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Full text of "Literary history of ancient India, in relation to its racial and linguistic affiliations"

CANDRA CAKRAVARTI 



LITERARY HISTORY 
OF ANCIENT INDIA 

In Relation to its Racial 
and Linguistic Affiliations 



l.—RIK-SAMA-TAJUR-ATHARVA VEDAS — BRAHMANAS — DHARilA- 
SUIRAS — UPANISHADS — RAMAYANA - MAHABHARATA— THE ETHNIC 
AND HISTORICAL BACK GROUND. 2. — SCRIPT. 3.— STELLAR MYTHS 
4. — ASTRONOMY. 5,— ARTS. 6, — COINS. 7. — INDIAN KINGDOMS IN 
KHOTAN AND INDONESIA — BUDDHIST AND HINDU TANTRA CULTS. 



VIJAYA KRISHNA BROTHERS OMIN CO. INC. 

81, Vivckananda Road New York 

CALCUTTA-6 U. S. A. 



PREFACE 

There are plenty of materials of anthropological, ethnic, 
sociological and cultural importance, scattered through the 
Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, archeological finds, architectural 
monuments, coins, sculptures and . inscriptions. These have 
been investigated to v^^rite this Literary History of Ancient 
India which naturally connotes also the History of its 
Civilization, and Culture— Krishti Ev. 1. 4. 6. Literature 
embraces various subjects of studies, including animal husbandry, 
af^roaomics, crafts, and sciences which have been hardly dealt 
with ia these pages. The soil regarded as the precious gift of 
the Mother Earth, and like her boundless love, is inexhaustible 
if properly maintained with the rotation of leguminous herbs 
and sustained by an year old residual sludges of the dung pits 
where cattle droppings and human excreta (sakrt — Gk. skatos 
= Lat. cacare) mixed with human and animal food remnants, 
vegetable and agricultural wastes were converted within 
G-9 mDnths into excellent nourishing fertilizing inocuous 
humus. Irrigation by canals and drawing water through water 
wheels from the rivers and wells were known even in Vedic 
periods (Rv, 3. 4. 3-5 ; 7, 69, 12 • 10. 99. 4) ; so the improvements 
of seeds of desired characteristics through cross-breeding, 
by proper selection and acc^amatizing them to exposures to 
alternate heat and cold, and enveloping them with a kind of 
mud mixture pellet to prevent their destruction through 
insects and to facilitate their quick germination in contact with 
water, were known (Parasara Krishi Tantra of 6th century). 

I am well aware therefore of the disproportion which exists 
between the magnitude of my task and the imperfections of 
this book. I have simply tried in this work to focus attention 
from divergent angles of vision to avoid the errors from the 
study which is made from one point of view only -a thing which 
has been generally neglected. 




THE LITERARY HISTORY 
OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Rk (-rch-arka = Arm. erg (praisel-Gk. orego ; i:ta = Zd. 
arta- Gk. arti — Lat. artas— Ger. recht = ritual) Veda (Zd. vaeda 
-=Lat. video (to seel-OSlav. vede-Ger. Wissen) Samhita 
is the oldest literary collection in India next to Mohenjodaro 
and Hirappa ideographic seals. But in Purusha Snkta (x, 90), 
wa find that "from the universal Jajiia (Zd. Yasna) originated 
Roah=»Rk3, Chaudansi (Zd. zend -chants — Sama), Yajus (Zd. 
yazai — G-k. agos, agizo) and Ajayata-Ni (Zd. ni-Gk. eni — 
Slav. nizu = Ger. ni-dar- beneath) - Vids — Atharva Magic 
Spells," X 90.9. "His mouth was the Brahmana (Flamen), 
his arms, Rajanyah (regnants — Lat. regnum), his thighs Vaishyah 
(Bessi), and his legs, Sudra (Chudes), x,. 90, 12, though the First 
and Teath Mandalas of the Rk Veda are supplements. Vajain 
(Vagienni= Vajji) Yajnavalkya (Zd. yasna — sacrifice ; varcas = Zd. 
varecah = strengthener), a contemporary of Parikshita'a grand- 
son Sataniki, Abhira (Avar) Cando Pradyota of Avanti, 
■Udena- Udayana (of Udes tribe) of Kausambhi, and Sakya (Sacae 
= Chin. Sek) Gotam Buddha, is reputed to be the compiler of the 
Yajus. especially Vajasenayi Samhita. The vedic compilations are 
ascribed to Vyasa = Lat. vates (poet and prophet). Rk Veda 
has 10L7 Suktas (hymns ; including Bala (Lith. vaikas)- 
Khilays (Cymr. coel = (3-ael. cel = OSlav. heil = Gk. koilo- youngest 
■supplements. iUJ8), 10, l35J Rks = stanzas, 1053, 826 Padas- 
liuealfeat- verses, and 4,32.000 soaras — words of which 24oO 
Padas are repetitions, excluding the refrains (nodarka), divided 
into 10 sections (Mandalasi. The family 6ections-2 to 8-are 
the oldest. These Prakrit family collections were revised and 
Sanskritized (Rv. 10, 71, 2) many times.* But in final redaction, 
all the hymns of the refreshing and stimulating Pavamana 
(clearly flowing) Soma (Zd. haemo-S. Chin, huo-ma = hemp ■= 

*As food grains are refined through a sieve, the learned after delibera- 
tions have developed this language so that the a3S9ciates may communicate 
with each other in assemblies with this enriched ennobled speech 
(saktum iva nitaun\ punanto yatra dhira manasa vacam akrata atra 
sakhayah sakhyani j^nate bhadraish^m lakshmir nihitadhi v5ci 
Rv. X. 71. 2). Yaska-Nirukta 1.16 answers the objections of Kautsa that 
the vedic mantms are meaningless (anarthaka hi mantrah) by pointing 
out that the Vedas have meaning, because their words are identical with 
the spoken speech (arthavantah sabda s^manyat : samanyat : samana eva 
sabdo loke mantreshuca = identical are the words of both spoken tongue 
jind the Vedas ; similar words occur in both. 



4 THB LITERABY HISTOBT CF ANCIENT INDIA 

Cannabis sativa, though some have also identified it with 
Ephreda which is called Hum) were taken out and gathered 
into a separate Ninth Mandala ; and miscellaneous popular 
ballads were grouped into first and tenth Mandalas. Second 
Mandala appears by its archaic words to be the oldest, 
ascribed to Gritsa (clever) Madas (Gritsa - Mada priya deveshu, 
Kv. 2.41, 18. Medes were called Mandas by Cyrus ; Assyrians in- 
Esarhaddon's inscription called the Kimmerians =Kinnara 
as Mandas. Naramsin had to defend the Assyrian empire against 
the attacks of Umman-Manda coming from the north •, Achaem, 
Mada, Madai •, Madras, Manda-Marunda j Airam Mada Bv. x, 
146. There is a Kinnar non-Mongoloid people in Kulu valley, 
Xiahour and "Rampur on the left bank of the Sutlej on Tibetan 
border, though now practising polyandry. Yudisthira had 
Kinnara bodyguards). Next comes the Fifth Mandala of 
Atrayas (Ev. 5,40.9; Atreyas-Atrena) ; Sixth Mandala of 
Bharat (Brutti = Phraotes)-Vaias (6.25-9 = Vagienni) ; Third 
Mandala of Gathino (1, 7, 1 — Guti, Gudi-Gudea Kurds -Quadi 
= Gaddis of Gaderan of the Kangra valley) Visvamitra (3, 6iJ^ 
13- Vispamitra Udambara = Finno-Ugrian Udmurt -coins have 
been found in Jallender area; — Kusika (Kosik, a Hun tribe, 
MBh. 1, 71 ; 3, 84 ; a Maharaja Visvamitra Svami is mentioned 
in a Besnagar — east Malava seal inscription) ; Seventh Mandala. 
of Vasishtha (7, 7, 7 — Varisti) •, Fourth Mandala of Gotama 
(Gothones- Goths, 4, 32, 9) Vama (Fr. femme)-deva (lords) j 
Eighth Mandala of Kanvasas (Chaones, 8, 4, 2). 

Gritsa-Mada (2, li'4) to Indra : Make us strong with Dasir 
(Daci), Visah (Bessi) and Suryena (Sauro-Mat89) = x, 148.2 of 
Prithu (Parthian) Vainya. Gritsa-Mada (2, £6"4) : It is not 
proper for a number of youthful maidens, humected by excite- 
ment, to dote coquetishly over one youngman. Apala Atreyi 
(8,91,5 — 6): Indra, grow in these three places -my father's 
head, his cultivated field, and below my belly (upodare, = pubes- 
where there is scanty growth of hair in adreno-ovarian insuffi- 
ciency ; the female body is glabrous or has downs except there is 
hairy growth on head, brows, eye lashes, pubes and axillae) ; let 
crops of hair sprout up in the yon cultivated field of ours, on my 
private parts and on my father's head. 

A Hittite text of Myrselos of the middle of I4th century B. C. mentions 
Ahhiyava as a naval power under the leadership of Attairsiyas (Atreus=- 
Atreyas). Ahhiyava = Achaeoi (Ikhaku = Okkaka) as the sea people 
occupied Cyprus in 14th century, plundered the coast of Caria, and 
became the ally of the Hittite king. According to Madhuritta cuneiform 
text found at Boghaskoi, Cyprus with its capital Alasia was occupied by 
another sea roving Greek people Attarisija (Atreus) of Piggaya during the 
time of Hittite king Arnavanda (1225—1205). Hittite kings of 15th 
century were seated on lion-footed thrones (I. L, N. Dec. 1929). They 
were followed by Danauo i^Danae = Dans =» Danu, Danava) and Philistines. 



BIG VEDA 6 

Syavasya Atreya, 5, 82. 3 : May Savita and Bhaga bestow 
the treasures — wealth on Daseshu (Dacis) = 7. 66, 4 of Vashista 
to Adityas : When the hero (sura — Surya) rises, sinless Mitra, 
Aryam^ Suvati Savita Bhagah ; here suvaii ia meaningless and 
seems that the Pada is borrowed from the Atreyas. Visruta 
Atreya 5, 4, 10 : Give us fame ; bestow on us immoriality through 
our progeny fyaso asmasu dhchi ; prajabhir amritatvam as}Tim). 
Vasisitha : Like the self-regulating inviolate order of Aditi, great 
kings rule (uta svara jo Aditir adabdhasya vratasya ye, maho- 
rajana isate. 7. 60. 6). Vasisthas wore white garments and 
arranged their Jcapardas — crown shaped spiral coils of the 
braided plaited matted hair — on the right side of the head, — 
Rv. 7, 33, I ; 83. y. Vitihavya .in^trasa- Ancharius, 5, l5, 12 : 
O Agni (there is also Agnean Kucha Tocharian clan), guard us 
from those that will attack us ; save us. o thou victor, from 
dishonour ; thy smoke-screened path follows thee ; let wealth 
be ours in thousands — 7, 4, 9 of Vasishtha. Agni is the issue 
of the friction of two pieces of fire sticks — aranis- the upper 
part male, the lower female i'3, v?9. "i, 25). The fire-drill is 
Pramantha = Gk, Prometheus ; Yavishtha, 1,22, 10 = Hephaistos ; 
Bharanyu — Phoroneus. Rahugana Gotama to Ushas - Eos, 1, 92, 
7 : Radiant chief (netri), forerunner of good news (after long 



Pelasgoi = Egypt. Pulasati - Assyr. Pulastu -> Pulasta) who ushered iron 
age, superceding bronze in 12th century. In Hattushash = Boghazkeui 
inscription Pala is the language of the country Palaumniti. Anatolia was 
occupied by 18th century B. C. by the Hittites (Khatti in Assyrian 
inscriptions ; Kheta of the Egyptians ; Keteioi of Homer). But by 14th 
century the northern parts of Anatolia were occupied by the Bryges 
(Phrygios- Phrygians = Bhrigus), and the Khattis were pushed south. In 
1182 B. C, Phrygian Troy was attacked by the Achaean confederacy, and 
after 10 years struggle, destroyed it. known as Trojan War. By the 
Achaean incursions, Phrygians (Bhrighus) were pushed south, and they 
in their turn drove the Khatti further south. Syavasva (darkish horse) 
Atreya, contemporary of Taranta fTaranchi of Hi region) to the daughter 
of Rathavite Darbha '5, 61, 10, 17) whom he married : Many a woman is 
often better than the faithless unloving man (uta tva stri sasiyasi punso 
bhavati vasyasi adevatrad aradhasah (5, 61, 6). She understands (succours) 
the tired, thirsty or the amorous and directs their minds towards gods 
(vi ya j'Hnati jasurim, vi trishyantam vi kaminam devatra krinate manah : 
S, 61, 7). Yet many unpraised mean misers are called men, only in wergeld 
(amonst the Teutons the value set on a man's life to be p.aid to avoid 
retaliation by his, kindred ; vairadeyaK 5, 61, 8. And this joyous sprited 
maiden is showing me the path— to this darkle (uta me 'rapad yuvatir 
mamandushi prati Syavaya vartanin. 5. 61, 9). There was another 
Sumitra Vadhryasva, castrated horse (x 69. 3), father of Divo-DAsa 6. 61, 1. 
You have conquered the plain and mountain-dwelling Dacis, Arattas and 
Aryas, hero like daring Cyavana-Sabini peoples (sam ajraya = Lat, ager, 
Gk. agros - Parvatya vasuni Das\ - Dacis - Vritrani - Arattas - Aryi - Arii 
jigetha sura iva drishnus- Lith. = drislu. Gk. tharsein - Cyavano 
Sabini-jananam x, 69, 6. Vaptr, x, 143. 4 -barber. 



6 THE LITEBAET HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

polar night), the daughter of the sky (Diva-duhita —Lett. 
Dievvodukte) ; lauded by Gotamas (Gothones)= 1, 113, 4 of 
Kutsa—Kutzo-Vlachs. Gotama Vamadeva, 4,18, 13: Rachan. 
==Busniak (Little Russians) are called Ku-tse in west Caucasus. 
Gotama Vamadeva, 4, 19, 7 : Youthful virgins (agru) during 
their ruts become fountains of seductive charms. Gotama 
Yamadeva, 4, 19, 9 : The maiden's son whom ants were eating 
was rescued from the ant hill. Gotama Vamadeva 4, 18, 13 : 
During privations, I cooked dog's (suna — Gk. chuoa — Fr. chien 
==Lat. canis) intestines ; among the gods I found no succour,— 
I saw my wife dishonoured. Kakshivan, 1, 12,3 — 4: Clothed in 
light, Ushas ^Eos was regarded as Aphrodite ; Zd. Asa vahista = 
Skt. vasista — Goth, batista, best) as a maiden appears in the 
east and unveils her charms. Ahana 1,123'4=' Athena, 
Saranyu x, l7.2=-Erinys. Gathina Visvamitra, 8, 62, 10: 
Tat (that) Savitur (Savitar's) varenyam (excellent) bhargo 
(radiance = light) devasya (divine) dhi (desires) mahi ( great => 
ardent) dhiyo (fulfil',yo (who -which ) n ah (nas = Zd. na = Gk. no = 
Lab. nos — Fr. nous = our) procodayat (stimulate). =■ That Savitri's 
(viviQer : vivifying power of the morning sun) excellent divine 

Lic^ht let it inspire us and fulfil our ardent desires 

(heliotheraphy).* According to Brahma Purana 13,89 and- 
Harivamsa 27, 12-13, Kusika Visvamitris lived with Pahlavas — 
Parthians where solar worship was common. Madhuchandas 
Vaisvamitra 1, 4, 6 -6 : Though these men may mock at us and 
say, Depart unto another place, our own men call us cultured 
(uta bruvantu no nido nir anyatas cid a rata voceyur dasma. 
Krishtayah). 3.4.8-11 of Gathina Visvamitra -7, 2. 8-11 of 
Vasishtha Maitra-varuni. Durable twilight with refulgence is 
characteristic of the Arctic region ; its knowledge was sung by 
Gotamas (Gothones even after migrations to tropics, 7, 67. i 
Tamasas cid antah = limits even of darkness; 2,27.14 Asyam 
abhayam jyotir ma no dirgha abhinasan tamisrah = may I reach 



♦Other interpretations are possible. In 3.62.8 the singer asks Pvishan to 
fulfil his desires as the bridegroom satisfies the desires of his brides- 
(Vadhnyur iva yoshanam). Pushan resembles Gk. Pan who was the _ god 
of fertility. So Tat Savitur (Subigus the Roman God of wedding night) 
barenyam (choicest woman) bhargo-devasya (of divine radiance) dhi-mahi 
(of intense libido j dhiyo (procure) yonah (yona = conception rite = 
Garbha-dana) yo (who; nah (Lat. nos = Fr. nous -us) pra (ardent; codayat 
(coitus). = Let Savitri give us the choicest (woman) of intense libido so 
that by her ardent coitus conception may be ptocured._ 3.62.11, Devasya 
Savitur vayam vajayantah puramdhya bhagasya (vagina or of Bhaga) 
ratim (favours, ratiin = pleasures ) imahe = we earnestly pray to divine 
Savitri to grant us coitional pleasure ; here the favours of Bhaga is 
irrelevant and meaningless. Savitrim = prasava-karanam. Sarvaloka 
prosavanat Saviia satu kirtate, Vahni Puranam, which indicates clearly the 
procreating function of Savitri. 



RIQVEDA 7 

the broad protective light ; may not long darkness overtake us. 
So of long days, even of six months duration i Chandajya Up x 1, 
2--J). In Ramayana, Kishkindhya 43, 38-54, it is mentioned 
in Uttara-Kuru (Kurland), even when there is no sun, there 
is refaigeace- aurora borealis (UttaraKuruvastha deso visuryohpi 
tasya vasa prakasate). 

Vasishtha to Saraavati — flowing water— Zd. Harahvati «= 
Aquarius. 7/26.6 : Protect ua } give us progeny ( prajan) and 
food = 9.S.9 of Asita (Ossete) Kasyapa (Kasipi — Kaspi = Caspian 
Scyths). Rijisvan Bharadvaja. 6.ol, 6: Dyaus (Zd. Dyaosh- 
Lith. Diewas — Zeus) our father (Dyau3-pitah = de08 pater- 
Jupiter - father God), Earth (prithivi) mother pure. Agni 
brothel' aad Vasavo ( — Gk. Eaon = Zd. Vaehu, Vohu = Gael. uisu 
rix =Goth. iu-sza — Gei*. ess) bless us. United they were called 
Dyava-Prithivi — Rodasi (2,27,l'i) = Gk. Rhodas. Narada Kanva 
to Indra, «. 13.25 : Give us abundant food and protect us well — 
y.6L.l5 of Amahiyu Angirasa to Pavamano Soma. Asita Devala 
— Zd. Dahae- Chin. Ta-Hia of Bactria^ 9.18.1 : Of mountain 
(giri — Lith. gire— Zd. gairi = OSlav. gore). Soma best grown on 
Mount Mujavat X. ci4. t=» Mazanderan and amonst the Arjikas, 
9.65."^3=» Ar-Sacea — Ar-Shaka) through sieve becomes the 
most stimulating drink, Dirgha ( Dargha) - Taraas (Tamas) 
l,164.y3: Dyau (Lat.Deo = Gael. Dia = Fr. Diea-heaven) 
is our generating father ; here is our relation ; this great Earth 
is our friendly iSIother (Dayur me pita janita, nabhir atra ; 
bandhur me mata Prithivi mahiyam. Vasishtha 7.41.5 j 
Bhaga (Zd. Bagha =■ Slav. Bogu = Lith. Bagotas — Gk. Bogaios ; 
Bhagastano — Behistan) eva Bhagavan (Arm. house of God). 
Bhagiratha -Gk, Bagora^as (waggon of Bago), Bagradas. Jamad- 
Agni (Lithaaanian J'7;iowc? — Zbmud «=> Zins, allied with 
Reudigni, Marsigni and Peligni or Tocharians who were known 
as Agnis ; 8.90. 15) : To people who understand, I shall proclaim 
—Injure not Aditi, the cow, sinless (anagas— Gk. anages j 
agas — Gk. agos ; Aditi— the infinite expanse of the sky, was 
conceived as a cow — Hathor by ancient Egyptians, consort of 
Adad, the Aramaean sky and thunder god. 7i?tr7t(Lithuanian 
Kors of Kurland - Pers. Kurush, Gk. Cyrus of Karasani- 
SrAvana (-glory, Zd. aravahi ; X. 33, 2-8) : Persians (Parsava- 
Achaera. Parsa) like co-wives are pressing me ; poverty, naked- 
ness and fatigue, as mouse gnaws at sisna ( leather phallus : 
Copt, sisinnios as a charm amulet) are tearing me out ; my mind 
is now restless like a flying bird. 8 51, 8. Ojasa Krivim "Tjxih. 
Krivichi = Krive Kriveyto. Airavata (= lightning, as bearer of 
Indra, became associated with elephant) Jarat (Zd. zareta — 
OSlav. zareti. zreti = Gk. geron-old man) -Kama Sarpa (X, 76) 
or Sharpa, a clan found in N, Nepal, was regarded as Kauravya. 
Sarama (Sarmatfe who included the Lithuanians ) and the 
Panis (Pcoai = Phcenike3 ; Pani, a tribe in Baluchistan or Parni 



8 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

of Parthia ; later Vanika ) x, 10-i : What wish of Sarama 
has brought her here ? How hast thou made thy way over 
Rasa's (Volga was called Rhos) waters ? Rocky cave is our 
treasure chamber, full of valuable kine and asses ; watchful Panis 
guard them over. Thy expedition will be in vain. But turn 
thee back not ; we shall make thee our sister, give thee cattle 
to enjoy your excellent vagina (subhaga bhajama ; 9). Sarama : 
I crave not brotherhood or sisterhood • manly ( Indro — Gk, 
andros\ wise (vidur) and terrible (ghorah) Angirasas (Ancharius*, 
desirous of your cattle, have sent me } hence into distance, ye 
Panis go. Vasa Asvya (Sarmatian Asioi^Russ. Aasi — Asvaka, 
Asvasena ; 8,4t3) : Vasa Asvya received from glorious 'Parthian 
(Prithusravas) Kanita (Skt. kshanitr = canal maker) steeds, 
kine and camels (ii) • also a hundred from Dasa (Daci) Balbutha 
and Taruksha (Turks ; Kahlana describes Kanishka of Taruksha 
race , Sakas, Hunas and Kushanas were Turkish. 22). Now this 
stately dame (sya yoshana, perhaps the queen of the conquered 
king), adorned with ornaments of gold is brought to Vasa Asvya 
(33). A Greco-Baktrian coin of Kanita of 2Qd century B.C. has 
been found in the Oxus region. In a battle on the Hariyapia 
(Hariob — Harappa\ Parthava Abhayavartin Chayaman over- 
threw Varasikha (Sarmatian Borusci = Poruaci — Prussians ; on 
the Yavyavati (Zhob), Turvasas (Tauri-Bessi ; Zd. Turahya ; Yt. 
17.15: Tura has asu-aspa — swift horses "-Turuska, nomadic Tauri 
•■ Turanian Scyths) were taken prisoners by Prastoka Srinjaya 
(Zaranka of Darius). Dairavata Abhayavartin Chayaman, 
having many young wives, mighty, a great emperor (vadhumato 
maghava mahyam samrat) gave JBharat-Vajas two wagon loads 
of damsels and 20 cows (6.27,5-8) . Mudgala (Magelli-Moggali) 
advanced towards Magadha (Monghyr— Mudgala-giri ; Mogga- 
liana in Rajagir of Moggali descent) being emboldened by 
marrying Indrasena, the heroic daughter of Damayanti and 
Nala of Kasi — Kassite, Akkad. Kasoe) descent. Indrasena 
Mudgalani was a daring charioteer (X. 139,2). Dasas (Dacis, 
=« Soducene ; Divo Daso, Su Dasa ) occupied the territory called 
Pancala, after their original native place Pantalia. To offer 
resistance to the aggressive imperialism of Su-Das (Sodas 
Kalmasa-pada who also occupied Ayodhya territory ; according 
to MBh 1,30 5-16, Sesha (^Sses), Vasuki (Uzbeg), Karkotaka (Kar 
Kitans), Kalmasa (Sodas Kalmas is also found in a Mathura 
inscription). Aryaka (Arsaces), Takshaka (Tocharis), Asvatara 
(Asoi). Ugraka (Ugri, Hun Uigurs). Uraga (Urgi), Nahusa 
(Nassi, Deva Nahusa — Dionysus), Kauravya (Kors), Tittiri 
(Tatars), Dhananjaya, Dhritarastra, Tuji (Tajiks) were included 
among Saka Nagas), a confederacy' was formed of 1. Simyu 
(of Dans, Zd. Danu, Gk. Danoi) ; 2. Turvasa = Tauri- 
Bessi ; 3. Matsya = Mattiaci ; 4. Bhrigus-Bryges-Phrygios, 
5. Druhyus -Durhani- Druse - Dorus ; 6. Paktha8 = Paktan = 



RIGVEDA 9 

Tictones ; 7. Bhalanas=- Bantu-speaking Balong. 8. Alinas 
— Sauro Matae Alani, an allied Ossete clan — 0. I'ers. Alaiuan — 
Alana of the Chinese Han period; 9. Sibis — Sabaeans-= Sibi 
Kekayas of N. W. P ; 10. Vishanins (Hainitic Bisharin 
of Bejas-Bissayis) ; 11. Vaikarna = Vehrkana of Fargs. 
1. 12 — Vai-kana of Darius Behistan inscription = Varka m 
Nakesh Rustam inscription of Saka Hauraa- Varka — Vrikas and 
Varkeya in Panini's Ayudhajivi Sanghas = Slav. Varecks. 
Varangians = Varciani ; 12. Kabashas (Kalasha Kafirs, 
authors of X, 30 88^; 13. Anus of Sumer of Anau origin; 
14, Puru-=Purash Khatti — Khet = Hittites regarded as Kolchir 
Scyths by Herod. 2. 104. 15. Bheda (Bedawi = Bedouin ; 
16. Ajas-Ham. Aja or Parth. Azes ; 17. Sifjrus = Sigrians ; 
38. Yakshus - Yaksha = Yeshkin speaking 8hina = Yuechi ; 
(Nagyris are half and half Yeshkuin and Shina) ; 1^. Sambara — 
•Cymbry 7. 18, 6— 7. Pi (very)-]avana (enerj^etici Su-Das 
(Sudra Paijavana, MBh. 12, 38-10) became victorius and in 
gratitude gave Parasaras (Parsirae). Satyatu= Saktpi - Sogdi, and 
Vasisthas (Varisti) 200 cows, two chariots full of damsels, carried 
by four well trained horses, decorated with pearls '7. 18. 2l-2cJ). 
Bhargava Uttanka, jamata (Zd. zamatar , Gk. games=»to 
marry; gametes - husband ; gametis — wife) of Saradvant 
(Sardones) and Ahalya (of Ahala gens), when returnmg with 
a pair of bejewelled valuable earrings from Madayanti and her 
consort Saudasa Kalmasapada, he met on his way Airavata 

Kakshivati Ghosha rajnauce duhiia = As. dohtor=-OHG Tohter x. 40,5. 
daughter of king to Asvini : Who brings you to bed like the widow 
(vidhava = Ital. vedova = Zd vidova = Lat. vidua = Goth. widuo-Russ. 
vdova) her devara Lat. devir, levir = OSlav. devari - Lith. deweris = Gk. 
daer), the maiden her lover fmaryam - Lat. maris ; Fr. marie = bridegroom) 
to spin (copulate by to and fro movements as in spinningi in a standing 
posture (sadhastha) x, 40. 2 Ko vam sayutra vidhaveva devaram 
maryam na yosha krinute sadhastha. To both of you o Asvins. as bees trust 
their honey in their mouths, so a maiden in her utter abandon 
(nishkrtam = venery) ; yuvor ha maksh^ pary Asvina madhu asa (Lat. os) 
bharata nishkritatn na yoshana, x. 40. 6. We know not, tell us, how 
a youth sows [ksheti] within the con (yoni = Gk. gyne. Lit. cunnus. 
Fr. con.) of a maiden We crave o Asvins a beloved bright (priya 
usriyasya) virile man's (^vrishabhasya) semen to enter into our enclosure 
(vagina) i na tasya vidraa tad ushu pra vocata yuva ha yad yuvatyah 
ksheti yonishu ; priyosriyasya vrishabhaya retino grih.im siamemav nl tod 
usmasi X, 40. 11. A maiden has been called a fertile field for sowing 
seeds for progeny Av. 12. 2. 14, Manu 9 3i. and in Koran 2. 22 your 
women are your plowland, Ar, harth. A very ardent fertile field has this 
woman come (.atmanityar vara nariyamagan) ; in her here o men 
scatter seeds (tasyo naro vapat vijamsyam. she shall give birth to progeny 
for you from her belly, bearing the exuded sperm of the male (sa vah 
prajam janayad vakshana bhyo vibhrati dugdamrishaohasya (a5s = vrisha, 
Vrishava - bull for male) retah Av. 14. 2. 14. 



10 THE LITERABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Sarpa Karus (AIBh. Airavafca Kauravya Ulupi-Ulpia gens, 
MBh. 1,207,18; 14,56—57); Sodas Kalmasa was defeated by 
the combined forces of Patrasaras (Parsirae), Saktris (Sogdisi, 
Kusas (Karaites*, Asmikas (SoQiaka,s = Conii) ; and Dasarathas 
(Dassaretae). Madayanti and her infaati son Sarva-Karman 
— Ritupacna were enslaved by Parasaras. Somikas became- 
close associates with GoSamas (4, 158). Kakshi-van (Gakshu = 
Czec;h = Poa3s Ghekka ; Ir. Kaikiwu3 = Kakas in MBb 8,9,94 ; 
Khakas of the Kirghiz =• Kak, Toki = Turkish Doghri = Dogra 
Hun tribes) defeated king (rajuo) Dasaratha though he was 
uuited with their princess Kaikayi, and carried away many 
cattle and damsels and many necklaces (l,12d.2— 5), Ghoaha 
Kakshivati (X, 3^,2—4) calls Asvins- Gemini, later Aries, 
Samirian 'Sivanu, Asivau, N^satyas (Khabti Na-sa-at at-tiya- 
Finno-Qgrian Mastasijai who rescued Tugra (Abyss. Tigre) 
from drowning, and reinforced Gy^wana (Sabini). Dasarathas 
and Putrus ware defeated by the combined forces of Bharatas 
(AS. Brittas = Lat. Britti-Fr. Breton = Brython) and Kusikas 
(Kosik, a Hun tribe), and Bharatas became the lords of the 
people (3,23, 2 — 4', and Bharata-varaa has been named after them. 

Lopamudra to Agastya (/Egisthus), 1.79'4 : Neglected by 
my bull (virile loveri, libido has overpowered me, thrilling 
my every organ. Agastya : Impatient Lopamudra, enjoy 
now your steady man who will remove your (sexual) tension. 
Dardhacyuta, y^o Idhmavaha = Idomenus of Grete. Ikshvaku 
X, 60,4 = Gk. Achaioi = Lat Achaeus, Achivi-ZEqui of Anes 
valley. Aksu of the Hi region -Pali Okkaka. Narya=»Nara 
(1.64-6)= Neri. Yadu (Yuti- U-Tan) Ugradeva= Ugrian lord, 
I,i56,l8. Atrayas receive gifts from the king of Kusamas, 
6 30,14 = Rusiniak = Little Russians or Rachan of W Caucasus. 
Kutsa (Kutzo-Vlachs) invokes the aid of Indra-^f Andhra or 
Andi of E Gaucasus) against Dasa (Daci) and Arya (Kelto- 
Germanic Arii-Arae of Armenia) who are called godless 
(X, 383). Indra rejoiced with Usane (Ausones) Kavye (i,51'll 
= Zd. Kavan, Kavye, Kavi, meaning king). To Ajigarta 
(Jadzwings, Jazyge, a Sarmatian tribe, is ascribed 1.2 1. To 
Sunahsepa — Gynoscephaloe, an allied tribe is ascribed 9.3. 
Sunahsepa, l,2b'7 : i\Iay our dear vispati (Lith. wiespats ; Lett. 
wisis = guests = Slav, gaspoda, ghostipati=-Goth, gastefaps = 
g03tipati = ouo who feeds and protects guests -=» chieftain ;vispatni, 
3 29-L. Letts had a god of hospitality -Geroklis) be oar 
priest, pleasant and choice-worthy. Marica-Lig. Marisci, Marici, 
y,ld,9-U : Where desires are fulfilled, make me immortal in 
that glorious paradise which is more alluring than heavens i9). 
Where instantaneously cravings are satisfied, there is perpetual 
fountain of soma drink, there are feasts and festivals, pleasures 
and merriments, make me immortal there (10k Where hearts' 
longings are in no time enjoyed and there are planty of feasts 



RIQVKDA 12 

(vrata = Zd. urvatem-Gk. eortei and festivities, make me 
immortal there (11). Aja Midhas (4,43-44)- Agamt-de.s from 
whose settlements Ajmere has been named ; Dvi Midha8=> 
Diomedes ; Priya Midhas (X. 75)- Priamides, 8al<a puta (6); 
Brihasp-iti (Breuci- Brahui-lord, X, 13, '2,5,7. Gothama V;lma- 
deva 4,5-4"2 : Savitri, you produce immortality lamntatvam 
suvaai) of giving existence, life succeeding life ladid damanam 
Savitar vy urnusbe nucina jivita). Angirasa 8,9l'6- Ancha- 
riu3 : Stimulate Savitr iSubigus, Eoman god of wedding 
night), stimulate Savitri vaginal enjoyment (h savam 
Savitur yatha bhagasyeva bhujim). Aruna (J'Ltruscan Aruns 
or Arunci) Vaitahavya (X, 91). Kulmalabarisha Sailushi (X, 
126; Keltic Salassi). Matsya =» Mattiaci invoke the aid of 
Kshatrians (Khattis) and Ugra-putre (Ugri- Hun Ugrians, b.Gl'l ; 
11). Ugra, X.a7,l2. Manu (Manus of the Admiralty Ilea are puri- 
tans and they pierce the lobes of the ears at the initiation cere- 
mony like the Brahmins • but more likely Cretan Minos = Egypt, 
Meni. Min, Menes-Ger. Mannus. a generic name for the 
Mediterranean race) Tapasa (X, 83—84). Andhigu (Andkhui = 
Andhaka^Andhra) Syavasvi (9 — 101). Asanga (a,l,31 1 = Asena 
of the fliung-nu clan. Varuni - Viruni (7,19): "Thou O 
Indra. gavest help to Kutsa (Kutzo-Vlacbs Armunes-Koca 
Valoch = Valuchi ; Kaca ; Arjuneyas — Hun Ki-tsu -. Vahlikas ; 
thus aiding Arjuneya, thou didst subdue to him both Kuyava 
and Dasa (Daci) Sushna (2). Thou didst send to sv^ift death 
Dasyu (^Daci), Cumuri i Cymry -Cimmerii) and Dhuui (Danu 
Danoi ; 4i. Danu (Danava= Danoi ; X, 120,6). India, destroy 
brunet-comflexioned (pisanga) fearful Pisacim( — Pae8ici = 
Pashai on the Chitral = Pi6aca8 of Kashmir) and Eaksho 
(Kugusci-Rakshasas) 1,133-5. Kutsam Arjuneyam Ev. 1,112,23. 
Aitareya Br. (8,U) : In the northern region, the kingdoms of 
Uttara-Kuru (Ottorokorra of Ptolemaeus = East Turkestan = 
Korasan) and Uttara Madra (Media) beyond the Himalayas 
are imperial structures (etasyam udicyam disi ye ke ca parena 
himvantam Janapada Uttara Kurava Uttara Madra ithi 
vair/ijy yaiva te vishicyante). Gandhamadana— Gadmanomand 
(majestic) in Chv^arzim. In Kaushitaki Upanished (l,-ra\ 
Brahmaloka is in Aral Sea (Aro Hradat, Balkash (Vijaya) and 
Hi (nadilyo) region (etasya Brahmalokasya Aro Hrado 
muhnrta yoshtiha Vijoya nadilyo). It seems that many of the 
wandering tribes that reached India even in the Rgvedic 
age through South Russia and Central Asia came under the 
Scythian and Hun influences, as Achaeans, Gothones, Varisti. 
Vagienni, Ugri, for not only we find the mention of Saka puta 
(X. 132,0), but the Buddha was known as Sakya (Ir. Sak:i 
= Chin Sacae = Scythian) Muni Gotama of Ikshvaku = Okkaka 
descent, Mahavira as Ugga-pQt amongst the Vajjis, and Mallas 
(Karkota Malava ; also Pallava- Pahlava= Parthava), Licchavi 



12 THE LITERARY HiSTOEY OF ANOIBNT INDIA 

(Niu-chi) and Andhras (Andkhui) of Vassitti Gotfca (Ger. 
Gautscher — Fr. coterie, Pers. gohar — of noble descent). The 
expressions and similies seems to be common to some families 
or borrowed from one to the other : apo na pravata yatih 
(as waters go down a hill) 9,24.2 -8'6, 34 ; Vajayanto rafcha iva 
(like chariots winning a race) 8'3 15 =9,67,17 ; Utso deva 
hiranyayah (0 god, a spring of gold) 8,61,6 -9,107,4 ; Samudra 
iva pinvate (swells as the sea) l,8"7 '=8,i2'5 ; Yarti vacam 
ariteva navam (let his voice come down like oars of a boat) 
2,4ri '=9,95"2 ; Gavo na yavasesva (like cows in the barley 
field) 1,91.13-8.92.12; Vatsain gavo na dhenavah (like the 
calf for its mother) 6,45.23 —9,1 '-^'2 : Tarn arvantam na sanasim 
{Uke a successfal racehorse) 4,16"6 = 8,102.12 ; Jayeva patya 
usati suvasah (like the wife putting on fine garments 
to please her husband) 4 2,3 = 1,124,7; Vadhuyur iva 
yosanam (like the bridegroom longing for his bride) 3*5-2*;-i 
= 3,62'8; Yosha jiram (^Tib. djarhwar ) iva priyam (as to a 
damsel her lover is dear) 9'S2 6 ; Jaram na kanyanushota (as 
kanya = Zd kanya — Gk kainos = Buss. kuna, kunka in the 
sense of youthful maiden, closely embraces her lover) 9 553 ; 
Vidhaveva devaram, maryam na yosha krriute sadhastha a 
(as a widow induces her husband's brother, maiden her gallant 
to her congress (X, 40,2) ; Yuvor ha makshi. madhv asa bharata, 
niskritam na yoshaaa (like bses extracting honey in their mouth, 
so a maiden in her venery) X. 40,6. Gritsa Madas whose 
family book is the 2nd Maadala pay very little attention 
to Asvins. Visv'^mitras of 3cd Mandala worship Indra and 
Marufcs. Gotama Vamadevas of 4th Mandala regard Rbhus 
as important. Atreyas of 5th Mandala pay some attention to 
Maruts, but regard Cusna instead of usual Vrtra as the 
enemy of Indra ; Bharadvajas of 6th Mandala have Pushan as 
their favourite and they are little concerned with Asvins, except 
in one hymn (6'6 6); Rudra or Maruts are indifferent to them. 
Vasisthas of 7th Mandala are devotees of Varuna and Vishnu. 
Puru ravas (the thunderer of the Purus) to Urvasi (Urva — 
Arvii maiden at the end of the contractual period like the 
Arab Mota marriage ; there was an ancient Arba state ; 
In 868 B.C. the Assyrian inscription of Shalmanser III records 
the defeat of the rebellious princeling of Gindibu— the 
Aribu Arabu— Urbi. the name of the Arab, who contributed 
1000 camels) X, 95: My cruel-hearted wife, tarry a little; 
let us exchange our views for a while (I). Urvasi i Thrice 
daily didst thou screw me vigorously with the thrusts of 
thy Vaitasa (Fr. vit-Gail. bot) though I was irresponsive to 
it ; Pururavas, 1 simply yielded to thy ardor ; and thou didst 
play lord = hero over my body (5). Puru-ravas : Then he will 
embrace death and fierce rapacious wolves will eat him up (14). 
Urvasi; Paru-ravas, die not; do not destroy thyself; with 



BIGVEDA 13 

women (strainAni) there can be no lasting comradeship 
(sakhyani) ; hyena's heart they have (X, 95, 16). Matsya 
Puranam l20l. 2ti) : Urvasi is an excellent rider (of the reverse 
posture) with full moon face, fine brows and blue lotus eyes 
(vararoha Urvasi dristendu mukhim suvrum nila-uiraja locanam). 

Rigvedic age has been over-estimated. For Rigvedic and 
Avestic hymns and Achiumenian inscriptions are composed 
in closely related dialects which are morphologically in the 
same stage of development and their accidence and syntax 
show features of decay. No doubt there are phonetic changes. 
But the vocabulary, the formation of words , syntax, similarity 
of 33 nature gods correspond pretty closely. Zarathustra who 
composed the Gathas was patronized by Vistaspa, the father of 
Darius (521-486 B. C), Xsaytia Hakamanasiya. 

Vistaspa, the Kava (kava=»king) of Magai (Yaa 46. 14. -Magus in 
Achaemenian inscription, Gk. Magoi-Ir. Margu = Skt. Maga, Mriga) 
patronized Jarathustra, a Maga, who speaks of the great (maza) Maga 
Brotherhood in Yast 29 11. Hutaosa was the queen of Vistaspa and 
Humaya was her daughter. Yast 13, 139. Zaratustra had three wives. 
His tirst wife was daughter of Frasaostra. niece of Jamaspa, attaches 
to the court of Vistaspa. And she bore to Jaratustra one son Isatvastra 
(one who rules the pasture) and three daughters— Frenil^Rv. 1'112. 10; 
Av. 6.89.2 Preni = love) ; Triti = Rv. 9. 146 sriti -clinging .• Pouru- 
cista (very well-mannered) the youngest daughter became the wife 
(naizi = Skt nari) of Jamaspa (Yast 53. 3), brother of Frasaostra, and 
Jamaspa succeeded Jarathustra as the leader of Maga Brotherhood. 
Jarathustra's second wife was a widow and she bore him two sons— Hvara- 
cithra (reflection of the sun) and Urvatat Nara (fertile man) Yast 51. 17). 
The third wife was Hvovi (yast 13. 139) and is called in Yt 16 learned 
(vithusi = Skt. vidushi) who believed and accepted her husband as a prophet, 
and is mentioned Hvovya as conya Fravasin Yazmaide-we revered the 
Fravrsi of the holy Hvovi. After Jarathustra's death she married another 
man and became mother of three sons. 

Astyages (Ir. Arshtivaga = Ak. Istuvega = Med. Rsti-vega, lance hurler), 
successor of Cyaxares = Uvakshatra, had a daughter Mandane = Manda 
princess, who was given in marriage to Cambyses I (Kambuja chief; of 
Persua, and Manadne became the mother of Cambyses II and Smerdis (Ir. 
Bardiya = Med. Brzya ; in another version, of Cyrus (Kurus), who 
married Cassadane. daughter of Hakhamanisiya Pharnaspes. and 
Kambujia and Bardiya were their sons. And they were rightful heirs as 
Astyages had no male issue {Herod 1. 107-9). Visatarus Spitaspa = 
Pourusaspa of the famous rich and distinguished Spitama (the ivhiU) 
family of Raga = Teheran had a sister Dugdova (one who milks cows), 
and they were married according to the custom of the country ; and 
Dugdova became the mother of Megabarnes =■ Baga - havarmah ; some 
also say of Zarath ustra as well. Pourusapa married again the Median 
heiress, her elder sister Mandane having died in the meantime. Amyhia=- 
Aimytes Humov"i who at the age of 17 in 596 B. C. gave birth to 
Spitake = little Spitama viso - puthro (heir to the family of Spitama) 
Ztrstr (graffiti on the Mannean rock tomb of Fakrika in Aramaic letters of 



il4 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIBNT INDIA 

Sama (Saman«Gk. ymnos«Lat. hymnus. song of praise, 
-hymn)-veda ( «= Sandansi-Zd. zend = chants in chorus) 
consists of 1549 stanzas, mostly taken from the Ninth 
Mandala of the Rigveda for the ritual (OSlav, 8eider== magic) 
performance of Soma and some from Eighth Mandala, except 
only 75 original Kiks put to the chanting tune. There are 
only two recensions ; Kauthumi is prevalent in Northern 
and Western India, and R^nayani in South India. Soma 
was not only the Soma drink, made of the flowering tops and 
resins of Cannabis sativa which is an aphrodisiac and stimulant, 
and a nourishing food when re-inforced with sour milk 
which also contains about 2-3 p.c. alcohol and Madhu (^Lith. 
medus (honey) = OSlav. medu = Gk. methu = mead (honey 
wine), but also its and other herbs' presiding deity. Soma =■ Sin, 
Babylonian god of agriculture. There was also Soma or 
Somaka clan, Parthian Comi. Hota — Zd. zaotar ; Atharva — Zd. 
Atharvan ; mantra = Zd. manthra — Lat. mentor = Fr. mentir ; 
Yajna = Zd. Yasna ; flhuti — Zd. azati -, Zend Avesta — chanda 
upastha = chanting prayers while standing. 



500 B. C.) = Zaratustra, Kurus (Cyrus = Kuru = Sarmatean Kors chief ot 
Hakha raanisiya = Achaemenian^Saka man ; KuruKambojas were allied 
mixed Scythian - Ishgazai — and Sarmatian clans. Scythians overran 
Persia, Iran, and W. Asia by 626 B. C. and mixed with Parsa 
Xsayathya = Puru3 Khatti) of Susiana with the co-operation of 
Maraphi, Maspii, Parthialici, Deruscici, Germanii, Dai. Mardi, 
Dropici and Sagartii clans revolted against the suzerainty of Umman 
Manda Cimmerian =«Gimirroi Astyages, defeated the Median forces at 
Pasargade in 553, had Astyages imprisoned, and after capturing 
Egbatana, became the supreme power over Parsa = Persia and Mada = 
Media. And Kurus in order to legitimize his claim to the xMedian 
throne married Amyhia Humova, daughter of Astyages, and wife of 
Pourusaspa. And Medians = Madas were given equal share in the army 
administrative affairs with the Kurus-Kambujias, Parsas and other 
tribes. Bat Lydia and Babylon = Babirush jointly attacked Kurus ; 
Kurus defeated them and Sardis fell into his hands in 546, Babylon, 
Syria and Patestine in 539. Thus in quick time an insignificant ruling 
tribe of Ansar became the dominant power of W. Asia. Kurus met 
his death in the hands of Hauma-Varka (hemp-wearing) Saka Tigra- 
khauda (pointed helmet-wearing), Saka Tyai Paradray Messa Getae 
in N. E. Parthia in 530. And Kambujia who as the most powerful 
ally of Kurus acted as regent at Sippar in Babylonia occupied the 
Achaemenian throne by marrying Hutosa (Atossa), the daughter of 
Kurus and Amyhia Humova in 529, who was already married to Kavi 
^noble) Notara (nava-tara, new line of Hakhamanisiya dvita-parnan ; 
having two branches) Vistaspa, Satrap of Parthava at Tosa. To 
suppress some rebellions in W. Asia, Kambujia left Parsa in 528 with 
his powerful army, taking with him Vistaspa's son Darius, then 28, as his 
-spear-bearer, and he conquered Egypt (Mudraya) 525, and attacked Ethopia 
(Kushiya) and Libya (Putaya), but failing to secure the Phoenician 
naval support returned in 523, keeping Aryandes as his satrap in 



RIGVEDA 16 

Soma Vamsa was the Shera- Semite race, to which 
belonged Nahus = Noa-NaB3i, Yadu«U-Tan- Yutia, Haihaya 
= Hun Hiao-Hiii, Sesa Nfiga- Susinak of Anaaii). Ann of 
Anau. Durhyu — Druse = Durban i. Puru=» Purush-Khatti (Hittite), 
all Armenoids, who reached India through Baluchistan, Mohenjo- 
daro and Harappa. 

Egypt. During his absence in VV. Asia and Egypt, Kambujia appointed 

his favorite Magu Gomata as his regent in Persia, and Babylonia, 

and his brother Smerdis was in charge of Mtdia, Armenia and Cadusa. 

as in the time of Kurus. But he had asked his cup-hearer Frasaspa. 

brother of Haugavi. the third and favorite wife of Zaratustra, to kill 

Smerdis secretly which order he faithfully carried out. Gomata as the 

administrative head and commander-in-chief became very popular by 

remitting taxes for 3 years and exempting peoples from military levies. 

succeeded cleverly to impersonate Smerdis that a large part of Parsa-Mada 

and Babirush revolted against Kambujia, and Gomata became the 

virtual successor of Kurus for 8 months by proclaiming himself as king 

on March 11, 522. and by April 14 declared as king of Babirash, and 

marrying Hutosa, wife of Kambujia and daughter of Kurus. Alarmed, 

Kambujia returned to Persia in 522. questioned and doubted the fidelity 

of Faraspa, and attacked the forces of pseudo - Smerdis. But at Egbatana 

by an accident Kambujia pierced his own belly through a dagger and 

died soon in 521. Gomata knowing that Faraspa, blessed with riches 

(istois hvarna, Yt. 51, 18) would expose him as the imposter usurper. 

began to persecute him, his brother Zamaspa and his sister's husband 

Spitams Zarathustra, though he was his brother-in-law (bandva, Yt. 49, 

l2 = Skt bandhava). Finding Raga insecure, Spitama Zarathustra was in 

■flight, and though Vehviya = Vivana, a Kavi (noble) like myself had 

refused hospitium to me. a Spitama, Yt. 51, 12, yet Kavi Vistaspa, satrap 

of Parthava, gave him asylum at Tosa, Yt 51. l6. Vistaspa had a son 

Spontadata (Spehendates). He with his six adherents, knowing Gomata an 

imposter, killed him in his castle at Sikayahvates = Sikawand in Nisa on 

tenth of Bagyadis = Sept. 29, 522 B. C. (Beh. 13), exposed his perfidity, 

and as there was no better rigtitful claimant to the Hakhamanisiya = 

Achaemenian throne, he assumed the royal title of Darya -vahu- 

manah = Darya-Vahu = Dariu9 who commands right will, and married 

his own mother Hutosa and her sisters Roxana, Artystone, all the three 

daughters of Kurus, Phaedyme who like Hutosa had been wives to 

Kambujia, and then to Gomata, impersonating Brzya, and Parmys 

daughter of Brzya. Hutosa calls herself in Yt 15, az:ita (jnati - agnate) 

and puru-brathra (Skt. vartr - Pali, bhattar- Lat. fututor - Fr. foututeur, 

Beng. vahu bhatari, having many brother husbands), as she was married 

to (1) Vistaspa. i2 )Kambujia, (3) Maga Gomata as Brzya, (4) Darius. .\n6. 

her son with Darius, Khshyarsha = Xerxes- succeeded Darius. Darius 

made Vadhra-bara Prasaspa, brother of Zorathuras wife Haugavi, the 

cup-bearer of Kambujia his mace -bearer and in 520 proclaimed 

Zoroastrianism as his own and state religion. But deva-worsiiippers 

revolted, and with diiticulty the rebellion was suppressed by Xerxes 

who interdicted deva-worship. But Artaxerxes II in 590 B. C. invokes 

Mithra (Mitra), Vargnahya = Hittite Varagna = Vrthagna. Nahathya- 

Nasatya, Anahita Rti ('Rati, Yt 17), as goddess of fertility, Usi in Yt.l. 61 



16 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

According to the Puranas, Hiranya Kasipu (the Golden: 
Horde- Kipchak) and Kalki (Khalka, Kalkai ia their Kalkai, 
dulimbi chugungosa — the banners of Khaika Mongols), 
Kiratas (Keraits who were supreme in Mongolia, and during the 
Kin dynasty absorbed by the Chinese), Kalamukha (Kalmuks), 
Murmi of Nepal, Maran of South India (Mranmar occupied 
Irawadi valley in first century A. D. and after whom it is called 
Burma), all IScythianized are mentioned. Hamitic tribes Tigre, 
Shangallas, Agaws, Gallas, Mahai, Tumal, Kikiyu, Shilluk. Doma, 
Beli, Baganda, Anga, Banga, Berber, Zandeh, Copts (Ar. Qoft — 
— Guptos) have become Tugra. Singhala, Gaya, Goyala. Mahar, 
Tamil, Kekaya, Silaka, Bhils, Bagai. Anga, Bhangi, =.Bangali of 
UP— Baaga, Barbara, Sindhu= Hindu and Guptas. Surya vamsa 
consisted of Sauro Matae — Sarmatian tribes that reached India 
through Central Asia like Ikshvakus (Achaoi = Ak3u of C. Asia), 

= Usha, Eos, as goddess of handicraft Huti. Vi -dev-dad= Vendidad. 
injunctions and incantations against devas when they became evil 
spirits, is of Arsacid period, (250 B-C. - 225 A D. Zaratustra passed away 
in 47th year of his religious organization at the age of 77 years and 
40 days 569-492 B C. His youngest daughter Spitami Hecataspa 
Purucista was married to Jamaspa II Yt. 53. 3 ; a grand son Rvatonara 
Aparazata (unconquerable; in Yt. 13. 

Kshatriya = Zd. Xsayatia = ruler, king. Inscription of Darius 555 - 486 
of Susa : Adam Darayavaus Xsayatia vazarka xsayatia xsayatianam xsayatia 
Dahyunam xsayatia ahzaha bumiya vistaspahya pusa Hakamanisiya = 
I am Darius, great king, king of kings, king of Dahaes, king of this land, 
son of Vistaspa, the Achaemenian. 

The sitting brachycephallic steatite portrait statue with prominent 
nose and trifoil patterns round his chest is a Shaman (Suta bard = Soyot). 
The bronz nude statuette of a danseuse with long hands and legs, thick 
lips, hair worn in short crimped curls is the Hamite. The Hamitic type 
crania Nos. 6, 7, 19 of Mohenjodaro is long headed with moderate to 
high vault, moderate to narrow face, moderate to narrow nose with high 
orbit. At Tepe Hissar there were eleven crania (PI. 95), classified as 
Negroid, and they may be compared to Chanhudaro. Chanhudaro skull 
is dolichocranic, chamecranic and chamonhinic. A broad flat face 
which becomes disharmonic when compared with long low skull (PI. 96) 
which leads to a comparison with Mongoloid Eastern Asiatic type. It 
may be compared with a female crania from Tepe Hissar and with female 
Naga or Burmese crania. The Chanhudaro skull verges upon the 
Fastern Asiatic type only in general appearance of facial breadth. 
It seems to be a blend of Hamitic with Mongoloid (E. Mackey 
Chanhu-Dara Excavations 1935). In Europe the Australoid is known is. 
Neanderthal man. Aurignacian is the Negroid who introduced polychrome 
painting, some kinds of music, mecklaces of mollusks, use of bow and 
arrow which brought the doom of Neanderthalers who were armed only 
with sticks, stone clubs and boomerangs. Magdalenian is the Mongoloid 
who invented the bone needle about 25000 years ago, tanned skins and 
sewing them together. 



YAJURVKDA If 

Achokzai Pathan. Raghns (Rugii -> Scythic Regii, north of 
Taun). Vaisya Bhalaudana i Mrirk P. 113, 3!) = Be8si). Visala 
(from whose settlement Vaisali has been named . Basilii) and 
Sauro-Mithili ; later Kuru-Knvis Rv. 8. 20, 2,^; 8, 22. 'J.I ( Kora 
and Krivi-chi of Kurland), Kinnura Gandharva 'Kimmeroi- 
Cen-Tauri-Gandarae) and Saka-Yakaha-Asvaka^Yuechi Asioi 
— A98i = Asaio" Asvakan -Afghan. 

Yajur-Veda (Zd. yazaiti = Gk. agos^ = sacrificial formulas 
— ha< two recensions — Vajasaneyi of the Vajins i Vagienni ' and 
Taittirya (Tittiii = Tatars), attributed to Yajna Zd yasnai 
valkya (Zd. varecah = varcas). But the soma drinking, Vajapeya 
(chariot race), Rrijasuya (coronation ceremony), particularly 
the Asvamedha Yajna 'Fertility Rite) are common to both 
(Vaj. 23. J8:Tait. 7 4.19). All these sacrifices seem to be of 
Saka Huna origin. 



The king entered into V'ajnasHla„ attended by his four queens. After 
Agnihotra. the king lay between the legs of his favorite wife without 
resorting to sexual union with her so that his restraint may lend weight 
to the success of liis reign. After the horse (asva = Zd. aspa = Lith aszawa ; 
ass = Ang Sax assa= Lat asinus = onasni ; haya = Anglo Sax ehu = Kelt 
ech) is slain, the chief queen (mahisi) lies down, and its penis is inserted 
into her vagina, and both are covered under a blanket. The chief 
queen .• O Ambi, Ambali, Ambika ( the names of accompanying other 
3 junior queens, kumari, v-Vvata, parivrikiai, no body copulates with me. 
Their penis slumbers even for an excellent vagina like mine, an inhabi- 
tant of Kimpilya (na ma yavati = OSlav. jebati = Pol. jebae = Gk oipeo 
kascana sasasty asvakah suvage— vagina —Kampilya vasinini'. O popular 
lord of the people, 1 invoke thee, o darling of thy beloved, 1 invoke thee 
(priyanim twa priya paiim havamahe ) ; O the most valuable treasure 
(nidninam twa nidhipatinii, I invoke thee ; copulate with me ivasomama;. 
I have come to thee for conception (aham jani garvadhama 19). 
A dhvaryu : I shall impregnate thee. Mahishi : Let us then both spread 
out our four feet (ta uvau caturah padah sampras:irava, 20). Adhvaryu : 
The strong penis discharges the semen ; let your uterus grasp it \vnsh i 
vaji rctodha reto dadhatu 20). Mahishi ; Push energitically thy erect 
penis towards the os (asang) ; this movement is the life food of women 
(ya strinam jiva bhojanah, 21). This little bird (the vulva covered with 
black hair is called Sakuntika => raven; in its movements is making 
halag (sound) ; and being filled and pressed by pasas (Gk. peos = Lith. pisa ; 
god Pizius = Lascius; it is making gal-gal (copulatiug sound, 22t. 
Adhvaryu .• Make ups and downs of thy vulva like one lifting and 
carrying a load on his head and thy vaginal inside will feel refreshed 
like a cool breeze (urdhamenamulchra paya girau bharanca haranniva, 
athasyai madhyamedhata site vate puna nniva, 26) 

A mummified phallus of a bull has been found inserted into the vagina 
of a princess of XI Dynasty in a temple at Deir El Bahar. As a fertility 
magic ancient Egyptian women had even sexual congress with goats, 
especially trained for the purpose in the temple of Mcndes. In Rome, 
women had in primitive times ritual sexual connection with the sacred 
ass, representative of God Pales, the ritual even observed by Roman 

2 



18 THE LITERAKT HISTOEY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Atharva (Zd. athravau = Lith. aifcrus^Lat. atres atrium, 
ater = fire) Veda consists of magic formulas, incantations and 
soi'ceries (kL'itya = Lith. kei'tu) like those of Babylonia and the 
Fe«di(?ac^ of Angiras (Ancharius) family. Aitareya Be indicates 
Atharva by Angirasa, while Satapatha Br, Brihad-Arnyaka and 
Chandogya (chandansi. i.e., Sama) Upanishads mention only Rik, 
Sama and Yajur. 19th (l9 6 - Rv. X, 90 ) and '20th KhanHas of 
Atharva are supplements, and 20th book chiefly consists of 
borrowmg from the tenth Mandala of the Rik, and is not 
found in Paippalada Kashmere recension. Yama and Yami 
incestuous dialogue (Rv. X. 10 — Av 18 1), marriage hymns 
(Rv. X ■?5 = i4th Khanda) as some funeral verses and about 

matrons in BonaDea festival. On a fresco in Pompeii, Vesta is represented 
ridina; an ass. representing Priapus and bearing a child in her arms. 
Erotic dances, coital movements, exposures of genitals, voluptuous 
obscenities were also regarded as magics for health, beauty» for fertility and 
fortunes, warding off the evil eyes — dus-cakshas. Kalik i Puranam enjoins 
the people in Sabarostava on the tenth day of the autumnal Sukla Paksha, 
to sing loud leud songs, naming sexual organs and connections in 
company of virgins and prostitutes. During harvest festival, naked women 
have to sing and dance before the deity ; and when the deity is carried 
in procession, obscene songs in praise of her and indecent jests are 
customary by Asadis. In Kerala during Puran festival of Bhagavati, 
obscene songs are sung. At Cranganore on the night of distributing 
Prasadas, woman folk of certain families are obliged to answer questions 
on modes and manners of their sexual beliaviour. 

In Ramiyana (1. 14, 34-35t it is mentioned that in the Asvamedha of 
Dasaratha, for obtaining an issue, after the sacrificial horse was killed 
with other animals, the chief queen Kosalya lay with the horse for the 
whole night, and then other queens were united with the horse. Horse's 
flesh and fat were offered as burnt offering to gods. I.i Rigveda 1, 162, 
in Asvameda. goat is first sacrificed and offered to Pushan. Then the 
horse is killed and roasted in fire ( agnina pacyamanad abhi sulam ) 
upon a spit (1. 162. fl) or cooked in a flesh cooking cauldron 
(manspacany^ ukhaya), Caru (Irish coire), producing fine flavor (surabhir) 
slung over fire by pot cooks (1, 162, 13), possibly pottery, as it was 
feared that fire might break it into pieces (1,162, 15). Then the cooked 
meat was carved for distribution amonst the sitting guests (1, 162, 12). 
Horse was domesticated about 2003-1500 B. C. Russia in Kuban hasin. 

Ea = E-Apsa with a fish on his head was the Sumerian god of healing, 
representi.ng the healing qualities of the spring like the Vedic Apah. 
The sick in Babylonia was sprinkled with water as in our sasti isu + asti = 
= Gk. eu + esti = good fortune, Chin, ouan) Vacana to the accompanyment 
of incantantation for purification and for exorcion, the disease demons 
being symbolically drowned. 

In Rig Veda also we find incantations to drive away the malignant spirits 
Drub = Z J. Druj =• Norse Draug= AngSax Dreo^'. Spells against vermins 
Rv. 1, 191 ; against yaksmi X, 163 ; to revive one apparently dead 
X. 58, 60 7-12 ; to destroy enemies X 165, abortificent spirits X, 162 ; to 
i I luce sleep 5, 55 ; to subdue and oust a co-wife X, 145. 



ATHARVAVhDA 19 

1200 of (1000 stanzia have been borrowed from the Rik Samhita. 
To Atharvan Anj,nra3 (fire kindling Acchariii8 are ascribed 
mOot of the hymna. Others are Aruni (Aruna) U<ldalaka *8. 
29 ; G, 15 1, Kanva (Chaones ; 2, 81, 32 ; 6, 23) . Kausika (Kosik 
6, 117-'.'l , X, 26-86); Gargya (Gorgias ; 6, 49; 19, 7-8); 
Marica (Marici ; 7, t)2-68i; Gopatha (Gepidae ; 19, 25, 47, 4S, 
50); Sunaka (Seneca-, almost all of them being the neighljors 
of ths Aacharms. The.se sorceries are against anuria d, 8), 
for successful childbirth (1, 11), for spinisterhood of a maiden 
(I, 14=, a'/ainst jaundice (1, 22), leprosy (I, 13 21^, malarial 
fever ;takman, 1, 2^ • 5, 22 ; '',J16», leucorrhea ( 5/aua = flux. 2, 3, 
a love spell (L. 34', against consumption {Yahsini, 2.8}), to 
secure a husband for a maiden ('2, 3)), a^'amst rickets (X, 3. 7), 
virihzing spell (4, 4i, to win a woman's love (6, 8-y), against 
premature birth (6, 17), to win a man's love (^^, 180-1 -il). 
Bv. raA;s/iw/ = tubeculosis, X, bfi, 31 ^ 4j9ya = dysentery. X, lO'?, 
12; Harir?mn -i&nndxce, i,J, 11-12. Yajurveda : Arsaras" 
hemorrhoids. 12,97; Arma7i=-eye desease, 30, II ; Kilasa = 
erysipelas, 80, 77 . Av. Ja/adara= dropsy, 6, 22 ; Apachit = soreB, 
6, 25 ; TaZi;wa7i = malaria, 1, 25. Pakshahata = pA,Vii\ys\s ; in Kau- 
sika Sutra 31 18; 7i^-sa=^cough 1,12, 3; ^jt)asma?'a — epilepsy, 
26, 14 21, Kustha (leprosy i, Visucikj (cholera'. Arsa (piles), 
Daddhru (ringworms', il/t^cc/ia hysteria), Sada (asthma , Madhu 
meha (diabetes). Taittirya Samhita 6, 4, 9*3 says a Brahmin 
must not practise medicine, as thereby he comes in contact 
with demon-seized persons (Maitrayani Samhita 4. 6, 2) a3 
thereby he gets defiled and seized by the desease spirits. 

Angiras (2, S"?, 1) : Let an intelligent rich and powerful 
suitor (samvala) come to us, Agni, for this maiden 
who is enjoyable to her vara (Lat. phero-Gk. pher = 
fertilizer = Ger. Wahlerj, and pleasant at gatherings samana, 
where was a feast of meats and drinks, with dances 
and carousals, and dramas like Agastya and Lopamudra, Yama 
and Yiimi, Surya-Savitri were played with appropriate gestures 
of the body), Angiras (12, 1, 2o) : Males and females become 
excited bv this odor, and the penis is induced towards the 
vagina [Yaete gandhah pur^isheshu strishu piansu bhago rucih). 
I am a dominant and supreme being on this earth ; I go and 
conquer, subdue and remove every obstacle (when going to 

Accordina; to Polynesian myth (Maori), the nioon is the permanent true 
husband of all women ; hecause women menstruate (pahtke\ when the new 
moon appears. The girl's first mensturation is due to the moon having 
had connection with her during her sleep. An inscription in the temple 
of Khons— the moon— at Thebes states that "through his agency, women 
conceive". The moon was regarded as the controller of menstruation. 
The placenta as well as the child was considered to be form^i^d of menstrual 
bloom, the welfare of the placenta was therefore considered by the ancient 
Egyptian under the control of the moon. 



20 THE LITERARY HlSTOEY OP ANOIKNT INDIA 

the Assembly- Sabha ; aham asmi sahaman uttaro namo-^ 
bhumyan -, abhishadasmi visvasbadasamasam vishamahi, 12', L, 
64. Motber Earth, let me be well-established (bhume 
matarni dhebi m^ bhadraya supratishiditham, .li, 1, d3). The 
earth bearing upon her many different peoples ijana), speaking 
different tongues (vak), following different religions (dbarma) 
as suit them in particular regions ( 12. i, 45), The earth has 
her hill sides and her uplands ; hers is the wide plain ; she is 
the bearer of plants of many uses (12, 1). "Yama had died. 
The gods tried to persuade Yami to forget him. She said : 
Only today he has died. Then the gods said : Thus she will 
never forget him ; we will create night ; for at that time 
there was only day and no night. The gods created night ; 
then arose to morrow. Thereupon she forgot him. Therefore 
the people say : Day and Night indeed : Let sorrow be for 
gotten". — Maitrarjani Samhitk, 1, 5.12. Aitaraya (Etrurians 
=-Bib. Ituraen8= Heb. Iter = Itara Mahidhara), Kausitaki 
(Hun. Kosik), Taittiraya (Tatars , Gopatha (Gepidae), Sata patha 
(Soyot = Suta, Satvata, Svati, Sata-bahana) Brahmanas were 
composed to explain their respective rites. Grihya Sutras =- 
Domestic Rites (Rv. rita = Zd. arta = Gk. Lat. artus — Ger. Ge- 
recht) are those of Asvalayana (Sarmatian Asioi, Assi of Russian 
Chronicles), Sankhayana I Sabine SancQs), Gobhila, Bharadvaja, 
Khadira Apasthambha, Paraskara, Hiranyakesm, Vaikhanasa 
Kausika (Hun Kosik) and Manavas (Manus of Admiralty Isles ; 
or Cretan Minos = ancient Egypt Menes). Vara (Ger. Wahler 
= Lat;. fero = Gk. pher, fertilizer) to Vadhu (Lith. vedu^ OSlav. 
veda = wedded), pointing out the Polar star: Be steady like 
the yonder Dhruva (Anc. Egypt Thuban — ^Vlpha Drachonis in 
2780 B.C. ; or Dhube in Ursa Major), prospering in my house. 
Vadhu : Be yourself constant ; may 1 be faithful in the house 
of my husband. For three days and nights of marriage after 
the first connubial embrace (Av 14. c8 — 89. At present the 
bridegroom pushes with his legs a stone rod, symbolizing 
erect phallus, seven times the thighs of his bride forward 
against painted black and reddish seven circles, symbolizing 
vulva with pubic hair, the most important part of the marriage 
ceremony), sexual intercourse was tabued, thus leaving the 
bride to be enjoyed first by Agni (a wooden rod— penis 
symbol was twirled rapidly in a wooden cavity = vulva symbol 
to engender fire; hence Agni = coition symbol); Matari Svan, 
another name of Agni, means, swelling the matrix, i.e., impreg- 
nating hen, Soma (Sin, the moon god of fertility) and the 
Gandharva —the spirit of voluptuous pleasure — volupia, and 
giving her vagina rest to heal the cicatrices of the fracture 
of the hyman (syuman^ Rv. X, 85, 40-41). 

(The altar) should be broader on the west side, contracted 
in the middle and broad again on the east side j for thus- 



DHARMA SUTRAS 21 

shaped they praise a woman ; broad about the hips, somewhat 
narrower between the shoulders and contracted in the middle ; 
thereby he makes it pleasmg to the gods —Sa<a Patha Br. 1,'2,&. 
16. Thereupon the Prativasthas when the wife is led away 
asks her : With whom holdesD thou coition. Now when a 
wotuan belonging to one has sexual union with another, she 
undoubtedly commits a (sin) against Varuna. He therefore 
asks her, least she should sacrifice with a secret pang in her 
mind ; for when confessed, the sin becomes less, since it 
became truth. And whatever she confesses not. that indeed 
will turn out injurious to her relatives.'' — Sata Patha lir. 
2, 5. '2. 2 J. Dharma Lith. derme, treaty — Gk. thronos — Lat. 
forma — form constitution) Sutras — Gautama iGothones), 
Vasishiiha (Varisti), Bau Ihayauii i Budhini), Apasthamba und 
Hiranyak-!sin i Manava) ~ expound the rules of conduct of the 
ruling classes (rajanyam — Lat. re'gnum = Kshatriyas. priests 
(purahitas ; pura=Lat. pre, pro, in front; hita - sita, stated), 
the presiding priest who by his magic spells warded off evils, 
brought fortune, fame and victory, and thus the Brahmanas 
beca:ue leaders of the communities, and usually recruited in 
the beginning from the ruling families like the Roman Flamens, 
both of whom, perhaps related to each other, perforiijed the 
same sacred rites with unerring utterances of the magic spells 
and even one syllable of which if dropped or mispronounced, 
they regarded the whole sacrifice spoilt 'the similar priests 
of the indo- Europeans : of ihe Magis, Athravan : of the Kelts, 
Druidesi ; warriors (Kshatriyas ; Bathaesta = charioteers of the 
Saka Magas -. Rom. Milites ; Keltic Equites ; agriculturists and 
traders (Vaisyas = Zd V^stryo ^ Rom. quirites - Kelt, plebs) 
and slaves (Sudras and Dasas who were mostly enslaved of 
the above mentioned upper classes and Candalas Gonds and 
other aborigines). Varna (color , Samkaras (mixed), though 
regarded as mixed colored peoples, were most likely cross-breeds 
of sifives (Lat. verna) and freedraen. Upanishads are the 
expositions of the esoteric knowledge (upa>ana = worshi[)) of 
various tribes of Aitareya (Etrurians) ; Brihodarauyaka Arum 
(Et^-uscan Arnns) Uddalaka and Vajin (Vagiennii Yajnavalk>a j 
Chandogya of Asvapati (Keltic Usipetes of Pancala named 
after Pantalia in Dacia) ; Kau-etaki (Hun Kosiks); Sisunag = 
Sesnak of Ansam-Ses Ajatasatru who got Kasi as a dowry, 
marrying Pra^enjit's daughter to Garga (Gorgias) Valaki ; 
Katha (Khatti , Aruna Uddalaka Naciketha) ; Taittiraya (of 
Tatars) ; Kena ( Yaksha— Yuechi), Aruneya (Etruscnn Aruns), 
Mudgala (Magelli), Handilya (Candales. a Phrygian clan of -Lydia) ; 
Datta Atreya (of Atreusi, and of various schools of thought 
such as henothism, pantheism, monotheism, monism, and 
agnosticism and mysticism. There are about 170 extant 
Upanishids. of which Muktika (20 -3-i) mentions 108. Chandogya. 
■one of the oldest, and the last eight chapters of the 



22 THB LITEBAET HISTOKT CP ANCIENT INDIA 

Kauthumi Brahmaa of the Samaveda, contains many interesting^ 
informations. Silaka (L, 8, i ; Shilluk who lived as neighbors- 
of the Kikuyi (Kekayaa), the Guptos (Ar. Qobt = Copt) whose 
land was called by the Greeks ai - Guptio8 = an Egyptian) 
calls refrain (udgitha) of the Samaveda as om (om ityetat 
udgithaiu upasi the, 1. 1. 1 = Anc. Egynt. Omun, Amon = Heb, 
Amen) which means consent (anujnaksharam ; yat hi kinca 
anujnanathi tadha om ithi eva aha ; 1, 1, 8), and the Christians^ 
even today after every prayer, say amen, a term of solemn 
ratification. Due to fights between Mattiaci (Matciha^Matsya) 
and Kors (Kura), to escape suffering, Cakrayana with his 
strolling girl I ai^^Zj-t I wife took shelter in a servant's village. 
"Seduction is Hinkara ; libido is proposal Iprastdva] , sleeping 
with a woman is udgitha • sleeping with a williDg woman is 
Sama hymn (pratihara) ; coition canses conception [nidhdna) ; 
this kind of conception through coition has been established by 
Vamadeva (Gothama) = Gothones ; 2, 18, 1). And Vamadeva 
Gothamas say : "From the region (Brahmoloka — sub arctic ) we 
have come ; there the sun lasts for many months, does not rise or 
set daily as usual i8. ll, J.-^). Itara (Etrurian) Mahidasa. 
(8. 16, 7j : He who smiles, eats and copulates makes thereby 
ritual offerings (atba yath. hasathi yath, jakshathi, yath, 
maithunam carathi sthatha sasthaiva tadethi ; 3, 17, 8).. 
"Devaki-putra Krishna (in Amaravati inscription Krishna == 
Kanh of the Andhras, and by Kanhu, Krishna is still addressed' 
in Bengal) learnfc from Ghora Anginasa (Ancharius) that soul' 
(atman = Ancient Egyptian Atum = OHG. Atem = Gk, autmen^ 
(life breath) is indestructible, eternal and is the stuff by which 
the supreme person is composed (3, il, 6,). Pautrayana Janasruti' 
was very generous (vahudayi) and established many guest 
houses — avasathan (4,1,!). He once went to Raikya Rishi (=Zd. 
ratu= Skt. ritu= Zd. arta = Skt, + Zd. aiaha = asha knowing Zd.. 
vidva = Skt. vidvana) with many cattle, chariot with horses and': 
his daughter as his wife. At first he said. Sudra (Chude). 
what shall I do with these luxuries. But caressing the face of 
the Sudia (Sudra maiden) said, ' this face makes me speak; the 
dowered village is still called Raikya-parna in Maha-Yrisha 
('4. 2. h -5). "I do not know thy Gotra (Fr. coterie-Ger. 
Gautscen ; as a slave girl serving many masters during my youth, 
I obtained thee. My name is Jabala (Keltic Gabali. or White- 
Hun Jouan- Jouan -Kushan Zabol = Br. Jauvla, Jabula, Pur. 
Jabala) ; thou art called Satyakama (4. 4. 2) ; Aruna (Etruscan 
Aruns) Svetaketu (son of Uddalaka* went once to the Pancala^ 
assembly where Jaibali (Gabali Pravahana, a relative of the 
ruler (rajanya vandhu 6, H, ,5) asked him questions (6. 3. 1). 
Jaibali Pravahana : ''Woman is indeed a flame ; her seductive' 
pubes is the smoke 'screen) of the fire; turgescence of her- 
vagina is the burning ember ; delightful orgasm is the spark. In 
this offering conception takes place (6. 8. 1-2). Asvapati 



UPAN1SIIAD3 '23 

(Usipetes) Kekaya(Ir. Kaikuwaa) about Vaisvanara (universal 
person — supreme soul, ;>. 11.4/: The firmament is the head 
of the Vaisvanara ; the refulgent sun is his eye ; the circulating 
air is his breath ; the surgmg ocean is in the bladder within 
the body : the earth is his foot. 5. lb. 3). Aruni Uddalaka to 
his son Svetaketu : Mind is dependent on food (6. 6. 5). 
Fast for 15 days ; but take some water, for life originated in 
water '6. 7. I I. (To prove that mind is nourished by food) 
after his fast for 1 6 days, his father said : Now recite some 
portions of Ric. >ama or Yajush. fie replied : No, nothing 
appears in my mmd (6. 7. 2). Now take food. As from a 
spark, fire is rekmdled, so after assimulation of food, mind will 
be revived [6. 7. 6). 

Pantheism : Neither the sun, the moon, the stars, nor the 
lightamg flash, what of fire, does manifest him. Kather they 
are his manifestations. Nay the universe is his expression (16). 
The architect of the universe is omniscient, the universe being 
his minifestation. He knows it. He is the source of all 
virtues and is the lord of time and space lUi). The immanent 
God, the source of this universe is immortal and omniscient. 
There is no other law but him for the preservation and regula- 
tioti of this universe ' Svetas vatara 6, 14 - 17). 

Monism : The universe has originated in me and I am 
imminent in the universe. In me the universe will be 
dissolved. I am therefore the absolute Brahman. 1 am smaller 
than the smallest, bigger than the biggest. I am this diversified 
universe. [ am eternal. I am the Lord, the perfect the 
wisdom and the bliss ^Kaivalya 19 20). Monotheism : One God 
alone lives in every heart. He is omnipresent and is the soul 
of every creature. Residing in every being, he directs his 
actions and knows what he is doing. He is perfect and 
unqualified (Svetasvatara 6, 11). Mysticism : He cannot be seen 
through eyes. Nor his voice can be heard. He is beyond sense 
perceptions or activities. Only when mind has been purified, he 
can be realized with profound contemplation. — Munduka b, 6. 

