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GIFT OF 
HORACE W. CARPENTIER 




CHARLES F. TYEA^HITT DEAKE 



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SroTTISWOciriK and CO., NKW-STUKKT SQITAKB 
AND PAItLIAMF.NT SlUKKT 



THE 



LITERARY REMAINS 



OF TlIK LATK 



CHARLES F. TYRWHIH DRAKE, F.RG.S. 



ICDITElJ n/r/l A MEMOin 



WALTER BESANT, M.A. 



SKCHETAUY OK Till'. I'AI.ESTINK R X I' I.O I! A T [ON FUND 



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LONDON 
RICHA.RD BENTLEY & SON, NEW BURLINGTON STREET 

^ublisljcrs in Orbinarj) to f)cr Pajestg tlic ^iwnr 
1877 

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PREFACE. 



The production of Charles Tyrwhitt Drake's literary 
remains has been delayed from various causes. The 
book was to have been edited with a memoir by two 
of his friends, who knew him best and would have 
paid to his memory the largest measiu-e of justice and 
respect. They were Captain and Mrs. Burton. Most 
unfortunately it has been found impossible by them 
to carry out the task. I am sorry, for the sake of the 
memoir, that it was not written by Captain Burton. 
He sent me, however, a contribution which will be 
found in its place. It is hoped that the pages which 
are here reprinted, fragmentary as they are, will be 
accepted as no unworthy monument of the few years 
of work granted to their author. 

W. B. 

9 Pall Mall East: 
March 21, 1877. 



4 5299'^' 



CONTENTS. 



I'AUK 

Memoir 1 

Modern Jerusalem 51 

Notes for a History of Jerusalem 115 

Notes for Travellers in Palestine ..... 149 

Morocco and the Moors 17l> 

Notes on the Birds op Tangier and Eastern Morocco . 213 

Report on the Natural History oe the Tin . 237 

Extracts from Journai 270 

Al'l'ENPlOES ......... 307 






MEMOIR. 



Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake, the youngest son of 
Colonel William Tyrwhitt Drake, Eoyal Horse Guards 
Blue, was born at Amersham on January 2, 1846. 
He was educated at Eugby and Welhngton College, 
and was as a schoolboy remarkable for the same 
characteristics which distinguished his short manhood 
— a resolute thoroughness in everything which he 
undertook, the conscientious discharge of duties, and 
a special aptitude for natural history. From an early 
age he had to struggle against the disease — asthma — 
which oppressed all his after life, and interfered, dur- 
ing his school-days, with the activity for which his tall 
and powerful frame especially fitted him. He became 
a prefect at Wellington at tlie earliest age possible, 
and his influence is still remembered at the school, 
and by his old masters, as having been entirely 
exercised in the direction of good tone and liigh 
principle. And this influence especially was always 
quietly exercised. Drake was never self-consciously 
virtuous, either as boy or man. While at Wellington 

B 



r*3 v:{ ;• .-. : ;;. : MEMOIR. 

lie made himself a draughtsman, a botanist, and an 
ornithologist. * He knew,' writes Dr. Benson, * the 
flight and note of every species. lie was the chief 
naturalist of the school, and found out the great variety 
of birds which inhabit the fir woods and the heaths, 
the Finchampstead Eidges and the rich Blackwater 
Valley.' He was a good cricketer, and played, unless 
when prevented by asthma, in the school eleven. 
As regards the regular work of the school, he be- 
came a sound scholar, a fair mathematician, and, had 
his health allowed, would probably have done ex- 
tremely well at Cambridge. It is interesting to find 
that one of the favourite studies at school was the 
topography of Palestine particularly, as given in a 
relief map of the Holy Land, one of a set presented to 
the boys by the Prince Consort. He was one of the 
few witli whom all recreations and amusements had 
sense in them — an aim and object beyond the present ; 
and his favourite amusements now seem strangely to 
have all been in harmony with his last and most 
honourable work for the Palestine Fund. 

His school life appears to have been thoroughly 
healthy, and in the highest sense a sound preparation 
for a day's work which must not be estimated by the 
length of the working time. Some who are appointed 
to work at the first hour, and called away as early 
as the second, do yet as fair a task by measure as those 



MEMOIR. 3 

who bear the whole heat and burden of tlie day. The 
few words in which Dr. Benson speaks of his former 
pupil show us clearly a lad whose thoughts were 
bent on lofty aims, a lad of healthy instincts and noble 
impulses, one of those who, as if by instinct and the 
natural prompting of a generous heart, range them- 
selves from the beginning on the side of manliness and 
honour. And we feel that it is just how such a boy 
would act when we hear that the first thing Drake 
did after his first tour to Morocco was to carry back to 
the school which he loved a collection of coins, dresses, 
and other things for the boys' museum. 

Thus armed for the business of life, possessed of 
great muscular power, tall and athletic, but heavily 
weighed with an incurable chest weakness, Charles 
Tyrwhitt Drake left Wellington and entered at Trinity, 
Cambridge. At the University, as at school, he was 
a man of many friends, who yet did not make friends 
lightly. He became one of the leading rifle shots, 
the range being his most frequent afternoon resort. 
His favourite reading was still in natural history ; 
and when it became evident that his health would not 
allow a continuous undergraduate course, he fell back 
more and more upon the study of ornithology. 

It was in 1866 that he first found himself obliged 
to leave England during the cold months, and spent 
the winter of that year, and of 1807, in Morocco. 

b2 



4 MEMOIR. 

One result of tliis journey, his primitice^ was a paper 
contributed to tlie Ibis on the birds of the country, 
which is reproduced in this volume. A summer visit 
in 18G7 produced the 'Further Notes,' which will also 
be found here. Professor Newton, of Cambridge, who 
was then the editor, writes of these papers — 

* Up to the present time these two papers furnish 
nearly all the information that has been printed on 
the ornithology of that country, and the niunerous 
references made to them by various writers, both at 
home and abroad, prove that they are regarded by 
ornithologists generally as of considerable importance, 
while hardly in any case have the statements therein 
contained been questioned. On his first visit to Mo- 
rocco his observations were limited to the districts of 
Tangier and Tetuan, but no fewer than 142 species fell 
under his notice — a fact alone telling the zeal with 
which he worked. On his second visit he had much 
greater opportunities, having travelled along the coast 
from Tetuan to Mazagan, thence inland to the city of 
Morocco, and back again to Mogador. Besides addi- 
tional notes on some of the species he had before ob- 
served, he was thus able to add twenty-seven species 
to his former list, making in all 1G9 species of birds 
found by him in this part of North-Western Africa, 
some of them being of considerable interest or rarity. 
The' collections he formed were not indeed large, but 



i 



i ,' 



MEMOIR. 6 

he showed much sagacity in the choice of tlie speci- 
mens he preserved. Prefixed to each of his hsts is a 
brief but graphic sketch of the physical features of 
the districts through which he had passed, indicat- 
ing his possession of the observant eye of the born 
traveller.' 

The * Notes on Morocco and the Moors ' are printed 
here for the first time. Tliey are unfinished, but are 
published exactly as they were left, and not only 
possess the interest which attaches to travels in a 
little-known country, but also that of showing the 
rough form in wliicli he threw the jottings of his note- 
books. 

In this his first journey he showed the quality 
of imperturbable temper, which made him tlie most 
pleasant of travelling companions. It is curious, com- 
paring the statements with later testimony, to note 
how his companion (the Rev. G. D. Armitage) in 
Morocco dwells upon this trait in his character : — 

'His temper, which nothing seemed to ruffle, was 
marvellous, making as it did all the discomforts and 
trials of tent-life almost pleasant. He was ever the 
first to lend a helping hand in pitching a tent or, after 
a long and hard day, in lighting a fire, when all others 
were ready to shirk work and sleep from sheer fatigue. 
After one of these long day's marches, we found our- 
selves at night (owing to the camel-driver's mistake) 



6 MEMOIR. 

without tent, baggage, or eatables. He said, " I 
have my flask with me." I thought he had poured 
out only part of the liquor, so drank all that was 
offered, which turned out to be the whole of our 
suppl}'. His only remark (although he knew we 
could not get anything either to eat or drink until 
morning) was, " Never mind, old fellow ; it Avill do you 
good." We knew each other thirteen years, and I can- 
not remember a single harsh or unkind word passiug 
between us. To know him was to love him, and 
all wlio were acquainted with him will testify to the 
tliorough unselfishness of his character.' 

His unselfishness and good temper are indeed the 
chief burden in the lamentation of all those Avho were 
afterwards his travelling companions — Professor E. H. 
Palmer, Captain Biu-ton, and Lieutenant Conder. 

The Morocco travelling stood liim in good stead as 
a preparation for the more serious business of his life. 
It inured him to camp-life, taught him the manners and 
language of the East, showed him how, by proof es- 
pecially of superior dexterity in things valued by 
Easterns, to gain the admiration and trust of the i)eople, 
and gave him the habit of close and careful observa- 
tion, wliich fitted liim peculiarly for his after work of 
exploration in Palestine. 

In the winter of 1868 lie went to Egypt. By this 
lime it was clear that University distinction was a 



MEMOIR. 7 

thing to be thought of no more, and that all future 
winters would have to be spent in the sunny south. 
The letters he wrote during his joiurney were full of 
brightness and hope, showing that it was a time of 
great enjoyment. Here, for instance, is an extract 
from a letter which naturally assumed the form of a 
Journal, and permits itself to be quoted. The style 
curiously contrasts with that of the carefully weighed 
reports which he afterwards drew up for the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. 

' On the Nile, Dec. 22, 1868. 
' On the fourteenth I went to the Pyramids of 
Cheops. We left the hotel about 8 a.m., and down 
through Old Cairo to the banks of the Nile, which we 
crossed, and found our donkeys waiting for us on the 
other side ; we then rode about six miles, till we came 
to the edge of the desert where the Pyramids are. At 
first it is utterly impossible to realise their enormous 
size (460 ft. high), but after a time, by comparison with 
the men at the foot and those on the top, one begins 
to reahse what it really is. Of course we went up to 
the top, but nothing would ever induce me to do it 
again — it is a most awfid path ; the ascent is made as 
easy as possible, for two Ai'abs hold your hands, and 
another pushes when necessary, but as the blocks vary 
in height from three to four feet, it is no easy work to 
get to the top, but once there the view is fine ; one sees 



8 MEMOIR. 

the fertile land about the Nile for many miles each 
way, and tlie tints on the desert hills are most lovely. 
As it is the custom for tourists to buy rehcs at the 
Pjramids, we were pestered by Arabs trying to palm 
oflf Binuingham goods for antiques, some most pal- 
pable shams ; for instance, copper coins silvered over, 
but here and there showing the metal through. The 
whole affair is thoroughly cockney, w^hich destroys 
one's pleasure a good deal ; Brown, Jones, & Co. have 
scrawled and cut their names in every imaginable 
place, and the Arabs have already learnt such slang as 
" Not for Joseph," &c. The interior is altogether a 
great sell. One has to crawl and creep over slippery 
slabs of stone, polished by the Arabs' bare feet, up hill 
and down, till a moderate-sized oblong chamber is 
reached ; the heat and bad air is suffocating, and there 
ia nothing to see to repay one.' 

' The Sphinx is also rather a delusion ; all pictures 
tliat one sees represent it perched on a hill, while in 
reality it is in a hollow among the sand-heaps. The 
body is a shapeless mass ; the head is certainly curious, 
but it has lost its nose, which gives it the most dis- 
agreeable expression, to say the least of it. The tombs 
discovered by Colonel Vyse are very interesting, com- 
posed of huge monoliths of granite and alabaster in 
some of the small chambers.' 

' Cairo is by far thi' mo.st ])icturesquc town I ever 



I 



MEMOIR. 9 

saw. It is dirty and dilapidated as a rule, but that 
rather adds to the effect. The number of mosques is 
wonderful. I counted more than 140 minarets from 
the roof of the hotel. There are, I believe, about 350. 
They are totally different from Moorish ones, being 
circular and decorated. The bazaars are pecuUarly 
gay, as her6 the turbans are worn very large and of 
gaudy coloiurs, and the dresses are nearly all coloured, 
blue (indigo-dyed) predominating. This is very different 
from the West, where white is almost universal. There 
are a great many Copts here ; I went to see several of 
their churches, which are curious, full of paintings like 
in the Greek Church. One has a vault where Mary is 
said to have hidden herself (why, I could not make 
out) during the stay in Eg3rpt. I went to service in 
one of their churches. The ceremonial is partly Greek 
and partly Moslem. Candles and incense are used, the 
service is read first in Coptic (which nobody under- 
stood), then in Arabic ; the congregation sit on the 
ground and take their shoes, not turbans, off, just as 
the Moslems do.' 

It was in the spring of 1869 that he went to Sinai. 
This journey proved a turning-point in his hfe. He 
met there the Officers of the Sinai Survey, consistir|g of 
Majors Wilson and Pahner, E.E., Eev. F. W. Holland, 
and Professor E. H. Palmer. The survey was just 



10 MEMOIR. 

completed and the party were on the point of leaving 
the peninsula when he arrived. He took their guide, 
Salem, and remained alone for some weeks visiting 
all the points of interest. And when he returned to 
England in the summer it was with his mind fiUl of 
those Eastern scenes which, with their associations, 
retained possession of his mind until the end. 

It was in the autumn of 18G9 that he fairly entered 
on the work of exploration in Holy Lands. The Com- 
mittee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, having very 
fortunately ascertained that it would fall in with Pro- 
fessor E. H. Palmer's plans to spend another winter in 
the East, proposed that he should visit for them the 
little known and deeply interesting district called the 
Desert of the Tih, or Wanderings. The University of 
Cambridge at the same time made Charles Tyrwhitt 
Drake a grant which might enable him to prosecute 
Natural History reseai'ch in the same region. It was, 
as proved afterwards, a country singularly barren of 
animal life, but the small collection which he succeeded 
in making contained several rare and valuable speci- 
mens. 

In other respects the journey was most important. 

The two travellers started, so to speak, at the Con- 
vent of St. Catherine, Sinai, where they examined the 
more important of the manuscript treasures of the 
})lace. Leaving the convent, they began by finishing 



. MEMOIR. 11 

up the survey of a small portion of the peninsula loft 
incomplete by Major Wilson. This done, they pro- 
ceeded to perform the main object of their journey 

the exploration of the Desert et Tih. They crossed 
the country from south to north — Cala'at Nukhl to 
Hebron — thence in a south-westerly direction to Petra, 
and from Petra by a little-trodden road through Moab 
to Jerusalem. Their baggage was of the hghtest kind 
possible ; they were on foot the whole of tlie way ; 
their food was of the simplest ; they often had to per- 
form their own cooking, washing up, &c. themselves, 
and they were in constant danger from suspicious 
Arabs. The actual scientific results of the expedition 
have been given to tlie world in the Quarterly State- 
ments of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and in the 
' Desert of the Exodus,' by Professor E. H. Palmer. 
What concerns us here is the fact that hardships and 
fatigues were borne with the same ' equal mind ' with 
which Drake met good or evil fortune, that he was 
always cool and collected in danger, that he was a 
perfect travelling companion, and that he cheerfully in 
this, as in every other case, accepted the second })lace. 
The one great disappointment in this expedition, 
a disappointment far greater than that caused by the 
scarcity of animal life, was their failure to find any 
more inscribed stones of a character such as tlie famous 
Moabite Stone. Their chief object in visiting the 



18 MEMOIR. ij 

country was to ascertain the probability of there being 
any other monument in the country of a like nature, 
and, if so, of quietly taking steps which should not 
result, as the mistakes of IMr. Klein unfortunately did, 
in the destruction of a priceless and unique inscription. 
The opinion arrived at by both, that there were no 
other inscribed stones of such antiquity in Moab, 
remains yet unassailed. 

After a stay at Jerusalem, the first to both the 
travellers, they went to the north and visited Da- 
mascus, Baalbec, and the Lebanon, in company with 
Captain R. F. Burton, then H.B.M. Consul at Damascus. 
This was the beginning of a friendship with that great 
traveller, which resulted in important work later on. 
The travelling of the year was finished by a visit to 
Greece and Constantinople. 

In the winter of 1870 there came to England a 
rumoiu" of the discovery at Hamdh, in Northern Syria, 
of certain stones inscribed in a character unlike any 
found elsewhere. They appear to liave been casually 
mentioned by Burckhardt early in this century, and 
afterwards to have been entirely neglected until they 
were seen by the Eev. S. Jessup of the American 
Syrian Mission, and Mr. J. Augustus Jolmson, U.S. 
Consul-General at Beyrout. They took copies and 
showed them to Professor Palmer, who was so much 
impressed with the possible value of the inscriptions. 



MEMOIli. ,;{ 

that he persuaded the Committee of the Fund to pro- 
vide Drake with the money necessary for a visit to the 
place. Thither, accordingly, he went in June 1871. 
His mission was perfectly successful. With tlie tact 
and great perseverance which distinguislied liiin he 

overcame the resistance of the natives and tlicir i^- 

o 

norant superstitions so far as to be allowed to take 
squeezes and photographs. A report of great interest, 
though short, was sent to London on the antiquities of 
Hums and Hamah. 

Before his visit there he had ridden into the Hauran 
with Captain Burton. The results of this journey were 
afterwards published in the volume called ' Unexplored 
Syria.' 

To the east and north-east of Hamah is a region 
certainly not visited during the present century by any 
European traveller. It is called El Alah. On the 
maps it is represented by a perfect blank. Yet it i.s a 
district fertile, riant^ and picturesque ; full of ruined 
towns — the Arabs say there are 365 of tlicm — and 
abounding in Greek inscriptions. Drake visited this 
country alone in the autumn of 1871 after liis Hamah 
journey. He rode through the whole district, stopping 
from point to point to examine and sketch the ruined 
castles and fortresses. This place, the home of an 
ancient civilisation, and once densely populated, had 
a singular interest for liim, and it was, I believe, his 



14 MEMOIR. 

intention, as soon as the survey of Palestine -was 
finished, to return and examine minutely the ruins 
through whicli he had passed as a simple pioneer of 
exploration. * 

The whole results of this year were published in 
two volumes, called ' Unexplored Syria ' (Tinsley 
Brothers), the combined work of Captain Burton, Mrs. 
Burton, and Drake. Here the Hamath inscriptions were 
reproduced in full, and drawings from Drake's original 
sketches made in the Alah appeared in the work. 

There appears no better place than the present for 
a communication, forwarded me by Captain Burton, 
which speaks for itself: — 

'On a red-hot morning in July 1870 I rode from 
Damascus to Bludan, and said to my wife " I have 
f\illen in with two such nice fellows, and they arc 
coming here — Drake and Palmer, who have been 
doing Sinai and the Tih." ' 

' They made their appearance in our garden on 
the J 9th, sunburnt, "hard as nails," briefly in the finest 
travelling condition. They were a first-rate working 
]):iir, Drake taking the surveying and mapping, and to 
Palmer fell the linguistic labours of the expedition, 
whilst a thorough good fellowship existed between 
llii'in. As we were short of bedrooms they pitched 
their t(Mits below Mr. Consul-General Wood's house, 
our <iiiiunor quarters, and passed a few quiet days 



MEMOIR. 15 

with us. Both were somewhat fatigued with tluir 
unusually hard work, but still tliey were anxious to 
visit, in our company, the summits of tlie Lil)aniis. 
We made hurried preparations for twenly-tlirce days 
of gipsying ; and, with our two friends, my wife and 
I started after as short a delay as possible, at the head 
of a small caravan of horses, servants, tents, and light 
baggage.' 

'We spent a week amongst the ruins of Ba'albak, 
trying to save some of the grandest features from de- 
struction. We then rode up the fertile and malarious 
Coelesyrian plain as far as El Ku'a, a village about 
thirty miles distant from Iloms, wliicli could l)e dis- 
tinctly seen in the clear pellucid air, nnd thus we 
galloped across the valley towards Ayn Urglui.sh, 
camping in a Maronite stronghold at Ayn Ata. All 
greatly enjoyed the scramble up the Cedar Col, wliere 
we found banks and wreaths of snow in July, and the 
slide down to the old Trees. There we encamped for 
some days, and hence we visited the summits of tlu; 
Libanus with the view of determining the ilisputcd 
altitudes. Professor Palmer has smce published a 
short sketch of our trip in the -'Journal of the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund." A cheerful and [)leasant time 
it was to all, fitly to be described by the adjective 
"jolly," at which Philister and Philistine turn up the 
nose " polite." ' 



16 MEMOIR. 

' From the Cedars we were obliged to part, and I 
cannot say which of the four felt parting the most. 
There is eternal fitness in the saying of Haiiz the 
Shirazi : — 

That eve so pay, so bright, so plad ; this morn so dim and sad and grey — 
Ah ! that Life's Registrar should write that day a day, thy day a day ! 

' Drake then returned to England for a while, and 
we kept up an unintermitted correspondence, which 
ended in his returning to us in Syria during the fol- 
lowing year (1871). lie arrived rather suddenly on 
the cold damp evening of March 25, suffering some- 
what from his old enemy, asthma ; and it was unani- 
mously determined by three friends in council that, 
instead of turning into the comfortless sohtude of a 
bachelor establishment, he should take up his quarters 
permanently with us. His kindly and domestic dispo- 
sition made this prospect agreeable to him, and we 
were glad to find it so, as he was evidently far from 
strong, and when he became one of us we should be 
better able to look after him. His attacks, frequent at 
first, soon lost their violence, and his health under the 
climate and the life that suited him became manifestly 
a gainer. 

* He was my inseparable companion during the rest 
of our stay in Palestine, and never did I travel wdth 
any man whose disposition was so well adapted to 
make a first-rate explorer. We all three visited almost 



MEMOIR 17 

every known part of Syria, either for the first time or 
over again, taking observations, making sketches and 
skeleton maps, and writing diaries and accounts of our 
journeys. We divided the work, eacli taking wliat 
was best suited. My wife luid charge of the canij) 
generally, and especially the horses and the sick or 
wounded, and visited the harems to note things hidden 
from mankind. Drake copied inscriptions, mapped 
the country, measured the remains of antiquity, col- 
lected geological specimens, fauna and flora, and made 
admirable sketches in pencil and water-colours — wc 
keep many of these as some of our most precious relics. 
The time was passed most enjoyably. Our companion 
was one of the few who can make a pleasant tiiird in 
a menage — a plain, honest, straightforward disposition 
that was a true friend to both in an honest way, inid 
that is high praise. 

'A day or two after he arrived from England I lode 
back from Hums and Ilaniuh with a native copy <»f the 
" Hamath stones." My journey had been for upwards 
of a fortnight over the Northern desert and ihe Ansiri 
Mountains, where the snow and frost liad bitten my 
fingers and toes. After a short rest we resolved on 
spending the holy week at Jerusalem. My wife went 
under his charge via Beyrout by sea to Jaflii and Jeru- 
salem, where, after riding down across country, I met 
them with our own horses. " Inner Life of Syria " hm 

C 



18 MEMOIR. 

given a good Catholic's account of the visit to Jerusa- 
lem and the holy places ; more is to come. Drake's 
familiarity with the Holy City made liim an invaluable 
companion ; but he suffered from the abominable 
climate, and I well remember his telling me that it 
had never agreed with him. Had I been present at 
tlie very beginning of his last illness, I should have 
put him into a litter, and have carried him nolens 
volens to the coast. Wlien he had recovered we pur- 
sued our way, including Ayn Karin, and Hebron, 
Bethlehem, Mar Saba, the Dead Sea, the so-called tomb 
of Moses, the Jordan ford, Jericho, and Ayn-el-Sultan, 
where he, poor fellow, afterwards encamped in 1874, 
and caught the fever that terminated his short but use- 
ful and promising career. We then turned northwards 
or homewards via Bethel and Niiblus, the consular 
boundary between Damascus and Jerusalem, halting to 
visit Mount Ebal and Gerizim, and Shechcm and the 
Samaritans. From Scythopohs and Endor we finally 
made Nazareth, where we were both stoned by the so- 
called and miscalled Greeks ; on this occasion Drake 
disphiyed the cool bravery and determination of liis 
character, and lie was a great hel}) to me in saving 
my wife and servants from the fury of an excited 
mob, urged on by their priests and bishop. 

' After staying at Nazaretli to see the rioters pu- 
nished, we thence proceeded to Cana (?) in Galilee, and 



MEMOIR. 10 

at the Lake of Tiberias we camped, and visited by 
boat the seven famous sites as far as is possible to ascer- 
tain them ; we also circmimavigated the little sea, and 
took observations of temperature which yield curious 
results. Next came Safed, famed for its mcdiaival 
Jewish school of ferocious theology, the plain of lli'ik-h 
and waters of Merom, with the liirket-el-Ram (Lake 
Phiala), where we took soundings on our cjimj)- 
table, buoyed up with water, or rather air-skins. 
Finally, after visiting our Druse neighbours, we gal- 
loped across our own desert plain home. 

' Our next joint excursion was to the Haunin, whitlior 
three hundred Bedawin were sent to waylay us. We 
explored the Tuliil-el-Safa, a somewhat risky feat, 
which the Europeans of Damascus had often wisiied 
to do, but were deterred by the overwhelming chances 
of being stripped by the robber tribes ; the latter were 
part of the state machinery under those who have 
turned a garden of roses into a desert and den of 
thieves. 

' Drake then made a httle trip on his own accour.t, 
or rather on that of tlie Palestine Exploration Fund, 
to get better squeezes of, and collect more information 
concernim?, the now world-flimous " Ilamath stones." 
The Eev. William Wright first suggested, mmpw rum 
risu, that they were Ilittite— a theory now confirmed 

c2 



20 MEMOIR. 

by Birch, Sayce, and the late George Smith. I had 
been obhged to satisfy myself with a native copy, 
having unfortunately been without squeeze-paper. 

' We then all went once more into summer quarters 
at Bludan, wliere we again spent a pleasant and quiet 
time, until August IG ; on which day I was politely 
invited to return home with the utmost possible des- 
patch. Drake, ever staimch and true, saw me to my 
saddle, and undertook to help my wife to settle the 
mass of business and hard work which the sudden 
giving up of an establishment could not but entail. 
As the reason given by Eashid Pasha was my being so 
unpopular with the Moslems that they wanted my life, 
I made my wife remain at Damascus to prove its un- 
truth ; this measure certainly could not have been 
taken had not both of us been siu^e of our native 
friends. She slept with open door and windows in the 
Salahiyyeh ; this is the quarter which once had so law- 
less a reputation that at night none would venture into 
it, and even by day the timid avoided it. 

' Drake's kind heart was greatly grieved by the loss 
of our happy home, and he advised me to await at 
Damascus the residt of my explanatory report to head- 
quarters. But I knew better ; the greater the right in 
such cases the greater the wrong, lie accompanied me 
to the diligence, and then returned to Bliiddn ; there he 
served all my interests like a true man, and assisted my 



MEMOIR. 21 

wife in all her troubles, until lie placed her on board 
the steamer for England at Beyriit. 

' Our house furniture, horses, and pets were all left 
with Drake in the forlorn hope that personal explana- 
tions might secure a modicum of justice ; but tliat day 
was never to dawn. Unfortunate Damascus presently 
became the scene of murders and disorders of all 
kinds, and she has gradually declined till all the little 
English colony has broken up. My excellent successor, 
Mr. Kirby Green, had anything but a ha])py S(^journ 
there, and he was not sorry to exchange it even for 
Scutari in Albania, another fme specimen of a consular 
den. 

' Time passed, and as I was transferred to Trieste, 
Drake halted a month with us en route to England, 
and we visited Pola, Aquileja, the caves of Adelsbcrg, 
the Karst (Carso), and San Cauzian, the famous hams 
or breeding-stables at Lippiza ; and the environs of 
Trieste. The climate, which residents find so cniel, 
agreed with him perfectly, and the holiday had a most 
favourable effect upon his spirits. I should note that 
we always kept up a lively correspondence ; we have 
bundles of his letters, which, however, are of too pri- 
vate and personal a nature for publication. 

' We went to Venice and saw him off to England ; 
he promised us to retiu-n in seven weeks, but fate willed 
that we should not meet again. The cholera broke out 



22 MEMOIR. 

at Trieste (1873) ; lie dreaded a long quarantine in 
July, and he was tempted by his friend Sir John Druni- 
mond ILiy of Tangier Avitli the prospect of another 
journey into inner Morocco, an almost virgin country 
in which liis first trip had caused hhn to take a great 
and pennanent interest. The project was frustrated 
by the emperor's death, and he went back to his work 
in Syria. 

'During the spring of 1874 he caught as before 
mentioned the Jericho fever whilst he was camped in the 
rainy swamps that bound the lower Jordan. When a 
Httle better he was removed to Jerusalem where he re- 
lapsed, and where his horror of the chmate was justi- 
fied, as if it had been a presentiment, by the fatal 
result of his illness. 

' The letter announcing his death reached me only 
two days after hearing he was not very well ; to this 
we had attached but little importance, knowing that he 
liad l)een weakened by overwork, and suspecting that 
he wanted rest. The sad news, I need hardly say, was 
a severe blow. 

' Drake's ap{)earance and character are thus noticed 
ill " Inner Life in Syria," and I will copy it as our 
united testimony to the value of a friend whose loss 
can never be replaced.' Pray use these lines in any 
way you please.' 

' lucluded iu tbu luUor was au extract from Mrs. Burton's work ; see 
p. 40. 



MEMO in. 28 

To resume our own narrative. After tlie Mali 
work came the survey of Palestine. There had been 
some difference of opinion on the first foundation of 
the Palestine Fund whether it would be wiser to besrin 
their labours Avith excavations at Jerusalem or with 
the great survey of the whole country. The former 
plan was decided upon, and it was not until a year 
after Captain Warren's return that the committee saw 
their way, in the autumn of 1871, to undertake what 
will undoubtedly prove the very greatest work ever 
accomplished in the task of illustrating the Bible 
and making its narrative intelligible. With this work 
Drake's name will be inseparably connected. 

The assurance of being engaged upon an enterprise 
of lasting importance, the memory of which will never 
perish while the Bible continues to be read, was in itself 
a subject of the greatest satisfaction to him. Ue had 
ever before him the conviction that he would not live 
long, and his incessant activity may be partly explained 
by an anxiety to accomplish something during tlic few 
years which he felt were granted to him. This an.xicty 
was removed by the knowledge that good work had 
fallen into his hands — work which from its very nature 
he should be proud of doing well. 

It was with the greatest hope of being acceptxid 
that he volunteered his services to the Fund ; and, cha- 
racteristically, he modestly made known his wishes in 



24 MEMOIR. 

the first instance to one of tlie committee, Mr. W. S. W. 
Vaiix, wlio brouglit tlie subject forward at a meeting 
of the committee held towards the end of 1871. 

Tlie position was as follows: — Captain Stewart, R.E., 
the officer in charge of the Survey party, was about 
to proceed with two non-commissioned officers in Janu- 
ary 1872. He was totally inexperienced in Syrian life, 
manners, and language. Drake volunteered his services 
in the capacity of naturalist, draughtsman, and linguist. 
He placed his experience in the hands of the committee, 
almost giving it to the cause. The committee had 
hardly accepted the ofTer, which they did with grati- 
tude, when they had reason to congratulate themselves 
on their happy chance. For Captain Stewart hardly 
had time to lay down a base line and commence the 
triangulation, when he was struck down with an illness 
which caused his immediate return to England. His 
services, it was clear, though we hoped for a time that 
he would return, were lost to the society. Then it was 
that Drake came to the rescue. He hastened to Jafia, 
took the command, carried on the Survey, wrote valu- 
able reports home, accumulated material for tlie future 
memoirs, and all the time had to look most carefully 
after the safety and welfare of the two uon-conmiis- 
sioned officers, strangers to the climate and the people, 
who were thrown on his hands. Sergeants Black and 
Armstrong, attached to the Survey Expedition, were. 



MEMOIR 25 

however, thoroughly stead}^ and rehable mon, porfeotly 
certain to give no trouble on their own account. In 
the summer Lieutenant Conder arrived and took over 
the command. 

The rest of the story almost entirely belongs to the 
history of the Survey. From January 1872 until June 
1874, a space of two years and a half, Di-ake worked 
with short intervals in the field. Once he went down 
to Egypt ; once he returned to England ; each journey 
a short one, and on each occasion undertaken by order 
of his medical adviser, Dr. Chaplin, of Jerusalem. The 
reports which he sent home from month to montli were 
published by the Palestine Fund, except the one which 
appears in this volume called ' Modern Jerusalem.' 
This was published as a separate pamphlet, and had a 
large sale. It is reproduced here in order to give it 
such better chance of life as a bound book offers over 
a pamphlet. It is without doubt the fullest and most 
trustw^orthy account of the modern city which has yet 
appeared. 

As for the ' Letters from C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake,' I 
am perhaps, by reason of the office I hold, better quah- 
fied than any one else to speak of the great pleasure 
which they gave to the readers of the periodical in 
which they appeared, and the eagerness with wliich 
they were looked for. Their charm was not so much 
in the startliuir nature of discoveries made, because 



26 MEMOIR. 

Drake was too sensible, and knew Western Palestine 
too well, to expect what are called brilliant discoveries. 
It lay in the quiet style, the earnestness, the occasional 
strokes of humour, and the unpretending thoroughness 
with whicli he went about his work. Always, whether 
he wrote, spoke, or worked, it was as the quiet, typical 
English gentleman. And he was ever ready to ac- 
knowledge at once any error of judgment. 

Let me instance one point. Drake, in common with 
everybody else, was at first taken in by certain forgeries 
known as the ' Moabite Pottery,' consisting of an in- 
numerable quantity of figures, vases, and other things, 
the supply of which proved miraculously equal to any 
demand that could be made upon the fortunate vendor. 
A large portion of the collection was bought by the 
Germans for the museum of Berlin. The authenticity 
of these finds was from the first doubted by savants in 
France and England ; and before M. Clermont Gan- 
neau went out to Palestine in 1873 for the Fund, he 
informed me, on looking at the inscribed pottery, that 
he was certain they were forgeries because he knew the 
hand in which the so-called Phoenician inscriptions were 
written. He went to Jerusalem and immediately began 
to trace out the forger. But Drake was quietly busy 
with the same object, and just before Ganneau trimu- 
phantly exposed the whole scheme, I received a private 
note from Drake informing me that he had now found 



MEMOIR. 27 

out the chief agent in tlie aflair, wliose name lie .sent 
me, and enjoining strict secresy until he gave further 
particulars. In point of fact, Drake simuUaneously 
with Ganneau, and quite independently, discovered the 
whole conspiracy. And in s})ite of a grand altcinpt 
made by certain persons to discredit tlie original testi- 
mony of the Arabs, the pottery has now been univer- 
sally condemned. Observe, however, that Draki; was 
immediately ready, on learning the truth, to abandon 
his former position without reserve. 

After the arrival of Lieutenant Conder, Drake, re- 
signing the command of the expedition, continued to 
write the Letters of which I have spoken. Tliey were 
written independently of the reports of Lieutenant 
Conder, so that the committee often had the advantage 
of information on the same subject from a double point 
of view. But, from the nature of his special work as 
well as from strongly-marked intellectual difTerences, 
Drake's observations, while they certainly never rau 
counter to, were at the same time never parallel witli 
those of his colleague.^ Lieutenant Conder, for instance, 

1 Lieutenant Conder, however, reminds me that Drake's researchoa 
in the field of identification were by no means without profit. .Vinong the 
places recovered by him, within the bounds of reasonable probability aro— 

1. Aduvunim (Joshua xv. 7 and xviii. 17), now the modem Talat od 
Dumm. 

2. Bilemn (1 Chron. vi. 70), now Belumeh. 

3. Hdkath Ilazzurim (2 Sam. ii. IG), now the Wady el Aakar. 

4. Elon (Joshua xix. 43), now Beit Anan. 

5. Mozah (Joshua xviii. 26), now Beit Mizzeh. 



28 MEMOIR. 

has always been impressed above all things with the 
geographical and topographical aspect of the work. This 
is shown by the vast number of Bibhcal sites (equal in 
nuniljcr to all those discovered by previous travellers 
put togetlier) which he has rescued from oblivion or 
uncertainty. Drake, on the other hand, saw in the tra- 
ditions of the people, in the present condition of the 
countiy, in its natural history, and in the manners and 
customs of the natives, a field for Biblical illustration 
peculiarly open to himself. In his special aptitude 
for this sort of work he had but one rival, a friendly 
rival, in M. Clermont Ganneau.' The latter was cer- 
tainly his superior in mastery over the native dialects, 
but both possessed in an eminent degree the rare 
faculty of being able to elicit from a peasantry marked 
by childishness, suspicion, and timidity, the legends and 
traditions, the folk lore and the fables among which, 
covered over with the accumulations of ages, lie hidden 
the events of the Bible. The following extract from 
one of Drake's letters will show some of the difficulties 
met with in gathering information from the natives : — 
' In the desert a wady will generally have but one 
name from its head to its termination or junction with 
a more important one. In these well-populated districts 

G. Zarthfin (Josliua iii. IG and 1 Ivings vii. 4G), now Tell es Sarem. 

' I am ppi-akinp especially with reference to the officer.s employed in 
the work of tlio Fund, No one, for instance, has done so much to show 
the miml of the Syrians as Captain Burton in his ' Collection of Syrian 
l^roverbs.' 



MEMOIR. 39 

a wady changes its name half-a-dozen tunes in as many 
miles, taking a new one in the territory of each villn^c 
that it passes through. The fear of the fellahin that 
we have secret designs of reconquering tlie countrj^ is 
a fruitful source of difFiculty. This got over, remains 
the crass stupidity which cannot give a direct answer 
to a simple question, the exact object of wliich it does 
not understand ; for why should a Frank wish to know 
the name of an insignificant wady or hill in their land? 
The following dialogue will show that denseness is not 
peculiar to the traditional Chawbacon, I ride up to a 
man ploughing in a wady, and say, " What do you call 
this wady ? " 

'"Wliich wady? Where?" 

' " Why, the one we are in ; here." 

' " What do you want to know for ? " 

' " To write it on the map," &c. 

' " Oh, this is called El Wad " (the valley). 

' " Nothing else ? " 

' " No." 

' " Well, the men liere must be illiterate donkeys ! " 
(Turning to the man) " Why, when you go honje and 
say that you have been ploughing in the • Wad,' jic-r- 
haps they'll think that you've been on tlie other side of 
that hill yonder.' 

'(In a tone of pique) "Oh no ! I .should siy Fvc 
been in Wady Serar." 



30 MEMOIR. 

' " Then you call this Wady Scrar ? " 

' " Yes, that's what we call it." 

'A little sarcasm is a weapon that seldom, if ever, 
fails to penetrate the Syrian perceptions, for the native, 
with all his ignorance and stupidity, is essentially vain, 
and by this means many a point may be gained or bit 
of information acquired which no amount of bullying, 
no length of entreaties, would serve to accomplish.' 

The following extract illustrates with what apparent 
carelessness, as if the thing were not really a triumph 
of linguistic power and personal tact, he would embody 
in a paragraph fiicts and legends which had taken days 
and weeks to collect. It shows also the curious 
melange of fact and fiction in which the native tradi- 
tions survive : — 

' The tomb of Weli Iskander, which stands near 
here, has proved a most valuable trigonometrical station. 
This personage is, on the authority of the Kadi, one of 
the kings of the Children of Israel, but I cannot find 
any foundation for this legend in history, imlcss it be 
some memory of Alexander, son of Herod, who was 
strangled at Sebaste, but buried at Alexandrium (Jos. 
J^. J. 1 xxvii. 6). Others say that it is a makam in 
honour of Alexander the Great, of whom Moslem 
legends, with tiieir usual disregard for chi-oiioloiiy, tell 
marvellous tales. He was a negro, the son of El 
I)h;il)'a;ik, King of lliniyar, and a Greek i)rincess, and 



MEMOIR 31 

is called Iskander z\d Karnayn^ " Alexander with tlu* 
two horns," wliich grew like a ram's from liis temples. 
To conceal them he invented the turban ; he also in- 
vented the fashion of shaking hands. He had an inter- 
view with Abraham in Wady Seb'a (Beersheba) D.r. 
300 ; his conquests extended over the world, and 
amongst other notables he slew Yajuj and Majuj (Gog 
and Magog), who were each 240 feet higli ; and to 
avoid the plague which would ensue from tlie putrefiic- 
tion of such a mass of liesh, lie caused an army <>1" 
birds of prey to tear off their llesh and carry it to the 
sea. These giants were omnivorous; they ate trees, 
crops, men, horses, and cattle, and were able to diink 
the lake of Tiberias dry in a single day. Some of their 
race who were also cannibals, rode ants as large ns 
camels instead of horses. Alexander was a fit hero to 
cope with such monsters, as his nose was three spans 
long and, of course, the rest of his body in proportion. 
Oct, the Kintj of Bashan, to reach whose knee Moses, 
who was twenty cubits high, took an axe twenty cubits 
long, and leapt up twenty cubits from the earth, nmst 
doubtless have been a connection of these giants.' 

The picture which he drew of the fellaheen is a 
dark one, but not darker than the reality in the ojjinion 
of those wlio know them. 

'From earhest infancy they arc brought uj) in utter 
ignorance ; they are never children ; the merry laughter 



32 MEMOIR. 

and sports of European cliildhood are here quite un- 
known. At tliree years old they are httle men and 
women with wonderful aplomb. Tiny dots scarcely 
able to toddle may be seen gathering khobhayzeli (wild 
mallows) for the evening meal, and, when they have 
filled the skirts of their one wee garment, will trot 
home as sedately as though the cares of life were 
already pressing heavily on their shoulders. I have 
seldom in this countiy heard a genuine laugh from 
man, woman, or child ; the great struggle for existence 
seems to have crushed all but fictitious mirth. 

' The fellaheen boys — very rarely the girls — take 
cliarge of the flocks and herds till they are old enough 
to consider themselves men ; thus exposed to all 
weathers they are as hardy as their charge, but if at- 
tacked by sickness one is as little cared for as the 
other, and chronic coughs, fevers, rheumatism, and 
ophthalmia, are the consequent results. 

' The physical and mental degradation of the 
women, \\\\o are mere animals, proletaires, beasts of 
burden, cannot but have a most injurious efTect upon 
the cliildren. The foul language in common use by 
men, women, and children, but especially the latter, is 
sUirtling. 

' A fatlier's pride in his children is little better than 
that o{' tlie beasts for their ofTsin^ing ; lie lias no care 
for their improvement in any way, and consequently 



MEMOIlt. jia 

they grow up utter savages, never corrected for faulis 

nor praised for doing well — often the reverse and 

ignorant to the last degree. Besides this, the children 
are spoilt, and have their own way completely ; if 
thwarted they abuse their jmrents and elders, who 
merely return the abuse with interest. More tiian 
once I have had a sick child brought for me to doctor, 
but on the brat's objecting to have eye-lotion adminis- 
tered, or even to be closely looked at, the fond parent 
would remark, " Don't um like medicine, then uin 
shan't have it then," and sent the little wretch away, 
looking upon me with horror and indignation for sug- 
gesting a shght correction. 

'Privacy is absolutely unknown. Anybody's busi- 
ness is everybody's business. If any transaction, pri- 
vate quarrel, or discussion, be going on, every one 
present puts in his or her word. Hence, in villages 
where there are two factions, brawls ending in blood- 
shed have not unfrequently arisen out of petty disputes 
between women and children. For private talk it is 
common to see two or three men seated under a tree 
in an orchard or olive grove, where there is no po.-5si- 
bility of being overheard. 

' The fellaheen are all in all the worst ty|)e of 
humanity that I have come across in the East. Tlu' 
'Ammarin and Lyathineh of Petra are perhaps greater 
ruffians, being beyond the reach of lrooi)s, but {\w\ 

D 



M MEMOIR. 

are known to be lawless plunderers, and the traveller 
expects the worst from them. The fellah is totally 
destitute of all moral sense ; he changes his pledged 
word as easily as he sHps off his abha ; robbery, even 
when accompanied by violence and murder, is quite in 
his line, provided he can do it with little fear of detec- 
tion. To one who has power he is fawning and cring- 
ing to a disgusting extent, but to one whom he does 
not fear, or who does not understand Arabic, his inso- 
lence and ribald abuse are unbounded. As an instance, 
I may quote the fact that when we were taking obser- 
vations from Bayt 'ur el Foka, the men were servile 
and deferential before me, but a few days later one 
of the non-commissioned officers and a native servant 
rode past the place, and were abused in most scurrilous 
language by the children, who were egged on to it by 
their elders. 

' I am well aware that this slight though far from 
hasty sketch will seem overcoloured to man}'^ whose 
acquaintance with the country is but that of a holiday 
tourist ; but a more intimate contact with the people 
and knowledge of their language would soon modiiy 
any favourable ideas based upon tlicir picturesque 
vagabondism, and the transient skin-deep civility pro- 
duced l)y a backshish. Tlie fellaheen themselves have 
often said to nn', witli tliat implied exception in their 
own t'lvour so (characteristic of the semi-savage, "All 



MEMOIR. 85 

the fellaheen are Hars, poor men always aiv ; \vc know- 
that the Franks always speak the truth, l}ut f)ur peoj)lo 
never do." The Syrian proverb, " Ljnng is tlie salt of 
a man," is characteristic' 

These are the strongest words ever written by Diiike. 
That they come from an observer of singularly calm 
mind, and from one with whom sobriety of exi)rcssi<)ii 
was a virtue, makes their weight all tlie stronger, lie 
returns to the subject in describing the modern cave- 
dwellers, the sole survivors of the ancient Iloi-ites of 
Syria. 

' Modern Troglodytes inhabit the old eaves in com- 
mon with their cows, sheep, and goats. The entianci- 
s usually a smooth-dressed passage cut in the rot-k, 
about 3^ ft. to 4 ft. wide, open above, and descending 
either by an inclined plane, or shallow ste|)s, to the 
doorway of the cave, which is 4 ft. by 2j, ft. The 
walls of the cave itself are seldom smoothed ; in ^•hape 
it is circular or oval, and rarely 6 ft. in height. The 
centre is occupied by the cattle, while the portion re- 
served by the human part of the community is marked 
off by a line of stones, and sometimes assumes the form 
of a mastabah, or slightly raised narrow dais. The 
manure is canied out every morning and dejjosited in 
a heap just so near as not entirely to block up the 
gangway. The state of the cave after a heavy down- 
pour of rain, which contributes some six inches of 

D -2 



86 MEMOIR. 

water to the general Augean uncleanness, tlie slimy 
clamp of the walls, the mosquitoes, the vermin, the 
reek of men and beasts, makes an ordinary English 
pigsty a palace by comparison. And yet the indolent, 
able-bodied rascals, dignified by the title of reasonable 
beings, who own this byre are too lazy to build them- 
selves huts, but prefer using the caves bequeathed 
them by the Hebrews and heathen of old, and lounge 
over the hills with their herds, or, rolled in their ahbas^ 
snooze in some sheltered nook without a thought or an 
aspiration beyond cramming their stomachs with crude 
wild herbs, or gathering a few piastres by hook or by 
crook, but, most important, with the least possible 
exertion to themselves. These men are often too in- 
dolent to turn an honest shilling by acting as guide for 
two or three hours, but will make their miserable 
women and children tramp ten, fifteen, or more miles 
in the day, to and from market to sell a bundle of dry 
stalks, called by courtesy firewood, a skin of milk, or a 
few eggs, worth in all sixpence or eightpence. The 
cave-dwellers, I must, however, allow, are sunk but 
little lower than their house-sheltered brethren. Their 
wants are few, and their means of supplying them 
equally scanty.' 

lie had a keen appreciation of scenery, and a 
power of describing what he saw, which he exercised, 
in the opinion of many readers, too seldom. But 



MEMOIR. 87 

Palestine is not a country of fine scenery, lie says 
himself : — 

' Beautiful scenery can hardly witli trutli be saitl to 
exist in this country, but some of the prettiest views in 
Palestine proper are to be seen by looking westwards 
from the edge of the central range. At one's feet arc 
rugged valleys more or less clad witli brushwood, and 
olive groves strongly contrasting with the white lines 
of upheaved limestone which gleam lilce the .skele- 
ton ribs of a dead cultivation. Beyond, softened by 
distance, lies the great maritime plain, here a vivid 
green, denotmg a tract of young wheat, there a fallow 
of rich red soil bordered by a sombre mass of olive 
trees, rendered still blacker by the shadow of a })assing 
cloud, while a gleam of sunshine shows off the white 
houses of Lydd and Eamleh and the fine tower of the 
" White Mosque " against the setting of gloomy trees. 
Par beyond these a thread of golden sand divides the 
emerald of the plain from the turquoise of the sea. A 
rounded mass of white, in shape like an exaggerated 
molehill, ghstens at the north end of the sand tlunes. 
This we recognise as Jaffa ; beyond lies the sea, flecked 
here and there with a tiny white speck, the sail of s^onie 
coasting trader. Nearer beneath us, in the Shephelah, 
and lower slopes of the niain range, nestle countless 
villages, few of wliose names have yet blackened any 
map, for the land of tlie two tribes of Beni Uarith (tlie 



38 MEMOIR. 

northern and the southern) is as yet a terra incognita, 
where tlie map-maker lias not even ventured upon the 
normal wady resembhng rather the veins in a laurel 
leaf than an intricate system of valleys draining an 
abrupt mountain slope.' 

We must, however, leave these official letters. They 
were all published as they were received, without alte- 
ration, in the pages of the Quarterly Statement of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. And it may not be without 
importance to record that the general interest aroused 
by these letters, the reports of M. Clermont Ganneau, 
and those of Lieutenant Conder is proved by the fact 
that while the number of the Society's Journal printed 
at the commencement of the Survey was only 2,000, tlie 
number required in 1874 to 1876 had risen to 5,000. 
So mucli for writing which was studiously quiet, for 
work which might be thought uninteresting to most, 
and for discoveries which were never once sensational. 
No Moabite Stone, no Deluge Tablet, has rewarded our 
officers in Western Palestine. Nor is it likely that one 
will. Ikit the Great Map and Memoirs will remain, 
and in the latter will be incorporated and preserved the 
best work of Tyrwhitt Drake. 

The piivate letters sent home by him during this 
period are full of life and hope. If he has doubts 
about the future, they are doubts of his own health, 
and arc characteiislically suppressed. Many of those 



MEMOIIi. 30 

written to his friends Captain and Mrs. Burton luive 
been placed in my hands. I should like to publish 
some of them, but they are too full of detiiils quite i)er- 
sonal. He keeps Mrs. Burton informed of the welfare 
of her favourite horses, of the death of a dog which had 
belonged to her ; reminds her of scenes which he had 
visited last with her and Captain Burton ; is anxious t() 
learn how her book ('Inner Life of ISyria') is getting 
on ; talks of a short journey he proposes to make in 
Morocco, by a route well known to Europeans ; speaks 
of his own liability to illness as a thing of light import- 
ance ; and so on — the kind of letter which is but the 
continuance of confidential talk among friends who 
know and trust each other. To read such letters is to 
feel hke listening at a keyhole. 

