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The Literature of Mountain Climbing
latoratiMv of Moimtaiii
diinhin^ in America
ALUN K. MKNr
•luf.'.l fioin AiM'.a.voHlA, V,.| \1V, No, rt.
Reprinted from Appalachia, Vol. XIV, No. 3. Jutio, 101s.
The Literature of Mountain Climbing in America
By Allen H. Bext
The books and magazine articles upon American mountains,
like the trails thereof, have become so numerous that there is
perhaps some excuse for a guide to thread their mazes. Mine
makes no pretention to completeness; it aims simply to give
a helping hand to those who have started on the upward
path. In order to keep it within reasonable bounds only
books and papers that are devoted wholly and in part to actual
climbing are included. Many articles have strayed into un-
expected places. For example, oik^ would hardly look for
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 269
information about the White Mountains in a San Francisco
magazine, or for climbs in the Sierra Nevada in a Honolulu
monthlj^, or for the Atlirondacks in a Swiss mountaineering
journal, 3'et all these things have been found and doubtless
there are many more such that have eluded the compiler's
The beginnings of mountaineering in America have to be
looked for mainly in early histories and narratives of travel,
though the first ascent in the Canadian Rockies is chronicled
in the supplement to a botanical magazine. The first maga-
zine article upon American mountains seems to be Jeremy
Belknap's account of the White Mountains, printed in the
American Magazine in Philadelphia in February, 1788. The
first book was Joel T. Headley's The Adirondack, published
in 1849. The Alpine Journal of England, the earliest of such
magazines, had a short account of a climb in Central America
in its first volume, 1864, and in the third volume, 1867, there
was an account of an ascent of Mt. Hood. The first book
devoted to alpine climbing in America was Clarence King's
Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.
A'PPALACHIA has published in recent years articles upon
Early Mountaineers (May, 1913); The Indians and the Moun-
tains (June, 1915); and The Mountaineering Clubs of America
(December, 1916). These collectively form a sort of intro-
duction to the mountains of America; but, as all were written
by the compiler of this list, perhaps his recommendation is
not valid. More interesting are John C. Van Dyke's book
The Moimtain (1916), and the articles on "Famous American
Mountains," by Henry Gannett, in Everybody's Magazine,
May, 1902; "Mountaineering in North America," by Robert
Dunn, in Outing, September, 1907; "The World's Highest
Altitudes and First Ascents," by Charles E. Fay, in the Na-
tional Geographic Magazine, June, 1909; and "The Climbed
and Unclimbed Peaks of the Americas," by Granville For-
tescue, in the Bulletin of the International Bureau of the Ameri-
can Republics, June, 1910. Valuable as adjuncts are the
Dictionary of Altitudes prepared by the U. S. Geological Sur-
vey in 1906; the booklet upon Equipment, published by the
Appalachian Mountain Club in 1916; and the maps of the
U. S. Geological Survey and Forest Service of the United
270 MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA
States, and the Topographical Survey and the Dominion
Parks of the Department of Interior of Canada.
Of first importance perhaps are the journals of our moun-
taineering clubs, which accordingly we place first in our list.
Then follows the bibliography of peaks, ranges or regions
arranged in alphabetical order, the individual titles being so
far as feasible in chronological sequence.
AMERICAN MOUNTAINEERING JOURNALS
Appalachia. Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston, since 1876.
Sierra Club Journal. Sierra Club, San Francisco, since 1893.
Mazama. The Mazamas, Portland, Oregon, irregularly 1896 to 1907,
annually s-inre 1912.
Mt. Whitney Club Journal. Visalia, California, three numbers, 1902,
Alpina Americana. American Alpine Club, 1907, 1911, 1914.
Canadian Alpine Journal. Alpine Club of Canada, Banff, Alberta,
since 1907 (except 1914).
The Mountaineer. The Mountaineers, Seattle, Washington, since
The Northern Cordilleran. British Columbia Mountaineering
Club, Vancouver, B. C, one number, 1913.
Trail anb Timberline. Colorado Mountain Club, Denver, Colorado,
1915 and 1916.