Ramayana and Maha Bharata are the Indian antiquarian 
encycloptedias of ethnology, dynastic histories, manners, mores, 
and customs in pleasant entertaining popular story forms. Though 
Ramavana is regarded as the older, its composition is more 
advanced in style than that of the MahaBharata (of Ugrasravas, 
8,800 verses ; Vyasa 2 4000; modern 1 lakh verses) which is 
rather archaic ; though both of them' are based on heroic episodes, 
Ramayana which was composed in Kosola territory which was 
Buddhistic in •2nd century B. C. shows Buddhistic influence 
in the restrained manners of its heroes. Famayana has three 
recensions of 7 Kandas of which Uttara Kanda is undoubtedly a 
supplement as well as most of the Bala-Kanda. except perhaps 



24 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANOIENX INDIA 

1st. and 5th chapters, of Kosola, Maharastra and Gaura of about 
24000 stanzas of which 8000 are common to all of them 2-41-49, 
66-93. 117; 3. 1-14; 4.17-18,40-43 45-47; 5. 41-65. 58-64; 
63-68 ; 6. 23-10, 59-61 (39. 74-75 are late additions and of which 
6. 119 is the latest. Dasaratha (Dassaretae of Illyria= Mitanyian 
Diisratta) ruling in Ayodhya (is it named after Agade !) on the 
Sarayu (flowing water as in Harirut) had matrimonial connec- 
tions with the Kekaya princess (Ham. Kikuyu = Ir. Kaikawas) 
of the Punjub and Kosala princess Kosalya (Khas —Kaasite). In 
allianne with Atithigva Divo (bright) Dasa of Pancala and Kasi 
i bright Daci of Pautalia), Dasaratha waged war against 
Timidvaja Sambaras (Gimbri with Dolphin in their standards) 
and his wife Maya (Maeo)-vati. and he was twice severely 
wounded, and only by dexterous driving and careful nursing by 
his wife Kekayi, his life was saved ; and Dasaratha promised 
her two rewards (Ram. 2. 9. tl-l8) Kama (Eemi) occupied 
Ramgam (north of Kosola* and his ally Laksmana ( Beng. 
Lakkhan — Hind. Lasman - Lucani) with the help of Kusika 
(Hun Kosik) Visvamitra fought Savaras (Sabar; of Formosa and 
became friendly with Saradvant (Sardones) who was a minister 
in Saura Mithili (Sauco Matae) court and won the pretty Ossete 
(Sita) princess in an archery contest in the Scythian fashion. 
Rama and Laksmana perhaps with the Sauro- Matae, inducting 
Ossetes help wanted to occupy Ayodhya throne but were 
ousted by Bharatas. Rama, Laksmana and Sita were helped 
by Bharadvajas at Prayag where they saw the Akshaya Vata 
(Ram, 2. 55 6) which was planted by Asoka from a sapling 
from the Bodh Gaya tree. This indicates that though 
Valmiki is called adi kavi, Ramayana could not have been 
composed before .^nd century B. C After crossing the Ganga 
and Yamuna (Fr. ]umeau = twin rivers), they with the help of 
Guhakas (Pallava Malla Guhas ; Maitraka Guha-Sena of 
Valabhi) reached Citrakuta and they were befriended by 
Agastyas (iEgisthusi. Valin (Walon ; Bana=Vanii. perhaps 
both mixed. Vijayaditya Maha Bali Bana Raja, feudal of 
Danti Varraan Vikramaditya Five Bana inscriptions from 
Gudimallam. Bana Vidyadharas, feudatories of Sata Yahanas 
of Banabasi, near Patnpa Lake Hampi) who deprived his 
brother Sugriva of his wife and kingdom over Banaras (Banar 
of Annam^ was killed by Rama, and Sugriva was made an ally. 
Palasta (Assyr. Pulastn =• Egypt. Pulaseti — Philistine = Pelasgoi ; 
Paligar of S. India) Ravana (Tam. iraivan. ruler ; irai, taxes, 
van one who levies them) abducted Sita to revenge insults to 
his sister Surpa na^a (sharp-nosed : called also naka or nakha, 
as S is changed in K or Kha as in Beng. naka). Pulasta Ravana 
was married to Mandodari (slender or wasp waisted =■ Skt kati - 
kshina vilagna vramara-madhya, a trait of the Cretans — 
Creteus = Kratu. made by tightening belts), daughter of Maya 
(Maeo) Danava (Danaoi), all allied tribes, whose another 



kamayana ' 25 

daughter Mayavati was married to Timidvaja Sambara, his 
brother Vivisana who allied himself with Kama was married to 
Sarama (Sarraatae maiden) and Sailusi ;" Kam. 8. '22. -21) and 
after Ravana's fall secured Matidodari and Lanka (Lith. lanka, 
Ieake = a forested dale). Kama with the help of Ban.iias 
(Banar). Kapis (Kappu. Kapu of Telegu of S. India=Kovai of 
Nev/ Ginea), Jamliuvaa V Madiga Jambava^ and Jatayu (Jatapu 
of Madarasa. all of Matanga— Madang of Borneo, Khond origin) 
searched Sita in the northern direction amoust the MIecclias 
(Molossi ; all people undei- Macedonian influenoe as Iranians, 
Beduins were called Mlecchas as well a^ Yavanas. In Mudra 
Rakshasa, even Kaluta ruler Citra Varman, Kashmir king 
Pushkaiasha. Suidhu and Parasik kings). Puhndas (Pawindah), 
Suraseuas (Siracena) Prasrhalas, Bharatas ' Phraote.s). Kurus 
(Ir. Karush — Ar. Qaraish), Madras (Madas . Kambojas (l-Cambuia 
""Cambysen-^— Ir. K.H,mbajia, Kimnohos), Yavanas (Heb. Javan 

— Ir. Yaunafor Toaians), Sakts (Chin S-ck Ir 8aka = Sacae» 
and PahlaviiS (Pehlavi ; Run. 4 43. 12). After the downfull of 
the Pulasta power. Raiui obt lined the throne of Avodhya. 
But after his dealth. We-tern India was occupied by Bharitas, 
sub-lliaiilayas md N. Hj. cam-^ into the possession of Kusas 
(KhisK for we ftnd that Rama was succeeded by Kusa, and on 
the Mithila throne Kusa dvaja standarJ-bearer of Kusas). 
Thus Ayodhya became Kosola and soon after Saketa, that is, 
the stronghold of the Hakas. 

In the Mahabharata and the Piiranas the genealogies 
of the ruling dynasties and their priests are given. Through 
oral transmission through countless generatii^ns, interpolations 
by later day poets, names places and time* have been so much 
distorted that it has now become very difficult to disentangle 
facts from fancies. Manu is described as the primogenitor. 
Is Manu a generic indicator of the Mediterranean race like 
Cretan Minos. Ancient Egyptian Menes. Mannus, ancestor of 
the Germans according to Tacitus, or Melauisian tribe Manus f 
Similarity of names does not mean much. We can easily 
equate with Amerind Kansa=Kam=a of Mathura ; Assinas — 

— Asvina ; Baya = Bahu ; Sekani = Sakuni ; Senecij — Sunaka. 



Khotanese Ramayana : A Brahmin propitiated .Mahesvara by 
makino ^J an da/as = ma.^\ca.l circles. Mahesvara save him Cirfiimiui- 
the Jewel satisfying all desires, and a cow. Dasaratha Sahasravahu in 
his hunting expedition coveted and carried the cow. Hermit's son 
Farasu Rama (Rama with an axe - parasu = Gk. pelekus= -^umer pilakku) 
slew Dasaratha. Dasaratha's son Rama and a kinsman saved them- 
selves by hiding. A daughter Sita was born by the chief queen of 
Dasagriva Astrologers prophesied that she would bring ruin to 
Dasagriva ; so she was cast to the ocean. But she was saved, and 
when grown up captured the attention of Rama and Laksmana who 
married her. Dasagriva flying through air saw Sita's beauty. Vulture 



26 ' THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

But no direct tribal transmigrations are conceivable between 
India and America in ancient: times. We have to take into 
consideration not only racial kinship, linguistic affiliations, 



igigi' which watched over Sita attacked Dasagriva, and was slain by 
him. Sita was carried to Lankapura. Rama and Laksmana in search 
of Sita came to Makalam where Sugriva and Nanda were fighting for 
supremacy, Rama killed Sugriva. 

They made a stone bridge (hi = Ir. haitu = Skt. setu), crossed 
it. and Raksasas were defeated. Dasagriva took a serpent, extracted 
its poison and mixed it with butter on his arrovv with which he 
shot Rama. .Arrow pierced Rama's forehead. Nanda brought a 
mountain peak with herb to Jivaka who restored Rama to health. 
Sita becoming the object of ridicule of peoples descended into the earth 

In Dasaratha Jat'ika (461) : Dasaratha king of Baranasi, by his 
first wife, had two sons— Rama Pandita, Lakkhana Kumara and a 
daughter Sita Devi. Sita was married to bi^th of her brothers. 
Dasaratha after the death of his first wife married again, and had a 
son by her, Bharata Kumara. Rama was made the crown prince. 
But fearing the intrigues of his second wife, Dasaratha advised 
Rama to live in seclusion for 12 years when after his death they 
could occupy the throne. But Dasaratha died in 7 years, and Bharata 
went to Rama to offer him the throne. But Rama and Sita 
declined to come before the 12th year as asked by their father. Rama 
and Lakkhana came and ruled by making Sita Devi their chief queen. 
Laodike, daughter of Antiochus II, was married in turns to her three 
brothers— A ntiochu'5 III, Seleukus IV and Antiochus IV. 

South Indian and Mexican art motifs are common as to lotus, makara, 
kirti-mukha. god standing on crouched human dwarf, temple of 
granite railings of flights of slavs in the shape of serpents, dragons, 
the corbelled arch and columns in spirals. Pachisi game of 
India - Potolli of .Mexico ; hook swinging and Valodor of Mexico, 
parasol, fan and litter and ensignia of loyalty and rank in India 
and Mexico Kali = Coatlicue, Aztec goddess of death, with skull 
for head, a skirt of writhing snakes, a necklace of skulls, severed 
hands and hearts. 

Among the Manus tribe of the ./admiralty Islands, a group of 
efficient puritans where women never swing their grass skirts, girls 
are never allowed to flirt, and all love, even the affection between 
the brother and sister, is measured in goods. Here there is no 
prostitution. The owner of a war-captured prostitute makes money. 
Here a woman never loosens her gras, skirt even in the extremes 
of child births. Between husbands and wives, sex is a hasty, covert 
shameful matter P. 71. The Manus people are a small energetic 
tribe, tall, brown-skinned, lean and active, with nothing but their 
wits, their skill and ethics that the dead will penalize the unindus- 
trious, they build up a high standard of living which they maintain- 
by continuous hard work. P 53. The ideal home setting is a 
household with two children, a child to sleep with the husband on 
one side of the father and a child to sleep on the other. When 
men and women have aged together, and their children are half- 



MAN us 27 

territorial propinquity, but also customs, manners, and parti- 
cularly physical traits of anthropoiof^ic significance. For 
lanj^uage, manners and religion may be borrowed from one race 
by another, and can be also imposed by the victors over their 
conquered territories. There are Mediterranean traits in our 
population as in Iran. But they might have been separately 
counted as Pulastas, Agastyas, Danavas. "With Melanisian 
Manus we have common brown complexion, mesaticephalic 
head, black eyes, medium nose and stature, puritaniJ^m in the 
mode of life, piercing the lobes of the ears of the pubescents in 
puberty rites, ancestor worship, joint family, honest payment of 
personal, family and ancestral debts. 

Other Indonesian tribes might have followed the leadership 
of Manus ; Sabari of H'ormosa, as Savaras of C I. and ("leylon ; 
Kalinga of Luzon as Kalingas of Orissa and Kulinga of Ceylon ; 
Todjas of Celebes as Todas of Nilgiris ; Benkid-non of Minanao 

grown, they may relax and talk together P. 212. The puritanical 
Manus conceal all menstruation between menarche and marriage. 
There is no word for virgin in the language, and bleeding from 
rupture of the hymen is simply equated with menstruation which is 
believed to be reactivated by mirriage. So extreme is the prudery 
of the people that any visual inspection of the genitals is unthink- 
able, and the chances of the rediscovery of the hymen are slight. 
The phrase for menstruation is ICekenbroot = broken = defloration. At 
her first menstruation the Manus girl is given a great ceremony. 
There are large exchanges of food and ceremonial and splashing 
parties in the lagoon. The corresponding ceremony for boys in 
which their ears are pierced and comparable charms are said ovt-r 
them P. 176. .Margaret Me^d,- Mnle and Female. London IVSO. 

Manus of the Admiralty Islands believe that their ancestors are a 
aware of their hidden motives and they punish with illness and 
misfortune all acts of violence within joint family — murder, adultery, 
displacement of true heir, incest, or sexual relationship between 
two persons who are within forbidden degrees of kinship. The 
spirits of the ancestors though not regarded as omnicient or omnipotent, 
but more knowledgeable and powerful, punish breaches of the code 
of conduct in relation to sex and business. Sex offences which 
interfere with the social order of the Manus are li^ht words, chance 
physical contact, careless jests, non-observance of the proper avoidance 
reaction towards relatives ; or economic laxity of any sort, failure to 
pay debts, careless manipulation of family properties, unfair allotment 
ot funds among the needs of several relatives P. 330. The .Manus 
moral code includes strict rules of truth-telling and promise keeping 
and they regard these rules as having a powerful supernatural sanction. 
For them one of the two supreme virtues is high levtl of commercial 
morality, and this requires honesty and mutual trust P. 371. 

Kula system prevails amonst Trobriand Islanders through exchange of 
reciprocial gifts and courtesies P. 126 1.19. A Macbeth— Experiments in 
Living, Macmillan & Co., London 1952. 



"23 THE LITKRARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

as Bagdi of Bengal and Budugon (Telegu) of the Godavari 
region . Pan-ti of Canton area as Pundia-Pods of N. Bengal ; 
Madang, Kantu and Dasun of Borneo as Matang, Madigas 
of S. India, Khonds -Gonds-Candala. and Dusyanta of the 
Giingetic Doab -, Orang Malelu of Malaya as Ot-aon of C. India, 
and Maleru of Mysore ; Mahisyas and Sassak of Bali as 
Mahisya^ of Bengal and Mysore and Sasak m Ayodhya , Kanaka 
as Kanaka ruler of Haihayas (Hun : Hiao-Hui) and Kanaka 
as cocoanut planters of Cochin Australoids and Negritos are 
menr,ioned as Nishadas as black as crows, low in stature with 
-short arms, high cheek bone and snub nose iBhag. P 4, 14, 44). 
But in the Vedas Manu (Kv. d.11.9), Manus (Kv i, 159. ^) are 
■used in the sense of Ger. Mensch - Man. 

A coin has been found in Kondapur in South Hyderabad, men- 
tioning Mana Mahisha as a Saka ruler after the downfall of Sata- 
Vahanas ; his father was a Maha-Sena-Pati The dynasty ruled until 
•overthrown by early Chalukyas. 

Polynesia has some curious traditions. When their earliest fore- 
fathers came sailing across the sea, they had with them leaves of 
a certain plant which if they chewed, their thirst disappeared, 
and they could drink sea water at a pinch without being sick. Peru 
has had Coca plant, the leaves of which contain Cocaine which 
were chewed by Incas to remove feelings of thirst and weariness. It 
is known that chewing of Coca leaves over a fairly short period 
will allow one to drink sea water with certain immunity Sweet potato 
(Ipomoea batatas) was brought over to New Zealand in vessels which 
were not canoes but consisted of wood (Balsa wood raft logs of 
Peru float in water, being light and hard, having air cells in the 
body ; aeiroplane wings are made out of the wood plank), bDund 
together with ropes. Sweet potatoes are called Kumara, a term also 
used by Incas and it was extensively cultivate! ; also Bottlegourd = 
Kon - Tika = Lagenaria vulgaris is converted into water containers, 
found in desert graves of Peru, Cocoanuts grew extensively on the 
Isthamas of Panima before the time of Columbus. It is spoilt by 
sea water. But kept above water, it sprouts and lives for a long 
period. — The Kon-Tiki Expedition -Thor Heyerdahl. 

The raid of Khatti Mursilis about 1650 B- C put an end to the 
Amorite Hammurabi dynasty of Babylonia. Kassites = Kassu = Kasshu 
= Kasip=» Kassipi = Kasyapa, Median Kaspia = Gk. Kosoioi, their god 
Amman Kasipa, of the Zagros range, allied to LuUus, Gutis, Yutii, who 
wore pig tails on their head, and were acting military and adminis- 
trative officers of the Amorites, became masters of the country, 
ruled it for four centuries (1650-1250), The sister queen of 
Marsites was VValanni. Their son and daughter Tudhaliyas and 
Duduhepa, became Khatti king and queen. Their son and daughter 
Aruwandas and Asmunika succeeded them Their son was Hattusilas. 
His son and daughter Tudhaliyas and Nikkal-mati became the king 
and queen of Boghoskeui. Their son and daughter Suppiluliumas 
became the king and queen and made an alliance with the Egyptian 
Thutmoses in 1450 over Mitannian Dusratta's assasination. Purush 



KHATTiS 2y 

Soma (Sheiu — Semites) is prominent in our myths. Semitic 
Amoru = Amorite8= Pur. Amaras ; Aesyiian ( Asshur— Ashiret ^ 
Skt Asura) ; the battle cry of Asuraa, according to Patanjali. i-j 
belays helayat-Bib. Halleluiah;. Depicted as Sura-Asura Yuddha 
is the war between the Sura (Sauro-Matae Mitanni Sun = llarri = 
Hori = Honte8 Gen. 3').'/0 and Assyrians. Mitanni kinj^dom. 
( Mariiinnu'=* JVIarouite= Rv. Marya) was split up into two parts — 
Harri (Syria) and Mitanni (Subarta — S. Armeniai. Khatti king 
Suppilaiinmas crossed the Euphrates and recovered the province 
which Dusratta, king of Mitanuu, was forced to surrender lo 
Artatama. king of Harri. Mattiuza (mati - ojas^ bpirited 



Khattis occupied Anatolia in 17th century and at its end destroyed 
Knossus ; raided Babylonia of the Amorites. wrested Syria from 
l8th dynasty of Egypt, and occupied Ansum as Parsa Xsaytia and 
penetrated as far as Sogdiana- Marakand = Samarkand ; they reached 
India as Puru Kshatriyas. In l6th century Mitannians Sauro- 
Matae = Saura-Mithilis) with their thundering Chariots (Skt. ratha 
•=Liih. ratas - Lat. rota = Keltic roth - OHG rad of horses (Skt. haya 
= Ant; Sax ehu = Kelt ech ; asva = Zd aspa = Lith. aszwa) occupied 
Kabur valley of Syria ; and Kashshites (Kiisyapa) occupied in 16-l5th 
centuries Babylonia from South Russian plains. And they occupied 
N. India. Flat bronze axes of Hissar in N Persia and Harappa are 
similar. Indian battle cars irathas) had as usual 4 spokes (arrm), 
Hittite six, Homeric chariots 8, Keltic (4-10 12). later Hittite and 
Assyrian 6-8. Usually the wheel icakra) was made of a single 
piece of wood, chiselled into a circular shape just as the Keltic 
chariot wheels were made and were shod with copper or leather 
tyres. I bend with song as bends a carpenter his felloe of solid 
wood. Rv. 7. 32. 20. Lynchpin = ;ini ; nave = nribhi ; pole=isa ; lashing = 
yaktra ; felloe = nemi ; trace = rasmi rasana ; spokes = arrin The warrior was 
armed with a bow. somewhat short and stiff, made of horn and sinew, known 
in Siberia, Turkey, Iran. Crete "The bow string close to his ear as fain 
to speak, she presses, holding her well loved friend t arrow) in her 
embraces ; strained on the bow. she whispers like a woman Rv. 6 75.3, 
like a woman to her lover (samaneva yosha Rv. 6, 75-4), As with the 
leather thong they bend the chariot yoke to hold it fast Rv. 
X, 60. There was a hollowed cavity (gartha^ seat savyastha) for 
the bow-man while the charioteer ^Sarathi) led the chariot from 
a stand (statr) or platform (ratha- vahanam ■= ratha - prosthasi from 
behind The stiapt was venom smeared (;il;ikta) and tipped with deer 
horn, having copper mouth Rv. 6, 75. 15 With the leather thong 
they bind true chariot yoke to hold it fast X, 60. 8. Semite Sargon 
in 8th century B. C. put an end to the Khatti rule by capturing the 
Khatti capital Carchemish which the Khattis conquered in 1200 century 
B. C. The Khattis were hypsibrachycephalics. fleshy-nosed, squat 
of figure, with retreating forehead, flattened occiput, flat (round of 
Alpines) nape of the neck, large-eyed and clean shaved. Mittannian 
Harri ruled Egypt as Hyksos for their hinterland was known as Hurri-Hor ; 
their storm god was Tesnub riding on a bull ; his bulls were called Sheresh< 
and Hurresh ; his consort was Hepa riding on a lion. The lion-man. 
(Nara-Simhaj, the eagle with human head (Garura) are Khatti deities. 



30 THE LITERABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

inind ) with Khatti partisans killed Dusratta Dusratta's ally 
Artatama intervened and made his son Shutarna, the combined 
king of Harri and Mitanna. Assyria taking advantage of 
the chaotic stage pounced upon Mitannu, and Mitannu palace 
was sacked, plundered, bai-nt into ashes (8kt. asa), reduced into a 
dust heap, youths castrated and maidens raped and enslaved, 
and the treasures which Dusratta's grandfather had brought 
from plundering Ashur were taken back by the Assyrian victors 
with many nobles as captives. Mattiuaza escaped and came 
to the KhitDi couro. Sappiluliumas gave his daughter in 
marriage on condition that her son will be the only successor 
to thethrouri, he installed hun oa the united throne of Harri and 

The striking affinities between the ceramic wares of N. Iran of 
abaut 2000 B. C and those of Anatolia in the second millenium 
seem to indicate a migration of people from Turkestan through N. 
Iran into AnatOiia prior to 2030 B. C. The rock sculptures at 
KurangUQi in the Mamaseni region in Fars represent certain 
somatic figures with sufficient art and reliability. It shows about 
50 figures. The heads and faces are around, noses thick and 
slightly hooked. They wear long pigtails and some have also 
a pair of long curls from the temples in front of their ears. These are 
the features which associate the Caspian with the Nasian speaking 
Hittites of Boghas-Koi, although Caspians do not share the extreme 
brachycephaly. A Pope : Persian Arts P 53. Kassite gods : Surias = 
Surya ; Maruttas = Marutah ; Indas = Indra ; Bagas= Bhaga ; Dakash = 
Daksha Prajapati. They seem to be Sauro-Matae who with their 
speedy horse-drawn war chariots overran Asia! Minor, named after 
them Syria in 16th century B. C and known as Mitannus. and 
allied themselves with the Hittites A Mitannian chariot found in 
Egytian ISth dynasty grave with axle is bound with fir bark of Caucasus 
region The girdle worn by the amazon from Boghas Koi is 
strikingly similar in form to bronze girdles found in graves on both 
sides of the Caucasus. But tne oldest cist graves in Carchemish in 
N. Syria contain eyelet pins found in coppercage burrows on the 
Kuban river, poke butted spear heads and penul-ir bracelets with 
flattened recoiled ends which are widely diffused in South Russia, 
Hungary and Bohemia. Hittite shield resembles dimunitive version 
of Mycenaean figure S-typa Phrygian language exhibits close affinities to 
Greek, and even made uie of Greek words ; at the same time some 
Slavonic parallels have been noted, and certain features would 
connect with Hittite Nasili. Phrygian chief god was Bagaios = Gk 
-Zeus Bagaos = Slav. Boga = Zd. Bagha== Bhaga. Phrygios and Khatti 
settled in Armenia. They were all hypsibrachycephalic brunet Dinaric 
Alpines, known as Armenoids and spoke a similar language -a 
centum variety of Western Aryan speech. Tall and fair-haired 
Achaeans coming in 15th century B. C. from the valley of the 
Danube, armed with iron instruments, dominated the bronze using 
Pelasgians of Greece. As mentioned by Homer, Achaean heroes 
ipassed into the next world in the flames of funeral pyres. 
Achaeans in turn in 12-Uth century were dominated by Dorians 
^who invaded Peloponnesus. 



RISHYASRINQA 31 

Mitanni. Akit Tesbeb (AcyutaKesavaj fled with 400 chariots 
aud belongini^'s. The treaty tablet between Sii|i|)iluMaiiias and 
Mattiuaza has been found at Boghaskeui, signed in I4f0 B C. 
in which Mi it tora(M itra = Zd. Mithrai, In da-ra Indra- Gk. 
andros in the sense of a strong man). U-ra-wanu i Varuna ^ Gk. 
uraausi, Na sa at attiya (Nasatya = KU. Nastasija* are found as 
witnesses Risyasriaga episode and flood legend seem to have 
been borrowed from first and eleven tablets of the Gilganesh 
epic of C. -^OOO-eSO B.C. 



"Erech is besieged by her dread foes, and she at last must 
feel Akkad's - Agad's woes, and feed the vanity of conquerors who boast of 
victories in all their wars. Great Subartu iS. .Amenia = Suvastu = 
Swat in N W.P. named after it) has fallen by Sutu (Soyot ; Sula, 
Satvata ; Sata - Vahana) ; Kassi (Akkad Kas3i = Ir. Kassoi^pl. 
Kassip = Gk. Kaspai ■= Scythic Caspii = Kashshites = Kassites = Kfisyapa. 
Kusa, Ktiasa. Kusliiya), Guci iGudeans = Kurds = G idhi = Guda, Gudan) 
and Lul lu-bu (LuUubi), all have fallen in their hands (Tab. 1, 
Col. 2). Gilgamesh, the king has a dream which En - Kidu Mudi 
(seer) might explain, and the Pa te-si (ruleri sends two maidt-ns 
Sam-kha-tu (joyi, Kha-rimatu (seduction) to fetch the seer." Before 
a cave within Gab ri wild, the seer is resting on a rock beside a 
pool within a rocky glen, exiled hy his own will from all the 
haunts of men. There Sam-kha went and over the sleeping setr her 
blooming charming form she bent ; over him who with gazelles 
(tsalis), antelopes (bur-kh;-is», spotted stags (na-a-li) oft eats his 
fojd ; over him who drinks with lions nesii and wild goats (arme) in 
the wood and sports with them wiihin the mountain streams. She 
clasped him to her breast and kissed his brow The seer awakes 
and with delight gazes at her beautious form. iMy mission is fulfilled ; 
sweet Zir-ru water nymph) comes to me with fragrant breath ; with 
voluptujus smiles she flies ; to sport with him does she choose 
He springs upon his feet and her pursues. She coquetishly comes 
and enfold-i him in her arms. From her soft liquid eyes love light 
speaks and by her voluptujus clasp she awakes in him by her 
touch a thrill of wild desire until his blood seems like molten 
fire. HuT eyes half cloied begat a passion wild with her warm 
breasts her embrace has beguiled. All his firm resolves to seek no 
more a joy which passed and left his heart forlorn, are breaking 
and vanishing beneath her charms. 'My inside is burning and 
throbbing f Jr thy virile thrusts " A prize like this a heart of stone 
would move, and he enfolded her wiili his arms till their bodies 
and organs in o le thrilling rapture moved Tab. 3, Col 4i. And 
thus E;i-ki du was brought to Erech. In Alambusha Jitaka 523, 
we find thit a Mri^i (Margian woman =Per3. Marga. inhabiting in 
the oasis of Merv on the R Margus ; Yt 46 14. Magai = Magus of 
Achaemenian inscriptions, a name of Saka Maga, Vishnu P. 2, 4, 69 ; in 
MBh. 1. IK, Klsyapa's semen mixed with water drunk by a thirsty Mrigi- 
doe) eating grass which was wet with urine by a thirsty Mrigl 
and semen {Sambhava) of Kasyapa, became pregnant and gave birth 
to a human child who was adopted by Kasyapa who named it 
Isi-Singa (Rishya-Sringa = amorous of a doe ; a rock engraving at 



32 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIBNI INDIA 

Ila (Matsya P. 24. 9) or Aila (Bv. X. 95. 7) Puru-ravas are 
Illyroi = Illyrians. Illyrians were hypsibrachycephalic brunet 
Dineric Alpines with perpendicular back of the head, oval face, 
abundant growth of beard, prominent nose. It is very likely that 
the Khattis =- Alia Puru = Ir. i'arsa Xsayatia. mixed with Saka 
people — Hakamanasiya - belonged to this tribe. Other 
prominent Illyrians were Brygi, Bessi and Dassaratae. Illyrians 
tattowed, thus being distinguished from the Kelts who lived 
with them in Illyria and Thracia. Their gods were Dionysus 
(Deva Nahusa), Ares ( Sara i, Bendis =- Ruftesh i Artemis). They 
allowed their girls complete license until marriage. 

Kupgullu Hill near Bcllery snow a man, having stick in his right 
hand, with an exagj;erated penis, copulating with a standing doe). 
Adolescent Rishya-Sringa seeing the courtesan Alumbusha praised 
her beauty from head to feet, her bright complexion, pretty face. 
wide open eyes, coral-red lips, long neck, shining teeth, well-shaped nates 
{nitamha), round thighs, twin breasts like pumpkin halves without 
stalks, yet firmly set, wide vaulted monsveneris and vulva (vedika; covered 
with such thick lotus filamented hairs that it appears from distance 
as if painted with black coUyrium. Alambusha said : Kassapa, good 
fellow, why should we waste our time by idle talks like tnis Let 
us copulate in thy hermitage and enjoy erotic tricks (ratinam. 
kusalo). Yet to stimulate his libido, she pretended to flee ; and 
the hermit ran after her and caught hold of her by her long flying 
tresses. In Nalinika Jataka (52o), Nalinika dancea before Rishya- 
Sringa with a bounching ball (kanduka) in her hand in such 
a way as to display her bodily charms as well as of her private 
parts (ahgani guhyami ; and when she sat, she lay down in such a 
way as to make visible the inside of her vagina. Surprised at the 
sight, he exclaimed : what is that snail-mouth like dark thing 
(sippi-mukha kanhar iva) deep down thy thighs : what has- 
happed to thy excellent organ (uttam - angam = penis) ! While in a 
forest, a terrible bear fell me down and tore it away and with its 
raouih and claws has created this deep wound which is causing 
constant pruritis ; if you rub it with your pleasure rod, my 
pruritus will be appeased, and I shall be delighted." "Yes thy 
wound is deep and reddish, but without suppuration So he was- 
induced to coition, which he found delightful and relaxing". 
Similarly in Passionate Pilgrim, Venus seduced Adonis, but she said 
that her wound deep down her thighs was caused by a boar. 
Perhaps the seduction drama like this was a kind of fertility rite, 
popular in ancient times.' Jhisa (fish) said to Manu : In such and 
such a year the flood will come ; prepare a ship. And when the 
flood has arisen, I shall save them. When the flood came, he 
entered into the ship, and carried him swiftly up to a northern, 
mountain."— Sata Patha Br 1, 8-1 ; Matsya P. 12. It is the same- 
thing as the Deluge and Flood Legend, found in the ilth tablet 
of Gilgamesh Epic and in the Bible. It seems also that the Indians 
and Iranians borrowed from the Semites the custom of isolating, 
menstruating and parturient women and their purifying baths, though 
these Taboos prevail also amonst many savage and primitive peoples. 



KHAITIS— BHRIGUh— DDRHYU8 88 

Khattis occupied Asia Minor by 18th Century B.G, Sauro 
Matae Dassaratae became Syrian Mitanni Dusaratta, and Surya 
(vamsaja) Dasaiatha of Ayodh\a and iSaura Mithili of Mithila. 
Khatti sun-goddess like tlia mother-goddess of Crete was the 
centre of worship. The Khatti king after I6uO B. C. used to 
be addressed as '7ny sun\ Bessi became Vaisya of Vai&ali. 
Mixed with the Kelts, iirygi became known as Bryges. Bryges 
later known as Plirygios= I'hrygians wi-ested the northern coast 
of Asia Minor from the Khattis and they made Troy their ca[)ital. 
They knew only the uses of bronze up to that time for otlence 
and defence. The Achaean (^Ikshvakn) confederacy fell upon the 
Phrygian froy, armed with iron instruments, and conquered it. 
Thus Bryges => Phrygios were pushed south, and they in their 
turn broke down the Khattis. Bryges became known as Bhrigus 
who wore their hair like a mane — Kesara prabandah. 

Bhrigu Usanas (Bryges mixed with Ausones) became the 
priest of Daitya (Keltic Datti, Bab. Dutai\ Danava (Uanoi- Bib. 
Danans) and Asuias ,Asshura- Assyrian '. He had a pretty 
daughter -Deva-yani (on whom the gods ride ). Brihas pati's 
(Breuci =■ Brahui chief) son = successor Kaca ( Koch Baloch = 
Baluchis from which Cutch has been named => Kutzo-Vlachs 
Armunes- Slav. Voloch = Kut6a Vahlika Arjuna) came to Usanas 
to learn from him reviviscence = Sanjivani Vidya ; Uevayani 
fell in love with Kaca, but he cowardly refused to marry her. 
This Kaca-Devayani love episode is described as a romance in 
many of the epics. D.ivayani married Yayati. son of Nahusa 
(Noah, Naahi) who also consorted with Devayaui's comrade 
Asura princess bJarmista. According to traditions, Devayani 
became the progenitress of Yadu (U-ran = Yautiya of Bahistan 
inscription = Idadu-in-Shushinak of An3am = Yadava Seshanaga 
= Sishunag of Ginbraja) and Turvasu /Tauri Bessi) ; Saimishta 
of Druhyu (Durhani = Druse =■ Dorus), Ann lAnue of Sumer of 
of Anaa origin) and Puru (Par^a =Purush Khatti), all Armenoida. 
They reached India through Baluchistan, and through the sea. 

Durhyus (Durhani i occupied Afghanistan; Yadavas, the 
Yamuna basin. The Purus pushed their way to the Ganga- 
Doab ; Sibis (Saba = Sabaeans ; or Sibos of the Hi region) settled 
in the Sibi Valley of Baluchistan. Keltic Sequani, Pictones, 
Ausones, Quadi iBab. Gudea ^ Gudii, Arvii, iVJattiaci. babmi, 
Magelli, Brittas. Vagienni, Trinobantes, Achaeoi, Boii occupied 
as Sakuni of Uttarapatha (Vayu P. 88. 8-11 -, Gandhara = Kanda- 
har , and Videha), Paktuns of N. W. P., Usanas of the Punjab, 
Gadhi and Urva of Kanyakubja, Matsya of Virata, Cyavana of 
Pancala, Moggali iana=of • Moggali-puta^ Banskntized as 
Mudgala) of Pancala and Bihar, jBharataa between the river 



There were about 72 Keltic nations, consisting of 5(X) tribes ; 
a group of clans formed a tribe and several tribes a nation. i 

a 



34 THE LITERARY HISrORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

basias, Vajjis of Vaisali, Trinavindu of Trihut, Ikshvakus ( Pali 
Okkaka) and Bahu of Ayodhya. Dacis of Pantalia, Finno- 
Ugrians as Ugri (Uigurs), Soyot, Tatars Voguls, Andkhuis, 
and other Huns and Scyths occupied Pancala as Divo-Dasa, 
and later as Su-Dasa or Sodas Kalmasapada who also occupied 
Ayodhya , Ugra sena of A.gra region and Ugra ayudha Brahma- 
dattas of Baranasi and Bihar ; Satvatas, Tittiri, Bhoja and 
Andhakas of Yadavas ; Suta Magadha ( Machas=» Magi ); 
Suta Adhiratha of Anga j Kichaka ( Kazak ) is called Suta- 
putra. MBh, Virat 23. 4 ; Suta Lomaharsana, the chronicler of 
the Paranas, is called Ugra-sravas = the glory of (Jgras — Ugri. 

Haihaya (Hio-hui) Tala Janghas 'who were Abtelite Vetfvlas, 
To-liong ki, Hun tribes. Harsa Gharita 6, Vetala-Chin. Yita — 
Yau-tan-i lito«= Ephthalites— White Huns) with Sakas, Kambo- 
jas I a clan of the Sakas. Kamuia-Ir. Kambuja (Cambyses) = 
Kambohoa of W. Punjab), Yavanas ( lonians ), Paradas (Saka 
Paraidroya — Afridi ) and Pahlavas ( Pehiavis = Parthava8 — 
Pa^thian8 ) defeated Bahu, and Sagara ( Sagara-ulai^ Saka 
chiefs), occupied Ayodhya and Himalayan foothills (Kapilavastu) ; 
Vatsa Pratardhana ( known also as Ruadhvaja ; his son Alarka 
was born of his union with Madalasa, an Asva-sena Naga 
maiden of Varanasi), Marutta and Dusyanta ( Murut and Dusun 
of Borneo \ Sasada, Sasa-vindu ( Sassak of Lambok and Bali), 
Kanakas (Polynesian Kanaka) with the aid of Sakunis, Usanas, 
Asva-sena ^ Sarmatian Asioiland Sagara (Sagartii) arrested and 
drove the Haihaya Talajangha Vitihotras. Though Dusyanta 
was married to Sakuntala, a Sequani princess, their territories 
were overran by Bbaratas, due it is said to the influence of 
Durva8as= Parthian Derbicae, and Bharat-Vajas (formed by the 
cross cousin marriage of Bharatas and Vajins. Pallavas of Kanchi 
claimed to be of Bharadvajas). Haihaya Talajanghas (which 
comprised of five tribes Sarayatis, Bhojas (Voguls), Avantis 
(Hun Ho-hun to) and Vitihotras ? Matsya P. 4Hi, occupied 
Avanti, named after them. The union and separation of 
Dusyanta and Sakuntala, and their succession by Bharata. have 
been dramatized in MBh, 1.72 and by Kalidasa. Sasa vindu, 
Marutta, Kanaka, Usanas, Sakuni were absorbed in the Yadava 
Haihaya confederacy ; their names are found in the ruling list. 

Ho hunto (Avanti), To-liong-ki (T&lajanga), Ab-tel-ites = Ephthalites 
(Vetalas). Kosik (Kusika), Ku-lim (Kulins), Hiao-Hui (Haihayas), 
Ki-tsa (Kutsa), 0-Jen-te (Ajantas), Kak, Toki (Turkish Doghri = 
Dogra), Tan - hu = (Dhanva). Holanki (Sslanki), Hu-Jen (Ujjani), 
Uigurs (Ugra) are Hun clans, — Die Huntten der Vorchrilich en Ztit ' 
J. J M. De Groot, Leipzig 1921. Khalka = KaIki ; Kuci = Kauseya , Yen- 
ki - Agni ; U nco - U-go = Uraga. 



KURU PANDAVAS 35 

Next came long waves of invasions of Sauro-Matae and 
other Sarmatian and 8lavic tribes like Jmoud, Kors and Krivichi 
of Kurland, Wends, Kutzo Vlachs Armunes, Bessi, Basiiii 
who as Sauro Mithilis occupied INIithila ; Vaisili Visala, 
Vaisyas Ba^ya ; Jaraadagnis. northern India ; Kuru-Krivis, 
Kurn-Kshetra with Hasfcinapnr as their capital ; Pandus fought 
for the posse.ssion of the Kuru kingdom ; but Pandu was 
compelled to mgrate south where the Pandu (Wends = Venedae 
-Gens Pandae of Pliny G, 76-Gk. Pandeon' established a 
kingdom with IVIadharai, a colony of the Maedi Danoi like 
Mathara which is also reputed to have been founded by 
Madhu Danava as the capital. But the Pandu partisans 
finally won a decisive victory over the Kurus. 

Bhrigus were oppressed by Kutsa Krita-Virya Vahlika Arjana 
[included among Haihaya Huna Tala Janga hordes = Katzo Vlach 
Armunes) with the help of Atreyas ; but they were befriended 
by Jamad Agnis and Sodas Kaimasapada. When Bhfigu 
Utanka return ing home with a pair of valuable earrings as a 

Hastinapur mound rises about 50 ft. above the surrounding ground 
evel, covering an area about a mile long, now five miles to the east of 
;he Gang I. Painted grey ware -wheel turned bowls and dishes 
ivith black simple bands round the rim both inside and out side- 
lave been found at Hastinvpur I, also in upper Ganga and Ghaggar 
)asins of ab)ut 900-1000 B C. The houses were made of mud and 
iamboo. A thin copper shallow dish has also been found, but no 
ron. When 8-10 ft- occupational deposits were accumulated, a 
^reat flood of the Gangi destroyed Hastinapur I about seventh 
:entury B C. Hastinapur II and Kausambi on the Yamuna, about 
^0 miles N E. of Pray^g were built about 6th century B.C. A highly 
polished northern Black Ware, jet black or steel blue in colour, 
las been found in both places. Houses were of sun-dried bricks 
mth well-constructed burnt-brick drains. Individual houses had 
:heir own soakage arrangement in the form of long perforated jars, 
alaced vertically one over the other in a deep pit. There were 
lome drainage pits made of terracotta rings, measuring 2 ft. in 
iiameter. Iron has been noted ; also coins of oblong or square 
)ieces of beaten silver or copper, bearing punched marks. Buddha 
ibout 500 B C visited Kausambi when Udayana was ruling there. 
\ large scale fire destroyed the entire Hastinapur II Burnt walls 
ind floors, charcoal remains of bamboos, reeds and matting can be 
leen in almost every part of the layer. The occupation of 
Hfastinipur III began early in 2nd century B. C. as Sunga and 
Vlitra coins have been found in the level ; also moulded Sunga 
erracotta figurines. The structures were now built mainly of burnt 
jricks This period ended with Kushan Vasudeva of 2nd century 
\. D. i and a Kushan terracotta Bodhisattva Maitreya has been 
ound, and the attitude recalls the Mathura school of sculpture of 
2-3th century A. D Balban 1266 87 of the Slave Dynasty of Delhi 
ebuilt with the brickbats of the ruins ; again it ceased to exist ia 
L4th century. Lai, Arch. Survey of India in I L N Oct. 4, 1952. 



86 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA^ 

gift from Sodas and his wife M"adayaati. he was interrupted by 
Airavata Kara Nagas [MBh. i-l. 57-58). Sodas was defeated; 
by the combined forces of the Kurus Asmakas (Comi>, 
Parasaras (Parairae). Asmaka occupied Ayodhya throne and; 
Parasara chief took Madayanti and made a slave of her sow 
Sarvakai-man=Kifcuparna (MBh. 12.49 76). Pandavas were: 
1, Yadhisthira of white yellow complexion, large eyes, prominent 
nose, tall and slender {MBh. '6.16d\ identified with Yaudheyas 
( MBh. 1.95) = Ugra Ayudhas = U-Tan Yufeii - Yutia = defender ; 

2 Kutsa Arjuna« Arjunayana = Ki-tsa = Kutzo Vlach Armunes ;^ 

3 Bhima-Sena= Vimakas, an allied tribe of Finno-Ugrian 
Udumbaras or Vima Kadphises, a Kushan Yaksha = Yuechi 
clan; 4 Nakula ( Gk. Nicolaus, having a victorious armyi ; 
5. Saha deva ^ Parthian Saion or Saudas Miti-a-Saha Kalmasapada. 
These five Huna chiefs made a treaty alliance with Drupada = 

Polyandry still prevails amunst VVahuna of K. Africa, Ceylonese, 
Tibetans and Nayars. Matriarchical polyandry amonst Karavazhi 
Pulaya, Ptalean Mathuvan, Mannas of Travancore. Fraternal polyandry 
amonst Malayarayan, Ullaton, Urali, S. Pulayas, Parayas of 
Travancore, Santals, Bhuiyas, Kandhas, Oraons, Karkus of C. I. 
Todas, Kurambas, Badagas, Kamraalans, Kalians of S, Madras. 
Marriage between brothers and sisters in ancient Egypt, Hattis, Iran, Peru, 
and Hawalli amonst the nobles. But amonst the ancient Egyptians, 
marriage was not definitely concluded until after a trial year. 
Consin Marriage : Muthuvans, Mannans, Malankurvans ; but marriage 
with the daughters of father's sisters prohibited. Monogamous- 
weddings take place at night amonst Malopulayas, Muthuvans, 
Mannans, Polyars and Malapantarans to protect the bride and 
bridegroom against evil eyes. A Urali marries as many women as he has- 
sisters in exchange. Sororate Marriage in which all the sisters are regarded 
as the wives of the man who marries the eldest of them prevails also amonst 
Lepchas, Uralis, Ulathatans and Mannaes. Amonst Vellalas iKavundian of 
Coimbatore. Reddi of Tinnevelly, Badagas, Malay is), the father of the 
family marries for his youngest son a grown up girl with whom he 
has sexual relation as with Ossetes. Marriage by capture : Mithuvans 
and Mannans of Travancore ; Malayalis of N. Arcot, Mull 
Kurumban, VViynar, Gonds of C. 1. Marriage by service ; Polyans 
and Mannans of Travancore, Marriage by exchange of sisters : 
Ullatans, Vishavans, Malapantaram of Travancore ; Urali, Madigas ; 
Bhotias of Almarah. Nephews of Polygans, Muthuvans, Poliyans. 
Kanikkars, Malayaryans, Malapuliyas inherit the youngest wife of 
their uncles and keeps the aunt as their wife. Amonst the Garos, 
sisters son comes to live in the house as the husband of one of 
the maternal uncle's daughters, and when he dies marries also his 
widow. "As birds seek with avidity for meat that is left on the 
ground, so men solicit a woman who has no husband." — M Bh. 

1, 159. Apasthambha Darma Sutra 2,10,27 of Andhra Taitareya Aranyaka : 
A bride is given to the family of her husband, and not to the husband 
alone. A woman, remaining at home, unmarried, was called Amajur, Rv. 

2. 17. 7. By scholarship, a maiden wins a youth as her husband, Av xi, 
5, 18. Brahmacaryena Kanya yuvanam vindate patim. 



KURU-PANDAVA ALLIB8 87 

Dru pa a Tibetan (Tibet is also called Huna-desa) on the 
northern slope on Gan^a dvara (source of GJanga - Qanga- 
Chu, 4U-100 ft. in breadth jrenerally durinfr the Burnmer and 
'6 miles in leni^th in its meandering course from Manasaravara 
(Tao INIaham ; elevation 14950 ft, : circumferance 64 miles, 
coverin}:{ about 200 sq. miles , depth of water 800 ft.) flowing 
into Rakshas Tal (Lan^ak Tso ; elevation 14900 ; circum- 
ferance 140 miles ; depth about I'lO ft. on the northern side ; 
east, S. W. N. coasts are 18, 12 28^, 3.J miles in length and 
17 miles north to south and 1'-^ miles east and west at the 
maximum parts), married his daughter Drupidi jointly in a 
polyandrous manner as customary with the Tibetans, Massa- 
Getae, Yue-chi, Tu hua-lo — Tochari and Hua fluns, to avoid 
•divisions of property and succession disputes. In Armenia 
(Strabo 12) priestesses were permitted to practise polyandry. 
In Media a woman boasting of five husbands was honoured. 

Besides Drupadas. Paudavas s-^cured the aid of Matsya 
(Mattiacii. Somaka (Comii, Andhaka lAndkkhui) Vasudeva. 
Vidura (lonely, deserted, as vidu ; Badara Badarayana) 
was apparentlv neutral. Kuru-Kamboja (MBh. 6"45) allies 
■were: Duryodhana (lUyrian Dardanii ; Darada— Dards ; his 
sister Duhsala- Drusilla, sister consort of Roman emperor 
Caligula); Vikarna (Ir Varkana - Russian Varecks— Keltic 
Varciani), Citrasena(Parth. Catarsene), Surasenas- Parth. Syra 
cene, 8anjaya— Srinjayas — Srangakas = Saka Saranga on the 
Western Indus — Zaranka of Darius, Kama = Parth. Karen of 
Keltic Kami origin who occupied Anga desa. Salya = Keltic 
Salyes who occupied Mt Abu region, Sakuni = Gallic Sequani — 
Italic Sicani - yiginni of Caucasus. BharatVajas under Droua. 
Kripa of Krivi clan = .Lith. Krivi chi- h"o Kuru Pandava war 
was a contest for supremacy between the Finno-Ugrian 
Sarmatian Scyths and Hun Parthian hordes. In the Hajasuya 
ceremony the Pandavas received many valuable presents from 
numerous chiefs, particularly of Scythianized hordes Kambojas 
(Kambuia = Kambohas of West Punjab, an allied 8aka clan of 
ihe Kurus) brought many pretty furs, fine woven light blan- 
kets and excellent horses ; Sudras (Pr. Sudd - Chude -Chin 
■Chous) brought many slender yellow-coloured slave girls with 
fine long hair ( the wooly hair of the Negro is short and curly, 
set in a curved follicle and flat in section ; the straight lank 
liair of the Mongolian and Australoid is round in section, long 
«,nd coarse ; the wavy hair of the Alpines is set in a straight 
follicle, usually longer in females than in males ) on the head, 
decorated with gold ornaments, from the Caspian Sea region. 
Abhiras-Avar, Kiratas (Keraits, a dominant people of Mongolia) 
brought numerous cattle; many Nara vakshakas (Androphagi) 
came from the Oxus region with valuable tributes ; the 
Chinese, Saka (Chin. Sek-Lat. Sacce) Barbara (Berbers) and 



38 THE LITBRABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Haya Hunas (Chinese Hiia Huangnu) brought many soft; light 
clothes, made from the filaments of worms (silk) ; Saka. 
Tukharas (Tocharis = Little Yue-Chis who had red hair 
and blue eyes as depicted at Turfan) brought many arms ^ 
Khasa (Khos) Pulinda (Powindah), Parada (Paraidroya — 
Afridi), Tungana (Chin. Tung — hu-Tungus) brought a 
large quantity of gold dug out by ants (a kind of 
burrowing marmot ; Herodotus also mention gold digging anta 
larger than foxes, smaller than dogs) MBh. 2. 60-51. In, 
MBh. 2, 159, b.T Andhras, Palindas (there was another Pulinda 
clan associated with Veddha Yakkas), Yavanas, Kambojas, 
Vahlikas, Sndras and Abhiras are regarded as allied Saka. 
clans, Kuru Arastisena, Rv. X. 98 = Parth. Aracticene -, 
Pratipa — Aparytes of Herodotus 8. 91. 

Arjunayana Parikshita became the Pandava sovereign. 
But he was killed by Takshakas (Tocharis). And his son. 
Janamejaya waged a relentless war against Takshakas, and 
Taksha-sila (Lat. silex\ their strong hold, was captured. 
Airavata Jaratkarna Sarpa (Sherpa of N. Nepal) of the. 
Kurus married a Vasuki-Tura Vesaki. Yt. 15. 35 (Uzbeg) 
princess ; and their ally Astika (Astica of Thracia ; or- 
Ugrian-speaking Ostiak) brought reconciliation between. 
Janamejaya and Vasukhis, Uraga (Scythian Urgi — U-go> and 
Takshakas (MBh. i. b8 ; 2lf^, 4S-49). But as he antago- 
nized Baramas (Ir. Sarima = Sarmatae) and Kasyapa Ugras- 
(Ugri'= Uigurs), Kaksha-Sena (Czechs) remaining in occupation 
only in parts (MBh. 1, 91, 54), Ugras, including Sudra, 
Abhira, Licchavis (Niu-Chi) and Karkota Nagas (Kar- 
Kitan Nogai Tatars), Pallava Mallas occupied the rest. 

Karkotas occupied Kashmir ; as Newars of Nepal, as 
Malavas, Karkota Nagara in Jaiypur and Malwa, Nagar^ 
Brahmans of Gujerat. and Nayars of Travancore. Compare 
Andhra queen Naganika — Nayanika. Pallava Mallas, Nogai Tatars, 



Nair soldiers came to Nepal in the train of KarnUa Chalukya 
king Nandadeva who invaded the valley of Nepal in 9th century 
A. D and there Huna Nayars settled as Newars. 

There are more than 1200 inscriptions in India anterior to 400 A D., 
and from 400 700 A D. 700 inscriptions are known in N India. 700 in 
S India. 600 in Kanara and about 1000 inseriptions in VV. India. To 
Asoka alone is ascribed 15^ inscriptions. Makki : "<9/ Devanampiya^ 
Asoka, two and half years, I am a Buda of Sakas. Longer I have visited 
the Sangha and have been a devout. The gods of Jambu dvipa are now 
mixed, though formerly unmixed The object can be reached by any 
low person who is devoted to morality" A Chalukya inscription of 
Jagodek Malla (Saka 949' calls Maski Rajadhani piriya Mosangi = the 
royal residence of great Mosangi. Rummin dei and Sagar pillar inscrip- 
tions exhibit devanampriyah priyadarsi raja. Bairat rock inscription, 
priyadarsi raja. Barabar Hill Cave, raja priyadarsi. Dipavamsa call& 



ABOEA's IhSORIPTIONS 8Q 

coming through Rajputana, leaving behind Mulawa dialect, 
settled in Malava ; penetrating through Bihar they became 
known as Mallas of Pava ; they occupied the South as 



Asok^ piyaddssi and ptyadassana, Mudrfi R'lksasa calls CandaSiri — 
Maurya Candra Gupta, piadamsana. At the request of Moriya Devfinam- 
pia Tissa (247-207 B. C), Asoka sent his son Mahinda and daughter 
Sangamittri, born of Vedisa Mahadevi Asandimittfi a Sakyan. whose fore- 
father migrated to Vedisa to escape the oppression of Virudabh, son of 
Prasenjit of KosaU, as he and Asoka belonged to the same race. 
Sangamittv became the wife of Asoka's sister's son Aggi (Agni) Brahman 
and mother of Sumana. At the end of the tiiree Mysore Edicts, /t'/i kuran-i 
in Kharosthi character, is observed. Two Kharosthi versions instead 
of ///>/■ use ^/// which IS found in Achaemenian inscriptions. Instead of 
lekhita, likhapiti, Shahboz^ai uses nif>esiia-Vtxs. nipish = to write, 
Asoka's brothsr-in-law was Vavana lafter the lonians. philo-Hellenic Sakag 
and Parthians, and later Persians were called Yavanas) Tushnspa. the 
governor of Girnar. a Saka name like Keresaspa or Vistaspa. father of 
Darius. Darius inscription : imam dipim nipishtanaiy ; Asoka : ai 
dhamma dipi nipista. Thatiya Daraya Vaush Ksayathiya- thus said 
Kshatriya ruler Darius ; Devanam priyo priyadasi rji evam aha iGirnar 
5tn rock inscription )= Thus speaks good looking king, beloved of the 
God. Patanjili's Mahabhisya 1.19 mentions Candragupta Sahha. 
Candra Gupta Maurya (316-296 B. C. Sandroeottus of the Greeks) was 
connected with Seleucus I Nicotor of Syria by intermarriage, and he 
sent Megasthenes as his ambassador He was succeeded by his son 
Bindusara (286 -269 B C ) Amitra ghata (Patanjali on Panini 3. 2. 87 ; 
slayer of foes ; amritaghatin title of kings. MBh. 3.2 2) - Amitro 
chates by Athenaeus) asked .Antiochus Soter ( 28i-?6l B.C ), son of 
Seleucus to send besides wine and figs a sophist so that he might compare 
Indo-Greek wisdoms, and Deimachus was sent to his court as a sophist 
ambassador. Bindusara had 16 wives of whom Moriya Vamsaja Dhammii 
Subhadrangi was the chief queen and .Asoka was born of her. 

Philadelphus of Egypt (285-2 '7 BC. sent Dionysius to the court 

of Asoka Asoka was the most enlightened ruler in history. By his 

adoption of Budd'iism, he wanted to rule his vast empire by the universal 

dictates of morality, peace, reason and humanity. "Officers have been 

appointed on my thirteenth coronation year. They are engaged to carry 

out social welfare works amonst Yonas, Ksmbojas, Gandharas, Ristikas, 

Petenikas and other western neighbours''. —Fifth Rock Edict, Girnar. 

•'Whereever there were no herbs beneticial to men and beneticial to cattle, 

everywhere they were imported and planted. Root and fruit plants 

were imported and planted on the road sides ; wells were du4 and trees 

planted to the welfare of."— "All men are my progeny ; and for my 

progeny, it is my desire that they are provided with all that is conductive 

to their welfare and happiness (sava munisa me paja ; atha pajaye icch imi 

kimti me savena hitasukhena yujashu".- Jangada 2nd Edict. 'Here no 

living being shall be killed and sacrificed in the interests of the people 

( praju hitavyam ). And no samij* l fair in which there were viand 

and lipuor shops ; and for amusements there were acrobatic displays, 

dancings, singing and dramatic performances ; and even seductions of men 



40 THE LITBRABY HISIOBy OP ANCIENT INDIA 

"Vellavis and Pallavas. Abhiras coming through Sindhu and 
Rajputana became the military chiefs of the Sakas of Nasika, 
and penetrated upto Ujjaini where conquering with the 

and women ; sama j = assembly of men and women) shall be held, for 

king devanampriya priyadarsin sees much evil in such assemblies, though 

some of them may be good- Formerly for the froyal) soup (supa = Swed. 

supa = Ger. soupen) many animals were killed. But when this d/iamma 

lipi is being inscribed, only three animals are killed daily for the soup — 

two peacoks (mora = mayura) and one deer (mago = mriga) and the deer 

not always. Even these three animals shall not be killed in future " — 

Girnar Rock Edict Fourth, "And this has been won repeatedly by 

Devanampriya both (here) and amonst neighbors as far as 600 yojanas 

where the yona king named Antiyoga ( Antiochus II of Syria ) and beyond 

this Antiyoga. four kings named Tulamaya iPtolemy II Philadelphus 385- 

247), named Aniikina (Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia 276-239), 

named Maka ( Magas of Cyrena 300-250 B. C.i, named Alikyashudala 

(Alexander of Corinth 252-244 B. C ), and likewise towards the south, of 

the Cholas. Pandyas as far as Tamiaparni, Likewise here in the king's 

territory among the Yonas, Kambojas. among the Nabhakas and Nabha- 

paniptis among the Bhojas. Pitinikyas, among the Andhras and Paladas 

(=» Paradas = Afridi) everywhere are conforming to Devanampriya's 

instruction in morality," — 13 Kalsi Kock Edict. Brahmi Inscription at 

Mah^'isthana i « To Galadan of the Samvamgiyas by order. The Mahamatra 

from the highly auspicious Pundranagara will cause to be carried out. 

Paddy has been granted to Samvamgiyas- The outbreak (of distress) in 

the town by this superhuman effort will be tided over When there is 

is abundant harvest, the granary and the treasury may be repli^nished with 

with paddy and Gamdaka coins". *Bharata ( actor ) Natya ( dance play : 

natakam nanrutah, Harivamsa = They danced a play ) Sastra= An Actors 

Dance play treatise ) describes how to dance as it mentions how to dress 

an Abhira girl (23.60), and Abhiras came with Sakas not before first 

century B C. Bimbisara (298-270) made his son Asoka (270-232), 

Governor of Avanti and he used to stay in its capital Ujjain ; on his way 

to Ujjain he used to halt at Vedisanagar at the house of a Sakya merchant 

whose ancestors migrated to the place to escape the oppression of 

Virudabha, son of Prasenjit of Kosoli. During his halt there he used to 

cohabit with the merchant's daughter, later known as Vedisa Devi 

Asandimitta who became the mother of Mahinda and Sanga-mitta ; 

.•^angamitta became the wife of Asoka's sister's son Aggibrahma and 

mother of Samanu. Asoka hastened from Ujjain to Pataliputta, hearing 

that his father was on death bed. It is said that he got the throne by killing 

his brothers excepting Tiss a Vitasoka who was appointed as his Upar^ja. 

for this he wus called Canda Asoka But his younger brother Tissa Vita 

Asoka became a monk. Then his nephew and son-in-law Aggi Bamana 

was made Uparaja or regent, but he too joined the Sanga, Asoka's 

Agga Mahesi was Asandhamitta who died in 30th year of his reign ; 

and 4 yesrs later he raised Tissa Rakkhita to the position of the queen ; 

his other wives were Kuruvaki, mother of Tivara ; Padmavati, mother of 

Kunala ; and another, mother of Jalauka and Caruvati. Three kumaras 

of Asoka are mentioned in 32 nd year of his reign as Viceroys of Tosola, 

Ujeni and Taksila, 



ABHlRAS AND UQBA9 ll 

aid of Khalka xMongols, Haihaya Vetala Talajangha Vitihotras, 
established the Abhira Ghosha Prodyota Dynasty. Uprap, 
including Licchavis — Nicchavi? of Kuluka BliHtta= Niu -Chi 
Golden Tatars, occupied from \<^t& to Mithila. Khnzars as 
Gurjaraa throuf^h Putijaband Rajputana occupied Gujrat, Sat&nika 
of Bharata — Phraates descent (Bharatanam kule jata : Phana's 
8apna Vasavadatta) befriended Ugra - Henas of Mithila, and 
married their daughter Mrigavati (MBh. 1, 59) Mfigivati 
was the third daughter of Chettaka, the Licchavi archon of 
Vaisali and Mithila. Her other sisters Prabhavati was 
married to Udayana - Qdena (of Udes tribe of the Caucasus) 
•of Vitabhaya of Badari. to the North of Cutch in Sindh ; 
Siva to Abhira Gando Pradyota of Avanii : Chellani to 
Srenika (called because he introduced the representation of 
Srenis — the trade guilds in his administrative council) Bimbisara 
of Sishunag Dynasty of Rajigriha and her son was Ugraput 
(Anga, Nikaya 1, 26) Kunika Ajaiasatru ; Dharini Padmavati to 
Dadhi — Vahana (Dadikes. Herod, '^. 91. a branch of the Tajiks) 
of Campa = Tsiampa, of Khmer- Kamboja tribes ; Chettaka's 
sister Videhadatta Priya Karini Trisala was married to Xata — 
putta = Jnatri-putra Siddhartha Nandi - Vardhana (Nnndi, a 
Hamitic tribe mixed with 8udra (Chudes) Abhiras. of Kasyapa 
Gotra of Kundagraraa near Vaisali. though he was married 
to a Brahimin wife Devadatta ; Devadatta giving birth to 
Mahavira died soon after and INIahavira was reared by his 
step mother Trisala. Satanika of Kausambhi attacked Campa. 
Dadhi-Vahana fled, but his wife Padmavati was raped, and 
she committed suicide ; her daughter Vasuaiati Candana 
fell into the hands of the invaders, and was sold as a 
slave to a banker Dhanavaha of Kausambhi ; Dhanavaha's 
wife Mula became jealous of Candnna and cut off her 
luxuriant locks of hair. In this condition she served food 
to Mahavira and became a Samana=Skt' Sramana — Shaman 
priests of the Tungus are of both male and female sex ; Niu - 
Chi belongs to the Tungus tribe. Mahavira was married to 
YasTda of Ku'idin i!^. Satrao Kaundinai Gotra and had a 
daughter Priyadarsaua Anojja who was married to .Taroali 
who helped him in nis mission. At thirty alter the death of 
his parents, he left home and wondered for Pi years in wild 
Radha and in Vajji-Bhumi. During the rainy seasons he 
remained in Vais-ali, at Rajagaha, Campi. Mithila and 
Sravasti. At 42 he became Kevalin at Ironbhika on the river 
Rijupalike near Pareshnath Hills. At 72 he died in the 
house of king Hastipala's scribe at Pavapuri near Rajagaha at 
467 B C, when Abhira Ghosh Palaka. son of Pradyota, was 
annointed as king at Avanti. Satanika's court painter was 
•dismissed. He went to the Abhira court and presented Pradyota 
""Pajjota the life size portrait of Mrigavati, painted by himself. 



42 THE LITEBARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDI A 

Infatuated with her beauty, Prodyota demanded from Satanika. 
to send his seductive consort Mrigavati to him, or he would 
capture her by force. Satanika fought in defence ; but he 
died suddenly of cholera. Mrigavati made a truce with Pajjota 
that she would go to him of her free will. In the meantime 
she begged help of her sister-in-law Udayana of Badari 
who defeated Pajjota and made his young son Udayana by 
Prabhavati the king of Kausambhi. Bat young Udayana was 
captured by Pajjota and takeo to Avanti. Mrigavati became 
a Jaina nun. Udayana however managed to escape with the- 
connivance of Pajjota's beloved daughter Vasavadatta. Pajjota 
became reconciled. Moreover Udayana also occupied the 
throne of Avanti as the infuriated mob of the city killed 
Pajjota's son Palaka for his oppressive rule. Ajatasatru 
annexed Vaisali and Campa and fought over parts of Kasi 
which Prasenjit gave as a dowery to Kosala Devi, wife of 
Bimbisar. but after Bimbisar's death refused to cede it to 
the growing powerful kingdom of Magadha founded by Gedi 
(Chudi) Machas. Ajatasatru however secured the Kasi terri- 
tory ; and was succeeded by his son Darsaka— Na^a Dasaka. 
Udayana managed to marry Darsaka's sister Padmavati and 
fostering a palace revolution had Darsaka dethroned in 477 
B. C. and thus founded a state extending from the Gulf of 
Cutch to the Bay of Bengal in the heart of Aryavarta and, 
removed his capital to Kusumpura (Kusuma — Kurumbas, iden- 
tified with Pallavas, later known as Patali (Vetala) -Pufcra, 
founded by Ajatasatru, as a place of strategic importance at that 
time. Udayana brought under submission by a military expedi- 
tion Ugra Ayudha Brahmadattas who were in possession of 
parts of Kasi and who instigated a rebellion against him. But 
Udayana's domination was swept away by Sudras«=Chude8, 
possibly mixed with Nandis, by Ugra 8ena Nandi - Vardhana 
Mahapadma (of great wealth) Nandas who uprooting the 
feudatory chiefs became the centralized power - ekarat i Matsya 
P. 272. L8). But within a short time, Achaemenian (Haka — 
Saka Manisiya — Manusha) empire was overran, by Alexander's 
army. Maurya (Crk. Mauros = Lat. Maurus — Moors— Moriyas of 
Pippalavana ; Moriyar in S. India in 1st century A. D. Moriya 
of Ceylon) Guptas (Ar. Qoft- Copt who called them Guptios, 
and from whom ai -Guptios = an Egyptian — Egypt has been 
named) in order to liberate their province (N. W. India), 
brought and settled there by Darius for military purposes, 
from occupying army, allied themselves with the rebellious 
Sakas, Kambojas. Parsikas, Kiratas, Purus, and even joined by 
some discontended Yavanas (Mudra Raksasa -2, 12), forced out 
the Alexander's army by the Indus, and fell upon the shaken 
Stidra Nanda Empire and wiped it out ; and enslaved the 
Sudras. Maski Rock Inscription definitely connects Maurya 



MAUBYA GUPTAS AND SUNOA8 48 

Asoka with Devanampiyara as their dynastic designation, ati 
his successor and grandson Dasaratha had the same title. 

Asoka was succeeded by his grandson Dashalatha (Dasaratha) 
Devanampiya I in the Nagarjuna Hill cave inscription) as his 
son Kunala was blinded by the intrigues of Tisya - Kakhita, one 
of his wives. Tishya- Rakshita made amorous approaches 
to Kunala (Tib. Ku-na la, a Himalayan pheasant with beautiful 
eyes), incited by his soft lustrous eyes. Bat Kunala repulsed 
her advances. Kunala went as a viceroy of Takshiisih ; 
once Asoka drafted a letter to his military governor, advising 
him to continue music lessons for Kunala - idam adhiyatam 
Kumaram ; Tishya Rashita chanced to see and read the 
epistle ; revenge flared up in her mind for her unrequitied 
love for Kunala, and she availed of the opportunity to change 
the contents of the letter by making a point of collinum 
with the hairpin, and the letter read : idam andhiatam 
Kuiuaram ; the governor finding the command of the emperor 
to blind the prince carried it out reluctantly, and for this 
folly he was banished to Khotan, where with the other followers 
of Kunala. Kunala was made the king, founding Vijita - 
Vijaya Dynasty. Kunala's step-brother Jaluka seems to be a 
Hinduized name of Seleucos, as Daiuodara of Demetrius ; (it 
is known that Kashmir came under the occupation of both 
Seleucos and Demetrius ; only their time and place have not 
been properly placed by Kahlana). Jaluka was the Viceroy of 
Kashmir. Dasaratha, son of Kunala, favoured Ajivakas. But 
his brother Sampriti divided the rest of the kingdom. 
Sampriti became an ardent Jaina and made Ujjaini his 
capital. This antagonized the orthodox vedic worshippers. 
Pushya — Mitra (Pusa- Mitta in Jaina Gathas) Sunga (Pu-8hi, 
allies of Scythianized Chinese Chung — Bhang = Sung ; Sungas 
were Bharadvajas. Panini 4, 1, 11 V) Commander (Senapati — 
Senani) of the Maurya Guptas, weakened by the pacific 
policy of Asoka and his successors, and aggressions of Cheti^ 
— Parthian Chudi) Kharvela, overthrew the Maurya-Guptas 
and became the dominant power, and oppressed the Buddhist 
officers of the former reign. There is a Sunga inscription of 
1st century A. D. in Brahuii character, ' Kosola sovereign 
commander Pushya-Mitra who performed two Asva-Medha 
ceremonies, his sixth descendent Dhana Dharmaraja. son of 
Kausiki (Hun Kosik Mother), a shrine is erected m honour 



In Nasik cave Inscription : Indragni Datta son of Dhammadeva, Yavana, 
a northerner from Daltametn (Datamiti Yakasa Yonakasya Dhammadeva- 
putesa Indragni Datasa Dhanimatmana iman). 

On one of the pillars of Asoka's railing at Mahabodhi : Gift of 
Kurangi. daughter of Jivii, begetrice of children of Indra Agni Mitra of- 
Saka descent ^ka putasa Indagi Mitasa pajavatiye Jiva putaye Kurangiye- 
danam.'. 



44 THB LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

of his father Phalgudeva (Kosal - adhipena dvir-asvamedha 
— yajinah Senapateh Pushyamitrasya shashthena Kausiki - 
putrem, dhana Dharmarajna pituh Phalguderasya Ketanam). 
With the downfall of the Maurya Guptas, N. India was 
menaced by Bactiian lonians. Euthedemite Ionian Demetrius 
was an ambitious military genius. He challanged the domi- 
nation of Seleucos (in cuneiform inscription Suliki ; Culikas 
-" Sulikas on the flowing waters of Gakshu-Oxus, Matsya P. 
120. 45-46 ;- Sulki of Oressa). He with his brother Apollodotus 
and his general Menander (Milinda in Milindapanha) 
crossed the Hindukush and the Indus in 18^:5 B. G occupied 
Taxasila and made Pushkala vati ( Peukela full of Pushkala 
Ugras) his capital. Demetrius (Dattamitra Yavana-pati of Sauvira, 
MBh I, 139, '21-JH ; Dhamma - Mitta of the Buddhists; Yavana- 
raj Dirai of Kharveja ; Deraetira in Kharosti by him ; Damodaca 
of Kashmere chronicles^ was welcomed by Buddhists against 
the aggressions of the Sungas and Kharvela. Demetrius 
conquered Sind and at Pritala built tort- Dzttamitri. and 
conquering Sarastos (Saurststra) made Barygazy iBhrigu- 
Kaccha - Broach) his capital. His general Menander advan- 
cing through Mathura and Saketa (Baka stronghold = 
Ayodhya^ besieged Kusumadvaja But Menander abandoned it 
as Demetrius was compelled to leave N. India for Bactria 
Tvhich was attacked by Macedonian Eucratides, Menander 
assumed the role of a king by marrying Agatbsha, daughter of 
Demetrius ; and though deprived of any outside help he ruled his 
kingdom for twenty five years, only with a small Ionian force, 
from Gandhara to Mathura, making Sakala (Sialkot) his capital. 
After campaign against Maurya partisans in Vidharva, as Pushya 
-Mitra was celebrating his Asvatnedha, a Saka-Huna custom, 
his sacrificial horse was captured by Menander's army in 
Aravallis, but was rescued by his grandson Vasu - Mitra as 
mentioned in Malavika Agni Mitram. 

Hathigumpha Kharvela inscription of about 170 B. C. 
165 of the Maurya Era at Udaya Giri, 3 miles off from 
Bhuvanesvara ; "'Salutation to the Arhats. salutation to the 
Siddhas. By illustruous Kharvela (Siri Kharvelena Airena 
Maharajena), the Aira, the great king, the increaser of Cheti 

"2. For fifteen years with ardor, he took physical exercises and 
learnt inscribing, painting, calculations, customs, laws and all kinds 
of essential knowledge (lekha-rupa ganana + vavatara — vidhir visaradena 
sava vijavadatena). For nine years he performed the office of heir- 
apparent (nava vasani yovaraja pasasitam). On his 24th year he was 
coronated'. In the first year of his coronation he caused the repairs of 
the gates and walls of buildings damaged by storms (vata-vihita gopura 
pakara nivesamam), erection of the embankment of lake Khibira ; 
excavation of tanks and cisterns and the restoration of all gardens. 
4. In the second year disregarding Sata-kamni (Sata-karni- offshoot of 



EHABVKLA 46 

royal dyuasty (Cheti — Cedi- Parth. Cliudi - raja vasa-vadha- 
noaa , the descendant of Mahii Megha, with excellent qualities, 
auapicions marks and features, possessed of virtuea wbich 
have spread over the four quaters, overlord of Kalingu. 

Sunga Mitras (185 — 78 B. C.) were weakened by the 
incurjious of Mithridates in I 8j H. J. who occupied the Indus 
basin ; White Hun Ei)htlialite Abtelite (Vetalai Gardabhilas 
(Guda = Gadaha in the gold coins -Kidara, allied to Kushans : 

Satas - Soyois, the husband of Nayanikii of Nanaghat incription in 

Poona Dt), he despatched an army strong in cavalry, elephants, men 

and chariots (dutiye ch i vase achitayitTi sata kammnim pachhima 

disam haya-gaja-naia radha vahulani). \Vhen that army reached Kanah- 

bemna uvnshnaveni = Krishna) he throws the Musika-nagara (the Musi 

joins the Krishna about Nalgonda = Mus; ku - Musgu; into consternation. 

5. Versed in Gandharva he entertains it by his dapa iSkt. drava = an 

antic tiance), dancings, songs, music and social festivities and merriments 

Igamdhava vcda-budho dapa nata gita vfideta samdahmsanuhi usava 

samlja'. Deprived of their umbrellas, scepturcs (bhinjara " Skt. 

bhringrira\ all the Rathikas and Bhojakas bow down to his feet. In 

the 5th year he connects his capital with the Tamaaulia canal, dug by 

Nanda Raja 300 years ago. Celebrating his R^jasuya he remits all 

taxrs and cess levies lyamito sava kara-vanam) and gave many gifts of 

hundred and thousands of Janapadas. In the seventh year, his wife 

Vagiraghara got the dignity of motherhood. In 8th year with a large 

army he sacked Goradha-glri iBarbar Hill has been found inscribed 

as Garatha giri), pressed on Rajagriha=- Rajgir). Having heard of tnis 

thundering act of bravery, Yavana-raj Dmi (Demetrias in his Kharosti 

coin called himself Dime ; some read as i (ra) Mavo = Heramaya = Eramam 

20-32 ADj retreated to Maihura. having extricated his demoralized 

army and transports (Elin cha Kammapadana sanadena sarnbta-sena- 

Vcihane Vipamuchitu madhuram apoyAto Yavanaraj Dmi]. In lOth 

year he sends an expedition against Pithumda 'prithu-ana = big egg like- 

Pitundra, a big port mentioned by Ptolemy i, whence lived the Ava 

( = Andhrai raja. He furrowes it with ass driven plows, and breaks the 

confideracy of Tamira (Tamils countries of 113 years which has been a 

source of danger to his kingdom (Ava raga nivesitam Pithumdam gadabha 

namgalena k?isayati). 12, Causing panic amonst the people of Magadha 

he drives elephants into Sugamgiya iSuging, the palace of Candra Gupta 

Maurya, Mudra Raksasa, Act 3 makes the king of Magadha Bahasati Mita 

(Brihaspati Mitra whose wife Naga Devi donated a pillar of stone rail 

at Buddho Gaya) offer jewels at his feet. He sets up the image of Jina of 

Kalinga which had been taken away by Padma Kaja iMaha Padma 

Nanda), brings home the riches of Anga and Magadha along with the 

family jewels 

Taxila plate of Patika in Kharosti, In the 78th year of the great 
king, great Moga, on the fifth day of the mouth Panema of Chhahera, 
Chukhsa satrap Liaka Kusuluka name - his son Patika. To the north of 
the towns of Takhasila the eastern region bears the name of Khema. In 
this place Patika establishes, not established before, the relic of divine' 
Sakyamuni ( bhagavata Sakamunisa sariram Bamaharaman) and monastery- 



46 THB LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Gadaphara of the Bactrian coins ; Mabaragusa rajaterajasa 
Mahatasa Gudubarasa Gudana ; there is also an Abyssinian 
tribe Gudabirsi) occupied Ujjaini coming through Kandahar 
•and Sind. Gardhabhils ruled Uijaini for 17 years. The Vetala 
Gardhabhil king, it is said, ravished the pretty Jaina nun 
Sarasvati, sister of Jaina Kalakacarya, Kalaka Acarya went 
to the West of Sind and induced Sahi Sodas to march along 
Sind and Guzsrat ; they occupied Mathura and Ujjaini ; Sodas 
with bis 90 chiefs ruled Ujjaini for 4 years (61 - 67 B. C), 
when a Gardhabhil prince regained Ujjami with his Vetala 
force, drove Sodas and his chiefs to Mathura region, declared 
independence of the decadent Kanva suzerainty, assumed the 
title of Vikramaditya in the Vikrama Malava Era 57 B. C. 
Kathakacarya and his sister went to Sata — Vabanas of 
Prathistaoapura. About 12 ) B.C. Moga - Maues = Mavaka of the 
Lion Capital of Mathura, Maukharies of a later dynasty, 
occupied Taxila. Scythians coming through Sind and Kathiwar 
(Sakadvipa), Sodas occupied Mathura and overthraw the 
G-ardabhils who had asses as emblems in their coins. 

Other northern Satraps are mentioned in the Lion Capital 
of Mathura -Satrap Sudasa, son of great Satrap Rajula (Maha- 
^hhatravasa Rajulasya Putra Sudase Chatrave). Kharaost, 
heir apparent ; Khalmasa is the prince ; Maja, the youngest 
(Kharaosta Yuvaraya Khalmasa Kumara Maja kanitho- 
Kanista, of the Satrapl Khardaa, R-of Racchila Eaundina 
(Rachhilasa Kaundinasa). The Western Satraps were 



for the worship of all Buddhas to the benefit of his mother and father and 
for the increase of the length of life and power (ayu-vala vardhio^ of the 
satrap who is associated with his sons and wives, honouring at the same 
time all his brothers and blood relations. The architect of this monastery 
(samgharame nava kamika) of maha-dam pati Patiki is Rohini Mitra 
"By Nada Dioke, the chief queen (agramahesi) of great satrap Kajula, 
daughter (dhite) of Ayasi Komu5a (Kamua = Kamboja), mother of the 
heir aparents Kharasta Nandasi Akasa and Sodasa, together with her 
brother Abuhola, her paternal grandmother (pitramahij Pipasi, her brother 
Hayura, her daughter Hava. have made this stupa, monastery and lion 
capital of Mathura) for the acceptance of the universal Sangha of 
Sarvastivadins." 

This Garura standard of god of gods— Vasudeva— was made by the 
order of Bhagavata Heliodoros. the son of Dion of Taxila, an Ionian 
ambassador from king Antialkidas to king Bhagabhadra (Sunga l08 B C), 
son of the princess of Kasi, protector who is prospering in 40th. year of 
his reign. There are the steps to immortality which follow to heaven — 
self-control, self-denial and watchfulness. Deva devasa Va (sudel vasa 
Garura dvaje ayam karite. Heleodorena Bhagavatena Diyosa 
putrena TakshsUakena yona dutena agatena maharajasa Antalikitasa 
upa (m) ta sakasa (m) rano Kasiputasa Bhagabhadrasa tratrtarsa vasena 
chatudesena ragena vadhamanasa, Trini amutapadani (pta) anuthitani 
nayanti svaga (m) demochago apramada. 



KSHAHABATATAS 47 

Kshaharatas (Khshathrita — Phraortes of Cimmerian origin 
-who ruled Media, 67 5-653 B. C. of whom Bhumaka 
and Nahapana are well known in let century B. C. with 
Nasik as ttieir capital, and Abhira Isvara Dattas as their army 
chiefs. The Satraps of Ujjaini in 2nd A. T). were Chastana, 
Rudra Daman and Rudra Simha. "Success 1 on the fifth day 
of the bright fortnight of VaisAkha. during the auspicious 

Bhit Inscription in I.ucknow Museum of 1st. century B.C. "The 
phallus of the sons of Khajahuti was dedicated by N'tga siri. the son of 
Vasethi for the pleasure of the Deity (Khajahati putanfim 1 (im> go pati- 
thapito Vasethi-putena Nigasirina piyoyca (m d (e) vatii ) with top most 
bust and four heads below, The phallus is marked by deeply drawn lines, 
the Siva image of Paucamukha tpye, Isana, Tatpurusha, Aghora. V;ima 
deva and SadynjatA. Gudimallan Siva of 1st. century A. D. is of 
Mongoloid feature, some what snub nose, high cheek bones, oblique eyes 
(virupaksha) on a five feet circumcized phallus s-t on a pindika vulva, 
carved out of hard igneous stone of dark brown colour The phallus 
is realisticidly modelled and the front of the phallus bears out on it the 
figure of Siva in high relief, standing on the shoulders of crouching 
figure of Apasmara Purusha. There is a close resemblat.ee of th s Siva 
to that of a Yaksha in a Sanci siupa of 2nd. century B. C Buddha image 
developed after the Yaksha. An inscribed copper relic casket from 
Kurran of four lines in Kharosthi script as in Kanishka Casket from 
Shahjiki dheri". Year 21, month of Avadunaka iGk Hndunaos in the 
territory of Udayana of king Uttarasena type by the Kushans Before 
Buddha was represented only by symbols, as wheel of Law. Asoka tree 
buddha prints in the sacred shrine of Sravastivadins the bodily relics of 
blessed Saka muni ( masa avadnnakasa di 20 ise chunami siulra varmayasa 
rabbhumi rana uchasana Sarvasti-vadanami thubammi Bhagavatasa Saka- 
munisa ). A standing nude Jina image with wavy hair on the head and 
hanging penis on the loins, dedicated by Kumara Mit^i. dated in the year 
15 of Kanisks Era. "In the year 15 in 3rd. month of summer on first day 
on this occasion 4 fold image of Lord ' was set up ), the gift of Kumfira 
Mita, daughter of... la. chief wife of guildmaster Veni mother of Bhatta- 
sena. at the request of \enerahle Vasula ( oue inscription mentions Ayya 
Vasula in 86 of Kaniska era , the female pupil of Sangamika. one of the 
female pupils of Jayabhuti of (Me) kka Kula (asy» purvv^ya (Me) 
hikalo Kulaio ayya Jaybhutisya. lasya dhi (tu) ivu) dhu veni srestis (yai 
dharmapatiye Bhattisenasya matu Kum^romitayo drinam bhagovato 'prati) 
ma savvato bhadrika. Mathura Brahmi inscription. "In the year 28 on 
the first day ot Gorpiaios ( a Macedonian month) the eastern hall of 
merit was given a perpetual endowment by Kanasarukaman. scion, the 
iord of Kharasalera. the lord of Vakana. And what merit is here in. 
may that to Devaputra Shahi Huvishka and to those to whom Devaputra 
is dear." In the 51st. year of Maharaja Devaputra Huvishka 111-138). 
the image of Buddhavarma by Upadhyaya Sanghadasa for relief of misery 
and welfare and happiness of all beings (sarva dkhopasama sarva satva-hita 
«ukhariha). Mathura Inscription : "Success" in the year 80 in the winter 
of Maharaja Vasudeva (152-176) by the daughter of Sanghantdisa and 
■wife of Bala ^sdhi Maharajasya Vsudevsy sa 80 hamava dhita Saghanadesa 
vadhuye Balasya). 