Among the papers which follow will be found two 
fragments which I have called ' Notes for Travellers in 
Palestine ' and ' Notes on the History of Jerusalem.' 
They form the only portion written of a projected 
magnum opus in which he proposed to treat of Tales- 
tine and the Holy Lands generally, not as the writer of 
a guide book, nor as an officer of a scientific expedi- 
tion, nor as a naturalist. His idea was to produce 
a book which should form a pleasant and instructive 
travelling companion, a trustworthy book of reference, 
or a book which might be read for its own sake. Such 
a book could only be written by a man who has hved 



40 MEMOIR. 

long in the country, and who knows it as none but one 
of the officers of the Survey Expedition could possibly 
know it. But it remains to be written. 

Tliere is little more to be said. It cannot be 
doubted that throughout the Expedition he suflered 
much in health. A man less enthusiastic would have 
quitted Palestine, and so perhaps escaped the sad fate 
which awaited him there. An attack of dysentery 
which seized him at the very beginning of his Eastern 
work, and prevented him from joining the Sinai Survey, 
might have been taken as an omen. 

The journey with Professor Palmer was long and 
fatiguing, but he seemed to have felt no ill effects from 
it. Then came the harassing and difficult position after 
Captain Stewart's departure, when the whole responsi- 
bility of the new Survey fell upon him, and a failure at 
the beginning might have injured the progress of tlie 
work permanently. A short run down to Egypt was 
ordered by Dr. Chaplin, and set him up again. In 
1873 he came to England for a brief visit in the sum- 
mer and returned in September. I leave his friend 
and companion Lieutenant Conder to tell the rest of 
the sad story in his own words : — 

'On his return in October we all thouglit him 
looking stronger and better. Then came tlie most 
serious check our v/ork ever sustained, of which little is 
known to others than members of tlie party. In No- 



MEMOIR. 41 

vember tlie terrible Jericho fever broke out in our 
camp at 'Ain el Sultan. In two or tliree days no fewer 
than ten members of the party, including Drake, were 
struck down, and the anxiety of those who escaped was, 
as may be imagined, very great. A full day's journey 
(and it was by special Providence that we were not 
more) from a doctor, or from any source of supply, in 
a malarious climate, a desert, and surrounded by wild 
and hostile tribes, with most of the servants incapable, 
and the rest only kept from deserting us by the cer- 
tainty of being shot down, the anxiety of the position 
w^as as trying as can well be imagined. The un- 
exampled kindness of Dr. Chaplin and the Rev. Mr. 
Neil, under the circumstances, is an honour to Eng- 
land. Though suffering himself, and quite unfit to 
be out of bed, the doctor mounted his horse, and, 
accompanied by Mr. Neil, set out to come down to 
us at Jeri(3ho, and met us bringing up Mr. Drake in 
the litter. The hotel-keeper, Mr. Hornstein, at tlie 
risk of losing every one of his guests, took him in, and 
spared no pains to make him comfortable. 

' The English hospital was a refuge for our poor 
servants. The care and skill of Dr. Chaplin saved 
Drake's life, and probably that of others. His recovery 
was rapid, and his state of health seemed more satis- 
factory than it had been for a long time, but he was, I 
think, quite unaware of the extreme danger lie had 



42 MEMOIE. 

gone through. I found six months later that lie had 
never known how Dr. Chaplin, suffering himself most 
cruelly, had watched with me through a whole night 
of delirium, hardly expecting that he would live till 
morning. We both felt at the time that he oufrht on 
his recovery to leave the country, and I sliall always 
regret that I did not represent this more strongly to 
the Committee ; but this recovery was so rapid, and 
apparently so satisfactory, that it justified us in hoping 
he might be able to continue the work. 

* I have enlarged on these circumstances, thinking 
it might be some consolation to his friends to know 
that all care was taken of him in his first illness, whence 
they may judge that he was equally well cared for and 
attended during his last. 

'The survey of the Jordan valley was resumed. 
The exposure and hardship were greater than anything 
we had before endured. For ten days we drank 
brackish water, and for nearly all the time we were 
subject to alternations of extreme heat and cold, snow, 
rain, and unusual atmospheric pressure. The whole 
party was much exhausted, although consisting of 
men beyond tlie average in strength and power of 
endurance. It was true that Drake was for more 
cautious and saving of his strength than formerly, but 
he was unal)lc to escape the effects of rain and malaria. 

' On leaving the countiy I had felt some appre- 



MEMOIR 43 

hensions of the return of the fever m summer, and Imd 
written to his friends at Damascus, where I expected 
him to be, warning them not to allow him to jouriiry 
alone in June — a time when he usually suffered from 
low fever. When the news arrived that he liad been 
seized, I could not but feel thankful that he was still 
in Jerusalem, knowing that the medical care he would 
get there was far superior to any in other parts of 
Palestine. In the face of such complications, ln)w- 
ever, as followed rapidly, no medical skill could be 
of use. 

' Of Drake's personal character it will hardly 
become a younger man to speak. I always felt the 
comfort of his experience and his just and honourable 
dealing. His fitness for the work was in some respects 
peculiar, and he may be best judged by the fact, that 
whilst travelling in company of men of veiy various 
disposition and ability, he never complicated the dif- 
ficulties of work by personal quarrels, and was well 
spoken of by all. His excellent colloquial knowledge 
of Arabic, no less than his fine figure and skill in all 
exercises, made him unusually respected by the Arabs 
and native authorities. His justice, integrity, and firm- 
ness were qualities invaluable in the East, and his 
thorough good-nature enabled us for two long years 
of trying work, in a delicate relative position, to live 



44 MEMOIR. 

together, almost unseparated, without so much as a 
single unkind word passing between us.' 

He died June 23, 1874. 

The last words in Lieutenant Conder's letter are, 
as I said before, the burden in the regrets of all who 
knew him. Drake was a man from whose lips no 
single unkind word ever passed. No wonder that he 
was a man of many friends. 

Dr. Benson reads in this story of a broken and un- 
finished life the great lesson that he treated his natural 
disadvantages as if they were actual calls to diversified 
pursuits, actual qualifications for more work which lay 
ahead of him though he knew not where. That is, no 
doubt, most true. But the life of such a man contains 
many lessons. The one we select for our own reading 
depends upon ourselves ; perhaps even upon our moods. 
Others, who knew Tyrwhitt Drake, might like better 
to think of him as a man who from his boyhood 
upwards was content, first, to wait patiently till he 
had got a firm sense of his duty, and then to walk 
steadily along tlie patli, taking in patience, and as all 
in the day's work, whatever happened on the way. 

W. B. 



MEMOIB. jr, 



NOTE TO MEMOIR. 

The following touching tribute is tliat from Mi\s. 
Burton, referred to in page 24 : — 

' We sat in the English burial-gTound on Mount 
Sion this afternoon, talking, and picking a (lower liere 
and there. How httle any of us thought that six months 
hence we should have left S}Tia, and that three yt-ars 
later our dear friend and travelling companion, Tyrwhitt 
Drake, would lie on this very spot. A young man, 
and full of promise for a brilliant Eastern and scien- 
tific career, his personal appearance was tall, powerful, 
fair, but manly, distinguished for athletic and llcUl 
sports, for riding, walking, swimming, and shooting. 
His intellectual qualities, with a mind so stocked with 
all kinds of information, made me wonder how at 
twenty-four years of age he could know so much. 
His mastery of languages — Arabic and others— his 
wonderful eye for groimd, and knowledge of topo- 
graphy, made him a most agreeable, and eventually 
an indispensable, companion in our excursions. He 
was an excellent draughtsman, and he sketched admi- 
rably, as these pages show. In character and dis- 
position he was a thorough Englishman, the very soul 
of honour ; reserved and silent in manner, as warm of 



46 MEMOIR. 

heart, he observed much and thought more, and had 
an innate knowledge of the world. He got on well 
with everyone ; he won all hearts, and was equally- 
respected by Europeans and natives. He made very 
few intimates, but he was a friend to the back-bone. 
He had that dogged determination which is quite 
English ; once a resolve was made he never turned 
back, and that tells with Syrians. He lived with us 
and travelled with us ; Captain Burton and I loved 
him like a younger brother : he repaid us in kind. We 
thought his health required care for a year or two, 
and as long as he was with us we looked after liim ; 
he often told us that he was growing out of all deli- 
cacy. He felt our going as a boy would feel tlie 
breaking up of a happy home, whether it was in Da- 
mascus or under canvas. He visited us in Trieste, 
en route for England, in the summer of 1873. We 
thouglit liis health much gone off, nnd we begged of 
him to come and stay with us whenever he wanted 
change and his family could spare liim. In March 
1874 he sent us a sketch of his camp in the Jordan 
valley, where we had formerly encamped together. 
Some weeks of rain and mud brought on the dreadful 
Jericho fever, from wliich we all hoped and believed 
he had recovered, and we wrote and renewed our 
invitation. He replied tluit Lieutenant Condcr was 
<r()iii(f to Enf!;land, and tluit lie could not leave the post 



MEMOIR. 47 

he was in charge of — the post date was Jenisnlem, M:iy 
8, 1874. On May 14, 1874, my husband was struck 
down by a sudden pain, which a few liours determined 
to be of a serious character. lie was seventy-eiglit 
days and nights in bed, and had two painful operations 
performed ; the last, under chloroform, was on June 
23. That very morning our poor friend breathed liis 
last in Jerusalem, in spite of every care on the part of 
Dr. Chaplin, the excellent physician, who had devoted 
himself to his case. A few days later, when the letters 
arrived, seeing " Palestine Exploration Fund " on the 
seal, I thought that perhaps our kind friend, Mr. 
Walter Besant, had announced the discovery of some 
new stone or inscription that would annise my hus- 
band. I handed him the letter, not tliinking of 
" Charlie," as we called him, and supposing him to be 
recovered and well. By that time we had ]ioj)ed he 
had gone to Bludan, our old summer quarter, for a 
holiday. My husband dropped the letter, and fell 
back quite pale — his wound had burst out afresli. T 
picked up the letter and saw the sad truth. Cai)tain 
Burton was much retarded by this blow. With all my 
care to give him only pleasant news, I had Jianded him 
the worst letter I could possibly have done. It ap- 
peared that fever had re-attacked our poor friend, as 
it does sometimes, when he was jiacking up en route to 
the Anti-Libanus, where, could he have reached it, lie 



48 MEMOIR. 

'would have got well, for it always agreed with him. 
But God in his mercy knew what was best for him, 
and during the seven hours that he knew that deatli 
was at hand he continually said, " Tell my mother 
that I die in the love of Jesus." He was ill forty days, 
and during that time, when the delirium of fever was 
upon him, he constantly cried out in Arabic to Ilabib, 
the youth whom my husband made over to him when 
he left, " Habib, pitch our tents on Mount Sion. Here 
is such a beautiful place," It was the spot where he 
was afterwards buried. A mother has lost the flower 
of her flock, and is bowed down with sorrow; we, and 
many others, have lost a friend whom we can never 
replace ; the Palestine Exploration has lost its corner- 
stone, and England has lost one of those youths of 
promise, every one of whom contributes to build lier 
fair fame and to guard her honour. K.I.P.' 

And I cannot refi'ain from adding the accompany- 
ing note given to me by my friend Mr. H. W. Harper, 
the artist : — 

'My knowledge of Drake commenced in 1872, 
when from Egypt I went to Jerusalem, and found that 
Mr. Neil, the English clergyman, was an old friend of 
mine, and he introduced me to Drake. He had great 
love for art, and we became very intimate, and were so 
all the time I was in Jerusalem, always dining together, 
and often spending days together. After dinner, until 



MEMOIR. 4Q 

quite late, Ave used to sit either in his or my bedroom 
and discuss the Holy Land. His was a nature such 
as one rarely meets with. Thougli reticent, he hat! 
the power of attracting you to him. One incident 
is recalled to my mind. One day, when at tiible- 

d'hote dinner in the hotel, we sitting together as we 

always did — and as usual talking earnestly of our 
work, I of my drawings, he of his plans, an old 
French gentleman sat opposite, and was evidently lis- 
tening to us. After some time he said, " I know Eng- 
lish, and am so much interested in your conversation, 
as I love the Holy Land." When we rose to depart, 
he came up to Drake and asked to shake hands with 
him, and said, " You are an honour to your country." 
The tears flowed from his eyes as he continued : — 
" When' I think of the young men of my country, and 
what their conversations are, my heart is broken ; but 
you noble English gentlemen seem each so earnest, so 
full of high aims and hard manly work, thnt T thanked 
God to see it. God bless you both ! " he said in a most 
impressive way. I well remember the modest manner 
of Drake. He was much touched by it, and spoke to me 
about it, and said such things cheered him. He seemed 
to have a foreboding that his would not be a long Hfe, 
and he therefore was always at work; and he said, 
too, he knew the country would kill liim if he stayed 
there much longer, and so he wanted to get lii^ work 

E 



60 MEMOIR. 

done. We used to go to Shapira together and draw 
the so-called Moabitic pottery, and to the excavations 
of the Knights of St. John. Again, he would tell me 
of the wonders of the Haram, and we planned to go 
there together, I to paint and he to explore. I parted 
from him about 3.30 in the evening — I mean the 
morning — I left. Some things I know of him too 
sacred to speak of He left an impression on me 
which will never be effaced — a grand, noble English 
gentleman.' 



Note. — In the following pages the Arabic words have been left 
according to Drake's own method of spelling, which was not that 
adopted by the Committee of the Palestine Fund. The differences 
are not great, however. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 



MODERN JERUSALEM : ITS POPULATION, RELIGIOUS SECTS, AND SOCIAL 
COMMUNITIES : ITS SCHOOLS, CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, AND TRADE. 
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE : ITS TRADITIONS, CERE- 
MONIES, AND WORSHIPPERS. THE SPECTACLE OP THE HOLY EIRE. 

The population of Jerusalem, as of all cilit's in the 
East, where a census is unknown, must always be 
more or less a matter of conjecture. Even the li>t 
of men liable to military service is not a trustworlliy 
source of information, as the number stated is always 
too small, some men finding it wortli their while t<> 
give the returning officer a douceur to omit their 
names from his books. Dr. Eobinson, in his ' Biblic^il 
Eesearches ' (vol. ii. }). 85, ed. 1841), makes the total 
population 11,500 ; but in a note he states that the 
resident American missionaries, from whom his in- 
formation was derived, were afterwards inclined to 
make it mount to nearly 17,000. At present the 
population seems to be divided thus : — Christians 
5,300, Moslems 5,000, Jews— Sephardim 4,G00. Ash- 

E 2 



52 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

kenazira 0,000 = 20,900. According to tlie authority 
of the Franciscan Pere Lievin, the number of inha- 
bitants is thus distributed : — Jews 8,000, Moslems 
7,505, Latins 1,500 ; Greeks— Orthodox 2,800, Ca- 
tholic 30 ; Armenians — Orthodox 510, Catholic 10 ; 
Copts 130, Protestants 300, Abyssinians 75, Syrians 
12—5,373; 20,938. 

In this list the number of Moslems seems rated 
too high, but probably that of the Christians is very 
correct, while the Jews are placed at much too low a 
figure. The number of Christians is much increased 
at Easter by the influx of pilgrims, who sometimes 
amount to 5,000. The Moslems are at the same time 
reinforced by their pilgrims to the so-called tomb of 
Moses, near the north-west corner of the Dead Sea. 
This pilgrimage seems to have been instituted Avith 
the political object of counterbalancing the annual 
flood of Christian pilgrims by an equally large one of 
Mohammedans. The number of Eussian devotees has 
very largely increased within the last few years, and 
tliere is usually a floating population of from 100 to 
200 in the Hospice. 

The confusion of tongues at Jerusalem is suffi- 
ciently striking, but the distinctions of race and creed 
are even more remarkable. The hostility shown by 
the Christian sects towards one another is much more 
bitter tlian that felt aiiainst the Moslems. At Jeru- 



MODERN JERUSALEM. M 

salem these latter are very toleraut of Chnstians, having 
learnt their commercial value, and seeing the material 
benefits that accrue from them. The fanaticism of the 
Moslem against the Nazareue in other towns ami vil- 
lages, where the population is mixed, is strong in 
proportion to the power of the Christians, and is often 
fostered by the interference of clerical or consular 
authority. Jealousy then stirs up the Mohammedans, 
representatives of the national religion, who have no 
one to protect them against the acts of their own Go- 
vernment, or in any way to encourage them, and 
hatred against tlieu^ more fortunate fellow-subjects is 
engendered, which sooner or later ends in bloodsiied 
and violence. The Jews are treated even more tole- 
rantly than the Christians, as they always humble 
themselves before the followers of the rro[)het, and 
never act with ihe arrogance and overbearing pride so 
characteristic of the Syrian Christian when he feels 
himself stit^ng and secure. 

The number of Jews is increasing at Jerusalem at 
the rate of at least from 1,200 to 1,500 per aninini. 
The Jewish quarter is consequently too small for them, 
and they are not only spread all over the town, but 
are building large numbers of houses outside the walls. 
Where four years ago there were not more than twenty 
houses there are now over 130 finished, and others 
bmldiug. The Moslem quarter, Bab Ilatta, and the 



54 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

part near tlie Bab el 'Amiid, are now inliabited by 
many Jews, though only four or five years ago not 
one was to be found there. Some of these Jews even 
share houses with Mohammedans. If the rate of immi- 
gration continues to be as large as it has been during 
the last two years, Jerusalem will soon be almost 
wholly in the hands of the Jews, both commercially 
and territorially, for even now they have the greater 
part of the trade, and are buying up land wherever 
they can find it for sale. 

The different races and creeds at Jerusalem may , 
be subdivided as follows : — (1) *Abyssinians ; — (2) Ar- 
menians : (a) *Orthodox, (h) Cathohc; — (3) *Copts ; — 
(4) Greeks : (a) Orthodox, {b) Catholic ; — (5) Jews : 
{a) Ashkenazim, {h) Sephardim, (c) Karaite ; — (6) 
Latin or Eoman Catholics ; — (7) Maronites ; — (8) Mos- 
lems : (i.) Sunni — {a) Shafii, (h) Ilenefi, (r) Ilambeh, 
{d) Maleki : (ii.) 5AmV— Metawili, &c. ;— (9) Trotcs- 
tants : {a) Church of England, (h) Lutheran ; — (10) 
Syrians : (a) *Jacobite, {h) Catholic.^ 

1. The Abyssinians have a small monastery, if the 
fever-stricken dens in which they live over the Chapel 
of Helena, east of the Holy Sepulchre, can be so called. 

* Tbooe marked witli an asterisk (*) are Monophvpites, or, as they 
are sometimes called, Eutychians or Anti-Ohalcedonians, from tlie fact of 
their luildin^' to the heresy of luityches, who opposed the doctrine pro- 
mulgated at the Council of Clialcedon (a.d. 451), that the nature of Jesus 
Christ was both human and divine. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 66 

They formerly possessed a considerable extent of build- 
ing here, but the Copts, by a few backshises to local 
authorities, have been able to dispossess them of nearly 
all. Their land was sold to tlie Aruienians fjr a per- 
petual dole of soup. Here a few monks and nuns live, 
always ready to give such shelter as they are able to 
their fellow-countrymen who come as pilgrims. Many 
of the Abyssinians are employed as domestic servants, 
and if their love of dress and fmery, which equals that 
of the true Negro, do not ruin them, often turn out 
handy and trustworthy. 

2. The Armenians are called by themselves Ortlio- 
dox, and by those who disagree with them Schismatic, 
as is the case with the Orthodox or Chalcedonian 
Greeks. They have married clergy as well as monks. 
A bishop or an archbishop must liave been married, or 
he is not eligible for the office. This sect lias the 
largest monastery and hospice in Jerusalem. The latter 
is capable of receiving more than L^OOO pilgrims; a 
printing press is attached to the establishment, and 
turns out books in French and Armenian iu veiy fair 
style. One of the monks takes photographs, an accom- 
plishment in which the patriarch himself is not un- 
skilled. There is a seminary, too, where a liberal 
education is given to young men entermg the church. 
The community of native Armenians numbers about 
150 souls. Among these are skilful workmen who 



66 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

follow the trades of masons, painters, carpenters, &c. 
This monastery formerly belonged to the Georgians, 
who founded it in the eleventh century, but in the 
fifteenth century they became too poor to maintain it, 
and sold it to the Armenians, retaining the power of 
buying it back again when they had the means. This 
has given the Greek Chiu"ch, which is rich and ambi- 
tious, what they consider to be a claim on the building. 
The Armenians, however, being almost their equals in 
wealth, and their superiors in intellect and education, 
will not easily be deprived of their property. 

The Cluirch of St. James contains his chair, and the 
sepulchre of his head. The building is large and gor- 
geously decorated; most of the pictiu:es are more 
curious than beautiful, but some of the inlaid work on 
the doors and panels is very handsome. The robes 
and vestments worn by the clergy on high festivals are 
most magnificent; many of them are curiously em- 
broidered, others are stiff with gold brocade, Avhile 
most of the iieadgear is thickly crusted Avith pearls, 
and in some cases with precious stones. 

The Latins are permitted to say mass in this church 
on two or three occasions yearly. The Melchite, 
United, or Catholic Armenians, who acknowledge the 
supremacy of tlic Pope, are few in number at Jeru- 
salem, and liave only a small convent near the Austrian 
Hospice peculiar to themselves. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 67 

3. The Copts are under a bishop, and have two 
monasteries : one before mentioned, as being in great 
part filched from the Abyssinians, at tlie east end of 
the Church of the Holy Sepidchre, and the otlicr to tlie 
north-west of the Pool of Ilezekiah, rebuilt about 
thirty-five years ago. They possess a small oratory or 
chapel, just large enough to hold an altar, tacked on 
to the west end of tlie Holy Sepulchre itself. These 
convents, with a certain number of mendicant fomihes 
attached to and dependent on them, are maintained by 
alms from Egypt, where their co-religionists are usually 
wealthy, having the monopoly of Government clerk- 
ships, tax-collectorships, and finance agencies, jis well 
as the trade of jewellers, silversmiths, and goldsmiths. 

4. The Greeks styled Orthodox are the most 
powerful body in Jerusalem, both on account of their 
wealth and their numbers. The monks are chiefly 
Greeks, Eoumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, and Walla- 
chians. The Greek-speaking population are chiefly 
keepers of drinking-bars, eating-houses, and a few 
stores. The native part of the sect, wliidi is by far 
tlie most numerous, is only called Greek from its ad- 
herence to the doctrines of the Greek Churcli. Its 
priests in the country villages are simply fellahin, and 
the services are conducted in Arabic. The monks and 
upper clergy are generally Greeks, and seldom are 
able to speak intelligible Arabic. The clergy are 



68 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

allowed to marry before their consecration as priests, 
but in case of their wife's death they cannot marry 
again. These men cannot either aspire to the rank of 
archimandrite, bishop, or patriarch. Tlie sacrament 
of Holy Communion- is administered in the two forms 
of bread and wine. The convents belonging to this 
sect in Jerusalem are : (1) that of Constantine near 
the Holy Sepulchre ; (2) of Demetrius ; (3) Georgios ; 
(4) Nicolas ; (5) Johannes; (6) Michael; (7) Georgios 
(in the Jewish quarter), which are inhabited by monks. 
Those for nuns are of Theodorus, two dedicated to 
He-Panagia of Basil, of Kathcrine and of Euthyonius. 
Outside of Jerusalem are the (1) Dayr el Musallabeh 
(Convent of the Cross), which formerly belonged to 
the Georgians; (2) Mar Elias ; (3) Bethlehem; (4) 
Mar Saba ; (5) Dayr el Khadhr (of St. George), near 
the Pools of Solomon. The schools are : (1) that at 
the Convent of tlie Cross, wliere there are fifty boys 
and six teachers ; (2) in Jerusalem — sixty boys and 
three teachers ; (3) school for girls, thirty pupils and 
one mistress. There is also a hospital, where medi- 
cines are given away gratis. 

In tlie Russian Hospice there is an arcliimandrite, 
wlio receives 3,500 roubles per annum from the Rus- 
sian Government; two priests, receiving each 1,500 
roubles; and one deacon, with a saLuy of 1,300 rou- 
bles. This establishment is appointed by the Holy 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 



W.) 



Synod of Eussia, -with the consent of the Greek Tu- 
triarch of Jerusalem. 

The higher clergy consists of the Patriarcli, of tlie 
Bishops of (1) Lydd, (2) Nazareth, (3) Akka, (4) Kerak, 
(5) Ghazzeh (Gaza), (6) Nablus, (7) El Salt, (8) Sebds- 
tieh, (9) Tabor, and (10) Bethlehem. These digni- 
taries, together with two archimandrites, the first secre- 
tary of the convent, the superior of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and the first dragoman of the convent, form the council. 
By this body the Patriarchate and Bishoprics are filled 
up when vacant. The nominal consent of the diocese 
is also asked in the case of bishops. The bishops 1, 5, 
6, 7, and 8 live at Jerusalem. The see of Akka has 
lately been added to that of Nazareth. 

The late Patriarch Cyrillos was deposed in tlie end 
of 1872 by the Greek clergy for his supposed Russian 
proclivities in refusing to sign the decree against tlic 
recalcitrant Bulgarians. This act of the clergy in- 
furiated the native members of the sect, wlio would 
have proceeded to extreme violence had not tlic 
Turkish Government interfered and restored order, 
by momentarily excluding the fellahi from the city 
and establishing strong patrols. 

5. The Jews. Ashkenazim: so called from Ash- 
kenaz, son of Gomer (Gen. x. 3), who seems to have 
settled towards Armenia and Eussia (Jer. li. 27). This 
division, which comprises the German, Pohsh, and part 



I 



60 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

of the Eussian Jews, speak generally a kind of bastard 
German mixed up with Hebrew and other foreign 
words. Their dress is a long robe like a dressing- 
gown, and on their heads they wear low-crowned 
felt and beaver hats ; a lank love-lock hanging down 
either cheek, and the eccentrically clipped fur cap 
which they wear on feast days, do not render their 
personal appearance prepossessing ; in fact they more 
resemble rag dolls or scarecrows tlian living human 
beings. 

Many of these Jews are petty traders and crafts- 
men. They are mainly supported by the hallukah or 
alms which is collected in Eiu-ope by appointed emis- 
saries. Many Jews, who have neither time nor in- 
clination to come to Jerusalem themselves, will pay 
considerable sums for prayers to be offered in their 
behalf by their co-religionists living in the Holy City. 
This distribution of alms, which is shared by all alike, 
brings many idle and worthless persons to partake of 
it ; early and improvident marriages are fostered, every 
child being a source of income through his share in 
the hallukah. Much misery and vice are engendered 
by this indiscriminate bounty, which is considerably 
sifted by passing through the hands of the rabbis, who 
are responsible to no one for the money they receive. 
These rabbis live at their ease, for the system of ter- 
rorism, both spiritual and physical, which they exert 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 61 

over their congregations renders theni unassailable. 
The almshouses built under the trusteeship of Sir Moses 
Montefiore are lived in by the friends of rabbis and 
those who pay court to tlieni, not by the destitute for 
whom they were intended. On tlie occasion of a vi>it 
paid by that venerable philanthropist to Jerusalem, a 
collection of the poorest and most miserable of the 
community was installed in them, and upon his de- 
parture as summarily ejected. Knowing that their 
rabbis can excommunicate and — what is even more to 
the purpose — starve them, not a few dare object to all 
this system of hypocrisy, peculation, vice, and misery.* 
Many of these Jews have a British protection 
granted them, as, if they are Kussian subjects, and 
neglect to revisit that country biennially to renew their 
passports, their government discards them. The result 
of an English passport cannot be regarded as satis- 
factory in most cases. Belying on being foreign pro- 
teges, they often lend themselves to usury and other 
transactions of a doubtful or even openly dishonour- 
able character. A determination to protect the whole 
community from rehgious persecution, allowing the 
Sultan to treat their commercial affairs on the same 
footincT as those of the rest of his subjects, would be 
much more just and sensible. 

* I must here remark that I have received all the atovo account from 
the mouths of Jews. 



62 MODEliX JERT'SALEM. 

The Ashkenazim in tliis city are divided into 
religious sects and social communities. The sects are 
the Parushim, Varshi, Chasidim, and Chabad. The 
Parushim, or Pharisees, have their liturgy according 
to the Talmud, but do not believe in the sense attached 
to the various rites by cabalistic teachers ; neither do 
they believe in the so-called gute yeden. They consider 
the diligent study of the Talmud an essential for every 
religious Jew. They strictly observe the appointed 
times for prayer, but do not consider it necessary to 
dip the body in water before praying. They do not 
make use of the second pair of phylacteries prescribed 
by Eabano Tarn. They do not hold it unlawful to 
slaughter animals for food with a knife which is not 
very sharp, provided the same has no notch ui its edge. 
They regard a Passover cake as lawful, even though it 
be made of any kind of Avheat or flour. Most of 
their laws are decided by the commentary of the late 
Gaiin of Wilna. 

The Chasidim are very fanatic and for the most 
part unlearned. Their liturgy is according to Mai- 
monides (Rabbi Musa Ben Maimon), and they interpret 
it in the cabalistic sense. They pray whenever they 
feel moved to do so, no matter whether the prescribed 
time for prayer has passed or not. They believe in 
certain Sadikim^ or righteous men, called gute yeden 
(good Jews), and regard them with superstitious venera- 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 63 

tion, almost indeed worshipping tlicm, attributiiifr to 
them supernatural powers, and attaching to their most 
trivial and insignificant actions some spiritual and 
symbolic meaning. Whilst professing to keep strictly 
to the Talmud, they are in reality guided entirely by 
the teaching of the particular guter yed whom tliey 
follow. The Chasidim are particular in the observance 
of Jewish customs, especially such as relate to the 
Sabbath. They shake themselves violently during 
prayers and cry aloud. At other times they are mucli 
addicted to dancing, singing, and deep drinking. 

They dip themselves in water before prayers, and 
make use of the second pair of phylacteries. They 
deem it unlawful to slaughter animals with a knife 
which is not very sharp, or to use any but a particular 
kind of wheat for the Passover cakes. ^luch import- 
ance is attached by this sect to works of charity. 

The Chabad have the liturgy as arranged by their 
old Eabbi Zalmiu, wlio lived at Libbawitz in Russia. 
They resemble the Chasidim, but are usually more 
learned and pious, and have their own g'tite yedeii. 
They are given to hospitality and chanty, and attach 
much importance to visiting the sick. They dip them- 
selves before prayers, read and study much, and meet 
together on Sabbath evenings to hear tlie law ex- 
pounded by their principal rabbi. They keep the 19th 
day of the month Chisleu as a feast, that being tlic 



64 MODJJJiX JEliUSALEM. 

anniversary of the liberation from prison of Eabbi 
Salmon, founder of the sect. 

The Aslikenazim are divided into communities ac- 
cording to the town or district in Europe from which 
they came, and each community is presided over by a 
rabbi, or by a layman of good standing and respect- 
ability. The communities of Parushim are the Wilna, 
Grainer, Grodna, Minsk Nassin, Warsaw, ZouHk, and 
German. Those of the Chasidim are the Volhyna, the 
Hungaro- Austrian, and the Galitzian. The Chabad are 
a community by themselves. 

In all matters which come before the Turkish 
tribunals the Ashkenazim are obliged to place them- 
selves in the hands of the Sephardite Khakham-Bashi, 
who is the only representative of the Jews recognised 
by the government. The rabbis hear and decide all 
cases which relate only to the internal affairs of the 
community. 

The Chabad take their name from the initial letters 
of the words nvi N^^ ^^,t:^^^, which express their 
great learning and intelhgence, but the Parushim, who 
hate them bitterly, say that their title is derived from 
nyi "hi "l^t2^, or ass without understanding. The 
Chasidim means tlie 'pious folk,' and they wear the 
love-locks much longer than the Parushim, but are 
outdone in the extravagance of these unseemly ap- 
pendages l)y thu Varshi. 



MODEItX JERVSALEM. iir, 

The Sephardim, when they have not a synagojjiic 
of their own at hand, will pray with the Cha.sidini, 
Varshi, or Chabad, but never with the Panishim. Up 
to the time of Ibrahim Pasha the Ashkenaz Jews 
numbered so few in Jerusalem that they often hud to 
invite some Sephardim to join them, in order to make 
up the requisite number of ten. Their oidy synag()<,'ii(' 
is now the lumber-room attached to the Sepliardi syna- 
gogue called Kiuiseh Stambuliyeh. 

The Jews of Jerusalem, who call themselves natives, 
and say that their ancestors have lived there since the 
Captivity, call themselves Morishcos; the word, how- 
ever, would seem to intimate that they are Maghrabr 
or Moorish Jews. The story is told how Constantinoj)le 
Jews have been frightened by one of these saying to 
him, 'Mind what you say to me, I'm a Morishco.' 
The murderers of the prophet Zachariah are called 
traditionally Morishcos, while the name as applietl to 
Jerusalem Jews is not generally known. 

The number of the Jews is obtained from the mo.>*t 
reliable sources, namely, from those on whom di-volvcs 
the payment of the alms. 

The Sephardim are the descendants of Jews expelled 
from Spain, the language of which country (hey still 
retain throughout the Levant and on tlie west coast of 
Africa; in the interior of Morocco and a few other 
places Arabic has become their language. Their dress 

F 



G6 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

is Oriental, and tliey still wear the black turban or- 
dained by the sumptuary laws of Hakem (about a.d. 
1000). In physical appearance they are far superior 
to the Ashkenaz, who are now outnumbering and 
gradually ousting them. Officially they retain their 
position : the Khakliam-bashi, or chief rabbi, is the 
only Jewish official recognised by the Turks : he is 
also represented in the Mejlis, or Town Council. Many 
of this sect are shopkeepers, trading chiefly in European 
hardware, cloths, cottons, &c. 

The Maghrabi, or Western Jews, chiefly from North 
Africa, though really belonging to the Sephardim, are 
in Jerusalem looked upon as a separate sect, and have 
their own chief rabbi. 

The Karaite are Puritans, rejecting all oral and 
traditional law, and holding only to the Scriptures 
themselves. This sect is found in large numbers in 
Eussia, also near Baghdad and in Arabia. They have 
but one synagogue, in a small cellar-like chamber 
which dates back, they say, for several centuries. One 
old MS. of the Pentateuch is the only object of interest 
in the place Till lately this sect only comprised seven 
families, or thirty-nine individuals, but in the beginning 
of 1872 it was reinforced by some forty persons from 
near Baghdad, who have since returned to their homes. 

6. The Latins. The Latins have for several cen- 
turies been under tlie immediate protection of the 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 07 

French Consulate in Jerusalem ; the Consul upjjcars 
officially at the principal religious ceremonies, such as 
those of Easter, Christmas, &c. The Patriarchate only 
dates from the year 1847, having been for some time 
in abeyance. 

Monsignor Valerga, the first Patriarch, du'd in the 
beginning of December, 1871, and is succeeded by 
Monsignor Bracco, who resides at the Convent of St. 
Sauvem-. This dignitary is the spiritual chief of all 
Palestine, but the actual direction of the vari(Mis 
convents is in the hands of the Pere Kene, Seraphin 
Milani di Carrara, Guardian of the Holy Laud, &c. 
The higher clergy are mostly Jesuits, while the monks 
are Franciscans — generally Spanish or Italian by birth. 
The cures in villages where missions have been esta- 
bhshed are Jesuits, and if not Frenchmen are usually 
conversant with that language. The churches in 
Jerusalem belonging to the Latins are — the parish 
church of St. Sauveur, the Church of the Flagellation, 
the Grotto of the Agony, and part of the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre. The Latin institutions within 
Jerusalem are : I. The Franciscan Convent of St. 
Sauveur, which contains about 100 monks. Some of 
these are always on duty in tiie convent attached to 
the Holy Sepulchre. A theological college is attached 
to the convent for members of the community, who 
are also instructed in various trades. II. The Patri- 

F 2 



68 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

archate, which is the residence of the Patriarch, one 
bishop, and six priests. III. The Convent of the 
Sisters of St. Joseph, which contains 16 nuns. IV. 
The Convent of tlie Sisters of Zion (Dames de Sion) 
contains 21, part of whom live at 'Ain Karem. V. The 
hospice called La Casa Nova. VI. The Austrian 
Hospice, which forms the residence of two Austrian 
priests and a consular chaplain. VII. The School for 
boys; and VIII. for girls, both supported by the 
Franciscans. In the former there are two teachers and 
about 1 50 pupils. This school is free for all nation- 
ahties. The latter is superintended by four Sisters of 
Zion, who act as teachers, receiving each a salary of 
20/. per annum. The number of pupils is about 180. 

IX. The Girls' School belonging to the Sisters of Zion, 
which contains 100 boarders and six day scholars. 

X. The Patriarch's Seminary contains some 25 students, 
who live at Bayt Jala in the summer, and at Jerusalem 
in the winter. XI. The Hospital supported by the 
Patriarch and attended to by the nuns. A lay doctor 
is here employed. XII. A small private hospital for 
monks in the Franciscan convent. XIII. A public 
dispensary in the same convent. To this two doctors 
are attached, one layman and one monk. In the same 
establishment is a jn'inting press, from which books 
arc; turned out in a very creditable style. 

At lictlilehem tliere is a convent of twenty-two 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 60 

Franciscan monks, and a liospicc for tlic use of tra- 
vellers. A small convent of Sisters of St. Josepli 
exists here, supported by tlie Patriarch. Tlie schools 
are : 1. For boys, in the Franciscan convent, and con- 
taining some 150 pupils. 2. For girls (about 140), at 
the expense of the Patriarch. 3. The orphana«'c of 
Don Beloni, in which about twenty inmates are taught 
various industries. There is also a dispensary belong- 
ing to the Franciscans, one of whom is a doctor. 

At Bayt Jala there is a convent connected witli the 
Seminary, and a school for both boys and girls. All 
of these are supported by the Patriarch. 

At 'Ain Karem there is a convent of twenty-four 
Franciscans. To this is attached a school, now con- 
taining seven students, for those who intend to enter 
the priesthood. Also one for boys and one for girls, 
in each of wliich there are about twenty pupils. The 
Sisters of Zion have a branch school here also, whither 
the elder girls are sent to finish tlieir education. 
Throughout Palestine there are schools attached to 
all the Latin rehgious houses. 

Missions have been established in several Christian 
villages, such as Bayt Salu'ir, Eam Allah, Bir Zayt, 
Teyyibeh, and Jifnah. A certain portion of the popu- 
lation — sometimes amounting to one-third — readily 
professes the Latin faith in such cases, being unable, 
through ignorance, to distinguish any real diflereucu in 



70 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

the doctrines from those of the Greek Church which 
they leave, and being impelled by worldly motives to 
place themselves under the protection of a European 
power. 

7. The Maronites belong to Mount Libanus. A 
few, however, may generally be seen in Jerusalem at 
Easter. They profess obedience to the Church of 
Eorae, which, better to retain a hold on them, has 
formally allowed the marriage of the clergy. The monks 
of course are celibates. Their Patriarch lives in the 
Libanus at Kanobin, a few hours distant from the Cedars. 

8. The Moslems. Most of the officials and mihtary 
are Turks, Kurds, and other foreigners ; the mass of 
the population is composed of natives of the place. 
A sprinkling of slaves, free negroes — who act as guar- 
dians of the Haram, and are also employed as watch- 
men, porters, &c., duties which they fulfil most faith- 
fully — Persians, Bokhariots, Egyptians, Indians, and 
Maghrabis or Western Africans, may always be found, 
especially after the return of the caravan from Mecca. 

The chief sects of Islam are the Sumii, or ortho- 
dox, who recognise as just the succession of Abu Bekr, 
'Omar, and 'Othman, while the Shiai look upon them 
as interlo])ers, who for many years withheld from 'Ali 
the Khalifate to which, they maintain, he had been 
appointed by the Prophet's own choice. The principal 
ISunni divisions, without reckoning the Derwishes, who 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 71 

number twelve regular, and several later and Kisser 
orders, are : (1) Malaki, (2) Sliafi'i, (3) Ilaiieli, (4) 
Hanbeli. The Sliiai are represented in Palestine by 
the MetawiH, and in North Syria by the Nusayri ; in 
Persia there are but few Sunnis. 

9. The Protestants are: (1) Church of England, 
(2) Lutheran, (3) Native congregation, (4) a school 
lately established by English Quakers. The English 
church was built by the ' London Society for promot- 
ing Christianity amongst the Jews.' The first mission 
was estabhshed in 1824, at Jerusalem. Li 1841 the 
Bishopric of the Anglican Church was set on foot by 
mutual agreement of the English and Prussian Govern- 
ments, to whom the nomination was alternately to fall. 
The right of veto is reserved to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury with respect to Prussian nominees. In tlie 
same year a converted Jew, Michael Solomon Alexan- 
der, was consecrated bishop. He died four years later, 
and was succeeded by the present Bishop, the Eight 
Eeverend Dr. Gobat, who had previously been for 
many years missionary in Abyssinia. 

There is an orphanage and school supported by the 
fund collected by the bishop, and under his direction. 
The work of the ' Church ]\Iissionary Society ' is under 
the direction of the Eev. F. Klein. A bookshop and 
small seminary are in connection with this Society. 
The institutions supported by the ' London Society for 



72 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

promoting Christianity amongst the Jews ' are : I. Tlie 
House of Industry, where converts are taught a trade to 
enable them to earn an honest Hving. 11. The Inquirers' 
Home, where a lodging is provided for those who choose 
to take advantage of the teaching of the Mission. HI. A 
boys' school is directed by the Eev. W. Bailey. IV. The 
Jewesses' Institution consists of a girls' school and a 
workroom, where employment in sewing is given to 
poor women, while at the same time religious instruc- 
tion is communicated to them. V. A bookshop for the 
sale of Bibles and other books. VI. A hospital for 
poor sick Jews, containing twenty-five beds, under the 
direction of T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D. 

The German Protestant Institutions are : I. The 
chapel lately fitted up as a temporary place of worship 
in the old Hospital of the Knights of St. John, recently 
presented by the Sultan to the Emperor of Germany. 
The German pastor performs a Lutheran service once 
a fortnight in the English church. II. The Hospital 
of the German Deaconesses, into which patients of 
any nation or creed are admitted. III. A free board- 
ing school for native girls belonging to the same com- 
munity. IV. The Oqihanage of the Crishchona 
brethren. V. The Asylum for Lepers. 

The Lutheran priest (now Herr Weser) is appointed 
by the Prussian Government, and is independent of 
the Bishop. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 78 

Tlie native congregatiou has for pastor the Kev. F. 
Klein. 

10. The Syrians. The Bishop and two or tlnve 
monks hve in the ' House or Convent of St. Mark,' m-ar 
the Armenian convent. Tliey speak Syriac, which i.s 
still spoken in Syria at the villages of M'aalulah, 
Bak-ha, Jubb el 'Adelin (vulgo Jubb'adin), and to a 
certain extent at 'Ain Tinyeh. Farther north it is 
spoken at 'Aintab. 

The S}Tian Church has died out at tlie three former 
places, but flourishes at Sadad. There is a convent, 
too, at Damascus, where there are also a few Melchite, 
United, or Cathohc Syrians, papng allegiance to the 
See of Eome, but except by visitors this sect is not 
represented at Jerusalem. 

Many costumes are to be seen in the streets of 
Jerusalem on ordinary occasions : the Bedawi is tlicrc 
with his striped abba, or coarse woollen cloak, which 
gives him a square look about the shoulders, which 
does not really belong to his spare small figure. Under 
his abba he wears a long cotton shirt girt in at the 
waist by a leathern belt, in which are generally stuck 
a pistol or two, a tobacco pouch, and a common clasp 
knife (without a spring) hung by a lanyard. The 
fellah, or ordinary peasant, dresses much like the 
Bedawi, but is of stouter, broader build; his beard 
and moustache are heavier, and his headdress, instead 



74 MODERN JEliUSALEM. 

of the kefiyeh, or liandkercliief folded into a triangle, 
and hanging over the back and shoulders and secured 
by an aggal or woollen cord bound round the brows, 
consists of a yellow and red kefiyeh worn turban- 
wise and padded inside to increase its bulk. The 
townspeople wear the coloured kiimbaz (gown) of 
cotton or silk, according to their means, and au outer 
juhheh of cloth, sometimes lined with fur, and either 
the simple tarhush (red cap) or with the white tur- 
ban wound round it. The Christians and Sephardin 
Jews wear dark turbans, or more commonly black 
handkerchiefs rolled round the tarbush. 

The Bedawin women may be easily known by 
their long dark-blue cotton robe and black kerchief 
tied over their head. The fellahin women wear a 
white or blue chemise coming down nearly to the 
ankle ; on their heads they wear a kind of cloth cap 
or bonnet, over which is thrown a cotton scarf. Wlien 
they can afford it the married women wear a kind of 
sash with frinjred ends hanging down the back from 
the head and reaching to below the waist. 

The Christian women of Bethlehem and the neigh- 
bourhood wear a much gayer dress. A blue skirt with 
red and yellow stripe is surmounted by a tight body 
cut square in front and having loose sleeves ; the basis 
of all i.s blue stuff, but it is ornamented with odd- 
shaped pieces of yellow, red, and green cloth. A stiffly 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 76 

padded saucepan- shaped cap is worn on tlie head, and 
a long white scarf is thrown over this and hangs nearly 
to the ground. Coins either of gold ov .silver arc worn 
on the cap and as necklaces. The tout ensemble of this 
costume is very picturesque. 

The women of all ranks resident in the town wear 
a white cotton izar (wrapper) which, with a thin 
coloured cotton kerchief over the face, serves to con- 
ceal the whole dress and figure. The Jewish women 
wear the same izai% but leave the face exposed. Some 
of the Ashkenaz women still retain a European dress 
and shawl. 

At the time of tlie Easter pilgrimage may be seen 
Eussians with long heavy boots, gi'eatcoats down to 
the ankle, and fur caps ; the women all in black, and 
with handkerchiefs tied tightly over their heads. Ar- 
menians of both sexes, with baggy trousers and a 
mountain of shawl round the waist, the men with 
sheepskin jackets and turbans, the women with shawN. 
The high rosy cheeks of these people tell of a bracing 
air in their mountain homes. Greek and European 
Turks strut about in long coats lined with wolf-skin 
turned over in a broad flap on the shoulders. ^Mixing 
with these may be seen Latin monks ; negi'ocs from 
the Siidan; Greek priests with brimless chimney-pot 
hats ; acolytes with flowing and frizzed-out hah* ; der- 
wishes with tall sugarloaf felt caps ; Kurdish soldiers : 



76 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

a half-naked shaykh or holy man with long unkempt 
hair, a spear in one hand and a tin pannikin for broken 
victuals in the other ; an American in suit of severe 
black from head to foot ; an Indian fakhir ; a British 
tourist with patent ventilating hat, tweed suit, and 
guide book ; and last, but not least, the ubiquitous 
Jew. Such is the motley crowd, without mentioning 
fellahin Turks, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, and 
dogs, through which the visitor to Jerusalem has to 
force his way. 

The trade of Jerusalem, considering the poverty 
and barbarism of the surrounding tribes, is not incon- 
siderable. The following table is drawn from the 
report of Mr. Consul Moore for 1871 : — 



Imports from England : — 

Cotton ...... 


£ 

. 10,000 


Woollens, hardware, colonials . 


. 6,500 


Imports from Austria and Germany : — 

Woollens, silks, hardware, glass, timber 


. 26,000 


Imports from Franco : — 




ColoniaLs, woollens, silks, hardware, wines and spirits 


. 18,000 


Imports from Russia : — 

Flour ...... 


. 3,500 


Total 
, ,.„>n ^„ „;..„ K„ 4.: 1^ £ T71 


. 72,000 
J. 1 i 



as well as rice by coasting vessels from Eg5^pt ; but 
this does not include wine, spirits, and preserved fish 
from Cyprus and (lie Greek islands ; nor the carpets, 
shawls, and simihu- goods brought by pilgrims, both 
Christian and Moslem. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 77 

The exports are chiefly ohve oil, grain, and .slmsini 
(sesame), which is taken to Marseilles and transmuted 
into olive oil! The cotton, which is short in tlu- 
staple and of poor quality, goes to the same market. 
Soap, too, is made and exported, but the chief trade is 
in rosaries, crucifixes, cameos, &c., worked in mother- 
of-pearl, olive-wood, and various seeds, wliich arc sold 
in immense quantities to the pilgrims. Tlu' men of 
Bethlehem have almost a monopoly of this trade, :ui<l 
have grown rich upon it ; also, if report be true, by 
coining beshliks (five-piastre pieces). It is commonly 
asserted that some years ago the Turkish GovL-rimu'iit 
issued one million of these pieces which are c-()|)j)er, 
silvered, and when new of the intrinsic value of 1 .|, 
piastres. Some years later they called them in ; a 
million and a half poured into the Treasury, whieh 
then refused to receive any more. Notwithstanding 
all this, they are at the present day one of the com- 
monest coins in the countr5\ 

The modern city is surrounded by a wall, all ol" 
whose gates are closed at sunset with the exception of 
the Jafia gate, which is now left always open. The 
gates till last year were also closed on Fridnys from 
noon till about 1.30 p.m. This is owing to an old 
tradition which prophesies the taking of the city by 
Christians, while the Moslems are at midd.iy jirayers 
on Friday. The same custom holds in Moorish 



78 MODERX JERUSALEM. 

cities, and the same reason is assigned for its obser- 
vance. 

Tlie Church of the Holy Sepulchre. — This site, about 
which controversy has run so high, will in all pro- 
bability never be settled to the satisfaction of all. The 
main point on which the evidence turns is wliether 
the present church is without or within the old second 
wall. The upholders of the latter theory base most of 
their arguments on tlie presumed run of the second 
wall, and if this could be proved, then the supporters 
of the Holy Sepulchre could no longer hold their 
position. As it is, we must wait till further discoveries 
are made, or content ourselves with theorising. 

The chain of evidence on the other side is this : — 
A tomb (the one called that of Joseph of Arimathrea) 
which from its construction seems incontestably Jewish, 
is found only a few feet distant from the so-called Holy 
Sepulchre itself. The pigeon-hole loculi are purely 
Semitic, are very rarely — one only instance has been 
found at Rome, which, however, proved to be Jewish — 
found out of Palestine proper, Phoenicia, and its colo- 
nies. The manner of dressing the stone is the same 
jis that seen in other Jewish tombs near Jerusalem. It 
is impossible, after careful examination, to believe that 
these excavations are anything but genuine Jewish 
tombs. Secondly, tradition, from a very early period, 
points to this as the site of the Holy Sepulchre, over 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 7i» 

which Hatlrian built a temple of Venus. This is told 
us by Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Jerome, nlio 
also inform us that this very temple was the means by 
which the old traditional site was preserved from ob- 
livion. With regard to another point, I IV'el tliat I 
cannot do better than quote from M. Eenaii ('Vic de 
Jesus,' p. 416), where he says, ' It would be curious if 
those who in the time of Constantine sought to fix tlie 
topography of the gospels had not been stopped (in 
choosing a tomb within the walls) by tlie objection 
arising from St, John xix. 20, and Hebrews xiii. 12. 
How, when free in their choice, should they have ex- 
posed themselves unconcernedly to such a serious dif- 
ficulty? . . . One is at times obliged to believe that 
their work was undertaken in a somewhat serious 
spirit. ... If they had only followed a mere fancy 
they would have placed Golgotha in a better situation, 
on the top of one of the mounds near Jerusalem, to 
follow up the Christian idea which from \( ry rarly 
times sought to localise the deatli of Christ on a 
mountain.' 