The Adirondack; or Life in the Woods. By Joel T. Headley, 1849-
(The first book devoted entirely to mountains in America.)
The Indian Pass. By Alfred B. Street, 1869.
Second and Seventh Reports on the Topographical Survey of the
Adirondack Wilderness. By Verplanck Colvin, 1S74 and 1880.
Little Rivers. By Henry Van Dyke, 1895. (Chapte • on Amper-
The Adirondacks. By T. Morris Longstreth, 917.
Appalachia, December 1888, May 1890, July 1891, June 190S,> July 1910,»
Outing, December, 1912 and L'Echo des Alps, Januarj- 1917.
Bibliography in Longstreth's book.
Shores and Alps of Alaska. By H. W. Seton Karr, 1887.
Thirteenth Report of U. S. Geological Survey, 1892.
(Contains I. C. Russell's account of his second attempt to climb
Mt. St. Elias. First in National Geographical Magazine, 1891.)
' Winter ascents of .Mt. Marcy, the highest of the Adirondacks.
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 271
The Out of Doou Lihrary. Mountain Climbing. Scribners, 1897.
(Contains two articles on Mt. St. Elias first printed in Scribner's
The Ascent of Mt. St. Elias by H. R. H. -Duke of the Auruzei.
By P^ilippo de Filippi, 1899.
The Shameless Diary of an Explorer. ^ By Robert Dunn, 1907.
To the Top of the Continent.* By Frederick A. COTjlT, 1908.
The Mt. McKinley Region of Alaska. ' By A. H. Brooks, 1911.
The Conquest of Mt. McKinley. * By Belmore Browne, 1913.
The Ascent of Denali.' By Hudson Stuck, 1914.
Alpina Americana, No. 3. By Alfred H. Brooks, 1914.
Mt. McKinley and Mountain Climbers Proofs.' By Edwin S.
Appalachia, December 1884, July 1910, April 1912,= June 1913 ;*
Alpine Journal, November 1886, August 1889, August 1911, i May
1913;! -Sierra Club Bulletin, January 1898; Canadian Alpine Jour-
nal, 1911,1 1915; National Geographic Magazine, May 1891, March
1908, July 1912, January 1917; Rcvieio of Reviews, January 1907 ;>
Harper's, March 1909; World's Work, November 1913.^
The Heart of the Alleghanies or Western North Carolina.
By Wilbur G. Ziegler and Ben S. Grosscup, 1883.
On Horseback. A Tour in Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee.
By Charles Dudley Warner, 1888.
The Carolina Mountains. By Margaret W. ]\Iorley, 1913.
Our Southern Highlanders. By Horace Kephart, 1913.
A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf. By John Muir, 1916.
Appalachia, Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 (1877 to 1897).
A Bibliography of the Southern Appalachian and White Moun-
tain Regions. By Helen E. Stockbridge. Proceedings of the
Society of American Foresters, 1911.
Companion to the Botanical Magazine, Vol. 2, p. 134, London, 1836.
Topographical Survey in the Rocky Mountains. By J. J. Mc-
Arthur in Annual Reports of the Department of Interior, 1886 to 1893.
Triangulation Survey in the Rocky Mountains. By W. S. Drewry,
in Annual Reports of the Department of Interior, 1890 to 1893.
Camping in the Canadian Rockies. By Walter D. Wilcox, 1896.
(Enlarged edition published as The Rockies of Canada, 1900.)
Mountaineering on the Himalayas and Other Mountain Ranges.
By J. Norman Collie, 1902.
^ Wholly or in part about Mt. McKinley, the highest mountain in North America.
' Mt. Blackburn.
4PPA.LACHIA, VOL. XlV, NO. 3
272 MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA
Climbs and Exploration in the Canadian Rockies. By Hugh E.
M. Stutfield and J. Norman Collie, 1903.
In the Heart of the Canadian Rockies. By James Outram, 1905.
