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Full text of "The Literary Voyager Or Muzzeniegun"

(Continued from back flap) 

The "Literary Voyager" is recognized as the first magazine 
produced in Michigan and one of the first of its kind in the 
frontier west. It has been hailed by one contemporary writer 
as "embryonically the first ethnological magazine in America." 
The publication, incidentally, tells much about the early career 
of Henry Schoolcraf t It reflects his growing interest in studying 
all aspects of Chippewa culture and vividly illustrates how the 
young Indian agent brought a "spark of literary life" to a re- 
mote frontier outpost. And finally, the "Literary Voyager" 
reveals Schoolcraff s dependence on the John Johnston family 
of Sault Ste. Marie for their help in assembling data on the 
Chippewa and neighboring Indian tribes. 

Mentor L. Williams, in his preface to SCHOOLCRAFT'S 
INDIAN LEGENDS, expressed the hope that "at some future 
date the other facets of Schoolcraft's exhaustive investigations 
of the Indians can be rescued from the chaotic state in which 
they now exist." Philip Mason's efforts in locating and transcrib- 
ing the thirteen issues of the "Literary Voyager" which survived 
several careless transfers of Schoolcraft's papers from one re- 
pository to another are certainly a most valuable contribution 
to that goal. Mr. Mason is currently an associate professor of 
history and archivist at Wayne State University. 



r| 

CO ^* 

119623 "" if 





; '-ift 



The Literary 




or 



Muzzeniegun 




Edited, with an Introduction by 
PHILIP P. MASON 



The last decade has witnessed a renewed 
interest in the career of Henry Rowe School- 
craft, the famous nineteenth century Indian 
agent, explorer, writer, and student of Indian 
life and customs. Although he wrote more than 
twenty full length volumes and hundreds of 
articles on the Indian, few of his major works 
axe available except in the rare book rooms 
of libraries or in private collections. 

Starting in 1953, Michigan State University 
Press began to republish Schoolcraft's major 
studies. Mentor L Williams edited the first 
two publications: SCHOOLCRAFT'S NAR- 
RATIVE JOURNAL OF TRAVELS ...to 
the Sources of the Mississippi River in the 
Year 1820 (1953, now out-of-print but to be 
reprinted in the near future) and SCHOOL- 
CRAFT'S DTOIAN LEGENDS (1956). 
After Professor Williams' untimely death in 
1956, Philip P. Mason continued the series 
with SCHOOLCRAFT'S EXPEDITION TO 
LAKE ITASCA: THE DISCOVERY OF 
THE SOURCE OF THE MISSISSIPPI 
(1958), which contained the extaat diaries, 
journals, reports, and correspondence of the 
leaders of the expedition. 
1 In addition to his published works, Henry 
Schoolcraft presented some of his Indian 
knowledge to a select public in the odd form 
of manuscript magazines. Although now al- 
most unknown, except to a few bibliographers, 
these magazines were, in their day, widely 

(Continued on back 



Schooler aft: 
The Literary Voyager 




Shin-Ga-Ba-Wossin 

A Chippewa Chief 

McKenney & Hall, History of Indian Tribes of North America, I84H, Vol. I, p. liiB 



Schoolcraft 



The Literary Voyager 
or 



EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION 
BY PHILIP P. MASON 



MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1962 



Copyright 1962 

Michigan State University Press 

Library of Congress Card Catalog Number : 62-15112 



Manufactured in the United States of America 



Dedicated 
to the memory of 

John Johnston and his Chippewa wife, 

Ozha-guscoday-way-quay, the Woman 

of the Green Valley 



Preface 



The last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the career of 
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, the famous nineteenth century Indian 
agent, explorer, writer, and student of Indian life and customs. 
Although he wrote more than twenty full length volumes and hun- 
dreds of articles on the Indian, few of his major works are available 
except in rare book rooms of libraries and in the hands of private 
collectors. Starting in 1953, Michigan State University Press began 
an ambitious project to re-publish Schoolcraft's major studies and 
thus make them readily available to the American public. Mentor L. 
Williams edited the first two publications: Schoolcraft' s Narrative 
Journal of Travels . . . to the Sources of the Mississippi River in the 
Year 1820 (19S3) and Schoolcraft j s Indian Legends (19S6). After 
Professor Williams' untimely death in 19S6, the current editor con- 
tinued the series with Schoolcraft' s Expedition to Lake Itasca: The 
Discovery of the Source of the Mississippi (1958), which contained 
the extant diaries, journals, reports, and correspondence of the leaders 
of the expedition. 

Even more important to the student of the American Indian than 
Schoolcraft's published works are the voluminous collections of his 
official and personal papers in the National Archives, the Library 
of Congress, and in other research repositories throughout the country. 
They contain a wealth of untapped source material about the 
aborigine and his culture. For Schoolcraft not only had a sense of 
the historic role he was playing as Indian agent and ethnologist on 
the frontier during a critical period, but he recognized the necessity 
of creating and preserving accurate records of his activities. He 
provided also that his voluminous collection of Indian materials should 
remain intact and be made available to future generations of scholars. 
Accordingly, after his death, his papers were given to the Smithsonian 
Institution and later to the Library of Congress. 

With the active support of the National Historical Publications 
Commission and Michigan State University Press, the editor has 
commenced a series of publications of the "Papers of Henry School- 
craft." The "Literary Voyager," a manuscript magazine produced by 



Preface 

Schoolcraft during the winter of 1826-27 was selected as the first pub- 
lication. Later, the papers of Schoolcraft as Indian Agent and Sup- 
erintendent of Indian Affairs for the Upper Lakes will be published. 

Unfortunately, the Schoolcraft papers were hopelessly disarranged 
after they were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1878. 
Part of the collection was transferred to the Library of Congress 
prior to 1897 and the remainder in 1942. In the process, several 
issues of the "Literary Voyager," which Schoolcraft was preparing 
for publication in book form in the 1850's, were lost. I devoted two 
years to a search of the major Schoolcraft collections for copies of 
the missing issues before deciding to edit the incomplete set in this 
book. 

I retained the original text except for corrections of obvious copy- 
ing errors. Schoolcraft 's punctuation has been retained also even 
though his practice of separating subjects and predicates with commas 
is outdated. Some spelling changes have been made to avoid confusion 
since Schoolcraft habitually used variant spellings of Indian names 
even within the same paragraph. In the notes which appear at the 
end of the volume, brackets are used to distinguish Schoolcraft's 
original footnotes from those of the editor. The editor has attempted, 
whenever possible, to identify the contributor of each article and 
the informants of the Indian legends. Much of this information 
was obtained from the Schoolcraft papers in the Library of Congress 
which contain many of the original stories signed by the contributors. 
There has been no attempt to make an anthropological analysis of the 
Indian lodge stories published in the "Literary Voyager;" this is a 
task for the professional. 

I wish to acknowledge the assistance of many persons. Dr. Philip 
M. Hamer, former Executive Director of the National Historical 
Publications Commission, and Dr. Oliver W. Holmes, its present 
executive officer, have supported the Schoolcraft project from the 
beginning. Dr. F. Clever Bald of the University of Michigan and 
Professor Leslie L. Hanawalt of Wayne State University have offered 
many helpful suggestions. I am grateful also to Dr. Daniel J. Reed, 
Library of Congress; Dr. James Heslin, New York Historical Society; 
Mr. James Babcock, Burton Historical Collection; Miss Geneva 
Kebler and Mrs. Elizabeth Rademacher of the Michigan Historical 
Commission; Mr. Howard Peckham of the William L. Clements 



rrejace 

Library, University of Michigan; Miss Myrtle Elliott and Mrs. 
Beulah Miller of the Chippewa County Historical Society; and Mrs. 
Esther Loughin of the Michigan State Library. Mr. George Wiske- 
mann of Lansing generously made available to me his rare collection 
of Schoolcraft books. I wish to thank also Miss Patricia Proudfoot 
of the Wayne State University Archives for her assistance in proof- 
reading the manuscript and her thoughtful suggestions. Finally, I 
wish to acknowledge the contribution of my wife, Henrietta, who 
spent many weeks transcribing the longhand issues of the "Literary 
Voyager." 

This study was made possible through a grant from the American 
Philosophical Society. The Division of Graduate Studies and Re- 
search of Wayne State University assisted also in the purchase of 
photostats and microfilm. 

Philip P. Mason 
April 13, 1962 
Detroit, Michigan 



Contents 



Preface 
vii 

Introduction 
xiii 

No. 1, December, 1826 
1 

No. 2, December, 1826 
21 

No. 3, January, 1827 
36 

No, 4, January 12th, 1827 
48 

No. 5, January, 1827 
61 

No. 7, February, 1827 
78 

No. 8, February 13th, 1827 
90 

No. 9, February 16th, 1827 
105 

No. 11, February, 1827 
117 

No. 12, March 2nd, 1827 
128 

No. 13, March 10th, 1827 
130 

No. 14, March 28th, 1827 
144 

No. 15, April llth, 1827 
161 

Notes to "The Literary Voyager" 
167 



Introduction 



The figure of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft loomed large in the gallery of 
men of learning in the mid-nineteenth century. He stood among a 
small and special group of scholars those who made it their business 
to open up and elucidate for the rest of the world the newer parts of 
the new America: men who used as their daily tools not the serried 
books of a college library but the canoe, the Indian guide, and the 
gestures of sign-language. The nation knew him as explorer, Indian 
agent, and ethnologist. 

From 1818 when Schoolcraft explored the lead-bearing hills of Mis- 
souri and the wilds of the Ozark Mountains until 1832 when he dis- 
covered Lake Itasca, the true source of the Mississippi in the heart of 
the northern forests, he had a part in many important and often dan- 
gerous expeditions. As Indian agent for nineteen years 1822 to 
1841 with headquarters at the half-Indian frontier posts of Sault 
Ste. Marie and Mackinac Island, he served the tribes of northern 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. During his agencyship, which 
witnessed the controversial and often painful federal policy of shifting 
the Indians west of the Mississippi, Schoolcraft visited all of the 
major tribes in his jurisdiction, consummated important treaties, and 
ministered to the homely needs of thousands of red men. 

In his twenty-five years on the frontier, Schoolcraft took advantage 
of his unique position to collect data on all aspects of Indian life and 
customs, recording in minute detail his anthropological observations 
on Indian culture ceremonies, religion, superstitions, hunting and 
fishing techniques, dress, language, and village life. With the aid of 
interpreters, he recorded for the first time scores of lodge stories and 
tribal legends of the Chippewa. He made bales of notes from talks 
with fur traders, army officers, Indian agents, surveyors, and others 
who knew the Indian first-hand. The Schoolcraft Papers in the Li- 
brary of Congress testify to his skill as a researcher and his percep- 
tiveness as an observer of the American aborigine. Later, after his 
resignation in 1841 as agent, he continued his Indian studies under 
the auspices of the New York Legislature and the Congress of the 
United States. 1 



The Literary Voyager 

Unlike some of his contemporaries who studied the Indians but 
were content to accumulate facts in antiquarian fashion, Schoolcraft 
eagerly shared his findings with the American public in a series of 
publications. He penned hundreds of articles for popular and scho- 
larly journals and newspapers of his day and wrote more than twenty 
volumes describing his explorations and the Indian. 2 His Indian lore 
was used widely by writers, notably Henry W. Longfellow, who based 
his epic poem, "Song of Hiawatha," on the legends from Schoolcraft's 
Algic Researches. 

Schoolcraft's most famous Indian study was Historical and Statis- 
tical Information Respecting the History, Conditions and Prospects 
of the Indian Tribes* of the United States published by Congress in 
six folio volumes between 1851 and 1857 at a total cost of over 
$150,000. Unfortunately, the author did not take time for careful re- 
search, thought, and organization, and left himself open to sharp 
criticism of future historians and anthropologists. But despite the 
shortcomings of the volumes, which were partly eliminated by the 
publication of an Index? in 1954 by the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy of the Smithsonian Institution, they contain a wealth of valuable 
material on Indians. As one writer says, Schoolcraft's six- volume 
study serves "as a monument to a great American explorer and 
ethnologist." 4 

In addition to his published works, Henry Schoolcraft presented 
some of his Indian knowledge to a select public in the odd form of 
manuscript magazines. Although now almost unknown except to a 
few bibliographers, these magazines were, in their day, widely circu- 
lated among students of Indian culture. The most informative of 
them was the "Literary Voyager" prepared weekly by Schoolcraft at 
Sault Ste. Marie during the winter of 1826-1827. 5 

This magazine, which Schoolcraft later gave the subtitle, "Muz- 
zeniegun," a Chippewa word meaning "a printed document or book," 
contained articles, poems, announcements, etc., on all aspects of In- 
dian life and customs. The subjects included historic Indian battles, 
Indian ceremonies, superstitions, burials, fur trade, war chants and 
songs, totems, the effect of alcohol upon Indians, and the intertribal 
war between the Chippewa and Sioux. Of particular interest are the 
biographical sketches of prominent Indian leaders, including Waub 
Ojeeg or the White Fisher, the famous war chief at LaPointe; and 



Introduction 

Shing-a-ba-wossin, head of the Chippewa band living along the St. 
Mary's River. 

Schoolcraft presented for the first time in the "Literary Voyager" 
some of the lodge stories that he himself collected and for which he 
later gained national recognition. Many of them he later published in 
Algic Researches, the Red Race of America, and the Myth of Hiawa- 
tha. 6 Material on the pages of the "Literary Voyager" was used by 
other writers as well as by Schoolcraft. Mrs. Anna Jameson, the well- 
known English author, examined the magazines in detail and ex- 
tracted several of the Chippewa legends for her book, Winter Studies 
and Summer Rambles, first published in 1838. 7 Similarly, Dr. 
Chandler R. Oilman reprinted in Life on the Lakes several of the 
legends. 8 These books, however, do not give, as does the "Literary 
Voyager," the source of each legend or the name of the informant. 

Although only a few copies of each issue, and indeed sometimes 
apparently only a single copy, were written, the "Literary Voyager" 
achieved wide distribution. Each issue circulated among the citizens 
of Sault Ste. Marie and then went to Schoolcraft's friends in Detroit, 
New York, and other eastern cities. 9 

The "Literary Voyager" is recognized as the first magazine pro- 
duced in Michigan and one of the first of its kind in the frontier 
west. It has been hailed by one contemporary writer as "embryoni- 
cally the first ethnological magazine in America." 10 The publication, 
incidentally, tells much about the early career of Henry Schoolcraft. 
It reflects his growing interest in studying all aspects of Chippewa 
culture and vividly illustrates how the young Indian agent brought a 
"spark of literary life" to a remote frontier outpost. And finally, the 
"Literary Voyager" reveals Schoolcraft's dependence on the John 
Johnston family of Sault Ste. Marie for their help in assembling data 
on the Chippewa. 

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft was born in 1793 in the Manor of Rensse- 
laerswyck, a small village west of Albany, New York. Even as a 
young boy, his scholarly accomplishments were well-known in the 
community. He supplemented his public school education with out- 
side studies of his own and excelled in Latin, read widely in the 
classics, learned French from a tutor, and had taught himself Hebrew 
and German "with the aid only of grammars and lexicons." As one 



The Literary Voyager 

local resident observed, "he was generally to be found at home at his 
studies, when other boys of his age were attending horse races, cock 
fights, and other vicious amusements for which the village was fa- 
mous." 11 This thirst for knowledge characterized Schoolcraft through- 
out his career. 

His literary abilities were also evident early. Local newspapers and 
magazines first published his verse and essays in 1808, when he was 
fifteen years old. In 1809, he organized a literary society among the 
younger men of Hamilton, New York. It met to discuss contemporary 
literary problems and, with Schoolcraft as editor, produced in manu- 
script form a magazine, "The Cricket or Whispers from a Voice in 
the Corner." It is not known whether this society flourished after 
1810 when Henry moved to Geneva, New York, but he did continue 
to edit the magazine until 1818 under the title, "The Cricket or 
Parapetic Student." Devoted to philosophy and literary subjects, it 
was obviously the forerunner of the "Literary Voyager" and other 
manuscript magazines that he later edited. 

Henry Schoolcraft planned to complete his formal education at 
Union College in Schenectady but when the time came, his family 
could not afford to send him. Instead, Schoolcraft went to work for 
his father who was superintendent of a glass factory in Geneva, New 
York. He must have learned the business well, for in 1813, he became 
manager of a glass factory in Salisbury, Vermont, and later accepted 
a similar position in Keene, New Hampshire. 12 

He might have remained in the glass-making business for the re- 
mainder of his life if an influx of British glassware after the War of 
1812 had not forced the industry into bankruptcy. Thus in 1817, at 
the age of twenty-four, spurred on by popular accounts of opportuni- 
ties in the West and with the hope that his knowledge of mineralogy 
would further his career, he left New York for the Mississippi region. 
This trip took him to the rich lead region of Missouri where he spent 
the following winter visiting mining operations around Potosi and 
making detailed notes of his observations. 

Upon his return to New York, Schoolcraft's account of this survey 
was published under the title, A View of the Lead Mines of Mis- 
souri The book, hailed by scientists as the first reliable study of the 
"scientific resources" of the Mississippi Valley, boosted Schoolcraft's 
national reputation as a mineralogist. The study set forth specific 



Introduction 

recommendations for more efficient utilization of the nation's lead 
resources and advocated the immediate introduction of a number of 
mechanical improvements, including steam-driven pumps and up-to- 
date furnaces. His key proposal was for the establishment of a federal 
agency to supervise the lead mining industry. 

The report attracted the attention of Secretary of War John C. 
Calhoun who was concerned about the exploitation of the nation's 
resources. At his invitation, Schoolcraft went to Washington, D. C., 
and presented his recommendations formally to President James Mon- 
roe, Secretary of the Treasury, William H. Crawford, and Calhoun. 
They, too, were impressed by the young scientist's observations and 
promised to work for congressional support of a government-spon- 
sored program. Schoolcraft let it be known that he would be available 
for the position of superintendent of mines if Congress approved of 
the plan. 

It is not known how much support the President and Secretary of 
War gave to his recommendations, but it is obvious that they con- 
sidered him competent. Within a year after the Washington trip, 
Calhoun offered Schoolcraft a position as mineralogist for an explor- 
ing expedition under the direction of Lewis Cass, Governor of Michi- 
gan Territory. Schoolcraft readily accepted the position, not for the 
meager pay of $1.50 per day, but because the trip would provide an 
excellent opportunity for him to explore the natural resources of the 
unchartered wilderness of Lake Superior and Minnesota. 

The Cass expedition, conducted during the summer of 1820, proved 
to be a turning point in Schoolcraft's career. His reports on the 
natural resources of the explored area, particularly concerning the 
copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula, brought him further 
commendation from Secretary of War Calhoun and federal officials. 
His account of the trip, Narrative Journals of Travels published by 
Harper and Brothers in 1822, marked the young mineralogist as an 
explorer and writer. The friendships he made on the expedition with 
Lewis Cass, Charles C. Trowbridge, and other influential men served 
him well in later life. 

Other government positions came to Schoolcraft through the influ- 
ence of John Calhoun and Lewis Cass, In 1821, he served as Secre- 
tary to the United States Indian Treaty Commissioners in Chicago. 
The following year, Calhoun offered him the position of Indian Agent 



The Literary Voyager 

for the Upper Great Lakes with headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie. His 
reactions to the latter appointment were mixed. He was deeply dis- 
appointed that Congress had not established a government depart- 
ment of mines with a position for himself therein, but on Cass' urging, 
he accepted the Indian post as a temporary position. At least his 
"taste for natural history might certainly be transferred to that point 
[Sault Ste. Marie] where the opportunity for discovery was the 
greatest." 14 Late in June, 1822, Schoolcraft left Buffalo, New York, 
by schooner for the Upper Lakes post. 

Sault Ste. Marie was an ideal location for the new Indian Agency 
headquarters. Located on the rapids of the St. Mary's River, it was 
naturally accessible to the Indians living in the northern Great Lakes 
area and for centuries had been a center of Indian settlement. In addi- 
tion to a large band of Chippewa who resided permanently on the 
riverbank near the rapids, thousands of their fellow tribesmen gath- 
ered there every autumn to fish the rapids which teemed with 
whitefish. 

The Sault had long been a favorite camping site for white men as 
well. Governor Samuel Champlain's young protege, Etienne Brule, 
stopped there as early as 1622 and later in the century, Father 
Jacques Marquette founded a mission near the foot of the rapids. The 
French government later utilized the strategic location to establish a 
permanent fort to control travel on the river. Fur trading companies 
made the Sault a rendezvous for traders who wintered among the 
Indian tribes west of Lake Superior. 

The village continued to prosper after the British wrested control 
of North America from the French in 1760. By the close of the 
eighteenth century, several hundred families lived there English, 
French, and half-breeds as well as several bands of Chippewa. Brit- 
ish influence remained paramount in the Sault even after the United 
States gained its possession in 1796. In fact, during the War of 1812, 
most of Sault Ste. Marie's white settlers, and Indians as well, re- 
mained loyal to the British. 

After the War of 1812, the United States government made plans 
to build a fort at the site and sent Governor Lewis Cass to Sault Ste. 
Marie in 1820 for a meeting with Indian leaders to reassert the Amer- 
ican claim to Indian land along the St. Mary's River preliminary to 
construction of the fort. ir> The negotiations took a dramatic turn 



Introduction 

when Sassaba, an influential Chippewa chief, denounced Cass and his 
mission and retired to his lodge where he hoisted the "Union Jack" in 
a crowning act of defiance. Acting courageously and decisively, Cass 
went alone to the lodge of the belligerent chief and removed the alien 
flag. Influential local citizens pacified Sassaba before blood was shed 
and the meeting ended with an agreeable settlement. 16 

As a part of the directive establishing a military post at the Sault, 
the War Department also authorized the placement of an Indian 
agency at the site, having jurisdiction over the tribes living in the 
northern parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Henry Rowe 
Schoolcraft became the new agent at the post and accepted the diffi- 
cult task of gaining the Indians' cooperation as he carried out the en- 
forcement of the policies of the Indian Bureau. In order to check 
British influence in the Lake Superior region, the War Department 
directed Schoolcraft to enforce rigidly the regulations which excluded 
foreign citizens from the fur trade, and to discourage visits of Ameri- 
can Indians to British fur posts in Canada. The Department also 
warned him of the dangers of the growing rift between the Chippewa 
and Sioux and the effect intertribal warfare might have upon the 
safety of frontier settlements. Finally, Schoolcraft was told to prepare 
the Indians of northern Michigan for a peaceful cession of their land 
to the United States. 17 

The greatest handicap under which the young agent worked was 
his ignorance of the culture of the Indians. Although he had visited 
Indian villages on his expeditions to Missouri and Arkansas in 1818, 
and explored much of the territory within his agency on the Cass 
Expedition of 1820, he knew very little about the red man and his 
ways. In fact, his boyhood experiences had given him the prejudiced 
stereotype of the Indian as a "bloodthirsty savage." He had listened 
often to the accounts of his father and other pioneers as they de- 
scribed their parts in the battles with the Iroquois during the Ameri- 
can Revolution. "In these recitals," Schoolcraft wrote later, "the 
Indian was depicted as the very impersonation of evil a sort of wild 
demon, who delighted in nothing so much as blood and murder. It 
was always represented as a meritorious act ... to have killed one of 
them . . . thus ridding the land of a cruel and unnatural race, in 
whom all feelings of pity, justice, and mercy were supposed to be 
obliterated." 18 

Lewis Cass was probably the first to spark Schoolcraft's interest in 



xix 



The Literary Voyager 

studying Indian culture. Like Thomas Jefferson, Albert Gallatin, and 
a host of other statesmen, Cass was deeply concerned about the 
plight of the American Indian. As Governor and Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs of the Michigan Territory, he witnessed firsthand the 
disastrous impact of advancing white settlement upon the aborigine 
and his tribal customs. Although Cass was powerless to curb such 
forces, he did recognize the great traditions of the North American 
Indians and the urgent need to collect and preserve accurate data on 
their history and culture before it was lost forever. He personally 
undertook to collect such information from the Indian and persist- 
ently advocated a nationwide federal program to accomplish these 
ends. 

In 1822, Governor Cass circulated a lengthy questionnaire, "In- 
quiries Respecting the History, Traditions, Languages, Manners, 
Customs and Religion ... of the Indians Living Within the United 
States," which he sent to Indian agents, fur traders, and others in a 
position to observe the Indian and his customs. It sought data on 
traditions, religion, government, medicine, music, birth, death and 
marriage customs, language, dances, and "peculiar societies." 10 

Schoolcraft received a copy of the document from Governor Cass 
when he stopped at Detroit enroute to his new post at Sault Ste. 
Marie. He was so impressed with the questionnaire and Cass' plan 
for further research on the Indian that he resolved to "be a laborer in 
this new field." He was convinced that the "analytical approach" 
which he had used to study natural history "could be used to study 
the Indian, especially his language." 20 

As soon as he arrived at the Sault, Schoolcraft plunged into the 
work of studying his new charges. He first concentrated on the Chip- 
pewa language because of its importance in his work. With the help of 
Indians, interpreters, and the half-Indian Johnston family, he com- 
piled an "Ojibway Vocabulary" and prepared declension tables of 
verbs of the Chippewa tongue. Within a few years, he had won na- 
tional recognition for his research on the grammar of the Ojibway. 21 

As his contacts with the Indians increased, so did his curiosity 
about other aspects of the red man's culture. His childhood image of 
the "brutal savage" disappeared and in its place he came to have 
great understanding and sympathy for the Indian. "It was amazing," 
he wrote in his diary in 1824, "to find him [Indian] a man capable 

sex 



Introduction 

of feelings and affections, with a heart open to the wants and re- 
sponsive to the ties of social life. But the surprise reached its acme," 
he continued, "when I found him whiling away a part of the tedium 
of his long winter evenings in relating tales and legends for the 
amusement of the lodge circle." 22 

The legends of the Chippewa tribes fascinated the Indian agent 
and in the years that followed, he collected scores of such lodge 
stories. While thus engaged, he conducted what was probably the 
first "oral history" program in America. He interviewed hundreds of 
Indians who visited his agency headquarters in large numbers every 
summer, and took advantage of his numerous exploring expeditions 
into the interior to talk to isolated natives. Treaty meetings at Prairie 
du Chien, Butte de Morts, and Fond du Lac also brought him in con- 
tact with prominent Indian leaders. 23 

Despite Schoolcraft's dedicated study of Indian culture and the 
unexcelled opportunities afforded him by his positions as Indian 
Agent and from 1836-1841 as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, he 
could have accomplished little without the assistance of the Johnston 
family of Sault Ste. Marie. From the day of his arrival at this frontier 
post in 1822 until he resigned from the Indian Bureau in 1841, he 
was closely associated with this remarkable family. They were his 
chief informants on Indian life and deserved substantial credit for 
furnishing Schoolcraft with the data and legends which he later 
published. 

John Johnston was a strong self-sufficient individual who wielded 
great influence among the settlers, fur traders, and Indians in the 
Lake Superior area. 24 Born in 1762 in Ireland, the son of a wealthy 
Scotch-Irish landowner, he came to North America in 1790 to obtain 
a government position in Canada. He abandoned these plans, how- 
ever, and accepted an invitation from an old family friend, Andrew 
Tod, a prominent Montreal fur trader, to go to Mackinac Island. 
Although he planned to spend only a few months there helping Tod 
with his business, Johnston eagerly accepted his friend's offer to man- 
age for a season the trading post at LaPointe on Chequamegon Bay, 
Lake Superior. 

Johnston's first winter at LaPointe would have been enough to dis- 
courage even a seasoned fur trader. His assistants deserted him as 
winter approached and took with them most of his supplies and equip- 



scan 



Introduction 

ment. Rival fur traders refused to help him and the Indians at La- 
Pointe could offer no assistance for they too faced starvation. It is a 
credit to Johnston's stamina and ingenuity that he survived the win- 
ter at all. Yet, not only did he manage to provide for his own needs, 
but by spring, he was conducting a profitable trade with the Indians. 

Despite the first season's difficulties, Johnston decided not to return 
to Montreal. He was struck by the wild beauty of Lake Superior and 
was enjoying his first taste of success as a trader. Furthermore, he 
had fallen in love with Ozha-guscoday-way-quay, the youngest daugh- 
ter of Waub Ojeeg, the famous and powerful chief of the Chippewa 
at LaPointe. Although the chief distrusted the motives of most fur 
traders, he consented to Johnston's offer of marriage. The following 
year, Johnston took his young bride, whom he renamed Susan, to 
Sault Ste. Marie where he established a temporary home on the bank 
of the St. Mary's River. Within a few years his own fur trading busi- 
ness became so lucrative that he built a beautiful house which stood 
for decades as the finest in the whole "north country." 

He outfitted scores of independent fur traders and, through his 
wife's influence, did a thriving business directly with the Indians 
along the St. Mary's River and the southern shore of Lake Superior. 
In fact, Johnston was so successful in the fur trade that he received 
offers to join forces with the powerful Hudson's Bay Fur Company, 
and later its arch rival, the American Fur Company. 2 " His connec- 
tions in government circles in Montreal and Quebec also proved in- 
dispensable to him. By 1814, his assets were valued at nearly 
$100,000, a respectable fortune for an "independent" trader. 26 

The War of 1812 had ruinous effects upon Johnston's business 
interests. Because of his active loyalty to England, American troops 
pillaged his home and fur depot, destroying property valued at over 
$40,000. Although their action violated international law, Johnston 
was never able to collect damages from either the United States or 
British governments, and never fully recovered from this financial 
setback. 27 

In the years following the war, Johnston did manage to win the ap- 
probation of the United States government, even though he still re- 
mained friendly with the English. On several occasions, he saved the 
lives of American government officials by warning them of impending 
Indian attack. In 1820, during his absence, his wife and children 



xxn 



The Literary Voyager 

helped avert an attack on Governor Cass by hostile Indians. The 
United States government later rewarded the Johnstons by granting 
them land near the Sault. 28 

The children of John Johnston and his Indian wife, Susan, played 
prominent roles in the development of the Lake Superior region. 
Lewis Saurin, the eldest of the eight children, became a midshipman 
in the English navy and later was employed by the British Indian 
Department at Sandwich, Ontario. His untimely death in 1825 at the 
age of thirty-three ended his promising career. George, born in 1796, 
held numerous positions in the United States Bureau of Indian Af- 
fairs. He served as government interpreter to the Chippewa, and sub- 
agent to the tribes at LaPointe, Wisconsin, and Traverse City, Michi- 
gan. He attended several important Indian treaty meetings as an 
agent of the United States. William and John, the youngest sons, 
were engaged in the fur trade and noteworthy in the early history of 
Sault Ste. Marie. Four daughters, Jane, Eliza, Charlotte, and Anna 
Marie were equally active in the affairs of the frontier community. 29 

The Johnston children received their early education at home, for 
there were no schools at the Sault. Their father tutored them in litera- 
ture, history, and the classics, and procured a large private library 
with a variety of source material for their studies. Mrs. Johnston also 
participated actively in the education of her children. In addition to 
the routine household instruction she gave her daughters, Mrs. John- 
ston indoctrinated all of the children in the customs and beliefs of 
her people, the Ojibway or Chippewa. They learned legendary tribal 
traditions, particularly the exploits of their grandfather, Waub Ojeeg, 
and his father, Ma Mongazida. All of the children learned to speak 
Chippewa fluently; in fact, Eliza used the native tongue exclusively, 
as did her mother. Later the formal education of the children was 
completed in private schools in Canada. 

When Schoolcraft arrived at Sault Ste. Marie in 1822, the John- 
stons invited him to stay at their home until his own quarters were 
built. He eagerly accepted the invitation for he disliked living at the 
nearby garrison and he warmed to the hospitality of John Johnston. 
In the following months, a close friendship developed between the 
two men as they found many common interests. The bond between 
them is reflected in the correspondence which they carried on until 
Johnston's death in 1828. 



The Literary Voyager 

Schoolcraft established a more permanent relationship with the 
Johnston family in 1823 when he married Jane, their attractive and 
talented eldest daughter. Born in 1800, Jane became her father's 
favorite child and received special attention from him. She went with 
him often on business trips to Detroit, Montreal, and Quebec and in 
1809, he took her to Ireland to complete her formal education. School- 
craft found her well read in history and literature and eager to help 
him with his Indian studies. 

After her marriage, Jane gained notoriety as the "northern Poca- 
hontas" and was sought after wherever she travelled. Some writers, 
including Anna B. Jameson, Harriet Martineau, and Thomas McKen- 
ney made special trips to the Schoolcraft home to meet her. All were 
charmed by her gracious behavior, her wit, and her intelligence. 

She helped her husband constantly in his research. She acted often 
as his interpreter and checked his studies of the Chippewa language. 
She assisted with the production of the "Literary Voyager" and con- 
tributed many of its interesting poems, accounts, and legends on the 
Indian. Jane Schoolcraft was handicapped by frequent illness and 
never fully recovered from the death of her first son, William Henry, 
who died at the age of two years in 1827. She bore a daughter and 
another son before her death in 1841. 

Jane's brother, George, became one of Schoolcraft's closest friends 
and advisers during their thirty-year working relationship. He served 
in various official capacities on the Indian agent's staff and on the 
recommendation of Schoolcraft, he was appointed to other positions 
in the Indian Bureau. After Schoolcraft left his frontier post, he relied 
heavily upon George to corroborate data on Chippewa culture and to 
collect additional lore from Indians. The existing correspondence from 
1825 to 18S5 between the two men reveals the debt of gratitude 
owed George Johnston by Schoolcraft. 80 

The other Johnstons served Schoolcraft often as his interpreters 
and individually interviewed scores of visiting Indians. 31 Schoolcraft 7 s 
most valuable informant, however, of all the Johnstons was Mrs. John 
Johnston, his full-blooded Chippewa mother-in-law. Although she gave 
up many of her tribal customs when, she married, she never lost con- 
tact with her family or members of her tribe. She visited them often 
and always opened her home in Sault Ste. Marie to visiting Indian 
relatives and friends. 



Introduction 

As a result of her lineal connection to Waub Ojeeg, the powerful 
chief of the Chippewa of LaPointe, and her marriage to a highly 
respected fur trader, Mrs. Johnston was esteemed by her fellow tribes- 
men in the Lake Superior region, particularly those Chippewa living 
near Sault Ste. Marie. She counseled them often and on many occa- 
sions she intervened in their deliberations. As previously noted, she 
helped persuade the Indians to negotiate with Lewis Cass in 1820. 
Thomas McKenney, Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1824 to 
1830, paid tribute to her in 1826 when he wrote: "As to influence, 
there is no chief in the Chippewa nation who exercises it, when it is 
necessary for her to do so with equal success." 32 

Mrs. John Johnston was always ready to aid Schoolcraft in his 
studies of the Indian. Using her sons and daughters as interpreters, for 
she could neither read, write, nor speak English, she gave him in- 
valuable information about the Chippewa their history, customs, 
and beliefs. She alone supplied accurate biographical accounts of 
Waub Ojeeg, Ma Mongazida, and other deceased Indian leaders. She 
recounted also many legends which had been passed on to her by 
Waub Ojeeg, who was known as "the greatest storyteller of his tribe." 

Mrs. Johnston often arranged private meetings between School- 
craft and certain politically important Indian leaders of the day. With 
her urging, they permitted the Indian agent to attend many of their 
ceremonies, some of which were secret and limited to tribal member- 
ship. From these contacts, Schoolcraft gathered for publication in- 
formation on the history of the Chippewa, hitherto unknown, and 
enlarged his collection of lodge stories. 

Mrs. Johnston's brother, Wayishkee or "The First-born," who re- 
sided with his own wife and children at the Sault, gave Schoolcraft 
much "reliable traditionary information about the Chippewa." Shinga- 
bawossin, the ruling chief of the Sault Indians, whose father, Naido- 
sagee, had been noted in his day for his repertoire of "imaginary 
legends, allegories, tales and fables," also contributed material for the 
"Literary Voyager." 

Schoolcraft's debt to the Johnston family is best stated in the entry 
of his private journal, July 28, 1822: "I have in fact stumbled, as it 
were, on the only family in Northwest America who could in Indian 
lore have acted as my guide, philosopher, and friend." 33 

Schoolcraft undertook the publication of the "Literary Voyager" as 



XXV 



Introduction 

a constructive pastime during the winter of 1826-1827. The frontier 
post was virtually cut off from the rest of civilization from late 
November to May of the following year because ice and snow closed 
off lake travel. Occasional overland mail deliveries by dog sled 
throughout the winter provided some respite for the Sault settlers, 
however, and the small community enjoyed social activities of its own 
making. The soldiers and their wives gave numerous parties, dances, 
and card games at the garrison and citizens of both the Canadian and 
American communities of Sault Ste. Marie often staged other affairs 
for public amusement. Schoolcraft usually refused invitations to these 
functions because he disapproved of the heavy drinking at such gath- 
erings and he considered card playing a complete waste of time. 

The winter solitude did afford the Indian agent the extra time to 
pursue his studies. He worked assiduously on his Chippewa dictionary 
and assembled material he had accumulated during the previous busy 
summer months. In December, 1826, he created a local reading society 
which met weekly to discuss books and scholarly subjects. With the 
Johnstons, other local citizens, and a number of officers and their 
wives as members, Schoolcraft turned out the "Literary Voyager" as 
an outgrowth of the society and with its sponsorship. He described 
the magazine "as one of the little means of supporting existence in 
so remote a place, and keeping alive at the same time the sparks of 
literary excitement." Schoolcraft read each issue of the newspaper, 
given the "ambitious cognomen" of "Literary Voyager" or "Muz- 
zeniegun," at the meetings of the literary society before he passed it 
on to the local residents. 34 

Schoolcraft produced fifteen issues of the "Literary Voyager" be- 
tween December, 1826, and April, 1827. Each issue consisted of an 
average of twenty-four pages, measuring eight inches by fourteen 
inches in size. He retained a master copy of the magazine in his files 
and sometime after 1849, with the help of his second wife, Mary 
Howard Schoolcraft, edited it for publication in book form. He never 
succeeded in publishing it, possibly because he devoted his time and 
energies to the preparation of his six-volume Historical and Statistical 
Information Respecting the History, Conditions and Prospects of the 
Indian Tribes of the United States. 



The Literary Voyager 



No.l. Sault Ste. Marie December 



CHIPPEWAS 

This tribe of North American Indians, has been known from our 
earliest history, as a powerful body of hunters and warriors. They 
spread over a large area of the continent. They provided men, dis- 
tinguished for bravery. The Indian pronunciation of this term is Od- 
jib-wa, the meaning of which is lost in antiquity. Like Illini & Lenopi, 
it appears to designate men. Some assert it to be, men who are men, 
basing this interpretation on the Indian term for nervous vitality. 
They speak the Algonquin language, in the purest form of it. Tradi- 
tion asserts that they came from the East. The language has the 
greatest affinities with the Mohican of New England. 

They had wars with fierce tribes whom they call Mundwas, Assi- 
guns, and Nodowas. The French, on the exploration of this part of 
Canada about 1641 found them seated at the falls on the outlet of 
lake Superior, called Ba-wa-teeg, cascades or rapids. To this term, the 
missionaries put the nominative of Sainte Mary, in reference to the 
Virgin Mary. As this term is feminine, its abbreviation required that 
fact to be noticed, which is done by the abbreviation Ste. in Sault de 
Ste. Marie, or Sault Ste. Marie. The correction of the French dic- 
tionary demanded the letter "1" to be dropped in the word Sault. But 
with respect to geographical names, long in use, the "1" was retained. 
Hence Charlevoix and his contemporaries and followers, retain the 
abbreviation Sault Ste. Marie. The Indian term, is declined in the 
following manner 

Noun Bauwateeg 

Prepositional Bauwa-tiag-in, at, on, by. 

LAKE SUPERIOR 

Several unsuccessful attempts, were made by the French to name this 
lake. The Chippewas call it, Gitchi-gumi, or sea-water, since it is their 
term also, for the Sea. The Algonquin particle gum, denotes a liquid, 
without regard to quantity, as Mushcowagumi, signifies strong water 



The Literary Voyager 

spirits, as sometimes written, in connection with the particle mee 
making gumee or gomee. When the ocean is meant to be referred to, 
the adjective is duplicated; making the sense, great-great water a 
not uncommon mode of marking the superlative, in Indian languages. 
A pretty, & distinctive name for this lake, may be made by prefixing 
this syllable Al, to lomi, meaning Algonquin Lakes. 

We are surprised, in examining these languages, to find the concrete 
made up of the simple. Has it not been so, with all languages? The 
ancients thought air, earth, and water to be elements. But the prog- 
ress of chemistry has dispelled this delusion. Should philosophers be 
surprised to find a similar process in analyzing these wild languages? 

The French were impressed with the magnitude of this lake, and 
bestowed, at separate times, several names on it, but none of them 
have survived. Taking the particle goma, to stand for a large body of 
water, and placing before it, the first syllable of the generic name for 
the tribes living on it, we have the more poetic and equally truthful 
term Algoma. 

PEBON & SEEGWUN (WINTER Si SPRING) 3n 
A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY 

An old man was sitting alone in his lodge, by the side of a frozen 
stream. It was the close of winter, & his fire was almost out. He ap- 
peared very old, and very desolate. His locks were white with age, 
and he trembled at every joint. Day after day he sat in solitude, & he 
heard nothing but the sounds of the tempest, sweeping before it, the 
new fallen snow. 

One day as his fire was just dying, a handsome young man ap- 
proached & entered his dwelling. His cheeks were red with the blood 
of youth, his eyes sparkled with animation, and a smile played upon 
his lips. He walked with a light & quick step. His forehead was bound 
round with a wreath of sweet grass, in the place of a warrior's front- 
let, and he carried a bunch of flowers in his hand. 

"Ah, my son," said the old man, "I am happy to see you. Come in. 
Come, tell me of your adventures, and what strange lands you have 
been to see. Let us pass the night together. I will tell you of my 
powers & exploits, and what I can perform. You shall do the same. 
And we will amuse ourselves." 

He then drew from his sack a curiously wrought antique pipe, and 



No. 1. December 1886 

having filled it with tobacco, rendered mild by an admixture of leaves, 
handed it to his guest. When this ceremony was concluded, they be- 
gan to speak. 

"I blow my breath," said the old man, "and the streams stand still. 
The water becomes stiff & hard as clear stone." "I breathe/' said the 
young man, "and flowers spring up, all over the plains." 

"I shake my locks," retorted the old man, "and snow covers the 
land. The leaves fall from the trees at my command & my breath 
blows them away. The birds get up from the water, & fly to a distant 
land. The animals hide themselves from my breath, and the very 
ground becomes as hard as flint." 

"I shake my ringlets," rejoined the young man, "And warm showers 
of soft rain fall upon the earth. The plants lift up their heads out of 
the earth, like the eyes of children first opening in the morning. My 
voice recalls the birds. The warmth of my breath unlocks the stream. 
Music fills the groves, wherever I walk, and all nature rejoices." 

At length the sun began to rise. A gentle warmth came over the 
place. The tongue of the old man became silent. The robin and blue- 
bird began to sing on the top of the lodge. The stream began to 
murmur by the door, and the fragrance of growing herbs & flowers 
came softly on the vernal breeze. 

Daylight fully revealed to the young man the character of his enter- 
tainer. When he looked upon him, he had the white visage of ice of 
Peboan. 36 Streams began to flow from his eyes. As the sun increased 
he gradually grew less & less in stature, and soon had melted com- 
pletely away. Nothing remained on the place of his lodge fire but the 
miskodeed 37 a small white flower, with a pink border, which is one of 
the earliest species in a northern Spring. 

SUPERSTITIONS 

The Manito Tree: There is a hill called by the French La Butte de 
Terre and by the Indians Sat-tooke-wang situated a mile from the 
Sault Ste. Marie, to which an Indian path connects. In the inter- 
mediate distance near this path formerly stood a mountain ash tree 
Amer. Sorbus, [Sorbus americana] from which the Indian tradition 
says, there issued a sound resembling that possessed by their own 
drum, during one of the most calm & cloudless days which have ever 
been witnessed in the country. This occurrence took place long before 



The Literary Voyager 

the French had appeared in their country, & in consequence of it, 
they supposed it the residence of one of their local manitos. From that 
time they began to deposit at its foot, small green twigs & bows, 
whenever they passed along that path, so that in time a high pile of 
these small limbs was collected. During a violent storm the tree itself 
blew down, & has since entirely decayed, but the spot was recollected 
& the practice continued to the present time, & would probably have 
been continued as long as any of the tribe had remained to observe 
it, had not an accident put a stop to it. In order to procure wood from 
La Butte de Terre for the use of the garrison, Col. [Hugh] Brady 
issued an order for cutting a road 60 feet wide from the cantonement 
to the hill. This road passed over the site of the tree, & the men with- 
out knowing it, removed the consecrated pile. 

Sault Ste. Marie July 16, 1822. 

Superstition respecting Mines: There is a superstition prevalent 
among the Chippewas & other Indian tribes, in regard to mines, the 
effects of which we have long witnessed, without knowing the cause. 
They are firmly impressed with a belief, that if they discover a mine 
to the whites, they shall be punished with untimely death, or over- 
taken by some disastrous circumstances. 38 This opinion, although 
certainly not a strange one, to be held by a barbarous race, has never- 
theless its origin in the transactions of an era, which is not only well 
defined, but celebrated, in the history of the discovery and settlement 
of America. It is very well known that gold & silver were the objects 
which led Cortez & Pizarro into the interior of South America, & 
ultimately to conquer the country & to tax & destroy its inhabitants. 
It is equally certain that to escape the scenes of cruelty & oppression, 
which followed the conquest of the Spanish invaders, many tribes & 
fragments of tribes fled towards the north, those nearest the scenes of 
the greatest atrocity pressing upon the remote, who in turn fled before 
the more cultivated tribes of the South. In this way many tribes who 
originally passed from the north along the Pacific to the Gulph of 
California & thence over all New Spain, were returned towards the 
north over the plains of Texas & the valley of the Mississippi. Among 
these tribes, the traditions of the Chippewas says, that their ancestors 
came, leaving on their way portions of their number, who have devi- 
ated from the purity of their language, the sites of their mines & 



No. 1. December 1886 

minerals. Hence also the reason why they suppose all mineral sub- 
stances bought for, & taken from their country are to be converted 
into gold or silver. 

Manito Poles: Whenever an Indian fails sick, his friends set up a 
sapling or pole from which the bark has been peeled, near to his lodge. 
Upon this a dog, sometimes a ribband, a piece of red scarlet, or silver 
band, is tied, as an offering to the manito, to propitiate his wrath, & 
relieve the suffering man. These poles are often painted with red, or 
other stripes. A few days after our arrival, one of the officers of the 
detachment, having occasion for some poles to put up a tent, sent a 
soldier to take down, one of these manito poles, which stood near by. 
But it was soon observed by the Indians and reclaimed. They placed 
it in the same spot which it had been. 

To OUR CORRESPONDENT, LEELiNAU 39 

The letter of our female correspondent "Leelinau," we have perused 
with pleasure, and recommend to the attention of our readers. The 
simplicity and artlessness of her details of Indian life and opinions, do 
not constitute the exclusive attraction of her letter. It develops truths 
connected with the investigation of Indian history and traditions. We 
solicit further communications from the same source, and feel ex- 
tremely desirous for the promised "pretty songs and stories." Her 
lines under Rosa, possess chasteness in the selection of her images, 
united to a pleasing versification. 

Character of Aboriginal Historical Tradition 

To THE EDITOR OF THE LITERARY VOYAGER 

Sir, 

I have learnt from a correspondent of yours, a very distant relation 
of mine, your intention of publishing a Paper; the utility and true 
meaning of which, has been fully explained to me by my friend. And 
as you are willing to admit contributors from amongst my country- 
men and women, it has induced me to take the liberty of addressing 
you, and by this means I hope you will be able to form a more correct 
opinion of the ideas peculiar to the Ojibways. And at the same time. 



The Literary Voyager 

my own humble thoughts shall no longer be breathed out to the 
moaning of the winds through our dark forests; sounds which have 
formed a lonely response to my plaints, since I became a poor Orphan. 

Alas! no longer does my kind, fond mother braid up my black hair 
with ribbons which the good white people gave me, because, they said, 
I was always willing and ready in my duties to my dear father, when 
he returned weary and thirsty from the chase. And oh! my father, you 
can no longer kiss away the starting tear before it falls from my 
cheek; nor kindly ask, What grieves your little girl! But ye, my par- 
ents, are now both gone to the pleasant land of spirits! Still your poor 
child feels as though you were near, nor will she ever forget the good 
advice you have taught her! 

I hope Sir, you will forgive this digression. If you had known my 
parents personally, I am sure you would have loved them. My father 
was descended from one of the most ancient and respected leaders of 
the Ojibway bands long before the white people had it in their 
power to distinguish an Indian by placing a piece of silver, in the 
shape of a medal on his breast. However, my father had one of those 
marks of distinction given him; but he only estimated it as being a 
visible proof of amity between his nation and that of the whites, and 
thought himself bound by it, to observe a strict attention to the duties 
of friendship; taking care that it should not be his fault, if it did not 
continue to be reciprocal. That medal my father used to wear, and it 
is the only relic I still retain in memory of him, who first taught me 
how to esteem and appreciate white people. He often told me that 
you had a right knowledge of every thing, and that you knew the 
truth, because you had things past and present written down in books, 
and were able to relate, from them, the great and noble actions of 
your forefathers, without variation. 