Though Titus destroyed the walls of Jerusalem, it 
is hard to believe that all traces of tlicm liad so utterly 
disappeared in the time of Constantine, tliat even the 
line they followed was unknown. If it were still 
known, those on whom the choice of a site devolved, 
even if unguided by tradition, would hardly have com- 



80 MODERN JEHUS ALEM. 

mitted siirli a palpable blunder as to place the tomb 
within what was known to be the ancient limits of the 
city. Knowing the extreme abhorrence of the Jews to 
anything within their city and near their houses which, 
like a tomb, would render them ceremonially unclean, 
it seems probable that if these tombs (now called after 
Joseph of Arimathasa) were made previous to the 
building of the second wall, they would, if possible, 
liave been left without the enceinte. If, on the con- 
trary, they date later than the wall, it seems most 
probable that they were made without the city. These 
facts, though perhaps not quite conclusive, show us — 

1. That an ancient Jewish tomb exists in the imme- 
diate vicinity of what is now called the Holy Sepulchre. 

2. That this tomb was possibly, if not probably, with- 
out the second wall. 3. That a very early tradition 
points to this place as the tomb of Christ. (See further 
De Vogiic, ' Le Temple de Jerusalem,' p. 115, seq.) 

The first church built over the Holy Sepulchre was 
tliat by Constantine, which was begiui under the direc- 
tion of Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, a.d. 326, and 
finished two years later. Of this building Eusebius 
(who was contemporary) has left a full account in his 
life of Constantine, Bk. iii., ch. xxxiv. In a.d. G14, 
Jerusalem was pillaged by Chosroes II., king of Persia, 
and the church was pulled down. The Christians, 
Imwever, began to rebuild tlieir sanctuaries imme- 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 81 

diately after the departure of the Persian hordes. This 
they were enabled to do probably by the secret assist- 
ance and influence of the wife of Chosroes, a Chiistiau, 
and sister to Maurice, Emperor of Constantinople. 

The rebuilding of Constantine's Basilica was under- 
taken by a monk named Modestus, at tliat tinu; cliirf 
of the convent of St. Theodosius, and afterwards Bishoj) 
of Jerusalem. He was unable to complete a work on 
the scale of that constructed by Constantiue, and \va.s 
obliged to content himself with erecting a church or 
chapel over each sacred spot. In this he was assisted 
by John Eleemon, Patriarch of Alexandria, and com- 
pleted his work in fifteen years. 

After the Mohammedan conquest the Christians 
received permission from Omar to retain their churches 
and freedom of worship. The liberal feeling of the 
great Khalif Harun el Eashid (end of eighth century), 
and his friendship for Charlemagne, procured tnm- 
quiUity for the Christians during his reign. The pro- 
tection afforded to all religious establishments of the 
Latin Church in Palestine by the French Government 
dates from this period. After the deatli of Ilnruu el 
Eashid, the Christians suffered from persecution, li 
Ave were to believe the old chroniclers, their churches 
were pillaged and ruined ; but these woeful tides 
must be accepted in a qualified sense, as we find the 
Patriarch Thomas requiring only fifteen trunks of cedar 

G 



82 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

and pine from Cyprus, during the reign of El Maimun, 
to restore the dome of the Holy Sepulchre. 

In the tenth century this church was twice set on 
fire by the Mohammedans. The Patriarch John 
perished in the second conflagration. By orders of 
Hakem bi-amr Illah, the mad Khahf of Egypt (a.d. 
996), the Church of the Sepulchre was again destroyed. 
The influence of his mother Miriam, who was sister of 
the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem, seems to 
have been beneficially exercised, for we find the 
Christians reconstructing their churches in the same 
year. Large numbers of pilgrims then flocked to the 
Holy Land, bringing money for rebuilding on the 
sacred site. These funds, however, proved insufficient, 
and only a partial restoration was completed. Some 
years later the Emperors Argyorius, Michael of Paph- 
lagonia, and Constantine Monomachus, entered into 
treaties with the Moslem power, and the Churcli of 
the Sepulchre was rebuilt by Greek architects in the 
year 1048. One hundred and fifty years later, Jerusa- 
lem WU.S taken by tlie Crusaders, and one of the first 
cares of Godfrey was to appoint twenty canons to the 
Holy Sepulchre, making them, at the same time, con- 
Hiderablc grants for their maintenance. A few years 
later, and all the holy places were placed beneath one 
buildiuLS as in tlu' time of Constantine. The canons 
above ineiitiomd were in 1244 superseded by the 



MODERS JEliJ'SALEM. %n 

relicijious body of Fratres Minores, or Francisrnns, who 
have ever since performed the rites of the church on 
this spot. In 1808 a fire broke out in the churcli, 
and burnt the dome over tlie Sepulclu'e wliich liad 
been made by the Franciscans in 1555, and destroyod 
the covering of the Sepulchre itself. The Greek Cluirch 
then, by enormous expenditure of money, ()l)taiiie<l 
possession of great part of the cliurcli, and repaired it. 
The dome again having fallen almost to ruin, was 
restored 1866-68 by MM. Ch. Mauss, M. K|)piiig(»r, 
and A. Salzmaun, under tlie direction of tlie French, 
Russian, and Turkish Governments. 

Before enumerating the various holy places shown 
with the church, it will be as well to point (»nt iIm* 
Via Dolorosa, which leads to, and culminates in, the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the last five Stations of 
the fourteen being within the building. 

Station 1 . The condemnation of Christ. — This Mai i< »:i 
is in the courtyard of the Turkish bnrracks, whicji lie 
at the north-west corner of the Ilaram area, on the 
])lace where the head of the Scala Sanctii formerly 
rested This Scala Sancta is now shown at Komc, 
whither it is said to have been transported by St. 
Helena. 

Station 2. Chrid laden with the Cros.s.— Y\\\ii is 
said to have taken place at the foot of the Scala Sancta, 
whc^e former position is now marked by a blocked up 

G 2 



84 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Saracenic arch in the wall of the barracks, opposite to, 
and a few yards east of, the gate of the Church of the 
Flagellation. 

Station 3. The first fall of Christ. — About 300 yards 
west of the last, at the comer of the street running to 
the Damascus Gate. The spot may be known by a 
broken column which lies on the left-hand side. 

Station 4. Meeting of Christ with the Blessed 
Virgin. — This Station is opposite a street (Derh el 
Serai) running east, and distant fifty yards south of 
No. 3. 

Station 5. Christ helped by Simon the Cyrenian. — 
Thirty yards from the last, and marked by an indented 
stone let into the wall of a house at the end of a street 
running westward. 

Station 6. House of Sta. Veronica., where Christ left 
a miraculous imprint of his face on a handkerchief 
given him by St. Veronica. This Station is 120 yards 
from the last, and is marked by a fragment of a column 
let into the pavement on the left-hand side. 

Station 7. The second fall of Christ. — Eight yards 
from No. 6, and at the end of the street. The house 
to the right at this point, lately the French consulate, 
is by popular legend said to be the house of the cobbler 
Alexander, better known as the Wandering Jew. 

Station 8. Christ addresses the women of Jerusa- 
lem. — Forty yards up the opposite street, a hole in a 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 86 

stone of the wall of the Greek convent of St. Ciira- 
lambos on the left hand marks this Station, 

The ancient road is here snpposed to l)e hlockL-d 
up, and, to reach the 9th Station the pilgrim must 
return, and, taking the first turning to the right, pro- 
ceed for 140 yards till he reaches a sloping road on 
the right leading into a cul-de-sac^ at the end of wliich 
are the Coptic and Abyssinian convents, and ])assing 
as he leaves the main street two cokmms which are 
with much show of reason supposed to be part of the 
Basilica of Constautine. Near the door of the Coptic 
convent is a column let into the wall on the riglit 
hand. This marks — 

Station 9. The third fall of Christ beneath the 
Cross. — We then come to the Cliurch of the Holy 
Sepulchre, to visit — 

Station 10. The place where Christ was stripped if 
his robes. — This Station is marked by a circular pattern 
of coloured marbles let into the pavement in the south 
part of the chapel of Calvary, and is four and a half 
yards from the top step of the staircase leading up into 
the chapel. 

Station 11. The place where Christ was nailed to 
the Cross. — The position of this point is marked by a 
square mosaic in the floor, two and a half yards to the 
east of the former, and in front of the altar of the 
Crucifixion. 



86 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Station 12. The Crucifixion. — This point belongs to 
the Greek Orthodox, and is marked by an opening in 
the rock in wliich the Cross was planted. 

Station 1 3. Where Christ was taken down from the 
Cross. — This place is between the altars of the setting 
uj) of the Cross and of the Crucifying, and is marked 
by a small altar dedicated to Stabat Mater. 

Station 14. The Burial of Christ. — This place, 
which has for ages been an object of veneration and 
cause of the utmost fanaticism, worshipped by some, 
and sneered at by others, is situated beneath the centre 
of the great dome. 

Having thus described the Via Dolorosa, before 
examining the various sites within the chiurch, let us 
take our stand in the courtyard in front of the south 
entrance, the only one now open. This courtyard is 
generally filled with Bethlehem peasantry, chietly old 
men, women, and girls, who gain a livelihood by sell- 
ing the multifarious wares of mother-of-pearl, the 
many-colourt'd cliaplets, the crosses and crucifixes of 
which every })ilgrim deems it necessary, or at least 
prudent, to lay in a stock sufficient to start a pedlar of 
moderate anihition. On certain days at Easter-tide 
these charms are ceremoniously blessed and sprinkled. 
They are tlicii warranted genuine, and widely sold 
throughout semi-civilised Europe. 

Tlie courtyard is, in part at all events, su])ported 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 87 

by a vault with a semicircular arched roof. The fact 
of its being used for a cesspool by the neighbcHiriii}^ 
Greek convent rendered its exploration, when attempted 
by Major Wilson, E.E., impossible. On the south side 
are the Greek convent of Gethsemane and a chapel 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin {(J-^To^t] rrig Travayiu^) 
On the pavement at the edge of the court are bases of 
three columns, which seem to ha\e formed part of a 
portico attached to the church built in the eleventh 
century. 

On the west are three Greek chapels attached to 
the great convent, and called respectively after St. 
James — in the Crusading writers, St. Jacques des Jaco- 
bins ; the Forty Martyrs (of Cappadocia) — (formerly 
La Chapelle de la Tres Sainte Trinite, which, in the 
middle ages, was specially devoted to the ceremonies 
of marriage and baptism), and St. John and St. Mar}^ 
Magdalene ; this latter occupies the ground lloor of the 
tower. 

Opposite these, to the east, are tiie Church of St. 
John (Armenian), in whicli is shown a fragment of the 
Pillar of Flairellation, the Church of St. Michael (be- 
longing to the Copts and connected with their convent 
by a private door), and the Greek convent of Abra- 
ham, with a church dedicated to the Twelve Apostles. 
A chapel, too, may be seen upstairs, on the traditional 
site of the intended sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham. 



88 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

The soutli side of tlie Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
itself next occupies our attention. A projecting porch 
on tlie right hand of the grand entrance is dedicated 
as a chapel to St. Mary of Egypt. Tradition tells us 
that this person was a most noted sinner. One day, 
however, being desirous, for some unexplained reason, 
of entering the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, an un- 
seen hand prevented her. Thereupon she became con- 
vinced of sin, repented, and was allowed to enter. 
After living a life of solitary penance on the banks of 
the Jordan for upwards of thirty years, she died in the 
beginning of the fifth century, in high odour of sanc- 
tity. Above this is the Chapel of our Lady of Sorrows 
(Notre Dame des Douleurs), which opens by a window 
into the Chapel of Calvary. This is the site which 
tradition points out as occupied by the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John whilst Christ was being nailed to the 
Cross. The former of these chapels belongs to the 
Greeks, and the latter to the Latins. Between this 
porch and the chiu'ch door may be seen the flagstone 
engraved with the name of Philip d'Aubigny, of whom, 
however, no other mention seems ever to be made. 
Tiic south door was formerly double, but only the 
western half is now open, tlie other having been walled 
up, it is said, in tlie time of Salah-ed-din. The archi- 
traves (jf these doorways are curiously carved, and 
represent Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 80 

Below the windows a heavy cornice runs along, and 
beneath this towards the east may be seen some rudely 
sculptured lions. The tower formerly consisted of five 
stories, but as the upper part began to fall into decay, 
it was gradually reduced in height to prevent the 
danger of falling masonry, and now consists of only 
three stories. In the drawing of Le Brun (1678) its 
original state is shown. 

Entering the chiurch, we see on the left tlic alcove 
in which sit the Turks, to whom belongs the key of 
the door (which, however, they cannot use without 
permission from one of the Patriarchs), and whose duty 
it is to see that no factious disturbances or free fights 
are indulged in by the rival sects of Christians — strange 
parody of the old heathen's speech, ' See how these 
Christians love one another ! ' So long as the church 
is open some three or four of them sit here on cushions, 
with their friends, smoking narghiles or chibouh, and 
drinking coffee. 

Facing the entrance we see a slab of red-veined 
Santa Croce marble surrounded by a low rail, and sur- 
mounted by lamps always burning. This slab was 
placed there in 1808 by the Greeks, in place of a slab 
of black marble which had been laid there soon after 
the purchase of the spot by the Franciscans from the 
Georgians in 1555 for the sum of 50,000 crowns. The 
slab, called now the Stone of Unction, marks the place 



90 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

which tradition declares to be that on which Joseph 
of Ariraatlia^a and Nicodemus embalmed the body of 
Christ. Helena is related to have laid a fine mosaic 
over the spot, which in the later reconstructions of 
Modestus (about 620) and the Greek architects (1408) 
was not contained within the body of the church, but 
was marked by a small detached oratory (cf. William 
of Tyre, viii. 3). Part of the above-mentioned mosaic 
still existed in the seventeenth century. 

Thirteen yards west of the Stone of Unction may be 
remarked an h'on cage, erected over the spot where 
the holy women are said to have stood whilst the body 
was being prepared for sepulture. 

We next come to the Holy Sepulchre itself, which 
lies immediately under the great dome. No trace of 
rock in situ is now visible. Every part is cased in 
yellowish marble, and hung with tawdry-looking lamps 
and ornaments. On either side is a circular opening, 
through which the holy fire is passed by the Greek 
Patriarch on Easter Eve. At the entrance are six 
enormous candlesticks, holding pillars of wax, and six 
rather smaller. These are equally divided amongst the 
Armenians, Franciscans, and Greeks. Above the door 
are forty-three lamps, of which the Armenians, Francis- 
cans, and Greeks possess thirteen each, and the Copts 
four. Against the west end of the tomb is an altar 
covered by a kind of canopy, and shut off by iron rail- 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 'Jl 

iugs. Formerly the mediaaval altur of the Iloly Sepul- 
chre stood here ; it is now a chapel belonging to the 
Copts. The interior of the tomb consists of two com- 
partments. The outer, or ante-chamber, contains a 
fragment of the stone rolled away by tlie angel from 
the mouth of the sepulchre. In the time of the Cru- 
saders one piece of this rehc, which St. Cyril and St. 
Antonine relate that they saw, but broken into two 
pieces, formed the altar on Calvary, while another 
piece was let into the pavement in front of tlie Sepul- 
chre. 

In this place fifteen lamps are kept burning, five 
belonging to the Franciscans, the same number to the 
Greeks, four to the Armenians, and one to tlie Copts. 

Hence, a low doorway leads into the inner chamber 
or tomb itself. The w^alls are, as elsewhere, covered 
with marble slabs, and whether these cover living rock 
or not is still a matter of mere conjecture. The ti)mb 
is in the form of a raised bench covered with wliite 
marble slabs, the u])per one of which has a crack rudely 
sawn across its middle to the depth of an inch, but .so 
clumsily done that the sides are also cut. This is be- 
lieved by the more credulous of tlie ])ilgrims to be an 
effect of the earthquake (Matt, xxvii. 51). The nortli 
side of this chamber is equally divided amongst the 
Armenians, Greeks, and Latins, beginning from the 
left ; and the pictures and other decorations are sup- 



92 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

plied by these sects. In the west wall there is a small 
secret cupboard concealed by a hinged picture. Steps 
behind the outer door lead up to the roof, and are 
used by those priests to whose charge the lamps are 
consigned. 

It is a curious and not unafiecting sight to stand 
at this venerated spot for a short time, when pilgrims are 
numerous, and watch the intense awe and devotion with 
which it is approached, especially by uncouth Eussian 
peasants ; men and women, who, after saving steadily 
for many years, have been able to scrape together the 
five or six pounds requisite for this pilgrimage, which 
has been their life-long ambition, at last find them- 
selves on the sacred spot. It can hardly be a source of 
wonder that these untutored minds, laden with super- 
stition and accustomed to the material adoration of 
saints, just as much as the heathen of old were to the 
worship of demigods and heroes, should look upon this 
marble tomb as in itself worthy of the most reverential 
homage. The abject awe and veneration with which 
these rough-bearded, long-haired Northerns approach 
it, and the hysterical emotion of their homely women, 
are much more striking than the most passionate display 
of feeling from impulsive Easterns or from the quickly 
moved Latin races. 

With reference to the original form of the ground 
in this place tlicre seems no doubt but tliat the rock 



MODERN JERUSALEM. <).{ 

has been cut away from the side towards Calvarv, m 
order to isolate the monument. This work of demoli- 
tion seems to have been begun by Helena, who is 
stated to have destroyed the vestibule of the tomb for 
the sake of ornamenting the shrine. The tomb is said 
to have been originally a square monolith surmounted 
by a quadrangular pyramid, similar in fact to tlie mo- 
nument in tlie Valley of the Kedron, known as that of 
Zachariah. A hole was pierced in the roof to allow 
the smoke caused by numerous lamps and candles to 
escape. The Crusaders built a porch before the tomb, 
open on three sides, and it was in the pavement of this 
porch that one piece of the original door of the Se- 
pulchre was laid. 

In 1555 the covering of the shrine had fallen into 
disrepau', and was renewed by the Gustos Terriu 
Sanctas, Father Boniface of Eagusa. A letter from this 
personage has been preserved by Quaresmius, which, 
though disfigured by superstition, still contains some 
curious remarks. The following extracts must be 
taken for what they are worth : — 

' Finding it necessary to })ull down the whole of 
the construction in order to give greater strength to 
that w^. ich was intended to replace it, the covering was 
taken off, and the Sepulchre of our Lord appeared in 
its orisjinal state, hewn in the rock. Here were (lis- 
covered two frescoes of angels, one bearing a scroll 



f»4 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

with these words : " He is risen, and is no longer here," 
while tlie other, pointing with its finger to the Se- 
pulchre, bore this inscription, " See the place where 
they laid Him ! " These two paintings crumbled away 
on exposure to the au\ Being obliged to raise one of 
the alabaster slabs placed over the tomb by Sta. He- 
lena, in oi'der to be able to celebrate mass there, we 
saw disclosed the wondrous place in which our Lord 
rested for three days. Heaven seemed open to us. 
Here we could still distinguish the blood of our Lord 
mixed with the ointment which had served to embalm 
Him. Li the centre of this holy spot we found a box 
wrapped in a valuable cloth which, immediately on 
being exposed to the air, fell to pieces, and nothing re- 
mained in our hands but some gold thread, which had 
been woven into it. As for the box contained in the 
wmding sheet, it had formerly borne an inscription, 
but this was so injured by time tliat it was impossible 
to make out a single sentence. ... At the head of 
a parchment one could with ease read in Latin capital 
letters, HELENA MAG. . . .' 

At this restoration the Crusaders' Porch was 
changed into the Chapel of the Angel. The present 
construction dates from 1808. , 

We next come to the chajiel of the Syrians and the 
toml) of .T()S(.'j)h of Arimathaia, and, as some say, of Ni- 
codemu-*, wliicli belongs to the Abyssinians. Tradition 



MODERN JERUSALE.yf. 'X, 

informs us that Josepli went with Lazarus, Martha, and 

Mary Magdalene to Marseilles, and thence to Kiiglaud, 

where he founded Glastonbury. This tomb is peculiar 

from the fact that it is cut out t)f the hardest layer of 

stone, called in Arabic mezzeh. The tombs outside 

the town are cut in the malaki, which • is of moderate 

hardness, while the kakuli is too crumbly for any large 

work to be done in it. The ante-chamber, or vestibule, 

of this tomb, has been cut otfby the wall of the Eotunda. 

There seem to have been three loculi at the cud. and 

three or perhaps more, probably four, at each side. 

In the floor is a sunken loculus, 4 feet 4 inches long, 

intended perhaps for the reception of treasure. One 

fact to be noticed is that pointed out by M. le Comte 

de Vogile ('Le Temple de Jerusalem,' p. 115), namely, 

that the tool marks on the rock are identical with those 

in the tombs recognised as Jewish in the innnediate 

neighbourhood of Jerusalem. For further particulars 

on this subject the above-quoted book may be well 

consulted. The unsupported statement of Dr. Torter, 

who, in arguing that if the tombs are ancient tlie fact 

is not in any way favourable to this being the site of 

the Holy Sepulchre, says, 'We know from Scripture 

that it was no uncommon tiling for men to have their 

tombs witliin the walls of cities, and even in their <.wn 

houses; and, besides, we have no clue to the date of • 

these excavations; they may be of any date, from 



96 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Melchizedek to King Baldwin,' need hardly be noticed, 
were it not an example of that prejudice, founded on 
ignorance, too often to be found in discussing Jerusalem 
difficulties. In one passage (1 Kings ii. 34) we are 
simply told that Joab was buried ' in his house in the 
wilderness,' wliich can hardly be construed as a proof 
that burial in houses was a common practice of the 
Jews. This one passage and those relating to the 
burial of David and the twelve Kings of Judah in the 
royal sepulclires in Zion, are the only notices of burial 
in towns. At the present day all the tombs are found 
at a httle distance from the ancient sites of tlie Jewish 
cities. 

The intense horror of the Jews at the idea of touch- 
ing or even approaching dead bodies, whereby they 
were rendered ceremonially unclean, made them use 
rock-hewn tombs, in the immediate vicinity of their 
towns it is true, but so placed that walking over the 
tomb, which was sufficient to render a person unclean, 
was difficult or impossible. According to Jewish tra- 
dition tlie prophetess Huldah was the only person 
besides tlic kings who was buried in Jerusalem. 

As I have before mentioned, the fact of these tombs 
existing so near the Holy Sepulchre proves that there 
is IK) iniprobabihty in the supposition that au old tomb 
exists on the spot tliat is now shown as that of Christ. 
Unless, too, these tombs are later tlian tlie time of 



^WDElix JEiivsALr.yr. or 

Manasseh, there is a great probability that tliey were 
before the second wall. It is true that, if the so-calKHl 
Pool of Hezekiah was within the wall (as it doubtless 
was) and the present Damascus Gate (Bab el 'Amud) 
was the Fish Gate, tlicre is difficulty in reconciling the 
angle which must have occurred near the present 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre witli Josephus's descrip- 
tion of the w\all as KUKT^ovfxsvoi; (circling). The truth is, 
that till the Gennath Gate or part of the second wall 
be satisfactorily discovered, our knowledge of that part 
of the city is purely theoretical, and, such being the 
case, we can hope for no definite and satisfactory con- 
clusions. 

In a courtyard to the north-west of the Rotunda 
is a large vaulted cistern, called the Well of Ih-lcna, 
which must not be confused with the one Cidled the 
Cistern of Helena, near the Coptic and Abyssinian 
convents. 

To the north-east of the Holy Sepulchre is the Latin 
Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene. A rosette in the pave- 
ment marks the spot where Christ appeared to her, and 
was mistaken for the gardener. A little fartlier north 
four steps lead up into the Church of the Franciscan.", 
called Chapelle de I'Apparition. Here is marked in 
the pavement the place where the Blessed Virgin re- 
mained during the wdiole time of Christ's ent<jmbment, 
holding herself aloof from the tomb on account of the 

H 



iiH MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Eomaii guard. Ilere, too, Christ is said to have ap- 
peared to His Motlier after the Eesurrection, whence 
tlie name of tlie Chapel. Legendary history asserts 
that ]iere St. Macarius and Helena restored a dead 
man to life by touching him with the true Cross. This 
chapel was visited in 1102 by Soewulf, and forms part 
of the church completed in 1048. The Franciscans 
obtained a footing in it in 1257, and their title was 
finally confirmed by the Moslems in 1342. There are 
three altars here ; that nearest the door contains a 
fragment of the Pillar of Flao;ellatiou. This relic is 
kept behind a grating, which is only opened on the 
morning of Wednesday in Holy Week : at other times 
the pilgrim has to content himself with vicariously 
kissing the column by touching it with a stick, which 
he then applies to his lips. The column is said to have 
been removed from the place where Christ was beaten 
to the Coenaculum, where it was placed in a portico. 
Here it was seen by Sta. Paula and St. Jerome (Letter 
Ixxxvi.) and by Arculphus in the seventh century. It 
was given in the thirteenth century by the canons of 
St. Augustine to the Fathers of the Terra Sancta, but 
in 155.5 it was broken up by the Moslems. Three 
fragments were sent to Europe at this time, viz., to 
Pope Paul IV., to Philip II. of Spain, and to Venice, 
where it may still be seen in St. Mark's. This column 
is of p()r})hyry. A cohmiii is sliown in the Church of 



M()i)i:i{X JKnrsALi'M. no 

Sta. Praxeda, at Eomc, as that of tlic Flnr^ellntion. It 
is perfect, and of coloured marble, streaked with grey 
and white, and stands upon a base. This was taken 
from Momit Zion to Eome in 1223, by Cardinal 
Colonna, and seems to have no legend attached to it to 
prove its authenticity, even in the eyes of the Romish 
Church. 

On leaving the Chapel of the Apparition the Latin 
Sacristy is on the left hand. Here may be seen some 
interesting relics, namely, the spurs and sword of 
Godefroy de Bouillon. They were presented to tlie 
Franciscans by the Bishop of Nazareth, towards tlie 
end of the thirteenth century. The sword is straight, 
double-edged, and heavy, with a plain cross hilt. Tlie 
spurs are of copper, and seem originally to have been 
irilt : the rowels are of enormous size. These remains 
of the chivalry of Jerusalem arc still used in the in- 
vestiture of Knights of St. Jolm of Jerusalem by 
the Latin Patriarch. 

Passing eastwards along the aisle outside the Greek 
Church, we come to a dark chamber called the Prison 
of our Lord, where He was temporarily confined before 
His death. A large stone with two holes through it is 
called the 'Bonds of Christ,' and we are told tliat His 
feet were passed through the holes and bound with a 
cord beneath. The three altars erected here arc- said 
by some to be for the three prisoners, by others to 

n 2 



100 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

iiuuk the spot where Christ was pkiced, uud where the 
gate of tlie garden stood, the others being commemo- 
rative of His being bound to the pillar. This chapel 
belongs to the Greeks, who always keep a lamp bm-n- 
ing at the ' Bonds.' 

Keeping on towards the south-east, we come to the 
Chapel of Longinus. This, according to tradition and 
the Gospel of Mcodemus, was the name of tlie soldier 
who pierced Christ's side with a spear. When he saw 
the phenomena accompanying the Saviour's death, he 
cried out, ' Truly this man was the Son of God ' (Matt, 
xxviii. 54 ; Mark xv. 39). Some of the blood and 
water, happening to trickle down the shaft of the spear, 
fell on to his hand, and with this he chanced to touch 
one of his eyes, which by an accident had been de- 
stroyed. The eyesight was immediately restored, and 
Longinus became a Christian, only to fall a victim to 
the ruthless fanaticism of the Jewish rulers, who soon 
afterwards murdered him. 

Formerly the superscription written by Pilate, ' This 
is the King of the Jews,' used to be shown in this 
chapel ; now, however, it is at Eome, in the Church 
of Santa Croce di Gerusalemme. There still remains 
a fi'agment of rock said to have been cut off from Cal- 
vary to make room for the marble casing. 

Three paces beyond the Chapel of Longinus is the 
closed doorway formerly used by the canons to enter 



MODHHX JEliUSALLM. 101 

the church. It was closed by order of Siiluh-cd-diii, 
after the expulsion of the Crusaders. The eastern side 
of this entrance was visited by Major Wilson, IMv, 
from a chamber half filled with rubbisli beneath tlie 
Coptic convent. 

We next come to tlie Armenian Cha[)el of ilie 
'Division of Vestments,' where tlie soldiers are said to 
have cast lots for Christ's garments. Tlie coat without 
seam is still preserved near Argenteuil, near Paris, and 
also at Treves, in Germany. In tlie latter jilace it is 
kept bricked up in the high altar, and only exposed 
once in every seven years. 

Descending the twenty-nine steps to our left, we 
reach the Chapel of Helena, which belongs to the 
Abyssinians, who have, however, virtually handed it 
over to the Armenians for a dole of bread and soup. 
This half-underground chapel is very picturesque, es- 
pecially if seen towards evening, when but a faint light 
gleams through the small windows of the dome, when 
a mist of incense rises, and the candles of a crowd of 
pilgrims hstening to mass burn with a weird grey 
light. The heavy Byzantine cajutals tlien stand out 
massively against the deep gloom of the corners, 
whither no ray of candlelight can penetrate. Tlien 
the deep voice of the officiating priest sounds muffled 
and distant, losing itself in the many echoes of the 
damp vaults. 



lUi> ■ ''"" MVlJEliN JERUSALEM. 

This chajDel was built by Modestus (eiglitli cen- 
tury), and restored by the Crusaders. In the north- 
eastern apse is an altar dedicated to St. Dimas, the 
Penitent Thief; the other altar is dedicated to St. 
Helena. In the place where the southern apse ought 
to be is the chair of Sta. Helena, in which she sat and 
watched the workmen digging for the True Cross in the 
vault below, wliich is overlooked by a rude window 
cut in the rock. Descending twelve steps, we come 
into this vault, the Chapel of the Invention of the True 
Cross, which is the property of the Franciscans. The 
altar to the north is called that of the Franks, and the 
other that of the True Cross, and is said to mark the 
exact spot where it Avas found. Tradition tells us that 
after the burial of Christ all the instruments of His 
death or torture were necessarily buried as unclean in 
Jewish estimation. They were consequently thrown 
into this place — an unused cistern near the place of 
Crucifixion — and in process of time were covered up 
with debris. Helena, inspired by piety, excavated in 
this place, and found not only the instruments of cru- 
cifixion, but also the crosses of the two thieves. It 
was tlien a puzzle to decide which was the True Cross. 
St. Macai'ius hit upon the happy design of touching a 
sick lady with each in succession ; at tlie toucli of the 
third she was instantaneouslj^ cured, and thus the Eeal 
Cross was made known. The same day occurred the 



MODERX JKIilSALKM. lo.j 

miracle before mentioned of tlie dciul man lx-in<' w- 
stored to life. These miracles are recorded by St. 
Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, in a letter to Constantius, 
son of Constantine the Great, and l^y Eusebius of 
Ciiesarea. 

Eeturning to the upper part of the church, we 
continue to the left, and reach the Cli:ij)el of the 
Mocking, which belongs to the Greeks. Here is 
shown behind an u'on crratinf^ a fragment of a column 
of grey syenite, on which Christ is said to have sat 
when the crown of thorns was put on Hi-; head in 
mockery by the Roman soldiers. A crown of thorns 
is shown here, made of the 'Awsaj (Lycium europanim), 
which is very common in the outskirts of Jerusalem. 
By the ignorant this is often looked uj)on as the 
original. 

Farther on we come to the steps leading up to 
Calvary, which has been partly described in the Sta- 
tions of the Via Dolorosa. It may be here added that 
the Latin part of the chapel (Station XL) is supported 
on arches. The explanation of this is that Helena cut 
away the ground beneath the chapel and removed it 
to Eome ; therefore the Station occupies the actual 
position that it did when the rock was in the same 
state as it was at the time of the Crucifixion. The 
place of the Elevation of the Cross belongs to the 
Greeks. The position of the Cross is marked by a 



104 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

circular hole beneath the altar. To the riglit is a 
hollow in the rock — which has every appearance of 
being in situ here — said to have been split open by the 
earthquake which occurred at the death of Christ. It 
is said, too, to communicate with the crack shown 
below in the Chapel of Adam. Pellets of paper and 
wax dropped into the upper cavity proved to me that 
this is not the case. 

The altar at the place of Crucifixion is surmounted 
by paintings and enamels in the Eussian style, heavy 
with gold and silver plates, and ornamented with 
jewels. The lamps which hang from the ceiling are 
costly, and, if examined closely, of beautiful work ; all 
the fittings are most rich, but the general effect is 
tawdry and tinselly; everything is overloaded with 
ornament, and things in themselves handsome appear 
poor in the middle of such incongruous profusion. 

To the north of the Stone of Unction are two steps, 
which mark the place formerly occupied by the funeral 
monuments of Baldwin II. (d. 1131), of Fulke (d. 1142), 
of Baldwin III. (d. 1162), of Amaury of Anjou (d. 
1174 or 1175), of Baldwin V. the leper (d. 1186), and 
of Baldwin VI. (d. 1186). These monuments were 
destroyed by the Greeks at the same time (1808) that 
they demolished those of Godefroy de Bouillon (d. 
1110) and Baldwin I. (d. 1113), which formerly stood 
on the right and left hand sides respectively of the 



MODERN JERUSALEM. 10.-, 

ante-chamber of tlie Chapel of Adam. Nothing wyw 
marks the place of their sepulture but a plain stone 
bench. The following Avere the two inscriptions on 
these tombs : — 

Eex Baldewinus Judas alter Machabeua 

Spes patriae vigor Ecclesi;o virtus utriusquo 
Quern formidabant cui dona tributa ferebaut 
Cedar et Egyptus : Dan : ac homicida Damascus. 
Proh dolor ! in medico clauditur hoc tumulo. 

Mirificum sidus, dux hie recubat Qodefridus, 
Egipti terror, Arabum fuga, Persidia error 
Rex licet electus, rex nolit intitulari 
Nee diademari : sed sub Christo famidari. 
Ejus erat cur a Syon sua reddere jura 
Oatholiceque sequi sacra dogmata juris et equi 
Totium scisma teri circa se, j usque foveri 
Sic et cum supens potuit diadem mercri 
Milicie speculum, populi vigor, anchora cleri.' 

The occasion of their destruction by tlie Greeks 
was the acquisition of a firman empowering tlicni to 
rebuild whatever had been damaged by the lire in 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Profiting by tlu' 
occasion, they lengthened the Chapel of Calvury, 
blocked up the south-western staircase, and obhte- 
rated the tombs above mentioned. 

In the Chapel of Adam, where a curious and early 
tradition mentioned by Basil, Origen, and others, places 
the burial-place of the first man, is shown the hollow 
in which his skull rested, and a painting illustrates the 

1 Quoted by De Vogii^, from ' Uue relation manuscrite du !-'»• 

Siecle.' 



KX; MODEltX JERUSALEM. 

legend tliat, at the time of the Crucifixion, blood 
trickled down and restored him to life. In this same 
cave Melchizedek is also related to have been buried. 

An unorthodox legend states that the altar in this 
chapel stands upon the place occupied by the cock 
who crowded the third time to Peter. 

We must now turn to the Greek Church, which 
occupies the nave of the building. The decorations 
are, at certain festivals, extremely handsome. Amongst 
others are a large series of Scriptural and ecclesiastical 
subjects in silver repousse work. They are of Eussiau 
design and workmanship, and are well executed : their 
value is said to be enormous. They are in frames 
imder glass, and form a double row above the stalls, 
extending all the length of the body of the church. 

Near the west entrance may be seen, in the middle 
of the floor, a hemisphere of marble, supported by a 
cup-topped pillar of the same material. This was 
settled by the disciples of Photius (about the eighth 
century) to be the centre of the earth. Soewulf further 
proves this to his own satisfaction, for he says 'Our 
Lord Himself signified with His own right hand that 
this spot is the middle of the world, according to the 
words of the Psalmist, " For God is my King of old, 
making salvation in ihe midst of the earth." ' 

At the east end the screen usual to Greek churches 
has been erected, a lieavy structure of wood cutting 



MODERN JEIiUiiALEM. 1U7 

off the apse and part of tlie presbytery from the nave. 
The patriarch's throne is in the centre of the apse, im- 
mediately behind the high altar. The ordinary seat of 
the patriarch is at the south-east pier of the lantern ; 
opposite this are chairs for any other })atriarchs who 
may chance to be present. 

This church was originally built as clioir to the 
Latin Church, and the style was similar to tliat wliich 
still is visible on the southern facade. Of the original 
architecture nothing but the piers and arches of tlie 
lantern remain, the rest of the building having been 
restored according to modern Greek taste in 1808. 
The wooden structiu-es which separate it from the side 
aisles date also from this period. 

Holy Fire. — A short account of this ceremony, 
which, owing to various circumstances, is diminishing 
every year in importance, may not prove uninteresting. 
Were it not for the increasing number of Russian pil- 
grims who yearly tlirong to Jerusalem, this hideous 
impostiu-e would long ago have died a natural death. 

The Latin Church, after suffering from the usurpa- 
tion of the Greeks in the year 1808, was the first to 
pronounce this pyrotechnical display an imposture, and 
to denounce it ex cathedra. The good sense of the 
Armenians soon led them to do the same, and none of 
that community except some of the more ignorant and 
fanatic put any faith in it at present. Many Eoman 



108 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

Catholics attend, but show more })iignacity than reli- 
gious enthusiasm. The origin of tliis ceremony is 
obscure. It has probably been elaborated by degrees 
to suit the requirements of pilgrims. In the beginning 
of the fourth century Eusebius heard a legend that 
water in the lamps was miraculously turned to oil on 
tiie Easter Eve at the Holy Sepulchre. Five centuries 
later this legend was improved upon, and an angel was 
said to come and light the lamps on that occasion. In 
the Crusading period not only the lamps of the church, 
but even those of King Baldwin's dinner table, were 
miraculously lighted. 

At the present day the fire is said to descend upon 
the slab of the Holy Sepulchre in the form of fiery 
dew of a bluish colour. This has the pecuharity of 
not burning anything that touches it, so the Greek 
patriarch is enabled with impunity to gather it together 
iji his hands, and place it in a vessel.^ From this the 
candles are lighted, and passed through the holes in 
the wall of the sepulchre before mentioned. Formerly, 
ill the days of tinder-boxes, great delay used occasion- 
ally to occur in the appearance of the fire ; but things 
are managed better now-a-days, and the delay of a few 
minutes in working the miracle is all that the impatient 
l)ilgrim need look forward to. 

In the year 1S7I, Easter Day, according to both 

' This account 1 received from Mgr. Oyrillos, the laic patriarch. 



MODERN JERUSALEM. K© 

Old and Xew Style, fell on April 9tli (N.S.). Conse- 
quently, the services of all the sects, Latin, Greek, 
Armenian, Coptic, and Syrian, coincided, and the tra- 
veller was enabled duiing Holy Week to see the 
various ceremonials which usually took place at dif- 
ferent times, according as the c] lurches adopt the Old 
or New Calendar. 

The following notes on the ceremony of the Holy 
Fire are taken from my journal at that time : — 

'April 8, Saturday. — At 11.45 a.m. we went to tlie 
Church of the Holy Sepidchre, and took our {)laces in 
the upper gallery (immediately beneath tlie dome), to 
wliicli access is obtained from tlie Greek convent i»f 
Constantine. Hence we had an excellent bird's-eye 
view of the whole proceeding, and, though the crowd 
of men on the floor of the building looked ridiculously 
small, were able to distinguish evciything most ex- 
actly. The north and we.<t part of the second gallery 
belong to the Latins, but to this no ladies are admitted. 
The south part belongs to tlie Armenians, who are 
more gallant than their neighbours ; but the view from 
this gallery is not so good as from the upper one, great 
part of the crowd being hidden by the sepulclire itself. 
Below this g.dlery are arclies between the pilasters, 
and lower still, circidar windows, in front of wiiicli 
wooden platforms had been erected. Thc.-^e— patron- 
ised chiefly by native women — and every otlier pomt 



110 MODEBN JERUSALEM. 

of vantage, were densely crowded. Tlie number of 
persons in the bod)^ of the Eotunda was not great at 
this time, and many were seated on the ground. At 
12.15 a bell rang, and the crowd rose to their feet, 
and began to sway to and fro, struggling feebly to 
obtain good places. The Latins were to the north, the 
Greeks and Armenians to the south. A few small but 
well-organised rushes were occasionally made from the 
north-west aisle to the hole whence the fire is given 
out. The southern side w^as kept very quiet and or- 
derly by the exertions of some half-dozen strapping 
fellows who acted as amateur poHcemen, and kept 
open a path for one of their number to pass along 
when he had received the first fire. For this a large 
sum is paid, as it is supposed to have miraculous 
powers. This year it was bought by a Eussian. As 
much as 100/. is sometimes said to be paid for it. 
Now appears on the scene 'Ah Bey, chief of police, an 
old man accustomed to his work, and followed by a 
troop of Turkish soldiers. The crowd melts away in 
the most ludicrous fashion before the well-known kur- 
Ixij (hippopotamus-hide wlii})) of the l^ey. The sol- 
diers form a horseshoe from north-east to south-west 
of tlie sepulchre. 

' At 1.15 llie crowd had become dense, and on the 
nortli side was vigorously engaged in singing such dog- 
grels as the following: — 



MODERy JKinsALllM. \\\ 

1. El Messiah at'aaim 2. Sebt el ndr wa 'ayduA. 
Bi dimihii ishtarana AVa Imdlin kiibr syyidnn. 

Nahna el vom ferana 3. Ya yelnid, yu yt-Inid. 
Wal yehud liezana. 'Aydkimi 'ayd el kuriid. 

Which may bo paraphrased : — 

1. Messiah was pierced with a spear. 
With his blood he bought us dear ; 
A gladsome day we make it here, 
But the Jews have wailing cheer. 

2. The Sabbath brings us feast and light, 
And this is the tomb of the Lord of miglit. 

3. Oh Jews, oh Jews, 

Youi" feast is the monkey's feast. 

By singing, stamping tlieir feet, and clapping tlicir 
"hands, they soon worked themselves uj) into a state of 
some little excitement. A free fight began in tlic 
north-east corner, but was put a stop to by the vigo- 
rous application of the kiwlxtj, not, however, before a 
man's hand and shoulder had been severely bitten, and 
two or three individuals had had their clothes nearly 
torn off their backs. After this the men began to 
climb on one anotlier's shoulders near the fire-hole, 
shouting and gesticulating wildly till they were pulled 
down and extincruished. At 2 p.m. the soldiers had 
completed a double Hue round the sepulchre, and 
stood with fixed bayonets. The procession then began 
to file out of the Greek Church. First came seven flags, 
for the possession of one of wliitli a long and well- 
sustained fight took place. The causa belli was at last 
triumphantly captured by the soldiers. Then came 



112 MODERN JERUSALEM. 

twenty Greek bishops, one of Avhom was bareheaded, 
being intended to receive the Holy Fire at the southern 
hole. After these came eighteen pnests dressed in 
black, and seven deacons. Xext were earned two 
silver articles shaped like a gigantic clove two feet 
long, and perforated at top ; these contained forty can- 
dles each, and were intended for the protection of the 
first fire, which otherwise, in the struggle of every pil- 
grim to obtain a light, woidd infallibly be put out. 
Tlien came the Patriarch Cyrillos, dressed in a vest- 
ment of white and gold, and wearing a black cap and 
veil. His pastoral staff was of wood and ivory. Be- 
hind liini was borne a red banner, and then came the 
seetliing mob. A Syrian priest, in the absence of the 
bibhop, now takes his stand at the door of the sepul- 
chre to give the fire to his flock. Meanwhile the 
seijulchre is shut and sealed : a priest, liowever, was 
inside, and, forgetting that tlie upper gallery over- 
looked him, came on to the roof to trim some lamps. 
After the procession has passed three times round the 
tomb — left liand inside — the Patriarch is unrobed by 
tlie deacons, and enters the tomb clad in a long white 
silk sliirt. The door is locked behind liim. A minute 
or two afterwards the bells begin to ring, and the fire 
immediately appears at the iwo holes. Tlie men who 
li:ivc l)('<'n hieky enougli to get it, try to rush off to 
the dill'crent galleries pursued by others, like dogs 



yroDj-nx jeiu'smem. ua 

fighting for a bone. The lights soon spread over the 
church, and a dense smoke arises from tlie ihousands 
of candles. The crowd continues to swav and strufrtTle 
till every candle has beenht. After a few minutes all 
the lights are blown out, the candles being kept as a 
sacred relic, and the crowd begins to disperse. Many 
of the pilgrims pass the flame over their bodies, faces, 
and hands, as it is said never to burn them. The 
Greek Patriarch then made his appearance from the 
"sepulchre, and had to be pushed and pidled through 
the crowd by two deacons.' 

Such is the scene which, by a Uttle extra fanati- 
cism, a panic, or any exciting cause, might at any mo- 
ment be turned into a scene of carnage and horror like 
that of 1834, so vividly described in Curzon's ' Monas- 
teries of the Levant.' The bayonets of the Turkish 
soldiers would then be indiscriminately used, and what 
is intended as a protection would really become an 
engine of destruction. As I have before said, were it 
not for the growing influence of Eussia in Palestine, 
this mummery would have become a thing of the past. 
Let us hope that, as their power increases, they will 
take measures for preventing accidents, for it ran 
hardly be hoped that the exigencies of the pilgrims 
will allow of the Holy Fire being abolished. 



NOTES FOE A HISTOEY OF JEEUSALEil. 



-The city of Jerusalem must have at tliis time pre- 
sented a sad spectacle to those who had known it 
before the capture by Titus. The temple was l)urii!, 
the walls thrown down, the houses ruined and sackctl ; 
nothing remained but the three towers, and such 
patched-up dwellings as the few Jews who still clung 
to the spot had arranged for their own shelter. The 
tradition, however, that the Eomans laid tlie city 
under a ban, with t]ie intention of preventing it from 
ever being rebuilt, seems to have arisen in quite 
modern times, and is not worthy of consideration. 
Whether the Christians returned from Telia, on tlie 
east of the Jordan, soon after the destruction of tlie 
city or not, is doubtful. Eusebius relates that at this . 
time they chose Simeon for their bishop, and tradition 
adds that the seat of the bishopric was at Jerusalem. 

From A.D. 75 to 130 Jerusalem is never mentioned 
in history. During this period the chief resorts of the 
Jews in Palestine were in Galilee and on the maritime 
plains. It is probably at this time that Tiberias anil 



IIG XOTl-S FOR A IlISTORV OF JERUSALEM. 

Safjit (now called Safed) began to be the seats of 
rabbinical learning, as we know Jabneh or Janinia 
(the modern Yebnah) was a city not far to the south 
of Jaffa. The rabbinical power had long been grow- 
inir, but now decentralisation added much to its strenrjth. 
By moral and physical punishment, by cursing and 
scourging, they gained a hold over their congregations 
even greater than that of an Irish parish priest at the 
present day.^ Tliis power is still kept up by the rabbis 
in all places where the ignorance and superstition of 
tlieir flock allow of it. At Jerusalem the hallukah or 
alms is a potent weapon, but at Safed the old tyran- 
nical power may be seen to best advantage. In the 
year of grace 1870, a woman wa^ scourged there by 
order of some rabbis. Her crim.-^ was adultery ; the 
man by whom she had been led astray was one of 
those who condemned her. A fortnight after the in- 
fliction of the punishment she died. 

A combined revolt of the Jews in Babylon, Judaia, 
Eg}^t, and Cyrene, was put down by the Emperor 
Trajan, who died a.d. 117. He was succeeded by 
Hadrian, who spent the greater part of his reign in 

' I believe that this statement has before been published, and strong-ly 
or at lt'n.-it eneiyctically contradicted. I need only .«ay that I heard tlie 
Htory for the first time from the lips of a Jew at Tiberias, and at Safat it 
was repeated to me also by a Jew. European Jews are far too apt to 
judge their Kastem co-relipionists by an educated and civilised standard. 
In reality tliere is as much ditlV-rence between a middle-class Jew in 
llnphmd, Trance, or .Vnierica, as there is between the Kiiglish middle 
class and a camp of ' roughs ' on an old Californian gold-field. 



NOTES FOR A JIIISTORY OF JKRlSALEM. 117 

travelling over his vast dominions. He seems to liuve 
visited Palestine about a.d. 130, and then gave orders 
for the refortification of Jerusalem, which was begun 
before the rebellion of Barcliochebas, but not fmislu'd 
till that revolt had been stamped out. This determi- 
nation of Hadrian to convert Jerusalem into a lioman 
city may have hastened the insurrection ; at all events, 
when the Emperor quitted the East in a.d. 132, a 
leader suddenly arose named Barchochebas — the Son 
of a Star. This man, of whose previous history nothing 
is known, was energetically supported by Eablii Akiba, 
who declared him to be the Mes.si;ili. Tliis Akiba 
had more influence than any of the other rabbis, and 
by his help Barchochebas found himself at the head of 
two hundred thousand zealots. He tried to persuade 
the Christians to follow his standard, and on tlit'ii- re- 
fusing to do so treated them with great cruelty, thus 
widening the breach that already existed between the 
two religions. 

For his participation in this revolt Akiba was tor- 
tured to death by Turnus Eufus, the lioman governor 
of Jerusalem. Barchochebas then seized that city, as 
well as fifty fortified places, and nine hundred and 
eighty-five large villages. At first the Komans disre- 
garded this rising, and left Turnus Eufus witli a few 
troops to carry on a desultory warfare in tlie neigh- 
bourhood of Jerusalem. Soon, however, Hadrian, saw 



118 NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

the serious turn things were taking, and Imrrying his 
general Julius Severus from Britain, he sent him with 
a large force to Palestine. Then one by one the 
Jewish strongholds fell into his hands. The siege of 
Jerusalem is nowhere described, and only mentioned 
by one writer, Appian. The rabbis, too, are silent on 
tlie subject. This may perhaps be accounted for by 
the fact tliat the walls were not yet rebuilt, and conse- 
quently that no great resistance took place here as in 
former wars. This idea is further confirmed by the 
last struggle being at Bether. When this last Jewish 
stronghold was taken by the Eomans, their horses are 
said to have waded up to their girths in torrents of 
blood, which, according to other accounts, were strong 
enough to roll stones of foitr pounds weight along the 
streets. Many thousand captives were sold by tlie oak 
of Abriiliam near Hebron, where an annual fair was 
wont to be held. The remainder were shipped off to 
Egypt, and many of tliem died by shipwreck and 
famine. All Jews were now strictly prohibited from 
visiting Jerusalem under pain of death, and a garrison 
was stationed there to enforce the edict. 

Judaism now seemed scotched if not killed, but 
the great vitality and fertility shown by the Hebrews 
wlien in hard bondage at Memphis or Babylon, soon 
made tliem again a numerous people. 