A Guide Book to the -Lake Louise Region. By Walter D. Wilcox,
The Canadian Rockies. New and Old Trails.. By A. P. Coleman,
Old Indian Trails. By Mary T. S. Schaffer, 1911.
Through the Heart of Canada. By Frank Yeigh, 1911.
Alpina Americana, No. 2. By Charles E. Fay, 1911.
Among the Canadian Alps. By Lawrence J. Burpee, 1914.
Annual Report of the Commissioner op Dominion Parks. Depart-
ment of Interior, Ottawa, 1909 to the present.
Appalachia, Vols. 7 to 13, 1893 to 1915 (33 articles); Alpine Journal,
Vols. 18 to 22, 25 to 28, 1896 to 1914 (18 articles) ; Geographic Journal,
January 1895, April 1899, Maj- 1903; Sierra Club Bulletin, January
1897, January 1898, January 1912; Journal of School Geography, 1897;
Jahrbuch des Deutschen und Oesterreichischen Alpenvereins, 1900;
Mazama, October 1900, December 1913, December 1914; National
Geographic Magazine, May and June 1902, June 1911, May 1913;
Canadian Alpine Journal, Vols. 1 to 8, 1907 to 1917; The Mountaineer,
1911; Geographical Review, July 1916; Sierra Club Bulletin, Janu-
ary 1918; Munsey's, March 1901; Scribner's, June 1903, May 1914,
September 1916; Overland, September 1910; University, October,
1910; Canadian, August 1910, July 1914; Harper's, May 1915; Rod
and Gun in Canada, January 1917, December 1917.
Bibliographies in Appal.achia, Vol. 10, May 1903, and in Burpee's
Aviong the Canadian Alps, 1914. One in preparation by the Alpine
Club of Canada.
For ascents of Mt. Robson, highest of the Canadian Rockies, see
Canadian Alpine Journal, 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913; Appalachia, 1910,
1914; Alpine Journal, November 1910, November 1912, August 1913,
February 1914; Mazama, 1913; National Geographic Magazine, June 1911
May 1913; Scribner's, 1914; and A. P. Coleman's book.
Canadian Alpine Jouu.nal, Vol. 8, 1917.
The Mountains of Oregon. By W. G. Steel, 1890.
The Mountain that was God.* By John H. Williams, 1910.
Our Greatest Mountain and Alpine Regio.ns of Wonder.* By
A. H. Barnes, 1911.
The Guardians of the Columbia. By .John H. Williams, 1912.
Mt. Rainier. A Record of Exploration.* By Edmond S. Meany,
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 273
Mt. Rainier National Park. General Information.' Published
annually (free) by Department of Interior. Bibliography included.
Crater Lake National Park. General Information. Department of
Alpine Journal, 1867, May 1872, May 1873,' August 1877, February
Mazama, Vols. 1 to 5, 1896 to 1917. The Mountaineer, 'Xols. 1 to 10,
1907 to 1917; Appalachia, March 1894,» May 1906,' July 1911,'
May 1913,' October 1914, June 1918; Sierra Club Bulletin, May
1894,' June 1898,' February 1901, June 1901,' January 1906,' Janu-
ary 1910, January 1912; Canadian Alpine Journal, 1910 and 1911;
Northern Cordilleran, 1913.
See also Littell's Living Age, November 18, 1854:; Harper's, November
1869; Overland Monthly, May 1875,' September 1886,' August 1898,'
November 1905,' August 1910,' November 1914; Atlantic Monthly,
November 1876;' The Nation, November 9, 1876;' Northwest, April
1883;' Harper's Weekly, August 28, 1897;' Leslie's Weekly, August 26,
1897;' Scribner's, August 1897;' Cosmopolitan, August 1898; Good
Words, February 1901;' Outing, July 1901,' November 1904; Pacific,
November 1902;' Sunset, November 1905;' World To-day October
1905; Out West, May 1906; Washington Magazine, September 1906;
Travel, May 1916.
Bibliographies in Mazama, 1905 and 1907; The Mountaineer, Novem-
ber 1908 and November 1910; and Mt. Rainier National Park, General
Information, Department of Interior, Washington, D. C.