Now, the stories I have heard related by old persons in my nation, 
cannot be so true, because they sometimes forget certain parts, and 
then thinking themselves obliged to fill up the vacancy by their own 
sensible remarks and experience, but it seems to me, much oftener by 
their fertile flights of imagination and if one person retains the truth, 
they have deviated, and so the history of my country has become 
almost wholly fabulous? 

Sir, if I could write myself, (and not trouble my generous rela- 
tion as I now do) I think I should strive to make you acquainted 



No. 1. December 1826 

with all our ancient traditions and customs without deceiving you in 
the least just as I heard them from my father. Tell me sir, if it is 
true, that our great father (The President) is going to cause a house 
to be built, and a man in black to come and instruct us poor Indians, 
and if we are to dwell in that house. My heart danced with joy, and 
my eyes filled with tears of gratitude, when I first heard what is 
before us. 

I have often wished to know the reason and source of many things, 
which have come immediately under my own observation, and not 
knowing how to account for such curious circumstances, I have said, 
"it must be a Manito." But you white people say that there is but one 
true, great, and good God; then I feel a deep sense of regret that I 
do not know more of that good Spirit, and what I ought to do to please 
him. But when the man in black comes to teach us poor young 
ignorant people the right way, I shall know better; and when I can 
write, I shall not forget to send you all the pretty songs and stories 
my mother used to teach me to be put in your paper. Until that 
time shall arrive Sir, I must wish you health. 

TRANCE 

Suspended respiration, or apparent death, is not common among the 
Chippewa Indians. Some cases have however happened. 

Wauwaunishkum or Gitshee Gausinee of Montreal river, after be- 
ing sick a short time, died, or it turned out, fell into a trance. He was 
a good hunter, & among other things left a gun. His widow still flat- 
tered herself he was not dead, & thought by feeling his head she felt 
some signs of life. After four days had elapsed he came to life, & 
lived many years afterwards He related the following story to his 
companions That after his death he traveled on towards the pleasant 
country, which is the Indian heaven, but having no gun could get 
nothing to eat, & he at last determined to go back for his gun On 
his way back, he met many Indians, men & women, who were heavy 
laden with skins & meat, one of these men gave him a gun, a squaw 
gave him a small kettle, still he kept on, determined to go back for his 
own gun which had not been buried with him. When he came to the 
place, where he had died he could see nothing but a great fire, which 
spread in every direction. He knew not what to do, but at last deter- 
mined to jump through it, thinking big forests were on the other side. 



The Literary Voyager 

And in this effort he awoke, & found himself alive. Formerly it had 
been customary to bury many articles with the dead including all his 
effects, clothing etc & even presents of food etc from friends wishing 
them well. After this the practice was discontinued. 

By AN Ojibway Female PEN 
To SISTERS ON A WALK IN THE GARDEN, AFTER A SHOWER 

Come, sisters come! the shower's past, 
The garden walks are drying fast, 
The Sun's bright beams are seen again, 
And nought within, can now detain. 
The rain drops tremble on the leaves, 
Or drip expiring, from the eaves: 
But soon the cool and balmy air, 
Shall dry the gems that sparkle there, 
With whisp'ring breath shake ev'ry spray, 
And scatter every cloud away. 

Thus sisters ! shall the breeze of hope, 
Through sorrows clouds a vista ope; 
Thus, shall affliction's surly blast, 
By faith's bright calm be still'd at last; 
Thus, pain and care, the tear and sigh, 
Be chased from every dewy eye; 
And life's mix'd scene itself, but cease, 
To show us realms of light and peace. 

Rosa 40 

ANCIENT OJIBWAY CUSTOM 
DIANA DISROBED 

It was a custom formerly prevalent among the Chippewas of the Lake 
to observe the following ceremony. After they had finished planting 
their corn & it began to shoot up into stalks, the wife chose an eve- 
ning for walking around the field, past at dusk, dragging behind her, 
her petticoat, being completely naked. After making the circuit of the 
field, she came again to the lodge from which she started. This was 
thought to insure a fruitful & abundant crop. and to preserve the 
corn from the ravages of worms & vermin. 

8 



No. 1. December 1886 

ANCIENT CHIPPEWA CAPITOL 

I have heard much of La Pointe, as the French called, or Chegoimegon 
in lake Superior, situated near its west end, or head. The Chippewa, 
& their friends, the old traders & Boisbrules, & Canadians, are never 
tired of telling of it. All their great men of old times, are located 
there. It was there, that their Mudjekewis, or chief Ruler lived, & as 
some relate, that an eternal fire, was kept. There lived, in compara- 
tively modern time, Waub Ojeeg, & Andaigweos, and there still lives 
one of their descendants in Gitchee Waishkee, the Great First-born, 
or as he is familiarly called Pezhickee, or the Buffalo a chief deco- 
rated with British insignia. His band is estimated, at 118 souls, of 
whom 34 are adult males, 41 females, & 43 children. Mizi, the Catfish, 
one of the heads of families of his band, who had figured about here, 
this summer, is not a chief, but a speaker, which gives him some eclat. 
He is a sort of petty trader too, being credited with little adventures 
of goods by a dealer on the opposite, or British shores. 

Do THE INDIANS REFUSE TO EAT CERTAIN ANIMALS? 

There are few animals which the Indians reject as food. On this sub- 
ject they literally fulfil, in part, the declaration of Paul "that every 
creature of God is food; & nothing to be refused;" but I fear, the 
poor creatures in these straits, do anything but show the true spirit 
of "thanksgiving" in which this admonition is given. The truth is the 
calls of hunger are often so pressing, to these northern Indians, that 
anything in the shape of animal life, that will keep soul and body 
together, is eaten in times of their greatest wants. A striking instance 
of this kind, has just occurred, in the case of a horse killed in the 
public service. The animal had, to use the teamster's phrase, been 
snagged, & was obliged to be shot. To prevent unpleasant effects in 
hot summer weather, the carcass was buried in the sand; but as soon 
as the numerous bands of Indians, who are encamped here, learned 
the fact, they dug up the animal, which was however, no wise diseased, 
& took it to their camps for food. 

SOANGAGEZHICK 

A tragic occurrence took place last night, at the head of the portage, 
resulting in the death of a Chippewa, which is believed to be wholly 



The Literary Voyager 

attributable to the use of ardent spirits, in the Indian camps. As soon 
as I heard the facts, and not knowing to what lengths the spirit of 
retaliation might go, I requested of Col. Brady a few men with a non- 
commissioned officer, & proceeded, taking my interpreter along, to the 
spot. The portage road winds along about a mile near the rapids, & 
all the way, within the full sound of the roaring water, when it opens 
on a green, which is the ancient camping ground, at the head of the 
falls. A foot path leads still higher, by clumps of bushes & copsewood, 
to the borders, of a shallow bay, where in a small opening, I abruptly 
came to the body of the murdered man. He was a Chippewa from the 
interior called Soan-ga-ge-zhick, or the Strong Sky. He had been laid 
out, by his relatives, & dressed in his best apparel, with a kind of cap 
of blue cloth and a fillet round his head. His lodge, occupied by his 
widow and three small children, stood near. On examination, he had 
been stabbed in several places, deeply in both thighs. These wounds 
might not have proved fatal; but there was a subsequent blow, with 
a small tomahawk, upon his forehead, above the left eye. He was en- 
tirely dead, and had been found so, on searching for him at night, by 
his wife. It appeared that he had been drinking during the evening 
and night, with an Indian half-breed of the Chippewa River, of the 
name of Gaulthier. This fellow, finding he had killed him, had taken 
his canoe and fled. Both had been intoxicated. I directed the body to 
be interred, at the public charge, on the ancient burial hill of the 
Chippewas, near the cantonment. The usual shroud, on such occa- 
sions, is a new blanket; a grave was dug, and the body very carefully 
dressed, laid in the coffin, beside the grave. Before the lid was 
fastened, an aged Indian came forward, and pronounced a funeral 
oration. He recited the traits of his character. He addressed the dead 
man direct. He told him that he had reached the end of his journey 
first, that they should all follow him soon to the land of the dead, and 
again meet. He gave him directions for his journey. He offered a 
brief admonition of dangers. He bid him adieu. The brother of the 
deceased then stept forward, and, having removed the head-dress of 
the slain man, pulled out some locks of hair as a memento. The head- 
dress was then carefully replaced, the lid of the coffin fastened, and 
the corpse let down into the ground. Two stout poles were then laid 
over the open grave. The brother approached the widow and stood 
still. The orator then addressed a few words to both, telling the sur- 
vivor to perform a brother's part by the widow. He then took her by 

10 



No. I.December 1886 

the hand, and led her carefully across the open grave, over the two 
poles. This closed the ceremony, and the grave was then filled, and 
the crowd of white and red men dispersed. At night a small flickering 
fire was built by the Indian relatives of the murdered man, at the 
head of the grave. 41 

STANDARD OF VALUE 

In 1821 a reward of $30 was offered by the commanding officer at 
Chicago for the apprehension of a deserter. The Pottowattomies of 
that post brought him in, and claimed the reward. They received a 
certificate from the proper officer for the amount. Thirty dollars was 
a sum that brought no definite idea to their minds. There were five 
claimants, and they immediately sat down, & divided the amount and 
brought it, into raccoons skins. It was not until this had been done 
that each one could appreciate his reward. 

CATHERINE BROWN 

This daughter of the Cherokees, was one of the most remarkable 
females which the missionary spirit & enterprize of the American 
church of Christ, has brought to light in the Aboriginal race. Born in 
1800 in a beautiful part of the proverbially beautiful Cherokee coun- 
try, she was brought up by her parents, with more than the customary 
attention & care, till arriving at the threshold of womanhood. Possess- 
ing an attractive person & gentle manner, she was early noticed, by 
strangers visiting the country, and had even learned to speak the 
English language. She had also learned from Moravian missionaries, 
who came there as early as 1800, the elements of spelling, & a little 
reading. This, was the only advantage she had gained, in education, 
when in 1816, the American Board [for Foreign Missions] planted a 
regular mission & boarding school, in the Cherokee country. Catherine 
was one of these first pupils, and soon became the first convert to 
Christianity in that tribe. Readily the elements of English literature, 
she pressed the principles of the bible, zealously, on her kinspeople. 
She was the means of her father's & mother's, and two brothers con- 
version; and became in truth the means of the awakening & reforma- 
tion of the Cherokee nation. 

Her moral character was ever, irreproachable. She had the clearest 
views of bible truth, and had the faculty of translating into the 

11 



The Literary Voyager 

Cherokee tongue, with an inestimable grace. No heady denunciation 
proceeded from her lips, but she was ever, a produced example of 
truth, she taught to others. She was entrusted with the school estab- 
lished at Creek Path. She had a beautiful hand & conversed in a 
spirited style. At least six years, she remained the light of the mission. 
Her company was eagerly sought at the different stations & villages. 
But she developed consumptive symptoms. Finding the necessary at- 
tention could not be secured in the Cherokee country, she was re- 
moved, by a skillful physician to his home at Huntsville, Alabama. 
But the disease was too deeply seated for human skills, she lingered 
a time, in lasting Christian perfection, at every phase, and finally 
sank to her rest, in the month of July, 1824, with her mother & rela- 
tives around her, by whom her remains were taken to her native 
village for interring. 

On Catherine's grave when spring returns 
The natives wild wood flowers shall place, 
With odours sweet & colors fair, 
Fair emblems of that moral glow, 
That marked her life & character, 
And shall virtues e'er in own. 

And oft the pious step shall go 
To seek the spot where Catherine lies 
And hopes, from her example, show 
To lend her people to the skies. 

Here, faith & hope, shall renew her breath, 
Here, confidence, her lamp relume, 
Here, resignation, smile at death, 
And beauty triumph at the truth. 

She led the way, with modest air 
Rejoicing, she this day should see, 
That op'ed a path, to worlds so fair, 
For her loved tribe, the Tsallakee. 

Mr. Anderson, her biographer says, 42 "They (the Cherokees) pos- 
sess a language that is said to be more precise and powerful, than any, 



No. 1. December 1826 

into which learning has poured richness of thought, or genius breathed 
the enchantments of fancy and eloquence" (p. 14). In another place 
(p. 156) he observes "The Indian languages are said to have no 
word that signifies spirit, nor the pagan Indians any idea of a spiritual 
existence." The difficulty, it is apprehended, is not that they have no 
term for spiritual existence, but that these spirits are destitute of 
holiness. Their name for God, or the great being above, is, Ga-lun- 
lah-ti-a-hi, and he is represented by the common interpreters, falsely, 
it is thought, instead of appearing on earth in material form. 

Her brother, David Brown in one of his letters (p. 67) terms the 
Cherokee "the sweet language of Tsallakee." We are without the 
etymology of this word. Adair says, Cher, means fire, but leaves out 
that term. The word Tsallakee, reminds us of Hakewelder's, Tsalla- 
servi. 

Theories of converting Indians, requires caution. "The position" 
continues the biographer of Catherine Brown, "that civilization must 
precede Christianity, is so unsupported by facts is so opposed to all 
experience, that one would think it could hardly be advanced by en- 
lightened philosophers, or received by rational Christians. What is 
civilization?" We believe Christianity & civilization, act, as one to- 
gether, as cause or effect. One cannot exist without the other. 

Civilization is a system of restraints, by which old habits and 
opinions are put off, and new ones taken up. To enter the private 
dwelling, or mission school; to put on the clothing of civilized man; 
to take meals, retire, rise, wash the hands and face, attend stated 
duties or labors, every day at fixed hours; or to become familiarized 
to the dwellings, fields, and ordinary economy of civil life, are among 
the essential elements of civilization. An Indian, cannot long be sub- 
jected to these restraints, without being influenced by them. 

Without some previous discipline of this kind, no Indian youth 
taken from the forest, is likely to become civilized, and we are free to 
declare our opinion that little success will attend the preaching of 
Christianity to uncivilized savage men. Yet civilization without Chris- 
tianity may be a failure. The lessons of experience on this subject 
ought not to be forgotten. No sects were ever animated with more zeal, 
in this pious work, than the Jesuit fathers. They followed the Indians 
in their hunting excursions, and attended them in their seasons of 
feasting and fasting, want and warfare, enduring perils and hardships, 

13 



The Literary Voyager 

which prove a total abstraction from all selfish, or personal con-' 
siderations. But they effected no radical change in the vital moral 
habits or customs of the Indians. They imposed but few restraints; 
they taught no new methods of economy, and in fact, notwithstanding 
their own reports, they made few real conversions to Christianity. 
They left the Indian, where they found him a savage in the forest; 
and after the lapse of a century, a vague tradition among some of the 
tribes, where they laboured, and here and there, a crucifix, worn 
chiefly, as an ornament, and not as a symbol, is all that often remains 
in modern times, to attest their labors. 

Ask for St. Mary's, or for St. Ignace, 
The name is all the traveler can trace. 

EXPERIMENT ON THE CAUSE OF TEMPERANCE WITH THE INDIANS OF 
NORTH AMERICA 

Every effort to restrain the use or introduction of ardent spirits among 
the Indians, is commendable. It is useless to lament the existence of 
evils, if we do not set ourselves about remedying them. Every person, 
who has paid the least attention to this subject, must be aware, how 
difficult it is to enforce, either corporate or congressional laws, against 
practices which custom sanctions and convenience dictates. Custom is 
often more powerful than law, even in a land of law, and the axioms 
of reason and right, are in vain urged in opposition to pecuniary in- 
terest. This is emphatically true on the frontiers, and it is of the 
frontiers I purpose speaking. Popular errors demand popular correc- 
tives, but it requires time to introduce them, and time to enable them 
to operate. Rash and hasty measures would only involve public offi- 
cers in difficulties, which are easier excited than quelled. Where much 
remains to be accomplished, it is better to do a little that is practi- 
cable, than to attempt much which cannot be effected. Such at least, 
were the views, which have been acted on, in a public assembly of the 
Indian tribes, at Prairie du Chien in 1825. 

Individual examples operate with great force upon the minds of the 
Indian. Every good man, whether in place, or out of place, has it i'n 
his power to do much to correct the prevalent practice of selling 
liquor to this unfortunate portion of the human race. Indians as they 
are, their condition would be much improved, if, in our intercourse 



No. 1. December 1826 

with them, our citizens could be induced uniformly to think like 
philanthropists, to feel like Christians, or to act like men. 

At the conclusion of the treaty just held, at which, the principal 
tribes on the Upper Mississippi were assembled, a public feast was 
given, by the United States Commissioners to the whole collected 
body of the tribes, who had assisted in the proceedings. By address- 
ing the appetites of men under such circumstances, the good feeling 
which they had displayed in the settlement of their territorial bound- 
aries, was sought to be confirmed, and to be left associated in their 
minds with pleasing recollections. Such feasts, in which each is invited 
"to take his portion," and rejoice in his labor, are not uncommon on 
like occasions. But this, particularly commends itself to our notice, 
by its being a feast enjoyed without ardent spirit*. 

To prove to the Indians the truth of what has often been asserted, 
that it is not the value of the liquor to our government that prevents 
its being liberally distributed on public occasions, but solely, the 
dread of its injurious consequences to them, an ample quantity of 
whiskey was also brought into the centre of the bower under which 
the tribes were peacefully partaking of meat and bread. The weather 
being very warm, they were supplied, during the repast, with a 
beverage consisting of sugar and water. After the repast was finished, 
every one of the red guests appeared anxious for the arrival of the 
moment, when, as they expected, the whiskey also, would be dis- 
tributed. While all eyes were intent, on the movement, a party of 
employees came, bearing a considerable number of large, new capa- 
cious tin kettles, such as are used in the trade, filled to the brim with 
high wines, setting them down carefully, in a row. At this moment the 
Commissioners came forward, and one of them addressed them, in a 
few brief and pertinent remarks, on the bad effects of drinking; the 
baneful influence it had already exerted upon their character as na- 
tions, and as individuals; and the still worse effects that must be ex- 
pected to ensue, if so pernicious a habit was persevered in. When 
their attention had been fully called to the subject, and every eye was 
directed to the speaker, the vessels of whiskey, standing in front of 
them, were overturned and spilled out upon the grass. The liquid 
might be seen filling the inequalities in its surface, forming pools or 
passing off beneath the rustic benches. 

But the Indian is a stolid man. He sat moveless. He did understand 
the lesson taught. Wonder, astonishment, and disappointment might 

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The Literary Voyager 

be seen depicted in the fixed countenances of the multitude, as they 
sat beholding this novel and unexpected & unaccountable proceeding. 
Some may doubt the wisdom of this kind of teaching. Its good effects, 
however, cannot, it is believed, but be felt. Many will reflect upon it, 
perhaps when they return to their villages, and the deeper they reflect 
the more sensible must they become of the considerate and benevo- 
lent motives which could lead to such a step. Precepts are feeble, 
where nothing but precepts are employed. And would all who have 
the power, exert it, to present to the observation of this people, 
examples of disinterestedness, justice, and magnanimity; or lessons of 
virtue and temperance, we should witness improvements in their 
moral and physical condition, which are, by many deemed impracti- 
cable. The drawback is, that the Indian is not a man of moral 
sensibilities. 
Prairie du Chien. 1825 Abieca 43 

FRIENDLY SPEECH OF SHINGABOWOSSIN TO His BAND** 

I have told you your great father, is powerful and kind. If you look 
around, you will see that within a very few years he has sent his 
soldiers to build forts at Green Bay, at Tipisagee, St. Peter's, & 
Council Hills on the Missouri, where he feeds & clothes a great many 
people. It is not a year since he established this last post, & one at 
Sagana. Is not this an evidence of his strength? 

When the British King, wishes any of your lands, he puts his foot 
upon them, and says it is mine! He holds no treaty with you to buy it, 
nor does he pay you for it. 

But when your American father wants your lands, he sends some 
of his civil chiefs to buy it, and to agree with you on the price of it. 
Is not this an evidence of his justice? 

Look at your brothers the Saganaws, the Ottoways, the Potto^ 
wattomies, the Menomonies & the Foxes! Do they not every year 
receive large sums of money from him? This is for the lands they 
have sold. 

Whenever your American father has sent soldiers, he has sent an 
Agent to see to your wants, to feed you when you are hungry; to 
clothe you when you are naked, and to give you drink when you are 
thirsty. Is this not an evidence of his kind big heart? 

16 



No. 1. December 1826 

Look among your brothers, who are under the American govern- 
ment. Have they not plenty? You go sometimes to visit them. Have 
you not seen that they have horses, & cattle, guns & traps, fine 
blankets and clothes, and every thing else to make them happy? 
Where do they get these things? From the Americans. You have also 
begun to feel the benefit of Abieca, 45 a young friend, coming here. Is 
there one person among you who can get up & say that he has ever 
turned a deaf ear to you? Has he ever sent any of you hungry from 
his door? 
April 1823 

ANNAMEA GEEZHixouo 46 
LITERARY MEN SHOULD RESPECT THE SABBATH 

The following may be advanced as proof of the influence of the Sab- 
bath on the intellectual character of man. It had been proclaimed by 
a periodical opposed to the administration of Sir Robt. Peel, that his 
excessive labors were impairing his health. This insinuation is replied 
to in these words by the Editor of the Standard. "Sir Robt. does not 
work 7 days in a week which to me is full assurance that his work 
will not impair his health." Then he adds these memorable words 
our experience may be taken for something for a newspaper editor's 
life is no time of idleness; we hold it to be an incontravertible fact 
that no man ever suffered in his health, by the hardest conscientious 
labor during six days of the week But we will add for the instruc- 
tion of the young & studious to whom we particularly address this 
remark, that during many years observation of intellectual laborers, 
we never knew a man to work 7 days in the week, who did not kill 
himself & his mind. 

LINES, ON COMING TO RESIDE AT SAULT STE. MARIE 

Remote from all the world away away. 
Where lone St. Mary's waters foam and play 
And broad Superior's mountains, rising high 
In pictured forms, imprint the northern sky; 
Far, far from every haunt the heart holds dear, 
What can engage the contemplative, here. 
Long mazes past, where lakes and streams resound 

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The Literary Voyager 

I seem to stand at earth's remotest bound. 
I turn me round to ask if such scenes bless, 
Such wilds, such wastes ; and Truth replies yes ! yes ! 
Man on himself can turn, and he shall find, 
Food for the noblest gifts of heart and mind. 



If cities, towns, and men, be absent 
Its very loneliness and woods are dear. 
The wild magnificence that marks the zone, 
Gives to the mind new vigor, power and tone 
Above, the clouds, with light and fleecy bound, 
Deck the bright arch, & scatter gems around, 
Below, the winding waters devious play, 
Superior's self proud trembling on its way 
In crystal torrents, that with fretful roar, 
With murmur's speed along St. Mary's shore; 
By day I hear these falls their tale recite, 
And on my ear, they murmur all the night, 
It is the diapason deep whose organ forms, 
Are lightnings, thunders, winds, tornadoes, storms. 



Above, around expressive vastness reigns, 
And nature stalks a giant o'er the plains ; 
Gems glitter from the heavens, a starry road, 
Where spreads the typic footprints of a God. 
To view this sight, the painted Indian stands, 
And tells how giants big, once filled the lands, 
And oft of heroes speaks, once killed in wars, 
By necromancers were transformed to stars. 
Or demi-gods, who hold divided bound, 
With Monedo himself, & deals thunders round. 
A poor philosopher is he, on Newton's plan, 
He reasons just of what he knows of man 
And nature; and e'er kindly takes 
God on his side, and deems that He partakes 
In all his wigwam lore & care & fondly deems 
His grim old priest oft speaks his will in dreams. 
Talk to this man, a Turk or a Chinese, 
Are not more erudite in Heaven's decrees. 



18 



No. 1. December 1886 

Or how the world began, and why & when 

Kind Heaven made beasts, & birds, the world and men. 

Turn we from nature to her forest child, 
What see we, but the human form run wild 
A man of dreams and fancies, to his hopes, 
Thoughts, signs, beliefs, a world wide vistas opes. 
Why burns the grave light, on yon burial height, 
At midnight, it is to give his wandering spirit light. 
Why dance, the auroral vapors in the skies, 
They are the ghosts of his own paradise, 
Who joy in realms of compensating bliss 
For miseries endured, through life, in this. 

On civic toils he looks as something sore 

Which white-men have brought over to the shore, 

And letters, and all that, but for himself his fears, 

Are but for want of beavers, elks and bears; 

Ah, wanderer of the woods ! if far thy steps have trod 

Far from all social light & letters, truth and God, 

In the lone region where thou now dost stray, 

With ocean-lakes to mark the ample way. 

Yet is there hope for thee, in noble cares, 

That point, with heavenly faith, above the stars. 

There is a sympathy that ever burns, 

For the lone step that from its error turns. 

Heaven is not, in its fiats to be blamed, 

Nor made the Indian simply to be damned. 

If far thou art, savage of the plain 

Where arts and light & truth & letters reign, 

Yet in that very want, a cause may seem, 

That makest thou thyself, an ample theme, 

Despite the lonesomeness of place and line, 

And much I err, or else thou shall be mine. 

Ekiega 

THE VINE AND OAic 47 

A vine was growing beside a thrifty oak, and had just reached tha^t 
height at which it requires support. "Oak," said the vine, "bend your 

19 



The Literary Voyager 

trunk so that you may be a support to me." "My support," replied 
the oak, "is naturally yours, and you may rely on my strength to 
bear you up, but I am too large and too solid to bend. Put your arms 
around me, my pretty vine, and I will manfully support and cherish 
you, if you have an ambition to climb, even as high as the clouds. 
While I thus hold you up, you will ornament my rough trunk with 
your pretty green leaves and shining scarlet berries. They will be as 
frontlets to my head, and I shall stand in the forest like a glorious 
warrior, with all his plumes. We were made by the Master of Life to 
grow together, that by our union the weak should be made strong, 
and the strong render aid to the weak." 

"But I wish to grow independently," said the vine, "why cannot 
you twine around me, and let me grow up straight, and not be a mere 
dependant upon you!' "Nature," answered the oak, "did not so de- 
sign it. It is impossible that you should grow to any height done, and 
if you try it, the winds and rain, if not your own weight, will bring 
you to the ground. Neither is it proper for you to run your arms 
hither and yon, among the trees. The trees will begin to say "It is 
not my vine it is a stranger get thee gone, I will not cherish thee." 
By this time thou wilt be so entangled among the different branches, 
that thou cantst not get back to the oak; and nobody will then ad- 
mire thee, or pity thee." 

"Ah me," said the vine, "let me escape from such a destiny;" and 
with this, she twined herself around the oak, and they both grew and 
flourished happily together. 



The Literary Voyager 



No. 8. Sault Ste. Marie December 1826 



THE RAINBOW 
A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY 

A prophet lived near the falls of St. Mary's, for many years. He was 
now an old man, and he was regarded, as one who ever lived in close 
communion with the Great Spirit. He could read the clouds. He could 
understand every mystic sound. There was no hard question put to 
him, which he could not answer. He was a wise man. He had made 
mysteries his study, till all mysteries were plain to him. He possessed 
a small stature, & a thin body, legs & arms. Some thought his bones 
were hollow, like a bird's, he was so light. But his eyes were black and 
sparkling & his voice had a peculiar intonation. His hair was long, 
and as white as snow and the older he became, the longer and whiter 
it grew. 

He had been married, when young, and had a daughter named 
Olla, whom he tenderly loved and cherished, and to whom he had 
taught some of his songs & arts. Olla was the pride of her village, 
modest kind and respectful, she became an example and pattern for 
the village maidens. But she was taken very ill one day, in her father's 
lodge & died, before any relief could be given, while, it was observed, 
that a rainbow from the Falls, rested on the top of her father's lodge. 
Whether it was this incident, or some early dream, that had given the 
name of the Rainbow, or Hair of the Sun, is not known. Many 
thought that the girl had been miraculously transferred to the skies, 
& he sided with this opinion, for he had often seen her sitting & 
gazing intently at the sky. 

He had a little drum, the rim of which, was covered with heiro- 
glyphics, and a curious stick, upon the end of which, was tied a string 
of a deer's hoofs, which made a sharp noise at every stroke, and he 
sang with a solemn tone: 

Hear my drum, ye spirit high, 
Earth & water, air and sky 
Ye, to me, are common ground, 



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Spirits, listen to my sound 
Walking, creeping, running, flying, 
Near or distant, living, dying, 
Ye, are but the powers I sway, 
Hearken, to my solemn lay 
I compel you, hither come, 
Hear my rattle hear my drum 
From your highest circles come. 

The bark rolls of his lodge had been lifted up, while he uttered this 
incantation, & the gorgeous red and green rays of the rainbow, rested 
directly on his hair. They seemed to be mingled with his long hair, 
and when he put up his hands, to disentangle it, he found himself 
rising by a strong attraction, and he rose up to the skies, by this light 
& silky filaments. 

Very long & bright silver ledges, & open green plains, were the 
first things that presented themselves. And he saw that smoke which 
issued from this in large sheets of blue & pink & white, from the 
clouds surrounded by the globe. He was kindly received at the chief's 
lodge, where a wide circle of red chairs were occupied by chiefs who 
sat smoking their pipes. He saw, that at every exhalation of the smoke 
there were bright little flames, and this is the cause of what we call 
annung, or 'the stars. 

Very soon his daughter stood before him, in a beautiful robe of 
pale green. "Father," said she, "I have expected you a long time. I 
told those tall & majestic chiefs yonder, that if they would untie, & let 
down the silken threads of the long sashes, which bind their robes, 
you could come up. But father, it is not here, as with you. We do not 
want. We do not hunger; we do not die. There are no marriages here; 
there are no births. We are all spirits. Our senses are high. We can 
hear the slightest whisper from below; & see the smallest thing. It 
seems the distance is not broader than my hand. Your drum & rattles 
sound plainly & the words of your songs are instantly understood." 

"There is no war, or bloodshed here. There is no hunting. The 
animals come out of the woods unhunted. The sharp rocks are only 
shadows. We can walk through them. Everything is pleasing, & we 
are happy here. The Great Spirit, only visits us by angels. He dwells 
in yonder region, surrounded by bright stars." 



No. S. December 1886 

"I see you have brought along, your drum & rattles. Sit down on 
yonder green bank, by the crystal waters & play a while. I go to re- 
port your coming, to a higher power." The music he made was of un- 
usual sweetness, & when he looked, the instruments had changed into 
silver. He had played but a little while then came on the waters, 
stately white swans, & birds of bright plumage, & when he looked 
around him, he saw droves of deer & antelopes & elks, in peaceful 
gambols. 

Where he took his seat, he remained sitting; and this is the reason 
of that bright planet, called the Evening & the Morning Star. It is only 
one of the little ornaments which surround the Great Spirit, & when 
it rains, in heaven, you behold those bright lights, we call Dancing 
Ghosts, by white men, aurora borealis, & blazing stars. 

Listener ,wouldst thou be instructed behold the deaths of the aged 
prophet Miscogandic-a-ub, & his daughter Olla, and their translation 
to the abodes of the Great Spirit. 

WAUB OJEEG OR 

THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI AND 
CHIPPEWA HISTORY No. 1 

The following tradition is related by Oshaguscodawaqua, 48 a female 
of Chegoimegon on lake Superior, the ancient capitol of the Chip- 
pewa nation. A grand daughter of the reigning chief of that place, 
possessing a high opinion of the origin, bravery and position of her 
tribe, with every means of learning their traditions, full credence 
appears to be due, to the general incidents of her narrative. Having 
at sixteen become the wife of a gentleman of information, polite man- 
ners, and warm susceptibility, she was removed, at this early age to 
the comforts and conveniences of a civilized dwelling a change of 
life which gives the narrative a striking similarity to that of Pocha- 
hontas. But, although raising a family of children, by this union, she 
remained firmly attached to the traditions of her people, and contin- 
ued to speak only the Indian language. 

Chippewa tradition affirms, that their ancient council fire and 
capitol was on the island of Chegoimegon in lake Superior. They 
were governed by a chief officer, called Mujekiwis, who was, always, 
the eldest son of the reigning OGIMAU, or Chief. At this place, they 



The Literary Voyager 

maintained their ancient mode of worshipping the Great Spirit, whom 
they propitiated by hymns, prayers, and sacrifices, offered especially 
to the Sun. 

The chieftain's wife had long been settled in the line of the Totem 
of the Reindeer, and the mark of this animal was the authoritative 
sign of the ruler, wherever it was placed. Waub Ojeeg succeeded by 
birth to this authority about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
But his father, Ma Mongazida, did not die and give up the entire 
rule, till a later period. The French supremacy had then been long 
established, and rumors only began to be heard, of the coming of the 
Saganooks the Algonquin name for the British. The latter were at 
first distasteful to the Indians, who passionately loved the French 
rule, & the French manners. Braddock's defeat in 1755, and the vari- 
ous triumphs by which the French & Indians had kept back the Brit- 
ish colonies, were events heard by the lake Indians, with pleasure. 

The fall of Quebec in 1759, of Montreal in 1760, and of all Canada, 
in a short time following, was dreadful news to the Indians. They did 
not believe, what they did not like, and determined not to give up 
the country without a struggle. Pontiac placed himself at the head of 
their effort, and made most vigorous & bloody efforts, to repel the 
Saxon race. But these efforts proved vain, & the year 1763, saw the 
whole nation power prostrate, & the British flag triumphant. 

Ma Mongazida, did not die, & give up his authority at Chegoime- 
gon till about 1790. This event, left Waub Ojeeg the sole rulership, a 
right to which he lent claim by his vigors and skill as a huntsman, & 
his bravery & diplomatic talents as a warrior. 

The same period saw a young gentleman from the north of Ireland, 
come to the capitol of British North America, to recruit the rental of 
an exhausted estate, by engaging in the half Quixotic and chivalrous 
enterprize of the Fur Trade. The tale is simply told. A few years saw 
the ardent son of Erin at the death bed of Ma Mongazida, and the 
fast friend of his brave and talented son, Waub Ojeeg. 

Centuries have elapsed since hostilities commenced between the 
Chippewas and Sioux. They lived on terms of amity, so long as the 
abundance of game rendered precise limits an object of little conse- 
quence, and while their leaders saw no cause to apprehend that they 
were, at a future day, to become rivals; and earn the hated name of 
NadowasieUj or Rattlesnake in the grass. 

The Sioux felt little uneasiness at the inroads made by the Chip- 

84 



No. 8. December 1886 

pewas into those remote and woody borders of their extensive hunt- 
ing grounds, which stretch around the head of lake Superior. They 
had few inducements to penetrate far towards the north, while the 
fertility and mildness of the Mississippi plains, and the facility of 
procuring food operated to confine their villages to the banks of that 
river. But when their new neighbors, on that quarter, began to sally 
from their inhospitable woods into the plains, in quest of the larger 
animals, which at certain seasons, quit the forests altogether, and 
when their numbers and power began to make them formidable; it is 
reasonable to conclude that a strong jealousy was created. 

Hostilities once begun, there is nothing in the institutions of Indian 
society, that would induce them to preserve any connected details of 
its impelling causes. Nor should we feel surprized that these original 
causes of enmity have been nearly forgotten, when we reflect, that 
every season has been supplying fresh fuel to the flame. 

Tradition represents that the Chippewa bands who first settled 
themselves at Shogwoinecan, 49 or LaPointe, on lake Superior, had the 
lands bestowed upon them by the Outagamis, 50 who were temporarily 
fixed there; but had resolved on migrating further west. A greater 
proof of the perfect amity existing between these two tribes could not, 
perhaps, be given. They were, in fact, descended from a common 
ethnological stock, spoke dialects of the same language, and practised 
the same general customs. They were brother-tribes. Whenever, they 
met, they lived together as one and the same people, and mutually 
sympathized in each other's reverses, or well-being. 51 

Between the Outagamis and Sioux, a good understanding existed, 
which had been matured, till, it seems, mutual aid was expected to be 
given to each other, in cases of emergency. Through this alliance, the 
Chippewas were well received on their first arrival at LaPointe, and 
for many years afterwards the Sioux regarded them as friends. Offices 
of civility were exchanged, and visits and intermarriages took place; 
and they tacitly acceded to the arrangement made by the Outagamis, 
respecting the lands. 

In process of time the intimacy, which had bound together the 
Outagamis and Chippewas, during their weak and migratory state, 
cooled; they no longer looked upon each other as friends, and they 
soon quarrelled for the possession of a country, which they had, at 
first, shared in amity. 

The Outagamis, who had retired from the lake to the table lands 



The Literary Voyager 

intermediate between the Mississippi, lake Michigan, and lake Super- 
ior, envying the increasing power and strength of the Chippewa settle- 
ment at LaPointe, commenced inroads into their best hunting grounds, 
depriving them of means of subsistence which had become, more im- 
portant, as their numbers were augmented. 

Before resenting this conduct, the Chippewa chiefs held a council, 
and determined on demanding an explanation. When the messengers 
employed on this mission entered the camp of the Outagamis, they 
found them in council, and immediately proclaimed their errand. 

They asked the Outagamis, what wrong, or injustice they had ever 
done them; they declared that the lands they occupied had been 
freely given their fathers by the Outagamis; and that they had made 
no encroachments. They concluded by saying, that they had always 
regarded each other as brothers; that they were so in reality, they 
would be very sorry to shed their blood on the graves of their fore- 
fathers, who had been so generous towards them. But, that if they did 
not put a stop to their young men's depredations, they were deter- 
mined to defend themselves, as several of their young hunters had 
already been decoyed and slain. 

The Outagamis answered; that they (the Chippewas) were the 
aggressors; that they had wrongfully wrested the lands from their 
forefathers; and that far from stopping the attempts which had been 
already made, they would encourage their young men in every effort 
to drive them off the land. The council broke up with this threat, and 
the messengers, with difficulty, returned to their town. 

Open hostilities soon commenced on either side, and although the 
Sioux sided with the Outagamis, and united with them in battle, yet 
the Chippewas totally defeated them in several bloody recontres; 
they broke up their villages at the Flambeau and Ottowa lakes, and 
compelled the remnant of the tribe to quit the sources of the Wiscon- 
sin, Chippewa, and Bad rivers, and ultimately to seek shelter behind 
their allies, the Sioux. 

In this war the Chippewas were first brought into contact with the 
Sioux, and from that period they have scarcely ever enjoyed a 
moment's peace. 52 

RESIGNATION 

How hard to teach the heart, opprest with grief, 
Amid gay, worldly scenes, to find relief; 



No. 2. December 1886 

And the long cherish'd bliss we had in view, 
To banish from the mind where first it grew! 
But Faith, in time, can sweetly soothe the soul, 
And Resignation hold a mild control; 
The mind may then resume a proper tone, 
And calmly think on hopes forever flown. 

Rosa. 

CUSTOMS OF DISTANT NATIONS 

Herodotus says, of the ancient Thracians, that "the most honorable 
life with them, is a life of indolence; the most contemptible, that of 
a husbandman. Their supreme delight is war and plunder." 

The same remark may be made of some dozen tribes of our North 
American Indians; but what is the conclusion to be drawn? Surely no 
reasonable man will hence infer, that the American Indians were 
originally Thracians. Yet one half of the deductions of zealous 
theorists rest on no better foundations. 

Coincidences have been observed in the manners and customs of 
barbarous nations, situated in distant parts of the world, and living 
in eras not less distant; between whom, however, there is not the 
least probability that there ever existed any connection by the ties 
of blood, or commerce. 

Such coincidences must in fact, be deemed purely accidental; and 
ought to be regarded only, as evidences of the identity of the human 
species. 

TYPE OF MEXICAN CIVILIZATION 

Nothing is more manifest on reading the "Conquest of Mexico," 53 
than that the character and attainments of the Mexicans are exalted 
far above the reality, to enhance the fame of Cortez, and give an air 
of splendor to the conquest. Exact observation was not a characteristic 
of that age, and dense as was the population of the Mexican prov- 
inces, the numbers were undoubtedly over-rated. In the same spirit, 
every stone cottage, or log dwelling was a palace, and every petty 
independent chief of a band of hunters, a prince in jewelled robes. 
That the Mexicans had made considerable advances towards civiliza- 
tion, is unquestionably true; but that these advances were totally 

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over-rated by Cortez and his interested followers and retainers, ap- 
pears to us equally undeniable. 

The cacique of Tempoala, being the first dignitary who paid his 
respects personally to Cortez, is described as wearing a robe of cotton 
flung over his naked body, enriched with various jewels and pendants, 
which were also observed upon his person. In plain parlance, he wore 
a cotton blanket, with ear bobs. 

"Canoes" and "periogues of wood," were their usual means of con- 
veyance by water. The "books" mentioned at page 100, were deer 
skins, well dressed and folded up accurately, after having been painted 
with hieroglyphics; and were probably very little different from the 
paintings upon buffalo robes, made by the Pawnees, Osages, and other 
south-western tribes of the present day. 

The Mexicans, he says, at p. 93 "had rings in their ears and lips," 
which, though they were of gold, were a deformity instead of an 
ornament. 

By the nearest route from St. Juan de Ulua to Mexico was 180 
leagues. The journey was performed by Montezuma's runners, or 
scouts, within seven days, to and from, being 25 to 26 leagues per day. 
This excited the wonder and incredulity of the sluggish Spaniards, 
who were credulous enough on other occasions. But would certainly 
be considered an ordinary day's journey by our northern tribes, and 
by no means a proper effort for such an extraordinary emergency. 

Distance they counted by time, like our Indians. "A Sun, was a 
day's journey." 

"One of the points, continues De Solis, of his (Cortez) embassy, 
and the principal motive which the king (Charles V.) had to offer his 
friendship to Montezuma, was the obligation Christian princes lay 
under, to oppose the errors of idolatry; and the desire he had to 
instruct him in the knowledge of the truth, and to help him to get 
rid of the slavery of the devil." 

The first presents sent to Cortez by Montezuma, were cotton 
cloths, plumes, bows, arrows, and targets, precious stones, collars of 
gold, representations of birds and beasts of the same metal, a plate of 
gold resembling the sun, and another of similar dimensions resembling 
the moon. It was the fatal error of this unfortunate monarch to exhibit 
his wealth to the Spaniards. It was precisely what they were in search 
of, and the arrival of these rich presents may be seized upon, as the 
date from which Cortez resolved upon the conquest. 



No. 2. December 1886 

ANIMOOSE 

Pork I love, but drinks I hate 
Oh, what joy to lick a plate. 

Sir, 

Oh, master, why did you whip me! I cannot help thinking that you 
have done me injustice in the punishment inflicted, for my having 
chawed up your literary papers. I confess I did not know the value 
of these papers. Dog, as I am, and subject to lie at your feet, in your 
office, I did not know that these papers embraced your conjugations 
of Indian verbs. Besides, you know my youth and indiscretion. When 
I saw you lock your door, and go to dinner, my gnawing teeth, im- 
pelled me to try their use, and I seized the papers, and chewed and 
tore them up, without any idea of my indiscretion, and without know- 
ing what trouble it would put you to, to procure other examples. 
Remember how easy it will be for you to set your big red nosed in- 
terpreter, Yarns, 54 to furnish other data; and if he cannot do it, 
correctly or acceptably, as I suspect, you know the favor with which 
we both, are regarded at the Erin Hall, 55 where the subject of the 
Indian languages can be so profitably discussed. I beg you, therefore 
to excuse my ignorance, and for the future I promise you on the word 
of a pretty little Pointer, not to meddle with your literary papers, of 
any sort. I was originally named after the great Pontiac, and it shall 
ever be my aim to imitate his noble deeds, and to bite and snarl only 
at the oppressive and unjust/' 

Ponti 

SHINGABA WOSSIN 

This dignified & majestic man, is a son of Naidosagee of the reigning 
Crane Totem. 57 He is First chief of the band of St. Mary's, and is 
one of the most respected and influential men in the Chippewa nation. 
He is some six feet three inches in height and well proportioned, erect 
in his carriage, and of a commanding and dignified aspect. Of a turn 
of mind deliberate and thoughtful, he is at once respectful and re- 
spected. He knows how to be cheerful without descending to frivolity. 
A man of policy, as well as bravery, he was early sensible that the 
prosperity of his nation depended upon peace, and an assiduous at- 
tention to their ordinary occupations. He gave up much of his time, 
in late years in attending the public councils convened under the 



The Literary Voyager 

authority of government to secure a permanent peace, with the tribes 
with whom the Chippewas are at variance. While quite a youth, he 
joined several war parties against the Sioux, although living upwards 
of 400 miles from the lines. And he fought & conquered under Waub 
Ojeeg, at the great battle at the Falls of the St. Croix, 58 which ter- 
minated the feud forever between the Chippewas and Foxes & Sauks. 

His father Naidosagee was at once the chief and the legendary 
chronicler of his tribe. And with him died much of their most reliable 
traditionary information. Naidosagee, was also noted for the imagi- 
nary legends, allegories, tales and fables, which he related for the 
amusement of the young, some traces of which will appear in these 
sketches. With shrewdness enough to manage the concerns of the 
band, he was a voluptuary. He married four wives, three of whom 
were sisters, by whom collectively he had twenty children. Each of 
the male children, in time deemed himself, a legitimate ruling chief, 
and attached to himself some followers. The harmony of the band 
was thus, impaired & in a measure, destroyed, and the ancient village 
weakened, by migrations to new regions and its once heavy popula- 
tion scattered along the waters of the basin of lake Superior & the 
river St. Mary. 

Shingaba Wossin gradually drew upon himself the principal notice, 
and was at last looked up to, and universally acknowledged as the 
first man a distinction he well merited by the qualities both of his 
head and heart. His good sense enabled him to point out the proper 
course to be pursued by his band, in their emergencies. And his kind- 
ness, and benevolence rendered him beloved. He was always the organ 
of expressing the wants of his band, and the medium through which 
they received advice and aid from the officers of government. 

Shingaba Wossin attended and signed the great treaty of limits at 
Prairie du Chien in 1825, and it was at his suggestion that the Com- 
missioners inserted a provision for calling together the body of the 
Chippewa nation at Fond du Lac, at the head of lake Superior in 
1826, in order formally and fully to explain the important stipula- 
tions of the treaty, and procure their assent to them. In this step, he 
acted like a prudent ruler, who, was sensible of the true interests of 
his tribe, and at the same time, moral boldness of conduct. In attend- 
ing the treaty at the head of lake Superior he sought to make pro- 
vision for the half breed relatives, of the nation by granting each a 

90 



No. fl. December 1886 

section of land. This measure originated entirely with him, and it was 
urged on the ground, that this class of people, were in reality their 
best and most constant friends, and gave them aid and succor in time 
of need & necessity. He also advised his people to set apart the 
thousand dollar annuity the only annuity they receive for the 
purpose of a school for their children to be located at St. Mary's river. 
He was not a strong advocate for school knowledge in his own fam- 
ily, but remarked that some of the Chippewas might wish it, and it 
would, in the end, do good. He also went to the council at Butte de 
Morts in 182 7, 59 and thus by his presence and aid, completed the 
settlement of the Chippewa and Indian boundaries with the Sioux, 
Menomenees, Winnebagoes & Wabnokies. 60 

OJIBWAY TRADITIONS 

The following replies to the historical inquiries issued by Gov. Cass 
in 1822, are from the pen of John Johnston Esqr. It is to be regretted, 
from his long residence in the country and intimate knowledge of 
Indian history, that he had proceeded no farther, in his proposed task. 
1. What is the original name of the Tribe? Ans. Ojibway. 2. What is 
the present name? The same. 3. What is the meaning of the name in 
English? The origin of the name lost in antiquity. 4th they are re- 
lated to the Ottaways, who were the agricultural branch of the Tribe 
the Ojibways and Miamies were the warrior classes. 5th This quest 
can be no otherwise answered, than that they all came from one 
country to the Southard and Westard of this: That a part of the na- 
tion yet called Otagahmeg, or in English Otagama, who were there 
precursors, are still settled near the sources of the Mississippi. 6th 
Their earliest tradition is of their wars with the Otagamies, whose 
country they in part possessed themselves of, and retain to this day. 
7th They came from Southward, progressed to the country they now 
occupy. 8th This question is answered in reply to Quest. 6 & 7. 61 

ALGIC LANGUAGE 

There is, among the generic native languages in this part of America, 
one, for which its peculiar idiom provides the above epithet, although 
the more popular and limited one, of Algonquin is generally prefixed 
to it. This language appears to be the parent of most of the Indian 

31 



The Literary Voyager 

dialects east of the Mississippi, obscured as these dialects are, by 
various appellations, and corrupted by tribal peculiarities of sound 
and sense. It abounds with open vowel sounds; is very copious; and 
has a measured nervous flow, something inclining to pompous, but 
rather pleasing and agreeable from the frequent recurrence of liquids 
and vowels. In its grammatical forms it ranks with the class of 
languages, which writers on universal grammar have denominated 
transpositive, from the frequency of its transformations, and the 
variety of its inflections. Its substantives and verbs are wonderfully 
rich in these transpositive forms, and embrace, in the course of their 
grammatical evolutions, & inserted syllables, the powers and proper- 
ties of all the other parts of speech, which, like the filling upon a 
loom, serve to make up the complex texture of their synthetical forms. 
Nevertheless it possesses adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, prepositions, 
articles, and conjunctions, which are not only used (to preserve our 
figure) as filling to the verbs and substantives, but are also employed 
in their disjunctive and elementary forms. 

Considered in all its accidents, and reciprocal changes, and they 
are certainly very numerous, it is a language which would not seem to 
have been involved or invented by any of the numerous nations by 
which it is now spoken. Neither the state of society in which they 
live, or have ever lived, so far as history extends, nor their physical 
wants or moral habits, seem to demand a language so varied in its 
pronominal range & combinations, and so complex in its syntax. The 
greatest defect which it discloses, is the want of gender to its pro- 
nouns, which are merely animate, and inanimates. He, & she, are the 
same. I, and you, are visiological. Standing like an unfinished edifice 
amidst barbaric wastes, there appears sufficient before the eye, to 
show that it is abnormal and has never been reformed, & reduced to 
regular rules of science but it wants the polish, proportions & chisel- 
ling. That the language is susceptible of this polish, and capable of 
bold and energetic combinations, through which philosophy might 
pour the richness of thought, and genius breathe the enchantments of 
poesy and eloquence, is the opinion of some, who have directed their 
study, to the unravelling of its grammatical involutions, and the 
comprehension of its recondite principles. 