Having got rid of tlic Jews, Hadiian began to re- 



NOTES FOR A llLSrORY OF JERUSALEM. lilt 

build and beautify Jerusalem, a work which had been 
hindered by the insurrection of Barchochebas. In 
A.D. 13G on the occasion of his viccnnalia fenterintT 
upon the t\yentieth year of his reign) he gave th(i 
city the name of Colonia iElia Capitohna, his piai- 
nomen being jEhus Capitolinus, in honour of Jupiter 
with that title, whose fane he had erected in the (jld 
temple area. A shrine of Venus too was placed on the 
site of the Holy Sepulchre, and according to Eusebius 
existed in the time of Constantine. This seems to 
have been done as an indignity to the Christians, who 
were often looked upon by the Komans as a Jewish 
sect. The Jerusalem Christians now either came from 
Pella, or, if a number had already done so, received 
reinforcements thence: in order to give an outward 
sign of separation from the Jews, from whom and on 
whose accoimt they had suffered so much, they now 
elected a Gentile convert, one Marcus, as Bishop of 
Jerusalem. 

Episcopal Succession in tui; See of jERisAr,K.M. 
(Le Quien's ' Oriena Chriatianus,' torn, iii.) 



A.D. 

Circa 30. 


S. James the J ust. 


A.I). 


Philip. 


60. 


S. Simeon. 


Circa IL'5. 


Seneca. 


107. 


Justus, or Juda.s I. 




Justus II 


111. 


Zacchjeus. 




Levi. 




Tobias. 




Ephraim. 




Benjamin. 
John I. 




Joseph I. 
Judas II. 




Matthias. 







Here ends the line of the circumcision. 



120 



XOTJ:s FOJi A HlSrORY OF JERUSALEM. 



A.I). 

Circa 135. Marcus. 
156. Ca-s.^^ian. 

rul)liu8. 

Maximus I. 

Julian I. 

Caiiis I. 

SymmBchus. 

Cains II. 

Julian II. 

Oapito. 
185. Maximus II. 

Antonius. 

Valens. 

Dolicliianus. 

Narcissus. 



Germanion. 

Gordius. 
212. Alexander. 
250. Mazabanes. 
265. Ilymenteus. 
298. Zambdas. 
302. Ilei-mon. 
313. Macarius I. 
335. Maximus III. 
351. S. Cyril. 

Eiitychius. 

Ivenceus. 

Hilarms. 
387. John II. 



The names in italic are those of ' heretical in- 
truders.' ^ 

The name of Jerusalem now began to be forgotten, 
and ^lia occupied its place. A story is told of a 
Christian who was being questioned by Firmilianus, 
governor of Caisarea; when he said that Jerusalem 
(meaning the heavenly) was his city, his judges were 
non-plussed, and asked him wliere this town was to be 
found. In the time of Constantine the old name was 
to some extent revived, but that of ^lia is used as late 
as A.D. 53G, in the report of a synod held in the city 
itself. This name is mentioned too by Adamnanus in 
the end of tiic seventh, and Mejr-ed-Din at the close of 
the fifteenth century. 

Till tlie time of Constantine the Jews seem to have 
been rigorously excluded from Jerusalem. They were 

' From Williams" ' Uoly City,' vol. i. p. 487. 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JFRfSAI.RM. ]-Jl 

then permitted to come near the city, and at last tlic 
favour was granted them of being allowed to weep and 
wail over their long-ruined but still cherished sanctuary 
once every year. 

Now that Christianity began to take real root in 
the western world, pilgrimages — the necessary conse- 
quence of a religion's origin being localised — began to 
be in vogue. The first recorded instance is that of 
Alexander, then Bishop of Cappadocia, who afterwards 
succeeded Narcissus at Jerusalem ; then came a lady, 
mentioned by Cyprian (Ep. 75). Both of these were 
in the beginning of the third century. Eusebius, vnit- 
ing about one hundred years later, mentions the num- 
ber of pious folk who came to see with their own eyes 
the fulfilment of prophecy, and to pray at the birth- 
place of their Saviour in the cave at' Bethlehem, 
and at the spot on the Mount of Olives whence lie 
ascended to heaven. Still the Christian Church only 
existed by sufferance at Jerusalem, and was at times 
exposed to insult and persecution. This sufficiently 
accounts for the fact that the Holy Sepulchre, or 
the supposed site of it, marked by the shrine of 
Venus, was never purified and made an object of pil- 
grimage. 

Immediately after the conversion of Constantine, 
however, when the Christians became more powerful 
than the Pagans, this was done. Thus we see that the 



122 XOTES FOR A IIlSTOIi}' OF JERUSALEM. 

traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre dates from the 
time of Hadrian, a.d, 130. This will be further men- 
tioned in its proper place. 

The number of pilgrims now greatly increased, 
especially when the fashion was set by Helena, mother 
of the Emperor. This lady seems to have stayed some 
months in the country, and during this time built 
churches at Bethlehem and the Mount of Olives, and 
began that over the Holy Sepulchre. Her great trdu- 
vaille, however, was the True Cross. About this there 
is considerable difficulty. Eusebius only mentions Con- 
stantino as tlie builder of the Church of the Sepulchre. 
As, however, the funds came from the Emperor, and 
the building was not finished till some six years after 
Helena's death, this panegyi'ist doubtless thought it 
safe to ascribe the whole glory to his patron. The 
Bordeaux pilgrim, too, who ascribes all the work to 
Constantine, probably heard his name as the chief 
mover in tlie business, and the source whence the 
necessary funds were drawn. In the next century, 
however, the finding of the cross is unanimously as- 
cribed to Helena. That a cross was 'found or in- 
vented' seems clear. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, only 
twenty years after tlie event, speaks of it ; and Jerome, 
some fifty years later, says that Sta. Paula prostrated 
herself before it in adoration. Tlie so-called (not too 
happily) ' Invciilion of the Cross ' is said to have 



NOTES FOR A lIISTOJiV OF JKliiSALEM. 1J;{ 

been brought about by a dream or supernatural inti- 
mation to Helena where to dig for it. The Empress 
dug and found not one but three ; the legend, too, 
written by Pilate, was there, but separated from the 
cross to which it had been attached. A test was soon 
found to prove which was the True Cross. A lady of 
Jerusalem lay dying ; one cross was brought to her 
bedside, presumably from its effect that of the impeni- 
tent thief; she screamed in pious horror and fainted 
away. The second produced no bad effect, but the 
third was incontestably proved the True Cross by the 
fact that she was immediately restored to health by 
the near approach of it. 

Later on, many more churches were ascribed to 
the liberality of Helena, and her good deeds were 
magnified, till now we find that nearly eveiy ancient 
church is said by monastic tradition to have been 
founded by her. The description of the cliurch of 
the Sepulchre as given by Euscbius will be found in 
another place. 

About A.D. 350 monastic institutions were trans- 
planted by Hilaiion from Egypt into Palestine and 
Syria, where they soon took root and flourished. The 
orders seem to have always been austere and ascetic, as 
is still the case with the Greek monasteries of St. Catlia- 
rine at Sinai and Mar Saba near the Dead Sea. The 
practice of acquiring broad lands and the indulgence 



124 NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

in the good tilings of this Hfe, seems not to have been 
introduced till several centuries later. 

Li A.D. 3G2 the Jews, who had continued in force 
throughout Galilee, obtained leave fi'om Julian the 
Ajiostate to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem, and 
began to do so. Then, according to Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, globes of fire burst out from the foundations 
and rendered the prosecution of the work impossible. 
Some have attributed those demonstrations to a divine 
manifestation, others to fire-damp, and others, again, to 
the machinations of the Christians. Whatever was the 
cause, there seems no reason to doubt the fact that 
the work was stopped in the way described. 

In A.D. 384 Jerome went to Bethlehem, where he 
remained till his death in 420. His writings show 
how the number of monks had increased since their 
introduction ; he tells us, too, of the monastery and three 
nunneries built by Paula at Bethlehem. From this 
point we may date the great growth of monkish tradi- 
tion which has localised every event recorded in the 
Bible, even to the house of the parabolic Lazarus and 
Dives. Chrysostom tells us that many even went 
into Arabia to visit the dunghill of patient Job and to 
kiss the ground where he had trod. Many holy men 
now sainted in the calendar are recorded to have made 
as many as three pilgrimages to Palestine about this 
period. Like Iloly Cities of all ages, Jerusalem now 



NOTES FOIi A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. li?', 

began to be a place of corruption and licentiousness ; 
the act of pilgrimage was looked upon as the means of 
salvation, as it still is at the present day by the more 
ignorant of the Eussian and other Eastern Christians. 
This superstition is much animadverted on by Jerome, 
Gregory of Nyssa, and other contemporary fathers of 
the Church. 

The history of Jerusalem now becomes simply 
ecclesiastical. The importance of the Holy City as 
the goal of pilgrimage made its bishops impatient of 
the control exercised by the Metropolitan of Cajsarea 
and desirous of its takiiJi:^ hio;her rank as the oriLnnal 
seat of the primitive Church. The bishops Cyril and 
John contended ineffectually for independence. Pray- 
tus, the next in succession, remained inactive, but 
Juvenal who followed him obtained an order from tlie 
Council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451-453, that Jerusalem 
should not only rank above Caisarea, but ;>hould also 
be uncontrolled by Antioch being raised into an in- 
dependent Patriarchate having jurisdiction over tlie 
Three Palestines. 

The rehgious discussions whicli raised such bitter 
enmities amongst the different sections of the Eastern 
Church had energetic and even violent partisans in 
Palestine. In the great struggle of the Arian con- 
troversy Cyril was more than once deposed from his 
bishopric at Jerusalem. Not many years after this 



12(i XOTFs FOU A HISTOliV OF JERUSALEM. 

Pelagius himself appeared on the scene at two stormy 
councils held in Jerusalem and Lydda, of that turbu- 
lent type which seems to have distinguished the Church 
militant in the early middle ages. Juvenal, wdio ob- 
tained his Patriarchate at Jerusalem by decree of the 
Council of Chalcedon, was soon afterwards deposed by 
Theodosius, a fanatical monk who raised the Mono- 
physite party in opposition to the doctrine promulgated 
by that council, declaring the separate existence of a 
human and divine nature in Christ. By the help of 
Eudocia, widow of Theodosius II., this monk was 
elected to the Patriarchate ; he deposed the orthodox 
clergy, even murdering some of them, and filled their 
places with the riflf-rafT of his followers. The triumph 
of Theodosius did not last long, for the Emperor Mar- 
cian took the side of the deposed Patriarch and rein- 
stated him, not, however, without a severe struggle, 
for both parties fought as only religious fanatics can 
fight. 

At the end of the fifth century tlio ]\Iono})hysito 
party was much strengthened by the fact that the 
Emperor Anastasius himself held their views. Flavia- 
nus, the Patriarch of Antioch, was deposed, and Severus 
of the heretical party succeeded him. In 512 a.d. 
tliis usurper sent to Elias, then Patriarch of Jerusalem, 
but he, assisted by St. Saba — whose name is still at- 
taclied to the monastery \n tlie valley of the Kedron 



NOTES FOL' A HlsTOltY OF .TFJUsALFM. U: 

near the Dead Sea — anathematised Sevcnis imd all 
his heretical followers. At Mast the arm of the llcsh 
prevailed, and Olympiiis, the mihtary commander in 
Palestine, banished Ellas by order of tlie Emperor to 
Ailah, where he died, a.d. 518. His successor, Jolm 
in., though appointed by the heretical party, took no 
action against the orthodox ; his neutrality seems to 
have prevented the party dissensions from breaking out 
into actual violence. The accession of Justin I. in 
A.D. 518, and Justuiian in 527, both severely orthodox, 
was looked upon as a great triumph by St. Saba and 
his party. This venerable saint died in a.d. 532, aged 
ninety-four. The next thirteen years were occupied by 
the disputes of his followers, those at tlie monastery 
named after him remaining orthodox, wJiile those at 
the laura of Tekoa adopted tlie lieretical dogmas of 
Origen. These doctrines were anatliematised by a 
general council of the Three Palestines held at Jerusa- 
lem in 536. After nine years' more fighting and con- 
troversy the Oiigeuists were finally put down by tlie 
military. 

The church-building mania of Justinian has left 
its mark at Jerusalem in the church he built in honour 
of the Virgin, part of which is now incorporated in 
the mosque El Aksa. He also built a hospice for 
pilgrims and several monasteries in and near Jerusalem. 
About the end of the sixth century another ho.spice 



128 NOTES FOn A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

was erected by Gregory the Great. Meantime build- 
ings for the accommodation of pilgrims were erected 
throughout the length and breadth of civihsed Europe. 
The number of these pious folk seems to have been 
steadily on the increase, especially as the trade in relics 
was now becoming most profitable. Old rags, bones, 
and hair, authenticated by the suflSciently astute East- 
ern clergy as having been part of some saint or mar- 
tyr, fetched fobulous prices. Some speculators even 
went so far as to make and sell genuine relics of their 
Saviour ; while the miraculous power of the True Cross 
in reproducing itself, so that however much was cut off 
it the bulk never diminished, enabled the clergy to sell 
sufficient of its wood to have built a large galley. 
This trade still continues, though the scarcity of relics 
has diverted it into the channel of ornamental rosaries, 
crosses, &c., which form the staple industry of the 
Bethlehem peasants. 

For the last three centuries the foreign influence 
brought to bear on Jerusalem and its society had been 
Western and civilised, but now she fell under the blight- 
ing shadow of barbaric hordes from Persia and Arabia. 
In the year 614 a.d. Chosroes II., Shah of Persia, 
aided by the Jews of Galilee, took the city and massa- 
cred most of tlic Christians, especially those devoted 
to a religious life. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
was l)i:i'iit and tlie True Cross cari'ied off; the Patriarch 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. l'.>-.> 

Zacharias and many of the people were taken as slaves. 
Modestus was soon afterwards appointed as locum 
tenens during the Patriarch's captivity, and though 
Jerusalem was still under Persian rule he was not 
hindered in rebuilding the churches, for which pur- 
pose money was supplied by John Eleemon, Patriarch 
of Alexandria. In a.d. 628 Siroes murdered his 
father Chosroes and subsequently made peace with the 
Emperor Heraclius. The Patriarch, the captives, and 
the True Cross were all returned, and after the Emperor 
had made his triumphal entry at Constantinople he 
returned to Jerusalem, and, marching barefooted at the 
head of his soldiers, carried the cross on liis back and 
deposited it in the church. Five years later, however, 
when retreating before the victorious Moslems, he 
carried the precious relic with him to Constantinople. 

In G37 A.D. the city of Jerusalem was given up by 
the Christians to the Moslem army under the Klialif 
'Omar, on condition that their lives, property, and 
religion should be respected. This was faithfully per- 
formed, and Christian pilgrims were allowed to come 
and go unhindered. The traffic of these pilgrims now 
became extended, for we learn from Arculphus (a.d. 
697} that a great annual fair was held in Jenisalem on 
September 15, to which both Moslems and Christians 
came from all parts of the world to better at the same 
time their temporal and spiritual fortunes. 

K 



130 NOT£S FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

In the middle of the eighth century the power of 
the Abasside Khahfs was taken from them by the 
Ommiades, who estabhshed the seat of their govern- 
ment at Baghdad. Under this new dynasty the 
Christians seem to have suffered certain hardships, but 
the pilgrims were allowed to come and go without let 
or hindrance. The friendship of Charlemagne with 
Hariin-el-Eashid (a.d. 786-809) and the interest he 
took in his co-religionists bettered their situation in 
Jerusalem ; the alms he sent them were continued by 
his son and grandson. On the death of Hariin-el- 
Eashid internal dissensions arose between the Moslems, 
and the Christians suffered at the hands of both par- 
ties. The convent of Mar Saba was for the third time 
plundered and the inmates massacred (a.d. 810). 

The most remarkable fact chronicled during the 
rest of the century is the Greek Holy Fire, which is first 
mentioned vaguely by Eusebius (fourth century), and 
definitely by Bernhard the monk (about 870 a.d.). 

Under El Mannii, the son of Hariin-el-Rashid, the 
Christians were well treated and advanced to posts of 
honour, but after his death they suffered much. To- 
wards the end of the tenth century the merchants of 
Amalfi obtained permission from the Fatemite Khahf 
of I^ypt to erect a building in Jerusalem. This at 
first consisted of the church of Santa Maria de Latina 
and the attached monastery ; then a nunnery was 



NOTES FOR A inSTORY OF JERUSALEM. l.il 

added, and a hospice dedicated to St. John Elecmon, 
whence afterwards sprang the well-known order of 
Knights Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John of 
Jerusalem, 

In the year 996, Hdkem bi 'Amr Ikah, a mad and 
blasphemous despot — founder of the Druze sect — came 
to the throne in Cairo. His mother was a Christian, 
and sister to Orestes, Patriarch of Jerusalem. Accord- 
ing to William of Tyre, it was to refute the assertion 
of some of his enemies that he favoiu-ed the Clu-istians 
too much that this tyrant began a cruel and deliberate 
system of persecution against them. His uncle was put 
to death, the church of the Holy Sepulchre razed to 
the ground, and frightful tortures inthcted on men and 
women in Jerusalem and Cairo. The Jews were ac- 
credited in Europe with being the instigators of these 
enormities, and suffered accordingly. Towards the end 
of his hfe Hakem gave permission to tlie Christians to 
rebuild their churches, and allowed those who haJ 
apostatised to return to their old religion. It was not, 
however, till (a.d. 1048) twenty years after his death 
that the rebuilding of the church of the Holy Sepulchre 
was finished ; and then only a modest chapel stood in 
the place of the former fine Basilica. 

Pilgrimages now became so fashionable, and sucli 
numbers of lords and ladies, nobles and wealthy 
burghers, sleek churchmen, as well as men of lower 

K 2 



132 KOTUS FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

rank, began to flock to Jerusalem, tliat the Moslems 
determined to turn this enthusiasm to account and 
allowed none to enter the city till the tax of a piece 
of gold had been paid. In 1035 Eobert of Normandy 
made his pilgrimage, and won the hearts of both 
Christians and Moslems by his piety and generosity. 
The Hungarians being at this time converted to Chris- 
tianity, many Germans took advantage of this new route 
being opened to the East. In the year 1054 Bishop 
Lietbert, of Cambray, attempted to reach Jerusalem 
with a large concourse of pilgrims, but failed to do so. 
Ten years later several German bishops, with 7000 
pilgrims, managed to reach the Holy City, but only 
2000 of their followers lived to reach their homes. 

About the years 1065-70 a.d., the Tm'koman To- 
grul Beg dethroned the Abasside Khalif of Baglidad, 
and seized his kingdom ; this usurper was soon suc- 
ceeded by his son Melek Shah. In 1077 his general, 
Atsiz, pillaged Jerusalem on his return from an unsuc- 
cessful attack upon Egypt. Syria was then given by 
Melek Shah to his brother Tatash, who appointed 
Ortok as Emir of Jerusalem in 1084 ; this position he 
held for seven years, and then the government of the 
city passed into the hands of his two sons. Under the 
rule of these barbarous Turkomans, the Christians suf- 
fered much ill-treatment, and were exposed to many 
indignities. Their churches were desecrated, their ser- 



A'OmS FOR A HISTORY OF JERV.'sALEM. |.n.{ 

vices interrupted, the priests were reviled and mal- 
treated, and the Patriarch was several times imprisoned 
for the sake of obtaining a ransom. The tax upon the 
pilgrims was very rigidly enforced, and many wlio had 
not the requisite sum died of exposiu-e and starvation at 
the gates of the city. Private charity, and that afforded 
by the various hospices, could do but little to help tlie 
vast numbers who, despite all difficulties, kept throng- 
ing to the Holy City. Then, in a.d. 1093-4, Peter 
the Hermit came as a pilgrim ; tliis man was of good 
family, and originally a soldier, till a reUgious mania 
seized him and he became a hermit ; the monotony of 
this life soon became too much for his restless, ener- 
getic spuit, and he started for Jerusalem. Here his 
spirit was stirred by the way in which his brethren 
were treated by the infidel Turks ; then came delusions 
which wrought him into frenzy, mysterious voices 
urged him on, wondrous dreams encouraged him, and 
obtaining letters from the aged Patriarch Simeon, ac- 
crediting him as his delegate, Peter left Jerusalem, 
burning to preach the necessity of wresting the Sacred 
City from infidel hands. Thus began the first crusade. 
On arriving at Kome, Pope Urban H. eagerly sup- 
ported him, and then the monk began his mission in 
Italy and France. The fieiy and impassioned eloquence 
of the zealot soon stirred up a wild and headlong enthu- 
siasm throughout all Christendom. Peter tlic Hcrniil 



134 NOTHS FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

himself assumed the leadership of the first band ; this 
was numerous, but totally without discipline, transport, 
or commissariat, and very shortly after crossing the Bos- 
phorus was utterly destroyed by the Turks. From 
tliis time tlie marvellous influence of the monk disap- 
peared, and, excluded from the councils of the army 
which followed his rabble-rout, he soon retired to 
France, where he died, some fifteen or twenty years 
later, the head of a rehgious house. The army which 
followed was better organised and armed, and in 1097 
succeeded in reaching Antioch, which was captured by 
treachery after a nine months' siege. The defeat of a 
large Turkish army then opened the way to Jerusalem, 
but internal dissensions delayed their march for four 
months, 

Jerusalem, meanwhile, had been taken from the 
Turkomans by Afdal, vizier of the Khalif El-Mustali 
of Cairo, and was governed by the Emir Iftikar-el- 
Dawleh, from whom it was taken by storm by the 
Crusaders on July 15, 1099. Most of the Moslems 
who took refuge m the Temple Area were killed ; the 
number is given by Christian writers at more than 
10,000, while native historians put it at 70,000. Great 
excesses were committed, and the whole town was pil- 
laged. As soon as order was restored and the city 
cleansed from slaughter, Godfrey de Bouillon was 
elected lung of Jerusalem, and by this title he is always 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 136 

known, though he himself refused regal mnk, and 
chose the title of Baron of the Holy Sepulchre. His 
first care was to organise various rehgious bodies to 
attend to the different churches ; amongst others, a 
regidar chapter of canons was appointed for the Kub- 
bet-el-Sakhrah (Dome of the Kock or Mosque of Omar, 
as it is sometimes called), called by the historians of 
the period Templum domini. The mosque El Aksa 
was called Templum Solomonis, sometimes, too, the 
Porch or Palace of Solomon. In tlie reign of Bald- 
win n. this building was assigned to a body of knightd, 
who in consequence received the name of Knights 
Templars (1118 a.d.), and soon grew to immense wealtli 
and power. 

Having arranged religious matters, Godfrey began 
a code of laws, which, when finished in the fourteenth 
century, were called ' Les Assises de Jerusalem.' This 
was a code of purely feudal laws, adapted wlien neces- 
sary to the country to which it was transplanted. 

The first victory obtained by the King was over the 
renegade Armenian Afdal — previously mentioned as 
having taken Jerusalem on behalf of his master, tlie 
Egyptian Khalif— and the Egyptian troops in the mari- 
time plain between Eamleh and Gaza. The defeat of 
the infidels was complete, and most of the pilgrims 
began to think of returning to Europe. After a thanks- 
giving service at Jerusalem they did so, with the ex- 



13G XOTE:s for A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

ception of 300 knights and 2,000 soldiers, who elected 
to stand by their King. In the end of the year 1099, 
Dagobert, Archbishop of Pisa, with 20,000 pilgrims, 
arrived at Jerusalem, after passing through many 
dangers. Dagobert was then chosen Patriarch in place 
of Arnold, who had never been legally elected. 

The untimely death of Godfrey, on July 18, 1100, 
was a great loss to Jerusalem, for his wise government 
would doubtless have estabhshed the kingdom on a 
secure basis. At this time the great armies under 
Hugh de Vermandois, Stephen de Blois, William of 
Nevers, the Bishop of Milan, and the Germans Conrad 
and Wolf, accompanied by many ladies of high rank, 
were utterly destroyed by the Turks near Ancyra and 
on the river Halys. Thus ended the first and greatest 
crusading movement. 

Godfrey was succeeded by Baldwin, Lord of 
Edessa, a well-educated resolute man, who soon made 
his name a terror to all the surrounding infidels. Un- 
like his predecessor, he opposed priestcraft whenever 
it suited his purpose to do so, and quarrelled wnth 
Dagobert the Patriarch, who at last left the city in a 
rage, and never returned. His place was first filled 
by Ebremer, and then by Arnold, who died after a 
couple of years in ofiice. Almost yearly forays were 
made by the Egyptians into the maritime plain, but 
with one or two exceptions they were easily repulsed. 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 137 

A league with the Genoese enabled Baldwin to con- 
quer Cgesarea, Acre, and Tripoli. Beyrout and Sidon 
next fell ; the latter by help of a Norwegian contin- 
gent. In 1112 the Saracens gained some slight suc- 
cesses near Tiberias and Edessa. In the followinir 
year Baldwin made an expedition to Moab, Petra, and 
as far as the borders of Egypt, near Suez. Ilere he 
was taken ill and died near El Arish. His body was 
embalmed by his cook, and taken to Jerusalem for 
burial. He had no children, though tlmce married, 
1. to an Englishwoman, who died before reaching 
Palestine; 2. to an Armenian princess, whom he 
divorced for misconduct; 3. to Adelaide, widow (jf 
Eoger of Sicily. This lady he sent back after three 
years, owing to rehgious scruples which then occurred 
to his mind with reference to his divorced wife being 
still alive. Before his death he chose Eustace, his 
brother, to succeed him. Eustace, however, was in 
France, and Baldwin of Edessa, the late king's cousin, 
was unanimously elected to succeed him. In 1124 ho 
was taken prisoner and confined in a fortress of Ar- 
menia. He was afterwards ransomed, and having 
made a futile attack on Aleppo returned to Jerusalem, 
where he died in 1131, and was succeeded by Fulke, 
Count of Anjou, who had married his daughter Milh- 
cent. Fulke was much troubled by quarrels ])otli in 
his family and kiugdoni. After several encounter 



138 NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

with Zaughi, the Turkish invader, in which no great 
advantage was gained on either side, he was killed 
near Acre by a foil from his horse. His son, Bald- 
win in., succeeded him at the age of thirteen, with his 
mother Millicent as queen regent. 

In 1147 the second crusade, consisting of Germans 
and French, raised by the exertions and preaching of 
St. Bernhard, crossed the Bosphorus. Of this vast 
band only a few thousands ever reached Syria. After 
an attempt to capture Damascus, which but for 
treachery would have succeeded, the leaders of the 
crusade retired in disgust to Europe. Baldwin now 
had to maintain a severe struo-o-le mth his mother 
Millicent and her cousin Manasseh, who usurped all 
Vjut the name of royalty. In 1153 he captured Asca- 
lon, which had long been a thorn in the side of the 
Latin kingdom. After a defeat at Safat by Niir-ed- 
din, the King received timely help from Stephen, Coimt 
of Percbe, who arrived with a few thousand pilgrims, 
and succeeded in breaking the Saracen power for a 
while. In 1159 the King married Theodora, niece of 
the Byzantine Emperor. In the following year his 
mother died, and he himself was carried off by fever 
two years later. 

The next king was Amaury, brother to Baldwin : 
soon after his accession he made a successful raid on 
rdusium, on the Egyptian frontier. He then made 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 130 

an alliance against Niir-ed-din witli Shawer, vizier of 
the Egyptian Khalif, who agreed to pay the Christians 
an immense sum for their services. After an entja^e- 
ment with Nur-ed-din's general, Shirkoh, in which the 
Christians gained the advantage, Amaury besieged 
Salah-ed-din (the afterwards famous Saladin of ordinary 
history) in Alexandria, and obtained the release of all 
Christian prisoners, and the promise of Shirkoh to quit 
Egypt. He then returned to Ascalon, whence he im- 
mediately went to Tyre to marry Mary, niece of the 
Emperor of Constantinople, who secretly persuaded liim 
to attack Egypt. Eegardless of his pledged word he 
did so. When Shawer heard of his having taken Pelu- 
sium, he sent to offer him an enormous bribe to retire, 
and at the same time sent messengers to Niir-ed-din. 
Playing with the King's cupidity, he kept him in uiac- 
tivity till Shirkoh arrived in Egyi)t. Amaury then 
saw the trick that had been played him, and retired in 
ra^e and disgust to Jerusalem. Shirkoh soon took 
Shawer's place and life, and then dying was succeeded 
by Salah-ed-din. 

In 1169 Amaury, helped by a Greek contingent 
from Constantinople, besieged Damietta ; after two 
months he raised the siege, thus plainly showing his 
weakness. Salah-ed-din soon began a series of smaller 
attacks. To procure aid Amaury went to Constanti- 
nople, where the Emperor received him with great dis- 



140 NOTES FOR A lUSTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

tinction and made him presents, but failed to supply 
him with soldiers. The Ai'chbishop of Tyre, who had 
gone to Europe on a similar mission, also returned 
empty-handed. At this time the King received an 
embassy from the chief of the Israaelite sect of As- 
sassins, who was commonly known as The Old Man 
\_shaykli] of the Mountain, offering to become Christian 
with all his people if certain imposts were remitted by 
the Knights Templars. This alliance seems not at all 
to have suited the views of this ambitious order, who 
doubtless aimed at the sovereignty of Palestine them- 
selves, not foreseeing that the Moslem power would 
sweep them all into the sea, and they treacherously 
murdered the messenger while he was travelling under 
the King's protection. In consequence of this all nego- 
tiations were broken off never to be renewed. 

In 1173 or 1174 Niir-ed-din died, and Amaury laid 
siege to his castle of Banias, but left the place on re- 
ceipt of a sum of money from Nur-ed-din's widow and 
retiu-ncd to Jerusalem, where he died aged thirty- 
eight. 

Amaury was succeeded by liis sun Baldwiii, known 
as tlie Leper. He was crowned at the age of thirteen, 
Milo de riancy being appointed regent, biit was soon 
murdered, and Raymond took his place. Salah-ed-din, 
mean while, liad taken Damascus, assumed the title of 
Sultan, and become virtual ruler of the East. After 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 147 

suffering a defeat at the hands of Baldwin lie concluded 
a peace with him which was kept till the conduct of 
Eeynaud de Chatillon, Seigneur of Kerak, who continued 
to plunder at will, compelled Saladiu to make reprisals 
by taking prisoners a number of pilgrims who were 
shipwrecked on the Egyptian coast. 

Guy de Lusignan, now that the King's disease had 
blinded him, was appointed regent ; he had married 
Sybille, sister of the King and widow of William Long- 
sword. Soon afterwards the Barons persuaded the 
King to deprive Guy of the regency and to associate 
his nephew Baldwin V., an infant son of William 
Longsword, with him on the throne. 

In 1186 the King was freed from his troubles by 
death; his infant nephew died on the following day, 
poisoned, it is said, by his stepfather Guy de Lusignan, 
who next ascended the throne, with his mother Sybille 
who at the same time was crowned queen. She was 
supported by the Patriarch Heraclius and by the 
Knights Templars; the Barons, however, held aloof. 
Eaymond of Tripoli then held Tiberias, and was espe- 
cially feared and hated by the King, by whose orders 
the Grand Master of the Templars marched against that 
place. Raymond, however, had called in the Saracens, 
who under Saladin defeated the Templars. Then a re- 
concihation took place between the King and him, and 
by his advice the former collected his forces at Safluryeli 



142 ^'OTI:S FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

near Nazareth. Here ill counsels prevailed, and the 
doomed army marched in midsummer on Tiberias over 
a scorched waterless tract. Parched with a day and 
night of thirst they fought the Saracens at Kiirn 
Hattiu, and were utterly defeated. Eaymond escaped 
to Tjrre, but the King and all the Christian leaders were 
taken prisoners by Saladin. This battle preluded the 
total fall of the Christian power in Palestine. All the 
towns except Tyre and Tripoli fell into the hands of the 
Moslems, and then came the siege of Jerusalem. Ee- 
fusing Saladin's easy terms, the Christians under Bahan 
of Ibelin determined to fight, and for a few days held 
the Saracens at bay. When, however, part of the city 
walls were undermined and fell, a panic seized them, 
and they sent an offer of capitulation to Saladin. After 
much delay the Sultan agreed to accept ransom for the 
rich at fifteen gold byzants a head ; and for 7,000 poor 
men (two women or ten children being considered 
equivalent to a man) 30,000 byzants. Besides these 
there still remained many thousands who could not 
pay. Then Sayf-ed-din, the Sultan's brother, set free a 
thousand that Saladin made over to him ; the same 
luck attended twelve hundred given to the Patriarch 
and Balian. Then Saladin himself gave leave to all 
those who were absolutely without money to leave the 
city ; but still 11,000 remained. Many of these were 
afterwards set free by the 'paynim knight,' whose con- 



NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. U:\ 

duct usually contrasted only too favourably with tliat of 
his Christian antagonists. The feeble and vicious King 
Guy soon afterwards died in Cyprus, the principality of 
which he had obtained from Eichard of England in 
exchange for the title of King of Jerusalem. 

This fall of Jerusalem in 1187 was the immediate 
cause of the third Crusade. For the first time tlie 
movement was enthusiastically received in England, 
and Eichard set sail with a large force. The French 
king Philip Augustus also went by sea, while Frederick 
Barbarossa of Germany followed the old route throiigli 
Asia Mnor. He died on the road, and of 100,000 
men who started with him only 6,000 ever reached 
Palestine. QuaiTels in the crusading army resulted in 
the return of Philip to France, immediately after the 
captiu-e of Acre from the Moslems. On Guy's taking 
the crown of Cyprus, Conrad of Tyre was elected King of 
Jerusalem, but was almost immediately afterwards mur- 
dered, perhaps by order of Eichard, as there is some 
reason to believe. Henry of Champagne married his 
widow Isabelle, daughter of King Amaury, and suc- 
ceeded to the title. A peace was soon afterwards made 
between Saladin and Eichard ; the latter returned to 
England, thus virtually putting an end to the Crusade. 

Saladin died at Damascus February 21, 1193, at the 
age of fifty-six, and at that time the whole Cliristian 
power was limited to small possessions on the seacoast. 



144 NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

Henry of Champagne, the nominal King, had no inte- 
rest in the country and only wished for a quiet life. 
He soon had to cry ' Save us from our friends ! ' for a 
party of German Crusaders came over and, regardless 
of truce and treaty, attacked the Saracens, and war was 
again kindled. Henry was killed accidentally at Jaffa. 
His widow Isabelle married Amaury, brother of Guy 
de Lusignan, who thus became nominal King of Jeru- 
salem. All real power had long since passed away 
from the title. Appeals were made to Europe for help, 
but all in vain ; a Crusade indeed started, but contented 
itself with capturing Constantinople. Famine and 
earthquakes kept the Moslems from attacking Jerusa- 
lem. John de Brienne then married the daughter or 
Isabelle by her second husband, Conrad de Montfer- 
rand, Lord of Tyre. 

In the year 1212, certain fanatic monks, declaring 
that the former Crusades had failed on account of the 
vices of those who took part in them, went through 
Europe and inveigled some 50,000 children of both 
sexes by promise of manifold miracles to undertake a 
Crusade. One party of Germans went towards Italy, 
where they found out their mistake, and the few that 
survived retui'ned to their homes; the other party 
sailed from Marseilles in the ships of two philanthropic 
merchants, who gave them a free passage to Alexan- 
dria — and there sold them. 



NOTES FOR A HISTOnY OF JEIiVSALEM. ]4o 

In 1217 a Crusade landed at Acre under Andrew 
King of Hungary, but having marched to the Jordan 
and been defeated at Tabor, they retired to Egypt where 
they finally had to surrender in great misery. Twelve 
years later the Emperor Frederick XL, who had been 
twice excommunicated by the Pope, came to Acre 
where he married Yolande, daughter of John de 
Brienne, and was elected King of Jerusalem. He 
then made a treaty for ten years with El ]\Ielek-el- 
Kamil to ^e effect that the Christians were to have 
Jerusalem with the exception of the Mosque of Omar. 
This, however, did not suit the views of the Church, who 
would have nothing to do with the treaty because the 
maker of it, by whose means the Holy Sepulchre was 
restored to the Christians, was under tlio ban and 
curse of the Pope. In 1237 another Crusade was 
attempted, but proved a fiasco. Two years later, at 
the expiration of the truce, the Saracens retook Jeru- 
salem. In 1243 it was unreservedly given over to the 
Christians, who immediately rebuilt tlie walls. In the 
following year the Kharezmian hordes overran the 
country by permission of the Sultan of Egypt ; they 
then defeated the alhed forces of Christians and Mos- 
lems on the maritime plain, but were in turn extermi- 
nated by their quondam friend the Cairene Sultan. In 
1250 St. Louis arrived at Acre after his attack on 
Egypt, and four years later, after rebuilding the fortifica- 

L 



146 NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 

tions of Jaffa and Caesarea, returned home. Then all 
hope was lost of ever maintaining the Christian power 
in Palestine. Complete indifference on the subject was 
shown throughout Europe, which was but Httle dis- 
turbed when the news of the fall of Acre, the last 
town held by the Christians, arrived. 

The history of the town from the fourteenth to the 
nineteenth centuries can only be gathered from inci- 
dental notices of travellers, such as Sir John Mande- 
ville, and Bertrandon de la Eoquiere, who followed 
him a century later. By him we are told that the 
Christians were much despised and insulted by the 
Moslems. Li a.ii. 948 or a.d. 1542, the walls of 
Jerusalem as they now stand were built by the Sultan 
Sulayman ; this may be learnt by reading the inscrip- 
tion over the Bab-el-Khahl (usually called by Euro- 
peans Jaffa Gate). Belon, who visited the place in 
1547, expressly mentions the fact that they had lately 
been rebuilt. 

The notices of later travellers are chiefly confined 
to religious and archaeological questions, and we can 
Iciirn nothing of the status of Christian, Moslem, or 
Jew. 

In A.D. 1832 Jerusalem yielded to Mohammed 'Ali 
Pacha of Egypt without a struggle. In 1834 the 
felluhin, taking advantage of general disturbances 
throughout the country, seized the city, making their 



NOTHS FOR A HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 147 

entrance by a drain near the Bab-el-Magharibeli . 
Thinking discretion, however, better than valour, they 
promptly gave up the city on the approach of Ibrahim 
Pacha, whose name is still held in awe from Sinai to 
Aleppo. 

Since the Crimean War, Christians under the eyes 
of European consuls at Jerusalem have had no reason 
to complain. From the same period dates the per- 
mission of European representatives to hoist their flags 
in the Holy City. 



L 2 



NOTES FOR TEAVELLEES IN PALl^TIXE. 

It will be seen that the proposed work was to bo one of collaboration. 
Drake's own share was to be especially the Holj' City. — En. 

With the great facilities for travel wliich no\v-a-days 
exist, many tourists are enabled to pay a short visit to 
Palestine. A limited time frequently restricts their 
trip to Jerusalem and the immediate neighbourhood. 
To provide for a want long felt by travellers who were 
unwilling to encumber themselves with a two-volumed 
Guide Book, only a small part of which would ever be 
of service to them, the present authors determined 
upon writing this little volume. Their aim will be 
to give a general account of the City, both ancient and 
modern, in as concise a manner as possible. Tlie 
latest discoveries of the Palestine Exploration Fund 
show that, though mucli has been done by .tliat 
Society, much more still remains to be done. These 
discoveries liave as much as possible been arranged 
and the inferences to be drawn from them pointed out. 
Though agreeing on most points neither of the 
authors in any way accepts responsibility for the opi- 
nions and theories of (lie otlier. Till tlicory lins been 



150 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

set aside by facts-r-which can only be reached by 
further explorations — it is well nigh impossible that 
any two persons can agree fully on all points. The 
more carefully the subject has been studied the plainer 
does this appear. Still when a fact has been dis- 
covered, statements of old writers, before apparently 
vague or even contradictory, become intelhgible. 

The traveller starting for Palestine from Alexandria 
will be able to make his choice of French, Austrian, or 
Eussian steamers. The departures of all these are fort- 
nightly, but as changes are not unfrequently made, 
it will be necessary to make inquiries at Alexandria, 
where all information on the subject is easily obtained. 

The landing at Jaffa is during the winter months 
often difficult and sometimes impossible. There is no 
harbour, and the steamers are obliged to lie out in the 
open roadstead. The small shore-boats are sheltered 
beneath the walls of the town by a ridge of rocks run- 
ning parallel to the coast, and about 100 yards distant. 
This httle harbour is entered by two narrow gaps ; one 
to the north is some thirty yards, and that to the west 
little more than as many feet in width. Thus it will 
be seen that a heavy swell renders it impossible for 
boats to put out. 

Supposing the traveller to have been safely landed, 
an operation during which he will have undergone 
treatment much similar to that experienced by his 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IX r.iI.ESTIXE. 151 

portmanteau, he finds himself on the quay surrounded 
by a gibbering howhng crowd. If ignorant of the 
language, he will do well to select some English- 
speaking youth to have his luggage carried up to the 
hotel. These lads, who have picked up a smattering of 
English and perhaps French, will try to make the un- 
wary believe that they are first-rate dragomans, able 
and willing to go everjrvvhere and do everything. 
There is no need, however, for the tourist who is 
only going to Jerusalem to engage any of these. Let 
him hire a horse for himself and mule for his baggage 
(the price for each animal up to Jerusalem varying, 
according to the season, from seven to fifteen or even 
twenty francs) from one of the numerous inakdri (mu- 
leteers), who are always to be Ibund near the hotel. 
This hotel is kept by M. Hardegg, a member of the 
flourishing German colony which succeeded the Ame- 
rican on its failure. The house is clean and comfort- 
able, and charges not exorbitant. 

The distance from Jaffa (a European corruption of 
the Arabic Yafa) to Jerusalem is nearly thirty-eight 
miles ; this usually takes ten hours to get over ; with a 
good horse it may be easily done in seven hours. A 
break in the journey is frequently made at Eamleh 
where the traveller will find good accommodation at 
the Eussian hospice. There is a Latin convent too, 
but, unhke their brethre-n in other parts of Palestine, 



152 XOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

the monks here are not famed for urbanity. At these 
hospices all remuneration is left to the traveller's dis- 
cretion. For a niglit's lodging and dinner it is usual 
to give not less than five francs per head, and a small 
tip to the servant. 

The distances on the I'oad are as follows : — 

Jaffa to Ramleh . . . , • Hf miles, 
liamleh to Jerusalem . . . . 26 „ 

The present town of Jaffa is of modern construc- 
tion. The site is ancient, and the name Japha occurs 
in many passages of the Old Testament, from the time 
of the first Jewish incursion up to the date of Ezra. In 
the New Testament it is mentioned in connection with 
Peter's vision and the raising of Tabitha (Acts ix. 
and X.). The house of Simon the Tanner is still 
shown, and will be interesting to those whose emotion- 
power is always equal to the occasion. To the ordi- 
nary antiquarian the ruins seem to be at most three or 
four centuries old. Inland of the town is a wide 
stretch of gardens in which oranges, lemons, apricots, 
peaches, sycamores, and mulberries are cultivated. 
Grapes, tomatoes, egg-plants, water melons, cucumbers, 
vegetable marrows, as wtII as varieties of beans and 
other vegetables, are also grown. The oranges are 
well known, and are remarkable for their size and 
the extraordinary thickness of their skin ; the flavour 
is good. 



NOTJES FOE TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 153 

On leaving the gardens of Jaffa, a long low build- 
ing with a tall flaf]rstaff standing beside it is seen on the 
right hand. This is the Jewish Agricultural School 
(Mikveh Israel) founded by the ' Alliance Israelite 
Universelle,' and under the direction of M. Charles 
Netter. The object of the institution is to teach Jewish 
boys a useful and profitable trade, and also when means 
allow to open a school for boys and girls. This scheme 
has experienced great opposition from the Jews resi- 
dent in Palestine, and especially from their Eabbis. 
All the Ashkenay (Pohsh and Eussian) Jews in Jeru- 
salem, Tiberias, Safat, and Hebron Hve more or less in 
idleness, supported by the alms {hallukah) collected in 
Europe from their co-rehgionists. The distribution of 
this money falls to the Eabbis, who thus exercise an 
almost unlimited influence over their congregations, 
who — being without trade or means of gaining a 
Hvelihood — would inevitably starve were this extra- 
neous help withdrawn. These Eabbis are not only 
bigoted and fanatical, but they fear that if the Jews of 
Europe get to know and appreciate the real state of 
the case much of the money now given in indiscrimi- 
nate — and harmful — charity, will be apphed to some 
useful and practical purpose hke the above-mentioned 
school. Those European Jews who have the true in- 
terests of their co-religionists at heart would never 
thus blindly give alms could they but see the vice and 



154 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

misery entailed by this system on their brethren in 
Palestine, especially at Jerusalem. 

A little beyond this farm and on the opposite side 
of the road is the village of Yaziir, half surrounded by 
gardens of orange, pomegranate, and fig trees, fenced 
in with prickly pears. A few palm trees make this 
village with ' the grass growing upon the housetops ' 
somewhat picturesque from a distance. A closer ac- 
quaintance reveals ^othing but uncleanness and un- 
sightliness. The people are well off, as they own a 
lai'ge tract of the fertile plain ; but they are a bad lot, 
a mere scratch population from all parts of the plain, 
and some even fi'om the mountains. They are a com- 
paratively industrious folk; they may even be seen 
weeding their corn, but then tlie weeds are required 
for their cattle and mules. Of the former they have 
large herds, but very few sheep, and no goats. In the 
middle of the village is visible the remains of a fort, 
seemingly of Crusading or Early Saracenic construc- 
tion. By the roadside is a white building surmounted 
by little domes. This is a Makam in honour of the 
Imam 'Ali. 

To the north of this road a hne of villages is 
seen about two miles distant, beginning with Selameh 
to tlie west ; then Ibu Ibrak, the ancient Bene Berak 
(Josh. xix. 45), Sakia, Kefr 'Ana (the Ono of Neh. vii. 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 155 

37, xi. 34, 35 ; Ezra ii. 33), and El Yeliudiyeli (Jehud^ 
Josh. xix. 45) on the east. 

Two miles from Yazur is the village of Bayt Dejan 
on the left, possibly the Beth Dagon, ' House or 
Temple of Dagon,' mentioned in Josh. xv. 41. A 
little further, on the same side of the road, is Safeiyeh, 
the Sariphcea^ whose Bishop Stephen is mentioned in 
the list of the Council of Jerusalem held a.d. 536, and 
which was destroyed by a Saracenic incursion a.d. 797. 

Passmg over slightly undulating ground Sarafend 
appears on the right. In front the White Tower of 
Eamleh forms a conspicuous landmark, lying nearly 
half a mile S.W, of the town. This has frequently 
been called the tower of the Forty Martyrs, but with- 
out reason, though a tradition as old as the sixteentli 
century states it to be the tower of a Cliristian Churcli. 
The style, however, is distinctly Saracenic, and an 
inscription over the door gives the date a.ii. 710 (a.d. 
1310). Erom the platform at top (86 feet high) a fnio 
view is obtained over the plain which fades away into 
space towards the south ; is bounded on the east by 
the central ridge of mountains, and on the north by 
the dim blue line of Carmel. From this point Nebi 
Samwil — to the N.W. of Jerusalem — is visible ; also 
the Convent at Eam Allah and other liill villages, 
especially towards sunset. At this time the view is 
best, for the tender evening tints soften the hills and 



156 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

allow of a certain misty effect which is totally wantiu<r 
during the day Avhcn everything appears hard and 
glaring. 

A modern tradition makes Eamleh the Bamatkaimy 
or Ramah, where the prophet Samuel was born, and 
also the Arimathaea of the New Testament. Conform- 
ably with this tradition the House of Nicodemus, who, 
from his connection \dth Joseph of Arimathsea, seems 
to have been considered his townsman, is shown in a 
side chapel of the Latin Convent Church. There is no 
connection even in the names, as the Hebrew Ramah 
means a hill^ and the Arabic Eamleh sandy. The first 
mention of the town occurs in ' Bernard the Monk ' (De 
Locis Sanctis) a.d. 870 : then Abu '1 Feda, the well- 
known Arabic geographer (about a.d. 1320), informs us 
that the town was built by Sulayman the son of Abd-el- 
Melek, the seventh Ommizad Khalif at Cairo. Mejr-ed- 
Din (a.d. 1495) says that Nasr Mohammad ibn Ka- 
lawun, wlio reigned in Eg)rpt a.d. 1310, built a minaret 
famous for its height and beauty. As before men- 
tioned, this date appears over the door. The mosque 
is now ruined, and nothing remains but part of the 
outer works and the subterraneous cisterns which used 
to su|)ply it witli water, which is as much a necessity 
for the Moslem ceremonials as it was for the old 
.Jewish. Tlicre is no occasion to believe that any part 
of the building was other tlian a mosque. Nearly, if 



NOrUS FOR TRAVELLERS IX PALESTINE. 157 

not quite, all the early examples of such edifices con- 
sist of a large square surrounded by a single row of 
arches on three sides, while on the south — to which 
the face is turned when praying — there are three or 
four rows. 

During the Crusades the town of Eamleh was 
always an important post. At this time it was nearly 
eight times its present size. Traces of the old buildings, 
and a subterranean cistern {El 'Anaziyeh) with an 
almost effaced Cufic inscription, as well as many rock- 
hewn wells, may be seen extending to a considerable 
distance on the W. and N.W. of the modern town. 
When in 1099 it was first occupied by the Crusaders 
there were twelve gates, and it remained in Christian 
hands till eighty-eight years later, when it fell into the 
power of Salah-ed-din (commonly known as Saladin), 
after the disastrous battle of Ilattin. Soon afterwards, 
however, it was occupied by Eichard Coeur de Lion, 
not however till the castle had been destroyed by the 
Mohammedans. In the truce of 1192, half the city 
and the greater part of the maritime plain was given 
up to the Christians, and a few years later they ob- 
tained the whole city. In 1266 it fell finally into 
Moslem hands, on its capture by the Sultan Bibars. 

In tlie Latin Convent — part of which is a IIos- 
pitium, built in the thirteenth centuiy by Philip the 
Good, Duke of Burgundy — niuy be seen the names of 



15« NOTES FOIi rnAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

certain valiant Crusaders, cut with their daggers, over 
one of the two low doorways. The habit of scratching 
or ^\Titing his name is not confined to the modern 
tourist — though the diabolical invention of a stenciUing- 
plate and blacking-pot is so limited. Names of old 
Greek travellers may be seen in the tombs at Thebes ; 
Crusaders' names in the Convent of St. Katharine at 
Sinai, and on the door of the Holy Sepulchre at Jeru- 
salem : Hebrew names are found at the Golden and 
Double gateways of the Haram-el-Sherif. Antiquity, 
however, can never sanction such an abominable prac- 
tice by which the most venerable and beautiful ruins 
are disfigured with the names of snobs. 

From Ramleh the traveller has the choice of two 
roads. The most direct is that leading up Wady 'Ali, 
and is practicable for carriages, except after heavy 
rains. Formerly a diligence used to run on it, but the 
heavy Government tax broke its back. The other 
route, however, by Lydda, Beth Horon, and Gibeon, is 
by far the most interesting. A brief description of 
each will enable the traveller to make his own choice. 
The first may easily be done in seven hours, and the 
se(!ond requires nine and a half to ten hours. A third 
road unites with the latter at Eljib (Gibeon), but as it 
lies in the bed of Wady Selman nothing of interest is 
vi.sible from it. 