The Catskill Mountains and the Region Around. By Charles
Appalachia, July 1880, May 1890; Bulletin American Geographical
Society, April 1907.
The Southland of North America. By George P. Putnam, 1913.
Alpine Journal, Vol. 1, March 1864; National Geographical Magazine,
coast range of BRITISH COLUMBIA
Travels in Alaska. By John Muir, 1915.
Alaska Days with John Muir. By S. Hall Young, 1915.
Canadian Alpine Journal, 1908, 1913, 1917; Northern Cordilleran,
1913; The Mountaineer, 1917.
(Southern California, southern and western Utah and New Mexico,
all of Nevada and Arizona, and Northern Mexico).
^ Mt. Rainier. See also Mazama, 1900, 1905, 1914; The Mountaineer, 1908-1912, 1915.
274 MOUNTAIX CLIMBING IN AMERICA
Report ox the Geology of the Henry Mountains (Utah). By G.
K. Gilbert, U. S. C. and G. S., 1877.
The Wonders of the Colorado Desert (S. California). By George
Wharton James, 2 vols., 1906 (single volume edition 1911).
Camp Fires on Desert and Lava (Mexico). By William T. Horna-
The Log of a Timber Cruiser (New Mexico) . By William P. Lawson,
The Navajo Country. Herbert E. Gregory, Water Supply Paper
380, U. S. G. S., 1916.
Appalachia, July 1885 (Nevada), July 1891, January 1892, (So. Cali-
fornia), December 1893 (Arizona), July 1897 (Arizona); Sierra
Club Bulleliyi, June 1898 (New Mexico), June 1904 (Arizona),
January 1918 (White Mountains of California) ; National Geographic
Magazine, November 1911 (p. 1048, Navajo Mountain, Utah).
Stowe Notes, Letters and Verses. By Edward M. Taber, 1913.
The Lure of Vermont's Silent Places, the Green Mountains.
By R. M. Olzendam. Issued by Vermont Bureau of Publicity, Office
of Secretary of State, n. d. 1916 (?).
Guide Book of the Long Trail. Published by Green Mt. Club of
Appalachia, December 1881, May 1889; National Sportsman, March
1907; The Vermonter, July 1905, May 1911; Independent, June 1, 1914.
Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2 series,
Vol. 8, pp. 112-116, 1826.
Forest Life and Forest Trees. By John S. Springer, 1851.
Life in the Open Air. By Theodore Winthrop, 1863.
The Maine Woods. By Henry D. Thoreau, 1864 (originally printed
in Union Magazine, Vol. 3, July to November 1848).
Appalachia, December 1881, December 1883, December 1884, December
1887, May 1890, November 1896, April 1901, June 1915 (Ktaadn in
See also American Journal of Science, April 1837; Putnam'' s, Sep-
tember 1856; Scribner's, May 1878.
Partial Bibliography in University of Maine Studies, No. 5. By
LeRoy H. Harvey, 1903. The copy of the A. M. C. has MS. additions.
Canadian Alpine Journal, 1916 and 1917.
Geological Survey of California. Report of Progress, etc. By
J. D. Whitney, 1865.
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 275
Lassen Peak Folio. By J. S. Diller, U. S. G. S., 1894. Sierra Club
Bullelin, June 1898, June 1901; Mazama, December 1914; Overland
Monthly, November 1914; American Forestry, November 1916.
Alpine Journal, 1867,' February 1869, November 1890,'^igust 1897;
Appalachia, July 1897, IMarch 1898,' June 1907; National Geo-
graphic Magazine, September 1910; Sierra Club Bulletin, June 1911
(Four Mexican Volcanoes).
See also N^ew Monthly Magazine, March 1862;' Science, May 12,
1893;' Around the World, 1894;' Popular Science Monthly, October
1902' and August 1907; Outing, October 1908; and Recreation, Sep-
The Mountaineer, Vol. 1, 1907-1908, Vol. 6, 1913; Appalachia, July
1911 (pp. 221-224); Mazama, December 1913; Sierra Club Bulletin,
The Friendly Mountain. By Ed. B. Webster, Klahhane Club (Port
Angeles, Wash.), 1917.