There are orientalisms probably Asiatic-isms. It seems literally 
buried under the grammatical rubbish of accumulativeness. Where 



No. B. December 18%6 

such a people should have received such a language, is the most in- 
explicable consideration which the subject presents. Can it be traced 
among the fixed, or erratic hordes of northern Asia? It is useless to 
look to the harsh consonantal dialects of Greenland, or to the gutteral 
and impoverished tongue of the frigid Esquimaux, in which love has 
no range for the expression of its emotions, or hatred for the modified 
utterance of its dislike. 

Hermes 

To THE BRAVE, 
WHO FELL IN THE WAR OF 1812 

On Niagara's banks, they sleep, 
And in Erie's stormy deep; 
Where the rapid Wabash glides, 
On Ontario's warlike sides; 
By the deep where Lawrence fell, 
Or in lone Moravian dell; 
On the field where Pike was slain, 
At Sandusky at Champlain; 
There the bones of heroes rest, 
Honored, loved, lamented, blest. 

Lake Dunmore 1815.* 2 

CONUNDRUMS 

What letters of the alphabet, form the name of a river in South 
Carolina? Ans. P.D. Peedee. 

What generals of Greece & the American Revolutionary army, by 
a union of these names, constitute the name of an Indian tribe? 
Ans. Leonidas. Oneida. 

When did a wagon crush the western Indians? Ans. When Gen. 
Wayne drove over them at Maumee. 

THE BIRCHEN CANOE 

In the region of lakes where the blue waters sleep 

My beautiful fabric was built; 
Light cedars supported its weight on the deep, 

And its sides with the sunbeams are gilt. 

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The bright leafy bark of the betula 63 tree, 

A flexible sheathing provides; 
And the fir's thready roots drew the parts to agree, 

And bound down its high swelling sides. 

No compass or gavel was used in the bark, 

No art but the simplest degree ; 
But the structure was finished and trim to remark, 

And as light as a sylph's could be. 

Its rim was with tender young roots woven round, 

Like a pattern of wicker-work rare; 
And it pressed on the waves with as lightsome a bound, 

As a basket suspended in air. 

The heavens in their brightness and glory below, 
Were reflected quite plain to the view; 

And it moved like a swan with as graceful a show, 
My beautiful birchen canoe. 

The trees on the shore as I glided along, 

Seemed rushing a contrary way; 
And my voyagers lightened their toil with a song, 

That caused every heart to be gay. 

And still as I floated by rock and by shell 

My bark raised a murmur aloud; 
And it danced on the waves as they rose and they fell, 

Like a fay on a bright summer cloud. 

I thought as I pass'd o'er the liquid expanse, 

With the landscape in smiling array; 
How blest I should be, if my life should advance, 

Thus tranquil and sweetly away. 

The skies were serene, not a cloud was in sight, 

Not an angry surge beat on the shore, 
And I gazed on the waters and then on the light, 

Till my vision could bear it no more. 



No. 2. December 

Oh! long shall I think of those silver bright lakes, 
And the scenes they exposed to my view; 

My friends and the wishes I formed for their sakes 

And my bright yellow birchen canoe. 
Novr, 12th 1825 



The Literary Voyager 



No. 3. Sault Ste. Marie January 18%7 



THE MEDA SOCIETY 

The association of men in the Chippewa nation, calling themselves 
Medas, has enlisted my inquiry, and the result has led to some de- 
velopments, which it is the object of this communication to mention. 
My attention was first especially called to this class of men, by seeing, 
in the hands of one of them, a thin quadrangular tubular piece of 
wood, covered with hieroglyphics, cut in the surface, and painted in 
strong colors of red, black, green and other colors. Finding that there 
were notations of songs, sung in this society, I requested the pos- 
sesser to explain the device to me; but this, he intimated he could 
not do, to any other than a member of the Meda society. I then pro- 
posed myself as a member of that society agreed to observe all its 
requisites, having in my service a good interpreter of the language, 
requested that he might be permitted to attend, to explain the cere- 
monies. I at the same time, offered my office to be used, on the con- 
templated evening, for the initiation. 

The evening having arrived, and the Indian Medas, being as- 
sembled, with their musicians, and sacred pouches under their arms, 
the door was carefully locked, and the window curtains closely put 
down. The master of ceremonies, Shingwauk, came forward and 
seated himself near me, laying his inscribed music-board, on my table, 
and commenced his songs, agreeably to the order of the notation, 
figure by figure. As these songs proceeded, he went through with the 
necromantic tricks, alluded to, by the words of the song. Thus small 
shells &c. were swallowed and re-gorged &c. and various transforma- 
tions of legerdemain attempted. This series of operations, was some- 
times adroitly performed, but generally, it required no little amount 
of endurance and patience to sit through the initiation honors. I was 
minute, however, in noting down the original words and translations 
of each song, with its pictographic signs. There was a flow in the 
song, which sometimes, reminded me of the poetic-prose of Gessner; 04 
but however this was varied, the choruses, appeared to be permanent 

36 



No. 3. January 18%7 

and regular, and the recurrence of certain syllables, supposed to have 
a sacred or hieratic meaning, was very remarkable. The first address 
to a spiritual being was made to the Deity or Great Spirit; all the 
others, to supposed spiritual mirage existences hovering around. It is 
purposed, in some future number to give you a detailed description of 
these nocturnal ceremonies. 

Abieca. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE ROBIN 
AN ORAL ALLEGORY 65 

Spiritual gifts, are sought by the Chippewas through fasting. An old 
man had an only son, a fine promising lad, who had come to that age 
which is thought by the Chippewas to be most proper to make the 
long and final fast, that is to secure through life a guardian spirit, on 
whom future prosperity or adversity is to depend, and who forms and 
establishes the character of the faster to great or ignoble deeds. 

This old man was ambitious that his son should surpass all others 
in whatever was deemed most wise and great amongst his tribe. And 
to fulfil his wishes, he thought it necessary that his son must fast a 
much longer time than any of those persons known for their great 
power or wisdom, whose fame he envied. 

He therefore directed his son to prepare with great ceremony, for 
the important event. After he had been in the sweating lodge and bath 
several times, he ordered him to lie down upon a clean mat, in the 
little lodge expressly prepared for him, telling him, at the same time 
to bear himself like a man, and that at the expiration of twelve 
days, he should receive food, and the blessing of his father. 

The lad carefully observed this injunction, laying with his face 
covered with perfect composure, awaiting those happy visitations 
which were to seal his good or ill fortune. His father visited him 
every morning regularly to encourage him to perseverance, expatiat- 
ing at full length on the renown and honor that would attend him 
through life, if he accomplished the full term prescribed. To these ad- 
monitions the boy never answered, but lay without the least sign of 
unwillingness till the ninth day, when he addressed his father "My 
father, my dreams are ominous of evil! May I break my fast now, 
and at a more propitious time, make a new fast?" The father an- 
swered "My son, you know not what you ask! If you get up now, 



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all your glory will depart. Wait patiently a little longer. You have 
but three days yet to accomplish what I desire. You know, it is for 
your own good." 

The son assented, and covering himself closer, he lay till the 
eleventh day, when he repeated his request to his father. The same 
answer was given him, by the old man, adding, that the next day he 
would himself prepare his first meal, and bring it to him. The boy 
remained silent, but lay like a skeleton. No one would have known 
he was living but by the gentle heaving of his breast. 

The next morning the father, elated at having gained his end, pre- 
pared a repast for his son, and hastened to set it before him. On 
coming to the door, he was surprized to hear his son talking to him- 
self. He stooped to listen, and looking through a small aperture, was 
more astonished when he beheld his son painted with vermillion on 
his breast, and in the act of finishing his work by laying on the paint 
as far as his hand could reach on his shoulders, saying at the same 
time: "My father has ruined me, as a man; he would not listen to 
my request; he will now be the loser. I shall be forever happy in my 
new state, for I have been obedient to my parent; he alone will be 
the sufferer; for the Spirit is a just one, though not propitious to me. 
He has shown me pity, and now I must go." 

At that moment the old man broke in, exclaiming, "My son! my 
son! do not leave me!" But his son with the quickness of a bird had 
flown up to the top of the lodge, and perched on the highest pole, a 
beautiful robin red-breast. He looked down on his father with pity 
beaming in his eyes, and told him, that he should always love to be 
near men's dwellings, that he should always be seen happy and con- 
tented by the constant cheerfulness and pleasure he would display, 
that he would still cheer his father by his songs, which would be 
some consolation to him for the loss of the glory he had expected; 
and that, although no longer a man, he should ever be the harbinger 
of peace and joy to the human race. 

Leelinau 

In the foregoing story, we recognize the pen of a female cor- 
respondent, to whom we have before been indebted. A descendant 
herself, by European parentage, and of the race whose manners and 
customs, she depicts, in these legends, they derive additional interest 
from her familiar knowledge of the Indian legendary mind, and the 



No. 3. January 

position she occupies between the European and aboriginal races. The 
tale, she observes illustrates the Indian custom of fasting to procure 
a personal spirit. The moral to be drawn from it ; is perhaps the 
danger of ambition. We should not seek for unreasonable honors, nor 
take unusual means to attain them. 

The spirit fasted for, by the young man, proving averse to him, he 
requests his father to exempt him from further fasting; and on being 
denied, gives a proof of filial obedience, by persevering in abstinence. 
In reward for this, the spirit, though unfavorable, partly relents, and 
instead of compelling the son to pass a miserable life in the human 
form, changes him to a bird, who will take a peculiar delight in 
lingering around the habitations of men. 

WAUB OJEEG 

OR 

THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI AND CHIPPEWA HISTORY 

No. 2 

A short time before the breaking out of the Outagami war, and 
while the Sioux and Chippewas were on friendly terms, a Chippewa 
girl was demanded in marriage by a Sioux chief of some distinction 
in his nation, and she accordingly, became his wife, and bore two 
sons the eldest of whom became the father of the celebrated 
Sioux chief, Wabasha. These bays were in their infancy, when 
hostilities began. These Outagamis and Sioux who had intermarried 
with Chippewas and lived with them, precipitately retired to their 
respective countries. Some of the Chippewa women went with their 
husbands, others remained. 

Among the latter, was the wife of the Sioux chief; and the chief 
himself remained, for a short time; but animosity displaying itself in 
more daring acts every day, it was deemed best that a separation 
should take place. 

In this step the parents of the wife concurred, and even urged the 
execution of it. As they did not think their child safe in the country 
of the Sioux, neither did they think their son-in-law safe in their 
own; for if once he should incur the ill-will of the Chippewas, no 
authority could restrain them from murdering him. The two little 
boys were thought equally unsafe in the mother's hands, as the blood 
of the Sioux flowed in their veins. It was therefore determined they 



The Literary Voyager 

should accompany the father. The relatives conducted them on their 
way till they were out of danger. 

The young woman remained a long time inconsolable for the loss 
of her husband and children; and it was not till the lapse of several 
years, that she consented to become the wife of a Chippewa of 
Shogwaimican [Chequamegon], of the Totem of the Reindeer, being 
of the family who had borne sway at that place from the earliest 
times. 

Her first child by this second marriage was Ma Mongazida, other- 
wise called Mashickeeoshe, who became a man of considerable note, 
and was the principal chief in authority at that place, when the 
Canadas fell into the possession of the English an event that was 
distinctly remembered, from the part which the Indians of that 
quarter took in the wars which led to it. 

'Mongazida was therefore a half-brother of the elder Sioux chief, 
the father of Wabasha; and in this manner the family became related 
to the Sioux; but 'Mongazida was not himself a Sioux, as has been 
erroneously asserted. 

'Mongazida was strongly attached to the French, who were the 
first Europeans that ventured with goods into lake Superior. As a 
proof of this attachment, and at the same time, of the influence which 
they had acquired over the minds of the Indians, it deserves to be 
mentioned that he took a decided part in the warfare which was 
carried on against the English colonies, and was at Quebec with a 
party of warriors, when that place surrendered to the army under 
Gen. Wolfe. (Oct. 18, 1759) 

He carried a short speech from Montcalm to his band, said to have 
been dictated by that general after receiving his mortal wound. At 
Quebec he first shook hands with the English, and he afterwards 
visited Sir William Johnson at Niagara, by whom he was well re- 
ceived and presented with a yellow gorget, and a broad belt of blue 
wampum with white figures. 

The occasion of this visit formed an era in the affairs of LaPointe, 
which its inhabitants had cause to remember. For two years after the 
taking of old Mackinac by the Indians, no traders had visited that 
place. The convenience of this traffic was, even at that day, too highly 
estimated, not to make the Indians severely feel and regret the tempo- 
rary loss of it. And it was to solicit that the English would send them 

40 



No. 3. January 

traders, as the French had done, that 'Mongazida visited the Super- 
intendent General of Indian Affairs. 

The belt and gorget were a long time preserved in the family. 
Waub Ojeeg took from the former, the wampum he employed to 
muster his war parties, till only a narrow strip remained. On his 
death, this strip and the gorget went to his younger brother Camudwa, 
who being overtaken by famine near the mouth of the Broule river, 
was, with all his family, except a little girl, starved to death. With 
him these testimonies were lost. 

Waub Ojeeg was the second son of 'Mongazida. An incident which 
occurred in his childhood is related as presaging his future eminence 
as a warrior. 'Mongazida generally went to make his fall hunts on the 
middle grounds towards the Sioux territory, taking with him all his 
near relatives, amounting usually to 20 persons, exclusive of children. 
Early one morning, while the young men were preparing for the chase, 
they were startled by the report of several shots, directed towards the 
lodge. As they had thought themselves in security, the first emotion 
was that of surprize, but they had scarcely time to fly to their arms 
when another volley was fired. This second volley wounded one man 
in the thigh, and killed a dog. 'Mongazida immediately sallied out, 
with his young men, and pronounced his name aloud in Sioux. He de- 
manded, if Wabasha or his brother were among the assailants. The 
firing instantly ceased a pause ensued, when a tall figure in a war 
dress, with a profusion of feathers on his head, stepped forward and 
presented his hand. It was his half-brother. The Sioux peaceably 
followed their leader into the lodge, upon which they had the moment 
before directed their shots. At the moment the Sioux chief entered, 
where, it was necessary to stoop a little, he received a blow from a 
club wielded by a small boy who had placed himself near the door 
for that purpose. It was the young Waub Ojeeg. Wabasha, pleased 
with this early indication of courage, took the little lad in his arms, 
caressed him, and pronounced that he would become a brave man, 
and prove an inveterate enemy of the Sioux. These words were re- 
garded as prophetic. 

The border warfare in which his father was constantly engaged, 
early initiated him in the arts and preparatory ceremonies, which 
pertain to the character of the warrior. While quite a youth he joined 
these war parties, and gave convincing proofs of his courage. Possess- 

41 



The Literary Voyager 

ing a tall and commanding person, and evincing sense, shrewdness, 
and a dauntless behavior, he soon became a leader, and by his suc- 
cess fixed the eyes of the Chippewa bands upon himself, as the person 
destined to protect their frontiers against the inroads of a powerful 
enemy. He was seven times a leader against the Outagamis [sic] 
and Sioux. The eighth war party he mustered, went no farther than 
the environs of Ottowa lake, where he was met by a deputation of old 
men from that village, who advised him to return, saying, they wished 
repose. With this request he complied. 66 

SOME SINGULAR CUSTOMS OF THE CHIPPEWAS 

The manners and customs of this people, have been a constant theme 
of observation, since our landing here [Sault Ste. Marie], with a 
military detachment, on the 6th of July 3 22. Having paid a good deal 
of my attention to this subject, a few of these traits may be 
mentioned. 67 

There seems to be little in the animate creation, which they will 
not eat, when impelled by hunger. While the cantonement was being 
erected, a horse of the quarter master was wounded, and died, and 
was immediately interred. Burial of meats in light arenacious soil, 
appears for a brief space, rather to retain the freshness, than to 
accelerate its decay. However this may be, the Indians dug it up, 
and used it as food. 

One of the early labors of the military was to erect a road sixty 
feet wide from the fort to the noted eminence in the rear called 
Wudjoowung, or Hill place by the Indians. In the progress of this 
work, they cut down, or destroyed the locality, of a large species of 
the sorbus Americana, or mountain ash. This tree is invested by the 
Indians, with magical virtues. It is one of the species, from which 
their priests make their oracular lodges. 

The tree which occupied this spot, had become hollow, which gave 
it further claims on their superstitions, for when the winds blew, they 
fancied sounds to issue from it. When the trunk fell, by its natural 
decay, they threw a branch on the site, in passing, and this pile had 
much increased, at the period noted. Its destruction by the road mak- 
ing party, was the innocent cause of interference with one of their 
superstitions. 

When sickness visits a lodge, a sacrifice is hung up, on the top of 
a long pole, in front of it. This sacrifice is, commonly a white dog, 

4S 



No. S. January 18%7 

with bits of ribbon or scarlet above it. The soldiers having occasion 
for tent poles, a few days after their arrival, took one of these lodge 
sacrificial or Manito poles. It was soon observed by the Indians and 
reclaimed. 

The superstitions of this tribe respecting mines are remarkable. It 
is deemed offensive to the spirits whom they worship to disclose the 
sites of mines to white men. Whether they have ever encountered un- 
favorable results from such disclosures to foreigners in former ages,, 
or not, is not known. Individuals have brought to me specimens of the 
sulphuret and carbonate of copper, and small pieces of native copper, 
but have been very careful to conceal the particular localities. 

Tacitus 68 

THE WHITE Fisn 69 

Of ven'son let Goldsmith so wittingly sing, 
A very fine haunch is a very fine thing 
And Burns in his tuneful and exquisite way 
The charms of a smoking Scots haggis display 
But 'tis often much harder to eat than discard 
And a poet may praise what a poet may want, 
Less doubt there shall be 'twixt my muse and my dish, 
Whilst her power I invoke, in the praise of white fish. 
All friends to good living by turene or dish, 
Concur in extolling this prince of a fish 
So fine on a platter, so tempting a fry 
So rich in agrille, and so sweet in a pie 
That even before it, the red trout must fail 
And that mighty bonne-bouche of the land, beavers tail. 

This fish is a subject, so dainty and white, 

To show in a lecture, to eat or to write 

That equal's my joy, I declare on my life 

To raise up my voice, or to raise up my knife 

J Tis a morsel alike for the gourmand or faster 

White-white as a tablet of pure alabaster 

Its beauty and flavor no person can doubt, 

If seen in the water, or tasted without 

And all the dispute that opinion e'er makes, 

Of this King of lake fishes this deer of the lakes, 70 



The Literary Voyager 

Regards not its choiceness, to ponder or sup 
But the best mode of dressing and serving it up. 

Now this is a point, where good livers may differ, 
As tastes become fixed, or opinions are stiffer, 
Some men prefer roasted some doat on a fry 
Or extol the sweet savor of poisson blanc pie; 
The nice petit pate, this palate excites 
While that, on a boiled dish & bouillon delights 
Some smoked & some salted, some fresh & some dried, 
Prefer to all fish in our waters beside 
And 'tis thought the main question if epicures look 
Respects not the method so much as the cook 
For, like some moral dishes that furnish a zest 
Whatever is best served up, is still thought the best. 

There are, in gastronomy, sages who think, 
'Tis not only the prime of good victuals, but drink 
That all sauces spoil it, the richer the quicker 
And make it insipid except its own liquor 
These move in a wild epigastric mirage 
Preferring the dish a la mode de sauvage 
By which it quells hunger & thirstiness both, 
First eating the fish, & then drinking the broth 
We leave this unsettled for palates or pens, 
Who glean out of hundreds their critical tens 
While drawn to the board where full many a dish, 
Is slighted to taste this American fish. 

The planter, who whirls through the region by stream, 
The Creole who sings as he lashes his team 
The merchant, the lawyer, the cit & the beau 
The proud & gustative, the poor and the low, 
The gay habitant the inquisitive tourist, 
The chemic physician, the dinner-crast jurist 
And even the ladies, the pride of the grove 
Unite to extol it, and eat to approve 
Full oft the sweet morsel, while poised on the knife, 



No. 3. January 1827 

Excites a bland smile in the blooming young wife 
Nor deems she a sea fish, one moment compares, 
But is thinking the while, not of fish, but of heirs. 



To these, it is often a casual sweet 
To dine by appointment, or taste as a treat 
Not so, or in mental or physical joy 
Comes the sight of this fish to the courier de bois 
That wild troubadour & his joy-loving crew 
Who sings as he paddles his birchen canoe 
And thinks all the hardships that fall to his lot, 
Are richly made up at the platter and pot 
To him there's a charm neither feeble nor vague 
In the mighty repast of the grand Ticamey 
And oft, as he starves amid Canada snows, 
On dry leather lichens & bouton de rose 
He cheers up his spirits to think he shall still 
Of poisson blanc bouillon once more have his fill 
"Oh choice of all fishes," he sings as he goes 
"Thou art sweeter to me than the Normandy rose 
"And the ven'son that's stolen from the parks of the king, 
"Is never by half, as delicious a thing. 71 

The muse might appeal to the science of books 
To picture its ichthyological looks 
Show what is its family likeness or odds, 
Compared to its cousins the salmons and cods 
Tell where it approximates, point where it fails 
By counting its fins, or dissecting its scales 
Or prove by plain reasons, such proofs can be had, 
Tis not toothless salmon but rather lake shad 
Here too, might a fancy to descant inclined 
Contemplate the lore that pertains to its kind 
And bring up tradition, in fanciful strains 
To prove its creation from feminine brains. 
Here point out its habits, migrations & changes, 
The mode of its capture, its cycles and ranges 



The Literary Voyager 

But let me forbear 'tis the fault of a song 
A tale or a book if too learned or long. 

Thus ends my discussion. More would you, I pray, 
Ask Mitchell, or Harlan, Lesieur or De Hay. 



July 21, 1824 



THE INDIAN LANGUAGES 



Contrary to assertions of our earlier inquirers, into the principles of 
the Indian languages, their vocabularies appear to be based on mono- 
syllabic roots. This is, at least, the case, with the Chippewa language, 
in which we see the primary syllables of both nouns and verbs, con- 
stituting a nucleus on which the pronominal adjuncts, are, as it were, 
deposited. Thus the particle ow, in this tongue means, a human body. 
Aub, the eye, nik the arm &c. &c The pronominal accidents are de- 
noted by inseparable prefixes of fragments of the pronouns. Thus the 
vocabulary immediately becomes acretive. The operation of this rule 
is shown by the following list of forms. 



Radix 



My 



Thy 



His or her ob. inf. 



plu 



plu 



Ow 


Body 


Neow 


Keow 


Ow 


Aub 


Eye 


Neaub 


Keaub 


Aub 


Tshaus 


Nose 


Netshaus 


Ketshaus 


Otshaus- un 


Don 


Mouth 


Nedoan 


Kedoan 


Odoan- un 


Beed 


Tooth 


Nebeed 


Kebeed 


Obeed- un 


Nik 


Arm 


Nenik 


Kenik 


Onik- un 


Nindj 


( Finger 


Nenindj 


Kenindj 


Onindj- un 


Kaud 


|[Hand] 
Leg 


Nekaut 


Kecaut 


Okaud 


Zid 


Foot 


Nezid 


Kezid 


Ozid 


Kun 


Bone 


Nekun 


Kekun 


Okun 


Pun 


Lights 


Nepun 


Kepun 


Opun 


Koon 


Liver 


Nekoon 


Kekoon 


Okoon 


Dai 


Heart 


Nindai 


Kedai 


Odai 


Dis 


Navel 


Nedis 


Kedis 


Odis 


Kut 


Forehead 


Nekut-ig 


Kekut-ig 


Okut-ig 



No. 3. January 

Here the root, in each case, is a monosyllable, and the first, second 
and third persons singular, a dyssyllable. When the object is plural, 
the word becomes trysyllable. 

Abieca 

AN ETYMOLOGICAL LUCUBRATION 

The subject of Indian etymologies, has occupied some of the brightest 
minds in the land. I cannot aspire to be very bright, but at the same 
time, think it may not be uninteresting to advance something on the 
subject. Writers and travellers have puzzled their ingenuity to learn 
the true meaning of this word. Some write it, with an 0, as if it were 
a tribe of O'Neil's, or O'Donnels. Some put the letter y, to the final a, 
while all the modern writers insist that the true orthography is Ojib- 
way. This may be food for the learned, who are often wrong, and dine 
their fancies on very slender food. To me, it is a gratification to find, 
that this tribe has not felt above drawing some of its names from our 
own noble English language. Thus it is easy enough to perceive that 
the first syllable Chip, is a plain derivative from our vocabulary, as if 
they had been thought as light as chips. By adding the term away to 
this, this idea is still further strenthened as if their lives, were at all 
times to be thrown away like chips. The moralist & etymologist must 
coincide in this conclusion at any rate, I am truly yours 
William Word Catcher. 72 



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No. 4. Sauit Ste. Marie January lth 1827 



FALSE ALARM 

Our village was yesterday (llth.) thrown into commotion by the 
thrilling cry of the "Express"! The mistake, however, was soon cor- 
rected, with no other injury, that we can learn, but a twing of severe 
mental disappointment to the lovers of newspapers, and the expec- 
tants of letters. But e'n a false alarm, some good ordains. It stirs the 
stagnant hope within our veins. Order was soon restored, the sick who 
had hobbled to their windows to feast their eyes on the mail bag, 
quietly returned to their chairs, the pedestrians soon recovered from 
the slight fatigue of a walk to meet the fancied expressman; and 
those whom such experience in matters of this sort had tempered in 
some degree, to the privations of the post, made strong exertions to 
regain that state of intellectual quiescence, which is recommended as 
the best antidote to the pains of expectancy. It is feared, however, 
that the shock has been too violent, to permit a perfect recomposure 
under several days. 73 

NATIVE COMITY 

Sir, 

I am an Indian, and although I do not pretend to the knowledge of 
politeness, I mean that sort which regards domestic manners, yet I 
believe there is a native politeness existing, in some measure, in every 
human breast; and that an Indian feels it, and exercises it, as well as 
the most refined and civilized amongst the whites. For instance, 
amongst my people, no one would ever think of snatching anything 
out of another's hand, unless he were angry. But we take care, at 
social meetings and feasts, &c. never to appear angry, even if we do 
feel so. 

I believe, as far as my knowledge of your customs go, you likewise 
consider such conduct vulgarity and rudeness. Now sir, I beg you will 
give me your opinion, and tell me if I am right or wrong, & by so 
doing you will greatly oblige 

R. A Native 74 

48 



No. 4. January 12tti 

THE CHOICE 75 
ADDRESSED TO Miss J. J. 

A sweet retiring simple, modest mein 
Not shunning & not seeking to be seen 
A taste in dress & each domestic care 
Neat but not gaudy, pleasing without glare 

Such have I often wished "heavens last best gift," should be, 

Such have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee. 

An even temper, mild, endearing kind, 
A sound discreet and regulated mind 
Improved by reading, by reflection formed 
By reason guided, by religion warmed 

This have I often prayed "heavens last best gift" to be 

This have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee. 

Benevolent to all, to soothe or cure 
But a firm friend to all the neighboring poor 
The poor in worldly goods, or bon ton merit 
The sunk in sickness & the bow'd in spirit 

This have I often hoped "heavens last best gift" to be 

This have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee. 

Possessing spirit, yet a gentle creature, 
Lover of quiet & the charms of nature 
With no vain rage to simper, glare or roam 
Pleas 'd if abroad, but mostly pleased at home, 
This have I fondly hoped "heavens last best gift" to be 
This have I oft, admired, sweet maid, in thee. 

In person comely, rather than renowned, 
In books conversant, rather than profound, 
With too much sense to slight domestic duty 
Or sigh to shine a wit, or flaunt a beauty 
This have I fondly wished, "heavens last best gift" to be 
Such have I seen thee oft, &, often hope to see, 

49 



The Literary Voyager 

In virtue principled, in love sincere, 

In manners guarded, in expression clear 

Blind to all others in a just degree 

But fixed, devoted, loving only me 
This have I ever hoped "heavens last best gift" would be 
This have I sought, and heaven blest found in thee. 

Thee, in whose gentle manners, polished mind, 

Grace, sweetness, taste, benevolence are joined 

Sense to engage, a naivette to admire 

Candor to please, & love itself to fire 
Thee, have I fondly hoped, "heavens last best gift" to me 
And all my hopes of bliss are hopes of thee. 

(1823) 

ACROSTIC ON 

Cunning, active, full of bravery, 
Hating av'rice, toil, and slavery, 
Iron-hearted in their daring, 
Prizing valor, and way-faring, 
Prone to give, in cot or waste, 
Ever happy at the feast, 
Who shall say, they lack the merit, 
All may seek but few inherit. 

WAUB OJEEG 

AND 

THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI 

AND CHIPPEWA WAR 

No. 3 

He had received three wounds in battle. One, in his thigh, another in 
his right shoulder, and a third in his side and breast, being a glancing 
shot. His war parties consisted of volunteers, raised in the different 
villages on the shores of the lake, to each of which he sent tobacco 
and wampum. His first war party consisted of 40 men, and his largest 
mustered three hundred. 
This war party was made up of warriors from Shogwoimican, Fond 

50 



No. 4. January 12th 1827 

du Lac, Ontonagan, Keweena bay, Grand Island, and Sault Ste. Marie. 
They assembled at LaPointe, and danced the war dance on the shores 
of the lake between LaPointe and Bad river. They went up Bad river, 
and crossed a portage to a tributary of the St. Croix, called Nama- 
cagon. From the time they struck this river until they discovered the 
enemy, they passed six nights. 

They went but a short distance each day, moving with great 
caution, and had always scouts ahead. On the evening of the seventh 
day the scouts discovered a large body of Outagamis and Sioux. 
They were encamped at the lower end of a portage around a fall, or 
rapid. The four Chippewa scouts who had made this discovery, did not 
however get off undiscovered themselves. The Foxes being on the 
alert, fired on them. A skirmish ensued. The White Fisher arrived 
with his whole force in season, and a bloody battle was fought, in 
which the allied Foxes and Sioux were defeated with the loss of 
nearly every man. They fought however with bravery against superior 
numbers; but the Chippewas had extended themselves in a circle 
across the small peninsula of the portage, and escape was next to 
impossible. 76 

This great battle decided the long struggle between the Chippewas 
and Outagamis; and the latter have never ventured to renew the 
contest. It also had the effect to raise the fame of Waub Ojeeg, to its 
climax, and he was from this time regarded as the head of the nation. 
His war songs were repeated in every village, and some of them are 
yet remembered. The lofty sentiments and the unconquerable spirit 
which they breathed, have seldom been surpassed. The following 
beautiful versification of one of these songs, from the pen of Mr. 
[John] Johnston, preserves the prominent ideas operating upon the 
mind of the warrior under circumstances of a temporary discomfiture. 

WAR SONG" 
I. 

On that day when our heroes lay low lay low, 

On that day when our heroes lay low; 
I fought by their side, and thought ere I died, 
Just vengeance to take on the foe the foe, 

Just vengeance to take on the foe. 

51 



The Literary Voyager 

II. 

On that day when our Chieftains lay dead lay dead, 

On that day when our chieftains lay dead, 
I fought hand to hand, at the head of my band, 
And here on my breast have I bled have I bled, 

And here on my breast have I bled. 

III. 

Our chiefs shall return no more no more, 

Our chiefs shall return no more, 
Nor their brothers of war, who can show scar for scar, 
Like women their fates shall deplore deplore, 

Like women their fates shall deplore. 

IV. 

Five winters in hunting we'll spend we'll spend, 

Five winters in hunting we'll spend, 
Till our youth grown to men, we'll to war lead again, 
And our days like our fathers we'll end we'll end, 

And our days like our fathers we'll end. 

The carrying on of the Sioux war, did not withdraw the attention 
of the White Fisher, from the chase. His war excursions were gen- 
erally made in the leisure of spring and summer. His followers were 
hastily assembled, and the whole expedition was generally terminated 
in a few weeks. 

Large bodies of Indians can seldom be kept long together. Were it 
possible for the Indians to submit to the necessary restraints for a 
great length of time, the difficulty of subsistence must always have 
opposed the most serious obstacle to long campaigns. In fact, they 
generally lived upon very little, submitted to fatigues and privations 
of every kind without a murmur, and when success had crowned their 
efforts, they eagerly sought refreshment and repose in the security of 
their villages. Then, as now, the whole efficacy of a war party, con- 
sisted as much in the expedition with which it could be mustered, 
marched and dispersed, as in the valor they displayed before the 
enemy. 

After the leaves have begun to fall, and during the whole winter 



No. 4. January lth 1887 

and early part of spring, seasons the most valuable for hunting, no 
war party was ever conducted. The severity of the climate, and the 
facility with which scouting parties may track each other on the 
snow, forbid all attempts of the kind. And hence it is, that the care 
and business of war, scarcely, ever interrupted the pursuits of the 
chase. Waub Ojeeg was, in fact as much noted for his skill as a 
hunter, as for his prowess and daring as a warrior. 

His hunting grounds extended along the shores of lake Superior, 
from the Montreal river to the Broule of Fond du Lac a district 
abounding in moose, bear, beaver, marten and muskrat. Besides these, 
the mink, lynx, and smaller furs were also taken, and the woodlands 
stretching east of the Mississippi plains afforded the Virginia deer, 
during certain seasons. A more favorable position for the employment 
of hunting could hardly have been selected; and nothing equal to it, 
existed along the entire borders of the lake. In addition to this, the 
climate was favorable, that curve of the lake including Fond du Lac 
extending farthest south and west, and approaching nearest to the 
skirts of the Mississippi valley. The LaPointe Indians were able to 
raise corn, beans and pumpkins, articles which were annually culti- 
vated in their gardens. The waters of that part of the lake also pro- 
duced fish of various kinds, particularly white fish, trout and sturgeon. 

Superadded to these advantages, the entrance of three principal 
rivers into the lake near that point, together with numerous smaller 
ones, presented so many avenues, which like radii, penetrated the 
interior, and opened channels of approach, enjoyed by no other spot 
on the southern coast of the lake. That the original settlement of the 
Chippewas at that place, had been determined by observing these 
advantages can not be doubted, and it may be regarded as the prin- 
cipal cause of its soon becoming one of the most flourishing and 
populous parts of the Chippewa territories. For we find, that so late 
as 1790, this was the great mart of the Indian trade on the southern 
shores of lake Superior, where the Mackinac traders annually resorted 
to exchange their goods for the valuable furs of those shores. 

A consideration of the causes which have led to the dispersion of the 
LaPointe Indians into the department of lac de Flambeau, Folle 
Avoine & c . and the consequent decline of the parent settlement, would 
carry us into portions of history connected with the lives of cotempo- 
rary chiefs, and lead to the development of principles which have 
operated in all parts of the Indian country. 

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The Literary Voyager 

The amount of furs and skins usually taken by Waub Ojeeg during 
the year, fell little short of four Indian packs, averaging probably, 
sixty pounds each. Of this quantity, about one pack and a half con- 
sisted of beaver, one of bear, the remainder otter, marten, muskrat, 
and other small furs; worth, estimating within bounds, $360. With 
this sum he amply clothed himself and family, purchased arms, 
ammunition, traps, axes and knives, and had usually a sum left, which 
he appropriated to silver ornaments, vermillion and other extra, and 
ornamental articles. 

As a hunter he was expert, and diligent, guarding with jealousy his 
rights to hunt in certain parts of the country, and esteeming the 
intrusion of others a trespass which he on one occasion in particular, 
punished in an exemplary manner. In his sales he evinced method and 
prudence. 

He had attained nearly the heighth of his reputation before he 
married, which was not till he had reached nearly the age of thirty; 
and he then married a widow, with whom, however, he lived but two 
years, and had a son. He then married a girl of fourteen of the Totem 
of the Bear, by whom he had six children. 

In his domestic habits he was affectionate and forbearing. When 
the hunting season was over, he could never bear to be idle, and 
employed those moments in adding to the comforts and conveniences 
of his lodge; thus uniting qualities of mind, which have been sup- 
posed incompatible with the hunter state. His industry proceeded 
from forecast, added to a strong sense of obligation to his family. His 
views, were enlightened, compared with the mass of Indians who 
surrounded him. He saw the true situation, not only of his relatives, 
but of the whole nation; and he resolved to use all his influence to 
rouse them to a true sense of it. With this view he admonished them 
to be active and diligent. To hunt well, and to fight well, were the 
cardinal maxims of his life, upon which he believed the happiness and 
independence of the nation to depend. 

He possessed respectable powers as an orator, and he frequently 
addressed his people during those short seasons of leisure and festivity, 
which always succeed the close of the hunting seasons. To a ready 
flow of words, he united the all-powerful persuasive of personal fame. 
He possessed a stature of 6 feet 6 inches in height, with a keen search- 
ing black eye, and a countenance and bearing commanding high 

64, 



No. 4. January 18th 1827 

respect. His movements were lofty and dignified; he swayed as much 
by his air and manner as by his words. Custom had rendered his 
decisions a law; and although all the government exercised by 
Chippewa chiefs, is that of mere opinion, he ruled his village with a 
power almost absolute. 

Such is the effect of great personal prowess, and a reputation for 
bravery and sagacity, among savage nations. The whole power and 
destiny of such nations hinges upon the private character of a few 
great men, who start up, at long intervals, rouse and direct the 
energies of their followers to a few favorite points, and when they 
have succeeded in moulding them to purposes of activity and com- 
bined action and feeling, die, and leave them to fall back into their 
former state of apathy and indolence. Where nothing is written, 
nothing is long remembered with accuracy; and hence, in a few years, 
their very history is lost, or involved in the inextricable labyrinth of 
fiction. 

Waub Ojeeg had fixed his residence permanently at LaPointe, 
upon the main. His lodge was of an oblong shape, about 60 feet long, 
formed of posts fixed in the ground, and covered with the rind of the 
betula. From the centre, rose a stout post, reaching above the roof 
some feet on the top of which was the carved figure of an owl, so 
placed as to turn with the wind, and serve the purposes of a weather- 
cock. When he went to his wintering ground, this lodge was shut up, 
and re-occupied again on his return. During the short excursions, 
made in spring and summer, the family retained possession of the 
lodge. 

In one of these excursions, he had a most singular contest with a 
moose. He went out early one morning, to make marten traps; and 
had set about forty, and was returning, when he encountered a large 
animal of this species in his path, who evinced a disposition to attack 
him. As he was armed with only a small hatchet and knife, he tried 
to avoid him. But the moose came towards him in a furious manner. 
He took shelter behind a tree, shifting his place from tree to tree, as 
the enraged animal pressed upon him. At length as he fled, he picked 
up a pole, and quickly untying his moccasin strings, tied his knife to 
the end of it. He then placed himself in a favorable position behind a 
tree, and when the moose came up, stabbed him several times in the 
throat and breast. At length the animal fell. He then cut out the 

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The Literary Voyager 

tongue as a trophy of victory, and returning to his lodge, related, to 
his family, the singular encounter he had had, and where they would 
find the animal. When they came to the spot, they found the snow 
trampled down in a wide circle, sprinkled with blood, and resembling 
a field of battle. The animal proved to be one of uncommon size. 78 
A frame slender in proportion to his extraordinary height, together 
with great exposure of his person in his numerous war excursions, 
brought on a premature decay. He lingered several years with a 
pulmonary complaint, attended with spitting of blood. He lived long 
enough to see his eldest daughter and child united to Mr. Johnston, 
and died in 1793 aged about 45 years. 

Moowis 

THE INDIAN COQUETTE 
A CHIPPEWA LEGEND 

There was a village full of Indians, and a noted belle or muh-muh 
daw go qua was living there. A noted beau or muh muh daw goj 
ninnie was there also. He and another young man went to court this 
young woman, and laid down beside her, when she scratched the face 
of the handsome beau. He went home and would not rise till the fam- 
ily prepared to depart, and he would not then arise. They then left 
him, as he felt ashamed to be seen even by his own relations. It was 
winter, and the young man, his rival, who was his cousin, tried all he 
could to persuade him to go with the family, for it was now winter, 
but to no purpose, till the whole village had decamped and had gone 
away. He then rose and gathered all the bits of clothing, and orna- 
ments of beads and other things, that had been left. He then made 
a coat and leggins of the same, nicely trimmed with the beads, and 
the suit was fine and complete. After making a pair of moccasins, 
nicely trimmed, he also made a bow and arrows. He then collected the 
dirt of the village, and filled the garments he had made, so as to ap- 
pear as a man, and put the bow and arrows in its hands, and it came 
to life. He then desired the dirt image to follow him to the camp of 
those who had left him, who thinking him dead by this time, were 
surprized to see him. One of the neighbors took in the dirt-man and 
entertained him. The belle saw them come and immediately fell in 
love with him. The family that took him in made a large fire to 

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No. 4. January 12th 1827 

warm him, as it was winter. The image said to one of the children, "sit 
between me and the fire, it is too hot," and the child did so, but all 
smelt the dirt. Some said, "some one has trod on, and brought in 
dirt." The master of the family said to the child sitting in front of 
the guest, "get away from before our guest, you keep the heat from 
him." The boy answered saying, "he told me to sit between him and 
the fire." In the meantime, the belle wished the stranger would visit 
her. The image went to his master, and they went out to different 
lodges, the image going as directed to the belle's. Towards morning, 
the image said to the young woman (as he had succeeded) "I must 
now go away," but she said, "I will go with you." He said "it is too 
far." She answered, "it is not so far but that I can go with you." He 
first went to the lodge where he was entertained, and then to his 
master, and told him of all that had happened, and that he was going 
off with her. The young man thought it a pity she had treated him 
so, and how sadly she would be punished. They went off, she follow- 
ing behind. He left her a great way behind, but she continued to 
follow him. When the sun rose high, she found one of his mittens and 
picked it up, but to her astonishment, found it full of dirt. She, how- 
ever took it and wiped it, and going on further, she found the other 
mitten in the same condition. She thought, "fie! ! why does he do so," 
thinking he dirtied in them. She kept finding different articles of his 
dress, on the way all day, in the same condition. He kept ahead of 
her till towards evening, when the snow was like water, having melted 
by the heat of the day. No signs of her husband appearing, after 
having collected all the cloths that held him together, she began to 
cry, not knowing where to go, as their track was lost, on account of 
the snow's melting. She kept crying Moowis has led me astray, and 
she kept singing and crying Moowis nin ge won e win ig, ne won e 
win ig. 

Leelinau 

Gov. CASS' REPOSE OF CHARACTER 

Physical peril does not appear to affect this gentleman. I saw him 
once exposed to imminent peril, in a canoe in the middle of lake Erie. 
I was sitting beside him. We had left the Detroit river, with a brisk 
breeze. It was on the 4th July 1821. The wind rose almost imper- 

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ceptibly, to a gale, before which we were driven some thirty miles. It 
was impossible to make the shore, from the impossibility of turning 
the vessel, without swamping it. The waves rolled behind us in 
glorious swells, whose bright and pearly crests broke behind us, and 
around us, with a murmuring noise, falling like showers of scattered 
crystals. We were literally driven on "the wings of the wind." At 
length the crowning wave of one of those long series, which had been 
chasing us, broke high above our heads and poured in torrents over 
us, and rolled down our breasts, filling the canoe. I thought all was 
over, and that we were inevitably destined for the green weeds and 
smooth pebbles at the bottom of the lake. I looked at Gen. Cass. His 
eye and countenance denoted a sense of danger, without the slightest 
disturbance. Not a word was uttered by him or me. 80 I had myself a 
trustful spirit, and saw him with quite as much. His was a repose that 
spoke volumes. The next series of waves lifted us on, on our perilous 
way, as if by giant jerks, the men busying themselves in bailing, as. 
if all they had to do, must be done quickly; and before another 
royal series of the angry element, gathered up its strength, to finish us, 
as if with the stroke of a whale in the Pacific, we passed into the 
sheltering jaws of the outer capes of Maumee bay, and were safe. 

Amicus 81 

ACROSTIC 
To His EXCELLENCY 

L.over of letters mild and able, 
E.ver zealous, prompt and stable, 
W.ithout pomp, or vain parade, 
Ln the camp, the court, the shade, 
S.tudious, cautious, penetrating, 
C.andid, courteous, wit-creating, 
A.ctive, quick, by word or brow, 
S.ure to plan, defend, avow, 
S.uch was Hampden, such art Thou. 

Clio 

WONDERS OF ANCIENT ART 

We are informed in Bailey's Dictionary, 82 that glass was first in- 
vented in Sidon. The first maker of it in Rome, was in the reign of 

58 



No. 4. January 12th 1887 

Tiberius. An artist of this time, having made vessels of such a temper, 
that being cast on the ground, they did not break, but only bruise. 
These indentations, the maker smoothed with a hammer, and 
straightened before the Emperor; but this ruler, is said to have put 
him to death, for fear of glass should detract from the use of gold or 
silver. This relation has amused, for nearly eighteen centuries. That 
some fictitious production was exhibited to Tiberius, which was 
called Vitrum or glass, is probable. That it was glass, in a proper 
sense, that is, fused silex and alkali, in a transparent form, is con- 
tradicted by all the principles of chemistry. Malleability is one of 
the characteristics of metals, and the utmost we can grant is, that 
some ancient artist had found the secret of taking away the opacity 
of metal. This can be readily done, by fusing its oxides with silex, 
but the result is, a brittle body. 

The same authority tells us, that in 1610, the Sophy emperor of 
Persia, sent the King of Spain, six glasses that were made malleable. 
In the year 1662, glass was first brought into England, by Renault, a 
foreign monk or bishop. Dr. Johnson adopts this chronology, in the 
end of his dictionary. 

A Vitreologist 83 

A DEFECT IN MAKING INDIAN TREATIES 

The cession of lands from Indians, should invariably be made by a 
map drawn by them & appended to the original treaty. Countries are 
sometimes bartered by a wave of the hand. A bad or careless inter- 
preter, who in explaining a written treaty, points his finger wrong in 
defining a boundary, leads a tribe to suppose they have not ceded, 
accessory to this wave of the hand. Millions of acres are thus, some- 
times, put in dispute. Treaties are made to explain treaties, & pur- 
chases to cover purchases. All resulting from a bad interpreter, or the 
want of a ms. or sketch map. 

GLORY 

Say, what is glory? Glory to Nimiad's eye, 
Was to up-rear a tower to the sky. 
The son of Phillip, placed it in renowns, 
Of slaughtering armies, To returning towns 
To Ceasar, twas the glitter, & the bloom, 

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That smote the giant commonwealth of Rome. 
Nor judged on one just empereal Charlemagne 
Who placed it, in a despot's power to reign. 
Was Charles' rule, a rule of softer guise? 
On Frederick's, who made red the Pougcas skies 
Nay had Napoleon, pure hopes and fears? 
In rattling kingdoms about Europe's care. 

Pagwabecaega 



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No. 5. Saiilt Ste. Marie January 



NEWS, AT HOME & ABROAD 

The express reached us on the evening of the 19th instant, bringing 
Detroit papers to Dec. 5th, New York to Novr. 17th and Washington 
to Novr. 21st. Presuming our male readers have taken care to supply 
themselves with the current news, we shall briefly enumerate the lead- 
ing topics of intelligence for the benefit of the ladies. 

The only item of much interest in the Detroit papers, is the speech 
of His Excellency Governor Cass, to the legislative council a sound, 
practical address, suited to the situation and prospects of the terri- 
tory. 84 In New York, Gov. [DeWitt] Clinton is reelected by a small 
majority; but the anti-Clintonian party has triumphed in the election 
of Gen. [Nathaniel] Pitcher as Lieutenant Governor, and in securing 
a majority in the Senate and Assembly. From Washington we learn, 
that the (then) approaching session of Congress was anticipated with 
the same intense interest, that has marked the last half dozen sessions 
of that body. 

Casting our eyes beyond the Atlantic, we see the farce of the "Holy 
Alliance," playing off very much in the old way. In this farce, certain 
monarchs have undertaken to act the part of public performers. The 
people, who have been all along hoodwinked, are expected to dance, 
so long as the monarchs play, and to pay the piper into the bargain. 
If any are bold enough to pull off the bandage, to express a dislike to 
the tune, or to stop dancing, they are knocked on the head with the 
fiddlestick. 

John Bull, who was never a good dancer, sat down some years ago ; 
although he continued to pay the piper for others, who danced in his 
place. Portugal lately imitated John's example, as Spain had unsuc- 
cessfully done twice before. But this step has thrown the whole 
orchestra into discord. Nothing but jarring and confusion is heard. It 
is feared if this obstinacy on the part of Portugal goes unpunished, the 
entire "troupe" will follow the example. 

What adds to the embarrassment, is the sudden incursion of certain 

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Turkish and Persian, performers, who threaten to dance a saraband of 
their own; and that too, on the very borders of Europe. It is sup- 
posed this last occurrence, will bring out the best players on the 
continent, and lead to a denouement of the Piece. The emperor of 
Austria, it is thought, will try to restore harmony by a few airs on the 
German flute; Charles Xth. will give divers flourishes on the French 
horn; while Nicholas, makes the air resound with the terrible knout. 
But it is shrewdly suspected that John Bull will insist on adding the 
music of the drum and fife. 