The carriage road leads past Kubab,a small village 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLEBS IX PALESTINE. 150 

on the left (from here Tell-el-Sezari, the ancient Gezer, 
lies to the right, easily known by the domed Moslem 
tomb on the top), and in nine and a half miles reaches 
Latrun, said to be so called from the monkish legend 
which places the Castellum boni latronis, or Penitent 
Thief s Castle, here. It has also, but erroneously, been 
identified with Modin, the burial-place of the Macca- 
bees. The true site of their tombs is doubtless at 
Midyeh, a village a few miles N.W. of Lower Beth 
Horon. About a mile north of Latrun lies the village 
of 'Am was — an old Emmaus, called during the Eoman 
occupation Nicopohs, but not to be confounded with 
the Emmaus of the New Testament. The traces of the 
ancient town cover a large extent, though the modern 
village is insignificant. The ruins of an early Christian 
church are interesting. The triple apse is still tole- 
rably preserved, though it is somewhat difficult to trace 
the body of the building. The stones of the east end 
are large and well fitted together ; tlie arch of the 
south apse is still nearly perfect, that in the centre 
rises some seven to nine feet above the soil, but the 
north apse is nearly destroyed. From the style it 
appears to be a church of the third or fourth centuries. 
Under the name of Ammaus, the town is several times 
mentioned by Josephus, who tells us that it was for- 
tified by Bacchides when he was fighting Jonathan 
Maccabaeus. Later on it was burnt by Varus ; near 



inO XOTES FOIi TnAT'ELLEns TX PA LEST I XE. 

it too the Syrians pitclied their camp before their great 
defeat by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Mace. iii. 40). Jerome 
says that the name Nicopohs was given to it by JuHus 
Africanus, who rebuilt it under the Emperor M. Aure- 
lius Antoninus. A miraculous fountain, which cured 
all rnaladies of men and of beasts, is said to have been 
blocked up by Julian (the Apostate). St. Willibald 
(eiglith century) seems to have been the first to con- 
found this Eramaus with the village mentioned in St. 
Luke xxiv. 13, as distant seven and a half miles from 
Jerusalem. Beyond Amwas lie Yalo the old Ajalon, 
and Bayt Nuba, a strong fort in the time of the Cru- 
saders, who called it Castellum Arnaldi. It is possibly 
the same as the Nebo mentioned in Ezra ii. 29, and 
Neh. vii. 33. The village contains nothing of interest, 
but a fine well, 140-145 feet deep to the surface of the 
water and seventeen feet in diameter, exists in the 
wady. 

From Latrun to Bab-el-Wady — the Gate of the 
Valley — the road runs with low hills on either side for 
2 J miles. About a mile below this point is a small native 
<'ofree-shop beside a spring on the right-hand side ; to 
ihc north-east of this and half a mile distant is a small 
villiige called Dayr Ayyub — the Convent or House of 
Joab. At the entrance of the wady is another similar 
cnnee-liouse, where bread and coffee, hard-boiled eggs, 
and perhaps a chicken and a glass of drak — native 



NOTES FOR THAVELLEliS IX PALESTINE. 1(31 

spirit — may be procured. Tliere is also an octroi for 
the examination of native merchandise, vegetables and 
other produce going up to the Jerusalem market. The 
soldiers stationed here usually take a small percentage 
of all edibles for their own peculiar benefit. The lug- 
gage of European travellers is not touched. 

On reaching the head of the wady, the village of 
Saris is seen a few hundred yards distant to the left. 
The road then runs along the ridge and crosses over to 
the south side of another wady. Passing over the 
watershed of this there is a steep descent, and in five 
miles from Bab-el- Wady the village of Karyet-el-Anab 
( Village of Grapes) is reached. This is the old Kir- 
jath-jearim (Village of Woods). The modern village 
is a good specimen of South Palestine architecture ; 
the houses are solidly built of hewn stone with vaulted 
ceilings. This system of domed roofs is necessitated 
by the absence of wood for rafters. A somewhat 
similar system of construction is found in the ruins of 
the Desert et-Tih, in Moab, in the basaltic ruins of the 
Ilauran, which like those on the borders of the Desert 
in North Syria must, from the internal evidence of in- 
scriptions and style, be attributed to a Christian race 
who flourished from the second to the sixth centuries. 
These were in all probability the Beni Ghassan, a 
powerful tribe of Arabs who embraced Christianity and 
settled on the frontiers of the Desert, abandoning their 



162 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

nomad life ; or, what is more probable — if, as some 
imagine, they came from the cities of Arabia — improv- 
ing upon their former civilisation by contact with 
European art at Damascus and the Eoman colonies. 
Tiie principal family in this village — which is some- 
times called after them — is that of Abu Ghosh. 
Formerly they w^ere feudal lords of a large district, 
extending even into the maritime plain. So late as 
1845 these freebooters kept not only the whole country 
side, but the Turkish soldiery and governors in awe. 
Toll was exacted when required by them ; those who 
resisted their demands were instantly shot, and at last 
the family grew to such a height of insolence that they 
shot two Turkish officers of high rank and put their 
guards to flight. This was the last straw, and in 1 846 
the Government of the Porte made an effort and 
seized the principid shaykhs. Some were banished to 
Widdin and Bosnia, others were fined. Since that 
their power has dwindled away, and though they are 
still well off, nothing remains of their ancient despotism 
but tales of fire and murder, plunder and revolt. 

In the valley below the village stands a Gothic 
church formerly attached to a monasteiy of Minorite 
friars. It is first mentioned by Boniface, who was 
guardian of the Holy Sepulchre, about a.d. 1555, and 
a later monkish legend which makes this place Ana- 
thofh, tlic birthplace of Jeremiah the Prophet, dedicates 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. l«;j 

the church to him. The building is still iu good 
repair, but used as a cattle stable. It is now believed 
(1872) that this interesting relic has been bought by 
the Eussian Church, which intends restoring it, but 
owing to changes in the local authorities the sale has 
never been made public. 

Still descending, the road passes the village of Bayt 
Nakiiba on the left, then a small coffee-house on the 
right. A wady is soon afterwards crossed by a bridge, 
and the Crusading ruin called Khirbet Ikbala is seen a 
few score yards to the right. A short sharp ascent 
leads to a bit of level road at the end of which is a 
slope of a few yards at such a steep pitch that it would 
seem impossible for any carriage ever to have been 
driven over it in safety. To the right of this is the 
httle hamlet of Kastal (some old Latin Castelliuii) 
perched on the summit of a conical hill and topped 
by its watch-tower. A village similar in position and 
appearance lies across the large wady to the south- 
west ; this is Soba, by some considered to be Eamah, 
the home of Samuel. If, however, we accept the 
tomb of Eachel in its present position, this can hardly 
be so (see 1 Sam. x.). 

From Kastal a long zigzag leads down to Kalonia 
(perhaps some Eoman Colonia). It appears in the 
verse of the Septuagint, which is said to be interpo- 

M 2 



164 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

lated (Josh. xv. 60), as Koulon ; in the same place 
'Ain Karem preserves its name unchanged. By the 
roadside, below the village of Kalonia (which is four 
miles from Karyet-el-'Anab) are some massive ruins 
without history; they appear to be of Eoman work- 
manship. Halfway up the hill to the right we see 'Ain 
Karem, called by the Latins St. Jean du Desert. Here 
the religious order of Les Dames de Sion have a large 
school for girls situated in the middle of a charming 
flower-garden. In a monastery of Spanish monks is 
shown part of the house of Zacharias, the birthplace 
of St. John the Baptist, and the impression made in 
the rock by his body when his mother hid him at the 
time of the murder of the innocents. There is also a 
Greek monastery in the village. A long ascent, end- 
ing in four or five sharp zigzags, brings us to the level 
of Jerusalem, but the city itself, distant from Kalonia 
4^ miles, is not visible for another two miles. The 
first objects which catch the traveller's eye are the 
unsightly white domes of the Russian church, and the 
long barrack-like buildings of the hospice. On each 
side of the road, and now extending a mile and a quar- 
ter from the walls, are numbers of villas and cottages, 
chiefly inhabited by Europeans and Jews. All these 
houses, with the exception of five or six, and the house 
of the Prussian Sisters, have sprung up since 1869. 
It is nut till lie is quite close to the town that the 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 165 

traveller sees the low grey walls topped in one point 
by the clump of stone-pines in the Armenian convent 
garden. The view is most disappointing, and scarcely 
any amount of enthusiasm could really make the pil- 
grim go into ecstasies. Were he to approach from the 
southern side of the Mount of Olives the case might 
be different, as thence a most remarkable view suddenly 
comes before him. 

The second road from Eamleh to Jerusalem (about 
thirty miles) passes through Lidd (the ancient Lydda 
and Diospolis), by both of which names it was known in 
the early centuries of the Christian era. The two towns 
are separated by two and a half miles of gardens, con- 
taining vegetables, sycamores, pomegranates, and a few 
oranges, all hedged in with prickly pears. The road 
is sandy and pleasant ; in the early morning foxes, 
jackals, and occasionally wolves, may be seen return- 
ing to the shelter of these gardens after their nightly 
prowl in the plain. 

There is nothing worthy of note in Lidd except 
the Church of St. George. The ruins of the old 
building said to have been built by Eichard Coeur de 
Lion have lately (1870) incorporated into a new 
Greek church. Part of an arch is still to be seen 
between the church and the mosque, and this is all 
that remains outside. 

Lidd is famous as the birthplace of St. George, who 



16R NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

became patron saint of many of the Crnsaders, English 
and others, at the first taking of Eamleh. 

Crossing the plain in a south-easterly direction for 
3 J miles, Jimzu, the ancient Gimzo (2 Chron. xxviii. 18), 
is readied. On the edge of the same low range of hills, 
and three miles to the north, a village may be seen on 
a conspicuous round tell, or mound. This is Hadithah, 
the old Hadid mentioned (Neh. vii. 37, ix. 34, 35 ; 
Ezra ii. 33) in conjunction with Lod (Lidd), Ono (Kefr 
'Ana, before mentioned), and Neballat (Bayt Nabala, a 
village l.\ mile to the north). These low hills, begin- 
ning at the edge of the plain and extending up to the 
true base of the main mountain range, constitute the 
Shephelah, which in the Authorised Version is some- 
times translated * valley,' and sometimes ' plain.' The 
Rabbis made no such mistake in the Talmud, but 
rightly divided the country into Hor (mountain), Shep- 
helah (hill), and 'Einek (plain). 

The road then passes through Berfilia and Bir 
M'am to Bayt Sira : hence two roads may be taken, the 
one up Wady Selman, and showing nothing of interest ; 
the other, by the two Beth Horons. The two roads join 
at the top of the mountains, near El Jib. About two 
miles N.N.W. of Berfilia Hes El Midyeh, lately proposed 
for identification with Modin, the burial-place of the Mac- 
cabees. The tombs which have been found seem to me to 
leave no reasonable doubt that here were the pyramids 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 107 

of polished stone erected by Simon (cf. 1 Mace, chaps, 
ii., xiii., anfl xvi.), whicli were visible even from the 
sea. Eusebius states that Modin was not far from 
Diospolis, and Jerome says that it was only a little 
village. Passing along the hill-tops, Bayt 'Ur-el-Tahta — 
Nether Beth Horon — is reached in less than three miles. 
Here tlie old Eoman road becomes easily traceable : 
a sharp dip and then a rise bring the traveller to long 
steps and slopes formerly cased with stones and 
metalled, but now bare slippery sheets of rock. The 
village of Bayt 'Ur-el-Foka — Upper Beth Horon — com- 
mands a wide view which is best seen from the Medafeh 
or Guest House — a tower in the middle of the village. 
On a clear day the whole of the maritime plain, twenty 
miles on either side of Jaffa, is spread out like a map ; 
the distinction between the Shephelah and the moun- 
tains is easily seen. In tlie mountains themselves 
many a village with its central public tower is seen 
perched on a conical hill. In former days this was a 
very lawless district, and the Bayt Simhan (local for 
Simkn — Simeon) and Abu Ghosh kept blood always 
flowing. Even in these days of comparative civilisa- 
tion the blood feud is not forgotten, and at times vil- 
lages will join in pitched battle, till the Government 
interferes and sends some of the combatants to the 
conscription and others to Cyprus — the Turkish Botany 
Bay — while the remainder are lieavily fined. 



168 XOTHS FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

To tlic north is seen a conspicuous mazar or 
mosque, dedicated to Abu Zaytiin (the Father of the 
Olive), and built liere in consequence of an olive tree 
said to have sprung up miraculously in a single night. 
From the mosque to the valley bed below is a little 
more than 1,000 feet. It may be well here to remark 
that the Arabic word Wely, so constantly used in 
books of travel to mean a tomb, really means a fa- 
vourite (with God), and hence a saint. We might as 
well say that ' All Saints ' means a cemetery. 

Beyond this tomb, on the same ridge, lies the vil- 
lage of Baytunia ; the Eoman road follows the next 
ridge southwards. To the right of this may be seen 
the villages of Bayt 'Anan (probably Elon beth Hanan, 
1 Kings iv. 9), Bayt Dukku, Kubaybeh — the monkish 
Emmaus — with its white French convents, Biddu and 
Bayt Izza, The valleys here are very steep, and 
generally more or less clothed with scrub of ever- 
green oak (f pseudo cocci/era), large-leaved arbutus (A. 
andrachne)^ Cytisus, Kharrub or locust tree, as well 
as fig and olive trees. 

Beth Horon is first mentioned in Josh. xvi. 5 as 
the S.W. limit of Ephraim ; both the villages are said 
(1 Chron. vii, 24) to have been built by Sherah, the 
daughter of Beriah, an Ephraimite. Here Joshua de- 
stroyed the Amorite league, driving them down from 
nibcon (Kl Jib) past Beth Horon into the plain, where 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. It59 

he followed up his successes by a truly Semitic cam- 
paign of slaughter and devastation, ' utterly destroying 
all the souls that were in the cities.' Solomon after- 
wards rebuilt and fortified them (1 Kings ix. 17 ; 2 
Chron. viii. 5), and they seem always to have been 
posts of importance, mainly of course from the fact 
that one of the great high roads from Jaffa to Jerusalem 
passed through them. In the wars of the Maccabees, 
Mcanor, the general of Demetrius, King of Antioch, 
pitched his camp here before his final defeat by Judas. 
The battle probably took place at Khirbet Adasy, an 
insignificant ruin near El Jib, for Josephus tells us that 
Judas's camp was at Adasa, 30 furlongs from Beth 
Horon — this ruin is, however, G.> miles distant; but 
A (30) and iV (50) might easUy become interchanged 
in the MS. Soon after this Bacchides, the Syrian 
general, rebuilt the walls of the town ; and Cestius, 
the proconsul of Syria in the time of Nero, took refuge 
in it after his defeat by the Jews at Lydda. 

There are no traces of antiquity except the old 
stones of which the modern hovels are built, some 
cave tombs, and a small rock-hewn tank to the north. 

Leaving Bayt 'Ur, the route still keeps along the 
Eoman road on the ridge — throughout Palestine it is to 
be observed that Eoman roads, whenever practicable, 
were carried along the crests of hills or spurs. Two 
advantages were gained by this method : first, greater 



170 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

gecurity from attack than would be possible in a nar- 
row valley; and secondly, much easier gradients. The 
road, too, would be more easily kept in repair than 
would be the case were it exposed to the violence of 
the torrents which occasionally sweep down the wadies. 
At 4', miles a watershed is reached, the eastern side of 
which appears to drain down to the Jordan valley. 
Such, however, is not the case ; the slope descends 
merely to Wady Bayt Hannina, thence to Kalonia on 
the carriage road, and finally down to the plain by 
Wady Serar. From this point El Jib (Gibeon) and 
Nebi Samwil (by some thought to be Eamah of Samuel, 
and by others taken as Mizpeh) are visible on the 
right, the former 1 mile and the latter 2^ miles 
distant. 

The modern town of El Jib stands on the north- 
western of the twin mamelons, which, connected by a 
ridge, fonncd the site of the ancient Gibeon. Most of 
the hewn stones of which the houses are built were 
brought from a ruin called El 'Anayziyeh, some two 
miles to the west. In the centre of the village is a 
long vaulted chamber with semicircular ai'ches and one 
circular window. The ai)pearance of the work is late 
lioman, and it would seem to have formed the base- 
ment of a tower or fort. The southern hill is planted 
with olive trees, and the steeply terraced sides are 
grown with figs and vines. The soil to a considerable 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 171 

depth is full of fragments of pottery ; many sepulchral 
caves are hewn in the rock. On the east is a fine 
spring in a cavern ; the water is clear, cool, and never- 
failing. A few yards lower down is a choked-up reser- 
voir of small dimensions, originally intended for irri- 
gating the gardens below. About the centre of the 
connecting ridge on the west is also a small spring 
issuing from a hewn cave, and running into a small 
rock-hewn tank, whence it could be drawn off as re- 
quired. On the edge of the plain below are pear and 
almond trees, mixed with figs, ohves, and vines. Gi- 
beon is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, 
but never in the New. Hence it was that the wily 
Gibeonites started on their journey to Jericho with all 
the old rags, broken water-skins, and mouldy crusts 
that they were able to pick up off the dust heaps. This 
device deceived Joshua most completely, and he made 
a covenant with them. Thus, afterwards, instead of 
putting them to the edge of the sword, of slaying men 
and women, infants and sucklings, and burning their 
city with fire, he was obliged to protect them against 
their enemies, and fight their battles for them. Then, 
however, he made them ' hewers of wood and drawers 
of water,' and their town became a Levitical city. 
Here Abner, Saul's general, was defeated in battle, 
when he tried to set Ishbosheth, the son of the 
late King, upon the throne, in opposition to David : 



172 XOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

and liere Amasa was treacherously murdered (cf. 
2 Sam. ii. and xx.). In the time of Solomon, Gibeon 
is mentioned as ' tlie great high place' (1 Kings iii. 4), 
and here the King offered sacrifices, and received 
the promise of wisdom, riches, and honour from 
Jehovah. 

From El Jib there are three roads to Jerusalem. 
The smoothest and shortest leads down to Wady Bayt 
Hannina, and, joining that from Nebi Samwil, passes 
the Tombs of the Judges, and enters Jerusalem by the 
Jaffa or the Damascus gate, as is most convenient. 
The road by Nebi Samwil is somewhat rough, but 
repays the trouble. The third route follows the Roman 
road, and passes by Tell-el-Fiil (mound of beans), and 
enters the city by the Bab-el-'Amud (or Damascus 
gate). Leaving the traveller to choose his route, a 
description of Nebi Samwil and Tell-el-Fiil will suffice. 

Nebi Samwil is the reputed grave — amongst Mos- 
lems and the more ignorant of Jews — of Samuel, and 
even so esteemed by the more ignorant Christians and 
Jews. The same objection applies to this being con- 
sidered liiimah of Samuel as that already stated with 
reference to Soba. When Saul left Samuel who had 
just anointed him king, lie returned to Gibeah of 
Benjamin (Jeba E.N.E. of El Jib) ' by Rachel's sepul- 
chre in the border of Benjamin.' If we accept the 
^'(-ncniliy n-cognised tomb now sliown near Bethlehem, 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 173 

it would be absurd to suppose that ;Saul made a 
journey of ten hours when he could have reached his 
home in two. This tomb, however, cannot with pro- 
priety be said to be ' in the border of Benjamin ' (1 
Sam. X. 2) ; hence we may have to look for the place of 
Kachel's burial to the north of Jerusalem : in Gen, 
XXXV. 16-20, she is said to be buried on the road to, 
and not far from, Ephrah, which is Bethlehem, but this 
need not imply any very close proximity to that village 
which would contradict the other statement that the 
tomb was in the border of Benjamin. Again, if Nebi 
Samwil had been the habitation of Samuel, it would 
be most improbable that Saul coming from a town 
only four or five miles distant, shoidd be ignorant of 
his existence. It seems most probable that the tomb 
of Eachel must be looked for elsewhere, and that Soba 
is the Eamathaim-Zophim of Samuel. Whether this 
be so or not, it seems clear that Nebi Samwil cannot 
be this Eamah. 

As regards the identity with Mizpeh — which 
means a high place or look-out — there is greater proba- 
bihty of its being correct ; but if, as has been suggested, 
this be ' the hill of God,' garrisoned by the Philistines 
(cf. Stanley's ' Sinai and Palestine,' p. 216), it is very 
unlikely that the Jews would have been able to hold 
the meeting to which they were called by Samuel 
(1 Sam. X. 17). It seems most probable that either 



174 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

this place or ])referably Tell-el-Ful was Mizpeh. By 
Adamnanus (seventh century) it was called the city of 
Samuel or Raniah, and before that Procopius seems to 
allude to this as the place where Justinian built a wall 
and dug a well for the Monastery of St. Samuel. The 
Crusaders seemed to have called it indifferently Shiloh, 
Ramah, or St. Samuel. A Latin convent formerly 
stood here ; it was plundered and destroyed by Saladin 
(a.d. 1187). The principal mosque is the transept of 
the Gothic church belonging to this building. The 
tomb is a mere cenotaph — a wooden framework 
covered with a ragged cotton pall. The view from the 
top is extensive, extending from the distant hills of 
Hebron in the south to those of Nablus in the north. 
Jerusalem with its surrounding hills and valleys is 
clearly seen. To the north and north-east are Bay tin 
(Bethel) and Bireh (Beeroth) ; further east are Tyj-ibeh 
(Opltrah), Jeba (Gibeah of Saul), El Ram (some old 
Ramah), as well as other modern villages whose names 
may be gathered from the map. 

Tell-el-Fiil is probably Mizpeh. It is described as 
KaTivoiVTL 'lepovcraXr^fx, (1 Mace. iii. 46), which impHes 
that it was near to and visible from the city. Dr. 
Robinson states that Tell-el-Fiil is not visible from 
Jerusalem, but it is from all the north-west parts of 
the wall ; from the Tower of David (so-called), from 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and from the dome 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 175 

of the Mosque of Omar. To the north-west of the 
mound and close to the road are ruins of houses and 
several wells. The mound itself is a mass of roughly 
squared stones piled together in concentric squares, if 
the expression be allowable, without cement ; they ex- 
tend to a depth of nearly twenty feet. Among them 
are found dust, fragments of bone, broken teeth of a 
horse, potsherds and bits of glass, and here and there 
a little charcoal. This curious block of stones seems 
to point to some beacon station, for it is difficult to 
imagine any other purpose for which it could have 
been thus designed. A short distance to the south of 
this mound are some small ruins identified by Dr. 
Porter as Nob, the city of the priests, which was de- 
stroyed by Doeg, the Edomite, at the command of Saul, 
when he was incensed with the high-priest for having 
given some bread to his hated foe David, though for 
my part I cannot agree with his view. From Tell-el- 
Fiil the distance to the Damascus Gate of Jerusalem is 
three miles. Scopus lies somewhat to tlie left of the 
road, probably near the place where the name El 
Mesharif, or ' The Look-out Posts,' is still retained by 
the natives ; this is the exact translation of the Greek 
Scopus, and may perhaps be an adaptation of the 
Hebrew IVIizpeh, the name being slightly extended to 
allow of its describing the situation of Titus's camp. 
The name of the village El Shiifat, which lies in the 



176 XOTHS FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

immediate vicinity of Tell-el-Fiil, has somewhat of the 
same meaning as Scopus. 

Hotels. — There are three ; nz. the Mediterranean, 
kept by M. Hornstein. Tliis hotel was formerly near 
the Damascus Gate, but iu 1871 was moved to a 
new house within a stone's throw of the Jaffa Gate 
and the English Church, and is the best both as 
regards accommodation and situation. Next comes the 
Damascus Hotel, not far from the Damascus Gate, to 
wliich, however, the American Hotel is nearer. The 
accommodation in these two is much the same, and the 
prices of all are nearly the same. In all of them 
arrangements may be made by persons intending to 
make a long stay. 

Lodgings may be had in the house of Max Ungar, 
a German tailor, whose shop is beneath the Medi- 
terranean Hotel. 

Quarters may be found at the Hospice of Ten-a 
Santa, at the Prussian Hospice of the Knights of St. 
John, and occasionally at the Eussian buildings outside 
the town. For those who camp out the best place is 
between the Russian buildings and the Damascus 
Gate. Owing to the rapidity with wliich all the land 
round Jerusalem is being enclosed, an open camping 
ground is somcwliMt (lifficult to find. The silver key, 
however, is :i.s poU'iit here as elsewhere. 

Money, Letters. — Circular notes and letters of 





Jerusalem. 


Damascus. 


Nablus. 


English sovereign . 
i • French napoleon {20 frs.) 


. 120 


126i 


133 N 


. 95 


100^ 


105^ 


{ Turkish lira . 


. 109 


115 


121 


si Turkish mejidy 
ffi 1 „ beshlik 


. 21J 


23 


24 


• H 


H 


6|) 



NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 177 

credit can be cashed at Messrs. Bergheim's or Messrs. 
Spittler's. The vahie of the piastre is always more or 
less nominal, as the following table will show : — 



Hence it will be seen that the relative value of the 
coins is also variable. French, ItaUan, Eussian, Aiis 
trian, and Enghsh silver are all to a certain extent 
current in Jerusalem. A coin that is not well known 
will not, however, pass for its full value. 

Letters anive fortnightly from Alexandria by Aus- 
trian, French, and Eussian steamers, and at the same 
intervals from Constantinople, &:c. English letters are 
frequently sent to the Hotels or Consulate ; if not found 
there they must be apphed for at the post-offices. 

The English Consulate. — Noel Temple Moore, Esq., 
H.B.M.'s Consul for Palestine. Chancellier — M. Jirius 
Salame. The Consulate is situated on the hill at the 
back of the American Hotel and the Austrian Hospice. 
The kindness and courtesy of H.M.'s representative are 
well known to all travellers who have visited Jeru- 
salem. From him, or, in case of his absence, fi'om his 
energetic and obhging subordinate, all information can 
be obtained as to the practicability of any special or 
out-of-the-way route. 



178 NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS IN PALESTINE. 

The English Church. — Church of England service is 
held in Enghsh every Sunday at 10 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. 
On Sunday afternoons and on week-days there are 
services in German, Judaso-Spanish, and Hebrew ; the 
times of tliese services may be learnt on apphcation. 

The Lord Bishop : Dr. Gobat. Vicar : Eev. J. 
Neil, M.A. 

A German Protestant service is held by Pastor 
Weser in the chapel lately fitted up at the Morostan — 
the old hospital of the Knights of St. John, given in 
1869 to the King of Prussia by the Sultan — and also 
on every alternate Sunday afternoon in the English 
Church. 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 



I. THE COUNTRY. 

Before giving any det idled description, it may be as 
well to give a sUght general sketch of the empire of 
Morocco, its towns, and the different tribes that are 
found in various parts of it. Considering the acces- 
sibility of this country it is curious to see how very 
little is known about it in England. Tangier, which, 
from being the residence of the representatives of the 
different European Governments, is the town of the 
most importance in the east part of the empire, is easily 
reached, being only three or foiu* horn's by sea from 
Gibraltar. The chmate of the country is charming, 
especially in winter and spring, and the attractions 
offered to a sportsman or naturaUst are not few. 

Tangier, and occasionally Tetuan, seem the only 
places ever visited by travellers, and these but by few, 
and then only for a day or two ; from a thus hm^ried 
peep at Moorish life a very erroneous idea is frequently 
formed both of the people and of the country. To 
judge an Oriental or Mohammedan correctly one must 

N 2 



180 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

not measure him by an European or a Christian 
standard, but one must try to lay aside all prejudices 
and look at liim from his own point of \iew ; doing 
thus one may hope to form a more correct estimate of 
his character, but this requires careful study and some 
length of acquaintance with the subjects of it. 

The empire of Morocco extends eastwards as far 
as the French frontier of Algeria ; the mountainous 
district stretching thence westwards as far as Tetuan, 
and lying between the Atlas Mountains and the Medi- 
terranean, is called the Eif. It is inhabited by nu- 
merous tribes, continually fighting amongst themselves, 
though owing an allegiance — but scarcely more than 
nominal — to the vSultan. They are a brave, hardy, and 
lawless people, much as one might fancy the Highland 
caterans to have been a couple of centuries ago. They 
are very jealous of any stranger entering their tenito- 
ries ; could this be done it would doubtless well repay 
both the sportsman and naturahst as well as the lover 
of the picturesque. These Rifians are a distinct race 
from the Moors or Arabs; they are usually fair — 
though of course they become sunburnt from exposure 
— very fVcciuciitly liavino- ])liie eyes and light hair, 
which is an extremely rare thing to see amongst the 
neighbouring Moors. 

Their dialect, too, differs somewhat from that ot 
these latter. It is most probable tliat they are de- 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 181 

scendants of those Vandals who under Genseric came 
over from Europe to help Boniface, the Eoman 
governor, when he revolted a.d, 427, and who were 
almost destroyed by Behsarius a.d. 533 ; a small por- 
tion only escaping by taking refuge in the fastnesses of 
Mount Atlas. 

The endurance shown by these men is surprising. 
On one occasion I rode some forty miles over a very 
bad mountain track, which was frequently nearly knee- 
deep in mud, while the rain was falUng in torrents, 
accompanied by two of these men on foot ; we took 
about ten hours in doing the distance, and though they 
had nothing to eat but a bit of bread and a few oranges, 
yet at the end of the journey they seemed as fresh as if 
they had been a few miles. When out boar-hunting 
the beaters will work barelegged, often under a broiling 
sun, through the thickest brushwood, seemingly in- 
different to the thorns and scrub which try European 
legs most severely, even when well protected by 
gaiters. 

As bachelors these men [ire most frequently un- 
mitigated scoundrels ; more often than not they drink, 
rob, cut throats, &c., with great gusto, but on then* 
marriage they change, not gradually, but their misdeeds 
become on a sudden a thing of the past, and they live 
as respectable members of society, and may be de- 
pended upon as trusty men — though of coiu'se in this, 



182 MOROCCO AM) TITE MOORS. 

as everytliiiig else, there are exceptions. Blood feuds 
are strictly observed by them ; for here, as in all 
countries where justice is connipt and legal punish- 
ments slow and uncertain, retribution for a crime is 
sure to take the form of personal vengeance. Several 
instances of these feuds, which are hereditary, came 
under my notice, and the following one will show the 
})ertinacity with wliich they are adhered to. A young 
man whose father was murdered while he was quite a 
cliild, [)atiently wjiited till he was about twenty years 
old, and then took Ids gun and lay in wait at the 
cemetery outside the gate of Tetuan and shot liis father's 
luurderer as he was returning from market ; the yoimg 
man, as usually hap})ens in these cases, escaped into 
the mountains. 

Considering the large area of the country, the 
niniihcr of the towns is very small, as will be sliortly 
shown. The population varies niiicli in llie different 
districts; ^vll('r(' water is most abundant, and coiise- 
qncntly sutliciency of pasturage and facilities for culti- 
vation arc afforded, there the greatest number of 
villages is to be found. In the Eastern districts, as 
those of Tangier, Anjorn, Wadras, &c., and in the Eif, 
the villages are composi^l of huts 1)uilt of rough stones 
plastered with mud and tlmtrhod and surrounded by 
hedges of prickly pears and aloes. Farther westwards, 
where the rountry is rolling prairie and their herds 



MOROCCO AND THE MOOliS. 183 

require moving at certain seasons in order to find 
sufficient pastiu'age, the Arabs live entirely in tents 
made either of goat's hair, which is the best but most 
expensive, or of matting woven from palmetto-root 
fibre ; this can hardly be distinguished from the cocoa- 
nut matting so much used in England. The tents are 
all dyed black, and are usually pitched in a circle, so 
forming an enclosure, in which the cattle are herded at 
night, in safety from robbers and wild beasts. 

These tents have no regular way of entrance, but 
bulrush mats or curtains of the same materials as those 
of the tents themselves are placed to keep out the 
wind or rain, and these being easily moved the door- 
way can always be put on the leeward side. The 
Arabs seem at a vast distance from any civilisation or 
refinement ; this, I fancy, arises chiefly from two causes : 
firstly, their complete isolation, as their intercourse even 
with other tribes is very limited, and I believe it to be 
an almost general rule for them to marry one of their 
own tribe ; and secondly, their extreme bigotry and fa- 
naticism, for they are very jealous of any innovation 
either in their religion or in their way of living. They 
go upon the principles of ' What has been is, and there- 
fore shall be,' and ' What was good enough for our 
fathers is good enough for us.' When they cultivate 
land they make no attempt to improve the soil by ma- 
nuring it ; in fact, during my stay in the country, I 



]84 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

never saw manure used by a Moor, except once at 
Rabat, and then I heard he was using it under direc- 
tions of a Christian. I of course do not refer to irri- 
gation, as this is well applied, and in general use, 
wherever it is possible. The usual way of fanning is 
to scratch up the soil to the depth of a few inches with 
just such a plough as is described by Virgil ; the only 
piece of iron about this machine is the share : this is 
always carefully carried home by the labourer after 
his day's work, generally slung round his neck with a 
bit of cord : the plough, too, is so light that the owner 
may constantly be seen carrying the whole, even yoke 
and all, home on his shoulders. The oxen are small, 
often much resembling the Alderney kine ; the plough- 
man holds the single handle of his plough in one hand, 
wliik' lie guides his animals with a long goad, held in 
the other, not forgetting to use his voice, often with no 
very complimentary epithets. The Arabs seldom, if 
ever, attempt to destroy the palmetto, thistles, and nu- 
merous bulbs that cumber the soil, for they say, ' If it 
please God we shall have a good crop ; if He wills it 
otherwise, where is the good in our clearing the soil ? ' 
The same utter disregard for the future and its wants, 
induced by the all-prevaiUng fatahsm, shows itself with 
re^Mrd to everything else ; they run in a groove from 
which nothing can turn them. 

Li every dooar, or Aral) villages there is a tent or 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 186 

small hilt where the children are taught daily ; the 
Koran is the only text-book used, from it they learn to 
read and also have to learn the chief parts of it by 
heart. This is usually the extent of an Arab's educa- 
tion, but the Moors — or inhabitants of the towns — from 
coming more into contact with strangers, and thus 
gaining somewhat more enlarged and liberal ideas, are 
frequently men of superior education, considering the 
very limited means they have of becoming so. 

Towards the interior of the country conical straw 
huts are much used ; these, I believe, were mtroduced 
from the Soudan by the Bohari, a tribe of blacks, who 
for many generations have formed the elite of the Sul- 
tan's body-guard. 

I shall now give some account of the towns, which 
are few and far between. I omit Mehlla — in the llif 
— and Ceuta, as being Spanish possessions. The first 
town, then, to the eastward is Tetuan, built on a rising 
ground about eight miles distant from the Mediterra- 
nean, and close to a fine river, which at present can 
only be navigated by small vessels, on account of 
the bar at its mouth. The town is surrounded by 
gardens and fruit orchards; figs are very abundant, 
and quantities are dried of an excellent quality ; the 
almond and apricot trees grow much larger than or- 
chard trees in England. Many of these gardens, how- 
ever, are still uncultivuted, the trees and garden-houses 



ISO MOnOCfO JXD THE MOORS. 

having been destroyed by the Spanish troops in 1860 : 
bullets and shells are still to be found there — in fact 
I have often come across them myself when out shoot- 
ing, but the natives are very cautious about touching 
the latter, as a short time ago one exploded as it was 
being dug up. 

On crossing the river to the south of the town, one 
finds oneself in wide orange groves, watered by cool 
streams rushing down from the lower Atlas, whose 
rugged peaks tower one above another into the far 
distance ; the higher summits frequently are covered 
witli snow, even as late as April. I hardly know 
when these orange gardens are most lovely; perhaps 
when the trees are white with blossoms, when the 
air is loaded with perfume, and the song of birds 
and l)usy liumming of the bees create that curious 
sound of life from which it is so difficult to separate 
any ))articul:ir note. Then it is just what Milton must 
have had in his mind's eye when he wrote 

Tlie bee with honeyed thii^h 
That at her flowery work doth sing, 
And the waters murmuring 
With such concert as they keep, 
]"'ntice the dewy-feather sleep. 

'I'iicy arc beautiful, too, when the masses of golden 
fruit make such a brilliant contrast with the rich dark 
f«>liag(; which liere grows freely and naturally; no 
branches arc io|>ped and ])runed as one sees in Europe, 



MOROCCO AXI) THE MOORS. 187 

but thanks to the kindhness of soil and chmate, the 
crops are none the less abundant, as may be well be- 
lieved, when oranges sell in the market at 3<i. or 4id. 
per hundred. 

To the town itself, as is usually the case in this 
countr}^ the saying that ' distance lends enchantment 
to the view ' is fully applicable. The dazzling white- 
ness of the buildings contrasts well with the rugged 
grey mountains towering above ; wliile the extreme 
irregularity of the houses, with the many small 
mosque-towers scattered among them, adds much to 
the general picturesque appearance. On entering 
Avithin tlie walls, however, great part of the town is 
found to be in ruins — never having been rebuilt 
since the Spanish war ; the streets are narrow, and, 
especially in the Jewish quarter, filthy in the ex- 
treme. Notwithstanding this, I was glad to make 
several sketches. On these occasions I was always 
surrounded by a Avondering crowd, staring at me 
open-mouthed, but showing the utmost politeness, 
for the general voice was lifted against anyone who 
stood in my way or tried to put his fingers in my 
paint-box. The whispered remarks of the bystanders 
were often highly amusing, and there was none of 
that jostling and crowding in which the lower, and 
even the higher, classes of Europe delight. An artist 
might spend much time here with advantage, sketch- 



168 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

iiig the wild ])iit picturesque Eifians, or stiidyiiig 
tlie grand mountain scenery, on which, in this clear 
air, the effects of light at different times of the day 
are indescribably lovely ; or in exploring the crooked 
streets of the town, full of many a subject for the 
])encil — liere a queer nook, with houses overhanging 
a fountain from which the women are drawing water 
in the classic-shaped earthen jar ; there a dark vista 
of arches with gloomy holes at the sides, where 
one can just detect the dim figure of the shopkeeper 
sitting like a gigantic spider waiting for the flies to 
come to his web, for far beneath his dignity is it to 
call your attention to his ware. 

From these dark passages one suddenly turns into 
a street with rows of bright-coloured English cottons, 
native leather bags and pouches, and embroidered 
gocxls hung out on both sides; Avhile above, a trellis- 
work of cane, with vines creeping over, keeps off the 
intense heat of the sun. Here one is nearly deafened 
by tlie clatter of tongues — Moors, Jews, Spaniards, 
Arabs, and last, but not least, the women wrapped 
up in tlicir haiks and wearing straw hats about a 
yard in (hameter, all shouting and gesticulating till 
(iiie thinks it must end in blows; but no bargain can 
be made without a most unnecessary amount of noise 
and l)argaining, for a s]u)pkeei)er always asks a great 
(leal more than lir inlond.s to take, |)arti('ularly when 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 189 

the would-be purchaser is a Christian, for, says he, 
' If I don't get it there is nothing lost, and if I do 
so much is gained.' 

Here, as in most of the towns, the Jews have a 
separate quarter, the gate of which is shut about 
eight o'clock in the evening. The Tetuan Jews, as 
well as those of Tangier, speak Spanish as their lan- 
guage ; the service of the synagogues is conducted 
in Spanish, and their rehgious books are also written 
in the same language, but with Hebrew letters. 

The chief manufactures of the town consist in 
guns and leather goods, of which the chief are shppers, 
which are exported to Alexandria, where they find 
ready purchasers in the pilgrims returning from 
Mecca, as by far the largest number of the Hadji who 
come from the west are inhabitants of Morocco. Each 
trade in a Moorish town is usually confined to certain 
streets ; for instance, one finds wliole streets of slipper- 
makers, or else of leather-dyers, or else gunsmiths, &c. 
The guns made here are very curious, having most 
intricate flint-locks, while the stocks are often beauti- 
fully inlaid with silver and footed with ivory. The 
' first-class ' barrels are embossed with gold and silver 
in very delicate patterns. The barrels are made of 
English iron, and are twisted ; they are very light for 
their length, which is often excessive. I have one 
now in my possession G ft. '1 in long, exclusive of the 



IJM) MOROCCO A XI) THE MOORS. 

Stock, whicli is some 15 in. longer. I was told by 
the gunsmith of whom I bought it that sometimes 
lie had to make them two spans longer. 

A great many coloured tiles are made here. They 
are very small, and are worked into most intricate 
and effective patterns in walls and flooring of the 
liouses and mosques. There is a similar manufacture 
at Fas, whence it is very probable that the tiles were 
brought which still remain in the Alhambra. The 
[)otters who make these tiles and the elegant an- 
tique-shaped water-jars found in common use every- 
where are true troglodytes. • The caves they live in 
are found in a kind of tufii rock, to the soutli and 
west of the town, which stands on a plateau of this 
rock, and vary much in size, the larger being used 
for workshops and stores, which are shared by nu- 
merous owls and now and then a few rabbits ; while 
by partly building up the entrances of the smaller 
ones, they turn them into capital dwellings. The 
wheel tliat is in use is most primitive ; but one of 
the j)(>tters told me he could turn cut a hundred 
hu-ge jars, standing some 2 ft. high, per diem. The 
vahie, however, of these would not be more than Id. 
or %l. cMfh, so tliat it is a most laborious trade, as 
till' j)ott('r has to do everything himself; he has to 
collect and mix the clay, gather fuel, make and burn 
liis wares, and often even sell them himself. There 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 101 

is a good deal of traffic by means of feluccas between 
Gibraltar and Martine, the port of Tetuan, and also 
by beasts of burden — the only mode of conveyance, 
as the use of wheels is totally unknown in the 
country — with Tangier, which is about forty miles 
distant, the road, or rather track, often httle better 
than the bed of a torrent, lying for the most part 
through the mountains. About half way there is a 
Fondak (or caravanserai), a large square walled 
enclosure. Inside there are arcades round three 
sides, and small rooms on the fourth. It was built 
a few years ago by the Government for the protection 
of travellers. It may be useful, but is most care- 
fully to be avoided by all but those who, like the 
natives, are proof to the attacks of certain ravenous 
insects who, as is always the case in similar places, 
were undoubtedly numerous enough to eject any hu- 
man being from the building were they but minded 
to combine and do so. 

The town of Tangier is prettily situated on a 
steep slope at the western point of a large crescent- 
shaped bay. The view from above the town is most 
lovely ; on a bright day the coast of Spain from 
Cape Trafalgar to Gibraltar is most distinct, while 
the peculiar clearness of the air gives the utmost 
brilliancy of colouring to the whole view, which on 
the African side comprises the rugged purple-tinted 



192 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

peaks of Apes llill and tlie chain of the Lower 
Atlas gradually softening and melting away into the 
far distance. 

The town is of considerable interest, and is of 
great antiquity, being the ancient Tingis, the chief 
town of the rich Roman province of Tingitania. 
Near it are considerable remains of Roman work ; 
coins, too, are not unfrequently found, but it is to be 
feared that many of silver or gold, as well as orna- 
ments of those metals, have found their way to the 
melting-pot of some Jew, who probably would buy 
them Irom an ignorant Arab for a mere trifle. 

In tlie seventeenth century it belonged to the 
English, being part of the dowry of the wife of 
Charles II., and was held by them till 1684, when 
they gave it up, destroying at the same time many 
of the fortifications and the mole, which latter there 
is now some talk of rebuilding. If this were done 
the htu'bour would be greatly improved, as at pre- 
sent all merchandise has to be transferred from the 
steamers to small boats, and then carried ashore by 
men. Passengers have to undergo the same plea- 
sant process, which is made worse by the heavy surf 
which frequently breaks in the bay. 

There is here, as well as in the other towns, the 
custt)ni nj" closing tlie gates of the city from noon 
till -J I'.M. .Ml Friday. This is said to be done on 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 193 

account of an old tradition, which tells that the 
Christians will try to surprise the towns on that day- 
while the true believers are at mosque. 

Travelling westwards along the coast, one comes 
to the town of Arzila, about forty miles from Tan- 
gier, which is now little better than a walled village ; 
the streets are very narrow, and simply filthy, as 
numbers of cattle are brought inside the walls for 
safety at night. 

About five-and-twenty miles further comes La- 
raiche, built on a steep cliff at the mouth of a large 
river, which, however, can only at times be entered 
even by small craft, as the bar is very dangerous. 
When the sea appeared quite calm 1 have seen the 
waves curlino; over on the bar twelve or fourteen 
feet in height. What it must be in bad weather 
can easily be imagined. The small town of Mehi^ 
deyeh lies between Laraiche and Salee. This latter 
is really the same town as Eabat, being on the north 
side of the river, while Rabat is on the southern 
side. Very handsome carpets, much resembling the 
Turkish, are manufactured here, haiks (a soft long 
kind of shawls worn both by men and women), and 
a few guns and swords arc also made, but the trade 
is small compared to wliat it might be were the 
river navigable ; but the bar, if possible, is worse 
than that of Laraiche. 





194 MOROCCO AXn THE MOOIiS. 

Casablanca {Arahice Dar-el-baida) is the next town, 
then Azimor or Mulei-bon-Shaib Azimor — so called 
from a prince of that name who is buried there — is 
a small Moorish town near Mazagan (J'deedah), which, 
witli Safi and Mogador (Suerah), are towns of some 
imi)ortance ; European vice-consuls and merchants 
residing at each. 

In the interior of Morocco proper, the only towns 
seem to be Fas, Morocco, Meknas, and Wazan. The 
two former are the capitals of the country, and the 
Sultan usually divides his time between them, occasion- 
ally coming down to spend the summer at Eabat. 
Most of the towns on the coast, though now of no im- 
portance whatever, have extensive Portuguese ruins, 
which show that during their occupation by that people 
their positions were much higher. At Arzila most 
parts of the walls and gateways are Portuguese, and 
the greater jiortion of a church is still standing. At 
Azimor too there are many ruins : one of a church is 
used as a i)owdcr magazine, and amongst others there 
are marble sills to the gateways of the town ; these 
stones are deeply worn with the marks of wheels, 
in some cjuses to a depth of five inches, showing their 
age, and that they are remains of some former civiHsa- 
tinn, [)erliaps even before that of tlie Portuguese, for 
at j)resont, as I have said before, the Moors are totally 
ignorant of the us(^ of wheeled carriages of any kind. 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 195 

The finest Portuguese remains, however, are at 
Mazagan, where the town is moated on one side and 
partly on the second, having the sea on the remaining 
two sides ; the walls are about forty to fifty feet in 
height, and in some places more than forty feet thick, 
and very solidly built. There is a high watch-tower 
and ruins of a buildincj said to have been that of the 
Inquisition, also of a church, but the most interesting 
of all is an underground reservoir, about 130 by 100 
feet, having a groined stone roof supported by four 
rows of pillars, the masonry of Avhich is as perfect as 
on the day when it was built. A circular opening in 
the centre of the roof admits light. The water always 
stands at a depth of from fi.ve to seven feet, and the 
whole height is about fourteen or fifteen feet. There 
is a subterraneous passage and flight of stairs, by which 
the water is reached. This curious cistern is situated 
under the garden of Mr. Kedmond, a resident English 
merchant, who kindly allowed me to see it. 

Besides the Eifians, the Arabs — dwellers in the 
country — and the Moors who live in the towns, we 
find the Berbers and the Shellouhs, kindred races living 
in the Atlas Mountains, the former towards the east, in 
the neighbourhood of Fas, and t]ie latter towards the 
Atlantic ; they are a brave and almost independent 
race, probably descendants of tlie aboriginal Maurita- 
nians. There are also two unsubjected tribes nearer 

2 



196 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

tlie coast, viz., tlie Zinioiirs, wlio live in the forest 
of Maimora, which hes between Mehideyeh and Salee 
and stretches a considerable distance inland ; and the 
Zyars, wlio live to the S. and S.W. of Eabat ; when 
not engaged in tlie cultivation of their crops they 
make continual forays even up to the gates of Eabat 
and pillage the caravans passing from that place to 
Dar-el-Baida. Along this route — as well as in other 
parts of the country — the government has built nu- 
merous kashas, or fortified buildings, from 50 to 300 
yards square, the walls being usually about 25 feet 
high, and loopholed. 

Many of these kashas are the residences of kaids 
or governors of provinces, who according to their 
wealth maintain so many soldiers. Of these kaids 
and their followers I shall afterwards have more to 
say. Ill addition to the parts I have mentioned, the 
empire comprises, on the south of the Atlas, the districts 
of Tafilett, Draa, and Soos, of which the latter borders 
on the Atlantic. 

II. THE PEOPLE. 

Tlic Moors are essentially a polite people: wild and 
lawless iLs tliey are, this may seem improbable, but it 
is none tlie less a fact which takes its rise from every 
man's being really on an equality. A slave will speak 
to liis master, sometimes cutting a joke with, and 



I 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 107 

even at him, with the same freedom and absence of 
all servile constraint as he would when speaking to 
a fellow slave. For all this they are never wanting 
in respect. The only case that I know at all paral- 
lel to this is in a Spanish servant, to whom a master 
may speak as to an equal, but who for all that will 
never forget his place, not holding to the proverb, 
' Famiharity breeds contempt.' As an instance of the 
equal footing all Moors are on, the following is suf- 
ficient. When I came to an Arab dooar the sheikh 
would come and sit in my tent for some little time, and 
would then go and finish up his evening in my servant's 
tent, drinking coffee — or by preference green tea. 

Cofiee is usually considered to be the drink of 
the Arabs, but over the whole of Morocco green tea 
is considered a much greater luxury ; it is too expen- 
sive for the very poor to drink, and one seldom sees it 
nnich in the coffee-liouses wliere this class of men 
resort, and where they sit for hours smoking kief — 
the Indian hem}) — sometimes gambling with dice or 
draughts, and drinking colTee nearly as thick as arrow- 
root and very sweet. I cannot help thinking that this 
way of drinking the dregs of the coflee has some efiect 
of neutralising the very injurious properties of the kief. 
The habitual kief smoker is always one who has begun 
young, and the enervating and degrading efiects of this 
drug are always visible in the ])allid countenance — 



108 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

much like that of an opium eater, but less yellow — and 
the unnatural, china-like appearance of the white of 
the eye. If an adult takes to smoking this herb regu- 
larly it is said that it is almost certain to cause his 
death within seven or eight months, and though a 
strong constitution may defy its effects for some time, 
yet it is none the less sure of causmg death in the end. 
A H^ smoker who hasbegim young will live for seve- 
ral years, but will rarely attain even to middle age. 
The use of this drug is almost entirely confined to 
the lower orders. Opium eaters are found among the 
Moors, but not very frequently ; speaking from my own 
experience I only came across two or three cases. 

On paying a visit to a rich Moor or well-to-do 
sheikh, the first thing he offers to his visitors — at all 
times of the day — is green tea, which is compounded 
ill the following way. The tea is first washed with 
a small quantity of water in the teapot, as the Moors 
consider the colouring matter used for green tea to be 
injurious ; this is poured off and the teapot is nearly 
filled with huge lumps of white sugar, the more used 
the greater honour to the guest ; it is then filled up 
with water, and poured into small tumblers, usually of 
coloured and gilt French glass. The next process ge- 
nerally is to put in a small bunch t)f herbs, lemon 
thyme, mint, and such like, which make the second 
brew a kind (jf very sweet tisane. The rules of 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 199 

politeness require one to drink at least tliree or four 
glasses, wliicli at first I found rather trying, but I soon 
acquired quite a liking for it, especially when coming 
in tired and thirsty from a long and hot ride. 