48 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

period of the constellation Ro hi)ni in the year 103 of the- 
king Kshatrapa lord (Svami) Rudra Si(n)ha, the son of the- 
king Maha — Kshatrapa lord Rudra Daman, son's son of the 
Kshatrapa Jaya Daman, and grandson of Maha - Kshatrapa 
Chastano. the well (Vapii is dug and embanked by the 
commander Radrabhuto, the son of the Senapati Bapaka, the 
Abhira, at the village of Rasopadra, foi- the welfare and 
comforts of all living beings (Sarva satvanam hita sukhar-' 
thamiti). Antialkidas who conquered Kathiwar dedicated a 
column with the figure of Garuda at the top in honor of 
Vishnu at Besnagar through his ambassador Heliodorus.. 
Votive inscriptions in the (Jhaitya cave at Karle, Fifth Pillar, 
Right Row: (This) R. pillar (is* the gift of Yavana associa- 
tion of clans from Umehana kata (umehana kata yavanase 
Vitasagatanam danam thabhoi, I3th Pillar: Pillar (isi the 
gift of Yavana Dhamadhaya from Dhaouka kata 'dhenuka 
Kaia Yavanasa dhamadha yanam thabho danam. I5th Pillar, 
Pillar is the gift of Chula Yakkha Yavana i^Dhenukata Ohula 
Yakhan Yavanasa Thabho (stambha) dana). 

Yuehchih Kouei - Shouang (Yaksha Kushan of Kusa or 
Kusi race as used in Kaniska's gold coins ; Kusa= Kassites 
who also called themselves Kussu, plu. Kassip (Pur. Kasyapa) 
-Caspi. a Scythic tribe from whom Caspian sea named = Chin. 
Ku — tsong) were driven from 8. W. Kansu of China by the 
incursions of fliung— nu (Huns = Hunas) about 1 75 B. G. 
under the leadership of Hun Chief Mao-Tun (209—174). 



Though Kaniska was eclectic in his religious beliefs, having 
Hellenic, Zoroastrian, Mithraic and .Anahita symbols in his coins, 
he in his latter life became a good Buddhist and made Buddhism, 
the vehicle of universal humanity and love fey Mahayana system of 
Sanskrit literature. Asvaghosa wrote Buddha Carita, Sundarananda 
Kavya, Sutralankira, Vajra-suci ; Nagarjuna of Prajnaparamita. Caraka 
was his court physician and attended to the delivery of his wife. Kaniska's 
seated statue at Mathura M has a padded trouser and an overcoat like that 
of the Chinese. Kalhana says that Huska, Juska and Kaniska were 
Turuksa = Turks, a mixed people, based on Aschin of Hung-nu. Kaniska 
used Greek language and script alone in his coins, but in grammar 
incorrectly. Huviska and Vasudeva however uses Greek correctly. 
Basileus Basileon Kanheskkoy = Kaniska, king of kings = Turkish 
Shaonano Shao Kaneski Kuthano. At Harvan = Arhat-vana, 1^ miles 
above Shalimar, Kaniska held a universal Buddhist Council The floor 
tiles of burnt bricks show the mould impression reliefs of Parthian 
pattern of two faces- husband and wife of Kushan type with slanting eyes 
and prominent cheek-bones ; a dancing girl wearing pajamas. With 
Kh numerals ; a young woman with fine oval face, prominent nose, 
globular breasts, almond eyes, luxuriant hair raised upwards and bound 
by a ribbon, wearing a pair of large ring earrings, long sleeved blouse, a: 
skirt with laces in frontal centre, shoes in her feet, holding a water jar 
with two flowers whose stems are inserted inside on the palm of her right 



DEVAPUTRA KUSHANS 49 

His successor Lao - Shang (174-160) slew the Yuechi chief 
and made a drinking goblet of his skull from upper Hi to 
Amu Daria region, Yuechis were driven by Wu- 8un.s (Tatar 
name for "Tall ones", Chin, green-eyed devils) in 160 B. C. 
Kushans destroying the Indo - Parthian kingdom occupied the 
Oxus basin, fell upon Sai — Saka of Iran, Kipin (Gandharai, 
Kubha (Kabul). Satraps of Mathura and W. India acknowledged 
the suzerainty of Wima (Vimai Kadphises a5-62. He was 
succeeded by Jihonika 70- 78, Kaniska 78-101 who reconquered 
Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan which Kushans ceded to the 
Huns and the Chinese. Kaniska conquered Kashmir. He made 

hand with bent arms. Ara Kh inscription of 161 A. D : "Maharajasa 
rajatiraja Devaputra Kaisara fjulian family adopted the title of Caesar ; 
thence Ger. K,aiser» Russ Tsar. But the etymology of Roman Caesar is 
uncertain ; is it after the Khazais who were the dominant people at that 
time) Vajeshka-putra Kaniska (11)" 

In the 4th year , 25th Jaistha, a well dug by Dushafota, the son of 
Poshaphri, in honor of his mother and father in order to confer benefit 
on himself together with his wife and son, for the welfare of all beings 
in their (various) births. And for this I throw one lakh as a religious 
endowment. A Naga figure in the Mathura Museum- A standin*^ N^lga 
has a triangular three fold necklace. There is a bracelet on the right 
wrist. The left hand holds a small vessel, and a lotus bud in the right 
hand. There are two Nagis on his both sides, on the right wearing a 
skirt and on the left an ornamental girdle. There is an inscription : 
"In the year 8 of the great king, king of kings, Kanikkha, in the fourth 
summer on 5th day, a tank and a garden have been made for the welfare 
of all." On the Kaniska casket in which Kaniska is crowned with a wreath, 
there is an inscription : Dasa Agisala Navakarmi Kanaskasa Vihare 
Mahasenasa Sangarame = The slave Agisala, the superintendent of work at 
Kaniska's Vihara of Mahasena. The names Agesilas and Ageisilas have 
been found in a Boetian inscription from N. Greece. Kushans have intro- 
duced the Indo-Gandharian art through the Greek influence. Their vast 
compact empire, extending from the heart of India to through Central 
Asia, contracting Roman and Chinese empires, developed a brisk inter- 
national traffic, brought out an intellectual ferment, wider outlook of life 
and refinements of arts and sciences. At Begram in Kapisi, a damaged 
sculpture in basrelief shows Bimbisar and Buddha. Buddha with a mous- 
tache in Greek style is seated ; under the sculpture there is an inscription 
in Kharosti, the right portion is abraided. *'Gift of Atari for the welfare 
and respect of her father (Atariye danammuhe imena kusalamulena pituno 
pujae). In Kucha Karachar - Agnidesa 1st. and 2nd. century as in Gandh5r, 
there are Hellenized frescoes of Mahayana Buddhism and Manaeshism. At 
Hund, ancient Udabhanda capital of Shahi kings on the Indus, an ins- 
cription in Sarada character, has been found. The place has also yielded 
the statues of Kushan Kaniska. a torso of Saka satrap Chastano. A 
statue shrine of Kamesvari ; architects (nava Karma pati Upendra putra 
Jayanta Raj and Surya Dvija of Avanti : priest— Viraditya putra Pillaka ; 
manager or inscriber ( Kayastha) Vihendra putra Bhogaka Samvata 
168. Ram Nagar = Ahicchatra Saka Inscription in Brahmi script : "Lord 

4 



60 THE LITERARY HISTORy OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Pushkalavati (Peshwar) his capital, which he enriched with 
many fine buildings. He attacked Pataliputra and took with 
him the great Buddhist scholar Asvagosha. He also built 
many fine buildings at Mathura and at Kaniskapura m 
Kashmir. Kaniska's eldest son was Vasiska 202 -iOd. Vasiska 
was succeeded by Kaniska's 2nd son Huviska lll-lb8. 
Huviska was succeeded by Kaniska 11(139-15 2), and he by 
Juska Vasadeva 152- 17d who not only adopted Hindu 
name but had Siva and Nandi as emblems in his 
Mathura coins. Vasudeva— J uska was succeeded by his son 
Abhimanyu according to Kashmir Chronicles. Kushans adopted 
the title of Devaputra like Angirsas as Devaputra, RV. X, b2. 4, 
Chin. Ten - Tzu- son of heaven. 

Andhaka (Andkhui) and Satvata (also known as Su.ta = 
Soyot) are ancient Yadava clans. Amalgamated they 
became known as Sata-Vahana Andhras. Pratistanapura 
( Paitan) was their capital, and they dominated the entire 
GodavHiri (named after Gadhavas) valley up to delta. Originally 
they have spoken an Ural-Altaic agglutinative speech, observed 
in Sumer and in Telugu. In Sumer they migrated from Ural 
Altaic region with bronze. There Sumerians were later domi- 
nated and assimulated by Semites (Shem = Soma) of Sargon. 
Whether they were Soyots, there is hardly any proof. 
But possibility is there as Sutu is mentioned as conqueror 
of Sumer in Gilgamesh Epic. Later any how they spoke a 
kind of Pisaci like Pashai, Shina and Yeshkun, and in 



By the son of Bhugavi, the great grand son of ( Dhru) va Mitra, belonging 
to the country of Pancalas- fallen which stood here On Kushana coins 
eclectic gods lik Salene, Heleos, Herakio, Mao. Nanaia, Kumaro, Bizago, 
Visakho, Mazadoonah. Skanda, Mahasena, Boddo, Saka Mana Boddo are 
found. Sakuka Saka is found in Behistan inscription of Darius Kushan 
Vanrspara and Kherapallana are known in Sarnath image inscription = 
Vanaphar Rajputs of Buxur. 

In 136 on 15th day of the first month of Ashada. on this day were 
established the relics of the Lord by Ur-Saka of Imtavriya boys, the 
Bactrian resident of Naoche town. By him these relics of the Lord 
were established in his own Bodhisattva chapel in Dharraarajika com- 
ponnd of Taksasila tor the bestowal of the health of ihe Great king, 
king of kings, the son of heaven, the Kushan. Ayasa ashadasa masase 
divase is a diva (se pradi) stavita Bhagavati dhatu ura (sai kena (Im) 
tavria putrama Bahaliena Naschae nagare vastavenatenime prodistavita 
Bhagavati dhatu Dharmarajie Taksasi (la)e tanuke sat veyahami maha- 
rajasa rajatirasa devaputrasa Khusanasa arogadakshine. 

Gotami Balasriputta Satakanni is the destroyer of Sakas and Palhavas, 
who rooted out the dynasty of Kakhariata and established the glory of 
Sata-vahana family and Sata vahana Era 78 A.D (Saka Yavana Palhava- 
nisQdanasa ; nasa khakarata vafm)sa niravasesa karasa SSta vahana Kulaya 
sapate thatana karasa. Balasri Inscription Pandusena caves, Nasik). "After 



BATAVAHANA ANDHNAS 61 

Pratistanapura, Gunarda wrote his Katha Sarita Sapjara in Pisici 
lansfuage. Some of the inscriptions of Amaravati of the 
Vskatakas (Votiaks) and Sata- Vahana Andhras show close 
affinity: K-G; Ch-J;-t-d Kanh - Krishna ; hhariya- 
bharya Nominally 8ata- Vahana Andhras acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the Mauryas ; but as a feudal state, they 
exercized their sovereign authority. Their first kiug is Sisnka, 
said to have been born of a maiden only 2J years old. Next 
ruler is Krishna who in the inscriptions is mentioned as Kanh. 
About 28 B. C. they asserted their own independence, and even 
occupied the territories of Gardha bhila Vetala Vikramaditya who 
had established the Vikrama Era in 67 B. G. Sata -Kami 
was defeated by Kharvela. Hala wrote in Pisichi Prakrit an 
anthology of 700 erotic verses called - Sattasai = Sapto Sati. 
Gotami putta Sata-Kanni defeated the Sakas | Pulumavi 
assumed the title of Sakari Virud Vikramaditya, and married 
the daughter of Satrap Rudra Daman of Ujjaini, and was 
defeated by him. Upto 225 A D. they maintained however 
their shadowy existence and was ousted by Guptas who were 
under the Saka influence as their costumes and coins testify. 

In the contest for supremacy between the Greeks and the 
Romans in Asia Minor, Parni Parthava known as Pahlava, 
and Arsasces (Aryaka) became dominant. Pahlava with Avars, 

sometime, Vikramaditya Malava king, ousted this Saka dynasty fupaditta 
Saginatain vauisam = Sodas) and established his own Era ipayadavio niao 
Samvachcharo = Samvat 57 BCi, but his own dynasty was uprooted 
(tassa vi vaiusa-.u uppadiuna) by another Saka king (SagarayS) who 
established an era of his own when 135 years of the Vikrama era had 
elasped (pantise vasasae vikrama samvachcharasse voline parivattiuna 
thavio jenam samvachcharo niyo ; 57 B.C. + 7S AD = 135 years). This is 
the origin of Saka Era ^Saga kala janamattam; K'llakacharya Kathenaka). 
Both Kaniska ruled from 78 AD— 101 Satakarni (74 — 130) crushed 
Ksharata in 78 AD and established Sata or Sali-vahana era. 

Inscription of Pulumavi : On the first day of the first of 2nd month 
of winter in the eighth year of Siri Pulamavi, ranii of Sata-Vahana, 
this reservoir is sunk by householder resident of the gdtne of Vepuraka, 
belonging to mayor (mika) Kumara Data in the Janapada Sata-Vahana 
Hara, belonging to commander Khamda Naka-Skanda Niiga." 
Amaravati 57 : Success, adoration to the Blessed One isidam namo 
bhagovato). This upright slab placed is the pious gift of Lik*, the 
son of honorable Negicha (Siri Negichasa pusa), Hasha's (Harsa'si wife 
(bhariy'i). Nagurjuna Konda : At the Mahachetya, Mahidevi Bapasirinika 
the uterine sister (sodarya bhaginiya) Vasithiputa Ikhaku Siri 
Chatamula. wife of Siri Vira Puruso Data, with due regard for her 
mother Hamino serinika, for the sake of the bliss of Nirvana has erected 
this stone pillar. 

Kaumud Mahotsava in a drama is 5 acts, written by a woman of 
Pataliputra Kisorika = Vijjika about 340 A.D. Sundara Varman. Andhra 
king of Magadha, had no son. He adopted Candra Sena of Karaskara 



62 THE LITBRARr HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Khazars and Votiaks overran Iran, Mesopotamia, North^. 
Western and Southern India. In Iran they were known as- 
Pehlavi, and later Qazar dynasties ; in India as Abhiras and. 
Gurjaras of Western India, Pallavas of Kanchi, and Vaktakas- 
— Vindhya Saktis of C. India. One reddish terracotta anthropoid 
sarcophagus of early Pallavas has been preserved in Madras 
Museum • similar many anthropoid sarcophagi have been found 
at Susa in the midst of Parthian ruins. There is an epigraph 
in the Vaikantha Perri-Malla temple at Conjeeveran in vv^hich 
it is mentioned that Paramesvara Varman of a collateral line 
is offered a crown (mukuta) in the shape of an elephant's 
scalp which was fashionable helmet of Alexander's successors- 
as a symbol of power like Plolemy I of Egypt, and Agothocles 
of Syracause. Though Parthians like the Magis had near-kin 
marriage, they imitated Greek fashions, and they were called 
philo-Hellenes. Pallavas were called Mallas ; Nandi Varman 
Pallava Malla was the ruler of Kinci. Inscr 18, 19, 2d-25. 

Jatrikas = Kakkor Jatas of Kara valley (allied to Arattas and belonging to 
Massa Jetae), as his successor. Candra Sena married a Licchavi chiefs- 
daughter. Sundara Varman later had a son Kalyana Varman. Candra Sena 
with Licchavis revolted against Sundara. Sundara died in the fight. 
Candra Sena crowned himself as the king of Magadha. Prime minister 
Mantra Gupta and commander Kanjaraka of Sundara Varman escaped 
with Kalyana Varman to Pamps region in Vindhya Hills. Kalyana 
married the Yadava princess of Mathura of Kirtisena. To quell a 
rebellion in the frontier, Candra Sena left Pataliputra and there he 
died. Kalyana Varman gathered an aimy and with the help of 
Kirtisn's forces occupied Pataliputra and was coronated at Sura 
Ganga palace. This drama was enacted to celebrate the occasion. 
Samudra Gupta fought for Puspapura and got it by defeating Nagasena, 
son of Kirtisena. Devi Candra Guptam is a drama, (parts of it are 
lost) attributed to Visaka Datta. author of Mudra Raksasa, where 7,19 he 
calls Parthiva Candra Gupta Rama. Gupta was the king of Magadha. His 
queen was the pretty Rastrakuta princess Dhruva Devi. Candra Gupta, 
Rama's brother, was in love with Madhava Sena, __ maid of Dhurva Devi. 
Rama Gupta went to fight the turbulent Sakas of Alipura in Jalandhara = 
Aliwal in Kangra Valley. There Rama was defeated by Sakas. Saka 
ruler demanded the pretty queen as one of the conditions of peace whom 
Rama Gupta cowardly surrendered to the Saka king. Dhurva Devi 
resented this humiliating action of the Gupta king. Dhurva dressed her 
comrade Madhava Sena with her personal garments and jewelleries. In that 
dress Madhavi come to her lover Candra Gupta and told him about the 
situation. Candra Gupta dressed as Dhurva Devi entered the bed 
chamber of Saka prince who was drunken and was expecting her. 
Candra Gupta killed him, rescued Dhurva, removed Rama Gupta, became 
the king, and married and made Dhurva Devi his queen. In Candra 
Gupta's coin, one finds that he is wearing a coat (nisara) with pointed, 
ends : its neck is beaded and tasseled. His trousers are creased and 
inserted within high boots (khallaka). Standing by him is Kumara Devi, 
the Licchavi consort. She wears loose trousers whose ends at the feet 



DEVAKULA QIJPTAS 63 

Guptas (Guptios — Qoft — Copt) came under the Saka- 
Kushan influence, particularly the later. The marriage 
of Candra Gupta to Licchavi Komaroi princess Kuinara Devi 
is attested by some gold coins which bear on the obverse a 
standing male figure in 8aka-Kushana trousers and coat, 
■ offering a ring to his spouse with the legends — Candra on the 
right and Kumara Devi on the left ; on the reverse Licchavaya 
and a goddess seated on a lion. His son Samudra Guptn 
-succeeded him as Licchavi Dauhitra. Ptolemy (6. 13) enumerates 
between the Oxus and the Jaxartes the Saka tribes of Karatai 
(Keraits= Kiratas), Komaroi (Kumara). Komedai = Knmuda, 
Massa Getae = Masaka Jats etc.. Guptas had Dharana Gotra as 
mentioned in a Frabhavati Gupta's inscription Dharana Gotra 
prevails amonst the Jats = Massa Jetae. Early Gupta and 
Kushana coins, dress, characters in inscrifrtions are similar. Both 
of them use devakula for their shrines. Both the dynasties used 
and encouraged Sankskrit literature. And Sanskrit in all its 



are rolled up to make them appear as anklets, and held in place by a 
waist band (paryastikii, a heavy necklace and a scarp igatTka; hanging 
loose from her shoulders. In Samudra Gupta's coin, Samudra wears a 
half-sleeved tunic with two pointed ends hanging, and the front is 
embroidered with beads on both sides like the tunics worn by Saka 
warriors at Mathur3. His trousers are tight-fitting, but seem to be 
stuffed with cotton and sewn athwart. Candra Gupta II Vikramaditya's 
coins. Candra Gupta wears tunic and his breeches are inserted within 
high leather boots. By him stands his queen consort Dhurva Devi ; 
in one coin she wears tight-fighting pajimas whose ends are rolled 
up at the ankles, and whose waist band is a very wide piece of different 
dark-colored cloth covering the entire abdomen, a turban on the head, 
and a scarp hanging from the shoulders. In another coin Dhurva wears 
a tight-fitting sleeveless bodice (kurpasaka) and paj'mias in one piece 
sewn together with some opening at the shoulders ; the ends of the 
pajamas are rolled up. Her coiftnre (Skt kavara, kavan) is arranged in 
locks {Skt (z/«>^ri. a curl of hair = Gk lygos. bent = Ger. locke. a tuft of 
hair) In Kumar Gupta's coin. Kum;ira wears a long tunic over trousers. 
Nivi = under garment ; tarpaya= woolen garment. 

Samudra Gupta in his last days sent his viceregenc son Rama Gupta 
fight the Kushans at Alipura in Jalandhara = .Aliwal of Kangra valley; 
but Rama cowardly surrendered his pretty Rfistrakuta wife Dhurvsdevi 
to Kushana Rajatiraja Maharaja Toramma Sahi at Baijnath ; Candra 
Gupta II. son of Abhira Datt^ Devi, rescued her, killing the Saka chief, 
entering his auditorium in the guise of a theatrical party, and married 
her, making her his chief queen, and assumed the title o( Sakari 
Vikramaditya. Sikhara Svjimin who was the chief minister of Rama 
became also the minister of Candra 11 and he wrote Nitisara under the 
name of Kamandaka. He had married before Kuhera Nagi. and her 
daughter PrabhavaU was given in marriage as a treaty alliance to 
Vakataka ruler Rudrasena of Kuntala-desa, and they had a son 
Pravarasena. When Pravarasena was still a minor, Rudrasena died, 
iKalidasa was the court poet of Sakari Candra Gupta Vikramaditya. 



54 THE LITERAET HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

branches, under the Kushana patronage flourished luxuriantly, 
and reached its glory under the auspices of the Guptas. One 
Devakula enshrines the statue of the Kushana sovereign 
who was the grandfather— pitamaha - of Huvishka. The inscrip- 
tion of Vima also mentions another devakula. There is a 
cluster of devakidas, commemorating different Kushana rulers 
with Kushana inscriptions. Devakula is the royal gallery of 
portrait statues. Lakulesa ( = Nakulesvara^ is the erect phallus 
on which the portrait is sculptured. Lakuli developed in first- 
century A. D. and disciples were Kusika, Gargya, Kaurusa 
and Maitreya. Maitrayas established at Somanatha in 
Kathiwar and Kusikas at Mathura, Upamitesvara and Kapils- 
vara were installed in the teachers shrine. Mathura Pillar 
Inscription of Candragupta. "In the year of the victorious 
reign of the Bhattaraka Maharaj rajadhiraja, the illustrious 
Samudra Gupta on the fifth of the bright half of first Ashada 
of the year 6 I following the Gupta Era. 820 A.D. Mathura pillar 
inscription is identical with those of the Kushana records. No 
paleographic peculiarities demarcate early Gupta inscriptions from 
the Kushana script. Candra Gupta II Vikramaditya (b83— 413) 
erected the Iron Pillar, now near Kutab Minar 23'S" high, 
weighing more than six tons, specific gravity 7.66. For the Iron 
Pillar inscription is in fourth century Gupta script, and he was 
the ruler of Northern India in 4th century. Samudra Gupta in 
his Allahabad Prasasti calls himself 8ri Gupta prapautasya 
Maharaja Sri Ghototkaca pautrasya Maharadhiraj Sri Candra 



Kalidasa in his Malavika Agni Mitra, mentions Agni Mitra, the Sunga 
ruler of Vedisa, son of Pushya Mitra. who drove out the Yavana raiders. 
Agni Mitra ruled about 148 B.C. Kalidasa is mentioned in the Gupta 
Airole temple inscription at Mandasore about 472 A.D. by poet 
Vatsabhatti by incorporating materials from Meghaduta and Ritusamhara. 
It appears that Candragupta Vikramaditya sent Kalidasa as a tutor tO' 
his protege and grandson Pravarasena. Prabhavati made her last grant 
of a piece of land to her Guru Rama Giri on the lake Ramtek near 
Nagpar. Kalidasa in his Meghadutam makes the Yaksha separated 
from his beloved live in the aiboral asrama of Ramagiri, and when he 
saw a cloud rise from the lake, he begged it to carry his message of 
love and bereavement to his beloved. Kalidasa very likely went to the 
Ramagiri hermitage with Pravarasena when his mother was spending 
her last days with her Guru. But Kalid3sa was not favorably received 
in tlie Vakataka Kuntala ('ourt as mentioned in the Ucita Vicara Carca 
Kavya Mala. In Rajasekhara's Kavya Mimamsa Sriiigara Prakasa when 
Vikramaditya asked Kalidasa how Kuntalesvara was spending his time, 
Kalidasa replied that he was always busy kissing the cheeks of maidens. 
But at the command of Vikramaditya Kalidasa wrote the Prakrit Kavya. 
Setuvanda, but published in the name of Kuntalesvara Pravarasena as 
mentioned by Rama Dasa in his commentary on the Setuvandha. There 
are some who believe that Kalidasa was the court poet of Vetala Gardha- 
villa Vikramaditya of Ujjaini who established Vikrama Era in 57 B.C. 



HONAS 65 

Gupta putrasya. Like Kushana Vasudeva, Samudra Gupta 
was a Siva (Lakulisa) worshipper and Buddhist. He was the 
patron of Vasubandhu, the Buddhist writer. He permitted 
iVIeghavarna of Ceylon to build a monastery at Gaya for 
Ceylonese pilgrims. He himself also erected some of the build- 
ings o' Nalanda monastic university. Candra Gupta II made 
matrimonial alliance with Vakataka ruler Kudra Singh II by 
giving his daughter Prabhavati to him. Vakataka Inscription 
from Ganj Vyagradeva bows down at the Vakataka mabaraj Sri 
Prithvisena for the benefit of his parents (matapitro punyarthe). 
No 27 on a Pillar : Of Village Vatharasa Vakataka house- 
holder house wife- by Thera Bodhika of his wife Chaii^una 

with grandsons, friends and relatives for the increment of his 
life /game Vatharasa gaha-patisa Vakatakasa gaha patiki...na 
therena Bodhikena bhariyaya Chamunya sa bhatukehi... sa 
mita bandhavehi cha apana ayu-vadhanika. The early 
Vakatakas called themselves Hariti and Madhariputras like 
Satakarnis, Aviras, Kadambas and Chalukyas. 

Peace and prosperity of India under the Guptas and 
Vakatakas who fostered arts, industries, literature and 

Guptas were eclectic in their religion like the Kushans. They not 
only built Vishnu temples, they also built Siva temples at Bhumarc in 
Nagod and at Khoh in Nagod ; Parvati temple at Kuthara in .Ajaigus. 
Their Sapta Mairikas were Brahml. Mahesvari. Kaumarl, Vaisnavi, 
Vasuli, Mahendri, CamundT. Gananam ( of genos ) tvam Ganapatim 
havamhe = guardean deity of the clan, entitled to the first fruits of the 
community edeavours and enterprises. In Gadhwa stone inscription, 
Candra Gupta II and Kumara Gupta are called Parama Bhagavata. 

In 117 of the Gupta era, there is an inscription at Karandane in 
Faizabad UP by Prithiva Sena, minister of Kumara Gupta, son of 
Sikharasvamin, chief minister of Candra Gupta II, incised on the linga 
of a stone image with Name Mahadevaya. 

An iron blade of meteoric origin in an ancient pyramid. Tut-ank- 
Amen's dagger of Khatti origin with an iron blade has been found in 
his tomb 1350 B.C. A furnace for smelting iron of 1195 B.C. has been 
found at Gerar where iron sickles were manufactured by Philistines. 
Ramases mentions Philistines in 1190 B.C. In Amos ( 9.7 ) Philistines 
came from Caphtor ' Keftiu in Crete ). Iron was introduced into 
Mesopotamia. Iran and NW India in the later part of second millenium. 
At Kushan, Nehavent and in Luristan, Iron weapons like poniards, lance 
and arrow heads of 1150-1125 B.C. have been found; at Susa about 
900 B.C. The success of Roman soldiers was due to the weapons and 
arms of iron and steel. The shields of Roman soldier had iron borders 
and were studded with the same metal. Their spears had the iron head 
and their swords were of Spanish steel. In Roman dwellings of Britain, 
iron door keys, hinges, knives and scissors have been found on an 
extensive scale. 

Hunas rooted themselves deeply and widely in the Indian soil like 
their predicessors, the Sakas. Scythians and Huns were practically the 



66 THB LITBEABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

astronomy, were suddenly disturbed as the Hunas defeating the 
Sasanians in Iran fell upon India. A century of life of ease 
had softened the Guptas, and they fell before the fierce Huna 
onslaughts. Kidara Kushans at first as conquerors of Sasanians, 
as their vassal allies ruled a vast empire, extending from 
Balkh to Peshwar ; three rulers Kidarasha, Piro Sha S'itrapa 
Varo Shahi, Beddha-bala and Bhasa. But the white (sveta=Zd. 
spaeto = Goth, hveit- Ger-weiss = Lith. szweitu) Hans Jouan- 
Jouen (Kushan Zabol = Br Jabula. Jauvla) defeating the Sasa- 
nians and Kidara Kushans, occupied N. India, They estab- 
lishsd themselves in the Gupta stronghold of Ujjaini under their 
leaders ToraiTa-hu)- Mana who is called Jauvla in his Kyula 
inscription. But his successor Mihiragula made Hakala (Sialkot =* 
Euthydemia) his capital in 002 AD. in retaliation of his oppres- 
sion Yasadharman known also as Vishnu Vardhana, called 
Kalki (Khalka). of mixed Karkota Naga (Karkitani and Kidara 
descent, jointly with Maukharies (of Maga origin) and Bala- 
ditya, a Gupta scion of Magadha, inflicted a severe d<^-feat on 
Mihiragula who however escaped with his army to Kashmir, 
where he began to rule. There too the Karkotas under 
Durlava-Vardhana 626-565 defeating the rapacious Huns, and 

same people, — Tatar VVusuns— (tall ones ) = Criin, blue- eyed devils — 
different blends of the Turks with Huang-nu Mongoloids, Ural-Altaiks 
and Sarmatians. Avars, Uigurs are classified with the Sakas as well as 
Hunas. According to Cliand Rason, Pa-vars ( Paramaras ), Parihar 
( Gurjara Pratiharas of Khazar descent ), Chauhan ( Chahumanas) and 
Solanki, otherwise called Chalukyas were called Agni Kiilas. Kitsa = 
Kuci Tocharian Huns ( Tukhara = Thakura ) of Kuch of Khotand were 
called Yen-Ki ( Agnis ) = U-ngo = U-go = Urgu ( Uraga ). Rhoja Raja 
( 995-1060 ). of the Paramaras of Malwa is famous in legends and history. 
To him are ascribed many books on astronomy and architecture. He 
established a Sanskrit college of learning at Dhara, the ruins of which 
still exist, His Bhojpur Lake testifies to the skill of his engineers. 
Gurjara- Pratiharas of Kanauj had in the beginning their capital at 
Bhimnal in S Rajputana under Naga Bhatta. In 816 the capital was 
transferred to Kanauj. Mihira ( 840-893 ), Viruds as Bhoja, Adi Varaha 
and Paavasha. ruled an extensive empire, extending from the Himalayas 
to Narvada, Sutlej to Bengal. His son Mahendra Pal was the pupil af 
Rajasekhara, author of Karpura-Manjuri. Chahumanas ruled in Sambar 
and Ajmir area. Its ruler Visaldeo conquered Delhi = Dhillika from the 
Tomaras, another Huna clan. Visaldeo composed Hara-Kali Nataka. 
His successor nephew PrithvirajRaithora as a chivalrous lover abducted 
charming Samyukta from her Sayamvara marriage festival, the beautiful 
daughter of his maternal causin - Gahadvala [ possibly the same 
Ephthalite-Vetala Gardhavila, a white Hun clan) = Rathor king of Kanauj. 
and eloped with her to Delhi where their marriage was celebrated with 
pomp and publicity. 

To avenge this insult, Jaycandra formed an alliance with Md Ghori 
to attack Prithviraj. Prithviraj had in 1182 attacked Candra-Atreyas - 



KARKOTA N^OAS 67 

marrying the daughter of Gupta Baladitya became the domi- 
nant power, Karkota Nagas practised ophiolatry- snake worship. 
Mihirgulas however ruled Valabhi aa Maitrakas.An incised 
earthen ware found in Kathiwar dated 665-567 A.D. with the 
name of Guha-Sena. a Maitraka prince of Valabhi. And Khazars 
who came with the Hunas established some large Gurjara 
kindoms in Rajputana and Western India. Yasadariuiin 
assumed the title of Vikramaditya, boasts however in his two 
pillars of victory, erected in 683 at Mandsor= Dasapura that he 
got suzerainty of the eastern region up to Lohitya (Austric Luit = 
the river Brahmaputra'. Karkota Pushya-bhnti, allied to Pushya- 
mitra Sungas, Jprabhakara Vardhana conquered the Punjab 
and assumed the title of Maharajidhiraj of Thauoswsr ; 
Maukhari Varmans curved out a kinf;dom with Kanauj as their 
capital. Though thus Gupta empire was dismembered, many 
of the Gupta nobles remained as feudatory chiefs, acknowledging 
the suzerainty of either the Karkotas or the INIaukharies, 
waiting to regain their ancient glory. Deva Gu|)ta of Malava 
under the Vardhanas, and Sasanka Narendra Gupta of Kama 
Suvarna under Mahasenagupta and Maukharies made an 
united effort to capture Kanauj, Though Sasanka took the 
initiative of conquest, it was Deva Gupta's armv that captured 
Kanauj, killing the Maukhari ruler Graha Varman. And his 



• Chandel stronghold of Mahava, thereby alienated many of the Huna 
tribes who had occupied northern and western India. But with the aid 
of many others, Prithviraj bravely fought the invaders at Tarain between 
Thanesvar and Karnal, encouraged by his wife Samyukta who was by 
his side and melted her gold ornaments to make the bullets, and the 
invaders were routed. Reinforced. Md Ghori attacked again in 1192, 
but deserted by some of his former allies, Prithviraj was defeated and 
brutally cut into pieces. Adult males of Ajmere were put to death, and 
women taken as slaves. Now the turn of Jaycandra came, for not giving 
sufficient aid to his ally. He was defeated and slain at Chandawar 
near Etawah. Kanauj fell into the hands of the invader. And those 
of the Gahadvals = Rathors that could escape fled to Jodhpur whence 
they established a kingdom Solankis = Chalukyas of Gujrat with 
Anhilwara as their capital ; Chalukyas of Badami 5.S0 6S9 ; Chalukyas 
of Kalyami 973-1190 ; Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra. Senas of Bengal; 
Haihaya ( Hiao-Hui ) Kalachuries of Chedi ; Gangas of Kolar and 
Ganjam ., Yadavas of Devagiri and Vijayanagara. Vikrampur ; Chandra- 
Atreyas = Chandels of Jejakabhuti. Kirtivarman Chandel was not only 
a patron of learning, he is reputed to be the author of Probodha 
Candradoya, a dramatized version of the diflferent schools of philosophy, 
he also built Kirdta ( Kerait ) Sdf^ara, as possibly the Chandels 
were included in the Mongoloid-Turkish Hunnish tribe of Keraits. 
Their architecture at Khajurah, a Turkish name, is famous for their 
temples and basreliefs in striking realistic poses. Guhilots -Guha. Dattas — 

> Guhia-putras ( 500-600 ) of Idar, 600-700 of Mewar, a branch of the 
Maitrakas of Valafehi. 



58 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

queen Eajyasri. sister of Eajya Vardhana of Thaneawar 
Pushyabhutis, was put into prison as she haughtily repulsed 
the amorous approaches and to entertain the victor with her 
physical charms, as customary of the age. So quickly was it 
done about 604 A.D. that Kajya Vardhana heard of the war, 
the capture of Kanauj, killiug of his brother-in law, the dis- 
honour of his pretty and proud sister Eajyasri. Eajya 
Vardhana at once started with a force of 10,000 cavalry to 
avenge this wrong. Deva Gupta was defeated. But before 
he could capture Kanauj or rescue his sister, it is said he was 
treacherously killed by Sasanka, Sasanka however as an act of 
chivalry released Rajyasri. or Eajyasri managed herself to 
escape to Vindhya Hills. When Harsa Vardhana was about to 
ascend the throne of his elder brother, be was told of the 
escape of his sister. Harsa traced her in the Vindhyii forest 
when in dispair she was going to commit suicide. Now a 
sanguine war took place between Harsa Vardhana and Sasanka 
Gupta, Harsa instigated Vaskara Varman, Maukhari Viceroy 
of Kamrupa, to attack Kama Suvarna in the rear. Vaskara 
Varman occupied some eastern portions of Kama Suvaroa as 
his Nidhanpur copper plate inscription indicates. Basanka 
was defeated by Harsa, but not before 649, for in an inscriptioD 
of that year, he is invoked as a suzerain and in 64^3, Sasanka 
ruled Magadha, Bengal and Chilka Lake region. Harsa direc- 
ted his campaign against Sasanka in Ganzam. Harsa made 
Kanauj his capital and became the overlord of Northern India^ 
assuming the designation of Siladitya. Harsa's Era 605, 
He maintained diplomatic relationship with China. He was 
the patron of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang who travelled 
under his aegis all over India during his 14 years stay 
(5clO-644). Harsa was not only an enlishtened ruler, but to him 
are ascribed the dramas of Nagananda, Eatnavali and Priya 
darsika. Harsa Siiaditya had a daughter who was married to 
Dhurvabhata of Valabhi. His son Dharasena after Harsa's- 
death about 6i6, assumed the title of Parama-Bhattarak. 
Maharajadhiraj Paramesvara Cakravarti. But one of Harsa's 
generals, Arjana of Arjurnayanas, declared Tirhut an inde- 
pendent kingdom ; bat as Arjuna attacked the Chinese envoy 
Wang Hiuentse, Tibetans and Nepalese, who were under 
Chinese suzerainty, defeated and captured Arjuna and Tirhut 
remained under them up to 703 A.D. Aditya Sena claimed 
Magadha as his own. Kamala Ayudha - Yasavarman of 

Samyukta thus addressed her lover : To die is the destiny of man ; but 
to die well is to live for ever. Therefore, beloved, think not of self or me-, 
but of immortality. Let your sword divide your foe, and I will in this 
world as well as hereafter be always your ardhangini." And Samyukta 
mounted the funeral pyre when she learnt that Prithviraj who had fought 
with reckless valor was killed by the enemy. 



AYUDHA8 59 

Ayudhas (Ugra Ayudha Brahmadatta — Yaudheya3-» Jats who 
ruled from Bawalpnr to Saharanpur, Ludhiana to Delhi with 
headquarter at Yodhpur, up to first century A. D. over- 
thrown by Kausikas. a Huna people. Their coins found iu this- 
region contain an angry peacock— Mauraka, known as Malta. 
Their war god was Kartikeya- Kumara ; Arjunayanas as 
in Agra and Joypur area 2C0 BC. = 4U0 A. D. working in 
co-operation with their northern neighbor Yaudheyas -. on their 
coins are found Arjunayananam Jah) occupied Kauauj, a 
maternal cousin of Harsa Vardhana. But as feudatories were 
reluctant to acknowledge him, Yasavarman marched over 
Harsa's dominion triumphantly, as described by Vakpati in his 
Prakrit Gaurovaha. Yasavarmau was not only a great statesman, 
but also a patron of learning. Bhavabhuti, the dramatist and 
poet, author of Malati-Madhava, was _his court poet like 
Vakpati. In allianca with Karkota Lalita Aditya of Kashmir, 
Ayudha Yasovarman made a common cause with the Chinese, 
and led an expedition against the Tibetans. But the alliance 
fell through. Lalita Aditya attacked Yasavarman, and 
Yasavarman was defeated and killed. 

With the defeat and death of Yasavarman, not only 
Kanauj. but Lalita Aditya acquired the right of suzerainty over 
the vast conquests of his former ally. To assert this right, he 
marched towards the east and overran Magadha. Gaura, Vanga,. 
Kamarupa and Kalinga ; in the west he conquered Malava, 
Gujerat and defeated the Arabs on the border of Sind j in, 
N. W. he defeated the Dard. Kambojas and Turks. .But with, 
the death of Lalita Aditya (724-7(50) his empire broke into pieces. 

Vajra Ayudha, son of Kamala (Tib. Ka-ma-la- lotus) 
Ayudha Yasavarman, asserted his independence, and occupied 
Kanauj. To punish him VinayaAditya Jayapira (779-B46), 
grandson of Lalitaditya, marched against Vajia Ayudha. 
Ayudhas fought valiantly. Vajra Ayudha died, leaving Indra 
Ayudha on Kanauj throne. Indra Ayudha was defeated, and 
his brother Gakra Ayudha was placed on the throne. Indra 
Ayudha sought the assistance of Gurjara Pratihara king Vatsar 
of Villamal who attacked Kanauj, defeated Cakra-Ayudha and 
re-instated Indra-Ayudha on the throne, and advanced towards 
Gaura Banga. But the domination of Gurjaras under Vatsa 
did not last long as he was forced to flee to Rajputana, being 
defeated by Rastra-kuta king Dhruba Daravarsa (78d-';9J) whose 
conquests extended up to the Ganges. There was no central 

In an inscription of Jayadeva II, the Licchavi king of Nepal 748, 
kings father-in-law Harsa of Bhagadatta family is the lord of Gauda,. 
Udra, Kalinga and Kosala. Kamarupa's Bhagadatta who is called a 
Mleccha might be of the same Licchavi family. Kara dynasty of 
Kalinga claims the descent from Licchavi Bhagadatta family. 



*60 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

government in Magadha and Bengal. Feudatory chiefs ruled 
as they pleased. 

In Khalimpur Copper Plate issued in the 82nd year of Dharma 
Pal who married Rastrakuta Tunga princess Ranna Devi : His 
•son was the crest jewel of heads of kings, illustrious Gopala 
whom army chiefs (prakritis) elected as their Supremo to put 
an end to disorder ( matsyanyayam apohitam prakribhir 
lalashnyah karam grahitah Sri Gopala it kshitisa sirasam 
churamanistat sutah). £n the fifth verse, Gopala's wife is 
meationed as Dedda Davi. Rajatarangini Jalauka Vv'as similarly 
elected as king by prakritis. In Kashmir there was a Didda, an 
able regent of ber son Abhimanya, daughter of the Kushan Sbahi 
chief of Lohara. Kusban Shahi dynasty of Kabul as of 
Bathindah had the designation of Pal. as Jai Pal, Anand 
Pala. Pallavas of Travancore had also Pala title. Palas in the 
Kamauli grant of Vaidyadev belong to Mihirasya Vamsa. 

In the Indra Copper Plate. Nava Pala calls himself 
Kamboja Vamsa-tilaka. grants land in \'afdhamana Bhukti to 
Pravakar Sarman (Sanscrifcized for Shaman priest ), son of 
Anukul Misra (Saskritized form of Mihira). At Rajagriha and 
Pataliputra, Kusbana inscriptions have been found. At Tamluk. 
a Kanishka copper coin has been unearthed. In Bogra and 
Murshidabad, gold coins of Vasudeva have been observed. So 
it is likely that the Palas as scions of Kushana Sahis settled in 
northern Bengal which Ram Pal calls his ancestral place and 
rescued it from Kaivarta (Kerwat) king Vima. Palas were ardent 
Buddhists like Kushans. Gopal organized entire Bengal and 
Magadha in an administrative unit. He built the Nalanda 
Vihara near Odantapur. His and Dedda Devi's son Dharma 
Pal (769 —815) in alliance with Rastrakutas conquered N India, 
put on Kanauj throne his protege and subservient Cakra 
Ayudha. In his Kalimpur mscription. he boasts that his 
•coronation was attended by vassal kings of Bhoja (Gurjara), 
Matsya, Madra. Kuru. Avanti, Gandhara, Yavana and Kira 
(Kangra) which is also carroborated in the Bhagalpur inscrip- 
tion of Narayana Pal. He built the great monastic university 
of Vikramasila, containing 107 Viharas and 6 Colleges, where 
108 professors were engazed to teach various subjects under 

68 7:^ K^nyakumari Inscription of Rajendra Deva in Sanskrit : 
"The king Madhurantaka was the son or Rajaraja conquering hostile 
kings by the valour of his arms ; he made Manya kheta. a sporting 
ground for his army His generals defeated the kings of Kuluta and 
Xltkala, Kalinga and Bangendra, who reached the Ganga whose banks 
slipped down the river by the battering of his elephant brigade ; the 
water of the Ganga was carried in pots on the heads of kings. His army 
crossed the sea and set fire to Katah (Kota in Malaya) which was not 
possible for other Kings to conquer. What act was impossible for this 
.monarch Rajendra ChoU !" 



SENA BAIDTA8 fili 

the presidency of Buddha Jnauapada. Dharma Pal was 
succeeded by his youngest son Deva Pal (83l-ti40'. born 
of Ranna Devi, daughtei- of Rastrakuta king Govinda 111, 
superceding the claim of Tribhuvana Pal, his eldest son. due to 
Rastrakuta influence. In alliance with Kastrakuta, he defeated 
the Gurjaras. His general Lausena conquered Kamarupa and 
Kalinga. He removed his capital from Pataliputra to Mudgala 
gin (Monghyr). His successor was Mahi Pal. During his 
reign Rajendra Chola led his victorious expedition to the banks 
of the Ganges. He had to defend N Bengal from the incursions 
of Kambojas (Kochs), and Bihar against the attacks of 
Kalachuris, Cholas and Challukyas (Sholanki -Hun Holanki). 
Palas were not only valiant fighters, they were patrons of learn- 
ing. Their long peaceful reign was marked by agricultural, and 
cultural growth of Bengal. Rastra-kuta = Ratta- Reddi. 

About 1068, his Samanta chief Acha made the kings of Kalinga 
Vanga, Maru. Gurjara. Malava, Chera, Chola, subject to his sovereign. 
Inscription of Devangene 2, 3. Epigr Cam XI, dated 1121, 1124 refers to 
the conquest of Anga, Banga, Cauda. Magadha and Nepal by 
Chalukya Vikrimaditya when Senas (Saiyina Baid Bomrna Pujaris 
of Bhutasthanas of Karnat ; three Baid nobles are mentioned by a Pandian 
king of Sth century, possibly of Chalukya = Solanki = Hun Holanki 
descent were establishing their domination in Bengal when Karnata 
chief Nanyadeva was consolidating his position in Magadha and Nepal. 
In the Madhai Nagar grant, Samanta Sena, the head garland of the 
Karnata Bhrama Kshatriya. slaughtered thedespoiler of Lakshmi (fortun'::) 
of KarnSta in battles, waged in South India According to Deopari 
inscription, Vira Senas were Dakshinatya Kshanindri (chief warlords 
Ballala = Vellala). A large number of Sena Baidyas of Bengal are 
affiliated to Saktr gotra, that is, of Huna Sogdian descent. Sena Vaidyas 
introduced Saivism, snake shrines (of Nayars ; Kanarese and Telugu 
Mancamva = Manasa), Tantric worship with phallic magic circles (Cukra), 
and orthodoxy in place of Catholicism of the Palas. Snake 
symbolizes amongst the Romans' on the atrium the family Getitus, 
the generating power and vitality of the xetis, Rhea was the snake goddess 
of the Cretans with snakes coiled on her arms, in her hands, round 
her body and headdress, In ancient Egypt the Delta goddess Wazet 
was in the form of a serpent double of Buto and Hathor. 

Rajendra Chola defeated Rana Sura of Dakshina Rada ( Takkan 
Ladam in Turamalai inscription), Govinda Candm, the ruler of Vanga, 
who fled away from his elephants Then Rajendra Chola defeated Mahi 
Pal of Uttara Rada ( Uttira Ladam ). In Rama Carita of Sandhakara 
Nandi, Lakshmi Sura, ruler of Mandhara, is mentioned who helped R&m 
Pal to crush the rebellion of Kaivarta chieftain Dibbaka. Vijaya Sena 
married Vilasa Devi, a daughter of a Sura chieftain of west Rada. Vigraha 
Pal married Haihaya Kalachuri princess Lajju Devi, to curb the rising 
power of the Gurjara Pratiharas Their son was Narftyan Pal. Gurjara 
Bhoja Deva defeated Narayan Pal ( Sagartal Inscription ). With Bhoja 
came Gurjara Pratihara chief Kakka of Mandor who won ^fame in 
conquering Mudgala-giri ( Mongyr ) about 883 A. D. Kalachuri 



69 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANOIBNT INDIA 

Chalukya (Hun Holanki — Solanki) Satyasraya Vikramaditya 
of Karnat led a victorious expedition against Bengal and Assam 
(Ahoms, a branch of Thais). 

Gunambha Deva who came with Bhoja spoilt the fortunes ( Gaura Raja 
Lakshmi ) of Gaura king ( Epi Indica 7, 89 ), Narayana Pal's son 
Rajya Pal married Rastrakuta princess Bhagya Devi, daughter of Jagat 
Tunga, to counteract the influence of Gurjaras. as Bhoja's son Mahendra 
Pal incorporated Tirabhukti and Magadha in his vast Gurjara Pratihara 
empire. Kalachuri Kama Dev in his inscription at Goharowa says that 
his father Gangaya Deva Vikramaditya defeated Kira ( Kangra ), Anga, 
Kuntala and Utkala ruler ( Ep. Ind. XI, 143 ), The inscription of 
Ahlan Devi, daughter-in-law of Yasah-Karna mentions that Kama 
occupied Kanyakubja and his son Yasah Kama advanced east 
through Camparanya = Champaran in Bihar. Ep. Indica 2, 11. Gahadval 
Govinda Candra occupied Kanyakubja in 1114 and dominated most of 
Magadha to help the Palas against the Senas. Bilhana informs that 
Chalukya Somesvara of Kalyana between 1044-68, and his son 
Vikramaditya led expeditions and defeated the king of Gaura and 
Kamarupa and left behind Karnatakas in Tirhut, Nepal, Rara. Somevara 
also destroyed the power of Kama, lord of Dahala. Vigraha Pal 
strengthened his position by marrying Yauvana Sri, daughter of Kama. 
In the Belava copper plate of Bhoja Varman, it is mentioned that the 
Varmans were the kinsmen of Varmans of Simhapura, and Vajra Varman. 
the ornament of Yadava soldiers (Yjdavinam camunam), was always 
victorious. And his son Jatavarman who married Vira Sri, daughter 
of Kama, extended his supremacy amonst Angas, conquered Knmarupa, 
defeated Divya and Govardhana, to help the Palas, and occupied 
Vikramapura, ousting the Candras of Gahadval descent. Their son 
was Syamala Varman whose chief queen (agra mahisi) was Malaya 
Devi, daughter of the great warrior Udayan. It is said that Syamala 
Varman brought some Kanyakubja Brahmins for the performance of 
Sakuni Yajna who are known as Panca gotra Vaidikas of Eastern Bengal. 
Syamala's son was Bhoja. Princes of jAlandhara were Yadavas at 
Simhapura = Seng-ha-pulo of Yuan. Chang. According to inscription, 
12 kings of Varmans used to rule at Simhapura in 7th century. 
Candra Varman and Uma Varman plates found in Konarli in Ganjam 
where also kings of Simhapur = Singapuran in Kalinga. In Belava 
copper plate of Bhojavarmam, a Yadava king Hari Varman is mentioned. 
In Ananta Vasudeva temple, there is an inscription of about l2th 
century by Bhavadeva Bhatta, who claims himself to be the minister 
of Harivarman Deva. In Nepal two manuscripts have been found, one 
Ashtasahasrika Prajnaparamita written in their 19th year of the reign 
of Hari Varman Deva, and another Vimala Prabha, a commentary on 
Kala Cakrayana, written in 39th year of the reign of Hari Varman Deva. 
Candra vamsa of Gahadval origin ruled in Rohitagiri iRohits Gad 
in Sahabad Dt Behar ; Lalmai, 5 miles from Comilla, 900— lOoO; 
Arakan (788-957). Two copper plates of Sri Candra of Harikel Candra 
dvipa (consisting of parts of Faridpur, Khulna and Backerganj Dist), 
grandson of Suvarna Chandra (another grandson Govinda Candra) have 
been found. They were Buddhists and worshipped Bhagavati Tara. 
inscriptions of Khadgas (possibly of Tibatan origin ; Jata Khadga, his 



CHOLAS 68 

Eajendra Chola 1012-42 conquered Srivijaya, Kadara 
(Kedah) and Ma Nakka Varam (the land of the naked — 
Nicobar Isles) of Polynesian and Malayan origin. 



son Deva Khadga and his son crown prince Rftja Raja Bhatto) have 
been found in Comilla and Dacca districts. Arakan Candra Dynasty 
with Wethali as capital consisted of Dhama Candra, Priii Candra and 
Vira Candra of Lalmai, Layaha Candra, Purna Candra, Suvarna Candra, 
Trailakya Candra, Sri Candra. destroyed by Knlacuri Kama 1041-1071. 
Their coins are similar and known as Patikera. Couchant humped bull 
on the obverse ; the sun and the moon with a garland on the reverse, 
Mayanamati Hills = Patiker. near Comilla. is named after Madanavati, 
queen of Manik Candra, mother of Gopi (Govinda) Candra, whom he 
induced to renounce the world as well as his wives Adun < and Paduna 
against his inclination, through the influence of her Guru Goraknath. 

A Haihaya inscription states that Laksml Kama was succeeded 
before 1073 by his son Yasah Kama, begotten on queen Avalla Devi 
of Hun stock - Hunan^m Vyam. Ep. In 2 p. 4. 

Na-khi = Naga = Tib. Klu-mo tribe and kingdom is in SVV China in 
Yung-ning NW of Lichiang. Free love is practised among the common 
people ; Na-khi speak of their 5 ancestral spirit clans.- Nyi-Tib. 
gNyan who live on trees; Dtu = Bon G Tod who dwell on rocks and 
clifs ; S3iunda = Tib. Sa bdg who live on land ; Ngn-ba in water 
and springs ; Ssu in streams. Na-khi women have piculiar hair dress. 
Dso-na-lo-chi whose upper part is human and lower part composed of 
the coils of the snake. N'a-khi-sau ggo-gyl-bhu= Naga chiefs 
Nagaraja. Ssu-ndo Naga = Ku ngo = Dik Pala. Ngawla-suepa =■ 
Nagapalas Beside the regular serpent-headed Nagas whose names are 
legions, Naga demons possess various animal heads as of hoise, ox. tiger, 
yak, water buffalo, fish, elephant, stag. Nyissa-kho-lo changed himself 
into a handsome youngman and visited the wife of Ddo-ssaw-ngo-tu 
during later's absence and enticed hf r to sexual embrace. Ni-iossa = 
o-ma-ha is the Nakhi god of wealth. The Na khi Naga Cult and Related 
Ceremonies by J F Rock, Serie Oriental Roma 1952. 

Desa = country ; pra-desa ■= province ; mandala- administrative unit 
of a province ; bhukti = a division of a mandala ; visaya = district. Bhogica, 
uparika = governor ; mandalika = chief of a circlets imanta ; visaspati 
adhikarana = chief of visaya ; a yutaka = executive officer; pu3ta-pilas = 
keepers of records ; prathama kulika-* chief of guilds ; gramani = mayor of 
a village ; kulapati, pathaka, puraga, purara- mayor of a pura = big town, 
nagara sreshthi, president of the local town chamber of commerce; 
nagara raksaka = police chief of a town; anikastha = veternary surgeon ; 
duta =- ambassador ; dutaka = consul ; nagarin = mayor of a nagara, a 
small town; adhyaksha- manager ; samkhaka = accountant ; sthinika = 
thana official ; sita = communal land ; bhiga = ^ agricultural produce 
rent; kara=»levy on orchard produce; vivita-on cattle pastures; 
vartani = road cess ; anugraha = partial remission of taxes ; parihsra- 
complete remission of taxes; pattana = port town; sulk idhaya = supdt 
of customs ; mud:adhaya = supt of passport ; maha matra- high official. 



SCRIPT 

In Sanskrit there are 52 phonetic alphabets : 9 simple' 
vowels as a, a, i, i, u. u, r, r . i ; i diphthongs e, o ai. au ; 
7 gutturals k, kh, g, gh, ri, a, a; 11 palatals c, ch, j, jh (jh 
only once in Rv and not in Av), n, y, s, i i, e, ai ; ll cere- 
brals or Unguals t, th. d, jh, 1, th. n. r. r j 9 dentals t, th, 
d, dh, n, 1, s, 1, 1 ; 9 labials p, ph, b, bh, m, v. u, u, o, au • 
4 semi-vowels y (palatal), r (cerebraZ), 1 i dental), v (labial) •. 
3 sibilants s (palatal), s (cerebral), s (dental) ; 1 aspiration 
h ; 1 nasal m anusvara. Gutturals are sounded with the 
back part of the tongue raised as high as possible to the 
back palate. Palatals are pronounced with the body 
of the tongue raised to the palate. Cerebrals are pronounced 
with the tip of the tongue placed against the roof of the 
mouth and jerk down sharply to the horizontal position ; 
the lips are slightly drawn back and teeth are exposed. 
Dentals are pronounced with the teeth of the tongue which 
are set slightly apart ; lips are pulled back to expose the teeth, 
a is inherent in Brahmi lipi consonants as in Aramaic 
aleph predominates. The fully developed Br lipi is an out- 
come of the remarkable philological and phonological precision, 
an exact reflex of the pronunciation, surpassing all ancient,^ 
even modern scripts. 

But the origin of Br lipi is not yet definetely known. 
Some ascribe it to about bOO Mohenjodaro mixed syllabic 
ideographic signs ; many to Aramaic • and a few others to 
both sources and Cretan. M signs are similar to Khatti hierogly- 
phics, being originally a picture writing, having 350 ideographic, 
phonetic, syllabic and even single sound signs of which 6 3 are 
phonetic. 

Out of a swarm of bees, one-fifth settled on a blossom of Kadamba ; 
one-third on a fiower of Silidhri ; three times the difference of these 
numbers fiew to the bloom of a Culaya ; one bee which remained 
hovered and flew about in the air, allowed at the same moment by the 
pleasing fragrance of a jasmin. Tell me, charming woman, the number 
of bees. Lilavati, 3, 54. Ans. 15 bees. In a certain lake swarming, 
with ruddy geese ard cranes, the tip of a bud of lotus was seen a span 
above the surface of the water. Forced by the wind, it gradually 
advanced and was submerged at the distance of two cubits. Compute 
quickly, o mathematician, the depth of the water. Lilavati 6, l53. 
Ans. 3f cubits of depth. 

Prakrita is the natural popular dialect of the people. Satnsknta is- 
the polished refined speech of the intellectual aristocrats —priest, poet, 
minister, judge, courtier and the princes. 



SCRIPT 66 

Aleph as an ox head is ropresented in 18-iO B. C. E-^ypt 
and Phoenicia in 1200 B. C. ; it became Gh alpha, L. A ; 
it has been found in HM seals, Br a. Beth of E Ph of 1200 B.C. 
is the plan of a house with an open doorway ; it became Gk 
beta, L. B, Br h ; also observed in M seal 412. E, Sinai ( 18.*)0), 
Ph {1200\ representing a door became Gk delta (oUU B C.) ; 
it is represented in H M seal 552; on Assyrian weight of 
circeter of HOO B. C. ; as d twice in Asoka edicts and as dh 
in Bhattipralu and Nanaghat inscriptions. Bow and arrow 
(Mohenjodaro 61) : Skt. dhenuka, became 5r. dh. In Sinai of 
1850, He has a figure of a warrior with extended hands ; it 
has become Gk epsilon, L. E j found in HM seal (plate 1U6, 
seal I) has become Br h in Asoka edicts. Vaw="ankh, 
symbolizing vulva with phallus, Waw of the Mesa and Teima 
inscriptions-, found in weights as the emblem of Ishtar, HM 
seal 68, became digamma, later phi, F, vow, Y, Br V, having 
the phonetic value of W ; possibly the Sumerian female 

Aram ^Gen. ch 10) = Akkadian. A-ra-am = Aramaeans - Aramic. Amarna 
Tablets of 12th century B. C mention Akhlame (federation) Armay. In 
l2th century B.C. Aramaeans after the decline of the Hittite Assyrian and 
Minoan powers, established pretty kingdoms in VV. Syria amonst the Suri 
Mitannis (Sauro-Matae, N and S. Mesopotamia, especially at Damascus 
(Aram Dammeahoq Aram Naharan . Assyrians conquered Aramaeans, 
and Damascus fell in the hand of the victors in 732 B. C With the 
captivity of Aramaeans, the captives spread it throughout the Assyrian- 
Empire. Under the Achaemenians it became one of their official 
languages, and the principal speech of traders from Egypt, .Asia Minor 
to N. VV. India. It is still spoken in some villages, surrounding 
Damascus. It was the vernacular of Israel, of Jesus Christ, Apostles, and 
possibility of the Gospels. 

A scripts are a main branch of the Cannanites. The earliest inscription 
is by the king of Damascus in Tell Halos of abont 850 B. C. A 
became the most important and widespread script of the whole of 
Near East and the official and diplomatic script of the western provin- 
ces and N. VV. India of the Achaemenians. An inscription has been 
found at Taxila of third century B. C. Kharosti of IndoScythians 
developed out of A in 5th century B. C. in N India. Br had some 
influence on K/i in regard to the vocalization of script, vowels bring 
indicated by small circles, dashes and strokes and the addition of 
sounds of bh, gh. and dh, which do not exist in A. Kharosti is either 
from Aramic word Kharostha or from from Indo-Scythic clan Kharaost. 
KA inscription of Asokas edicts of 251 B. C, has been incised on a rock 
in Shahbaazgari on the Indo-Afghan border, JCA has been used on 
Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian coins between 175 B. C, and 150 A. D. 
In Niya, Lou-Ian in Turkestan have been found many documents and 
Buddhistic manuscripts written in Indian ink on wood, skin and paper in 
K/i between 2nd., 3rd. A.D. K/i is a commercial calligraphic script like 
A written from right to left ; and majority of signs have similar phone- 
tic value. In Pehlavi ( Parthava in Darius inscription = G.k. Parthaioi 
= Lat. (Parthi ), Tochari (Tukhara = Thakura) -Kucha ( = Ki-utsa-Kuci 

6 



66 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

pubic triange with a slit inside, a name for vulva as well as 
for a woman, became what is called in Bengali pet kata ^ (va). 
Ph gamal, the figure of camel of 1200 B. C. which under 
Arabic influence became known as Heh gimel, formed Gh 
gamma ; it is found both in A and Kh ; it became Br g. 
From Ph and Sabaean Kheth (fence), observed in M seal 552. 
originated Br gh Ph Zain became Gh Zeta, Pehlavi and 
Br J. E and Ph yod = ilf hasta in the shape of a hand became 
Gk iota, L.J, Br i. u. M parralel lines no 75«Skt Yamaka 
became Br Y. E and Ph Kaph in the shape of the palm of 
the hand, observed also in H M inscriptions, became Gk 
Kappa L. K and Br K ; its connection with A dagger Kaph 
is also possible. Ph Qoph, meaning monkey, became Gk. 

(Pur. Kauseya - Uigurian Kusan lill) = Yen-ki = Agni. and their allied 
Sogds = Sogdi (Ir. Sugudu - Pur. Saktri), offshoots of A, aleph becomes a ; 
w as V ; y as consonant y or w vowel ; both letters / and r could denote 
eirher 1 or r ; / represented either / or /" ; / for w ; / for d, dh 
or ,th ; g for gh ; final consonants were followed by w after b, p, t, 
ch, k, w, and J. Like all Semitic scripts A did not contain 
vowel sounds. The Greek introduced vowels in their script on 
Phoenician base. In Arabia they simply write JCtd for keta3 ; it may 
be read as Kitab, or Kutip In Hindi without voz^el bb aj tnr gy it may 
be read as baba, bibi or babu aj mar giya or Ajmir giya ; thus the 
Moghuls wrote lerters which might be read as any one pleases. Early 
Achaemenian cuneiform quasi alphabet based on neo-Babylonian, has 
41 symbols of which 4 were ideograms for ksayathiya (king), bhumi 
{ country), dahyu (province) and Ahura Mazda, 3 vowels a, i, u ; 
13 consonants kh, ch, th, p, b, f. y, 1, s, z, sh, thr, h, followed either by 
short a or long a ; that 13 symbols for consonants k, g, t, n, r. Hittite 
= Hatti = Khatti hieroglyphic cursive syllabary signs number about 
220-419 of 10-6-th century B. C. in Carchemish. The inscriptions 
begin at the top right hand side. The direction is generally bowi- 
i ro/>/ie do n—alternzung in direction wirh successive rows like oxen plow- 
ing a field. Signs : ox, ox head, calf, calf's head, double axe, 
vase, warrior, goat, king, country, river, barbed arrow, bow 
with barbed arrow, solar disk, eye, elliptic vulva, vulva with 
phallus (ankh). Indus valley scripts : Warrior, scorpion, flying bird, 
bow, mouth, hand, vase, solar disk, baskets, fish, frog, trees, vulva with 
phallus (trisula), river, serpent, barbed arrow, arrow with bow. An 
inscription round the Piprahwa steatite relic vase just below the lid in 
Pftli in Br ancient characters with the meaning : "This shrine for the 
ashes of Buddha, the exalted one, is the pious work of the Sakiyas 
(Skiynm). his brothers associated with their sisters, and their children 
and their wives'. I y (a) m s (a) HI (a) n (i) dh (a) n (e) B (u) dh (a) s 
(a) bh (a) g (a) va (a) t (e). The only vowels used are 1 and u and in 
one doubtful case either e or o. An Asokan inscription found at 
Yerraguti has 8 of its 23 lines, namely 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 14, 23, incised 
from right to left like Gk boustrophedon. A coin has been found at 
Eron in Saugar with an inscription from right to left of 3rd century 
B. C. Rano Dhamapalasa = Rani Dharmapala. 



SCRIPT 67 

•Chi, Br Kh, similar to Kh prototype. Ph lamed in the form 
of fishhook became Gk lambda, L. L. Br I, similar Kh 1. E 
and Ph mem in zigzag lines to represent water in motion 
M seal no 459 became Gk mu, L. 3/. Br m ; it is also likely 
that M mayura symbol No. 59 became Br m. E and Ph nun, 
a wrigging serpent became Gk nu, L. N 2?r n ; a curling 
snake is also found M seals 258 and 102. E and Ph ayin in 
the form of an eye became rounded into Gk Oraicron, L. O 
Br ; an eliptic eye is found in M seal 188. Ph pe and M 

Hebrew alphabets of sixth century B.C. number 22, derived from 
Phoenicians who were perhaps known in Rv as Pani = L. Poeni : 
aleph ( ox ), beth ( house ), daleth ( door ), waw ( hook ), nun ( fish ), yod 
( hand ), kaph ( palm of hand ), Phoenician gamal coming under Arabic 
influence as ginel ( camel ), zayin, kheth ( fence ), teth, yod, lamed, 
mem, nun, samekh, ayin, pe, sade, gaph, resh, shin, taw. These 22 north 
Semitic letters expressing consonants correspond roughly to their 
descendant Greek 22 alphabets Arabic : alif ( ' ), ba ( b ), ta ( t ), tha 
( th ), jim ( g for jamal = camel ), ha ( h ), kha ( kh ), dal (d), dhal ( dh ), 
ra ( r ), za ( z ), sin ( s ), kaf ( k ), lam ( 1 ), min ( m ), nun ( n ). ha ( h ), 
waw ( w ), ya ( y ) ; ta. kha, dhal, dad, ghaim are later additions. 
Arabic alphabet developed at the end ot 4th and during 5th century 
A.D. out of Nabataean. The earliest Arabic inscriptions extant are 
trilingual — Greek, Syriac and Arabic. A Nabataean inscription found 
at En-nemsruh south of Damascus, dated 328 A.D. is couched in Arabic 
speech. The earliest-dated inscription of S Semitic Sabaean is connected 
with the invasion of Egypt by Cambyses in 525 B.C. The earliest non- 
dated probably of Sth century B.C. There are 28 letters. The phonetic 
value of g, teth, 1, n, sh, q is the same in both N and S Semitic. 

Thy sound a inherent in all consonants of the Brahmi and Brahmi 
derivative scripts is due to the influence of Aramaic in which the final 
aleph predominated. The Polynesians have vowel sounds at the ends 
of their words to soften them. But vocalization in Brahmi is defective. 
There is no compound vocalisation in Sanskrit as in Greek, Latin, French 
and German eu, oe, though they are found in Pali : dviguna ( twice )•= 
Pali deuna ; rodana (■= weep ) = raoua ; bhagini ( sister ) = bain ; pipSsn 
( thirst ) = piyasa ; bhrata ( brother ) = Pftli bhai. Tone of Mongolian 
languages has been borrowed in Sanskrit as a, 1, u, r. There is sharp 
accent ( oxytone ) in the last syllable of Gk. elision and preposition. 
Gk. anti - Skt. ati ( beyond ) ; Gk. anu - Skt anu ( after ) ; Gk. apo - api 
( on ) ; Gk. epi = ap ( off ) ; Gk. upo = Skt. upa ( below ). To utter a 
series of consonants, each of which requires a separate contact, without 
any vowel to intervene, is an effort of the organs of speech which can 
only be accomplished when the organs are vigorons and strong. Each 
word of the Chinese language generally has 4 tones which cause the 
-same word to mean totally different things. The tones of the word may 
be defined as modulations of the voice by means of which different 
inflections are implanted to the same sound. Skt. .^^ra ( head ) ; sUa ( boa ) 
constrictor.; slra-Fr. charrue, plough share; dina=»day; dina=isad, 
poor .; suta « son, sQta - charioteer. Panini ( 1, 2. 31 ) says that a vowel 
pronounced at a high pitch (not stress) is called uditta- Greek and 



68 THE LITERAEY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

in the shape of mouth has become Gh p, L. P, Br P in 
Mansera Asoka inscription, Ph resh in the shape of human 
head has become Gh rho, L. R, Kh and Br r. Ph taw as 
a sign post, became Gh tau, L, T, A taw, Br t, Bh theth in 
the shape of a woolen ball has become Br th, E and Bh 
Samech in the shape of a fish has become Gh Sigma, L. '6, 
and Br S ; fish signs are also found in M seals 39o and 
640. Bh sade in the shape, of nose has become Br b • Bh Shin in 
the shape of a tooth has become Br Sh. 

Latin oxys and acutus ; at a low pitch anudatta = barytones, gravis, their 
combination, svarita, ( intoned ) sama-ahara- perispomenos, circumflexus, 
dvi-yama = Gk dvi-tonos ; un-nica ( high-low ) = Gk meson ( middle tone ). 
"The high tone is affected by tension, hardness and constriction of 
the glottis -, the low tone is affected by laxness, softness and widening 
of the glottis." Matra = meter. A short vowel = 1 matra ; a long vowei = 
2 matras ; 2, pint o ( only used twice ) in Rv = 3 matras ; a consonant = |- 
matra. A vowel having the length of a is short ; its value is 1 matra. 
"A matra is equivalent to the cry of the blue-jay, 2 matras of that of the 
crow, 3 matras to that of peacock, \ matra of the consonants to that of 
the mongoose. 

If the tongue tip is applied to the centre of the hard palate, the 
resulting soundings are harsh like r ; Skt guda (anus) = Hind gar. Con- 
tacting a little lower down, more towards the front, it produces a less 
harsh sound. At the edge of the teeth the sound is soft and smooth. 
Teutons have harsh gutteral sounds. In expressing I and d Teutons touch 
with their tongue the fleshy part or the gum of the palate, just above 
the teeth. The French and Italians make the contact lower down just, 
where the teeth issue from the gum, thus producing a softer melody. 
The Hindus make the contact low down, on the teeth, almost at their 
edge, thus producing a soft sound. Being the result of impact on the 
teeth, it is dental. Teutons have no dental. Italians have semidenfal. 
In the warm tropical climate there is a certain amount of laxity which 
affects' articulation, requering less exertion on the part of the speaker- 
The muscles of the tongue having become flaccid, tongue long and 
soft, it seeks naturally the lowest and easiest place for utterance. Teut. 
dugdor = Skt. duhita (daughter), matar = mata. Lingual 1 is changed into 
r. Skt srnoti, srunoti = Zd surunaoiti = Pali sunoti= Beng. sunai. Kala 
(black) = in Sindi Kara ; Kula (family) = Kur ; Jala (water) = Jaru. In 
Bihar l = r; kala = karia; thali = tharia ; keia = kera; phal = phar 
(plowshare). In Bengal l = n-, lena, laite = nayite ; lun = nun; v-u; 
jiva = jiu ; devara = deyar ; deva = deo ; m = n-, grama = gaon; s = h; 
sasura = hahur ; pausa = poh-, kha = h; mukha = muh; likha = liha ; tha 
= h ; gatha-gaha ; dha = h ; dadhi = dahi ; vadhu = vahu ; godhuma = 
gohu. Compound consonants and consonant combination of Indo- 
Aryan and Semitic Aramaic groups are softened ; dugda = dud ; kubja 
kujja ; bhakta = bhata ; mukta = moti; sarsapa = sarisa ; sarpa = sap ; 
vatsa = baca (son). In euphony (samasa), hiatus is avoided and. 
united consonants and contacts of final with inititial consonants are 
softened. 



scRirr 69 

These Ural Altaic people are called Bumerians, Suto, and 
iihey called the country Burner (Pur. Sumeru ; Meru — 
Merv). They were in their turn conquered by tall dolicho- 
cephalic Sargon Semities (Bib. Shem=Pur. Soma) j some of 
the previous Brown and Finno Uffrians naij^'rated to India by 
Baluchistan which was less arid then as well as by the sea. 
The Dravidian languages are agglutinating with monosyllabic 
root on which are glued on suffixes and no prefixes like that of 
Turks-=Chin. Tur- Kut- Prak. Turukka- Skt. Turuksha. Tun- 
cruse (Tunga), Magyar (Magyar of Nepal) Finns, Nogai iNagara — 
Nayara— Newer, as Nayanik'i — Naganika — Naya maiden), Tatars 
( Tittiri), Soyot = Sumerian Suto => Satvata - Si'ita - Kvati = Sata - 
Vahana), Ugris = Uigurs (Ugra- Senas = Ugra Ayudha Brahma- 

Dravidian is a mixed Ugro-Tartar. Hamitic, Mon-khmer, Indonesian. 

AustroAsiatic and Kolarian languages The earthenware figurines of 
women found in Salem Dt. show their hair in short ringlets all round the 
head, wearing high cornbs on the top. Aditchallun skull is hardly distin- 
guishable from early Egyptian type, and which is still found among the 
kadars and Uralis. At Badari, the prehistoric Egyptians used to put 
on ivory combs. The head hair wooly ringlets are positive negroid 
traits. Hamitic Tumal and Shangallas have become Tamils - Damils, 
Sanskritized into Dravidas. and Simhalas = Ceylonese who still put on a 
comb on their head-hair. These brown hypsi-dolichocephals with medium 
nose, vertical bulging occipital elongated oval face, dome-shaped forehead, 
•prominent cheekbones, weak jaw and chin, scanty beard, long legs and 
arms, thin calf, flat large feet, bull-like neck, thick lips, broad nose, curly 
hair, occupied Babylonia. In Europe these negroid Hamites were known as 
Aurignacians, noted for their polychrome cave paintings, dances and music, 
mollusks for neeklaces and the use of bow and arrow which brought the 
doom of Neanderthalers = Australoids. .A bronze nude danseuse statuette 
with long arms and legs covered with anklets and armlets with dishevelled 
curly hair found at .Mohenjodaro, is of this Hamitic type. A palae-Alpine 
Finno-Ugrian Ural-Altaic stock, probably Scyths. from the slope of Altai 
Mts and the river basin of Irtysh, passing Azerbiizan ami Trans-Caucasia 
came with bronze and conquered the Brown Race Thou didst deliver 
powerful Peprum (VVapare?) and Mrigaya (Maga) to Rijisvana of 
Vidathin I'Bharadrajas). Thou didst destroy five hundred, may be one 
thousand, blackies (krishna) and tear down their settlements as age 
consumes a garment Rv 4.16-13. Rv. 8.96.13,15 viso adev^r krishno 
= godless chiefs of the blackies ; Rv. l.lOl.t krisnagarbha - the wombs of 
the pregnant women of the blackies— Piprus (Wapare) were ripped open. 

Cow's ears marked with S - ashta karnayah Rv. x. 62-7. By staking 
on the gambling dice marked with one-eka-I alienated my wife 
Rv. X. 34. 2. 

Tamil, the richest and oldest of the Dravidian languages, the 

others being Telugu. Canarese, Malayalam, Tulu. is rich in vowels -^12, 

but poor in consonants only 18 ; and the vowejconsonants 18 x 12 = 216. 

Simple short vowels, a, i, u, e, o ^ long vowels, a, \. fi. e, o ; diphthongs 

•-ai, au. Guttaral k, voiced n; palatal c = ri-. cerebral n; dental t, 



70 THE LITERAET HISTOBY OF ANOIBNI INDIA 

dattas), Andkhui ==» Andhakas, Votyaks (Vakatakas). Sata — 
Vahanas consisted not only of Svafcis. Andhakas, and Abhiras'; 
(Avars), but also of Sesa-nagas (Sses), as their first ruler's 
name Sisuka indicates, known as Andhras. They ware more- 
or less, however Scythianized. Oval faced, straight-haired' 
large-eyed Vakataka dancing and singing healthy girls' statues 
have been found at Manaar of 4-8th centry A. D. Gotomi 
Bala-Siri in in her Nasik inscription boasts that she crushed 
down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas, destroyed the 
Sakas (Sagaras), Yavanas, Pahlavas ; who rooted out the- 
Khkharata (Khshathrita = Phraortes who ruled Media 
675-653 B. C.) family, restored the glory of the Sata ~ 
Vahana race. She established the Sata-Vahana era at 
78 A. D. Risabha Datta (Usava Data), son of Dmika and 
son-in-law of Ksharata king Kehatrapa (Khshathra - Pavan^ 
— protector of the land; Prakrit Khatapa = Chatrapa — Chatra 
-pati) Nahapana, son of Ghsamotilla, marrying his daughter^ 



n ; alveolal t, n ; labial p, m. Semi-vowels ; palatal y ; cerebral r, 
1; lahes-dental &; cerebral r, I. Thus Tamil being poor in consonants,, 
so as an example ^ does the duty kh ; g, gh, sometimes of hi eh and. 
s. Thus Skt rajan has become T arsen ; gaja - kacam ; ganga = 
kankai ; dharani = tarani j dirgham = tirkham ; japa = cepam -, rupa = 
uruvara ; rishi = irudi ; ghata = cati, Beng ghada, Mar. jhari-Pers 
jarah^Span. jarrah = Eng jar The Dravidian languages are rich in. 
cerebral letters which are not found in any Indo-European language, 
except Sanskrit. So it seems that the Sanskrit borrowed it from the- 
Dravidian. 

The following Sanskrit words may be of Dravidian origin : anu.- 
( particle ), arani { forest ), katuka ( sharp ), kapi ( monkey ), karmara 
( smith ), kala ( arts ), kala ( time ). kitara ( question ), kuta (cottage ), 
kenaru ( withered arm ), kunda ( hole ), gana ( band ), nana ( many ), pila- 
( blue ), nihara ( cloud ), puskara ( lotus ), puspa ( flower ), pujana* 
( worship ), phala ( fruit ), bila ( hole ), bija ( seed ), mayura ( peacock ),. 
ratri ( night ), rupa { form ), sayan ( evening ), valgu ( handsome ), adar = 
atavi ( tree ), alarka ( a kind of flower ), kambala ( blanket \ kulala 
( potter ), kharga ( rhino ), tandula ( rice ), tila ( sesame ), phana ( froth ), 
motaci (locust), kunda (hole), kura = kurkura (dog), kei = keyura? 
(bracelet j, kuyila = kakila ; pid = pit, pitaka (basket); petti = peta. 
(box); palam = phala (fruit), markata (monkey); Tam. muttu = 
Prakrit mutta = mukta ( pearl ). 