Seriously, we believe posterity will wonder, how long state tricks 
are capable of arresting the march of the human intellect; and blind- 
ing nations to the rights and enjoyments which the Creator has spread 
before them. 

Dance nations now, & if ye miss the tread, 
Nomportej Napoleon the Great is Dead. 

LANGUAGE 

Language is the tell tale of history. I have been a humble inquirer 
after the principles of the Chippewa language and offer some remarks, 
which I think, deserve notice. It was observed, of the Carib language, 
when first noticed, that it exhibited a sexual feature, that is, that it 
contained a set of masculine and feminine nouns, verbs and expres- 
sions, limited to the sexes. Something of this sort exists in a limited 
degree, in the Chippewa. This characteristic vocabulary may be 
judged of, by the following examples. 

nouns male nouns female 

My friend. Nejee. Nendongwa. 

My uncle. Ni mi sho mai.by the f . side. Nezhisa by the m. side 

My aunt. Nizigus " Neenwisha " 

Behold. Tyau! Nyau! 

Consonantal peculiarities. Some of the consonants which the 
Chippewas do not ordinarily employ, in their vocabulary, acquire a 
magical value in the mouths of story tellers, medas, and jossakeeds. 
The letter 1. and the combination of wh. fall under this denomination. 
Examples of both occur in the hieratic chorus, wha-ld-ld-da. In the 
magical legend of Mishosha, the term Pol, uttered after that of canoe, 



No. 5. January 

is an imperative charm commanding the canoe to assume its magical 
powers, by rushing, without paddles, through the water. 

The letters B. and P. are often interchangeable, and often denote 
idiomatic precision. Thus Poz is the word to embark; Boz he, or she 
embarks. Poziwug, they embark. 

Ba-zhick, signifies one; but the duplication of the first syllable, 
changing, at the same time, b to p, renders the sense, united, solid, 
unseparated. Thus the horse is called the animal with solid, or unsplit 
hoofs. 

Maja is simply the indicative of the verb to go, but by its duplica- 
tion with stress of voice and accent, the term thus formed (maja- 
maja) is equivalent to may good luck attend you, or adieu. 

The termination ego distinguishes the passive, from the active voice. 

The duplication of an adjective, before a noun, gives it a superla- 
tive, or highly intensified sense. Thus gitchi-gitchi is, superlatively 
great. Ish, signifies man, in the term un- ish- in- a- ba; but ish ap- 
pears to be used to call attention to something about to be said, and 
is perhaps analogous to the terms Sir, man or Mister. 

The fact mentioned by our correspondent "A native," is worthy of 
attention. There are, clearly degrees of purity in the spoken language, 
according to the degree of refinement of living and manners of the 
people. The chief orators pride themselves on using the best language; 
they never violate the class of nouns; and their example becomes a 
standard to the young, while those families, in which there is a mix- 
ture of European blood, pique themselves on their superior knowledge 
of both the vocabulary and grammar. 

The Chippewa has the peculiarity of making every inanimate object 
at the will of the speaker, animate. By this process, trees, rocks, in 
short every feature of the country is invested with hearing, sight and 
animation. Wilds and forests no longer remain desolate and lone- 
some, when every object, around, above and below, is a person. 

Abieca 

INCLUSIVENESS OF INDIAN TRADITIONS 

No historical value can be found on many tribal traditions of more 
than three centuries standing. The Indian tribes constituting one of 
the language variants of mankind, have a tradition of the creation & 



The Literary Voyager 

a general deluge. These are generally expressed under symbolic 
forms, or clothed with allegories. From the period of the world's 
origin, they drop down through centuries, to the events of yesterday. 
To reach integrals, & show the development of tribes, from names, 
we must appeal to language, physical traits, the remains of art, and 
natal peculiarities. 

MISHOSHA, 

OR THE MAGICIAN AND His DAUGHTERS 
A CHIPPEWA TALE OR LEGEND SS 

In an early age of the world, when there were fewer inhabitants in 
the earth than there now are, there lived an Indian, who had a wife 
and two children, in a remote situation. Buried in the solitude of the 
forest, it was not often that he saw any one, out of the circle of his 
own family. Such a situation seemed favorable for his pursuits; and 
his life passed on in uninterrupted happiness, till he discovered a 
wanton disposition in his wife. 

This woman secretly cherished a passion for a young man whom 
she accidentally met in the woods, and she lost no opportunity of 
courting his approaches. She even planned the death of her husband, 
who, she justly concluded, would put her to death, should he discover 
her infidelity. But this design was frustrated by the alertness of the 
husband, who having cause to suspect her, determined to watch nar- 
rowly, to ascertain the truth, before he should come to a determina- 
tion how to act. He followed her silently one day, at a distance, and 
hid himself behind a tree. He soon beheld a tall, handsome man ap- 
proach his wife, and lead her away. 

He was now convinced of her crime, and thought of killing her, the 
moment she returned. In the meantime he went home, and pondered 
on his situation. At last he came to the determination of leaving her 
forever, thinking that her own conscience would in the end, punish 
her sufficiently; and relying on her maternal feelings, to take care of 
the two boys, whom he determined to leave behind. 

When the wife returned, she was disappointed in not finding her 
husband, having concerted a plan to dispatch him. When she saw that 
day after day passed, and he did not return she at last guessed the 
true cause of his absence. She then returned to her paramour, leaving 



No. 5. January 1887 

the two helpless boys behind, telling them that she was going a short 
distance, and would return; but determined never to see them more. 

The children thus abandoned, soon made way with the food that 
was left in the lodge, and were compelled to quit it, in search of more. 
The eldest boy possessed much intrepidity, as well as great tender- 
ness for his little brother, frequently carrying him when he became 
weary, and gathering all the wild fruit he saw. Thus they went deeper 
into the forest, soon losing all traces of their former habitation, till 
they were completely lost in the labyrinths of the wilderness. 

The elder boy fortunately had a knife, with which he made a bow 
and arrows, and was thus enabled to kill a few birds for himself and 
brother. In this way they lived some time, still pressing on, they knew 
not whither. At last they saw an opening through the woods, and 
were shortly after delighted to find themselves on the borders of a 
broad lake. Here the elder boy busied himself in picking the seed 
pods of the wild rose. In the meanwhile the younger, amused him- 
self by shooting some arrows into the sand, one of which, happened 
to fall into the lake. The elder brother, not willing to lose his time in 
making another, waded into the water to reach it. Just as he was 
about to grasp the arrow, a canoe passed by him with the rapidity of 
lightning. An old man, sitting in the centre, seized the affrighted 
youth, and placed him in the canoe. In vain the boy addressed him. 
"My grandfather" (a term of respect for old people) "pray take my 
little brother also. Alone, I cannot go with you; he will starve if I 
leave him." The old magician (for such was his real character) 
laughed at him. Then giving his canoe a slap, and commanding it to 
go, it glided through the water with inconceivable swiftness. In a 
few minutes they reached the habitation of Mishosha, standing on an 
island in the centre of the lake. Here he lived, with his two daughters, 
the terror of all the surrounding country. 

Leading the young man up to the lodge "Here my eldest daughter," 
said he, "I have brought a young man who shall become your hus- 
band." The youth saw surprize depicted in the countenance of the 
daughter, but she made no reply, seeming thereby to acquiesce in the 
commands of her father. In the evening he overheard the daughters 
in conversation. "There again!" said the elder daughter, "our father 
has brought another victim, under the pretence of giving me a hus- 
band. When will his enmity to the human race cease; or when shall 

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The Literary Voyager 

we be spared witnessing such scenes of vice and wickedness, as we 
are daily compelled to behold." 

When the old magician was asleep, the youth told the elder daugh- 
ter, how he had been carried off, and compelled to leave his helpless 
brother on the shore. She told him to get up and take her father's 
canoe, and using the charm he had observed, it would carry him 
quickly to his brother. That he could carry him food, prepare a lodge 
for him, and return by morning. He did in every thing as he had been 
directed, and after providing for the subsistence of his brother, told 
him that in a short time he should come for him. Then returning to 
the enchanted island, resumed his place in the lodge before the 
magician awoke. Once during the night Mishosha awoke, and not 
seeing his son in law, asked his eldest daughter what had become of 
him. She replied that he had merely stepped out, and would be back 
soon. This satisfied him. In the morning, finding the young man in 
the lodge, his suspicions were completely lulled. "I see, my daughter, 
you have told me the truth." 

As soon as the sun rose, Mishosha thus addressed the young man. 
"Come, my son, I have a mind to gather gulls eggs. I am acquainted 
with an island where there are great quantities; and I wish your aid 
in gathering them." The young man, saw no reasonable excuse, and 
getting into the canoe, the magician gave it a slap, and bidding it go, 
in an instant they were at the island. They found the shore covered 
with gulls eggs, and the island surrounded with birds of this kind. 
"Go, my son," said the old man, "and gather them, while I remain 
in the canoe." But the young man was no sooner ashore than 
Mishosha pushed his canoe a little from land and exclaimed: "Listen 
ye gulls! you have long expected something from me. I now give you 
an offering. Fly down, and devour him." Then striking his canoe, left 
the young man to his fate. 

The birds immediately came in clouds around their victim, darken- 
ing all the air with their numbers. But the youth, seizing the first 
that came near him, and drawing his knife, cut off its head, and im- 
mediately skinning the bird, hung the feathers as a trophy on his 
breast. "Thus," he exclaimed, "will I treat every one of you who 
approaches me. Forbear, therefore, and listen to my words. It is not 
for you to eat human food. You have been given by the Great Spirit 
as food for man. Neither is it in the power of that old magician to do 

66 



No. 5. January 1827 

you any good. Take me on your beaks and carry me to his lodge, and 
you shall see that I am not ungrateful." 

The gulls obeyed, collecting in a cloud for him to rest upon, and 
quickly flew to the lodge, where they arrived before the magician. The 
daughters were surprized at his return, but Mishosha conducted as if 
nothing extraordinary had taken place. 

On the following day he again addressed the youth. "Come, my 
son," said he, "I will take you to an island covered with the most 
beautiful pebbles, looking like silver. I wish you to assist me in gath- 
ering some of them. They will make handsome ornaments, and are 
possessed of great virtues." Entering the canoe, the magician made 
use of his charm, and they were carried, in a few moments, to a soli- 
tary bay in an island, where there was a smooth sandy beach. The 
young man went ashore as usual. "A little further, a little further," 
cried the old man, "upon that rock you will get some finer ones." Then 
pushing his canoe from land, "Come thou great king of fishes," cried 
he, "you have long expected an offering from me. Come, and eat the 
stranger I have put ashore on your island." So saying, he commanded 
his canoe to return, and was soon out of sight. Immediately a mon- 
strous fish shoved his long snout from the water, moving partially on 
the beach, and opening wide his jaws to receive his victim. 

"When" exclaimed the young man, drawing his knife, and placing 
himself in a threatening attitude, "when did you ever taste human 
food. Have a care of yourself. You were given by the Great Spirit to 
man, and if you, or any of your tribes, taste human flesh, you will 
fall sick and die. Listen not to the words of that wicked old man, but 
carry me back to his island, in return for which, I shall present you a 
piece of red cloth." 

The fish complied, raising his back out of water to allow the young 
man to get on. Then taking his way through the lake, landed his 
charge safely at the island, before the return of the magician. 

The daughters were still more surprized to see him thus escaped a 
second time, from the arts of their father. But the old man maintained 
his taciturnity. He could not, however, help saying to himself, "What 
manner of boy is this, who ever escapes from my power. His spirit 
shall not however save him. I will entrap him tomorrow. Ha! ha! 
ha! 86 

[Next day the magician addressed the young man as follows: 

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"Come, my son/ 5 said he, "you must go with me to procure some 
young eagles. I wish to tame them. I have discovered an island where 
they are in great abundance." When they had reached the island, 
Mishosha led him inland until they came to the foot of a tall pine, 
upon which the nests were. "Now, my son," said he, "climb up this 
tree and bring down the birds." The young man obeyed. When he 
had with great difficulty got near the nest, "Now," exclaimed the 
magician, addressing the tree, "stretch yourself up and be very tall." 
The tree rose up at the command. "Listen, ye eagles," continued the 
old man, "you have long expected a gift from me. I now present you 
this boy, who has had the presumption to molest your young. Stretch 
forth your claws and sieze him." So saying he left the young man to 
his fate, and returned. 

But the intrepid youth drawing his knife, and cutting off the head 
of the first eagle that menaced him, raised his voice and exclaimed, 
"Thus will I deal with all who come near me. What right have you, 
ye ravenous birds, who were made to feed on beasts, to eat human 
flesh? Is it because that cowardly old canoe-man has bid you do so? 
He is an old woman. He can neither do you good nor harm. See, I 
have already slain one of your number. Respect my bravery, and 
carry me back that I may show you how I shall treat you." 

The eagles, pleased with his spirit, assented, and clustering thick 
around him formed a seat with their backs, and flew toward the en- 
chanted island. As they crossed the water they passed over the magi- 
cian, lying half asleep in his canoe. 

The return of the young man was hailed with joy by the daughters, 
who now plainly saw that he was under the guidance of a strong spirit. 
But the ire of the old man was excited, although he kept his temper 
under subjection. He taxed his wits for some new mode of ridding 
himself of the youth, who had so successfully baffled his skill. He next 
invited him to go a hunting. 

Taking his canoe, they proceeded to an island and built a lodge to 
shelter themselves during the night. In the mean while the magician 
caused a deep fall of snow, with a storm of wind and severe cold. Ac- 
cording to custom, the young man pulled off his moccasins and leg- 
gings and hung them before the fire to dry. After he had gone to sleep 
the magician, watching his opportunity, got up, and taking one moc- 
casin and one legging, threw them into the fire. He then went to 
sleep. In the morning, stretching himself as he arose and uttering an 

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No. 5. January 18%7 

exclamation of surprise, "My son," said he, "what has become of your 
moccasin and legging? I believe this is the moon in which fire attracts, 
and I fear they have been drawn in." The young man suspected the 
true cause of his loss, and rightly attributed it to a design of the 
magician to freeze him to death on the march. But he maintained the 
strictest silence, and drawing his conaus over his head thus communed 
with himself: "I have full faith in the Manito who has preserved me 
thus far, I do not fear that he will forsake me in this cruel emergency. 
Great is his power, and I invoke it now that he may enable me to 
prevail over this wicked enemy of mankind." 

He then drew on the remaining moccasin and legging, and taking a 
dead coal from the fireplace, invoked his spirit to give it efficacy, and 
blackened his foot and leg as far as the lost garment usually reached. 
He then got up and announced himself ready for the march. In vain 
Mishosha led him through snows and over morasses, hoping to see 
the lad sink at every moment. But in this he was disappointed, and 
for the first time they returned home together. 

Taking courage from this success, the young man now determined 
to try his own power, having previously consulted with the daughters. 
They all agreed that the life the old man led was detestable, and that 
whoever would rid the world of him, would entitle himself to the 
thanks of the human race. 

On the following day the young man thus addressed his hoary 
captor. "My grandfather, I have often gone with you on perilous ex- 
cursions and never murmured. I must now request that you will ac- 
company me, I wish to visit my little brother, and to bring him home 
with me." They accordingly went on a visit to the main land, and 
found the little lad in the spot where he had been left. After taking 
him into the canoe, the young man again addressed the magician: 
"My grandfather, will you go and cut me a few of those red willows 
on the bank, I wish to prepare some smoking mixture." "Certainly, 
my son," replied the old man, "what you wish is not very hard. Ha, 
ha, ha! do you think me too old to get up there?" No sooner was 
Mishosha ashore, than the young man, placing himself in the proper 
position struck the canoe with his hand, and pronouncing the charm, 
N'CHIMAUN POLL, the canoe immediately flew through the water 
on its return to the island. It was evening when the two brothers ar- 
rived, and carried the canoe ashore. But the elder daughter informed 
the young man that unless he sat up and watched the canoe, and 



The Literary Voyager 

kept his hand upon it, such was the power of their father, it would 
slip off and return to him. Panigwun watched faithfully till near the 
dawn of day, when he could no longer resist the drowsiness which 
oppressed him, and fell into a short doze. In the meantime the canoe 
slipped off and sought its master, who soon returned in high glee. 
"Ha, ha, ha! my son," said he; "you thought to play me a trick. It 
was very clever. But you see I am too old for you." 

A short time after, the young again addressed the magician. "My 
grandfather, I wish to try my skill in hunting. It is said there is plenty 
of game on an island not far off, and I have to request that you will 
take me there in your canoe." They accordingly went to the island 
and spent the day in hunting. Night coming on they put up a tempo- 
rary lodge. When the magician had sunk into a profound sleep, the 
young man got up, and taking one of Mishosha's leggings and moc- 
casins from the place where they hung, threw them into the fire, thus 
retaliating the artifice before played upon himself. He had discovered 
that the foot and leg were the only vulnerable parts on the magician's 
body. Having committed these articles to the fire, he besought his 
Manito that he would raise a great storm of snow, wind, and hail, 
and then laid himself down beside the old man. Consternation was 
depicted on the countenance of the latter, when he awoke in the 
morning and found his moccasin and legging missing. "I believe, my 
grandfather," said the young man, "that this is the moon in which fire 
attracts, and I fear your foot and leg garments have been drawn in." 
Then rising and bidding the old man follow him, he began the morn- 
ing's hunt, frequently turning to see how Mishosha kept up. He saw 
him faltering at every step, and almost benumbed with cold, but en- 
couraged him to follow, saying, we shall soon get through and reach 
the shore; although he took pains, at the same time, to lead him in 
round-about ways, so as to let the frost take complete effect. At length 
the old man reached the brink of the island where the woods are suc- 
ceeded by a border of smooth sand. But he could go no farther; his 
legs became stiff and refused motion, and he found himself fixed to 
the spot. But he still kept stretching out his arms and swinging his 
body to and fro. Every moment he found the numbness creeping 
higher. He felt his legs growing downward like roots, the feathers of 
his head turned to leaves, and in a few seconds he stood a tall and 
stiff sycamore, leaning toward the water. 

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No. 5. January 1827 

Panigwun leaped into the canoe, and pronounced the charm, was 
soon transported to the island, where he related his victory to the 
daughters. They applauded the deed, agreed to put on mortal shapes, 
become wives to the two young men, and for ever quit the enchanted 
island. And passing immediately over to the main land, they lived 
lives of happiness and peace.] 

Bame-wa-wa-ge-zhik-a-quay 87 

LINES 
To A FRIEND ASLEEP 

Awake my friend! the morning's fine, 
Waste not in sleep the day divine, 
Nature is clad in best array, 
The woods, the fields, the flowers are gay ; 
The sun is up, and speeds his march, 
O'er heaven's high aerial arch, 
His golden beams with lustre fall, 
On lake and river, cot and hall; 
The dews are sparkling on each spray, 
The birds are chirping sweet and gay, 
The violet shows its beauteous head, 
Within its narrow, figured bed; 
The air is pure, the earth bedight, 
With trees and flowers, life and light, 
All all inspires a joyful gleam, 
More pleasing than a fairy dream. 
Awake ! the sweet ref resiling scene, 
Invites us forth to tread the green, 
With joyful hearts, and pious lays, 
To join the glorious Maker's praise, 
The wond'rous works the paschal lamb, 
The holy, high, and just I Am. 

Rosa 88 

ORNITHOLOGY 

Mr. Ozhabeigde, 89 
I have been an observer of the natural history of this vicinity, from 

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the first establishment of the post, and the object has given increased 
interest to my little excursions. In one of these excursions, to observe 
the Indian method of making sugar from the sap of the acer sachari- 
num, or rock maple, in the month of March, I observed a species of 
grosbeck, which is, manifestly, a sojourner here, for a period, from 
more northerly latitudes. The natives call it, paush-cun-da-mo. a 
name which appears to refer to its power of breaking, or penetrating 
the surface of what it feeds on. An Indian boy brought me a speci- 
men, which he had killed with his bow and arrow. Using the beekut, 
or blunt-headed arrow, the species was not at all injured, which en- 
abled me to stuff and prepare for the New York Lyceum of Natural 
History. It was there, determined to be a new specimen of the gros- 
beck, and received the name of vespertina, from an impression of 
Major Delafield, who had seen the species in the North West of lake 
Superior, that it sings at evening. 

Pennant 

AN ESSAY ON THE ORIGIN OF THE INDIAN TRIBES 

'Twere hard by reason, or prophetic date, 
To tell the Indian's utter end and fate, 
But this may seem to human view more clear, 
God formed the man, & led his footsteps here, 
Albeit God formed him, his own word is plain, 
Who formed all flesh & nothing formed in vain. 

Adam and Noah, are the links that bind, 
Two nether worlds and one creative kind 
But food and climate, passion and disease, 
Fulfilled minuter changes and decrees 
Imprinting hues, in all their terrene track, 
From paradiseal white, to ebon black 
'Twas still the same created creature-man ! 
Run out, in kinds, through all th' eternal plan. 
If red the Indian, be it understood, 
'Tis of that work divine, pronounced all good. 

I quote no learned lore, to tell you why, 
God gave a blue, a brown or hazle eye, 
A rosy, sallow, or high-pointed cheek, 



No. 5. January 1887 

A spirit ruthless, headlong, bland or meek, 
Prowess to raise a tower, or sack a town, 
Or fleetness to attain the victor's crown. 
These, are but gifts bestowed in part or whole, 
His moral image stampt he on the soul, 
And if the Indian bears it, or can bear, 
'Tis plain he is as much a son and heir, 
As He, 90 who bore the temporary call, 
Till Shiloh came to let in light to all. 

The Red man, whom Columbus first espied, 
Was naked but a man of stoic pride 
Fond of his country much to pomp inclined 
Grave, formal, shy, and taciturn of mind 
A lover of light fancies beads and bells, 
Bands, feathers, mantles, painting, gold & shells. 
Seen farther north, the man was much the same, 
But warmer clad, & more robust of frame 
Experter proved he, with the bow and spear, 
In words more eloquent fight more severe 
But still the same kind, idle, stately child, 
The climax of the human race run wild. 

View him as Drake or Raleigh found the man, 
Stretching along the shores of Powhatan 
A subtil warrior, quick in every thing 
A hunter, or a suppliant, or a king 
Assuming here, and there declining power, 
Now prompt, and now neglectful of the hour 
Just as occasion swayed him, never still, 
Fixed to one rule of action, thought or will, 
But shaping his expedients thin & spare, 
O'er so much space, as oft to leave half bare, 
And under guise of many a simple art, 
Hiding the darkest purpose of the heart. 

Go, scan his acts a thousand miles away, 
Some lighter shades may o'er the surface play 
Denoting purpose, forecast, power of thought, 



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And brow with amor patriae deeply wrought 

But all as flashes, or ennobling gleams, 

Leaving the mind a prey to wild extremes 

Like him of old, by love supernal spumed, 

And word prophetic deemed "a cake unturned," 91 

Whether in speech or action, taste or touch, 

Too hot, too cold, too little, or too much 

Sad wrecks and glimmerings of an unformed mind, 

Erst ample in its feelings, powers & kind 

But lured away by hate, rebellion, pride, 

By glory maddened, or by rage defied 

Step after step pursued its downward road 

Till far away from virtue, and from God. 

'Twere vague to seize, as the generic type, 
For such a race, the war club or the pipe, 
Or any mere external art or sign, 
Which fancy might adopt, or whim resign 
Unless a firmer basis we can find, 
In language, rites, opinions, cast of mind 
Habits in life or death historic charts, 
Letters, or signs, or monumental arts. 

Small are the lights we from tradition drain 
Yet, what is hardly gained, we truly gain, 
As in some labors of the flinty ore, 
Though few the grains, their value is the more. 
If such the truths, we make our proof & test 
Then prest the Indians first from east to west, 
Or, if from Nilus or Euphrate's shores 
Niger or Indus, or the old Azores, 
Seas, islands, gulfs o'er past by will or lot, 
We only name as something once forgot 
But let us look a long lost people in the face 
And scan the manners to denote the race. 

Start where they may the purpose once exprest, 
In weal or woe the tribes fierce onward prest, 



No. 5. January 1827 

Band urging band, as some vast herd in flight, 
On Rio Roxo's plains display their might 
Till faltering in their course of heady zeal, 
Or braved in front, the broken columns wheel 
And spreading wildly, their disordered train. 
Halt where kind woods or greener fields detain, 
There freely breathe, and paw the verdant ground, 
Till hunger gnaw, or fear inflicts a sound. 
So when the first primeval hunters strayed, 
From orient climes, obeyed or disobeyed, 
Thence in their ire, they passed from shore to shore, 
The tribes behind, impelling tribes before 
Till spreading over Asia's wide domain, 
They trod the boundaries of her utmost plain, 
There prest by cares, oblivion blots in night, 
In dread and fear began their western flight. 

Some wander up, some down the orient coast, 
Or to the torrid south, or land of frost, 
Some hug the main, some seize the ready one, 
And isle, on isle, and coast on coast explore. 
Some, by a sudden gale, at random cast, 
Fly like a feather on the driving blast, 
But heaven sustained, within the fragile bark 
Here reach an island, there a broader mark 
Till wafted, by new gales, or conquest planned, 
They reach at last the continental land, 
One calls himself a king the tale spreads soon, 
This tumbled from the Sun, and that the Moon, 
At least one trait of orient climes they bring, 
Hyperbole to match the vainest king. 

But most, by heaven's supernal finger shown, 
Wind to the sea coasted broad Atlantic zone, 
That geologic way, in love designed, 
To spread the race, and all the grazing kind. 
Doubtest thou the Greek? 92 Then tell me sapient seer, 
How came the sloth and armadillo here? 



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The patient lama, or the heavy bos. 
Did these in boats, or frozen oceans cross? 
Or did the sunny race of tropic tone 
Erst burrow in the bleak and frigid zone? 
Or must thou, by some skeptic phantom bid, 
Belie all Moses wrote, all Noah did? 

I go not with them. Deep volcanic fires, 
Wide o'er the globe have pushed their granite spires, 
Or plunged wide plains beneath the deepest tide, 
Where once the banner waved in all its pride 
And temples stood; the everlasting sea 
Hath warred upon its borders wide and free. 
And beat down continents of shelly coast 
Enlarging her own empire. Means so vast 
In elder times, ere letters had a name 
Divided tribes, and thus the Indian came. 
Better philosophy do thou devise! 
Like Kant and Voltaire built on doubts & lies. 
Fear to believe a miracle, with Hume 
Lest truth o'er heavens bright Oracle should bloom, 
With Milman 93 grope lest God should work by rule, 
Or shifting Buckland 94 brand thee as a fool 
Or with the poor blind Indian date his birth, 
And say his grandsires crept from out the earth. 

Clio 95 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CELEBRATED MR I 

Mr I, was the brother of the noted Mr. YOU, HE, and SHE, whose 
children were we, us, and ours, ye, they and them, his cousins were 
himself and themselves, and he was by far, the most distinguished of 
that eminent family. He was at once the most talented, the wisest, and 
the best. He was the bravest in battle, the swiftest in a race, and the 
most expert in a struggle. When it came to writing, he was the most 
ready, and fluent, the most gifted, most profound, and wise. He was 
an orator, a historian, and a poet. It would be difficult, indeed, to tell 
when and where it was, that this noted individual, did not come off 

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No. 5. January 18S7 

first in every triumph, or attainment. He was, a Samson in strength, 
an oracle in wisdom, a very Solomon in knowledge. Yet, though his 
attainments were thus varied, we shall attempt, in a future number to 
let the reader see, the steps by which he rose to eminence. Other men 
have done nobly, but he exceeded them all. In short, all the wars, 
woes, and tribulations of the world, were owing to this same Mr I. He 
wrote the most splendid poems & histories, & fought the most cele- 
brated battles. 

EKEDO 96 



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No. 7. 97 Saidt Ste. Marie February 1827 



TRAITS OF PERSONAL ATTACHMENTS AMONG THE OJIBWAYS 

Some years back I was brought to notice some of the characteristic 
traits, of the natives of our forests and the rarity of such circum- 
stances. Even in polished societies, as that to which I was an eye 
witness induces me to state the particulars. The occurance which I 
shall relate, took place at what may be called the farthest, at least it 
was then so considered, and which few of the enterprising Eastern 
adventurers had as yet reached at that period. The Individuals whom 
I will bring to the notice of my readers, were pure natives, as I be- 
lieve although they may have had some of the blood of the white 
man. When I saw them, and became acquainted with their history, 
Rosalie, the young woman had attained her eighteenth year. Her 
native name was, Waub Onng Aqua or the Morning Star. She was 
nature's pure child, and the impulses of her bosom had always flamed 
in the same channel, up to the present time, and they were such as 
what the white man would call very moral, although unacquainted 
with the standard by which civilized moralists are guided. Free from 
flattery and deceit, she belonged to a class whose manner of life 
differed essentially from refined society. Pure in mind & simple in 
appearance, she was exempt from evil, and feelings which she had 
formed in early life were lasting. All the arts and inducements of some 
could not overthrow them. As to her appearance she was tall and very 
fair, remarkably so for one who could or would claim but little of the 
white man's blood, her head was covered with black flowing hair, 
which fell over her shoulders, and which was kept smooth by a head 
comb, over the edge of her high forehead she wore a black ribbon, 
which showed that to advantage. 

Her teeth were white as pearl, her features were exact, her appear- 
ance at first sight was engaging and modest and in all her movements 
very graceful, she was adept in all the simple accomplishments of her 
sex, she looked handsome in her garnished mockesins, & her neat plain 
blue mantle, which induced others to copy her neatness. There was a 

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No. 7. February 1827 

peculiar pleasantness in her looks, and her dark beaming eyes gave a 
finish to the whole. 

Glade, the young man was about twenty years old, little over six 
feet strait and well proportioned, well skilled in the arts of a hunter 
and fisher, bold & brave in the sport or Dance or in the use of fusee 98 
& arrow. He was the pride of all. Such were the individuals, who had 
formed a friendship in infancy, and which grew with their growth, till 
they found that the tie was impossible to break. Circumstances had 
rendered it necessary for the young man, whose Indian name was 
Wawabegwonabec (or the Waving Plume) to leave his birthplace for 
a year at least. Others were busy in their preparations for a voyage 
to the Upper Mississippi. And it was at this period that I first became 
acquainted with him. The interest I took in him, caused him to place 
confidence in me, and he related to me his situation and prospects. I 
told him I would aid him as much as lay in my power, and when in- 
quiry was made, if they could take Rosalie along, the answer was, that 
it was utterly impossible, and having given his word that he would go 
on the voyage, and impelled by other motives, he concluded that 
sooner than break his promise, that he would go, and leave her be- 
hind for a year, one whom he thought to have taken as his betrothed 
wife, and in whom his whole affections were centered. 

The voyagers to the Mississippi, were to leave by the earliest dawn, 
and the party had already encamped about one mile from the vil- 
lage." He requested me to accompany him, to bid farewell to the 
friend of his childhood, and the loved object of his youth. We reached 
the lodge a little before sunset, which was situated on a high point of 
land, which overlooked the rapids, and beyond the foot of the falls. 
The view extended a mile or two over the smooth gliding waters of 
the river, and the place was shaded by tall and majestic elms and 
maples, which cast a melancholy shade over the whole, and where 
often her plaintive notes were heard, as she watched or expected her 
lover to arrive in his light and buoyant bark canoe. We found her 
seated on a rock, listening to the passing bubbling stream, and gazing 
on the smooth surface of the river, as it glided along a short distance 
below, and which the declining rays of the sun, gave a golden ap- 
pearance, and those rays cast their mellow shades over the beautiful 
scenery around. As we approached, her eyes beamed with pleasure, 
and the young man took a seat near her. It was some time before he 

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The Literary Voyager 

could tell her, that it was impossible for her to accompany him and 
that he had come to bid her farewell. With great exertion he told her 
the sad news, and he rose, and stood before her. She gazed at him 
with a look of vacancy, and extended her arms, and said, "will you 
thus leave me," and both clasped each other in their arms. When she 
was again seated, I used all the encouraging language I could to re- 
lieve their feelings. I told them to hope for future happiness, and 
brighter prospects. I then took the young man by the arm, and led 
him from the painful scene. The young woman cast a wild look after 
us, and then dropped her head on her bosom, and we turned an angle 
of the road or path, and she and all the village was lost to our view. 

The next day saw us on the blue waters of the Lake; days passed, 
but what a change in the young man. I tried to console him, and his 
eye at moments would beam with joy, but it was only momentary, 
but his looks were sad and melancholy, and he would never join in 
the sport and boisterous laugh of the young men who composed the 
party. His only relief appeared to be, to come to me, and mention 
those fears and hopes, which hung nearest his heart, and after receiv- 
ing all the soothing consolation which I could give, appeared to retire 
with some relief. And it was not, till some time after we had entered 
the hazardous incidents of an overland journey to the Mississippi, 
that he appeared to get over his sadness. A long winter succeeded. 
Days and months wore away. At last Spring came, with it, partially 
his flow of spirits returned, as we rapidly descended the streams which 
took us to the lake, and when we once more viewed the wide blue 
waters of it, which would lead us home, he ran and jumped with joy, 
on the fine white sand, and his countenance once more beamed with 
joy. 

We will turn for a few moments to the young woman, who as anx- 
iously as himself expects his return. We left her seated on a rock, and 
the intensity of her feelings were such, that no tears came to relieve 
her in this painful situation, and it was not till late in the evening, 
that she entered the lodge. She did not upbraid her fate, although the 
young man she knew would have to undergo perils. Her sorrow was 
still and melancholy, and she never mentioned any thing connected 
with it to any one. Only days afterwards, could she shed tears, which 
were balm to her bosom, and she looked more serene and happy, and 
when that name was mentioned, her eyes would beam with inward 
pleasure. She never would join her friends in their innocent amuse- 

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No. 7. February 1827 

ments, but preferred remaining at home, and passed her time in antici- 
pating the wishes of her parents, brothers and sisters. She loved to 
walk under the shades of those trees alone, and take her seat near the 
brink of the rapid and foaming stream, and there pour out her feel- 
ings, in that low plaintive and melancholy strain which is so peculiar 
to the Indian women, and which only those who understand it, can 
appreciate. Time passed, and she had to undergo trials. Numbers of 
her own rank in life showed her all the attention they possibly could. 
Offers were made, and those whose pecuniary means could have made 
her happy were among the number. Arts were used and high induce- 
ments held out to her, but she turned from them with eyes moist with 
tears and mildly refused all their offers. Spring came on, with its ac- 
customed loveliness, and their lodge was once more situated on that 
beautiful spot which we have mentioned before, and it was in the 
latter part of May, the ground was covered with wild flowers, the 
weather mild and exhilarating, and she was seated on the same rock 
which we have mentioned before, it overlooked a village of lodges 
below, all were enjoying the pleasant afternoon. All appeared to be 
happy but herself. When word was brought to her that the boats from 
the lake were in sight, she hastily threw on her blue mantle and went 
up to the accustomed landing place. When she reached it, the Boat 
was just nearing the land, and before it touched they clasped each 
other in their arms; I never witnessed a more affecting meeting. Some 
of the baggage was landed, in order that the boats might descend the 
rapids with safety. She said she would accompany him, and when all 
was landed at the village, I went to visit those in whom nature had 
implanted such strong feelings of virtue, and those females who are 
gifted with such virtues, devotedness & constancy; they are indeed 
ornaments to their sexes, and a blessing to man, and may all such 
realize the joys which this world can give. I witnessed the ceremony 
which connected their hearts for life, & they were happy in the circle 
of their friends. A pleasant period after I bid adieu to them and the 
interesting scenes of the West. 100 

TRADITION 
RESPECTING POINT IROQUOIS 

Oshawushcodawaqua 101 relates, that the Chippewas, when settled at 
Garden river, 102 lived in continual dread of the Iroquois; war parties 
of whom were often on their borders, and carried off stragglers. One 

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day, a man with his wife and two children, went down the river, 
fishing. While thus employed, they were surprized and taken by a 
party of Iroquois in four large canoes. The latter held on their way 
up the river, to the falls, taking the west channel, by which they 
escaped notice. The friends of the captured family, fearing that some 
accident had befallen them, sent a scout to ascertain. This man, 
learning the fact of their capture, and the route the enemy had pur- 
sued, lost no time in reporting it, to the Garden river band. A council 
was immediately held. It was determined to collect their forces, and 
give pursuit. But as a preparatory step, several scouts were sent up 
the river to make discoveries. When they came to St. Mary's, they 
landed on the Canada shore, near the head of Sugar island, and fol- 
lowing cautiously through woods and grass till they came opposite 
the village of St. Mary, described the Iroquois encamped upon the 
hill. They had boiled the Chippewa captive, and were dancing round 
the kettle, each warrior holding his spear-club before him, and occa- 
sionally thrusting it into the kettle and taking out bits of the flesh 
then shouting with one voice. The most fearless defiance marked their 
whole conduct. 

The Chippewa scouts having returned and given information of 
what they had observed, a war party was soon mustered, and started 
in the pursuit. They were joined on the way by others, making the 
total number of warriors about one hundred. 

When this party reached the old village of St. Mary's, they found 
the Iroquois had passed on, directing their course into lake Superior, 
but so recently, that their drums could still be heard as they advanced 
up the river. When the enemy reached Point aux Pins, 103 the wind 
was ahead, and they were detained there two days. On the third day, 
they attempted the passage at a late hour, the waves still running 
high. It was almost dark when they reached the cape of land, since 
called Point Iroquois; 104 where they encamped in six lodges. They had 
time before dark, to fix their camp, peel some bark, &c. The weather 
was threatening. 

The Chippewas had narrowly watched all their movements, and 
kept at a distance behind. They were led by four chiefs, one of whom 
was a prophet. They reached Point aux Pins a short time after the 
Iroquois left it, and were in great doubt about following them that 
evening. The prophet had recourse to his art, and announced that if 



No. 7. February 

a dark cloud arose, and appeared to pursue an irregular waving 
course through the air, their enterprize would be crowned with suc- 
cess. What had been easily foretold, in so unsettled a day, happened, 
and the whole band inspirited by this favorable omen embarked in 
two divisions one holding on into the lake with a view to strike the 
shore beyond Point Iroquois, the other keeping more directly across 
the strait to make the land on this side. Both parties reached the 
shore in the dark and undiscovered. They united and formed a circle 
around the camp of the Iroquois. They then sent scouts to observe 
narrowly the situation of the enemies camps. They found them still 
up, singing their war songs, and beating their drums in the same 
fearless manner which they had carried at St. Mary's. They seemed 
wholly unsuspicious of any approaching enemy. 

This being reported, the Chippewa leaders determined to wait, till 
they should go to sleep. The prophet predicted that it would rain 
towards day-break. It was arranged in their evening council, that 
each tent should be surrounded at the same moment, the poles lifted 
and the tent thus precipitated upon the sleepers. And that they should 
then use their clubs in putting to death each one, as he arose, and 
struggled to get free. Their bows and arrows were of no use. 

The plan succeeded according to their most sanguine expectations. 
They entered the camp during a shower of rain, near day light. Not 
a soul was awake to give the alarm ; and every Iroquois was put to 
death except two. There were about fifty in all. 

The two saved, tradition adds, were furnished with canoe, and told 
to go and inform their relatives of the result, and to tell them never 
again to venture into the Chippewa country. 

Thus far the tradition. On comparing it with Alexander Henry 
(vide his Travels 105 ) important variations will be found. He says 1000 
Iroquois were killed. Carver had previously stated that the Chippewas 
were aided by the Foxes, or Outagamis, and that the battle was 
fought, partly in canoes. We adhere to the account above given, deem- 
ing it much more rational and consistent. We doubt whether the Chip- 
pewas were ever in sufficient force, in this quarter, to defeat and kill 
a thousand Iroquois. We have also great doubts whether the Foxes, 
at that period, the enveterate enemies of the Chippewas, ever had the 
magnanimity, as related by Henry, to lay aside their animosity, and 
assist their enemies. 



The Literary Voyager 

To CORRESPONDENTS 

The rule which we have adopted, with regard to communications, 
does not require that we should express an opinion of their merit, in 
any more definite manner than is to be inferred from their insertion. 

Our acknowledgements are due to our esteemed correspondents 
Hibernicus 106 and Rosa, 107 for their poetic contributions. The former 
has placed in our hands many of the effusions of his younger years, 
with permission to extract ad libitum. We have derived pleasure from 
their perusal; and we hope, through the future numbers of our paper, 
to be the medium of communicating the same pleasure to our readers. 

The best test of good poetry is the pleasure derived from its per- 
usal, and we take it for granted that no poetry can please without 
some share of the ardor of genius, and the charms of harmony. Critics 
may give a thousand rules for constructing good verses, but poets are 
guided solely by nature. To express strongly, what they feel deeply, 
and in a way the most natural and brief, is the height of their art. 

The opinion we expressed, in our first number, of the poetical ac- 
complishments of "Rosa," we have seen no reason to retract. There 
is a naivette in her productions which is often the concomitant of 
taste and genius. The chastness of her images, the lively strain of 
piety and confiding hope in the dispensations of Providence, and the 
pensive serenity which marks her favorite morning and evening land- 
scapes, are so many traits which arrest our admiration. When to these 
positive recommendations of her poetic attempts, we add the limited 
opportunities of her early life, and the scenes of seclusion which so 
much of her time had been passed, we think there is still greater cause 
to appreciate and admire. We think the "Lines written under afflic- 
tion," in the present number highly beautiful, possessing at once both 
energy and consonance. We solicit a continuation of her efforts. 

LINES WRITTEN UNDER AFFLICTION 

Ah! who, with a sensative mind possest, 

Recalls the swift years that are gone, 
Without mingled emotions both bitter & blest, 

At the good & the ill he has known. 

Or, how could a beautiful landscape please, 
If it showed us no feature but light? 

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No. 7. February 1827 

Tis the dark shades alone that give pleasure & ease, 
'Tis the union of sombre and bright. 

So wisely has God in his mercy ordain'd, 

That the bitterest cup he has cast, 
Is mixed with a sweetness, which still is retain'd, 

To be drank and enjoyed at the last. 

Thus feelings are chasten'd, & life is refin'd, 

By pangs that misfortunes convey, 
To minds that have faith, & to bosoms resign'd, 

To bear to forbear, and obey. 

And tho' for a while, he condemns us in strife, 

To languish, and suffer, and die; 
Yet the sunshine of promise of hope & of life, 

Allures us to bliss in the sky. 

Rosa 



MUSHKOWEGEECHIS, STRONG OR ANGRY SKY 

This young man with his wife and two children from the upper part 
of lake Superior, appeared among the visitors at the new post, and 
agency established here in 1822. On the night of the 26th July, he 
was murdered in a drinking affray at an Indian camp at the head of 
the portage. The murderer was a half breed called Gaulthier from the 
Lac du Flambeau region, with whom he had been carousing during 
the night. Gaulthier and his savage companions fled, leaving his vic- 
tim stretched out, lifeless on the grass. As soon as the affair was re- 
ported, the agent proceeded to the spot. Meantime, his widow and 
the brother of the deceased had dressed the corpse in his best apparel, 
and a new blanket, putting a cap and feathers on his head. He had 
been killed by a heavy blow with a pipe tomahawk, just above his 
right eye brow. The agent caused the body to be removed to the 
ancient Indian burial ground, near fort Brady, and decently interred. 
The Indian ceremonies, preparatory to this, were impressive. The 
coffin was brought and laid beside the open grave, and the lid re- 
moved. An Indian orator then pronounced a eulogy, in which his 

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The Literary Voyager 

acts and character were recited. The brother then removed his cap, 
and pulled out some locks of his hair, when the cap was replaced, and 
the lid tied (not nailed) down. Two sticks of wood were now laid 
across the open grave. The brother then took the hand of the widow, 
and led her across the grave, he, taking one, and leaving her the other 
stick to walk on. The earth was then cast in, and the grave rounded 
up, and a cedar post put at its head, marked with hieroglyphics. 

Marquette 108 

CONCHOLOGY 

I recently observed an Indian pouch garnished with beads, inter- 
spersed with a species of small elongated univalve sea shell. The nacre 
of this shell was very white and smooth. The specimen itself tapers to 
a point. A string of leather passed through each shell, which enabled 
the wearer to fasten it, in a transverse direction, on the ornamental 
parts of the pouch. It was evidently regarded, by the native owner, 
as possessing a magic virtue, which is generally attributed to shells 
from the ocean. From close inspection, it proved to be the Dentalium 
eliphanticum, with the lip removed. It had been originally derived, 
from Indians at the mouth of the Columbia river, and passed from 
hand to hand, and transmitted in their traffic with each other, to this 
distant point. 

Abieca 

WORSHIP OF THE SUN 

Tacitus informs us, Vol. 3, p 242. Oblations and public thanksgivings 
were decreed, at Rome, to the Sun, who was installed among the 
multifarious gods of that empire. 

Shingwauk a Meday of the Chippewas, and one of the chiefs of the 
St. Mary's band, informs me, that the Sun was formerly worshipped 
by the northern Indians. They regarded it, as a symbol of the deity 
not as the deity himself, and by the divergence of its rays, it was 
deemed to diffuse intelligence, as well as light, through the world. 

In examining some pictured scrolls, of this nation, the sun is 
depicted, in several places, to represent the Great Spirit. The picto- 
graph is uniformly drawn as a human head, with heavy rays, sur- 
rounding it, resembling a rude halo. 



No. 1. February 18W 

ALGONAC, A CHIPPEWA LAMENT 
ON HEARING THE REVELLIE AT THE POST OF ST. MARY'S 

From dreams short and broken, prophetic and high, 
I wake in my cabin to ponder and sigh! 
I think on the days, when transcendently blest, 
My forefathers reveUed, the Lords of the West, 
And fired by ambition, or valor severe 
They wing'd the dread arrow, or brandish'd the spear 
I think how their wisdom their valor, their might, 
Prevailed in the council, the chase, and the fight, 
And I sigh to reflect, all deprest and o'ercast, 
Those ages have vanish'd those glories are past! 
But hark! from yon battlements bristled with steel, 
What sounds o'er these woodlands so heavily peal? 
Now rolling redoubling, concussive and clear, 
'Tis the signal of day for the soldier. To him, 
There's a joy in the music no tears ever dim, 
It speaks to his feelings his habitshis pride, 
More keenly than all human language beside : 
But me far, far diff'rent sensations oppress 
It strikes on my ear like the note of distress 
Ah ! how can those sounds please my kindred or me, 
Which remind us, our nation no longer is free! 
My fancy reverts to the moments so bland, 
When my own native music prevailed in the land; 
And my fathers danced blithe, on the oak-covered hill, 
Remote from the White-man, and all his proud skill, 

Day breaks in the east! but its glimmer no more, 
Lights hope in our bosoms, or joy on our shore; 
Ah ! why should its beams more illumine the cot, 
Where the war song is mute, and the war dance forgot, 
Where the bow & the arrow, the spear and the mace, 
Gleam no more in the battle, or ring in the chase! 
Ah ! why should not heaven, kind heaven, resume, 
Its primitive darkness, &, shroud me in gloom? 
Oh fly! ye bright streaks that bedapple the morn, 
Nor shine on a mortal so sunk and forlorn! 



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The Literary Voyager 

The beauty of day, I no longer can see, 
Night-midnight, alone is congenial to me. 
Ye birds cease your warblings ! my heart cannot bear, 
The joys that, so thrill'd it, when fortune was fair, 
And roud'd by the combat, or led by the chase, 
I rov'd, unconfmed, thro' the regions of space, 
Track'd the deer from his covert, the wolf from his den, 
Or rush'd to the charge with the noblest of men. 
Oh teach me ! ye wise men, who broadly survey, 
The causes that hasten my nation's decay, 
Come! teach me, to smile on the beauties that lie, 
In the bright vernal landscape, the red evening sky, 
While pining in want, by misfortune opprest, 
The scorpion, slavery, is gnawing my breast. 

Wabishkizzy 109 may smile, Wabishkizzy may say, 
I will teach you to read, I will teach you to pray, 
But say, when our arts, manners, customs are lost, 
What, then shall we cherish, what then shall we boast. 
When the war flag is struck, &, the war drum is still, 
And the council fire glimmers no more on the hill ! 
Can we feel any pride, but, our forefathers pride 
To live as they lived &, to die as they died. 
They tell me, that, blessings for me, are in store, 
The sage's-saint's-poet's-philosopher's lore 
The comforts that, labor and science bestow, 
The loom &, the compass, the sickle &, plough! 
But, ah! can they tell me, where joy shall abide, 
Without, national customs, or national pride ! 

And here my grief presses ! these ramparts so high, 
White-white as the summer cloud floats in the sky, 
These walls but, remind me, how cruelly cast, 
My own native woods are encompassed at last, 
In vain 'tis averr'd, with no hostile design, 
That, in guarding their country, they tranquillize mine. 
But, whenever I look on those common-pierc'd walls 
A fearful sensation my bosom appals, 



88 



No. 7. February 1827 

Whenever I see, on these once-happy grounds 

The sentinel pacing his limited rounds, 

Or borne down the stream with the low evening hum 

I hear the loud notes of the deep rolling drum, 

I start from my visions I cannot but see, 

My nation, my nation! no longer is free; 

That, all this long muster of cannon &, steel, 

Tho' prudence may sanction, deny, or conceal, 

But, gleams o'er the war-path that leads to the grave, 

Their object, to conquer, destroy, and enslave. 