By the rules of Arab hospitality a rich kaid, or 
sheikh, is bound to entertain a traveller for three days ; 
no money is ever taken for cooked meat — in fact it 
would be considered very impolite to offer it. The 
following instance of a reception by a rich kaid will 
suffice to show the usual style. On my arriving at the 
kasba I was shown a courtyard where I could pitch 
my tent, as I preferred tliat to a room which was 
offered me as less likely to be inhabited. Soon after 
my tent was })itched a soldier came with a packet of 
candles, a loaf of sugar, and a })acket of green tea, and 
said tliat the kaid would soon send me dinner. The 
soldier of course received a douceur, and soon returned 
with some corn for my horses. Dinner made its ap- 
pearance about eight o'clock — tlie usual time — and 
consisted of stew, konskousson, and a native curry. 
Next morning an equally liberal breakfast was sup- 
plied. Of course the treatment varies according to 
the wealth of the host. A very poor sheikh will be 
able to give nothing, but has always butter, eggs, and 
fowls to sell, usually cheap enough ; fowls being worth 
about Qd. and eggs 2 to 6 for Id. 

The standing dish of the country is koiiskousson. 



200 MOROCCO AXI) THE MOORS. 

which is made of flour rubbed with a damped hand 
either on a stone or through a sieve made of perforated 
parchment till it assumes the appearance of millet. 

These grains when dried may be kept for a great 
length of time ; to cook it, it must be steamed, which is 
done by putting it in a basin well pierced at the bottom 
and which covers the mouth of a large earthen water 
jar, which is then put on the fire. Sometimes meat or 
chickens are cooked with it, as well as some vegetables 
and dried grapes, but the way I like it best is the Arab 
fashion of putting a lump of fresh butter in the middle, 
and then pouring a quantity of milk into it. When 
prepared thus it tastes very much Hke extremely good 
Scotch porridge. 

Among the richer classes some of the cookery is 
excellent; stews with wild artichoke in them and 
flavoured with cumin seed and red peppers, are some 
of the best ; they make very good sweetmeats too, 
using a great deal of honey in them, and flavouring 
with roses, almonds, musk, &c. In the honey-produc- 
ing districts the Arabs are very fond of eating it 
melted up with fresh butter ; in this case it is sent in 
hot, in a plate or bowl, into which each person dips 
his piece of bread. 

In the towns the bread is good and marvellously 
light; it is .sold in loaves very hke a large bun: Some 
bread is made from Indian corn ; it is sweet, heavy and 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 201 

clammy, and though much cheaper than the other is 
but httle used. The Arab bread is very different from 
that sold in the towns, being made in large, round, flat 
girdle-cakes, very heavy, coarse, and generally contain- 
ing a large proportion of grit from the mill-stones. 
More indigestible stuff I never saw, and without that 
best of all sauces, ' Hunger,' it would not be possible to 
eat much of it. The natives, however, when they have 
a chance, get through a wonderful quantity of it, and 
as for their capacity of stowing away kouskousson it is 
simply marvellous. I have often seen my three men 
finish up with seeming ease a dish of it, the twentieth 
part of which had completely satisfied my own appe- 
tite. An Arab can go for a length of time without 
food, for as a rule he only eats at sunrise and sunset, 
sometimes having a piece of bread or a little fruit in 
the middle of the day. This enables them to observe 
Eamadan with more ease than if they were accustomed 
to eat a regular meal in the daytime. Spirits and 
wine are unknown amongst them, though in the towns 
some of the lax Moors obtain them from the Christians 
and Jews. These latter make wines and also spirits 
which they distil from the berries of the arbutus as well 
as from figs and raisins. Drunkenness is very rare 
indeed amongst the Mohammedans, though the Jews, 
especially at some of their festivals, are by no means 
averse to a drop of good Hquor. 



202 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

Supei-stition in various forms has a very strong 
hold upon tlie minds of the inhabitants of this country, 
both natives and Jews; the behef in the evil eye 
seems to be quite as prevalent even as in Italy. I 
hetu'd of one instance which happened on a fete day, 
during the powder-play and feats of horsemanship 
with which such occasions are celebrated, which shows 
how common and how deeply rooted the belief is. 
A man who was accredited with the possession of 
this mali<ni influence said to another who was stand- 
ing near him, 'How well So-and-so is riding, and 
how well he manages his horse ! ' The man was 
almost immediately thrown and severely hurt by 
his fall, and the accident was universally attri- 
buted to the evil eye. The remedy used was curious, 
namely, sour milk. The man, however, did not re- 
cover. 

The children are often made to wear a blue 
bead round their necks as a charm against this evil 
power, while the Jews paint an open hand on their 
doors and walls — especially at the time of any feast, 
as a marriage or birthday festival — and hang up small 
brazen liands in their houses or with other anmlets 
round their children's necks. 

Mesmerism also seems known to some of the 
Arabs. I liave heard that in the interior the women 
use it as a means of quieting their babies and rehev- 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 203 

ing headache.^ Last year, while camping on the 
road to Tetuan, one of the muleteers — as I was after- 
wards told — was seized with violent cramp all over 
his body. A mountaineer who happened to be there 
made passes over him as a mesmerist would do, and 
the man went to sleep, and when he awoke was per- 
fectly free from pain. Whether this was true mes- 
merism, or whether the patient believed in it as a 
charm and was so influenced, I cannot venture to 
say. Charms are in constant use ; the commonest 
form in cases of illness is a piece of paper on which 
is drawn a figm'e consisting of cross lines forming a 
certain number of squares, and in the middle of each 
one of these some letter or character is inscribed. 
This is either worn by the patient, or in other cases 
thrown away, and in that case the belief is that the 
illness will pass to whoever takes the paper up and 
opens it. I found a charm of this kind tied up with 
string and pegged into a crack of the wall in the 
Fondak where I was staying at Morocco. I was just 
going to take it down and look at it, when a man 
standing by advised me not to do so. A well-edu- 
cated Moor, however, who came up, and who was 
evidently above such superstitions, tore it to pieces. 

^ Headache cannot be frequent, as in the country the Arabs go with 
their heads fully exposed to the sun ; the onlj' precaution taken being to 
tie a cord of camel's hair, or sometimes only of grass, tightly round the 
temples. 



204 MOROCCO AXD THE MOORS. 

I was never able to fiud any trace of a belief ia 
what we call ghosts, that is, of spirits in huwan form, 
though tlie belief in jins, or spirits in the shape of 
animals, who are usually evil, and generally haunt 
waste places and deserted houses, is universal. In 
Tetuan a part of the Basha's palace is not lived in, 
as it is said to be haunted by two jins in the form 
of gigantic camels, which of a night take their stand 
in the Patio and reach to the gallery which runs 
round the court and is only about twenty feet 
from the ground. In the marshes near the same 
town the booming of the bittern is considered to be 
the voice of a jin portending a bad season. At Tan- 
gier, again, there is a house a short distance outside 
the walls, pleasantly situated in an orange garden, 
which is untenable from being haunted by a j/«, 
which here takes the shape of a great black bull 
with flaming eyes, which forcibly ejects all intruders 
after dusk. So at least the story goes ; but at all 
events no one will hire the house. I heard several 
similar stories, but in every case the demon took 
the form of some animal, never that of a human 
])eing. 

The Moors imagine that these jiua are to be found 
everywhere. They are of a knavish disposition, for 
one day on returning to my tents I found my head- 
man suflL-ring from an aguisli attack, and thinking 



MOROCCO AND THE MOOES. 205 

himself very ill. I asked him what was the matter, 
and after some trouble I made out he was so ill be- 
cause he had trod on a devil ! However, I found 
quinine a very effectual means of laying it. 

Other superstitions remain in the country which 
seem relics of some ancient barbaric faith ; for in- 
stance, in some parts of the country the women go 
in procession round the newly-sown corn lands, waving 
flags, with wild chants and gestures, running and 
screaming like very lunatics, in order, as they believe, 
to avert all evil from the upspringing crops. Often, 
too, in the gardens I noticed ram's horns hung on 
the fruit trees, more especially on the pomegranates. 
Upon enquiry I found that they were used as a charm 
to insure a good yield of fruit. 

On the fig trees it is usual to hang strings of 
the fruit threaded on a palmetto leaf. Without this 
they consider that the crop will come to no good. 

I noticed another ludicrous custom when out shoot- 
ing. My soldier, whom as a capital sportsman I 
always took with me, used of course to cut the throat 
of everything I shot, as all Moslems do ; but in addi- 
tion to this he observed a curious custom, the mean- 
ing of which I was never able to find out, namely, 
whenever I shot a hare or rabbit he would first cut 
its throat, then pull off its tail, wave it three times 
round his head, spit upon it, and throw it away. 



20G MOROCCO AXD THE MOORS. 

Why these animals alone should be so treated I can- 
not imagine, for I never heard of any ceremony of 
the kind being performed on any other creature. 

Mid:?ummer night's eve is observed with certain 
ceremonies, more particularly in lighting huge bon- 
fires wherever fuel is obtainable. The rival towns 
of Eabat and Salee try who can pile up the largest 
fire, collecting their wood and materials for weeks 
beforehand. The effect must be very pretty when 
these fires are lighted, as the two towns are only 
separated by a river, which on the Eabat side is over- 
hung by piles of irregular white buildings, while on 
the Salee side stretches of white sand reach up to 
the town, which lies much lower than its rival. 

When there has been a continued drought, and 
rain is much needed for the crops, the Arabs are 
accustomed to make solemn processions praying for 
rain, and to sacrifice a sheep at the tomb of some 
favourite santon. When this has no effect, if any 
Jews happen to be at liand they are sent out to })ray 
for rain, for, say the Mohammedans, the prayers of 
a Jew are so distasteful to Allah that, sooner than 
hear them pray, he will send what they ask for. 

A shcej) or goat is frequently sacrificed by a 
j)er.sun when asking some great favour of a superior. 
I was staying in the house of one of the vice-consuls, 
when some men wlio had been intercedini? for an 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 207 

imprisoned relative came at night and sacrificed a 
sheep at the street door. The consul's servants heard 
a knocking, but were too lazy or frightened to go 
to the door ; so in the morning nothing was found 
but a pool of blood, as some sharp neighbour had 
been beforehand and carried off the sheep. 

The system of giving presents to those in autho- 
rity is universal amongst the Moors. In this way 
the kaids often get very rich ; but certainly when 
things are not given them they tliink nothing of taking 
them, so that it is not to be wondered at that their 
riches increase. 

The system of government is a system of squeez- 
ing from highest to lowest. The Arabs are squeezed 
by the sheikhs, the sheikhs by the kaids, these by the 
greater kaids, who are governors of districts, and 
these again by the Sultan. Whenever a man gets 
a httle money together he dares not show it — he buries 
it. In this way great quantities of coin must be lost, 
for a man will say when he is ill and expecting to 
die, ' I may perchance recover, and if I do I shall 
never have any good from my money if I tell my 
son where it is hidden.' And so a man will frequently 
die who is supposed to be worth a great deal, yet 
none of his money can be found. 

The wealth of some of the kaids is enormous. I 
heard of one who was said to be worth some three 



208 MOROCCO AXD THE MOORS. 

million dollars. Tliis is probably somewhat exag- 
gerated, but his son has a very large kasba, and 
maintains five or six hundred soldiers. In Haha, 
near Mogador, the late kaid was said to be worth 
nearly as much. The richest man in Morocco is said 
to be the Shereef of Wazdn, who is the greatest 
santon in the country, being most directly descended 
from the Prophet. When a new Sultan is installed 
at Fas, the chief religious duties connected with the 
induction devolve upon him. Wlierever he goes 
people flock together from all parts to bring him 
presents, chiefly in money. I heard of one woman 
who gave him ten thousand dollai's for his blessing. 
Though naturally an intelligent man, under the de- 
pressive influences of the government he is now simply 
a sensual voluptuar}% much addicted to champagne. 

The government is totally averse to any change. 
I will give one instance that will show wliat bigoted 
folly the Sultan is capable of There is a wide river 
at Rabat, over which everytliing has to be ferried 
% in small boats. A European engineer made some 
calculations, and offered to build a bridge, levy a 
small toll, and at the end of ten years make the 
bridge a present to the Sultan. ' No,' said this en 
lightened monarch ; ' it would throw some two hun- 
dred ferrymen out of employ!' And so he would 
have nothing to do with the project. 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 209 

Again, I was assured on good authority that 
the Sultan has sufficient corn in his meiamors, or 
underground granaries, to feed the whole popula- 
tion for three years. During the late time of dis- 
tress, or almost famine, none was brought out ; 
when it was found to be getting mouldy and use- 
less, a little was occasionally sold. The good corn 
went to feed the kaids and the soldiers, for if the 
people starved a little, why they would be less for- 
midable in case of a revolution. The main object 
of all those in authority seems to be to collect as 
much property as they can by hook or by crook. 
To show the extent of open peculation that goes on 
at Morocco, I will give a slight sketch of the Askar, 
or regular troops, and their management. These men 
— officers as well as privates — receive the magnificent 
pay of 2 okeah (od. English money) per diem ; for 
this they have to feed themselves. The commander- 
in-chief receives 10 okeah (l.§. 3<:/.) per diem. The 
natural consequence of this is that they rob right 
and left, from highest to lowest. The privates are 
generally scoundrels of all kinds, the scum of the 
country, who on enlisting receive a pardon for all 
their crimes, and thus escape the law, such as it is. 
The officers who are in rank about equal to a 
colonel make up their pay thus : each one will say 
that he has 500 men under liim, wliile in reality 

P 



210 MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 

he has about 150 or 200. As he draws pay for the 
number lie states, he pockets about twelve to fifteen 
dollars a day. The commander-in-chief does hkewise, 
though natiu-ally on a larger scale, as befits his rank. 
The other officers, too, do not neglect their own 
interests. A short time before I was in Morocco 
the surgeon of the troops did not stand at all well 
with the government, so he went privately to the 
Sultan and told liini that he could not be aware how 
he was wasting money by keeping men as soldiers 
who were luifit for work, some being blind of an 
eye, some lame, some consumptive. On hearing this 
the Sultan gave him carte blanche to weed the troops. 
Off went tlie doctor, well pleased with his success. 
From some of the men he got five dollars, from 
others more or less, according to their means, in re- 
turn for which he gave them their discharge, and 
in a lew days found himself some 20,000 dollars in 
pocket. The officers, however, finding their men 
sent off by wholesale, reported the matter to the 
Sultiui, who then sent after the discharged men and 
had them all brought back. So the doctor gained 
what he wanted and the government lost nothing. 
What could be more satisfactory to both parties.? 

These Askar were about four thousand in num- 
ber at Morocco, though there arc a few others at 
Fiu* and Mekna.s. ]5eside.s these the Sultan has a very 



MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. 211 

fine body of blacks — the Boliari — tlie only troops, in 
fact, who could be depended upon by him. They are 
brought up from boyhood in his service, well clothed, 
fed, and treated. They could not find a better master, 
so that they would always remain faithful. The As- 
kar, on the other hand, would immediately join any 
one who offered the highest pay. These latter have 
no idea of discipline. Their dress is the common 
fez cap, red flannel shell jackets, generally too short, 
and blue trousers reaching only to the knee and very 
full. I saw some coming in from parade ; a few 
drops of rain began to fall, and there was a general 
scurry to the barracks, headed by the officers ; and 
once I saw one within fifty yards of the Emperor 
smoking a kief pipe behind his comrades' back. This 
was during the feast (at Easter) of El Aid-el-Khibeer, 
when they were supposed to be keeping, the ground. 
On this occasion they had out their park of artillery, 
consisting of ten small field-pieces, probably 6-pounders, 
drawn by six or eight men. This feast — answering 
much to the Jewish passover — took place outside the 
city, and on the Emperor's return a feu de joie was 
fired, in which an officer was killed by a ramrod 
discharged from one of the flint-lock guns of the 
Askar. However, as the arms are never examined, 
it was not known who shot him, and so no one was 
blamed. 

P -2 



NOTES ON THE BffiDS OF TANGIER 
AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 



This and the following paper are reprinted from the * Ibis ' (New Series) 
by permission of the Editor. 

The following few notes on the birds which I observed 
in the neighbourhood of Tangier diu-ing my stay there 
from January to the beginning of April last, may not 
be without interest, as that part of Africa has not 
received much attention from ornithologists. The 
country immediately around Tangier is not so good 
for a collector as that near Tetuan, which lies at the 
foot of a northern spin: of the Atlas, rising there ab- 
ruptly from the plain to an elevation seemingly of 
six or seven thousand feet, though, unfortunately, I 
had not any instruments with me to ascertain its real 
height. These mountains are in many parts well 
wooded, and the Andalusian Quail, Woodpeckers, and 
Owls are abundant ; while on the rocky cliffs Eagles, 
Vidtures, and Hawks breed in numbers. Nearer the 
town, orange-groves extend almost without interrup- 
tion for two or three miles, watered by a stream 
abounding in trout ; and here the Dusky Ixus hterally 



214 NOTES OX THE BIliDS OF 

swarms, while tlie gardens are the chief haunts of 
the various Warblers, which delight in the shelter 
afforded by the cane-hedges. Wild fowl are plentiful 
in the marshes at Martine, the port of Tetuan, about 
eight miles distant, as well as Crakes, Egrets, and 
other marsh-fowl. 

Of the Eagles and Vultures, few remain in Morocco 
during the winter, but most come in flights from the 
south-east and south between the 15th and 20th of 
March, almost invariably during an easterly wind. 
Alpine Swifts make their appearance at the same 
time, but the Bee-eaters and Eollers do not generally 
come till the middle of April. Most of the Hawks 
and Buzzards remain during the winter, and are very 
l)lentifully scattered over the whole country ; yet, 
notwithstanding these as well as other two-legged 
and four-footed foes, there is an abundance of game, 
consi.-t:ng of Barbary Partridges, Snipes, and Wild fowl, 
besides a few Hares, of which there are two species, 
80 di>tinct that even the natives have different names 
for thcni. liabbits also are found on the hillsides. 
Quails and Little Bustards make their appearance in 
the cornfields at Tangier in April and May. 

Tlie Rif country, which lies along the coast east 
of Tetuan, would probably be full of interest to the 
naturalist, as, from what can be gathered from the 
Moors, it is in many parts still virgin forest ; but as 



TANGIER AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 215 

yet no European lias ever been able to explore it. The 
people, who seem to be a distinct race from the 
Moors — having much fairer complexions, and speak- 
ing a dialect which varies from the Mogrebbin or 
Moorish Arabic — are very warhke, continually fight- 
ing among themselves, and murdering any wretched 
Moors or Jews who happen to fall into their clutches. 
They are extremely jealous of strangers setting foot 
in their territory ; and in fact it seems impossible 
for any one to do so ; for though they are called 
subjects of the Sultan of Morocco, his power over 
them is scarcely more than nominal. In these forests 
a large wild beast is said to live, the description of 
which answers in many respects to that of a Bear; 
but its existence is rather mythical, as no reward has 
hitherto been able to tempt the hunters to produce 
its skin. The Barbary Ape, however, is very plentiful 
on the precipices and wooded hillsides. 

Along the coast to the west of Tangier are several 
alluvial plains, which, in a few places, are formed 
into lakes by the mouths of the rivers passing through 
them becoming silted up by the sand drifted from the 
sea-shore. These are the chief resorts of the water- 
fowl ; amongst them the commonest is the Buff- 
backed Heron, which, during the early part of the 
winter, is found scattered about the plains, feeding 
among the cattle, or picking insects off their backs. 



216 NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF 

At this time it is extremely tame, but as the spring 
advances, collecting in Hocks previous to migrating 
to its breeding-grounds (which I beheve lie in the 
marshes of the interior south-west of Tangier), it be- 
comes one of the most difficidt birds to approach. 

There are many wild beasts to be found in this 
district. The Wild Boar is still plentiful on the hills, 
where he makes his lair in almost impenetrable 
thickets of gum-cistus and heather, which latter 
grows frequently seven or eight feet high ; a Lynx 
(in Moorish ' Oud-al ' — Felis caracal^ I believe) and 
the Jackal are also to be found there, though the 
former but rarely. In the more open country are 
found the Ichneumon, Fox, Genet, and Barbary Mouse, 
whilst the Otter is common near the rivers and on 
the rocky coast. Towards the interior occur the 
Leopard, Hyaena, and Lion, as well as several species 
of antelope. Land- and Water-Tortoises are also very 
common. 

As a rule the Moors are not of much use for col- 
lecting. They are keen sportsmen and indefatigable 
hunters, but they look upon the shooting of small 
birds as beneath their dignity, and cannot under- 
stand why so much trouble should be taken for a, to 
them, useless object. Yet when they see one anxious 
to obtain any particular specimen, they will do all 
they can to help, and widi a little trouble thev would 



TANGIER AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 217 

make invaluable assistants. They are so quick-sighted 
that they will constantly detect Partridges or Hares 
crouching in a thick palmetto-bush, where it is often 
very difficult to see them even when one knows that 
they are there. For information about many of the 
birds I am indebted to IVir. Green, Her Majesty's 
Consul at Tetuan. I am also largely indebted to 
Sir J. H. Drummond-Hay, Her Majesty's Minister in 
Morocco, for very many acts of hospitality and kind- 
ness, among others for having procured for me with 
great trouble the specimen of the large Bustard men- 
tioned below, 

VuLTUR FULVUS (Liiin.) Common at Tetuan. I saw seve- 
ral towards the end of March, and I believe that some remain 
there all the winter. 

Neophron percxopterus (Linn.) ' Sew.' Common. Breeds 
near Tetuan. Passes over Tangier in a northerly direction, 
when there is a strong easterly wind, about March 15 to 20. 
I saw one that was shot on March 4, about twenty miles west 
of Tangier. 

Aquila chrysaetus (Linn.) Breeds at Tetuan, though in 
no great numbers. 

Aquila bonellii (Temm.) Breeds at Tetuan sometimes, 
and also at Cape Spartel. 

Aqcila pennata (Gmel.) Has been seen a few times at 
Tetuan and Tangier. 

Pandion hali^etus (Linn.) Tolerably common along the 
coast, and breeds there. 

Falco peregrinus ' (Linn.) Common ; breeds in the 
mountains. 

' [Qii. F. harbmns?—Y.A\\ox of the ' Ibis.'] 



218 NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF 

Falco lanarius (Schl.) I saw a tame Falcon taken at 
Tetuan, which I believe to be of this species. 

Falco sudbuteo (Linn.) I saw this bird twice near Cape 
Negro. 

TiNNUNCULUS ALAUDARius (Gr. E. Grray.) ' Sweef.' Very 
common. 

TiNNUNCULUS CENCiiRis (Naum.) Passes over during the 
March migration, but remains all the year at Laraiche. I 
obtained several specimens thence in February ; and it also 
breeds there. 

MiLVUS ICTINUS (Sav.) ' Sewana.' Not uncommon in 
winter at Tetuan. 

MiLVDS MIGRANS (Bodd.) Breeds. 

Elanus C.ERULEUS (Dcsf.) I shot one at Tangier, and a 
second at Tetuan. I saw a few others. It breeds on the 
mountains west of Tetuan. 

AcciPiTER Nisus (Linn.) I shot one, February 20, at 
Tangier, where it is only seen on passage. It usually does 
not come till j\Larch. 

CiRCDS ^RUGINOSUS (Linn.) Very common. 

Circus cyaneus (Linn.) ) ., 

^, /-,, X ^Seen on several occasions. 

Circus cineraceds (Mont.) j 

Asio DUACHYOTUS (Linn.) ) ^ 

A / A o Ml N h Common. 

A.SI0 capensis (A. Smith.) ) 

Athene persica (Vieill.) Plentiful everywhere. 

Syrnium aluco (Linn.) I found numbers in caves at 

Tetuan. 

PiCUS NDMIDICUS (Malli.) 



r'™^,*,^^ ^ /HT „ > r On Tetuan mountains. 

Gecinds vaillanti (Malh.)J 

Jynx torquilla (Linn.) I shot one in a vineyard at 
Tangier, ISIardi 30. It is ratber more ochreous beneath 
than British examples, and the grey is lighter than in 
tluin. 

CoRACiAs fSARRULA (Linn.) Seen frequently about the 



TANGIER AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 210 

middle and end of April. Breeds further down the west 
coast. 

Merops apiaster (Linn.) Very abundant. Arrives in 
the beginning of April. 

Alcedo ispida (Linn.) Common, and breeds. 

Upupa epops (Linn.) Arrives about February 20, and 
is then to be found all over the country. About April it 
seems to go further west to breed. 

CucuLus CANOEUS (Linn.) Arrives in the spring. 

OxYLOPHUS GLANDARius (Linn.) I saw one at Tangier 
January 10, and on the 15th shot one. I shot another at 
Tetuan March 15. 

Caphimdlgus europ^us (Linn.) | Known to breed to- 

CAPRiMULaus RUFicoLLis (Temm.)j wards Ceuta. 

Ctpselus melba (Linn.) Only seen on passage. 

Cypselus apus (Linn.) Plentiful in summer. 

HiRUNDO RUSTiCA (Liuu.) All the year round. 

Chelidon URBiCA (Linn.)| I believe, do not stay the 

CoTYLE RiPARiA (Linn.) j winter. 

CoTYLE RUPESTRis (Scop.) I saw this at Tetuan towards 
the end of March, but only in very small numbers. 

Oriolus galbula (Linn.) Very rare indeed, and only in 
summer. 

Lanius meridionalis (Temm.) Common everywhere. On 
the mountains west of Tetuan I once saw another species, 
which seemed to })e L. exeubitor. 

Lanius collurio (Linn.) At Martine in summer. 

Lanius auricdlatds (P. L. S. Midler.) I saw a Woodchat 
April 2. 

Telephonus cucullatus (Temm.) Not rare, but very shy. 
To be found chiefly in the cane-hedges. 

MusciCAPA ATRiCAPiLLA (Linn.) Seen during the spring 
migration. 

Ixus BARBATUS (Desf.) Very common. 



220 NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF 

T[jiiDUS viscivoRCS (Linn.) | 

TuRDUs Musicus (Linn.) rVery common. 

TuRDUS MERULA (Linn.) ) 

TuRDUS TORQCATUS (Linu.) One was killed a few years 
ago at Tangier. 

Petrocincla cyana (Linn.) Common on rocky ground. 

Often frequents cemeteries. 

Saxicola (Enanthe (Linn.) ^ .^ 

o /-rr. .„ N jNone of these are rare dur- 

Saxicola albicollis ( Vieill.) v . 

Sakicola stapazina (Linn.) j ^ ^ ^ ' 

Pratincola rubetra (Linn.) Two have been shot at 
Tetuan. 

Ctanecula leucocyanea (Brehm.) Very shy, and conse- 
quently little seen, but not rare. This is the form with the 
white breast-spot. 

Sylvia orphea (Temm.) At Tetuan, rare. 

Sylvia conspicillata (Marm.) Shot in the salt marshes 
at Martine in Marcli. 

Sylvia melanocepiiala (Gmel.) Very common. 

Melizophilus undatus (Bodd.) The Dartford Warbler 
is common on the plains covered with palmetto. 

Phyllopneuste rufa (Lath.) At Tetuan, rare. 

Salicaria aquatica (Lath.) Shot in ]March, being tlien 
in winter plumage. 

Locustella NiEviA (Bodd.) Shot in March. 

Pseidoluscinia luscinioides (Savi.) 

I'DTAMonrs CETTii (Marm.) 

Troglodytes parvulus (Koch.) I saw also a second species 
of Wren, which Mr. Green had shot. I hope next winter to 
procure it myself. 

MoTACiLLA ALBA (Linn.) 

IU'i)YTE8 FLAVA (Linn.) 

PAurs iiLTRAMARiNus (Bp.) I saw but few, and only sue- 



Rare. 



TANGIER AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 221 

ceeded in getting two specimens, both of which I unfortu- 
nately lost. 

LiNOTA RUFESCENS (VieiU.) In one of my rides I got 
within a few yards of a bird that I had no doubt at the time 
was a redpoll. 

LiNOTA CANNABiNA (Linn.) 

CHBft'SOMiTRis spiNUS (Linn.) 

Carduelis elegans (Steph.) 

Serinus bortulorum (Koch.) Killed at Tangier by M. 
Favier ; rare. 

Chlorospiza aurantiiventris (Cab.) 

CoccoTHRAUSTEs VULGARIS (Steph.) I saw one that had 
been shot at Tetuan by Mr. Green. 

Fringilla spodiogenia (Bp.) 

Emberiza miliaria (Linn.) 

Emberiza hortulana (Linn.) In summer. 

Plectrophanes nivalis (Linn.) One was picked up dead 
at Cape Spartel. 

Melanocorypha calandra (Linn.) On the open plains. 

GrALERITA CRISTATA (Linn.)] 

, /T • \ f Common. 

Alauda arvensis (Lmn.) j 

Calandrella brachtdacttla (Leisl.) On tlie open plains. 

Sturnus vulgaris (Linn.) Uncommon. 

Sturnus unicolor (Marm.) More common at Tetuan 

tlian at Tangier. 

CoRVus corax (Linn.) 



Very common. 
CoRvus CORONE (Linn.) J 

CoRvus 3I0NEDULA (Linn.) ] Seen in large flocks together, 

Fregilus graculus (Linn.) j but only at Tetuan. 

Pica mauritanica (Malh.) Eabat. 

Columba palumbus (Linn.) I saw a few flights in 

^Nlarch. 

Columba livia (Linn.) Common on the coast. 



222 NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF 

Caccabis petrosa (Gmel.) 'El Hajel.' Very common 
everywhere. 

CoTDRNix COMMUNIS (Bonn.) ' Soumena.' Arrives at 

Tetuan in March, but at Tangier not till April. Breeds. 

Pterocles arenarius (Pall.) ) , t^, ^r j • -, -n v i. 

. 'ElKoudn. Eabat. 
Pteuoclks alchata (Lmn.) 

Tlr.mx sylvatica (Desf.) Seems to be tolerabiy com- 
mon. 

, PoRZANA maruetta (Loach.) I shot two. at Martine, 
March 23. They are more freckled with white than EurO'- 
pean specimens. 

PoRZANA PYGMyEA (Naum.) Eare. 

PoRPEYRio HYACINTHINUS (Temm.) Found occasionally 
in the marshes, and, I believe, breeds there. 

GALLiNULAcnLORorus(Linn.)f^^^ '^^^ ^^ °^^^^ °^ ^^^ 

\ lakes west of Tangier ; but 

FULICA ATRA (Linn.) t j-j i. My 

^ \ I did not see any myseli. 

ScoLorAX RUSTICOLA (Linn.) ' Sou-mirh.' Common in 
winter. 

Gallinago scoLOPACiNns(Bp.) ' Boom-e n-ar.' Common. 

PiiALARorus FDLicARius (Linn.) An exhausted bird was 
brouglit to me by a boy in January. 

TuiNOA ALPiNA (Linn.) Common on the shore at Tangier 
in .January, Init hardly any remained by the middle of Fe- 
bruary. 

yKoiALlTIS CANTIANUS (Lath.) 

/KoiALiTis HiATicuLA (Linn.) 

SyuATAROLA HELVETICA (Linn.) 

(.'hahadrius pldvialis (Linn.) ) 

VANELLrs CR.sTAT.s (Meyer.) |<^^^^"^^- 

(Jlareola I'nATiNc OLA (Linn.) Occasionally seen at Mar- 
tine. 

Cirnsonirs (jai^mcis (Gmel.) Kare. Arrives in May or 

.IlMH'. 



TANGIER AND EASTERN MOROCCO. 2'23 

HiMANTOPUS CANDIDUS (Bonn.) I saw several. 

CEdicnemus crepitans (Temm.) Common. 

Otis TETBiix (Linn.) ' Boozerat.' Common in summer. 

Otis arabs * (Linn.) A specimen brought from Dar-el- 
baida, on the west coast, not very far from Mogador. 

GrRus cinerea (Bechst.) ' Grarnook.' Seen occasionally. 

GrRUS VIRGO (Linn.) I shot one at Martine, March 23. 

Ardba cinerea (Linn.) ' Hameedo-el-wad ' or ' El Rha- 
beah.' Found on all the rivers. 

Ardea bubulcus (Sav.) Very common. 

Ardea garzetta (Linn.) A few usually at Martine in 
winter. 

Nycticorax griseus (Linn.) One shot by Mr. Green at 
Tetuan. 

BoTAURUS stellaris (Linn.) Not rare. At Martine, when 
it is heard booming, the people imagine it to be the voice of 
a ' Jin ' portending a bad season. 

Falcinellus igneus (Grm.) Numbers come to Tetuan in 
summer. 

Platalea leucoradia (Linn.) Very rare. 

CicoNiA ALBA (Bechst.) ' Bclarej.' Held sacred, as in 
Holland, and consequently very abundant. I liave counted 
more than sixty together in one place. 

Pikenicopterus ROSEUS (Pall.) 'Nehaf.' Very rare. 

Tadorna casarca (Gmel.) Shot by M. Favier off Cape 
Spartel. 

Anas bosciias (Linn.) 'El Bourk.' \ Plentiful on tlie 

Anas pbnelopb (Linn.) j- pools in the open 

Anas crecca (Linn.) } country. 

' [The specimen obtained bv our contributor was submitted for de- 
termination to Mr. Georpe Gray, who has most kindly compared it with 
examples in the British Museum, and infoiined us that he could not refer 
it to any other species, though some slight differences were observable. 
Can it be this species which has hitlierto been taken for O. tarda in 
M(n-occo ?— Editor uf ' Ibis.'] 



224 NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF MOROCCO. 

Phalacrocorax carbo (Linn.) I saw one near Cape 
Spartel. 

SrLA ba.-sana (Linn.) Common. 

roDiCEPs MINOR (Gmc'l.) At the lakes during the whole 
year. 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.) >j On the coast in 

Larus fuscus (Linn.) 

KissA TRIDACTYLA (Linn.) 

CiiROicocEPHALUS RiDiBUNDUS (Linn.) I remain for the 

Sterna cantiaca (Gmel.) ' summer. 

Stkhna minuta (Linn.) I saw one specimen obtained hy 
M. Kavier. 



winter; but I do 
not know if they 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF MOROCCO. 

Since the publication of my former notes on tlie 
birds of Morocco/ ornitbology at Tangier lias sus- 
tained a great loss in the person of M. Favicr, who 
died suddenly in December 18G7. He was an in- 
telligent and vciy lia id- working naturalist; and though 
his studies were limited to the neighbourhood of the 
town wliere he lived, yet during his long residence 
tlu-rc lie had collected a quantity of very interesting 
notes, which were sold after his death, unfortunately 
in my absence from Tangier ; and on my return 
thitlier I was unable to procure them. This I much 
rcgreltctl, as from the opportunities he liad enjoyed 

' 'ibi-V 1SG7, pp. 121-430. 



NOTES OX THE JilEES OF MOROCCO. 225 

he had been able to remark many birds witli whicli 
I liad no chance of meeting hi the winter and spring.^ 

On my first visit to Morocco my observations 
were limited to the districts of Tangier and Tetiuin ; 
but I have since had much greater opportunities of 
examining the fauna, having travelled through a large 
extent of the country — tliat is to say, on the coast 
from Tetuan to Mazagan, and in the interior from 
the town last mentioned to the city of Morocco and 
thence to Mogador. 

Tlie country along the coast presents a great same- 
ness in appearance ; the cliffs are usually low, and 
very frequently consist only of a bank of sand-dunes. 
Inland the ground rises, in some parts, in a series 
of plains backed by ranges of low hills till the snow- 
capped peaks of the Atlas are reached, as is the 
case to tlie south-east of Dar-el-baida and Mazagan. 
In other parts more northward it is a pasture-country, 
a ' rolling prairie,' as far as the eye can reach, with 
frequent lakes and marshes in the hollows. The first 
lake of any importance tliat I came to is that of Mulei- 
bou-Selham, so called from a santon of tliat name 
wlio is buried there ; and a channel has been cut 
throuo;li the sand-hills which divide it from the sea. 

' [Some particulars of M. Favier and of the work for the publication 
of wbick he had been long collecting materials, will be found in the 
' Ootheca Wolloyana' (pp. 1-3) as furnished to Mr. .Jolin ^^'oile}- in 
1845.— Ed.1 

Q 



226 NOTES OX I'llE BIliDS OF MOROCCO. 

This was done Ijv tlie Arabs on account of some heavy 
and destructive floods which occurred a year or two 
ago ; and in consequence the lake is very shallow, 
with larj^c tracts of mud-flats and swamp surround- 
ing it. Tliose are the resort of countless Snipe, dot- 
terel et hoc genus onme, while the shallow waters 
form feeding-grounds for large flocks of waders and 
Fhimingocs, which last at rest appear almost pure 
white, but at the sound of a gun rise in clouds, show- 
ing tlie black and delicate rose-colour of their wings ; 
and this with the sunlight gleaming upon it has a 
wonderfully pretty effect. 

Near this place I came upon a colony of Asia 
capensis, which had taken up their abode in a patch 
of mallows, about half an acre in extent, by the side 
of a stream. There were some twenty or thirty of 
tlicm sitting solemnly blinking at me till I was within 
a few yards of them, when they lazily flapped away. 
Til is is the only time I ever saw them in tlie open 
country; in the wooded hills to the east they are 
common.^ 

A short distance furtl^er west, about halfway be- 
tween Laraiche and IJabat is the Lake of Ras-dowra 
or Behara, which, wilh tlie marshes, or rather series 

' [Other otwen-ors, we believe, liavo iKiticod tliat this species gene- 
mlly nffectj* the oi»en countrv. Tlie late M. Favier informed Mr. Gurney 
I lint tu'ftf Tanj^ier it bred with A. hrachi/otHS, and that the iiybrids had a 
narrow jelbiw rinp round the iris.— ICditor of the ' Ibis.'l 



xoTUs OX Tin: ninns of morocco. 227 

of small lakes and pools, at its south-western ex- 
tremity, cannot be less than thirty or five-and-thirty 
miles long, while in parts it is five or six wide ; it 
is, however, so intersected with promontories and 
studded with islands that it is difficult to realise its 
extent. 

The Arabs on the shores of this lake, which is 
only separated from tlie sea by a low range of hills, 
are mostly fishermen ; they use canoes made of bundles 
of bulrushes tied together to form the bottom ; gun- 
wales are made in the same way ; one end is then cut 
square, and the other is gradually fined off into a point 
which rises some two feet above the water. These 
canoes are punted along with a pole shod with horn, 
as the water is generally not more than from four to 
six feet in depth, but so choked with weeds tliat a 
paddle would be useless ; a net would be equally so ; 
the fishing-implements, then, in use are cane spears 
tipped with iron. When a fish is seen, or an eel 
begins to bubble, the boatman throws in a bundle 
of six or seven of these spears, one of which is almost 
certain to strike the fish ; and if this seems a large 
one, other spears are driven in close to the first till 
the prey is secured. 

The numbers of wild fowl on this lake are wonder- 
ful ; the water seems ahve and quite black with them, 
while the noise they make in rising sounds like a heavy 

Q 2 



228 NOTES 0.\ TIIK BIRDS OF MOROCCO. 

surf breaking on u pebbly beach. Few of these birds, 
liowever, aoconling to tlie account of the Arabs, remain 
to breed : Widgeon, common Wild Ducks, and Coots of 
both species are the most abundant ; but the Ruddy 
Shell-Drake is not uncommon, as well as the Glossy 
Ibis, Herons, and Bitterns. 

The districts where the Lesser Kestrel is found in 
this country are most curiously limited ; the only 
reason I am able to give for this is that they seem to 
prefer a comparatively level country ; in fact I never 
found them in the mountainous parts except at Tangier, 
and then only during the March migration ; but at 
Laraiche, which is about sixty miles along the coast to 
the west of Tangier, they are not only found in summer, 
but they stay the whole year round and breed there. 
Wlien I travelled down the coast I found them at 
every town and kaaba that I passed, sometimes on the 
coast, sometimes thirty or forty miles inland ; this con- 
tiiuied till I came to Mazagan, where there were num- 
bers; and I saw them continually till I came to the 
village of Sidi llahal, which lies about sixty miles south 
by east of Mazagan, on the road to Morocco. I never 
afterwards miw them, whether at Morocco, Mogador, 
or Safi. ]iy this it will be seen that they are limited 
to a district extending about two hundred miles along 
the coast and some forty to sixty inland. They live in 
the holes and crevices with which every Moorish Avail 



yOTES ox THE BIRB!S OF MOROCCO. 229 

is SO abimdantly supplied, in perfect harmony with tlie 
Sardinian Starling, which has similar tastes. In the 
early dawn and just before sunset, they may be seen 
sitting on the walls in rows, often forty or fifty together. 
In the day-time they fly together in small flocks of 
from five to twenty, feeding chiefly on insects which 
they catch on the wing, so that many of their habits 
more resemble those of some of the Swallow- than of 
the Hawk-tribe. 

At Eabat I saw two birds alive in the possession of 
Mr. C. Smith, the English Vice-Consul, which were 
evidently some kind of Francolin ; but as I was unable 
to procm'e a specimen I cannot venture to name them : 
the plumage was of a dark slaty-grey, with whitish 
pencillings on the back and wings ; the breast was of 
the same grey, but with a circular s})ot of white on 
each feather. The general colour of the plumage 
much resembled that of a Guinea-fowl, but was 
perhaps a slight shade browner. These birds had 
been brought in quite young from the Zyar country 
in the preceding spring ; but unluckily these Zyars 
are one of the unsubjected tribes, numbering some 
forty thousand strong, so that it is impossible to pene- 
trate their country, which is to a great extent forest, 
as is the territory of their equally lawless neighbours, 
the Zimours, wlio live in the forest of Maimora, to the 
south-east of Eabat. A species of wild ox, of a dun 



230 NOTES OX THE lilEUS OF MOROCCO. 

or reddish colour, is said to have existed here till 
recently, but is now said to be quite extinct. I was 
also told that a large Wood-Pigeon with a black ring 
round its neck is found here ; but I never met with it 
myself. 

^\1len I was in the neighbourhood of Dar-el-baida 
(Casablanca), hearing that Otis arabs, or, as it is called 
by the natives, the ' Hobar,' was to be found on the 
plains inland, I went up the country and spent several 
days hunting it, but was not fortunate enough to ob- 
tain any. I followed the usual plan pursued by the 
Arabs, several of wliom came out to help me ; their 
way is to ride in line over the plain till a Bustard is 
flushed and to mark it down, smTound it, and try to 
drive it to where the guns are posted ; but though this 
might answer well enough with several guns, yet I found 
it useless while I was alone. 

The Arabs are always glad to shoot these birds, as 
they say there is nearly as much flesh on them as on 
lialf a sheep ; they told me, too, of a plan of stalking 
which was sometimes used with success. It is done 
tlius: — A schirdrry, or double pannier, being put on 
a canu'l, two men deposit themselves therein, one 
on each side, and guide the camel up to the Bustard, 
which IS so accustomed to these animals that it does not 
move, and so falls an easy prey to the long guns of 
the Arabs. These people certainly show good taste in 



yOTHS ox THE BIRD.'S OF MOROCCO. 2;U 

their liking for Bustard, but as a geueral rule they are 
not at all particular as to what they eat ; for I know 
from my own experience that they delight in the flesh 
of ichneumons, foxes, and jackals ; and, though I have 
never seen them do so myself, I have been assured on 
good authority that they take as kindly to Vultures, the 
flesh of which, say they, ' comforts the stomach.' I 
heard on one occasion of seven or eight Egyptian Vul- 
tures beinii; shot in a villacre, the inhabitants of which 
made a sumptuous feast off them ; but all this by 
the way. I find that the Great Bustard {Otis tarda) 
is also found in Morocco, as one was shot a few years 
ago near Tangier ; this I have on the authority of Mr. 
W. K. Green, British Vice-Consul at Tetuan, who him- 
self shot and skinned the bird. 

I again met with the ' Hobar ' in the plains of 
Ducala, about a day's journey fi-om the town of 
Morocco. Numerous herds of gazelles are not unfre- 
quently seen in the same place. It is a barren, deso- 
late tract, where nothing seems to grow but a few 
thorny shrubs and a kind of mimosa, forming inacces- 
sible fortresses, in which numerous Eavens and some 
few Hawks build in security. On the hills the white 
broom grows, as it does everywhere in this latitude — 
near Mogador it is almost the only shrub to be seen 
for miles. A few sheep and goats manage to pick up 
a living where, to all appearance, there is not sufficient 



282 NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF MOROCCO. 

herbage to support lite in a rabbit ; there are, however, 
many watercourses, which, when I passed (at Easter), 
were dry ; but, no doubt, after rain, these would 
produce a plentiful pasturage so long as the water 
lasted. 

Within the walls of the town of Morocco there are 
numerous gardens, or rather groves, of white mulberry-, 
olive-, citron-, and other trees, which in spring seem 
quite ahve with the gaily coloured Bee-eaters and 
EoUers ; Turtle Doves are equally abundant in the palm- 
groves and fruit-orchards outside the gates. I saw 
liere for the first and only time in the country the 
Barbary dove {Turtur risorius) ; the master of the 
fondak (or caravanserai) where I was staying, had two 
in a cage, which he told me had been taken from a 
nest in the palm-forest in the previous spring. I never, 
however, .saw any wild. 

The only other bu'd I ever saw within the walls, 
except the common Sparrow, was the beautiful Carpo- 
(Idcus iiitluvjinem, which is so tame that I have often 
liad It ily into my room at \\\Qfinidaky and fearlessly 
pick up any stray crumbs from within a lew inches of 
the mattress on which I was lying. I never saw these 
birds anywhere else in the country, with the exception 
of a few at Mogador. 

After a .stay of some little time in Morocco I set out 
for Moga(l(;r about the middle of April— at a most un- 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF MOROCCO. 233 

fortunate time, as it afterwards turned out, for I came 
in for very bad weather all the way down to the coast, 
rain and hail, with occasionally bitter winds, driving 
down from the Atlas ; so that I was unable to do 
much in the way of collecting specimens, which was 
the more to be regretted as the great plain of Morocco 
was to a naturalist one of the most interesting parts of 
the country I passed through. It has a very fertile soil, 
and, being well irrigated by canals cut from the Ten- 
sift, almost anything may be grown there ; for instance, 
tobacco, sugar-cane, and corn of all sorts flourish 
abimdantly. Some of the Arabs, too, grow a kind of 
indigo, with which the women dye their clothes. The 
soil near Morocco is a rich, heavy red loam, which, 
after rain, becomes excessively slippery, as I found to 
my cost ; for the day I left that town a sudden storm 
came on at midday, the camels began slipping about as 
if they had been on ice, and one after another fell, which 
is often dangerous, as they are very apt to spht them- 
selves in falling, and so become so disabled as to be 
useless. Finding it impossible to go either backwards 
or forwards, I had to resign myself to fate till the rain 
stopped and the wind had sufficiently dried the surface 
to enable the animals to go on, Furtlier from Morocco 
the ground becomes very stony, and affords good foot- 
hold for the camels. 

There are many birds to be found here, amongst 



234 NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF MCltOCCO. 

whicli I chielly noticed the Moorish Magpie {Pica 
mauritanica) as abundant. The Great Spotted Cuckoo 
{0.vylophus glaridarius), too, is very common, as are 
also the ' Koudri ' {Pterocles arenarius)^ the Crateropus 
fulvus (which last I invariably found on the borders 
of cultivated land, usually five or six together), the 
Woodchat-Shrike {Lanius auriculatus), and, commoner 
than all, the Turtle Dove (Turtur vulgaris), which here, 
as well as in the ' Argan ' forest, near Mogador, literally 
swarms. 

The following is a list of the birds which I had not 
observed on my former visit to the country : — 

AsTUR PALUMBARius (Linn.) I saw a specimen shot in 
the mountains near Tetuan in December ; and in May I saw 
a pair near Cape Spartel. 

,Mi;i.iKUAX I'OLYZONUS (Kiipp.) An example of this bird 
was shot in the neighbourhood of Mogador, which the Arabs 
said was the first they had seen of the kind. I believe this 
is by far the most northern locality whence this species has 
ever before been obtained. The specimen is now in the 
Museum of the University of Cambridge. . 

CRATERorus FULVUS (Desf.) Between Morocco and Moga- 
dor, as above mentioned. 

KiTiciLLA TiTHYs (Scop.) I saw a few at Tetuan late in 
Novem})er. 

CARPoDArrs OITHAGINEUS (Temm.) At Morocco and 
M<)g;\(l(>r, as iH'forc mentioned. 

(Jai.khita MAcitoitiiYNCHA (Tristram.) Found on the up- 
land plains towards the city of Morocco. A specimen I 
t)rr)ught home has been compared by Dr. Tristram with the 



NOTES ON THE BIIWS OF MOROCCO. 236 

type of the species first described by him in the ' Ibis ' for 
1859 (p. 57); and he says it is darker and more rufous than 
any he obtained in Algeria. It is now in the Cambridge 
Museum. 

Otocorys bilopiia (Temm.) Found near Rabat and Dar- 
el-baida. 

TuRTUR RisoRius (Linn.) At Morocco, as above men- 
tioned. 

TuRTUR VULGARIS (Eyton.) Very common, as I have 
before said, on the west coast ; on my return to Tangier in 
May I found it there as a summer visitant. 

Francolinus ? At Rabat, as described above. 

FuLiCA CRISTATA (Gmcl.) Plentiful at the lake of Ras- 
dowra. 

Gallinago major (Gmel.) In one instance at Dar-el- 
baida, in another at Tangier. In March. 

Trixga minuta (Leisl.) Found at a small lake near 
Laraiche. 

Tringoides hypoleucus (Linn.) Generally at the lakes 
and marshes. 

ToTANUS GLAREOLA (Temm.) Near Laraiche. 

Totanus glottis (Linn.) At Rabat. 

LiMOSA LAPPONiCA (Linn.) Not uncommon at Mulei- 
bou-Selham and Ras-dowra. 

NuMENius ARQUATA (Linn.)] Generally found at the lakes 

NuMENius PH^opus (Linn.)j and marshes. 

JEgialites curonicus (Beseke.) Marshes on the west 
coast. Rare. 

Otis tarda (Linn.) As before mentioned, one was shot 
near Tangier, possibly a stray bird from Spain, as I never 
heard of it elsewhere in the country. 

Ardea purpurea (Linn.) I saw a specimen killed near 
Tangier. 

Ardetta min'uta (Linn.) Rare. 



23G NOTES ON THE lillWS OF MOROCCO. 

Spatula clypeata (Linn.)| Not rare. Usually in small 
FuLiGULA CRISTATA (Linn.)] pools in the open country. 
Hydrochelidon fissipes (Linn.) Tangier, in May. 
PoDiCEPs CRISTATUS (Linn.) In one instance at Agla, 
between Laraiche and Kas-dowra, 



237 



EEPORT ON THE MTUEAL HISTORY 
OF THE TIH/ 

I HAVE now the lionoiir to lay before you a report of 
my work during last winter in the ' Badiet et Tih,' or 
Wilderness of the Wandering. As this desert had 
been only partially, and even then superficially ex- 
amined, I shall give, firstly, a short account of the 
route we took and of the general physical features of 
the country ; and secondly, the various traditions of 
beasts and birds which are current among the Arabs. 
Many of these pre curious, from their similarity to 
Western tales ; and others, though seemingly foolish in 
themselves, are not without interest, as illustratinsf the 
beliefs and folk-lore of the Bedawin. These stories are 
not so numerous as I found them to be in former 
iourneys amongst Arabs inhabiting more fertile tracts, 
for the Desert of the Tih is in truth 'a great and 
terrible wilderness.' The last winter, too, was one of 
unusual drought even in those parched regions, and the 
scattered tribes of Arabs who live there experienced 

' Addressed to the Vice-Chancellor of the University, It appeared 
in ' Nature,' May 1871. 