Recreation, November 1898.
Bibliography in The Mountaineer, Vol. 1, November 1908.
The Mountaineer, 1910, 1911, 1914; Canadian Alpine Journal, 1911,
1912, 1915, 1916, 1917; Geographical Journal, June 1911;
Appalachia, April 1912, June 1913, December 1916, June 1917;
Sierra Club Bulletin, January 1915.
ROCKY MOUNTAINS (u. S.)
Account op an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky
Mountains. By Edwin James, 1823. (First ascent of Pike's
The Rocky Mountains . . . from the Journal of Capt. B. L. E.
Bonneville.^ By Washington Irving, 1837.
Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in
1842,1 by J. C. Fremont, 1845.
The Switzerland of America: A Summer Vacation ix the Parks
AND Mountains of Colorado. By Samuel Bowles, 1869. (See
also same author's Our New West.)
A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. By Isabella L. Bird, 1879-
80. (Long's Peak and the Estes Park Region.)
' Orizaba, highest in Me.xico.
276 MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA
Mountaineering in Colorado. By F. H. Chapin, 1889.
Land of the Cliff Dwellers. By F. H Chapin, 1892.
Wild Life on the Rockies. By Enos A Mills, 1909.
The Spell of the Rockies. By Enos A. Mills, 1911.
The Rocky Mountain Wonderland. By Enos A. Mills, 1915.
The Peaks of the Rockies. By Edwin L. Sabin. Issued by D.
and R. G. R. R., 1916.
Appalachia, February 1878, June 1882, December 1887, June 1888,
December 1888, May, 1889, December 1890, January 1896,= April
1904,^ April 1912,= October 1914.^
Alpine Journal, August 1879, ^ August 1891, August 1899 ;i Sierra
Club Bulletin, February 1891; The Mountaineer, 1914f Mazama,
19152 and 1917 ;2 National Geographic, October 1902,2 ju^e 1907.2
Trail and Timberline, published by Colorado Mountain Club 1915
See also Scrihner's, June 1873 ;i Outing, July 1904, December 1915,^
June 1916, August 1916, and General Information regarding Rocky Mt.
National, Glacier National,'^ Yellowstone National Parks, all three
published annually by Department of Interior, Washington, D. C.
The Rocks and Rivers of British Columbia. By Walter Moberly,
Among the Selkirk Glaciers. By W. S. Green, 1890.
The Selkirk Range. By A. O. Wheeler, 1905.
The Canadian Rockies; New and Old Trails. By A. P. Coleman,
The Selkirk Mountains. A Guide for Mountain Climbers and Pil-
grims. By A. O. Wheeler (and Elizabeth Parker), 1912.
Mountaineering and Exploration in the Selkirks. By Howard
Alpine Journal, August 1888, May 1891, February 1895, May 1909;
Jahrbuch des Schweizer Alpen Club, 1891 (first ascent of Sir Donald) ;
Appalachia, Vols. 7 to 12, 1893 to 1912 (19 articles) ; Jahrbuch des
Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenclub, 1898; Proc. Royal Geog.
Society, March 1889; Canadian Alpine Journal 1907 to the present.
Geological Survey of California. Report of Progress and Synopsis
of Field Work from 1860 to 1865. By J. D. Whitney, 1865.
Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California. By J. M. Hatch-
' Includes an ascent of Mt. Massive, the liighest of the Ho:;ky .Mountains, 14,401 feet
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 277
Mountaineering in the Sierua Nevada. By Chirenfe King, 1871.
(The Shasta chapter appeared in AUanlic Munlldij, December
Picturesque California and the Region West of the Rocky
Mountains. By John Muir, 1888.
My Own Story. By Joaquin Miller, 1890.
Physiography of the United States. National GeogrltpTiic Society
Monographs, 1896 (1897).