Thus rous'd from his slumbers, proud Algonac sung, 
A wild native melody dwelt, on his tongue, 
Then folding his robe, he sunk back on the plain, 
And courted his dreams &, his slumbers again. 
(Feb. 1) Alalcol 110 



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The Literary Voyager 



No. 8. Sault Ste. Marie February 13th 1827 



Every undertaking to amuse, through the medium of pen, ink and 
paper, implies some degree of order in the employment of time, and 
some moral, or literary effort, however humble. And it can be known 
to those only, who have made the experiment, how greatly the labor 
is facilitated by the aid of the press where it is the business of 
others, to decypher, copy, and arrange. In fact, no inconsiderable 
part of the whole time we devote to this sheet, is taken up by the 
drudgery of transcribing. 

In supplying it with matter, we did not, at the beginning, expect 
much assistance, out of the circle to whom it is dedicated, and we 
have not received much. The little we have received we are, however, 
very thankful for, and solicit a continuance of it. If it does npt 
greatly swell in bidk, it tends to diversify and amuse. We much regret 
that those who are so competent to aid us, in this way, should ever 
want the leisure or the inclination. 

THE AGE OF SCIENCE 

A SATIRE 

No. 1 

States have advanced with Statesman, laws with crimes, 

Scholars with schools, & governments with times ; 

Arts, science, letters, enterprize and trade, 

New genius brighten'd, new discov'ries made, 

Till ancient errors, fading one by one, 

In the pure light of truth's all-searching sun, 

No longer linger o'er the human mind, 

Taught, rais'd, enlighten'd, altered and refin'd, 

Till human labor stript of half its care, 

Winds, fire & water, steam and acids share 

Till power, no longer swayed by tyrant hands 

Reverting to its source hath burst its bands 

Till mind & matter's laws display'd we see, 

And man, long-f etter'd man, at last is free ! 

90 



No. 8. February ISth 1887 

But in this change, so happy & so bright! 
In this proud glare of intellectual light, 
Is there no spot to soil its sunny hue! 
No murky cloud to blear the natt'ring view, 
No latent folly, hov'ring o'er the times, 
To dim their brilliancy, & point their crimes? 
Turn and survey, you learn, cadav'rous throng! 
In vain inventive, clamorously wrong, 
For whom in vain, great Faustus hath essay'd, 
Wits written, poets sung, & martyrs pray'd, 
Whom light could ne'er illume, nor reason school, 
The schemer, the empirio, and the fool. 
Mark Mechanistus plodding underground, 
For novel modes of motion, light, and sound, 
For principles, unknown to nature's laws, 
Ends without means, effects without a cause; 
Now wrapt in golden doubts, & midnight schemes, 
He hews a model, fancied once in dreams! 
Or buoyed with hopes, mole-working dulness feels, 
Lost in the plenitude of cranks and wheels, 
He sees in thought before his sleepless eyes, 
Wide o'er the land his labor'd engines rise. 
And streamless wastes, & high o'er hanging hills, 
Groaning with self "impelling cars or mills; 
He joys within himself, that none before, 
Had found the long-sought mighty, golden power! 
Ah ! luckless man, with all thy hair-brain'd skill, 
At lock or pulley, lever, crank, or mill, 
How link'd, how like's thy nature & thy rules, 
Perpetual motions and perpetual fools. 

Lo ! yonder night, who, sour'd by fortune's frown, 
Now walks at noon-day slip-shod thro' the town, 
He, lost to mirth, and foe to cleanly rooms, 
Plods in lone cellars, or in attic glooms, 
Buried in chips & gauzes, glues & strings, 
The proud materials of human wings : 
Alike to him, if Greek or Turk prevail,^ 
So he can mould a wing, or form a tail, 



The Literary Voyager 

Nay, fleets may perish, quadrupeds all die, 
For what their further use? he soon will fly! 
Strange! that a being formed for high pursuits, 
Should covet thus the meaner pow'rs of brutes, 
Turn from, his proper business, sphere & use, 
And sigh for the endowments of a goose ! 

Rhabdomus, arts more daring aims to teach, 
Arts that supernal powers alone can reach! 
With monkish skill & old alchemic lore 
From foreign climes he seeks our happy shore; 
Well skilPd is he, in many a darkling trick, 
By magic rod, or prescient hazel stick, 
Or quick effluvia, piercing through the ground, 
His nostrils guiding, as they guide a hound. 
Deep read, in nature's most occult designs, 
And erudite in cabalistic signs, 
Well vers'd in many a wizard-wise conceit, 
Where hidden waters run, & where they meet, 
Where subterranean treasures lie forgotj 
In isle or main, bed, cavity, or pot: 
Nor less to him, such powers of speech belong, 
As still may serve to hold the gazing throng, 
And fix their wonder; they on tiptoe stand, 
To catch his tale, but eye his gilded wand; 
They ponder much on all that he has wrought, 
Gold in each hope, a mine in every thought, 
And still with dumb belief, the wonder spreads, 
To hear of all he sees & knows & dreads! 
They marvel much, how any mortal eye, 
Light task for him! can read the fates on high, 
Tell when propitious, & when adverse signs, 
Shine thro' the Stars in clear prophetic lines; 
Or, if beneath, he casts his piercing view, 
What beds of rock his vision passes through, 
What envious flint the silver store detains! 
What stubborn granite hides the golden veins! 
The while, he points their course & their extent, 



No. 8. February 13th 1827 

And estimates their value to a cent ! 
Thus fortified, with sight and smell canine, 
To trace, predict, unravel and divine 
Thus wrapt in skill, he moves across the plain 
A walking pestilence, a living bane, 
Shame, dullness, and delusion in his train. 
At his approach the lawn-devouring spade, 
Upturns the area, mars the promenade; 
The urn-cap'd wall, a venerable show, 
Is doomed to fall a treasure lurks below! 
The box-hedg'd garden, late so choice a care, 
Is next destroy 'd a spring is flowing there! 
The dusty public way, the planted field, 
Nor grain can save, nor rattling cars can shield. 
The grave itself, revered for many an age, 
No longer sacred, feels the mad'ning rage, 
And e'en the mansion, loved more dear than well, 
Curs'd by the rage, at last is doomed to fall. 

And are there minds, so much by toil debas'd, 
So lost to reason, truth, religion, taste, 
Who, spite of all that science hath design'd, 
And the broad march of letters & of mind, 
Still pleas'd can stoop to fan this flagging rage, 
And fix a vulgar stigma on the age? 
Let Yale reply Yale's hoary, classic shades, 
And Ulster's plains, & Richmond's island-glades ! 

Damoetas 111 

THE FORSAKEN BROTHER 
A CHIPPEWA TALE 

It was a fine summer evening; the sun was scarcely an hour high, 
its departing rays beamed through the foliage of the tall, stately elms, 
that skirted the little green knoll, on which a solitary Indian lodge 
stood. The deep silence that reigned in this sequested and romantic 
spot, seemed to most of the inmates of that lonely hut, like the long 
sleep of death, that was now evidently fast sealing the eyes of the 

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The Literary Voyager 

head of this poor family. His low breathing was answered by the 
sighs of his disconsolate wife and their children. Two of the latter 
were almost grown up, one was yet a mere child. These were the only 
human beings near the dying man. The door of the lodge was thrown 
open to admit the refreshing breeze of the lake, on the banks of 
which it stood; and as the cool air fanned the head of the poor man, 
he felt a momentary return of strength, and raising himself a little, 
he thus addressed his weeping family. "I leave you thou, who hast 
been my partner in life, but you will not stay long to suffer in this 
world. But oh! my children, my poor children! you have just com- 
menced life, and mark me, unkindness, and ingratitude, and every 
wickedness is in the scene before you. I left my kindred and my tribe, 
because I found what I have just warned you of. I have contented 
myself with the company of your mother and yourselves, for many 
years, and you will find my motives for separating from the haunts 
of men, were solicitude and anxiety to preserve you from the bad 
examples you would inevitably have followed. But I shall die content, 
if you, my children promise me, to cherish each other, and on no 
account to forsake your youngest brother, of him I give you both 
particular charge." The man became exhausted, and taking a hand 
of each if his eldest children, he continued "My daughter! never 
forsake your little brother. My son, never forsake your little brother." 
"Never, never!" they both exclaimed. "Never never!" repeated the 
father and expired. 

The poor man died happy, because he thought his commands would 
be obeyed. The sun sank below the trees, and left a golden sky be- 
hind, which the family were wont to admire, but no one heeded it 
now. The lodge that was so still an hour before, was now filled with 
low and unavailing lamentations. Time wore heavily away five long 
moons had passed and the sixth was nearly full, when the mother also 
died. In her last moments she pressed the fulfilment of their promise 
to their departed father. They readily renewed their promise, because 
they were yet free from any selfish motive. The winter passed away, 
and the beauties of spring cheered the drooping spirits of the bereft 
little family. The girl, being the eldest, dictated to her brothers, and 
seemed to feel a tender and sisterly affection for the youngest, who 
was rather sickly and delicate. The other boy soon showed symptoms 
of restlessness, and addressed the sister as follows. "My sister, are 
we always to live as if there were no other human beings in the world. 

94 



No. 8. February 13th 18<27 

Must I deprive myself the pleasure of associating with my own kind? 
I shall seek the villages of men; I have determined, and you cannot 
prevent me." The girl replied, "My brother, I do not say no, to what 
you desire. We were not prohibited, the society of our fellow mortals, 
but we were told to cherish each other, and that we should no [do] 
nothing independent of each other that neither pleasure nor pain 
ought ever to separate us, particularly from our helpless brother. If 
we follow our separate gratifications, it will surely make us forget 
him whom we are alike bound to support." The young man made no 
answer, but taking his bow and arrows left the lodge, and never 
returned. 

Many moons had come and gone, after the young man's departure, 
and still the girl administered to the wants of her younger brother. At 
length, however, she began to be weary of her solitude, and of her 
charge. Years, which added to her strength and capability of directing 
the affairs of the household, also brought with them the desire of 
society, and made her solitude irksome. But in meditating a change 
of life, she thought only for herself, and cruelly sought to abandon 
her little brother, as her elder brother had done before. 

One day after she had collected all the provisions she had set apart 
for emergencies, and brought a quantity of wood to the door, she said 
to her brother. "My brother, you must not stray far from the lodge. 
I am going to seek our brother: I shall soon be back." Then taking 
her bundle, she set off, in search of habitations. She soon found them, 
and was so much taken up with the pleasures and amusements of 
society, that all affection for her brother was obliterated. She accepted 
a proposal of marriage, and after that, never more thought of the 
helpless relative she had abandoned. 

In the meantime the elder brother had also married, and settled on 
the shores of the same lake, which contained the bones of his parents, 
and the abode of his forsaken brother. 

As soon as the little boy had eaten all the food left by his sister, he 
was obliged to pick berries and dig up roots. Winter came on, and the 
poor child was exposed to all its rigors. He was obliged to quit the 
lodge in search of food, without a shelter. Sometimes he passed the 
night in the clefts of old trees, and ate the refuge meats of the wolves. 
The latter soon became his only resource, and he became so fearless of 
these animals, that he would sit close to them whilst they devoured 
their prey, and the animals themselves seemed to pity his condition, 

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The Literary Voyager 

and would always leave something. Thus he lived, as it were, on the 
bounty of fierce wolves until spring. As soon as the lake was free from 
ice, he followed his new found friends and companions to the shore. 
It happened his brother was fishing in his canoe in the lake, a con- 
siderable distance out, when he thought he heard the cry of a child, 
and wondered how any could exist on so bleak a part of the shore. He 
listened again more attentively, and distinctly heard the cry repeated. 
He made for shore as quick as possible, and as he approached land, 
discovered and recognized his little brother, and heard him singing in 
a plaintive voice 

Neesya, neesya, shyegwuh gushuh! 
Ween ne myeengunish! 

ne myeengunish! 
My brother, my brother, 
I am now turning into a Wolf! 
I am turning into a Wolf. 

At the termination of his song, he howled like a Wolf, and the 
young man was still more astonished when, on getting nearer shore, 
he perceived his poor brother half turned into that animal. He how- 
ever, leapt on shore and strove to catch him in his arms, and sooth- 
ingly said "My brother, my brother, come to me." But the boy 
eluded his grasp, and fled, still singing as he fled "I am turning into 
a Wolf I am turning into a wolf," and howling in the intervals. 

The elder brother, conscience struck, and feeling his brotherly affec- 
tion returning with redoubled force, exclaimed in great anguish, "My 
brother, my brother, come to me." But the nearer he approached the 
child, the more rapidly his transformation went on, until he changed 
into a perfect wolf, still singing and howling, and naming his brother 
and sister alternately in his song, as he fled into the woods, until his 
change was complete. At last he said. "I am a wolf," and bounded out 
of sight. 

The young man felt the bitterness of remorse all his days, and the 
sister, when she heard of the fate of the little boy whom she had so 
cruelly left, and whom both she and her brother had solemnly prom- 
ised to foster and protect, wept bitterly; and never ceased to mourn 
until she died. 

Leelinau 112 

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No. 8. February 13th 1887 

LINES WRITTEN UNDER SEVERE PAIN AND SICKNESS 

Ah! why should I at fortune's lot repine, 

Or fret myself against the will divine? 

All men must go to death's deform'd embrace, 

When here below they've run their destin'd race; 

Oh! then on Thee, my Savior, I will trust, 

For thou art good, as merciful and just, 

In Thee, with my whole heart I will confide, 

And hope with Thee, forever to abide. 

To Thee, my God, my heart & soul I raise, 

And still thy holy, holy name I'll praise! 

! deign to give me wisdom, virtue, grace, 

That I thy heavenly will may ever trace; 

Teach me each duty always to fulfil, 

And grant me resignation to Thy will, 

And when Thy goodness wills that I should die, 

This dream of life I'll leave without a sigh. 

Rosa 

ANTIQUE ART OF THE INDIANS 

It has been remarked that the North American Indians have left no 
monuments by the study of which, their history is to be elucidated. 
And in fact, they have left none, if we require any advanced state of 
the arts, or even phonetic signs, inscriptions, or the use of iron tools 
in any form, as essential to constitute monumental remains. Their 
sculptural attempts in bone, shell, and steatite or clay stone, their 
spear heads of jasper or hornstone, their lancets of fractured flint, 
and even their more labored efforts in the production of the Mikeen- 
gwun, or stone chisel for fleshing raw skins, and axes of hornblende 
and porphyry, and their stone pestles for pounding grain, are the 
works of a people in a very rude state of society, and evince neither 
much industry or ingenuity beyond what may be deemed essential to 
supply the incipient wants of a state of nature. There is probably, a 
greater proficiency in mechanical or manufacturing skill, evinced hi 
the construction of their earthen cooking vessels, than in any of their 
rude simple monuments. 
Having had a strong desire, from the frequent examination of small 

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fragments, to procure an entire vessel, we succeeded in ascertaining 
that two vessels of this kind, were buried on an island. It required an 
effort to overcome the reluctance of the chief, who knew the locality, 
to discover them. He would not consent to conduct any person to the 
spot. He, at length, consented through the influence and politeness of 
T[homas] G. Anderson Esqr. of the British Indian Department to re- 
move one of the vessels to his village. We visited his residence for the 
purpose of receiving it in the spring of 1826. After the customary pre- 
liminaries of such a visit, he said he had removed the vessel, and 
would point it out to us. We followed him into the woods a consider- 
able distance. When he came near the spot where he had secreted it. 
he stopped and informed us it was at hand. He had still a reluctance 
to point out the precise locality, and left us to search for it. It was 
deposited under the body of a fallen tree. We detail these circum- 
stances to exemplify a degree of caution and distrust which is a 
general trait of the Indian character. 

In shape and capacity this relic is not unlike a modern iron pot, 
except that it is without legs. The lower part is globular, contracting 
at the neck, and the lip is inflected. It appears to have been used, by 
being placed on a bed, or earth, or ashes, in the manner of a chemical 
retort upon a sand bath. It is formed with general regularity, and of 
an equal thickness. The exterior appears to have been carefully 
smoothed, but has not the circularly striated appearance of common 
pottery turned in the lathe. The interior structure, as shows upon a 
fractured edge, is coarse, and the materials employed in the mixture, 
appear to be essentially silex and clay. Upon the interior of the rim, 
is a blackish carbonaceous crust. 

We enquired of the chief, how long he supposed it was since his 
people had relinquished the use of such vessels. He replied that he 
was the seventh chief, in a direct line, since the first appearance of 
the French among them. And that the French had supplied them with 
copper and brass kettles, which were not so easily broken, and that 
the women, whose province it was, to make the earthen pots, had long 
since lost the art. This chief, who is still living, and whose name is 
Kewikonce, evinced a degree of knowledge of Indian history, and a 
reflective turn of mind, which it is not frequent to meet with among 
his countrymen, circumstances, which lead us to place more reliance 
upon his statements than we otherwise should. 

98 



No. 8. February 13th 1827 

If we assume the period of Cartier's first visit to the St. Lawrence 
(1534) as the era of the first intercourse of the North Western 
Indians with white men, and this is perhaps a few years too early, a 
fraction over four scriptural generations has only elapsed since the 
event. By the statements of Kewikonce, seven generations of Indians, 
being a fraction over 40 years to each generation, has passed away 
within the same period. This instance is too partial to admit, of a 
general conclusion. But may be regarded as affording proof that the 
Indians have not, at least since the discovery, attained the longevity 
of the European stock. 

Antiquarius 

THE YELLOW ISLE 
A FRAGMENT 

"Listen white-man I go not there! 
Unseen spirits stalk the air; 
Hungry birds their influence lend, 
Snakes defy, and kites defend. 
There, the star-ey'd panther prowls, 
And the wolf in hunger howls ; 
There, the speckled adder breeds, 
And the famish'd eagle feeds, 
Spirits prompt them, fiends incite, 
They are eager for the fight, 
And are thirsting night and day, 
On the human heart to prey ; 
Touch not then, the sacred lands 
Of the yellow isle of sands. 

European 

"Tell me red-man ! hunter hoar, 
Dweller on 'Chigomme's shore, 
Wherefore, bound by spell or wile, 
Spirit-guarded is yon isle? 
Is there not, embowelled there, 
Many a gem of lustre rare? 
Glows there not, in hidden mine, 

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Gems that sparkle, ores that shine? 
Beams there not, along the strand, 
Glittering mounds of golden sand? 
Tell me hunter! can'st thou not. 
Guide, me, to the treasur'd spot? 
Arms, with Europe's skill prepar'd, 
Shall the daring deed reward, 
Bands shall deck thee; feathers bless! 
And the skill of Albion, dress! 
With Columbia's banner'd pride, 
And a chieftain's plate beside. 

Indian 

"Listen white-man! moons have past, 
Since this earth was all a waste! 
Rains had drench'd it, earthquakes rent, 
Winds demolished, ages spent; 
And the waters black and still, 
Slumber'd deep o'er every hill, 
And not one ling'ring beam of light, 
Hhim'd the vast and moonless night: 
'Twas then the Spirit of the sky, 
In mercy hung yon lamps on high, 
Sun, moon, and stars ! and by their light, 
ExpelTd the dread chaotic night; 
Then cloth'd he, hills and vales with trees, 
And slated bounds to lakes and seas, 
Then sent he, birds and beasts in woods, 
And fish in all our limpid floods 
And creatures small, of foot and wing, 
And every living, breathing thing. 
Last sent he man! (a barb'rous race; 
From whom my long descent I trace) 
As lord o'er all; and thus benign, 
Address'd the parent of our line: 
To thee, I give these smiling woods, 
These lofty hills, and peopled floods 
Fill'd with all needful game; and blest 

100 



No. 8. February 18th 1827 

For thy convenience, peace, and rest. 
I give thee bow! I give thee spear! 
To dart the fish, and fell the deer 
I give thee vessel, light, to sweep, 
O'er the broad stream, and billowy deep 
I give thee skins for thy attire, 
To shade thee, leaves; to warm thee, fire! 
More need'st thou not, nor covet more, 
And peace shall round thee blessings pour. 
But touch not gold! the tempter fly! 
Or all thy kin shall droop and die 
For in that potent poison pent, 
Lurk envy, pain, and discontent, 
And luxury of lif e the bane, 
And woe with all her haggard train. 
Listen white man! dreamest thou 
My soul could e'er descend so low 
To sell my country, life and line 
For any frail rewards of thine! 
By breaking heaven's supreme commands, 
To tread the isle of golden sands: 
My fare is scant! my roof is low! 
My country cold, and deep my wo! 
And every moon that climbs yon hill 
Forbodes my race both want and ill; 
But scantier still must be my meal, 
And keener woes my bosom feel 
A sharper winter chill our sky 
And louder tempests rage on high 
And every limb be rack'd with pain, 
And grief consume, ere I complain! 
Ere I comprise heaven's decree, 
By touching gold, or guiding thee. 

European 

"Man of the woods! thy fancies seem, 
Like some distemper'd midnight dream, 
Wild and devoid of reason. Vain! 

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Are all thy fears of gold, or gain. 

Vain every fear of Indian mood, 

That white man, wills them aught but good, 

By letters, skill and care, 

Toil, temperance, virtue, peace and prayer, 

Or seeks by truth's prophetic rod, 

Aught, but to bring them back to God. 

[Henry R. Schoolcraft] 
Albany, Feb. 1821 

INDIAN MODE OF RECORDING IDEAS 

My attention had been directed to the mode of communicating ideas 
possessed by the North American Indians, by means of hieroglyphics, 
in the year 1820, while engaged as a member of the expedition or- 
ganized that year, to explore the sources of the Mississippi. Separa- 
tions of the exploring party, and the detachment of sub parties on 
separate routes became necessary, in accomplishing the object, in the 
region north west of lake Superior, and it was while on one of these 
occasions, while crossing the humid, level summit, between the waters 
of the St. Louis, and a contiguous branch of the Mississippi, that a 
very striking exhibition of this art was made, by the Indian guide, 
who conducted a detached party over that unfrequented table land. 113 
I had previously observed limited symbolic inscriptions on the sticks 
or posts set up, to denote their graves, on the island of Michilimaci- 
nac; and along the shores of lake Superior; but here, was displayed, 
on the surface of a smooth sheet of birch bark, a pictorial detail of 
the circumstances of our encampment, the number, and character of 
the party, the order of the camp, and the number and kind of animals, 
or game, which had been killed. The whole was so well arranged, and 
the symbols so naturally expressed, that its import, even without the 
aid of an interpreter, was quite obvious. And it was executed so 
readily by our guides, as to evince their perfect familiarity with the 
system. Other evidences of the general acquaintance of the Indians 
with this art, were afterwards witnessed. They were generally found 
inscribed on bark of the same species, sometimes on the decorticated 
side of trees, and, in a few instances, painted on rocks, with native 
pigments. 

This art, it was noticed, was not confined to the Ojibways, in whose 

108 



No. 8. February 13th 1827 

territorial domains, specimens of it, were first observed. On descend- 
ing the Mississippi, and reaching the confines of the Dacotah or Sioux 
country, the same hieroglyphic system was witnessed. At a point 
called by the fur traders La Petite Roche, above the Falls of St. 
Anthony, a sheet of bark inscribed with these figures was descried, 
suspended from a pole on the brinks of the river. 114 The Indians at- 
tached to the expedition, to whom this display created deep interest, 
at once, interpreted it, as a pictorial memorial of a visit of the Sioux, 
into the Chippewa nation, with an offer of terms of peace. 

Abieca 

THE WEASEL AND WOLF 
A CHIPPEWA FABLE 

There was once a conversation between a weasel and a wolf. Let us 
have a union in our families, said the weasel, for I have such feeble 
powers of body, that I am always obliged to get things at night and 
by stealth, for fear of man, and get but a scanty living after all. Wolf, 
you often walk abroad by day, and all men respect your courage and 
dexterity. True, replied the Wolf, but if I have strong courage, I have 
strong enemies both by night and day. A cousin of mine, told me that 
wolves get fine sheep in the south, but in this poor country, we are 
lucky if we can catch a lynx or rabbit, and I am often put to my 
shifts for a meal, whereas your very feebleness is your protection. Be 
satisfied with what you are. You can catch mice, and get grain or 
roots. The Creator has tempered our powers and apetites very well, 
and you often escape dangers, that would crush me. Man is my worst 
enemy, and I am told a price is set on my head. At this moment, the 
trap of a hunter, sprang, and the poor wolf was caught by the legs, 
while the weasel scampered off. 

THE DESERTED INDIAN MAID 

The affections of the Indian women are strong. Their love of their 
offspring is not surpassed in interest, or intensity by any nation. They 
are deeply attached to their friends, families, relatives and tribes. The 
following is a free version of a native song of a Chippewa girl, the 
original and literal translation of which, was put in our hands. 

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Ah, when remembrance brings to mind 
The youth as brave as he was kind, 
Love, hope, and joy alternate start, 
And wake a transport in my heart. 

And when he bid the sad adieu, 
He said "my love I'll go with you." 
"I'll go with you," my heart replied, 
But on my tongue the answer died. 

Alas what grief what pain of mind 
I felt when I was left behind. 
The kiss he gave oh grief may kill, 
Brave youth! but I shall love thee still. 



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The Literary Voyager 



No. 9. Sault Ste. Marie February 16th 



SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY 

No. 1 
To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N.Y. 115 

July 6th 1821 

Sir: I comply with your request, by sketching the outlines of a tour, 
which has been commenced with some little preparation on my part, 
and pursued under the advantages arising from a situation in the 
public employment, under a distinguished person 116 who has a perfect 
knowledge of the history of the interesting region we are to pass. 
Thoughts put to paper in the profoundest depths of the woods, and 
by the light of a campfire at night, cannot be expected to possess the 
grace of diction, or research which are demanded of the closet student. 
It is the facts alone, which are expected to sustain my narration, and 
even in presenting these, I shall have nothing to excite amazement, 
or produce wonder. If there is any wonder in the West, it is to see 
with what facility, forests are felled, prairies cultivated, and towns 
erected. The Indian has been often described, and the only wonder he 
excites is that he is still wedded to his savage pursuits. To travel 
rapidly is our aim. You will not therefore be surprized, if I do not 
supply deficiencies in topography, on the natural history of the region 
before us. The mission of the western people is to conquer a wilder- 
ness, and in this they possess no higher powers than the axe, the saw, 
the lever and the water wheel. The gospel is often preached in groves, 
which lately re-echoed the Indian yell. Churches and school houses 
form the second picture of western settlements. 

But, although, I have wonders to describe, like all other travellers 
and tourists, since the days of Megesthines, and Marco Polo, I shall 
expect you only to see with my eyes, and to hear with my ears, yet, I 
must apprize you at the outset that you are not to expect all I see, or 
all I hear, or all that any other person placed in my situation, could, 
or might see, or hear, but only such particulars, obtruding themselves 
to a hasty notice, as I may deem worthy, or find it convenient, to 

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The Literary Voyager 

allude to. With these remarks you will be enabled to follow me in the 
journey more understandingly, and I will only add, that I hope you 
will not take it ill, if my narrative becomes tiresome, when the 
journey was so. 

From New York to Buffalo, occupied seven days. Thence to 
Detroit, through Lake Erie was a steamboat journey, of two days and 
two nights. Owing to unavoidable delay, I did not reach Detroit until 
the morning of the day fixed for our departure, and I embarked on 
the journey with no better preparations than could be made within 
three hours after my arrival. It was at twelve o'clock on the third of 
July, when we quitted the landing in front of the mansion house of 
Gov. Cass, where a crowd of citizens had assembled to offer us their 
best wishes and salutations. The wind blew directly down the straits, 
and impelled our buoyant canoe at the rate of eight miles per hour. 
We passed rapidly down the channel of the Detroit river, checquered 
with its fine islands and highly cultivated shores, and held our course 
along the southern banks of lake Erie, but we did not find it con- 
venient to effect a landing at any place. Our steerman pointed out to 
us, as we passed, the prominent points of land, that jut out into the 
lake, with their appropriate names, and the rich alluvial tracts which 
border the mouth of the river Raison, celebrated as the scene of the 
defeat and massacre of the army of Gen. Winchester in 1813. As we 
approached the entrance to Maumee Bay, we could plainly see, on our 
left, the cluster of islands, which mark the scene of Perry's victory. 
The wind, which blew strongly through the straits, exposed us to a 
heavy swell, the moment we entered the lake, and our slender mast 
bent under the momently-increasing pressure of the gale, so that we 
were soon compelled to reef our little sail, and more than once the 
waves broke furiously over our heads, and drenched us to the skin. 
But we encouraged our men to proceed, and at eight o'clock in the 
evening landed at Port Lawrence, which is at the point where Swan 
creek discharges itself into the head of Maumee Bay, being a distance 
of about seventy miles from Detroit. We were literally driven like a 
ship before the gale. Our mode of conveyance, consists of a birch bark 
canoe, such as were employed upon a former occasion, on the tour to 
the sources of the Mississippi, paddled by six Canadian voyageurs, 
and provided with a square sail. And the party is made up of Gover- 
nor Cass, his secretary, myself, and a cook, ten persons in all. Our 

106 



No. 9. February 16th 

canoe is one of the most beautiful and airy models, expressly pre- 
pared and fitted up for the purpose. It carries the national standard 
at the stern, to indicate to the Indian tribes the character of the 
mission, and is provided with an awning to protect ourselves from the 
heat of the sun, at noon, an improvement which has been adopted 
from the great inconveniences we suffered for the want of it, during 
our passage through lake Superior in 1820. Thus prepared we are to 
pass the Maumee and the Wabash, the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the 
Illinois, and finally, to dismiss our canoe, at Chicago, on lake Michi- 
gan, which is the point of our destination. Major Forsyth, having 
occasion to remain one day longer at Detroit, did not embark with us, 
but proceeded on horseback, and joined us at Fort Meigs. 

Thus Sir, I have detailed to you, our mode of travelling, the num- 
ber of our party, and the limits of our route. Expect me only to 
continue these sketches, at irregular intervals, and do not entertain 
the idea of an unbroken correspondence, with one whose time, is to be 
passed, in the language of Chateaubriand "in the depths of the wilder- 
ness, and under the huts of the American savages.'* 

Such have been indeed, the scenes I have encountered, since leaving 
the sylvan shores of lake Dunmore, and the polished circles of Middle- 
bury and its collegiate circles, where our friendship commenced. Five 
years have passed away since this happy period, and they have been 
to me five years of busy, practical experience and instruction in the 
realities of life on a vast frontier, where the ambitious, the enter- 
prizing, and the unsatisfied are seeking their fortunes, far from the 
homes they loved. I have learned to sleep on a prairie, under the open 
canopy of heaven, serenaded sometimes, by howling wolves to dine 
on grapes or blackberries, if they were fortunately by the way, or on 
acorns, if the wild turkies, or bears, had spared them. And in default 
of either, to take a drink of spring water to encourage hope. 

Patwabincaega 117 

THE UNCHANGEABLE CHARACTER 
OF THE INDIAN MIND 

To the traveller who visits the upper lakes for information, to the 
man of business who casually passes over them in the pursuit of gain 
or to the Christian teacher, who is activated by more exalted motives, 

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The Literary Voyager 

no object presents itself so forcibly to mind, as the impoverished, 
feeble, and erratic native tribes. We there observe the moral problem 
of a race, who have existed in contact with a people differing from 
them in all that constitutes physical and intellectual distinction, 
without having embraced, in any visible degree, manners and opinions 
urged upon them by the precept and example of centuries, or without 
having lost any of the distinguishing traits, which mark them as a 
peculiar people. We see the lean and lynx-eyed hunter directing his 
stealthy footsteps along the shores of these ample waters, like some 
solitary and discontented ghost, wandering over the deserted plains, 
where mighty nations once flourished. We see the warrior, smeared 
with earthy pigments, and decorated with feathers, treading the 
mystic ring of the war dance, and panting for the only species of 
honorable distinction, warlike renown, known to his forefathers. We 
see the Indian physician, the juggler and the wabeno, practising their 
rites, or exercising their skill, and rivetting the attention of their 
credulous auditors, or more credulous patients. If we examine the 
Indian household, we find the consecrated gus-ki-pe-qa-gun, a medi- 
cine sack, containing charmed medicines. If we visit the dwelling of 
the sick, we find offerings to an invisible agency of spirits, suspended 
from a pole conspicuously placed. And if we go to the graves of the 
dead, we observe the idea of materiality throwing its grovelling fetters 
around the disembodied soul, in the food deposited upon the grave, 
and the implements buried within it. In all this, there is little to dis- 
tinguish the Indian of 1827, from the Indian of 1534. They both 
exhibit the same patient endurance of human suffering, the same 
stoical indifference to pain and hunger, the same passion for warlike 
achievement and love of a wild forest independence, which have cost 
them so many battles, so many defeats, and so profuse a loss of 
numerical force, and territorial sovereignty. 

Philanthropy cannot console itself that its efforts to meliorate their 
condition have produced any important changes in their mental 
habits that it has led them to adopt any new trains of thought, or 
more refined and methodical modes of action. Religion has no cause 
to exult in the extent of its achievements. Nor can it be said that 
Industry has produced results at all corresponding to the efforts she 
has made. We are not aware that the Occums, 118 Hendricks, 119 Caloins, 
Obookaiahs, 120 and Williams' 121 whom our colleges have sent back to 

108 



No. 9. February 16th 18%7 

their native tribes, have had the influence to make their people, as a 
people, more temperate and moral and pious, than were their ances- 
tors. Eliot 122 in 1640, Brainard 123 in 1740, and Kirkland 12 * in 1770 
did not certainly, labour in vain. But the tribes are still, "a cake 
unturned." 

As respects the mere exterior man, we have effected, all that has 
been effected. We have clothed him in a robe of woolens, instead of 
skins, and we have put a gun into his hands, and taught him the use 
of an explosive mixture, infinitely more prejudicial and destructive to 
life, and the means of his subsistence, than the bow and the arrow. 
But, with every means and appliance, we have wrought far less 
change in the native constitution of his mind, and made far less ad- 
vances in his good opinion, than it is consolatory to our pride to 
admit. And whenever he has been called on for opinions by which 
the conduct of life is regulated, or passion and prejudice governed, 
we have found the primeval character essentially unchanged. A single 
Pontiac or Tecumseh, has done more to preserve their original man- 
ners and customs and modes of thinking and acting, than all the 
Sagards 125 and Marquettes, or the Eliots and Brainards who have 
occupied the missionary field since the era of the discovery. We do 
not mean to underrate the labors either of our own, or foreign mis- 
sionaries, or to express any opinion adverse to a work recommended 
by noble and exalted sentiments. We refer only to the existing state 
of facts, and to a principle in the Indian mind, which has enabled it 
to resist intellectual culture, for so long a time, and to so great an 
extent. 

During the time they have been placed in juxtaposition to our 
population, they have steadily declined in numbers. They have often 
changed their abodes, receding as we advanced, and have passed 
through several degrees of longitude. But under every change of posi- 
tion, they have manifested a uniform reluctance to agriculture and 
the mechanic arts, as modes of subsistence, and a uniform preference 
for the chase. Perhaps the general causes of their declension, have 
never been placed before them, in a manner better suited to their 
comprehension, than they are found, in a reply of Jefferson, to a 
delegation of Delawares, Mohegans, and Munsees, in 1808. 126 

"The picture which you have drawn, of the increase of our numbers, 
and the decrease of yours, is just; the causes are very plain, and the 

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The Literary Voyager 

remedy depends on yourselves alone. You have lived by hunting the 
deer and buffalo; as these have been driven westward, you have sold 
out on the seaboard, and moved westwardly in pursuit of them. As 
they became scarce there, your food has failed you; you have been a 
part of every year without food, except the roots and other unwhole- 
some things you could find in the forests. Scanty and unwholesome 
food produce diseases and death among your children, and hence you 
have raised few, and your numbers have decreased. Frequent wars 
too, and the abuse of spirituous liquors, have assisted in lessening 
your numbers. 

"The whites, on the other hand, are in the habit of cultivating the 
earth, of raising stocks of cattle, hogs, and other domestic animals, in 
much greater numbers than they could kill of deer & buffalo. Having 
always a plenty of food and clothing, they raise abundance of chil- 
dren, they double their numbers every twenty years. The new swarms 
are continually advancing upon the country, like flocks of pigeons, 
and so they will continue to do. Now, my children, if we wanted to 
diminish our numbers, we could give up the culture of the earth, 
pursue the deer and buffalo, and be always at war. This would soon 
reduce us, to be as few as you are ; and if you wish to increase your 
numbers, you must give up the deer and buffalo, live in peace, and 
cultivate the earth. You see then, my children, that it depends on 
yourselves alone, to become a numerous and great people." 

The frigid apathy with which they appear, thus far, to have con- 
templated their fate, may be denominated stoicism or philosophy. But 
could any of the descendants of European stocks, have been placed 
ha a similar condition, and so long resisted the influence of industrious 
example, so long put off the work of reform, and so steadily declined 
the task of preparing for the future, we might have found a harsher 
epithet to denote the indifference. 

Where the pressure of white men, has yet created no demand for 
the extensive domain, to which they hold the title of possession, 
thousands of acres are held by a few isolated individuals. Populous 
villages in the days of the Jesuit fathers, are dwindled to a few 
hunters, or fishermen. And whole nations are only recognized by as 
many feeble and insignificant bands. Doomed to extinguishment by 
some inscrutable fiat, we see the race of aborigines, like the primitive 
inhabitants of Canaan, falling before their invaders like grain be- 

110 



No. 9. February 16th 1827 

neath the scythe, and leaving their rich inheritance "to men of other 
minds." Whether the question of their origin, can ever be settled, is 
comparatively unimportant. Learning and ingenuity have been em- 
ployed in tracing them to the house of Jacob, by proofs, not always 
the best of which the subject admits, and by conclusions quite un- 
satisfactory; but which, if undisputed, ought to have very little 
practical bearing upon the subject. We live under a dispensation, in 
which the Jew and the Gentile, "the bond and the free" are alike 
subjects of moral and religious cultivation and improvement. That 
inscrutable Power, who deemed it suitable to seal the great pro- 
pitiary sacrifice, by rending the vail of the temple, from that instant, 
recognized the whole human race as coming within the scope of the 
faith and promises. 

We live in an age favorable to missionary and school efforts, and 
under a government tolerant of human rights. Whether we have 
acquitted ourselves of our duty towards our aboriginal population, is 
a question, momentous in itself, but which we are not prepared to 
decide. In the interim of continued experiment, while opinions are 
forming and renewed efforts making, it is the dictate of a humane 
and liberal spirit to improve every opportunity for acquiring fresh 
information, and eliciting new and authentic traits of their character 
and history. 

It has been remarked that the Indians of North America are, to the 
inhabitants of this continent, what "the fallen arch, the broken 
column and the incrusted medal" are to the philosophers of Europe. 
But it may be further remarked, that the study of the former is 
enveloped in a more impenetrable mystery, for the base of the arch 
itself is gone, the column is shattered into a thousand fragments, and 
the medal is without inscription. The study of our Indian history is, 
indeed, rather the province of the Menologist & antiquarian than the 
historian, and few have probably attempted to investigate the one or 
the other, without discovering how little aid is to be gleaned from 
authentic books, or learned from the inspection of their monuments. 

THE INDIAN RHAPSODIST 

The following response to sentiments of "Algonac," was hastily 
sketched by one who admires both the thoughts and the livery in 

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The Literary Voyager 

which they appeared. It is placed at the disposal of the editor of the 
Literary Voyager. 

The lyre the forest minstrel strung, 
In strains responsive to his grief 
Swell'd full and soft the tide of song, 
That bore along the patr'arch chief. 

He sung of days forever fled, 
He prais'd his nation's prowess more, 
He struck the war-notes of the dead, 
And drew the bow now strung no more. 

He wail'd no white man's happy'r state, 
Nor car'd he for the plough or loon; 
But deeply mourn'd his nation's fate, 
As such, fast gliding to the tomb. 

Zina Pitcher 127 

CHIPPEWYANS 

We occasionally see a stray individual here, from this remote northern 
tribe. Mackenzie informs us that the progress of the Chippewyans is 
easterly, and according to their own traditions, they came from 
Siberia, "agreeing in dress and manners with the people now found 
upon the coast of Asia." 128 Their name of Chippewyan is an Algonquin 
word, denoting their being clothed hi fishers skins. They have also a 
tradition among them, that they originally came from another coun- 
try, inhabited by very wicked people, and had traversed a great lake, 
which was narrow, shallow, and full of islands, where they had 
suffered great misery, it being always winter, with ice and deep snow. 
From individuals of this tribe, who have visited the post, the 
Chippewyan language is seen to be radically different from the Algon- 
quin. Its vocabulary is however comparatively barren and unculti- 
vated. They have, few numerals, and no comparison of nouns. 

To MRS. SCHOOLCRAFT 

ON THE ANNIVERSARY OF HER BIRTH-DAY 

Muse! oh maid of tuneful tongue! 
Ever happy, fair, and young; 



No. 9. February 16th 1827 

Ever fond of sylvan sweets, 
And the peace of still retreats- 
Timid, lonely, pensive maid! 
Grant me now thy wanted aid, 
That a wreath I may prepare, 
To adorn my plighted fair, 
Such as may her brows array, 
Deftly on her natal day. 

Let there be no gaud or splendor, 
Make it simple, modest, tender, 
Unaffected, sweet, and kind, 
Faithful emblem of her mind: 
Gather, on the mountain's side, 
Rose-tipt daisies Flora's pride, 
Modest, humble, little sweet! 
Such as she herself would greet. 
Cull the violet's timid head, 
From the garden's cultur'd bed; 
Lovely flower, of sunny ray, 
Ever blooming, sweet and gay: 
Bring from out the shelter'd dell, 
Tender plant! the blue hare bell; 
Seek around the upland close, 
For the simple wilding rose: 
Search the Shadow-border'd mead, 
For the blush-lit, miscodeed 
Native flower, of odor sweet, 
Lover of the calm retreat. 
Let the soft pine's ever green, 
In the faithful braid be seen, 
Emblem of a faith most true, 
When the flower hath lost its hue; 
When the breathing spring is past, 
And on life we look the last. 

Put of cypress one small leaf, 
To denote a latent grief, 
For the cherub that was given, 
But has flown away to heaven. 

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Let the sweet-grass' shining blade, 
Mingle in the tender braid; 
Braid it neat, and braid it fine, 
Let no prickly leaf entwine, 
Nought to mar the tender thread, 
Or excite one thought of dread. 

Tis complete! Accept it then, 
Thou, to whom this verse I bring, 
Borne on love's extatic wing! 
Wear it, on thy natal morn, 
'Twill thy gentle brow adorn; 
Wear it as an offering pure, 
Of affection ever sure, 
Tribute to thy manners chaste, 
Virtue, tenderness, and taste, 
Without taint and without guise, 
Youth's reward, and Hymen's prize. 

Nenabaim 130 
Sault Ste. Marie, 1826 

EUROPEAN PREJUDICE 

Mr. John Halket in his Notes on the Indians^ published at London 
in 1820, by a studiously advocated theory in despite of fact, con- 
trasts the American policy of Indian treatment, with that of France 
and England, while ruling here, and as if civilization, letters, and 
Christianity were justly chargeable for the wildest disorder of republi- 
can institutions, & they could produce nothing else, but barbarism of 
manners & theories. 

Were not the tribes counselled during the American revolution, 
and since, to the highest and best objects of civilization? Did not 
Kirkland in 1775 teach the Oneidas Christianity, instead of war and 
discord? Were not Skenandoah, Cornplanter, and Farmer's brother, 
examples of sound teachings in arts, letters, and politics? Did not 
Sagatowa, or Red Jacket with his shrewdness, wit, eloquence and 
common sense, rise to eminence under the American conferences, 
councils and treaties? 132 Have the just and humane dealings, which 
characterize the whole policy of the American government, a proof of 
its superior treatment of the Race? 

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No. 9. February 16th 

SHAWNEES 

The people of this nation have a tradition, that their ancestors crossed 
the sea. They are the only tribe of the U.S. with which I am ac- 
quainted, who admit a foreign origin. Until lately, they kept a yearly 
sacrifice, for their safe arrival in this country from the South. From 
whence they came, or at what period they arrived in North America, 
they do not know. It is a prevailing opinion, among them, that 
Florida had once been inhabited by white people, who had the use 
of edge tools. Black Hoof (a chief) affirmed that he had often heard 
it spoken of, by old people, that stumps of trees covered with earth, 
were frequently found, which had been cut down by edged tools. 

"It is somewhat doubtful whether the deliverance, which they 
celebrated, has any other reference, than to the crossing of some great 
river, or an arm of the sea." 133 

TECUMSEH, A CAUSE OF INDIAN DEPOPULATION 

Among the temporary causes of depopulation, affecting the north 
western Indians in modern times, none, since the ravages of the small 
pox in 1778, has perhaps had a greater effect, than the influence and 
character of Tecumseh, and his brother the Prophet. By addressing 
themselves to the prejudices of the Indians, they acquired an influ- 
ence over them, which, sustained as it was, by the resources of a 
foreign government, was wielded to embody a very large force. This 
force could, however, never be completely controlled, nor effectively 
employed. A force which served to keep the frontiers in alarm, and 
bedizzen the flanks of an army, to whose strength it undoubtedly 
added while the British army was operating successfully, but in the 
moment of defeat, like elephants trained to battle, they either threw 
their own ranks into confusion, or fought on the triumphant side. To 
provide for the support of such a description of force, poorly and 
partially as they were in fact supported, required no inconsiderable 
effort. And when reverses came, the Indians were abandoned to 
misery and sufferings in all their complicated shapes. It is computed 
by those who participated in the scenes which were witnessed upon 
the American frontiers in 1812-14; or immediately followed, that for 
one warrior who was killed in battle, ten died of the effects of ex- 
posure in bad weather without tents, from scanty or defective pro- 

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visions, or from diseases induced by leaving their own healthy and 
elevated regions, to subsist on salt food, amidst the marshes and low 
grounds where they were so much employed. 

The efforts made by Tecumseh and his coadjutor, were commenced 
as early as 1806, and to the accomplishment of his scheme, he sacri- 
ficed eight years of his life in constant and almost unremitted exer- 
tions. His views, however enlarged, were impracticable. They 
embraced within the plan of an Indian confederacy, the most remote, 
as well as contiguous tribes. Unsuccessful at first, he accomplished by 
perseverance, by assuming arts of popularity, and by a fortunate 
junction of extraneous circumstances, what he could not, otherwise 
have effected, a partial union, and effort at concreted action, amongst 
the northwestern tribes. In accomplishing this ill joined confederacy 
he accomplished in truth, their ruin. They have never since been able 
to muster the same physical force, and it is assuming, but little to 
add, they never will. The Indian power, in the U.S. expired with him. 



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No. 11. Saidt Ste. Marie February 



To the student of the Indian mind and history, there are materials, 
which could be employed to show that this race, has a peculiar myth- 
ology. Unlike the Hindoo race they do not personify the great prin- 
ciples of nature. They have no Vistno and Siva. Their mental 
inventions, represent passions & personal traits and characteristics. 
Thus IAGOO is the prince of story-tellers WEENG, is the embodiment 
of somnolency; KWASIND of strength, and PAPUCKEWIS of tricks and 
harlequinism. PAUGUK, represents Death, JEBI, a ghost. PUKWIADGIN- 
INI, a pigmy or fairy. WINDIGO, a giant. 

There is another class of creations, which may be called astronomi- 
cal, or astrological. The East is personified under the name of WAU- 
BUN, the West, KABEAN, the South, SHAWANDASEE, and the North, 
KABEBOONOCCA. 

For the hills and mountains, they have a class of fairies or little 
men, called Ininees. For the lakes and rivers, and cataracts, they have 
a class of water-spirits, who perform the office of Naids. And for the 
forests and woods, there is a very numerous class of vocal spirits and 
daemons. 

All these are entirely distinct in their offices, and powers, from the 
Great Spirit, the Monedo, the Ozeaud and the Master of Life. There 
is, indeed, reason to conclude that spiritual life exists in these great 
classes. I. The Deity, residing in the upper space, or blue firmament. 
II. Agents who dwell in the air. Ill, Terrestrial spirits, who occupy 
the surface of the earth. 

PAPUCKEWIS 

There are usually, two storms, of wind and drifting snow, which the 
Indians distinctly notice in the month of March about the time of 
the vernal equinox. Sometimes the latter of these storms does not take 
place until the beginning of April. During such weather it is common 
for one of the group, who are nestled in the lodge, to observe "Ah! 
Papuckewis is now gathering his harvest," and this immediately puts 

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the whole circle into the best humor, although perhaps the moment 
before, they were suffering from cold and hunger. This myth is 
founded upon the following story. 

In old times, during a long and severe winter, Papuckewis and his 
family were upon the point of starving. Every resource seemed to 
have failed. He could no longer procure fish from the lake, and the 
severity of the season had driven the Cariboo into the remotest re- 
cesses of the interior. He was travelling along the bleak and ice- 
bound shores of the Great Water, 134 where the autumnal winds had 
piled up the ice into high pinnacles resembling castles. "I know," 
said he to his family, "that there are spirits of Cabebonoca (which is 
the North) residing in those icy castles, and I will solicit their pity." 
He did so, with all ceremony. His petition was not disregarded, and 
they told him to fill his sacks with ice and snow, and to pass on 
towards his cottage, without looking back, until he came to a certain 
hill, and there to drop his sacks and leave them until morning, when 
he would find them filled with fish. But they cautioned him, that he 
must by no means look back, altho' he would hear a great many voices 
crying out "Thief! Thief!" as he went along, for it was nothing but 
the wind sighing among the branches of the trees. He, however, 
strictly obeyed the injunctions of the Spirits, and was rewarded ac- 
cording to their promise. 

It chanced that Manabozho, who is often the subject of ridicule, 
came to visit him, on the day that he had brought home his sacks of 
fish, and he was invited to partake of a feast which Papuckewis 
ordered to be prepared for the occasion. But while they were partak- 
ing of the feast, the guest could not resist the desire he felt to ask his 
entertainer, by what fortunate means he had procured such an 
abundance of food, at a time when they were all in a state of 
starvation. 