Pictographic and hieroglyphic inscriptions on the cliffs of nw 
spurs of Sultan- VVizdag Mts of Iranian KLhwarizm = Kangha = Kang- 
kiu of the Chinese = Zd Airyan vejo are associated, with the seals- 
found at Mohan jodaro and with the Hittite and early Elamite hiero-- 
glyphic writings. Caesar in Gaul of 1st century B. C. "It is against 
the principles of the Druids to commit the doctrines to writing ; 
during their novitiate it is said that the learn by heart innumerable- 
verses - oral transmission as the Vedas and Smritis in Ancient India. 
The Australian pronouns of the second person and those of the- 



SCRIPT 71 

Daksha Mitra, had control over Prabhasa, Bharukaccha, 
Govardhana (in Nasik Dt) Soparuga (Supara near Baasein) : 
their son Mitra Devanaka (Naga) ordered the repairs of 
Sudarsana Lake made by Vaisya Pusya Gupta, the provincial 
governor of the Maurya king Gandra Gupta, and adorned 
with conduits for Asoka. the Maurya, by the Yavana ruler 
Tashaspha, while governing (Rudra Daman's Girnar Inscr. 
Rudra-dama (O Persian as Spalaga-dama ; also Svami Jiva 
Daman) repaired the broken dam by Minister 8uvi Saka. 
the son of Kulaipa, a Pahlava, who had been appointed by 
the king in this government to rule the whole of Anarta 
and Surastra. In Abhira lavara Sena's Nasik Inscription, 
1000 and 500 Karaapanas are invested in trade guilds at 
Govardhana for providing medicine for the sick among the 
monks ; I am an Abhira (Avar), son of Siva Datta and 
Madhari (among the Satavahans Madhari putasa) by Vishnu 
Datta the Sakhani. mother of Ganapaka Visvavarma, wife 
of Ganapaka Rebhila, daughter of Agni Varma, the Saka. 
Devi Nayaaikaya (Naganika. daughter of Sadakana Maharathi 

Dravidian languages resemble distinctly and are aparent not only in 
suffixes but in pronominal base itself. The inscription of Darius in 
Turanian Scythic Medic language has close similarity with the 
Dravidian in the idioms. 

Old Tamil and the agglutinative Astro-Asian, Malaysian Indo- 
nesian and Gond languages are affiliated to each other. Austro- 
Asiatic /(?4!. M3.\a.y lok, Khasi t-loK Santal Ioc,Wq loc, Mundari loc=^ 
Old Tamil alk- ul = genital organ. In modern Tamil alk-ul means 
armpit and to tickle. Agglutinative is formed into a single constituted 
word from various elements, each with a fixed connotation, while pre- 
serving its individuality, mechanically added to the complex. Indo- 
European is inflectional synthetic amalgum where the component parts 
cannot be separated from each other. In the inflectional the elements 
of composed words have become so amalgamated with each other that 
apart from an historical analysis they can no longer be separated from 
the complex as a whole, used as a word, African tongues are aggluti- 
native and alliteral. Most of them possess gutturals and a very hard 
aspirates and a number of nasal consonants as ng, nk, ne, mb, mg. 

Sanskritized Tamil: Katlila = khatva (cot-khftt)-. nira (water); 
pandu (old and wisej = pandita learned); Tel pattanam =• pattana 
(port); Tel. nagaru (building) = nagara itown) .. Tel. dudi (cotton) = 
Hindi dhuti (male cotton loin cloth)-, Tam. seeley = Hmdi sari 
(female loin cloth) = Pali and Skt. "^ati .. cantana, Toda todonm = 
candana (sandal); kara (black) - natu (soil) - Karn ua, having black 
soil ; kari, karenu, karabha, black animal, ie. elephant Vana (arrow), 
mayura (peacock), karpasa (cotton) are of Munda-Austro- Asiatic origin. 

Saka words in Mathura Inscriptions : Muroda, muronda (lord) 
-Svami ; muronda ==■ a title of Kaniska in Zeda inscription ; hora 'gif^ 
- murunda = danapati ; balysa =- prabhu ; marghaka - grihapaii, Vavuga -^ 
chief ; raghino, eriuna = kumara. 



"2 THE LITERAR? HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Agni-Knla, Vadhana) in Nanaghat cave inscription. On coins : 
Eano Gotamiputasa 8iri Sata — Kanisa^ Siri Kanha (Krishna) 
Sata-Kanisa : Eano Vasithi -putusa Siri Pulumavisa ; Rano 
Vasithi putasa Siva Siri Sata - Kamnisa. Eano Siri Hariti 
putasa Vishnu Kaddcuta Satakanni. The remains of horse 
sacrifices have been found in the ancient cemeterj' of 
Tralieborg, a flint knife being driven into its forehead j in 
52 places of horse sacrifices in Hungary, either a stone or 
bronze knife vras driven into its forehead, as in India. The 
Mordwins have a goodess of hearth fire, Marriage takes place 
before it ; when departing the married daughter takes leave 
of her j and when the newly wed bride (Skt. navora-=Gk. 
neos = Lith. nauius = Euss. novuii — Lat. naus—It. nuora) is 
brought to her husband's home, she is led to the fire to 
attend to it, as mentioned in Asvalayama Grihya Sutra. 

Siri is of Dravidian origin ; Ghagra or skirt is Indo-Aryan ; 
Pajama ; or trousers of Scythan, Saka-Huna and Persian origin. 

Phonetic changes in Indo' Iranian : Vendidad, Hapta- Hindava- 
Sapta - Sindhava ; Haetumant - Sistan ; Haraeva = Herat ; Pisinah = 
Pishsn - Quetta valley -Sindhu with Svetya = Swat, Kubha = Kabul, 
Gomati = Gomal, Krumu = Kurram. Mehatnu (Mianwali), thou art cours- 
ing in the same Channel, X. 75 5 6. Sushoma = Sohan ; Vipasa= Beas. 
6.27,58 Hariyapia=Hariob ; Yavyavati = Zhob. Sarasvati = Harahvati ., 
titahu (sievej = titafi Rv. x, 71. 2. = Lith tvoiu ; keralani (one who bends 
the bow) = krisanu 4. 27. 3, the guard of Soma ,Siva ; ishtasva 1,122,13 = 
Vistaspa ; Parsu = Parsi, Tirindara, 8 6,46 = Tiridates 250 B. C. 

Ural Altaic Turanian, Kassite and Semitic. Many Assyrian words 
have also found place in Sanskrit: Assur=Asura; Dakash (Orion) =■ 
Daksha Prajipati ; Kasshu, Kassip = Kasyapa ; Shurias - Snrya ■. Sin = 
Soma ; En - Zu = Amsu 'moonj ; Marutu (ukku), Marduk = Marutah -, 
mutu (death) = mrityu ; dipara (lamp) = dipa ; ramu ito love) = raman ; 
siru (body) = sarira -. apsu (ocean) = apsukhit, apas (water) i Gula=«=Uru - 
Gula ; adu (now) = adya; umma (mother) ^amba ; naru (river) = nira ; 
nina (fish) = mina; Taimat fdragon of tamtu = sea) = Taimata Av. 
5, 13. 6 ; Uttuku. identified with Ea = Uttuda Av. 3, ^5-1 one who 
stirs up love; Bilgi (a disease demon) = Aligi -Viligi (.A v. 5. 13. 7); 
tabuva -= tabuva ("Av 5. 13 10 ; may have originated from Polynesian taboo) 
person destroyed by antidote to tabus ; karsu (berry) = karsa-pana (a 
copper having the weight of a berry). Heb yobel (ram)=Jabala 
goatherd); Ar halahila (deadly poison = halahala ; pilakku (axe) = 
parasu) ; timbutu (frame druml = SI tombattan ; Hebrew kinnor (lyre) = 
SI stick zither kinnori ; Anc. Egypt arched harp Vina = Vina. 

H. Vasanasha ( dress ) = vasana •, kupash = Czech kupa = kupa, 
ditch ; vashta (the inierior of a house) = Gk. hesta (fire place) = L. vesta = 
vastu ; padfc. padai (foot) = L. pedis = pada. Wadar = Slav, voda = Teut, 
Watan = Lith- wandu= L. unda Gk. udor = uda, water Baby, karkuna 
= Heb. karkom = Gk. kronas = Skt. kunkuma, saffron. 

Austro-Asiatic words in Sanskrit : Kadali (banana), tambula (betel), 
jambu (Eugenia, jambolana = black plum) karpasa (cotton), alabu (pump- 



SCRIPT 73 

Among the Finns of Ingeriuanland. the bride must sacrifice 
to the fire-goddess when she comes to her new home. 
Among the Miigyars, after the bride returns from the marriage 
ceremony in the Church, she is led to the hearth fire of 
her new home, Tahiti was the hearth goddess of the 
Scythians. Votyaks and Carelian Finns use wooden neck rests 
like the primitive Magyars, It is fouad in Polynesia and 
Melanesia, and even amongst the Japanese ; a terracotta 
neck-rest has been found at Mohenjodaro. Finno-Ugrian 
word for iron is Magyar vas, Finn, vaske. Sam. basa, baza = 
Mundari basi, Santali pasi- Malay basi, Santali pasi — Malay 
basi, Jav. vesi. Osfcyak enga for Mother — Santali enga 
mother. The cerebral i. r, d of the Kolarians is the same 
in Dravidian. No doubt there was some relation between 
Indo-Germanic and Finno Ugrian phonetic morphology. 
Sata-Vahana Andhras also spoke a kind of Prakrit Pisachi. 
Dravidian is a softer speech than Zend which is even =ofter 
than highly inflectional Sanskrit as Skt. stri becomes Tamil 
istiri .Pisaji in Nasik inscription of Pulamayi = Tel. Pisa 
(folly) = Kan. Pisari and Tam. Pic pec (infatuation). 

kin), gaja, matanga (elephant), bSna (arrow), langula. linga (digging stick 
for ploughing and for penis), nirikela (cocoanut). nirabuka 'lemon). 

With some diacritical signs, Indian scripts can easily be written 
in Roman letters to their great advantages to facilititate type-writing, 
printing, inter-provincial and international spread of their literature. 
Capital letters may be omitted to save time and space as they are 
unnecessary and do not serve any useful purposes. ^11 = a; ^T = a; 
f = i ; i = I ; ^ = u ; gj = fl ; ^^1 = 0; ^i = w ; ^ = k > ?it = q or kh ; 
3jc=g; g = gor gh; ^~h; ^ = c; ? = c, chors;9» = j;»fi = z; ^-n; 
Z = ^;z = t; ^ = d-, 5 = d; q = n;fi=>t;q = t, th, 9 = d;^j = d or dh; 
5T = n; q = p; li-f; J^^b; « = b or bh; JT = m; q-=y-, 'C-r. ^-=1 ; 
q = v; 3i = s; ii = s,^-s; ^ = h;g = x;'=-ni;: = h. Though in spoken 
languages accentuation of vowels is seldom done and some letters like 
^, g, '^, Z, 3, "5, ^, ^ are but sparingly used and there is hardly 
any distinction in pronouncing ^, sj, ni and *! ; 5, sj, q, 9 and one letter 
may suffice for any of these groups, yet for phonetic accuracy and for 
scholarly works, their uses may be retained. 



STELLAR MYTHS 

Agni {Hit kgnish." Phryg Agnis = La^ Ignis =-Lith. Ugnis- 
sve7ite, a,'aspicions = Slav Ogoni — Artn Agn — Pali aggi) was the- 
hearth god like the Roman Fesfa — Hellenic Hestia — Kit. 
Vashta = Altaic SO or AOhedided virgin Mother IJt, according 
to her shooting flames — Hindu Vastu. Zd atar, athro — 8kt 
athara, athari (fire) • Lat ater (fire that darkens by smoke • 
Gk aitho (to burn as a flame) ; Zd Athravan = Skt Atharvan 
(fire-priest). The Romans used to solemnize their marriage 
before ignis and aqua like the Hindus. AH the commensals 
(sa'pindas) of the Roman household daily assembled for their 
common meal (coena) in the atrium before the hearth fire, 
and a little of everything that was cooked was first offered to 
goddess Vesta, representing ancestral spirits = Penates -Lares. 

Khatti - Mitannian In - da - ra - Vrtrahan Indra = Zd Vere- 
thraghna Andara (in some texts Indara— Bahran), killer of Vrtra 
— Vrata = Vratya = Arattas = Rattikas - Urartians — Rhaeti, Gk. . 

Tochari = Tukharas, Kiu - tse =- Kuci = Uigurian Kusan Lili = Kauseya 
= Kusikas = Kasyapas, Ugras and Kushans. of ETurkestan were known . 
as -<4^w = Yen- Ki = Un-gu = Agneans. We have names like Agnivarma 
whose daughter was Rebhila, Devi Nayanikaya= Nagnika, daughter 
of Agni - knla — Vardhana Maharathi Sodakana. - Abhira Isvarasena's 
Nasik Inscription. Ural- Altaic pious master and mistress of the house 
feed the fire on the hearth every time they begin their meal. The 
first morsel of food, the first cup of the drink belong to the fire 
god, especially at family festivals. A fire sacrifice is a special part 
with the wedding rite of most peoples of Altaic race. Both theses 
practices prevail amonst the Hindus. 

Vritram Vritrataram (Rv. 1, 32, 5) Incjra was also called Puram 
(Gk. polls) dara (destroyer of city states) like that Mohenjodaro and . 
Harappa with hundred walls (sata-bhuji). Aryas-Arii who were 
mostly Tentonic Kelts were semi-nomadic agriculturists. Pure copper and ' 
bronze and copper implements with widely splayed edges, found at 
Gungeria in C. I. resemble closely Gaelic bronzes, seen in Irish 
museums. Indra comes out from his mother's side (4, 18. 1-2). an> 
expert in female psychology (8, 33 17) and taking care of the 
children of unmarried girls (Rv. 2. 15. 7); the birth of Siddhartha 
has taken place through the right side of his mother Maya Devi 
(Lalita Vistara, of 109, 96), depicted in Gandhara and Mathura . 
sculptures, that is, caesarean section which was known in India 
before 200 B. C. 'If the child still lives, the mother's corpse is taken, 
to the place of cremation and cut open by the knife by the husband . 
or son or his agent. Father then says : May my son live many years. 
in felicity (Baudhayana of Scythian Budini Pitri Medha Sutra (12, 15) 
and Vaikhanas Grihya Sutra (7. 4). As in India, rain is uncertain.- 



STELLAR MYTHS— INdRA 75 

andros — strongman Hercules (or is it Andhra), the sun p^od from, 
vernal equinox to summer solstice, Centaurus, riding Airavati 
= lightning, elephant, symbolizing storm cloud. Not only was 
Indra invoked for victory in war, its image was used for the 
same purpose. Who will buy this image for ten cows ? When 

and irregular, Indra, the monsoon god. became the chief of gods, as. 
on rains mainly depended agricultural prosperity, 

Indra (Andhra — Andhaka -Andkhui) in order to help Pftrihava 
Abhyavartin Ch'iyamana destroyed Varasikhas iLith. Borusci) ; at: 
HariyapiyS (Harappa), the vanguard of Vrchivans (Vrshnis- Bursins 
of Ansam) were defeated, 6, 27. 5. Indra demolished a hundred ancient 
castles of Sambara (Cymbry) and slew many Varchin's (Bur-sins) sons, and 
cast them down on the earth (bhflmya upasthe) in _aid of Atithigvi 
Divodasa (Dacians) and Kutsa (Kutzo Vlachs) and Ayu 2. 14. 6-7. 
Indra for Divodasa destroyed a hundred walled town Rv. 4. 30 20. 
(satam asmanmayinam puram). In the Sargon period 2350 when» 
Sumer came under Semites, many of the seals found at Ur, Kish Tell 
Asmal and Susa are similar to those of Mohenjodaro and Harappa,. 
Copper axe age found at 6 feet below Mohenjodaro is paralleled in 
early Minoan II, Troy II and Hissar III. Harappa is full of mudbrick 
defence walled citadels with baked brick revetments HP 35. At 
Harappa in Area G a lightly packed mass of human skulls (20 
completely separated from the body) and fragments of others, inter 
mixed with a small number of human long bones have been found. At 
Mohenjodaro skeletons of 13 adult males and females and a child, 
some still wearing bracelets and rings were found in varied attitudes 
suggesting simultaneous death HP. 35. Harappa II cemetery might 
belong to the Indra -Dacian invaderes. Indra loved and aided Kutsa 1,33,. 
14- Kutsa Arjuneya 1, 112. 25. 

Indra - the summer solsticial sun by its heat - smote Vrtra (glacier 
frost of the winter) who enclosed the waters (2. 14. 2), encompassed 
the waters '6. 20. 2i, slew the demon lying on the waters (5.30.6). 

cleaving the rocks, releasing the pent up waters like the milk imprisoned' 
in cow's udder (1. 57. 6) It resembles the Teutonic myth of hammer 
god Odin destroying frost giants Ymir and Hvimthursa. 

Varuna is the ruler raja (1,24. 7), sovereign (kshatra), noble lord 

(Asura arya 7. 65. 2), supreme monarch (samrat) who by his rta (order - 
gravitational pull) the moon shining brightly moves at night and the 

stars are seen at night and disappear by day (1. 24. 10), and by his 

pasahs- fetters, the Zodiac, he holds them in their proper places and do not 

allow them any deviation from their courses. His spies (spasah) are 

the sun and the moon (1, 24. 13 ; 6. 70. 1). 

Asvins, the divo napat-Lith. dewo sunnelei— sons of heaven— come 

riding in the morning to woo the radiant daughter of the sun- Lett. dewa. 

dehli-the long and lingering twilight— Sury.'i of the arctic region; 

Gk. dios nepodes(-2 nepot-is -Ger Neff e = nephew; -grand child of 

the day-Khatti Na-sa-at-at-tiya=Nasatya -Zd. Naonhaithya- Gk. 

nastos (one who returns) = Fu. Nastasija. Though Soma was the woer 

(vadhayur). Asvins became her bridegrooms (vara) : Soma vadhQyor: 

abhavad Asvinastaam ubha varS x, 85. 9. 



"76 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

he has slain his foes, he may return it to me : Rv. 4. 24. 10. 
"Inar was Khatti-Mitannu ( Madaya = Umman Manda =• Mada 
— Midianiteai god of virile vigor = Gk. aaer=Skt. Nara - 
Narayana. Khatti Arunash (sea godj = Varuna = Gk. Uranos. 

Mitra (Zd. Mithra = Khatti - Mitannian Mi-it- tore) is the 
sun from the v^inter solstice [agohya, I, '61, L3) to vernal 
equinox, the days becoming longer, day and night come to 
the equal length. The Nativity of Mithra — Soli Tnvicto 
Mithrae-the invincible sun, the hero, the lover, was celebrated 
by the Romans on Dec. 26, as they could not exactly calculate 

Indra (Gk. Andres = virile man) as a lover i A centaur gallops 
through a wood bearing away a nude Lepith woman ; he wears a 
wreath of long leaves, inserting his fingers into her vagina, she 
holding his neck hy her right arm ; bust human, lower part equine. 
There is an amphora on the ground ; there is a tree to the centre : 
Etruscan D 48 Cippus fsepai in the form of phallus in the hands 
of a woman : Etruscan D 82. Kinnara - Mithuna I'-S" high, I'-lt" 
long. \Q-r," broad, formerly in AlUhabad Public Library, of Kushan 
origin. The figure of the centauress consists of a human female bust 
with that of the lower portion of a galloping horse ; her companion 
borne on her back is looking in a mirror, held in his left hand. The 
•centauress wears a garland round her neck, bracelets on her wrists and 
a flat girdle round her waist A medallion on the railing of Sanchi ; 
a centaur and a centauress carrying a woman and a man respectively. 
A circular terracotta plaque no 2350 found at Mathura ; a galloping 
Kinnara (Cimmerian = Cen-Tauri = of Sarmatia = Gandarae = Gandharva. 
Cen Tauries used to ride so fast on their horses, the man and his 
horse were regarded and depicted in Greek myths as the same person 
as the Amerinds when they first saw a Spaniard on his horse back 
believed the horse and its rider to be one being. Kinnara was 
■first depu ttid with the upper part of a man with the lower part of 
a horse ; later in Buddhist paintings and literature, the uppar part of a man 
or woman, the lower part of a bird Kinnaras and Kinnaris were of roman- 
tic disposition, fond of amours, songs and dances. 

Daksha invited his daughter Sathi (Egypt, Sati = Sopdet = Gk, Sothis, 
Sirius, the mistress of the year and the heave n, the goddess of fertility, 
as its heliacal rising, the occasion of great festivity, concided with the 
Nile flood, consort of lightning god Sethi ; Ram-headed Khnum of 
Elephantine had two consorts — Sati and Anuki) to a festival but ignored 
her husband ; with her husband's persuaded consent she went to the 
festival. But as her husband Bhujangadhara Siva (Ophinchus, holding 
a sepent— Serpens in his hand and round his body = Asclepius, the 
healer) was insulted, she committed suicide. Siva hearing this hastened 
to the place with the help of Kalapurusa (Orion) who scattered the 
gods from their gathering (is it a mythical rendering of the astronomical 
phenomenon of an explosion of a supernova), and put her on his head 
and danced furiously, and her body fell into pieces and formed into 
Milky Way and her urine into Akasa Ganga —the Eridanus (Sumerian 
Ariadan = the Hearenly River); her body falling down became Sati, 
.Uma (the earth mother) and Bharata Mata. Thian-Shan and Hindukush 



STELLAR MYTHS -FATI 77 

the f?olstice day on 21st. Christians called it after Mithra- 
worshippers the Nativity of Christ. But the Myateries of 
Mithra was celebrated at the vernal equinox on L'ist March 
-the New Year Day ~Nawrose = when Mithra entered into 
Taurus («=Sem. thauru — Czech, tur— Zd. staora=Skt. sthun, 
sthurin = steer 1 and was celebrated by Mithra worshippers by 
killing the bull and feasting on it. Mitra spies (spas-Ger 
spaheu = Lat. specere- OF espir) the conduct of every one and 
knows even his inner feeling. Spies (spasah) of Mitra- 
Varuna are wise and undeceived - 6. 67. 6. Eimidine 7. 104. 'J. 
which Syana explains as Kimidamin - what now — Lat. quidnunc, 
spy and informer. Ardvi Sura Anahita is the consort of 
Mithra. Anahita purifies semen-virile and the womb, gives 
easy delivery and creates in the breasts of mothers their 
milk and ajEford them their general well being (Yasna 45. '2i. 
Anahita is a buxom maiden with a low heavy girdle, holding 
a gold-embroidered dress, her under-garment being made of 
300 soft beaver skins, who have borne 4 young each ; a 
gold necklace encircles her neck ; she wears square gold 
earrings, and on her head a golden crown with a hundred 



is her head ; her Chin is in Hingula (Susa where the temple of Nana 
IS situated whose image was taken by Assurbanipal in 646 B.C. to 
ureh', Kashmir is her neck One of her eye is the deep blue Bindu 
Sara or Nagahrada=*Sarik-Kul in Pamir from which the river Akshu 
(Oxus) has risen ; the other eye is the Manas Saravara ; the undulating 
waves of the dark Himalayan Range are her long heavy and wavy 
tresses from Kailasa ; Pfmiir is her nose ; right swollen breast is 
Gangotri up to Jalandhara ; her left breast is RSmagiri in Gandhfira ; 
Sind^hu and Ganga are her extended arms ; Ssvitri in Aravalli is her 
heart ; Satpura at the mouth of the Narbada and Parsanath are her 
nates (nitamba) ; Indhyadri (Ajanta) is her mons veneris fjaghana 
upastha = yonipitha) covered with dark-leaved Sala forest as her long 
and dense pubic hairy growth ''the Greeks nicknamed pubic hair as 
myrtle leaf, and the solitary myrtle crimson flower as menstrual bloom ; 
therefore the myrtle was sacred to Aphrodite) ; Godavari is her wat^r 
of life (kama salila), secreted from her vagina (bhaga) ; according to 
Devi Purana her yoni is in Kmiarupa ; Mahadeo Hill is her pelvis 
(palavi cakra) ; Sahyadri and Mahendra are her two thighs and legs ; 
her feet are Kumarika and Lanka. 

Centaurus .Indra = Zd Indra as daeva = demon) is overhead in the sky 
in the southern hemisphere on May 7 at 11 P. M. ; May 22 at 10 P.M. ; 
June 6 at 9 ; June 21 at S ; July 1 at 7-20 P..M Closely SE of it is Ara 
—the fire altar ^Agni) for which Indra-Agni are often together in the 
Vedas. Centaurus appears in sky in December and disappears at the 
end of October ; Ara appears in southern sky in January and 
disappears at the end of December in S\V sky. 

Hydra, the water snake, the Vritra of the Vedas, representing drought, 
appears in SE sky in December, comes overhead in April and dis- 
appears in SW sky in July. N. W. of Hydra is Virgo. A6 in June July 



^78 THB LITBRABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

•stars of 8 rays -the star of Baby. Ishtar, Ishtar is addressed 
:a8 Minuanni, the passionate - Manini. Anahita might be 
-fli development of Babylo — Egyptian nude goddess Anat, riding 
on a lion, thus taming brute force, or coming after Leo, that 
is, representing Virgo, holding a serpent, symbols of passion 
and penis in her one hand, and a sheaf of barley, representmg 
fertility and prosperity in the other— Tannib of Phoenicia ■= 
Anunit of Agad, Innini of Sumer, Anaitis-Aphrodite of 
Armenia, or most likely Aquarius as she symbolized irrigation 
and fertility - Sumerian Bau - Gula, (Av. 5. 13. bUru-Gtila), 
in seals a seated goodess holding sheaves of corn to bless 
wedded love, and as a goddess of desire, she is nude with a pubic 
dark triangle and pronounced vulva. Kassite Dakash, Suriyas 
and Maruttaka-Daksha, Surya, and Marutah representing the 
fiky, and the sun and Mars. Daksha Prajapati begat Kasyapa 
(Cassiopei is overhead in the sky in Nov and Dec), Kasyapa 
married Kadru (Cepheus) who became the mother of Nagas 
•(Draco «" Manasa) and Vinata (Andromeda) who became the 
•mother of Garura (Aquila^ Svena). In an argument with 
Kadru, Vinata became enslaved to Kadru. But Vinata's son 
stole the jar of ambrosia Kumbha — Amphora of Aquarius) 
and released her mother (Andromeda in chains, released 
according to Hellenic legends by Perseus, being attracted 
.by her beauty). According to the Babylonian legends "the 
storm bird Zu stole the tablets of Destiny and sought to view 
in power with the great gods (Altair = Sravana by its brilliance)." 
Thus Aquila took the place, though extra zodiacal, of the place of 
Aquarius which has no first class star of its own. 

•Centaurus and Virgo are very close, Virgo is called Indrani. The 
Riksha ( = Gk. Aractos- Bear = Ursa Major = Sumerian Margidda) set 
high in heaven that shines at night where does it disappear at day 
(Rv. 124.10)? In winter months it is not visible even from North 
India but prominent in N sky in March and April, Its seven bright 
•stars were called by the Romans Septen triones = Seven Ploughing 
Oxen, in the Vedas as Saptarshi ( = Zd. Haptoiringa), in the Puranas 
as Gokula. Seven Rishis (Sat Br 2 1.21) are regarded as seven stars, 
who have been originally bears. Dube = Dhruva = Kratu ; Merak = 
Pulaha ; Phenda = Pulasta ; delta -Atri; Epsilon = Angiras ; Iota = 
Vasista ; Mu = Marichi. The binary Alcor near Vasista is Arundhati. 
'It is said Agni (Ara) was wandering in the sky for a consort. He 
'Seduced the wives of Six Rishis, but could not tempt Arundhati who 
remained steadfast to Vasista. These six wives became the six promi- 
nent stars in Pleiades = Kirtika. 

Prajapati Brahma Vivasvan (Zd Vivanhvant = Gk lason = Jason * Rom 
'Jonus = Ganes a) enamoured of his own daughter Usha (Gk Eos was reg- 
arded as an Aphrodite ; Eos an ever amorous goddess, rosy figurine 
as the rising sun spreads rosy coloured image before it rises. 
According to Appolodorus (1, 27 P Eos was born of Aphro- 



STELLAR MYTHS — KRISHNA 79 

In NE sky appear Hercules and Virgo in March ; they are 
.Krishna and Kadha, Sumerian Gilgamesh and Ishtar ; 
Phoenician Aatarte carved on wag carries a lotus and hears 
on her head cow's horn at Nimrud of 9th century B. C. 
(I. L. N. July 22, 60). Ursae are their catties. Draco (Kalia 
Nag — Manaea) is not visible with the ascendency of Hercules 
in SE sky ; so Krishna is said to have killed Kalai Nag in 
the Yamuna, the bifurcated Milky Way. Cepheus (Egypt. Ihe 
dwarf Be8 — Narada) plays Vina (Ijyra\ neighboring constella- 
tions. Dwarf Negroes were utilized by ancient Egyptian aristo- 
cracy to entertain and amuse them and to guard children. 
Krishna's step brother Bala-Rama carried a plowshare on his 
right shoulder for which he was called Halayudha. In Greek 
legends Bootes tilled his land successfully by inventmg the 
plow which he hitched to his two oxen for which he obtained 
the title of Herdsman = Ox-driver -Arcturus, and for which he 
was placed in the heavens to follow the stars of Ursa which 
resembles a plow. In Rome Ursa Major was called plowshare 

dite and Ares. Sarasvati, SaviU ; to Aphrodite as goddess of 
fertility goat was sacred and she rides on it; Terpon, the phallic 
demon attended on her). Usha changed herself into a doe Rohini 
(Aldebaram in Taurus). Prajapati in order to catch and clasp her 
in his arms followered her as a stag ; (Sat Br 2.1.2S says that Mrigasira 
= Arm. Margazana, Zd Meregu-Fers. Merg, bird = G. Orionis = 
Bellatrix. Likewsse regarded by the Chinese). At this Rudra 
(Sagittarius) being incensed at the father (Orion - Sumer. Uru-Anna, 
the light of heaven) copulating with his own daughter (Rv. X, 61, 6) 
aimed his arrow at him. In the Greek legends, lason (in some version. 
Poseidon) desired union with his sister Demeter (corn mother, from deai, 
the Cretan form of zeias - barley ; earth mother from da, regarded as the 
form of ge =• earth - Thraco-Phrygian earth (Lith. Zeme - Zemlga) goddess 
(Zemelo = Syamala), and Demeter, in order to escape him. ran over 
.thrice plowed field, changing herself into a mare. lason (Poseidon) 
became a horse and copulated with her ; at this Zeus hurled his 
terrible thunderbolt at lason. Artemis 'Sagittarius), a huntress, armed 
with bow. quiver and arrows, aimed her arrows at Orion, a handsome 
hunter, as he attempted to rape Eos = the dawn maiden, the long and 
lingering twilight of the arctic region, and changed Eos into a doe. The 
■Orion, one of the most conspicious constellation in the configuration of 
a giant with a sword in his right uplifted hand, a shield in his left, a 
girdle with three bright stars, rises in E sky A little south of it is Taurus. 
•From his left foot spreads the long serpentine celestial river— Eridanus— 
the Bhagirathi Akasa Ganga. In front of him is Aquarius, in the shape 
of person (in Baby pictures, a nude female) pouring out from an Amphora 
(Kumbha) a stream of water, which flows into the mouth of a Southern 
fish (Piscis Australia = J/a<5yfl-Zd. Misyo^. In Hindu Mythology. 
Matsya (Pisces) and Kurma (Cancer) are representives of Vishnu, that is 
luminaries, Philistines used to worship Da (lord) Gan (I. Sam 2-3). 
Heb. dagon- grain. Phoenicians ascribed to Dagon the invention of 
plow and the production of grain. Dagon became the Amorite war god 



80 THE LITEEABY HISTORy OP ANCIENT INDIA 

and its seven bright stars called septan triones — seven plow- 
ing oxen. The G-reeks regarded Sagitta with five stars as- 
the arrow of Eros as well as of Hercules. Madana (Etruscan 
Mutunus) darted his wanton and playful mischievous golden 
arrow (Sagitta between the branches of the Milky Way — 
Yamuna, and shot with it serpent-bearer Siva (Ophiuchus) to 
enamour him of Gauri (Virgo), all close neighborly constella- 
tions, and Siva in his anger burnt Madana into ashes, and 
became impersonal (Ananga) ^ that is in Dec. Hercules and Virgo 
are not seen. Madana caturdasi is celebrated in the end of 
March with the ascent of Hercules in E sky ; in July when 
Hercules is almost overhead, Krishna's Bhadra Janmastami 
is celebrated. Manasa (Draco — Chin Dragon = Rhea- Egypt. 
Buto) become prominent in NW sky in July and August 
and so worshipped in Sravana, Her prominent star Thubaa 
was regarded by ancient Egyptians as the Polar in 2000 B. G. 
Either Thuban or its adjacent star DAwfie of Ursa Major was 
the Dhruba of the Hindus ; in the marriage ceremony the 
husband pointing this polar star used to say to the bride : Be 
steadfast and unfaltering to the like this Dhruba. 



and a golden mouse was given to him as a votive offering. Mouse is 
is also the carrier of Ganesa iGana + isa = lord = Lord Gana. 

According to B Hrozny in his Ancient History of Western Asia, 
India and Crete, Prague, though only a minority of Indus signs appear 
to be similar to those of the Hittite hieroglyphic writing, and there is 
missing ihe important sign for god, yet he reads the inscription on the 
Mohenjodaro humped bull, Tab 3. 337 as JVa- ska- ska = a seal of the 
temple; on Mackay's Further Excavation Tab. 94. ^{l, S/ii Na-fa~ 
ya = Natya's seal ; on M amulet Tab. 94. 420, Fig. 99, so called 
three-faced sitting Pasupati with buffalo horns headdress and surrounded 
by animals as Ya shi ihie Keu-eya = '\\&:Qi\\'i sacrificial feeforKueya = 
Bab. Kuya = J/. -^//5/%/'= Subarean-Harri moon god Kushush ; M. Unt 
aeta= Harri Unteya, consort of Kushush •, the circumcised stone phallus 
Tab. 14. 4 is his emblem; Harappa 1 Tab 12. 12. Fig. Ill as 
Shi-e - e- iya = a seal amulet of Shia = M Shi = isha - with vulva emblem, 
and tiger as her favarite = lr. goddess of fertility Ashi ; M Tab. 98, 598 
Ushis = Ushas ; M Tab 113. 454 Na-u (Beng. nau = Gk. neos = L navis 
= nava, 6 58.3) Fa -^ae = the ship of Yayae = Yaveh = Yahva 3.1.12, with 
tree emblem. The Cylinder seal of Sharkaisharri 2270, showing Gilgamesh 
holding a flowing waterpot from which a buffalo is drinking water. 

A Hittite seal: Two hawks chasing a hare. H. Kupaposh = Gk. 
Kybele = Kali ; Luite god Shandosh = Gk. Sandos= Etruscan. Tarhon = 
Skt. Santosa. Arunash (as sea god in Boghaskoi inscription ) = Gk. 
Uranos = Varuna Lelvanish = Ishtar, Lavanya, H. Vattaesh = Cretan Vatesh. 
= L. Vates = M. Vaiaya = Skt. Vyasa, in the sense of seer, H. Sheshshiyaa 
= Cretan sheshi «=• Skt. sasya» corn ; Harri Shakush = Skt. Sakuna (vulture) ; 
the owl represented Ishtar and Athena. 

In myths early in spring (vasanta = Slav. Vesna) when Pavana (Rom. 
Favonus) was wafting delightful perfume from the expanding flowers,. 



STELLAR MYTHS— HARA-OAURI 81 

"As a maiden yields to the youth that comes to her with 
an ardent love in a tryst, so all the planets -atioaryu.s- are 
in mutual rapport with the Devi (x. bO, b ; Oscan deivai -hah. 
delves). The sun - Surya- enters into Apo (I, 28. 17) ; the sua 
enters into Aquarius at present on January 20. When the full 
moon (Zd. Mali) was in Apo (Zd. Apam), known also as 
Satabhusa (Zd. Satavaesa), the exhilerating joyous festival of 
Soma (Zd. Haemo) took place as praised in 9th mandala, 
with drinking Soma (Zd. haemo -S. China huo-ma = hemp', 
called Siddhi, Bhang) drinks, dancings and merriments.* 
Apo was Kassite E-Apsu, Sumerian Ea who had a fiah on 
the back of his head Zd. and 2. 35 Apam Napat=Kom. 
Neptunus. Pisces -Trita = Zd. Thrita="Gk. Triton, a merman, 
human down to the waist with a tapering tail. In Babylonia 
the Orion was called Tammuz and Ur — Anna ; in Egypt, Unas, 
Sahu and Horus ; in Puranas, Prajapati as well as Kila- 
Purusha Yama. In Egyptian myths, Horus ferries in heaven 
(Argo Navis-6. 58. 3 Nava) K-the soul of the dead. 
Canopus, the brightest star of Argo Navis, is the steerraan 
Agastya. And ocean voyage to the South is called Agastya 
Yatra, foreboding disease and death. Vivasvan's son (Yama — 
Orion) dwells in remote recesses of the heaven (9, 113. 8). 
Yama is death, and owl (Uluka-Corvus) and pigeon (Kapata 
— Columba) are his messengers (x, 165. 4). Two four eyed 
broad-nosed brindled brown dogs (Sabalas Rv. x 14. lU-Gk. 
Cerberus -=Canis Major, Canis Minor) guard the pathway 

and birds and insects were singing love songs, Gauri as Rati (=• Yt. 17 
Ritis, goddess of fertility = (Gk. Erota) was amorously yearning for uniou 
with Hara (Gk. Ares). Hara remained indifferent and absorbed in con- 
templation of the beauties of nature. But suddenly Hara found that 
passionate urges were disturbing his tranquility, and opening his eyes 
saw Madana^ Roman Mutunus = Cupid (Lat cupere = to desire -Skt. kup, 
kopana to be excited = erect penis) was aiming his flowery shafts against 
him ( that is the beauty of Gauri, fragrance of flowers roused his senses 
which canalized into his involuntary erect penis ; and Hara burnt 
Madana into ashes ; so Madana becoming bodiless became Ananga 
( that is Hara suppressed his erotic urge, Manmatha— churner of the mind, 
stirring up emotions). At this Gauri pleaded for the life of Madana. 
Hara promised that Kama ( love ) will ever remain disembodied ; but only 
will be materialized at the embrace of lovers. Love is essentially, a phychic 
phenomenon, a transcendental attraction of the senses, an emotional 
yearning, an unending striving in the ecstatic participation in the union 
with the beloved ; but during sexual embrace erotic longing becomes 
gratified in the orgastic union with the beloved person. 

In Babylonia, where the water pours from the amphora, instead of a 
fish, herbs and red flowers grow. Amphora represents uterus which has 
the shape of a jar, water vaginal and cervical secretion through sexual 
excitement, herbs— pubic hairy growth, and the red flowers— menses. In 
Hindu marriage and other auspicious ceremonies, a water-filled jar 
covered with ever green mango leaves and red flowers, called 

6 



82 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANOIBNT INDIA 

(Milky Way) of Yama (Orion), Agni is the friend of Yama. 
for by consuming the dead, he sends the purified soul to 
Yama (x, l(j. 9). In the Avesta a four-eyed yellow eared 
dog keeps watch at the Cinvat Bridge (Milky Way). Cerberus 
guards the river Styx made out of flowing tears which has 
to be crossed by the dead. The dog hunts the boar (Lepus) 
and bites the ears of Vrishakapi (Monoceros = unicorn -= 
Ekasringi • unicorn animals have been found in Mohenjodaro 
seals and Chinese (Ohi-Lin) paintings ; x, 86. 4., one horned 
rhinoceros of Assam. At Floralia, a fawn colored dog was 
sacrificed to Sirius. According to the legend Sarama (Gk. 
Hermeia) was in love with his brother (Gk. Hermes as the 
herald of the gods was employed to conduct the shades 
of the dead from the upper into the lower world), and none 
of them would do any work, except erotic dalliance, father 
Prajapati separated them, placing them on the other side of 
a river, promising them however that they woald be united 
once a year if they performed their alotted work faithfully ; 
but as they simply wasted their time at gazing and talking 
with each other over the river, they were placed in the 
heavens as dogs (deva suni). Sirius of Canis Major, was 
however not only regarded as Sothi in Ancient Egypt, 
Sati in Puranas, Tishtrya in Iran, presiding over rain and 
granting ferlility to the fields (Tir Yt), in India as auspicious 
Pushya = 6. 64. 13 Tishya. 

Mangala Kalasi is generally used. In Babylonia. Bau — Gula [Ma -Ma] 
representing Aquarius, riding over a duck, was a great goddess, giver of life 
water and fertility, and wakening desires in man. In Gudea's time the New 
Year began with her. In India Sarasvati riding over a swan (Cygnus, a 
neighborly constellation) is the goddess. In ancient Greek vases Aphrodite 
is found on the swan. In Iran Ardvisura Anahita in the shape of a pretty 
damsel with prominent breasts, is the goddess of generation and all sexual 
life ; even religious prostitution was transferred to her service. In 
Bactria, her cult image had a golden crown with eight rays and hundred 
stars, and one thousand ar_ms which represented the Oxus with a thousand 
canals. In the Vedas as Apah. "The delightful goddess advances in the 
path of luminaries ( 7. 47. 3), in whom the moon is delighted as a 
youth is charmed with a pleasant buxom maiden ; so approach Apo 
and adorn her fragrant herbs (x. 30. 5) 

According to Chinese Folk Lore the sun god had a daughter Chih Nu 
(Lyra = Vega) who excelled by her skill in weaving and her industrial 
habits. To reward her. he had her married to Keng Nu, the herdsman 
(Aquilla) who herded his cattle on the silver stream of heaven ( the 
Milky Way), As soon as they were married^ Chih Nu changed her habits ; 
she forsook her looms and gave herself up to merry making and volup- 
tuous day-dreamings. Thereupon her father decided to separate the 
lovers by the stream aud placed them oh one side of the Milky Way, 
allowing the husband to meet his wife over a bridge of many thousand 
magpies only once a year, on the seventh day of the seventh month which 
is a holiday in China even now. 



ASTRONOMY 

]. Surya (Zd hvare for svar, Lat sol = Gk. helioa from 
seiros, hot and scorchinf^ ; Lett, saul -Lith, saule) shines forth 
from the lap of the dawns, 7.63.3. and as a ruddy bird 6,J7,3 
traverses the space. 



1. Our sun had a dark blue dwarf companion, as there are about 
10 million binaries in our galaxy. Binaries constitute more than one- 
fifth of all stars. Our sun has about 35 p. c. hydrog;en. The rest of 
the hydrogen has been converted into helium. This conversion of 
hydrogen into helium is the source of light and heat of the sun. The 
interior of the sun has about 20 million C. temperature. Only 1 p. c. 
of the solar material consists of elements of heavy weight of magnesium, 
alluminium, sillicon. iron, gold, uranium etc. While the earth consists 
of more of heavy elements. So our earth could not have originated 
from the solar materials. But the dark blue dwarf by condensation 
and contraction became the reservoir of an immense heat, about 
30D00000}°C. In this temperature, all manners of nuclear transmission 
occur with great rapidity. The hydrogen-converted helium becomes 
transmutted into elements of heavy atomic weight as silicon, iron, lead, 
uranium etc., like that of the earth and other planets. Thus becoming 
a supernova, it exploded. About 90 p. c of the gas was hurled 
rapidly with tremendons force into a great distance where it became 
a white dwarf by gradual condensation. During the last dying 
stages of explosion, about 10 p. c. of the puffed out clouds of gas 
remained within the gravitational pull of the sun by the force of 
recoils This cloud of gas spread out around the sun, and took the 
form of rotating circular disk. As the condensed disk began to assume 
axial rotation, it broke up into chunks and blobs. The chunks 
began to circle round the sun as planets, and blobs round the chunks 
as planetary moons. The earth is older than 2^ billion ye:ir3. .According 
to Hindu Astronomy the earth is 1, 922. 449, 048 years old. From the 
lead contents of uranite of Manitoba, an archaean orogenic belt, 1950 
million years can be calculated. The earth was called Go Prithivi, 
Zd. Gaus, Ge or Geia of the Greeks, Umma of the IChattis, Geb, Mi of 
the Egyptians, Maa-Ema of the Finno-Ugrians, Amba of the Tamils, 
Amba and Ambika of the Hindus. 

The energy generated in the sun and the stars is caused by the 
gradual transformation of hydrogen into helium. The nuclear trans- 
formation of hydrogen into helium is known to set free 2.10"^' 
calories for each hydrogen atom utilized. As sun liberates iO-^ 
calories per second, it consumes 5" 10^"^ atoms =■ 803 million tons of 
hydrogen per second - 2' lO^^ tons ; llO^^/siO^ - 1 I4'l0i*' sec^S'lO^o 
years. For 9 billion years the sun might have used 20 p c. of its 
hydrogen. It is known that co.'mic matter contains 55% hydrogen. 44% 
helium and 1% other elements. Radioactive Thorium and Uranium 238 
are not markedly less on the earth than other heavy elements 



84 THE LITEEARr HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

2. Soma (Sin ; En-Zu- Amsu ; Egypt Chan8u = Candra ; 
Ijit hy Menu, Lett. Mene, masculine god, married to the sun 
which is feminine j Sin was the Bab, god of agriculture) 



like Bismuth, Mercury, Gold. The half-life period of Thorium and 
Uraniam 238 is 14 billion and 4^ billion years respectably. The fission- 
able isotope of Uranium 235, constitutes only 7% of the main common 
isotope and its half life is 09 billion years. Since the amount of the 
fissionable Uranium 235 is cut in half in every 0'9 bilUon years, it 
must have taken 7 such periods = 6 billion years to bring it down 
to its present low level existence on the earth. 

The sun = Snrya is no doubt the source of all light, energy, heat, 
life and colors. No chlorophyl and carbo-hydrate formation is 
possible without solar rays. Even coal is nothing but fossilized plant. 
The sun is the exciter and stimulant of all things- Savitri, Rv. 2,38,6. 

Dyavakshama, Dyavabhumi, Rodosi, Dyava-prthivi, are the 
Heaven and the Earth. They are the variegated Cow and the Bull 
with excellent semen (rain) : Dhenum ca prshnim vrishabham 
suretasam, 1, 160 3. Widely capacions pair, mighty that never 
fail— Father and Mother protect all creations : uruvya casa mahini 
asushcata pita mata ca bhuvanani rakshatah, 1, 160. 2. 

The Earth's crust was a cold mixture of iron and rock and stayed 
that way for about a billion year, Gradually radio active uranium, 
thorium and the potassium in the crust gave off enough heat to 
melt the iron which flowed into the interior to form the Earth's 
core, the lighter floated to the surface. This circulation caused the 
crust to winkle, causing the land masses to shift and slowing the Earth's 
spin on its axis. Thus days are getting longer by about one second in 
every 200,003 years. Earth's inner core with a radius of 800 miles is 
solid with density 18 times that of water, made of iron, nickel and 
possibly some other denser materials ; the rest of the central core 
extending to 2,200 miles, from the centre consists of a liquid form 
of silicate rock, about 1 1 times the density of water. The Earth is 
gradually slowing at a rate that the length of the day is increased 
about Q. 01 second in a century. In the spring the earth rotates at 
a slower than the average rate. In the autumn it rotates a little more 
quickly than usual. As a result, the clocks in the autumn are about 
0. 06 second ahead of what they are in the spring. 

The interaction between the Earth and the Moon is markedly 
displayed in the phenomenon of the tidal wave, raised by the Moon's 
attraction on the oceans of the earth. Tidal waves running around 
and around our globe encounter resistance in the form of the conti- 
nents that stand in the way. Tidal frictions will lengthen the day 
by about T15W ^^ ^ second for century and will increase the length 
of the month by f of a second per century, besides widening the 
distance between the Earth and the Moon by five inches per year. 
Dividing the present distance of the moon of 239,000 miles from 
the earth by the rate of recession of 5 inches per year, it can be 
calculated that about 4 billion years ago the queen of the night was in 
close embrace with the earth, perhaps in the Pacific region, and both o£ 
them rotated together in 7 hour's time. 



A8TA0N0MT— SOMA — THE MOON 85 

assumes the the rays of the sun for his robe (i.e. the moon- 
beams are the reflected light of the sun), sjjinning in his 
movements, 9. 86. 32. All the five ancient planets, with the sun 
and the moon, 7 luminaries — adityas and 12 zodiac constellations 
^ere known even in Rik Vedic period. 



2. The Moon is the most beautiful object of the night. Soma 
married 27 star daughters iTara , in the naked eye about 2000 stars 
are visible in a clear night) of Daksha (the sky god/, 
But as be lingered longer in the mansion of Rohini I'Pltiadcs) ; 
according to the Chinese there are 2i siou = star mansions = groups of 
stars , actually the moon circles round the earth in 29 d, 12 h, 
44m, 2-78 s, and there are 12-37 synodic months., but as during 
this time the earth has moved about 30° in its orbu, the true or 
sideral month measured with respect to the stars is 27 d, 7 h, 43 m, 
11-57 s). other daughters provoked by envy and zealosy. complained 
against the favoritism of Soma for Rohini. Daksha in anger cursed 
Soma with consumption. But soma explained that he was ordained 
to make this monthly round. Daksha said that consumption will not 
aflfect his health ; he will ever remain beautiful and charming ; but he 
could no longer remove his consumption spots ; but coming to Rv. 1. 24-9 
Satabhisaj = Zd. Satavesa ('who has a hundred remedies = Aquarius), he 
becomes the full moon again, and his praises will be sung, and 
his worship made ; Soma was supposed as reigning over the entire 
universe fsomain visvasya bhuvansya r^jase Rv. 9. 86. 36). Atri seems 
to be the personification of the New Moon. In 5. 40, 5 when 
the sun was covered with darkness by Svarbhanu (Ketu = Sumer-Kittu) 
Atri, coming out of his dark cave, rescued the sun. A solar eclipse is 
only possible at the time of the new moon. Kuhu (in Polynesia 
the next day after the new moon is called I^uu). Kali is the 
invisible New Moon. Sinivali was the growing crescent n:oon 
(quarter moon) ; Gungu the half- moon ; Anumati is the night (Hth) 
before the full moon Raka = Poly raka, raa = Gk Tyche = Rom 
Fortuna on a moving rudder, the erratic goddess of love and prosperity 
is the Full Moon. The fierce heating of the lunar surface rocks by day 
and the cooling by night must lead to an alternate contraction and 
expansion which cause small bits of rocks to flake away from the surface. 
These particles of dust tend to work their way to th.^ lower parts of the 
moon where they have accumulated as gigantic drifts that cover the 
underlying craters. Some craters might have been caused by the impact 
of meteorites. But meteorites could not usually create only circular 
craters which are usuilly seen on the lunar surface. The solar rays 
falling upon this fine white dust envelope over the lunar surface make 
•the refracted light so pretty of the lunar beams. The mjon lacks oxygen, 
water ; temperature flactuates daily between — 151° and 100 C = -240° to 
212°F. Candra=Gk kandaros (bright). 

In the late Roman Egyptian Marble Plaque there are two circles of 
12 mansions each, the outer circles containing the signs of the Greek 
Zodiac and the inner the corresponding signs of the Egyptian Zodiac, 
Aries = cat ; Taurus = jackal ; Gemini - serpent ; Cancer = scarab ; Leo - 
ass ; Virgo = lion ; Libra = goat ; Scorpio -= cow ; Sagittarius - falcon ; 
•Capricorn = baboon ; Aquarius = ibis ; Pisces = crocodile. 



86 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

3. Suparna x, 86, 19; 1, 10 ^ 11, now called Budha, is 
the Baby Nebo, the scribe of the gods, Hermes of the Greeks, 
Mercury of the Eomans, the messenger of the gods, was tha 
bird of Vishnu as it quickly moves round the sun. 

4. Vena (Venant Yasb : Sukra) "with the wings of gold, 
the messenger of Varuna (Uranos, the sky god), the bird flies of 
the region of Yama ( Perseus), x, 123. 6 •, the Vena is a swift 
mover, x, 123.8. and wanders in high places, x, 123.7. 

When the Mercury is between the Earth and the sun, the 
light of the sun falls only on the side away from us and we 
see only a dark ball across the solar disk. When the Mercury is 
in other positions, the part we see illuminated may range from a 
thin crescent like the wing of a bird to almost a full circle. 
Mercury is the smallest, speediest and most elusive of the planets. 
It is never seen except occasionally near the horizon just after 
sun set or sun rise, and even then it is frequently dimmed or 
obscured by the haze and mists near the horizon. It circles round 
the sun in 88 days at the speed of 30 miles a second. It has 
no satelite of its own, though it has the size of our moon. 
Mercury presents the same face to the sun, being held by its 
gravitational grip, as the moon presents the same face to the earth. 
The side, perpetually baked by the fierce sun, has lost its water 
and atmosphere ; if there is any river, it is of molten lead. The 
elliptic in which Mercury moves is more flattened than the orbit 
of any other planet which proves the Relativity Theory. Now called Budha 
after Teut. Odin= Ang-Sax Wodan = Rv. Zd Vata = Rom Ventis = Ger 
Wut, furious storm wind, after whom Wednesday has been named. 

Vena is the Venus planet ; Hathor, goddess of love and beauty 
of the Egyptians ; Freya, goddess of love of the Anglo-Saxons, and 
after whom Fregas daeg = Fryday has been named ; Al-lat or Al 
Ouzza, Athtar, Ishtar of the Semites, daughter of Sin (Moon) as the 
phases of the Venus resemble those of the moon ; as the morning 
star Dilhat, evening star = Zib Assyr. Shimti, Ashima=Pur. Asima ; as a 
morning star Anat\ she is goddess of war, and as evening star, 
goddess of love ; Phosphorus or Lucifer, as the morning star, Hesperus 
as evening star of the Greeks ; the identity of the two bodies is 
attributed to Pythagoras in sixth century B. C. ; in Lith myths as 
Devo sunelei— sons of the heaven, the morriing and evening star 
— Asvinau as Venus is situated between the Earth and the sun ; 
it occasionally passes over the face of the sun just as Mercury 
does, the diameter of Venus being only about 300 miles less than 
that of Earth. The transits of Venus take place at regular intervals 
of just over eight years. Like our Moon, the Venus exhibits different 
phases. It is at its greatest distance from the Earth when full, but 
its greatest brilliancy occurs at about 36 days before and after it is 
new when its appearance at the telescope is like that of 5 days old 
crescent moon. When the Venus is just in the centre above the 
crescent moon, it is the sacred Id of the Islamis. The Veuns completes its 
revolution in 225 days, but takes 20 days to rotate on her axis 
at the rate of 26 miles a second. What has slowed down the 



ASTRONOMY— MARUTAH — MARS 87 

5. Marutah- red colored, wander over the sky. 8, 7.7, Mara. 



rotation ? It may be the sun exerts a huge tidal influence on the 
shifting dust of the Venus ; or Mercury may once been a satt-lite of 
Venus. The intense heat of the sun causes small particles to flake 
off the Venus as in the case of the moon, and it appears that 
great clouds of these particles rise upwards in the carbon dioxide 
atmosphere and are then convicted round the dark side of the 
planet. The Venus shines with dazzling lusture and it has the charac- 
teristic of the light scattered from tine white dust It is as even- 
ing star for six months, and brightest in the later two months, and 
morning star in otlier months The temperature of the Venus flactuates 
daily between- 25° and 110°C = - 13° to 230° F. 

Marutah are red-colored and wander over the sky (8 7 7.) ; 
Ud u tye antnapsavns citrd ydmebhir Irate vdsr,j nd/ii shnufta divah 
= the planet Mais, the Roman god of war (called Marti, Martis, 
Gk. Ares, Amorite Marduk, ancient form Martu, Marut-ukku - 
Kassite Maruttas, Rv. 5.46:2 Sardha Mirutah (the troop of Maruts) 
is the Umbrian Serpo Martio. Mars is at a greater distance than 
the Earth from the sun. Mars revolves round the sun in 687 days 
at the speed 715 miles a second, which is about l\ miles a second 
slower than the earth. It rotates over a tilted 23^° at 24h, 37m. 
But the time from one opposition to the next when Mars is 
suitably situated for observation is 780 days when tne Earth over- 
takes it and passes it. The most favourable condition occurs every 
15th year. The red disk of Mars is visible in the western sky 
about half of the year, and as a morning star in the rest rising 
about three hours before the sun rise. Mars has two tiny moons — 
Phobos and Deimos. two of the five sons of war god .Mars. 
Phobos, less than 20 miles in diameter races round Mars thrice 
a day, changing from new moons to full moons. Deimos remains 
about the horizon of Mars for nearly 3 days without setting at all, 
and during that time it goes through all its phases from new to 
full moon twice over. No oxygen can be detected on Mars. Green 
markings change due to growth and decay of plants, similar to 
rock lichens which require little moisture and survive in low 
temperature. The temperature of Mars varies daily between— 69° and 
2y°C = - 92° to 84°F. Now called Maugala. 

In May-June when Sagittarius appears in SE sky. Virgo is in the 
centre of the ecliptic, that is, overhead, slightly in the south, and 
Gemini in the N\V sky. Vakdevi (Virgo) rights for people and 
stretches the bow of Rudra 'x, 125 6). So the queen of tlie heaven 
(Devi Ristri), is not only in eternal copulation iGemnii=Jug.\la - 
jugalis, Roman god of engagement, Mithutia) with Vrisha Vnhana 
Rudra, they have two sons. Kartika = Pleiades, and another Vermillion 
hued Ganesa, as Aldebaran for its reddish color is called Rohini, 
and the two horns of the bull seen upside down becomes the tusks of an 
elephant. So the queen of the heaven is not only goddess of love 
and fertility (Preml = Roman. Prema presided over coition . in Babylonia, 
the Istar is depicted as armed with bow, and arrows, and protecting and 
fighting for her devotees, sometimes riding over a lion, sometimes one 
ot her feet being placed on the bead of a prisoner of war. 



88 THE LITEBART HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDI A 

6. Brihaspati = Jupiter, shines brightly golden ruddy 
coloured light, 5, 43. 12. 

7. Sakuna (9, 86 11) = Saturn with his golden wings hastens, 
the envoy of Varana to the region of Yama, x, 123.6. 

Jupiter appears as a bright flattened disk, crossed by series of 
irregular shaped dark greyish belts with a large red spot between the 
belts south of its equator. It has eleven moons. Because Jupiter 
shines in bright silvery lustre, unsurpassed by any other than the Venus, 
and it can appear at any part of night and when near opposition as a 
spectacular beacon it dominates the midninght heaven, it was called 
Deva-guru - the leader of the luminaries. Brikaspaii is bright {i, 190.1) 
like a meteor (Rv. x, 68. 11 Ulkam -= Rom. Vulkan). Five to ten 
baby planets like Ceres were formed between the orbits of Mars and 
Jupiter. Two of them happened to collide, causing numerous frag- 
ments ; gradually coUissions became more frequent until thousands and 
thousands of asteroids, rotating in 3 to 9 years, tiny flying mountains, 
known to exist in this region, were formed. The fireoalls that flash 
through the earth's atmosphere and drop as meteorites, are but the 
smallest numbers of the huge family of fragments, created in this 
asteroid ring. Conical meteorite stone was worsh'pped in Phoenicia as 
Baetyla, generating symbol of Baal, in Mecca as Kabba black stone, 
Inspite of its great bulk Jupiter spins on its axis in 9 h, 55 m. at the 
rate of 8.1 miles per second. But it takes 11,86 years for Jupiter to 
finish a trip round the sun on its long orbit, Baraha Mihira mentions 
that one year of Brihaspati was almost equal to our 12 years. 

7. Sakuna is now called Sani, Roman Sater, Saturn, To the naked 
eye. Saturn shines with a dull straw-yellow light. Saturn wears golden- 
hued triple rings, composed of millions of tiny particles that are the 
remnants of a satelite which approached too close and was shattered 
into fragments. Saturn has also nine moons. It takes Saturn 29 5 
years to spin round the sun. Saturn was regarded by the Romans as the 
agriculture and harvest god. He was represented as an old man with 
a sickle for reaping harvest. 17-21 December commenced Saturnalia 
with great rejoicings. From 19-21 began the festival of Opalia, in 
honor of Ops (opulence), wife of Saturn, with great merriments, sexual 
license and orgies. On Dec. 22 one received gifts of terracotta dolls and 
toys (Sigilla), and called Sigillaria. On 25 Mithra festival began with 
feasts, drinking and debauchery, as the birthday of the unconquering 
sun which marked the lengthening of the days. Then commenced the 
festival of Janus (Ganesa). Kalendae Januarii, when boys and girls 
received gifts on this New Year Day, called Juvenilia and everyone 
exchanged gifts. Because Saturn (Baby. Ninurta) was the last of the 
planets known to the ancients, other planets Uranus, Neptune and 
Pluto being only discovered with telescope, Saturn was called by the 
AngloSaxous. Old Father Time, bringing sickness and distress, la 
Babylonia Saturn was represented by Ninib, regarded as god of 
pestilence. Saturn with its rings and satelites is 25. 33 times as bulky 
as the earth. The mass of the system is 1/3497. 64 as great as that of 
the sun and not 1/3501. 6 as now reckoned. 

The sun enters into Gemini on May 22 and remains up to June 21. 



ASTRONAMT— ZJDIACS 89 

Zodiacs = Dvadasa8ya Rituiu 7. 103. 9 •= 12 cyclic yearly 
order. 1. Asvinau 8.2.14 represents the first of the zodiac cons- 
tellation Aries, Mesham niahaya Rv. 1.52.1 = Kam. 

Adltyas (2. 27. l) = Zd. Amesha Spenta = Lith. svente-Skt. svanta- 
auspicious luminaries, particularly planets. Mitra==Mithra = Sumerian 
Issaru (Isvara) = tl)e vernal sun; Varuna = Moon; Aryaman = Keltic 
Eremon = Mars; Bhaga = Slav. Bogu = Gk. Bagaios = Lith. Bagatos - Zd. 
Bagha=Arm Bhaga-van = Jupiter ; Tuvi-Jiti (power-horn -Saturn - 
Babyl Kaivanu ; Daksha = ZJ. Asa Vahista = Vasista - Goth hatista- 
best) = Starry Firmament, including Mercury; .Anca = Venus, Cal»iri- 
Kabeiri, seven planets, worshipped by th? Phoenicians" Gk- Kaheiroi, 
certain beneficient deities = Kubera, god of Wealth. 

1. The brightest stars of Aries— Hamal and Sheratan are still called 
in India Asvinau, and as they become promment in the NID sky early 
in the evening, the month is called Asvina, On May, 15. Aries 
appears in the morning sky at 4. 30. The sun enters into Aries on 
March 22 and remains within it upto April 20 ; so remains invisible 
during this period, Amum = Amon = Amen Ra, the chief of the 
Egyptian pantheon of Thebes was either ram-headcd or ram was 
sacrificed in his honor ; the Veda is still recited with Om in the beginning 
in his honor. In Babylonia, the first of the year was ciUed Sam, because 
a lamb was sacrificed to celebrate the New Year. The name Asvinau 
might have originated from Babylonian Sivanu, meaning Pair or 
Twins, name of the third month, representing the constellation 
Gemini. According to Gk. myths. Dioskouroi which represented 
Gemini, like the Asvins. used to ride on white horses (leokopoloi). 
"You (Asvinau* filled from the hoof of your vigorous steed, as if 
from a cask, a hundred jirs of wine" 1. 116.7. Pegasus is i\\Q yiying 
winged korse\ just west _pf Aries. And at the foot of Pegasus is the 
Amphora of Aquarius (Aph = U3ha = Savitri = Sarasvati). Thus Asvins 
on his flying horse followed Ushas (8. 5. 2), sometimes encouraged by 
Savitri (1. 34 10; = Subigus, Roman god of wedding night. 

Thy great birth, O horse, is to be glorified ; for thou hast the 
wings of an eagle and the limbs of the deer (1, 163-1). It seems 
with the entry of the sun into Aries, early in the spring, the New 
Year commenced, and the praises of Asvins were sung in a feastal 
mood. Asinus (ass) was the totem of Roman Asinius gens. In Lithuanian 
mytholo2y Devo sunelei (Lith. Goth sunus = Russ. suin - Ger sohn = Skt. 
sunue = God's sons, the morning and evening starst represented the Venus. 
Asvins are invoked morning and evening, rf. 22-14 ; x, .■)9. 1 ; x, 140-4. 

Vedanga Jyotisha reckons the luni-solar year of 366 days ; Surya 
Siddhanta of 365.25875 days which is larger than the mean value of 
the tropical yearly .01614 days. Lunation is the period taken by the 
moon to pass from one conjunction with the sun 'new moon) to the next 
conjunction. This is found to be variable from 29-3055d to 29 S228d, 
mean 9 530588. Lunar year of 12 lunations is 354-3671d = 354d 8h 48m 
37s, falling short of the solar year by 10.875 Id. The solar year is the 
period in which the sun moves from the vernal equinox to the vernal 
equinox again 365-2 425d = 365d 5h 48m 497s = 365^d, causing a 
• difference of additional 11 minutes, making an error of one day in 3300 



90 THE LITERAET HISTOBY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

2. Brishava~l,118.18 ; Zd. Gaush is the Taurus. It is 
the vernal equinoctial Apis Bull of the Egyptians, which is 
depicted as equally black and white, the Golden Calf (Ex 3'i). 

3. Yama and Yami (x.lO) = Gemini (Fr. ]'umeau = Skt 
yamak), meaning twins ; or pairs like Sumerian Sivanu, Egyptian 
wind god Shu with his consort Tefnut, Jugala ( Rom. Jugalis 
leads the courting to engagement ) Mithuna, Gk. Dioscuri, 
Eoman Liber and Libera, Yaw-Anat, Kama (Gk. Komas — Eom 
Comus, another name of Erosl-Eati (Gk. Erato), Hara (Gk. 
Aresl-Parvati (Pertunda presiding over first coition), Uma (in 
Khatti votive relief at Boghaskeai, there is a broad hipped 
female with a child called Umma, Sabaean Umma=-mother)-- 
Mahesvara in eternal copulation as Ardha-Narisvara. 

years. In Rv 1.155 6 Vishnu (the Sun) like a rounded wheel sets in 
swift motion 4 (vernal equinox to summer solstice ; s s to antumnal 
equinox; ae to winter solstice; ws to ve) 90 (days) = 560 days, nearly 
65- days short. Egyptian year was of 365d divided into 12 months of 
30 days each ; 5 days extra — epagomena — were dedicated as a new year 
festival at the heliacal rising of the Sirius— Sothi when the Nile blood 
commenced. But a little more than ^d shortage in a year has a 
cummalative effect in changing the festival days as seasons ; so there was 
a Sothic cycle period in every 1461 years as the Lunar Cycle in 19 years. 
Ribhus slumbering for 12 days (dvadasa dyun) with the sun directed 
the streams, and waters filled the low lands, and fields became fertile 
and plants occupied arid lands (4.33.7), and then awakened by the dog 
(Svanam : l,l6l,13 = Cannis Major of whom Sirius is the brightest star). 
This intercalary 12 jays of Ribhus may be appropriate in a leap 
lunisolar year. That the Ribhus had connection with the moon may 
be inferred by his making drinking chalice (the moon as the amrita 
food) for the Asuras (Rv. l,110 3i. The Babylonian began the day at 
the sunrise, which the Hindus perhaps learnt from them ; the Jews and 
the Greeks at the sun set ; the Egyptians , and the Romans at midnight. 

Zeus raped Europa in the form of a bull, and raised the bull to the sky. 
It is the Baby. Ninib, and Nandi Brisha of the Hindus, depicted in a 
Mahenjodaro seal. Babylonian, Median, and Susan New Year took place 
like the Persian Nowrose on the spring equinox = Slav. Vesna, goddess of 
the springs Vasanta. Atharva Vtda (19. 1. 3) mentions that New Year 
with Krittika (Pleiades in Taurus), which took place 2000 years ago on 
March 21. The sun enters into Taurus on April 21 and remains 
therein up to May 21. This sun's entry was symbolized by Mithra 
killing a bull, and feasting on it as a new year's festival, as the bull 
becomes invisible. The Hindu New Year also begins on that day and 
the month is called Baislka after the Bisaka star-Zuben el Genubi 
- in Libra. The important star groups in Tauru? are Pleiades 
(Kirticka, called also Matrika after Polynesian Matariki), and 
Aldebaran (Rohini), called also Hyades, according to Greek legends 
seven nymphs, according to the Hindus, wives of seven Rishis who 
were seduced by Agni. 

In Babylonia huge stone bulls, sometimes winged (representing also 
Aquila; and human-headed ; at Susa and Persepolis bull beads on 



ASTRONOMY — MANDUKA— OAKCER 91 

4. Manduka is sometimes hidden in rains though 
Adviiryus ( planets ) shine throur![hout 12 monthly orders, 
Rv. 7.103. 8-9. Manduka was called in Bahylonia Turtle 
(Pulnkka). in Ecfypt Scarabr-.eus Beetle ; in Puranas qb Kurina 
(turtle) ; Karkata = crab = Cancer. 

5. Pitris are situated in the centre of the he&ven ; Pitris 
are the «uiding spirit of Macrha (X. 15. 14i. the Re^uluH, the 
brightest star in Leo, Ir. Miyan, the centre of Kex, Babylonian 
Sharru, the King. 

the capitals of columns like those of Asokan pillars. And as the 
Scorpio rises in the SE sky, after its brilliant star Aiitares. it called 
JeshtA, the month is called Jaistha ; other stars are Anuradh i in tha 
head, and Mula in the tail. 

The rising in the evening of the naked eye cluster of Pleiades 
heralded in Babylonia the coming of the winter solstice of a year of 365 
days in 700 B-C when the intersection of the ecliptic with the celestial 
equator was in Aries. The Chinese cycle of 19 years of 365} days to 
which 235 lunar synodic months of 29.53 days— the average between 
successive new and full moons. 

Life appeared on the earth when its atmosphere, containing as at 
present a mi.^ture of o.Kygen, nitrogen and carbon, had in addiii >n also 
methanes, ammonia and hydrogen as found in the atmosphere of Jupiter 
and Saturn. Under the influence of strong solar radiation beating down 
on the top of this primitive atmosphere, amino-acids— glycine, alanines — 
were formed —complex organic compound of protein chain— the basic 
of life's growth. 

Manduka is sometimes hidden in rains though Advaryus (planets) 
shine throughout 12 monthly orders (7. 103, S-9 1. Manduka w.is called 
in Babylonia Turtle (PuUikku), in Egypt, Scarabaeus Beetle ; in 
Puranas as Kurma ; Karkata = Crab => Cancer The sun enters into 
Cancer on June 21, and stays there up to July 21, the day of summer 
solstice (Ratha Yitra). Cancer has no bright star except the Bee -Hive 
= Praespe called Pushya. 

As it coincides with the appearance of Sagittarius and its bris;ht 
star group is called Kaus Australis = Asara, the month is known as .Asara. 

The Hindus still make their offerings to the Pitris when the new 
moon is in Leo. - Baby Khumbaba = Ch Horse = . Arab. Gazelle. Leo is 
the Man-Lion of the Khattis, Zd Nairyo Sangha which became 
Nara-Simha of the Hindus; it is the Sphinix of the Egyptians. The 
sun stays in Leo = Simha (Tib. Singe) from July 24 upto .August 23. 

At this time Aquarius appears in E sky. .As Aquarius has ^no 
brilliant star, its place is taken by Aquila = Svena = Zl Svena Vast 
4. 1 = the vulture with outstreched wings of the Babylonians and Hawk of 
the Egyptians = Garuda of the Hindus = the double headed Jlying eagle 
of the °Khattis. From its brilliant star Altair, called i^rfivanl, the 
month is called Sravana. 

Because the Lion and Eagle are in opposite colure in this Soli- 
lunar system, the winged lion = Griffin statues in Babylonia are common. 



92 THE LITEEART HISTOET OP ANCIENT INDIA 

6. Rastri (X,125\ the Queea of the Heaven = Ishtar of 
Babylonia. Isis, called also Maat of Egypt, Ma or Uma of the 
Khattia, is the Virgo, riding over Leo. Magnamater of the 
Phrygians having lions as her carrier — Simharatha Isa = Durga 
of the Hindus. Egyptian goddess of justice held on her head the 
scales to weigh the souls of departed men in the judgemeat 
hall of Osiris. The sun enters into Libra on Sept 22, the 
equinoctial point v^hen days and nights are of equal length. 
Libra is the extension of the Virgo and the ancient Egyptian 
rightly depicted Isis Maat with a scale on her head. It is 
called now Tula = Balance. 

The sun enters into Virgo on August 24 and stays within iL up to 
September 22. At this time Sagittarius is overhead. 

Pisces (Mina) rises in the eastern sky after its bright star Formalhaut 
called Bhadrapada, the month is called Bhadra. 

Egyptian Maat, goddess of Justice, held on her head to the scales to 
weigh the souls of departed men in the judgment hall of Qsiris. The 
sun enters into Libra on Sept 22, the equinoctial point when the day 
and night are of equal length. Libra is the extension of Virgo, and the 
ancient Eayptian rightly depicted Isis Maat with a scale on her head ; 
it is called Tula in India. 

The sun enters into Scorpio on Oct. 2+ and remains therein up to 
Nov 22. In Scorpio there is a bright star called Antares = the rival of Ares 
= Mars. called Jesta, from whose appearance in the SE sky, the month is 
called Jaistha. As at that time Gemini ^Mithuna) appears in NE sky, 
it is Agrayana, the New Year month. 

The sua enters into Sagittarius on Nov. 23 and remains there up to 
Dec. 22. At that time rises in NE sky Taurus. Taurus has bright star groups 
Pleiades (Kirtika) and Aldebaran. For the appearance of Kirtika, the 
month is called Kartika. 

The Sumerian goddess of love has been found in a baked clay 
relief. She is a nude half-smiling lovely maiden with firm globular 
breasts, fine nose and earrings. She is winged with snake headdress and 
birds' feet and is standing upon two reclining lions. In her hands she 
holds two rods There are two standing owls by the sides of the lions 
(ILN June 13, 1936). Anahita_has a bundle of rods (Zd. baresman = 
Skt. barhis) in her hands. 'k.^\\\\^ Madhu (OSlav medu =» Kelt, med = 
O Ger. metu = Gk. methyj Ka^^ whose whip is honeyed (Av. 9. 1). 
Artemis had owls in her temple ; and youths were flogged on their 
buttocks to rouse their sexual ardor and libido. Asvins are also madhu- 
kasa. 

Twelve are the fellies (pradhyas = months), three are the naves 
(nabhyani = seasons), 360 are the spokes (sakam = days) of the the year 
(cakram 1.164.48). Savilri shines with the golden rays of the morning 
sun (Sfirya rasmir harikesah-X, 139.1). By sun's rays, Soma juice is 
fremented ; hence the marriage of Snrya's daughter with Soma IX. 1.6. 
Savitri is the progenitor of the world (bhuvanasya prajipatih 4.53.2). 
Multi colored Gandharva (Zd Ganderwa Yt 5.37 ; Gk Iris, formed by 
the refraction of and reflection of sun rays or moon beams falling on 



ASTRONOMY— VISVARUPA- SCORPIO 98" 

8. Visvarupa is three-headed and seven-rayed (tri-airsha- 
nam and sapta-rasmin X, 8.8), now Brichika= Scorpio. 

water drops — apsaras = apsva apyayosha X, 10,4 --water nymphs > is the 
measurer of airs mid space X, 139 5. Apsaras holding on her lap as a 
wife supports in high heaven her lover who in the pleasant y(jni moves 
pleasantly = apsara jaram upasishmiyana yosha bibharti parame vyoman 
carat priyashya yonishu priyah san X. 123 5. Water nymphs are found 
in Keltic, Slav and FU myths. Asvin's car, driven by asses 1.1 16 7) had 
three wheels, as one of the wheels was lost in a race when coming to 
the wedding of Snrya and Soma X, 8o.l5, In Lilh. myths, the moon 
was punished by Perkunes = Parjanya, the storm and thunder god, for 
deserting his wife, the sun, and wedding her youthful daughter, Devo 
dukryte (god*s daughter) who asks her mother where to wash away her 
blood stained garment (defloration marks) who reprimands her for 
her meselliance. 

The densities of planets : Mercury 5 ; Venus 4.4 ; Earth 4.4 ; Mars 
3.96 ; Moon 3.3. This variation can be explained by a diflference in 
the iron content of these bodies and the silicate that has evaporated. A 
planet that has lost much of its silicate would have proportional more 
iron than one what has lost less. If the Earth was liquid we would 
expect less iron and less silica in its outer parts. Mars which closely 
resembles the Earth contains 30 p.c. of iron and nickle weight* and 
the composition of Mars is nearly uniform through. That means that 
Mars was never molten. If there is iron in the mantle of the Earth, 
it may be sifting about 50,000 tons every second to the core. Thus it 
would take 500-1000 million years to form the metalic core of the 
Earth. And this is changing the moment of inertia of the Earth. 
That is the Earth is not speeding up, but slowing. The day is increasing 
in length by about one or two thousands o<" a second per day per century. 
Some say that as water of the ocean being slowly transferred to the 
icecaps of Greenland and Antarctica, this process may account for the 
lengthening of the day. Earth's temperature ranges from— 59' to 60'C. 

Egyptians fixed their year of 365 days. The Egyptian day hegan at 
dawn at a later period, the Babylonian reckoning with the evening. 
The Babylonians reckoned their month from the New Moon •. Egyptians 
their month from the morning when the old crescent was no more visible. 
The lunar year is corrected by the rise of Sirius, as among the Masai, 
Wachagga and Loango. The rise of Sirius- Egypt. Sothis- which 
coincided with the Nile flood was the opener of the year. The Roman 
day was from san-rise to sun-set, divided into 12 horae— hours ; the 
civil day of course began at midnight. Ides = full moon day. In 
Caesar's calendar, the year was divided into 8 periods - two solstices 
-Burma and Solstimum ; two equinoxes of Vernum and Autumni ; and 
the beginings of spring (Feb. 9j, summer (May U), autumn ^Aug. 11) 
and winter (Nov. 11). 

The Archer from a Babylonian Boundary Stand and the Egyptian 
Zodaic of Dender-a winged centaur, drawing the bow, with a double 
head, one human, the other of animal, possibly dog and a double tail, 
one of a horse, the other a scorpion. In Babylonia the penis is erect 
and in front of which is scorpion with two extended arms to grasp it. 



94 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

9. Rudra (Lat. rubra -Fr rouge = reddish) is the boar of 
the sky, reddish, gleaming, 1, 114.5. Rudra carries bows and 
arrowB { dhanavanhaji, '2,bd,l0. Rudra*s bow is firm and strong 
with swiftly flying shafts, X,49,l. For these reasons, Eudra 
is called Dhanu= Sagittarius. 

Other Vedic Constellations: Pushan (Gk. Pan = Rom 
Fannus) appears early in the morning with Vayu (Aractarus in Bootes 
at 4 30 on April 14, in N sky. Pushan'-i golden ship (Argo Navis) is in the 
heavenly ocean (Milky Way) on an embassy to Surya (6.58.3). Pushan 
is provided with a goat (aja 1.162. 2-3). i'«5/^rt« as a charioteer guides 
through firmament the golden wheel of hero's car (6. 56. 3), Pushan is 
Auriga (Gk. auros = swift; ager = to drive, swift-driver, charioteer) with 
goad (6.5S.2). The Greeks conceived Auriga with the configuration of a man 
in a more or less sitting posture with a she goat and kids in his left hand 
and a bridle in his right. Its bright star Capella (Brahma Hridaya) 
means a she-goat; while Haedi = kids. Auriga appears in NE sky in 
September and disappears in N sky in August. AM Budhnya (X, 65,11) 
is Cetus = the Dragon of the Deep = Hippopotamus of Anc Egyptians. 

