 
Miohinn Central R., IS miles NW. of Jackson. 

Arlania, an-lin'thi, a river of Spain, in Old Castile, 
rising in the Sierra de Neila, flows W. and joins the Arlan- 
xtfn alter a coarse of 00 miles. 

Arianz^B, an-Iln-thSn', a river of Spain, in Old Cas- 
tile, rises in the Sierra Pineda and, flowing SW., falls into 
the Pbverga after a eonrse of 70 miles. 

Adart anMi', a town of France, department of Jura, 7 
miles N. of Lons-le^Sanlnier. Pop. about 1000. 

Ariberg, anl'bjns', or Adlersberg, i'dlfrs-bino^ 

'eagle's mount"), a braooh of the Rhsetian Alps, in the 

> part of Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The Arlberg Pass, 
which forms part of the bonnduy between Tyrol and 
Vorarlbetv, and is the water-shed between the Rhine and 
the DanaSe, on the road connecting Bludens with Landeok, 
reaches a snmmit of 5910 feet. The Ariberg r^lroad tun- 
nel, whose highest point is 1000 ft. below that of the pass, 
is 0} miles in length, 20 ft. wide, and 23 it high. It was 
constructed in 1880-83 at a cost of 10,000,000 florins. 

Arien, a post^vilUge of Bnlloeh oo., Oa., 15 miles (di- 
rect) BE. of Statesboro. Pop. about 90. 

Aries, aril (I^. pron. anl; ano. Ar'tUu, Arela'te, or 
Ar^Uf'ttm), a city of^Franc^ in Provence, department of 
Bonohes-dn-RhAne, on the left bank of the Rhone, where it 
subdivides to form its delta (La Camargne), I& miles fWmi 
the Mediterranean and 44 miles NW. a Marseilles. It is 
one of the oldest towns of soathem France. On the princi- 
pal sqnare is the tne HAtel de Ville, and in the centre stands 
a grimite obelisk, a relic of the ancient splendor of the 
plMC, r«.erectcd in the seventeenth oentury. Among the 
buildingt of note are the mediteval cathedral and the ehnioh 
of Notie Dame. The prineipal Roman ranaios are an 
amphitheatre which is supposed to have surpassed that of 
Ntmes in sise and magnifloence, and which uts been con- 
verted into a boll-ring, a vast theatre, among whose ruins 
the Yenns of Aries, now in the Lonvre, was discovered, 
and a oemetvy unearthed in recent times. Aries has 
■mseoms, a public library, and a school of hydrography. 


EUiip-bnildiag is carried on, and there are maehine- and 
car-sh<^, and manufactories of hats, etc The town is coo- 
nected with the Meditemnean at Bono by a shipmaaal. 
Aries is prominent in early eoelesiastical history. A flunons 
irynod was held here in 363. The place gave its name to a 
medissval kingdom, whieh comprised a considerable part of 
what U now SB. France. Pop. in I901, 38,673 ; of the eom- 
munc 29,314. 

ArleskeiBi, aB'l«s-him«\ a small town of Switnrlaod, 
about 5 miles S. of the town of Basel. Pop. 1000. 

Arlea-vr>Teck, aBl'sttn'tish', a town of France, 
Pyr£n£es-Orientales, 20 milea SW. of Perpunan. It has 
an ancient obnreh. Pop. (commune) abont &06. 

Arleaton, a poet-village of Panola eo., Tez. 

ArliBfton, a post-village of WUcoz co., Ala., 4» miles 
by rail SW. of Selma. 

Arlington, a post- village of Riverside co., Cal., on the 
Southern California R. The banking point is Riverside. 

ArlinEtOB, a poet-village of Kiowa Co., Colo., 03 miles 
by rail W. by 8. of Sheridan Lake. Pop. abont 100. 

Arlington, a banking post-village of Cathoon co.. Gs., 
on the Central R. of Georgia, 30 miles W. of Albany. 
It has cotton and cotton-seed oil interests. Pop. in I960, T6i. 

Arlington, a banking post-village of Burean ce^jm^ 
on the Chicago, Bnriington and Quiney R., 93 miles W81^ 
of Chicago. Pop. abont 400. 

Arliii«ton (formerly Barlington or Beeck 
Grove), a banking post-village of Biush oo., Ind., on On 
Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton R., 7 miles WNW. at 
BushviUe. Pop. about 400. 

Arlington, a banking poet-town oi Fayette co., Iowa, 
on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul B., 70 miles NW. 
of Dubuque. It is largdy engaged in the shipping at live- 
stock. Pop. in 1900, 8«3. 

Arlington, a banking city ot Banc oe., Kan., 17 miles 
SW. of Hntchinson, on the Chicago, Bock Island and Paeiflo 
B. Pop. in 1900, 312. 

Arlington, a banking post-town of Carlisle co., Ey., 
on the Illinois Cenb«l R., 6 miles S. of Bardwell, its bank- 
ing point Pop. in 1900, 684. 

Artington, formerly Hookstown, a post-village of 
Baltimore co., Hd., on the Western Maryland R., 6 miles 
N. of Baltimore. Pop. about 800. 

Arlington, a banking post-village of Middlesex eo., 
Mass., in Arlington township (town), on the Boston and 
Maine R., 6 miles NW. of Boston. It has various mann- 
fiustores, etc Pop. of the town in 1900, 8603. See An- 


Arlington, a banking post-village of Sibley oc, Minn., 
on the Minneapolis and St. Loais B., 66 miles W. by S. M 
Minnes^lis. Pop. in 1900, 713. 

Arlington, a post-village of Phelps oc, Mo„ on the 
Gaaoonade Biver and on the St. Louis and San Franoiaeo 
R., 126 miles SW. of St. Louis. 

Arlington, a banking port-village of Washington oo., 
Neb., 9 miles 1^ rail E. of Fremont Pop. in 1900, 670. 

Arlington, a post-village of Hudson eo., N. J., on the 
Erie R., 3 miles from Newark. It has varied utd important 

Arlington, a post-village of Ddtehess oo., N.Y. Pop. 
abont 100. 

Arlington, a banking poet-village of Hanooek co., Ohi<>, 
on th