Papuckewis frankly imparted to him the secret, and the precau- 
tions which were necessary to ensure success, which the other deter- 
mined to profit by, as soon as he should return to his lodge. But the 
ever active and inquisitive disposition of Manabozho rendered his 
attempt vain, and brought upon him the displeasure of the spirits of 
Cabebonoca. As he ran along with his sacks of ice and snow, he 
continually heard "Thief! Thief!" vociferated in his ears. "He has 
stolen fish from Cabebonoca" cried one. "Catch him! catch him!" 

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No. 11. February 

cried another. "Muckumick! muckumick! muckumick," 135 cried a 
third. In fine, his ears were so assailed by these continued cries, that 
he could not avoid turning his head to see who it was, that uttered 
these opprobrious epithets. 

But the charm was dissolved, his sacks, when examined the next 
morning, contained nothing but ice and snow. And the spirits as a 
punishment for his curiosity, condemned him every year, during the 
month of March to run about over the hills with his bags of ice and 
snow upon his back, the cries of thief! thief! stop him! stop him! 
Muckumick I muckumick! still following him. 136 

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE CnippEWAS 137 
No. 2 

In the feasts we have described, the company is as general, with re- 
gard to the rank, age or standing of the guests, as the most unlimited 
equality of rights, and the broadest principles of good feeling, can 
make it. All the aged, and many of the young are invited. 

There is, however, another feast instituted at certain times during 
the season, to which young persons only, are invited, except the enter- 
tainer and his wife, and, generally, two other aged persons, who 
preside at the feast, and administer its rites. 

The object of this juvenile feast seems to be instruction, to which 
the young and thoughtless are induced to listen, for the anticipated 
pleasure of the feast. When the meats are ready, the entertainer if he 
be fluent of speech, if not, some person whom he has invited for that 
purpose, gets up, and addresses the youth of both sexes, on the sub- 
ject of their course through life. He admonishes them to be attentive 
and respectful to the aged, and adhere to their counsel; to obey their 
parents; never to scoff at the decrepit or deformed; to be modest in 
their conduct; to be charitable and hospitable; and to fear and love 
the Great Spirit, who is the giver of life, and of every good gift. 

These precepts are dwelt upon at great length, and generally en- 
forced by examples of a good man and woman, and a bad man and 
woman, and after drawing the latter it is customary to say "You 
will be like one of these." At the end of every sentence, the listeners 
make a general cry of haa! 

When the advice is finished, an address to the Great Spirit is 

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made, in which he is thanked for the food before them, and for the 
continuance of life. The speaker then says, turning to the guests, 
"Thus the Great Spirit supplies us with food; let your course through 
life be always right, and you will ever be thus beautifully supplied." 
The feast then commences, and the elders relax their manner a little, 
and mix with the rest; but are still careful to preserve order, and a 
decent respectful behavior. 

Let it not be supposed, however, that the Indian's life, while on his 
wintering grounds, is a round of feasting. Quite the contrary. His 
feasts are often followed by long and painful fasts, and the severity of 
the seasons and scarcity of game and fish often reduce him, and his 
family to starvation, and even death. When the failure of game, or 
any causes, induce the hunter to remove to a new circle of country, 
the labor of the removal falls upon the female part of the family. The 
lodge, utensils, and fixtures of every kind, are borne upon the women's 
backs, sustained by a leather strap around the forehead. On reaching 
the intended place of encampment, the snow is cleared away the 
lodge set up cedar boughs brought and spread for a floor the 
moveables stowed away wood collected and a fire built. And then, 
and not until then, can the females sit down and warm their feet and 
dry their moccasins. If there be any provisions, a supper is cooked; 
if there be none, all studiously strive to conceal the exhibition of the 
least concern on this account; and seek to divert their thoughts by 
conversation quite foreign to the subject. The little children are the 
only part of the family who complain, and who are privileged to 
complain, but even they are taught at an early age to suffer and be 
silent. Generally, something is reserved by the mother, when food 
becomes scarce, to satisfy their clamors; and they are satisfied with 
little. 

On such occasions, if the family have gone supperless to rest, the 
father and elder sons, rise early in search of game. If one has the 
luck to kill even a partridge or squirrel, it is immediately carried 
to the lodge cooked, and divided into as many parts as there are 
members of the family. In such emergencies, the elder ones, often 
make a merit of relinquishing their portion to the women and 
children. 

If nothing rewards the search, the whole day is spent by the father 
upon his snow-shoes, with his gun in his hands, and he returns at 



No. 11. February 

night fatigued, to his couch of cedar branches, or rush mats. But he 
does not return to complain, either of his fatigue, or his want of 
success. On the following day, the same routine is observed, and days 
and weeks are often thus consumed, without being rewarded with 
food sufficient to keep the body in a vigorous or healthy state. In- 
stances have been perfectly well authenticated where this state of 
wretchedness has been endured by the head of a family, until he has 
become so weak as to fall in his path, and freeze to death. 

When all other means of sustaining life are gone, the skins the 
hunter has collected to pay his credits, or purchase new supplies of 
clothing and ammunition, are eaten. They are prepared by removing 
the pelt, and roasting the skin until it acquires a certain degree of 
crispness. 

Under all this suffering, the pipe of the hunter, is his chief solace, 
and it is a solace very often repeated. Smoking parties are sometimes 
formed, when there exists a scarcity of food the want of provisions 
not tending, as might be supposed, to destroy social feeling and 
render the temper sour. On these occasions, the person soliciting 
company sends a message to this effect. "My friend, come and smoke 
with me. I have no food, but I have tobacco; and we can pass the 
evening very well with this." 

All acknowledge their lives to be in the hands of the Great Spirit 
feel a conviction that all comes from him that he loves them and 
that although he allows them to suffer, he will again supply them. 
This tends to quiet their apprehensions. Fatalists as to good and ill, 
they submit patiently and silently to what they believe their destiny. 
When hunger and misery is past, it is soon forgotten; and their minds 
are too eagerly intent on the enjoyment of the present good, to feel 
any depression of spirits from the recollection of misery past, or the 
anticipation of misery to come. No people are more easy, or less 
clamorous under sufferings of the deepest dye, and none are more 
happy, or more prone to evince their happiness, when prosperous in 
their affairs. 

(The foregoing facts and conclusions have been taken down, from 
conversations recently held with Indians with whom we are well 
acquainted whose confidence we think, we have fully acquired, and 
whose statements we can safely credit.) 

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ORIGIN OF THE MiscoDEED 138 

OR THE 
MAID OF TAQUIMENON 

The daughter of Ma Mongazida, was the pride of her parents, and 
their only child. Beauty sat upon her lips, and life and animation 
marked all her motions. Fourteen summers had witnessed the growth 
of her stature, and the unfolding of her charms, and each spring, as it 
came around, had beheld her, in her happy simplicity, revelling amid 
the wild flowers of her native valley. There was no valley so sweet as 
the valley of Taquimenon [Tahquamenon]. There, she listened to the 
earliest notes of the wild birds, who returned from the south, to en- 
liven the forests after the repose of winter; and there, also, she had 
prepared her bower of branches, and fasted to obtain a guardian 
spirit, to conduct her through life, according to the belief and customs 
of her people. Sweet valley of the Taquimenon, thou didst bless her 
with the charms of thy fragrance, causing the most profound sensa- 
tions of pleasure. There, she first beheld that little angel, who in the 
shape of a small white bird, of purest plumage, assumed to be her 
guardian spirit, in cot and wood, through sun and storm, for the 
remainder of her days. Happy were her slumbers in this delightful 
visitation, and happy her awakening, as she hasted back, with fawn- 
like fleetness, to her parents lodge, with one more charm one more 
pleasing recollection one more tie to bind her fancy and her heart 
to the sweet valley of the Taquimenon. Beautiful valley of soft 
repose! there, she had first learned to know the sweet face of nature, 
and seen the river leap & laugh in foam, from the rocks, and then 
pursue its sylvan course through the green leafed forest. Sweet en- 
thusiast of nature! wild gazer of the woods! There, too, were the 
sacred graves of her forefathers, and there, she hoped, when the 
Great Spirit should summon her to depart, her friends would lay her 
simply bark-enchased body, under the shady foliage in a spot she 
loved. 

It was early in the Strawberry Moon. 139 The white coat of winter 
was remembered for its having lingered on many spots, which were 
secluded from the sun's influence. But the flowers of the forest were 
now in bloom, and the birds had re-visited the valley. There was a 
soft and balmy air, and life and animation seemed to be newly 



No. 11. February 1827 

bestowed upon the whole face of the earth. The robin and the 
mamaitwa came back to sing, and the murmuring of waters, in the 
little glens and by-vallies, rose, like pleasing music on the ear, and 
denoted the time for the opening of buds, and the springing of 
flowers. Never, had the scene appeared more attractive to her eye. 
"Oh," she exclaimed, "that it were ever spring! that I could ever live 
and revel in the wild beauties of my native valley the sweet valley 
of the Taquimenon." 

But while all nature rejoiced, there was a deep gloom gathering over 
the brows of Ma Mongazida. 140 Whispers of the sign of an enemy on 
the lofty shores of the Pictured Rocks, had reached his ears. He 
thought of the haughty air of the audacious tribe of the Outagamies, 
who, but a few moons before, invaded the country, and had been 
baffled in their design. He thought of the bitter feuds of the border 
bands, yet pleased himself in his own seclusion far from the war path 
of the enemy, where, for the space of fifteen winters, there had not a 
hostile footprint been seen. While he lay on his couch, pondering on 
these things, sleep ensued, and he fancied himself to be the leader of 
a hostile band, who broke from the ambush, at the earliest dawn, 
and carried death and desolation to a slumbering village. Shocked at 
the catastrophe, he awoke. The dream alarmed him. He remembered 
that birds of ill omen had crossed his path, the day before. 

"Had it been my enemies, the Dacotahs," said he to his wife, "I 
should have feared no evil, but to dream of raising the war club 
against the Outagamies my own blood kindred, and with whom we 
have been long in peace, bodes me sure disaster. Some hostile foot is, 
even now, on the track. Some evil bird has flown over my lodge. I 
will no longer abide here. Had I sons to stand by my side, most freely 
would I meet the foe; but, single-handed, with no one but thee, to 
bury me, if I am slain, and my tender Miscodeed to witness my fall, 
and become their prey, it were madness to abide. And this day, even 
before the sun is at the zenith, will I quit the peaceful valley I love 
the sweet valley of the Taquimenon." 

In haste, they took their morning's meal, and made their prepara- 
tions to leave a scene, so loved and cherished, but loved and cherished 
by none, more than the gentle and enthusiastic Miscodeed. She was 
indeed a precious wild flower. But while they yet sat around their 
lodge-fire, the instinctive sagacity of that trusty friend of the Red 

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Hunter, the household dog, betokened approaching evil, at first, by 
restlessness and low murmurs, and then breaking into a loud bark, as 
he flew out of the door. It was a daring war party of the treacherous 
Mendawakantons 141 from the Mississippi. A volley of arrows followed, 
piercing the thin barks, which hung, like tapestry, around the lodge, 
and sealing in death at the same instant, the lips of both father and 
mother. "Oh, bird of my dreams," cried Miscodeed, "my beautiful 
white wing! my angel of promise! save me from the hands of my 
cruel enemies." So saying, she sunk, lifeless to the ground. 

With loud yells and rapid footsteps the foe entered. Conspicuous, 
in front, stood the eldest son of a warrior, who had been killed by the 
Chippewas in the great battle of the falls of the river St. Croix. His 
brows were painted red, and his spear poised. But the work of death 
was soon finished. There lay, motionless, the husband and the wife 
alike beyond the influence of hope or fear, hate or harm. But no other 
human form appeared, and the eye of the savage leader rolled in 
disappointment around, as he viewed the spot where Miscodeed, his 
meditated victim, had sunk into the earth. A small and beautiful 
white bird, was seen to fly from the top of the lodge. It was the 
guardian spirit of Miscodeed. The knife and the tomahawk were 
cheated of their prey her guardian angel had saved her from being 
the slave of her enemy. 

But the sanguinary rites of war were quickly performed ; the scalps 
of the hunter and his wife, were torn away, and with hurry & fear, 
the enemy was soon on his way to his native land. When the friends 
of the slaughtered family, visited the silent lodge, where welcome had 
so often greeted them, all they saw on the ground where the maid of 
Taquimenon had fallen, was a modest little white flower, bordered 
with pink border which was at once destined to be her emblem. 

Leelinau 

INDIAN NAMES 

The influence of geographical names on the literary character of 
history, is important and abiding; and, so far as we are indebted, in 
this respect, to the Aborigines, the subject forms a point of curious 
research. We have not yet passed out of the era for ascertaining and 
fixing the meaning and origin of many of these names, even in the 
Atlantic states, while, in the great area of the West, fuller means for 

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tfo. 11. February 1827 

the prosecution of such an inquiry exists. And it may be doubted 
whether there be any topic of mere taste, or propriety, to which, 
there is one sense, so little, and in another, so much interest attached. 

Connected with this subject, is the question of the bestowal of 
names upon new towns, countries, villages, or residences, and the 
avoidance, in so doing, of the further repetition of foreign names 
already in use. The descriptive and sonorous character of the native 
languages, fit them in a peculiar manner, for this use; and it is be- 
lieved, that, with proper means, a system of terse and appropriate 
aboriginal names, could be prepared, and the geographical nomencla- 
ture of the country, could be thus improved. 

There is nothing in the geography of America, which impresses the 
observer more than the Indian names. The word America itself, could 
not have been more agreeable to poetic ears; nor, if the term were 
restricted to the area of the United States, could we have secured a 
more desirable name. But the Mexicans, the Cubans and the South 
Americans, come in for a share of advantage. I shall hereafter, beg 
for some further notice of this subject in your paper. 142 

LANGUAGE LINKS MANKIND IN FAMILIES 

Were English history, struck out of existence, from the landing of 
Julius Caesar to the present day, we could clearly and conclusively 
prove, that the English language, is derived from the great Indo- 
Germanic family and that at certain periods, there were large in- 
fusions of Teutonic French, Latins, Scandinavians &c. Words by fix- 
ing sounds, are a kind of medals. But if language is so important, in 
tracing the chain of the history of civilized nations, who have the 
use of letters, it is also important, is it not, to trace the former con- 
nections of savage nations, who lack all letters. They still have their 
chartography, and hieroglyphics. 

The physical characteristic of races, is inferred from their features, 
color, stature &c. and craniological structure and its given formulas 
for comparing the intellect of races. Bloomenbach, Pritchard and 
others, deem this as one of the most important means of comparison. 
But I doubt, whether the sounds of the human voice, be not more 
permanent and reliable, than the color of a man's skin, or the shape 
of his face, the length of his arms, or the prominence of his cheek 

bones. 

Hermes 



The Literary Voyager 

MICHIGAN 

Know ye the land to the emigrant's dear, 

Where the wild flower is blooming one half of the year; 

Where the dark-eyed chiefs of the native race, 

Still meet in the council, & pant in the chase ; 

Where armies have rallied by day and by night, 

To strike or repel, to "surrender" or fight. 

Know ye the land of the billow and breeze 

That is pois'd, like an isle 3 & fresh water seas 

Whose forests are ample, -whose prairies are fine 

Whose soil is productive, whose climate benign; 

Remote from extremes neither torrid nor cold, 

'Tis the land of the sickle, the plough, & the fold 

'Tis a region no eye e'er forgets or mistakes, 

'Tis the land for improvement the land of the lakes. 

Ye statesman who mingle in Congress debates 
Who give laws to new lands, & give lands to new states 
Who measure state justice & curb public fires, 
And fix bounds to all things except your own ires, 
Come view this wide region 'tis yours to declare 
The frowns it has witnessed, the smiles it shall share. 
Oh who can forget the black tale of its woes 
While its lands are still dyed But a truce to our foes, 
We leave them to prosper in fetters or free, 
As heaven may order, or monarch's decree. 

To you then I turn and I turn without fears, 
Ye hardy explorers, ye bold pioneers, 
Ye votaries of Ceres with industry blest, 
Whose hopes are still high, & -whose course is still west. 
Ye men of New England ye emigrant race, 
Who meditate change, & are scanning the place, 
Who dig and who delve on estates not your own, 
Where an acre of land is an acre of stone, 
Oh quit your cold townships of granite or brakes, 
And hie with delight to the land of the lakes. 



No. 11. February 1827 

This land is so varied, so fertile, so fair 
So few can excel it, so few can compare, 
That turn where we will, & object as we may 
That here is too little, & there too much day, 
That prairies are weary to view or to toil, 
And covered with blue-joint instead of trefoil. 
That vales do not sink, & that hills do not rise, 
These down to the centre, those up to the skies. 
Yet tell me ye judges of prairie and hill, 
What country so perfect, it wants nothing still? 

Our streams are the clearest that nature supplies, 
And Italy's beauties are marked in our skies 
The zephyrs that blow from the balmy south west, 
Fall soft as the sighs of the Indian God's 143 breast. 
Our woodlands are filled with rare plants & sweet flowers, 
Of exquisite beauty and exquisite powers 
And the isle-spotted lakes that encircle our plains, 
Are the largest & purest this planet contains. 
And talk as ye may talk of countries & wealth, 
This land is the country of vigor and health. 
come then, ye woodsmen, wherever ye harbor, 
Our motto is "tandem fit surcules arbor" 
July 8th 1824 D 

A Fox Indian told Lt. Z. M. Pike, in 1806, that he did not believe in 
a future state, but that he believed they were all destined to be 
drowned, by water, at a future time. Pike says that this opinion was 
not concurred in by the Fox nation generally. 144 



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No. IS. SauLt Ste. Marie March 2nd 18%7 



SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY 

No. 3 146 

WABASH 

To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N. Y. 

The Wabash is one of the most beautiful, fertile and noble rivers of 
the West. Originating in a sylvan country of hills and dales, forests 
and prairies, its current is swelled by numerous tributaries, on the 
right and left all clear crystal streams, which, as they wind their 
way south, unfold districts of the country, of unsurpassed fertility 
and loveliness. In this manner it is joined by the Wea, the Mississini- 
way, the Tippecanoe, the White river, and a hundred minor streams, 
minor only for size, but equal attractiveness of aspect, and sylvan 
beauty of border. In this broad and attractive valley, dwelt the 
Miamies and their cognate tribes, who chased the deer and the elk 
on its plains; displayed their nets in its waters, and trapped the 
beaver and otter, whose precious skins, formed the desire of foreign 
merchants. In some districts, this river washes monument banks of 
rock, as at Merom, where elevations command extreme views of its 
channel. In others, green forests are still permitted to grace its sides. 
The swan, duck and other wild fowl, play on its broad, and still 
reaches. In some localities its waters invade and undermine the large 
mounds which stood on its sides, as at the Bone Banks. It is the only 
large river of the West, whose channel is not interrupted by a cataract. 
Even its rapids are few, and easily surmounted. 

It was in the richest part of this valley, where it passes through an 
unsurpassed range of prairie land, that the French, at the close of the 
16th century founded their earliest settlement of Vincennes. Accumu- 
lating volume, at every tributary, this broad and fertile river reaches 
the Ohio, at a point, which renders it questionable, whether it be not 
the primary stream. Hence, old maps, continue the name of Wabash, 
to its junction with the Mississippi. The meaning of the name is lost 
in the involutions of the Algonquin language. To those best ac- 



No. IS. March end 1887 

quainted with the idiom, it appears to denote a moving White Cloud, 
a name, which presupposes its forest application to some forgotten 
Indian hero, who occupied its banks. 

Pawabecaiga 



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No. 13. Sault Ste. Marie March 10th 1827 



LAMENT FOR THE RACE 

St. Mary's falls run swift & strong, & ever as on they go, 
The waves from shore to shore prolong, a hollow sound of woe. 
That sound upon mine ear doth write, the note of my tribe's decay ; 
That, like a murmuring stream by night, is rapidly passing away. 

The storm that o'er it hangs, is black, & gathering still apace, 

And in its cold unpitying track, shall sweep away my race, 

They sink, they pass, they fly, they go, like a vapor at morning dawn, 

Or a flash of light, whose vivid glow, is seen, admir'd, & gone. 

But who their martial deeds shall sing, who wake the funeral song, 
Or dancing round the magic ring, each choral shout prolong; 
There were there were, but they lie low, & nevermore shall spring, 
To wield the lance, or bend the bow, to revel, fight or sing. 

They died; but if a red-man bleeds, & fills the dreamless grave, 
Shall none repeat his name his deeds, nor tell that he was brave; 
Tho' polish'd not, my falling line, in quiet temp'rance grew, 
And glory, pity, love divine, and many a virtue knew. 

And they were free, & they were bold, & they had hearts could feel, 
And laugh'd at hunger, pain & cold, nor fear'd the freeman's steel 
Farewell! and ye my native words, repeat this simple verse, 
Waft far the strain, ye limpid floods, ye vocal shores rehearse. 

Dear native groves & hills & streams, my father's land & mine, 
Tho' sunk our own, there still are gleams, that on my bosom shine, 
Cold as ye are, with boreal chills, where lux'ry never smiles, 
More sweet to me thy fir-clad hills, than India's sunny isles. 

'Tis peace that gives a nation rest, 'tis virtue keeps it free, 
These still were ours, had heaven blest, or Colon sunk at sea; 

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No. 13. March 10th 1827 

Oh I could tell but it is vain, & weep but there's a vow, 
My tribe scorn'd ever to complain, & I disdain it now. 148 

THE FUR TRADE 

No. 2 149 

The regions upon which this extensive commerce is spread, embraces 
portions of country, in which the civil jurisdiction of our government 
is complete, as well as vast portions where the Indian title is yet un- 
extinguished, and where the laws regulating trade and intercourse 
with the Indian tribes only operate. It will readily occur, that in a 
trade which is conducted at such remote places, some salutary regula- 
tions would be requisite, as well to secure the trader from the unlaw- 
ful exactions of the Indians. The former object is provided for, by 
excluding the sale or gift of ardent spirits to Indians, so that they 
may remain sober and exercise their native shrewdness in making 
their bargains. Regularity in the trade is provided for by requiring 
the whole trade to be conducted under licenses from government, 
whose authority it will always be the interest of the Indians to 
respect. 

The attention of our government was directed at an early day to 
this point, and several laws for the better government and regulation 
of the trade, have been from time to time enacted, containing salutary 
provisions. To this end the Indian territory had been divided into 
convenient districts, and an agent is appointed to reside in each, whose 
duty it is to enforce the provisions of the laws, and to scrutinize the 
conduct of traders. Every trader previously to entering the Indian 
country, is required to file bonds, under suitable penalties, with 
sufficient surety. 

But while these laudable efforts are made at Washington, the wits 
of the traders on the frontiers, are stimulated to frustrate the agents. 
The latter are so few that the Indian country, cannot be closely 
watched. It is the interest of fifty to one to break the laws, where 
there is but one to enforce it. Do what the Agents can, it is impos- 
sible to keep a strict watch, and we must content ourselves to propor- 
tion our exertions, to enforce wholesome laws in the nation that 
interest, duplicity, and daring endeavor to break them. 

Indian agents, in the Indian country, are very much in the condi- 

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tion of cats, in a certain place, without claws. They are expected to 
keep the public cellar dear of rats and mice, without that important 
means. If the military are referred to, they can do but little con- 
sistently with the higher duties of the "public service." If the local 
courts are invited to interfere, alas they are mostly, particeps criminis. 

Jefferson 

PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY 
No. 2 

It is not our object to go into any critical examination of works, 
which are well known to our readers, and upon which the voice of 
contemporary writers has long past. Nor shall we stop to inquire into 
the comparative merits of Chastelloux 150 & Volney, 151 and Chateau- 
briand 152 travellers of the same country with the lately reinstituted 
order of Jesuits, but of a different age, and different stamp. It will be 
sufficient for our purpose, if we show, that previous to our separation 
from the mother country, & even up to our own times, we have been 
indebted, almost exclusively to foreign sources for our information of 
the transmontaine regions; and that neither as colonies, nor as a 
separate nation, had we acquitted our duty to ourselves, by furthering 
the great work of useful discovery. 

The public mind, either seemed satisfied with the reports of 
missionaries and traders, or was not roused to a proper sense of the 
importance of the subject, until the elevation of Mr. Jefferson to the 
Presidential chair in 1800. That acute observer of nature, set on foot 
separate expeditions for exploring the courses of the Missouri and the 
Oregon, the Mississippi and the Arkansas. The result of these ex- 
aminations was given to the public in the expeditions of Lewis and 
Clark, and in those of Lieut. Pike. At the same time a partial im- 
pulse was given to private enterprize, and we are dedicated to the 
decade and following this era, for the "views of Louisiana/' by 
Brackenridge, 153 and the "Historical Sketches" of Stoddard. 154 

Here the public attention again relapsed. Our citizens appeared 
still too busy with the great and pressing realities of commerce and 
politics, to permit their taking any permanent interest in the success 
of projects of remote or doubtful advantage. To amass wealth was 
one thing, and to promote discovery another, and it is inferable, from 

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2Vo. IS. March 10th 1S27 

a review of the state of public feeling, that even the volumes of 
Lewis and Clark, were rather admired, than appreciated. 

No further interest appears to have been excited towards the 
progress of exploration, until the termination of the late war of 1812. 
Various causes tended to accelerate emigration towards the west. The 
demand for information from that quarter was urgent throughout the 
whole tier of the Atlantic States, and everything in the shape of 
personal observations, was eagerly purchased, and eagerly read. The 
supply was soon adequate to the demand. But the market for books, 
like the market for corn, is readily glutted. A sickly growth of produc- 
tions was engendered, and of the numerous "gazetteers" and "jour- 
nals" and "tours" and "travels," which flowed in upon the public, we 
do not recollect, any, after the mention of Drake's Picture of Cin- 
cinnati, 155 and Darby's "Louisiana," 156 which deserves to be recalled 
from that oblivion into which this class of productions has already 
sunk. 

The commencement of 1818 marked a new era in the labor of dis- 
covery in our western country. During this, and the following year, 
the strong desire of making discoveries in the botany and mineralogy 
of the western country, and their kindred topics, allured several in- 
dividuals to travel in those regions, upon private resources. The result 
of this impulse, is perhaps, sufficiently comprehended, in Nuttal's 
"Travels in Arkansas," 157 and Schoolcraft's on Missouri. 158 But a 
more considerable effort was made. Mr. Calhoun, acting on the policy 
which had been introduced and sanctioned by Jefferson, ordered a 
detachment of troops to ascend the Missouri and take post on the 
Yellow Stone and on the Mississippi to St. Anthony's falls, with a 
view, in part, to cover the observations of the topographical engineers, 
and naturalists, who were dispatched to examine and report upon the 
natural features and productions of these imperfectly known regions. 
This design, although partially frustrated by the refusal of Congress 
to appropriate the necessary funds, were carried out, with reputation, 
by the military arm. 159 

Such was the state of our information, and the means taken for 
extending it, in 1819. In the autumn of this year Gov. Cass of 
Michigan, originated an expedition, under the patronage of govern- 
ment, for exploring the regions north and west from Detroit, extend- 
ing through the Upper Lakes to the sources of the Mississippi. The 



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results of this important exploration, extended our geographical and 
topographical knowledge over rive degrees of north latitude, north of 
Detroit. By it, we received our first scientific contributions to geology, 
mineralogy, botany, and zoology. A vast field of agricultural and 
commercial riches was explored, extending from the sources of the 
river, as low down, as the influx of the Wisconsin. The northern lakes 
were entirely circumnavigated and surveyed. Public attention, was 
strongly called to the value of these wide and neglected lands of the 
public domain. No prior exploration, since Lewis and Clark had 
given such an impetus to the expectations of the nation, and its ex- 
tension west. 160 

Viator 

GITSHEE IAUBANCE 

OR 

THE STRONG MAN OF KEWEENA 

This chief resides at Keweena bay, or as it is called by the French, 
L'Ance, in lake Superior; where his father, and grandfather lived 
before him. He traces his claims to the chieftainship of his band no 
farther back than to his great grandfather, who received a flag from 
the French government. 

His father's name was Augussawa. He was killed by the Sioux, at 
the age of about SO, leaving six sons, of whom Gitshee laubance, was 
next to the youngest. He was about ten years old when his father fell. 
When about 18, he joined, as a volunteer, a war party against the 
Sioux and Outagamies. This party consisted of 300 men, from the 
different villages on the shores of the lake. It was headed by Waub 
Ojeeg, aided by Nawondego, and Wabekonjeewona. On the portage 
of the Great Falls of the St. Croix, they encountered the Sioux and 
Foxes, rather unexpectedly the latter having also set out in quest 
of the Chippewas. The fight continued all day, when both parties 
retired. Many persons were killed, and many scalps taken on both 
sides; but the Chippewas claimed the victory; and the Sioux have 
never since ventured to meet them in much force, in the woods. It 
also put an end to the Outagami war, being the last engagement in 
which that tribe appeared against the Chippewas. This battle, by far 
the most important event related in the modern traditions of the 
Chippewas, appears to have been fought in 1763. 

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No. 13. March 10th 1827 

Gitshee laubance has been in three war parties at subsequent 
periods, by none of which, however, was much effected against the 
enemy. He has always enjoyed the reputation of being an expert 
hunter, and, what next to courage is most applauded by the Indians, 
of possessing great personal strength. There can be no doubt, from 
the concurrent testimony of traders and Indians, but he has been for 
many years, and is still decidedly the strongest man in the Chippewa 
Nation. It is in fact, upon his strength and prowess, that his fame 
and authority as a chief, is principally founded. 

As a hunter few have ever surpassed him. During the winter and 
spring of 1806, he killed with his own hands three hundred beavers 
at the post of L'Ance. Beaver was worth in that year, from $3.50 to 
$4. per pound. Estimating each beaver to weigh only one pound, and 
taking the minimum price, his winter's hunt must have procured him 
goods to the value of $1,050 a sum more than amply sufficient to 
support himself and family in affluence. 

At this time, with every exertion, he cannot take over fifty beavers 
during the year, and the whole amount of his hunt, including small 
furs of every description, does not exceed a pack and a half, worth 
perhaps, two hundred and fifty, or three hundred dollars. 101 

Gitshee laubance has six sons, all men grown, neither of whom, 
however, promises to equal the father in activity, strength, or influ- 
ence in his band. The aggregate hunt of these six sons, does not 
usually exceed that of the father alone. The sixth and last son, is his 
favorite, and gives promise of making the most active hunter, and 
the best man. His name is Neezakapenas, or the single bird. This 
son, who is frequently still addressed by his infant name of Penasee, 
is designated to inherit his father's honors. 

Many instances of the personal strenth of Gitshee laubance, are 
related. In the month of February 1808, he killed a buck moose of 
three years old, weighing between 400 and 500 pounds. The snow, 
at this time, was deep, and so soft, from the effects of a partial thaw, 
that the snow shoe sank into it, at every step. After cutting up the 
animal, and draining out the blood, he wrapped the whole in its hide, 
and stooping down, placed himself under the load. He then rose up. 
Finding his strength equal to the task, he then took a litter of nine 
pups in a blanket upon his right arm, placed his wallet containing a 
blanket, etc. upon the top of the meat, and putting his gun upon the 

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left shoulder, walked off, with a firm step, sinking deep in the partially 
melted snow at every stride. He travelled six miles with this enormous 
burden. It required John Holliday, on whose authority this statement 
is made, and three Canadians, to carry another moose, somewhat 
larger, the same distance. But neither of these men, on trial, could 
raise the burden of Gitshee laubance from the ground. 

The dread of his strength, and infuriated passion, led some of the 
earlier traders, to comply with his unreasonable demands for liquor, 
when he no longer possessed the means of purchasing it. This demand 
was refused by Mr. [John] Johnston in 1793, who finding nothing 
would satisfy the audacious savage, while he had any thing remain- 
ing, ordered his messenger from the tent. Gitshee laubance, irritated 
by the refusal, and mad from the effects of previous drinking, seized 
his weapons to avenge the insult, for in this light he was accustomed 
to consider every refusal of this kind. Mr. Johnston placing his 
sword and loaded pistols before him, threatened the life of any 
Indian who should enter his tent in a hostile manner. His men, being 
Canadians, fled and secreted themselves in the woods. In this perilous 
situation, while they were in the act of coming to blows, a sudden 
storm of rain and wind arose, attended with severe claps of thunder. 
The Indian was appalled. "Englishman," he exclaimed, "put tobacco 
in the fire! Your God is stronger than mine." "No!" replied Mr. J. 
"put you[r] tobacco in the fire. I have full confidence in my God. It is 
against you that his anger is excited." At such imminent risks, was 
this trade formerly conducted. 

Born during the latter years of British supremacy in the American 
colonies, and continuing in habits of intercourse with the Agents of 
that government in the Canadas, until a recent period, his political 
partialities were naturally moulded that way. Since the American 
government has advanced a post to the foot of lake Superior, and 
thereby insured protection to the Indians living south and west of 
the national boundary, he had ceased visiting foreign Agents, and 
both by his professions and conduct, has evinced a uniform reliance 
upon, and attachment to, our government. He has been a constant 
visitor at the Agency of St. Mary, from its establishment in 1822, and 
has received from this office a chief's flag and medal of the largest 
dass. In the summer of 1823 he surrendered a flag, formerly received 
from the Agents of the Indian department in the Canadas, as an 

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No. 13. March 10th 1887 

evidence that his visits to them, were terminated: and on returning 
to his village at Keweena bay, hoisted the American ensign in its 
stead. This step was unpopular with the majority of his band, and 
caused considerable excitement. His determination once taken, was 
not however, to be moved, and as no Indian of that band, possessed 
sufficient influence openly to oppose him, a tacit acquiescience to his 
course, had taken place; and his influence at this moment, is as 
great as at any former period. 

SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY 162 

No. 4 
To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N.Y. 

The Mississippi river may be compared to the trunk of one of those 
gigantic trees, on the Pacific shores, or the waters of the Ganges, 
which have innumerable branches, some of which rival and almost 
surpass the parent stem. I have called your attention to the sylvan 
shores and forests of the Miami of the Lakes, and to the long winding 
and swelling evolutions of the Wabash, unparalled in length, majesty, 
and natural exuberance and fertility. In calling your attention to so 
immense a region as the Mississippi valley, bounded in a geological 
view, by the Appalachian and Rocky Mountain chains, I shall pre- 
serve no order of strict topographical sequence, but skip from valley 
to valley, as the subject occurs. 

One of the most beautiful, and at the same time secluded of these 
auxiliary vallies is the Unican, or White River of Arkansas and 
Missouri. This stream, properly belongs, to the river system of the 
Arkansas, with which it, however, is only connected, with the anoma- 
lous channel of intercommunication of the Cutoff. 

Most of the rivers which enter the Mississippi, consist of turbid or 
colored waters. They rush through such rich alluvial districts, that 
they carry along, in their impetuous course, not only large contribu- 
tions of the fertile soil, through which they run, but trunks of entire 
trees, and other buoyant matter, while their channels push along, 
towards the ocean, the stones and boulders in their beds. Thus the 
Missouri, is so turbid that it seems like a chaos, earths, clays, sands 
commingling in it, till its turbidity assumes a continually varying, 
and streaked, or mottled appearance. The Red river and Arkansas, 

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are both so highly charged with marl-like clays, tinged by the red 
oxide of iron, that often assumes the color of stagnant blood. But the 
Unican, presents to the eye, in all its upper portions, a stream of light. 
Crystal could hardly be purer, or whiter. Every pebble or other object 
on its bed shines through it, with perfect clearness. Owing to this 
extreme purity, its depth is always underrated, and sometimes leads 
to fatal mistakes. Tourists and travellers who suppose themselves 
crossing in two or three feet, often find themselves, and horses, 
plunging into twenty feet. Most parts of these upper shores, are over- 
looked by perpendicular cliffs of limestones and sandstones. Above its 
great north Fork, its channel is frequently interrupted by shoals and 
rapids, over which its ample volume, rolls in wreaths of white and 
sparkling foam. Such are the Buffalo and Bull shoals. The Calico 
Rock is one of those perpendicular walls of horizontal rocks, over 
which the trickling waters, clays, and oxides have spread their tracery, 
which gives an aspect, resembling the Pictured Rocks on lake 
Superior. 

Some of the minor tributaries of this river, yield pebbles of agate. 
Galena, blende, and mountain iron ore are found in other places, and 
in its more south westerly territories, its quartz veins in slate, betoken 
gold. For a long distance, this beautiful river, runs in defiles through 
the great and picturesque Ozark chain. Its western sources interlock 
with the Osage and the Gasconade, and its northern springs with the 
Merrimac, the Black and the Current. 

Some of the tributaries of this river, issue in full streams fromj 
orifices in the rock. Many of the limestones of this region are caver- 
nous, and their caves yield nitric salts. It is a region alike replete with 
interest to the topographer, the lover of natural scenery, the mineralo- 
gist, and the geologist. 

Abieca 

OTAGAMIAD 163 

In northern climes there liv'd a chief of fame, 
LaPointS his dwelling, and Ojeeg his name, 
Who oft in war had rais'd the battle cry, 
And brav'd the rigors of an Arctic sky; 
Nor less in peace those daring talents shone, 

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No. 13. March 10th 1827 

That rais'd him to his simple forest throne, 
Alike endow'd with skill, such heaven's reward, 
To weild the oaken sceptre, and to guard. 
Now round his tent, the willing chieftain's wait, 
The gathering council, and the stern debate 
Hunters, & warriors circle round the green, 
Age sits sedate, & youth fills up the scene, 
While careful hands, with flint & steel prepare, 
The sacred fire the type of public care. 

Warriors and friends' the chief of chiefs oppress'd, 
With rising cares, his burning thoughts express'd. 
'Long have our lands been hem'd around by foes, 
Whose secret ire, no check or limit knows, 
Whose public faith, so often pledg'd in vain, 
'Twere base for freemen e'er to trust again. 
Watch'd in their tracks our trusting hunters fall, 
By ambush'd arrow, or avenging ball; 
Our subtil foes lie hid in every pass, 
Screen'd in the thicket, shelter'd in the grass, 
They pierce our forests, & they cross our lines, 
No treaty binds them, & no stream confines 
And every spring that clothes the leafy plain, 
We mourn our brethren, or our children slain. 
Delay but swells our woes, as rivers wild, 
Heap on their banks the earth they first despoil'd. 
Oh chieftains! listen to my warning voice, 
War war or slavery is our only choice. 
No longer sit, with head & arms declin'd, 
The charms of ease still ling'ring in the mind; 
No longer hope, that justice will be given 
If ye neglect the proper means of heaven : 
Fear and fear only, makes our foemen just 
Or shun the path of conquest, rage or lust, 
Nor think the lands we own, our sons shall share, 
If we forget the noble rites of war. 
Choose then with wisdom, nor by more delay, 
Put off the great the all important day. 

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Upon yourselves alone, your fate depends, 
Tis warlike acts that make a nation friends 
Tis warlike acts that prop a falling throne, 
And makes peace, glory, empire, all our own. 
Oh friends! think deeply on my counselwords 
I sound no peaceful cry of summer birds! 
No whispering dream of bliss without allay 
Or idle strain of mute, inglorious joy 
Let my bold voice arouse your slumb'ring hearts, 
And answer warriorswith uplifted darts, 
Thick crowding arrows, bristled o'er the plain, 
And joyous warriors rais'd the battle strain. 

All but Camudwa, 104 join'd the shouting throng, 
Camudwa, fam'd for eloquence of tongue 
Whose breast resolv'd the coming strife with pain, 
And peace still hop'd, by peaceful arts to gain. 
'Friends' he reply'd 'our rulers words are just, 
Fear breeds respect and bridles rage or lust, 
But in our haste, by rude and sudden hate, 
To prop our own, or crush our neighbors state 
Valor itself, should not disdain the skill 
By pliant speech, to gain our purpos'd will. 
The foe may yet, be reason'd into right. 
And if we fail in speech we still may fight. 
At least, one further effort, be our care, 
I will myself, the daring message bear, 
I give my body, to the mission free, 
And if I fall, my country, 'tis for thee! 
The wife and child, shall lisp my song of fame, 
And all who value peace, repeat my name! 

Tis well Baimwawa 165 placidly replied, 
'To cast our eyes, with care to either side, 
Lest in our pride, to bring a rival low, 
Our own fair fields shall fall beneath the foe. 
Great is the stake, nor should we lightly yield, 
Our ancient league by many a battle seal'd. 

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No. 13. March 10th 1887 

The deeds of other days before my eyes, 
In all their friendship, love and faith arise, 
When hand in hand with him we rov'd the wood, 
Swept the long vale, or stem'd the boiling flood. 
In the same war path, march'd with ready blade, 
And liv'd, and fought, and triumph'd with his aid. 
When the same tongue, express'd our joys and pains, 
And the same blood ran freely thro' our veins? 

'Not we not we' in rage Keewaydin 106 spoke, 
'Strong ties have sever'd, or old friendships broke, 
Back on themselves the baseless charge must fall, 
They sundcr'd name, league, language, rites and all. 
They, with our firm allies, the Gallic race, 
First broke the league, by secret arts and base, 
Then play'd the warrior call'd our bands a clog, 
And earn'd their proper title, Fox and Dog. 
Next to the false Dacota gave the hand, 
And leagued in war, our own destruction plan'd. 
Do any doubt the words I now advance, 
Here is my breast' he yelled & shook his lance. 

'Rage' interposed the sage Canowakeed, 167 
Ne'er prompted wit, or bid the council speed 
For other aims, be here our highest end, 
Such gentle aims as rivet friend to friend. 
If harsher fires, in ardent bosoms glow, 
At least restrain them, till we meet the foe, 
Calm judgment here, demands the care of all, 
For if we judge amiss, ourselves shall fall. 
Beside, what boasts it, that ye here repeat, 
The current tale of ancient scaith or heat, 
Love, loss, or bicker, welcome or retort, 
Once giv'n in earnest, or returned sport 
Or how, or when, this hapless feud arose, 
That made our firmest friends, our firmest foes. 
That so it is, by causes new or old, 
There are no strangers present, to be told, 



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Each for himself, both knows & feels & sees, 
The growing evils of a heartless peace, 
And the sole question, of this high debate, 
Is shall we longer suffer longer wait, 
Or, with heroic will, for strife prepare, 
And try the hazard of a gen'ral warl 

INVOCATION 

To MY MATERNAL GRANDFATHER 

ON HEARING His DESCENT FROM CHIPPEWA ANCESTORS 

MISREPRESENTED 

Rise bravest chief ! of the mark of the noble deer, 

With eagle glance, 

Resume thy lance, 
And wield again thy warlike spear! 

The foes of thy line, 

With coward design, 

Have dar'd, with black envy, to garble the truth, 
And stain, with a falsehood, thy valorous youth. 

They say, when a child, thou wert ta'en from the Sioux, 

And with impotent aim, 

To lessen thy fame 
Thy warlike lineage basely abuse, 

For they know that our band, 

Tread a far distant land, 

And thou noble chieftain! art nerveless and dead, 
Thy bow all unstrung, and thy proud spirit fled. 

Can the sports of thy youth, or thy deeds ever fade? 

Or those ever forget, 

Who are mortal men yet, 
The scenes where so bravely thou'st lifted the blade, 

Who have fought by thy side, 

And remember thy pride, 
When rushing to battle, with valor and ire, 
Thou saw'st the fell foes of thy nation expire. 



11$ 



No. 13, March 10th 18S7 

Can the warrior forget how sublimely you rose? 

Like a star in the west, 

When the sun's sunk to rest, 
That shines in bright splendor to dazzle our foes: 

Thy arm and thy yell, 

Once the tale could repel 
Which slander invented, and minions detail, 
And still shall thy actions refute the false tale. 

Rest thou, noblest chief! in thy dark house of clay, 

Thy deeds and thy name, 

Thy child's child shall proclaim, 
And make the dark forests resound with the lay; 

Though thy spirit has fled, 

To the hills of the dead, 

Yet thy name shall be held in my heart's warmest care, 
And cherish'd, till valor and love be no more. 
[1823] Rosa 



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No. 14. Sault Ste. Marie March 2Sth 



DIED, 

On the 13th inst. at 11 o'clock at night, William Henry, only child of 
Henry R. Schoolcraft Esqr. AE. 2 years, 8 mo. & 14 days. "Suffer 
little children to come unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is 
the kingdom of heaven." 



NOTICE OF WILLIAM HENRY SCHOOLCRAFT 

The month of May [1824] at the Sault Ste. Marie, was a month of 
all the sweets of attractive northern climate and scenery. The harsh 
winds of winter, had ceased with the opening of April. May intro- 
duced into the woodlands and glades of the St. Mary's valley, the 
little pink bordered miscodeed, or spring beauty, the wild violet of 
the north, with other well known blossoms of Flora's bounties. And 
the month of June completed the botanical panorama, by contribut- 
ing its flowering shrubs, with agreeable odors. The river ran ma- 
jestically before our doors, on its proud course, to Lake Huron, and 
the distant hills of lake Superior, and the white wreathed rapids of 
St. Mary, with their ceaseless, murmuring diapason, led every heart 
to be joyful. To these sweet and agreeable objects, there was added 
on the 27th of the month the beautiful and bright-eyed, little stranger 
William Henry. A smile was his first expression in joining the society 
of the world. With a face of the purest Caucassian whiteness, eyes 
with the brilliancy of a polished diamond, auburn hair, and features 
of the sweetest amenity of regularity, he became at once an object of 
the deepest love and affection. Physical traits of so attractive a kind, 
were, however, only the tokens of an intellect, bright and precocious. 
When but six months old, having gone with his parents to the City 
of New York, his nurse in carrying him from the boarding house to 
the Battery, was frequently stopped, to ask the name of the bright 
and beautiful child. And when the reply denoted that his mother was 
another Pocahontas, Chippewa blood by the maternal line, and a sire 



No. 14. March 28th 

from the coasts of Dalriada in the north of Ireland, where she was 
educated, additional interest, was felt in the bright American boy, 
and many visits were paid to see the mother and child, at their 
lodgings. The winter of '24 and '25 added to the rapid development 
of his manly traits and attainments in speech and decided manner, 
and the spring of 1825, before his first year closed, beheld him walk. 
His father, during this time, having occasion to visit Washington, 
and spend sometime at the Capitol, an invitation of Saml. S. Conant 
Esqr. and Mrs. Conant to the mother and child to spend the in- 
terim at their country residence, a few miles out of the city [of New 
York] on the Bloomingdale road, was accepted, and he continued to 
improve in growth and development. Born with a fine constitution and 
complete organization, no sickness ever detracted from his physical 
improvement. 

In the spring of 1825, parting from the kind friends, who had 
rendered the winters residence in the city agreeable, he proceeded with 
his parents up the attractive valley of the Hudson, to Albany to the 
western parts of the state, where d season was spent at the residence 
of his grandfather and grandmother. Being accompanied from there 
by a young uncle and aunt, 168 just entering on the stage of active 
life, who sought their future homes in the west, the party proceeded 
to Buffalo, and thence by those fine line of palace steamboats, which 
mark the Lakes, to Detroit, & through the magnificent panorama of 
lake Huron and the sylvan St. Mary's straits, to the scene of his 
nativity at St. Mary's. 

His first year had now closed. To see the infantile countenance ex- 
pand with new life and hope, and the hearts of adult, re-illumined 
by the return of such joyous accessions to, and renewal of affectionate 
sympathy, constituted one of the brightest scenes of human life and 
social enjoyment. We are bound together in closer bonds, by every 
such exhibition. There is nothing sordid in it, and the heart is thus 
purified and exalted. 

Elmwood, 169 the seat of his nativity, stands on the banks of one of 
the noblest of rivers, where the eye is constantly regaled with sights 
of vessels and Indian canoes, in their picturesque and native rig. His 
father being called to attend a distant council of native chiefs, at 
Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi, he had left the wharf in front 
of the agency, in the light and rapid canoe, manned with the Canadian 

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The Literary Voyager 

voyageurs, with their gay feathers and allegoric songs and duetts, 
and thus passed out of sight, as a summer cloud driven by the wind. 
To walk along these banks with his nurse, watching the return of this 
canoe, to pick the wild flowers on its banks, to learn the art of casting 
pebbles into the water, these became his employments. Early autumn 
brought the expected return, and the following fall and winter, added 
to his little arts, and gave new proofs of a precociousness in every 
thing. The spring of 1826, brought new duties, which drew his father 
to a convocation of native chiefs, at Fond du Lac, on the extreme head 
of lake Superior. Willy was now two years old. His father had taught 
him the alphabet, by making twenty six wooden cubes, and putting 
the same letter on each of its six sides, so that whichever turned up, 
in his plays, the same letter of the alphabet appeared. This necessary 
absence, consumed the summer of that year. On returning in the 
autumn, he brought him a little bag of cornelians and agates from 
that lake as playthings. He found him improved by his walks, sports, 
and alphabetical studies, with improved health, and redolent joyous- 
ness of spirits. His voice and smile formed the charm of the domestic 
circles. He chased his shadow on the wall, as a phenomenon; he 
talked to his dog, as if possessed of reason, and he, manfully got out 
of his little carriage, on any little accident, offering to aid in repairing 
the mechanical interruption. The completion of the garrison saw mill, 
became a new and very exciting object of his notice. The roaring of 
the water, and above all, the action of the surf arrested his deepest 
attention. His grandmother, never failed to address him in the native 
tongue, and used both the Chippewa and English words, sometimes 
as synonyms, and sometimes by clipping the Indian of its initial, or 
terminal syllables. She invariably addressed him by native infantile 
exhibition for boys, of penaysee or little Bird, a term of manly endear- 
ment, birds being symbollically, referred to as figures of speech in 
war. And she, carefully made him a little pillow of swan's down, 
plucked from the game brought in by aboriginal friends. 