Scribner's, August 1873; Harper's, September 1877; Overland, May
1874, August 1887, May 1895, July 1896, April 1905; The California
Magazine, JNIarch 1880, March 1892, August 1893; Popular Science
Monthly, November 1896; Sierra Club Bulletin, June 1898; Mazania,
December 1910, December 1917; Pacific Coast Golf and Outdoor
Sports. December 1913; Appalachia, October 1914 (pp. 108-11).
Geological Survey of California. Report of Progress and Synop-
sis of Field Work from 1860 to 1865. By J. D. Whitney, 1865.
Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada. By Clarence King, 1871.
Journal of Ramblings Through the High Sierra. By Joseph
The Mountains of California. By John Muir, 1894.
The Mountains. By Stewart Edward White, 1904.
Alpina Americana, No. 1. By Joseph N. LeConte, 1907.
My First Summer in the Sierra. By John Muir, 1911.
Yosemite Trails. By J. Smeaton Chase, 1911.
YosEMiTE AND ITS HiGH SiERRA. By John H. Williams, 1914.
Nature and Science on the Pacific Coast. A. A. A. S., 1915.
Sierra Crest and Canon. Southern Pacific R. R., 1916.
Appalachia, January 1892, February 1893, January 1896, July 1897,
May 1907, October 1914; Sierra Club Bulletin, 1893 to present;
Mt. Whitney Club Journal, 3 numbers 1902, 1903, 1904; The Moun-
taineer, 1910 and 1912.
See also Popular Science Monthly, April 1873; American Journal
of Science, 1873; Out West, May 1905; Mid Pacific Magazine, February
1914; Travel, December 1916.
For Mt. Whitney, highest mountain in the States, see Clarence
King's Mountaineering, Fourth Edition, 1874; Appalachia, January
1892, May 1903, October 1914; Sierra Club Bulletin, January 1893,
January 1894, May 1895, February 1903, June 1903, January 1904,
June 1904, January 1906, June 1909 (winter ascent), January 1910,
June 1911; Mt. Whitney Club Journal; Overland, November 1873; Land
of Sunshine, 1896; Nature, 1882; Penn Monthly, 1882; Professional
Papers Signal Service, 1884; Smithsonian Misc. Collections, Vol. 52,
January 12, 1910.
278 MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA
Canadian Alpine Journal, 1913.
Mazama, Vol. 4, 21-22, October 1912, and Vol. 5, 201-203, December
The History of the White Mountains. By Lucy Crawford, 1846.
Historical Relics of the White Mountains. By John H. Spauld-
Incidents in White Mountain History. By Benj. G. Willey, 1856.
The White Hills, Their Legends, Landscapes and Poetry. By-
Thomas Starr King, 1860.
Mt. Washington in Winter. By C. H. Hitchcock and others, 1871.
The White Mountains, a Handbook for Travellers. By M. F.
Sweetser, 1876. (Many later editions.)
The Heart of the White Mountains : Their Legends and Scenery.
By Samuel Adams Drake, 1881.
The White Mountains: A Guide to Their Interpretation. By
Julius H. Ward, 1890. (Enlarged edition, 1896.)
At the North of Bearcamp Water. By Frank BoUes, 1893.
Footing it in Franconia. By Bradford Torrey, 1901. (See also the
same author's Birds in the Bush, 1885, A Rambler's Lease, 1889,
The Foot-path Way, 1892, Nature's Invitation, 1904.)
White Mountain Trails. By Winthrop Packard, 1912.
Dartmouth Out o'Doors. Edited by Fred H. Harris, 1913.
Boy Scouts in the White Mountains. By Walter Pritchard Eaton,
Chronicles of the White Mountains. By Frederick W. Kilbourne,
Passaconaway in the White Mountains. By Charles E. Beals, Jr.,
Guide to Paths in the White Mountains and Adjacent Regions.
Published by Appalachian Mountain Club. (Enlarged edition
Appalachia, Vols. 1 to 14, 1876 to 1918.
For further information see A Bibliography of the White Mountains.