Sagittarius became the god of War, and later supreme god of Assyrians 
as Assur, of the Achaemenians as Ahura Mazda. Both Assur and Ahura 
Mazda had streamers on their body, symbolizing the wings of Aquila, just 
north of Sagittarius, and the waist feeing enclosed in a ring, and holding 
another ring on the right hand, as if bestowing loyalty, simbolizing Corona, 
north of it. Assur on the standard of Sargon II (722-705 B C.) has the 
figure of an Archer on a galloping Bull. In the list of Assyrian gods, Assura 
Mazas is found. Perhaps from this Assura (Elamite Ahura) Mazas = Asura 
Medasa (the Wise Lord), Ahura Mazda became the Achaeraenian vidva 
= all knowing sumpreme god, as described in Zend-Avesta = Skt. chanda 
upastha = chanting hymns. In Rv. 1,134,1 ; 5,85,5, it is Asura. 
"O Varuna you are the lord of all, O Asura, over gods and men (Rv. 
2,27.10). Asura lords over gods ; commands of Varuna are inviolable 
(Av. 1, 10.1). Sagittarius became known as Artemis of the Greeks, armed 
with bow and arrows ; Set of the Egyptians. Set is mounted on a 
bull, in one hand grasping the lightning — the flashing trident and on the 
other, a triangular bow resting on his right shoulder ; an antelope prances 
beside him Stag was the sacred animal of Khatti goddess Rutash. Set 
was the destructive sand storm of Egyptian mid summers. Likewise 
Rudra (from Skt. rudra = fierce sun = Lat, rudere = Lith raudas = OSlav. 
rude). Rudra, thunder-wielder (vajra-vaho = lightning fork = trident), 
transport us from troubles to security (svasti 2 33.5). Rudra has a potent 
remedy Jalash (Av. 6,57 2). After terrible and devastating summer heat, 
there are sand and thunder storms, accompanied by cooling, refreshing and 
fertilizing Jalasha (Lat. gelu = Fr. grele = Ger. hugel = hailsK As 
Ophiuchus is just above Sagittarius, Rudra is called bhujanga-dhara. 
Ophites regarded serpents as a symbol of passion, healing, immortality 
and wisdom. Lightning fork trident (trisula) represented the erect penis 
in the centre and two testicles on both sides. Rain symbolized semen 
with w^hich as Uranos (Varuna) = sky god ) by his close embrace of Ge 
(Go-prithivi, 4,41,5; X. 101,9; X, 133.7 = Zd. Gaus urva = Lat arvum 
= Lith. ariu = Skt. urvara = Fertile Earth = Earth Mother) fructified 
her, so Rudra Siva impregnated Uma the queen of the heaven and 



ASTRONOMY — AJAEKAPAD— OAPRICORNUS 95 

10. Aja-Ekapad (10, G5 13) rises in the east (Tait Br. 3.1 28). 
AJa-Ekapad means one footed goat—Capricornus. A poat fish 
emblem = Karibti has been found on the Kassite boundary stones. 
Ancient Ei^yptians called it Sebek=> crocodile. The Hindus 
likewise call it Makara«= crocodile. 

the eartti-mother ==Svamala (Thraco Phrygian Zemelo, Lith. zemes- 
Skt. jami). As a healer Sagittarius became known as Dhannantari- 
the wielder of bow = the Archer. Dhanvantari, god of healing (MBh. 
3.3.25^ lives in NE heaven iMark. P. 29.17). 

Parjanya is the roaring bull with swift flowing drops. 5,83.1 
Parjanya is the father and Prthivi is the mother .^v, 12,1 13 — Perkunas, 
Lith. thunder and storm god who with rain as semen imprepnat-.s the 
Earth. Vayu is generated from the wombs of heaven 1,134.4- Zd V.iyu. 
Vata is the breath of the gods, 7.81.2. One hears his roaring, but 
cannot see his form 1.164.44. = Zd. Vfita = Bootes = Lat Venta (wind). Ger. 
Wut, roaring furious storm wind -AS Woden = Teut. Odin after whom 
Wednesday like Badhabara has been named. Pavana=Rom. Favonius. 

Capricornus means having the horns of a goat (aja). The sun 
enters into Capricornus on Dec 23, the day of winter solstice when the 
day begins to be longer, and remains there up to Jan 20. As at that time 
Regulus iMagha) of Leo is seen in E sky the month is called Migha. For 
the appearance of Gemini = Mithuna in the NE sky, the month is called 
Agra (beginning)-Ayana (year). A terracotta figurine of a nude 
maiden with seductive smiles, globular breasts, wearing a necklace 
and heavy girdle, vaginal secretion flowing down in a strong j(jt. 
of l-2nd century Kushan type has been found at Bangue, Dinajpur. 
The sun enters into Aquarius on Jan. 21 and remains there up to 
Feb. 19, As Cancer wich its Pracespe = Pushya rises in E sky, the month 
is called Paiisha. As at that time Denebola (Ph'ilguui) appears in E sky, 
the month is known as Phalguna The sun enters into Pisces on 
on Feb. 20 and remains there up to March 21. Pisces is X 68.8. .Matsya, 
Zd. BY" 26 Masyo, and as that time Virgo appears in E sky, and its 
brilliant star is S pica = Citra the month is called Caitra^ and VJianti 
Pui?i = Slav. Vesna, goddess of the vernal season, is celebrated in honor 
of Virgo. As the Fish and the Virgin are in opposite colures, the 
Phoenician mother goddess Atargatis had the upper part of her body in 
the form of a seductive maiden but the part that extended from the 
thighs to the feet terminated with the tad of a fish. Goat.-fish and 
Dendera and the Boundary Stone of Meli shepak. The front part of 
a goat with horns, one front foot extended, and the other bent, the 
rear part fiish with tail (Capricornus). 

The Chinese Zodiac, corresponding closely to the 12 mansions of the 
ecliptic, 12 double hours and 12 animals, begins with 1, Twin Women 
for Virgo = Forenoon ; 2. then in inverse order Lion for Leo - Horse = 
Midday; 3. Crab for Cancer = Lamb = Early Afternoon; 4. Man and 
Woman (resembling Hindu Mithunai for Gemini - Monkey = Late 
Afternoon; 5. Bull for Taurus = Rooster = Sunset ; 6. Ram for Arics 
= Dog = Twilight ; 7. Fishes for Pisces = Boar = Hour of Rest ; 8. Vase 
for Aquarius = Rat = Midnight ; 9. Dolphin for Capricornus - Hour of 
the crowing Rooster; 10 Bow for Sagittarius = Tiger- Dawn ; U. 
Scorpion for Scorpio - Hare - Sun Rise ; 12. Balanee for Libra = Dragon 



96 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIEBT INDIA 

11. Apo (1,23,7) is Aquarius in the shape of a female, 
pouring oat from the amphora (kumbha kukshi = Lifch. kuszys — 
Gk. kusos, kusthos) a stream of water into the mouth of the 
Southern Fish (Matsya) 

12. Matsya X, 66, 6 = Zd BY 62 Masya is the Pisces. 

= Breakfast Time ; twelve Mansions are Quails Tail, Longevity star, 
Great fire, Split wood, Stellar era, Original hollow, Bride defamed. 
Descending misfortune, Large beam, Kernel sunk, Quails head, quails 
fire. Ox» Tiger, Pig, Dragon, Phoenix, Tiger Tortoise represent guardians 
of eastern, southern, western and northern quadrants of the heaven. 
Shaman's garments are decorated with these zodaic animalis. but 
substituting mouse for rat, and rabbit for hare. Chi-lin = unicorn ; Ch'an 
= toad ; Hue = Scorpio or Fang Hsin (Leo) heralded the spring. Tsan 
Mao ( Orion and Pleiades) marked autumns in late September. The year 
was of 366 days of l2 months, each consisting of three periods of ten days. 
Conjunction of the sun and the moon near Hiu ( Aquarius ) or Wei 
(Pisces) commenced the beginning of the year. 

Yedic Stars ; 1. Krittika (Pleiades in Taurus ; presiding deity Agni) ; 2. 
Rohini (Aldebaran in Taurus ; Prajapati) ; 2, Mrigasira (Bellatrix in Orion ; 
Soma. 4. Ardra. (Betelgeux in Orion -, Rudra) ; 5. Punarvasu ( Gemini ; 
Aditi) ; 6. Tishya = Zd. Tistrya, Tir Yt iSirus) ; = Pushya (Praespe in- 
Cancer ; Brihaspati) ; T.Aslesha (Alpaard in Hydra ; Sarpa ) ; 8. Magha 
(Regulus in Leo, Pitris) ; 9. Uttara Phalguni 'Denebola in Leo ; Aryaman) ; 
10. Purva Phalguni (Zosma in Leo; Bhaga); 11. Hasta (Algores in Corvus ; 
Savitri) ; 12. Citra fSpica in Virgo ; Indra) ; 13. Svati (Arcturus in Bootes ; 
Vayu, Vata) •, 14 Visakha ( Zubel el chamali in Libra) ; Indra- Agni) ; 15. 
Anuradha (B Scorpio ; Mitra ) •, 16 Rohini Jeatha (Antares in Scorpio : 
Indra) ; 17. Mula Vicitra (d Scorpio ; Indra ; ) J8. Purvashada (Kaus 
Australis in Sagittarius ; Visvadevah) ; 19 Uttara Ashara (B Sagittarius ; 
Apah) ; 20 Sroma Sravana (Altair in Aquila ; Vishnu) •, 21 Sravestha 
= Dhanishtha (Delphenus ; Vasus) ; 22. Satabhisha3 = Zd Satavaesa, 
Tir yt, star goddess of generation (Aquarius ; Indra- Varuna) ; 23. 
Purva Bhadrapada (Pegasus ; Aja Ekapad) ; 24. Uttara Bhadrapada 
(Pegasus ; Ahi Budhnya) ; 25. Revati (Pisees ; Pushan) ; 26. Asvayuj. 
(Hamal and Sheraton in Aries ; Asvinau) ; 27. Apa-Bharani (Musca ; 
Yama) •, 28. Abhijit (Vega in Lyra). 

Many Geek words have entered into astronomical and mathema- 
tical works of Varaha Mihira, perhaps through Pulisa (Gk Paulisa) 
Siddhanta, who as his name indicates was of Saka Iranian Greco- 
Roman influence ; hora = ora = hour ; kendron = kentron = centre ; tavuri 
= tauros ; pathona = pardenos ; kriy=>Kreos ; ara = Ares ; hieli = Helios ; 
trikona-trigoaon ; lipta = lepte; jamitra="diametron ; koti = kathelos ; 
hariza = orizon ; parthona = parthenos •, apoklima = apoklima ; Jya=Zeus ;, 
Asphujit - Aphrodite ; kemadruma = kenodrumos ; panaphara =» epana- 
phora. Varaha Mihira of Maga descent in his Brhajj^taka (1, 8) : 
Kriya, (Gk, Kriyos = ram, tavuri. (Gk. tauros), Jituma (Gk. didumas = 
Lat. geminus = twins), Kulira, Leya, Parthona, Korpya, Tank, Sika, 
Akokera. Hidrdroga, Irthasi. Sarvatha Cintamani (1, 38-41). The 
first sign of Zodiac ; Mesha, Aja, Vasta, Kriya ; 2 Vrisha, Ukshan, 
Go, Tavuri and Sukra - leha ; 3 Nri - mithuna, Jituma ; 4 Karkin = Gk- 
Karkinos = Lat Cancer (crab) ; 5 the names of Siraharasi are Kanthirava-- 



ARTS 

The images of the mother goddesses which have been 
discovered at Mohenjodaro are strikingly similar to those from 
Susa, Ur and Kish. Tree worship was originally the worship 
of the Tree of Life, found in Mohenjodaro and in Elam, as the 
Elamite basrelief of Uth century B.C. depicts Enkidu-the 
man-bull— worshipping the Sacred Tree. Enkidu = Ir. Gopalshah 
— Puranic Eishyasringa. Therioiuorphic seals, depicting, lion, 
bull, reclining ram, have been found at Susa, and the painted 
pottery, mostly red and black ware, and sherds, found at M, 
resemble those found at Jamdet Nasar in Sumer, Tape Mousian 
in the Pustekuh Mts. and in Susa, by their pate (clay), by the 
designs of their painting and by their technique. The worship of 
theriomorphic gods is found amonat the Hittites (lasilikoy) and 
the Kissites of the Zagros Range. There the gods are mounted 
on animals like the Fa/tanas of the Hindu deities. Therio- 
morphic gods of M have the horns of buffiUoes and bulls as in 
Babylonian iconography, Babylon =■ Babirush in inscriptions 
of Darius = Baveru of Jatakas. 

and Leya (Leo) ; 6 Pathona ('Parthenos = maiden, Virgin), Abal5 and 
Tanvi ; 7 Juka, Vanik and Taulin ; 8 Kaupya (Scorpio) Kamja ; _9 Jaiva 
(Jupiter), Uhanus, Tausika (Gk Toxotes - archer) Capa (bow) •. 10 Akokeca 
(Gk. aigo = goat-, kero3 = horn), Makara ; 11 Hrdroga (Gk hudor- water ; 
water pourer), Kumbha-, 12 Itthas (Gk. ikhtheus - fish), Mina, Rispha. 

Savitr advancing through dusky firmaments puts everybody to 
sleep every night Rv. 1, 35. 2. With glowing beams of light, Savitri 
raises aloft his banner in the vault of heaven, Rv. 4. 14. 2. Savitri, you 
dwell with the sun's rays and encompass the night from both sides — 
twilights -uta yasi Savitas Suryasya rasmibhi sam ucyasi uta ; ratrim 
ubhayatah pariyasa Rv. 5. 81. 4. S aw W.'c ^ Zodiacal Light, a faint 
lenticular illumination of the sky. surrounding the sun and elongated 
in the direction of the ecliptic on each side of the sun. In the 
tropics where the ecliptic is nearly perpendicular in the horizon, the 
cone of this white light may be seen after the end of twilight, 
on every clear evening and before twilight every clear morning, unless 
blotted out by moonlight. Excellent Savitar has looked on heaven's high 
vault and shines after the outgoing of Eurora (nakam akhyat Savit.'i varenyo 
'nu prayanam Ushaso vi rajati, 5, 81, 2). Auroras paint their bright rays on 
the sky's far limits as Savitar spreads his arms and they give forth their 
lustre (Vianjate divo auteshv aktun Ushasho yatante jyotir yachanti 
Saviteva bahu, 7, 79. 2). The Aurora Light is of pale golden color. 
As both Zodiacal and Aurora lights are comingled, Savitr is called 
golden-eyed ihiranyakshah, l,35.8i, golden-handed (hiranya pinih, 1,35,9), 
golden-tongued (hiranya-jihvah, 6, 71. 3), who with his golden splendour 
(hiraayyim amatiox) illumes, the air and the space of heaven (3. 38, 8). 

7 



98 THE LITEEAEY HISTOET OP ANCIENT INDIA 

The rade cyclopem stone walls of ancient Rajigriha 



Savitr is the progenitor (bbuvansya parajapati) of the world. 4. 53. 2. 
Subhaga, a name of Siva = Subigus, Roaian god of the wedding night. 



Mercury 


Venus 


Earth 


Mars 


Jupiter 


S itara 


Urauus 


Neptune 


Plutc 


<1) 86-0 


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92-9 


141-7 


488-2 


886 


1782 


2792 


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11-86 


29-46 


84-02 


164 8 


243-4 


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4 86 


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CO, 


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(1) Distance from the sun in millions of miles. (2) Sideral period Revolution 
round the sun in years. (8) Mean orbital velocity and per second in miles. 
<4) Volume, Earth=l. (5) Mass (Earth=l). (6) Density (water=]). (7) Kota- 
tion period. (8) Surface temperature, maximum. (.9) Eccentricity of orbit, 
(10) Albedo. (11) Gases. 

Mitra = Mithra Aryaman = Airvaman, Soma = Haema, Vayu = Vayu, 
Vata = Vata, U.shas = Usas, Vrithrahan = Verethaghna. Vivasvat = Vivaha- 
vant, Aptya= Athwaya, Trita = Thrita, Traitana = Thraetana are common 
Indo - Iranian deities But Indrai Sarva = Sharva, N3satya were regarded 
as Daeva = Lith Dievas = Devas, meaning demons after the downfall of 
Daeva worshipe.rs with the triump of Zoroastrianism. According to Romaka 
(of Rome) Siddhanta the year was of 365 d 5 h 5 m 12 s. The Hindu 
year began with the winter solstice ; so it was called Margi-Sirsa- 
the leader of the path When it was with the vernal equinox, it was 
called Vaisakha ; when with the autumnal equinox, Kartika - Agra - 
Ayana, the leader of the new year. In the Vedic period the year was 
divided into 4 quarters of 91 days each (Vishnupada), which later was 
divided into three months of 13 weeks, into 2 solstices and 2 equinoxes. 
If we again start the year with Makar Samkranti (Capricornus on Dac 21, 
winter solstice) = Magha, Vaisaka, starting from Mesa Samkranti Tcalled 
Caitra on March 21, Aries = vernal equinox), Sravana from Karkata 
Samkranti (Cancer, summer solstice on June 21) and Kartika on 
Kanya Samkranti (Libra included in Virgo previously on the autumnal 
equinox on Sept 22) have 3 1 days each, beginning on Sundays and 
ending on Tuesdays ; Phalguna, Jaistha, Bhadra and Agrayana may have 
thirty days each, beginning on Wednesdays and ending on Thursdays ; 
Caitra, Asara, Asvina and Pausa, thirty days, beginning on Fridays and 
ending on Saturdays. If one day is allotted at the end of Caitra, as the 
years End Day, this will account for yearly 355 days with regular 
months, the year and the quarter always beginning on Sundays. Similarly 
for leap year one day may be added at the end of Pausa. If the Eur- 
American countries adopt the same calender reform which is possible, 
then our months will correspond to their as Jan = Magha, Dec = Pausha. 



ARTS— MOnilNJODARO 99 

Giribraja ascribed to Jarasandha, 14-17 ft. in thickness. face>l 
with massive undressed stones, set without niortir, and at 

Potter's wheel was not known in Ejjypt before first dyna<5ty (.lOOT 
B.C ) when it was introduced from \V. Asia and Babylonia ; and n )t usud 
until 4-5th dynasty. In Mohcnjodaro about 23rd, Asia Minor 19th and 
Crete 15th century B.C. The main street (rathyam^ of M was 33 feet 
wide and all tlie streets from north to south, and east tj west 
intersect each other at ricjht ani;les. 

The roofs of the Gip.tram of S. Indian templ-s are decorated 
with bull's horns as in Babylonia. Thij Aryan and Iranian succession 
is patriarchical, while fn Uravira, it is m.^triarchical as in anci-jnt 
Egypt and Elam. Nephews succeeded their maternal uncles in Susa. 
Even the famous M humpsd bull is alniDst a replica of the humped 
bull of Tell A2,rab relief on a green steatite vasi showing a Sumerian figure 
before a building ( I. L N. Sept 12. 1936). Plate 91, 6-8 : Mohenjodaro, 
is a bronze casting in cire perdue process, 4 25 inches high. It is an 
exceptionally well- modelled figurine of a young danseuse with long 
arms and legs. Her right hand rests lightly on her right hip in an 
imprudent suggestive pose. Her left arm, almost covered with bangles, 
hangs loosely. Her legs are sjmewliat bent and right leg slightly for- 
ward as she beats time to the music of her ankled feet 'PI. 73. Fig. 5). 
The head provocatively tilted is a skilfull impressionistic rendering 
of prognathic face, long eyes, fl.it nose and bunched curly hair. The 
hair is worn in short crimped curls on the top of the head and a 
thick lock starting from the left side is brought round behind the head 
and over the right shoulder. The face is negroid of care free 
mischievous appearance. The nose is broad and lips are thick. Eyes 
are long. A necklace or a double cord has threi) pendants or 
amulets suspended from it to the hollow of the firm and wdl-developed 
bosoms. Her pubic triangle is shown with short dark curly hair. The 
wanton abandon e.xpressed in the face and the lim)3 is quite realistic. 

This nude bronze casting of a Hamitic type with curly locks of 
hair. long arms, lank feet, large mouth, broad nose and thick lips, 
pendulous narrow pelvis, is certainly a marvellous creation at this 
early age. Another Hamitic type is observed in a badly weathered 
head of female statue in grey limestone, now 57 inches high. The 
hair of the head is slightly curly and hangs down the back of the 
head. The eyes beneath the receding forehead are long and narrow ; 
and the original inlay of the right eye which is made of whiter 
stone than the head, is still in place. The inlay of the eyes by a 
different eye-colored stones w.is customary in Babylonia. Marked 
steatopygia in a pregnant terracotta figurine (PI. 153. 33) is apparent 
as in Bushman woman. Plate 73. 9-1 1 is an exceptionally well-modelled 
bronze figure of a dancing girl, 5 2 inches high ; but it has suffered 
badly from corrosion. It is a tall figurine with long slender arms and 
feet. The feet are close together. The left l)ent arm which is heavily 
loaded with bracelets has the hand on the left buttock. The ri;;ht 
arm is in front of the vulva in order to p^int it out. The hair 
appears to be tied in the back in the form of a bow at the nape of the 
neck. She is entirely nude e.>;cept the few ornaments. She has firie 
•breasts. She stands with erect head and proud dignity. Plate 79. 23 is 



100 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

places 12feet. high Jarasandha ka Bhaitak is a platform aboufe 
85 ft. square at base and sloping upwards 20 28 ft, 74'x78'at 
the top, built wholly of unhewn stones, but neatly fitted 

the bronze figure of a well-made short-horned bull, 1*5 inch high. 
Plate 71. 23 is that of a bronze buffalo, 2"85 inches high. 

Plate 93. 1-4 is a steatite portrait statue, 7 inches high. It 
represents the broad head and shoulders of a male Shaman priest of 
Ural-Altaic origin. The lower part and back of the head are missing. 
The figure is draped in an elaborate shawl with corded edge, worn 
over the left shoulder and under the rigkt arm. This shawl is 
decorated with a design of trefoils in relief, interspersed occasionally 
with small circles, the interiors of which are filled with a red pigment. 
It has a short beard and whiskers ; moustache is closely cut or shaved, 
as customary in Sumer. The eyes are long and half closed in a 
Shamanistic mood. The shell inlay as in Ansam of one eye is 
still in place- The nose is well-formed and of medium size ; it 
springs from the exceptionally low and receding forehead. The 
mouth is of average size with full and fleshy lips. The hair is parted 
in the middle and brushed over the back of the head where it ends 
in a bun. Around the head is a plain fillet of some woven matterial 
which is fastened at the back in a knot whose loose ends hang down 
from behind. The fillet is ornamented with a circular buckle, placed 
in the middle of the forehead. The general finish is exceptionally, 
good ; its surface is smooth and in some places almost polished. The 
facial expression of priestly haughtiness and dignity are marked. Shaman 
=-Pali Samana = Skt. Sramana. 

Harappa redstone torso (PI. 10) shows the refined and wondeifully 
truthful modtilling of the fleshy parts, the subtle flattening of the 
buttocks and the clever little dimples of the posterior spines of the 
ilium. It surpasses even the classic of Greek sculpture. Its rather 
fleshy and pronounced abdomen shows its Indian characteristic. 
Another grey stone statuette (PI. 11) torso of Harappa is a dancer, 
standing on his right leg with the body from the waist upwards 
bent round to the left, both arms thrown in the same direction, and 
the left leg raised high in the front. The dancing pose is full 
of movement and swing. Though the body looks eflSminate 
and soft, it was of a male, as the phallus has been found in a separate 
piece. There are socket holes in the neck and shoulders of them 
for the attachment of head and arms, made in separate parts. It was 
Na- ta-ya = Natesa = Nataraja, Thracian Sabazios = Sabos = Pol. Zywie 
= S- Slav. Ziva, Elbe Slav Siva = Hindu Siva. A terracotta figurine of 
Mongoloid type from Mohenjodaro plate 76. 86. 

Taxila has four successive strata of buildings. The lowest two strata 
were occupied between 7-8 centuries B. C. by unindentified people. 
The next strata was occupied by Alexander's army in 326 B. C. Hellenic 
pottery and coins of Atexander and Phillip Aridanes have been found 
there in abundance. Bactrian lonians occupied it in 2nd century B. C, 
And when they consolidated their conquests, they made its neighboring 
outskirt — Sirkap— their chief residential quarter. There at Sirkap 
which is the third strata, they built straight regular roads. Scythian. 



ART3 — INDUS AND VEDIO 101 

together without any mortar, and containing 15 cells -6' -7' in 
length 3'— 1 in breadth, form-.'d an enclosure of an inner citadel 
of sixth century B. C. It appears to be Polynesian as it lacks 
the Mykeniean or Khatti fine joints and lion gates of fifth, 
century B. C, About a mile orf, Ajatasatru built a citadel — 
Kusagarapura— protected by walls of massive masonry between 

Azes built bastions and walls of stones. When Parthians were 
conquered by Kushans about6K\ D. there was much destruction of 
the buildings, and the majority of inhabitants were killed, some escaped 
and the rest were enslaved. 

Yet it seems that the Vedic civilization differs from the Indus 
civilization. Vedic peoples were pastoral and agricultural, and lived in 
nomadic reed cottages and skin tents Indus peoples lived in dtnse 
populated kiln-burnt, brick-built houses, with bath rooms, well-!, drainage 
and sanitation. Vedic peoples are armed with bows and arrows, spears, 
daggers, axe, helmet and coat of mail. The Indus peoples have 
socketed axe and stone or bronzj mace like the Sumerians, and 
Egyptians, and like them no coat of mail. Tiger finds no mention in 
the Vedas, and elephant seldom, but they are common in Indus seals. 
Hearth and Fire Pits are important in the Vedas, but not usual in the 
Indus finds except for cooking purposes. Vedic peoples took barley 
cakes, milk, cheese, butter, beef, bufiflilo and horse flesh, mead, sour 
milk wine, sometimes mixed with the paste of flowering resinous buds 
of hemp (Soma). The Indus people besides wheat bread, took dates, 
date wines, tody, beef, mutton, pork, poultry, fresh fish from the river, 
dried fish from the sea coast, turtles and shell fish. Barbed bronze fish 
hook has been found among them as in early Egypt and Sumer. Cow 
is praised in the Vedas, while bull by the Indus people. Image worship 
was seldom mentioned in the Vedas, while it was popular on the 
Indus. Mother goddess and phallic worship was common while the 
phallic worshippers fsisna devan Rv. X, 99-3) are despised oy the 
Indra-worshippers. The Indus peoples might have come through 
Baluchistan, then less arid, and some by the sea. The Vedic tribes 
have poured into India through Bolan and Khyber passes and other 
Himalayan gorges. And they met and partly fused with the mixed 
Negrito Australoids and Indonesian migrants. 

The Indus riverine civilization may be dated 1100-300 B.C extending 
as far east as Rupur in Amballa and south-west as far as Ranizpur in 
Limbudi in Kathiwar. Maurya (320- 185) ; Sunga, Andhra Parthian 
= Kshatraps ( 2'00 B. C -250 A. D. ) ; Kushana and later Andhras 
(251-320); Gupta 320-603 A. D. Archeological dates are mostly 
speculative, Afrasian civilizations have been very much antedated 
to fit them with the Babylonian, Biblical and PurSnic traditions. The 
Indus civilization is Indo-Sumerian. At Chanhu-Daro a pottery head, 
carved in wet clay with deep-set eyes, small mouth and shaven head 
just as like the Sumerians. A bronze toy cart with the driver seated in 
front with two solid wheels rotating on an axis is similar to one found at 
Ur (I.L.N. Nov. 14,1936). A copper hair pin with coiled head, a type 
•common in Sumer. A small bronze cosmetic jar with fluted body ; the like 
of which was used in Babylonia for using eye- paint Kohl. A copper rajor 



102 THE LITEEARZ HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

solid blocks of stone, and portion of the wall are still in fair 
preservation. Maurya capital — Pataliputra as appears from the 
excavation had a missive wooden city wall ; a timbered 
flooring extending for 350 feet ; a series of heavy wooden plat- 
form? to support a big and tall super structure ; a pillared 
hall with 80 polished stone columms like that of the audience 

with an edge on both side with a handle and horseshoe rajor with edges 
on both ends, common in Sumer. An ivory comb with incised decoration 
of concentric circles on each side, the like of which was worn by 
predynastic people in ancient Egypt. A pottery ink-pot and a painted 
pottery head rest are quite similar to those used in Egypt. The pottery 
of the Jhukar culture is patterned after the art designs of Tell Halaf, 
possibly coming through Iranian highlands ( I.L.N. Nov, 21/1936). 
PI. 13, 17, Sumerian Enkidu — half-human, half bovine satyr. PI. 117,16- 
Leaf clad Gilgamesh hunts on a copper tablet with horns on ; his head and 
bow in one hand. Three cylinder seals have been found ; cylinder 
seal was typical of Sumer. Indus valley had stamp seal. An oblong. 
seal of a boat like the papyrus boat of Egypt has been found. 

Inspite of many striking similarities between Indus and Sumerian 
civilizations, the Indus civilization has shown distinct originality of its own. 
Mohenjodaro was laid out in rectangular blocks for the streets and lanes 
are at right angles. The central road was 33 feet wide. The dwelling 
houses were 2-3 stories high ; stairways leading to the upper stories 
are built of narrow treaded burnt reddish bricks like the buildings. The 
walls of houses were fairly thick, the inner faces being perpendicular. 
The finish given to the walls was either a clay plaster or the bricks were 
rubbed down to give a fine finish. Most of the houses had private wells. 
The drainage system was unique, unknown in the ancient world. The 
drains were either laid along the middle of the street or along the sides, 
and subsidiary drains from houses on both sides emptied into them. 
The drains were generally covered with bricks, but when they were 
usually wide, they were covered with rough hewn limestones. 
Upper story sewage was often allowed to run down the outer walls of the 
houses. In the junction of four drain outfalls, soak pits and culverts 
with corbelled roofs were constructed. Drain pipes of porous pottery 
are with spigots for fitting each other, or of conical shape so that the 
smaller end of one fitted into the larger end of the next at Chanhudaro 
(I.L N. Nov. 14, 1936). Representations of typical Indian animals such as 
elephant, rhinoceros, crocodile, none of which has ever appeared on 
Sumerian or Akkadian seals, have been found at Tell Asmar ; 
another seal of rhinoceros at Ashnunak, thus indicating inter change of 
trade. The beard with shaven upper lip, trefoil design on the costume 
and the mode of hair dressing in the sitting statue are quite Sumerian 
The trefoil pattern occurs in the man-headed bull of heaven. It bears the 
symbols of Shamash, the sun god, Sin, the moon god, and Ishtar, the 
morning and evening stars Trefoil appears in Egypt on Hathor — the 
mother goddess as Lady of Heaven. There is a representation of a three 
headed bovine monaster on a number of seals, recalling the piimordial bull 
of Babylonia, the progenitor of all living things. A copper toilet set enclos- 
ed in a ling, composed of a pincer, a needle and an ear spoon (for remov- 
ing ear wax), found at Harappa» closely resembles the spaciman of Ur. 



ART8— INDUS AND SUMRR 103 

chamber of Achaeraeniaa Persepolis ; a luagnificent Btono 
capital, a stone voassoir from an arch ; a stone fjrilVm bracket 
and other fraf^menta. 



Mitannians in 1500-1400 B. C. had at Ut^arit a well developed 
drainage and sewer system of sanitation with lead grilles. The main 
sewer is a varitaMe tunnel nine feet underground and a p-.Tsin of nuiltst 
stature could walk upwriglu in it witliout dilTiculty. They had hronzu 
bits for war chariots. They had steell battle axe, the head ornamented 
with a Ijoar and two lion masks (IL N. Jan. 6, 19-10). 

Drinking and sucking tubes as in early Sumer. PI. 111,12; 136,24. 
Gilgamesh fighting with lions in both sides of him, Seals 75, 86. 
Serpentine bracelets as at Kish, PI, 140. 58. Segmented beads with 
hemispherical terminals as necklaces, common in Egypt. Sumer, PI. 136 6. 
Stools with legs of oxen occur in Egypt from First Dynasty. Seal 222. Bed 
with a reclining figurine, PI 123 25 ; concubine of the deities in Sumer ; 
buried with the deal in ancient Egypt. Socketted axe adge = mattock PI. 
120,27 ; 122,12 ; of copper resembks Tepe Hirsar finds. 

The painted pottery of Jhukur near Larkina, Chanhudaro and early 
Harappa resembles the wares of Tell Halap and Tell Chagar and Tell 
Agrab, the principal demarcation of which lies in the broad horizontal 
bands separating the various devices that ornament by boldly painted 
plant designs of leaves or buds, joined togetlier with curved stems, 
usually in black, the red b.aing used for the broad bands, seperating the 
registers ( I LN Nov. 21, 1936). In the scarlet ware of Tell Agrab of 
preceding Jamdet Nasr period, 2 broad red bands contain 3 delicate 
water plants in black. Then three nude temple women painted red wearing 
cow face masks and prominent black pubic triangle, beating tam!)0urine3 
in honour of a red painted bull with erect penis, black tail and horn. 
Other two red bands contain bent date leaves in black. In another sherd 
an ibex with erect penis in black is found '• I. L. N. Nov. 6, 1937). 
There was a Buddhist stupa enclosed within a big monastery of Kushan 
period, for not only three coins of Vasudeva with Siva and Bull type, but 
also in Kushan lettering both in Kharoshti and Brahmi. Sam^ma has 
been found engraved in the mound. In the second stratum. 4J feet 
below, a frog cut out of a shell ( PI. 96. 15), possibly of the Mauryas, has 
been found. Frog was the amulet of ancient Egyptians against fevers. 
In the third stratum a small statue of a ram (PI. 87. 6) of yellow fience 
paste has been found Ram amulet, representing Anion, w.is common in 
ancient Egypt. 4 5 feet below the mound there is an open quadrangle 
in the centre with verandahs on its four sides In its midst there is a 
path 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep At the b;ick of the three 
verandahs are various rooms and galleries ; on the south is a long 
gallery with a small chamber at each end ; on the east a single range 
of small rooms one of which contains a well, on the mouth there is a 
group of several halls and fair-sized chambers. The waste water from 
the bath was carried off through a covered drain in s.w. corner ; its 
corbelled roof 6 feet 6 inches in height. The Bath had at least one upper 
storey, as the remains of a staircase has been found. To the north eight 
rooms with baths have been excavated with their doorways opening into 
a central passage along which runs a well-made drain. It seems priests 
lived in the upper story, and each had a bath room for himself. It was 



104 THE LITERARY HIST03Y OF ANCIENT INDIA. 

Maurya Asoka set up at least 30 monolithic pillars of 
which JO bear inscriptions, all in Br except two in Kb. 
Lauria Nandangarh pillar has a shaft of polished sandstone 
32 feet y^" in height ; it diminishes from a base diameter of 
35J* to a diameter 'd,-<i^" at the top. This gradual tapering 

the ritual custom in ancient Egypt to take their baths regularly thrice 
daily and particularly before any religious ceremony. Each brick was 
10. 35 inches long 9"25 inches wide; corbelled bricks Ilx5|-x2^ 
inches. Mortar consisted of gypsum mixed with sand. The roof seems 
to have been a timber frame covered with mud. There is a corridor 
hall at Harappa. Indus architecture is of purely utilitarian efficiency 
for business-like minded people with solid comforts of spacious well- 
ventilated rooms, having baths, drainage, sanitary underground sewage 
on broad streets in well-planned towns on big rivers, havivg transport 
facilities and abundant water supply. Their dewelling houses were comfort- 
able and enjoyed quiet dignity though the Indus towns lacked grand 
temple monuments of Babylonia or the lofty funeral pyramids— the burial 
chambers of ancient Egyptian potentates. In Jhukor near Larkana Indus 
civilization terminates with the Kushans. 

It is very likely that the Indus riverine civilization has been given 
too early date like the Puranic genealogy, through contemporaneously 
collateral lines ; spectographic research of the segmented beads found 
at Harappa and Knossos of Middle Minoan III of about 1600 B. C. 
has demonstrated their identity of composition. The MH might be 
coinciding with the early Maurya period. Ringstones of greyish buff 
or pinkish buff sandstone like that of Chunar, highly polished and 
carved in low relief with jewel like workmanship and exquisite 
finish ; the upper surface has 2 concentric cable- jdged bands filled 
with cross and reel motives ; the sides of the hole {Yoni symbol) 
with 4 standing nudes with a heavy girdled exaggerated depilated vulva 
(depilation was customary with the Egyptians, Scythian hordes, Greeks, 
Romans, Yuechi Kushans, Iranians, Turks and Chinese ; the pubic 
hair was kept as an aphrodisiac censer by the Sumerians, Sushinaks, 
Assyrians, AmoriteS—Amrit = Egypt. Mrt. = Pur. Amara ; deity Amurru ; 
consort Askirat of libido and joy — Phoenicians, the Jews, Teutons and 
Kelts), prominent breasts and the head covered with a veil, interspaced 
with erect penis, like vajra lotus buds ; base 3*27 inches, inner 
diameter 1 06 inch, depth 1 inch, weight 8f oz, have been discovered 
at various sites ; 7 in Taxila, 2 at Mathura, one each at Saheth 
-Maheth 'Sravasti), Kandam Kwasi (Patna) and Sankisa (near Kanouj). 
Kandam Kwasi Ringstone is inscribed with Vis^kasa in Brahmi 
character of Asokan period. These female nudes bear close 
resemblance to those appearing on gold leaf plaques found 
in tumili at Lauria Nandangarh and Piprawa, as wife substitutes 
for the dead or Earth - Mother fertility goddess. Ringstone represent- 
ing the vulva was placed on aniconic stones as a symbolic phallic 
worship. It gradually developed into Siva - Sakti image. Plate 13.7 has 
the figure of the vulva at the junction of two thighs, found on a 
chalcolithic site in N. Baluchistan. Plates 14.2 and 14.4 are well-modelled 
realistic phalli, found in M. The stupa at Piprawa (in Basti Dt. UP) 
is of pre-Asokan date. It contains a relic vase, inscribed in pre- 



ARTS -MAURYA OUPTA 105 

makes it a very graceful column ; it bears first six pillar 
edicts. Bakhira pillar in Muzaffiir[)ur Dt is more niassive and 
possibly of an earlier date. The capithi of each pillar liko 
the shaft is monolithic, coinprisinj^ of a Persejjolitan bell, 
abacus and a crowning sculpture in the round. The etl^'e of 
abacus of Lauriya Nandangarh pillar is decorated by a row 
of flying g^ecse in low relief. The abacuses of the pillars at 
Allahabad, Sankisa and Rampurva have elej^ant designs of 
lotus and p'.ilmette. The crowning sculpture was the elephant, 
horse, bull or the lion. All these animals except the hor^-e are 
found. Horse crowned the pillar at liumindei in the Lumbini 
garden. On the sides of the Sarnath capital, all these four 
animals are carved in basrelief, inters[:)ace.l with wheels of law 
between 212-232 B. C. The four addorsed and affronted lions 
standing back to back on the abacus once supported a stone 
wheel 2'9'' in diameter of which fragments remain. 



Asokan characters ; a nude gold figurine of mother goddess as found 
in Nandan^arh ; the bowl is 3|-" in diameter, including the cover 
standing 3k ' high ; the cover whicli fits wtth perfect accuracy has a 
handle in the shape of a fish, hollowed out stuffed witli stars of gold 
leaf. Piprawa edifice is a domed mass 1 16 feet in diameter at the base 
and 22 feet high, built round and on a massive stone coffer in which the 
Telics of the body of Slkya-.Muni were enshrined by his kinsmen in 
about 450 B. C The bricks are huge slabs, the largest being 16x 11 x3 
inches, set in mud mortar. 

Though the designs are apparently reminiscent of Assyrian and 
Persepolitan prototypes, the modellings are more animated and realistic. 
The Pessepolitan polish is so fine that it has oily touch and reflects 
images even after centuries. These pillars weigh about 50 tons. How 
these heavy pillars like Egyptian obelisks were quarried, carried and lifted 
at that ancient time are intriguing. At the Uailing of courtyard at the 
end on the Pillar of BuJdhu's walk, there is a ba'-rt-licf of a full 
length female figurine of half life size. Her head, face, nose and 
uplifted hands are defaced. But her torso is very refined with 
surprising modernistic anatomical accuracy, She has typical slender 
waist of a Yakshi. She is draped below her girdle round ht-r hips. 
She has a slender neck with four necklaces, one with a locket. Her 
breasts are firm and globular. And as both the shaft and the base 
of the pillar are marked with Asakan A and other characters, it is 
of about 3rd century B- C. 

At Kasrawad of 2nd century B. C. of the Maurya Guptas and at 
Mohenjodaro, the followitig common articles have been found : tablets 
l'-5" to 3'- 7"; perforated pottery to sprinkle water on bone relics ; 
pottery cones ; spindles with more than one hole ; circular p.-bbles 
with a hole ; glazed pottery. Glazed and conical potteries have also 
been found at other Maurya sites like Ujjaini and Rairh. Some 
potsherds found at Mandal Khoh with inscribed ma of the Mauryas are 
exactly like those of Kasrawad. A terracotta bull found at Muheswar 
closely resembles such terracottas found at other Maurya sites like 
Kasnagar. Clay spindles, beads, cleaning brushes found at Kasrawad 



106 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIEBT INDIA 

Magada is named after the warrior tribe Magadhah of the 
Sakas who with Maga=Magi as priests, Manasa as traders and 
Mandagah= Mandas as slaves lived in Sakadvipa — Seistan — 
Brahma Puranam 20. 71. 

resemble similar objects of other Maurya sites. The huge bricks 
20'xirx4" are found at others Maurya sites. Triangular bricks 
have been found at M, Harappa and Kasrawai. Triangular wedge shaped 
bricks are of two sizes : 9.4" long, 2.25'' thick, 5'25" wide at one end 
3.25" wide at the other end. 11.5" x 2.25" x 6" x 3.5", M has 7 strata ; 
1st is 1-2 feet thick; 2nd 3-5 ft ; 3rd 7-9-6" ; 4th 12 13-6; 5th, 
15-16; 6th, 18-19; 7th. 38 39. So between the sixth and the lowest 
there is a difference of about 20 feet. 

This 20 feet of space was filled with the mud and silts of the Indus 
floods. So it may be inferred that the upper end of the seventh strata 
terminated in early Mauryan settlements. 

A colossal capital recovered during the first excavation of Pataliputra 
has the stepped impost block, side volutes and central palmettes of 
the Persepoletan order ; the bead and reel, labial and spiral motifs 
on the lateral face are all of western Asiatic origin ; and the rosette 
ornament of the abacus recalls the frame of the great friezes at 
Persepolis. There are rock-cut domed chambers with a monolithic 
stone column in the centre, equivalent of the central wooden mast of a 
nomadic tent as at Mennapuram and Calicut. 

GopikK cave is 40' -5" long, 19'-2" broad, both ends being, 
semi-circular. The walls are 6' -6" high and the vaulted roof is 
4 feet higher still. There is an inscription on the door jamb by 
Dasaratha, dedicating it to Ajivakas. Vabiyaka. Vadthika and Gopika 
caves are small. But they also bear inscriptions of Dasaratha, Lomas 
Risi, Sattapanni and Sonbhandor also bear inscriptions of Dasaratha, 
grandson of Asoka. Lomas Risi cave is unfinished, perhaps due to a 
Assure in the roof. The side walls of the outer chamber are highly 
polished ; the outer wall of the inner chamber is dressed only ; the 
inside of the inner chamber has been left rough. Its entrance is 
carved in imitation of the wooden beams of a Zulu hut. But the 
pediment is decorated with a herd of elephants. Ramses about 1257 
made rock-cut corridor tombs and shrines at Harakhta and Haptha, 
consisting of a portico zvith 2 rows of pillars, the cave walls and 
pillars covered with painted sculptures and paintings. The samething 
we find in Bhaja Vihara. 

The colossal mutilated standing statue about 8' high of so called 
male Yaksha, found at at Parkhan, of 3rd century B C, bearing an inscrip- 
tion in Br. script of Maurya period, reading in part, made by Bhada 
/?<^<7W2—Gomitaka, pupil of Kunika, now and Mathura Museum, is of 
polished grey Chunar sandstone, similar to that used for Asokan pillars. 
It is 8 feet 8 inches high and the breadth accross the shoulders is 2 feet 
8 inches. The excessively massive body which possesses considerable 
grandeur is wrapped in a cloth round the loins by means of a flat girdle, 
bound round the chest. Four tassels hang down on the back from a 
necklace and a torque. A similar statue of a female, 6'7" in height, 
though not having the same polished finish, has been found near Besnagar 



ARTS-TARFHA 107 

Suda77i Cave in Barfibar Hillg is hewn in the pranito ridj^'e. 
The doorway i3 doeply inset and the j.uubs are inclined inward. 
To the left of it in 'J lined inscription, Asoka records its dedica- 
tion to the Ajivakas in 12th. year of his reipn. It is S2'-9" long, 
19'-6" broad and the vaulted roof rises 5'-0" above the walls 
which are 6'-9" hifjh, The inner chamber is circulur with a 
hemispherical domed roof, all hij^'h polished. Visva Jopri has 
2 chambers and a verandah, but unfinished. An inscription 
on the right hand wall of the outer chamber records the pift of 
the cave to the Ajiviikas in his 12th year. Kama Kauper Cave in 
the south of the ridge has a rectangular hall SS'-b" long, 14' 
broad. G'-l" high, and the vaulted roof is i'b" higher Kfill. At 
the western end there is a raised platform 7'-6" long, 2'-6" liroad 
and I'-b* high. Walls and ceiling highly polished. Asoka in 
5 deep cut Brahrai characters records its dedication to the 
Ajivakas in his 19th year. Vahiyaka and Gopika caves are 
dedicated to Ajivakas for their residential purposes during the 
rainy season as long as the IMoon and the Sun endure by 
Dasaratha who was consecrated as king after Devanampiy* 
(vahiyaka kubha Dasalathena devanam piyena anamia liyan 
abhisetena Ajivikehi bhadamtelu va ( sani ) sideyen nisitha 
acamdam suliyan. 

and Bhilsa She wears heavy tresscs of hair as found in Bhnrhut and 
Sanchi ; and the linked belt of beaded strands and the double breast 
chain. The finely pleated waist cloth is held at the hips by a b<-It with 
a looped clasp, and its folds are treated in the fashion of Sanchi brackrt 
figures. A similarly dressed Yakshi, known as cauri bearer has been found 
at Didarganj, Fatna of Sunga 2nd century B C. Two Yaksh.as in Patna M 
of 2nd century B. ('. are inscribed with Nandi and Vardhana. Yaksha 
Manibhadhra from Pawaya is of Ist century B. C, now in Gwalior 
Muscum. Two portrait head sculptures of early Sung pt riod have been 
found at Sarnalh, of polished buff sandstone. They are remarkable for 
their anatomical accuracy and facial expression. In one. hair is kept in 
position by fillets ; there is a large circular earlobe ornament with a 
hole ir. the center. The other has a large military moustache, 
long club, symbol of penis within the fold of his arm ; and holds 
a ram in his right hand ; standing valiantly on a crouching dwarf, 
Both in style and costune, the figure is closely related to the standing 
Yaksha type of Barhut. Kharosti Kshairapa Sakas imitated Iranians 
more directly. The Lion Capital with the Kharosthi inscription w.as 
dedicated by the queen of Satrap Rajubula about 30 B. C. Kushans 
adopted the naturalistic Greco-Romanized style, usually in mottled 
red sandstone of Sikri, Kushan king is seated on a lion throne with 
Are altar engraved on the pedastal, holding a scepter in one hand 
and sword hilt in another ; Mongoloid shaven face, round cap on the 
head ; wears a tunic, padded coat hnd trousers like the Chinese, Central 
Asian highiieavy boots. Even the images of Snrya (Mihir) are represented 
in the same costume. Buddha. Bodhisattvas and Jaina images of 
Kankali Kila, now in Lucknow Museum^ and Ssrnath, have roundish 
refined shaven face ; their breasts are somewhat swollen, though on a 



108 THE LITEEABT HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Kushans :— Statue of Wima (Vima) Kadphises, found at Mat, 
6'-iO", square base 3'-3". The right hand is raised in front 
of the breast which held a sword of which only the portion of 
'the belt is traceable, and the left hand rested on the scabbard 
laid across the knees. Dressed in a long sleeved tunic with 
richly embroidered border. The tunic is bespangled with 
rosettes. The heavy top boots are decorated with a vine 
pjttern. There is a strap round each boot beneath the ankles 
and a second strap under the heel. The feet are placed on 
a long stool 28"xl3"x3J", decorated with flowers. The space 
on the top of the stool -j^ada^i^/ta— bears between the feet 
a Brahmi inscription in 4 Imes : J. Maharaja Rajatiraja Deva- 
putra 2. Kushanaputro Shahi Vema takshamasya (takshama, 
an Iranian word, meaning, owner of strong steed) 3. Bakana- 

patino. Huma devakuJa — temple — karila- constructed 4 

aramo — garden - pushkarini -a tank - udapanam (a well) Ga 
do ko tha ko Standing figure 4'— 9" found at Mathura, carved 
in the round, consisting of an overcoat reaching down to the 
knees. There is a sword hanging on the left thigh, fastened 
by a strap round the right hip Only a trace of the sword 
with his left hand. The right hand is lost. Below the garment, 
a portion of the right leg remains, showing folded trousers on 
the left portion of the robe, there is a fragmentary inscription 
in Brahmi— SAasfa/ia = Cbastana of Ujjain. 

masculine body, showing tremendous physical and mental energy. 
The drapery is Romanized. Kaniska Relic Casket is a gilt copper 
alloy cylinder and lid ; total height 7f inches. Inside a very polished 
barrel shaped crystal reliquary, hollowed out to half its depth, the mouth 
closed by a clay seal, bearing the impress of the figure of an elephant, 
three small calcined bones were {ound — the s a rims of Sakya — deposited 
by Kaniska in the stupa of Polusha-pulo. On the lid are seated 
nimbate Buddha and two Bodhisattvas, and around the ricn a series of 
rfiying geese with extended wings ; on the cylinder are seated Buddha, 
seated between Kaniska, the sun, the moon, deities crowning him, and 
the garland bearing Erotes = Roman Cupido. 

Eukratides had their capital at Taxila ; Euthydemus at Sakala = 
Sialkot. In order to induce the Sungas to make a common cause to 
fight Demetrios, Heliodora, son of Diya. ambassador of Yavana Amtalikita 
(Antiakidas, ruler of Taxila) to Bhagabhadra ( Sunga Viceroy, Bhaga 
of the Puranas. 11-1-82 ; Sunga rule ends in 72 B. C ) erected in honour to 
Vasudeva in 126 B. C, a pillar (a Dorian pillar with Persepolitan cap on 
which there was a winged eagle — Garuda Dhavja which is now missing) 
at Vidisa (Besnagar). At Shinkot in Bajaur, a relic casket with an 
inscription in Kharosthi by Vijaya Mitra, dated 25th day of Vaisakha, 
in the fifth year of the reign of Maharaja Minendra (Menander 161- 
155 B.C.). written by Anamkaya ( Gk anagkaios = relative) Vispila. Relief 
figures of Andhras. including Satakarni Western Malawa wws however 
occupied by Andhra Satakarni, the contemporary of Kharvela, defeating 
: Pushyamitra Sungas. Robust and energetic Andhra king with a crown on hig 
head, heavy earring in his ears, the girdle and a loin cloth, and his buxom 



ARTS — KUt^HANB 109 

Kaniska statue of Mathura is the first undonbted portrait 
image, found in the country. Unfortunately head and anna 
are missing (in Kaniska coins however, he has a roundish fiice, 
large strong nose, full beard, heavy eye brows, full-lipped mouth 
with a tall cap on his head). It is life size and Kaniska is shown 
standing in front, his right hand on a mace and his left clasping 
the hilt of a sword. He wears a tunic reaching to the kneen and 
held round the tonic by a girdle, two square plaques, probably of 
gold, showing in front. A long upper coat falls to below the 
knees. But the most conspicuous are the heavy top boots with 
strafs round the ankles, seemigly for spurs. In Brahrai charac- 
ters right across the garment - Mahi raja R.ijatiraja Devaputra 
Kaniska — The King, the King of Kings, son of gods — Kauiska. 

pretty queen with elaborate coiffure, heavy ringed earring in the ear, high 
globular breasts, slender waist, very large pelvis, and ornamental broad girdle 
with a clasp on Mount of Venus, round anklets, both in life size high reliefs 
with fine proud face, nose and eyes on the verandah of the chaityTi hall of 
Karli of 1st century B. C. Two life size pairs of .Andhra royal donars in 
high relief on the verandah of Chaitya Hall of Kinheri of the same age, 
if not a little earlier. Two buxom nudes on the two jambs from Bhutesvar 
in Mathura M, 1. 40 m of 130 A D. are strikingly realistic with small 
heads, full breasts, narrow waists, curly hair on mons veneris under 
ornamental girdles, prominent vulva, wide pelvis, fat thighs, short legs 
with heavy anklets, standing on dwarfs. 

The female mother goddess divinities of the Sanga, Andhra and 
Kushans have Mongoloid face, eyes and medium nose, fleshy lips, 
elaborate coiffure, large circular disk earrings, hanging stringed 
necklaces between high globular breasts, heavy girdles, either robed 
in a diaphaneous garment, but usually nude, their exaggerated vulva 
is displayed (also in the terracottas of Mauryas) depilated. A monolithic 
pillar with the carved image of a Yakshi in high relief has been 
found at Rajasan in Mujjaffur Dt. A Siva Lingam has been found at 
Bhita with a Brahmi inscription, now in Lucknow Museum ; on the 
upper part of the phallus there have been a head and a bust, the right 
hand giving blessing (abhaya mudr i) and the left hand holding a 
water vessel ; the remaining two heads testicles) are in low relief in 
a position corresponding to the waist line of the terminal bust and 
below the heads the suture of the phallus is shown. The earlier types 
of terracottas from Mathura and Pataliputra are similar even to those 
of old Mohenjodaro in respect to the horns of the headress. Gudimallam 
Lingam near Renigunta is a realistic cirucumcized phallus of polished 
sandstone with the figure of Nakulesa carved on its body. The deity 
is of Yaksa type with a headress, bracelets, armlets and a heavy necklace. 
A loin cloth is held by a looped waist string. But the circumciz-.^d penis 
is made visible. In his left hand there is a water vessel from which 
water flows On the Railing Pillar of MathurS, there is a pretty woman, 
very naturalistic, wearing head hair locks as a serpent's hood, heavy 
earrings, chain necklace, a number of bracelets, a thick undulating 
girdle, holding a piece of cloth around her right loin and holding 
the other end with her left hand ; and in right hand showing a rattle 



110 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

A bearded soldier wearing a tall cap oa the head, low acd 
wide necked jacket, kept in place by a west belt and trousers 
puifed up and sewen like the Chinese, a high boot, and holding 
in left hand a dagger and in the right an iron mace club. 

which a child is trying to reach, and a woman watching it by 
exposing her head over hanging curtain in the background. 

We find Bhajavihara near Puna of early Sunga period and other 
numerous cave temples. Vedisa Caitya Hall was excavated about 175 
B. C. almost in imitation of Barabar cave shrines, Bhaja is 60' long 
27' wide with a semicircular apse at the back, having an aisle, 
3%, wide separated from the nave by 27 plain octagonal shafts 11-1' 
high in 2 rows At the west end, a group of three cells is divided by 
the verandah by a pillaster and pillar with a freeze below. Digoba is 
11' in diameter and 10' feet high. At the west end of the verandah 
a ruler is driving in a four horsed chariot, accompanied by two women, 
one bearing a Chatra and the other the Chari. Figures on horse back 
form the escort, and of these the female rider has got a stirrup. The 
chariot is being driven across the back of women with large breasts 
and protuberent abdomen. A king with sharp face and nose and tall 
turban, wearing a long and heavy floral wreath is riding an elephant ; 
behind him is seated a man carrying a standard. In high relief on 
the screen wall of the verandah one with a defaced face is examining 
a, sword with both of his hands in a standing posture, wearing armored 
armlets and bracelets. In the Ramgarh Hill in Sirguja C. I. there 
is Sitabenga cave theatre with inscription in Asokan Brahmi 
characters. On the highest peak of Ramgarh Hill, about 2000 feet high, 
there is an ancient temple, partly in ruins, to which pilgrims still 
go for worship. The cave lies in the western slope of the northern part 
of the hill. To reach the cave one has to pass through a natural tunnel 
180 feet long, large enough through which elephants can easily pass for 
which it is called Hkthipjl. At the end of the tunnel there is a small 
plateau at the end of which rises a wood-crested crescent shaped hill. 
There are two caves, in Ramgarh Hill, the northern called Sitabenga 
and the southern Jogimara. The interior Sitabenga cave is oblong, 
46 feet by 24 feet. On three sides are broad rock cut terraced seats 2\ feet 
high and 7 feet wide. Near the entrance two holes have been cut in 
the floor to hold wooden posts to hang a curtain. The distinguished 
guests must have sat on the benches along the wall and the dramatic 
performance, dancing and poetic recitals with appropriate gestures 
would have taken place in front of the curtain. In front of the cave 
there is a a small amphitheatre, almost in Greek style, consisting of 
rock cut benches rising in terraces above each other, there is enough 
space in front of the amphitheatre to erect a stage in the open air. 
The amphitheatre has a seating capacity of more than 50 people. 
Lenasobhika, found in a Mathura inscription, means a cai^eactress. 
In Jogimara cave there are some oldest fresco paintings. Fresco is 
divided into concentric circles ; in the centre a man is seated under a 
tree with dancing girls and musicians to the left, a procession including an 
elephant to the right. A nude male, perhaps a Jaina, is seated, attended by 
three clothed men standing. Jogimara inscription mentions Devadasi 
Sutamuka, loved by Devadinna of Bar.lnasi, rupadaksha— connoisseur of 
beauty — by profession. 



ARTS-8UN0A m 



A nude female with heavy rinpjed earrinj^s, armlets, anklets, 
double girdle, pluckinjt Asoka (lowers with her left hand! 
while htjlding a sword hilt in her right arm. staiulmg on a 
pedastal with two lions as supports. A monolithic Lini^am 
whose glai^spenis is being decorated with a floral wreath" by 
a woman while a man is carved on it in the Yaksha dress. 



Kinn^ira Mithuna Phque 2' 2" x 2' 2" x 4" of Ahicchatra of Kushan 
period. The centaur«.\ss with a human female i)ust joincl to the lower 
part of a mare is galloping on a hill terrain, carrying on her back her 
human husband who is fondingly caressing the chin of the centauress 
with the tingures of his right hand while holding a fii:)wery shaft on 
the left. In the upper right corner there is a flying garland bearer. 

Bharhut Eastern Gateway at least was erected during the Sung 

Dynasty (185-173 B C.) according to an inscription — Kapa Bhutisa— 

Vatsi putrasa Vadhapl (lasa) Dhanabhuti-,a dmam— Vedika Torana 

ca Ratnagiha Chava Buddhapujiye. Gifts of Diianabhuti of Mathura, 

most likely the same person, included likewise Vtdika (an open 

pillared hall for reciting sacred texts), Torana (gateway : Jap Torii) 

and Ratnagriha (treasury, where valuable gifts and cash endowments 

were kept^. only 49 pillars out of 89, and 80 railbars out of 228 have 

been found. The composite pillars of the gateway, made up of 4 

clustered columns with modified Persipolitan capitals contain certain 

mason marks in Kharosthi characters. The Railing which was only 

found in situ contains sculpiures of great excellence particularly 

incidents of Buddha's life, as on Prasenjit pillar, Prasenjit with his 

queen Mnllika, Prasenjit in a four horsed chariot going to Dharma 

Cakra (Raja Pasenji Kosalo Bhagavato Dhamo Cakam', Aj'itasatru 

on his elephant, accompanied by dancing girls in a procession 

(Aj'itasatru Pillar : Aj Uasatru Bhagavata vandhe), J.-tavana Vih'ira 

in the mango orchard of Sravasti with Anuhpindeka as a donor, 

medilion busts of three kings and two queens, Nigi king's 'Nfiga 

Raja Cakavako, Erapato Naga R ja Bhagovato vandatc), 30 Yakshas 

and Yakshis (Ganagila, Suciloma. Chandl. Sudarsanfi) with Kuvera 

(Kupiro Yakho) as their king. Sirima the courtesan, with excellent 

jack trees, floral designs, horses, deers and elephants, all in high 

relief. Buddha Gaya has some interesting inscriptions on the old 

stone Railing : Rano Indagimitia ( sa pasada Chetika ) Sirimaye 

(danai)=The gift of the female superintendent Sirima of Rino 

Indragni Mitra. Rano Brahma Mitra pajavatiye Nlgadevayc d mam- 

the gift of Naga Devi, the concubine of Rano Brahma Mitra, 

(Brihaspati Mitra, ruler of Magadha in Kharvela Hathi[;umpha 

Inscription), Ayaye (arya = noble lady) Kurangiye danam. A turbined 

man as Sarya is driving one wheeled chariot with four horses. The 

chariot shows a high frame in front. Two Yakshis, representing Ush^ 

and Surya, with their drawn bows and arrows, are driving out darkness. 

In the Vedas, Siirya is supposed to have 7 steeds. In Sasanian art the 

moon is a female deity like Gk. Selene, and her chariot is drawn by 

cows ; but the sun in Sasanian and Mithraic mythology is a male 

god and his chariot is drawn by four white steeds. It is represented 

thus at Khair Khana. In tetradrachma of Platon of the Eastern 

Greeks, Helios is represented as driving a chariot drawn by 4 horses. 



112 THE LITERARY HISTORY CF ANCIENT INDIA 

Guptas excelled the Kushang both in architectare, and 
sculptures, particularly in metalic works. Their works were 
more refined aud idealized. The copper Buddha, 7 feet 6 
inches, found at Sultanganj, Bhagalpur, now in Birmingham 
Museum, is a notable example of their workmanship of about 
400 A.D. It weighs more than a ton. Buddha has fine long 
nose, refined shaven face, beautiful forehead and half-closed 
eyes; but the lips are flsshy and the ear lobes are distended. 
There ia a skull cap on the head, or early hairs are formed as a 
terraced mound. The robe falling up to the ankles is very 
diaphaneous, displaying every part of the body, including a 
small penis. A sandstone image of Narasimha— a lion headed 
standing man, has been found at Besnagar, now in Gwalior M. 

Al Bamiyan two armed females on both sides of Bodhisattva guard him. 
Zodiac signs i the standing figure of a bull (Vrisha) ; a standing lion 
(Simha) ; in the circular zone of a medallion, the bust of a damsel 
with heavy braids of hair round her head on which there are two 
basketfuls of fruits and grains like the Roman Ceres, instead of the 
figure of a damsel in a floating boat as Kanya ; Sirima sitting with her legs 
apart exposing her vulva, a floral crown on her head and a flower in 
her hand ; Centaur with the upper part of a man and the body of a bull as 
Dhanu ; the upper part of a boy with the lower part of a dolphin as Makara 
(in Gk. mythology Eros = Cupid is a mischievious boy and is associated 
with dolphin ; in the Puranas K^ma Deva had the dolphin on his 
standard and was called Makara-dvaja) ; a nude human pair, copulating 
in a standing posture in the granite Gate Pillar of the Middle Panel ; 
a man and a woman sitting in an amorous mood, the man holding a flower 
in his hand while there is a mace by the side of a woman ; a lion copula- 
ting a doe, as mentioned in Vissa sabhojana Jataka 93 as Mithuna. A 
winged horse = Pegasus ; a winged lion = Sphnix ; a winged antelope. 

The female image stuco of Rajgir with realistic face and breasts ; 
but the skirt she puts on is made so transparent that even her pubic 
hairy triangle is made visible as the wife of Egyptian Mycernus (now in 
Boston Museum, as Hathor with Mycernus, now in Cairo M). Naturalistic 
realism and transparency of garb are typical characteristics of Later 
Andhras of Amaravati and particularly of Gupta arts. Siva as an ascetic at 
Deogarh ; beneath his loin cloth his phallus is shrinking, though the 
the Aspsaras in their various postures are trying their best to rouse 
his libido The Iron pillar at Mehrauli near. Delhi of Chandra Gupta II 
(375-413) is 23 feet 8 inches high. It has a Persepolitan lotus bell capital. 
There is an iron column at Dhar over 42 feet in length of 321 A.D. 
Samudra Gupta's rudely sculptured stone horse, found at Kheri, now 
in Lucknow Museum, may not have the merit of the fine galloping 
horse on the capital of the Asokan column at Sarnath, but it is of 
historic importance. A broken head has been found at Taxila which 
almost looks like a Roman senator. Siva Nataraja, a figure in bronze 
of early tenth century in India Museum, dancing his cosmic dance, is 
of extra-ordinary grace and strength, showing his four arms, encircled 
by the flaming nimbas of the manifest universe. It was the god of 
the Cholas who built up Chidambaram for its sanctuary ; it was the 
Ananda Tandava— the Dance of Joy- of Nataraja Siva. 



ARTS-nARAPP\ CULTURE ll8 

Harappa cultural elements have been found in over 60 sites between 
Rupar in Amballa where the Sutlaj emerges into the plains, on the Hanks 
of the dried beds of Satadru, Drishadvati and Sarasvati upto Sulkagru dor 
near the coast of the Arabian Sea Harapp'i culture canncH bo dated 
beyond c. 250J B C. For a lozcnce-shaped seal from Harappi and 
a round seal of Chanhudaro bear a splayed eagle such as occurs at Susa 
C. 2-100 or at Tell Brack in N. Syria of C. 2100. At Rupar, Harappa 
culture is buried 30^- 40' below the present surface of bronze implenienis. 
— beads, terracottas, chert blades, earthenware, seatite beads with 3 
symbols of Indus script, sun-baked brick granaries, and ramparts (a may. 
Granaries were found in big cities in Babylonia and E:.;ypt, attached to 
temples or courts as treasuries on the canils, as in Harappa, for the 
collection of taxes in kind or labor. Terracotta nude female figurines 
are the earth mother goddesses of \V Asia or peptecoy Venuses of Roman 
Gaul. The image of unicorn carried in procession recalls the animal 
standard which represented the nomes of E^ypt. Harappa cultures flourish- 
ed for about a millenium. Then about 140J, came a defferent people, 
possibly Aryans, whose war implements consisted of iron in addition to 
bronze, with painted grey vvare, a fine grey pottery, painlel with designs 
in black. 600-203 8 C saw the rule of the Mauryas. The town dweller 
deposited the refuse and sewage of liis house in deep pits, lined with 
burnt clay rings. Once the pit was filled, others were sunk beyond it. 
A fine stone disc, carved with the image of the goddess of fertility, bone 
and ivory combs, hair pins, styli, toys of baked clays have been found of 
the Maurya period, Mauryas were followed l)y Sungas about 200 B. C. 
Sungas introduced voluptuous Yaksha and Yakshi images. Yaudheya and 
Audumbara coins have been found. Then came Kushans. 600 Vasudeva 
coins have been found. Later came the Guptas in fifth century. \ 
Candra Gupta gold coin with his Licchavi princess has I)een found. Gupta 
terracottas include a fine figure of a sitting musician, A set of ritual silver 
utensils consists of an incense burner, ladle and a ringed chain. 

Gift of Sunga - Ka putasa Indagi - Mitasa pajavati ye Jiva - putaye 
Kurangiye diinam (of Kurangi, daughter of Jiva, beloved of Indagni Mitra, 
son of K-i, on the Kurangi pillar near the NE corner of Railing. 
Bodh Gaya. There is a lifesize strikingly naturalistic figure of a 
Yakshi, clinging to a tree, her right foot is being supported by a male 
figure ; unfortunately her face has been chiffed off by ttie iconoclasts. On a 
pillar on Buddha's canopied walk, there is a life-size standing maiden 
with her forefinger on her lips ; the thick and heavy locks of her head 
are plaited and interwreathed with fillets, and over the head, there is 
an embroidered skull cap ; her ornamental girdles are holding a piece 
of cloth falling up to her ankles, but exposing fully very thick and curly 
pubic hair ; her feet rest upon a large mouthed Persepolitan vase, placed 
upon 4 steps, each upper step smaller than the lower one. 

An inscription in Chinese at Mah'ibodhi : *• This stupa was 
erected by the emperor and empress of the Great Sung Dynasty — in 
memory of his Imperial Majesty Tai Tsung. By command of his Imperial 
Majesty our divinely most enlightened, most gljrious, most virtujus. 
most filial sovereign of the Great Sung Dynasty and of her Imperial 
Majesty— our most graceous, most virtuous and most compas- 
sionate empress, I the Buddhist priest Hui-wen have been humbly 

8 



114 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

commissioned to proceed to the country of Magadha and to erect on 
behalf of his departed Imperial Majesty, Tai—Tsung— the humane, 
orthodox, deserving and divinely virtuous." 

Hathi Gumpha is almost a natural cavern in the sandstone 
TJdayagiri Hill of Orissa ; it contains the Kharvela inscription of 161 
B. C. Mancapuri cave contains another Kharvela inscription, and a 
crudely executed frieze where a female wears a mural crown Ananta 
Rani and Ganesa Gumphas are of 150 - 50 B. C. On the pediment of 
Ananta, M lya Devi stands with 2 elephants on her both sides, known 
later as Gaja-Lakshmi of the Hindus ; Ganesa and Rani are two storied 
caves, an Indo - Persepolitan pilaster, a square column with circlets on a 
large mouthed vase, placed on a stepped square base with friezes in 
basreliefs, interrupted by cell doorways at the back of the verandah. 
Ganesa Gumpha contains a replica of the Rani. The other basrelief 
contains 15 figures and two elephants, scenes of hunting and fighting. Rani 
Gumpha also has a basrelief representing a procession of Persanath. 

Rani Ka Nur fqueen's palace), which is close to Ganesa, is two- 
storied. On the ground floor, it has a pillared verandah 43^ long and 
opens into 3 cells, the central one having 3 doors, the lateral ones only 
two each. In the upper storey the verandah is 63' long and opens into 
4 cells with two doors in each. There is a dramatic basrelief of 4 males 
and 4 females in 4 groups. A man is asleep at the doorway and a 
sitting woman watching him. A man and a woman are engazsd in a 
combat with swords and shields. On the extreme right, a man is carrying 
off in his arm an amazon = a fighting female who still carries her shield 
in her arm and has dropped her sword. At the north end of the 
verandah there are lifesize high reliefs ; a Bacchic woman riding astride 
a lion ; near it is a figure of a warrior in a short tunic or kilt, reaching 
to the knee with a scarp thrown over the left shoulder and knotted on the 
right ; on his left side hangs a stout sword of Roman type and on his 
feet he wears boots reaching to the calf of the leg. It is likely to be a 
representative of the Yavana Demetrius, soldiers that penetrated into 
Orissa. Svargapuri and Manchapuri are 2 -storied oldest dormi- 
tories by the chief queen of Kharvela. The lower part of Mancapuri 
cave floor is 20' below the surrounding ground level ; two side rooms on 
the sides of the verandah are supported by heavy pillars. Along the 
backside of the verandah runs a stone bench for the Jaina monks. 
Each of five doorways and on each of the pilaster there is a cruciform 
capital on which are seated winged lions of Persepositan desingn. A 
broken piece of stone slab in high relief of early sixth century is in 
Bhuvanesvara Musuem. A woman is leaning on a cot (the head and 
the upper part of her body is missing), with her left hand bedecked with 
an armlet and a wristlet on her vulva, her waist girdle is in two courses 
of round beads. A man is seated in front of her on the cot, thereby 
hiding her thighs, with his right leg vertical and the left leg laid fiat, a 
Jata-mukuta as arranged in Buddha and Likulusa figures of Gupta type, 
Patra Kundalas in the ears, a necklet of a single course of beads as in 
Gupta style ; from his Urdhva Medhra (erect penis) there is a vigorous 
upward flow of semen which is received in a cup by another man in 
the left from which he is drinking. In Ram (1. 36) it is mentioned that 
Siva was engazed in sexual embrace v/ith Uma for 100 years without 
any discharge of semen. This annoyed the Devas. Devas counselled and 



ABTS— JAINA AT.IGAPATA3 115 

asked Siva to discontinue his sexual union wiih Um'i Siva ni;r(jc(l. 
though Unifi protested, becoming angry, being left ungratified, but asked 
the Devas as to who would receive his surging semen. Indra was deputed 
for the task. Therefore Kumara [K. rtekeya; is called Agni Sam'jhava. 

A symmetrical microlith found at Laughnaj Gujarat, with unicorn 
rhinoceros, shoulder blade as hanuner, and a few other niicrolithic sites of 
India, is made from a thick flake with a lilgh rib by the method of break- 
ing one of the sides obliquely away until a sharp pjint is obtained -an 
arrowhead --which is common witli Australian microliihs, l)ut quite 
different from the microliths from the Wilton of 5 Africa .Man 182, Sept 
1952 . Cave paintings at Mahadeo Hills and Kolihar paintings, in red 
ochre, portraying dancing human figures, found with microliths, seem to 
be primitive prehistoric like the .Aurignacian gaffili of Spain and Saiiara 
of Negro-Hamitic peoples. But all rock paintings are not prehistoric. 
Swords, shields, horse riding and ICharosihi inscriptions of .Mandory and 
Gandale rock engravings near Attok ; swords, shields, palanquins and 
elephant /^/ze/ia/^^ of Gambogaddi Hill, Jamak handi state; horse riding 
at Bangalore indicate that they were of historic times. In a cave at 
Bhaldaros is painted a wounded wild boar with m ^uth open, suggesting 
pain ; there is an arrow shaft at thi back. .At Likhunia the capture of a 
wild elepliant by horsemen with tlie help of a tame elephant. Near 
Bijoyagarh fort a low relief on the rock of a warrior and a lion. In one 
of the caves on the Fort Hill have been recorded two dozen inscriptions in 
red ochre ol 5-Sth. century A. D. , 

The votive tablet -by Ganiki Lenisobhika at the Niganthan-im 
Arhatatoma in Brahmi script of the later part of 1st century B. C in 
mottled red sandstone, now in Mathura Museum, was found embedded 
in a wall in the outskirts of Mathurfi. It gives a picture of a Jaina 
stupa which stood on a high plinth as it was approached by 9 steps, 
leading to a iorona gateway witli a garland hanging from it. Tlie 
stupa was surrounded by a railinj;. The side columns are of Perse- 
politan type and bear a sun wheel and a lion. A male, a female 
and a child are posturing. Two seductive Yakshis with pronounced 
vulva are standing. Two nude flying figures bearing alms and cloth. 

Two other Ayigapatas, ornamental slabs bearing the representation 
of Jaina saints or stupas, have been found at Kankali mound of .Mathura, 
one set up by Sivayasa, the wife of dancer Fhaguyasa. and the other 
by Amohini in the year 42 of the lord Mahskshatrapa Sodasa, A Jaitia 
stupa is guarded by a railing. One ascends the stupa enclosure on a 
high plinth through a decorated Torana gateway by a 4 stepped stairway. 
A Yakshi type, sensual nude, except wearing an ornamental girdle, 
a necklace and anklets, reclines against a Torana pillar, placing her 
flexed kneed slightly separated feet on the railin;^ in Tribhanga voluptuous 
pose, exposing her vaulted monsveneris and vulva, putting her right hand 
on her raised right hip and raising left hand on her head, thus exposing 
her two firm globular breasts, on eacli side of the gate. There is a 
dedication at the bottom of the plinth in a more archaic character than 
Sunga Dhanabhuti inscription on Bharut stupa gateway of about 150 B. C, 
Amohini royal tablet represents a royal lady, attended by the three 
women and a child. The attendent women are n.aked to the waist. One 
holds an umbrella over her mistress whom another fans ; the third holds 



116 THE LITEEARr HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

a garland in her extended hands. The execution is bold and naturalistic. 
In the Vodva tablet, a Dharmacakra is supported by a insula which itself 
rests on a lotus. Four female figures, dressed in a single long robe 
covering the whole body to the feet and confined at the waist, hold up in 
their right hands a long stalked lotus flower while the fourth one who is 
younger clasps her hands in an attitude of adoration and partly hidden much 
behind a bearded human headed crouching lion of Assyrian type. There 
are inscriptions at the top of the slab and at the bottom. 

Jaya Vijaya Cave has female statue in low relief about 6 feet, 
leaning her weight on her right leg, the left foot being bent behind the 
right, only the toes touching the ground ; she is certainly nude above 
the waist, possibly wearing a drawer, holding in her right hand a 
flower while her left forearm is bent horizontally across her waist ; the 
headdres is a ribbed hat with long lappels ; face is cliffed ofif, but the 
form is naturalistic and graceful. 

The Khandagiri Hill Caves are of much later date. All have a 
chamber shaded by a verandah in front, but a few possess an antechamber 
which is divided into several cells. The more elaborate are two storied. 
The largest of them have an extra verandah of masonry painted and 
plastered, in addition to the usual one ; it contains sculptures of 24 
Jaina saints — male and female TirthSnkaras ; also an image of Hanuman in 
one corner which probably was added later. In one cave the entrance is 
in the shape of the mouth of a tiger. Chaitya Garh of Bhaja cave of 2nd 
century B. C ; it has five cells- The cornice is supported by male 
figures as caryatids, wearing waist cloth, large turbans and much 
ornaments. Armed door keepers wear the same dress. A few miles 
further off are the Kondane Daitya and Vihara caves of the same age of 
Bhaja ; but as at Kondaine wooden form of architecture is more 
liberal. Bsdsa caves of 1st century B. C. are of lithic type. Horses 
and elephants bearing men and women on the capitals are of more 
animated execution- The caitya Hall of Karli Cave is a marvellous 
creation. It is 124 feet long, 45 feet broad and 45 feet high with a ribbed 
vaulted dome, contains a nave, apse and aisle •, the apse contains in 
place of the altar, a stupa, everything hewn out of the rock. Nasika 
Cave is of 1st century B. C, Cave 3 of 1st century A. D. 

Aurangabad Cave 3 contains many columns. One of these columns 
is carved with 16 scenes. The number of figures varies from 2== 4 inch each. 
Two sitttng persons are drinking ; then dancing with their backs to each 
other, then quarrelling ; certain groups of kneeling worshippers have their 
hair dressing in Egyptian fashion. There is an extensive group of 
Kanheri Caves. The Caitya Cave is a replica of the Karli Cave, 
enshrined by Pushyavarman, according to a copper plate inscription. 
The finest among the Vihara Caves is a two-storied one. Another cave, 
likely of Gupta sixth century, has the representation of Avalokitesvara 
with 10 hands which is common in Tibet. The Junir Caves halfway 
between Puna and Nasika have square terminations without any support- 
ing pillars in the interiors. One of the caves is circular in shape. There 
are no figure sculptures in any of them, except one which is of later 
construction whose facade is decorated by the elephants, pouring water on 
the head of SrJ. The Ajanta caves, 32 in number, have been executed 
on the face of perpendicular rock with charming scenic background, dating 
from 3rd century B. C. to 7th century A. D. 



* ABI8 — S.lNCI 117 

The earliest temple structure is found at Sanci of Maurya 
period. The orij:;inal structure consists of an apsidal etono 
plinth approached by a flight of steps on the eastern and 
western side. The superstructure was of wood. Now it lies 
hidden beneath later constructions. Temple.^ to Sankarshana 
and Vasudeva were also erected at Nagari in Madhyamika 
(Udaipur) ; a Bhagavata shrine at Besnagar in Gwalior. 

At Durgapur, knifeblades, crescents, arrowheads, owls, small axes, 
made of quartz or cornelian used on wooden slicks to makt: composite 
tools as found in as Asia and Africa for preagricultural hunting age. 

At Joggayyapetn Stupa, ne:ir .Amar'.vati on the Krishni there is a 
well-made basrelief of C.ikravartin with 9 Jewells - wif.-, daughter, son, 
horse, elephant and arms. 

Sanci Tope: Maurya Asokan original structure of brick 16" x 10' 
X 3" ; Apsidal Hall ; umbrelb and pillar of buff-grey Chunar sand- 
stone ; pillar was -42 feet high round and slightly tai)ering monolithic 
shaft with bell shaped foliate capital, adorned with 4 hone) suckle motive 
above which an abacus supporting the fore fronts of 4 mngnificent lions. 
Sunga : stone envelope and ground stairway of stupa I ; body and 
stairway of stupas 3, 4. 6 ; pillared pavilion =^ mandapa on the ruins of 
Apsidal Hall and a pillar fluted with bell capital ; the pillar is l5'l" from 
ground level ; its diameter is 1^8^'' at the base; up to 4'7" the shaft 
is octogonal ; above that 1 6-sided. Andhras : four gateways ; and 
extension ground balustrade, sculptures on pillars 22. 27 on ground 
balustrade, Gupta : four image shrinks in procession path, a fine temple 
with verandah. 1 N?igi statue, two monasteries, two stupas and two 
pillars of circular shapts with square bases ; the capitals of the columns 
are bell shaped of lotus type with leaves falling over their shoulders ; 
above this is a circular cable necking above which there is a deep 
square abacus ; the crowning feature of lions with cakra has disapp-.-ared ; 
on another abacus there is a splendid Budhisattva Vajrap'ini of Nagouri 
bufT sandstone splashed and streaked with purplish brown; the temple 
has the plan of prostyle Greek temple of a single square chamber 1S"5 x 
12'9" X 13' high in front supported on 4 pillars and an anta on either 
side of the entrance correspondence to the corner pillar ; its walls and 
fiat root slabs are built of the same Nagouri stone. Tnere are S42 
inscriptions of donors of Sanci Tope whose ancient names are Kakanaya 
= Sri Parvata = Cetiya Giri. Bharut, Sanci and Bodh Gaya Railings 
and Sanci Toranas are well noted for their sculptural magnificence and 
though Bharut basreliefs not only are inscribed with the names of principal 
characters and the nanv^s of the J itaka stories which they dlusiratc, 
Buddha before the Kushan ptriod is never represented in hum.an form, 
but by such symbols, as footprints, umbrellas, wheels or the Bjdhi tree. 
At Bharut the life siz^ figure of a soldier, head bare, whose short curly., 
hair is bound with a broad ribbon whicii is fastened at the back of the 
head in a streaming bow. Face and nose are sharp. Wearing a 
tunic with long sleeves, reaching nearly to mid thighs ; it is tind at the 
throat by a chord with two tassels and across the stomach by a double 
looped bjw. There are trousers which are held by a v.aist band whose 
ends fall to the feet. Boots cover the feet and legs which are fastened 



118 THE LITERABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDI A 

The temple of Jandian at NW Taxila resembled the Greek 
type of peristyle shrine. Its front porch = pronaos led through a 
side door to the sanctuary = naos and to the back porch — opitha- 
damos. It differs from the Greek typs in having a massive 
platform between the sanctuary and the porches, possibly for the 
fire tower of the Zoroastrains, surrounded on three sides by a 
passage taking the place of the columned peristyle of Greek 
temples. Front portion had 4 Ionic columns in two rows which 
indicates that it was built not later than 103 B. C. 

by two tassels. In the left hand, he has a flower, and in his right hand 
a broad straight sword, sheathed in a scabbard, suspended from the 
left shoulder by a long flat belt. It is Mithra = Mihira = J/iz/w/a which is 
carved on the statued pillar. Moon Goddess, holding a mirror, streaming 
reflected light, Ad'.sugahaka = Ir. Mah. Temptation of Buddha by Rati 
(Gk. Erota) and other daughters of Mara (Rom. Amor). A nude Rati 
over Makara (Dolphin) which became later Makara-Vahini Ganga. 