2W REPORT OX THE 

great difficulty in finding pasture for the herds of 
camels and goats which exist in considerable numbers 
in some districts. 

The supply of water is very scanty and variable, as 
springs nre extremely rare, and most of the water is 
obtained from ' Themail,' or pits dug in the gravelly 
beds of wadies, and similar situations into which the 
water filtrates. The water thus obtained is very bad, 
being impregnated either Avitli mineral salts or lime, to 
say nothing of the quantity of earthy and animal matter 
held in suspension by its being constantly stirred up 
for the daily use of the Arabs and their flocks, who 
naturally collect in the neighbourhood of any place 
where water is to be had. This want of water was the 
greatest drawback to the satisfactory exploration of the 
country; want of food may be contended with, ob- 
structive Bedawin may be quieted, and trackless moun- 
tains crossed, but the absence of water renders a country 
inipracticxible, especially to those who travel as lightly 
laden as we did, dispensing with the usual suite of 
dragoman and servants. Picturesque and desirable as 
a large retinue and guard of wild Arabs may appear to 
some persons, li:i(l we indulged in these impedimenta, I 
feel convinced that we should never have got through 
the country by any but the ordinary route. In these 
districta fertility is slowly but steadily being driven 
northwards, for various traces of cultivation and 



XATI'liAL IIISTOllY OF THE Till. 230 

dwellings show that the rainfall must formerly have 
been plentiful and regular, for surely as tillage and the 
consequent vegetation decreases, so will the rain-supply 
diminish till the land has become an irreclaimable 
waste. 

The manner in which gardens may be made and 
will afterwards sustain themselves, is well shown in 
those which still flourish at Sinai, notwithstanding the 
neglect of the present degraded inmates of the convent. 
Even in those parts of the Tih near El Aujeh and 
Wady el Abyadh v/hich, from internal evidence, must 
at one time, and that within our era, have supported 
a large settled population, so desolate is the general 
aspect, that, to a casual observer, the country would 
seem to be and always to have been an utter waste. 
That they were so always is, however, at once nega- 
tived hy the existence of several ruined cities sur- 
rounded by the remains of extensive gardens and 
vineyards ; of these, the walls alone remain to tell 
their tale. The vineyards are clearly to be traced on 
the low hills and rising grounds by the regular heaps 
and ' swathes ' of black flints, with which the chief part 
of the district is covered, and which still retain the 
name of ' Teleilat el 'Ancb ' or grape-mounds. These 
facts are of great importance as showing that the 
objections to fixing certain localities — mentioned in 
Scripture ns abounding in pasturage — in what is now 



240 REPonr ox riiE 

completely desert, may be set aside as worthless. I 
consider, too, tliat tlie southern limit of the Promised 
Land, at the time of the Israelitish invasion, must be 
placed as far south as Wady el Abyadh. This would 
remove many dilficulties hitherto met with in the satis- 
factory identification of Kadesh. Though I have not 
space to enter fully into the question here, I may say 
that there is strong evidence in favour of fixing that 
much-disputed locality at Ain Gadis (first discovered 
by ]\Ir. Rowlands, though he seems to confuse it with 
Ain el Gudeirat). Many fiicts support this supposi- 
tion — for instance, the suitability as a strategic position 
for a camp of long duration. There is abundance of 
water there even at the present day, and springs are 
found at Ain Muweileh to the north and Biyar Maayin 
to the south. The probability is great that a large 
host like the Israehtes, encumbered with their famihes 
and herds, would take the easy route by the open 
country to the west of the Azazimeh mountains in 
preference to the barren and rugged passes south-west 
of the Dead Sea. 

The desert of the Tih consists of a succession of 
liracstonc plateaux intersected by several wadies, of 
wliich the most important are W. el Arish, which is 
jf>incxl near Nakhl by W. Rowag, W. Garaiyeh, with 
it8 tributaries Mnyin, Jerur, Muweileh, W. el Ain, 
wlii.-h runs into W. ,■] Abvadli, W. Reliaibeli and W. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH. 241 

Seba, which drain into the Mediterranean. W. Ghamr 
and W. Jerafeh — the names of which have been inter- 
changed by former travellers — fall into the northern 
slope of the Anibeh, and so run into the Dead Sea, as 
also do Wadies Murreh, Maderah, and Figreh, which 
debouch into the Ghor es Safi. 

The southernmost limit is Jebel el Eahah and Jebel 
el Tih on the S.W., and Jebel el 'Ejmeh on the S. and 
S.E., which together form a cliiT running from Suez to 
Akabah, and projecting into the peninsula of Sinai 
much in the same way as that peninsula projects into 
the Red Sea. The height of tliis chff at its most ele- 
vated point — on Jebel el 'Ejmeh — is about 4,200 feet 
above the sea, and from its summit the ground de- 
scends north-westwards. 

To the N.E. of the Tih rises a third steppe or pro- 
montory, its northern portion corresponding to the 
' Negeb ' or south-country of Scripture, its southern 
part bearing the name of Jebel Magnih, sometimes also 
called ' the mountains of the Azazimeh,' from the tribe 
of Arabs which inhabits it. To the S.E. of this 
mountainous region we came upon the only bed of 
sandstone which occurs thi'oughout the whole country. 
It belongs to the same formation (New Eed sandstone) 
as that of Petra and the lower strata of the Dead Sea 
basin. 

Having carefully considered the best means of 
R 



242 REPORT ON THE 

thoroughly examliiiiig the Tih plateau, Mr. Palmer and 
myself determined to proceed along the base of Jebel 
el Tih, and leaving to the west the Nagbs Emreiklieh 
and er Rtikineh — the passes on the ordinary routes for 
travellers proceeding northwards from Mount Sinai — 
to cross Jebel el 'Ejmeh wherever it might prove prac- 
ticable, and thus proceed through a hitherto uutra- 
versed district to Nakhl, where we had established a 
depot of provisions, and where we should have to 
make arrangements with a different tribe of Arabs for 
carrying our baggage northwards. 

This plan was carried out, and we entered the Tih 
by the Nagb el Mirdd on January 12, 1870. From 
the summit of the cliff — for Jebel el 'Ejmeh has no 
pretensions to be called a mountain — a magnificent 
view is obtained of the Sinaitic peninsula. The range 
itself is composed of mountain limestone, so worn and 
broken by the action of frost and weather that the hills 
are covered with fine detritus, which, after rain, would 
produce some herbage, but when we were there only a 
few dried-up, stunted bushes were to be seen, which 
here as elsewhere in the desert supply good and 
abundant fuel. 

From Jebel el 'Ejmeh the steep, bleak, waterworn 
hills gradually slope down and fall away into the great 
plains, or ratlier, low plateaux, which stretch across to 
the Mediterranean. The sameness of outhne and 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 243 

dreariness of this country is something terrible: the 
few shrubs that exist are grey or brown, and seemingly 
withered and dead ; no animal life enlivens the scene — 
at times perhaps a stray vulture or raven may be seen 
saihng far away in the blue sky, a frightened lizard 
will start from beneath one's feet, or a small flight of 
locusts be disturbed from their scanty meal on some 
' retem ' bush. Water on the road there was absolutely 
none ; a supply for four days had to be carried from 
El Biyar, a well strongly impregnated with Epsom 
salts, and lying a few miles to the south of Nagb el 
Mirad. 

Under these conditions we can scarcely expect to 
meet with many signs of life. Judging from the 
numerous cairns and other primeval remains, this 
district must at one time have been populous. Wearily 
did I tramp day after day, gun in hand, but I was 
seldom rewarded with anything more than a stray 
beetle or lizard, and now and then some small desert 
bird, and on very rare occasions a hare or snake. 

As from former experience we had found that it 
was impossible to work a country thoroughly when 
mounted, we only employed enough camels to carry 
our baggage. The camel-drivers acted as guides, and, 
to a certain extent, as attendants, for we took no ser- 
vants whatever. This added to our already heavy 
work, yet it enabled us to get on much more satis- 

R 2 



244 REPORT OX THE 

fiictorily with the various Arab tribes than we could 
otherwise have done. 

From tlie Nagb el Mirad our course lay down 
Wady Rowsig, which takes its rise in the highest part 
of Jcbel el 'Ejmeh, about eighteen miles east of the 
"head of Wady el Arish, with which it holds a nearly 
parallel course till it joins it at a short distance to the 
north-east of Nakhl. The district between Wady el 
AHsh and Wady Eowag is drained by W. Ghabiyeh, 
which falls into the latter about twenty-five miles from 
the Nagb el Mirad ; after this junction the country 
becomes open and comparatively level. Here the 
ground is almost as hard as a macadamised road, and 
is covered with a layer of small black polished flints, 
which glisten in the sun as though they were wet. 
This polish must be attributed to the dust and grit 
kept in motion by the almost incessant winds, which 
are frequently very violent. Many of the monuments 
in Egypt bear witness to the destructive action of the 
grit. In this desert sand is almost unknown. There 
arc only two or three sandy tracts, and these may be 
traversed in a few hours at most. The largest sandy 
distriri. w(> had to cross was the Rumeilet Hamed, to 
the north of Khalasah (tlie ancient Elusa), where the 
prevailing n()itli-\v(\st winds liave formed extensive 
dunes. Tiiis sand, however, seems to have been 
entirely brought from the coast. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH. 245 

On arriving at Naklil we found a small fort with 
wells and cisterns. In this dreary spot, encompassed 
by glaring white hills, a few miserable soldiers are 
maintained by the Egyptian Government for the pro- 
tection of the Hajj caravan, the place being halfway 
between Snez and Akabah. Here we were obliged to 
dismiss the Towarah Arabs, and taking up our pro- 
visions which we had sent on from Suez, we entered 
into an agreement with the Teyahah, who, after con- 
siderable discussion and futile attempts to extort a large 
' ghafr ' or black mail, engaged to take us anywhere 
we wished through their country. 

Of the various tribes which inhabit the Desert of 
the Tih, the most numerous and powerful are tlie 
Teyahah, of whom there are two divisions, the Sagairat 
and the Benaiyat, and truly they were, as their name 
implies, ' birds of prey.' They possess large herds of 
camels whose numbers are frequently increased by the 
product of the raids which they make on their here- 
ditary foes the 'Anazeh, whose territory lies around 
Palmyra and to the east of the Hauran, and is about 
twenty days' joiu'ney from the Tih. These forays are 
sometimes carried out on a large scale ; on the last 
occasion the Teyahah numbered 1,000 guns. At times 
the plunder amounts to many hundred camels, but at 
others the owners come down in force, and the aggres- 
sors are compelled to retire. Bloodshed in these free- 



246 REPORT ON THE 

booting expeditions and even actual warfare is avoided 
as much as possible, for it results in a blood feud which 
is always much dreaded by a Bedawi, smce it binds the 
relatives of anyone who has perished either by miu-der 
or manslaughter — the Arabs do not distinguish between 
them — to avenge his death. The blood feud or ven- 
detta thus exercises a most salutary influence, for with- 
out it the value of human life would be totally dis- 
regarded in these wild regions which lie beyond the 
pale of the law. 

The Terabin, the tribe next in importance, occupy 
the country east of the Teyahah, their territory ex- 
tending from Jebel Bisher and Bir Abu Suweirah on 
the Sinai road some forty miles south-east of Suez, as 
far as Gaza to the north. 

The Haiwatt live in the mountains to the west and 
north-west of Akabah, and are not numerous. 

The Azazimeh occupy the mountainous region 
wliich I have before mentioned as beai'ing their name : 
this tiibe is not large, and they are exceedingly poor ; 
their only food consists of the milk and cheese ob- 
tained from their cjimels and goats and such roots as 
they can dig up. On very rai'e occasions they may 
have tlie luck to slioot some wild animal, which, 
whether it be ibex or hya3na, is equally acceptable to 
their not over-squeamish stomachs. They are obliged 
to li\c ni very small ;iud scattered communities, from 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TtH. 247 

the fact that, with the exception of one or two 
brackish and unpalatable springs, their only water 
supply is derived from the rains collected in hollows of 
rocks in the ravines and wady beds, and even these 
few and far between. This water was usually putrid 
and full of most uninviting animalcula ; however, as 
no other was to be had, we were obliged to drink it. 

From Nakhl we went in a north-westerly direction 
to Wady Garaiyeh, thence to Jebel 'Araif, which we 
ascended ; thougli it is Httle more than 2,000 ft. high, 
the view is very extensive. We then proceeded to 
cross Wady Mayin, W. Lussan, and W. Jeriir, and 
afterwards reached Ain Muweileh (the supposed site of 
Hagar's well). Here are very numerous primeval 
stone remains, the most remarkable being piles of 
stones placed in rows at the edges of the cliffs which 
face the East. Cannot they be the remains of the 
old Baal worship followed by the Amorites, whose 
name is still preserved in the country to the north of 
W. Muweileh, at Dheigat el 'Amerin (the ravine of 
the Amorites), Eas 'Amir, and Sheikh el 'Amiri ? 
At various places on our route, especially at 'Uggabeh 
— between Nakhl and W. Garayieh — on S. el 'Ejmell, 
S. 'Araif in Wady Lussan, we found very large num- 
bers of cairns, stone circles with graves, and open 
spaces, which, to judge from the burnt earth within 
them, seemed to have been designed for sacrificial 



248 liEPOIiT OX THE 

purposes ; also enclosures, girt by rude stone walls ; 
and, in W. el Biyar, circular dwellings, some of which 
are still standing, quite perfect. In W. Eowag nearly 
every hill is topi)ed by a cairn ; there are three on 
the summit of Jebel 'Araif, and we noticed that they 
frequently occurred as far north as Bir Seba and El 
Milh (Molada). 

At Muweileh and near a neighbouring spring, Ain 
Guseimeh, are several caves. At the former place 
there is one cut in the face of the cliff, and entered 
by a staircase, ascending from a smaller cave below ; 
this has been at one time the dwelling of a Christian 
hermit, as we noticed crosses rudely painted in red 
and traces of frescoes. At this place, too, we found, 
with the exception of one place in W. Lussdn, the 
first signs of regular cultivation in former times. 
Stones are laid in hues across the wady-beds to check 
and, at the same time, distribute the drainage, and to 
prevent the soil being washed down by a sudden seil 
or flood. 

Our next point was El Birein, so called from the 
tico wells in the wady ; here are traces of considerable 
ruins, a fiskiyeh, or reservoir, or aqueduct, the latter 
ruined, and tlie former nearly so. In the wady are 
some old butineh or terebinth trees, remarkable as 
being the first trees, witli the exception of two 'seyals' 
or acacias, that wv had seen since leaving Sinai. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF TUE TIH. - 240 

About six miles N.W. of El Birein lie the ruins of 
El 'Aujeh, confounded by Dr. Eobinson with 'Abdeh, 
which I shall presently mention, situated on a low spur 
running into W. Hanein. This valley, however, on 
account of a superstition attaching to its real name, 
has always been called by the Arabs, when speaking 
to travellers, W. Hafir. Some five or six square miles 
of the wady are covered with ruined walls of gardens 
and fields ; the sides of the watercourse are built up 
with large stones, and dams still exist across it, though 
all the valley is now barren and neglected. Ten miles 
to the east of El Aujeh we discovered the ruins of 
a fortress called ' El Meshrifeh,' perched on a project- 
ing spur, and defended on two sides by steep cliffs, 
which overlook a broad plain formed by the sweep of 
Wady El Abyadh as it debouches from Jebel Magrah ; 
the south face of the cliff is fortified by escarpments 
and towers of massive masonry, and on the summit 
are ruins of several houses, and of a small church ; on 
the third side a thick wall runs across the level crest 
of the spur. Beneath the towers and in connection 
wdth them are numerous rock-hewn chambers ; also 
traces of a more ancient and, indeed, primeval wall, 
and pieces of masonry of a date far anterior to the 
rest of the buildings. 

On the plain above mentioned and three miles and 
a half to the S.E. of El Meshrifeh we found the ruins 



250 REPORT OX THE 

of a cousiderablc town called S'baita. This name 
seems to have been heard of by former travellers, 
who confounded the site with Echaibeh ; but I believe 
we were the first Europeans to visit the ruins. Here, 
as in many other cases, we experienced considerable 
difficulty, owing to the apprehensions of oiu" Bedawin, 
who did their best to dissuade us from going there. 
I succeeded, however, in taking sketches and photo- 
graphs of the chief points of interest. The town con- 
tains three churches, which, like those at El Aujeh, El 
Meshrifeh, and S'adi, must, I think, be referred to the 
fifth century. There are also two reservoirs, and a 
tower with a rudely ornamented gateway. With the 
exception of a fragment or two at El Aujeh, this was 
the only instance of sculpture we saw, and not a single 
inscription was anywhere to be found. 

The structure of the buildings at S'baita is worth 
noticing : the upper stories of the houses are sup- 
ported on wide, low-spanned arches two feet wide with 
intervals of tliree feet between them, and upon these 
is placed the flooring of the upper rooms, which con- 
sists of narrow slabs of stone. Numerous ruined 
towers and walled gardens and enclosures, extending 
to a disUmce of several miles from the town, attest 
it.s f(jrmer importance. The vineyards, too, marked 
by the ' Teleilat el 'A neb,' which I mentioned before, 
extend over large tracts in this neighbourhood. 



NATURAL UISTORY OF THE TIH. 251 

From S'baita we went to Rehaibeh, examining en 
route the ruins of S'adi, which do not seem to have 
been visited or even heard of by former travellers. 
At Eehaibeh the ruins are of much greater extent 
than at S'adi, but so confused that it is impossible to 
trace the plan of any single building. There are 
numerous wells, cisterns, and other remains of culti- 
vation in the neighbourhood. From Eehaibeh we 
went to Khalasah and Bir Seba : the ruins at the 
former place have nearly disappeared, as the inhabi- 
tants of Gaza find it cheaper to send camels for the 
already squared stones than to quarry them near their 
town. Owing to the drought we found Bir Seba 
barren and deserted, though our Arabs assiured us that 
in good seasons the grass is knee-deep, and furnishes 
ample pasturage for countless flocks and herds. Our 
unlooked-for appearance in out-of-the-way districts 
was usually considered by the natives to be in some 
manner connected with the exceptional drought, and 
on several occasions we were either implored to bring 
rain or cursed for the want of it, since the Arabs 
firmly believe that every Nasrdni holds the weather 
under his control. 

From Bir Seba we went to Jerusalem, and, after 
a short stay there, returned to Hebron, where we 
engaged three of the Jehalin Arabs, with their camels, 
to convey oiu' baggage to Petra. Taking a new route. 



252 REPORT OX THE 

we passed Tell Anid and El Milli, and struck into 
the unexplored mountains of the 'Azazimeh, where 
we discovered the ruins of the El 'Abdeh (Eboda), 
which are of considerable extent, and similarly placed 
to those of El Meshrifeh, most of the dwellings here, 
as there, being half excavated and half built. Of 
the buildings now standing, the greater part are of 
Christkm times. The natives are perfect savages, and 
detained us for two hours from visiting the ruins by 
collecting in a gang to the number of thirteen on the 
top of a })ass, singing their war-song, throwing down 
stones, and occasionally firing off one of their old 
matchlocks in bravado, and swearing by God and the 
Prophet tliat no one should come up. As the pass 
was very narrow, almost precipitous, we judged it best 
to propitiate them, a task accomplished, after much 
discussion, at the cost of eight shilhngs. They then 
escorted us to the ruins, where we took such measure- 
ments and photographs as we required. From 'Abdeh 
we went through the 'Azazimeh mountain, a region 
8o awfully desolate as to defy description, struck the 
'Arabali at tlie junction of W. Jerafeh with W. 
Ghamz, and crossed thence to Petra. Here the Liya- 
thineh fully maintained their character for brutality 
nnd insolence. Infidels in all but the name of 
Moslims, they are descended from the tribe of Khai- 
beri Jews, who bear sudi a bad character in Arabia. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 253 

To add to our discomfort, we were snowed up for 
two days in a tent only just large enough for us both 
to lie down in. During a stay of six days, however, 
Petra was thoroughly examined by us and accurately 
mapped. We then bent our steps northwards, and 
at El Barid, about seven miles from Petra, discovered 
a colony of dwellings and temples cut in the rock, 
and some rudely chipped Nabatheean inscriptions. 
The walls and ceilings of the rock-chambers were 
decorated with frescoes, some coarse, others well 
executed. We next travelled down the 'Arabah to 
the Dead Sea, and, having examined the Lisan, went 
up into Moab. Here we stopped about three weeks 
and wandered over the country in search of inscrip- 
tions, as Mr. Palmer had specially come to ascertain if 
another Moabite stone was in existence. At last, 
however, we both came to the conclusion that ahom 
ground there are none. From Moab we crossed the 
Jordan, near Jericho, and returned to Jerusalem. 

The following are the various observations I have 
made and tales I have collected about some of the 
birds and mammals found in the desert of Tih and 
adjoining regions. For convenience of reference I 
have arranged them alphabetically. In the cases of 
well-known animals, or of such as have been before 
scientifically described, I confine myself chiefly to the 
Arab stories or legends attaching fo them. 



254 REPORT ON THE 

Bears (Ursus syriacus), Arabic Dabb, are still 
found on Moimt Herraon and the Anti-Lebanon, and 
must formerly have existed in Palestine, but the 
destruction of the woods has now driven them north- 
wards. They do much damage to the vineyards in the 
neighbourhood of Hermon, but seldom interfere with 
the herds of goats. The Arabs share in the widely 
spread beUef that bears sustain themselves during their 
hybernation by sucking their paws. They also say 
that when the female drops her cub it is quite shape- 
less, and that she carries it about in her mouth for 
fear lest it should be devoured by the ants, and then 
licks it into proper shape. Bear's grease is said to be 
useful in cases of leprosy. 

Boar, wild, Ar. Ilalhouf, or usually in Palestine, 
Khanzir, which simply means pig. These animals are 
ver}' abundant wherever there is cover near water, as 
on the banks of the Jordan and in the Ghor es Safi 
at tlic S. of the Dead Sea. I was much surprised to 
find traces of recent rooting by them in the W. 
lliklianiali, whicli lies between El Milh and 'Abdeh. 
This place is far from any water except what may 
have collected in hollow rocks, and can boast of no 
cover. The Azazimeh eat the wild boar, but the 
Ghawarineh, who will eat a hyaana, though it is known 
to ircciuent the graveyards, will not touch them. 

Ill this, as in tho case of the other animals. I can 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH. 255 

insert but a few amongst the many medicinal uses to 
which they are put by the Arabs, as these are in 
general unsuited to the taste of European readers. 

Bustard (Otis huhara\ Ar. Huhara. I noticed a 
few of these birds in the Tih ; the Arabs say that the 
lesser bustard {Otis tetra.x), which is also occasionally 
found there, is the young of the larger, but does not 
attain its full growth for two years. They also say 
that these birds, when attacked by a falcon, will cover 
it with their fseces, and so drive it off. 

Camel, Ar. masc. jemel, fem. ndgah. A stalhon 
camel is called fahl. Collectively, ihil vulgo Ml or 
hair, pi. aardn. Bejjin is usually applied to a drome- 
dary, but is properly used of a man, horse, or camel 
having an Arab sire and foreign dam, which, in the 
case of the animals, is considered the best possible 
cross. Hence, a dromedary (or well-bred camel used 
for riding) is so called. 

Camels are most peevish animals, docile only from 
stupidity ; ill-tempered, they never forget an injury. 
I have but once seen a camel show the shghtest sign 
of affection for its owner, although they are always 
well treated. All their feelings of hke and dislike, 
pleasure and annoyance, are expressed by a hideous 
sound between a bellow and a roar, to which they 
give utterance whether they are being loaded or un- 
loaded, whether they are being fed or urged over a 



25G REPORT ON THE 

difficult pass ; in fact, tliey disapprove of whatever is 
done. Without them, however, it would be impos- 
sible to cross the deserts, for uo other animal could 
endure the fatigue and want of water ; I have myself 
seen a camel refuse water after having been without 
any for tlu'ee days. For their food they always 
choose the most unmviting thorny shrubs ; the seya 
(acacia), which has thorns two or three inches long, 
is an especial favourite with them. Many of the 
Arabs subsist almost entirely upon the milk and 
cheese afforded by their herds of camels. 

The pelican is called jemel el ma^ or water camel ; 
and the chameleon, jemel el yehiid^ the Jew's camel. 

Cat, or Kutt. also Sinnaur and Ilirr. According 
to some lexicographers, the first name is not a pure 
Arabic word. Cats are held in great estimation in 
the East, and large prices are sometimes paid by native 
ladies for fine Persian specimens. In Cairo a sum of 
money was left in trust to feed i)oor cats, who daily 
receive their rations at the Mahkemah (law courts). 

Tliough the Arabs in Sinai and the Tih spoke of a 
wild cat, gatt berri, I found that this was always the 
lynx {Felis caracal), which is called in some parts of 
Arabia 'i?iah el ardh, or earth-kid ; in Sinai, it is also 
8i)okcn of as dnazeh (from linz, a she~goat). In 
Morocco, it is only known as oivddl 

I may liiTe remark that tin- woid Fahd^ translated 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE tIh. 257 

by Lane and others as ' lynx ' — an animal tliat is 
never used for hunting — really means the cheeta^ or 
hunting leopard of Persia and India. 

The Arabs in the Tih and in Morocco, as well as 
the Fellahin in Egypt, eat the lynx, and esteem it a 
delicacy, but, as some of them eat hyasnas, jackals, 
foxes, vultures, and ravens, they can hardly be quoted 
as Epicurean authorities. 

Many animals have in Arabic a large number of 
names, more than 5 GO, for instance, being applied to 
the lion. The following story current among them 
will illustrate this fact with reference to the cat. A 
Bedawi was out hunting one day, and caught a cat, 
but did not know what animal it could be. As he 
was carrying it along -with liim, he met a man, who 
said, ' Wliat are you going to do with that Sinnaur P ' 
Then another asked him, 'What is that Kutt for?' 
A third called it hin\ and others styled it successively 
dhayiin, hhaida, and khaital. So the Bedawi thought 
to himself, this must be a very valuable animal, and 
took it to the market, where he offered it for sale at 
100 dirhems. At this the people laughed and said, 
' Knowest thou not, Bedawi, that it would be dear 
at half a dirhem ? ' He was enraged at having his 
dream of wealth thus rudely dispelled, and flung it 
away, exclaiming, ' May thy house be ruined, thou 
beast of many names, but httle worth ! ' 

S 



258 liEPORT OX THE 

The Arabs say that the occasion of the cat's first 
appearance was as follows. The inhabitants of the 
ark were much troubled with mice: Noah, in his 
perplexity, stroked the lion's nose, and made him 
sneeze, whereupon a cat appeared and cleared oflf the 
mice. 

In the East, as in Europe, a black cat is regarded 
a,s 'uncanny,' and various parts of it are used for 
magical and medicinal purposes ; its claws, for instance, 
are said to be a charm against the nightmare. 

Coney (JTyrax syriacus)^ Ar. Waber (lit. fur, from 
the thickness of their coats) ghanem beni Israel — sheep 
of the sons of Israel. Some Arabs say that this 
animal may be eaten, but others, as in Sinai, declare 
that it is unlawful, and call it Abu Salman, or else the 
brother of man, and say that it was originally a man 
who was mctiimorphosed for his sins, and they believe 
that any one who eats him will never see his house 
again. It is a common joke among the Hajjis and 
people <^f Mecca to say ' A good digestion to you who 
have eaten Abu Salman.' 

Dog, Ar. Kelb (in Morocco ^*(?w, which properly 
pignifies puppy, whelp), is the ordinary dog. A large 
kind of rough groyhouud is called Selu/ci, from the 
town Seluk, in Yeinen.' This dog much resembles 
the Scotch dccrhound (cf. Gaelic name, slogie). In 

' TIip usiml derivation. Ikiwovit, is ' Scleucia.' 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE Till. 259 

Syria and east of the Jordan tliere is a variety wliicli 
is smooth, but has its ears, tail, and legs feathered like 
a setter ; the females are said to be keener for hunting 
than the males, and black dogs are said to be the 
most patient. The dogs in Eastern towns live in com- 
munities, and have distinct bounds, usually ending at 
a street corner, and woe betide any dog who wanders 
beyond his own proper limits. I have often, when 
living at Cairo, amused myself by watching these 
animals. No sooner does a strange dog appear than 
all the rightful owners of the soil rush at him ; the 
intruder takes to his heels, but the moment he has 
reached his own frontier, he turns round and snarls 
defiantly at his pursuers, and if they do not quickly 
retire his friends come to his assistance and drive them 
back in turn. 

Dogs are said to have an intense liatred of hycenas, 
so much so that if a dog is smeared with the fat of a 
hyo3na, he will go mad ; and — which seems inconse- 
quent — if a person carries a hyiena's tongue the dogs 
will not bark at him. Tliis certainly would be most 
useful on entering an Arab encampment, for there a 
stranger is immediately surrounded by a pack of 
snarling brutes, who seem to sleep all day with one 
eye open, and at niglit to be continually awake and 
barking, either to frigliten away some prowling jackal 



200 REPORT OX THE 

or lynx, or to repress some errant sheep or goat who 
may wish to wander outside the circle of tents. 

The Arabs believe that a dog can tell a dead 
person from one feigning death, and say that the 
Greeks {Room) never bury a person till they have 
exposed him to the dogs. It is, however, of only one 
breed that this is asserted, namely, the kind called el 
Kalti, and which is of small size, with very short 
lejjs. It is also called the Chinese do£^. Of the 
origin of this story I am quite ignorant. The fol- 
lowing is almost identical with a well-known Northern 
legend : — 

A king had a favourite dog, whom he left at home 
one day while he went out hunting. Having ordered 
his cook to prepare a dish of lehen (sour milk) for him 
on his return, the cook obeyed the order, but care- 
lessly left the milk uncovered, and a snake came and 
drank of it and rendered it poisonous. On the king's 
return the dog tried to prevent him from touching it ; 
at this moment the cook came in with some bread, 
whirl 1 the king took and began to dip into the lebe?i, 
wlien the dog immediately bit his hand. Upon this 
the king was very angry, and stretched out his hand 
again to the bowl ; the dog, however, was before him, 
and ])ogan to lap the sop, whereupon it straightway 
fell down (lead. Tiie king llien became aware of the 
sagacity and faithfulness of tlie beast, whose loss he 



NA.TURAL HISrOUY OF THE Till. 2GI 

mourned ever after, and erected a splendid tomb to 
his memory. 

Donkey, Ar. Himdr. The donkey, much used by 
the Ai'abs (for it will thrive in the desert where a 
horse could not exist), chiefly for carrying waterskins, 
as the Bedawin often encamp several miles from water, 
and the women bring up a supply every two or three 
days.^ At Damascus there are three breeds of donkeys 
— (1) The white, which is most valuable, being some- 
times worth 30/. or 40/., and in Egypt I have heard 
of 60/. being given for a fine animal of this kind ; 
(2) the ordinary donkey, which is used for riding, 
&c. ; (3) a large donkey, standing from 13 to 14 hands, 
which is used for carrying burdens in the town ; in 
the country, however, it is useless, as, unlike the other 
breeds, it is far from sure-footed. 

The wild donkey, Ar. Air ^f era, or himdr icahshi, 
is found to the east of Damascus ; it is said to be very 
long-hved. 

Dugong [Halicore Hemprichii), Ar. otum (called 
by Dr. Eobinson tiin). This curious mammal is found 
in the Eed Sea, and harpooned by the fishermen as it 
basks on the surface of the water. The skin is used 
by the Sinai Bedawin to make sandals of, for which 
piu-pose it is admirably adapted. In some parts of 

^ A tribe in the desert, towards the Euphrates, is said to use donkeys 
oidy, and to possess neither horses nor camels. 



262 RErORT ON THE 

Arabia, it is said tliat khifaf^ or boots to protect the 
camels' feet from the rocks, are made of it. Some 
commentators Uike the Heb. tachash, which is trans- 
luted " badger-skins,' to mean the otum, and there is 
an Arabic word, Tukkas, apphed to the dolphin species 
generally. 

Fox, Ar, Tadleh^ Ahou'l Ilusein. In the East, as 
in Em'ope, this animal is looked upon as the t3rpe of 
cunning, and numberless stories are current concerning 
it. The following are examples : — 

When a fox is overmuch troubled with fleas, he 
plucks out a mouthful of his hair, and then he takes 
to the water, holding the tuft in his mouth ; all the 
fleas creep u}) on to this to escape drowning, and the 
fox then drops it into the stream and retires, freed 
from his enemies. 

The celebrated Arabic author and theologian, Esh 
Shafiey, relates that when in Yemen, he and his fellow 
travellers prepared two fowls for dinner one day, but 
the hour of prayer coming on, they left them on the 
table and went to perform their devotions ; meanwhile 
a fox came and stole one. After their prayers were 
flnished, they saw the fox prowling about with their 
chicken in his mouth, so they pursued him and he 
dropi)ed it; on coming up nearer to it, however, they 
found it only to be a piece of palm fibre, which the 
fox Iiad dioi)pL'tl to attract theii' attention, and had, in 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE T/H 263 

the meantime, crept round and carried off tlie second 
chicken and left tliem dinnerless. 

Tlie fox is said to feign death, and to inliate his 
body, and when any animal, prompted by curiosity, 
comes to look at him, he springs up and seizes it. 

The fable of the fox and stork is changed to the 
fox and raven ; the former invites the latter to dinner, 
and gives him soup in a shallow wooden bowl ; the 
raven returns the compliment, and pours out some 
wheat over a silleh bush. The silleh is one of the 
most thorny of the desert plants. 

Another story told of the fox is, that one day he 
met five slaves, who were travelling with a large 
supply of food and other goods ; he joined them, and 
after a time they reached a well, but had no rope 
wherewith to draw up the water. The fox suggested 
that they should throw down the meal, and that one 
of their number should go down and knead it, which 
was accordingly done. After a while the fox said to 
the four who remained above, ' Your comrade must 
have found a treasure ; why don't you go down and 
share it ? ' Tliis hint was enough, and they all hiu-ried 
down, while the fox decamped v/ith theu' goods and 
chattels. 

A fox's gall is said to be a specific for epilepsy, 
and his fat for the gout. 

Gazelle (Gazella dorcas), Ar. male 'ard, fern. 



264 RErORT OX THE 

cjhazaleh, also (chielly in poetry) DItabyeh (cf. Tabitha, 
Acts ix. 36). This gazelle is found in the more open 
parts of the country between Sinai and the Lebanon ; 
their haunts vary much with the different seasons. 
Though we never found any in the centre of the Tih, 
the Arabs said that, after a good rainy season, large 
numbers come there. 

The Arabs speak of three kinds, viz. : — 1. El Rim 
(Antilope addax). 2. El Edam {A. leucoryx). 3. El 
'Afar^ which I cannot satisfactorily identify. 

The tongue of an antelope must be an invaluable 
charm, for if it be dried and powdered, and then given 
to a woman who henpecks her husband, it will insure 
her futiu:e good behaviour ! 

Goat, Ar. maaz, f. ma'azeh or anz. A he-goat 
(cither wild or tame) is also called tais. In mountain- 
ous districts, large herds of goats are kept by the Arabs, 
chiefly for their milk and hair, which is used for making 
tents and sacking. The Arabs more usually eat a kid 
than a lamb on the occasion of a feast, and always a 
male. Full-grown animals are seldom killed. There 
arc several varieties of goats from the upright-eared 
kind to the Syrian goat with pendent ears, 12 to 14 inches 
long. That usually seen in the desert has ears slightly 
drooping and rather curling up at the top. 

Uorse: the generic term in Arabic, Kheil\ a horse, 
hisdn (in Morocco V<t'(/) ; a miWQ.fara ; a colt, mohrah. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 2G5 

'Atik is a thorough- bred Arab. Tradition says that 
the Devil will never enter a tent in which an \it'ik is 
kept. 

Hejjin : a crossed horse. (The term is explained 
under the head ' Camel.') 

Berdhun is a pack-horse with foreign sire and dam. 

Kadisli is a badly bred berdhun. 

The Bedawin reckon seven principal breeds of 
horses, which are as follows : — 

1. Masahal^ which ought to be thin-crested, with 
short white stockings, red-eyed, short-coated, full in the 
barrel, and long-winded. 

2. Iiaikali. 

3. Sharthar. 

4. Hareifish^ a breed well known in Syria. 

5. Tubal. 

6. Fij. 

7. Kumeit. These horses are usually bay, with 
black points, and ought, say the Arabs, to have a very 
fine muzzle ; head thin, and well set on ; upright, 
small ears ; conspicuous wliite star on the forehead ; 
round quailers, and to be well ribbed up ; with a short 
or rat tail. They add, a well-bred horse is known by 
having the tail thick at the root, and carried well out. 

The favourite colours are chestnut, grey, dun, black, 
and dark bay. The Prophet is related to have pro- 
nounced the following dicta : — ' The best horses are 



266 REPORT ON THE 

black with white foreheads, and a white upper lip ; 
next to these a black horse with a star, and three white 
stockings ; next a bay with these marks.' ' Prosperity 
is with sorrel horses.' The same authority judged 
shikdl, i.e., having the right-fore and left-hind feet 
white, to be the sign of a bad horse. 

The first man who tamed and rode a horse is said 
to have been Ishmael. The first horse appeared when 
Adam sneezed on first awaking into life (cf. the story 
of the cat). 

Hyaena {H. striata), Ar. Dhaba\ also (in Sinai) 
Arkudha. This animal is found throughout the desert 
and Palestine. It is a cowardly beast, feeding chiefly 
on carrion, and is consequently little feared by the 
natives ; as I have before mentioned, the Ghawarineh 
eat it. It is said to change its sex yearly ; the same 
fable is told of hares. 

Jackal, Ar. Ibn 'Aici., or in Syria Wadwi, in 
Morocco Deeb and Taaleb Yusvf. These animals are 
not found in the desert, but are common in the culti- 
vated i)arts of Egypt and Palestine, where their weird 
cry is very frequently heard, beginning just after sunset. 
They are timid beasts, and do little damage, except in 
the vineyards, where they commit great ravages, being 
exceedingly fond of grapes. 

Ibex [Capra bedan), Ar. Bedan (from hedn, a body: 
probably so called as being the largest game in Sinai), 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH. 267 

the correct Arabic is waal ; this is the name given to 
them north of Damascus. Some travellers have called 
them Taytal, but the word is not Arabic, and is only- 
used by the Sinaitic Bedawiu when speaking to 
Europeans, ' poor simpletons,' as they politely put it, 
' who don't understand Arabic' The derivation of 
this word I am quite unable to determine. Among 
themselves the Bedawin speak of the buck as Bedan, 
and the doe as Anz (she-goat), and the kids as Dhalit. 
A male in his first year is called Fenaigili ; after 
this he is distinguished by the length of his horns ; tliiis 
in the second year he is called Abu Shibrain^ the 
father of two spans ; in his third, Thelathi ; in his 
fourth, Rubai ; in his fifth, Khammasi ; and they add 
that the horns never exceed five spans in length, 
which I believe to be true, for on measuring the largest 
l)air that I have ever seen, I found them to be just five 
spans (about 41 inches) long. The term garimi (red) is 
applied in a general way, much as we speak of red 
deer. These animals are found in Sinai and on both 
sides of the Dead Sea. I have reason to believe that 
those near Palmyra are a different variety. 

Jerboa, Ar. Yerbuah, also Dirs or Dars, and some- 
times Za rumaih (the lord of the little lance). There 
are several kinds of jerboas and desert rats; some of 
them are only found amongst the rock, others only 
burrow in the sand and gravel. Opinion is divided 



268 RErOliT OX THE 

amongst the Arabs as to wliether the jerboa is lawful 
for food or lu^t ; some eat it, but others reject it as 
being ' a creeping thing.' The Arabs say that they 
never drink, and believe that they live in communities, 
and appoint a sheikh, whom, however, they unhesi 
tatingly kill should his rule not suit them. There is 
an Arabic proverb about a deceitful man : ' He acts 
like a jerboa.' This is said with reference to the 
ground outside a jerboa's hole, which, though seemingly 
solid, is really imdermined, and gives way when 
trodden upon. 

Leopard {Felis leopardus), Ar. Nimr, occasionally 
called in Sinai Gibldn^ (corruption of the Turkish 
Kaplan), the cubs are called Weshek. In tlie more 
secluded and inaccessible mountains of Sinai these 
animals are far from rare, and in a former visit to that 
country I was told that eleven camels had been killed 
by them during the preceding year in the district lying 
between Senned and W. Nasb. Like the hyrax the 
leopard is said to have been formerly a man changed 
into liis present shape for performing his ablutions 
before prayer in milk, thus despising and diverting 
from their proper uses the good gifts of God. 

Leftpards are tolerably abundant on the shores of 
tlie Dead Sea ; tlicir tracks were here mistaken by M. de 

' (Jiblan i- tli.. imiu.. of the chief of tLe Nimr (leopard) family of the 
Ad wan Aralx* in Moub. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH. 209 

Saulcy for those of the lion, which animal is, however, 
quite extinct in Palestine and the Tih. 

The Bedawin assert that young leopards are born 
with a snake round their necks, and that when a 
leopard is ill he cures himself by eating mice. Their 
fat is used medicinally, and their hair is burnt as a 
charm to drive away scorpions and centipedes. 

Lizard. The larger lizards, especially the Uro- 
mastiv spinipes, are called in Arabic Dhabb, and the 
smaller Hardhun. The Bedawin say tliat the former 
lays seventy eggs and even more, resembhng pigeons' 
eggs, and that the young are at first quite blind. They 
are believed to be very long hved — indeed I have 
heard 700 years assigned as the term of their existence. 
By some tribes they are eaten, but are generally 
thought unclean. The Syrians curse tliem freely, for 
they say that they mock the devotions of the true 
believers. Certainly the way in which they jerk their 
bodies up and down is not unlike a caricature of the 
Muslim prostrations. 

The dried bodies of some of the Skinks or Sand- 
lizards (Ar. Sakanh'ir) are much sought after as a 
restorative throughout the East. The particular kind 
in vogue is found in Nejed, and large quantities are 
brought by the Hajj caravans. 

Owl, Ar. Boomeh. This bird is in some places 
regarded with veneration on account of a tradition 



270 REPORT OX Till: 

wliich says that the souls of men appear on their tombs 
ill tlie form of owls. I am told that they are some- 
times used by fowlers as decoys. 

Pigeon, Ar. Ilamam ; wild pigeon, Yemam. In 
Egypt there are enormous numbers of pigeons who 
live in towers specially built for them. They arc 
chiefly kept for their dung, which is very valuable as 
manure, and largely exported. 

Most mosques are tenanted by pigeons, and not 
unfrequently a sum of money is left by some pious 
Moslem to buy corn for them. At Jerusalem they are 
especially numerous, whence the Arabic proverb, 
' Safer than the pigeons of the Haram.' The 
mourning of doves is as frequently alluded to in Eastern 
as it is in Western poetry. 

Quail, usually called in Arabia Summana or Selwa. 
I only met with one specimen in the Tih, and that was 
cjdled by the natives Firreh. There is a tradition that 
tlie first instance of meat becoming con-upt and 
stinking was when the children of Israel stored up tlie 
flesh of the miraculous quails contrary to the commands 
of the Almighty. 

Raven. There are three species of this bird scattered 
over tlie desert, viz., Corvus corner , C. umhrinuf<, and 
C. affinis ; all of these are called by the Arabs Ghorab. 
Tlioy are generally found near a herd of camels, and 
may oOm be seen perched on the backs of these 



NATURAL niSTORY OF THE Till. 271 

animals searching for ticks. Their chief food consists 
of reptiles and insects, but any dead or dying animal 
will attract them. On one occasion I saw two ravens 
attack a horse which had fallen from exliaustion. 

An Arabian proverb says, ' Take a raven for your 
guide, and he will lead you to a dead dog.' 

An Arab tradition, evidently taken — as many others 
are — from the Old Testament, ascribes the first idea 
of burial to the raven. ' While Adam was absent on 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, Cain and Abel each erected an 
altar for sacrifices. Cain, a husbandman, offered the 
refuse of his garden, but Abel chose the finest young 
ram of his fiock and laid it upon the altar. His sacri- 
fice was accepted, and the ram taken up to heaven, 
there to remain till it was required as a substitute for 
Ishmael when his fatlier Abraham should offer him 
up on Mount Moriah. Cain, seeing his offering refused, 
coficeived so sudden a jealousy against his brother that 
he slew him, but being perplexed after the deed, and 
knowing not how to dispose of the body, he carried 
it about with him for many years. At last he saw 
two ravens engaged in deadly conflict, and one having 
killed the other scraped a hole in the ground and 
buried it, a hint which Cain took, and thus instituted 
the first burial rites as he had caused the first death. 
Adam returning mourned for his son and cursed tlie 
ground whicli liad drunk up liis blood, wherefore, say 



272 liErORT (jy THE 

the Muslims, tlie earth will never more absorb the 
blood of one who is slain, but it remains above ground, 
a lasting testimony to the murderer's guilt.' 

Sand-grouse {Pterocles seiarius). — This species is 
most common in the desert, but three other kinds are 
also found, viz. P. exicftiis and P. senegalensis (found 
by Tristram near the Dead Sea) and P. arenarius. All 
these are called Rata, or, in Bedawi dialect, Gata (in 
Morocco Koudn). The first and last mentioned species 
are called by some Bedawin Koudriyeh and Sunifeh 
respectively. 

These birds require to drink morning and evening, 
and thus often prove of great service to the traveller 
by indicating the proximity of water. While staying 
at Damascus I was assured that these birds exist in 
such numbers in the territory of the 'Auazeh Bedawin 
tliat during the nesting season two men will go out 
witli a camel's-hair bag between them and fill it with 
eggs in a very short space of time. The women 
then squeeze out the eggs and cook them, leaving the 
shells inside the bag. The Kata is said always to lay 
three eggs, neither more nor less. Its bones when 
proiK-rly i)repared are said to be a cure for baldness, 
and the liead may be used as a charm to extort 
secrets from a sleeping person. From its being so 
sure an indicator of the presence of water, the Arabs 
liavc till- i.rovcrb ' More truthful than the Gata.' 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 273 

Sheep. The proper Arabic name is Dhdn ; Gha- 
nem is the general term for flocks of sheep and goats. 

In the Tih there are few sheep, but in Moab and 
Palestine they are numerous ; these are generally the 
fat-tailed variety [Ovis laticaudata). A fine-woolled 
breed is found in some districts. I have always noticed 
that in the East sheep's milk is much better than that 
of either cows or goats. 

Snake, Ar. Haiyek^ Taaban 'Offi, (cf. o'c^<s), Dudek 
{lit. worm)^ Rakshali (speckled one). Owing to its 
being winter when I passed through the Tih, there 
were very few snakes to be found. The attitude taken 
by a horned snake {Cerastes Hasselquistii) which I 
captured was remarkable. Immediately it saw me it 
began to hiss, and, tying itself as it were into a knot, 
created a curious grating sound by the friction of its 
scales. This snake is considered the most deadly of 
all by the Arabs, who hold it in great dread. They 
also affirm that if a snake has swallowed a bone which 
it cannot digest it will coil itself tightly round a tree 
or stone till the bone inside it is completely broken up. 

Tortoise {Testudo grceca), Ar. Salahfdt (in Morocco 
afkah). The water- tortoise {Emys caspica) is called 
Lejah. The former is occasionally found in the Till, 
though common in Palestine. The latter abounds iu 
the pools and streams of that country. Another species 
of land-tortoise {Testudo marginata) is mentioned by 

T 



274 REPORT 0:N THE 

Tristram as being found on Mount Carmel. The 
water-tortoise is known to be carnivorous, and the 
Arabs declare tliat the land species also eat snakes, 
but this I believe to be quite false. Tortoises have a 
very strong odour, and I have frequently seen pointers 
in Morocco stand to them as they would to game. 

Vulture, Egyptian {Neophron percnopterus)^ Ar. 
Ixalliamah (Ileb. racham) or Onak (in Morocco Sew). 
This is the only vulture at all frequently seen in the 
desert. The Griffon {Gyps fulvus) and Lammergeier 
{Gypaetus barbatus) seldom wander beyond the limits 
of cultivation. The Egyptian vulture is commonly 
found near Arab encampments, where it shares the 
office of scavenger witli the dogs. Many tribes, liow- 
ever, both in North Africa and the East, consider its 
flesh a delicacy. 

Wolf {Canis lupus) ^ Ar. Deeb. These animals are 
found in the mountains of Sinai and Palestine, but 
rarely in the Tih. They do not pack like European 
wolves, ])ut hunt by twos and threes. 

The lit'dawin say that * they sleep with one eye 
open,' and have a similar proverb to our own, 'A 
wolf in the stomach.' Hunger is sometimes called 
Da' ed deeb, wolfs malady. Various parts of the 
animal are used for charms, e.g. a wolf's head in a 
pigeon cote, or a tail in a cattle stall, will keep off 
otlier wild bi-asts. 



I 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 275 

In additiou to stories about real animals, the Be- 
dawin have many fables of imaginary creatures, such 
as the Ginn, the Efreet, and the Ghoul. These hardly 
come within my province, and are well described by 
Lane ('Arabian Nights,' vol. i.). I may however 
mention the Nis-nds, which is said to resemble a man 
bisected longitudinally, and to possess but one arm, 
one leg, and half a head. The story goes that it is 
found in Yemen, and that the people there hunt and 
eat it, notwithstanding that it can speak Arabic ! The 
Hud-hud (so called from its cry) is a mysterious 
creature, not uncommon in Sinai. The Bedawin 
declare that it is never seen. Though I often heard 
its plaintive cry close to my tent, and rushed out gun 
in hand, yet I never could obtain so much as a glimpse 
of it. At one moment the sound came from just over 
my head ; the next instant it was far away up the hill 
side, and would either pass into the distance, or as 
suddenly return to me. From this I am convinced 
that the cry is made by some bird, probably of the 
owl tribe. The Arabs, of course, will accept no sucli 
materialistic solution of the mystery. 

The botany of the Tih, especially in a season of 
drought such as we experienced, is very limited. The 
climate is so dry that mosses and even lichens are not 
found, except near Nakhl, where I gathered some 

T 2 



276 REPORT ON THE 

much resembling the true reindeer moss. This only 
grows on the northern side of the hillocks. 

The passage in Job xxx. 4, ' Who cut up mallows 
by the bushes,' seems wrongly referred to the Sea 
Purslane {Atnplea; Ilalimus). In North Africa and 
the country east of Bir-Erba there is a small mallow 
which is eaten. Tliis invariably grows either where 
an Arab encampment has stood or on the site of an 
ancient town. It has a small pinkish flower, and 
seldom exceeds seven or eight inches in height. 