By Allen H. Bent. Published by A. M. C, 1911 (with leaflet of addi-
tions to 1918). Also a Bibliography of the Southern Appalachian and
White Mountain Regions. By Helen E. Stockbridge. Published by
Society of American Foresters, 1911.
For winter climbing see Second and Third Annual Reports on the
Geology of New Hampshire, 1870 and 1871; Hitchcock's, Drake's,
Ward's (enlarged edition), BoUes', and Beals' books and Dartmouth
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA 279
Also Appalachia June 1882, July 1885, December 1888, May 1889,
February 1893, March 1898, May 1' 02, June 1905, May 1906; Nature,
February 16, 1871; Science, January 8, 1886; New England Maga-
zine, February 1890; February 1912; Scribncr's, February 1891;
Granite Monthly, December 1897 and August 1901; Photo Era,
August 1900, Februarj' 1901 and January 1914; Sierra Club Bulletin,
June 1901; Outlook, March 1, 1902; B. & M. MesseJigefr^ovemhor
1, 1907; Fall River Line Journal, February 16, 1914; Outing, Feb-
ruary 1915, January 1916 and September 1917; American Botanist,
The Land of Bolivar: Peace, War and Adventure in the Republic
OF Venezuela. - By James M. Spence, Vol. 2, London, 1878.
Perou et Bolivie. By M. Wiener, Paris, 1880.
Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Haj^vard College,
Vol. 39, Part 1, 1889.
Travels Amongst the Great Andes of the Equator. By Edward
Whymper, 1892 (1891). (Appeared in part in Alpine Journal,
Vol. 10, 1880 to 1882).
The Highest Andes. ^ By E. A. FitzGerald, 1899. (Appeared in part
in Alpine Journal.)
From the Alps to the Andes, being the Autobiography of a Mountain
Guide. 1 By Mattias Zurbriggen, 1899.
The Bolivian Andes. By Sir Martin Conway, 1901.
Aconcagua and Tierra del Fuego. By Sir Martin Conway, 1902.
In DEM Hoch Anden von Ecuador. By Hans Meyer, 1907.
My Climbing Adventures in Four Continents. By Samuel Turner,
A Search for the Apex of America. By Annie S. Peck, 1911.
Appalachia, March 1894, May 1906; Bulletin American Geographic
Societrj, 1874; Harper's, March 1912.
Journal of a Tour Around Hawaii in 1823. 'Ry Rev. William Ellis,
1825. (Contains an account of an ascent of Kilauea, the volcano
on the slope of Mauna Loa.)
Voyage of H. M. S. Blonde to the Sandwich Islands in the Yk.ars
1824r-25. By Capt. Rt. Hon. Lord Byron, 1826 (First ascent in
1825, of Mauna Kea, 13,828 feet, highest on islands.)
Life of John Ledyard. By Jared Sparks, 1828. (Ledyard was with
Captain Cook when the islands were discovered in 1778 and at-
tempted the ascent of Mauna Loa.)
Account of an Ascent and Barometrical Measurements of Wha-
ra-rai, a Mountain of Owhyhee. By Archibald Menzies.
'includes an account of first ascent of Aconcagua, 23,030 feet, highest in America.
279 MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN AMERICA
Magazine of Natural History, Vols. 1 and 2, London, September
1828 and November 1829. (First ascent in January 1794, of Hu-
alalai, 8273 feet. Engraving in Vancouver's Voyages, Vol. 3, 1798.)
JouRXAL OF David Douglas. Companion to the Botanical Magazine,
Vol. 11, London, 1836. (First ascent in 1834 of Mauna Loa, 13,675
Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expeditiox uxder the Command
OF Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., Vol. 4, 1845.
Fourth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey. 1884.
The Volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa. By William T. Brig-
Hawaii and its Volcanoes. By Charles H. Hitchcock, 1909.
Mid Pacific Magazine, Vol. 7, February 1914; Mazama, December
A General Bibliography of the Hawaiian Islands, entitled. "Pre-
liminary Catalogue of Hawaiiana in the Library of George R.
Carter," By Howard M. Ballou, 191 pages, was published in Boston
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