The temple is rectangular and the outer walls are heavy with 
numerous windows on three sides. On the fourth side facade, there is an 
entrance divided into three parts by two square pilasters. Within this 
enclosure, there is a second rectangular unit, and between this and outer 
wall runs a corridor of uniform width on three sides but surrounded wider 
on the front. The inner building consists of three rooms in Scytho- 
Parthian style. It has been suggested that this was the temple visited by 
Apollonius of Tyana in about 4h^ A. D. where he expected to be received 
by the king of Taxila. 

At Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda=^ Vijayapuri, Buddha has 
no image, in the reliefs of the first period ; but in the later half, Buddha 
becomes a dominant figure. The early typa of Kusan Buddha and Budhi- 
sattvas of Mathura is in round and of high relief in the mottled red sand- 
stone of Sikri or Rup Bas. The head is shaven, and later with curly hair. 
Ushnisha is spiral, in imitation of the curly hair, according to Nid-lna- 
katha. The right hand is raised as abhaya mudrl ; the left is often 
clenched, and in the case of seated figures rests on the thighs, and in 
case of the standing figures, it supports the folds of the robe, the 
elbow being at some distance from the body ; the robe leaves the 
right shoulder bare ; the drapery moulds the flesh closely and is 
arranged in schematic folds. Both at Bharut and Sanci floral 
designs are excellent. Some of the pillar figures not only show fine 
decorative fitness, but also display fine anatomical propjrtion and 
graceful beauty of the human body. The rhythmic swaying pose, displaying 
voluptuous softness of the nubile breasts, slender waist, rich and healthy 
sexuality and seductive sensuality of the nude Yakshis, appearing as if 
in living pulsating flish and blood, are really outstanding contributions 
of the nude art of sculpture of ancient India. Animal scluptures are also 
finest, even beating the Egyptians and Assyrians. They have been 
carved sometimes with such skill, keen inside and knowledge of the 
animal life, they seem to be living and moving creatures, instead of 
dead stones. At the back of the east gateway at Sanci, all the animal 
world are assembled to pay homage to the Bodhi tree ; buffaloes, slow 
and patient, stand close to the tree ; in the left corner a docile cow is 



ARTS— AJANTA 119 

Acinta monastery whore Ann Asanga of Yorjacara scliool of 
Buddhists hved was called hiter Ajanta. '29 Buddhist shi Iiigh have 
been cut out from the rock which as sharp perpendicular cUff, 
occupying about ^ a mile of the wall space, in a semicircular 
crescent, facing the Ajanta ravine in the west, thus exposes 
Ajanta facac^es, veranda sculptures and paintinj,'8 wiih the inclined 
golden light of the sun. From cave to cave a rude If^dge and a 
stair unsteadily chambers and a pretty wixtorfall splashes over it 
half-way. Ancient excavations — 8, 10, 13 have no paintings ; 
Vd, the oldest of them of about 200 B. C. has polished walls. 
Columns and reliefs are found in all, paintings only on columms 
and ceilings in 1, 2, 9, 10, II, 16, 17, 19, '21 in 17 the most 
extensive. Caves 9, 10, 19 are chaityas — shrines, jind the rest 
are viharas— monastic residences. The stone is bluish mauve. 
Each of the vihara consists of a central hall, used either as a 
dining hall -refectory or oratorial school with some cells opening 
into it and a great sanctuary opposite the main entrance with 
pillared asles, naves and verandahs. Caves 1(5 and 17 are of 
sixth century work. So Ajanta exhibits nearly continuous 8 
centuries of art activities of India. There is a Vakataka inscrip- 
tion in cave 16. 

resting ; a herd of black buck occupies the opposite corner, one is engazed 
in scraching its ear ; a porrot rears its head as if to screem at its enemy — 
the serpent ; poacocks with their haughty crested head and swelling 
plunnge (Indian sculptures were often plastered to cover up whcreever 
necessary the sculptural defects and painted) ; two apes busily occupied 
in picking fruits ; a fine goat ; on tlie front of the West Gateway. 
Sanci, there is a remarkable herd of elephants, depicting the events of 
Saddanta Jataka. 

The surface of the rock wall was spread over with a thin ferruginous 
layer of clay mixed with cowdung, lime, and hemp fibres ^ of an inch 
thick ; over this, columns, figurines, carven decorations and reliefs w.as 
overlaid a coating of lime plaster to cover any unevenness, broken chiffs 
of stone, defecting anatomical carvings. Multi-colored gravels which lie 
round the rocks were finely grounded and mixed with rice, or linseed 
decoction and a little molasses. With bold and easy strokes of brushes, 
everything was painted while the plaster was wet with marked technical 
skill and emphatic passionate force. Then the punted surface was 
rubbed over with a small trowel to create smoothness, sheen and vividness 
of the fresco paintings. In the antechamber shnne of cave 1, Buddha is 
seated cross-legged, he.ad hair is in Apollonian curls, but the lips are thick. 
The doorway to the shrin j is richly carved with fi )ral and creeper designs. 
Next to it on both sides are Bodhisattvas as door keepers ; above them in 
4 panels are four mude loving pairs in different postures ; next to them are 
two pillars, bases octagonial, middle round at their capitals consist of two 
water vessels, one a!)ode the other ; ne.-ct is another pair of columns, 
bottom third of which is round, middle third is fluted, above which there 
are two water vessels ; above the water vessels there are Makaras ; above 
the Makaras, pretty nule Ratis in suggestive poses. Next to them, flanked 



120 THE LITERARY HISTOEY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

on the side walls are the paintings of tall Vajiapanis accompanied on 
their left their Saktis or 7ara5 of dark complexion — staid wisdom's hue 
— all wearing crowns on their head, striped loin clothes on their hips and 
holding a white lotus in their hands, with however languorous eyes. There 
is another interesting picture in the same cave A king is seated on a 
sofa, covered with yellowish piece of cloth with floral design with his queen 
by his left side. She wears a tiara on her highly decorated hair, wears 
a stringed pearl necklace, only one bracelet and a yellowish blouse ; 
A Naga king, wearing a crown with cobra heads, comes to pay a visit. He 
is seated by the side of the host. Long wavy hairs fall on their shoulders, 
beneath their crowns The Naga king wears a leather belt with a number 
of punched holes in the centre which is holding his stripped multicolored 
loin cloth ; a slave girl comes forward to massage his feet. Other lovely 
maidens with ftne wavy hair dressings and pearl necklaces come forward 
with trays of flowers, fruits, meat cakes and bowls of drinks to be offered 
to the gut-st. There is a Negro body guard with a sword in his hand with 
short wooly krinky hair, short broad nose, everted lips, long eyes, coarse 
featured black complexion. Behind the host there is a fat eunuch, wearing 
a long-sleeved tunic with a doubled dome shaped cap, on a crescent of 
his head and a sword hilt on his head. Every maid has almost a decorative 
value, irrespective of their charming, graceful poses, refined cultivated 
manners and appearance, pretty coiffures with rich wavy hairs, soft gentle 
eyes and captivating youthful swelling plump nubile breasts Cave 17, 
painting in antechamber. Buddha begging through the streets of Kapija- 
vastu is before his own house. Buddha has a loose robe over his body, a 
Scythian cap over his head, a begging bowl in his right hand. A Vidhya- 
dhara flying over Buddha's head is holding over it a flower decked 
umbrella. Bimb^ Devi thinking that her husband might pass by that 
main road, wearing her finest jewellery, her coiffure stylishly made, some 
of her luxuriant wavy hairs falling as if carelessly over her left shoulder, a 
white half-sleeved blouse, her stripped loin cloth held over her youthful 
swollen hips by ornamental girdles, is sitting on her partico. holding her 
seven year old son Rahula in her lap, wearing a leather jacket with sleeves 
and loin cloth. When Buddha comes, she holds both the hands of her 
child to show him his father. Both of them gaze at him with wonder and 
expectations. The tender pathos expressed in their face and eyes has been 
drawn in rhythmic brush lines with e}^quisite delicacy and charm. It is 
certainly one of the richest and most marvellous, if not the best, of the art 
treasures of the world. Buddha carne to Kapilavastu when marriage 
festival of his step-brother Nanda. son of Pajavati, with her daughter and 
his own uterine sister Janapada Kalyani Sundari Nanda, was being 
arranged. Nanda and Nanda were full of joyful expectations. Nanda at 
the request of his sweet heart went to Buddha to invite him to their happy 
marriage ceremony, Buddha persuaded Nanda to be a follower of his 
wonderful wandering Sangha. Nanda at first could not believe that her 
beloved would act so foolishly and treacherously against her ; but when 
the news was corroborated, Nanda overwhelmed with grief, was sinking 
and lying prostate over her bed. Nanda is wearing a stripped loin cloth. 
One of her friends wearing a white blouse is keeping her sitting oa a 
couch, leaving her left arm on a pillow by holding her from behind, a 
maid wearing loin cloth and sash on her breasts is fanning her with a straw 
fan ; a friend wearing a white blouse is holding her hand ; a female 



ARTS — B\OH OAVES 121 

relative holding a water jar in her hand is talking with another, all having 
profound grief and anxious look. This great picture is painted in cave 16, 
one of the world great art objects. 

In cave 26, there is a recumbent dying RuJdha 23,J- feet lonv:. In 
Kanchow at Ta Fu Ssu= Big Buddha Temple, a 40 yards long Buddha 
lies on a couch of carved lotus petals, surrounded by statues of lesser 
saints, excavated about SOD years ago by Mongolian Lamas. Cave 2 is 
48' - 4" X 47' - 7" /.nd the roof is supported l)y 12 massive and 
elaborately carved pillars. 

In the ceiling of cave I : one middle aged good looking man, bearded 
and mou^tached wearing a Sasanian full-sleeved tunic and a breib!)ond 
bonnet on liis hat such as seen in the portraits of tlie kinas of the 
Sasanian dynasty is sitting cross hgged on a divan holding a wine goljlet 
in his right hand A Saqi (Skt. Siikh' = Gk. hetaira-a female 
companion) with amorous eyes wearing a kind of Greek chiton and 
himaton and a fillet in her hair is leaning on his left shoulder. Two 
female cup-bearers with wine jars in their hands are standing on his 
both sides, their skirts falling to their ankles, wearing a round skull 
cap on their head, and embroidered full-sleeved olouse on their body. 
Two men with light jackets and round caps on their heads are sitting 
below his feet holding in their hands trays containing meat cakes and 
eggs. We know Sasanian ruler Kosroes II sent an embassy to Chalukya 
Pulakesin 11 in 630 A. D. This is their very naturalistic and faithful 
representation. It has been very cleverly executed. 

Near Aurangabad, there is a rock-cut superb Buddhist Chaitya shrine 
of 150 200 B.C. There is a high relief ballet scene of about 600 A. D. 
in which the body of the pretty buxom ballerina is full of swinging 
rhythmic movements with a group of active n-.usicians seated round 
her on the stage. 

Bagh Caves in Gwalior number 9, and at least two of them have fine 
pictures of life like and vigorous elephants, particularly iiorses, and 
graceful women. But the sites and pigments were not well selected. 
Excavations were carried out in soft and easily quarried sandstone 
over which there was a thick and heavy hyer of claystone. The 
claystones falling upon the cave verandhas. pillars and rt-lief figures 
crushed many of theiu. Fresco colours became easily discolored by the 
combined action of humidity and lime. Cave 1 is iSTxSO' with 20 
pillars in the square. Caves 2 and 4 have large central courts, surroun- 
ded by 20 and 28 cells with pillared verandahs Caves 3 and 5 have 
more elaborate cells. Cave 5 has a rectangular hall with row of 
pillars on a common plinth, parallel to which runs a bench intended as 
a seat of dining table. Similar shelf like projections have been found 
in Elura and Udaigiri caves near Puri. It might have been used 
either as a refectory or auditorium. In Gosain cave 2, Buddha with 
two attendants are plastered and painted. Caves 3 and 4 had a 
common verandah 220' long on 20 pillars . but all the pillars have 
fallen. The backwall of this is adorned with a series of excellent frescoes. 
In Rang-Mahal cave 4, a group of pretty girl musicians with vividly 
stripped blouses and trousers or loin cloths are dancing and singing in 
a rhythmic swing in a round, round a male dancer, all with bjautiful 
faces, fine coiffures and some with bare breasts. The beauty and charm 



122 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

of these women as those of Ajanti, theic joyful movements, the curve 
of their breasts and hips, the bends of their bodies, arms and fingers, the 
gaze of their soft languorous eyes, show not only the nobility and 
refinements of their culture, they are still sources to the spectators of 
pure aesthetic delight. 

Elur^ = EIapura Caves cover over two miles excavated by Rastra 
Kuta Indras and Vijayas along the crescent-shaped scarp of a rocky and 
barren hill side, facing towards the west so that the departing sun 
illuminates with its golden rays to decorate splendidly their marvellous 
carven pillars and pilasters, figures of gods and goddesses as if to 
pay them homage ; the Buddhist caves, 12, occupy the southern end, 
dating from 350-550 A.D. of which the first nine, called Dherwara, have 
meritorious carvings These caves have a central hall supported on 
pillars with a beautiful gallery on a level with the plinth running round 
them and an inner sanctuary enshrining Buddha, all carved out of the 
solid rock.^ Cave 2 measures 48 ft square, exclusive of the later galleries 
on each side, and its roof has the support of 12 sculptured massive pillars, 
arranged in a square ; each side gallery has four pillars of different 
designs and the front is carved in florid work ; the shrine contains a 
colossal Buddha with nimbus, seated on a lion throne in a teaching 
attitude. Cave 5 measures nearly 1 20 feet by 60 feet exclusive of two side 
recesses, surrounded by 20 monastic cells. Cave 10 entrance is guarded 
by a kind of first floor to which there is an access by a flight of steps. 
This gives a picturesque view of open court to whose end there is central 
nave and side aisles, measuring 85 10" x 43', 34" high with ribbed round 
roof. The nave is separated from the aisles by 28 octagonal pillars. The 
remote end of the nave has a dagoba 15^ feet in diameter Buddha with a 
27 feet high and has a front piece attached to it on which 11 feet high 
seated miilitary moustache, en a chair, feet lying a plinth under the dome 
of a stupa, flanked by two standing bodyguards on each side. For ribbed 
carved roof, Iiiuddha is called Visvakarman, and carpenters pay homage 
to it. Eleventh cave — Don Thol — is three storied, containing a colossal 
Buddha seating cross-legged. Twelfth Cave— Tim Thol — also has been 
excavated in three storeys. From fifth century, Brahminism became 
dominant and absorbed Buddhism. Fourteenth cave has pillar carvings 
like those of the latest caves of Ajanta of early seventh century. All 
the compartments of the wall between the pilasters are filled with carvings. 
Durga killing Mahisasura with buffalo-head. Siva, Parvati and Ganapati. 
Siva as a tandava dancer. Siva. Parvati in seven aspects of Sakti, 
called Sapta Matrika (7 nude women, one foot folded, the other on the 
plinth) and Ganapati. Ravana is trying to carry off Kailasa, Parvati 
being alarmed clings to Siva, who fixes Ravana under the hill, and for 
this, 14th cave is called Ravana Ka Kai. On the north wall, Durga, four 
armed with her feet resting on a tiger is holding a trisula in her upper 
right arm. Laksmi is sitting over a large btus flower. Varaha— boar- 
faced Visnu with his feet on Sesa serpent's hood. Fifteenth cave, called 
Dasa Avatara, is two storied, of which the lower is carried by twO' 
rows of 8 plain pillars, 2 more standing between 4 cells in the back wall. 
Its court is entirely hewn out of the solid rock From nw corner a 
staircase leeds first to a landing with eleven reliefs of Hindu gods, and 
then to the upper story, supported by seven rows of six columns, those in 
front being richly carved. High reliefs on the walls are like those of cave- 



ARTS- ELUB.\ KA1L,\SA MOSOMTniC TKMPLK 123 

14 ; but additionally Bhairava has a necklace of human skulls ; marrincf 
of Siva with Parvali on the northfirn wall ; Siva sprinftinit from a li; 
Laksmi pouring water over her in l)ackwall ; Narasingha. lion htaucd 
human being, on the south wail. The most magnificent and wonderful 
is cave 16, called Kail'isa Monolithic Temple, it stands in a great cuuri, 
averaging 1^4 feet wide by 276 feet long, rearing its rocky head to height 
of near 107 feet having well-tormed doorways, windows, staircase toils 
upper floor, containing large rooms of smooth aiid polisiied surface, 
regularly divided by rows of pillars, several shrines connected by flying 
bridges, most of whom two stories high, all sculptured within and without. 
And besides, beyond its areas, there are three handsom'..: figure gallaries, 
supported by regular pillars with compartments hewn out of the 
boundary scarp. Within tho court and opposite these gallaries rises 
KailHsa, the proud and maj-stic tower (obelisk), a mighty fabric rock. 
To attack a solid mountain of rock about 107 feet high and excavating it 
by the slow process of the chisel a stupendous temple with its 
indescribable mass of sculpture and carving in endless profusion, indicati s 
the patience, industry, and religious fervor of the Rfistrakutas, t:iis 
amazing work of monolithic art architecture. Inspite of the legions of 
iconoclasts, particularly led by bigoted Auranzeb, lacking all sense of 
aesthetics and arts, in their fanatical enraz-.d sadistic fury, who 
tried to destroy this glorious creation, they fell impotent to complete 
the task, their hands became wearied and axes blunted in mutilating and 
smashing the nose, face and breasts of the deities, as they have done in 
many other tempks, though they wanted lr> destroy by huge fire, as inany 
of the remaining frescoes are found ll'""' jned by fire and smoke, 
Kailnsa temple still remains the unsurpasijj art treasure and wonder 
of the world. There are still fresco paintings— Harmed Siva 
with Vofii symbols on his forehead (called trinetra). necklace pendants 
and other ornaments as Nataraja ; and Laksmi in the ceilings. Cave 21, 
called Rameshvara, is a lofty Saiva temple ; Nandi bull in in the court 
on a high pedastal has relief of goddesses and attendants on all sides, 
the pillars have deep square abacus, carved on the front and sides with 
figures. North side contains Ravana with five heads under Kailflsa. and 
Siva with Parvati and other attendants are above. The five Jaina caves 
31-35 date from 8th - 13th century, of which Indra Sabha and Jagatmatha 
Sabhi are noted, Indra SabhA is the finest with its richly und^r cut 
carved and gracefully proportioned pilars and ornamental <.esigns. 
Indra Sabha is entered through a rock screen facing south, in front of 
which to the east is a temple with statues of Parsan.itha, Gotamasvami 
and Mahavira. On either side of the stair end of the first are the high 
reliefs of four-armed Indra, with two hands holding a lance, and with 
another vajra andha = thunder bolt, and his consort Indrani. Standing 
figures of the naked Digambara Tirthmkaras are conspicuous, the nichts 
of each being adorned with graceful arches and heavy foliage. High up in 
the hills, hidden in an unnumbered cave, there are a few panels of 
painting in a relatively wonderful state of preservation, where one can 
get glimpse of those original colors— the red ochres still shining yellow 
red, crushed lapis luzuli still glinting its heavenly azure blue and tiie 
chalk is still pretty white. 

At Aihole on the MalabhadhrA river in Kaladgi Dt, there is a sniall 
cave temple, possibly of the Chalukyas, consisting of a hall 18-^ ft. ;< I3^fi. 



124 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIBNT INDIA 

8'9" high with two plain square pillars in front. On each side of the hall 
is a chapel and behind it the shrine, each raised by 5 steps above the 
level of the hall floor, and the front of each is divided by two pillars 
with square bases and 16 -sided shafts. Ttie chapel in the right 
measures 12'x 14' On the left side chapel on Jhe backwall there is a 
high relief of 10-armed Siva dancing with Pirvati, Ganesa and 
Candi = Cundi ; in the corners of the hall are larger of Ardhanari ; Siva 
and Parvati with the human skeleton — Bhringi : from Siva's high 
headdress rise three female heads — Ganga or Uma, Yamuna or Tsra. and 
Sarasvati or Prajniparamita. Badami. 23 miles S. \V. of Aihole has 
4 caves. Two of them have linga shrines with long sculptured storey- 
telling friezes. Cave 3 contains an inscription of Mangalisa, son of 
Pulakesi, the Chalukya king, in Saka 500 = 579 A D Its verandah is 
70' in length and the cave inside 65', l5' high, with the total depth of 
from the front of the verandah pillar to the backwall 4S', the shrine 
going into the rock 12' further 9' wide. The verandah is supported 6 
pillars, each 2^' square, and 12 pilasters 12| feet high. In the east end of 
veranda there is the large figure of Vishnu, seated on the body of 
Sesa serpent which is thrice coiled round below him while its five hoods 
spread out to form a crown. At his right below its Garuia, the eagle- 
headed man. Opposite to him is Laksmi with high mukiita. Above them 
are two pretty damsels holding a chaun each. In the right Varaha — 
the boarheadfd Vishnu is 4-armed Cakra and Sankha in his 
uplifted hands, standing with his left foot on a human-headed serpent; 
in one of his left hands beholds a large lotus flower on which stands 
Prithivi - Bhudevi - the earth Mother. Cave I entrance is 21' wide; 
the hall measures 4^'l"x 24^', the roof supported by rows of 4 columns. 
Within, the middle entrance there is a lover's pair - a Yaksha with an 
Apsara. Undavilla cave on the Krishna, a mile oft from Bejwada, 
dedicated to Anantasena= Nsrayana, Khatti Inar or Nara, a Neri descent 
is 4 storeys high, one above the other, though a litle setback from the 
lower excavation, with a fifth storey in front to the right, a little 
detached, and which might have been intended to be connected. The 
front of the lower storey extends about 90' in length. On its facade 
was carved an inscription in one line in Vengi character 7- 8th century. 
The second floor is much bigger, and originally consisted of 4 apartments, 
but a door has been broken through the dividing walls of third and 
fourth, thus throwuig them practically into one apartment Projecting 
about 10' further forward, is the central Hall 29'9" wide by 31 deep, 
and varying in height from 7'3" to S'l". The roof is supported on 16 
square pillars, champened in the middle of the shafts, arranged in 4 parallel 
rows. A stair in the left side of the hall leads up to third storey and lands 
in a hall 52'9" x 30' x 3' ' x 8^. There is a verandah with 6 pillars and 2 
pilasters in front. In the right end wall of the hall has been hewn a 
recumbent figure of Narayana 17' long, resting on Sesha serpent whose 
7 hoods canopy his head. In front of the verandah is a platform 48' 
long 19|-' broad, forming part of the roof of the storey below. Fourth storey 
is reached by a series of steps in the rock at the south side. It 
represents the circular or domical termination which crowns every 
square pyramidical temple in S. India. 

Suvi Sikha, a Pahlava, was a minister of Rudradaman I, the ancestor 
of the Pallavas of Kanchi. Pallavas issued their earliest known documents 



ARTS — KaNISHRA VIHAHA 125 

in Prakrit and later in Sanskrit. Pallav is assumed the title of Dharma- 
niahir^ja, Asvamedhay (jin Pallavas and Vak itatkas were lirahmins of 
Bharadv'ija aotra. Palhivas w -re the vassals of the Andhras in the Krishn i 
Goda vari deltas ( Vengi J in the second century After the fail 'jl]ihe Anvlhras, 
Pallavas became independent, and from 5-Sth centuries Pallavas became 
the dominant power, and their sovereignty extended not only from the 
Narvadi to Kalinga. but also in Malayasia. Tlie Andhras and early Pallavas 
were Buddhists. About 437 A. D. Simhavishnu dedicated a Buddhist 
image at Amaravati. Mahendravaram I ^600- 625) became a Saiva convert 
by Appasvami. Narasimha Varman Ahava Malla a!)out 625-674 A. D. 
made Ma'ha'mallapurum. after his own name, the chief I'allava port, 
Eluri Kailasa temple by Krishna of RSstrakutas in 760 AD. Cave 16, 
17 were made by Vakataka last king Harisena (465 -500^ and his 
minister Varahadeva. Chalukya Pulakesin II was defeated by Narasinha 
Varman = Maha Malla, and the Pallava king removed the artisans, sculjv 
tors and painters from Badami, Ajanta and ElurS to Mamallapuram who 
were brought back when Pulakesin's son Vikraniiditya defeated in 655 
the Pallavas and captured Kannhi. Aj\nta caves 100-50 B. C. 
Paintings 448-480 A. D. ; 550-640 A. D. Mahendra Varman's works 
are characterized by square pillars, whose central portions being 
octagonal, Dvarapalas leaning on heavy clubs. Mamalla's style is 
octagonal pillar supported by a sitting lion, which later degenerated or 
developed into Yali pillars of medieval Dravidian architecture. In a 
pillar, embodied in later Ekambaranath Temple of K.nchi, Mahendra 
boasts that he built temples made of bricks, timber, metals and mortars. 

Purushapura Kanishka Vihara, thirteen stories high, on a 
stone foundation and plinth of carved wood, surmounted by a massive 
finial, consisting of a heavy iron pillar thirty feet in height and bearing 
a tier of 13 gilded circlets or umbrellas, was made by the slave Agesilaos 
for Sarvastivadins, according to 4 inscriptions found there in Kharoshthi. 
Kushans introduced the so called Gandh ;ra Buddhistic art through the 
employment of workmanship of Bactrian Greeks, Parthians iPallavas; and 
Sasanians who adopted Greco-Romanized western- Asiatic slyle to the 
iconographic. minting and illustrative requirements of the Mithraic, 
Buddhistic and Brahminic myths. Moreover there were 36 Greek kings and 
queens who left Hellenic art traditions behind. K'mishka introduced the 
pattern ; it flourished and developed later through the patronage of later 
Kushans, Kidara Kushans, even White Hun Hepthalites (VetAlas). and 
modified by the Sakas. Andliras. Guptas and Pallav.as. Besides the 
DharmarAjika stupa and monastery, other very interesting buildings in 
and near about Taxila is the group at Kalawan which stands on a low hill 
about 2 miles sw of Dharmarajika stupa and the Bhamala group which 
is in Khanpur valley, about 13 miles from Taxila. The buildings at 
Bhamala are noteworthy for the boldness and beauty of their architec- 
tural designs and beauty. The death of Buddha has been depicted, not 
found any where else in Taxila. Both the mon.asteries at Dharmarajika 
and Bhamala were burnt by the Hipthalites about the end of 5th century 
A. D This is testified from the amount of charcoal burnt masonary, 
charred manuscripts, gold and silver coins as well as human skeletons 
lying in contorted postures. Gold coins were of the Kidara Kushans, while 
the silver coins of Hepthalities got circulated through commercial inter- 
change. The relics discovered at Kalawan may be dated about three 



126 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

centuries AD. The most remarkable of this group of buildings is a stupa 
court containing 2 large stupas, three temples and two shrines. One of 
the temples has an octagonal apse and a mandapa (square ante chamber) 
in which was a square tank lined with translucent glass tiles- Possibly 
water was stored in ii; for the convenience of monks and pilgrims Some 
interesting sculptures have been found at the apse, as the Dream of 
Maya Devi, the Temptation of Buddha, the Fasting Buddha, Hariti and 
and Panchika, a child in her arms sucking her breast, with classical folds in 
their drapery, the Greek profile of the nose, form of the eye, curve of the 
lip and the wavy hair. With the invasion of the White Hun Hephthalities, 
Kushan influence did not die out. Many of the Kushan chiefs ruled 
from Kabul to Kuca in Turkestan under the suzerainty of Hephthalites 
and Sasaanians. Hephthalites and Sasanians adopied like the Kushans Indo- 
Parthian method of Greco-Romanized Buddhist, Zoroastrian and Manichean 
iconography. Mani, son of Patek, was born in Babylon in 215 A.D. and 
received his education in Ctesiphon. He was first inclined to Christianity 
and received his ordc;rs. But when he put forward his pretension that 
he was the Parachete = the Comforter, and published his gospel Ertung, 
illustrated by pictures drawn by himself, he was expelled from the church. 
Mani preached that life was an evil, and so the propagation of the human 
race. Therefore he denounced marriage and unions between the sexes. 
But he made distinctions between the elect-perfect and the Caluchuman3 = 
the hearers, Buddhisatvas. and Upasakas = lay worshipper of the Buddhists 
who were bound by no such restrictions. Mani converted many Christians 
in Mesopotamia and Buddhists of Agnis = Kuch-Tocharians in Turkestan. 
Manichaeans sprinkled their eucharistic bread with hnman senen. Mani 
was favored by Shapar I and his son Harmozd. But after he returned 
from his journeys in Kashmir, Tibet and China, Behram 272-276, son of 
Hormazd, gave orders for Mani to be put to death "This man has come 
forward to destroy the world. It is necessary by destroying him before 
anything of his plans shall be realized," and many Manichaeans were 
massacred by the Magus, for his continence theory was a danger to the 
state, as for Zoroastrians, marriage, parenthood, husbandry and 
farming were sacred duties. He ordered Mani to be dragged from the 
court and his skin to be flayed and stupped with straw upon Jundi 
Shapur Gate so that no one shall call him prophet of the world. When 
Mani's books, judged heretic, were cast into flames, rivulets of gold 
streamed from the fire. 

From first century, Buddhism spread over Afghanistan, parts of Iran, 
Turkestan, and China ; in fourth century from China to Mongolia, Korea 
and Cochin China ; in sixth century from Korea to Japan •, in sixth 
century Brahminism and Buddhism from Ceylon to Burma, and Pallavas, 
Cholas and Palas brought them into Cambodia and Indonesia. Brahminism 
laid emphasis on individualism and nationalism, while Buddhism, particu- 
larly Mahayana preached, proclaimed and practised socialism, inter- 
nationalism, humanity and brotherhood of man. After the first destruc- 
tive phase of conquest, Hephthalite ruler Sri Vasudeva ('595-627 A.D) 
reigned at Bamiyan, and under whose patronage the vast complexes of 
cave chappels, assembly halls and monastic cells, and many of them 
are interconnected with one another by gallaries within and along the 
front of the precipice, were excavated by Lokattaravadins of Maha 
Sangikas. It was Zenghis Khan who in revenge for the opposition he 



AETS— BAMIvAN C( L098AL BUDDEA 127 

had at Shahari Zohan. slau'^htered the entire pjpulatijn, even the lubies 
in their mothers' wombs, and ihm damii;ed many of its statuaries. 
Even then 5000 H izira tribesmen m ul; their hom s in the caves between 
the two rojk-cut Buddhas 115 and 175 feet hi^h, only ^ of a mil«j apart. 
Sasanian Hormizlas II ( 297-310 AD ), suzerain of Iran, niarri<.-d tl^e 
daughter of the Knshan ruler of Kalml. Bahram conquerud Seistan 
(Sakfisatna) in 280 A. D. Tlie rule of Sasanian satraps in Afi^'v •'■' n 
ends only witn the invasian of Chionites in 358 A D. In 425 II . . ^- 
lites invaded Ba:tria and within a few years swept over Kabul valley 
and Gmdhira Sasanian Cliosroes I and the Turks broke down the pjwer 
of the Hephthcilites, but the Ivushans and Hcpthilites used to rule 
Afghanistan and Bactria up to the time of Chosrocs II (593-628 A.D.). 
The Chinese Kwang Vout in Turk-stan and Pancho defeated Knshan 
Kanishka near Ivashgar 25-28 A. D. and got the submission of Kushan 
Khotan and Kashgar in 73 A.D. 175 and 115 feet BudJha stanJing statues 
have bien hewn out in the grottoas of the sandstone perpijndicular 
cliff, of Bamiyan on the trade route from Herat to Kabul valley, t)3ck 
being attached to rock, but there is plenty of niches over the head and 
the sides of the arms. Colossal Buddha statues (120 feet high in the eastern 
end and 175 feet high at the west) of Bamiyan are enormous magnification 
of typical Gandharva imag^ wifh its voluminous draperies, prevalent in 
2-3rd century A.D. The image of Bamiyan is not completely carved. 
Only the armature, a rough approximation of the body and head was 
cut from the sandstone cliff. Over this, features and folds of drap.-ry 
were modelled in mud mixed with chopped straw with a final coating 
of lime plaster to serve as a base for polycliroming and guiMin^. Traces 
of pignent may still be seen. In 170 feet high statue, individual fills 
of Buddha's robes were modelled on ropes attached to wooden dowels 
driven into the stone. This technique was adopted to reduce Buddha's 
robe to a scries of strings clmging to the surface of the body. Hiuen 
Tsang says that the statue was made of metal. It was simply covered 
with goldleafltng and precious ornaments. The hair of the colossal 
Bamiyan Buddha is in .Apollonian ringlets and drapery of the classic 
folds of Greco-Roman Gandharian type of 3rd to .>th centuries. The 
countless pleating like string folds, a reduction to linear term of the 
earlier G'mdhara robes, is just, what is found sn the dated Buddha 
449453 in the Lu^^.know Museum. Bamiyan fresco b.ise was made !)y a 
thick layer of mud held together with larger pieces of chopped straw 
as employed in Turkestan and at Tung- Huang in China. Over his head 
in the high niche there is a pretty-looking effiminate BoJhisaitva Avalo- 
kitesvara" sitting on as tool ■, his legs are apart ; by his right side, display- 
ing tempting beauty, FrajnaparamitS. entirely nude, bends towaids him 
as his Sakti" The colours are indigo ochre and orange. .At Danden uliq 
in Khotan which was abandoned in 791 A.D. fresco painting of a w.ater 
nymph, face somewhat roundish like the moonfaced Sasanian fashion, 
eyes a little oblique, ankles deep in water ; Eros caching hold of her 
airdle is climbing on her thigh ; Hellenistic like that of Aphrodite. 
Bodhisattva Vajrap'mi wearing boot, breast armour, a dagger on his 
thigh, a flower in his right hand, holding a thunder bolt in his left hand, 
black moustaclie and beard and a Sasanian headdress, on a wooden 
panel with 4 arms. In Miran temple frescoes, Indra, Brahma 
and 4 armed Siva with Parvati have been found. Hellenized faces found 



128 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

at Schetzhole, Oyzyl, flg 83. Maitra Kanyaka in conversation with 
his father, wearing a turban on his head •, his hetaira is leaning againsV 
his shoulder entirely nude, except the girdle clasp covering her vulva, a 
a necklace, earrings, serpentine bracelets and anklets over tinkling bell- 
anklets, Seefahrenhohle, Fig. 37. Alt- Kutcha — Albert Grunvedel. 

Amaravati, ancient name, Dharanikota dates from 200 B. C. - 250^ 
A. D, Two Andhra inscriptions have been found there. In the first stage, 
there was no Buddha image at Amaravati, but at the later stage, it 
became dominant. A local landlord made lime by burning the limestone 
in a kiln. So much of Amaravati have been destroyed. And whatever 
could be saved are now in the British or at Madras Museums- The 
Railing of Amaravati was 192 feet in length, 600 feet in circumferance and 
13- 14 feet above ground. Amaravati can boast of very naturalistic 
finely executed human as well as animal figures Siddhartha's horse 
has two attendants ; two damsels, entrely nude, except earrings, anklets, 
bracelets and girdles, exposing their thick pubic curls, are watching in 
charming natural pose ( now in British Museum)^ A bronze Buddha of 
Amaravati has been found at Sempaya at the mouth of Karma river in 
West Celebes, now in Batavia Museum. Nagarjuna konda = Vijayapura 
in Dhammagiri = Sriparvata Mahachetiya = Ceylon Dagoba = Dhatu 
(relic -gabbho (shrine), apsidal temple and a monastic hall were 
erected by Chimtisiri, the queen of Siri Virapurisadata, recorded in a 
long inscription on the stone floor o*" the temple, of the royal house of 
of Ikkaku who had matrimonial relation with Satrap Chastana of 
Ujjaini in 2nd century AD. On the sculptured pillars, 6-7 feet high though 
many reliefs have been damaged, some are curious and majority show 
marvellous skill in depicting human figures in various poses. The 
svelte and languorous beauty of the female figures, the rich coiffures on 
their head and intensity of their expressions are appealing. On one of 
the palace pillars, there is a bearded soldier, apparently a Scythian, 
wearing a a tall leather cap with ear flaps, a quilted long sleeved tunic 
and trousers and holding a heavy spear. Perhaps these Scythians were the 
kinsmen of the Ikhakus (Okkaku) and satrap Chastanas, who were 
Scythians themselves, if not scythianized, or were employed by their allied 
Andhra suzerains as the body guards of the palace during 2nd, 3rd 
centuries. The other relief portrays Dionysus - a male nude down to 
the waist and holding a drinking horn (rhyton) in his left hand, and a 
piece of chiton to cover his penis, standing and near his left foot there 
is a wine jar with an invented cap •, the face is Greecian. The active 
sea borne trade between the Roman empire and Southern India in the 
2nd century A. D. may account for it as a copy from some classical 
example. In stups 6, a small gold reliquary, containing a tiny piece 
of bone, a very corroded and crushed silver casket, a few decayed 
pearls and coral beads, gold leaf flowers and two tiny thin coin 
like medallions, one bearing the embossed bust of a proud di-^nified 
middle aged woman with prominent nose, wide eyes, thin lips, flowing wavy 
hair on the head, possibly Chamtisiri, and of a young man, likely to be 
her nephew and sonin-law, both of classical appearance and two small 
holes drilled at the top, to be used as pendants, have been found. They 
show Roman influence, Maharajasa Virupakshapati Mahasena parighitasa 
Vasitiputasa Ikhakusa Siri Chatamulasa sodara bhagini Ramno Madhari- 
putasa Siri Virapurisadatasa pitucha Mahasenapatisa Mahatalavarasa. 



ARTS— NAOARJUNA KHONDA 199 

VasitiputasTi Pukiyanam K"imda3iri bhSriyil — MahSchettya was built l)y 
MahatalaVciri Chatisiri, the uterine sister of Mahiraja Vasithiputha 
Ikhaku Siri Chatumula - absorbed by Mah'isena the Lord of Virupukshas 
- the paternal aunt of king Madhariputa Siri Virapurishadata, the wife of 
Mahasenapati Mahitalavara Vasithiputa KamdAsiri of the Pukiyas. 
Viropurishadata married his cousin, the daughter of his paternal aunt 
Chamtisiri. Two pillar inscriptions mention another sister (sodarA 
bhagini) of king Chanitamulo, named Hainmasiri ; two of her daughters 
BSpisirinika and Chathisiri were married to Virapurishadata, known as 
Mah^devi Rudhradhara Bhatarika in fitth pillar inscription. A Vihi^ra 
by Mahadevi Bhatidcvi. daughter in-law of Siri Chatumula, wife of Siri 
Virapurishadata and mother of Maharaja Siri Ehuvula Chatumula. By 
cross cousin marriage all the king's sons married all the daughteis of 
their maternal uncles, and the sons of maternal uncles marrying the 
daughters of the king and his brothers became Senapatis, the eldest 
Mahasen ipati. This was the Saka, Andhra and Nagarjuna Khonda 
custom. Madariputa, Vasithiputa are common names to both as well as 
in their Prakrit, So the Andhras and the Ikhikus (Pali Okkakai of 
Nagurjuna Konda were the same peoples or of allied stocks. And 
their architecture and arts were of the same of similar patterns. 

The reliefs of Suddhadana and of his brothers — Dotadhana, Sakyadhana. 
Amitadhana (and 2 other paternal cousins) sitting together with May4 
and Pajapati, their maternal cousin wives, fanned by slave girls with 
yak tails (Miya and Pajavati's brothers — Supabuddha and Dandap'ini — 
married Suddhadhan's sisters— Amita and Pamita) ; Suddhadhan's and 
Maya's loving embrace ; Maya gives birth to Siddhartha in a standing 
posture, exerting abdominal and uterine pressure by catching hold of 
the branch of a tree ; attended by Pajapati and maids ; casting of 
horoscope by three astrologers through liver divination (examining the 
lobes of three livers kept on reed tables like Assyrians) in the presence 
Suddhadana and his brothers, Pajapati sitting by the side of seated 
Suddhadana at whose foot there is a Padacariki ; Pajipati, stylishly 
dressed, attended by maids, presenting Siddhartha before the Saka 
tutelary deity Sakka ; Siddhartha with Bhadda-Kacchana (light- 
yellowed) Bimba as lovers (Siddhartha married his maternal cousin 
Bimba, the daughter of his paternal aunt Amita and Supabuddha and 
Dandapani ; Bimba's brother was Devadatta) ; Siddhartha in his pleasure 
garden, entertained by danseuses ; Siddhartha leaving home, riding his 
horse : Temptations of Siddhartha by Mara's daughters; Sujat t— Srenika 
Nandika's daughter— of Uruvilva where were many Vilva (.^gle 
marmelos trees, and fire worshippers KSsyapas had their settlements, 
offering food to Siddhartha ; the first sermon of Buddha at Deer Park. 
Sirnath ; A king trampling down under his foot a Linga image ; Amari 
Devi, wife of a king's minister, complains before the king against four 
other ministers who plotting against her husband had him exiled, and 
made love overtures to her and presented to her with love letters some 
ornaments slolen from the king's jewellery ; she made appointments with 
them on the same night and as each of them came, the previous one was 
made to hide himself in her privy. Thus all four of them were presented 
to the king with all the evidences of their guilt ; and they are asking 
pardon with folded hands from the king. A similar story is found in 
Brihat Katha Sarita Sagara, written at Pratistanapura of the Andhras. 



130 THE LITEBARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Gupta Aihale temple is low and flat. On the pillars of the 
porch there are figures of river goddesses (in Sung period as 
Bati). The windows are perforated stone slabs. On the roof, 
there is a small square cell of slab construction with a porch as 
sun temple. The Gupta style of architecture is characterized by 
flat roof without steepness •, prolongation of the doorv/ay beyond 
the jam ; statues of personified Ganga and Yamuna, guarding 
the entrance j pillars with massive square capital, surrounded 
by two lions back to back : verandah with 4 pillars. Gupta 
monolithic pillar is 43 feet high set up at Eran in Sagaur Dt as a 
flagstaff of 4 armed Vishnu in 484-485 A, D. ; on the capital 
there is a two-armed male figure with two faces and radiated 
halo. Another monolithic column b9'5" excluding the detached 
abacus is at Sondain and inscriptions record the defeat of the 
Huns by Yasodharman about 623 A. D. Four other monoliths 
tnown. Colossal Vaiaha Avatara relief at Udayagiri cave, 
Bhopal. Gupta 400 A. D : Uparkofc cave at Junagarh with 
2-storied fluted pillared hall v/ith a bath of Late Guptas. Vishnu 
Stambha Garuda Iron pillar (now in Katab Miuar), ascribed to 
Candra Gupta Vikramaditya, dating about 400 A. D. is a forged 
bar of rustless iron nearly 2 4 feet high and said to vveigh 6 tons, 
gracefully moulded at the top with a Persepolitan bell It's base 
diameter is 16J' while the upper part 12'. Depth below unknown j 
excavations have been made as far down as 55 feet. 

Two-storeyed rock-cut hall on the Uparkot— the fort of Junagarh of 
the late Guptas, An excavated deep water tank 11' square with a covered 
■verandah on three sides of it. The corridor, on the south side is 
supported by 2 columns with spiral ridges on their shafts. In the north 
side over the tank there is a door to the next chamber 35' - 10" x 27' - 10" 
■with 6 columns supporting the roof, A door leads to a stair descending 
to the entrance of the hall below 39^' x 36. The four columns are richly 
carved. The abaci are carved with lions couchant at the corner, and in 
the middle of each is a lion facing outwards a human figure. The body 
of the capital is covered with figures of animated tall and slender women, 
almost nude, except a thin girdle, some standing under foliage, carved in 
high relief. On the columns below the capital, heads of animals — 
elephants and goats — (Skt chagala = Tamil iaka/- =Kandrsse tagar = 
Mardwin sava) are carved, The frieze is ornamented with Chaitya 
windows. Talaja = Talugiri has 36 Buddhist caves with l5 
cisterns. Elebal Mandap is 67' long, 67|-' deep, 171^' high with 4 
octagonal pillars. Sana has 60 caves of which one is 6S^' long, 61' deep 
and 16^' high with 6 pillars in front. Kanheri Caves in Salsetie = 
Satshashthi number 109. Caitya cave is 86' long, 39' — lO" wide from 
wall to wall with 32 pillars round the nave and the dagoba is 16' in 
diameter. At the ends of the verandah two Baddhas 23' high. On the 
jamb of the entrance are inscribed the names of Gotamiputra and 
Mathariputa. Darbar Cave Hall is 73' x 96' with 2 stone benches. 
There are two inscriptions ; one of the Guptas of 5th centuy and 
another dated 775 Saka = 875 A. D. in the time of Kapardi, a Silahara 



ARTS — ourTA 131 

feudatory of Rastrakuta Amoghavarsa. There are also inscriptions of 
Madariputa and Svami Sakasena. 

Andhra domination in S India lasted between 200 B. C— 250 A. D. 
and during this period there was a brisk trade with the Roman Empire 
ofChm.iius Augustus and Nero. Arretine pottery and amphorrc ^ two- 
handled storage vessels of the Greco-Romans to keep wine and oil» of 
1st Century A. D. have been found 2 miles south of Pondiciiery, 
Pondouke of Ptolemy at Arikkamadu. Monsoon was discovered by 
Mippalus in 47 A. D. which facilitated shipping and trade. Below the 
Arretine base, 150 feet long building of 1st century A. D. warehouse is 
massively built on a lirick foundation on the rubble and sandy bed. There 
Greco Roman Rjuletied flu dishes, whitish gliss bowls and pjitery lamps, 
signed with K and plenty of Dinarus have been found with some copied 
potteries signed in Brahmi script, but in Tamil language as Tarapialar, 
Ainan, Chattan Avi in Koti Ichan Aditaipan (a relation of Chattan Avi), 
Mati Kulurun akan , wide-mouthed pot of Muti Kuluran, Yakha-mita 
(Yaksha-mitra). some terracottas of tine workmanship, a torso of female 
figure with a piece of cloth tucked up and wound round the waist as in 
Nagarjunakonda In exchange of pepper, cinnamon, nard-spines. sandal- 
wood, ebony, teak, indigo, honey from Indian trees (gurj, the shij)? 
brought via Alexandria gold and silver Dinarus, red corals, wine and 
pretty slave girls for which there was a great demand. Sil'ihara f=>SilAgaha 
= Siligrihaj Caves — Durvasa. Cheri Gudai Sitamidi-in Kewa are of 1st 
century A. D. in the reign of Sviimi Datta. excavated by his 
minister Moggali-puta Muladeva as pleasure retreats ; DurvasS cave is 
called aramam pavate - enjoymeut hill ; another yuvati male "hill retreat 
to meet damsels; another for Udaya Tara- Rising star, a female 
artiste. 

The monolithic cave temples of Mamallapuram are Var/iha, 
Durga, Tnmurti and Panca Pandavas. Both the Varnha and Panca 
P.indavas have a verandah with slender octagonal pillars. sup;>orted by 
a sitting lion ; and there are spirited life like sculptures. In Adivaraha 
there is an excellent relief of Mahendra Varman and his two queens. 
Mahendra and his one queen wearing loin cloth ; another queen wearing 
a trouser ; their breasts open, but all wearing conical crowns on their 
head. Gaja Laksmi on a lotus flower with a conical hat ; two queens 
with water jars in their hanJs are standing on both sides of her, 
attended by maid servants ; two elephants standing on both sides of 
Laksmi are pouring water on her head from their uplifted hoods, 
8-armed Durga with a tall crown riding astride a lion is fighting 
Mahisisura, a buflillo-headed man with a club in his hands. There is 
a high relief of P.irvaii, well-formed, attended by four Ganas - Erotas ; 
lions and gjzelles are visible in the upper corners- There are two. 
kneeling figures on both sides of the feet of the goddess. Each of 
them with his left hand holds his long hair and with his right 
his sword, as if to cut his hair and offer it to the goddess. In 
the rockcut temple of Trichinapoly in the lower cave, the same is visible 
though the relief is not so high. It was the custom of the Greeks and 
the Romans to offer their cut hair to Artemis as a solemn pledg:; for 
victory in the war. Pancha Pandavas are all monoliths and have been cut 
from a series of boulder like rock formations on the seashore. .Arjuna Ratha 
is 19'xll'3" and 28 feet high in three stories with pyramidal tower. 



132 THE LITEEABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Draupadi Ratha is finely carved. It is square in plan, 1 1 feet each way 
with a square curvilinear roof, as in banboo thatched cottage roofing in 
Bengal, rising to 18 feet. There is a small cell in the interior 6'6" in 
depth from the outward to the back of the sides 4'6'' across wherein 
there is a statue of Laksmi, standing on a lotus, 4-armed, bearing 
cakra and other emblems. On either side of doorway there are two 
female Dvarapalas ; there are also other female figures in the niches. 
Bhima's Ratha is 48'x25' with 26' feet high 3-storied elongated 
barrel vault, so often seen in Bhrirut, Sanchi and Amaravati reliefs. 
Sahadeva Ratha 18'xll' and 18' high 3-storeys shaped like apsidal 
Chaitya (Skt. Cita = funeral relic in an urn) -hall. Dharmaraja 
26'9'' X 28', 8", 50' high four-storied with a hexagonical dome. At its 
south side, the Mandapa = porch is 17'xl2' with 4 pillars; in the 
background there are 3 empty shrines. Mahisamardhini Mandapa is 
33^' X 15' ; it has four round pillars with 2 pilasters. The panel on the 
hill side, measuring nearly 100 feet in length and 50 feet in height, called 
Arjuna's penance, is a spirited representation of a world of men and 
animals. The shore temple within range of the spray from the surf was 
built by Rajasimha ('678-800 A. D.). It is made of blocks of granite. Its 
superficial extent is 1600 ft, its pyramidal tower (vimana) over the central 
shrine about 60 feet high, surmounted by an umbrella-shaped summit 
{Kalasa) is made of basaltic rock. The shrine facing the sea contains a 
16 -sided Lingam, carved out of a blue stone. Its Gopuram is not 
prominent. It is in the purest early Dravidian style. Parasol became the 
symbol of sovereignty of Sargon of Babylonia ; Achemenide Darius intro- 
duced it in Iran ; Scythians brought it to India as Satrap, wielder oi satm 
= umbrella. Rajasimha also built Kailasanatha Temple at Kanchi, almost 
a replica of the ancient Egyptian temple architecture. Its multistoried and 
sculptured Gopuram is like the tall richly carved /y/^w - the gate entrance 
with sloping walls. The enclosure is surrounded by a wall. There 
is the courtyard containing some shrines and sacred tanks. The hypostyle 
large hall on a forest of sculptured columns on which there are flat and 
broad stone slabs for roofing is prominent in both. 

The sacred lakes of ancient Egypt, attached to their temples, parti- 
cularly of Amen at Karnak, Hathor at Denderah, were artificial basins, sur- 
rounded by walls with staircases used for the purificational baths of priests 
and pilgrims and to supply water for ritual purposes (I L. N. March 19, 
1938). It is called Mantapam. Mantapam of 100, 500, even 1000 columns 
are known. Attached to it or rather in continuation of it is the vestibule 
— Festal Hall — where food, flowers, perfumes are offered to the deity, and 
dances and music are performed for his entertainment. Then there is 
the sanctuary -adyton, %i\io% ^ garbha griha of the deity over which there 
is the step-pyramidal roof tower Viml^na. On all three sides there may be 
rooms for keeping the goods of the deity, priests and devadasis. There is- 
a corridor passage pradikshina round the inside of the enclosed wall. The 
similarity between the Egyptian and the Dravira temples even in details 
is indeed very striking. 

Sittanavasal Cave is ascribed to Pallava Mahendravarman /, 
for his inscribed treatise on music has been discovered in a village, 
closeby. The shrine is 9' -6" square and 7' -5" high, and the outer 
verandah measures 22'6" long, 6'- 6" wide and 8' - 3" high. A fresca 
adorns the ceiling of the verandah, representing a lotus tank, enlivened 



ARTS— CAI LB t'AVE 183 

with fish, geese, buffaloes, elephants and three animated bathing persons, 
two of whom are dark-skinned, and another fair. There are fine life- 
size figures of Jaina Tirth inkaras, carved on the face of the rock, three 
inside the inner shrine, and one on each end of the verandah. 

There is a portrait of a regular featured crowned dignified benevolent 
king, likely to be M.ihendra yarm >n on a pillar. On two of the pillars of 
the facade are two paintings o^ Devadasis. dancing for Siva; D'Viid'ni 
possesses marvellous grace and her attitude is a study in itself; the 
remarkable ability with which her form has bei;n outlined has led some 
people to admire more the e.xcellence of the linework of the frescoes, 
rather than the colors composing them. If a sl-ivc was dedicated to 
some god, he or she became god's property and free, a custom prevalent 
in Greece, Susa and Elam Devad-xsi was a dedicated girl, a pretty 
loving slave girl, daughter or even wife who were regarded as the property 
of father or husband, to the service of the deity =»Gk. herroduli. At 
Shinkot in Bajaur there is a Kharosthi inscription on a relic casket by 
a Buddhist Vijayamitra, dated 25 Vais'-^ka in the fifth year of the reign 
of .Menander. Junnar Caves number 57. Fourth cave 36' -8" x 33' x 15' 
with four cells in each of the 3 inner walls, and a bench running quite 
round the hall ; it has 2 doors and 2 large windows, one of them about 
10' wide grooved in the shell and sides for a wooden frame. Chaitya 
cave is circular in plan 25' -6" across with a dagoba in the centre 
8' -2" in diameter, surrounded by 12 plain octagonal shafts supporting 
a dome over the dagoba. The surrounding aisle is roofed Ijy a half-arch 
arising from the wall to the upper side of an architrave 7" -8' deep 
over the pillar. The capital of the dagoba has been hewn off to 
convert into a huge /z>/^rz. Chaitya cave facing south measures 40' long 
22' -5"' wide, 24' -2" high The verandah in front has 2 free standing 
and 2 attached pillars like those of Nasik. The door is plain 
5' -9" wide ; on the door an incised inscription : A pious gift of charily 
for a sanctuary by purehearted Suls'Aadatla, a trader, son of Haranik.i. 

At Carle cave two royal inscriptions have been found ; one by 
Uihavadatta, son of Dimika, son in-law of Raja Kihaharta Kihatrapa 
I^ahapana ; another : This rock mansion, the most excellent in /cimbu- 
dvipahy Agnifnitfa ( 170-1'jO B. C). It is 12 V - 3" from the entrance 
to the backwall by 45' - 6" in width. Central aisles 25' - 7" ; each of 
the sides aisles is lO' wide include the thickness of pilars. 15 pillars on 
each side separate the nave from the aisle. Each pillar has tall base an 
octagonal shapt and richly ornamented capital on which kneel 2 el-phants, 
each generally bearing a man and a woman ; and sometimes two damsels. 
7 pillars behind the altar are plain octagonal pieces without either base 
or capital. Above them is the semicircular roof in the general section and 
somewhat stilted at the side. Immediately under the semi dome of the 
apse, and nearly where the altar stands in Christian Churches, which it 
closely resembl-s is placed the dagoba. The outer porch is 52' x 15'. and 
is closed in front by an outer screen, composed of two octagonal pillars ; 
above this is a Vihsra 2S' x 27' x 8" with 4 cells in each side and 6 in the 
back with benches The other Vih\ra is 36' - 6" x 48' x 8" with 
cells in the right. 5 in the left and 6 in the back. 

Bhamburde 5.'«V(z rock temple is 160 feet in length, 100 ft across ; 
the roof of the pavilion has been hewn after the shape of an umbrella. 



134 THE LITERARY HISTOBY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Mominabad or Jogai Am, the cave has an open court in front 90'x85' in 
the middle of which stands a low pavilion 84|-' square with the square 
sloping roof; the hall is 91' x45', supported by 32 pillars. In the backwall 
there is a room for Trimurti. Nasik cave 2 is 11^' x 4i' with 2 cells at 
the back. On the backwall of verandah, there is an inscription ! Sidham 
Rano V^sathitputasa sarapadumayasa sabhachare chha the 6 gimapakhe 
pajham divase = Siddham in the sixth year of the king prosperous 
Pulumaya, son of Vasithi, in the fortnight of Grishma on the fifth day. 
Cave 3 is 41' wide. 46' deep with a bench on three sides, 18 cells and 2 
openings on the verandah. The side pilasters are dividt d into 6 panels, 
each filled with 2 men and 1 woman in different stages of a struggle which 
seems to end in the woman being carried off by one of the men. Over 
the door there are 3 symbols— Bodhi tree. Dagoba and Cakra with worship- 
pers At each side is an ungainly Dvarapala, holding up a bunch of 
flowers. The verandah has 6 octagonal columns without base between 
highly sculptured pilastars. The cave is ascribed to Satakanni Gotamiput 
and his queen Vasishthi. Cave 8 has a hall 43' wide, 45' deep with 6 
bell haped Achaemenian capitals ; it has 5 benched cells on each side and 6 
in the back, and at each of the verandah there is cell with the inscription : 
The benefaction of Dakhamitr:\, the daughter of king Kshaharnta 
Kshatf2pa Nahapana, and wife oi Usharadata, son o{ Dimika. Cave 
12 hall measures 22'- lO" wide, 32' -2" deep, and has a back aisle 
screened off by two columns. On the wall of the back aisle is a standing 
figure of Buddha 3| feet high. An inscription in 3^ lines says that ^'it 
was the work of Indr^gnidatta, son of Dharmadhsa, a northerner, a 
Yavanaka, a native of Dattamitri as a shrine for a Chaitya in Mt Trirasmi. 

Pandu Lena Chaitya cave 13 measures 38' - 10" x 21 - 7" and the 
nave from the door to the dagoba 25' - 4'' x 10 and 23' - 3" high with 5 
octagonal pillars Cave 14 is 14' - 3" square with 6 cells, 2 on each side. 
In the front wall are 2 lattice windows, and in the verandah slender 
square pillars, the middle portion of the shaft being chamfered to an 
octagonal shape. Over one window a Pali inscription mentions that it 
was constructed by Saman officers of Kanh raja of the S'itavahanas, (Skt. 
satam = Zd satem = Lith. szimtns = Finnish sata = Hungarian szaz = Mar- 
dwin sada ; Skt. fnakshi=M^xA\v\x\ meks (bee^ ; no word of similar 
derivation appears in any Indo European language), residing in N^sika. 
Cave 15 is 37^' in width, 61^' deep The antechamber is slightly raised 
above the level of the floor from which it is divided by 2 richly carved 
columns between antas (Skt. ata = frames of the doors'. On either side of 
the outerwall of the shrine is a Vajrapani 9^-' high holding a lotus stalk in 
his hand and a Sakti by his left side. Within the shrine is an image of 
Buddha 10' high, seated with his feet on a lotus flower. There is an 
inscription oi Yajna Sitakarni G'tamiputm in the seventh year of his 
reign, mentioning that it being under construction for many years ; it was 
carried to completion by the wife of the Commander in-chief. Pitalkhora 
Cave measures 50' long, 34^ wide. 30^" high to the top of the vaulted 
roof with 20 pillars, having carved in high relief and painted 
winged horses, bulls and lions on their capitals, closely resembling 
Assyrian or Achaemenian sculptures. Ghatatkacha cave at Jinjala I3n> 
west of Ajanti is a 20-pillared hall, square, bases changing into octagon, 
J6-siled and 32-fluted pillars On the back wall there is a much defaced 
inscription of an Asmaka prince. At Patna near Pitalkhora, two 18' x 6* 



ARTS — 3RAVANABBLG0LA IS") 

\erandahs. supported hy 4 pillars leading to a hall 20" x 1 f with 2 
pillars In the backwall are found high relief of a male with a child. 
Indra with Indr'ini. a cross lcgt;ed Jina 2' hi!;h. a life si^c- d Jina in the 
southern side. Dharasinva cave, 36ni north of Shi^lajur has a 
vestibule 76' lone^. 10'- 4 wide, lending to a hall 82' long, 97' - «5' wide, 
roof supported by 82 columns. There is an image of Seshnphnni Piina- 
natlia who is supposed to have married the daughter of F\isenjit of 
KosalS. Another cave 59' square with twenty 11' -3" high columns. 

The Island of Gh'irnpuri is known as Elephanta, because the 
Portuguese found near old landing place on the smthern side of the 
Island an elephant 13' — 2" long and 7'— 4" high. As the elephant began 
to crumble, it has iieen removed and reassembled in Victoria Gardens, 
Bombay. IthisGcives th-:; most important being the Western Cave 
130' < 13" with porticoes on three open sides 54' long K^' deep Trimurti 
is l2'-9" higii. Z>:;t^<?A//<M- 15'— 2" high. ^nM,/«a/-»' is 12'— 9" high. 

Gang^dhara Siva with 4 arms is 16' high •, from his coiled dressed 
hair rises a 3 headed female, figure whose arms are bruken. On Siva's left 
is nearly nude Pirvati. 12' — 4" high wearing a circlet round the brow from 
under which the hair is represented in small curls round the brow. There 
are also a three stringed necklace and a girdle. The body is beautifully 
carved. The m.irriage of Siva with Urn i on the western porch is remark- 
able. Siva sits proudly on a high chair resting his left leg on the right bent 
thigh, and massaging the foot with his right hand. Uma standing 
by his left side looks shy and bashful like a bride ; her hair escapes in 
little curls from under a broad jew-lled fillet that I)ind3 her brow. She 
wears heavy earrings and several necklaces. Not only the rock is soft and 
powdery, the Portuguese in their religious z-^al have tried to annihilate 
every memorial, and have destroyed and damaged many sculptures of 
striking beauty and artistic merit, and the age and the weathering are 
completing the work of the spoiler. The inscription, found in the place, 
was sent to Lisbon with many sculptures ; no trace of it is known. 

Badami Caves of 650 A D. Verandah 31* long, lb' deep with 4 
square pillars in front. Behind it is a hall 6' deep and 25^' long. 
Mahivira seated on simhasana with feet folded in front of the body and 
hands laid on their sides. At the ends of verandah, G^^t imasvami, a 
disciple of Mah5vira, and Parsan tha 77' high. Aihole verandah is 32' 
long and 7^' wide, supported by 4 pillars ; the hall is 15' long and 
11' — 8" wide ; the Chapel 14' x 5', and ParsanStha in it in high relief. 

Sravanabelgola contains more than 12 Jaina Bastis. On Candrngiri is 
the Parsanatha Bastis, built and elegantly decorated about lOOO .A. D. ; 
the image inside made out of blackstone and more than l5' high is 
that of ParsanUha ; on the Manast.imbbha in its front 4 lovely figures 
representing Jaina deicies are repres','nted at the top and 4 nior-; at the 
base. Near it the Kattale Basti for its interior is entirely dark, being 
windowless inow — windows have been opened), thougli largest on the hill, 
was built by Ganga Raji, the general of Hoysali king Vishnuvardhana. 
Almost within its compound, there is a tiny shrine, called (Sandra 
Gupta Basti, attributed to Maury.i ditidra Gupta by the Jainas, though 
Very much doubted by scholars. It has a finely carved door way. Two stune 
screens stand on either side of it, and in each one. 45 tiny but elegant 
panels are carved with scenes from the life of the Maurya emperor — 



136 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

from his birth onward to his last days, when he became a Jaina ascetic 
under Bhadrabahu. There was a famine at Pataliputra. Thousands 
were dead in the streets and thousands more were dyhig everyday. It 
sickened the heart of Candragupta, who abdicating in favor of his son 
Simhasena, followed the Jaina seer Bhadrabahu. They travelled south. 
Candragupta liked the scenic charms of Candragiri and Vindhyagiri, and 
remained in the cave there for 12 years when by Sallekhana ( first taking 
rice and milk, gradually taking only a handful of water, and then even 
abandoning it) = gradual starvation he died there in 298 B.C. Next is the 
Camanda Raya Basti built by Camunda Raya, minister to the Ganga king 
Raja Malla, a handsome structure with a fine tower ; he also had the hill 
top of granite Vindhabetta into a courtyard where 57'3" high standing 
nude image of Gotama Svimi (Gometesvara) stands in a state of meditation 
so profound that representations of ant hills, rises on either side with figures 
of creeping plant, springing from it which twines, over the thighs and 
arms, terminating in a tendril with bunches of fruits, dominating the entire 
landscape 450' above the level of the plain in 938 A. D. The face, fore- 
head, abdomen and arms are well-proportioned and naturalistic, the penile 
foreskin is kept tightened over the glans by a screw ring ; the testicles are 
pendant. Not far off at Xemur, there is another similar image 38' high, 
made in 1603 ; and at Karkalu, 24 miles w of Yemur 41'5'' similar nude 
image with creeping plants creeping over the lower limbs and p.irtly 
covering the penis and the testicles was hewn out of the granite rock by 
sculptor Aristonemi is 983 A.D. The next Basti Eradukatte, the approach 
to the statue of which is through an archway and about 600 steps cut into 
the solid rock of the hill, leading to a temple, was built in 11 18 by 
Laksmi Devi, consort of Ganga Raj i. Savatigandha vardhana Basti was 
built by king Vishnu-vardhana's queen Santala Devi whose locks of hair 
were black and thick like moving bees, whose waist was slim like that 
of bees, and whose voice and virtues were sweet like bee-extract honey. 
The rock cut image of Venugjp\la Swanii at Gingee is very fine ; 
Krishna is playing bamboo flute and dancing ; two Gopis, almost nude, are 
dancing round him ; unfortunately their heads are missing. 
_ Nalanda is an ancient place. Here Buddha stayed in the Parvarika 
Kmra Bntkk rest house under the mangoe grove) where S iriputta paid 
him a visit; ; he also stayed a while in the bath hall of the banker Lepa 
when Udaka saw hini_; it was from Nalanda, Buddha went to Patalipuira 
which according to Ananda was a much inferior place. According to 
Kalpasutra^ Mahavira. a contemporary of Buddha, also spent a rainy 
season there According to Sutmkntanga, Nilanda contained many 
hundreds of buildings. But Fa Hien who travelled throughout India 
about 400 A. D, does not mention Nalanda Kut I-Tsing who started 
from China in 671 and arrived at Timralipta (the sea-side of modern 
Tamluk) and studied at Nalanda for 12 years and on his return home 
took with him 400 Sanskrit texts containg 503,003 slokas mentions that 
Nilanda had 8 halls and 300 apartments Hieun Tsiang who halted for 
19 months for study in the famous Nilanda Monastic University 
mentions that more then 10,030 teachers and students lived there ; that 
Sakraditya, Buddhagupta, Tath agate. Bahditya and Vajra built 5 
Samgharamas there ; a king of Central India established another magni- 
ficent monastery and built round these edifices a high wall with one gate 
where Dvara Pandita lived and examined scholars seeking admittance to 



ARTS — NALANDA 137 

its learned precints. "Tlie richly adorned towers and fairy like turrcli 
like pointed hill tops are congre>^ated togi-ther. The ol«crvatory seems to 
be lost in the vapours of the morning and the upper room towers alx)ve the 
clouds. From the windows one may see how the winds and clouds produce 
new forms and above the soaring caves th« conjunction of the sun and the 
moon may be observed How the deep translucent ponds bear on their 
surface blue lotus intejrmingled with Kanaka flowt-rs of deep red colour, 
and at intervals the Amra groves shed over all their shades. All the 
outside courts in which are the priests' chambers are of four stages. 
The stages have dragon projections and coloured eaves, the pearlred 
pillars, carved and ornamented, richly adorned balustrades and the 
roofs covered with tiles that reflect the light in a 'thonsand shades. 
These things add to the beauty of the scene " According to Tibetan 
r.ccounts the University Library, situated in Dharmaganja (Piety Muit) 
consisted of 3 grand buildings— Ratna sagara.Ralnu-dadhi, Ratna- 
ranjika. Ratnadadhi was 9 stories high and in it was kept specially 
Prajna Paramit i Sutra. In the ruins of Nalanda, a B'lladilya inscription 
has been found. Baladitya rebuilt a temple after its destruction by fire, 
and according to Hieun Tsiang, Baladitya's temple resembled Buddha 
Gaya temple in many respects- A monastery quadrangle, the 
4 sides of a ruined stone temple, square in plan, has been ascribed to 
Bal iditya. The entrance to the temple was up a low flight of stt-ps 
on the east. The center of each facade is relieved by a slight projection, 
but the feature of sp;cial interest is a dado of 211 sculptured panel 
over the external base moulding, showing a greal variety of sculptures. 
The mound is regarded as Blladitya's temple which though resembles 
Buddha Gaya temple in plan, but in its present form is only 170 feet 
high. At the foot of Vagisvari statue, there is an inscribed name 
of Parama Bhattaraka Mahariijidhiri ja Sr! Gop;da The monastery 
(site no 1) measures 205^x168'; the walls are 6^' thick which is 
increased by a foot on the western side. Eight defferent strata h.ave 
been discoverad. As the monastery was destroyed by fire, or colhi)sed 
from faulty workmanship, new structures were erected on the ruins 
of the old ; unmistakable traces of Inirning are evident, and in pl.ices 
charcoal is lying even now. \ copper plate surmounted by a seal 
soldered to its top, bearing Dhirma Cakra flmked by two gazelles, 
recumbent with heads upraised-, looking towards the Wheel of Law. 
This was the official s^al and insignia of Sri NUanda Maha Vihasiya 
Arya Bhiksu Samghisya— The Venerable Communly of Monks of 
Sri Nalanda. It wAs also the insignia of the monastery of Sirnath 
The copper plate had suffered fr )m the fire which destroyed the 
building. It records Sri Deva Pala Dynasty, bearing a date equivalent 
to 891 A D.. the grant of 5 villages in Rjigriha and Gayi for the up 
keep of the monastery and provision of comforts, for the monks arriving 
there from all quarters, made at the request of Sri Balapatra Deva. 
the Sadendra king of Sumatra, who b^re the cost of building the 
structure. Though NUanda was a University town, SJme of the plaques 
are erotic. 1. The female has thrown her left hand round the neek 
of her male partner but he is sitting hesitatingly with both hands 
interlocked. 2 The male flgure is coaxing the femih partner, 
caressing her chin with his left hand. 3. An am )rous c mple embra- 
cing each other, the female holding the wine cup All of Sunga period. 



138 THE LITERARY HISTO^riY OP ANCIENT INDIA, 

Dharmap^la founded Vikramasill Vih'ira with lOS temples, 6 schools 
and 114 teachers, but reduced to rubbisli by Moslem iconoclastic 
invaders wiio U5ed the precious, palm leaf library collections to make 
hot water for their baths. 

PanduathHin = PurAnadhistana, about 2 miles from Srinagar on 
the main Jammu Road, has a small square stone chamber with 
pyramidal roof of Kuihan construction witii doorway on each 
side ; the main entrance is towards the north with the figure of 
Lakulisa in the trefoil niche above Scythianized Karkota llCar Kitan) 
Lalitiditya (724-60) built a rectangular temple ( 0' x 30' at Martanda 
= Mattan, 6 miles east of Islamabad (Anantanag) on an el-jvated 
plateau, overlooking an extensive sweep of the valley, built up of massive 
huge blocks of limestone piled upon each other, like the Baalbek temple in 
Lebanon valley. The width of the facade is increased to 60' by the addition 
of wings. The open courtyard is surrounded by a 220' x 142' quadrangular 
peristyle which consisted of rounds of cells, preceded by porticoes 
supported on 84 quasi Doric Romanized 16 fluted instead 30 at Baalbek 
with intervening niches, surrounded by trefoil arches and triangular 
gable. The roof, statues, relics, and majority of the pillars have been 
destroyed or used in VIosques by the "'great iconoclast Sikander bin 
Shikan. Il seems that the Parthian conquests of Syria gave many 
Karkitan workmen to be acquainted with the Greco-Roman simple 
dignity of outline without confused ensemble of ornaments on the 
walls of the structure or its pillars Leading to the sanctuary is a 
large anterior chamber {antamla) with basreliefs of Vishnu as 
Surya and Lakshmi ; each is duplicate upon the panels of its walls. 
On the left wall is carved goddess Ganga on her Makara 
V^hana ; on the opposite wall is depicted goddess Yamuna on her 
Kurma = tortoise vehicle Representation of Visiinu is three faced, the 
right face depicting Nara-Simba iman-Iion), while the left one that of 
a boar (Varaha) Lalitaditya built a statue of Mukta-ICesava = Vislinu 
with 84,000 tolls of gold at Parihaspur = Paspur. Another statue Parihisa 
- Kesava= Vishnu was con3tiu:ted with 3,36000 toliS of silver. He 
built another statue of Buddha with 100 64,000 tolas of bronze. 
Avantivarman (855-813) of another Scythian tribe that overthrew Karkotas, 
built 3 temples ow the right bank of Vitasti, about 18 miLs fr;m Srinagar. 
Avantisvara and Avanti Svami on Martanda pattern. Avanti Svami 
Temple, dedicated to Vishnu, particulirly its basement, courtyard 
and peristyle being completely hurried underground through flood silts. 
thus escaped the destrnctive hands of Mahamedan bigotry. Archeological 
excavations in 1915 have revealed the delicate ani ornate carvings of 
the 16 -fluted tall coluraus in their original beauty and grandeur. 

Ceylon was settled by Hamitic Shangallas who used to wear ivory- 
comb on their head as in predynastic Badar of Egypt, and they pushed 
to wilderness the Australoid Veddhas who called themselves Yakkas. 
From their settlement the Island was called Sinhaladvipa= Pali Sthala 
-dipa, Ar Serendib, which was modified by European navigators into , 
Zeilon, now called Ceylon. There is no tradition that Rama landed 
there in search of Sita, abducted by Ravana, king of Lanka, though 
Sita-waka >Sit.a's town), and Sita-eliya (Sita's glade), are found in the 
Island, separated by a high mountain range. Lith lanka, lenke means, 



ARTS— ANURADnAPUH 139 

wooded valley. Vijaya across the sea came to Ccjlon in ■\H.'^ \). C. 
and settled at Tambapanni, marrying the Shangalla crown princess. A 
century after. Vijiya. Pan(lukal)haya. direct heir to the throne, wat;cd 
war no;ainst his miternal uncles and succ-odrd in i)tcominfi supreme 
ruler in .'67 B. C, making Anuradhayma his Capital. Mis d<sendent 
Moriyo D.'vanampiya Tis^a sent an embassy to Maurya Devnnampiya 
Asoka in 247 H. C. clairnini; to be a distant offshoot of the same 
clan. There is a Moriyar clan in S. India. So it seems that Vijaya 
was either a Maurya or a mixed Maurya-Pandu Asoka sent his son 
Mahinda and his dau'^hter Saniiha-Mittfi with a branch of the Fio tree. 
The tree from the branch planted at .Xnurfidhapura is still the sacred 
oldest authenticated Bo-tree after vicissitudes and not infr«'qu-nt 
attempts to injure and destroy it as a symbol of dominant Buddhism 
Anuradhapur Monastery was nine storied 1 000— chambered construction 
with copper roof; 1600 stone pillars 12' hii;h wliich once supported 
the building still stand in 40 parallel lines. Tissa and his nobles 
adopted Buddhism, and Buddhism was declared as the stale religion. 
Monks and nuns multiplied. Asoka s-nt masons and artisans to 
build stone monastaries for them at Anuradhapur and other places. 
But though through Buddhism the moral and artistic development 
of the people became manifest, many members of the noble familes. 
preferring to be monks and nuns, thus through indirect birth control, 
their flighting pjwer became reduced. In l-fS B C. a Tamil captain 
named Elala from Chola country occupied and ruled Northern Ceylorj 
for 45 years from .Anur idhapur. The ri^yal family retreated to the 
south of the island and ruled from Kaliniya near Colombo and Manama 
in the extreme South P.ut Dutta idustd " nawihty) Gamini a scion 
of Magama branch of the royal family, organized an army, marched 
120 miles north and defeated Elala in pitched battle near .-XnurSdh.ipur 
in 101 B. C. and became the supreme lord of entire Ceylon. Dutta 
Gamini was a great builder. He built a 9 storied huge monastery in 
AnurSdhapura whose 1600 stone pillars still remain as the parts of 
tlie ground fioor, roofed with brass, hence called Brazen Palace. 
Tamils again attacked in 77 B. C. and again in 44 B C. wlien Vatta- 
Gamini ( Valagambahu* had to flee into hiding in the mountainous 
forests of central Ceylon. Five Tamil army chiefs ruled in succession 
until Vatta-Gamini reoccupied his throne after 15 years Yalta- 
Gamini had taken refuge in the natural rock cave of Dumballa whose 
ceiling and walls are covered with paintings by him. To prevent 
the rain flowing over the mouth of the cave round its curving roof into 
the interior, a drip ledge was cut a few inches deep Vatta Gamini 
summoned a congress of learned monks and nuns at .Aluviharc. 2 miles 
north of Matale, to commit to writing their collated versions and oral 
renditions into Buddhist scriptures. Tamils did not disturb the peace 
for 7 centuries. The royal occupation of .AnurTdhapun was however 
interrupted for 18 years between 479-497 A.D. A parricide king 
Kassapa made Singurija rock his fortress and built a palace on its 
summit ; he built great flights of steps and a winding gallery for ascent 
and decent, in fear of Moggalana. the lawful heir to his murdered 
father who however with Tamil troops from S India, and rallying 
to his standard the Simhalese, attacked and defeated K-ssapa troop, 
and Kassapa committed suicide on the fleld of batile- KAssapa however 



140 THE LITBRAET HISTOBT OP ANCIENT INDIA 

has left an enduring memorial in fresco paintings in pockets of Sigurija, 
about 40 feet above the gallery similar to Gupta and Ajanta works. In 
8th century the inroads of Tamils made Pulastipura, now Polonnaruva, a 
safer residence for Ceylonese kings for some years. But the Chola 
emperor in 1031 conquerd all Ceylon except southern two-thirds and 
renamed Pulastipura as Jananathapura. But the princes and the people 
rallied round Parakrama B^hu 1140 — 1173. who with the help of 
Tamil soldiers, not only occupied Palonnaruva and made it his eapital 
and embellishing it during 33 years of his reign, with a Sat Mahal 
Pasada. Lanka Tilaka, Lotus Bath. Wata-da gee (Circular Temple), made 
successful expeditions into S. India and Cambodia, Near Polonnaruva 
there is a rock shrine - Gal-vih"ira. The cave has been scooped out 
from the rock in which a seate 1 Buddha on a decorated pedestal 
beneath a stone canopy has been chiselled out of solid rock, perfect 
in its clarity of line and in the detail of its carving, On each side of 
the cave have been hewn the reclining Buddha 43 feet, long, his head 
resting on a pillow, his right hand under his cheek and the garment 
falling in folds about him, the eyes closed on the massive face, having 
the expression of strength and repose. 24 feet high relief statue of 
Ananda in a magnificent pose with folded arms guards the figure of 
the sleeping Buddha. 