The terms new and old, are wholly relative, without reference to 
any particular period of time. Old, was, to his mind, merely some- 
thing that has transpired, so that when in the fall of 1826, a barrel of 
fine spitzenberg apples had been opened, he eagerly seized one, say- 
ing, "here is my old apple." 

He had, from the earliest moments of his life, been made familiar 

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No. 11. March Q8fh 1887 

with the existence of God and recognized that existence, pointing to 
His residence above. But what was noticeable as a physical phenome- 
non of no good omen, was his stopping often, in a still and clear day, 
and saying "it thunders!" The autumn of 1826, and the winter of 
1827, wore away heavily, and compelled us to keep more than the 
usual time within doors. March opened with a cloudy and humid 
atmosphere. Willy exhibited cataral symptoms, during which he was 
carelessly exposed by the nurse in visits, relying on his usual robust 
health. The night following this exposure, indications of croup ap- 
peared. Dr. [Zina] Pitcher from fort Brady was in attendance, at an 
early hour, but the developments of the disease, were so rapid, that 
only temporary reliefs were afforded that night and morning. The 
disease assumed a more violent form during the next day, which 
baffled every attempt of skill, and terminated fatally, on the after- 
noon of that day. (13th) 

So sudden and rapid had been the disease, that no emaciation took 
place. In a vigorous development of every physical faculty, the repose 
and placidity of his countenance retained every sign of life. He ap- 
peared in death, as if but sleeping, and the ring of his charming voice, 
was still in the house, while he lay a lifeless embodiment of humanity. 
Expectation; as it gazed on his placid features, could hardly be per- 
suaded, that he would not again speak. 

Death in a family is ever appaling. Willy had lived every moment 
of his life to be loved and admired. Of a bright happy organization, 
physically and mentally, he was the source of perpetual happiness to 
others. His appearance and life in the world, appear like a happy 
dream, and when he was suddenly withdrawn, the hearts that loved 
him were desolate, and only desolate. The blow his death inflicted, 
was regarded as admonitory. 

There was a hope, even in despair. The nucleus of his coffin pillow, 
was a bible the only one his father had, up to that date owned. Over 
his shroud was spread a fold of white satin. On the third day, after 
his demise, his funeral took place. A wide road had been dug through, 
in the heavy snow plain, that intervened, between the south side of 
Fort Brady, and the garrison burying ground. His aged grandfather 
John Johnston Esqr. read the English service. And thus the jewel of 
bright hopes and warm hearts, was left under the wide winter mantle 
of snow which covered the whole country. In the spring a neat tomb- 

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The Literary Voyager 

stone of marble was erected, containing under the dates, the words 
"Sweet Willy." His vase of agates were spread around the path, and 
the mountain ash, and the rose and wild violets planted, as a shade, 
over the sacred spot. 170 

LINES OF A FATHER ON THE DEATH OF His SON 

Sad is the task, a father's hand essays, 

To mourn thy fate in tributary lays. 

These bitter sighs express my latent woe, 

And bathed in tears, the verse must onward flow. 

ever loved ! ever beauteous son ! 
So fondly cherish'd, and so early flown 
So sweet, so fair so link'd in ev'ry part, 
Thy dear idea clings around my heart. 

1 sought no joys but such as thou might'st see, 
And lost a father's name, in losing thee ! 

Oh! can I blot away that dismal night, 

That clos'd in death those eyes of beaming light, 

Hush'd the small pulse, that warm'd thy lab'ring breast 

And wing'd thy spirit to eternal rest. 

I held thy tender arm as life fled fast, 

Mark'd each returning throb, and felt the last, 

Press'd in mute agony thy burning head, 

And saw thee lie pale, motionless and dead ! 

Still seems his form to gleam before my eyes, 
I see his face I hear his playful cries, 
Still seem to bear him in my anxious arms, 
And gaze enraptur'd on his infant charms. 
Ah bitter fancy! cease to haunt my brain, 
Too soon I wake to wretchedness and pain, 
Too soon from slumber's mazy ties I start, 
And all the father rushes to my heart. 
Oft have I led his tender little hand, 
On yonder hill to take my airy stand, 
Where gliding waters sweep its ample base, 
And azure hills fill up the distant space, 

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No. 14* March 88th 18S7 

Pointing to earth, or to the starry plains, 
Where God invisible, eternal reigns. 
And oft, when sober evening streak'd the west, 
And weary nature woed his cradle-rest, 
Pleas'd have I watch'd his slumber sealed eyes, 
And seen, in fancy, all the man arise, 
I traced his course thro' academic cells, 
Where genius lingers, and where learning dwells, 
And fondly hop'd, youth's anxious perils past, 
Fame, virtue, grace, should crown his life at last. 
Fond dream of bliss a shadow or a shade, 
In one short night f orever-ever fled ! 

And when dire sickness, seiz'd his little frame, 
I watch'd intent, beside the midnight flame, 
Laid my moist hand upon his fever'd brain, 
And strove by ev'ry art to soothe his pain, 
Oft gave the cup I fondly wish'd to bless, 
And gave it once, when he no more could press ! 
These throbbing veins, these heavy sighs declare, 
How weak, how vain, was every human care! 
Th J Eternal Power, ever good and wise, 
Reclaimed the suffering cherub to the skies, 
Such was his will, ere earth or heaven begun, 
be that will, not mine Jehovah, done! 

EXTRACT OF A LETTER, DATED MARCH 22ND 182 7 171 

"It has pleased the mysterious providence of God, to separate from 
us, our dear and only child. This event would have been one of the 
hardest trials to which our hearts could have been put, happen when 
it might, but has overwhelmed our feelings by the sudden and unex- 
pected manner, in which our son was called away. He was carried off 
by that fatal disease, the croup, after an illness of only twenty six 
hours. And such was the blindness of our affections, that up to within 
the very hour of his disease, we were in momentary hopes of some 
favorable change, and could not admit the idea of death. So rapid 
was the transition from life to death, that the sound of his playful 

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The Literary Voyager 

voice still seemed to ring in our ears, when he lay an inanimate corpse. 

"You will recollect the picture of health which our dear boy pre- 
sented during our visit to New York. His sparkling eye, and florid 
countenance, were the delight of every circle; but were peculiarly so, 
of our own. As he grew up, and his faculties developed themselves, he 
became every day more lovely and engaging, and took a deeper hold 
on our hearts. He began to speak early, and improved rapidly, and 
we had daily cause to observe a mind sensible and intelligent beyond 
his years. His interesting prattle, the vivacity of his manners, and 
those expressive, speaking eyes, in which the soul of love and affec- 
tion beamed forth, rivetted our hearts. His well being formed the 
object of our fondest hopes, and we had formed no plan of future 
felicity, in which he had not the most conspicuous part. 

"To his grandfather and grandmother, and to his affectionate aunts 
and uncles, he was equally endeared; & their sweetest enjoyments 
arose from those little offices of affection which they continually 
sought opportunities of paying. So endeared, so beloved, our whole 
souls were wrapped up in him, and we were suddenly awakened from 
this trance of bliss, by beholding his pale and cold limbs those 
beaming eyes closed in death that beautiful forehead cold as marble, 
and that lovely mouth closed with a placid smile in death. We retained 
his dear body with us as long as custom rendered proper, and we 
gazed upon his manly features with undescribable emotions. 

"God saw that we had erected an idol in our hearts, and to the end, 
that we might fix our affections with less intensity upon sublunary 
objects, transferred him, to that bright, eternal sphere, "where the 
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest." The promises 
of holy writ are consolatory, and the maxims of Christianity, teach, 
as with words of fire, that the present scene is one of trial and afflic- 
tion, in which no true happiness is permitted, and that we must look 
forward to a future state for that "peace, which passeth all under- 
standing." 

A REMINISCENCE OF DOMESTIC SCENES, 
DATED, PRAIRIE DXJ CHIEN JULY 27 TH 1825 172 

"William Henry is thirteen months old this very day. He will prob- 
ably be fifteen before I see him. Will he walk alone? Will he have 

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No. 14. March 28th 1827 

added many words to his slender vocabulary of papa! and mamma! 
before that period? These are pleasing recollections. Let me see, how 
I can improve them." 

"Lovely, smiling, prat'ling boy, 
"Eldest born of hope and joy 
"With thy sweet, expressive eyes, 
"Where the jet with diamond vies, 
"With thy sense-denoting face, 
"Manly lineaments and grace, 
"Fair in ev'ry trait and feature, 
"Lovely, smiling little creature, 
"Art thou still the same sweet Lilly, 
"Say, my beauteous little Willy? 
"Art thou, as when last I saw, 
"Crying still, Papa! Papa! 
"Clinging to thy mother's breast, 
"Pleas'd whene'er by her carest, 
"Portraiture of health and bliss 
"Smiling to receive a kiss. 
"Or, has time so quickly made, 
"On thy face a manlier shade, 
"Given thy limbs a greater length, 
"Or thy muscles greater strength, 
"Given thy voice a deeper tone, 
"Or approaching more my own ! 
"Is thy tender infant mind, 
"Still to happy play inclin'd! 
"Or begins it to discover, 
"Aught of little mad-cap rover, 
"Daring, noisy, willful, vex'd, 
"Pleas'd this hour, displeas'd the next! 
"If so, spare him Dearest! rather 
"Rule the son, as thou'st the father 
"Not like Juno or like Jove, 
"But by tender, winning love. 
"Now adieu, heav'ns smile attend, 
"The child, the mother and the friend." 

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The Literary Voyager 

REFLECTIONS, 

ON VIEWING THE CORPSE OF WILLIAM H. SCHOOLCRAFT 
FEBRUARY 14TH 1827 

Sweet child! how soon, 

Thy cold and lifeless form, will be convey'd, 
To the gloomy silent tomb I There, 
To moulder and return to dust. 
But hope bids me say; ere this, 
Thy spirit rests, in the bosom of thy God 
Where nought is found, but peace, 
And happiness ; when ages numberless 
Shall have past away, thy bliss 
Is just begun. Fortunate ! 
Thrice, fortunate, art thou! so soon, 
T'escape the great the numberless evils, 
Of this ungrateful world. 

Had thy life been prolong'd, thy tender heart, 

Might have received wound upon wound, 

Hate, malice, envy, evil; all combin'd, 

Thee innocent to destroy. But sweet Babe, 

From all these evils, thou are free 

Entirely free! To parents and relatives, 

Great indeed thy loss ! but to thee, 

Great the gain! Parents? has not the bliss, 

Of your dear William, ever been your theme? 

Why then lament so much? Why wish him back 

To this vain world of sin and sorrow. 

Oh! wipe away the drop that's forc'd to flow, 

And kiss the hand that sore afflicts, and say, 

With David "He will not come to us, but we, 

Shall go to him." If ye're possessed 

Of innocence like his, short very short, 

Will be your separation! Seek it then, 

And a few revolving years, (at most ! ) 

Will close your earthly trials, and duties, 



No. 14- March 28th 1S7 

And allow you, once more, to behold, 
Your near and dear Willy. 

J. EL 173 

SONNET 

The voice of reason bids me dry my tears, 

But nature frail, still struggles with that voice; 
Back to my mind that placid form appears 

Lifeless, he seemed to live and to rejoice, 
As in the arms of death he meekly lay. 

Oh, Cherub Babe! thy mother mourns thy loss, 
Tho' thou hast op'd thine eyes in endless day; 

And nought, on earth, can chase away my grief 
But Faith pleading the merits of the Cross, 

And Him, whose promise gives a sure relief. 

J. S. 174 

INVITATION, 

To AN AUTUMNAL WALK 

Come and walk on the bank it is charming to see, 
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me; 
Winds and rain now no longer disfigure the scene, 
And the sad spreads a carpet of velvet and green 
Fleecy clouds fly above like a veil drawn aside, 
And the Sun's smiling out, like a golden hair'd bride. 
Come and walk come and walk it is charming to see, 
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me. 

The woodlands are fading yet fading they spread 
A beautiful liv'ry of yellow and red. 
Hark ! The plover comes up with his October cry, 
And the river runs swiftly and murmuring by; 
Yet think not of winter! but look on our son, 
Who fills up the moments with beauties his own. 
Come and walk come and walk, it is charming to see, 
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me. 

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The Literary Voyager 

Away to the south, all our songsters have fled, 
And the flow'rs of our garden are faded and dead, 
Yet our green river bank it is left us in bliss, 
And the Sun shines to guild it, on evening's like this ! 
Come, enhance with thy presence, a season so fine, 
And smile on the beauties that mark its decline, 
Come and walk come and walk it is charming to see, 
Come and walk on the bank with my Willy and me. 



The morning flow'rs display their sweets, 
And gay their silken leaves unfold; 

As careless of the noontide heats, 
And fearless of the evening cold. 

Nipt by the winds unkindly blast, 
Parch'd by the sun's directer ray, 

The momentary glories waste, 

The short liv'd beauties die away. 

So blooms the human face divine, 

While youth its pride of beauty shows, 

Fairer than spring the colors shine, 
And sweeter than the virgin rose. 

Or worn by slowly rolling years, 
Or broke by sickness in a day, 

The fading glory disappears, 

The short liv'd beauties die away. 

But then new rising from the tomb, 
With lustre brighter far shall shine, 

Revive with ever during bloom, 
Safe from diseases and decline. 

Let sickness blast let death devour, 
If heaven will recompense our pains, 

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No. 14. Marcli 28th 

Perish the grass and fade the flower, 
If firm the word of God remains. 

E. K. 175 

DEATH AND FAITH 

"Sweet Day so calm so bright, 
"The bridal of the Earth and Sky 
"The dew shall weep thy Fall tonight, 

"For thou must die." 

"Sweet Rose," that doth such fragrance leave, 
On every gale that passes by, 
"Thy root is ever in the grave, 

"And thou must die." 

"Sweet Spring" array M in loveliest flowers, 
Bright are thy days! but ahl they fly, 
Time urges on the lagging hours, 

And thou must die. 

But thou, sweet Love, dear child of Faith, 
With Christ shall reign in glory high, 
Shalt prove triumphant over death, 
And never die. 

E. K. 

To A BOY AT SCHOOL, FROM HIS MOTHER 

Dear object of my love, too fondly dear, 

Still on my lip I feel thy parting tear, 

Still hear the sobs that heaved thy little heart, 

When from my fond embraces forced to part. 

Alas ! my child, how sorrow from our birth, 

Is interwov'n with all the joys of earth! 

E'en the fine feelings which warm hearts unite, 

The noblest earthly sources of delight, 

From which our dearest, best enjoyments flow, 

Are still the sources of our keenest woe, 

And warn us not to fix the feeling heart, 

Or aught this transient being can impart. 

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The Literary Voyager 

But now advance the ever rolling year, 
Thy glad heart bounds thy holy days are near 
From all thy little cares thy thoughts now roam, 
All fondly clust'ring round thy dear lov'd home. 
How swiftly now the cheerful moments run, 
How gaily thy remaining tasks are done ! 
Nought can disturb thee now, while to thine eyes, 
The joys of home, in sweet idea, rise; 
At length the welcome messenger is come ! 
Thy father sends him to conduct thee home; 
Tho' rough may be the road, and chill the day 
How pleasure wings thee on the joyous way! 
Thus thus my child may God his grace bestow, 
When thou hast fill'd thy destin'd tasks below, 
When the last summons to go home is giv'n, 
And Death appears, the messenger of Heaven, 
May'st thou, thro' whatsoever path he please, 
The path of suffering, or the path of ease, 
Thus gladly follow to that blest abode, 
The home where dwells thy Father and thy God. 
Dec. 15th 1818 E. K. 

Say dearest friend, when light your bark, 
Glides down the Mississippi dark? 
Where nature's charms in rich display, 
In varied hue appear so gay 
To wrap your mind and gain your eye, 
As light and quick you pass them by, 
Say, do thy thoughts e'er turn on home? 
As mine to thee incessant roam. 
And when at eve, in deserts wild, 
Dost thou think on our lovely child! 
Dost thou in stillness of the night, 
By the planet's silvery light 
Breathe a prayer to the Spirit above, 
For thy wife, and thy child, my love. 
1825 Rosa 



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No. 14- March 88th 1887 

To MY EVER BELOVED AND LAMENTED SON 
WILLIAM HENRY 

"Who was it nestled on my breast, 
"And on my cheek sweet kisses prest" 
And in whose smile I felt so blest? 
Sweet Willy. 

Who hail'd my form as home I stept, 
And in my arms so eager leapt, 
And to my bosom joyous crept? 
My Willy. 

Who was it, wiped my tearful eye, 
And kiss'd away the coming sigh, 
And smiling bid me say "good boy"? 
Sweet Willy. 

Who was it, looked divinely fair, 
Whilst lisping sweet the evening pray'r, 
Guileless and free from earthly care? 
My Willy. 

Where is that voice attuned to love, 
That bid me say "my darling dove"? 
But oh! that soul has flown above, 
Sweet Willy. 

Whither has fled the rose's hue? 
The lilly's whiteness blending grew, 
Upon thy cheek so fair to view. 
My Willy. 

Oft have I gazed with rapt delight, 
Upon those eyes that sparkled bright, 
Emitting beams of joy and light! 
Sweet Willy. 

Oft have I kiss'd that forehead high, 
Like polished marble to the eye, 

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The Literary Voyager 

And blessing, breathed an anxious sigh. 
For Willy. 

My son! Thy coral lips are pale, 
Can I believe the heart-sick tale, 
That I, thy loss must ever wail? 
My Willy. 

The clouds in darkness seemed to low'r, 
The storm has past with awful pow'r, 
And nipt my tender, beauteous flow'r ! 
Sweet Willy. 

But soon my spirit will be free, 
And I my lovely son shall see, 
For God, I know, did this decree. 
My Willy. 

Jane Schoolcraft 
March 23rd 1827 

To a bereaved mother (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft) on witnessing the 
death of her son, from the croup, a child of great mental promise, 
and uncommon manliness of deportment. By the attending Physician. 

I've seen life's foe his arrows fling, 
Swift from the bow with deadly spring, 
Leaving behind his mortal sting, 
With venom fill'd. 

But never saw a warmer heart, 
Made cold by death's insatiate dart, 
(With whom it pain'd my soul to part,) 
Than thy best child's. 

As twang'd the bow the victim sigh'd, 
He heav'd his breast convuls'd, and died! 
The mother shriek'd aloud and cried, 
"Poor Willy's gone"! 

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No. 14. March $8thlS87 

The father's grief ran deep and still, 
In forc'd obedience to his will 
While others swelled the bring rill, 
For him that's flown. 

I wail'd the impotence of art 
Then wept to see the foeman's dart, 
Fix'd firmly in his bleeding heart, 

So fierce 'twas driven. 

But we've a hope too pure to smother, 
That b'yond this life there'll be another, 
Where Willy and his pious mother, 
Shall meet in heav'n. 
March 2 5th 1827 Z. P. 

WOMAN'S TEARS 

Woman's tears, are as the sunbeams, 
Smiling through vernal showers. 
Woman's tears are as the rain descending 
From the murky cloud, char'd with the tempest, 
Ere the resplendent bow gives sign of safety, 
And returning peace. 

Woman's tears, are as the dew drops, 
In the morning ray, warming to life, 

The early buds of spring; 
But woman's tears, when meekly shed, 
In resignation o'er the infant flower, 
Untimely blighted; are drops so precious, 
That attending angels collect them in their urns, 
And at the footstool of the Savior's throne 
With the bright, beauteous Babe, present them, 
As a pure off'ring, worthy of Him alone 
Straight th'unfledg'd Cherub into Paternal 
Arms is receiv'd and nourish'd to life 
Eternal, in the warm bosom of Supernal love. 

j. j. 177 

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The Literary Voyager 

THE DEAD SON 

The babe within its coffin lay, 

In its robes of innocent unite; 

But his spirit had wing'd his early way, 

To the regions of glory and light. 

The glow of life had left that face, 
Which late for breath had striv'n, 
But his placid smile, and infant grace 
Spoke only of peace and heaven. 

Cold and dank were his icy hands, 
Though not more cold than fair; 
They form'd a vault, beneath the sands, 
And left him to moulder there. 

But not alone oh! not alone! 
The mother transpierc'd with care; 
With frequent tears bedewed his stone, 
And fondly lingered there. 

But she shall dry her bitter tears, 
And she shall smile again, 
For lo! the Savior's word appear'd 
To conquer death and pain. 

That Word within his little tomb, 
The parents trusting, lay 
That they again shall see him bloom, 
In everlasting day. 



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No. 15. Sault Ste. Marie April llth 18%7 



To those who have taken interest enough in our "Tale of the Creek 
War" to wish to see a development of the plot, we must observe, that 
the recent severe affliction, with which it has pleased an inscrutable 
providence to visit our domestic circle, has pressed upon our feelings 
and recollections, with too absorbing a sense of the reality, to permit 
us to dwell upon fictitious woe. 

As a succedaneum, we present, in the ensuing columns, an Indian 
Rhapsody, which has lain in our drawer more than a twelvemonth. It 
will, at least, have the effect to direct the attention, to one of the 
most interesting periods of our frontier history; and to recal the name 
of one of the noblest of those Aboriginal Chieftains, whose exploits 
will embellish the future pages of American history. 

PONTIAC'S APPEAL TO THE WESTERN TRIBES 

Fort Niagara was captured by the British and provincials on the 
24th July 17S9; Quebec surrendered to Wolf on the 18th of October 
of the same year, and Montreal capitulated to Sir Jeffrey Amherst 
early in 1760. To all but the Indians, the fall of Canada seemed to 
be complete, although no treaty between the powers had yet been 
made. Pontiac, had assumed a tone of haughty defiance, when the 
first detachment of British troops came to take possession of the 
country in 1761. 179 On the 8th of May 1763, he invested the fort 
of Detroit, with his warriors and confederates, whom he had 
gathered, from tribes and united in a league against the British pow- 
ers. By his eloquence and energy, he roused up the tribes to make 
resistance. On the 4th of June 1763, the English garrison at old 
Michilimackinac, on the peninsula, was surprized and carried by the 
Indians, The isolated little garrisons at Maumee, Presqu'Isle, and 
along the whole frontier line of the lakes, were taken by his allies. 
Detroit, the central, and strongest garrison of all, he reserved for his 
personal action. The treaty of the 10th of February 1763, between 
France and England, reached Detroit on the 3rd of June. He had then 

161 



The Literary Voyager 

been before the place twenty seven days. As the bold defender of 
Indian sovereignty, his position is heroic; but the effort was out of 
time, being made just at the era when he could derive no aid, from his 
warm allies the French. But what this chieftain may have lacked in 
diplomatic knowledge of foreign nations, or foresight of his actual 
position, he had well nigh, made up, by appeals to their superstitions, 
prejudices and customs, and by knowledge of combinations and means 
of offence, which are truly remarkable. The following address is 
assumed to have been made at this time. 

Now the war cloud gathers fast, 
See it rising on the blast? 
Soon our peace fires shall be quench'd, 
Soon our blades in gore be drench'd ; 
See the red foe's legions pour, 
From Wyaunoc's 180 gulfy shore, 
Threatening woe to me and mine, 
Means and power, name and line 
None may 'scape whose souls are free, 
None who doat on liberty 
Who is true, or who is brave, 
Or who loathes to be a slave 
Warriors up ! prepare attack ! 
'Tis the voice of Pontiac. 

Hang the peace-pipe to the wall, 
Rouse the nations one and all, 
Tell them quickly to prepare, 
For the bloody rites of war 
Now begin the fatal dance, 
Raise the club, and shake the lance. 
Now prepare the bow and dart, 
'Tis our father's ancient art ! 
Let each heart be strong and bold, 
As our fathers were of old 
Warriors up! prepare attack! 
'Tis the voice of Pontiac. 



No. 15. April llth 1827 

Take the wampum warrior, fly! 
Say a foreign foe is nigh, 
On he comes with furious breath, 
Speaking peace but dealing death 
Spreading o'er our native plains, 
Forts and banners, fire and chains; 
Death comes marching in his train, 
With the family of pain 
Not the pain that warriors fear, 
Ball or faggot, club or spear 
Not fierce danger that is sweet! 
Not the red pine's burning heat, 
But the bane from which we shrink, 
Fiery, fell, destroying Drink. 
Warriors hear ! Be wise, be brave, 
Rise to beat, and strike to save, 
Rise to save a bleeding land, 
From the rampart and the brand 
From the arts and from the crimes, 
Bred in transatlantic climes 
From the thirst of sordid gains, 
That ere long shall blast our plains, 
And the cold, unpitying rush, 
Name and rule that aims to crush. 
Firmness now, is all that saves, 
To submit is to be slaves 1 
Now or never! to the field 
Teach the lordly foe to yield, 
Spurn his counsel, spurn his laws, 
Strike alone for freedom's cause 
Rally rally for th' attack. 
Drive th' invading legions back, 
To their homes beyond the seas 
Thus great Manito decrees. 
Up to arms prepare, attack! 
} Tis the voice of Pontiac. 

Nursing vengeance in their hearts 
163 



The Literary Voyager 

They shall drive the legions back, 

Like a thunder tempest, strong and black, 

Tremble! 'tis the voice of Pontiac. 

Heavens ! and can ye live and burn, 
And not on the insulter turn? 
Have ye hearts, and have ye ears, 
And not shape your vengeful spears? 
Are ye men by God's decrees, 
And can suffer taunts like these? 
Rend, oh rend! the' impurpled sky 
With your thrilling battle-cry, 
Vengeance, valor, liberty! 
Onward then, to the attack 
J Tis the voice of Pontiac. 

[Nov. 12, 1825] 

The Indian Sheemaugun or lance, is of remote antiquity, and appears 
to have been used contemporaneously with the bow and arrow. It was 
formed of a piece of flint, hornstone or jasper, firmly attached to a 
handle of wood, by means of thread composed of the cartilagenous 
fibres of certain animals. This animal thread afterwards assumed 
great hardness, and possessed a strength and durability far beyond 
that prepared from the linum, or gossypium. The modern Indian 
lance, or club-lance, pointed with iron, is the result of altered man- 
ner, and new means. 

REQUIEM, 
OVER THE GRAVE OF WILLIAM HENRY SCHOOLCRAFT 

To gentle Willy's lonely tomb, 
Soft hands and tender hearts shall bring, 

"Each opening sweet of earliest bloom, 
"And rifle all the breathing spring." 

The leafy rowan there shall grow, 

And there the tender vi'let bloom, 
And many a wild-flow'r early blow, 

To shed its fragrance o'er thy tomb. 

164 



No. 15. April llth 1827 

The robin "oft at evening hours, 

"Shall kindly lend his little aid 
"With hoary moss, and gather'd flowers, 

"To deck the ground where thou art laid." 

Oft there shall fond Affection go, 
And lonely sorrow thither stray, 

To shed the tear of tender woe, 
And sigh the dewy hours away. 

The snow that weils the dreary ground, 
Was not more pure and bright than thee, 

The bow that gilds the heav'ns around, 
Not more of promise show'd to me. 

That snow shall melt that iris fade, 
All nature change to mortal eye; 

But thy pure soul in light array'd, 
Shall swell immortal in the sky. 

And when that month of vernal storms, 181 
Shall pour again its wailing blast, 

Fond hearts, whom love and pity warms, 
The tender thought on thee shall cast. 

Each sunny bank each early sweet, 
Shall but renew the smother'd pain, 

For there I led thy tender feet, 
And hop'd to lead them oft again. 

The dasied field the wild-wood lawn, 
The stream that murmurs softly by, 

Ah! what are these since thou art gone, 
But sad mementos to my eye. 

Each varied scene shall thee restore, 
For thee the heart its sorrows shed, 

165 



The Literary Voyager 

Belov'd till memory is no more, 
And Love and Hope and Faith are dead. 

S. 182 
AGE OF TREES 

It is probable that living trees, are the oldest of all organic forms in 
America, save fossil bones. This idea of the stable and lasting nature 
of forest trees, is sustained by reference to scripture. This symbol is 
seized on by Isaiah, who exclaims in describing the permanency of 
blessings yet in store for the remnant of the people, "as the days of a 
tree, are the days of my people; and mine elect shall long enjoy the 
work of their hands." The promise relates to the permanence and 
fixity of the houses, and vineyards, and the general prosperity, which, 
the accepted, shall plant. Isa. LXV.22. If the oak or fagus yet stands, 
on the hills of America, which by its nod, welcomed, Columbus, and 
Cabot and Verizani to its shores, we perceive the great pertinacy of 
this scriptural allusion. 

Antiquarius 

SAULT DE STE. MARIE 

This name was first bestowed on the rapids of the river which con- 
nects the waters of lake Superior with those of lake Huron, by the 
early Catholic missionaries in New France. Having given the name 
of Saidt, a leap, on the falls. The Chippewas who were seated here, 
called the passage of the river over a rocky bed, Bauwateeg. By a 
change of the terminal inflection, from eeg, to ing, the meaning of at, 
or by, was indicated. Having called the rapids Sault, they called the 
Indians Saulteurs. The term Chippewa itself, is the Anglicized form 
of 0-jib-way. 

The place appears to have been first visited in 1642 [1641] by two 
Jesuit missionaries named Isaac Joques and Charles Raymbault. 
Sagard had established himself among the Hurons in 1634. Thus St. 
Mary's was the second Catholic Mission in this country. 183 



166 



Notes to "The Literary Voyager" 



1. Schoolcraft 's study of the Iroquois was originally published as Report 
of Mr. Schoolcraft to the Secretary of State (New York) Trans- 
mitting the Census Returns in Relation to the Indians (Albany, 1846). 
It was later reissued as Notes on the Iroquois; or Contributions to 
American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology (Albany, 
1847). 

2. For a bibliography of Schoolcraft's better known works, see Chase 
and Stellanova Osborn, Schoolcraft, Longfellow, and Hiawatha 
(Lancaster, Pa., 1942), pp. 624-645, 

3. Index to Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes of the United States. Compiled 
by Frances S. Nichols (Washington, 1954). 

4. Walter Hough, "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft," Dictionary of American 
Biography, XVI (1943), p. 457. 

5. See Vernon Kinietz, "Schoolcraft's Manuscript Magazines," Biblio- 
graphical Society of America, Papers, XXXV (April- June, 1941), 
pp. 151-154. 

6. Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Char- 
acteristics of the North American Indians, 2 vols., (New York, 1839) ; 
The Red Race of America (New York, 1847) ; The Myth of Hia- 
watha, and other Oral Legends, Mythological and Allegoric, of the 
North American Indians (Philadelphia, 1856). 

7. (London, 1838), 3 vols. 

8. (New York, 1836), 2 vols. 

9. The "Literary Voyager" was in great demand among Schoolcraft's 
friends in Detroit. Governor Lewis Cass and his wife requested to 
examine the copies of the magazine which were circulating in Detroit 
in 1829. See Henry R. Schoolcraft to Jane Schoolcraft, May 1828; 
and Henry Whiting to Schoolcraft, June 2, 1829. Schoolcraft Papers, 
Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress. See also Kinietz, "School- 
craft's Manuscript Magazines," Biographical Society of America, 
Papers, XXXV (April-June, 1941), p. 153. 

10. Stellanova and Chase S. Osborn, Schoolcraft, Longfellow and Hia- 
watha, pp. 444-445. 

167 



The Literary Voyager 

11. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian 
Tribes on the American Frontiers (Philadelphia, 1851), xxxiv. 

12. Even as a glassmaker, Schoolcraft pursued his scholarly interests. He 
experimented constantly and prepared a treatise entitled "Vitrology or 
the Art of Making Glass." A small bound manuscript volume of this 
study is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress. 

13. (New York, 1819). 

14. Personal Memoirs, p. 87. 

15. The American claim to land for a fort at Sault Ste. Marie was based 
on a provision of the Treaty of Greenville of 1 795. 

16. A first-hand account of this episode is found in Schoolcraft 's Narra- 
tive Journal of Travels through the Northwestern Regions of the 
United States . . . in the Year 1820 (Albany, 1821), pp. 137-140, and 
the Journal of Charles C. Trowbridge, which was published in three 
installments in Minnesota History, XXIII (1942), pp. 126-148, 233- 
252, 328-348. The original journal is in the Burton Historical Collec- 
tion of the Detroit Public Library. 

Sassaba continued to oppose American authority even after Fort 
Brady and the Indian agency were established at Sault Ste. Marie in 
1822. According to Schoolcraft, he never forgave the Americans for 
the death of his brother at the Battle of the Thames in 1813. He was 
drowned in the rapids of the St. Mary's River, September 25, 1822, 
while on a drinking spree with several companions. Schoolcraft, Per- 
sonal Memoirs, p. 119. 

1 7. War Department directives to the Indian agent are in the Records of 
the Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian 
Affairs, Record Group #75, National Archives. See Lewis Cass to 
Schoolcraft, March 12, 1823, Ibid. 

18. Schoolcraft, The Indian in his Wigwam, or Characteristics of the Red 
Race of America (Buffalo, 1848), p. 64. 

19. An original copy of the questionnaire is in the Cass Collection in the 
William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor. See also Elizabeth G. 
Brown, "Lewis Cass and the American Indian," Michigan History 
XXXVII (September, 1953), pp. 286-298. 

20. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, p. 89. 

21. Schoolcraft's dictionary of the Chippewa was never published, except 
for a brief word list, which appeared in Narrative Journal of Travels 
through the Northwestern Regions of the United States (Philadelphia, 
1856), pp. 203-210. A manuscript copy of the dictionary is in the 
Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress. 

168 



Notes 

22. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, pp. 196-197. 

23. Schoolcraft recorded the interviews of the following Chippewa lead- 
ers who visited him at Sault Ste. Marie during the 1820's: Chacopee 
(The Six), Snake River, Wisconsin; Monomine Kashee (The Rice 
Maker), Port Lake, Wisconsin; Chianokwaut or Terns Covert (The 
Lowering or Dark Cloud), Leech Lake, Minnesota; Shingabawossin 
(The Image Stone), Sault Ste. Marie; Shewabeketon (Jingling 
Medals), Sault Ste. Marie; Wayishkee (The First-born Son), Sault 
Ste. Marie; Guelle Plat (Flat Mouth), Leech Lake; Grosse Guelle 
(Big Throat), Sandy Lake, Minnesota; Catawabeta (The Broken 
Tooth), Sandy Lake; Wabishke Penais (The White Bird), LaPointe, 
Wisconsin; Miscomonetoes (The Red Insect or Red Devil), Ottawa 
Lake, Wisconsin ; Mongozid (The Loon's Foot) , Fond du Lac, Minne- 
sota; Annamikens (Little Thunder), Red River, Minnesota. 

The detailed notes on these interviews are in the Schoolcraft Papers 
in the Library of Congress. 

24. The data on John Johnston's early history is taken from a series of 
"autobiographical letters" which he wrote at Schoolcraft's request 
shortly before his death in 1828. They were published in 1903 in the 
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXII (1902), pp. 
328-353. Schoolcraft used these letters in his "Memoir of John 
Johnston" written shortly after the death of his father-in-law for 
publication by the Michigan Historical Society. It was not used at 
this time, however, but was published in the Michigan Pioneer and 
Historical Collections } XXXVI (1908), pp. 53-90. 

For additional biographical information on Johnston and his family, 
see: Charles H. Chapman, "The Historic Johnston Family of the 
Soo," Ibid., pp. 305-328; L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Com- 
pagnie du Nord-ouest (Quebec, 1889-90) ; Alice B. Clapp, "George 
Johnston, Indian Interpreter," Michigan History, XXIII (Autumn, 
1939), pp. 350-366. 

25. In 1810, John Johnston was offered the governorship of the projected 
Hudson's Bay Red River Colony. He declined because he felt the 
move would impair the education of his children and because he 
recognized the rival Northwest Fur Company would attempt to wreck 
the colony. His decision was wise, for the colony failed and its gov- 
ernor, William Semple, was killed and scalped in an Indian attack, 
inspired and directed by agents of the Northwest Company. See 
Alexander Ross, The Red River Settlement (London, 1856), and 
Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John Johnston," Michigan Pioneer and 
Historical Collections, XXXVI (1908), pp. 59-60. 

Later, John Jacob Astor, the owner of the American Fur Company, 
hired Johnston to direct the Company's operations in the Lake 
Superior region. This agreement was terminated when Congress 

169 



The Literary Voyager 

passed legislation in 1816 restricting trade within the territorial limits 
of the United States to citizens. Ibid., XXXVI (1908), pp. 73-74. 

26. See "Account Book of John Johnston, 1814-1819," Schoolcraft Papers, 
Library of Congress. 

27. The losses he suffered forced Johnston to abandon his plans to pur- 
chase a farm near Montreal where his children could enjoy greater 
educational advantages. Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John Johnston," 
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXVI (1908), p. 64. 

28. George Johnston, "Reminiscences," Ibid., XII (1888), pp. 605-608. 

29. In addition to their own children, the Johnston's adopted in infancy 
Nancy Campbell, the daughter of a close family friend who was killed 
in a gun duel in 1808 or 1809. Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John 
Johnston," Ibid., XXXVI (1908), p. 61. 

30. The correspondence between these two men are in the Johnston 
Papers in the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public 
Library, the Carnegie Library at Sault Ste. Marie, and the Schoolcraft 
Papers in the Library of Congress. 

31. William Johnston was particularly helpful in collecting legends of 
the Chippewa and Ottawa for his brother-in-law. As a fur trader, he 
wintered often among the tribes of the Interior and had an excellent 
opportunity to interview Indians relatively uncorrupted by contact 
with white civilization. During the winter of 1833, for example, he 
lived among the powerful and warlike Chippewa band, the Pillagers 
of Leech Lake. 

The Indian materials he collected there are in the Schoolcraft Papers 
in the Library of Congress. Included in this material are the follow- 
ing: "Story of Me-she-ge-na-big-o : Manners and Customs of the 
Leech Lake Indians;" "Ottawa Stories;" "Shagwanabee;" "Ottawa 
Superstitions and Traditions;" "Story of Bokewauwag and his 
Brother;" "Ojeeg, or the Fisher, A Chippewa Tale;" "Manahbosho." 

32. Sketches of a Tour of the Lakes (Baltimore, 1827), pp. 182-184. 

33. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, pp. 107-108. 

34. Schoolcraft's interest in the "Literary Voyager" was more than an 
attempt to provide his friends with a weekly magazine. As early as 
1825, he made plans to publish a magazine dealing entirely with the 
American Indian. The proposed title was Indian Annals and the for- 
mat was to be similar to the North American Review. Although 
Schoolcraft and his partner in the venture, Samuel L. Conant of New 
York, solicited articles from leading Indian authorities, the magazine 
did not appear in print. See Agreement between Schoolcraft, Conant 
and the publishing firm of Wilder and Campbell, May 19, 1825; 

170 



Notes 

Samuel Conant to Schoolcraft, July 19, 1825. Schoolcraft Papers, 
Library of Congress; Schoolcraft's Personal Memoirs, p. 207. 
Similarly, Schoolcraft's plans for the journal, The Algic Magazine 
and Annals of Indian Affairs, never materialized. Planned during 
1841, this publication had the support of Albert Gallatin, John C. 
Calhoun, William Woodbridge, Caleb Cushing, and Percy Du Ponceau. 
The Prospectus for this magazine is in the Schoolcraft Papers, Library 
of Congress. Schoolcraft's Oneota, which appeared in serial form in 
1844, was slightly more successful. It was similar to the "Literary 
Voyager" in content, and indeed, contained many articles which were 
reprinted from the earlier manuscript magazine. After Oneota failed in 
1844-45, the issues were republished in book form. John F. Freeman, 
"Pirated Editions of Schoolcraft's Oneota," Bibliographical Society of 
America, Papers, LIII (Third Quarter, 1959), pp. 252-254. 

35. This legend was later published by Mrs. Anna Brownell Jameson, a 
well known English writer and traveller, in Winter Studies and Sum- 
mer Rambles in Canada (London, 1838), Vol. Ill, pp. 218-221. 
Mrs. Jameson visited Mr. and Mrs. Henry Schoolcraft at Mackinac 
Island and the Johnston family at Sault Ste. Marie on her trip to the 
United States in 1837. During her visit, Schoolcraft offered her the 
use of his Indian materials, probably including the "Literary 
Voyager." Schoolcraft later re-published the legend "Pebon and 
Seegwun" in Algic Researches (New York, 1839), I, pp. 84-86; Myth 
of Hiawatha and Other Oral Legends (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 96-98; 
and the Indian Fairy Book (New York, 1856), I, pp. 261-263. 

36. Winter [H.R.S.]. 

37. The Claytonia Virginica [H.R.S.]. 

38. Schoolcraft later wrote about his experiences with the Indian, 
Wabishkipenace or "The White Bird," who had led Lewis Cass and 
his party to the site of the Ontonagon Boulder in 1820. His tribesmen 
claimed that he displeased the Great Spirit by taking white men to 
the Sacred Rock. According to Schoolcraft, the ostracism had a telling 
effect on Wabishkipenace, for in March, 1827, when he visited the 
Indian agency at Sault Ste. Marie, he was still dejected and melan- 
choly and felt that he was being punished for his actions. Schoolcraft, 
Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian 
Tribes on the American Frontiers (Philadelphia, 1851), p. 260. 

39. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft used the pseudonyms "Leelinau" and 
"Rosa" in the magazine. Her mother was undoubtedly the source of 
many of the legends which she submitted. In fact, the letter to the 
editor "Character of Aboriginal Historical Tradition," was dictated 
by Mrs. Johnston to Jane who translated it into English. 

40. See note 39 above. 

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The Literary Voyager 

41. Schoolcraft later published an account of this episode in Personal 
Memoirs, pp. 104-5. 

42. Rufus Anderson, Memoir of Catherine Brown, a Christian Indian of 
the Cherokee Nation (Boston and New York, 1825). 

43. Pseudonym used by Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

44. In 1822, the U.S. placed an Indian agency for the Chippewa at Sault 
Ste. Marie, at the foot of Lake Superior, in charge of Mr. Schoolcraft. 
This tribe had been arrayed against the Americans in the War of 
1812 and was yet unfriendly. Shingabawossin was one of the first 
influential chiefs to espouse their cause, while his brother Sassaba 
opposed it. [H.R.S.]. 

45. Mr. Schoolcraft [H.R.S.]. 

46. The Chippewa name for the Sabbath [H.R.S.]. 

47. Schoolcraft later published this allegory, attributed to the "manner of 
the Algics," in Algic Researches, II, pp. 242-244. According to Mentor 
Williams, who edited the legends, "The Vine and the Oak" was 
"probably a Schoolcraft invention." Schoolcraft's Indian Legends 
(East Lansing, 1956), p. 238. 

48. Osha-gus-coda-waqua or Ozha-guscoday-way-quay as it was often 
spelled, Chippewa for "Woman of the Green Valley," was the Indian 
wife of John Johnston. 

49. Chequamegon is now the accepted spelling. 

50. Foxes [H.R.S.]. 

51. William W. Warren, the Ojibway historian, presented a different 
account of the conflict between the Ojibway, the Fox, and the Sioux. 
In his History of the Ojibway Nation (pp. 95-107), published by the 
Minnesota Historical Society in 1885, he claimed that the Ojibway 
had to fight the Fox and Sioux "at every step of their westward ad- 
vance along the southern shores of the Great Lake . . ." They chose 
the island of LaPointe because of its strategic position against sur- 
prise attacks from their enemies. 

52. Continued in issue No. 3, January, 1827. 

53. Schoolcraft is quoting from Antonio De Solis' History of the Con- 
quest of Mexico by the Spaniards, published in London in 1724. A 
similar account is found in Schoolcraft's Personal Memoirs, pp. 160- 
161. Schoolcraft brought a modest library with him to the Sault in 
1822 and added to it constantly through purchases from Detroit, 
Albany, and New York booksellers. Moreover, for the first two years 

ire 



Notes 

after the establishment of Fort Brady, the garrison library was housed 
in Schoolcraft's office, allowing the Indian agent unlimited freedom to 
use it. Among the books which he read between 1822 and 1827 were 
the following: 

Benjamin Silliman, Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hart- 
ford and Quebec in the Autumn of 1819 (New Haven, 1820). 

Jonathan Carver, Three Years Travels through the Interior Part 
of North America, for more than 5,000 miles; containing an account 
of the Great Lakes (Philadelphia, 1796). 

Thomas Mante, History of the Late War in North America and the 
Islands of the West Indies (London, 1772). 

Louis Hennepin, Discovery of a Large, Rich, and Plentiful Country 
in the Northern America; Extending Above 4,000 Leagues (London, 
1720). 

Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal on the River St. 
Lawrence through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen 
and Pacific Oceans; in the Years 1789, 1793 . . . (London, 1801). 

Johann Forster, History of the Voyages and Discoveries Made in 
the North . . . (London, 1786). 

Dieudonne Thiebault, Original Anecdotes of Frederick the Great, 
King of Prussia j and his Family ~, his Court, his Ministers, his Aca- 
demies and his Literary Friends (Philadelphia, 1806). 

Daniel Williams Harmon, A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the 
Interior of North America . . . (Andover, Mass., 1820). 

Louis Armand Lahontan, New Voyages to North America . . . 
(London, 1735). 

Samuel Johnson, The Lives of the English Poets; and a Criticism 
on Their Works (London, 1793). 

Plutarch's Lives (New York, 1816). 

54. George Yarns was Schoolcraft's first Indian interpreter whom he 
hired on July 9, 1822, three days after the Indian agent's arrival at 
the Sault. He described Yarns as "a burly-faced, large man of some 
five and forty who tells me that he was born at Fort Niagara, of 
Irish parentage . . . and has spent life it seems, knocking about trad- 
ing posts, in the Indian country, being married, has metif children, 
and speaks the Chippewa tongue fluently . . ." Schoolcraft, Personal 
Memoirs, p. 96. 

55. Erin Hall refers to the John Johnston residence at Sault Ste. Marie. 

56. Schoolcraft is referring to his young dog, Ponti, who tore up some 
valuable papers in his absence. By soaking the "gnawed and mutilated 
parts in warm water," Schoolcraft was able to restore the manuscript. 
Entry of December 22, 1822, Personal Memoirs, p. 133. 

57. The Crane Totem was the designation given the most renowned clan 

173 



The Literary Voyager 

of the Ojibway tribe of Lake Superior. Famous for its orators, this 
group claimed chieftainship over other clans of the tribe. 

58. The Battle of the Falls of the St. Croix occurred about 1770. Ojibway 
warriors from Sault Ste. Marie, Grand Island, L'Ance, LaPointe, and 
other Chippewa villages participated in the famous battle. Despite 
strong support from the Dakotas, the Foxes were decisively defeated 
and retreated far to the South, never again to challenge the Ojibways. 
See William Warren, History of Ojibway Nation (Minneapolis, 1957), 
pp. 242-246. 

59. Schoolcraft added the reference to the Treaty of Butte des Morts 
later. 

60. New York Indians [H.R.S.]. 

61. The questions to the answers listed above by John Johnston are as 
follows : 

4. "To what other tribes are they related?" 

5. "What is the degree of relationship?" 

6. "What is the earliest incident they recollect in their history?" 

7. "Whence did they come?" 

8. "What migrations have they made, and when, and why?" 

62. This poem was unquestionably written by Schoolcraft. Lake Dun- 
more, Addison County, Vermont, was near the glass-making factory 

'which Schoolcraft managed from 1813-1814. 

63. Betula papyrucae [H.R.S.]. 

64. Solomon Gessner (1730-1788) was a Swiss idyllic poet, landscape 
painter, and engraver. 

65. This was one of Schoolcraft's favorite legends. He published it in 
Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Char- 
acteristics of the North American Indians (New York, 1839), I, pp. 
221-225; History and Statistical Information Respecting the History, 
Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the U.S. (Wash- 
ington, 1852), II, pp. 229-230; The Myth of Hiawatha, and the Oral 
Legends (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 109-112; and the Indian Fairy 
Book (New York, 1856), I, pp. 98-101. 

Dr. Chandler Robbins Gilman, a New York physician, who visited 
Schoolcraft on Mackinac Island in 1835, published the "Origin of the 
Robin" tale in his Life on the Lakes (New York, 1836), I, pp. 165- 
169. Dr. Gilman reported that Schoolcraft had recorded it from the 
"lips of an old Chippewa woman" and that "she has since been as- 
sured by very many of the oldest and most intelligent of the tribe 
that the 'Origin of the Robin-red-breast' has been current in the tribe 
from the earliest recollections." 

174 



Notes 

Mrs. Anna Jameson also used the legend in her books, Winter Studies 
and Summer Rambles in Canada (New York, 1839), II, pp. 178-180 
and Sketches in Canada and Rambles Among the Red Men (London, 
1852), pp. 203-205. She credited Mrs. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft as 
the informant. 

It is possible that both Dr. Oilman and Mrs. Jameson had access to 
the "Literary Voyager." Schoolcraft kept the issues intact and showed 
them to friends who visited him. The Reverend Peter Dougherty, for 
example, recorded in his diary (July 16, 1838) that he examined the 
"Literary Voyager." (Dougherty Collection, University of Michigan 
Historical Collections.) Moreover, Mrs. Jameson's published account 
of the legend, "Origin of the Robin," is almost identical to the 
version published in the "Literary Voyager." Only a few words have 
been changed. 