In the caves near Ain Muweileh a considerable 
quantity of salt crystallises on the siurface of the lime- 
stone. Though disagreeable to the taste, it is eaten by 
the Arab. 

At Petra the natives chip the interior of the caves. 
The fragments of sandstone are crushed and boiled, 
and a saltpetre sufficiently pure for the purpose of 
making gunpowder is thus obtained. The sulphur is 
found on the Lisan and coasts of the Dead Sea. 

The above report necessarily contains but a sketch 
of our work. It will, however, I trust, give some idea 
of the fouiitry we had to examine, and of the diffi- 
culties which we encountered. In conclusion, I must 
here tender my best thanks to the University of Cam- 
bridge for having aided me in the investigation of this 
hitherto so little known l)ut important district. It is 
the intciitiuii *>{■ Mr. Palmer and myself to publish 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIH 277 

together as soon as possible a full and systematic 
account of oiu* explorations. 

Note hy Mr. C. R. Crotch on the Coleoptera brought 
from the Tih. 

' In the small collection now before me are con- 
tained ninety species of Coleoptera, representing more 
or less all the larger families of the order, except the 
water-beetles, an omission easily to be accounted for. 
The group most largely represented is, as throughout 
Syria, the Heteromena. These curious apterous, 
sluggish forms seem to thrive under the most arid 
conditions. The whole cast of the fauna is essentially 
Mediterranean ; that one is on its southern side is 
shown by genera like Adesmia, Graphipterus, Pachy- 
deura, &c. The relations of this collection with an 
Egyptian one are very marked, many specimens being 
identical. None of tlicm, however, extend to the 
Algerian deserts, though congeneric species occur there 
in their place. Nearly all are confmed to the S. 
corner of Palestine and E. of Egjrpt, except the 
dung-beetles (Histerida, Aphodiadte, and Coprida), 
and these are more or less identical with those of S. 
Europe. The paucity of vegetation is very strongly 
indicated by the fixct that the two great groups of 
Rhynchophera and Phytophaga number only seven 
species between them.' 



EXTBACTS FEOM JOURNAL IN EGYPT. 

Jan. 11. I heard tliat there were some grottoes iu 
the hills beyond Souadi, so early in the morning I 
crossed the river to explore them. I found remains of 
several, but as they were all in the Nummulite lime-^ 
stone, the barbarous natives had destroyed them all in 
order to burn the stone for lime, finding it easier to 
quarry them than to break into the face of the cliff. 
One alone was not destroyed, though three sitting 
figures which it once contained were broken away 
and the hieroglyphs were much defaced. I found near 
Zoweh the remains of some unfinished ' tazzas ' of 
Egyptian alabaster, which had evidently broken when 
being roughly shaped and had consequently been re- 
jected. Zoweh is a city of the dead ; all the dead from 
Minieh and thereabouts are ferried across the river 
and buried there (hence the fable of Styx and the souls 
being ferried across). The city is about a mile and a 
half long, and about half a mile in width ; each tomb- 
house is a domed building — hke the saint-houses in 



280 EXriiACTS FROM JOUIiXAL. 

Morocco — and iinderueath are vaults in which the 
bodies are deposited. 

J 2. To-day the women from Minieh cross over in 
great numoers to Zoweh to Hve for two days in the 
tombs, as Ramadan finishes then, and it is the feast of 
Beiram. 

13. Passed up the river with a fair wind without 
stopping at the grottoes of Beni Hassan, as we intend 
going up to Thebes as quickly as possible, and coming 
down slowly and visiting all places of interest after- 
wards. 

The hills on the eastern side come very near to the 
river from some fifteen miles below Minieh, and run 
along it till the Mount of Abou'l Feda (near Manfaloot), 
when it runs S.E. at some distance off. 

On the 15th we passed Abou'l Feda; it is usually 
difiicult, and so we found it. The wind comes down 
from the cliffs, which I should think were 400 or 500 
feet high, in sudden gusts. At one time we were 
blown on to a bank, and took some time in getting off. 
We had been drawing, and all the books, glasses, &c., 
were on the table, when a sudden gust came, the boat 
heeled over, and there was a grand smash and a most 
chunning mess of drawings, paints, water, &c., scud- 
ding about the floor. However, we soon passed the 
liills and went along with a capital breeze, but on the 
IGth the wind fell when we were a short distance 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 281 

from Sioiit ; so I went on shore to shoot pigeons, and 
in about one and a half hour I bagged forty-five, only 
missing one shot. 

These pigeons are the common blue rock, and are 
growTi extensively here ; the natives cannot shoot them 
and never kill them, as their guano is extensively ex- 
ported to Europe, and sells for a high price. They are 
to be counted not by hundreds but by thousands ; some 
of the pigeon-houses are 300 or 400 feet long, and 8 
or 10 feet broad, built up of earthen jars, with long 
sticks stuck in for perches. I should think that some 
villages must own some 20,000 or 30,000 pigeons; 
these one can slioot anywhere except close to their 
cots, as that makes them desert and go to another 
place. Most of the birds I shot fell in the river, but 
the small Arab boys were only too delighted to throw 
oflf their one garment and act as retrievers. 

I am making several sketches, and am trying a few 
figures ; there is a great sameness in the sceneiy, but 
it is made very lovely by the clearness of the air, and 
more especially in the evening when the tints are 
gorgeous ; the desert hills turn quite lake-coloured, 
really quite as bright as Mr. Cautley makes them, even 
to my telescopic eyes. 

I find my Moorish very little use here, as it is quite 
another language, even the commonest words of every- 
day life are totally different ; however, I am getting to 



282 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

make myself a little understood, and find the natives 
very fair specimens. I remarked that a large number 
of them have lost their forefinger ; on enquiry, I 
found that some years ago, when conscription was 
in force, this was their way of evading service, or 
rather trying to, for when this was found out the 
authorities took tlie self-mutilated men and made 
them slioot from their left shoulder. 

17. Arrived at Siout, where we only stopped an 
hour or two. It is a good-sized town, with good 
bazaai's, and famed for water-jars and pipes made 
of a very pretty red clay, some of which I invested in. 

18, 19, 20. Variable winds with some rain. 

21. Came to Girzeh, another large town, where 
we did not stop. 

Between Siout and Girzeh the hills come down 
in quite a chff to the water's edge, and just at dinner 
time it began to blow in gusts and squalls, just as 
at Abou'l Feda ; we were blown on to the usual 
sand-bank, and for about half an hour we had a 
great excitement, the men shouting and howling at 
one another, the reis abusing them all round in choice 
Arabic, some trying to push off with poles, others 
up lo their waists in water ; all this by moonhght 
made a most picturesque scene. 

One of the boatmen made a sacrifice of a kind 
quite new to me the other day : I was out shooting in 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 283 

the small boat, when he asked permission to stop and 
see his mother. After taking leave of her, he pulled 
out a paper (written in Arabic) which I take to have 
been a prayer ; having enclosed some frankincense in 
this, he burnt it. Charms and amulets are very 
common as in the West, but this I never saw before. 

22. The eastern cliffs are very pretty about here : 
I should judge them to be about 350 or 400 feet high ; 
the upper half is precipitous and waterworn with curious 
pillars and pinnacles, the lower part being generally a 
steep slope of debris. The colouring is lovely, especially 
in the early morning when the wadys, or valleys, are in 
deep violet shade, and at sunset the hills, naturally 
reddish, turn into the most intense lake and purple 
for tlie few minutes before the sun sinks. About 
here the d6m, or Theban palm, begins to be plentifid ; 
it is just like a palmetto grown into a good-sized 
tree, not nearly so pretty and graceful as the corn- 
palm. The ' Sout^' or Acacia nilotica — one of the 
gum-arabic producers — is plentiful, and much used in 
making charcoal. 

23, 24. Came up with a fair wind and passed 
Gheneh, which is only famous for its porous water- 
jars, which are much used to keep the water cool, 
and also to filter it, for the Nile water is naturally 
rather muddy, but when filtered it becomes as clear 
as possible, and is excellent water. 



284 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

25. OfT Karnak in the morning, and walked up 
to tlie ruins. As one approaches from the river 
nothing is seen but the massive gateways which face 
one, being a wall built of enormous stones, but inside 
of these is a large courtyard about 100 yards square, 
with a colonnade round it, then another gateway 
(about 70 feet high), and a row of enormous columns 
leading to the great hall, which is supported by 
numerous less gigantic columns, placed very near to 
one another, and covered with hieroglyphs. Beyond 
this are the two obelisks and remains of two other 
fallen ones ; near these are rows of pillars in human 
forms about 15 feet high, and small chambers with 
remains of paintings in them. Further still is another 
temple at right angles to the other, composed of four 
rows of massive pillars supporting a roof made of 
vast blocks of stone. Tliis temple is about 80 yards 
long. Beyond are ruins of smaller chambers, and at 
a distance two gateways. On the outside wall of the 
tcm])]e are sculptures of different scenes in the lives 
«»f the kings. Some are wonderfully well executed, 
and tlie drawings very spirited. 

Luxor (the ancient Thebes) now has httle of 
interest except a gateway and a double row of enor- 
mou.s columns, which, with a few remains of walls 
built about with the Aral) mud-hovels, are all that 
remain. 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 285 

26. Went across the river and rode about a mile 
to the temple at Koorna, a small but massive and well- 
preserved building. Then about three miles through 
the hills to the tombs of the kings, which are most 
curious and interesting. They are cut in the solid 
rock, and vary in length from 200 to 400 feet. One 
enters by a passage about 10 feet high and 12 wide, 
slightly sloping downwards. At the side are gene- 
rally small chambers covered with paintings, then one 
or more large rooms supported on columns ; in some 
the massive granite sarcophagus is still remaining. 
The paintings are very interesting, as they throw such 
a light on the habits and usages of the old Egyptians. 
I remarked a plough identical with that now in use, 
most elegant chairs with coloured cushions, besides 
drawings of agricultural scenes, &c. The figures 
are many of them wonderfully drawn, with a free bold 
outline ; the faces are capital — all, of course, being 
profiles. 

I went by moonlight to see the colossal figures, 
which are about 60 feet high. The efTect was most 
curious ; they looked like huge ghosts sitting in the 
middle of the plain. Afterwards I sat in some ruins 
to shoot wolves or jackals. One came which I knocked 
over, but after lying for about five minutes he went 
off and escaped to the mountains. 



28G EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

Cairo, Feb. 19, 1869. 

I have agiiin changed, or rather modified, my plans. 
I am now intending to stop here some three weeks or 
so, and tlicn go on to Sinai. This is the only town 
tiiat I have ever been to where I have cared to make 
any stay, but there is so much to see and so much to 
sketch that I have determined to stay. I have got a 
room in one of the smaller hotels, which seems very 
clean, has an excellent light for painting, as one half 
of tlie room is a large bay Avindow, and is very rea- 
sonable, as I only pay 5 fr. per diem for the room, 
and the same for food if I choose to have that here. 
I will now begin an account of oiu' journey down the 
river from Thebes. 

Jdii. 30. Went to the temple of Dendera (anc. 
Tcntyris), which is very perfect, and is a most striking 
buikling, tliough the sculptiu-es are much deficient in 
the grace and ease which characterise those of earlier 
date, the temple of Dendera probably not being older 
than our era. Tlie temple is by far the most perfect 
of any 1 saw, and I believe of any in Egypt. Tlie 
entrance is by the usual gateway, about 100 yards 
from the building, which has lately been excavated by 
Mariotti IJey. First you go down by steps into the 
portico, which is about 120 by 70 feet, with columns 
and roof ahno^f perfect: then into aiiotlier liall, and 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 287 

then into the adituni or sanctuary, which stands in 
the centre of the building, with small chambers all 
round, from some of which are subterranean passages 
extending a great distance, seemingly leading to no- 
where, but having the walls covered with hieroglyphs. 

Feb. 2. Walked over to Arabat-et-Matfoon (anc. 
Abydus), which turned out to be a considerable way 
off, so that I had a trudge of some 25 miles. The 
small temple there has some curiously preserved 
paintings on white stone ; the colours are as fresh as 
if they had only been done three instead of three 
thousand years or more. Tlie larger temple is almost 
as perfect as that at Dendera, and I much prefer it to 
that, as the pillars are better proportioned and more 
graceful, while the sculptures are done at an earlier 
and better period of Egyptian art. Some are very 
amusing and curious ; one in particular, which often 
recurred, was a person offering a plate containing a 
trussed duck, bread, and fruit. 

On coming down to Girzeh from Arabali we found 
that the dinbereh had not been able to get there, as 
it had been blowing a gale of wind all day ; so we had 
to charter a country boat and sail about 10 miles up 
the river, so that we did not get back till about ten 
o'clock. 

Lower down the river I visited several quarries 
and grottoes, which were curious as showing the way 



288 EXTRACTS FliOM JOURXAL. 

the stone used to be cut, but wanting in sculptures 
or paintings, with the exception of those at Beni 
Hassan, which are most interesting. On the 8th several 
steamers passed, but as no flag was flying we did 
not know till afterwards that the Prince of Wales was 
on board. 

10. Arrived at Cairo. Here I met with a man 

named , who is taking a holiday and going to 

Jerusalem, tlience to Bagdad, and perhaps India. I 
found him a well-informed and agreeable man, who 
had travelled a good deal in Europe, and for the last 
week we have spent all our days in wandering about 
the bazaars. It is the Arabian nights over again ; 
one can understand why they so often spoke of the 
one-eyed man when one seldom sees a man here 
witli two perfect ones ; in fact, the rule is one eye, 
and the exception two. Tell Mr. Cautley that I have 
had an old khan near the Klian Khalalech photo- 
graphed, and will send him a copy. It is the finest 
specimen of the mushrebeeh (lattice windows) that I 
have seen in Cairo, and, what is more, will be i)ulled 
down in another fortnight, so that I consider myself 
extremely fortunate in having secured a photo of it. 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 289 

AugvM 16. In sight of Cyprus early, and arrived at 
Larnaca at 8.30 a.m., and went on shore with Mr. 
Lang, an English merchant, who has lately made some 
very interesting finds of Cypriote antiquities and coins. 
He gave us an introduction to General Cesnola, the 
American Consul, who has been carrying on large 
excavations. His collections of glass and pottery are 
very good, and the gold ornaments are interesting, 
consisting of rings, bracelets, earrings, &c., and several 
good stones, rubies, onyxes, &c., but the chief interest 
of the collection lies in the statues, of which he 
has found, broken and otherwise, nearly 1,000 in a 
single temple. These are of many epochs, and are 
exceedingly interesting as showing C}^iriote art. In 
many of the older ones, the first glance gives the 
impression that they have a strong hkeness to the 
Assyrian, but on closer examination this proves not 
to be so. In some of the most typical the mouth is 
decidedly Egj^^tian, projecting and full-lipped, but the 
nose is large and rather inclining to bottle : the eye- 
brows very strongly marked : eyes large and horizontal. 
Cheek-bones high, with deep hollows beneath. In 
others the mouth is thin-lipped, and slightly turned up 
at the corners. The head-dresses are curious, from the 
old round turban (like that worn now by Copts in 
Egypt) to the Greco-Koman garland. In one instance 

U 



200 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

a woman wears a Phrygian bonnet. The priestesses 
wear the fillet, which is just like the handkerchief the 
Syrian women wear at the present day. 

Several Egyptian things have been found amongst 
the Cypriote, amongst others a glass scarabeeus. Many 
of the glass jars, &c,, are beautifully oxidized. Mr. 
Lang has also several inscriptions in Cjrpriote and 
Phcenician, and one bilingual on a block of marble 
which originally must have been the base of a statue. 
Some of the pottery is curious and very ingenious, 
for instance a jar thus, to prevent the water 
from spilling ; and a filter, the solid part A 
being made of porous material. There are 
many lamps and grotesque figures, and a 
few terra-cottas, some of which are large. 
General Cesnola has one very large bronze jar and a 
few figures in tlie same metal and knives and spear- 
heads. 

At 3 P.M. we left. 

17. At sea. 

18. Arrived at Rhodes at G a.m. Went on shore 
and saw the houses of the Knights. Very many of 
the coats of arms are still to be seen in quite good 
preservation, l)ui]t into the walls of the houses, as 
the Turks liave a superstitious fear of destroying 
them. Would that they had the same ideas else- 
wliore ! 



I 




EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 291 

Left at 8 a.m., and were soon among the desolate- 
looking islands of tlie Archipelago. 

19. Arrived at Smyrna at 1 p.m. Went through 
the bazaar, dined, and went on board the A. LI. s.s. 
' Messina ' for Syra. 

20. Started at 8 p.m. 

21. Sjra at 9 a.m. Went through the town, 
which is totally uninteresting inside, but very pretty 
from the sea. 

Left at 11 P.M. 

22. Eeached the Pirasus at 11 p.m., and drove 
up to Athens. Visited the temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pius. 

23. Up early in the morning, and walked up 
Mount Lycabetros, about one mile from the hotel. 
It is a small peak rising some 500 to 600 feet, with a 
small chapel on the top : it commands a fine view of 
Athens. To the south the city, or rather little town, 
for it is no larger than a second-rate French country 
town, lies beneath one. The palace, an ugly square 
building with large gardens, lies at the north-east end. 
On the south-west is the Acropolis, a fine mass of ruins 
on an oval island of rock. To the north-east of this 
are the remaining pillars of the temple of Jupiter 
Olympius, which once occupied an immense area, and 
close beside it the Arch of Hadrian. Beyond the town 
we see the three ports of Phalairus, Munychia, and the 

u 2 



292 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 



Piraeus, the islands of -^gina and Salamis, and the 
mountains of the Peloponnesus. Behind us (to the 
north-east) lay Mount Pentelicus, the marble quarry, 
from which flows the Cephisus which suppHes Athens 
with w\itcr. To the east is Mount Hymetus, an ugly 
mass of limestone^ without any outHne. The Ilyssus 
takes its rise in this, but is almost dry in summer. 

We then returned to the hotel, and took a carriage 
and drove to the Stadium, wliich is in this shape. 




^ '-^msoivRr 



rassnpc cut through the rock, 
lending out. 

By this unsuccessful competitors 
passed out. 



The Government has recently been excavating here, 
and intends to revive the old games this year. 

We then crossed the dry bed of the Ilyssus, and 
pa.ssing by the temple of Jupiter Olympius and under " 
Hadrian's Arch, we came to the choragic monument of 
I.ysicrates, which stands at the foot of the Acropolis. 
There was formerly a graveyard round it, and Byron's 
house too stood liere. We then went to the Theatre of 
Dionysus, which is very interesting. The bas-rehefs on 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 293 

the proscenium are in very good preservation, but 
during the Turkish occupation a barbarous Pasha 
knocked off the heads of the figures and burnt them for 
Hme ! 

The front row of seats are marble armchairs, and 
have cut upon them the name or office of the priests to 
whom they belong. There are also the peculiar seats 
of the Strategus and other officials. Many inscriptions, 
altars, statues, &c., lie about which were found in the 
excavations. Passing by the Theatre of Herodius 
Atticus and turning to the left, we came to the hill of 
the Museion, in which is the so-called Prison of 
Socrates : this consists of caves cut in the face of a low 
cliff thus. 

• ] I 1 r I J dj A. Chamber with roof thus ^^-^ 

fl fsjjl^ [-*•; (.)ai)crtureatl \ top. 

I '^ ; D I c. Kouphly cut. ' ' 

/'■ J e'----' u. Chamlicr \vith depression, « e, sliplitly 

/ B J I * let into the floor, and drain leading 

X—^*^ to the door. 

A few hundred yards further on the point of the hill is 
the monument of Philopappus, of which one side — a 
segment of a circle — with two mutilated statues and 
a part of a bas-reHef, still stands. From here one 
gets a fine view of the Elysian fields. Acropolis and 
Areopagus, which is a low, flat-topped mass of rock to 
the west of the Acropolis, with a flight of steps leadmg 
up>^ it at the south-east corner cut in the rock. 

To the north of the Museion is the Tomb of 



294 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

Cymon, an immense sunken loculus. Near it are 
quarries, and further to the west the Pnyx or Bema of 
Demosthenes, a platform with steps on three sides and 
projecting from a wall of rock which has been quarried 
smooth. Below this a platform has been made by 
banking up the hillside \vith a wall of enormous 
stones. 

We then went to the Ceramicus, the cemetery of the 
old Athenians. Excavations are now being carried on, 
and many very fine sculptured tombs have been found 
as well as quantities of coarse pottery. The usual 
sculpture is the dying person seated in a chair and 
clasping the hand of the nearest relative left behind. 
A small building in the centre contains all the pottery 
and statues that have been found during the ex- 
cavations. Next to the Theseum, which is nearly 
perfect, only a few places have required restoration. 
There is a very interesting museum inside containing 
inscriptions and figures. Of the former one is bilingual, 
viz., Phoenician and Greek. Among the figures may be 
noticed one of Aristeidon, who brought the news of the 
victory of Marathon, and then fell dead from exhaustion. 
On liis breast is a medal awarded by the Athenians, 
a Greco-Egyptian priest, and some female figures. 
Tlie number of the inscriptions at Athens is one of the 
most striking things, for every place is full of them, many 
of thorn being of great length. We then drove back to 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 295 

the hotel, passing en route the Stoa of Hadrian's School. 
Tn the afternoon we visited the Temple of -^ilolus, wliich 
is rude and heavy, and the Cathedral, a modern 
building in semi-Byzantine style, beside which is a 
little building some 40 ft. by 20, of very early date, 
with rude sculptures outside, which is the old Cathedral ; 
and then went up to the Acropolis, passing on our way 
the Arch of the Agora, beside which stands a long, 
upright stela, on which are cut the old octroi duties on 
goods from various places. On reaching the Acropohs 
we passed through the gateway built by the Turks, 
and found ourselves just above the Theatre of Herod ius 
Atticus, which is built against the hillside. 

Entering the Acropolis itself we see a quantity of 
statues and inscriptions, and then ascend the steps of 
the Propyleum, and, turning to the right, visit the little 
Temple of Nike Apteros, in which are some beautiful 
statues said to be by Phidias. On the opposite side is 
the Pinacotheca, in which the tablets of the law used to 
stand. 

Crossing the open space in which the great statue 
of Athene used to stand (and in modern times a 
church on the south side), we came to the Parthenon, 
which is perfect in taste and proportions. Inside are 
traces of frescoes, as it was once used by the Christians 
as a church. Then to the Erectheura, with which, and 
the caryatides, we were equally pleased. Here is 



29Q EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

shown a hollow containing a little water, said to be 
the spring caused by Poseidon striking the rock with 
his trident when contending with Minerva for the 
patronage of the city — the mystical form of the 
struggle between arts and commerce. All the buildings 
are full of statues and inscriptions which have been 
excavated at various times. 

24. Early in the morning we drove off to Eleusina : 
passing the pretty little Byzantine Convent of Daphne, 
dedicated to the Virgin ; it was burnt by the Turks, 
but has still some of the mosaics left with which it was 
decorated. 

Passing down the valley we soon came in sight of 
the Bay of Salamis, which is very pretty. On our left 
was Mount J^gilius, at the far end of which was placed 
Xerxes' throne, and to our right a temple (ruins) of 
Venus with numerous niches cut in the rock beside it 
for dedicatory tablets, &c. 

At the foot of the valley we came upon the sea- 
shore, and drove round the bay to Eleusis, a small 
village, ill the middle of which are the remains of 
the famous Temple of Ceres, but the stones are too 
scattered and broken to enable one readily to make out 
tlic plan. There are two temples ; of the larger only 
the steps of the Propyleum and some broken columns 
remain ; the smaller is — partially at all events — Koman 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 297 

work. The pavement is still good. Many vaults exist of 
brickwork, and there seems to have been a cave in the 
adjacent rock. Both temples are built of beautiful white 
marble. A few statues and inscriptions have been 
found, which are now in the house of the custodian. 

Eeturning to Athens we packed up and drove down 
to the Pirceus, and went on board the M. I. s.s. 
' Niemen,' and left at 7 p.m. 

25. Calm and fine. Entered the Dardanelles a 
little before sunset, and bought some pottery, the 
specialite of the place, there. 

26. Arrived at Constantinople at 5.30 a.m. The 
\iew, though foggy, was very pretty, with the irregular 
mass of houses and mosques coming down to the 
water's edge. Landing we went up to Misseri's Hotel, 
and after breakfast rode down to see the Sultan go to 
Mosque. The Albanians and Circassians, of the body- 
guard, were gorgeous in red and gold. Pashas covered 
with decorations kept riding about, and at last the 
Sultan's son appeared on horseback, and soon after- 
wards the Sultan himself. We then crossed the Golden 
Horn by the Galata bridge of boats, and visited the 
bazaars, which are only semi- oriental. The Pera and 
Galata side is quite French. The whole situation of 
the town is most magnificent, and the harbourage 
might shelter the navies of all Europe. 



298 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

27. Wrote, and in the afternoon took a stroll 
through Pera and Galata. 

28. Spent the morning in Stamboul, and in the 
afternoon took a steamer to Kadikiis (the ancient 
Calchedonia), and then walked past the English burial- 
ground at, and through the town of, Scutari, where 
we again took a steamer and returned to Galata (15 
rain.). 

29. Spent the day in the bazaars, buying attar 
of roses, &c. 

30. Buying fiu-s, &c., in the morning, and then 
visited the vaults under the old Hippodrome ; next the 
collection of arms and costumes belonging to the 
Janissaries, which are very curious. Life-size figures 
are dressed in the actual costumes worn by them. The 
turbans are absurdly large. Many of the dresses have 
much of the barbaric splendour of the Tartars, and are 
in some cases covered with silver plates ; one figure has 
two men supporting his coat. The arms are wonderful, 
guns weighing some 30 to 50 lbs. to work on stand and 
swivel, cliaiii armour, axes, &c. We then went to the 
tomb of Sultan Mahmi, in which are some magnificently 
embroidered Kiswehs (palls). 

31. Went with Mr. Peirce (an American) to see the 
Mosque of Sta. Sophia, which is a magnificent speci- 
men of a Byzantine basihca. At first the guardians 
refused to allow us to go in, as we had no firman and 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 299 

would not give any backshish before entering ; so we 
gave them all the abuse we were masters of in Arabic, 
and at last they ate humble pie, and told us we might 
go in without paying anything. So we went in and 
walked about as we liked. The whole of the roof has 
once been covered with gold mosaics, but where that 
has been destroyed it has been restored with yellow 
plaster. In the central dome stars liave been sub- 
stituted for the heads of four cherubims, which are in 
the corners. 

In the gallery at the sides, the balustrade is formed 
of marble slabs, from which all the crosses have been 
ejQTaced. On these slabs are some Greek inscriptions. 
The whole effect of the building is very fine, but is 
rather spoilt by the steps in front of the Mehral, and all 
the mats being put askew to show the true direction of 
the Kibleh. 

Giving one franc (the usual price for a party being 
21. or 3/. at least) and a parting piece of abuse to the 
guardians, we went to the Mosque of the Sultan 
Ahmed, which is fine firom its great size. The walls 
inside are partially covered with tiles. The outside is 
similar to that of the Basilica of Sta. Sophia, and 
evidently gave rise to the architecture, which has been 
perfected in the tombs of the Kalif at Cairo, though 
their external beauty is quite as much attended to as 
internal and even more so, while at Constantinople, in 



:iOO EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

all the old mosques, external appearance seems to have 
been unheeded. 

Close behind this mosque is the hippodrome, in 
which are two obehsks, one of small stones, formerly 
covered with slabs, and the other a monolith of granite 
with Egyptian hieroglyphs ; it stands on four cubes of 
copper, and tlie pedestal is covered with Eoman bas- 
reliefs, beneath which is a Latin inscription stating that 
it was put up by the Emperor Theodosius. Between 
the two is a broken column of twisted bronze. 

Passing by the ' burnt tower ' (close to the tomb of 
the Sultan Mahmiid), which is built of six huge blocks, 
each surmounted by a wreath, and standing on a 
pedestal of masonry, we came to the ' fire tower,' where 
a watch is always kept to look out for fires. 

It stands in the court of the Seraskier Serai, and 
must be about 250 feet high. It commands a view 
over the Sea of Marmora, and the Golden Horn, and 
the entrance to the Bosphorus, while the whole of the 
town Ues like a model at one's feet. It is certainly one 
of the finest views of a town that I have ever seen ; 
those of Granada and Cairo are the only two that can 
at all come near it, and they are so different that it is 
impossible to iiuikc a comparison between them. At 
4 I'.M. we just caught the s.s. 'America,' and started for 
Varna. 

Tlic liosphorus is more like a river than a channel. 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 301 

All the banks are lined with houses and covered with 
trees. Especially at the Castles of Europe and Asia the 
view is lovely. At sunset we entered the Black Sea, 
dined, and soon afterwards turned in. 

September 1. Arrived at Varna at 7.30. It is a 
small town backed by low limestone hills. The valley 
beside it is filled up by a lake of some size. On landing 
we got into the train which was waiting at the shore, 
and went up to the station. At 11.45 we started, 
passing through a fertile rolling country, chiefly covered 
with brushwood and pasture, on whicli were large 
herds of cattle and horses, some buffiiloes, and flocks of 
sheep and goats. We reached Eustchuck at 6.45, and 
went on board the steamer, which was lying alongside 
the station, and started immediately. The steamer was 
a very good boat, extremely well appointed, and with a 
good table. 

2. Obhged to anchor fi'om midnight to 8 a.m. on 
account of the fog. The river banks are cliiefly low : 
clifis in places : low islands covered with willows and 
picturesque villages of mud with reed or tile roofs. 
High-sterned vessels carrying acres of canvas. 

3. Rain in the morning : passed Tour Severin, a 
picturesque town on the right bank, after which the 
banks begin to rise and the scenery becomes much 
prettier. We then came to Oisova, and had luggage 
examined by the Austrian customs. In the afternoon 



302 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

we passed through the Iron Gates, where the cHffs are 
precipitous and some 500 feet high, and covered with 
trees and bushes wlierever they can find a place. 
Alonsr the left bank were traces of an old road 
(probably Roman) cut in the face of the rock ; in places 
sockets were cut for beams to make the roadway. 
After emerging from this pass we came to a very 
picturesque ruined castle on the left bank, and traces 
of another opposite. About 4.30 we reached Baziasch, 
where we took the railroad. 

4. At 7.30 A.M. we reached Pesth, went to the 
Kiinigin von England, and then called on Professor 
Vambery, who received us very cordially. We then 
went with him and Colonel Manyanski, a member of 
the Hungarian Diet, to an island in the river, which is 
prettily laid out as a park. There is a hot spring here. 
The band was playing, and all the world was there. 

We then returned to Pesth, and Vambery intro- 
duced us to the club of the Magnates, where there is 
a good selection of English and foreign papers. 

5. 9 A.M. went with Vambery to see the Hungarian 
National Academy, which is a very fine building and in 
very good taste. The ' Interior ' Academicians, 18 in 
number, of whom Vambery is one, are given free 
passes on all railroads and Government conveyances 
tlirough Austria and Hungary. Crossing the Danube 
l)y the sus])unsion bridrrc, and going up the cliff to the 



EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 303 

Palace by a railroad on the bucket principle, we sat in 
the royal garden overlooking the river and Pesth. 
Dined at noon with V. and his wife : then went by 
omnibus tramway (which goes all about the town and 
environs) to a pretty kind of Bois de Boulogne. 
At 9.25 started for Vienna. 

6. At 6.30 A.M. arrived there : went to the Hotel 

Wandh. After breakfast visited the Belvidere 

National Picture Gallery: then to Church of St. 
Augusiin, poor and ugly : monument by Canova, very 
like the one at Venice. Pope Clement the Fourth, 
or rather his skeleton, is here in a glass case, and tlie 
poor old man wears his ribs outside a brocaded dress. 

Then to the Cathedral of St. Stephen, a beautiful 
specimen of ornamental Gothic. Strolled about the 
town in the afternoon, dined at Meybus' restaurant, 
then went to the Volksgarten to hear Strauss' band 
and see the world. 

7. Left at noon. Pretty scenery along the hne. 
Prague at 10.30 p.m. Went to the Blauen Stern Hotel, 
which we found comfortable. 

8. Spent the day in walking and driving about the 
town, which is very quaint and picturesque. The old 
bridge across the Moldau is very picturesque, covered 
with idols. The view from the royal castle is charming. 
In the afternoon to Sophien Insel to hear the baud 
play. 



;j04 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. 

9. Left Prague at 8.7 a.m. Very pretty scenery 
along the banks of the Elbe. Eeached Dresden at 2.30 
P.M., Hotel Belle Vue. In the evening to the Cafe Bel- 
vedere. Good music patronised by the elite of Dresden. 

10. Picture gallery in the morning. The best 
collection I have ever seen, especially in Dutch 
paintings. Some effects of light and shade by 
Schalkens are marvellously beautiful. Eaphael's San 
Sisto Madonna is exquisite ; no copy can ever reproduce 
its beauties, and as no photographs are allowed to be 
taken in the gallery, the original must be seen to 
appreciate the picture truly. 

Strolled about the town, and went to a circus. 

11. Paid another visit to the gallery, and would 
have hked many more days there. At 5.45 p.m. we 
started for Cologne, but, on arriving at Leipsic, found 
that on account of the war the through train had been 
taken off; so we had to stop there for the night. 
Walked about the town, then went to a Biergarten, 
where there was good music and all the fashion of the 
town. 

12. Started at 8 a.m., reached Magdeburg at 11, 
where we stopped an hour and visited the Cathedral, 
which is a fine building. At 1 we dined at Bruns- 
wick, and reached Cologne at 9 p.m. Went to Hotel 
Disch. 

13. Visited the Cathedral, relics of the" Magi, then 



EXTP.ACTS FliOM JOT'JiXAL. 305 

the Church of St. Ursula, with the stacks of bones and 
skulls. Drove round the town. A large detachment 
of French prisoners (officers) came in : most of them 
went to ready-made clothes shops, and put them on 
instead of their uniforms : during this operation crowds 
collected and looked in at the shop windows with great 
interest. 

J 4 and 15. Stayed at Cologne, as I was not very 
well. 

16. To Ostend via Bruges and Brussels. Left at 
10 P.M., and reached Dover at 1 a.m. on 17, but, 
owing to our luggage not being registered, missed the 
first train. Went to sleep in the waiting room and missed 
the second, but at last reached London at 10. Went 
down by the 4.15, and got home at 7.30. 



APPENDICES. 



II 



APPENDIX I. 

The following biographical sketch of Charles F. Tyrwhitt 
Drake appeared in ' Der Globus,' Band xxviii. No. 11, 1875. 
It is printed here, not because it contains any fact in addition 
to those already given, but because it shows the generous 
appreciation of his worth by a German working in the same 
field. 

It is just a twelvemonth since one of the most energetic 
of English travellers, who was also a distinguished zoologist — 
Charles Frederick Tyrwhitt Drake — died in the fulfilment 
of his self-appointed task ; but hitherto, as far as I know, 
none of the German geographical periodicals have published 
a biographical notice of him, interesting as this would be, 
as showing how an active and persevering nature can turn 
even unfavourable circumstances to account, and accomplish 
great results with small means. 

I so often met with Drake, and, in common with all who 
had intercourse with him, learned to value his distinguished 
qualities so highly, that I feel called upon to remedy this 
omission as well as I can. 

Charles F. T. Drake, born Jan. 2, 1846, at Amersham, 
was the youngest son of Colonel W. Tyrwhitt Drake. He 
was a traveller and explorer from his youth. Although his 
frame was well nigh of gigantic proportions, it was so sus- 
ceptible to the inclemency of European climate that he felt, 
as early as 1866, the necessity of wintering in more genial 
regions, and it was only dming the milder seasons of the 



310 AlTEyDlX I. 

year that he revisited home. Wisliing to make the best use 
of his time, he occupied liimself during his wanderings in 
making zoological and geographical researches, during which 
he acquired rich treasures of experience. The scene of his 
first investigations was the NW. of Africa. At a later 
period he joined as a volunteer the Sinai Ordnance Survey, 
but was prevented by a severe attack of dysentery from 
taking an active part in their labours. Shortly afterwards he 
undertook, witli Professor Palmer, that remarkable exploration 
of the Desert of El Till (the scene of the wandering of the 
Israelites), to which we owe the excellent map of this important 
and interesting region, published by the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. These daring travellers encountered difficulties of no 
ordinary kind in the desert. They performed the whole 
joiuney on foot, and were obliged to reduce their baggage to 
the smallest possible dimensions, for the expense of riding 
and baggage animals in that arid waterless region would 
have greatly increased the cost of the expedition, even had 
it been possible to have accomplished it witliout giving 
up such luxuries. Drake told me that he and Professor 
Palmer, at the end of a hard day's work, were obliged to 
wait upon themselves, as it was important to the success of 
their difficult task that they should not be encumbered by 
Huperfluous people. The cooking was shared between the 
two gentlemen, and wlien it was Mr. Drake's turn to prepare 
tlicir simple meal, the washing-up and such menial offices 
fell to Professor Palmer's share. 

In such wise did Mr. Drake learn how to make the 
simph'Ht means suffice him in any position in which he 
might fnid liimself placed. He also acquired a great facility 
in the use of the Arabic language, and much skill in dealing 
with tlio half-wild natives— accomplishments which after- 
wards stood liim in good stead during his active co-operation 
with the Palestine Exploration Expedition. 



APPEXniX I. 311 

At tlie time when Drake turned his steps towards Pales- 
tine Major Wilson had completed his survey of Jerusalem on 
the scale of 1*5,000, and had taken the levels from Jafifa to 
the Dead Sea ; Captain Anderson, his colleague, had finished 
his preliminary work of N. Palestine, and Captain Stewart 
had taken the direction of the projected survey of the whole 
of the Holy Land, which was already begun. Drake's first 
tasks in Palestine were the exploration of the so-called Hamah 
(in the winter of 1870) in search of inscriptions, and a journey 
with the distinguished African traveller, Captain K. Burton, 
to the volcanic district east of Damascus, and also to the 
' Alah,' or Highlands of Syria. After this he joined the Pales- 
line siu'veying party as a volimteer, and shortly afterwards 
Captain Stewart, the leader of the expedition, fell so seriously 
ill that he was obliged to start at once for England, for fear of 
endangering his health irretrievably by a longer stay in that 
climate. Drake undertook the command of the expedition 
in his stead, accepting all the responsibility of so difficult a 
post, in which he, a civilian, was placed in authority over a 
number of experienced non-commissioned officers of the 
Corps of Engineers. By so doing he saved tlie expedition 
from collapsing, or, at all events, from failure, which other- 
wise would almost inevitably have resulted. In the midst 
of the greatest difficidties he carried on this work for six 
months, at a time when as yet neither Europeans nor natives 
were accustomed to active exertions under such abnormal 
conditions, and in such a hilly and unfavourable region. He 
acted with such caution, intelligence, tact, and skill, that 
he was al)le to hand over everything in the best possible 
order to Captain Stewart's successor, Lieutenant Conder, 
Iv.E. During the time that he was thus actively employed 
as the leader and interpreter of the whole expedition he 
laid the firmest foundations for the subsequent separate 
measurements, since he at once began to measure out a base 



S\2 APrESDIX I. 

in connection with Wilson's survey of Jerusalem, whence the 
triangulations had been continued northwards to the plain 
of Esdraclon, where a second base was to be measured. Five 
hundred square miles had been already completely surveyed, 
and the members of the expedition were engaged in working 
out their observations in Nablus (the ancient Sichem), when 
Lieutenant Conder arrived. It is to his courtesy that I am 
indebted for the greater portion of the details of this part 
of Drake's active career. 

Drake had entered so warmly into the work of the 
expedition that he would not now abandon it, although his 
health obliged him several times to go for change of air to 
Damascus or home. His chief work, when not personally 
engaged in the siu'vey, was determining the names of all 
the places laid down on the map : ruins, mountains, valleys, 
streams, &c. — a point of peculiar importance in a land like 
Palestine. To avoid error, an alphabetical list was drawn 
up for each section of the map of tlie names of the localities, 
in accordance with the testimony of at least three natives of 
tlie neighboiurhood, who accompanied the expedition for this 
purpose. These names were then recorded on the spot in 
English writing, according to a plan agreed upon, and in the 
evening of the same day they were read out in presence of 
the natives, compared and corrected, imtil the natives were 
quite satisfied with tlie pronunciation. Then they were 
written in Arabic characters and submitted to the same test. 
The number of names thus ascertained is very large, at 
least seven or eight times as many as those hitherto given 
in niai)s or Ixioks ; on the map of Jerusalem alone there 
arc above 1,(]00; on an average there are fifty to each 
German sciuarc mile, which in such a thinly populated 
country is a large proportion. The Bible student will hence- 
forth possess in this trusty nomenclature an invaluable help 
in identifying the position of places of which the trace had 



APPEXniX I. 313 

been almost lost in the lapse of centuries, and of which the 
names have been preserved in the Arabic with wonderful 
fidelity almost in every instance. 

Drake accompanied the expedition on its most difficult 
undertakings, the most prominent of which was the survey 
of the valley of the Jordan in the spring of 1874. He had 
already had several attacks of illness, and was especially 
subject to frequent returns of asthma, but had always re- 
covered, until, after working for several weeks in the lower 
valley of the Jordan, he, as well as the greater number of 
tjiose engaged in the expedition, was struck down with 
dangerous fever towards the close of the rainy season. 

It was only owing to the self-sacrificing activity of 
Dr. Chaplin, English Physician to the Mission at Jerusalem, 
that the invalids were saved this time. Drake had had the 
most severe attack, yet he would not be deterred from again 
joining the expedition when they went to the upper portion 
of tlie valley of the Jordan. After the completion of this 
part of the survey he returned, still ailing, to Jerusalem ; 
but, notwithstanding this, he felt equal to the task of re- 
placing Lieutenant Conder, who was obliged to return to 
England on business. But before long fever again attacked 
him, and this time in the form of typhoid. The poor fellow 
lay for weeks unconscious, under Dr. Chaplin's devoted care, 
at the Mediterranean Hotel in Jerusalem, the landlord of 
which, Mr. Hornstein, behaved in the kindest manner, with- 
out considering the injury wliich might result to his 
establishment in consequence. 

Wlien I left Jerusalem — in the middle of June 1874 — 
I was not able to take leave of the sick friend with whom 
I had enjoyed such pleasant and profitable intercom'se, not 
only in that town, but in the quarters of the expedition at 
Haifa and Nazareth, as also in the encampments near Mar 
Saba, and in the neighbourhood of the Jordan. I was 



314 AVrEXDIX I. 

destined never to see him again, for, when at the end of the 
month I returned to Beyrout from a journey to Damascus, 
I heard the sad news of his death. 

Drake was aware that his life was likely to be a com- 
paratively short one, and therefore he endeavoured to make 
the best use of his time, that he might not have lived in 
vain. Unhappily this noble ambition induced him not 
to take sufficient care of his health, which was far from 
strong, and his zeal not improbably helped to shorten liis 
life. It is a poor consolation to his numerous- friends and 
admirers to know that he accomplished his object, and that 
his name is indeed immortalised in the history of tlie 
explorers of oiu- globe, especially of tlie Holy Land. His 
was a thoroughly noble character, of a purity such as one 
seldom sees, and full of faithfid devotion to his friends. To 
these qualities lie joined such remarkable tact and such 
a delicacy of feeling, that his comrade. Lieutenant Conder, 
said of him, tliat during the whole time he was associated 
with him and the other members of the expedition — 
men of the most varied dispositions and acquirements, 
thrown together in the intimate way which must be the case 
under such circumstances — never did he give occasion for 
the slightest discord, but was always on the best terms with 
every one. He gained an ascendency over the Arabs, with 
wlioin lie was in constant intercourse dm-ing the surveying 
expedition, not only by his fine, manly figure and his 
accurate knowledge of their language, but still more by his 
strict sense of justice, his blameless character, and a firm- 
ness which never swerved from his word or from what he 
thought to be right. Wherever he sojourned with them he 
waa warmly remembered, and wherever my track crossed his 
in the land of ]\Ioab, or at Kaukab el Hawa (the Belvoir of 
the Crusaders) the Budawin and Fellah in all spoke of him 
with love and admiral iou ; thus proving to mc how much 



APPENDIX I. 015 

good a good man can do amongst even these wild races by bis 
presence alone, and how much this helps to clear the way 
for others who may afterwards have to do with the same 
people. 

Drake's intention was, after the termination of the sur- 
vey of Palestine, to publish the result of his rich experiences 
about this land. Eut, alas ! death snatched him away, 
leaving an irreparable gap in the ranks of the brave ex- 
plorers of Palestine. He had the satisfaction of seeing 
before his death, that the work in which he took so deep 
an interest was in a fair way of being much more speedily 
completed than was at first anticipated, owing to an increase 
of the staff, which enabled the expedition to be divided into 
two parties, which worked simultaneously. At first only 
60 square miles could be surveyed per month ; this was 
increased to 100, then to 150, and at length to 2S0. Above 
three-quarters of the work is now finished, and it is hoped 
that in the summer of 1876 the whole will be completed, 
and the publication of the maps at once begin. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY. 

Charles Tyrwhitt Drake, born at Amersham January 2, 
1846. 

During the winter of 1866-67. — Journey and ornitholo- 
gical collections in Morocco, Tangier, Tetuan, Mazagan, 
Mogador. The ornithological notices are published in ' The 
Ibis,' 1867, p. 421, and in 1869, p. 147, Notes on the 
Birds of Morocco. 

1868-69. — Journeys in Egypt and up the Nile, and on 
the Peninsula of Mount Sinai. 

1869. — Journey with Professor Palmer through the 
Desert of El Tih and in Upper Edom and Moab. Return 
through Palestine, Syria, Greece, and Turkey. Vide ' The 



316 APPENDIX I. 

Desert of Till and the Country of Moab ' (Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund, Jan. 1871, new series. No. 1), with a map, 
ilhistrations, and sketches by Drake. 

1870. — Journey to Hamah, and with Captain Burton to 
almost unknown regions of Syria ; this last published in 
* Unexplored Syria,' by Burton and Drake. 

1871 to 1874.— Survey of Western Palestine, in con- 
nection with the Palestine Exploration Fund. Vide numerous 
articles by Drake in the Quarterly Statement of the Society, 
and the parapldet ' JNIodern Jerusalem,' by Charles Tyrwhitt 
Drake. Loudon: 1875. 

1874, June 23. — Drake's death at Jerusalem. 



yi; 



APPE^^)Ix IT. 

Cringleford Hall, Norwich, Dec. 8, 1876. 
•I AM very glad to know that the literary remains of the late 
Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake are being collected and arranged 
for publication. The Palestine Exploration Fund has been 
most fortunate in the men wlio have devoted themselves 
to the carrying out of its deeply interesting but diflficult 
purpose. 

My first acquaintance with the late Mr. C. F. T. Drake 
was made in 1871, when he and Mr. Palmer visited Jeru- 
salem after accomplishing their successful journey on foot 
through the desert. The last evening of their stay in tlie 
Holy City they spent with us at our encampment outside the 
city walls, when they greatly amused and interested us by a 
relation of some of their experiences and adventures in 
Bedawin life. Wlienever afterwards Mr. Drake came to 
Jerusalem he called and told me about his work, as he 
knew I was mucli interested in all that was being done by 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. Our conversations on 
these occasions naturally led us to the Bible, and Mr. Drake 
always gave a ready assent to any remark upon tlie accuracy 
of Scripture testimony. It was, liowever, during the last 
few weeks of his life that I saw most of him, when I was 
a constant visitor to his sick room. Upon these occasions 
I always received a welcome, for, if too ill to speak, he 
would put out his hand or give a kind look to express his 



318 APPEXDIX IT. 

thanks for my visit, and whenever he felt himself worse 
tlian usual he sent for me. During the last week of his 
illness — after INIiss Dickson had become his kind and atten- 
tive nurse — I had tlie opportunity I had so long desired of 
freely speaking to him upon spiritual matters. Gradually his 
natural reserve on the subject of religion was removed, and 
on liis last Sunday in particular I was greatly cheered by his 
altered manner in this respect, and still more so when, 
early the following morning, he sent for me and appeared 
so glad to have me read and pray with him. During 
that day, and also on several previous ones, he himself 
chose portions of Scripture (cliiefly from the Grospels — St. 
John in particular), and asked Miss D. to read them to him. 
On the Monday evening, as we were not sure that he realised 
how near he was to eternity, we asked Dr. Chaplin if he 
would intimate to him the opinion he had expressed to us 
that his patient would not live tlirough that night. This 
Dr. C. most kindly did about nine o'clock. For a moment 
the sufferer appeared startled at the solemn thought, but 
as soon as he realised that he was in a dying state all 
reserve vanished, and he immediately said, ' Oh, ]Mr. Bailey, 
come and pray;' and most earnestly did he join in that 
j)rayer. Ho then asked me to read and tell him all tliat 
Christ had said about pardoning sin and accepting sinners. 
After this he remarked, * I have for a long time entertained 
many doubts, but now these doubts are removed, and I fully 
believe in Christ as my Saviour, and that He will pardon 
and receive me.' I quoted one or two Grospel promises which 
assure us of God's readiness to receive penitent sinners, and 
of the power of Christ's blood to cleanse from all sin ; and 
then he exclaimed, ' I do fulb/ believe He has pardoned mo, 
and that He will receive me into heaven.' From that 
moment he seemed not to have a doubt concerning the great 
matter of his soul's salvation. It was a most remarkable 



Arri:xDix ii. mo 

iind beautiful iustanco of simple faith taking- liokl of Christ, 
and feeling the promises of God to be a blessed reality ; I 
never saw a more cheering instance. His mind appeared to 
remain clear to the end, and the very last word I remember 
him saying was * Christ Jesus.' About midniglit it was my 
privilege to administer the Holy Communion to him, which 
he much enjoyed. His messages of love to his family were 
very touching, especially to his mother, for whom he evi- 
dently cherished tlie deepest affection. 

About six o'clock on Tuesday morning he quietly 
breathed his last, still holding my hand, as he had done 
during the greater part of that memorable night. When 
I committed his body to the ground about sunset of that 
day, the beautiful words of our Burial Service, ' We commit 
his body to the grave in sure and certain hope of the 
resurrection to eternal life, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord,' seemed most appropriate and animating, as well as 
comforting to us who knew him. 

W. J3ailey. 



To til is may be added the following extracts from the 
letter written very shortly after his death : — 

Jerusalem, July 17, 1874. 
' It was most cheering to us all to see how at once, with- 
out reserve, he threw himself into the Lord's hands, and 
earncsily sought the pardon of his sins and the salvation of 
his soul. Such childlike earnest faith in Christ for salvation 
I scarcely ever before witnessed. . . . Frequently we 
heard him in earnest prayer, and at other times repeating 
texts of Scriptiure, especially 1 Tim. i. 15. . . . More 
than once after this he told us that he felt that God had 



:V20 APPEXDIX II. 

tlirou<j;h Christ Jesus pardoned liis sins, and accepted him in 
and throu<;h tlie Beloved One, so that long before his end 
not .a doubt of liis acceptance appeared to remain, and at 
two or three different times he expressed the desire to depart 
and be with Christ.' 



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