Hoysala temples are small, polygonal or star-shaped, erected on 
a pedestal, a few feet high, the roofs are stepped one or more domes The 
entrance and doors are lavishly decorated, displaying the best of the 
architect •, the walls and domes, inside and outside, are covered without 
an inch of space being left vacant to narrate mythological stories ; as 
each chapter of the story is complete, it is indicated by a door 
closed or half closed. "Hoysala kings were originally Jainas In 
1117 Bittideva became a Vaishnava. and was called Vishnu Vardhan. 
and he built the Relur Temple 178' x 156' with beautiful doorways and 
carvings. Soma-danda Nayaka, brotherin law and C in C of Hoysala king 
Narasmgha II, built Agrahhra (a group of houses for priests), a Siva 
Temple, as a seat of learning and called the place Somanathapur. In 1269 
he built the K«isava Temple with three domes, facing east In the 
middle shrine, the image of Kesava was placed, but it is missing In 
the southern shrine is Venugopala iKrishna with bamboo flute), and in the 
northern Janardhana (protector of the people). The architect sculptor was 
Jakanachari under whose supervision not only this very pretty Prasanna 
Chenna Keshava but also o^ Halebed temple were built Halebed, known 
as Dara samudra was sacked and demolished by the victorious army 
of Mallikaffor, Narasimha was captured and one of his sons was 
carried away as a hostage- Eastern Gangas. a branch of Huna Hoysalas, 
ruled Orissa for a thousand years from 6th to 16th centuries, overthrowing 
the Kesaries, and during that period, splendid temples at Bhuvaneswar, 
Puri, Khiching and Konaraka were built, resembling Hoysala temples and 
temples of Dharwar where Hunnic W. Ganges ruled The curvilinear 
deep vertical ribs, and the steeple tower, crowned with a huge-ribbed flat 
dome (amalaka , the top of which is ornamented with a water jar ikalasa) 
are more marked in Orissa than at Dharawar- Muktesvara, Kedaresvara, 
Antanta Vasu Deva, Parasuramesvara, Lingaraj, and Raj i Rani (built in 
1000 A. D.) temples of Bhuvanesvara are well known for their beauty, 
and rich carvings. Konaraka Temple was built in 1276 as a chariot 



arts — mithdna sculptures J41 

pattern of sun god with horses (7 days of the weeks and 12 pairs of 
wheels (12 months of the year) l)y Nurasimha Badera of the Chora 
Gangas who ruled from Kalini^a Nagara between 123S— 1264. Konaraka 
was abandoned by order of Mukunda D.va II as a result of its desecration 
by Kfila Pahar. Possibly he was a Kanerkes himself. For in their coins we 
find not only BasiUm BasiUon Kjtu-rkn, but they are full bearded, wear- 
ing long tunic, quilled long trousers, boots and round Scythian caps exactly 
like Yut chi Kushans. The life sizj smiling sun god wears a high boot as in 
Kushan Mathura and Kathiwar. Otherwise he is nude except an ornamental 
girdle, heavy and long necklaces, earrings and a cap. Planets are 
worshipping him. Barren women used to come to him for fertilization to 
get the blessings of motherhood. It is the image of Mithra- Mihira as a 
lover and fertilizer. The courtyard was 885 feet from east to west and 
535 feet from north to south. Three gateways gave access to the courtyard. 
Each gate was faced with exquisite chlorite carving. The entrance was 
reached by a flight of steps, guarded by lions that have overcome elephants 
who in their falls are crushing men to death ; war horses trampling on 
warriors ; chariot drivings with ornate wheels, by spirited horses. At present 
only the Mandap and the base of the tower resembling those of Puri, 
Bhuvanesvara and Lingaraja remain, but sadly damaged. On the east of 
the porch stands a fine square building which is roofless. Four massive 
pillars inside and with many pilasters supported the roof of what was 
probably a dancing hall, as the carviniis on the walls represent dancing 
girls and musicians. Iron bars about \\' in length and 3 — 4" square 
placed on end and side by side were jointed by having them bound 
together with molten iron passed round the four sides of the gardtr. 

The voluptuous high relief of female figurines of Rajar.ini and Konaraka 
Temples like the representation of esthetically and physically robust 
Yakshas and sensual and sexually exuberant type of Yakshis is aremarkable 
outstanding contribution of nu'le art of sculpture. Mithuna sculptures of 
pairs in various copulating postures at rock-cut Kailasa. Puri, Konaraka, 
Khajuraho, Madurai, Balsane in Khandesh, Asvera at Sinnar near Nasik 
temples are fine expositions of erotic arts, though th< y are regarded as 
obscene by some evil-minded puritans and debasing of temple dignity by 
others. Art has to be judged by its naturalistic expressions, and not by other 
standards. Sensuality and sexual acts were regarded as tietrayals of self- 
control by the Buddhists, viceous as sinful by the Early Christians. But 
erotic refinements were studied and cultivated in the Greco-Roman and 
and Scytho-Hunnic, and Mahayana Tantric (as in the Idol houses of 
Buddhist Tantric temples in Tibet) civilizations, and were esteemel as high 
accomphishments by the nobility. Jagannltha Temple of Puri was built by 
Ananga Bhima Deva with Bhospara Pandita as the architect in 1197. 
It took 12 years to finish it. The porch on the ground plan is 80 feet 
square and its height is 120 feet. The body of the temple rises to a height 
of 35' above the plinth and all above it forms the spire. The temple 
was attacked several times by Moslems and purified repeatedly by while 
washings which have seriously spoilt it as an work of art. Khajuraho 
temples of Hun Chandels number 3 J, of which one-thirds are Jainas, 
Saivas and Vaishnavas equally. Jaina Parsanath temple is the largest 
and finest, about G2 feet in length, almost half in width, built between 950 
— 1150. The outside walls are adorned with numerous bands of moldings 
with 3' horizontal rows of sculptured statues. PI 56 In Architectural 



142 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Antiquities of N. Gujrat of Burgess shows the sun god with boots reacing 
up to the knees, and the girdle around the waist with one end hanging down 
wards ; the dress is entirely Scythian. 282 copper coins in Maurbhanj, 
172 Puri Kushans, 112 Kushan of Kanishka and Huviska, 7 with the 
figure of the king standing by the side of an altar and the standing figure 
of a sun god in reverse. The legend on both sides is Greek 33 coins of 
the same king and Athro on the reverse, the legend is in Greek script 
but in Iranian language. 

The pose, beauty, grace and sensual abandon of the nude female 
figures of Khandiya Deul at Khiching (Maurbhanj), Rijrani, Konaraka 
and Khajuraho temples have very few e ]Ua1s. Khajuraho temples 
— Parasvanatha, Khandarya Mahadeo Visvanatha -have curvilinear deep 
vertical ribbed steeple, ribbed and roundish large dome, crowned with a 
water jar and erotic carvings similar to those of Orissan structures. 
Maniya Devi, consort of Mahadeo, was the tutelary deity of Chandels ; 
Shivax Chavdo was the sculptor of Khajuraho. Dravidian Temples (classical 
ones atKanchi, Tanjore, Madurai consist of 5 pans : (I) Vimana = sanctuary 
= Gk pronaos = Egypt, sekos, a square shrine which contains the image of 
the deity with a pyramidal roof, one or two stories high as stepp'cid pyramids 
of Sakkara and Zoser ; (2) attached to it in the rear is the Ratna-grilia = 
treasure house = Gk. orithodomai with 8 columns = Egypt, rear second 
hypostyle with 4 columns, where the jewelleries and offerings to the god 
are kept; (3) Mantapa = the parch = the hypostyle hall with numerous 
columns which always cover and precede the door leading to the shrine (4) 
Gopuram = Egypt, pylon ; Karnak pylon 146' high. 356' long. 50' wide ; 
Luxor front pylon 76' high, 200' long, and the portal 56' high = the 
pyramidal tower gate; (5j choultries = Egypt. propylons = peristyle hall 
with roof-supporting columns round the wall of the enclosed temple as 
temporary residences for pilgrims. In Egyptian temples there were two 
obelisks, 56'— 107' high four sided usually monolithic pillars, tapering as it 
rises, ending in a pyramid ; in Dravidian temples the tall stambha is 
ususdly roundish. In Egyptian temples the king's statues, usually 20' — 45' 
high near the portal of the pylon ; in Dravidian temples either the 
statues of the king and his queen or queens, or of DvarapUas In Babylon 
( = Jat Baveru = Baberish of Darius) Ziggurat (mountain peak), the number 
of stories varies with reduction of size at the top = jaruka = eduka. 

Rajasimha Pallava built at Kanchi Kailasnatha Temple with paramidal 
tower and flatroofed Mandapa surrounded by peristyle, comrising a number 
of rooms. Chalukya Vikramaditya II conquered Pallava capital Kanchi in 
739 ; his queeiv built Virupaksha (slanting eyed) Lokesvara Siva at Patta 
Kadal after the model of Kailasan.atha ; but the mandapa is separated from 
the shrine by a corridor (pradakshina) and the pillared peristyle Mandapa 
has solid walls with pierced windows ; the square pyramidal roof consists 
of storeys of considerable height Pallava supremacy came to an end when 
the Cholas in alliance with the Pandyas inflicted a decisive defeat over 
the Pallavas. Raja Raja Chola between 1203 — 1215 built at Tanjore 
the Bhadresvara temple, and his son Rajendra Chola built a huge temple at 
Gongai Kondaparam. The pyramidal tower over the shrine is 2 16 feet high, 
mounted on top by a gilded Kalasan (spiked jar) ; the Kalasan is on a 
single block of granite 2S|- feet square and estimated to weight 80 tons.. 
According to local legend the granite piece was drawn up on an inclined 
scaffolding commencing from a village about 4 miles away which to this 



ARTS— VIJAYANAGAItA 143 

day is called Sar;.pallem (ScafTold Moll )w). In fr)nt of the tower is a 
inonolilhic bull witliin a rectangular pavilion ; the bull is of a single 
piece of granite in a recumbent posture 16' in length 12' in height and T 
across, likely to wtigh 25 tons. To the north of the temple is a mono- 
lithic car. having; under one of its wheels the fii^ure of a child, a cow and 
dead calf, all hewn out of a rock. It is s.iid that crown prince of Manu 
Nithi Kandam once driving in his chariot crushed a calf under the 
wh>'el of his chariot; the king to alone lor tii is sin was determined to 
kill his own son ; at this time the calf revivttd. Towards the end of 13th 
century, Pandyas became dominant and built temples at Srirangam, 
Chidani')aran. Kumha Konam and Tiruvanmalai, the f^tpuram over- 
shadowing the shrine vimanas of Cholas. 

When the Moslem invaders were destroying ono kingdom after 
another, particularly of the Hoysalas. Harihtra and Bukka of Kanarese 
Hoysalas, reorganiz-id the Hindu forces, thri-w back Moslem incursions, 
and foundtid thtir Capital Vijayana}?ara on the southern bank of 
Tungabhadr 1 about 1336. Vijynynagara kings Krishna Deva Raya '1509- 
152li and Achuta Raya (1^29-1542) built a Mandapa in the Ekimbaranath 
of K^lnchi, Auvaduiyar Kovd. Katyana Mandapa at Velur and Vitoba 
temple at Vijayanagara. Vitoba was half-finished Avhen the 4 Sultanates 
of Dijccan combined and defeated Vijayanagar army at Talikota in 1565. 
The victorious hjrdes pillaged and p'undered the industrious wealthy 
city, and reduced it to ruins amid scenes of the massacre of its men, rape 
and abduction of its women. The victors devoted an entire year methodi- 
cally to destroying the city with fire, gun powder, crow bar so 
that only the broken skeleton remains. The ruins of Vijayanagara, a vast 
open air musuem o( Hindu monuments of Dravidian style of architecture, 
cover about 9 square miles. The car in Vlto^a. though built of stone blocks 
but so finely fix-^d, that it appears to be monolithic. Hazira 
Rama temple outer wall basreliefs depict scenes of Ramayana. One of the 
basements of the adjoining palaces has (mc reliefs of Uasharii and Holi 
festivals. In Mandapa there are splendid carvings in both high and low 
reliefs of processions of soldiers, horses, camels and dancing girls Queen's 
Bath is a rectangulagar structure with a reservoir of water in the 
centre. The king s throne is a succesion of granite platforms rising some 
30' high, its walls being completely covered in low relief with carvings 
of elephant, camels, dancing girls and hunting scenes. Kadalaikal Ganesa 
temple with its wide portico of carved pillars with florid capitals and plain 
temple walls is almost classical in appearance. Pampapati temple has 
perhaps the largest gopuram. Candrasekhara temple is alsD noteworthy. 

After the fall of Vijayanagar. the Nayaks established an independent 
kingdom in Madurai. Tiru Malla Nayak (1628 1659) built the renowned 
Minakshi Temple in Madurai, the most magnificent s.acred monument 
of human patience, labour and skill, a rectangular edilice 830 feet by 750 
feet, surrounded by 9 Gopurams, one of which is 152 feet high. It consists of 
two parts ; on the south the shrine of Minakshi ' fish = round eyed goddess\ 
and on the north the shrine of her consort Sundaresvara Siva Minakshi 
was wooed by many suitors, but she vowed to wed only the lover who 
could prove her master by defeating her in contests. The betrothed 
couple are happily united in wedlock during the great chitrali festival 
in tne Kalynii Mantapam-The Wedding Hall, In front of the Minikshi 
shrine is the Fudu =• Vasanta Mandapa, flat-roofed corridor with aisles, 



144 THE LITEEARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDI A 

exhibiting all the characteristic features of the style developed under the 
Nayaks, namely, the development of the pillar caryatids into full 
round sculpture, representing deties, horses, soldiers ; in some of them 
Tiru Malla Nayak and his queens are represented. The temple of 
Rameshawaram built by the R^jas of Raranad follows Minakshi 
pattern ; its corridor extends to nearly 400 feet in length ; its breadth 
varies form 20-30 feet ; and the hight is about 30 feet from the floor to 
ceiling ; the central corridor leading from the sanctuary is adorned on 
one side with sculptures, reprenting the Rajas of Ramnad, and the other 
with the representatives of their secretaries. The side corridors which are 
free from figure sculptures open into transverse gallaries, full of carvings. 

On the top of famous Gwalior (Gopadri) Hill, there is rock-hewn 
three-storeyed Catur-bhuja Mandira. A shrine has been scooped out of 
the living rock on which is carved in high relief 4arrned Vishnu. The 
rock surface has been cut to give the appearance of structural gateway. A 
verandah is provided on 4 columns. Many pillars have been hewn all 
round to give the rooms in all the storeys light and ventilation, ii> 
immitation of modern brick buildings. The top rock has oeen chiselled 
out to give it the appearance of temple Vim'^na, terminating in a dome. 
There is a similar rock-hewn one storeyed Jaina temple, almost like a 
pavilion, nearly half of which is screened by a wall, covering only up to- 
f of the pillars, v.ith verandah, side stair, cornice and roof chiselled out 
like domes and pinnacles, 22 nude Tirthinkaras are also hewn out of 
the rock between 1441-1474. One standing Digambara is 57 feet high ; 
18 statues between 20-30 feet high. Seated Adin^tha and Neminatha 
30 feet high each. At the rock-cut temple of Abu Simbel in Nubia of 
Ramases II, a sandstone rock has been relieved by 4 giant seated figures- 
70 feet high as guardians, deeply cut out of rock almost vertical. 

At Paharpur, in north-east Bengal, a copper plate dated Gupta 
Era 179 = 478, has been found, recording the purchase and donation by 
a Brahmana and .his wife to Paharpur Vihara for the maintenance of a 
Jaina Vihara of Vada Gohali which is presided by a Nigantha Guha 
Nandi of Panca stupa Nikaya of Baranasi. Some seals had been issued 
by the community of the monks. Dharmapala's name is observed in 
some of the copper coins. It is likely that he built the Paharpur Mahayana 
monastery, a quadrangle 920 feet square externally with 177 rooms, 
each about 13 feet long, opening to a great court through verandah? 
— with a brick work pyramid still 78 feet high, providing accomadation 
for more than 1000 monks, Goddess Yamuna standing on the back of 
a tortoise shows fine stone relief carving. In sandstone relief have beer> 
well moddelled a monkey, a standing loving pair with ardent faces. 

The walls of the both the lower Pahnrpur stages are enlivened by- 
sculptured panels which form the special feature ot the monastery. 
The panels are of two series — those of stone which are set irregularly in 
the lowest stage ; and those of terracotta of which there are twa 
courses or friezees ; sixty of the former and 200 of the later stilt 
remain in situ. Mahasthana near Bagura, ancient Pundra Nagara, a 
provincial capital of Mauryas of 3rd Century B. C, also of the Guptas 
and later of the Palas, has eleven feet thick defensive brick walls, 
a frame of the fort 5000 feet long, 4000 feet broad and rising even 
to day to the height of 15 ft above the bank of the Karotaya. Outside of it 
nearby there is a large Vishnu temple with decorated bricks and sculptured 



ARTS — JAINA TEMPLES 145 

terracottas of the Gupta period. Gokul Medlia is another cellular 
construction, that is, by employment of rectangular compartments, packed 
solidly with earth, as a high base of a tall massive pavilion, crowned by a 
shrine, in order to have a commanding position in flooded plains during 
the monsoon. It also occurs in two temples of Ahichchalra. Somapura 
Vihara was built by Dharmapfila about SOO A.D. in I'undra Nagara. ancient 
Kotivarsa, on the border of Dinajpur and Rajshahi Dists. Mainamati 
Lalmain, A miles sw of Comilla, has yielded a copper plate inscription, 
recording a grant of land in the town of Pattikeri in 1200 AD for building 
a Buddhist monastery. 

At Pakilara, a high relief of Surya image of Candras on black 
chlorite slab 3'lO"xl'll" has been found (now at Rammala 
Library, Comilla). Sarya with Mongoloid face, slanting eyes and thick 
lips stands erect, wearing an embroidered trouser inserted into high boots, 
holding a lotus in each hand while Vidhyadara couples hovering_ above 
hold justapDsed a parasol right in the cetre of his head ; eleven Adityas 
out of 12, and Ganesa flanking him. Danda with his wife is in on the 
right side of him ; and Pingala with his wife on the left, all wearing 
pajamas with ribs on the front and Chinese shoes, holding flowers in 
their right hands, kept in place by a sash round the waist and wearing 
blouses and necklaces. Chaya, the consort of Snrya, is on the front 
of Surya's top boots, Aruna in the central bottom driving a rotunda 
of seven horses. Usha and Sandya are symmetrically poised below at 
the extreme ends as bow women to drive away darkness. Strikingly a 
well-modelled terracotta plaque shows a nude woman seated with her 
right hand on the calf of her right flexed leg and left hand's elbow resting 
on the left raised knee, touching the locks of her hair with her left hand. 

Dilvada Jain Temples on Mt Abu are 4 in number, contained 
within their own enclosed quadrangles. They are wholly of creamy 
white marble, quarried in the plains below and carried up miles of 
rugged hillsides for their construction. The wealth of minutely carved 
decoration of pillars, door jambs, panels and niches in thin and delicate 
translucent shell like marble works surpasses description. The sculptural 
treatments on the large domical ceilngs of Vimala Sha's and Tejpala 
temples are marvellous. An inscription of Vimala Sha's tells that it 
was built in 1032, and the pillars in the hall resemble closely those 
of Ambaranatha which is dated 1060, and of the sun temple at Mudhera 
in N. Gujarat. Tejapala temple was built a couple of centuries later. 
Salrungjaya's twin hill plateus (about 2000 feet high), covered by 
countless Jaina temples with brilliant domes and spires, grouped in 
fortified enclosures, look like hanging enchanting gardens in the mid air ; 
though mach damaged by Moslem iconoclasm, these twin temple towns 
with their polished marble floors, ornamental carvings of pillars and 
door ways, white nude Thirthankaras, monks and nuns singing mystic 
melodious hymns in air loaded with burning incense and balmy 
flowery fragrance, women moving in scarlet and gold, make them fairy 
lands of beauty and charm. 

Recent explorations in the Punjab and west up to Hastinlpura 
have revealed the presence of a grey ware painted with characteristic 
designs in black, roughly dated 100-600 B.C., identified with Sakas 
(Aryans !), underlying the northern black polished well baked pottery of 
Maurya Guptas, dated at Taxila 500-300 B. C. 

10 



COINS 

Pasu = Lat. pecus = Gk, po'ss)u = Goth. faihu meaning cattle, was 
the medium of exchange and wealth 'Lat. pscunia) of the Indo- 
Aryans. Cowrie shells brought from Maldives were used for small 
exchanges on the S2a coast; and counting them by Gonda (4) 4x5 
gand a = fingers Kuri (20) ; 4 Kuri3'' = 80 are of Austric origin. In Rv 
6. 47. 2 we find Hiranya pindas-gold balls. G)ld, silver, copper 
ingots of certain weights were called Niska = Semitic miskal 
(to be weighed). These were stringed with thread and used as a necklace 
of certain value. Rudra wearng a Visvarupa niska (Rv. 2. 33) = ingots 
of various shapes. In Kalpasutra Trisala, mother of Mahavira, saw in her 
dream Siri wearing urathadinara-malaya, a stringed garland of Dinaras 
(Rom. Dinarius introducd by the Kushans in 1st Century AD) on her 
bosom. Even seed garlands were used of certain value. Then fiat pieces 
of thin silver or copper hammered sheets were cut or chopped of a 
certain weight by silver smiths or trade guilds (srenis) and punched or 
marked with their symbols as well as of traders (sreshtis) as a certification 
of their purity, as in Lydia. Siamese Tikal of 224 grains = Sera. 
Shekel ; Phoenician and Hebrev Shekel was \ of it, having 56 
grains, almost equivalent to Kahapanas of 56-d7 grains. Ancient 
Iranian Siglos=>6 Danike = Daniks = Tanka = Taka. In Rajatarangini we 
find that queen of Ananta wanting money sold a jewelled Linga for 
laks of Takas, Six (saya) Tak^s = satak. Gold coins of Darius were 
called Dariks. The punch marks were on one side or both sides of 
these coins as they passed hands of silvermiths, Srenis and Sresthis 
who vouchafed for their metal ic purity and contents. The devices of 
punch-mark are varied, mostly of Mahenjodaro seals, and outnumber 
310. Mauryas used mostly punch-marked coins. The casting of coins, 
particularly of copper by pouring molten metal into a cavity by 
joining two molds together was also known by them When the 
metal was hot a square die with the symbol of Bodhi-tree was cast 
on it to make deep incuse in time of Asoka and Dasaratha, 

Silver coin of Sophytes in Seleucid style ; head in close fitting 
helmet bound with a wreath ; wing on the cheek piece ; face almost 
Hellenic ; cock to right above caduceus ; in Gk. Sophutou = Svobhuti, 
an allied king Salt Range region. Eleven years after Alexander's 
death, his general Seleucos founded the Seleucid kingdon. Between 
250 — 248 B. C. two of his chief provinces revolted and became indepen- 
dent, Bactria under Euthydemus and Parthia under Hellenized Arsakes. 
Son of Euthydemus, Demetrius 190 — 150 B C.) as the decadent 
Maurya Guptas were being replaced by more virile Sungas and 
consequentely there was administrative chaos and popular unrest in 
N. India, penetrated into India, made Sngala 'Sialkot) his Capital 
and some Yavana soldiers besiezed Pataliputra, occupying Mathura, 
Saketa (Ayodhya) and Madhyaraika (Chitor), and advanced up to 
Orissan coast. Obv. Bust of Demetrius in elephant scalp, wearing 
.^ diadem. Rev. Standing Heracles crowning himself Monogram A Y 



COINS— INDO GREEK 147 

Inscription Basileos Demetrioy soteras. Finding Demetrius (Damma- 
mitta. was engaged in India, Eukratides (17S — 155) and Antiochus, 
Seleucied scions. throuj;h Hindukush, seized Bacteria and occupied 
Gandiiara. Leaving behind his brothers, sons, daughter and his general 
Menander in the Punjxb and Western India, Demetrius left India 
tor Bactria to win back his ancient kingdom. Now there were two 
rival Yavana dynasties in India. Demetrius brothers — Antimachus, 
Apollodotus ; his sons— Euthyd-;mas II, Demetrius II, Pantaleon. 
Agathokles ; his daughter— Agathokleia ; her son — Strato ; his general 
Menander who later married Agathokleia, the daughter of Demetrius 
to legitimize his claims on the throne. Eukratides included Helioches, 
Philoxenos, Artimidoras, Epander, Amyantos, Fenkolaos, Lysias, 
Antialkidas. The former befriended the Buddhists for support, and 
the latter the Hindus, particularly the Sungas. Antialkidas sent his 
ambassador Heliodorus who professed to be a Vasudeva worshipper, 
and erected a Garuda pillar at Besnagar to make Sungas to fight the 
rival group who were occupying North Western Punjab. Another small 
rulling Greek dynasty in Broach area consisted of Apollodotus, 
Ap:)llophanes, Dionysis, Zoiles, Hippostratos. In all about 36 kings, 
and one queen or regent mother. Demetrius silver coin ; bust of 
the king, wearing elephant's scalp G k. Basileos Demetrius, young nude 
Herakles facing. Euthydemos, son of Demetrios ; silver, bust of the 
young pretty king with a fillet holding his wavy hair ; Basileos Euthy- 
demoi ; young nude Herakles facing Pantaleon, son and successor of 
Demetrius ; in incuse square ; a lion with G.k. Basileos Pantaleontos ; 
in Br. Rajane Ptalsvasha ; Lakshmi — a female slim figure with bare breasts, 
long pendants from her ears, clad in trousers, holds in her hand a lotus 
bud. Menander silver helmeted bust ; Gk. Basileos soteros Menandron ; 
Athena holding in her left hand aegis and with right hand throwing 
thunderbolt ; Kharosti Maharajasa tratarosa Menadrasa. Bronze square 
ox head ; Bronze square ; wheel (Dharma cakra) and palm, Agathokliea 
with her son Strato. Bronza square : Bust of helmeted queen, 
a very pretty face. Basilisses theotropou Agathokleiz ; Herakles 
seated, holding a club, Khar. Maharajasa tradatasa Dhrmikasa Stratesa 
Agathokleia. G.k. Basileus Agathokleous. Br. Rajine Akathukleyasa. 
a seated female figure with lon^ pendants in the ears, clad in trousers ; 
maneless lion in bronze incuse square. 

Antimachus ; Basileos Nike phorou Antimaku .• Nike (Greek Goddess 
of Victory) holding a wreath ; Khar. Maharajasa jayadharasa Antima- 
kasa, wearing Causia, diaden, chlamys on horse back. Strato ; silver. 
Bust with helmet. Basileos soteros dikaiou stratonos. Another coin 
with the bust of the king with fillet on the head. Maharajasa tradalisa 
dharmikasa stratase, Athena holding in her left hand aegis and with 
right hand hurling thunderbolt. Apollodotus MBh, Bhag.adatta ), ruler 
of Barygaza (Broach) and Gandhira, brother of Demetrius, silver. 
Basileos Apollodotus soteros ; elephant. Mahaaajasa Ap.aladatasa 
tradalasa ; humped bull, 2. Bronze square ; Nude standing Appollo, 
holding an arrow in his right hand. Tripod on stand. 3. Basileos 
megalou soteros kai philopatoros Apollodotus, Bust with a fillet on the 
head. Athena holding in her left hand aegis and with right hand hurling 
thunderbolt. Apollophanes ; silver, Basileos soteros Apollophanou ; 
helmeted bust ; Athena hurling thunderbolt. Dionysius ; bronze ; 



148 THE LITERARI HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Basileos soteros Dionyseoi, Appolo clad in chlamys and boots holds inr 
his hands an arrow, and quiver on his back ; Maharajasa tradasa 
Dianisyasa Athena, Zolius, silver Basileos diakaiou Zoilou ; bust ; 
Maharajasa Dharmikasa Jhoilasa, Herakles facing, crowned with 
ivy. Eukratides : bronze square ; Basileos megaloi Enkratidos ; 
Bust of the king helmeted ; Maharajasa • Evukratidasa .• Dioscuri 
charging, holding a long lance ; another ; Nike bearing wreath and palm 
Heliokles and Laodice ; silver. Basileos dikaiou Haliokles, Bust of 
the king, hair bound by a ribbon. Maharajasa Dharmikaka Heliya 
kreyasa. Zeus holds winged thunderbolt and long scepter ; (2) an elephant, 
Archebines, silver. Basileos dikaiou Nikephoru Arkebisou, Nike holding 
a wreath and a palm ; an owl. Philoxenus, silver round ; Basileos 
aniketou philoxenou ; bust ; Maharajasa apadhitasa Philasinasa ; 
king helmeted on horse back. Nicias, Bronze ; Basileos soteros Nikiou ;. 
head ; Maharajasa tradatasa Nikiasa, wearing chlamys on horse back. 
Epander, bronze. Basileos Nikephcu Epanderou ; Maharajasa 
iayadharasa Epadrasa— humped bull. Artimidorus, bronze square. 
Basileos anike ( lou Ar) temidorou. Artemis holds in her left hand bow 
and with right hand draws arrows from quiver on her back ;. 
Maharajasa apadihatasa Artemidorasa — humped bull. Lysias, silver. 
Basileos aniketou Lysiou. Bust ; Herakles, elephatnt, Diomedes ; 
bronze, Basileos soteros Diomedou Maharajasa tradatasa Diyamedasa ; 
humped bull. Antialcidas, silver. Basileos Nikephorus. Antialkidou. 
Zeus on throne bearing Nike on outstretched right hand ; elephant with- 
a wreath in his trunk. Khar Maharajasa jayadharasa Antialikitasa. 
Hippostratus : Gk. Basileos megalou soteros Hippostratu ; diademed head 
of the king in the centre. Khar Maharajasa tratarasa mahatasa jayamtasa 
Hipustratasa ; the king on horseback. Theophilus .• Basileos dikaiou Theo- 
philu ; the bust of the king. Maharajisa dhramikasa. Theophius ; Herakles 
crowning himself holding in his hand a club. In 168 B. C. Macedonia fell 
to Rome. Between 163-141 B. C. Babylonia, Iran and Afghanistan passed 
out of Seleucid hands into those of Parthians. In 146 B.C. Greece itself 
became a Roman province. Cicero wrote to Afficus : Do not get 
your slaves from Britain, because they are so stupid and so utterly 
incapable of being taught, they are not fit to from a part of an Athenian 
hausehold." In 113 B.C. Greco-Bacterian kingdom fell to the Yuechis. 

Yuechis (Yaksha) consisted of Assi (Asvaka = 03 = Ossettes, after whom 
Asia has been named, Sarmatian), Passi = Parsii = Gk. Passioi, Tochari 
(Tukhara = Thakura), Turki Hiung-nu (Huns, comprising of Ephthalites = 
Vetalas, Talajanghas and Avantis), Kushans, Manda and Marundas. 
Asii, Pasii (PasianI, Asiani = of Asis and Pasis), Tochari and Sakarauli 
Kuei-Shuang of the Yuechis were attacked by Hung-nu, between 201- 
165 B.C. and their king was slain, and his skull was turned into a drinking 
bowl. Kuei-Shuang (Kushan) united the other four tribes, Arjuna in his 
exploits in northern territorries is described to have conquered Parama 
Kamboja and Risikas (MBh 2.26 36) after having taken Bahlika (MBh 
2.26.22) = Balkh and Uraga (MBh 2. 26. 19) = Urga. It is known 
that Great Yuechis = Parama Risikas were in possession of the area. 
In 10 B.C. Saka invasion of Greek Gandhara (Afghanistan) and N. W. 
India began under Parthian general Surens. There was a similar 
Saka outburst in 7th century B. C. Sakas = Scyths were mixed with many 
peoples ; they mainly consisted of Sacara-uli (Sagaras), Sogdi tigra-khauda 



CCINg— PARTHIAN 149 

= Sakti's. wearing pointed helmets, Kambojas - , K^imoli Haum varka 
Magi (Maga or Magadha wearing hemp fibres), Pchlavi (Pallavas 
= Parthavas), Sudra (P.ili Sudda — ChudcsV Avira (Avars), Licchavi 
Niu-chi), Uijra (Ugrii = Ugyrians), Tunga (Tutigs)-. Kiratas fKcraits), 
Kalkis (Khalki^ Asita lOssete), Dahala (Dahae), Thfikura (Tocharis), 
Ku3eya = Kushans, Kuci = Kiu-tse ; for this reason, the Rijpats who were 
mixed Sakas and Hunas were called Agnikulodvava. (originating from Yenki 
= Agni =• Agnian race), Nagas (Nogai Tatars ; N iyar, Newor), Kark )ta N"iga 
Mallas Uvarkitans). Jits (Massa Getae = Getti), Guptas = Ar. Quoft - Copts 
who call themselves Guptos, V;\katakas = Voliaks. Udumbara = Udmurt, a 
branch of the Votiaks, Kunindas = allied Udmurts, Yau iheya (Yutias ■=■ Jits), 
Andhra3 = Andkhul Kushan Saka Rawoka= Kanerke = Kanarka. Hjliokles, 
the last Greek king of Bactria, driven ont of that country about 135 B.C. 
by the Sakas, ruled however from Kapisa 'Kabul) where his descendents 
are found as feudatories of the Pallavas, and when in 40 B. C. the last 
of them Heamaios was driven out in 40 B C. Sakis of Bactria. pressed 
by the Yue chi Kushans in 126 B. C invaded India by Herat and Seistan 
(Sakastfina) and occupied Sind which thus became known as ^akadvipa. 
Moving up the Indus valley, Parthian Maues = Moga about 51 B C. occupi- 
ed Pushkalavati ( the city of Pushkala Ugras). Pahlava princes Vonones, 
Spalaphores, Spilirises ruUed in Gandhara and Seistan and overran 
Kabul. Saka Pahlavas and Kushans, though they replaced the Greco- 
Romans, they adopted their techniques, employed their technicians 
and even used Greek scripts. Spalyris with Spalgadames ; in square 
frame, the prince is on horse back ; Gk. Spulurios dikaiou adelphou 
tou basileos. Rev-Naked Herakles with a club sitting on a rock ; Khar. 
Spalahoraputrasa dhramiasa Sp^lagadumasa. Arsaces Dikaios Gk. 
Basileantos basileon dikaiou. Arsakon. The king on horse back. Khar. 
Mah irajas Rajarajisa mah Uasa Ashshakasa tradatasa. Maues = Maga ; 
Basileos Mauou, Caduceus ; head of an elephant with raised hood. 
Basileus basileon soter Megas ; king on horse back •. diademed bust of 
the king, holding a lance in his right hand. Mau = Maga= Mauka whose 
descendants were known as Maukhari was succeeded by Azes (Aja). 
He assumed the title of Vikramiditya by defeating the Greeks and 
established the Vikrama era in 57 B.C, by defeating Appollodotus 
of Guzerat and Saka hordes of East Punja'j, About 40 B C. Euthydemoid 
Hippostratos was completely defeated. Some of Azj's coins are re- 
struck on those of Apollodotus and Hippostratos. Gk. Basileos Basileon 
megalon Azou surrounded by a humped bull in the centre. Khar. 
Maharajasa, rajatirajasa mahnasa Ayasa, surrounded by a rutting lion 
with erect penis in the centre. The successor of Azes was his son 
Azillises .• Gk. Basileos basileon megalou Azilisou ; king on horse back, 
holding an elephant goad in his right hand as a symbol of authority, 
Discouroi standing side by side armed with spears ; Maharajasa 
rajatirajasa mahatasa Ayilishasa. Pahlava Gandopharnes (O Pers Vinda 
pharna, winner of majestic story) ruled Taxila area between 30-15 
A.D, for not only some his coins are in pure Parthian style, and bear 
the names of military governors, the Scytho-Iranian names of Aspararna, 
son of Indra Varma, and his nephew Sasas which are also observed on 
some of the coins of Azes. Gondopharnes : Gk. Basileos basileon 
megalou Undopherou. The king on horseback, right hand extended. 
Khar. Maharaja rajatiraja tratara devavrada Gandupharnasa. Zeus 



150 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA. 

Standing, right hand extended. Abdagases Basileuntos basileonu 
Abdagasou ; king on horse back. Kh, Guduphara bhrata-putrasa 
Avadagasasa .• Zeus standing with long secptre. His successor Orthagnes = 
Verethragna, basileon megas Orthagnes ; b'jst of the king Kh. 
Maharajasa rajatirajasa Gudupharasa gudana ; winged Nike with 
wreath. Zeionises , Gk. Satrapeu Zeinison ; king with bow on horse 
back. Kh. Manigulasa Chatrapasa putrasa criatrapasa Jihuniasa. 
Karahaster : Copper square ; Gk. Kh. Karahaster satrapei ArtSnoh ; king 
on horse back with spear. Kh. Chatrapa Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa. 
Basileos the title used in the coronation of the Sassanian court. Pakorores : 
Basileus basileon megas Pakores ; bust of the king. Kh. Maharajasa 
rajatirajasa mahatasa Pakurasa ; winged Nike with wreath. Other 
Pahlava chiefs were Sanaberet, Zeionises, son of Manigul ; Kharahostes, 
son of Arta. Arsakes. Pahlavas kept the Greek rulers as sub-kings, 
for they admired the Greeks and were known as Philohellenes. 

Asvaka coins have been found in Taxila region, Sarmatian Assoi = 
Assakenoi of the Swat Valley whose chief town Massage fell to Alexan- 
der's army after fierce resistance Three-arched Chaitya Symbol ; a 
robed human figure with an upraised arm in an attitude of prayer, with 
Br. legend Vat Ashaka ( = Asvakanam Vatah = Coin) in single-die of 
3rd century B. C, Malava coins from 250 B. C. to 250 A. D. are 
found about Ajmer, Tonlk and Chitor, tree or lion in railing in centre 
with Prakrit legends —Malalva Jaya, Malavana Jaya, Malavana Jayo, 
Maha Ganasa Jaya — Victory to Maharaja Ganapati, having close 
resemblence in design to the Maharaja Ganapati of Nigas. Rev. Vase in 
dotted line or peacock facing with expanded tail, covering the whole 
surface of the coin. They are the Mallas of Kusinagar, Malloi of 
Alexander's historians, who left Bhatinda leaving Malwai dialect, and 
as Karkota Naga Mallas founded in 2nd century B. C. the city of 
Karkota Nagara in Jayapur State. There are coins with the legends 
Ma (haraja) Gajasa (of Maha Gaja) i Ma Paya, Ma Sapa ( = Sarpa\ Ma 
Paka, Ma Gojava (Maharaja Gajava). After their settlements Ujjaini 
area was known as Malava. Sibi coins have a Trisula in the middle 
with the Br. legend — Majhimik.lya Sibi Janapadasa (of the country 
of the Sibis of Madhyamika). Yaudheyas (Yautians = Johiyas of 
Bhawalpura ; perhaps Jodhpur founded by them. Yudhisthira = Jats) are 
mentioned by Panini and in Rudradaman's (l50 A. D.) inscription as 
great fighters. Their copper coins of 109 B. C. - 250 A. D, are found 
all over in Bhawalpur, Bikaner, Punjab and Kangra, resembling 
Audumbara coins. The earliest type is a Bull standing right within a 
railing with the Br. legend — Yaudheyana, and Bhupa-Dhanusha (lord of 
the desert). Six-headed god— Karthikeya standing on a lotus facing 
with left hand hip and right hand raised and a barbed spear on the left 
with the legend — Bhagavatah Svamino Brahmanya devasya, in others 
Kuffidirasya, the coin of almighty lord Su-Brahmanya = Kartikeya, the 
war god of the Yaudheyas. A single headed god with the legend 
Brahmanyadevasya drama (coin). A warrior standing grasping, a spear 
in right hand, with left hand on hip, a peacock at his left foot with 
the Br. legend Yaudheya-Ganasya Jaya — Victory to the Yaudheya tribes. 
Arjunayanas are mentioned in the Ganapatha of Panini (4, 1, 112) 
and Samudragupta (380 A. D.) Allahabad inscription as a frontier 
tribe. Their copper coins are chiefly found in the region between 



COINS— TAUDHETA 161 

Bharatpur and Alwar States, reseniblini^ the coins of Satraps, 
Yaudheyas and Audumbaras. The coins of Arjunfiyanas of 2nd century 
B.C. show a bull before a lini^a ; humped bull standint; to left ; a 
standing; figure with eight hand raised as in Northern Satrap coins witli 
tree Br. legend in the margin as Arjinfiyana (of Arjuna lineage) or 
Arjunayanana Jaya with a symbol of flag or spear, Vimaka coins 
bear close resemblance to those Audumbaras and Vrishnis. The elephant 
with upraised trunk moving to right towards the trident battle-axe of 
Siva and Br. Rajna Vemakisa Rudravarmasa ; Rev. Humped Bull with 
a Cakra = discus symbol, Kh. Ranavem Vuma— Vidayata = coin of king 
Rudravarman, the Vuma — the conqueror. Vrishni coins have a pillar 
with half-lion as half elephant surrounded by a railing. Br. Vrishnir (a) 
Jajnnfi Ganasya Tratarasya. Rev. The same legend in Kharosthi with 
a Cakra — discus— symbol. Udumbara coin has the standing figure of 
Visvamitra with right hand raised and the left resting on the waist 
with the Kh. Mahidevasa Rano Dharaghoshasa Odumbarisa, across 
freld — Vispimitra. Rev. The same legend in Br and Kh letters of 
1st century B. C. The Udumbara (fiig tree) on the right within a 
railing and the trident battle axe on the leaf (the coin of his exalted 
majesty Dharaghosa of the Odumbaras — Odombaerae of Ptolemy. 
Kuei-Shung (Kushans) under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises (21-50AD) 
passed south of Hidukosh from the O.^us basin and overwhelmed the 
Pallavas who were then in Kao-fin ( Kabul ) valley. At first the Kushans 
kept the Pahlavas and the Greeks as their sub-kings, but latter when 
Kushans formed one of the biggest empires, extending from Central 
Asia to India, Greeks were only kept in their technical seivice. Telephos : 
Copper squ.are. Basileos euergetou Telephosu : Zeus on the throne 
with long scepter. Maharajasa Kalanakramasa Teliphasa. Male figure 
with cloak and cap. Peukolaos copper square, Basileos dikoiu kai soteros 
Peukolou ; Artemis standing to front drawing arrow from quiver at back 
with right hand Maharajasa dhramikasa tradarasa Peukulasa .• crowned 
city goddess with a flower in right hand. Hermaios and Kalliope .• 
conjugate busts of king and queen to right, surrounded by Gk. Basileos 
soteros Hermaiou kai Kalliopes King prancing horse : Maharajasa 
tratarasa Heramiyasa Kaliyapaya. Hermaios and Kajula Kadphises 
(25 B.C.— 35 A.D.) : Bust of Hermaios ; Gk. Bisileos sterossu Hermaiou ; 
nude Herakles standing with a club. Kujula Kasasa Kushana yavugasa 
dhramathidasa. Kajula Kadphises ; imitation of Roman Dinarius. 
In corrupt Greek, Khorann 2aoou Koz^la Kadaphes ; diademed head. 
Kh. Kaphasasa sachadhramathitasa Khusan'isa yuasa ; king seated on 
throne. Vima Kadphies (35 62i deposed Pahlava Pakores from Taxila 
area and swept the last remnants of Gre-^k authority, and the later 
Greek princes were driven out of the Punjab ; Artemidorus fled to 
Kashmir ; Dionysios, Zoilos and Strato II to Kangra. Vima, seated 
cross-legged wearing baggy Turkisli trousers, crested helmet 
on the head, and a thunderoolt in his right hand. Gk. Basileos Ooemo 
Kadphises ;Isa(Oesho) standing in front of a bull with a trident in his right 
hand ; Kh Maharajas rajidhirajasa sarvaloga Isvarasa mahisvarasa Vima 
Kathphisas tradara, Kanishka (78-103) standing wearing trousers, heavy 
felt boots, casseck long cloak falhng beneath the knees, conical helmet, 
having full beard, large prominent nose and roundish face ; in Greek scripts 
Shao Kanestiki. Iranian wind god in Gk. Oado^ Vata = Rom. Venti. 



152 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

2. In Gk, Shaonanoshao Kasheki Koshano. Standing Buddha wearing 
a robe, with the legend in Gk. Boddo. Vasiska (102 — lOG), Huvishka 
(111 — 138) riding on an elephant, halding in his hands sceptre and goad 
in Gk scripts, Shaonanoshao Oeshki Koshano. A goddess wearing trousers, 
boots, bodice, cap, holding in her hands a boquet of flowers with the 
legend in Gk Ardokhsho. Vasudeva, standing wearing a suit of 
chain-mail, conical helmet with prominent nose, roundish face, holding 
a spear in his right hand with the legend in Gk. Shaonanoshaoshao 
Bazodeo Koshano ; five headed Panclnana in front of a humped bull 
with a noose in his right hand, trident in his left hand with the legend 
Oesho (Isa). Kuninda in the hills of upper Satlej Br. Rajnah Kunindasa 
Amoghbhutaasa (of unfailing prosperity) Maharajasa ; Laksmi standing 
on lotus with uplifted hand ; Kh. Rana Kunidsa Amogabhutisa Maha- 
rajasa. Satrap Rajuvala of Mathura. Head of Rajuvala with corrupt 
Greek legend. Athena with aegis and thunderbolt with the Kh. 
legend Aparihata Cakrosa (invincible v;ith the discus) Chatrapasa 
Rajuvala (70 B C.). His son Sodasa (65—57 B. C.) as mentioned in the 
copper and lead coins with the legends —Mahakshatrapasa putasa 
Kshatrapa Sodasasa ; Rajuvula putas Kshatrapa Sodasa. Parasol was 
used by Sargon of Akkad as a symbol of Sovereignty ; it was adopted 
by Achemenian Daris II ; and the Sakas imiiated it and called 
themselves Satrapas = Khatrapas = the wielder of 5a/'/*a = umbrella. Nada 
Diaka, chief queen of Rajuvala, daughter of Ayasi Kamiua (Kam- 
bojia) was the mother of Yuvaraj Kharaosti through a former husband 
Arta. Castana (124— 150* of Malawa : Bust of the Satrapa in Gk. Br. 
Rajno Mahakshatrapasa Ghsa(moli)ka putrasa Castana. Kh. Castanasa. 
Jayadaman, son of Castana. Humped bull, facing trident and battle axe. 
Br. Rajno Kshatrayasa Svami Jayadamasa and a Gk. legend Rudra- 
daman, son of Jayadaman. Bust of the king with Gk legend, Caitya of 
3 arches. Br Rajno Ksahtrapasa Jayadama putrasa Rajno Maha- 
kshatrapa Rudradamasa. Ksharats ; Lion with upraised paw — wheel. 
Kh. Chaharadasa Cha(trapasa) Bhumikasa Br. Kshahari (tasa) Kshastra 
pasa Bhumakasa (90—70 B C.) Nahapana's (70-65 B.(^) head with 
corrupt Greek. Thunderbolt and arrow. Br. Rano Chaharatasa, Kh. 
Nahapanasa. His sonin-law Saka Rishavadata succeeded him. Damasena's 
head wearing a round cap on the head ; eyes, nose, face sharp. Caitya 
with crescent, Br- Rano Mahakshatrapasa Rudrasihasa putrasa Rano 
Mahakshatrapasa Damasenasa. Andhra Yajna Satakarmi. Head 
of the king with heavy earrings. Br. Rano Gotamiputasa Siri Yana 
Satakanisa chaitya ; southern Br. Gotamputasha Hiru (Siri), Yana Hata- 
kanisha. Srikrishna Satakarni. Elephant with trunk upraised. Br. 
Siri Kanha Satakanisa. Abhira Isvaradatta (236 A.D.) : Bust of the king 
with traces of Greek scripts. Caitya surmounted by a crescent. Br. 
Rajno Maha kshatrapasa Isvaradattasa varse prathame. Apahrahmsa, 
regarded by Patanjali 150 B.C. as a corrupt form of Sanskrit, was the 
recognized language of Gujrat before Valabhis 509 A. D., based on 
the Ahhira dialect — Desabhasha Abhirokti — Bharata's Natya Sistra 
of 200 A D., 17, 24, 5. The downfall of the Parthians by the Sasanians 
occured about 223 A.D. Though the Sasanians were in deadly grip with 
the Roman Empire for a couple of centuries for supremacy in Armenia, 
Saka-Pallava, Andhra (226) — Kushana, including Kidaras known as 
Little Yue chi pawer was affected in India, for they were allied peoples. 



COINS— GUPTA .153 

find the weakness of one resulted in the disability of others. Bust of Kidara 
king ; one witli shaven f.ice, another with short moustache wears 
earrings and necklace with the legend in Br. Kidara Kushana Sha, 
Rev, fire-altar with triple base, surmounted by flames in which the bust 
of Hormizd appears in the right. Guptas rose in power. Little is 
known of their early history. One Ghatot Kocha's son Candra Gupta 
marrying Licchavi Kum'ira Devi (Kaniaroi princess) wrested power from 
the decadent Andhras in Bihar and rapidly extended Gupta suzerainty. 
Ghatot is a Kirata name, Koch is a Mongoloid tribe by whose settlement 
Kochvihar has been named. Kerait was a Scythianised powerfull Mongo- 
loid tribe who settled in N. E. Bengal as well as Nepal, Bhutan known 
as Kiratas = Kirritis. Licchavi (Niu-chi) also was a Saka clan, ruling 
in Bihar, Mithilfi and Nepal. Copts who call themselves Guptos (Ar 
Gubti), brought and settled in N\V India by Darius, coming under 
the Achemenian (Hakaniansia = Saka-manusa) influence, became a 
Saka clan and mixed with the Licchavis and Kirntas Guptp and 
Kushan scripts, dresses, coins are similar ; and both of them adopted 
and patronized Sanskrit. Candra Gupta (320 — 3S3) wearing trousers, 
boots and long coat is offering a ring to Kumara Devi, also wearing 
trousers as a Saka custom of Licchavis by whose helps he aggrandized 
himself with the legend in Brahmi Candra Gupta on right, Sri Kumara 
Devi on left ; on the reverse of the gold coin Licchavya and a goddess 
seated on a lion ; their son Samudra Gupta ruled as Licchavi Dauhitra. 
On another gold coin there is a sacrificial horse before an altar 
(Asvamedha) with the legend Rajidhirajah prithivi vijitya divam jagatra 
hritaviji medah. Samudra Gupta (330 -375) was a great conqueror. 
He waged war against Pallava Vishnu Gupta ; entire NC India 
acknowledged his suzerainty ; E India also paid him some nominal 
tributes. On his gold coin Samudra Gupta wears chain-armored 
trousers and cuirass and stands before a Garuda-headed standard beneath 
his arm, Samudra ; around. Samara satavitatavijayo jitaripur ajito 
divam jayati ; Rev. Laksmi seated on a couch, her feet on lotus, with 
the legend. Parakramah. Candra Gupta II ^3S5 — 413*, second son of 
Samudra Gupta and Abhira Datta Devi who in the Allahabad 
stone pillar inscription gloats over his victory over Daivaputra Shahi 
Shahanshai Sak Marundaih, after rescuing the Rastrakutx Dhurva De\i. 
wife of his step brother Rama Gupta '375 — 385) from the custody of 
Kushana Saka Marundas of Kangra, incorporating the entire western 
coast to Gupta Empire, and marrying Dhurvi, assumed the title of 
Vikramaditya. In a gold coin Candra Gupta rides astride a caprisoned 
galloping horse, wearing trousers and boots in the Greco Parthian fashion, 
with the legend aroud, Paramabhagavata Maharajadhir.^ja Sri Candra 
Guptah Rev. LaksmT seated on a wicker stool, her feet resting on a 
lotus with a fillet in her right hand, with the legend Ajita-vikramah. 
Their son Kumara Gupta (413 — 455) valiantly fought to stem the 
onrushing tide of Puspamittra white Huns who overthrowing the 
Sasanids fell in Indian NW frontier in increasing numbers. Sasanids, 
exhausted by long and sanguinary wars with the Romans for more than 
a century, collapsed before the Hun outbursts. ?E Europe was overran 
by Atilla's hordes. Before them Gupta Empire tottered and crumbled 
into pieces. Candra Gupta II allied himself with Vakatakas by giving 
•his daughter Prabhavati in marriage to their king Rudrasena II. He 



154 THE LITEEART HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

removed his Capital from Pataliputra to Kausambi, to Ujjain, Ayodhya. 
He debased his gold coins to meet costly war needs. Kumara Gupta 
in his debased golden coin standing to right, wearing trousers, kept in 
place by a leather fillet, armoured coat, holding a bow in his left hand, 
shoots a lion which falls backward, with the legend, Kumaro Gupta 
yudhi simha-vikramah. Rev. Seated Ambika has a crouching lion 
before her right foot, with the legend Simha mahendra. In another 
coin, in the bust, he has a pleasant contemplative face and fine nose ; 
he wears a round cap on his head, his long hairs falling on his shoulders ; 
he wears ring earrings ; some Gk. letters. Rv. Peacock dancing ; around, 
Parama Bhagavata Maharajadhiraja Sri Kumara Gupta Mahendra 
dityah. Pushyamitras established themselves in Kathiwar as Valabhi 
Mitrakas ; the other is Pushya-blutis of Thaneswar. Whether the Gurjara 
(Khazar) kingdoms of Broach and Bhinmal are of Pushya-Mitra incursion 
or of later time are not known. Another Hun incursion under 
the leadership of Toramana fell upon the later-day Guptas of Malawa. 
conquered it, and Toramana assumed the title Maharaiidhiraja. Valabhi 
Maitrakas and others of NVV India acknowledged his suzerainiy. Toramana 
gold coin head is represented with not an unpleasant face. Rev. a 
peacock with spreading plumage, with the legend in Br. Toramana. 
Toramana was succeeded by his son Mihiragula (502 — 540' wha 
established his capital at Sakala (Sialkot). Baladitya Gupta of Magadha, 
Kidara Yasovarman of Malwa and Maukharies (of Mauka= Moga = 
Maues) of Kanauj joined together, and Mihiragula (of Mihirkula_= 
descent) in 528 was defeated; but he continued to rule in Kashmir. 
As their homelands were occupied by Aschin Huns, a branch of the 
Turks, and Sasanids, thus reinforcements being non-available from 
outside, the remaining Sakas, Kushanas, Takharas, Hunas formed the 
Rajput Agnikulas, for majority of them in Kuch are known collectively 
as Yen-ki = Agnis or Agnians, in Ugrian Kusanlili= Pur-Kauseyas. Mihira- 
gula coin has his bust head ; his face coarse and cruel, nose very 
prominent, mousiasche and beard are partly clipped -, there is round 
cap on his head ; in his front there is bull standard and behind a trident 
Legend, Jayatu Mihirakula. Rev. fire altar. Yasavarman in his debased 
coin is a standing figure, but not sharply marked ; under his left arm, 
the legend, is — Kida fra) ; Rev. seated goddess with the legend, Sri 
Yasavarma. Sasanka Narendra Gupta of Gaura made alliance with Deva 
Gupta of Malawa, and jointly attacked Maukari Grahavarman of 
Ujjaini. Maukhari king was killed in the encounter. But his queen 
contort R'tjya Sri, daughter of a Gupta princess, sister of Harsavardhana 
Siladitya, of Pushyabhutis of Thaneswar, his own cousin and whom 
he was entitled to marry, declined to entertain the victor with 
her physical charms, though he was in love with her, and she was- 
imprisoned to make her yield. Harsavardhan (612 — 647) with a large 
army attacked the rear of the allied forces. Sasanka releasing Rajya 
Sri retreated. Harsavardhana occupied the whole Maukhari territory 
and made Kanauj his Capital. In 643 Harsa directed his forces against 
Sasanka in Ganjam. Sasanka was defeated. Valabhi Maitrakas of 
Saurastra, being allied in race, co-operated. Harsa wanted to conquer 
south by rttacking Chalukya Pulakesin II. But he was forced to make 
Narmada, the boundary of their two dominions, Harsa was a patron 
of learning and author of some dramas. In Sasanka's coin, Siva is 



COINS — DANUJA-MARDANA 155 

standing with an uplifted hand, moon above in right behind a humped 
bull, with the legend Sri S', below, Jaya. Rev. a nude Lnkshmi 
sitting cross-legged on lotus, elephants above on either side, sprinkling 
water from their uplifted hoods on her head, on right Sri Sss'inka. In 
Harsa's coin there is his bust head, with fine sharp face, thin prominent 
nose, refined appearance with the legend Sa and a date ; Rev. Peacock 
with out spread wings and tail with dots above , around the legend, 
vigitSvanir Avanti pati Sri Sri Siladityo divan Jayati. Didda, a 
daughter of the Sahi (Kushan) chief of Lohara was married to a prince 
of Pisaca (Pasieci = Pashai) Yasaskara Dynasty of Kashmir. After her 
husband's death, she acted as the regent of her son Abhimanyu, and 
after Abhimanyu's death as queen herself. She used to select her 
ministers of government from her lovers ; though she was capricious^ 
in her love affairs, she was a very able administrator. She looked 
after the the affairs of the state personally. Her administration, 
brought law, order and prosperity, unknown in Kashmir for a long time. 
She was succeeded, however, by her nephew, brothers's son, Sangrama, 
of the Sahi Lohara dynasty, thus bringing union of both the states in 
1003 A. D. In Didda Rrmi's coin \7e find her son Abhimunyu. 
standing, Rev. seated goddess ; of the left Sri, and right, Didda. 
In 15th century Bengali script — Danuja-mardana = Raji. Ganes = Kansa 
Narriyana has Sri Sri Danuj i mardana Devasya in one side and Sri Sri 
Candi-Carana parayanasya. The Indo Greek kings often called 
themselves Basileos (Sk. Rajan ) soteros (Skt. trata = protector), Dikaiou 
(the just). Whom did they protect and from whom ? Between whom 
were they just and impartial ? There were very few Greek Polis in 
India. Only soma Indians who lived in mixed Greek settlements 
prided to call themselves Yavanas. Very few Greeks indeed assumed 
Indian names, adopted Indian manners or became real converts to 
Brahminism or Buddhism. It is likely therefore that they exploited 
the differences that existed betwesn Brahminism and Buddhism for 
their imperial aggrandisements. 

Nagarahara = Jellalabad ; Agnidesa = Karasar ; Lampnka = Lamghan ; 
Sogdina = Sudhuka = Sulika = Sulikas who translated Nilakath.i Dharini, 
Dhirgha Nakha Sukha Sutra, Besa Santara Jataka, Sulika Desa = Samar- 
khand; Wakhan = Vokkana ; Khosghar =Kasa Griha ; they followed 
Sarvastivada Buddhism 7th, century A D. In Tocharian language Maitreya 
Samhita, a Buddhist drama, has been translated. Khotan = Godana, 
Chaurasi siddhas lived in caves of Chinese Pamir. They proclaimed 
Tantricism. In Sulika language a Hindu astronomical book has been 
translated. In it, Rabi = Mihir ; Soma = Mah ; Mangala = Vaharam ; 
Tir^Budha: Brihaspati = Nahid ; Sukra = Ormuzd ; Sani = Kebana 
after Iranian days Tocharians settled in region between Balkh and the 
Oxus =» Vakshu = Tukhara = Tagara, A Tocharian scholar Sukanta tran- 
slated the Buddhist Cakra Sambara in Tibetan. According to Huen- 
Tsang. Khasas in Khotan had long head and blue eyes. 

In 7th century B. C. bronze cowries were issued in China, Huang-Ti 
221-210 B C. superceded all other currencies by the issueof round coins 
of ^ oz. (Pan-liang) which were continued by the Han dynasty. But as 
their values fluctuated, Changan 200 220 A.D. killed his white stag and 
made a kind of treasury note out of its skin which was valued at 400,0DO 
copper coins. Thus skin currency was followed by the currency of paper. 






INDIAN KINGDOMS IN KHOTAN 
AND INDONESIA 

It is said that Kusfcana ( Kunala according to Tibetan tradi- 
tions), a son of Devanampriya, Maurya Asoka, founded 
Kusfcana Dynasty in Turkestan. Kusfcana's son Ye-u la =» Chin, 
Yu lin Ye-u-la was succeeded by Vigifca Sambhava who founded 
the Vigita (Vijaya) dynasty. Vijita Dharma's son was Vijita 
Simha •, his son Vijita Kirfci. A Kharosthi inscription refers to 
Khotanese (Khotamna) king Maharaja Biajafciraja Deva Vigita 
Simha. About ^0 coins bearing Chinese legends on the obverse 
and Prakrita in Kharosthi character on the reverse have been 
found there. Later Khotan and the adjoining area Kuci, Bacfcria, 
Iran and Afghanistan came under the domination of Kushans 
by whose influence the whole territory adopted Mahayana 
Buddhism and Greco-Romanic modified Buddhist arts. Uigurs 
and Tochariaus, known also as Yek-ki-Agnis=»Tukharas of 
Kucha (Agni Dcsa) became zealous converts. Kuchean or 
Agnian was a slanting Gupta script. Some Sankskrit texts 
lost in India have been found in Kucha. One is Udanavarga, 
a work of Hravastivadins ; a palm leaf manuscript in Turfan 
of the concluding chapters of Asvagosha's Sariputra Prakarana, 
Sanskrit texts from Vinaya Samgita Sutra and Atanaliy Sufcra 
of the Hinayanas ; Upali Sufcra and Suka Sutra from Madhyama- 
gama ; Pravarna Sutra, Candropama Sutra and Sakti Sutra 
from Somyuktagama : Vajra Chedika from Prajna Paramifca j 
Mahapari Nirvana Sutra, Sadharma Pundarika, Ananta Mukha 
Dharani. Sata Panca Salika Sufcra, Pratimoksha. Azes, one of 
the Scitho-Parthian hordes, either for commercial purposes or 
for military adventures, settled in Java, coming from the SW 
coast of India. For the Javanese era starts from 68 A, D. of 
Aji (Azes) Saka and lafcer the Saka Kushan era of 78 A. D. 
In a Chinese historical work ifc is menfcioned that an Indian 
colony arrived in Java during the reign of Han emperor 
Kwang Wu-Ti ( 25-57 A,D.) 

Vishnu (of the Ligor Inscription and Sri Vishnu varmmasya of 
the Perak seal ), the chief of Sailendra dynasty, bears the title of the 
Illustrious Great King. The king, lord of Srivijaya, the very best of all 
kings of the earth, has erected in "775 the triad of brick houses, the 
abode of Padmap'^ni. the destroyer of Mara ( Sakyamuni ) and Vajrapani 
(Vishnu-vakyo Sailendra vamsa prabhu nigadatah Sri Maharaja nama. 
Sri vijayesvara Bhupati resa gunanghah kshitala sarva samanta nri 
pottama ekah sthapita aistika geha varatraya metal, Kajakara Marani 
vajri-nivasam. Ligor). 



INDIAN KINGDOMS IN INDONESIA 167' 

Another Javanese Kingdom is mentioned at A8tina(Ha3- 
tinapura ) and ruled by Pulasara ( Parasiira ), who Wtis succeeded 
by his son Abiasa (Vyasa) who in his turn was succeeded by 
Pandu Deva Natha. Pliny ( 6. 76 ) mentions Gens Pandae, 
and Solinus ( 62. 16 ) Pandaea Gens. This pandae gens origi- 
nated most likely with the Sarmatean Wends, who was known 
as Pandion of the Greeks. Scythianized through N. India they 
settled as Pandus of Madurai. About 444 B. C. Paudu 
Vasudeva became the ruler of Ceylon and called it Lanka 
( Lith. Lanka, lenke- wooded valley); in 377 B.C. Pandu 
Abhaya was the king according to Mahawansa. In 20 B. C. 
the Tamil king Pandion sent an embassy to Augustus. In 
132 A.D Devavarman of Java sent an embassy to China. 
Pandian titles were Minankita Sailendra, Sailendra vamsa 
Prabhava, Migodatah 3ri Maharaja name. In an inscription of 
Kalasa in Java dated 771 A. D, on a temple of Tara — Candi 
Kalasa — Maharaja Panam Karan - Samagra — who built it after 
the patron duty of his wife Tara — daughter if a Pala king of 
Bengal, styles himself as Sailendra vamsa Tilaka. Sailendra had 
also the title of Makara dvaja as the Pandiyans called them- 
selves Mina-dvaja • that is they had on their standards either 
a crocodile or a fish. Congal inscription of 732 A.D. in Keda, 
Central Java, refers to the original home of the conquerors as 
Kuujara kunja desa, S. I Kunjara in Varaha Mihir's Brihat 
Samhita, and mentions that a radiant Lingam was brought from 
Kunjara kunja. The cult of Agasbya was well developed in 
Indonesia as amonst the Pandyas. 

Sailendras wrested Ligar from sri Vijayas about 77 5 and 

The Chinise invented the brest-trap horse harness in 200 B.C. 
Emperor Han Wun-Ti in 133 B.C. consulted alchemist Li Shad Chun 
who occupied himself in converting cinnahar powder and other drugs 
into yellow gold ; tiger -mercury ; grey dragon = sulphur ; red bird = fire. 
Tsai Line in 106 AD in Yuan-Hsing's reign made paper from tree bark, 
hemp and rags. During 400-506 AD the Chinese made black ink from 
lamp black and red ink from mercury sulphide. In 7th century gun 
powder was made by the Chinese for fire works, and by the end of tenth 
century, gun-powder was well-established as a propulsive agent in war 
weapons. From China to Europe spread the following inventions : 
the single wheel barrow, sailing carriages, rotary camp-mill-mobile 
quern, the square pallet of chain pump, rotary fans, deep drilling, 
eflficient harness, the breast strap ( 4th., century B. C. in China;, 
ceramics, the collar ( 700 AD in China), horizontal water wheels, 
metaurgical blowing engines ( 31 AD in China), tilt hammers, water- 
driven trip hammers, canal lock gates, stern port rudder, piston bellows, 
edge-runner mills (gun powder mill 300 AD), iron chain, suspension 
bridge, vertical-warp loom, draw loom, flyer in silk winding, revolving 
book case, kite, heliocopter top (4th century A.D.). In a 2nd century 
Book on Trees and Plants, entomological control of plant pests is described. 



158 THE LITERARY HISTORY CF ANCIENT INDIA 

established their authority in Java ( Java dvipa ). Thus during 
the last quarter of eighth century, Sumatra ( Suvarna 
dvipa ), Malaya Peninsula (Malaya) and Java came under 
the Sailendras. Sailendras introduced debased Tantric system 
of Mahayana Buddhism, and built Candi Kalasa and Barabadur, 
Sailendra king of Suvarna dvipa had also commercial inter- 
course with Tamralipta ( Tamluk ) of Bengal and had in 7^2 
Kumara Ghosha, a Gauda Tantric Guru. In the middle of 
8th century Sailendra Bala-Putra Deva, son of Samara Gravira 
built a Vihara at Nalanda, and at his request the Pala ruler 
Deva Pala donated five villages for its maintenance. 

Of great navigator Buddhagupta, a resident of Rakta mrittika, 

by all means in all, in all respects, let ( they ) be successful in their 
voyage ( MahaNavika Buddha Guptasya Raktamrittikavas (avyasya), 
prakarena sarvavasmin sarvatha savva siddhayata santu ) on a stone 
slav with the figure of a stupa in the centre whose basement is decorated 
with three pilasters, supporting a semicircular dome ; the dome carries 
a superstructure ( harmika ) from the centre of which rises a staff {yasti) 
with a series of seven superposed parosols {chatravali);, 

• Canopus, identified with Agastya, a pilot of Menelaus, was buried and 
worshipped in the shape of a jar with small feet, thin neck, swollen body, 
round back, so called Canopic Jar. 

Saila and Gang^ rulers of Kalinga were also known as Sailendra. 

Babylonian star observations reached China by 525 B. C. Iron 
reached China likewise and is mentioned by 513 B. C. Horse archers 
reached China before 300 B. C, and Cavalry soon replaced Chariotry in 
warfare all over Eurasia ; in China 200 B. C. The development of 
Silk Road between 200 B. C— 300 A. D. About 300 A. D. unrest on the 
steppes seriously interfered with the Silk Road. From 400 A. D. commu- 
nication between China and the West was through India. The use of 
gold and the Alchemy based on Babylonian chemistry developed in China 
in 4th century B. C. Ox-drawn plough and the coffin as in Egypt was 
adopted in China. The invention of paper and saismograph developed 
in China 100-300 A. D. The Chinese developed gun powder about 
300. Indo-Scythians introduced glass-making in China in fifth century. 

18 inches high bronze^ image of Buddha in pure Gupta style has been 
found near Ipohj now in Perak Museum. This indicates Hinayana 
Buddhism was prevalent in the area in fifth century A. D. But a two 
armed seated bronze Avalokitesvara has been found near Ipoh ; a four- 
armed bronze figure near Ipoh ; a six armed bronze Avalkitesvara has been 
dredged in Perak which indicate that Hinayana Buddhism was replaced 
by Mahayana Buddhism in 8-9th centures I. L. N. July 23, 1938, 

Srivijayas originated about 683, and subsequently extended its power 
over all South Sumatra, and in 8th century sent an army to Cambodia 
where the king was taken prisoner and beheaded. After that time, the 
kings of Cambodia every morning bowed to the west in prayer as a 
tribute to the Maharaja of Srivijaya. The Srivijaya ruler owned a pool 
paved with silver and connected with the river by a canal. Every 
morning a priest threw in a bar of gold and at ebb tide when all the bars 



INDIAN KINGDOMS IN INDONESIA 159 

of gold appeared glittering in the sun, the king looked out from his 
audience hall and rejoiced in the sight. In 9-llth centuries Srivijaya 
(Palemhang) had monasteries in Bengal and S. India. Srivijaya \Tas a 
great fl )urishing town with more than a thousand Buddhist monks. 
Pilgrims from China, who wished to visit the holy land of India, lingered 
here for a long time in order to learn Sanskrit and to be imbued with the 
teachings of Buddhism In 7-t7 Srivijiya received with lionor Vajrabodhi 
and Amoghavajra on their way to Cliina to teach them the tenets of 
Vajrayana. In 1377 Srivijaya was conquered by the Indo-Javanese. A 
large granite image of Buddha of 5th century, now in the garden of 
Palembang museum. A finely wrought fragment of a god's head of 
which only the left half of the face has been spared, the hair is confined 
by a band with rosettes -, the contours are full and gentle, and bear 
witness to great artistic skill, resembling 7th century S. India style. A 
bronze preaching Buddha of 8 9th century seated on a chair with a 
triangular back piece, recalling Gothic art. A red brick tower at Muara 
Takus in Central Sumatra of 1 1th century has been found ; in one of the 
towers a golden disc with an inscription announcing that these temples 
were built by Vajradharas. 

But who were the Vijayas = Srivijayas ? Sihapura was founded by 
Siha-bahu, father of Vijaya. Vijaya's wife Triloka Sundari was born in 
Sihapura in Singha-bhumi = (now Singhbhum = KalingaK Sihabahu married 
his sister Sihasivali. Siha was a Licchavi general. Vijaya and 703 others 
with their wives and children left Indian shore and reached Naggadipa 
and Mahiladipaka ; Vijaya landed in Ceylon on the day of Buddha's 
death. Vijaya sent for and obtained as his wife a daughter of the Pandu 
king of Madurai ; Vijaya reigned for 38 years, and was succeeded by 
Pandu Vasudeva (Mhv. 6. 38, 7. 6 ; Dpv. 9, 6). A brick build Buddhist 
Shrine discovered at Kedah (Katah = Kidaram = Kedara) in Malaya Pen. 
may be of 4th, 5tli century A. D., indicated by a Sanskrit inscription. 
Sanskrit inscriptions have been found in the northern, western and 
eastern parts of Malaya Peninsula ; one of them refers to Mah"i-navika (a 
great navigator) Buddha Gupta, of an inhabitant of Rakta Mrittika which 
may be Ranga Mati, the capital of Chittagong Hill Tracks or Chihitu 
(red earth) of Siam. 

In 684 Srivijayas of Suvarnabhumi was ruled by Buddhist king Jaya- 
nasa Jaya Niga). In 686 he sent an embassy to China. Srivijayas had 
big ships and traded, with both India and China. An inscription found 
at Ligor in Malaya dated Saka 69/ = 775 mention that the domination of 
Srivijayas Vijaya rulers) of Palembung extended over the Malaya 
Peninsula as far as the Bay of Bandon. 

Puma Varman niled W Java (dvipavaram Yavakhyam = the excellent 
Island named Yava) during 5th and 6th centuries. He was of Brahmanic 
faith as he made according to Tuga inscription a gift of thousand kine 
to Brahmanas. He called himself Vikranta, and made foot impresses of 
Vishnu, patterned after his own feet— purusa pada mah ilaksma bhuti— to 
be worshipped by his subjects. The space above Puma Varman's Tuk 
Mas inscription is filled with 16 emblamatic figures, representing a wheel 
with lo spokes, a conch (Sankha) shell, a mace, 2 water jars, a trident, an 
axe, a club, a dagger. 

Perak Malaya became the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijayas under the 



160 THE LITBRABY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Sailendras Both Hinyana and Mahayana Buddhism became dominant 
in Kedah in fourth century. A fifth century bronze Hinayana Baddha in 
Amaravati style has been found at Kedah, and two Hinay ina Buddhist 
images in Kinta valley of Perak. Then Pallavas founded Hindu settle- 
ments in Kedah on the Bujanga river, building temples with Ganesa and 
Siva with trident. In 8th century came Malaya again under the Mahayanists 
of the Palas of Bengal. A bronze casket from a Kedah temple contained 
miniature weapons of Ajanta type that appear later in the carvings of 
Borabudar. One broad spatulate dagger has been found in a Java temple. 
Among Malays and Khassis husbands and wives call one another not by 
their own names, but father or mother of so and so, naming their child. 
In Bengal the same custom prevails, and even others call a woman not 
by her personal name, but as Rama's or Maya's mother. 

C. Java kingdom with capital at Mataram was founded by Sannaha 
who died in 732, Sannaha was succeeded by Sanjaya who ruled over 
entire Java and Bali ; led expeditions to Sumatra, Cambodia and 
Annam. After his death, Sailendras occupied C. Java. Dharmadaya 
Mahasambhu 898-910 of both central and eastern Java ; he was succeeded 
by his son Dakshottama who assumed the title of Vajrab'ihu in 915. In 
Java, Sindak assumed at his coronation the title of Sri Isana Vikrama 
Dharma Tunga (Tungas and Indras were the surnamss of the Chalukyas) 
Deva in 929 and ruled for 20 years He was succeeded by his daughter 
who ruled as queen Sri Isana Tunga Vijaya, married to Sri Lokapala, 
and their son and successor was Sri Makuta Vamsavardhana who had a 
daughter Mahendra - dattS = Gunapriya Dharmapatni, married to Udayana, 
and they had a son Airilangga, married to the daughter of Dharmavamsa 
of east Java. Udayana and Mahendradatta (989- 1001) were ruling Bdi 
as viceroys of Dharmavamsa. Both Dharmavamsa and Sailendras sent 
envoys in 992 and 1003 to the Chinise court for help. Sailendras 
became dominant. Airilangga had to hide in a forest ; in 1010, conse- 
crated by Buddhist, Saiva and Brahminical priests, he assumed the title 
of Sri Lokesvara Dharmavamsa Airilangga Ananta= Vikrama Tunga 
Deva, and ruled over a small territory of Pasurapan. But by defeating 
the Vijaya king of Vengker in 1035 who was put into prison by his own 
soldiers, he became the master of the whole of Java. For trade many 
foreigners came during his reign to Java as Kling, Simhala, Dravida, 
Karnataka, Champa and Kmir (Khmer = Kambuja Kamar = Kumar) and 
to facilitate oversea commerce he opened a port Surabaya at the mouth 
of Branter river, and another at Tuban. A stone statue of Airilangga, 
sealed on Gadura as Vishnu with a realistic face, wearing a necklace 
and crown was erected in 1045 at Belaha. Kritanagara, son of 
Vishnuvardhana, sent an expedition in 1284, and the Bali king was 
brought as a peisoner to him. But soon after he again asserted its indepen- 
dence. He sent another expedition to Malaya which extended far into 
the interior of Sumatra which he made a vassel slate of Java. He 
also conquered Pahang of Malaya Peninsula, Bakulapura, SW of Borneo 
(Varuna dvipa ; Indonesian ancient name Berunai) Manila (Manila) 
in Samara Dvipa (Philippines), Bali, Sunda and Madura. Tapasi, a 
princess, was married to Jayasimha Varnan of Champa. Kritanagara 
had no son, but two sons in-law — Vijaya and Ardharaja — fought 
against each other for succession, Mongols under Kublai Khan after 
occupying China sent an expedition against Kritanagara with the 



8AILKNDRAS AND CHOLAS 161 

connivance of Ardharaja. Kritanagara fought and died. Vijaya also 
did not submit, and at first fought them ; but failing help from Virorfiji 
of M"dur I, t hough he was offered half the Javanese kingdam, Vijaya 
acknowledged the suzerantiy of Kublai Khan and sent embassies 
to his court with tributes in 1297, 1298, 1 iOO. 1308. Vijiya assumed the 
name of Kritarajasa Jayavardhana of Majapahit ; in 129+ he was the 
sovereign of the whole of Java, by marrying the four remaining daughters 
of Kritanagara. His queen was G/iyitri - KAjapatni, and by them he had 
two daughters. He also mirried the Malayu princess Indresvari by whom 
he had a son Jaya Nagara, the prince of Kadira. Sri Vijayas of Malayasia 
held some authority order Kambuja (Cambodia) and Champ i (Annam', 
Kambuja Jayavarma II (802-857) threw off the yoke of Sailendras at 
the time they lost Java. Sailendras flourished from the middle of ninth 
to the end of the 1 0th century in Srivijayas, and they had to fight the 
Cholas for supremacy. R^jendra Chola (10171025) crossed the seas 
with his formidable navy and defeated the naval squadron of the 
Sailendras and their allies, conquered lO to 11 of Sailendra states, and 
took even Kadira. Rljendra Chola's conquests extended practically 
over the whole of tiie eastern coastal region of Sumatra, central and 
southern Malaya, including two capital cities of Kalaha and Sri Vijaya. 
But the S.iilendras asserted their independence soon after the death of 
Raiendra Chola. Vira Rijendra (1063-1070) claim to have conquered 
Kadara and given it back to its king by in a treaty of friendship. Cnola 
Kulottungi at the request of Kadara ruler, communicated by his 
envoys Raja Viddhadara Samanta and Abhimanottunga Samanta, exempt- 
ed from taxes llie village granted to Buddhist monastery Sailendra Cudl- 
mani Varma Vihara, founded and named by the Sailendra ruler Cuda- 
mani Varman at Nagapattam in 1005 when a village was granted for its 
upkeep by the (-hola king. Candra Bhanu, king of Javaka, in the 
reign of Parakramab'thu II, attacked Ceylon in 1236 and occupied some 
parts by landing an army at Kakknala ; but defeated by Virabahu, the 
regent, he retreated ; but in 1255 he again landed at Mahabriha, rein- 
forced by Pandya, Chola and Tamil soldiers. But Javaka army was 
again defeated by Virabahu. At this Pandya king Jatavarma Vira Pandya 
fell upon his ally Candrahhanu, killed him, and boasts of having con- 
quered Ceylon. Javanese king Kritangara conquered Pahang in Malay 
for only a short while. In 1474 Kadaram king embraced Islam. Tenth 
century inscription of Ugrasena of Bftli has been found. Towards the 
end of the century Dharmavamsa, the king of Java, conquered Bali and 
appointed Udayana, a Balinese noble, married to a Javanese princess, as 
a governor ; the offspring of this union is Eirilingga who conquered 
Java in 1035 and became the joint ruler of Java and Bali. In 1317 
Bali was overran by Gaja Madu, the prime minister of Majaphits, and 
annexed it to the Javanese empire. Towards the end of iSth century, 
the Majaphits and other nobles who wanted to escape Islamization took 
refuge in Bali. In 1908 the Dutch sent an expedition against Deva 
Aung of Klunking, When the palace was besieged, the king in full 
regalia, seated on a golden throne, carried on the should-'rs of his 
ministers in a procession of women and children, appeared. The Dutch 
opened fire, fearing an attack. But a priest in a white robe raised his 
sword and struck it into the breasts of women and children. The 
prince was then first to fall with his ministers who preferred death to 

11 



162 THE lITeKARY HISTOEY of ancient INDIA 

subjugation and dishonor. Those who could be captured alive where 
interned in the neighboring island of Lambok. In Jiva and Bali in 
upp -r classes one notices still refined and graceful Indo Malayan features, 
especially among women. In Bali, mixed Mahayana Buddhism and 
Hinduism still prevail and the temples are still fragrant with flowers and 
incense, ring with the chants of the priests, soft melody and swaying 
dances of the charming svelte Ealinese danseuses. 

Borobudur is a pyramidal stupa shrine in nine stages, about 400 feet 
square at the base And in it tht^re are about 2000 bas reliefs adorning 
the gall iries, depicting the life of Buddha, as mentioned in Lalita Vistara, 
Divyavadana and Jatakas, which if laid from end to end would extend 
over two miles And they are noted for their good proportions, 
naturalness of gestures and artistic realism. Buddha and Prajnl Paramita 
(transendental wisdom) in sitting meditating postures have regular sharp 
features with fine chiselliug in Pallava style. Agastya in Candi Benon of 
early ninth century ,Batavia M' has fine face with prominent nose, having 
mustasche and beard ; the belly is protuberant, wearing a sacred thread, 
standing, but legs broken- At Prambanam, an early capital, of tenth 
century, there, are six large and 150 small temples in an imposing style. 
Kawi alphabet of Java evolved from Pallavan and Nagari scripts, brought 
by the Palas and Nagari script of Bengal in 8th century A, D. 