66. The biographical sketch of Waub Ojeeg is continued in Issue Number 
Four, January 12, 1827. Schoolcraft later used this material for an 
account of Waub Ojeeg in The Indian and His Wigwam, or Char- 
acteristics of the Red Race of America (New York, 1848), pp. 
134-144. 

67. Schoolcraft kept a detailed journal of his observations of Indian life 
and customs while he was Indian agent. Episodes like the ones de- 
scribed here were recorded in minute detail and constitute one of the 
finest collections of Indian material in existence. They are now in the 
Schoolcraft Collection in the Library of Congress. This account of 
Chippewa superstitions also appeared, in slightly different form, in 
Issue Number One of "The Literary Voyager." Schoolcraft gave no 
explanation for the repetition. 

68. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

69. This poem was written by Schoolcraft for the Knickerbocker Maga- 
zine. See Schoolcraft Papers, Library of Congress, Vol. 37, pt 1, p. 
8098. 

70. A literal translation of the Chippewa name for this fish Ad-dik- 
kum-maig. [H.R.S.]. 

71. Schoolcraft was not exaggerating when he extolled the edibility of the 
white fish. Scores of travellers who visited the Sault area have raved 
about this fish. Anna Jameson, for example, wrote: "I have eaten 
tunny in the Gulf of Genoa, anchovies fresh out of the Bay of 
Naples, and trout of the Salz-kammergut, and divers other fishy 
dainties rich and rare, but the exquisite, the refined white fish ex- 
ceeds them all . . ." Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada, 
II, pp. 220. 

175 



The Literary Voyager 

72. There is no indication of the author of this piece. It may have been 
Schoolcraft, one of the Johnstons, or a member of the garrison at 
Fort Brady. 

73. From December until navigation on the Lakes opened early in May, 
Sault Ste. Marie was almost completely isolated from the outside 
world. Mail was delivered by "Express" from Detroit three or four 
times during the winter. In January, 1831, it took the mail carrier 
and a party of citizens from the Sault five days to travel to Mackinac 
Island on snow shoes, a distance of 45 miles. Jeremiah Porter, Journal, 
Michigan History, XXXVIII (December, 1954), pp. 356, 359. 

74. This statement may have been made by Mrs. John Johnston or one 
of her daughters. 

75. This is one of the poems which Schoolcraft wrote to Jane Johnston 
during their courtship. The poems and love letters between the two 
are in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress. 

76. According to the Ojibway historian, William Warren, Waub Ojeeg 
and his force were saved from certain defeat by the timely arrival 
of sixty warriors from Sandy Lake who held back the Sioux until 
Waub Ojeeg could rally his men. Warren, History of the Ojibway 
Nation, pp. 246-251. 

77. The original of this war song is in the bound volume, "The Poetic 
Remains of John Johnston Esq," in the Schoolcraft Papers in the 
Library of Congress. It was reproduced in Thomas McKenney's Tour 
to the Lakes (Baltimore, 1827), pp. 189-190; and the Michigan 
Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXII (1903), pp. 345-346. 

78. Waub Ojeeg's battle with the moose became part of the folklore of 
his tribe and was circulated widely. In fact, a figure of a moose was 
carved on his gravepost in memory of his "desperate conflict with an 
enraged animal of this kind." Schoolcraft, Information Respecting 
the History, Conditions, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the 
US. (Philadelphia, 1853), I, pp. 356-357. 

79. The legend was later published by Schoolcraft in the Columbian 
Lady's and Gentlemen's Magazine, I (1844), pp. 90-91; under the 
title, "Moowis, or the Man Made Up of Rags and Dirt: A Tradi- 
tionary Legend of the Ojibways," in Oneota or The Red Race of 
America (New York, 1844-45), pp. 381-384; and the Red Race of 
America (New York, 1847), pp. 175-178. 

Schoolcraft added the following comment to the legend in the later 
published version: 

"It is a characteristic of some of the Indian legends, that they con- 
vey a moral which seems clearly enough to denote, that a part of these 

176 



Notes 

legends was invented to convey instruction to the young folks who 
listen to them. The known absence of all harsh methods among the 
Indians, in bringing up their children, favors this idea. This tale ad- 
dresses itself plainly to girls ; to whom it teaches the dangers of what 
we dominate coquetry. It would seem from this, that beauty, and its 
concomitant, a passion for dress, among the red daughters of Adam 
and Eve, has the same tendency to create pride, and nourish self- 
conceit, and self-esteem, and assure a tyranny over the human heart, 
which writers tell us, these qualities have among their white-skinned, 
auburn-haired, and blue-eyed progeny the world over. The term Moo- 
wis is one of the most derogative and offensive possible. It is derived 
from the Ojibway substantive, mo, filth, or excrement. [H.R.S.]. 

80. In his Personal Memoirs, p. 67, Schoolcraft reported that on one 
occasion when the waves broke "in a long series, above our heads, 
and rolling down our breasts into the canoe," Governor Cass remarked 
"That was a fatherly one . . ." 

81. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

82. Nathan Bailey, The Universal Etymological English Dictionary (Lon- 
don, 1737). 

83. Schoolcraft was the author of this article. From 1810 to 1817 he 
managed glass-making factories in New York, Vermont, and New 
Hampshire. 

84. Governor Cass' address to the Legislative Council is found in Mes- 
sages of the Governors of Michigan, edited by George N. Fuller 
(Lansing, 1925), I, pp. 27-33. 

85. This tale was published by Schoolcraft in Algic Researches, II, pp. 
91-104, and the Myth of Hiawatha and Other Oral Legends (Phila- 
delphia, 1856), pp. 202-212, Mrs. Anna Jameson also used this legend 
which follows almost verbatim the account found in the "Literary 
Voyager" in her Winter Studies and Summer Rambles, II, pp. 166- 
177. 

86. This is not the end of the legend. Schoolcraft planned to complete it 
in a later issue of the "Literary Voyager." It is possible that it ap- 
peared in one of the issues, now missing. The ending which is ap- 
pended is taken from Algic Researches, II, pp. 98-104. It was written 
by Jane Johnston Schoolcraft whose Indian name, "Bame-wa-wa-ge- 
zhik-a-quay," meant "Woman of the Stars Rushing through the Sky." 

87. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft. 

88. The original of this poem, written by Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft, is in the 
Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress, 

177 



The Literary Voyager 

89. Editor, writer [H.R.S.]. 

90. Abraham [H.R.S.]. 

91. Hosea, VII, 8. [H.R.S.]. 

92. Solon, as related by Plato from Egyptian. [H.R.S.]. 

93. See Milman's History of the Jews. [H.R.S.]. 

94. Buckland's Reliquae. [H.R.S.]. 

95. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

96. I speak. [H.R.S.]. 

97. The sixth issue of the "Literary Voyager" published about February 
1, 1827, is missing, as well as Numbers ten, twelve, and the first part 
of eleven. A search of the voluminous Schoolcraft Collection in the 
Library of Congress did not uncover the missing manuscripts, nor 
were they located in Schoolcraft Papers in other leading research col- 
lections in the United States. 

98. A flintlock gun. 

99. Sault Ste. Marie. 

100. The informant of this tale is not known, although it was probably 
one of the Johnstons. 

101. Mrs. John Johnston. 

102. The village of the Garden River Chippewa was located north of 
Sugar Island on the Ontario shore of the St. Mary's river. 

103. Point aux Pins is on the Canadian shore about eight miles west of 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. 

104. Point Iroquois, now called Naomikong Point, is about thirty miles 
west of Sault Ste. Marie on Whitefish Bay. 

105. Alexander Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian 
Territories between the Years 1760 and 1776 (New York, 1809). 

106. Hibernicus was a pseudonym for John Johnston. 

107. See note 39 above. 

108. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

109. White-man [H.R.S.], 

110. The author of this poem is not known. It was probably one of the 
Johnstons, perhaps George. 

178 



Notes 

111. Schoolcraft was probably the author of this poem. During his life- 
time, he wrote hundreds of poems and judging from the size of his 
poetry collection in the Library of Congress, he never discarded any 
of them. Unfortunately, his zest for verse was never matched by 
ability to write in this medium. 

112. This tale was also prepared for the "Literary Voyager" by Mrs. Jane 
Schoolcraft. There is no evidence to determine the identity of her 
informer, although it was probably her mother, Mrs. John Johnston. 
The story was published in Algic Researches, I, pp. 191-199; Histori- 
cal and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Conditions 
and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadel- 
phia, 1852), II, pp. 202-204; Myth of Hiawatha, pp. 52-70; The 
Indian Fairy Book, pp. 98-101. Mrs. Anna Jameson published the 
legend in Winter Studies and Summer Rambles. Schoolcraft also per- 
mitted Dr. Chandler Oilman to include it in his book, Life on the 
Lakes, II, pp. 216-224. 

113. Narrative Journal of Travels (Albany, 1821), pp. 211-212; Summary 
Narratives of an Exploratory Expedition to the Sources of the Mis- 
sissippi River in 1820 (Philadelphia, 1855), pp. 113-114. 

114. Narrative Journal of Travels, pp. 282-283 

115. Charles G. Haines was a personal friend of Schoolcraft whom he met 
while the latter was manager of a glass-making factory in Salisbury, 
Vermont. Schoolcraft wrote to him often describing his travels in the 
West. In this letter, he described his trip from Detroit to Chicago to 
serve as Secretary to the Indian Treaty Commission. 

116. Hon. Lewis Cass. [H.R.S.]. 

117. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

118. Sampson Occum (1723-ca792), an Indian, was ordained in 1759 as 
a Presbyterian missionary. After two years of service among the 
Oneidas, Occum directed a fund-raising campaign for a school for 
Indians. The 100,000 pounds which he raised in England helped start 
Dartmouth College, which was founded as an Indian school. 

119. Captain Hendricks was a "respectable Indian" residing with the 
Oneidas. 

120. Henry Obookaiah escaped from the tribal wars in Hawaii and came to 
New England in 1810. He became a Christian, obtained an education, 
and attempted to reduce the Hawaiian language to writing. He died 
in 1817 before fulfilling this ambition. 

121. Schoolcraft was referring to Roger or Eleazer Williams. The latter 

179 



The Literary Voyager 

was the first Protestant missionary to work among the Indians. Dur- 
ing the seventeenth century, he served the Pequots and Narragan- 
setts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Eleazer Williams later 
served the Oneidas after they went to Green Bay, Wisconsin, in the 
1820's. 

122. John Eliot was a missionary among the Indians of Massachusetts in 
the seventeenth century. 

123. David Brainard served as a missionary to Indian tribes in Pennsyl- 
vania and New York. After his death in 1747, he was replaced by his 
brother, John. 

124. Samuel Kirkland was a congregational missionary to the Iroquois. 

125. Theodat G. Sagard, a Recollect lay brother, missionary, and historian, 
administered to the Huron Indians in Canada in the seventeenth 
century. 

126. Schoolcraft quoted a section of a statement made by President Jeffer- 
son: "To Captain Hendrick, the Delawares, Mohicans and Munries," 
Washington, December 21, 1808. Letters and Addresses of Thomas 
Jefferson, Edited by William B. Parker and Jonas Viles (New York, 
1909), pp. 188-191. 

127. Zina Pitcher was army surgeon at Fort Brady in 1827. Before his 
retirement in 1836, he won distinction in the army and was close to 
the attainment of the rank of U. S. Surgeon General. He opened a 
private medical practice in Detroit and became active in the social 
and political life of the city. He served as Mayor of Detroit in 1840, 
1841, and 1843, and in 1842, led a successful movement to authorize 
building of five public schools, which earned him the title, "Father 
of Detroit's Schools." 

While at Sault Ste. Marie, he studied remedies used by Indians for 
illness and later provided Schoolcraft with material on the subject. 

128. See Alexander Mackenzie, A General History of the Fur Trade from 
Canada to the North-West (London, 1802). 

129. Claytonia Virginica. [H.R.S.]. 

130. The original of this poem written by Henry Schoolcraft to his wife 
is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress. 

131. Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America with Re- 
marks on the Attempts to Convert and Civilize Them. 

132. All of the Indian chiefs mentioned were famous orators of Iroquois 
tribes. Skenandoah was an Oneida; the others were members of the 
Seneca tribe. 

180 



Notes 

133. Archaeologia Americana. Transactions and Collections of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society (Worcester, Massachusetts, 1820), Vol. 1., 
pp. 273-76. 

134. Lake Superior, so called by the Indian. [H.R.S.]. 

135. Take it away take it away. [H.R.S.]. 

136. The account of the Papuckewis legend in Schoolcraft's Myth of Hia- 
watha (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 52-70, is much longer than the one 
which appeared here. 

137. Continued from Issue No. 3. 

138. Claytonia Virginica [H.R.S.]. 

139. June [H.R.S.]. 

140. Means: print of the Loon's foot [H.R.S.]. 

141. The Mendawakantons were a branch of the Dakotah Sioux. 

142. Schoolcraft had a special interest in the adoption of Indian names for 
topographical places. As a member of the Legislative Council of the 
Territory of Michigan, he worked devotedly on a plan to introduce 
Indian names for new townships and counties. In 1838, while Super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs, he prepared a similar proposal for Gov- 
ernor Stevens T. Mason. Many of his recommendations were adopted 
by the Governor and the Legislature, including losco, Tuscola, Leeli- 
nau, Oscoda, and Alpena. Michigan House Documents (1838), pp. 
559-562. 

143. Shawandasee [H.R.S.]. 

144. Zebulon M. Pike, Exploratory Travels Through the Western Terri- 
tories of North America Performed in the years 1805, 1806, 1807 
(London, 1811), p. 79. 

145. The last twenty manuscript pages of this issue are missing. 

146. The second installment in the series of letters to Charles Haines, 
"Sketches of Western Scenery," was apparently published in one of 
the missing issues of the "Literary Voyager." 

147. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

148. This poem, written by Henry Schoolcraft, is in the Schoolcraft Papers 
in the Library of Congress. 

149. The first installment on the "Fur Trade" probably appeared in Issue 
No. 10, now missing. 

181 



The Literary Voyager 

150. Marquis Francois Jean de Chastelloux (1734-1788), a major general 
in Rachambeau's French Army in America from 1780 to 1782, was 
author of Travels in North America in the Years, 1780, 1781, 1782 
(London, 1787). 

151. Comte de Constantin Francois Chaiseboeuf Volney (1757-1820), the 
French scholar, wrote A View of the Climate and Soil of the United 
States of America (London, 1804). 

152. Vicomte Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), a French 
writer and statesman, was author of Atala: or The Amours of Two 
Indians in the Wilds of America (London, 1802). 

153. H. M. Brackenridge, Views of Louisiana; together with a Journal of 
a Voyage up the Missouri River in 1811 (Pittsburgh, 1814). 

154. Amos Stoddard, Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana 
(Philadelphia, 1812). 

155. David Drake, Natural and Statistical View of Cincinnati and the 
Miami County (Cincinnati, 1815). 

156. William Darby, A Geographical Description of Louisiana (Philadel- 
phia, 1816). 

157. Thomas Nuttall, Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory 
(Philadelphia, 1821). 

158. A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri, including Some Observations 
on the Mineralogy, Geology, Geography, Antiques, Soil, Climate, 
Population, and Productions of Missouri and Arkansas and other 
Sections of the Western Country (New York, 1819). 

159. In 1819 under Calhoun's direction, Major General Jacob Brown, com- 
mander of the U. S. Army of the North, ordered Lt. Colonel Henry 
Leavenworth to establish a military post at the confluence of the 
Mississippi and St. Peters' Rivers. The fort was completed by Colonel 
Josiah Snelling who relieved Leavenworth in 1820. Another military 
detachment erected Fort Atkinson near the present city of Omaha on 
the Yellowstone River. 

160. Schoolcraft gave the American public an account of this historical 
expedition in Narrative Journal of Travels through the Northwestern 
Region of the U. S. (Albany, 1822). 

161. The packs of L'Ance are worth more than those of any other post in 
the Lake, from the unusual proportion of beaver. [H.R.S.] . 

162. Continued from Issue No. 12. 

163. This poem was written by Mrs. Henry Schoolcraft about her grand- 

188 



Notes 

father, Waub Ojeeg. The original poem, which differs slightly from 
this one published in the "Literary Voyager," is in the Schoolcraft 
Papers in the Library of Congress. 

164. A past sound. [H.R.S.]. 

165. The passing thunder. [H.R.S.]. 

166. The North Wind. [H.R.S.]. 

167. He Who Takes After the Wind. [H.R.S.]. 

168. On his return trip to Sault Ste. Marie, Henry Schoolcraft stopped at 
Vernon, New York, and "took along to the West, which had been 
favorable to me, my youngest brother, James, and my sister, Maria 
Eliza." Both remained at the Sault. James worked for his brother at 
the Indian agency and later was employed as a trader at the Sault. He 
married Anna Maria Johnston, the sister of Henry's wife, Jane. James' 
private life was a continued source of worry to his brother he drank 
excessively, associated with "bad company," gambled, and was in- 
volved in several scandals. He was mysteriously killed July 6, 1846, 
by an unknown assailant, probably by the notorious John Tanner. 
Maria Eliza later married John Hulbert, the post sutler at Fort 
Brady. 

169. Elmwood was the name given by Schoolcraft to the Indian agency 
house at Sault Ste. Marie. Completed in 1827, it was situated in a 
beautiful grove of elms on the St. Mary's River. It was a spacious 
building, containing fifteen rooms, including an office. The building 
has been preserved and restored as an historical site by the Chippewa 
County Historical Society. 

170. Many years passed before Henry and Jane Schoolcraft recovered 
from the tragic death of their son, William. Immediately after his 
death, they packed clothing and stayed at the Johnston residence 
until fall. 

171. This letter was probably written by Schoolcraft to his friend, Samuel 
Conant of New York City, with whom the Schoolcraft's stayed while 
they visited the East in 1825. 

172. This poem was appended to a letter which Schoolcraft wrote to his 
wife, Jane, while he was attending the Indian Treaty meeting at 
Prairie du Chien in 1825. The original is in the Schoolcraft Papers in 
the Library of Congress. 

173. John Hulbert, the post sutler at Fort Brady, who was a close friend 
and later a brother-in-law of Schoolcraft, may have been the author 
of these lines. 

183 



The Literary Voyager 

174. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft. 

175. The identity of "E.K." is not known. 

176. Zina Pitcher. 

177. The original of this poem dated December 8, 1825, and signed by 
John Johnston, is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of 
Congress. 

178. Probably written by Jane or Henry Schoolcraft. 

179. Major Robert Rogers in command of a force of two hundred Royal 
Rangers occupied Detroit on November 29, 1760. 

180. Chippewa name for Niagara. [H.R.S] 

181. April [H.R.S.] . 

182. Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

183. The remaining pages of this issue were lost. 



184 



Index 



"Age of Science, A Satire" (Henry R. 

Schoolcraft), 90-93 

Algic Researches (Henry R. School- 
craft), xv 

Algoma, meaning of, 2 
"Algonac, A Chippewa Lament on 

Hearing the Revellie at the Post 

of St. Mary's," 87-89 
Algonquin, language, 1, 31-33 
American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, 11 
American Fur Co., xxii, 169-170 n. 25 
Andaigweos, Chippewa leader at La- 

Pointe, 9 

Anderson, Rufus, 12-13 
Anderson, Thomas G., 98 
Annamikens (Little Thunder), 169 n. 

23 

Assiguns, 1 
Augussawa, father of Gitshee laubance, 

134 

Bad River, Wis., 26, 51 

Baimwawa (The Passing Thunder), 
140-141 

Bame-wa-wa-ge-zhik-a-quay (Woman 
of the Stars Rushing Through the 
Sky) : see Schoolcraft, Mrs. Jane 

Ba-wa-teeg: see Sault Ste. Marie, 
Michigan 

Bear, as totem, 54 

Big Throat: see Grosse Guelle 

"The Birchen Canoe" (Henry R. 
Schoolcraft), 33-35 

Bois Brule (Broule*) River, Wis., death 
of Indians at mouth of, 41 

Brackenridge, H. M., 132, 182 n. 153 

Brady, Hugh, 4, 10 

Brainard, David, 109, 180 n. 123 

The Broken Tooth: see Catawabeta 

Brown, Catherine, Cherokee mission- 
ary, 11-14 

The Buffalo (Pezhickee): see Gitchee 
Waishkee 



Butte des Morts, Wis., treaty of, 31 
La Butte de Terre (Sat-tooke-wang) 
at Sault Ste. Marie, 3-4 



Calhoun, John C., xvii, xviii, 170 n. 34 
Campbell, Nancy, 170 n. 29 
Camudwa, brother of Waub Ojeeg, 41, 

140 
Canowakeed (He Who Takes after the 

Wind), 141 
Carver, Jonathan, 83 
Cass, Lewis, 106-107, 167 n. 9, 177 n. 

80 

acrostic to, 58 
bravery of, xix, 57-58 
expedition, 1820, xvii, xviii-xxv, 133- 

134, 168 n. 16, 171 n. 38 
Indian culture, interest in, xx 
Inquiries Respecting the History, 

Traditions, Languages, Manners, 

Customs and Religion . . . of the 

Indians Living Within the U. S., 

xx, 31, 168 n. 19, 174 n. 61 
message to Mich, legislative council, 

cited, 61 

and Henry Schoolcraft, xix-xx 
Catawabeta (The Broken Tooth), 169 

n. 23 

The Catfish: see Mizi 
Chacopee (The Six) of Snake River, 

Wis., 169 n. 23 

Chastelloux, Francois, 132, 182 n. 150 
Chateaubriand, Vicomte Francois, 132, 

182 n. 152 

Chequamegon Bay, Wis.: see LaPointe 
Chianokwaut or Terns Covert (The 

Lowering or Dark Cloud), 169 n. 

23 

Chippewa beliefs, concerning phenom- 
ena of nature, 3-5, 42-43, 136, 171 

n. 38 
Chippewa County (Mich.) Historical 

Society, 183 n. 169 



185 



Index 



Chippewa ceremonies 
burial, 10-11, 85-86 
juvenile feasts, 119-121 
Meda, 36-37 
Chippewa language, xx, 2, 46-47, 62- 

63, 102-103 
vocabulary, xx, 62-63 
Chippewa (Ojibway) legends (myths, 

tales, traditions), xv, xxi, xxiv 
informants of, 30, 51-52, 170 n. 31, 

174 n. 65 

"The Forsaken Brother," 93-96 
"Mishosha or the Magician and his 

Daughters," 64-71, 177 n. 85-86 
"Moowis, the Indian Coquette, 56- 

57 
"Origin of the Miscodeed or Maid 

of Taquimenon," 122-124 
"Origin of the Robin," 37-39 
"Papuckewis," 117-119 
"Pebon and Seegwun" (Winter and 

Spring), 2-3 
"The Rainbow," 21-23 
"The Vine and Oak," 19-20 
"The Weasel and Wolf," 103 
Chippewa prophets, 82-83 
Chippewa religion, 117 
burial customs, 10-11, 108 
sun worship, 86 
superstitions, 3-5, 7-8, 42-43, 97-99, 

107-109, 171 n. 38 
Chippewa River, Wis., half-breed from, 

9-11 

Chippewa songs, war, 51-52 
Chippewa superstitions: see Chippewa 

religion 
Chippewas 

as allies of French, 40 
ancient seat of, 9 

Americans, attitudes toward, 16-17 
bands, 6, 9, 81-83, 178 n. 102 
British, attitudes toward, 136-137 
characteristics of, 1 
chief ruler of, 9 
census of band, 9 
decorated by British, 9 
eating habits, 9, 42, 119-121 
female role in camp, 120 
fishing at Sault Ste. Marie, xviii 
Garden River, Ontario, band, 81-83, 
178 n. 102 



Chippewas (Continued) 

grammar of, xx 

grave post of, 86 

historical narratives of, 78-81, 81-83 

history of, 23-26, 37-42, 50-56 

hostilities with other tribes, 1 

hunting practices of, 52-56, 110, 120- 
121, 135-136 

interviews with leaders of, 169 n. 23 

Iroquois, hostilities with, 81-83 

liquor, used by, 14-16 

medas, 36-37 

medicine of, 42 

Manito poles, 5 

relation to Ottawas, 31 

origin of, 31 

origin of name, Ojibway, 31 

Outagami, hostilities with, 23-26, 31, 
39-41, 50-52, 134-135, 172 n. 51 

picture writing among, 102-103 

oral history of, xxi 

sick, treatment of, 5 

Sioux, hostilities with, xix, 23-26, 
30, 39-41, 50-52, 134-135, 172 n. 
51 

Sioux, intermarriage with, 39-40 

songs of, 103-104 

speakers of, 9 

speech of Shingabawossin, 16-17 

starvation among, 9, 120-121 

sun worship among, 86 

totems of, 24, 29, 40, 54, 173-174 n. 
57 

war parties of, 52-53 

as warrior class, 31 
Chippewyans, 112 
"The Choice" (Henry R. Schoolcraf t) , 

49-50 

Conant, Samuel, 170-171 n. 34 
Cornplanter, 114, 180 n. 132 
Court Oreilles Lake (Ottawa Lake), 

Wis., 26, 169 n. 23 
Crane, as totem, 29, 173-174 n. 57 
Crawford, William H., xvii 
Cherokees, missionary among, 11-14 
"Cricket or Whispers from a Voice in 
the Corner" (Henry R. School- 
craft), xvi 
Gushing, Caleb, 170-171 n. 34 



186 



Index 



Darby, William, 133, 182 n. 1S6 
"The Dead Son," 160 
"Death and Truth," 155 
Dougherty, Rev. Peter, 174-175 n. 65 
DuPonceau, Percy, 170-171 n. 34 

Eliot, John, 109, 180 n. 122 
Erin Hall (Johnston home at Sault 
Ste. Marie), 29 

Farmer's Brother, 114, 181 n. 132 
The First Born: see Gitchee Waishkee 
Flat Mouth: see Guelle Plat 
Fond du Lac, Minn. 

Chippewas from, 169 n. 23 

Chippewa war party from, 50-53 

treaty of, 30 
"The Forsaken Brother," a Chippewa 

legend, 93-96, 179 n. 112 
Forsyth, Major Robert A., 107 
Fort Brady (Sault Ste. Marie) 

established, xix 

garrison library at, 172-173 n. 53 
Fox Indians: see Outagamies 
Freeman, John, "Pirated Editions of 
Schoolcraft's Oneota," 170-171 n. 
34 

Furs, prices of, 54 
Fur trade 

at LaPointe, xxi-xxii, 40-41 

liquor, use in, 131 

operation of, 131-132 

regulations, difficulties in enforce- 
ment of, 131-132 

relative values of, 135 

value of, to Indians, 54 

Gallatin, Albert, 170-171 n. 34 
Garden River, Ontario, Chippewa 

band of, 81-83 
Gaulthier, murderer of Soangagezhick, 

9-11, 85 
Geneva, New York, glass factory at, 

xvi 
Gilman, Chandler R., author of Life 

on the Lakes, xv, 174-175 n. 65, 

179 n. 112 
Gitchee Waishkee (the First Born or 

Pezhickee, or the Buffalo), band 

of, 9 
Gitschee Gausenee: see Wauwauishkum 



Gitshee laubance 
personal strength of, 135-136 
prowess as hunter, 135-136 
or "The Strong Man of Keweena," 

134-137 

Gitchi-gumi: see Superior, Lake 
"Glory" (Henry R. Schoolcraft) , 59- 

60 

Grand Island (Lake Superior), Chip- 
pewa war party from, 50-53 
Grosse Guelle (Big Throat), 169 n. 23 
Guelle Plat (Flat Mouth), 169 n. 23 
Gus-ki-pe-ga-gun (medicine sack), 86, 
108 

Haines, Charles G., letters from Henry 
Schoolcraft quoted, 105-107, 128- 
129, 137-138, 179 n. 115 

Halket, John, Notes on the Indians, 
114 

Hamilton, New York, xvi 

Hendricks, Captain (Soi-en-ga-rah-ta) , 
108, 179 n. 119 

Henry, Alexander, account of Battle 
of Point Iroquois, 83 

Hibernicus: see Johnston, John 

Historical and Statistical Information 
Respecting the History, Condi- 
tions, and Prospects of the Indian 
Tribes <?/ U. S. (Henry R. School- 
craft), xiv, xxvi 

Holliday, John, 136 

Hudson's Bay Fur Co., xxii, 169 n. 25 

Hulbert, John, 183 n. 173 

The Image Stone: see Shingaba Wossin 
Index to Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes 
of the United States (Frances 
Nichols), 167 n. 3 
Indian canoe, description of, 107 
Indian lance: see Sheemaugun 
Indian legends (myths, tales, tradi- 
tions) : see Chippewa legends 
Indian medicine sack (bag, pouch): 

see Gus-ki-pe-ga-gun 
Indian names, 124-125 
Indian songs, 103-104 
Indian superstitions: see Chippewa re- 
ligion 

Indian treaties, defects of, 59 
Indian village, description of, 108 



187 



Index 



Indians 

Americans, treatment by, 114 

British, treatment by, 114, 136-137 

burial ceremony and customs, 10-11, 
108 

Christianity, effects upon, 108-109 

construction of earthen cooking ves- 
sels, 97-99 

depopulation, causes of, 110-111, 115- 
116 

education of children, xxiii 

extinction of, 110-111 

grave posts of, 86, 102 

hunting practices of, 52-56, 120-121, 
135-136 

hunting, reliance upon, 110 

implements of, 97-99 

intertribal marriages, 39-41 

intertribal warfare of, xix, 1, 23-26, 
39-41, 50-53, 134-135 

language of, 46-47 

medicine of, 108 

mental traits of, 107-109, 117 

missionaries among, 108-111 

picture writing of, 102-103 

pottery of, 97-99 

religious beliefs of, 117. See also 
Chippewa religion 

starvation among, 119-121 

totems of, 24, 29, 40, 54, 173-174 n. 
57 

vocabulary of, xx 

See also Chippewas; Sioux; Outa- 

gamies 

Inquiries Respecting the History, Tra- 
ditions, Languages, Manners, Cus- 
toms, and Religion . . . of the 
Indians Living Within the U. S. 
(Lewis Cass), xx 
"Invitation to an Autumnal Walk," 

153-154 

"Invocation to my maternal grand- 
father on hearing his descent from 
Chippewa ancestors misrepre- 
sented" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft), 
142-143 
Iroquois, (Nadawas) 

cannibalism among, 82 

Chippewas, hostilities with, 1, 81-83 



Jameson, Anna B., author of Winter 

Studies and Summer Rambles, xv, 

xxiv, 171 n. 35, 174 n. 65, 177 n. 

85, 179 n. 112 

Jefferson, Thomas, statement to Indian 

delegation, 109-111 
Johnson, Sir William, receives Ma- 

Mongazida, 40 
Johnston, Anna Maria, xxiii 
Johnston, Charlotte, xxiii 
Johnston, Eliza, xxiii 
Johnston, George, 170 n. 28 
as informant of Indian culture, xxiv 
positions in U. S. Indian Bureau, 

xxiii, xxiv 
Johnston, Jane: see Schoolcraft, Mrs. 

Jane Johnston 

Johnston, John, 170 n. 26, 27, 29 
activities in War of 1812, xxii 
biographical sketch of, xxi-xxiii, 

169 n. 24, 25 
courage of, 136 
education of children, xxii 
as fur trader, xxiii 
Hibernicus, as pseudonym of, 84 
informant of Chippewa war song, 

51-52 

informant of Indian culture, xv 
at LaPointe, 24 
marriage to Ozha-guscoday-way- 

quay, xxii 
poem by, 159 

Johnston, John McDouall, xxiii 
Johnston, Mrs. John (Ozha-guscoday- 
way-quay or Woman of the 
Green Glade), 172 n. 112 
account of Chippewa, 23-26, 39-42, 

50-56 

autobiographical sketch, 5-7 
education of children, xxiii 
Indian attack averted by, xxv 
influence of, xxv 

informant of Chippewa culture, xxv 
marriage to John Johnston, xxii 
sketch of Waub Ojeeg by, 23-26, 39- 

42, 50-56 

as source of Indian data, 171 n, 39 
translation of statement by, 5-7 
Johnston, Lewis Saurin, xxiii 



188 



Index 



Johnston, William, xxiii 
as collector of Indian data, 170 n. 
31 



Keene, N. H., glass factory at, xvi 
Keweenaw Bay 

Chippewa war party from, 50-53 

Indians of, 134-137 
Kewikonce, Chippewa chief, 98-99 
Kirkland, Samuel, 109, 180 n. 124 



Lac du Flambeau, Wis., 26, 53 
L'Anse, Mich. 
Indians of, 134-137 
fur trade at, 135, 182 n. 159 
"Lament for the Race" (Henry R. 

Schoolcraft), 130-131 
LaPointe (Madeline Island), 172 n. 51 
Chippewa band at, 6, 9 
as Chippewa capital, 9 
Chippewa chiefs of, 9 
Chippewa war party from, 50-53 
Chippewas of, 9, 23-26, 39-42, 50- 

56, 138-142 
fur trade at, xxi-xxii 
farming on, 53 
Indian subagency at, xxiii 
John Johnston at, xxi-xxii 
war dance at, 51 
Waub Ojeeg at, xxii, 138-142 
Leech Lake, Minn., Indians of, 169 n. 

23 

Leelinau (pseudonym): see School- 
craft, Mrs. Jane Johnston 
Life on the Lakes (Chandler R. Oil- 
man), xv 

"Lines of a Father on the Death of 
His Son" (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 
148-149 

"Lines, on Coming to Reside at Sault 
Ste. Marie" (Henry R. School- 
craft), 17-19 
"Lines to a Friend Asleep" (Mrs. Jane 

Schoolcraft), 71 
"Lines Written under Affliction" (Mrs. 

Jane Schoolcraft), 84-85 
"Lines Writen under Severe Pain and 
Sickness" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft), 
97 



Literary Voyager (Muzzeniegun), xiv 

circulation of, xv, xxvi, 167 n. 9, 
174-175 n. 65 

contributors to, xxv 

format of, xxvi 

informants of data in, 121 

missing issues of, 178 n. 97 

production of, xxiv, 90 

re-publication of, xxvi, 170-171 n. 34 

significance of, xv 
Little Thunder: see Annamikens 
The Lowering or Dark Cloud: see Chi- 
anokwaut 



McKenney, Thomas, xxiv 

Mackinac Island, Indian grave posts 
at, 102 

Ma Mongazida (Mashickeeoshe) , xxiii, 
24, 40, 122-124 

Manabozho, 118-119 

Manito poles, 5, 42-43 

Martineau, Harriet, xxiv 

Mashickeeoshe: see Ma Mongazida 

Meda (Medawin, Me-da-we-win) So- 
ciety, Chippewa ceremony of, 36- 
37 

Me-da-we-win: see Meda Society 

Medawin: see Meda Society 

Menominees, 31 

Miamis (Miamies), as warrior class, 31 

"Michigan" (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 
126-127 

Mikeengwun (stone chisel), 97 

Miscogandic-a-ub (a prophet), 23 

Miscomonetoes (The Red Insect or 
Red Devil), mentioned, 169 n. 23 

"Mishosha, or the Magician and His 
Daughters," a Chippewa legend, 
64-71, 177 n. 85, 86 

Missionaries, success among Indians, 
109-111 

Mizi (The Catfish), 9 

Mongozid (The Loon's Foot), men- 
tioned, 169 n. 23 

Monomine Kashee (The Rice Maker), 
mentioned, 169 n. 23 

Monroe, James, xvii 

Montcalm, speech to Chippewas, 40 

Montreal River, Chippewa of, 7-8 



189 



Index 



"Moowis, The Indian Coquette," a 

Chippewa legend, 56-57, 176-177 

n. 79 
The Morning Star: see Waub Onng 

Aqua 
Mudjekewis, chief ruler of Chippewas, 

9, 23-24 

Mundua (Mundwas), 1 
Mushkowegeechis (Strong or Angry 

Sky), murder of, 85-86. See also 

Soangagezhick 
Muzzeniegun, meaning of word, xiv. 

See also Literary Voyager 

Nadowasieu (Rattlesnake in the 

Grass), 24 
Naidosagee, chief of Chippewa band, 

xxv, 29, 30 
Namekagon River (Namacagon), Wis., 

51 
Narrative Journal of Travels (Henry 

R. Schoolcraft) , xvii 
Nawondego, as Chippewa warrior, 134- 

135 
Neezakapenase (The Single Bird), son 

of Gitshee laubance, 135 
Nichols, Frances S., Index to School- 
craft's Indian Tribes of the United 

States, xiv, 167 n. 3 
Nodowa (Nodowas, Iroquois), 1 
Notes on the Indians (John Halket), 

114 
Nuttal, Thomas, 133, 182 n. 157 

Obookaiah, Henry, 108, 179 n. 120 

Occum, Sampson, 108, 179 n. 118 

Ojibways: see Chippewas 

Oneidas, 114 

Oneota (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 170- 

171 n. 34 
Ontario Indians, at Garden River, 81- 

83 
Ontonagon, Chippewa war party from, 

50-53 

Ontonagon Boulder, 171 n. 38 
"Origin of the Indian Tribes" (Henry 

R. Schoolcraft), 72-76 
"Origin of the Miscodeed, or the Maid 

of the Taquimenon," a Chippewa 
legend, 122-124 



"Origin of the Red Breast," a Chip- 
pewa legend, 174-175 n. 65 

"Origin of the Robin," a Chippewa 
legend, 37-39 

"Otagamaid" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft), 
138-142 

Ottawa Lake (Wis.) : see Court Oreil- 
les Lake 

Ottawas, relation to Chippewas, 31 

Outagamies (Ott agamies, Outagamis 

Fox), 83 

Chippewa hostilities with, 23-26, 31, 
39-41, 50-52 

Ozha-guscoday- way-quay: see John- 
ston, Mrs. John 

"Papuckewis," a Chippewa legend, 

117-119, 181 n. 136 

The Passing Thunder: see Baimwawa 
"Pebon and Seegwun" (Winter and 

Spring), a Chippewa legend, 2-3 
Pezhickee (The Buffalo) : see Gitchee 

Waishkee 

Pictured Rocks (Mich.), 123 
Pitcher, Dr. Zina, 147, 158-159 
biographical sketch of, 180 n. 127 
poem by, 112 

Point aux Pins, Ontario, 82 
Point Iroquois (Lake Superior), Indian 

battle at, 81-83, 178 n. 104 
Pontiac, 109 

address credited to, 162-164 
appeal to western tribes, 161-164 
conspiracy of, 161-162 
Port Lake, Wis., 169 n. 23 
Potawatomies (Pottowattomies), 11, 16 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., Treaty of, 14- 
16, 30 

"The Rainbow," a Chippewa legend, 

21-23 
Red Jacket (Sagatowa), 114, 180 n. 

132 
Red Race of America (Henry R. 

Schoolcraft), xv 
Red River, Minn., 169 n. 23 
"Reflections, on Viewing the Corpse of 

William H. Schoolcraft" (Henry 

R. Schoolcraft), 152-153 
Reindeer, as totem, 24, 40 



190 



Index 



"Requiem, over the Grave of William 

Henry Schoolcraft" (Henry R. 

Schoolcraft), 164-165 
"Resignation" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft), 

26-27 

River Raison, Mich., 106 
Rosa (pseudonym): see Schoolcraft, 

Mrs, Jane Johnston 

Saganaws, 16 

Sagard, Theodat G., 109, 180 n. 125 

Sagatowa: see Red Jacket 

St. Croix Falls (Wis.), Battle of, 30, 

134-135, 174 n. 58 
St. Mary's River, xxii, 30-31 

Chippewa band of, 29 

fishing in, xviii 

See also Sault Ste, Marie 
Salisbury, Vt, glass factory at, xvi 
Sandy Lake, Minn., 169 n. 23, 176 n. 

76 
Sassaba, 172 n. 44 

enmity toward Americans, xix, 168 

n. 16 
Sault Ste. Marie (Ba-wa-teeg) 

Butte de Terre (Sat-tooke-wang) at, 
3-4 

Chippewa bands at, 9 

Chippewa burial ground at, 85 

Chippewas, fishing at, xviii 

Chippewa Meday of, 86 

Chippewa name for, 166 

Chippewa superstition about, 3-5 

Chippewa vilage at, 82 

Chippewa war party from, 50-53 

Chippewas at, xviii, xxv, 29-31 

description of, 1824, 144 

discovery of, 1 

Fort Brady established at, xix 

fur trade at, xviii 

history of, 166 

inhabitants of, xxiii 

isolation of, xxvi, 176 n. 73 

Johnston home at, xxii 

literary society at, xxvi 

mail delivery to, 48, 176 n. 73 

murder of Indian at, 9-11 

poem about, 17-19 

social life at, xxvi 

speech of Shingaba Wossin at, 16-17 

and War of 1812, xviii 



Sault Ste. Marie Indian Agency, xviii, 

172 n. 44, 183 n. 169 
established, xix 
Indian visitors at, 136-137 
jurisdiction of, xix 

Schoolcraft, Henry R. (pseudonyms: 
Abieca, Alalol, Antiquarius, Clio, 
Damoetas, Ekedo, Eldega, Hermes, 
Marquette, Nenabaim, Pagwabec- 
sega, Viator) 

Algic Researches, xv 

appointment as Indian agent, xvii- 
xviii 

biographical sketch of, xiii-xxvi 
books by, xiv, xvi, 133, 167 n. 1, 
n. 6, 168 n. 11, n. 18, 169 n. 22, 
170-171 n. 34, 171 n. 35, 172 n. 
53, 179 n. 112, n. 113, n. 114, 182 
n. 158 

children of, xxiv 

Collection, Library of Congress, xiii 

as collector of Indian data, xxi, 169 
n. 23 

as compiler of Chippewa dictionary 
and vocabulary, xx, 168 n. 21 

debt to Johnston family, xv, xxi, xxiv 

directives as Indian agent, xix 

early life, xv-xvi 

education of, xv-xvi 

explorations and travels of, xvi, 105- 
107, 128-129, 137-138 

friendship with John Johnston, xxiii 

as glass maker, xvi, 58-59, 168 n. 12 

Historical and Statistical Informa- 
tion Respecting the History, Con- 
ditions and Prospects of the Indian 
Tribes of the United States, xiv, 
xxvi 

informants of Indian data, 121 

interest in Indian names, 181 n. 142 

interest in legends of Chippewas, xx- 
xxi 

interviews with Chippewas, xxi, 169 
n. 23 

letter by, 105-107 

library of, 172-173 n. 53 

manuscript magazines of, xiv, xvi, 
167 n. 5 

marriage to Jane Johnston, xxiv 

observer of Meda ceremony, 36-37 



191 



Index 



Schoolcraft, Henry R. (Continued) 
as mineralogist on Cass expedition, 

1820, xvii 

Narrative Journal of Travels, xvii 
Oneota, 170-171 n. 34 
poems by, 17-19, 33-35, 43-46, 49-50, 
59-60, 72-76, 99-101, 112-114, 126- 
127, 130-131, 148-149, 151, 164-165 
Red Race of America, xv 
Secretary to United States Indian 

Treaty Commission, 1821, xvii 
View of the Lead Mines of Missouri, 

xvi 

Schoolcraft, Mrs. Jane Johnston 
(Bame-wa-wa-ge-zhik-a-quay) 
(pseudonyms: Leelinau, Rosa), 
xxii, 5-7 

education of, xxiv 

as informant of Indian legends, xxiv, 
37-39, 56-57, 64-71, 93-96, 122- 
124, 179 n. 122 
as interpreter, xxiv 
Leelinau, contributor under pseu- 
donym of, 5-7, 37-39, 56-57, 93-96, 
122-124, 179 n. 112 
notoriety as "northern Pocahontas," 

xxiv 

poems by, 5, 8, 26-27, 71, 84-85, 97, 
138-142, 142-143, 155, 156, 157-158 
poem addressed to, 49-50 
Rosa, contributor under pseudonym 
of, 5, 8, 26-27, 71, 84, 97, 142-143 
Schoolcraft, James, 183 n. 168 
Schoolcraft, Maria Eliza, 183 n. 168 
Schoolcraft, Mrs. Mary Howard, xxvi 
Schoolcraft, William H., xxiv 
death of, 144-160, 164-165 
Shawnees, origin of tribe, 115 
Sheemaugun (lance), 164 
Shingaba Wossin (The Image Stone), 

169 n. 23, 172 n. 44 
at Battle of Falls of St. Croix, 30 
biographical sketch of, 29-31 
as informant of Indian culture, xxv 
speech to his band, 16-17 
at Treaty of Prairie du Chien, 30 
Shingwauk, a Chippewa Meday, 86 
The Single Bird: see Neezakapenase 
Sioux, Chippewas, hostilies with, xix, 

134-135, 172 n. 51 
The Six: see Chacopee 



Skenandoah, 114, 180 n. 132 
Smithsonian Institution, xiv 
Snake River, Wis., 169 n. 23 
Soangagezhick (The Strong or Angry 

Sky), murder of, 9-11 
See also Mushkowegeechis 
Soi-en-ga-rah-ta: see Hendricks, Capt. 
Stoddard, Amos, 132, 182 n. 154 
The Strong Sky: see Soangagezhick 

and Mushkowegeechis 
Superior, Lake (Gitchi Gumi), 1-2, 9, 

23-24, 30, 80-81 



Tahquamenon (Taquimenon) River 
(Mich.), legend about, 122-124 

Tecumseh, 109, 115-116 

Temperance, among Indians, 14-16 

Terns Covert: see Chianokwaut 

Tod, Andrew, xxi 

"To a Boy at School from His Mother" 
(author unknown), 155-156 

"To Mrs. Schoolcraft on the Anniver- 
sary of her Birthday" (Henry R. 
Schoolcraft), 112-114 

"To My Ever Beloved and Lamented 
Son, William Henry" (Mrs. Jane 
Schoolcraft), 157-158 

"To the Brave Who Fell in the War of 
1812" (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 33 

"To Sisters on a Walk in the Garden, 
After a Shower" (Mrs. Jane 
Schoolcraft), 8 

Totems: see Indians, Chippewas 

Traverse City, Mich., Indian sub- 
agency at, xxiii 

Treaties: see Butte des Morts, Fond du 
Lac, Prairie du Chien 

Trowbridge, Charles C., xvii, 168 n. 16 



U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, agen- 
cies of, xxiii 



View of the Lead Mines of Missouri 
(Henry R. Schoolcraft), xvi 

"The Vine and Oak," a Chippewa leg- 
end, 19-20 

Volney, Comte de Constantin, 132, 182 
n. 151 



Index 



Wabash River, description of, 128 
Wabasha, a Sioux chief, 39-40 
Wabekonjeewona, as Chippewa war- 
rior, 134-135 

Wabishkipenace (Wabishe Penais or 
The White Bird), 169 n. 23, 171 
n. 38 

Wabunakies (Wabnakies), 31 
War of 1812, effect on John Johnston, 

xxii 
Warren, William W., 172 n. Si, 176 

n. 76 
Waub Ojeeg (The White Fisher), 6, 9, 

176 n. 76, n. 78 
biographical sketch of, 23-26, 39-42, 

138-143, 150-156 
death of, 56 

encounter with moose, 55-56 
exploits of, xxiii 
father of Ozha-guscoday-way-quay, 

xxii 

leader of war party, 134-135 
lodge at LaPointe, xxii, 138-142 
marriages of, 54 
as orator, 54-55 
physical description of, 54-55 
prowess as hunter, 52-56 
poem about, 138-142 
as trapper, 54-55 
as tribal storyteller, xxv 



Waub Onng Aqua (The Morning 
Star), 78-81 

Wauwaunishkum (Gitshee Gausenee), 
of Montreal River, 7-8 

The Waving Plum: see Wawabegwo- 
nabec 

Wawabegwonabec (The Waving 
Plum), 79-81 

Wayishkee (The First Born), xxv 

"The Weasel and Wolf," a Chippewa 
legend, 103 

"The White Fish" (Henry R. School- 
craft) ,43-46 

The White Bird: see Wabishkipenace 

The White Fisher: see Waub Ojeeg 

Whiting, Henry, 167 n. 9 

Williams, Eleazer, 108, 179-180 n. 121 

Winnebagoes, 31 

Winter Studies and Summer Rambles 
(Anna B. Jameson), xv 

Woman of the Green Glade (Ozha-gus- 
coday-way-quay) : see Johnston, 
Mrs. John 

"Woman's Tears" (John Johnston), 
159 

Woodbridge, William, 170-171 n. 34 



Yarns, George, 173 n. 54 
"Yellow Isle" (Henry R. Schoolcraft) , 
99-101 



193 



(Continued from front flap) 
circulated among students of Indian culture. 
The most informative of them TO the "liter- 



at Sault Ste, Marie during the winter of 1826- 
1827. 
This magazine, which Schoolcraft later gave 



meaning "a printed document or book," con- 
tained articles, poems, and announcements on 
all aspects of Indian life and customs, The 
subjects included historic Indian battles, In- 
dian ceremonies, superstitions, burials, fur 
trade, war chants and songs, totems, the effect 
of alcohol upon Indians, and the intertribal 
war between the Chippewa and Sioux, Of par- 
ticular interest are the biographical sketches 
of prominent Indian leaders, induding Waub 
Ojeeg or the White Fisher, the famous war 
chief at LaPointe; and Siung-a-ba-wossin, 
head of the Chippewa band living along the 
Si Mary's River; Schoolcraft presented for 
the first time in the "Literary Voyager" some 
of the lodge stories that he himself collected 



tion, 

i of 



copy, were written, the "Literary Voyager" 
achieved wide distribution. Each issue circu- 
lated among the citizens of Sault Ste, Marie 
and then went to Schoolcraft's friends in De- 
troit, New York, and other eastern cities. 
(Contmwd on M pond)