OLD JAVANESE (Kakawin = Kavi) LITERATURE : Amaramala. like 
Amarakosa in San-^krit, in metrical from, contains synonyms ofi deities, 
animals, and other objects Ramayana by Yogisvara in 938 gives the subs- 
tance of Sanskrit version, but up to the time of Sita's fire ordeal and the 
reunion of the couple. Mahabharata however is a prose condensed version of 
Adi, Virata (996 A. D.) and Bhisma (but 12, 15,16 as 17th chapters of the 
Git^ are not included) Parvas uuder the patronage of Diarmavamsa ; 
Asrama, Prasthanika, Musala Svargarohana Parvas are of later date. 
Udyoga Parva is in corrupt Sanskrit in condensed form and the 
translation follows it closely Arjuna Vivaha was written by Mpu Kanwa 
under the patronage of Airilangga. Ghatatkacasraya describes the fight 
between Abhimanyu and Laksmana Kumara for winning the love of 
Kshiti Sundari in which Ghatotkaca came to the help of Abhimanyu. In 
Lubhdaka there is a fight between the messengers of Yama and Siva 
over the corpse of a hunter who spent a night on the Siva Ratri on 
the brances of a Vilva tree and some of its leaves fell on the Siva Linga 
beneath. Indra Vijaya, a poem, narrates the victory of Indra over 
Vritra, and Nahusa secured the position of Indra for a while. Partha 
Yajna mentions that Arjuna by a Vmta obtained weap:)ns from Siva. 
Kala Yavananka describes how he invaded Dviraka to avenge the death 
of Kamsa and was reduced to ashes by Mucukunda. Arjuna carried 
away Subhadra when Andhakas and Vrishnis were celebrating a festival 
on Raivataka. Rama-Vijaya depicts the defeat of Sahasra-Vahu .\rjuna 
by Parasu Rama (R'lma armed with a double axe;, son of Jamadagni and 
Renuka. Ratna-Vijaya described the trajic fight between the brothers 
Sunda and Upasunda over Tilottoma, Partha-Vijaya describes the death 
of Iravan, son of Arjuna and Citrangada, comrade of Ulupi. Us ana Java 
contains the history of Bali._ It describes how the king of Vilvatika 
(Mujaphit) sent his brother Arya Damar and his general Gujah Mada 
to conquer B ill, and how they divided the island amongst themselves 
and their relatives. Kutara Manava (in an inscription of 1358 Kutara 



KAUNDINYAS 163 

M'lnavadi S'stra Vivec.inatatpara. indicating its importance is based on 
M inava Dharmi Srira-Samiiccava) is a diijfSt of laws in Sanskrit vcrse 
followed by translation, Siva S isana is written in old Javanese, associated 
with the Dharmavarmsa kini^ Anlintavikr.unotlunt^a Di;vi, I'urvadhigaraa 
•s the digest of Siva-S.isana-S.iraddhrita =■ B dmese i'urva A^^ama. 

In Kadsri period Krishnuyana by Triguna (1019-1042), a pjL-m. in 
which \rjuna fights Nivata Kavacha-for the gods; motif of sculpture at 
Lacon Mintarga deals with elopm:nt of Rukshmini Ijy Krishna, and 
his light with Jarasandha. It contains a descri;)tion of Dviravati and 
mentions the names of Krishna's 10 wives out of 160J0 , sculptured relief 
on the temple of Pantara Samana-S tntaka (death caused by a flower) 
is based on the death of Indumati, qu -'en of Aja and motht-r of 
Dasaratha, as described by Kalid sa in his Kaghuvamsa, Bi'tata Vu Idha 
was written in the reign of Jiyabhaga (1 ISd - 1157 ). based on U;ljoga, 
Bhisma, Drona, Kama, and Siila Parvas of MBh. written by Mi'u Sedah- 
in 1157 by the order of Kadira king Jayabhaya in simple epic style. 
Smara-Dihana was written uader the patronage of Kadira king Kam-^s- 
vara II (1 185 ). depicting the burning of Smara by Siva, has -A on 
Kum'ira Sambhava. N:ti S .stra Kawin. known in B di as Nitisira, 
written during the closing years of Majaphit like Skt Nitis ira, contains 
a collection of moral and ethical precepts of conduct. 

According to Chinese records, the kingdom of Founan in Cambodia, 
was established in first century A. D, but archeological objects go back 
to the middle of ?nd century- Small Hindu- Buddhist stales existed in 
the same century throughout Malayasia. First Sanskrit inscriptions in 
Borneo and Java were composed in 5th century ; though the images 
of B iddha have been found in Annam and Celebes earlier than 30J. 
Colonizition was entirely pacific by marrying into high local families, 
displaying qualities of higher civilization and trade prosperity. 

It is mentioned in the History of Chin Dynasty 26'>-419 that in 
Funan ruled a queen Liu-Yeh willow leaf or more likely Ye- Ye-cocoanut 
leaf as no willo^vs are grown in Cambodia). There the men are all ugly 
and black. Their hair is curly. They go naked on bare foot. Probably 
a Negrito people. There Huntien = Kaundinya came in a ship from 
Mo-fu (Malaya), and married the queen and gave her cotton clothing 
who was clad only only in tropical sun shine. Then came by first century 
A.D. Chu Can-tan = Candan who sent an embasry to Cliinese court, offer- 
ing elephants. Candan was the royal title of Murunda Kushans Vo - 
Canh inscriptions 233-238 are in Kushan character. Fanan had libraries 
and books written in language which resembled that of India. Candan was 
succeeded by Chenju =• Kaundinya Bhadravarman. a Brahmin who came 
with his wife, a Somavamsi Nagi, called Soma- Bhadra Vurman 
(Chinese Fan, the king of Funan) had several inscriptions in Sanskrit, 
in characters of C I Vengi type, the old Pallava capital between Kishna 
and Gadavari, resembling many Pallava characters. 

Kaundinya Bhadravarman, his wife Nigi Som\, and his brother 
Citrasena Mahendra Varman become popular rulers and they 
sent presents to the Chinese court to»vards the close of che 
Sung period 420- -t78. Jayavarman (Cn.o ye-pa mo) of Kaundinya 
family ruled in Funan and sent some merchants to Canton for 
•trade. On their return voyage to India m^nk Na-Kia-Sien (Nagasena) 



164 THE LITERARY HISTOET OP ANCIENT INDIA 

joined them to return to his country. But a storm forced the ship to- 
land in Campa (named after the Champa = Tsiampa people in Annam) 
where the ship was pillaged. Nagasena however managed to reach 
Funan. In 484 Jayavarman (protector) sent Nagasena to the Imperial 
Court, complaining that Bhadhravarraan, one of his relative officer sent to 
Champa for administrative purposes, has usurped the throne and has 
rebelled against him, organizing the local men. Jayavarman asked 
military help, even a small nominal force, to chastise the usurper 
rebellious king of Champa. Nagasena presented a poem to the emperor, 
praising Mahesvara. Buddha and the emperor. Though the emperor 
condemned the action of the Champa king for declaring independence 
and defying the order of his former master, he declined to intervene. 
Jayavarman however sent representation again in 503, 511, 514 with 
presents, including an image in coral. Jayavarman's queen was Kula 
Prabhavati, and they had a son Gunavarman who is styled rajasunu (king's 
son), called himself Kaundiaya vamsa sasi— the Kaundinya moon). 

Rudravarman, younger brother of Bhadravarman (Sri Bhadravarm- 
manujah (? Nagar 2), attacked Funan, killed Gunavarman, and became 
the joint ruler of both Campa and Funan, Rudra Varman sent 6 embassies 
to the Chinese court between 517-538. During his reign Funan was 
invaded by Kambujos. 

Kaundinyas were Agastya and Drona ; because they were born 
in jars, hence called kumbha-yonis = Kundins or Kaundinyas ( M Bh. 
1, 63). Kundina, son of Dhritarastra, M Bh. 1. 37.16. Kandinya, a Saka 
tribe in Jatakas. Kaundinya is associated with Pahlavas (MBh. 2. 4.). 
Kaundinays influencial in Mysore Kaundinya is a Scythian clan like 
Sodasa as mentioned in the Lion Capital of Mathura. Kunindas who ruled 
the hilly region on the Sutlej during 1st. century B. C. had their 
coins both with Br and Kh legends. Kaundinaya, a Brahmin, got a 
javelin from Asvathama ( son of Drona ) and pitched it on the site of 
the future capital. He then married Soma, the daughter of Naga 
(Ngao, Na khi of SWChina, or Mon-Khmer Phong = Ngo-loks of NW 
Tibet; As. snaca = Swed. snok = snake) king. This union was comme- 
morated at the court of Angkor up to 13th century. In an Amaravati 
inscription, Pallavas claim the similar origin. Asoka sent two 
missionaries — Sona and Uttara — to Suvarnabhumi — Pegu to Malaya 
Peninsula. This Hinayana Buddhism reached Nagara Pathana at a 
very early date. For early Buddhist symbols as Caitya and Cakra were 
used instead of the images of Buddha which was introduced during the 
Kushan period. Kanishka sent Mahayana missions to Tibet, China and 
S. India. Mahayanist images turning the wheel of law dating from 
1st century A. D. have been found at Nagara Pathana in Siam. 
3rd — 7th century Mons formed the kingdom of Dvaravati in the 
valley of which remains have been left in the shape of Sanskrit 
inscriptions and Buddhist images, representing Sarnath. Indian colonies 
at Hastinapur ( Tagaung ie N. Burma). Tunhsun (Tenasserin ), Srikhetra 
(Prone), Vishnupur (Pisanu Myo), Suddhamavati (Thaton), capital of 
Ramanayo country, are known. In Borneo (Varuna dvipa), 4 Sanskrit 
inscriptions on yupa stone pillars by Mulavarman (2 stone yupa 
pillars, bearing, inscriptions during the reign of Kushan Vasiska 
have been found near Mathura), son of Asvavarman and grandson of 
Kundunga (Kundugual and Kundukura are Tamil names) of 400 A, D. ia 



KAMB0JA3 166 

Pallava Grantha character, have been found. Pattinappalai is a poem of the 
time of Chela Karikala of 2nd Century A. D., Kadnrani of camphor and 
spices is likely the Ivedah on the west coast cf Malaya. At Kuala 
Selinsing (Perak), a seat inscribed in Pallava Grantha character, has been 
■found. In Celebes at Sempage, a bronze Buddha of Amaravati school, 
has been dug out. In ChampX Sanskrit inscriptions of the Varmans ol 
Kaundinya descent are either in Palhiva, Kadamt)a or V;"ik."ttaka scripts 
which are very similar to eacli other. But who were the K imbujas ? Kamby- 
ses of Iran, called in O Persian Kabujiya. Ivamuia in the Lion Capital 
of Mathura. Kambohas of NW Pnnjab. was a branch of the Scythian 
Cambysena of ancient Armenia. In our ancient annals it is mentioned 
that the Haihayas ( Hiao Ilui Huns) with the cooperation of Saka.s, 
Yavanas (Heb, Javan = in cuneiforms of Sargon 732-705 B C. I avanu - 
Assyr. lamanu. v being changed into into m ; later, llelleniz'id and 
philo-hellenic Scythians and Parthians ; then Persians, and at last all 
foreigners including .Arabs ; they were also called Mleccha, after 
Molossi of Epirus who came with the lonians . Kambojas (Kamuia = 
Cambysene), Paradra (Saka Paraderya = Afddi ), and Pahlavas 
(Pehlevi- Pirthava= Parthians), coming from N. W. India attacked 
Kosala (VAyu P. 88 122). In Vamsa Br of Samaveda. it is mentioned 
that Kambjja Upaminyava is a Vedic teacher ; Upamanyu is the 
composer of Rv. 1.102.9 In Yaska's Nirukta, it is mentioned that 
Kambojas spoke a different vedic dialect as savaci which is an Iranian 
word. From 6th to l.'th century Lobburi (Navapuri; was politically 
a part of Kamhujia kingdom, Lopapara formed a part of Kambuja known 
to the Chinese as Funan and Kan-to-li, though nominally a part of Malay, 
as far as Kedah and Ligor (Sithammarat = Sri Nakan Thamrat = Sri 
Dharmaraja Nagarai in Jaiya. The southern kingdon was l-Jvar^vati. 
Remains of Gupta and Pallava arts are found there as Vishnu from Vien 
Srah and Lokesvara from Jaiya iBmgkokM), Buddha fropa Dharavati 
in Lophuri Museum. In Pyu = 01d Prome was established Sri Kshetra = the 
field ot glory, founded by a Vikrama Dynasty from 6^7-718 which is 
the beginning of the Burmese Era 633 AD. The inscriptions are in a 
S I. script. There are three stupas of archaic type of which Bawbawgyi 
is one— a cylinder of plaster brick 150 feet high with a hollow shaft in the 
centre, crowned with a flattened cone, with both forms of Buddhism 
— Mahnyanism and Hin'iyanism with Vishnu worship. Mahayanism and 
Brahnmanism introduced Sanskrit, and HinJtyanism P:ili and Prakrita. 
There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze 
statuettes of Avalikitesvara and images of Vishnu- The people burnt 
the dead and their ashes ( asti ,'',sa) were stored in urns. In Arakan 
Candra Dynasty of Bengal had their capital named as VaisAli from 4th 
century A.D. Thirteen kings ruled for 230 years. The second dynasty 
was founded by Dharma Vijaya. His grandson married a daughter of the 
Pyu king of Sri Kshetra. 

In Raghuvamsa of Kslidasa, Raghu defeating the Hunas (Huangu-nu) 
on the Vankshu (Oxus), fights the Kambojas. Kamboja in likely the Kaofu 
= Kanbu of HuanTsang in Afghanistan, Kamboh. of the Punjab. It is very 
likely that a branch of the Scythian Kambysene reached the Tibetan 
plateau where they mixed with tlie people, and some Tibetans are even 
called Kambojas ; and though Tibet they came to the Mekong valley 
•where they were called Kambojas (Cambodians), now repres'inted by 



166 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Chams, still a tall fair-complexioned dolichocephalic people with non- 
Mongoloid eyes, of the Mon Khmers. It is recorded in the archives of 
Siam fnamed after the people Sayamas) that Kambujas occupied N Siam 
in 543 B.C., and only expelled about 443 AD by the Thais. The oldest 
Khmer inscription in Siam are those written in Sanskrit, found at Surin 
and Tam Pettong ( cave to the golden duck), all dating from the time of 
Citrasena (Mohendra Varman ) early in seventh century. There are 
other inscriptions in both Sanskrit and Khmer of later seventh century. 
A Sanskrit inscription of 4th century AD has been found at Mung siTep 
near Pechahury with Saiva and Vanisnava sculptures. It is not till after 
the fall of Funan that an important principality of Siam, called Dvaravati 
(Buddhist^ rose in importance with its capital at Lophuri (Lavapuri) = Supa, 
resembling Gupta arts of India. DvAravati sent embassies to China 
in 638 and 649 ; it extended from Cambodia to the Bay of Bengal. 
Hinduized Mons dominated over the Dvaravati kingdom, and its influ- 
ence extended as far north as Haripanjoy = Lamphun, and the kingdom 
extended their authority over the lower Menan valley, and gradually 
Kamboja authority was established over the whole of Siam, continuing 
till 13th century when Thais established several independent kingdoms. 
Thai = Dai had an independent state in Yunan. Ahoms including the 
Borahi (now known as Barua in Chittagong area) belonged to them, 
absorbing the Shans, and mixed Mons occupied the Assam Valley. 
Kambuja was originally a vassal state of Funan, and eatablished an 
independent state of Kambujas with Sreshtapura as his capital. He 
was succeeded by Bhavavarman in 560, who set up a new capital at 
Bhavapura and claimed descent from Kaundinya, rather from Kambu. 
His brother Mahendravarman led an expedition against Rudravarman of 
Funan and conquered it and died in 616, succeeded by his son Isana- 
Varman who became the joint ruler of Cambodia and Cochin China, and 
made Isanapura (Sambor Prei Kuk) his capital. Isana's daughter 
Sri Sarvani was married to Jagoddharma, and in 657, their son 
Prakasadharma restored order and peace in Campa. The next Kambuja 
king was Jayavarman. He lived in Java. His mother's mother was the 
daughter of the sister of Pushkaraksha, the ruler of Aninditapura of 
Campa and Sambhura. By marrying the only daughter of the ruler of 
Samphupura, Jayavarman freed Kambuja from the Sailendra domitation 
of Java. He invited Hirnyadana to perform some Tantric ritts, who 
also initiated the royal priest Siva Kaivallya into Tantric cults. 
In Myson Stele it is mentioned that when Ganga Raja abdicated, he 
drowned himself in Jahnavi. It is known Nandivarman fought Gangas. 
And Ganga king Prithivipati helped Dantivarman to fight against 
Pandyas. bhadravarman of Campa assumed the title of Dharma Maharaja 
like the Pallava king Siva Skanda Varman who called himself Dharma 
Maharajadhiraj (Aggithoma vajapey assamedha yadi Dhamma Maharaji- 
dhirajo Bharaddayo Pallavana Sivakhamdavamo = who performed 
Agnistoma Vajapeya, asvamedha — Pallava Bharadvaja Dharma Maha, 
rajadhiraj Siva Skanda Varman). And like the Pallavas he and many 
other kings of Campa made gods and temples after their own names. 
Homage to God. Through the favour of the adorable Bhadresvara 
svamin, as long as the sun and the moon (exist), the sons and grandsons 
of the illustrious Dharmmamaharaja Bhadravarma will enjoy the kingdom. 
Mahendra Varman (£00-630) whose biruda was Abanibhgjana erected 



ACrASTYA DYNASTY 167 

Abanibhijnna Pallavesvara temple. Paramcsvara Varman ^6S0) whose 
subtitle was Vidya-vinita erected a Siva temple called Vidya vinita. 
Pallava Paramesvara Griha. Rajasimha (6S0-70)) erected at Kanci Raja- 
simbesvara whicb was latur known as Kailasanatha temple. 
Jayavarman II (724), a scion of Saml)hiipura. ocupit-d the throne by 
force. He traced his origin to Kambu and not to Kundina, He assumed 
the title of Kambuj'^svara and his queen Kambuja Lnkshmi. They had 
a son Dharmavardhana who assumed the title of Jayavarman III (Devi 
Kambuja Lakshmis sa sadhvi stri Dharmavarttini. sri Dharmmavardhana 
putram sushuve Dharmavardhanam, Phnom prah Vihear B. 9). 
Sri Jayavaman was succeeded by his son Indravarman (799) whom 
he obtained after many sacrifices. After his father's dtath he erected 
the temple of Isana Hhadresvara, and its Linga worship was put in 
charge of the chief priest. Indravarman's queen Indrfi Djvi 
claimed royal parentage from both father's and mother's side, 
one of Vyadhapura king and another from Agastya, a Brahmin of 
Aryadesa who founded another dynasty. Agastya married Yasomati, 
the princess of Adhiraja of Vyadhapura. and thereby acquired its domina- 
tion. They had a son Narendra Varman. Narendra Varman had a 
daughter, Narendra Laksmi who was married to Rajipativarman, a scion 
of Vyadhapura. They had a daughter Rajendra Devi who was married to 
Mahapativarman, son of Rajendra Varman. king of Vyadapura and 
Samb.nupura. Their daughter was Indra Davi who was married to 
Indravarman of Campa. Their son was Yasovarman (811; who introduced 
Nagari script of R istrakutas and Calukyas of Kalyana. He erected a 
Bhavani temple to whose service he dedicated many slaves 

Yasodhara erected many temples with images of Indu (Moon, Prasat 
Ta Sion stele). Paramesa Bakon stele i, Ganesa (Pah Neak Buas stele), 
Panca Lingesvara (Prah Theat Prah Slele), Rudra-Parvitesa (Siey Krup 
Seak Stele, Kirtikaya Vat Ha Stlee), Bhavani the image of which he 
has himself made (Loley\ Narayana (Vat Kandal Stele), an Asrama 
with land and slaves for Tapasas iHome Tamoh st'le\ a home for the re- 
fugees where no culprit can be arrested, no animal can be hunted or killed. 

Prilhivindarvarman was the viceroy of Panduranga Pura tPhanrang) ; 
but he claimed to the ruler of entire Camp i. Priihindravarman died in 
774 and was succeeded by his sister's son Satyavarman who was attacked 
by Javanese sea raiders in 774 who took away Siva-mukha Lingam 
(Phallus sculptured on the body of Siva> from his temple. Satyavarman 
pursued the raiders in his own ships, bur failing to recover it, installed 
a similar image in 78r, and bent (Skt namas, naman = Gk nemow - Goth, 
niman = Ger. nehmen) daily. He was succeeded by his brother Indravarman. 
In 7i7 Javanese sea raiders sicked and plundered Bhadradhipatisvara 
temple. Indravarmman erected at Virpuri Indrogesvara temple in 799 
and in 807 Indrabhadresvara temple. Indravarman was succeeded by 
his sister's husband, as amongst the Saka-Andhras, who assumed the 
title of Harivarmma-Deva-R;')] .dhiraja, Campipura Parmesvara. He 
conqueared 2 Chinese districts from which he was forced later to 
withdraw. He was succeeaded by his son Vikr;intavarman, who was 
made at first the Viceroy of Panduragapura under SenApati P..r who 
led an expedition against the Kambujas, replaced by a stone im.ige 
of Bhogavati for 'gold idol that was carried away and also erected 
Linga, Skandha, and Vinayaka shrines with fine Mandapas. 



168 THE LITERARY HISTOBy OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Yasovarman died in 210 and was succeeded by his son Harsavarman 
who dedicated six women every fortnight to Adrivyadapuresa (Namma 
Sri Harshavarmma Sas Sri Yasavarma putrah. Adrivyadhapursea dat 
shat Kanth prati pakhham, Vat Cliakret, (3 4). Harshavardhana was 
succeeded by his younger brother Isanavarman. Isana Varman was 
succeeded by Jayavarman, the husband of the sister of Yasa Varman, 
who rebelled agaiiut Isana and set up as an independent king in 921. 
Yasavarman built the royal palace Angkar Thom = Nagara Dhania 
after Isana's death, in 928, The sole monarch of the region fortified it, 
now known as Phima Nakais, (Bhima = big, naka = heavenly, ais = abode) 
in9l0andthe pyramidical shrine and image of Madhava under the 
the name of Trailokyanatha by his chief minister Sri Satyacraya. 
Jayavarman married Prana who was called Kambuja Lakshmi, the 
youngest daughter of Kesava Bhatta = Krishnapala Amafendra= Arima- 
thana who was made the royal priest ( A 11). The brother of queen 
Prana Vishnuvala = Laksmindra Jayavarman his treasurer (eka Vitta- 
dhipa A, 6 6) The eldest sister of Prana, Pavitra became the wife 
of highly intelligent Vinduvardha. and her elder sister Prabhavati 
became the soul comrade of Brahmin Rishikesa (Pavitrakhya ca sa 
patni Vindvadhasya mahadhiya, Prabhabavti priys hridya Hrishikesa 
dvijanmauha, A lO). Prabhavati became the mother of Adhyapaka 
Rajendra Pandita B 11, Phnom Prah Vihear). Sarvajnamuni born in 
Arya desa (7-10) came to Kambu desa. He was made the priest of 
Bhadresvara temple. Of him was born Siddha Vidyesadhimant (103). 
Jayavarman 1082-1 107, the builder of Takov. made him the officiating 
priest to celebrate the Yuvaraja ceremony of his son Sri Indravarman 
(51-53 Angkor Vat . A Khmer inscription on a stele No 153 mentions 
that Dharani Indravarman and his successor Suryavarman II. who ruled 
between 1113-1145 built up Angarvat (Nagara vata = Banian = Chin. 
Shu of Sung period, and peepul = Chin. puti = Ficus religiosa. were wor- 
shipped in Amoy, occupying an important place in Taost mythology as 
symbols of longevity and married happiness during Sung period). 
Suryavarman I of the race of Indravarman, usurped the throne by armed 
rebellion. He made his uncle Sankara Pandita, scholar and a poet, 
his Furahita, ousting the exclusive privilege of Sivakaivalyas. He made 
an alliance with China. He had a famous guru, his mother's brother 
named Yogisvara Pandita who was descended in female line from 
Bhas-svamini, principal wife of Jayavarman, daughter of Vishnu Brahman. 
A torso of a female, upper parts nude with excellent anatomical 
outline 16|' high in grey limestone, has been found, cf the 
time of Udaya Aditya Varman II 1050-1066, son of Suryavarman who 
built Baphuon at Bayon. At Angkor Vai, from the main entrance, a 
paved causeway protected by Naga balustrade, leads between 2 pretty 
library buildings ;Pustakasrama) to a platform, just in front of the 
temple proper. This entrance is only one of four, situated in the 
middle of each of the four sides of the great double gallery which 
encloses the inner terraces. The inner gallery to the height of 
3m along the length of 800m is covered with basreliefs of the Hindu 
mythology. Four entrances lead from these galleries to an inner 
court on higher level, enclosing again a smaller court of richly 
sculptured galleries, surrounding four water reservoirs From here, 
one can reach the central innermost court in the center of which 



ANGKOR VAT 169 

stands the enormous pyramidal basement, supporting five pyramidal 
towers to be reached by steep stone stairways, the central tower of 
which has tlie hei'j;ht of 65 meters. The porpjrtions are ri.ally awe- 
inspirins;. The moat surrounding the Angkorvat temple is more than 
650 ft wide and is spanned on the western side by a stone causeway, 
36 ft broad. The length of the moat around the temi)le is ab >ut 2;]- 
miles. A paved avenue runs from the western gateway ovt;r i500 ft 
to the first gallery which is 800 ft. from east to west and about 1700 ft 
from north to south. The central tower rises 200 ft above the level 
ground and its peak is the phallus of Vishnu. It is a qigantic pyr.imid 
with concentric gallaries uniting the whole, The galleries are cndU-ssly 
decorated with bas reliefs of deities of peculiar ellusive smiles with 
half closed eyes. 

Preat Viheoer Inscription : "Then in Saka 1035 (1113 Ar3), his majesty 
Suryavarman, grandnephew on the maternal side of Jiyavarman 1082- 
1107 and Dharanindravarman 1107-1113 ''son of Nart"ndr;i Lakshmi. niece 
of these kings married to Kshitndraditya), mounted on the tlirone, and 
invited the Vrah Guru to proceed to the royal anoinmenl, Varah Guru 
DivSkara Pandita made offering to SikharesvaraSiva, encrusted with preci- 
ous stones." Suryavarman was a great builder. Beng Mealea is one of 
his splendid creations Beng Mealea was built in Ijluish sandstones, 
from nearby quarries. Though it was well constructed, political or 
religious vandalism has brought out its ruin. Beng Nealea was one of 
the largest and most magnificant of Khmer temples. It consisted of central 
sanctuary and its three slightly rectangular enclosing galleries, tied 
together by cruciform galleries and two large edifices on the south side 
of the third enclosure, thought to be palaces or h.dls of ritual dances, 
On the east, a causeway with mas^nificent naga balustrade led to a 
lower moat. A cruciform terrace preceded each Gopuram of the other 
galleries. The most chiracterslic of this monument is the wide 
galleries, entirely vaulted .in stone, and a vault supported on one side 
by a wall and on the other side by a row of pillars. He built at 
Prasad Phmono Chesar two large rectangular brick libraries on platforms 
with long porticoes and stairways in front which were symetricaliy 
placed and reguhrty ornamented. They were lighted on each side by 
two highly placed rectangular windows with balusters. Two redented 
square brick towers, one on each side of the central sanctuary 

During the reign of Jiyavarman VI (1 180-1201), the largest Khmer 
temple was built at Bantia Chamar which is surrounded by a moat of a 
width of 70 yards and over 10 feet deep, forming regular quadri- 
lateral. This was crossed by 4 causeways on the north-south and 
east-west axes of the building more than 3-3^ square miles. The 
characterstic of the main temple is that as the inner sanctuary 
is approached, the height of the towers at the crossing of the galleries 
increases. From a height of 20 feet, they rise to 60 feet. An outside 
gallery encloses the temple in a rectangle 27 3 yards by 207 yards. It 
consists or a vaulted byway of a ceremonial terrace surrounded with 
Naga serpent parapets, and having stairways flanked by lions. The 
entablature of the cruciform gallery is decorated with winged women, 
holding lotus buds in their uplifted hands ( IL N Sept 18, 1937). Grace- 
ful Apsaras with a fan in the uplifted left hand and a lotus bud in 
their right hand are carved on the walls. 



170 THE LITERARY HISTOBT OF ANCIENT INDIA 

Javanese Sculptures : Borohudur is gigantic Buddhistic stupa 
with intricate designs of ninth century ; there are about '200 
well-executed high reliefs on volcanic Trachyt. Buddha images 
with bhuniisparsa mudr'k and dharani cahra mudra. are life- 
like and resemble Gupta arts. In the upper panel of 1st 
gallery Buddha in a standing posture taking his bath, and 
Apsaras [a (without) psara (shame =Zd f8aerma = G S. sramo 
Pers. saram. apsa,ra (shameless woman = strumpet] are singing 
and dancing while deers are brousing on tree leaves, as depi- 
cted in Lalita Vistara. In the lower panel there is a big three- 
masted and sailed wooden ship on high seas. la another, women 
are drawing water from a well and fiilling the jars and return- 
ing home with water-jars on their head. Siva Temple at 
Prambanan is likely of lO-Hth century, in which the Ramayana 
scenes are depicted • 4-armed standing Siva Mahadeva and 3 
dancing Apsaras • two bearded mustached arguing devotees. 

At Tjandi iCandi' Banon, there is a standing Agastya with protuberant 
belly, fine nose, beard and mustache as in Pallava Agastyesvara 
Temple, Melapaluvur of 8th century with slender octagonal pillars, 
supported by sitting lions. Tjandi Mendoet has a fine Makara staircase 
on whose sides there are animated bas reliefs, containing the images of 
Bodhisattva and Amitabha Buddha ; sitting bronze Sokyamuni is now 
in Leiden M. Tjandi Pawon is a Siva temple with two women door 
keepers. Tjandi Kalasan bas a fine oval-faced cross-legged sitting 
Buddha. Vitara Sari is a three-storied structure and it is covered all 
wth fine high reliefs ; its standing Bodhisattva is very fine. Tjandi 
Sewoe is a huge structure with fine engravings. Tjandi Sri Kandi 
Dieng has an excellent Vishnu relief. Jnandi Poentadewa (Pavana deva), 
at Dieng is a two storied temple on a high platform. Tjandi Bima 
at Dieng is a pyramidical temple with the heads of Dikinis. At Bagein 
in Dieng there is a fine crouching Nandi Bull. Tjandi Ngwen with 
4 Apsaras singing. Vihara Plaosan has a standing Bodhisatva, wearing 
trousers and anklets ; another sitting, with a coat on his body. Maitreya, 
one wearing trousers, another sitting with a coat on his body. Maitreya, 
one wearing trousers, another sitting cross-legged, a cross-legged Tara, 
and a bronze cro-s-legged Sakti, a nude bronze Sakti, with one leg folded 
and another dangling (now in Leiden), bronz:; Sakyamuni, bronze four- 
armed Padmapani, wearing a lungi and and a belt (bronze statues no\v in 
Leiden Mt. Tjandi Banon. Vishnu standing in front of Garuda, 
bronze four-armed standing Siva (now in Hague), five-faced Brahma. 
Bagalen, Dieng, Wana Saba (Vana Siva) in Buddhistic pose, 4-armed 
Siva (now in Batavia M), bronze cross-legged sitting Amitabha (now in 
Leiden , ten armed Durga wearing a skirt, belt and tight-fitting bloues. 
Tjandi Parikesit, sitting elephant-headed fat-bellied Ganesa, bronze ten- 
armed standing Durga wearing a blouse and skirt, putting one foot 'in 
Leiden M; on buffalo back, bronze Kala Vairaba, bronze-8-armed Vajrapani 
(in Batavia M). Ijandi Singasari, Vishnu sitting on the bird-headed Garuda, 
at whose feet birds are coiting, a prounching bronze Kamadeva on 
a lotus blossom in mischivous mood (now in Leiden ), a 
bearded Siva, ten-armed standing Durga wearing an ornamental 



MAn.\Y.\NA = HINDUISM 171 

la Debased Mahayana (widened vehicle =■ wideness of outlook 
where Buddha is the First Princij^le, while IIin;iyana has 
the narrow outlook of self-realization following the instructions 
of Gotania Buddha as a historic per.sonage and teacher, 
Buddhism became the nexus of neo-IIinduism. It became 
hard to disentangle one from the other. Af^ceticism and sen- 
suality were cultivated side by side. Siva became gradually a 
Buddha— Sogata Mahesvara. Each fUiddha had his own 
energizer — iSflA;^j. Thus Adi Buddha had his Sakti as Prajna 
Paramita, unbounded wisdom, in the beginning simply as ai> 
ideological conception. 

Siva became identified with Buddha. Siva was worshipped 
as Dhammaraja. Buddha thus being apotheosized was also 
regarded as an incarnation of Indra- Vishnu, Kahna or Krishna. 
So Krishna and Buddha became merged into each other with 
Radha, the beloved (Rv. 1,70,4, X, 532 radem- lover ; Yas 9.2 j 
radem = lover) Rati ^Gk. Erato) as his soul mate. The 
nihilistic theory (sunyavada) became expressed in the worship 
of the fossil'zsd coiled ammonite stones, found in Gandak 
valley. Buddhism has not been banished. It has been only 
transformed into Hinduism. Buddhist Tara (savioress) is the 
consort; of Siva as his Sakti. And thus neo-Hidnisra found its 
expression in Bengal, Java, Bali, Campa and Kamboja dena. 
Brahminism was for aristocracy, an exclusive privilege. 
Buddhism preached and practised socialism of plutocracy for 
Varna (colour or Lat verna slave) Sankaras = colored peoples 
or freedmen, enjoying equal rights and duties for all alike 
without any distinction of birth, color or social rank. 

skirt and blouse with a girdle, holding a siiield in one of her arms, 
setting one foot on the head of a crouching buffalo, the other foot near 
the tail (now in Leiden M), S-armed Durga wearing a girdle and 
necklaces, 8-armed sitting Bhrikuti. bronze 8-armed TarA, cross-legged 
sitting Prajna Paramita (now in Leiden Ml, Kediri a cross-legged Huddha 
with animated bent contemplative face, standing Uma. standing "-'iva. 4- 
armed Caturbhuja, Vishnu between Laksmiand Bhumidevi, silting Ganesa 
Ardhanari (now in Leiden), Trimurti. At Djokjakarta, sitting Brahma, 
bronze 8-armed, 3-faced Trailakya Vijaya, standing on the body of Siva. 
At Begalen cross-legged sitting Vishnu, lO-armed Durgi wearing skirt 
standing on a crouching buffalo, Siva and crouching Nandi bulls. 
Tjandi Bimbi, Hari-Hara. 

Ablutomania is incessant and compulsive washing of the body. 
It is a prominent symptom in compulsive obsessional psychoneursis 
in an attempt to lessen tension arising from strong guilt feeling. In 
sexual union with a female devotee, he and his partner would become 
Buddha and Tara (saviouress). In sexual rites of Tantric Buddhism, 
all sexual restrictions were uplifted, and even incest was permitted, for 
what was a terrible sin to the ignorant was a great virtue to the initiated. 
Adolescent women without coitional gratifications wither away 



172 THE LITERARY HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

-prematurely — Asamuhoge jara strinam MBh 5.39 79. Kuni (kanya = 
Zd kanya = Gk kainos = Russ kuna, kunka, meaning youthful maiden, 
also meaning virgin = agra = Zd aghru = Lat virgo = Fr. vierge) remained 
unmarried as she did not find a suitable husband of her liking. By 
fastings and religious devotions, she wrecked her health ; yet finding no 
contentment, she wanted to commit suicide. But Narada told the 
famous emaciated virgin, how can unmarried girls get the pleasures of the 
heaven 'asamskrtayah Kanyayah kuto loka-stanaghe, AIBh Salya 52, 10 J. 
She then announced : whoever will marry her, I shall give him half of 
my possessions ? Srangavant of Galavas accepted the offer and married 
her. MBh Salya 52. Intersexual spiritual companionships— Tantricism 
— are but round about sublimated ways of attaining unions — temporary 
illusory sabstitutes — when the imperious demands of the organisms for 
intimate sensuous contacts are thwarted by social conventions and 
sexual inhibitions. Sudra (Pali Sudda = Chin Chou) Ugra (Ugri = Ugrian) 
Mahapadma Nandas introduced centralized government, uprooting the 
feudal system (Matsya P 272.). Mauryas reinforced this unitary 
procedure of administration by adopting a common secular civil and 
criminal Code of Laws throuhout the empire, replacing ancient religious 
injunctions, controlling the economics of the country through the 
state management of mines, industries and commerce, custom imports 
and census, levying taxes in kind on agriculture and animal production, 
thus regulating every phase of the citizen's life, through an elaborated 
■bureucratic machinary described as Kautilya's Arthaskstra in 322 B. C. 
The Chin emperor Slii-huangti in 221 B. C replacing the Chous (1100- 
221), made the territorial and political unification of China by destroying 
the feudal lords. His minister LiSsu standardized laws, regulations, 
measures, weights, even written characters throughout China. In 213 he 
•even ordered the destruction of the classics as the literati was attached 
to the traditions of the past. The Hun conquest that followed, known 
as the Han dynasty (206 B. C— 22i A. D.) of Lin Pang in 198 B. C. 
adopted the same unitary system of government. But the Sung dynasty 
that overthrew the Hun domination reversed the order and adopted 
the Confusian ethical code. We find the same cyclical change in the 
Sunga period. Panchoo, the woman legislator of the Woman's Guide 
enacted 3 obediences and 4 virtues of women. These obediences were ; 
when a woman is in her maiden home, she has to obey her father; 
when married, she has to obey her husband .• when her husband dies, she 
obeys her son. Manu (9.3) of Senani Pushyamitra Sunga (12.100) says 
the same thing. Father protects her in her maidenhood ; husband in 
her youth ; son in her old age ; she does not deserve independence. Sung 
scholars imposed a secluded life on woman and made remarrying of 
widows a moral crime. Worship of chastity, which they highly prized, 
became something of a psychological obsession. P. 132 Lin Yutang — My 
Country and My Poople. Thus other Biddha== Amitabha, Manjusrsi, 
Maitreya, Vajrapani, Vairocaca and Amoghasiddhi, had their own Sakti 
as Tara, Svarasvati, Marici, Vajrajogini, Bhagavati, Hariti and Candi. 
In the beginning every monk had a nun as his soul comrade to test 
his power of self-control (in medieval Europe even the monks used to 
lie on the same bed with the nun and to bear many other provocative 
temptations) . Later each monk had a nun as his body mate to study 
and cultivate physiology — Kaya Sadhana, seduction of women = nari 



VAJRAY.lNA 173 

Sadhana, sensuality = indriya luta, and sexual unions ~deha yon;a. And 
they began to proclaim— there is no hi^lier virtue than joy in life, and 
no worse sin than suffcrini* privati )ns of unfuliilled natural urpcs. The 
Body is the fountain of all Bliss. Gandharva is the embodiment of m.ile 
libido, Pancavsmsa Br 9,3.1, .MajjSiima .Mikaya 1.265-265 - Vajrap.ni. 
A (withoutj-psara (shame), apsara, embjdiment of female libido -TAri. 
Acarya Jinasenai : "If God created the universe where was lie before 
creating it. If he was in space where did he localize the universe ? How 
could a formless and immaterial substance like God create the world 
of matter ? If the material is taken as existing, why not take the world 
unbegun. If the creator was uncreated, why not suppjse the world to 
be itsilf self-existing. If Gjd is self sufficient, he need not have created 
the world. It not he would be incapable of the task ; if the creation 
is the mere play of his will, it would be cliildish; if out of his benevolence, 
why he has brought in existence so much misery" ? 

"If the b.ithing is a virtuous act, then the fishes are the most pious 
spirits. If nudity gives salvation, dogs and jackals have got it ; if 
pulling out hair out of the body, then why not enjoy the depilated 
vulva of an adolescent woman as the fountain of heavenly bliss*'. — 
Sarahapada = Siddha Rahula Bhadra who flourished in the reign of 
Candra Pal and became the high pri»^st of Nalanda. Vajrayans preached 
that by some herbal applications they could make /'«;OTJrt — penes— , the 
object of their adoration— sadhana — the source of joy and creation, as 
hard as vajra=''Y'\h. Dor ge = thunderbolt. Cakrayans sitting nude 
in pairs in their magic clandestine phallic circles, regarded their 
comrade as god or goddess, enjoying ihe dalliances of sensuality without 
the risk of parenthood, regarding her breasts as divine cymbols to 
clasp for ringing her axillary hairs as scented TuUisis, her dark triangular 
pubes (vedika), the celestial garden iNandana Kanana) where blooms 
every month the red rose rakta Java); Do\a =• Afudana chatra (clitoris) 
is, the temple gong ; the vulva [iilva) is the vestibule {alinda) to the 
temple of Vagesvari (vagina), and the vagina is the guardian in the 
antechamber of Mattika (the matrix) ; if the vajra (glans penis) 
plucks the Rakta /avk by entering the corridors of the Va,^esvari, still 
the Rakta J.iv% does not fail to bloom again and again in time, (That 
is coitions during menstrual period can not bring out pregnancy). 
Tantras are the esoteric means by which the Prijnopaya can enjoy the 
five objects of enjoyment — panca kama gunas and get divine ecstacies 
of the union. Hatayogi Siddha (expert) wrote Sri Kala Cakra Tantra, in 
956 at Vikramasila. Adolescent men and woman, though well-formed 
and fully grown up, find themselves psychically and physically incomplete 
by themselves They are but halves and each of these halves is restless 
in perpetual quest to obtain his or her basic complement— love-yearning 
— which can only be appeased when a true mate has been found in 
whose conjugal union, halves can form into a harmonious whole-— 
Ardha- n%risvara. In Jnanasuddhi, a treatise on Vajra-yanas, it is 
mentioned that the enjoyment of fish (matsya), meat 'mamsai. wine 
(mada), female sexual organ (mudra) and sexual intercourse (maithuna) 
with a passionate maiden— bhavini riramsu— under the instructions of 
a connoisseur (giini = G\i. geras, a mark of distinction and honor) are 
excellent spritualizing exercises to the attainment of Great Delight 
(maha sukha •= sukshiti— heavenly abode— Yas 29. 10 huseites), which 



174 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA. 

without this initiation would rather lead the votary to perdition. 
Great delight springs up in the embrace and union (Tib. yab-yum) of a 
■loving pair who regard each other as divine (Mahasukha Prakasa of 
Advarya Vajra). This injunction abounds in later Tantra literature. 
But in Yogini Tantra Ch 6 Matsya (Zd masya) may be substituted by 
brinjah, mamsa ( Lat. mensa = Fr mets = Eng meat = Let, Lith, Russ. 
mesa = Goth Mim z = Slav mezira) by salts, ginger, assafaetida, wheat, 
beans or onions, all regarded as stimulants), mudris ^closed hand with 
the thumb thrust between the forefinger and the middle finger for sexual 
union! by sweatened pupped nee, mada (mead or liquor) by fermented 
cocoanut water in a copper cup or by vijaya — Cannaois indica resinous 
drinks , maithuna by linga-yoni symbols as transposed male and female 
pubic triangles in magic phallic circles (cakra). For culture (samskriti) 
consists in controlling our inborn instincts and wild passions by intellect. 
The comradery of man and woman is needed to test their ability of 
self-control — atma-samyama— the key to self realization. Mental 
faculties (manas) suffer most from venereal excesses. Sensualists suffer 
from aboulia — the inability to concentrate their mind on any subj-ct. 
The phallus cult embodied in Linga and Yoni are connected with 
fetichistic ideas, exercising on her or him a hypnotizing magical 
fascinating influence. In Jnanarnava Tantra. Yoni and Sankha Mu iras 
symbolized Muladhara-Muliebria ; Kurma, Dhenu, Anku3a = erect 
phallus ; avagunthana and sannirodhini mudras symbolized preliminary 
caresses such as embraces, pressured kissings, pressing the bosoms — 
alingana. gada cumbana, stana-mardana), coitus with violent m.ovements 
and simultaneous orgasms of both. Tantras also taught self control 
(samyama) in the presence of a nude voluptuous young woman, even 
while rubbing her vulva with fingers, titilaling or licking her clitoris 
{Yoni^bhaga pmmathana, bhogalinga /d/^£Z«a = cunnilingus), tasting 
or smelling the adherent smegma of the clitoris {bhaga-linga amritd)^ 
or even Eceing her copulating with another man (nagnan pararatam 
pasya'm = mixoscopial. defloration of a virgin (akshata sayambhu 
kusuma), contraceptional coitus through viryastambhana— coitus 
reservatus or copulating a menstruating woman— rajasvaU bhage or 
friction of the penis on the vaginal corridor— coitus orovaginal 
{bhaga-mandira dvara udghatana) ; sexual unions in reverse 
postures -viparita rata ) and orgastic coitus {reta ahhisheka). 
In Sri Guhya Samaja Tantra, a pretty maiden of 16 (sorashi) is Prajna. 
In Hevajra T. a female is called Prajna and the male upaya = Sadhana 
(yoshat tavat bhavet Prajna upayat upayah purusha smritah). She is 
epitome of the Earth Mother— even the universe. She is the Vija Mudra 
(woman with raga = intense emotional attachment; selected for 
Sadhana ; Mudra = female organ ; Maha-Mudra = Vajra Kanya, a young 
thick thighed, broad-hipped, very slender-waisted, and high-breasted, wide 
bright- eyed woman, sexually excited with erect ctitoris ; she is riransu 
riramayishu ; in the wanton sexuals port she gets and gives intense volup- 
tuous gratification. Knowing her one realizes every wish of his She is the 
Sukhavnti, the pleasure-giving heaven Her fneni-danda = ratdi\i\di. oblongata 
is the Mt Meru which supports her body framewoak. On her head, axillae 
and pubis grow scented herbs in the shape of hairs. On her fertile odorifer- 
ous irrigated canal (sambhidha) blooms every month Rakta Java = red 
flower. Her ogling oeillade gives the glimmer of hope. The embrace 



VAJRAYANl 175 

of her extended arms has dilii^hiful touch. Her warm pulsating firm 
globular breasts are the chalices of ambrosia. The voice of her soft 
lips is the melodious G'lth-i Mantra. Tlirough K ima-K:il;i-Vi!asha — 
sensuous enjoyments of Paiica Klma-gunas— five scnsc organs of sight, 
sound, smell, taste and touch, through intensitication of their co ordi- 
nating organ munas. she transforms physical tension into self-foriictiing 
delightful estacies. For this reason the male organ is called lihagavan 
and Bhaga. — Su-bhaga = Rom. Subigus. the female organ is called 
Prajn\, tue source of knowledge and salvation (Sukra k'ro bhavet 
Bhagagavan. tat-sukham klmini smritam.) Hut it is more beneficial for 
Sldhaka instead of discharging the semen (coitus reservatus' to retain 
by inhaling a deep breath and not exhaling it (aprma). thus restraining 
the orgastic discharge by controlling Manipura cakra— lumbar plexus) 
and with it irrigating and invigorating the lotus of the brain— usnisa 
Kamala = sahasrara padina = brain with its thousands of cerebral folds. 
MuHdhira Cakra = Kula Kundalini Sakti = ovaries ; purna chandra nadi, 
syanda = Bartholin's glinds ; uppasta, vedika, bhagapitha = monsvencris ; 
dola. sisnika = prepuce of clitoris ; bhaga linga, nas.'i, chatra, gula, ?ismik& 
mani=clitoris. But a virile woman with hairs on the chin = rishavi is 
an undisirable medium. 

Tantra or Hata Yoga consists of the control of usually involun- 
tary functionings. Years are spent in practising system of conditioning 
reflexes and responses whereaby pulse rate, breathing, digestion, 
metabolism, sensibility, sexual activity are brought under consious 
control. Heart beat can be slowed and attenuated to a vanishing point, 
the temperature reduced, breathing becomes imperceptible, and the whole 
organism is leduced to state of hibernity as to be buried alive for 
days by adepts. The sympathetic nervous system causes indirectly local 
activity, producing pallor or flushing at will, thus sitting on sharp 
nailed bed without feeling pain, and bleeding may be stopped. The 
pupils of the eyes may be dilated or constricted so that visual 
impression becomes inordinately brilliant out of focus or dim and 
sharp. Large quantititics of meat or sweets may be taken and digested 
by increased secretions of pepsin or insulin at will without feeling any 
discomforts. Pints of strong alcoholic drinks may be drunk without 
showing any symptom of intoxication ; yet exhibiting alcoholism by 
drinking simply cocoanut water with sweets by provoking their fermen- 
tation in the stomach. Body temperature may be lowered as to hold 
fireballs on the palms of the hands or walk barefooted on fire pits ; or 
raised to perspire freely in coldest winter. There may be no sexual 
response and the penis may remain inert and passive even in most 
intimate contact with a seductive passionte beauty ; yet copulating 
vigorusly with a crone who lies like a log or with a numuber of women 
successively for hours either without any seminal discharge or copious 
discharges without showing any weakness in erection or fatigue. 

Vajra-Sattva is in sexual union, touching all points of contact, with 
Vajra-varahi = Prajna. Heruka is filled with erotic passion Srinagara- 
rasa samanvitam i for Vajra-vairacani. Sukhavati is the female sexual organ 
in which intense pleasure — Maha-Sukha — can be obtained. 'I am Buddha 
and I have perfect knowledge of things. I dwell in the Sukhavati {vagina in 
the shape of q (upper part as uterus and lower part a sloping vagina) 
and abode of the Buddha Jewel (clitoris) of Sad-Vajra woman ( right 



176 THE LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

type of sexy woman whose vagina is tense with excitment -raga — clitoris 
erect = riramsubhavini) as pleasure giving and semen produced organ 
(Vajra Sattva = erect penis : JBuddham vastu bodhanat. Sad-vajra yoshit 
bhage ekarj.di rupe tu Buddha ratna karandake sukh-vatyam sukra- 
namna vyavasthitha). Rakta Padma (lotus) ulva = vulva. Nirmana = repro- 
ductive centres are near the sex organs (ovaries and testes). But Sarabhoga 
and Maha-8ukha (orgastic and pleasure sensations) centres are in 
the cerebral organ (Sambhoga cakram oa maha-sukha sirasi 
sthitham). — He-Vajra Tanfcra. "in the union with a beloved mate 
one becomes whole and complete — Sata Path Br. x, 5 2.8." "As the 
tree is claspad closely by a creeper, so do thou embrace me — Yatha 
vriksham lijuva samantam parishvajase eva parishajasa mam — 
Av. 6.8.1.'' Standing Mithuna,, Davi Jagadamba Temple ; sitting 
Mithuna, Visvanatha Temple, Khajuraba. 

Struggle strengthens man's physical and moral caliber, and 
develops his resourcefulness and inventing genius to ovecome 
obstacles. Where there is no struggle, ease and comforts lead to 
his all-round degeneration. The thunder-wielding warrior god of 
the Arya — Indra became the chief overlord ot the sensual heaven, 
surrounded by leud seductive singing and dancing girls — Apsaras — a 
(without) — spara (shame), personfication of female libido who became 
his armed instruments to seduce saints, and he only busied himself 
to seduce other men's wives- 
Eroticism as an art was cultivated even in Vedic times. Indrani 
without prudery frankly boasts : No other woman has such an 
excellent vulva {Bu-bhasad=RusB. Lith. pizda) like mine ; nor khows 
to copulate so well (su-yasu) like me ; nor can press closer (praticya- 
viyas by vaginal muscular contraction^ nor can raise so high 
(udami yasi) the pubis (sakthi against the penis in copulatory 
movements of ups and downs to enhance mutual orgasm). — Bv. x, 
86.6. Na mat stri subhasattar^ na su yasutara bhuvac na mat 
praticyaviyasi na saktby udyamiyasT, "Cover me in crouching 
posture (upopa) with tightening pressure (paramrisa) by holding 
the nape of my neck (manyathah with your hand) ; all over (my 
vulva) is hairy (romasha = Per3, romah = Lat. coma = Gk. comae = 
long hair ; long luxuriant pubic and axial hairy growth is associated 
with hyperfunctioning of adrenal cortex and ovaries) like an ewe ^avika 
= Fr. evier = Lith. avis) of Gandhari Ev. 1. 126.7. upopa me para 
mrisha ma rne dahhrani manyathah/Sarvaham asmi romasha 
Qandharinam ivavika. Babhravya her vartxi (Beng. bhatar = Pali. 
bhattar = Lat. fututor = Fr. fouteur) says : Healthy (agadhita), 
very healthy this Kasika (Kusika woman) holding (my waist) by 
her legs (jangha) is giving me hundreds of intense coital enjoyments 
(yasuman bhojya), with orgastic discharges (yaduri). Ev. 1, 126 6^ 
AgadhitS qarigadhita) ya Kasikeva jangahe dadati mahyam ya dun 
yasunam bhojya sata. 

Kundalini= Vagus nervous system; Pra.na = life-Sustaining 
oxygen; udana=light upward-moving hydrogen; Apana = heavy 
downward-moving carbonic acid gas. Satya = positive, Tama = 
negative. Raja = potential electricity. 



CONTBAOBPTIVE MEASUUK IN RIKVEDA 177 

Dharma is mind unconditioned. Samhhoga la characteristic by 
reciprocal enjoyment. Ntrinaiia. is that which is variously created. 
Sabhavika is that which is innate in every being. In tho east of 
the circle is Vairooa,ua as form ; in the west Amitabha as perception ; 
in the north, — Amogasiddhi as impulses } in the south Katna 
Sambhava as feelings ; between east and north is Tarini as air ; 
betweon north and west Pandarvii as fish ; between west and 
south M^tari "» water ; south and oast Locana = earth ; in the 
centre of the circle is Akhobhya — Conciousness. These four are 
16 years old, endowed with uncommon loveliness and youth so that 
they are beauty herself. Like the Buddhas, they are possessed of 
the essences of 4 Baddha bodies ; they are ravishing to the mind, 
the repository of all the qualities of all the Buddhas and of the 
very nature of 5 Tatbagatas. In the midst is the Nayik^, the 
essence of all. She possesses the true nature of Vajrasattva and is 
the queen of the vajra realm. She is known as the Lady, and as 
such is perfection of wisdom and reality. — Advayavajra Samrjrahc. 

Membrum virile {9epo = Lat. sopio, cipus) finds pleasure in tho 
hairy cleft (veda = Lat. fondo = Fr. fente. Rv. 9, 112.4. 8epo 
romauvantau bhedau sukham ratham — Of all pleasant things, cunnus 
is the most pleasant.- Rv. x, 123.5. Priyasya yonishu priya. 
When father in tho libidinous passionate urge (abhike kamman 
krenavane) was performing his activities with his youthful (yuvatyam 
= daughter), the discharging semen (mananag reto) was made to 
sprinkle on the crest (sanu) of the mons veneris (sukrita = elevated 
place = vaulted vulva) of the cunnus (yoni = Gk gyne) Rv. X| 63,6. 
Anticonceptional measure as observed by Onan in the Bible, spilling 
the sperm outside. Madhya yat kartvam abhavad abhike kamain 
krinvane pitari yuvatyam mananag reto jahatur viyanta sanau 
nisbiktam sukritasya yonau. When father covered his daughter 
in copulation (adhishkan), the discharging semen (kshmaya retah) 
in mutual orgasm (samjagmano) flowed inside (ni=Zd. ni=Gk. eni = 
Slav. ni-zu = Ger. ni-dar=" beneath, within) shincat) ; clever gods 
generated from this (pregnancy) Brahman (prayers = wishful longings) 
and vashtosh patim (dwelling home) for the fulfillment of desires. 
Rv. X, 61.7. With children, home and settled life begin. Pita 
yat svam duhitaram adhishkan ksbmay'"! retah samjagmano nishincat 
svadhyo, janayan brahma deva Vashtosh patim bratapam nir 
atakshan. "Wife is indeed the home, for, she has the yoni (which 
produces progeny) = Jayed (jaya = Zd. azya = Gk gyne™ NPers. 
zayad ; jayati =janayati ^generatrice id = indeed) astam (Zd. asta=" 
no3to9 = nest) sed (sa=she, id, u = the) yonis (Zd. yaonim = Gk gyne. 
Lat. cunnus) tad (that) — Rv, 3,53.4. 

Gwrws taught how to regulate the erotic plexuses — ida, pingala 
and sushamna by making the nerve currents — lalana, rasana and 
avadhuti — flowing upwards ', they could even rouse the dormant 
(Kundalini«=Tam. Kunalai = coiled) libido (Kula-Kundolini Sakti = 
muladhara cakra = ovaries). Avadhuta-margis "=Sahajiya =Kaulas =■ 
Nathapantbi8 = Kapalika8 and allied sects sought pleasures of life with 
alternate asceticism to enhance their libido. Matsyendra Natha** 

12 



178 THB LITERARY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

Mina Natha of Candradvipa was fond of fish and women, and to him 
Hata Yoga is abtributed. His disciple was Gore-ksha Natha of 
Jalandhara and whose activities and of the Nathapanthis are 
described in Goraksha Vijiya in which it is mentioned that Goraksha 
Nath established the Kalighata and the Kali temple. Goraksha 
Natha was the Guru pf Mayanamati = Madanavati of Patiker. Manik- 
chandra of Tripura married Mayanamati. Manikcbandra married four 
other wives and had 180 concubines Madanamati became jealous 
and with the instigation of her lover Jaladhara Pada = Hari Siddha, 
a disciple of Gorakhsha and a local sweeper, poisoned and killed 
her husband, and became the regent. She was pregnant at this time 
and gave birth to a son Gopicand =GoviDdra Chandra. When 
Gopicand became 18 and married Aduna, the pretty princess of 
Savar king Harishcandra, near Dacca, and also got Paduna, her 
sister as a dowry, Now Gopicand claimed the throne. But his 
mother asked him to renounce his throne and wives and to wander 
abroad as a Vikshu in order to avert premature death which was 
prophesied by Hari Siddha. Gopicand protested. He said that 
Hari Siddha was no saint. He was but a local sweeper, and 
because his mother was in love with him, in order to raise his prestige 
and power called him a saint. He accused them both of poisoning 
his father and killing him in order to rule his kingdom, and as he 
was claiming to rule, they were conspiring to deprive him of his 
rights. Aduna and Paduna supported their husband's claim, but 
all in vain. Gopicand was forced to be a disciple of Hari Siddha 
and leave home. After 12 years of wandering, Gopicand returned 
home and regained his throne. lu Goraksha Vijaya, it is mentioned to 
Kanu-pa = Krishnacarya Pada, the author of He-vajra Panjika, that 
Hari Siddha surprised in flagrante delicto with Mayanamati was 
put into prison. It is also mentioned in Goraksha Vijaya that 
Parvati being propitiated by Hari Siddha said to him : Go to 
Meherkula. There the queen Mayanamati is alluring like me. 
With her amours, she will bless your life. Govindacandra was 
defeated by Eajendra CholaClOll — 1023). Yoga Ratna Mala in the 39th 
year of Govinda Pal is ascribed to Sri Krebna Pada = Kahna. 

Dharmapal II had sent Karnasen of Mainagad in Tamluk to 
suppress the rebellion of Ishai Ghosh of Dhekur on the Ajaya in 
Bankura Dt. Karnasen lost all his four sons in fighting with Ishai 
Ghosh. Karnasen's wife died in grief. Dharma Pal gave Ranjavati, 
his queen Vanumati's sister, in marriage with Karnasen, even 
against the wish of her brother Mahudya who was his commander- 
in-chief and premier, Lausen was the son of Binjavati. Dharma Pal 
sent Lausen to punish Haripal who had refused to marry his 
daughter Kanera. But the army was led by the princess Kanera 
herself. And there was an encounter between Kanera and Lausen 
and they fell into love with each other, and D.narmapal gave his 
consent for them to marry. This angered her maternal uncle and 
prime minister Mahudya. To get rid of Lausen, Mahudya asked 
Dharma Pal to send Lausen in an expedition against Hakanda, In 
the meantime in Lausen's absence, Mahudya attacked Mainagad, 



EQUALITY OP MKN AND WOMEN 179 

Lauaen's ancestral place. The capital of Pala kingdom waa at Ramati 
= Ramavati as mentioned in an inscription of Madana Pal. 

Ghanta = Ram (25. G'i) mahasvara. The Chinese borrowed 
Gong from Gk. eoheion. Echeion was used by the Greeks for the 
interpretation of the thunder efifect on the stage as in Eleuainian 
mysteries Gk echos stands for a sound instrument from a metal. 

Asanga's Yogacara = Vijnanavada conceives the ultimate 
unknowable as an ineffable reality. Madhyamika of Naf^ar- 
juna of Ind century teaches all is unreal except one Great 
Reality of which one cannot predicate existence or non-existence, 
•= agnosticism. Prajna = Panua is the intuitive transcendental 
knowledge as contrasted with the plodding discursive intellectual 
mysticism. Madhyamika is the middle path between Nihilism 
and Realism. Metempsychosis — transmigration of self— atman 
(Rv. X, 16'3) is the reindividuation, continuous ever-changing 
stream of consciousness like a film which has many changes 
yet keeping unity. Buddha is one who has snapped the fetters 
of ignorance, pride, egoism, lust, hatred, and falsehood (Kv. 
methate, 1,113.3= Skt. mithya = Yas 31,12 maetha). Vice brings 
unhappiness as the shadow follows the body. Virtue is it3 
own reward by bringing mental poise. Happiness is the bloom 
of virtue. Altruism is enlightened Egoism. Libido is the 
universal law of life. Morality is the guidance of instincts by 
intellect. Intellect ijiikna) is largely a product of individual 
nisus and experience, but instinct (2>ravirti) and impulses 
(prerana and kvega) which are deeper and larger are biotic, 
representing the species. NirvaDia is freedom from worldly 
cares which gives supreme Bliss. Freedom from violence is 
Ahimsa, • from want, Ashya. ; from exploitation Aparigrah ; 
from violation or dishonor Avyabhica,ra ; from disease, Arogija • 
from early death AmHtva ; from malice and anger, Akrodha j 
freedom of thought = Satya = sunriti ; love, sympathy - Maitreya. 

Soma believed in the equal capacity of women and men iu 
the achievement of ideals and enjoyments of life, transcending sex. 
In higher spheres of life, personality counts, and Dot sex. Woman's 
nature signifies that her emotional excitemont is intense ; and if 
mind is firmly set, she by her intuitive sense rightly comprehends 
the norm. Then the question does not arise, am I a woman or 
a man (Samyutta Nikaya 5, 2). "How should woman's nature 
hinder us when hearts are firmly set, when mind moves with 
growing knowledge towards the right path of love. With ideal of 
love and sympathy, the gloom of ignorance vanishes (Theri Gatha 
36)." ''Soma twigs pressed between stones, filtered, mixed with 
milk, sour milk, honey or fermented cooked rice or barley broth 
(Kanji) was a medicine of the sick, an invigorating drink for the 
strong — Rv. 8, 61. 17. Haomo. the health-giving and invogorating 
herb was brought from Karaite (Mt Elburz) — Ya%na X, 10 — 11. It 
gives a sense of sexual power and ability [Yasyia X, 13) and it was 
once banned as inspiring orgies [Yasna 32, 11, 48. 10). Sahajiayas 



180 THE LITEEART HISTORY OF ANCIENT INDIA 

preached and practised that erotic gratifications and sexual unions 
are the easy and pleasant ways of tasting joy of life by relieving 
the sexual nervous tensions which is normal in all healthy creatures 
as hunger and thirst. Hunger causes us to supply a certain 
amount of nutrition which the body needs. The function of every 
instinct and bodily organ is to satisfy a particular need of the 
organism. Appetite may be stimulated by the sight of attractive 
food, irrespective of its nutritive quantitive and qualitive value. 
But appetite gives flavor to the hunger. The regular normal 
exercise of our bodily organs and the gratification of our instinc- 
tive urges are accompanied by pleasurable sensations and relief. 
In the proper and timely functioning of every organ of the body, 
there is healthy joy of living ; but if it is prevented or repressed, 
it may disturb the entire mechanism. Love stirs up emotions to 
their profoundest depth. Though amorous ecstacies are but monaen- 
tary nervous exaltations and are short-lived, their reverberations 
€cho and reecho in the sub-conscious psychic recesses as long as 
life lasts, and they contain the seeds of eternity. 

As hunger and thirst can only be relieved by food and drinks, 
and controlling them means only passive resignation to death 
with deepened subconscious yearning to secure them, and mind 
is never free from their obsession. But when one bas sufficient food 
and drinks, he craves no more of them. So normal erotic cravings 
can only be satisfied by their indulgence, and not by their 
deprivation which simply intensifies or diverts the cravings into 
abnormal channels. Then Nivritti comes with its satiation and 
mind can be directed into devotional ecstacies. With this 
Mahayana Tantric Hinduism — Sahajia, Kisori Bhajan — eroticism 
was indissolubly mixed with mysticism. Tbus Candi became the 
nude fertility goddess of the Oraons. At midnight a nude Oraon 
unmarried priest worships ber, as the Savaras worshipped leaf- 
wearing Parna-Savari. The copulating (ramati = Zd ramyat ; 
rama, raman=Gk erema = 0s8et oroman) pairs were represented 
in the images of Uma-Mahesvara and Ardha-Narisvara. A circum- 
cized steatite Linga has been found at Hurilihalu, Madras Museum. 

Eaigas regard woman's menses as her red Sower. Just as the 
mango and other trees flower before bearing fruits so does a woman 
give red flower before she bears a child, Unless amours of married 
women led to pregnancy, adultery was not regarded as a serious 
offence against morals by Yajnavalkya 1. 3, 72 : vyabhicarad yitau 
euddhih = womac is purified by her next menses. 

Ancient peoples like the present day primitives believed that 
every natural phenomenon was the resultant expression of benevo- 
lent or malignant spirits. Good things in nature aud life are 
obtained through the blessings of good gods, and bad things when 
they become augry or provoked through negligence as mentioned 
in Egyptian, Babylonian, Vendidad (jahi =»yosha) and Atharva- 
Vedic literature: Kali, Candi, Durga (guardian deity of Durga - 
fortified place) were the terrible guardian female deities to whom 
prisoners of wars were sacrificed to keep them in good humor, to 



BEX SYMBOLS 181 

rouse martial valor and from preventing them from doing mischief. 
They brought pestilence, disease, death and destruction. Bat if 
these malignant domonesaea are properly propitiated, it was 
thought, they not only ward off cvilsi they become friendly 
helpers isaktis) in affording blessings, achievements, victories and 
enjoyments of life like the propitious turns of the wheels of fortune, 
Bhagavati is the guardian goddess of Gheruman. Pulayas, Kadirs 
worship Kali to get rid of diseases. Like K^li, Diana of Ephesus 
and Astarte of Paphos were black. Phrygian Kybel — the Great 
Mother -was made of meteorite black stone; so in Cornith Aphrodite 
Melainis and in Elis Demeter molainis. 

Circular or eliptio flattened meteorite stone was regarded as the 
vulva symbol in Demeter chtenia and the Kaaba stone of Mecca, 
representing Allat (the Venus). Other Vulva symbols are shells 
generally, particularly Concha Veneris = Fr. conque = Skt Sankka, 
and cowry ; fountains of life — the spring, water ; the door of life — 
arch, cave, pitcher, ring, mouth, folded hands (Skt. argha), and any 
flattened body with Dssure, lock, jewel box as that of Pandora ; 
garden, orchard, peach in China and Japan, fig in Italy, apricot 
in France ; any scented reddish flower with an opening like Hibiscus 
eenensis 'Skt. rakta Java), Clifcoria ternatia (Skt. aparajita), red lotus 
(rakfca padma). Mons Veneris — the mountain of Venus — is represented 
by mounds, domes, roundish low hills with plants and altars of 
worship ; Mons veneris (upastha) is the altar of wisdom (vedi=L 
videre = Ger. Wissens) and the hairs on it are the sacrificial fl-imes 
Vr. Ar. Up 5.4- Female pubic hair = Durba grass, herbs, mango and 
-yji'wa leaves. Female breast =■ pomegranate, apple and vilva (^gle 
mermelos) fruits. Phallus symbols = serpent (crawling serpent about 
to bite one wit.h venomous fangs in Bgyptinn hieroglyphlic a is sign 
symbol for volupia = sensuality which in excess may be as venomous, 
and for which this warning was given), fish (Ital. pesce=penis; 
Madana with a fish standard, Mina-dvaja), pine needle, conical 
meteorite, roundish stone or mountain, rod, finger, spear, arrow, 
key, tongue (L. lingua, lingula, '=Skt linga, langula, also used in 
fellatio ; Fr. languette. dim. of langue, means clitoris ; Madhu 
Jthva of Soma Rv 9.70.4 = honeyed tongue means his virile orc;an 
with inexhausteble supply of semen), tail, banana, tree. Sperm symbols 
= rain, honey, melted butter, oil, liquor, cream. Romans used 
mainly agricultural symbols: FabsB (beans) for testicles; arbor 
(tree), thyrsus (stalk), radix (root), falx (sickle), vomer (ploughshare) 
for penis; ros (dew) for semen ( = L seed); ager (field), sulcus 
-{ploughed furrow), vinea (vineard), fons (fountain) for vagina ; plan- 
taria (herbage) for pubic hair ! hortus (enclosed garden), fovea 
antrum (cave), focus (fire pit), concha (conch shell), cymba (small 
boat), annulas (ring), delta for cunnu8 = vulva. 

Tab- Yum Mudra'= father-mother pose Yab = Vajra-dhatu*" 
phallus ; Yum = Garbha-dhatu = vagina, represented by two male 
female public hairy triangles, one resting on its base and the other 
resting on its apex, mutually interlocked. According to Tib Kangri 
Karchak, the guradian deity of Kailas = Tib. Kang Bingpoche, a 



182 THB LITBRANY HISTORY OP ANCIENT INDIA 

dome-sheped snow-covered peak 22028 ft high. Demchhog = Buddha- 
sattva Dharmapala = Hindu Siva, Hara clad in tiger skin in holding 
damaru (drum) in one hand and Khatam (trident in another) with 
his nude sakti consort Dorje Phangma™ Vajra-Varahi ; Hindu Gauri, 
seated on his lap on the dome of Kailasa in ecstatic close sexsual 
embrace. In Tibetan painting however sexual union takes place in 
the standing posture of Damechak who wearing a garland of human 
skulls lifts his Sakti and nates (nitamba) with his hands' she enfolds 
his loins with her legs and his neck with her hands, and lips inter- 
locked in ardent kisses 1. On the east of Kailash (Tib. Ke-la-8a = lofty 
region) there is flat-topped snow covered Dolma-La-18,600 ft high 
which is regarded as the Sakti-Gauri-of Kailasesvara. And on its 
base on the eastern side of Kailasa there is an oval shaped lake — 
Tib, Thuki-Ziagboo-f of mile long, i m broad, Si' deep, at the 
elevation of 18,400 ft. covered with ice atmost all the year round, 
known as Gauri Kund — the vaginal pit of Gauri — consort of 
Kailaseevara. In Tibetan Tantric Budddism, supreme enlightenment is 
a complete well-being, enjoyment of all desires, including the 
the sensuous, as well as serenity of mind ; flowing from wisdom, 
transcendenting all misapprehenscions and delusions of phenomenal 
existence while the bliss of the union with absolute innate truth is 
quite formally symbolized by sexual union. Whoever is going to sleep 
with a woman, he shall go to that woman in the same condition 
in which he performs a rite for the gods : Hittite Laws (70). The 
Konyak Naga believes that the sexual act is beneficial to the food 
supply. Eich men arrange for young men to screen off little 
sleeping places on the verandahs of their granaries and bring girls 
there for the night. Ishara = Ashera, a form of lehtar, as goddess- 
of love, Tablet 2.5.21 The Epic of Giljamesh. Ishara, the lady of 
the oath, in the treaty between Hattusilas of Khatti and User- 
Maat Reselepen-Re of 'Egypt,— Ancient Near Eastern Texts, I B 
Pvitchard, Princeton Press, 1950. Lith. of god coition Pizius. Terra- 
cotta nude standing figurine of third millenium B.C. from Susa. Head 
covered with plaited hair bands. Hands on the breasts. Incised 
hairy triangle. Pi. 18 F. Terracotta nude standing figurines fron 
Astarabad Turang Tepe 2500-1500 B. G. One is 10^ in, hands 
pressing the breasts : large pubic triangle with luxuriant curly hair. 
PI, 24 A. The other V^V vi^ith extend arms with bracelets as if 
to derobe herself ; heavy chain necklaces ; narrowed slender waist ; 
enlarged pubic hairy triangle with incised marks Pi 24B. Parthian 
bronze nude standing figurine 4i'', headdress covering the ears and 
neck ; folded hands beneath the breast ; prominent vulvar cleft with 
pubic hair, Pi 134 D. AP Pope — Persian Art. 

In philosophy Siva and Sakti are regarded as inseparable eternally 
conjugated Purusha and Prakriti — matter and energy. Purusha is 
the latent energy of mass inertia. By the papid rotatory motions 
of Sakii-Prakriti — like the electrons round the nucleus of the atom. 
(Gk. a = not; temain = to cut-indivisible unit = Skt. paramanu), not 
only force is accelerted, dynamic momentum (cosmic dance of 
Nataraja( is added to her complex con-joint Purusha mate. In Rv. 



ANIMAL WORSHIP 183 

I, 43. 4, Siva«-Ruclra is a great singer, a wise man, a healor throufili 
hails ; gatha-patim medba-patim Hudram jalasha-bboBlmj&m. Ilail is 
the Vajra-Virya of Kudra-Siva that fecundates the Earth-mother — 
Sakti-Uma (Go) Rv. 4. 41. 6 : x, 101, 9 ; x, 233. 7-Zd. Gaus urva^ 
Lat. arvum = skt. urvara), producing vegetation. 

In and after Kuehana period, Sapta Matrikas have had their 
represntations. In early iconographs (now in Mathura M), MHrik'tg 
are youthful goddesses. K'^ili and C<iraund"i of ttie early Pallavas 
of ninth century in Nalumu sculptures are of youthful sensual types 
with the tight breast band of an entwining serpent — naga-kuoa- 
bhandha — and a garland of ekulls hanging over the right— shoulder 
— Kapala Yajno-pavita, Chalukya Kanarese, Orissan and Gaudiya 
Camunda is an emaciated woman in skeleton frame with conical 
hanging breasts, sunken eyes with ppreadout flaming hairs and a 
copse suspended from her earrings — Preta Kundala — riding astride 
over a dead man —a necrophilous witch. In the Tantras it is mentioned 
that Kali is fond of reverse postures in coitus (viparitha ratatura), 
oausing the erection of the penis by licking ib with her tongue, for 
wh ch in iconography she is depicted as riding over a supine man 
and having proturding tongue. On 2nd century B. C the cults of 
Kubera (Cabiri worshipped in Phonicia and Greece), Siva, Vasudeva 
and Sankashama are observed. Nanaghat cave inscription of 1st 
century B. C. opens with invocation of Vasudeva, Sankarshana 
= Balararna. The earliest deities were the reptiles, of which the 
snake was the best representative. It is found in China, Japan, 
Indo China, Indonesia, Borneo, Australia, India, Egypt, Abbysinnia, 
among the African tribes — Bantus, Zulus, Masai. Hottentotes, 
Dahon ; among the Canaanites, Hebrews, Phoenicians, Cretans, 
Greeks, Romans, Lombards, Kelts, Germans, Russians, Lithuanians ; 
amonst the Amerinds — Hopis. Apaches , Algoquans. Animals like 
alligator, apes, ass, bear, beaver, bison, boar, buffaloes, bull, cat, 
catfish, cow, crab, crocodile, cuttlefish, deer, dog, dolphin, eel, 
elephants, elk, ewe, fish, frog, gazelle, goat, gorilla, hare, hippopota- 
mus, lion, leopard, lizard, monkey, mouse, pig, ram, snake, squirrel, 
tiger, tortoise, turtle, weasel, whale and wolf were worshipped in 
different countries. Insects as ants, bees, beetles, butterflies, crickets, 
grasshoppers, scorpions, wasps were also worshipped. 

Risika MBh 3.24.24-25. Inscription of Sata-Vahana Gotamiputa 
mentions Asika (Asi), Asaka, Mulaka. Kasika Sutra : Risekesha jata 
Arsika = Aorsi or Arsasces. MBh 2.47. 26 Kanika Sangabha = Chin. Kang 
Kiui Seng-hui. Munayo (silent ascetics) vatarasanah (wind-girt =nude) 
pisanga vasate mala (covered with yellow dirt). Rv. x,13C.2. 
Yagnabis is allied to Yuechi8 = Ruks (fair)- As [Raksasa, Yak sh a) ^G&tti 
Massagetae, known as Tocharian whose language is close to the 
Keltic and Latin than either to the Slavic or Iranian, distinctly 
Alpine, of medium stature, thickset body, built with short arms and 
legs, large bauds and feet, very hirsute and brown with broad face 
and large head= Yajnavid, one versed in sacrifices. 





INDEX 






SUBJECT 


PAGE 


SUBJBOT 




PAGE 


Aditi 


7,92 


Kharvela 




44, 114 


Agastya 81, 162, 164, 167, 170 


Khatti 




28, 32, 8-2 


Ajanta 


119 


Kinnara 




4, 17, 111 


Aja - Ekapad 


95 


Kshasharatas 




7 J 

47 


Aila Furu-ravas 


'c2 


Kuru-Krivis 


7, 


10, 17. 35, 37 


Amaravati 


112. 118, 128 


Kushans 




48, 108, 148 


Andhigu = Andhaka 11, 60. 70, 73 


Mad a 




4 


Angirasas 


5, 11, 19 


Madra 




11 


Angkor Vat 


168 


Maga = Mriga 




18 


Arts 


97—145 


Maba Bharata 




25 


Asoka 


S9, 40, 43 


Mahayana Buddh 


ism 171 


Asvaka 


150 


Marutah 




87 


Asvamedha 


17-13 


Maurya Gupta: 


3 88, 104, 113. 172 


Asvins 


76, 86, 89, 98 


Mitra 




76 


Astronomy 


88—95 


Nagarjuna Khond 


a 129 


Atharvaveda 


18-20 


Parjanya 




93 


Atreyas 


4,5 


Pisacim 




U 


Bagh 


121 


Pulasta 




5,24 


Barabudur 


162,170 


Pushan 




94 


Bhoga 


7 


Kamayana 




23 25 


Bharut 


107, 111,117 


Elk -Veda 




3-13 


Bhrigus 


33,85 


Risya-Sringa 




32 


Chinese Inventions 155, 167 


Eudra 




94 


Cholas 


63, 161 


Sailendras 




157, 162 


Coins 


146—153 


Saka 




11, 37, 1:^9 


Daksha 


78 


Sanci 




157. 162 


Dharma Sutras 


21 


Savitar 


6, 


84, 92, 97, 98 


Eroticism as an 


Art 176 


Script 




64—73 


Gadhi 


4 


Soma 




84 


Ghosa 


9 


Soma Vamsa 




15,29 


Gtoamas 


4, 6, 11 


Stellar Elyths 




74 82 


Gritsa-Madas 


4 


Sudra 




172 


Gupta 52, 


53, 55, 112, 130 


Sunga 




45, 113, 172 


Hata Yoga 


175 


Tantra Cult 




171-184 


Hiranya Kasipu 


16 


Upanishads 




21- 23 


Hunas 


33, 55, 67 


Ushas 




5, 79, 98 


Ikshvakus 


16,33 


Vajrayana 




175 


Indra 


5, 66, 176 


Varuna 




15 


Kalki 


16,41 


Vena 




86 


Kambojas 


15, 60, 149, 165 


Vishtaspa 




13 


Kanishka 


48, 49, 109. 151 


Yajurveda 




17 


Kavi Literature 


162 


Yaksha 




9, 48, 107 


Kasyapas 


28, 74, 78 


Zaratustra 




13—16 


Kaundinyas 


163 


Zodiac 




98 




All Rights 


Beserved. 






Published by B. K. Chakravarti of 81, 


Vivekananda Road, Calcutta 6 and print- 


ed by A. K. Bose at Sakti Press, 27/3B, H 


ari Ghosh Street, Calcutta 6. India. 



oinoiNG SECT. OCT 2 4 1969 



300506217014 



DS 
cop. 2 



Ch^A-rtioerty, Chandra 

Literery hif Uiry of encient 
India 



JVallace 



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